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The signature poetics of Sharon Olds and John Cage

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Title:
The signature poetics of Sharon Olds and John Cage
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Lewallen, Walter E
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Theory
Psychoanalysis
Superego
Derrida
Glas
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Doctoral -- USF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This dissertation studies and applies the signature theory of Jacques Derrida to two American poets, Sharon Olds and John Cage. I begin by looking at the two texts by Derrida that most closely apply signature theory to poetics: Glas and Signsponge. Along the way, I narrow the scope of Derrida's writing somewhat by focusing on psychoanalytic aspects that relate to Jacques Lacan's ideas and to the concept of the superego. From this work I isolate some protocols for reading, which are then used to study Olds and Cage, two poets who have clearly developed their own signature styles. Here are the protocols:1. Treat Olds' and Cage's texts as blazons.2. Read for anthonomasia---Derrida's neologism combining the words anthology and antonomasia (the trope of using proper nouns as common nouns and vice versa).3. Look for (and practice) hypogram and anagram.4. Trace the placement in abyss.5. Post-death-of-the-author, read and write for and as if mourning.6. Eat the proper names, continuing whatever encryption of the letters can already be read. My studies of Olds and Cage alternate between application of these protocols and my attempt to follow the respective laws of their own signatures. In Olds' poetry the most prominent signature effect is the encryption of the Sh-effect. Cage's poetics places his rebus-signature in the abyss of his texts.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Walter E. Lewallen.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 192 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001790290
oclc - 144586218
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001495
usfldc handle - e14.1495
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SFS0025814:00001


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ABSTRACT: This dissertation studies and applies the signature theory of Jacques Derrida to two American poets, Sharon Olds and John Cage. I begin by looking at the two texts by Derrida that most closely apply signature theory to poetics: Glas and Signsponge. Along the way, I narrow the scope of Derrida's writing somewhat by focusing on psychoanalytic aspects that relate to Jacques Lacan's ideas and to the concept of the superego. From this work I isolate some protocols for reading, which are then used to study Olds and Cage, two poets who have clearly developed their own signature styles. Here are the protocols:1. Treat Olds' and Cage's texts as blazons.2. Read for anthonomasia---Derrida's neologism combining the words anthology and antonomasia (the trope of using proper nouns as common nouns and vice versa).3. Look for (and practice) hypogram and anagram.4. Trace the placement in abyss.5. Post-death-of-the-author, read and write for and as if mourning.6. Eat the proper names, continuing whatever encryption of the letters can already be read. My studies of Olds and Cage alternate between application of these protocols and my attempt to follow the respective laws of their own signatures. In Olds' poetry the most prominent signature effect is the encryption of the Sh-effect. Cage's poetics places his rebus-signature in the abyss of his texts.
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PAGE 1

T he S i gna t ur e P oe t i c s of S ha r on O l ds a nd J ohn C a ge by W a l t e r E L e w a l l e n A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of E ngl i s h C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : E l i z a be t h H i r s h, P h. D J oa nne B W a ugh, P h D D e br a J a c obs P h. D S us a n M oone y, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l M a r c h 31, 2006 K e yw or ds : t he or y, ps yc hoa na l ys i s s upe r e go, D e r r i da gl a s C opyr i ght 2006 W a l t e r E L e w a l l e n

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A c know l e dge m e nt s F i r s t I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk D e br a N uc kol s a nd V e l ve t J e f f r e y, m y w i f e a nd da ught e r f o r t he i r pa t i e nc e a nd s uppor t t hr ough t hi s pr oc e s s N e xt m y d i r e c t or E l i z a be t h H i r s h, f o r he r pa t i e nc e gui da nc e a nd s uppor t : I hope I c a n r e pa y s om e pa r t o f t he de bt f o r he r ha r d w o r k a nd e f f o r t J oa nn W a ugh, I t ha nk f or pa t i e nt l y obs e r vi ng m y w a nde r i ng a bout i n va r i ous phi l os ophi c a l t e xt s D e br a J a c obs a f r i e nd a nd s uppor t e r dur i ng a t i m e of i l l ne s s a gr e e d t o be a r e a de r on s hor t not i c e a s di d S us a n M oone y. I a m ve r y gr a t e f ul f o r t he i r w or k I a l s o t ha nk L e e D a vi ds on, w ho he l pe d w i t h m uc h of t he c om m i t t e e or ga ni z a t i on a nd i ns t i t ut i ona l c oor di na t i on L a s t I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk a l l m y f r i e nds a nd f a m i l y w ho c a m e t o m y a i d t hr ough t w o s e r i o us i l l ne s s e s i n t he m i ds t of c om pos i t i on. I c a nnot t ha nk you e nough.

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of F i gur e s i i i A bs t r a c t i v C ha pt e r 1 S i gna t ur e : P r ot oc ol 1 I nt r oduc t i on 1 T one 5 A V e r y S ho r t P r i m e r on t he U nc ons c i ous 9 O n t he S i gna t ur e : D e r r i da s W or k on P oe t i c s 13 M i m e t ol ogy 19 P oe t i c s a nd I m pe r s ona l i t y 21 P r ot oc ol 25 C ha pt e r 2 S ha r on O l ds : I n T w o P l a c e s A t O nc e 32 I nt r oduc t i on: t he F e t i s h D oubl e 32 S ha r on O l ds 33 S a t a n S a ys 34 L ove F os s i l 40 R i s i ng D a ught e r 45 I G o B a c k t o M a y 1937 47 N ur s e W hi t m a n 48 P oe m s A bout M ot he r i ng 51 C ha pt e r 3 T he L i f t i ng a nd t he S upe r e go 57 T he L i f t i ng 57 T he G ol de n R os e 70 F a t e a nd O i l 73 A nt i c i pa t i on 78 35/ 10 84 W ha t i f G od 86 G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on 92 C onc l u s i on 98 C ha pt e r 4 T he D e ve l opm e nt o f J ohn C a ge s S i gn a t ur e T he or y 102 G e t O ut of W ha t e ve r C a ge Y ou F i nd Y our s e l f I n 102 T he E m pt y C a ge : S pa c e of D i f f e r e nc e 106 P oe t i c s a nd S i l e nc e ( L e c t ur e on N o t hi ng ) 109 O pe n C a ge O pe n F or m 118 C a ge a nd t he C a ge : t he R e bus S i gna t ur e 120

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i i C a ge a n S i gna t ur e T he or y S t a ge I : R e s i s t a nc e t o I di om 121 R obe r t R a us c he nbe r g: A S i l e nt S i gna t u r e ? 128 C a ge a n R e c e pt i on T he or y 132 S i gna t ur e O r de r W or ds S upe r e go: F r o m R a us c he nbe r g t o D uc ha m p 139 C ha pt e r 5 C a ge J oi ns t he W a ke 148 P r ot oc ol : F une r a l A r r a nge m e nt s 148 G l a s i f i c a t i on of M our ne r s 149 S c or i ng t he S i gna t ur e 152 R e a di ng J oyc e C a ge f r e e 153 J oyc e C a ge : T he J C e f f e c t 155 C ol os s a l W r i t i ng 160 P r ot oc ol : F o r ge t I t 163 T he D oubl e J oynt e d J J 165 S ynt a x R e t ur n 166 C onc l us i on: R ol l i ng D oubl e s 169 W or ks C i t e d 171 W or ks C ons ul t e d 175 A ppe ndi c e s 181 A ppe ndi x A : R e vi e w of C r i t i c i s m on S ha r on O l ds 182 A bout t he A ut hor E nd P a ge

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i i i L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1. T he f i r s t pa ge of C a ge s poe m a s i t a ppe a r s i n E m p t y W or ds 150

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i v T he S i gna t ur e P oe t i c s of S ha r on O l ds a nd J ohn C a ge W a l t e r E L e w a l l e n A B S T R A C T T hi s di s s e r t a t i on s t udi e s a nd a ppl i e s t he s i gna t ur e t he or y of J a c que s D e r r i da t o t w o A m e r i c a n poe t s S ha r on O l ds a nd J ohn C a ge I be gi n by l ooki ng a t t he t w o t e xt s by D e r r i da t ha t m os t c l os e l y a ppl y s i gna t ur e t he o r y t o poe t i c s : G l as a nd Si gns ponge A l ong t he w a y, I na r r ow t he s c ope of D e r r i da s w r i t i ng s om e w ha t by f oc us i ng on ps yc hoa na l yt i c a s pe c t s t ha t r e l a t e t o J a c que s L a c a n s i de a s a nd t o t he c onc e pt of t he s upe r e go. F r om t hi s w or k I i s ol a t e s om e pr ot oc ol s f or r e a di ng, w hi c h a r e t he n us e d t o s t udy O l ds a nd C a ge t w o poe t s w ho ha ve c l e a r l y de ve l ope d t he i r ow n s i gna t ur e s t yl e s H e r e a r e t he p r ot oc ol s : 1. T r e a t O l ds a nd C a ge s t e xt s a s bl a z ons 2. R e a d f or a nt hono m a s i a D e r r i da s ne ol ogi s m c om bi ni ng t he w or ds a nt hol ogy a nd a nt onom a s i a ( t he t r ope o f us i ng p r o pe r nouns a s c om m on nouns a nd vi c e ve r s a ) 3. L ook f o r ( a nd pr a c t i c e ) hypogr a m a nd a na gr a m 4. T r a c e t he pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s 5. P os t de a t h of t he a ut ho r r e a d a nd w r i t e f o r a nd a s i f m our ni ng 6. E a t t he p r ope r na m e s c ont i nui ng w ha t e ve r e nc r ypt i on of t he l e t t e r s c a n a l r e a dy be r e a d. M y s t udi e s of O l ds a nd C a ge a l t e r na t e be t w e e n a p pl i c a t i on of t he s e pr ot oc ol s a nd m y a t t e m pt t o f ol l ow t he r e s pe c t i ve l a w s of t he i r ow n s i gna t ur e s I n O l ds poe t r y t he m os t pr om i ne nt s i gna t ur e e f f e c t i s t he e nc r ypt i on o f t he S h e f f e c t C a ge s poe t i c s pl a c e s hi s r e bus s i gna t ur e i n t he a bys s of hi s t e xt s

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1 C ha pt e r O ne Si gnat ur e : P r ot oc ol I nt r oduc t i on J a c que s D e r r i da s r e put a t i on a m ong A m e r i c a n l i t e r a r y s c hol a r s ha s l a r ge l y t o do w i t h de c ons t r uc t i on a nd t he r ol e t ha t t e r m pl a ys i n pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m T hr e e of D e r r i da s e a r l y books W r i t i ng and D i f f e r e nc e ( 1967) O f G r am m at ol ogy ( 1967) a nd M ar gi ns of P hi l os ophy ( 1972) a r e m o r e or l e s s c a noni z e d i n t h e A m e r i c a n l i t e r a r y e s t a bl i s hm e nt a nd a f e w of t he e s s a ys c ont a i ne d i n t he m a r e us ua l l y a nt hol ogi z e d i n r e a de r s de s i gne d f o r l i t e r a r y t he or y c our s e s D e r r i da s t he or y of t he s i gna t ur e c om e s on t he s e c ond w a ve of hi s t e xt s a nd i de a s t a ki ng up a nd de ve l opi ng c e r t a i n i de a s pr e s e nt i n t he pr i o r w or ks T hos e a s pe c t s of t he s i gna t ur e t he or y t ha t i nt e r e s t m e t he m os t c om e e m be dde d i n t w o t e xt s G l as ( 1974) a nd Si gn ponge / Si gns ponge ( 1977) G l as f oc us e s on t he G e r m a n phi l os ophe r G W F H e ge l a nd t he F r e nc h w r i t e r J e a n G e ne t a nd Si gns ponge i s de vot e d t o t he F r e nc h poe t F r a nc i s P onge I t i s l i ke l y t ha t D e r r i da s w or ks a m ong t hos e of t he or i s t s i n ge ne r a l ha ve ha d t he s i ngl e gr e a t e s t i n f l ue nc e on t he c ont e m po r a r y t he or i e s of A ngl o A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t ur e but w hi l e t he l a t e r p r oj e c t s ( r oughl y f r om G l as onw a r d) ha ve i nf l ue nc e d A ngl o A m e r i c a n l i t e r a r y s t udi e s i t i s ge ne r a l l y t hough t t ha t t he ba s i c s of D e r r i da s w or k s houl d be gr a s pe d t hr ough t he e a r l y t e xt s I n m y vi e w t he di f f i c ul t y of a l l t he s e t e xt s pe r s i s t s no m a t t e r t he o r de r o f a ppr o a c h. M a ny of t he l a t e r t e xt s a nd i nt e r vi e w s s e e m a t l e a s t a s us e f ul a s t he e a r l y t e xt s f or l ooki ng a t i s s ue s of poe t i c s a nd l i t e r a t ur e i n ge ne r a l

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2 D e r r i da s w or k i s i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y i n r a di c a l w a ys a nd hi s t he or y of t he s i gna t ur e i s t ypi c a l l y c om pl e x f o r t h i s r e a s on. G e of f r e y H a r t m a n e xpl a i ns : D e r r i da s m i nd i s s o a s s i m i l a t i ve ( r e pr os uc t i v e he puns be ne f i t i ng f r om a s l i p of t he pe n) t ha t ne i t he r l i t e r a t ur e no r phi l os ophy n or t he s c i e nc e s of m a n or o f t he m i nd c a n be i de nt i f i e d a s e xc l us i ve s our c e s I nde e d, hi s ve r y unde r s t a ndi ng of w r i t i ng ( c r i t ur e ) r e j e c t s s uc h s our c e hunt i ng i n f a vor of a m o r e c om pr e he ns i ve ha unt i ng. ( xv i i i ) N e ve r t he l e s s m y w or k w i l l go a ga i ns t t he g r a i n of t hi s ha unt i ng be c a us e I a m pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t e d i n t he r ol e s t ha t ps yc hoa na l ys i s a nd t he w or k of J a c que s L a c a n pl a y i n D e r r i da s s i gna t ur e t he or y T he s i ngl e i m a ge t ha t b e s t s um s up t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p i s pr oba bl y T he E ar of t he O t he r a ph r a s e t ha t t i t l e s a c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s a nd di s c us s i on s w i t h J a c que s D e r r i da ( a s t he t i t l e pa g e a nnounc e s ) w hi c h a r e s ubt i t l e d O t obi ogr aphy T r ans f e r e nc e and T r ans l at i on T o t he e xt e nt t ha t t he t he or y be hi nd t he e a r of t he ot he r i s ps yc hoa na l yt i c i t i s de s i gne d t o l e t t he unc ons c i ous a s t he or i z e d by F r e ud a nd L a c a n, be he a r d A nd up t o a poi nt D e r r i da s pr oj e c t dr a w s on t ha t of L a c a n. O ne of F r e ud s t e xt s B e y ond t he P l e as ur e P r i nc i pl e m ode l s t he or y f or m a t i on a s a ut obi ogr a phi c a l ( t he f a m ous f or t da f o r m ul a t i on a r i s i ng f r om F r e ud s obs e r va t i ons of hi s g r a nds on a f a m i l i a l a nd a ut obi og r a phi c a l s c e ne ) D e r r i da m ove s or t hogona l l y punni ng f r om a ut o t o ot o ( e a r ) f r om s e l f bi ogr a phy t o he a r i ng bi ogr a phy or e a r bi ogr a phy. A ut obi og r a phy i s t he n unde r s t ood a s h e a r i ng one s e l f s pe a k: not a ut o bi ogr a phy be c a us e t he s i gna t or y na r r a t e s but o t obi ogr a phy be c a us e he t e l l s hi m s e l f t he s t or y of hi s l i f e O f t hi s s c e ne of w r i t i ng, L a c a ni a n ps yc hoa na l ys i s w oul d hol d t ha t onl y a not he r ( a n a na l ys t ) c a n di s c e r n or he a r w i t hi n t he di s c our s e of t he s pe a ke r / w r i t e r t ha t a c c e nt a m ong t he s i gni f i e r s t ha t m a r ks t he m ove m e nt of t he unc ons c i ous O nl y t he a na l ys t c a n r e a d t he doubl e i ns c r i pt i on, bot h w ha t i s w r i t t e n c ons c i ous l y a nd w ha t i s

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3 w r i t t e n t hr ough unc ons c i ous a ge nc y. D e r r i da t r a ns l a t e s t hi s pos s i bi l i t y i nt o t he r e a l m o f a c a de m i c di s c our s e I n T ym pa n he t a l ks a bout pi e r c i ng t he e a r of phi l os ophy by l i s t e ni ng t o t he di s c our s e of phi l os ophy w i t h t he e a r of t he ps yc hoa na l ys t ( M ar gi ns i x xxi x) Y e t L a c a n, l i ke H e ge l r e m a i ns l ogoc e nt r i c w i t h i n t he W e s t e r n t r a di t i on t o t he e xt e nt t ha t he p r i vi l e ge s t he pa t e r na l D e r r i da s pr o j e c t i n G l as a nd t he s i gna t ur e poe t i c s i m pl i c i t t he r e i n s e e ks t o r e d r e s s t he ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he na m e of t he f a t he r a nd t he pl a c e of t he m ot he r G e ne t s w r i t i ng i s t a ke n by D e r r i da t o e xe m pl i f y a m ot he r t ongue a s oppos e d t o a pa t r i a r c ha l l a ngua ge of r e a s on, e xe m pl i f i e d i n H e ge l O r i n ot he r w o r ds G e ne t s w r i t i ng i s a pr om ot i on of di s s e m i na t i on, a w r i t i ng t ha t w oul d not r e t ur n t o t he f a t he r H a r t m a n w r i t e s : W i t h D e r r i da di s s e m i na t i on e nt e r s a ne w pha s e I t i s now di r e c t e d anal y t i c al l y pr os a i c a l l y, i f you w i s h a ga i ns t t he m i m e t i c p r i nc i pl e ( t he c ol l e c t or l e ge i n of t he l ogos ) i n m a j or t e xt s of t he W e s t e r n t r a di t i on T he y a r e s o s e pa r a t e d f r om a di r e c t l ogo i m i t a t i ve i nt e nt i on by hi s de c ons t r uc t i ve r e a di ngs t ha t t he y c a nnot be r e t ur ne d t o t he f a t he r : t he i r a ut hor o r t he i r a ut hor i n he a ve n. I ns t e a d of c onve r t i ng t he s t r a yi ng t e xt t o a c e nt r a l t r ut h by a m ode of i nt e r p r e t a t i on s i m i l a r t o a l l e gor e s i s or s a c r e d pa r ody, D e r r i da a bs ol ut i z e s t he t e xt s e r r o r W ha t e m e r ge s i s a n a nt i a l l e gor e s i s . . I nt e r p r e t a t i on no l onge r a i m s a t t he r e c onc i l i a t i on o r uni f i c a t i on of w a r r i ng t r u t hs . . F o r t he m ove m e nt a w a y f r om t he f a t he r doe s not l e a d t o t he r e de m pt i ve a dor nm e nt of a c om pl e m e nt a r y, m a t e r na l pr e s e nc e e xc e pt i n c e r t a i n J ungi a n or m yt hol ogi c a l ve r s i ons of t he a t t a c k on t he m a s c ul i ne t r i ni t y of t he l ogos I ns t e a d t he pr e s t i ge of a l l or i gi ns o f a l l ul t i m a t e s our c e s ( s pe r m a t i c w or d o r i m m a c ul a t e w om b ) i s que s t i on e d. ( 51 ) S o D e r r i da s t e xt t r i e s t o de a ut hor i z e i t s e l f G l as e ndl e s s l y t he or i z e s t he m ot he r t e xt but f i gur e s of a c t ua l m ot he r s a r e ge ne r a l l y w i t hd r a w n. D e r r i da s a nt i pa t r o l ogy a l l ow s t he pos s i bi l i t y of t he c al c ul o f t he m ot he r T he pun be t w e e n f i gur i ng a nd c al c ul a t i ng w or ks i n bot h F r e nc h a nd E ngl i s h: a f i gur i ng out a w o r ki ng out of t he m ot he r H e r e a ds i n

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4 G e ne t s c or pus a s i gna t ur e e ve nt t ha t i s de s c r i be d a s w om b l i ke or not j us t w om b l i ke but w om b/ t om b/ l a bor of m our ni ng l i ke F ur t he r m or e G l as a t t e m pt s t o r e pe a t t hi s e ve nt by pl a c i ng hi m s e l f D e r r i da i n t he w om b of G e ne t s t e xt or r a t he r by s i m ul t a ne ous l y pl a c i ng hi s s i gna t ur e i n t he w om b o f G e ne t s t e xt a nd of hi s ow n t e xt T h i s e ve nt i s a ki nd of de a t h, c a s t r a t i on of t he na m e a nd s i gna t ur e t ha t br e a c he s t he bounda r i e s of pr op r i e t y. T he t e xt a s e ve nt bur i e s t he s i gna t ur e i n t he w om b / m a t r i x of i t s e l f a nd t he n t he f une r e a l bi r t h l a bor of r e s ur r e c t i on be gi ns T hi s be c om e s D e r r i da s e xc us e f or w ha t H a r t m a n de s c r i be s a s a ve r y c ol d a nd r a t i ona l s t yl e of c om e dy. G l as c oul d be c a l l e d a f une r a l c om e dy; t he w or d gl as i t s e l f m e a ns t he de a t h kn e l l D e r r i da w or ks a t a di s t yl e t e xt di s t yl e or t w o s t yl e d w r i t i ng : w e c oul d s a y di e s t yl e t oo N ot j us t H e ge l G e ne t a t ot a l l y i m pr ope r c oupl i ng of ge nr e s phi l os ophy a nd l i t e r a t ur e but G e ne t D e r r i da B e s i de s f ol l ow i ng t he ai gl e ( e a gl e ) i n H e ge l a nd t he f l ow e r i n G e ne t i n D e r r i da s a t t e m pt t o di s c ove r t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he i r s i gna t ur e s a nd t he i r t e xt s D e r r i da s r e a de r s c a n a l s o r e a d D e r r i da put t i ng hi s ow n na m e i n t he a bys s of hi s t e xt : on e not a bl e e xa m pl e of t hi s i s t he de r r i r e i n hi s w r i t i ng: a ne a r c ons t a nt t he m a t i c s of t he r e a r bu t t f ol l ow i ng be hi nd bot t om t r a i l i ng, e t c T he c a l c ul us o f t he m ot he r t h e poe t i c s t ha t D e r r i da pr e s e nt s i n t hi s t e xt c om e s m os t l y f r om t he G e ne t c ol um n w hi c h m i xe s D e r r i da a nd G e ne t s t yl e s G l as doe s not pr oduc e t he m ot he r but a s s e r t s t ha t a m a t e r na l c a l c ul us c ons t i t ut e s i t s m e t hod of t e xt ua l pr oduc t i on: D e r r i da w r i t e s t h a t he i s s e e ki ng t he good m e t a phor f o r t he ope r a t i on I pur s ue he r e I w oul d l i ke t o de s c r i be m y ge s t ur e t he pos t ur e o f m y body be hi nd t hi s m a c hi ne ( 204b) W ha t ha ppe ns t he r e i n t he w om b o f t e xt i s t ha t t he s i gna t ur e be c om e s t he ne w body of t he w r i t e r t he c or pus o r body of w or k he l e a ve s a t hi s de a t h not unl i ke t he gi f t a m ot he r m a k e s of / t o he r c hi l d t o/ of t he w o r l d:

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5 S t one s t e l e gi s ant pa t i e nt l y a ggl om e r a t e d c onc r e t i on: I a m ( f ol l ow i ng) t he c a l c ul us of m y m o t he r I c ount e r ba nd e r e c t f or he r a f t e r a l l w i t h t he r e m a i n( s ) of w hi c h I m a ke m ys e l f a gi f t { j e m e f ai t c ade au }. ( 203b) T he t e r m pa t i e nt l y a ggl om e r a t e d c onc r e t i on w ou l d r e f e r t o t he t e xt o r c or pus a s a pi l i ng up of bi t s m o r s e l s a nd w or ds t he m a t t e r of w r i t i ng. A s t e l e i s a s t one e r e c t e d a s a m onum e nt us ua l l y w i t h w r i t i ng on i t G i s ant m e a n s r e c um be nt s t a t ue a s f oun d a t gr a ve s D e r r i da c om bi ne s or f us e s t oge t he r t he m onum e nt a l a nd t he s c e ne of w r i t i ng F ol l ow i ng H e ge l one of D e r r i da s c ons t a nt a r gum e nt s i n G l a s i de nt i f i e s t he m ot he r a s t he f i gur e w ho c ons t r uc t s t hi s s c e ne D e r r i da s m e t a phor o l og y of t he m ot he r pl a c e s hi m agai ns t G e ne t : I do not know i f I ha ve s ought t o unde r s t a nd hi m B ut i f he t hought I ha d unde r s t ood hi m he w oul d not s uppor t i t or r a t he r he w oul d l i ke not t o s uppor t i t W ha t a s c e ne H e w oul d not s uppor t w ha t he l i ke s t o do hi m s e l f H e w oul d f e e l hi m s e l f a l r e a dy e nt w i ne d L i ke a c ol um n i n a c e m e t e r y, e a t e n by a n i vy, a pa r a s i t e t ha t a r r i ve d t o o l a t e I w or m e d m y w a y i n a s a t hi r d pa r t y, be t w e e n hi s m ot he r a nd hi m s e l f I ga ve hi m / he r I s que a l e d on h i m / he r I m a de t he bl ood { s ang } s pe a k. ( 203b ) A not he r na m e f o r t hi s a s pe c t of t he m ot he r s t yl e i s t he pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s w hi c h I w i l l c om e t o s hor t l y. T one T he t one o f G l as c ons t a nt l y ba l a nc e s on t he g r ot e s que T he c ol um ns a r e de s c r i be d on t he ope ni ng pa ge a s s t um ps : w om b/ s t um ps T he r e i s a l s o a c ons t a nt c he w i ng a nd s pi t t i ng: t he m or c e l i ng of pr e t e xt s e m bl e m a t i z e d on t he ope ni ng pa ge i n t he f i r s t w or ds of t he G e ne t c ol um n, a quot e t or n f r o m s om e t e xt of G e ne t s : w hat r e m ai ne d of a R e m br andt t or n i n t o s m al l v e r y r e gul ar s qua r e s and r am m e d do w n t he s hi t hol e i s di vi de d i n t w o. ( 1b)

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6 T hi s m or c e l i ng, a nd t he t one of i t t a ke s pl a c e a s p a r t of t he m a t e r na l poe t i c F r om s e e ki ng t he good m e t a phor f or t hi s [ t e xt ua l ] ope r a t i on D e r r i da s l i ps t o s e e ki ng t he good m ove m e nt : W ha t [ G e ne t ] w oul d s upp or t w i t h t he g r e a t e s t di f f i c ul t y w oul d be t ha t I a s s ur e m ys e l f o r ot he r s of t he m a s t e r y of hi s t e xt B y p r oc ur i ng t he y s a y, di s t yl e { di s e nt i l s } t he r u l e { r gl e } of p r oduc t i on or t he ge ne r a t i ve gr a m m a r o f a l l hi s s t a t e m e nt s N o da nge r s t e ppi ng t he r e { P as de dange r }. W e a r e ve r y f a r f r om t ha t ; t hi s r i gh t he r e I r e pe a t i s ba r e l y pr e l i m i na r y a nd w i l l r e m a i n s o. ( N o) m o r e na m e s ( no) m or e nouns I t w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o r e t ur n t o hi s t e xt w hi c h w a t c he s ove r t hi s t e xt he r e dur i ng i t s pl a y. S o I a m s e e ki n g t he good m ove m e nt H a ve I c ons t r uc t e d s om e t hi ng l i ke t he m a t r i x, t he w om b of h i s t e xt ? O n t he ba s i s of w hi c h one c oul d r e a d i t t ha t i s r e p r oduc e i t ? N o, I s e e r a t he r ( but i t m a y s t i l l be a m a t r i x or a gr a m m a r ) a s or t of dr e dgi ng m a c hi ne F r om t he di s s i m ul a t e d, s m a l l c l os e d, gl a s s e d i n c a bi n of a c r a ne I m a ni pul a t e s om e l e ve r s a nd f r om a f a r I s a w t ha t ( a ) done a t S a i nt e s M a r i e s de l a M e r a t E a s t e r t i m e I pl unge a m out h o f s t e e l i n t he w a t e r A nd I s c r a pe { r ac l e } t he bot t om hook ont o s t one s a nd a l ga e t he r e t ha t I l i f t up i n or de r t o s e t t he m dow n on t he g r ou nd w hi l e t he w a t e r qui c kl y f a l l s ba c k f r om t he m out h A nd I be gi n a ga i n t o s c r a pe { r ac l e r }, t o s c r a t c h, t o dr e dge t he bot t om of t he s e a t he m ot he r { m e r }. I ba r e l y he a r t he noi s e o f t he w a t e r f r om t he l i t t l e r oom T he t oot he d m a t r i x { m at r i c e de nt e } onl y w i t hdr a w s w ha t i t c a n, s om e a l ga e s om e s t one s S om e bi t s { m or c e aux }, s i nc e i t bi t e s { m or d }. D e t a c he d. B ut t he r e m a i n ( s ) pa s s e s be t w e e n i t s t e e t h, be t w e e n i t s l i ps Y ou do not c a t c h t he s e a S he a l w a ys r e f or m s he r s e l f S he r e m a i ns T he r e e qua l c a l m I nt a c t i m pa s s i ve a l w a ys vi r gi n. ( 204b 05b) T hi s m a c hi ne w hi c h D e r r i da m a ni pul a t e s w oul d be t he gr ot e s que i m a ge o f t he poe t i c s t he ge ne r a t i ve gr a m m a r t ha t he bot h t a ke s f r om G e ne t a nd a ppl i e s t o G e ne t s ( a nd H e ge l s ) t e xt s O r r a t he r t ha n t ak i ng i t he i s r e bor n w i t h i t out o f G e ne t s t e xt w om b w he r e he ha d w or m e d hi s w a y i n a s a t hi r d pa r t y be t w e e n G e ne t a nd hi s m ot he r ( 203b) T he ne w ge ne r a t i ve gr a m m a r i s a hybr i d T hi s dr e dge m o de l of i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y e m pha s i z e s t he m out h, a nd i t s s c r a pi ng, s c r a t c hi ng a nd bi t i ng o f . t he m ot he r w hi c h

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7 c oul d f i gur e f or ot he r t e xt s t he s e a of t e xt I n w ha t ki nd of ha l l uc i na t e d m e t a phor c oul d t he buc ke t of a dr e dgi ng c r a ne be t a ke n f or a m a t r i x or w om b? T hi s d r e dge i m a ge r e f i gur e s a c e r t a i n ps yc hoa na l yt i c r e c ogni t i on. T he dr e dgi ng o f l a ngua ge t he s c r a pi ng o f w or ds not s i m pl y pa r onom a s i a bu t t he c ha nne l i ng a nd s hi f t i ng of l a ngua ge p l a ys a t L a c a n s not i on of s i gna t ur e w hi c h I w i l l c om e t o s hor t l y. U l m e r poi nt s out t ha t t he m ove m e nt D e r r i da s e e ks i n t hi s pa s s a ge ha s t o do w i t h c a de nc e or r hy t hm a s s i gna t ur e e f f e c t D e r r i d a s c a ve a t N o da nge r s t e ppi ng t he r e di s a vow s a ny m a s t e r y of G e ne t s r ul e O f c our s e h e ha s gr a f t e d H e ge l a nd G e ne t t oge t he r A s a r e s ul t h i s t e xt w on t r e t u r n t o e i t he r one T he r e t u r n c om e s i n t he w a t e r f l ow i ng out of t he dr e dge w om b a nd ba c k dow n t o t he w a t e r i t c a m e out of T he r e s t o f t he de br i s goe s f r om H e ge l t o G e ne t a nd G e ne t t o H e ge l T hi s de l i r i um of l a ngu a ge i s t he a s pe c t of G l as t ha t m os t a ppe a l s t o m e I n s om e r e s pe c t s G l as a t t e m pt s t o t ur n a c a de m i c di s c our s e a ga i ns t i t s e l f i n l i ne w i t h i t s pa r ody of pha l l ogoc e nt r i s m D e r r i da i s de r i di ng a nd hi s r e a de r s a r e a l ong f o r t he r i de T h i s i s w hy w e ha ve t o put up w i t h t he ne a r obs c e ne obj e s t i ng a s s om e one I c a n t r e m e m be r w hom c a l l s i t T he pul s e of D e r r i da s t e xt t he m o ve m e nt of l a ngua ge t ha t dr a w s m e a l ong, i s t he c ons t a nt a l t e r a t i on of l a ngua ge t he ( i m pos s i bl e ) m ove m e nt a w a y f r om l a ngua ge by m e a ns of l a ngua ge S o t hi s a t t r a c t i on i s not f or t he de r i s i on, not t he obs c e ne t ur ns i n t he m s e l ve s but t he i ns i de out qua l i t y of t he t e xt of w hi c h t he y a r e a n a s pe c t W he n I r e a d O l ds a nd C a ge s om e t hi ng s i m i l a r i n t he i r t e xt s ha vi ng t o do w i t h t he s i gna t ur e ha s be e n t he obj e c t of m y r e a di ng T he i r t e xt s a t t e m pt t o m ove l a ngua ge : t he y m ove a l ot o f l a ngua ge a nd I s e e k t he c a de nc e of t ha t m ove m e nt i n m y r e a di ng I n D e r r i da s dr e dge i m a ge I s e e t hi s i n t he c r unc hi ng, c he w i ng, s c r a pi ng, c r us hi ng of

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8 l a ngua ge T he p a r t i c ul a r a l t e r i t y t ha t D e r r i da a c c e nt ua t e s gi ve s us a not he r w a y t o he a r t he t he or i z i ng or t ym pa ni z i ng t ha t t a ke s pl a c e i n t he t e xt s of H e ge l a nd L a c a n: w he n t he y put e m pha s i s on t he pl a c e of t he f a t he r or t he na m e of t he l a w o f t he f a t he r t he m ot he r s voi c e a nd i t s l a w be c om e m u f f l e d. D e r r i da doe s no t t r y t o c ount e r m uf f l e t he s ound o f t he f a t he r bu t m e r e l y t o pos e a s t e r e ophony or a s t e r e ogr a phy. E a c h pa ge c ons i s t s of t w o c ol um ns t he one on t he l e f t de vot e d t o H e ge l t he one on t he r i ght de vot e d t o G e ne t W e c a n t hi nk of G l as a s a pa i r of he a dphone s t he s pe a ke r on t he l e f t r e pr e s e nt e d by t he H e ge l c ol um n, t he s pe a ke r on t he r i ght r e pr e s e nt e d by t he G e ne t c ol um n. T hi s he a d d r e s s bi f ur c a t e s t he t e xt a nd t he a c t o f r e a di ng. A nd t he pl e a s ur e of r e a di ng G l as r e qui r e s a ha r d t o a c qui r e t a s t e f or i t R e a di ng t he doubl e e r e c t i on of t he t w o c ol um ns i s unc om f or t a bl e a s one s a t t e nt i on os c i l l a t e s ba c k a nd f or t h l i ke a s hut t l e but i t e na bl e s a l ogi c t ha t dr a w s out pot e nt i a l a l t e r i t i e s of bot h c ol u m ns T r y i ng t o r e a d one c ol um n, one s a w a r e ne s s i s a l w a y s ha unt e d by t he pr e s e nc e of t h e ot he r c ol um n on t he pa ge A s w or ds i m a ge s i de a s e ve nt s e t c e c ho ba c k a nd f or t h be t w e e n t he c ol um ns t he va r i ous t e xt s of G e ne t of f e r a c om m e nt a r y on t hos e of H e ge l a nd v i c e ve r s a N e i t he r s i de m u f f l e s or m ut e s t he ot he r s i de M y pr oj e c t ha s be e n t o r e a d O l ds a nd C a ge i n a s t e r e ogr a phi c m ode t o he a r a r e l a t e d bi f u r c a t i on i n t he i r poe t r i e s B ut I a m not r e a di ng O l ds a nd C a ge a ga i ns t e a c h ot he r a s D e r r i da r e a ds G e ne t a ga i ns t H e ge l W i t h C a ge t he bi f u r c a t i on r e s ul t s f r om t he e xt r e m e i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y of hi s w or k s pe c i f i c a l l y w i t h J a m e s J oyc e W i t h O l ds t he bi f ur c a t i on ha s t o do w i t h t he t e ns i on be t w e e n t he pa t r onym a nd t he gi ve n na m e T he i de a of t he s i gna t ur e s e t s up a s t e r e ogr a phy. I ha ve be e n t r a i ne d i n a n A m e r i c a n uni ve r s i t y s e t t i ng w he r e t he ba s e l i ne f or r e a di ng poe t r y i s t he i de a o f c l os e

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9 r e a di ng, t ha t i s pa yi ng c l os e a t t e nt i on t o t he t e xt a s oppos e d t o, s a y, t he bi ogr a phy of t he a ut hor A nd w he n I r e a d a nd w r i t e a bout poe t r y I m t r yi ng t o pe r f or m i n t hi s m ode of c l os e r e a di ng. O r a t l e a s t I t hi nk I a m I n a ddi t i on t o t hi s m ode I a m t r y i ng t o r e a d t he s i gna t ur e s of O l ds a nd C a ge i n a m a nne r a f t e r D e r r i da H ow do t he i r pr ope r na m e s e nt e r i nt o t he t e xt s ? S o t he s e a r e t w o po l e s or c ol um ns o f m y e f f or t s c l os e r e a di ng i n one e a r a nd s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s i n t he ot he r W hi l e c l os e r e a di ng doe s not r u l e out a t t e nt i on t o i s s ue s of t he unc ons c i ous s uc h a t t e nt i on i s n t r e qui r e d of i t e i t he r B ut t he or i z a t i on o f t he unc ons c i ous de e pl y i nf or m s D e r r i da s t he o r i z a t i on s on s i gna t ur e A V e r y Shor t P r i m e r on t he U nc ons c i ous A nd w ha t i s t he unc ons c i ous a nyw a y? H e r e a r e t he m a i n t he or e t i c a l poi nt s I ha ve i n m i nd. T he r e a r e F r e ud s t w o t he or i e s F i r s t t he e a r l i e r t opogr a phi c a l m ode l c ons i s t i n g of t hr e e s ys t e m s or p l a c e s : t he c ons c i ous t he pr e c o ns c i ous a nd t he unc ons c i ous E a r l y on F r e ud t he or i z e d t ha t t he c ont e nt s o f t he unc ons c i ous c oul d not r e e nt e r t he c ons c i ous pr e c ons c i ous w i t hout di s t or t i on be c a us e of t he dyn a m i c s of r e pr e s s i on. F r e ud s l a t e r s t r uc t ur a l t he or y of t he m i nd pr e s e nt e d t he f a m i l i a r i d/ e go/ s upe r e go s t r uc t ur e s of a ge nc y, a l l of w hi c h ha ve unc ons c i ous c om pone nt s M y s t udy f oc us e s on i s s ue s of t he s upe r e go. T he c onc e pt of t he s upe r e go a na l yz e s t he i s s ue of a ut hor i t y f i gu r e s W i t h r e s pe c t t o O l ds t hi s ha s t o do w i t h t he pa r e nt a l i m a goe s on w hi c h t he s e l f a na l ys i s a t t he he a r t o f he r poe t i c s de pe nds I n t he c a s e of C a ge t he s upe r e go i s us e f ul i n a na l yz i ng hi s c r i t i que of t he a e s t he t i c i de ol ogy of t he m a s t e r a r t i s t I l l s a y m or e a bout t hi s i n a m om e nt T he c onc e pt of t he s upe r e go s e e m s m a de t o o r de r f or a r t i c ul a t i n g t he poe t i c s of bot h O l ds a nd C a ge I t a l l ow s a pr oduc t i ve f oc us on t he i r t e xt s ; O l ds a nd C a ge c a n be r e a d a s gui de s f or de a l i ng

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10 w i t h i s s ue s of t he s upe r e go. C ont i nui n g w i t h m y w or ki ng de f i ni t i on of t he unc ons c i ous t he r e i s L a c a n, f or w hom t he unc ons c i ous i s pr i m a r i l y l i ngui s t i c ; t hus i t i s l e a r ne d e xt e r i o r r a t he r t ha n i nt e r i or T he s ym bol i c or de r i m pos e s i t s s t r uc t ur e on t he unc ons c i ous of t he s ubj e c t I n f a c t t he unc ons c i ous i s t he d i s c our s e of t he s ym bo l i c or de r i e t he d i s c our s e of t he bi g O t he r T hus i t ha s t o do w i t h t he r a di c a l a l t e r i t y o f l a ngua ge a nd t he l a w t ha t w hi c h c a nnot be a s s i m i l a t e d by t he s ubj e c t Y e t i t i s t he pl a c e w he r e s pe e c h i s f or m ul a t e d. L a c a n s not i ons of m e m or y a nd know l e dge a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y ge r m a ne t o t he s i gna t ur e T he unc ons c i ous a s m e m or y c ons i s t s of t he s e m a nt i c e vol ut i on o r hi s t or y of t he i ndi vi dua l s s i gni f i e r s D e r r i da s i de a of t he s i g na t ur e s t a nds a s a c or ol l a r y t o L a c a n s unc ons c i ous a s m e m or y. T he s i gna t ur e i s t he i de a of c ont r a c t w i t h t he s ym bol i c or de r i t s e l f I t i s t he m os t e s s e nt i a l c ont r a c t w i t h t he O t h e r L a c a n s i de a of know l e dge s av i or he l ps a r t i c ul a t e t he na t ur e of t h i s c ont r a c t T he un c ons c i ous i s s i m pl y a not h e r na m e f or s ym bol i c know l e dge i ns of a r a s i t i s a n unknow n k now l e dge a know l e dge w hi c h t he s ubj e c t doe s now know he know s ( E va ns 94 ) O u r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h our pr ope r na m e a nd our s i gna t ur e t e nds t o s uf f e r f r om t hi s c ondi t i o n of s av i or M y e xpe r i m e nt i n r e a di ng O l ds a nd C a ge w oul d a s k how t he s t r uc t u r e of i nt e nt i on w or ks i n r e l a t i on t o s i gna t ur e poe t i c s W he n w r i t i ng be c om e s a c ons c i ous a t t e m pt t o ( un) ve i l one s na m e i n one s ( t e xt s ) a bys s t he n w ha t ha ppe ns ? A nd w ha t ha pp e ns w he n s om e one e l s e t r i e s t o do t hi s t o t he t e xt ? L a c a n hi m s e l f us e d t he t e r m s i gna t ur e t o de s i gna t e t he l a ngua ge of de l i r i um s ym pt om a t i c of l a ngua ge be gi nni ng t o s pe a k on i t s ow n. I t i s s av i or ( f r om a nd of t he O t he r ) t a ki ng ove r t he s pe a ki ng a ppa r a t us of t he s ubj e c t G r e g U l m e r go e s i nt o t hi s

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11 L a c a ni a n unde r pi nni ng o f D e r r i da s gl as s t yl e by r e a di ng L a c a n s t hi r d s e m i na r T he P s y c hos e s w hi c h r e vi e w s F r e ud s c a s e s t udy of S c hr e be r a nd hi s s udde n m a dne s s L a c a n s a na l ys i s of t he ps yc hos i s r e vol ve s a r ound i nne r s pe e c h. D e r r i da f a m ous l y t r a ns l a t e d t hi s c onc e r n w i t h i nne r s pe e c h i nt o a c r i t i que of w e s t e r n phi l os ophy. T he uni t y of he a r i ng one s e l f s pe a k a l m os t a l w a ys de f i ne s t he l ogos a nd l ogoc e nt r i s m S c hr e be r s c a s e i s a bout t he l os s of t hi s uni t y. D e r r i da t a ke s up S c hr e be r s ps yc hos i s i n t w o ke y w a ys F i r s t he a dopt s a nd a da pt s S c hr e be r s ow n c a l c ul of t he m ot he r : S c h r e be r t hought he ne e de d t o s a ve t he w or l d by be c om i ng a w om a n a nd be a r i ng G od s c hi l d" ( U l m e r 39 ) S e c ond, D e r r i da s s t yl e i n G l as ow e s m uc h t o t he l i ngui s t i c c ha r a c t e r of S c hr e be r s ha l l uc i na t i ons S c hr e be r de ve l ope d a pe r s e c ut i on pa r a noi a : he be ga n t o he a r G od pe r s e c ut i ng hi m L a c a n s w or k on S c hr e be r t he o r i z e d t he l a ngua ge o f de l i r i um t ha t s e e m s t o f ue l D e r r i da s s t yl e T he r oot l a ngua ge i n w hi c h S c hr e be r he a r d hi m s e l f p e r s e c ut e d by G od i s ke y t o t he pa r a noi d ps yc hos i s U l m e r r e da c t s L a c a n s r e a di ng t hi s w a y: I n hi s ve r ba l ha l l uc i na t i ons t he ps yc hot i c c onf us e s t he i ns i de a nd t he out s i de W ha t he he a r s c om e s t o hi m not f r om hi s e a r s but f r o m t he pr e e xi s t i ng s t r uc t ur e of l a ngua ge . . t hi s s i t ua t i o n gi ve s a c c e s s t o t he gr e a t pa r a dox of unc ons c i ous t hought t ha t F r e ud a t t e m pt e d t o c onc e pt ua l i z e a nd t ha t L a c a n unde r s t a nds a s t he t hi ng t ha t a r t i c ul a t e s i t s e l f i n l a ngua ge [ P s y c hos e s 128] T hi s l a ngua g e w e c oul d c a l l i n t e r i or but t ha t a dj e c t i ve a l r e a dy f a l s i f i e s e ve r yt hi ng T he s o c a l l e d i nt e r i or m onol ogue i s pe r f e c t l y c ont i nuous w i t h e xt e r i o r di a l ogue a nd i t i s j us t f or t hi s r e a s on t ha t w e s a y t ha t t he unc ons c i ous i s a l s o t he di s c our s e of t he O t he r ( P s y 128 ) T h i nki ng i n s hor t t a ke s pl a c e a s m uc h out s i de a s i ns i de t he s ubj e c t w i t h t he pe r m a ne nt m u r m ur of i nne r s pe e c h, pr oduc i ng a n i nm i xi ng of t he s ubj e c t a nd t he s ym bol i c or de r c ons t i t ut i ng a ki nd o f poi s on a ga i ns t w hi c h i t i s t he f unc t i on o f t he e go t o de f e nd I t i s pr e c i s e l y i n t he s pa c e of t he t hi ng t ha t a r t i c ul a t e s i t s e l f i n l a ngua ge t ha t D e r r i da l oc a t e s t he e ve nt of t he s i gna t ur e S c hr e be r s pa r a n oi a pr oduc e d t hi s i nm i xi ng hi s e go

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12 una bl e t o de f e nd a ga i ns t i t A c c or di ng t o U l m e r S c hr e be r he a r d h i m s e l f pe r s e c ut e d by G od i n t he m ode of a va r i e t y of a ge nt s i n a r oot l a ngua ge c ons i s t i ng i n pa r t o f a nt i qua t e d, e uphe m i s t i c G e r m a n, a nd f r a gm e nt e d, i nc om pl e t e phr a s e s ( 39) T hi s l a ngua ge of S c hr e be r s e xe m pl i f i e s w ha t L a c a n l a be l e d s i gna t ur e : c e r t a i n w or ds a c qui r e a s pe c i a l a c c e nt a de ns i t y w hi c h m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f s om e t i m e s i n t he ve r y f or m of t he s i gni f i e r gi vi ng i t a f r a nkl y ne ol ogi s t i c c ha r a c t e r s o s t r i ki ng i n t he pr oduc t i ons of pa r a noi a ( P s y c hos e s 42, qt d. i n U l m e r 45 ) D e r r i d a s i m a ge of t he dr e dge i s o f a m a c hi ne f or p r oduc i ng t hi s k i nd of l a ngua ge : ha l l uc i na t e d i n s om e s e ns e but not ps yc hot i c N o da nge r s t e ppi ng t he r e ( G l as 204 b) 1 I t m a y s e e m t ha t O l ds a nd C a ge a r e a n unl i ke l y pa i r of s ubj e c t s f or t h i s s t udy. T he i r s t yl e s a r e c om pl e t e l y di f f e r e nt T he m a t i c a l l y O l ds of t e n w r i t e s i n a now t r a di t i ona l c onf e s s i ona l m ode H e r f o r m a l m ode i s not unus ua l t he s t a nda r d s hor t l y r i c a l poe m a bout a pa ge i n l e ngt h, e xhi bi t i ng a t ypi c a l f r e e ve r s e C a ge on t he ot he r ha nd a l w a ys pus he s t he l i m i t s of f or m H i s poe m s de f y a l m os t a l l e xpe c t a t i ons f or poe m s T he m a t i c a l l y, t he y of t e n f oc us on t he t e xt s of ot he r w r i t e r s by a ppl yi ng c ha nc e ope r a t i ons t o t hos e t e xt s I n ve r y di f f e r e nt w a ys how e ve r bot h poe t s a r e de e pl y c onc e r ne d w i t h t he unc ons c i ous O l ds c onf e s s i ona l i s m ha s t o be s e e n l a r ge l y a s a w or k of c a t ha r s i s a nd r e de m pt i on. O n t hi s he a di ng, t he s upe r e go p r e s e nt s a n e xc e l l e nt t ool f or r e a di ng he r w or k, e s pe c i a l l y L a c a n s c a ve a t c onc e r ni ng t he ob s c e ne c ha r a c t e r of t he s upe r e go a s i t ha s t o do w i t h s e xua l i t y. P a t r i a r c ha l s t r uc t ur e s o f t he s i gna t ur e a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y t he f a c t t ha t S ha r on O l ds i s na m e d a f t e r he r f a t he r a nd by h e r f a t he r e xi s t t h r ough a nd w i t h t he pa r e nt a l s t r uc t ur e s of t he s upe r e go. T hi s i s s ue i s t h e pr i m a l s c e ne of O l ds poe t r y a nd s he 1 D e r r i d a s s t y l e i n G l a s i s a l s o a b o u t v e r b a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n I n f a c t t h e t h e o r y o f t h e s i g n a t u r e w o r k s o v e r i s s u e s o f p r e s e n c e a n d a b s e n c e v i a t h e m e c h a n i c s o f h a l l u c i n a t i o n W h e n D e r r i d a m a k e s q u a l i f y i n g r e m a r k s a b o u t t a k i n g c h a n c e s t h i s h a l l u c i n a t e d s t y l e i s o f t e n a t s t a k e

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13 t r e a t s i t di r e c t l y C a ge s poe t r y on t he ot he r ha nd, ha s none of t hi s t one T he dyna m i c s of t he obs c e ne s upe r e go pl a y no r ol e i n hi s poe t r y. H ow e ve r C a ge s e xpe r i m e nt a l i s m a l w a ys s e e k s t o e s c a pe t he r e c e i ve d i de a s t ha t gov e r n a e s t he t i c e xpe c t a t i on s B y di s m a nt l i ng t e xt s C a ge ope ns a s pa c e f or nor m a l l y unc ons c i ous pr oc e s s e s t o ope r a t e T hos e pr oc e s s e s be c om e t he ne w f r a m e f o r noni nt e nt i ona l poe t i c e ve nt s a f r a m i ng t ha t pr e ve nt s or a t l e a s t qua l i f i e s t he f o r m a t i on o f ae s t h e t i c s upe r e gos F or C a ge s t yl e i de nt i f i a bl e w i t h t he a ut hor s houl d be c om pl e t e l y e l i m i na t e d. T he m ode r ni s t doc t r i ne s of i m pe r s ona l i t y a nd i nt e nt i ona l i t y a r e pus he d t o e xt r e m e s i n C a ge s t e xt s C a ge s i nt e r t e xt ua l poe m s s e e k out t he a l t e r i t y o f t he i r p r e t e xt s l a r ge l y by r e duc i ng i nt e nt i ona l s t r uc t ur e s of l a ngua ge A l t hough C a ge pr oba bl y w a s n t f a m i l i a r w i t h D e r r i da hi s poe t i c s w oul d t a ke D e r r i da s m i m e t ol ogy, w hi c h I di s c us s be l ow t o t he l i m i t C a ge m a ke s i t ha r d t o c l i ng t o t he pe r s ona l i t y o f t he a ut hor / c om p os e r by s hi f t i ng t he bur de n of a e s t he t i c pr oduc t i on t ow a r d t he r e a de r Y e t C a ge s t e xt s hol d t o t he pr ope r na m e s of t he i r s ubj e c t s O n t he Si gnat ur e : D e r r i da s W or k on P oe t i c s T he s i gna t ur e t he or y of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on dr a w s pr i m a r i l y f r om t w o t e xt s by J a c que s D e r r i da W e ha ve e xpl or e d G l as a l i t t l e b i t I n Si gns ponge D e r r i da t r e a t s t he w or k of F r a nc i s P onge B ot h t e xt s a r e s i gna t ur e s t u di e s A c c or di ng t o G r e gor y U l m e r t he l i t e r a r y na t ur e of t he m e t hod us e d t o c om pos e G l as i s e xpl a i ne d i n gr e a t e s t de t a i l i n Si gns ponge D e r r i da s t e xt on t he na m e F r a nc i s P onge ( S oundi ng 67 ) w he r e i n D e r r i da out l i ne s t h r e e m oda l i t i e s of t he s i gna t ur e M y r e a di ngs of O l ds a nd C a ge de pe nd m os t l y on t he t h i r d m oda l i t y. T he f i r s t of t he s e m oda l i t i e s i s a n or d i na r y s e ns e of t he t e r m s i gna t ur e t he

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14 s e ns e of a ut he nt i c a t i ng t he f a c t t ha t t he s i gne r i s t h e pe r s on w ho i s w r i t i ng. T he s e c ond m oda l i t y, D e r r i da c a l l s a ba na l a nd c onf us e d m e t a phor f or t he f i r s t t he s e t of i di om a t i c m a r ks t ha t a s i gne r m i gh t l e a ve by a c c i de nt or i n t e nt i on i n hi s pr oduc t ( Si gns ponge 54) i n ot he r w or ds t he s t yl e o f a t e x t c ons i de r e d a s a f unc t i on of i t s a ut hor T he t hi r d m oda l i t y i s t he pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t m o m e nt i n t hi s t he or y of t he s i gna t ur e w hi c h D e r r i da f ol l ow s i n hi s ow n s i gna t ur e r e a di ngs t he ge ne r a l s i gna t ur e or s i gna t ur e of t he s i gna t ur e D e r r i da w r i t e s : T hi r dl y a nd i t i s m o r e c om pl i c a t e d he r e w e m a y d e s i gna t e a s ge ne r a l s i gna t ur e or s i gna t ur e of t he s i gna t ur e t he f ol d o f t he pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s w he r e a f t e r t he m a nne r of t he s i gna t ur e i n t he c u r r e nt s e ns e t he w or k o f w r i t i ng de s i gna t e s de s c r i be s a nd i ns c r i be s i t s e l f a s a c t ( a c t i on a nd a r c hi ve ) s i gns i t s e l f be f or e t he e nd by a f f or di n g us t he oppor t un i t y t o r e a d: I r e f e r t o m ys e l f t hi s i s w r i t i ng I a m a w r i t i n g, t hi s i s w r i t i ng w hi c h e xc l u de s not hi ng s i nc e w he n t he pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s s uc c e e ds a nd i s t he r e by de c om pos e d a nd pr oduc e s a n e ve nt i t i s t he ot he r t he t hi ng a s ot he r t ha t s i gns ( S i gns ponge 54) I n t hi s a s pe c t of t he s i gna t ur e t he r e ha s be e n a di s c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he s i gna t ur e a nd t he s i gne r T hi s di s c onne c t a m pl i f i e s a nd pa r t i c ul a r i z e s t he s t r uc t ur a l i s t not i on t ha t t he s i gni f i e r a nd s i gni f i e d onl y a r bi t r a r i l y r e l a t e t o e a c h ot he r L a ngua ge a nd w r i t i ng br i ng t he t e xt ua l e xi s t e nc e of t he s i gna t ur e t o t he f o r e gr o und of a t e xt i n w a ys w hi c h a r e not s t r i c t l y c ont r ol l e d by t he s i gne r w a ys w hi c h a r e ov e r de t e r m i ne d by t he t e xt ua l e nvi r onm e nt w i t hi n w hi c h t he c om pos e r w o r ks a n d t he s i gna t ur e a s s um e s a n ot he r ne s s a n obj e c t ne s s a pa r t f r om t he i de nt i t y of t he s i gne r T he s i gna t ur e be c om e s a ki nd of pr ogr a m w i t hi n i t s e l f T hi s e ve nt c a n be r e a d i n bo t h O l ds a nd C a ge s t e xt s I n O l ds w or k i t i s m os t obvi ous i n t he w a y t he na m e O l ds be gi ns t o t r a ve l a s t he phone m e ol d i n w o r ds l i ke f ol d, c ol d a nd gol d. M or e bl unt l y C a ge us e s t he i m a ge of t he c a ge l i ke a r e bus f or hi s

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15 a e s t he t i c s of r e l e a s e a nd e s c a pe A not he r poi nt t o r e m a r k a bout t hi s pa s s a ge c onc e r ni ng t he t hi r d m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e i s t he us e of he r a l di c t e r m i nol ogy. D e r r i d a e xt e nds t he t e r m s of he r a l dr y a s e m bl e m s f or t he p r oc e s s e s t ha t t he t he or y o f t he s i gna t ur e or ga ni z e s T he t e r m pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s de not e s a s m a l l s hi e l d be a r i ng a c oa t of a r m s or s i m pl y a c oa t of a r m s pl a c e d i n t he c e nt e r o f a l a r ge r s hi e l d or c oa t of a r m s T hi s t he n r e f e r s t o a s t r uc t ur e i n w hi c h t he w hol e i s r e pr e s e nt e d i n m i n i a t ur e i n one of i t s pa r t s ( C om i ng 147 48; qt d i n U l m e r S oundi ng 69 ) U l m e r poi nt s out t ha t D e r r i da ha s a l s o m a de m uc h of t he he r a l di c t e r m bl a z on ( c oa t of a r m s or t he p r ope r m e t hod of de pi c t i ng s uc h s ym bol s ) i n G l as T he P os t C ar d ( 1980) a nd e s pe c i a l l y i n C i nde r s ( 1987) w he r e D e r r i da s ugge s t s t ha t t he punni ng c onne c t i on f r om bl a z on t o bl a z e a nd c i nde r s m a y be f i na l l y t he be s t m e t a phor f or t he t r a c e ( 69) T hus he r a l di c t e r m s c om e t o a r t i c ul a t e a nd e xt e nd t he t he or e t i c a l t hr us t o f D e r r i da s t e xt s a s t he y e m bod y t he s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s t ha t he s e e ks t o a ddr e s s a nd e xe r c i s e A l t hough t he t h r e e m oda l i t i e s of t he s i gna t ur e a r e qui t e di s s i m i l a r D e r r i da s how s t ha t P onge i s a bl e t o f ol d a l l t h r e e i nt o a s i ngl e on e or i n a ny c a s e c om bi ne t he m i n t he s a m e s c e ne f or t he s a m e dr a m a a nd t he s a m e or ga s m D e r r i da s e xpos i t i on of a t e xt ua l e r ot i c s t a ke s on a l i t e r a r y qua l i t y t he m e t a phor ol ogy of t he s i gna t ur e t he or y br a nc he s out i nt o t he dom a i ns of dr a m a s e xua l i t y, a nd de a t h: T h e l a w pr oduc i ng and p r ohi bi t i ng t he s i gna t ur e ( i n t he f i r s t m oda l i t y ) of t he pr ope r na m e i s t ha t by no t l e t t i ng t he s i gna t ur e f a l l out s i de t he t e xt a ny m or e a s a n unde r s i gne d s ubs c r i pt i on, a nd by i ns e r t i ng i t i nt o t he body o f t he t e xt you m onum e nt a l i z e i ns t i t ut e a nd e r e c t i t i nt o a t hi ng o r a s t ony obj e c t but i n do i ng s o, you a l s o l os e t he i de nt i t y, t he t i t l e of ow ne r s hi p ove r t he t e xt : you l e t i t be c om e a m om e nt or a pa r t of t he t e xt a s a t hi ng o r a c om m on noun. T he e r e c t i on t om b f a l l s S t e p a nd s t op of m a n. ( Si gns ponge 56)

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16 P a r t of t he di f f i c ul t y of r e a di ng t hi s pa s s a ge ( e s pe c i a l l y i n t r a ns l a t i on) ha s t o do w i t h t he doubl e ne s s of t he w or d t om be i n t he F r e nc h: t he n oun t om be de not e s gr a ve t om b, or t om bs t one ; t he i nt r a ns i t i ve ve r b t om be r de not e s f a l l i ng ( ove r or dow n) I n a ddi t i on, t he phr a s e t om be r s ur a l s o m e a ns t o c om e t o s om e t op i c c onve r s a t i ona l l y. D e r r i da e xpl oi t s t he s e s e ns e s of t he w or d l e t t i ng t he m i l l us t r a t e t he t e xt ua l e ve nt t ha t r e l a t e s a s i gna t ur e t o a t e xt W r i t i ng i s a ki nd o f de a t h i n w hi c h one s i d e nt i t y, i n s o f a r a s i t ha s t o do w i t h t he pr ope r na m e i s gi ve n ove r t o t he t e xt W he n t he t e xt i s r e a d, t he a bs e nc e of t he w r i t e r c or r e s ponds t o t he a bs e nc e of t he de a d pe r s on a t hi s or he r gr a ve L i ke t he na m e on a t om bs t one t he s i gna t ur e ke e ps l i vi ng on a s l ong a s i t i s r e a d, a nd t he m e m o r y of t he de c e a s e d pe r s on a l s o l i ve s on a c c or di ng t o t he c on s t r a i nt s of t hi s r e a di ng. T he t e xt ua l pr oc e s s e s a r e bound t o t he s i gna t ur e ; t he r e a di ng k e e ps t he s i gna t ur e goi ng a s i f t he a ut hor i s de a d, w he t he r or not he or s he ha s di e d. T hus r e a di ng c ons t i t ut e s a f o r m o f m our ni ng. T he s i gna t ur e f a l l s i nt o t he g r a ve / t e xt a nd i t be c om e s a g r a ve i t s e l f m a r ki ng t he a bs e nc e of t he a ut hor R e a di ng i s a ki nd o f gr a ve vi s i t a t i on. D e r r i da s m e t a phor i c a l c ont e xt ua l i z a t i on of P onge s w r i t i ng i n t he pa s s a ge quot e d a bove s t r e t c he s t he s c e ne of w r i t i ng unt i l i t i l l us t r a t e s w ha t he c a l l s t he doubl e bi nd a nd doubl e ba nd of t he s i gna t ur e t he doubl e m ove m e n t of r i s i ng a nd f a l l i ng r e l a t e d t o t he pr ogr a m m a t i c pr oc e s s e s of l i f e de a t h, a nd, i n pa r t i c ul a r m ou r ni ng. T hi s doubl e m ove m e nt c ons i s t s f i gur a t i ve l y of a de a t h o f t he a ut hor a nd a bi r t h of t he t e xt T he pr ope r na m e i s m onum e nt a l i z e d a s s i gna t ur e e r e c t e d l i ke a t om bs t one but i t i s a l s o l os t gi ve n a w a y w i t h a nd t o t he t e xt A s t he p r ope r na m e be gi ns t o ope r a t e a t t he l e ve l o f c om m on nouns P onge s t e xt s f i gur i ng l i ke s ponge s ( ponge ) f o r i ns t a nc e t he c ount e r s i gna t ur e t a ke s pl a c e t he s i gna t ur e s i gni ng f or i t s e l f D e r r i da s dr a w s e xa m pl e s of t hi s f r om

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17 P onge s t e xt s t o s how t ha t P onge s que e z e s t he s ponge of hi s na m e A c r os s t he e nt i r e c or pus ( 70) F or i ns t a nc e i n T he O r a nge P onge c om pa r e s t he i gnobl e s ponge t o t he or a nge D e r r i da pr e f a c e s hi s r e a di ng of t hi s t e xt by not i ng t ha t i n t he r e bus s i gna t ur e t he m e t o nym i c or a na gr a m m a t i c s i gna t ur e t he t hi ng l os e s or s oi l s t he pr ope r na m e a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y w oul d s oa k up, r e t a i n, a nd hol d t he pr ope r T he n D e r r i da c r us he s t he t w o w or d t hi ngs s ponge a nd or a nge t o ge t t he ge out s o t ha t he c a n pu n t o ob ge t w o ob ge s t w o obj e c t s w hi c h pr e s e nt t he p r obl e m o f de c i di ng be t w e e n t he t w o t hi ngs ( 64 ) T he pr obl e m i s t ha t one of t he t hi ngs t he s ponge a bs or bs t he qua l i t i e s of t he ot he r a nd be c om e s unde c i da bl e i n i t s e l f W hi c h m a ke s D e r r i da ha ppy, be c a us e i t c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he s i gna t ur e e ve nt i t s e l f t he m ove m e nt be t w e e n p r op e r a nd c om m on de not a t i ons of t he w or ds i n t he p r ope r na m e I n T he Se i ne D e r r i da f i nds a t ypi c a l e xa m pl e w he r e t he s ponge r e s i de s f ul l y i n t he a bys s of t he t e xt : S ol i d or pl a s t i c f ul l o f a i r or w a t e r w ha t doe s t he s ponge r e s e m bl e ? A n a ni m a l s w ol l e n w i t h w a t e r i t i s i n e f f e c t a m e dus a Y ou w i l l f i nd t hi s i n T he Se i ne w a t e r s a ys he pr o f oundl y s oi l e d a n d i m pur e a nd di r t i s a l w a ys de t e r m i ne d be t w e e n l i ne n a nd w a t e r Y ou w i l l f i nd t hi s i n T he S e i ne w hi c h a l s o s e t s out t o de s c r i be a s or t of G e ne s i s : . c e r t a i n m a r i ne or ga ni s m s f or e xa m pl e t he m e dus a c ont a i n m or e t ha n ni ne t y pe r c e nt w a t e r . . . T he s ponge i s not na m e d i n t h i s pa s s a ge ( 70, 72) W he n t he s i gna t ur e f a l l s w i t hi n t he t e xt i de nt i t y a nd ow ne r s hi p of t he t e xt i s l os t i n t ha t pa r t i c ul a r s i gni ng but a ny s i gni f i e r t ha t s om e how s ha r e s a n a f f i ni t y w i t h t he pr ope r na m e m a y t he n hol d up t ha t pr ope r na m e bi nd i ng t o i t l i ke a ba nda ge ba ndi ng w i t h i t t o s uppor t or bu t t r e s s i t A l l t he s e s e ns e s a r e ope r a t i ve i n t he F r e nc h w or d bande w hi c h i s a l s o t he F r e nc h t e r m f o r t he m a l e s e xua l e r e c t i on; D e r r i da s us e of t he t e r m bande a nd a c ons t e l l a t i on of r e l a t e d t e r m s a l s o goe s ba c k t o t he que s t i on of t one G l as e s pe c i a l l y,

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18 m ount s a pa r o dy o f pha l l ogoc e nt r i s m w i t h i t s c ons t a nt l y i nf l a t e d doub l e bi nd/ doubl e ba nd. T he t e xt i s c ons t a nt l y s ugge s t i ng ( t ha t i t ha s ) a ha r d on D e r r i da s w or ki ng ove r o f t he pa s s a ge c i t e d f r om T he Se i ne c oul d be c ons i de r e d t he de f i ni ng m o m e nt of hi s poe t i c s A c c or di ng t o R i c ha r d R a nd, t he t e r m pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s a l s o m e a n s t he w a y i n w hi c h t he ope r a t i on s of r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng a r e r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he t e xt a nd i n adv anc e a s i t w e r e of a ny ot he r pos s i bl e r e a di ng. I n w a ys t ha t t he r e a de r c a n ne ve r bypa s s t he r ol e i t s e l f of t he r e a de r i s pe r pe t ua l l y s pe l l e d out be f or e ha nd; a nd i f t he r e a de r e ve r hope s t o c om e f or t h w i t h a ne w r e a di ng he or s he m us t a s a n e s s e nt i a l pr e l i m i na r y r e a d of f t he r e a di ng l e s s on a l r e a dy a t w or k i n t he w or k a t ha nd ( i x) I t i s a s i f t he t e xt p r e s e nt s a s e l f or ga ni z i ng poe t i c s D e r r i da a r gue s i n Si gns ponge t ha t P onge s s ponge r e pr e s e nt s w r i t i ng i t s e l f : A bl e t o hol d ga s e s or l i qui d a l t e r na t i ve l y, t o f i l l i t s e l f w i t h w i nd o r w a t e r t he s ponge i s a bove a l l e l s e w r i t i ng L i ke a l l t hi ngs Y ou w i l l f i s h t hi s t oo, out of T he Se i ne a nd w e s ha l l p r e s e nt l y s e e how i t i s pu t on t he pa ge : . i n s pi t e of t he ve r y c e r t a i n non di s c ont i nui t y be t w e e n t hought a nd i t s ve r ba l e xpr e s s i on, a s be t w e e n ga s e ous a nd l i qui d s t a t e s of m a t t e r t he w r i t t e n t e xt pr e s e nt s s om e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w hi c h r e nde r i t ve r y c l os e t o t he t hi ng s i gni f i e d i n ot he r w or ds t o obj e c t s i n t he e xt e r na l w or l d, m uc h i n t he s a m e w a y t ha t l i qui ds a r e ve r y c l os e t o s ol i ds . T he s ponge i s not na m e d i n t hi s pa s s a ge but a s a n a na l og t o t he m e d us a or t o a ny s t a t e i nt e r m e di a t e be t w e e n a l l s t a t e s a n a na l og i n t hi s r e s pe c t t o t he w r i t t e n t e xt i f i t c a n put i t s e l f i nt o e ve r y s t a t e a nd s e r ve a s a n i nt e r m e di a r y, a n i nt e r c e s s or or a uni ve r s a l w i t ne s s t he s ponge not onl y c ons t i t ut e s t he t e r m of a n a na l ogy ( a l l e gor y o r m e t a phor ) but a l s o c ons t i t ut e s i n a ddi t i on, t he ve r y m e di um of a l l f i gur e s m e t a phor i c i t y i t s e l f ( 70, 72) T he w a y t he t hi ng w or ks de t a c he d f r om t he s i gna t ur e i n t he e ve nt a bys s be c om e s t he m ode l f or w r i t i ng a nd t he e m bl e m of ( P onge s ) po e t i c s T he t hi ng t he s ponge i n t h i s c a s e be gi ns t o m ode l t he pr oc e s s e s of t he t e xt S o c a n a nybody go out a nd f i nd i n t he c or pus e s of our poe t s ubj e c t s t he t hi ng i n a bys s t h a t ha s c om e f r om t he poe t s s i gna t ur e ? A nd t he n r e a d a t he or y o f w r i t i ng m ode l e d i n i t s o pe r a t i ons ? W ha t a r e t he c ha nc e s of

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19 t hi s ? M y r e a di ngs of O l ds a nd C a ge e xpe r i m e nt w i t h t he i r t e xt s i n o r de r t o t e s t D e r r i da s s c i e nc e of c ha nc e ( al e a ) ( 116) W ha t a r e t he c ha nc e s t ha t a pr ope r na m e a s i gna t ur e w i l l s uppl y a t he or y of w r i t i ng or a poe t i c s of t he t e xt t ha t i t w i l l be l oc a t a bl e i n t he a bys s of t hos e t e xt s s ubs c r i be d by t ha t s i gna t ur e a nd t ha t s om e t hi ng pe r t i ne nt c a n be s a i d a bout t he s i gna t or y? M i m e t ol ogy T e xt a s m onum e nt a s t om bs t one m a ke s i t pos s i bl e f o r t he pr ope r na m e o f t he a ut hor t o s ur vi ve or l i ve on I n G l as D e r r i da s t e xt pl a ys w i t h t hi s i de a I n a c om pl e x a na l ogy, D e r r i da l i ke ns hi m s e l f t o a m ot he r or w i f e i n t he c ul t u r a l f unc t i on of m our ne r a t t he f une r a l o f a s on or hus ba nd. D e r r i da de ve l ops t h i s i m a ge by de s c r i bi ng t he w or k o f t he f une r a l m i m e : A s f o r t he s t r a nge ne s s of t he w or d, he r e i s t he e nd of t he t e xt t ha t t hi s ve r y gl as ha s not c e a s e d t o a c c om pa ny, t o e s c or t o r pr e c e de o r be t r a y: W he r e ? I r e a d t ha t R om e but m a ybe m y m e m or y i s de c e i vi n g m e ha d a f une r a l m i m e ? w ha t w a s hi s r ol e ? P r e c e di ng t he c or t e ge he w a s i n c ha r ge of m i m i ng t he m os t i m por t a nt f a c t s i n t he de a d m a n s l i f e w he n he t he de c e a s e d w a s a l i v e ( G l as 259bi ) U l m e r poi nt s ou t t ha t D e r r i da s pr oc e dur e f ol l ow s t ha t o f t he m our ne r a c c om pa nyi ng t he body of t he a ut hor s w or k, m i m i ng i n f i gu r e s hi s c e l e br a t i on or de c e l e br a t i on of t he g r e a t na m e O ne t e xt a c c om pa ni e s a not he r a l ong s i de ( S oundi ng 49 ) T h r ough t h i s ope r a t i on, t he na m e s of H e ge l a nd G e ne t a r e c a r r i e d on, a nd G e ne t s na m e l i ve s on vi a f i gu r e s f r om hi s ow n w r i t i ng, s i gna t ur e f i gu r e s t ha t s e e m a m bi va l e nt t o w a r d hi s m ot he r C a m i l l e G a br i e l l e G e ne t a s D e r r i da r e c i t e s de a t h a nd f une r a l s c e ne s f r om G e ne t s w or ks t ha t i nc l ude m ot he r s a nd, i nva r i a bl y, f l ow e r s ( o ne F r e nc h m e a ni ng of t he w or d ge ne t i s

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20 br oom f l ow e r ) F une r al R i t e s i s r e m a r ke d f or t hi s ( G l as 183b) I n G e ne t s pl a y T he B al c ony i t i s t he M a da m e t he m ot he r of t he gi r l s i n t he br o t he l w ho f e a r s s he w i l l di e be ne a t h a c r us h of f une r a l f l ow e r s ( G l as 48 9b) G e ne t s f i gur e s f i gu r e on a s D e r r i da i nf l a t e s t he l a ngua ge a nd r he t o r i c o f f l ow e r s i nt o a poe t i c s of G l as O ne of D e r r i da s s t r a t e gi e s i n G l as i s t o w r i t e a s i f he w e r e s uc h a f une r a l m i m e m i m i ng not onl y t he m i m e but a l s o t he m o t he r w h o a c c om pa ni e s he r hu s ba nd s body i n t he f une r a l p r oc e s s i on. H e ge l s a w t hi s a s pa r t o f t h e m a r r i a ge c ont r a c t ; i t i s t he dut y of t he w i f e t o w r i t e t he na m e of t he hus ba nd i n s t one t o s a ve t he na m e e nt r us t i ng he r w i t h hi s de a t h ( G l as 143a ) T hi s i s a ve r y G e ne t i a n a c t i vi t y: G e ne t i s a l w a ys w r i t i ng a bout w om e n w ho a r e c ount e r f e i t s i e t r a ns ve s t i t e s T he c ha r a c t e r D i vi ne i n O ur L ady of t he F l ow e r s i s t he m os t f a m ous e xa m pl e S o D e r r i da m a ke s i t a pr e t e ns e t o w r i t e a bout hi m s e l f a s i f he w e r e ( m i m i ng ) a w o m a n. T hi s i s t he c a l c ul or r us e of t he m ot he r S i l e nt l y, i n Si gns ponge D e r r i da w o r ks t hi s s t r a t e g y by r e t r a c i ng P onge s pl a y on pl a nt m i m e s i s f or w hi c h t he M i m os a i s na m e d. T he pl a nt c ont r a c t s w he n t ouc he d. T he a ppe a r a nc e of t hi s a c t i on i s l i ke t he g r i m a c e of a m i m e ; he nc e M i m os a s e t ym ol ogy ( 136 8) D e r r i da l i nks t hi s c ont r a c t i on w i t h t he P o ngi a n s i gna t ur e ( or c ont r a c t ) vi a t he s que e z i ng of t he s ponge P r e pa r e t o s c ow l or s m i l e : M i m os a i s a l s o one of G e ne t s t r a ns ve s t i t e s T he s i l e nc e of t he m i m e a l s o pl e a s e s D e r r i da be c a us e i t goe s ba c k t o a m ove m e nt be t w e e n w r i t i ng a nd s pe e c h. T he f a l l f r om s pe e c h t o w r i t i ng i s a ki nd of de a t h, a s i l e nc i ng of t he s pe a ke r a s i l e nc e t ha t f ol l ow s t h e de a t h kne l l a nd w hi c h t he de a t h kne l l a nnounc e s

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21 P oe t i c s and I m pe r s onal i t y S i gna t u r e t he or y t e nds t o pe r f or m i t s ow n f or m a l d i s r upt i ons or s t r uc t ur a l di s t ur ba nc e s s i nc e t he f or m a l qua l i t i e s w e w oul d l i ke t o c odi f y a r e s o r e a di l y di s r upt e d by pr ope r na m e s a l l ow e d t o be ha ve i m p r ope r l y w hi c h i s w ha t ha ppe ns i n t he t hi r d m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e I nde e d, t he t he or y i s de s i gne d t o l e t t he F r e udi a n L a c a ni a n unc ons c i ous be he a r d. I n t hi s r e ga r d D e r r i da s w o r k r e l a t e s t o t he w or k of t he c onc r e t e poe t s s ur r e a l i s t s a nd ot he r a va nt ga r de a r t i s t s w ho put i nt o a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e t he i ns i ght s of F r e ud a nd t he ps yc hoa na l ys t s B ut i t a l s o e na c t s a n i m pe r s ona l i t y t he or y a s w e l l T he m ode r ni s t t he o r i e s a nd poe t i c s of i m pe r s ona l i t y, a t t he he a r t o f t he c r i t i c i s m a nd poe t r y of P ound a nd E l i ot a r e i l l um i na t e d by D e r r i da s not i on t ha t H e ge l di d not w a nt t o s i gn hi s t e xt : H e ge l pr e s e nt s hi m s e l f a s a phi l os ophe r or a t hi nke r s om e one w ho c ons t a nt l y t e l l s you t ha t hi s e m pi r i c a l s i gna t ur e t he s i gna t ur e of t he i ndi v i dua l na m e d H e ge l i s s e c onda r y. H i s s i gna t ur e t ha t i s pa l e s i n t he f a c e of t r ut h, w hi c h s pe a ks t hr ough hi s m out h w hi c h i s pr oduc e d i n hi s t e xt w hi c h c ons t r uc t s t he s ys t e m i t c ons t r uc t s T hi s s ys t e m i s t he t e l e ol ogi c a l ou t c om e of a l l of W e s t e r n e xpe r i e nc e s o t ha t i n t he e nd H e ge l t he i ndi vi dua l i s no t hi ng but a n e m pi r i c a l s he l l w hi c h c a n f a l l a w a y w i t hout s ubt r a c t i ng f r om t he t r ut h o r f r om t he hi s t or y of m e a ni ng. A s a phi l os ophe r a nd a s a t e a c he r he s e e m s t o be s a yi ng ba s i c a l l y t ha t not on l y i s i t pos s i bl e f or hi s s i gna t ur e a nd hi s p r ope r na m e t o di s a ppe a r w i t hout a l os s t o f a l l out s i de of t he s ys t e m bu t t ha t t hi s i s e ve n ne c e s s a r y i n hi s ow n s ys t e m be c a us e i t w i l l pr ove t he t r ut h a nd t he a ut onom y o f t ha t s ys t e m . . Y e t i n f a c t H e ge l s i gns ( E ar 56) T he de ni a l of pe r s ona l i t y a s a c ondi t i on o f t r u t h i s one of t hos e r e c ur r i ng a xi om s o f oc c i de nt a l t hought t ha t ha ve be e n i nt e r r oga t e d a ga i n, t hi s t i m e by pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m O f c our s e t hi s de ni a l s c onf us e d a nd pa r a doxi c a l m a n i f e s t a t i ons i n hi gh m ode r ni s t i de a s of i m pe r s ona l i t y s e t t he s t a ge f or pos t m ode r n r e ve r s a l s S ym pt om a t i c a l l y, one c onc e r n of N e w C r i t i c i s m w a s t o e a r n t he poe t i c t e xt a ut onom y f r om t he e m pi r i c a l de s i r e s of c om pos e r s a nd r e a de r s T he N e w P r i nc e t on E nc y c l ope di a of P oe t r y and P oe t i c s ( 1993)

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22 w hi c h s e e m s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a n i nf l ue nt i a l a nd s t i l l w i de l y c i t e d vi e w of m ode r ni s m a r gue s t ha t t he N e w C r i t i c s na r r ow e d Y e a t s a nd E l i ot t o t he i r s e l f do ubt s a nd [ by ] vi r t ua l l y i gno r i ng S t e ve ns W i l l i a m s a nd P ound, . t r a ns l a t e d t he m ode r ni s t de s i r e t o ha ve a r t pr oduc e d i r e c t t e s t i m ony t o va l ue s i nt o a n a c c ount of a e s t he t i c e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h s ubor di na t e d e ve r yt hi ng t o t he e xpos ur e of i nt e r na l i r oni e s a nd pa r a doxe s M ode r ni s m t he n be c a m e t r a gi c r e s i gna t i on t o t he f a i l ur e s of E n l i ght e nm e nt opt i m i s m ( 794 ) T he e nt i r e e nt r y on M ode r ni s m a nd P os t m ode r ni s m i n t he N P E P P o r bi t s t he i s s ue of i m pe r s ona l i t y, de s c r i bi ng t he va r i ous s t a ge s of pos t m ode r ni s m a s m ovi ng a w a y f r om a nd ba c k t ow a r d t he s e ns e of pe r s ona l i m m e di a c y. M ode r ni s t c onc e pt ua l i z a t i ons of i m pe r s ona l i t y pr o ba bl y f i nd t he i r m os t i m m e di a t e c or ol l a r i e s i n t he pr ob l e m a t i c of t he s ub j e c t w hi c h pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m e nt w i ne s w i t h i t s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c t he m e s pe r s pe c t i vi s m bi na r i s m pr e s e nc e ge ne a l ogi c a l na r r a t i ve vs ont ol ogy, pow e r / know l e dge i de ol ogi c a l dom i n a t i on, e t c M a r xi s t F r e udi a n, N i e t z s c he a n a nd f e m i ni s t c r i t i c s a l l e nga ge t he p r o bl e m a t i c s of t he s ubj e c t j us t a s t he y us e t he t e c hni que s of de c ons t r uc t i on now a da ys a nd s e l f r e f l e xi vi t y c onc e r ni ng t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he w r i t i ng s ubj e c t c ons t i t ut e s one of t he c ha l l e nge s of w r i t i ng unde r t he s i gn of de c ons t r uc t i on. F or i ns t a nc e w h e n G i l l e s D e l e uz e a nd F l i x G ua t t a r i s t r e s s t he c onc e pt of be c om i ng, a N i e t z s c he a n pr ogr a m t he y i nvoke a p r obl e m a t i c s of s ubj e c t i vi t y s i m i l a r t o t ha t of m ode r ni s t i m pe r s ona l i t y O ne o f D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s c e nt r a l c onc e pt s t he B w O body w i t hout o r ga ns or r e c e i ve d or ga ni z a t i on i s s om e t hi ng l i ke i m pe r s ona l i t y i f w e unde r s t a nd t he o r ga ni z a t i on of t he body a s t he phys i c a l / e m ot i ona l e nc odi ng of s t a t e / oe di pa l i de ol ogy. B y w a y o f c ont r a s t w i t h D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i E l i ot s c onc e pt of t he s ynt he t i c e m ot i on w h i c h he e l a bor a t e s i n T r a di t i on a nd t he I ndi vi dua l

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23 T a l e nt w oul d t r a ns m ut e pos s i bl y dur i ng t he pr oc e s s of c om pos i t i on, t he d r os s of pe r s ona l e m ot i ons i nt o t he poe t i c r e pr e s e nt a t i on o f r e f i ne d o r pu r e e m ot i ons ( r e pr e s e nt a t i on s a nc t i one d by pr ope r poe t i c t r a di t i o n) D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i i ns t e a d, i m pl i c i t l y a nd s e l f r e f l e xi ve l y pos i t i on t he c onc e pt of t he B w O s o t ha t i t c a nnot f unc t i on a s a n i de a l l i ke t he i de a l o f a p r ope r poe t i c t r a di t i o n, t ha t w oul d ul t i m a t e l y r e pr oduc e t he pow e r f or m a t i ons o f i de ol ogy w hi c h t he c onc e pt s t r a t e gi c a l l y oppos e s I n t h i s s e ns e t he B w O w oul d be j us t t he body e s c a pi ng pow e r H e n c e D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i do not a l l ow t he i r t he or i z a t i on t o c l os e on t he c e r t a i nt y or t r ut h of c onc e pt s nor do t he y i de nt i f y t he i r s t a ndpoi nt a s t ha t of t he B w O B ut f or E l i o t a goo d poe t o r hi s t e xt i s s om e t hi ng l i ke a B w O a body t ha t ha s t r a ns c e nde d t he i de ol ogi c a l e nc odi ng a nd e m ot i ona l o r ga ni z a t i on t ha t r e pr oduc e s t he o r de r o f t he s t a t e w i t h i n t he s ubj e c t a nd of c our s e E l i ot i s a good poe t T he f a c t t ha t E l i ot s t he or i z a t i ons m i ght be gi n t o r e a d a c e r t a i n a l t e r i t y w i t h i n t he poe t hi m s e l f i s obs c ur e d by t he f a c t t ha t E l i ot s b i n a r i s m i s s t r i c t l y hi e r a r c hi c a l pr i vi l e gi ng one ha l f o f t he oppos i t i on unque s t i oni n gl y a nd pos i t i ng a s i ngl e i de a l t r a di t i on, how e ve r he t e r oge ne ous t ha t t r a di t i on o f r e a di ng by va r i ous gr e a t poe t s m a y be U nl i ke D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i D e r r i da a nd L a c a n a r e m or e di r e c t l y i nve s t e d i n t he s t r uc t ur a l i s t i nve s t i ga t i on of l a ngua ge Y e t a l l t hr e e pr oj e c t s a r e s i m i l a r i n s om e w a ys G e of f r e y H a r t m a n s e xpl a na t i on of how L a c a n a nd D e r r i da s i m i l a r l y a ppr oa c h t he pos i t i oni ng of t he s ubj e c t w i t hi n l a ngua ge m a y a l s o s e r ve t o m a p t he m ont o t he c onc e pt ua l t opogr a phy of t he B w O : D i d F r e ud r e a l l y s uc c e e d i n us he r i ng i n a n e r a of de c onve r s i on or of pu r e l y ps yc hol ogi c a l m a n ? W i t h L a c a n i n pa r t i c ul a r t h e pr oj e c t of ps yc hoa na l ys i s i s not onl y i nvol ve d i n w ha t t he r e l a t i on of a na l ys t a n d a na l ys a nd m a y m e a n f or t he or de r of di s c our s e e a c h e m bodi e s j us t a s D e r r i da i n G l as e xpl or e s s i m ul t a ne ous l y t he que s t i on of a r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he pa t e r na l di s c our s e of a m a gi s t e r l udi c a l l e d H e ge l a nd t he t hi e vi s h, m a t e r n a l c a l c ul us r e ve a l e d by

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24 G e ne t L a c a n s pr oj e c t i s not on l y t hi s s e ns i t i ve e x pl or a t i on of t he pow e r r e l a t i ons be t w e e n c ode s or i di om s w i t hi n l a ngua ge ; i t i s a l s o a n a t t e m pt t o r e s t r uc t ur e t he m i n or de r t o bui l d a ne w c om m uni t a r i a n m ode l on t h e ba s i s of ps yc hi a t r i c e xpe r i e nc e ( Sav i ng 98 ) I n i t s ( de ) c e l e br a t i on of s i ngul a r i t y t he t he or y o f t he s i gna t ur e r e s e m bl e s t he c onc e pt of t he B w O W he r e D & G s e e t he pos s i bi l i t y of t he w ol f pa c k a s a m ode l f or c om m un i t y a m ong B w O s ( i n a ki nd of s i gna t ur e r e a di ng of V i r gi ni a W ool f ) D e r r i da c a n br i ng G e ne t a nd H e ge l t oge t he r i n a t e xt ua l c om m uni t y t ha t c e l e br a t e s t he t w o s i gna t ur e s s i m ul t a ne ous l y by l i s t e ni ng t o t he pl a y of t he i r na m e s i n t he i r t e xt s w i t h a ps yc hoa na l yt i c e a r A t f i r s t g l a nc e O l ds a nd C a ge s e e m a bout a s f a r a pa r t a s G e ne t a nd H e ge l B ut m y s t udy i s not a bout pi t t i ng l i t e r a t u r e a ga i ns t phi l os ophy. R a t he r I t r y t o r e a d O l ds a nd C a ge t he w a y D e r r i da r e a ds P onge W he n D e r r i da r e a ds H e ge l / G e ne t t hi s w a y, vi a s i gna t ur e t he or y, t he r a m i f i c a t i ons a r e g r e a t be c a us e H e ge l i s one of t he m os t i m por t a nt phi l os ophe r s i n t he W e s t e r n t r a di t i on, a nd D e r r i da s r e a di ng e xpos e s hi s ba c ks i de W he n he r e a ds P onge t hi s w a y, a c a de m i c s t yl e a nd i t s r e l a t i on t o poe t i c s i s t he i s s ue A c c or di ng t o G e of f r e y H a r t m a n, t he s i gna t ur e p r oj e c t of G l as a i m s a t a m ong ot he r t hi ngs a c om m e nt a r y s t yl e t ha t e s c he w s a l l a l l e gor e s i s a l l i de ol ogi z i ng m ove s : i t r e s i s t [ s ] be i ng i n t he s e r vi c e of pol i t i c a l pow e r ( xxv ) T o w r i t e s om e t hi ng i m pos s i bl e t o c o opt w oul d r e qui r e a n i m pos s i bl e di s c our s e I don t e ve n p r e t e nd t o t hi s k i nd of r i go r i n m y c om m e nt a r y on C a ge a nd O l ds I t hi nk o f m y w or k he r e a s pr e l i m i na r y, a c ha nc e t o e xpl or e t he l i t e r a r y t e c hni que s w hi c h D e r r i da e m pl oys t o r e a d P onge a s a pr e pa r a t i on f or r e a di ng G l a s A nd m or e i m por t a nt l y a s a n e xpe r i m e nt i n l i t e r a r y s t yl e : t o be gi n t o t r y t o w r i t e w i t h t he poe t s T he f i r s t a nd f o r e m os t of t he s e pr ot oc ol s w oul d be t o s ubm i t t o t he l a w o f t he

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25 s i gna t ur e D e r r i da s a ys he ought t o s ubm i t t o t he l a w of hi s na m e [ P onge s ] ( Si gns ponge 18) T he r e i s a n ought he r e f o r s e ve r a l r e a s ons F i r s t how c oul d a t e xt s i gne d by D e r r i da s ubm i t t o a P ongi a n l a w of s i gni ng? A s p e r t he f i r s t m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e P onge w oul d not s i gn D e r r i da s t e xt E v e n i f he di d, he w oul d ha ve t o s i gn be hi nd D e r r i da S e c ond, w ha t s or t o f r us e w oul d e na bl e t he l a w of F r a nc i s P onge i n i t s unc ons c i ous a c t i on a s w e l l a s i t s m a ni f e s t a s pe c t s t o be m a de e xpl i c i t I f D e r r i da c a n r e pr oduc e t he F r a nc i s P onge t e xt ua l e ve nt how c a n t he unc ons c i ous a s pe c t s of i t be c e r t i f i e d? I l l s t op t he r e : ar r t l a w P r ot oc ol T o s um up t hi s l i m i t e d a nd br i e f i nve s t i ga t i on o f D e r r i da s s i gna t ur e poe t i c s I p r e s e nt a f e w r ul e s T he y t e nd t o ove r l a p a nd pa r t of t he gl as e f f e c t i s t o he a p t he m up on e a c h ot he r I n t he w a y of t he pun, punni ng i s pr oba bl y t he m a i n r ul e o f D e r r i da s s i gna t ur e t e xt s I n P r ove r b: H e t ha t w oul d pun . D e r r i da r e m a r ks t ha t G l a s i s a n a na l ys i s of t he pun, a l t hough by de f i ni t i on a pun m us t not be a bs ol ut e l y c ont r ol l a bl e a nd s ubj e c t t o t he c e ns or s hi p of r a t i ona l c ons c i ous ne s s a nd i t s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s ( 18) P uns ope n on t he unc ons c i ous a nd G l as bu i l ds up a va s t ne t w or k o f punni ng a s s oc i a t i ons A s s uc h, i t s pr ot oc ol s a r e vi ol a t i ons of pr ot oc ol A nd ye t t he r e i s pl e nt y of gl ue e xc e s s i ve gl ue t o hol d i t t oge t he r : pr ot oc ol m e a ns f i r s t gl u e F or f un a nd e xc e s s i n t he s t yl e o f D e r r i da he r e i s s om e o f t he O E D e nt r y on pr ot oc ol : [ E a r l y m od. E pr ot hoc ol l a O F pr ot hoc ol e ( a 120 0 i n G ode f C om pl ) pr ot he c ol l e m od. F pr ot oc ol e ( = P r ov pr ot hc ol l e I t pr ot oc ol l o S p pr ot oc ol o ) a d. m e d. L pr t oc ol l um a d. G r t he f i r s t l e a f of a vol um e a f l y l e a f gl ue d t o t he c a s e a nd c ont a i ni ng a n a c c ount of t he M S f P R O T O f i r s t + gl ue T he hi s t or y of t he s e ns e de ve l opm e nt of t hi s w o r d be l ongs t o m e di va l L a t i n a nd t he R om a ni c l a ngua ge s e s p. F r e nc h; i n t he

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26 l a t t e r i t ha s r e c e i ve d ve r y c ons i de r a bl e e xt e ns i ons of m e a ni ng: s e e D u C a nge C ot gr L i t t r H a t z D a r m e t c T h e w or d doe s not a ppe a r t o ha ve a t a ny t i m e f or m e d pa r t o f t he E ngl i s h l e ga l voc a bul a r y; i n S c f r om 16t hc pr oba bl y unde r F r e nc h i n f l ue nc e ; ot he r w i s e us e d o nl y i n r e f e r e nc e t o f or e i gn c ount r i e s a nd t he i r i ns t i t ut i ons a nd a s a r e c ogni z e d t e r m of i nt e r na t i o na l di pl om a c y i n s e ns e 2, unt i l i t s c om pa r a t i ve l y r e c e nt e nt r y i nt o t he ge ne r a l voc a bul a r y of E ngl i s h i n s e ns e s 5b, c ] 1 a T he or i gi na l not e o r m i nut e of a t r a ns a c t i on ne got i a t i on a gr e e m e nt or t he l i ke dr a w n up by a r e c ogni z e d p ubl i c of f i c i a l n ot a r y e t c a nd dul y a t t e s t e d, w hi c h f or m s t he l e ga l a ut hor i t y f or a ny s ubs e que nt de e d, a gr e e m e nt o r t he l i ke ba s e d on i t ; s om e t i m e s a ppl i e d t o a book or r e gi s t e r i n w hi c h t he s e w e r e w r i t t e n by t he of f i c i a l c onc e r ne d, a s t he y w e r e dr a w n up by hi m ; = pr ot o c ol book : s e e 7 ( obs ) I n t he pa r t s o f t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a c qui r e d f r om M e xi c o, t he na m e i s u s e d f or t he o r i gi na l r e c or d of a gr a nt t r a ns f e r e t c o f l a nd; unde r t he S pa ni s h l a w t hi s w a s a n e nt r y m a de i n hi s book by t he o f f i c i a l r e c or de r o f s uc h t r a ns a c t i ons . . . . . . . 1726 A Y L I F F E P ar e r gon 304 A n O r i gi na l i s i n ot he r T e r m s s t i l e d t he P r ot oc ol or Sc r i pt ur a M a t r i x ; a nd i f t he P r ot oc ol w hi c h i s t he R oot a nd F ounda t i on of t he I ns t r um e nt doe s not a ppe a r t he I ns t r um e nt i s not va l i d. . . . . . . . 2 a s pe c T he or i g i na l dr a ught m i nut e o r r e c or d of a di s pa t c h, de c l a r a t i on, ne got i a t i on t r e a t y s t i pul a t i on or ot he r di pl om a t i c doc um e nt or i ns t r um e nt ; e s p. a r e c or d of t he p r opos i t i ons a gr e e d t o i n a c onf e r e nc e s i gne d by t he pa r t i e s t o be e m bodi e d i n a f o r m a l t r e a t y. . . . . . . . b t r ans f ( f am i l i ar ) A pr e a m bl e a p r e l i m i na r y 1897 M R S R A Y N E R T y pe w r i t e r G i r l xi 126 W he n a l l pr ot oc ol s w e r e s e t t l e d he w e nt on, C a n you c om e i n a t onc e ? c [ I n G r s e ns e ] T he f i r s t s he e t of a r ol l of pa py r us be a r i ng t he m a nuf a c t ur e r 's of f i c i a l m a r k; t hi s m a r k i t s e l f . . . . . . . e P hi l os A s t a t e m e nt w hi c h f or m s a n e s s e nt i a l pa r t of a pe r s on's de s c r i pt i on of s om e t hi ng e xpe r i e nc e d or pe r c e i ve d ; a ba s i c s t a t e m e nt t ha t c a n be ve r i f i e d o r a s s e s s e d. . . . . . . 3 A f or m a l or o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e nt of a t r a ns a c t i o n or p r oc e e di ng; s pe c t he de t a i l e d r e c or d of t he pr oc e dur e a nd r e s ul t s i n a s c i e nt i f i c e xpe r i m e nt ; he nc e e xpe r i m e nt a l pr oc e dur e . . . . . . . 4 A n o f f i c i a l of pol i c e i n s om e f or e i gn c ount r i e s 1865 B A R I N G G O U L D W e r e w ol v e s xi v, W he n t a ke n be f or e t he P r ot okol l a t D a bkow 5 a I n F r a nc e T he f or m u l a r y o f t he e t i que t t e t o be obs e r ve d by t he H e a d of t he S t a t e i n o f f i c i a l c e r e m oni e s r e l a t i ons w i t h a m ba s s a dor s f or e i gn s ove r e i gns e t c ; t he e t i que t t e de pa r t m e nt o f t he M i ni s t r y of

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27 F or e i gn A f f a i r s ; t he o f f i c e o f t he M a s t e r of t he C e r e m oni e s A l s o us e d of a na l ogous de pa r t m e nt s i n ot he r c ount r i e s . . . . . . . . b A n of f i c i a l f or m of pr oc e dur e a nd e t i que t t e i n a f f a i r s o f s t a t e a nd di pl om a t i c r e l a t i ons ; t he obs e r va nc e of t hi s . . . . . . . . c I n e xt e nde d a nd ge ne r a l us e s a ny c ode of c onve nt i ona l or p r ope r c onduc t ; f or m a l l y c or r e c t be ha vi ou r p r ot oc ol n A dd: [ 5. ] d C om put i ng a nd T e l e c om m uni c at i o ns A ( us u. s t a nda r di z e d) s e t of r u l e s gove r ni ng t he e xc ha nge of da t a be t w e e n gi ve n de vi c e s or i t s t r a ns m i s s i on vi a a gi ve n c om m uni c a t i ons c ha nne l I i nc l ude t hi s l ong de f i ni t i on f r om t he O E D a s a m e a ns of obs e r vi ng D e r r i da s pr ot oc ol i n G l as T he t w o c ol um ns of G l a s of t e n ha ve s uc h de f i ni t i ons t a t t ooe d i nt o t he m D e r r i da c a l l s t he m j uda s e s be c a u s e t he y be t r a y t he w or ds t he y de f i ne e xpos i ng t he m a s i t w e r e M y pl a n he r e i s t o be t r a y m y pr ot oc ol s A s p e r D e r r i da s i ns t r uc t i ons f or a s c i e nc e of t he s i gna t ur e i n Si gns ponge I ha ve t r i e d t o ge t b us y w i t h m y ow n na m e i n t hi s t e xt : F or m e F r a nc i s P onge i s s om e one f i r s t of a l l w ho ha s know n t ha t i n o r de r t o know w ha t goe s on i n t he na m e a nd t he t hi ng, one ha s t o ge t bus y w i t h one s ow n l e t one s e l f be oc c upi e d by i t ( 26) I ha ve l a w s i n m y na m e : bu t t he y r un ba c kw a r d l i ke w al l s T he r e t l aw ha s t o do w i t h t he pr oduc t i on of l i ne n. T o r e t i s t o s e a s on f l a x ( or w ood) by s oa ki ng i t i n w a t e r i n pr e pa r a t i on f o r w e a vi ng. A nd t hi s i s a n al t e r at i on of t he m a t e r i a l s by m e a ns of w at e r i t s e l f a s i m pl e a l t e r a t i on of m y na m e M y s i gl um w e l l i t s W E L T he r e i s w a t e r i n t he w e l l a nd w e ( t he r oya l W E ) w e c oul d t h r ow t he f l a x or he m p i n t o r e t but r unni ng w a t e r i s be t t e r f o r s oa ki ng ( o r e t ym ol ogi c a l l y, r ot t i ng) t h e f l a x. B ut t he r e a r e t w o l a w s t w o pr ot oc ol s t w o c ops T he l a w of t he pa t r ony m w oul d s t a nd i n l i e u of t he ot he r i n pl a c e of t he ot he r T hi s pl a c e w i t h i t s doubl e l a w i s m y e x f or t he s upe r e go f i gur e s I a na l yz e he r e i n t hi s t e xt : t he good c op ba d c op na t ur e of t he s upe r e go t he f i gur e of c ons c i e nc e a nd

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2 8 i t s obs c e ne doubl e T hi s doubl e l a w r e t u r ns a l r e a d y ( de j a ) i n m y s i gna t ur e B ut w he r e i s t he e t i que t t e t he pr ot oc ol ? W he r e i s t he a gr e e m e nt pr oduc e d be f or e ha nd, t he ( e l e c t r on i c ) ha nds ha ke or t he f l y l e a f gl ue d i nt o t he be gi nni ng of t he s e r e a di ngs ? D oe s t hi s t e xt ha ve a pr ot oc ol ? A f t e r D e r r i da i t ha s t o do w i t h t he G L e f f e c t a s i n t he s l i ppa ge f r o m gl as t o gl ue B y a c c r e t i on, he r e i s a l i s t o f t he pr i m a r y r e a di ng pr ot oc ol s I t a ke f r om t hi s w a t e r e d dow n l ook a t J D s t he or y. 7. T r e a t O l ds a nd C a ge s t e xt s a s bl a z ons 8. R e a d f or a nt honom a s i a D e r r i da s ne ol ogi s m c om bi ni ng t he w or ds a nt hol ogy a nd a nt onom a s i a ( t he t r ope o f us i ng p r o pe r nouns a s c om m on nouns a nd vi c e ve r s a ) 9. L ook f o r ( a nd pr a c t i c e ) hypogr a m a nd a na gr a m 10. T r a c e t he pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s 11. P os t de a t h of t he a ut ho r r e a d a nd w r i t e f o r a nd a s i f m our ni ng 12. E a t t he p r ope r na m e s c ont i nui ng w ha t e ve r e nc r ypt i on of t he l e t t e r s c a n a l r e a dy be r e a d. N um be r 6 i s t he ke y t o put t i ng t h e s e r ul e s t oge t he r R e c a l l D e r r i da s dr e dge i m a ge di s c us s e d ne a r t he be gi nni ng o f t hi s c ha pt e r T he b uc ke t de s c r i be d a s a t oot he d m a t r i x, s c r a pe s t he bot t om of t he s e a t he m o t he r { m e r }. I n t he pa s s a ge t hi s i s ha ppe ni ng t o H e ge l O ne s t r a t e gi c a i m of t he g l as e f f e c t or G l e f f e c t i s t he di s s e m i na t i on of H e ge l s na m e t he unna m i ng of H e ge l ( a nd G e ne t a s w e ha ve s e e n) N ot e f i r s t t ha t t he ge ne r a t i ve gr a m m a r of G e ne t i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a r gl e ( r ul e ) r hym i ng w i t h H e ge l S e c ond, i n t he i m a ge D e r r i da s i t s i n a gl a s s box: F r om t he di s s i m ul a t e d, s m a l l c l os e d, gl a s s e d i n c a bi n of a c r a ne I m a ni pul a t e s om e l e ve r s a nd, . I pl unge a m out h of s t e e l i n t he w a t e r E nc a s e d i n gl a s s D e r r i da c a n ba r e l y h e a r t he noi s e of t he w a t e r be l ow A m ong t he bi t s ( m o r c e aux ) of c he w e d m a t e r i a l t ha t t he buc ke t bi t e s ( m or d ) t he r e i s s om e a l ga e i n w hi c h t he g l a i s m i xe d up. E a r l y i n t he t e xt r e a de r s a r e w a r ne d a bout t hi s r ot t i ng o f l a ngua ge : F o r t he f i r s t a nd l a s t t i m e a nd a s a n e xa m pl e he r e you a r e a s i f

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29 f or e w a r n e d by t hi s t e xt o f w ha t c l a c ks he r e a nd de c om pos e s t he c a da ve r of t he w or d ( ba l c t a l c a l ga c l a t t e r [ c l at ] gl a s s e t c ) i n e ve r y s e ns e ( 3bi ) T he gl e f f e c t i s a l w a ys a bout t he e nd o f H e ge l s na m e t he s yl l a bl e ge l s hor t e ne d t o gl a t l e a s t unt i l t h a t f a c t i s f or got t e n. T he gl e f f e c t put s S c hr e be r s l i ngui s t i c de l i r i um i n pl a y, e na bl i ng D e r r i da t o he a r hi m s e l f c r a c k or c l a c k l a ngua ge a nd t he n gl ue i t ba c k t oge t he r D e r r i da hi nt s a t t hi s i n hi s de s c r i pt i on of G l as t w o c ol um n s t r uc t ur e : A di al e c t i c s on one s i de a gal ac t i c s on t he ot he r he t e r oge ne ous a nd ye t i ndi s c e r ni bl e i n t h e i r e f f e c t s a t t i m e s up t o ha l l uc i na t i on ( qt d. i n L e a ve y 28) I c hos e t he f i gu r e of e a t i ng t he na m e s of t he s i gna t ur e f r om a m ong D e r r i da s va r i ous m e t a phor s f o r t hi s p r oc e s s be c a us e I t hi nk i t goe s w e l l w i t h t he ha l l uc i na t e d c a l c ul o f t he m ot he r P a r t of t he ga l a c t i c s of c our s e ha s t o do w i t h br e a s t s : D e r r i da us e s t he obs ol e t e w or d s e i ng w hi c h m e a ns bot h br e a s t a nd s i gna t ur e t o c onne c t t he e a t i ng of t he body of t he m ot he r w i t h t he e a t i ng of t he s i gna t ur e T he poe t i c s of t he m ot he r t he i m a ge o f t he w om b, r e qui r e s t he ongoi ng di ge s t i on o f l a ngua ge t o be gi n t he pr oc e s s of bi r t hi ng a nd nur s i ng t he ne w t e xt T he c he w i ng of l a ngua ge a l s o t a ke s t he t he or y of t he s i gna t ur e dow n t o t he l e ve l of t he l e t t e r F or L a c a n, t he l e t t e r i s t ha t w hi c h r e t u r ns a nd r e pe a t s i t s e l f i ns i s t e nt l y i ns c r i bi ng a nd r e i ns c r i bi ng i t s e l f i n t he s ubj e c t s l i f e D e r r i da pl a ys a t t h i s w i t h t he gl a nd ot he r s i gl a T he c ondi t i on of s av i or ope r a t e s i n t he a c t i on of t he l e t t e r w hi c h f or L a c a n l i nks t he de s t i ny of t he s ubj e c t t o t he l e t t e r or c r y pt ogr a m a nd i t s de c r ypt i on or de c i phe r m e nt ( c r i t s 160) I n t he f a m ous di s put e b e t w e e n L a c a n a nd D e r r i da D e r r i da a r gue s t ha t t he l e t t e r doe s not ne c e s s a r i l y r e t ur n t o m a r k t he de s t i ny o f t he s ubj e c t I t m a y s i m pl y ge t l os t or ne ve r a r r i ve a t i t s de s t i na t i on o r ne ve r a r r i ve on t i m e O r go l oop i ng of f

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30 t hr ough t he s i gna t ur e s o f ot he r s T he gl e f f e c t i s t he f i r s t g l ue o r f i r s t p r ot oc ol of G l as : A gl e f f e c t ( gl ue bi r dl i m e s pi t s pe r m c hr i s m oi nt m e nt e t c ) f or m s t he c ongl om e r a t i on w i t hout i de nt i t y of t hi s c e r e m oni a l w r i t e s D e r r i da ( L e a ve y 28 ) T h i s i nt r oduc t i on t o s i gna t ur e t he or y ha s be e n ove r w e i ght e d w i t h L a c a n. I n s pi t e of a l l t he g a l a c t i c s of D e r r i da s t he or y I t h i nk t he w or d gl a c a n ne ve r a ppe a r s a l t hough t he r e i s pl e n t y of p l a y on l a c t a t i on. W e ha ve ba l c t a l c a l ga c l a t t e r [ c l at ] gl a s s e t c ; c l e a r l y gl a c a n i s t he r e hypogr a m m a t i c a l l y M a ybe D e r r i da a nd L a c a n a r e t he t w o l a w s of m y a da pt a t i on or a l t e r a t i on of D e r r i da 's t he o r y. B ut t he pr ot oc ol t he f i r s t p r ot oc ol i s t o t e a r up t he e t i que t t e a nd f l us h i t dow n t he c hi ot t e t he s hi t hol e a s L e a ve y ( a not he r J L but a j ohn t hi s t i m e ) t r a ns l a t e s i n t he s e c ond f i r s t s e nt e nc e of G l as M y f i r s t pr ot oc ol i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on s houl d be t o s houl de r s om e m or e s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s i nt o t he s i gna t ur e t he or y: f r om S ha r on O l ds t he s h e f f e c t a nd f r om J ohn C a ge t he J C e f f e c t a nd t he bl a z oni ng of t he c a ge S t r a nge l y, now he r e i n he r w or ks doe s S ha r on O l ds gi ve he r pa r e nt s na m e s T he y ha ve be e n w i t hd r a w n, s i l e nc e d, s hus he d f i na l l y, i f not f l us he d. P u t t i ng t he s e e f f e c t s t oge t he r t he s h a nd t he J C I a r r i ve a t t he W C T o r e a d S ha r on a nd J ohn t oge t he r i s t o v i s i t t he ol d w a t e r c l os e t T ha t w oul d be t he dr e dge i m a ge o f t hi s d r e a df ul poe t i c s i n i t s dou bl e gl as or doubl e l a w : t o c he w up t he i r s i gna t ur e s t o di ge s t t he m a nd t he n t o pa s s t h e m ( on) T ha t w oul d be t he j e s ui s t he I a m or t he I f ol l ow ( be hi nd D e r r i da ) w hi c h be c om e s J e s u s i f you di e a nd t a ke out t he I a s U l m e r poi nt s out A f t e r G e ne t ( a not he r j ohn J e an ) J D a l t e r na t e s be t w e e n a c ogi t o of m our ni ng, I a m t he r e f or e de a d, a nd t he I m m a c ul a t e C onc e pt i on, t he I C ( f r om H e ge l s c hr i s t i a ni c phi l os ophy and G e ne t s C a t hol i c i n f l e c t e d t e xt ua l i t y) t he s e l e t t e r s a l w a ys a r r i vi ng i n t he w a ke t he l i t t e r o f G l as a s pa r t o f t h e c a l c ul of t he m ot he r T r a c i ng t he

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31 a bbr e vi a t i ons t he s i gl a t he m o r c e l l a t i on, t ow a r d t he s ubj e c t s of t hi s book t he G l as e f f e c t w oul d c ont i nue a l ong s om e t hi ng l i ke t hi s : j d, j g, j l w l gl i c j c w l s h w w j j . . A t t he he a r t of bot h t he i r poe t i c s C a ge a nd O l ds p l a c e a de s i r e t o r e s i s t t he pr ope r M a ybe i t c a n be a r t i c ul a t e d a s t e a r i ng dow n w a l l s a w a l t e r i ng dow n, m or e or l e s s w e l l pl a ye d.

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32 C ha pt e r T w o Shar on O l ds : I n T w o P l ac e s A t O nc e I nt r oduc t i on : t he F e t i s h D oubl e I ought t o s ubm i t t o t he l a w of t he s i gna t ur e S ha r on O l ds T ha t s a i d, t he pr ot oc ol f o r c om m uni c a t i on w i t h S ha r on O l ds n e e ds t o be l a i d out : a nd t he s h e f f e c t i s put dow n i n t he f i r s t poe m i n t he f i r s t book p r e s c r i bi ng, i n t he a bys s t he e t i que t t e f o r r e a di ng he r c or pus T he r e i s a c e r t a i n t e a r i ng s ound i n t he di a l ogi c of t he poe m T hi s c ha pt e r e m pha s i z e s w ha t I a m c a l l i ng f e t i s h l ogi c a nd m os t o f t he r e a di ngs e xpl i c i t l y s how how t hi s c onc e pt i n f or m s t he poe m s I di s c us s C ha pt e r 3 de e m pha s i z e s t he f e t i s h l ogi c i n or de r t o c ont i nue t o a l l ow t he s i g na t ur e S ha r on O l ds t o unf ol d i t s e l f a c c or di ng t o i t s p r i m or di a l B i bl i c a l i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y. T he L i f t i ng w or ks ove r t hi s p r ot o i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y; t hi s poe m a l s o de pe nds on a c e r t a i n t e a r i ng e f f e c t I n t hi s c ha pt e r t hi s f e t i s h l ogi c s e e m e d t o d i r e c t t h e di s c ur s i ve m ove m e nt of t he r e a di ng. B y de f a ul t I ha d be gun w r i t i ng w i t h a c h r onol ogi c a l a ppr oa c h f or l a c k o f c onc e pt s or t r ope s t ha t ha d a s s e r t e d t he m s e l ve s a s or de r i ng de vi c e s a nd due t o m y de s i r e not t o f or c e a c onc e pt ua l g r i d ove r t he s i gna t ur e a nd poe m s I n t he p r oc e s s of r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng, how e ve r t he f e t i s h l og i c a l ogi c o f t w o s c e ne s or t w o t i m e s un f ol di ng a t onc e s e e m e d t o m a ni f e s t i t s e l f e ve r yw he r e I ha ppe ne d t o be r e a di ng i n he r f i r s t f i ve books 2 T hi s l e d t o de pa r t ur e s f r om t he c hr onol ogi c a l r e a di ng. S o t he r e a r e s e ve r a l r e a di ngs t ha t de f y t he book by book o r de r o f a na l ys i s Y e t t he g e ne r a l s ha pe of m y a na l ys i s goe s book 2 A l t h o u g h I o f f e r n o r e a d i n g s o f p o e m s f r o m T h e W e l l s p r i n g I f i n d m a n y o f O l d s s i g n a t u r e e f f e c t s a s I v e d e l i n e a t e d t h e m o p e r a t i n g t h e r e

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33 by book. T he t he m a t i c t ha t I m os t i de nt i f y w i t h O l ds poe t r y ha s t o do w i t h t he oe di pa l r e l a t i ons t o w hi c h s he ha s a l w a ys r e t ur ne d I n pa r t i c ul a r t hi s t he m a t i c m a r ks he r w or k vi a he r s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s F e t i s h l ogi c c onne c t s t he oe di pa l s c e ne t he c hi l dhood of a bus e w i t h t he pr e s e nt o f t he s pe a k e r i n m os t o f t he s e po e m s T he s pe a ke r s of t he e a r l y poe m s w onde r a t ha vi ng s ur vi ve d M a ny poe m s a l s o c ons t r uc t a he a l i ng i m a ge r y t ha t e xpl oi t s s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s I a r gue i n t he s e c ond ha l f of t he c ha pt e r t ha t t hi s he a l i ng i m a ge r y i s a r t i c ul a t e d by a ps yc h oa na l yt i c r e a di ng a nd i n pa r t i c ul a r t ha t t he na m e of t he f a t he r ope ns t o r e ve a l a r e c onf i gur a t i on of t he s ubj e c t e n a bl i ng he r t o l i ve a nd l ove a ga i ns t a nd t hr ough t he oe di pa l e xpe r i e nc e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he pr ope r na m e T hi s r e c onf i gur a t i on a m ount s t o a n a na l ys i s of t he s upe r e go a nd t he ge nde r r ol e s t ha t go t o c ons t r uc t i t W hi l e O l ds m a na ge s t o c a r r y out t hi s a na l ys i s of he r i de n t i t y, he r t e xt s a l s o t r e a t he r s i gna t ur e e s pe c i a l l y on t he que s t i on of t he r e l a t i on of t he t w o na m e s S ha r on a nd O l ds Shar o n O l ds T he f i r s t na m e i s a p l a c e : t he P l a i n of S ha r on, a n a r e a of I s r a e l a f e r t i l e pl a i n e xt e ndi ng a l ong t he M e di t e r r a ne a n c oa s t a w e s t e r n c oa s t S ha r on i s a pl a c e na m e t ha t a ppe a r s i n t he O l d T e s t a m e nt books of F i r s t C hr on i c l e s t he C a nt i c l e s a nd I s a i a h. T he s e xua l a ur a of t he na m e S ha r on e m a na t e s f r om t he S ong of S ol om on: pr oba bl y t he book s m os t f a m ous l i ne i s t he K i ng J a m e s V e r s i on 2. 1: I a m t he r os e of S ha r on, a nd t he l i l y o f t he va l l e ys S ha r on O l ds ha s pl a ye d he a vi l y on t hi s e t ym ol ogy of he r n a m e but i t ha s be e n onl y by m e a ns of t he t h i r d m oda l i t y o f t he s i g na t ur e I f i nd no d i r e c t r e f e r e nc e t o t hi s l i ne i n he r w or k A s i de f r om t he na m e of t he O l d T e s t am e nt t he na m e O l ds l a c ks t hi s s pe c i f i c a l l y

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34 r e l i gi ous e r ot i c e t ym ol ogy or a s s oc i a t i on. U nd e r t h e f i r s t e nt r y f o r ol d i n t he O E D da t a ba s e t he r e a r e s om e 16, 000 w o r ds a c c or di ng t o m y c om put e r s w or d c ount t ool I t i s ha r dl y pos s i bl e t o de s c r i be t he w o r d s pl a y or r oot e dne s s i n t he E ur ope a n l a ngua ge s A s a pr ope r na m e i t a ppa r e nt l y de r i ve s f r om i t s us e a s k i nd of n i c kna m e a dj e c t i ve : ol d S m i t h or ol d S o a nd S o T he e nt r y f o r O l ds i n t he O E D r e f e r s onl y t o t he O l ds m obi l e c a r e s p. a l a r ge f a m i l y s a l oon [ s e da n] m ode l T he A m e r i c a n H e r i t a ge D i c t i ona r y l i s t s onl y O l ds R a ns om E l i w ho f ounde d t he O l ds M ot or W or ks m a nuf a c t ur e r of t he O l ds m obi l e T hi s a ut om ot i ve s i gni f i c a t i on, s o c o m m on i n A m e r i c a n E ngl i s h r a r e l y c om e s i nt o pl a y i n O l ds poe t r y. H ow e ve r he r poe t r y s e e m s t o or i gi na t e i n a n obs e s s i on w i t h he r e l de r s I n t ha t s e ns e he r poe t r y m a k e s up a n O l ds T e s t am e nt C e r t a i nl y t he t w o p r e c e di ng pa r a gr a phs c oul d be a s m i s l e a di ng a s t he y a r e i nf or m a t i ve N e ve r t he l e s s t he y i ndi c a t e s om e o f t h e pos s i bi l i t i e s of t he w or ds B ut t he r e s e a r c h t a s k i s t o di s c ove r how t h i s pr ope r na m e p l a ys t hr ough t he poe m s a u r a l l y, vi s ua l l y, c onc e pt ua l l y, m e t a pho r i c a l l y, e t c W ha t e ve nt t a ke s pl a c e w he n t he w or ds a r e r e l e a s e d i nt o t he de pt hs of t he poe m s ? W he r e do t h e na m e s i n he r s i gna t ur e l e a d? A nd a s t o t he na m e s m ove m e nt i n t he a bys s w ha t a r e i t s c ha nc e s be t w e e n t he a l e a t or y a nd t he ne c e s s a r y, of i t s c ount e r s i gna t ur e ? Sat an Say s T he s pe a ke r i n t he f i r s t poe m of t he f i r s t book e nt e r s t hi s m a z e m a t r i x o r e r e c t i on of t he p r ope r na m e s i m m e di a t e l y I n S a t a n S a ys t he s pe a ke r t r i e s t o w r i t e he r w a y out of a n e n c l os ur e a c e da r box w i t h a go l d, he a r t s h a pe d l oc k a nd no ke y I m p l i c i t l y, t hi s i s a s t r uggl e t o f or ge t a nd e s c a pe he r na m e t o l e t i t go i ns of a r a s i t ha s t o do w i t h t he

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35 pa i n of t he l oc ke d pa s t a nd t o w r i t e w i t h he r bod y: I a m t r yi ng t o w r i t e m y / w a y out o f t he c l os e d box / r e dol e nt of c e da r a nd he r s pi ne unc ur l s i n t he c e da r box l i ke t he pi nk ba c k of t he ba l l e r i na pi n w i t h a r uby e ye T he s pi ne i s t he c e nt r a l l i ne of t he body t he s t r uc t ur e t ha t e nc l os e s t he c e nt r a l ne r vous s ys t e m I t e xt e nds f r o m t he r e gi on o f t he s e xua l or ga ns t o t he br a i n S pi ne a l s o r hym e s w i t h l i ne I n t hi s c ont r ol l i ng i m a ge ( t he body a nd i t s doubl e t he ba l l e r i na pi n w i t hi n t he c e da r box) o f t he poe m t he r e i s a pos s i bl e e s c a p e f r om t he s c e ne T he s pe a ke r i s w r i t i ng, a nd a l t hough t he r e i s no ke y S a t a n c om e s i n. A s t he na r r a t i ve of t he poe m un f ol ds t he a r r i va l of S a t a n i s c ont i guous w i t h t he a t t e m pt t o w r i t e : I a m t r yi ng t o w r i t e m y w a y out of t he c l os e d box r e dol e nt of c e da r S a t a n c om e s t o m e i n t he l oc ke d box ( 3 ) T he s pe a ke r s a ys t o S a t a n, I l ove [ m y pa r e nt s ] but I m t r yi ng t o s a y w ha t ha ppe ne d t o us i n t he l os t pa s t S a t a n gi ve s he r t he w or ds t o de s c r i be t he pa s t a nd a s s he s a ys t he m he e na bl e s he r t o l e a ve B ut t he s pe a ke r r e f us e s t o l e a ve r e a l i z i ng t ha t T he e xi t i s t h r ough S a t a n s m out h. S he i ns i s t s t ha t s he l ove d he r pa r e nt s t oo A s t he poe m c l os e s s he w a r m s he r c ol d ha nds a t t he da nc e r s r uby e ye / t he f i r e t he s udde nl y di s c ove r e d know l e dge of l ove T he m ove m e nt f r om gol d e a r l y i n t he poe m t o c ol d i n t he c l os i ng i m a ge of t he poe m f ol l ow s t he dr i f t o f t he phone m e ol d t hr oug h t he a bys s of e m ot i ons a nd m e m or i e s e voke d by t he s t r uggl e of t he poe m : t h i s dr i f t t r a ve r s e s t he unc ons c i ous of t he s pe a ke r T he c ol or gol d a l s o i s di s pl a c e d by t he c ol or r e d, o f t he r uby e ye w hi c h s ugge s t s f e m a l e pow e r a s w e l l a s t he r os e of S ha r on T ha t r e d a l s o s ugge s t s s h a m e i s not ove r l ooke d i n t he poe m :

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36 T he pa i n o f t he l oc ke d pa s t buz z e s i n t he c hi l d s box on he r bu r e a u, unde r t he t e r r i bl e r ound pond e ye e t c he d a r oun d w i t h r os e s w he r e s e l f l oa t hi ng ga z e d a t s or r ow ( 3) R os e s of S ha r on s ur r ound he r i m a ge i n t he m i r r or H ow ha s he r s e xua l i t y be e n pr os t i t ut e d? S a t a n ge t s he r t o s a y, M y m ot he r i s a pi m p, w hi c h m a ke s w hor e s o f he r da ught e r s A nd t he r ound pond e ye : c o ul d i t be t he O i n O l ds ? T he box a l s o s ugge s t s t he f e m a l e ge ni t a l s W he r e doe s t he na m e of t he s i gna t or y go i n t he l a n gua ge of t he unc ons c i ous ? I a m i nt e r e s t e d i n w ha t t he s i gna t ur e s a ys r e ve a l s c onc e a l s doe s ( pi c k your pr e di c a t e ) a bout t he unc ons c i ous a c c or di ng t o t he s i gna t ur e di s c our s e of t he poe m s a nd f r o m t he r e t o di s c e r n t he poe t i c s of S ha r on O l ds L i ke r e a di ng t he S ong of S ol om on, w e c oul d be r e a di ng a l a ngua ge t ha t e xc e e ds t he l i m i t s of pr opr i e t y: a s pe c t s of i t s e c onom y w oul d i f unc ons c i ous w or k i n t he i nt e r s t i c e s be t w e e n s t r i c t ur e s l a w s l e t t e r s or r ul e s of t he s i gna t ur e A nd s he a l l ow s i t t o ha ppe n. I t c oul d be uni nt e nt i ona l B oxe s r os e s gol d, r e d, O s : t he t r a c e of t he s i gna t ur e w oul d be non r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l m i s e e n aby m e O r i s i t j us t he r i di om ? T he c r ude r e duc t i ve vi ol e nc e of ba na l obs c e ni t i e s f or m s a ki nd of vi s ua l a nd t ona l m a z e : s hi t f uc k, c oc k, c unt c om e T he s e w o r ds a r e a l l w o r ke d on S a t a n s w a xy t ongue ; t he y a l l a r e r e pe a t e d by t he s pe a ke r e xc e pt c om e S he doe s not c om e S he doe s not c om e out : de s i r e t o r e s i s t r e s i s t a nc e t o de s i r e I t i s a l s o a bout t he f a l l of S ha r on. S he i s de a d a l r e a dy, i n he r c of f i n, i n t he t om b: or w i t hi n t he w a l l s of a c e da r hous e T he s e c ond m oda l i t y o f t he s i gna t ur e i s a bout c ont r ol T he i di o m a t i c m a r ks t ha t ba na l a nd c onf us e d m e t a phor f o r t he f i r s t [ m oda l i t y] a s D e r r i da s a ys t ha t c ons t i t ut e

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37 w ha t i s s om e t i m e s c a l l e d s t yl e a r e i n t he c om m a n d of t he w r i t e r w he n s he ha s be c om e a s t yl i s t w he n i nt e nt i on m odul a t e s i di om a l t hough, a s D e r r i da r e m a r ks a s i gne r m i ght l e a ve t he m a r ks by a c c i de nt ( Si gns ponge 54) B ut w ha t w e a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n he r e i s a poe t i c s or s t yl e t ha t gi ve s up s om e t hi ng t o t he t hi r d m oda l i t y. M a ybe i t c a n be t r a c e d i n t he a c c i de nt a l s T he e l e m e nt o f c ont r ol i s gi ve n a w a y a t s om e poi nt ; ot he r w i s e t he r e c a n be no c ount e r s i gna t ur e W ha t e ve r s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s a r e i s ol a t e d a nd c a pi t a l i z e d on no l onge r r e pr e s e nt t he ge ne r a l e c onom y o f t he t e xt e ve n t hough t he y m a y pa r t i c i pa t e i n i t T hi s i s w hy D e r r i da r e f e r s t o t he t hi r d m oda l i t y t h e c ount e r s i gna t ur e a s l e pas de P onge t he s t e p, a nd s t op, of P onge o r m or e b r oa dl y, pas d hom m e of m a n ( Si gns ponge 50, 56) I n a r e s t r i c t e d e c onom y not hi ng w oul d be l os t T he w r i t i ng w oul d onl y c om e ba c k t o t he s i gna t or y. O l ds w oul d c ont r ol e ve r y t hi ng. B u t a ge ne r a l e c onom y a dm i t s l os s T he pl a c e m e nt i n a bys s m i s e e n aby m e s l i de s e a s i l y i nt o a t he m a t i c s of m our ni ng a nd bur i a l A nd i f O l ds bur i e s he r s i gna t ur e put s i t t o r e s t w ha t ha ppe ns ? I n t he F r e nc h, a s e c ond m e a ni ng of m i s e i s w a ge r ga m bl e or s t a ke I s i t by c ha nc e o r ne c e s s i t y t ha t t he s h i s di s s e m i na t e d i n t hi s poe m i n t he w or ds s he p a r d a nd he a r t s ha pe d but m os t l y i n t he w or d s hi t ? T he r e i s a buz z i ng i n t he box. T he w or d s hi t a ppe a r s f ou r t i m e s t w i c e a s of t e n a s a ny of t he ot he r c a s ua l obs c e ni t i e s I t c oul d ge t c ol d and r e d hot T he w or d s he pa r d r e s i de s e n abi m e a pi c t ur e p l a c e d ve r y c a r e f ul l y w i t hi n t he ope ni ng i m a ge a pi c t ur e pa s t e d ont o / t he c e nt r a l pa ne l be t w e e n c a r vi ngs I n t he e nd t he s pe a ke r i s l e f t be hi nd t hi s a bys s be l ow t he m i r r or T he a gon of S a t a n S a ys pi t s t he s pe a ke r a ga i ns t S a t a n. S a t a n pe r s oni f i e s t he obs c e ne s upe r e go, t ha t f i gur a t i on of a ut hor i t y t ha t not onl y know s t he m or a l c ode s but a l s o e nj oys s uc h know l e dge by vi ol a t i ng i t T he m a t i c a l l y, t he a gon pi t s l ove a ga i ns t a n

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38 obs c e ne l i ngui s t i c f or c e f or t he r i ght t o r e pr e s e nt t he pa s t : t hi s f or c e m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f t hr ough pr o f a ne na m i ng ( Say / M y f at he r i s a s hi t ; Say y our m ot he r i s a pi m p. ) pr of a ni t y ( Say s hi t s ay de at h s ay f uc k t he f at he r ) a nd r e duc t i o n of t he pa s t t o t r a um a ( s ay : t or t ur e ) L a c a n r e f e r s t o t he s upe r e go a s t h e ba l l a s t of t he unc ons c i ous a nd t he s e obs c e ni t i e s a l l c onf or m t o c l a s s i c a l F r e udi a n not i ons of r e p r e s s e d de s i r e s a nd m e m or i e s W he n t he s pe a ke r r e s ponds t o S a t a n ve r ba l l y, l ove be c om e s t he f or m of r e s i s t a nc e t o t he obs c e ne s upe r e go i n t he poe m a nd i n t he a c t of w r i t i ng B ut t he pl a y o f f or c e s t he e m ot i ona l e ne r gi e s a nd e xc ha nge s of t h e poe m ne ve r r e s ol ve s i t s e l f ; r a t he r i t c ool s dow n a nd t he r e a de r i s l e f t w i t h t he i m a ge o f t he s pe a ke r w a r m i ng he r c ol d ha nds a t t he da nc e r s r uby e ye he a t e d by t he know l e d ge of l ove W r i t i ng be c om e s a s t r uggl e w i t h S a t a n, a not he r pr ope r na m e be gi nni ng a nd e ndi ng w i t h t he s a m e l e t t e r s a s S ha r on. I t i s a l s o a s t r uggl e w i t h t he pa s t a t a nd w i t h t he oe di pa l s c e ne i t s e l f w i t h w ha t i s ol d i n t he l i f e o f t he s pe a ke r P e r ha ps m os t of a l l w r i t i ng be c om e s t he s t r uggl e t o w r i t e one s na m e a nd t o w r i t e i n one s na m e T he m a i n a r gum e nt of m y s t udy i s t ha t S ha r on O l ds i m a ge r y us ua l l y i m pl i e s a c e r t a i n f e t i s h l ogi c t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he t opol ogy o f O l ds poe t i c s a s i f t he l og i c of t w o s c e ne s or t w o t i m e s a r e unf ol di ng a t onc e a s i f t he s pe a ke r w e r e i n t w o pl a c e s a t onc e I n S a t a n S a ys t he s c e ne of w r i t i ng i s c onne c t e d w i t h t he s c e ne of c onc e pt i on : Say : t he f at he r s c oc k t he m ot he r s c unt s a ys S a t a n, I l l ge t y ou ou t T he a ngl e of t he hi nge w i de ns unt i l I s e e t he out l i ne s of t he t i m e be f o r e I w a s w he n t he y w e r e l oc ke d i n t he be d ( 4 ) T he w or d l oc k e d r e c a l l s t he gol d l oc k of t he c e da r box, t he ope ni ng i m a ge o f t he poe m w hi l e f i gur i ng a m e t onym y f o r t he l oc ki ng t oge t he r of t he ge ne s t ha t f or m t he da ught e r

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39 ( t he poe m ope ns t he s e c t i on of t he book e nt i t l e d D a ught e r ) O n a m or e pr i m a l s e xua l l e ve l l oc ke d i s us e d of dogs c opul a t i ng: s om e t i m e s t w o be c om e l i t e r a l l y s t uc k t oge t he r una bl e t o s e pa r a t e T hi s i m a ge i s o f he r ( ow n) c onc e pt i on, i nc l udi ng t he t one of i t I s e e t he out l i ne s of t he t i m e : t ha t w oul d be ga z i ng a t t he O l ds O l d t he m o r s e l of t he na m e f unc t i ons l i ke a s hut t l e b e t w e e n t he t w o s c e ne s t he s c e ne of w r i t i ng, w hi c h i s t he pr e s e nt t e ns e of t he poe m a nd t he s c e ne of t he pa s t r e dol e nt of c e da r B ot h s c e ne s a doubl e s i gna t ur e s c e ne f ol d i nt o t he a bys s T he w or d r e dol e nt c om bi ne s w i t hi n i t r e d a nd ol e a nd c ont a i ns a n a na m or phi c s pe l l i ng of t he w o r d ol d R e dol e nt a nd c e dar e voke ol d c l ot he s a nd t he s m e l l of t he m e a ns of pr e s e r vi ng t he m I n t he d r e a m l i ke s e que nc e of t he poe m t he c e da r box i s di s pl a c e d by a c e da r hous e : C om e i n m y m out h, he s a ys y ou r e t he r e al r e ady a nd t he huge hi nge be gi ns t o c l os e O h no I l ove d t he m t oo I br a c e m y body t i ght i n t he c e da r hous e S a t a n s uc ks hi m s e l f out t he ke yhol e T he hous e f i gur e s t he doubl e bi nd of t he poe m t he f a c t t ha t t he t ool s f or e xpl o r i ng t he pa s t l a ngua ge a nd m e m or y w e r e f or m e d i n t ha t p a s t a nd c ont i nue t o e xe r c i s e t he i r pow e r s on t he s pe a ke r i n t he pr e s e nt T he s pe a ke r s l a ngua ge i s bor n out of t he l i ngui s t i c e c onom y of t he pa r e nt a l hom e but s he c a nnot l e t h e r s e l f be bor n a l ong by t he f o r c e s of t ha t l a ngua ge H e r poe t r y, he r poe t i c s m us t be a bout he r pa r e nt s w hos e i m a goe s go t o f or m t he s upe r e go. Y e t t he l a ngua ge s he ha s t o us e c a r r i e s w i t hi n i t t he obs c e ne pr ope r t i e s of t he s upe r e go. A l t hough S a t a n w i t hdr a w s s uc ki ng hi m s e l f out t he ke yhol e he m a y be t he o ut s i de I t s e e m s a s i f t he uni ve r s e i t s e l f t ha t w hi c h l i e s out s i de t he hous e

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40 i s S a t a n, t he obs c e ni t y. T h i s pos s i bi l i t y i s bot h t e m por a l a nd s pa t i a l T he obs c e ne s upe r e go a l w a ys l i e s i n w a i t I n t he w o r ds gol d a nd c ol d t he f o r c e of t he s i gna t u r e a nd t he unc o ns c i ous of t he s i gna t ur e r e m a i n a n o r i gi n a nd de s t i na t i on of t he p oe m T he ha nds of t he w r i t e r a r e c ol d ha vi ng r e j e c t e d t he he a t o f S a t a n s br e a t h a nd m ou t h, i n e s s e nc e ha vi ng r e j e c t e d hi s pr of f e r e d e xi t f r om t he oe di pa l s c e ne S he r e m a i ns l oc ke d i n t he b ox w i t h he r pa s t : I t s y our c of f i n now S a t a n s a ys B ut t he r uby e ye of t he ba l l e r i na pi n w a r m s he r ha nds T he s pe a ke r no l onge r pi nne d, i ns t e a d s e e s pow e r f u l l y but not by e s c a pi ng t he box he r ge nde r T h i s w a r m t h i n t he r e c ogni t i on o f t he da nc e r t he s udde nl y di s c ove r e d know l e dge of l ove s ugge s t s t he poe t i c da nc e be t w e e n t he pa s t a nd t he p r e s e nt of t he t e xt t ha t w i l l c om e out of t he s t r uggl e t o m a ke t he pa s t i nt o t e xt A t t he e nd of t he poe m a s t he ve r ba l e xc ha nge w i t h S a t a n f a de s out t he ha nds a r e be i ng w a r m e d, pr e s um a bl y i n pr e pa r a t i on f o r t he t a s k of w r i t i ng. T hi s s ugge s t s a t r a ns i t i on f r om he l l i s h di s c our s e t o w r i t i ng. T he ha nd w a r m i ng c ont r a s t s w i t h t he he a t of S a t a n s b r e a t hy i nvi t a t i on t o c om e out of t he hous e : t he a i r a r ound t he ope ni ng i s he a vy a nd t hi c k a s hot s m oke S a t a n s l a ngua ge w oul d be he l l I n c ont r a s t i t s not c l e a r w ha t t he pr a c t i c e of w r i t i ng w i l l pr oduc e be yond r e s i s t a nc e L ov e F os s i l T he poe m f ol l ow i ng S a t a n S a ys L ove F os s i l a t f i r s t r e a di ng m i ght s e e m s i l l y, b ut i t c a pi t a l i z e s a n e xpl or a t i on of w ha t i s ol d a nd a t t he s a m e t i m e c a r r i e s out a l ogi c of t he na m e S ha r on:

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41 M y da on hi s e l e ga nt ve ge t a r i a n a nkl e s dr a nk hi s s uppe r L i ke t he ot he r di nos a ur s m a s s i ve m e a t y, m a de of s t e a k, he ni bbl e d a nd guz z l e d, hi s j a w d r i ppi ng w e e ds a n d bour bon, s upe r s l e a z y, e xt i nc t be a s t m y he a r t dug f or T he pa l e ont ol ogy i m p l i c i t i n m y he a r t dug f or a n a r c he ol ogy of l ove c ont i nue s t he t he m a t i c of S a t a n S a ys A t t he s a m e t i m e i t i s a n a r c he ol ogy of t he p r ope r na m e H ow bi g i s t he s ur na m e t he na m e of t he f a t he r ? H ow ol d i s i t ? I t i s not h i ng l e s s t ha n m onum e nt a l T he f a t he r i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s a B r ont os a ur us i n t hi s poe m a huge j oke A nd t he s pe a ke r i s l a t e r f i gur e d a s a c a r ni vor e bu t i n t he s ur pr i s i ng f or m o f a s t or m of m os qui t oe s i n t he di nos a ur i m a ge T hi s p r e da t or y pa r a s i t i c pa c k m a ke s a good i m a ge f or c ha r a c t e r i z i ng t he w a y i n w hi c h S ha r on c a n be r e a d i n t hi s poe m T he s i ngul a r i t y of t he na m e i s di s pe r s e d a c r os s a m ul t i pl i c i t y of c a r n i vor e s S i m i l a r l y, S ha r on l a unc he s m a ny s e pa r a t e s e m e s w he n i t be gi ns t o w or k i n t he unc ons c i ous of t he t e xt a nd t he t e xt of t he unc ons c i ous w he r e i t f e e ds on t he na m e of t he f a t he r T he w or d r os e m a ke s a s e c ond a ppe a r a nc e he r e f ol l ow i ng i t s f i r s t i n S a t a n S a ys t hi s t i m e a s a p r e di c a t e : L ove r os e i n m e a s t or m of m os qui t oe s / hove r i ng ove r L a B r e a T hi s s e nt e nc e s ugge s t s r e d a nd bl a c k, t h e r e d hi nt e d a t i n r os e a nd t he r e d of s w ol l e n m os qui t oe s t oge t he r w i t h t he bl a c k of t he t a r pi t s I n t he ne xt c l a us e t he pl ur a l i t y of m os qui t oe s r e s ol ve s i nt o t he s i ngul a r i t y of t he f i r s t pe r s on pr onoun: C a r ni vor e t ha t I w a s T hi s r e s ol ut i on pa s s e s t hr ough t he w o r d c a r ni vor e c a t e gor i z i ng t he s pe a ke r a m ong t hos e or ga ni s m s t ha t c ons um e ot he r or ga ni s m s I n t he p oe m C a l i f or ni a S w i m m i ng P ool f r om T he G o l d C e l l m os qui t oe s a r e l i ke ne d t o s ha r ks : s a t e d m os qui t oe s hung i n t he a i r l i ke s ha r ks T he w o r d s ha r k a ppe a r s i n a s e ve r a l of O l ds

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42 poe m s 3 a nd t hi s de f o r m a t i on o f S ha r on i s of a pi e c e w i t h he r pe nc ha nt f or i m a gi ng t he bodi e s of ot he r s a s m e a t r e d a nd r a w a s w e l l a s he r pe nc ha nt f o r m e t a phor s o f p r e da t i on. T he c onf us i on of s e xua l de s i r e l ove f e a r a nd hun ge r r e m a i ns a c ons t a nt c onc e r n i n O l ds poe t r y, a nd t hi s r e c ur r e nt i m a ge r y of e a t i ng of t he O t he r be gi ns i n t he f i r s t t w o poe m s A s w e s ha l l s e e t hi s p r e da t i on i s a n O e di p a l r e ve r s a l s om e t hi ng s he l e a r ne d f r o m he r f a t he r A nd one of hi s ni c kna m e s f or he r w a s S ha r w hi c h a ppe a r s t o be p r onounc e d l i ke s ha r k w i t hout t he k. C he vy a nd S ha r on be gi n w i t h t he s a m e ope ni n g phone m e t he s h s ound. T he i m a ge of t he C he vy f i gur e s t he pa t e r na l : H e w a s da r k a s a r e pt i l e a nd s pl a s he d w i t h m ud l i ke a n o l d C he vy, / he w a s s oupe d up a nd s t unne d a nd c r ue l ; A n ol d C he vy, c ons t i t ut e s a not he r pr e da t i on of t he na m e S ha r on on t he na m e O l ds N ot a n o l d O l ds ( m obi l e ) but a C he vy, a s i f t he s ur na m e ha s b e e n c onde ns e d ( e nc r ypt e d) w i t h t he f or e na m e T he pr op r i e t a r y e m pha s i s s hi f t s c onf e r r i ng on he r f a t he r a nd hi s na m e t he s i bi l a nt s h s ound of t he na m e S ha r on. T he s e nt e nc e f ol l ow i ng t he i m a ge of t he C he vy t r a c e s a ge ne a l ogy of l ove a nd a nge r f r om t he s ur na m e i n t o t he pi t t he a bys s of L a B r e a a nd up i nt o t he s t or m of t he f or e na m e s s e m e s w hi c h hove r a bove t he pi t o f t i m e a nd s t i l l s ur vi ve t oda y. T hi s ge ne a l ogy ne a t l y f i gur e s a nd s ubt l y r e c e nt e r s t he e m ot i ona l s t r uggl e of t he p r e vi ous poe m S a t a n S a ys w i t h a n a ut o m obi l e i m a ge : H e t a ught m e t o l ove / w ha t w a s s t uc k, w ha t c oul dn t he l p i t s e l f / w ha t w e nt dow n m u t e i nt o t i m e l i ke t a r l i ke a nge r R a t he r t ha n pe r s oni f yi ng t he a ngr y s upe r e go a s S a t a n t i m e m ut e s a nd t r a ns m ut e s t he a nge r t r a ppe d hul k. I t i s t he f a t he r hi m s e l f w ho s i nks i nt o a nd be c om e s t he t a r i e a n 3 I n T h e G o l d C e l l s e e A l c a t r a z a n d T h e P r e m o n i t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a S w i m m i n g P o o l

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43 i nc r e di bl y da nge r ous a ge ol d t r a p a nd r e pos i t or y o f r e pr e s s e d a nd s i l e nt a nge r T hi s i m a ge a l s o c ont i nue s t he i nc e s t uous l a ngua ge of S a t a n S a ys L i ke t he ph r a s e s c om e i n m y m out h a nd s uc ks hi m s e l f out f r om S a t a n S a ys t he w or ds w e nt dow n c ont i nue t he i m a ge o f or a l s e x, a l t hough onl y a s a n unde r t one i n t hi s poe m B ut t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of i nc e s t uous de s i r e a r e m or e di r e c t he r e T hi s or a l qua l i t y of t he s e i m a ge s s ugge s t s a non pr oc r e a t i ve s e xua l i t y, l i nke d t o hunge r a nd a ggr e s s i on, t hos e m or e pr i m i t i ve f o r m s of de s i r e t ha n ge ni t a l i t y, l e s s s ubl i m a t e d, m o r e pa r t i a l a nd pe r ha ps m or e f e t i s hi s t i c T he t a r pi t i s a not he r f i gu r e f o r t he c r ypt of t he f a t he r t he m e m or i a l T he i m a ge of goi ng dow n i nt o t a r pr e s e nt s a n a gi ng pr oc e s s T he pl a c e of t he s pe a ke r i nt e r i or a nd e xt e r i or i s w ove n t oge t he r w i t h t he pa s t i n t he l a b yr i nt h of t he na m e M a ki ng t he na m e t he s c e ne of t r a ns gr e s s i on, f i nd i ng t he w a y t o w r i t e w i t hi n t he pr opr i e t y of t he na m e w hi l e e xpl or i ng t op i c s t ha t a r e no r m a l l y t a boo, us i ng one s na m e t o s e a r c h f or w ha t or di na r i l y s e e m s ve i l e d a nd a bs e nt f r om t hought o r f r om pr op r i e t y, a l l oc c ur s t h r ough t he pl a y of t he na m e s T he de a t h of t he f a t he r i m a gi ne d he r e r e qui r e s m our ni ng T he e nc r ypt i on a nd de c r ypt i on of t he na m e s e na c t s a m our ni ng t ha t r e a c he s dow n i nt o t he unc ons c i ous T he e nd of t he poe m pr e s e nt s a s hi f t i n t he s ubj e c t s t r uc t ur e of t he s pe a ke r by m e a ns of a n e nc r yp t i on of he r na m e i n t he body of t he f a t he r S he r e f us e s t he pr e da t i on i nhe r e nt i n t he i m a ge of a s t or m of m os qui t oe s by r e f us i ng t o e a t of he r f a t he r : C a r ni vor e t ha t I w a s I w a t c he d hi s / ba r e w hi t e s h oul de r a nd I w e nt hung r y. A n odd i m a ge pe r ha ps a n A pa t os a ur us 4 w i t h a w hi t e s houl de r but t he w or d s houl de r m a ke s a por t m a nt e a u of S ha r on O l ds m e r gi ng t he t w o na m e s i nt o a s i ngl e w or d a s i ngl e 4 I f y o u v i s i t a m u s e u m l o o k i n g f o r a B r o n t o s a u r u s t h e r e i s a g o o d c h a n c e i t w i l l b e c a l l e d a n A p a t o s a u r u s t h i s n e w n a m e h a v i n g g a i n e d f a v o r a m o n g p a l e o n t o l o g i s t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s s i n c e i t w a s t h e o r i g i n a l n a m e g i v e n t o t h e s p e c i e s

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44 e nt i t y. 5 T he s houl de r a nd t he m out h w oul d c onve r g e i f s he c hos e t o b i t e a nd s he w oul d t a ke t he bl ood o f he r f a t he r i nt o he r body but t he j oi ni ng t a ke s pl a c e on t he l e ve l of t he l e t t e r t he l e ve l of t he s i gna t ur e a nd m os t ge ne r a l l y on t he l e ve l of t he w or d A nd s houl de r t he doubl e e nc r ypt i on of t he t w o na m e s r e s ul t s f r om t hi s s t e p a nd s t op o f de s i r e T he s ha r i ng of s i gna t ur e na m e s i n t hi s por t m a nt e a u r e pr e s e nt s a s pe c ul a r dyna m i c s of t he O l ds i a n oe di pa l a bys s H e r r e l a t i o n t o t he s pe c ul a r ot he r t he pa r e nt unde r goe s a c ha nge a s s he f i ght s he r ow n pr e di s po s i t i on f or pr e da t i on. T he r e c ogni t i o n t ha t i nf or m s t hi s c ha nge c om e s vi a t he e xpl o r a t i on of vi ol e nc e a nd a ggr e s s i on ge r m a ne t o he r s e xua l t e xt ua l i t y. T hi s vi o l e nc e a nd a ggr e s s i on w oul d be w e l l f i gu r e d i n t he pr i m or di a l i m a ge of t he m a l e a ni m a l l i ke a t i ge r b i t i ng t he s houl de r of h i s f e m a l e s e xua l m a t e r e f l e c t i ng t he c onf us i on of d r i ve s i n t he a c t s of pr e da t i on a nd c opul a t i on. I n L ove F os s i l t he s e xua l na t ur e of t hi s i m a ge i s l a t e nt i n t he t he m e of pr e da t i on, a nd i t i s t he f e m a l e t ha t w oul d bi t e I n t e r m s o f dr i ve s t hi s r e f us a l t o e a t o f t he f a t he r s ugge s t s t he F r e udi a n di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n pa r t i a l dr i ve s i nc l udi ng or a l i t y ( t he s uc ki ng of m os qui t oe s ) a nd ge ni t a l i t y pr ope r t he s um of t he pa r t i a l d r i ve s i n a n oe di pa l i z e d s e xua l s ubj e c t i vi t y. L a c a n c ha l l e nge d t hi s not i on of a n i nt e g r a t e d dr i ve s ugg e s t i ng t he pa r t i a l d r i ve s r e pr e s e nt s e xua l i t y onl y pa r t i a l l y: t he y do not r e pr e s e nt t he r e pr oduc t i ve f unc t i on bu t onl y t he di m e ns i on of e nj oym e nt I f O l ds i m a ge r y o f pr e da t i on s ugge s t s a r e gr e s s i on t o t he pa r t i a l dr i ve of or a l i t y t hi s poe m r e f us e s t ha t de m a nd L a c a n a l s o s ugge s t s t ha t t he dr i ve s a nd de s i r e a l l or i gi na t e i n t he f i e l d o f t he s ubj e c t w he r e a s t he ge ni t a l dr i ve w oul d f i nd i t s 5 F o r p o i n t i n g o u t t h i s m e r g i n g o f t h e n a m e s i n t h e w o r d s h o u l d e r I o w e m y s t u d e n t C r a i g C l e m e n t s

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45 f or m on t he s i de o f t he O t he r ( F our 189) I n O l ds poe m t he dr i ve m ove s f r om or a l ( m os qui t oe s t ha t bi t e a nd s uc k) t o s c opi c ( j us t w a t c hi ng hi m s i nk) B ut t he w or d s houl de r i s s t i l l on t he s i de of t he ot he r I t i s a s houl de r dr i v e r a t he r t ha n a ge ni t a l d r i ve : a s ha r onol de r dr i ve t o w a t c h i t s obj e c t go dow n i nt o t he a bys s R i s i ng D aught e r I n R i s i ng D a ught e r t he c ol o r gol d t r a ve l s i nt o t h e da ught e r s body l i ke a n i nva de r br i ngi ng t he f a t he r s na m e i n w i t h t he m ot he r s m i l k. T he j e a l ous y t ha t be gi ns a t t he br e a s t a c c or di ng, t o F r e ud i s m i xe d w i t h t he l a w of t he na m e of t he f a t he r i n t hi s poe m w hi c h i nt e r i o r i z e s t he s pl i t be t w e e n t he t w o s c e ne s of a f e t i s h l ogi c : de l i c a t e a s s hr i m p, t he J a pa ne s e f r ogm e n s w a m s l ow l y. T he y a ppr oa c he d f r om t he w e s t t he i r gol d f a c e s gl ow i ng l i ke s pe c ks of m i c a i n t he he a vy P a c i f i c t he i r f l i ppe r s t he f i n s of p r a w ns I l a y a nd s uc ke d, a nd i n g r e a t num be r s l i ke ye l l ow f l a ke s of but t e r t he y e nt e r e d m e w i t h m y m ot he r s m i l k a voc a t i on. I w oul d be f or m ys e l f t he n a n e ne m y t o a l l w ho do not w i s h m e t o r i s e N ot j us t a n e ne m y t o t hos e w ho do not w i s h he r t o r i s e s he c ont a i ns a n e ne m y w i t hi n he r s e l f a n e ne m y t o pa r t s o f he r s e l f a s t he l i ne br e a k s ugge s t s : I w oul d be / f or m ys e l f t he n, a n e ne m y / T he gol d f a c e s a r e a pa r t o f he r l i ke ye l l ow f l a ke s of bu t t e r ( r i s ki ng t he r a c i a l s t e r e ot ype i n t he w or d ye l l ow i n o r de r t o c r os s t he na m e s S ha r on, s h a r i ng of m i l k a nd O l ds g ol d ye t a ga i n) a nd t he y c o m e f r om t he w e s t l i ke t he w e s t e r n pa r t of he r na m e S ha r on, t he na m e o f a p l a c e a l ong a w e s t e r n c oa s t l i ne T he s e pa r a t i on o f t he na m e f r om t h e pe r s on, t he s pl i t be t w e e n t he s ubj e c t a nd t he s ubj e c t i n l a ngua ge i s f i gur e d i n t he i m a ge of t he gol de n c r e a m r i s i ng t o t he t op w i t hi n he r T he pr e s e nc e of he r

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46 m ot he r s ha r i ng t he gol d c r e a m w i t h he r c om pl e t e s t he oe di pa l t r i a ngl e a c r os s t he c a e s ur a of he r s i gna t ur e A l t hough s ha r i ng doe s no t s e e m t o c onnot e r e s i s t a nc e t hi s s ha r i ng of gol d t a ke s pl a c e dur i ng w a r t i m e S he i s bor n a t w a r a s t he t i t l e no t e of t he poe m i ndi c a t e s : T h e R i s i n g D au gh t e r ( b S a n F r a n c i s c o 1 9 4 2 ) T he s uc kl i ng t ha t t he poe m de s c r i be s f i gu r e s a w a r l i ke be c om i ng m a s c ul i ne t he J a pa ne s e f r ogm e n e nt e r i ng he r l i ke s hr i m p I n t hi s m ove m e n t t he s pl i t t i ng of t he s ubj e c t i n l a ngua ge e l i c i t s a not he r pr obl e m i nhe r e nt i n t hi s s i gna t ur e : t he pot e nt i a l c onf l i c t of i t s m a s c ul i ne a nd f e m i ni ne e l e m e nt s T he c onf l i c t of ge nde r i s c om pl i c a t e d t he n, t he f r ogm e n i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he gol d t ha t r e s ounds t he pa t r i a r c ha l m a s c ul i ne s ur na m e a nd ye t c om e s t hr ough t he m a t e r na l m i l k. T he di v i s i on of pa r e nt a l ge nde r i s i m pl i c i t i n t he i m a ge of t he m i l k/ but t e r a nd t hi s di vi s i on i s s uc ke d, i nt r oj e c t e d, a t t he l e ve l of da ught e r / s ubj e c t T he i n t e r i or i z i ng vi ol e nc e of t hi s c onf l i c t e dne s s i s f i na l l y r e di r e c t e d t ow a r d a l l w ho do not w i s h [ t he da ught e r ] t o r i s e T hus t he r i s i ng da ught e r m ove s be t w e e n ge nde r s be t w e e n s t a t e s ( J a pa ne s e / A m e r i c a n; l i qui d m i l k/ s ol i d but t e r ) be t w e e n m ul t i pl i c i t y ( gr e a t num be r s l i ke t he m os qui t oe s i n L ove F os s i l ) a nd s i ngul a r i t y ( I w oul d be f or m ys e l f ) be t w e e n i nt e r i or i t y ( t he i n t e r i or i z i ng vi ol e nc e of i ns t i t ut i ona l w a r a s i t i s pr oj e c t e d a nd s a nc t i one d by s t a t e i de ol ogy) a nd e xt e r i or i t y ( o f t he nom a di c out s i de of t he s t a t e pe r s oni f i e d i n t he J a pa ne s e f r ogm e n, a nom a di c w a r m a c hi ne a w ol f pa c k a t t he bor de r of t he A m e r i c a n s t a t e ) be t w e e n t he a nt i oe di pa l t r a ns f e r e nc e a c r os s t he m ot he r da ught e r bounda r y a nd t he oe di pa l i nhe r i t a nc e of gol d f a c e s t he nom a di c w a r m a c hi ne l oc ke d i n m ut ua l l y de f i ni ng oppos i t i on t o s t a t e a nd pa t r i a r c ha l i de ol ogy

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47 I G o B ac k t o M ay 1937 I n I G o B a c k t o M a y 1937 f e t i s h l ogi c i s u s e d t o t e m por a l l y b r a c ke t t he oe di pa l s c e ne t he m a t i z e d i n S a t a n S a ys T he poe m r e a ds a s i f t he s pe a ke r i s e xa m i ni ng a phot ogr a ph of he r pa r e nt s a nd t r a ve l i ng ba c k i n t i m e t o t he m om e nt s of t he i r r e s pe c t i ve gr a dua t i ons f r om t he i r c ol l e ge s a nd t he m om e nt o f t he i r m a r r i a ge F r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he p r e s e nt of t he s pe a ke r w i t h i m pl a c a bl e hi nd s i ght s he i m a gi ne s w a r ni ng he r pa r e nt s by s a yi ng S T O P by s a yi ng no t o he r ow n l i f e B ut a s t he poe m pr og r e s s e s t he voi c e unde r goe s a r e ve r s a l of vi e w poi nt f i na l l y t a ki ng a n a f f i r m a t i ve s t a nc e : I w a nt t o l i ve T hi s p r e s e nt t e ns e r e c ogni t i on i s f ol l ow e d by a r e vi s e d a nd r e ve r s e d ve r s i on of t he w a r ni ng s he w oul d i s s ue t he i m a gi ne d s pe e c h a c t w hi c h c l os e s t he poe m : I s a y / D o w ha t you a r e goi ng t o do, a nd I w i l l t e l l a bout i t T he s e s pe e c h a c t s e m be dde d i n t he t e m por a l s t r uc t ur e of t he poe m e m body a n i ns t a nc e of w ha t D e r r i da c a l l s t he a bs ol ut e pa s t T hi s i m a gi ne d c om m e nc e m e nt a ddr e s s t o t he pa r e nt s pos e s t he pr obl e m s o f o r i gi n, r e s ur r e c t i on, r e bi r t h, a l t e r na t i on a nd a l t e r a t i on of t he pa s t t he pa s t s t ha t w e r e ne ve r pr e s e nt e t c T he s t r uc t ur e of t he poe m f r a m e s a m ove m e nt be t w e e n t w o m i nds one of ne ga t i on, s a yi ng no t o t he pa s t a nd one o f a f f i r m a t i on s a yi ng ye s t o t he pa s t a nd ye s t o t he r e f l e xi ve m om e nt o f t he pr e s e nt T hi s m ove m e nt f or m s a n a xi s a l ong w hi c h t he t hought of t he poe m r e ve r s e s i t s e l f f r e e l y, m ovi ng ba c k a nd f or t h be t w e e n t he m om e nt of e nu nc i a t i on a nd 1937, a s i f t he s pe a ke r w e r e i n t w o pl a c e s a t onc e T he t w o l ogi c s c ont a m i na t e e a c h ot he r a nd gr a dua l l y t he a f f i r m a t i ve l ogi c w i ns out B ut be f or e t hi s s e e m i ng l y s i m pl e a na gnor i s i s or r e c ogni t i on i s c onc l ude d, t he m i xi ng of t he t w o l ogi c s pr oduc e s a l i t e r a l f e t i s h i m a ge o f c onc e pt i on:

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48 I w a nt t o l i ve I t a ke t he m up l i ke t he m a l e a nd f e m a l e pa pe r dol l s a nd ba ng t he m t oge t he r a t t he hi ps l i ke c hi ps of f l i nt a s i f t o s t r i ke s pa r ks f r om t he m t he s pe a ke r s a ys a s i f t he i m a ge s ( a ppa r e nt l y) i n t h e phot ogr a ph a r e pa pe r dol l c ut out s w i t h t he pr ope r t i e s of vo odoo dol l s T hi s f e t i s h e ve nt w i l l c om e t o be t he di a noi a t he ne w w a y of t hi nki ng t ha t de ve l ops f r om t he r e c ogni t i on t ha t a f f i r m a t i on i s pr e f e r a bl e t o t he S t op, w hi c h t he s pe a ke r i ni t i a l l y de s i r e s A c r os s O l ds oe uvr e t hi s oe di pa l m a t e r i a l i s a c ons t a nt poi nt of r e t ur n t he f i gur e s o f t he pa r e nt s t a ke n up a ga i n a nd a ga i n a nd ba nge d a bout i n de c e l e br a t i on o f t he pa s t a nd i n t he c onc e pt i on of t he t e xt ua l e ve nt B ut i t i s not a s i m pl e a f f i r m a t i on; t he s pe a ke r s e xi s t e nc e w a s m or t ga ge d w i t h t he pa r e nt s uns pe a ka bl e s uf f e r i ng. T he ye s i s a ye s t o bot h t he a f f i r m a t i on a nd t he r e f us a l ye s t o t he c onf l i c t of t he poe t i c f a c ul t i e s ye s t o t he pa s t a nd t he a bs ol ut e pa s t ye s t o t he c onf l i c t o f de s i r e a nd j oui s s anc e w i t hi n t he s ubj e c t N ur s e W hi t m an I ns e r t e d be t w e e n one poe m t he m a t i c a l l y c onc e r ne d w i t h t he f a ul t y m ot he r a nd a not he r c onc e r ne d w i t h t he s ur r e a l i s t m ot he r m a gi c i a n, N ur s e W hi t m a n s e e m s a r e l a t i ve l y t r a di t i ona l i nvoc a t i on o f t he gr e a t A m e r i c a n ba r d. B ut t he poe m r e ge nde r s W hi t m a n, w ho w o r ke d a s a C i vi l W a r nur s e a s a m ot he r a nd s i n c e t he s pe a ke r l i ke ns he r s e l f t o W hi t m a n t he poe m i m pl i c i t l y s ugge s t s t ha t t he s pe a ke r f a s hi ons he r s e l f a s he r ow n poe t i c m ot he r M a ybe t hi s i m a ge s t a nds i n op pos i t i on t o he r bi ol ogi c a l m ot he r t ow a r d w hom s he i s onl y a m bi va l e nt T he l a s t l i ne s of t he poe m m a ke c l e a r t h i s s e l f f a s hi oni ng w i t h W hi t m a n a s m ode l T he y do s o, f u r t he r m or e i n oe di pa l t e r m s : w e

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49 c onc e i ve W a l t w i t h t he m e n w e l ove t hus now / w e br i ng t o f r u i t T he pa r t i c ul a r m a n t he s pe a ke r l ove s a nd t ouc he s i n t he poe m i s he r f a t he r f i gur e d a s t he de a d pe r s on w hom t he s pe a ke r m us t a t t e nd t he w a y W hi t m a n a t t e nde d t he U ni on c a s ua l t i e s : Y ou ba t he t he f or e he a d, you ba t he t he l i p, t he c oc k / a s I t ouc h m y f a t he r a s i f t he l a ngua ge w e r e a f o r m of l i f e O l ds poe t r y i s t he poe t r y of a gr e a t he a l e r a l be i t a s e l f he a l e r pr i m a r i l y a nd t h i s i s s o t he m a t i c a l l y, be yond a ny c onc e r n w i t h t he bo unda r y be t w e e n s i gna t or i e s a nd s pe a ke r s w i t hi n t e xt s F r e ud s i nt e r m i na bl e t a l ki ng c ur e i s t r a ns l a t e d i nt o a w r i t i ng c u r e T he f e t i s h l ogi c i n N ur s e W hi t m a n w hi c h e s pou s e s t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n he a l i ng a nd c om pos i t i on by w a y of t he t w o pr ope r na m e s S ha r on O l ds a nd W a l t W hi t m a n unf ol ds a c r os s t w o s c e ne s : W hi t m a n nur s i ng t he w ounde d a nd t he dyi ng dur i ng t he C i vi l W a r ; t he poe t a t t e ndi ng he r de a d a nd l oc a t i ng he r poe t i c c ont a c t w i t h l a ngua ge i n t hi s e ve nt T he s e t w o s c e ne s a r e w ound t oge t he r l i ke t w o ha l ve s of a D N A s t r a nd, e a c h t h r e e l i ne s t a nz a e f f e c t i ng a t r a ns f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o s c e ne s by e l l i pt i c a l l y c r os s i ng be t w e e n t he m a nd c onf us i ng t he m a s i f e a c h s c e ne i s i m m a ne nt w i t hi n t he o t he r a s i f t he t w o s c e ne s a r e s i m ul t a ne ous l y pr e s e nt i n t he t e xt T hi s e f f e c t c oul d ha ve i t s pl a c e i n t he pr ope r na m e O l ds ; a c onne c t i on a c r os s t i m e l i ke a n um bi l i c a l c or d be t w e e n t he poe t a nd W hi t m a n, he r poe t i c e l de r w hos e w i s dom i s t ha t of a n ol d poe t I n t he f i r s t t h r e e s t a nz a s t he s hi f t oc c ur s t hr ough s ubs t i t ut i on i n t he s ubj e c t pos i t i on, f r o m Y ou t o I i n e a c h s t a nz a : Y ou m ove . / t he w a y I m ove ; Y ou ba t he . / a s I t ouc h ; Y ou w r i t e . I t a ke t he di c t a t i on. I n t he l a s t t w o s t a nz a s t hi s s pl i t be t w e e n s e c ond a nd f i r s t pe r s on pr onoun c a s e s i s r e s ol ve d i n f i r s t pe r s on pl ur a l : W e be nd, W e l e a n, w e c onc e i ve w e br i ng. T hus g r a m m a t i c a l l y, t he t w o s c e ne s i f not t he t w o s ubj e c t pos i t i ons a r e

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50 r e s ol ve d i nt o one B ut r he t o r i c a l l y a nd oe di pa l l y t h e s ubs t i t ut i on i s n t s ym m e t r i c a l T he m a n w i t h w hom t he s pe a ke r c onc e i ve s i s he r f a t he r s ubs t i t ut i ng he r s e l f f o r he r m ot he r on one c or ne r of t he oe di pa l t r i a ngl e T he m e n w i t h w hom W hi t m a n c onc e i ve s a r e t he U ni on s ol di e r s I n t hi s poe m W hi t m a n i s he l d ove r a ga i ns t t he f a t he r a s a m ot he r s br e a s t i s s us pe nde d ove r a c hi l d. W he r e a s t he f a t he r i s pos i t i one d a s t he de a d, W hi t m a n i s pos i t i one d a s a c onc e i ve r on t he s a m e or de r a s t he s pe a ke r a gi ve r o f l a ngua ge a nd l i f e a nd he i s gi ve n b r e a s t s T he W s o f hi s na m e m a y e ve n be r e a d i n t he w or d us e d t o de s c r i be t he br e a s t s of W hi t m a n a nd t he s pe a ke r : W e l e a n dow n, ou r poi nt e d br e a s t s / he a vy a s pl um m e t s w i t h f r e s h s pe r m y m i l k P l u m m e t s ha s t w o s ubs t a nt i ve de not a t i ons one t he pl u m b bob t he o t he r a n oppr e s s i ve bur de n. T he l e t t e r W i s s ha pe d l i ke t w o pl um b bobs s t uc k t oge t he r T he doubl e ne s s a nd t he i nt i m a c y o f b r e a s t s a r e obs e r ve d i n t he w a y t he na m e W a l t i s de pl oye d. T he poe m be gi ns by a ddr e s s i ng W a l t i n t he s e c ond pe r s on, t he f i r s t t hr e e s t a nz a s be gi nni ng w i t h Y ou, t he n i n t he t hi r d pe r s on pl ur a l ( w e ) a nd by f i r s t na m e t w i c e i n t he l a s t t w o s t a nz a s ; t w o W a l t s ha ngi ng a t t he bot t om o f t he l yr i c l i ke t w o p l um b bobs t w o b r e a s t s t w o s c e ne s a nd a t he m a t i c of doubl i ng, a l l unde r t he a us pi c e s of t he l e t t e r W W hy i s N ur s e W hi t m a n i ns e r t e d be t w e e n t w o po e m s bot h of w hi c h a r e a m bi va l e nt i n t he i r di a noi a o r t hought c onc e r ni ng t he m ot he r ? O bvi ous l y t hi s poe m c e l e br a t e s t he i m a ge of m o t he r i ng i n a l e s s s ke pt i c a l w a y t ha n t he out e r poe m s Q ua ke T he or y ( w hi c h c onc e r ns t he f a ul t be t w e e n m ot he r a nd da ught e r ) a nd T r i c ks ( a s pe r f or m e d by a s ur r e a l i s t m o t he r m a gi c i a n w ho c a n m a ke he r da ught e r s ova r i e s di s a ppe a r i n a ddi t i on t o be i ng t he t ops t he be s t / m a gi c i a n ) T he s pe a ke r of N ur s e

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51 W hi t m a n, i n c ont r a s t t o t he m ot he r c e l e br a t e d i n t he out e r poe m s pr om ot e s a n i m a ge of he r s e l f a s poe t / m ot he r a m a nni s h m ot he r t e ndi ng he r de a d f a t he r i n t he m a nne r o f he r f e m m e y poe t f a t he r w hom s he m e t a phor i c a l l y m ot h e r s c ha ngi ng W a l t W hi t m a n i nt o a nur s i ng, f r ui t i ng pa r t i a l l y f e m i ni ne a l t e r e go T hi s m e t a m or phos i s of W a l t W hi t m a n f ol ds t he pa r e nt a l c o r ne r s of t he oe di pa l t r i a ngl e s upe r i m pos i ng m a t e r na l a nd pa t e r na l f unc t i ons ( a nd, t o s om e e xt e nt a na t om y) or c or ne r s upon e a c h ot he r di s pl a c i ng t he de a d f a t he r a nd t he a c t ua l m ot he r w ho i s i nde e d, s e e m i ngl y a bs e nt f r o m t he poe m O n a n e m ot i ona l ve c t or oppos i t e t ha t of bi r t hi ng t he t e xt ge nde r s m our ni ng i n a s t r a nge l y bi s e xua l w a y, t he pun on nu r s i ng m a ki ng t he s c e ne of de a t h a nd dyi ng a l s o a s c e ne of s pe r m y m i l k i s s ui ng f r om pl um m e t s f i gur i ng bot h br e a s t s a nd pha l l oi M our ni ng i s a f e e dba c k l oop w i t h t he pa s t w i t h t h e ol d. A nd t he f or m of l ogoc e nt r i s m pr e s e r ve s i t s e l f by ha vi ng s t r uc t ur e d m our ni ng a r o und i t s e l f W e w i l l no t f r e e our s e l ve s of i t unt i l w e s t op m our ni ng A nd ye t m our ni ng i s i nt e gr a l w i t h he a l i ng M our ni ng i s t he e ve nt t ha t r oot s out t he pa s t a nd t he pa s s e d, r e duc i ng t he i r a f f e c t s but p r e s e r vi ng t he m a t t he s a m e t i m e S om e s c i e nc e f i c t i on c onc e i t s c onc e r ne d w i t h i m m o r t a l i t y i nve s t i ga t e t hi s pr obl e m a t i c : w ha t he a l i ng c a pa c i t y w oul d be s a c r i f i c e d w e r e i m m or t a l i t y t o be a c hi e ve d? I n t he hum a n t e m por a l i t y t he t e m por a l i t y of de a t h, t hi s pr obl e m a t i c c onc e r ns a n i m a gi na r y s c e ne A nd t he ot he r s c e ne t he i m a gi na r y s c e ne of i m m or t a l i t y c ons t i t ut e s a f e t i s h l ogi c i n i t s e r e c t i on, a s c e ne pr e c i s e l y oppos i t e a nd a ppos i t e t o t ha na t ol ogy T he t w o l ogi c s of dy i ng a nd l i vi ng un f ol d a nd i nf ol d e a c h ot he r i n t he que s t i on o f w ha t ha ppe ns be t w e e n t he s e t w o s c e ne s D oe s e i t he r t a b l e a u not r e t a i n t he ot he r i n i t s r a nge or dom a i n s om e w he r e ? B ot h W hi t m a n s a nd t he a ut h or s s i gna t ur e s a r e m a de t o l i ve i n t he t e xt of O l ds poe m he r l a s t na m e i nde l i bl y a na m e of m ou r ni ng ope r a t i ng on a nd

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52 t hr ough t he f i gur e of he r f a t he r a nd t h r ough t he c onc e pt of t he e l de r P oe m s A bout M ot he r i ng M ot he r s a nd m ot he r i ng r e t ur n a s a t he m e us ua l l y s e t of f i n i t s ow n s e c t i on, i n a l l of O l ds books e xc e pt T he F at he r T hi s t he m a t i c f or e gr ounds t he doubl e v i s i on of f e t i s h l ogi c O f t e n t he s pe a ke r s de s i r e s pl i t s de vi s i ng t w o or m o r e s c e ne s w hi c h c onf l i c t i n t he ps yc hi c e c onom y of t he s pe a ke r T he c on f l i c t m a y oppos e one s c e ne of t he s pe a ke r a s m ot he r t o a not he r one o f t he s pe a ke r be f or e gi vi ng bi r t h. A t o t he r t i m e s t he s pl i t i nvol ve s t w o m ot he r da ught e r s c e ne s : t he s c e ne of t he s pe a ke r w i t h he r m ot he r a nd t he s c e ne of t he s pe a ke r w i t h he r da ught e r I n ot he r i ns t a nc e s t h e s pl i t unde r e xa m i na t i on i s be t w e e n t he m ot he r a nd da ught e r I n Y oung M ot he r s I I t h e t w o s c e ne s of m ot he r da ught e r r e l a t i on oppos e t he s c e ne of t he da ught e r l e s s c oupl e be f or e bi r t h. I n e a c h c a s e a pe r s ona r e s i s t s a n ol de r pe r s ona T a ke n t oge t he r t he s e va r i ous i m a ge s c om pr i s e a m ode l a nd e xpl or a t i on of t he m ot he r c om pl e x. A not a bl e m om e nt i n t hi s e xpl o r a t i on i nvol ve s va r i ous u s e s of t he bi r t h s c e ne t ha t i nc l ude t he m ot i f of s a l t W e ha ve a l r e a dy s e e n s a l t / bi r t hi ng i m a ge r y i n t w o poe m s di s c us s e d a bove I n N ur s e W hi t m a n t he m i l k t h a t t he s pe a ke r a nd W hi t m a n p r oduc e i s s pe r m y, s ugge s t i ng t he s a l t i ne s s of s e xua l f l ui ds A not he r p r e va l e nt i m a ge c onde ns e s w a t e r bl ood a nd m i l k ( f l ui ds o f r e p r oduc t i on) w i t h s e a w a t e r a s w e ha ve s e e n i n t he poe m T he R i s i ng D a ught e r w he r e t he s pe a ke r s w a ys i n t he w om b l i ke m i l k s w a yi ng i n he r m ot he r s b r e a s t l a t e r ( a f t e r bi r t h? ) t a ki ng i nt o he r body J a pa ne s e f r ogm e n f r om t he he a vy P a c i f i c a s s he dr a w s s us t e na nc e f r om he r m ot he r s body. A not he r e xe m pl a r y i ns t a nc e of t hi s s a l t bi r t h a s s oc i a t i on a ppe a r s i n t he t hi r d s e c t i on of S a t a n S a ys t he

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53 s e c t i on e nt i t l e d s i m pl y M ot he r T he t r a um a of bi r t hi n g a m pl i f i e s t he di vi s i on o f t he m ot he r i nt o t w o s e pa r a t e s ubj e c t s unt i l t he e ve nt t a ke s on O l d T e s t a m e nt di m e ns i ons T he f ol l ow i ng c om e s f r om t he poe m Y oung M ot he r s I : S he ha s pr e s s e d out t he c hi l d i n he r I t l i e s s e pa r a t e ope ni ng a nd c l os i ng i t s m out h i t s ha nds w r i nkl e d w i t h l ong i m m e r s i on i n s a l t w a t e r N ow t he m ot he r i s t he ot he r one br e a s t s ha r d ba gs of r oc k s a l t t he bl ui s h m i l k s e e pi ng out he r s oul t he r e i n t he s m a l l c a r r i a ge t he c hi l d i n he r r i s e n t o t he t op l i ke c r e a m a nd s ki m m e d of f A l t hough not qui t e bi bl i c a l pi l l a r s t he s a l t i n t hi s p oe m w oul d pr e ve nt nur s i ng i f w e t ook t he i m a ge l i t e r a l l y de s i c c a t i ng t he b r e a s t s de oxy ge na t i ng t he m i l k m a ki ng i t b l ui s h a s i f i t w oul d s uf f oc a t e t he s uc kl i ng c hi l d T he m or e l i t e r a l t e nor of t he m e t a phor m i ght be t ha t t he m ot he r t he ot he r one l i ke he r m ot he r be f o r e he r doe s not r e c e i ve m i l k f r o m t he ha r d br e a s t s t ha t p l e a s ur a bl e e xpe r i e nc e now r e ve r s e d by t he gi vi ng of he r ow n b r e a s t a pa i nf ul l y s e ns uous e xpe r i e nc e a ki nd o f s a l t i n t he w ound of bi r t hi ng T he s c he m a of t he poe m i nc or po r a t e s a dr e a m l ogi c a F r e udi a n c onf us i on o f de a t h a nd bi r t h i n i t s r e p r e s e nt a t i on of a pa r a noi d a nxi e t y dr e a m c onde ns i ng t he f e a r f o r t he l i f e o f t he c hi l d w i t h f e a r of t he l os s of s e l f T h e e s c a pe f r om t hi s l ogi c w hi c h c oi nc i de s w i t h t he r e ve r s a l of t hi nki ng w hi c h e nds t he poe m c ons i s t s i n w a ki ng f r om t he dr e a m : S he dr e a m s of de a t h by f i r e de a t h by f a l l i ng, de a t h by di s e m bow e l l i ng, de a t h by dr ow ni ng de a t h by r e m ova l of t he he a d. S om e o ne s t a r t s t o s c r e a m i t w a ke s he r up, t he hung r y ba by w a ke s a nd s a ve s he r

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54 N ot unt i l t he l a s t l i ne i s i t c l e a r t ha t f e a r f o r t he c hi l d ha s t r a c e d i t s s our c e s i n t he m ot he r s unc ons c i ous f e a r f o r he r ow n l i f e T he w or ds s a ve s he r r e f e r t o t he m ot he r s a ve d by t he c hi l d. W a ki ng a nd e s c a pi ng t he d r e a m l ogi c t he s pe a ke r onl y r e ve r t s ba c k t o t he l ogi c of b i r t hi ng i t s e l f a f e t i s h l og i c r e s ol vi ng t he f e a r of de a t h dr e a m on a c ons c i ous l e ve l but l e a vi ng t he dr e a m l ogi c l a t e nt i n t he bi r t hi ng l ogi c T he s pe a ke r s w a ke ni ng r e t ur ns he r t o t he a f t e r m a t h of t he r e a l s c e ne of s e l f di vi s i on pa r t of t he s e l f l e a vi ng, s pl i t t i ng o f f be c om i ng unknow n t o t he m ot he r : S he ha s pus he d, l yi ng a l one on a be d, / s w e a t i ng, i s ol a t e d by pa i n, / s pl i t t i ng s l ow l y. T hi s poe m t he or i z e s t he m o t he r c hi l d a s t he e xe m pl a r y s pl i t s ubj e c t t he l i t e r a l s pl i t t i ng i t e r a t i ng i t s e l f a s i t e nt e r s m e m or y a nd t he unc ons c i ous di vi di ng t he i m a gi na t i on a ga i ns t i t s e l f B i r t h i ng i s r e pr e s e nt e d a s a s or t of i nve r s e m i r r o r s t a ge t he pa r e nt m i s r e c ogni z i ng he r s e l f i n t he c hi l d he r s e l f a s t he s pe c ul a r ot he r w hi c h ha s i nde e d a r i s e n f r o m he r s e l f but i s now s e pa r a t e a nd no l onge r know a bl e t o he r s e l f a s t he c hi l d i n he r / r i s e n t o t he t op, l i ke c r e a m / a nd s ki m m e d of f A t t he s a m e m om e nt s he i s a w a r e of t he c hi l d s a w a r e ne s s of he r : N ow t he m ot he r i s t he ot he r one T he r e c ogni t i on of he r ow n pr e oe di pa l m e m or y i n t he c hi l d s s i t ua t i on s e pa r a t e s a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e s he r f r om t he c hi l d w hi c h c a nnot ye t know t he f u r t he r pa i n of s e pa r a t i on a nd i nt e r i or i z i ng vi ol e nc e i t m us t unde r go i n or de r t o gr ow a nd m a t ur e A m ot he r i s f a c e d w i t h r e s pons i bi l i t y f or t ha t pos t na t a l vi ol e nc e t ha t a l l ne w bor ns m us t unde r go. I n ot he r w or ds s he i s f a c e d w i t h t he t a s k of c r e a t i ng a s ubj e c t I n t he poe m T he P os s e s s i ve t hi s t he o r y o f t he m a t e r na l s pl i t s ubj e c t i s e xpl or e d i n t he m ot he r da ught e r s pl i t A s t he da ught e r a ge s a nd m a t ur e s t he f e a r ha r bo r e d i n t he i m a gi na t i on of t he m ot he r a nd i n t he unc ons c i ous ( t he unc ons c i ous w i t hout pr e pos i t i on) i s m odul a t e d, di s pl a c e d by a r e t ur n t o t he t he m a t i c of t he e ne m y a nd w a r t he w a r

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55 m a c hi ne t ha t hum s i n t he O l ds c onc e pt ua l m a t r i x t he t he m a t i c w hi c h r uns t hr ough N ur s e W hi t m a n a nd T he R i s i ng D a ught e r S pe a ki ng of he r da ught e r t he s pe a ke r s a ys D i s t a nt f i r e s c a n be gl i m ps e d i n t h e r e s i n l i ght s of he r e ye s : t he w a t c h f i r e s o f a n e ne m y a w hi l e be f or e t he w a r s t a r t s A nd a s i m i l a r w a r w i l l be f ought a ga i ns t t he ol d s e l f t he s e l f t ha t pr e c e de d t he s pe a ke r s m ot he r i de nt i t y I n Y oung M ot he r s I I t hi s ol d s e l f i s m a de t he obj e c t of de s i r e i n one s c e ne of a s pl i t s c e ne l ogi c t ha t e xpl o r e s t he unc on s c i ous of t he m ot he r by l ooki ng ba c k t o a s c e ne now i l l i c i t f or t he m ot he r a s c e ne br a c k e t e d t e m por a l l y by t he s pe a ke r s t w o m ot he r da ught e r s c e ne s a da ught e r l e s s s c e ne I n t he a f t e r m a t h o f bi r t h t he r e i s m our ni ng f o r a n ol d s e l f : T he y ha ve t or n he r s oul out o f he r body a nd s a i d t he c hi l d i s t he ot he r one A l w a ys a ne w ba by t o t a ke he r pl a c e a nd now s he s a l a dy i n w a i t i ng a ga i n t o a que e n. O ut of he r m ot he r s hous e s he ha s f a l l e n i nt o he r da ught e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s he s t a nds out s i de a w i ndow a nd w a t c he s a c hi l dl e s s c oupl e f uc ki ng i n t he r e s i nous l i ght of a f i r e w i t hout i nt e r r up t i on. T he c hi l dl e s s c oupl e f i gur e s a s c e ne of pr e c onc e pt i on, a da ught e r l e s s s c e ne W i t hi n t hi s f i gur e t he c i r c ui t of de s i r e i s he t e r os e xua l a nd w i t hout i nt e r r up t i on. T hi s p r e c onc e pt ua l a nd he t c i r c ui t of de s i r e i s br a c ke t e d by t he t w o s c e ne s of m ot he r i ng t ha t i ns c r i be he r body a nd m e m or y: O ut of he r m ot he r s hous e s he ha s f a l l e n i nt o he r da ught e r s a s i f s he ha s pa s s e d f r om one s ubj e c t pos i t i on i n t he m o t he r c om pl e x t o a not he r T he he t

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56 c i r c ui t of de s i r e m a y f i gur e a w i s h t o e s c a pe t he m ot he r c om pl e x a l t oge t he r T hi s l ongi ng f or t he f r e e dom of t he ol d s e l f t he s e l f i n t he da ug ht e r l e s s hous e i s a t a boo de s i r e a de s i r e i m pl yi ng t he w i s h t o not ha ve t he c hi l d or t o be w i t hout t he c hi l d a nd a de s i r e t o r e t ur n t o a n ol d pa r a di gm a m i dd l e s t a ge be t w e e n pe r i ods of s ubj e c t i on w i t hi n t he m ot he r c om pl e x

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57 C ha pt e r 3 T he L i f t i ng and t he Supe r e go T he L i f t i ng I n t he poe m T he L i f t i ng t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r i s ne s t e d i n t he de a t hbe d s c e ne of t he f a t he r T hi s poe m i s of s pe c i a l i nt e r e s t f o r a s i g na t ur e r e a di ng, f or i t ha s e ve r yt hi ng t o do w i t h t he r e t ur n of t he na m e o r w ha t i s t he s a m e t hi ng, i t s pl a c e m e nt i n t he a bys s A s w i t h m a ny of t he poe m s i n T he F at he r w hi c h c hr o ni c l e s t he de a t h by c a nc e r o f t he poe t s f a t he r t he e ve nt t he poe m de pi c t s t a ke s pl a c e i n t h e hos pi t a l r oom ; t he s pe a ke r s f a t he r l i f t s hi s ni ght i e ( ne a r t he e nd of t he poe m i t w i l l be c a l l e d hi s c ot t on gow n ) a nd t he m e t a phor i c a l t r a j e c t or y of t h i s l i f t i ng e xt e nds r i ght t o a c l a s s i c a l B ook of R e ve l a t i ons m om e nt f o r t he l a s t t w o l i ne s c ha r a c t e r i z e t he l i f t i ng a s a r e ve l a t i on: t he w a y w e w e r e pr om i s e d a t de a t h i t w oul d r i s e / t he ve i l s w oul d f a l l f r om our e ye s w e w oul d know e ve r yt hi ng. W ha t t he s pe a ke r l i t e r a l l y s e e s i s t he body of he r f a t he r dy i ng a nd ga unt be yond t a boo, be yond oe di pa l pr e a nd di s pos i t i o ni ng, be yond he r a s t oni s he d di s be l i e f : I w oul d not ha ve be l i e ve d i t s he s a ys T he e nt r a nc e t o t hi s body i s t hr ough t he na m e W h e n t he f a t he r l i f t s hi s ni ght i e a nd unve i l s hi s body, t he s pe a ke r t ur ns a w a y a s i f vi ol a t i ng t he t a boo of h i s body. S he i s f or c e d t o t ur n ba c k w he n he c a l l s he r by he r ni c kn a m e : S udde nl y m y f a t he r l i f t e d up hi s ni ght i e I t ur ne d m y he a d a w a y but he c r i e d out Shar m y ni c kna m e s o I t u r ne d a nd l ooke d

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58 M uc h of t hi s poe m s s t r uc t u r e r e s ul t s f r om a j oi ni n g of na m e s : t he i nt i m a t e a nd a bbr e v i a t e d ni c kna m e be c om e s e nf ol de d w i t h t he s ur na m e t h r ough a n e xpl o r a t i on o f t he ol d t a boo body a nd i t be gi ns w i t h Shar not s h r ( l i ke a i r or c a r e ) a ppa r e nt l y but s ha r T hi s ni c kna m i ng pe r f or m s a n a poc a l ypt i c s ync ope of t he p r ope r na m e S ha r on H o w i s Shar pr onounc e d? T he f a t he r s p r onunc i a t i on i s bur i e d, e nc r ypt e d by t hi s g r a phi c r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he ni c kna m e T hus t he ni c kna m e be c om e s unknow n a t t he m om e nt of i t s r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd, i n t he c h r onol ogy o f t he poe m w i t hi n t he f a t he r s c om m a nd t ha t hi s da ught e r vi e w hi s unve i l e d body. A t t he s a m e t i m e i n t he s a m e t e xt ua l e ve nt t he s e c ond na m e of t he s i gna t ur e e nc r ypt s T he L i f t i ng. T he o r i e nt a t i on a nd s e t t i ng of t he poe m s t hought i s c l e a r l y one of O l d T e s t a m e nt i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y A O l d T e s t a m e nt unde r t one c a n be he a r d i n t he ni c k of ni c kna m e O l d N i c k i s a m oni ke r f o r S a t a n. A s I ve poi nt e d out i n t he r e a di ng of S a t a n S a ys a bove t he r e i s a hypogr a m m a t i c pos s i bi l i t y t ha t S ha r on a nd S a t a n s ha r e bot h w or ds be gi nni ng w i t h S a nd e ndi ng w i t h n T ha t c oi nc i de nc e a l i gns pe r f e c t l y w i t h t he t he m a t i c s t r uggl e o f t ha t poe m : t he s pe a ke r a ga i ns t he r S a t a n. I n T he L i f t i ng w e a r e de a l i ng w i t h s ync ope a d i f f e r e nt ki nd o f de f o r m a t i on, s ugge s t i ng a pa r t i a l obj e c t T he s c e ne of t he c hi l d vi e w i ng t he na ke d f a t he r c o ns t i t ut e s one of t he p r i m a l m om e nt s i n t he O l d T e s t a m e nt a ps yc hol ogi c a l s c e ne of t he o r i gi na r y m om e nt o f t a boo i nc e pt i on. I n t he ni nt h c ha pt e r o f G e ne s i s a f t e r t he f l ood na r r a t i ve t he t a boo of na ke dne s s i s a r t i c ul a t e d i n a hom of a m i l i a l s c e ne H a m s e e s hi s f a t he r N oa h, dr unk a nd na ke d ( a nd pa s s e d out ? ) i n N oa h s t e nt H a m r e por t s w ha t he ha s s e e n t o hi s t w o br ot he r s S he m a nd J e pha t h, t he n G od c ur s e s hi m or a t l e a s t hi s s on C a na a n ( t he r e i s s om e

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59 c onf us i on i n t he pa t c hw or k of na r r a t i ve s ) 6 O l ds p oe m i s a n e l e ga nt f e m i ni s t ( m i s ) r e a di ng of t hi s hom ot e xt ua l e ve nt r e c e nt e r i n g i t a r ound t he s ubj e c t pos i t i on of a da ught e r T he poe m f ol l ow s t he bi bl i c a l t r a j e c t or y of t he m ot i f o f ve i l i ng c a r r yi ng i t t hr ough t o t he i de a o f pr ope r a nd f i na l unve i l i ng t he r e ve l a t i on, a nd t he a s ym pt ot i c a nd pr om i s s or y om ni s c i e nc e of t he B ook of R e ve l a t i on s B ut t he poe m f i r s t ope ns t he s c e ne of t a boo a nd c ur s e T he va r i ous e nc r ypt i ons o f t he poe m i nc l udi ng t hi s e nc r ypt i on of r e ve l a t i on t hr ough t a boo, r e s i de i n a n d c ons i s t of t he de s c r i pt i on of a c r i s s c r os s of ga z e s a nd s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s 7 T he c om m a nd, Shar i s e l i c i t e d by a n i ni t i a l r e f us a l of t he ga z e : I / t ur ne d m y he a d a w a y but he c r i e d out / Shar T h us t he f i r s t s e nt e nc e i nt r oduc e s a de f or m a t i on of t he na m e S ha r on. A s i m i l a r s ync ope f or m s a n a nt ono m a s i a pe r ha ps t he m os t obvi ous t ype o f c ount e r s i gna t ur e O l ds r e duc e d t o a n a dj e c t i va l ol d, de l i m i t i ng t he pa r t i c ul a r c r ypt i ng o f t hi s poe m : he / s how s m e hi s ol d body. T he f i r s t a nd l a s t na m e s f or m a n e c ho c ha m be r i n w hi c h t he poe m r e s ounds w i t h t he t w o na m e s B e t w e e n t he s e na m e s t he r e i s m our ni ng f o r t he on c e s ol i d r uddy s t om a c h, a nd t he pe l vi s i s c om pa r e d t o a c ha m be r e d w he l k s he l l ho l l ow e d out T he w or d s ol i d e xpa nds t he w or d ol ds by a ddi ng a n i a f t e r m o vi ng t he s t o t he f r on t of t he w o r d. I n a s i m i l a r f a s hi on, t he w or d hol l ow e d e xpa nds ol d. T he w or d s he l l s ounds t he s h phone m e T he onc e s ol i d s t om a c h ha s l os t i t s s ol i d i t y, now ol d a nd l oos e T w o c r ypt s t he s t om a c h a nd t he pe l vi s : t he s t om a c h, or t he s ki n o f i t ha s f a l l e n 6 A s a n i t e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t n u d i t y t h e s t o r y o f H a m a n d N o a h r e i t e r a t e s t h e s t o r y o f t h e f i r s t v e i l i n g i n t h e G a r d e n o f E d e n A d a m a n d E v e i n g e s t t h e f r u i t o f t h e t r e e o f k n o w l e d g e o f g o o d a n d e v i l a n d b e c o m e a s h a m e d o f t h e i r n a k e d n e s s U p o n t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n t h e c o u p l e f a s h i o n s t h e f i r s t v e i l a n a p r o n o f f i g l e a v e s s e w n t o g e t h e r T h e s e e v e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r o f G e n e s i s 7 F o r a r i g o r o u s t h e o r e t i c a l r e a d i n g o f t h e g a z e a n d t h e a b j e c t b o d y i n T h e F a t h e r s e e L a u r a E T a n n e r s a r t i c l e D e a t h W a t c h : T e r m i n a l I l l n e s s a n d t h e G a z e i n S h a r o n O l d s T h e F a t h e r

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60 f ol de d dow n a t t he ba s e of t he a bdom e n, w hi c h i s t he m out h o r ope ni ng of t he pe l vi s T he s t om a c h, a f l e s hy s a c k ( a ba g o f t i s s ue f or m i n g a c r ypt f or di ge s t i on, a c r ypt of c ons um pt i on l i ke t he m out h w hi c h i s a l s o a c r ypt of i nge s t i on) c ol l a ps e s i nt o t he bony c r ypt of t he pe l vi s a c r ypt t ha t m a y s ur vi ve t he de a t h of t he body f or s om e t i m e t hus a c r ypt a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c or ps e s a nd one w hi c h w hi l e l i vi ng hous e s t he s a c s of t he l ow e r or ga ns s uc h a s t he ova r i e s a nd va r i ous a l i m e nt a r y or ga ns T he poe m r oot s dow n i nt o t he body of t he f a t he r T he t w o na m e s S ha r on a nd O l ds a r e a l s o c r ypt s t ha t t he poe m e xpl or e s S ubt l y, a s t he s pe a ke r i s f or c e d t o m a ke a de c i s i on a bout vi e w i ng t he t a boo na ke dne s s of he r f a t he r t he ga z e o f t he r e a de r a l s o e nt e r s de c i s i on s pa c e H ow doe s t he f a t he r pr onounc e t he f o r e na m e ni c kna m e ? W oul d he s a y s ha r r or s ha r e or c he r ? T he s e pr onunc i a t i ons c onduc t va r i ous m e a ni ngs i n t o t he poe m T he s ync ope l e a vi ng out t he on of S ha r on, f or c e s t he r e a de r i nt o t he s i gna t ur e s pa c e of t he a ut hor i nt o t he que s t i on of how he r na m e f unc t i ons i n r e l a t i on t o h e r i de nt i t y. N o m a t t e r how he r f a t he r pr onounc e s t he ni c kna m e ( bot h w a ys ? a nd/ or pos s i bl y s om e ot he r w a y or w a ys ? not t o m e nt i on t he pos s i bl e by pl a y be t w e e n va r i ous ni c k na m e s t ha t m a y a f f e c t t he s pe a ke r ) t he pr om i s e of t he na m e pr om i ne nt l y a c c e nt s t he c r os s e d i de nt i t i e s of t he da ught e r a nd t he f a t he r T he y s ha r e i de nt i t y W hi c h one i s c ha r r e d, bur nt ? W hi c h ga z e bur ns a nd c ons um e s t he ot he r ? T h e que s t i on of t he p r onunc i a t i on i s i m m e di a t e l y c om pl i c a t e d i n t he ne xt s e nt e nc e by t o s how a s ynonym f o r s ha r i ng: H e w a s s i t t i ng i n t he hi gh c r a nke d up be d w i t h t he / gow n up t o s how m e t he w e i ght he ha d l os t H i s c a nc e r ha s bur nt t he w e i ght of f hi s body; w ha t i s r e ve a l e d by t he ga z e w ha t i s s how n? I de nt i t y r e duc e d t o i t s oe di pa l a s he s ? T he ga z e of t he poe m pa s s e s t hr ough c a nc e r hi s body hi s c ha nc e s a nd

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61 t hr ough m e m or y T he w e i ght ha s be e n l os t a nd t o be s how n i t ha s t o be s how n i n m e m or y. T hi s i s one pa r t o f t he c ha nc e ope r a t i on o f t he ga z e ; a not he r pa r t of t he c ha nc e ope r a t i on i s t ha t i t pa s s e s t hr ough t he p r ope r na m e T he s h of t o s how : t he de not a t i ons of s how i ng a nd s ha r i ng ove r l a p w i t hi n t he c onc e pt of t he ga z e a nd t he s h di s s e m i na t e s t he ope ni ng phone m e of Shar by m e a ns of a s ynonym o f s ha r e T hi s di s s e m i na t i on a l s o c a pi t a l i z e s obl i que l y on t he s ha r e d pr onunc i a t i on w hi c h s ounds t he O l d F r e nc h c he r m e a ni ng de a r f r o m t he L a t i n c ar us B e c a us e s he c a r e s s he l ooks : I l ooke d w he r e hi s s ol i d r uddy s t om a c h ha d be e n a nd I s a w t he s ki n f a l l e n i nt o l oos e s of t ha i r y r i ppl e d f ol ds l yi ng i n a pool o f f o l ds S he l ooks a nd s he s e e s one s e t of f ol ds ne s t e d w i t hi n a not he r T he r e pe t i t i on o f t he w or d f ol ds r e pr oduc e s t he s a m e s or t of i nv a gi na t i on t h a t a ppe a r s i n t he ni c kna m e Shar a l t hough t he m e c ha ni s m i s i di os ync r a t i c w i t h e a c h w or d. T o f ol d t he w or d ha s gr e a t c onc e pt ua l a nd t he or e t i c a l r a nge : i nva gi na t i on, l a br i s ur e l e pl i t he pl e a t t he m a ni f ol d of m a t he m a t i c s e t c D e l e uz e s a ys t h a t w he n a n or ga ni s m di e s i t doe s not r e a l l y va ni s h, but f ol ds i n upon i t s e l f a br up t l y i nvol u t i ng i nt o t h e a ga i n ne w l y dor m a nt s e e d by s ki ppi ng a l l i nt e r m e di a t e s t a ge s ( F o l d 8) a nd t hi s pr oc e s s m i ght de s c r i be t he t r a ns f e r e nc e be t w e e n f a t he r a nd da ught e r of T he L i f t i ng I n t hi s poe m t he doub l i ng o f t he w or d l e t s t he m e a ni ng of t he w o r d a c t on i t s e l f : t o f o l d i s t o doubl e I n Shar t hi s doubl i ng a ppe a r s i n t he s pa c e be t w e e n w r i t i ng a nd s ound, i n t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of pr onunc i a t i on. I n w hi c h c a s e i s de s i r e m or e of a f a c t or or c ha nc e m or e o f a f a c t or ? I n t he s ync ope of t he ni c kna m e t he de s i r e o f t he f a t he r h a s be e n na r r ow e d dow n t o a pr e c i s e di m e ns i on of t he de s i r e t ha t he w i s he s t o i ns t i l l i n t he da ught e r i e t o t he m a s t e r y of t he

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62 de s i r e of t he o t he r T ha t m uc h i s g r a phe d by t he or de r w or d Shar T he ga z e s w i l l be e xc ha nge d, a nd t he n, i n a s e c ond m ove m e nt of t hi s pr e c i s e de s i r e t he f a t he r w i l l l ook a w a y a s t he da ught e r di d i n t he s e c ond l i ne of t he poe m : I s a w / hi s r ue f ul s m i l e t he c a s t up e ye s a s he / s how s m e hi s ol d body . . I n t he e xc ha nge of ga z e s t he de s i r e of t he da ught e r m ove s t hr ough t he de s i r e t o e a t t he f a t he r a t t he s a m e t i m e t ha t i t m ove s t hr ough t he na m e of t he f a t he r : I s a w t he f ol ds o f s ki n l i ke s om e t hi ng / pour e d, a t hi c k b a t t e r I s a w / h i s r ue f ul s m i l e . a s he / s how s m e hi s ol d body. F ol ds ba t t e r s h ow s ol d : t he s e w or ds di a gr a m t he de s i r e a t s t a ke i n t he hi nge of t he na m e s Shar a nd O l ds S ha r i ng a nd s ha r ki ng s i gna t ur e i t e r a t i ons of Shar bot h c ha nne l t he m e a ni ng of de s i r e t hr ough t he i m a ge of c ons um i ng t he ot he r ; of f e r i n g one s s e l f t o be c ons um e d, o r f o r c e f e e di ng ( by m e a ns of t he o r de r w or d) t he ot he r one s ow n body, f i gu r e s t he de s i r e t o r e pr oduc e one s ow n de s i r e p r e c i s e l y w i t hi n t he ot he r a s a m e a ns of r e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i ng t he i de nt i t y of t he ot he r a s a m e a ns of j e a l ous y. T o c ook t he ba t t e r o f t he ot he r f r om t he i ns i de out : t he poe m c ons t r uc t s t he s ubj e c t i vi t y of bot h f a t he r a nd da ught e r by m i r r or i ng t he i r de s i r e s i n s ym m e t r y. H e i s s ue s he r ni c kna m e a s a n or de r w or d; t he poe m di s s e m i na t e s c ount e r s i gna t ur e s of hi s na m e O l ds f ol di ng t he t w o na m e s i nt o a r e l i gi on o f t hi s s i ngul a r m i r r o r i ng by r e t e r r i t or i a l i z i ng t he c onc e pt of r e ve l a t i on. F r om t he ol d body ( t he n a m e of t he l a w of t he f a t he r ) O l ds c om e s t he or de r w or d Shar a s i f O l ds w e r e t he o r i gi n a nd de s t i na t i on of S ha r on, t he t e l e ol ogy a nd e s c ha t ol ogy of t he obs c e ne s upe r e go, t he f a t he r t ha t s a ys no but t he n s a ys ye s or de r i ng t he da ught e r t o s e e hi s body a s hi s de s i r e w oul d c ons um e he r de s i r e a s de a t h i s c ons um i ng t he ol d body. S he s t r uggl e s t o f i nd e ve r y w a y pos s i bl e t o r e de e m t he l a w of t he f a t he r a s a m e a ns of t r a ns c e ndi ng a l l t he w a ys t he l a w of t he f a t he r ( un) ve i l s

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63 a nd f or e c l os e s l ove I n ot he r w or ds by t u r ni ng t he c i r c ui t of de s i r e t ha t o r i gi na t e s i n t he oe di pa l m om e nt i ns i de out s he c onve r t s a s c e ne of r e t e r r i t or i a l i z a t i on ( of t he c hi l d by t he pa r e nt on t he oe di pa l pl a ne ) i nt o one of de t e r r i t or i a l i z a t i on ( on t he r e l i gi ous p l a ne ope ni ng or c ont a m i na t i ng r e ve l a t i on, he r e t he c oi n c i de nc e of de a t h a nd om ni s c i e nc e ) by e qua t i ng r e ve l a t i on w i t h t he de s i r e o f t he obs c e ne s upe r e go, t hus c ont a m i na t i ng o r ope ni ng t ha t de s i r e T hi s ki nd of e ve nt a l s o oc c ur s i n s c e ne s of m our ni ng; m our ni ng a s t he oc c a s i on f or ot he r w i s e una c c e pt a bl e s a dne s s a nd t he de l i r i u m t h a t poi nt s t o p r obl e m s i n one s e xi s t e nc e E ve r y br e a t h i s t he e nt r a nc e a nd e xi t o f de a t h: t he e m pt y c he s t s ki n f ol de d dow n, c a da ve r c ol l a ps e d, t he n t he body i nf l a t e d l i ke a ba l l oon, t he m os t ba s i c e xt e ns i on of c ons c i ous ne s s t he a ut onom i c s ys t e m s e m be dd e dne s s i n t he m a t e r i a l a nd e ne r ge t i c t e xt us or e c onom y of t he uni ve r s e T h i s e nt r a nc e a nd e xi t of de a t h i m pl i e s t he body s unc ons c i ous e xpl or a t i on a nd r e t e r r i t or i a l i z a t i on o f t he e xpe r i e nc e of de a t h t hr ough br e a t hi ng. B r e a t h a s a m e t onym y o f l i f e i m pl i e s t h e m e t a phor i c a l a bs e nc e of l i f e a t t he c onc l us i on of e xha l a t i on: pr e s e nc e a nd a bs e nc e of br e a t h, pr e s e nc e a nd a bs e nc e of l i f e T hi s r e t e r r i t or i a l i z a t i on i s f ur t he r m a ppe d by m e a n s of l a ngua ge w he n t he br e a t h i s m or c e l i z e d a s s pe e c h, s e gm e nt e d i nf l ue nc e ne t w or ks t ha t m odul a t e r e p r e s e nt a t i on i n t he f or m a t i on o f t he l i ngui s t i c e go, a nd f u r t he r m a ppe d by t he i ne vi t a bl e f ol di ng ba c k of c ons c i ous ne s s i nt o t he a bs ol ut e pa s t a nd t he pr e s e n t of t he unc ons c i ous due t o t he m e m or y s t r uc t ur e s l a ngua ge c r e a t e s T hi s s t r u c t ur e t e nds t o uns ut ur e t he c onc e pt ua l ve i l i ng of de a t h a nd i t s l a c k a p r oc e s s i n w hi c h l a n gua ge s pe c ul i a r de l a y m ode s pl a y a n i m por t a nt r o l e O l ds poe t r y l i ke m uc h good poe t r y, i s a n e xpl o r a t i on o f t hi s z one of l a ngua ge a nd s i gna t ur e

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64 T he F e r r ye r a not he r poe m f r om T he F at he r e xp l or e s t hi s t r a ns i t i ona l s pa c e t ha t f ol ds t oge t he r t he e dge s of l i f e a nd de a t h i n t h e m yt hi c f i gu r e of C ha r on, t he f e r r ym a n w hos e pr ope r na m e f or m s a po r t i nt o t he pr ope r na m e S ha r on. T he c a da ve r ous body of t he f a t he r be c om e s a ga r goyl e s i t t i ng i n t h e pr ow of t he f e r r yboa t a s a s t one s t a t ue w ho i n hi s r i c t us m a i nt a i ns a s t r a i ght f a c e w i t h t he s pe a ke r S he us e s hi s ha t e f ul ne s s t o s e nt e nc e ot he r pe opl e w ho a nnoy he r t o a de a t hl i ke di s a ppe a r a nc e f r om he r c ons c i ous ne s s H e r f a t he r s de a t h be c om e s a hi dde n e r e c t i on of t he na m e S ha r on a s t he t w o, i n t he di a noi a o f T he F e r r ye r s ha r e a j oke T he pr ope r na m e C ha r on i s ne ve r de pl oye d, onl y i t s m yt hi c a nd s t r uc t ur a l e l e m e nt s s e r vi ng t o m e t onym i c a l l y out l i ne t he f a t he r s f i gu r e I n t he bl a nk of t ha t out l i ne s i t s t he ga r goyl e c a da ve r of t he s pe a ke r s f a t he r A nd t hi s i s t he j oke t ha t t he t w o a r e ha vi ng: he ha s t a ke n on t he pe r s ona of C ha r on, a s a c ut e a nd e xpe r t a s he i s a t pe r f or m i ng t he de a t hl i ke di s a ppe a r a nc e of ot he r s f r om hi s c ons c i ous ne s s T he poe m i s c l a s s i c a l l y F r e udi a n a nd s t r uc t ur a l l y ne a t i n i t s oc c l us i on of t he p r ope r na m e C ha r on a s a m e a ns o f pe ne t r a t i ng t he a bys s of t he pr ope r na m e S ha r on. A nd f o r T he L i f t i ng t hi s m i ght a u gur a p r onunc i a t i on of Shar t ha t w oul d c oi nc i de w i t h he r f a t he r s p r onunc i a t i on of C ha r on w he t he r or not he r f a t he r e ve r pr onounc e d t he w or d C ha r on. T he s pe a ke r s i nne r e a r he a r i ng t he w or d i n he r na m e ( or r e f us i ng t o) i m put e s t o i t t he ni c kna m e he r f a t he r g i ve s he r R e f us a l or ne ga t i on i n l a ngua ge a l w a ys i m pl i e s a pos i t i va t i on of t he ne ga t e d c ondi t i on a t s om e ot he r l e ve l of l a ngua ge e s pe c i a l l y i n t he c a s e of t he pr ope r na m e f o r m i ng s t r i a t i ons a nd s m oot h s pa c e s i m ul t a ne ous l y a r ound t he phone m e s of t he m or c e l i z e d na m e T he na m e oc c upi e s a m os t pr om i ne nt p os i t i on i n t he s ubj e c t s pa r t i c ul a r l i ngu i s t i c s pa c e i nc l udi ng t he s pa c e of he r a l t e r i t y.

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65 B ut w hi c h s pe a ke r ha s i m put e d t hi s p r onunc i a t i on of S ha r on: t he s pe a ke r of c r i t i c a l c onve nt i on or t he pe r s on w ho r e a l l y he a r d he r f a t he r s p r onunc i a t i on o f he r ni c k na m e ? T he gr a phi s m o f T he L i f t i ng ( Shar ) pl a ys ha voc w i t h t he m a s ks w e nor m a l l y e r e c t f or t he e xe r c i s e of c om m e nt a r y. O r doe s O l ds ( or O l ds ) e ve n gi ve a da m n how he r f a t he r p r onounc e d i t m i s pr onounc e d i t un r e or d i s pr onounc e d i t ? A nd hi s ha vi ng pr onounc e d Shar w ha t w oul d t ha t pr o nunc i a t i on be now he a nd t he pr onunc i a t i on ha vi ng be e n f ol de d ba c k i n t o t i m e w i t h hi s de a t h? I s C ha r on pr onounc e d s hai r n o r k a i r n, ( r n o r # k r n ) ? T he O E D gi ve s # k r n. S ha r e r on or C a r e r on? B ot h of f e r m or a l i m pe r a t i ve s B ut s o m e m o de r n a s t r onom e r s pr onounc e i t s ha i r n, a s i n t he na m e C ha r l e ne J a m e s W C hr i s t y, w ho di s c ove r e d P l ut o s m oo n, na m e d i t C ha r on, w hi c h he pr onounc e d a f t e r h i s w i f e s na m e C ha r l e ne ( n i c kna m e C ha r ) C h c a n be pr onounc e d s h. O l ds f ol ds he r f a t he r s s ki n ne a t l y a s i f i t w e r e a f l a g, a nd pl a c e s i t on hi s s pi ne w he r e hi s i nt e r na l o r ga ns a r e e m pt y s a c s f or m i ng t he f l oor i nt o t h e c r ypt of t he r i b c a ge a nd t he c r ypt of t he pe l vi s I n t hi s poe m a bout ope ni ng t he c r ypt s o f t he body, t he s pe a ke r f i gur a t i ve l y put s he r body a nd t he body of he r da u ght e r i n t he c r ypt of he r f a t he r s body, a s i f t he y a r e c r ypt s w i t hi n hi s c r ypt A s s uc h, i f t hi s poe m i s not a bout s ha r i ng, t he n t ha t i s pr e c i s e l y w ha t i t i s no t a bout : not hi ng o f t he bod y i s s ha r e d e xc e pt w ha t i s t a boo a n e pi s t e m ol ogy of t a boo. A f t e r t he s t om a c h a nd t he t or s o, t he ne xt t hi ng t he poe m s e e s i n t he body of t he f a t he r i s i t s ge ne t i c c ode gr a phe d i nt o t he m e m or y of t he s pe a ke r vi a t he i m a ge of t he hi p s ha pe s ha r e d by f a t he r da ught e r a nd gr a ndda ught e r a s t hough t hi s c ode w e r e w ound i nt o a w he l k s he l l B ut onl y t ha t s yne c doc he of t he body t he pe l vi s c a r r i e s f or w a r d t h r ough t he s pe a ke r s da ught e r T he s he l l of t he i m a ge i s hol l ow e d out a s i f

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66 f or t he c ont i nua nc e of t he de ve l opm e nt of t he i m a ge f o r t he l i ne f ol l ow i ng r e t u r ns t o t he f l e s hy f ol ds of t he s ki n l i ke s om e t hi ng pour e d, a t hi c k ba t t e r T he s he l l i s e m pt i e d o f i t s ( e d i bl e ? ) m a r i ne s na i l i n or de r t o m a ke r oom f o r t he ba t t e r of t he f a t he r di s pl a c e m e nt of one l i f e by a not he r t he ba t t e r f a l l i ng i nt o t he a r e a of t he l ow e s t c ha kr a s t he ba s e of t he s pi ne i n t he ba c k of t he bow l o f t he pe l vi s a s i f t h e t r a i t be c om e s t he c r ypt f o r t he f l e s h, a s i f t he bodi e s o f t he f e m a l e de s c e nda nt s be c om e t he t om b of t he f a t he r t he ne w do m a i n of t he f a t he r t he or i gi n a nd r e m a i ns of hi s l e ga c y i n m a t t e r a s i f hi s f l e s h w i l l be ba ke d by t he s e xua l e ne r gy o f t he da ught e r s B ut t he c ont a i nm e nt of t he i m a ge i n a ps yc hol ogi c a l s e ns e be c om e s c onf us e d: w hos e hi p s a r e c ont a i ne d a nd w hos e a r e c ont a i ne r a nd w hos e f o r m i s hol di ng w hos e ? A s w i t h t he c r i s s c r os s of ga z e s i n t hi s poe m t he r e a da bi l i t y of t he i m a ge i nvol ve s a c onf us i on of s ubj e c t po s i t i ons a c yc l e of de s i r e i ns c r i be d i n t i m e a nd i n m a t t e r t ha t f ol ds t he s ubj e c t s i nt o e a c h ot he r S i gna t ur e e f f e c t s of t he poe m ( l e f t c ol um n be l ow ) c a n be s c he m a t i c a l l y a r r a i gne d a ga i ns t t he s e que nc e of i m a ge s ( r i ght c ol um n) t ha t a c c r e t e i n t he t e xt a l t hough t e c hni c a l l y t he i m a ge s a nd e f f e c t s a r e i m m a ne nt w i t hi n e a c h ot he r w ove n t oge t he r a nd out of e a c h o t he r T hi s be c om e s a ppa r e nt a s s oon a s one be gi ns t o c om pos e s uc h l i s t s : Shar ni ght i e l i f t e d t o s how ga z e a ve r t e d r i ppl e d f ol ds f a t h e r i n c r a nke d up be d pool of f ol ds l os t w e i ght pe l vi s s ha pe d r uddy s t om a c h s he l l s ki n f a l l e n f ol ds of s ki n ga unt t or s o he s how s hi ps ol d body s ki n l i ke ba t t e r t ol d m e r ue f ul s m i l e s ol i d s t om a c h na ke d body gl a ns pe ni s

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67 s now f l a ke s gow n ve i l s T he r i ght c ol um n s ugge s t s i n i t s s e que nc e t he pe n e t r a t i on i nt o t he t a boo r e a l m w i t h t he s e ns a t i ona l f a l l of t he ga z e dow n t he body of t he f a t he r be gi nni ng w i t h t he gow n up a r ound t he hi s ne c k, t he n m ovi ng dow n t o t he s t o m a c h, dow n t o t he hi ps ba c k up t o t he f a c e t he n dow n a ga i n t o t he f o r bi dde n ge ni t a l s be f or e r e t ur ni ng t o t he gow n i t s e l f ( a f i gur e of t he poe m i t s e l f a w e a ve of t e xt ( u r e ) ) a nd i t s a t t e nda nt a poc a l ypt i c t he m a t i c of ve i l s w hi c h t he poe m e xpl oi t s i n i t s e ndi ng W ha t doe s t he s i gna t ur e c ol um n s ugge s t w he n i t i s j uxt a pos e d t o t hi s pe ne t r a t i on? B y s ym m e t r y a nd by t he hi nge of t he t w o pr ope r na m e s i n t he s i gna t ur e i t s ugge s t s t he c opul a t i on of t he t w o na m e s of t he s i gna t ur e i n t he i m pl i c a t e or de r of t he t e xt O n t hi s l e ve l t he l e ve l of t he l e t t e r w ha t doe s l a ngua ge know of t a boo? T he w or d s he l l s ugge s t s i n i t s a pp r opr i a t i on of e l l f or i t s di s pl a c e m e nt of a r on, he l l L ooki ng ove r O l ds w or k, f e w r e a de r s w oul d di s a gr e e t h a t O l ds obs e s s i on w i t h he r f a t he r w i l l f ul l y t r a ns gr e s s e s t he bounda r i e s of . de c or um ? O c c a s i ona l l y s he e xpl or e s t he phys i c a l de s i r e s he f e e l s f or he r f a t he r 8 B ut t he que s t i on f or a s i gna t ur e poe t i c s c onc e r ns t he j oi nt t he hi nge t he c onne c t i on t h e c opul a t i on be t w e e n t w o na m e s a nd w ha t t hi s dya di c r e l a t i on p r oduc e s T he t w o na m e s ve i l a nd unve i l e a c h ot he r T he e nd of T he L i f t i ng m ove s t he di a l og i c of t he t w o na m e s S ha r on a nd O l ds i nt o t he a bs t r a c t ge ne r a l i t y of t he que s t i on o f e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l s e c ur i t y, c ouc hi ng t hi s m ove i n a bol d e xt e ns i on of t he ont o t he ol ogi c a l i n t e r t e xt ua l i t y, e l e va t i ng t he s t a ke s of t he poe m W ha t e xa c t l y doe s t he a bs ol ut e qua l i t y o f t he c onc e pt o f om ni s c i e nc e ha ve t o 8 S e e f o r i n s t a n c e L o o k i n g a t M y F a t h e r i n T h e G o l d C e l l

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68 do w i t h t he oe di pa l r e l a t i on? T he r e s i s t a nc e of t he T he L i f t i ng l i e s i n i t s a m bi guous s l i ppa ge be t w e e n t he s e ns uous de s c r i pt i on of t he a bj e c t body of t he dyi ng f a t he r a nd t he br a c ke t i ng bi bl i c a l i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y, t he s e br a c ke t s be gi nni ng t he poe m i n t he O l d T e s t a m e nt m ode of t a boo vi ol a t i on a nd e ndi ng i t i n t he pr obl e m of t he N e w T e s t a m e nt s c l os ur e t he i s s ue of R e ve l a t i on w hi c h a m ount s t o t he pr obl e m of t he c onc e pt of om ni s c i e nc e H ow c a n t he c onc e pt ( o f om ni s c i e nc e ) a nd t he ( dyi ng) body be r e c onc i l e d ( i n t e r m s o f C hr i s t i a n m yt h) ? T he s e e m i ngl y a bs t r a c t phi l os ophi c a l s t r uc t ur e of t he poe m pos e s t he a nt i t he s i s be t w e e n t he pr om i s e of om ni s c i e nc e a nd t he pr ob l e m of a l t e r i t y w hi c h c ount e r pos e s om ni s c i e nc e a bs ol ut e l y. S e e n i n t hi s l i ght t he poe m s ugge s t s t he de s t r uc t i on of a l t e r i t y a s a f or m of c onc e pt ua l v i ol e nc e c oi nc i de nt w i t h s e e i ng t hr ough t he de a t h of t he f a t he r T he a bj e c t a l t e r i t y of t he di s e a s e d body w oul d s om e how ha ve l e a d t o t he e r a s ur e of a l t e r i t y s pa r t i t i on be t w e e n t he da ught e r a nd t he f a t he r i f w e know e ve r yt hi ng. F o r om ni s c i e nc e t o r e s ol ve t he t e ns i on of t he poe m i t w oul d ha ve t o r e s ol ve t he i s s ue of t a boo vi ol a t i on a nd t he que s t i on of w ha t i s f i na l l y s e e n i n t he body o f t he f a t he r C ons i de r t he c onc e pt of om n i s c i e nc e a s a f unc t i on of t he po e m or a s a f unc t i on a ppl i e d t o t he poe m O m ni s c i e nt know l e dge of t he f a t he r w oul d be a m a ppi ng f r om o m ni s c i e nc e i n ge ne r a l ( t he r a nge of t he f unc t i on ) ba c k i n t o t he do m a i n of t he f unc t i on t ha t know l e dge c oe xt e ns i ve w i t h t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r o r t he ga z e of t he poe m T hi s m a ppi ng r e m i nds us t ha t t he c onc e pt of om ni s c i e nc e i t s e l f ve i l s t he pot e nt i a l a nd t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t i t a nnounc e s I t pr om i s e s m or e t ha n i t de l i ve r s i n a ny l i m i t e d s e ns e of t i m e T he e nd of t he T he L i f t i ng s t r e t c he s t he ve i l of b i bl i c a l i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y f r om G e ne s i s w he r e t he be gi nni ng of t he poe m pos i t i on s i t s e l f t o R e ve l a t i ons s hr oudi ng t he

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69 body of t he f a t he r A t t he e nd o f t he poe m t hi s m o ve t o r e ve l a t i on di ve r t s t he ga z e f r om t he body of t he f a t he r by s hi f t i ng t he r a nge o f t he g a z e f r om t he m a t e r i a l e m pha s i s on t he body t o t he c o nc e pt ua l pr obl e m s of t i m e e pi s t e m ol ogy, a nd t he e nds of ont o t he ol ogi c a l t hought T he t r a ns i t i ona l i m a ge f r om t he t a boo bod y of t he f a t he r t o t he c onc e pt of t he pr om i s e i s a ga i n r oot e d i n t he ga z e : B ut now I c a n s t i l l s e e t he t i ny s now f l a ke s w hi t e a nd ni ght bl ue on t he c ot t on of t he gow n a s i t r i s e s t he w a y w e w e r e pr o m i s e d a t de a t h i t w oul d r i s e t he ve i l s w oul d f a l l f r om ou r e ye s w e w oul d know e ve r yt hi ng. A t f i r s t g l a nc e i t a ppe a r s t ha t t he pl a y of phone m e s di s s e m i na t i ng f r o m t he s i gna t ur e ha s be e n s us pe nde d. B ut a s t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s p e a ke r s ga z e m ove s f r om t he body t o t he gow n a nd t he a na l ys i s of t he gow n t he n t hr oug h m e m or y t o t he a s s oc i a t i on w i t h t he r e ve l a t or y pr om i s e s uc c e e de d by t he pl a c e m e nt of t he ga z e i t s e l f unde r e r a s ur e i f you w i l l w hi c h t he c onc e pt of om ni s c i e nc e pe r f or m s a s a l l t hi s oc c ur s i n t he t e xt t he e f f e c t s of t he s i gna t ur e c a n s t i l l be s ur m i s e d. W i t h t he r i s i ng a nd f a l l i ng t he i m a ge r y ha s be c om e c ol d a s t r ong a nd s e ns uous s i gna t ur e e f f e c t f i r s t n ot e d a bove i n t he r e a di ng o f S a t a n S a ys t he f i r s t poe m i n t he f i r s t o f O l ds books A nd t he n t he t r a ns i t i on t o t he s ubj unc t i ve m ood of t he l a s t c l a us e ope ns t he pr obl e m a t i c of t e m por a l i t y i n i t s m ove m e nt s a m ong t e ns e s a s t he c ondi t i on of t he pr o m i s e i s r e c ount e d : t hi s t r a ns i t i on t r a ve r s e s t he ol d. A nd of c our s e t he c onc e pt of om ni s c i e nc e r a i s e s t he pos s i bi l i t y of a n a bs ol ut e s ha r i ng a nd i n f a c t e ve n t he e nd of t he pos s i bi l i t y o f ( not ) s ha r i ng. A s T he L i f t i ng l e a ps f r o m t he c onc r e t e t o t he a b s t r a c t i n i t s c l os e i t s e e m s t o i nvi t e a t he or e t i c a l r e a di ng. W e c a n pos e oppos i t i o ns a nd i nve r s i ons a m ong va r i ous c onc e pt s t ha t t he poe m e voke s : s ha r i ng vs r e pl a c e m e nt om ni s c i e nc e vs a l t e r i t y,

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70 m e t a phor vs i r ony, t e m por a l i t y vs know l e dge t he ga z e of de s i r e vs de s i r e of t he ga z e . . S uc h a l i s t p r ovi de s a hunt i ng gr ound f or s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s F or i ns t a nc e c ons i de r ol dne s s a ge a nd a gi ng a s a f o r m o f a l t e r i t y, of be c om i ng a l t e r be c om i ng ot he r I f t he poe m i s i r oni c t he n i t r e a ds a s a va l o r i z a t i on of a l t e r i t y, bu t i f i t s m e t a phor i c i t y ove r r i de s i t s i r ony, t he n t he l i t e r a l r e ve l a t i on of t he e ve nt i n t he hos pi t a l r oom t he r e ve a l i ng of t he body, unf u r l s i nt o t he pos i t i ve pos s i bi l i t y o f a bs ol u t e r e ve l a t i on. S uc h a m e t a phor i c a l l e a p f r om t he body t o t he c onc e pt ua l s ugge s t s a n om ni s c i e nt e r a s ur e of a l t e r i t y ( a n H e ge l i a n A uf he bung on t he pl a ne of t he s ubj e c t ) T hi s c e l e br a t e d pos t s t r uc t ur a l oppos i t i on be t w e e n m e t a phor a nd i r ony, w he n a ppl i e d t o T he L i f t i ng s ugge s t s a n A m e r i c a n s t yl e de c ons t r uc t i ve r e a di ng, one o f unde c i da bi l i t y be t w e e n m ut ua l l y e xc l us i ve m e a ni ngs T he G ol de n R os e W ha t i s t he hi nge t ha t j oi ns t he t w o na m e s S ha r on a nd O l ds ? D oe s i t he l p t o t hi nk of i t a s m e t a phor or a s i r oni c ? T he r e i s a s pa c e be t w e e n t he na m e s T he pos s i bi l i t y o f m e a ni ng, of m e t a phor o r i r ony a s s uc h, r e qui r e s a c e r t a i n s pa c e of pos s i bi l i t y. A ny s i gna t ur e poe t i c s m us t ope n a nd e xpa nd t ha t s pa c e i n t e r m s of t he s i gna t ur e a t ha nd: s pa c i ng. T he hi nge m us t ope n. I n T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng a t t he be gi nni ng o f t h e s e c t i on l a be l e d P r i v at e s i x o f t he poe m s de a l w i t h t h r e e of t he s pe a ke r s gr a ndpa r e nt s he r f a t he r s f a t he r a nd he r t w o gr a ndm ot he r s a l l of w ho m ha ve di e d T he s e a r e p oe m s a ddr e s s e d t o de a d e l de r s T hr ough t he s e poe m s t he gr a ndm ot he r s a r e m or e o r l e s s a c c e pt e d, but s he w r i t e s a ga i ns t t he gr a ndf a t he r T he f our t h a nd f i f t h poe m s i n t hi s s e que nc e a ddr e s s r e s pe c t i ve l y t he m a t e r na l gr a ndm ot he r a nd t he pa t e r na l gr a ndf a t he r T he s e t w o poe m s l i e on f a c i ng pa ge s he i ght e ni ng t he i r t he m a t i c oppos i t i on. L i ke t he ot h e r f our poe m s a ddr e s s i ng t he de a d

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71 gr a ndpa r e nt s t he s e poe m s s e e m t o be c om pl e x c a t ha r t i c e xe r c i s e s i n a na m ne s i a T he s e t w o poe m s f or t he p r i va t e de a d s i ngl e out t w o of he r e l de r s a nd t he y t he n s ugge s t a f or m a t i on a ki n t o D e r r i da s a nt honom a s i a 9 I n B i r t h da y P oe m f or M y G r a ndm ot he r a n a nt onom a s i a of S ha r on, by w a y of R os e of S ha r on a nd R os e t a ke n a s t he c om m on noun r os e c ons t i t ut e s a s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s ugge s t i ng a f o r m o f i de nt i f i c a t i on be t w e e n t he s pe a ke r a nd t he m a t e r na l gr a ndm ot he r T hi s poe m o r i e nt s t he m e m or y of t he de a d g r a ndm ot he r a r ound t he r os e s ne a r t he s pe a ke r s por c h a nd m e t a phor i c a l l y de s c r i be s t he qua l i t y o f he r a bs e nc e a s t he l a c k of c ol or t hi ngs ha ve a t ni ght : I t hought of t he ne w r os e a nd w e nt out ove r t he gr e y l a w n t hi ngs r e a l l y ha ve no c ol or a t ni ght I de s c e nde d t he s t one s t e ps a s i f t o t he pl a c e w he r e one s pe a ks t o t he de a d. T he r os e s t ood ha l f unc ur l e d, gl ow i ng w hi t e i n t he bl a c k a i r T he a bs e nc e of t he g r a ndm ot he r d r a w s out t he m e m or y of he r f a i l i ng body s be a ut y, bl i nd a nd i n a r t hr i t i c pa i n. T hi s poe m i s a bout t he w i s h t o t a l k t o a nd t o f e e l t he pr e s e nc e of t he ol d w ho ha ve d i e d. A pp r opr i a t e l y t he poe m a s s oc i a t e s he r w i t h r os e s a s i t e xpl or e s t he m e m or i e s t ha t m us t s uf f i c e i n he r a bs e nc e I n c ont r a s t O f A l l t he D e a d T ha t H a ve C om e t o M e T hi s O nc e i s a poe m of r e j e c t i on w r i t t e n on t he oc c a s i on of t he a r r i va l o f t he pa t e r na l gr a ndf a t he r s gol d poc ke t w a t c h. I t be gi ns I ha ve ne ve r w r i t t e n a ga i n s t t he de a d. T hi s poe m e xpl i c i t l y 9 A n t h o n o m a s i a a n e o l o g i s m w h i c h D e r r i d a s u g g e s t s i n G l a s t o d e s c r i b e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f G e n e t s r h e t o r i c o f f l o w e r s m a k e s a p o r t m a n t e a u o f t h e w o r d s a n t h e r ( t h e p o l l e n b e a r i n g p a r t o f t h e s t a m e n o f a f l o w e r ) o r a n t h e r e c t a n d a n t o n o m a s i a t h e t r o p e o f c o n v e r t i n g a p r o p e r n o u n i n t o a c o m m o n n o u n o r v i c e v e r s a a n d s u g g e s t i n g t h e t e r m a n t h o l o g y a c o l l e c t i o n o f t e x t s G l a s i t s e l f c o m p r i s e s a n a n t h o l o g y o f t h e t e x t s o f b o t h G e n e t a n d H e g e l T h u s t h e p u n p e r f o r m s t h e f l o w e r i n g o f a r h e t o r i c a l t e r m a g e n e t i a n e f f e c t

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72 de c l a r e s t ha t t he m e m or y of t he de a d gr a nd f a t he r i s t oo m uc h pr e s e nt a nd m us t be f or got t e n: L e t t he f a l l he m a de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . be hi s l a s t a ppe a r a nc e he r e T hi s e xpl i c i t a r gum e nt of t he poe m i s i m pl i c i t l y a n d i r oni c a l l y s uppor t e d by a s t r a t e gy of c ol or V i vi d a nd c ol o r f ul t he poe m c hr om a t i c a l l y a na l yz e s t he gol d of t he poc ke t w a t c h i nt o t he c ol or of t he R oc ki e s / ove r t he da r k ye l l o w of t he f i e l ds / a nd t he b l a c k r i ve r s t he n a ga i n r e f r a c t s t he gol d i n t o a bl a c k r oom w i t h t he f i r e t he l i ght of t he f l a m e s / f l a s hi ng i n hi s gl a s s e ye a nd f i na l l y i m pe r a t i ve l y vi s ua l i z e s t he de a t h of gr a ndf a t he r i n a n i m a ge t ha t f ur t he r a na l yz e s t he t e xt s c ol or va l u e : L e t t he f a l l he m a de t hr ough t ha t gl a s s r o of s pl i nt e r i ng, t u r ni ng, t he g r e a t s ha nks a nd s l i c e s of gl a s s i n t he a i r be h i s l a s t a ppe a r a nc e he r e T he gr e a t s ha nks a nd s l i c e s of gl a s s i n t he a i r s u gge s t s a pr i s m a t i c s pl i nt e r i ng of t he l i ght i n t he gr a ndf a t he r s gl a s s e ye a nd t he di s pe r s a l of hi s m e m or y a s l i gh t i s f l a s hi ngl y de c om pos e d i nt o i t s c ol or s T he s i gna t ur e i r ony pu t s t he s i gna t ur e e f f e c t of t he gr a ndf a t he r s na m e O l ds gol d, t o w o r k w r i t i n g a ga i ns t hi m T hi s i r ony c ont r a s t s m a r ke dl y w i t h t he us e of t he r os e i n t he f a c i ng poe m t o m e t a phor i c a l l y f i gu r e t he gr a ndm ot he r a nd t he a t t r a c t i on a nd a f f e c t i on t he s p e a ke r f e e l s f or he r T he gol d poc ke t w a t c h a l s o f ol ds t he i m a ge of t he p a t e r na l gr a ndm ot he r i nt o t he pa t e r na l na m e : G r a ndm ot he r s bl a nk / f a c e pr e s s e d a ga i ns t hi s na m e i n t he b a c k. T he bl a nk f a c e s ugge s t s a l os s of a f f e c t a nd t he f a c e pr e s s e d . i n t he ba c k s ugge s t s he r s uppr e s s i on a nd/ or r e pr e s s i on by t he g r a ndf a t he r a nd hi s na m e I n a ddi t i on t he

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73 j uxt a pos i t i on w i t h t he poe m on t he f a c i ng pa ge r e d oubl e s t he di s pl a c e m e nt of t he pa t e r na l gr a ndm ot he r by j uxt a pos i ng t he m a t e r na l gr a ndm o t he r ( a nd t he w hi t e r os e ) w i t h t he gol d poc ke t w a t c h. T he na m e o f t he gr a ndf a t he r i s not gi ve n e xpl i c i t l y, but I a s s um e i t i s O l ds 1 0 T he t w o poe m s c om pr i s e a pa r t i a l di a gr a m o f t he t w o na m e s S h a r on a nd O l ds W ha t t he s pe a ke r of B i r t hda y P oe m f or M y G r a n dm ot he r ha s l os t i n he r m a t e r na l gr a ndm ot he r i s t he pos s i bi l i t y o f s har i ng one o f t h e pos s i bi l i t i e s of S ha r on t he pos s i bi l i t y of r os e s : Y ou w oul d ha ve be e n ni ne t y a nd ge t t i ng / r os e s f r om m e I n c ont r a s t ne i t he r of t he pa t e r na l gr a ndpa r e nt s r e c e i v e s t hi s w a r m t r e a t m e nt O l ds w r i t e s a ga i ns t t he gr a ndf a t he r i n t he f a c i ng poe m a nd on t he f ol l ow i ng pa ge F a r e w e l l P oe m w i t h t he de di c a t i on ( f or M M O 1880 1974 ) i s dom i na t e d by i m a ge s of c ol dne s s a not he r r e l a y o f t he pa t e r na l s i gna t ur e F a r e w e l l P oe m r e s i gns t he m e m or y o f t he G r a ndm ot he r O l ds t o a n i c e be r g t ha t w i l l de l i ve r h e r t o a c ool w hi t e l ong r oom F at e and O i l T he poe m F a t e f r o m T he F a m i l y s e c t i on o f T he D e ad and t h e L i v i ng a l s o de ve l ops a c e r t a i n a nt a goni s m be t w e e n e f f e c t s i s s ui ng f r om t he t w o na m e s of t he s i gna t ur e F r om t he i m a ge of t he gr e a s e d, de f e a t e d f a c e of t he s pe a ke r s f a t he r t he s h r e t ur ns r e pe a t e dl y, f or m i ng a s e r i e s : s hi ni ng, s hi ni ng, s hi ne d de f e a t e d f a c e s hi ni ng, w hol e w or l d s hi ni ng w i t h t he e c s t a s y of hi s g r i e f a nd f i na l l y i n t he pr onoun j um bl e I / m ys e l f he I s hi ne d. T he l a s t s e nt e nc e of t he p oe m r oot s t hi s s hi ni ng i n t he w or d oi l e d, a doubl e e pe nt he s i s ( t he a ddi t i on of a l e t t e r s oun d or s yl l a bl e t o t he m i ddl e o f a w or d) a ddi ng t he l e t t e r s i a nd e t o t he w or d ol d, pl a nt i ng e xt r a vow e l s i n i t l i ke 1 0 T h e p o e m r e p e a t s i m a g e r y f r o m T h e G u i l d w h i c h d e p i c t s t h e t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o f t h e s p e a k e r s f a t h e r w i t h t h e g r a n d f a t h e r w h o i s t h e m a s t e r i n c r u e l t y a n d o b l i v i o n

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74 bul bs pus he d dow n i n t he s oi l a nd t he n t he s of S ha r on i s gr a f t e d ont o t he w or d oi l i t s e l f t o ge t s oi l c ont i nu i ng t he a s s ona n c e of oi l e d : I s a w t he w hol e w o r l d s hi ni ng w i t h t he e c s t a s y of hi s g r i e f a nd I m ys e l f he I s hi ne d, m y oi l e d po r ous c he e ks gl a uc ous a s t ul i ps t he r i c h s m e a r of t he pe t a l t he bul b hi dde n i n t he da r k s oi l s t uc k, i m pa c t e d, s ur e o f i t s r i ght f u l pl a c e H e r i de nt i t y he r e s e e m s t he r e s ul t of ne w vow e l s i a nd e pus he d i nt o t he ol d na m e T he e pe nt he s i s f r om O l ds t o oi l e d t a ke s pl a c e f r e que nt l y t h r oughout O l ds w or k, us ua l l y i n t he i m a ge r y of he r f a t he r s f a c e 1 1 I n t h i s pa r t i c ul a r p oe m t he gr e as e d de f e a t e d f a c e [ m y e m pha s i s ] t ha t ope ns t he i m a ge r y be gi ns t he p r oc e s s of pa l i m ps e s t i ng t he f a t he r s body a nd t he i de nt i t y o f t he s pe a ke r a nd l e a di ng t o t he l i t e r a l e f f a c i ng a nd de f a c i ng of t he s pe a ke r t he n t o t he r e f i gur a t i on of t he s pe a ke r i n t he s i m i l e gl a uc ous a s t ul i ps a nd he r di s f i gu r a t i on a s a bul b hi dde n i n t he da r k s oi l s t uc k, i m pa c t e d T he s oi l be c om e s a f i gur e f o r t he unc ons c i ous r e i t e r a t i ng t he ol d, o i l e d, s ha r e d m e m or y o f t he f a t he r da ught e r i e t he w e t g r ound t ha t / t h i ngs you l ove ha ve f a l l e n ont o / a nd be e n l os t f or good w hi c h gl i s t e ns e a r l y i n t he poe m T he di s s ona nt oxym or ons s hi ni ng de f e a t a nd e c s t a t i c gr i e f ga t he r t oge t he r gr e a s e d, gl i s t e ni ng, s our m a s h, oi l e d, por ous s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s of t he s ur na m e a nd r e f or m t he m i nt o a f l ow e r a t ul i p r a t he r t ha n a r os e w hi c h r e t a i ns t he r i c h s m e a r o f gl a uc ous oi l unl i ke a r os e T he t ul i p a nnua l l y di e s ba c k, l i vi ng on t he f ood s t or e d i n i t s bul b, a nd r e ne w s i t s e l f f r om t he gr ound up. T hi s w oul d e xpl a i n t he pa s t t e ns e c ons t r uc t i on of t he poe m ; t he w i nt e r of i de nt i t y, t he dyi ng ba c k i nt o t he r e a l i z a t i on t ha t t he i ne s c a pa bl e ove r de t e r m i na t i on of 1 1 I n T h e L i v i n g a n d t h e D e a d s e e e s p e c i a l l y L o o k i n g a t M y F a t h e r L a t e P o e m t o M y F a t h e r a n d J u n e 2 4 A l s o c f A n n e S e x t o n A W o m a n I s H e r M o t h e r

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75 oe di pa l i de nt i t y s pr i ngs f r om a s e a s ona l t e m por a l i t y. M e m or i e s a nd s t r uc t ur e s o f m e m o r y c a n di e r e s i gne d t o a n a bs ol ut e pa s t l i ke s oi l w hi c h f ol ds l i f e f o r w a r d t h r ough i t s de c om pos i t i on, ope ni ng t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of c ha nge t hr ough r e ne w a l A s ubt e xt of t he poe m i n t he a bys s of t he na m e s s ugge s t s a s D yl a n T hom a s w oul d s a y, t he f o r c e t ha t t hr ough t he g r e e n f us e dr i ve s t he f l ow e r t he r e ne w a l of t he f l ow e r t he r e c om pos i t i on out of t he s oi l a nd t he b l os s om i ng of t he f l ow e r of S ha r on. T he pl a y o f l i ght on o i l a pr i s m a t i c a nd f l ui d e f f e c t be c om e s t he oc c a s i on of t he m e m or i a m t o i de nt i t y t ha t a c c om pa ni e s t he c ont e m pl a t i on of one s c onne c t i on t o ot he r s i n t he m i ds t o f a l t e r i t y. T he l i ght / oi l i m a ge s ugge s t s t he bounda r y ( of de a t h) be t w e e n s e l f a nd ot he r i f not ( t o di a gr a m i t ) t he s i ngul a r ve c t or t ha t or i e nt s i t s e l f a m ong t he m ul t i pl i c i t y o f ve c t or s c om pr i s i ng t he O t he r T ha t r e l a t i on t o a l t e r i t y f or m s t he e xt e r i or a nd t he a bys s of t he poe m t he pos s i bi l i t y of t he po e m t he O t he r t ow a r d w hom s he s hi ne s a nd w i t h w hom s he s hi ne s B ut t ha t a l t e r i t y, i n i t s i ne f f a bl e pe r m e a t i on o f l a ngua ge a nd i de nt i t y, c a nnot be c l e a r l y de l i m i t e d. Y e s s he be c om e s he r f a t he r a nd t ha t i s t he be c om i ng i m pl i c i t i n t he t i t l e of t he poe m F a t e B ut i t i s not t he e nd of t ha t be c om i ng T o be gi n w i t h s he be c om e s he r f a t he r s hi ni ng t ow a r d a nyone I l ooke d a t ; h i s ga z e ove r de t e r m i ne s he r ga z e a t t he be gi nni ng o f t he po e m a nd t hi s m om e nt ha s t o be a c c e pt e d, e xa m i ne d, s ubj e c t e d t o a t e m por a l l y r e t r os pe c t i ve ga z e a nd pa s s e d ove r f or t he poe m t o w or k i t s e l f out t o ga t he r i t s s t r e ngt h f or t h e f l ow e r y t r a ns f or m a t i on t ha t a r i s e s out of t he pos s i bi l i t y be yond t he s ur r e nde r a nd c a pi t ul a t i on t ha t t he f i r s t l i ne o f t he poe m a nnounc e s : F i na l l y I j us t ga ve up a nd be c a m e m y f a t he r T hi s c ol l a ps e of s i ngul a r i t y a nd i de nt i t y i n oe di pa l c onf us i on pa r a l l e l s t he e nc r ypt i on of t he na m e s i n t he a bys s A n e a r l y poe m T he U nbo r n, i n Sat an Say s s i m i l a r l y e xpa nds t he s ur na m e i nt o

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76 a n i m a ge t ha t b r i ngs t he bounda r y of a l t e r i t y a nd d e a t h i nt o vi e w A ppa r e nt l y a dd r e s s i ng t he s pe a ke r s hus ba nd, t he poe m c onc e r ns t he c hi l dr e n w e c oul d ha ve T he t hi r d s t a nz a c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he s e pos s i bl e c hi l dr e n i n t hi s w a y: S om e t i m e s I s e e t he m l y i ng l i ke l ove l e t t e r s / i n t he D e a d L e t t e r O f f i c e T he a c r onym D L O r e ve r s e s t he s pe l l i ng of O l d a nd, r e a di ng t he pun on l e t t e r s put s t he s i gna t ur e i n t he c r ypt of t he poe m a t t he l e ve l of t he l e t t e r A l t hough m os t o f t he t he s e i m a gi ne d c hi l dr e n ne ve r l i ve t he r e i s t he s pe c t e r of de a t h t ha t c om e s w i t h t he l e t t e r D a nd i t s e xpa ns i on i nt o t he w o r d D e a d, ha unt i ng t he m i nc l udi ng t he one s t ha t m a y be bo r n. A nd t hi s gr a f t of t he w o r d de a d ont o t he l e t t e r D r e m i nds us of t he pr oxi m i t y o f t he t w o w o r ds O l d a nd D e a d. F or hum a ns ol d a ge i ne vi t a bl y l e a ds t o de a t h. A s L uc y M c D i a r m i d s a ys of T he W e l l s pr i ng a nd he r s t a t e m e nt i s ge ne r a l i z a bl e a c r os s O l ds poe t r y, t he bodi e s s he w r i t e s a bout he r m ot he r s f a t he r s l ove r s c hi l d r e n s hus ba nd s e xi s t w i t h a l l t he i r ge ne t i c hi s t or i e s a nd r e pr oduc t i ve or ga ns f ul l y vi s i bl e t o t he poe t I nc l udi ng t he e nds of t hos e s i ngul a r ge ne t i c c onf i gur a t i ons de a t h, a s w e l l a s t he be gi nni ngs T he e gg s t ha t f e m a l e s a r e bo r n w i t h a nd w hi c h t hi s poe m c ont e m pl a t e s t he i r pot e nt i a l c hi l d r e n, r e s i de i n t he c r ypt of t he ova r i e s unt i l t he y m ove out o f t he f e m a l e body t o be r e l e a s e d a t ovul a t i on, d i s pe l l e d a t m e ns e s or bor n o r unt i l t he y di e w i t h t he body o f t he m ot h e r S i m i l a r l y s i gna t ur e poe t i c s c oul d be t he or i z e d i n t e r m s of a l t e r i t y T he l e t t e r s o f t he s i gna t ur e c oul d be c onc e i ve d a s s pe r m or e ggs f ol de d i nt o c r ypt s of t he p r ope r na m e / bod y unt i l r e l e a s e d i nt o t e xt s t o go t he i r ow n w a y i n t he w or l d A not he r poe m t ha t l i ke F a t e pl a ys on bot h t he s h phone m e of S ha r on a nd t he ol d phone m e a l s o r e s i de s i n T he F a m i l y s e c t i on of T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng I n T he T a ke r s O l ds c om pa r e s he r s i s t e r t o H i t l e r a s s he d e s c r i be s a n i nc i de nt of s i bl i ng

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77 t e r r or i s m he r s i s t e r c om i ng i nt o he r r oom a t ni ght a nd pe e i ng on he r A f t e r t he da r k gol d s m e l l of t he u r i ne pe r m e a t e s t he r oom a nd s he ha s be e n c ha r r e d w i t h s h a m e a nd he r body s c or c he d by t he boi l i ng he a t of he r s i s t e r s ur i ne s he f e e l s he r s i s t e r s pl e a s ur e : W he n t he hi s s i ng s t oppe d, w he n t he hol e ha d be e n s c or c he d i n m y body, I l a y c r i s p a nd c ha r r e d w i t h s ha m e a nd f e l t he r s ki n gl i t t e r i n t he a i r he r da r k gol d pl e a s ur e unf ol d a s [ H i t l e r ] s t ood ove r N a pol e on s t om b a nd m u r m ur e d T hi s i s t he f i ne s t m om e nt of m y l i f e A s w i t h t he oi l / s hi ni ng r e l a t i on i n F a t e t he ol d phone m e i n gol d a nd unf ol d s t a nds i n a n e m ot i ona l c ont r a s t t o t he s h phone m e i n s ha m e T he s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s l oc k t he t w o na m e s i n a de a t h g r i p s i m i l a r t o t he de a t h or s e x g r i p of t he po r t m a nt e a u s houl de r 1 2 N ot e a l s o he r e t he c r ypt i m a ge r y, t he h ol e i n he r body c om pa r e d t o N a pol e on s t om b, a s t unni ng i m a ge o f i nt e r i or i z i n g vi ol e nc e w i t hi n w hi c h t he s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s r e f e r t o va r i ous a f f e c t s I n t he s a m e s e c t i on of T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng t h e poe m T he D e r e l i c t a l s o us e s gol d a nd ur i ne i n i t s i m a ge r y T hi s poe m c om pa r e s a de r e l i c t t o t he s pe a ke r s br ot he r but i n t hi s c a s e t he c a us a l i t y of t he f a m i l i a l t r a ge dy i s pl a c e d on t he s pe a ke r t he e f f e c t on t he br ot he r T he de r e l i c t a nd t he b r ot he r bot h ha ve bl ond be a r ds a nd t he ne r ve l e s s ha nd s of t he de r e l i c t a r e i m a gi ne d a s t he c r us he d ha nds of a vi o l i ni s t t hi s i m a ge of ha nds be c om e s a m e t a phor f or t he l i f e of t he br ot he r : I s m e l l t he w a s t e of hi s pi s s I s e e t he i ng ot of hi s be a r d, a nd t hi nk of m y younge r b r ot he r hi s be a ut y, c oi na ge a nd vol t a ge of hi s be a r d, hi s l i f e he i s not us i ng, l i ke a vi ol i ni s t w hos e 1 2 S e e t h e r e a d i n g o f L o v e F o s s i l a b o v e f o r a r e a d i n g o f t h e s i g n a t u r e e f f e c t i n t h e w o r d s h o u l d e r

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78 ha nds ha ve be e n c r us he d s o he c a nnot pl a y I w ho w a s t he r e a t t he c r us hi ng of hi s ha nds a nd he l pe d t o c r us h t he m T he w or d gol d doe s not a ppe a r but t he de r e l i c t s bl ond be a r d e voke s f or t he s pe a ke r t he i ngot of he r b r ot he r s be a r d a s w e l l a s i t s c oi na ge bl ond, i ngot a nd c oi na ge t oge t he r s ugge s t i ng gol d. I n a ddi t i on t he w or d vol t a ge i s a l s o e voke d by gol d due t o i t s e xc e l l e nt c onduc t i vi t y a nd t he s i m i l a r w a ys i n w hi c h gol d a nd e l e c t r i c i t y r e s pe c t i ve l y r e f l e c t a nd p r oduc e l i ght T he s i gna t ur e e f f e c t i s f u r t he r de ve l ope d by t he t e xt t hr ough t he w or d be a ut y, a qua l i t y t ha t m a ke s gol d a p r i z e d pos s e s s i on. T he s e gol de n a s s oc i a t i ons w or k a s t a r k c ont r a s t w i t h t he gol de n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he de r e l i c t t he w a s t e of pi s s a nd t he s ki n pol i s he d [ a s i f gol de n] w i t h g r i m e T he bl ond be a r d o f t he de r e l i c t i s a l s o l i ke a s i gn of be a ut y a nd pow e r W ha t i s t h e pow e r of gol d, w ha t i s i t s pot e nz ? T ha t w oul d be one of t he l e a di ng que s t i ons of t he i nve s t i ga t i on of t hi s s i gna t ur e I n t hi s poe m t he gol de n p r ope r t i e s a r e w e i ght e d a bout e qu a l l y be t w e e n pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve a f f e c t s w i t h t r a ge dy c a nc e l i ng pot e nt i a l a t a n o r i gi na r y m om e nt o f t he t e xt A nt i c i pat i on S i t ua t e d a t t he e nd of P a r t O ne t he poe m W he n f unc t i ons a s a t r a ns i t i on be t w e e n t he f i r s t t w o s e c t i ons i n O l ds t h i r d book of poe m s T he G ol d C e l l T hi s i s a s l i ght poe m w i t h a m i n i m a l i s t pr e s e nt a t i on c ons i s t i ng of no t m uc h m or e t ha n t he e l a bor a t i on of a s i ngl e i m a ge I t s e e m s br i e f a nd u nde ve l ope d f or a n O l ds l yr i c onl y 15 l i ne s l ong. M os t of t he poe m s i n t hi s book r un t o 3 0 l i ne s or m or e w hi c h i s t ypi c a l of he r s t yl e I n i t s pos i t i on, s t r a t e gy, a nd br e vi t y t he poe m r e s i de s i n t he m a r g i n of t he vol um e B ut t he r e i s gol d he r e a s i f t he book s poe t i c dr i ve s i ns i s t upon t he r e s ona nc e of

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79 t he w or d gol d S ki m m i ng dow n t hr ough t he poe m t he phone m e ol d s t a nds out i n t w o ke y de t a i l s of t he i m a ge T he i m a ge c ons i s t s of a w om a n out i n he r ya r d h o l d i ng he r da ught e r i n he r a r m s a s a g ol d ba l l l i f t s ove r t he hor i z on H e r e i s t he poe m i n i t s e nt i r e t y: W he n I w onde r now onl y w he n i t w i l l ha ppe n, w he n t he young m ot he r w i l l he a r t he noi s e l i ke s om e body s pr e s s ur e c ooke r dow n t he bl oc k, goi ng o f f S he l l go out i n t he ya r d hol di ng he r s m a l l da ught e r i n he r a r m s a nd t he r e a bove t he e nd o f t he s t r e e t i n t he a i r a bove t he l i ne of t he t r e e s s he w i l l s e e i t r i s i ng l i f t i ng up ove r our hor i z on, t he uppe r r i m of t he gol d ba l l l a r ge a s a g i a nt pl a ne t s t a r t i ng t o l i f t up ove r our s S he w i l l s t a nd t he r e i n t he ya r d hol di ng he r da ught e r l ooki ng a t i t r i s e a nd gl ow a nd bl os s om a nd r i s e a nd t he c hi l d w i l l ope n he r a r m s t o i t i t w i l l l ook s o be a ut i f ul T he poe m s r e pe t i t i ous ne s s pr om i ne nt l y f or e gr oun ds t he w or d w i l l T he hol d i ng i m a ge l e nds i t s e l f t o t hi s r e pe t i t i ous e f f e c t r hy t hm i c a l l y s pa c i ng a nd di vi di ng t he poe m i n t o t hr e e pa r t s T he hol di ng a l s o s e t s of f t he m os t puz z l i ng f e a t ur e o f t he poe m t he gol d ba l l w hi c h c om e s i nt o vi e w i n t he m i dd l e t hi r d of t he p oe m T he que s t i on of t he gol d ba l l i t s s ym bol i c va l ue s t a nds i n r e l a t i on t o t he m ot he r da ught e r pa i r a nd t ha t r e l a t i on be gi ns t o unf ol d a s t he poe m e nds T he t hr e e po i nt s of t hi s r e l a t i on c ons t i t ut e a t r i a ngl e gol d ba l l m ot he r da ught e r c onne c t e d by t he hol di ng: t he m ot he r hol ds t he da ught e r a nd t he da ught e r ope ns he r a r m s t o t he ba l l a s i f t o ho l d i t a nd t he a t t e nt i on o f t he m ot he r i s he l d by t he ba l l O f c our s e i t i s pos s i bl e t o r e a d t hi s t r i a ngl e a s a n oe di pa l t r i a ngl e w i t h t he c or ne r of t he f a t he r s i gni f i e d by t he go l d ba l l S uc h a r e a di ng l e nds i t s e l f t o t he

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80 i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t he s i gna t ur e a s a s c e ne of c onf l i c t T he na m e s S ha r on a nd O l ds s i gni f y da ught e r a nd pa r e nt s S ha r on l oc ke d i n a s t r uggl e w i t h t he O l ds T he s ym bol i c pot e nt i a l of t he gol d ba l l a l s o s ugge s t s a s t r uggl e of m yt hi c s c ope a nuc l e a r c onf l i c t e r upt i ng w i t h a noi s e l i ke s om e bo dy s pr e s s ur e c ooke r / . go i ng of f t he n r i s i n g, gl ow i ng a nd bl os s om i ng l i ke a m us hr oom c l oud ove r our ho r i z on. T he une xpe c t e d s hi f t f r om t hi r d pe r s on pr onouns s he a nd he r t o f i r s t pe r s on pl u r a l pos s e s s i ve our a l s o s ugge s t s s om e s l i ppa ge on t he pa r t o f t he s pe a ke r a s i f s he ha s be e n s pe a ki ng of he r s e l f i n t he t hi r d pe r s on, t he n l a ps e s i nt o f i r s t pe r s on pl ur a l a s t he gol d ba l l a s c e nds ove r our hor i z on a nd our pl a ne t T he f i r s t pe r s on pl u r a l e xpa nds t he s c ope of t he poe m a m pl i f yi ng t he pr ophe t i c t one a ddr e s s e d t o t he r e a de r or m o r e g e ne r a l l y our c ul t ur e B ut t hi s O l d T e s t a m e nt t one c om e s pa c ka ge d i n a pa r a bol i c f or m a nd t he pa r a bl e c e nt e r s on t he t r i a ngl e m ot he r da ught e r g ol d ba l l S o, a r gua bl y, t he t e xt ha s t o be e xa m i ne d on a n O e di pa l l e ve l i f not on t he i nt r a s ubj e c t i ve l e ve l o f t he s pe a ke r T he poe m s t a r t s w i t h t he pr onoun I w hi c h m a ke s t he p r e s e nc e of t he s pe a ke r s om e how di s t i nc t f r om t he m ot he r a nd da ught e r ye t i nt e gr a l w i t h t he de t a i l s of t he i m a ge a nd t he e ve nt t ha t t he poe m a s s i gns t o t he f ut u r e T he s pe a ke r i s a n o bs e r ve r of t he t r i a ngl e T he l a t e r pr onoun s hi f t t o t he pl ur a l r e i nf or c e s t hi s i n i t i a l i nt e gr i t y a nd b r i ngs t he s pe a ke r a nd t he i m a ge i nt o i m m e di a t e pr oxi m i t y T he que s t i on t ha t s e e m s i m pl i c i t he r e c onc e r ns t he c ons e que nc e s of t he poe m s f i na l m ove m e nt t he c h i l d s w e l c om i ng of t he gol d ba l l f o r t he s pe a ke r I n W he n t he r e a ppe a r s onl y t he s l i ght e s t of a l ph a be t i c a l e f f e c t s f r om t he na m e S ha r on; t he s h of t he s he us e d t o r e f e r t o t he y oung m ot he r t hr e e t i m e s Y e t t hi s m i ni m a l t r a c e o f t he s i gna t ur e s ugge s t s a l i nk be t w e e n t he de s i r e of t he m ot he r ( a nd t he

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81 c hi l d s e nj oym e nt ) a nd t he de s i r e of t he s pe a ke r I n a ps yc hoa na l yt i c r e a di ng f o l l ow i ng L a c a n, t he m o t he r c hi l d dya d w oul d s t a nd a s a s pe c ul a r c ount e r pa r t t o t he e go of t he s pe a ke r F or L a c a n s uc h a s pe c u l a r i m a ge c onve ys a s e ns e of w hol e ne s s w hi c h t he na s c e nt e go a i m s f or but c a n ne ve r a c hi e ve S o t he dr i ve s c i r c l e a r ound t hi s f l a w e d s e ns e of w hol e ne s s w hi c h i m pl i e s a m i s s i ng e l e m e nt t he obj e t a F o r L a c a n, i n s o f a r a s t he dr i ve s go be yond t he pl e a s ur e pr i nc i pl e t he i r obj e c t i s one of j oui s s anc e w hi c h w oul d c om pl e t e or f i ni s h de s i r e a nd f or t hi s r e a s on L a c a n pos i t s t ha t a l l d r i ve s a r e c om pos e d i n pa r t of t he de a t h d r i ve I n W he n t he a poc a l ypt i c t one a nd t he f i na l m ove m e nt of t he c hi l d c oa l e s c e a r ound t he gol d ba l l s t r a nge l y pos i t i oni ng i t l i ke a n obj e t a t ha t ha s c om e i nt o vi e w T he gol d ba l l l oom s a s s om e t hi ng m ons t r ous s om e t hi ng of a bs ol ut e a l t e r i t y I n t e r m s of ps yc hi c t e m por a l i t y a nd i n t he t e m por a l i t y of t he poe m t he ba l l s i gni f i e s t ha t f ut ur e w hi c h a f f e c t s t he pr e s e nt I n L a c a n s r e a di n g of F r e ud s N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t 1 3 t hi s s t r uc t ur e of a f f e c t i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a nt i c i pa t i on. F or i ns t a nc e i n t he m i r r o r s t a ge t he e go i s c ons t r uc t e d i n a nt i c i pa t i on of a n i m a gi ne d f ut ur e w hol e ne s s a s m e nt i one d a bove T he gol d ba l l i n i t s r oundne s s s ugge s t s t he c i r c ul a r w hi c h c onnot e s w hol e ne s s a nd i n i t s gol d c ol or i t s ugge s t s he a ve n a nd t he a t t e nda nt J ud e o C hr i s t i a n t e ne t s of f u l f i l l m e nt a nd c om pl e t i on, w hi c h a m e l i o r a t e t he p r obl e m s of de a t h. B ot h t he m ons t r ou s a nd t he w ondr ous a r e c onde ns e d i n t he i m a ge T he t he or i e s of ps yc hi c t e m por a l i t y of F r e ud a nd L a c a n e m pha s i z e t he i de a t ha t ps yc hi c t i m e c a n a c t i n r e ve r s e a nd O l ds poe m s how s how t he s e ns e of a poc a l yps e r e l a t e s t he f ut u r e t o t h e pr e s e nt a nd how ps yc h i c a l l y, 1 3 L a p l a n c h e a n d P o n t a l i s d e f i n e N a c h t r g l i c h k e i t a s a T e r m f r e q u e n t l y u s e d b y F r e u d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s v i e w o f p s y c h i c a l t e m p o r a l i t y a n d c a u s a l i t y : e x p e r i e n c e s i m p r e s s i o n s a n d m e m o r y t r a c e s m a y b e r e v i s e d a t a l a t e r d a t e t o f i t i n w i t h f r e s h e x p e r i e n c e s o r w i t h t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a n e w s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t T h e y m a y i n t h a t e v e n t b e e n d o w e d n o t o n l y w i t h a n e w m e a n i n g b u t a l s o w i t h p s y c h i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( 1 1 1 ) T h e y g o o n t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s c o n t r a v e n e s t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l v i e w t h a t F r e u d s t h e o r y r e d u c e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a u s a t i o n t o a n i n f a n t i l e p a s t ( 1 1 2 )

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82 w hol e ne s s i s r e l a t e d t o a nni hi l a t i on. A s w i t h a nt i c i pa t i on, t hi s poe m c a n a l s o be r e a d i n t e r m s of r e t r oa c t i on ( apr s c oup ) w hi c h m or e c l os e l y c or r e s ponds t o N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t or de f e r r e d a c t i on, a s E ngl i s h t r a ns l a t or s ha ve t e r m e d i t T he e go of t he s pe a ke r t he n i s a l r e a dy doubl y dya di c i n t hi s i m a ge A nd t hi s i s i n ke e pi ng w i t h t he s ync hr oni c t e m por a l i t y of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t T he ps yc he of t he m ot he r c ont a i ns onl y m e m o r y o f he r ow n c hi l dhood e nj oym e nt a nd now ( i n t he t i m e o f t he poe m ) t ha t m e m or y i s r e m ol de d by t he p r e s e nc e of he r c hi l d i n he r a r m s T he j ou i s s anc e of t he c hi l d ( t he unb r i dl e d de s i r e of t he c hi l d) s t a nds e nf ol de d w i t h t he de s i r e o f t he m ot he r i n t he m om e nt of t he poe m T he di a c hr oni c di a g r a m of t he c hi l d s j oui s s anc e a nd t he m ot he r s de s i r e f or m s a c i r c l e of ( non) r e p r e s s i on a r ound t he m ot he r s j oui s s anc e a bur i e d m e m or y t ha t s ync hr oni c a l l y a nc hor s a nd s pa c e s t he m ot he r s i de nt i t y w i t hi n t he m ot he r c hi l d dya d. D e s i r e i s c a s t r a t e d j oui s s anc e t he c ondi t i on t ha t a r i s e s w he n j oui s s a nc e i s r e pr e s s e d; but t he c hi l d be i ng he l d by t he m ot he r a s i f s t i l l a t t he br e a s t r e m a i ns unc a s t r a t e d. T he l o ve of t he m ot he r t he r e f or e i m pl i e s a n a f f i r m a t i on of j oui s s anc e a l t hough w i t hi n he r s e l f t he j oui s s anc e ha s be e n r e pr e s s e d a nd c a s t r a t e d. T hi s r e p r e s s i on a nd c a s t r a t i on f or m s t he m ol d of de s i r e S o t he s c e ne c ont a i ns a r e a da bl e di a gr a m of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t i n i t s r e t r oa c t i ve a s pe c t T he c hi l d s m ot he r i s a bl e t o s e e i n he r da ught e r he r ow n l i bi do or j oui s s anc e a s i t e xi s t e d be f or e he r l os s of i nn oc e nc e B ut he r unde r s t a ndi ng i s not t he t hi ng i t s e l f I t i s t e m pe r e d by t i m e e xi s t i ng a c r os s t he di vi de or ga p of r e pr e s e nt a t i on. I n ps yc h oa na l yt i c t e r m s he r pa s t e xi s t s i n t he ps yc he onl y a s m e m or i e s w hi c h a r e a f f e c t e d by a n d unde r s t ood onl y t hr ough p r e s e nt e xpe r i e nc e W he n pr e s e nt s t hr e e s ubj e c t pos i t i ons i n r e l a t i on t o t he gol d ba l l : t he s pe a ke r s

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83 t he m ot he r s a nd t he c hi l d s I n t e r m s of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t t he s pe a ke r s pe r s ona r e pr e s e nt s a nt i c i pa t i on, a nd t he m ot he r da ught e r d ya d r e pr e s e nt s r e t r oa c t i on. T he poe m f unc t i ons l i ke a po r t m a nt e a u, f ol di ng t oge t he r t w o di a gr a m s of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t : a nt i c i pa t i on a nd r e t r oa c t i on f unc t i on t oge t he r i n t e xt W ha t t he n i s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he s i gna t ur e j oui s s anc e a nd N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t ? T hi s poe m a s s oc i a t e s t he t e m por a l i t y of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t w i t h t he gol d ba l l a nd i t doe s s o a s a n i nt r oduc t i on t o P a r t T w o of t he book, w hi c h c ons i s t s of poe m s de a l i ng w i t h t he m ot he r a nd f a t he r T he s i gna t ur e i n i t s du r a t i on t a ke s on t he qua l i t y of a t a bl e a u or phot ogr a ph a ppa r e nt l y a s t a t i c r e c or d o r m a r ke r a t t a c he d t o i t s be a r e r W hi l e i t f unc t i ons ove r t i m e di a c hr oni c a l l y i t m a i nt a i ns t he ki nd of s ync hr oni c s t r uc t ur e t ha t L a c a n e m pha s i z e s ove r t he l i ne a r a n d di a c hr oni c s t a ge m ode l s of de ve l opm e nt of s om e p s yc hoa na l yt i c s c hool s t he o r i e s B e yond or be f or e t he ve i l i ng of i de nt i t y t ha t i s i nh e r e nt i n t he l i ngui s t i c c ondi t i on t he r e i s ( i n t hi s poe m ) t he s i m pl e a nt i t he s i s t ha t e m e r ge s be t w e e n t he gol d ba l l a nd w ha t i s our s W he n w i l l our hor i z on a nd our pl a n e t b e r e pl a c e d or ove r s ha dow e d by s om e t hi ng l a r ge r o r s om e t hi ng ot he r s om e t hi ng g ol d ? A nd i n pa r a l l e l on t he i nt r a s ubj e c t i ve l e ve l w he n doe s w ha t i s i nt r oj e c t e d i nt o t he c r ypt o f t he e go ( i n pa r t i c ul a r t he s i gna t ur e a nd t he p r ope r na m e ) gi ve w a y t o o r l e a d t o t he O t he r of t he unc ons c i ous t he a l t e r i t y o f i nt e r i or i t y? W ha t i s t he poe t i c s of i n ve nt i on t ha t ha s t o e xt e nd i t s e l f out of t he m i r r o r s t a ge a nd t he ot he r of s pe c ul a r w hol e ne s s t ha t f or m s t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l ba s i s of t he e go? T ha t i n t r oj e c t i on o f t he s i gna t ur e m i ght be t he f i gur e o f f i gur e s f o r O l ds poe t r y, t he f i gu r e f o r t ha t i nve nt i on t ha t bot h p r e s e r ve s a nd e s c a pe s t he s pe c ul a r ot he r T he m os t c om pr e he ns i ve s e ve r e a nd de l i r i ous i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f i n t he

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84 s us t a i ne d a nd i ns i s t e n t i t e r a t i ons of t he w o r d gol d t ha t r un t hr ough T he G ol d C e l l a nd s pi n c ons pi c uous l y i n t he ot he r books a s w e l l I t i s a n a l c he m i c a l t r a ns f or m a t i on o f he r l a s t na m e t ha t r e a ppe a r s i ns i s t e nt l y i n poe m s t ha t d e a l di r e c t l y w i t h oe di pa l i s s ue s a s w e l l a s a m on g t he poe m s t ha t do not * W ha t i s i t a bout t he s i gna t ur e t ha t c ons t i t ut e s j oui s s anc e ? A t w ha t poi nt doe s t he pl e a s ur e of t he s i gna t ur e be c om e pa i nf ul be c om e s uf f e r i ng? W ha t m a ke s a gol d c e l l ? W ha t t a boo c a n i t vi ol a t e ? W ha t pr i s on, t or t u r e o r de a t h doe s i t e m ul a t e ? 1 4 W ha t l i f e f or c e w ha t f or c e o f l a ngua ge doe s i t m a ni f e s t ? I nt r oj e c t e d i nt o t he e go, c oul d t he s i gna t ur e s ponge up i m a goe s c ont r a c t i ng a l l t he p e r s ona s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he c om pl e xe s t ha t dom i na t e t he s ubj e c t ? O l ds put s he r n a m e i n l a ngua ge a s a w a y of s t i r r i ng t he gol d, of s t i r r i ng t he yol k of t he s e c om pl e xe s I n t he poe m W ha t i f G od w e ha ve t w o s uc h pe r s ona s N ot t he m om m a poppa of t he s t r i c t oe di p a l pa r a di gm but t he unr e s t r i c t e d obs c e ne s upe r e go, t he s upe r e go a s i t t r a ve r s e s t he i d a nd t he i de a l e go ( t he pe r s ona l t r a ns c e nde nt a l s upe r e go of t he O t he r ) O l ds s i gna t ur e r e a c he s t hr ough gol d t o god. T he poe m a s ks I s t he r e a god i n t he hous e ? B ut t he r e i s a s e e m i ngl y e ndl e s s s uppl y of i m a goe s t ha t e m e r ge i n O l ds w or k f r om t he pa r e nt a l f i gur e s a l one A nd t he c om pl e xe s t ha t a r e r e ve a l e d ( e s pe c i a l l y i n t he poe m s c onc e r ni ng he r pa r e nt s a nd s i s t e r w hi c h e ndl e s s l y unr a ve l t he i m a goe s w ove n i nt o t hos e f a m i l i a l c om pl e xe s ) r un t he e m ot i ona l a nd a f f e c t i ve ga m ut a s i f t he r e w e r e a s t r i c t i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y be t w e e n s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s a nd t he t e xt ua l e f f e c t s of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t 1 4 F o r p o e m s a d d r e s s i n g t h e s e l o c i i n T h e G o l d C e l l s e e I n t h e C e l l T h e F o o d T h i e f a n d T h e G i r l a l l i n P a r t O n e

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85 35/ 10 C ons i de r t he poe m 35/ 10 f r om t he l a s t s e c t i on of T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng a t t he e nd of P a r t T w o: P oe m s f or t he L i vi ng T he s e c t i on i s l a be l e d T he C h i l d r e n, a nd t hi s poe m c onc e r ns he r f a m i l i a l c om pl e xe s onl y i n di r e c t l y a s i t e xa m i ne s he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h he r ow n da ught e r T hi r t y f i ve w oul d be t he a ge of t he poe t 10 t he a ge of t he c hi l d. A s he r da ught e r m a t u r e s t he poe t ga i ns c l a r i t y c onc e r ni ng he r ow n na m e a nd i t s hi s t or y a nd m ove m e nt a c r os s l a ngua ge T he gr e y gl e a m i ng, s i l ve r ha i r e d s e r va nt i s be c om i ng he r na m e : O l d ( s ) A nd w ha t i s t he f ol d i n [ he r ] ne c k, bu t a s i gni f i e r o f a ge ? A f ol d o f s ki n l i ke t he de w l a p o f a n e l de r l y pe r s on ? T ha t w oul d be a r e a di ng i n a nt i c i pa t i on of t he s pe a ke r s ol d a ge r a t he r t ha n of he r pr e s e nt a ge i n t he poe m A c or ol l a r y r e t r oa c t i ve r e a di ng, l ooki ng ba c k a t he r o w n yout h, w oul d be t o s e e t he f o l d a s t he m us c ul a t ur e t ha t a n a dul t body be gi ns t o r e ve a l a s i t l os e s t he f a t t ha t a younge r body w oul d m a i nt a i n. T hi s r e t r oa c t i ve r e a di ng w oul d do ubl e t he t e m por a l i t y of t he f o l d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he dua l t e m po r a l i t y o f N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t ; t he s ha r pe ni ng of f e a t ur e s pr oc e e ds a pa c e f or bot h t he m ot he r a nd t he da ught e r : W hy i s i t j us t a s w e be gi n t o go t he y be gi n t o a r r i ve t he f ol d i n m y ne c k c l a r i f yi ng a s t he f i ne bone s of he r hi ps s ha r pe n? T he a nt i c i pa t i on o f be gi nni ng a nd t he r e t r oa c t i on o f a r r i va l a r e c l a r i f i e d f or t he s pe a ke r i n t he f ol d. A nd t h i s c l a r i f i c a t i on m ove s t ow a r d t he n a m e S ha r on. I t c om e s i n a n a c t of s ha r i ng: t he poe m be gi ns B r us hi ng out m y da ugh t e r s da r k / s i l ke n ha i r be f or e t he m i r r or T he s h of s ha r i ng di s s e m i na t e s i nt o hi ps s ha r pe ni ng, a nd t he y s ha r e t he pr oc e s s of s e xua l m a t ur a t i on w hi c h hi ps s ha r pe ni ng s ugge s t s a nd w hi c h t he r e s t o f t he

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86 poe m c e l e br a t e s T hi s i s t he c l a r i f i c a t i on of t he f o l d t he f ol d c l a r i f i e s a s t he hi ps of t he 10 ye a r ol d c hi l d s ha r pe n. A nd t he s pe a ke r s s ki n s how s i t s dr y pi t t i ng T hi s c l a r i f i c a t i on i s a g i f t t ha t r e t u r ns t o t he na m e a s w e l l a s a c l a r i t y t ha t c om e s w i t h a ge I t i s a c ount e r s i gna t ur e T he s how i ng a nd s ha r pe ni ng of t he poe m pr oduc e s a d r yi ng e f f e c t i n t he i m a ge r y o f t he da ught e r a s w e l l : A s m y s ki n s how s i t s dr y p i t t i ng, s he ope ns l i ke a s m a l l pa l e f l ow e r on t he t i p of a c a c t us T h e pa l e f l ow e r m i ght ve r y w e l l poi nt t ow a r d s om e D e s e r t R os e of t he P l a i n o f S ha r on a f e r t i l e but dr y pl a i n i n t oda y s I s r a e l T hi s dr yi ng e f f e c t c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he i ns i ght i nt o t he na m e a gi f t t ha t c om e s vi a t he hum a n c ondi t i on a nd t he f e m i ni ne c ondi t i on A dr yi ng p r e s e r vi ng a nd s obe r i ng e f f e c t of t he s i gna t ur e t he n, w hi c h s udde nl y bur s t s a nd de f l a t e s i t s e l f i nc ur r i ng t he g r a nde s t ki nd of a bs t r a c t i on, a t he s i s or a r c he na r r a t i ve s t r uc t u r e T he poe m e n ds w i t h t hi s s e nt e nc e : I t s a n ol d / s t or y t he ol de s t w e ha ve on our pl a ne t / t he s t or y of r e pl a c e m e nt A nd t hi s pr onounc e m e nt i s i nt r oduc e d v i a i m a ge s of e ggs b ot h he r s he r l a s t c ha nc e s t o be a r a c hi l d, a nd he r da ught e r s f u l l pu r s e of e ggs : a s m y l a s t c ha nc e s t o be a r a c hi l d a r e f a l l i ng t hr ough m y body t he duds a m ong t he m he r f ul l pur s e of e ggs r o und a nd f i r m a s ha r d boi l e d yol ks i s a bout t o s na p i t s c l a s p. T he w or d boi l e d, l i ke t he w or d oi l e d i n ot he r poe m s e xpa nds t he w or d ol d I t doe s s o w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of t he pr om i s e o f a young gi r l s e ggs T he w or d yo l k a l s o r e i t e r a t e s t he ol i n O l ds I t s a n O l d( s ) s t or y, t he m os t de l i r i ous of c ount e r s i gna t ur e s T he i r ony of t hi s poe m m a y be t ha t t he s i gna t ur e ha s s na ppe d i t s c l a s p. T he poe m pe r f or m s t he be c om i ng he r na m e of t he s pe a ke r W hi c h i s t he a c c e pt a nc e of t he c ount e r s i gna t ur e f r om l a ngua ge a c ont i nuous a c c e pt a nc e ove r t i m e a s ha r i ng on

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87 W hat i f G od A n a l c he m i c a l t r a ns f or m a t i on t he n: a t t he l e ve l o f t he l e t t e r or on t he l e ve l o f t he obj e t a w e ha ve t he a ddi t i on of a l e t t e r a w a y t o f i l l t he ga p be t w e e n t he na m e s S ha r on a nd O l ds I n T he G ol d C e l l go l d i s ubi qui t ous T hi s poe t i c s t ur ns on t he a ddi t i on of t he l e t t e r g. T he l e t t e r g f i l l s t he ga p f or S ha r on O l ds e s pe c i a l l y i n t hi s book. F or L a c a n t he unc ons c i ous c ons i s t s of a c ha i n of s i gni f i e r s t ha t s om e w he r e ( on a not he r s t a ge i n a not he r s c e ne [ F r e ud ] w r o t e ) i s r e pe a t e d ( E c r i t s 297) W he ne ve r t he r e i s a ga p or br e a k i n nor m a l r a t i ona l or e ve r yda y di s c our s e t h i s c ha i n of s i gni f i e r s i nt e r ve ne s i ns e r t i ng s om e pa r t of i t s e l f c r e a t i ng a l i nk be t w e e n s om e p a r t of t he unc ons c i ous a nd t he ot he r w i s e uni f i e d di s c our s e of m e a ni ng. T hi s l i nk m a ke s s e ns e i n a di f f e r e nt w a y l i nki ng t he c i r c l e or c ha i n of c ons c i ous m e a ni ng t o a di f f e r e nt f a nt a s y s c e ne i n t he unc ons c i ous T he poe m W ha t i f G od e xpl o r e s t he pos s i bi l i t y o f s uc h a l i nk O r r a t he r i t de pa r t s f r o m nor m a l or pi ous di s c our s e c onc e r ni ng t he na m e of t he f a t he r i n or de r t o e xpl o r e t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of a not he r s t a g e a not he r s c e ne W h e n di s c our s e ha s l os t s om e t hi ng, or t he s ubj e c t ne e ds s om e t hi ng t ha t s e e m s t o be m i s s i ng, t he ob j e t a a ppe a r s i n t he pl a c e o f t he t hi ng. A nd i n t hi s s i t ua t i on m e a ni ng t r a ve l s ba c k a nd f or t h bot h ba c kw a r ds a nd f or w a r ds T hi s poe m p r e s e nt s t he unc ons c i ous a na l og f or t he que s t i on i m p l i c i t i n t he t i t l e of t he book T he gol d c e l l of t he book s t i t l e t a ke s m a ny f or m s a s t he w or ds gol d a nd c e l l t r a ve l t hr ough t he t e xt s a nd s c e ne s pr e s e nt e d i n t he c our s e of t he book. T he t e r m gol d c e l l c om e s t o r e pr e s e nt not s om e pa r t i c ul a r c e l l but r a t he r a n e f f e c t ( a s i gna t ur e e f f e c t ) t he i ns i s t e nt r e t ur n of t he t w o w or ds t h r oug h a nd w i t h t he i r va r i ous m a ni f ol d a s s oc i a t i on s I n t he poe m W ha t i f G od t he a ns w e r t o t he que s t i on W ha t gol d c e l l ?

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88 i nvol ve s t he bypl a y be t w e e n gol d a nd G od. T he obj e t a i n t hi s c a s e gol d, o r m o r e s i m pl y t h e l e t t e r g oc c upyi ng t he ga p i n t he s i gna t ur e f or ge s a l i nk w i t h w ha t w oul d be t he s upe r e go, t ha t i s G od, t he u l t i m a t e f i gur e f o r t he s upe r e go. C ons t r uc t i ng t hi s s i gna t ur e r e l a y be c om e s a s i m pl e m a t t e r of dr oppi ng t he l a nd c a pi t a l i z i ng t he g. T he ve c t or f o r t hi s e f f e c t i s a l r e a dy pr e s e nt w he n t he g i s a dde d t o ol d. T he poe m a s ks I s t he r e a G od i n t he hous e ? a s i f t he e nt i r e que s t i on of t he f o r m a t i on o f t he s upe r e go i s a t s t a ke A nd t hi s i s of c our s e a ve xe d t opi c a m ong ps yc hoa na l yt i c f e m i ni s t s F r e ud s w r i t i ngs a r e c l e a r w i t h r e ga r d t o t he r e s ol ut i on of t he oe di pa l c om pl e x a nd t he c onc om i t a nt f or m a t i on of t he s upe r e go f or boy s but f o r gi r l s F r e ud i s obs c ur e T hus w e ha ve m a ny c ount e r f o r m ul a t i ons a nd s pe c ul a t i ons ( s uc h a s t ha t w om e n ha ve no unc ons c i ous or W om a n i s t he unc ons c i ous f or m e n) f or w i t hout t he s upe r e go i n i t s r ol e a s c e ns or a nd a ge nt of r e pr e s s i on, t he r e c a n be no unc ons c i ous T he boy i de nt i f i e s w i t h hi s f a t he r ( a nd l a t e r G od t he F a t he r ) r e pr e s s i ng hi s de s i r e f or t he m ot he r T hi s e ve nt i na ugur a t e s t h e m e c ha ni s m of r e pr e s s i on, f or m s t he ba s i s of t he s upe r e go, a nd m a r ks t he i nc e pt i on of t he unc ons c i ous I n r e a c t i on t o t he a c c ount s o f F r e ud a nd L a c a n, w e a l s o ha ve l a t t e r d a y t he or i e s of t he unc ons c i ous t ha t a t t e nd t o i t a s a r e s e r ve of s i gni f i e r s o r m e t onym s r oot e d i n t he body of t he m ot he r r a t he r t ha n f ounde d on a n i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h t he pa t e r na l pha l l us O l ds poe m W ha t i f G od c a n be r e a d a s a n e xpl or a t i on of t hi s t he or e t i c a l i s s ue I t s e e m s t o pe r s ona l i z e t he t opi c a s m i ght be e xpe c t e d, but i t a l s o c r i t i que s b r oa de r c ul t ur a l f o r m a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s i n i t s l yr i c t r a j e c t or y A nd i t doe s i t i n t e r m s of t he gi r l t he m ot he r a nd G od: t he hum a n f a t he r i s a m i s s i ng t e r m i n t hi s poe m s a c c ount H ow e ve r t he na m e of t he pa r e nt f a t he r i s r e pr e s s e d a nd r e s e r ve d i n t he s i gna t ur e r e l a y: O l ds ( t he na m e of t he f a t he r ) gol d

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89 G od. T he f a t he r i s t he ga p o r b r e a k i n t he s ym bol i c or de r of t he poe m w hi c h i s c r os s e d by t he s i gna t ur e r e l a y. O nc e t hi s p r oc e s s of s ubs t i t ut i on be gi ns i t l e a ds t o t he f i gur e of t he obs c e ne s upe r e go. T he s t r uc t ur e o f t he s i gna t ur e e f f e c t i n W ha t i f G od t a ke s t he f or m of a B i l dungs r om a n a l be i t a B i l dungs r om a n di s t or t e d i n a n a na m or phi c w a y T he or i gi na r y i m a ge of t he B i l dungs r om a n i s c e nt e r e d on t he w o r d gol d : w a s H e a s qui r r e l r e a c hi ng dow n t hr ough t he hol e s he br oke i n m y s he l l s qui r r e l w i t h H i s a r m i n t he yol k o f m y s oul up t o t he e l bow s t i r r i n g, s t i r r i ng t he gol d? T he e gg w i t h t he gol de n yol k m e t a phor i c a l l y r e pr e s e nt s t he s pe a ke r i n t he s e ve r s e s T hi s m e t a phor r e a c he s ba c k t o t he m om e nt o f c onc e pt i o n a nd t he s e xua l or i gi n of he r body, a nd t he a s s ona nc e of yol k/ s oul / e l bow / gol d r oot s h e r s pi r i t ua l o r i gi n i n t he s e xua l a s w e l l T hi s m om e nt o f i nc e pt i on i s t he n di s s e m i na t e d t hr oughout t he na r r a t i ve of t he poe m by t he w or d G od. C hr onol ogi c a l l y, t he i s s ue a t s t a k e w i t h t hi s t e l os c a n on l y be r e s ol ve d i n t he f ut u r e be yond t he s pe e c h a c t t ha t t he po e m c ons t i t ut e s : I s t he r e a G od i n t he hous e ? T he n r e a c h dow n a nd t a ke t ha t w om a n of f t ha t c hi l d s body t a ke t ha t w om a n by t he na pe o f t he ne c k l i ke a you ng c a t a nd l i f t he r up a nd de l i ve r he r ove r t o m e T hi s pa s s a ge i n i t s a nt i c i pa t or y t e m po r a l i t y e nvi s i o ns a r e l e a s e f r om t he i r r e s ol ut i on of a f a i l e d oe di pus T ha t r e s ol ut i on w oul d be t he e nd o f t he B i l dungs r om a n de ve l opm e nt T he w or d G od a ppe a r s f our t i m e s i n t he poe m onc e i n t he t i t l e onc e i n t he f i r s t l i ne a nd t he n t w i c e i n l i ne s f our t h a nd f i f t h f r om t he e nd o f t he poe m B e t w e e n t he s e c ond a nd t hi r d i ns t a nc e s of t he w or d G od c a pi t a l i z e d m a s c ul i ne pr onouns a ppe a r 17 t i m e s E ve r y s e nt e nc e i n t he poe m e xc e pt t he l a s t i s a que s t i on. T he que s t i ons do not a ddr e s s

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90 G od di r e c t l y, f or t hi s i nt e r r oga t i on ne ve r a s s um e s H i s e xi s t e nc e F i r s t a nd f o r e m os t t he t he m a t i c o f t hi s poe m c e nt e r s on t he s pe a ke r s m ot he r a nd t he s a dne s s a nd gr i e f t ha t s he i m p r e s s e d upon he r da ught e r T he pa r e nt a l f a t he r f i gur e i s a bs e nt i n t he poe m c om pl e t e l y di s pl a c e d by t he t h e ol ogi c a l na m e of t he f a t he r T he poe m be gi ns w i t h t he i m a ge o f t he m ot he r s g r i e f be i ng l a i d on t he s pe a ke r a s G od w a t c he s voye ur i s t i c a l l y: A nd w ha t i f G od ha d be e n w a t c hi ng w he n m y m ot he r c a m e i nt o m y be d? W ha t w oul d H e ha ve done w h e n he r l ong a dul t body r ol l e d on m e l i ke a t ongue of l a va f r om t he t op of t he m ount a i n a nd t h e t e a r s j um pe d f r om he r duc t s l i ke hot r oc ks a nd m y be d s hook w i t h t he t r e m or s o f t he m a gm a a nd t he de e p c r a c ki ng of m y na t ur e a c r os s A s t he poe m c ont i nue s b ot h t he m ot he r a nd G od a r e he l d a c c ount a bl e f o r t he vi ol e nc e t ha t i s done t o t he gi r l T hi s ope ni ng i m a ge of t he c r a c ki ng of he r na t ur e i s r e i t e r a t e d i ns i s t e nt l y t o e m pha s i z e t he t r a um a t i c vi o l e nc e t ha t t a ke s pl a c e a t t he oe di pa l m om e nt w he n t he s upe r e go w oul d nor m a l l y be f o r m e d. T hi s c r a c ki ng m ove s i n f e m i ni s t c ount e r poi nt t o F r e ud s boy or i e nt e d r e s ol ut i on. I n s t e a d of s e xua l pr ohi bi t i on t ha t t he f a t he r w oul d d i c t a t e t o t he boy, t he m ot he r t u r ns t o t he da ught e r bodi l y, c om i ng i n t o he r be d. T he ne xt i m a ge o f f e r s a pos s i bl e r e a s on f or t h e m ot he r s t u r ni ng a w a y: w ha t w a s H e ? W a s H e a bi s on t o l ow e r hi s t hunde r c l oud he a d a nd s uc k H i s ow n s e x w hi l e H e w a t c he d us w e e p a nd pr e y t o hi m . T he j oui s s anc e of t hi s f a t he r f i gur e t he a s s oc i a t i on of t he d e s t r uc t i ve ne s s a nd f e a r f ul ne s s of a t hunde r c l oud w i t h t he l i bi di na l r e l e a s e of m a s t ur ba t i on, i s pr e di c a t e d upon t he f e a r a nd gr i e f o f t he m ot he r a nd da ught e r T he f ol l ow i n g f i gur a t i on of t he G od a ga i n ha s t o do w i t h t he c r a c ki ng o f t he gi r l : w a s H e a s qui r r e l r e a c hi ng dow n t hr ough t he hol e s he

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91 br oke i n m y s he l l . I f t he f a t he r f i gur e i s t he c a us e of t he c r a c ki ng, t he m ot he r i s t he a ge nt a nd t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p i s r e pe a t e d i n t he ne xt i m a ge of c r a c ki ng or m or e pr e c i s e l y, s pl i t t i ng i n t hi s c a s e : O r w a s H e a ki d i n B i ol ogy di s s e c t i ng m e w hi l e s he he l d m y s pl i t c a r a pa c e a pa r t s o H e c oul d f i r k out m y obl ong e ggs one by one . R a t he r t ha n a he a l t hy r e pr e s s i on of t he oe di pus c om pl e x, t he oe di pa l m a t t e r i s f i gu r e d a s i f t he s e xua l i t y o f t he gi r l ha s be e n f i r ke d ou t I ns t e a d of t he he a l t hy i m a ge of t he s e xua l i t y t ha t L a c a n w oul d f i nd unde r t he a e gi s of t he P ha l l us i n t hi s c a s e t he gi r l s a ut hor i t y f i gu r e s ( w hom t he boy w oul d i de nt i f y w i t h i n t he f or m a t i on of t he s upe r e go) a r e on t he m a t e r na l s i de c om i ng t o he r out o f e m o t i ona l dys f unc t i on a nd s e xua l c onf us i on, a nd on t he pa t e r na l s i de de r i vi ng p l e a s ur e f r om vi ol a t i on of t he i nc e s t t a boo: s t i r r i ng t he gol d of he r yol k s oul a nd f i r ki ng o ut he r e ggs G r a nt e d, t hi s vi ol a t i o n of t h e i nc e s t t a boo m a y be r e a d a s t he m e t a phor i c a l v e hi c l e gi vi ng e xpr e s s i on t o t he c a us e of t he m ot he r s dys f unc t i on N e ve r t he l e s s t he e nt i r e poe m m a ke s G od t he t e nor i n t ha t H e w oul d be a t r a ns c e nde nt a l s i gni f i e d f or a l l t he m e t a phor i c a l s i gni f i e r s I n t hi s poe m i t i s c l e a r t ha t bo t h pa r e nt s a f f e c t t he s e xua l f or m a t i on of t he gi r l I ns t e a d of t he L a w of t he N a m e o f t he F a t he r c ons t i t ut i ng t he p r i m a l r e pr e s s i on of t he de s i r e f or t he m ot he r t he i s s ue of s e xua l a c c e s s a n d a ut hor i t y r uns c ons t a nt l y t o i m a ge s of pe r ve r s i on: t he m ot he r i n be d w i t h t he da ught e r t he bi s on s m a s t ur ba t i on, t he s qui r r e l w i t h i t s a r m i n t he yol k o f t he gi r l s s oul a nd t he c a r a pa c e he l d a pa r t f o r f i r ki ng out he r e ggs ( w hi c h i s i m m e di a t e l y r e f i gur e d a s t he que s t i on, w a s H e a / m a n e nt e r i ng m e up t o t he hi l t w hi l e s he / p r i e d m y t hi ghs w i de i n t he s t a r r y da r k ) T he a r gum e nt of t he poe m

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92 c oul d be put t h i s w a y: G od i s a pe r ve r t i e t he ( c u l t ur a l or r e l i gi ous ) s upe r e go i s of t he t ype t ha t L a c a n out l i ne s i n T he F r e udi a n T hi ng T hi s s upe r e go i s bot h i nt e gr a t i ve a nd di s i nt e gr a t i ve W he n t he r e a r e ga ps i n t he s ym bol i c c ha i n t ha t c ons t i t ut e s t he l a w t he s upe r e go a r i s e s out of t he e ns ui ng m i s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he l a w I n O l ds poe m t he s upe r e go f i gur e i s s i l e nt f a i l i ng t o ut t e r a ny or de r w or d w ha t s oe ve r I n s uc h a l i ngui s t i c ga p, a c c or di ng t o L a c a n, t he s upe r e go a r i s e s f r om t he i m a gi na r y a s a n i l l e gi t i m a t e s ubs t i t ut e f or t he l a w t ha t obs c e ne f e r oc i ous f i gu r e i n w hi c h w e m us t s e e t he t r ue s i gni f i c a t i on of t he s upe r e go ( E c r i t s 143) O l ds s pe a ke r a ppe a l s a t t he e nd of t he poe m t o t he ( a bs e nt ) G od t o l i f t t he m ot he r of f he r body s he doe s not c a l l f or t he p r ope r s pe e c h a c t on H i s pa r t a l t hough s he doe s t w i c e c a l l out t he que s t i on I s t he r e a G od i n t he hous e ? T he r e i s no r e pl y i n t h e poe m G r e e d and A ggr e s s i on I s t he r e a s upe r e go f or t he gol d c e l l ? O r f o r t he w om a n t ha t a r i s e s f r om a gol d c e l l or p r oduc e s a gol d c e l l ? A n e xc e l l e nt ba s i s f o r s pe c ul a t i on on t he s e que s t i ons c a n be f ound i n t he poe m G r e e d a nd A gg r e s s i on. A l t h ou gh t hi s poe m a ppe a r s i n P a r t T hr e e of T he G ol d C e l l a s e c t i on of t he book de a l i ng w i t h va r i ous e xpe r i e nc e s of s e x a nd r e l a t e d m a t t e r s r a t he r t ha n f a m i l y m e m o r i e s i t m a ke s a n e xc e l l e nt c om pa ni on pi e c e t o W ha t i f G od. G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on be a r s s e ve r a l s t r i ki ng s i m i l a r i t i e s t o W ha t i f G od, but t he t he m e a nd s c e ne of t he poe m a r e not oe di pa l i n a ny di r e c t w a y I t doe s ha ve t o do w i t h r e l i gi on s e x, G ods c a t s a nd j oui s s anc e ; m os t not a bl y f or a s i gna t ur e r e a di ng, i t a l s o i nc or por a t e s t he s a m e s i gna t ur e r e l a y be t w e e n gol d a nd G od T he f i r s t l i ne a nnounc e s t he r e l i gi ous ve c t or of t he poe m :

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93 S om e one i n Q ua ke r m e e t i ng t a l ks a bout g r e e d a nd a ggr e s s i on a nd I t hi nk of t he w a y I l a y t he m a s s i ve w e i ght of m y body dow n on you l i ke a t i ge r l yi ng dow n i n g l ut t ony a nd pl e a s ur e on t he e l e ga nt he a vy body of t he e l a nd i t e a t s t he s pi r a l hor n poi nt i ng t o t he s ky l i ke he a ve n. T he s t r uc t ur a l s i m i l a r i t y t o t he ope ni ng of W ha t i f G od i s s t r i ki ng A r e l i gi ous s c e ne i s l i nke d t o t he i m a ge of a w om a n l yi ng dow n on t op of a not he r pe r s on. B ut i ns t e a d of a s pe c ul a t i ve a nd i nt e r r oga t i ve a c c us a t i on of a pr obl e m a t i c a l G od by m e a ns of a c a t a l ogue of m e t a phor i c a l de s c r i pt i ons t he poe m i nt r oduc e s a m or e or l e s s c ont r ol l i ng m e t a phor i c a l ve hi c l e t ha t o f t he t i ge r l y i ng dow n t o e a t f o r t he t e nor s e xua l r e l a t i on I n t hi s d r a m a t i c m onol ogue t he s e xua l i t y of t he s pe a ke r a nd he r a ddr e s s e e s t a nd s a s t he t e nor of t hi s m e t a phor A nd t he f i r s t r e l i gi ous i s s ue t o ha nd i s n ot t he e xi s t e nc e of G od but t he pr obl e m s of g r e e d a nd a g gr e s s i on; how e ve r t he s e c ond ha l f of G r e e d a nd A gg r e s s i on doe s t ur n t o t he i s s ue of c ha r a c t e r i z i ng a G od. T hi s poe m s ope ni ng pl unge s t he r e a de r i nt o t he s pa c e of r e l i gi on a s i f i t s t r e t c he d f r om A m e r i c a n Q ua ke r m e e t i ngs t o A f r i c a t o A s i a a nd t he n up t o he a ve n. E l a nds c om pr i s e t w o s pe c i e s t ha t l i ve i n A f r i c a T i ge r s a r e of A s i a T he i r c onve r ge nc e i n t hi s poe m s ugge s t s a ge ol ogi c a l l y a l t e r na t i ve t i m e s c a l e s t r e t c hi ng be yond t he hum a n B ut i n t hi s a l t e r na t i v e t e m por a l i t y ( a n a l t e r na t i ve hi s t or y? ) t he que s t i on of a G od s e xi s t e nc e i s s t i l l t he poe m s hi nge c onne c t i ng t he s c e ne of t he l ove r s pl e a s ur e w i t h t he i m a ge of a t ot e m i c t i ge r G od t he G od of t i ge r s : i f t he y [ t he t i ge r s ] ha d a G od i t w oul d be s t r i pe d, / bur nt gol d a nd bl a c k. T hr oughout t he poe m t hi s hum a n/ t i ge r c om pa r i s on i s r e l a t i ve l y s t a bl e c om pa r e d t o t he m a dne s s of m e t a phor i n W ha t i f G od. O f c our s e W ha t i f G od s t a nds a s a n e xc us e f or t he m a dne s s of m i xe d m e t a phor : a l i s t i n t he m onum e nt a l m ode r ni s t m a nne r one m e t a phor i c a l s uppl e m e nt a f t e r a not he r

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94 none of w hi c h a r e a bl e s i ngl y t o e xpr e s s t he r a ge c onf us i on, a nd vi o l a t i on w hi c h t he s pe a ke r w i s he s t o e xpr e s s T hi s i ns t a nc e of O l ds l a c k of c ont r ol f or w hi c h m a ny o f he r c r i t i c s f a ul t he r c a n a l s o be r e a d a s t he r e f us a l of c a s t r a t i on, t he r e f us a l t o a c c e pt t he di c t a t e s of a n obs c e ne f a t he r f i gur e T h i s r e f us a l m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f a s t he ne e d t o s pe a k out a ga i ns t t hi s s upe r e go i n r e f us a l o f t he t e r m s of oe di pa l s e ve r a nc e t he t e r m s t ha t t he pa r e nt s ha ve di c t a t e d. I n G r e e d a nd A gg r e s s i on, a poe m w hi c h a ga i n s pe c ul a t e s on t he na t ur e of a pe r s ona l G od, t he s pe a ke r out l i ne s t he f or m of a n i de a l s upe r e go f i gur e i n a m uc h c a l m e r a nd ha ppi e r f r a m e : [ I f ] I ha d a G od i t w oul d r e ne w i t s e l f t he w a y you l i ve a nd l i ve w hi l e I t a ke you a s i f c ons um i ng you w hi l e you t a ke m e a s i f c ons um i ng m e i t w oul d be a G od o f l ove a s c om pl e t e s a t i e t y, gr e e d a nd f ul l ne s s a ggr e s s i on a nd f ul l ne s s t he w a y w e onc e dr a nk a t t he body of a n a ni m a l unt i l w e w e r e s o ha ppy w e c oul d on l y f a i nt ou r m out hs r unni ng, i nt o s l e e p. T he t one s of t he t w o poe m s a r e bi pol a r T hi s s ugg e s t s a t he or e t i c a l a na l ys i s of t he s pl i t s ubj e c t i n t e r m s of t he s upe r e go. T he s upe r e go i s bot h i nt e gr a t i ve a nd di s i nt e gr a t i ve i n i t s a f f e c t i ve f unc t i on O n t he one ha nd i t i s obs c e ne pe r ve r s e a s L a c a n a r gue s a nd a s W ha t i f G od i l l us t r a t e s e xe r c i s i ng vi ol e nc e on t he s ubj e c t a nd r e qui r i ng t r e m e ndous c a t ha r t i c f or c e f or t he s ubj e c t m e r e l y t o m a ke i t m a ni f e s t a nd be gi n t o i m a gi ne a he a l i ng pr oc e s s a s pe r t he e nd of W ha t i f G od. O n t he ot he r ha nd, G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on pr e s e nt s t he pos s i bi l i t y of a n i nt e gr a t i ve s upe r e go w hi c h s t r uc t ur e s i t s e l f a c c or di ng t o t he f or m o f r e l a t i on w i t h a n O t he r i n t hi s c a s e a s e xua l pa r t ne r I n c ont r a s t w i t h t he s c e ne of t he l ove r s w e ha ve w i t hi n t he ve hi c ul a r s pa c e of t he poe m t he s c e ne of t he t i ge r s om e t hi ng ve r y l i ke t he k i nd of vi ol e nc e t ha t i nf or m s

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95 W ha t i f G od : E c s t a s y ha s be e n gi ve n t o t he t i ge r f or c e d i nt o i t s na t ur e t he w a y t he f or c e m e a t i s c r a nke d dow n t he t hr oa t of t he he l d g oos e T he s e l i ne s ope n t he que s t i on of t he r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong f or c e vi ol e nc e a nd e c s t a s y. I n s pi t e of t he vi o l e nt us e of f or c e i n t he a bs e nc e of a ny a ge nt por t r a ye d i n t h i s i m a ge t he e m pha s i s i s on e c s t a s y. C l os e r e a de r s of O l ds boo ks w i l l r e c ogni z e t he s ha pe of t w o c hi l dhood e ve nt s c onde ns e d he r e t ha t a r e m o r e e xp l i c i t l y r e nde r e d e l s e w he r e i n he r poe m s : t he c hi l d be i ng t i e d t o a c ha i r a nd t he c hi l d be i ng f or c e f e d by he r pa r e nt s 1 5 T hi s pa s s a ge s i m pl y a c know l e dge s t he vi ol e nc e a nd f or e goe s ( f or e c l os e s ? ) a n y a c c us a t i on on t he pa r t o f t he s pe a ke r A s s uc h i t c ons t i t ut e s w ha t D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i c a l l a l i ne out of O e di pus : not a n e s c a pe f r om O e di pus but a r e c ons t r uc t i on t ha t r e c onf i gur e s t he s ubj e c t F or i ns t a nc e t hi s r e c onf i gu r a t i on m i gh t c o ns i s t i n t he e xa gge r a t i on o f s om e ne ur ot i c pe r ve r s e or obs c e ne t e nde nc y, s uc h a s gr e e d or a ggr e s s i on, i n a m a nne r t ha t a voi ds t he nor m a l l y s e l f de s t r uc t i ve or ot he r de s t r uc t i ve out c om e of t he t e nde nc y. A nd he r e i s t he da nge r S uc h a m ove i s s pe c ul a t i ve t he out c om e i s unknow n, a nd t he r i s k i s r e a l T hi nki ng be yond t e l e ol ogy r uns t he r i s k o f do ubl i ng t he vi ol e nc e a nd de s t r uc t i on i nhe r e nt i n t e l e ol ogy T he e l a nd i n t hi s poe m unde r goe s s om e t hi ng of a s par agm os t he t e a r i ng a pa r t o f t he s a c r i f i c i a l vi c t i m A c r os s t he m e t a p hor i c a l hi nge of t he poe m t hi s s a c r i f i c i a l e c onom y or ga ni z e s i t s e l f a r ound s e l f s a c r i f i c e t he m ut ua l s e l f s a c r i f i c e be t w e e n l ove r s B ot h t e r m s of t he m e t a phor a r e a bout e c s t a s y. A nd t hi s e c s t a s y i s a bout vi ol e nc e i n bot h a s pe c t s of t he m e t a phor F or t h e e nd of t he poe m i s be a ut i f ul l y a m bi va l e nt i n t he 1 5 S e e T h a t Y e a r i n S a t a n S a y s a n d T h e Q u e s t i n T h e G o l d C e l l

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96 w a y i t e voke s t w o s c e ne s : bot h t he s c e ne of t he c hi l d s uc kl i ng t o s a t i e t y a nd t he s c e ne of t he t i ge r d r i nki ng t he bl ood o f t he e l a nd: . t he w a y w e onc e dr a nk a t t he body of a n a ni m a l unt i l w e w e r e s o ha ppy w e c oul d on l y f a i nt ou r m out hs r unni ng, i nt o s l e e p. T he e ndi ng m a ke s bl ood a nd m i l k m e t a phor i c a l l y e qui va l e nt a s i f t o s ugge s t a ne c e s s a r y e qui va l e nc e of vi ol e nc e a nd e c s t a s y. B ut t he phys i c a l f or c e of f e e di ng ha s be e n r e ve r s e d; i ns t e a d of f or c e m e a t be i ng pha l l i c a l l y t h r us t i nt o t h e t hr oa t t he f ood i s dr a w n i n. T he body of t he ot he r i s dr a w n i n i nva gi na t e d a s D e r r i da w oul d s a y, de pl oyi ng a s t r a t e gy m e a nt t o r e i ns c r i be a nd r e s ha pe pha l l oc e nt r i s m T hi s w oul d be t he s e xua l e t hi c t ha t w oul d t ur n t he pha l l i c a nd obs c e ne s upe r e go of W ha t i f G od i ns i de out G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on, by t he s ha pe of i t s a r gum e nt f unne l s t he pr obl e m s o f f or c e a nd vi o l e nc e i nt o t he a ppe t i t e o f t he nur s i ng c hi l d a s i f t he a r gu m e nt w e r e a b r e a s t t o be t a ke n i n t he m out h. B ut t hi s i s onl y t he l a s t of s e ve r a l i m a ge s t ha t r e pr e s e nt pha l l i c i s m a nd i nva gi na t i on i n va r i ous r e l a t i ons T he f i r s t s uc h i m a ge i s t he t i ge r l yi ng dow n i n gl u t t ony a nd pl e a s ur e on . t he e l a nd i t e a t s / t he s pi r a l hor n poi nt i ng t o t he s ky l i ke he a ve n. T he t i ge r t a ke s t he f l e s h of t he e l a nd i nt o i t s body, t hr ough i t s m out h I n t hi s i m a ge t he t i ge r i s t he f e m i ni ne or i nva gi na t i ng body, a nd t he e l a nd i s t he m a s c ul i ne body, r e pl e t e w i t h pha l l i c s pi r a l hor n. T he c on f us e d s ynt a x of t he phr a s e t he s pi r a l hor n poi n t i ng t o t he s ky l i ke he a ve n m a y i m pl y t ha t t he pha l l i c ho r n m e r e l y p oi nt s t o he a ve n. T he pha l l us m e r e l y poi nt s O r t he e nd of t he l i ne l i ke he a ve n, m a y i m pl y t ha t t he w hol e i m a ge o f t he t i ge r e a t i ng t he e l e ga nt e l a n d i s he a ve nl i ke a nd by a na l ogy t he j oi ni ng of t he bodi e s of t he s pe a ke r a nd t he l ove r i s he a ve nl i ke C om pa r e t he ope ni ng i m a ge f r om W ha t i f

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97 G od. T he r e t he m ot he r r ol l s he r l ong body on t op of t he da ught e r T he pha l l us i n W ha t i f G od i s f e t i s hi z e d a s a s a di s t i c t ool of t or t u r e T he s pe a ke r of t ha t poe m v i ol a t e d a nd f r a gm e nt e d be ne a t h t he de s t r uc t i ve f or c e o f a S a t ur n l i ke s upe r e go t ha t c ons um e s i t s c hi l dr e n, w oul d be t he e l a nd i n G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on. T he e l a nd s i m i l a r l y i s m or s e l i z e d a nd c ons um e d, but i t i s not t he o f f s pr i n g of t he t i ge r not ot he r but O t he r I n G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on t he s pe a ke r l i e s dow n he a vi l y on he r or hi s m a s c ul i ne l ove r w e c a n pos i t t he ge nde r o f t he s pe a ke r s l ove r i s m a s c ul i ne by a na l ogy w i t h t he e l a nd t ha t ha s t he pha l l i c hor n I n t hi s poe m t he s pe a ke r i s on t op a nd i s i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he t i ge r t ha t c ons um e s i nc or por a t i ng t he body of t he ot he r B e c a us e s he i s i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he t i ge r t he m e t a ph or i m pl i e s t ha t s he t oo ha s ha d e c s t a s y f or c e d i nt o he r na t ur e A l t hough t he m e t a phor i s not e xpl i c i t l y e xt e nde d i n t hi s w a y, t he c ont e xt s uppl i e d by ot he r poe m s w hi c h h a ve t o do w i t h he r f a t he r f or c e f e e di ng he r s ugge s t s t ha t a n oe di pa l s c e ne ha s be e n r e i nve s t e d w i t h a n oppos i t e a f f e c t T he s c e ne ha s be e n i nva gi na t e d, i t s a f f e c t r e ve r s e d, t ur ne d i ns i de out T he m e t a pho r i c a l r a pe t ha t f or c e f e e di ng s ym bol i z e s be c om e s t r a ns f or m e d i n t o t he m e a ns of unde r s t a ndi ng t he hunge r a nd t he gl o r y o f / e a t i ng pa c ke d a t t he c e nt e r of e a c h t i ge r c e l l F or c e f e e di ng i s t r a ns f or m e d i nt o hu nge r a nd t he gl or y of e a t i ng t he r e a f t e r T he i ne f f a bl e f o r c e i m pl i e d i n t he pa s s i ve c ons t r uc t i on E c s t a s y ha s be e n f or c e d t ur ns out t o be s om e t hi ng l i ke a f e r t i l i t y god i ns t i l l i ng e c s t a s y f or t he l i f e o f t he t i g e r a nd t he / m a ki ng of ne w t i ge r s I t w oul d be a c c ur a t e t o s a y t ha t t he pha l l i c a nd pa t r i a r c ha l na m e O l ds ha s be e n c ons um e d, m or s e l i z e d, a nd us e d t o m ount a c r i t i qu e of t he god i n W ha t i f G od a nd t o c ount e r pos e a G od t ha t w oul d r e ne w i t s e l f A s t he poe m os c i l l a t e s be t w e e n f or m s of c ons um pt i on, s e xua l a nd or a l t he f i gur e of i nva gi n a t i on gi ve s w a y t o w ha t D e r r i da c a l l s

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98 e nc r ypt i on, t he c he w i ng, m o r s e l i z i ng a nd us e of t h e pr ope r na m e t o ge ne r a t e ne w t e xt s A s t he t i ge r us e s t he e l a nd, bur ni ng i t s e ne r gy a t t he c e nt e r of e a c h / t i ge r c e l l f o r t he m a ki ng of ne w t i ge r s t he s pe a ke r bur ns t he gol d of t he na m e O l ds f o r t he f i gur a t i on of a ne w G od t ha t w oul d i m pl y a r e f i gur a t i on of t he s upe r e go. I ns t e a d of t he n i ght m a r e o f W ha t i f G od w hi c h e nds i n a n a ppe a l t o a n a bs e nt G od, G r e e d a nd A gg r e s s i on e nds i n t he s l e e p of s a t i e t y: . t he w a y w e onc e dr a nk a t t he body of a n a ni m a l unt i l w e w e r e s o ha ppy w e c oul d on l y f a i nt ou r m out hs r unni ng, i nt o s l e e p. T hi s i m a ge s a t i s f i e s t he a ppe a l of t he s pe a ke r a t t h e e nd of W ha t i f G o d t o t a ke t ha t w om a n by t he na pe o f t he ne c k l i ke a young c a t a n d / l i f t he r up a nd de l i ve r he r ove r t o m e I f t he s pe a ke r s a ppe a l w e r e gr a nt e d s he c ou l d t he n i nhe r i t t he s t r uc t u r e of m ot he r i ng ba s e d on t he t r a ns f e r e nc e of l ove T ha t s t r uc t ur e i s pr e c i s e l y i m a ge d i n t he c l os e of G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on. I f j e a l ous y be gi ns a t t he br e a s t a s F r e ud hol ds s o do e nj oym e nt a nd l ove a c c or di ng t o t hi s poe m T he G od t ha t ha s be e n c onj ur e d i n G r e e d a nd A g gr e s s i on i s a c ondi t i ona l G od. I f t he l a s t s i x l i ne s of t he poe m w hi c h f i gu r e t hi s G od a r e i r on i c i e t he a r gum e nt i s e s s e nt i a l l y t ha t G od doe s n t e xi s t t he n t he s pe a ke r i s f r e e t o s ubs t i t ut e t he G od of G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on f or t he G od of W ha t i f G od. A nd i n t he c l os e of G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on t he m e m or y qua r e t r oa c t i on i s o f f a l l i ng a s l e e p our m out hs r unn i ng. T hi s f i gur e f o r s uc kl i ng a l s o f i gur e s s pe e c h a nd t he m o r s e l i ng a nd s pe a ki ng of t he p r ope r na m e t he e nc r ypt i on of t he ot he r a nd t he e nc r ypt i o n of t he s i gna t ur e C onc l us i on

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99 N ot a pa r t i c ul a r gol de n e gg nor a pa r t i c ul a r p r i s on c e l l : t he be s t w a y t o t hi nk of t he gol d c e l l m a y be t o c ons i de r a l l t he pos s i bl e a s s oc i a t i ons t he t e r m c a n m us t e r t he n t o l e t t ha t c ons i de r a t i on un f ol d ove r t i m e I t w oul d be a m a t r i x i n a c e r t a i n c or ne r of l a ngua ge a n a bs t r a c t s t r uc t ur e pr oduc i ng m e a ni ng ove r t i m e a s i t i s c ont e m pl a t e d by t he r e a de r T he s a m e i s t r ue f or a s i gna t ur e poe t i c s T h e poe t i c s c a n a va i l i t s e l f o f L a c a n s not i on of l ogi c a l t i m e a nd i t s t r i pa r t i t e s t r uc t ur e a s a m e a ns of : 1) t he i ns t a nt of s e e i ng, 2 ) t he t i m e f o r unde r s t a ndi ng 3) t he m o m e nt of c onc l udi ng. T hi s s t r uc t ur e ha s i t s m os t obvi ous a ppl i c a t i on t o t he dyna m i c s of t he oe di pa l e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he r e i t f unc t i ons s ync hr oni c a l l y i n or de r t o de s c r i be t he oe di pa l e ve nt a nd not di a c hr oni c a l l y. A s a f unc t i on of m e m or y t hi s t e m po r a l l ogi c or ga ni z e s t he oe di pa l e xpe r i e nc e H i s t or i c a l l y f or a w om a n i n O l ds c ul t ur a l m i l i e u, t hi s t e m por a l l o gi c c oul d be a g ood w a y o f unde r s t a ndi ng t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of t he s i gna t ur e T he i ns t a nt of s e e i ng w oul d c or r e s pond t o t he f i r s t r e c ogni t i on of t he a s s oc i a t i on of t he p r ope r na m e a nd t he body of t he s ubj e c t I t s e t t l e s i n s i m pl e r e c ogni t i on of t he na m e a nd t he s i gna t ur e a s one s ow n pa r a doxi c a l l y a s i f i t w e r e i ns c r i be d on t he body. T he t i m e f or unde r s t a ndi ng w oul d c o r r e s pond t o t h e gr a dua l a c c l i m a t i on t o t he f a c t of t he na m e a nd s i gna t ur e a nd t he t ur ni ng t ow a r d unde r s t a ndi ng of one s pos i t i on i n t he f a m i l y a nd t he va r i ous o t he r i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t f o r m t he ba s i s a nd f r a m e s of i de nt i t y. A nt i c i pa t i on, t he i nve r s e of N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t w oul d be t he dom i na nt ps yc hi c t e m por a l i t y i n t hi s l ogi c a l m o m e nt A nt i c i pa t i on i s oe di pa l l y s t r uc t ur e d on t he be l i e f t he pa r t i c ul a r a nt i c i pa t i on, of t he c hi l d t ha t w he n s he gr ow s up s he w i l l be l i ke he r pa r e nt s S he w i l l c ont i nue t o s i gn he r na m e a s he r pa r e nt s ha ve s i gn e d t he i r na m e s T he m om e nt o f c onc l udi ng w oul d c or r e s pond t o t h e r e s ol ut i on of t he oe di pa l

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100 c om pl e x i f t he L a c a ni a n m ode l of l ogi c a l t i m e c oul d be s i m pl y t r a ns l a t e d or b r i c ol e ur e d i nt o a n e xpl a na t i on o f t he s i gna t ur e B ut l i ke F r e ud s e xpl a na t i on of t he oe di pus c om pl e x, t he r e i s a gr e a t di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he w a y t he s i gna t ur e ha s t r a di t i ona l l y f unc t i one d f or m e n a nd f or w om e n i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s M e n c ont i nue t o c a r r y t he pa r e nt a l s i gna t ur e i f t he y ge t m a r r i e d; w om e n ge ne r a l l y gi ve up t he pa r e nt a l pa r t of t he i r na m e / s i gna t ur e H ow w oul d N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t de l i ne a t e t hi s l ogi c a l m om e nt i n e i t he r c a s e ? P e r ha ps i t i s s e c onda r i l y s t r uc t ur e d a c c or di ng t o t he m e m o r y of t he be l i e f t ha t one w i l l gr ow up t o be l i ke one s pa r e n t s a nd f or t he s i gna t ur e t he m e m o r y of t he a nt i c i pa t i on t ha t one w i l l s i gn a s t he pa r e nt s s i gn( e d) O l ds s i gna t ur e poe t i c s dw e l l s i n t he m om e nt o f c o nc l udi ng a s i t c ons t a nt l y w or ks ove r t he t w o pr i or l ogi c a l m om e nt s T he obs e s s i on w i t h gol d t he s e ns e of e nt r a pm e nt w i t hi n t he c e l l ( ul a r ) w hi c h pos i t s i t s oppos i t e s e ns e i n a not he r m om e nt o f t he ps yc he or of t he t e xt or i n a not he r poe m e xe m pl i f i e s t he f i r s t pa r a m e t e r o f l ogi c a l t i m e T he oe di pa l t he m a t i c r e t ur ns i n e a c h book, a l w a ys be i ng r e m e m be r e d, r e c ons t r uc t e d i n m e m o r y, r e w or ke d f r om a n ol de r poi nt of vi e w A s s uc h, i t s e e m s t o os c i l l a t e be t w e e n t he s e c ond a nd t hi r d o f t he l ogi c a l m om e nt s P e r ha ps t he i de a of gol d i t s e l f i s t he c onc l us i on, gol d c onnot i ng t he a l c he m i c a l t r a ns f or m a t i on t ha t m e t a phor i c a l l y w oul d r e pr e s e nt t he a c hi e ve m e nt of one s goa l s t hr ough l ong l a bor a nd c onc e nt r a t e d a t t e nt i on t o t he s ubt l e t i e s of t he c ondi t i ons o f one s e xi s t e nc e T hi s ki nd of r e c onf i gur a t i on i s t he obj e c t of poe m s l i ke W ha t i f G od a nd G r e e d a nd A ggr e s s i on, w he r e t he t r a ns f or m a t i on of G od, t he s ubj e c t a nd t he s upe r e go be c om e s t he i s s ue S ha r o n O l ds poe t r y i l l us t r a t e s t he s c ope of a c c e s s t ha t t he s i gna t ur e pr ov i de s f or e nt e r i ng, s ur ve yi ng, a nd i nt e r ve ni ng i n t he l i ngui s t i c c ondi t i on.

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101 * W i t h O l ds i t a ppe a r s t ha t a t t e nt i on t o t he s i gna t ur e i s i nt ui t i ve a nd i n t e r i or t o he r poe t r y a nd poe t i c s I w oul d l i ke t o a s k he r i f s he ha s r e a d Si gns ponge or G l as B ut I do not doubt t ha t he r poe t i c s w e r e i n pl a c e be f or e e ve r he a r i ng o f J a c que s D e r r i da I ha ve no do ubt s he unde r s t ood t ha t ge t t i ng bus y w i t h he r na m e w a s i nt e gr a l t o bui l di ng a hom e f or he r s e l f i n l a ngua ge T o r e a d a nd he a r he r na m e f a l l i nt o l a ngua ge a nd r e s ur r e c t i t s e l f w a s goi ng t o be a s ur vi va l f r om t he s t a r t O n t he ot he r ha nd, J ohn C a ge s de ve l o pm e nt a s a s i gna t ur e t hi nke r a nd poe t t a ke s pl a c e ove r t he be t t e r pa r t of a c e nt ur y a nd t hr ough hi s i m m e r s i on i n t he a r t s

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102 C ha pt e r 4 T he D e v e l opm e nt of J ohn C age s Si gnat ur e T he or y G e t O ut of W hat e v e r C age Y ou F i nd Y our s e l f I n T he c a ge i s a n a r c hi t e c t ur a l r e a dym a de O ve r t he c our s e of hi s c a r e e r C a ge m a de m or e a nd m o r e us e of t hi s f a c t T hi s s t udy e xa m i n e s a l ong t he w a y s e ve r a l i m a ge s f r o m C a ge s w r i t i ngs t ha t e xpl or e s t udi os s oundpr oof r oom s w a l l s doo r s a nd c a ge s : c a ge s pa c e s pl a c e s w he r e he c on s t r uc t s a s i gna t ur e r e l a t i on be t w e e n s i l e nc e a nd s pa c i ng. C a ge a l s o gi ve s us di r e c t di s c us s i ons of s i gna t ur e t he or y on s e ve r a l oc c a s i ons ; he i s i n f a c t a s i gna t ur e t hi nke r a nd a t hi nke r of t he s i gna t ur e I n t hi s c ha pt e r I t r a c e t he de ve l opm e nt of hi s i de a s c onc e r ni ng t he s i gna t ur e ove r r oughl y t w e nt y ye a r s T he r e a r e t hr e e ke y m om e nt s i n t hi s de ve l opm e nt : C a ge s c r i t i que of V a r s e hi s e xpe r i m e nt a l w r i t i ng f o r R a us c he nbe r g, a nd h i s hom a ge t o D uc h a m p. I n C a ge s e a r l y e xpe r i m e nt a l w r i t i ngs w hi c h c ul m i na t e i n h i s m os t i m por t a nt bo ok, Si l e nc e hi s us e of t he t e r m s i gna t ur e i s not a c om pone nt o f hi s poe t i c s but r a t he r s e r ve s a s a m e t a c r i t i c a l t ool O nl y w he n he c om e s t o D uc ha m p doe s he be gi n t o vi e w t he s i gna t ur e a s a c om pos i t i ona l t ool a nd a n e l e m e nt of s t y l e t o be de ve l ope d T he r e a f t e r C a ge s m a t ur e s t yl e ha bi t ua l l y pl a c e s t he pr ope r na m e s of ot he r w r i t e r s a nd a r t i s t s i n t he a bys s of hi s ow n t e xt s B e f or e m a ppi ng out t hi s de ve l opm e nt I pr e f a c e i t w i t h a r e a di ng of t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng C a ge s s e m i na l t e xt on poe t i c s C hr i s t ophe r S hul t i s ha s a r gue d t ha t C a ge s t e xt E m pt y W or ds m a r ks t he

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103 a c hi e ve m e nt of C a ge s poe t i c vi s i on. C a ge s poe t i c s r e s e m bl e s P onge s i n t ha t he w a s f oc us e d on t he obj e c t t he t hi ng B ut C a ge r oot s hi s poe t i c s i n T ho r e a u, a nd s o S hul t i s us e s E m e r s on a nd T hor e a u t o e xpl or e C a ge s poe t i c s S hul t i s di f f e r e nt i a t e s C a ge s t hi nki ng f r om E m e r s oni a n poe t i c s vi a F O M a t hi e s s on s A m e r i c a n R e nai s s anc e : T he W or d O ne w i t h t he T h i ng, a dua l i s t i c o r ga ni c uni t y, i s not w ha t C a ge i s a bout ; r a t he r C a ge m ove d a w a y f r om t hough t a nd t ow a r d t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he ob j e c t i n a nd of i t s e l f ( S hul t i s 116) T ha t m uc h c oul d be c ons i de r e d P on gi a n. B ut f or C a ge t hi s m ove m e nt l e a ds t o noi s e I n a n i nt e r vi e w w i t h D a ni e l C ha r l e s C a g e s a ys I ha ve not ye t c a r r i e d l a ngua ge t o t he poi nt t o w hi c h I ha ve t a ke n m us i c a l s ounds I ha ve not ye t m a de noi s e w i t h i t I hope t o m a ke s om e t hi ng o t he r t ha n l a ngua ge w i t h i t ( 113) S hu l t i s a r gue s t ha t E m pt y W or ds a c hi e ve d C a ge s goa l : t he l ong poe m s ubj e c t s T hor e a u s J our nal s t o f i r s t t he e l i m i na t i on of s e nt e nc e s t he n of ph r a s e s l e a vi ng o nl y l e t t e r s s yl l a bl e s a nd ve r y m or c e l i z e d w or ds ( 119 20 ) I n t hi s pr og r e s s i on, C a ge i s e xt e ndi ng a t r e nd he not i c e d i n T hor e a u a n e r a s ur e of s t yl e : Y ou r e goi ng t o t e l l m e t ha t T ho r e a u ha s a de f i ni t e s t yl e H e ha s hi s ve r y ow n w a y of w r i t i ng B ut i n a r a t he r s i gni f i c a nt w a y, a s hi s J our nal c ont i nue s hi s w or ds be c om e s i m pl i f i e d or s hor t e r T he l onge s t w or ds . c ont a i n s om e t hi ng of T hor e a u i n t he m B ut not t he s hor t e s t w or ds T he y a r e w or ds f r o m c om m on l a ngua ge e ve r yda y w or d s S o, a s t he w or ds be c om e s hor t e r T hor e a u s ow n e xpe r i e nc e s be c om e m or e a nd m or e t r a ns pa r e nt T he y a r e no l onge r h i s ow n e xpe r i e nc e s I t i s e x pe r i e nc e A nd hi s w or k i m p r ove s t o t he e xt e nt t ha t he di s a ppe a r s . . S u bj e c t i vi t y no l onge r c om e s i nt o i t A nd t he r e i s no a r t i f i c e i n t hi s e f f or t ( C ha r l e s 234) T a ki ng T ho r e a u a s t e p f a r t he r C a ge pr oduc e d a c om pl e t e l y di ge s t e d f or m of T hor e a u s t e xt w hi c h w oul d be f r e e of i nt e nt i ona l m e a ni ng t ha t w oul d be t he f our t h s e c t i on of E m pt y W or ds W hi c h i s of c ou r s e pr e c e de d by t he f i r s t t hr e e s e c t i ons s o t ha t t he ove r a l l

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104 t e xt pr oduc e s a pr og r e s s i on t ow a r d non i nt e nt i on r a t he r t ha n s i m pl e non i nt e nt i on i t s e l f A poe t i c s of e l i m i na t i on I t e nd t o a gr e e w i t h S hul t i s a s s e s s m e nt but I m m or e dr a w n t o C a ge s s e r i e s of t e xt s t ha t w r i t e t hr ough F i nne gans W ak e t hr e e o f w hi c h he publ i s he d i n hi s books T he s e t e xt s a ppe a l t o m e a s a ki nd of s a nc e or ve nt r i l oq ui s m ; l i ke E m pt y W or ds w hi c h i s c ons t r uc t e d s t r i c t l y f r o m T ho r e a u s J our nal s t he y a r e l i m i t c a s e s of i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y, c ons t r uc t e d w hol l y out o f t he i r pr e t e xt F i nne gans W ak e B ut be c a us e t he y a r e c ons t r uc t e d by us i ng J oyc e s na m e i t s e l f ke y s i gn a t ur e i s s ue s a r e m or e s t a r kl y f or e gr ounde d i n t he poe m s on t he W ak e T a ke n t oge t he r t he W ak e poe m s r e c a pi t ul a t e t he s e r i e s of t e xt ua l va r i a t i ons i n E m pt y W or ds i n t ha t t he i r t r a j e c t or y c a r r i e s ove r i n t o a l e gi bl e i l l e gi bi l i t y B ut t he f i r s t t w o of t he t hr e e W ak e pi e c e s t ha t C a ge c ol l e c t e d i n hi s books a r e c ons t r uc t e d m e s os t i c a l l y. M e s o s t i c s a r e C a ge s i nve nt e d f or m l i ke a c r os t i c s onl y s pe l l i ng w o r ds dow n t he m i ddl e o f t he poe m t he s pi ne of t he poe m r a t he r t ha n t he l e f t e dge T hi s gi ve s t he f i r s t t w o W ak e poe m s a s c ul pt ur a l f e e l e nt i r e l y di f f e r e nt f r om E m pt y W or ds T he t hi r d W ak e pi e c e M uoy c e ( W r i t i ng f or t he F i f t h T i m e T hr ough F i nne gans W ak e ) f o r goe s t he m e s os t i c m ode ; C a ge i nt e nde d i t t o c onve r ge f o r m a l l y w i t h E m pt y W or ds ( X 173 ) I n t he e a r l y W ak e poe m s t he f a c t t ha t J oyc e s pr ope r na m e i s us e d t o a bs t r a c t l y m a c hi ne J oyc e s ow n t e xt ove r de t e r m i ne s s i gna t ur e i s s ue s s o t hor oughl y t ha t t he s e t e xt s s e e m t o m e t o be C a ge s m os t va l ua bl e f or e xpl or i ng i s s ue s of t he s i gna t ur e C a ge i s uns t i nt i ng i n hi s pr a i s e of J oyc e B ut w he r e a s J oyc e c r e a t e d l a ngua ge a nd di s c our s e w or l ds C a ge s pr o j e c t w a s t o t a ke l a ngua ge a c r os s t hos e bor de r s of s i l e nc e a nd a e s t he t i c pe r c e pt i on he ha d a l r e a dy e xpl or e d m us i c a l l y. C a ge w r ot e m a ny m e s os t i c s e r i e s on t he na m e s of a r t i s t s

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105 w ho i nf l ue nc e d hi m B e s i de s t he s e r i e s on F i nne ga ns W ak e he us e d J oyc e s na m e m e s o s t i c a l l y i n t he l ong l e c t ur e J am e s J oy c e M ar c e l D uc ham p, E r i k Sat i e : A n A l phabe t ( X 53 101) a nd i n t he l ong w or k T he m e s and V ar i a t i ons i nc l ude d i n C om pos i t i on i n R e t r os pe c t T he bi gge s t t e c hni c a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he s e w or ks a nd t he m e s os t i c s on t he W ak e i s s ynt a c t i c a l : unl i ke t he ot he r poe m s us i ng J oyc e s na m e t he poe m s on t he W ak e a r e m e a nt t o be f r e e d of s ynt a x. T he m e s os t i c f or m w he n t he s pi ne s pe l l s a pr ope r na m e i s de f i ni t i ve l y C a ge a n. H i s ow n na m e i s e f f a c e d by t he p r ope r na m e s of ot he r s T he s i gna t ur e of t he ot he r oc c upi e s t he c e nt e r of t he poe m A nd ye t t he m e s os t i c i s t he m os t r e c ogni z a bl e i di om of t he C a ge s s t yl e i n t he s e ns e of D e r r i da s s e c ond m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e M a ybe t w o t hi r ds of h i s poe t r y t a ke s t hi s f or m O n t he t hi r d l e ve l of t he s i gna t ur e t he m e s os t i c pr e s e nt s s om e ve r y D e r r i de a n pos s i bi l i t i e s B y pl a c i ng t he pr ope r na m e s of ot he r s i n t he c e nt e r of t he m e s os t i c dow n t he m i ddl e o f t he pa g e C a ge e r e c t s t he a bys s of t he i r s i gna t ur e s O f t he poe m s on t he W ak e C a ge s a ys t he y a r e c ons t r uc t e d t o s how t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n J oyc e s na m e a nd hi s t e xt ( X 136) W he r e a s D e r r i da i s ve r y i nve s t e d i n e xpl or i ng H e ge l G e ne t P onge e t c a nd put t i ng t he i r s i gna t ur e s t o w or k i n t he a bys s of hi s ow n t e xt s C a ge s m e s os t i c f or m m e a n s t o a l l ow i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on a nd non i nt e r f e r e nc e be t w e e n s i gna t ur e s D e r r i da s c a l l s hi s c ol um na r w r i t i ng ( on s t e l e s s t yl e s a nd s i gna t ur e s ) C ol os s a l w r i t i ng: . . w he n t he de nom i na t or . i ns t i t ut e s or e r e c t s hi m s e l f i n hi s ow n pr ope r s i gna t ur e C ol os s a l ha bi t a t : t he m a s t e r pi e c e H e ba nds e r e c t i n hi s s e i ng but a l s o oc c upi e s i t l i k e a s a r c opha gus T he f or m of t he na m e a p l a c e of s ol i t a r y c onf i ne m e nt e a t s t he body a nd hol ds i t upr i ght ( G l as 11bi ) T hi s ha ppe ns t o de s c r i be t he w a y C a ge s t e xt e r e c t s J oyc e s na m e w i t hi n t he m a s t e r pi e c e

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106 ( s e e F i gur e 1) C l e a r l y t he poe m s a r e m e m o r i a l s a nd de c om pos i t i ons of J A M E S J O Y C E a nd t he W ak e F or pur pos e s of ge t t i ng a t t he ps yc hoa na l yt i c a s pe c t s of C a ge s s i gna t ur e poe t i c s t he W ak e m e s os t i c s s e e m t o m e t he r oya l r oa d B e s i de s t he W ak e i t s e l f be i ng w r i t t e n i n ni ght l a ngua ge a s J oyc e s a i d, C a ge s e l i m i na t i on o f s ynt a x r a i s e s t he s t a ke s : w ha t ki nd o f poe t i c e c onom y r e m a i ns f r om a p r e t e xt t ha t a l r e a d y pl a ys s o f r e e l y w i t h l a ngua ge a t t he bor de r s of m e a ni ng a nd s e ns e l e s s ne s s ? A not he r w a y of put t i ng t hi s que s t i on w oul d be t o a s k i f C a ge s t e xt i s r e a da bl e a nd, i f s o, how ? W h a t ki nd of di s c i pl i ne a nd de vot i on di d C a ge e xpe c t hi s t e xt t o r e qui r e ? W ha t c oul d he ha v e i nt e nde d f or a t e xt t ha t ha s l a r ge l y be e n f r e e d of i nt e nt i on? I w i l l t a ke up t he s e que s t i ons i n t he C ha pt e r 5 r e a di ng o f W r i t i ng f or t he Se c ond T i m e T hr ough F i nne gans W ak e C a ge s a e s t he t i c e s s a y s a l s o gi ve us pl e nt y of g r i s t f o r t he s e que s t i ons of t e n i n t e r m s o f hi s ow n s i gna t ur e t he or y. T he E m pt y C age : Spac e of D i f f e r e nc e J ohn C a ge s de ve l opm e nt i n a b i ogr a phi c a l s e ns e c a n be r e a d a s a ge ne a l ogy of hi s poe t i c s T he f i r s t de c i s i on t r e e he f i nds hi m s e l f i n i s t he oe di pa l s pa c e : m a l e or f e m a l e H i s f a t he r ope ns i nt o t he w a y o f be i ng w e c a n c a l l i nv e nt or / i nve nt i on. H i s m ot he r ope ns i nt o m us i c i a n/ m us i c B ut C a ge s di f f e r e nc e i s s om e w he r e be t w e e n t he s e t w o hor i z ons H e doe s n t r e a l l y i m pr i nt t o e i t he r p os i t i on. H e pl a ys w i t h pa pe r c ut out dol l s H e pe r f o r m s a n i nve nt i on of t he ot he r i e t he f e m a l e be ha vi or o f pl a yi ng w i t h dol l s H i s pa r e nt s f r ow ne d upon h i s be ha vi or P e r h a ps t he L a c a ni a n N o( m ) o f t he F a t he r w a s e l i c i t e d f r om bo t h t he m a t r i a nd pa t r i a r c ha l a r e a s of t he C a ge m a t r i x A s a c ol l e ge s t ude nt a nd i nt o hi s t w e nt i e s he know s he ha s t a l e n t a nd he

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107 c ons i de r s va r i ous br a nc h pa t hs a m ong t he a r t s : pa i nt i ng, w r i t i ng, m us i c a nd a r c hi t e c t ur e H e m ove s c e nt r i f uga l l y ( I a m a duc ha m p unt o m y s e l f ) s pr e a di ng hi s ho r i z ons i nt o t he a r t s a nd i nt o E ur ope e s c a pi ng f r om t he A m e r i c a n uni ve r s i t y, P om ona C ol l e ge a f t e r one ye a r of i n t e r e s t f ol l ow e d by a ye a r of uni nt e r e s t or a nt i i nt e r e s t T he ne xt s t a ge of de ve l opm e nt r e ve r s e d t he c e nt r i f uga l m ove m e nt : A r nol d S c hoe nbe r g. I n t he m i d 30s C a ge c om m i t s t o m us i c i n t he a c t of ha ggl i ng w i t h S c hoe nbe r g, pr om i s i ng t ha t i f S c hoe nbe r g w i l l t a ke hi m on a s a s t ude nt t he n he w i l l c om m i t hi s l i f e t o m us i c F o r t he ne xt 15 o r 20 ye a r s t hi s c om m i t m e nt f or m s t he t r unk of hi s ge ne a l ogy. H ow e ve r a l l of hi s e a r l i e r a r t i s t i c i nt e r e s t s r e m a i n c l os e t o ha nd a s he w r i t e s a g r e a t de a l o f m us i c f or da nc e B ut m us i c a l c om pos i t i on i s hi s f i r s t pur s ui t a nd f oc us of de ve l opm e nt B y t he a dve nt of t he 60s he ha s be gun t o m ove c e nt r i f uga l l y a ga i n s t a r t i ng t o de e m pha s i z e m us i c a l i t t l e w hi l e t u r ni ng m or e t o w r i t i ng poe t r y, pa i nt i ng a nd s oc i a l c r i t i que T he 40s s a w hi s ps yc ho s pi r i t ua l hor i z ons i nc r e a s e e xpone nt i a l l y a s he be ga n t o e xpl or e non w e s t e r n t hought C ha nc e e s pe c i a l l y t he I C hi ng s unde r s t a ndi ng of i t a c t s a s a c a t a l ys t f or hi s c e nt r i f uga l de ve l opm e nt w i t hi n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f hi s c om m i t m e nt t o m us i c T he ve c t or of c ha nc e f i na l l y c a r r i e s C a ge b e yond t he m us i c a l l y s upe r e goi s t i c i m pr i nt o f S c hoe nbe r g I ndi a n, B uddhi s t T a oi s t a nd Z e n t h i nki ng he l p s t e e r hi m a r ound t he i ns t i t ut i on of ps yc hoa na l ys i s ( w hi c h he c oul dn t a f f or d a nyw a y) a nd out of t he i ns t i t ut i on of he t e r os e xua l m a r r i a ge 1 6 S o w e r e a d a s e r i e s of C a ge a n pr i m a l m om e nt s : oe di pa l s c hool / c ol l e ge S c hoe nbe r g, m us i c de l i m i t e d . . D oe s t hi s s e r i e s r e a c h i t s l i m i t w i t h w r i t i ng o r poe t i c s ? 1 6 T h i s m i n i b i o g r a p h y i s b a s e d o n i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e n m o s t l y f r o m D a v i d R e v i l l s b i o g r a p h y o f C a g e a n d T h o m a s H i n e s b i o g r a p h i c a l e s s a y T h e n N o t Y e t C a g e : t h e L o s A n g e l e s Y e a r s

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108 C a ge s a ut obi ogr a phi c a l vo i c e i s a ki nd of H oudi n i a n e s c a pe a r t i s t w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he s e va r i ous s c e ne s L i ke w i s e hi s poe t i c s i s de vot e d t o e s c a pe a nd, i nde e d, o f t e n s e e m s t o e s c a pe T hi s i s a us e f ul pe r s pe c t i ve w he n w e f a c e C a ge s s e e m i ngl y i l l e gi bl e t e xt s C a ge s poe t i c s w i t h hi s ba t t l e c r y f o r f r e e dom pe r ha ps hi s m os t A m e r i c a n t r a i t i s a t e xt ua l m a c hi ne m or e w r i t e r l y t ha n r e a de r l y H e t a ke s of f f r om a ny c a ge he f i nds C a ge s t e xt s a r e bui l t up out o f c e r t a i n r e m a i ns of s t yl e ; t hi s s t yl i s t i c t e nde nc y s om e t i m e s m a ni f e s t s a s a t r a j e c t or y t ow a r d t he i l l e gi bl e T he s e t e xt s bl unt l y a nd o f t e n i m pl y t he que s t i on, W ha t doe s r e a di ng r e qui r e he r e ? C a ge r e ve l s i n t he out r a ge ous ne s s of t hi s pos i t i on H e l ove s t o t e l l s t or i e s of a udi e nc e r e be l l i on a ga i ns t hi s m us i c a nd t h i s r e a c t i on f r om r e a de r s of hi s poe t r y a nd e xpe r i m e nt a l w r i t i ng he i nt e r p r e t s a s a s i gn t ha t hi s c om pos i t i on ha s a c hi e ve d pa r t of i t s a i m s 1 7 H ow c oul d s om e t hi ng t ha t s e e m i ngl y c onve ys no s e ns e c onve y s t yl e ? T hi s i s pr e c i s e l y t he s i gna t ur e obs t a c l e C a ge l ove d t o s i gn f or f r om t he 50s onw a r d C a ge s t e xt s a l w a ys m i l i t a t e a ga i ns t a c e r t a i n c onc e pt of s t yl e I t i s a ki nd of e xt r e m e s i gna t ur e j e a l ous y: he doe s not w r i t e t o e voke ot he r r e a da bl e s i gna t ur e s or t o i de nt i f y hi m s e l f w i t h o r a m ong w r i t e r s poe t s o r c om pos e r s o r t o pos i t i on hi m s e l f s t yl i s t i c a l l y. S uc h a s s oc i a t i ons by a r e a de r or l i s t e ne r w oul d be l i ke 1 7 C o n s i d e r t h i s a n e c d o t e f r o m t h e l a t e 8 0 s C h g y a m T r u n g p a a B u d d h i s t l i n e a g e h o l d e r f l e d T i b e t i n 1 9 5 9 a n d b e c o m e o n e t o t h e l e a d i n g B u d d h i s t t e a c h e r s i n t h e w e s t H e f o u n d e d N a r o p a U n i v e r s i t y o n B u d d h i s t e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s T r u n g p a a r t i s t a n d r e n o w n e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t w a s a l s o e n i g m a t i c a l l y a n d i n f a m o u s l y a n a l c o h o l i c H e d i e d a t t h e a g e o f 4 8 C a g e t e l l s t h i s s t o r y : I g a v e a p e r f o r m a n c e o f m y p i e c e c a l l e d E m p t y W o r d s P a r t I V f o r t h e s t u d e n t s o f C h g y a m T r u n g p a a t N a r o p a I n s t i t u t e i n B o u l d e r C o l o r a d o T h e p i e c e g o e s o n f o r t w o a n d a h a l f h o u r s a n d c o n t a i n s l o n g s i l e n c e s o f f o u r o r f i v e m i n u t e s d u r a t i o n a n d t h e n o u t o f t h a t s i l e n c e I j u s t s a y a f e w l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t f o l l o w i n g a s c o r e w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n t h r o u g h c h a n c e o p e r a t i o n s f r o m t h e j o u r n a l o f H e n r y D a v i d T h o r e a u M e a n w h i l e t h e r e a r e t h e s e v e r y f a i n t i m a g e s o f T h o r e a u s d r a w i n g s b e i n g p r o j e c t e d o n a s c r e e n b e h i n d m e B u t t h e y a r e v e r y d i m a n d h a r d l y c h a n g e a t a l l p e r h a p s o n c e e v e r y t w e n t y m i n u t e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s a n i d e a l p i e c e f o r a B u d d h i s t a u d i e n c e b u t t h e y b e c a m e a b s o l u t e l y f u r i o u s a n d y e l l e d a t m e a n d t r i e d t o g e t m e t o s t o p t h e p e r f o r m a n c e T h e n e x t m o r n i n g I h a d a m e e t i n g w i t h C h g y a m T r u n g p a a n d h e a s k e d m e t o j o i n t h e f a c u l t y a t N a r o p a ( N i s k e r 1 4 ) T h e s e c t i o n o f E m p t y W o r d s t h a t C a g e u s e d f o r t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e i s n o t l e g i b l e i n a n y o r d i n a r y s e n s e N o d o u b t C a g e s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n v e y e d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i l l e g i b i l i t y i n h i s p e r f o r m a n c e

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109 c onf us i ng s ounds w i t h m e n. F or C a ge t he c onf us i o n of na m e s a nd m us i c i n t he m us i c a l w or l d, a s i n t he c a s e of B e e t hove n, i s a c a t e gor y m i s t a ke : m e n a r e m e n a nd s ounds a r e s ounds a s C a ge of t e n s a ys H i s s i gna t ur e j e a l ous y pa s s e s ove r i nt o a n a ni m os i t y t ow a r d t he c onc e pt of t he s i gna t ur e i t s e l f a n a ni m os i t y r e a da bl e i n m a ny o f hi s t e xt s on ot he r a r t i s t s w he t he r i n pr a i s e of a n a bs e nt s i gna t ur e or i n r e pudi a t i on o f a n ove r be a r i ng s i gna t ur e T he i de a of t he s i gna t ur e s e r ve s a s a ki n d of s pa c i ng be t w e e n hi m s e l f a nd t he a r t i s t s he t a ke s of f f r om P a r a doxi c a l l y, i t i s ha r d n ot t o r e a d a l s o i n t he s e t e xt s a m e t a phor i c a l l ogi c dr a w n f r om hi s ow n s i gna t ur e A nd, a s w e s ha l l s e e i t i s s t yl e i n t he s e ns e of i di om D e r r i da s s e c ond m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e t ha t C a ge oppos e s H i s ow n s i gna t ur e s t yl e m i l i t a t e s a ga i ns t t he c onc e pt of s t yl e a nd t hi s pa r a dox gove r ns m a ny of hi s t e xt s T e xt s a bout not hi ng; t e xt s de vot e d t o s i l e nc e ; t e xt s of c ha nc e ; i nt e r t e xt s de s i gne d t o e l ude t he i r pr e t e xt s ; t e xt s t ha t di s i nt e g r a t e : w ha t e ve r t he c ont e xt t h i s i s pe r ha ps t he onl y r e m a i ns o f s t yl e t ha t e a c h t e xt i s a s i ngul a r e ve nt de vot e d t o a c e r t a i n e s c a pe t he ope ni ng of a c a ge P oe t i c s and Si l e nc e ( L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng ) T o ge t r i ght a t t he que s t i on o f t hi s he ndya t i c a nd be t w e e n poe t i c s a nd s i l e nc e I w a nt t o r e a d C a ge s L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng T hi s t e xt m a y be hi s m os t i nt e r e s t i ng s i ngl e pi e c e f or a ppr oa c hi ng hi s poe t i c s I t hi nge s be t w e e n hi s m us i c a nd hi s poe t r y. P a r t of t he i nt e r e s t i s t e m por a l ; t he or a l t i m i ng of t he pi e c e i s m e t e r e d. A s w i t h s o m a ny of hi s pi e c e s he c om pos e d i t f o r pe r f or m a nc e ; of c our s e i t i s a l e c t ur e a nd he w r ot e i t f or or a l pr e s e nt a t i on. T hi s pe r f or m a t i ve a s pe c t i s f or m a l i z e d by i t s l a yout on t he pa ge S pa c i ng i ndi c a t e s t i m e i n a g r a phi c de s i gn e m pha s i z i ng s i l e nc e ( s ) dur i ng t he s pa c e t i m e of

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110 pe r f or m a nc e T hi s t i m e of s i l e nc e a c c r ue s f or i t s e l f a s t i m e s i l e nc e a nd i t a c c r ue s t o t he l e c t ur e a c a pi t a l of s i l e nc e W ha t c o m e s i nt o t he pi e c e t hr ough s i l e nc e ? W ha t i s ga i ne d i n t he s i l e nc e ove r t i m e ? T he pi e c e i nt e r r oga t e s que s t i ons a nd l i s t e ns t o s i l e nc e I t s ubj e c t s s i l e nc e pr oduc i ng s ubj e c t i ve s t r uc t ur a l m om e nt s f or c i ng t he l i s t e ne r t o s t r uc t ur e t he s i l e nc e C a ge ha d a l r e a dy be e n de ve l opi ng s uc h t e c hni que s i n hi s m us i c c om pos i t i ons I t c a n be a r gue d t ha t L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng i s t he a nc hor pi e c e i n hi s m os t i m po r t a nt book Si l e nc e I t i s t he f i r s t pi e c e di s c us s e d i n hi s f o r w a r d, a nd t he r e he c onne c t s i t di r e c t l y w i t h poe t r y I t s pl a c e m e nt i s r ough l y i n t he c e nt e r o f t he 276 pa ge book I t c a n a l s o be a r gue d t ha t t he e ve nt hi s a c t ua l f i r s t pr e s e nt a t i on of t he l e c t ur e ( a c c or di ng t o t he pr e f a c e i n Si l e nc e a bout 1949 . a t t he A r t i s t s C l ub on E i ght h S t r e e t i n N e w Y or k C i t y ( i x) ) m a r ke d t he be gi nni ng of a t r a ns i t i on i n A m e r i c a n a e s t he t i c hi s t or y, t he t ur n f r om A bs t r a c t E xp r e s s i oni s m t he J a c ks on P ol l oc k s c hool of pa i nt i ng, t o t he c ool a nt i e xp r e s s i oni s t a e s t he t i c of C a ge M e r c e C unni ngha m R obe r t R a us c he nb e r g, a nd J a s pe r J ohns w hi c h ope ne d t he w a y f or t he m i ni m a l i s t a nd c onc e pt ua l de ve l opm e nt s of t he S i x t i e s B ut s t r i c t l y i n t e r m s of poe t i c s t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng pr e s e nt s a r a di c a l ope ni ng t ha t ha s be e n f or t he m os t pa r t i gno r e d by t he a c a de m y, a l t hough C a ge doe s ha ve a f e w a pol ogi s t s a nd hi s t e xt s s om e t i m e s a ppe a r i n pl a c e s l i ke t he N or t on A nt ho l ogy of P os t m ode r n P oe t r y T he d i f f i c ul t y of hi s l a t e r w or ks w he n he t u r ne d hi s a t t e nt i on m or e t o poe t i c c om pos i t i on, ha s n t he l pe d t o ge t a be t t e r he a r i ng f o r hi s poe t i c w or ks H i s m e s os t i c t e c hni que s a nd hi s w or ks of a l pha be t i c di s i nt e gr a t i on ( E m pt y W or ds f or i ns t a nc e ) of t e n s e e m t o de f y c onve nt i ona l i de a s of poe t r y. F o r i ns t a nc e E z r a P ound s i m a gi s t pr e s c r i pt i ons s e e m i r r e l e va nt : i n m a ny c a s e s t he i m a ge t he m e l opoi a a nd/ or t he

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111 l ogopoi a don t s e e m t o be t he poi nt o f t he t e xt s a t a l l 1 8 S om e t e xt s e ve n s e e m de s i gne d t o ge t r i d o f s uc h qua l i t i e s T he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng g i ve s a pr e t t y good i ndi c a t i on o f C a ge s s t a r t i ng poi nt s f o r t hi s de pa r t u r e C a ge s l e c t ur e s of t he 50 s m a r k t he t u r ni ng o f hi s a t t e nt i on t o poe t i c s I n hi s l a t e t e e ns t w e nt y ye a r s e a r l i e r hi s i ni t i a l m a j o r i nf l ue nc e s e e m s t o ha ve be e n G e r t r ude S t e i n I n t he p r e f a c e t o Si l e nc e he w r i t e s A s I l ook ba c k, I r e a l i z e t ha t a c onc e r n w i t h poe t r y w a s e a r l y w i t h m e A t P om ona C ol l e ge i n r e s pons e t o que s t i ons a bout t he L a ke poe t s I w r ot e i n t he m a nne r o f G e r t r ude S t e i n i r r e l e va nt l y a nd r e pe t i t i ous l y. I got a n A T he s e c ond t i m e I di d i t I w a s f a i l e d ( x) T he ne xt s e nt e nc e of t he p r e f a c e c onc e r ns t he L e c t ur e o n N ot hi ng a nd a que s t i on o f ge nr e i m pl i c i t i n t hi s pr os a i c hi nge T he l e c t u r e doe s not a ppe a r t o be poe t r y ; poe t r y i s c e r t a i nl y one of i t s s ubj e c t s a s a qui c k pe r us a l w i l l s how but how c oul d a l e c t ur e be a poe m ? T he ne xt s e nt e nc e r e a ds S i nc e t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng t he r e ha ve be e n m or e t ha n a d oz e n pi e c e s t ha t w e r e unc onve nt i ona l l y w r i t t e n, i nc l udi ng s om e t ha t w e r e done by m e a ns o f c ha nc e ope r a t i ons a nd one t ha t w a s l a r ge l y a s e r i e s of que s t i ons l e f t una ns w e r e d ( x) 1 9 S t i l l t o s a y t ha t t he L e c t ur e i s unc onve nt i ona l l y w r i t t e n doe s not c l a r i f y i t s ge nr e s t a t us G e nr e m a y w e l l ha ve be e n a m oot i s s ue f or C a ge i m pl yi ng a s i t doe s a s e t o f e x pe c t a t i ons a nc hor e d i n t a s t e m e m o r y, a nd va l ue s t ha t ne e d e s c a pi ng. I t s m or e l i ke l y t ha t he m e a nt t o e s c a pe t he ge nr e o f poe t r y a nd t ha t t he L e c t ur e i s s uc h a n e xpa ns i on. I n t he f ol l ow i ng pa r a gr a ph of t he pr e f a c e he di f f e r e nt i a t e s poe t r y a nd 1 8 C o n c e r n i n g t h e i m a g e P o u n d s i m a g i s t p r e s c r i p t i o n w a s d i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t h i n g w h e t h e r s u b j e c t i v e o r o b j e c t i v e a n d h e a l s o d e f i n e d t h e i m a g e a s t h a t w h i c h p r e s e n t s a n i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d e m o t i o n a l c o m p l e x i n a n i n s t a n t o f t i m e L o g o p o i a h a s t o d o w i t h t h e p l a y b e t w e e n w o r d s c o n t e x t s a n d i d e a s : i r o n y f o r e x a m p l e M e l o p o i a c h a r g e s w o r d s m u s i c a l l y a m p l i f y i n g m e a n i n g M a r j o r i e P e r l o f f h a s f o u n d i n C a g e e x a m p l e s o f p o e m s t h a t d o s a t i s f y t h e s e p r e s c r i p t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y m e l o p o i a ( M u s i c ) 1 9 S e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f D u c h a m p b e l o w f o r m o r e o n c h a n c e o p e r a t i o n s a n d C a g e s r e l a t i o n s t o t h e S u r r e a l i s t s

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112 pr os e H i s pr os e i n i t s di r e c t una dor ne d pr e c i s i on, m a y s e e m a bi t unf oc us e d a t f i r s t but i t s c l e a r on s e c ond r e a di ng t ha t t he l e c t ur e s a r e t h e s ubj e c t of hi s r e m a r ks on poe t r y a nd t ha t t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng i s e xe m pl a r y o f t hi s d i s t i nc t i on be t w e e n poe t r y a nd p r os e : A s I s e e i t poe t r y i s no t pr os e s i m pl y be c a us e poe t r y i s i n one w a y o r a not he r f or m a l i z e d. I t i s not poe t r y by r e a s on of i t s c ont e nt or a m bi gu i t y but by r e a s on of i t s a l l ow i ng m us i c a l e l e m e nt s ( t i m e s ound) t o be i nt r oduc e d i nt o t he w o r l d of w or ds ( Si l e nc e x) T he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng m a ke s t hi s i nt r oduc t i on i n t he m os t l i t e r a l m e t hodi c i nt e nt i ona l l y s t r uc t ur e d w a y T he he a dnot e a t t he t e xt of t he l e c t ur e i s a l m os t i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e f r om t he he a dnot e s t o a l m os t a l l of C a ge s m us i c a l s c or e s f r om t he 50s : T he r e a r e f our m e a s ur e s i n e a c h l i ne a nd t w e l ve l i n e s i n e a c h uni t of t he r hyt hm i c s t r uc t ur e T he r e a r e f or t y e i ght s uc h uni t s e a c h ha vi ng f or t y e i ght m e a s ur e s T he w hol e i s di vi de d i n t o f i ve l a r g e pa r t s i n t he pr opor t i on 7 6 14 14 7 T he f or t y e i ght m e a s ur e s of e a c h uni t a r e l i ke w i s e s o di vi de d. T he t e xt i s p r i nt e d i n f ou r c ol u m ns t o f a c i l i t a t e a r hyt hm i c r e a di ng E a c h l i ne i s t o be r e a d a c r os s t he pa ge f r om l e f t t o r i ght not dow n t he c ol u m ns i n s e que nc e T h i s s houl d no t be done i n a n a r t i f i c i a l m a nne r ( w hi c h m i ght r e s ul t f r om a n a t t e m pt t o be t oo s t r i c t l y f a i t hf ul t o t he pos i t i on of t he w or ds on t he pa ge ) but w i t h t he r ubat o w hi c h one us e s i n e ve r yda y s pe e c h. ( Si l e nc e 109 ) T hi s w hol e s a l e i m por t a t i on o f t he ge nr e di s c our s e of m us i c a l c om pos i t i on ( a s i f he w e r e gi vi ng m us i c i a ns i ns t r uc t i ons f or pe r f o r m a nc e ) a nd C a ge a n r hyt hm i c a l s t r uc t ur e i nt r oduc e s e xa c t l y t he m us i c a l e l e m e nt s t i m e a nd s ound, w hi c h he c l a i m s di s t i ngui s h pr os e f r om poe t r y. B ut t hi s i n t r oduc t i on i s a nt i m e l opoe i a c a ga i ns t t he i m a gi s t pr e s c r i pt i on of m e l opoe i a C a ge i s not t a l ki ng a bout m us i c a l phr a s i ng, bu t di s c ont i nui t y of s ound. R hyt hm i c r e a di ng a nd r ubat o a r e m a t t e r s of t i m e T he s ound i nt r oduc e d i nt o t he l e c t ur e i s t he s ound o f s i l e nc e O nl y a f e w l i ne s of t he t e xt a r e w i t hou t s pa c i ng t o s i gni f y pa us e s i n t he de l i ve r y of t he w or ds s i l e nt p a us e s pr e gna nt w i t h t he a m bi e nt s ound of t he l e c t ur e s pa c e

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113 I n C a ge s e a r l y m us i c a l t hi nki ng s i l e nc e i s e qua t e d w i t h t he a bs e nc e of s ound a nd f unc t i ons t o de l i m i t dur a t i on C a ge r e po r t s t ha t A r nol d S c hoe nbe r g r e a l i z e d a ha r m oni c c a ge f or hi m : [ W ] he n S c hoe nbe r g a s ke d m e w he t he r I w oul d de vot e m y l i f e t o m us i c I s a i d, O f c our s e A f t e r I ha d be e n s t udyi ng w i t h h i m f or t w o ye a r s S c hoe nbe r g s a i d, I n or de r t o w r i t e m us i c you m u s t ha ve a f e e l i ng f or ha r m ony. I e xpl a i ne d t o hi m t ha t I ha d no f e e l i ng f or ha r m ony H e t he n s a i d t ha t I w oul d a l w a ys e n c ount e r a n obs t a c l e t ha t i t w oul d be a s t hough I c a m e t o a w a l l t h r ough w hi c h I c oul d not pa s s I s a i d, I n t ha t c a s e I w i l l de vot e m y l i f e t o be a t i ng m y he a d a ga i ns t t ha t w a l l ( Si l e nc e 261 ) R a t he r t ha n ( or a s a m e a ns of ) be a t i ng h i s he a d a ga i ns t t he h a r m oni c w a l l s o f m us i c C a ge c hos e t o pr i vi l e ge dur a t i on ove r t he ot he r t hr e e f unda m e nt a l e l e m e nt s of m us i c : pi t c h, t i m b r e a nd l oudne s s M uc h of hi s e a r l y s uc c e s s f ul c om pos i t i on i s t hus ba s e d on r hyt hm i c s t r uc t ur e s t ha t a r e a ppl i e d a t bot h m i c r o a nd m a c r o l e ve l s of a m us i c a l pi e c e r a t he r t ha n on ha r m oni c ne c e s s i t y a nd e xpl or a t i on. B y t he m i d f or t i e s he ha d vi s i t e d a n a ne c hoi c c ha m be r a t H a r va r d w he r e t he s ounds of hi s ow n body m a de hi m r e a l i z e t ha t pr a c t i c a l l y a l l e a r t hl y s i l e nc e c ons i s t s of s ound, us ua l l y a udi bl e e ve n i f a t ve r y l ow l e ve l s B y t he t i m e C a ge gi ve s t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng t hi s r e c ogni t i on i nf o r m s hi s t hi nki ng on s i l e nc e a l ong w i t h t he B uddhi s t a t t e nt i on t o i n t e r pe ne t r a t i on w i t h one s e nvi r onm e nt T hr ough s i l e nc e he i n t r oduc e s e nvi r onm e n t a l s oun d i nt o t he L e c t ur e C a ge s de ve l opm e nt of dur a t i on l e a d t o t e m por a l s us pe ns i ons of t he ot he r m us i c a l e l e m e nt s i n hi s c om pos i t i ons T he a e s t he t i c obj e c t t he t hi ng i s no l onge r c ons t i t ut e d by i t s ow n pi t c h, t i m b r e a nd l oudne s s T hi s a l l ow s i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on be t w e e n t he i ns i de a nd out s i de of hi s m us i c a l c om pos i t i ons C a ge s poe t i c s t r a ns l a t e s t hi s pr i nc i pl e of i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on i nt o bot h s poke n a nd w r i t t e n f or m s I n t he ne xt c ha pt e r I l l di s c us s how t hi s t a ke s pl a c e on t he l e ve l o f t he s i gna t ur e T he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng be c om e s a f r a m e f or s i l e nc e

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114 i m m i ne nt i n t he f i gu r e of a n e m pt y c a ge I n t hi s t a l k on t he s ubj e c t of not h i ng ( no t on t he c o nc e pt of not hi ngne s s ) C a ge s c a t t e r s m a ny pr onounc e m e nt s on poe t r y. T hi s poe t r y i s not poe t r y i n ge ne r a l or t he i ns t i t ut i on of poe t r y. W he n C a ge r e m a r ks t o M C R i c ha r ds t ha t he gi ve s hi s l e c t ur e s out of a ne e d f or poe t r y ( Si l e nc e x) he i s not t a l ki ng a bout t he w o r k o f ot he r poe t s or a bout w ha t poe t r y t hr oughout i t s hi s t or y ha s s uppl i e d t o pe opl e t ha t i s t he n e e ds t ha t poe t r y i s t r a di t i ona l l y t hought t o f ul f i l l F r om t he b e gi nni ng of t he t e xt t he r e i s a pa r a doxi c a l pl a yf ul ne s s a t w or k be t w e e n t he t e r m s not hi ng a nd s i l e nc e T he f i r s t s e nt e nc e r e a ds I a m he r e a nd t he r e i s not hi ng t o s a y, a nd i t i s s pr e a d out a c r os s t he f our c ol um ns s om e t hi ng l i ke t hi s : I a m he r e a nd t he r e i s not hi ng t o s a y T he not hi ng c l a us e i s br a c ke t e d be t w e e n t w o br i e f s i l e nc e s ( 109) T he t hi r d s e nt e nc e a nnounc e s t ha t W ha t w e r e qui r e i s s i l e nc e ; but w ha t s i l e nc e r e qui r e s i s t h a t I go on t a l ki ng. A nd a f e w l i ne s dow n f ol l ow i ng t he l ong e s t l i ne a r pa us e t hus f a r i n t he t e xt w e ha ve w ha t m a y w e l l be C a ge s m os t f a m ous a phor i s m : I ha ve not hi ng t o s a y a nd I a m s a yi ng i t a nd t ha t i s poe t r y a s I ne e d i t ( 109 ) a ga i n f ol l ow e d by a l i ne a r pa us e l onge r t ha n t he w i dt h o f t he pa ge U s ua l l y t h i s s e nt e nc e i s quot e d i n a bbr e vi a t e d f o r m l e a vi ng out t he f i na l c l a us e a nd t ha t i s poe t r y a s I ne e d i t T hi s f i na l c l a us e i s a poi nt e r I t di r e c t s us t o C a ge s poe t i c s W i t hi n t hi s s e nt e nc e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o f i nd m uc h m o r e t ha n t he poi nt e r be yond w hi c h or be f or e w hi c h l i e s a koa n, w hi c h i n t ur n s e e m s t o be a va r i a t i on of t he pr e vi ous pa r a doxi c a l i de a s t ha t s i l e nc e r e qui r e s t he s pe a ke r t o c ont i nue t a l ki ng a nd w or d s m a ke [ ] he l p m a ke t he s i l e nc e s ( 109) T he s pa c i ng f or m s a m e m or i a l ; i t a l l ow s e a c h phr a s e t o e c ho, t o doub l e i t s e l f i n t he

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115 s i l e nt s pa c e t ha t f ol l ow s : t i m e s t r e t c he s f o r w a r d ( p r ot e nt i on) a s t he dur a t i on of ph r a s e i s doubl e d. C a ge i s us i ng s pa c e t o f i gur e t i m e a ge ne r i c c onc e r n of poe t r y B ut t hi s c oul d be t he r hyt hm of t he a bys s t he s t e p a nd s t op of C a ge a s i gna t ur e c a de nc e L i ke a l l good pa r a doxe s t he r e a r e m a ny w a ys t o r e a d t he a phor i s m I ha ve not hi ng t o s a y a nd I a m s a yi ng i t P e r ha ps f i r s t a n d m os t obvi ous l y, t he l i ne c a r r i e s t he f or c e of l a w a s i f C a ge i s a nnounc i ng t he ne w l a w t he C a ge a n l a w o f poe t i c s I t s e e m s a di r e c t r e s pons e t o A bs t r a c t E xpr e s s i oni s m s pe c i f i c a l l y a nd t he de ve l opm e nt s of A m e r i c a n poe t i c s c i r c a 1900 50 ge ne r a l l y N e i t he r t he m ode r ni s t nos t a l gi a r e T r a di t i on ( a s t he or i z e d by T S E l i ot ) no r t he a goni s m of t he a v a nt ga r de ( J a c ks on P ol l oc k, e t a l ) i s pe r t i ne nt now i e i n C a ge s m om e nt a s a f unc t i on of m e di t a t i ve a w a r e ne s s of t he pr e s e nt B e ne a t h t hi s a e s t he t i c pol e m i c t he r e a r e a l s o s om e bur i e d c ont e xt ua l r e l a ys i e t he r e a r e ot he r c ul t ur a l c onne c t i ons i n t he unc ons c i ous of t hi s s e nt e nc e a nd t he e s s a y. A ps yc hoa na l yt i c r e a di ng m i ght t r y t o i s ol a t e s om e l a t e nt m e a ni ng t ha t w oul d not ne c e s s a r i l y r ul e out ot he r l a t e nt r e a di ngs but w oul d ne ve r t he l e s s ope n up t he t e xt i n pow e r f ul w a ys C a ge ha d m uc h e l s e a t s t a ke C a ge ga ve t hi s t a l k a r ound 1949 A t t ha t t i m e a s C a ge s c hol a r s s uc h a s M oi r a R ot h a nd J ona t hon D K a t z a r e be gi nni ng t o poi n t out i t w a s da nge r ous t o publ i c l y de c l a r e one s hom os e xua l i t y. T he c ount r y w a s s i nki ng i nt o M c C a r t hyi s m t he pol i t i c s of f e a r a nd t he a t t e nda nt hom ophob i a A nd ye t i t i s o ut of t hi s s oc i o c ul t ur a l m o m e nt t ha t C a ge bur s t s t o pr om i ne nc e a r gua bl y a s t he l e a di ng t hi nke r o f t he U S a va nt ga r de A n obvi ous r e a di ng pr e s e nt s i t s e l f S i l e nc e no m a t t e r t he t e r m s c onc e pt ua l r oot s i n m us i c a l t hi nki ng a nd i n t he Z e n i de a s w hi c h C a ge w a s gl e a ni ng f r om D T S uz uki a l s o

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116 c onve ys t he pol i t i c a l c ul t u r a l a nd da y t o da y r e a l i t y of e n f or c e d s i l e nc e on m a t t e r s of s e xua l i de nt i t y l i ve d by hom os e xua l s a t t ha t poi nt i n our hi s t or y T o s pe a k publ i c l y of hom os e xua l a s pe c t s of one s i de nt i t y a t t ha t t i m e w a s a n i nvi t a t i on t o vi ol e nc e I ha ve not hi ng t o s a y s ubm i t s t o t h i s r e a l i t y. B ut I a m s a yi ng i t r e f us e s t o s ubm i t A not he r w a y t o w r i t e i t w oul d be I a m ga y a nd I a m ( no t ) s a yi ng i t B y t hi s t i m e ga y w a s a n A m e r i c a n s l a ng t e r m s o i t s po s s i bl e t ha t t he a s s ona nc e of C a ge s a phor i s m m a y ha ve a ppe a l e d t o h i m f or i t s s e m bl a nc e t o t ha t o f ga y. B ut t hi s i s onl y s pe c ul a t i on, a s i s m y e nt i r e ps yc hoa na l yt i c r e a di ng, f o r t he pos s i bi l i t y of a s t r ong r e a di ng, t ha t s e e m s t o r e ve a l s om e unc ons c i ous a s pe c t of a t e xt doe s n t br i ng m e up t o a ny t r ut h l a t e nt i n C a ge s t e xt T he m a ni f e s t s ubj e c t of t he L e c t ur e i s not hi ng A nd t he poe t i c s t ha t t he t e xt p r om ot e s i s a l s o ba s e d on not h i ng. I de l a y m y pl a c e m e nt of C a ge i n t he a bys s N ot h i ng be c om e s a s c r e e n f or t he a bys s B ut I l l s a y i t a nyw a y. T he c a ge of hom os e x ua l i t y he c a r r i e d w i t h hi m r e s t s i n t he a bys s of hi s t e xt ope ni ng a nd c l os i ng a c c or di ng t o s om e l a w of dur a t i on ba s e d on c ha nc e ope r a t i ons C a ge s pr oxi m i t y t o, s a y, J e a n G e ne t o r W i l l i a m B ur r oughs o r A l l a n G i ns be r g, i s f o r m a l r a t he r t ha t c ont e nt ua l H e ha s not hi ng t o s a y ( a bout hom os e xua l i t y) a nd ye t he i s s a yi ng i t H i s t e x t s ope n a nd c l os e by c ha nc e i n l i e u of pl a c i ng hi s s e xua l s i gna t ur e i n t he i d i om of t he t e xt A pa ge l a t e r i n t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng w e ha ve t h i s s e nt e nc e : O ur poe t r y now i s t he r e a l i z a t i on t ha t w e pos s e s s not hi ng. A t f i r s t t h i s m a y s ound l i ke a m a ni f e s t o a ga i ns t m a t e r i a l i s m a nd bour ge oi s c ons um e r i s m but C a ge qui c kl y t u r ns t hi s c l a i m t o t he t e m por a l i s s ue s of r e t e nt i on a nd pr ot e nt i on: O ur poe t r y now i s t he r e a l i z a t i on t ha t w e pos s e s s n ot hi ng. A nyt hi ng t he r e f or e i s a de l i ght ( s i nc e w e do not pos s e s s i t ) a nd t hus ne e d not f e a r i t s

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117 l os s W e ne e d not de s t r oy t he pa s t : i t i s gone ; a t a ny m om e nt i t m i ght r e a ppe a r a nd s e e m t o be a nd be t he pr e s e nt W oul d i t be a r e pe t i t i on? O nl y i f w e t hought w e ow ne d i t but s i nc e w e don t i t i s f r e e a nd s o a r e w e M os t a nybody know s a bout t he f ut ur e a nd how un c e r t a i n i t i s ( Si l e nc e 110 11) W ha t w oul d a poe t i c s ba s e d on t hi s r e a l i z a t i on d o di f f e r e nt l y? T hi s C a ge a n m ove on poe t r y r e pe a t s hi s m ove on t he hi s t or y of m us i c : C a ge s c onc e r n w i t h a t t e nt i on t o t he pr e s e nt m om e nt ge ne r a l i z e s f r om t he c a s e of m us i c a l c om pos i t i on t o poe t i c c om pos i t i on. H e r e not hi ng r e f e r s m os t e s s e nt i a l l y t o t he pa s t e ve n t hough C a ge w a s l i vi ng i n t he m i ddl e of t he bl oodi e s t c e nt ur y t hus f a r i n hum a n hi s t or y. C l os e r t o ha nd, e ve n t hough C a ge w a s l i vi ng t hr ough M c C a r t hyi s m i t s e e m s he w a s a bl e t o e s c a pe i t s t r a um a t i c e f f e c t s e m e r gi ng r e l a t i ve l y uns c a t he d. C e r t a i nl y hi s a r t f l ou r i s he d. C a ge s t e m por a l s c he m e f or c e s t he c ons i de r a t i on of M c C a r t hyi s m i nt o a ( non ) c ons i de r a t i on of t he di a l e c t i c a l de r a i l m e nt H i s t or y bo t h U S a nd E u r o pe a n, doe s not ha ve t o be r e pe a t e d. I ns t e a d of t he ne ga t i on s ynt he s i s m ove m e nt of t i m e a nd hi s t or y t ow a r d t he a bs ol ut e i ns t e a d of a pr og r e s s t ha t f i nds us ha ppi l y f l oa t i n g upw a r d t ow a r d D i s ne yl a nd, C a ge pos i t s a ne a r a bs ol ut e pa s t T hi s pa s t c a n be f o r got t e n a bs ol ut e l y: i n f a c t i t s a pa s t s om e t hi ng l i ke F r e ud s t r a um a t i c ke r ne l out of w hi c h N ac ht r gl i c hk e i t di f f e r s a nd de f e r s i t s e l f I t c a nnot be r e c ondi t i one d or i nt e r pr e t e d s o t ha t i t m a y be a c c e pt e d, de a l t w i t h o r pos s e s s e d. T he na t ur e of t he t r a um a m a y be s uc h t ha t i t w oul d de s t r oy t he c ont i nu i t y o f t he m i nd i f i t w e r e pr ope r l y he l d i n c ons c i ous ne s s S o i t m us t be r e pr e s s e d, he l d i n t he unc ons c i ous f or s a f e ke e pi ng. T hus i t be c om e s i m p r ope r a nd not t he pr op e r t y of t he c ons c i ous A s D e r r i da m i ght s a y, i t i s t he r e s t e or t he r e m a i n de r t ha t c a nnot be m a de pr ope r t hr ough ne ga t i on. I n t hi s s e ns e i t i s pa s t a t r a u m a t i c m e nt a l e ve nt w hi c h i s t e m por a l l y

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118 i ns ul a t e d f r om t he f unc t i oni ng of t he c ons c i ous F r om t he unc ons c i ous i t m a y c ont i nue t o a c t t o r e t ur n, but i n w a ys t ha t di f f e r f r om t he or i gi na l t r a um a t i c e f f e c t T he s t e p of c ha nge m ove m e nt a w a y, e xt e ns i on, a nd di f f e r e nc e i s m e t di s i nt e r e s t e dl y by C a ge a s w oul d be t he r e t ur n. I t s a s t e p out of t he c a ge f or e xa m pl e of M c C a r t hyi s m E ve n be f or e i t ha d pa s s e d, C a ge c oul d r e l e ga t e M c C a r t hyi s m t o a pa s t t ha t i s gone e ve n t hough i t m i ght r e a ppe a r s e e m i ngl y a t r a ndom l i k e a t e l e phone r i ngi ng or a n a i r pl a ne c om e dow n i n a va c a nt l ot t ha t i nt e r r up t s e xpe r i e nc e ( 111) T he pa s t ne e d not be s a ve d a s i f i t w e r e ne c e s s a r y f or t he f ut u r e T i m e ne e d no t be c ol l a ps e d i nt o a n a bs ol ut e pr e s e nt s om e s pe a r he a d of G od c ons c i ous ne s s ; a s C a ge s a ys W e ne e d not de s t r oy t he pa s t W e ne e dn t de s t r oy i t by t a ki ng i t up i nt o t h e pr e s e nt t hr ough ow ne r s hi p. F or t he pr e s e nt s uc h e ve nt s m a y be pa s s e d ove r pe r ha ps onl y t o r e a r t he i r he a ds i n t he a dve nt of t e r r or i s m be f o r e s he e r c ha nc e a ga i n c onf r ont s t he s ubj e c t w i t h c a t a s t r ophe M os t a nybody know s a bout t he f ut ur e a nd how un c e r t a i n i t i s ( 111) C a ge s poe t i c s he r e r e s ona t e s w i t h t he e c onom y of l os s t ha t B a t a i l l e a nd D e r r i da oppos e t o H e ge l s r e s t r i c t e d e c onom y. N ot a l l m e a ni ngs a r e pur pos e f ul o r ne c e s s a r y or s e r ve t he di a l e c t i c I f w e pos s e s s not hi ng, a ny m e a ni ng c a n be a de l i gh t s i nc e i t s l os s doe s not a l t e r us A nyt hi ng t he r e f or e i s a de l i ght ( s i nc e w e do not pos s e s s i t ) a nd t hus ne e d not f e a r i t s l os s ( 111) O pe n C age O pe n F or m D i s i nt e r e s t s houl d t e m pe r de s i r e C a ge be gi ns t o d e f i ne a pr i nc i pl e t ha t he c a l l s poe t r y i n oppos i t i on t o t he f or m a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he c om m on p r a c t i c e pe r i od i n m us i c r oughl y 1600 1900. H e be gi ns w i t h a s e r i e s of s ubs t i t ut i ons :

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119 W ha t I a m c a l l i ng poe t r y i s of t e n c a l l e d c ont e nt I m ys e l f ha ve c a l l e d i t f or m I t i s t he c ont i nu i t y of a pi e c e o f m us i c C ont i nui t y t oda y, w he n i t i s ne c e s s a r y, i s a de m ons t r a t i on of d i s i nt e r e s t e dne s s ( 111) S hor t f or m : poe t r y i s ( a de m ons t r a t i on of ) di s i nt e r e s t e dne s s T hi s a e s t he t i c a xi om goe s a l ong w a y ba c k t ow a r d t he pa r a doxi c a l a pho r i s m I ha ve not hi ng t o s a y a nd I a m s a yi ng i t T he s pe e c h a c t i s di s i nt e r e s t e d. F u r t he r m or e t h i s m om e nt of di s i nt e r e s t s t r uc t ur e s t he e nt i r e poe t i c I f J a m e s J oyc e s pr oj e c t i n F i nne gans W ak e i s t o l e ve r r e a l i t y i nt o a ne w c onf i gur a t i on by s t e ppi ng l a ngua ge a w a y f r om i t s e l f or c r e a t i ng a ni ght l a ngua ge C a ge i s no l e s s a m bi t i ous F or poe t i c s t he pr a c t i c e of di s i n t e r e s t pr e pa r e s t he w a y f o r i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on. C ont e nt f or m c ont i nui t y poe t r y: t hi s c ha i n of s ubs t i t ut i ons l i ke N i e t z s c he s a r m y of m e t a phor s m e t onym i e s a nt hr opom o r phi s m s s e e m s t o i m pl y a ge ne r a l or a c om m a ndi ng t e r m ( de M a n 242) but di s i nt e r e s t de c a pi t a t e s s uc h a c onf i gur a t i on. T he poe t l e a ds a w a y f r om hi m s e l f a nd t hi s i s t he pa r a doxi c a l s i t ua t i on of t he C a ge a n s i gna t ur e : i t a l l ow s f o r i n t e r pe ne t r a t i on a nd f r e e dom of t he poe t a nd r e a de r T he r e i s r i s k: c a ge s c a n be da nge r ous e ve n ope n e m pt y c a ge s B ut t he d i s i nt e r e s t e d ge s t ur e of l e a vi ng t he c a ge unl oc ke d and as e m pt y as pos s i bl e s ugge s t s a l i ne of f l i ght a nd f r e e dom C ont i nui t y t oda y, w he n i t i s ne c e s s a r y, i s a de m on s t r a t i on of di s i nt e r e s t e dne s s T ha t i s i t i s a pr oo f t ha t our de l i ght l i e s i n not pos s e s s i ng a nyt hi ng. E a c h m om e nt pr e s e nt s w ha t ha ppe ns H ow di f f e r e nt t hi s f or m s e ns e i s f r om t ha t w hi c h i s bound up w i t h m e m or y: t he m e s a nd s e c onda r y t he m e s ; t he i r s t r uggl e ; t he i r de ve l opm e n t ; t he c l i m a x; t he r e c a pi t ul a t i on ( w hi c h i s t he be l i e f t ha t one m a y ow n one s ow n hom e ) B ut a c t ua l l y, unl i ke t he s na i l w e c a r r y ou r hom e s w i t h i n us w hi c h e na bl e s us t o f l y or t o s t a y, t o e nj oy e a c h. B ut be w a r e of t h a t w hi c h i s br e a t ht a ki ngl y be a ut i f ul f o r a t a ny m om e nt t he t e l e phone m a y r i ng or t he a i r pl a ne c om e dow n i n a va c a nt l ot ( Si l e nc e 111) S ona t a f or m o r s onne t f o r m w i l l r e t ur n but i t s f o r m s e ns e l i m i t s f l i ght T he di a l e c t i c a l s t r uggl e l e a ve s one s a ddl e d w i t h h i s t or y. B ut a c t ua l l y, w e c a r r y ou r c a ge s w i t hi n us a nd

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120 w e c a n m ove on. W e don t ha ve t o l i s t e n t o t he t a p e of t he pa s t ; i t s be t t e r t o be ope n i n f or m T ha t w a y w e c a n a c c e pt t he c a l l or t he c r a s h w i t h a w a r e ne s s a nd a c c e pt a nc e C age and t he C age : t he R e bus Si gnat ur e I n X a nd i n ot he r t e xt s s uc h a s F or t he B i r ds C a ge r e l a t e s t hi s s e r i e s of a ns w e r s t o i nt e r vi e w e r s : R e c e i v e d l e t t e r f r om j our nal i s t : put y our phi l os oph y i n a nu t s he l l R e pl i e d: ge t out of w hat e v e r c age y ou f i nd y our s e l f i n. A s k e d t o s uppl y c at c hy t i t l e f or c onv e r s at i on w i t h D ani e l C har l e s s ugge s t e d F or t he B i r ds T V i nt e r v i e w : i f y ou w e r e as k e d t o de s c r i be y our s e l f i n t hr e e w or ds w ha d y ou s ay ? A n ope n c age Sat i e w as r i ght : e x pe r i e nc e i s a f or m of par al y s i s ( X 159 60) T he pa s s a ge gi ve s us t he r e bus s i gna t ur e w r a ppe d up ne a t l y i n a n a nt onom a s i a t he pr ope r na m e f a l l i ng i nt o t he a bys s of C a ge s s t yl e a s a c om m on noun. T he c l us t e r of i m a ge s m a ke s a w onde r f ul r e bus f or C a ge s a bys s : a n ope n c a ge w i t h bi r ds f l yi ng up out of i t A s w e s ha l l s e e t he s e bi r ds w i l l s i gn l i ke t he s pi r i t o f J C a r i s i ng f r om a s a r c opha gus H ow doe s t hi s s i gna t ur e t r opi ng a c t ua l l y m ode l t he poe t i c s of C a ge s t e xt s ? D ur i ng t he 50s C a ge be ga n t o br oa de n hi s f oc us f r om m us i c a l c o m pos i t i on t o t he pr oduc t i on o f w r i t t e n t e x t s t o be r e a d a nd o f t e n, ga t he r e d i nt o book f or m B e f or e t hi s t r a ns i t i on dur i ng t hi s t r a ns i t i on, a nd f or t he r e s t o f hi s l i f e C a ge m a i nt a i ne d a c ons t a nt s t r a t e gy of a ppl yi ng c ha nc e ope r a t i ons t o a ny c om pos i t i ona l p r oc e s s he w a s e nga ge d i n. A s t he l a s t s e nt e nc e i n t he quot a t i on a bove i m pl i e s t hi s e na bl e s t he c o m pos e r t o e s c a pe t he pa s t e xpe r i e nc e a nd m e m or y, a l t hough i t i s not w i t hout s om e i r ony t ha t C a ge r e f e r s t o S a t i e w ho m i ght be c ons i de r e d pa r t of t he t r a di t i on o f m us i c I nt e nt i on c a n be l i m i t e d i n w a ys t ha t e na bl e a w r i t e r or c om pos e r t o e s c a pe t he hi s t or y of ge nr e a nd ge nr e s I n t he F or e w or d t o X ( a nd i n m a ny ot he r pl a c e s ) C a ge gi ve s hi s l ogi c f or t hi s pr a c t i c e :

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121 T he t i t l e of t h i s book, l i ke t ha t of M w a s f ound by s ubj e c t i ng t he a l pha be t t o c ha nc e ope r a t i ons I t s i gni f i e s t he unkn ow n pl a c e w he r e poe t r y l i ve s t om or r ow I hope a s i t doe s t oda y, w he r e w h a t you s e e f r a m e d or unf r a m e d, i s a r t ( c f phot ogr a phy ) w he r e w ha t you he a r on o r o f f t he r e c or d i s m us i c Y e a r s a go i n a r e vi e w of S i l e nc e A l f r e d F r a nke ns t e i n w r ot e t ha t m y w r i t i ngs w e r e t he s t or y of how a c ha nge of m i n d c a m e a bout . . s o I ha ve m or e a nd m o r e w r i t t e n m y t e xt s i n t he s a m e w a y I w r i t e m y m us i c a nd m a ke m y p r i nt s t h r ough t he us e of c ha nc e ope r a t i ons a nd by t a ki ng t he a s ki n g of que s t i ons r a t he r t ha n t he m a ki ng o f c hoi c e s a s m y pe r s ona l r e s pons i bi l i t y. O r you m i ght s a y t ha t I a m de vot e d t o f r e e i ng m y w r i t i ng f r om m y i nt e nt i ons ( i x ) I n ot he r w or ds i nt e nt i ons t e nd t o f or m a c a ge a nd t hi s c a ge ne e ds e s c a pi ng. T hi s a nt i i nt e n t i ona l de s i r e s e t s C a ge i n r e s i s t a nc e t o t he i nt e nt i ona l s t r uc t ur e o f t he s i gna t ur e i n ge ne r a l a nd e s pe c i a l l y of c our s e hi s ow n T hr ough out C a ge s w or k t hi s s i gna t ur e r e s i s t a nc e i s e ve r yw he r e i n e vi de nc e I t i s w ha t D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i r e f e r t o a s a l i ne out O ne i s ne ve r of f t he l i ne t he e s c a pe i s ne ve r f i na l t he r e a r e a l w a ys c a ge s i n va r i ous s t a ge s of be c om i ng, a nd t he m e t a phor i c t ot a l i z a t i o n of t h i s pr oc e s s i s t he s ubj e c t c i r c um s c r i be d by c a ge s S o C a ge ha s a pe nc ha nt f or s ut ur i ng ove r t he a r t i s t hi m s e l f a nd l e t t i ng t he vi e w e r l i s t e ne r or r e a de r m ove a bout a l t oge t he r f r e e l y i n t he f i e l d of t he a r t w or k. W he n he s i gns w i t h t he r e bus s i gna t ur e a s a n ope n c a ge C a ge a nnounc e s hi s di r e c t i ons f or r e a di ng or he a r i ng hi s t e xt s : i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on ( you a r e f r e e t o e nt e r ) a nd non i nt e r f e r e nc e ( you a r e f r e e t o l e a ve ) T hi s s i gna t ur e t r opi ng a ppe a r e d l a t e i n C a ge s c a r e e r B ut C a ge s a t t i t ude t ow a r d t he s e c ond m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e t he r e c ogni z a bl e i di om o f t he c om pos e r i s i n p l a c e f r om e a r l y i n hi s c r i t i c a l w r i t i ng. C age an Si gnat ur e T he or y St age I : R e s i s t anc e t o I di om E a r l y on i n hi s publ i s he d t e xt s C a ge us e s t he c onc e pt of t he s i gna t ur e a s a c r i t i c a l

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122 de vi c e F or i ns t a nc e i n V a r s e s m us i c C a ge he a r s t he r e c ogni z a bl e s i gna t ur e s t yl e a s a f a ul t I n C a ge s vi e w V a r s e s s i gna t ur e s t yl e i s o ve r be a r i ng i n hi s c om pos i t i ons l e s s e ni ng t he di s t a nc e be t w e e n t he c om pos i t i on, i t s pe r f or m a nc e a nd i t s a udi t i on, r e nde r i ng a l l t hr e e m om e nt s t oo c l os e t o t he pe r s ona l i t y of V a r s e I n t hi s i ns t a nc e t he s i gna t ur e be c a us e of i t s p r oxi m i t y t o t he e go of t h e a r t i s t r e duc e s V a r s e s s t yl e t o a m us i c a l t r a p, t ha t i s i t r e duc e s V a r s e s w or k i n s c ope a t t he m om e nt w he n i t s houl d, t hr ough a ki nd of a bs e nc e ope n up t he r a nge o f t h e m us i c s a f f e c t T hi s ha s t o do w i t h n oi s e l e t t i ng s ounds be s ounds F o r C a ge V a r s e us e s noi s e t o e xe r c i s e hi s i m a gi na t i on, s o t ha t i ns t e a d of ope ni ng up t o noi s e a s noi s e V a r s e m a na ge s t o m a ke hi s c om pos i t i ons a l l s ound t r a de m a r ke d, a r e t u r n o f t he s a m e r a t he r t ha n a n e xpl or a t i on o f di f f e r e nc e V a r s e s us e of noi s e i s n t a bout noi s e ; i t s a bout V a r s e ( Si l e nc e 69, 83 4) I n D e r r i de a n P ongi a n t e r m s t he s e c ond m oda l i t y o f t he s i gna t ur e c onve ys not hi ng but t he f a c t o f i t s i di om a t i c i t y. S t r a nge l y e nough, C a ge s c ont e nt i ous ne s s w i t h V a r s e pl a ys out t he c a ge m e t a phor t ha t hi s t e xt s of t e n c i r c l e a bout a nd t o w hi c h he i s a l w a ys r e t ur ni ng I t i s a n e na c t m e nt of C a ge s ow n s i gna t ur e s t yl e not w i t hi n a m us i c a l c om pos i t i on but r a t he r a s t he or y of c om pos i t i on. W e a r e on t he w a y t o t hi s e xt r e m e : c om pos i t i on = no c om pos i t i on. W hi l e e nc a gi ng V a r s e i m pl i e s a gr e a t de a l a bout C a ge s ow n c om pos i t i ona l goa l s i t l oc ks V a r s e up i n a c a ge o f V a r s e s ow n m a ki ng, w hi c h C a ge r e a ds or he a r s i n V a r s e s c om pos i t i ons I n t h i s s pe c i a l c a s e C a ge w oul d ope n V a r s e s c a ge I n t he ge ne r a l t he or e t i c a l c a s e C a ge s goa l w oul d be t o ope n t he c a ge of m us i c l e t t i ng i n t he r e m a i ni ng r a nge of s ound, l e t t i ng s ou nd r e t e r r i t or i a l i z e m us i c H e nc e t he a phor i s m M U S I C = N O M U S I C ( C om pos i t i on 62 ) C a ge s ow n c om pos i t i ona l c a ge s

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123 s houl d l e a ve t he i r door s ope n t o t he r e m a i nde r of s ound w he r e V a r s e s do not a k i nd of m us i c a l ( a r ) r e s t o r r e l e a s e A n e m pt y c a ge m a y be t he be s t m e t a phor i c a l ve hi c l e f o r C a ge s t e nor / s i gna t ur e A nd C a ge s pe c i f i e s t ha t t hi s i s a pr obl e m o f t he s i gn a t ur e : W ha t i s unne c e s s a r y i n V a r s e . a r e a l l hi s m a nn e r i s m s of w hi c h t w o s t a nd out a s s i gna t ur e s ( t he r e pe a t e d not e r e s e m bl i ng a t e l e gr a phi c t r a ns m i s s i on a nd t he c a de nc e of a t one he l d t h r oug h a c r e s c e ndo t o m a xi m um a m pl i t ude ) T he s e m a nne r i s m s do n ot e s t a bl i s h s ounds i n t he i r ow n r i ght T he y m a ke i t qui t e di f f i c ul t t o he a r t he s ounds j us t a s t he y a r e f or t he y dr a w a t t e nt i on t o V a r s e a nd h i s i m a gi na t i on. ( Si l e nc e 69) I ns t e a d of a n e m pt y ope n c a ge V a r s e s l i s t e ne r i s f or c e d t o de a l w i t h t he m us i c a l i m a ge of V a r s e T he pr obl e m w i t h V a r s e l i e s i n t he p r o xi m i t y be t w e e n hi s m a nne r i s m s a nd hi s s i gna t ur e a p r oxi m i t y t ha t f r a m e s V a r s e r a t he r t ha n s ound o r m us i c T he s i gna t ur e c a n be t e r r i t o r i a l i z e d by t he i m a gi na t i on or m a nne r i s m s w hi c h s e e m pr od uc t i ve of t he a r t i s t / c om pos e r a nd f o r C a ge t hi s i s a de a d e nd. Y e t V a r s e i s e xt r e m e l y i m po r t a nt f o r C a ge i n t e r m s of m us i c a l r oot s C a ge c ons i de r s V a r s e t o ha ve f a t he r e d noi s e i nt o t he hi s t or y of m us i c : c ons i de r t hi s pa t r i a r c ha l ge ne a l ogy: S ound c om e i nt o i t s ow n. W ha t doe s t ha t m e a n? F or one t h i ng: i t m e a ns t ha t noi s e s a r e a s us e f ul t o ne w m us i c a s s o c a l l e d m us i c a l t one s f or t he s i m pl e r e a s on t ha t t he y a r e s ounds T hi s de c i s i on a l t e r s t he vi e w o f hi s t or y, s o t ha t one i s no l onge r c onc e r ne d w i t h t o na l i t y or a t ona l i t y, S c hoe nbe r g or S t r a vi ns ky ( t he t w e l ve t one s or t he t w e l ve e xpr e s s e d a s s e ve n pl us f i ve ) no r w i t h c ons ona nc e a nd di s s ona nc e but r a t he r w i t h E dga r d V a r s e w ho f a t he r e d f o r t h noi s e i n t o 20t h c e nt ur y m us i c B ut i t i s c l e a r t ha t w a ys m us t be di s c ove r e d t ha t a l l ow noi s e s a nd t one s t o be j us t noi s e s a nd t one s not e xpone nt s s ubs e r vi e nt t o V a r s e s i m a gi na t i on. ( 68 9) F or C a ge s i gna t ur e a nd i m a gi na t i on ne e d t o be di s a s s oc i a t e d. O ne r e a di ng of C a ge s ge s t ur e m i ght be E l i ot i c ha vi ng t o do w i t h i m pe r s ona l i t y ( or t he a ppe a r a nc e of s uc h) w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng a r t i s t i c c ont r ol s om e w ha t l i ke t he i r oni c J oyc e a n a r t i s t pa r i ng hi s f i nge r na i l s i nvi s i bl y be yond t he vi l l a ne l l e B ut i t i s a s i f noi s e s a nd t one s i nde e d,

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124 s ound i t s e l f a s i t i s w i t hou t m a nn e r i s m s houl d c o unt e r s i gn f or t he s i gna t ur e onc e t he hi s t or y of m us i c ha s be e n got t e n pa s t or a t l e a s t t ha t w oul d be t he pr ope r C a ge a n s i gna t ur e T hi s w oul d t a ke t he s i gna t ur e of a l t e r i t y of a l l t hi ngs e xt e r i o r a nd s ubs t i t ut e i t f or C a ge s s i gna t ur e t ha t i s ope n t he c a ge T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n e xt e r i or i t y a nd i nt e r i or i t y pr e s e nt s t he oppor t uni t y f o r a s ubs t i t ut i o n: t he pr e s e nc e of s i l e nc e ( a m bi e nt noi s e ) s t a nds i n t he a bs e nc e of t he a r t i s t / c om pos e r a nd i n t he a bs e nc e of t he s i gna t ur e W e c oul d t he or i z e t hi s a bs e nc e a s a t r a um a t i c ke r n e l w i t hi n t he s i gna t ur e T he l i s t e ne r i s i n a c r i s i s : s he ha s t o de c i de w he t he r t o s i gn f or s om e t hi ng t he a r t i s t / c om pos e r ha s gi ve n he r but ha s not s i gne d f or hi m s e l f A s i gna t ur e e ve nt c r e a t e s a l i nk be t w e e n s om e s ubj e c t i ve i nt e r i or i t y a nd obj e c t i ve e xt e r i or i t y: t he s i gna t ur e of a n a r t i s t or a w r i t e r put s t he vi e w e r s or r e a de r s l i nk a t s t a ke I f t he r e a de r doe s n t s i gn f or t he w r i t e r t he w r i t e r s w or t h goe s dow n. A nd t hi s w oul d be a w a y of t r a ns c e ndi ng s i gna t ur e j e a l ous y, t he a t t r a c t i on a nd r e pul s i on t ha t C a ge f e e l s t ow a r d V a r s e f or h i s m o ve on t he hi s t or y of e xpe r i m e nt a l m us i c C a l c ul a t i ng t he e xpone nt i a l pot e nt i a l of no i s e s a nd t one s w i t hout t he c oe f f i c i e nt of pe r s ona l i t y t a ke s V a r s e i nt o a c c ount a nd s e di m e nt s o r s t r a t i f i e s hi s pos i t i on w i t hi n t ha t hi s t or y o f m us i c A nd ye t t hi s ge s t ur e i s a ki nd of c ha nc e pr oc e dur e a c a l c ul a t i on of t he odds t ha t a l t e r i t y w i l l s i gn f o r C a ge T he s pi r i t of a f f i r m a t i on, of t he J oyc e a n ye s ye s c a n be r e a d he r e i n C a ge s ye s t o a l t e r i t y, t o t he ot he r of m us i c w he t he r i t be s i l e nc e or noi s e or no m us i c B y ope r a t i ng on V a r s e s s i gna t ur e C a ge i s t a ki ng hi s c ha nc e s w i t h hi s ow n s i gna t ur e C a ge pe r f or m s a va r i a t i on on t hi s s i gna t ur e t he m e i n t he s hor t pi e c e E dga r d V a r s e ( S i l e nc e 83 4) V a r s e l e a ve s no m us i c a l s pa c e f or c ount e r s i gna t ur e : f or i n

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125 D e s e r t s he a t t e m pt s t o m a ke t a pe s ound l i ke t he o r c he s t r a a nd vi c e ve r s a s how i ng a ga i n a l a c k of i nt e r e s t i n t he na t u r a l di f f e r e nc e s of s ounds pr e f e r r i ng t o gi ve t he m a l l hi s uni f yi ng s i gna t ur e ( 83 ) A uni f i e d s i gna t ur e : w ha t w oul d t ha t be ? O r m or e a pr opos o f t he C a ge a n s i gna t ur e w ha t i s a bs e nt or w ha t ha s e s c a pe d f r om t he s i gna t ur e ? C a ge ha s s pl i t a s i t w e r e H e ha s l e f t t he c a ge i n l i e u of hi s s i gna t ur e A nd he ha s s pl i t t he s i gna t ur e us i ng t he i s s ue of t he p r e s e nc e / a bs e nc e of t he c om pos e r i n t he c om pos i t i on pe r f or m a nc e a nd a udi t i on of t he m us i c a l t e xt i e i n t he m us i c a l e ve nt R e a de r s of G l as w i l l r e c ogni z e a s i m i l a r us e of pr e s e nc e a nd a bs e nc e i n t he c a s e of G e ne t t he t hi e f O ne o f hi s ha bi t s w a s t o m a r k t he e ve nt of hi s pr e s e nc e ( or hi s pa s s i ng) by t he t he f t or a bs e nt i ng of s om e obj e c t 2 0 R a t he r t ha n l e a ve be hi nd t he m a r k o f hi s i m a gi na t i on, C a ge w oul d l e a ve a n e m pt y ( m us i c a l ) c a ge A t l e a s t i n t he c a s e of t he s i l e nt pi e c e s l i ke 4 33 C a ge s i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y, hi s p r e dom i na t e m ode o f po e t i c c om pos i t i on, e na c t s a s i m i l a r ki nd o f t he f t a nd, I w i l l a r gue c ount e r f e i t i n g. W r i t i ng f or t he Se c ond T i m e t hr ough F i nne gans W ak e c l e a r l y i l l us t r a t e s t hi s E l s e w he r e C a ge c r i t i que s t he not i on t ha t a r t or i g i n a t e s i n t he i nt e r i o r i t y o f t he A r t i s t or ge ni us : A r t s houl d c om e f r om w i t hi n; t he n i t i s pr o f ound. B ut i t s e e m s t o m e A r t goe s w i t hi n, a nd I don t s e e t he ne e d f or s houl d o r t he n or i t o r p r o f ound. W he n A r t c om e s f r om w i t hi n w hi c h i s w ha t i t w a s f o r s o l ong doi ng, i t be c a m e a t hi ng w hi c h s e e m e d t o e l e va t e t he m a n w ho m a de i t a bove t hos e w ho obs e r ve d i t o r he a r d i t a nd t he a r t i s t w a s c ons i de r e d a ge ni us or gi ve n a r a t i ng . s o pr oudl y he s i gns hi s w or k l i ke a m a nuf a c t ur e r ( Si l e nc e 129) T hi s de ni gr a t i on o f s i gna t ur e i nt e r i or i t y l e a ve s t he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t t he onl y good s i gna t ur e i s c ount e r s i gna t ur e or i gi na t i ng out s i de t h e a r t i s t 2 0 D e r r i d a p l a y s o n t h i s g e s t u r e a s p a r t o f G e n e t s s i g n a t u r e s t y l e b y m e a n s o f t h e w o r d v o l w h i c h m e a n s b o t h t h e f t a n d f l i g h t i n F r e n c h s u g g e s t i n g a d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e a g l e / H e g e l

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126 R e vi l l not e s t ha t C a ge c om i ng t o p r i nt m a ki ng, w a s a nxi ous t o a voi d ge s t ur e by w hi c h he m e a nt pe r s ona l ha bi t ua l r e a c t i ons ( t hi s ha d f or m e d t he ba s i s of hi s c r i t i c i s m s of i m p r ovi s a t i on, o f j a z z a nd o f s ur r e a l i s m ) ( R e vi l l 262 ) A nd R e vi l l s uppor t s t hi s a s s e r t i on by quot i ng C a ge f r om a n i nt e r vi e w b y R obi n W hi t e : s om e t hi ng c onne c t e d w i t h t he know i ng a s pe c t of t he pe r s on, a s i n a s i gn a t ur e w he n you s i gn your na m e you j us t do i t by ha bi t ( qt d i n R e vi l l 262) I n t hi s i ns t a nc e C a ge i s i de nt i f yi ng t he s i gna t ur e not w i t h i nt e r i or i t y ge ne r a l l y but w i t h ha bi t a ki n d of unc ons c i ous i nt e r i o r i t y? o r t he m os t s upe r f i c i a l l e ve l of c ons c i ous a ge nc y? I n t hi s pa r a di gm c ons c i ous i nt e r i or i t y be c om e s s t uf f e d w i t h di s c ur s i ve t r a s h. O n t hi s s a m e que s t i on of i nt e r i or i t y pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t ps yc hoa na l yt i c t hought t e nds t o p os i t a t r a um a t i c ke r ne l of unc ons c i ous ne s s t ha t m us t be r e pr e s s e d a nd s ut ur e d ove r w i t h ne ur ot i c s t r uc t ur e I n t hi s vi e w t he pr oduc t i on of i nt e r i or i t y, or i nt e r i or i z a t i o n, i s a s c e ne of vi ol e nc e 2 1 I n e i t he r c a s e i f t he s i gna t ur e i s ha bi t ua l t he n i t i s r e duc e d t o a f unc t i on of t he di s c ur s i ve i nt e r i or i t y t he know l e dge a s C a ge w oul d s a y, of t he e go. G r oupe d w i t h t he t e xt s t ha t m e nt i on V a r s e i n Si l e nc e a r e t e xt s on S a t i e a nd R obe r t R a us c he nbe r g, t w o a r t i s t s i n w hos e w or ks C a ge f i nds t he ope nne s s t ha t V a r s e l a c ks T he t e xt e nt i t l e d E r i k S a t i e c om e s be t w e e n t he t w o t e xt s t ha t m e nt i on V a r s e H i s t or y of E xpe r i m e nt a l M us i c i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd E dga r d V a r s e P os i t i oni ng a n i m a gi ne d c onve r s a t i on w i t h S a t i e be t w e e n a r t i c l e s on V a r s e s ugge s t s t he i r s i m i l a r i m por t a nc e f or C a ge C a ge s i gn a l s hi s pr e f e r e nc e f or S a t i e s a ppr oa c h t o s ound a s s ound a nd pe r s ona l s e nt i m e nt : 2 1 F o r a n e x e m p l a r y r e a d i n g o f t h i s t y p e s e e A v i t a l R o n e l l s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M a d a m e B o v a r y i n C r a c k W a r s T h e r e s h e n o t e s t h a t t h e r e a d i n g o f r o m a n c e n o v e l s a k i n d o f t e x t u a l d i s c u r s i v e t r a s h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p r i m a l v i o l e n t i n t e r i o r i z a t i o n o f E m m a f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s u t u r i n g o v e r t h e l o s s o f h e r ( a b s e n t ) m o t h e r

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127 T o be i n t e r e s t e d i n S a t i e one m us t be di s i nt e r e s t e d t o be gi n w i t h a c c e pt t ha t a s ound i s a s ound a nd a m a n i s a m a n, gi ve u p i l l us i ons a bout i de a s of or de r e xpr e s s i ons of s e nt i m e nt a nd a l l t he r e s t of our i nhe r i t e d a e s t he t i c c l a pt r a p. ( 82 ) C l a pt r a p s ugge s t s a n unpa c ki ng of t he c a ge m e t a phor A t r a p: c l a pt r a p, o r noi s e or bom ba s t i n t hi s c a s e i s not t o be gi ve n our a t t e nt i o n, i n s pi t e of t he t he or i z a t i on of s i l e nc e a n d a t t e nt i on t o noi s e T he a e s t he t i c s of t he pa s t i s ba d noi s e W ha t w e a r e gi ve n by t r a di t i on i s a us e f ul c a ge but i t l i m i t s us i n our a bi l i t y t o t h i nk a nd s e ns e be yond t he or de r i ng w or ds a nd c onc e pt s of m us i c F or C a ge t h i s qua l i t y of t r a di t i on a ut om a t i c a l l y t i m e s i t out W e ne e d ne w m us i c f or a ne w w o r l d. A c t ua l l y i t i s e ve n m o r e e xt r e m e t ha n t ha t W e ne e d t o l e t t he w or l d s noi s e r a t he r t ha n t he noi s e of our e gos be c om e m us i c C a ge quot e s S a t i e : Show m e s om e t hi ng ne w ; I l l be gi n al l ov e r agai n ( C a ge s i t a l i c s ) ( 80) C a ge r e f e r s t o t hi s a s m ovi ng ou t f r om z e r o ( 80) A l s o w i t h S a t i e C a ge m ove s i nt o t e m por a l f or m a t i ons de s i gne d t o a l l ow uns t r uc t ur e d s ound t o ope n w i t hi n m us i c w he r e pr e vi ous l y s ounds ha d not be e n l e t t o be j us t s ounds T o r e pe a t : a s ound ha s f our c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s : f r e que n c y, a m pl i t ude t i m b r e a nd dur a t i on. S i l e nc e ( a m bi e nt noi s e ) ha s onl y dur a t i on. A z e r o m us i c a l s t r uc t ur e m us t be j us t a n e m pt y t i m e ( 80) S i l e nc e ha s onl y dur a t i on f r om a m us i c a l poi nt o f vi e w I f t he w i ndow i s ope n o r i f t i m e s t r uc t ur e i s s us pe nde d, t he a m bi e nt no i s e c om e s t o us r e pl e t e w i t h f r e que nc i e s a m pl i t ude s a nd t i m b r e s a s w e l l a s du r a t i on. E m pt y t i m e s t r uc t ur e s a r e l i ke e m pt y c a ge s t ha t a r e r e a dy t o c a pt ur e s i l e nc e r e a dy f or t he c l a p t r a p t ha t w i l l be l ong s t r i c t l y t o t he m om e nt of pe r f or m a nc e a nd a udi t i on. T he pa s t do e s not ove r de t e r m i ne pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he s pa c e of m us i c a l pos s i bi l i t y i s ope n t o t he p r e s e nt

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128 R obe r t R aus c he nbe r g: A Si l e nt Si gnat ur e ? I n t he e s s a y O n R obe r t R a us c he nbe r g, A r t i s t a nd H i s W or k C a ge l oos e ns s e ve r a l f or m a l c ons t r a i nt s i n a n a t t e m pt t o c onve y t he s e ns e of f r e e dom a nd ope nne s s he f e e l s i n r e l a t i on t o R a us c he nbe r g s w or k. I n t he e di t or i a l not e i nt r oduc i ng t he e s s a y, C a ge m a ke s r e f e r e nc e t o hi s ow n s i gna t ur e pi e c e a nd a d de nds hi s ow n s i gl um t o t he s t a t e m e nt T hi s ge s t ur e i s s e t of f t ypog r a phi c a l l y t o e m pha s i z e i t s i m por t a nc e T he not e a ppe a r s r oughl y l i ke t hi s : T hi s ar t i c l e c om pl e t e d i n F e br uar y of 1961, w as p ubl i s he d i n M e t r o ( M i l an) i n M ay I t m ay be r e ad i n w hol e or i n par t ; any s e c t i ons of i t m ay be s k i ppe d, w hat r e m ai ns m ay be r e ad i n any or de r T he s t y l e of pr i nt i ng he r e e m pl oy e d i s not e s s e nt i al A ny of t he s e c t i ons m ay be pr i nt e d di r e c t l y ov e r any of t he o t he r s and t he s pac e s be t w e e n par ag r aphs m ay be v ar i e d i n any m anne r T h e w or ds i n i t al i c s ar e e i t he r quot at i ons f r om R aus c he nbe r g or t i t l e s of hi s w or k s T o W hom I t M ay C onc e r n: T he w hi t e pai nt i ngs c am e f i r s t ; m y s i l e nt pi e c e c am e l at e r J C C a ge pl a c e s hi s s i gna t ur e pi e c e t he s i l e nt pi e c e i n i m m e di a t e pr ox i m i t y t o R a us c he nb e r g s w hi t e pa i nt i ngs 2 2 H e i s s i gni ng f o r hi s a r t i s t i c de bt t o R a us c he nbe r g. T he 2 2 T h e G u g g e n h e i m M u s e u m g i v e s t h i s b a c k g r o u n d o n t h e W h i t e P a i n t i n g s i n c l u d i n g a n a r r a t i o n o f C a g e s r e s p o n s e : I n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 5 1 R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g c r e a t e d h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y W h i t e P a i n t i n g s a t B l a c k M o u n t a i n C o l l e g e n e a r A s h e v i l l e N o r t h C a r o l i n a A t a t i m e w h e n A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m w a s a s c e n d a n t i n N e w Y o r k R a u s c h e n b e r g s u n i n f l e c t e d a l l w h i t e s u r f a c e s e l i m i n a t e d g e s t u r e a n d d e n i e d a l l p o s s i b i l i t y o f n a r r a t i v e o r e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e I n h i s r a d i c a l r e d u c t i o n o f c o n t e n t a s w e l l a s i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r k s a s a s e r i e s o f m o d u l a r s h a p e d g e o m e t r i c c a n v a s e s R a u s c h e n b e r g c a n b e s e e n a s p r e s a g i n g M i n i m a l i s m b y a d e c a d e T h e W h i t e P a i n t i n g s s h o c k e d t h e a r t i s t i c c o m m u n i t y a t B l a c k M o u n t a i n a n d w o r d o f t h e s c a n d a l s p r e a d t o t h e N e w Y o r k a r t w o r l d l o n g b e f o r e t h e y w e r e f i r s t e x h i b i t e d a t t h e S t a b l e G a l l e r y i n O c t o b e r 1 9 5 3 W h i l e g e n e r a l l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d a t t h e t i m e t h e w o r k s w e r e h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l f o r R a u s c h e n b e r g s f r e q u e n t c o l l a b o r a t o r t h e c o m p o s e r J o h n C a g e U n d e r t h e s w a y o f t h e B u d d h i s t a e s t h e t i c s o f Z e n C a g e i n t e r p r e t e d t h e b l a n k s u r f a c e s a s l a n d i n g s t r i p s o r r e c e p t o r s f o r l i g h t a n d s h a d o w a n d w a s i n s p i r e d t o p u r s u e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g n o t i o n o f s i l e n c e a n d a m b i e n t s o u n d i n m u s i c H i s r e s p o n s e 4 3 3 ( 1 9 5 2 ) c o n s i s t e d o f t h e p i a n i s t s i t t i n g q u i e t l y a t t h e p i a n o w i t h o u t t o u c h i n g t h e k e y s f o r f o u r m i n u t e s a n d t h i r t y t h r e e s e c o n d s s o t h a t i n c i d e n t a l s o u n d s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g

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129 c i r c um s t a nc e s of t hi s ge s t ur e a r e w or t h not i ng A f t e r us i ng t he s i gl um a nd hi s f u l l na m e t o s i gn r e s pe c t i ve l y t he f or e w or d a nd t he m a ni f e s t o w hi c h t oge t he r c om pr i s e t he f r ont m a t t e r now he r e e l s e i n t he e di t or i a l m a t t e r o f t he book doe s C a ge us e hi s s i gl um or pr ope r na m e C a ge s ha ndw r i t t e n, f ul l s i gna t ur e i s r e pr oduc e d on t he s pi ne a nd h i s l a s t na m e e nl a r ge d a nd a s i t a ppe a r s on t he s pi ne i s i m pr e s s e d i nt o t he f r ont c ove r of t he ha r dba c k e di t i on. T ha t i s a l ot of e m pha s i s on t he p hys i c a l s i gna t ur e a s a c ove r i ng ge s t ur e S o t he us e of h i s s i gl um t o i nt r oduc e t he R a us c he nbe r g pi e c e put s pr e t t y s t r ong e m pha s i s on i t a s i t r e l a t e s t o C a ge s ow n t he or i z a t i o n of t he s i gna t ur e I n t he s e c ond s e c t i on of t he R a us c he nbe r g pi e c e C a ge w r i t e s A nd t he s i gna t ur e i s now he r e t o be s e e n ( Si l e nc e 98) T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s m a l l s e c t i on of C a ge s e s s a y r e a ds e l l i pt i c a l l y, gi vi ng t he t e r m s i gna t ur e br oa d s c ope : T he G oa t N o w e e ds V i r t uos i t y w i t h e a s e D oe s hi s he a d ha ve a be d i n i t ? B e a ut y. H i s ha nds a nd hi s f e e t f i nge r s a nd t oe s l ong j oi nt e d a r e a s t oni s hi ng. T he y c e r t i f y hi s w or k A nd t he s i gna t ur e i s now he r e t o be s e e n. T he pa i nt i ngs w e r e t hr ow n i n t he r i ve r a f t e r t he e xhi bi t i on. W ha t i s t he na t ur e of A r t w he n i t r e a c he s t he S e a ? ( 98) S om e of R a us c he nbe r g s w or ks a r e i nde e d uns i gne d. T he W hi t e P ai nt i ngs a r e a ppa r e nt l y uns i gne d a s i s t he E r as e d de K ooni ng D r aw i ng H ow e ve r i t s doubt f ul t ha t C a ge i s r e f e r r i ng t o t h e l i t e r a l s i gna t ur e M or e l i ke l y t hi s s e nt e nc e c ont i nue s hi s e a r l i e r t hi nki ng on s t yl e C a ge w oul d ha ve a r t i s t s a nd c om pos e r s s uppr e s s a l l s i gn of s i gna t ur e s t yl e i n t he s e ns e of pe r s ona l s t yl e W ha t s m o r e i m po r t a nt i s t he c ount e r s i gna t ur e of t he m a t e r i a l s t he m s e l ve s a goa t f or i ns t a nc e I s R a us c he nbe r g m a ki ng hi s m a t e r i a l s s i gn? I n C a ge s e s t i m a t i on, i t i s not R a us c he nbe r g s pe r s ona l i t y t ha t c e r t i f i e s hi s w or k but t he be a ut y of hi s di gi t s A nd t he n t he m a t e r i a l s t he m s e l ve s a r e t hr ow n a w a y. L i t e r a l l y, t he e n v i r o n m e n t s u c h a s t h e w i n d i n t h e t r e e s o u t s i d e o r t h e w h i s p e r i n g o f a u d i e n c e m e m b e r s d e t e r m i n e d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p i e c e ( S i n g u l a r ) C a g e t o o k o f f f r o m R a u s c h e n b e r g

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130 w or ks do not r e t ur n t o R a us c he nbe r g hi m s e l f R a us c he nb e r g m a na ge s t o e va de c e r t a i n s t r i c t ur e s of a s i gna t ur e s t yl e R a us c he nb e r g s w or k a nd hi s m e t hod f i nd t he i r w a ys i nt o t he pe r c e pt ua l a ppa r a t us of hi s f r i e nds a s C a ge not e s : R a us c he nbe r g i s c ont i nu a l l y be i ng of f e r e d s c r a ps of t hi s a nd t ha t odds a nd e nds hi s f r i e nds r un a c r os s s i nc e i t s t r i ke s t he m : T hi s i s s om e t hi ng he c oul d us e i n a pa i nt i ng ( Si l e nc e 100) T he r e i s a r e m a i nde r of i di om i n pl a y i n R a us c he nbe r g s s t yl e a nd he o r i e nt s i t a t t i m e s by us i ng hi s f r i e nd s f e e dba c k a s a f i e l d f or di s c r i m i na t i on: N i ne t i m e s out of t e n he ha s no us e f or t he odds a nd e nds ( 100) B ut e a r l y on, t he que s t i on of pe r s ona l e xpr e s s i vi t y w a s pr a c t i c a l l y a nd e t hi c a l l y c om pl e x f or C a ge T he a e s t he t i c t ha t he r e a ds i n t he w or k o f R a us c he nbe r g s e e m s t o m a t c h t ha t of t he di r e c t i on t ha t hi s w or k t ook a s he w a s ge t t i ng s t a r t e d a s a c om pos e r E xpl a i ni ng how he w a s l e d t o t he e xpl or a t i on of s t r uc t ur a l r hyt hm C a ge r e m a r ks t he dua l na t ur e o f a r t i s t i c e xpr e s s i on: I r e c o gni z e d t ha t e xpr e s s i on of t w o ki nds t ha t a r i s i ng f r om t he pe r s ona l i t y of t he c om pos e r a nd t ha t a r i s i ng f r om t he na t ur e a nd c ont e nt of t he m a t e r i a l s w a s i ne vi t a bl e but I f e l t i t s e m a na t i on w a s s t r onge r a nd m or e s e ns i bl e w he n not c ons c i ous l y s t r i ve n f or bu t s i m pl y a l l ow e d t o a r i s e na t ur a l l y ( J ohn C age : W r i t e r 2 3 34) T hi s s e nt e nc e c onc e de s t ha t t he r e w i l l be pe r s ona l e xpr e s s i on i n a c om pos i t i on. W ha t i s pe r s ona l e xp r e s s i on t ha t doe s not i nvol ve c ons c i ous s t r i vi ng? W ha t r ol e doe s t ha t pe r s ona l e xpr e s s i on pl a y i n t he s i gna t ur e s t yl e a nd w ha t r ol e doe s t he e xpr e s s i on of m a t e r i a l s pl a y i n t he s t yl e ? I t s e e m s t ha t e t hi c s a nd ne c e s s i t y pl a ye d a r ol e i n C a ge s de ve l opm e nt a t t he po i nt o f t hi s i s s ue of e xpr e s s i vi t y. I f e l t t ha t a n a r t i s t ha d a n e t hi c a l r e s pons i bi l i t y t o s oc i e t y t o ke e p a l i ve t o t he c ont e m por a r y s pi r i t ua l ne e ds : I f e l t 2 3 H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s J C : W

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131 t ha t i f he di d t hi s a dm i t t e dl y va gue a s i t i s a t hi ng t o do, hi s w or k w oul d a ut om a t i c a l l y c a r r y w i t h i t a us e f ul ne s s t o ot he r s ( 34) I n t ypi c a l C a ge a n f a s hi on, s oc i e t a l e t hi c s i nd e e d s om e f or m of s pi r i t ua l e t hi c s m us t unde r w r i t e c om pos i t i on. A nd i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t ha t t hi s s t a t e m e nt t a ke s on t he a i r o f c onf e s s i on: I f e l t . . I f e l t I nde e d, t he s t a t e m e nt e na c t s pe r s ona l e xpr e s s i on. N e ve r t he l e s s t he m om e nt i nf or m s h i s ne ga t i ve a t t i t ude t ow a r d s i gna t ur e vi s i bi l i t y i n que s t i ons of s t yl e O n t he l e ve l o f ne c e s s i t y a nd c ha nc e C a ge a dds A ny l a t e nt l ongi ng t ha t I m i ght na t ur a l l y ha ve ha d t o m a s t e r e xpr e s s i vi t y i n m us i c w a s di s s ol ve d f or m e by m y c onne c t i on w i t h t he m ode r n da nc e F o r t he m I ha d c ont i nua l l y t o m a ke s ui t a bl e a nd e xpr e s s i ve a c c om pa ni m e nt s ( 34) T he r e a r e t w o i m por t a nt m om e nt s t o not e he r e : C a ge s vi s i on i s r hyt hm i c a l l y f oc us e d by t he ne e ds of t he da nc e w r i t i ng w i t hi n t he l e ngt hs of t i m e p r e s c r i be d f or [ hi m ] by m ode r n da nc e r s ( 34) a nd t he e t h i c a l pa t h be f o r e hi m w a s r hyt hm i c a l f o r t he r e a r e ot he r a r t i s t s t he da nc e r s w i t hi n t hi s s c e ne w hos e w or k r e qui r e s i t T hi s s c e ne m i ght be c a l l e d a c a ge na m e d r hyt hm i c a l s t r uc t ur e L a t e r i n hi s c a r e e r C a ge w i l l w or k w i t h C unni ngha m t o m ove out of t hi s s t r uc t ur a l c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he da nc e a nd t he m us i c f or t he da nc e D e s c r i bi ng t he C unni ngha m s t yl e C a ge s a ys : t he c ont i nui t y . no l onge r r e l i e s on l i ne a r e l e m e n t s be t he y na r r a t i ve o r ps yc hol ogi c a l nor doe s i t r e l y on a m ove m e nt t ow a r ds a nd a w a y f r om c l i m a x. A s i n a bs t r a c t pa i nt i ng, i t i s a s s um e d t ha t a n e l e m e nt ( a m ove m e nt a s ound, a c ha nge of l i ght ) i s i n a nd o f i t s e l f e xpr e s s i ve : w ha t i t c om m uni c a t e s i s i n l a r ge pa r t de t e r m i ne d by t he obs e r ve r hi m s e l f I t i s a s s u m e d t ha t t he da nc e s uppor t s i t s e l f a nd doe s not ne e d s uppor t f r om t he m us i c T he t w o a r t s t a ke p l a c e i n a c om m on pl a c e a nd t i m e bu t e a c h a r t e xpr e s s e s t hi s S pa c e t i m e i n i t s ow n w a y. T he r e s ul t i s a n a c t i vi t y of i nt e r pe ne t r a t i ons i n t i m e a nd s pa c e not c o unt e r poi nt s nor c ont r ol l e d r e l a t i ons hi ps but f l e xi bi l i t i e s a s a r e know n f r om t h e m obi l e s of A l e xa nde r C a l de r ( J C : W 91 ) O ve r e xpr e s s i vi t y C a ge va l or i z e s a c e r t a i n r e pr e s s i vi t y. B ut t he l i m i t s of t h i s r e pr e s s i on

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132 a r e s i t ua t e d a l ong a bo r de r be t w e e n t he p e r s ona l a nd t he m a t e r i a l ( t he s ounds a nd s i l e nc e s of a c om pos i t i on ( Si l e nc e 18) ) a nd t hi s m a t e r i a l i nc l ude s t he s pa c e of s oc i e t a l e t hi c s a s di s t i nc t f r om e go, m e m or y t a s t e a nd a n a e s t he t i c i de ol ogy va l or i z i ng t he m a s t e r c om pos e r W ha t ki nd of r hyt hm i c s t r uc t ur e a l l ow s C a ge t o w or k a l ong t hi s bor de r ? T he s hor t a ns w e r : c ha nc e de t e r m i ne d c ou nt i ng. T he m or e i nt e r e s t i ng i s s ue i s w ha t r e m a i ns of s i gna t ur e s t yl e w he n w ha t i t c om m uni c a t e s i s i n l a r ge pa r t de t e r m i ne d by t he obs e r ve r hi m s e l f C age an R e c e pt i o n T he or y C a ge s a ppr e c i a t i on of R a us c he nbe r g i nc l ude s a m om e nt of r e c e pt i on t he or y T hi s e l e m e nt of s t yl e be c om e s s om e t hi ng l i ke a c a r r ot h e l d out i n f r ont of t he vi e w e r / r e a de r / a udi t or t ha t m ove s a w a y upon t he a ppr oa c h of e i t he r vi e w e r or a r t i s t O f t he i t e m s br ought t o R a us c he nbe r g, t he n r e j e c t e d, C a ge s a ys S a y i t s s om e t hi ng c l os e t o s om e t hi ng he onc e f ound us e f ul a nd s o c oul d be r e c ogni z e d a s hi s W e l l t he n a s a m a t t e r of c our s e hi s poe t r y ha s m ove d w i t hout on e s know i ng w he r e i t s gone t o ( Si l e n c e 100) T he obj e c t s of a t t e nt i on t ha t a r e di s p e r s e d t hr oughout t he f i e l d o f t he pa i nt i ng, c om bi ne or a s s e m bl a ge do not be c om e f e t i s hi z e d f or qua l i t i e s i de nt i f i a bl e w i t h t he a r t i s t R a us c he nbe r g w i t hdr a w s hi s s t yl i s t i c s e n s i bi l i t y. H ow e ve r t he poe t r y o f R a us c he nb e r g s pa i nt i ng doe s r e t a i n c ont i nu i t y w i t h t he hi s t or y of pa i nt i ng: H e c ha nge s w ha t goe s on, on a c a nva s but he doe s not c ha nge how c a nva s i s us e d f or pa i nt i ngs t ha t i s s t r e t c he d f l a t t o m a ke r e c t a ngul a r s ur f a c e s w hi c h m a y be hung on a w a l l ( 100 ) T he s t yl e t he s i gna t ur e s t yl e i s a p r oc e s s of c ha nge : H e c ha nge s w ha t goe s on. D oe s t hi s c ont i nuous va r i a t i on t a ke pl a c e i ns i de o r out s i de a s t yl i s t i c c a ge ? O r pe r ha ps t o r e f r a m e

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133 t hi s que s t i on, a r e w e on a l i ne out of t he c a ge ? I f R a us c he nbe r g s w or k r e m a i ns pa i nt i ng by vi r t ue of c a nva s a nd w a l l s t he r e i s f l i ght or c ha nge w i t hi n t hi s pr oc e s s of pr e s e nt a t i on. A ny voc a bul a r y of s ym bol s o r a l l e go r i c a l s t r uc t ur e i s c ons t a nt l y r e l i e ve d. T hi s pr oc e s s of c ha nge or r e l i e f be c om e s a n e l e m e nt of s t yl e T he m ode o f a r t r e m a i ns r e c ogni z a bl y t he s a m e ; a m a t t e r of c a nva s e s w a l l s a nd s e e i ng, a nd, t hus s t r uc t ur a l l y i t r e m a i ns pa i nt i ng. C a ge s c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on o f t he R a us c he nbe r g a e s t he t i c hi nge s on t he a t t e nt i on of t he vi e w e r a nd t hi s i s w he r e he pl a c e s t h e t r a j e c t or y o f t he t e r m f r e e dom F r om one c a ge t o a not he r f r om one s ubj e c t t o a not he r f r om a r t i s t t o vi e w e r f r om one c e nt e r t o a not he r c e nt e r ( t o us e t he B uddhi s t t e r m i nol ogy t ha t i n f or m s C a ge s a nd C unni ngha m s t hi nki ng 2 4 ) w e a r e pe r ha ps on t he l i n e out of t he c a ge i f not a l l t he w a y out a t l e a s t on t he w a y out T he r e bus r e a ds ge t o ut of w ha t e ve r c a ge you a r e i n. C a ge a t t e m pt s t o pl a c e t he a r t i s t a nd t he vi e w e r on t he s a m e pl a ne T he w a y R a us c he nbe r g pos i t i ons c a nva s e s on a w a l l l e a ds C a ge t o t hi s a e s t he t i c l e ve l i ng: T he s e [ c a nva s e s ] he us e s s i ngl y, j oi ne d t oge t he r o r pl a c e d i n a s ym m e t r y s o obvi ous a s not t o a t t r a c t i nt e r e s t ( not hi ng s pe c i a l ) W e know t w o w a ys t o unf oc us a t t e nt i on: s ym m e t r y i s one of t he m ; t he ot he r i s t he ove r a l l w he r e e a c h s m a l l pa r t i s a s a m pl e of w ha t you f i nd e l s e w he r e I n e i t he r c a s e t he r e i s a t l e a s t t he pos s i bi l i t y of l ooki ng a ny w he r e not j us t w he r e s om e one a r r a nge d you s houl d. Y ou a r e t he n f r e e t o de a l w i t h you r f r e e dom j us t a s t he a r t i s t de a l t w i t h hi s not i n t he s a m e w a y but ne ve r t he l e s s or i gi na l l y. ( 100 ) A s s ubj e c t s t he a r t i s t a nd t he vi e w e r s houl d be on t he s a m e pl a ne of f r e e dom a s ki ng t he m s e l ve s w he r e a t t e nt i on i s t o be f oc us e d. W ha t i s gi ve n f or r e c e pt i on i s f r e e dom or r a t he r t he r e t ur n t o f r e e dom a s i f i t ha d be e n l os t o r s ur r e nde r e d t o t he a r t i s t i n t he 2 4 C u n n i n g h a m d i s c u s s e s t h i s i n t h e f i l m C a g e a n d C u n n i n g h a m H e r e a r e e x a m p l e s f r o m C a g e i n J C W : T h i s d e s i r e [ t o e x p l o r e t h e u n k n o w n ] h a s f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n o u r c u l t u r e i n n e w m a t e r i a l s b e c a u s e o u r c u l t u r e h a s i t s f a i t h n o t i n t h e p e a c e f u l c e n t e r o f t h e s p i r i t b u t i n a n e v e r h o p e f u l p r o j e c t i o n o n t o t h i n g s o f o u r o w n d e s i r e f o r c o m p l e t i o n ( 4 3 ) A n d N o t h i n g i n l i f e o r a r t n e e d s a c c o m p a n i m e n t b e c a u s e e a c h h a s i t s o w n c e n t e r ( w h i c h i s n o c e n t e r ) ( 6 3 )

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134 m om e nt t he vi e w e r br i ngs hi s a t t e nt i on t o t he c a nv a s or t he s c e ne of pa i n t i ng. W he r e w a s a t t e nt i on pr i or t o t ha t m om e nt ? C a ge s a ys A l l i t m e a ns i s t ha t l ooki ng c l os e l y, w e s e e a s i t w a s e ve r yt hi ng i s i n c ha os s t i l l ( 100 ) T he c h a ot i c s ynt a x of t hi s s e nt e nc e poi nt s t he w a y ba c k a nd out o f t he c a ge one e nt e r s upon a r r i v i ng a t t he f i e l d o f t he pa i nt i ng. T he que s t i on of how t he s ubj e c t s houl d or de r hi s a t t e nt i on s houl d be r e t u r ne d t o t he s ubj e c t T he ( a bs e nt ) p r e s e nc e of t he a r t i s t s houl d not t ot a l i z e or r e t e r r i t or i a l i z e t he pl a ne o f pe r c e pt i on or t he s pa c e of t he ot he r I n a n i nt e r vi e w w i t h W i l l i a m D uc kw or t h C a ge e x pl a i ns how he c ul t i va t e s t hi s m ode of a t t e nt i on i n h i s m us i c a l c om pos i t i ons : D : H ow do yo u w e a ke n t a s t e a nd m e m or y? C : T he Z e n m e t hod i s by s i t t i ng c r os s l e gge d. D : B ut t he m a j o r i t y o f W e s t e r n c i vi l i z a t i on doe s n t f e e l i t c a n do t ha t C : N o. T he w a y I ha ve c hos e n t o do t ha t i s t o c om pos e by m e a ns of a s ki ng que s t i ons r a t he r t ha n m a ki ng c hoi c e s a nd t o us e c ha nc e ope r a t i ons t o de t e r m i ne t he a ns w e r s D : A nd how s houl d t he l i s t e ne r s do t ha t ? C : T he l i s t e ne r s a nd t he c r i t i c s ha ve a pr obl e m A n d I w oul d l i ke t o f i nd out how t o s ol ve t ha t o r how t o i ndi c a t e w he r e t ha t i s I know t ha t I m a y be a bl e t o a ns w e r i t be c a us e i ns t e a d of he a r i ng m u s i c i n m y he a d be f o r e I w r i t e I w r i t e i n s uc h a w a y a s t o he a r s om e t hi ng t h a t I ha ve no t ye t he a r d T he r e f or e I m i n t he pos i t i on t ha t t he l i s t e ne r i s i n a nd t he c r i t i c i s i n w i t h r e s pe c t t o m y m us i c H ow do I a pp r oa c h i t ? H ow d o I he a r i t i s t he a ns w e r N ot be c a us e I know a nyt hi ng t ha t t he y do n t know but be c a us e I ha ve n t he a r d i t a nym or e t ha n t he y ve he a r d i t ( D uc kw or t h 31 2) C a ge c om pos e s i n or de r t o pu t hi m s e l f i n t he s a m e pos i t i on, t he s a m e pl a c e ( w he r e t ha t i s ) t he l i s t e ne r i s i n. H e c om pos e s i n or de r t o r e c e i ve I t i s not i nt e nt i on but pr ot e nt i on he w i s he s t o c onve y, not t he di r e c t i ng of a t t e nt i on, but t he f r e e i ng of a t t e nt i on. T he r e i s a s e ns e of pl a c e he r e t ha t ha s t o do w i t h r e c e pt i on, w i t h m a ki ng one s e l f a r e c e pt a c l e T hi s i s not a w a y o f know i ng but of pl a c i ng one s e l f i n a pos i t i on of r e c e pt i on. I t i s a pl a c e w he r e t a s t e a nd m e m or y w e a ke n. T a s t e a nd m e m or y t e nd t o r e duc e e xpe r i e nc e t o w ha t

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135 our e a r s a nd our bodi e s by e xt e ns i on, ha ve be e n o r ga ni z e d t o de s i r e B e yond t ha t or ga ni z a t i on l i e s a l t e r i t y O f c our s e w e c a nnot c o m pl e t e l y e s c a pe i nt o a l t e r i t y W e c a n ge t on t he w a y t o i t t hough on t he w a y t o a n e s c a pe f r om t a s t e a nd m e m or y C a ge w oul d put l i s t e ne r c r i t i c a nd c om pos e r i n a n e m pt y c a ge a nd l e t t he m l e a ve C a ge hi m s e l f i s no t t he s ol ut i on t o t he pr obl e m f a c i ng hi s l i s t e ne r s a nd c r i t i c s t he p r obl e m o f f i nd i ng t hi s pl a c e B ut he c a n put hi m s e l f i n t ha t pl a c e C a ge f i gur e s hi m s e l f a s a ge ne r a l a ddr e s s e e a n i de a l c a pa bl e of unde r s t a ndi ng e ve r yt hi ng c r uc i a l a t s t a ke i n t he e xpe r i e nc e of l i s t e ni ng a nd t he r e f or e of r e c e i vi ng e ve r yt hi ng a n d ye t a t t he s a m e t i m e C a ge di s f i gur e s t hi s ge ne r a l a ddr e s s e e T he e m pt y c a ge l e f t be hi nd s houl d be f or got t e n put a w a y, di s t a nc e d, a l ong w i t h t a s t e a nd m e m or y. P e r ha ps C a ge doe s not a s s e r t bot h t he s e oppos i t e f i gur a t i ons e s pe c i a l l y not t he f o r m e r t he m us i c a l s uj e t s uppos s av oi r ye t hi s s i gna t ur e m i ght s i gni f y i n t hi s m a nne r J ohn C a ge a s t he h i s t or y of m us i c : he t r a ps t he l i s t e ne r c a gi ng hi m or r e l e a s i n g he r by w r i t i ng m us i c uni de nt i f i a bl e w i t h t he pr i o r hi s t or y of m us i c H e a t t e m pt s t o e xi t t he hi s t or y of m us i c a nd l e a ve t he door ope n. W ha t t ha t hi s t or y, or w ha t t he m us i c of t he pa s t i s not de pe nds on w ha t i t i s H e a r i ng i t de pe nds on f r e e dom f r om e xp e c t a t i ons f r om pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s of m us i c T o c om e ba c k t o t he R a us c he nbe r g t e xt a nd t he t w o poi nt s t ha t be a r on t h i s s e ns e of pl a c e : Y ou a r e t he n f r e e t o de a l w i t h you r f r e e dom j us t a s t he a r t i s t de a l t w i t h hi s not i n t he s a m e w a y but ne ve r t he l e s s o r i gi na l l y, a nd w e s e e a s i t w a s e ve r yt hi ng i s i n c ha os s t i l l ( Si l e nc e 100) T he pr obl e m of s pa c e a n d pl a c e i s pa r t i a l l y t a ke n up i n t he f i gur e s of t he door a nd t he r oom i n t he r e s t of C a ge s pa r a gr a phs on R a us c he nbe r g. T he door i s ne ve r l oc ke d. R a us c h e nbe r g w a l ks i n. N o one hom e H e pa i nt s a ne w pa i nt i ng ove r t he ol d one ( 101) T hi s i m a ge t ha t C a ge gi ve s us t o c ont e m pl a t e pr e s e nt s

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136 R a us c he nb e r g a s a gr a f f i t o w a nde r i ng i nt o a n a bs t r a c t c a ge C a ge s ha ve door s a nd a r t i s t s m a y e nt e r t he m A not he r l e ve l of s i gna t ur e r e s i s t a nc e m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f he r e C a ge s a r e m e a nt t o be l oc ke d but i n t hi s s c e ne t he door i s ne ve r l oc ke d. R a us c he nbe r g s s t udi o ha s be e n r e c a s t a s a n e m pt y c a ge : N o one hom e T he r e i s no one t o di r e c t hi s a t t e nt i on S ubj e c t pos i t i ons c a nnot be l oc ke d i n or l oc ke d out T he a r t i s t i s i n a nd ou t A s r e a de r s l i s t e ne r s or vi e w e r s w e s houl d be i n t he s a m e pl a c e W he r e a r e w e ? I t w oul d s e e m t o be t he a r t i s t s s t udi o, but how t he n i s no one hom e ? T he s ynt a x c onf us e s or l e a ve s ope n t he r e l a t i ve s u bj e c t pos i t i ons of t he s pe a ke r R a us c he nbe r g, a nd t he r e a de r o f t hi s pa s s a ge A nd t hi s a c c or ds w i t h t he a i m of pl a c i ng t he ot he r i n t he s a m e pos i t i on w i t h t he s a m e f r e e dom ( t o e xe r c i s e ) a s t he a r t i s t T o e nd t he pa r a gr a ph, C a ge w r i t e s I t s a j oy i n f a c t t o be gi n ove r a ga i n. I n pr e pa r a t i on he e r a s e s t he D e K ooni ng ( 101) N o one hom e i t s a n e m pt y c a ge o r a n e m p t y c a nva s or a n e m pt y f i e l d. E r a s ur e of D e K ooni ng: pr e s e r va t i on i s not a n i s s ue T he na m i ng of t hi ngs c a n be r e s i s t e d. B ut r e na m i ng goe s on. W e r e he [ R a us c he nbe r g] s a yi ng s om e t hi ng i n pa r t i c ul a r he w oul d ha ve t o f oc us t he pa i nt i ng, a s i t i s he s i m pl y f oc us e s hi m s e l f a nd e ve r yt hi ng, a pai r o f s oc k s i s a ppr opr i a t e a pp r opr i a t e t o poe t r y a poe t r y o f i nf i n i t e pos s i bi l i t i e s ( 103) F oc us i ng hi m s e l f m e a ns e na c t i ng t he de c i s i ons t o s e e a nd o bs e r ve i n pa r t i c ul a r w a ys I t s a ki nd of a ppr opr i a t i on. R a us c he nbe r g t a ke s hi s c ha nc e s w i t h hi s m a t e r i a l s j us t a s t he o t he r m us t t a ke he r / hi s c ha nc e s i n f oc us i ng on t he pa i nt i ng W he r e a nd how w i l l t he ga z e f a l l ? C oul d C a ge s t e xt or e ve n hi s s i gna t ur e s e r ve a s w e l l a s a pa i r of s oc ks ? T o f oc us on t he s oc ks i s t o pa s s t hr ough a n a bs t r a c t c a ge H ow c a n s oc ks t a ke us be yond? W e l l t he r e c a n t be a be yond w i t hout a be f or e o r be l ow t he m ud out of w hi c h w e s t a n d a nd l ook up I s t he door l oc ke d? N o, i t s ope n a s us ua l ( 101 ) F or t he v i e w e r pe r c e pt i on i s

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13 7 not t hr ough t he ot he r t he a r t i s t P e r c e pt i on i s t o be l e t t h r ough t he doo r bot h i n a nd out P e r ha ps a be t t e r f or m ul a t i on i s t ha t t he e xt e r i or w i t h t he a r t i s t l os t i n t he a l t e r i t y of e xt e r i or i t y, i s t o be a l l ow e d t o f l ow i nt o t he i nt e r i o r t ha t i s t he out s i de of t he s t udi o or t he out s i de of t he hom e a l l ow e d t o c om e i n N o o ne hom e : w ha t i s t he e c onom y of t hi s us ua l l y ope n door ? T he s pa c e of i nt e r i o r i t y i s no t c l os e d. T he s c e ne of pa i nt i ng i s not a t r a p, a nd t he ot he r of t he a r t i s t i s not t r a ppe d. I a m f r e e t o go i n a ga i n a nd be gi n a ga i n. C a ge w r i t e s I t s a j oy i n f a c t t o be gi n ove r a ga i n. I n pr e pa r a t i on [ R a us c he nbe r g] e r a s e s t he D e K ooni ng ( 101 ) C a ge i s a l w a ys r e a dy t o s t a r t out a ga i n f r om z e r o, a s he s a ys of S a t i e ( 80) t o f i nd a nd or i e nt one s e l f on t he l i ne out W ha t i s i nt e r i o r m us t be l e t ou t a ve nt ur e out w a r d i n t o a l t e r i t y i n ba l a nc e w i t h t he i nw a r d f l ow S pe a ki ng o f pl a n a s t e c hni que C a ge w r i t e s M or e i m por t a nt i s t o kno w e xa c t l y t he s i z e of t he door a nd t e c hni que s f or ge t t i ng a c a nva s out of t he s t udi o ( C om bi ne s don t r ol l up) ( 104) I n ot he r w or ds t he t r a ns pos i t i ona l s pa c e of t he pa i nt i ng i s l i m i t e d by t he s i z e o f t he door T hi s c r os s i ng o ve r o f t he ob j e c t f r om i nt e r i or t o e xt e r i or i s t he i n i t i a l e ve nt o f a vi s ua l m ode l f or t he t r a ns pos i t i on of t he s ubj e c t T he s ubj e c t w oul d e nt e r t he s pa c e of t he a r t i s t j us t a s t he c a nva s or obj e c t s i n a pa i nt i ng e nt e r t he s pa c e by t he c ha nc e pr oxi m i t y of a r t i s t a nd obj e c t w i t h t he one r oo m of t he s c e ne s ugge s t i ng i nt e r i or i t y T he a r t i s t e xpe c t s t ha t t he s ubj e c t t he di vi ne s t r a nge r w i l l a l s o l e a ve a s t he pa i nt i ng w i l l l e a ve t hr ough t he ope n door T he r e i s i n R a us c he nbe r g, be t w e e n hi m a nd w ha t he pi c ks up t o us e t he qua l i t y of e nc ount e r F or t he f i r s t t i m e I f a s ha ppe ns t he r e i s a s e r i e s of pa i nt i ngs c ont a i ni ng s uc h a nd s uc h a m a t e r i a l i t i s a s t hough t he e nc ount e r w a s e xt e nde d i nt o a vi s i t on t he pa r t of t he s t r a nge r ( w ho i s d i vi ne ) . . S h or t l y t he s t r a nge r l e a ve s l e a vi ng t he door ope n. ( 103)

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138 T he a l t e r i t y of t he s t r a nge r i s m a r ke d by t he s t r a ng e ne s s of t he ot he r a nd t he a r t i s t i s a l s o s ym m e t r i c a l l y gr a nt e d t he di vi ne e l e m e nt o f t he s t r a nge I n t hi s s c e ne t he a r t i s t s s t r a nge ne s s dw e l l s i n t he i nt e r i or i t y of t he s t udi o, a nd t he s t r a nge ne s s of t he s t r a nge r i s a l l ow e d t o e nt e r a nd t he n l e a ve by t he ope n door c onne c t i ng i nt e r i or i t y a nd e xt e r i o r i t y T he pa i nt i ng i s e j e c t e d f r om t he i nt e r i or i t y of t he a r t i s t w he r e i t or i gi na t e d T he pr oc e s s of ( e x) c ha nge w i t h t he ot he r c a n r e m a i n ope n: C a ge w r i t e s I f y ou do no t c hange y our m i nd about s om e t hi ng w he n y ou c onf r ont a pi c t ur e y ou hav e not s e e n be f or e y ou ar e e i t he r a s t ubbor n f ool or t he pai nt i ng i s not v e r y good ( 10 6) T he pa i nt i ng s houl d br i ng a l t e r i t y a nd t he ot he r s houl d be ope n t o a l t e r i t y H e s a ga i n s t c a gi ng out t he o t he r O f t he w hi t e pa i nt i ngs C a ge r e m a r ks : I nt o t hi s s t r uc t ur e a nd a l l a nyt hi ng goe s T he s t r u c t ur e w a s not t he po i nt B ut i t w a s pr a c t i c a l : you c oul d a c t ua l l y s e e t ha t e v e r yt hi ng w a s ha ppe ni ng w i t hout a nyt hi ng s be i ng done B e f o r e s uc h e m pt i ne s s you j us t w a i t t o s e e w ha t you w i l l s e e I s R a us c he nbe r g s m i nd t he n e m pt y, t he w a y t he w hi t e c a nva s e s a r e ? D oe s t ha t m e a n w ha t e ve r e nt e r s i t h a s r oom ? ( I n o f c our s e t he ga p be t w e e n a r t a nd l i f e ) A nd s i nc e hi s e ye s a r e c onne c t e d t o hi s m i nd, he c a n s e e w ha t he l ooks a t be c a us e hi s he a d i s c l e a r unc l ut t e r e d? T ha t m us t be t he c a s e f o r onl y i n a m i nd ( t w e nt i e t h) t ha t ha d r oom f or i t c oul d D a nt e ( t hi r t e e nt h f our t e e nt h) ha ve c om e i n a nd gone out ( 107) W ha t c om e s i n, s houl d go out R a t he r t ha n pos s e s s i ng D a nt e be i ng s t uc k w i t h hi m or s t uc k on hi m or s t uc k t o hi m i t i s a m a t t e r o f F L U E N C Y I N A N D O U T a s C a ge put s i t i n one of h i s a phor i s m s ( C om pos i t i on 60) T he t e m por a l a nd c ul t u r a l a l t e r i t y of D a nt e f l ow s e a s i l y i n a nd out of t he m i nd/ r oom / c a ge of R a us c he nbe r g. I n t he w hi t e pa i nt i ngs a nyt hi ng goe s S i gna t ur e r e s i s t a nc e a nd s i gna t ur e r e c e pt i on c om e t oge t he r t o f or m a ki nd of be c om i ng c a ge f r e e w hi c h w oul d c a nc e l o ut t he m e t a phor i c s o f i m p r i s onm e nt t r a ps puni s hm e nt c e l l s w a l l e d i n ne s s e t c but i ns t e a d goe s by w a y of i nde t e r m i na c y a nd unde c i da bi l i t y t ow a r d ot he r unde t e r m i ne d a nd c ha nc e m e a ni ngs N e ga t i on of t he f i r s t

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139 m e t a phor i c s ha ppe ns B ut i t doe s n t s t op t he r e A s w i t h V a r s e t he m e t a phor i c s of be c om i ng c a ge d s e e m s t o e l i c i t a t t he s a m e t i m e t h e m e t a phor i c s of be c om i ng f r e e : f l ue nc y i n a nd out a ppl i e s a s m uc h t o V a r s e / C a ge a s i t doe s t o D a nt e / R a us c he nbe r g. I n t he oe di pa l r e gi s t e r t he C a ge s i gna t ur e a l l ow s t he p a t r i a r c ha l t o ha ve i t s pl a c e but t he n m ove s on t o t he ne xt e ve nt w i t hout ove r de t e r m i na t i on. C a ge s a ys of hi s f a t he r he w a s ve r y I gue s s t he w or d m i ght be c a ge y. I w a s goi ng t o s a y c a nny bu t . ( J C C A 72) Si gnat ur e O r de r W or ds Supe r e go: F r om R aus c he nbe r g t o D uc ham p A nd t he s i gna t ur e i s now he r e t o be f ound. T hr oughout C a ge s m e di t a t i on on R a us c he nbe r g t h e a r c hi t e c t ur e of s pa c e r e m a i ns t he m a t i c I t i s t he m e a ns by w hi c h C a ge pr e s e nt s R a us c he nbe r g. T he i m a ge r y of ga l l e r i e s s t udi os w a l l s door s e t c pe r s i s t s W i t hi n R a us c h e nbe r g s pa i nt i ngs a nd w i t hi n t he s e s pa c e s t ha t C a ge dr a w s t he r e a de r m a y w a nde r ; w e c a nnot he a r R a us c he nbe r g, w ho, C a ge a r gue s ha s w i t hdr a w n f r om t he s pa c e s T he a r t i s t a s s upe r e go, a s m or a l f a t he r f i gur e ha s be e n, a t l e a s t put unde r e xa m i na t i on i f not unde r e r a s ur e T he r e a de r / vi e w e r i s gi ve n e m pt y s pa c e s on t he pa ge s a m ong C a ge s pa r a gr a phs T hi s t i m e t he r e a r e no i ns t r uc t i ons t o t he r e a de r f o r i nt e r p r e t i ng t he s pa c e s a s t he r e w e r e i n t he L e c t ur e on N ot hi ng T he f or m of t he t e xt he l ps t he r e a de r e na c t or e nt e r t he de c i s i on s pa c e C a ge i s de s c r i bi ng. C a ge e voke s a m ood of qui e t ne s s a nd c ont e m pl a t i on, a s i f R a us c he nbe r g i s no l onge r pr e s e nt Y e s C a ge i s s t r uc t ur i ng a n a e s t he t i c i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t i s a n or de r i ng i n i t s e l f but t he or de r o r a s s e m bl a ge i s de s i gne d t o a l l ow va r i a t i on a s a r e R a us c he nbe r g s pa i nt i ngs C a ge di r e c t s t ha t hi s pa r a gr a phs be r e a d or pr i nt e d i n a ny or de r R e s pons i bi l i t y f o r t he

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140 or de r of r e a di ng pa s s e s ove r t o t he pr i n t e r publ i s he r a nd t he n t o t he r e a d e r a s t he or de r of vi e w i ng pa s s e s ove r t o R a us c he nbe r g s vi e w e r W i t hi n t he a s s e m bl a ge w r i t e r t e xt r e a de r ( or pa i nt e r c a nva s vi e w e r ) t he onus o f p r oduc t i on ( of m e a ni ng a f f e c t e xpe r i e nc e ) c a n be r e di s t r i but e d. I n e f f e c t t he r e a de r i s be i ng a s ke d t o s i gn s t yl i s t i c a l l y. C a ge s r e m a r k t ha t t he s i gna t ur e i s now he r e t o be f ound m a r ks t he w i t hdr a w a l of t he a r t i s t s pe r s ona a nd i t s ba gga ge T ha t w i t hdr a w a l pe r m i t s a n e c onom y of c ount e r s i gna t ur e W he n C a ge c om e s t o D uc ha m p i n t he 60s i t i s a s i f he i s r e pe a t i ng t he di s c ove r y of noi s e be yond s i l e nc e E ve r yt hi ng ha s c ha nge d. S udde nl y t he a e s t he t i c s be c om e a n a l l out c e l e br a t i on of t he s i gna t ur e D uc ha m p s s i gna t ur e i s e ve r yw he r e t o be f ound C a ge a dopt s D uc ha m p a s hi s a e s t he t i c s upe r e go, e ve n na m i ng hi m s e l f a duc ha m p T he a e s t he t i c of w i t hdr a w a l ha s be e n t u r ne d i ns i de out a nd C a ge c a l l s i t c e nt r i f uga l T hi s i s be c a us e no one f unne l s m or e o f t he a e s t he t i c pr oc e s s t hr ough t he s i gna t ur e t ha n D uc ha m p. B ut w ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e s t hi s c e nt r i f uga l m ove m e nt f r om s i m pl e r e t e r r i t or i a l i z a t i on? O ne w a y t o a ns w e r t hi s que s t i on i s t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ve a ppr oa c he s t o t he s i gna t ur e i n t e r m s of or de r w or d s D e l e uz e s & G ua t t a r i s t he or i z a t i on of t he o r de r w o r d i n A T hous and P l a t e aus c a n be r e a d a s a n a r gum e nt t ha t t he s upe r e go i s a f unc t i on o f l a ngua ge r a t he r t ha n o f t he i ndi vi dua l ps yc he 2 5 I t i s a s i f t he or de r w or d ha s c yc l e d ove r i nt o i t s w oul d be a nt i t he s i s t he pa s s w or d. T he s i gna t ur e i t s e l f ha s be c om e a t unne l t hr ough t he or de r w or d s t r uc t ur e o f l a ngua g e T he s i gna t ur e pr e i m m a ne nt l y e xe m pl i f i e s t he or de r w or d, a nd c a n t he r e f or e de c ons t r uc t t he or de r w or d T he pa s s w or d, D e l e uz e s r e ve r s a l of t he o r de r w or d i s a n or de r w or d, a l be i t a r e f l e xi ve a nd i r oni c i nt e r ve nt i on. W ha t c a n be m o r e r e f l e xi ve m o r e s e l f r e f l e xi ve t ha n t he s i gna t ur e ? T he 2 5 S e e C h a p t e r 4 N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 9 2 3 P o s t u l a t e s o f L i n g u i s t i c s

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141 or de r of i de nt i t y e nc ode s i t s e l f i n t he s i gna t ur e w h i c h i t s e l f s t r uc t ur e s t he s ym bol i c or de r T o l e a ve one s m a r k i s t he or i gi na l s ym bol i c ge s t ur e R a us c he nb e r g s s i l e nt s i gna t ur e s t yl e i s a w a y o f s i l e nc i ng t he s upe r e go. I n f a c t i t c ha l l e nge s t he e nt i r e s ym bol i c or de r by f or e gr ound i ng t he i m a ge o f s i l e nc e D uc ha m p s r e gi s t r a t i on of t he s ym bol i c o r de r t h r ough t he s i gna t ur e t a ke s a n e nt i r e l y di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c h, a m o r e a c t i ve t ha n s i l e nt s t r a t e gy. T he s i gna t ur e e m pt y i n i t s e l f i s t r um pe t e d, but a s a f r a m i ng de vi c e D uc ha m p s s i gna t ur e s t yl e m a ke s a pa s s w or d out o f hi s ow n s i gna t ur e D uc ha m p pr e s e nt s a m ons t r ous a l t e r i s t i c de pl oym e nt of t he s i gna t ur e H ow doe s C a ge be gi n t o unde r s t a nd D uc ha m p? D uc ha m p i s pe r ha ps t he gr e a t e s t a r t i s t of t he s i gna t ur e t he c ha m pi on of t he f i e l d, t he w i nne r I n F r e nc h hi s na m e m e a ns t he f i e l d t he p l a c e t he a r e a H i s na m e r e s ona t e s w i t h ope ni ng, c l e a r i ng t he f i e l d of vi e w T he c r ypt i n t he s i gna t ur e i s e m pt y, or pe r ha ps t he c r ypt i s f ul l i n s om e a bs ol ut e s e ns e f ul l y ope n t o e ve r yt hi ng D uc ha m p s a ys ye s t o hi s s i gna t ur e by l e a vi ng i t pl a c e s H e t hr ow s hi s s i gna t ur e a w a y. H e s i gns c i ga r s t he n s m oke s t he m H e di s s e m i na t e s hi s s i gna t ur e i n or de r t o pur ve y t he f ound obj e c t H e s e e s hi s s i gna t ur e i ns c r i be d on t h e t hi ng t he n he s how s t hi s i ns c r i pt i on t o us by s i gni ng t he obj e c t H i s s i gna t ur e e ve nt i m m e di a t e l y c ha l l e nge s hi s a ppr e c i a t or W i l l t he vi e w e r c onc e de t ha t t he obj e c t c ount e r s i gns f or D uc ha m p? T a ki ng of f a ga i n f r om t he m a r k i n M a r c e l w e s e e t ha t hi s f i r s t na m e ope ns r i ght on t he s t r uc t ur e of t he s i gna t ur e a l s o. M a r c e l m a ke s hi s m a r k. I nde e d, h i s s i gna t ur e i s on t he m a r c h, l i ke a s ol di e r i n N i e t z s c he s a r m y of t r o pe s : m e t a phor s m e t onym i e s a nt hr opom or phi s m s . duc ha m ps I t f r a m e s a nd r e na m e s e ve r yt hi ng. A s a m a c hi ni c a s s e m bl a ge i t s e e m s c a pa bl e of c ons um i ng a nd a e s t he t i c a l l y r e pa c ka gi ng a ny t hi ng

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142 I m pl i c i t i n t hi s e ve nt i s a r e l e a s e of t he na m e t o ge t r i d o f i t t o t h r ow i t a w a y, i n or de r t o ha ve i t c om e ba c k c ount e r s i gne d. T he na m e c om e s ba c k c o unt e r s i gne d by t he obj e c t C a ge i s hype r s e ns i t i ve t o t hi s pl a y of t he s i gna t ur e : T he w or ks s i gne d by D uc ha m p a r e c e nt r i f uga l T h e w or l d a r ound be c om e s i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e ( X 53) T he c he c k. T he s t r i ng he dr oppe d T he M ona L i s a T he m us i c a l not e s t a ke n out o f a ha t T he gl a s s T he t oy s hot gun pa i nt i ng. T he t hi ngs he f ound. T he r e f or e e ve r yt hi n g s e e n e ve r y obj e c t t ha t i s pl us t he pr oc e s s of l ooki ng a t i t i s a D uc ha m p. ( A Y F M 70) I t s t oo m uc h. A s C a ge s a ys W ha t 's m or e bo r i ng t ha n M a r c e l D uc ha m p? I a s k you ( 71) P e r ha ps a good j oke s houl dn t be r e pe a t e d. A nd C a ge i s a w a r e of t hi s a l s o: H e [ D uc ha m p] r e qui r e s t ha t w e know t ha t be i ng a n a r t i s t i s n't c hi l d's pl a y: e qui va l e nt i n d i f f i c ul t y s ur e l y t o pl a yi ng c he s s F ur t he r m or e a w or k of our a r t i s no t our s a l on e but be l ongs a l s o t o t he oppone nt w ho s t he r e t o t he e nd. A na r c hy? ( 71) Y e s i t i s a j oke but i t i s m or e t ha n t ha t a l s o. N e i t h e r D uc ha m p nor C a ge i s s i m pl y j oki ng. P r ope r t y pr op r i e t y, t he p r ope r na m e ow ne r s hi p, or de r : a l l t he s e a r e a t s t a ke W ho ow ns a w a y of l ook i ng? H ow c oul d a nyone s i gn f o r i t or t a ke ow ne r s hi p o f a pr oc e s s ? C oul d t he j oke be c om e a s e l f f ul f i l l i ng p r ophe c y? a t r ue j oke ? W ha t w oul d i t s r e l a t i on be t o t he unc ons c i ous ? I n hi s bi og r a phy of C a ge D a v i d R e vi l l s ugge s t s t ha t D uc ha m p s un de r s t a ndi ng of t he unc ons c i ous a nd C a ge s unde r s t a ndi ng w e r e di f f e r e nt pa r t i c ul a r l y i n r e l a t i on t o c ha nc e : T he i r a ppa r e nt s ha r e d i n t e r e s t i n c ha nc e m a s ke d ve r y di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve s ; your c ha nc e i s not t he s a m e a s m y c ha nc e D uc ha m p w a r ne d ( w i t hout a dd r e s s i ng C a ge s pe c i f i c a l l y) f or he s a w c ha nc e a s a n e xpr e s s i on of t he s ubc ons c i ous pe r s ona l i t y ( 214 15) C a ge s a w c ha nc e a s a n e xpr e s s i on of na t ur e a nd a w a y t o e s c a pe t he s ubc ons c i ous pe r s ona l i t y. B e c a u s e t he i r s i gna t ur e s a r e di f f e r e nt t he i r c ha nc e s a r e

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143 di f f e r e nt I f D uc ha m p s s i gna t ur e c ha nc e i s a f or m of a ut om a t i c w r i t i ng t ha t r e t e r r i t or i a l i z e s e ve r yt hi ng, C a ge s e e s be yond D uc ha m p s c ha nc e by l ooki ng a t i t t hr ough hi s ow n s i gna t ur e O r I m i ght s a y C a ge pos i t i ons hi m s e l f w i t hi n D uc ha m p s s i gna t ur e T h i s e ve nt be gi ns a s a s l ur on J a c ks on P ol l oc k: S e e m s P ol l oc k t r i e d t o do i t pa i nt on gl a s s I t w a s i n a m ovi e T he r e w a s a n a dm i s s i on of f a i l u r e T ha t w a s n't t he w a y t o p r o c e e d. I t 's not a que s t i on of doi ng a ga i n w ha t D uc ha m p a l r e a dy di d. W e m u s t now a da ys ne ve r t he l e s s a t l e a s t be a bl e t o l ook t hr ough t o w ha t 's be yond a s t hough w e w e r e i n i t l ooki ng out ( A Y F M 71) A s t hough one w e r e i ns i de a c a ge l ooki ng out : C a g e i s i ns i de w ha t D uc ha m p a l r e a dy di d. O ddl y, C a ge r e pe a t s t he ge s t ur e o f pa i nt i ng on gl a s s hi m s e l f i n t he a c t o f m our ni ng f o r D uc ha m p. F ol l ow i ng D uc ha m p s de a t h, C a ge c r e a t e d w i t h C a l vi n S um i s on a pl e xi gl a s s pi e c e w i t h r a ndom i ns c r i pt i o ns r a ndo m l y pos i t i one d on i t a nd e nt i t l e d i t N ot W ant i ng t o Say A ny t h i ng A bout M ar c e l L ooki ng a t t he pi e c e one ga z e s t hr ough s e ve r a l pi e c e s of pl e xi gl a s s H ow doe s one r e a d r a ndom i n s c r i pt i ons ? B ut be yond t he i ns c r i pt i ons t hi s m e m or i a l i s a w a l l a s e e t hr ough w a l l a gl a s s w a l l a gl as w a l l a nd a m our ni ng w a l l A nd now t he w a l l s e pa r a t e s C a ge a nd D uc ha m p. C a ge i s w r i t i ng f or D uc ha m p, a s i f he unde r s t a nds D e r r i da s c a l c ul o f t he m ot he r I n t he H e ge l i a n s c he m e of m a r r i a ge t he w i f e o r m o t he r i s t he s ur vi vor w ho w r i t e s t he na m e of t he f a t he r / hus ba nd. N o doubt t he r e i s a l ot of D uc ha m p i n t he pi e c e e v e n i f i t w a nt s t o s a y not h i ng a bout hi m D uc ha m p s l a s t pi e c e t he e l a bor a t e i ns t a l l a t i on t ant D onn s i nc l ude s a l a nds c a pe pa i nt i ng on gl a s s C om pe t i ng s i gna t ur e s ove r de t e r m i ne t he pr oc e s s of l ook i ng a t i t T he pi e c e ha s M a r c e l i n t he t i t l e s o i t ha s got ha l f of D u c ha m p s pr ope r na m e a c c om pa nyi ng i t I t i s done on pl e xi gl a s s ve r y l i ke w ha t D uc ha m p a l r e a dy di d. B ut one

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144 i s a l s o l ooki ng out t o w ha t s be yond a s t hough o ne w e r e ne got i a t i ng a n i ns i de / out s i de di s t i nc t i on. I t s a ys not hi ng i n i t s br oke n r a ndom l a ngua ge w hi c h a m ount s t o a ki nd of C a ge a n s i l e nc e U nl i ke P ol l oc k, C a ge i s pe r f e c t l y ha ppy t o m e l d h i s s i gna t ur e w i t h D uc ha m p s T he onl y a nxi e t y o f i n f l ue nc e t ha t C a ge f e e l s t ow a r d D uc ha m p a r i s e s onl y i n t he s e c ond m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e e ve nt N ot w a nt i ng t o r e pe a t D uc ha m p s ge s t ur e s t he m our ni ng of t r a um a t i c l os s r e ve r s e s t he f l ue nc y: f l ue nc y i n a nd out of t he t om b P e r ha ps C a ge s t e a r s br oke n l a ngua ge f a l l s on t he pl e xi gl a s s t he w a y P ol l oc k l e t t he pa i nt f a l l on t he gl a s s : a f t e r D uc ha m p i n i t s de c ons t r uc t i on of vi s i on by m e a ns of a gl a s s c a ge i n s pi t e of t he c ha nc e ope r a t i ons C a ge us e d t o c ons t r uc t t he pi e c e I be c a m e i n m y w a y a duc ha m p unt o m ys e l f I c o ul d f i nd a s he di d f or hi m s e l f t he s pa c e a nd t i m e of m y ow n e xpe r i e nc e ( X 53) C a ge dr a m a t i c a l l y na m e s hi m s e l f a duc ha m p. T hi s c om m on noun i s a f unc t i on of D u c ha m p s ow n s i ngul a r s i gna t ur e a e s t he t i c W he t he r or no t C a ge c oi ne d t he t e r m a duc ha m p, he ga ve i t a pr o m i ne nt pl a c e i n hi s t e xt s I n 1962 or 63 be f o r e hi s c l os e a s s oc i a t i on w i t h M a r c e l a nd T e e ny D uc ha m p of t he m i d 60s he w r ot e t he pi e c e 26 S t a t e m e nt s R e D uc ha m p, a nd one of t he s t a t e m e nt s i s s i m pl y, A duc ha m p unpunc t ua t e d. I n t hi s a nt onom a s i a t he pr ope r noun D uc ha m p ha s be c om e a c om m on noun a t r ope w or t hy o f D uc ha m p hi m s e l f A s D e r r i da w oul d s a y, D uc ha m p l os e s hi s na m e i n o r d e r t o ha ve i t m onum e nt a l i z e d, e ns hr i ne d i n l a ngua ge a s i t s ow n t e r m a ppl i e d not t o D uc ha m p but t o a nyt hi ng t ha t c ount e r s i gns f or D uc ha m p. T hi s e ve nt c a n be s e e n t w o w a ys H a s D uc ha m p r e t e r r i t or i a l i z e d na t ur e or r e a l i t y f o r hi m s e l f or i n hi s na m e or ha s he s om e how got t e n t hi ngs t o de t e r r i t or i a l i z e hi s s i gna t ur e ? I f t he c a s e i s bot h, t he n t he r e s a t e l e ol ogi c a l t r a j e c t or y he r e : D uc ha m p i s t he or i gi n a nd t he goa l o f t hi s i n t e r a c t i on

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145 be t w e e n t hi ngs a nd l a ngua ge C a ge t a ke s a de f e r e nt i a l a t t i t ude t ow a r d D uc ha m p. T o na m e hi m s e l f a duc ha m p i m pl i e s t ha t he ha s s e e n hi m s e l f a c c or di ng t o t he p e r s pe c t i ve of D uc ha m p. B ut w ha t i s t ha t pe r s pe c t i ve ? I c oul d f i nd a s he d i d f o r hi m s e l f t he s pa c e a nd t i m e of m y ow n e xpe r i e nc e ( X 53 ) A s w e ha ve s e e n i n t he P ol l oc k quot e I t 's not a que s t i on of doi ng a ga i n w ha t D uc ha m p a l r e a dy di d T he m ove m e nt i s oe di pa l on a ps yc hoa na l yt i c pl a ne W he n he c a l l s hi m s e l f a duc ha m p, t he pa t r i a r c ha l s t r uc t ur e of t he l a ngua ge o f na m i ng pos i t i ons C a ge a s D uc ha m p s s on. T he pl a c e m e nt of P ol l oc k i n t he m a r gi n r e pe a t s t he s t a nc e C a ge t ook t ow a r d V a r s e B ot h P o l l oc k a nd V a r s e f unc t i on a s f a i l e d a e s t he t i c f a t he r s D uc ha m p s e vi l doubl e s : V a r s e w ho f a t h e r e d noi s e i nt o 20 t h c e nt ur y m us i c a nd P ol l oc k, he a d o f t he A bs t r a c t E xp r e s s i oni s t s c hool of pa i nt i ng. I n t he e nd C a ge r e j e c t s bot h a s pha l l i c s upe r e gos hype r he t e r o a e s t he t i c f a t he r s B ut t he y f unc t i on i n t he doubl e s t r uc t ur e of t he s upe r e go. D uc ha m p i s t he good c op, P ol l a c k a nd V a r s e a s ba d c ops B ot h P ol l oc k a nd V a r s e a r e f r oz e n i n t he s e c ond m oda l i t y of t he s i gna t ur e T he r e i s no c ount e r s i gna t ur e V a r s e s m a nne r i s m s a r e s e c ond m ode s i gna t ur e not c ount e r s i gna t ur e be c a us e t hos e s ounds a s C a ge s a ys a r e not e s t a bl i s he d i n t he i r ow n r i ght ( Si l e nc e 69) P ol l a c k s m a t u r e s t yl e i s a l s o pu r e i di om T he r e i s no out s i de i n h i s w or k. T he c l os ur e of i di om r e s t r i c t s t he e c onom y of t he s i gna t ur e D uc ha m p s s i gna t ur e e c onom y i s hype r P ong i a n: a ny t hi ng c a n c om e ba c k s i gne d, e s pe c i a l l y t hi ngs t ha t i n t he i r t hi ngne s s e xc e e d t he s i gna t ur e T ha t i s one of P onge s c ondi t i ons f or c ount e r s i gna t ur e : t he onl y t e xt s t ha t I c a n w i t h di gni t y a c c e pt t o s i gn ( or c ount e r s i gn) a r e t hos e t ha t c oul d be uns i g ne d a l t oge t he r ( Si gns ponge 130) T he s e t e xt s ( t he s ubj e c t s of hi s poe m s ) a r e o f t e n obj e c t s f r om na t ur e but not a l w a ys :

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146 D e r r i da w r i t e s H e of t e n de s c r i be s t he t h i ng, w hi c h m a y be a n a ni m a l a hum a n s c e ne a n a nt hr opom or phi c f or m w he n he de s c r i be s t he m a s t he m s e l ve s s c e ne s of w r i t i ng o r s i gna t ur e ( P oi nt s 367 ) D uc ha m p s s i gna t ur e t e c hn i que e l i de s t he de s c r i pt i on of t he t h i ng as a s c e ne of w r i t i ng A s w i t h R a us c he nbe r g, t he r e r e m a i ns s om e t hi ng of t he s e c ond m oda l i t y, t he t r e a t m e nt o f t he t hi ng ha vi ng be c om e a n i di om a t i c m a r k, but t he c ount e r s i gna t ur e i t s e l f e s p e c i a l l y D uc ha m p s ha s be e n s ubj e c t e d t o s a c r e d pa r ody, ( G e of f r e y H a r t m a n s t e r m f or D e r r i da s G l as s t yl e ) N e ve r t he l e s s C a ge t a ke s of f f r om D uc ha m p t he w a y D e r r i da t a ke s of f f r om P onge D e r r i da s f oc us on P onge s T he S w a l l ow s be a r s a n unc a nny r e s e m b l a nc e t o C a ge s s i gna t ur e r e bus w he r e he r e pe a t s t he a nt on om a s i a of duc ha m p : I ( C a ge ) a m a n ope n c a ge F or t he B i r ds C a ge t r um ps duc ha m p w i t h c a ge t he n t a ke s of f E a c h s w a l l ow t i r e l e s s l y hur l s i t s e l f i nf a l l i bl y e xe r c i s e s i t s e l f i n t he s i gna t ur e a c c or di ng t o i t s s pe c i e s of t he s ki e s w r i t e s P onge ( qt d i n P o i nt s 376) Y e t l i ke D e r r i da C a ge i s c a r e f ul t o s e pa r a t e hi s e n t e r pr i s e f r om D uc ha m p s a nd t he t r a c e of hi s s i gna t ur e pr ov i de s t he l i ne out f o r t hi s de pa r t ur e w ha t D e r r i da c a l l s t he t a ke of f : C a ge c oul d f i nd h i s ow n c a ge t he s pa c e a nd t i m e o f hi s ow n e xpe r i e nc e ( X 53) L i ke w i s e D e r r i da i s c a r e f ul t o a l l ow t he a r t i s t P onge hi s f r e e dom : I w oul d s a y t ha t I t ak e of f f r om P onge s p r ope r na m e : t ha t i s w hy not e ve r yt hi ng c om e s ba c k t o i t t ha t i s w hy I w oul d n ot w a nt t o l e a d one t o be l i e ve t ha t by c onc e r ni ng m ys e l f w i t h hi s l e ga l p r ope r na m e I t r i e d t o de duc e e ve r yt hi ng f r om i t M or e ove r i n t hi s t e xt I t a ke pr e c a ut i ons i n t hi s r e ga r d: i t i s not a t a l l a m a t t e r of de duc i ng e ve r yt hi ng f r om t he pa t r onym i c pr ope r na m e or e ve n of de duc i ng e ve r yt hi ng f r om t he s i gna t ur e of t he pr ope r na m e E ve r y t hi ng t ak e s of f f r om hi s pr ope r na m e t ha t i s pr oc e e ds f r om i t a nd a t t he s a m e t i m e t a ke s i t s di s t a nc e f r o m i t de t a c he s i t s e l f f r o m i t A nd i t i s t hi s de t a c hm e nt t ha t m a ke s t he w or k i n s om e s e ns e ( P oi nt s 368) T hi s i s ve r y c l os e t o C a ge s pr a c t i c e of i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on w i t h noni nt e r f e r e nc e A s w i t h

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147 R a us c he nb e r g s pa i nt i ngs t he i s s ue i s f r e e dom t h a t i s c onf r ont i ng t he ot he r w i t h t he s a m e f r e e dom t ha t t he a r t i s t f a c e d i n t he pr oc e s s of hi s w or k. T he de c i s i on s pa c e m us t be l e f t e m pt y. F or C a ge t hi s m e a ns f r e e dom f r o m t he pe r s ona l i t y of t he a r t i s t T he a r t i s t c a nnot a bs ol ut e l y di vor c e hi s pe r s ona l i t y f r om hi s w or k, but he c a n l e a ve hi s w or k ope n s o t ha t i t i s up t o a nO t he r t o de c i de w he n t o c om e a nd go, o r t a ke o f f C a ge c ount e r s i gns f or D uc ha m p a nd R a us c he nbe r g by t a ki ng of f f r o m t he i r w or ks * C a ge w r ot e r e pe a t e dl y, s ubt l y a nd e nt hus i a s t i c a l l y a bout t he s i gna t ur e H e a l s o c ons t r uc t e d a poe t i c s of s i gna t ur e s T hi s poe t i c s do e s n t ow e m uc h t o t r a di t i on W he r e a s S ha r on O l ds dr a w s he a vi l y on 20 t h C e nt ur y poe t i c s e s pe c i a l l y t he c onf e s s i ona l poe t i c s a nd m a ke s no f or m a l de pa r t ur e s f r om s hor t l yr i c C a ge di a m e t r i c a l l y oppos e s t he c onf e s s i ona l i m pul s e N ot e ve n i m pe r s ona l i t y but t he e r a s ur e of pe r s ona l i t y a s a n a s pe c t of t he t e xt w a s hi s s t a t e d goa l A nd t o do t hi s he m a de f or m a l de pa r t ur e s t ha t r e qui r e e nor m ous l e a ps f r om r e a de r s of poe t r y. C a ge a nd O l ds i nha bi t oppos i t e e nds of t he poe t i c s uni ve r s e w or ki ng ove r t he i r ow n s i gna t ur e s

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148 C ha pt e r 5 C age J oi ns t he W ak e I t i s t he c ont r ol o f i n t e nt i on a nd i t s de ni a l of non i nt e nt i on s e xi s t e nc e t ha t C a ge w i s he d t o e xpe l f r om t he pr oc e s s of m a ki ng. C ont r ol a s s um e s a hi e r a r c hi c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n na t ur e a nd hum a ni t y t ha t di s a l l ow s t he p r e s e nc e of w ha t w e d o not i nt e nd ( S hul t i s 33) C a ge s l ong poe m W r i t i ng f or t he Se c ond T i m e t hr ough F i nne gans W ak e ( he r e a f t e r W 2F W ) s e e m s l i ke a t r oj a n ho r s e m e a nt t o pe ne t r a t e t he w a l l s o f poe t i c s I t l ooks l i ke a poe m on t he pa ge B ut r e a di ng i t i s i m m e di a t e l y m or e di f f i c ul t t ha n r e a di ng F i nne gans W ak e A t one t i m e i t m i ght ha ve be e n c a l l e d a pos t poe m B y de s i gn, C a ge w i s he s t o a l t e r t he de s i r e o f r e a di ng a nd r e a de r s i e C a ge w a nt e d t o f r e e t he t e xt f r om J oyc e s i nt e nt i ons a s w e l l a s hi s ow n ( X x ) H i s a i m i s not t o be c om e a r e a de r of J oyc e s i nt e nt i ons or o f J oyc e s i nt e nde d m e a ni ng, but t o m a ke s om e t hi ng e l s e a ga i n out of F i nne gans W ak e R e a di ng t h r ough t he f i r s t pa ge of C a ge s poe m t he poe t i c e c onom y s e e m s c r i ppl e d by t he l a c k o f gr a m m a r ( s e e F i gu r e 1) T he pr ot oc ol s e e m s t o ha ve be e n l os t P r ot oc ol : F une r al A r r ange m e nt s F i r s t t i m e r e a de r s w i l l no doubt t a ke qui c k r e c our s e t o C a ge s i nt r oduc t i on t o t he poe m i n E m pt y W or ds w hi c h i s i nt e r e s t i ng but pr o vi de s l i t t l e he l p i n r e a di ng t he poe m C a ge doe s c l a r i f y t he poe m s c ons t r uc t i on t ha t i t c ons i s t s of a c ut t i ng or s ubs e t f r om F i nne gans W ak e a c hi e ve d by bot h a m e c ha ni c a l o pe r a t i on a nd ope r a t i ons ba s e d on t a s t e

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149 F or t he m e c ha ni c a l ope r a t i on, C a ge f ol l ow s t he l e t t e r s of J oyc e s na m e t hr ough t he t e xt H e t a ke s t hos e w or ds w hi c h c ont a i n t he l e t t e r s : t he f i r s t w o r d w i t h a j t he ne xt w or d w i t h a n a t he ne xt w or d w i t h a n m a nd s o on e a c h w or d a nc hor i ng a ne w ve r s e T o c om pl e m e nt t hi s ope r a t i on, by e xe r c i s i ng t a s t e he us ua l l y pi c ks s om e of t he i n t e r m i t t e nt w or ds f r om t he W ak e t o be us e d a s w i ng w o r ds of t he m e s os t i c s : how m uc h pl a y c a n t he r e be i n t hi s pr oc e dur e ? F i ndi ng t he r a ndom d i s t r i but i on o f t he l e t t e r s i n t he pr ope r na m e J a m e s J oyc e i s a pe r f e c t l y m e c ha ni c a l ope r a t i on, s o t he r e i s no pl a y or l oos e ne s s ot he r t ha n t ha t of e r r or i n t he pr oc e dur e i t s e l f T he pl a y of c ha nc e ha s oc c ur r e d i n t he pr i or c ons t r uc t i on of t he W ak e a nd t he de c i s i on t o a ppl y t he a l gor i t hm oppos e s t he i nt e nt i ons of J oyc e a nd C a ge t o t he r a ndom di s t r i but i on of t he l e t t e r s o f J oyc e s na m e i n t he W ak e T h r ough t he ope r a t i ons ba s e d on t a s t e t he r e i s oppor t uni t y f o r s ubj e c t i ve pl a y i n t he p r oc e dur e t hi s o f c our s e m i xe s C a ge s i nt e nt i ons i n t he pr oc e s s A l t hough l i m i t e d, t h i s oppor t uni t y a l l ow s C a ge t o e xe r c i s e s om e t r a di t i ona l poe t i c s by w hi c h I m e a n c ons i de r a t i ons of s ound, s e ns e or i m a ge N e ve r t he l e s s t he ove r a l l p r oc e dur e f unc t i ons t o gr e a t l y r e duc e i nt e nt i ona l c ont r ol of t h e t e xt bot h J oyc e s a nd C a ge s c r e a t i ng a t e xt t ha t que s t i ons r e l a t i ons be t w e e n i nt e nt i on a nd de s i gn t h r oughout t he i nt e r t e xt ua l s pa c e G l as i f i c at i on of M our ne r s F or r e a de r s o f t he W ak e t hi s i nt e r r oga t i on c ondi t i o ns t he r e a di ng of W 2 F W U ndoubt e dl y a l a r ge pe r c e nt a ge of C a ge s a udi e nc e c ons i s t s of s e r i ous W ak e r e a de r s F or t he s e r e a de r s C a ge s poe m c a n w or k l i ke a t a bl e o r a n a bys s on t he t e xt of t he W ak e a m i ni a t ur e ve r s i on o f t he W ak e s ke l e t a l pe r ha ps but not ke y l i ke or e xpl a na t or y. I t i s a n a bys s ( i n t he he r a l di c s e ns e of t he t e r m ) i n t ha t i t l ooks l i ke a m i ni a t u r e ve r s i on o f t he

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150 nove l t ha t s t a nds on or i n f r ont of t he W ak e but i s not t he W ak e i t s e l f W 2F W a l s o w or ks F i gu r e 1 : T h e f i r s t p age of C age s p oe m as i t ap p e ar s i n E m pt y W or ds

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151 l i ke a s i gna t ur e i n t ha t i t r e f e r s t o t he W ak e but ha s a m uc h m o r e a c c e l e r a t e d, s c r i bbl e d s e e m i ngl y i l l e gi bl e qua l i t y. C a ge ha s s i gne d t he W ak e i n a pe c ul i a r w a y. W hi l e C a ge s poe m m a y pr ovi de pr ovoc a t i ve r e a di ngs a nd u s e f ul i ns i ght s i nt o t he W ak e t hos e r e a di ngs a r e a l w a ys a c c om pa ni e d by que s t i ons of pr oxi m i t y r a i s i ng t he i s s ue s of m i s r e a di ng, pa r a s i t i s m a l l e gor y, e t c A ny de s i r e t o r e t ur n t o t h e pr e t e xt f or c e r t a i nt y o r t o m e a s ur e t he pr oxi m i t y of C a ge s poe m t o t h e W ak e w i l l r i n g t hr ough t he s e que s t i ons C a ge s s t a t e d a i m i s t o m ove be yond t he W ak e t o m ove b e yond J oyc e s i nt e nt i ons H ow e ve r r e a de r s a r m e d w i t h s om e unde r s t a ndi ng of t he W a k e w i l l be ha r d pr e s s e d not t o br i ng t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng, a nd i t s a s s um pt i ons c onc e r ni ng i nt e nt i ons t o be a r on C a ge s poe m T he t e xt be c om e s un l oc a t a bl e a nd t he s c e ne of r e a di ng c ons t a nt l y s hi f t s be t w e e n t he poe m a nd t he nove l a s i f one w e r e l ooki ng f or noo n a t t w o o c l oc k. O n i t s f a c e W 2F W i s a c ount e r f e i t a nd not a ve r y good one M a ybe a l a r m be l l s s houl d be pe a l i ng T hi s c oe f f i c i e nt o f unc e r t a i nt y i s e ve n gr e a t e r f o r r e a de r s w ho know of t he W ak e but don t r e a d i t W i t hout s om e ba c kgr ound, s om e gr a s p of t he p r e t e xt t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he t e xt a nd t he pr e t e xt r e m a i ns uni m p r o ve d by r e a di ng W 2F W C a ge s t e xt i s pr oba bl y f r e e s t i n t hi s s i t ua t i on: t he r e a de r l a c ks t h e ba gga ge of i nt e nt i ons t ha t a t t a c he s t o J oyc e s s i gna t ur e a nd t he W ak e A nd ye t C a ge s t e xt i s pe r ha ps m os t ha unt e d by t he W ak e unde r t he s e c ondi t i ons s i nc e t he m y s t e r y of i t s i nt e r t e xt ua l r e l a t i ons i s m a xi m i z e d. C a ge s poe m i s a f or m of t he W ak e t ha t l a c ks t he p r e s e nc e of t he W ak e T he w r i t i ng t hr ough of C a ge s poe m c a nnot be e xpl o r e d be c a us e t he W ak e i t s e l f t he i m m e di a t e t e xt ua l c ont e xt of t he poe m i s f or non r e a de r s of t he W a ke a l a c una W ha t s l e f t i s a t r a c e r y of J oyc e s na m e : i t s l i ke w a i t i ng f or a f une r a l t o pa s s a t a s t opl i ght a f une r a l t ha t

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152 i nc l ude s a t r a i n of ba nne r s r e pe a t i ng t he na m e of t he de a d. Sc or i ng t he Si gnat ur e F ur t he r m or e C a ge s t e xt i s n ot f a i t h f ul l y r e pr oduc i ng t he uni nt e nt i ona l pr oduc t i ons of t he W ak e : t he vi ol e nc e of hi s pr oc e dur e s i ns ur e s t ha t uni nt e nt i ona l a s w e l l a s i nt e nt i ona l e f f e c t s a nd s t r uc t ur e s o f t he W ak e a r e c ut a w a y. I n pa r t r e a di ng be c om e s a que s t i on of t he s ur vi va l of a n y i nt e nde d pl a y of m e a ni ng, a nd t he e f f e c t s of t hi s que s t i on a l s o e xi s t i n c om pl i m e nt a r i t y w i t h w ha t e ve r ne w e f f e c t s a nd m e a ni ngs a c c r ue f r o m C a ge s poe m T hi s c ut t i ng a nd g r a f t i ng o f f or m a l a nd c ont e nt ua l s t r uc t ur e s w or ks t o c onf us e t he s i gna t ur e poe t i c s a t s t a ke he r e t he poe t i c s of t he t w o s i gna t ur e s J oyc e s a nd C a ge s H ow c a n a ny de s i r e d pl a y o f m e a ni ng s ur vi ve t hi s m a ppi ng f r om one t e xt t o a not he r s e e m i ngl y l e s s e r s e c onda r y, pa r a s i t i c a l e ve n c ount e r f e i t t e xt ? C a ge s a t t e m pt t o s a ve t he uni nt e nt i ona l W ak e a m ount s t o a s a c r i f i c i a l e c onom y. T hr e e pa r t s o f t he s a c r i f i c e s t a nd out : 1) s om e l a r ge pa r t of J oyc e s i n t e nt i ons 2) t he m a t e r i a l i nt e gr i t y of t he pr e t e xt 3) J oyc e s s i gna t ur e i t s e l f t he l i t e r a l s i gna t ur e s ubs c r i bi ng t he t e xt i n D e r r i da s f i r s t m oda l i t y, now r e pl a c e d by C a ge s I n r e t ur n t he r e i s a m onum e nt a l i z a t i on of J oyc e s na m e i t s e r e c t i on i n t he s pi ne s of t he m e s os t i c s A f t e r t he s a c r i f i c i a l p r oc e s s w ha t s l e f t ? A r e w e ge t t i ng t he r i ght w or ds t he go od, or t he goods out o f t he W ak e ? W ha t ki nd of m e a ni ng e m e r ge s on a t t e m pt i ng t o m a ke s e ns e of C a ge s poe m ? W ha t i s pr oduc e d i n t hi s s a c r i f i c i a l e c onom y? F or e a c h of t he s e s a c r i f i c i a l e l e m e nt s t he r e a r e c e r t a i n r e m a i ns W he r e J oyc e s s ynt a x a nd t he i nt e nt i on t he r e i n a r e l os t w e ha ve C a ge s a nt i i nt e nt i on. T hi s s ubs t i t ut i on i s i nt e nt i ona l on C a ge s pa r t I t t a ke s a s i t s obj e c t t he r e m a i ns of J oyc e s i nt e nt i on: t he

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153 ha nd t ha t gr a s ps t ha t obj e c t i s C a ge s i nt e nt i ona l a nt i i nt e nt i on. N e xt r e pl a c i ng t he m a t e r i a l i nt e gr i t y of t he pr e t e xt w e ha v e t he i nt e gr i t y of C a ge s t e xt a ga i n c ons t r uc t e d or s t r ung t oge t he r out of r e m a i ns of J oyc e s t e xt T hi r d, r e pl a c i ng J oyc e s s i gna t ur e t he r e a r e i t s m onum e nt a l r e m a i ns m e s os t i c a l l y or ga ni z i ng t he poe m w i t h C a ge s ow n s i gna t ur e a ut hor i z i ng t he m onum e nt C a ge us e s J oyc e s l e t t e r s t o r e m ove J oyc e s i nt e nt i on: i t s a doubl e s i gna t ur e ; a s i f C a ge i s hol di ng J oyc e s ha n d a nd gui di ng a not he r J a m e s J oyc e ove r J oyc e s or i gi na l s i gna t ur e a nd a l l t he w a y t hr ough t he pr e t e xt l e a vi ng a de e p c ut w i t h t he l e t t e r s J A M E S J O Y C E f ur r ow e d i nt o t he t e xt A ny s t r ong r e a di ng o f t he poe m w oul d ha ve t o ke e p a l l t he s e pr oduc t i ons i n m i nd H ow doe s a gi f t r e a d? H ow doe s a m onu m e nt t o a w r i t e r of f e r i t s e l f t o be r e a d? R e a de r s f a c e a s a c r i f i c i a l e c onom y; t o w hom a r e t he s a c r i f i c i a l gi f t s t he s a c r i f i c e s t he m s e l ve s of f e r e d? B ut l e t m e i gno r e t he s e que s t i ons f or a m om e nt a nd f o r ge a he a d a s i f I know how t o r e a d t hi s poe m on i t s ow n t e r m s R e adi ng J oy c e C age f r e e L ooki ng a t t he ope ni ng s t a nz a t he f i r s t w or d i s w r ot h, w r a t hf ul o r a ngr y A r e a de r s f r us t r a t i ons w i t h C a ge ove r t hi s t e xt m a y ve r ge on w r a t h I s s om e t hi ng of t he gr ot e s que a t w or k he r e ? T he r e s i s t a nc e t o s ynt a x w hi c h C a ge ha s pr ogr a m m e d i nt o hi s m e t hodol ogy m a ke s t he ope ni ng ve r s e s e e m f r e e l y di s s oc i a t i ve i n r e l a t i on t o t he r e s t of t he t e xt e ve n on r e pe a t e d r e r e a di ng: w r ot h w i t h t w one na t ha ndJ oe T he r e s t o f t he s t a nz a r e a ds A / M a l t / j h E m / S he n. A m a l t s u gge s t s a l c ohol [ J ] hE m s ugge s t s J oyc e s ni c kna m e J i m a nd, t hus hi m s e l f S he n pr e s e nt s t he s a m e ki nd of di f f i c ul t i e s t w one pr e s e nt s I t l ooks l i ke a por t m a nt e a u w or d c om bi ni ng s he a nd he n j us t a s

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154 t w one a ppe a r s t o c om bi ne t w o a nd one S he n a l s o ha ppe ns t o be gi n w i t h a c a pi t a l l e t t e r a s i f i t w e r e a pr ope r na m e or t he be g i nni ng of a s e nt e nc e B ut t hi s c oul d be c ha nc e be c a us e a qui c k s c a n of t he poe m ( or ha vi n g r e a d C a ge s r e m a r ks on m e s os t i c r ul e s ) s how s t ha t onl y t he l e t t e r s i n t he m e s os t i c s t r i ngs ge t c a pi t a l i z e d; t he r e f or e t he c a pi t a l i z a t i on of S he n c oul d be m e r e c ha nc e ( A s i t ha ppe ns i t i s c a pi t a l i z e d i n t he W ak e a s i s J he m ) S e t t i ng a s i de t w one a nd S he n w i t h t he i r l e xi c a l di f f i c ul t i e s f or t he m om e nt t he r e s t of t he s t a nz a s e e m s t o ha ve t o do w i t h a ng e r a nd dr unke nne s s R e s uppl yi ng s om e s ynt a x a nd t uggi ng on t he w or ds a bi t gi ve s s o m e t hi ng l i ke t hi s : A ngr y w i t h N a t ha n a nd J oe a dr unke n J i m . ( S h e n? ) H ow doe s t he s e ns e of i t pr oc e e d? I s i t m e r e l y noi s e s e ns e l e s s ne s s m a ni f e s t i ng i t s e l f a s s uc h? C a ge di d s a y r oughl y t e n ye a r s e a r l i e r t ha t h e ha d not ye t pr oduc e d noi s e out of l a n gua ge ( a s i f t he r e w e r e n t pl e nt y t he r e a l r e a dy) a s a m e a ns of m a ki ng s om e t hi ng di f f e r e nt out of l a ngua ge ( C a ge & C ha r l e s 113) Y e t e ve n i f i t c a n be t hought of a s noi s e w e s e e m t o ha ve t he be gi nni ng o f a s e nt e nc e w hi c h s ugge s t s t ha t s om e s or t o f c l os ur e a t t he l e ve l o f t he s e nt e nc e m a y l i e a he a d. P r oc e e di ng on t he a s s um pt i on t ha t t he s e c ond s t a nz a c onc e a l s or c ont a i ns a c ont i nua t i on of t hi s s e nt e nc e w e ha ve t he s e w or ds t o w or k w i t h: pf t J s c hut e / s O l i d m a n / t ha t t he hum pt Y hi l l he a d o f hum s e l f / i s a t t he kno C k out / i n t h E pa r k T he w onde r f ul w or d pf t J s c hut e i m m e di a t e l y s uppl i e s us w i t h a pr e di c a t e f or t he noun J i m o f t he pr e vi ous s t a nz a : J i m s hoot s [ S ] O l i d m a n l ooks l i ke a s qui nt i ng m odi f i e r a ppos i ng e i t he r J i m or i r oni c a l l y, t he hum pt y du m pt y knoc k e d out i n t he pa r k A s e nt e nc e s e e m s

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155 t o be l a t e nt i n t he l i ne s : A ngr y w i t h N a t ha n a nd J o e a dr unke n J i m s hoot s H um pt y D um pt y, t he s ol i d m a n, i n t he pa r k. W ha t ha s ha ppe ne d? I f a r e a de r w a nt s s e nt e nc e c l os ur e out of C a ge s poe m s he doe s n t ha ve t o w or k t oo ha r d t o ge t i t C a ge t ook out J oyc e s s ynt a x, but C a ge s r e a de r s c a n put s ynt a x ba c k i nt o t he poe m B ut w ho a ut hor i z e s t hi s r e a di ng? O nl y t he r e a de r ? A f t e r a l l t he c ut t i ng a nd pr uni ng C a ge s poe m c a r r i e s out on t he pr e t e xt t he r e a de r i s l e f t out on a l i m b. R e t ur ni ng s e nt e nc e s ynt a x t o t he t e x t doe s not ge t ba c k t o t he or i gi na l m e a ni ng of t he t e xt I f t he r e a de r f or w ha t e ve r r e a s on, w i s he s t o ge t ba c k t o J oyc e s i nt e nt i on, t he n C a ge s poe m s e e m s m or e l i ke m a r k e t i ng: t he f u l l ve r s i on i s r e a di l y a va i l a bl e i n t he ha ndi e s t c opy o f t he W ak e S t a yi ng w i t h C a ge s poe m how e ve r m e a ns s e pa r a t i ng one s e l f t e xt ua l l y f r o m J oyc e but not c o m pl e t e l y. T he r e i s s t i l l pl e nt y o f J oyc e s s i gna t ur e t o be ha d a nd p l e nt y of J oyc e s i nt e nt i on w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he W ak e P l e nt y, but i s i t e nough? W oul d i n t e nt i on f o r m a l i m i t of t he s i gna t ur e ? T he bounda r y be t w e e n J oyc e s s i gna t ur e a nd C a ge s be c om e s t he hi nge of r e a di ng. J oy c e C age : t he J C e f f e c t I n t he i n t r oduc t i on t o hi s book X C a ge m a ke s t hi s r e m a r k c onc e r ni ng hi s poe m s c ons t r uc t e d out of t he W ak e : Y e a r s a go i n a r e vi e w of S i l e nc e A l f r e d F r a nke ns t e i n w r ot e t ha t m y w r i t i ngs w e r e t he s t or y of how a c ha nge of m i nd c a m e a bout F r om t he be gi nni ng i n t he l a t e 30s I ha ve be e n m or e i nt e r e s t e d i n e xe m pl i f i c a t i on t ha n i n e x pl a na t i on, a nd s o I ha ve m o r e a nd m o r e w r i t t e n m y t e xt s i n t he s a m e w a y I w r i t e m y m us i c a nd m a ke m y pr i n t s t hr ough t he us e of c ha nc e ope r a t i ons a nd by t a ki ng t he a s ki ng of que s t i ons r a t he r t ha n t he m a ki ng of c hoi c e s a s m y pe r s ona l r e s pons i bi l i t y. O r you m i gh t s a y t ha t I a m de vot e d t o f r e e i ng m y w r i t i ng f r om m y i nt e nt i o ns a nd s o, i n t hos e c a s e s l i ke t he w r i t i ngs t hr ough J oyc e s F i nne gans W ak e a nd T he C ant os of E z r a P ound i nc l ude d i n t hi s book i n w hi c h c ha n c e pl a ys no pa r t I

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156 m e r e l y f ol l ow t he r o l l i ng o f a m e t a l ba l l ( t he na m e of t he a ut hor t hr ough hi s w or k) w hi c h s e r ve s t o f r e e m e a nd t he r e a de r n ot onl y o f m y i nt e nt i ons but a l s o of t hos e of J oyc e a nd P ound I a m c onf i de nt how e ve r a nd s om e f r i e nds s uppor t t hi s v i e w t ha t J oyc e w oul d ha ve b e e n de l i ght e d by w ha t ha ppe ns w he n i nt e nt i on i s r e m ove d f r om t he W ak e . . ( x) C a ge s l a s t s e nt e nc e he r e i s unf or t una t e be c a us e i t ne e ds t o be qua l i f i e d. H e ha s n t r e m ove d i nt e nt i on f r om t he W a ke ; he has ( i nt e nt i o na l l y) a l l ow e d noni nt e nt i on t o a l t e r t he t e xt T hi s o pe r a t i on o r e c onom y doe s not ne c e s s a r i l y do a w a y w i t h i nt e nt i on i n t he t e xt e ve n w he n i t r e m ove s s ynt a x e nt i r e l y. I t doe s a l l o w i nt e nt i on a nd no ni nt e nt i on t o i nt e r pe ne t r a t e F u r t he r m o r e i t i s not qui t e t r ue t ha t c ha nc e pl a ys no pa r t i n t he c om pos i t i on o f t he poe m A s I ha ve i m pl i e d a bove t he p l a c e m e nt of t he l e t t e r s of J oyc e s na m e i n t he W ak e w a s uni nt e nt i ona l a nd, he nc e b y c ha nc e A c t ua l l y C a ge a ddr e s s e s t hi s s pe a ki ng of a di f f e r e nt poe m of m e s os t i c s on J oyc e s na m e w hi c h he w r ot e a l s o c ut f r om F i nne gans W ak e e nt i t l e d 7 out o f 23 : I n s uc h a c a s e m y w or k w a s m e r e l y t o s how by gi vi ng i t a f i ve l i ne s t r uc t ur e t he r e l a t i on o f J oyc e s t e xt t o hi s na m e a r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t w a s s ur e l y i n t he s e i ns t a nc e s not i n hi s m i nd, t hough a t m a ny poi nt s a s A da l i n e G l a s he e n c he e r f ul l y l i s t s hi s na m e w a s i n hi s m i nd, a l one or i n c om bi na t i on w i t h a not he r na m e f or e xa m pl e poo r j oi s t ( pa ge 113) a nd j oys i s c r i s i s ( pa ge 395) ( E m pt y W or ds 136) S ur e l y i n s om e s e ns e J oyc e w a s n t w a t c hi ng t he l e t t e r s of hi s na m e b ubbl e up t o t he s ur f a c e of hi s book P e r ha ps hi s pe r c e pt i on dur i ng t he w r i t i ng pr oc e s s di d not f or m i t s e l f a r ound t he l e t t e r s a s t he y a r r i ve d a t t he l e t t e r o f t he t e xt P e r ha ps he di d not i de nt i f y hi m s e l f w i t h t he m nor s e e k r e f uge i n t he m B ut C a ge s qua l i f i c a t i on, s ur e l y, poi nt s t o t he pr obl e m o f w he r e t o d r a w t he l i ne i n t h i s s pe c ul a t i on on J oyc e s i nve s t m e nt i n h i s ow n na m e a nd hi s s i gna t ur e T he pr obl e m of l i m ni ng t hi s i nve s t m e nt i s C a ge s a l s o. H e s put t i ng hi s ow n na m e i n c om bi na t i on w i t h J oyc e s T he j oi s t s i n C a ge s poe m f or m a c a ge out of t he j a m e s a nd t he j oyc e s ; on e ve r y pa g e t he r e a de r i s pe e pi ng t hr ough t he ba r s

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157 of j a m e s a nd j oyc e s H ow w e l l bui l t i s t hi s c a ge ? J oys i s c r i s i s dove t a i l s ne a t l y w i t h J ohn C a ge s i ni t i a l s A nd t he a r t i s t t o a r t i s t r e l a t i o n t ha t C a ge s poe m c ons t r uc t s c l e a r l y pl a ys on t he t he m e o f r e s ur r e c t i on a nd c r uc i f i xi on. T he W ak e i s a n a l l e gor y o f r e s ur r e c t i on. C a ge s poe m w oul d s a c r i f i c e J oyc e s i nt e nt i ons a nd e r e c t a m onu m e nt out of t he r e m a i ns of t he W ak e I t s a n i nve s t m e nt i n a s a c r i f i c i a l e c onom y. T ha t l i ne o f s pe c ul a t i on i s p r e c i s e l y t he m om e nt w he r e C a ge goe s t o w or k I nt e r pe ne t r a t i on i s t he ke y t r a i t o r s e e d t ha t l i e s i m m a ne nt i n t he i m a ge of t he c a ge A n e m pt y c a ge w i t h a n ope n door : t he c a ge i s t he r e t h e ne w t e xt i s t he r e but i t doe s n t i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he a c c e s s a nd e gr e s s of J oyc e a n m e m or y. C a ge w oul d e s c a pe hi s ow n s i gna t ur e t ha t i s t he s t r i c t u r e s i nhe r e nt i n a pe r s o na l s t yl e T hi s i m a ge m ode l s f o r hi s i nt e r t e xt ua l s i gni ng pr a c t i c e i e hi s s i gna t ur e i n t e r t e xt ua l i t y, e s pe c i a l l y t he w or ks t ha t us e e a r l i e r t e xt s a s c om pos i t i ona l m a t t e r I n t hi s c a s e hi s pr oj e c t r e l e a s e s J oyc e s s i gna t ur e f r om i t s t e xt c a ge i t f r e e s J oyc e s t e xt f r om hi s s i gna t ur e T hi s vi ol e nt m onum e nt a l i t y r e c om bi ne s J oyc e s t e xt a nd a s p e c t s of hi s s i gna t ur e i n a n a r b i t r a r y w a y. W hi l e J oyc e s s i gna t ur e goe s f r e e t he t e xt c a ge t h a t r e m a i ns i s c ons t r uc t e d a s i f J oyc e s na m e w e r e i t s j oi s t s T he t e xt i s r e t ur ne d t o J oyc e s na m e a nd e xc e s s i ve l y s o, a nd ye t t hi s i s a n una ut hor i z e d r e t u r n. H o w doe s t hi s e s c a pe t he i m pl i c a t i ons of C a ge s Z e n he ndi a dys I nt e r pe ne t r a t i on and N oni nt e r f e r e nc e ? T he r e t ur n on t hi s s pe c ul a t i on c oul d s ubs i di z e a n a na l ys i s of t he r e l a t i ve pos i t i ons of t he s upe r e gos of t he t w o a r t i s t s W ha t i s t he ps y c hol ogi c a l s t r uc t ur e of t he i nt e r t e xt s i n t he i r r e l a t i on t o t he s upe r e gos of t he a r t i s t s a nd t he a r t i s t s s upe r e go i n ge ne r a l ? M onum e nt a l i z a t i on i s bot h c e l e br a t i on a nd m our ni ng, l i ke a w a ke T he r e s ur r e c t i on of t he s upe r e go i n t he s upe r e gos of t h os e w ho f ol l ow be c om e s a n i t e r a t i on of

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158 t he t e xt i n C a ge s poe m I f w e us e t he i de a of t he o r de r w or d a s a ki nd of m e t r i c f or t he s upe r e go, C a ge s t e xt c a n pr oduc e i n t e r e s t i ng r e s ul t s f or t he s upe r e go. D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s f ondne s s f or C a ge s w or k c oul d p r oba bl y be i nde xe d by t he l a c k o f or de r w or ds i n m a ny o f C a ge s l a t e r w or ks O f c our s e t h a t l a c k of s ynt a c t i c a l o r de r t e nds t o r e di s t r i but e t he f unc t i ons of t he or de r w or d t o e ve r y w or d i n t he t e xt i f t he r e a r e w or ds l e f t i n t he t e xt T h i s e f f e c t c om bi ne s w i t h J oyc e s ow n c om bi na t or i c s t o gi ve us a ki nd of m ol e c ul a r r e a di ng o f J oyc e s t e xt T he w o r d s t r uc t ur e s a r e r e l i e ve d o f t he i r s ynt a c t i c a l or m ol e c ul a r bonds O n t he ot he r ha nd t he a t om i c f o r c e s w i t hi n J oyc e s w or ds t he m ol a r f or c e s i f you w i l l t he s a m e ne s s of J oyc e s pun e t i c s t he a dhe s i on w i t hi n m a ny of t he w or ds be c om e s s t r onge r T he s upe r e go c a n be r e a d, a c c or di ng t o L a c a n, di s t r i but e d t hr oughout t he s ym bol i c or de r T he O t he r i s di s t r i but e d t hr ough ou t t he or de r i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he unc ons c i ous i s s t r uc t ur e d not onl y l i ke a l a ngua ge but by l a ngua ge w he r e ve r i t c ongr e ga t e s t opol ogi c a l l y. J oyc e s w or ds t e nd t o r e s e e d t he s ym bol i c or de r w i t h ne w or de r w or ds a nd a nt i or de r w or ds a nd C a ge s poe m c e l e br a t e s t ha t m om e nt m a ki ng t he pr ot oc ol s of r e a di ng m or e di f f i c ul t t o unc ons c i ous l y e xe r c i s e T hi s m a ke s t he s upe r e go of r e a di ng a ppa r e nt i n t he di f f i c ul t y o f r e a di ng. T hi s i nt e r pe ne t r a t i on t ur ns on t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n s ynt a x a nd i nt e nt i on. S ynt a x, i n i t s i nt e r pl a y w i t h g r a m m a r m a y be t he s t r onge s t w a y t o e xe r t a ut hor i a l c ont r ol ove r t he m e a ni ng of a t e xt i s i t t he pr i m a r y ve hi c l e o f i nt e nt i on? S ynt a x c e r t a i nl y r e gul a t e s t he a c c e pt a bl e va l e nc e s of a w or d. S ynt a x, a s c ont e xt of a w or d p r i vi l e ge s c e r t a i n m e a ni ngs ove r ot he r s B ut w i t h a t e xt l i ke t he W ak e i t w oul d s e e m t ha t r e duc i ng s ynt a x w oul d ha r dl y e l i m i na t e i n t e nt i on, s i nc e t he W ak e i nve s t s s o he a vi l y a t t he l e ve l of t he w or d by

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159 vi r t ue of J oyc e s t a c t i c a l punni ng. I t m i ght be m or e us e f ul t o t hi nk of t he W ak e a s a s c e ne of r e s i s t a nc e be t w e e n t he w or d a nd t he s e nt e nc e r a t he r t ha n a s a s i m pl e ope ni ng of t he w or d w hi l e s e nt e nc e c l os ur e i s m a i nt a i ne d: o r na r r a t i ve vs t he punc e pt C a ge s poe m r e da c t s t he w hol e s c e ne by ge t t i ng r i d o f t he s ynt a x. F i nne gans W ak e i s t he e xe m pl a r y m ode r ni s t w r i t e r l y t e xt i n B a r t he s s e ns e of t he t e r m C a ge s poe m a m pl i f i e s t ha t w r i t e r l i ne s s of t he W ak e Y e t s e ve r a l ke y a s pe c t s of t he W ak e r e m a i n m or e or l e s s i nt a c t i n C a ge s r e da c t i on. F ou r s i gna t ur e e l e m e nt s of t he W ak e a p pe a r i n t he f i r s t t w o s t a nz a s of C a ge s poe m : de t ona t i on of t he w o r d, t he ba w d y, t he F a l l a nd t he r i ddl e / m ys t e r y. T he w o r d pf t s c hut e pr e t t y m uc h e nt a i l s t he s e f ou r t he m e s : t he s i x c ons e c ut i ve c ons ona nt s i n t he i r s i bi l a nc e s ound out t he de a t h r a t t l e w he t he r or a l o r a na l m a ki ng a ba w dy pl a y on t he de a t h by f a l l i ng ( H um pt y D um pt y) of hum s e l f W ho i s hum s e l f ? J oyc e s r i ddl i ng r e m a i ns pr e s e nt T he l a c k of s ynt a x, a l t hough e a s i l y r e m e di e d, e xpa nds t he s c ope of t he r i ddl e / W i s h s t r uc t ur e bui l t i nt o t he dr e a m s t yl e of t he W ak e s ut ur i ng ove r t he s ynt a x of t he pr e t e xt pr oduc i ng a n e ve n m o r e c r ypt i c c onde ns a t i on of t he W ak e s dr e a m w or k C a ge s i nt r oduc t i on t o h i s poe m a l s o r e m a r ks a t he m a t i c c om pl e x: T he pl a y of s e x a nd c hur c h a nd f ood a nd d r i nk i n a n a l l t i m e a l l s pa c e w or l d t ur ne d f a m i l y w a s not onl y r e ga l i ng: i t J oyc e d m e ( E m pt y 13 6 ) I t w a s J oyc e s i nt e nt i on t o J oyc e hi s r e a de r s a nd C a ge s poe m doe s n t r e l i e ve t he r e m a i ns of J oyc e s t e xt of t hi s i nt e nt i on. A s a r e a de r of hi s ow n poe m C a ge c om e s t o i t a l r e a dy J oyc e d, t he pr oc e s s of c om pos i t i on ha vi ng be e n a not he r j oyc i ng. L i ke w i s e r e a de r s of t he W a k e w i l l r e c ogni z e i n W 2 F W J oyc e s w or dw or k, c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on a nd c ha r a c t e r s pl ot s t r uc t ur e s e nc yc l ope di c e l e m e nt s e t c I n s hor t t he y w i l l r e c ogni z e t he W ak e O n t he ot he r h a nd, t hos e w ho don t r e a d t he W ak e

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160 w i l l unde r s t a nd t ha t t he W ak e i s t he pr e t e xt ; t he y w i l l f i nd pl e nt y o f m e a ni ng e f f e c t s t o a t t r i but e t o J oyc e i f t he y w i s h. A t t he s a m e t i m e bot h s ubs e t s of r e a de r s w i l l be a d di ng a ne w e l e m e nt t o t ha t r e a di ng: J oyc e s pr ope r na m e a ppe a r s ve r t i c a l l y r o ughl y 300 t i m e s i n C a ge s poe m T hi s r e pe t i t i on w or ks l i ke a c onc r e t e poe m T he vi s ua l r e pe t i t i on f or c e s a doubl e r e a di ng. W hi l e t r yi ng t o r e a d w ha t s l e f t of t he W ak e t he r e a de r a l s o s e e s i n t he t e xt t he w or ds J a m e s J oy c e be i ng r e pe a t e d c ons t a nt l y. T hi s v i s ua l e f f e c t i s he a r d i n t he ba c kgr ound of t he s t a nda r d r e a di ng T he e f f e c t i s s om e t hi ng l i ke t ha t of a m a nt r a I t i s t he s ound of J oyc e s s i gna t ur e I t i s no l onge r J oyc e s s i gna t ur e but r a t he r C a ge s oundi ng t he l e t t e r s C ol os s al W r i t i ng W ha t r ol e doe s t hi s m a nt r a l i ke c onc r e t e s t r uc t u r e pl a y i n t he poe m s e c onom y of r e a di ng? V i s ua l l y t he pr e s e nt a t i on i s not s i m pl y a m a nt r a but a m a nt r a w r a ppe d i n c ut t i ngs f r om t he pr e t e xt T he na m e i t s e l f ge t s ve r t i c a l bi l l i ng w hi l e t he t e r m s i t s e l e c t s f r om t he pr e t e xt a l ong w i t h t he t e r m s C a ge e l e c t s ge t ho r i z ont a l p r e s e nt a t i on. T h i s f e t i s hi z a t i on r e s ul t s f r om a s ubs t i t ut i on. S ynt a c t i c a l s t r uc t ur e s a r e l a r ge l y r e m ove d a nd i ns t e a d w e a r e gi ve n t he m e s os t i c s pi ne J A M E S J O Y C E a s i f t he bur de n o f m e a ni ng, a nd t he w or k o f r e a di ng ha ve be gun t o s hi f t f r om t he hor i z ont a l t o t he ve r t i c a l s t r uc t ur e of t he t e xt W or ki ng i n t he a bs e nc e of s ynt a x, w he t he r t ha t l e a ds t o r e s uppl yi ng s ynt a x or s i m pl y l e t t i ng ot he r s t r uc t ur e s of t he t e xt c e nt e r t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on, t he r e a de r m us t de c i de how f a r t o go w i t h C a ge s m ove m e nt f r om ho r i z ont a l s e nt e nc e s t r uc t ur e d t e xt t o t he ve r t i c a l r e pe t i t i ve m a nt r a s t r uc t ur e W i t hout s ynt a x a nd i t s a t t e nda nt di s t r a c t i ons t he r e a di ng of t he W ak e be c om e s m uc h qui e t e r I t t a ke s a s t r ong

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161 de t e r m i na t i on t o s t a y w i t h C a ge s t e xt t o s t a y f oc u s e d on t he s oundi ng of t he na m e and t he a dum br a t i on o f t he W ak e O f c our s e t hi s i s a f e t i s hi z a t i on o f t he pr ope r na m e J a m e s J oyc e S a c r i f i c e e c onom y of l os s m ou r ni ng f or J oyc e / f a t he r / s upe r e go. C a ge ha s t a ke n on t he r ol e of J oyc e s m ot he r a s pe r D e r r i da s c a l c ul H e i s w r i t i ng t he na m e J a m e s J oyc e on a s t e l e e r e c t e d by gl ui ng up s t one s of l a ngua ge c ut out o f t he W ak e P r ot oc ol : F or ge t I t T hi nki ng m us i c a l l y a nd a c c or di ng t o t he punc e pt o f t he s i gna t ur e t he l e t t e r s of J oyc e s na m e ha ve be c om e a ke y s i gna t ur e r e nde r i ng t he W ak e a l ong t he s c a l e j a m e s j o y c e T he m a nt r a i s pe r f o r m e d i n t hi s ke y. E ve r y r e a de r w i l l be J oyc e d, i f not i n C a ge s s e ns e of t he t e r m a t l e a s t gr a phi c a l l y by C a ge s vi s ua l pr e s e nt a t i on of t he t e r m T he e c onom y of t hi s c onc r e t e s c a l e w i l l i nvol ve r e a de r s bot h m or e a nd l e s s f a m i l i a r w i t h t he W ak e C a ge ha s pr og r a m m e d t he l e t t e r s J a m e s J oyc e t o pr oduc e noni nt e nt i ona l e f f e c t s f r om t he W ak e T hi s a c t i s a ki nd of w i l l t o pow e r s pe c i f i c a l l y a w i l l t o f o r ge t t he or i gi na l i nt e nt i ons of t he W ak e O ne of D e r r i da s m os t i nt e r e s t i ng t he m e s i n G i v e n T i m e i s t he pr ob l e m a t i c c onc e pt of f o r ge t t i ng. W ha t i s i t t ha t H e i de gge r i s f or ge t t i ng w he n he w r i t e s on t he e s ge be n ? I nde e d, i t goe s w i t hout s a yi ng i n D e r r i da s t e xt t ha t t he a nt e c e de nt of e s i t i s f or got t e n. T he pr obl e m o f gi vi ng t he f o r got t e n o r i gi n of i t a nd of gi vi ng i t s e l f l i e s a t t he c or e of t he c onc e pt o f t he g i f t D e r r i da a nc hor s hi s de c ons t r uc t i on of t he gi f t i n t he pa r a dox of t he c om m ons e ns e unde r s t a ndi ng of i t : a gi f t i s f r e e w i t h no e xpe c t a t i on o f r e t ur n; ot he r w i s e i t i s not r e a l l y a gi f t B ut e c onom y, f i na nc i a l ps yc hol ogi c a l c ul t u r a l o r

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162 ot he r w i s e i s a l w a ys a bout r e t u r n l a w T he r e i s a l w a ys a n e xpe c t a t i on of r e t u r n a t t a c he d t o a gi f t T he ot he r be c om e s t he gi f t e d. G i f t s a r e e x c ha nge d. E ve n f r i e nds hi p or good f e e l i ngs a r e a f o r m o f r e t ur n. A gi f t i s ne ve r c om pl e t e l y f r e e W he n C a ge f ol l ow s a m onum e nt a l r ol l i ng ba l l t h r o ugh t he W ak e t he r e i s a l ot of m a c hi ni c f or ge t t i ng goi ng o n a s i f t o e m pha s i z e t h e c hi a s m us of gi f t a nd s a c r i f i c e F i r s t a nd f or e m os t m uc h of t he p r e t e xt i s f o r got t e n, l os t a s i f pa r t of t he t he a t e r or e i dos o f t he ur t e xt ha s va ni s he d. J C s t e xt i s onl y m i m i ng by s i l e nc i ng t he s ynt a x, J J s t e xt T h i s pr obl e m i s a l r e a dy t he m a t i c i n t he W ak e bui l t i nt o t he dr e a m m ove m e nt of t he na r r a t i ve w hi c h f or ge t s i t s e l f c ons t a nt l y a s e l e m e nt s ( w or ds na m e s e ve nt s ) a r e c ons t a nt l y di s pl a c e d a nd c onde ns e d. F or D e r r i da t he f o r ge t t i ng i nvol ve d i n t he gi f t i s bot h a bs ol ut e a nd r a di c a l C a r r yi ng out a s t r uc t ur a l a na l ys i s of t h e c onc e pt gi f t he s i f t s t h r ough s e ve r a l m ode l s of bot h ( un) c ons c i ous ne s s a nd of t he gi f t : t he pe r c e pt i on c ons c i ous ne s s of P he nom e nol ogy; F r e ud s m ode l s of t he U nc ons c i ous pa r t i c ul a r l y t he e c onom y o f r e p r e s s i on; H e i de gge r s gi v e n a s a n e s s e nt i a l knot i n t he pr obl e m of t he gi f t ; a nd a nt hr opol ogy s t he or i e s of gi f t e c onom i e s W ha t g i ve s t i m e a nd s pa c e ? D e r r i da s a na l ys i s of t he gi f t t a ke s on a de c i de dl y t e m por a l e m pha s i s t hr oughout a nd e s pe c i a l l y w he n he c om e s t o H e i de gge r D e r r i da c om e s out o f t h i s c ur ve or s w e r ve i n hi s na r r a t i ve / a na l ys i s f i r m l y gr a s pi ng t he ope ni ng he ha s f ound i n t he f or ge t t i ng r e qui r e d by t he c onc e pt of t he gi f t ( 23 ) F or t he gi f t t o e xi s t i t m us t be a bs ol ut e l y f or got t e n, f l us he d out o f t he s ym bol i c a s pe c t s of t he ps yc he i n o r de r t ha t no e c onom y c a n a t t a c h t o i t I n t h i s r e s pe c t t he c onc e pt of t he gi f t f unc t i ons l i ke a w or m hol e w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he t i m e s pa c e of e c onom y: f or a gi f t t o e xi s t i t m us t e s c a pe a ny e c onom y. T h e gi f t i s qui t e i m pos s i bl e a s D e r r i da

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163 s how s a nd ye t t hi s r e l i e ve s none o f i t s ne c e s s i t y i n our t h i nki ng. W ho c oul d g i ve up t he i de a of t he gi f t ? W he r e doe s t he f or ge t t i ng t ha t i s goi ng on i n C a ge s poe m l i e i n r e l a t i on t o t he f or ge t t i ng D e r r i da i s t he o r i z i ng? C a ge s poe t i c s i s c r a f t e d i n o r de r t o f o r ge t J oyc e s i nt e nt i on i n t he W ak e W ha t w oul d t hi s s a c r i f i c i a l e ve nt ga i n us ? T hi s f or ge t t i ng i s qui t e i m pos s i bl e a nyw a y, s i nc e s o m uc h of J oyc e s i nt e n t i on i s pr og r a m m e d i nt o t he N e w ( J oyc e a n) W or d. W ha t i s s ue s of c ont r ol a r e a t s t a k e i n t he a nt i no m y be t w e e n r oot s o f m e a ni ng i n t he ( N e w ) W or d a nd r oot s of m e a ni ng i n t he S e nt e nc e ? I t s e e m s C a ge w a nt s t o a dd a f or ge t t i ng t o t he t e xt o f F i nne gans W ak e i n s pi t e of t he pr e s e r va t i ve or s a vi ng a s pe c t of hi s pr oj e c t F or ge t s ynt a x: s a ve t he t e xt O r a r e w e l ooki ng a t a c ount e r f e i t ? A c ount e r t e xt w hi c h p r e s e r ve s m uc h of t he t e xt ua l i t y of t he pr e t e xt e s pe c i a l l y t ha t t e xt ua l i t y t ha t s ur vi ve s i n t he w or ds t he m s e l ve s of F W O n one l e ve l t he w hol e t hi ng i s s i m pl y a c ount e r s i gn or pa s s w or d by w hi c h C a ge a ddr e s s e s ot he r r e a de r s of t he W ak e I n G i v e n T i m e D e r r i da s m a i n s t r a t e gy i s t o r e m e m be r t he f o r ge t t i ng i nhe r e nt i n t he gi f t B ut t he i m pos s i bl e c ondi t i on o f t he g i f t f i g ur e s a s ym m e t r y w i t h t he c ount e r f e i t T hi s r e l a t i ons hi p gove r ns t he e c onom y of i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y. I t m i ght l ook f r e e but t he r e a r e a l w a ys s t r i ngs a t t a c he d. St ar t i ng O ut F r om Z e r o, A gai n T he t hi r d a nd f our t h s t a nz a s a nd f i r s t ve r s e of t he f i f t h s t a nz a of W 2F W d r i ve t he r e a de r ba c k i nt o t he O l d T e s t a m e nt a s t hi s c r ude gl os s of s i x of t he t w e l ve w or ds s how s : J i c c up J a c ob t he f A t he r P a t r i a r c hs t he f a t he r s of I s r a e l hE a ve n he a ve n J udge s J udge s one of t he books of t he P r ophe t s

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164 de ut e r onom y D e ut e r onom y pe nt s c ha nJ e uc hy P e nt a t e uc h, t he L a w or T or a h I f t he f i r s t t w o s t a nz a s t he m a t i z e t he f a l l t he ne xt t w o c onde ns e i n t he s e ns e of dr e a m w or k, t he P e nt a t e uc h, o r f i ve s c r ol l s t ha t c om pr i s e t he be gi nni ng o f t he O l d T e s t a m e nt S t a nz a s t hr e e f our a nd f i ve a l s o l ook f or w a r d f r om t he P e nt a t e uc h, t o J udge s a l i t t l e f ur t he r i nt o t he O l d T e s t a m e nt t o he a ve n, a N e w T e s t a m e nt i de a a nd t o t he c onc e pt of t he f ut ur e i t s e l f i n w a t s C h / f ut u r E of t he f ou r t h s t a nz a T hi s m e t onym i c br e a dt h r e i nf o r c e s t he a l l t i m e a l l s pa c e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he W ak e t ha t j oyc e s C a ge R e a de r s of t he W ak e w i l l a l s o r e c ogni z e i n J i c c up one of t he t w i ns H C E s s ons w ho pl a y t he i r r ol e i n t he w or l d t ur ne d f a m i l y a s C a ge de s c r i be s t he W ak e ( 136) T he na m e s J a c ob a nd E s a u oc c a s i ona l l y r e c ur i n t h e W a ke s t a nd i ns f or S he m a nd S ha un. C a ge s f i r s t s t a nz a a l r e a dy e voke s t hi s pa i r i n j hE m a nd S he n. T hus i n t he f i r s t f ou r s t a nz a s of C a ge s poe m J oyc e a n s t r uc t ur e a nd i nt e nt i on e xe r t s i t s e l f i n w a ys c l e a r l y r e c ogni z a bl e t o t hos e f a m i l i a r w i t h t he W ak e R e a de r s unf a m i l i a r w i t h t he W ak e w i l l r e m a i n f r e e o f t ha t W ak e an i nt e r t e xt ua l ba l l a s t T he y a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o e s c a pe t he O l d T e s t a m e nt ba l l a s t A br oga t i on of s ynt a x, C a ge s m e t hod, f o r e gr ounds i s s ue s of na r r a t i ve W ho c ont r ol s t he na r r a t i ve ? P l e nt y r e m a i ns of t he na r r a t i ng voi c e ( s ) f r om F i nne gans W ak e C a ge s voi c e i s he a r d i n t he a bs e nt s ynt a x or t he m us i c of t he W ak e t ha t r e m a i ns a f t e r t he s c or i ng c a r r i e d out i n t he poe m N e ve r t he l e s s t he poe m put s na r r a t i ve unde r e r a s ur e pr oduc i ng a ba r r e d f o r m o f t he t e xt T he na r r a t i ve ha s s pr e a d out i nt o t h r e e s c e ne s : t he or i gi na l s c e ne of t he ur t e xt ( c ha r a c t e r i z e d by J oyc e s s ynt a x) t he s c e ne of t he poe m ( w hi c h l a c ks s ynt a x) a nd t he s c e ne of r e a di ng, w h e r e i n t he r e a de r m a y r e s uppl y s ynt a x a nd na r r a t i ve s t r uc t ur e i n o r de r t o r e a d t hr ough t he ba r s of C a ge s t e xt T he s t r uc t ur e of

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165 de s i r e i nhe r e nt i n r e a di ng i s de c ons t r uc t e d. W ha t i s r e a di ng i n t he pos s i bl e a bs e nc e of na r r a t i ve ? S pa c e of t he m ons t r ous : C a ge s ope r a t i on e xc i s e s e a s e of na r r a t i on. S ynt a x s i nt a l ks a s C a ge quot e s J oyc e i s t he s t r u c t ur a l g l ue of na r r a t i on. I n or de r t o s a y, t hi s ha ppe ne d, t he n t hi s ha ppe ne d, t he n t hi s ha ppe ne d, s ynt a x i s r e qui r e d. T o s uppr e s s s ynt a x i s m ons t r ous T he m ons t r ous a bs e nc e of t he s t or yl i ne s ol i c i t s t he r e a de r w ho m us t t r us t hi s ow n na r r a t i ng i de nt i t y a l one t o ( r e ) pr odu c e na r r a t i ve T he di s t a nc e i n t he ga p be t w e e n J oyc e / C a ge a nd t he r e a de r s t r e t c he s t o a n i nf i ni t y a c r os s t hi s l os s of c onne c t i on. T he s t or y m us t be r e t ol d i n t he di s s ona nt na r r a t i ve s pa c e of s i gna t ur e j e a l ous y: w hos e s i gna t ur e doe s t he r e a d e r m os t na t u r a l l y gua r d? T h i s i nt e r t e xt ua l s c e ne pl a c e s t hr e e s i gna t ur e s m os t pr om i ne nt l y a t s t a ke : J oyc e s C a ge s a nd t he r e a de r s T he r e l a t i ve t r a j e c t or i e s a r e a l l c l i na m e ns T he y w i l l s w e r ve on t he i r ow n. J oyc e s na m e c om e s e r e c t i n C a ge s poe m B ut i t s not t he onl y s uc h e r e c t i on of t ha t na m e T he m ons t r ous na t ur e o f t he s i gna t ur e a l s o ope ns t he pos s i bi l i t y of t he gi f t T ha t pos s i bi l i t y ope ns l i ke a c a ge C a ge ha s l e t J oyc e s t e xt out of t he c a ge of s ynt a x. C a ge s gi f t i s t he c a ge : i t ope ns t he a po r e t i c s pa c e be t w e e n t he i de a of g i f t a nd e xc ha nge e c onom y r e t ur n t e r m t i m e m e t r i c c a pi t a l e t c T hi s a bys s of s pe c ul a t i on, i nt o w hi c h w e m us t pl unge e nga ge f a l l s t r uggl e a c t s a s a c l oud c ha m be r of t he s upe r e go. T he t r a i l s o f c l ouds t r a i t s t r a c e s a nd m a r ks r e c or d t he c ha os of m ove m e nt T he s ha dow of t he s upe r e go, i t s e vi l t w i n, i t s obs c e ne di s c our s e of pow e r i s m a ppe d i n t he W ak e a nd i n C a ge s poe m T he W ak e i s of c ou r s e ve r y m uc h a n a bys s a nd i nt e r t e xt on t he F a t he r f i gur e m a ppi ng i t s r e l a t i on t o a nd i nt e r s e c t i on w i t h t he a r t i s t us i ng popul a r c ul t ur e a nd

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166 hi s t or y a s pr e t e xt s t o be e xc e e de d. I t s e xc e s s e s pa r ody i t s e l f a s a t e xt f i r s t a s a n a t t e m pt a t hi s t or y. T he D oubl e J oy nt e d J J T r yi ng t o r e a d a nd r e r e a d t he poe m i s r e duc e d t o s e a r c hi ng f or t he a bys s t he pr ot oc ol f o r r e a di ng F o r i ns t a nc e one be gi ns t o no t i c e t ha t t he J w o r ds of t e n r e s ona t e or pl a y on J a m e s J oyc e O ne c oul d r e a d t h r ough t h e poe m t o l i s t t he J w or ds w i t h t he i de a of l ooki ng f or w or ds t ha t J oyc e w oul d c l e a r l y ha ve a s s oc i a t e d w i t h or de r i ve d f r om hi s s i gna t ur e A l t hough C l i ve H a r t s c onc or da nc e f o r t he W ak e w oul d gi ve us al l t he w or ds be gi nni ng w i t h J w hi l e t he poe m doe s not t he poe m doe s s i ngl e out s om e J w or ds w hi c h ha ve J f or a noni ni t i a l l e t t e r F or e xa m pl e s t he r e i J ypt ( 154) a nd i nt e r J oke d ( 163) T he poe m a l s o gi ve s us J J f r om pa ge 83 of t he W ak e ( 145) a s doe s t he c onc or da nc e but t he poe m goe s a s t e p f a r t he r t ha n t he c onc or da nc e i n t hi s c a s e s uppl yi ng t he ne a r by s i gna t ur e pun, ga Y ga y ( 145) S c a nni ng t he J w o r ds i t qui c kl y be c om e s a ppa r e nt t ha t t he r e a r e m o r e w or ds w i t h J a s t he i ni t i a l l e t t e r t ha n t he r e a r e w or ds w i t h j a s a noni ni t i a l l e t t e r T he r a t i o i s s om e t hi ng l i ke t w o o r t h r e e t o o ne I s t ha t a s t r ue o f ( t he ) l a ngua ge a s i t i s of t he poe m a nd, pr e s um a bl y, t he nove l ? T he po e m a l s o l oc a t e s s om e w or ds c ont a i ni ng t w o J s : J a pi j a p ( 141) J oue j ous ( 143) r e J a ne yj a i l e y ( 144) z i J nz i j n z i j nz i j n ( 145) J ui c e j e l l y ( 152) J i gj a gge d ( 153) j i m j a m s 2 6 ( 154) J ogj oy ( 158) J um bj ube s ( 160 ) B e c a us e t he s e w or ds c a r r y t he doub l e J t he y w oul d be i m por t a nt f o r a s i gna t ur e r e a di ng of J J 2 6 N o t a s p i n e w o r d b u t h a r d t o m i s s w h e n s c a n n i n g f o r J J w o r d s : b l a c k m a s s o f J i g s a n d j i m j a m s h a u n t e d b y

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167 B ut C a ge ha s a l s o j oi ne d hi s s i gna t ur e w i t h J oyc e s O r a t l e a s t he f ound t hi s j oynt i n t he W ak e doubl i ng a nd dubl i n dow n i n t he a bys s Sy nt ax R e t ur n R e r e a di ng t he l ong poe m i t a l s o be c om e s a ppa r e nt t ha t s om e of t he m e s os t i c s s e e m t o w or k be t t e r t ha n ot he r s W hi l e s t a nz a s ( m e s os t i c s ) t hr e e f our f i ve a nd s i x ( t he r e m a i nde r of poe m s ope ni ng pa ge ) a l l s ound bi bl i c a l l y r oot e d, a nd t hus uni f i e d, a l l t he pr e c e di ng m e s os t i c s pa l e w he n c om pa r e d w i t h t he f i r s t m e s os t i c t a ke n f r o m pa ge 27 of t he W ak e : you w e r e t he doubl e J oynt e d j A ni t or t he M or ni ng t h E y w e r e de l i ve r e d a nd you l l be a gr a nd f e r w he n t he r i t e ha nd S e i z e s w ha t t he l ove a r m know s T hi s i s a s ynt a c t i c a l l y w e l l m a de s e nt e nc e I s i t a J oyc e a n s e nt e nc e t ha t ha s s ur vi ve d t he C a ge a n m e t hod? C a ge c hos e e i ght e e n of t he t w e nt y t hr e e w or ds t he one s not c hos e n by t he l e t t e r s i n J a m e s H e nc e i n t hi s m e s os t i c C a ge c hoos e s e i t he r t o m a i nt a i n o r c ons t r uc t t he s ynt a x. ( R e a d t hi s e ndnot e i f you w o ul d l i ke t hi s a m bi gu i t y r e s ol ve d now i F or t he s a ke of s pe c ul a t i on, I w i t hhol d t he r e s ol ut i on a s hor t t i m e ) U nl i ke m os t of t he m e s os t i c s i n C a ge s poe m t he c a de nc e of t hi s s t a n z a c l e a r l y i m pl i e s s e nt e nc e s t r uc t ur e O r de r w or ds f l ow t r i ppi ngl y ove r t he r hyt hm of t h e s ynt a x. A na r r a t or s pe a ks di r e c t l y t o a n a ddr e s s e e B ut by t he e nd of t he s t a nz a t hi s bor de r of i de nt i t y i s w r e s t l i ng w i t h i t s e l f a s t he c o f i gur a t i on of na r r a t or / a ddr e s s e e m or phs i nt o t he i m a ge o f c opul a t i ve or m a s t ur ba t or y a r m w r e s t l i ng a m i d t he us ua l W ak e a n w e l t e r of de not a t i ve r e f e r e nc e s T he r hyt hm of M a t t he w 6: 3 s t a nds out : w he n gi v i ng a l m s l e t not t hy l e f t ha nd know w ha t

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168 t hy r i ght ha nd doe t h. C a ge s / ( J oyc e s ? ) pa r ody l o s e s t he pe r s ona l r e f e r e nc e of t he bi bl i c a l phr a s e : t hy ha nds ha ve be c om e t he ha nds I n t hi s m ove m e nt f r om t he pe r s ona l t o t he ge ne r a l t he s ubj e c t of e nunc i a t i on c a n be r e a d i nt o t he s ubj e c t of t he s t a t e m e nt : t he na r r a t or ha s be c om e t he r i t e ha nd a nd t he s i l e nt l ove a r m of t he doubl e J oynt e d j a ni t or m a y a c t ua l l y be l ong t o t he na r r a t or a s w e l l T he p r opr i e t y of r i t e ne s s ( r i t e s r i gh t s w r i t e s ) s t a nds i n i r on i c ye t c om pl e m e nt a r y c ont r a di s t i nc t i on t o t he ba w dy i m pr op r i e t y of t he l ove a r m s pr i va t e know l e dge A l l of w hi c h pr e c i s e l y f i gu r e s t he dupl i c i t ous s t r uc t ur e of t he s upe r e go. I n F r e ud s l a t e t opol ogy ( i d, e go, s upe r e go) t he s upe r e go c o m e s t o be de f i ne d a s a m or a l a ge nc y w hi c h j udge s a nd c e ns ur e s t he e go, a s i f i t w e r e t h e c ons c i e nc e of t he ps yc he O r di na r i l y i t s i nc e pt i on oc c ur s w i t h t he i nt e r i o r i z a t i on of pa r e nt a l a ut hor i t y L a c a n s w or k on t hi s he a di ng e xpos e s t he da r ke r a s pe c t s of t hi s a ge nc y. H i s f i r s t m a j or m ove i s t o i de nt i f y t he s upe r e go w i t h t he s ym bol i c o r de r a s oppos e d t o t h e i m a gi na r y or de r ; i t ha s t o do w i t h l a ngua ge a nd s pe e c h. I n t ha t i t ha s t o do w i t h t he L a w t he s upe r e go s houl d be i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he s ym bol i c o r de r i t s e l f s i nc e t hi s i s f or L a c a n ( f ol l ow i ng L vi S t r a us s ) t he l i ngui s t i c or de r w he r e i n ki ns hi p r ul e s a nd r e gul a t i o ns a r e e nc ode d. A s s uc h, t he s upe r e go s e s s e n t i a l s t r uc t ur e t a ke s t he f or m o f a n i m pe r a t i ve : t he O e di pa l pr ohi bi t i on L a c a n e m pha s i z e s t he t yr a nni c a l a nd s e ns e l e s s c ha r a c t e r of t hi s f o r c e w hi c h i nt e gr a t e s a nd r e gul a t e s s ubj e c t i vi t y. S e ns e l e s s : i n t he ga ps o f t he s ubj e c t s know l e dge i t pr oc e e ds t o c o m m a nd a nyw a y, de s t r uc t i ve l y m i s i nt e r pr e t i ng t he L a w T he pr ohi bi t i on not t o e nj oy ( t he pl e a s ur e pr i nc i pl e ) ge t s i nve r t e d T he c om m a n d of t he obs c e ne s upe r e go be c om e s E nj oy! a s Z i z e k i s c ons t a nt l y poi nt i ng out T hi s c om m a nd c om e s f r om t he O t he r i n t ha t i t c om e s f r om t he s ym bol i c or de r

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169 C a ge s doubl e J oynt e d m e s os t i c ope ns on t he s e a s p e c t s of t he s ym bol i c o r de r R ol a nd M c H ugh s A nnot at i ons t o F i nne gans W ak e gi ve s t he pun p r oge ni t or f or j a ni t or B a c k on t he s i gna t ur e e dge of t hi s i s s ue i s t he que s t i on o f t he or i g i n of t hi s s ynt a x; i s i t J J or J C ? A nd i s i t J C or J C ? O bvi ous l y C a ge a ppr ove d i t A nd obvi ous l y i t e c hoe s t he S e r m on on t he M ount F o r t he r e a de r t he que s t i on s w e r ve s t hr ough t he i s s ue t o t he pr a gm a t i c s of r e a di ng S houl d s he r e a d o r a t l e a s t de s i r e t o r e a d J oyc e ? O r c a n s he r e a d w i t hout t he know l e dge o f w ha t t he l ove a r m know s W ho i s t he j a ni t or i n t hi s e c onom y of de l i ve r y a nd t e m por a l di s l oc a t i on, m ovi ng f r om pa s t t e ns e t o f ut ur e t e ns e ? T he c e ns or f unc t i on of t he s upe r e go o f t he r e a de r i s ve r y m uc h i n pl a y a nd not i ndi s t i nc t f r om t he f r e e i ndi r e c t di s c our s e m ode l e d by t he poe m a s i t s ki ps a nd m ove s di s c ont i nuous l y a l ong t he a l r e a dy c ont i nuous l y va r i a bl e r e s t r uc t ur a t i on of di s c our s e w i t hi n t he W ak e S ur e l y C a ge di d no t c e ns or J oyc e s s ynt a x i n t he f i na l ve r s e of t he s t a nz a W ha t a c oi nc i de nc e i f t he a bs t r a c t m a c hi ne o f C a ge s r ol l i ng ba l l i n a l l i t s di a gr a m m a t i c f unc t i ona l i t y, pl ops i t s e l f r i ght ba c k on t o t he t r a c ks of J oyc e s s ynt a x f o r t he l e ngt h of a n e nt i r e m e s os t i c I f t hi s i s t he c a s e t he na m e J A M E S ha s s pe l l e d out t he l e t t e r of J oyc e s s ynt a x. T he a bs t r a c t m a c hi ne ha s doubl e bound J o yc e s i nt e nt i ons a t bot h t he l e ve l of s ynt a x a nd a t t he l e ve l of t he w or d B ot h a r e s a ve d, gi ve n ba c k t o t he r e a de r w i t h C a ge s a ppr ova l i f not hi s ow n a c t of c ount e r f e i t i n g, i n t he pe r f or m a nc e s pa c e of t he w i ng w or ds T he r e pr oduc t i ve i m a ge r y o f t he s t a nz a r e m a i ns s i l e nt i n t he e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l s hr oud of w ha t t he l ove a r m know s w hi c h i s a pa s s w or d, a n une xpe c t e d i nve r s i on of a n or de r w or d, t o a bi ge nde r e d r e a di ng f o r bot h ha nd a nd l ove a r m G r a ndf e r puns t o gr a nd

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170 f ur f r om g r a ndf a t he r a t l e a s t G r a ndf e r c oul d a l s o pa s s t o gr a ndm ot he r by w a y o f t he ge ni t a l i c i m a ge r y, t he f e t i s h f ur t ha t m i gh t doubl e f or t he m o t he r s m i s s i ng pha l l us A t t he s a m e t i m e s t a yi ng w i t hi n C a ge s t e xt m e a ns not know i ng w he t he r t he s ynt a x of t he s t a nz a or i gi na t e s w i t h J oyc e L e t s l e a ve t he c a ge ; i t i s J oyc e s s ynt a x. T h i s m e s os t i c i s J oyc e s s e nt e nc e m i s s i ng j us t t w o w or ds B y c ha n c e C onc l us i on: R ol l i ng D oubl e s T hi s doubl e J oynt e d m e s os t i c c oul d be t he a bys s of C a ge s poe m H e i n t e nt i ona l l y put i t t he r e I t c om bi ne s t he J J a nd t he J C e f f e c t s B e c a us e i t i s c onc e r ne d w i t h pr oge ny, c l e a ni ng ( t he t oi l e t f or t he de a d? f une r a l r i t e s ? ) a n d gr a ndf a t he r i ng i t s e e m s t o pr o f f e r s om e ki nd of pa t e r na l c a l c ul or c l a c ki ng. C a ge s poe m i s J J s gr a nds on. T he r i t e ha nd a nd t he l ove a r m c oul d f i gur e f or C a ge s s e i z ur e of J oy c e s na m e t o w r i t e t he poe m t hr ough F i nne gans W ak e B e c a us e J e s us t e xt i s a l s o i n pl a y, w e c oul d a l s o r e a d t he ope n c r ypt s t o ne r ol l e d a w a y. A l l t hr e e s i gna t ur e s w i l l ha ve t a ke n of f t hr ough a p r oc e s s of doubl i ng a f t e r C a ge ha s c l e a ne d up t he J oyc e a n c r ypt i A s i t ha ppe ns C a ge i s m a i nt a i ni ng J oyc e s s ynt a x a l m os t pe r f e c t l y. H e r e i s J oyc e s s e nt e nc e : Y ou w e r e t he doubl e j oynt e d j a ni t or t he m or ni ng t he y w e r e de l i ve r e d a nd you l l be t he gr a ndf e r ye t e nt i r e l y w he n t he r i t e ha n d s e i z e s w ha t t he l ove a r m know s ( F i nne gans 27) C a ge l e f t out t he w or ds ye t e nt i r e l y.

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171 W or ks C i t e d C age and C unni ngham D i r E l i ot C a pl a n. K ul t u r V i de o, 1995. C a ge J ohn. I V I C a m br i dge M A : H a r va r d U P 19 9 0. A ut obi og r a phi c a l S t a t e m e nt Sout hw e s t R e v i e w 76 ( 1991) : 59 76 . C om pos i t i on i n R e t r os pe c t C a m br i dge M A : E xa c t C ha nge 1993 . E m pt y W or ds : W r i t i ngs 73 78 M i ddl e t ow n, C T : W e s l e ya n U P 1979 . J ohn C age : W r i t e r : P r e v i ous l y U nc ol l e c t e d P i e c e s E d. R i c ha r d K os t e l a ne t z N e w Y or k: L i m e l i ght 1993. M : W r i t i ngs 67 72 M i ddl e t ow n, C T : W e s l e ya n U P 1973 . Si l e nc e M i ddl e t ow n, C T : W e s l e ya n U P 1961 . A Y e ar F r om M onday M i ddl e t ow n, C T : W e s l e ya n U P 1967 . X : W r i t i ngs 79 82 M i ddl e t ow n, C T : W e s l e ya n U P 1983 C a ge J ohn a nd D a ni e l C ha r l e s F or t he B i r ds : J ohn C age i n C onv e r s at i on w i t h D ani e l C har l e s B os t on: M a r i on B oya r s 1981. B e di e nt C a l vi n. S e nt e nc i ng E r os Sal m agundi 9 7 ( 1993) : 169 81 B r ow n D a vi ds on, T e r r i T he B e l a bor e d S c e ne t h e S ubt l e s t D e t a i l : H ow C r a f t A f f e c t s H e a t i n t he P oe t r y of S ha r on O l ds a nd S a nd r a M c P he r s on. T he H ol l i ns C r i t i c 29. 1 ( 1992 ) : 1 10. D e M a n, P a ul T he R he t or i c of R om ant i c i s m N Y : C ol um bi a U P 1984 D e l e uz e G i l l e s T he F ol d: L e i bni z and t he B ar oqu e T r a ns T o m C onl e y. M i nne a pol i s : U of M i nne s ot a P 199 3. D e l e uz e G i l l e s a nd F e l i x G ua t t a r i A T hous and P l at e aus : C api t al i s m and Sc hi z ophr e ni a T r a ns B r i a n M a s s um i M i nne a pol i s : U M i nne s ot a P 1987 D e r r i da J a c que s C i nde r s T r a ns a nd e d. N e d L uk a c he r L i nc ol n: U o f N e br a s ka P 1991 . T he E ar o f t he O t he r : O t obi ogr aphy T r ans f e r e nc e T r ans l at i on: T e x t s and D i s c us s i ons w i t h J ac que s D e r r i da T r a ns P e ggy K a m uf a nd A vi t a l R one l l E d. C hr i s t i e M c D ona l d. L i nc ol n: U of N e br a s ka P 198 5.

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174 T he W e l l s pr i ng N e w Y or k: K nop f 1996. O s t r i ke r A l i c i a I A m ( N ot ) T hi s : E r ot i c D i s c our s e i n B i s hop, O l ds a nd S t e ve ns T he W al l ac e St e v e ns J our nal 19. 2 ( 1995) : 234 54 T he P oe t r y S ym pos i um N e w Y or k T i m e s B ook R e v i e w 21 N ov. 2004: 10 15. R e vi l l D a vi d. T he R oar i n g Si l e nc e J ohn C age : A L i f e N e w Y o r k: A r c a de 1992. R one l l A vi t a l C r ac k W ar s : L i t e r at ur e A ddi c t i on M ani a L i nc ol n: U of N e br a s ka P 1992. R ot h, M oi r a a nd J ona t ha n D K a t z D i f f e r e nc e / I ndi f f e r e nc e : M us i ngs on P os t m ode r ni s m M ar c e l D uc ham p and J ohn C age S i nga por e : G & B A r t s 1998 S hul t i s C hr i s t ophe r Si l e nc i ng t he Sounde d Se l f : J ohn C age and t he A m e r i c an E x pe r i m e nt al T r adi t i on B os t on: N or t he a s t e r n U P 1998. Si ngul ar F or m s ( Som e t i m e s R e pe at e d) : A r t f r om 1 951 t o t he P r e s e nt G ugge nhe i m M us e um 3 M a r 2006 < ht t p: / / w w w gugge nhe i m or g/ e xhi bi t i ons / s i ngul a r _f or m s / hi ghl i ght s _1a ht m l > S out e r K a y T o r ne y. T he P r oduc t s o f t he I m a gi na t i on: P s yc hoa na l yt i c T he or y a nd P os t m ode r n L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m T he A m e r i c an J our nal of P s y c hoanal y s i s 60. 4 ( 2000) : 341 59. T a nne r L a ur a E D e a t h W a t c h: T e r m i na l I l l ne s s a nd t he G a z e i n S ha r on O l ds s T he F at he r M os ai c 29 1 ( 1996 ) : 103 21. T i l l i ngha s t R i c ha r d B l unt I ns t r um e nt s T he N a t i on 13 O c t 1984: 361 63 U l m e r G r e gor y L S oundi ng t he U nc ons c i ous L e a ve y 23 129. W a kos ki D i a ne R e v. o f T he G ol d C e l l by S ha r on O l ds T he W om e n s R e v i e w of B ook s 4. 12 ( 1987 ) : 6 7. W hi t e R obi n. I nt e r vi e w w i t h C a ge V i e w 1. 1 A p r i l 197 8 C i t e d i n R e vi l l W r i ght C a r ol yne R e v. of T he D e ad and t he L i v i n g by S ha r on O l ds T he I ow a R e v i e w 5. 1 ( 1985 ) : 151 61.

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178 Si gna t ur e P i e c e s : O n t he I ns t i t ut i on of A ut hor s hi p I t ha c a : C o r ne l l U P 1988. K a nt I m m a nue l A nt hr opol ogy F r om a P r agm at i c P oi nt of V i e w T r a ns V i c t or L yl e D ow de l l R e v. a nd e d. H a ns H R udni c k. C a r bond a l e : S out he r n I l l i noi s U P 1978. K i c h, M a r t i n. A N ot e on T w o P oe m s by S ha r on O l ds N ot e s on C ont e m por ar y L i t e r at ur e 26. 2 ( 1996) : 6 7. K of m a n, S a r a h. C a C l oc he T r a ns C a r e n K a pl a n. D e r r i da and D e c ons t r uc t i on E d H ugh S i l ve r m a n. N e w Y or k: R out l e dge 1989 108 138 K os t e l a ne t z R i c ha r d. C onv e r s i ng w i t h C age N e w Y or k: L i m e l i ght 1988. J ohn C age 1970 L o ndon: A L a ne P e ngui n, 1971. J ohn C age ( E x ) pl ai n( e d) N e w Y or k: S c hi r m e r 1996 K r upni c k, M a r k, e d. D i s pl ac e m e nt : D e r r i da and A f t e r B l oom i ngt on: I ndi a na U P 1983. L a ne M a r y T he r e s a 'A nd I W i l l T e l l a bout I t : T he D i a l e c t i c a l P oe t r y o f S ha r on O l ds D i s s e r t a t i on A bs t r a c t s I nt e r na t i ona l S e c t i on A : T h e H um a ni t i e s a nd S oc i a l S c i e nc e s 61: 8 ( 2001 F e b) 3172. L e i t c h, V i nc e nt D e c ons t r uc t i v e C r i t i c i s m N e w Y or k: C ol um bi a U P 1983. L i ndgr e n, K r i s t i n. B i r t hi ng D e a t h: S ha r on O l ds 's T he F a t he r a nd t he P oe t i c s of t he B ody, pp. 260 66. H a w ki ns A nne H uns a ke r ( e d a nd i nt r od. ) ; a nd M c E nt yr e M a r i l yn C ha ndl e r ( e d. a nd i nt r od. ) T e a c hi ng L i t e r a t ur e a nd M e di c i ne N e w Y or k N Y : M ode r n L a ngua ge A s s oc i a t i on of A m e r i c a 2 000. vi i i 406 pp. M i l l s E l i z a be t h M P uni s hm e nt a nd P oe t r y: E m i l y D i c ki ns on S ha r e s w i t h S ha r on O l ds E m i l y D i c k i ns on I nt e r nat i onal Soc i e t y B ul l e t i n 14: 1 ( 2002 M a y J une ) : 4 5, 25 26 N a t t i e z J e a n J a c que s T he B oul e z C age C or r e s po nde nc e T r a ns R obe r t S a m ue l s C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U P 199 3. P e r l of f M a r j or i e c a ge : c ha nc e : c ha nge R adi c al A r t i f i c e M a r j or i e P e r l of f C hi c a go: U of C hi c a go P 1991. 14 S e pt 2003 < ht t p: / / w w w e ngl i s h. upe nn. e du/ ~ a f i l r e i s / 88/ pe r l of f ht m l > . A duc ha m p unt o m y s e l f : W r i t i ng t hr ough M a r c e l P e r l of f a n d J unke r m a n 100 124. M us i c i n W or ds P e r ha ps : R e a di ng/ H e a r i ng/ S e e i ng J ohn C a ge s R oar at or i o G e nr e 20 ( 1987) : 427 62

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179 T he M us i c of J ohn C a ge s V e r ba l S pa c e : W ha t Y ou S a y . Sound St at e s : I nnov at i v e P oe t i c s and A c ous t i c al T e c hnol ogi e s E d. A da l a i de K i r by M or r i s C ha pe l H i l l : U of N or t h C a r ol i na P 1998 129 48. P e r l of f M a r j or i e a nd C ha r l e s J unke r m a n. J ohn C age : C om pos e d i n A m e r i c a C hi c a go: U of C hi c a go P 1994. P l ot ni t s ky, A r ka dy R e c onf i gur at i ons : C r i t i c al T he or y and G e ne r al E c onom y G a i ne s vi l l e F L : U of F l or i da P 1993 P r i t c he t t J a m e s T he M us i c of J ohn C age N e w Y o r k: C a m br i dge U P 1993 R a ppa por t H e r m a n. H e i de gge r and D e r r i da L i nc ol n: U of N e br a s ka P 1989. R i f f a t e r r e M i c ha e l S yl l e ps i s C r i t i c al I nqui r y ( 1980) : 625 638 S c hol e s R obe r t N a nc y R C om l e y a nd G r e gor y L U l m e r T e x t B ook : A n I nt r oduc t i on t o L i t e r ar y L anguage 2 n d e d. N e w Y or k: S t M a r t i n s 1995 S c hw e i z e r H a r ol d. T he M a t t e r a nd S pi r i t of D e a t h. Suf f e r i ng and t he R e m e dy of A r t N Y : S U N Y P 1997 171 84 S m i t h, J os e ph a nd W i l l i a m K e r r i ga n T ak i ng C han c e s : D e r r i da, P s y c hoanal y s i s and L i t e r at ur e B a l t i m or e : J ohns H opki ns U P 1984. S ont a g, S us a n, e t a l C age C unni ngham J ohns : D anc e r s on a P l ane N e w Y or k: K nopf 1990. S pi va k, G a ya t r i G l as P i e c e : A C o m pt e R e nd u. D i a c r i t i c s ( 1977) : 22 43. S t a r t i l i ot C l a ude t t e H e r ba r i um V e r ba r i um : T he D i s c our s e of F l ow e r s D i ac r i t i c s ( 1988) : 68 81. S t e ns t r om C hr i s t i ne R e v. o f T he W e l l s pr i ng by S ha r on O l ds L i br ar y J our nal 121. 1 ( 1996) : 104 S t e ve ns on, R obe r t J ohn C a ge on H i s 70t h B i r t hd a y: W e s t C oa s t B a c kgr ound. I nt e r A m e r i c an M us i c R e v i e w 5. 1 ( 1983) : 3 17 S ut he r l a nd S m i t h J a m e s D e a t h a nd t he U nm a i de nl y: A n E xpl or a t i on of S ha r on O l ds T he W e l l s pr i ng w i t h R e f e r e nc e t o G e or ge s B a t a i l l e P N R e vi e w 24: 4 ( M a r A pr 1998) 42 46. S ut t on, B r i a n. O l ds s S e x W i t hout L ove T he E x pl i c at or 55. 3 ( 1997 ) : 177 80.

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180 T odd, J a ne M a r i e T he P hi l os ophe r a s T r a ns ve s t i t e : T e xt ua l P e r ve r s i on i n G l as E d. D ona l d M a r s ha l l L i t e r at ur e as P hi l os ophy / P hi l os ophy as L i t e r at u r e I t ha c a : C or ne l l U P 1986. T om pki ns C a l vi n. T he B r i de and t he B ac he l or s N e w Y or k: P e ngui n 1968 T r ungpa C hgya m C ut t i ng T hr ough Spi r i t ual M a t e r i al i s m E d. J ohn B a ke r a nd M a r vi n C oope r B os t on: S ha m ba l a 1987. U l m e r G r e gor y. A ppl i e d G r am m at ol ogy B a l t i m or e : J ohns H opki ns U P 1985 . H e ur e t i c s : T he L ogi c of I nv e nt i on. B a l t i m or e : J ohns H opki ns U P 1994. T e l e t hor y : G r am m at ol ogy i n t he A ge of V i de o N e w Y or k: R out l e dge 1989 W a ddi ngt on, C H B i ol ogy and t he H i s t or y of t he F ut ur e E d i nbur gh : E di nbur gh U P 1972. W i l l s C l a i r T he B ody a s M a t t e r T he T i m e s L i t e r ar y Suppl e m e nt 16 J ul y 1993: 25.

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181 A ppe ndi c e s

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182 A ppe ndi x: R e vi e w of C r i t i c i s m on S ha r on O l ds T he f i r s t ge ne r a l t a s k t ha t s e e m s t o ha ve e m e r ge d f or r e vi e w e r s i n r e s pons e t o O l ds w or k w a s t o pos i t i on he r vi s vi s S yl vi a P l a t h. R i c ha r d T i l l i ngha s t c ha r a c t e r i z e s O l ds s t yl e a s pow e r f ul doc um e nt a r y i n or de r t o di f f e r e nt i a t e i t f r om P l a t h s ge ni us m a dne s s : T he f a t he r i n P l a t h i s e s s e nt i a l l y a f a nt a s y, t he c r e a t i on of a m i nd h ove r i ng on t he e dge of m a dne s s O l ds i s one f e e l s c e r t a i n, r e c or di ng a n a c t ua l s t or y ( 362 ) G E M ur r a y, r e vi e w i ng Sat an Say s c a t e gor i z e s O l ds w i t h P l a t h a nd A i f or t he i nt e ns i t y of he r voi c e W i l l i a m L oga n pl a c e s O l ds i n a c a t e gor y w i t h A nne S e xt on, a r gui ng t ha t he r i m a ge s a r e not r e c onc i l a bl e e s pe c i a l l y t he publ i c pr i va t e c om pa r i s ons w hi c h he j udge s t o be a s ym m e t r i c a l I n ge ne r a l t he vi ol e nc e a nd pa i n of O l ds i m a ge s pr oduc e t oo m uc h dr a m a t i c e xt r e m i t y T hi s l a c k of i m a ge m odul a t i on ke e ps S e xt on a nd O l ds f r om a c hi e vi ng P l a t h s l e ve l of a r t i s t r y C a r ol yne W r i ght a voi ds t he P l a t h c om pa r i s on i n h e r r e vi e w of T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng S he l a ud s O l ds d i r e c t ne s s s e e i ng ot he r a s pe c t s of w ha t T i l l i ngha s t c a l l s t he doc um e nt a r y qua l i t y of O l ds s t yl e : O l ds c on f i de nc e i n t he pow e r of de t a i l a nd he r c onc om i t a nt r e f us a l t o s how o f f ve r ba l l y, t o i nt e r p os e a di s pl a y of ve r ba l or pr os odi c pyr ot e c hni c s be t w e e n s ubj e c t a nd r e a de r m a ke f or c l a r i t y, a s t yl e ve r y m uc h a t t he s e r vi c e of t he s ubj e c t ( 160 ) W r i gh t t hi nks O l ds s t yl e s uc c e e ds w he n i t be c om e s i nvi s i bl e a nd w e a ke ns w he n t he de s c r i pt i ve e l e m e nt s be c om e w or dy a nd e xc e s s i ve U nl i ke L oga n, W r i ght pr a i s e s O l ds publ i c pr i va t e c onne c t i on a s a n e s s e nt i a l a i m f or A m e r i c a n poe t i c s D i a ne W a kos ki gi ve s a p l a yf ul a na l ys i s of O l ds d oc um e nt a r y s t yl e i n he r r e vi e w of T he G ol d C e l l by l i ke ni ng i t t o N at i onal G e ogr aphi c w i t h i t l us h phot ogr a phy

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183 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) a nd s ubj e c t m a t t e r s t r e t c hi ng f r om t he e s ot e r i c t o t he quot i di a n. S he a dds O l ds l a ngua ge of phys i c a l i m a ge a nd m e t a phor i s ne ve r i l l us or y ( s e l dom a l l us i ve ) ; i t i s t he pe r f e c t s e l f c ont a i ne d l a ngua ge t ha t t he N e w C r i t i c s t a l ke d a bo ut ( 6) H ow e ve r be ne a t h t he N at i onal G e ogr aphi c s ur f a c e s he r e a ds a n obs e s s i on w i t h de s t r uc t i on a nd c r e a t i on, a nd e s pe c i a l l y t he be s t i a l a s pe c t s of s e xua l i t y. W a kos ki a s s i gns gui l t a s t he f or c e of t h i s obs e s s i on: I n t he m os t t r a di t i ona l s e ns e t hi s i s t he poe t r y o f gui l t G ui l t f or be i ng w hi t e f or be i ng a l i ve i n A m e r i c a f or be i ng w e l l o f f f o r be i ng a pa r e nt f o r b e i ng ha ppi l y m a r r i e d, f or be i ng a s uc c e s s f ul poe t ( 6) T hi s gui l t i nc l ude s t he gui l t f or a ni m a l hunge r s w hi c h m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f i n t he be s t i a l i t y t h a t r uns t hr ough O l ds i m a ge r y W a t c h out r e a de r s you m a y t hi nk y ou r e j us t ope ni ng t he pa ge s of a ni c e m i ddl e c l a s s N at i onal G e ogr aphi c i n . t he pe di a t r i c i a n s . of f i c e w h e n you c r a c k t hi s book bu t unl e s s you a r e a s t upi d or i ns e ns i t i ve r e a de r you a r e goi ng t o c om e a w a y w i t h i nf a nt i c i de i nc e s t m a t r i c i de r a pa c i ous de s i r e s f or pow e r ( 7) F o r W a kos ki t hi s be s t i a l i t y c ove r e d ove r w i t h a t hi c k ve ne e r of de ns e l y pa c ke d l a ngua ge a nd i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he c i vi l i z a t i on w e a r e w hi c h ha s c om e s o f a r a nd ye t w i l l pr oba bl y w i l l obl i t e r a t e i t s e l f ( 7) W a kos ki s r e a di ng s e e m s f a i r l y a c c ur a t e t o m e I w oul d t a ke i t a s t e p f a r t he r T he r e i s a n unde f i ne d pr oxi m i t y be t w e e n t he t he m a t i c of he a l i ng a nd a dj us t m e nt a nd t he G r e e k t r a ge dy of pa s s i ons be ne a t h i t I n m y t he s i s on O l ds t hi s pr oxi m i t y i s gove r ne d by t he f e t i s h l ogi c a nd i t s s us pe ns i on i n a N a c ht r gl i c hk e i t e f f e c t O l ds doc um e nt s t he p r i m a l s c e ne : but i t s de s c r i pt i on a nd r e s ol ut i on a r e not t he r e s ul t A c t i on i n t he pr e s e nt i s not gove r ne d by pa s t e ve nt but by a r e i m a gi na t i on o f t he pa s t T he l a s t l i ne o f t he s i gna t ur e poe m S a t a n S a ys i nj e c t s t he e l e m e nt o f l ove w h i c h w a s m i s s i ng or w e a ke ne d

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184 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) be yond r e c ogni t i on i n t he p r i m a l l oc a t i on of t he po e m a nd t he di a l ogue w i t h S a t a n t ha t t a ke s pl a c e t he r e L i nda L a nc i one M oye r s a ys s om e t hi ng s i m i l a r : H e r r e f us a l t o ba r ga i n w i t h t he de vi l t o t a ke t he e a s y w a y out he r w i l l i n gne s s t o s e e c l e a r l y ye t s t a y w i t h he r a m bi va l e nc e m a ke s he r w or k he a l i ng, t hough of t e n pa i nf ul t o r e a d ( 453) T e r r i B r ow n D a vi ds on pa ns O l ds f or be i ng ove r w r ought a nd t a s t e l e s s i n T he G ol d C e l l S he s e e s O l d s f or m a s ha vi ng s e t t l e d i nt o t i r e d f or m ul a : D e s c r i bi ng I G o B a c k t o M a y 1937 s he w r i t e s T hi s pa s s a ge i s pur e O l ds f or m ul a : t he s ki nny but i r r e gul a r c ol um n, t he t ypi c a l e nj a m bm e nt be t w e e n a r t i c l e a n d noun, t he ove r w r ought s i m i l e s w hi c h ne ve r qui t e w o r k . t he r e l e nt l e s s pa r a l l e l i s m ( 6) O l ds ha s c onf us e d be a ut i f ul l a ngua ge ( s he c a n w i e l d a phr a s e w i t h t he be s t of t he m ( 6) ; i ns i s t i ng, a t a ny c os t on . pa i nt e r l y l a ngua ge ( 5) ) a nd f or m ul a i c f or m w i t h r e a l a w a r e ne s s of c r a f t I n a ddi t i on, O l ds s ubj e c t m a t t e r i s que s t i ona bl e a nd s he pr e s s e s f a r t oo ha r d on t he i m a ge ( 5) O l ds of t e n c om e s up f o r t h i s ki nd o f c r i t i c i s m but i t ge ne r a l l y i s n t t he m a i n a r gum e nt of t he c r i t i c i s m C a r ol yne W r i ght not e s a t e nde nc y i n pl a c e s t o ove r w r i t e t o ove r d e s c r i be or e xpl a i n w ha t w oul d s uf f i c e a nd s ugge s t s c a r e f ul c ut t i ng W i l l i a m L oga n a r gue s t ha t O l ds vi ol e nt i m a ge r y s l i ps ove r i nt o a bs ur di t y, a nd ove r d one s e xua l i m a ge r y be c om e s s i l l y. E c hoi ng B r ow n D a vi ds on on O l ds l a c k o f t a s t e L oga n a l s o s ugge s t s O l ds i nt e nt i s unde r c ut by t he a c c r e t i on of a gg r e s s i ve m e t a phor s w hi c h j us t be c om e s e m ba r r a s s i ng ( 212) S uz a nne M a t s on s e e s O l ds pr ol i f i c a nd un a pol oge t i c m e t a phor s a s a m e a ns of s t or y t e l l i ng t ha t e na bl e s he r t o l e a p a c r os s t he di s t a nc e of r e pr e s s e d m e m or y a nd pa i n ( 40) M y r e a di ng o f W ha t i f G od t r i e s t o a c c ount f or t he e xc e s s i ve m i xe d m e t a phor o f

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185 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) t ha t poe m I c a n unde r s t a nd t he de s i r e f or m o r e c r a f t bu t I t hi nk t he r e i s r oom f or s om e of t he e xc e s s w hi c h be gi ns t o a ppr oa c h t he a poc a l ypt i c t one of S c hr e be r C a l vi n B e di e nt i s l e s s t ol e r a nt c a l l i ng O l ds f our t h book, T he F at h e r 85% r a nt a nd 15% w i s dom ( 170 ) H e gi ve s a bi t o f a C a l vi ni s t r e a di ng of O l ds r a gge d s t yl e H e r e a ds T he L i f t i ng a s be t t e r l e f t unl i f t e d t he r e l i gi ous s e nt i m e nt of r e ve l a t i on a bs ur dl y out of p r opor t i on t o t he s i ght of a m a n s pe ni s e ve n a f a t he r s ( 174) B ut w e a k s i m i l e s s l oppy s ynt a x, a nd c om m a s pl i c e s c a n be s om e w ha t j us t i f i e d: O l ds h ooks t he r e a de r by s e e m i ng t o be a pr os e w r i t e r w ho ha s f ound he r s e l f on a ve r s e t r e a d m i l l t ha t i s r a c i ng out of c ont r ol one w ho f i na l l y pu l l s f e a r s om e r e s our c e s out o f he r s e l f a nd e nds w i t h a ba ng ( 173 4 ) M a r ga r e t D i e hl a nd L oui s e G l c k bot h v i e w O l ds a s r e pe a t i ng he r s e l f ; D i e hl s e e m s t o a ppr e c i a t e t hi s G l c k doe s not D i e hl : S he pi c ks up w he r e P l a t h l e f t o f f i n D a ddy a nd goe s he r one f u r t he r : w he r e P l a t h c oul d m a na ge on l y a f e w a goni z e d pa s s i ona t e poe m s a nd t he n ki l l e d he r s e l f O l ds ke e ps s a yi ng t he s a m e t hi ng ove r a nd ove r s e e m i ngl y w i t hout s ha m e R e a di ng he r w or k ove r t he ye a r s h a s he l pe d m e t o s e e m y ow n t r a um a s l e s s he a t e dl y, t o s e e t he m a s w r i t a bl e or r e a da bl e a nd s o pe r ha ps be a r a bl e ( 8) G l c k: O l ds us e s he r ge ni us f or obs e r va t i on t o m a ke r e p e a t e dl y, t he s a m e poi nt s t o r e a c h t he s a m e e pi p ha ni e s ; t he e ne r gy a nd di ve r s i t y o f de t a i l pl a y out a s s t a s i s ( 54) O n t hi s he a di ng A l i c i a O s t r i ke r r e a ds t he e xc e s s of O l ds s t yl e a s m i m e t i c of t he pr oc r e a t i vi t y O l ds i de nt i f i e s w i t h e r ot i c i s m ( 246) I s i t t he s a m e c onc e pt i on, t he s a m e e pi pha ny e a c h t i m e ? G l c k not e s t he r e pe a t e d i m a ge of t he s pe a ke r w i t h f a t he r i n he r w o m b, a s i f he i s he r c hi l d. P e r ha ps t he r e i s s om e t hi ng of a c a l c ul o f t he m ot he r he r e I t w oul d c oi nc i de w i t h t he a c t ua l r e ve l a t i on, t h i s r e pe a t e d s h ow i ng of t he e pi pha ny. I n m y i nt r odu c t i on

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186 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) a nd t he c ha pt e r s on O l ds I di s c us s t hi s S h e f f e c t a t l e ngt h. B e di e nt L oga n, a nd O s t r i ke r a l l s e e m t o be not i c i ng t he r us he d a nd a c c e l e r a t e d qua l i t y of t hi s s how i ng. L a ur a T a nne r s e xc e l l e nt a r t i c l e on T he F at he r i s ol a t e s t h i s s i gna t ur e e f f e c t t he s l i de f r om S ha r on t o s how i ng. T a nne r s s t udy r e c e nt e r s t he c onc e pt of t he ga z e w hi c h ha s e vol ve d f r om L a ur a M ul ve y s s e m i na l a r t i c l e V i s ua l P l e a s ur e a nd N a r r a t i ve C i ne m a M ul ve y s w or k t he or i z e s t he i s ol a t i on of t he vi e w i ng s ub j e c t f r om t he obj e c t o f de s i r e on t he s c r e e n, p l e a s ur e de r i vi ng f r om voye ur i s t i c obj e c t i f i c a t i on, us ua l l y of a w om a n. T a nne r r e t he or i z e s t he ga z e by pl a c i ng e m pha s i s m or e on t he c on f r ont a t i on w i t h t e r m i na l i l l ne s s a nd l e s s on t he f e t i s hi s t i c s t r uc t ur a t i on of s e xua l di f f e r e nc e I n t hi s c ont e xt t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of t he ga z e a r e s how n t o i n c l ude ve r y di f f e r e nt di s t r i but i ons of pow e r O l ds poe t r y o f t he de a t h w a t c h m ode l s a g a z e t ha t a c t ua l l y br i ngs vi e w i ng s ubj e c t a nd obj e c t t oge t he r i n a ut he nt i c c onne c t i on ( vi a t he vi s c e r a l r e a l i z a t i on o f m or t a l i t y) r a t he r t ha n s e pa r a t i ng t he m T a nne r us e s M i c he l F ouc a ul t a nd A na t ol e B r oya r d t o de f i ne t he m e di c a l ga z e t ha t i gno r e s t he e m bodi e d s ubj e c t i n or de r t o m a ke di s e a s e pl a i nl y vi s i bl e S he t he or i z e s t ha t t he m e di c a l g a z e t e nds t o e xa gge r a t e t he nor m a l ga z e w he n f a c e d w i t h t e r m i na l i l l ne s s : a pe r s on w i t h c a nc e r f or i ns t a nc e m i ght be gi n t o s e e hi m s e l f or he r s e l f onl y a s a n i m pe ndi ng a bs e nc e T o de s c r i be t he ga z e of a he a l t hy s ubj e c t on e nga ge m e nt w i t h a dyi ng body, T a n ne r t ur ns t o J ul i a K r i s t e va s c onc e pt of t he a bj e c t w i t h i t s t hr e a t o f de a t h i n f e c t i ng t he body K r i s t e va s a ys e r ot i c i z a t i on of t he a bj e c t i s t he a t t e m pt t o s t op de a t h. B ut T a nne r s r e a di ng s how s O l ds doi ng s om e t hi ng e l s e : s he a l l ow s t he a bj e c t t o e m e r g e i n t he t e xt r e f us i ng K r i s t e va s e m pow e r m e nt of e xt r i c a t i on. S he poi nt s out t ha t C a l vi n B e di e nt m i s s e s t hi s e nt i r e l y i n hi s r e a di ng of

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187 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) O l ds e r ot i c s : t he c ons t a nt i r r upt i on of t he f a t he r s dyi ng body, s w e l l i ng, ooz i ng, s w e a t i n g, a nd bl e e di ng i n O l ds poe m s A f t e r doc um e nt i ng O l ds s e e i ng t hr ough t o he r f a t he r s s ubj e c t i vi t y, c ondi t i one d by hi s w a s t i ng bo dy, T a nne r c a n s a y, T he body O l ds r e a r r a nge s a s t e xt i s one t ha t s he ow ns e xa c t l y be c a us e s he ha s ow ne d up t o i t one i n w hi c h s he c a n l oc a t e he r f a t he r be c a us e s he ha s l oc a t e d he r s e l f i n i t I ve gi ve n m or e a t t e nt i on t o T a nne r s r e a di ng be c a us e i t s e e m s t o m e t he f i r s t pi e c e on O l ds t ha t de pe nds on a nd a dva nc e s ps yc h oa na l yt i c a l l y or i e nt e d t he or y A c r i t i c w ho t ur ns t o O l ds e v e n m or e di r e c t l y f r om ps yc hoa na l yt i c r e s e a r c h, K a y T o r ne y S out e r pr e s e nt s a r e a di ng of W a s t e S ona t a t he ne xt t o l a s t poe m i n T he F at he r H e r r e a di ng c om e s a t t he e nd of a n a r t i c l e a r gui ng f or c ons i de r a t i on of r e l a t i ona l ps yc hoa na l yt i c m ode l s of s e l f hood be c a us e t he y a r e m or e i n l i ne w i t h t he e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l a s s um pt i ons of pos t m ode r n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m : T he r e l a t i ona l ps yc hoa na l yt i c t he or i e s ope r a t e i n t he s a m e e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l uni ve r s e a s pos t m ode r n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m c ongr ue nt w i t h t he pos t m ode r n i de a of t r ut h a s c ons t r uc t e d a nd r e l a t i ona l a nd s e l f hood a s s hi f t i ng, c ont i nge nt a nd a l w a ys i n pr oc e s s ( 347) S out e r of f e r s c ount e r t r a ns f e r e nc e a s t he de m a r c a t i on poi nt be t w e e n m ode r n a nd pos t m ode r n ps yc hoa na l ys i s I n t he ol d m ode l a na l ys t a nd a na l ys a nd r e m a i ne d ps yc hi c a l l y s e pa r a t e w he r e a s t he t he or y of c ount e r t r a ns f e r e nc e de s t a bi l i z e d t he i de a of t he bounde d s ubj e c t i vi t y f or ps yc hoa na l ys i s ( 347) R a t he r t ha n i nt r a s e l f i nt e r s e l f i s t he ne w pa s s w or d f or S out e r L a c a ni a n t he or y i n pa r t i c ul a r ha s be c om e a c ul de s a c : I t ha s be e n a r gue d t ha t L a c a ni a n t he or y doe s not ha ve a m e a ni ngf ul gr a s p of pos t C hom s ky l i ngui s t i c s ; i t t e nds t o c om e by w a y of s e c ond ha nd a nd of t e n t e nde nt i ous i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a nd ( [ s he ] w oul d a r gue ) i t doe s not

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188 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) ha ve a w or ka bl e t he or y of e a r l y i n f a nc y or of t he m a t e r na l e xc e pt a s a bs e nc e ( 350) W i l f r e d B i on, a m ong r e l a t i ona l ps yc hoa na l ys t s of f e r s t he w or ka bl e t he or y ne e de d, a c c or di ng t o S out e r F or m a t i on of m i nd i s m ode l e d on t he i de a of l i nks A c hi l d s no r m a l pr oj e c t i ve i de nt i f i c a t i on ( w hi c h K l e i n m e nt i one d t ha t s he f ound but di d not t he or i z e ( S out e r 352) ) ne e ds t o r e s ul t i n c r e a t i ve e xc ha nge w i t h t he pa r e nt O t he r w i s e t he c hi l d s uc c um bs t o dr e a d of i t s ow n r a ge s a nd t e r r o r s C r e a t i ve l i nks w oul d r e t ur n t he s e pr oj e c t i ons i n m odi f i e d l e s s t oxi c f or m ( 351 ) I n t he a bs e nc e of s uc h c r e a t i ve l i nks s t unt e d l i nks of c r ue l t y r e s ul t i n pe r ve r s e c r ue l a nd s t e r i l e m e nt a l pr oc e s s e s ( 352) T hi s i nt e r r e l a t i ona l t he or y s ounds m a de t o o r de r f or r e a di ng O l ds R e a di ng W a s t e S ona t a S out e r be gi ns by not i ng t he m ove m e nt be t w e e n c i vi l i z e d c om m e nt a nd t he vo i c e of pop c ul t ur e t ha t e na c t s t he bounda r yl e s s ne s s of t he pos t m ode r n ( 354) I w oul d ha ve r e m a r ke d t hi s qu a l i t y a s m ode r ni s t s t r e a m of c ons c i ous ne s s : but S out e r ha s a l l ow e d he r s e l f t h i s f l e xi bi l i t y by a r gu i ng t ha t pos t m ode r n ps yc hoa na l ys i s r e m a i ns i n di a l ogue w i t h m ode r ni s t ve r s i ons of i t s e l f ( 348) P l a yi ng on t he voi c e of pop c ul t ur e s he c om pa r e s O l ds f a t he r t o H om e r S i m ps on, a nd, a c c ur a t e l y I t hi nk hol ds t ha t t he poe m i s us e f ul l y c om pa r e d t o T he Si m ps ons f or t he de pt hl e s s ne s s of s ubur ba n l i f e t he c l i c h s a nd r e s e nt m e nt s w hi c h or de r r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd s o on ( 354) T he r e s t of he r r e a di ng doe s a n a dm i r a bl e j ob of a p pl yi ng t he i nt e r pe r s ona l ps yc hol ogy t o t he poe m s how i ng t he s pe a ke r s us pe nde d be t w e e n t he c r ue l m ot he r a nd t he f a t he r a bs e nt by a l c ohol S out e r m a t c he s up t he p r oj e c t i v e l i nks w i t h t he voi c e s of t he w a r r i ng pa r t s of t he s e l f : t he ope ni ng s e nt e nc e of t he poe m pr oj e c t s bot h c a r e f ul a dul t ( I t hi nk a t s om e poi nt ) a nd t he w i t he r i ngl y m i m e t i c vi ndi c t i ve ne s s of t he a dol e s c e nt ( H e s f ul l of

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189 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) s hi t ) ( 355 ) S out e r s ne xt m ove i s r e m a r ka bl e t o m e f or t he w a y i t i l l us t r a t e s t he c ount e r t r a ns f e r e nc e t ha t s he e a r l i e r a r gue d di f f e r e n t i a t e s pos t m ode r n f r om m ode r n ps yc hoa na l ys i s S out e r l i ke m a ny ot he r c r i t i c s be g i ns t o c ha nne l O l ds i a n s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s : T he poe m r e t ur ns t o a m ut e d s e ns e of s a ni t y w he n t he p r ot a goni s t m i r a c ul ous l y m ove s t o c ons i de r he r ow n c r ue l t y a nd s hi t t i ne s s h e r ow n i nvol ve m e nt i n t he f a m i l y i nt e r a c t i ons ( m y e m pha s i s ) ( 355 ) O l ds us e s s om e f or m of t he w or d s hi t s e ve n t i m e s i n t he poe m a nd t he e f f e c t s pr e a ds vi a w a s t e c opr of y, a nd w hi t e s t i nk. A l l t he r e l a t i ona l l i nks S out e r r e a ds a r e t r a c e d by t he w or d A nd t he pa s s a ge w he r e s he r e a ds s a ni t y a r i s i ng i n t he voi c e of t he s pe a ke r i s doubl y r e m a r ka bl e : W e l l i t s f un t a l ki ng a bout t hi s I l ove t he t e r m s of f oul ne s s I ha ve l e a r ne d t o ge t pl e a s ur e f r om s pe a ki ng of pa i n. B ut t o di e l i ke t hi s T o gr ow ol d a nd di e a c hi l d, l y i ng t o he r s e l f O l ds w r i t e s r e f l e xi ve l y he r e a bout t he t e r m of f oul ne s s t ha t r uns t hr oughout t hi s poe m I t i s a n S h e f f e c t I n t hi s pa s s a ge i t c om bi ne s w i t h a n a nt onom a s i a O l ds / ol d. S out e r t i e s t he pa s s a ge t o S ha ke s pe a r e : W he n t he poe m dr op s i nt o B ut t o d i e w i t h i t s e c hoe s of M e as ur e f or M e as ur e ( C l a udi o, I I I i A ye but t o di e a nd go w e know not w he r e . ) s he ha s r e s c ue d a n i de nt i t y w hi c h i s m a de o f m o r e t ha n pr oj e c t e d pa r e nt a l pa r t s ( 356) O l ds a l s o doe s t hi s on t he l e ve l o f t he S h e f f e c t T he l a s t s h w or d i n t he poe m i s s ha pe l y t he poe m e nds t hi s w a y: I a l m os t l ove t hos e s hi t s t ha t m ove t h r ough hi m s ha pe l y, t hos e w a s t e f oe t us e s m y m ot he r m y s i s t e r m y br ot he r a nd m e i n t ha t pu r ga t or y. ( T he F at he r 77) S out e r quot e s t he l a s t t w o l i ne s t o but t r e s s he r a r gu m e nt t ha t t he s pe a ke r ha s m ove d

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190 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) f r om m i ndl e s s r e a c t i ve s pl i t t i ng t o s om e t hi ng l i ke a K l e i ni a n de pr e s s i ve pos i t i on ( 356 ) O l ds ha s he r s i gna t ur e w or ki ng ove r t i m e i n t hi s po e m ; i t s e e m s a ppa r e nt t ha t i t i s t he gl ue t ha t hol ds he r poe t i c s t oge t he r a ga i ns t t he m i ndl e s s r e a c t i ve s pl i t t i ng. T o f i n i s h he r a r t i c l e S out e r quot e s P e t e r F ona gy t o br i ng t he a i m s of ps yc hoa na l ys i s a nd l i t e r a r y s t udi e s i nt o l i ne : A n a na l ys i s of W a s t e S ona t a s how s t he pr ot a goni s t ( a nd m a ybe t he r e a de r t oo) t ha t g r a du a l t r a ns f or m a t i on of a non r e f l e c t i ve m ode of e xpe r i e nc i ng t he i nt e r na l w or l d a nd t he t e xt ( 357) I t hi nk s om e t hi ng s i m i l a r c a n be s a i d i n t e r m s o f t he s i gna t ur e a nd t he r e l a t i o ns i t dr a w s be t w e e n t he t e xt a nd t he pr ope r na m e O l ds i s a w r i t e r w ho ha s be c om e ve r y r e f l e c t i ve i n t he w a y s he c onne c t s he r poe t i c s t o he r na m e I n T he N e w Y or k T i m e s B ook R e v i e w s he gi ve s t hi s quot e t o j us t i f y he r c hoi c e of S t a nl y K uni t z s book N e x t T o L as t T hi ngs a s t he m os t i m por t a nt book o f poe t r y t o he r pe r s ona l l y ove r t he l a s t 25 ye a r s : . T he w a y I l ook a t i t I m pa s s i ng t hr ough a pha s e : gr a dua l l y I m c ha ngi ng t o a w or d W ha t e ve r you c hoos e t o c l a i m of m e i s a l w a ys your s : not hi ng i s t r ul y m i ne e xc e pt m y na m e I onl y bor r ow e d t hi s dus t ( P oe t r y 15 ) T o c l os e t hi s r e vi e w of O l ds c r i t i c i s m I w a nt t o v e r y qui c kl y m a r k a f e w m or e i ns t a nc e s of O l ds s i gna t ur e e f f e c t s c om i ng t hr oug h i n t he w or ks of he r r e a de r s W i l l i a m L oga n, a s I ve di s c us s e d a bove a r gue s t ha t O l ds i m a ge r y i s t oo vi o l e nt A bout Sat an Say s he r e m a r ks i t s bl oodi ne s s : L i ke a ny pu r e f i a nc e O l ds ha s pa s s e d t he bl ood t e s t ( m a s k of bl ood, s t r e a ke d w i t h bl ood bl ood bond, bl o od s pa t t e r e d, bl ood r e d, bl ood bom b, l a ngua ge of bl ood bl ood c ul t u r e r a i s e d on

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191 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) bl ood, gl a z e of bl ood, ha r d bl ood ) . . ( 213 ) O l ds l a t e r vol um e s c ont i nue t hi s f r e que nt de pl oy m e nt of bl ood w i t h i t s h ypogr a m o f ol d. B r i a n D i l l on t r a c e s t he i m a ge of he r f a t he r c om i ng hom e w e a r i ng a m a s k of bl ood t hr ough he r f i r s t 3 books A l t hough ne ve r e xpl a i ne d, i t r e c ur s a s a n i m a ge t ha t ha unt s O l ds s pe a ke r s H e a l s o not e s t ha t T he D e pa r t ur e ( i n T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng ) c om pa r e s t he f a t he r t o t he S ha h of I r a n T he quot e D i l l on us e s i s ve r y t e l l i ng of t he s i gna t ur e : D i d you f or ge t / t he w a y you ha d ha d m e t i e d t o a c ha i r a s / he f or go t t he one s s t r a ppe d t o t he gr i l l e / i n hi s nam e ? ( m y e m p ha s i s ) ( D i l l on 112) O l ds r e i nf or c e s t hi s S h e f f e c t t he Sha h i n a not he r poe m f r om T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng A e s t he t i c s of t he S ha h. T he poe m i s a bout a s how i ng a s t he t i t l e no t e i ndi c a t e s : ( T he pos t e r up al l ov e r t ow n, s how s / di s s i de nt s about t o be e x e c ut e d i n I r an) ( 12) C a r ol yne W r i ght s r e a di ng of t hi s poe m t ur ns on t he phot ogr a phi c qua l i t y o f O l ds s how i ng j us t i f yi ng he r us e of t he pol i t i c a l he r a t t i t ude e m e r ge s f r om a nd i s j us t i f i e d by t he pa t e nt hor r o r o r pa t hos of w ha t s he s how s us ( 159) C a l vi n B e di e nt pe r ha ps unknow i ngl y, r e m a r ks a p l a y on t he O l ds m obi l e B e gi nni ng hi s r e a di ng of T he F at he r he de s c r i be s O l ds a s a c a nni ba l w ho w i l l e a t [ he r f a t he r s ] a s he s ( T he r e a r e pe opl e w ho w i l l s w a l l ow w hol e / c a r s pi e c e by p i e c e T he U r n ) ( 169) C a r ol yne W r i ght l i ke ns t he f i r s t ha l f of T he D e ad and t he L i v i ng t o a ga l l e r y of O l d M a s t e r f a m i l y po r t r a i t s da r ke ni ng w i t h a ge ( 152) I s us pe c t t hi s i s t ongue i n c he e k. E f f e c t s s i m i l a r t o t he s e s e e m t o pop up q ui t e of t e n i n t he c r i t i c i s m W he t he r t hi s i s a r e s ul t of O l ds ha vi ng p r ogr a m m e d t he m i nt o h e r w r i t i ng or w he t he r a g i ve n c r i t i c i s i nt e nt i ona l l y pl a yi ng w i t h he r na m e i s of t e n ha r d t o t e l l M a ybe t hi s i ndi c a t e s s om e t hi ng

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192 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) a bout t he pow e r o f t he na m e a nd t he de gr e e t o w hi c h O l ds ha s m a na ge d t o ha r ne s s t ha t pow e r

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A bout t he A ut hor W a l t e r L e w a l l e n r e c e i ve d a B a c he l or s D e g r e e i n P hi l os ophy w i t h H onor s f r om P e m br oke S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y ( now t he U ni ve r s i t y o f N or t h C a r ol i na a t P e m br oke ) i n 1978 H e obt a i ne d a T e a c hi ng C e r t i f i c a t e i n H i gh S c hool M a t he m a t i c s f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h C a r ol i na a t C ha pe l H i l l i n 1985 a nd t a ught M a t he m a t i c s a t L e e C ount y H i gh S c hool i n S a n f or d, N or t h C a r ol i na f r om 1985 t o 19 87. I n 1990 he e nt e r e d t he G r a dua t e P r ogr a m i n E ng l i s h a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da W hi l e obt a i ni ng hi s M a s t e r s D e gr e e a nd c om pl e t i ng c our s e r e qui r e m e nt s f or P h D c a ndi da c y, he s e r ve d a s P r e s i de nt of t he U S F c ha pt e r o f G r a dua t e A s s i s t a nt s U ni t e d of F l or i da H e ha s s e r ve d a s A dj unc t I ns t r uc t or i n E ngl i s h a t H i l l s bor ough C om m uni t y C ol l e ge t he U ni ve r s i t y o f T a m pa a nd t he U ni ve r s i t y of N e w M e xi c o, A l buque r que