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Stress, coping, and their prediction of mental health outcomes in international baccalaureate high school students

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Title:
Stress, coping, and their prediction of mental health outcomes in international baccalaureate high school students
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Hardesty, Robin B
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Psychopathology
Academic achievement
High-achieving students
School functioning
Social-emotional functioning
Dissertations, Academic -- Interdisciplinary Education -- Specialist -- USF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the mental health of high school students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) High School Diploma Program (n =139) in a large, southeastern high school. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) indicators of adolescent social-emotional and school functioning. Findings from this study include that IB students perceive more stress than their general education peers, yet maintain mental health that is equivalent or superior to that of their general education peers. The role of coping in predicting mental health outcomes in IB students was also investigated. Findings indicate that specific coping styles are differentially related to mental health outcomes in this sub-population of adolescents. Furthermore, coping styles moderate the influence of stress on global life satisfaction and internalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that participation in the academically rigorous and time-intensive IB program is not harmful to the mental health of high school students, and in fact may be beneficial, as evidenced by the superior academic functioning of students in the IB program.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robin B. Hardesty.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 137 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001790517
oclc - 144650790
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001507
usfldc handle - e14.1507
System ID:
SFS0025825:00001


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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the mental health of high school students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) High School Diploma Program (n =139) in a large, southeastern high school. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) indicators of adolescent social-emotional and school functioning. Findings from this study include that IB students perceive more stress than their general education peers, yet maintain mental health that is equivalent or superior to that of their general education peers. The role of coping in predicting mental health outcomes in IB students was also investigated. Findings indicate that specific coping styles are differentially related to mental health outcomes in this sub-population of adolescents. Furthermore, coping styles moderate the influence of stress on global life satisfaction and internalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that participation in the academically rigorous and time-intensive IB program is not harmful to the mental health of high school students, and in fact may be beneficial, as evidenced by the superior academic functioning of students in the IB program.
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PAGE 1

S t r e s s C opi ng, a nd t he i r P r e di c t i on of M e nt a l H e a l t h O ut c om e s i n I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a u r e a t e H i gh S c hool S t ude nt s by R obi n B H a r de s t y A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i o ns C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da C o M a j or P r of e s s or : S ha nnon M S ul do P h. D C o M a j or P r of e s s or : L i nda R a f f a e l e M e nde z P h D E l i z a be t h S ha une s s y, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : F e br ua r y 17 20 06 K e yw or ds : ps yc hopa t hol ogy, a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s s c hool f unc t i oni ng, s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng C opyr i ght 2006 R obi n B H a r de s t y

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D e di c a t i on T o N i c ho l a s A n t hony a nd m y p a r e n t s f or t h e i r c on t i nu a l s uppor t l o v e a nd c a r e t hr oughou t m y e du c a t i on a l c a r e e r

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A c kno w l e dg e m e n t s T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p e op l e w ho h a v e c on t r i bu t e d t o t h e o v e r a l l s uc c e s s of t h i s pr o j e c t F i r s t a nd f or e m os t I w ou l d l i k e t o t h a nk m y c o m m i t t e e f or t h e i r s uppor t c a r e a nd gu i d a n c e E a c h c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r d e d i c a t e d a t r e m e ndous a m oun t of t i m e a nd e n e r gy h e l p i ng m e t o de v e l op m y s ki l l s a s a r e s e a r c h e r A hug e t h a nks t o D r S ha nnon S ul do f or b e i ng a n e x c e l l e n t m e n t or I n a dd i t i on t o m y c o m m i t t e e I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a nk J ohn F e r r on a nd T ony O n w u e gbu z i e f o r t he i r s t a t i s t i c a l e xpe r t i s e a n d a ns w e r s t o l a s t m i nut e on t he s pot que s t i ons I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk t he r e s e a r c h t e a m of D r S ha nnon S ul do f or t he i r num e r ous c ont r i but i ons a t m a ny s t a ge s of t he r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk S t e pha ni e M i ha l a s f or he r f r i e nds hi p, w hi c h he l pe d m e ge t t h r ough t he t oughe r t i m e s F i na l l y, I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk m y bi gge s t f a n c l ub a nd c he e r i ng s e c t i on, m y f a m i l y A nt hony, N i c hol a s B ob B ob J e a n J e a n, L i nda A ndr e w I s a a c a nd S yl va n I c oul d ne ve r ha ve done t hi s w i t hout know i ng you w e r e a l l be hi nd m e

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i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S L i s t of T a bl e s i v L i s t of F i gur e s v A bs t r a c t vi C ha pt e r I : I nt r oduc t i on 1 A dol e s c e nt M e nt a l H e a l t h 2 S t r e s s 3 C opi ng 5 S t r e s s C opi ng, a nd M e nt a l H e a l t h O ut c om e s i n A dol e s c e nt P opul a t i ons 7 T he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e P r ogr a m 8 P ur pos e of t he C ur r e nt S t udy 9 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 10 C ha pt e r I I : R e vi e w of t he L i t e r a t u r e 12 A C om pr e he ns i ve M ode l of A dol e s c e nt F unc t i oni ng 12 S c hool F unc t i oni ng 14 S oc i a l E m ot i ona l F unc t i oni ng 15 S t r e s s 18 S t r e s s a s a n I nt e r na l S t a t e 19 E xt e r na l S t r e s s or s 21 M e a s ur e m e nt 22 S e ve r e a c ut e S t r e s s 23 S e ve r e c hr oni c S t r e s s 23 G e ne r i c N or m a t i ve S t r e s s 25 T r a ns a c t i ona l M ode l of S t r e s s 28 M e a s ur e m e nt 29 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s a nd M e nt a l H e a l t h 30 S t r e s s a nd M e nt a l H e a l t h 31 S c hool F unc t i oni ng 31 S c hool F unc t i oni ng a nd H i gh A c hi e vi ng S t ude nt s 33 S oc i a l E m ot i ona l F unc t i oni ng 35 C opi ng 36 M e a s ur e m e nt of C opi ng 37 C opi ng S t yl e s 42 F a c t or s I nf l ue nc i ng C opi ng S t yl e s 43 A ge 43 G e nde r 45 S t r e s s L e ve l s 4 5

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i i A c a de m i c A c hi e ve m e nt 46 G i f t e d P opul a t i ons 47 R e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n S t r e s s C opi ng, a nd M e nt a l H e a l t h 48 C opi ng a s a n I nt e r ve ni ng V a r i a bl e 49 S oc i a l E m ot i ona l F unc t i oni ng 50 S c hool F unc t i oni ng 52 T he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a u r e a t e P r ogr a m 54 H i s t or y 54 G i f t e d S t ude nt s 55 O ut c om e R e s e a r c h 56 C onc l us i ons 57 C ha pt e r I I I : M e t hods 60 P a r t i c i pa nt s 60 S e l e c t i on of P a r t i c i pa nt s 61 P r oc e dur e s 62 E t hi c a l C ons i de r a t i ons 64 M e a s ur e s 64 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e 64 A dol e s c e nt C opi ng O r i e nt a t i on f or P r ob l e m E xpe r i e nc e s 66 Y out h S e l f R e por t 68 S t ude nt s L i f e S a t i s f a c t i on S c a l e 69 S e l f E f f i c a c y Q ue s t i onna i r e f o r C hi l dr e n 70 G r a de P oi nt A ve r a ge 71 D a t a A na l ys e s 71 D e s c r i pt i ve A na l ys e s 71 G r oup D i f f e r e nc e s 71 C or r e l a t i ona l A na l ys e s 72 R e gr e s s i on A na l ys e s 72 M ode r a t or T e s t s 73 C ha pt e r I V : R e s ul t s 74 T r e a t m e nt of t he D a t a 74 D e s c r i pt i ve A na l ys e s 74 G r oup D i f f e r e nc e s 75 P r e di c t or va r i a bl e s 78 O ut c om e va r i a bl e s 78 C or r e l a t i ona l A na l ys e s 79 G r oup di f f e r e nc e s 79 P a t t e r ns of r e l a t i ons hi ps 79 R e gr e s s i on A na l ys e s 81 S oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng 81 S c hool f unc t i oni ng 84 M ode r a t or T e s t s 84

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i i i I nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or 89 L i f e s a t i s f a c t i on 90 C ha pt e r V : D i s c us s i on 92 S um m a r y of t he S t udy 92 E xa m i na t i on of R e s ul t s 92 G r oup di f f e r e nc e s 93 I nt e r r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n va r i a bl e s 95 P r e di c t i ng m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s f r o m c opi ng 97 I nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd c opi ng 98 O t he r not a bl e f i nd i ngs 99 I m pl i c a t i ons of R e s ul t s f or S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s 101 L i m i t a t i ons of t he C ur r e nt S t udy 103 P opul a t i on va l i di t y 103 T e m por a l va l i di t y 104 E c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y 105 S ugge s t i ons f or F ut u r e R e s e a r c h 105 F i na l T hought s 107 R e f e r e nc e s 108 A ppe ndi c e s A ppe ndi x A : S t a t e o f F l or i da S t a t e G r a dua t i on a nd 125 I B P r ogr a m D i pl om a R e qui r e m e nt s A ppe ndi x B : I nf o r m e d C ons e nt t o P a r e nt s 128 A ppe ndi x C : S t ude nt A s s e nt 131 A ppe ndi x D : P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e r e vi s e d 133 A ppe ndi x E : A dol e s c e nt C opi ng O r i e nt a t i on f o r 134 P r obl e m E xpe r i e nc e s r e vi s e d A ppe ndi x F : Y out h S e l f R e por t r e vi s e d 135 A ppe ndi x G : S t ude nt s L i f e S a t i s f a c t i on S c a l e 136 A ppe ndi x H : S e l f E f f i c a c y Q ue s t i onna i r e f o r C hi l dr e n 137

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i v L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e 1 D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s 63 T a bl e 2 M e a ns S t a nda r d D e vi a t i ons a nd R a nge s of P r e di c t or V a r i a bl e s 76 T a bl e 3 M e a ns S t a nda r d D e vi a t i ons a nd R a nge s of O ut c o m e V a r i a bl e s 77 T a bl e 4 I nt e r c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n V a r i a bl e s i n I B G e ne r a l 80 E duc a t i on, a nd C om bi ne d S a m pl e T a bl e 5 S um m a r y of S i m ul t a ne ous R e gr e s s i on A na l ys e s 82 f or V a r i a bl e s P r e di c t i ng M e nt a l H e a l t h O ut c om e s T a bl e 6 S c hool F unc t i oni ng P r e di c t e d by P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s a nd C opi ng 86 T a bl e 7 S oc i a l E m ot i ona l F unc t i oni ng V a r i a bl e s P r e di c t e d 87 by P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s a nd C opi ng

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v L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i gur e 1 P r e di c t e d i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or f or hi gh a nd l ow a nge r 90 c opi ng I B s t ude nt s F i gur e 2 P r e di c t e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on f or hi gh a nd l ow 91 pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng I B s t ude nt s

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vi S t r e s s C opi ng, a nd t he i r P r e di c t i on of M e nt a l H e a l t h O ut c om e s i n I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a u r e a t e H i gh S c hool S t ude nt s R obi n B H a r de s t y A B S T R A C T T hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d t he m e nt a l he a l t h of h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) H i gh S c hool D i pl om a P r ogr a m ( n = 139) i n a l a r ge s out he a s t e r n hi gh s c hool M e nt a l he a l t h w a s a s s e s s e d us i ng bot h pos i t i ve i nd i c a t or s ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) a nd ne ga t i ve i nd i c a t or s ( ps yc hopa t hol ogy) i ndi c a t or s of a dol e s c e nt s oc i a l e m ot i ona l a nd s c hool f unc t i oni ng F i ndi ngs f r om t hi s s t udy i nc l ude t ha t I B s t ude nt s pe r c e i ve m or e s t r e s s t ha n t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s ye t m a i nt a i n m e nt a l he a l t h t ha t i s e qui va l e nt or s upe r i or t o t ha t of t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s T he r ol e of c opi ng i n pr e d i c t i ng m e nt a l he a l t h ou t c om e s i n I B s t ude nt s w a s a l s o i nve s t i ga t e d. F i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t h a t s pe c i f i c c opi ng s t yl e s a r e di f f e r e nt i a l l y r e l a t e d t o m e nt a l he a l t h ou t c om e s i n t hi s s ub popul a t i on of a dol e s c e nt s F ur t he r m or e c opi ng s t yl e s m ode r a t e t he i n f l ue nc e of s t r e s s on gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng ps yc hopa t hol ogy. T he s e f i ndi ngs s ug ge s t t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he a c a de m i c a l l y r i gor ous a nd t i m e i nt e n s i ve I B pr og r a m i s not ha r m f ul t o t he m e nt a l he a l t h of hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s a nd i n f a c t m a y be be ne f i c i a l a s e vi de nc e d by t he s upe r i or a c a de m i c f unc t i oni ng of s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m

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1 C H A P T E R 1 I nt r oduc t i on St at e m e nt of t he P r obl e m R e s e a r c h w i t h c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s ha s r e ve a l e d t he pot e nt i a l ne ga t i ve i m pa c t hi gh s t r e s s l e ve l s c a n ha ve on ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd p hys i c a l he a l t h. S t r e s s ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d a s a r i s k f a c t or f o r m e nt a l he a l t h di s or d e r s bot h i n t e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng, w hi c h a r e pr e s e nt l y e s t i m a t e d t o a f f e c t a ppr oxi m a t e l y 21 % of c hi l dr e n a ge s 9 17 ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt o f H e a l t h a nd H u m a n S e r vi c e s 1999) I n a ddi t i on s t r e s s ha s be e n l i nke d t o bot h s ubs t a nc e a bus e ( C r e e d, 19 93; P e ys e r 1993 ) a nd phys i c a l he a l t h pr obl e m s ( E ys e nc k, 1983 ) A dol e s c e nc e i s a de ve l opm e nt a l pe r i od w he n c hi l dr e n m a y be pa r t i c ul a r l y vul ne r a bl e t o t he ne ga t i ve he a l t h e f f e c t s of s t r e s s D a t a f r om t he N a t i ona l Y out h R i s k B e ha vi or S ur ve y, c onduc t e d by t he C e nt e r s f or D i s e a s e C ont r ol ( 2003) i ndi c a t e t ha t o f t he t e e ns s ur ve ye d, 9% ha d a t t e m p t e d s ui c i de 27% f e l t s a d or hope l e s s 45% ha d us e d a l c ohol i n t he l a s t m ont h, a nd 22% ha d us e d t oba c c o a nd m a r i j ua na A l l o f t he s e s ym pt om s of m e nt a l di s or de r s ha ve be e n l i nk e d t o t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of s t r e s s ( C ha s s i n, R i t t e r T r i m & K i ng 2003; C om pa s O r o s a n & G r a nt 1993; L i t t l e & G a r be r 2004; S c hm e e l k C one & Z i m m e r m a n, 2003 ) I f t h e s e pr obl e m s a r e not a ddr e s s e d, a dol e s c e nt s a r e a t r i s k c om pr om i s e d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l he a l t h a s a dul t s ( L oe be r & F a r r i ngt on, 2000) T o da t e t he m a j o r i t y o f r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s a nd c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ha s f oc us e d on t he r ol e t he y pl a y i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f ps yc hopa t hol ogy f or hi gh r i s k popul a t i ons s uc h a s yout h l i vi ng i n a dve r s e e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i on s ( E va ns B ul l i nge r & H ygge 1998;

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2 G onz a l e s T e i n, S a ndl e r & F r i e dm a n, 2001) m i no r i t y popul a t i ons ( A l va & de L os R e ye s 1999; S c hm e e l k C one & Z i m m e r m a n 200 3) a nd ps yc hi a t r i c i npa t i e nt s ( M a r t i n K a z a r i a n, & B r e i t e r 1995 ) w i t h s c a nt a t t e nt i on t o t he i nf l ue nc e s t r e s s a nd c opi ng be ha vi or s ha ve on m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s i n hi gh a c hi e vi ng c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s ( H e s s & C ope l a nd, 2001) S t ude nt s w ho a r e e nr ol l e d i n a c a de m i c a l l y c ha l l e n gi ng c ur r i c ul a f a c e a m ul t i t ude of s t r e s s or s r e l a t e d t o t he i r a c a de m i c de m a nds i n a ddi t i on t o t he de ve l opm e nt a l a nd bi ol ogi c a l c ha l l e nge s t ha t a r e nor m a t i ve t o a dol e s c e nc e N ot w i t hs t a ndi ng t he s t r e s s pl a c e d on t he m by a c a de m i c de m a nds a l a r ge m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n a dva nc e d a c a de m i c pr ogr a m s a t t a i n t he hi gh a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds s e t f or t h f or t he m by t he i r pa r e nt s a nd t e a c he r s H ow e ve r l i t t l e i s know n a bout t he i m pa c t of t he s e s t r e s s or s on t he s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng of h i gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s S i m i l a r l y, c opi ng be ha vi or s t ha t m i ght of f s e t t he ne ga t i ve i n f l ue nc e of s t r e s s ha ve ye t t o b e i de nt i f i e d. A d ol e s c e nt M e nt al H e al t h R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r o f f ( 2000) de ve l ope d a c om pr e he ns i ve m ode l of a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h, w hi c h i nc l ude s i ndi c a t or s i n t w o dom a i ns : s c hool f unc t i oni ng a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt S c hool f unc t i o ni ng c ons i s t s of m e a s ur e s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( i e G P A ) i n s c hool c onduc t ( i e di s c i pl i ne r e f e r r a l s c he a t i ng a t t e nda nc e ) a nd a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ( be l i e f s a b out one s ow n a bi l i t y t o be s uc c e s s f ul i n s c hool ) S oc i a l e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt i nc l ude s bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h na m e l y ps yc hopa t hol ogy, s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng ( pe r c e i ve d qua l i t y o f l i f e ) a nd i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps U s i ng t hi s m ode l m e nt a l he a l t h i s not de f i ne d

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3 s i m pl y a s t he a bs e nc e of pa t hol ogy but a l s o a s t he pr e s e nc e of pos i t i ve i ndi c a t or s of opt i m a l f unc t i oni ng T he ne e d t o us e a m or e c om p r e he ns i ve m ode l of m e nt a l he a l t h ha s be e n s ubs t a nt i a t e d by r e s e a r c h t ha t ha s i de nt i f i e d s ub g r oups of i ndi vi dua l s w ho r e por t l ow l e ve l s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy ye t s t i l l f a i l t o r e po r t hi gh l e ve l s of s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng ( G r e e ns poon & S a kl of s ke 2001) T hi s c onf i r m e d J a hoda s ( 1958) a s s e r t i on t ha t t he a bs e nc e of di s e a s e m a y c ons t i t ut e a ne c e s s a r y, but not s uf f i c i e nt c r i t e r i on f o r m e nt a l he a l t h ( p. 15) S i m pl y s t a t e d, t he a bs e nc e of m e nt a l i l l ne s s doe s not e qua t e t o t he pr e s e nc e of m e nt a l he al t h T o da t e m os t s t udi e s of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd f unc t i oni ng i n yout h ha ve m e a s ur e d ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h, s uc h a s s ubs t a nc e us e a nd m e nt a l di s or de r s F or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, m e nt a l he a l t h w i l l be de f i ne d a s hi gh a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt hi gh l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd t he a bs e nc e of ps yc hopa t hol ogy. St r e s s T he t e r m s t r e s s ha s be e n de f i ne d i n m ul t i pl e w a ys t hr oughout t he l i t e r a t ur e ( M a s on, 1975) F or e xa m pl e s t r e s s ha s be e n de f i n e d a s a s t a t e of di s t r e s s i n a n i ndi vi dua l i n r e s pons e t o a n e nvi r on m e nt a l pr e c i pi t a nt T hi s p hys i ol ogi c a l r e s pons e of a n or ga ni s m c a n be m e a s ur e d by i nc r e a s e d he a r t r a t e e l e va t e d bl ood pr e s s ur e a nd t he pr e s e nc e of hor m one s a nd ne ur ot r a ns m i t t e r s ( i e c or t i s ol a dr e na l i ne nor e pi ne phr i ne ) t ha t he i ght e n t he a r ous a l of a n or ga ni s m ( S e l ye 1993 ) I n c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s di s t r e s s ha s be e n r e por t e d i n r e s pons e t o dom e s t i c vi ol e nc e ( S a l t z m a n, H ol de n, & H ol a ha n 2005) a s w e l l a s a ve r s i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons ( E va ns B ul l i nge r & H ygge 1998) D i s t r e s s

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4 oc c ur r i ng w i t hi n a nor m a l r a nge i s a da pt i ve i n na t ur e ; t hi s he i ght e ne d a r ous a l p r e pa r e s a n or ga ni s m t o e f f e c t i ve l y de a l w i t h s t r e s s H ow e v e r i n t he l ong t e r m c hr on i c s t i m ul a t i on of t he s t r e s s r e s pons e s ys t e m ha s be e n l i nke d t o de pr e s s e d i m m une f unc t i ons ( S t e i n & M i l l e r 1993) a nd c om pr om i s e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( E va ns B ul l i nge r & H ygge 1998) S t r e s s a l s o ha s be e n de f i ne d a s e xt e r na l t o a n or ga ni s m i nc l udi ng t hr e a t s of i m m e di a t e ha r m o r a ve r s i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons S t r e s s of t hi s t ype i s t yp i c a l l y m e a s ur e d us i ng s t r e s s i nve nt or i e s w hi c h a r e c he c k l i s t s of e ve nt s be l i e ve d t o be a ve r s i ve t o a n i ndi vi dua l T he s e c he c kl i s t s ha ve be e n c om m onl y us e d t hr oughout t he l i t e r a t ur e on s t r e s s i n c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s E xt e r na l s t r e s s ha s be e n l i nke d t o s uc h ne ga t i ve out c om e s a s a nxi e t y, de pr e s s i on, a nd a ggr e s s i on ( J a s e r e t a l 2005) a s w e l l a s a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt ( A l va & de l os R e ye s 1999; C u nni ngha m H ur l e y F one y & H a ye s 2002) s ub s t a nc e a bus e ( C ha s s i n, R i t t e r T r i m & K i ng, 2003) a nd c om pr om i s e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( S ul do & H ue bne r 2004 ) A l t hough d i s t r e s s a nd e xt e r na l s t r e s s ha ve bot h be e n l i nke d t o ne ga t i ve ou t c om e s f or a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons ne i t he r c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on o f s t r e s s s uf f i c i e nt l y e xpl a i ns w hy s om e a dol e s c e nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e t he s e t ype s of s t r e s s do not e xpe r i e nc e t he ne ga t i ve out c om e s ot he r s ha ve be e n f ound t o e xpe r i e nc e A n a l t e r na t i ve de f i ni t i on of s t r e s s i s t ha t of pe r c e i v e d s t r e s s w hi c h i nvol ve s t he i nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n a n e nvi r onm e nt a l p r e c i pi t a nt ( e xt e r na l s t r e s s ) t he phys i ol ogi c a l r e a c t i ons of t he body a nd a pe r s on s c ogni t i ve e m ot i ona l a nd be ha vi or a l r e s pons e t o t hi s i nt e r a c t i on. S t r e s s i s pe r c e i ve d w he n a n e xt e r na l e ve nt c a us e s a ve r s i ve phys i ol ogi c a l a nd c ogni t i ve di s t r e s s i n a n i ndi vi dua l t ha t e xc e e ds hi s or he r e m ot i ona l a nd be ha vi o r a l

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5 r e pe r t oi r e de s i gne d t o ne ga t e t he ha r m f ul e f f e c t s of e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s C hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s w ho r e por t hi gh l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a r e a t hi gh r i s k f or ne ga t i ve o ut c om e s s uc h a s ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( M a r t i n, K a z a r i a n, & B r e i t e r 1995) s ubs t a nc e a bus e ( G a l a i f S us s m a n, C hou, & W i l l s 2003) a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt ( S c hm e e l k C one & Z i m m e r m a n, 2003) a nd c om pr om i s e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( M a ybe r r y & G r a ha m 2001) P e r c e i ve d s t r e s s r e c ogni z e s t ha t c e r t a i n i ndi vi dua l s m a y pos s e s s r e s our c e s s uc h a s c opi ng, t ha t a l l ow t he m t o e xpe r i e nc e e xt e r na l s t r e s s w i t hout e xpe r i e nc i ng c om pr om i s e d f unc t i oni ng. C hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s e nc ount e r m a ny e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s i n t he i r da y t o da y e xpe r i e nc e s C e r t a i n popul a t i ons of a dol e s c e nt s a r e f a c e d w i t h e xt r e m e s t r e s s or s s uc h a s c hr oni c i l l ne s s ( K l i e w e r 1997) a bus e ( H a uga a r d, R e ppuc c i & F e e r i c k, 1997) pa r e nt a l ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( H a m m e n, 1997) o r pa r e nt a l di v or c e ( G r yc h & F i nc hm a n 1997) ; how e ve r t hi s i s c e r t a i nl y not t he nor m A m uc h l a r ge r popul a t i on o f a dol e s c e nt s a r e f a c e d w i t h s t r e s s c a us e d by a c a de m i c de m a nds ( de A nda e t a l 2000) f r i e nds hi ps r om a nt i c r e l a t i ons hi ps f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i ons a nd de m a nds out s i de of s c hool ( L a r s on & H a m 1993) S t r e s s of t hi s t ype i s c ons i de r e d ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s or s t r e s s f r om da i l y ha s s l e s T he c opi ng be ha vi or s t ha t a dol e s c e nt s e nga ge i n t o de a l w i t h s t r e s s m a y he l p t o e xpl a i n w hy c e r t a i n a dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng s t r e s s or s a da pt a ppr opr i a t e l y i n r e s pons e t o s t r e s s i n t he i r e nvi r on m e nt s C opi ng C opi ng i s be s t de f i ne d a s c ons t a nt l y c ha ngi ng c og ni t i ve a nd be ha vi or a l e f f or t s t o m a na ge s pe c i f i c e xt e r na l a nd/ or i nt e r na l de m a nds t ha t a r e a ppr a i s e d a s t a xi ng o r

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6 e xc e e di ng t he r e s our c e s of t he pe r s on w he t he r t h e out c om e s of s uc h e f f o r t s a r e pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve ( L a z a r us & F o l km a n, 1984; pg 141 ) T he r e i s a l a r ge body of r e s e a r c h i nve s t i ga t i ng t he c opi ng be ha vi or s o f a dol e s c e nt s w ho a r e f a c e d w i t h e xt r e m e s t r e s s or s ( G r e e nbe r y, L e ngua & C a l de r on, 1997; P e t e r s on, O l i ve r & S a l da na 1997; W or s ha m C om pa s & E y 1997 ) ; l e s s i s know n a bout how a d ol e s c e nt s c ope w i t h ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s C opi ng, i n r e s e a r c h on a dul t s i s m os t c om m onl y d e f i ne d a s e i t he r pr ob l e m o r e m ot i on f oc us e d. I n pr obl e m f oc us e d c op i ng, a n i ndi vi dua l e nga ge s i n be ha vi or s t o s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s t he s our c e s of s t r e s s w he r e a s i n e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng, a n i ndi vi dua l e nga ge s i n a c t i vi t i e s t o a l l e vi a t e t he e m ot i ona l di s t r e s s c a us e d by a s t r e s s or A l t hough t he r e i s s t i l l a g r e a t de ba t e a s t o w he t he r a dol e s c e nt c opi ng be ha vi or s c a n be di c hot om i z e d a l ong t he s e s a m e t w o di m e ns i ons ( B a nd & W e i s z 1988; C om pa s C onnor S m i t h, S a l t z m a n, T hom s e n, & W a ds w or t h, 2001) r e s e a r c h ha s l i nke d pr obl e m a nd e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng t o s pe c i f i c out c om e s f or a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons F or e xa m pl e P a t t e r s on a nd M c C ubbi n ( 1987) ha ve f ound t ha t a dol e s c e nt s w ho c ope w i t h s t r e s s by s e e ki ng s oc i a l s uppor t or ve nt i l a t i ng t he i r f e e l i ngs ( e m ot i on f oc us e d) a r e m or e l i ke l y t o us e c i ga r e t t e s a l c ohol a nd m a r i j ua na t ha n a do l e s c e nt s w ho w or k t o s ol ve f a m i l y pr obl e m s or s e e k s pi r i t ua l gui da nc e ( pr ob l e m f oc u s e d) T ol a n G or m a n S m i t h H e nr y C hung, a nd H unt ( 2002) a l s o f ound e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o be l i nke d t o ne ga t i ve out c om e s s uc h a s de pr e s s i on, c onduc t pr o bl e m s a nd a ggr e s s i on. R e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o e xpl a i n t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng, a nd m e nt a l he a l t h

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7 i ndi c a t or s ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ps yc hopa t hol ogy, a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on) i n popul a t i ons of hi gh a c hi e vi ng a dol e s c e nt s St r e s s C opi ng and M e nt al H e al t h O ut c om e s i n A d ol e s c e nt P opul at i ons S t udi e s l i nki ng pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd c opi ng be ha vi or s t o m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s ha ve f ound t ha t t he s e va r i a bl e s w i l l r e c i p r oc a l l y i n f l ue nc e e a c h ot he r F or i ns t a nc e G a l a i f S us s m a n, C hou, a nd W i l l s ( 2003) f ound t h a t pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s f unc t i one d a s bot h a pr e di c t or a nd a n out c om e of de pr e s s i on. I n t ur n a n ge r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s e m pl oye d t o de a l w i t h s t r e s s f unc t i one d t o f ur t he r i nc r e a s e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s A da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s w e r e f ound t o p r e di c t de c r e a s i ng l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s A s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ha s be e n l i nke d t o s uc h ne ga t i ve out c om e s a s s ubs t a nc e a bus e a nd ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( S c hm e e l k C one & Z i m m e r m a n, 20 03) c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t s e r ve t o i nc r e a s e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s m a y pl a c e a dol e s c e nt s a t i nc r e a s e d r i s k f or e xpe r i e nc i n g s uc h ne ga t i ve out c om e s T he m a j or i t y of s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng t he r ol e s t r e s s a nd c opi ng pl a y i n p r e di c t i ng out c om e s ut i l i z e e i t he r s a m pl e s of a t r i s k yout h or f oc us on ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s o f m e nt a l he a l t h. A dol e s c e nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n c ha l l e ngi ng a c a de m i c pr ogr a m s pr ovi de a uni que oppor t uni t y f or r e s e a r c he r s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he r o l e t ha t s t r e s s a nd c opi ng pl a y i n pr e di c t i ng pos i t i ve out c om e s s uc h a s a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd a l s o ne ga t i ve ou t c om e s w hi c h ha ve be e n r a r e l y r e s e a r c he d i n t h i s popul a t i on. A dol e s c e nt s f r e que nt l y i de nt i f y a c a de m i c de m a nds a s a s i gni f i c a nt s our c e of s t r e s s i n t he i r l i ve s ( M a i l a ndt 1998) S t r e s s ha s be e n l i nke d t o c om p r om i s e d s c hool f unc t i oni ng i n a dol e s c e nt s ( A l v a & de l os R e ye s 1 999; C unni ngha m H u r l e y, F one y, & H a ye s 2002; G i l l oc k & R e ye s 1999) how e ve r m os t r e s e a r c h c onf i r m i ng t hi s ha s be e n

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8 c onduc t e d i n e t hni c m i no r i t y o r a t r i s k popul a t i ons S t ude nt s e nr o l l e d i n t he I n t e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) pr ogr a m de s c r i be d be l ow a r e s ubj e c t e d t o he a vy a c a de m i c w or kl oa ds t hr oughout t he i r hi gh s c hool ye a r s i n a ddi t i on t o t he ge ne r i c no r m a t i ve s t r e s s or s e xpe r i e nc e d by ot he r a dol e s c e nt s D e s pi t e e xt r a or di na r y a c a de m i c de m a nds i de nt i f i e d a s a s i gni f i c a nt s our c e of s t r e s s i n a dol e s c e nc e s t ude nt s i n t hi s pr ogr a m do no t e xpe r i e nc e t he i m pa i r m e nt s i n a c a de m i c f unc t i oni n g f ound i n e t hni c m i nor i t y or a t r i s k a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons H ow e ve r r e s e a r c he r s ha ve not ye t i nve s t i ga t e d t he s e s t ude nt s f unc t i oni ng i n ot he r do m a i ns of m e nt a l he a l t h, s uc h a s ps yc hopa t hol ogy or l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, or t he r ol e t ha t c opi ng m a y pl a y t o ne ga t e t he i m pa c t of s t r e s s on t he i r m e nt a l he a l t h. T he I nt e r nat i onal B ac c al aur e at e P r ogr am T he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e O r ga ni z a t i on ( I B O ) c ur r e nt l y i n pl a c e i n a ppr oxi m a t e l y 1, 500 s c hool s w or l d w i de i s a p r og r a m s pe c i f i c a l l y de s i gne d f or a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s T hr o ughout hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s i n t hi s pr ogr a m a r e e nga ge d i n r e s e a r c h, c om m uni t y s e r vi c e a nd c ha l l e ngi ng c ur r i c ul a f a r be yond s t a t e r e qui r e m e nt s f or hi gh s c hool gr a dua t i on. W hi l e s t ude nt s i n t he I n t e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) pr ogr a m a r e i nde e d a c a de m i c a l l y s uc c e s s f ul s i nc e a c hi e ve m e nt i s a r e qui r e m e nt f o r obt a i ni ng pr og r a m a c c e pt a nc e a nd c om pl e t i on, no r e s e a r c h ha s be e n publ i s he d r e ga r di ng t he m e nt a l he a l t h o f t hi s pa r t i c ul a r popul a t i on. T he I B p r ogr a m pr ovi de s a uni que oppor t uni t y t o i nve s t i ga t e t he m e nt a l he a l t h of a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d a dol e s c e nt s a s t he pr ogr a m i s c om pr i s e d of a popu l a t i on of s t ude nt s t ha t m a i n t a i n hi gh

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9 a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y na vi ga t i ng t he s oc i a l a nd de ve l opm e nt a l c ha l l e nge s of a dol e s c e nc e T he I B p r ogr a m c u r r i c ul um a nd r e qui r e m e nt s a r e t out e d a s pa r t i c ul a r l y a ppr opr i a t e f o r s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d ( T ooke y, 2000) P r e l i m i na r y r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t gi f t e d c hi l dr e n m a y pos s e s s c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s s upe r i or t o t ha t of ot he r a ge m a t c he d c hi l dr e n; i t r e m a i ns unc l e a r a s t o w he t he r t hi s a ppl i e s t o a l l a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d s t ude nt s or onl y t hos e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d. S pe c i f i c a l l y, P r e us s a nd D ubow ( 2004 ) f ound t ha t e l e m e nt a r y a ge d c hi l dr e n w ho w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d w e r e m or e l i ke l y t ha n t he i r a ge m a t c he d pe e r s t o us e pr obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o de a l w i t h s c h ool r e l a t e d a nd i n t e r pe r s ona l s t r e s s or s A l t hough not a l l s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m a r e i de nt i f i e d a s gi f t e d i t i s c onc e i va bl e t ha t a l l s t ude nt s w ho a r e a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d, r e ga r dl e s s of gi f t e d i de nt i f i c a t i on, m a y ha ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t a r e s upe r i or t o t hos e of t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s P ur pos e of t he C ur r e nt St udy A c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d a dol e s c e nt s a r e a n unde r r e s e a r c he d gr oup. A p r i m a r y pur pos e of t he c u r r e nt s t udy i s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a s w e l l a s t he m e nt a l he a l t h f unc t i oni n g i n s uc h a s a m pl e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he c u r r e nt s t udy w i l l c om pa r e t he s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h of s t ude nt s i n a hi gh s c hool I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e pr ogr a m t o a s a m pl e of s a m e a ge s t ude nt s i n a r e g ul a r e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um I n l i ne w i t h c a l l s t o ope r a t i ona l i z e m e nt a l he a l t h a s t he pr e s e nc e of pos i t i ve i nd i c a t or s of f unc t i oni ng t he c ur r e nt s t udy w i l l e xa m i ne s t ude nt s l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt i n a ddi t i on t o t r a di t i ona l i nd i c a t or s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy.

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10 A s e c ond pur pos e of t he c ur r e nt s t u dy i s t o c l a r i f y t he i nde pe nde nt a nd i nt e r a c t i ona l i nf l ue nc e s of s t r e s s a nd c opi ng on t he m e nt a l he a l t h o f hi gh a c hi e vi ng yout h. S pe c i f i c a l l y, c opi ng m a y f unc t i on a s a m od e r a t or i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h. B ui l di ng on pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h d e m ons t r a t i ng a n i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt i n a t r i s k popul a t i ons t he c ur r e nt s t udy a i m s t o de t e r m i ne w hy s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m do not s uf f e r s uc h de l e t e r i ous a c a de m i c c ons e que nc e s de s pi t e t he a c a de m i c s t r e s s i nhe r e nt t o t he r i gor ous c ur r i c ul um T hus a c e nt r a l pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o i de nt i f y c opi ng b e ha vi or s t ha t i nt e r ve ne i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd f unc t i oni ng i n hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s C e r t a i n c opi ng be ha vi or s m a y buf f e r / pr ot e c t s t ude nt s f r om t he de l e t e r i ous e f f e c t s of s t r e s s ; f o r i ns t a nc e t he ne ga t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h m a y be pr e s e nt i n on l y t hos e s t ude nt s w ho l a c k a da pt i ve c opi ng be ha vi or s I n s um t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o be a ns w e r e d i n t h i s s t udy a r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. D o s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m di f f e r f r om s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on i n: a P e r c e i ve d s t r e s s ? b. C opi ng s t yl e s ( pos i t i ve a voi da nc e ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on, a nge r ) ? c S c hool f unc t i oni ng ( a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) ? d. S oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ps y c hopa t hol ogy) ? 2. W i t hi n t he s a m pl e of I B s t ude nt s w ha t a r e t he i nt e r r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n: a P e r c e i ve d s t r e s s ?

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11 b. C opi ng s t yl e s ( pos i t i ve a voi da nc e ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on, a nge r ) ? c S c hool f unc t i oni ng ( a c a de m i c a c hi e v e m e nt a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) ? d. S oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ps y c hopa t hol ogy) ? 3. W i t hi n t he s a m pl e of I B s t ude nt s w hi c h c opi ng s t yl e s a r e m os t pr e di c t i ve of m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s s pe c i f i c a l l y a A c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ? b. G l oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on? c P s yc hopa t hol ogy ( i n t e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or e xt e r n a l i z i ng be ha vi or ) ? 4. W i t hi n t he s a m pl e of I B s t ude nt s doe s c opi ng f unc t i on a s a m ode r a t or i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l h e a l t h, de f i ne d a s hi gh a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt hi gh l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd l ow ps yc hopa t hol ogy?

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12 C H A P T E R 2 R e vi e w of t he L i t e r a t ur e R e c e nt l y, t he r e ha s be e n gr e a t de a l of i nt e r e s t i n i d e nt i f yi ng t he va r i a bl e s t ha t c ont r i but e t o he a l t hy de ve l opm e nt i n a dol e s c e nc e T r a di t i ona l l y he a l t hy de ve l opm e nt ha s be e n m a r ke d by t he a bs e nc e of ps yc hopa t hol ogy; h ow e ve r m ode r n c onc e pt ua l i z a t i ons of he a l t hy de ve l opm e nt i nc l ude pos i t i ve i ndi c a t o r s s uc h a s l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( G r e e ns poon & S a l kof s ke 2001; R oe s e r E c c l e s & S a m e r of f 2000 ) T he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l ut i l i z e one s uc h c om pr e he ns i ve m ode l of a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h ba s e d on t he w or k o f R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r of f ( 2000) a s t he ba c kdr op f or a c om pr e he ns i ve i nve s t i ga t i on of va r i a bl e s na m e l y s t r e s s a nd c opi ng, t ha t m a y i m pa c t a dol e s c e nt f unc t i oni ng. T he f ol l ow i ng l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w be gi ns w i t h a pr e s e nt a t i on of t he a f or e m e nt i one d c om pr e he ns i ve m ode l of a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h T he n, r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s a nd c opi ng a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h w i l l be r e vi e w e d. F i na l l y t he di m i nut i ve body o f l i t e r a t ur e on t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e O r ga ni z a t i on, i nc l udi ng i t s hi s t or y a nd de ve l opm e nt pr og r a m r e qui r e m e nt s a nd out c om e r e s e a r c h w i l l be pr e s e nt e d. A C om pr e he ns i ve M ode l of A dol e s c e nt F un c t i oni ng M e nt a l he a l t h i n a dol e s c e nc e ha s hi s t or i c a l l y be e n de f i ne d a s t he a bs e nc e of ne ga t i ve out c om e s ( i e ps yc hopa t hol ogy, be ha vi o r pr obl e m s a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt s ubs t a nc e a bus e ) M e nt a l he a l t h, i n t hi s vi e w i s de f i ne d s i m pl y a s t he a bs e nc e o f ps yc hopa t hol ogy, w i t h l i t t l e c ons i de r a t i on of m e a s ur e s of opt i m a l

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13 de ve l opm e nt ( P ow e r s H a us e r & K i l ne r 1989) T hi s s i m pl i s t i c vi e w of m e nt a l he a l t h i s t r oubl e s om e a s i t doe s not l e nd t o t he m e a s ur e m e nt of m e nt a l he al t h ; i t onl y ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o c o nf i r m t ha t a pe r s on i s not c ur r e nt l y e xpe r i e nc i ng m e nt a l s i c k ne s s I n t hi s t r a di t i ona l m ode l m e nt a l he al t h i s i n f e r r e d f r om n e ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of pa t hol ogy A s J a hoda ( 1958) or i gi na l l y s ugge s t e d, t he a bs e nc e of di s e a s e m a y c ons t i t ut e a ne c e s s a r y, but no t s uf f i c i e nt c r i t e r i on f or m e nt a l he a l t h ( p. 1 5) A m ode l o f m e nt a l he a l t h s uc h a s t hi s l i m i t s t he r a nge of s e r vi c e s m e nt a l he a l t h pr o f e s s i ona l s c a n pr ovi de t o i ndi vi dua l s I n t hi s pa r a di gm m e nt a l he a l t h p r of e s s i ona l s a r e r e l e ga t e d t o f i ght i ng i l l ne s s r a t he r t ha n e m pow e r e d t o bui l d on a va i l a bl e r e s our c e s be l i e ve d t o pr o m ot e he a l t hy de ve l opm e nt T he ne e d f o r a c om p r e he ns i ve m ode l of m e nt a l he a l t h i s s uppor t e d by t he i de nt i f i c a t i on of a s ub gr oup of i ndi vi dua l s w ho a r e f ound t o s c or e l ow on m e a s ur e s of p s yc hopa t hol ogy ye t s t i l l r e por t l ow l e ve l s of s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng ( G r e e ns poon & S a kl of s ke 2001) T hus i t i s e vi de nt t ha t t he a bs e n c e of pa t hol ogy i s not s ynonym ous w i t h t he pr e s e nc e of a bs ol ut e m e nt a l he al t h ( i e s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng) I ndi vi dua l s w ho r e por t l ow l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a r e c ons i de r e d a t hi gh r i s k f o r t he l a t e r de ve l opm e nt of de pr e s s i on a nd ot he r di s or de r s of m e nt a l he a l t h ( L e w i ns ohn, R e dne r & S e e l e y, 1991) a l t hough t he y m a y no t c ur r e nt l y be r e por t i ng s ym pt om s of s uc h pa t hol ogy A s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o a t r a di t i ona l m e di c a l m ode l de f i ni t i on o f m e nt a l he a l t h, R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r of f ( 2000 ) p r e s e nt e d a c om pr e he ns i ve m ode l of a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h t ha t i nc l ude s t r a di t i ona l i nd i c a t or s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy, a s w e l l a s pos i t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h, s uc h a s r e por t e d ha ppi ne s s a nd a c a de m i c s uc c e s s I ndi c a t or s

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14 of m e nt a l he a l t h ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d i n t w o m a i n dom a i ns : s c hool f unc t i oni ng a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt Sc hool F unc t i oni ng S c hool f unc t i oni ng c ons i s t s of m e a s ur e s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt i n s c hool c onduc t a nd a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, a l l of w hi c h h a ve be e n f ound t o r e c i pr oc a l l y i nf l ue nc e e a c h ot he r A c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt i s c om m onl y m e a s ur e d by g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge ( G P A ) a m a t he m a t i c a l a ve r a ge o f g r a de s e a r ne d i n a l l s ubj e c t s I n s c hool c onduc t i nc l ude s di s c i pl i ne r e f e r r a l s c l a s s a t t e nda nc e c he a t i ng, a nd ot he r p r obl e m a t i c be ha vi or s oc c ur r i ng on s c hool gr ounds A c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y r e f e r s t o t he be l i e f s t ha t a n a dol e s c e nt hol ds r e ga r di ng hi s or he r a bi l i t y t o s u c c e s s f ul l y c om pl e t e s c hool r e l a t e d t a s ks a nd i nc l ude s pe r c e pt i ons of a bi l i t y i n a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s a s w e l l a s s e l f pe r c e i ve d a bi l i t y t o m e e t s t a nda r ds s e t by t e a c he r s a nd pa r e nt s f or e xpe c t e d pe r f or m a nc e ( R oe s e r E c c l e s & S a m e r o f f 2000) S t ude nt s w i t h h i g h a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o m a i nt a i n a hi ghe r G P A w he r e a s l ow a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ha s be e n l i nke d t o l ow e r l e ve l s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( A unol a S t a t t i n & N ur m i 2000) A ddi t i ona l l y, R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r of f ( 2000 ) f ound a ne ga t i v e c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd s c hool c onduc t pr obl e m s O ve r a l l i t a ppe a r s t ha t s t ude nt s w i t h l ow a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y t e nd t o ha ve l ow e r G P A s a nd hi ghe r r a t e s of di s c i pl i na r y i n f r a c t i ons i n s c hool T he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l us e G P A a nd a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y a s i ndi c a t or s of s c hool f unc t i oni ng.

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15 Soc i al E m ot i onal F unc t i oni ng S oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng i nc l ude s ps yc hopa t hol ogy, s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng ( pe r c e i ve d qua l i t y o f l i f e ) a nd r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h p e e r s ( R oe s e r E c c l e s & S a m e r of f 20 00) R e ga r di ng s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng, q ua l i t y o f l i f e ( Q O L ) ha s t ypi c a l l y be e n m e a s ur e d a l ong t w o di m e ns i ons : obj e c t i ve a nd pe r c e i ve d/ s ubj e c t i ve ( E va ns 1994) O bj e c t i ve a s s e s s m e nt s of a dol e s c e nt Q O L c ons i de r s oc i a l i ndi c a t or s s uc h a s qua l i t y of e duc a t i on pa r e nt a l i nc om e a nd a c c e s s t o r e s our c e s ; how e ve r r e s e a r c h s t udi e s ut i l i z i ng s oc i a l i ndi c a t or s ha ve not c ons i s t e nt l y l i nke d t he m t o pe r c e i ve d Q O L ( E va ns 1994 ) S ubj e c t i ve i ndi c a t or s of Q O L c ons i s t of s e l f r e po r t e d m e a s ur e s of s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng ( S W B ) S W B i s c om pr i s e d of t hr e e c ons t r uc t s na m e l y l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ne ga t i ve a f f e c t a nd pos i t i ve a f f e c t ( D i e ne r 2000) T he c onc e pt of S W B i s di r e c t l y a l i gne d w i t h t he ne e d f or a c om p r e he ns i ve m ode l of m e nt a l he a l t h i de nt i f i e d by J a hoda ( 1958 ) G r e e ns poon a n d S a kl of s ke ( 2001) a nd R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r o f f ( 2000) a s S W B i nc l ude s bot h pos i t i ve ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, pos i t i ve a f f e c t ) a nd ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s ( ne ga t i ve a f f e c t ) o f f unc t i oni ng. S ubj e c t i ve m e a s ur e s of Q O L m a y be of pa r t i c ul a r i m por t a nc e t o s t udy w h e n de s i gni ng i nt e r ve nt i ons f or a dol e s c e nt s a s t he y m a y be a m o r e vi a bl e t a r ge t f o r i nt e r ve nt i on, a s oppos e d t o t he e xt e r na l va r i a bl e s t ypi c a l l y c a pt ur e d i n a n obj e c t i ve de f i ni t i on. F or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on w i l l be us e d a s t he i ndi c a t or o f s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng. L i f e s at i s f ac t i on. L i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( L S ) i s be s t de f i ne d a s a pe r s ona l j udgm e nt a bout l i f e c i r c um s t a nc e s L S c a n be de f i ne d gl oba l l y, a s a n ove r a l l i ndi c a t or of one s f e e l i ngs a bout t he i r l i f e i n ge ne r a l or dom a i n s pe c i f i c i nc l udi ng j udgm e nt s s ur r oundi ng

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16 s c hool w or k, f a m i l y r e l a t i ons hi ps o r l i vi ng e nvi r o nm e nt ( D i e ne r 2000) S e l f r e po r t e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ha s be e n l i nke d t o a num be r of out c om e s pa r t i c ul a r l y s a l i e nt t o a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons F or i ns t a nc e V a l oi s Z u l l i g, H ue bne r a nd D r a ne ( 2004) e s t a bl i s he d a l i nk be t w e e n l ow l e ve l s of r e por t e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on i n a dol e s c e nt s poor m e nt a l he a l t h, s ui c i de i de a t i on a nd s ui c i da l be ha vi or i n bo t h C a uc a s i a n a nd m i nor i t y m a l e a nd f e m a l e a dol e s c e nt s L i f e s a t i s f a c t i on w a s m e a s ur e d vi a t he B r i e f M ul t i di m e ns i ona l S t ude nt s L i f e S a t i s f a c t i on S c a l e ( B M S L S S : S e l i gs on, H ue bne r & V a l oi s 2003) a 6 i t e m s c a l e m e a s ur i ng s a t i s f a c t i on i n s pe c i f i c dom a i ns ( i e f a m i l y f r i e nds s c hool s e l f l i vi ng e nvi r onm e nt ) a s w e l l a s a gl oba l i n di c a t or of s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h t he i r l i ve s a s a w hol e V a l oi s a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2004 ) pos t ul a t e d t ha t e nga ge m e nt i n i ne f f e c t i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o a ddr e s s s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o t he de ve l opm e nt a l c ha l l e nge s of a dol e s c e nc e m a y a c t a s a m e di a t or be t w e e n l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s s pe c i f i c a l l y s ui c i da l be ha vi or S ubs t a nc e a bus e a not he r s a l i e nt i s s ue i n a dol e s c e nc e i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o L S I n c onj unc t i on w i t h a n ongo i ng l a r ge s c a l e s ur ve y ( N = 5032) o f a dol e s c e nt r i s ky be ha vi or s Z ul l i g, V a l oi s H ue bne r O e l t m a nn a nd D r a ne ( 20 01) e xpl or e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n L S a nd d r ug a bus e L ow l e ve l s of L S a s s e s s e d vi a t he B M S L S S w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h i nc r e a s e d dr ug us e i n bo t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e C a uc a s i a n a nd m i nor i t y popul a t i ons A s t hi s s t udy w a s c r os s s e c t i ona l i n n a t ur e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o e s t a bl i s h w he t he r dr ug a bus e m a y ha m pe r L S or i f s t ude nt s e nga ge i n dr ug a bus e a s a r e s ul t of l ow l e ve l s of L S

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17 L ongi t udi na l r e s e a r c h on L S a nd ne ga t i ve ou t c om e s a ddr e s s e s t he a f or e m e nt i one d m e t hodol ogi c a l l i m i t a t i ons of c r os s s e c t i ona l r e s e a r c h a nd de m ons t r a t e s t ha t L S p r e di c t s be ha vi or a l out c om e s S ul do a nd H ue bne r ( 2004) f ound t ha t a dol e s c e nt s w ho i ni t i a l l y r e por t e d l ow l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on w e r e a t hi gh e r r i s k f or l a t e r e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or di s or de r s A ddi t i ona l l y t he e xpe r i e nc e of s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s w a s f ound t o m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n L S a nd s uc h be ha vi or p r obl e m s w i t h s t ude nt s w ho i n i t i a l l y r e por t e d l ow l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a t g r e a t e r r i s k f or de v e l opi ng e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or pr obl e m s a f t e r t he e xpe r i e nc e of s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s t ha n s t ude nt s w ho i ni t i a l l y r e por t e d hi ghe r l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. T he r e l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd ne ga t i v e out c om e s a s w e l l a s t he ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd r e por t s o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on poi nt t o t he ne e d t o f u r t he r e xpl o r e t he r ol e t ha t s t r e s s a nd c opi ng ( a s a r e l a t e d c onc e pt ) m a y pl a y i n a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h I n s um i n or de r t o a ddr e s s s om e of t he l i m i t a t i ons of a m e di c a l m ode l de f i ni t i on of m e nt a l he a l t h t he pr e s e nt s t udy i nt e nds t o a da pt t he R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r of f ( 2000) m ode l of a dol e s c e nt f unc t i oni ng. T hi s m od e l s i nc l us i on of pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i ndi c t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h i s i n l i ne w i t h t he c a l l f o r m or e r e s e a r c h on pos i t i ve m e nt a l he a l t h ( Z a f f C a l ki ns B r i dge s & M a r gi e 2002) A dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h, i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy, w i l l be ope r a t i ona l i z e d a s a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( i e i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or pr ob l e m s ) A dol e s c e nt s w ho a r e f ound t o ha ve h i gh l e ve l s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt hi gh l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd l ow l e ve l s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy f i t t hi s ne w m ode l of a m e nt a l l y he a l t hy a dol e s c e nt

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18 S t r e s s P e r ha ps be c a us e of t he ne ga t i ve out c om e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t r e s s i n a dol e s c e nt pop ul a t i ons ( e g. de p r e s s i on, a nxi e t y, s ui c i da l i t y ) r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s i n yout h ha s be c om e i nc r e a s i ngl y c om m on ( A ne s he ns e l & G or e 1991) T he t e r m s t r e s s ha s be e n c onc e pt ua l i z e d i n m ul t i pl e w a ys M a s on ( 1975 ) i d e nt i f i e d t hr e e w a ys i n w hi c h s t r e s s ha s be e n i de nt i f i e d a nd r e s e a r c he d. T he f i r s t de f i ni t i on of s t r e s s r e f e r s t o t he i nt e r na l s t a t e o f t he or ga ni s m w hi c h i nvol ve s a r ous a l o f t he a ut ono m i c ne r vous s ys t e m pr oduc i ng a phys i c a l a nd e m ot i ona l r e s pons e T he s e c ond de f i n e s s t r e s s a s a n e xt e r na l e ve nt ( s t i m ul us ) w hi c h c a n i nc l ude bot h t h r e a t s of i m m e di a t e ha r m or a ve r s i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons W hi l e t he r e i s e xt e ns i ve r e s e a r c h doc um e nt i ng t he e f f e c t of e nvi r onm e nt a l s t r e s s or s a nd i nt e r na l s t r e s s r e s pons e s ne i t he r c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on f ul l y e xpl a i ns w hy t w o pe opl e c a n e xpe r i e nc e s i m i l a r c i r c um s t a nc e s ye t a da pt di f f e r e nt l y T he t hi r d de f i ni t i on o f s t r e s s r e f e r s t o a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t a r i s e s f r om a t r a ns a c t i on be t w e e n a pe r s on a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt A pe r s on e xpe r i e nc e s s t r e s s w he n hi s or he r e nvi r onm e nt pl a c e s d e m a nds on hi m / he r e i t he r pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve t ha t e xc e e d hi s / he r r e s our c e s ( e g c opi ng, s oc i a l s uppor t ) T hi s t hi r d de f i ni t i on i s f r e que nt l y r e f e r r e d t o a s a t r a ns a c t i ona l m ode l of s t r e s s de f i ne d a s a n e nvi r onm e nt a l pr e c i pi t a nt c r e a t i ng s t r a i n on a n i ndi vi dua l but w i t h e qua l w e i ght a l s o gi ve n t o t he c ogni t i ve e m ot i ona l a nd be ha vi or a l r e s pons e s of t he i ndi vi dua l a c t i ng i n c onc e r t t o c r e a t e pe r c e i v e d s t r e s s ( L a z a r us 1999) F i r s t r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s a s a n i nt e r na l s t a t e w i l l br i e f l y be r e vi e w e d. T h i s s e c t i on i s i nc l ude d a s i t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e m a ny of t he p hys i ol ogi c a l r e s pons e s c a u s e d by e ve nt s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt a l t hough phys i ol ogi c a l r e s pons e s t o s t r e s s i s not a c e nt r a l

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19 f oc us of t he p r e s e nt s t udy. N e xt e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s w i l l be de f i ne d f oc us i ng on t hos e e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s t ha t a r e s pe c i f i c t o a dol e s c e nt s T hi s s e c t i on i s i nc l ude d a s i t i s w or t hw hi l e t o i ndi c a t e m a ny of t he e ve nt s a nd c on di t i ons a dol e s c e nt s m a y be e xpe r i e nc i ng t ha t c a us e t he m t o pe r c e i ve hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s F i na l l y a t r a ns a c t i ona l m ode l of s t r e s s w hi c h i s a dopt e d f o r us e i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy, w i l l be pr e s e nt e d, a l ong w i t h f i ndi ngs on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd pa t hol ogy. C onc e pt ual i z at i on of St r e s s : I nt e r nal St at e S t r e s s c onc e pt ua l i z e d a s a n i nt e r na l s t a t e of a n or g a ni s m i nvol ve s m a ny c ha nge s w i t hi n t he body D ur i ng t i m e s o f s t r e s s e l e va t e d l e ve l s of c or t i c oi ds hor m one s t ha t a r e know n t o s uppr e s s t he i m m une s ys t e m c a n be de t e c t e d i n t he body A ddi t i ona l l y, c a t e c hol a m i ne s a r e r e l e a s e d, m os t not a bl y a dr e na l i ne w hi c h s e r ve s t o i nc r e a s e a n or ga ni s m s l e ve l s of a l e r t ne s s a nd e ne r gy by i nc r e a s i ng he a r t r a t e e l e va t i ng bl ood pr e s s ur e a nd c i r c ul a t i on, a nd s t i m ul a t i on o f t he c e nt r a l ne r vous s ys t e m ( S e l ye 1993) I n t he s hor t t e r m t he s e phys i ol ogi c a l r e s po ns e s a r e n e c e s s a r y a nd be ne f i c i a l t o a n i ndi vi dua l how e ve r pe r s i s t e nt e l e va t e d l e ve l s of c or t i c oi ds a nd c a t e c hol a m i ne s i n t he body m a y be de l e t e r i ous C hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s w ho a r e e xpos e d t o c hr o ni c s t r e s s or s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de a n oppor t uni t y f or r e s e a r c he r s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he l ong t e r m bi ol og i c a l i m pa c t o f s t r e s s on de ve l opm e nt F or e xa m pl e S a l t z m a n, H o l de n, a nd H ol a ha n ( 2005) e xa m i ne d t he phys i ol ogi c a l f unc t i oni ng of 21 c hi l dr e n r e c e nt l y e xpos e d t o dom e s t i c vi ol e nc e a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o ps yc hol ogi c a l f unc t i oni ng a s c om pa r e d t o a c l i ni c a l c om pa r i s on g r oup ( n = 27) C hi l d r e n w ho w e r e c ur r e nt l y vi c t i m s or w i t ne s s e s of dom e s t i c vi ol e nc e w e r e

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20 e xc l ude d f r om pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy due t o e t h i c a l r e por t i ng c onc e r ns T he c om pa r i s on gr oup w a s c om pr i s e d of c hi l dr e n a nd pa r e nt dya ds s e e ki ng m e nt a l he a l t h s e r vi c e s f or t he c hi l d r e l a t e d t o a nxi e t y, de pr e s s i on, a nd di s r upt i ve be ha vi or s but ha d no e xpos ur e t o vi ol e nc e i n t he hom e M e a s ur e s of phy s i ol ogi c a l f unc t i oni ng i nc l ude d he a r t r a t e bl ood pr e s s ur e a nd s a l i va r y l e ve l s of c o r t i s ol a nd w e r e m e a s ur e d pr i or t o a nd f ol l ow i ng a n i nt e r vi e w r e ga r d i ng vi ol e nc e t he y ha d w i t ne s s e d or e xpe r i e nc e d i n t he hom e P r i or t o t he i nt e r vi e w c hi l dr e n w ho ha d be e n e xpos e d t o m a r i t a l vi ol e nc e ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r r e s t i ng he a r t r a t e s a nd s a l i va r y c or t i s ol l e ve l s t ha n c hi l d r e n i n t he c ont r ol gr oup w ho ha d n ot w i t ne s s e d or e xpe r i e nc e d dom e s t i c vi ol e nc e F ol l ow i ng t he i nt e r vi e w bl ood pr e s s ur e l e ve l s w e r e f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y e l e va t e d a bove t he i r nor m a l r e s t i ng l e ve l s i n vi o l e nc e e xpos e d c hi l dr e n onl y. V i ol e nc e e xpos e d c hi l dr e n w e r e a l s o f ound t o e xhi bi t s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e t r a um a s y m pt om s t ha n t he c l i ni c a l c om pa r i s on gr oup. I nde e d, one i n t e r pr e t a t i on of t he s e f i ndi ngs i s t ha t c hi l dr e n w ho a r e e xpos e d t o vi ol e nc e m a y i nhe r i t e l e va t e d a r ous a l s ys t e m s f r o m t he i r pa r e nt s t he pe r pe t r a t or s o f vi ol e nc e a nd a s a r e s ul t bot h pa r t i e s m a y be pr e di s pos e d t o pa t hol ogy, e xpr e s s e d a s a ggr e s s i on i n t he pa r e nt a nd t r a um a s ym pt om s i n t he c hi l d. A s i t i s di f f i c ul t a nd une t hi c a l t o de t e r m i ne a pr i or i c hi l dr e n w ho w i l l be e xpos e d t o vi ol e nc e a nd w i t hhol d i nt e r ve nt i on t o s t udy w hi c h e ve nt m a y pr e c e de t he ot he r i t i s u nc l e a r w he t he r s uc h di f f e r e nc e s i n phys i ol ogy f r om c om pa r i s on gr oups p r e c e de or f ol l ow e xpos ur e t o vi ol e nc e i n t he h o m e N e ve r t he l e s s S a l t z m a n a nd c ol l e a gue s hypot he s i z e d t ha t r e pe a t e d e xpos ur e t o vi ol e nc e

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21 i n t he hom e w a s r e s pons i bl e f or t he bodi l y r e a c t i ons T hus c hr oni c s t r e s s m a y l e a d t o dur a bl e c ha nge s i n t he phys i ol ogi c a l f unc t i oni ng o f c hi l dr e n C onc e pt ual i z at i o n of St r e s s : E x t e r nal St r e s s o r s A dol e s c e nt s e nc ount e r a va r i e t y of e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s i n t he i r pe e r g r oups f a m i l i e s w or k e nvi r onm e nt s a nd s c hool s ( B ur ne t t & F a ns ha w e 1997; C om pa s M a l c a r ne & F onda c a r o, 1988; M a t e s & A l l i s on, 1992) i n a d di t i on t o b i ol o gi c a l s t r e s s or s r e l a t e d t o t he i r m a t ur a t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt ( B l yt h, S i m m on s & C a r l t on F o r d, 1983) R e s e a r c h ha s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he t r a ns i t i on t o m i ddl e s c hool ( i e a t i m e m a r ki ng t he be gi nni ng of t he a dol e s c e nt ye a r s ) m a y be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he e xpe r i e nc e of a ppr e c i a bl y m o r e s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s t ha n pr e a dol e s c e nc e L a r s on a nd H a m ( 199 3) c om pa r e d t he a ve r a ge num be r of s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s e xpe r i e nc e d by 483 f i f t h t o ni nt h g r a de r s t o de l i ne a t e a n a ge w he n s t ude nt s m a y be gi n t o e xpe r i e nc e i nc r e a s i ng num b e r s of s t r e s s f ul ne ga t i ve l i f e e ve nt s E ve nt s r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y da t i ng s c hool e xt r a c ur r i c ul a r a c t i vi t i e s a nd pe e r s w e r e i nc l ude d. A f t e r gr a de s e ve n, a t i m e a t w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r s f e l t c oi nc i de d w i t h t he be gi nni ng of a dol e s c e nc e s t ude nt s r e por t e d a s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r num be r o f ne ga t i ve e ve nt s i n e ve r y dom a i n t ha n s t ude nt s i n gr a de s f i v e a nd s i x. P a r e nt r e po r t s a l s o w e r e obt a i ne d f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt a nd i de nt i c a l t r e nds w e r e f ound, w i t h a not a bl e e xc e pt i on; s t ude nt s pe r c e i ve d a n i nc r e a s e i n t he num be r of ne g a t i ve e ve nt s oc c ur r i ng i n t he f a m i l y w hi l e pa r e nt s di d not I n s um de ve l opm e nt a l t a s ks t r a di t i ona l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he t r a ns i t i on t o m i ddl e s c hool s uc h a s t he i nc r e a s i ng a ut onom y f r om pa r e nt s i ni t i a t i on o f r om a nt i c r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd i nc r e a s i ng a c a de m i c de m a nds c ont r i but e t o a g r e a t e r num be r of e xt e r na l s t r e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e s f or t he de ve l opi ng a dol e s c e nt

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22 M e as ur e m e nt of e x t e r nal s t r e s s o r s E xt e r na l s t r e s s or s a r e m os t f r e que nt l y m e a s ur e d us i ng s t r e s s i nve nt or i e s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o f r e que nt l y a s l i f e e ve nt s c he c kl i s t s O n t he s e s t r e s s i nve nt or i e s r e s ponde nt s a r e t ypi c a l l y a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e f r om a pr e de f i ne d l i s t w hi c h e ve nt s t he y ha ve pe r s ona l l y e xpe r i e nc e d w i t hi n a gi ve n t i m e f r a m e I t e m s i nc l ude d on t he l i s t a r e d r a w n f r o m t he e xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s i n a dol e s c e nt s ; how e ve r i m pl i c i t t o t hi s t ype o f s t r e s s m e a s ur e i s t he be l i e f t ha t i nhe r e nt qua l i t i e s of pa r t i c ul a r e ve nt s di r e c t l y c a us e di s t r e s s A r e s e a r c he r us i ng t hi s t ype of i nve nt o r y w oul d a l s o ne e d t o i nc l ude m e a s ur e s of t he c ogni t i ve a pp r a i s a l of t he s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s or ot he r w i s e l e a ve t he i r da t a ope n t o m ul t i pl e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons f or c ons um e r s of t he i r r e s e a r c h. S t r e s s i nve nt or i e s of t hi s t ype a l s o m a y f a i l t o i nc l ude m a ny of t he s t r e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t a r e e xc l us i ve t o pa r t i c ul a r popul a t i ons s uc h a s hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s or m i nor i t i e s a nd t hos e s t r e s s or s t ha t m a y be l i m i t e d t o pa r t i c ul a r ge ogr a phi c a l r e gi ons A s a r e s ul t c om p r e he ns i ve s t r e s s i nve nt or i e s t ha t a r e s oc i a l l y a nd c ul t ur a l l y s e ns i t i ve m a y be t oo l e ngt hy t o ha ve p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y i n r e s e a r c h on a dol e s c e nt s ( M i l l e r 1993) C om pa s O r os a n, a nd G r a nt ( 1993 ) i de nt i f i e d t he s t r e s s or s i nc l ude d on s t r e s s i nve nt or i e s i n t hr e e w a ys : s e ve r e a c ut e s t r e s s s e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s a nd ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s ( a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s da i l y ha s s l e s ) S e ve r e a c ut e s t r e s s i nc l ude s m a j or t r a um a t i c e ve nt s s uc h a s a pa r e nt a l di vor c e de a t h of f r i e nds or f a m i l y, a nd s e r i ous i nj u r y t o t he s e l f o r l ove d one s S t r e s s of t hi s t ype i s ge ne r a l l y une xpe c t e d, o f hi gh i m m e di a t e i m pa c t a nd s ubs i de s ove r t i m e S e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s e nc om pa s s e s s uc h t hi ngs a s pove r t y, dom e s t i c vi o l e nc e a nd pa r e nt a l ps yc hopa t hol ogy. S t r e s s of t hi s t ype pe r s i s t s f or a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount o f t i m e a nd m a y go unr e s ol ve d t hr oughout t he c our s e of

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23 de ve l opm e nt G e ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s i nvol ve s e xpe r i e nc e s e nc ount e r e d i n e ve r yda y l i f e s uc h a s s t r e s s i m pos e d by s c hool hom e w or k, c hor e s da t i ng, a nd t he l i ke Se v e r e ac ut e e x t e r nal s t r e s s or s S t udi e s of a dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng s e ve r e a c ut e s t r e s s s uc h a s pa r e nt a l di vor c e ha ve f oun d m i xe d r e s ul t s A m e t a a na l ys i s of s t udi e s on c hi l dr e n e xpe r i e nc i ng pa r e nt a l di vor c e / m a r i t a l c on f l i c t f ound t ha t a pp r oxi m a t e l y ha l f of t he s t udi e s r e por t e d t ha t c hi l dr e n a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e e xt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s w hi l e t he ot he r ha l f i ndi c a t e d t ha t c hi l d r e n a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e i nt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s ( M c M a hon, G r a nt C om pa s T hur m & E y, 2003) A l t hough t he i ni t i a l pe r i od of pa r e nt s e pa r a t i on m a y be e m ot i ona l l y di s t r e s s i ng f or c hi l dr e n t he ne ga t i ve l ong t e r m e f f e c t s ( e l e va t e d l e ve l s o f pa t hol ogy a nd be ha vi or di s or de r s ) of pa r e nt a l di vor c e t ha t r e s ounde d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e i n pa s t de c a de s s e e m t o be m os t l y unf ounde d ( K e l l y, 2003) G r yc h a nd F i nc ha m ( 1997) s ugge s t e d t ha t t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i ndi vi dua l c hi l d e xpe r i e nc i ng pa r e nt a l di vor c e s uc h a s pe r s ona l i t y a nd a va i l a bi l i t y of s oc i a l s uppor t s e e m t o pl a y a f a r m o r e i m po r t a nt r ol e i n t he a da pt a t i on t o f a m i l y t r a ns i t i ons t ha n t he s i m pl e f a c t t ha t t he y be l ong t o a gr oup c ha r a c t e r i z e d onl y by ha vi ng pa r e nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng a di vor c e A l t h ough c hi l dr e n e xpe r i e nc i ng pa r e nt a l d i vor c e be a t hi gh r i s k f or t he de ve l opm e nt of i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s i m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow i ng pa r e nt a l di vor c e s ym pt om s t ypi c a l l y s ubs i de a s t he f a m i l y a dj us t s t o t he i r ne w a r r a nge m e nt s ( G r yc h & F i nc ha m 1997; M c M a hon, e t a l 2003 ) Se v e r e c hr oni c e x t e r nal s t r e s s o r s A dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng s e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s s uc h a s t hos e w i t h pa r e nt s ha vi ng di a gnos e d pa t hol ogy, m a y be a t hi gh r i s k f o r ne ga t i ve out c om e s I n a s t udy on t he s t r e s s e xpe r i e nc e d by a do l e s c e nt s c opi ng w i t h

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24 pa r e nt a l de pr e s s i on, J a s e r a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2005) f o und t ha t a dol e s c e nt s w ho r e por t e d t ha t t he i r m ot he r s w e r e ups e t t e ns e g r ouc hy, a ng r y, e a s i l y f r us t r a t e d, a nd ove r w o r r i e d a bout ne ga t i ve t hi ngs ( a l l be ha vi or a l s ym pt om s o f de pr e s s i on) r e por t e d e l e va t e d l e ve l s of a nxi e t y, de pr e s s i on, a nd a ggr e s s i on. I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t bi ol ogi c a l f a c t or s t ha t m a y be pa s s e d f r om pa r e nt t o of f s pr i ng m a y p r e di s pos e t he a dol e s c e nt t o t he de ve l opm e nt o f s uc h di s or de r s H ow e ve r t he a ut hor s s ugge s t e d t h a t t he s t r e s s c a us e d by l i vi ng w i t h a pa r e nt e xhi bi t i ng be ha vi or s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of de p r e s s i on i nc r e a s e s t he r i s k of pa t hol ogy i n t he s e yout h. E xpos ur e t o dom e s t i c vi o l e nc e a nd a bus e a not he r s e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s or a l s o m a y ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t t he dom a i ns o f m e nt a l he a l t h i de nt i f i e d by R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r of f ( 2000) s uc h a s r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h pe e r s a nd ps yc hopa t hol ogy. A dol e s c e nt s w ho a r e w i t ne s s e s a nd/ or vi c t i m s of vi o l e nc e i n t he ho m e a r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h pe e r s a nd a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e vi ol e nc e i n r om a nt i c r e l a t i ons hi ps I n a ddi t i on, t he s e a dol e s c e nt s r e por t m or e t r a um a s ym pt om s a nd de pr e s s i on ( L e ve ndos ky, H ut h B oc ks & S e m e l 2002) S e xua l a bus e i s a l s o c ons i s t e nt l y be e n f ound t o c or r e l a t e w i t h i nt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s P T S D s ym pt om s a nd r i s ky s e xua l pr a c t i c e s ( M c M a hon e t a l 2003 ) P oor l i vi ng c ondi t i ons a l s o i de nt i f i e d a s a s e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s or a l s o m a y i m pa c t a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h. I n a s t udy of 217 e l e m e nt a r y a ge d c hi l dr e n w i t h ge ogr a phi c a l pr oxi m i t y t o a n a i r por t pr oduc i ng hi g h l e ve l s of c hr on i c noi s e E va ns B ul l i nge r a nd H ygge ( 1998) f ound t ha t t he c hr oni c e xpos ur e t o t he no i s e pr oduc e d by a i r por t t r a f f i c w a s r e l a t e d t o h i ghe r bl ood pr e s s ur e a nd e l e va t e d l e ve l s of e pi ne phr i ne

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25 nor e pi ne phr i ne a nd c or t i s ol ( phys i ol ogi c a l s t r e s s m e a s ur e s ) a s c om pa r e d t o a s a m pl e of s t ude nt s l i vi ng i n qui e t c om pa r i s on c om m uni t i e s m a t c he d f or de m og r a phi c s T he s e phys i ol ogi c a l r e s pons e s pr ovi de d m e di c a l e vi de nc e t ha t s t ude nt s l i vi ng i n c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o t he a i r po r t e xpe r i e nc e d e l e va t e d l e ve l s o f s t r e s s N ot a bl y, t he s e s a m e s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng c hr oni c e xt e r na l s t r e s s a l s o pe r c e i ve d a l ow e r qua l i t y of l i f e ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on) t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup i n phys i c a l ps yc hol ogi c a l s oc i a l a nd da i l y l i f e dom a i ns R e s e a r c h s uc h a s t hi s pr ovi de s f ur t he r e v i de nc e of a ne ga t i ve c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n hi gh l e ve l s of s t r e s s a nd L S a c om pone nt of a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h ( R oe s e r E c c l e s & S a m e r o f f 2000) G e ne r i c nor m at i v e s t r e s s or s T he m a j or i t y of a dol e s c e nt s a r e not e xpos e d t o c hr o ni c or s e ve r e s t r e s s or s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt bu t i ns t e a d e xpe r i e nc e ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s i n t he i r da y t o da y l i vi ng e xpe r i e nc e s D e s pi t e t hi s m os t r e s e a r c h t o da t e ha s f oc us e d on t he i m pa c t o f s e ve r e a nd c h r oni c s t r e s s or s on de ve l opm e nt a l out c om e s ( M c M a hon, G r a nt C om pa s T hur m & E y, 2003) A l a r ge body of r e s e a r c h de m ons t r a t e s t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t a c c um ul a t i on o f c hr oni c a nd s t r e s s ha s on t he ps yc hos oc i a l a dj us t m e nt of a dol e s c e nt s ( L a r s on & H a m 1993 ; M os l e y a nd L e x, 1990; P r i n t z S he r m i s & W e bb, 1999 ; R i c e H e r m a n & P e t e r s on, 1993; S i m 2000 ) H ow e ve r m o r e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne t he i m pa c t ge ne r i c no r m a t i v e s t r e s s or s m a y ha ve on a dol e s c e nt s ( A r m a c os t 1989; S a ndl e r W ol c hi k, M a c K i nnon, A ye r s & R oos a 1997 ; T hor e s e n a nd E a gl e s t on, 1983 ) s pe c i f i c a l l y t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m e nt a l he a l t h.

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26 A num be r o f s t udi e s on t he e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s e xpe r i e nc e d by a dol e s c e nt s i de nt i f y ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s a s t he t ype o f s t r e s s t he y m os t f r e que nt l y e xpe r i e nc e o r f i nd m os t s t r e s s f ul F or e xa m pl e i n a s ur ve y of 333 A m e r i c a n hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s r e s i di ng i n C a l i f or ni a de A nda a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2000) f ound t ha t ve r y f e w s t ude nt s r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng s e ve r e or c hr oni c s t r e s s de s pi t e l i vi n g i n a n u r ba n e nvi r on m e nt A l t hough c i t e d by a m i no r i t y o f s t ude nt s t he m os t c om m onl y c i t e d s t r e s s or s t ha t w oul d f a l l unde r t he dom a i ns of c h r oni c or s e ve r e s t r e s s w e r e t he f e a r of na t ur a l di s a s t e r s ( 42. 9 % : e a r t hqua ke s w hi c h i s r e a l i s t i c gi ve n t he r e gi on a nd t i m e i n w hi c h t h e da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d) f e a r of vi ol e nc e ( 21 1% : c om m uni t y a n d ga ngs ) a nd f e a r o f A I D S ( 42 6% : c hr oni c he a l t h c onc e r ns ) H ow e ve r t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d f r e que nt l y e xpe r i e nc i ng s t r e s s or s r e l a t e d t o a c a de m i c a nd de v e l opm e nt a l de m a nds O ve r 65 % of t hos e s ur ve ye d i ndi c a t e d t ha t pl a nni ng f or t he f ut u r e a nd t he i r c a r e e r w a s s t r e s s f ul w hi l e ove r 50% of t hos e s ur ve ye d i de nt i f i e d s c hool s pe c i f i c s t r e s s or s s uc h a s s t udyi ng f or t e s t s ge t t i ng good g r a de s c om pl e t i ng ho m e w or k, a nd not ha vi ng e nough t i m e t o c om pl e t e a l l r e s pons i bi l i t i e s O t he r r e s e a r c h c onf i r m s t ha t a dol e s c e nt s i de nt i f y g e ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s or s a s t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt s our c e o f s t r e s s i n t he i r l i ve s L ohm a n a nd J a r vi s ( 2000 ) a s ke d 42 s t ude nt s a t t e ndi ng t hr e e M i dw e s t e r n hi gh s c hool s t o ge ne r a t e a nd r a nk or de r up t o 10 s t r e s s or s t ha t t he y ha d e xpe r i e nc e d i n t he t w o m on t hs pr i or t o t he s t udy. T he y f ound t ha t a dol e s c e nt s i n t he i r s t udy c ons i s t e nt l y c i t e d s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o s c hool a nd f a m i l y de m a nds a s t he i r m os t s i gni f i c a nt s our c e s of s t r e s s T he r e i s a l s o e vi de nc e t ha t t hi s hol ds t r ue a c r os s c ul t ur e s F or e xa m pl e M oul ds ( 2003) f oun d t ha t A us t r a l i a n hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s

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27 w he n a s ke d t o i de nt i f y t he m a i n s our c e o f s t r e s s du r i ng t he c u r r e nt s c hool ye a r na m e d s c hool pe e r a nd f a m i l y s t r e s s or s a s m os t s i gni f i c a nt w i t h a ddi t i ona l s t r e s s c a us e d by c onc e r n ove r t he i r phys i c a l f e a t ur e s ( i e a ppe a r a n c e de ve l opm e nt a l c ha nge s ) A s t he m a s t e r y of a c a de m i c de m a nds i s a c e nt r a l t a s k f or a dol e s c e nt s i t i s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t s t ude nt s f r e que nt l y c i t e s c hool r e l a t e d s t r e s s or s a s a s i gni f i c a nt s our c e of s t r e s s i n t he i r l i ve s M a i l a ndt ( 1998) i n r e s pons e t o a s c hool s r e que s t t o i de nt i f y a nd a ddr e s s t he m e nt a l he a l t h ne e ds of t he i r s t ude nt s s ur ve ye d 450 a dol e s c e nt s i n gr a de s s e ve n t o ni ne t o de t e r m i ne t he m a j or s t r e s s or s e xpe r i e nc e d by t he s e s t ude nt s S t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy i de nt i f i e d t e s t i ng a nd hom e w or k a s pa r t i c ul a r l y s t r e s s f ul T he y i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y di d not f e e l a de qua t e l y p r e pa r e d f o r t he he a vy a c a de m i c w or kl oa d pl a c e d on t he m by t e a c he r s a nd di d not f e e l t ha t t he y ha d a de qua t e t i m e t o c om pl e t e a l l of t he i r hom e w or k a nd pe r s ona l de m a nds T he y di d not pe r c e i ve t ha t a dul t s i n t he i r l i f e ( t e a c he r s pa r e nt s ) w e r e s e ns i t i ve t o t he i r c ha l l e nge s a nd c on ve ye d t he i r f r us t r a t i on w i t h f e e l i ng t ha t m os t s t r e s s or s w e r e be yond t he i r c ont r ol S t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng va r yi ng l e ve l s of a c a de m i c s uc c e s s r e por t s om e s i m i l a r i t i e s but a l s o s om e d i f f e r e nc e s i n t he t ype of ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s or s t he y e xpe r i e nc e M a t e s a nd A l l i s on ( 1992) c onduc t e d f oc us gr oups w i t h hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s i n C a na da w ho a t t e nde d di f f e r e nt s c hool s ba s e d on t he i r a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e T he r e s e a r c he r s i nde pe nde nt l y i nt e r vi e w e d t hr e e gr oup s of s t ude nt s f r om l ow ( t e r m e d ba s i c ) a ve r a ge a nd a dva nc e d a c a de m i c t r a c ks t o de t e r m i ne i f s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e va r yi ng c l i m a t e s of a c a de m i c c ha l l e nge s e xpe r i e nc e uni que s t r e s s or s S t ude nt s a t a l l a c a de m i c l e ve l s r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng s t r e s s s t e m m i ng f r om f a m i l y, w o r k e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe e r

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28 r e l a t i ons s ugge s t i ng t ha t a dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i e nc e s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o t he s e a r e a s i nde pe nde nt of t he i r e duc a t i ona l c ha l l e nge s S t ude nt s i n t he a ve r a ge a nd a dva nc e d s c hool s r e por t e d s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o s c hool a nd e xt r a c ur r i c ul a r a c t i vi t i e s w hi l e s t ude nt s on t he l ow t r a c k di d not A c a de m i c pr e s s ur e s of t e n i nvol ve d f i n di ng t i m e t o c om pl e t e a he a vy a c a de m i c w or kl oa d a nd t e ns e r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t e a c he r s w ho w e r e not pe r c e i ve d a s s e ns i t i ve t o de m a nds pl a c e d on t he m by o t he r a r e a s of t he i r l i f e s uc h a s m a i nt a i ni ng a j ob. S t ude nt s a t t e ndi ng t he ba s i c s c hool r e por t e d pr e s s u r e s t o us e dr ugs a nd j oi n ga ngs a s a uni que s our c e of s t r e s s S t ude nt s a t t he a dva nc e d s c hool r e por t e d t ha t f a m i l y r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e t e ns e be c a us e t he i r pa r e nt s of t e n c om pe l l e d t he m t o pe r f or m w e l l i n s c hool a nd p r e s s ur e d t he m a bout pl a ns f o r t he f ut ur e T hi s c onf l i c t of t e n i m pa i r e d ot he r f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i ons D e s pi t e t he a f or e m e nt i one d s t udi e s i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he m a i n s our c e s of s t r e s s f or t e e ns a r e nor m a l e ve r yda y s t r e s s or s a m a j or i t y of r e s e a r c h c ont i nue s t o f oc us on t he i m pa c t o f e xt r e m e or c hr oni c s t r e s s or s i n t h e e nvi r onm e nt C onc e pt ual i z at i on of St r e s s : T r ans ac t i onal M ode l A t r a ns a c t i ona l m ode l of s t r e s s a c know l e dge s bot h t he i m pa c t o f e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he uni que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i ndi vi dua l s uc h a s pe r s ona l i t y a nd c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s I n a t r a ns a c t i ona l m ode l of s t r e s s a pe r s on f i r s t e nc oun t e r s a n e nvi r onm e nt a l s t r e s s or t he n a ppr a i s e s t he s t r e s s or a nd f i na l l y, i f t he s t r e s s or i s be l i e ve d t o e xc e e d t he i r a va i l a bl e r e s our c e s r e a c t s w i t h a s t r e s s r e s pons e I n t hi s m o de l t he pe r s on a nd s pe c i f i c s t r e s s or i nt e r a c t t o c r e a t e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s A t r a ns a c t i ona l m ode l of s t r e s s ha s gr e a t ut i l i t y f or r e s e a r c he r s i nt e r e s t e d i n i nve s t i ga t i ng ps yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s or s a nd how i ndi vi dua l s a da pt ( A l dw i n, 1994 )

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29 M e as ur e m e nt of pe r c e i v e d s t r e s s C ohe n, K a m a r c k a nd M e r m e l s t e i n ( 1983) de ve l ope d a t ool c ongr ue nt w i t h a t r a ns a c t i ona l m o de l of s t r e s s t o m e a s ur e how i ndi vi dua l s a ppr a i s e s t r e s s ( i e t he P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e : P S S ) P r i or t o t he de ve l opm e nt of t he P S S m os t a va i l a bl e s t r e s s m e a s ur e s w e r e i nve nt or i e s of e ve nt s t ha t w e r e t hought t o be s t r e s s f ul f o r i ndi vi dua l s a s pr e vi ous l y de s c r i be d. T he P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e ( P S S ) w a s de s i gne d t o a s s e s s s t r e s s t ha t oc c ur r e d w he n a n i ndi vi dua l e xpe r i e nc e d c ha l l e nge s t ha t e xc e e de d t he i r pe r s ona l c opi ng r e s our c e s T hi s m e a s ur e r e c ogni z e s t ha t s t r e s s i s t he c ogni t i ve l y m e di a t e d e m ot i ona l r e s pons e t o a n obj e c t i ve e ve nt a nd i s not ba s e d on i nhe r e nt qua l i t i e s of a n e ve nt I n a ddi t i on t he P S S c a n c a pt ur e s t r e s s c a us e d by c hr oni c or a c ut e s t r e s s a s w e l l a s ge ne r i c no r m a t i ve s t r e s s c a us e d by da i l y ha s s l e s S uc h a m e a s ur e c a n he l p t o c i r c um ve nt s om e of t he i s s u e s i de nt i f i e d pr e vi ous l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h us i ng s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt i nve nt o r i e s i n r e s e a r c h on m ul t i c ul t u r a l ge ogr a phi c a l l y di ve r s e a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons T he P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e w a s ut i l i z e d i n a s t udy c onduc t e d by M a r t i n, K a z a r i a n, a nd B r e i t e r ( 1995 ) t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd de pr e s s i on i n a s a m pl e of 203 a dol e s c e nt ps yc hi a t r i c pa t i e nt s r a ngi ng i n a ge f r om 12 t o 17. H i ghe r s c or e s on t he P S S w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y a nd pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h hi ghe r s c or e s on t he C hi l dr e n s D e pr e s s i on I nve nt or y ( K ova c s 1981) f or bot h m a l e s ( r = 55) a nd f e m a l e s ( r = 48) S t r e s s a l s o w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng a l i f e e ve nt s c he c kl i s t ; but no s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i ons w e r e f ound be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve n t s a nd s e l f r e por t e d de pr e s s i on. T he a ut hor s c onc l ude d t ha t f o r a dol e s c e nt s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s w a s a m or e a c c ur a t e l i nk be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s t ha n s t r e s s m e a s ur e d by l i f e e ve nt s c he c kl i s t s

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30 P e r c e i v e d s t r e s s and m e nt al he al t h. I n non c l i ni c a l s a m pl e s of a dol e s c e nt s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ha s be e n l i nke d t o ne ga t i ve out c o m e s s uc h a s ps yc hopa t hol ogy, a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt a nd de l i nque nc y. S c hm e e l k C one a nd Z i m m e r m a n ( 2003 ) s a m pl e d 421 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n l ow a nd a ve r a ge a c hi e vi ng hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s i n a f i ve ye a r l ongi t udi na l s t udy S t ude nt s f ound t o ha ve hi g h or i nc r e a s i ng l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ( 40% of t he s a m pl e ) r e po r t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e a nxi e t y a nd de p r e s s i on t ha n l ow or de c r e a s i ng s t r e s s pe e r s S t ude nt s i n t he i nc r e a s i ng s t r e s s gr oup r e por t e d m o r e vi ol e nt a nd de l i nque nt be ha vi or I n a ddi t i on, hi gh s t r e s s w a s r e l a t e d t o l ow e r G P A A s pa t hol ogy, de l i nque nt be ha vi or a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a r e a l l i ndi c a t or s o f m e nt a l he a l t h i n a dol e s c e n t s ( R oe s e r E c c l e s & S a m e r of f 2000) i t i s not a bl e t ha t hi ghe r l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c a us e d i m pa i r m e nt s i n e a c h dom a i n of f unc t i oni ng. G a l a i f S us s m a n, C hou a nd W i l l s ( 2003 ) i nve s t i ga t e d t he r ol e of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s i n pr e di c t i ng ne ga t i ve out c om e s s uc h a s s ubs t a nc e us e a nd de pr e s s i on i n 931 a dol e s c e nt s a ge s 14 19. S t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e e nr ol l e d a t a l t e r na t i ve hi gh s c hool s t ha t s pe c i a l i z e i n t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s ha ve not p r ove n t o be s uc c e s s f ul a c a de m i c a l l y or s oc i a l l y i n a r e gul a r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt A 3 i t e m ve r s i on o f t he P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e w a s us e d t o i ndi c a t e l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s U s i ng s t r uc t ur a l e qua t i on m ode l i ng G a l a i f a nd c ol l e a gue s f ound pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s f unc t i one d a s bo t h a pr e di c t or a nd a n out c om e of de pr e s s i on a c r os s a ge s e t hni c i t i e s a nd ge nde r I n o t he r w or ds i ni t i a l h i ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s c a us e d de pr e s s i on, a nd de pr e s s i on, i n t u r n, p r e di s pos e d i ndi vi dua l s t o pe r c e i vi ng hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s

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31 P e r c e i ve d s t r e s s ha s a l s o be e n f ound t o ha ve a ne g a t i ve i m pa c t on l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. I n a s a m pl e of 123 A us t r a l i a n a dol e s c e nt s a nd a dul t s ( r a ngi ng i n a ge f r om 17 t o 58 ye a r s ol d) M a ybe r r y a nd G r a ha m ( 2001) f ound a s t r ong ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on ( r = 59) be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. T hi s pr ovi de s pr e l i m i na r y e vi de nc e t ha t hi ghe r l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s i n yout h m a y ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t t he i r l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a not he r dom a i n of f unc t i oni ng i n a dol e s c e nt m e nt a l he a l t h. R e l at i ons hi ps be t w e e n St r e s s and M e nt al H e al t h A dol e s c e nc e i s a de ve l opm e nt a l pe r i od i n w hi c h c hi l dr e n m a y be pa r t i c ul a r l y vul ne r a bl e t o t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of s t r e s s ; r e s e a r c h c onf i r m s r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd a hos t of unde s i r a bl e out c om e s F o r e xa m pl e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s i s a s i gni f i c a nt r i s k f a c t or f o r di s or de r s s uc h a s de pr e s s i on ( C o m pa s O r os a n & G r a nt 1993; L i t t l e & G a r be r 2004) a nxi e t y ( S c hm e e l k C one & Z i m m e r m a n, 20 03) a nd s ubs t a nc e a bus e ( C ha s s i n, R i t t e r T r i m & K i ng 2003 ) i n a dol e s c e nt s L ongi t u di na l s t udi e s f i nd t ha t ps yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s e xpe r i e nc e d i n a dol e s c e nc e m a y l e a d t o ps yc hopa t hol ogy a nd pr obl e m a t i c a dj us t m e nt s i n a dul t hood ( C om pa s C onnor S m i t h S a l t z a m n, H a r di ng T ho m s e n, & W a ds w or t h, 2001; G r a nt C om pa s T hur m M c M a hon & G i ps on, 2004; W e r ne r 1989 ) I n a ddi t i on t o ps yc hopa t hol ogy, s t r e s s i s l i nke d t o a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt ( A l va & de l os R e ye s 1999) a nd s c hool f a i l ur e ( H e s s a nd C ope l a nd, 2001) a s w e l l a s hi ghe r num be r s of phys i c a l he a l t h c om pl a i n t s ( T o r s he i m & W ol d, 2001) Sc hool f unc t i oni ng. C unni ngha m H u r l e y, F one y, a nd H a ye s ( 2002) i nve s t i ga t e d t he i m pa c t t ha t e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s ha ve on t he a c a d e m i c a c hi e ve m e nt of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n m a l e s l i vi ng i n a l a r ge ur ba n a r e a U s i ng a m odi f i e d ve r s i on of t he L i f e E ve nt s

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32 Q ue s t i onna i r e ( L E Q : C oddi ngt on, 1972) 84 hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s w e r e a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e f r om a c he c kl i s t of e ve nt s t hos e t ha t ha d oc c ur r e d w i t hi n t he l a s t ye a r T he m odi f i e d L E Q i nc l ude d 45 pos s i bl e ne ga t i ve e ve nt s s uc h a s vi c t i m i z a t i on a nd de a t h of f r i e nds a nd f a m i l y m e m be r s I t w a s f ound t ha t s t ude nt s w ho r e por t e d a hi gh num be r of s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s ha d a l ow e r gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge T h i s i ndi c a t e s t ha t s t r e s s m a y c a us e i m pa i r m e nt s i n s c hool f unc t i oni ng i n c e r t a i n s ub gr oups of a dol e s c e nt s G i l l oc k a nd R e ye s ( 1999) f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s i n i nve s t i ga t i ng t he i m pa c t of s e ve r e a c ut e a nd s e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s or s on M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n a dol e s c e nt s l i vi ng i n a l a r ge ur ba n no r t he a s t e r n c i t y. S t r e s s w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he M a j or L i f e E ve nt s C he c kl i s t ( M L E C : J ohns on & M c C ut c he on, 1980) a nd a s l i ght l y m odi f i e d ve r s i on of t he C hr oni c S t r e s s I nve nt or y ( C S I : C ol e 1992 ) T he M L E C i s a 44 i t e m s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s i nve nt or y, on w hi c h r e s ponde nt s a r e a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e w i t h a ye s or no r e s pons e w he t he r a n e ve nt ha s oc c ur r e d i n pe r s ona l f a m i l y, f r i e nd, o r s c hool dom a i ns i n t he pa s t ye a r T he C S I a l s o i s a s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s i nve nt or y c ons i s t i ng of 37 e ve nt s i n t he s e s a m e f ou r dom a i ns e l i c i t i ng a ye s or no r e s pons e I n t he s ubs a m pl e of f e m a l e s t ude nt s G P A w a s i nve r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t he e xpe r i e nc e of m a j or a nd c h r oni c s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s w i t hi n t he f r i e nd s c hool a nd pe r s on a l dom a i ns S pe c i f i c a l l y, G P A w a s ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h m a j o r l i f e e ve nt s c onc e r ni ng f r i e nds ( r = 29 ) pe r s ona l c hr oni c s t r e s s or s ( r = 34) a nd c hr oni c s c hool s t r e s s or s ( r = 34) S i m i l a r r e s ul t s w e r e f ou nd i n t he s ubs a m pl e of m a l e s t ude nt s w he r e G P A w a s ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h c hr oni c s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s r e l a t e d t o s c hool ( r = 46) a nd m a j or l i f e e ve nt s c onc e r ni ng f r i e nds hi ps ( r = 35) bu t not pe r s ona l c hr oni c s t r e s s or s O f not e f or m a l e s G P A w a s a l s o ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h c hr oni c s t r e s s or s

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33 r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y ( r = 26) A l t hough t he m a j or i t y of t he s a m pl e a l s o e xpe r i e nc e d a s i gni f i c a nt num be r o f s e ve r e c hr oni c s t r e s s or s ( e g. pove r t y c om m uni t y vi ol e nc e ) t he s e s m a l l t o m ode r a t e ne ga t i ve c o r r e l a t i ons w e r e s t i l l f ound be t w e e n s c hool s t r e s s or s a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt w i t h m a l e a nd f e m a l e s t ud e nt s a l i ke w i t h l ow e r G P A s e xpe r i e nc i ng a gr e a t e r nu m be r o f s t r e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e s t ha n t he i r pe e r s w i t h hi ghe r a c hi e ve m e nt O f not e m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s i n t hi s s a m pl e r e por t e d d i f f e r e nt s c hool s t r e s s or s ; m a l e s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o r e por t ne ga t i v e e xpe r i e nc e s a t s c hool s uc h a s di s c i pl i na r y a c t i on a nd not l i ki ng c l a s s e s a nd f e m a l e s r e por t e d m or e s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o t he ne e d t o a t t a i n hi gh gr a de s a nd m a ke hono r r ol l O t he r s t udi e s a l s o c onf i r m t he l i nk be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd i m pa i r m e nt s i n s c hool f unc t i oni ng i n a dol e s c e nt s A l va a nd de L os R e ye s ( 1999) i n a s a m pl e o f 171 H i s pa ni c hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s l i vi ng i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f ound t ha t s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s w e r e ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h gr a de s ( r = 20) A l ong w i t h t hi s s t r ong, pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i ons w e r e f ound be t w e e n ps yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s a nd s ym pt om s of a nxi e t y ( r = 58 ) a nd de pr e s s i on ( r = 50) T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t ps yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s m a y not onl y i m pa i r s t ude nt s a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt but a l s o i m pa i r s o t he r dom a i ns of m e nt a l he a l t h I n s um r e s e a r c h s uppor t s a l i nk be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd r e duc e d a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt how e ve r m or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o i nve s t i ga t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e Sc hool f unc t i oni ng and hi gh ac hi e v i ng s t ude nt s S t r e s s ha s not a l w a ys be e n l i nke d t o i m pa i r e d s c hool f unc t i oni ng f or a l l a dol e s c e nt p opul a t i ons S t udi e s on r e s i l i e nc y of a t r i s k yout h popul a t i ons ha ve i de nt i f i e d s t ude nt s w h o, due t o t he i r a dve r s e e nvi r on m e nt a l

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34 s ur r oundi ngs w e r e p r e di c t e d t o e xpe r i e nc e c om pr om i s e d s c hool f unc t i oni ng, ye t w e r e f ound t o de m ons t r a t e hi gh a c a de m i c f unc t i on i ng. K e nny, G a l l a ghe r A l va r e z S a l va t a nd S i l s by ( 2002) f ound t ha t de s pi t e t he s t r e s s c a us e d by l i vi ng i n a n i nne r c i t y, t he 16 s t ude nt s i n t he i r s t udy on r e s i l i e nc y ( a l l e nr ol l e d i n a n e nr i c hm e nt p r ogr a m t o p r e pa r e t he m f or c ol l e ge a dm i s s i on) m a i nt a i ne d h i gh G P A s a t t e nde d s c hool r e gul a r l y a nd w e r e r a t e d a s out s t a ndi ng a c hi e ve r s by t e a c he r s i n t he i r s c hool s R e s ul t s s uc h a s t he s e i ndi c a t e t ha t c hr oni c s t r e s s i s not de f i ni t i ve l y l i nke d t o poor a c a de m i c out c om e s f or s t ude nt s E xt r a s uppor t s s uc h a s t he e nr i c hm e nt pr ogr a m m a y s e r ve t o pr ot e c t s t ude nt s f r om a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t hr e e s t ude nt s w ho f a r e d be s t i n t he i r s t udy ( i e hi ghe s t a c hi e ve m e nt l ow e s t r e por t e d s ym pt om s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy) r e por t e d f e w e r s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s t ha n s t ude nt s i n t he s a m pl e w ho w e r e f ound t o ha ve s ym pt om s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy. A c c or di ng t o R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r o f f ( 2000) G P A i s onl y one m e a s ur e of s c hool f unc t i oni ng. I nde e d, s t r e s s m a y c a us e i m pa i r m e nt s i n ot he r dom a i ns of s c hool f unc t i oni ng, s uc h a s i n s c hool c onduc t Q ua l i t a t i ve i nt e r vi e w s c onduc t e d by T a yl or P ogr e bi n, a nd D odge ( 2002 ) r e ve a l e d t ha t t h e p r e s s ur e s t o a c hi e ve i n a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d hi gh s c hool pr ogr a m s ( i e a dva nc e d pl a c e m e nt a nd t he I n t e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e pr ogr a m s ) m a y l e a d t o a c a de m i c di s hone s t y. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, s t ude nt s di d not vi e w t he i r be ha vi or s a s c he a t i ng; how e ve r t he i r de s c r i pt i ons of a c a de m i c be ha vi or s w oul d c ons t i t ut e m os t de f i ni t i ons of a c a de m i c di s h one s t y, s uc h a s l ooki ng ont o a c l a s s m a t e s t e s t s t e a l i ng c opi e s of a t e s t t o s t udy, o r c opyi ng a not he r s t ude nt s hom e w or k S t ude nt s c i t e d t he s t r e s s c a us e d by hi gh e xpe c t a t i o ns he l d by t e a c he r s a nd pa r e nt s t i m e

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35 c ons t r a i nt s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c om pl e t i ng i m m e ns e w or kl oa ds a nd t he de s i r e t o e a r n gr a de s hi ghe r t ha n t he i r pe e r s i n t he p r ogr a m a s t he c a us e of c he a t i ng be ha vi or s T he s e pr e s s ur e s m a y a l s o be l i nke d t o i m pa i r m e nt s i n s o c i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng. Soc i al e m ot i onal f unc t i oni ng A dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a l s o m a y be a t r i s k f or e xpe r i e nc i ng ne ga t i ve a f f e c t a c om pone nt of S W B L a r s on a nd H a m ( 1993) f ound t ha t ne ga t i ve e ve nt s w e r e a m ode r a t e pr e di c t or o f ne ga t i ve a f f e c t na m e l y f e e l i ngs of de pr e s s i on ( r = 40) S t ude nt s w ho ha d e xpe r i e nc e d a hi ghe r num be r of s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s ( i e m or e t ha n 7) w e r e a t gr e a t e r r i s k f or e xpe r i e nc i ng hi gh r a t e s of ne ga t i ve a f f e c t t ha n s t ude nt s w ho ha d e xpe r i e nc e d f e w e r s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s T he s e f i nd i ngs s uppor t e d a pr e l i m i na r y l i nk be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd S W B i n a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons L a t e r M c K ni ght H ue bne r a nd S u l do ( 2002 ) i de nt i f i e d a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a c om pon e nt of S W B I n a s t udy o f 1 201 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s 6 12, M c K ni ght a nd c ol l e a gue s i nve s t i ga t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or A m ode r a t e ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on w a s f ound be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( r = 23 ) m e a ni ng t ha t s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d m or e s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s r e por t e d l ow e r l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, m ode r a t e c or r e l a t i ons w e r e f ound be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng ( r = 28 ) a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng ( r = 23 ) be ha vi or ; t he e xpe r i e nc e o f m or e s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s pos i t i ve l y pr e di c t e d i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or s L i f e s a t i s f a c t i on w a s f ound t o m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd bot h i nt e r na l i z i n g a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or I n ot he r

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36 w or ds t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or s w a s a t t e nua t e d by pos i t i ve a ppr a i s a l s of l i f e c i r c um s t a nc e s I n s um m a r y, s t r e s s w he t he r m e a s ur e d a s t he i nt e r n a l s t a t e of a n o r ga ni s m or m or e c om m onl y, a s e xt e r na l e ve nt s ha s be e n l i nke d t o i m pa i r m e nt s i n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt S W B a nd ps yc hopa t hol ogy i n a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons A s not e d be f or e i n a t r a ns a c t i ona l m ode l of s t r e s s t he oc c ur r e nc e of a n e xt e r na l e ve nt i s m e di a t e d by s e ve r a l va r i a bl e s t o c r e a t e t he pe r c e pt i on o f s t r e s s f or a n i ndi vi dua l C opi ng i s one s uc h f a c t or t ha t m a y m i t i ga t e or e xa c e r ba t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e nvi r onm e nt a l pr e c i pi t a nt s a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s C opi ng T he m os t f r e que nt l y ut i l i z e d de f i ni t i on of c opi ng i s t ha t of L a z a r us a nd F ol km a n ( 1984) C opi ng i s de f i ne d a s c ons t a nt l y c ha ngi ng c ogni t i ve a nd be ha vi or a l e f f or t s t o m a na ge s pe c i f i c e xt e r na l a nd/ or i nt e r na l de m a nds t ha t a r e a ppr a i s e d a s t a xi ng o r e xc e e di ng t he r e s our c e s of t he pe r s on ( p. 141) A ny pur pos e f ul e f f or t s unde r t a ke n t o m a na ge s t r e s s r e ga r dl e s s of t he pos i t i ve o r ne ga t i v e out c om e s of t he c opi ng be ha vi or a r e c ons i de r e d c opi ng. A l t hough a l a r ge body of r e s e a r c h e xi s t s i nve s t i ga t i ng how c hi l dr e n c ope w i t h s e ve r e a nd c hr oni c s t r e s s or s s uc h a s c hr oni c i l l ne s s ( G r e e nbe r g, L e ngua & C a l de r on, 1997; K l i e w e r 1997 ; P e t e r s on, O l i ve r & S a l da na 1997 ) pa r e nt a l di vo r c e ( G r yc h & F i nc ha m 1997) c hr oni c m a l t r e a t m e nt ( H a uga a r d, R e ppuc c i & F e e r i c k 1997) a nd pa r e nt a l ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( H a m m e n, 1997; W or s ha m C om pa s & E y, 1997) t he r e i s a pa uc i t y of r e s e a r c h on how c hi l d r e n c ope w i t h ge ne r i c nor m a t i ve s t r e s s S pe c i f i c a l l y, m or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne how a dol e s c e nt s c ope w i t h s t r e s s e nc ount e r e d i n

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37 t he i r e ve r yda y e xpe r i e nc e s s uc h a s t ha t c a us e d by s c hool a nd r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h pe e r s ( S ki nne r & W e l l bor n 1997 ) O t he r t opi c s i n c opi n g r e s e a r c h i n ne e d o f f u r t he r s t udy i nc l ude d t he uni que c opi ng s t yl e of yout h, a nd pr o bl e m s i nhe r e nt t o us i ng di f f e r e nt l a be l s f or s i m i l a r c opi ng be ha vi or s ( f or e xa m pl e s om e s t udi e s c om bi ne di f f e r e nt be ha vi or s i nt o c opi ng s t yl e s w i t h t he s a m e l a be l ) R e ga r di ng t he l a t t e r l i m i t a t i on t he l a c k of c ons e ns us a m ong r e s e a r c he r s ha s m a de i t di f f i c ul t t o a ggr e ga t e f i ndi ngs a c r os s s t udi e s or dr a w ge ne r a l c onc l us i on s r e ga r di ng t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n c opi ng s t yl e s a nd out c om e s ( C om pa s e t a l 2001) T he c ur r e nt s e c t i on on c opi ng be gi ns w i t h a r e vi e w of t he w a ys i n w hi c h c opi ng i s m e a s ur e d, a ddr e s s i ng t he pot e nt i a l s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s of e a c h a s s e s s m e nt m e t ho d. N e xt t he i de nt i f i c a t i on o f pa r t i c ul a r s t yl e s of c opi ng w i l l be di s c us s e d, w i t h pa r t i c ul a r a t t e nt i on t o t he di f f e r e nc e s f ound i n t he l i t e r a t u r e b e t w e e n a dol e s c e nt a nd a dul t c opi ng s t yl e s L a s t t he r ol e t ha t c opi ng pl a ys i n pr e di c t i ng s t r e s s a nd ne ga t i v e out c om e s w i l l be di s c us s e d, a l ong w i t h e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng t he m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s s pe c i f i c t o t he R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r o f f ( 2000) m ode l of a dol e s c e nt f unc t i oni ng. M e as ur e m e nt of C opi ng T he f our m os t c om m on m e t hods of a s s e s s m e nt us e d t o ga t he r i nf o r m a t i on a bout c opi ng s t yl e s i n c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s i nc l ude s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s obs e r va t i ons pa r e nt or t e a c he r r e por t s a nd s e l f r e por t que s t i onna i r e s ; e a c h pos s e s s e s pot e nt i a l s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s ( C om pa s e t a l 2001; C oyn e & G ot t l i e b, 1996) F o r i ns t a nc e i nt e r vi e w s pr ovi de r e s e a r c he r s w i t h a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of c opi ng, s uc h a s t he m ot i va t i ons f o r c opi ng be ha vi o r s a nd t he s i t ua t i ons t ha t m a y e l i c i t pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng

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38 r e s pons e s H ow e ve r i nt e r vi e w s a r e of t e n r i ddl e d w i t h m e a s ur e m e nt e r r or s due t o va r i a bl e c odi ng pr oc e dur e s A l s o, a dol e s c e nt s t e nd t o ge ne r a t e a l i m i t e d nu m be r o f c opi ng r e s pons e s i n i nt e r vi e w s ; t he r e f or e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o t e l l i f t hi s a s s e s s m e nt m e t hod a c c ur a t e l y c a pt ur e s t he f ul l r a nge of pos s i bl e c opi ng be ha vi or s T he t i m e a nd e xpe ns e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ol l e c t i ng t hi s de pt h of da t a of t e n pr ohi bi t s t he i r pr a c t i c a l us e i n l a r ge s c a l e r e s e a r c h s t udi e s ( C r oc ke t t S c hul e nbe r g, & P e t e r s on, 1987) P e r ha ps due t o t he s e l i m i t a t i ons s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s a r e n o t f r e q ue nt l y ut i l i z e d i n c opi ng r e s e a r c h. O bs e r va t i ons a not he r c opi ng a s s e s s m e nt t e c hni qu e a r e us ua l l y c a r r i e d out i n a na l ogue s i t ua t i ons s uc h a s a l a bor a t or y a nd p r ovi de r e s e a r c he r s w i t h a n oppor t un i t y t o obs e r ve c opi ng be ha vi or s i n a c t i on H ow e ve r a na l ogue s i t ua t i ons m a y not a c c ur a t e l y c a pt ur e t he c opi ng be ha vi or s t ha t w oul d oc c ur i n t he na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt a s i t i s di f f i c ul t t o m i m i c t he r a nge o f s t r e s s or s t ha t c a n pos s i bl y be e nc ount e r e d i n t he e nvi r onm e nt I n a ddi t i on, i t i s di f f i c ul t t o a ut he nt i c a l l y, or e t hi c a l l y, r e pl i c a t e t he i n t e ns i t y of s t r e s s or s e nc ount e r e d on a da i l y ba s i s O bs e r va t i ons m a y be m or e us e f ul t o c onf i r m i nf or m a t i on ga t he r e d t hr ough o t he r a s s e s s m e nt t e c hni que s ( C o m pa s e t a l 2001 ) R e por t s of s i gni f i c a nt a dul t s s uc h a s t e a c he r s or p a r e nt s a l l ow f or c om pa r i s ons of r e s pons e s m a de by obs e r ve r s i n di f f e r e nt e nvi r onm e nt s U s i ng t he i nf o r m a t i on ga t he r e d t hr ough t hi s m e t hod a r e s e a r c he r c a n de ve l op hyp ot he s e s a bout e nvi r onm e nt a l c ont i nge nc i e s t ha t m a y e l i c i t pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng be ha vi or s H ow e ve r i nf or m a t i on f r om a dul t i nf or m a nt s i s l i m i t e d t o t he know l e dge t ha t e a c h a ge nt ga i ns t hr ough i n t e r a c t i ons w i t h t he c hi l d ( C om pa s e t a l 2001 ) W i t hout ob t a i ni ng r e por t s f r om m ul t i pl e i nf or m a nt s a r e s e a r c he r w oul d be l i m i t e d i n c onc l us i ons t he y c oul d dr a w a s e a c h i nf or m a nt i s onl y

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39 pr i vy t o i nf or m a t i on f r om t he i r obs e r va t i ons of t he c hi l d unde r s pe c i f i c e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons R e por t s of s i gni f i c a nt a dul t s m a y ha ve m or e ut i l i t y i n s i ngl e c a s e r e s e a r c h de s i gn. S e l f r e por t que s t i onna i r e s a r e one o f t he m os t w i de l y us e d t ool s i n c hi l d a nd a dol e s c e nt c opi ng r e s e a r c h. A not a bl e s t r e ngt h of t hi s a s s e s s m e nt m e t hod i s t ha t s e l f r e por t s que r y a s i ngl e a ge nt ( t he r e s ponde nt ) w ho i s c a pa bl e of r e por t i ng t he e nt i r e r a nge of c opi ng r e s pons e s t ha t m a y be us e d a c r os s m ul t i pl e e nvi r onm e nt s A dol e s c e nt s a r e de ve l opm e nt a l l y a nd c ogni t i ve l y c a pa bl e of pr ovi d i ng r e l i a bl e a nd va l i d r e po r t s of t he i r be ha vi or s a c r os s e nvi r onm e nt s ( A ye r s e t a l 1996 ; C r oc ke t t S c hul e nbe r g, P e t e r s e n, 1987; C a us e y & D ubow 1992 ) D e s pi t e t hi s C om pa s e t a l ( 2001) ha s i de nt i f i e d s e ve r a l pr obl e m s w i t h t he us e of s e l f r e por t que s t i onna i r e s i n ge ne r a l I t e m s s i nc e t he y a r e de f i ne d a pr i o r i m a y c om bi ne m or e t ha n one c opi ng s t r a t e gy i nt o a s i ngl e r e s pons e i t e m w hi c h c a n ove r or unde r e s t i m a t e t he us e of pa r t i c ul a r s t r a t e gi e s M ot i va t i ons t o e nga ge i n c opi ng be ha vi or s m a y di f f e r f or e a c h i ndi vi dua l ( e g. e xe r c i s i ng m a y be a di s t r a c t i ng be ha vi or f or one a nd a n e f f o r t t o i m pr ove one s e l f f or a not he r ) T he r e m a y a l s o be a hi gh ove r l a p be t w e e n c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd be ha vi or a l s ym pt om s of pa t hol ogy s uc h a s c r yi ng a nd de pr e s s i on, w hi c h pot e nt i a l l y i nf l a t e s c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l di s or de r s W he n r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a r e f oc us e d on t he r e l a t i o ns hi p be t w e e n c opi ng a nd a da pt a t i on t o t he e nvi r onm e nt ge ne r a l c opi ng s t yl e s e l f r e por t que s t i onna i r e s ha ve gr e a t ut i l i t y i n pr e di c t i ng out c om e s c a us e d by t he a c c um ul a t i on of s t r e s s ( A ye r s e t a l 1996 ) O ne c om m onl y us e d s e l f r e por t m e a s ur e s of c opi n g a ppr opr i a t e f or us e i n a dol e s c e nt

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40 popul a t i ons i s t he A dol e s c e nt C opi ng S c a l e ( A C S : F r yde nbe r g a nd L e w i s 1993 ) a n 80 i t e m s e l f r e por t s c a l e a s s e s s i ng 18 c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s f ound t o be us e d by a dol e s c e nt s T he 18 s c a l e s c om pr i s i ng t he A C S a s s e s s t he s a m e be h a vi or s f r e que nt l y f ound i n ot he r s e l f r e por t c opi ng s t yl e m e a s ur e s w i t h f e w e r i t e m s I n a s a m pl e of 829 a dol e s c e nt s r a ngi ng i n a ge f r om 11 t o 18, t he A C S c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s m os t f r e que nt l y us e d w e r e r e l a xi ng a nd w or ki ng ha r d R e s ponde nt s a l s o e ndor s e d i t e m s r e l a t e d t o e nga gi n g i n phys i c a l r e c r e a t i on, de a l i ng w i t h p r obl e m s i nve s t i ng i n c l o s e f r i e nds w i s hf ul t hi nki ng, a nd f oc us i ng on t he pos i t i ve a l t hough l e s s f r e que nt l y. T he l e a s t us e d s t r a t e gi e s w e r e s e e ki ng pr of e s s i ona l he l p, s oc i a l a c t i on, a nd s pi r i t ua l s uppor t G e nde r di f f e r e nc e s i n t he us e of c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a s s e s s e d by t he A C S w e r e f ound, w i t h f e m a l e s m or e f r e que nt l y r e por t s e e ki n g s oc i a l s uppor t t e ns i on r e duc t i on, s e l f bl a m e a nd w o r r y t o c ope w i t h s t r e s s M a l e s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n phys i c a l r e c r e a t i on, i gno r e t he p r obl e m or ke e p pr obl e m s t o t he m s e l ve s A ge a l s o pl a ye d a r o l e i n t he c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s r e por t e d by a dol e s c e nt s on t h e A C S S pe c i f i c a l l y o l de r a dol e s c e nt s ( ol de r t ha n 14) w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o bl a m e t he m s e l ve s a nd us e t e ns i on r e duc t i on s t r a t e gi e s a nd l e s s l i ke l y t o p r obl e m s ol ve w or k h a r d s e e k s pi r i t ua l s uppor t or f oc us on t he pos i t i ve ( F r yde nbe r g & L e w i s 1999 ) T he A dol e s c e nt C opi ng O r i e nt a t i on f or P r obl e m E xpe r i e nc e s ( A C O P E : P a t t e r s on & M c C ubbi n, 1981) i s a not he r f r e que nt l y us e d s e l f r e p or t c opi ng s c a l e de s i gne d t o i de nt i f y be ha vi or s i n w hi c h a dol e s c e nt s m a y e nga ge i n or de r t o ne ga t e t he e f f e c t s of s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s T he A C O P E c ons i s t s of 12 pa t t e r ns of c opi ng be ha vi or : a ) ve nt i l a t i ng f e e l i ngs b) s e e ki ng di ve r s i ons c ) de ve l opi ng s e l f r e l i a nc e d) de ve l opi ng s oc i a l s uppor t

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41 e ) s ol vi ng f a m i l y pr obl e m s f ) a voi di ng pr obl e m s g) s e e ki ng s pi r i t ua l s uppor t h ) i nve s t i ng i n c l os e f r i e nds i ) s e e ki ng pr of e s s i ona l s uppor t j ) e nga gi ng i n de m a ndi ng a c t i vi t i e s j ) be i ng hum or ous a nd k ) r e l a xi ng N ot a l l c opi ng be ha vi or s a r e r e l a t e d t o pos i t i ve out c om e s P a t t e r s on a nd M c C ubbi n, t he a ut hor s of t he A C O P E ( 1987) f ound t he c opi ng s t yl e s ve nt i l a t i ng f e e l i ngs i nve s t i ng i n c l os e f r i e nds a nd de ve l opi ng s oc i a l s uppor t a r e r e l a t e d t o t he i nc r e a s e d a bus e o f c i ga r e t t e s a l c ohol a nd m a r i j ua na C onve r s e l y, t he c opi ng be ha vi or s s ol vi ng f a m i l y p r obl e m s s e e ki ng s pi r i t ua l s uppor t a nd e nga gi ng i n de m a ndi ng a c t i vi t i e s ha ve be e n f ound t o a l l be ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o s ubs t a nc e a bus e T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t c e r t a i n s t yl e s o f c opi ng m a y c om pe t e w i t h h i gh r i s k be ha vi or s w hi l e c opi ng pa t t e r ns i nvol vi ng e nga ge m e nt w i t h pe e r s w ho m a y a l s o be us i ng ha r m f ul s ubs t a nc e s a ppe a r s t o e xa c e r ba t e t h e ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of s t r e s s T ol a n, G o r m a n S m i t h H e n r y, C hung a nd H unt ( 2 002) s t udyi ng a s a m pl e of i nne r c i t y a dol e s c e nt s ( N = 372) a l s o e s t a bl i s he d a l i nk be t w e e n c opi ng s t yl e s c a pt ur e d by t he A C O P E a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s N e ga t i ve out c om e s ( e xt e r na l i z i ng a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or di s or de r s ) w e r e m e a s ur e d us i ng A c he nba c h s Y out h S e l f R e por t F o r m ( Y S R : A c he nba c h, 1991) P r e l i m i na r y c r os s s e c t i ona l a na l ys e s r e ve a l e d t ha t a dol e s c e nt s w ho r e por t e d s e e ki ng s uppor t a nd gui da nc e obt a i ne d t h e l ow e s t s c or e s f or i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or s ( i e de p r e s s i on) S t ude nt s w ho e ndor s e d s ubs t a nc e us e a n d e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o be i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or di s or de r s ( i e c onduc t pr obl e m s a ggr e s s i on) L on gi t udi na l a na l ys e s r e ve a l e d t ha t s t ude nt s w ho e ndor s e d s ubs t a nc e a bus e a s a c opi ng s t r a t e gy w e r e a t gr e a t e r r i s k f o r bot h

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42 i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s i nc r e a s i ng w i t h t i m e pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n t he y e ndor s e d a l i m i t e d num be r of a ddi t i ona l c opi ng be ha vi or s C opi ng S t y l e s I n t he body of l i t e r a t ur e on c opi ng i n a dul t s t he m os t c om m on di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n s t yl e s of c opi ng i s t ha t of p r obl e m a nd e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng. I n e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng, a n i ndi v i dua l m a y e nga ge i n s uc h be ha vi or s a s a voi da nc e r e a ppr a i s a l or m i ni m i z a t i on, w he r e a s i n pr obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng, a n i ndi vi dua l e nga ge s i n a n a c t i ve pr obl e m s ol vi ng p r oc e s s t o a m e l i or a t e t he p r obl e m ( L a z a r us & F ol km a n 1984) C onc l us i ons dr a w n f r om c opi ng r e s e a r c h on a dul t a nd c hi l d popul a t i ons m a y not a c c ur a t e l y r e f l e c t t he c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ypi c a l l y us e d by a dol e s c e nt gr oups ( B a nd & W e i s z 1988; C om pa s e t a l 2001 ) a s t he pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s us e d by a dol e s c e nt s m a y di f f e r due t o t he uni que s oc i a l a nd bi ol ogi c a l c ha nge s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t hi s a ge gr oup ( W i l l i a m s & M c G i l l i c uddy D e L i s i 2000) T o de t e r m i ne i f a t w o f a c t or m ode l of c opi ng, s u c h a s t ha t pr opos e d by L a z a r us a nd F ol km a n ( 19 84) w a s a ppr opr i a t e f or us e w i t h c hi l dr e n, A ye r s S a ndl e r W e s t a nd R oos a ( 1996) t e s t e d t he f i t us i ng a c om m onl y us e d m e a s ur e of c opi ng be ha vi or s s pe c i f i c t o c hi l dr e n T he C hi l dr e n s C opi ng S t r a t e gi e s C he c kl i s t ( C C S C ; P r ogr a m f o r P r e ve nt i on R e s e a r c h, 1991) i n a s a m pl e of 217 s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n. A t w o f a c t o r m ode l di d not a de qua t e l y f i t t he da t a f o r t h i s popul a t i on. R a t he r a f ou r f a c t o r s t r uc t ur e of c opi ng e m e r ge d, l a be l e d a ) a c t i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( de c i s i on m a ki ng, di r e c t pr obl e m s ol vi ng, s e e ki ng unde r s t a ndi ng, pos i t i ve c ogni t i ve r e s t r uc t ur i ng) b) di s t r a c t i on s t r a t e gi e s ( di s t r a c t i ng a c t i ons phys i c a l r e l e a s e of e m ot i on)

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43 c ) a voi da nc e s t r a t e gi e s ( c ogni t i ve a voi da nc e a voi d a nt a c t i ons ) a nd d) s uppor t s e e ki ng s t r a t e gi e s ( pr obl e m f oc us e d a nd e m ot i on f oc us e d s uppor t ) C r os s c ul t ur a l s t udi e s c onf i r m t ha t a t w o f a c t or m ode l i s not s uf f i c i e nt t o f ul l y e xpl a i n c opi ng pa t t e r ns of yout h F o r i ns t a nc e L e e C ha n a nd Y i k ( 1992 ) s t udi e d t he c opi ng s t yl e s of 832 h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s i n H ong K ong us i ng t he A dol e s c e nt C opi ng S c a l e ( A C S ) T he 25 i t e m s o f t he A C S w e r e de r i ve d f r om ot he r c opi ng m e a s ur e s i nc l udi ng t hos e us e d r e gul a r l y i n r e s e a r c h on A m e r i c a n yout h, a nd a l s o i nc l ude d i t e m s be l i e ve d t o be uni que t o t he C hi ne s e c ul t ur e S i m i l a r t o c opi ng s t yl e m e a s ur e s us e d i n r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s r e s ponde n t s w e r e a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e on a 5 poi n t L i ke r t s c a l e how f r e que nt l y t he y us e e a c h c opi ng r e s pons e f or pr obl e m s r e l a t e d t o a c a de m i c s e l de r s ( pa r e nt s t e a c he r s ) i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd f ut ur e p l a ns A f our f a c t or s t r uc t ur e of c opi ng e m e r ge d: a ) a voi da nc e b) s e l f r e l i a nc e / pr obl e m s ol vi ng c ) r e l i gi os i t y, a nd d ) e m ot i ona l r e gul a t i on a nd a do l e s c e nt s r e por t e d us i ng s i m i l a r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s r e ga r dl e s s of t he na t ur e o f t he pr obl e m A l t hough t he c opi ng be ha vi or s r e por t e d by t he C hi ne s e a dol e s c e nt s m a y not be c ongr ue nt w i t h t hos e ut i l i z e d by A m e r i c a n yout h i t i s f u r t he r e vi de nc e t ha t r e s e a r c h on a dul t c opi ng m a y ha ve l i m i t e d ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y t o c hi l d a nd a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons F ac t or s I nf l ue nc i ng C opi ng S t y l e s A ge A s not e d t he uni que a nd r a pi d de ve l opm e nt a l c ha nge s e xpe r i e nc e d by a dol e s c e nt s m a y l e nd t o t he obs e r ve d di f f e r e nc e s i n c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s e m pl oye d by a dol e s c e nt s W i l l i a m s a nd M c G i l l i c uddy D e L i s i ( 2000) s e l e c t e d a t ot a l o f 109 a dol e s c e nt s f r om m i ddl e s c hool ( n= 34 ) hi gh s c ho ol ( n= 37) a nd c ol l e ge ( n= 38 ) a nd

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44 a s ke d t he m t o c om pl e t e t he A dol e s c e nt P e r c e i ve d L i f e E ve nt s S c a l e ( C om pa s 1987 ) a s a m e a s ur e of t he num be r of m a j or s t r e s s or s a nd da i l y ha s s l e s e xpe r i e nc e d by e a c h i ndi vi dua l i n t he pr e c e di ng s i x m ont hs M e a n a ge s of pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om e a c h s c hool de t e r m i ne d t he i r c a t e gor i z a t i on a s e i t he r e a r l y ( M = 12. 0) m i ddl e ( M = 15 6) or ol de r ( M = 19. 1) a dol e s c e nt s M os t s t ude nt s r e por t e d de a l i ng w i t h a n a ve r a ge of 15 da i l y ha s s l e s a nd 10 m a j or e ve nt s C opi ng w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he W a ys of C opi ng C he c kl i s t ( W C C : F ol km a n & L a z a r us 198 8) a 66 i t e m m e a s ur e of e i gh t c opi ng be ha vi or s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e on a 4 poi nt l i ke r t s c a l e t he f r e q ue nc y w i t h w hi c h t he y us e d pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s w he n f a c e d w i t h t he i r m os t s t r e s s f ul da i l y ha s s l e a nd m a j or e ve nt a s pr e vi ous l y r e por t e d on t he A dol e s c e nt P e r c e i ve d L i f e E ve nt s S c a l e A l t hough a ge w a s not r e l a t e d t o t he num be r o f s t r e s s or s r e por t e d, pa r t i c i pa nt s a ge pl a ye d a r ol e i n t he num be r o f c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a dol e s c e nt s r e por t e d us i ng t o de a l w i t h t he i r pr obl e m s O l de r a dol e s c e nt s us e d a gr e a t e r num be r of c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( M = 1. 41) t ha n m i ddl e ( M = 1 27) or e a r l y a dol e s c e nt s ( M = 1 16) A c r o s s gr oups pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d m or e pl a nf ul pr obl e m s ol vi ng ( e xa m pl e i t e m : I m a de a pl a n of a c t i on a nd f ol l ow e d i t ) a nd pos i t i ve r e a ppr a i s a l ( T he e xpe r i e nc e he l p e d m a ke m e a be t t e r pe r s on ) t ha n e s c a pe a voi da nc e ( A voi de d be i ng w i t h pe opl e i n ge ne r a l ) d i s t a nc i ng ( D i dn t l e t i t ge t t o m e ) or c onf r ont a t i ve c opi ng ( T r i e d t o ge t t he pe r s on r e s pons i bl e t o c ha nge t he i r m i nd ) T he us e of pl a nf ul pr obl e m s ol vi ng, a c c e pt i ng r e s pons i bi l i t y ( R e a l i z e d I br ought t he pr obl e m on m ys e l f ) a nd s e l f c ont r ol ( K e pt m y f e e l i ngs f r o m i nt e r f e r i ng ) i nc r e a s e d w i t h a ge Y ounge r a dol e s c e nt s m os t f r e que nt l y us e d c ogni t i ve r e a ppr a i s a l t e c hni que s

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45 a l t hough t he y s t i l l d i d not us e t hi s c opi ng s t r a t e gy a t t he s a m e r a t e a s m i ddl e or ol de r a dol e s c e nt s T he t ype of s t r e s s a l s o i nf l u e nc e d t he c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s us e d. A c r os s a ge gr oups pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o us e pl a nf u l pr obl e m s ol vi ng t o de a l w i t h da i l y ha s s l e s a nd e s c a pe a voi da nc e or s e e ki ng s oc i a l s up por t ( A c c e pt e d s ym pa t hy a nd unde r s t a ndi ng f r om ot he r s ) t o de a l w i t h m a j or e v e nt s I s s um r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t a s a dol e s c e nt s m a t ur e c ogni t i ve l y a nd e m ot i ona l l y t h a t t he y a r e l i ke l y t o unde r t a ke m or e a c t i on t o a ddr e s s t he s t r e s s or s t he y e nc ount e r i n t h e i r e nvi r onm e nt G e nde r T he r e i s a l s o e vi de nc e t ha t ge nde r m a y p l a y a r ol e i n r e po r t e d c opi ng s t yl e s a s pr e vi ous l y de s c r i be d i n F r yde nbe r g a nd L e w i s ( 1999) s t udy. G r i f f i t h, D ubow a nd I ppol i t o ( 2000) s a m pl e d 375 s e ve nt h, n i nt h a n d t w e l f t h g r a de s us i ng t he C opi ng R e s pons e s I nve nt or y Y out h F or m ( C R I Y : M oos 1990) a 48 i t e m s e l f r e por t m e a s ur e de s i gne d t o yi e l d dom a i n s pe c i f i c c opi ng f o r s t r e s s or s s t e m m i ng f r o m f a m i l y s c hool a nd pe e r r e l a t i ons T he C R I Y c ons i s t s of e i ght s ubs c a l e s w hi c h f i t a t w o f a c t or m ode l of c opi ng, l a be l e d a ppr oa c h a nd a voi da nc e c opi ng. F e m a l e s r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng a g r e a t e r num be r of s t r e s s or s i n e a c h dom a i n, a nd a g r e a t e r f e e l i ng of di s t r e s s i n r e s pons e t o t he s e s t r e s s or s F e m a l e s r e por t e d hi ghe r l e ve l s of a ppr oa c h c opi ng t ha n m a l e s f o r a l l t hr e e s t r e s s or t ype s a nd us e d m or e a voi da nc e c opi ng t o de a l w i t h f a m i l y a nd pe e r s t r e s s or s O ve r a l l f e m a l e s r e po r t e d e nga gi ng i n a g r e a t e r nu m be r of bot h a ppr oa c h a nd a voi da nc e s t r a t e gi e s I t i s l i ke l y t ha t f e m a l e s r e por t e d us i ng m or e c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a s a de f e ns e t o t he i nc r e a s e d num be r of s t r e s s or s a nd f e e l i ngs of d i s t r e s s t he y w e r e e xpe r i e nc i ng. St r e s s l e v e l s I n a ddi t i on t o de ve l opm e nt a l c ha nge s a nd ge nde r t he l e ve l s of s t r e s s ( i e hi gh m ode r a t e l ow ) e xpe r i e nc e d by a n a dol e s c e nt m a y di c t a t e w he t he r t he y e nga ge

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46 i n e f f e c t i ve c opi ng be ha vi or s de A nda a nd c ol l e a g ue s ( 2000) us e d t he A dol e s c e nt S t r e s s S t r e s s or a nd C opi ng M e a s ur e ( A S S C M : B r a dl e y e t a l 1990) a l e ngt hy que s t i onna i r e m e a s ur i ng s t r e s s a nd c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a s w e l l a s pe r c e pt i ons of s t r a t e gy e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n a s t udy of t e nt h a nd e l e ve nt h g r a de hi gh s c hool s s t ude nt s ( N = 333) T hi s s pe c i f i c hi gh s c hool a ge d popul a t i on w a s s e l e c t e d i n a n a t t e m pt t o c ont r ol f or t he e f f e c t of s c hool t r a ns i t i ons s uc h a s t hos e e xpe r i e nc e d by be gi nni n g or g r a dua t i ng f r om hi g h s c hool T he c opi ng m e t hods m e a s ur e d by t he A S S C M w e r e c a t e gor i z e d a s a da pt i ve ( r e l a xa t i on, di s t r a c t i on, c ogni t i ve c ont r ol he l p s e e ki ng a nd a f f e c t i ve r e l e a s e ) a nd m a l a da pt i ve ( de ni a l w i t hdr a w a l c onf r ont a t i on, a ggr e s s i ve be ha vi or a n d s ubs t a nc e a bus e ) be ha vi or s a t w o f a c t or s t r uc t ur e A l t hough a l l s t ude nt s e m pl oye d m or e a da pt i ve t ha n m a l a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s us e d a gr e a t e r num be r of m a l a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( M = 2. 19) t ha n t he i r m ode r a t e or l ow s t r e s s pe e r s ( M = 1. 93) A c r os s s t r e s s l e ve l s a d a pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s w e r e pe r c e i ve d by pa r t i c i pa nt s a s m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n t he us e of m a l a da pt i ve s t r a t e gi e s a l t hough t hi s di s t i nc t i on w a s l e s s pr onounc e d f or hi gh s t r e s s s t ude nt s A c ade m i c ac hi e v e m e nt I n a ddi t i on t o t he di f f e r e nc e s i n t he c opi ng b e ha vi or s us e d by a dul t s a nd a dol e s c e nt s a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons w i t h va r yi ng l e ve l s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt m a y ha ve c opi ng s t yl e s t ha t a r e uni qu e t o t he i r pe e r g r oup. M a t e s a nd A l l i s on ( 1992) f ound bot h s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s i n t he c opi ng s t yl e s of l ow m ode r a t e a nd hi gh a c hi e vi ng hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s t hr ough f oc us gr oup i nt e r vi e w i ng. S t ude nt s a t a l l a c a de m i c l e ve l s r e por t e d us i ng di ve r s i ona r y t a c t i c ( s por t s l i s t e ni ng t o m us i c ) r e be l l i on a ga i ns t a ut hor i t y ( pa r e nt s t e a c he r s r ul e s ) a nd s ubs t a nc e us e ( r a ngi ng

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47 f r om c i ga r e t t e s t o r e c r e a t i ona l dr ugs ) t o c ope w i t h s t r e s s S t ude nt s i n t he a dva nc e d a c a de m i c t r a c k c i t e d di f f e r e nt w a ys t o r e be l a ga i ns t a ut hor i t y; f or t hi s g r oup, r e be l l i ng a ga i ns t a ut hor i t y w a s de f i ne d a s not doi ng w ha t pa r e nt s / t e a c he r s w a n t e d, or goi ng out w i t h f r i e nds a ga i ns t a pa r e nt s r e que s t F or s t ude nt s i n t he l ow a nd m ode r a t e a c hi e vi ng s c hool s r e be l l i ng a ga i ns t pa r e nt s / t e a c he r s w a s a l s o c i t e d, but br e a ki ng l a w s ( e g ge t t i ng i n f i ght s va nda l i z i ng) a nd s m a s hi ng t hi ngs w a s a dde d. O t he r di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound. A s t ude nt i n t he m ode r a t e l y a c hi e vi ng gr oup c i t e d e f f or t s t o i m p r ove t he s e l f a s a c opi ng r e s pons e w hi c h w a s not r e por t e d i n t he ot he r gr ou ps S ui c i de w a s m e nt i one d onl y onc e a nd t hi s w a s by a n a dva nc e d l e ve l s t ude nt I t i s di f f i c ul t t o d r a w a ny c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng t he e ndo r s e m e nt of t h i s c opi ng s t r a t e gy by ot he r a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d s t ude nt s a s t he s a m pl e s i z e w a s s m a l l ( N = 23) a nd onl y a s i ngl e s t ude nt r e po r t i ng s ui c i de a s a c opi ng r e s pons e A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s s t udy w a s c o nduc t e d i n A us t r a l i a ; t he r e f o r e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o know i f t he s e f i ndi ngs w oul d ge ne r a l i z e t o hi gh a c hi e vi ng A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s G i f t e d popul at i ons S t ude nt s w ho a r e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d po t e nt i a l l y pr ovi de one popul a t i on i n w hi c h t o c onduc t r e s e a r c h on t he c opi ng s t yl e s of s t ude nt s w ho a r e a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d; how e ve r t he r e i s a de a r t h of l i t e r a t u r e on t he c opi ng s t yl e s of t hi s popul a t i on. I n a n e f f or t t o a ddr e s s t hi s pr obl e m P r e us s a nd D ubow ( 2004) c om pa r e d t he c opi ng be ha vi or s of gi f t e d a nd t ypi c a l e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t ude nt s i n r e l a t i on t o s c hool a nd pe e r s t r e s s or s A s a m pl e of 52 gi f t e d a n d 55 t ypi c a l ( i e not i de nt i f i e d a s gi f t e d) s t ude nt s w e r e a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e how t he y w oul d r e a c t us i ng t he 44 i t e m S e l f R e por t C opi ng S c a l e ( S R C S : C a us e y & D ubow 1 992) t o ge t t i ng i nt o a f i ght w i t h a f r i e nd a nd ge t t i ng a ba d gr a de i n s c hool S t ude nt s c om pl e t e d t he S R C S i n r e s pons e t o

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48 e a c h pos s i bl e s c e na r i o. S t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d r e po r t e d us i ng m o r e pr obl e m s ol vi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o a dd r e s s bot h t ype s of s t r e s s or s t ha n t he t ypi c a l pe e r c om pa r i s ons B ot h gr oups i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y w oul d be m or e l i ke l y t o us e pr obl e m s ol vi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o c ope w i t h a pe e r s t r e s s or a nd w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o us e di s t a nc i ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. f o r ge t t he w hol e t hi ng) t o c ope w i t h a s c hool s t r e s s or T he s e f i ndi ngs pr ovi de pr e l i m i na r y e vi de nc e t ha t c hi l dr e n w ho a r e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d m a ny c ope w i t h s t r e s s i n uni que w a ys c om pa r e d t o t ypi c a l pe e r s I t r e m a i ns unc l e a r a s t o w he t he r t he s e s a m e di f f e r e nc e s w oul d be f ound f o r a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons a s t hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d on a n e l e m e nt a r y a ge d s a m pl e I t i s a l s o unknow n a s t o w he t he r t he s e f i ndi ngs w oul d r e m a i n t r ue f or a l l a c a de m i c a l l y a d va nc e d s t ude nt s or i f t he s e f i ndi ngs a r e uni que t o g i f t e d popu l a t i ons R e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n S t r e s s C opi ng, a nd M e nt a l H e a l t h S t udi e s of s t r e s s f r e que nt l y i nc l ude m e a s ur e s of c opi ng, a s t he na t u r e of c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( i e a da pt i ve m a l a da pt i ve ) a r e be l i e ve d t o m i t i ga t e o r e xa c e r ba t e t he l e ve l s of s t r e s s e xpe r i e nc e d by a n i ndi vi dua l I nt e gr a t e d s t u di e s of s t r e s s a nd c opi ng of f e r va l ua bl e i ns i ght i nt o t he r ol e e a c h pl a y i nde pe nde nt l y a nd c onj oi nt l y, i n t he c ou r s e of a dol e s c e nt de ve l opm e nt a s t he w a y t ha t c hi l dr e n c ope w i t h s t r e s s ha s r e pe a t e dl y be e n i de nt i f i e d a s a pr e di c t or of ps yc hol ogi c a l a dj us t m e nt ( C om pa s O r os a n, & G r a nt 1993; C om pa s e t a l 2001) U s i ng c r os s s e c t i ona l r e s e a r c h de s i gns t he di r e c t i on of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c opi ng a nd e m ot i ona l di s t r e s s c a nnot be de t e r m i ne d. M a l a da pt i ve c opi n g m a y e l e va t e t he l e ve l s of s t r e s s e xpe r i e nc e d by a n i ndi vi dua l ; how e ve r i t i s e qua l l y l i ke l y t ha t e m ot i ona l di s t r e s s s uc h a s t ha t c a us e d by ps yc hopa t hol ogy, m a y di s r upt t he a ppl i c a t i on of a da pt i ve

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49 c opi ng be ha vi or s ( C om pa s e t a l 2001 ) N ot w i t hs t a ndi ng, c r os s s e c t i ona l r e s e a r c h c a n i de nt i f y t he s t r e ngt h of c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s a nd ou t c om e s a nd t hus i de nt i f y a r e a s t ha t c a n f ur t he r be i nve s t i ga t e d w i t h m or e s t r i nge nt r e s e a r c h de s i gns M or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne t he c opi ng b e ha vi o r s m os t uni que t o a dol e s c e nt s a nd t he r e l a t i ons hi p t he s e be ha vi or s ha ve t o ps yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s a s t he y m a y gr e a t l y i m pa c t t he a bi l i t y of a n a dol e s c e nt t o s uc c e s s f ul l y na vi ga t e i m por t a nt de ve l opm e nt a l t a s ks ( C om pa s C onnor S m i t h, S a l t z m a n, T hom s e n & W a ds w or t h, 2001) C opi ng as an I nt e r v e ni ng V ar i abl e T he r e c i pr oc a l i nf l ue nc e s of s t r e s s a nd c opi ng on m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s m a y be s t be e xpl a i ne d t hr ough pa t h m ode l s i n w hi c h c opi ng f unc t i ons a s a n i nt e r ve ni ng va r i a bl e s ( i e m e di a t o r ) be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd out c om e s T o e s t a bl i s h w he t he r a va r i a bl e s uc h a s c opi ng, a c t s a s a m e di a t or be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s f or a s pe c i f i c popul a t i on, s e ve r a l c ondi t i ons m us t be m e t B a r on a nd K e nny ( 1986 ) ha ve i de nt i f i e d f ou r c ondi t i ons t o t e s t f o r m e di a t i on na m e l y a ) t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e o f i nt e r e s t m us t be s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o t he m e di a t or b ) t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e m us t be r e l a t e d t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e of i nt e r e s t c ) t he m e di a t or m us t be s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e a nd d ) t he s t r e ngt h o f t h e r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he i nde pe nde nt a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s m us t de c r e a s e a f t e r c ont r ol l i n g f or t he m e di a t or I n s um a m e di a t o r i s a va r i a bl e t ha t i s f ound t o e xpl a i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a n i nde pe nde nt a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e A not he r w a y of c onc e pt ua l i z i ng t he r ol e of c opi ng i s t o vi e w i t a s a m ode r a t o r i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h o ut c om e s A m ode r a t or va r i a bl e

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50 c ha nge s t he di r e c t i on or s t r e ngt h be t w e e n a n i nde p e nde nt a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e A m ode r a t or i s i de nt i f i e d w he n t he e f f e c t o f one va r i a bl e de pe nds of t he l e ve l s of a not he r or s i m pl y s t a t e d, a n i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t i s f ound ( B a r on & K e nny, 1986) O f not e t he m a j or i t y of s t udi e s t o da t e ha ve not c l a r i f i e d t he pa t hw a ys t hr ough w hi c h s t r e s s a nd c opi n g e f f e c t m e nt a l he a l t h, bu t r a t he r ha ve r e por t e d t he i nt e r r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong t he s e t hr e e s e t s of va r i a bl e s Soc i al e m ot i onal F unc t i on i ng T he m a j or i t y of s t udi e s on s t r e s s a nd c opi ng ha ve f oc us e d on t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps t o ne ga t i ve out c om e s s uc h a s a nxi e t y, de pr e s s i on, s u bs t a nc e a bus e c om pr om i s e d phys i c a l he a l t h a nd dr oppi ng out o f s c hool w i t h ve r y f e w f oc us i ng on pos i t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h. U s i ng a t w o f a c t or s t r uc t ur e of a dol e s c e nt c opi ng, l a be l e d pr obl e m a nd e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng, C om pa s M a l c a r ne a nd F onda c a r o ( 1988) s a m pl e d 130 young a dol e s c e nt s t o de t e r m i ne t he w a y t he y r e por t e d c o pi ng w i t h i nt e r pe r s ona l a nd a c a de m i c s t r e s s or s a nd how t hi s w a s l i nke d t o ps yc hopa t hol ogy. S ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o c ons i de r one s i t ua t i on t he y ha d de a l t w i t h r e c e nt l y i n e a c h d om a i n a nd t he n a s ke d t o ge ne r a t e a l i s t of pos s i bl e be ha vi or s i n w hi c h t he y c oul d ha ve e nga ge d t o de a l w i t h t he s i t ua t i on. S ubj e c t s w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e w hi c h o f t he s e be ha vi or s t he y ha d a c t ua l l y us e d i n r e s pons e t o t he s pe c i f i c a c a de m i c a nd i nt e r pe r s ona l s t r e s s or s t he y ha d pr e vi ous l y i de nt i f i e d. R e s pons e s w e r e c ode d a l ong t w o di m e ns i ons pr obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng, de f i ne d a s e f f or t t o a c t on t he s our c e of s t r e s s a nd c ha nge i t a nd e m o t i on f oc us e d c opi ng, de f i ne d a s e f f or t s t o r e gul a t e t he e m ot i ona l s t a t e s s t e m m i ng f r o m a s t r e s s f ul e ve nt S ubj e c t s a l s o c om pl e t e d t he Y out h S e l f R e por t ( Y S R : A c he nba c h & E de l br oc k 1987 )

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51 w hi l e t he i r pa r e nt s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e t he C hi l d B e ha vi or C he c kl i s t ( C B C L : A c he nba c h & E de l br oc k, 1987) a s m e a s ur e s of m e nt a l he a l t h, i n l i ne w i t h a t r a di t i ona l vi e w of m e nt a l he a l t h a s t he a bs e nc e of pa t hol ogy A pr e l i m i na r y a i m o f t he s t udy w a s t o e va l ua t e t he c ons i s t e nc y of c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a c r os s s i t ua t i ons ( i e a c a de m i c s t r e s s or s i nt e r pe r s ona l s t r e s s or s ) W he n f a c e d w i t h e i t he r a c a de m i c or i nt e r pe r s ona l s t r e s s or s bot h m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s r e por t e d us i ng a s i m i l a r num be r o f e m ot i on o r p r obl e m f oc us e d c o pi ng t o a ddr e s s t he s t r e s s or T he n, C om pa s a nd c ol l e a gue s c or r e l a t e d c opi ng s t yl e s w i t h ps yc hopa t hol ogy. F o r f e m a l e s t he us e of e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng be ha vi or s w a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he Y S R s ubs c a l e s l a be l e d de pr e s s e d ( r = 24) a nd de l i nque n t ( r = 24) T he us e of e m ot i on f oc us e d s t r a t e gi e s by m a l e s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he Y S R s ubs c a l e l a be l e d a ggr e s s i ve ( r = 24 ) A c r os s ge nde r s t he us e of pr obl e m f oc us e d s t r a t e gi e s a ppe a r e d t o be m o r e a da pt i ve a s t he y s how e d s i gni f i c a nt ne ga t i ve c o r r e l a t i ons w i t h m a ny o f t he s a m e Y S R s ubs c a l e s S pe c i f i c a l l y, p r obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he Y S R s ubs c a l e s l a be l e d de pr e s s e d ( r = 23 ) a nd de l i nque nt ( r = 23 ) f o r f e m a l e s a nd ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he Y S R s ubs c a l e s l a be l e d de l i nque nt ( r = 25) f o r m a l e s A ddi t i ona l l y, a ge d i f f e r e nc e s i n c opi ng s t yl e s w e r e f ound i n t hi s s a m pl e w i t h e m ot i on f oc us e d r e s pons e s i nc r e a s i ng w i t h a ge a nd pr obl e m f oc us e d r e s pons e s de c r e a s i ng F i ndi ngs s uc h a s t he s e c oul d he l p t o e xpl a i n t he hi ghe r pr e va l e nc e of pa t hol ogy i n a dol e s c e nt s a s c om pa r e d t o e l e m e nt a r y a ge d c hi l d r e n. O t he r s t udi e s s uppor t t he f i ndi ng t ha t pa r t i c ul a r c o pi ng s t yl e s m a y be r e l a t e d t o ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h, s uc h a s de pr e s s i on a nd s ubs t a nc e a bus e ( G a l a i f

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52 S us s m a n, C hou, & W i l l s 2003 ) A l a r ge s a m pl e of hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s ( N = 931) pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a s t udy i nve s t i ga t i ng t he r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng be ha vi or s de pr e s s i on a nd s ubs t a nc e a bus e A nge r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. s e e ki ng r e ve nge ge t t i ng m a d) s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t e d i nc r e a s i ng de pr e s s i on ( r = 14) s ubs t a nc e us e ( r = 13) a nd pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ( r = 19) w hi l e s e e ki ng s oc i a l s uppor t a m or e a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gy pr e di c t e d m o r e pos i t i ve out c om e s s pe c i f i c a l l y de c r e a s e d l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ( r = 10 ) A m ul t i t ude of ot he r s t u di e s s uppor t t he l i nk be t w e e n s t r e s s m a l a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd ne ga t i ve i nd i c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h, s uc h a s de pr e s s i on ( H e r m a n S t a hl & P e t e r s on, 1996; S e i f f ge K r e nke & K l e s s i nge r 2000 ) a l c ohol a bus e ( W i ndl e & W i ndl e 1996 ) ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( T ol a n, G o r m a n S m i t h, H e nr y, C hung, & H unt 2002 ) a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt ( G onz a l e s T e i n S a ndl e r & F r i e dm a n, 2001 ) a nd c onf l i c t e d i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps ( L e e C ha n, & Y i k 1992 ) Sc hool F unc t i oni ng I n a s t udy e xpl o r i ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s c opi ng a nd s c hool c om pl e t i on, H e s s a nd C ope l a nd ( 2001) us e d a m od i f i e d ve r s i on o f t he A C O P E ( C ope l a nd & H e s s 1995) a nd t r a c ke d 94 hi gh s c ho ol s t ude nt s f r om t he s t a r t o f ni nt h gr a de t hr ough t he i r p r oj e c t e d gr a dua t i on da t e S t ud e nt s w ho r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o dr op ou t of s c hool be f or e g r a dua t i on ( dr op out s ) t ha n s t ude nt s ( c om pl e t e r s ) w ho r e por t e d l e s s s t r e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e s D r op out s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t ha n c om pl e t e r s t o us e t he c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s of e nga gi ng i n s oc i a l a c t i vi t i e s phys i c a l di ve r s i ons a nd s e e ki ng pr of e s s i ona l s uppor t A l t hough none o f t he a f or e m e nt i one d c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a ppe a r dys f unc t i ona l i n na t ur e t he y m a y not s e r ve t he

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53 ne e ds of hi gh r i s k s t ude nt s a ppr op r i a t e l y. F or i ns t a nc e i f s t ude nt s w ho a r e hi ghl y s t r e s s e d e nga ge i n s oc i a l a c t i vi t i e s i nvol vi ng de vi a nt dr ug a bus i ng pe e r s t he y m a y be m or e l i ke l y t o us e dr ugs t he m s e l ve s A ddi t i ona l l y s t ude nt s w ho r e por t s e e ki ng pr of e s s i ona l s uppor t m a y be e xpe r i e nc i ng m ul t i pl e pr obl e m s ; pr o f e s s i ona l s uppor t m a y be c onf ounde d by p r obl e m s e ve r i t y. I t i s unc l e a r w he t he r t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e l e v a t e d s t r e s s a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s s uc h a s pa t hol ogy a nd a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt e xi s t s f or a l l s ubgr oups of a dol e s c e nt s A s a f or e m e nt i one d, hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s of t e n c i t e s c hool a nd t i m e c om m i t m e nt s a s pot e n t i a l s our c e s of s t r e s s A dol e s c e nt s w ho c hoos e t o t a ke on a ddi t i ona l t a s ks s uc h a s e nga gi ng i n a c ha l l e ngi ng c ur r i c ul u m or pa r t i c i pa t i ng e xt e ns i ve l y i n s c hool a nd c om m uni t y a c t i vi t i e s m a y i na dve r t e nt l y e xpos e t he m s e l ve s t o hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s a s e a c h a ddi t i ona l de m a nd r e qui r e s a s i gni f i c a nt t i m e c om m i t m e nt H ow e ve r s uc h hi gh a c hi e vi ng a nd e nga ge d s t ude nt s do not s e e m t o e xpe r i e nc e t he s c hool f a i l ur e s c i t e d i n m a ny of t he a bove m e nt i one d s t udi e s S t ude nt s w h o a r e e nr ol l e d i n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e P r ogr a m a n a dva nc e d hi gh s c hool p r ogr a m de s i gne d f o r hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a r e one s uc h popul a t i on o f a dol e s c e nt s s ui t a bl e f or s t udy r e ga r di ng t he c o oc c ur r e nc e of s t r e s s a nd a c hi e ve m e nt M or e ove r t he e xa m i na t i on of c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s e m pl oye d by t hi s popul a t i on m a y s he d l i ght on e f f e c t i ve a nd i ne f f e c t i ve w a ys of de a l i ng w i t h s t r e s s T he s e pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng s t yl e s m a y f un c t i on a s m e di a t or s be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s

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54 T he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e P r ogr a m H i s t or y of t he I nt e r nat i on al B ac c al aur e at e O r gani z at i on T he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) O r ga ni z a t i on w a s f ounde d i n 1968 by a gr oup of e duc a t or s i n a n e f f or t t o pr ovi de a c ur r i c u l um f or s t ude nt s w ho f r e que nt l y m ove d i nt e r na t i ona l l y. C ur r e nt l y t he I B p r ogr a m i s i m pl e m e nt e d i n a ppr oxi m a t e l y 1, 433 s c hool s i nt e r na t i ona l l y, s e r vi ng a t ot a l o f 200 000 s t ude nt s ( I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e O r ga ni z a t i on, 2002) T he c ur r i c ul um i s ba s e d on t h r e e pr i nc i pl e s ( a ) t he ne e d f or a br oa d ge ne r a l e duc a t i on, ( b ) t he ne e d t o de ve l op a n i nt e r na t i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng, a nd ( c ) t he ne e d f or f l e xi bi l i t y i n p r ogr a m s of s t udy ( I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e O r ga ni z a t i on, 2002, p. 3 ) T he c or e o f t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) p r ogr a m c ons i s t s of t he T he or y of K now l e dge ( c r os s c ul t ur a l phi l os ophy) e x t e nde d e s s a y ( i nde pe nde nt r e s e a r c h) a nd c r e a t i vi t y, a c t i on a nd s e r vi c e c om pone nt s ( C A S : e nga ge m e nt i n s e r vi c e a t t he c om m uni t y, na t i ona l o r gl oba l l e ve l ) I n a ddi t i on, s t ude nt s a r e i ns t r uc t e d i n t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge a f o r e i gn l a ngua ge s c i e nc e f i ne a r t s m a t he m a t i c s c om put e r s c i e nc e e xpe r i m e nt a l s c i e nc e a nd i ndi vi dua l s a nd s oc i e t i e s ( m ul t i c ul t u r a l hi s t or y) A l t hough s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m r e c e i ve i ns t r uc t i on i n a l l s ubj e c t a r e a s s t ude nt s s e l e c t t hr e e t o f our o f t he s e s ubj e c t a r e a s i n w hi c h t he y de s i r e t o r e c e i ve m or e i nt e ns e i ns t r uc t i on. I n or de r t o e a r n a n I B di pl om a a s t ude nt m us t s uc c e s s f ul l y c om pl e t e a l l c om pone nt s o f t he c or e c ur r i c ul um a nd a l s o de m ons t r a t e c om pe t e nc y by pa s s i ng r i gor ous t e s t s i n e a c h a r e a of i ns t r uc t i on ( I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e O r ga ni z a t i on, 2002; N uge nt & K a r ne s 2002) B a i l e y a nd K a r p ( 2003 ) c l a s s i f y t he I B pr og r a m a s a c r e di t ba s e d t r a ns i t i on pr ogr a m C r e di t ba s e d t r a ns i t i on p r ogr a m s a l l ow h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s t o e a r n c ol l e ge

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55 c r e di t w hi l e t he y a r e s t i l l i n hi gh s c hool I n t he I B pr ogr a m s t ude nt s t a ke m os t or a l l o f t he i r c l a s s e s i n a dva nc e d c ur r i c ul um T he m a j or i t y of t he s t ude nt s i n t he p r ogr a m a r e a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d a nd c ol l e ge bound. G r a dua t e s of t he p r ogr a m m a y e nt e r c ol l e ge w i t h up t o t w o ye a r s o f c ol l e ge c r e di t s T he I B p r ogr a m a s i t w a s c onc e i ve d by i t s f ounde r s a i m s t o de ve l op s t ude nt s m ot i va t i ona l l y, pe r s ona l l y, i nt e l l e c t ua l l y a nd a c a de m i c a l l y ( T ooke y, 2000, p. 53) T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t I B s t ude nt s a r e e xpe c t e d t o be bot h a c a de m i c a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y c om pe t e nt a s w e l l a s a c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he l oc a l a nd g l oba l c om m uni t i e s T he c ha l l e nge s s e t f or t h by t he I B p r ogr a m f or i t s s t ude nt s ha ve be e n t out e d a s w e l l s ui t e d t o t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s w ho a r e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d. G i f t e d St ude nt s and t he I nt e r nat i onal B ac c al aur e at e P r ogr am G i f t e d a dol e s c e nt s m a y ha ve uni que ne e ds t o de ve l op a c a de m i c a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y t o t he i r f ul l e s t pot e nt i a l a s c om pa r e d t o t ha t of t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s T ooke y ( 2000) s ugge s t s t ha t t he I B pr ogr a m ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o a ddr e s s t he ne e ds gi f t e d s t ude nt s pr e s e nt i n e duc a t i on. S pe c i f i c a l l y, gi f t e d a dol e s c e n t s a r e i n ne e d o f a n a c a de m i c e nvi r onm e nt t ha t c ha l l e nge s t he m pr ovi de s a s i m i l a r l y hi gh a c hi e vi ng pe e r gr oup t o a voi d t he s oc i a l i s ol a t i on a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a c a de m i c s uc c e s s r a t e s a c a de m i c e xc e l l e nc e ba s e d on pe r s ona l goa l s f or pe r f or m a nc e ( r a t he r t h a n c om pe t i t i on a m ongs t pe e r s ) a nd e nc our a ge s c r e a t i ve t hi nki ng. A c c or di ng t o T ooke y, t he I B pr og r a m w he n i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h i nt e gr i t y va l ue s ha r d w or k, f os t e r s c ol l a bor a t i ve l e a r ni ng, a nd a i m s t o de ve l op t he di ve r s e a bi l i t i e s of s t ude nt s a nd t he r e f or e i s w e l l s ui t e d t o t he ne e ds of a s t ude nt i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e l l e c t ua l l y gi f t e d. P oe l z e r a nd F e l d hus e n ( 1997) a dd t ha t c r e a t i vi t y i s

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56 hi ghl y va l ue d i n t he I B pr ogr a m a nd a m a j or c om pone nt of g r a de s a w a r de d i n t he s t udi o a r t a nd C A S c u r r i c ul a T o da t e no publ i s he d e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s e xi s t t o c onf i r m w he t he r t he I B pr og r a m f u l l y a c hi e ve s t he i de a l s i t s e t f or t h t o de ve l op i n pr og r a m gr a dua t e s r e ga r dl e s s of gi f t e d i de nt i f i c a t i on. O ut c om e s of t he I nt e r nat i onal B ac c al aur e at e P r ogr am B a i l e y a nd K a r p ( 2003 ) s ha r pl y c r i t i c i z e t he body of r e s e a r c h on t he I B p r ogr a m a s m os t s t udi e s of t hi s pr og r a m f oc us on pa r e nt o r s t ude nt opi ni on on t he be ne f i t s of pa r t i c i pa t i on. F or e xa m p l e G a z da G r a c e ( 2002 ) p ubl i s he d a pe r s ona l e va l ua t i on of t he I B pr ogr a m t e r m i ng t he pr ogr a m t he be s t ke pt s e c r e t i n e duc a t i on ( p 84) how e ve r a s a n a s s oc i a t e pr i nc i pl e i n a s c hool t ha t ha s a dopt e d t he c ur r i c ul um one w oul d ha ve t o que s t i on he r pot e nt i a l bi a s S he p r ovi de s no da t a o n s t ude nt out c om e s t o s uppor t he r pos i t i on. T he r e ha ve be e n f e w e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e t he e f f e c t s o f pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B p r ogr a m O f t he s t udi e s t ha t ha ve l i nke d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr ogr a m t o out c om e s ot he r t ha n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr ogr a m a ppe a r s t o be be ne f i c i a l F or i ns t a nc e A m ue do D or a nt e s M a c h, a nd C l a pp ( 20 04) us i ng da t a f r o m t he N a t i ona l L ongi t udi na l S u r ve y of Y out h, f ound a s t r ong ne g a t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr ogr a m a nd t oba c c o us e ( r = 75) T he ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B p r ogr a m a nd a l c ohol o r m a r i j ua na us e di d not r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e A s t udy s uc h a s t hi s s uppor t s t he ne e d t o m o r e f ul l y i nve s t i ga t e t he i m pa c t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B p r ogr a m m a y ha ve on s t ude nt s us i ng bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h.

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57 I n t he I B pr og r a m s t ude nt s a r e f a c e d w i t h t he s a m e c ha l l e nge s a s t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s w i t h t he a dde d c ha l l e nge of ha v i n g t o l e a r n how t o ba l a nc e m a ny c ha l l e ngi ng c our s e s w i t h ot he r a c t i vi t i e s or ga ni z e t he i r t i m e w i s e l y t o c om pl e t e a l l of t he i r w or k a nd a c t i n w a ys t ha t a r e c om m e ns ur a t e w i t h t he be ha vi or a l e xpe c t a t i ons of a f ul l y m a t r i c ul a t e d c ol l e ge s t ude nt ( B a i l e y & K a r p 2003 p 19) T he s ki l l s ne e de d t o m e e t t he s e a ddi t i ona l e xpe c t a t i ons a r e not e xpl i c i t l y t a ught t o s t ude nt s ; t he r e f or e t he y m a y be i m m e r s e d i n a c ur r i c ul um f or w hi c h t he y a r e not a de qua t e l y p r e pa r e d. R e s e a r c h ha s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s w ho f e e l c om p e l l e d t o s uc c e e d m a y f e e l t he ne e d t o c he a t i n or de r t o m e e t hi gh a c a de m i c de m a nds or a r e l e f t f e e l i ng ove r w he l m e d a nd s t r e s s e d by t he i m m e ns i t y of w or k t he y m us t a c c om pl i s h ( T a yl or P ogr e bi n, & D odge 2002 ) M or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o he l p de t e r m i ne i f I B s t ude nt s a r e a de qua t e l y pr e pa r e d f o r t he de m a nds t ha t a r e pl a c e d upon t he m a nd t he i m pa c t of t he i r uni que de m a nds on t he i r e m ot i ona l he a l t h. A s t udy t ha t f oc us e s on t he out c om e s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ps yc hopa t hol ogy, a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on pr ovi de s a m or e c om pl e t e pi c t ur e of t he m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e d by s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m M or e ove r r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d on t he s t r e s s pe r c e i ve d by s t ude nt s i n t hi s p r ogr a m a s w e l l a s c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t m a y pr e di c t m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s C onc l us i ons T hr oughout t he l i t e r a t u r e on s t r e s s a nd c opi ng s t r e s s ha s be e n l i nke d t o a m ul t i t ude of ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s o f m e nt a l he a l t h, i nc l udi ng de pr e s s i on ( G a l a i f S us s m a n, C hou, & W i l l s 2003; L i t t l e & G a r be r 2004; M a r t i n, K a z a r i a n & B r e i t e r 1995 ) s ubs t a nc e a bus e ( C ha s s i n, R i t t e r T r i m & K i ng 20 03; W i ndl e & W i ndl e 1996 ) a nd

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58 a c a de m i c unde r a c hi e ve m e nt ( G i l l oc k & R e ye s 19 99) A s t he m a j or i t y of t he r e s e a r c h l i nki ng s t r e s s a nd c opi ng t o t he s e ne ga t i ve out c om e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d w i t h a t r i s k a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons i t i s i m po r t a nt t o c onf i r m w he t he r t hi s s a m e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s c opi ng, a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s hol ds t r ue f o r hi gh a c hi e vi ng a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons S t r e s s a nd c opi ng r e s e a r c h i n hi gh a c hi e vi ng popul a t i ons ha s m a ny pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s A s s um i ng hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s pe r c e i ve t he i r l i ve s a s m o r e s t r e s s f ul t ha n s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul a gi ve n t he h i gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a c a de m i c pr e s s ur e s r e s e a r c h on t he hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s c opi ng be ha vi or s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h f unc t i oni ng m a y o f f e r va l ua bl e i ns i ght O bvi ous l y, s t ude nt s i n r i go r ous c ur r i c ul a ha ve be t t e r s c hool gr a de s ; how e ve r a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt i s onl y one i ndi c a t or o f he a l t hy de ve l opm e nt i n a dol e s c e nc e ( R oe s e r E c c l e s & S a m e r of f 2000) A s not e d by R oe s e r E c c l e s a nd S a m e r o f f ( 2000) i t i s not s uf f i c i e nt t o f oc us s ol e l y on ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s t o de t e r m i ne t he s t a t e of a n a dol e s c e nt s m e nt a l he a l t h. R a t he r a c om pr e he ns i ve de f i ni t i on of m e nt a l he a t h, e nc om pa s s i ng l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd ps yc hopa t hol ogy, i s m os t a ppr opr i a t e f o r us e w i t h t hi s popul a t i on. A s of ye t no pub l i s he d e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h e xi s t s e xa m i ni ng t he m e nt a l he a l t h of hi gh a c hi e vi ng a dol e s c e nt s ut i l i z i ng a c om pr e he ns i ve m ode l of m e nt a l he a l t h. I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t pr e s s ur e s t e m m i ng f r om i nt e ns e a c a de m i c e nga ge m e nt m a y c ont r i but e t o ps yc hopa t hol ogy i n t he s e popul a t i ons or c om pr o m i s e r e por t e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. S t udi e s of A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s ha ve not f ound r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( H ue bne r & A l de r m a n, 1993; H ue bn e r 1991; M c C ul l ough & H ue bne r 2003) how e ve r c r os s c ul t ur a l s t udi e s ha ve f ound n e ga t i ve c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n hi gh

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59 a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, w i t h s t ude nt s a t t e ndi ng s c hool s w i t h hi gh a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s c or e s r e por t i ng l ow l e ve l s o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( M a r ks S ha h, & W e s t a l l 2004) F i ndi ngs s uc h a s t he s e w oul d s uppor t t he a s s e r t i on t ha t s t ude nt s i n r i gor ous c ur r i c ul a ne e d a ddi t i ona l s uppor t s t ha t m a y be i nt e gr a t e d i nt o t he c ur r i c ul um i n or de r t o a i de i n t he i r s oc i a l e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt a nd r e d uc e t he s e r i s k f a c t or s f o r t he de ve l opm e nt of pa t hol ogy O n t he c ont r a r y i f i t a p pe a r s t ha t hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a r e e xpe r i e nc i ng e l e va t e d l e ve l s of s t r e s s ye t do not di s pl a y t he ne ga t i ve out c om e s f ound i n s t udi e s on s t r e s s i n hi gh r i s k popul a t i ons t he n i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he i r a va i l a bl e c opi ng r e s our c e s m a y m i t i ga t e t he i m pa c t of s t r e s s or s on s ym pt om a t ol ogy ( P r i nt z S he r m i s & W e bb, 1999) I de nt i f yi ng c opi ng s t yl e s uni que t o h i gh a c hi e vi ng popul a t i ons m a y ul t i m a t e l y a i de i n t he de s i gn of i nt e r ve nt i ons f or a num be r of a dol e s c e nt s ub gr oups ( W i l l i a m s & M c G i l l i c uddy D e L i s i 2001 )

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60 C H A P T E R 3 M e t hod P ar t i c i pant s P a r t i c i pa nt s f or t hi s s t udy c ons i s t e d of s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) pr ogr a m a t B r ow n H i gh S c hool a nd t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s c hool m a t e s T he I B di pl o m a pr og r a m a t B r ow n H i gh S c hool i s one of 45 pr og r a m s i n t he s out he a s t e r n s t a t e w he r e i t i s l oc a t e d a nd a m on g 610 i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he s c hool unde r s t udy hous e s bot h a n I B hi gh s c hool a nd a g e ne r a l e duc a t i on hi gh s c hool i n a s i ngl e s c hool bui l di ng. I n a ddi t i on t o s ha r i ng f a c i l i t i e s t h e s t ude nt s s ha r e f a c ul t y, a s m os t t e a c he r s a r e a s s i gne d c l a s s e s i n bot h c ur r i c ul um s O f not e t he r e a r e t w o s e pa r a t e pr i nc i pa l s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s t a f f a t B H S one f or e a c h c ur r i c ul um D ur i ng t he i r 8 t h gr a de ye a r s t ude nt s f r om t he e nt i r e c ount y s ur r oun di ng t he s c hool w ho ha ve obt a i ne d a t l e a s t a 3. 0 g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge a r e i nvi t e d t o a ppl y f or a dm i t t a nc e t o t he I B pr og r a m a t B r ow n. S t ude nt s w ho a ppl y a r e r e qui r e d t o t a ke a s t a nda r di z e d t e s t a nd c om pl e t e a 5 pa r a gr a ph e s s a y ( t opi c s va r y) S t ude nt s a r e t he n s e l e c t e d ba s e d on t he i r p r i or a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s on t he s t a nda r di z e d t e s t a nd w r i t i ng e va l ua t i ons O nc e a dm i t t e d, s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m m us t m e e t t he g r a dua t i on r e qui r e m e nt s s e t f o r t h by t he i r s t a t e w hi l e c onc ur r e nt l y c om pl e t i ng t he I B O r e qui r e m e nt s ( s e e A ppe ndi x A ) S t ude nt s i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pr ogr a m a r e onl y e xpe c t e d t o m e e t t he gr a dua t i on r e qui r e m e nt s s e t f or t h by t he i r s t a t e a l t hough hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude n t s a r e f r e e t o e nr ol l i n a dva nc e d pl a c e m e nt c l a s s e s t ha t e xc e e d t he s e ba s i c r e qui r e m e nt s

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61 T he a r c hi va l da t a s e t us e d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy w a s de r i ve d f r om a n ongoi ng s t udy i nve s t i ga t i ng t he m e nt a l he a l t h o f hi gh s c hool s t ud e nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m a nd t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d i n D e c e m be r of 2004 by t w o f a c ul t y m e m be r s i n a l a r ge ur ba n un i ve r s i t y i n t he s out he a s t e r n U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t he i r r e s e a r c h t e a m w hi c h i nc l ude d t he a ut hor of t hi s t he s i s I n o r de r t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy, s t ude nt s w e r e r e qui r e d t o be e nr ol l e d f ul l t i m e a t t he B r ow n H i gh S c hool ob t a i n pa r e nt a l i nf or m e d c ons e nt a nd s i gn a s t ude nt a s s e nt f or m S t ude nt s w ho w e r e r e c e i vi ng s ubs t a nt i a l s c hool s uppor t s e r vi c e s t hr ough e xc e pt i ona l s t ude nt e duc a t i on ( i e pl a c e m e nt i n s e l f c ont a i ne d c l a s s e s ) w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of t h os e i de nt i f i e d a s gi f t e d, w e r e e xc l ude d f r om pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy. S t ude nt s w ho m e t t he s e r e qui r e m e nt s but w e r e a bs e nt on t he da t e s of da t a c ol l e c t i on w e r e not i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy. Se l e c t i on of P ar t i c i pant s A l e t t e r o f i nf o r m e d c ons e nt ( s e e A ppe ndi x B ) w a s s e nt hom e t o pa r e nt s of a l l s t ude nt s a t t e ndi ng B r ow n H i gh s c hool ( N = 1150) pr i or t o da t a c ol l e c t i on S t ude nt a s s e nt ( s e e A ppe ndi x C ) w a s l a t e r s ou ght f r om a l l s t ude nt s w ho r e t ur ne d s i gne d pa r e nt c ons e nt f or m s t o t he i r f i r s t pe r i od t e a c he r W hi l e s t ude nt s w e r e not pa i d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on, i nc e nt i ve s w e r e of f e r e d t o i nc r e a s e t he r a t e of pa r t i c i pa t i on. S pe c i f i c a l l y r e t ur n o f pa r e nt c ons e nt f or m s w a s e n c our a ge d t hr ough o f f e r i ng f o ur $50 gi f t c e r t i f i c a t e s t o t he l oc a l s hoppi ng m a l l ; a l l s t ude nt s w ho r e t ur ne d c ons e nt f or m s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he d r a w i ngs A t ot a l of 322 s t ude nt s w e r e r e c r ui t e d i n t he F a l l of 2 004 f r om B r ow n H i gh S c hool A hi ghe r pe r c e nt a ge o f I B s t ude nt s ( 59 % ) t ha n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s ( 16% ) s e c ur e d

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62 pa r e nt c ons e nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e A t ot a l of 13 s ubj e c t s w e r e r e m ove d f r om t he da t a s e t a f t e r t he y w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s out l i e r s l e a vi ng a f i na l s a m pl e of 309 s t ude nt s T he m a j or i t y of t he s t ude nt s i n t he s t udy a r e C a uc a s i a n, f e m a l e a nd of a ve r a ge / hi gh s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us T he r e i s a l ow e r pe r c e nt a ge of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s a nd a hi ghe r pe r c e nt a ge of A s i a n s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m c om pa r e d t o t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on popul a t i on. D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s of s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e p r ovi de d i n T a bl e 1. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he s c hool s r e por t e d de m og r a phi c s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he de m ogr a phi c s a r e s i m i l a r t o t ha t of s t ude nt s a t ot he r hi gh s c hool s i n t he s c hool di s t r i c t ( P ol k C ount y P ubl i c S c hool s 2005) P r oc e dur e s A l i s t of s t ude nt s w ho ha d obt a i ne d pa r e nt a l c ons e nt f or pa r t i c i pa t i on w a s c om pi l e d pr i or t o da t a c ol l e c t i on. T he s e s t ude nt s w e r e c a l l e d, by gr a de l e ve l t o c om pl e t e t he i r que s t i onna i r e s i n g r oups of a pp r oxi m a t e l y 50 100 s t ude nt s P r i or t o t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he que s t i onna i r e s t he s t ude nt a s s e nt f or m w a s r e a d a l oud t o t he s t ude nt s S t ude nt s w e r e f r e e t o w i t hd r a w f r om t he s t udy a t a ny t i m e dur i ng t he c our s e of da t a c ol l e c t i on. W hi l e t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or r e a d t he de m ogr a phi c que s t i onna i r e a l oud, s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d que s t i ons a s s e s s i ng t he i r a ge g r a de c u r r i c ul um ( I B / ge ne r a l e duc a t i on) a nd s oc i o e c onom i c s t a t us ( S E S ) S E S w a s a s s e s s e d us i ng a s i ngl e i t e m ( do you r e c e i ve f r e e or r e duc e d c os t l unc h? ) S t ude nt s w e r e a l s o t r a i ne d i n how t o a ns w e r L i ke r t que s t i ons us i ng a n e xa m pl e of a f r e que nc y ( I go t o t he be a c h ) a nd a gr e e m e nt ( G oi ng t o t he be a c h i f f un ) i t e m M e a s ur e s i n t he que s t i onna i r e pa c ke t w e r e c ount e r ba l a nc e d t o c ont r ol f or or de r e f f e c t s R e s e a r c he r s w e r e on ha nd t hr ough t he

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63 T a bl e 1 D e s c r i pt i v e s t at i s t i c s I B G e ne r a l E duc a t i on T ot a l S a m pl e V a r i a bl e n % n % N % G e nde r M a l e 54 39 44 26 98 32 F e m a l e 85 61 124 74 209 68 G r a de 9 45 32 56 33 101 33 10 31 22 63 38 94 31 11 30 22 22 13 52 17 12 33 24 27 16 60 20 E t hni c i t y C a uc a s i a n 95 68 117 70 212 69 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 4 3 26 15 30 10 A s i a n 23 17 2 1 25 8 H i s pa ni c / L a t i no 10 7 15 9 25 8 N a t i ve A m e r i c a n 1 < 1 1 < 1 2 < 1 O t he r 6 4 7 4 13 4 S oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us L ow 9 6 51 31 60 20 A ve r a ge / H i gh 130 94 116 69 246 80 G i f t e d s t a t us I de nt i f i e d 50 36 3 2 53 17 N ot i de nt i f i e d 89 64 165 98 254 83

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64 a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he que s t i onna i r e s t o a s s i s t s t ude nt s w i t h que s t i ons U pon e a c h s t ude nt s c om pl e t i on of t he que s t i onna i r e pa c ke t a m e m be r o f t he r e s e a r c h t e a m s ki m m e d t hr ough t he pa c ke t t o c he c k f or s ki ppe d que s t i ons a nd e r r or s S t ude nt s w ho m a de e r r or s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e or c or r e c t t he i t e m s T he e nt i r e que s t i onna i r e pa c ke t t ook a ppr oxi m a t e l y 30 45 m i nu t e s t o c om pl e t e D a t a w e r e e nt e r e d du r i ng t he W i nt e r o f 2004. D ur i ng t he S pr i ng o f 2005 15 % o f t he da t a w e r e r a ndom l y c he c ke d f o r e nt r y e r r or s a nd c or r e c t e d. E t hi c al C ons i de r at i ons S e ve r a l pr e c a ut i ons w e r e t a ke n t o pr ot e c t s t ude n t s w ho e nr ol l e d i n t hi s s t udy. F i r s t a pa r e nt a l c ons e nt f o r m w a s s e nt hom e w i t h t he s t ude nt w hi c h out l i ne d f or pa r e nt s a l l of t he pot e nt i a l r i s ks a nd be ne f i t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i r c hi l d s pa r t i c i pa t i on A s t ude nt a s s e nt f or m w a s a l s o i nc l ude d out l i ni ng t he r i s ks a nd be ne f i t s s o t ha t t he s t ude nt s t he m s e l ve s w e r e a bl e t o de c l i ne or a gr e e t o pa r t i c i pa t e P r i o r t o c om m e nc e m e nt of t he s t udy, t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or s of t he l a r ge r s t ud y obt a i ne d a ppr ova l f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a t t he uni ve r s i t y. T he i nve s t i ga t or s ha d t o de m ons t r a t e t o t he I R B t ha t a l l pos s i bl e pr e c a ut i on s w e r e t a ke n t o p r ot e c t hum a n r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s be f or e t he s t udy w a s a bl e t o c om m e nc e M e as ur e s P e r c e i v e d St r e s s Sc al e ( P S S : C ohe n, K a m a r a c k & M e r m e l s t e i n, 1983) T he P S S ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) i s a 14 i t e m que s t i onna i r e de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e how s t r e s s f ul t he r e s ponde nt r a t e s t he i r c ur r e nt s t a t e of a f f a i r s S e ve n of t he P S S i t e m s a r e r e l a t e d t o c opi ng a nd w e r e not a dm i ni s t e r e d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy, a s a m or e c om pr e h e ns i ve m e a s ur e of

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65 c opi ng w a s i nc l ude d. R e s ponde nt s a r e a s ke d t o i nd i c a t e on a 5 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e ( 0= ne ve r t o 4= ve r y of t e n) t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he y f ound t he i r l i ve s unpr e di c t a bl e unc ont r ol l a bl e a nd ove r l oa di ng ( C ohe n e t a l 198 3, p 387) A f t e r r e ve r s e s c or i ng pos i t i ve i t e m s ( de not e d i n t he a ppe ndi x by a n a s t e r i s k) i t e m s a r e a ve r a ge d t o ob t a i n a m e a n P S S s c or e I n a ddi t i on t o m e a s ur i ng l e ve l s of e xpe r i e nc e d s t r e s s c a us e d by t he r e s ponde nt s c ur r e nt l i f e e ve nt s t he P S S i s a l s o t h ought t o c a pt ur e r e a c t i ons t o l i f e e ve nt s a nd s t r e s s c a us e d by f ut ur e e ve nt s T he a ut hor s pu r por t t ha t a m e a s ur e of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s i s s upe r i or t o l i f e e ve nt s s c a l e s be c a us e t he l a t t e r m a y not be i nc l us i ve o f a l l e ve nt s t ha t t he r e s ponde nt i s e xpe r i e nc i ng. T he P S S r e f l e c t s t he t r a ns a c t i ona l na t ur e o f s t r e s s O bj e c t i ve m e a s ur e s a s s um e t ha t t he i nt e ns i t y o r qua l i t y of s t r e s s i n t he e nvi r on m e nt i s l i nke d t o ne ga t i ve out c om e s S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve de m ons t r a t e d t ha t t he ne ga t i ve out c om e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t r e s s a r e de t e r m i ne d by t he w a y a pe r s on pe r c e i ve s t he s t r e s s or a nd not on a ny i nhe r e nt qua l i t y of t he s t r e s s or i t s e l f ( G a l a i f e t a l 200 3) T he P S S ha s be e n us e d w i t h a dol e s c e nt s bot h i n c l i ni c a l a nd nor m a l popul a t i ons t o pr e di c t s uc h ou t c om e s a s de pr e s s i on, a nxi e t y a nd u nde r a c hi e ve m e nt ( M a r t i n e t a l 1995; S c hm e e l k C one & Z i m m e r m a n, 20 03) D ur i ng va l i da t i on s t udi e s on c ol l e ge s t ude nt s a nd c om m uni t y popul a t i ons t he a ut hor s r e por t t ha t t he P S S obt a i ne d c oe f f i c i e nt a l p ha r e l i a bi l i t y r a ngi ng f r om 84 86. J ohns on a nd C hr i s t e ns e n ( 2004) not e t ha t c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha s houl d be g r e a t e r t ha n 70 f or r e s e a r c h pur pos e s T e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y w a s obt a i ne d f or t he P S S a t 85 f or a 2 da y r e t e s t a nd 55 f or a 2 w e e k r e t e s t T he P S S i s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h a p e r s on c ur r e nt l y f e e l s s t r e s s e d; t he r e f or e one s houl d e xpe c t s c or e s t o be t e m por a l l y bound

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66 ( C ohe n e t a l 1983 ) T he P S S w a s a l s o c or r e l a t e d w i t h gl oba l obj e c t i ve s t r e s s m e a s ur e s T he c or r e l a t i on w i t h t he num be r of e ve nt s i ndi c a t e d w a s s m a l l ( 17 39 ) ho w e ve r t he s t r e ngt h of t he c or r e l a t i on i nc r e a s e d w he n r e s ponde nt s w e r e a s ke d t o r a t e t he i m pa c t of a n e ve nt ( 24 49 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he p r e di c t i ve va l i di t y of t he P S S w a s c om pa r e d w i t h obj e c t i ve s t r e s s m e a s ur e s C ohe n e t a l ( 1983 ) f oun d t ha t t he P S S m or e a c c ur a t e l y pr e di c t e d r a t e s of de p r e s s i on a nd he a l t h pr obl e m s ( 65 76 ) c om pa r e d t o t ha t of obj e c t i ve s t r e s s m e a s ur e s ( 14 18) A n e xpl or a t or y f a c t or a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d on t he s e ve n i t e m s of t he P S S R e s ul t s s ugge s t e d a s i ngl e f a c t or r e f l e c t i ng pe r c e i v e d s t r e s s w a s l oa de d on s a t i s f a c t or i l y by s i x i t e m s D ue t o a n una c c e pt a bl e f a c t or l oa di n g, one i t e m ( #7 ) w a s dr oppe d T he m e a n of t he s i x r e m a i ni ng i t e m s w a s us e d t o r e f l e c t pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s A C r onba c h s a l pha of 91 w a s obt a i ne d f o r t he c ur r e nt s t udy, i ndi c a t i n g hi gh i nt e r na l c ons i s t e nc y. A dol e s c e nt C opi ng O r i e nt at i on f or P r obl e m E x pe r i e nc e s ( A C O P E : P a t t e r s on & M c C ubbi n, 1981) T he A dol e s c e nt C opi ng O r i e nt a t i on f or P r ob l e m E xpe r i e nc e s ( s e e A ppe ndi x E ) i s a 54 i t e m s e l f r e por t c opi ng i nve nt or y de s i gne d t o i de nt i f y t he be ha vi or s t ha t a dol e s c e nt s us e m os t f r e que nt l y t o m a na ge pr o bl e m s of di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons T he i t e m s w e r e de ve l ope d t hr ough s t r uc t u r e d i nt e r v i e w s w i t h hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s f ol l ow e d by a f a c t or a na l ys i s w i t h a popul a t i on of 467 hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s C r onba c h s a l pha s f or t he 12 s c a l e s r a nge d f r om 50 t o 76 i n t hi s s a m pl e I t e m s a r e pr e s e nt e d on a 5 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e ( 1 = ne ve r t o 5 = m os t of t he t i m e ) T he A C O P E i de nt i f i e s 12 c opi ng pa t t e r ns : ( a ) ve nt i l a t i ng f e e l i ngs ( ye l l i ng b l a m i ng ot he r s s a yi ng m e a n t hi ngs ) ( b ) s e e ki ng di ve r s i ons ( e f f or t s t o ke e p bus y, s l e e pi ng, w a t c hi ng T V r e a di ng) ( c ) de ve l opi ng s e l f r e l i a nc e a nd

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67 opt i m i s m ( or ga ni z i ng l i f e m a ki ng de c i s i ons ) ( d ) d e ve l opi ng s oc i a l s uppor t ( t a l ki ng t o a f r i e nd, he l pi ng ot he r s s ol ve t he i r p r obl e m s ) ( e ) s ol vi ng f a m i l y pr obl e m s ( t a l ki ng t o m ot he r / f a t he r a bout pr obl e m doi ng t hi ngs w i t h f a m i l y) ( f ) a voi di ng pr obl e m s ( dr i nki ng be e r a voi di ng pe r s on c a us i ng pr obl e m ) ( g) s e e ki ng s pi r i t ua l s uppor t ( pr a yi ng goi ng t o c hur c h) ( h) i nve s t i ng i n c l os e f r i e nds ( s e e ki ng c l o s e ne s s f r om pe e r be w i t h r om a nt i c pa r t ne r ) ( i ) s e e ki ng pr o f e s s i ona l s uppor t ( c ouns e l or ps yc hol ogi s t ) ( j ) e nga gi ng i n de m a ndi ng a c t i vi t y ( e xc e l l i ng a t s om e t hi ng, a c hi e vi ng goa l ) ( k ) be i ng hum or ous ( j oki ng, m a ki ng l i ght o f s i t ua t i on) a nd ( l ) r e l a xi ng ( da ydr e a m i ng, l i s t e ni ng t o m us i c ) D i f f e r e nt f a c t or s t r uc t ur e s o f t he A C O P E ha ve be e n f ound t h r oughout t he l i t e r a t ur e ( C ope l a nd & H e s s 1995; H ow a r d & M e dw a y, 2004) t he r e f or e a n e xpl o r a t or y f a c t or a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d us i ng t he c ur r e nt s a m pl e t o de t e r m i ne t he f a c t or s t r uc t ur e m os t a ppr opr i a t e f o r us e ; a f our f a c t or m ode l c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs of F a ns ha w e a nd B ur ne t t ( 1991 ) e m e r ge d r e f l e c t i ng t he c opi ng s t yl e s of pos i t i ve a voi da nc e ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e f a m i l y c om m un i c a t i on, a nd a nge r C r o nba c h s a l pha f or e a c h va r i a bl e w a s obt a i ne d w i t hi n a c c e pt a bl e l e ve l s i ndi c a t i ng hi gh i nt e r na l c ons i s t e nc y ( 76, 73 69, 69 r e s pe c t i ve l y) P os i t i v e av oi danc e c opi ng c ons i s t e d of f i ve i t e m s : a ) t r y t o t hi nk a bout t he good t hi ngs i n your l i f e b) t r y t o s e e t he good t hi ngs i n a di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i on, c ) t r y t o ke e p up f r i e nds hi ps or m a ke ne w f r i e nds d) s a y ni c e t hi ngs t o ot he r s a nd e ) be c l os e w i t h s om e one you c a r e a bout T he s e i t e m s w e r e pul l e d f r om t h r e e di f f e r e nt f a c t or s on t he or i gi na l A C O P E s pe c i f i c a l l y t he f a c t or s l a be l e d de ve l opi ng s e l f r e l i a nc e de ve l opi ng s oc i a l s uppor t a nd i nve s t i ng i n c l os e f r i e nds I t a ppe a r s t ha t t he i t e m s c om pr i s i ng

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68 pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng i nvol ve s t r a t e gi e s de s i gne d t o pos i t i ve l y a ppr a i s e s t r e s s f ul s i t ua t i ons or s ol i c i t t he s uppor t of ot he r s i n t i m e s o f s t r e s s N e gat i v e av oi danc e c opi ng c ons i s t e d of f our i t e m s : a ) us e dr u gs pr e s c r i be d by a doc t or b ) us e dr ugs no t pr e s c r i be d by a doc t or c ) dr i nk be e r w i ne or l i quor a nd d) s m oke A l l of t he i t e m s w e r e pul l e d f r om t he o r i gi na l A C O P E s c a l e l a be l e d a voi di ng pr obl e m s w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of us e dr ugs pr e s c r i be d by a doc t o r w hi c h l oa de d ont o s e e ki ng di ve r s i ons i n t he or i gi na l f a c t or s t r uc t u r e of t he A C O P E N e ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng i t e m s a l l i nvol ve t he us e of s ubs t a nc e s t o c ope i n t he f a c e of s t r e s s T he f i ve i t e m s c om pr i s i ng t he f am i l y c om m uni c at i on s ubs c a l e w e r e : a ) t a l k t o your f a t he r a bout w ha t bot he r s you, b) t a l k t o your m ot he r a bout w ha t bot he r s you c ) do t hi ngs w i t h your f a m i l y d ) t r y t o r e a s on w i t h pa r e nt s a nd t a l k t hi ngs out ; c om pr om i s e a nd e ) go a l ong w i t h pa r e nt s r e que s t s a nd r u l e s A l l of t he s e i t e m s w e r e pul l e d f r om t he or i gi na l A C O P E s ubs c a l e l a be l e d s ol vi ng f a m i l y pr obl e m s A l l f a m i l y c om m un i c a t i on i t e m s i nvol ve r e l yi n g on f a m i l y m e m be r s f or s oc i a l s uppor t i n t i m e s of s t r e s s A nge r c opi ng c ons i s t e d of f i ve i t e m s : a ) ge t a ngr y a nd ye l l a t pe opl e b) bl a m e ot he r s f or w ha t s goi ng w r ong, c ) s a y m e a n t hi ngs t o pe opl e ; be s a r c a s t i c d) l e t of f s t e a m by c om pl a i ni ng t o your f r i e nds a nd e ) l e t o f f s t e a m by c om pl a i ni ng t o f a m i l y m e m be r s A l l of t he s e i t e m s w e r e pul l e d f r om t he or i gi na l A C O P E s ubs c a l e l a be l e d ve nt i l a t i ng f e e l i ngs a nd i nvol ve w a ys of e xpr e s s i ng e m ot i ons out w a r dl y, e i t he r di r e c t l y ( e g. l e t of f s t e a m by c om pl a i n i ng) o r i ndi r e c t l y ( e g. s a y m e a n t hi ngs t o o t he r s ) T he Y out h Se l f R e por t ( Y SR ) f or m of t he C hi l d B e h av i or C he c k l i s t ( Y S R : A c he nba c h & R e s c or l a 2001) T he Y S R ( s e e A pp e ndi x F ) i s a 112 i t e m que s t i onna i r e

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69 de s i gne d f or us e w i t h a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons r a n gi ng i n a ge f r om 11 18. T he Y S R a s s e s s e i ght a r e a s of p r obl e m be ha vi or : a nxi ous / de pr e s s e d, w i t hdr a w n/ de pr e s s e d, de l i nque nt be ha vi or s om a t i c c om pl a i nt s a ggr e s s i ve be ha vi or s oc i a l pr obl e m s t hough t pr ob l e m s a nd a t t e nt i on pr obl e m s C om pos i t e s c or e s i nde x i ng i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or a nd t ot a l pr ob l e m s c a n a l s o be obt a i ne d. I t e m s a r e pr e s e nt e d us i ng 3 po i nt s c a l e ( 0 = not t r ue 1 = s om e w ha t or s om e t i m e s t r ue 2 = ve r y t r ue o f o f t e n t r ue ) a nd r e s ponde nt s a r e a s ke d t o a s s e s s how t r ue e a c h i t e m i s f or t he m c u r r e nt l y ( i e w i t hi n t he pa s t s i x m ont hs ) F o r t he pur pos e s of t h i s s t udy, a s hor t e ne d 85 i t e m ve r s i on w a s us e d, e xc l udi ng t he i t e m s l oa di ng on t he s c a l e s a t t e nt i on pr obl e m s a nd t hought pr obl e m s F or da t a a na l ys i s t he i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng s u bs c a l e s w e r e ut i l i z e d. T he i nt e r na l i z i ng s c a l e c ons i s t s of i t e m s l oa di ng on t he s ubs c a l e s a nxi ous / de pr e s s e d, w i t hdr a w n/ de pr e s s e d, a nd s om a t i c c om pl a i nt s T h e e xt e r na l i z i ng s c a l e c ons i s t s of de l i nque nt a nd a ggr e s s i ve be ha vi or s T he Y S R i s us e f ul i n i de nt i f yi ng c hi l d r e n w i t h s ym pt om s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy. F or i ns t a nc e a l l i t e m s on t he Y S R ha ve be e n f ound t o di s c r i m i na t e be t w e e n c l i ni c a l popul a t i ons of a dol e s c e nt s a nd nonr e f e r r e d s a m pl e s ( A c he nba c h & R e s c or l a 2001) R e l i a bi l i t y of t h i s m e a s ur e i s hi gh. S pl i t ha l f r e l i a b i l i t y ha s be e n f ound t o r a nge be t w e e n 55 a nd 75. T e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y a t 8 da ys obt a i ne d c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha s r a ngi ng f r om 80 t o 90 T he 63 i t e m s r e f l e c t i ng e xt e r na l i z i ng a nd i n t e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or w e r e r e t a i ne d f or t he pr e s e nt s t udy. R e l i a bi l i t y w a s hi gh, w i t h C r onb a c h s a l pha a bove 90 f or bot h s c a l e s St ude nt s L i f e Sat i s f ac t i on Sc al e ( S L S S : H ue bne r 1991) T he S L S S c ons i s t s of 7 i t e m s ( s e e A ppe ndi x G ) a s s e s s i ng gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on i n c hi l dr e n R e s ponde nt s a r e

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70 a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e on a 6 poi nt s c a l e ( 1 = s t r ongl y d i s a gr e e t o 6 = s t r ong l y a gr e e ) t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he y e ndor s e s t a t e m e nt s a bout t he i r l i f e S c o r e s a r e obt a i ne d by r e ve r s e c odi ng ne ga t i ve l y phr a s e d i t e m s t he n s um m i ng t h e r e s pons e s a nd di vi di ng by s e ve n ( i e t he m e a n of a l l i t e m s ) H i ghe r s c or e s r e pr e s e nt hi g he r l e ve l s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. T he S L S S ha s be e n us e d w i t h bot h c hi l d a nd a dol e s c e n t popul a t i ons ( G i l m a n & H ue bne r 1997; H ue bne r 1991) T e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y ha s be e n r e por t e d t o r a nge f r om 70 80 I nt e r na l c ons i s t e nc y ha s be e n f ound t o r a nge f r om t he 70s t o t he 90s s ugge s t i ng t ha t t he S L S S ha s a c c e pt a bl e r e l i a bi l i t y f o r r e s e a r c h pur pos e s V a l i di t y of t hi s s c a l e ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d by c or r e l a t i ng i t pa r e nt r e por t s a nd s e l f r e por t s of w e l l be i ng ( H ue bne r 1991) F or t he pr e s e nt s t udy, a C r onba c h s a l pha o f 88 w a s obt a i ne d, i ndi c a t i ng hi gh r e l i a bi l i t y. Se l f E f f i c ac y Q ue s t i onnai r e f or C hi l dr e n ( S E Q C : M ur i s 2001) T he S E Q C ( s e e A ppe ndi x H ) i s a 24 i t e m s e l f r e por t s c a l e de s i gne d t o a s s e s s t hr e e dom a i ns of s e l f e f f i c a c y: a ) s oc i a l s e l f e f f i c a c y, b ) a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, a nd c ) e m ot i ona l s e l f e f f i c a c y. A t ot a l c om pos i t e s c or e c a n a l s o be obt a i ne d. R e s ponde nt s a r e a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e on a 5 poi nt s c a l e ( 1= not a t a l l 5 = ve r y w e l l ) t he i r pe r c e i ve d c a pa bi l i t i e s on e a c h i t e m F a c t or a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a l pha c oe f f i c i e nt s f or e a c h i t e m r a ngi ng f r om t he hi gh 60s t o t he m i d 80s S c or e s on t he S E Q C ha ve be e n ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h s ym pt om s o f de pr e s s i on ( r = 57) a nd a nxi e t y ( r = 62) w i t h s t ude nt s r e por t i ng l ow s e l f e f f i c a c y r e por t i ng hi ghe r l e ve l s of de pr e s s i ve a nd a nxi ous s ym pt om ol ogy ( M ur i s 2001; M ur i s 2002) T he S E Q C ha s be e n us e d w i t h a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons r a ngi ng f r om 12 t o 19 ye a r s o f a ge s ugge s t i ng t ha t t hi s i ns t r um e nt i s a ppr opr i a t e f or us e w i t h hi g h s c hool s t ude nt s T he 7 i t e m s

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71 c a pt ur i ng a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ( de not e d i n t he a ppe ndi x by a n a s t e r i s k) w e r e us e d i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy; a C r onba c h s a l pha o f 86 w a s o bt a i ne d f or t he s e i t e m s G r ade P oi nt A v e r age ( G P A ) G r a de po i nt a ve r a ge i s a f r e que nt l y us e d m e a s ur e of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt f or hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s G r a de poi nt a ve r a ge i s c a l c ul a t e d by s um m i ng num e r i c a l va l ue s a s s i gne d t o l e t t e r gr a de s e a r ne d f or a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e ( e g. A = 4. 0 = 3 0) a nd di vi di ng by t he t ot a l n um be r of c r e di t hou r s a t t e m pt e d. H i ghe r gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge s i ndi c a t e hi ghe r l e ve l s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt I n t he pr e s e nt s t udy, gr a de poi n t a ve r a ge w a s obt a i ne d f r om s c hool r e c or ds I t s houl d be no t e d t ha t s t ude nt s w ho t a ke a dva nc e d c our s e s ( i e I B c our s e s a dva nc e d pl a c e m e nt ) m a y e a r n a gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge hi ghe r t ha n 4. 0 a s t he y r e c e i ve a ddi t i ona l c r e di t f or a t t e m pt i ng m or e di f f i c ul t c our s e w or k. T hi s w e i ght i ng pr oc e d ur e i s r e s pons i bl e f or w hy t he m a xi m um va l ue f o r G P A i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy e xc e e ds 4. 0. A nal y s e s A s e r i e s of s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f or m e d t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. D e s c r i pt i v e anal y s e s M e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd a ddi t i ona l de s c r i pt i ve da t a ( i e s ke w kur t os i s e t c ) f or t he e nt i r e s a m pl e a s w e l l a s f or t he I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s ubs a m pl e s w e r e obt a i ne d f or a l l va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t w hi c h i nc l ude d: pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ( 6 i t e m P S S ) c opi ng s t yl e s ( f our de t e r m i ne f r om a f a c t or a na l ys i s of t he A C O P E ) gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( S L S S ) a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ( s u bs c a l e of t he S E Q C ) G P A a nd ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( e xt e r na l i z i ng a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng f a c t or s of t he Y S R ) G r oup di f f e r e nc e s T o de t e r m i ne i f s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m di f f e r e d f r om

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72 s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on i n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s s c hool f unc t i oni ng ( G P A a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ps yc hopa t hol ogy) i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t s w e r e c onduc t e d w i t h I B s t a t us a s t he gr oupi ng va r i a bl e A n i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t c o m pa r e s t he gr oup m e a ns f or e a c h va r i a bl e t o de t e r m i ne i f t he gr oups m e a ns di f f e r b y a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a m ount us i ng a 05 a l pha l e ve l t o e s t a bl i s h s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e C or r e l at i onal anal y s e s T o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pe r c e i v e d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s s c hool f unc t i oni ng a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng w i t hi n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd I B s t ude nt s c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d be t w e e n e a c h va r i a bl e f or t he e nt i r e s a m pl e a nd t he n f o r t he I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s a m pl e s i nde pe nde nt l y. A c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt ( r a ngi ng f r om 1 t o + 1 ) pr ov i de s i nf or m a t i on a bout t he s t r e ngt h a nd di r e c t i on o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t w o va r i a bl e s A n a l pha l e ve l of 05 w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e R e gr e s s i on anal y s e s T o de t e r m i ne w hi c h c opi ng s t yl e s w e r e m os t pr e di c t i ve o f m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s i n I B s t ude nt s da t a f r om t he s ub s a m pl e of I B s t ude nt s w e r e s ubj e c t e d t o a s e r i e s of f i ve s i m ul t a ne ous m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s ; s e p a r a t e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d f or e a c h out c o m e va r i a bl e ( G P A a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ) I n e a c h r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s c opi ng s t yl e s ( a s de r i ve d f r om t he A C O P E ) w e r e e nt e r e d a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e s I n s i m ul t a ne ous r e gr e s s i on, a l l va r i a bl e s a r e e nt e r e d i nt o a r e g r e s s i on e qua t i on c onc ur r e nt l y t o de t e r m i ne t he pr opo r t i on of t he va r i a nc e i n t he c r i t e r i on va r i a bl e f or w hi c h e a c h pr e di c t or va r i a bl e i s uni que l y a c c oun t a bl e A n a l pha l e ve l of 05 w a s us e d

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73 t o de t e r m i ne s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of be t a w e i ght s B e t a w e i ght s a l s o t e r m e d s t a nda r di z e d r e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt s ( t o de not e z s c a l e ) s how t he p r e di c t e d c ha nge i n t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e gi ve n a one uni t s t a nda r d de vi a t i on c ha nge i n t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e w hi l e c ont r ol l i ng f o r t he ot he r i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s i n t he e qua t i on. T he s i z e of be t a w e i ght s r e f l e c t s t he r e l a t i ve i m por t a nc e o f t he va r i ous pr e di c t or va r i a bl e s M ode r at or t e s t s T o de t e r m i ne i f c opi ng f unc t i ons a s a m ode r a t or i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l h e a l t h ( i e hi gh G P A hi gh a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, hi gh l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd l ow ps yc hopa t hol ogy) i n I B s t ude nt s a s e r i e s of m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s t ha t i nc l ude d i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng t he da t a f r om t he s ubs a m pl e of I B s t ude nt s A m ode r a t or va r i a bl e c ha nge s t he di r e c t i on or s t r e ngt h be t w e e n a n i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( i n t h i s c a s e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ) a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( i n t hi s c a s e m e nt a l he a l t h) A m ode r a t or i s i de nt i f i e d w he n t he e f f e c t o f one va r i a bl e de pe nds of t he l e ve l s of a not he r o r s i m pl y s t a t e d, a n i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t i s f ound ( B a r on & K e nny 1986) T o t e s t f or m ode r a t i on, a s e r i e s of f i ve s e pa r a t e r e g r e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng t he i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h ( a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ps yc hopa t hol ogy) a s t he de pe nde nt / c r i t e r i on va r i a bl e a nd pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s a nd t he i nt e r a c t i on of s t r e s s a nd c opi ng s t yl e s a s t he pr e di c t or s / i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s A n a l pha l e ve l of 05 w a s us e d t o i de nt i f y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g ni f i c a nt be t a w e i ght s T he r e s ul t s of a l l a na l ys e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n C ha pt e r 4.

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74 C H A P T E R 4 R e s ul t s T r e at m e nt of t he D at a A l l da t a w e r e e nt e r e d i nt o a n S P S S s pr e a ds he e t dur i ng t he W i nt e r of 2004 2005 by t he r e s e a r c he r a nd t w o gr a dua t e a s s i s t a nt s F ol l ow i ng da t a e nt r y e ve r y 10 t h pr o t oc ol w a s c he c ke d f or e r r o r s ; i f e r r o r s w e r e f ound on a p r ot oc ol t he pr ot oc ol s i m m e di a t e l y pr e c e di ng a nd f ol l ow i ng t he p r ot oc ol i n que s t i ons w e r e a l s o c he c ke d, w i t h t he pr oc e s s r e pe a t i ng unt i l a n e r r o r f r e e pr ot oc ol w a s i de nt i f i e d. D a t a w e r e a l s o c he c ke d f or s c or e s out of r a nge T hi s r e s ul t e d i n a ppr oxi m a t e l y 15% o f t he p r ot oc ol s be i ng c he c ke d f o r a c c ur a c y; of t he p r ot oc ol s c he c ke d, a ppr oxi m a t e l y 9% c ont a i ne d e r r or s T he m oda l num be r of e r r or s w a s one F ol l ow i ng t hi s t he da t a w e r e a na l yz e d t o de t e c t t he p r e s e nc e of bot h un i va r i a t e a nd m ul t i va r i a t e out l i e r s U ni va r i a t e out l i e r s w e r e de f i ne d a s a pa r t i c i pa nt s c or i ng m o r e t ha n t h r e e s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons f r om t he m e a n on a ny va r i a bl e M ul t i va r i a t e out l i e r s w e r e de f i ne d a s s ubj e c t s s c o r i ng hi ghe r t ha n 29. 59 t he c r i t e r i on de t e r m i ne d by M a h a l a nob i s di s t a nc e A t ot a l of 13 s ubj e c t s w e r e r e m ove d a nd w e r e e xc l ude d f r om f ur t he r a na l ys e s D e s c r i pt i v e A nal y s e s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s w e r e f i r s t c om put e d f o r t he e nt i r e s a m pl e ( N = 309) a nd t he n i nde pe nde nt l y f or t he I B ( n = 139) a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on ( n = 168 ) s a m pl e s on pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s ( i e pos i t i ve a voi d a nc e ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e a nge r f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on) a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or a nd gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. T he r e s ul t s of t he de s c r i pt i ve a na l ys e s

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75 a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e s 2 a nd 3 F o r e a c h va r i a bl e hi ghe r s c or e s r e f l e c t i nc r e a s e d l e ve l s of t he c ons t r uc t i ndi c a t e d by t he va r i a bl e na m e T o f ur t he r a s s e s s uni va r i a t e nor m a l i t y, s ke w a nd kur t os i s of e a c h of t he s i x m e a s ur e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d. A l l obt a i ne d va l ue s w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng ( s ke w = 1. 67, kur t os i s = 2 74) w e r e be t w e e n 1. 0 a nd + 1. 0 de m ons t r a t i ng a c c e pt a bl e l e ve l s of s ke w a nd kur t o s i s a nd, t he r e f or e a nor m a l di s t r i but i on of s c or e s on e a c h of t he t a r ge t va r i a bl e s T he ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng va r i a bl e w a s t r a ns f or m e d by t a ki ng t he l og a r i t hm of t he va r i a bl e ; a l t hough s ke w a nd kur t os i s obt a i ne d a c c e pt a bl e l e ve l s upon t r a ns f or m a t i on ( s ke w = 1 04, kur t os i s 15) t he pa t t e r n a nd m a gni t ude of t he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he l oga r i t hm of ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e a nd ot he r va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t di d not c h a nge w he n t he non t r a ns f or m e d va r i a bl e w a s s ubs t i t ut e d f or t he l oga r i t hm of ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e T he r e f o r e a l t hough t he s ke w a nd kur t os i s of t he ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e va r i a b l e i ndi c a t e d a s l i ght non nor m a l di s t r i but i on, t he or i gi na l f o r m o f t he va r i a bl e w a s r e t a i ne d a nd us e d f or f ur t he r da t a a na l ys e s G r oup D i f f e r e nc e s T o de t e r m i ne i f s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m di f f e r e d f r om s t ude nt s i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pr ogr a m i n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s s c hool f unc t i oni ng ( G P A a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f u nc t i oni ng ( l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ps yc hopa t hol ogy) i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t s w e r e c onduc t e d, us i ng I B s t a t us a s t he gr oupi ng va r i a bl e B e c a us e of t he m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s ons a 01 a l pha l e ve l w a s us e d t o e s t a bl i s h s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e f or e a c h t t e s t T he F t e s t s f or e qua l i t y of va r i a nc e s w e r e not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt f or pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s pos i t i ve a voi da nc e a nd a nge r c opi ng, e xt e r na l i z i ng

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76 T a bl e 2. M e ans St andar d D e v i at i ons and R ange s of P r e di c t or V ar i abl e s G r o u p V a r i a b l e I B ( n = 1 3 9 ) N o n I B ( n = 1 6 8 ) T o t a l ( N = 3 0 8 ) C o h e n s d P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s M 3 4 2 a 3 1 1 b 3 2 6 3 2 S D 8 6 1 0 3 9 7 R a n g e 1 1 7 5 0 1 0 5 0 1 0 5 0 P o s i t i v e A v o i d a n c e M 3 3 0 a 3 6 0 b 3 4 7 3 9 S D 7 7 7 0 7 5 R a n g e 1 2 4 8 1 6 5 0 1 2 5 0 N e g a t i v e A v o i d a n c e M 1 2 1 a 1 5 0 b 1 3 7 8 2 S D 3 5 5 8 5 1 R a n g e 1 0 2 5 1 0 3 5 1 0 3 5 F a m i l y C o m m u n i c a t i o n M 2 9 6 a 3 0 1 a 2 9 9 S D 7 7 8 2 8 0 R a n g e 1 2 5 0 1 0 5 0 1 0 5 0 A n g e r M 2 8 0 a 2 5 5 b 2 6 6 3 7 S D 7 2 7 0 7 2 R a n g e 1 0 4 4 1 0 4 8 1 0 4 8 N o t e S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p m e a n s a r e i n d i c a t e d b y d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s M e a n s h a v i n g t h e s a m e s u b s c r i p t a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t C o h e n s d i s p r o v i d e d f o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . 2 0 = s m a l l 5 0 = m e d i u m 8 0 = l a r g e

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77 T a bl e 3. M e ans St andar d D e v i at i ons and R ange s of O ut c o m e V ar i abl e s G r o u p V a r i a b l e I B ( n = 1 3 9 ) N o n I B ( n = 1 6 8 ) T o t a l ( N = 3 0 8 ) C o h e n s d A c a d e m i c S e l f E f f i c a c y M 3 7 9 a 3 4 3 b 3 6 0 5 1 S D 6 6 7 3 7 3 R a n g e 1 2 9 5 0 1 2 9 5 0 1 2 9 5 0 G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e M 4 1 4 a 3 0 5 b 3 5 5 1 9 8 S D 3 7 6 6 7 7 R a n g e 2 9 8 4 7 3 1 2 8 4 3 0 1 2 8 4 7 3 I n t e r n a l i z i n g B e h a v i o r M 1 5 1 0 a 1 4 1 5 a 1 4 5 9 S D 8 7 2 9 0 7 8 9 3 R a n g e 0 3 7 0 3 6 0 3 7 E x t e r n a l i z i n g B e h a v i o r M 1 0 7 3 a 1 3 2 5 b 1 2 1 4 4 0 S D 5 3 8 6 8 9 6 3 5 R a n g e 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 0 G l o b a l L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n M 4 0 4 a 3 9 5 a 3 9 9 S D 9 2 1 0 9 7 R a n g e 1 2 9 6 0 1 2 9 6 0 1 2 9 6 0 N o t e S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p m e a n s a r e i n d i c a t e d b y d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s M e a n s h a v i n g t h e s a m e s u b s c r i p t a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t C o h e n s d i s p r o v i d e d f o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . 2 0 = s m a l l 5 0 = m e d i u m 8 0 = l a r g e

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78 be ha vi or a nd a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, t he r e f or e t he t t e s t s t a t i s t i c s a r e r e por t e d us i ng pool e d va r i a nc e s T he F t e s t s f or e qua l i t y o f va r i a n c e s f or ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e ( F = 2. 74 p< 01) a nd g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge ( F = 3 11, p< 01 ) w e r e bot h s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt t he r e f or e t he S a t t e r t hw a i t e t t e s t s t a t i s t i c s a r e r e por t e d. C ohe n s d w a s c a l c ul a t e d f o r a l l s i gni f i c a nt t t e s t s t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s i z e ( s e e T a bl e s 2 a nd 3 ) P r e di c t or v ar i abl e s G r oup di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound i n l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd pr e f e r r e d c opi ng s t yl e s S pe c i f i c a l l y, s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m r e por t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r l e ve l s o f pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s t ha n s t ude nt s not e nr ol l e d i n t he I B pr ogr a m ( t = 2. 77 p < 01) S t ude nt s i n t he I B p r o gr a m a l s o r e por t e d us i ng m or e a nge r c opi ng ( t = 3 17, p< 01) S t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n ge n e r a l e duc a t i on w e r e m o r e l i ke l y t o us e pos i t i ve a voi da nc e ( t = 3 57, p < 01) a nd ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e ( t = 5 35, p < 01) c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha n s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m A l l e f f e c t s i z e s w e r e s m a l l w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng ( d = 82 ) w hi c h w a s f ound t o ha ve a l a r ge e f f e c t s i z e N o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w i t h r e s pe c t t o f r e que nc y of us e of f a m i l y c om m u ni c a t i on c opi ng. A l l de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s f or pr e di c t or va r i a b l e s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 2 O ut c om e v ar i abl e s I B s t ude nt s s c or e s on t he s c hool f unc t i oni ng va r i a bl e s w e r e s upe r i or t o t ha t of t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s on a l l i ndi c a t or s S pe c i f i c a l l y I B s t ude nt s r e por t e d hi ghe r l e ve l s o f a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ( t = 4. 48 p < 01) a nd hi ghe r gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge s ( t = 1 8. 10 p < 01 ) t ha n s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on. T he e f f e c t s i z e of t he s e di f f e r e nc e s w e r e m ode r a t e t o l a r ge ( d = 51; d = 1 98, r e s pe c t i ve l y) W i t h r e s pe c t t o s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng I B s t ude n t s a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s onl y

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79 di f f e r e d on e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ( t = 3 50, p < 01 ) w he r e a m ode r a t e e f f e c t s i z e w a s f ound ( d = 40) S pe c i f i c a l l y I B s t ude nt s r e por t e d l e s s e xt e r na l i z i ng ps yc hopa t hol ogy t he n s t ude nt s i n r e gul a r e duc a t i on. T he t w o gr oups di d not di f f e r w i t h r e s pe c t t o gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on or i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or A l l de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s f or out c om e va r i a bl e s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 3 C or r e l at i onal A nal y s e s P e a r s on pr oduc t m om e nt c or r e l a t i ons a m ong a l l c o nt i nuous va r i a bl e s i nc l ude d i n a na l ys e s a r e pr e s e nt e d f or t he e nt i r e s a m pl e a s w e l l a s f or e a c h i nde pe nde nt gr oup ( I B ge ne r a l e duc a t i on) i n T a bl e 4. G r oup di f f e r e nc e s A s c a n be s e e n i n t he t a bl e t he m a gni t ude a nd di r e c t i on of t he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n a l l va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t f ol l o w t he s a m e pa t t e r ns f o r bot h t he I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on gr oups A F i s he r s Z t r a ns f or m a t i on w a s pe r f or m e d f or a l l c o r r e l a t i ons t o a s s e s s f or s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on g r oups ; onl y one s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e n c e w a s f ound ( f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, p < 05 ) a l t hough t he s a m e pa t t e r n o f c or r e l a t i on w a s f ound be t w e e n t he t w o g r oups on t h i s va r i a bl e A s m a l l e f f e c t s i z e ( d = 21) w a s f ound f o r t hi s di f f e r e nc e W i t h r e s pe c t t o t he r e m a i ni ng 45 bi va r i a t e c or r e l a t i ons t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he t w o va r i a bl e s i n e a c h pa i r w a s s i m i l a r a c r os s t he t w o gr oups I n s um de s pi t e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he g r oups on m e a n l e ve l s of va r i a bl e s t he gr oups w e r e a l m os t i de nt i c a l i n t e r m s o f how va r i a bl e s w e r e i nt e r c or r e l a t e d. P at t e r ns of r e l at i ons hi ps A l l s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i o ns oc c ur r e d i n t he e xpe c t e d di r e c t i ons f or bot h g r oups S pe c i f i c a l l y pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s w a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h

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80 T a b l e 4 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n V a r i a b l e s i n I B G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a n d C o m b i n e d S a m p l e V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T o t a l / C o m b i n e d S a m p l e ( N = 3 0 8 ) 1 P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s 1 2 P o s i t i v e A v o i d a n c e 1 4 1 3 N e g a t i v e A v o i d a n c e 0 2 0 4 1 4 F a m i l y C o m m u n i c a t i o n 2 6 4 9 0 6 1 5 A n g e r 2 8 0 2 0 0 0 6 1 6 I n t e r n a l i z i n g 7 1 2 0 1 1 2 3 1 9 1 7 E x t e r n a l i z i n g 3 2 1 1 2 6 3 3 3 6 4 1 1 8 A c a d e m i c S e l f E f f i c a c y 1 9 1 7 1 9 3 5 0 2 2 6 4 2 1 9 G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e 0 8 1 1 3 7 0 7 1 2 0 1 3 6 5 0 1 1 0 L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n 5 7 3 5 1 9 5 0 1 2 6 0 4 2 4 1 1 8 I B S t u d e n t s ( n = 1 3 9 ) 1 P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s 1 2 P o s i t i v e A v o i d a n c e 1 3 1 3 N e g a t i v e A v o i d a n c e 1 3 1 1 1 4 F a m i l y C o m m u n i c a t i o n 1 9 4 4 * 1 2 1 5 A n g e r 2 9 * 0 3 0 6 0 8 1 6 I n t e r n a l i z i n g 7 2 * 1 1 3 0 * 0 9 2 5 * 1 7 E x t e r n a l i z i n g 4 0 * 1 3 2 0 3 5 * 4 4 * 5 1 * 1 8 A c a d e m i c S e l f E f f i c a c y 3 6 * 2 2 * 0 2 4 0 * 1 2 3 5 * 4 2 * 1 9 G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e 1 5 0 8 0 3 2 3 0 6 1 0 2 0 4 9 * 1 1 0 L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n 6 3 * 3 0 * 2 5 * 4 1 * 1 6 6 0 * 4 5 * 4 8 * 1 6 G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t s ( n = 1 6 8 ) 1 P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s 1 2 P o s i t i v e A v o i d a n c e 1 1 1 3 N e g a t i v e A v o i d a n c e 0 2 0 8 1 4 F a m i l y C o m m u n i c a t i o n 3 0 * 5 5 * 0 2 1 5 A n g e r 2 5 0 2 0 4 0 6 1 6 I n t e r n a l i z i n g 7 1 * 2 6 * 0 5 3 4 * 1 5 1 7 E x t e r n a l i z i n g 3 3 * 1 7 2 2 3 3 * 4 0 * 3 8 * 1 8 A c a d e m i c S e l f E f f i c a c y 1 7 2 3 1 7 3 5 * 0 3 2 4 * 3 9 * 1 9 G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e 0 2 0 3 3 2 * 1 0 0 4 0 2 3 7 * 4 9 * 1 1 0 L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n 5 6 * 4 0 * 1 6 5 7 * 1 2 6 1 * 4 0 * 3 6 * 2 5 * N o t e p = < 0 5 * p = < 0 1

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81 ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng) a nd ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h pos i t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h ( i e a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on) ; i n ot he r w or ds hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s c o oc c ur e d w i t h c om pr om i s e d m e nt a l he a l t h. T he r e l a t i ve l y s m a l l c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n m os t c opi ng s t yl e s ( i e r = 19 r = 29) i ndi c a t e t ha t t he c opi ng va r i a bl e s c a n be us e d i n r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w i t hout r i s ki ng m ul t i c ol l i na r i t y N ot a bl y, t he m ode r a t e c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on c opi ng a nd pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng ( r = 44) w i l l m a ke i t di f f i c ul t f o r t he s e v a r i a bl e s t o c ont r i but e m uc h uni que va r i a nc e t o e qua t i ons i n w hi c h t he y a r e bot h i nc l ude d. A s t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h i n I B s t ude nt s w e r e t he pr i m a r y f oc us of t h i s s t udy, da t a f or t he I B s t ude nt s onl y w e r e r e t a i ne d f or f ur t he r r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s U s i ng onl y t he da t a f r om t he I B s t ude nt s w i l l i nc r e a s e t he s pe c i f i c i t y of t he popul a t i on t o w hi c h r e s ul t s a r e ge ne r a l i z a bl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s e s T o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng s t yl e s w e r e pr e di c t i ve of m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s i n I B s t ude nt s a s e r i e s of m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d f or e a c h out c om e va r i a bl e of i nt e r e s t ( i e G P A a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or e xt e r na l i z i ng b e ha vi or ) A n a l pha l e ve l o f 05 w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e T he be t a w e i ght s f or e a c h va r i a bl e i n e a c h r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 5 Soc i al e m ot i onal f unc t i oni ng T o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h c opi ng s t yl e s pr e di c t e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n, a l l f our c opi ng s t yl e s ( i e pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on, a nge r ) w e r e e nt e r e d i nt o a s i m ul t a ne ous m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on

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82 T a bl e 5. Sum m ar y of Si m ul t ane ous R e gr e s s i on A nal y s e s f or V ar i abl e s P r e di c t i ng M e nt al H e al t h O ut c om e s P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e s U ni que ne s s I ndi c e s P r e di c t or s B S E B s r F s r L i f e S a t i s f a c t i on 1. P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 04 02 17* 02 4. 59* 2 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 20 05 30** 09 17. 33** 3. F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 09 02 38** 12 22. 46** 4 A nge r 05 02 18* 03 6. 56* I nt e r na l i z i ng B e ha vi or 1. P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 23 20 10 00 1. 37 2 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 1. 9 49 30** 09 14. 88** 3. F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 22 20 09 00 1. 23 4 A nge r 58 19 24** 06 9. 19** E xt e r na l i z i ng B e ha vi or 1. P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 03 10 02 00 10 2 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 84 26 22** 05 10. 36** 3. F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 62 11 44** 15 32. 93** 4 A nge r 70 10 47** 22 47. 86** A c a de m i c S e l f E f f i c a c y 1. P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 07 10 06 00 44 2 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 22 26 07 00 70 3. F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 47 11 39** 12 19. 96** 4 A nge r 19 10 15 02 3. 54 N ot e *p< 05, ** p< 01

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83 e qua t i on. C opi ng e xpl a i ne d 31 % o f t he va r i a nc e i n gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( R = 31 ) E a c h of t he f our c opi ng s t yl e s uni que l y pr e di c t e d L S I n ot he r w or ds a f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f or t he s ha r e d va r i a nc e a m ong t he s e f our c opi ng s t yl e s e a c h w a s i nde pe nde nt l y r e l a t e d t o di f f e r e nc e s i n s t ude nt s gl oba l L S S pe c i f i c a l l y, po s i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng ( = 17 ) a nd f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on ( = 38 ) w e r e r e l a t e d t o i nc r e a s e d gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, w hi l e t he ne ga t i ve di r e c t i on o f t he be t a w e i ght s f o r ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e ( = 30 ) a nd a nge r c opi ng ( = 18) i ndi c a t e d t ha t m o r e f r e que nt us e of t he s e c opi ng s t yl e s i s r e l a t e d t o di m i ni s he d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. T he m a gni t ude of t he be t a w e i ght s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on a nd ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e s ugge s t t h a t t he s e t w o c opi ng s t yl e s a r e s t r onge r pr e di c t or s of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on t ha n pos i t i ve a voi da nc e or a nge r c opi ng U ni que ne s s i ndi c e s w e r e a l s o obt a i ne d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ve c ont r i but i on e a c h c opi ng s t yl e m a de a f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f o r t he va r i a nc e a c c ount e d f o r by t he t h r e e ot he r c opi ng s t yl e s A f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f o r t he c ont r i but i ons o f ot he r c opi ng s t yl e s f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on a l one a c c ount e d f or 12% of t he va r i a nc e i n L S ( s r = 12 ) A l l ot he r uni que ne s s i ndi c e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 5 T w o s e pa r a t e r e gr e s s i on e qua t i ons w e r e c om put e d f or i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng ps yc hopa t hol ogy. C opi ng s t yl e s a c c ount e d f or 17% o f t he va r i a nc e i n i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or a nd 40% of t he va r i a nc e i n e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or N e ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or of i n t e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ( = 30) w hi l e a nge r c opi ng w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t o r f o r e xt e r n a l i z i ng be ha vi or ( = 47) F a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on w a s s t r ongl y i nve r s e l y r e l a t e d t o e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ( = 44 ) w hi l e ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e w a s m ode r a t e l y pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi o r ( = 22)

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84 F a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on a c c ount e d f or 15 % a nd a nge r c opi ng a c c ount e d f o r 22 % of t he va r i a nc e i n e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or a f t e r c ont r ol l i n g f or t he c ont r i but i ons of ot he r c opi ng s t yl e s i n pr e di c t i ng t hi s out c om e ( s e e T a bl e 5 ) A f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f or t he c ont r i but i ons of ot he r c opi ng s t yl e s a nge r a nd ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng ( s r = 06 s r = 09 r e s pe c t i ve l y) bot h m a de uni que c ont r i but i ons i n pr e di c t i ng i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ; pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng a nd f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on w e r e no t r e l a t e d t o i nt e r na l i z i ng. Sc hool f unc t i oni ng. T he r e gr e s s i on e qua t i on us i ng c opi ng s t yl e s t o pr e di c t g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt C opi ng s t yl e s di d pr e di c t a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ( R = 19) S pe c i f i c a l l y f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on e m e r ge d a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or of a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y ( = 39 s r = 12) N o ot he r c opi ng s t yl e s i nde pe nde nt l y pr e di c t e d a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y. T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m w ho us e d f a m i l y s uppor t t o c ope a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o pe r c e i ve t he m s e l ve s a s a c a de m i c a l l y c a pa bl e M ode r at or T e s t s T o de t e r m i ne i f c opi ng f unc t i one d a s a m ode r a t or i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h ( i e hi gh G P A hi gh l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd l ow ps yc hopa t hol ogy) i n I B s t ude nt s a s e r i e s of m u l t i p l e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d t ha t i nc l ude d i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s be t w e e n e a c h c opi n g s t yl e a nd s t r e s s ( e g. s t r e s s *pos i t i ve a voi da nc e s t r e s s *ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e s t r e s s *f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on, s t r e s s *a nge r ) us i ng t he da t a f r om t he s ubs a m pl e of 139 I B s t ude nt s A m ode r a t or va r i a bl e c ha nge s t he di r e c t i on or s t r e ngt h be t w e e n a n i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( i n t hi s c a s e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ) a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( i n t hi s c a s e m e nt a l he a l t h) A m ode r a t or i s i de nt i f i e d w he n t he e f f e c t

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85 of one va r i a bl e de pe nds of t he l e ve l s of a not he r o r s i m pl y s t a t e d, a n i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t i s f ound ( B a r on & K e nny, 1986) T o t e s t f or m ode r a t i on, a s e r i e s of f i ve s e pa r a t e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng t he i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h ( a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, ps yc hopa t hol ogy) a s t he de pe nde nt / c r i t e r i on va r i a bl e a nd pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s c opi ng s t yl e s a nd t he i nt e r a c t i on of s t r e s s a nd c opi ng s t yl e s a s t he pr e di c t or s / i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s A l l pr e di c t or va r i a bl e s w e r e c e nt e r e d by s ubt r a c t i ng t he gr oup m e a n f r om e a c h p r e di c t or va r i a bl e A n a l ph a l e ve l of 05 w a s us e d t o i de nt i f y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s R e s ul t s of r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e s 6 a nd 7 T o f i r s t de t e c t a n ove r a l l e f f e c t of c opi ng a s m ode r a t or s i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h, t he R va l ue s f or e a c h f ul l r e gr e s s i on m ode l t ha t i nc l ude d s t r e s s c opi ng a nd t he i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s ( s t r e s s *pos i t i ve a voi da nc e s t r e s s *ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e s t r e s s *f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on, s t r e s s *a nge r ) w e r e c om pa r e d w i t h t he ba s e m ode l ( e g. e a c h m e nt a l he a l t h va r i a bl e pr e di c t e d by s t r e s s a nd c opi ng s t yl e s e x c l udi ng i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s ) T hi s c ha nge i n R ( i e f ul l m ode l ba s e m ode l ) w a s c a l c ul a t e d t o de t e c t a s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge i n t he p r o por t i on of va r i a nc e a c c oun t e d f o r by t he i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s O f t he f i ve R c ha nge t e s t s ( i e one t e s t f or e a c h m e nt a l he a l t h va r i a bl e ) t w o s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge s i n R w e r e f ound : l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( R = 59 F = 4. 17 p < 05) a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ( R = 60 F = 2 5, p < 05 ) T o de t e r m i ne w hi c h i nt e r a c t i on w a s dr i vi ng e a c h e f f e c t t he be t a w e i ght s a nd c or r e s pondi ng t t e s t f o r e a c h i nt e r a c t i on t e r m w e r e e xa m i ne d. F o r l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng w a s s i gni f i c a nt ( t = 2 2 0 p < 0 5 )

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86 T a bl e 6. Sc hool F unc t i oni ng V ar i abl e s P r e di c t e d by P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and C opi ng ( n = 139) B S E b B R F R G r a de P oi nt A ve r a ge B a s e M ode l 07 F ul l M ode l 09 N S 1 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s 06 04 15 2 P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 02 05 04 3 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 01 10 01 4 F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 11 05 22* 5 A nge r 03 05 06 6 S t r e s s *P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 05 05 09 7 S t r e s s *N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 10 10 08 8 S t r e s s *F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 02 05 05 9 S t r e s s *A nge r 07 06 11 A c a de m i c S e l f E f f i c a c y B a s e M ode l 25 F ul l M ode l 29 N S 1 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s 19 06 25* 2 P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 06 07 07 3 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 05 15 03 4 F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 30 07 35* 5 A nge r 05 07 06 6 S t r e s s *P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 11 08 12 7 S t r e s s *N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 24 16 12 8 S t r e s s *F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 08 08 07 9 S t r e s s *A nge r 09 09 02 N ot e *p< 05

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87 T a bl e 7. Soc i al E m ot i onal F unc t i on i ng V ar i abl e s P r e di c t e d by P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and C opi ng ( n = 139) B S E B R F R L i f e S a t i s f a c t i on B a s e M ode l 54 F ul l M ode l 59 4. 17* 1 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s 52 07 48* 2 P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 18 08 15* 3 N e ga t i ve A voi d a nc e 49 16 18* 4 F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 32 08 26* 5 A nge r 00 08 00 6 S t r e s s *P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 20 09 16* 7 S t r e s s *N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 05 17 02 8 S t r e s s *F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 08 08 07 9 S t r e s s *A nge r 18 10 12 I nt e r na l i z i ng B e ha vi or B a s e M ode l 57 F ul l M ode l 60 2. 5* 1 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s 6. 56 63 65* 2 P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 56 72 05 3 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 4. 16 1. 49 17* 4 F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 78 73 07 5 A nge r 0 6 72 00 6 S t r e s s *P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 1. 32 82 11 7 S t r e s s *N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 2. 27 1. 59 08 8 S t r e s s *F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 28 78 03 9 S t r e s s *A nge r 2. 39 89 16* N ot e *p< 05

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88 T a bl e 7, c ont d. Soc i al E m ot i onal F unc t i oni ng V ar i ab l e s P r e di c t e d by P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and C opi ng ( n = 139) B S E B R F R E xt e r na l i z i ng B e ha vi or B a s e M ode l 43 F ul l M ode l 46 N S 1 P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s 1. 05 45 17* 2 P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 25 52 04 3 N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 2. 5 1 07 16* 4 F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 2. 79 54 39* 5 A nge r 2. 84 52 38* 6 S t r e s s *P os i t i ve A voi da nc e 27 60 04 7 S t r e s s *N e ga t i ve A voi da nc e 13 1. 15 01 8 S t r e s s *F a m i l y C om m uni c a t i on 84 59 12 9 S t r e s s *A nge r 1. 22 65 13 N ot e *p< 05

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89 F or i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd a nge r c opi ng w a s s i gni f i c a nt ( t = 2. 68 p < 05) N o ot he r i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt i n e i t he r f ul l m ode l s o t he r e g r e s s i on e qua t i ons w e r e s i m pl i f i e d by dr oppi ng non s i g ni f i c a nt i n t e r a c t i on t e r m s f r om t he e qua t i on a nd r e r unni ng e a c h r e gr e s s i on us i ng t he ba s e m ode l ( i e s t r e s s a nd t he 4 c opi ng va r i a bl e s t o p r e di c t l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or r e s pe c t i ve l y) T he c opi ng va r i a bl e s t ha t w e r e s i gni f i c a nt i n t he i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s w e r e di c hot om i z e d i nt o hi gh a nd l ow f r e que nc y o f us e c opi ng s t yl e s a nd us e d a s a gr oupi ng va r i a bl e t o i l l us t r a t e t he i nt e r a c t i on i n e a c h r e gr e s s i on e qua t i on. I nt e r nal i z i ng be hav i or T o i nt e r pr e t t he i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t a nge r c opi ng s c or e s w e r e us e d t o a s s i gn I B s t ude nt s t o t he hi gh a nge r c opi ng gr oup a nd c om pa r i s on s ubs a m pl e T he hi gh a nge r c opi ng g r oup ( n = 78 ) c ons i s t e d of I B s t ude nt s w ho r e por t e d a nge r c opi ng s c or e d a t o r a bove t he s a m pl e m e di a n ( x = 2 8) T he l ow a nge r c opi ng gr oup ( n = 61 ) c ons i s t e d of I B s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d be l o w t he m e di a n f or t he I B s a m pl e H i e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r r e gr e s s i on w a s us e d t o pr e di c t i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or by e nt e r i ng t he f our c opi ng s t yl e s f i r s t ( S t e p 1 ) f ol l ow e d by pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ( S t e p 2) T he s l ope of t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or w a s s t e e pe r f o r I B s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh a nge r c opi ng ( b = 8. 36 p < 001 ) m e a ni ng t ha t a s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s i nc r e a s e s s t ude nt s w ho us e m or e a nge r c opi ng a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e i nt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s ( s e e F i gur e 1 ) O n t he o t he r ha nd f o r t he l ow a nge r c opi ng gr oup s t r e s s w a s not a s s t r ongl y r e l a t e d t o i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ( b = 4 78, p < 001)

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90 L i f e s at i s f ac t i on. T o i nt e r pr e t t he i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng s c or e s w e r e us e d t o a s s i gn I B s t ude nt s t o t he hi gh pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng gr oup a nd c om pa r i s on s ubs a m pl e T he hi gh pos i t i ve a voi da n c e c opi ng gr oup ( n = 72) c ons i s t e d of I B s t ude nt s w ho r e por t e d pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi n g a t or a bove t he s a m pl e m e di a n ( x = 3. 4) T he l ow pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng gr oup ( n = 67) c ons i s t e d of I B s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d be l ow t he m e di a n f o r t he I B s a m pl e H i e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r r e gr e s s i on w a s us e d t o pr e di c t l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on by e nt e r i ng t he f ou r c opi ng s t yl e s f i r s t ( S t e p 1) f ol l ow e d by pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s ( S t e p 2) T he s l ope of t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on w a s s t e e pe r f or I B s t ude nt s w i t h l ow p os i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi n g ( b = 70 p < 01) S pe c i f i c a l l y, I B s t ude nt s w ho us e pos i t i ve a voi da nc e be h a vi or s t o c ope l e s s f r e que nt l y e xpe r i e nc e s ha r pe r de c l i ne s i n l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a s s t r e s s i nc r e a s e s ( s e e F i gur e F i gur e 1. P r e di c t e d i n t e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or f or hi gh a nd l ow a nge r c opi ng I B s t ude nt s

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91 F i gur e 2. P r e di c t e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on f o r hi gh a nd l o w pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng I B s t ude nt s X X ) O n t he o t he r ha nd f o r t he hi gh pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng gr oup, s t r e s s w a s not a s s t r ongl y r e l a t e d t o l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on ( b = 44 p < . 01)

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92 C H A P T E R 5 D i s c us s i on Sum m ar y of t he St udy T he pr e s e nt s t udy a i m e d t o i nve s t i ga t e t he m e nt a l he a l t h of a c a de m i c a l l y a dva nc e d a dol e s c e nt s s pe c i f i c a l l y a dol e s c e nt s e nr ol l e d i n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e ( I B ) p r ogr a m a p r ogr a m de s i gne d f o r hi gh l y m ot i va t e d, hi gh a c hi e vi ng h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s T hi s s t udy w a s nove l i n na t ur e be c a us e i t w a s t he f i r s t s t udy t o e xa m i ne t he m e nt a l he a l t h of I B s t ude nt s A ddi t i ona l l y, by us i n g bot h pos i t i ve ( i e l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on, a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) a n d ne ga t i ve ( i e ps yc hopa t hol ogy) i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h, a m or e c om pr e he ns i ve pi c t ur e o f t he m e nt a l he a l t h o f I B s t ude nt s w a s obt a i ne d. F i ndi ngs f r o m t hi s s t udy s u gge s t t ha t s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m ha ve m e nt a l he a l t h t ha t i s c om m e n s ur a t e w i t h t ha t of ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s I B s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o a c hi e ve hi ghe r l e ve l s of a c a de m i c s uc c e s s ( e g. hi ghe r gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge s ) de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t he y r e por t hi ghe r l e ve l s of s t r e s s t ha n s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y i t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t ho w s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m c ope w i t h s t r e s s ha s a di f f e r e nt i a l e f f e c t on i m po r t a nt m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s s pe c i f i c a l l y t hos e r e l a t e d t o t he i r s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng. T hi s c ha pt e r w i l l s um m a r i z e t he r e s ul t s f r om C ha pt e r 4 di s c us s t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he r e s ul t s i de nt i f y l i m i t a t i ons o f t he s t udy, a nd s ugge s t di r e c t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. E x am i nat i on of R e s ul t s P r i or t o e xa m i ni ng t he f i nd i ngs f r om C ha pt e r 4 i t i s i m por t a nt t o not e s e ve r a l de c i s i ons m a de i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy. F i r s t s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m s ha r e bui l d i ng

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93 f a c i l i t i e s a nd f a c ul t y w i t h s t ude nt s i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um T he r e f or e i t i s t he a s s um pt i on of t he r e s e a r c he r t ha t g r oup di f f e r e nc e s a r e r e l a t e d t o e nr o l l m e nt i n t he s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um uni que t o e a c h g r oup of s t ude nt s A ddi t i ona l l y, a l t hough s i m i l a r pa t t e r ns of c or r e l a t i ons e m e r ge d be t w e e n s t ude nt s i n t he I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um onl y t he da t a f o r s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n t he I B c ur r i c ul u m w e r e r e t a i ne d t o i nve s t i ga t e t he i nf l ue n c e of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd c opi ng on m e nt a l he a l t h. T hi s de c i s i on w a s m a de a s t he a i m of t he pr e s e nt s t udy w a s t o i n ve s t i ga t e t he m e nt a l he a l t h of a s ub popul a t i on ( i e I B s t ude nt s ) o f a dol e s c e nt s r a t he r t ha n a dol e s c e nt s i n ge ne r a l N ot abl e gr oup di f f e r e nc e s O ve r a l l s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m pe r c e i ve d m or e s t r e s s t ha n s t ude nt s i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um T hi s i s i n l i ne w i t h l ogi c a l hypot he s e s a s s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m a r e i m m e r s e d i n a n e xt r e m e l y c ha l l e ngi ng, de m a ndi ng c ur r i c ul um i n a ddi t i on t o t he a c a de m i c a nd de ve l opm e nt a l c ha l l e nge s f a c e d by a l l a dol e s c e nt s de A nda a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2003) f ound t ha t t he m a j or i t y of t he a dol e s c e nt s s ur ve ye d i n t he i r s t udy r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o s t udyi ng f o r t e s t s ge t t i ng good g r a de s c om pl e t i ng ho m e w or k, a nd ba l a nc i ng r e s pons i bi l i t i e s A s I B s t ude nt s a r e f r e que nt l y t e s t e d ( s t ude nt s m us t pa s s a dva nc e d e xa m i na t i ons i n t he i r j un i or ye a r ) m a i nt a i n e xt r e m e l y hi gh g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge s ( M = 4. 14) a nd c a r r y he a vy hom e w or k l oa ds i t w a s e xpe c t e d t ha t t he y w ou l d e xpe r i e nc e m or e s t r e s s t ha n s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n a m or e t ypi c a l hi gh s c hool c ur r i c ul um T he a ddi t i ona l r e s pons i bi l i t i e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h e nr ol l m e nt i n t he I B p r ogr a m ( e g. c om m uni t y s e r vi c e i nde pe nde nt r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e xt r a c ur r i c ul a r a c t i vi t i e s ) m a y s e r ve t o i nc r e a s e t he s t r e s s l e ve l s of t he s e s t ude nt s be yond t ha t of ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s

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94 D e s pi t e t he s t r e s s s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m e xpe r i e nc e t he a c a de m i c f unc t i oni ng of s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr og r a m i s s upe r i or t o t ha t of s t ude nt s i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um T hi s f i ndi ng c ont r a s t s t he f i ndi ngs of C unni ngha m a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2003) G i l l oc k a nd R e ye s ( 1999) a nd A l va a nd d e L os R ye s ( 1999) w ho a l l f ound t ha t i nc r e a s e d s t r e s s w a s ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge O ve r a l l t he a ve r a ge G P A of s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m w a s ove r one l e t t e r gr a de hi ghe r ( 4 14 c om pa r e d t o 3. 05) t ha n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s A ddi t i ona l l y I B s t ude nt s r e por t e d hi ghe r a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y t ha n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s T hus not onl y do s t ude nt s i n t he I B pr ogr a m pe r f or m be t t e r a c a de m i c a l l y, t he y a l s o m a i nt a i n t he be l i e f t ha t t he y a r e m o r e a c a de m i c a l l y c a pa bl e t ha n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s T he m ode r a t e c or r e l a t i on f ound be t w e e n a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd gr a de poi nt a v e r a ge m a y he l p t o e xpl a i n w hy I B s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o a c hi e ve m or e t ha n t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s i n s pi t e of t he s t r e s s ; pe r c e i vi ng one s e l f a s m or e a c a de m i c a l l y c a pa bl e m a y c ont r i but e t o pe r s e ve r i ng t o t he poi nt of obt a i ni ng hi gh a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt s pe c i f i c a l l y m a i nt a i ni ng a hi ghe r gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge P r e e xi s t i ng g r oup di f f e r e nc e s i n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt m a y a l s o buf f e r s t ude nt s i n t he I B p r ogr a m f r om t he e f f e c t s of s t r e s s S pe c i f i c a l l y t o ga i n a dm i t t a nc e t o t he I B pr og r a m s t ude nt s m us t de m ons t r a t e a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt s upe r i or t o t ha t o f t he i r pe e r s s t a r t i ng i n m i ddl e s c hool T hi s hi s t or i c a l pa t t e r n of a c hi e ve m e nt m a y e xpl a i n w hy I B s t ude nt s c ont i nue t o out pe r f or m t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s a c a de m i c a l l y. T he r e a r e o t he r not a b l e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he s t u di e s c onduc t e d by C unni ngha m a nd c ol l e a gue s G i l l oc k a nd R e ye s a nd A l va a nd de L os R ye s a nd t he pr e s e nt r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t i n t e r m s of de s i gn a nd s a m pl e T he a f or e m e nt i one d s t udi e s a l l

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95 f oc us e d on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt us i ng obj e c t i ve m e a s ur e s of s t r e s s ( i e s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt c he c kl i s t s ) w hi l e t he pr e s e nt s t udy ut i l i z e d a s ubj e c t i ve m e a s ur e of s t r e s s ( i e P e r c e i v e d St r e s s Sc al e ) I t i s unc l e a r f r om t he da t a i n t he t hr e e s t udi e s i f t he i r pa r t i c i pa nt s a c t ua l l y pe r c e i ve d m or e s t r e s s t ha n t he I B s t ude nt s s a m pl e d i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy. A l t hough I B s t ude nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy pe r c e i ve d m o r e s t r e s s t ha n t he i r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s be c a us e of m e a s ur e m e nt di f f e r e nc e s i t i s i m pos s i bl e t o m a ke di r e c t c om pa r i s ons of s t r e s s be t w e e n t he I B s t ude nt s i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy a nd t he s a m pl e s i n t he t hr e e a f or e m e nt i one d s t udi e s A l l t hr e e s t udi e s a l s o s a m pl e d a dol e s c e nt s f r om m i nor i t y ba c kgr ounds ( i e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c ) l i vi ng i n ur ba n s e t t i n gs a nd di d not s pe c i f i c a l l y i nc l ude s t u de nt s i n a n I B p r ogr a m T he m a j o r i t y of t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e C a uc a s i a n a nd a l l w e r e e nr ol l e d i n a n I B pr og r a m A ddi t i ona l l y, a l l s t ude nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy, due t o t he l oc a t i on of t he I B hi gh s c hool r e s i de i n r ur a l a r e a s I t m a y be t ha t s t r e s s ha s di f f e r e nt i a l e f f e c t s on s t ude nt s f r om va r yi ng e t hni c or c ul t u r a l ba c kgr ounds N ot abl e f i ndi ngs r e gar di ng i nt e r r e l at i ons hi ps be t w e e n v ar i abl e s W i t hi n t he gr oup of I B s t ude nt s a s w e l l a s w i t hi n t he gr oup o f ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s p e r c e i ve d s t r e s s w a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h ps yc hopa t hol ogy ( i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng) a nd ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h pos i t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h ( i e a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on) ; i n ot he r w o r ds hi gh e r l e ve l s of s t r e s s c o oc c ur e d w i t h c om pr om i s e d m e nt a l he a l t h. T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t i nc r e a s e d pe r c e pt i ons of s t r e s s i nt e r f e r e w i t h opt i m a l s oc i a l e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt i n a dol e s c e nt s T hi s f i ndi ng i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he l a r ge body of r e s e a r c h de m ons t r a t i ng t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t s t r e s s ha s on m e nt a l he a l t h

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96 ( e g. M a r t i n K a z a r i a n, & B r e i t e r 1995; M a ybe r r y & G r a ha m 2001) A ddi t i ona l l y, pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s w a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h a ng e r c opi ng. A s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s w a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h ( i e i nt e r na l i z i ng a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng ps yc hopa t hol ogy) c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t a r e pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s m a y pl a c e a dol e s c e nt s a t i nc r e a s e d r i s k f o r e xpe r i e nc i ng ne ga t i ve out c om e s T hi s i nt e r p r e t a t i on i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs of G a l a i f S us s m a n, C hou, a nd W i l l s ( 2003) w ho a l s o f ound a pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd a nge r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s a s w e l l a s pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i ons be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a nd i nt e r na l i z i ng ps yc hopa t h ol ogy ( i e de pr e s s i on) F a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on w a s ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s s ugge s t i ng t ha t f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on m a y be a m or e a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gy f o r I B s t ude nt s P os i t i ve a voi da nc e a nd ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s s ugge s t i ng t ha t t he s e c opi ng be ha vi or s ne i t he r m i t i ga t e nor e xa c e r ba t e pe r c e pt i ons of s t r e s s f or I B s t ude nt s I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t i n c om pa r i ng c or r e l a t i o ns be t w e e n gr oups ) onl y one s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e ( s t r e ngt h of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on a nd l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on) e m e r ge d be t w e e n t he I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s ubs a m pl e s N ot a bl y, t he s a m e pa t t e r n of t he r e l a t i ons hi p w a s f ound a c r o s s s a m pl e s a nd t he e f f e c t s i z e f or t he di f f e r e nc e w a s s m a l l F or I B s t ude nt s f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on w a s not a s s t r ongl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a s i t w a s f or ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s T hi s m a y be a n a r t i f a c t of s a m pl e s i z e ; a l m os t 30 f e w e r I B s t ude nt s w e r e s a m pl e d t ha n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w hi c h m a y ha ve l e a d t o a g r e a t e r s a m pl i n g e r r or i n t he I B s ubs a m pl e

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97 N ot abl e f i ndi ngs i n pr e di c t i ng m e nt al he al t h out c o m e s f r om c opi ng. C opi ng w a s f ound t o a c c ount f or a s i gni f i c a nt po r t i on of t he va r i a nc e i n m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s f or bot h a c a de m i c a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i on i ng f o r I B s t ude nt s F or i ns t a nc e c opi ng a c c ount e d f or a l m os t one t hi r d of t he va r i a nc e i n g l oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. P os i t i ve a voi da nc e a nd f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on he l pe d t o bo l s t e r l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on w hi l e a nge r c opi ng a nd ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e w e r e ne ga t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. N e ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng i s pr i m a r i l y c om pr i s e d o f i t e m s r e l a t e d t o s ubs t a nc e a bus e ( e g. s m oki ng, dr i nki ng i l l i c i t d r ug us e ) ; t he f i nd i ng t ha t ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng m a y s e r ve t o c om pr om i s e l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs of Z ul l i g a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2001) w ho de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he r e gul a r us e of t ob a c c o a nd a l c ohol pr oduc t s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e duc e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on i n a dol e s c e nt s T he s e f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s w ho a r e a bl e t o f i nd pos i t i ve out l e t s w he n f a c e d w i t h s t r e s s ( e g t a l ki ng w i t h f a m i l y m e m be r s t hi nki ng pos i t i ve l y, s pe ndi ng t i m e w i t h c l os e f r i e nds / f a m i l y m e m be r s ) a r e ha ppi e r w i t h t he i r l i ve s C opi ng a l s o a c c ount e d f or a l a r ge po r t i on o f t he va r i a nc e i n ps yc hopa t hol ogy pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h r e s pe c t t o e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or N e ga t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng e m e r ge d a s a s t r ong pr e di c t or f or i nt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or ; I B s t ude nt s w ho us e s ubs t a nc e s s uc h a s a l c ohol or d r ugs t o c ope w i t h s t r e s s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e p r obl e m s on t he i nt e r na l i z i ng s pe c t r um ( e g. de pr e s s i on, a nxi e t y ) w hi l e I B s t ude nt s w ho us e a nge r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. bl a m i ng ot he r s ye l l i ng) a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e pr obl e m s on t he e xt e r na l i z i ng s pe c t r um ( e g. a gg r e s s i on, c onduc t di s or de r ) G a l a i f a nd c ol l e a gue s

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98 ( 2003) a l s o f ound t ha t t he us e of m a l a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. s e e ki ng r e ve nge ge t t i ng m a d, us i ng dr ugs ) e l e va t e s t he r i s k f o r ps yc hopa t hol ogy. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, c opi ng a c c ount e d f or a s i gni f i c a nt po r t i on of t he va r i a n c e i n a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y but w a s not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt I B s t ude nt s w ho a r e a bl e t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h t he i r f a m i l i e s p e r c e i ve t he m s e l ve s a s m uc h m or e a c a de m i c a l l y c om pe t e nt N o ot he r c opi ng s t yl e s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y. C opi ng s t yl e di d not r e l a t e t o gr a de p oi nt a ve r a ge s ugge s t i ng t ha t t he w a ys i n w hi c h I B s t ude nt s c ope i s not r e l a t e d t o t he i r a bi l i t y t o pe r f or m w e l l a c a de m i c a l l y. N ot abl e f i ndi ngs w i t h r e s pe c t t o i nt e r ac t i ons be t w e e n s t r e s s and c opi ng. T he us e of pa r t i c ul a r c opi ng s t yl e s s e r ve s t o e xa c e r ba t e t he e f f e c t of s t r e s s on s t ude nt s s oc i a l e m ot i ona l w e l l be i ng. I n ot he r w or ds i n a ddi t i on t o t he ge ne r a l i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s a nd opt i m a l m e nt a l he a l t h, us i ng s om e c opi ng be ha vi or s ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, f r e que nt a nge r o r i n f r e que nt pos i t i ve a voi da nc e ) pl a c e d s t ude nt s w i t h e l e va t e d pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s a t e ve n hi ghe r r i s k o f e xpe r i e nc i ng c o oc c ur r i ng de c l i ne s i n gl oba l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a nd i nc r e a s e s i n ps yc hopa t hol ogy. S pe c i f i c a l l y, a s s t r e s s i nc r e a s e s I B s t ude nt s w ho us e a nge r c opi ng a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e i nt e r na l i z i ng di s or de r s ( e g de pr e s s i on, a nxi e t y, s om a t i c c om pl a i nt s ) T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t t h e a nge r c opi ng be ha vi or s c a pt ur e d by t he m odi f i e d A C O P E ( e g. bl a m i ng ot he r s s a yi ng m e a n t hi ngs t o ot he r s ) a r e not e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gi e s t o de a l w i t h i nc r e a s i ng s t r e s s a s t hi s c opi ng s t yl e i s pr e di c t i ve of poo r m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s f or I B s t ude nt s T hi s i s c o ns i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs o f G a l a i f a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2003) w ho a l s o f ound a s m a l l pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n a nge r c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. s e e ki ng r e ve nge ge t t i ng m a d) a nd de pr e s s i on i n a n a dol e s c e nt popul a t i on

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99 a nd w i t h t he f i ndi ngs of T ol a n a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 200 2) w ho l i nke d e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. ve nt i ng f e e l i ngs ) t o i nt e r na l i z i ng p s yc hopa t hol ogy. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he s t udy c onduc t e d by G a l i a f a nd c ol l e a gue s s a m pl e d a t r i s k a dol e s c e nt s ( i e t hos e a t t e ndi ng dr opout p r e ve nt i on p r ogr a m s ) w hi l e T ol a n a nd c ol l e a gue s s a m pl e d i nne r c i t y yout h; t he c ur r e nt s t udy p r ovi de s pr e l i m i na r y s uppor t f o r t he hypot he s i s t ha t t he us e of a nge r c opi ng m a y be c or r e l a t e d w i t h di m i ni s he d s o c i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng f or a l l a dol e s c e nt s de s pi t e t he i r a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt s T he us e of a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng, m a y s e r ve t o buf f e r t he i m pa c t s t r e s s ha s on pos i t i ve i n di c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h, na m e l y l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs o f M c K ni ght H ue bne r a nd S ul do ( 2002) s t r e s s w a s f ound t o de c r e a s e l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a m ong a l l I B s t ude nt s I nt e r e s t i ngl y, I B s t ude nt s w ho w e r e r e por t e d us i ng f e w e r pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng be ha vi or s ( e g t hi nki ng a bout t he good t hi ngs i n l i f e ) s how e d m uc h s ha r pe r de c l i ne s i n l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on a s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s i nc r e a s e d c om pa r e d t o I B s t ude nt s w ho r e po r t e d us i ng t hi s c opi ng s t r a t e gy m or e f r e que nt l y. I n o t he r w or ds t he de t r i m e nt a l i m pa c t of s t r e s s on L S w a s m or e e xa gge r a t e d f or s t ude nt s w ho e nga ge d i n r e l a t i ve l y f e w pos i t i ve a voi da nc e be ha vi or s O n t he ot he r ha nd, t hos e s t ude nt s w ho t hought pos i t i ve l y ( e g. t r y t o s e e t he good t hi ngs i n a di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i on) or s ol i c i t e d s oc i a l s uppor t ( e g. t r y t o ke e p up f r i e nds hi ps or m a ke ne w f r i e nds ) w e r e l e s s a f f e c t e d by s t r e s s T hi s w oul d s ugge s t t h a t t he us e of pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng s e r ve s t o buf f e r t he i m pa c t s t r e s s ha s on s ubj e c t i ve w e l l be i ng. O t he r not abl e f i ndi ngs A s p r e vi ous l y not e d, t he r e i s m uc h de ba t e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng di s t i nc t i ons be t w e e n c opi ng s t yl e s i n c hi l dr e n, a dol e s c e nt a nd a dul t

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100 popul a t i ons I n t he body of l i t e r a t ur e on a dul t s t he m os t c om m on di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n s t yl e s of c opi ng i s t ha t of p r obl e m f oc us e d ( e g. a c t i ve pr obl e m s ol vi ng) a nd e m ot i on f oc us e d ( e g. pos i t i ve r e a ppr a i s a l s / m i ni m i z a t i on, a voi da nc e s e e ki ng s oc i a l s uppor t ) c opi ng ( L a z a r us & F ol km a n, 1984) B a nd a nd W e i s z ( 1 988) a nd C om pa s a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2001) bot h a s s e r t t ha t t hi s di s t i nc t i on m a y not be a ppr opr i a t e f o r us e i n r e s e a r c h on c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s S om e r e s e a r c he r s ( e g. A ye r s a nd c ol l e a gue s 1996) ha ve f ound t ha t f o r s c hool a ge d c hi l d r e n, a f our f a c t or m od e l of c opi ng i s m or e a ppr op r i a t e A ye r s a nd c ol l e a gue s f our f a c t or m ode l i nc l ude s t he c op i ng s t yl e s of : a ) a c t i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. de c i s i on m a ki ng, pr obl e m s ol vi ng, pos i t i ve c ogni t i ve r e s t r uc t ur i ng ) b) di s t r a c t i on s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. phys i c a l r e l e a s e of e m ot i on) c ) a voi da nc e s t r a t e gi e s ( e g c ogni t i ve a voi da nc e a voi da nt a c t i ons ) a nd d ) s up por t s e e ki ng s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. s e e ki ng he l p f r om ot he r s ) T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e m or e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t ha t of A ye r s a nd c ol l e a gue s t ha n t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n pr obl e m f o c us e d a nd e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng f ound i n t he l i t e r a t u r e on c opi ng i n a dul t popul a t i o ns I n t he pr e s e nt s t udy, pos i t i ve a voi da nc e c opi ng i nc l ude s be ha vi or s s uc h a s s e e i ng t he good t hi ngs i n a di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i on a nd t r yi ng t o s e e t he g ood t hi ngs i n l i f e w hi c h a l i gns w i t h t he a c t i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s de f i ne d by A ye r s a nd c ol l e a gue s A l s o, t he be ha vi or s c om pr i s i ng a nge r c opi ng i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a l l i nvol ve t he phys i c a l r e l e a s e of e m ot i on t e r m e d di s t r a c t i on s t r a t e gi e s by A ye r s a nd c o l l e a gue s I n t he pr e s e nt s t udy, t he i t e m s c om pr i s i ng ne ga t i ve a voi da nc e ( i e s ubs t a nc e a bus e ) ove r l a p t he be ha v i or s i de nt i f i e d by A ye r s a nd c ol l e a gue s a s a voi da nc e s t r a t e gi e s w he r e a s f a m i l y c om m uni c a t i on ( i e t a l k t o m om o r da d a bout w ha t i s bot he r i ng you ) a l i gns w i t h A ye r s a nd c ol l e a gue s s uppor t s e e ki ng

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101 s t r a t e gi e s T hi s poi nt s t o t he ne e d f or m or e c ons e ns us a m ong r e s e a r c he r s w he n r e s e a r c hi ng c opi ng i n c hi l d a nd a dol e s c e nt popul a t i ons ; t he l a c k of c ons e ns us m a ke s i t di f f i c ul t t o dr a w c onc l us i ons t ha t i nc or por a t e f i ndi ngs f r om p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h. I m pl i c at i ons of R e s ul t s f or Sc hool P s y c hol ogi s t s T hi s s t udy w a s t he f i r s t s t udy t o e va l ua t e t he m e nt a l he a l t h of s t ude nt s i n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e pr ogr a m us i ng bot h po s i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i ndi c a t or s of m e nt a l he a l t h. O ve r a l l i t w oul d a ppe a r t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr og r a m i s be ne f i c i a l ; i n t hi s s t udy, s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n t he pr og r a m de m ons t r a t e d s upe r i or a c a de m i c f unc t i oni ng ( e g. g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y) c om pa r e d t o ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s A ddi t i ona l l y, pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr og r a m doe s not a ppe a r t o ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i on i ng i n hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s D e s pi t e i nc r e a s e d l e ve l s of s t r e s s I B s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o s uc c e s s f ul l y na vi ga t e t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t i e s w i t hout m a ni f e s t i ng e l e va t e d ps yc hopa t hol ogy or di m i ni s he d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on. I n f a c t i n t hi s s t udy, ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w e r e m or e l i k e l y t o e xpe r i e nc e e xt e r na l i z i ng ps yc hopa t hol ogy t ha n I B s t ude nt s T hus t hi s s t udy s uppor t s t he not i on t h a t s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s s houl d not di s c our a ge s t ude nt s f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n r i gor ous c u r r i c ul a t ha t a r e a ppr opr i a t e f or s t ude nt s a bi l i t y l e ve l s I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy do not c onc l ude t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B c ur r i c ul um i s r e s pons i bl e f or t he l ow e r l e ve l s e xt e r na l i z i ng be ha vi or f ound a m ong I B s t ud e nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s a m pl e R a t he r i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t t he I B p r ogr a m m a y a t t r a c t s t ude nt s w ho i ni t i a l l y e xpe r i e nc e l ow e r l e ve l s of ps yc hopa t hol ogy on t he e xt e r na l i z i ng s pe c t r um T he pr e s e nc e of e xt e r na l i z i ng

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102 be ha vi or s i n e l e m e nt a r y o r m i ddl e s c hool m a y pr e c l ude s t ude nt s f r om a c hi e vi ng a t a l e ve l ne c e s s a r y t o ga i n a dm i t t a nc e t o t he I B pr og r a m T he w a ys i n w hi c h s t ude nt s c hoos e t o c ope w i t h s t r e s s m a y l e a d t o di f f e r e nt i a l o ut c om e s A s i t w a s f ound t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr ogr a m l e a ds t o i nc r e a s e d pe r c e pt i ons of s t r e s s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt i t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t how s t ude nt s c ope w i t h t hi s s t r e s s m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he i r e m ot i ona l w e l l be i ng. A s s t r e s s i nc r e a s e s s t ude nt s s houl d be di s c our a ge d f r om a da pt i ng a n e xt e r na l l oc us of c ont r ol ( i e bl a m i ng ot he r s ye l l i ng a t ot he r s ) i n o r de r t o m i ni m i z e i nt e r na l i z i n g be ha vi or pr ob l e m s T e a c he r s a dm i ni s t r a t or s a nd s uppor t s t a f f ( e g gui da nc e c o uns e l or s s c hool ps yc hol og i s t s ) w or ki ng w i t h I B s t ude nt s w ho w i t ne s s s t ude nt s us i ng a nge r c opi ng t o de a l w i t h s t r e s s s houl d i nt e r ve ne a nd t e a c h t he s e s t ude nt s t o us e m or e a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s I t i s a l s o e xt r e m e l y i m por t a nt t o no t e t ha t a s s t r e s s i nc r e a s e s l i f e s a t i s f a c t i on de c r e a s e s f or a l l I B s t ude nt s I t m a y be be ne f i c i a l t o t e a c h I B s t ude nt s t o a ddr e s s i m m i ne nt s t r e s s w i t h a da pt i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s t hi nk i ng p os i t i ve l y a nd m a i nt a i ni ng c l os e f r i e nds hi ps F a c ul t y w ho w or k w i t h I B s t ude nt s s houl d e nc our a ge s t ude nt s t o t hi nk pos i t i ve l y a nd e nc our a ge a c t i vi t i e s a nd c our s e w or k t ha t he l p s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t w i t h t he i r pe e r s S e ve r a l t i m e s i t w a s not e d t ha t t he s uppor t of f a m i l i e s i s pa r t i c ul a r l y be ne f i c i a l f or I B s t ude nt s S pe c i f i c a l l y s t ude nt s w ho c ope by c om m uni c a t i n g w i t h a nd r e l yi ng on f a m i l y m e m be r s de c r e a s e t he i r r i s k f o r ne ga t i ve m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s I nvo l vi ng pa r e nt s a nd s i bl i ngs i n t he e duc a t i on of I B s t ude nt s m a y i nc r e a s e t he ove r a l l w e l l be i ng of s t ude nt s i n t hi s p r ogr a m H om e s c hool c om m un i c a t i on m e t hods t ha t i n f or m pa r e nt s of

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103 upc om i ng s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s ( e g. t e s t i ng l a r ge hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s ) m a y be ne f i t s t ude nt s by pr e pa r i ng f a m i l i e s t o be m or e a va i l a bl e t o t he i r a dol e s c e nt s dur i ng hi ghl y s t r e s s f ul t i m e s A ddi t i ona l l y, s t ude nt s s houl d be e n c our a ge d t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h t he i r pa r e nt s i n t i m e s of s t r e s s w hi c h m a y be c ount e r i nt ui t i ve t o s t ude nt s w ho m a y ha ve e a s i e r a c c e s s t o pe e r s L i m i t at i ons of t he C ur r e nt St udy A s w i t h a ny r e s e a r c h s t udy, i t w a s t he de s i r e of t he r e s e a r c he r t o obt a i n va l i d c onc l us i ons ; t he r e f or e dur i ng t he c ol l e c t i on o f t he da t a f or t hi s s t udy, s e ve r a l p r e c a ut i ons w e r e t a ke n t o a ddr e s s pot e nt i a l t h r e a t s t o va l i di t y. D ur i ng a dm i ni s t r a t i on m e a s ur e s i n t he que s t i onna i r e pa c ke t w e r e c ount e r ba l a nc e d t o c ont r ol f o r o r de r e f f e c t s A ddi t i ona l l y t he r e s e a r c h t e a m c ol l e c t i ng da t a w a s t r a i ne d t o a ns w e r que s t i ons f r om s t ude nt s i n a uni f or m m a nne r t o c ont r ol f o r e r r or s i n a dm i ni s t r a t i on P r o c e dur e s s uc h a s t he s e he l pe d t o c ont r ol f or e r r or s I n f a c t of t he da t a c he c ke d, onl y 9 % c o nt a i ne d e r r or s ( i e da t a e nt r y e r r or s ) N ot a l l t h r e a t s t o va l i di t y c a n be c ont r o l l e d f o r pr i o r t o da t a a na l ys i s t he r e f or e t he r e s e a r c he r t ook s om e pr e c a ut i ons w he n i nt e r p r e t i n g t he r e s ul t s ; t he t hr e a t s t o va l i di t y, a l ong w i t h t he p r e c a ut i ons t a ke n t o a dd r e s s t he s e t hr e a t s a r e out l i ne d he r e S o m e t hr e a t s t o t he va l i di t y of qua nt i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h i nc l ude pop ul a t i on va l i di t y, e c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y a nd t e m por a l va l i di t y P opul at i on v al i di t y P opul a t i on va l i di t y i s t he a bi l i t y t o ge ne r a l i z e r e s ul t s f r om t he s a m pl e t o a l a r ge r popul a t i on. J ohns on a nd C hr i s t e ns e n ( 2004) c a ut i on r e s e a r c he r s t o i de nt i f y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t m a y di s t i ngui s h t he m be f or e r e s e a r c h c om m e nc e s T he s e uni que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y l i m i t t he popul a t i ons

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104 t o w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r s c a n ge ne r a l i z e r e s ul t s t oo. T he t ype of s a m pl i ng e m pl oye d f o r t hi s s t udy w a s a c onve ni e nc e s a m pl e ; t he r e f or e s t u de nt s w ho a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he r e s e a r c h s t udy m a y di f f e r f r om s t ude nt s w ho de c l i ne d t o pa r t i c i pa t e T he r e s e a r c he r c om pa r e d t he de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s of t he s t udy s a m pl e t o s c hool de m ogr a phi c s a nd di d not f i nd s ub popul a t i ons of s t ude nt s w ho s ys t e m a t i c a l l y de c l i ne d pa r t i c i pa t i on. A l s o, a s not e d by C om pa s a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2001 ) i t i s di f f i c ul t t o a ggr e ga t e f i ndi ngs a c r os s s t udi e s or dr a w ge ne r a l c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n c opi ng s t yl e s a nd out c om e s be c a us e of t he l a c k of c ons e ns u s a m ong r e s e a r c he r s r e ga r di ng c opi ng be ha vi or s T hr oughout t he c opi n g l i t e r a t ur e s t udi e s c om bi ne di f f e r e nt be ha vi or s i nt o c opi ng s t yl e s w i t h t he s a m e l a be l T hi s l i m i t a t i on ha s not be e n a ddr e s s e d e ve n i n s t udi e s us i ng t he s a m e m e a s ur e of c opi ng. F or e xa m pl e t he o r i gi na l A C O P E i s c a n be br oke n dow n i nt o t w e l ve c opi ng s t yl e s ; f or t he pr e s e nt s t udy, onl y 20 i t e m s r e f l e c t i ng f ou r f a c t o r s w e r e ut i l i z e d T hi s l a c k of c ons e ns u s a m ong r e s e a r c he r s s t udy c opi ng l i m i t s t he i nt e r pr e t a bi l i t y of r e s ul t s i n l i ght of pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs a nd t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of r e s ul t s t o ot he r s a m pl e s T e m por al v al i di t y T e m por a l va l i di t y i s de f i ne d a s t he a bi l i t y t o ge ne r a l i z e f i ndi ngs a c r os s t i m e T hr oughout t he F a l l of 2004, dur i ng w hi c h t he da t a f o r t hi s s t udy w e r e c ol l e c t e d, s e ve r a l na t ur a l di s a s t e r s ( i e hu r r i c a ne s ) a f f e c t e d t he a r e a i n w hi c h s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy l i ve d. T he r e f or e ge ne r a l i z a t i ons a bout t h e s t r e s s l e ve l s of s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy c om pa r e d t o s t ude nt popul a t i ons a t t hi s s c hool i n t he f u t ur e w e r e m a de c a ut i ous l y. A s t he r e i s no r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t s t u de nt s i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd I B c ur r i c ul a w e r e not e qua l l y a f f e c t e d by t he hur r i c a n e s i t i s r e a s ona bl e t o a t t r i but e a ny

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105 di f f e r e nc e s f ound be t w e e n t he gr oups t o r e a l g r oup di f f e r e nc e s r a t he r t ha n e f f e c t s of t he na t ur a l di s a s t e r s H ow e ve r f i ndi ngs m a y be uni qu e t o t hi s pa r t i c ul a r s c hool A l s o, i n a n e f f or t t o m i ni m i z e t he e f f e c t s of t he h ur r i c a ne s on t he m e nt a l he a l t h of s t ude nt s t he r e s e a r c he r s a l l ow e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y f i ve w e e ks be t w e e n t he l a s t hur r i c a ne a nd da t a c ol l e c t i on. E c ol ogi c al v al i di t y E c ol og i c a l va l i di t y i s t he a bi l i t y of t he r e s e a r c he r t o ge ne r a l i z e t he r e s ul t s of a s t udy a c r os s s e t t i ngs W he n e c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y i s t h r e a t e ne d, t he r e s e a r c he r m us t be c a r e f ul t o s pe c i f y t he s e t t i n g f r om w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e dr a w n s o t ha t e r r one ous c onc l us i ons a r e not m a de T he a f or e m e nt i one d na t ur a l di s a s t e r s m a y ha ve pos e d a t hr e a t t o e c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y; t he r e f or e t hi s s t udy m a y ha ve l i m i t e d ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y t o ot he r popul a t i ons s uc h a s t hos e not pr e s e nt l y a f f e c t e d by hu r r i c a ne s or ot he r na t ur a l d i s a s t e r s A ddi t i ona l l y, B r ow n H i gh S c hool i s l oc a t e d w i t hi n a r u r a l c om m uni t y, t he r e f or e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o a s c e r t a i n t he m e nt a l he a l t h o f s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n t he I B pr og r a m i n m or e u r ba n a nd s ubur ba n s e t t i ngs Sugge s t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e ar c h A s t hi s s t udy w a s t he f i r s t t o i nve s t i ga t e t he m e nt a l he a l t h of I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e s t ude nt s i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o r e pl i c a t e t he s e f i ndi ngs be f or e b r oa de r ge ne r a l i z a t i ons c a n be m a de a bout t he i m pa c t of t h e I B c ur r i c ul um on i t s pa r t i c i pa nt s T he c r os s s e c t i ona l de s i gn of t hi s s t udy l i m i t s t he a bi l i t y of t he r e s e a r c he r t o dr a w c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng t he a ddi t i ve e f f e c t e a c h ye a r i n t he pr ogr a m m a y ha ve on t he s t r e s s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h of a dol e s c e nt s I t i s s ugge s t e d t ha t a l ongi t udi na l r e s e a r c h de s i gn m a y m or e e f f e c t i ve l y i s ol a t e t he i m pa c t o f c ont i nue d e xpos ur e t o t he p r ogr a m on m e nt a l

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106 he a l t h. B y s ur ve yi ng s t ude nt s pr i o r t o e nt e r i ng t he pr ogr a m a nd f ol l ow i ng t he m ove r t he c our s e of t he i r a c a de m i c c a r e e r a c l e a r e r pi c t u r e c a n be obt a i ne d t o a ddr e s s t hi s que s t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, t h i s s t udy a s s um e d t ha t t he s a m pl e s ( i e I B a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on) w e r e e qua l on a l l ot he r va r i a bl e s be c a us e t he y a t t e nde d t he s a m e s c hool a nd l i ve d i n t he s a m e r ur a l s c hool di s t r i c t I n f ut u r e r e s e a r c h, i t i s i m por t a nt t o c ont r ol f or pr e e xi s t i ng gr oup di f f e r e nc e s s uc h a s pe r s ona l i t y, va l ui ng of s c hool ne e d f o r a c hi e ve m e nt s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us pa r e nt s uppor t a nd ot he r va r i a bl e s t ha t m a y be i m pa c t i ng a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd s oc i a l e m ot i ona l f unc t i oni ng. A l s o, a l t hough t he us e of a s ubj e c t i ve m e a s ur e of s t r e s s ( i e t he P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e ) i s a c ons i de r a bl e s t r e ngt h i n e v a l ua t i ng t he i m pa c t o f s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s on a d ol e s c e nt s i t i s unc l e a r w i t hout a n obj e c t i ve m e a s ur e ( e g. a s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s c he c kl i s t ) w ha t t he pe r c e pt i ons of s t r e s s c a n be a t t r i but e d t o F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d ut i l i z e bot h a s ubj e c t i ve a nd a n o bj e c t i ve m e a s ur e of s t r e s s t o de t e r m i ne bo t h t he i m pa c t a nd s our c e s of s t r e s s on a dol e s c e nt s F ur t he r m or e t hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d a t a s i ngl e s i t e S t ude nt s w ho a t t e nd t hi s s c hool m a y not be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of s t ude nt s w ho a t t e nd a l l I B s c hool s R e pl i c a t i on of t he s e f i ndi ngs i n s t ude nt s w ho a t t e nd I B s c hool s i n ur ba n a nd s ubur ba n e nvi r onm e nt s w oul d c onf i r m t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he I B pr ogr a m i s be ne f i c i a l f o r a l l s t ude nt s not j us t t hos e l i vi ng i n a r ur a l c om m uni t y T he I B p r ogr a m i s i n pl a c e i n ove r 600 hi gh s c hool s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a l one ; i t i s i m po r t a nt not t o ove r ge ne r a l i z e t he s e r e s ul t s t o a l l I B s t ude nt s unt i l t he s e f i ndi ngs c a n be r e pl i c a t e d i n ot he r I B s a m pl e s T hi s s t udy a l s o di d no t e va l ua t e how w e l l s t ude nt s i n t he pr og r a m a r e a bl e t o ne got i a t e ot he r de ve l opm e nt a l c ha l l e nge s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a dol e s c e nc e s uc h a s f or m i ng

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107 r om a nt i c r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd s e e ki ng e m pl oym e nt op por t uni t i e s A l t hough I B s t ude nt s w e r e f ound t o ha ve m e nt a l he a l t h c om m e ns ur a t e w i t h ge ne r a l e duc a t i on pe e r s de s pi t e t he i r h e a vy a c a de m i c w or kl oa ds i t i s unc l e a r w ha t ot he r de ve l opm e nt a l c ha l l e nge s m a y be ne gl e c t e d. B y i nc l udi ng m e a s ur e s a ddr e s s i ng s uc h i s s ue s s pe c i f i c de ve l opm e nt a l m i l e s t one s I B s t ude nt s m a y be m i s s i ng a s a r e s ul t of t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on s uc h a r i go r ous c ur r i c ul um c a n be i de nt i f i e d F i nal T hough t s T hi s s t udy ha s pr ovi de d a pr e l i m i na r y l ook a t t he m e nt a l he a l t h of s t ude nt s i n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e pr ogr a m T he r e s ul t s o f t hi s s t udy di d not s uppor t t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he I B p r ogr a m ha s ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s on t he m e nt a l he a l t h of i t s s t ude nt s I n f a c t t he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy c ons i s t e nt l y f oun d t ha t I B s t ude nt s pe r f or m e xt r e m e l y w e l l a c a de m i c a l l y w hi c h m a y he l p t o pr e pa r e hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s f or s uc c e s s a t t he c ol l e gi a t e l e ve l D e s pi t e t he ove r a l l pos i t i ve out c o m e s f or s t ude nt s i t w a s f ound t ha t t he w a ys i n w hi c h s t ude nt s c ope w i t h t he s t r e s s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a r i gor ous hi gh s c hool c ur r i c ul um i s i m po r t a nt S pe c i f i c a l l y, t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s t o us e pos i t i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s e nga gi ng i n pos i t i ve a vo i da nc e be ha vi or s ( e g. f or m i ng c l os e f r i e nds hi ps ) a nd t a l ki ng t o pa r e nt s m a y he l p buf f e r a ny ne ga t i ve i m pa c t s t r e s s ha s on m e nt a l he a l t h out c om e s

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108 R e f e r e nc e s A c he nba c h, T M ( 1991) I nt e gr at i v e gui de f or t he 1991 C B C L / 4 18, Y S R T R F pr of i l e s B ur l i ngt on, V T : U ni ve r s i t y of V e r m ont D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hi a t r y. A c he nba c h, T M & E de l br oc k, C ( 1987) M anual f or t he Y out h Se l f R e por t and P r of i l e B ur l i ngt on, V T : U ni ve r s i t y of V e r m ont D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hi a t r y. A c he nba c h, T M & R e s c or l a L A ( 2001) M anua l f or t he A SE B A s c hool age f or m s and pr of i l e s B ur l i ngt on, V T : U ni ve r s i t y of V e r m ont R e s e a r c h C e nt e r f or C hi l dr e n, Y out h, a nd F a m i l i e s A l dw i n, C M ( 1994) S t r e s s C opi ng, and D e v e l op m e nt N e w Y or k: G ui l f o r d P r e s s A l va S A & de L os R e ye s R ( 1999 ) P s yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s i nt e r na l i z e d s ym pt om s a nd t he a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt of H i s pa ni c a dol e s c e nt s J our nal of A dol e s c e nt R e s e ar c h 14( 3) 343 358 A m ue do D or a nt e s C M a c h, T & C l a pp, J D ( 2 004) T he i m pa c t of s c hool s on j uve ni l e s ubs t a nc e i ni t i a t i on a nd us e P r e v e nt i on Sc i e nc e 5 ( 2) 91 99 A ne s he ns e l C S & G or e S ( 1991 ) D e ve l opm e nt s t r e s s a nd r ol e r e s t r uc t ur i ng: S oc i a l t r a ns i t i ons of a dol e s c e nc e I n J E c ke nr ode ( E d. ) T he Soc i al C ont e x t of C opi ng N e w Y or k: P l e num P r e s s p. 55 77. A r m a c os t R L ( 1989) P e r c e pt i ons o f s t r e s s or s by hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s J our nal of A dol e s c e nt R e s e ar c h 4( 4) 443 461 A unol a K S t a t t i n, H & J a r i E r i k N ( 2000) A do l e s c e nt s a c hi e ve m e nt s t r a t e gi e s s c hool a dj us t m e nt a nd e xt e r na l i z i ng a n d i n t e r na l i z i ng p r o bl e m be ha vi or s J our nal of Y out h and A do l e s c e nc e 29( 5) 289 306

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109 A ye r s T S S a ndl e r I N W e s t S G & R oos a M W ( 1996 ) A di s pos i t i ona l a nd s i t ua t i ona l a s s e s s m e nt of c hi l dr e n s c opi ng: T e s t i n g a l t e r na t i ve m ode l s of c opi ng. J our nal of P e r s onal i t y 64( 4 ) 923 958 B a i l e y, T & K a r p, M ( 2003) P r o m ot i ng c ol l e ge a c c e s s a nd s uc c e s s : a r e vi e w of c r e di t ba s e d t r a ns i t i on pr ogr a m s U S D e pa r t m e nt of E d uc a t i on, O f f i c e of A dul t a nd V oc a t i ona l E duc a t i on: W a s hi ngt on, D C B a r on, R M & K e nny, D A ( 1986) T he m ode r a t or m e di a t or va r i a bl e di s t i nc t i on i n s oc i a l ps yc hol ogi c a l r e s e a r c h: C onc e pt ua l s t r a t e gi c a nd s t a t i s t i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons J our nal of P e r s onal i t y and Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 51, 1173 1182. B l yt h, D S i m m ons R & C a r l t on F o r d, S ( 1983 ) T he a dj us t m e nt o f e a r l y a dol e s c e nt s t o s c hool t r a ns i t i ons J our nal of E ar l y A dol e s e nc e 3, 105 120 B a nd, E B & W e i s z J R ( 1988) H ow t o f e e l be t t e r w he n i t f e e l s ba d: c hi l d r e n s pe r s pe c t i ve s on c opi ng w i t h e ve r yda y s t r e s s D e v e l opm e nt al P s y c hopat hol ogy 24, 247 253 B r a dl e y, M C ol l a da C D unne L K ubot a J H ol l i s t e r V M i l t e nbe r ge r J e t a l ( 1990) St r e s s and c opi ng i n adol e s c e nc e A s c i t e d i n de A nda D e t a l ( 2000 ) S t r e s s s t r e s s or s a nd c opi ng a m ong hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s C hi l dr e n and Y out h Se r v i c e s R e v i e w 22( 6) 441 463. B ur ne t t P C & F a ns ha w e J P ( 1997) M e a s ur i ng s c hool r e l a t e d s t r e s s or s i n a dol e s c e nt s J our nal of Y out h and A do l e s c e nc e 26( 4) 415 428 C a us e y, D L & D ubow E F ( 1992) D e ve l opm e nt of a s e l f r e po r t c opi ng m e a s ur e f or e l e m e nt a r y s c hool c hi l dr e n. J our nal of C l i ni c al C hi l d P s y c hol ogy 21 ( 1) 47 59

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110 C e nt e r s f or D i s e a s e C ont r ol ( 2003) Y out h R i s k B e hav i or Sur v e i l l anc e R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 8, 2004, f r om ht t p: / / w w w c dc gov/ he a l t hyyout h/ yr bs / i nde x. ht m C ha s s i n, L R i t t e r J T r i m R S & K i ng, K M ( 2 003) A dol e s c e nt s ubs t a nc e us e di s or de r s I n E J M a s h & R A B a r kl e y, ( E ds ) C h i l d ps y c hopat hol ogy ( 2nd e d ) pp. 199 230 N e w Y o r k: G ui l f or d P r e s s C oddi ngt on, R D ( 1972 ) T he s i gni f i c a nc e of l i f e e ve nt s a s e t i ol ogi c a l f a c t or s i n t he di s e a s e s of c hi l dr e n I I : A s t udy of t he no r m a l popu l a t i on. J our nal of P s y c hos om at i c R e s e ar c h 16, 205 213. C ohe n, S K a m a r c k, T & M e r m e l s t e i n, R ( 1983 ) A gl oba l m e a s ur e of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s J our nal of H e al t h and Soc i al B e hav i or 24( 4 ) 385 396. C ol e P S ( 1992) A l ongi t udi nal s t udy of s t r e s s c opi ng, s ubs t anc e us e and m i nor de l i nque nc y am ong y oung adol e s c e nt s i n an ur ban s c hool A s c i t e d i n G i l l oc k, K L & R e ye s O ( 1999) S t r e s s s uppor t a nd a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e o f ur ba n l ow i nc om e M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n A dol e c e nt s J our nal of Y ou t h and A dol e s c e nc e 28( 2) 259 281 C om pa s B E ( 1987) C opi ng w i t h s t r e s s dur i ng c h i l dhood a nd a dol e s c e nc e P s y c hol o gi c al B ul l e t i n 101( 3) 393 403. C om pa s B E C onnor S m i t h J K S a l t z m a n, H T hom s e n, A H & W a ds w or t h, M E ( 2001) C opi ng w i t h s t r e s s dur i ng c hi l dhood a nd a dol e s c e nc e : pr obl e m s pr ogr e s s a nd pot e nt i a l i n t he or y a nd r e s e a r c h. P s y c hol ogi c al B ul l e t i n 127 ( 1) 87 127.

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111 C om pa s B E M a l c a r ne V L & F onda c a r o K M ( 1988) C opi ng w i t h s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s i n ol de r c hi l d r e n a nd young a dol e s c e nt s J our nal of C ons ul t i ng and C l i ni c al P s y c hol ogy 56( 3 ) 405 411 C om pa s B E O r os a n, P G & G r a nt K E ( 1993) A dol e s c e nt s t r e s s a nd c opi ng: i m pl i c a t i ons f or ps yc hopa t hol ogy dur i ng a dol e s c e nc e J our nal of A dol e s e nc e 16, 331 349. C ope l a nd, E & H e s s R ( 1995 ) D i f f e r e nc e s i n yo ung a dol e s c e nt s c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s ba s e d on ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y J our nal of E ar l y A d ol e s c e nc e 15( 2) 203 219. C oyne J C & G ot t l e i b, B H ( 1996 ) T he m i s m e a s ur e of c opi ng by c he c kl i s t J our nal of P e r s onal i t y 64( 4) 959 991. C r e e d, F ( 1993 ) S t r e s s a nd ps yc hos om a t i c di s or de r s I n L G ol dbe r ge r & S B r e z ni t z ( E ds ) H andbook o f s t r e s s : t he or e t i c al and c l i ni c al as pe c t s ( pp. 496 510 ) N e w Y or k: F r e e P r e s s C r oc ke t t L J S c hul e nbe r g, J E & P e t e r s on, A C ( 1987) C ongr ue nc e be t w e e n obj e c t i ve a nd s e l f r e por t da t a i n a s a m pl e of young a dol e s c e nt s J our nal of A dol e s c e nt R e s e ar c h 2( 4) 383 392 C unni ngha m M H ur l e y, M F one y D & H a ye s D ( 2002 ) I nf l ue nc e o f pe r c e i ve d c ont e xt ua l s t r e s s on s e l f e s t e e m a nd a c a de m i c out c om e s i n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a dol e s c e nt s J our nal of B l ac k P s y c hol ogy 28 ( 3) 2 15 233. de A nda D B a r oni S B os ki n, L B uc hw a l d, L M or ga n, J O w J e t a l ( 2000) S t r e s s s t r e s s or s a nd c opi ng a m ong hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s C hi l dr e n and Y out h Se r v i c e s R e v i e w 22( 6) 441 463.

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125 A P P E N D I X A S t a t e of F l or i da G r a dua t i on R e qui r e m e nt s R e qui r e m e nt s f or a l l H i gh S c hool D i pl om a s G r a dua t i on R e qui r e m e n t s T he m i ni m um num be r of c r e di t s r e qui r e d f or gr a dua t i on f r om a hi gh s c hool i s t w e nt y f our ( 24) i n t he s i x pe r i od s c he dul e hi gh s c hool a nd t w e nt y ni ne ( 29) i n t he 4x4 s c he dul e hi gh s c hool S t ude nt s m a y a l s o s e l e c t t he t hr e e ye a r e i ght e e n ( 18 ) c r e di t s t a n da r d c ol l e ge pr e pa r a t or y pr og r a m o r t h r e e ye a r e i ght e e n ( 18) c r e di t c a r e e r pr e pa r a t o r y pr og r a m A l l gr a dua t i ng s t ude nt s m us t s uc c e s s f ul l y c om pl e t e t he r e qui r e m e nt s o f t he S t a t e w i de A s s e s s m e nt P r ogr a m S t ude nt s ha ve t o pa s s F C A T a s de f i ne d by t he S t a t e o f F l or i da r e qui r e m e nt s f or gr a dua t i on. R e q u i r e d S u b j e c t s E ngl i s h 4 c r e di t s M a t he m a t i c s 3 c r e di t s S c i e nc e 3 c r e di t s S oc i a l S t udi e s 3 c r e di t s P hys i c a l E duc a t i on 1 c r e di t H e a l t h E duc a t i on 1/ 2 c r e di t F i ne A r t s / P r a c t i c a l A r t s 1/ 2 c r e di t o f e a c h, or 1 c r e di t of e i t he r A E ngl i s h 4 c r e di t s S t ude nt s m us t t a ke ( one c r e di t e a c h) E ngl i s h I I I I I I a nd I V or t he i r e qui va l e nt s B M at he m at i c s 3 c r e di t s S t ude nt s m us t e a r n one c r e di t i n A l ge br a I a s e r i e s of e qui va l e nt c our s e s or a hi ghe r l e ve l m a t he m a t i c s c our s e a s pa r t of t hi s r e qui r e m e nt : i e a n A l ge br a I I or a l e ve l 3 m a t he m a t i c s c our s e i f A l ge b r a I w a s t a ke n pr i or t o ni nt h g r a de but hi gh s c hool c r e di t w a s not a w a r de d. ) C Sc i e nc e 3 c r e di t s A t l e a s t t w o c r e di t s m us t ha ve a l a bor a t or y c om po ne nt D Soc i al S t udi e s 3 c r e di t s A m e r i c a n G ove r nm e nt 1/ 2 c r e di t W or l d H i s t or y l c r e di t A m e r i c a n H i s t or y l c r e di t E c onom i c s 1/ 2 c r e di t E P hy s i c al E duc at i on 1 c r e di t

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126 1. S t ude nt c a n s a t i s f y t he 1 c r e di t phys i c a l e duc a t i on r e qui r e m e nt by pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a n i nt e r s c hol a s t i c s por t a ppr ove d by F H S A A f o r t w o f ul l s e a s ons a t t he j uni or va r s i t y o r va r s i t y l e ve l a nd pa s s i ng a c om pe t e nc y t e s t on pe r s ona l f i t ne s s w i t h a s c or e of C or be t t e r 2. S a t i s f yi ng t he pe r s ona l f i t ne s s or phys i c a l e duc a t i on r e qui r e m e nt i n t h i s m a nne r doe s not de c r e a s e t he m i ni m um num be r of c r e di t s ne e de d f or gr a dua t i on s i nc e no c our s e c r e di t or gr a de i s e a r ne d t hr ough pa r t i c i pa t i on i n i nt e r s c hol a s t i c s por t s R e qui r e d f or m s m us t be s ubm i t t e d i n or de r t o e xe r c i s e t hi s opt i on. F H e al t h E duc at i on 1/ 2 c r e di t i n L i f e M anage m e nt Sk i l l s G F i ne A r t s / P r ac t i c al A r t s 1/ 2 c r e di t of e ac h or 1 c r e di t of e i t he r N ot e s : S t ude nt s e nt e r i ng a s t a t e s uppor t e d un i ve r s i t y m u s t ha ve t w o s e que nt i a l c r e di t s i n a f or e i gn l a ngua ge E l e c t i ve s ubj e c t s m a y not i nc l ude m or e t ha n a t ot a l of ni ne c r e di t s of r e m e di a l a nd c om pe ns a t or y c our s e s one ha l f c r e di t of e xpl or a t o r y voc a t i ona l c our s e s o r t h r e e c r e di t s i n pr a c t i c a l hom e e c onom i c s c our s e s R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he I B di pl om a L a ngua ge A 4 ye a r s G r a de 9: P r e I B E n gl i s h I G r a de 10: P r e I B E ngl i s h I I G r a de 11: I B E ngl i s h I I I / A P L a ngua ge a nd C om p G r a de 12: I B E ngl i s h I V / A P L i t e r a t ur e a nd C om p L a ngua ge B 5 ye a r s of s t udy i n one f o r e i gn l a ngu a ge ( St ude nt s w ho hav e not r e c e i v e d c r e di t f or Spani s h I or F r e nc h I i n m i ddl e s c hool a r e r e qui r e d t o t ak e e i t he r Spani s h I or F r e nc h I i n s um m e r s c hool pr i or t o t he s t ar t of t he 9t h gr ade P r e I B P r ogr am ) G r a de 9: P r e I B F or e i gn L a ngua ge I I G r a de 10: P r e I B F o r e i gn L a ngua ge I I I G r a de 11: I B F or e i gn L a ngua ge I V G r a de 12: I B F or e i gn L a ngua ge V I ndi vi dua l a nd S oc i e t i e s G r a de 9: P r e I B A m e r i c a n G ove r nm e nt a nd P r e I B E c onom i c s G r a de 10: P r e I B W or l d H i s t or y G r a de 11: I B / A P A m e r i c a n H i s t or y G r a de 12: I B H i s t or y of t he A m e r i c a s

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127 E xpe r i m e nt a l S c i e nc e s : ( Sum m e r Sc hool f or P hy s i c s I i s r e qui r e d of al l s t ude nt s St ude nt s c hoos e one s c i e nc e f or a t w o y e ar s t udy be gi nni ng i n 11t h gr ade ) G r a de 9: P r e I B B i ol ogy I a nd P r e I B E a r t h S c i e n c e S um m e r S c hool a f t e r G r a de 9: P r e I B P hys i c s G r a de 10: P r e I B C he m i s t r y I G r a de 11: I B B i ol ogy I I or I B C he m i s t r y I I or I B P hys i c s I I G r a de 12: I B B i ol ogy I I I or I B C he m i s t r y I I I or I B P hys i c s I I I M a t h G r a de 9: P r e I B A l ge br a I ( f or s t ude nt s w ho di d n ot e a r n t hi s c r e di t i n m i ddl e s c hool ) or P r e I B G e om e t r y G r a de 10: P r e I B G e om e t r y a n d A l ge br a I I f o r s t u de nt s w ho t ook A l ge br a I i n t he 9 t h gr a de or A l ge b r a I I G r a de 11: I B T r i g / A na l yt i c a l G e om e t r y o r M a t h A na l ys i s or w i t h a ppr ova l A P S t a t i s t i c s G r a de 12: I B M a t h S t udi e s or I B M a t h M e t hods S i xt h S ubj e c t I B A r t or P s yc hol ogy G r a de 9: P r e I B A r t / D e s i gn I G r a de 10: P r e I B A r t / D e s i gn I I G r a de 11: I B P s yc hol ogy or I B A r t / D e s i gn I I I G r a de 12: A r t / D e s i gn I V O t he r C our s e s : G r a de 9: P r e I B I nqui r y S ki l l s a nd e l e c t i ve f r om B H S c our s e of f e r i ngs ( i f not t a ki ng P r e I B A r t / D e s i gn I ) G r a de 10 : e l e c t i ve 1 f r om B H S c our s e of f e r i ngs ( i f not t a ki ng P r e I B G e om e t r y) a nd e l e c t i ve 2 ( i f not t a ki ng P r e I B A r t / D e s i gn I I ) G r a de 11: e l e c t i ve 1s t s e m e s t e r T he or y o f K now l e dge 2nd s e m e s t e r G r a de 12: T he o r y of K now l e dge 1s t s e m e s t e r e l e c t i ve 2nd s e m e s t e r a nd 1 e l e c t i ve ( i f not t a ki ng I B A r t / D e s i gn I V ) O t he r D i pl om a R e qui r e m e nt s : I n or de r t o e a r n t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e D i pl om a s t ude nt s m us t e a r n pa s s i ng s c or e s on t he i r s i x I B e xa m s ( 3 t a ke n a t t he s t a nda r d l e ve l a nd 3 t a ke n a t t he hi ghe r l e ve l ) S t ude nt s m us t a l s o c o m pl e t e 150 hour s o f C r e a t i ve A c t i on a nd S e r vi c e a c t i vi t i e s pr i o r t o t he de a dl i ne i n t he i r s e ni or ye a r I B s t ude nt s a r e r e qui r e d t o c onduc t a n i nde pe nde nt r e s e a r c h s t udy w hi c h i s de s c r i be d i n t he r e qui r e d 4000 w or d I B E xt e nde d E s s a y d ue i n t he i r s e ni or ye a r

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128 A P P E N D I X B I nf or m e d C ons e nt t o P a r e nt s D e a r P a r e nt o r C a r e gi ve r : T hi s l e t t e r p r ovi de s i nf o r m a t i on a bout a r e s e a r c h s t udy t ha t w i l l be c onduc t e d a t B r ow n H i gh S c hool a nd t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e S c hool by pr o f e s s or s f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da O ur goa l i n c onduc t i ng t he s t udy i s t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t of s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n va r i ous hi gh s c hool c l a s s e s s uc h a s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e P r ogr a m a nd ge ne r a l c our s e s on t he i r m e nt a l he a l t h a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l w e l l ne s s W ho W e A r e : W e a r e E l i z a be t h S ha une s s y, P h. D a nd S ha nnon S ul do, P h. D pr of e s s or s i n t he C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on a t t he U ni v e r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da ( U S F ) W e a r e pl a nni ng t he s t udy i n c oope r a t i on w i t h t he pr i n c i pa l s a n d a dm i ni s t e r s of B r ow n H i gh S c hool ( B H S ) a nd t he I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e S c hool ( I B S ) a t B H S t o e ns ur e t he s t udy pr ovi de s i nf o r m a t i on t ha t w i l l be he l pf ul t o t he s c hool s W hy W e a r e R e que s t i ng Y our C hi l d s P a r t i c i pa t i o n : T hi s s t udy i s be i ng c onduc t e d a s pa r t of a pr oj e c t e nt i t l e d, T he M e nt a l H e a l t h o f S e c onda r y S t ude nt s i n F l or i da Y our c hi l d i s be i ng a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e be c a us e he or s he i s a s t ude nt a t B H S / I B S W hy Y our C hi l d S houl d P a r t i c i pa t e : W e ne e d t o l e a r n m or e a bout w ha t l e a ds t o ha ppi ne s s a nd he a l t h dur i ng t he t e e na ge ye a r s T he i nf or m a t i on t ha t w e c ol l e c t f r om s t ude nt s m a y he l p i nc r e a s e our ove r a l l know l e dge of r i s k a nd pr ot e c t i ve f a c t or s t ha t l e a d t o ps yc hol ogi c a l w e l l ne s s dur i ng hi gh s c hool I n a ddi t i on i nf o r m a t i on f r om t he s t udy w i l l be s ha r e d w i t h t he t e a c he r s a nd a dm i n i s t r a t or s a t B H S / I B S i n o r de r t o i nc r e a s e t he i r know l e dge of w ha t s t ude nt s c ons i de r t o be t he s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s of t he i r s c hool i ng a nd o t he r l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s I nf or m a t i on f r om t hi s s t udy w i l l pr ovi de a f ounda t i o n f r o m w hi c h t o i m p r ove t he s c hool i ng e xpe r i e nc e s a nd m e nt a l he a l t h of s t ude nt s a t B H S / I B S P l e a s e not e ne i t he r you no r your c hi l d w i l l be pa i d f or your c hi l d s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy. H o w e ve r a l l s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy w i l l be e nt e r e d i nt o a dr a w i ng f or one of s e ve r a l gi f t c e r t i f i c a t e s W ha t P a r t i c i pa t i on R e qui r e s : I f your c hi l d i s g i ve n pe r m i s s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy, he or s he w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e s e ve r a l pa pe r a nd pe nc i l que s t i onna i r e s T he s e s ur ve ys w i l l a s k a bout yo ur c hi l d s t hought s be ha vi or s a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r ds s c hool t e a c he r s c l a s s m a t e s f a m i l y, a nd l i f e i n ge ne r a l C om pl e t i on i s e xpe c t e d t o t a ke your c hi l d be t w e e n 30 a nd 60 m i nut e s W e w i l l pe r s ona l l y a dm i ni s t e r t he que s t i onna i r e s a t B H S / I B S du r i ng r e gul a r s c hool hour s t o l a r ge gr oups of s t ude nt s w ho ha ve pa r e nt pe r m i s s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e P a r t i c i p a t i on w i l l oc c ur dur i ng one c l a s s pe r i od e a c h F a l l s e m e s t e r f o r t he ne xt f ou r ye a r s ( o r unt i l your c hi l d c om pl e t e s hi gh s c hool w hi c he ve r c om e s f i r s t ) I n t ot a l pa r t i c i pa t i on w i l l t a ke a bout one hou r of your c hi l d s t i m e e a c h ye a r f or t he ne xt f our ye a r s A n o t h e r p ar t of p ar t i c i p at i o n

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129 i n vol ve s a r e vi e w of you r c h i l d s s c h ool r e c or d s S pe c i f i c a l l y, unde r t he s upe r vi s i on of s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t or s w e w i l l a c c e s s i nf or m a t i o n a bout your c hi l d s g r a de poi nt a ve r a ge hi s t or y o f di s c i pl i ne r e f e r r a l s a nd pa r t i c i p a t i on i n s pe c i a l c l a s s e s s uc h a s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt t he I n t e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e P r ogr a m or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on ( f or e xa m pl e G i f t e d e duc a t i on) P l e a s e N ot e : Y our de c i s i on t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy m us t be c om pl e t e l y vol unt a r y Y ou a r e f r e e t o a l l o w your c hi l d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy or t o w i t hdr a w hi m or he r a t a ny t i m e I f you c hoos e not t o pa r t i c i pa t e or i f you w i t hd r a w a t a ny poi nt du r i ng t he s t udy, t h i s w i l l i n no w a y a f f e c t your r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h B H S / I B S U S F o r a ny ot he r pa r t y. C onf i de nt i a l i t y of Y our C hi l d s R e s pons e s : T he r e i s m i ni m a l r i s k t o you r c hi l d f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. W e w i l l be p r e s e nt d ur i ng a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he que s t i onna i r e s i n or de r t o pr ovi de a s s i s t a nc e t o your c hi l d i f he or s he ha s a ny que s t i ons or c onc e r ns A ddi t i ona l l y s c hool gui da n c e c ouns e l or s w i l l be a va i l a bl e t o s t ude nt s i n t he unl i ke l y e ve nt t ha t your c hi l d be c om e s e m ot i ona l l y di s t r e s s e d w hi l e c om pl e t i ng t he m e a s ur e s Y our c hi l d s pr i va c y a n d r e s e a r c h r e c or ds w i l l be ke pt c onf i de nt i a l t o t he e xt e nt of t he l a w A ut ho r i z e d r e s e a r c h pe r s onne l e m pl oye e s of t he D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s a nd t h e U S F I ns t i t u t i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d m a y i ns pe c t t he r e c or ds f r om t hi s r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t but your c hi l d s i ndi vi dua l r e s pons e s w i l l not be s ha r e d w i t h s c hool s ys t e m pe r s onne l or a nyone ot he r t ha n us a nd our r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a nt s Y our c hi l d s c om pl e t e d que s t i onna i r e s w i l l be a s s i gne d a c ode num be r t o pr ot e c t t he c onf i de nt i a l i t y of h i s or he r r e s pons e s O nl y w e w i l l ha ve a c c e s s t o t he l oc ke d f i l e c a bi ne t s t or e d a t U S F t ha t w i l l c ont a i n: 1 ) a l l r e c or ds l i nki ng c ode num be r s t o pa r t i c i pa nt s na m e s a nd 2 ) a l l i nf or m a t i on ga t he r e d f r om s c hool r e c or ds P l e a s e not e t ha t a l t hough you r c hi l d s s pe c i f i c r e s pons e s on t he que s t i onna i r e s w i l l not be s ha r e d w i t h s c hool s t a f f i f you r c hi l d i ndi c a t e s t ha t he or s he i nt e nds t o ha r m hi m or he r s e l f w e w i l l c ont a c t di s t r i c t m e nt a l he a l t h c ouns e l or s t o e ns ur e your c hi l d s s a f e t y. W ha t W e l l D o W i t h Y our C hi l d s R e s pons e s : W e pl a n t o us e t he i nf o r m a t i on f r om t hi s s t udy t o i n f or m e duc a t or s a nd ps yc hol ogi s t s a bout t he e f f e c t s of va r i ous h i gh s c hool a c a de m i c pr ogr a m s on s t ude nt s m e nt a l he a l t h, a s w e l l a s t o c ons t r uc t a pl a n f or i m p r ovi ng t he s c hool i ng e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t i m pa c t m e nt a l he a l t h du r i ng a dol e s c e nc e T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy m a y be publ i s he d. H ow e ve r t he da t a obt a i ne d f r om you r c hi l d w i l l be c om bi ne d w i t h da t a f r om o t he r pe opl e i n t he p ubl i c a t i on T he publ i s he d r e s ul t s w i l l not i nc l ude your c hi l d s na m e or a ny o t he r i n f or m a t i on t ha t w oul d i n a ny w a y pe r s ona l l y i de nt i f y your c hi l d. Q ue s t i ons ? I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, pl e a s e c ont a c t us a t ( 813) 974 2223 ( D r S ul do) or ( 813) 974 7007 ( D r S ha une s s y) I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your c hi l d s r i ght s a s a pe r s on w ho i s t a ki ng pa r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy, you m a y

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130 c ont a c t a m e m be r o f t he D i v i s i on of R e s e a r c h C om pl i a nc e of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a t 813 974 9343 W a nt Y our C hi l d t o P a r t i c i pa t e ? T o pe r m i t your c h i l d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy, c om pl e t e t he a t t a c he d c ons e nt f or m a nd ha ve you r c hi l d t ur n i t i n t o h i s or he r f i r s t pe r i od t e a c he r S i nc e r e l y, E l i z a be t h S ha une s s y, P h. D S ha nnon S ul do, P h D A s s i s t a nt P r of e s s or of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on A s s i s t a nt P r of e s s or of S c hool P s yc hol ogy D e pa r t m e nt of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i on C on s e n t f or C h i l d t o T ak e P ar t i n t h i s R e s e ar c h S t u d y I f r e e l y gi ve m y pe r m i s s i on t o l e t m y c hi l d t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I unde r s t a nd t ha t t hi s i s r e s e a r c h. I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy o f t hi s l e t t e r a nd c ons e nt f or m f or m y r e c or ds ________________________________ ________________ P r i nt e d na m e o f c hi l d G r a de l e ve l of c hi l d ________________________________ ________________________________ _____ S i gna t ur e of pa r e nt P r i nt e d na m e o f pa r e nt D a t e of c hi l d t a ki ng pa r t i n t he s t udy S t at e m e n t of P e r s on O b t ai n i n g I n f or m e d C on s e n t I c e r t i f y t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve be e n pr ovi de d w i t h a n i nf or m e d c ons e nt f or m t ha t ha s be e n a ppr ove d by t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da s I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d a nd t ha t e xpl a i ns t he na t ur e de m a nds r i s ks a nd be ne f i t s i n vol ve d i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. I f ur t he r c e r t i f y t ha t a phone num be r ha s be e n p r ovi de d i n t he e ve nt of a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons ________________________________ ___________________________ S i gna t ur e of pe r s on P r i nt e d na m e o f pe r s on D a t e obt a i ni ng c ons e nt obt a i ni ng c ons e nt

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131 A P P E N D I X C S t ude nt A s s e nt F or m T o d a y y o u w i l l b e a s k e d t o t a k e p a r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y b y f i l l i n g o u t s e v e r a l s u r v e y s T o d a y y o u w i l l b e a s k e d t o t a k e p a r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y b y f i l l i n g o u t s e v e r a l s u r v e y s W e a r e d o i n g t h e s t u d y t o f i n d o u t h o w t a k i n g d i f f e r e n t h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s W e a r e d o i n g t h e s t u d y t o f i n d o u t h o w t a k i n g d i f f e r e n t h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s s u c h a s s u c h a s A d v a n c e d P l a c e m e n t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a c c a l a u r e a t e P r o g r a m a n d g e n e r a l c o u r s e s i s A d v a n c e d P l a c e m e n t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a c c a l a u r e a t e P r o g r a m a n d g e n e r a l c o u r s e s i s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t s m e n t a l h e a l t h r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t s m e n t a l h e a l t h . ! W h o W e A r e W h o W e A r e : W e a r e E l i z a b e t h S h a u n e s s y P h D a n d S h a n n o n S u l d o P h D : W e a r e E l i z a b e t h S h a u n e s s y P h D a n d S h a n n o n S u l d o P h D p r o f e s s o r s i n t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e p r o f e s s o r s i n t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a W e a r e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a W e a r e w o r k i n g w i t h y o u r p r i n c i p a l s t o m a k e s u r e t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o r k i n g w i t h y o u r p r i n c i p a l s t o m a k e s u r e t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e h e l p f u l t o y o u r s c h o o l w i l l b e h e l p f u l t o y o u r s c h o o l ! W h y W e r e A s k i n g Y o u t o T a k e P a r t i n t h e S t u d y W h y W e r e A s k i n g Y o u t o T a k e P a r t i n t h e S t u d y : T h i s s t u d y i s p a r t o f a p r o j e c t : T h i s s t u d y i s p a r t o f a p r o j e c t t i t l e d T h e M e n t a l H e a l t h o f S e t i t l e d T h e M e n t a l H e a l t h o f S e c o n d a r y S t u d e n t s i n F l o r i d a Y o u a r e b e i n g c o n d a r y S t u d e n t s i n F l o r i d a Y o u a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o t a k e p a r t i n i t b e c a u s e y o u a r e a s t u d e n t a t B r o w n H i g h a s k e d t o t a k e p a r t i n i t b e c a u s e y o u a r e a s t u d e n t a t B r o w n H i g h W h y Y o u S h o u l d T a k e P a r t i n t h e S t u d y : W e n e e d t o l e a r n m o r e a b o u t w h a t l e a d s t o h a p p i n e s s a n d h e a l t h d u r i n g t h e t e e n a g e y e a r s T h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w e g a t h e r m a y h e l p u s b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d w h i c h a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n t e e n s a s w e l l a s w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e s a t s c h o o l l e a d t o e m o t i o n a l w e l l n e s s d u r i n g h i g h s c h o o l A l s o i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h i s s t u d y w i l l b e s h a r e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l s t a f f a t B r o w n H i g h S c h o o l t o h e l p t h e m u n d e r s t a n d w h a t s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a t s c h o o l a n d i n l i f e P l e a s e n o t e y o u w i l l n o t b e p a i d f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y ! F i l l i n g O u t t h e S u r v e y s F i l l i n g O u t t h e S u r v e y s : T h e s e s u r v e y s w i l l a s k a b o u t y o u r t h o u g h t s b : T h e s e s u r v e y s w i l l a s k a b o u t y o u r t h o u g h t s b e h a v i o r s e h a v i o r s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s c h o o l t e a c h e r s c l a s s m a t e s f a m i l y a n d l i f e i n g e n e r a l a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s c h o o l t e a c h e r s c l a s s m a t e s f a m i l y a n d l i f e i n g e n e r a l Y o u m a y s k i p a n y q u e s t i o n t h a t y o u d o n o t d e s i r e t o a n s w e r W e e x p e c t i t w i l l t a k e b e t w e e n W e e x p e c t i t w i l l t a k e b e t w e e n 3 0 a n d 6 0 m i n u t e s t o f i l l o u t a l l t h e s u r v e y s 3 0 a n d 6 0 m i n u t e s t o f i l l o u t a l l t h e s u r v e y s ! W h a t E l s e W i l l H a p p e n i f W h a t E l s e W i l l H a p p e n i f Y o u A r e i n t h e S t u d y Y o u A r e i n t h e S t u d y : : I f y o u c h o o s e t o t a k e p a r t I f y o u c h o o s e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e s t u d y w e w i l l l o o k a t s o m e o f y o u r s c h o o l r e c o r d s i n t h e s t u d y w e w i l l l o o k a t s o m e o f y o u r s c h o o l r e c o r d s U n d e r t h e U n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w e w i l l a c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t y o u r s u p e r v i s i o n o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w e w i l l a c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t y o u r g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e d i s c i p l i n e r e c o r d a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t y o g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e d i s c i p l i n e r e c o r d a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u t a k e s p e c i a l u t a k e s p e c i a l c l a s s e s s u c h a s A d v a n c e d P l a c e m e n t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a c c a l a u r e a t e c l a s s e s s u c h a s A d v a n c e d P l a c e m e n t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a c c a l a u r e a t e P r o g r a m o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ( f o r e x a m p l e G i f t e d ) P r o g r a m o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ( f o r e x a m p l e G i f t e d ) P l e a s e N o t e : Y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y B y s i g n i n g t h i s f o r m y o u a r e a g r e e i n g t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h I f y o u c h o o s e n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e o r i f y o u w i s h t o s t o p t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y a t a n y t i m e y o u w i l l n o t b e p u n i s h e d i n a n y w a y I f y o u c h o o s e n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i t w i l l n o t a f f e c t y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B r o w n H i g h S c h o o l U S F o r a n y o n e e l s e C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ( P r i v a c y ) o f Y o u r R e s p o n s e s : W e d o n o t e x p e c t t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e m o r e t h a n m i n i m a l r i s k t o y o u f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h W e w i l l b e h e r e t o h e l p t h e e n t i r e t i m e y o u a r e f i l l i n g o u t t h e s u r v e y s i n c a s e y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s o r c o n c e r n s Y o u r s c h o o l g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l o r s a r e a l s o o n h a n d i n c a s e y o u b e c o m e u p s e t Y o u r p r i v a c y a n d r e s e a r c h r e c o r d s w i l l b e k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l ( p r i v a t e s e c r e t ) t o t h e e x t e n t o f t h e l a w P e o p l e a p p r o v e d t o d o r e s e a r c h a t U S F

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132 p e o p l e w h o w o r k f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s a n d t h e U S F I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w B o a r d m a y l o o k a t t h e r e c o r d s f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t b u t y o u r i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s w i l l n o t b e s h a r e d w i t h p e o p l e i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m o r a n y o n e o t h e r t h a n u s a n d o u r r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s Y o u r c o m p l e t e d s u r v e y s w i l l b e g i v e n a c o d e n u m b e r t o p r o t e c t t h e p r i v a c y o f y o u r r e s p o n s e s O n l y w e w i l l h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e l o c k e d f i l e c a b i n e t s t o r e d a t U S F t h a t w i l l c o n t a i n : 1 ) a l l r e c o r d s l i n k i n g c o d e n u m b e r s t o n a m e s a n d 2 ) a l l i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f r o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s P l e a s e n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h y o u r s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s w i l l n o t b e s h a r e d w i t h s c h o o l s t a f f i f y o u i n d i c a t e y o u p l a n t o h a r m y o u r s e l f w e w i l l l e t d i s t r i c t m e n t a l h e a l t h c o u n s e l o r s k n o w i n o r d e r t o m a k e s u r e y o u a r e s a f e W h a t W e l l D o W i t h Y o u r R e s p o n s e s : W e p l a n t o u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h i s s t u d y t o l e t o t h e r s k n o w t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s o n s t u d e n t s m e n t a l h e a l t h a n d t o m a k e a p l a n f o r i m p r o v i n g s c h o o l i n g e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e h i g h s c h o o l y e a r s T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y m a y b e p u b l i s h e d H o w e v e r y o u r r e s p o n s e s w i l l b e c o m b i n e d w i t h r e s p o n s e s f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n T h e p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s w i l l n o t i n c l u d e y o u r n a m e o r a n y o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d i n a n y w a y i d e n t i f y y o u Q u e s t i o n s ? I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y p l e a s e r a i s e y o u r h a n d n o w o r a t a n y p o i n t d u r i n g t h e s t u d y A l s o y o u m a y c o n t a c t u s l a t e r a t ( 8 1 3 ) 9 7 4 2 2 2 3 ( D r S u l d o ) o r ( 8 1 3 ) 9 7 4 7 0 0 7 ( D r S h a u n e s s y ) I f y o u h a v e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t y o u r r i g h t s a s a p e r s o n w h o i s t a k i n g p a r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y y o u m a y c o n t a c t a m e m b e r o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h C o m p l i a n c e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a a t 8 1 3 9 7 4 5 6 3 8 o r t h e F l o r i d a D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h R e v i e w C o u n c i l f o r H u m a n S u b j e c t s a t 1 8 5 0 2 4 5 4 5 8 5 o r t o l l f r e e a t 1 8 6 6 4 3 3 2 7 7 5 T h a n k y o u f o r t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y S i n c e r e l y E l i z a b e t h S h a u n e s s y P h D S h a n n o n S u l d o P h D A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n D e p t o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d S o c i a l F o u n d a t i o n s A s s e n t t o T a k e P a r t i n t h i s R e s e a r c h S t u d y I f r e e l y g i v e m y p e r m i s s i o n t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s i s r e s e a r c h I h a v e r e c e i v e d a c o p y o f t h i s l e t t e r a n d a s s e n t f o r m f o r m y r e c o r d s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S i g n a t u r e o f c h i l d P r i n t e d n a m e o f c h i l d D a t e t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y S t a t e m e n t o f P e r s o n O b t a i n i n g I n f o r m e d A s s e n t I c e r t i f y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d w i t h a n i n f o r m e d a s s e n t f o r m t h a t h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a s I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w B o a r d a n d t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e n a t u r e d e m a n d s r i s k s a n d b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y I f u r t h e r c e r t i f y t h a t a p h o n e n u m b e r h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d i n t h e e v e n t o f a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S i g n a t u r e o f p e r s o n P r i n t e d n a m e o f p e r s o n D a t e o b t a i n i n g a s s e n t o b t a i n i n g a s s e n t

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133 A P P E N D I X D P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s S c a l e ( C ohe n, K a m a r a c k, & M e r m e l s t e i n, 1983) T he s e que s t i on s a s k you a bout your f e e l i ngs a n d t hought s dur i ng t he l a s t m ont h I n e a c h c a s e you w i l l be a s ke d t o i ndi c a t e how of t e n yo u f e l t or t hought a c e r t a i n w a y. A l t ho ugh s om e of t he que s t i ons a r e s i m i l a r t he r e a r e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he m a nd you s houl d t r e a t e a c h one a s a s e pa r a t e que s t i on. T he be s t a ppr oa c h i s t o a ns w e r e a c h que s t i on f a i r l y qu i c kl y. I n t h e l a s t m o n t h h o w o f t e n h a v e y o u N e v e r A l m o s t n e v e r S o m e t i m e s F a i r l y o f t e n V e r y o f t e n 1 b e e n u p s e t b e c a u s e o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n e d u n e x p e c t e d l y ? 1 2 3 4 5 2 f e l t t h a t y o u w e r e u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s i n y o u r l i f e ? 1 2 3 4 5 3 f e l t n e r v o u s a n d s t r e s s e d ? 1 2 3 4 5 4 f o u n d t h a t y o u c o u l d n o t c o p e w i t h a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u h a d t o d o ? 1 2 3 4 5 5 b e e n a n g e r e d b e c a u s e o f t h i n g s t h a t h a p p e n e d t h a t w e r e o u t s i d e o f y o u r c o n t r o l ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 f e l t d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e p i l i n g u p s o h i g h t h a t y o u c o u l d n o t o v e r c o m e t h e m ? 1 2 3 4 5 7 . . f e l t t h a t t h i n g s w e r e g o i n g y o u r w a y r e v e r s e s c o r e d i t e m

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134 A P P E N D I X E A dol e s c e nt C opi ng O r i e nt a t i on f or P r ob l e m E xpe r i e nc e s ( P a t t e r s on & M c C ubbi n, 1981) R e a d e a c h of t he s t a t e m e nt s be l ow t ha t d e s c r i be s a be ha vi or f or c opi ng w i t h pr obl e m s D e c i d e how of t e n you do e a c h of t he de s c r i be d be ha vi or s w he n you a r e f a c e d w i t h di f f i c ul t i e s or f e e l t e ns e E ve n t hough you m a y do s om e of t he s e t hi ngs j us t f or f un, pl e a s e i ndi c a t e O N L Y how of t e n you do e a c h be ha vi or a s a w a y t o c ope w i t h pr obl e m s C i r c l e one of t he f ol l ow i ng r e s pons e s f or e a c h s t a t e m e nt : 1 = N e v e r 2 = H ar dl y E v e r 3 = S om e t i m e s 4 = O f t e n 5 = M os t of t h e T i m e N ot e t he w or d s pa r e nt m ot he r f a t he r br ot he r or s i s t e r a l s o m e a n s t e p pa r e nt s t e p m o t he r e t c W h e n y o u f a c e d i f f i c u l t i e s o r f e e l t e n s e h o w o f t e n d o y o u : N e v e r H a r d l y E v e r S o m e t i m e s O f t e n M o s t o f t h e t i m e 1 G o a l o n g w i t h p a r e n t s r e q u e s t s a n d r u l e s ( F ) 1 2 3 4 5 2 U s e d r u g s p r e s c r i b e d b y a d o c t o r ( N ) 1 2 3 4 5 3 T r y t o r e a s o n w i t h p a r e n t s a n d t a l k t h i n g s o u t ; c o m p r o m i s e ( F ) 1 2 3 4 5 4 T r y t o t h i n k o f t h e g o o d t h i n g s i n y o u r l i f e ( P ) 1 2 3 4 5 5 S a y n i c e t h i n g s t o o t h e r s ( P ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 G e t a n g r y a n d y e l l a t p e o p l e ( A ) 1 2 3 4 5 7 L e t o f f s t e a m b y c o m p l a i n i n g t o f a m i l y m e m b e r s ( A ) 1 2 3 4 5 8 U s e d r u g s ( n o t p r e s c r i b e d b y a d o c t o r ) ( N ) 1 2 3 4 5 9 B l a m e o t h e r s f o r w h a t s g o i n g w r o n g ( A ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 B e c l o s e w i t h s o m e o n e y o u c a r e a b o u t ( P ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 T a l k t o y o u r m o t h e r a b o u t w h a t b o t h e r s y o u ( F ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 T r y t o k e e p u p f r i e n d s h i p s o r m a k e n e w f r i e n d s ( P ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 D o t h i n g s w i t h y o u r f a m i l y ( F ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 S m o k e ( N ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 5 T r y t o s e e t h e g o o d t h i n g s i n a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n ( P ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 6 D r i n k b e e r w i n e l i q u o r ( N ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 7 S a y m e a n t h i n g s t o p e o p l e ; b e s a r c a s t i c ( A ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 8 T a l k t o y o u r f a t h e r a b o u t w h a t b o t h e r s y o u ( F ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 9 L e t o f f s t e a m b y c o m p l a i n i n g t o y o u r f r i e n d s ( A ) 1 2 3 4 5 N o t e L e t t e r d e n o t e s c o p i n g s t y l e P = p o s i t i v e a v o i d a n c e N = n e g a t i v e a v o i d a n c e A = a n g e r F = f a m i l y c o m m u n i c a t i o n

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135 A PP E N D I X F Y o u t h Sel f Rep o rt Fo r m ( A ch en b a ch & Res co rl a, 2 0 0 1 ) C O P Y R I G H T P R O H I B I T S I N C L U S I O N

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136 A P P E N D I X G S T U D E N T S L I F E S A T I S F A C T I O N S C A L E ( S L S S ) W e w oul d l i ke t o know w ha t t hought s a bout l i f e you've ha d dur i ng t he pa s t s e ve r a l w e e ks T hi nk a bout how you s pe nd e a c h da y a n d ni ght a nd t he n t hi nk a bout how you r l i f e ha s be e n dur i ng m os t of t hi s t i m e H e r e a r e s om e que s t i ons t ha t a s k you t o i ndi c a t e your s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h l i f e C i r c l e t he num be r ( f r om 1 t o 6) ne xt t o e a c h s t a t e m e nt t h a t i ndi c a t e s t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h you a gr e e or di s a gr e e w i t h e a c h s t a t e m e nt I t i s i m po r t a nt t o know w ha t you R E A L L Y t hi nk, s o pl e a s e a n s w e r t he que s t i on t he w a y you r e a l l y f e e l not how you t hi nk you s houl d. T hi s i n N O T a t e s t T he r e a r e N O r i ght or w r ong a ns w e r s Y our a ns w e r s w i l l N O T a f f e c t your gr a de s a nd no one w i l l be t ol d your a ns w e r s C i r c l e 1 i f you S T O N G L Y D I S A G R E E w i t h t he s e nt e nc e C i r c l e 2 i f you M O D E R A T E L Y D I S A G R E E w i t h t he s e nt e nc e C i r c l e 3 i f you M I L D L Y D I S A G R E E w i t h t he s e nt e nc e C i r c l e 4 i f you M I L D L Y A G R E E w i t h t he s e nt e nc e C i r c l e 5 i f you M O D E R A T E L Y A G R E E w i t h t he s e nt e nc e C i r c l e 6 i f you S T R O N G L Y A G R E E w i t h t he s e nt e nc e 1 M y l i f e i s goi ng w e l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 M y l i f e i s j us t r i ght 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I w oul d l i ke t o c ha nge m a ny t hi ngs i n m y l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I w i s h I ha d a d i f f e r e nt ki nd o f l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I ha ve a good l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 I ha ve w ha t I w a nt i n l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M y l i f e i s be t t e r t ha n m os t k i ds 1 2 3 4 5 6

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137 A P P E N D I X H S e l f E f f i c a c y Q ue s t i onna i r e f o r C hi l dr e n ( M ur i s 2 001) Pl eas e r at e y o u r an s w e rs t o t h es e q u es t i o n s t h at as k h o w w el l (g o o d ) y o u t h i n k y o u can d o t h i n g s Read e ach q u es t i o n t h en ci rcl e a n u mb er f ro m ( 1 ) t o ( 5 ), w h ere ( 1 ) i n d i cat es N o t a t A l l an d ( 5 ) i n d i cat es V ery W el l N o t a t A l R a r e l y S o m e ti m e s F a i r l y We l l V e r y We l l 1 H o w w e l l c a n y o u e x p re s s y o u r o p i n i o n s w h e n o t h e r c l a s s m a t e s d i s a g re e w i t h y o u ? 1 2 3 4 5 2 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n c h e e ri n g y o u rs e l f u p w h e n a n u n p l e a s a n t e v e n t h a s h a p p e n e d ? 1 2 3 4 5 3 H o w w e l l c a n y o u s t u d y w h e n t h e re a re o t h e r i n t e re s t i n g t h i n g s t o d o ? 1 2 3 4 5 4 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n b e c o m i n g c a l m a g a i n w h e n y o u a re v e r y s c a re d ? 1 2 3 4 5 5 H o w w e l l c a n y o u b e c o m e fri e n d s w i t h o t h e r y o u n g p e o p l e ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 H o w w e l l c a n y o u s t u d y a c h a p t e r fo r a t e s t ? 1 2 3 4 5 7 H o w w e l l c a n y o u h a v e a c h a t w i t h a n u n fa m i l i a r p e rs o n ? 1 2 3 4 5 8 H o w w e l l c a n y o u p re v e n t y o u rs e l f fro m b e c o m i n g n e rv o u s ? 1 2 3 4 5 9 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n fi n i s h i n g a l l y o u r h o m e w o r k e v e ry d a y ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 H o w w e l l c a n y o u g e t a l o n g w i t h y o u r c l a s s m a t e s w h i l e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r? 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 H o w w e l l c a n y o u c o n t ro l y o u r fe e l i n g s ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 H o w w e l l c a n y o u p a y a t t e n t i o n d u ri n g e v e ry c l a s s ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 H o w w e l l c a n y o u t e l l o t h e r y o u n g p e o p l e t h a t t h e y a re d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u d o n t l i k e ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 H o w w e l l c a n y o u g i v e y o u rs e l f a p e p t a l k w h e n y o u fe e l l o w ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 5 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n p a s s i n g a l l s c h o o l s u b j e c t s ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 6 H o w w e l l c a n y o u t e l l a fu n n y s t o ry t o a g ro u p o f y o u n g p e o p l e ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 7 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n s a t i s fy i n g y o u r p a re n t s w i t h y o u r s c h o o l w o r k ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 8 H o w w e l l a re y o u a b l e t o re m a i n fri e n d s w i t h o t h e r y o u n g p e o p l e ? 1 2 3 4 5 1 9 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n h o l d i n g b a c k u n p l e a s a n t t h o u g h t s ? 1 2 3 4 5 2 0 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n p a s s i n g a t e s t ? 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 H o w w e l l d o y o u s u c c e e d i n n o t w o rry i n g a b o u t t h i n g s t h a t m i g h t h a p p e n ? 1 2 3 4 5 *i t e m s l oa di ng on a c a de m i c s e l f e f f i c a c y s ubs c a l e