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The acquisition of Spanish through videoconferencing and video-based lessons by individual fifth-graders

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Title:
The acquisition of Spanish through videoconferencing and video-based lessons by individual fifth-graders
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Book
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English
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Norwood, Annette L
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Foreign language
Elementary school
Case study
Technology-mediated instruction
Oral output
Dissertations, Academic -- Interdisciplinary Education -- Doctoral -- USF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of the language learning experiences of four fifth-grade students learning Spanish through videoconferencing and video-based lessons. This interpretive qualitative study involved intensive data collection over a period of 7 months through participant observation, audio and video recording of classes with subsequent transcription, and interviews of the students and their teachers. The following points of focus guided this research: (a) What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings?; (b) Are patterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under study?; (c) What individual learner factors help to explain differences in the participants' Spanish output?; and (d) What are the participants' preferences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? A careful examination was made of the participants' oral Spanish ou tput. Examples of their oral and written output and oral interactions were given. The participants differed among themselves in the amount of oral output each produced, and individual participants showed differences in productivity in the different instructional settings. No patterns of change were discerned in the language used by two participants. A third showed evidence of growth in some areas of language use. The fourth, Edward, showed the greatest growth. Many individual learner factors were examined. Among them were attitude toward Spanish, use of Spanish in and out of school, and overall academic achievement. All participants except for Edward were in their fourth year in the Spanish program; he was in his second year. All of the participants preferred learning Spanish through videoconferencing or teacher-led classes to learning it through the video-based lessons. In comparisons of videoconferencing and teacher-led classes, all participants expressed a preference for teac her-led classes. Themes that emerged were (a) the importance of the on-site Spanish teacher, (b) contributions of the video lessons, and (c) limitations in interaction and output.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Annette L. Norwood.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 253 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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aleph - 001793975
oclc - 145577980
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001530
usfldc handle - e14.1530
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SFS0025848:00001


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The Acquisition of Spanish Through Videoconferencing and Video-Based Lessons by Individual Fifth Graders by Annette L. Norwood A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Interdisciplinary Education College of Education University of South Florida Co-Major Professor: Carine M. Feyten, Ph.D. Co-Major Professor: Joyce W. Nutta, Ph.D. Douglas E. Stone, Ph.D. Linda S. Evans, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 10, 2006 Keywords: Foreign Language, El ementary School, Case Study, Technology-Mediated Instru ction, Oral Output Copyright 2006, Annette L. Norwood

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Dedication This dissertation is dedicated with lo ve to my parents, Hart and Audrey Norwood, who have helped and encouraged me throughout my education and throughout my life. I am grateful for their love and for the wonderful example they have set through their faith in G od, their heart for Christian missions, and their desire to help those who are in need.

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Acknowledgments I am grateful to the members of my committee for the guidance and the help they have given me. I have benef ited from the wisdom and example of Carine Feyten throughout my years in the do ctoral program. I thank Joyce Nutta for her friendship, her encouragement, and her timely attent ion to the drafts of my proposal and dissertation. I thank D oug Stone, who has always been extremely generous in his help and guidance. And I thank Linda Evans for being a part of my committee; I have benefited fr om her example and her help. I am grateful to the teachers and students at Dolphin Point Elementary, without whom this study would not have been possible. I thank Lissette Ford and Lloyd Duke Baxter for their friendship and generosity in opening their classrooms to me. I thank Claire, Brittany, Ciara and Edward for sharing their experiences with me a nd helping me in more ways than they know. I gratefully acknowled ge the support I received fr om the USF Center for Community Partnerships through the facu lty grant awarded to Dr. Joyce Nutta and Dr. Carol Mullen, Video Vivo: A Study of the E ffect of Video-Conferencing on Elementary Students Acquisition of Spanish as a Foreign Language Finally, I thank my sister and all the friends who have encouraged me and prayed for me. I know that I could not have written this without the help of God.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables v List of Figures vii Abstract viii Chapter 1. Introduction 1 Background 2 Topic and Points of Focus 4 Rationale and Significance 7 Limitations 9 Organization of the Dissertati on 9 Definition of Terms 10 Chapter 2. Review of Related Lite rature 13 The History of FLES 13 Second Language Acquisition: Its Beginnin gs and Theories 15 Input, Interaction, and Output 17 Age and Second Language Acquisition 23 Video, Videoconferenc ing, and Distance Learning 27 Videotapes 27 Videoconferencing 30 Chapter 3. Design and Methodol ogy 32 Introduction 32 Researcher Background and Perspectives 33 Initial Contact with Dolphin Point Elementary and the FLETT Model 35 Spanish Summer Institute 36 Dolphin Point and the Choice Agreement 37 My Preliminary Observations at Do lphin Point Elementar y 38 Selection of Participants 42 Preliminary Considerations 42 Selecting Ciara, Claire, Edward and Brittany 43 Data Collection and Analysis 46 Ethical Considerations 48

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ii Chapter 4. Research Setting, Teachers, and Program 49 Dolphin Point Elementary School 49 Changes at Dolphin Point Over 35 Years of Its History 49 A Description of Dolphin Point at t he Time of This Study 51 School Demographics and Key School Programs 52 Mrs. Ford 53 Mr. Baxter 55 The Espaol para ti Video-Based Language Program 57 Implementation of the Video Co mponent 62 Spanish Lessons in the Tele Caf 67 The Tele Caf in Its New Setting 67 The Frequency of Spanish Instructional Sessions in the Tele Caf 68 A Description of Instructional Sessi ons in the Tele Caf 71 Chapter 5. Oral and Written Spanish Output, Interactions, and Patterns of Change 75 Time Spent Observing the Participants 76 Overview of Spanish Utterances Produc ed by the Participants 78 Categorizing Claires Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings 79 Placing Claires Oral and Written Ou tput in Context 82 Following One of Claires Saber Es Poder Cards Through Its Life Cycle 83 Further Examples of Claires Spanish Utterances in Context 88 Categorizing Brittanys Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings 91 Brittanys Participation in the Tele Caf 94 Brittanys Oral Output in Relation to Video Lessons 98 Brittanys Saber Es Poder Cards 100 Categorizing Ciaras Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings 102 Examples of Ciaras Utterances in Different Instructional Settings 106 Ciaras Saber Es Poder Cards 110 Categorizing Edwards Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings 112 Examples of Edwards Utteranc es in Different Instructional Settings 120 Edwards Oral and Written Output in Relation to Video Lessons 124 Summary of Oral Output in the Diffe rent Instructional Settings 128 Patterns of Change in Oral Spanish Output 132

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iii Chapter 6. Individual Learner Factor s, Preferences, and Perc eptions 136 Claire Montgomery 136 My Early Concerns Regarding Claire 137 Observations of Claire in Spanish Lessons 139 Claires Academic Record and Her Absences from Spanish Lessons 140 Reasons for Limited Oral Participation in Spanish Lessons 141 Claires Friends at School 144 Claire and Her Family 146 Questions About Spanish in and out of School 150 Brittany Johnson 152 My Interactions with Brittany 153 Brittany in her Spanish Classes 155 Brittany and Her Friends 156 Brittanys Academic Record 158 Questions About Spanish in and out of School 160 Ciara Nivea 164 Introduction to Ciara 164 Questions About Spanish in and out of School 165 Ciaras Interests and Their Contribution to His Performance 169 My Observations of Ciara Du ring Video Lessons 172 Ciaras Academic Record and A ssociated Difficulties 173 Ciaras Self-Consciousness 175 Edward Jones 176 My Interactions with Edward 177 Edwards Attitude Toward and Behavior During Video Lessons 179 Learning and Using Spanish in and out of School 182 Edwards Academic Record 186 The Relationship Between Edward and Mrs. Ford 188 Participants Preferences and Perceptions Concerning the Spanish Program 190 Chapter 7. Themes and Supporting Evidence 201 Importance of the On -Site Spanish Teacher 201 Contributions of the Video Lessons 209 Limitations in Interaction and Output 211

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iv Chapter 8. Summary and Discussion 220 Methodology and Quantity and Quality of the Data 220 Evolution of the Points of Focus 221 Summary of the Findings 223 Themes and Their Relation to the Points of Focus 227 Discussion 229 References 232 Appendices 246 Appendix. Schedule of My Research at Dolphin Point Elementary 247 About the Author End page

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v List of Tables Table 1. Frequency of Spanish Instructional Sessions and Cancellations in Dolphin Points Tele Caf from September 16, 2004, Through May 12, 2005 69 Table 2. Amount of Time Each Participant Was Observed in the Different Instructional Setti ngs From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 77 Table 3. Number of Spanish Utter ances for Each Participant in the Different Instructional Setti ngs From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 79 Table 4. Claire. Number of Spani sh Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 80 Table 5. Claire. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Instructional Se ttings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 82 Table 6. Brittany. Number of S panish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 93 Table 7. Brittany. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Inst ructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 94 Table 8. Ciara. Number of Spanish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 104 Table 9. Ciara. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Instructional Se ttings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 105

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vi Table 10. Edward. Number of Spanish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 116 Table 11. Edward. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Inst ructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 118 Table 12. Average Number of Minutes Between Utterances for Each Participant in the Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 130 Table 13. Average Number of Minutes Between Utterances for Each Participant From October 2004 Th rough April 2005 133 Table 14. Participants Opinions in January and May About Spanish in the Tele Caf and Spanish Instru ctional Videos 192 Table 15. Participants Opinions in January About Muzzy and Espaol para ti and in May About Muzzy, Espaol para ti, and La Familia Contenta 196 Table 16. Participants Opinions in January and May About Spanish Instructional Sessions With and Without Videoconferencing 198

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vii List of Figures Figure 1. Information on Claires Saber es poder card for Lesson 14. 85 Figure 2. Information on one side of Brittanys Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. 101 Figure 3. Information on the reverse side of Brittanys Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. 101 Figure 4. Information on one side of Ciaras Saber es poder card for Lesson 32. 111 Figure 5. Information on one side of Ciaras Saber es poder card for Lesson 39. 112 Figure 6. Information on one side of Edwards Saber es poder card for Lesson 21. 126 Figure 7. Information on the reverse side of Edwards Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. 127 Figure 8. Information on the front side of Edwards Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. 128

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viii The Acquisition of Spanish Through Videoconferencing and Video-Based Lessons by Individual Fifth Graders Annette L. Norwood ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to pr ovide an in-depth ex amination of the language learning experiences of four fifth-grade students learning Spanish through videoconferencing and video-based lessons. This interpretive qualitative study involved intensive data collection over a period of 7 months through participant observation, audio and video re cording of classes with subsequent transcription, and interviews of the students and their teachers. The following points of focus guided this research: (a) What instances of interaction and output are observed in the di fferent instructional settings?; (b) Are patterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under study?; (c) What individu al learner factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output?; and (d) W hat are the participants preferences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? A careful examination wa s made of the participants oral Spanish output. Examples of their oral and written output and oral interactions were given. The participants differed among themselves in the amount of oral output each produced, and individual participants showed differences in productivity in the different instructional settings. No patterns of change were discerned in the language used by two participants. A third showed evidence of growth in some areas of language use. The fourth, Edward, showed the greatest growth. Many individual learner factors were examined. Among them were attitude toward Spanish, use of Spanish in and out of school, and overall academic achievement. All participants exce pt for Edward were in their fourth year in the Spanish program ; he was in his second year. All of the participants preferred learning Spanish through videoconferencing or teacher-led classes to learning it through the video-based lessons. In comparisons of videoconf erencing and teacher-led classes, all participants expressed a preferen ce for teacher-led classes. Themes that emerged were (a) the importance of the on-site Spanish teacher, (b) contributions of the video lessons, and (c) limitations in interaction and output.

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1 Chapter 1. Introduction I still remember some of my early experiences learning a foreign language. After a brief introduction to S panish and French in the seventh grade, I began to study Spanish on a regular basis in the eighth grade in the 1974 school year. I have fond memories of my teacher that year, and I can remember listening to tapes in a language laborat ory, wearing headphones. I was tested on conjugations that I was tryi ng to learn; I had a hard time with them at first. I memorized dialogues and can still recall the first line of one word for word, even though I have not read, heard, or spoken t hat particular sentence for more than 30 years. The dialogue was about an airplane trip. In the first line, an airline employee announced to passengers the depar ture of Flight 200, bound for Madrid, and asked all to board the plane, please. There have been great changes in foreign language education over the past three decades. The field of sec ond language acquisition (SLA) has taken root and become firmly established in its own right, providing theoretical formulations and empirical evidence. Language teaching approaches and methods of earlier days have fallen out of vogue and been replaced by others. New technological developments are being incorporated into the teaching of foreign languages. And yet, many impor tant questions, some of them new, remain unanswered. At Dolphin Point Elementary School (a pseudonym, as are the names of the other elementary schools involved in this research), located in West Central Florida, students were taught Spanish th rough interactive videoconferencing and video-based lessons throughout most of the 2004 school year. These technologies provided an opportunity for language learning that would not otherwise have been offered at this school. Dolphin Point students in the firs t through fifth grades participated in weekly interactive videoconferencing sessions Each class at Dolphin Point was matched with a class from one of two other elementary schools on the basis of like grade level and scheduling considerations For any given pair of matched classes, the Spanish teachers at tw o schools worked together to teach the videoconferencing sessions. This repr esented a change in procedure from the previous school year when Spanish teacher s at different schools alternated on a weekly basis in assuming sole teaching responsibility for matched classes. The other component of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point consisted of video lessons. During most of the school year, students watched two lessons a week of the commercially produced series, Espaol para ti (developed by the Clark County Elementary School Divisions Nevada, in colla boration with KLVX, Communication Group, Channel 10). In t he months of Januar y through April,

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2 brief supplemental videos were also s hown on Fridays. Classroom teachers had the responsibility of showing Espaol para ti videos and facilitating activities based on them. What is it like for a Dolphin Point student to learn Spanish in this way? In videoconferencing sessions, what kinds of interaction does the student take part in, and what is his or her language output like? What is the students language output like in video-based lessons facilitated by the classroom teacher? How does a given student approach learning Span ish in these contexts, and what are the students preferences and perceptions? Does the student show evidence of change in language production during t he course of a school year? Answers to the questions just posed could provide a detailed picture of a learner in this particular foreign language pr ogram. Before focusing in so closely, however, it would be well to step back and ta ke a wider view. After all, many issues come into play in relation to the Spanish program at Dolphin Point Elementary. As an example of an elem entary school foreign language program, it is related to elementary school fore ign language programs of the past, as well as to contemporary programs. It incorporates videoconferencing and videos, technologies for foreign language t eaching and learning that have not been widely researched, especially in relati on to foreign language in the elementary school (FLES). SLA theory certainly enters into a discussion of this FLES program, and the specific t heoretical consideration of the age of the language learners also has a place. Background Current efforts in the area of foreign language in the elementary school may be better understood by placing them in the context of developments in the field of foreign language education. The granting of federal funding for the development of national standards for foreign language learning in January 1993 was a landmark event (Lafayette & Draper, 1996). These are standards for students in kindergarten through the 12 th grade; they thus affirm the importance of foreign languages in the education of a ll students. On the st ate level, Florida has also recognized the vital place of fo reign languages in the core curriculum, resulting in the publication of the Florida Curriculum Framework Foreign Languages: PreK-12 Sunshine State Standards and Instructional Practices (Florida Department of Education, 1996). This document argues in favor of a long sequence of foreign language inst ruction, beginning in kindergarten and continuing through the 12 th grade in order for students to reach a confident level of second language proficiency (p. 32). Recognition of the impor tance of the teaching of foreign languages at all levels of schooling was accompanied by an increase in the number of elementary schools offering such instruction in the 1990s. According to two national surveys conducted by the Center for Applied Lingu istics (CAL), in the 10-year span from 1987 to 1997 the percentage of public elementary schools that reported teaching foreign language increased from 17% to 24% (Rhodes & Branaman, 1999, p. 12). There was also increased interest in providing foreign language instruction

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3 among those public elementary schools that reported not offering this instruction at the times of the surveys: up fr om 48% in 1987 to 52% in 1997 (Rhodes & Branaman, 1999, p. 14). Additionally, the CAL surveys provided an examination of the types of forei gn language programs offered in elementary schools. Changing economic and political condi tions in the firs t years of the 21 st century have brought with them changes in FLES offerings. Marcia Rosenbusch (2004) has reported on thr eats to early language progr ams and the sources of these threats, as revealed by a recent survey. The main threats are program elimination and the sca ling back of programs. Their sources include financial or budget problems; a lack of understanding and valuing of the elementary school foreign language program among administr ators and staff (p. 11); a lack of qualified teachers; changes in elected o fficials and other political issues; the move to limit class offerings to the Spanish language, eliminating other languages; and the negative atti tudes of some parents. Although threats to established program s are currently a concern, they are not the whole story. Throughout the nation, different local needs and resources have led to the development and implement ation of differing program models, which in turn have different goals. Research has shown that greater gains in foreign language proficiency are achieved through program models that involve students in using the foreign language for greater periods of time (Gray, Rhodes, Campbell, & Snow, 1984; Met & Rhodes, 1990). Total immersion, in which 50 to 100% of the total time in school is spent using the foreign language, mostly as a m eans of instruction, is at one end of a continuum of program models. Total immersion has the most ambitious goals for the development of functional language proficiency, as well as mastery of subject content and understanding of the foreign la nguage culture or cultures (Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004; Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000). Two other program models, partial immersion and two-way immersion, are very similar to total immersion but have somewhat less ambitious goals, especially in regard to developing func tional language proficiency. In these models, approximately 50% of time in school is spent us ing the foreign language. Two-way immersion (also known as dual language, two-way bilingual, or developmental bilingual education) involves both native speakers of English who are learning the foreign language and nat ive speakers of that language who are learning English as a second language (C urtain & Dahlberg, 2004; Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000). Content-based FLES is another program option. In schools following this model, from 15 to nearly 50% of the time is spent in language instruction and in using the language to teach other subject matt er. The study of subject content in the foreign language is a means to gain ski lls in the foreign language, and the mastery of this subject c ontent is a program goal. Although not aiming for the development of the functional proficien cy that is possible in the immersion models, proficiency in the foreign languag e is an important goal of content-based FLES. Understanding of t he foreign language culture or cultures is another program goal (Curtain & Dahlbe rg, 2004; Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000).

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4 Next along the continuum of program models is FL ES, in which study of the foreign language takes up 5 to 15% of time in school. Like content-based FLES, this program model promotes understanding of the foreign language culture or cultures, as well as fost ering the development of foreign language proficiency, though in the FLES model listening and speaking are usually emphasized to a greater extent than r eading and writing (Cur tain & Dahlberg, 2004). Many FLES programs are content re lated, meaning that subject content is used to enrich the program but that ma stery of this content is not a program goal (as distinguished from content-based FLES; Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004). At the far end of the program-m odel continuum are foreign language exploratory or experience (F LEX) programs. These progr ams take up as little as 1 to 5% of time in school. According to Curtain and Dahlberg (2004), some of the most common FLEX goals are intr oduction to language learning, awareness and appreciation of foreign culture, apprecia tion of the value of communicating in another language, enhanced und erstanding of English, [and] motivation for further language study (p. 426). Topic and Points of Focus Although the descriptions of program models above provide a helpful framework for classifying and thinking about elementary school foreign language programs, it should be remembered that eac h program is unique in some ways. Returning to the Spanish program at Dolphin Point Elementary, a primary characteristic that distinguishes it is its in tegration of technology. In fact, this type of program has received a special desig nation in the County that developed it: Foreign Language in the Elementary School Through Technology (FLETT). The FLETT model takes advantage of Polycom videoconferencing equipment to offer instruction through interactive videoconf erencing. The onetime cost of the Polycom equipment and wiring was $25,000 for each school, paid for by federal grants. Another component of the FLETT model is the Epaol para ti video program, with lessons facilitated by classroom teachers. The amount of school time that is devoted to S panish instruction is approximately 5%. The following program goals are listed in FLETT information: 1. To promote the gradual development of listening and speaking skills in Spanish, a widely spoken language in the United States and around the world. 2. To build enthusiasm for language learning through early success. 3. To increase students awareness of their native language, enhancing cognitive growth and promoting higher student achievement. 4. To enhance knowledge of world hist ory and culture, thereby increasing global awareness and respect for divers ity. (No citation is given for this quotation to protect the identity of Dolphin Point Elementary School.) In amount of school time involved and in the goal of developi ng Spanish listening and speaking skills, the FLETT program at Dolphin Point could be classified as

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5 following the FLES program model. Its te chnology features set it apart and, given the paucity of research in this area, raise many questions. This research study concentrates on issues of language acquisition thought to be associated with the first goal the gradual development of listening and speaking skills, and also includes the c onsideration of some student writing in the form of vocabulary words copied from video lessons. The experiences of four learners in this setting are exami ned through qualitative case studies. The points of focus that came to guide the research involve instances of interaction and output, change in language production over time, individual learner factors, and preferences of learners in regard to language instruction. Although the possibility existed of beginning this res earch with another focus, interaction and output were initially chosen because there is a theoretical basis for their study (see Input, Interaction, and Output in Chapter 2), because they are easily observed if present, and because of my prior experience studying interaction in a Spanish FLEX program (s ee Researcher Background and Perspectives in Chapter 3). The points of focus with which I began this research study early in the 2004 school year are presented below in question form. In them, the term learners is applied to the four case study students. 1. In videoconferencing lessons that are taught by the FLES teacher in the research site, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 2. In videoconferencing lessons that are taught by the FLES teacher in the remote site, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 3. In video-based lessons and in activities that are facilitated by the classroom teacher, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 4. Are patterns of change observe d in learners' language production during the period under study? My initial formulation of the points of focus was based on my observations of the FLETT program at Dolphin Point in the 2003 school year My points of focus were subsequently amended and supplemented, based upon changes in the implementation of t he FLETT program and themes that emerged during the course of this interpretive qualitative study. I have already mentioned a change in the videoconferencing component of the Spanish program at Dolphin Po int from the 2003 school year to the following one, during which this study was conducted. At the time of this study, instead of alternating respons ibility for teaching pairs of matched classes, the Spanish teachers at the schools where the classes were lo cated jointly taught the classes through videoconferencing. In t he case of the fifth -grade class from which my participants were drawn, the S panish teacher at the other school, Nick Straten, assumed sole responsibility for teaching both classes on only two occasions, and the Spanish teacher at Dolphin Point, Lissette Ford, did not assume sole responsibility for teachi ng both classes at any time, although she

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6 did teach the Dolphin Point students by herself on o ccasions when there was no videoconferencing, as well as before and after videoconferencing sessions. Because there were no videoconferenci ng lessons taught solely by the Spanish FLES teacher at the research site and there were only two videoconferencing lessons taught solely by the Spanish FLES teacher at the distant site, it was not possible to retain the first two points of focus, dealing with the instances of interaction and output that might have been observed had these teachers assumed sole responsibility fo r teaching videoconferencing lessons on a regular basis. I decided to group all instructional settings together in a new point of focus that would replace not only t he first two but the thir d, as well. I did this not only for the sake of brevity but also to reflect the process through which I observed my participants in a number of different settings and came to realize that verbal output on the par t of individual students was not encouraged in all of them. Retaining interaction and output as its basis, the new point of focus became: What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings? Althoug h different types of settin gs are grouped here, it is recognized that when teaching episodes are viewed in detail, the type of instructional setting will be made explicit. Another change in Spanish instructi on from the previous year was the addition of a written component. In video-based lessons, students wrote vocabulary words and a statement of the main idea of the lesson on index cards. Some of these cards were picked to be used in lessons in the Tele Caf. Although I have not specified this in the preceding point of focu s, my examination of the students output included bo th oral and written production. Of the original points of fo cus, I retained the fourth: Are patterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under study? A careful consideration of the oral Spanish output of my case study participants and of possible patterns of change in their production over time revealed notable differences among the partici pants. My growing interest in the reasons for the differences led me to ex plore the following point of focus: What individual learner factors hel p to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? Through interviews, I learned many things about the preferences and perceptions of my participants in regard to different aspect s of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point. Instead of grouping these by individual participant, I chose to bring them together in one secti on, because I felt that the patterns of preferences that could be discerned in this way were important and could further an understanding of the FLETT program. The point of fo cus that I used was: What are the participants preferences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? In order to clearly pres ent the points of focus that ultimately guided this research, I list them together here: 1. What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings?

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7 2. Are patterns of change observe d in learners' language production during the period under study? 3. What individual learne r factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? 4. What are the participants pref erences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? Data collection during this study in cluded observations, videotaping and audio recording of lessons with subsequent transcription, field notes, and interviews of students and t eachers that were audio recorded and subsequently transcribed. This use of multiple data sources, triangulation, is an important strategy in qualitative res earch to strengthen the objecti vity of the study and its results. Rationale and Significance The research reported here has brought together the areas of elementary school foreign language instruct ion and technology-mediated language instruction. Specifically, the use of interactive videoconferencing and videobased lessons to teach Spanish was exami ned. As will be seen in the review of the literature, not many studies have been conducted examining the use of these technologies in FLES instruction. I ndeed, Richard Johnstone (2000), referring to videoconferencing, e-mail, and the Internet, has written: The impact of these new technologies, not only on childrens early learning of another language, includi ng the particular language skills and information handling strategies they wil l need, but also on the culture of their schools, is a major area for future research investigation. (p. 192) The importance of conducting resear ch on the use of videoconferencing and videos in elementary language instru ction was recognized by Dr. Joyce Nutta and Dr. Carol Mullen, both from the University of South Florida, who entered into a research partnership with Dolphin Point Elementary, whose principal and World Languages Curriculum Coordinator (also referred to as the FLES or Spanish teacher in this document ) both supported this research. I have benefited from this partnership that enabled me to conduct case studies of four fifth-grade students, focusing on their in teraction and output in the different contexts in which Spanish is taug ht, patterns of change in their language production during the period under study, their prefer ences and perceptions concerning different aspec t of the Spanish program, and individual learner factors. Although the primary c onsideration in the sele ction of Dolphin Point Elementary as a research site was its use of videoconferencing and video-based Spanish lessons, the dem ographic characteristics of its students show that this is an example of a FLES program in a situation that differs from the elitist image associated with foreign language study during much of the last century (Curtain & Pesola, 1994, p. 265). The new emphasis of the national standards for foreign language learning is on helping all students develop proficiency in a foreign language (National Standards in Foreign Language Educati on Project, 1996). As

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8 Met and Rhodes (1990) write, it is im portant to ensure that all students regardless of learning style, achievement level, race/e thnic origin, socioeconomic status, home language or future academ ic goals be given the opportunity to begin language learning early (p. 438). The racial composition of the st udent body at Dolphin Point Elementary differs from the overall racial compositi on of the school district in which it is located. The 2004 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) School Public Accountability Report (Florida Department of Educat ion, 2005b) for Dolphin Point lists the percentages by racial and et hnic group for the 495 students who were enrolled at the school in October 2004: 42.8% White, 34.7% Black, 11.3% Multiracial, 6.1% Hispanic, 4.2% As ian, and 0.8% American Indian. The percentages for the school dist rict at that time were as follows: 66.8% White, 18.8% Black, 3.4% Multir acial, 7.3% Hispanic, 3.4% Asian, and 0.3% American Indian. There is also a contrast between the socioeconomic status of students attending Dolphin Point and the average socioeconomic status of students enrolled in all public elem entary schools in the district. According to the 2004 2005 NCLB School Public Accountability Report (Florida Department of Education, 2005b), 72.3% of the students enrolled at Do lphin Point in October 2004 were economically disadvantaged, w hereas 41.4% of t he students in the district were economically disadvantaged. The designation of students as economically disadvantaged is based on their participation in the federal free and reduced-price lunch program (Florida D epartment of Education, Education Accountability Reports Services, 2005. Although not the best indicator of socioeconomic status, [parti cipation in the federal meal program] is typically the only one available to school districts, P. Smith, 2001, p. 1.) Dolphin Point offered a research setting that differs from that of traditional FLES programs but that reflects new priorities in foreign language instruction. The importance of context in case study research is signaled by Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996, p. 545), who ident ify the study of a phenomenon in its natural context as one of the main charac teristics of this ty pe of research. Not only did this research study allow fo r the selection of participants who are members of groups that have been underrepresented in FLES research in the past, along with a participant more typical of those in traditi onal FLES programs, it involved their study in the context that has just been described. Case study research involves seek ing both what is common and what is particular about the case (Stake, 2000, p. 438). In this research study, each participant and his or her interaction and out put in different instructional settings were studied in depth. Including four cases provided a broader view and allowed for comparisons among the cases. Categories and themes that were shared emerged. It was also possible to highlight the variability of development among second language (L2) learners that has been noted in the literature (Donato, Antonek, & Tucker, 1996, p. 516; Garrett, 1991; Slimani, 1992). The contributions of this study lie in several areas. It resulted in detailed descriptions of the language learning experiences of four students who received

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9 instruction through interactive videoconferencing and video-based lessons. It is possible that these descriptions could provide teachers with insight into the learning of a foreign language by students in similar instructional settings. This, in turn, could assist in developing more e ffective teaching strategies. It is also possible that accumulated data of this type may lead to more definitive, structured studies useful to administrat ors in making policy decisions regarding technology-mediated FLES programs. T he study was carried out within the framework of SLA theory, s pecifically in the areas of interaction and output, and adds to knowledge in the latter area thr ough providing description and analysis of the second language output of the four case study participants. Limitations In this study, data collection and analysis centered on four fifth-grade students. The context in which thes e students were learning Spanish is important to the study; videoconferenc ing sessions and video-based lessons were examined and described. The point s of focus for this research are concerned with the students interacti on and output in Spanish, patterns of change in their language production dur ing the period under study, their preferences and perceptions regarding diffe rent aspects of the Spanish program, and individual learner factors. In this study, conclusions were reached inductively, allowing themes and patterns to arise from the dat a. Neither the school nor the four students were selected randomly; the conclusions reached apply to them and are not necessarily generalizable to others. The thick descriptions provided should aid an interested reader of this research in deciding whether the findings are applicable to other students or to another specific situation. Further discussion of issues involving generalizability, or more appropriately applicability, of qualitative research outcomes will occur in Chapter 3. One possibility that may al so arise from this study is that of using its findings in a future experiment that could examine their broader generalizability. Organization of the Dissertation In this first chapter, the study is introduced. Background is given on elementary school foreign language instruction and the types of programs that are offered. The topic of this stud y is explained and the points of focus presented. Next, a rationale for the res earch is given and its significance is considered. The limitations of the study are also addressed. In Chapter 2, there is a review of literature that has a bearing on this study of a technology-mediated FLES program. A historical context is provided through a look at the origins and periods of growth and decline of FLES instruction in this country. The begi nnings of the fiel d of second language acquisition are also set in their histor ical context, and an overview of SLA theories is provided. Theoretical and empirical work in the areas of input, interaction, and output is covered in the nex t section. The learner characteristic of age and its relationship to SLA is the s ubject of the following section. Finally,

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10 issues in the areas of video, videoc onferencing, and distance learning are presented, along with associated research. The Design and Methodology chapter fi rst locates the research as an interpretive qualitative study, involving case studies of four fi fth-grade learners. Following this, I describe my background and perspectives in relationship to the proposed research. A description is prov ided of my initial contact with the research setting. The basis for the selection of participants is explained, and the process of making the selections is de scribed. The next section is devoted to data collection and analysis. Finally, et hical considerations are presented. In Chapter 4, the research setting, the on-site Spanish teacher, and the classroom teacher are presented. A detailed description of the Espaol para ti video-based language program is provided. I then present information on the implementation of the video component of the Spanish pr ogram. Spanish lessons in the Tele Caf are covered next, both those that are taught through videoconferencing and those that are taught by the schools Spanish teacher without videoconferencing. Chapter 5 addresses the first two point s of focus of the research. The greatest part of the chapter is devoted to th e first: What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different inst ructional settings? The oral output of each participant is carefully analyzed, and examples of interactions in which they took part and of their wri tten output are provided. Findings are also presented concerning the second point of focu s: Are patterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under study? In Chapter 6, explanati ons are sought for the differences in interaction and output that were presented in the previous chapter. The point of focus around which this discussion is organized is: What individual learner factors help to explain differences in the participant s Spanish output? The participants preferences and perceptions are brought together in the following section, addressing the following point of focus: What are the partici pants preferences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? Themes that emerged during the c ourse of this research, along with supporting evidence, are presented in Chapt er 7. These themes are (a) the importance of the on-site S panish teacher, (b) contributi ons of the video lessons, and (c) limitations in interaction and output. In Chapter 8, I review the methods t hat were used in this study and reflect on the quantity and quality of the data. I explain the evol ution of the points of focus and summarize the findings associat ed with them. I also explain how the points of focus relate to the themes pres ented in Chapter 7. A final discussion is offered. Definition of Terms Classroom teacher. The classroom teacher is responsible for teaching subjects other than Spanish to students in his or her class and also facilitates Spanish instruction based on Espaol para ti video lessons and supplemental videos. In this study, the classroom teac her is not a native speaker of Spanish.

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11 Content-based FLES. An elementary school foreign language program model in which from 15 to nearly 50% of the total time in school is spent in language instruction and in using the langu age to teach subject content from the general curriculum. The study of subject content in the foreign language is a means to gain skills in the foreign l anguage, and the mastery of this subject content is a program goal. Although not aiming for the development of the functional proficiency that is possible in the immersion models, proficiency in the foreign language is an important goal of content-based FLES. Understanding of the foreign language culture or cultures is another program goal (Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004; Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000). Distant teacher. The distant teacher is a FL ES teacher who is responsible for offering Spanish instruction through vi deoconferencing to both students at the site where this teacher is located and to the students at Dolphin Point Elementary School. FLES (foreign language in the elementary school). An elementary school foreign language program model in which fr om 5 to 15% of the total time in school is spent in language instruction. Like content-based FLES, this program model promotes understanding of the foreign language cu lture or cultures, as well as fostering the development of fo reign language proficiency, though in the FLES model, listening and speaking are usua lly emphasized to a greater extent than reading and writing (Curtain & D ahlberg, 2004). Many FLES programs are content related, meaning that subject c ontent is used to enr ich the program but that mastery of this content is not a program goal (as disti nguished from contentbased FLES; Curtain & Dahlbe rg, 2004). In general usage, FLES has at times been used as an overall term, referring to any type of foreign language program in an elementary school setting. However, as Curtain and Dahlberg (2004, p. 423) point out, the term is most appropriately used to de scribe a particular type of elementary school language program. FLES teacher. FLES teachers have specialized training in teaching foreign language in the elementary sc hool. In this study, the term FLES teacher refers to the teacher who is with the students at Dolphin Point Elementary School, offering Spanish instruction to t hem and to the students at another site through videoconferencing. The term al so refers to t he distant teacher. FLEX (foreign language expl oratory or experience). Elementary school programs of this type take up as little as 1 to 5% of time in school. According to Curtain and Dahlberg (2004), some of the most co mmon FLEX goals are introduction to language learning, awarene ss and appreciation of foreign culture, appreciation of the value of comm unicating in another language, enhanced understanding of English, [and] motivation for furt her language study (p. 426). Foreign language. A foreign language is one that is learned in a place where that language is not the native language, for exam ple, Spanish learned by speakers of English in the United States of America. Immersion. This term encompasses elementary school foreign language program models in which 50 to 100% of the total time in school is spent using the foreign language, mostly as a means of instruction. Total immersion the most

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12 time-intensive program model, has the mo st ambitious goals for the development of functional language proficiency, as well as mastery of subject content and understanding of the foreign language culture or cultures (Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004; Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000). Partial immersion and two-way immersion, in which approximately 50% of time in school is spent us ing the foreign language, are very similar to total immersion but have somewhat less ambitious goals, especially in regard to developing functional language proficiency. Two-way immersion (also known as dual language, twoway bilingual, or developmental bilingual education) involves both native speakers of English who are learning the foreign language and native speaker s of that language who are learning English as a second language (Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004; Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000). Second language (L2). This is a language learned after the first language, regardless of whether it is learned directly after t he first language or with one or several other languages intervening. The term second language is also used to refer to a language that is learned in a place where that l anguage is spoken as the native language, for example, English learned by a native speaker of Spanish in the United Stat es of America. Total Physical Response. This language teaching method was developed by James Asher (1977). Based on the period in first language acquisition of listening and physically responding prior to producing language, this method involves learners listening and physically responding to commands. Videoconferencing. In this study, videoconferencing refers to the process through which Spanish instruction is offe red to students at Dolphin Point and at another school, using Polycom videoconfer encing equipment. This two-way interactive system is ISDN based, not Internet based.

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13 Chapter 2. Review of Related Literature This chapter will provide a review of literature related to a technologymediated FLES program. The sections t hat are included cove r the history of FLES; the beginnings of the field of second language acquisition and an overview of its theories; t heoretical and empirical work done in the areas of input, interaction, and output; age, as it rela tes to second language acquisition; and video, videoconferencing, and distance learning. The History of FLES The teaching of foreign languages to young children has a long history in the United States. In the American Colonies, the earliest recorded teaching of a modern foreign language to children in a sc hool setting took place in 1702 in Germantown and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In those towns, the children of immigrants were taught German (Andersson, 1969; Zeydel, 1961). The first program of foreign-language instruction in the public elementary schools of the United States was begun in 1840 in Cincinnati (Andersson, 1969, p. 60). In the second half of the 19 th century, Cincinnatis example was followed by some 15 other cities that began to offer instruction in German in the public elementary schools. In New York, Bo ston, and San Francisco, French was offered as well. By 1913, instruction in Polish and Italian had been added to that in German in Milwaukee (Andersson, 1969) The teaching of Spanish in elementary schools in the 19 th century was extremely limi ted, taking place almost solely in the area that was to becom e New Mexico (Andersson, 1969; Leavitt, 1961). Although not all of the FLES programs mentioned above were of long duration, a number of them conti nued into the second decade of the 20 th century. The entry of the United States into World War I in the spring of 1917 and the prevailing national s entiment of antipathy to ward foreign languages, especially German (Heining-Boynton, 1987, 1990), had disastrous pedagogic consequences (Zeydel, 1961) for FLES. According to Theodore Andersson (1969, p. 64), The hysteria of Worl d War I not only relegated German language study to limbo but momentarily terminated all FLES programs. In the decades following the First World War, a limited number of FLES programs were established in this country. These included t he first major FLES program in the United Stat es (Cowell, 1990, p. 16; Heining-Boynton, 1987, p. 10). Begun in 1921 in the Cleveland Public Schools under the direction of Emile de Sauz, this program offered French instruction to gifted children in grades one through six. In the early 1940s, Spanish FLES programs were begun in dozens of communities as a result of 1938s G ood Neighbor Policy and its elaboration in the Hemispheric Solidarity Policy (Andersson, 1969).

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14 The participation of the United States in World War II in the 1940s was a major event that exerted an influence on foreign language instruction. Unlike Americas turning away from such instru ction in World War I, with the Second World War came an appreciation of t he need for the development of foreign language skills and the application of considerable effort and resources toward that end (Andersson, 1969; Thompson, Chri stian, Stansfield, & Rhodes, 1990; Zeydel, 1961). While the immediat e need for skill development was addressed through intensive military training, the change in attitude toward language learning was of benefit to FLES (Ander sson, 1969). Public interest in and enthusiasm for FLES programs grew st ronger in the 1950s and reached their height in the early 1960s (McLaughlin, 1978b). An important stimulus for growth in foreign language study in the United States was provided by the launch and or bit in 1957 of Sputnik I, the Soviet satellite (Andersson, 1969; Curtain & Dahl berg, 2004; Thompson et al., 1990), taking the American people by surprise as it did and throwing an unfavorable light on our educational system. The following year, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was passed, pr oviding funding for educational programs in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages in elementary and secondary schools (Lipton, 1998). Funds were made available for the training of teachers through Title VI of the NDEA. Gladys Lipton (1990, p. 255) names the resulting NDEA institutes for elem entary school foreig n language teachers around the country as one of the impor tant landmark event s for elementary foreign language instruction t hat took place in the 1960s. The outpouring of funds and energies into the training or retraining of foreign language teachers reflected a co mmitment to a particular approach to language teaching, the audio-lingual meth od (ALM). As Curtain and Dahlberg (2004, p. 407) write, Thes e NDEA institutes marked the first time in the United States that there had been a concentrated effort center ed on the development of an approach to language teaching. Also known as the army method, the auraloral method, or the New Key (McLaugh lin, 1978b), ALM had its roots in work done by American linguists to address t he language training demands of World War II (Andersson, 1969; Thompson et al., 1990). Developing further with contributions from the areas of both structural lingui stics and Skinnerian (behaviorist) psychology, ALM emphas ized the primacy of listening and speaking skills, along with drills and exercises to develop proper speech habits (Thompson et al., 1990, p. 26). Due to its energetic promotion, it came to be the dominant method of language instruct ion in FLES programs (McLaughlin, 1978b, p. 135). Neither the ascendancy of ALM no r the enthusiasm for FLES continued without challenge, however. The last NDEA institute for FLES teachers took place in 1965 (Cowell, 1990; Curtain & Da hlberg, 2004). It was around this time that the efficacy of ALM began to be questi oned, as actual results did not meet expectations (Curtain & Pesola, 1994; McLaughlin, 1978b). There was disillusionment concerning FLES program s as well. In the mid-1960s, FLES programs entered a period of decline (Cur tain & Pesola, 1994) that continued

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15 into the 1970s, with many programs being el iminated in the second half of the decade (Lipton, 1998). As the 1970s ended and a new dec ade began, however, there was a growing awareness of the im portance of the ability to communicate in foreign languages. Recommendations were made for beginning foreign language study in elementary school (Curtain & Pesola 1994). The 1980s were a decade of rapid expansion for FLES programs (Heini ng-Boynton, 1990). As evidenced by the CAL 1987 and 1997 surveys (Rhodes & Branaman, 1999), t he growth of FLES continued into the 1990s. Althoug h many FLES program s are currently facing various threats, including elim ination (Rosenbusch, 2004), new programs continue to be established, some of them taking advantage of technological innovations. The focus in the next section will sh ift to the field of second language acquisition. The historical stance of this section will continue, as the beginnings of the field are ex amined. An overview of se cond language acquisition theories will also be provided. Second Language Acquisition: Its Beginnings and Theories The field of second language acquisit ion (SLA) had its beginnings in the late-1960s. More specifically, 1967, the y ear of the publication of Corders The Significance of Learners Erro rs, is usually given as the date of the fields inception (Pica, 2003; VanPatten, 2003). Selinkers Interlanguage (1972) is another work from the early years of SLA that is considered seminal (LarsenFreeman & Long, 1991; Pica, 2003). In or der to understand the contribution of these works, as well as other aspects of the beginnings SLA, it is helpful to go back about a decade and consider developments in the field of linguistics. The decline in the popularity of t he audio-lingual method (ALM) in the mid1960s, mentioned in the previous section, was not only caused by the methods failure to meet expectations but also by challenges made by Noam Chomsky to its theoretical foundations: structural linguistics and Skinnerian psychology. Chomsky expounded his position in Syntactic Structures (1957) and in his review (1959) of Skinners book, Verbal Behavior (1957). In the latter, Chomsky sought to show that the principal concepts of a behaviourist approach to language are totally inadequate to account for language behaviour (Stern, 1983, p. 299). In Syntactic Structures (1957) not only did Chomsky criticize structural linguistics, he also outlined his own gra mmar model, transformational-generative grammar (LaPalombara, 1976, p. 215). This was a theory that Chomsky continued to develop. In 1966, he stated his thinking in this way: Language is not a habit structure. Ordi nary linguistic behavior characteristically involves innovation, formation of new sentences and patterns in accordance with rules of great abstraction and intricacy (p. 153). Chomsky (1965, 1972) posited a complex innate ability or mental organ possessed by the human infant that is designed specifically for language acquisition: the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). The LAD takes advantage of t he abstract knowledge of language (Ellis, 1994, p. 727) with which the infant is born. Chomsky (1976) refers to this

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16 abstract knowledge as Universal Gra mmar (UG), which he defines as the system of principles, conditions and rules t hat are elements or properties of all human languages (p. 29). Through the LA D and knowledge of UG, children are able to acquire their native language, in spite of input that Chomsky (1965) characterizes as degenerate or inadequate for the task of language acquisition. In this view, input only serves as a tr igger for innate properti es (Gass, 1997, p. 93). Chomskys influential theor etical writings, as well as child first language acquisition research that was being ca rried out in the 1960s (VanPatten, 2003), prepared the way for writings associated wit h the inception of the field of second language acquisition. In The Significance of Learners Errors, Corder (1967) rejected the behaviorist idea of second la nguage learning as habit formation in which errors are to be avoided. Inst ead, he argued that by studying errors for what these reveal about a learners developing language system, it would be possible to take advantage of the learners built-in syllabus to provide more efficient instruction. The term interlanguage was first used by Selinker (1972) to describe the L2 learners language system, a system that differs from both the learners L1 and the target language (Ellis 1994). According to Pica (2003), the concepts presented in Corders (1967) and Selinkers (1972) seminal articles, along with Richards (1974) error analysis made possible early SLA studies and have had an impact that continues to be felt. The field of second language ac quisition has undergone tremendous growth and development since its beginnings some three and a half decades ago. This development has included contributions from linguistics, applied linguistics, psycholinguistics, cogniti ve psychology, sociolinguistics, and neurolinguistics. Reflecting the diverse traditions and trends of SLA, there are various ways in which to characterize its theories and areas of interest. Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991) base thei r presentation of SLA theories on a tripartite division that includes nat ivist, environmentalist, and interactionist theories. Nativist theories, also refe rred to as mentalist theories in the SLA literature, purport to ex plain acquisition by positing an innate biological endowment that makes l earning possible (Lars en-Freeman & Long, 1991, p. 227). These theories minimize the cont ribution of the lingui stic environment (Ellis, 1985, p. 300). Chomsky s (1976) Universal Grammar, as applied in the field of SLA, and Krashens (1976, 1977) Monitor Model are included in LarsenFreeman and Longs discussion of nativist theories. Environmentalist theories are distingui shed from nativist theories in that the former discount the contribution of learner-internal factors to language acquisition and instead emphas ize the importance of ex ternal, environmental factors. The behaviorist learning theor y of Skinnerian psychology that was opposed by Chomsky is an example of an environmentalist theory. Other examples provided by Larsen-Freem an and Long (1991) are connectionist models, such as Parallel Distributed Processing (McClelland, Rumelhart, & the PDP Research Group, 1986), and Schumanns Acculturation Model (1978).

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17 Larsen-Freeman and Longs designation of another group of theories as interactionist is based on the fact that these theories invoke both innate and environmental factors to explain language learni ng (1991, p. 266). In other words, these theories involve the interaction of learner-internal and learnerexternal factors. According to Lars en-Freeman and Long, inter actionist theories of SLA differ greatly from one another (199 1, p. 266). Some of these theories draw their inspiration from research in the area of psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology (e.g., McLaughlin, 1987, 1990). Although the brief overview provided here does not include a detailed discussion of other ways in which SLA t heories have been classified, recognition should be made of two theoretical cat egories emphasized by other authors. Cognitive theories of SLA are given special treatment by both Ellis (1994) and Pica (2003). The growing prominence of another type of theory is signaled by Ellis (1999): those theories that view acquisition as essentially a social or sociopsychological process (p. 17), sociocultural theory being an example. This section on the beginnings of t he field of second language acquisition and overview of some of its theories provides a context for the following discussion of input, interaction, and output. These areas of interest are integral but limited parts of the field as a whole. Input, Interaction, and Output In the acquisition of a second lan guage, the necessity of input, the language to which a learner is exposed (G ass, 1997, p. 28), is recognized by all SLA theories, which nonetheless differ in thei r treatment of its role (Ellis, 1994, p. 243). An emphasis on the importance of input that is comprehensible was provided by Stephen Krashen, whose Monitor Model (which became the Monitor Theory), along with his Input Hypothesis (1976, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1985), gained wide recognition and exerted much influence in the 1970s and early 1980s (Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991, p. 240) Because of this influence, a brief overview of Krashens work in this area will be presented. The basic premise of t he Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985) is that there is only one way in which humans acquire language and that this is by receiving messages in the form of comprehensible input, whic h may be either aural or written (Krashen & Terrell, 1983). This formulation rejects the contribution of language production to second language acquisition (Krashen, 1982). Krashen (1985) hypothesizes that the structures of a language are acquired in a predictable or der when those that are to be acquired next, which are just beyond the current le vel of the acquirer, are included in input that is comprehensible to him or her (Natural Order Hypothesis). In this hypothesis, the current level of the acquirer is expressed as i and the next level is expressed as i + 1. Language containing struct ures at the level of i + 1 is understood with the help of context, which includes extra-linguistic information, our knowledge of the world, and previously acquired linguist ic competence (Krashen, 1985, p. 2). Krashen (1985, p. 2) maintains that the only mechanism through which acquisition takes place is the internal language processor the internal

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18 component of the learner that works with the comprehensible input presented to him or her. Krashens conc eption of the internal la nguage processor draws on Chomskys work (1965, 1972) on the Language Acquisition Device. Unlike Chomsky, however, Krashen specifies compr ehensible input as the type that is utilized in acquisition. Krashen goes on to assert that when a person is open to input and is focused on its meaning, the internal language processor works to acquire those structures that are next in the natural order. In Krashens view, the subconscious process of language acquisition is not the only way a student deals with a second or foreign language, however. According to his Acquisition-Learning Hy pothesis (1982), there is also a conscious process of language learning that involves areas of the brain that are not specifically designed to deal wit h language. Whereas only acquired language can be spontaneously produced and is responsible for fluency, learned language can be utilized to edit this produc tion, correcting output before it is spoken or written, or changi ng it afterwards through self -correction. The Monitor Hypothesis explains these differences in the ways acquired and learned language are utilized and states, Learning has only one function, and that is as a Monitor, or editor (1982, p. 15). Although Krashen believes that the role of learning is limited, he does affirm the value of formal instruction, as opposed to informal environments, in certain circumstances. These include the situation of a beginning second language learner who cannot understand real world input because it is too complex. Foreign lan guage learners who do not have other sources of input available to them certainly also benefit from the input received in formal classroom instruction (Krashen, 1985). Krashens theory of second langu age acquisition has impacted the SLA field in various ways. His writings through which the theory was presented, exerted influence among pr actitioners, to whom his ideas were readily understandable (McLaughlin, 1987). His wr itings also prompted studies investigating comprehensible input (Ellis, 1994, p. 27). His t heory, however, has attracted criticism (McLaughlin, 1978a, 1987), particularly because of its unfalsifiable nature (Larsen-Freem an & Long, 1991) and the non-interface position (associated with nativist theorie s in general; see Pica, 2003), in which acquisition and learning are viewed as entirely separate systems (Ellis, 1985; McLaughlin, 1978a, 1987; Rivers, 1980). One researcher who studied linguistic input to second language learners was Michael H. Long, who not only investi gated the characteristics of input to nonnative speakers (NNSs), as compared with that to native speakers (NSs), but also looked at differences in interacti on, comparing pairs made up of an NS and an NNS and pairs made up of two NSs ( 1980). Based upon the work of others, including Hatchs (1978a, 1978b) seminal papers on interaction, and upon his own research, Long (1983a; Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991) came to believe that interactional modifications in the stru cture of conversations in which NNSs participate are more import ant than are input modifications in making input comprehensible, and thus that interactional modifications have a greater role in

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19 language acquisition. In this formulation of his Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1981, 1983a) with its emphasis on intera ctional modifications, Long continued to stress the necessity of comprehensible i nput. As Ellis (1999, p. 5) has pointed out, this early version of the Interaction Hypothesis was closely associated with the Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985). A review of work conducted thr ough the early 1990s in the area of interaction, or more specifically negotia tion, is provided by Teresa Pica (1994), herself a researcher in this area (Pica, 1992, 1993; Pica Doughty, & Young, 1986; Pica, Young, & Doughty, 1987). As Pica (1994) explains, although Long used the term interactional modification in his early writings (e.g., 1980, 1981) to describe the work that the NS and NNS do to avoid and repair impasses in their conversational discourse (Pica, 1994, p. 497), he and others (e.g., Gass & Varonis, 1986; Larsen-Fr eeman & Long, 1991; Varonis & Gass, 1985) later came to use the term negotiation in addition to the earlier one. In the conclusion to her review, Pica (1994) describes some of the benefits of negotiation that research has demonstrated: It can help make input comprehensible to learners, help them modify their own output, and provide opportunities for them to access L2 form and meaning (p. 520). In 1996, Long modified the early vers ion of his Interaction Hypothesis (1981, 1983a) to address criticisms that it received (see Ellis, 1999) and to incorporate subsequent work in the fi eld of second language acquisition. Interestingly, in Longs 1996 formulation, he makes explicit a theoretical stance that Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991) would describe as interactionist: Few aspects of human development have turned out to be explicable solely as a function of either i nnate or environmental variables acting separately. . In an updated version of the so-called Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1981a, 1983c), it is proposed that environmental contributions to acquisition are mediated by selective attention and the learners developing L2 processing c apacity, and that these resources are brought together most usefully, although not exclusively, during negotiation for meaning (Long, 1996, p. 414) According to Ellis (1999, p. 8), one impor tant change from the earlier version is a much richer view of how negotiation c an assist language lear ning. Thus, the later version of the Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1996) includes an acknowledgment of the role s of negative evidence (direct or indirect information about what is ungrammatical, Long, 1996, p. 413), focus on form, and modified output in SLA. As Long (1996, p. 453) poi nts out, however, his proposal is not meant to be a complete theory of language learning. The observation made by Pica (1994, p. 499) that negotiation research has focused primarily on l anguage learning conditions ra ther than outcomes was met by a study by Alison Mackey (1999), who asserts, This study provides direct empirical support for the claims of the interaction hypothesis (Long, 1996) (p. 583). Second language development in the area of question formation was examined in this study, which used a pret est-posttest design. The first posttest

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20 was given a day after the final treatmen t, the second posttest a week after the first, and the third posttest th ree weeks after the second. The participants in Mackeys study (1999) were 34 adult learners of English as a second language, who were divided into five groups. One group, the Interactor Unreadies, was composed of the 7 learners who were classified as beginners. The members of this group re ceived interactionally modified input as each carried out tasks in pairings with native speakers. The remaining 27 learners, who were lower intermediate in developmental level, were randomly assigned to one of four groups. The Inte ractors received the same treatment as the Interactor Unreadies. The Observer s watched the interactionally modified input that the Interactors received. T he Scripteds carried out the same tasks as the Interactors and Interactor Unreadies in pairings with the native speakers, but instead of interactionally modified inpu t, they received premodified input, defined as input that has been carefully targeted at the level of the learner in order to facilitate learner comprehension (Mackey, 1999). The Control group was given the pretest and the three posttests but did not receive any treatment. Analysis of the results of the tests for all groups led Mackey (1999, p. 575) to conclude, only the groups that acti vely participated in the interaction [the Interactor Unreadies and the Interactors] demonstrated clear-cut evidence of development. She notes with interest that, although none of the participants received formal instruction during the peri od of treatment and te sting, it was in the second and third posttests (given appr oximately 1 week and 1 month after treatment) that there was an increase in the production of higher level questions for the Interactors. The Interactor Unreadies demonstrated a marked increase in the production of such questions in the third posttest. Mackey believes it is plausible that the effects of treatment on development may be delayed (p. 580), as some researchers have proposed. She presents possibilities for future research, concluding her paper by enumerat ing some of the questions that could be addressed by what she terms an excit ing interactional research agenda (p. 584). Although the updated version of the Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1996) includes a consideration of the role of out put, it was Merrill Swain, a researcher in the field of French immersion education, who did pioneering work in this area, her theoretical formulation coming to be k nown as the Output Hypothesis. Swain was an early advocate (1985) of a sh ift from an exclusive focus on comprehensible input in language acquisi tion to a broader perspective that includes comprehensible output As she argued, comprehensible input may have an essential role in SLA, but it is not enough to ensure that the outcome will be nativelike perform ance (1985, p. 236). Swain (1985) presented data from a study in which the communicative competence of 69 French immersion st udents in the sixth grade (nonnative speakers) was assessed and compared to that of 10 native speakers of French who were also in the sixth grade. The former group of students had been enrolled in the immersion program since kindergarten. In kindergarten and first grade, they had received 100% of their in struction through the French language

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21 and had continued to receive the majority of their instruction in French until the sixth grade, when they were taught in Frenc h 50% of the time. The grammatical, discourse, and sociolinguistic com petence (components of communicative competence; Canale & Swai n, 1980) of both groups of students were assessed by means of oral production tasks, mult iple-choice tests, and written production tasks. The most consistent differences between the two groups of students in this study were found in grammatical co mpetence, where wit h the exception of correct use of homophonous verb forms, the native speakers score significantly higher (p < .01) than the immersion student s (Swain, 1985, p. 238). Not many differences in discourse competence in French were revealed for the native and nonnative speakers. Considering the resu lts for sociolinguistic competence, Swain concluded that it is in those categories where grammatical knowledge inevitably plays a role in the production of the appropriate fo rm, [that] immersion students performance is inferior to that of native speakers (p. 244). Swain (1985) pointed to the input the immersion students had received through the years, which though limited in a few respects had otherwise been ample, and to their performance that fa iled to match that of native speakers, especially in grammatical aspects and suggested that the notion of comprehensible input needs refinement (p. 246). She recounted the suggestion of Long (1983b) and others that the input that is import ant is the kind that arises through negotiation of meaning in intera ction, but she cast doubt on the adequacy of this interaction input hypothes is. She turned instead to output for an explanation of the findings on immers ion students. These students, she noted, are only given limit ed opportunities to produce output and are not pushed to be more comprehensible than they al ready are (p. 249) She enumerated reasons for the beneficial qualit y of output and its key role in SLA: It provides learners with opportunities to use the language purposefully, to engage in the testing of hypotheses about the language, and to analyze the language syntactically, rather than merely semant ically. Swain found in comprehensible output a necessary mechanism of acqui sition independent of the role of comprehensible input (p. 252). Swain has continued to develop the Output Hypothesis. In 1993, she explained a fourth way in which output may contribute to the process of second language learning. Besides providing opport unities for learners to practice using the language, to move from semantic processing to syntactic processing (1993, p. 159), and to engage in hypothesis test ing, learner output may generate responses from speakers of the l anguage which can prov ide learners with information about the compr ehensibility and well-formedne ss of their utterances (1993, p. 160). In Focus on Form Thr ough Conscious Reflection, Swain (1998) included noticing and metatalk along with hypothesis formulation and testing, as functions of output. Through noticing, which occurs during an attempt to produce the target language (vocally or subv ocally) (1998, p. 67), a learner may realize that his or her interlanguage is inadequate for expressing a desired message or that there is a differenc e between the interlanguage and a target

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22 language form. Metatalk occurs w hen learners use language to reflect on language use (1998, p. 68). In Focus on Form Through Conscious Reflection, Swain (1998) also reported on the results of a study on whether the modeling of metatalk encourages its use and on the relationshi p of metatalk to second language learning. The study participants we re 48 eighth-grade French immersion students in two classes. Metatalk, includi ng metalinguistic terminology and rules, was modeled for one class, t he metalinguistic group. Me tatalk was also modeled for the comparison group but without the use of metalinguistic terminology and rules. Swains study (1998) involved the use of dictoglosses. This procedure involves a brief passage that is read to students twice. After the second reading, during which students take notes, they work in pairs to reconstruct the dictogloss. Following a modeling and practice session and another practice session, there was a data collection session in which pairs of students were recorded as they worked on dictogloss reconstruction. A posttest was designed for each pair in the hopes of measuring the learning of the exact aspect of language about which students had metatalked (p. 76). The design of each posttest was based on the language-related episodes (LREs) produced by a pair of students. For the purposes of this research, Swain (1998, p. 70) defined an LRE as any part of a dialogue in which students ta lk about the language they are producing, question their language use, or correct each other. One of the findings of this study is that the use of metatalk by students was encouraged by the modeling of metatalk that included metalinguistic terminology and rules. The pairs of students in the metalinguistic group produced an average of 14.8 LREs, whereas the pairs in the comparison group produced 5.8. In order to examine the relationship of metatalk to second language learning, the two groups were comb ined, their LREs were categorized, and the percentage of posttest questions answered correctly for each type of LRE was calculated. On average, for Ty pe I: problem solved correctly, 79% of the posttest responses were correct; for Type II: problem not solved or disagreement about problem solution, 40% were correct; and for Type III: problem solved incorrectly or disagreem ent about problem solution, 29% were correct (Swain, 1998, pp. 77-78). Swai n concludes, This means that when students, through dialogue, reached a corre ct solution (Type I), there was a strong tendency for them to perform accurate ly on the relevant posttest item 1 week later (p. 78). This section has covered the areas of input, interaction, and output. The research that is reported in this dissert ation focuses on instances of interaction and output, while also taking into account the input that the students receive. This research is supported by Ellis obs ervation that there is an obvious need for more qualitative studies of interaction . . (1999, p. 238). It also provides additional evidence on the role of out put in second language acquisition.

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23 Age and Second Language Acquisition A shift away from an almost exclus ive emphasis on input in SLA is in keeping with the recommendations of various researchers to concentrate on the role of the learner (Ervin-Tripp, 1970; White, 1987). Besides differences in opportunities for learning, individuals vary in personality, preferences and beliefs, motivation and attitudes, intelligence, aptitude, and age (Clark, 2002; Lightbown & Spada, 1999). Whereas each of t hese learner characteristics has been studied, often with inconclusive or contradictory results, in discussions of children acquiring a second language, the characteri stic of age has received the most attention. The Critical Peri od Hypothesis (CPH) for Second Language Acquisition has a fundamental place in these discussions and will be considered next. Penfield and Roberts (1959) offered the earliest proposal of the existence of a critical period for the acquisition of language. Based on studies of aphasic children and adults, the pr oposal explained differences in language performance between these two groups through the proc ess of lateralization of functions within the brain in the first decade of life and a corresponding loss of brain plasticity. This proposal was popularized by Lenneberg (1967; Birdsong, 1999), who set the end of the crit ical period at around the age of puberty and who, like Penfield and Roberts (1959), expanded his discussion beyond acquisition of a first language with comments on second language learning. Through the years, the CPH has st irred debate and has found expression in a number of versions. Recognizing its varied formulations, David Birdsong (1999) offers the followi ng general definition: . the CPH states that there is a limited developmental period during which it is possible to acquire a language, be it L1 or L2, to normal, nativelike levels. Once this window of opportunity is passed, however, the ability to learn language declines. (p. 1) Mention should be made here of one well-kno wn version of the CPH that refers to a sensitive period rather than a critical period, t hus making somewhat weaker claims. Yet whatever its formulation, the CPH for SLA touches on important issues in language acquisition and has inspired much research on the relationship of age to language acquisition. Individuals engaged in ac quiring or learning a new language in a second language setting, as opposed to those in a foreign language setting, are the usual participants in CPH-related research, since in the former setting there is a greater chance of reaching leve ls of nativelike proficiency. Age of arrival of the individuals in the second language setting is normally an independent variable in such research. This was the case in studies by Patkowski (1982) and by Johnson and Newport (1989) that are often cited as lending strong support to the CPH for SLA. The 67 participants in Patkowskis study (1982) were immigrants who had lived in the United States for at least five years, who came from a variety of first language backgrounds, and who were well educated. He used an age of arrival of 15 years to divide the participants into two groups. (33 had arrived before this

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24 age and were designated as the prepuberty group; 34 had arrived after and were designated as the postpuberty group.) This division was made in order to test the following hypothesis: Full nativelike acquisition of syntax in a nonnative language can be achieved only if learning b egins before the age of 15 years (p. 53). Also included as control subjects were 15 native speakers of English who had been born in the United States. A ll participants were interviewed and transcripts of these interviews were prepared from tape recordings. Samples from the transcripts, in which there were no clues as to the participants backgrounds, were rated by two judges, trained in the rating system. Besides age at the beginning of second language acquisition (age of arrival in the United States), three practice variables (years in the United States, informal exposure to English, and formal instruction in English) were used in analyses of the data. The re sults of these analyses show ed that the only factor which was highly associated with the leve l of syntactic proficiency attained by learners was the age at which acquisition of English began (p 59). Of the prepuberty group, only 1 of the 33 participants did not receive one of the two highest scores (4+ or 5) out of 11 possibl e ratings. This produced a distribution curve that was strongly skewed to t he left (mean = 4.8, mode = 5). The distribution curve for the postpuberty group was more normal (me an = 3.6, SD = .6). Based on the results, Patkowski concluded that the hypothesis of an agerelated limitation on the ability to acqui re full command of a second language (p. 59) had been strongly supported. Patkowski (1982) also based the preceding conclusion on ratings of degree of foreign accent. These rati ngs were made by the two judges, who listened to a brief segment of each of t he interviews after having completed the syntactical evaluation of the transcripts. A strong main effect for age of arrival was revealed. As in a study by Oy ama (1976), Patkowski found that those learners who arrived in the United St ates at a younger age had most fully acquired the English phonol ogical system. Indeed, argum ents in favor of the CPH for SLA are often made on the basis of such phonological studies. The support for the CPH for SLA that is offered by Johnson and Newports (1989) study is based on outcomes of grammaticality judgment tasks. The 46 native speakers of Chinese and Korean in this study, all of whom had spent at least 5 years in the United States, were divided into equal groups, according to an age of arrival in this country of 3 to 15 years old or 17 to 39 years old. Twenty-three control subjects whose firs t language was English also took part. Participants judged the grammaticality of sentences recorded on audiotape, only about half of which conformed to rules of English syntax and morphology. The results showed that the participants who had arrived early performed significantly better and were more similar in their performance than those who had arrived late. Not only the positive outcomes for t he early learners but the discontinuity in the pattern of results between the early and the late learners in the studies by Patkowski (1982) and Johnson and Newpor t (1989) provided support for the CPH for SLA. Evidence against this hypothesis could be provided by

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25 documentation of adult second language learners who have achieved nativelike competence and by finding patterns of age effects that persist past the supposed close of the critical period. Both of these types of evidence were obtained in a study by Birdsong (1992). The participants in Birdsongs study (1992) included 20 native speakers of French and native speaker s of English who were near-native speakers of French (p. 717). None of the Englis h native speakers (ENS) had been exposed to French or had begun their study of t he language prior to the onset of puberty (average = 14.9 years; range = 11 28 years, p. 717). Their average age of arrival in France was 28.5 years (p. 717). On a French gr ammaticality judgment task, 15 of the ENS perfo rmed at a level that was within the range of French native-speaker (FNS) performance, and of these 15 ENS, the results of 5 were comparable to those of t he better performing FNS parti cipants. A correlation was found between overall scores and age of arri val in France, with participants who had arrived earlier performing better. Signal ing the significance of these results in relation to the CPH for SLA, Birdsong (1999, p. 9) asks, Why should age effects continue to be found after the end of the presumed critical period? In addition to the question of ultima te performance that is central to discussions of the CPH fo r SLA, another important comparison among learners of different ages is that of rate of s hort-term learning. Krashen, Scarcella, and Long in their book, Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Acquisition (1982), bring together a number of short-term, as well as long-term studies. They summarize the conclusions that they reached on the basis of these studies as follows: 1. Adults proceed through early stages of syntactic and morphological development faster than children (w here time and exposure are held constant). 2. Older children acquire faster than younger children (again, in early stages of morphological and syntactic development where time and exposure are held constant). 3. Acquirers who begin natural expo sure to second languages during childhood generally achieve highe r levels of second language proficiency than those beginning as adults. (p. 159) Ellis (1994) in a later survey of age-rela ted SLA literature likew ise notes the initial advantage enjoyed by adults in rate of l earning, especially in the area of grammar, but also concludes, They will eventually be overtaken by child learners who receive enough exposure to the L2 (p. 491). He points out that the amount of exposure is more likely to be sufficient in naturalistic than in instructional settings. Considerations of rate of acquisition and of ultimate attainment come into play in discussions of when to begin foreign language instruction in a school setting. The results of some studies of at tainment have favored a later start (e.g., Burstall, 1975), whereas the results of ot her studies have favored an early start (e.g., Lipton, Morgan, & Reed, 1996). Donato, Antonek, and Tucker (1996), who conducted an evaluation of a K-5 Japanes e FLES program, present the following

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26 findings concerning student achievement: The data . indicate that older students outperformed younger ones on some tasks but that the younger ones were no less able to acquire language and vocabulary at comparable rates and with similar patterns of growth (p. 524). In the midst of this presentation of varied research findings on child second language acquisition, it is well to point out that the process of second language learning is far from effortless for children and to again mention the advantage of older learners in rate of lear ning. Primarily addressing teachers of children learning English as a sec ond language, Barry McLaughlin (1992) presents Myths and Misconceptions About Second Language Learning Two of the assertions McLaughlin treats as myths, presenting evidence to refute them, are children learn languages quickly and easily and the younger the child, the more skilled in acquiring a second langua ge (Myth 1: Children Learn Second Languages Quickly and Easily section & Myth 2: The Younger the Child, the More Skilled in Acquiring a Second Language section). Notwithstanding the preceding caveat against assuming that child second language learning is effortle ss, the desirability of a long sequence of language instruction in the area of foreign languag e learning should not be discounted. The foreign language education and FLES literature frequently contains recommendations for starting instructi on early and continuing it in a well articulated sequence, such as the follo wing statement: In or der for students to reach a confident level of second language proficiency, they will most likely need to follow a sequentially articulated pr ogram that extend s over the K-12 continuum (Florida Department of Education, 1996, p. 32). These recommendations may be made on the basis of increased time and opportunities for learning (Swain, 1981) or on the basis of the cognitive, academic, and attitudinal benefits that are associated with early language learning (Met, 1991). Met (1991) not only cites research demons trating benefits for immersion students and those with a high level of proficiency but also research showing benefits achieved by students in FLES progra ms and those with lower levels of proficiency in comparison to monolingual students and those who had not studied a foreign language. Cognitive benefits include greater metalinguistic awareness and mental flexib ility (Hakuta, 1984), high scores on a measure of divergent thinking (Landry, 1974), and higher levels of cognitive and metalinguistic processing (Foster & Reeves, 1989). Academic benefits of early language study may be seen in higher sco res on standardized tests, including those covering the areas of reading and ma thematics (Rafferty, 1986), verbal ability (Cooper, 1987), and English language arts, science, social studies, and again mathematics (Taylor Ward, 2004). In regard to attitudi nal benefits, Met (1991, p. 68) cites research that indicates the greater receptivity of younger children to learning about and accepti ng other peoples and cultures (Lambert and Klineberg, 1967; Ca rpenter and Torney, 1973; Torney, 1979). This section has focused on the lear ner characteristic of age and its relationship to second language acquisition, certainly a consideration in case studies of individual fifth graders acquiring Spanish. The means of delivery of the

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27 Spanish lessons is another im portant consideration. Literature relating to this delivery will be covered in the following se ction on video, videoconferencing, and distance learning. Video, Videoconferenci ng, and Distance Learning Through the years, developments in technology have had an impact on the field of foreign language education, as possibilities for the utilization of the technologies have been recognized and as their use has been incorporated into practice. Various technologies have been used to support both teaching and learning (Garrett, 1991). They hav e been used to expand and enhance learning activities in classrooms led by forei gn language teachers, and, in the case of distance learning, they have been the means by which instruction has been offered to learners physically separa ted from the foreign language teacher. In an overview of the history of dist ance learning, Shelley (2000) presents three major stages of its development and the technologies associated with each. In the current thir d stage, distinctions of t he past have become less clear, as different types of distance learning and their associated technologies are being used in a variety of combinations with traditional face-to-face teaching (p. 184). This blurring of distinctions may se rve as a reference point in the following review of literature on vi deo, videoconferencing, and di stance learning, as these relate to foreign language educati on and, specifically, to FLES. Videotapes. Although the use of videotapes in language teaching had become a common practice in the 1980s (Hi ll, 2000), as late as 1991 Garrett was able to comment that there was little hard research on the use of video (p. 77). This observation still holds true in the area of FLES and extends to the use of videodiscs as well. Among the limited number of studies that have been carried out are the evaluations by the World-Wide Education an d Research Institute of the elementary-school-level videodisc programs, Hablar et Parler used in teaching Spanish and French, and Konichi-Wa used in teaching Japanese (J. N. Eastmond, et al., 1993; N. Eastmond, et al., 1994). In addition to making suggestions for improvements, these eval uations relate the positive reception that the videodisc programs received. A report by Louton (1995) descr ibes the implementation of ContentRelated FLES Throug h Distance Learning a German FLES program that uses video lessons and additional activities facilitated by classroom teachers, as well as sessions with a fluent speaker of Ge rman (a telelinguist) who communicates with each class by telephone. Evaluation forms filled out by the teachers and the telelinguist indicate progress by the students in acquiring German. The use of a series of videotapes, the Elementary Spanish Program with children in the third and fourth gra des, was examined by Morris (2000), who conducted interviews and observations at three schools. Investigating how teachers defined a successful program, Morris found that of the 12 teachers he interviewed, 6 focused on instructional considerations, such as the programs ease of use, incorporation of s ound goals and techniques, and provision of

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28 adequate supporting materials. The ot her 6 teachers focused on students involvement in and satisfaction with the pr ogram as basic to its success (p. 166). Morris (2000) also examined and compared how the program was implemented at each school (p. 164). At Appleton, a small elementary school in which third and fourth gr ade students are combined in one class, the classroom teacher is able to begin instruct ion and pause the videotape at her own discretion, taking advantage of the televi sion monitor and videocassette recorder in her room. At Booker, a medium-s ized elementary school, a foreign language specialist goes from classroom to classroom to facilitate instruction. This teacher is also able to control the tape and pause or turn it off where desired (p. 169). Such control of the videotape is not ava ilable to the five third-grade and five fourth-grade teachers at Clark Element ary School. At Clark, a large school, videotaped lessons for each grade level ar e sent to the classrooms over an intraschool network. Morris (2000) went on to examine the relationship between program implementation and success. Although teac hers and administrators at each of the three schools described the Elementary Spanish Program in positive terms, Morris reached conclusions on the best wa y to implement the program. He found that the advantages of an individual teacher being able to control the presentation of the video le ssons outweighed the disadv antages of the teachers responsibility for dealing with technica l problems and for making sure that a lesson was not missed. He also conclu ded that classroom teachers knowledge of and rapport with their own students, along with their ability to decorate their classrooms and to integrate Spanish wit h other instruction, outweighed the disadvantages of possibly having a limit ed knowledge of Spanis h and of possibly becoming preoccupied with other school demands, to the detriment of Spanish instruction. Examining characteristics of schoo ls and teachers that might influence program success, Morris (2000) found that teachers who had experience in using the program described changes and adjustm ents they had made over time. Although no differences in program su ccess were noted for teachers who spoke or did not speak a foreign language, the former tended to use Spanish throughout the day during instruction (p. 177). This was especially true for one teacher who had a bachelors degree in Fr ench. No differences in program success were associated with other char acteristics that were examined. Aspects of the program that were a ssociated with greater student learning included songs, activity sheets, tests, and Total Physical Response activities. The use of repetition and of humor were also mentioned as having produced positive results. The use of choral readi ng was suggested. It was noted that oral story reading had been less effective. The Center for Applied Linguistics has also investigated the use of videobased programs in FLES (Rhodes & Pufahl, 2003), reviewing the five that are used most frequently in Spanish instruction: Elementary Spanish, Espaol para ti, Saludos, Muzzy, and Salsa Based on the findings, it is recommended that videos be used as a supplement to provide much-needed interactive listening

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29 activities, introduce children to cultural aspects . ., [and] expose children to language models other than t he teacher . . (Videos Are Best Used as a Supplement section). It is recognized t hat a video program may be used as the basis of language instruction, especially when the classroom teacher is not a proficient speaker. In such a case, s upport for the program should be provided through bringing in native speakers as resources, through using classroom follow-up activities, and through involving the whole school in foreign language activities. More detailed information and recommendations from the study are provided in the book, Language by Video: An Overview of Foreign Language Instructional Videos for Children (Rhodes & Pufahl, 2004). A belief in the efficacy of certain patterns of interaction in increasing student participation and facilitating L2 l earning prompted a descriptive study by Lopes (1996) that examined interacti on behaviors in both a language video program and in elementary school classes using that program as the basis of Spanish instruction. The Ob servational System for Inst ructional Analysis (OSIA; Hough & Duncan, 1970), which consists of a set of categories into which classroom verbal and nonverbal behaviors ar e classified at 5-second intervals, was used by Lopes to address research que stions on the types of interaction behaviors and on the amount of teacher talk versus student talk in the two settings. In addition, Lopes sought to pr ovide a broader perspective to her study through a descriptive analysis of instru ction in the video program and in the classroom settings (p. 63). Lopes (1996) analyzed all 25 lessons of the Spanish version of the Elementary Language Fundamentals (ELF ) program. This program, created in 1988, features a teacher who is shown instructing approxim ately eight students in the studio. Of the OSIAs 11 categories for both teacher and student instructional behaviors, coding of the ELF lessons revealed that the most frequent teacher behavior was initiation of information which accounted for 39% of all behaviors (those displayed by bot h the teacher and t he studio students). The next most frequent teacher behaviors were solicitation of response (33%) and response to solicitation (9.3%). The latter cat egory includes the teachers responses to her own solicitations (64% of the total occurrences of this teacher behavior) and her repetition of her own re sponses and of student responses (the remaining 36%). All studio student behavio r could be accounted for by a single OSIA category: response to solicitation (9.8% of the total number of teacher and student behaviors). An analysis of the amount of classroom talk time taken up by the teacher and by the students revealed t hat 86.71% of this time was used by the teacher and 9.8% by the students. Instructional songs also took up part (3.49%) of the total talk time. Interaction behaviors in 24 di fferent classes that used the ELF program for Spanish instruction were also analyzed by Lopes (1996) using the OSIA. There were four classes each from kindergarten and grades 1 through 5 that were videotaped on one occasion per class, subs equent to videotaping for purposes of desensitization. The most frequent t eacher behavior displayed by the two language consultants who led the classes was solicitation of response (33% of

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30 the total of their behaviors and student behaviors). This was followed by initiation of information (9.3%) and positive personal judgment (4.3%). The most frequent student behavior was response to solicitation (28%). Among the other behaviors displayed by the classroom students was solicitation of response The frequency of this student behavior (2%) was mirro red by the frequency of the teacher behavior response to solicitation (2.2%). When the ELF videos were not in use, 54.33% of the total classroom talk time was taken up by the language consultants, and 37.53% was used by t he students. Based on the contrast between the amount of student talk ti me in the video lessons and in the classrooms using them, Lopes (1996) c oncluded that instruction in the ELF program itself was basically teacher c entered, with the studi o students becoming passive learners, but that instructi on in the classrooms was more learner centered. Lopes (1996) also examined strategi es used by the language consultants to encourage interaction during viewing of the videos and found differences in the amount of encouragement the consultants offered. Lopes analysis of instruction led her to conclude: to assure more frequent instances of interaction between students and the video program, classroom strategies designed to encourage participation must be sust ained throughout the video vi ewing period (p. 98). Videoconferencing. The need to provide for interactivity or interaction is a frequent theme among those who have wr itten about distance learning and videoconferencing (Cavanaugh, 1998; Clifford, 1990; Henrichsen, 2001; Nielsen & Hoffman, 1996). Cavanaugh (1998), whose meta-analysis focuses on the interactive distance education technol ogies of videoconferencing and online telecommunications, points out that in teractivity allows for individualized instruction and is highly motivating. The argument in favor of interaction takes on even more force when second language acqu isition through distance learning is considered (Gilzow & Rhodes, 2000; Warriner-Burke, 1990). In the case of videoconferencing, the potential for interactivity is combined with a visual interface through which im portant information may be transmitted. In spite of the promis e that videoconferencing hol ds for foreign language learning, at this time there is not a suffi cient research base from which to draw firm conclusions on its use, and more st udies are needed, especially in the area of FLES. As Ford-Guerrera (1997) point s out, concerning research on the use of technology in elementary school forei gn language instruction, Currently, research focuses on older learners and the use of computer software programs (p. 17). Catherine Cavanaugh (1998), after conducting an extensive search for studies of interactive distance educati on technologies in the K-12 setting, was only able to locate 13 studies of videoconfer encing that met the inclusion criteria for her meta-analysis. These studies al l involved learners at the high school level. In making the general comparis on between the achievement of students learning with distance education system s as the primary or supplementary means of instruction, and the achievement of student s learning with traditional

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31 means (p. 45), Cavanaughs calculation of average effect size for these 13 studies yielded a small negative effect si ze of .016. Three foreign language studies (Gray, 1996; R. E. Smith, 1990; Wick, 1997) were included. Their average effect size was .801, a large negative effect size. Taking into consideration both the great potential [that] exists theoretically for linking students with native speaker s and writers and t he demonstrably lower performance of the distance learning student s in comparison to that of foreign language students in traditional classr ooms, Cavanaugh recommends very careful study of distance education course s for foreign language instruction (p. 77). Although not based on rigorous and exhau stive research, two descriptions of programs that incorporat e videoconferencing in FLES instruction both report an overwhelmingly positive response (Brooks & Fernndez, 2001, p. 24; Trayer & Knoche, 2002, p. 17). In one program Japanese was taught to children 2 hours a day over a period of 2 weeks in the summer, using videoconferencing based on fiber optic technology that pr ovided broadcast-quality real-time audio and video signals (Brooks & Fernndez, 2001, p. 23). Evaluati on of the program was based on responses to student, parent, and facilitator surveys. The other program, which provided for K-12 Spanish and technology use in rural schools (Trayer & Knoche, 2002, p. 16), incorpor ated videoconferencing via the Internet, through which students and teachers interact ed with native speakers of Spanish in other countries. The technology was al so utilized for the periodic presentation of Spanish lessons to the students. Robert Baker and his colleagues repor t on an evaluation of different elementary school language classes taught through videoconferencing (Baker, et al., 1992). Three classes received simult aneous instruction in Japanese through two-way audio and one-way video, and one class was taught French through two-way audio and video. Interviews with students and teachers revealed a preference for two-way audio and video. In general, students in both groups had a positive reaction to learning through videoconferencing, but most expressed a preference for face-to-face instruction. Live instruction provided thr ough one-way video and two-way audio and the same instruction provided in a taped format were compar ed in a study that included an Elementary German program (Boverie, et al ., 1997). Of the students and teachers who responded to a mailed survey, 82% watched the German program taped rather than live. Analyse s of the student and teacher responses showed no significant difference for either group in satisfaction with the program according to its presentation format. However, through the qualitative data that were collected for this study, it was rev ealed that teachers preferred watching the program on tape because it gave them more control over the lesson (p. 10). This chapter has provided a review of the literature that is most pertinent to this study.

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32 Chapter 3. Design and Methodology Introduction As Robert Stake (2000) has observed, As a form of research, case study is defined by interest in individual cases, not by the methods of inquiry used (p. 435). The research that is reported her e involves case studies, the in-depth examination of the language le arning experiences of four fifth-grade students of Spanish. Videoconferencing sessions t aught by the Spanish teacher at Dolphin Point and a Spanish teacher at another sc hool, other lessons taught by Dolphin Points Spanish teacher, and video-based le ssons facilitated by the classroom teacher are the contexts in which language instruction occurs, contexts that have been carefully examined and described. The emic perspectives of the participants were sought, looking for meaning s they ascribe to their learning of Spanish. The design of the study was emergent; additional design decisions were made as data from multiple source s were collected and analyzed. In the later stages of analysis, etic categories have been used (McMillan & Schumacher, 2001) to facilitate the communi cation of results without distorting the meaning of original emic perspective s. Conclusions have been grounded in the data; they were reached inductively. This is an interpretive qualitative study. It incorporates t he five features of qualitative research, as this is defi ned by Bogdan and Biklen (1998, pp. 4-7): a naturalistic setting, descriptive data, a concern with process, inductive analysis, and a concern with meaning. It incorporat es the focus on the construction or coconstruction of meaning within a particu lar setting (Davis, 1995, p. 433) that Davis signals as the distinguishing characteristic of interpretive qualitative studies. A strong argument that may be made in favor of qualitative research in the area of SLA is that it is based in the classroom and seeks to discover classroom processes not fully known previously. T he relevance of this argument may be seen in the inconclusive results produced by the large-scale gl obal studies that compared different language-teaching me thods in the 1960s and early 1970s (Ellis, 1994). These studies categorized gr oups according to method of language instruction and failed to account for what was actually happening in the classroom. As Ellis (1994) explains, l anguage classes tend to offer very similar opportunities for learning irrespective of their methodological orientation (p. 572). Also referring to the failure of the comparative method studies, Gaies (1983) puts forward classroom process research, which rejects as simplistic any univariate classification of the second language instructional experience (p. 206).

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33 Inconclusive results have also been obtained in studies comparing distance education and tradi tional classroom learning. Thomas L. Russells book, The No Significant Difference Phenomenon (1999), provides a compilation of 355 such studies conducted between 1928 and 1998. Although no advantage is shown for either distance or traditional education, questions concerning particular aspects of distance education are left unanswered (J. R. Young, 2000). Here again an argument in favor of qualitative research could be made. A number of studies in the area of FLES have in corporated a qualitative approach or have used it exclusively. Exploring New Frontiers: What Do Computers Contribute to Teaching Fore ign Languages in Elementary School? (Nutta et al., 2002) presents the findings from a study that included both experimental and qualitative portions. The experimental portion involved the comparison of the achievement of FLES students in computer-enhanced and text-based classes. The qualitative portion focused on the second language behavior of students in the two classes. An argument is made in favor of carrying out the qualitative study to complement the experimental research, because comparative experimental st udies ignore numerous aspects of instruction that could provide crucial in sights into L2 instructional theory and practice (Dunkel, 1991; Chapelle & Jamieson, 1991) (Nutta et al., 2002, p. 295). Among the other studies in the area of elementary school foreign language instruction that incorporate bot h qualitative and q uantitative methods are two that examine a FLEX program, one study focusing on raising students cultural awareness and devel oping [their] readiness for and interest in learning foreign languages (Pagcaliwagan, 1997, p. 6), and the other focusing on the impact of the program on the students a ttitudes toward foreign languages and cultures (Chambless, 2003). In some FLES research, a qualit ative approach by itself has been appropriate for examining the topic under study. Bueno (1991), for example, carried out An Ethnographic Study of the Introduction of a Contextualized Computer Environment in an Elementary School Spanish Classroom Steves (1998) conducted 13 case studies of students learning Spanish in a FLEX program, concentrating on several areas of individual variety, including motivation, learning style, approach to vocabulary learning, classroom behavior, expectations, and listening and pronunciation skills (p. iii), and also examining issues of age, gender, and basic skills. Researcher Background and Perspectives In this section, I will describe some of the experiences I have had that have brought about my interest in elementary school foreign language instruction. One reason I am including them is to show how they have prepared me to conduct this research. Another reason for describing my experiences, along with my perspectives, is to expose possible sources of bias. This lays the foundation for the self-monitoring that wa s carried out during the course of the research. Every effort was made to minimize the effects of any of my preconceptions on this study, especially during the early stages, when openness

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34 to emerging themes and patterns embedded in the phenomena is crucial. An important first step is to recognize the existence and something of the nature of my perspectives. After observing several exemplary FL ES classes, I had my first experience with elementary school children learni ng a foreign language when I began to teach Spanish in an after-school program in October 1997. By then I had developed a high level of pr oficiency in Spanish, my middle school foreign language experience having been followed by the study of Spanish in high school and college. I was confident in t he quality of the Spanish I was using to communicate with the children, but there were other aspec ts of the teaching that I wished were different. I was an outsider not a teacher at the school. I wondered what could be accomplished in an elementary school foreign language class that was part of the schools curriculum. I pursued my new interest in FLES th rough studying on my own, attending a summer institute on methods of teachi ng foreign languages in the elementary school, becoming a member of the Na tional Network for Early Language Learning, attending FLES session s at yearly conferences of the Florida Foreign Language Association, observing more FLES classes, and talking to FLES teachers and foreign language superviso rs from different counties. I was invited to do research in a school with a FLEX program, Central Elementary (a pseudonym), where I had become a member of the School Advisory Council in the 1998 school year. I conducted the research while taking a class on Qualitative Methods. The main part of my study began on February 21, 2000, and continued with observations of an intermediate class carried out on a regular basis for the next 2 months (Norwood, 2000). The teacher of this class of fifth graders and a few fourth graders, Lisa Lukowski (a pseudonym), had made a 3-year commitment in 1998 to study Spanish and to teach it to her students. The training Lisa received included the same summer FLES methods institute I attended in 1998; Spanish lessons that the lead teacher of her team (The Winners) offe red throughout the 1998 and 1999 school years; study of Spanish in Mexico from June 19 to July 3, 1999; and study through a Spanish class that started on March 25, 2000. Lisa also practiced Spanish with her daughter, who had first ta ken a Spanish class in middle school in the 1998 school year and had continued her study of Spanish. The research that I carried out (Norwood, 2000) resulted in a description of Central Elementary School and it s FLEX program. I examined Lisas experiences as a learner of Spanish her attitude toward the language and teaching it, and the activities and strategies she used in her Spanish teaching. The focus I had maintained on Spanish interactions allowed me to provide evidence of Lisas ability in speaking S panish, to examine student participation and production of Spanish, and to take a clos er look at two students as language learners. In my report, I also incl uded sections on student attitudes toward learning Spanish and on the correction of errors by students. In my analyses, I relied on field notes from my observations of Lisas Spanish classes, from conversations I had had with Lisa and wit h other Central FLEX teachers, and

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35 from previous visits to Central. In addition, I made use of school documents, including surveys concerning FLEX t hat had been distributed to Winners Team students, parents, and teachers in 1999. Analysis of the data from this st udy (Norwood, 2000) revealed that the FLEX program at Central had been met wit h a positive response on the part of Lisa and her students. Only one student, w ho was new to the school, expressed the opinion that Spanish was hard. In te rms of language use, it appeared that the input received by the st udents from [Lisa] was limited in terms of syntax, with only a few types of sentences used. As would be expected, student output was also of a limited syntactic nature (p 17). The students, however, did learn much vocabulary and were able to underst and a series of commands that Lisa presented to them (pp. 18-19). In my research interests, I have mov ed from an examination of the role of input alone in language ac quisition (Norwood, 1994) to a broader focus that acknowledges the role of input but focuses on interaction and output. The current research study is framed within this broader perspective. My interpretations have been influenced by my knowledge of SLA theory and by my knowledge of and experiences with t he study of foreign language in the elementary school as it has been carried out in various contexts and at different times. Initial Contact with Dolphin Poin t Elementary and the FLETT Model Due to the issues examined in this study, there were only three schools that could be considered to serve as a research setting. These schools have the Polycom videoconferencing equipment and follow the FLETT model, with videoconferencing occupying a position of central importance. Three other schools in the same school district owned the videoconferencing equipment, but their Spanish instructi on had a different thrust. In the spring of 2003, at the urging of World Languages Curriculum Coordinator Lissette Ford (a pseudonym, as are the names of the other school teachers involved in this research), Dr. Joyce Nutta established a relationship with Dolphin Point Elementary School in vi ew of the possibility of doing research there. Because of my pot ential involvement in this research and because of my own interest in pursuing research in the area of technology-mediated FLES, I contacted Mrs. Ford and made arr angements to observe videoconferencing classes on May 6 and 7, 2003. Mrs. Ford expressed a belief in doing research on the FLETT program and has facilitated such research. My discussion of Dolphin Point Elementary and the FLETT model continues below with a description of a Spanish summer institute for teachers from schools with FLES or FLETT progr ams that was offered by the school district in which Dolphin Point is located. Next I cover the mo ve of Dolphin Point from temporary quarters to a newly cons tructed facility on its own campus and how this is related to a district-level agreement that provided for the end of courtordered busing. The final subsection is devoted to a longer discussion of my

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36 preliminary observations at Dolphin Po int in the 2003 school year and what I learned from these. Spanish Summer Institute. It was from Mrs. Ford that I learned about a Spanish summer institute, led by a nationally re cognized foreign language education consultant with expertise in the area of early language learning, to be held June 23-26, 2003. This institute was for classroom teachers from schools that had FLES programs or that had or would be beginning FLETT programs and for the schools FLES/FLETT teachers, who helped to facilitate it, as well. Having received permission from t he school districts World Languages Supervisor to attend, I was present fo r the first 3 days of the institute. Several things stand out to me from that Spanish summer institute and have a bearing on the research that I later conducted at Dolphin Point Elementary. One was meet ing the schools principa l, who was briefly in attendance, and meeting some of the sc hools classroom teachers, including Lloyd Baxter. I had a chance to visit with Mr. Baxter duri ng the institute and found him receptive to the idea of facilitat ing research on Dolphin Points Spanish program. Besides these contac ts, I feel that some of the institutes content is worth noting here. The questions Why are classroom teachers experts? and Why are FLES teachers experts? were addressed on the first day of th e institute. The expertise and potential contri butions of classroom teachers were described in these terms: You understand childrens developmental stages. By learning Spanish, you are a role model for lifelong learning. You know how to make connections with academic disciplines and the overall school day. You and your class have developed a special trusting relationship that contributes to successfully lear ning a foreign language together. You make it possible for many more children to begin a foreign language learning experience. You are a resource to the Spanish teacher. You will plant the seeds of how impor tant it is to become bilingual and biliterate. (Field notes, 6/23/03) The expertise and potential contributi ons of FLES/FLETT teachers were described in terms of their high profic iency in the language, their cultural understanding and ability to make cultural connections, their ability to make connections with academic subjects, their preparation in the area of SLA, and their status as the Spanish teacher, as a resource to classroom teachers, and as a living role model (Field notes, 6/23/03). Something else that I noted at the institute was the pr ominence accorded to the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) to the teaching of foreign languages. One of the general principles of this approach is that students production of the new language should be allowed to emerge in stages . : (1) response by nonverbal communication, (2) response with a single word .

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37 (3) combinations of two or three words . ., (4) phrases . (5) sentences, and finally (6) more complex discourse (p. 20) At the institute, the principle of stages in students language development was presented in a somewhat modified form: from the point of view of the ways in which teachers should prompt students, as the latter move through their language development. With this progression in mind, teachers were advised to (a) elicit nonverbal responses and student names, (b) ask yes/no [s/no] questions, (c) ask either/or questions, and (d) ask questions that would prompt students to produce language on their own, such as the question, Qu es esto? [What is this?] (Field notes, 6/23/03). Dolphin Point and the Choice Agreement. Following the Spanish summer institute, my next contact with Dolphi n Point Elementary and the FLETT model was when I returned to school in Septem ber to carry out more observations. When I had first visited the school in the spring of 2003, it was in session on another campus, the future home of Floy d P. Lacy Elementary, which was used by Dolphin Point during the 2002 school year. During that time, a new facility was being built for Dolphin Point on its own campus, considerations of cost-effectiveness having caused the school district to opt for this new construction instead of renovation. At the beginning of the 2003 school year, Dolphin Points newly construct ed facility was opened to its students. It was also at this time that Lacy Element ary was first opened to its own students. Located in a predominantly Black neighborhood, Lacy Elementary was built by the school district as part of an agreement with the Legal Defense Fund of the National Association for the Adv ancement of Colored People (NAACP) to end the court-ordered busing that had been used in the district since 1971 for purposes of desegregation. The agreemen t, designed to allow parents more choice as to where their children attend school, set a cap of 42% Black students at any one school in the first 4 years of the agreements im plementation (2003 2004 through 2006). In February 2003, a local newspaper repor ted that in the fall of that year some schools in predominantly Black neighborhoods, including Floyd P. Lacy and Dolphin Point, would have enrollments fa r below their true capacity in order to facilitate the achievement of the ra cial ratios required by the choice agreement. (To protect the identity of Dolphin Point, no citation is provided here.) The article stated that t he superintendent of the school district was not happy that newly constructed schools would not be full initially, but he remained optimistic about the schools future, saying that over time they would fill up because of the programs that are there. (It is th rough one such program that Spanish is offered at Dolphin Point.) When I first visited Dolphin Point in May 2003, there were approximately equal numbers of White and Black students attending the school. According to the 2002 NCLB School Public Accountability Report (Florida Department of Education, 2004a), in October 2002, of the 395 students enroll ed at the school, 170 were White and 169 were Black. The percentages of students in attendance at the time, listed by racial and ethnic group, were as follows: 43.0% White,

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38 42.8% Black, 5.8% Multirac ial, 4.8% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 0.3% American Indian. Comparison data given for the pr evious school year show an even higher percentage of Black students, 52.6%. In keeping with the cap of 42% Black students set by the choice agreement, in the 2003 school year the percentage of Black students at Dolphin Point had been reduced. The NCLB School Public Accountability Report (Florida Department of Education, 2004b) fo r that year states that in October 2003, there were 170 White students and 150 Black students enrolled at Dolphin Point. The following percentages of student s, listed by racial and ethnic group, are given: 40.7% White, 35.9% Black, 10.0% Multiracial, 7.7% Hispanic, 4.1% Asian, and 1.7% American Indian. Additional demographic information on Dolphin Point will be provided in the next chapter in relation to my study carried out in the 2004 school year. My Preliminary Observations at Dolphin Point Elementary. It was on September 16, 2003, that I returned to Dolp hin Point to carry out observations as part of my work under a USF Community Partnership Faculty Grant awarded to Dr. Joyce Nutta and Dr. Carol Mullen. The purpose of these early observations was to gain a better understanding of Dol phin Points FLETT program. During the 4-month period from mid-September 2003 to mid-January 2004, I observed 25 Spanish class sessions and also joined students from Dolphin Point on a field trip to see a special Spanish presentati on. Because the Community Partnership Grant provided for case studies to be conduc ted of a firstand a fifth-grade class, the majority of my observations during the 4-month period involved classes at these levels. I observed 10 Spanish sessi ons involving first-grade classes (9 of these with the class of Mrs. Cartwright) and 12 sessions involving fifth-grade classes. I also had the opportunity to observe a second-grade and two thirdgrade classes on one occasion apiece. I continued observing Spanish class sessions, as well as a special Spanish presentation, at Dolphin Point from mid-January to mid-March 2004 with the purpose of better prepari ng myself to conduct the research study that forms the main body of this dissertation. Ha ving already observed Mr. Baxters fifthgrade class in Spanish sessions on ni ne occasions, I observed it on another three occasions. I did this because I planned on working wit h Mr. Baxter the following school year, drawing case study participants from the class he would have at that time. I also observed S panish sessions involving the fourth-grade class of Mrs. Miller on five occasions in order to become familiar with some of the students I might consider as case study participants the following school year. During the period of my preliminar y observations in the 2003 school year, all videoconferencing sessions at Dolphin Point took place in a special classroom, the Tele Caf, where the Po lycom videoconferencing equipment was located. Two large television monitors were the most obvious components of this equipment. Sometimes each class appeared on a monitor. At other times, the class at the distant school appeared on one and written text or a small object, such as a miniature piece of furniture, appeared on the other When Mrs. Ford

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39 was providing the instruction, she stood at th e front of the class, to the side of the equipment. Students were supposed to sit on a special rug depicting the Spanish alphabet and Spanish words and their English equivalents, but not all of the students in large classes were able to fit on this rug. The classroom teacher would stay in the Tele Caf with his or her class during Spanish instruction, sitting in a chair behind the students. W hen the FLES teacher in the distant site was teaching, the classroom teacher would help in the selection of his or her students to respond to questions and prompts and sometimes provided behavioral correction for students who werent focused on the lesson. The videoconferencing sessions were scheduled to last for 20 minutes but often lasted longer. The Tele Caf served not only as the setting for videoconferencing sessions but also for Spanish instru ction offered by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing. For example, on Sept ember 16, 2003, one of Dolphin Points two fifth-grade classes (that of Mrs. Jackson) received instruction through videoconferencing, having been paired for t he school year with a fifth-grade class at Greenwood Park Elementary, but Dolphi n Points other fifth-grade class (that of Mr. Baxter) was taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, because it had not yet been paired with a fifth-grade cl ass at another school (Field notes, 9/16/03). (By October 21, 2003, the next ti me I observed Mr. Baxters class in the Tele Caf, it had been paired with a fifth-grade class at Wallenmaier Elementary and was receiving Spanish instruction through videoconferencing.) Whether Mrs. Ford was teaching wit h or without videoconferencing, the arrangement of people in the Tele Caf was basically the same. When she was teaching without videoconferencing, she still stood at the front of the class, to the side of the equipment, using the document camera in the same way she might have used an overhead projector, but instead of projec ting images onto a hanging screen, she project ed them onto one of the television monitors. It happened that on September 16, 2003 (when I observed four videoconferencing sessions, as well as one class session without videoconferencing) Mrs. Ford was the FL ES teacher who was responsible for the Spanish instruction through videoconferencing, teaching both a given class at Dolphin Point and the class with which it had been matched at Greenwood Park. Mrs. Ford mentioned to me that the fo llowing week Mr. Straten (the FLES teacher at Greenwood Park) would be re sponsible for the videoconferencing sessions. She also mentioned that S panish instruction had just started on September 2 (Field notes, 9/16/03). I noticed that on Septem ber 16, Mr. Straten rema ined with the classes at Greenwood Park during Mrs. Fords lessons (Field notes, 9/16/03). However, on October 9 when I was at Dolphin Po int, observing two videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Straten, I didnt see Mrs Ford at all (Field notes, 10/9/03). From October 9 onward, any given class receiving instruction from a FLES teacher at a distant site no longer had the FLES teacher at their site stay with them on a regular basis.

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40 During my observations in the 200304 school year, the topics that were covered in the Tele Caf, in sessions taught both with and without videoconferencing, included numbers, the date, the seasons, vocabulary associated with different holidays, the weather, colors, parts of the body, rooms of the house and furniture, land and s ea animals, the continents, Spanishspeaking countries and their capitals and vocabulary and facts from the Muzzy video-based language progr am (developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation). On the six occasions I observed classes from different grade levels being taught on the same day, I noticed that it wa snt unusual for the same topics to be covered regardless of the grade level of a given class. For example, on September 16, 2003, the first, second, third, and fifth grade classes that I observed each took part in an activity in which, given a range of numbers, students guessed the price of a piece of furniture. There was, however, a difference in the number ranges given to classes at the different grade levels, with progressively higher numbers and more extensive ranges being offered to classes in higher grades. Many songs were used in teaching Spanish in the Tele Caf, including a song to begin class ( Hola, mis nios [Hello, my children]), a song about Spanish being neat ( Espaol es chvere! ), a number song, a song about the days of the week, a song for each month, a song about the seasons, songs associated with different holidays, a weather song, a song about sea animals, a chant about the continents, a song about the characters in Muzzy, and a song to end class ( Tic tac, tic tac, el reloj [Tick-tock, tick-tock, the clock]). The main part of each class session in the Tele Caf was conducted exclusively in Spanish. The change from speaking English to speaking Spanish would occur when the class said, Adis ingls. Hola, espaol. [Goodbye, English. Hello, Spanish.] Sometimes Hola, mis nios was sung after that. There was always a calendar segment in each class session. This included the song about the month (e.g., Octubre ) and questions about the date. There might also be a song about the days of the w eek, a song about the seasons, a song about the weather, a song about an upcoming holiday, and questions related to topics that had been covered. Different lessons included different ac tivities, such as the one in which the price of a piece of furniture was guessed (Field notes, 9/16/03). Among the other activities were games, such as hangman and a modified version of jeopardy in which students answered questions instead of responding with a question (Field notes, 12/2/03, 1/13/04, 2/5/ 04, 2/26/04). In another activity, the names of different types of animals were placed in a Venn diagram, according to whether the animal had appeared in a story about La seora Lvalotodo [Mrs. Wash-itall], in a story about El concierto de los animales [The concert of the animals], or in both (Field notes, 12/9/03). Several interesting activities were used to reinforce vocabulary and facts from Muzzy In one, Mrs. Ford, who was res ponsible for the instruction that week, had a bag with pictures and objec ts depicting vocabulary from Muzzy.

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41 These were drawn out of the bag one by one, and questions were asked about them (Field notes, 1/27/04, 1/29/04). Another activity was based on the questioning of one of the protagonists in Muzzy, Juan, about his name, age, and profession. On February 19, 2004, for example, when Alyssa (a pseudonym, as are the names of the other students involved in this research) from Mrs. Millers class had a turn and Mr. Straten called ou t, Nombre, she answered, Alyssa. When he called out, Edad, she said, N ueve [Nine], and when he said, Profesin, she responded, Estudiante [Student]. Many students were able to respond individually in this activi ty (Field notes, 2/10/04, 2/19/04). An activity that was modeled by Mrs. Ford on January 13, 2004, in a videoconferencing session with Mr. Baxt ers fifth-grade class and its matched class at Wallenmaier Elementary seem ed to have the potential for eliciting individual output from any students willing to volunteer. Mrs. Ford projected a photograph of her dining room on one of t he television monitors, describing its colors and furniture, and subsequently did the same with photographs of other rooms in her house. After the vi deoconferencing session had ended and she had switched to using English, Mrs. Ford encouraged Mr. Baxters students to bring in photographs of their rooms and talk about them in Spanish (Field notes, 1/13/04). Unfortunately, I was only wit h Mr. Baxters class on three more occasions that school year, during whic h there was no further mention of the activity. My observations at Dolphin Point in the 2003 school year included three Spanish lessons in Mr. Baxters fifth-grade classroom, two in Mrs. Cartwrights first-grade classroom, and one in Mrs. Millers fourth-grade classroom. For the most par t, these consisted of t he students watching episodes of the Espaol para ti video-based language program. This wasnt the case, however, on November 20, 2003, when Mrs Cartwright led her class in an activity about body parts, using Mr. Potat ohead. A native speaker of English, Mrs. Cartwright seemed ill at ease, and I noted that she made three unsuccessful attempts to pronounce orejas [ears]. But in spite of her limitations, she was making an effort to carry out an activi ty to reinforce what her students had been learning. She also played Simon Says in Spanish with her students that day (Field notes, 11/20/03). Before moving on, I would like to m ention a few of the students I observed during the 2003 school year One was Stacey in Mr. Baxters class. She was one of three girls in that class who often participated in Spanish lessons. I will mention Stacey again in the next chapter as the older sister of Claire, one of my case study participants. Claire was in Mrs. Millers fourth-grade class when I first observed her in the winter of 2004, as was Edward, who was to become another of my participants. I noted that Claire answered a question related to Muzzy, following a game of hangman (Field notes, 1/29/04), and Edward participated in the activity related to Muzzy in which he gave his name, age, and profession (Field notes, 2/19/04), but nei ther student made a strong impression on me at the time.

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42 Selection of Participants In this section, I first lay out the reasoning behind the purposeful sampling that I undertook in this research, including why I considered certain factors important in potential partici pants. I then move on to a discussion of my reentry into the research setting at the b eginning of the 2004 school year and an explanation of how I came to know and select certain students as case study participants. Preliminary Considerations. In arriving at a decision on the number of case studies to conduct, I took several fa ctors into consideration. Case study research is characterized by an in-depth study of each case (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996, p. 545). Although the attention t hat can be focused on a given case decreases as the number of cases incr eases, there are advant ages in including multiple cases in research. This approach allows for comparisons among the cases and provides a broader view. C onducting four case studies (or put another way, a multi-case study involvi ng four participants) capitalizes on these advantages, while allowing for intensive study of each case. With this number of cases, there is also a higher likelihood of being able to complete the research in the event of participant attrition. My selection of participants for t he case studies involved purposeful sampling: I took into consideration certai n characteristics of possible participants in order to choose those who potentially could reveal the most in regard to the points of focus of this research. One bas ic consideration in selection was that no participant could be a native speaker of Spanish or live in an environment in which he or she is exposed to Spanish on a regular basis. On the other hand, I looked for fifth-grade students who had been in the FLETT program for at least a year and ideally since the second grade. Following these criteria provided the best chance of examining the language that had been and was being acquired through videoconferenci ng and video-based lessons. Another important consideration for inclusion in the case studies was students amount of partic ipation and language output in Spanish lessons. I sought participants for whom these ranged from average to high in comparison to other students in their class in order to have sufficient data for analysis and to allow for the emergence of themes and patterns inherent in the instructional process. Recommendations of students by the Dolphin Point FLES teacher were taken into account. Gender and race are other factors that I considered in the selection of participants. I believed that even if I di d not end up with two male and two female participants, it was important have each sex represented in the case studies because of differences between the sexe s in second language acquisition and associated attitudes that have been rev ealed by research (e.g., Baker & MacIntyre, 2003; Burstall, 1975; Gardner & Lambert, 1972). In order to reflect the racial composition of the school, my goal was for the case studies to include at least one Black and one White participant.

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43 Finally, I wanted to choose students with whom I believed I would be able to establish rapport. This is especially important for interviews and conversations with students that follow earlier stages of data collection and analysis. The students whom I selected as case study participants were Ciara Nivea, a Black boy who was 11 years old when I began observing him in Mr. Baxters class in August 2004; Edward Jo nes, a Black boy who was 10 years old; Claire Montgomery, a White girl who was 9 years old; and Brittany Johnson, a Black girl who was 10 years old. (My f our case study participants, as well as three of the teachers involved in this res earch, were invited to select their own pseudonyms.) Ciara, Claire, and Brittany had been in the Spanish program at Dolphin Point since it had started in the 2001 school year. Edward had enrolled at Dolphin Point and begun Spanish instruction at the beginning of the 2003 school year. I discuss how I came to select these particular students below. Selecting Ciara, Claire, Edward, and Brittany. When I again returned to Dolphin Point Elementary in August 2004, just prior to conducting the research study that forms the main body of this di ssertation, it was wit h the intention of quietly observing Spanish instruction fo r several weeks in order to become familiar enough with the students who were t hen in Mr. Baxters fifth-grade class to enable me to select case study partici pants who could provide rich data. I discovered, however, that I needed varying am ounts of time to come to decisions about the inclusion of each of the different participants. I will explain the process that I followed below and will introduce eac h of my four participants in turn. On August 9, 2004, I met with Lloyd Baxter, the classroom teacher who had previously agreed to let me observe the students in his class during the 2004 school year. At that meeting, he invit ed me to come back on Thursday morning, August 12, to observe the first Espaol para ti lesson (Level 5, Lesson 1), which I did. However, due to a scheduling pr oblem, Mr. Baxter ended up presenting the lesson to Dolphin Points other fifth-grade class. I returned the following Thursday afternoon (8/19/04), for my fi rst observation of Mr. Baxters own class, as he presented Lesson 2 of Espaol para ti to them. Among the students I noticed that day were Claire, a Wh ite girl with blond hair who had been in Mrs. Millers class the year before, and Ciara, a thin Black boy (Field notes, 8/19/04). I noticed Ciara Nivea again the foll owing Wednesday (8/25/04), as I observed his class for the third time. After class, he came up to me and engaged me in conversation, asking me if I lived on the south side of town. When I said that I lived on the north side, he exclaimed with regret that nobody lives on the south side. He named the south-side neighborhood where he liv es, stated that thats where people get shot (of which I was already aware), and went on to say in a cavalier manner that he wasn t worried (Field notes, 8/25/04). From that time on, Ciara, who had been in the Spanish program the previous 3 years, impressed me as a good potential case study participant because of his friendliness, openness, and the ways in which he naturally

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44 seemed to attract my att ention. On September 29, when the video lesson was over (Espaol para ti Lesson 11), Ciara took the initia tive to show me his written work (his Saber es poder [Knowledge Is Power] card; Field notes, 9/29/04). Two days later when Mrs. Ford was teachi ng Spanish to Mr. Baxters class, I noticed Ciara directing the attention of his classmate, L aurie, to the lesson on two separate occasions. The first time, I saw Ciara put his finger up to his lips. The second time, he whispered, No ingls [No English] to Laurie (Field notes, 10/1/04). The next week when I talked to Ciara about interviewing him for my research, he replied, You know I love to be interviewed (Field notes, 10/7/04). The second student on whom I began to focus as a possible case study participant was Claire Montgom ery. My initial interest was prompted by Mrs. Fords recommendation of her as a student whose parents would be supportive of the research. Another factor that influenced my decision to include her was the fact that she was one of only three girls in Mr. Baxters class who had indicated in an activity in the Tele Ca f that they had started Spanish in the second grade. I also noted that Claires level of part icipation in the Spanish classes I had observed was equal to or great er than that of t he other girls, with the exception of Elena, a native speaker of Spanish. In spite of the positive factors that favored my selection of Claire as a research participant, I was initially c oncerned about whether I would be able to establish rapport with her. In addition to my first impressions of her as a small White girl with blond hair, I noted her quiet demeanor. One day early in the 2004 school year, I saw her in the school office and ventured to ask her if she liked Spanish. She seemed to indica te that she only liked it so-so. I wondered if this attitude would be associated with a lack of interest in taking part in the research. Nevertheless, because Clai re met most of my selection criteria so well, I later decided to ask her if she would be willing to let me ask her questions about Spanish and see her writte n work. She quietly indicated that she would be willing, and I re cruited her as one of my participants (Field notes, 10/7/04). The other two students who became case study participants, Edward Jones (who had been in Mrs. Millers cla ss the year before) and Brittany Johnson, didnt immediately attract my attention in the 2004 school year. At the beginning of the school year, there were 27 students in Mr. Baxters class. I tried to become familiar with them by ma king a note whenever either Mr. Baxter or Mrs. Ford called a student by name. I also copied student names from the list of the nine who had signed a poster under the heading, Started Espaol: Grade 2, and from the list of the three who had indicated that they spoke Spanish at home. My first notation on Brittany, a Black gi rl with straight hair in a ponytail, occurred on September 22, 2004, my sixth obs ervation of Mr. Baxters class. I sat on the floor that day to watch the Espaol para ti lesson, and Brittany sat fairly close to me, so that I ended up not taking as many notes on the students as I would have otherwise (Field notes, 9/22/04).

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45 The following day in the Tele Caf (the second time I had observed there), I noticed Brittany again and also made my first notation on Edward, a Black boy with a small scar on his head. Before the videoconferenci ng connection was established, Mrs. Ford was asking ques tions about the date. Brittany provided the day of the week, Jueves [Thursday], and Edward provided the date, Veintitrs [23] (F ield notes, 9/23/04). I was pleased when class sessions in the Tele Caf began to take place on a regular basis, because these provided a language-rich setting in which to observe the participation of Mr. Baxters st udents. I noted that some of the Black boys took a much more active part in these classes than did the White boys. Besides Ciara, I was particularly intere sted in Willie, who had dark skin, very short hair, and a small dimple. He did quite well in a time-telli ng activity the first time I observed his class in the Tele Caf (Field notes, 9/16/04). During my third observation there on October 1, I noted that he answered a calendar question and seemed very animated in another part of the lesson (Field notes, 10/1/04). After class that day, Mrs. Ford and I had a chance to visit. I told her that Id like to use Ciara and Claire in my ca se studies and was thinking of including another Black boy. She immediatel y suggested Edward, even though he had only entered the program the previous year She affectionately said that he loves everything that has to do wit h Spanish (Field notes, 10/1/ 04). I took Mrs. Fords suggestion seriously and selected Edwa rd as the second boy for my case studies. I didnt decide to invite Brittany to participate in my research until the following week. On that Wednesday, I arri ved at Dolphin Point at 11:55, joined Mr. Baxters students in the central courty ard outside of the cafeteria, in which they had just eaten lunch, and went up t he stairs and down the second-floor hall with them. When they got cl oser to their classroom, t hey stopped to wait for Mr. Baxter, who was following them down the hall. Ciara and Brittany started talking together in something that sounded like Spanish. I couldnt really hear what they were saying, but I got the impression that they were just using some words in Spanish (Field notes, 10/6/04). Once we were in the classroom, I w ent over to Brittany (whose name I didnt know yet) and asked, Cmo te llamas? She just looked at me, so I translated, Whats your nam e? She replied shyly, B rit, Brittany. I said, Mucho gusto. Nice to meet you, and to ld her I was Annette Norwood (Field notes, 10/6/04). During the Espaol para ti lesson that day, I consulted my list of students who had started Spanish in the second grade to verify that Brittany was on it, which she was, along wit h Claire and Jane, a very quiet Asian girl. From my observations up to that time, I had concluded that the girls in Mr. Baxters class were generally quiet during Spanish instruction. However, I had noted Brittanys participation, answering calendar questions, on the two previous occasions the class had been in the Te le Caf. Because of Brittanys participation in the Spanish lessons, the length of time she had been in the program, and her friendship with Ciara, whom I had already chosen as a

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46 participant, I decided to ask her to help me with my research. When I talked to her about this the following day, like Claire, she quietly agreed to take part in my study (Field notes, 10/7/04). I obtained informed consent for participat ion in this research from a parent of each of the four case study participants whom I selected, as well as the assent of each child. I also obtained parental consent to videotape and audiotape Ciara, Claire, Edward, and Brittany. All documents used to obtain parental informed consent and child assent were approved by both the Institutional Review Board of the University of South Florida and the Department of Research and Accountability of the school district in which th is study was conducted. Data Collection and Analysis In order to address t he points of focus of th is research (see next paragraph), I collected data through obser vations, videotaping and audiotaping of lessons, and interviews of the case study participants and their teachers. My role was that of a participant observer. Brief notes were made during observations, and more extensive field notes were writt en soon thereafter. Re flex records were also written. Transcripts of the audio recordings were prepared, concentrating on the verbal output of the case study parti cipants and on the interactions in which they were involved. The videotapes were reviewed, paying special attention to the nonverbal cues of the participants. Written work in Spanish produced by the participants that became available was al so analyzed. Public documents that provided information on the school were consulted. The points of focus with which I entered the research setting are presented in Chapters 1 and 8, along with an explanation for thei r modification. Below I present the modified points of fo cus that guided this research. For the purposes of this study, the term learners is being applied to the four case study students. 1. What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings? 2. Are patterns of change observe d in learners' language production during the period under study? 3. What individual learne r factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? 4. What are the participants pref erences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? I reentered the research site to ward the beginning of the 2004 school year, as soon as the teachers had resumed offering Spanish lessons and felt comfortable having me observe. Building on knowledge I had gained of the research setting, I completed selection of the four case study participants at the beginning of October. Once all nece ssary permissions were secured, I began the intensive data collection that continued until the e nd of the school year. I observed one videoconferencing session or one class facilitated by the Spanish teacher per week, except when no class wa s held. I observed from one to three video-based Spanish lessons per week, exc ept toward the end of data collection.

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47 I also audio recorded and videotaped the lessons that I observed and prepared transcripts, as previously noted. The videocassette and CD recorders were only a transitory distraction for one of my participants. The advantages of the use of recording devices far outweighed their possible disadvantages. As McMillan and Schumacher (2001, p. 271) not e, A tape recorder will obviously collect the information more completely and objectively than notes. The audio recordings and videotapes may be replayed several times for careful study (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996, p. 337), allo wing for transcription and giving me the opportunity to supplement my field notes whenever I noticed anything that I wanted to add. This careful study also informed subsequent observations, interviews, and document collection. As the study proceeded, I regul arly reviewed my field notes and transcripts and used what I learned to focus my attention during subsequent observations and interviews (Bogdan & Bi klen, 1998). I also used what I discovered to help me determine points of focus for my first interviews, which I conducted in January 2005. As the st udy continued to progress, based on additional accumulated data and insight s, I was able to plan and ask more specific questions in another intervie w of the students selected for the case studies. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. The on-site FLES teacher and the classroom teacher were also interviewed about the instruction and any insights they had into the students output in Spanish and their possible growth. Informal, research-related conversations with the teachers took plac e during the course of the study, as well. The development of a system to organize the data is of primary importance in qualitative data analysis (McM illan & Schumacher, 2001). As data began to accumulate, I tried to get an overall sense of the case study participants use of Spanish in the different instructional contexts and then tried to identify topics in the data. Data collection and data analysis proceeded in an alternating and iterative fashion. As this proce ss continued and topics emerged, these were grouped into categories, and the resulting classification system was evaluated and refined. The refinement invo lved the modification of categories, as well as the emergence of new ones. Patterns among the categories were sought. I also looked for and tried to explain instances of divergence. I continued to collect and analyze data until May 2005, decreasing the frequency of my observations of video-based lessons toward the end. Ideally the continuing interaction of data collect ion and analysis is terminated when the categories or patterns that have emerged appear to account for virtually all of the activities being studied, as happened with the video-based lessons, so that subsequent observations were fully classi fiable within the categories already identified. It was then that more defi nitive analysis became possible, suggesting meaningful interpretations and conclusions grounded in the data. The grounding of conclusions in the dat a of this study, along with the thick descriptions that are offer ed, provide a basis for the extension of its findings. Whereas it is inappropriate to offer generalizations based on qualitative research

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48 findings, the applicability of findings to si milar situations, or the possibility of extending them, is both appropriate and desirable. As McMillan and Schumacher note (2001, p. 414), the ext ension of findings enables others to understand similar situations and apply thes e findings in subsequent research or practical situations. Each new sit uation must be thoroughly examined on an individual basis to ascertain if it is sim ilar enough to the original situation that was studied to justify the extension of fi ndings. David Lancy (1993, p. 165) has likened this to the law wher e the applicability of a parti cular precedent case must be argued in each subsequent case. Ethical Considerations This study did not involve decepti on of any kind. As I have already explained, parents of the students who were asked to participate were informed of the nature of the study, as were t he students who participated. No videotaping or audiotaping was carried out until parent al consent and student assent were secured. The informed consent of the teachers who participated in this study (Mr. Baxter, Mrs. Ford, and Mr. Stra ten) was also sought and obtained. The documents that I used to obtai n adult informed consent and child assent were approved by both the Inst itutional Review Bo ard (IRB) of the University of South Florida and the Department of Research and Accountability of the school district in which this st udy was conducted. I completed the IRBrequired foundation course in human parti cipant protections and fulfilled the IRB continuing education requirement. This study was funded in part by t he USF Community Partnership Faculty Grant awarded to Dr. Joyce Nutta and Dr. Carol Mullen, whose research in the 2004 school year involved a case study of Mr. Baxters fifth-grade class. Dr. Nutta and Dr. Mullen were able to obt ain informed consent for participation in their research from a parent of each child in Mr. Baxters class, as well as parental consent for each ch ild to be videotaped and audiotaped. I will share the results of my resear ch with Dolphin Points principal and Spanish teacher. I will also share the results with participating students and their parents if their contact information is still valid.

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49 Chapter 4. Research Se tting, Teachers, and Program In this chapter, I describe the res earch setting, Dolphin Point Elementary School. Reflections on changes at the school over 35 years are offered and a description of the school at the time of this study is presented, as are school demographics. There is al so a description of key sc hool programs. I introduce Mrs. Ford, the Spanish teacher at Dolp hin Point, and Mr. Baxt er, the classroom teacher who facilitated the video-based lessons for the fifth-grade class from which I drew my participants. A detailed description of the Espaol para ti videobased language program is provided. I then present information on the implementation of the video component of the Spanish pr ogram. Spanish lessons in the Tele Caf are covered next, including information on the relocation of the Tele Caf, the frequency of the S panish instructional sessions that took place there, and a description of the instructional sessions themselves. Dolphin Point Elementary School As I mentioned in describing my initial contact with Dolphin Point and the FLETT model in the previous chapter, this elementary school is located in a predominantly Black neighborhood. Al though in a newspaper article the school district facilities director framed the c onstruction of a new school facility on the Dolphin Point campus in terms of rebu ilding a lot of schools that are old and tired (to protect the identity of Dolphin Point, no citation is provided), it is notable that the new facility was opened to it s students at the beginning of the 2003 2004 school year, a time that coincided with the first year of the choice agreement that ended more than 3 decades of court-ordered busing in the district. In that year and the 3 followin g years, no more than 42% of the students enrolled in any district school were to be Black. (See Dolphin Point and the Choice Agreement in the previous chapter .) In fact, many of the changes in Dolphin Points facilities over the year s can be understood in terms of changes in its student population. This section includes description s of Dolphin Point when it was an all-Black school, when racial integr ation went into effect, and before and after the construction of its new facility. I then describe the part of this facility that I passed through while conducting this study in the 2004 school year. The section concludes with school demographi cs and an introduction to some of the schools key programs. Changes at Dolphin Point Over 35 Years of Its History. Perspective on Dolphin Points history was provided to me by Mr. Ba xter, a White teacher who had spent his whole career at the school. He told me in an interview, When I came here 35 years ago, it wa s an all-Black school with an all-Black faculty. At

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50 that time, the school looked like a pris on, with broken windows and concrete floors. He described both t he upheaval that took place in the school the following year with racial integration and the posit ive changes that had occurred in the old school building, such as the installati on of carpeting, new windows, and air conditioning (Interview, 2/17/05). Mr. Baxter also shared one problem t hat he saw in the education received by Black children at Dolphi n Point in the years since racial integration had been instituted. Perhaps these reflections re veal as much, if not more, about Mr. Baxter and his caring attitude as they do about the school: [Since integration] the Black kids have always been in the minority in the classroom, and a lot of times White teachers seem to ignore the Black children and seem to, uh, the Black children dont seem to get as good an education as they did when it was an a ll-Black school. (I nterview, 2/17/05) Clearly, Mr. Baxter was concerned about t he quality of the education received by Black students. I specifically asked Mr. Baxter about changes he had seen at Dolphin Point over the years, because I had hear d him describe some of them one day when I had stayed to observe his students watching a Martin Luther King, Jr., video at a time when a Spanish video had originally been scheduled. After the video, he talked to his students about integrat ion, racial relations, and changes at the school. Among his comments was a descr iption of Dolphin Point as a prison when he first got there. He told how the old Dolphin Point had gotten fixed up and went on to say, Now you have this pal ace. He maintained that theres not another school in the County thats as ni ce, and clean, and bright, and cheerful. He said that one reason for this is t hat there are still pr oblems getting White children to come to Dolphin Point (Field notes, 1/14/05). I unexpectedly was given another de scription of Dolphin Points old building in an interview with one of my ca se study participants, Ciara Nivea. He had taken Spanish during the 3 years prior to entering the fifth grade, and I asked him what it was like when he first st arted learning Spanish and what some differences were in what the class is like now compared to when you first started. Instead of talk ing about Spanish class, he told me about the school: Oh, well, I first started, it was in the old building. It was the old building, a real, real old building. Now they just tored it down. This the second year we been in this school, this new school. Well, that other school was much smaller. It was just like a tall, straight -up school. . It was full of bricks. (Interview, 1/21/05) Another perspective on Dolphin Point wa s provided to me by its principal, Dennis Newberry. At the end of t he 2004 school year, I asked him how long he had been principal of Dolphin Point. He told me he had been there from 1983 to 1988. Then he had gone to anot her County elementary school. Because of the way that school was set up, he had had less contact with the children, and he hadnt liked it. He had asked to transfer back to Dolphin Point, where he had been from J anuary of 1995 onward. He said that people had thought he was crazy to go back to an inner city school. As if to show how wrong

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51 they had been, he concluded with pride and admiration, Look at it now (Field notes, 5/12/05). A Description of Dolphin Point at the Time of This Study. As Ciara Nivea pointed out above, the 2004 school year was Dolphin Points second year in a new facility. In order to provide a sense of the schools physical environment at the time of this study, I will describe the parts of t he school that I often passed through in the course of conducting this research. Approaching the office of Dolphin Point in August 2004 from its spacious parking lot, I noticed that there were many new metal benches set along the sidewalk that runs in front of the school. These benches werent the only new things that I spotted during the course of this research. As time went by, I noticed new sculptures placed along the inside halls in areas with plants and small ponds with flowing water, and for a br ief period, I follow ed the progress of a new mosaic being installed on one of the walls. Passing the new benches at the front of Dolphin Point, I would enter the school through its front office, where I woul d sign in. Leaving the office area, the central courtyard, with a large sculpture of a whales tail and some low cement steps, was in front of me and to the left. On some days when there were Espaol para ti lessons, I met Mr. Baxters students in this central courtyard at about 11:55 a.m., after they had eaten lunch in the nearby cafeteri a. If I joined them, we went up the uncovered stairs in this area together. Once we were upstairs, the students would line up along the railing by the library. Sometimes I went ahead of the rest of the class with students who helped me carry my recording equipment and bag. We went along the upstairs hall, turned right, and passed through a vestibule, one wall of which was glass. Opposite the entry to this vestibule was the door to a classroom that was as yet unoccupied. To the right of this door was a cabinet and display area, often containing student work related to Marine Science. Past the display area was the door to Mr. Baxters classroom, which the students and I would enter. On days when I wanted to get my equipment set up in Mr. Baxters classroom before his students returned from lunch or when I came for Spanish in the Tele Caf, instead of going up the stairs in the central courtyard after having left the school office I turned right and went along t he downstairs hall, where the mosaic was eventually installed. Through August 2004, the Tele Caf was almost at the end of this hall and to the left, but at t he beginning of that September it was moved upstairs, close to Mr. Baxters room. To get to Mr. Baxters classroom and the Tele Caf in its new location, I would turn right, instead of left, toward t he end of the downstairs hall. I went up a flight of stairs there, at the base of which was a small pond with flowing water. Upstairs I went into the vestibule I hav e already mentioned. To the left of the vestibule entry was the door to the Tele Caf, and opposite this was the door to Mrs. Jacksons fifth-grade classr oom. If I were on my way to a lesson in the Tele Caf, I would often put my equipment dow n on a table to the right and wait for the previous lesson with a first-grade class to near its end. I could see into the

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52 Tele Caf through a rectangular window in its door, except before the Winter Holidays, when a poster was placed on top of the window. School Demographics and Key School Programs. In the same way that no well-balanced review of a theatrical production would concentrate only on a description of the stage settings but woul d also need to cover the cast and play, this overview of Dolphin Point needs to turn now to the characteristics of its students and teachers at t he time of this study, as well as to a consideration of some of the programs offered at the school More detailed consideration of the Spanish FLETT program, the four case participants, and their teachers, Mrs. Ford and Mr. Baxter, will be offered later. Some demographic information for Dolphin Point in the 2004 school year was supplied in Chapter 1, and demographic information for the 2003004 school year was given in Chapter 3. In order to provide a clearer understanding of the school, that information will be brought together here and additional information will be presented. In 2004, the school district in which Dolphin Point is located managed to add more than 75 students to the enrollment at this school, while taking into account parental prefer ences for school of attendance and maintaining percentages of the different racial and ethnic groups that were similar to those of the previous school y ear. The shifts in these percentages from October 2003 to October 2004 were as follows: from 40.7% to 42.8% White students, from 35.9% to 34.7% Black students, from 10.0% to 11.3% Multiracial students, from 7.7% to 6.1% Hispanic students, from 4.1% to 4.2% Asian students, and from 1.7% to 0.8% American Indian st udents (Florida Department of Education, 2005b). W hereas there were 418 student s enrolled at Dolphin Point in October 2003, there were 495 st udents in attendance in October 2004 (Florida Department of Education, 2004b, 2005b). However, this was still well below the capacity for the schools new fa cilities that Principal Newberry had estimated at 684 students in February 2003 (to protect the i dentity of Dolphin Point, no citation is provided). Additional demographic information on Dolphin Point is provided by the 2003 Florida School Indicators Report (Florida Department of Education, 2003). According to this report, the teachers at Do lphin Point in the 2003 school year had an average of 13.1 year s of experience, and 36.4% of the teachers had advanced degrees. (The 2004 NCLB report indicates that these were masters degrees and t hat in 2004 36.7% of the teachers had this type of degree, Florida Department of Education, 2005b). A student stability rate of 94.3% (Florida Department of Education, 2003) was given for 2003, based on the percentage of students from the October membership count who [were] still present at the time of the February count (Florida Department of Education, 2005a, Stability Rate section). The Florida School Indicators Report also shows that Dolphin Point was assigned a grade of C for the 2003 school year. By the following school y ear, Dolphin Points School Performance Grade had risen to a B (Florida Department of Education, 2005b).

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53 In Chapter 1, I mentioned the high percentage of economically disadvantaged students enrolled at Do lphin Point in October 2004: 72.3%, compared to 41.4% in the school district. Because of this characteristic of its student population, Dolphin Point received funds through the federal education program, Title I Improving the Academ ic Achievement of the Disadvantaged, being designated a schoolwide Title I program The Dolphin Point Newsletter for August 3, 2004, explains how Title I funds are used to enhance the school: With these funds we are able to purc hase more instructional materials and hire teaching partners and hourly teacher s to work with our students. At Dolphin Point Elementary, Title I plans family nights throughout the year, purchases agenda books for communication and promotes highest achievement for all students. Besides being a schoolwide Title I pr ogram, Dolphin Poin t Elementary is an attendance area magnet school. With the institution of the choice agreement (described in the previous chapte r), large attendance areas replaced neighborhood zoning, a llowing parents more choices in selecting a school for their child (to protect the identity of Dolphin Point, no citation is provided). Dolphin Point and some other schools in the attendance area where it is located received federal funding for the developmen t of specialized attractor programs. Students who reside in the attendance ar ea apply to these schools through the regular choice application process. (A distinct application process is in place for the countywide magnet programs that accept students who reside in any part of the County.) The success of Dolphin Point as a magnet school was recognized in the spring of 2005 when the school received a national Magnet School of Excellence award. A local newspaper reported that the criteria used in selecting schools to receive this award included desegregation and diversity goals, innovative instructional strategies, student achievement and parent and community involvement (to protect t he identity of Dolphin Point, no citation is provided). The main attractor program at Dolphi n Point is Marine Science. Spanish is another attractor program and figures prominently in the schools 2004 Attractor Statement, whic h reads in part, Students study local habitats from ponds to the open oceans, Spanish and technol ogy, integrating all subject areas in a custom-designed curriculum alig ned to the Florida Sunshine State Standards. Mrs. Ford As I wrote in the previous chapter, Lissette Ford sought to have research conducted on the Spanish program at her school. When I became involved in the research, she welcomed me into her classroom, shared her insights with me, and helped me in many ways. A native speaker of Spanish, Mrs. Ford came to the United States when she was 3 years old. I had known her professionally even before she had come to Dolphin Point Elementary, and I respec ted her abilities as a foreign language teacher and her professional in volvement in this area. For these reasons, I was

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54 surprised to learn that she had begun her teaching career as an elementary school classroom teacher rather than as a Spanish teacher. As Mrs. Ford explained to me in an interview on April 21, 2005, she had been teaching for 32 years. Her first pos ition was as a second-grade teacher. She hadnt been at her first school for long when it was closed because of highway construction. She explai ned to me what happened when she was transferred from that school and how she later became a teacher of English as a Second Language (ESOL): The teachers who had a lot of senior ity got the first pick of schools, where they could go. By the time it got to me, I had like [a] couple of picks, but one was a school that was open space. And of course, the teachers with a lot experience didnt want to try that, so I chose that. I chose the open space, and it was the bes t experience of my life, cause I got in; I was very lucky; I got into a very nice team, and I was there, as a classroom teacher, like for about 6 years. I loved it. I really enjoyed it. I dont think I woulda left that school or left that team, but one summer, the supervisor at that time called me cause they needed an ES-O-L [she spells it out] teacher duri ng the summer. And she called me to see if I wanted to do it, and I said ye s. Now, my experience was very limited with that, just my own personal experience, but never to teach E-SO-L. And I loved it. I had students from, um, at the time, it was in the 80s, and I had students from Cambodia, and Laos, and Vietnam. And I loved it. We had [a] lot of field trips during the summer, and then we would come back to the classroom and talk about it, and write about it, and read about it. And it was just wonderful. So apparently they liked what I did, because they called me in the fall and offered me a job as an E-S-O-L teacher. And, of course, I had to go in and get certified, but I accepted. I did, and I did that for 4 or 5 years: E-S-O-L. (Interview, 4/21/05) I asked Mrs. Ford if her experience as an ESOL teacher had been at the elementary school level, and she told me that all of her t eaching experience had been at that level. Mrs. Ford went on to relate how one summer she had attended a Spanish institute for ESOL and Spanish-speaking t eachers. The participants in this institute were asked what they would like to do if they werent teaching what they were currently teaching. Mrs. Ford had responded, I would love to teach Spanish to elementary children. Her supervisor at the time wrote and secured a grant through which a Spanish program was begun in the County in 1986, and Mrs. Ford and Nick Straten were hired (Interview, 4/21/05). Mrs. Ford described the success and expansion of t he Spanish FLES program, which had continued until one year when funding was cut. During that year, she became a second-grade classr oom teacher again. She characterized that experience in positive te rms: It was a great year. It was [unintelligible] fun, goin back. I enjoyed it. And yeah, c ause a lot of things had changed, and it was good; it was good that I went back (Interview, 4/21/05).

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55 After Mrs. Fords year back in a primary classroom, two magnet elementary schools with Spani sh programs were opened in the County. She was hired to teach Spanish at one of them and remained there for almost 10 years, before coming to Dolphin Point (Interview 4/21/05). Her teaching responsibilities at that school were as follows: It was ju st eight classes, and you saw those eight classes every day, the same cl asses (Interview, 3/8/05). Mrs. Ford remained active professionally during her time at Dolphin Point, gaining National Board Certification, pr esenting at conferences and teacher training institutes, and teac hing a Spanish class to el ementary school teachers. Mr. Baxter talked about Mrs. Ford in glowing terms, sa ying how much he and the students loved her. He praised her in this way: Miss Ford is a fantastic teacher. She just has all this energy, and, you know, she loves the language, and the kids can see this (Interview, 2/17/05). Mr. Baxter To me, Lloyd Baxter was an imposing fi gure, and I felt a bit intimidated by him at first. This was in spite of the way in which he welcomed me into his classroom, telling me, Make yourself at hom e. This is your room too (Field note, 9/15/04). As I got to know him, I felt more at ease and enjoyed the time I spent with him. He was genuinely interested in this research and told me repeatedly that he would like to see the resu lts. I was looking forward to sharing them with him but will never have that opportunity, because he died the month following the end of data collection. In thinking about Mr. Baxter now, I am reminded of something told to me by Sarah Montgomery, the mother of Clair e, one of my case study participants. Claires sister, Stacey, is one year ahead of her in school. When Stacey had heard that she was going to be in Mr. Baxt ers class in the fifth grade, she had told her mother she didnt want to be, bec ause he yells at the children. However, as Sarah told me, when Stacey got in his class, she really liked him and found out that he was like a big teddy bear (Field notes, 2/26/05). During the time that I knew Mr. Ba xter, he was very supportive of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point, but this wasnt always the case. Mrs. Ford told me that his attitude toward S panish had changed tremendously over the 4 years of the program, and she characteri zed the change as being as drastic as from night [to] day, salt and pepper. She described to me his attitude in the first year of the program: His attitude was I dont have time for this. Im too old to learn this. I dont know Spanish; how can I teach some thing I do not know? Oh, very negative. Um, was very verbal about it. It wasnt like he was even sayin it behind my back. He was very verbal very verbal in faculty meetings about it. (Interview, 4/21/05) She attributed the change in him over the preceding 4 years to seeing the progress of the program, seeing how much the students had learned, and attending two Spanish summer institutes (see Spanish Summe r Institute in

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56 Chapter 3), at which he learned the val ue of foreign language in the elementary school (Interviews, 3/8/05, 4/21/05). Mr. Baxter also talked to me about his change in attitude when I asked him, Has your attitude toward Spanish or toward the Spanish program changed over the past 4 years? He answered t hat his attitude had changed greatly, and he explained: When Miss Ford first came . I was kind of appr ehensive, didnt want to do it, didnt have any background in it. After fighting many battles with Miss Ford and talking to her for a whole entire year, I finally bought into the program and was able to handle the classes and the program, and I enjoy it now, you know, but it was kind of frightening at the beginning, because I hadnt done it for 30 years and hadnt been responsible for a Spanish program. So it took me a while to fina lly buy into it and quit arguing with Miss Ford and different things like that. And she can tell you the same thing that I was a hard pers on to sell the program to, but once I got into it, its been very enj oyable. (Interview, 3/16/05) Unlike Mrs. Ford, who believed that greater initial comfort and slightly greater ease in embedding Sp anish in the curriculum were the main differences between teachers with some knowledge of Spanish from previous schooling and those with none (Interview, 3/8/05), Mr. Baxter emphasiz ed how important having a background in Spanish was to the succe ss of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point. After talking about the importanc e of Mrs. Ford to the success of the program, he continued: Ive always felt that if your teacher s that come to Dolphin Point have a background in Spanish, that the Spanish program would be great in the classroom, with a background. I thin k the teachers here, like myself, without a background in Spanish, I think its frustrating and rough sometimes to try to work with Espaol para ti and do lessons in the classroom when you dont have a backgroun d in Spanish. I would like to see Mr. Newberry, when hes hiring peopl e, make sure that they have some kind of background in Spanish. I think that would help a great deal. (Interview, 2/17/05) Mr. Baxter told me about how he had tri ed to avoid studying foreign languages when he was in school, because he never thought he would be successful at them, and he talked about how he believ ed this had affected the Spanish program in his classroom: I think that that has hurt the Spanish program in this classroom, but Ive tried to learn it along with the children and allow them to teach it to me, so thats hel ped also (Interview, 2/17/05). In the next section, I will begin an ex amination of the video component of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point by discussing the characteristics of Espaol para ti Level 5, including its com ponents, its approach to language teaching, its goals, and its topics.

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57 The Espaol para ti Video-Based Language Program As I have previously stated, the Espaol para ti video-based language program (developed by the Clark County Elementary Sc hool Divisions, Nevada, in collaboration with KLVX, Communi cation Group, Channel 10) forms the foundation of the video compone nt of Spanish instruction at Dolphin Point. Espaol para ti consists of five levels, created for use in the fi rst through fifth grades (Steele & Johnson, 1999, 2000). (In the 2004 school year, kindergarten students at Dolphin Point viewed the SALSA video program [developed by PeachStar Education Se rvices] and were taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing.) In this secti on, I will discuss the characteristics of Espaol para ti concentrating specifically on Level 5, the level used for fifthgrade Spanish instruction duri ng the year of this study. The Espaol para ti language program includes a number of components for Level 5 that are meant to provi de for two video lessons and two related activity lessons per week (Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. xxvi). The video component is described in the Teachers Manual for this level as consisting of videocassettes containing 60 tw enty-minute video lessons (Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. vii). 1 However, the usual running time of these video lessons, as they were shown to Mr. Baxters cl ass (without credits), was from 14 to 15 minutes apiece. Besides the videocassettes and the Teachers Manual (containing information for facilitating eac h video lesson and associated activity lesson), the program includes a teacher s resource book, two audiocassettes with listening and speaking activities, a song audiocassette, and an assessment audiocassette. Spanish readers, containi ng the stories about the adventures of Fredo that are included in some video less ons, and a set of flashcards may be purchased separately. The approach to language teaching used in Espaol para ti was shaped by the Natural Approach (Krashen & Te rrell, 1983) and Total Physical Response (Asher, 2000), as Rhodes and Pufahl point out in Language by Video (2004, p. 11). The Espaol para ti Teachers Manual explains how TPR is used throughout the program: The video teacher first states a command and models the proper response and then repeats the command and has the children respond as a group; next the video teac her gives commands to individuals who respond, and finally, children give commands to classmates (Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. xi). (It is in so me of the activity lessons that students are provided with an opportunity to give commands to their classmates.) Evidence of the influence of the Natural Approach on the Espaol para ti program can be seen in several areas, but areas in which Espaol para ti diverges from this approach can also be not ed. One area of influence is in the promotion of high-interest activities in a low-anxiety environment. This is based on the Natural Approach principle that t he activities done in the classroom aimed 1 From the SRA/McGraw-Hill work, Espaol para ti. Teachers Manual: Level 5 by E. Steele and H. Johnson, 1999, Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company. The previous quote and subsequent ones from this work are reproduc ed with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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58 at acquisition must foster a lowering of the affective filter of the students (Krashen & Terrell, 1983, p. 21). As Krashen and Terrell (1983) explain, Activities in the classroom focus at a ll times on topics which are interesting and relevant to the student s and encourage them to express their ideas, opinions, desires, emotions and feelings. An environment which is conducive to acquisition must be creat ed by the instructor low anxiety level, good rapport with t he teacher, friendly relationship with other students; otherwise acquisition w ill be impossible. (p. 21) Steele and Johnson (2000), elsewhere identified as the authors of Espaol para ti (Steele & Johnson, 1999), cast a similar vision for the introduction of foreign language in elementary school: [Our children] will learn a new lan guage in a relaxed and non-threatening atmosphere in which their oral/aural abilities can be easily enhanced. In this setting the new language is learned through songs, games, physical activities, attractive visual aids, and hand puppets. These materials and strategies provide a stimulati ng language learning environment that promotes enthusiasm and a desire to learn more. (p. 4) Steele and Johnson (2000) also assert that Espaol para ti provides children with immediately applicable language related to the people, places, and things around them, thus motivating their desire to learn and giving them the confidence and willingness to use the Spanish language (p. 6). Two other principles of the Natural Approach also seem to influence Espaol para ti These principles are that c omprehension precedes production and that production is allowed to emerge in stages (Krashen & Terrell, 1983, p. 20). The implication of both is that ther e is a silent period before students begin to produce language. This leads to the caution after the second principle that the students are not forced to speak befor e they are ready (p. 20). Similar advice is given to classroom teachers by Steele and Johnson (1999): Also bear in mind that some children need to list en for a longer time before they start talking. Do not force a child to speak Spanish (p. xiv). Although there is evidence that the Natural Approach principle comprehension precedes pr oduction influenced Espaol para ti in several ways it is also possible to see how t he video-based language program diverges from one of the three implications for the furtherance of language acquisition that are derived from this principle. The th ree implications are stated by Krashen and Terrell (1983) as follows: (1) the instructor always us es the target language, (2) the focus of the communication will be on a topic of interest for the student, (3) the instructor will strive at all times to help the student understand (p. 20). Evidence of the influence of the second implication on Espaol para ti was provided above. Evidence of the influence of the third implication may be seen in Steele and Johnsons statem ent that the video teacher frequently uses a gesture, a picture, or an object to hel p the children, and you [the classroom teacher], understand what is being said ( 1999, p. xi). However, the use of English in Espaol para ti is clearly contrary to the first implication. As Steele

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59 and Johnson (1999) write, Explanations are always given in English so no one is ever lost (p. xi). In the Espaol para ti video lessons, the use of English is not confined to isolated explanations, however. Sometimes English and Spanish are used together in the same sentence. For example, in Lesson 21, following a story about Fredo that is entirely in Spanish there is an exchange between the video teacher (la maestra) and Winston (a puppet ) that incorporates both English and Spanish. The transcript of this exchange is provided below. Italics are used for the Spanish words and phrases in an attempt to increase readability. Maestra : Oh, its good to see Fredo again. Me gusta Fredo. [I like Fredo.] S? Winston : S, Maestra. [Yes, Teacher.] Maestra : Now what did Fredo say en la clase de historia [in history class]? Winston : Estudio historia. [I study history.] Maestra : He could say, Estudio historia. He could say, Escribo [I write] . S? Winston : S. Maestra : Aha. What did he say en la clase de arte [in art class]? Winston : Uh, pinto. [I paint.] Maestra : Pinto. Or he could say, coloreo [I color] , s? Winston : O dibujo. [Or I draw.] Maestra : Dibujo. Right, all of those things en la clase de arte. And what could he say en la clase de matemticas [in math class]? Oh, he didnt go to that class in the book. Winston : Oh, he could say, uh, Estudio los nmeros. [I study numbers.] Maestra : Oh, los nmeros. Los nmeros grandes? [Large numbers?] Winston : Y pequeos. [And small ones.] Maestra : Y pequeos. S. Well, its time for you to come up with some nmeros grandes. Vamos a contar. [Lets count.] ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996; Transcript, 11/10/04) 2 The frequent mixing of Spanish and En glish, sometimes within the same sentence in Espaol para ti is cited by Rhodes and Pufahl (2004, p. 72) as one of the things that t eachers and parents didnt like about this video-based language program. Rhodes and Pufahl also point out that the large percentage of instruction that is in English greatly limits the amount of Spanish to which the students are exposed (p. 76). A concern in the development of the Espaol para ti program was the key role played in its facilitation by classr oom teachers, many of whom do not speak Spanish, and this concern may in part a ccount for the frequent use of English. Steele and Johnson (2000) high light the challenge, t here from the outset, of helping classroom teachers facilitate language acquisition even though the teachers lack knowledge of the ta rget language (p. 6). In the Espaol para ti 2 From the SRA/McGraw-Hill work, Espaol para ti: Level 5 [Video series], 1996, Lincolnwood, IL: NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group & KLVX TV. The previous quote and subsequent ones from this work are reproduced with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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60 Teachers Manual, Steele and Johnson (1999, p. xii) encourage classroom teachers to think of themselves as team teaching with the video teacher, and they offer them the following encouragement: You, the classroom teacher, are the fa cilitator who watches the video with the children and responds along with t hem. And dont worry if you dont speak Spanish. The on-screen video teacher (la maestra in Spanish) introduces small amounts of informat ion at a time, and she explains in English what is happening or what is going to happen. (1999, p. xi) Moving on to a continuation and c onclusion of the discussion of the relationship between the Natural Approach and Espaol para ti there is one other principle of the forme r that hasnt yet been mentioned. It is the principle that the course syllabus consists of communicative goals (Krashen & Terrell, 1983, p. 20). As Krashen and Terrell (1983) explain, thi s means that the focus of each classroom activity is organized by topic, not grammati cal structure (p. 20). The clearest evidence of divergence from this principle of the Natural Approach by Espaol para ti can be seen in learning objectives from individual lessons that are stated in grammatical terms (e.g., Form the fi rst person singular [ I -form] of several verbs, Steele & Johns on, 1999, p. 74). These, however, are accompanied by learning objectives stated in the topical terms advocated by the Natural Approach (e.g., I dentify and name additional sc hool subjects, Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. 68). I began the discussion of relationshi p between the Natural Approach and Espaol para ti with Rhodes and Pufahls (2004) observation that the approach to language teaching used in Espaol para ti was shaped by the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) and Tota l Physical Response (Asher, 2000), (p. 11). In Language by Video Rhodes and Pufahl (2004) go on to place the original date of development of Espaol para ti in 1992, prior to the publication of the national foreign language standards, and they express concern that this video-based language pr ogram (along with others developed before 1996) was not designed in alignmen t with the goals of the standards (p. 11). It is true that Level 1 of Espaol para ti was developed in 1992, but Level 5 was created in 1996 (St eele & Johnson, 2000). And although Level 5 does not address the national fo reign language standards in each lesson, it does make reference in several places to the five Cs of language learning around which the standards are organi zed (Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities; see Standards for Foreign Language Learning, 1996). For example, in Lesson 41 after explaining how Comparisons and Communities are rela ted to various jobs, and before highlighting the importance of Connections in all jobs, the video teacher states: Comunicaciones are important to anybody in any job. And thats what language is all about is about co mmunicating with one another and understanding one another. Cultura, the knowledge of someones culture is so important in every job, bec ause when we understand each others cultures, were able to get along in the world together. ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996; Transcript, 2/16/05)

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61 As a content-related language program, Espaol para ti does address Standard 3.1 (under Connections ) of the national standar ds: Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines th rough the foreign language (Standards of Foreign Language Lear ning, 1996, p. 4). The Espaol para ti Teachers Manual for Level 5 (Steele & Johns on, 1999, pp. xxxv-xxxvi) lists content-based topics under the headings La nguage Arts, Social Studies, Health and Nutrition, Mathematics, Music, Scienc e, Computers, Physi cal Education, and Art. There are various ways in which the topics in Espaol para ti Level 5, may be summarized. From my own ex perience with the pr ogram, I offer the following summary of topics. Greetings and introductions are covered, as are the date, the seasons, the weather, family relationships, and school subjects. Numbers are used in addition, subtraction, and multiplication problems; to give prices; to give street addresses; and to tell time. Commands are taught, as are the first-person singular forms of various verbs, and the latter are associated with times, so that students are encouraged to say the time at which they do different things. Cultural information about mealti mes and food origins is presented, as is vocabulary related to food, grocery shoppi ng, picnics, and setting the table. Vocabulary is also presented for room s of the house, furnishings, kitchen appliances, and entertainment appliances. Students ar e taught how to express their feelings and how to express their likes and dislikes. Polite phrases are introduced and discussed, as are ways of asking for help. The importance of language learning is emphasized. The names of the Spanish-speaking countries and of some of the continents are given; and directions, geographical features, and geographical locations are covered. Cult ural information is given about cities in the United States that have Spanish names and areas in the United States with many Spanish speakers. Dances from Spanish-speak ing countries are presented. There is an emphasis on professions, and the masculine and feminine forms of the professions are practiced, as well as the masculine plural form. Adjectives are introduced and used, and students are taught how to express possession and spatial position. There is vocabulary for use in a doctors office, including vocabulary fo r different parts of the body and for expressing pain. Students also practi ce vocabulary for farm animals, zoo animals, and marine animals. Language, culture, and review objectiv es are specified for almost every lesson of Espaol para ti Level 5. (The exceptions are Lesson 1, which has no review objectives, and Lesson 49, which has no language objectives, because no new concepts are introduced in this lesson; Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. 290). The inclusion of the review objectives is indicative of the spiral method of teaching utilized in Espaol para ti : Material is usually introduced in one lesson, practiced in several succeeding lessons dropped for a while, and then practiced again (Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. xi). Steele and Johnson (2000) describe the form that a typical lesson takes: [It] consists of an opening conversation, a review and reinforcement of previous k nowledge, presentation of new material, reinforcing activities, a music segm ent, and an appropriate closing (p. 6).

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62 The next section will deal with the implementation of the video component of the Spanish program in Mr. Baxter s classroom. The main part of the discussion will be devoted to the implementation of Espaol para ti but the implementation of supplemental vi deo lessons will also be included. Implementation of the Video Component With its 60 lessons for Level 5, the le vel that Mr. Baxters fifth-grade class was viewing during the period of this research study, the Espaol para ti videobased language program was used for Spanish instruction on a consistent basis throughout the 2004 school year. In addition, supplemental videos or video segments were shown on Fridays dur ing the months of January through April. These videos were from the Muzzy (developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation) and La Familia Contenta series (developed by the Pinellas County [Florida] FLES Team). Classroom teachers received a calendar from Mrs. Ford each month, indicating which Espaol para ti lessons should be shown in a given week and, in some cases, when classe s could watch videos broadcast from the library on Fridays. At the beginning of the 2004 school year, Dolphin Points classroom teachers were only asked to show one Espaol para ti video lesson per week. A schedule of two lessons per week was not instituted in the fifth grade until the week of October 18. Had it not been fo r the disruption of the school schedule caused by hurricanes during the mont hs of August and September, the frequency of video lessons would have been increased somewhat sooner but not by more than a few weeks. As Mrs. Fo rd explained to me, she believed in taking baby steps and starting slowly (Int erview, 3/8/05). This was because of the changes in students and teac hers that might occur dur ing the first 10 days of classes and the importance to teachers of having time to build a community within their classrooms. Mrs Ford also expressed a desire to allow the teachers sufficient time to reacclimate themselves to the second language, and she shared with me her idea of having st udents new to Dolphin Point, especially those in the fifth grade, co me to the Tele Caf for basic lessons in the first 2 weeks of the following school year. S he concluded, Those are the reasons I really dont start with tw o videos a week, and theres no need to, because theres only 60 lessons, so we can really start slowly and still finish the whole kit (Interview, 3/8/05). Mrs. Fords addition in the 2004 school year of a writing assignment for fourthand fifth-grade classes had a substantial effect on what happened during Espaol para ti video lessons. As implemented in Mr. Baxters class, the assignment involved students writing Span ish vocabulary words from a given lesson, along with a statement of the lessons main i dea, on an index card known as a Saber es poder [Knowledge is Power] card. Selected cards were subsequently featured in lessons in the Te le Caf, after which they were placed on a bulletin board used as a Knowledge Wall. As Mrs. Ford explained (Interview, 3/8/05), she had learned about the concept of a Knowledge Wall, where students are to place material that is important to them, from Spence

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63 Rogers of PEAK Learning Systems in intensive training that he had delivered to the Countys teachers. (Information on how teachers from different places have implemented the Knowledge Wall is av ailable from PEAK Learning Systems forum at http://www.peaklearn.com/forum_messages.asp [retrieved December 29, 2005].) Later I will provide a more detailed ex amination of the life cycle of a Saber es poder card, using one produced by Claire Montgomery, when I discuss her language output. At this ti me, I will merely observe that Espaol para ti lessons began in Mr. Baxter s class with blank index cards being passed out and with Mr. Baxter giving directi ons for the lesson, such as, Remember, we want to participate and al so write. We only need the main idea and two or three vocabulary words to go along with the main lesson. And when she asks you to participate, youre supposed to be practicing verbally the Spanish words that s hes doing. (Transcript, 10/26/04) Next Mr. Baxter would show the Espaol para ti video lessons, usually without pausing the videotape. Sometime s during the first half of the school year, he would ask his student s questions and talk to them about a lesson after it was over. Several of the postvideo sessions, including the only one that occurred during my observations in the second half of the school year, were more extensive. I should note here that Mr. Baxter never facilitated any of the 60 activity lessons that are described in the Espaol para ti Teachers Manual for Level 5 (Steele & Johnson, 1999) and that are meant to last approximately 20 minutes apiece, and I never observed him utilizing any of the Espaol para ti audiotapes or any materials from the teachers resource book. I know that he did have the Teachers Manual, which he handed to me on May 4, 2005, before I led his class in a review (Field notes, 5/4/05). Occasionally, there were a few simila rities between acti vities that Mr. Baxter used after particular video le ssons and activities described in corresponding activity lessons, but this was probably due to t he fact that both were based on the same material. For example, after Lesson 25, Mr. Baxter asked students to share a dance, an espaol dance that we went over today (Transcript, 12/7/04). In the Teachers Manual for this lesson, there is an activity in which teachers are to pass out copies of a worksheet about Puerto Rico and are to begin the study of Puerto Rico by asking children to name the dances they saw in the Video Lesson that come from the area in wh ich Puerto Rico is located (Steele & Johnson, 1999, p. 151) (Because many students were taking part in a Chorus road trip on the day of this lesson, on the following day Mr. Baxter again asked the st udents who had been there to share the name of a dance that comes from one of the espaol countries; Transcript, 12/8/04). After other lessons, Mr. Baxter asked his students for examples of Spanish words that are similar to Engl ish words (Lesson 10), for differences between the students shown on the video and them (Lesson 11), and for the main idea (Lessons 12, 14, and 26). He asked his students what culture means and what the video had been about (Less on 11) and asked them to name the

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64 subjects students on the video were taking that they were also taking (Lesson 12). He asked for Spanish words that go along with actions (Lesson 14), asked his students to share an action word with us and ask a person in the classroom to do that action (Transcript, 10/26/ 04, Lesson 16), and asked visiting fourthgrade students to name one thing they had learned (Lesson 24). The time spent on most of these activities in pos tvideo sessions was between 2.5 and 4.5 minutes. The postvideo session following Lesson 26 (in which Mr. Baxter asked for the main idea, talked about music as a part of culture, and asked for the names of dances) was of slightly longer duration, lasting 6 minutes. There were two postvideo sessions based on number activities that lasted even longer (13 and 10 minutes, respecti vely). After Lesson 23, which had included addition, subtraction, and multiplication problem s, Mr. Baxter asked his students to write a math problem in Spanish that they w ould share with the class. Unlike the other postvideo activities that I have mentioned, in which only some of the students participated, in this activity Mr. Baxter called on an d got a reply from each student (Field notes, 11/30/04). This wa s also the case for an activity that followed Lesson 34. Before showing the vi deo lesson, which includes a review of large numbers, Mr. Baxter had let hi s students know that they would be practicing counting up to 100 because of a game Mrs. Ford would be playing with them the next day. After the video was over, he told them that he was going to give them numbers and asked them to find out how to say the Spanish names of the numbers correctly. He assigned numbers from 1 to 98 to the students, one by one, so that most of them had four numbers, and af ter giving them time to come up with what they would say, call ed on them in the same order (Field notes, 1/19/05). The activity on January 19 that I hav e just described was the only one that occurred after any of the Espaol para ti lessons that I observed in 2005. (For a schedule of my observations, interviews, and other activities related to this research, please see the Appendix.) On other occasions in the winter and spring of 2005, I would wait around after Espaol para ti videos but never observed Mr. Baxter lead his class in a postvideo activity again. Because of the familiarity I had gained with the behaviors of my case study participants during Espaol para ti video lessons by January 2005 and because of the apparent lack of postvideo activities, I decreased the frequency with which I observed these lessons, asking Mr. Baxter to let me know if his class would be doing any special activities in S panish. He never informed me of any such activities associated with video less ons. However, at the end of a cooking session in the Tele Caf on April 21, he told Mrs. Ford that she could give his students the names of Spanish-speaking c ountries and ask them for the names of the corresponding capitals, because, as he maintained, We spent the whole entire week, 5 hours a day, 5 days a week, studyin these capitals (Transcript, 4/21/05). The extra practice with countries and capitals that Mr. Baxter told Mrs. Ford about is in keeping with his respons e to a question I had posed to him: Are there certain things in Spanish you like going over with the class more than

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65 others? In reply, he had talked about doi ng things with which he felt at ease and that he liked, and he had continued, The countries and the capitals were always favorites of mine, so I probably find that we do more math activities in here in Spanish and more geography in Spanish than activities that stress proper Spanish pronunciation (Interview, 2/17/05). At the end of the school year, I wa s curious about what Spanish lessons were like in Mr. Baxters classroom when I wasnt there and whether I had missed anything besides the practice wit h countries and capitals, and because of this, I asked my participants, Are things different when you watch Espaol para ti on days when Im not here? Three of the students told me that it was different, because I wasnt there videorecording the cl ass, but none said that anything else was different about the less ons (Interviews, 5/2/05). It is possible that Mr. Ba xter did not facilitate any more activities for the students because of his lack of a background in Spanish. As he explained to me, A lot of times I wont do activities like t hat [activities that reinforce what is being done in class] from the teac hers edition, because I dont have a background, and I get caught into situat ions where I dont feel at ease, and then Ill just skip it (Interview, 2/17/05) Although this lack of a background in Spanish and Mr. Baxters resultant discomfort doubtless had a bearing on how he implemented the video component of Dolphin Points Spanish program, I feel that ther e are other factors that also influenced what he did or didnt do with his class. In his interview on February 17, 2005, Mr. Baxter expressed not only a desire to avoid activities that made him feel uneasy but also talked to me about his plans to do more Spanish activities that would be different and fun after the completion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). He brought this idea up again the next month. When I complimented him on a Spanish jeopardy game that he had put together before the Thanksgiving Break and asked him if he thought there would be another before the end of the school year, he said, Yeah, well probably have lots of em, because now that FCAT testing is over, well have more time fo r Spanish, more time for other enjoyable activities, things like that (Interview, 3/ 16/05). (Because of the administration of the FCAT and the Spring Holiday that t ook place in the m onth of March, the schedule for the month t hat Mrs. Ford prepared included only four Espaol para ti lessons and two supplemental La Familia Contenta videos.) But even with such good intentions, the only Spanish acti vity that I am aw are of Mr. Baxter facilitating in his classroom after the num ber-naming activity in January was the review of Spanish-speaking countries and capitals in April. There is another aspect of Mr. Ba xters implementation of the video component of the Spanish program that is worth noting. As I have already pointed out, the Espaol para ti Teachers Manual (Steele & Johnson, 1999) describes the classroom teachers role in this way: You . are the facilitator who watches the video with the children and responds along with them (p. xi). In earlier Espaol para ti lessons, Mr. Baxter took a much more active part in Spanish responses than he did in later lessons. For example, during Lesson 16

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66 Mr. Baxter produced 22 Spanish utterances (Transcript, 10/26/04). (I define a Spanish utterance as anything said in Spanish that ranges in length from a word to a sentence.) In contrast, during Lesson 44 Mr. Baxter produced no Spanish utterances (Transcript, 3/2/05), and during Lesson 49 he produced 2 Spanish utterances (Transcript, 4/6/05). Several factors may have contributed to Mr. Baxters taking a less active role in the facilitation of video lessons in the second half of the school year: personal health concerns, the illness and subsequent death of his mother, and his upcoming retirement. In relation to personal health concerns and his mothers worsening condition, I noted that the first time Mr. Baxter was absent from school because of both chest pains he was experiencing and his mothers illness was on December 14, six days afte r the last postvideo activity that I observed, with the exception of the number practice in January. An insight into Mr. Baxters possible disposition to ward schoolwork as his retirement approached came to me from Sarah Mont gomery, the mother of Claire, one of my participants. Sarah told me that Mr. Baxter had given the class of her older daughter piles of homework the previous school year but that Claire hadnt gotten much that year (Field notes, 4/30/05). The Espaol para ti video lessons that I have been discussing were supplemented in the m onths of January and F ebruary by segments of Muzzy videos (the Spanish-language version) that were approximately 10 minutes in length. These animated, all-Spanish vide os present the experiences of Muzzy, a monster from outer space who is visiting the kingdom of Gondolandia, and also follow the experiences of some of the c haracters who live in the kingdom. Like Espaol para ti Muzzy is a video-based language program, but I never saw evidence of the use of any of it s materials other than the videos. In the months of March and April, the Espaol para ti video lessons were supplemented by videos from the La Familia Contenta series. This series was created by FLES educators from Pinellas County, Florida, who play the parts of the members of a family. The name of the series comes from the frequent refrain, Mi familia siempr e est contenta [My family is always happy], of the senile grandmother, who is oblivious to the family conflicts that often take place around her. The two episodes of La Familia Contenta that I observed in April were 9 and 7.5 minutes long. The supplemental videos were br oadcast from the school library on Fridays at three different times, giving teachers the option of letting their classes watch them at 9:00, 12:15, or 2:00. Perhaps because of Mr. Baxters absences and his personal concerns, there were th ree occasions on which he told me ahead of time that his class would be watching Muzzy at 9:00, but when I arrived slightly before that time, I was told the cl ass would be watching it at 2:00 instead. On two of these occasions, I came back in the afternoon to observe (Field notes, 1/14/05, 1/21/05). On the third occasion, when a substitute teacher, who had been told the video would be at 2:00, apol ogized to me profusely about the mixup, I said it was all right and decided not to come back that afternoon (Field notes, 2/4/05).

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67 Besides these scheduling difficultie s, there was a problem with the broadcast of a La Familia Contenta video that occurred on the afternoon of March 18. Because of this, Mrs. Ford told Mrs. Stephens, the substitute teacher I just mentioned, and me that she would let Mr. Baxter hav e a copy of the video to show to his class after the Spri ng Holiday (Field notes, 3/18/05). The purpose of this section has been to discuss the implementation of the video component of the Spanish program in Mr. Baxters classroom, including the frequency of video lessons, the types of ac tivities that were carried out in conjunction with Espaol para ti and the role Mr. Baxter played in the implementation of the lessons. The next section covers Spanish lessons in the Tele Caf, including information on the relocation of the Tele Caf, the frequency of the Spanish instructional sessions that took place there, and a description of the instructional sessions themselves. Spanish Lessons in the Tele Caf I have already described the videoconf erencing component of the Spanish program at Dolphin Poin t Elementary in the 2003 school year and have mentioned two changes related to this com ponent that took place in the following school year, the year in which the present study was conducted. One change was in the physical location of the Tele Caf. The other change involved the distribution of teaching responsibilities among FLES teacher s. In the 2003 school year, once a class at Dolphin Point had been paired with a class of the same grade level at another school and videoconferencing had been introduced, the FLES teachers at the two schools would alternate on a weekly basis in assuming sole teaching responsibility for the matched classes. In 2004, almost without exception, team teaching replaced the alternation of teaching responsibility for the FLES teachers. The Tele Caf in Its New Setting. The change in location of the Tele Caf, accomplished at the end of August and beginning of September 2004, was for the purpose of grouping primar y classrooms in the firstfloor area where the Tele Caf had been. At the time Mrs. Ford told me that she found the move quite stressful (Field notes, 9/1/04). Although the Tele Cafs new room lacked a stove, an asset of the former room, and had a different orientation, with the front of the class to the south rather than to the north, once it was set up for videoconferencing, the similarities seemed to outweigh the differences. As Edward, a Dolphin Point student who experienced videoconferencing sessions with classes at Greenwood Park Elementary in both the fourth and fifth grades, explained, In Tele Caf, I dont think it really has changed, cause we call up the same people [to establish the vide oconferencing connection]. Its the same person, the same rug. Only th ing that really changed from this year and last year in Tele Caf is the room, and I like [this] room better, even though it doesnt have a stove, but its much closer and less walk. (Interview, 1/21/05)

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68 The first class session I observed in the Tele Caf in the 200405 school year took place in the new location on September 16. Before class started, Mrs. Ford told me that an ISDN line to the present room had been installed, making possible a videoconfer encing connection. However, because Mr. Straten (the FLES teacher at Greenwood Park) was sick, there would be no videoconferencing that day. In spite of this, Mrs. Ford planned on going through the motions of putting in a videoconferencing call to Greenwood Park (Field notes, 9/16/04). After Mr. Baxter and his class had entered the room at 1:30 p.m., Mrs. Ford began the class session with the tw o signs that indicated which language should be spoken turned to their English side. She talked to the students in English, saying that even though they were in a different room, it was still the Tele Caf and saying that t hey should sit with their p ompis en el piso [bottoms on the floor]. She mentioned two other classes that had been very good. She told the students that they would be ta lking about calendars and clocks. Then she asked one of the students to change t he language signs to their Spanish side, and the class said, Uno, dos, tres. Adis, ingls. Hola, espaol. [One, two, three. Goodbye, Engl ish. Hello, Spanish.] When Mrs. Ford tried calling Greenwood Park, and no one was there, sh e talked to the students in Spanish, wondering where Seor Straten was (Field notes, 9/16/04). The preceding scene is not only pertinent to the transition in location of the Tele Caf but is illustrative of the wa y in which lessons in there began, whether videoconferencing was to follow or not. Mrs. Ford would speak English, sometimes engaging Mr. Baxter or the st udents in casual conversation about a field trip, a special event, or common concerns. She would make sure the students were seated properly and often me ntioned class rules, such as, So you guys really need to do it all in Spanish. You need to sit correctly You need to sit on the rug. And you need to be focused (Transcript, 1/13/05). This was in the context of her comments about earning a star four of which brought the reward of a cooking session. She would talk to the students about how other classes were doing and how many stars they had earned. Sometimes she would tell the students what they were going to do that day If she hadnt fini shed this part of the lesson when the videoconferencing conn ection was made, she would let Mr. Straten know, as she did on February 3: W ere not ready. Seor Straten, were not ready. Give us another 30 seconds (Transcript, 2/3/05). Before continuing with a description of class sessions that took place in the Tele Caf, including both videoconf erencing sessions and those without videoconferencing, I would like to discuss the distribution of these two types of class session and some reasons why videoconferencing, one of the foundations of the FLETT program, was sometimes not used. The Frequency of Spanish Instructional Sessions in the Tele Caf. From September 16, 2004, through April 28, 2005, I observed 15 videoconferencing sessions and 8 class sessions that were carried out without videoconferencing in the Tele Caf. During this time span, Mr. Baxters class had no other sessions

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69 there, with the except ion of cooking sessions (which I treat as distinct from the Spanish instructional sessi ons). Prior to September 16, I am aware of Mr. Baxters class having met with Mrs. Ford on only one occasion (August 17, 2004; Field notes, 8/20/04). S ubsequent to April 28, t here was one additional class session in the Tele Caf on May 12 that did not involve videoconferencing (Field notes, 5/12/05). Table 1 summarizes t he numbers of Spanish instructional sessions and cancellations in the Tele Ca f, beginning with the first session that I observed there on September 16 and ending with the class session on May 12, about which I was fully informed. A ch ronological account of these sessions and cancellations may be found in the Appendix. Table 1 Frequency of Spanish Instructional Sessions and Cancellations in Dolphin Points Tele Caf from September 16, 2004, Through May 12, 2005 Type of instructional session or cancellation Number of occurrences VC sessions 15 Sessions without VC because of teacher absence 3 Sessions without VC because of special activities at Greenwood Park Elementary 4 Sessions without VC because of combined classes at Dolphin Point Elementary 2 Cancellations because of teacher absence 3 Cancellations because of cooking sessions 3 Cancellation because of a Spanish play 1 Note. VC = videoconferencing. A partial explanation for the relatively high number of class sessions taught without videoconferencing, as well as instances of canceled classes, may be found in the change to a reliance on t eam teaching for videoconferencing in the year of this study. A consequence of this change wa s that if Mr. Straten was absent from Greenwood Park, Mrs. Ford did not conduct a videoconferencing session, through which she might have t aught both Mr. Allen s class at that school and Mr. Baxters class at Dolphi n Point. Besides September 16, illness on the part of Mr. Straten accounted for the lack of a videoconferencing session on November 11, when Mrs. Ford again taug ht Mr. Baxters class in the Tele Caf without videoconferenc ing. Conversely, when Mrs Ford was absent from Dolphin Point on September 30, October 21, and Februa ry 10, Mr. Straten did

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70 not conduct videoconferencing sessions wi th both Mr. Allens class and Mr. Baxters class, so that the latter receiv ed no Spanish instructio n on those days. (However, because Mrs. Ford did make up the September 30 class session, teaching Mr. Baxters students without vi deoconferencing at a special time the following day, I classify this as another instance of teacher absence leading to a class session at Dolphin Point without vi deoconferencing). Another day on which Mr. Baxters class received no Spanish instruction was October 14, when Mrs. Ford was away from Dolphin Point bec ause of involvement in a professional conference, in which Mr. Straten might also have been participating. An additional instance of the canc ellation of a Spanish instructional session in the Tele Caf occurred on a day (10/28/04) when fourthand fifthgrade students from Dolphin Po int and other schools went on a fieldtrip to see a Spanish play that was put on by FLES teachers. Special activities at both Greenwood Park and Dolphin Point impacted the frequency of videoconferencing sessions. On four occasions when Mr. Allens class was involved in special activities at Greenwood Park (12/9/04, 12/16/04, 1/20/05, and 4/14/05), Mrs. Ford t aught Mr. Baxters class without videoconferencing. At Dolphin Point, w here the first three cooking sessions of Mr. Baxters class had occurred at time s other than that of the regularly scheduled videoconferencing sessions, the last three cooking sessions (on 3/10/05, 4/21/05, and 5/5/05) took the place of videoconferencing sessions. Because of other special activities at Dolphin Point, on April 28 and May 12 Mr. Baxters class met with Dolphin Points othe r fifth-grade class in the Tele Caf at the regularly scheduled videoconferencing ti me of the latter class. However, instead of having a videoconferencing sessi on that included the two classes at Dolphin Point and a class at another school (in this case, a class at Wallenmaier Elementary), as had happened when a fourth grade class had joined Mr. Baxters class for a videoconferencing session wit h Greenwood Park on April 7, Mrs. Ford conducted the class sessions without videoconferencing. Before leaving this discussion of the types of Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf, I should mention that Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten taught 13 of the 15 videoconferencing sessions together and that Mr. Straten assumed teaching responsibility for the other 2 (on 3/17/05 and 3/31/05). On those two occasions, in contrast to the typical proc edure of the previous year in which the FLES instructor who was not teaching did not stay with the class at his or her site, Mrs. Ford remained in the Tele Caf at times prompting students or quietly taking part in the lessons herself. As usual, the classroom teacher sat at the back of the Tele Caf throughout the se ssions. (On March 17, this was Mrs. Stephens, who was substituting for Mr. Ba xter, and on March 31, it was Mr. Baxter.) In fact, prior to these sessions, Mrs. Ford had told me that the purpose of her staying in the room was to help the classroom teacher feel more comfortable with Mr. Straten teaching the classes at both sites, in preparation for some future time when Mrs. Ford would no longer remain in the room (Interview, 3/8/05).

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71 Now that it has been established that both videoconferencing sessions and instructional sessions without videoconf erencing occurred in the Tele Caf and an explanation of their respective frequencies has been provided, I would like to turn to a description of the components of both types of session, pointing out the differences between the types of session wherever these are notable. A Description of Instructional Sessions in the Tele Caf. I have already provided a description of how class sessions in the Tele Caf were begun with English being spoken and of their inclus ion of such components as casual conversation, the arrangement of seating, a reminder of class rules, discussion about earning stars and about t he progress of other classe s, and an indication of topics that would be covered. When the classroom signs were turned from their English to Spanish side, the class would sa y, Uno, dos, tres. Adis, ingls. Hola, espaol, and everyone would be expected to speak Spanish until the signs were turned to their English side again. Once the Spanish portion of the class had begun, the Buenas tardes [Good Afternoon] song would usually be sung. This occurred on days when there was videoconferencing, as well as on days when there wasnt. In the first half of the school year when Mr. Allens cl ass wasnt ready for videoconferencing quite as soon as Mr. Baxters class was, Mrs. Ford started leading the latter in this song before the videoconferencing conn ection was made. After the Winter Holidays, the classes sang the song together more often, and there were several occasions on which individual students got to play the role of the teacher, singing each line, which was then echoed by the rest of the class. On one day when there was no videoconferencing, Mrs. Ford w ent over what some of the words of the song mean in English. (As she s witched to English during the Spanish portion of the lesson and began talking about word meanings, she said, I never do this, but I want to do it today for this word; Transcript, 1/20/05.) If a videoconferencing connection was made while Buenas tardes was being sung, the song would be finished a nd then greetings would be exchanged between Mr. Straten, Mrs. Ford and the two classes. At other times, greetings would be exchanged immediately. In the following excerp t, Mrs. Ford is praising students in Mr. Baxters class for a correct answer to a question about Muzzy when the sound of a ringing phone indica tes that Mr. Straten is making a videoconferencing connection with them. Greetings are then exchanged, and Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten go on to ta lk about their own health. Sounds, comments on the dialogue, and overlapping speech are pr ovided in brackets. Where necessary, translations are also provided in brackets located at the ends of lines. Mrs. Ford : Muy bien, excelente. Hoy [sound of a ringing telephone] vamos a hablar de Muzzy. Chvere. [Sound of a ringing telephone.] Vamos a ver. [Sound of a ringing te lephone.] Listos? [Pause. Mrs. Ford whispers:] Hola, Greenwood Park Uno, dos, tr es. [Very good, excellent. Today we are going to talk about Muzzy. Neat. Lets see. Ready? Hi, Greenwood Park One, two, three.]

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72 Mrs. Ford and childrens voices : Hola, Greenwood Park! Mr. Straten and childrens voices : Hola, Dolphin Point. Mr. Straten : Cmo estn? [How are you (plural)?] Mrs. Ford and childrens voices : Muy bien, gracias. [Very well, thank you.] Mrs. Ford and a childs voice : Y usted? [And you (singular)?] Mr. Straten : Cmo estamos? [How are we?] Childs voice : Muy bien, gracias. Childrens voices : [Unintelligible.] Mr. Straten : Parece que estamos aqu as bien, seora. [It seems like were pretty well here, maam.] Mrs. Ford : S? [Yes?] Mr. Straten : Ninguna queja. [No complaints.] Mrs. Ford : No? Ya. Yo, seora Ford ya no tiene tos. [Mrs. Ford makes some coughing noises.] No, no ms tos, s Estoy mejor. No me duele la cabeza, no. Y no me [Mr. Straten: No.] duele el estmago. Y no me duele la garganta. S. Estoy bien. Es toy bien. [No? Now. I, Mrs. Ford doesnt have a cough anymore. No, no more cough, yes. Im better. My head doesnt hurt, no. And my stomac h doesnt hurt. And my throat doesnt hurt. Yes. I m well. Im well.] Mr. Straten : Yo tambin estoy bien. Andaba mal, pero hoy estoy mucho mejor. [Im well, too. I was doing badly, but today Im much better.] Mrs. Ford : Muy bien. Con medicina, s? Con [Mr. Straten: S, medi, medicina.] medicina. [Very good. With medicine, right? With medicine.] Mr. Straten : Exacto. [Exactly.] Mrs. Ford : Medicina. Muy bien. Pues, listos para el calendario? [Medicine. Very good. Well, ready for the calendar?] (Transcript, 2/17/05) The preceding excerpt illustrates not only the exchange of greetings between classes but also some characte ristics of other interchanges during videoconferencing and of the speech of Mrs. Ford and Mr. Strate n. For example, Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten would prompt the students who we re with them to answer, sometimes restating a question t hat the other had ask ed. They would use repetitions and would sometimes act out what they were saying [e.g., coughing after tos] to make their speech more comprehensible. They addressed each other as seor and seora and sometimes talked about themselves in the third person. The calendar segment of Spanish inst ructional sessions in the Tele Caf, referred to by Mrs. Ford at the end of the excerpt, occurred without exception in the classes I observed during the 2004 005 school year, whether there was videoconferencing or not. This segm ent included questions about the date and a song about the month. As was the case t he previous year, there might also be a song about the days of the week, a s ong about the seasons, a song about the weather, a song about an upcoming holiday, and questions related to topics that had been covered.

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73 Until the last few months of the school year, the next segment of both videoconferencing sessions and those wit hout videoconferencing was usually Saber es poder [Knowledge is Power]. (T he last time I observed this segment was on March 3, 2005, although it would have taken place on April 7 if Mr. Baxters class had brought any Saber es poder cards to the Tele Caf on that day.) In this segment, from one to thr ee index cards per class would be used. These cards were from individual st udents, who had written vocabulary and the main idea of an Espaol para ti lesson on them. If the class session didnt involve videoconferencing, Mrs. Ford would project cards from Mr. Baxters class on one of the television monitors and would read and expand on the Spanish vocabulary, saying how good the cards were and sometimes writing corrections on them. If the Saber es poder segment was part of a videoconferencing session, cards from Mr. Allens class woul d be projected on the other television monitor, and Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten would take tu rns going over cards. Sometimes Mr. Straten would act out what was written on a card and would have both classes repeat the words. Someti mes Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten would briefly converse about topics covered on the cards and would say how good the cards were. At the end of the Saber es poder segment, Mrs. Ford would have the students from Mr Baxters class whose cards had been used put the cards on the Knowledge Wall. Another segment of the Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf involved activities through which material was presented and reviewed. The following topics were covered in the 2004005 school year: telling time; vocabulary for ordering a pizza; numbers; vocabulary and fa cts from the two Spanish plays the students attended; the continents; S panish-speaking countries and their capitals; facts about Florida; vo cabulary associated with Christmas as a holiday; likes and dislikes associated with school subjects, Muzzy, movies, and food; vocabulary and facts from Muzzy; vocabulary for members of a family; different kinds of fruit and whether they float or sink; vocabulary and facts from La Familia Contenta ; and vocabulary for sea animals. The activities that were used included questions and answers, songs and chants, an activity with small clock faces, a pizza-ordering activity, a f ill-in-the-blank activity, map activities, an activity in which students named what they liked and didnt like, and an activity in which students predicted whether different kinds of frui t would float or sink. Games were sometimes used in this part of class, including concentration, a modified version of jeopardy, bingo, tickt acktoe, and a variation of baseball that involved answering questions. A few of the activities were only used in sessions that didnt involve videoconferencing. This was the case for the baseball games in which bases were placed around the Tele Caf and students answered Spanish questions in different categories for going to different bas es (Field notes, 4/14/05, 4/28/05). Another activity that was only used in a session without videoconferencing was the one in which students were given small clock faces and moved the hands around to indicate the times that Mrs. Fo rd called out (Field notes, 9/16/04). A pizza-ordering activity was used in both types of session, but in the

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74 videoconferencing session when the cla sses were coming up with their orders prior to sharing them, the audio com ponent of the videoconferencing connection was turned off (Field notes, 10/1/04, 10/7/04). The segment of lessons described above, in which material was presented and reviewed, was usually followed by the singing of Tic tac, tic tac, el reloj [Tick-tock, tick-tock, the clock] in sessions in which there was no videoconferencing. The singing of Tic tac also occurred at the end of videoconferencing sessions, except on several occasions when the class at Greenwood Park ran out of time, and the usual farewells were exchanged without the singing of this song by both cla sses. On these o ccasions, Mrs. Ford and Mr. Baxters class went on to sing it on their own. (Sometimes students in Mr. Baxters class who took part in Chorus were dismissed before and sometimes after the singing of Tic tac.) Mrs. Ford would spend additional ti me (ranging from 2 to 10.5 minutes) with Mr. Baxters class after videoconf erencing connections had been ended. On four occasions, part of this time was spent on a continuation of the activity that had been in progress prior to the end of the videoconferencing connection. After activities had ended, both on days when there was videoconferencing and on days when ther e was not, Mrs. Ford switched to English to evaluate Mr. Baxters class in terms of whether they deserved a star. She often received input on this subjec t from Mr. Baxter and from the students themselves. (The main criterion for earning a star was not speaking English during the Spanish-only porti on of instructional sessions in the Tele Caf.) Sometimes there would also be discu ssion about some aspect of Spanish instruction or about an upcoming event. Instructional sessions in the Tele Caf ended with a final activity for lining up to leave the room. Sometimes t hese activities involved students understanding what Mrs. Ford said and reacti ng accordingly. This was the case when Mrs. Ford called out the name of a color in Spanish, the students wearing the color got in line, and the activity continued with more colors being called. Students also lined up when a description of their clothing was given in Spanish or when the name of the month in which they were born was called. Some lineup activities reinforced geography-related lessons: Students were given the name of a country and pointed to it on a map, said the name of a country when given its capital, or said the name of the capital of a given country. In other activities, students lined up after saying the name of a number to which Mrs. Ford had pointed, saying what they liked, or naming a member of La Familia Contenta and giving an adjective to describe that per son. On two occasions, different students got to play the part of the teacher and call colors for the other students to line up. On average, Spanish instructional sessi ons in the Tele Caf lasted more than half an hour (ranging from 26.5 to 45. 5 minutes in length). As Mrs. Ford explained to me, the official length of fifth-grade sessions was 20 minutes, but, as was her desire, they usually la sted longer (Interview, 3/8/05).

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75 Chapter 5. Oral and Wr itten Spanish Output, Interactions, and Patterns of Change The purpose of the previous chapter was to carefully describe the setting in which the case study participants were taught Spanish, the program through which they received this instruction, and the teachers who were responsible for implementing the program. In human and physical terms, th is is the context in which the participants acquisition of Spanish took place. The detailed description of this context was meant to lay the groundwork for the discussion of the participants language that wil l be offered in this chapter. As I have already explained, when I entered the research setting at the beginning of the 2004 school year, it was with the in tent of concentrating on what four participants said in Spanish, specifically on instances of interaction and output in different instru ctional settings over time. The points of focus with which I began are presented bel ow. In them, the term learners is applied to the four case study students. 1. In videoconferencing lessons that are taught by the FLES teacher in the research site, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 2. In videoconferencing lessons that are taught by the FLES teacher in the remote site, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 3. In video-based lessons and in activities that are facilitated by the classroom teacher, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 4. Are patterns of change observe d in learners' language production during the period under study? Although the alternatio n of teaching responsibilities between the FLES teacher in the research site and the FLES teacher in the remote site that I had expected was replaced by team teaching of videoconferencing sessions, thus making the first two points of focus untenable, I maintained an interest in instances of interaction and output in di fferent instructional settings. As I explained in the previous chapter, these settings included Spanish instructional sessions taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, videoconferencing sessions taught by both Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, videoconferencing sessions for which Mr. Straten assumed teaching responsibility, Espaol para ti video lessons and associated activities facilitated by Mr. Baxter, supplementary video lessons, cooking sessions, Spanish plays, and a modified jeopar dy game. I have come to group these settings together in r eplacing the first three points of focus, not only for the sake of brevity but also to reflect the process through which I observed my participants in the different se ttings and came to realize that verbal

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76 output on the part of individual students was not encouraged in all of them. Thus, I state the new point of focus in this way: What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings? Besides maintaining an interest in instances of interaction and output, I also maintained an interest in patterns of change in the language production of my case study participants over time and retained my original fourth point of focus: Are patterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under study? I present my findings in regard to these points of focus below. As will soon be seen, there were notable differenc es in the amount of verbal output among the participants. Time Spent Observing the Participants In Chapter 3, I described the proc ess through which I came to select Claire, Brittany, Ciara, and Edward as ca se study participants and obtained their assent and the informed consent of their par ents to include them in this study. Although I observed these four students as members of Mr Baxters class in the months of August and Sept ember 2004, my attention wasnt directed primarily on them, as it was after they had been sele cted. From the begi nning of October onward, I am able to give an accurate accounting of the amount of time I observed them in the different instru ctional settings. This information is presented in Table 2. I have not provided information in T able 2 on how many class sessions are represented by the time that I observed each part icipant in the different instructional settings, because I feel that in some cases this information would not present a clear picture of what actua lly happened. One reason is that in the category Without VC: Mrs. Ford I have co mbined the time that Mrs. Ford spent with Mr. Baxters students before and after videoconferencing sessions with the time she spent with them in Spani sh instructional sessions with no videoconferencing. Another reason the inclusion of the total number of class sessions might not present a clear pictur e is that sometimes students came and went during class. For example, on No vember 19, 2004, Claire and Edward left before the end of the 43-mi nute Spanish jeopardy game so that they only attended 86% of the class session that day (Field notes, 11/19/04). In some cases, there would be the addition of multip le fractions of class sessions to arrive at a total that would not be the same as the number of individual classes attended.

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77 Table 2 Amount of Time Each Participant Was Observed in the Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instructional setting Claire Brittany Ciara Edward Without VC: Mrs. Ford 3 hrs. 53 min. 4 hrs. 21 min. 5 hrs. 46 min. 4 hrs. 23 min. VC: Mrs. Ford & Mr. Straten 3 hrs. 12 min. 4 hrs. 12 min. 4 hrs. 53 min. 3 hrs. 54 min. VC: Mr. Straten 0 min. 22 min. 46 min. 46 min. Espaol para ti lessons 8 hrs. 23 min. 9 hrs. 1 min. 9 hrs. 1 min. 8 hrs. 41 min. Supplementary video lessons 36 min. 1 hr. 21 min. 1 hr. 21 min. 35 min. Cooking 3 hrs. 14 min. 3 hrs. 14 min. 3 hrs. 31 min. 3 hrs. 31 min. Jeopardy 11/19/04 37 min. 43 min. 43 min. 37 min. Spanish plays 48 min. 48 min. 48 min. 48 min. Total time 20 hrs. 43 min. 24 hrs. 2 min. 26 hrs. 49 min. 23 hrs. 15 min. Note. VC = videoconferencing. Ciara had the best attendance for Spani sh instruction, and the amount of time I observed him is most representative of the total time I spent in observations in the different instructional settings from October 1, 2004, through May 5, 2005. He was present for all 14 videoconferencing sessions and 7 instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferenc ing in that time span, only missing 3.5 minutes before a videoconferencing connection was made on December 2. (In fact, I observed all instructional sess ions in the Tele Caf for Mr. Baxters class during the given time span.) November 16 and May 4 were the only other occasions on which Ciara mi ssed any of the Spanish sessions that I observed. On November 16, he wa s out sick and missed the entire 19-minute Espaol para ti lesson (Lesson 22; field notes, 11/16/04). On May 4, he stepped out of Mr. Baxters classroom at the beginning of Lesson 55 of Espaol para ti missing 2 minutes (Field notes, 5/4/05). (F or a chronological listing of all of the Spanish sessions that I obs erved, see the Appendix.)

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78 I spent additional time with the participant s that is not included in Table 2. Besides my observations of them in August and September 2004, I later spent time with them in interviews, in the school cafeteria, between classes, at special events, and in three Spanish reviews that I provided for Mr. Baxters class at the end of the school year. Being with the par ticipants in these si tuations helped me get to know them better and provided persp ective for my consideration of them as language learners. The basis for my examination of the Spanish utterances produced by each participant in the different instructional settings, however, was provided by my observations of the class sessions. In the next section, I will present a brief overview of the number of these utterances before moving on to a more detailed examination of the output and interact ions of individual participants. Overview of Spanish Utterances Produced by the Participants During my observations of class sessi ons, I took notes on instructional activities and on the participation and behav ior of Claire, Brittany, Ciara, and Edward. Beginning on October 19, 2004, I also made audio and video recordings of class sessions and transcri bed the audio recordings. Based on my notes and transcripts, I have a record of the Spanish utterances of my participants and of the interactions in which they were involved. Table 3 presents the number of S panish utterances of each of the participants in the different instructional settings from October 1, 2004, through May 5, 2005, the same time frame employed in Table 2. For the purposes of this study, I define a Spanish utterance as anyth ing said in Spanish that ranges in length from a word to a sentence. I only consider individual utterances here, not participation in group responses, except in those cases where the timing or volume of an individuals utterance is different enough from those of the group to make the utterance stand out. There were many instances in which my participants took part in singing songs or responding with their class, especially in the Tele Caf, but because of the impossi bility of maintaining a clear view of each participant at all times (even with hel p of video recordings), I am unable to give an accurate count of participation in these group utterances. (In my field notes for December 9, 2004, for example, I wrote, Mrs. Ford went through the song with the students first. Claire and Ciara joined in but not Edward. I couldnt see Brittanys mouth.) Differences in the number of utterances produced by each of the participants are apparent in Table 3. In the next sections, I will provide a more detailed examination of the output of each of the par ticipants and of some of the interactions in which they took part, as I seek to answer the question, What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings?

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79 Table 3 Number of Spanish Utterances for Each Participant in the Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instructional setting (Number of sessions a ) Claire Brittany Ciara Edward Without VC: Mrs. Ford b 15 11 41 87 VC: Mrs. Ford & Mr. Straten (12) 4 3 9 81 VC: Mr. Straten (2) NA 1 3 5 During Espaol para ti videos (28) 0 10 8 81 After Espaol para ti videos (8) 6 6 8 9 Cooking (6) 3 0 14 33 Jeopardy 11/19/04 (1) 17 0 0 13 Total utterances 45 31 83 309 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NA = not applicable (not present); VC = videoconferencing. a This refers to the number of sessions I observed and does not reflect the individual participants attendance. b In addition to 7 Spanish instructional sessions taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, this category includes the time she spent with the students before and after the 14 videoconferencing sessions. Categorizing Claires Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings Although Claire Montgomery, a quiet girl, produced relatively few Spanish utterances as an individual and sometimes spoke so softly in class that it was difficult to hear her, the utterances that I did hear clearly were usually without error. Taking into account both my observations in class and my recordings of class sessions, I was unable to hear 9 of her 45 Spanish utterances well enough to determine whether they contained errors or not. Of the remaining 36 utterances, only 4 involved errors. Two of these occurred in a Spanish jeopardy

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80 game when she offered, sient a? instead of the expected sintense [Sit down (plural)] and nochenta y nueve? instead of the correct noventa y nueve [99] (Transcript, 11/19/04). Anot her utterance involving error occurred in a Spanish baseball game when she mistakenl y identified a picture of la beb [the baby] as ta? [aunt] (Transcript, 4/ 14/05). In all three of these utterances, she showed her uncertainty by her questi oning tone. The fourth ut terance involving error was a math problem in which she mistakenly placed y [and] between the hundreds and tens in the names of numbers and said, ochocienten, instead of the correct ochocientos [800] (Transcript, 11/30/04). All of Claires Spanish utterances we re from 1 to 3 words in length, with the exception of the math problem t hat I have just mentioned, which was prepared in advance and was 10 words in length (Transcript, 11/30/04). Claires utterances were also characte rized by the fact that they contained a limited range of vocabulary. In Table 4, I have categorized them according to type of vocabulary upon which they were based and the instructional settings in which they occurred. Table 4 Claire. Number of Spanish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf ________________ Espaol para ti ________ Other Settings ________________ Type of vocabulary No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten After Cooking Jeopardy 11/19/04 Action word 0 1 2 Category NA 0 2 Category & number NA 0 3 Date & calendar 8 0 Family member 3 0 Food 0 0 1 Geography 1 4 1 0 Number 3 0 5 1 8 Other 0 0 0 0 2 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NA = not applicable (not present); VC = videoconferencing.

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81 The way in which I group the types of vocabulary in Table 4 is influenced by the activities that occurred in the di fferent instructional settings. Because of the prominence of the calendar segment in instructional sessions in the Tele Caf, I have chosen to group utterances together that are ba sed on vocabulary for Dates and calendar. Some of the utterances included here are numbers that refer to the date in some way. The designations Category and Category & number are derived from Spanish jeopardy games, both the one that took place before the Thanksgiving Break that I classify as a separate instructional setting (Field notes, 11/19/04) and a jeopardy game on February 17 that was begun during a videoconferencing sessi on and was continued after the videoconferencing connection had been te rminated (Field notes, 2/17/05). In Table 4, cells have been left blank if no activity occurred in a given instructional setting that would have been likely to elicit a certain type of vocabulary. If there was such an activity in an instructional setting but Claire was not present at the time it occurred, the cell for vocabul ary of that type in that instructional setting contains the abbrev iation NA. For example, Claire was present for the jeopardy game during the videoconferencing session on February 17 and produced no Spanish utterances based on Category or Category & number; however, she left for Chorus before the videoconferencing connection was terminated and therefore was not pres ent for the continuation of the game during Spanish instruction offered by Mrs Ford without videoconferencing (Field notes, 2/17/05). Table 5 shows how many utterances Claire produced during various types of activities in the different instructional settings. If the activity named in a given row did not occur in the instructional setting named in a given column, the corresponding cell has been left blank. In bo th this table and the previous one, it can be seen that Claire produced more Spanish utterances as an individual in instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing than in those with it. In this section, I have given an ov erview of Claires Spanish output in terms of the frequency and kinds of er rors she made, the length of her utterances, the types of vocabulary she us ed, and the types of activities in which she produced utterances as an individual. Because Claire produced the utterances summarized in this section in the context of the Spanish instruction she received at Dolphin Point, I would like to provide a description of this instruction below, including input that Cla ire received and interactions in which she took part.

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82 Table 5 Claire. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf ________________ Espaol para ti ________ Other settings ________________ Type of activity No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten After Cooking Jeopardy 11/19/04 Baseball game 3 Calendar segment 8 0 Concentration game 2 0 Jeopardy game NA 0 17 Line-up activity 1 NA Not part of activity 0 0 0 1 0 Number activity 0 5 Q & A activity 1 1 2 Share actions 1 Ticktacktoe game 3 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NA = not applicable (not present); Q & A = question and answer; VC = videoconferencing. Placing Claires Oral and Wr itten Output in Context The strongest link between Espaol para ti lessons and instructional sessions in the Tele Caf was provided by Saber es poder cards. During the Espaol para ti videos, Claire would watch the le sson and write on her card but never responded orally. Because of Clair es absorption in producing Saber es poder cards and the number of her cards th at were featured in lessons in the Tele Caf, I will follow one of her cards from its production in Mr. Baxters classroom through its inclusion in a lesson in the Tele Caf. In doing this, not only will input received by Claire and other students be specified, but some of Claires written and oral out put will also be featured. Leaving the context of Saber es poder, the discussi on of Claires Spanish output will continue, and interactions in wh ich she participated will be included. Special attention will be giv en to her participation in the Spanish jeopardy game

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83 in Mr. Baxters classroom, participation that was greater than usual because of her role as group captain/spokesperson. Following One of Claires Saber Es Poder Cards Th rough Its Life Cycle. Claire had four Saber es poder cards select ed for presentation in the Tele Caf and subsequent placement on its Knowled ge Wall, more than any other student in Mr. Baxters class. This distinction reflects the favorable evaluation of Claires work by her peers, who, in the normal c ourse of instruction, were the ones to make the selection. Using one of Claires cards that was selected in this way, I would like to follow it through what c ould be termed its life cycle, beginning with the directions Mr. Baxter gave before an Espaol para ti video and the input the students received during the video lesson, c ontinuing with Claires participation in a postvideo activity in which she utiliz ed information from her card, proceeding through Mrs. Ford and Mr. St ratens interaction in the videoconferencing session in which the card was featured, and endi ng with Mrs. Ford handing the card to Claire to place on the Tele Cafs Knowledge Wall. In the third week of October 2004, the schedule for Espaol para ti lessons changed from one to two lessons a week. On October 19, after explaining this, Mr. Baxter gave his student s directions for writing on their Saber es poder cards, some variation of whic h he had already shared at the beginning of previous Espaol para ti lessons: A lot of you are, um, on this card are putting way too much information. What you really need to do is, uh; usually she has maybe a couple main ideas on her lessons; just try to pi ck one of them and then the vocabulary words that you write, wr ite about that main idea. Dont try to get down every single vocabulary word. Thats not what were really looking for. Were looking for the important ones the ones that you can learn, the ones that you understand. I know its quite quick when she puts the Spanish spelling of the words up there, but even so, the Spanish spelling is not as important as learning the wo rds and what they mean. So, this is Lesson 14. [Pause.] Ill tell you what, Colleen [a student in Mr. Baxters class], you press play in just a second. (Transcript, 10/19/04) The lesson begins with the video t eacher (la maestra) exchanging greetings with a puppet named Kipper, as well as greeting the viewers. Then she says, Well, Kipper, we have been talking about action words. When she goes on to ask him, Qu haces t? [W hat are you doing?], he replies, Yo canto [Im singing], which prompts the singing of the Espaol para ti song ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996, Lesson 14; Transcript, 10/19/04; see also Steele & Johnson, 1999). Next la maestra gets Ki pper to tell her what he does in different classes (e.g., Estudio msica. [I study music.]). Their conversation continues as follows: Maestra : And can you see that the o ending on that verb tells me that youre talking about yourself? Kipper : Yo. [I.]

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84 Maestra : Muy bien. [Very good.] Well, her e are a couple of other things that you might want to say and things that we do at school en las clases [in classes]. You can say, Leo, yo leo [I read]. Clase repite [Class, repeat]: [The voice of la maestra is jo ined by the voice of a child in Mr. Baxters class:] Leo. Kipper : Leo. Maestra and others (in Mr. Baxters class) : Yo leo. Kipper and others : Yo leo. Maestra : You can say, Yo leo el libro [I read the book]. Kipper : Yo leo el libro. Maestra : Muy bien. Leo is a very important activity that we do in so many of our classes, and I hope youre doing it at home, too. Yo leo. Kipper : Yo leo. Leo, leo. Maestra : Heres something else that is something that we do a lot at the school. Yo escribo. [I write.] Kipper : Yo escribo. Maestra : Or you can say, Escribo. Kipper : Escribo. ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996, Lesson 14; Transcript, 10/19/04) La maestra and Kipper elaborate their discuss ion of yo escribo and then do the same for additional action words and phrases: yo canto/canto [I sing] and yo corro/corro [I run]. After vi siting a student in an art class, they also talk about yo pinto [I paint], yo dibujo [I dr aw], and yo coloreo [I color]. The next topic in this lesson is telling time. La maestra initiates the transition into this topic below: Maestra : Yo pinto. Muy bien. Excel ente. Well, weve been asking the question, Qu haces t?, What are you doing?, but heres another question for you. Lets see if you can read this question right off the top of the screen. Kipper : Qu hora es? Maestra : Qu hora es? Qu hora es? Well, we know qu means what and hora looks like the word hour in English, doesnt it? Kipper : S. Maestra : So we might be talking about [Her voice trails off.]. Kipper : What time is it? What time is it? [The beginnin g of the following utterance overlaps this one.] Maestra : What time is it? What hour is it? Qu hora es? And this is an easy, easy one to answer. Lets practice. ( Espaol para ti: Level 5, 1996, Lesson 14; Transcript, 10/19/04) While the lesson was in progress, I watched the actions of my four case study participants, noting, for example: Corro came up on the video and later Pinto, at which point both Cla ire and Ciara were writing (Field notes, 10/19/04). It wasnt until later, however, that I saw what Claire had written on her card. I have placed the information contai ned on Claires card in Figure 1.

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85 Claire Montgomery Spanish lesson Yo leo/leo Yo escribo/escribo Yo canto/canto Yo corro /corro Yo pinto/pinto Yo dibujo/dibujo Yo coloreao/coloreao Qu horo es? The lesson was mostly about actions or action words. Figure 1. Information on Claires Saber es poder card for Lesson 14. At the close of the Espaol para ti lesson Mr. Baxter instructed his students to finish up their cards. Then he engaged them in a discussion about the lesson, first saying that he would lik e someone to share with us what they thought the main idea of the lesson was and then continuing as follows: Mr. Baxter : There were kind of two [main ideas], but there was one that was a little bit longer and bigger at t he very beginning of the lesson. Colleen. Colleen : Learning how to tell time. Mr. Baxter : No, that was at the end. That was [Claire raises her hand.] the smaller lesson in that whole le sson here. What was the one at the beginning? Claire. Claire : Action. [It is possible that at t hat point the last line on Claires card read, The lesson was mostly about action.] Mr. Baxter : Action words. So I think that would be the one that you would want to have on your card, and then t here were some words that went along with actions. Can anyone share a couple of those Spanish words that went along with actions? Uh, Damarcus. Damarcus : Yo [unintelligible]. Mr. Baxter : Brittany. Brittany : Canto. Mr. Baxter : Canto. And what does canto mean? Brittany : Singing. Mr. Baxter : Singing. Anyone else? Colleen. Colleen : Yo color, [Claire raises her hand.] calo. I dont know how to pronounce it. Mr. Baxter : And what does it mean? Colleen : Color.

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86 Mr. Baxter : Coloring, all right. Uh, Claire. Claire : Yo pinto. Mr. Baxter : And what does that mean? Claire : Paint. Mr. Baxter : Paint. And notice again how so me of the words in Spanish, uh, you can figure them out by looki ng at the way they are formed. So, you know you can become a detective here, and sometimes you can see the Spanish word, and you know right away what it means. Uh, give your cards to Colleen. Shes going to be the one picking out the best cards today. (Transcript, 10/19/04) In the normal course of Spanish inst ruction, the cards picked that day by Colleen, a White girl described by one Dolphin Point teacher as going on 20 (Field notes, 5/2/05), would have been used 2 days later in the Saber es poder portion of a lesson in the Tele Caf. Ho wever, Mrs. Ford was out on Thursday, October 21, due to the death of her aunt, and the following Thursday the students attended a special Spanish play inst ead of going to the Tele Caf. Thus it was that the next occasion on which Sa ber es poder cards from Mr. Baxters class were featured in a lesson in the Te le Caf was on November 4, and it so happened that both of the card s Mrs. Ford went over in that videoconferencing session with the class at Greenwood Park were from Lesson 14 on October 19. (Although three cards are mentioned by Mrs Ford toward the beginning of the Saber es poder segment, she actually f eatures two.) In the following lesson excerpt, Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten first establish that the classes they are leading brought cards, and then Mrs. Ford begins to talk about the Lesson 14 card prepared by Jane. I include this ex cerpt before presenting one in which the time question on Claires card is f eatured, because Mrs. Ford talks about information on Janes card that is very similar to that on Claires card: Mrs. Ford : Tu clase trajo Saber es poder? [Your class brought Saber es poder?] Mr. Straten : Pues, s, seora, el grupo de seor Allen es muy fiel con Saber es poder, y estamos listos. [Why yes, maam, Mr. Allens group is very faithful with Saber es poder, and were ready.] Mrs. Ford : Y el grupo de seor Baxter tambin. Es muy chvere. [And Mr. Baxters group, too. Its really neat.] Mr. Straten : Bueno, seora. Vayan primero si quieren. [All right, maam. You all go first if you want.] Mrs. Ford : Bueno, aqu tengo las tres tarjetas. Y miren: Yo, yo, yo. Aj. Yo. Yo. Yo leo. [Childrens voices quietly join in for Yo escribo and Yo canto.] Yo escribo. Yo canto. [Here Mrs. Ford sings a few notes, and then Mr. Straten laughs quietly.] Yo pint o. Yo dibujo. Yo coloreo. Qu bien! [Translation: All right, here I have the three cards. And look: I, I, I. Aha. I. I. I read. I write. I sing. I paint. I draw. I color. How good!] Mr. Straten : Seora, lee otra vez, y puedo de mostrar si quieren. [Read them again, maam, and I can demonstrat e if you all want.] (Transcript, 11/4/04)

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87 At this point, Mrs. Ford reads each of the action phrases on Janes card again, and Mr. Strate n acts them out When he has finished, Mrs. Ford tells him how good that had been and puts her hands toget her lightly. Edward picks up on this and starts clapping. Then Mrs. Ford prompts the rest of the students to clap (Field notes, 11/4/04). Mr. Stratens turn to go over a S aber es poder card co mes next. After he and Mrs. Ford discuss several parts of a house, prompted by the vocabulary on a card at Greenwood Park, Mrs. Ford talks about Claire s card, repeating her timetelling question as part of a rhyme on the subject: Mrs. Ford : Pues, quiero, quiero ensearle una cosa ms aqu. Qu hora es? Qu hora es? Es la una, o son las diez? [ Mr. Straten : Son las diez.] No, no, no. Y mira qu bien, qu bien lo escrib i. [Mrs. Ford doesnt mention that hora is written as horo on the card.] Qu hora? [Translation: Well, I want, I want to show you one more thing here. What time is it? What time is it? Is it one oclock or ten ocl ock? No, no, no. And look how well, how well it is written.] Mr. Straten : Seora, acerca la cmara [ unintelligible]. [Pause.] Si puedes. Exacto. OK. Otra vez, seor a. [Translation: Maam, bring the camera in (unintelligible). (Pause). If you can. Exactly. Okay. Once more, maam.] Mrs. Ford : Qu hora es? Qu hora es? Qu hora es? Es la una, o son las diez? No, no, no. Son las siet e. [Translation: What time is it? What time is it? What time is it? Is it one oclock or ten oclock? No, no, no. Its seven oclock.] Mr. Straten : Muy bien. Son las siete. Mrs. Ford : Son las. Mr. Straten : Excelente. Mrs. Ford : Qu bien! Pues, aplausos [There is a little applause.] a estos nios [There is more applause. Mr. Straten : Seora, aplausos.] y a los maestros. Quin es? [At this po int, Claire whispers over her right shoulder to Jane, who is sitting slightly back from her.] Jane, Jane. [Jane gets up.] Excelente. [Jane goes over to Mrs. Ford, takes her card, and goes on to place it on the Knowledge Wa ll.] Eh, no s. De quin es? Ah, Montgomery. [Translation: Ho w good! Well, applause for these children and for their teacher s. Who is it? Jane, Jane. Excellent. Eh, I dont know. Whose is it? Ah, Mo ntgomery.] (Transcript, 11/4/04) This sequence ends with Mrs. Ford pointing to Claire, who gets up, takes her card, and places it on the Knowledge Wall with the other cards that have been used in instruction in the Tele Caf up to that date (Fie ld notes, 11/4/04). Claires card remained there on the Wall unt il the last week of classes when Mrs. Ford invited me to remove it, along with others from Mr. Baxters class (Field notes, 5/12/05). Because the use of the Saber es poder cards in lessons stopped before the end of the school year, when I inte rviewed Claire on May 2, she took a retrospective view in expl aining them: At the beginnin g of the year, we would

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88 have to write some vocabulary words, and then we would, at the end of the video, we would have to write what the main idea was (Interview, 5/2/05). Further Examples of Claires Sp anish Utterances in Context. The previous section contains an example of Claires participation in a discussion of an Espaol para ti lesson. Discussions of this type, led by Mr. Baxter, provided a setting in which Claire appeared comfor table with raising her hand and taking part, although she didnt do this very often. There were two occasions following Espaol para ti lessons when Mr. Baxter let the students know that he would be calling on each of them to participate. On the first occasion, Mr. Baxter asked the students to come up with a math problem in Spanish to share with the class (Field notes, 11/30/04), and on the second, he assigned numbers from 1 to 98 to the students one by one, so that most students gave the names of f our numbers in Spanish (Field notes, 1/19/05). Because Claires response in giving a math problem stood out, I will include a portion of the transcript from t hat day here, starting with Janes turn in order to provide context: Mr. Baxter : Jane. Jane : Uno por uno son uno. [One times one equals one.] Mr. Baxter : All right. Thank you, and, um Claire. Turn around to us, and speak loudly. [Pause.] Claire : Trescientos y veinte ms quinientos y veinte son ochocienten [ sic ] y. [Pause. Translation: Three hundred and twenty plus five hundred and twenty are eight hundred and.] Mr. Baxter : All I can say is ay, ay, ay. [Mr. Baxter and some children laugh softly.] Big number. [Mr. Baxter laughs softly.] Thank you; you just made my day. Only thing worse t han doing math is doing math in Spanish. (Transcript, 11/30/04). The purpose of the number-nam ing activity, following an Espaol para ti video on January 19, was to prepare for a c oncentration game in the Tele Caf the next day (Field notes, 1/19/05). The c ontext of the game, in which students were to match the names of capitals and countries, turned out to be a Spanish instructional session that Mrs. Ford led without videoconferencing, because Mr. Allens class at Greenwood Park was invo lved in an activity related to the presidential inauguration (Field notes, 1/20/ 05). Claire participated in the game, naming two numbers. In the following excerpt, Mrs. Ford first reviews for Claire the names of the numbers t hat still remain in one set. Claire names one, is shown and told the name of the capital that corresponds to that number, and then names a number from the other set: Mrs. Ford : Treinta y siete, sesenta y c uatro, catorce, cincuenta y dos, cuarenta y uno. [37, 64, 14, 52, 41.] Claire : Cuarenta y uno. Mrs. Ford : Cuarenta y uno. Guatemala. [Pause. A little background noise.] A voice : Shh! [Pause. Some background noise.]

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89 Claire : [Unintelligible] y tres. Mrs. Ford : Cincuenta y tres? Cincuenta y tres. El [53? 53. El] Mrs. Ford and other voices : Salvador. Mrs. Ford : El Salvador. No, no, no. (Transcript, 1/20/05) Claires other Spanish utte rances in instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing were brief, as we ll. Most occurred during the calendar segment and involved the current date, the date of her birthday, and the number of days in April (Field notes, 11/11/04, 12/16/04, 4/14/05, 4/28/05). She was present for the line-up activity on December 16, and correctly named San Juan as the capital of Puerto Rico (Field not es, 12/16/04). The rest of her Spanish utterances in this setting are from Ap ril 14. Besides answering a calendar question that day, Claire answered a question about a member of the family that had appeared in the Spanish play her class had seen 3 days before, and she took part in the Spanish basebal l game (Field note, 4/14/05). There were few instances of Claire participating as an individual during videoconferencing sessions. On November 18, she responded to Mrs. Fords question about the name of the fifth country in a chant of countries and capitals (Field notes, 11/18/04). On February 3, sh e took part in a game of ticktacktoe, responding to the prompt Mr. Straten gave (after one Claires classmates had selected a number) and repeating her answer at the request of Mrs. Ford: Mr. Straten : A ver, cul es la pregunta? Momentico. Disculpen. Dice, La capital del Ecuador es [His voice tr ails off here.]. Pues, miren. La capital del Ecuador, cul es, Dolphin Point? [Lets see; whats the question? Just a moment. Excuse me. It says, T he capital of Ecuador is (His voice trails off here.). Well, look The capital of Ecuador, what is it, Dolphin Point?] Childs voice [whispers]: Chile. Mrs. Ford : Cul es? Childs voice [very quietly]: Quito. Childs voice [very quietly]: Ou, ou! Claire [very quietly]: Quito. Mrs. Ford : Otra vez. Qu es? [Again. What is it?] Claire : Quito. Mrs. Ford : Quito. Mr. Straten : La capi [ Childs voice : Squito ( sic ).] Ah, aplausos, Quito. [Applause.] Y miren. Digan conmigo, por favor, amigos: [Translation: The capi. Ah, applause, Quito. And l ook. Please, say with me, friends:] Mr. Straten and Mrs. Ford : Ta te ti. [Ticktackt oe.] (Transcript, 2/3/05) When Greenwood Park got the clue, Quito es la capital de _______, in the very next turn, Claire and her friend Laurie said, Ecuador, to each other quietly (Field notes, 2/3/05). Claire answered several questions duri ng cooking sessions (Field notes, 10/11/04, 1/26/05), incl uding one from a classmate about how to say cheese in Spanish, but I would like to concentra te now on her Spanish utterances during the jeopardy game in which she assumed t he role of captain/spokesperson. Mrs.

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90 Ford led this game, which took place in the classroom of Mr. Baxter, who had spent hours preparing it (Field notes, 11/19/04). As the jeopardy game began, Mr. Baxter prompt ed Claires group, El delfn [The Dolphin], concerning the selection they needed to make. Claire responded by giving her groups selection as Nmero cien [Number 100]. Mrs. Ford interpreted this as her choice fo r number of points but soon ascertained that Claire wanted Nmeros as the category: Mr. Baxter : So, El delfn, you need to pick a category and an amount. Somebody. Claire : Nmero cien. Mrs. Ford : Cien. Pas, Verbos, Oraciones, Animales, o Nmeros. [100. Country, Verbs, Sentences, Animals, or Numbers.] Claire : [Unintelligible.] Mrs. Ford : Nmeros? Nmeros por cien. [Numbers? Numbers for 100.] (Transcript, 11/19/04) When shown a large sheet of paper with the number written on it, Claire was easily able to supply the correct answer, uno. Following the next groups turn, Mrs. Ford sent Colleen over to the Tele Caf to get Mr. Straten (who had been meeting with her there), saying, He needs to see this. Mr. Straten soon ent ered the room with a FLES teacher from another school, and Mrs. Ford said to them Los invito a ver este juego tan fantstico [I invite you to see this game t hat is so terrific] (Transcript, 11/19/04). When it was the turn of El delfn again, Claire gave the groups selection as Verbos, doscientos [Verbs, 200]. Mrs. Ford demonstrated the action of sitting down, while showing a picture of this. She gave the clue, Levntense. Si [Stand up, si], with her voice trailing off at the end, and Claire responded, Sienta? After Mrs. Ford had repeat ed the clue, Claire gave the expected answer, Sintense [Sit down] (F ield notes & transcript, 11/19/04). For the next turn of El delfn, Cla ire gave Oraciones [Sentences] as the category and trescientos [300] as the number of points. Mrs. Ford asked, Cuntos aos tienes? [How old are you?] As a clue, she started to talk in Spanish about how old Abuela [Grandmother ] might be, and Mr. Straten joined in, suggesting different ages for Abuela, ranging from 68 to 100. Mrs. Ford restated the question: Cuntos aos? Cuntos? Cuntos aos tienes t? S, no Abuela, t. [Literally: How many years? How many? How many years do you have? Yes, not Grandmother, you.] Claire answered, Diez [Ten], and after some further prom pting, she added, aos. In El delfns next turn, Claire gave the groups selection as Animales, quinientos [Animals, 500] but changed to c uatrocientos [400] as the number of points when she learned that 500 had alread y been taken. Mrs. Ford showed a picture of a cow. Several children identified it correctly as vaca (Field notes & transcript, 11/19/04). Claire participated in one more turn before being called out of the room to receive a reward for having donated canned goods. She gave El delfns selection (with some prompting in between) as Nmeros . por . trescientos

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91 [Numbers for 300]. Mrs. Ford showed the number 99 written on a sheet of paper and began to sing: Diez, veinte, treinta, cuarenta, [other voices join in] cincuenta, sesenta, setenta, [clap, clap] ochenta [10, 20 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80]. Then the following interaction took place: Claire : Nochenta [ sic ] y nueve. [Background noise.] Mr. Straten : Setenta, ochenta. Mrs. Ford : Say, say it again so that Seor Straten can hear you, and see what he says. Edward : You cant get another answer. Darmarcus : Noventa. [Darmarcus, who is nt in El delfn, puts his hand over his mouth. Background noise.] Mr. Straten : Setenta, ochenta, y Claire : Noventa Mr. Straten : y Claire : y nueve. [Background noise, applause. ] Mrs. Ford : Bravo, bravo! [Background noise.] (Transcript, 11/19/04) Claires participation as captain of her group in the jeopardy game shows that, although she usually didnt produce many Spanish utterances as an individual in the regular course of in struction, she was able to produce more when she received additiona l encouragement and support. From Claire, I will now move on to examine the language produced by Brittany. Where appropriate I will comment on contra sts between Brittany and Claire. Categorizing Brittanys Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings Although Brittany Johnson was present for more Spanish instruction in the 2004 school year than Claire, she produced even fewer Spanish utterances as an individual, the least of any of my participants. However, I wouldnt characterize Brittany as quiet in the same way I do Claire, because Brittanys quietness was mostly manifested in a hesitancy to say much in certain situations, such as competitive games and interviews. When Brittany did participate in S panish classes as an individual, she spoke with enough volume that I rarely had difficulty in hearing her clearly enough to determine whether her utterances c ontained errors or not. In fact, I only had difficulty in hearing 3 out of the 31 Spanish utterances that I gleaned from my observations and recordings over 7 months. Of the remaining 28 utterances, 7 involved errors. Pronunciation errors occurred in three of Brittanys utterances. In one a voiced, alveolar trill phoneme should have been produced for the -rrin corro but wasnt (Field notes, 1/18/05), and in another Brittany said, veintesiete, instead of the correct veintisiete (or veinte y siete ; transcript, 1/27/05). The other pronunciation error was probably related to reading (Transcript, 12/2/04), as I will explain later. Several errors are hard to categorize. During a videoconferencing session, Brittany, in referring to Fat Albert, said, Gande Albert (Transcript,

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92 1/13/05). The first word resembles grande [big, large] (thus, a pronunciation error), but a better lexical selection would have been gordo [fat]. During Lesson 28 of Espaol para ti after the video teacher had sa id, S, el payaso es alto [Yes, the (male) clown is tall.], Brittany said, alta, which appears to be a case in which an adjective doesnt agree in gender with the noun it modifies (a morphosyntactic error), or, depending on wh at Brittany had in mind when she uttered the word, it may not be in error after all ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996; Transcript, 1/13/05). The problems in the remaining utte rances involving error are more straightforward. In one instance, Br ittany selected the wrong lexical item, uno when Mrs. Ford gave a choice between uno [one] and primero [first] for the date on October 1 (Field notes, 10/1/04). Anothe r of Brittanys utterances contains an English word (Transcript, 11/30/04) and might perhaps be better classified as nontargetlike (see Panova & Lyster 2002) but has been grouped here with utterances involving error. As was the case with Claire, all of Br ittanys Spanish utterances were from one to three words in length, with the exc eption of a math problem prepared in advance. This was seven words in length, including one word in English (Transcript, 11/30/04). Brittanys utterances were also characterized by their limited range of vocabulary. In Table 6, I present a ca tegorization of Brittanys utterances, according to the type of vocabular y on which they were based and the instructional settings in which they occurred. The differences in the types of voc abulary used by Claire and Brittany are partly due to the types of activities in which they participated. For example, because Brittany didnt participate in a jeopardy game, none of her utterances are based on Category and Category & num ber, as are five of Claires utterances. In fact, Brittany didnt participate in any games; she produced her Spanish utterances in activities that didnt involve the awarding of points for correct answers. For example, she took advantage of opportunities to practice description, telling time, and using action words during some Espaol para ti lessons (Field notes, 10/13/04, 10/20/04, 12/14/04, 12/15/04, 1/18/05). Table 7 shows how many utterances Brittany produced in various activities in the different instructional settings.

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93 Table 6 Brittany. Number of Spanish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf _________________________ Espaol para ti ________________ Type of vocabulary No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Action word 0 0 6 2 Adjective 0 0 0 2 Color 4 Date & calendar 1 1 1 0 Geography 2 0 NA 0 Me gusta a 2 Number 3 0 NA 0 4 Other 1 0 0 0 0 Time 2 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NA = not applicable (not present); VC = videoconferencing. a I like. I have used this section to give an over view of Brittanys output in terms of the number and kinds of errors she made, the length of her utterances, the types of vocabulary she used, and the types of activities in which she produced utterances as an individual. The fo llowing sections are devoted to an examination of Brittanys or al and written output in t he instructional settings in which they occurred. Brittanys Participat ion in the Tele Caf places Brittanys utterances in the context of the Spanish instruction she received in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing, in the context of videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, and in the context of the videoconferencing session that Mr. Straten led (with Mrs. Ford in the background). This section will also point out examples of Brittanys nonver bal participation and instances when she raised her hand but wasnt called on. T he next section, Brittanys Oral Production in Relation to Video Lessons, contains examples that place her utterances in context both during and after Espaol para ti lessons. Brittanys written output on a Saber es poder card is presented and discussed in the following section.

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94 Table 7 Brittany. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf _________________________ Espaol para ti ________________ Type of activity No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Calendar segment 1 1 1 Geography activity 1 0 NA Line-up activity 5 Not part of activity 4 0 0 0 0 Number activity 0 NA 0 4 Practice action words 6 Practice description 2 Practice telling time 2 Share actions 2 Share likes & dislikes 2 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NA = not applicable (not present); VC = videoconferencing. Brittanys Participation in the Tele Caf It is interesting to note that Brittany produced the majority of her Spanish utterances in the Tele Caf at the begi nning and end of class and, therefore, not during videoconferencing sessions. A nother Spanish utte rance that she produced in a session without videoconferencing occurred during a geography activity. Her participation in the calendar segment of lessons occurred in each of the three instructional settings in the Tele Caf: a session without videoconferencing, a videoconferencing session led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, and the one videoconferencing sess ion led by Mr. Straten for which she was present. Brittany also participated in an activity in which students shared likes and dislikes during a videoconfer encing session led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten. Brittany produced four utte rances that werent part of a teaching activity at the beginning of class on December 2, 2004. Mr. Baxter was absent from school that day, but a substitute teacher stayed with his class during Spanish, sitting at

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95 the back of the Tele Caf. Not many student s were in the room at first, and Mrs. Ford told the ones who were there how they should be arranged on the rug. Edward reacted to her directions by repeating the Spanish names of two items that were written on the rug. Appa rently, Brittany was trying to read el pollo off the rug when she said, el polo. She seemed to be in a talkative mood and made several comments in English bot h before and after the singing of the Buenas tardes song, causing Mrs. Ford to caution, No ingls. Yo oigo ingls? [No English. Do I hear E nglish?]. Soon after that, at the time there was the sound of a ringing telephone (indicati ng that Mr. Straten was making a videoconferencing connection), Brittany sa id, Tres; tres [Three; three] and subsequently said, Tres, two more time s (Field notes & transcript, 12/2/04). Beginning on November 4, students who participated in Chorus were dismissed before Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf ended (Field notes, 11/4/04), and so from that date until the end of t he school year, Brittany, a Chorus student, was only present for two lin e-up activities in the Tele Caf. (Line-up activities were never part of vi deoconferencing sessions .) One of these activities occurred on December 16, at the end of the last Spanish class before the Winter Holidays. On this occasion, Brittany correctly gave Panam as the capital of Panam (Field notes, 12/16/04). The best example of oral output by Bri ttany in the Tele Caf took place on February 24, in the other line-up activi ty for which she was present following November 4. The videoconferencing c onnection had ended at 1: 57 that day, due to a fire drill at Greenwood Park. Chor us had been canceled at Dolphin Point, and Mr. Baxter seemed to indicate that because of this, the Spanish class could keep going, which it did. Later, Mrs. Fo rd received a telephone call in the Tele Caf. When she turned from the phone without having hung up, Mr. Baxter suggested that his class leave without a lineup activity. Mrs. Ford decided to let a student lead the activity and chose Collee n, because she was sitting nicely. At first Mrs. Ford said that t he activity would involve the names of numbers, but then she changed it to the names of colors Colleen, who had entered Dolphin Point in the fourth grade, indicated that s he needed help, and Mrs. Ford chose Brittany, who had her hand raised and was sitting nicely at the front right, where she had been directed to sit by Mr. Baxt er at the beginning of class: Mr. Baxter : Well, well go quietly, Miss Ford. Mrs. Ford : Well, wait a minute; wait a minute. Im gonna choose a teacher. Mr. Baxter [correcting a student]: Stop it! Mrs. Ford : You can do this. Lets see. Somebody whos still sitting very nicely. Colleen, would you like to do this? Would you like to be the teacher and call numbers? [Colleen nods.] You were sitting very nicely. Come over here. [Colleen gets up and goes to the front. Slight pause.] Call, call the colors, and if she needs help, then, then they can help you. Colleen : I dont know any of them. Mrs. Ford : Okay. Then let me. Wait a minut e; hold on. Stay right here. Stay right here. Do you know em? [Mrs. Ford talks to Brittany.] Good,

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96 youre also sitting nicely. So with, between the both of you. Okay? [Background noise.] You can help her. [Mrs. Ford goes into her office. Pause; background noise.] Brittany [whispers very quietly]: Caf. [Brown.] Colleen : Caf. Mr. Baxter : Were gonna line up at the back door. [Pause; background noise.] Brittany : Verde. [Green.] Mrs. Ford [coming back from her office on her way to the classroom telephone]: Verde. [Very quietly:] Verde. [Pause; background noise.] Brittany : Blanco. [White.] Mrs. Ford : [Unintelligible]. He r extension is 1-0-4-6. [Background noise.] And Im gonna try to transfer you. Im hoping it will work, but if it doesnt, Im sorry. [Pause.] Okay, bye. Childs voice : Gris. [Translation: Gray. Pause; background noise.] Brittany : Uh, rojo. [Translation: Uh, red. Pause; background noise.] Colleen [looks at a color card in her hand]: Wait. Green. I gotta go. Childs voice [laughing]: Green. Mrs. Ford : Were you able to do it? [Brittany laughs briefly.] Colleen : She told me what they were, and I said it. (Field notes & transcript, 2/24/05) Brittany also participated in a geography activity in the context of a Spanish instructional session without vi deoconferencing. On December 9, the students in Mr. Allens class at Greenwood Park were involved in a tornado drill. At Dolphin Point, Mrs. Ford led Mr. Baxters class in an activity in which a student was to reach into a container and take out the cutout of a Spanish-speaking country of Central America or the Caribbean or a cutout of the United States. Next the student was to read its name, whic h was written on it, place it on a map, and give the name of its capital. Both Brittany and Ciara raised their hands for the first turn, which went to Tim. Brittany raised her hand again for the second turn. She was selected for the fourth turn, got up from the spot where she usually sat at the back righ t, took Costa Rica out of t he container, said its name, and placed it on the map. She wasnt abl e to give the name of its capital, however (Field notes & transcript, 12/9/04). Brittany also participated or raised her hand in geography activities during videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, but she didnt produce any Spanish utterances in them. On January 27, a student at Greenwood Park was supposed to name Argent ina first, but Brittany got up to label it on a map in the Tele Caf bef ore the student had done that (Field notes, 1/27/05). In a videoconferencing session in February, there was an activity that involved taking a card with the name of a Florida city written on it out of a container and pointing to the city on a map. Brittany raised her hand both when it was Dolphin Points turn and when it wa s Greenwood Parks turn (Field notes, 2/24/05).

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97 Brittany produced two Spanish utterances in an activity having to do with likes and dislikes that took place in a videoconferencing session led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten. In the fo llowing excerpt, Mrs. Ford fi rst sums up the names of movies that she and some students had sa id they liked; then she asks for the name of another movie: Mrs. Ford : Me gusta Beauty and the Beast Me gusta Lord of the Ring [ sic ]. Me gusta Terminator Me gusta Dodgeball. Dolphin Point, otro ms. [I like Beauty and the Beast . . Dolphin Point, one more.] Mr. Straten : Dolphin Point. Brittany : Fat Albert. Mrs. Ford : Me, me, me gusta. Brittany : Me gus [background noise]. Mrs. Ford : Shh, shh, shh! Un mom ento. [Just a moment.] Me Brittany : Me gusta Gande [ sic ] Albert. Mrs. Ford [laughs]: Muy bien. Me gusta Fat Alberts [sic ], dice la nia. [Laughter in the background.] Me gus ta Grande Albert. [Very good. The girl says, I like Fat Alberts I like Big Albert.] Mr. Straten : Ah, Grande Albert. Mrs. Ford : Albert el Gordo. [Transla tion: Albert the Fat One. Childs voice : Gordo. Background noise.] (Transcript, 1/13/05) Brittany participated in the calendar segment of lessons in instructional sessions both with and without videoconf erencing. In a session without videoconferencing on October 1, she made an attempt to give the date correctly after Mrs. Ford had given a choice betw een uno [one] and primero [first]. When Brittany said, uno, Mrs. Ford explained how primero is used in Spanish (Field notes, 10/1/04). On January 27 in a videoc onferencing session led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, Brittany gave the response, Veintesiete [ sic ], to Mrs. Fords question, Y en Dolphin Point, Hoy es juev es seis, trece, veinte, o veintisiete? [And at Dolphin Point, today is Thursday the 6 th 13 th 20 th or 27 th ?] (Transcript, 1/27/05). On March 31 in the only videoc onferencing session led by Mr. Straten for which Brittany was present, she correctly answered that the day was jueves [Thursday]. The interaction that came before and immediately after this response can be seen in the following excerp t. It is worth noting that Mrs. Ford, although not leading the lesson, continued to prompt the st udents who were with her. This prompting includes a comment to the effect t hat the answer should be directed to Mr. Straten and not to her. Mr. Straten : Bueno, primero en Dolphin Poin t. Qu da es hoy, Dolphin Point? Levantan [ sic ] las manos. Lunes, martes, mircoles, o jueves. Dolphin Point? [Pause. Translation: Good, first in Dolphin Point. What day is today, Dolphin Point? Ra ise your hands. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday. Dolphin Point?] Mrs. Ford [quietly]: Dolphin Point. Childs voice [barely audible]: Jueves. Mrs. Ford [quietly]: Qu da es hoy? Childs voice [barely audible]: Jueves.

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98 Mr. Straten : Lunes, martes, mircoles, o jueves. Mrs. Ford [quietly]: A m, no. [Not to me.] Brittany : Jueves. Mrs. Ford [barely audible]: Gracias. [Thank you.] Mr. Straten : Gracias. Bien hecho. [Thank you. Well done.] (Transcript, 3/31/05) As happened with Claire, Brittany benefited from prompting and verbal support for the language she produced, as c an be seen in the activity in which she said she liked Fat Albert. Also similar to the case of Claire as a captain in the Spanish jeopardy game, Brittany, in helping Colleen with the Spanish names of colors, showed that she could produce more Spanish than usual when she was put in a position where someone else was relying on her Spanish output for the accomplishment of a task. No similar situation arose in connection with video lessons in Mr. Baxters room, but Bri ttany did take advantage of opportunities there to produce Spanish utterances. Brittanys Oral Output in Relation to Video Lessons Brittany produced Spanish utterances both during and after Espaol para ti lessons. From time to time, she w ould orally respond to prompts in the lessons (Field notes, 10/13/04, 10/20/04, 12/15/04, 1/18/05; Transcripts 12/14/04, 12/15/04). On Oct ober 13, for example, a fter Ciara had pushed her elbow from the edge of his desk that adjoined hers, indicating that the surface of his desk was his space, I whispered, W atch, to them and pointed at the television. After I had whispered it again, they seemed to pay attention. I heard Brittany say, canto [I sing], bato [I mix], and echo [I throw] at the appropriate times in an activity for practicing action words (Field notes, 10/13/04). Brittany also took part in Espaol para ti activities in which a male and a female clown are described (Lesson 28). In the following excerpt, she uses the feminine form of an adjective after the video teacher has described the male clown. I will begin the excerpt with the video teacher saying that the female clown is pretty and asking what the male clown is like. Brittanys use of alta and the subsequent discussion with another student happened while the video teacher was talking: Maestra : Bonita. S, la payasa es bonita. You have used the word bonita, because you are describing la payasa. Uno ms. [ Childs voice : Alta.] Woo, cmo es el payaso? Childs voice : Alto, alto, alto, alto. Childs voice : Alto. Childs voice : o-o-o. Maestra : Es alto. [Background noise.] S, el payaso es alto. And you have used the word [ Brittany : Alta.] alto, because [ Childs voice : Alto.] you are describing [ Brittany : I know that.] el payaso. [ Childs voice : No, you dont.] Muy bien, excelente. [Castanets.] Cmo es?, thats a question we can use to ask for a descr iption of people, s? ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996; Transcript, 12/15/04)

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99 Another type of activity in which Brittany participated during an Espaol para ti lesson provided practice in telling time. She responded to the question, Qu hora es? [What time is it?] with nueve [9] and una [1] before each of these times was given as the correct answer (Field notes, 10/20/04). Activities after Espaol para ti lessons provided another context in which Brittany produced Spanish utterances. Br ittanys contribution of canto [Im singing] after Mr. Baxters request fo r Spanish words that went along with actions (Transcript, 10/19/04) was included in the material that I presented to follow one of Claires Saber es poder cards through its life cycle. In a postvideo activity on October 26, Brittany used canto as an action word again. When Lesson 16 of Espaol para ti ended on that day, Mr. Baxter made the following request of the class: Could someone share an action word with us and ask a person in the classroom to do that action, please? Although the class had been exposed to informal (second-person singular) commands through Cha-cha-cha songs in Lessons 78, 11-13, and 15-16 of Espaol para ti (Steele & Johnson, 1999), the activity proceeded with students using verbs in their first-person singular form, whic h had been presented in Lessons 13-16 (Steele & Johnson, 1999). The only exc eption was Elena, a native speaker of Spanish, who used an informal command, Escribe [Write]. When questioned about this by Mr. Baxter, Elena explained, Escribo [I write; I am wr iting] is like when youre writing (Transcript, 10/26/04) Edward had the next turn, and then Brittany, whose hand was raised, was selected by Mr. Baxter: Mr. Baxter : Uh, Brittany. Brittany : Ciara. [As Brittany says this, she looks over her right shoulder at Ciara, who is sitting next to her, and smiles.] Mr. Baxter : Ciara. Brittany : Canto [I sing; Im singing]. Childs voice : Oh, thats easy. Ciara : Running. [Ciara starts to get up.] Brittany : Singing, boy. Singing. Ciara : Singing, my goodness, my goodness. [Ciara puts his palms down against his thighs three ti mes, and Brittany laughs.] Mr. Baxter : Well, but we need to know the action words. (Field notes & transcript, 10/26/04) Not all of the students in the class were expected to contribute an action word on October 26 but were all suppos ed to share a math problem with the class on November 30. Following Claires addition problem with large numbers that impressed Mr. Baxter so much, Emily gave a multiplication problem. Brittany had the next turn and shared the same multiplication problem as Emily had used: Emily : Tres por tres son nueve. [Three times three equals nine.] Mr. Baxter : Son nueve. Okay, you got that one. Uh, Brittany. Childs voice : Ciara. Brittany : Tres por tres equals nueve, s on nueve. (Transcript, 11/30/04) Although Brittany would sometimes respond orally to prompts given in Espaol para ti videos and would sometimes participate in a discussion or

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100 activity following a video, as a whole, her oral production in rela tion to the videos was quite limited. The near cessation of postvideo activities in January surely was a contributing factor, but Brittanys conception of video lessons should also be taken into account. When I asked her in January, What are the main differences between the videos and Spanish in the Tele Caf? she responded, Sometimes we have fun over there, and over here we just sit down and write things, what we see, what we see on vi deo (Interview, 1/21/05). I will consider some of Brittanys written production in the next section. Brittanys Saber Es Poder Cards Only one of Brittanys Saber es poder cards (probably from Lesson 9 of Espaol para ti presented on September 16, 2004) made it up on the Knowledge Wall in the Tele Caf. Another of her cards (from Lesson 32) was selected on January 12 by Willie, who stapled it to a board that was used as a Knowledge Wall in Mr. Baxters room (Field notes, 1/12/05). Not all cards that received the distinction of this intermediate step were used in a lesson in the Tele Caf. In this case, cards by Ciara, Lucy, and Laurie were used in the Tele Caf the next day (Field notes, 1/13/05). Brittanys card from September t hat was on the Tele Cafs Knowledge Wall displays a different style than the one Brittany established a little later and maintained. Although there are signs of erasure on one side of this card, the finished product is confined to the other side, on which Brittany wrote with the card oriented vertically. Brittanys card from November 30, 2004, provides a more typical example of her work. She wrote the main idea of the lesson and some vocabulary words on one side of the card, all of which I hav e placed in Figure 2. On the reverse side, Brittany made a list of vocabulary words and also wrote the math problem that she shared in class t hat day, described in the prev ious section on Brittanys oral output in relation to video lessons. T he information from this reverse side of the card can be seen in Figure 3. Brittanys statement of the ma in idea contains a misspelling of addresses and the material she copies from the Espaol para ti lesson contains two mistakes: Traeme for treme [bring me] and halbo for hablo [I speak]. She misspells the numbers in her ma th problem, giving thres for tres and neve for nueve but pronounces the words well when she reads the problem for the class.

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101 Todays main idea is . Brittany about adresses and Johnson Street numbers. Here are 11-30-04 Some words that I Lesson 23 Learned in todays lesson, Juego, tengo, Dibuja, Borra, Dame, Dale, Traeme, levanto, arte, Vivo en those words help me. Figure 2. Information on one side of Brittanys Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. vivo en Juego bailo tengo 3 X 3 = 9 halbo Dibuja thres por thres levanto Borra son neve Camino Dame arte Dale Pinto Traeme escribo Como Figure 3. Information on the reverse side of Brittanys Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. Brittany could often be seen writing on a Saber es poder card during Espaol para ti lessons and would sometimes sit and look at her card, something I observed her doing on five occasions. In our final interview, when I asked her how she feels when her Saber es poder card is selected and shown to students in the class at the other school, she answe red, I feel comf ortable and proud (Interview 5/2/05). In moving from Brittany to Ciara in this discussion of the language produced by my participants, I move to a student who produced more utterances

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102 in a greater variety of activities. The utterances he produced were also based on a wider range of vocabulary. However, like the utterances of Claire and Brittany, those of Ciara were usually only one to three words in length. Categorizing Ciaras Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings Ciara Nivea produced 83 Spanish utte rances, more than the combined number of utterances produc ed by both Claire and Brittany. Before continuing, I should note that I included in Ciaras total number of utterances 9 that were part of a response from the class or, in tw o cases, at least one other student. Because of the timing of these utterances or their volume, I was able to distinguish them clearly and chose to ta ke advantage of them in my analyses of Ciaras output. I will do the same for Ed ward. I was unable to distinguish the voices of Claire and Brittany in group re sponses, although I did include in my analyses the instances of Claire and her fr iend Laurie quietly saying, Ecuador, to each other during instruction (Field not es, 2/3/05) and of Br ittany speaking at the same time as the video t eacher (Transcript, 12/15/04). Of Ciaras 83 utterances, I was unable to hear 10 clearly enough to determine whether they contained errors or not. Twenty-five of the remaining 73 utterances involved some type of linguistic error. (There were 4 utterances that were incorrect factually but correct lingui stically; they were grouped with the other utterances that did not involve linguistic errors.) Twenty of Ciaras Spanish utterances were flawed because of incorrect pronunciation. In 10 instances, Ciara pr onounced the name of a continent or a country in English, offering it by itself or preceded by oh or uh. Rather than excluding these from my c ount, I chose to include them as Spanish utterances, because they were accepted as such in clas s. Of the remaining utterances that involved pronunciation errors, two that consisted of piquio (Transcript, 12/15/04) were of special interest to me, because I heard Mr. Baxter use this same mispronunciation of the Spanish word pequeo [small] (e.g., Its a small star, a piquio, you know, star, too. Transcript 1/13/05). Ciaras use of piquio was in the context of describing a male clown. Actually, pequeo wasnt the adjective the video teacher expected from students, because she subsequently provided bajo [short] as the correct answer. Next she asked, Cmo es la payasa? [What is the female clown like], to which Ciara responded, Bajo ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996, Lesson 28; Transcript, 12/15/04). I classified this as an u tterance involving an error, because bajo does not agree in gender with la payasa but the possibility does exist that Ciara was simply repeating bajo after some delay. In four cases, Ciara failed to provide the correct lexical item. For a line-up activity on March 31, students were supposed to identify a member of La Familia Contenta from a flashcard and supply an adjective to describe that person. Ciara identified To [Uncle], and when prompted by Mrs. Fords T o es, said, tonio. Mrs. Ford corrected him by saying, Tonto, tonto. Muy bien. To es tonto [Foolish, foolish. Very good. Uncle is f oolish.] (Field notes & transcript, 3/31/05). Because tonio is very close to Too (a nickname for Antonio), a character in

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103 Espaol para ti I consider this a case of se lecting the wrong word rather than mispronouncing a word. In the three other instances of failure to provide the correct lexical item, it s eems that Ciara was making up words that conform to Spanish phonology. Although the cantn that Ciara used in two utterances (Transcript, 4/14/05) is act ually a Spanish word (meaning corner or canton in English), it is not likely that Ciara would have known this. Ciaras utterances were usually quit e brief. Only four were longer than three words in length. Two of thes e involved a math problem prepared in advance (Transcript, 11/30/04). Anot her involved Ciaras greeting when he entered the Tele Caf for a cooking session on May 5: Hola, Cinco di [ sic ] mayo day (Transcript, 5/5/05). The fourth al so occurred in a cooking session. On January 26, Mrs. Ford told Mr. Baxters clas s, I want you to tell me what you like the best of everything that youve eaten so far. She reminded the students of the empanadas and churros [fritters] that they had eaten in previous sessions. Many children started to respond with c hurros, but Mrs. Ford cautioned them, Wait, wait. Since youve got to tell me in a sentence in Spanish. So, Me, me gusta ms. Me gusta ms. Ciara jumped in, Me gusta ms churros [I like fritters best] (Transcript, 1/ 26/05). (Because Mrs. Ford used me gusta whether the noun in a sentence was singular or pl ural, I didnt count this sentence as one involving a linguistic error on Ciaras part.) Not only did Ciara produce more Spanish utterances than Claire and Brittany, his utterances represented a great er range of vocabulary. It is also worth noting, however, that approximately one third of his utterances are based on geography (the names of capitals, countries, a continent, and the word mapa [map]). (This is similar to the case of Claire, mo re than one third of whose utterances were based on numbers.) In Table 8, I present a categorization of Ciaras utterances, according to the type of vocabulary on which they were based and the instructional settings in which they occurred. Ciara also produced utterances in a greater variety of activities than did Claire and Brittany. Ciara participated in games and other types of activities but didnt produce any utterances in a Spanish jeopardy game. The fact that he was present for more line-up activities in t he Tele Caf than the other participants is reflected in the higher number of utterances that he pr oduced in this kind of activity. Table 9 provides an overview of the number of Spanis h utterances Ciara produced in various activities in t he different instructional settings.

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104 Table 8 Ciara. Number of Spanish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf __________________________ Espaol para ti _________________ Other settings _______ Type of vocabulary No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Action word 0 0 1 0 Adjective 2 2 0 3 0 Body part 1 0 Color 2 0 Dance 0 2 Date & calendar 3 2 0 0 Family member 3 0 0 Farewell 0 1 0 Food 0 0 1 0 0 Geography 17 3 1 1 6 Greeting 0 0 0 0 6 Me gusta a 0 1 Number 10 1 0 0 6 1 Other 3 1 1 0 0 0 Time 2 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. VC = videoconferencing. a I like.

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105 Table 9 Ciara. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf __________________________ Espaol para ti _________________ Other settings _______ Type of activity No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Baseball game 8 Calendar segment 5 3 0 Concentration game 4 1 Cooking discussion 1 Discussion of stars 2 Fill-in-the blank activity 2 Geography activity 4 0 1 Greetings 0 0 0 6 Line-up activity 13 2 Name dances 2 Not part of activity 2 1 1 2 0 2 Number activity 0 0 0 6

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106 Table 9 (Continued). Instruction: Tele Caf __________________________ Espaol para ti _________________ Other settings _______ Type of activity No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Practice action words 1 Practice description 3 Practice telling time 2 Q & A activity 1 4 1 3 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. Q & A = question and answer; VC = videoconferencing. In this section, I have provided an overview of the utterances Ciara produced in the different instructional se ttings, including the number and types of errors he made, the length of his utter ances, the types of vocabulary on which they were based, and the types of activiti es in which they occurred. I have also placed a few of his utterances in context. In the next section, I will provide further examples of Ciaras utterances in the instructional contexts in which they occurred. A section devoted to a discussi on of Ciaras Saber es poder cards will follow. Examples of Ciaras Utterances in Different Instructional Settings The 41 Spanish utterances that I have noted for Ciara during Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf that did not involve videoconferencing were produced on 15 different days over th e course of 7 mont hs. He produced 26 of the utterances on 7 days when there was no videoconferencing, and he produced 15 on 8 days after the videoconferencing connection had been terminated. Because of the fact that Ciaras u tterances were spread out over various class sessions, it is difficult to provi de more than a quick summary of many of them. For example, duri ng the calendar segment of a class session without videoconferencing on October 1, 2004, Mrs. Ford had the students count by threes. Ciaras voice stood out from the ot her voices when he said, quince [15]. His voice also stood out when he said, v einte [20], instead of the correct number, veintiuno [21]. A little later, I heard him quietly advise Laurie, No ingls [No English] (Field notes, 10/1/ 04). On December 9, another day on

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107 which there was no videoconferencing, Ciara and another student supplied the year, dos mil cuartro [2004], during the calendar segment. In a geography activity with cutouts of countries, Ciara took and named, El Salvador, and said the name of its capital, San Salvador. At the end of class, he named three more countries (Field notes & transcript, 12/9/04). The Spanish baseball games took plac e in instructional sessions without videoconferencing. In the first one on April 14, Ciara chose to answer a question from the category for going to first bas e. He was shown a flashcard with a picture of Hermano [Brother] on it and was asked, Quin es? [Who is it?]. At first, he gave two wrong answers and made two strikes. A pparently Mrs. Ford didnt hear him when he said, Herm ano, because she told him that he had made a third strike: Mrs. Ford : Primera [First]. Quin es? Ciara : Cantn. [Although this means corner or canton in English, it is likely that Ciara had never heard cantn before and came up with it on his own.] Mrs. Ford : No. Strike one. Strike nmero uno. [Pause.] Ciara : Cantn, To [Canton, Uncle]. Mrs. Ford : No! Strike dos! Ciara : Hermano. Mrs. Ford : No! Strike tres! Out! Out! Out! Oh! No! (Field notes & transcript, 4/14/05) In the next Spanish baseball game two weeks later, Ciara chose the homerun category, and Mrs. Ford asked him, Cul es el pas que est directamente al sur de Mxico? [What country is directly to the south of Mexico?] Ciara gave the correct response, Guatem ala (Field notes, 4/28/05). In the context of the videoconferenci ng sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, I have noted nine Sp anish utterances from Ciara They occurred in 5 of the 12 sessions of this type that Ciara a ttended. Like his utterances in Spanish instruction without videoconfer encing, his utterances in this setting are spread over the different sessions in which they occurred. However, one of the best examples of Ciaras enthusiastic parti cipation in the geogr aphy portion of a lesson can be found in a session of this type. (I have classified the activity as a question-and-answer activity rather than a geography activity, because it didnt involve students getting up to do anything with a map.) On December 2, 2004, Mr. Baxters class was small, because some of the students were already in the Chorus room where they were practicing for the Seasons Greetings Program that w ould take place on December 14. Approximately 20 minutes into the videoc onferencing session, the rest of the students who were in Chorus left, so that only nine students remained in the room. Ciara and Colleen, tw o of them, moved up toward the center of the rug. Each spent a little time trying to put his or her thumb down on the others thumb (Field notes & video recording, 12/2/04). Ciaras attention was immediately a ttracted by an activity in which Mrs. Ford projected a map of Me xico, Central America, and the Caribbean onto one of

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108 the television monitors, and students fr om the classes at Dolphin Point and Greenwood Park took turns naming the Spanish-speaking countries and answering questions about them. T he question about the name of the first country, Mexico, went to Greenwood Pa rk, but Ciara raised his right hand upward to its full extent, moved his whole torso with the motion of his hand, and then changed to having his left hand raised (Field notes & video recording, 12/2/04). Ciara also raised his hand to name the second country, Guatemala, but another student at Dolphin Point got to gi ve that answer. However, Ciara was given the opportunity to respond to Mrs Fords question, Y Guatemala, Guatemala es grande o pequeo? [And G uatemala, Guatemala is big or small?]. Ciara and another student correct ly answered, Pequeo, at the same time (Field notes & transcript, 12/2/04). The activity proceeded in a simila r fashion, and Ciara got to name the eighth country, Cuba, which he pronounced co rrectly in Spanish. By this time, he had moved up a little, but Colleen was farther back, stretched out on her belly (for which she was later corrected). A question about the ninth country went to Greenwood Park. Then Mrs. Ford called on Colleen to give the name of the tenth country. Ciara whispered the answer, Puerto Rico, to her (Field notes & video recording, 12/2/04). A number of factors favored Ciaras participation in the question-andanswer activity on this day. There weren t many students in the Tele Caf, as, in fact, was also the case in the Spanish room at Greenwood Park. The subject matter was geography, which appealed to Ciara. At the front of the Tele Caf, there was even a poster with th e names of capitals and c ountries written on it, to which Ciara pointed toward the end of the activity. Finally, a chant had been used to teach the students the names of the countries and their capitals, a chant in which Ciara enthusiastically partici pated when it was repeated for review after the activity was over, as he had in cla ss on November 18 (Field notes, 12/2/04, 11/18/04). Moving on now to a consideration of the videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Straten, I should point out that although Ciara was present for both of them, I was only able to hear him produce th ree utterances in one of them. On March 17, in a part of the lesson in which students at Dolphin Point and Greenwood Park (and also Mrs. Ford) were repeating phrases about Florida after Mr. Straten, I heard Ciara and others sayi ng, es Tallahassee [is Tallahassee]. (This immediately followed the first par t of the sentence that had been repeated: La capital [The capital].) Later I heard Ciara say, fruta [f ruit] when Mr. Straten was talking about the orange blossom (as State flower) and the orange (as State fruit). Toward the end of the le sson, when the words to the song Tic tac, tic tac, el reloj [Tick-tock, tick-tock, the clock] appeared on one of the television monitors, Ciara said, Tic tac (Field notes & transcript, 3/17/05). I noted 14 utterances that Ciara pr oduced in three of the six cooking sessions. Two of the utterances hav e already been presented: Me gusta ms churros [I like fritters best] (Tran script, 1/26/05), and Hola, Cinco di [ sic ] mayo

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109 day (Transcript, 5/5/05). The latter utterance occurred at the beginning of a special cooking session to celebrate Cinco de Mayo, when Mrs. Ford was exchanging greetings with the st udents in Mr. Baxters class: Mrs. Ford : Hola, clase. [Hi, class.] Childrens voices : Hola. Ciara : Hola, Cinco di [ sic ] mayo day. Mrs. Ford : Cinco de mayo. Ciara : They won the war. Mexico beat [unintelligible]. Childs voice : They did? Mrs. Ford : Hola, clase. Childs voice : Hola. Mrs. Ford : Cmo estn? [How are you (plural)?] Ciara : Cmo ests t? Muy bien. [How are you (singular)? Very well.] (Transcript, 5/5/05) The other utterances that Ciara produced in cooking sessions consisted of more greetings, the names of capitals and countries, and one number. Ciara didnt produce many utterances either during or after Espaol para ti lessons. Other than the three utterances (piquio [ sic ], piquio [ sic ], and bajo) that he produced during Lesson 28 on December 15 (Transcript, 12/15/04), I noted only one utterance during eac h of five other lessons. Two of these werent part of an activity. During Lesson 13, when the video teacher started talking about maps, Ciara said, O uuu, mapa (Field notes, 10/13/04). At the end of Lesson 16, after the video teac her had said, Until next time, hasta luego, Ciara said, Adis ( Espaol para ti: Level 5 1996; Transcript & field notes, 10/26/04). Ciara contributed eight utterances in postvideo activities on 4 different days. On December 7, he was the firs t to respond, naming the salsa, when Mr. Baxter asked, Can someone raise their hand and tell me a dance, an espaol dance that we went over today? (Field notes & transcript, 12/7/04). Because many of the students in the class were away on the Chorus road trip on December 7, Mr. Baxter asked the ones who had been there to name one of the dances on the following day. Ciara suppli ed the name of the cha-cha-cha (Field notes, 12/8/04). There were only two other occasions on which I observed Ciara orally participating in an activity after an Espaol para ti video: November 30, when all of the students were required to give a math problem in Spanish, and January 19, when they were required to say diffe rent numbers in Spanish (Field notes, 11/30/04, 1/19/05). Ciaras oral production of Spanish on November 30 was more memorable than his oral production in January and is detailed as follows. Ciaras turn to give a math problem in Spanish came right after Brittanys. The problem that he tried to give was uno ms diez son once [one plus ten equals eleven], but he pronounced ms [plus] like mes [month], added the English word plus and broke up the diphthong in diez His attempt was greeted by a roar of laughter: Brittany : Tres por tres equals nueve, son nueve. [She sits down.]

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110 Mr. Baxter : Okay. Ciara. [Ciara stands up, and Brittany laughs briefly.] Ciara : Whats so funny? Uno mes plus di-ez [Children in the class laugh loudly. Brittany is even l aughing with her head thrown back.] Mr. Baxter : Youre not gonna say uno ms plus, no. [ Childs voice : Uno ms.] Uno ms. Ciara : Uno ms, uh, di-ez es, son, um, um, once. [Ciara gestures with his hands as he says this, and then Brittany laughs a little.] Mr. Baxter : What was that? Uh, one plus ten [ Ciara : Yeah.] equals Ciara : Eleven. Mr. Baxter : Oh, okay. (Transcript, 11/30/04) Ciara described Spanish in the Tele Caf as the real deal and said it was more fun than watching t he Spanish videos (Interview, 5/2/05 & transcript, 1/6/05). However, he took working on hi s Saber es poder cards seriously. In an interview in May, when I complimented hi m on the last card of his that I had seen, he responded, Was full of stuff, wasnt it? (Interview, 5/2/05). The next section will cover some of Ciaras wr itten production on his Saber es poder cards. Ciaras Saber Es Poder Cards Two of Ciaras Saber es poder cards were placed on the Knowledge Wall in the Tele Caf: one from January 12 and one from February 9, 2005. On one side of his January 12 card for Lesson 32, he wrote: The mean idea Today el map because we is lrean about The dacing of the Spaish coutry a around. That my mean idea. Ciara wrote this statement with the card oriented vertically and provided a heading, mean idea, in a box at the top. Actually, Ciaras attention to the Espaol para ti lesson on January 12 was extremely good, and he spent much of his ti me writing on his card. I have placed the information from the side of this card with the Spanish vocabulary in Figure 4. The first words on the card (Por favor [please], de nada [youre welcome]) are from El tango de cortesa [ The Courtesy Tango], which is sung after the greetings with which this lesson begins. Next in the lesson is a review of the cardinal directions, followed by a demons tration of the tango. Most of the vocabulary on the card is from a story about Fredos picnic. The mistakes that Ciara makes in writing words from this group are leaving off the accent mark on caf [brown (the meaning in the story)] and adding a letter to manzana [apple]. There is another segment of the video about picnic vo cabulary, and then a song about hot chocolate (el chocolate) is sung. This is followed by La cancin de geografa [ The Geography Song ]. Among the names of the countries from this song that Ciara writes on his card, he misspells Costa Rica and leaves an accent mark off of Mxico. Adis, which Ciara misspells, is said in the final segment of the video (Steele & Johnson, 199 9). Adious is a word t hat Ciara also included on his cards for the three preceding lessons (Lessons 29, 30, 31).

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111 Por favor words Ciara De nada Nivea Tango Cafe Fredo hambre 1/12/05 Son altos pongo Como Corro Otra oso Manazana El chocolate Mexico Coast Rico Chile Adious Figure 4. Information on one side of Ciaras Saber es poder card for Lesson 32. Ciaras other Saber es poder card that was placed on the Tele Cafs Knowledge Wall is from February 9, a day on which his attention to the Espaol para ti lesson wasnt as good as on January 12. After the first 4.5 minutes of the video on the later date, he repeatedly look ed around at different people and things in the classroom (Field notes & video recording, 2/9/05). Lesson 39, shown on February 9, begins with greetings and then covers feeling expressions. Next there is a discussion of who various people are. This discussion includes different professions. The video continues with a visit to a fire station, additional fire-fighting vocabul ary, a song in which help is sought, and the closing (Steele & Johnson, 1999). Ciaras card for Lesson 39 doesnt include any information that was covered after the discussion of pr ofessions, except for Adios [ sic ]. He states the main idea of the lesson in this way: The mean idea of Today lesson 39. You can see any job. The lady us see all kinds of jobs in the real world you can visit any Jobb. On the other side of the card Ciaras presentation of vocabulary is less extensive than on January 12. Here the only mistake he makes, other than leaving off written accent ma rks, is in the spelling of contenta [happy]. I have placed the information from this si de of Ciaras card in Figure 5.

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112 Words Ciara Nivea lesson 39 esta contenna 2/9/05 esta triste el tio Adios la maestra la cocinera el camarero la policia Figure 5. Information on one side of Ciaras Saber es poder card for Lesson 39. In considering all 14 of Ciaras Sa ber es poder cards that I was able to acquire over the course of this study, I was much more favorably impressed by his presentation of Spanish vocabulary t han by his English statements of main ideas. For these cards, Ciara spent enough time focused on the Espaol para ti videos to copy Spanish words from t he television screen wit h a fair degree of success. Although Ciara produced more utterances than either Claire or Brittany, his output was characterized by certain lim itations, such as a high percentage of linguistic errors. In moving from Ciara to Edward in this discussion of the language produced by my case study parti cipants, I move to a student who produced many more utterances than any of the others. With this increase in number of utterances comes an increase in the range of activities in which they were produced and an increase in the ty pes of vocabulary on which they were based. Edward also produced a greater num ber of utterances that were longer than three words in length. Categorizing Edwards Oral Output in the Different Instructional Settings I have a record of 309 Spanish utterances produced by Edward Jones in the different instructional settings from the beginning of October 2004 until the beginning of May 2005. The possibility exis ts for each of my participants that I may have missed utterances, but I hav e waited until the b eginning of my discussion of Edward to point this out, bec ause I am aware of a few instances in which I didnt specifically note the utter ances that he produced. For example, in my field notes for March 2, after writing about Edwards correct response of los maestros [the teachers], I observed, D uring the following discussion of dances, he kept quietly saying words to himself. Unfortunately, in cases of students speaking softly, it is not possible to determine what they said from audio

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113 recordings. But, in spite of the limitations of my record, it is evident that Edward produced many more utterances t han any of my other participants. In considering the 309 Spanish utterances produced by Edward, I found that there were 18 that I couldnt hear clearly enough to determine whether they contained errors or not. Of the remaining 291 utterances, 38 involved errors that I considered linguistic in nature: In 16 Ed ward did not provide the correct lexical item; in 15 his pronunciation was flaw ed; 6 of his utterances involved a grammatical error; and 1 utteranc e involved both a pronunciation and a grammatical error. (In the grammatical error category I include syntactic, morphosyntactic, and morphological errors.) Half of Edwards 16 utterances with le xical errors involved numbers. In a videoconferencing session on January 13, for example, a fter Mrs. Ford had asked for the date (Quin me puede decir toda la fecha? Listo? Hoy es [Who can tell me the whole date? Ready ? Today is]) and another student had said, jueves [Thursday], Edward offered, treinta [30], instead of the correct trece [13] (Transcript, 1/13/05). Two weeks later, Edward produced an utterance with lexical errors involving numbers that I consider more interesting. During the videoconferencing session on that day, Mrs. Ford received a telephone call. She told the person to whom she was talking, Me llama en diez minutos. Estoy. OK. Uno, cuatro, cinco. [Call me in 10 minutes. I am. Okay. One, four, five.] At that point, Edward said to himself, Uno [pause] quina sete. He was looking at his watch, so I guessed that his utterance had something to do with the time, which was around 1:47 [la una y cuarenta y siete] (Field notes & transcript, 1/27/05). Regardless of what Edward might have been referring to, quina [cinchona] and sete [ sic ] arent Spanish words that he would have known. (Although I grouped Edwards whole utterance with those involv ing lexical error, t he possibility exists of classifying sete as a mispronunciation of siete.) Edwards other lexical errors were varied. Twice during Espaol para ti lessons, he substituted, cant o [I sing], for the correct bailo [I dance] (Field notes, 11/10/04, 1/11/05), and anot her time he supplied, car tero [letter carrier], for the correct camarera [waitress] (Field notes, 3/2/ 05). Once in the Tele Caf, his Spanish sentence included a word that he had made up, based on the English word watch This happened prior to t he videoconferencing connection on February 17, when Mrs. Ford was aski ng Mr. Baxters students questions about Muzzy in preparation for a jeopardy game t hat day. One of her questions was Y qu tiene Silvia en el bolso? [And what does Silvia have in her handbag?] After some discussion, Edward said, Tiene wache [ sic ], and the interaction continued in this way: Childs voice : Tic tac. [Tick-tock.] Mrs. Ford [half sings]: Tic ta c, tac tic, el Childrens voices : Reloj. [Clock/watch.] Mrs. Ford : Reloj. Childs voice : Reloj.

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114 Mrs. Ford : S, tiene muchos relojes. [Y es, she has a lot of watches.] (Transcript, 2/17/05) Some of Edwards pronunciation errors cannot be explained by the possible influence of English (e.g., his matimticas, instead of the correct matemticas [mathematics]; transcript, 1/27/ 05). Others clearly showed the influence of English (e.g., his pronunciation of leo like the English name; transcript, 10/26/04). The influence of English can especially be seen in cases where Edward took into account the way Spanish words looked in written form. For example, during two Espaol para ti lessons when the words jardinero [gardener] and jarabe [a Mexican dance] appeared on the screen, Edward read the beginning of them like the English word jar (Field notes, 2/16/05, 3/2/05). Another error of this type occurred during a cooking session on December 15. Mrs. Ford had gone through the items on a worksheet and explained how to pronounce taza [cup] (Remember that zee is pronounced as an ess.), but a little more than a minute later, Edward pronounced taza with its -zvoiced instead of voiceless, as it should hav e been (Transcript, 12/15/04). Edwards grammatical errors were varied, but two had to do with the lack of agreement in gender between an articl e and a noun. One of these was connected to a worksheet used in another c ooking session. In this case, instead of reading el espejo off the worksheet, he said, la espejo (Field notes, 10/11/04). In a longer stretch of discourse that involved different grammatical errors, Edward substituted de for el in front of diecisiete left out de in front of febrero and used de instead of the correct del in front of ao This happened in the videoconferencing session on Thursday, February 17, 2005: Mrs. Ford : Toda la fecha. Tengo un estudi ante aqu, Edward, que quiere probar. Listo? Hoy es. [The w hole date. I have a student here, Edward, who wants to try. Ready? Today is.] Mr. Straten : Bien. [Good.] Edward : Jueves de diecisiete febrero de ao dos mil cua. I mean, dos mil cinco. Mrs. Ford : Muy bien. De dos mil cinco. Ex celente. [Very good. 2005. Excellent.] (Transcript, 2/17/05) Edwards utterance that I classifi ed as involving both a pronunciation and a grammatical error was Son las once mi dia. The correct response in the Espaol para ti practice exercise for telling the time was Son las once y media [Its 11:30]. Edwards omission of the y [and] was a grammatical (syntactic) error, and his pronunciation of media was incorrect (Field notes, 1/11/05). Although the majority of Edwards u tterances were three words in length or shorter, he did produce 16 utterances that were longer than that. Seven of these were related to songs. On the two occasions when Edward led the class at Dolphin Point and the class at Greenwood Park in the Buenas tardes [Good afternoon] song (using the written word s of the song as a reference), he produced 4 utterances that were from four to five words in length (Transcripts, 1/13/05, 1/27/05). On January 20, at the end of a class without videoconferencing in which the request of Ed wards friend Willie for the class to

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115 sing Soy una pizza [I am a pizza] had been granted, Edward spontaneously began to sing to himself, Soy una pi zza de peperoni, peperoni (Transcript, 1/20/05). On February 17, during the calendar segment of a videoconferencing session, Edward began to sing the s ong for the month before anyone else: Muchas fiestas en febrero. Carnaval [ unintelligible] en febrero [A lot of parties/holidays in February. Carnival (is) in February.] (Transcript, 2/17/05). I have already made reference to two of Edwards remaining utterances that were longer than three words in lengt h: Jueves de diecisiete febrero de ao dos mil cua (Transcrip t, 2/17/05) and Son las once midia (Field notes, 1/11/05). Edward produced another longer utterance involving the date in the Tele Caf and another three utterances in volving the time (or a combination of time and action) during Espaol para ti lessons. There were two additional longer utterances that involved numbers. In one, Edward was counting by twos ahead of the other students (T ranscript, 2/17/05). In the other, Edward read his prepared math problem after the Espaol para ti lesson on November 30 (Transcript, 11/30/04). Another of Edwards longer utterances involved a repetition of muy [very]. At the end of a class that had in cluded a concentration game during the videoconferencing connection, Mrs. Ford chastised Mr. Baxters class, and Edward in particular, for using Eng lish when only Spanish should have been spoken. Edward said, Muy, muy mal [Very, very bad.], and after Mrs. Ford and another student had repeated that, he said, M uy, muy, muy, muy mal (Field notes & transcript, 3/3/05). As I have already indicated, Edwards utterances were based on a relatively wide range of vocabulary. In fact, he produced utterances based on all of the vocabulary categories that I have used for my other participants, as well as utterances based on five additional cat egories: Professions, School subjects, Sea animals, Time and action, and Yes and no. In the utterances based on vocabulary indicative of time and acti on, Edward answered the question of the Espaol para ti video teacher, Ahora, qu haces t? [What are you doing now?] (Field notes, 11/10/04, 1/11/05). Concerning the Yes and no category, it is interesting to note that in the instructional settings in which Mrs. Ford was teaching (with the excepti on of the Spanish jeopardy game on November 19), Edward took an active part by saying, s and no, a type of utterance that none of my other participants produced. T able 10 shows my categorization of Edwards utterances, according to the type of vocabulary on which they were based and the instructional setting s in which they occurred.

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116 Table 10 Edward. Number of Spanish Utterances Classified by Type of Vocabulary and Instructional Setting From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf ________________________ Espaol para ti ________________ Other settings _______________ Type of vocab. No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Jeopardy 11/19/04 Action word 3 0 16 2 1 Adj. 6 3 0 2 4 Body part 0 1 Cat. 0 0 4 Cat. & number 0 0 1 Color 6 2 Dance 2 0 Date & calendar 9 12 5 Family mem. 3 0 0 Farewell 2 0 3 Food 5 0 0 2 6 Geog. 11 3 2 0 3 0 Greeting 2 19 1 2 2 Me gusta a 1 0 Number 19 15 1 6 7 1 6

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117 Table 10 (Continued). Instruction: Tele Caf ________________________ Espaol para ti ________________ Other settings _______________ Type of vocab. No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Jeopardy 11/19/04 Other 10 10 1 1 0 7 1 Profession 20 School subject 5 1 1 Sea animal 2 Time 1 20 Time & action 2 Yes & no 14 8 0 4 0 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. Adj. = adjective; cat. = category; geog. = geography; mem. = member; VC = videoconferencing; vocab. = vocabulary. a I like. Edward produced Spanish utterances in a greater variety of activities than did my others participants. Although he di dnt produce utterances in every activity in which the others did, there we re eight activities in which he produced utterances, but they didnt: farewells, a pizza-ordering activity, practicing dates, practicing the names of professions, practicing the names of sea animals, practicing times and actions, Saber es poder, and songs. The activities in which he didnt produce Spanish utterances were a fill-in-the black activity, a ticktacktoe game, geography activities, practicing description, and naming dances. (Perhaps the last activity should not be counted, because Edward wasnt invited to participate in it, having been absent fr om Spanish on the previous day when dances were covered). Table 11 shows how many utterances Edward produced in various activities in the different instructional settings.

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118 Table 11 Edward. Number of Spanish Utterances Per Type of Activity in Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instruction: Tele Caf ________________________ Espaol para ti _______________ Other settings _______________ Type of activity No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Jeopardy 11/19/04 Baseball game 6 Calendar segment 16 12 0 Concen. game 8 7 Cooking dis. 8 Dis. of stars 5 Farewells 1 3 Greetings 8 1 1 1 Jeopardy game 7 8 13 Line-up activity 6 1 Not part of activity 23 14 0 7 1 16 0 Number activity 1 1 6 7 Pizza activity 3 Pr. action words 9

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119 Table 11 (Continued). Instruction: Tele Caf ________________________ Espaol para ti _______________ Other settings _______________ Type of activity No VC: Ford VC: Ford & Straten VC: Straten During After Cooking Jeopardy 11/19/04 Pr. date 5 Pr. prof. 20 Pr. sea animals 2 Pr. telling time 13 Pr. time & action 18 Q & A activity 7 5 3 4 Saber es poder 2 1 Sh. actions 1 Sh. likes & dislikes 7 Songs 3 18 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. Concen = concentration; dis. = discussion; pr = practice; prof. = professions; Q & A = question and answer; sh. = share; VC = videoconferencing. In this section, I have provided an ov erview of the utterances that Edward produced in the different instructional settings, categorizing them according to the number and types of errors t hat he made, the length of his utterances, the types of vocabulary on which they were based, and the types of activities in which they occurred. I have also provided examples of his utterances, placing these in context. In the next section, I will pr ovide further examples of Edwards utterances in instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing,

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120 in videoconferencing sessions taught by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, in videoconferencing sessions taught by Mr. Straten, in cooking sessions, and in the Spanish jeopardy game on November 19. Examples of Edwards oral and written production in relation to Espaol para ti lessons will be given in a separate section. Examples of Edwards Utterances in Different Instructional Settings The examples of Edwards utterances that I provide in this section will generally be taken from a specific activity in a given instructional setting. This is the case in my presentation of Edwards utterances in a concentration game during a Spanish instructional session without videoconferencing and in my discussion of the way in which Edward led the Buenas tardes song in videoconferencing sessions taught by Mr s. Ford and Mr. Straten. However, because Edwards production of Spanish utterances was of a limited nature in the videoconferencing sessions taught by Mr. St raten, all of the activities in which these utterances were produced will be mentioned. I will return to the consideration of a specific activity, a cooking discussion, in the instructional setting of a cooking session. I will end this section by giving an example of one of Edwards utterances in the Spanish jeopardy game before the Thanksgiving Break. The concentration game that is the c ontext of some of Edwards Spanish utterances in an instructional session without videoconferencing took place on January 20. Mrs. Ford start ed the game by showing Mr. Baxters class two sets of numbers and saying, Aqu ar riba, aqu arriba, la capita l. S? [Here on top, here on top, the capital. Right?], and, Aqu abajo, los pases [Here below, the countries]. Then she went through the names of the numbers in Spanish (Field notes & transcript, 1/20/05). When Mrs. Ford asked, Quin quier e ir primero? [Who wants to go first?], Edward immediately said, Trece trece [13, 13]. Mrs. Ford apparently believed that Edward was pointing out t hat there was a 13 in the top set of numbers and a 13 in the bottom set, becaus e, instead of showing the name of the capital and the name of the country associated wit h the identical numbers, she agreed that there were two 13s, saying this was easy and a bonus (Transcript, 1/20/05). The first turn then went to Eric and the second to Joanna, but Mrs. Ford selected Edward for the third turn: Mrs. Ford : Uh, Eduardo. Edward : Trece. Mrs. Ford : Trece. Mrs. Ford and other voices : Tegucigalpa. Mrs. Ford : Tegucigalpa. Hay que buscar [Te gucigalpa. You have to look for] Mrs. Ford and other voices : Honduras. Mrs. Ford : Hon Edward : Trece.

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121 Mrs. Ford : Trece. Mrs. Ford and other voices : Guatemala. Mrs. Ford : Guatemala. Trece, Guatem ala. Trece, Tegucigalpa, Tegucigalpa. Memoria, memoria [Memory, memory]. (Transcript, 1/20/05) The next turn went to Tim, who c hose cien [100] after Mrs. Ford had named some of the numbers in the top se t for him. Mrs. Ford repeated the number and named of the capital that was a ssociated with it: Cien? San Jos. San Jos. Dnde est Costa Rica? [100? San Jose. San Jose. Where is Costa Rica?] There was whispering in t he background, prompting Tim to select 30 because Joannas turn had revealed that t hat was the number for Costa Rica. Mrs. Ford asked, Treinta? [30?], and Ed ward voiced his agreement, S (Field notes & transcript, 1/20/05). Edward didnt produce another utter ance until the eighth turn, after his friend Willie had selected Sesenta y cuatro [64] and Mrs. Ford named San Juan as the capital that went with that num ber. It was then that Edward repeated, San Juan (Field notes, 1/20/05). (Bec ause Edward was repeating the name of the capital to himself, and the utterance wa snt part of the ac tion of the game, I classified it as Not part of activity.) After the 11 th turn, Mrs. Ford asked a general question about who hadnt had a turn yet, and then she addressed severa l students in particular, including Edward: Eduardo, t, t jugaste? [Edward, you, you played?]. He replied, S (Transcript, 1/20/05). By the 16 th turn, Edward had a chance to participate again and was able to match San Juan and Puerto Rico: Edward : Sesenta y cuarto [sic ]. Mrs. Ford : Sesenta y cuatro. San Juan. Dnde est Puerto Rico? [64. San Juan. Where is Puerto Rico?] Childs voice [whispers]: Veinti [unintelligible]. A voice : Shh! Mrs. Ford : Diecisiete, cincuenta y siete, cin [Seventeen, fifty-seven, fif] Edward : Cincuenta y siete. Mrs. Ford : Cincuenta y siete. Mrs. Ford and other voices : Puerto Rico. [Applause.] Mrs. Ford : San Juan, Puerto Rico. (Transcript, 1/20/05) Ciara also had a second turn, following the second turn of Edward, which has just been presented. Ciara chose 14 for Panam, the capital. There was a little discussion about which number Ciara should pick next, and when Mrs. Ford said, Treinta y and Ciara added, cinco, Edward said, s, voicing his agreement with the choice of 35. However, 35 was not the number for Panam but for Mxico. Edward repeated the name of the latter country after Mrs. Ford had said it. This was his last utterance in the concentration game, which went on through another four turns (Field notes & transcript, 1/20/05). I have already mentioned that on two occasions Edward led the class at Dolphin Point and the class at Greenwood Park in singing the Buenas tardes

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122 song. He did this in the context of videoconferencing sessions taught by both Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten (Transcripts, 1/13/05, 1/27/05). However, he wasnt the first student from Mr. Baxters class to take on the role of teacher in leading the song but was preceded in this undertaking by Elena, a native speaker of Spanish. In the videoconferencing session on January 6, when the classes at Dolphin Point and Gre enwood Park sang the Buenas tardes song, they were a little off in their timing. Mrs. Ford asked for someone to take her place in leading the song a second time: Hay alguien que qui ere ser la maestra de espaol o el maestro de espaol? [Is t here somebody who wants to be the Spanish teacher?] Elena volunteered and led the song (F ield notes & transcript, 1/6/05). The next week, Mrs. Ford suggested to Mr. Straten that a student lead the song again: Seor, crees que un estudiante de Greenwood Park y un estudiante de Dolphin Point pueden ser maestr os o maestras? [Sir, do you think a student from Greenwood Park and a student from Dolphin Point can be teachers?] Mr. Straten agreed that this was a good idea but couldnt immediately find a volunteer. Mrs. Ford talked to Edward in Spanish, trying to convince him to lead the song. He got up, went to the fr ont of the class, and led both classes in singing it: Mrs. Ford : Vamo, vamos a ver. [Translation: Lets see. Whispers:] Okay [unintelligible]. Buenas tarde Edward [singing]: Buenas [with laugh in voice] tardes. Many voices [singing; delay for some at end]: Buenas tardes. Mrs. Ford [whispers]: Bienvenido Edward [singing]: Bienvenido al espaol. [Translation: Welcome to Spanish.] Many voices [singing; delay for some at end]: Bienvenido al espaol. Mrs. Ford [whispers]: Buenas Edward [singing]: Buenas tardes. Many voices [singing]: Buenas tardes. Edward [singing]: Cmo ests [with laugh in voice] hoy? [Translation: How are you today?] Many voices [singing; delay for some at end]: Cmo ests hoy? Edward [singing]: Buenas tardes. Many voices [singing]: Buenas tardes. Edward [singing]: Saluda a tus aminga [ sic ]. Many voices [singing]: Saluda a tus amigos. [Translation: Greet your friends.] Edward [singing]: Vamos a [fades out] ar y aprender. [A little laughter.] Many voices [singing]: Vamos a escuchar y aprender. [Translation: Lets listen and learn ] (Field notes & transcript, 1/13/05) After Edward had led the song, there was a lot of applause for him. When he had gone about two yards along the side of the Tele Caf, he put his closed hand at the side of his face, partially hiding it, and looked embarrassed. He went to the dolphin cookie jar to get something ou t of it as a reward. Mrs. Ford called

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123 him back to introduce him to the class at Greenwood Park. He stood with her and smiled, but he squeezed his eyes closed. He looked embarrassed again (Field notes, 1/13/05). Edward participated less and produced fewer utterances in the two videoconferencing sessions during which Mr. Straten taught both classes. On March 17, the first of these sessions, Edward seemed ready to take an active part at the beginning of the lesson but soon became quieter. After the videoconferencing connec tion had been made on that day, Mr. Straten asked the class at Dolphin Point, Cmo estn? [How are you (plural)?]. Mrs. Ford quietly prompted Mr. Baxters class, Uno, dos, tres, then increased her volume slightly to repeat Mr. Stratens question and give the first word of a reply, Cmo estn? Muy. A few children said, Muy bien, gracias [Very well, thank you], while Edward r eplied, As as [So-so] (Transcript, 3/17/05). After the calendar segment of the lesson and some questions from Mr. Straten about la Familia Contenta, I not ed that Edward joined in a song about members of that family. Next Mr. St raten brought out a photograph of himself with his family when he was a child, which he projected on one of the television monitors. He talked to the classes at both schools about the picture and asked for someone to point to him. As he was still making this request, Mrs. Ford suggested to Edward that he go up to the te levision to point. While Edward was hesitating, a student at Greenwood Park made the identification. After Mr. Straten had talked about the picture a li ttle more, he asked students at both schools to estimate the year in which it was taken: Mr. Straten : Alguien quiere estimar en qu ao sacaron esta foto? Mrs. Ford : S, Dolphin Point. Mr. Straten: A ver, Dolphin Point y Greenwood Park, predicciones, [ Mrs. Ford : Qu ao? Mil novecientos (the last syllable is drawn out). Translation: What year? 1900.] estimados. In the interaction that followed, Edward offered a guess of sesenta [60] (Transcript, 3/17/05). A little later in the class, there was a song about Florida. Edward was sitting with his head in his hands. He was frowning and wasnt singing. In answering questions about Florida, he whis pered, Tallahassee, to Mrs. Ford. She directed him, Dcelo [ sic ] a seor Straten [Tell it to Mr. Stra ten], and he said, Tallahassee, more loudly. Edward also joined Willie in identifying an animal as a manat [manatee]. During the closing song, however, Edward didnt participate but sat with his hands in fr ont of his face (Field notes, 3/17/05). The second time that Mr. Straten taught both classes by himself, Edward took part in an activity in which student s were supposed to raise their hands to make predictions about whether different types of fruit would float or sink, although I have no utterances recorded for him from this activity Later, instead of singing the song about Florida, Edwa rd just sat and watched (Field notes, 3/31/04).

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124 A more informal atmosphere prevailed in the cooking sessions in the Tele Caf, providing time for the students to interact with each other and for me to interact with them, as I will later explain. During the portions of lessons led by Mrs. Ford, Edward answered questions re lated to worksheets and took part in cooking discussions. The cooking session on March 10 featured fiesta taco salad, which Edward and Willie had requested after the previous cooking session (Field notes, 1/26/05). Mrs. Ford talked about the sa lads different ingredients, asking questions about their colors. Edward r epeated, maz [corn], after Mrs. Ford and said, s, when she sought confirmation that the corn was in a can: Y el maz est en una lata. Una lata. Una lata. S? Una lata. Una, una lata? A little later, Edward asked how to say violet in Spanish: Edward : What is violet, rojo [red]? Mrs. Ford : No, violeta. Edward [quietly]: Oh, violeta. (Transcript, 3/10/05) Another instructional setting in which Edward produced Spanish utterances was the jeopardy game on Nove mber 19. Like Claire, Edward was captain/spokesperson for his group and voic ed their selections for category and number of points in Spanish. One se lection was Numbers for 400. When Edward saw the numeral that was to be named written on a sheet of paper, he laughed and said, cuatrocientos [400] (Transcript, 11/19/04). In this section, examples of Edwards Spanish utterances have been placed in context in all of the instruct ional settings in which students produced utterances, with the exception of the Espaol para ti lessons. Examples of Edwards oral and wr itten output during Espaol para ti videos and of his oral output in activities following videos will be given in the next section. Edwards Oral and Written Output in Relation to Video Lessons Edwards involvement in Espaol para ti lessons varied. Sometimes he was very active in orally responding to pr ompts on the videos. At other times, he watched the lessons in silence. There were also occasions when he looked at a book or worked on a design instead of watching a given Espaol para ti lesson. However, it was unusual for him to show no in terest at all. On the contrary, there were some occasions in Mr. Baxters r oom when I was able to observe Edwards enthusiasm for Spanish and his very ac tive participation through responding orally during the video lessons. One such class session occurred on November 10. Before the video began, I sat down on the floor at the front of the room, with the tripod and camcorder to my right and Edwa rd to my left. He initiated a conversation with me about how to say Christmas in Spanish and then shared his new knowledge with his friend Willie: EJ : How do you say Christmas in Spanish? AN : Navidad. EJ : Navidad. Feliz Navidad means Merry Christmas. AN : Thats right.

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125 EJ : Willie, I bet you dont know what Feliz Navidad mean. Edward, Willie, and ot her students had been singing Feliz Navidad in Chorus, but according to Edward, their teacher hadnt to ld them what it m eant (Field notes & transcript, 11/10/04). Sitting next to Edward that day I was able to hear each of his utterances clearly. I also felt free to write th em down, because his attention was on the Spanish lesson (Lesson 21) and not on what I was writing. The first part of the video lesson linked times and actions. I took part quietly, saying some of the times. Edward said, estudio [I study], qui etly as the action that occurs at 4:15. For the 4:00 action, he said, canto [I sing], but it was supposed to be bailo [I dance]. He repeated, cinco y cuarto [5: 15], and, nueve y media [9:30], slightly after these times were given on the video. He said, siete [7:00], before it was given, as he did the whole sentence, A las doce canto. [At 12:00, I sing.] He seemed pleased about the latter, and said, Yes! (Field notes & transcript, 11/10/04). In the next part of the lesson, word s were put on the television screen, corresponding to what Fredo said he did at different times of the day. Edward began reading along with Fredos voice and continued reading before or along with it. (Unfortunately, I didnt keep track of what he read.) He also said, pinto [I paint], during the discussion of Fredos ac tivities that followed (Field notes, 11/10/04). When the lesson was on large numbers, Edward said, doscientos [200], after it was given and, ochocientos [800], before it was given. He said, nuevecientos [ sic ], instead of novecientos [900] and said, diez [10], apparently as the beginning of a number expression fo r 1,000, instead of using the correct term mil As the lesson progressed, ther e were two other Spanish numbers (quince [15] and veinticinco [25]) that he repeated after they were given (Field notes, 11/10/04). Besides orally participating on November 10, Edward produced a Saber es poder card in which he makes referenc e to the last segm ents of the lesson, where addition and subtraction are practic ed and vocabulary for multiplication is presented (Steele & Johnson, 1999). Ed ward also included the first-person singular forms of various verbs. On one side of the card, Edward wrote his statement of the main idea: Todays lesson was mostly about mathematics. We talked about multiplacati on (por) and addition (mas [ sic ]). I learned a few spanish words like como and camino. I have placed the information from the other side of the card in Figure 6. Edwards englis that heads his column of English equivalents to Spanish words is missing an h and isnt capitalized, but otherwise everything on this side of his card is spelled correctly. The onl y other corrections that I would make here would be (a) to write I paint instead of the second occurrence of pinto and (b) to add the subject pronoun I before each of the words in the English column so that, for example, dance becomes I dance

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126 Espaol englis bailo ----------dance como ------------eat camino --------walk canto ------------sing pinto ----------pinto coloreo ---------color Edward Figure 6. Information on one side of Edwards Saber es poder card for Lesson 21. There were a number of other occasi ons when Edward orally participated in Espaol para ti lessons. On January 11, for example, he was very active in the segment of Lesson 31 about telling ti me and in another segment in which times and actions were combined (Field not es, 1/11/05). He also participated in time-telling practice on October 20 and October 27 and practiced using action words on October 26, October 27, and January 18 (Field notes, 10/20/04, 10/26/04, 10/27/04, 1/18/05). On February 16, Edward gave different dates, read the names of several professions off the television screen, and correctly changed the form of one profession word from the masculine to t he feminine (Field notes, 2/16/05). He identified pictures of people with different professions on March 2, in many cases making a correct identification before the answer was given. When this happened with los basureros [the garbage collectors], he said, Yes! and smiled (Field notes, 3/2/05). A further exam ple of his oral participation during an Espaol para ti video was when he identified sea creatures in Spanish on April 28 (Field notes, 4/28/05). Edward participated in several of the activities that followed video lessons, as well. The contribution he made on Octo ber 26 showed that there were things in Spanish that he hadnt mastered, especially at that point in the school year. Like Brittany and other student s, with the exception of El ena, Edward mistakenly used the first-person singular form of a verb when directed by Mr Baxter to share an action word and ask a person in the classroom to do that action. Edward said, Leo [I read], to his friend, Calvin using the English instead of the Spanish pronunciation of the word. Calvin got a math book, but there was some confusion about what he was supposed to do with it. Mr. Baxter intervened: Mr. Baxter : He just said leo [pronounced as the English word]. What is he to do?

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127 Edward : Study. Mr. Baxter : Study or read. All right. (F ield notes & transcript, 10/26/04) November 30, the day on which Mr. Baxter followed up on the Espaol para ti lesson by asking all of his students to write a math pr oblem in Spanish and later share it with the class, was a day on which Edward wasnt actively involved in the lesson, keeping his head down part of the time and also toying with his Saber es poder card (Field notes, 11/30/04). Edward had momentarily stepped out of the classroom at the time Mr. Baxter asked the students to write down a math problem in Spanish. When he came back in and discovered that something was going on, he asked Mr. Baxter, What problem? I wasnt here when you said it. Mr. Baxter repeated his directions, but Edward res ponded, I forgot the words. He asked to see them on the card of Mr. Baxter, who handed it to hi m but told him that he couldnt take his problem. Mr. Baxter asked El ena to write the words for add and subtract on the board. Edward and three other boys gathered around the classroom poster with the names of numbers written in Spanish. When Edwards turn to share his problem came, he said, Cuatrocientos ve inte ms cien son quinientos noventi [ sic ] [420 + 100 = 590] (Field notes & tran script, 11/30/04). He had meant for his second number to be 170, as the Saber es poder card on which he wrote the problem shows. I have placed the information on this side of his card in Figure 7. cuatro cientosviente mas cien son quinientosnoventa 420 170 590 Figure 7. Information on the reverse side of Edwards Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. Edward was ambitious in the probl em he gave, but his lack of engagement in the video lesson that day can be seen not only in his statement to Mr. Baxter about having forgotten mathematical terms in Spanish but also in what he wrote on the other side of his Saber es poder ca rd. The main focus of the lesson had been on numbers, including math problems, street addresses, large numbers, and the combination of times and actions (S teele & Johnson, 1999). Only in the

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128 segment before the closing had commands been practiced through a Cha-chacha song, but it appears that the words Edward wrote on his card prior to receiving his postvideo assignment were so lely related to this song, possibly to the lines, Muy bien, cha-cha-cha. Va mos a bailar [Very good, cha-cha-cha. Lets dance.], and to the name of the c haracter who receives the commands, Too (Steele & Johnson, 1999). I have plac ed the information from this side of Edwards Saber es poder card in Figure 8. Edward J. Cha, cha, cha Bamos y Biey ya tono, tono Figure 8. Information on the front side of Edwards Saber es poder card for Lesson 23. There were times when Edward was very actively engaged in Espaol para ti lessons. Whereas I occasionally noted oral responses by Brittany and Ciara to prompts during video lessons, Ed wards responses during some lessons were of such a quantity and quality that I noted their timing. Often Edward, who described himself as competitive (Interview, 5/2/05) appeared to be challenging himself to give correct respons es and to give them quickly. For Edward, as for each of my participants, I have attempted to present a comprehensive picture of oral Spanish output, in some cases providing examples of the interactions in which utterances were produced. I have also presented examples of written output. In the next section, I will bring together information on all of the participants in an attempt to show more clearly differences that exist between them. I will also highlight the main types of vocabulary on which their utterances were based and the main types of activi ties in which their utterances were produced. Summary of Oral Output in t he Different Instructional Settings I have presented information on how many Spanish utterances my participants produced in each of the instructional settings that provided

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129 opportunities for Spanish output on thei r part. Because the participants spent much more time in some instructional settings t han in others and because some participants were present for more instruction than were others, it is difficult to get a clear picture of the relati ve amount of their Spanish output in the different settings by simply comparing the number of their utterances (given in Table 3). In order to provide for co mparison, I decided to calculate the average number of minutes between utterances for each participant in the different instructional settings. The results are presented in Table 12. Among the insights that the calculation of average number of minutes between utterances makes possible is the fact that Edward; who produced 87 utterances in Spanish instructiona l sessions led by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, 81 utterances in vi deoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, and 13 utterances in the Spanish jeopardy game on November 19; was equally productive of Spanish utte rances in these three settings, with an average of 3 minutes between his utterances in each. The calculation of average number of minutes between utterances is not meant to give the impression that the participants produced their utterances at even intervals within a given instructional setting but rat her to provide a common measure for comparisons of productivity between participants and between instructional settings. As could be predicted, overall, Ed ward is the student with the least amount of time between his utteranc es, followed by Ciara, Claire, and then Brittany. (This ranking of the participants is, in fact, the same as that given by the ordering of the total number of their utterances from highest to lowest.) A few exceptions to the overall ranking by amount of time between utterances occur in the individual instructional settings. Claire produced more utterances than Edward in the Spanish jeopardy game, in which they were present for the same amount of time. Neither Ciara nor Bri ttany produced any utterances in this setting. Another exception can be seen during Espaol para ti videos, when Claire remained silent, and there was, on the average, less time between Brittanys utterances than between Ciaras. The average time between utterances is the most similar for the four participants in activities following Espaol para ti videos. It is interesting to note that the average number of minutes between Claires utterances is three times greater in videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten than in instruct ional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing. For Brittany, the av erage number of minutes is three and a half times greater in videoconferencing sessions led by the two teachers, and for Ciara it is more than four times gr eater. For Edward, however, the average number of minutes between hi s utterances in the two settings is identical.

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130 Table 12 Average Number of Minutes Between Utterances for Each Participant in the Different Instructional Settings From October 1, 2004, Through May 5, 2005 Instructional setting Claire Brittany Ciara Edward Without VC: Mrs. Ford 16 24 8 3 VC: Mrs. Ford & Mr. Straten 48 84 33 3 VC: Mr. Straten NA 22 15 9 During Espaol para ti videos NU 39 49 5 After Espaol para ti videos a 7 7 6 5 Cooking 65 NU 15 6 Jeopardy 11/19/04 2 NU NU 3 Overall average 23 39 17 4 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NA = not applicable (not present); NU = no utterances; VC = videoconferencing. a The calculation for this row uses the total time following Espaol para ti videos on days when there was a postvideo activity. Caution should be exercised in interpreting the average number of minutes between utterances in the videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Straten, because the amount of time spent in these sessions was brief compared to the amount of time spent in vi deoconferencing sessions led by the two teachers and compared to the am ount of time spent in Spanish instruction in the Tele Caf without videoconfer encing. Claire was not pr esent for either of the sessions led by Mr. Straten, and Brittany was present for only the second one. During this 22-minute session, she produced one utterance, jueves [Thursday]. Ciara and Edward were present for both sessions (totaling 46 minutes) but produced their three and five utterances during the first one. As I will discuss later in this section, the activities that are used in a session have a bearing on how many utterances are produced. Turning now to a consideration of linguistic errors, only 11.1% of Claires Spanish utterances involved such errors Edwards percentage of errors was similar, 13.1%. The percentage of errors was higher for Brittany (25.0%) and

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131 higher still for Ciara (34.2%). This is another area in which caution should be used in interpreting results, becaus e the percentages are based on the utterances that I could hear well enough to make a determination of whether they involved errors or not. Mostly owing to Claires quiet speech I was unable to hear 20.0% of her utterances well enough to make such a determination. In regard to my other participa nts, I was unable to hear 12. 0% of Ciaras utterances adequately, 9.7% of Brittany s, and 5.8% of Edwards. The participants linguistic errors involved mispronunciations and incorrect lexical selections for the most part. Ciara had the highest number (20), as well as percentage, of utterances that involv ed pronunciation errors. In half of these he used English pronunciation. The low oc currence of grammatical errors in the utterances of the participants is reflecti ve of the lack of complexity of their Spanish speech. Most of the Spanish utterances of the participants were three words in length or shorter. Clair e and Brittany each produced one utterance that was longer than that, repr esenting 2.2% and 3.2% of their utterances, respectively. For each girl, this utterance was a math problem, prepared in advance. Ciara produced four utterances that were longer than three words in length (4.8% of his utterances), two of which were his math problem. Sixteen of Edwards utterances were longer than three words in length (5.2% of his utterances), one of which was his math problem and seven of which were related to songs. The names of numbers in Spanish were not only the basis for some of the longer utterances but for the largest number of utterances from any one category of vocabulary: 97 of the 468 utterances produced by my participants. (If I had added a count of the names of numbers that were re lated to dates and the calendar and were related to time to the Number category instead of keeping them in separate categorie s, the total number of ut terances based on number vocabulary would be higher.) Geography vocabulary was the basis for the next highest number of utterances (55), follo wed by the vocabulary categories Date & calendar (42), Action word (34), and Gr eeting (32). All of the participants produced utterances based on these types of vocabulary, except in the case of the last category, where all of the u tterances were produced by Edward and Ciara. I find it interesting to note that 28 of the 34 utterances based on action words were produced during and after Espaol para ti videos, 3 were produced in the Spanish jeopardy gam e on November 19, and 3 in the context of Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf. The latter 3 were produced by Edward in videoconferencing sessions taught by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten. Two of the utterances were a sentence from the Buenas tardes song that Edward led the classes in singing on two occasions (Tr anscripts, 1/13/05, 1/27/05). The third occurred when Edward quietly repeated one of Mrs. Fords utterances, Levntense [Stand up] (Transcript, 1/27/05). Edward, Ciara, Claire, and Brittany produced Spanish utterances during different activities, but I woul d like to highlight the activi ties in which at least two of them participated and in wh ich at least 9 utterances were produced. All four

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132 students produced utterances (47 in total) during the calendar segment of Spanish instructional sessions in the Te le Caf. All of them also produced utterances (28) in the line-up activities that took place at the close of instructional sessions in the Tele Caf and, on one occasi on, at the end of a cooking session. Number activities took place in videoconferencing sessions and during and after Espaol para ti videos. Considering number activities in all of these settings together, Edward, Ciara, Claire, and Britt any produced 30 utterances. In the context of instructional sessions in t he Tele Caf, Edward, Ciara, and Claire, produced utterances in question-and-answer ac tivities (32), concentration games (22), and baseball games (17), and Edward and Brittany took part in activities for sharing likes and dislikes (producing 9 utte rances). In greeti ngs at the beginning of videoconferencing and cooking se ssions, Edward and Ciara produced 17 utterances. Edward and Ciara also par ticipated in cooking discussions during cooking sessions, producing 9 utterances. In the jeopardy game in Mr. Baxters classroom and in the one in the Tele Caf, Edward and Claire produced 45 utterances. During Espaol para ti videos, Edward, Ciara, and Brittany practiced time telling, producing 17 utterances, and practiced action words, producing 16 utterances. To sum up, I have analyzed the participants oral Spanish output in terms of the number of their u tterances, the average number of minutes between these, the number of utterances that involved li nguistic errors and the types of errors that were involved, the length of utte rances, the types of vocabulary on which they were based, and the types of activiti es in which they were produced. These categories were inductively derived from the abundant data for each student. Thus far this chapter has concentra ted on the following point of focus: What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings? In the next section, I will consider whether any patterns of change can be discerned in the participants oral Spanish output over time. Patterns of Change in Oral Spanish Output This section will address the followi ng point of focus: Are patterns of change observed in learners' language prod uction during the period under study? I will first consider differences in the re lative amount of the participants Spanish output from month to month. I will then consider whether their output changed in terms of the language they used and how they used it. In order to provide a measure that allows fo r the comparison of the participants output from m onth to month, I have ca lculated the average number of minutes between their utterances. T he results are presented in Table 13. I have not included May in this table, because I observed each participant for less than an hour during that month. The utterances considered in this table (as in the rest of this chapter) are those produced by participan ts as individuals and not as a part of a group response, except in those cases where the timing or volume of a participants utterance is different enough from those of the group to make the utterance stand out.

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133 Table 13 Average Number of Minutes Between Utterances for Each Participant From October 2004 Through April 2005 Month Claire Brittany Ciara Edward October 94 23 23 9 November 9 203 23 5 December 33 21 11 14 January 23 26 17 2 February 33 31 35 2 March NU 104 27 3 April 18 NU 8 6 Note. Utterance length = a word to a sentence. NU = no utterances. An examination of Table 13 reveals that the participants generally differed from each other in the av erage number of minutes between their utterances in a given month. There was usually also vari ation in this measure for the individual participants from month to month. The abbreviation NU in Table 13 indicates that a participant produced no utterances as an individual during my observations in a given month. This was the case in March for Claire, who in Ap ril returned to producing utterances as an individual. Brittany produced no utterances in April, and in fact, her answer of jueves [Thursday] in the calendar segment of the videoconferencing session on March 31 (Transcript, 3/31/05) is the last utterance I hav e recorded for her for the year. (Jueves was the onl y utterance Brittany produced as an individual in March, when I observed her for 104 minut es. The only utterance she produced in November, when I observed her for 203 minutes, was the math problem that she prepared in advance.) Leaving aside the issue of quantity of output and turning to the issue of patterns of change over time in the languag e used by the individual participants, I must admit that I was unable to discern any such patterns in the language used by Claire and Brittany, partly owing to t he small number of utte rances that they produced. Claire could do very well if she were pushed to produce Spanish. The occasions when she did this were rare enough that I got an impr ession of periods of silence and then bursts of language that sometimes favorably surprised me but from which I wasnt able to trace patte rns of change. Brittany was also quiet in Spanish classes, and her oral producti on was even more limited than Claires.

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134 Ciara showed evidence of learning the Spanish names of capitals and countries as time went by. I also noted growth in his use of Spanish greetings, which occurred toward the end of the school year. In a cooking session in December, I a sked Ciara, Cmo ests? Bien? [How are you? Well?]. When he just looked at me silently, I switched to English, asking, How are you? and he replied, O h, I forgot what that meant (Field notes, 12/15/04). In another cooking session on April 21, Ciara echoed Mrs. Fords greeting and began to answer on his own: Mrs. Ford : Buenas tardes. [Good afternoon.] Childrens voices, including Ciaras (which I can make out clearly): Buenas tardes. Mrs. Ford : Cmo estn? [How are you (plural)?] Ciara : Cmo estn? Mrs. Ford : Bien, mal, as as ? [Good, bad, so-so?] Ciara : Muy [Very]. (T ranscript, 4/21/05) At the beginning of the final cooki ng session on May 5, Ciara responded to Mrs. Fords greeting of Hola, clase wit h his own greeting, Hola, Cinco di [ sic ] mayo day. After she asked the class, Cmo estn? Ciara said, Cmo ests t? Muy bien (Transcript, 5/5/05). It was in Edward that I saw the most growth in Spanish. At the beginning of the school year, Edwards friend Willie took an active part in Spanish classes, while Edward remained fairly quiet. When he did respond to video prompts, I noticed various things that he hadnt yet mastered, but he was willing to make mistakes in the process of learning. By the end of the school year, Edward was able to take an active part in lessons, and he used Spanish to communicate. I sometimes heard Edward repeating Spanish words to himself (Field notes, 11/11/04, 1/13/05, 1/18/ 05, 1/20/05, 1/27/05, 2/3/05, 3/2/05, 4/21/05). One challenging word that I heard him using and repeating was quinientos [500]. In the Spanish jeopardy game on Nove mber 19, he spoke for his group in choosing 500 as the number of points but said, Qui, quienciento, qui, qui (Transcript, 11/19/04). Later in the gam e he chose 500 again but this time said, quiniento (Transcript, 11/19/04). On November 30, when he read from his Saber es poder card the numbers that he had copied from a poster, he said, quinientos, correctly (Field notes & tr anscript, 11/30/04). As Mr. Straten was going over numbers for a game on February 3, Edward went ahead of him and made a mistake on 500 again. When he heard the correct pronunciation for quinientos, he repeated it to himself se veral times (Field notes, 2/3/05). I have already included a description and the transcript of Edward leading the Buenas tardes song on January 13 (Field notes & transcript, 1/13/05). When he led it again on January 27, he showed much more self-confidence and delivered an almost flawless performance (F ield notes & transcript, 1/27/05). On the last day of school, I prepared to read a Jorge el Curioso [ Curious George ] book to Mr. Baxters class, aski ng some students to help me dramatize it. I got Elena, a native speaker of Spani sh, to handle a toy monkey that, with her

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135 help, played the part of Curious George. I asked Edward to take the other major part, that of the man with the yellow hat. I had written a line for him to deliver as this character while he was talking on the telephone to someone at the zoo: Al. Tengo un mono de frica. S. S. Hasta luego. [Hello. I have a monkey from Africa. Yes. Yes. Ill see you later. ] When he agreed to help me, I gave him a script with his actions listed, along with th is line, which I got him to read over several times. I had a brief practice with all of the student s who had parts, and then they acted out the story while I read it to the class. As I wrote in my field notes, Elena and Edward were great, doing just what I had wanted them to, and Edward delivered his line very well (Field notes, 5/17/05). With this, I had even more evidence of how far Edward, my participant who had only started learning Spanish at the beginning of the fourth grade, had progr essed in learning Spanish over the course of the school year.

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136 Chapter 6. Individual Learner Factors, Preferences, and Perceptions The purpose of the previous chapter was to provide a detailed examination of the oral S panish output and interactions of the four case study participants in the different instructional settings. The participants written output was also discussed and examples were given. The chapter ended with a discussion of whether patterns of change were observed in the participants language production during the period under study. As was shown in the previous chap ter, the participants differed in their production of Spanish. My growing interest in the reasons for the differences led me to explore the follo wing point of focus: What individual learner factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? Attitudes may be considered in terms of the individual le arner factor of motivation. However, I chose to bri ng together in one section the participants preferences and perceptions in regard to different aspects of the FLETT program, instead of including them in the separate treat ments of each learners individual factors, which follow this in troduction. In this way, patterns of preferences related to different program aspects may be discerned more easily. The following point of focus helped me to organize my findings in this area: What are the participants prefer ences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? A discussion of this point of focus is provided at the end of this chapter. A summary of oral Spanish output is provided for each participant before the discussion of his or her individual fact ors in order to set the stage for that discussion. Claire Montgomery Claire Montgomery usually produced relatively few Spanish utterances as an individual (45), but in a situation like the Spanish j eopardy game, in which she was captain/spokesperson of her group, her production increased. The average number of minutes between her Spanish utterances provides an indication of how actively engaged she was in participatin g orally, as well as providing a measure with which to gauge the relative frequency of her oral output. Ranking her productivity in different instructional settings according to the average number of minutes between her Spanish utterances, she was most productive in the jeopardy game, followed by inst ruction led by Mr. Baxter after Espaol para ti videos, instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing, videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs Ford and Mr. Straten, and cooking sessions. Claire was absent on both days when Mr. Straten led

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137 videoconferencing sessions. In the setting of the Espaol para ti videos themselves, she didnt produce any utterances but worked on her Saber es poder cards. She was the student in Mr. Baxters class who had the most cards selected for presentation in the Tele Caf. Sometimes Claire spoke so softly t hat it was difficult to understand everything she said, but the Spanish utte rances that I understood clearly rarely involved errors. Her utterances were gener ally brief, and more than half of them were based on number, date, and calendar vocabulary. She produced most of her utterances as an individual while ta king part in games, the calendar segment of lessons, number activities, and question-and-answer activities. One of the things that I found most interest ing about Claires Spanish output was the fact that she produced fe w utterances but produced them with a high degree of accuracy. I interacted with Claire less than with my other participants, and her absences from Spani sh classes resulted in my observing her less. She sometimes displayed ambi valence toward Spanish, and some of her statements concerning practice away from school did not match what her mother told me. For thes e reasons, I came to thin k of Claire as the most enigmatic of my participants. I learned more about Claire as a Spanish student as time went by, gaining insights from many sources, including her academic record, the concerns she voiced about being wrong, her interactions with her school friends, and the contact she had with Spanish away from school. My Early Concerns Regarding Claire. Of my four case study participants, Claire is the most like me: a quiet, White, middle-class female who does well in school. Probably from Claires perspective I am similar to her mother, Sarah Montgomery. At the Countys Recycle Regatta, an event at which students from different schools race boats made of recycled materials against each other, Sarah and I spent about an hour and 45 minutes in easy and enjoyable conversation with each other (Field not es, 4/30/05). During the school year, I assumed that the things Claire and I had in common were central to explaining why we werent more interested in each other and why we didnt interact with each other more. I also noted that Clair e usually attracted little attention to herself. Although I still believe these thi ngs are true, my observations of Claire require a fuller explanation. First of all, I should say that my ea rly concern about possible difficulties in establishing rapport with Claire did not prove to be valid. Although I noticed some shyness in our initial interactions, after those, I found Cla ire to be articulate and easy to talk to. An example of this took place in the cafeteria at Dolphin Point, following a Spanish play that wa s put on by Mrs. Ford, Mr. Straten, and other local FLES teachers in honor of Dolphin Points Ocean Week. Claire was sitting between Emily and me and was talking to Emily so quietly that I couldnt hear anything she was saying, although I noted that she was copying some of the movements used by one of the characters in the play, such as rotating her hand as if swinging a bikini around. W hen there seemed to be a lull in this

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138 conversation, I asked Claire if she had a brother. (Her cumulative folder indicated that she had both a sister and a br other.) In a voic e that was clearly audible, she told me her brothers name, age, that he is married, and where he lives. She also told me the name of her sister-in-law and the names and ages of her nephew and two nieces. It turned out that her brother and his family live in the same small North Florida town wher e my sister and brother-in-law live, and we talked about the town and our relatives there until it was time to leave the cafeteria (Field notes, 4/11/05). I appreciated that opportunity to inte ract with Claire, and I also greatly appreciated her willingness to be intervie wed by me, through which she helped me with this research. However, as a general rule, I found that Claire did not volunteer to be a helper. In consider ing my coded field notes, the contrast between Claire and Brittany in this ar ea becomes apparent. I have 4 instances of Claire as a helper and 39 of Brittany as a helper. I bring this up because the occasions on which Brittany and Ciara carried my recording equipment gave me extra opportunities to interact with t hem that I did not have with Claire. Besides my early concern about est ablishing rapport with Claire, another concern I had about her participation in this research was her apparently ambivalent attitude toward Spanish. As time went by, I came to value Claires contribution to the research but I still wondered what her attitude toward Spanish really was. In our first interview, I ask ed her to tell me her favorite class, and she said, I think [pause] math. Math, yeah. She indicated, however that she liked Spanish (Interview, 1/21/05). I looked into Claires feelings toward Spanish class again in our second interview: AN : How do you feel about Spanish co mpared to your other classes? [Pause.] CM : Um. [Pause.] I dont know. Um, I thin k its like. [Brief pause.] I dont think its as fun, because you have to sit down and actually watch the tape, but I think its fun when you hav e to say the words, because its a little funny when other people are tr ying to say it, [I laugh.] because sometimes they mess up. AN : Mm-hmm. [Pause.] Okay. Are there some classes you like better than Spanish, like math or something? [Pause.] CM : I kind of like math better but, mm, not really. Like. [Pause.] Mm, yeah. Um. [Very quietly:] I don t know. (Interview, 5/2/05) Whereas Claire expressed definite opi nions on some matters, such as her preference for being taught by Mrs. Ford over receiving instruction through videoconferencing (Interviews, 1/21/05, 5/ 2/05), I came to accept her lack of strong preferences in other matters, such as which class was her favorite or what her pseudonym should be. On Tuesday, January 18, I talked to Claire about needing a research name for her (Field notes, 1/18/05). On Friday morning of that week, she hadnt thought of one yet, so by the time of our interview that afternoon, I came up with a list of five first names, which I show ed her, and she picked Claire (Field notes,

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139 1/21/05). She still hadnt given me a last name for the research by the beginning of May, so I offered her a list of th ree (including Montgom ery), and when she still wasnt sure, I told her she could take the list home, suggesting that she get the help of her sister or mot her in thinking of a name (Field notes & interview, 5/2/05). I followed up on May 12, asking her if she had decided on a last name for herself for the research. Because she hadnt, I said I would use Montgomery if that was all right with her, and it was (Field notes, 5/12/05). Another way in which I learned about Claire was through observing her in Spanish lessons, where I found there to be so little variat ion in her behavior that I took special note of Mr. Baxters intera ctions with her in regard to the way she normally sat during early Espaol para ti videos. Observations of Claire in Spanish Lessons. In the normal course of Spanish instruction, Claire attracted little attention to herself. During Espaol para ti lessons, she usually sat at her desk at the front of the room, watched the video, and wrote on her Saber es poder ca rd. If Mr. Baxter asked questions about the video afterwards, she might ra ise her hand and answer some of them. In the Tele Caf, she followed the less ons and took part in singing and group responses; sometimes she provided answers in different activities, especially in the sessions that Mrs. Ford led without videoconferencing. The only occasions on which I ever observed Mr. Baxter correct Claire for anything even vaguely related to her behavior or deportment were when he gave her directions for her seati ng. In the first part of the year, although she sat in the front left grouping of desks, her desk and chair faced the back of the room. During the Espaol para ti videos, she would remain in her seat, with her chair facing the back of the room, unless direct ed to do otherwise. To watch the video on the television that was in the front left corner of the room she would swivel her legs toward the windows on the right (to her left), would twist her body toward the back of her chair, and would often lean on t he back of it. To write on her Saber es poder card she would turn back to her desk. Mr. Baxter would give seating di rections at the beginning of the Espaol para ti lessons. On October 19, 2004, among his string of directions, he said, Uh, Lucy, Elena, and Claire, youre gonna need to turn around, please (Transcript, 10/19/04). The circumstanc es were similar on November 10, when he said, Claire, you need to turn around, so your back is not towards the television (Transcript, 11/10/04). On the previous day, he had gotten the majority of the students to sit on the fl oor, including Claire, who sat with her back to her desk (Field notes, 11/9/04). The fo llowing week, Mr. Baxter also got her to sit on the floor, another exception to her us ual position at her des k: Claire, Lucy, Emily, Damarcus, Jane, Id like you sitting on the floor like you do in the Spanish lab and be part of the group (Transcript, 11/16/04). In the Tele Caf (or the Spanish lab, as Mr. Baxter called it) for all lessons except the cooking activities, Claire sat on the floor, as did t he majority of the other students. She would sit toward the front of the group but often not on the first row. The only exam ple I have of her seating being corrected there was on

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140 April 14, when Mr. Baxter was trying to fill in gaps in seating. He told Claire to move up, but she only did a little. She was wearing fairly short shorts and was sitting with her legs carefully arranged, fold ed to her right (Fie ld notes, 4/14/05). Mr. Baxter, in fact, had a high opinio n of Claire, who, like Edward, was a very good student. In March when I asked Mr. Baxter what Claire was like as a student in her other subjects (besides Spani sh), he replied, Claire is just like Edward. Terrific student, gr asps everything, loves sc hool, intelligent kid, well behaved. Mr. Baxter went on to menti on Claires sister, who had been in his class the previous year, and then concluded his comments on Claire: So shes just a terrific kid (Interview, 3/16/05). Through a discussion of Claires repor t cards in the next section, her academic achievements and strengths will be more fully revealed. A discussion of her absences from Spanish lessons will also be offered. Claires Academic Record and Her Absences from Spanish Lessons. An examination of repor t cards for the 2004 school y ear reveals that, for the five subjects that Mr. Baxt er taught his class (Reading, Science, Social Studies, Writing, and Math), Claire and Edward rece ived identical grades for each of the three marking periods: straight As (A = 90%), except for the B (B = 80 89%) that they each received in Writing in Marking Period 2. The report cards also record Mr. Ba xters ratings of his students Work Habits and Conduct. Claire received Vs (V = Very Good performance, the second highest rating) in both for the firs t two marking periods. Her grades for Work Habits and Conduct had improved to Es (E = Excellent performance, the highest rating) in Marking Period 3. The students in Mr. Baxters class also received grades for classroom work and conduct from three other teachers for the following classes: Art, Music, and Physical Education. Claire received stra ight Es in Art. Her grades in Music were all Es except for a V for Conduct in Marking Period 1. In Physical Education, Claire received an S (Satisfact ory performance, the next rating under V) for her classroom work in Marking Pe riod 1. Otherwise, she received Vs in Physical Education, except for an E for Conduct in Marking Period 3. In three of the classes that Clair e attended, no grades were assigned. Two of these, attended by all students in Mr. Baxters class, were Spanish and Marine Science. The third class was C horus, taught by Mrs. Buchanan, who also taught the Music class. Early in the school year, Mr. Baxter explained to me what was required to get into Chorus: A student needed to possess behavior that was considered good and had to have broug ht back the permission slip and shown an interest (Field notes, 8/20/04). Many of Mr. Baxters students went to Chorus at 2:00 on Thursdays, often before Spanish instructi onal sessions in the Tele Caf had ended. Another source of information on Cla ires academic achievement is the report-card section devoted to the Count y Instructional Assessment Plan, where the results of assessments in Reading, Wr iting, and Mathematics are given. As the Dolphin Point Newsletter for October 1, 2004, explains, the assessments are

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141 linked to the Essential Learnings that have been identifi ed by the County in answer to the question: What do we want our children to know and be able to do as a result of being in our class this year? Claire met or surpassed the expectations in the three areas for September, January, and April, the three dates for which results were given. Claires final report card of the y ear (for Marking Period 3) contains information on her year to date attendance. Here it is stated that she was absent 1 day. However, because I was at Dolphin Point on January 6 and 7 and because I questioned Brittany and later Claire on the subject (Field notes, 1/7/05, 1/11/05), I know that Claire was absent due to illness on both those days. As I have already mentioned (see Table 2), I observed Claire for less time than my other participants. Leaving aside the issue of the final report cards inaccuracy in this area, Claires absences from Spanish lessons are not fully explained by her absences from school. Claire was involved in various activiti es that took her away from Spanish lessons. For example, on Thursday, November 4, 2004, she and other students who were in Chorus began to leave the Tele Caf before the Spanish lesson was over (Field notes, 11/4/04, ff .). It was also due to par ticipation in Chorus that Claire and other students missed an Espaol para ti lesson on Tuesday, December 7. From January to the beginning of April 2005, besides her absences from school on a Thursday and a Friday, Claire missed three and a half Thursday lessons in the Tele Caf, three Friday video lessons involving Muzzy, and at least two Wednesday and one Tuesday Espaol para ti lessons. It is possible that on one Wednesday Clair e was attending the Principals List (Dolphin Points highest academic honor) Bowling Party and that her attendance on Fridays was affected by her involvement in the Multicultural Club. On the Thursday Claire missed the first half of a lesson in the Tele Caf, she had apparently been working with a teacher employed with Title I funds, who practiced skills with all of Mr. Baxters students at various times throughout the school year (Field notes, 1/13/05). Having presented information on Clair es academic achievements in other subjects and on her absences from Spanish lessons, I will now offer some explanations for her limited oral parti cipation in the Spanish lessons she attended. Reasons for Limited Oral Part icipation in Spanish Lessons. As far as oral participation in Spanish classes is concerned, Claire wasnt always interested in answering questions. My query, Do y ou like answering questions in Spanish? elicited this response from Claire: Depends on how I feel (Interview, 1/21/05). In studying Claires oral production, I have discovered that when she did answer questions, her responses were usually bot h linguistically and factually correct. Indeed, one factor in her willingness to raise her hand during Spanish instruction seemed to be a need to feel fairly confident that she knew the right answer, as the following anecdotes illustrate.

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142 One Thursday in April, there was no videoconferencing because of a field day at Greenwood Park, and Mrs. Ford wa s trying out a Spanish game that was based on baseball. Claire, Ciara, and ot hers raised their hands after Tim had struck out, due to his inability to answer a question. Later in the game, however, I noticed that Mr. Baxter was signaling Claire to raise her hand, and I heard her tell him, Im scared (Field notes, 4/14/05). I noticed Claires reticence again 2 w eeks later when Mr. Baxters class was playing a Spanish baseball game agains t Dolphin Points other fifth-grade class. Partway into the game, Mr. Baxt er suggested that t he students from each class line up in batting order instead of sitting together on the rug and having Mrs. Ford pick who would have the next tu rn. I noticed that Claire assumed a position toward the back of the line that her class formed (Field notes, 4/28/05). Some of Claires concerns about being wrong came out in several interchanges between us in her intervie w the following Monday. These concerns had to do with how other students would per ceive her and whether they would make fun of her or laugh at her. The following interchange begins with my seeking Claires reaction to communica ting with students in another class through videoconferencing: AN : When youre in the Tele Caf, how do you feel about saying things in Spanish to students in the class at the other school? [Pause.] I guess you mostly say things to the teacher. CM : Yeah. Cause the kids aren t really asking the questions. AN : Yeah. What about them listening? CM : Um, I think its all right, because they dont laugh if we mess up. [Pause.] AN : Okay. Um, would you? Well, you dont really do this, but if, if you did: Would you rather say things in Spanish to students in your class or to students in the class at the other school? CM : Just the students in the class at the other school. AN : Oh, so youre interested in saying things to them? CM : Yes. AN : Oh, okay, thats interesting. Why? CM : Because the kids in your class, I think they would be like, um, What are you talking about? AN : Oh. CM : Cause they dont know that you re trying to speak in Spanish. AN : Okay. When your Saber es poder card is selected, how do you feel about it being shown to students in the class at the other school? CM : I kinda feel embarrassed because all of the, um, because sometimes a word could be written wrong, and she wo uld have to correct it. And I just always think that theyre gonna laugh. (Interview, 5/2/05) Claire also expressed her concerns in an interchange in which I tried to describe the assessment program that Mrs. Ford had implemented with fourth graders and asked for Claires reaction to it:

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143 AN : Suppose you had to learn certain things in Spanish, like the numbers up to 100, and the Spanish teacher spent time with just you, asking you questions about the numbers until you coul d give the right answers. Do you think Spanish would be different then? CM : Yes, because then you would, I think you would feel embarrassed, because you, she has to take you away from the whole class and has to let you learn that way. AN : Oh, but if she were doing it with a ll of the students in the class, one by one. CM : I think it would be the, all righ t, because none of them would feel differently, because then they wouldnt be able to make fun of you. (Interview, 5/2/05) In spite of Claires concerns about being wrong and the reticence she displayed in Spanish baseball games, s he expressed a preference for competing in teams when I asked her about this: AN : What do you think would be better in games with the class at the other school: adding the points for both classes together or adding the points separately for each class so that youre playing against each other? [Pause.] CM : They should add the point s separately, I think. AN : Oh, can, is that more fun? CM : Yeah. AN : Okay. What about in your own cl ass, do you like doing things all together; or in teams; or someti mes together, sometimes in teams? CM : In teams. (I nterview, 5/2/05) Claire also talked about the Spanish baseball games in positive terms at the end of the interview: AN : What do you think youll remem ber the longest about Spanish here over the years youve taken it? [Pause.] CM : The baseball games. AN : Oh, I think that there may be one more. Thats what Mr. Baxter told me, maybe the last week. CM [very quietly]: Oh, cool. [I laugh.] AN : Do you want to say anything else about Spanish? CM : Uh. [Pause.] Just that I [with a laugh in her voice] hope they do have another baseball game. (Interview, 5/2/05) Claires enjoyment of the baseball games was something of which I was unaware until she told me about it. In fact during the course of this research, I learned various things about Claire that I would not have guessed toward the beginning of the 2004 school year. One way in which I was able to learn more about Claire and about my other participants was through a consideratio n of what was impor tant to them. For Claire in the school setting, this seem ed to be her friends. When I asked her in the May interview, What do you th ink youll remember the longest about school this year? she replied, My fr iends and how much math we had to do

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144 (Interview, 5/2/05). My exam ination of Claires friendshi ps at school in the next section will also provide an opportunity for me to consi der Claires assumption of leadership roles and the question of whether she ever interacted with her friends in Spanish. Claires Friends at School. From observing Claire, I learned that her best friends in Mr. Baxters class were Emily, Jane, and Lucy. Claire and these students often sat near each other. For ex ample, they sat in the front left grouping of desks in Mr. Baxters classr oom at the beginning of the school year, and when the desks were arranged in rows, they maintained the same positions (Lucy, Jane, Claire, Emily) in the middle of the front row from the beginning of January to the beginning of March (afte r which the arrangement of desks was changed again). Mr. Baxters statement to me that the students pretty much group themselves (Interview, 3/16/05) re inforced my belief that these students stayed together by choice. Like Claire, Emily, Jane, and Lucy were quiet. Jane, an Asian girl whom I considered the quietest student in Mr. Ba xters class, had been at Dolphin Point at least since the second grade. Both Em ily, a White girl, and Lucy, an Asian girl, entered Dolphin Point in t he fifth grade. Lucy, like Claire, was a very good student, receiving mostly As in Mr. Baxt ers classes. Emily and Jane were both good students, whose grades were almost evenly divided between As and Bs, with the exception of a C that Jane rece ived in Writing in Marking Period 2. The extent to which Claire paid att ention in class stood out to me as her most notable characteristic. Because of this, I took particular note of any instances in which her attention to a lesson was even temporarily broken. For example, during the Espaol para ti lesson on October 13 when the video teacher was singing the Spanish song about making hot chocolate, Claire whispered something to Jane (Field notes, 10/13/04). Later in the school year, during another Espaol para ti lesson when the video teacher was talking about different professions, it was Jane who qui etly said something to Claire (Field notes, 2/16/05). During the cooking sessions in the Tele Caf, a reward earned by individual fourth and fifth grade classes, students had the opportunity to interact with each other. When I asked Claire what she liked best about the cooking, she explained, . . its kinda when we sit down, and we actually get to talk to our friends while were waiting. And we get to do, um, we get to do the activities that are in Spanish on the paper (Interview, 1/21/05). I also appreciated and took advantage of the opportunity pr ovided by the cooking sessions to interact with students, as well as observe them. The first cooking session took place on October 11, 2004, and featured empanadas [turnovers]. After a group that include d Ciara, Brittany, and Edward had gotten their empanadas, I went over to the table where Claire was sitting. She was reading the paragraph that Emily had written about the cooking experience. Another girl at the table asked what cheese was in Spanish. Claire

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145 and I said, queso, at almost the same time, Claire starti ng to say it only slightly after I had begun (Field notes, 10/11/04). The third cooking session featured pl antains. During this session, I went over to Claires table and asked her if she liked the plantain that Mrs. Ford had just cooked. She hadnt taken a bite yet, so I asked Emily. It ended up that neither of them liked the cooked plantain that much, but they liked the chips (Field notes, 1/26/05). During the next cooking session, I approached the table where Claire was sitting with Emily, Jane, and Lucy. I starte d talking to both Claire and Lucy, with whom I had spent time at the County s World Languages Field Day less than 2 weeks before. I questioned them about the tortilla salad, Te gusta? Do you like it? They each indicated (by their expressions and gestures) that they only liked it so-so. I verbalized this, As, as? So-so? (Field notes, 3/10/05). Not only did Claire sit with Jane, Emily and Lucy in Spanish classes, she also spent time with them outside of Mr. Baxters classroom and the Tele Caf. For example, on the last day before the Winter Holidays, Claire and Jane left the Tele Caf together before the end of cl ass to run an errand (Field notes, 12/16/04). I sometimes observed Claire with her friends in the hallways and interacted with them there. This happened on May 4, when Mr. Baxter and his class were late in returning to their cla ssroom from lunch, and I went to look for them. After waiting for the students to come upstairs and talking to Edward, I approached Claire, Lucy, and Emily, who we re standing together by the railing opposite the library. I asked Lucy if this were her first year at Dolphin Point. Both she and Emily said yes. I went on to ask Lucy if she had known any Spanish before she came to the school, and she replied that she hadnt. Next, indicating that I was addressing both Lucy and Emily, I asked if it was hard coming in and learning Spanish when t he other students had been taking it already. Lucy replied, Not really. When Claire prompted Emily to respond, she said that it was kind of hard (Field notes, 5/4/05). Another friend with whom Claire sometimes interacted was Laurie, a White girl with a bubbly per sonality. Laurie, who enter ed Dolphin Point in the fourth grade, accidentally blurted things out in English during Spanish-only time in the Tele Caf more often than any of the other students in Mr Baxters class. Toward the beginning of Oc tober, Claire and Laurie were together in the Chorus room when I went to talk to Claire there (F ield notes 10/7/04). In the ticktacktoe game during a videoconferencing session on February 3, after Claire had given Quito as the correct answer to La capital del Ecuador es _______, she and Laurie started saying, Ecuador, to each other quietly when Mr. Allens class at Greenwood Park got the clue, Quito es la capital de _______ (Field notes & transcript, 2/3/05). I also noticed Claire and Laurie going around together toward the beginning of April, when they were about to work on depicting a marine habitat in the vestibule with students from Dolphin Points other fifth-grade class (Field notes, 4/6/05).

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146 Claire sometimes took on a leade rship role among her peers. For example, she spoke to a standing-room-onl y crowd of children and adults at the Dolphin Point Seasons Greetings Program, expressing the sentim ents of the fifth graders, as the end of their time at the school approache d, in the Fifth Grade Farewell (Field notes, 12/14/04). Claire also assumed the role of team captain on at least two occasions. I have already mentioned that she was a c aptain in the Spanish jeopardy game on the last day before the T hanksgiving Break. On that occasion, Mr. Baxter assigned his students to four groups fo r the game and told the groups to pick a captain to act as spokesperson (Field notes & transcript, 11/ 19/04). On another occasion, April 5, Claire wa s the captain of the fifth-g rade team for the Battle of the Books (Dolphin Point Newsletter, 4/1/05). When I asked her about this competition the next day, she explained t hat there was a list of 15 books that students were supposed to read and about which they answered questions, buzzing in (Field notes, 4/6/05). There were only a few isolated instances when I heard Claire say anything in Spanish to her friends, all of w hom had entered Dolphin Points Spanish program later than she had, with the exception of Jane. Claire verified that she and her friends didnt try to speak S panish with each other in school, when I asked her about this in an interview (Int erview, 1/21/05). However, there were occasions when Claire took on a leadersh ip role among her peers, stepping out of her usual quietness. This was the case in the Spanish jeopardy game when Claire produced even more Spanish utter ances than did Edward (Transcript, 11/19/04). In this section, I have tried to portray Claire in interactions with her friends at school and in the leadership roles s he sometimes assumed, bearing in mind any opportunities for speaking Spanish of which she availed herself. In the next section, I will consider the possibl e influence of Claires family on her development as a Spanish student. Claire and Her Family. Claires sister, Stacey, was a student in Mr. Baxters fifth-grade class the year before Claire was. Their mother, Sarah Montgomery, who is active in her daught ers education, shared a story about Stacey with Mrs. Ford in the fall of 2004 that, I believe, came to symbolize for Mrs. Ford and Mr. Baxter both the success Dolphin Points Spanish program and the Countys failure to offer Spanish in t he sixth grade in the majority of middle schools. I first heard Mrs. Ford relate the story to Mr. Baxter after his class had entered the Tele Caf on November 4, 2004: Do you remember Stacey? Stacey want ed to take Spanish this year in Fern Creek, and she couldnt. And I m ean, she walked in the room . ., and she started reading things from all over the room. And she [the teacher] said, Where did you learn all your Spanish? But she [Stacey] couldnt take it. So shes taking it next year. (Transcript, 11/4/04) In interviews with Mrs. Ford and with Mr. Baxter in March, when I asked them about Claire, both brought up Stacey and mention ed her not being able to

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147 take Spanish in the sixth grade. The question that I posed to Mrs. Ford was Could you describe Claire as a Spanish student? In her answer, Mrs. Ford immediately brought up Claires sister, te lling me, Now Im gonna give you the background here, because its important. She told me that Stacey was a very good student, a little more outgoing than Clair e. Claire is a little quieter. Mrs. Ford went on to tell me that when St acey had gone to middle school that year, she hadnt been able to take Spanish bec ause of scheduling and wouldnt be able to take it until seventh grade. Mr s. Ford again related what had happened at the middle school: But she went into the Spanish room, and she started to read everything that was up around the walls. And the teacher said, Why arent you in my Spanish class? [Mrs. Ford and I laugh .] and, Where did you learn all your Spanish? So, of course, . Stac ey told her. (Interview, 3/8/05) After sharing her wish that Stacey could have taken Spanish that year and her admiration for Stacey as a Spanish student, Mrs. Ford gave a more detailed appraisal of Claire as a Spanish student before discussing both Claire and Stacey again: Claire was always more quiet, but I knew, I could see that she was processing this, this language. She has really shown a lot of growth this year in just being a little bit more outspoken and just being, um, more involved in the lesson. She will sit, and watch, and listen, and shell, shes very focused when shes in here, very focused. And I could tell, even though shes not one that will raise her hand a lot of times and not one thats really outspoken, you could almost see the wheels turning with Claire. Her mom says that Claire will bri ng a lot of it home, and then Stacey with Claire will talk. Now nex t year when Clair e, when Stacey takes Spanish, Claire will be in the sixth grade, and shell be in the same boat her sisters in, so maybe her si ster, Stacey, will be the one that can help her out. (Int erview, 3/8/05) I have already related Mr. Baxters comments about Claire Terrific student, grasps everything, loves school, intelligent kid, well behaved when I asked him, What is Claire like as a st udent in her other s ubjects? That statement was immediately followed by a reference to Claires sister and her situation in middle school: She had a sister that was with me la st year, who went to middle school and was terribly upset that she couldnt go into Spanish in sixth grade, but she will be there in seventh grade, and Claire will continue her Spanish studies, Im sure, also. (Interview, 3/16/05) In my next interview with Mrs. Fo rd, I reminded her, When we ended the last time, you were talking about Claire and Stacey, and I asked her, Did you want to say anything else about Claire as a Spanish student? She replied, No, theyre both excellent students, and went on, Im sure theyll continue with their studies (Interview, 4/21/05).

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148 I had seen Stacey Montgomery (although I didnt know her last name at the time) in Mr. Baxters class on the occasions I had observed it during the 2003 school year. My memory of her was refreshed when I attended the Countys World Languages Field Day on Fe bruary 26, 2005, and saw her there. It was also on that day t hat I met Claire and Staceys mother, Sarah, who was very friendly and provided me with hel pful information on her daughters. The Countys Field Day was held at a high school approximately 13 miles away from Dolphin Point. After the mornings activities, lunch was served in the school cafeteria. I had already gotten my food when I saw a group from Dolphin Point enter that included Cla ire, Lucy, and a lady I guessed to be Claires mother. I asked Lucy and Claire which activities they had participated in, and when they got up to get food, I introduced myself to the lady, who did turn out to be Claires mother, Sarah Montgomery. Sarah and I visited while Claire, Lucy, and others ate lunch. We talked about many topics, including Field Day, my research, Claire and Stacey, Dolphin Point, and Mr. Baxter (Field notes, 2/26/05). I asked Sarah how Stacey and Claire had come to be students at Dolphin Point, and she explained. When Stacey wa s just a toddler, an elementary school was being built quite close to their hom e, and Sarah had told Stacey that she would be able to go there. It turned ou t, however, that they lived on the wrong side of the road to attend that school, and Stacey was bused to Dolphin Point, beginning in kindergarten. At first, Sarah hadnt been happy about this, but she had come to really like Dolphin Point and said that it was like one big family (Field notes, 2/26/05). Sarah went on to tell me that Clair e is 16 months younger than Stacey and really should have been one grade farther back in school, because her birthday is in November. However, Sarah and her husband had placed Claire in a private school so that she wouldnt have to wa it an extra year to start her formal education. As soon as Claire was old enough, Sarah had gotten her into Dolphin Point (Field notes, 2/26/05). (Claires cumulative folder indicates that she went to private school in kindergarten and first grade and entered Dolphin Point at the beginning of second grade. Her folder al so contains a report from the end of second grade that states that Claire showed the majority of the characteristics of a gifted child, according to a standard scale or checklist.) Sarah told me that Stacey was going to Fern Creek Middle School, which is close to their home, but the bad thing about Fern Creek is that Spanish isnt offered there until seventh grade. Sarah said that Claire was helping Stacey keep up with her Spanish; they sing songs and go over country names together (Field notes, 2/26/05). It was about 12:30 when Sarah told me that she needed to get together the children she had brought, because she had told Edward Jones mother that she would have him back to Dolphin Point by 1:00. She helpe d Claire, Lucy, and Edward, who had all been sitting close to us, to gather up the flowers they had made, along with their Field Day passports (that had been stamped for the activities they had attended). Sarah then said that she needed to find Stacey. I

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149 saw Claire shrug her shoulders. Sarah poi nted out and explained this reaction, saying, Claire is like, Why do we have to find Stacey? (Field notes, 2/26/04). I didnt go off with Sarah, Claire, Lucy, and Edward at first but later joined their search for Stacey. Finally, at the end of a side hall, Sarah saw Stacey inside a classroom, where there was a doll -making activity (Field notes, 2/26/05). More than 2 months later, when I asked Claire, What do you remember most about World Languages Field Day? s he replied, I remember mostly having to wait outside the doors [to go in and do activities], because it was so crowded. But I like, I liked doing the paper flowers. She paused briefly and added in a slightly ironic t one of voice, And I remember my sister running away (Interview, 5/2/05). The impression that I got from Cla ires mother of Claire and Stacey practicing Spanish away from school was di fferent from the one that I got from Claire herself. In my interview with her in January, after confirming that her sister had gone to Dolphin Point and was currently in middle school, I asked, So do you and your sister ever speak Spanish outside of, I mean to each other? to which Claire replied, No. I followed up: No? You ever try with anybody outside of school? Say things in Spanish? and Claire said no again (Interview, 1/21/05). At the end of April when I saw Sarah, Stacey, and Claire at the Recycle Regatta, Sarah and I again talked about her daughters and Spanish. Sarah told me that she isnt good at languages but t hat her girls are. She said she goes over the countries and capitals with t hem, and they say, Mom, thats not how you say it. Stacey was standing by us at that time, and Sarah asked her, Whats that one? Stacey replied, Repblica Dominicana, with good Spanish pronunciation (Field notes, 4/30/05). As I had planned, I interviewed Claire 2 days later and questioned her about her use of Spanish outside of school When I asked her whether she ever did anything on the computer at home that had to do with Spanish, she replied, Mm, no. Cause usually, um, [brief pause] my mom will want me to help around the house. Our interchange continued as follows: AN : Oh. Okay. Have you done anything with Spanish outside of school over the past few months? [Brief pause.] Like, uh, has your mother helped you review or anything? CM : No, not really. (Interview, 5/2/05) My interview with Claire continue d with my question about World Languages Field Day and her response. Then I asked her about her experiences taking Spanish at Dolphi n Point when her sister was there: AN : So, what was it like for you when y our sister was at this school and you were both taking Spanish? [Pause.] CM : I think it was okay, because we werent in the same class, and, um, usually shell get mad at me, so. AN : Oh. [I laugh.] Did you ever ta lk about Spanish outside of school? [Brief pause.] CM : I would tell my mom what I learned in Spanish.

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150 AN : Oh. What about with Stacey, did you ever say anything to her? Did you? No? CM : No. Sh, um, she doesnt have Spanish at school. AN : But I mean before, [ CM (very quietly): Yeah.] when you were both here. CM : Mm, no. AN : Okay. So you didnt practice Spanish together or anything? Okay. CM : Maybe if she had something in Spanish that was homework. AN : Oh. CM : And I dont think she really h ad that. (Interview, 5/2/05) I believe that Claires responses show what stood out or di dnt stand out in her mind. For example, helping her mo ther around the house must have made much more of an impression on her than revi ewing Spanish. This reminds me of the impression I had by the end of the school year that the blinds in Mr. Baxters classroom were never open (Field notes, 5/17/05). I know, however, that the blinds werent always closed, because t here were three occasions in the fall when I noted that Mr. Baxt er asked a student to close them before an Espaol para ti video (Field notes, 9/22/ 04, 9/29/04, 10/20/04). Talking to Claire and her mother and seeing Claire and Stacey in nonschool settings helped me to understand Claire as a Spanish student and to understand something of the relationship between Claire and Stacey. One thing I learned was that although Claire reme mbered telling her mother what she had learned in Spanish, any practice of Spanish that she may have done with her sister didnt stand out in her memory. Be sides opportunities Claire may have had to practice Spanish with family members, I was interested in the things that helped her learn Spanish in school, her attitude toward learning Spanish, and any contact with the Spanish language and its speakers she may have had outside of school. Questions About Spanish in and out of School. Although I will wait until a later section to write about the reactions of all my participants to the main components of the Spanish program at Do lphin Point, I would like to mention here a few things that Cla ire said she liked about Spanish and to discuss her attitude toward learning the language. I will also mention her contact with Spanish outside of school. When I asked her what she liked about Spanish, Claire first mentioned the way in which clowns were described: how big they are, how small they are. Since she was referring to something in Espaol para ti I followed up by asking her what else she liked about the video seri es, and she told me, I like talking about the fruits (Interview, 1/21/05). Claire also talked about fruit when I asked her about her learning of Spanish: AN : Do you feel like youve learned a lot of Spanish? CM : Yeah. AN : What are some things that youve learned?

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151 CM : I learned how to [with a laugh in her voice:] say apple in Spanish. Orange Um, Ive learned how to say the colors. Ive learned how to say, um. [Pause.] (Interview, 1/21/05) Although I gave Claire the oppor tunity to continue with the list of what she had learned, she didnt add anything else. I find it interesting that the things she said she had learned werent the same as the vocabulary she used in her utterances as an individual. This reinforces my impression that she could have produced more Spanish than she actually did. When I asked Claire how Mr. Baxter helped her learn Spanish, she did make reference to the number, date, and calendar vocabulary on which she based most of her individual utterances: CM : Sometimes he talks about the ca lendar, and he makes us say the numbers and the month in Spanish. AN : Wow. I didnt even realize that. Is that at the beginni ng of the day? CM : He doesnt always do that. AN : Just sometimes. Oh. Anything else you can think of? [Pause.] CN : Yesterday he was making us say numbers in Spanish so we could know about the number board for, um, in the Tele Caf. [This was for a concentration game.] (Interview, 1/21/05) In her interview in May, I again looked into what helped Claire learn Spanish, but instead of focusing on Mr. Ba xter, I asked what helped her in her classroom, outside of the Tele Caf. In her reply, Claire talked about learning words from the videos that she would then hear Mrs. Ford using (Interview, 5/2/05). I was interested not only in what hel ped the participants learn but also in how they felt about what they had learned, so I asked Claire in May, How do you feel about your learning of Spanish, about what youve accomplished? She responded, I think its good because, if you get a job, they would most likely hire you, because you know a different languag e. When I asked her if she were satisfied with the amount she had accomplished, she replied that she was. In comparing herself with other students, as I requested, Claire said she thought she had learned the same amount of Spanish as other students in the fifth grade and that she and other fifth graders had learned more than students in the younger grades (Interview, 5/2/05). Outside of school, Claire had little contact with Spanish. She said that sometimes she heard people speaking Span ish on the news. However, she didnt hear much of what they said, because a translation would be given over their speech. She also described observing a lady who went up to the counter in a store and was speaking Spanish. Clair e said she had recognized the word ms [more] and recalled another word that the lady had used that she didnt know. When I asked Claire if she ever read any Spanish outside of school, she said no, but then added, Like sometimes Ill be reading a book, and some Spanish will be in the book, and Ill try and read that (Interview, 1/21/05). Because of Claires limited exposure to and practice with Spanish away from school, it is likely that she learned almost all of her Spanish through Dolphin

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152 Points FLETT program. Cla ire was a high academic achiever in other subjects, and her performance in Spanish was good, with a high degree of accuracy in her utterances. She expressed concern about being wrong in Spanish, specifically in regard to being laughed at by other students. In sp ite of this, she enjoyed competitive activities, such as the Spanish baseball games. Although she rarely spoke Spanish with her friends, when Claire assumed a leadership role in the Spanish jeopardy game she showed t hat she could produce more Spanish utterances than she usually did. Brittany Johnson Brittany Johnson produced only 31 Spani sh utterances as an individual during the 7 months of this study. In fact, after March 31, she did not produce any utterances as an individual in the diffe rent instructional settings. Ranking her productivity in these settings accordi ng to the average number of minutes between her Spanish utterances, she was mo st productive in instruction led by Mr. Baxter after Espaol para ti videos, followed by the single videoconferencing session led by Mr. Straten for which she was present, instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing, the Espaol para ti videos themselves, and videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten. Brittany didnt produce any Spanish utterances in cook ing sessions or in the jeopardy game before the Thanksgiving Break. All but one of Brittanys Spanish utte rances were three words long or less, and a quarter of those I heard clearly involv ed linguistic errors. Eight of her utterances were based on action words, and another seven were based on number vocabulary. Color vocabulary wa s the basis of another four, and date and calendar vocabulary was the basis of anot her three. Brittany produced most of her utterances as an individua l in practice activities during Espaol para ti videos, in line-up activities at the conclu sion of lessons in the Tele Caf, in activities led by Mr. Baxter after Espaol para ti videos, and in the calendar segment of lessons in the Tele Caf. She also produced four utterances that werent part of a teaching activity and that she seemed to be directing to herself. She did not produce any utterances as an individual during games. As will be revealed in a later section, Brittany said that Spanish was her favorite class and talked about telling her mother and other members of her family what she had learned. The cont rast that existed between Brittanys positive attitude toward Spanish and Claire s generally ambivalent attitude came to interest me, especially in view of Claires greater linguistic accuracy and the higher number of utterances that she produced in an instructional setting such as the Spanish jeopardy game. The cont rast between Brittanys extroverted behavior in informal settings and her quietness in certain situations, such as interviews and competitive games, also attracted my attention. I came to know Brittany through observing her and through interacting with her both informally and in interviews. I learned more about her from her academic record, and from insights that Mrs. Ford and Mr. Baxter shared with me.

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153 My Interactions with Brittany. One of the first th ings I noticed about Brittany, a large Black girl, was the intere st she showed in what I was writing in my notebook on the occasion when she sat near me on the floor in Mr. Baxters room during an Espaol para ti lesson in September (Field notes, 9/22/04). Brittanys interest in me and in what I was doing continued throughout the school year and was just one example of her intere st in other people, an interest that I soon learned was teamed with a great desire to be helpful. During the course of this research Brittany often helped me with the recording equipment that I used. Subseque nt to Mr. Baxters initial suggestion on October 27 that I get a student to carry something for me and his selection of Damarcus to do it (Field notes, 10/27/04) the next opportunity I had to get such help with equipment was on November 9 when I approached Mr. Baxters class in the courtyard by the cafeteria prior to an Espaol para ti lesson and asked if Ciara and Brittany could carry equipment fo r me (Field notes, 11/9/04). Securing their assistance on this occasion meant that I was able to interact with them and become better acquainted with them not only as we walked to Mr. Baxters room but also in the room both befor e and after the arrival of t he rest of the class (Field notes, 11/9/04). On that day, Brittany and Ciara each ex pressed an interest in seeing what I had previously recorded with the camcorder At the time, I wasnt familiar with how to review a recorded segment, and w hen Ciara crowded in to look at the instructions I had with me before I had even had a chance to focus my vision on them, I offered to demonstrate how the CD recorder worked instead, playing a small portion of the last videoconferencing session (Field notes, 11/9/04). Then, as the class was entering the room, I made a brief record ing of some interaction between Brittany, Ciara, and me: Miss Norwood : Cmo ests? Cmo ests? Bien? Brittany : Ciara, say somethin! Miss Norwood : I have it recording. Brittany : Say, Hola [Hi]. Ciara : Hola. [Ciara laughs.] Brittany : Down there. (T ranscript, 11/9/04) I only have four such spontaneous reco rdings of students, and Brittany is included in all of them. The next reco rding is from the following day, when Brittany, Colleen, and Cassandra asked to help me. On that occasion, they took the camera and tripod, the CD recorder and my bag, and we went up to Mr. Baxters room together Brittany helped me set up the tripod and plug in the CD recorder. I played segments of what I had previously recorded on a CD for the girls and made a brief recording of them. In this, Brittany first urges Cassandra, a pretty and friendly Black girl, to say somethin, and then the three girls get together to say, hello, and, hola. Next Brittany sings a little in English. Colleen comments, Okay, Brittany, and Br ittany says, Hablo [I speak] with a good Spanish pronunciation. Colleen repeats, Hablo, but her pronunciation is heavily influenced by English. Brittany corrects her, emphatically pronouncing

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154 hablo as a Spanish word. Their inte raction continues, including Cassandras contribution of Hola, and ends with Co lleens exclamation concerning the impending arrival of the rest of the cl ass, Theyre coming! (Field notes & transcript, 11/10/04). Although Brittany and her friends used some Spanish words in the recordings I made of them (Transcrip ts, 11/9/04, 11/10/04, 11/16/04, 1/18/05), when I asked Brittany if she and her fri ends ever speak Spanish to each other at school, she said, No. I reminded her, One time I heard you and Ciara messing around with a little. At my further prompting, she c onfirmed that they didnt use much Spanish beyond that (Interview, 1/21/05). I rarely made a special request for a particular student to help me carry things, usually allowing those who asked fi rst to do it. I only requested Brittanys help on the first of the 19 occasions t hat she carried things for me. Her assistance in this regard was more than twice as frequent at that of any other student. In her desire to help, she so metimes showed herself very insistent, asking me several times when I didnt i mmediately give her what she wanted (Field notes, 11/16/04 & 1/4/05) or taking hold of the st raps of my purse when there was nothing else left to carry (Field notes, 2/9/05). By the time Brittany started carrying things for me, the initial shy tones in which she had addressed me, introducing hers elf as, Brit, Brittany (Field notes, 10/6/04), or with which she had talked about me, telling Mr. Baxter, Theres that lady, when I approached them one day in the courtyard (Field notes, 10/20/04), were being replaced by friendlier and happie r tones, so that la ter in the school year, she greeted me exuber antly: Miss Norwood! (Field notes, 3/30/05) or Hi, Miss Norwood, girl! (Field notes, 4/6/05) Although the way Brittany addressed me underwent change during the school year, her interest in me and in what I was doing seemed to remain constant, as her actions on January 12, 2005, show. On that day, neither the camcorder nor the CD recorder I used in my research were available to me, and I arri ved at Dolphin Point, planning simply to observe the Espaol para ti lesson and take notes. Not seeing Mr. Baxters class in the courtyard, I went upstairs a nd subsequently met the students in the upstairs hall as they returned from lunch. I said hello to Colleen, who was toward the front of the line of st udents. Brittany came up to me and stood a few inches from my face. After we had greeted eac h other, she asked me about the plastic nametag holder in which I had placed my Dolp hin Point visitor sticker. Then she wanted to know what I had in my folder. I told her I just had some papers in it, and, to direct her attention elsewhere, I handed her a small, bilingual, double book (What Daddies Do Best/Lo Mejor de Pap What Mommies Do Best/Lo Mejor de Mam Numeroff, 1998). She wanted to know if I was going to read it to them, and I said I had just brought it for t hem to look at (Field notes, 1/12/05). Once we were in Mr. Baxters room, Brittany asked me if I needed a chair, and when I said yes, she got me one and put it by her desk. I moved it back a little. While she continued looking at the book, I wrote down abbreviations for who was sitting in the fi rst two rows. Then she noticed that I had written

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155 something and wanted to know what it wa s, and I quietly went through what I had meant for the first row: Ciara, Lucy, Jane, Claire, Emily, and you (Field notes, 1/12/05). When the Espaol para ti video started, Brittany began to watch it and write on her Saber es poder card, as usual. Brittanys behaviors in video lessons and in class sessions in the Tele Caf wil l be the subject of the next section. Brittany in her Spanish Classes. During Espaol para ti lessons, Brittany displayed many of the same behaviors as Claire, most notably watching the video and writing on her Saber es poder card. Brittanys focus wasnt as good as Claires, but there were respects in wh ich she sometimes seemed more actively involved in lessons, physically responding to music with movement or orally responding to the prompting of the video teacher, for example. I noted five differ ent occasions during Espaol para ti lessons when Brittany moved her shoulders along with music, but didnt ever note Claire doing this. On October 20, for example, Bri ttany moved her shoulders with the music and joined in the singing of a Cha-cha-cha song, telling Too what to do (Field notes, 10/20/04). She seemed especia lly animated on December 8 when Lesson 26, a review through songs, was show n. During this lesson, she not only moved her shoulders, sang, and wrote on her card, but, while remaining seated, moved her body in a way that resembled dancing (Field note s, 12/8/04). In contrast, Claire sat quietly in her seat during this lesson and wrote on her card (Field notes, 12/8/04). (Although I didnt see Claire singing during this lesson, there were several occasions on which I not iced her singing or silently mouthing words along with songs in video lessons; Field notes, 10/20/04, 4/8/05, 1/12/05.) Occasionally during a video lesson, Br ittanys attention was distracted because of interaction with a person sitting near her. This can be seen in two incidents that I would characterize as territory disputes: one in which Ciara pushed Brittanys elbow away (Field notes, 10/13/04) and another that took place when Brittany and Ciara were sitting on the floor, and, in the midst of a presentation about the times when certain th ings are done, Brittany burst out, Move your leg, Ciara! (Field notes & transcript, 11/10/04). There were also instances of Brittany, like Claire, qui etly talking with students sitting near her: Ciara (Field notes, 11/30/04, 1/21/05), Cassandra (Field notes, 1/18/05), and Amanda (Field notes, 2/9/05). In January 2005, Brittany began to display certain mannerisms that seemed to indicate that her attention wasnt fully on the Spanish lesson at hand, whether this was delivered through videoconferencing or through video. On January 6, when she entered the Tele Caf, I noticed that hair was done in a special way, with many thin braids. Du ring that videoconferencing session, I saw her examining and doing something to her fingernails and later twisting around one of her bracelets (Field notes, 1/6/ 05). The following week during an Espaol para ti lesson, she flipped one of her thin braids over her head and looked at the end of her hair (Field notes 1/12/05). On other occasions, I observed her moving her head forward and backward so that her hair was flying in front of her face and then back (Field notes, 1/18/05), looking at her hands and fingernails

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156 (Field notes, 1/18/05, 2/9/05), and putti ng her fingers and thumb in her mouth (Field notes, 2/9/05, 2/16/ 05, 3/30/05, 4/7/05). In spite of these lapses in Brittanys attention, as well as the two occasions during Espaol para ti lessons when she was looking at a piece of paper she had slipped out of her desk (Field notes, 4/28/05, 5/4/05) and the two occasions during Muzzy videos when she was doing math (Field notes, 1/7/05, 2/25/05), she was generally attentive and involved in the Spanish lessons, whether in Mr. Baxters room or in the Tele Caf. I was able to gain Mrs. Fords insights on Brittany as a Spanish student in an interview in April: AN : Then, could you describe Brittany as a Spanish student? You know? [LF motions toward the table where Brittany had been sitting earlier during a cooking activity.] Yeah, she was over there today. LF : Aha. Um, very quie t, very quiet. I dont know. Have you had her oneto-one? (Interview, 4/21/05) I told Mrs. Ford about Brittanys brief ans wers in our first interview, and she went on to talk about Brittany being quiet in first language learning, as well as second language learning, concluding t hat she isnt a verbal chil d. Mrs. Ford didnt stop there, however, but added her observations on the quality of Brittanys listening: On the other hand, I must say that she listens. Sometimes I look at her, and I know shes listening, and Im sure it s all coming in. So I think shes a case where she probably knows much more than we hear her saying. (Interview, 4/21/05) Another characteristic of Brittany that I have already discussed is the interest that she took in other people. This interest was manifested in her friendships and the importanc e she placed on them. With her friends, Brittany displayed a tendency to laugh that those who prompted the laughter could have interpreted as laughing at them. Brittany and Her Friends. Something of Brittanys orientation toward her friends can be illustrated through the wa y in which she approached deciding on a pseudonym for herself. I gave each of my case study participants the opportunity to come up with a pseudonym. Edward Jone s was the first to do this, deciding on that name fairly quickly (Field not es, 1/14/05). When I approached Brittany soon thereafter, I explained to her about needing another name for the research, and she got me to tell her the name Edward had chosen. She said that she wanted her research name to be the real first name of Ciara. I told her that would be too confusing for me and caut ioned her to pick a girls name. She chose Brittany, and I agreed to that. (O n February 3, 2005, I heard her use this name in talking to Mrs. Ford about a fifth-grade field trip so it is possible that Brittany is the name of one of her friends from the other fifth-grade class.) She gave her own last name and asked if she could use that. Then she wanted Jones, and when I wouldnt let her use that, she wanted Ciaras real last name. Finally she chose Johnson, to which I agreed. (Field notes, 1/14/05. Johnson

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157 is actually the last name of one of Brittanys friends, but at the time I was thinking about Johnson being a common name.) Of the students in Mr. Baxt ers class, Brittany in teracted the most with her friend Ciara. Although they only sat near each other in Mr. Baxters classroom until November and their seating in relati onship to each other varied in regular class sessions in the Tele Caf, I saw t hem together and noted their interactions and similar interests under vari ous circumstances. On No vember 2, for example, I was waiting in Mr. Baxters classroom for the students to retu rn from lunch. When they came in, Ciara gave me a high-five, and then Brittany did, too. Next Ciara asked me if I could do this, and he showed me a kind of dance that looked similar to a jitterbug. A demonstration by Brittany followed (Field notes, 11/2/04). Brittany was a good source of informa tion on Ciara. At the end of class on November 2, when Ciara was trying to get me to give him a pencil I had lent to Brittany, showing me the stubby pencil he was using, she said that he had a couple of long ones at the bottom of his backpack (Field notes, 11/2/04). In the courtyard prior to Spanish on November 16, she told me that he was absent that day (Field notes, 11/16/04). Before school started on the morning of April 11, Ciara and Brittany were by themselves in the front corner of Mr. Baxters room, and Ciara was showing Brittany some dance steps. Because Mr. Baxter had told me that the only way I would be able to get information on which students participated in the federal meal program was to ask them, I approached Ciara and Brittany and asked if either of them got free or reduced-pric e lunch. Brittany said that she got free lunch. Ciara shook his head, indicating that he didnt, but Brittany maintained that he got lunch fo r reduced price. He agreed with that (Field notes, 4/11/05). Cassandra was a friend of both Ciara and Brittany. Brittany and Cassandra got together to help me carry th ings on three occasions (Field notes, 11/10/04, 11/16/04, 5/17/05), and the two of them, along with Ciara and Mark, helped Mrs. Ford by passing out students folders at the beginning of a cooking session in January (Field notes, 1/26/05). Brittany and Cassandra liked to laugh t ogether, as they di d in one of the audio recordings I made of them in Nove mber (Transcript, 11/16/04). Brittany, Cassandra, and Ciara were the ones who laughed during a videoconferencing session in January when the topic of discu ssion for likes and dislikes changed to movies, and Mrs. Ford talked enthusiastic ally in Spanish about how much she liked Beauty and the Beast her favorite movie (Field notes & transcript, 1/13/05). At the Chorus program that was put on at the end of the school year by fourthgrade Chorus students for the fifth graders in Chorus an d a few guests, Brittany and Cassandra, as well as the two girls sitting between them, also laughed, so much so that the girl si tting to my left began to grumble about how they shouldnt be laughing when they cant even sing themselves (Field notes, 4/29/05). Another incident of either Brittany or Cassandra laughing took place on November 16, just after I had arrived at Do lphin Point. I was in the courtyard with Claire to my left and Brittany to my ri ght and was asking t hese two students if

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158 they had any ideas of what I should ask them in an interview. When I told them that Ciara had suggested, How are you doing? and What other language do you use? as possible interview questi ons, Claire answered the second question, saying, English. Either Brittany or Cassandra, who was with her, laughed a little (Field notes, 11/16/04). I have incl uded this incident because both Claire and Brittany later expressed concerns about being laughed at (Interviews, 5/2/05). Brittany displayed a readiness to laugh, a keen desire to be helpful, and an interest in other people that led her to learn many things about them, especially if they were her friends. He r first-grade teacher at Dolphin Point left this record of her strengths: Brittany is a very cheerful and helpful student (Cumulative folder, 10/26/00). At the time of this study, Mr. Baxter described her as follows: Shes a sweet child. She really is. She wants to please, but she has a low reading level (Interview, 3/16/05) He also characterized her as academically challenged (Interview, 3/16/ 05). In the next section, I will present information from Brittanys academic record. Brittanys Academic Record. Brittany was a longtime Dolphin Point student, having first enrolled there when s he was 4 years old. Throughout her cumulative folder, there are references to her academic difficulties, especially in mathematics. In Brittanys final repor t card from the first grade, her teacher commented that she had made good progress in all areas except math. This can be seen in the grades she received: a ll Ns (Needs Improvement) in the first two marking periods in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics; an E (Excellent) in Reading in Marking Period 3, along with a V (Very Good) in Writing and an N in Mathematics. At the beginning of the third grade, Brittanys teacher noted that she was below grade level in math (Cumulative folder, 8/30/02). Two months later, this teacher stated that Brittany had not improved in math but was on grade level for reading and writing (Cumulative folder, 10/29/02). Later in the school year, however, Brittany exhibited difficulty in reading and was considered for retention in the third grade (Cumulative folder, 2/28/03), a retention that didnt take place (Cumulative folder, 5/6/03). In the fourth grade, Bri ttany did not meet the requirements of the Countys policy on promotion but again was not reta ined. As the form letter sent to Brittanys mother by her teacher and Dennis Newberry, Dolphin Points principal, explains, We feel that it is in the best interest of your child for him/her to be promoted to the next grade le vel at the end of this school year (Cumulative folder, 4/27/04). Brittanys fifth-grade report ca rd shows her grades for the 2004 school year. In the classes she took wit h Mr. Baxter, Brittany received three Cs in Reading, three Bs in Science, a C and two Bs in Social Studies, three Cs in Writing, and a C, a D, and another C in Math for each of the three marking periods. Additional codes are included wit h the D, indicating that Brittany needed to improve in all areas of Math: Mathem atical Concepts, Computational Skills,

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159 and Problem Solving Skills. For Wo rk Habits, Brittany received an S (Satisfactory performance) fr om Mr. Baxter in each of the three marking periods, as she did in Conduct. Brittanys classroom work and conduct were also rated in Art, Music, and Physical Education. In Art, Brittany received three Vs (Very Good performance) for her classroom work and a V and tw o Es (Excellent performance) for Conduct. In Music, she received all Es and in Physical Educ ation, all Ss. As I explained in my discussion of Claires report card, results of assessments in Reading, Writing, and Mat hematics are given in a report-card section devoted to the County Instructional Assessment Plan. Brittany met or surpassed the September and January expecta tions for Writing but did not meet the April expectations in this area, nor did she meet the expectations for Mathematics for any of the three testing dates. At t he bottom of her report card for Marking Period 3 is the statement: B rittany received a score below grade level on the April math assessment. This poor performance, however, did not lead to her retention, as the statement immediately following that one indicates: Brittany is being promoted to Grade 06. Returning now to the County Instructional Assessment Plan report-card section, it can be seen that in addi tion to scores on the Common Reading Assessment, indicating that Brittany me t or surpassed Sept ember, January, and April expectations, Scholastic Reading Inve ntory (SRI) Lexile re sults are provided for the three testing dates. According to the website of the Lexile Framework for Reading, it is a scientific approach to reading measurement that matches readers to text (n.d., Researchers secti on, 1). In September, Brittanys SRI Lexile score was 249; in January, it was 689; and in April, it was 772. (Claires scores were 1090, 1132, and 1105 for the same dates.) Expected Lexile ranges by grade level are given on the websit e of another elementary school in the County: 500-800 in third grade, 600-900 in fourth grade, and 700-1000 in fifth grade. Brittanys report card for Marking Period 3 shows that she was only absent from school on 2 days during the school year. Her attendance in Spanish classes was also good, and the time she missed can mostly be attributed to her involvement in Chorus. Because of th is involvement, she often left Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf before they were over. The Chorus road trip also kept her away from an Espaol para ti lesson on December 7 (Field notes, 12/7/04, 12/8/04). The only other absence from a Spanish class that I have recorded for her occurred on March 17, when she missed one of the two videoconferencing sessions led by Mr Straten (Field notes, 3/17/05). In March 2005, I asked Mr. Baxter w hat Brittany was like as a student in her school subjects other than Spanish. He mentioned her positive attitude toward school and the academic chal lenges she experiences. Then he expressed uncertainty about her Spanish skills: Brittany, again, is academically ch allenged. She loves school, and she works hard, but her reading level k eeps her academics low, and Im not sure what her Spanish skills are. You know, its just really challenging for

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160 her to grasp anything because of a low reading ability. (Interview, 3/16/05) In the next section, I will discuss Br ittanys attitude toward Spanish in comparison to her other classes, what was important to her about learning the language, and what helped her learn it, incl uding the role of her family in her learning. Questions About Spanish in and out of School. At the beginning of my first interview with Brittany, I asked her what her favorite class was, and she responded, Spanish. As the interview progressed a little, I noticed how brief her answers were and that she seemed subdued, so I asked if she minded answering and if she felt uncomfortable at all. When she said, yes, I inquired if she wanted me to turn the recorder off, so we could ju st talk for a while without it. She replied, no, and the intervie w continued (Inter view, 1/21/05). I was surprised by the brevity of most of Brittanys responses, and although I gained insight into her learning of Spanish through many of them, other responses were difficult to interpret. This was the case when I offered her alternatives, but she simply answered with yes. For example, after Brittany had responded, Yes, to a question about w hether she ever hears people speaking Spanish in stores or other places, I a sked her if she understands a few words here and there or any more. When she replied, Yes, to this question, as well, I tried to find out what she meant: AN : Can you understand [BJ: Yes.] a? So, like a few words here and there or any more? BJ : Yes. AN : What? [I laugh a little.] BJ : A few words. AN : A few words. Okay. I wasnt sure what you meant, since I gave you a choice. A few words. (Interview, 1/21/05) Before our next interview in May had started, I made an effort to put Brittany at ease. I told her that it wasnt a test but t hat I wanted to know what she thought about some things. I started t he interview with a few questions, which she answered and then pointed to the recorder There was a record error, so we started over again: AN : Oh, well, I hope this works. So you were talking about Spanish compared to your other classe s. And what did you say? BJ : Um. That Spanish helps me mo re often than the other classes. AN : Okay. And you like Spanish? BJ : Yes. Although Brittanys answers were also br ief in this interview, she appeared to be more at ease than during the previous interview (Field notes, 5/2/05). Besides asking Brittany in both inte rviews about her feelings toward Spanish in comparison to other cla sses, I questioned her about her learning of Spanish. In January, I asked, Do you f eel like youve learned a lot of Spanish? to which she responded, Yes. I followed up by asking what some of the things

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161 she had learned were. She replied, I learned how to say plate, in Spanish, um, [pause] the name of the c ountry (Interview, 1/21/05) In May, we had the following interchange about her learning of Spanish: AN : How do you feel about your learning of Spanish, about how much youve accomplished? BJ : I feel that its helped me get better at Spanish. AN : Are you satisfied with what youve accomplished? BJ : Yes. AN : Good. Why do you think youve accomplished as much as you have? BJ : Because, um, maybe sometimes I want to get a word right, and I know the word more, more better than I was before. (Int erview, 5/2/05) In another response, Brittany indica ted that she thought she had learned the same amount of Spanish as the ot her students (Interview, 5/2/05). Another topic that I looked into in the second interview was Brittanys attitude toward competition in different situations: AN : What do you think would be better in games with the class at the other school: adding the points for both classes together or adding the points separately for each class so that youre playing against each other? BJ : Mm. Add the points separately. AN : Ah. Okay. What about in your ow n class, do you like doing things all together; or in teams; or someti mes together, sometimes in teams? BJ : All together. (I nterview, 5/2/05) In the course of both interviews, Brittany brought up her mother, and we talked about the role of her family in her learning of Spanish. When this first happened in January, I had just asked Br ittany, Whats the best thing about Spanish in the Tele Caf? leading to the following response and interchange: BJ : That when you, when you, the more you learn it, the more you get better at it. Youll be able to talk it to other people, too, and teach them how to talk Spanish. AN : Have you tried that, to teach somebody? BJ : Yes. AN : Who? BJ : My mom. (Interview, 1/21/05) After a brief interruption by a teacher who was retrieving something from the office area where the interview was taking place, I followed up on Brittanys response: AN : So, do you do that with y our mother very often? BJ : Yes. AN : Okay. What kinds of things do you tell her, trying to teach her? BJ : How to do the numbers and teach her different words that weve learned. (Interview, 1/21/05) What led up to Brittanys next mention of her mother in the first interview was my question about whether Brittany ever listens to Spanish on TV or the radio, her affirmative reply, and my further question, Can you understand

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162 anything? to which she responded, Yes. Then I asked her about what she can understand, which prompted the following interchange: BJ : Like on TV, when theyre talking Spanish, and I can like remember what I did that day in school about Spanish, [ AN : Oh, good.] and I can tell my mom what it, what it means. AN : Oh, thats good. Do you do that very often? BJ : Yes. (Interview, 1/21/04) A little later in the interview, I retur ned to the subject of Brittanys mother and Brittanys use of Spanish: AN : And you were saying you talk with your mother in Spanish, and [ BJ : Yes.] what about anybody else? BJ : Mm, um, [pause] sometimes I talk with my grandma or my sister. (Interview, 1/21/05) I asked Brittany if either of them speaks Spanish, and when she said, No, I questioned her about whether she is teaching them or just telling them things she has learned, but the only answer I got to this was Yes (Interview, 1/21/05). Brittany again volunteered information about her mother and what they do with Spanish when I interviewed her more than 3 months later: AN : Have you done anything with Spanish outside of school over the past few months? BJ : Yes. AN : What have you done? BJ : My, my words that I learned. [B rief pause.] (Interview, 5/2/05) When I asked Brittany about reviewing thes e words, she said her mother helps her review and indicated that she and one of her sisters, who has taken Spanish, sometimes review toget her (Interview, 5/2/05). Besides talking about teaching her mother Spanish nu mbers and words and replying that Spanish words were what she had done outside of school, Brittany emphasized the importance of learning Spanish numbers and words in school. In the first interview, she sa id that what she liked best about the Espaol para ti videos was that they taught her how to do the large numbers (Interview, 1/21/05). She expres sed a preference for Muzzy over Espaol para ti because it taught her more Spanish. When asked how it did this, she replied, Theyre countin in Spanish. I c ount with them, and it help me more to learn how to do my Spanish (Interview, 1/21/05). She al so explained that the way in which Mr. Baxter helped her to learn Spanish was he goes over with the numbers and works with us (Interview, 1/21/05). Brittany talked more about numbers and words in the second interview. She said that words were what helped her to learn Spanish in her classroom (Interview, 5/2/05). Unlike Claire who expressed a pref erence for interacting with students in the class at the other school because they dont laugh if we, if we mess up, Brittany maintain ed she would rather listen to what students in her class have to say because they know how to teach me the words without laughing at me (Interview, 5/ 2/05). (In the previous in terview, Brittany had said that she preferred Spanish in the Tele Caf with just Mrs. Ford to

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163 videoconferencing, because we can c oncentrate better and not have people joking around and not messin with us. Interview, 1/21/05.) When I asked Brittany, If you could have your Spanish class just the way you like it, what would it be like? she replied, It would be like doing numbers and reviewing my Spanish (Interview, 5/2/ 05). Her responses to my questions about things she would remember the longest aga in involved words and numbers: AN : This doesnt have to be about Spanish. What do you think youll remember the longest about school this year? BJ : That I learned how to say Spanish words. AN : Okay. Wow. What do you think youll remember the longest about Spanish here over the years youve taken it? BJ : The numbers. (I nterview, 5/2/05) Although Brittany emphasized words and numbers, she didnt think of Spanish solely in these terms. This can be seen in her reply to my question about how she thought knowing Spanish would help her in the future: AN : How do you think that knowing Spanish will help you? Or do you think that it will help you? Later on. BJ : Um, it will help me [pause] by me asking questions in Spanish and learning how to do things in Spanish. (Interview, 1/21/05) Although I still entertain the possibility that Brittany may have liked another class, such as Music, as much as or more than Spanish, I do believe that learning Spanish was important to her and that she put serious thought into building upon the knowledge that she gaine d over time. I al so believe that practicing Spanish outside of school had a much more prominent place in Brittanys mind than in Claires, regardless of who actually practiced more in that setting. Brittanys friends were important to her, and she was interested in other people. Her behavior was extroverted in interactions with her friends and in other informal settings. Perhaps the academic difficulties that she experienced contributed to her quietness in certai n school settings. She said that she preferred doing things toget her with her classmates to having her class divided into teams but voiced a preference for comp etition in games against the class at Greenwood Park during videoconferencing sessi ons. In spite of this preference, she never produced any Spanish utterances as an individual during games. Some of her utterances were produced during Espaol para ti videos when what she said wouldnt be noticed by mo re than a few people. She produced utterances in other settings when ther e was no awarding of points and when she was familiar with the activity and could be fairly confident about knowing the correct response. For example, the calendar segment was invariably a part of Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf, and Brittany participated in it in a session without videoconferencing, in a videoconferencing session led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, and in a videoconf erencing session led by Mr. Straten. Brittany often expressed her self in terms of the word help She was eager to help me carry equipment. She talk ed and wrote about what helped her learn Spanish, and she voiced her belief that S panish helps her more often than the

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164 other classes (Interview, 5/2/05). In fa ct, as was shown in the chapter on the participants language, it was in the cont ext of helping Colleen call colors in a line-up activity that Brittany produced mo re Spanish utterances than was usual for her (Transcript, 2/24/05). Ciara Nivea Ciara Nivea produced 83 Spanish utter ances in the different instructional settings during the 7 months of this study. This number includes both his utterances as an individual and some utterances I could hear clearly that were part of a response that included one or more other people. Ranking Ciaras productivity in the different instructional settings according to the average number of minutes between his Spanish utte rances, he was most productive in instruction led by Mr. Baxter after Espaol para ti videos (6 minutes between utterances), followed by instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing (8 minutes between utterances). Ciaras productivity declined in videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Straten and cooking sessions, in both of which the average number of minutes between his utte rances was 15. Ciara was even less productive in videoconferenc ing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, with an average of 33 minutes between his utterances, and during Espaol para ti videos, with an average of 49 minut es between his utterances. He did not produce any Spanish utterances in the jeopar dy game before the Thanksgiving Break. Only 4 of Ciaras 83 Spanish utterances were longer than three words in length. More than a third (25) of his 73 utterances that I could hear clearly involved linguistic errors, pronunciation erro rs occurring in the majority (20) of these. The English pronunciation of the name of a country or continent accounted for 10 instances of flawed Sp anish pronunciation. Although Ciaras utterances were based on various ty pes of vocabulary, geography vocabulary was the basis for the highest number ( 28), followed by number vocabulary, the basis of 18 utterances. Ciara produced Spanish utterances during many different activities, including baseball and concent ration games; the calendar segment of lessons in the Tele Caf; geography, line-up, number, and question-and-answer activities; greetings; and practice activities during Espaol para ti videos. He was present for more line-up activities t han the other participants and produced more utterances in them (15) than in any other type of activity. Ciara actively participated in Spanish lessons, and sometimes his performance exceeded others expectations for him. As will be discussed in the following sections, Ciara was an academic ally challenged student who often had a hard time maintaining focu s, but capitalizing on his st rengths helped him to play an active role in Spanish lessons. Introduction to Ciara. In comparing my case study participants, some of the most striking differences could be found between small, blond Claire and Ciara, a tall, thin Black boy. Besides di ffering in race and sex, they differed in socioeconomic status, with Cla ire paying full price for lunch (Field notes, 5/12/05)

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165 and Ciara getting lunch for reduced price (F ield notes, 4/11/05). The youngest of my participants, Claire was born in November 1994 and should have been in the fourth grade. Ciara, the oldest student in my study, was born in February 1993 and would have been in the sixth grade if he hadnt been retained in the third grade. As this implies, Ciara was academic ally challenged. Cla ire, on the other hand, was a high academic achiever and di splayed many characteristics of a gifted child. There were differences between Claire and Ciara as Spanish students, as well. The rare occasions in Span ish class when Claire communicated in whispers with her friends were of such br ief duration that I got the impression that her attention was never truly drawn away from the lesson. Ciara, on the other hand, had a hard time focusing, especia lly in video lessons, where he would sometimes repeatedly talk to other students, show them his Saber es poder card, and look at different people and objects in the classroom. He was eager to participate, however, and raised his hand many times, especially in lessons without videoconferencing in the Tele Caf. Claire raised her hand much less frequently, not always feeling like answe ring questions. The amount of time these students spent in Spanish classes was also different. Claire was absent from or missed a portion of a number of Spanish classes, whereas Ciara had almost perfect attendance, and I spent mo re time observing him than my other case study participants. Of all the Spanis h lessons for which I was present in the 2004 school year, he only missed one Espaol para ti lesson, as well as 2 minutes at the begi nning of another Espaol para ti video and 3.5 minutes at the beginning of a lesson in the Tele Caf. Ciara was usually eager to help me with my research. Once when I introduced myself to a substitute teacher who had Mr. Baxters class for the day and let him know that I was there to st udy the Spanish program, Ciara indicated that he was helping me with the research and said that he was one of the best (Field notes, 1/7/05). As I told Mrs. Ford at the beginning of October 2004, it was more like Ciara chose me than I chose him (Field notes, 10/ 1/04). Although he had had many academic difficulties, there were some respects in which Ciara did very well in Spanish class. In the next section, I will explore Ciaras feelings toward Spanish in comparison to his other classes. I will al so look into what helped him to learn the language and into additiona l contact he had with Spanish both in and out of school. Questions About Spanish in and out of School. In early October 2004, Ciara expressed a desire to be intervie wed by me (Field notes, 10/7/04) and subsequently asked me on several occasions when I would be doing it (Field notes, 10/11/04, 10/28/04, 12/ 1/04). Partly because of his interest, I engaged him in a brief recorded conversation on January 6 that served as practice for our first interview later that month (Field notes, 1/6/05). In our early January conversation in Mr. Baxters classroom Ciara revealed some of his academic

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166 frustrations, as well as his interest in plac es. He also shared some of his feelings and insights regarding the Spanish program (Transcript, 1/6/05). I began the January 6 conversation wit h a question that Ciara had earlier offered me as a good one to use in an inte rview, How are you doing? Ciara replied that he was all right (Field notes, 11/11/04; transcript, 1/6/05). Because it was the fourth day back at school, followi ng the Winter Holidays, I asked him if he had had a good vacation. He indicated that he had and went on, Got, got a better way from the teachers and the testing and stuff. Then we came back; we had tests. He mentioned tests in r eading, writing, and math, and quietly concluded, Yeah, I made a F (Transcript, 1/6/05). Ciara and I proceeded to talk about what he considered his favorite classes to be and about his feelings toward Spanish: AN : Whats your favorite class? [Pause.] CN : Lunch. AN [I laugh]: You like lunch. CN : And PE. AN : Do you like Spanish? CN : Kinda. AN : Why do you? CN : I dont understand what shes sayin. AN : Is it hard for it to be all in Spanish? CN : Once you get it, and then the nex t moment she change the word. Youll get confused by her (Transcript, 1/6/05) I commented that once I had used English in the Tele Caf when I should have been using Spanish, and then I asked Ciara, So, do you like it better with the video in here or in the Te le Caf? He said that he liked it better in the Tele Caf and expanded: Its more fun over there, because shes doing it real life. Shes doing it bad on the tape. So [unintelligible], shes [unintelligible] teachin us, and she dont even know who we is. That lady over there know who we is. (Transcript, 1/6/05) When I asked Ciara what he thought about Seora Ford talking back and forth with Seor Straten, he responded, We ll, I say its not confusing. Weve been doing that for years. After my expressi on of assent, he added, Since the old building right here. This led to my mention of the site used by Dolphin Point during the construction of the new school building, after which Ciara launched into a discussion of his neighborhood, whic h is dangerous at ni ght (Transcript, 1/6/05). Although Ciara never ment ioned Social Studies (in which he received the only As on his 2004 report card) as one of his favorite cl asses, I came to realize that he often thought in terms of places. In addition to Ciaras first approaching me to ask which side of to wn I lived on and his bringing up Dolphin Points old building and commenting on his neighborhood on January 6, he mentioned different places in his in terviews on January 21 and May 2 (Field notes, 8/25/04; transcript, 1/6/05, interviews, 1/21/05, 5/2/05).

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167 Several of my questions of Ciara on January 21 elicited references to places. For example, he answered my ques tion, What are some differences in what the class is like now compared to w hen you first started? by saying, Oh, well, I first started, it was in the old building. It was t he old building, a real, real old building. Now they just tored it down (Interview, 1/21/05) He continued with a fuller description of the building and the surrounding area. The question from January 21 that brought forth the longest description of a place from Ciara was Do you think kno wing Spanish will help you? Later on. Interrupted only by my intermittent co mments and questions, Ciara talked about Miami for almost 2.5 minutes, starting in this way: Yeah, cause its. I went to Miami, girl! Child, please. Theyre speakin Spanish and English at the same time. [I laugh.] Im like, what? [I laugh.] And she was American. Im like, what? What she sa yin? Im like, uh-uh. (Interview, 1/21/05) Ciara broached the subject of people from the south of Florida coming to the west central region of the state in his response to the second question I asked him following his extended comments on Miami: AN : Do you, around here, do you ever hear people [speaking Spanish] in a store, someplace like that? CN : Nope, they mostly speaking English. AN : Mm-hmm. Okay. CN : Cause the Spanish people havent came up, up on Florida. They came, they staying down with Miami and the Everglades and all their stuff down there, where they came from. (Interview, 1/21/05) In our interview on May 2, Ciara offered a different view on whether people from Miami were coming to his area of the state. I had asked him if he would want to learn Spanish if his only option for doing it were through watching the videotapes. He indicated that he w ould make an effort and explained why he would try to learn Spanish in this way: Cause my mamma said that; I told her, You gonna have to learn Spanish; she said Im old anyways. [I laugh.] Girl, then we speaking Spanish here, cause they coming from Miami, coming up here (Interview, 5/2/05). Ciaras comments in the previous paragraph include a reference to his mothers perceptions of the importance of age in second language acquisition. He elaborated on what she had said: Im al most bout to die [with a laugh in his voice:] anyways. She said, Im almost bout to die anyway. [Ciara laughs.] Too late to learn it now (Interview, 5/2/05). Other comments that Ciara made in his May interview show that he based his beliefs about what a particular s peakers native lang uage must be on her racial identity: It was a Black girl that looked like me, and she walked past, and she speakin Spanish. Im like, What? They speak; they learn Spanish real down there. Real quick, cause they right by Spanish people (I nterview 5/2/05). In the May 2 interview, Ciara talks about places in connection with what is important to him about Spanish or what w ould help him learn Spanish better. My first question to him in that intervie w was How do you feel about Spanish

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168 compared to your other classes? In his reply, he mentions a Spanish baseball game against the other fifth-grade class and highlights a geography answer he gave: Spanish get us, espaol class get us more like, more time not to do work a lot and stuff, yeah. And much funner when we play baseball in espaol, and we catched up with Miss Jackson class. We were. And I had an answer named Argentina. (Interview, 5/2/05) Later in the May interview, Ciara repl ied in the affirmative to my questions about whether he thought he had accomplished a lot in his learning of Spanish and whether he felt satisfied with what he had accomplished. When I asked him why he thought he had accomplished as much as he had in Spanish, he said, Spanish countries. He referred to them again when I asked him, What do you think youll remember the longest about Spanish here over the years youve taken it? replying with a chant that he made up: Argentina! [He chants, clapping:] Oh, and Argentina, Bonos Airs! [ Sic. ] Mexico City, Mexico, oh! Guatemal a, Guatemala! [He recites nonsense syllables.] Oh! [He recites more nonsense syllables and continues:] Sanduras, Sanduras, Sanduras! [ Sic. ] El Salvador, El Salvador, El Salvador. Oh! (I nterview, 5/2/05) When I asked Ciara if he ever does anything on the computer that has to do with Spanish, he menti oned Spanish fights, which he called stick-body fightin, and then said that he had check ed up on countries websites, too. In response to my question about what woul d help him learn Spanish better, he said that visiting a Spanish c ountry would (Interview, 5/2/05). As one would expect, not all of Ciaras responses in interviews had to do with places. When I asked him what helped him in learning Spanish in his classroom, outside of the Tele Caf, he sa id, Doing it all day, like we did that other day. Yeah, remember you was there? We were doi ng it all day (Interview, 5/2/05). Actually, Ciaras statement included a combination of Spanish instructional settings. On April 28, when I arrived in Mr. Baxters classroom a little before 10:30 to continue a review of Spanish that I had started the previous week, the students were already watching an Espaol para ti video. The video ended about 10 minutes later, and I review ed for 20 minutes. Next there was the Spanish baseball game against Mrs. Jacksons class in the Tele Caf, which lasted for almost half an hour (Field notes, 4/28/05). I also asked Ciara in the January interview about his learning of Spanish. He told me that Mr. Baxter helped his class learn it by making them watch the videos and having them learn their numbers. What he liked about the Espaol para ti videos was where they pick the word s and show you what they mean (Interview, 1/21/05). When I asked Ciara if he felt he had learned a lot of Spanish, he told me, Its same; its the same thing, like other years, like other years Ive been in this school. He answered my question, What are some things youve learned in Spanish? with a list of Spanish words and phrases, English words, and words and syllables that he made up. In order to distinguish the Spanish from the

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169 English pronunciations in the following excerpt, I have italicized the Spanish pronunciations. I have also underlined the Spanish words and phrases. I have not provided translations, however, because I believe that Ciara was unaware of the meaning of most of what he was saying: CN : Cmo ests t? Por-de-viacheque queda que [additional syllables that are unintelligible]. [He laughs.] Espaol para ti as [additional syllables that are unintelligible] caf real castil [additional syllables that are unintelligible]. [He laughs.] AN [I laugh.]: I dont. I understand some but not everything. Is there anything on [Ciara interrupts me here.]? CN : media carmo, vale AN : Okay, yeah, now Im understanding. CN : brero, auto adis AN : Okay. CN : coro nueve son las diez [unintelligible], ocho [unintelligible], y ocho AN : So, son las diez y ocho was that, whats it about? CN : Well, its a number. AN : Yeah, okay. So, thats for time. CN : Al a tuna lonche-maqueda-macala-quechela, [unintelligible] familia [unintelligible] julio de la [unintelligible]. [I l augh.] (Interview, 1/21/05) Besides Ciaras limited explanation of son las diez y ocho [its 10:08] as a number, he provided further evidence at the end of the interview that he didnt understand everything he said by asking me what espaol para ti [Spanish for you] means (Interview, 1/21/05). In the January interview, Ciara also told me about his use of Spanish in different settings. He affi rmed that he and his friends fr om Dolphin Point try to speak Spanish with each other. Outsi de of school, he tries to speak Spanish with his nieces and nephews. However, t hey dont understand what he is saying, because they dont have a Spanish program in their school (Interview, 1/21/05). This section has presented informati on on Ciaras learning of Spanish and on his contact with the language both in and out of school. As he observed, Spanish countries, or rather his intere st in them, had helped him to accomplish as much as he had. In fact, his acco mplishments were sometimes surprising. The next section will di scuss how his interest in geography, his musical inclinations, and his eagerness to participate may have contributed to his performance in Spanish classes. Ciaras Interests and Their Contribution to His Performance. It wasnt just in interviews that Ciara showed an inte rest in geography but also during Spanish lessons. On October 13, when the video t eacher started talking about maps in an Espaol para ti lesson, Ciara exclaimed, O uuu, mapa! In the special cooking session in celebration of Cinco de Mayo, as I was going by Ciaras table, he grabbed my arm to ask me something about Nuevo Mxico [New Mexico] in a map activity he was doing (Field notes, 5/ 5/05). When I was in Mr. Baxters classroom on May 11, Ciara grabbed my arm again and showed me a map of

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170 Central America in a scholastic magaz ine that he and the other students were reading (Field notes, 5/11/05). On the day of the Spanish baseball game to which Ciara refers in his May interview, he was wearing a T-shirt with Argentina written on it. He pointed this T-shirt out to me before I began the review with his class prio r to the baseball game. He also pointed it out to Mrs. Ford during the game. When I joined Mr. Baxters class in the cafeteria soon afte r the game, Ciara again proudly showed me his T-shirt (Field notes, 4/28/05). Before I went down to the cafeteria that day, Mrs. Ford and I talked about the game. In this conversation, she told me that she had been surprised by Ciara being able to answer the question that he had. I looked in my notes to see which one she meant and disco vered that it was C ul es el pas que est directamente al sur de Mxico? [Which country is directly to the south of Mexico?], to which Ciara had correctly answered, Guatemala. I mentioned having reviewed with the students and having asked, Cul es el pas que est directamente al norte de Guat emala? [Which country is directly to the north of Guatemala?] (Field notes & transcript, 4/28/05). Probably Mrs. Ford wasnt the only one to be surprised by Ciaras performance in that Spanish baseball game. I later learned, through listening to my audio recording of the game, that a boy had commented, Ciara dont know, before the latter had even chosen the homerun category for his question. Sometimes I was the one to find Cia ras success in answering certain questions a little surprising. This proved to be true toward t he end of the final Spanish review that I conducted wit h Mr. Baxters class on May 4. I started the review with animal flashc ards and then went over time telling. Next I reviewed math. I went through the terms ms menos and por [plus, minus, times], along with their meanings. I got students to come up and do math problems that I dictated in Spanish. Edward was eager to participate, and he did. I called on Ciara, because he had his hand raised. When I said what I wanted him to do, he told me that he had just been waving (Field notes, 5/4/05). Later in the review, the teacher hi red with Title I funds came to Mr. Baxters room and took about half of the st udents in the class with him, including Brittany. Among the students who were le ft were Edward, Claire, and Ciara. Mr. Baxter asked the remaining students to go to the front of the room. He wanted everyone to answer a question, so he said t hat they had to stay at the front until they had gotten an A (by answering a ques tion correctly). He handed me the Espaol para ti Teachers Manual (Steele & Johnson, 1999), turned to one of the early pages, and suggested that I ask questi ons from there. While I was doing this, I asked Ciara, Cmo ests? [How are you?]. At first, he didnt know what I was talking about, but then he caught on (Field notes, 5/4/05). I used more of the Espaol para ti questions and then came up with others. When I couldnt think of anything else, I started asking about capitals and countries of Latin America. It got to the point where all of the students in the room had answered at least one question co rrectly. Ciara and Elena (the native speaker of Spanish) were ahead, each hav ing answered four correctly. Mr.

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171 Baxter had me ask them something as a tiebreaker. I gave them Caracas, and they were supposed to tell me the country of which it is the capital. Ciara started out, Ven, Vene. After his first syllabl e, Elena quickly said, Venezuela. Even though she said it first, Mr. Baxter said that he thought Ciara had the right idea, and he gave them both an A for it (Field notes, 5/4/05). Capitalizing on his interest in geogr aphy, Ciara was able to stand out in Spanish class. It is also possible that the way in which geographical information was taught through songs and chants in Espaol para ti lessons and in the Tele Caf helped him to learn, because he had strong musical inclinations, even choosing as the first and last names of his pseudonym the names of two singers. Sometimes Ciara would spontaneously begin to sing. During a cooking session on April 21 in which each student was given a sheet of paper with information about Chile on it, Ciara sang to himself, The capitals Santiago, oh, oh (Transcript, 4/21/05). In the midst of my inte rviews with him on January 21 and May 2, Ciara repeatedly broke out in song. When I asked him in the first interview what he liked best about Spanish in the Tele Caf, he sang one of the songs he had learned there, and I questione d him further about this response: CN [sings]: Lunes, martes, mircoles, jueves, [clap] viernes, sbado, domingo [click, click]. [He hums inst ead of singing, Es la.] semana. [Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. (Its the) week.] AN : So, el calendario, that part of the lesson, or just all the songs? CN : Yeah, all the song. (Interview, 1/21/04) Ciara also discussed his interest in dance in the interviews. When I inquired in January as to whether he liked the dancing in the Espaol para ti videos, he compared his abilities with thos e of the character who does the dancing and reminded me of the occasions, after the majority of his classmates had gone to Chorus, when I had seen him sitti ng at a computer in Mr. Baxters room, wearing headphones and apparently moving to music (Field notes, 11/11/04, 1/13/05): CN : Oh, yeah, I like that dancing, but she cant dance though. [I laugh.] I can dance better than that. I coul d drop you like a pie, you know. AN [I laugh]: Thats pretty funny. CN : You know. Say, [sings:] Okay. [He says:] And Goodies, -2 Step. You know, I can do all that. Y eah. [I laugh.] You seen me on the computer, me dancin on, you know. (Interview, 1/21/05) In the May interview, Ciara told me t hat he would like to take a dance class in middle school. I questioned him about whether he would take a class in music or one in dance if given the choice betw een them, and he responded that he would pick both (Interview, 5/2/05). Another of Ciaras assets was hi s eagerness to participate in lessons taught by Mrs. Ford in the Tele Caf. In spite of his complaint to me that he couldnt understand what was being said (Transcript, 1/6/05), Ciara often raised his hand and participated in these lessons, especially when geography was

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172 involved. Mrs. Ford shared with me her evaluation of Ciara as a Spanish student, and I responded by commenting on Ciaras ability to make me laugh: LF : He would be the child that if you would, um, if we would give grades for participation and effort, he would certainly make an A, because hes right there; he raises his hand; hell participate; but a lot of times; you know; he doesnt know what to say. But he enjoys it. He really, truly enjoys it. So Ive liked him. [I laugh.] Ive liked him. Ive liked him a lot. AN : Yeah, sometimes he really makes me laugh. [I laugh.] LF : He does. He does. Cause if he does nt know it, hell make it up. [I laugh and say, Yeah.] It sounds good to him. (Interview, 4/21/05) Ciaras interest in places and his musical inclinations served him well in the Spanish instructional sessions without videoconferencing that were led by Mrs. Ford, in which his participation was qui te good. In contrast, Ciara showed a lack of focus during video lessons, wher e he often interacted with other students and looked around, as will be seen in the next section. My Observations of Ciara During Video Lessons. Although one of my early observations of Ciara was of the wa y in which he directed the attention of Laurie to a lesson in progress in the Tele Caf (Field notes, 10/1/04), I soon realized that he himself had a hard time pa ying attention in certain settings, such as Mr. Baxters classroom when video lessons were being presented. One day on which Ciara spent a lot of time visiting with another student during an Espaol para ti lesson was October 20, 2004. This was during the period when Ciaras desk was part of a grou ping in the front righ t of Mr. Baxters classroom, and on this day, Brittany, Cassandra, Amanda, and Minh were also seated at this grouping for Spanish class. As the video lesson began, Ciara was picking at his hand. Then he talked to Cassandra. Next he directed his attention to the video and wrote on his Saber es poder card from time to time. Then he talked to Cassandra again. When flashc ards were shown on the video, Ciara and Brittany participated orally, giving ans wers. During a presentation on time telling, Ciara and Cassandra were visiting, but then Ciara turned his attention back to the video and correctly responded to the question, Qu hora es? [What time is it?] with una [one], although his answer lagged behind a little. When the video was over, Ciara showed his card to Cassandra and visited with her some more (Field notes, 10/20/04). In the fall of 2004, Ciara paid sp ecial attention to Cassandra and was more likely to visit with her during Espaol para ti lessons than anyone else, although, as I mentioned in the section on Brittany and her friends, Brittany, Ciara, and Cassandra were all friends. Besides talking to Cassandra and, occasionally, Brittany during Spanish class, Ciara showed a preference for interacting with Colleen, anot her of his friends. Some times, however, it appeared that Ciaras main consideration in sharing a comment during a lesson was proximity in seating. On December 7, for example, he turned and talked to Lucy, who was sitting to his right, twice during Espaol para ti Lesson 25 (Field notes, 12/7/04).

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173 In addition to talking to his neighbors, Ciara showed other signs of inattention, as happened on Febr uary 9. On that day, he was sitting at his desk, which was now on the left end of the front row (where he had also been sitting on December 7). I positioned my chair to t he left of and a little behind him. Edward came up and sat in a chair in front of me, so that he was also to the left of and a little behind Ciara, but closer to him t han I was. About 4.5 minutes into the lesson, while the video teacher and LeeAnn (a puppet) were talking about who different people were, Ciara looked back at me. Later the video teacher talked about, as well as talked to, a firefighter. Ciara was looking at what Edward was doing. When el camin [the truck] was mentioned, Ciara looked back at Mr. Baxter and then wrot e on his card. The video t eacher mentioned la boca de agua [the fire hydrant]. I caught a g limpse of a book that Ciara had about Chyna He said something to Edward, very briefly showed him the book, and then put it away. Later Ciara had out a paper about bas ic form that he he ld up for me to see, but I didnt get a good look at it (Field notes, 2/9/05). In spite of Ciaras lapses in attention during Espaol para ti lessons, he was usually serious about working on his Saber es poder cards. He not only showed his cards to me from time to time (Field notes, 9/29/04, 10/13/04, 3/30/05), but I observed him showing a card to Cassandra on two different occasions and to Colleen and Minh on one occasion a piece (Field notes, 10/20/04, 10/27/04, 12/8/04, 3/ 30/05). In both of his interviews, he talked about how much he put on his cards (Interview, 1/ 21/05, 5/2/05). Looki ng at the area of his cards with his summary of the main i dea of a lesson, however, his difficulties in writing English are obvious, as was explained in the section on Ciaras Saber es poder cards in the previous chapter In the next section, I will present information from Ciaras academic record. Ciaras Academic Record and Associated Difficulties. Mr. Baxter talked about Ciaras academic difficulties when I asked him what Ciara is like as a student in his other subjects: Ciara has a very hard time reading. Hes a low academic achiever. He has a hard time focusing on what you re doing. And I would guess that academically, or in Spanish, he gras ps 50% of the words and vocabulary and maybe even less than that. (Interview, 3/16/05) At the end of the school year, before the students final report cards were available to me, I asked Mr. Baxter if Ciara would be going on to middle school the next year. He said that yes, Ciara had just barely met the reading requirement to do that (Field notes, 5/12/05). The following week, I got a copy of Ciaras final report card for the 2004 2005 school year and saw the results of his assessments in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics, listed in the section on the County Instructional Assessment Plan. Ciara did not meet September expec tations in any of the three areas. However, he met January expectations in a ll of them. He met April expectations in Reading and Mathematics but not in Writing. His SRI Lexile scores were 358 in September, 364 in January, and 838 in Ap ril. (These compare with Claires

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174 scores of 1090, 1132, and 1105 and Brittany s scores of 249, 689, and 772 for the same dates.) In the classes Ciara took with Mr. Baxter, the following are the grades he received over the course of the three marking periods: a C, a B, and a C in Reading; three Bs in Science; two As and a B in Social Studies; three Cs in Writing; and two Cs and a B in Math. Mr Baxter gave Ciaras Work Habits, as well as his Conduct, a rating of S (Sat isfactory performance) for the three marking periods. Among Ciaras other classes, the highest ratings he received were in Music in the first and third marking periods : Es (Excellent performance) for both classroom work and conduct. In Marki ng Period 2, however, he received an S for his classroom work in Music and an N (Needs Improvement) for his conduct. He made all Vs (Very Good performance) in Art, except for an S for his conduct in Marking Period 1. In Physical Education, he received all Ss. During the previous school year, Cia ra and Brittany were in the same fourth-grade class, and neither of them met the requirement s of the Countys policy on promotion. In Ciaras cumulative folder, there is a copy of the same form letter that was used in Brittanys case stating in part: We fe el that it is in the best interest of your child for him/her to be promoted to the next grade level at the end of this school yea r (Cumulative folder, 4/27/04). As I have already written, Ciara wa s retained in the third grade. In January of the year of hi s third-grade repetition, it was recommended that he begin to attend an Exceptional Student Education (ESE) class in reading for 50 minutes a day, as well as an ESE class for speech and language therapy for 60 minutes a week, and that he continue to attend the these classes through the first half of the following school year (Cumulative folder, 1/31/03). I believe that Ciara continued to display some difficulty with his speech in the fifth grade. There were a dozen occasions when he said something to me in English, and because I didnt understand, I a sk him to repeat it. On April 11, for example, he had to repeat a question seve ral times before I understood. Later that day I observed in my field notes, I think my lack of understanding had to do with both his speech pattern and the lack of context for what he said (Field notes, 4/11/05). There were other time s when I am sure that it was his pronunciation of certain words that caused me difficulty in understanding him. For example, at the end of the May interview, we had the following interchange: AN : Do you want to say anything else about Spanish? CN [with a high-pitched voice]: Hey! [I laugh briefly.] Welcome to the English world, to the Spani sh world. Oh, I like, mm I didnt like their flan, mm-mm. AN : Oh, yeah. You didnt like the flan. CN : It tastes like porch, like with the Th ree Little Bears. [I laugh.] I like Jamaicas better. (Interview, 5/2/05) After some further discu ssion, I realized that he was talking about porridge but pronounced the word as porch.

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175 Perhaps Ciaras difficulties with his speech in English are related to the large percentage of his Spani sh utterances that invo lved pronunciation errors. There are other ways in which Ciara s difficulties in school may have been related to his performance in Spanish. The self-consciousness that he attributed to his retention is a case in point. The manifestations of this self-consciousness and other instances of nervousness will be discussed in the next section. Ciaras Self-Consciousness. Ciara showed some self-consciousness concerning his retention. In our la st interview, he talked about having been nervous during videoconferencing sessions with students at Greenwood Park whom he already knew, because he had told them that he was go ing to be in the sixth grade. This came out after I ask ed him, Have you ever known any of the students in a class at another school that youve had videoconferencing with? He got me to explain the questi on further, and then he replied: CN : Yeah, I know somebody [ AN : Oh, really?] in Greenwood Park, yeah. Demetrius, Cedric, and all of them. I know all of them Mm-hmm, I know all of them kids in Greenwood Park since about three years now. AN : Oh, thats interesting. Yeah. W hats it like to see them through the videoconferencing? CN : Nervous. [He laughs briefly.] AN : Oh. [I laugh.] CN : Cause they in sixth. [H e laughs briefly. Pause.] AN : What was that last part you said? Nervous because of what? CN : I supposed to be in sixth, and I told them I was gonna be in sixth. (Interview, 5/2/05) It is interesting to note that the av erage number of minutes between Ciaras utterances is much greater in the vi deoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten (33 minutes) than in the instructional sessions without videoconferencing in the Tele Caf (8 minutes). Ciara also expressed nervousne ss about being videotaped for this research. Because th ere were a number of Espaol para ti lessons that I didnt observe at the end of the y ear, I asked Ciara if anything were different when he was watching those lessons, and I wasnt there. He named my not videotaping as a difference, and then we talked about his feelings toward being recorded: CN : It is different, cause youre not recording your camera. AN : Yeah. [I laugh, and Ciara laughs, t oo.] So, what do you think about having the Spanish classes recorded? CN [very quietly]: Mm. [Pause.] AN [with a laugh in my voice]: Ive seen you get out of camera range before. CN : What? AN : Well, one time I saw you, that I had the camera pointing one way, and you went someplace else. [I laugh br iefly, and so does Ciara.] Does it bother you at all? CN : No, it make me nervous. (Interview, 5/2/05)

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176 At the least, Ciara often seemed con scious of cameras. At the end of videoconferencing sessions, when each cl ass was projected on a monitor, and they sang the closing song, Ciara would wave in different ways. On December 2, for example, he was looking at hims elf on the monitor, moving around, and waving in a circular motion (Field notes, 12/2/04). In Mr. Baxters classroom, it was t he camcorder I used to record his class that Ciara took notice of. (In this se tting, I videotaped the st udents from the front, whereas in the Tele Caf, I taped them from behind.) On October 26 before an Espaol para ti lesson, he looked over at the camcorder, smiled, and posed (Video recording, 10/26/04). In contrast, on the following day, he sat on the floor directly in front of the tripod, a positi on in which there was no possibility of being videotaped (Field notes, 10/27/04). In spite of his self-consciousness about being videotaped, in general Ciara seemed to benefit from being a part of this research. Regarding his role as a research participant, he told a substitute teacher that he was one of the best (Field notes, 1/7/05). He was eager to be interviewed by me, and we even recorded a practice conversation (Transcript, 1/6/05) before our first interview. When I asked him in a later interview what had helped him to learn Spanish in his classroom, he told me that doing it all day had (Interview, 5/ 2/05). One of the activities included in the long period of Spanish to which he was making reference was a review I had led (Field notes, 4/28/05). He put to use something I had gone over in this review when he correctly answered a homerun question involving geography in the Spanish baseba ll game that followed (Field notes & transcript, 4/28/05). Ciara told me that Spanish countr ies had helped him to accomplish as much as he had (Interview, 5/2/05). Capita lizing on his interest in geography, his strong musical inclinations, and his eagerness to participate, Ciara was sometimes able to exceed the expecta tions of others in his Spanish performance. Edward Jones During the 7 months of this study, Edward Jones produced 309 Spanish utterances in the different instructi onal settings, thus greatly exceeding the production of the other partici pants. As was the case fo r Ciara, I have taken into account both utterances that Edward produ ced as an individual and some that I could hear clearly that were part of a response that included one or more other people. Edward was equally productive in instructional sessions in the Tele Caf without videoconferencing, in videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten, and in the Spanish jeopardy game before the Thanksgiving Break, with an average of 3 minutes between his u tterances in all three settings. His productivity declined somewhat during Espaol para ti videos and during the instruction led by Mr. Baxter after the videos, with an average of 5 minutes between his utterances in both of these settings. In cooking sessions there was an average of 6 minutes between Edwards Spanish utterances. He was least

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177 productive in the videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Straten, with an average of 9 minutes between his utterances. The majority of Edwards utterances were three words in length or less, but he did produce 16 utterances that we re longer, 7 of which were related to songs. I was able to hear 291 of his utterances well enough to determine whether they involved linguistic errors or not and found that 38 of them did. In 16 of these utterances, he did not provide t he correct lexical item. There were 15 utterances in which his pronunciation was flawed, and 6 in which he made a grammatical error. One utteranc e involved both a pronunciation and a grammatical error. Edward based his utterances on varied types of vocabulary and produced them in many types of activities. Number vocabulary was the basis for the highest number (55) of his utterances. Even providing more categories (22 in total, compared to Ciaras 15) for the types of vocabulary on which Edwards utterances were based, the catchall Other category came to contain 30 of his utterances, the second highest number fo r him. In addition, he based many utterances on date and calendar vo cabulary, greetings, and saying yes and no in Spanish. Some of the activities in which he produced many utterances were practice activities during Espaol para ti videos, games, the calendar segment of lessons in the Tele Caf, question-and-ans wer and number activities, and songs. He also produced many utterances that werent part of any activity. Partly because he had been in the Spani sh program for 2 years less than the other participants, Edwards active participation in many Spanish lessons and the quantity of his oral Spanish utterances stood out to me, and I wanted to learn about him as a Spanish learner. I di d this through interacting with him, interviewing him, and observing him. I also took into account his academic record. My Interactions with Edward. Undoubtedly the best advice I received from Mrs. Ford during the course of this res earch was her suggestion on October 1, 2004, that I include Edward Jones, a sm all Black boy with an engaging smile, as one of my case study participants (Field notes, 10/1/04). Up to that point, I had only noted that Edward had had his Saber es poder card featured in the lesson that day and had given veintitrs [23] as the date on September 23 (Field notes, 10/1/04, 9/23/04). However, I soon came to appreciate Edwards serious efforts to learn Spanish and ended up being impre ssed by his results, as I observed how his performance surpassed that of cl assmates who had already been in the Spanish program for 2 years when he enter ed it at the beginnin g of the fourth grade. I enjoyed interacting with Edward and observing him as a language learner. Although I spent more time with Ciara and Brittany during the course of this research study, it wasnt long bef ore Edward and I established a friendly relationship. After a cooking session on October 11, I went over to Mr. Baxters classroom to get something. On my way out of t he classroom, Edward smiled and held out his hand to me (Field notes, 10/11/04).

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178 On November 10 before class started, I let Edward look at a childrens book in Spanish that I had brought and let him take it over to Mr Baxter, to whom I was giving it so that it could be used by his class. It was soon thereafter that Edward asked me how to say Christmas in Spanish, as I described in Chapter 5. That was also a day on which Edwa rd actively participated during the Espaol para ti lesson (Field notes, 11/10/04). Another opportunity to interact with Edward arose on December 8. On that day, I took a position at a desk that was behind and s lightly to the right of the one where Edward was sitting, and during the class, I took copi ous notes. After Mr. Baxter had finished a postvideo activity Edward turned back to me, looked at my notes, and asked me if I was supposed to write messy. (He had previously pointed out his good handwriting to me; Field notes, 10/13/04.) I explained that it was easier for me to write fast if I let my writing be messy but said that I could write neatly. I turned to a blank page in my notebook and wrote, Edward, neatly in cursive. He asked me in a tone of wonder, How do you know my name? I paused and then said, It was on your permission form (Field notes, 12/8/04). I followed up on this interaction the next day by giving Edward a copy of some notes on Renaissance literature in S pain that I had neatly written out when I was studying for Spanish comprehensive ex aminations. Edward had been very subdued during class in the Tele Caf that day, but when I handed him the piece of paper, telling him that it wa s in Spanish and t hat I would explain what it meant sometime, a big smile appeared on his face and he said that he knew some of the words (Field notes, 12/9/04). My opportunity to explain my Spani sh notes to Edward came the next week during a Spanish cooking session. After he had finished filling in the names of countries and capitals on a wo rksheet, I translated some of the words in my notes from Spanish to English and had him guess what other words meant. He said he knew the English word quatrain (the only English word on the page), because his teacher had taught him about it the previous year. When I had finished going over the notes, Edward pointed to hroe [hero] and asked Minh, who was sitting to his right, if he knew what it meant. Minh indicated that he didnt, and Edward told him that it meant hero (Field notes, 12/15/04). Edward took advantage of a cooking session in April to ask me about a word that he wanted to know in Spanis h. It was the same word that he had asked Mrs. Ford about in a cooking session the month before. On that occasion, he had asked, How do you say disgusting in Spanish? after one of his classmates had commented on the effect s of eating beans. Mrs. Ford had translated the first part of his question, Cmo se dice? but instead of giving the Spanish word for disgusting she had objected, Edwar d, no, no, no (Field notes, 3/10/05). Edward approached me during the cooking session in April, told me that he wanted to ask me something, drew me off to the side, and then questioned me about how to say disgusting in Spanish. I thought for a moment and told him that asqueroso is disgusting. He repeated the word and went back toward his table with his hand over his stomach, as if he really didnt like the flan that the

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179 class was eating that day. Later he asked me to say the word again. I repeated it slowly, and he said it after me (Field notes, 4/21/05). When all of the students had tasted t he flan, Mrs. Ford asked how they had liked it. Edward raised his hand and ke pt it raised as she took comments from other students. When she finally acknowledged him, he went over to her and said, asqueroso. She exclaimed in a tone of surprise, Asqueroso! Where did you learn that word? He laughed and said, I dont know (Field notes & transcript, 4/21/05). Edward and his friend, Willie, who had been in the Spanish program since the second grade, were the only students in Mr. Baxters class with whom I felt comfortable trying to communicate in Spanish. I had tried asking Ciara and Brittany, Cmo ests? [How are y ou?], but my question had been greeted with blank stares (Field notes, 12/15/04, 1/26/05). On January 26, when I asked Edward, Cmo ests? he replied, Bien, [Well] and asked, Y usted? [And you?] I responded, Bien, and said I was going to try saying something to him in Spanish. In our interview the week before, he had told me that his mother had said they co uld try churros [fritters] that weekend, so I asked him, Comiste churros este fin de semana? [Did you eat fritters this weekend?] Willie, who was sitting by Edward, seemed to pick up on the similarity between comiste [you ate] and como [I eat], but Edward didnt understand my question, so I tried asking, T mam prepar churros este fin de semana? [Did your mom prepare frit ters this weekend?] I pointed over toward the posters with the foods that had been prepared in the Tele Caf and said, churros, which Edward then understood. I wrote prepar on the board and asked the question slowly. He looked like he understood it and said, S. In my interactions with Edward, I obs erved his interest in Spanish and his desire to share what he knew with others. I also observed that he reacted well to the attention he got from me, an adult. In the last chapter, I provided examples of Edwards oral and written production in relation to video lessons. Some of the examples I gave showed him as very active during video lessons. However, I also noted that there were some occasions on which he was withdrawn during these lessons. In the next section, I will discuss Edwards attitude toward Espaol para ti videos and Saber es poder cards. I will also discuss his behavior during Espaol para ti lessons, especially his negative reaction to having his behavior corrected. Edwards Attitude Toward and Behavior During Video Lessons. The pattern of Edwards behavior during Espaol para ti lessons was noticeably different from that of my other case study participant s. Whereas there were differences among Claire, Brittany, and Cia ra; with Claire being the most focused and quietest during videos, Brittany someti mes showing active involvement in lessons and sometimes showing signs of distraction, and Ciaras focus at times shifting back and forth between a given less on and other people and things; all of these participants spent the ma jority of their ti me watching the videos and writing on their Saber es poder cards. Edward, on the other hand, spent very little time

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180 writing during lessons. Sometimes he was very active in orally responding to prompts on the videos. At other times, he watched the lessons in silence. There were also occasions when he looked at a book or worked on a design instead of watching a given Spanish lesson. In our first interview, Edward expl ained to me his feelings toward the Espaol para ti videos, toward the changes in them from the previous year, and toward the Saber es poder cards. (The previous year, the fourth-grade students had watched Level 3 of Espaol para ti but now as fifth graders, they were watching Level 5.) I initiated this part of the interview by asking him, Are there things you like about the Espaol para ti videos? He told me frankly, Well, I dont really like em, and also verified what he had previously told me about preferring Spanish with Mrs. Ford (Field notes, 11/9/04). When I restated my question about the videos, he named a Spanish song from the current year and things from the previous year that he liked, including an activity with Rosco, a wolf puppet: AN : Is there anything you like about Espaol para ti? EJ : Well, sometimes, yeah, like the song, like Chocolate, AN : Mm-hmm. EJ : and like, I like alphabet last year Um, I like that about it and the number game with Rosco. I like the anima ls. I dont really like the people this year. They changed it a whole, a lot. Last year I really liked it. And plus I dont like the fact that we have to write on the cards, but now Mr. Baxter says we dont have to (Interview, 1/21/05) The interview continued as I looked into Edwards negative statement about the Saber es poder cards, asking him: Do you feel like doing them doesnt help you pay attention or anything? He made the following response, describing his frustrations: Cause if youre having to write so fa st you cant really get what theyre saying. You dont really learn nothi ng. Thats why I dont learn nothing from that, and the point is to learn Spanish, not to write it down and dont know what it means. (Interview, 1/21/05) Edwards dislike of writing Saber es poder cards was in no way associated with an inability to produce good cards. For example, one of his cards from an early lesson contained this statement of the main idea, including the correctly spelled Spanish words for plate, pizza and the cup: I noticed that the lesson was about, shopping. When she was in the store she mostly talked about vegetables and fruits. I learned a few S panish words like plato, pizza, and la taza. As a student who was once described by Mr. Baxter as very, very easy to teach (Interview, 3/16/05), Edward c ontinued growing, learning, and changing throughout the school year, and by May, hi s feelings toward Saber es poder cards had changed. This came out in our last interview when I was asking him questions about his reactions to comm unicating with students in the class at Greenwood Park through videoconferencing. One of my questions was When your Saber es poder card is selected, how do you feel about it being shown to

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181 students in the class at the other school? Edward replied that he had never really thought of it in that way and said that he was just getting to like having his card selected, because Mr. Baxter gives hi m something. He continued, and its like a good feeling for me to have my card selected out of 24 other kids. That means Im doing good in Spani sh. (Interview, 5/2/05) Along with Mr. Baxters praise of Edward as a student, he would also include comments to me about problems Edward had with a lack of self-control or with his attitude (Interview, 3/16/05; field notes, 5/12/05). I have come to believe that Edwards lack of involvement in some Espaol para ti lessons was related to a negative attitude or, more s pecifically, an adverse reaction to having his behavior corrected, as the examples below illustrate. Before the Espaol para ti lesson began on November 9, Edward was sitting on the floor at the front of Mr. Baxters classroom. I was also in that area of the room and was so busy getting my re cording equipment set up that I wasnt paying attention to what was going on around me. A little later, I realized that Edward was no longer at the front, and I looked for him. I saw that he was looking at a book, sitting at the back of the room, where he remained throughout the lesson. I was concerned that he mi ght not be feeling well and after class asked him about this. He indicated that he was all right (Field notes, 11/9/04). It wasnt until later, when I listened to the CD recording of the class, that I realized that Mr. Baxter had been correcting the behavior of some of the students at the beginning of class and had sent Edward to his seat. Bu t instead of sitting in his seat, Edward had gone to the ba ck of the classroom Mr. Baxters admonition to the students was as follows: Now some of you today are having a little bit of a problem with your conduct. I think you need to take a deep breath [sounds of inhaling] and calm yourself down. [Background noise with more inhaling.] You see right now, what youre doing right now by doing that is not doing the correct behavior. Were not going to talk through this whole entire Spanish lesson. Were going to take notes: main idea, two or three vocabulary words. [Background nois e. Music starts on the video.] Edward, go back, and sit at your seat. (Transcript, 11/9/04) There were other occasions on wh ich behavioral corrections seemed related to Edwards withdrawal from or s ilence in Spanish classes. For example, on March 30, Mr. Baxter sent Edward back fr om the front of the room to sit at a desk, and he spent the class session sitting toward the back, using markers to work on a design (Field notes, 3/30/05). An earlier example is from November 16. That day I met most of Mr. Baxters class in t he courtyard, where they had gathered following lunch. Brittany, Cassandra, and I began talking, and I asked where Edward was. Either Brittany or Cassandra said that he was still in the cafeteria and was in trouble. Later, in Mr Baxters classroom before the video started, I noticed that Edward was sitting very close to the cord of the CD recorder I was using, and I asked him not to lean on it. Soon thereafter, I noted that he was stretched out on the floor, leani ng on his left elbow. I did not observe

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182 him participating during the video that day, but I did observe him wiggling around (Field notes, 11/16/05). Edwards involvement in Spanish lessons varied, but it was unusual for him to show no interest in them at a ll. On the contrary, there were some occasions when I was able to observe hi s enthusiasm for Spanish. The next section deals with Edwards efforts to l earn and use Spanish in and out of school and with his attitude toward the language Learning and Using Spanish in and out of School. Edward liked Spanish and was able to reflect on his learning of i t. He made an effort to practice it and to use it in and out of sc hool. His friend Willie also liked the language, and they often worked in unison where Spanish was concerned. Outside of school, he told his mother what he had learned, and he practiced with his cousin. He also used his cell phone to practice Spanish. He took the initiative to participate in a competition at the Countys World Languages Field Day and won a blue Superior ribbon. In interviews, I looked into Edwa rds experiences as a language learner and into his perceptions of them. On January 21, Edward told me that he thought he liked Spanish more than when he first started learning it, because he understood it more (Interview, 1/21/05). On May 2, I asked him, How did it feel when you started here last year, not knowing Spanish like the students who had been here before? Edward answered, I didnt know as much as they did, cause they went here since like kindergarten. But then I just learned quick. And I tried to listen really hard so I could learn as much as the others. And then I just started liking it. (Interview, 5/2/05) I also asked him how he thought he com pared with other students in the amount of Spanish he had learned. He answered in terms of how much he liked the language: I think other student s dont like it as much as I do. But, um, [slight pause] how do I compare? I guess I just like it more than the rest of them (Interview, 5/2/05). Edward was aware that there was still much more he needed to learn in Spanish, and he was also aware of the many things he had learned. When I asked him if he felt like he had learned a lot of Spanish, he replied, not really. Next I asked him what some things he had learned were, and he tried to explain the contrast between what he knew and what he didnt know: I learned a lot. I think I cant say it in. I dont think its a lot, but its a lot. Cause compared to how much more I hav e to learn its not a lot. But if you just compare that, its a lot. I learned numbers. I learned a lot of words. I learned how to say hello, goodbye, good morning, good afternoon, good night. Its just a lo t that I learned. I learned a few phrases, um, questions. I could probabl y write a sentence in Spanish [momentary pause] with five words in i t. I learned countries, capitals of countries. (Interview, 1/21/05)

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183 At Dolphin Point, I noticed that Ed ward enjoyed using Spanish words and communicating in Spanish. W hen a sandwich was mentioned in an Espaol para ti lesson in January, he spontaneously commented, delicioso [delicious] (Field notes, 1/11/05). A few days later, I heard him tell one of his classmates that he had been at something (u sed as the equivalent of trying to master something ) for two years, but you ve only been at it for uno year (1/14/05). After the cooking session on April 21, Mrs Ford showed Edward and Alan a boat for the Recycle Regatta, el Barco Pez [the Fish Boat]. Edwa rd asked what kind of fish Barco Pez was. He said that it should be a tiburn [shark], even though a tiburn isnt really a fish. Alan comment ed that the boat could be a shark, and Edward told him that a tiburn is a shark (Field notes, 4/21/05). Edward and Willie sometimes worked in unison where Spanish was concerned, raising their hands at the sa me time or responding to the same questions in Spanish classes (Field notes 10/11/04, 11/11/04, 1/11/05, 1/20/05, 3/17/05). In an Espaol para ti lesson in December, Willie and Edward carried on a brief conversation about their lack of familiarity with one of the pictures being used as prompts (Field notes, 12/8/04). During a class in the Tele Caf on January 20, Willie requested the song, Soy una pizza [I am a pizza], and Edward voiced his agreement with S (Field notes & transcript, 1/20/ 05). Edward and Willie also got together a fter a cooking session on Janu ary 26, returning to the Tele Caf to ask Mrs. Ford to fix fiesta taco salad in the next cooking session and even providing her with a recipe (Field not es, 1/26/05). (Both the request for Soy una pizza and the request for fiesta taco sa lad were granted.) On March 3, Edward and Willie again returned to the Tele Caf after class. This time Edward asked Mrs. Ford how to spell Juan (the name of a character in Muzzy ). She spelled it for him in English, and he repeated, J-U-A-N (Field notes, 3/3/05). In our interview in January, I a sked Edward whether he tried speaking Spanish with his friends at school. He told me about speaking Spanish with both his mother and Willie: AN : Do you and your friends at school ever try to speak Spanish with each other? How often? EJ : And I do it to my mom. AN : Oh, with your mom. Does she? EJ : She doesnt speak Spanish, but I speak Spanish to her. Ill be like, gracias [thank you]. When she took me out to eat last week, I was like gracias, my mom. AN : So you were teaching her some S panish and using it with her. Okay. EJ : I always practice Spanish with Willie. AN : Yeah, Ive noticed that you two say about the most for answering. So, do you like doing that with him? EJ : Yes. (Interview, 1/21/05) In that interview, I also asked Ed ward, What are some things you like about Spanish? and he came up with quite a list: EJ : Well, its fun, and plus Mrs. Ford makes it even funner, like play the games in Spanish, like yesterday when we played the math game

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184 [concentration, matching capitals and countries]. And I just like the countries and plus the way it sounds, like Mxico. AN : Aha. EJ : And the songs in Spanish. Its ju st all nice. (Interview, 1/21/05) Besides using Spanish with his mot her and Willie, Edward had a cousin with whom he practiced Spanish. He firs t mentioned this cousin, who was taking Spanish in the seventh grade, toward the end of the school year (Field notes, 4/21/05). He talked about her again in his May interview, describing how they practiced Spanish together: cause shes in seventh, we do like practice our Spanish. She tell me how to say you and your and no me canta [he/she doesnt sing to me], me canta [he/she sings to me] (Interview, 5/2/05). As I have already mentioned, Edward liked to share his knowledge in Spanish with his friends, telling Willie what Feliz Navidad means and telling Minh the English translation of hroe (Field notes, 11/10/04, 12/ 15/04). Besides these incidents, there were other occasions wh en Edward took on the role of a teacher. I have already explained how Mrs. Fo rd convinced Edward to be maestro [teacher] and lead the Buenas tardes [Good afternoon] song in Spanish on January 13. Two weeks later he volunteered to take on the same role (Field notes, 1/13/05, 1/27/05). Be fore leaving the Tele Caf on February 3, Edward stood at the front of the room and held the pointer he had used in leading the song, as if doing this again. He put it down, however, when he was caught holding it without permission (Field notes, 2/3/05). Edward was recognized for his leadership ability and was chosen to be captain of one of the teams in the Spanish jeopardy game before the Thanksgiving Break (Field notes, 11/19/04) He was also the captain of Mr. Baxters team in the S panish baseball game against the other fifth-grade class (Field notes, 4/28/05). On January 19, after Mr. Baxter had assigned numbers for students to name in Spanish, he told t hem that they could ask him how to pronounce them, ask me, ask Elena (a native speaker of Spanish), or find someone like Edward to ask (Field notes 1/19/05). Before the Spanish lesson started on March 30, Mr. Ba xter was talking to his students about what they would be doing in their Marine Science lab. He told them, As Edward said this morning, we are not coloring in the ocean anymore (Field notes, 3/30/05). Edward liked to challenge himself. He described to me how he practiced Spanish on his cell phone: When I have my cell phone, like, um, I tr y to test myself, and maybe like a day or maybe an hour I just put my cell phone on Spanish language, and I have to figure out what it means. [Uni ntelligible.] Then I go look through my cell phone, play the games, and I learn different things like that. Like if I press something thats wrong, and its not what I want to go to, Im like, oh, now I know what that means. (Interview, 5/2/05) In his May interview, I asked Edwa rd how he would feel about competing in games against the class with which his class meets through videoconferencing. He talked to me about his competitive nature and told me about putting together good teams fo r different competitions:

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185 AN : What do you think would be better in games with the class at the other school: adding the points for both classes together or adding the points separately for each class so that youre playing against each other? EJ : Well, Im competitive, but I would say adding the points separately, but I know what I should say, just adding the points together so it can be fair, and no ones losing or winning, but Im really competitive. AN : Thats fine. [With a laugh in my vo ice:] No, I wanted to know what you thought yourself, so thats good. W hat about in your own class, do you like doing things all together; or in teams; or sometimes together, sometimes in teams? EJ : I like teams in class, like especiall y when we win, and I try to get like the best kids in the class. For like math, I would get some special people; science and sports; and I know what everyones good at, so. AN : You get to be the captain a lot? EJ : Mm-hmm. (Interview, 5/2/05) I had the privilege of observing Edward take part in a Spanish competition outside of Dolphin Point. This happened when I was a judge of memorized speech for beginning Spanish at the Countys World Languages Field Day. In judging this category, I was teamed with a native speaker of Spanish named Cecilia. We had seen middle school and hi gh school students, as well as some elementary school students, and were standing outside of our classroom, thinking that we had completed our dut ies, when Edward and another student from Dolphin Point came up to us and indica ted that they were there to take part in the competition (Field notes, 2/26/05). We all entered the classroom, and Edwa rd and the girl (Margarita, from Dolphin Points other fifth-grade class) sang Febrero [February], doing some motions with it. They did a really good job and only faltered on the words once. I gave them 4 out of 5 points for reciti ng the whole piece and 5s for pronunciation, intonation and rhythm, and creative expressi on, totaling 19 out of 20 points. Cecilia also gave them 19 poi nts, but the point she took off was in a different category. We gave them each completed judging forms and a blue Superior ribbon (the highest one). Edward thought th at on the forms, they hadnt done so well. Cecilia explained how well they had done, and Edward seemed really pleased (Field notes, 2/26/05). I asked Edward and Margarita if they had been practicing the song in the Multicultural Club, and Edward said no, that it was the song from class. It turned out that they knew t he song from class, and t hey hadnt done any special practices to prepare to present it. Ed ward was curious about why I was asking them how they had prepared. He said he thought I was asking because I was supposed to ask (Field notes, 2/26/05). Mrs. Ford later explained to me how Edwards involvement in this competition had come about: He went to Field Day, and wer e sitting there during the assembly, and hes looking through his passport, and he points to the memorization part of it, and hes saying, Seora Ford, whats this? cause I had shown

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186 him all the activities that he could go to in the morning. And I said, Well, thats where boys and girls, usually middle school and high school, go in, and theres a room; I explained to him theres a room and two judges; and you have to say something, just me morize something in Spanish, and go in there, and say it. And so, he loo ks at me with those eyes, and he says, Oh, I like to do that. And I said, W ell, you certainly can. I said, You know Febrero , cause it was in February. I said, You know that song. You can go in there and do the song. And so, while the assembly is going on, hes practicing his Febrero song. And I go off to do my activity with my students, and little bit, about an hour later, he walks in, and he did it. He showed me his ribbon, and he went in and did it. It wasnt so much that he, yeah, it was nice that he got [unintelligible], but I think the major thing here was that (a) he wanted to do it, (b) he wasnt timid in doing it. I mean, another ch ild would be very timid to doing it. And just the fact that he, it was his initiative. I didnt have to tell him to do it. He took the init iative in doing it. I thought that was phenomenal. I just thought that wa s absolutely phenomenal with Edward, and I was very proud of him that he did that. He likes it. Bottom line, he just likes it, and he just is a very good Spanish student. (I nterview, 3/8/05) I agree with Mrs. Fords assessment of Edward as a good Spanish student who showed a lot of initiative. He wa s eager to learn Spanish, to use it to communicate, and to share his knowledge with others. However, Spanish wasnt the only subject at which Edward excelled. In the next section, I will consider Edwards academic record. Edwards Academic Record. Mr. Baxter had high pr aise for Edward as a student, but as I have mentioned, he also pointed out Edwards problems with a lack of self-control and with his attitude (I nterview, 3/16/05; field notes, 5/12/05). I put the same question to Mr. Baxter in regard to what Edward was like as a student in his other subjects as I had posed for each of my other case study participants. Mr. Baxter described Edward, and I added my own observations: LB : Fantastic. High academic achiever. Terrific. AN : He seems to remember thi ngs that teachers tell him. LB : Very, very easy to teach. Only problems are his, uh, lack of selfcontrol. AN : Ah. LB : You know, but he is a terrific kid, academically, in all areas. And he grasps subjects very quickly. (Interview, 3/16/05) As I have already written in regar d to Claire, she and Edward received identical grades in the five subjects t hat they took with Mr. Baxter: Reading, Science, Social Studies, Writing, and Ma th. These grades were all As, except for a B in Writing in Marking Period 2. The grades that Edward received from Mr. Baxter for his Conduct, however, were lower than Claires grades in the first two marking periods: two Ss (Satisfactory per formance). Edward also received an S for his Work Habits in Marking Period 1, but in Marking Period 2, his grade in this

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187 area had improved to a V (Very Good perfo rmance), the same grade that Claire received. Edwards report card for Ma rking Period 3 contains no grades for Conduct and Work Habits. In his other classes, Edwards grades for his classroom work and conduct ranged from an N (Needs Impr ovement) to Es (Excellent performance). The two Es that he received were for classroom work and conduct in Music in Marking Period 1. By Marking Period 2, his grades in Music had gone down to a V for his classroom work and an S for his conduct. In Marking Period 3, he received a V for his classroom work and a V for his conduct in Music. In Art, Edward received Vs for both classroom work and conduct in the first two marking periods, and in the third, he received Ss. Edward received Vs for his classroom work in Physical Education in each of the three marking peri ods. For his conduct in Physical Education, he rece ived an S, an N, and a V. In the section of Edwards repor t card on the County Instructional Assessment Plan, the results of his a ssessments in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics are given for September, J anuary, and April. Edward met or surpassed expectations in all three ar eas in September and January, as he did for Reading and Mathematics in April. He did not meet April expectations in Writing, however. Edwards SRI Lex ile scores, listed under Reading Common Assessment, arent as high as Claire s but are still above the expected Lexile range of 700 to 1000 for the fifth grade. Edwards SRI Lexile scores were 1007 in September, 1003 in January, and 1006 in April. These co mpare with Claires scores of 1090, 1132, and 1105 for the same testing dates. Because Edward had not been at Dolphin Point as long as the other participants in this study, transferring there from anothe r County elementary school at the beginning of t he fourth grade, his cumulative folder was much less extensive. It did include his date of bi rth: June 1994 (Cumulative folder). No information appeared in the spaces for number of brothers and of sisters, but through questioning him, I was able to ascertain that he has three brothers and one sister (Field notes, 5/5/05). I also asked him if he got lunch at school, and when he said yes, I asked if he paid full pric e, reduced price, or if he received lunch for free. He replied, Free (Field notes, 5/11/05). Edwards report card for Marking Pe riod 3 lists his number of absences for the year as zero. However, like Claire, he missed a number of Spanish classes. Taking into account all of t he occasions on which I observed Espaol para ti lessons, Edward was absent from one of these on a Tuesday in December and from another one on a Wednesday in April. He missed Thursday Spanish classes in the Tele Caf twice: once in December and once in April. He was also absent from four Friday supplemental video lessons. This occurred once in January, twice in February, and once in Ap ril. On the first three of these occasions, Muzzy was being shown. On the fourth, Edward missed a Familia Contenta video. Edwards absence from the Espaol para ti lesson on Tuesday, December 7, 2004, can be explained by his participatio n in Chorus. This participation also meant that he would leave the Tele Caf before Spanish lessons were over,

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188 beginning on November 4. On January 20, however, he didnt leave the Tele Caf with the other students who were going to Chorus, nor did he on any Thursday thereafter. At the end of March, I asked Mrs. Ford why Edward wasnt in Chorus anymore, and she said that Mrs. Buchanan, the Chorus teacher, was really strict, and some of the students had dropped out (Fie ld notes, 3/31/05). I later asked Edward about his reasons for not being in Chorus anymore. He said that Mrs. Buchanan prefers fourth graders to fifth gr aders. He also said that she was always yelling at the student s (Field notes, 4/21/05). Edwards attitude toward Chorus was profoundly impacted by his perception of the teacher. Because of the importance to Edward of his perceptions of and relationships with teac hers, the next section will be devoted to the special relationship between Mrs. Ford and Edward. The Relationship Between Edward and Mrs. Ford. A special relationship existed between Mrs. Ford and Edward. I often heard her making positive comments about him, both in and out of his presence. She often called on him in the Tele Caf, and although sometimes he wa s quiet there, he often participated to a great extent, sometimes taking on a leading role. I first noticed Mrs. Fords affect ion for Edward when she recommended him to me on October 1, fondly saying that he loves everything that has to do with Spanish (Field notes, 10/ 1/04). In the Spanish jeop ardy game in November, after Edward had stated his groups sele ction for category and number of points, Mrs. Ford commented about him, Este nio me parece tan simptico [This boy seems so nice to me] (Transcript, 11/19/ 04). After class one day in January, she talked to me about how popular she thought he would be in high school with that smile of his (Field notes, 1/26/05). During the cooking session on April 21, Mrs. Ford went over to Edward and told him that she thought he would have all kinds of girlfriends in high school. As she said this, she touched his cheek. Mr. Baxter, who was close by, commented, Thats only if you can get his behavior straightened out, and hes gonna have to stay out of detention. Mrs. Ford asked incredulously, Are you sure youre talking about Edward? In r eply, Mr. Baxter said, Once in a while he goes off the deep end (Field notes & transcript, 4/21/05). Mrs. Fords fondness for Edward was obvious in her response to my interview question, Would you describe Edward as a Spanish student?: Oh, Edward. Physically I think [with l aughter in her voice:] hes so cute. [She continues laughing, and I join in.] Hes just so sweet and that big grin of his, its just so sweet. I thin k Edward has this love for Spanish. Mrs. Ford went on to talk about Edwards participation in World Languages Field Day. Then, after commenting on his lo ve for Dolphin Point, she said, Hes great, and affirmed that she will encour age him to continue his studies in Spanish (Interview, 3/8/05). Edward responded well to Mrs. Fords attention. In t he videoconferencing session on November 4, he provided the correct month as noviembre when

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189 Mrs. Ford gave a choice between el cuatro de octubre o noviembre. It was also on this day that Saber es poder cards fr om Jane and Claire were used in the lesson, as I have previously explai ned. After Mr. Straten finished his demonstration of the action phrases on Janes card, Mrs. Ford told him how good that had been and put her hands together lightly. Edward picked up on that and started clapping. Then Mrs. Ford prompted the rest of the students to clap (Field notes, 11/4/04). The lesson continued as Mrs. Ford talked about the students fieldtrip to see una familia [a family] the previous week. She showed photographs of different members of the family, asked who each was (giving a choice between two names), and asked about a notable char acteristic of the family member (again giving a choice). After doing this for Pap, she showed the picture of Ta [Aunt] (who has a long nose and likes to smell garbage). Laurie started to move her hand out from her nose, and then Edward made the same motion. He answered, nariz grande [big nose], mo ving his hands apart and together. When Mrs. Ford showed the picture of Beb [B aby] (who has big ears), Edward put his hands at the sides of his head. When the ans wer, las orejas grandes [big ears], came up, he pulled on his ears (Field notes, 11/4/04). Edwards participation in the lesso n continued until Mrs. Ford told the students who had Chorus with Mrs. Buchanan that it was time for them to leave. On his way out, Edward gave Mrs. Fo rd a hug (Field notes, 11/4/04). I even noted toward the end of the sc hool year that Edward helped to complete one of Mrs. Fords sentences. Be fore the first Spanish baseball game on April 14, Mrs. Ford was telling Mr. Ba xters class how the game would be set up: Mrs. Ford : And what I need is; were gonna turn this into a baseball field; so Im gonna need as many of you on the carpet as possible. In other words, some of you might be walk in around here, so were gonna make this like first base, second base, and third base, so I need as many of you on [Mrs. Ford hesitates slightly, and within a second Edward continues.] JT: the carpet LF: as possible. (Transcript, 4/14/05) Sometimes during instruction, Mrs. Ford made reference to Edward or addressed him specifically. During a videoconferencing session on November 18, after the classes had sung the Noviembre song, Mrs. Ford asked the class at Dolphin Point if they would like to si ng the next day as part of the schools morning announcements. She hesitated slightly and added, con Eduardo [with Edward]. Both Edward and Claire raised their hands. To give another example, on December 9, a day when Edward wa s subdued, Mrs. Ford asked him if he wanted to take the part of the re indeer in the Spanish version of Jingle Bells : Eduardo, Eduardo, quieres hacer el r eno? but he declined (Field notes & transcript, 12/9/04). Under Mrs. Fords teaching and attention, Edward grew as a language learner. He also sought Spanish input fr om other sources, such as his cousin and me. He liked Spanish and used it to co mmunicate. He made an effort to

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190 learn and shared his knowledge with others. As he used Spanish, took risks, and taught others, he learned even more. In my exploration of different learner factors that might help to explain differences in the participants Spanish out put, certain factors came to the fore. These factors are degree of enjoyment of and participa tion in Spanish classes, amount of practice of Spanish both in and out of school, level of academic achievement, attitude toward competit iveness, and level of leadership and initiative. These factors were induct ively derived from repeated observations and interviews of the participants, as well as from informal interaction with them and scrutiny of their academic records. Participants P references and Perceptions Concerning the Spanish Program In the interviews that I conducted wit h each of my case study participants, I had the opportunity to ask them ques tions about different aspects of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point and to learn about their preferences and perceptions, thus addressing the fourth point of focus of this research. The interviews revealed that Brittany, Claire, Edward, and Ciara all had a generally positive attitude toward Spanish. Brittany told me that it was her favorite class and said, Spanish helps me more often than the other classes (Interviews, 1/21/05, 5/2/05). Claire and Edward each told me in January that their favorite class was math (Interviews, 1/21/05). In May, I posed the fo llowing question to each of them: How do you feel about Spanish comp ared to your other classes? Claire, who in another part of the May interview talked about preferring Spanish with Mrs. Ford to the Spanish videotapes, focused on these in answering my question: I dont think its as fun, bec ause you have to sit down and actually watch the tape, but I think its fun when you have to say the words, because its a little funny when other people are trying to say it, because sometimes they mess up (Interview, 5/2/05). Edward, who ask ed me to clarify my question before he responded, also made the comparison on the basis of what he thought was fun: EJ : Spanish is the most fun, especially going with Mrs. Ford. AN : Yeah, thats just what I meant. EJ : Its better, because its not like bookwork, and youre still learning. And its fun, educational (Interview, 5/2/05) On January 6, Ciara told me that his favorite classes were Lunch and Physical Education but 2 weeks later added Spanish to these (Transcript, 1/6/05; interview, 1/21/05). Like Claire and Edward, Ciara talked about what was fun when I asked him how he felt about Spanish compared to his other classes: Spanish get us, espaol cla ss get us more like, more time not to do work a lot and stuff, yeah. And much funner when we play baseball in espaol, and we catched up with Miss Jackson cla ss (Interview, 5/2/05). In comparisons of watching the Spani sh videotapes and going to the Tele Caf for Spanish class, Spanish in the Te le Caf was preferr ed by the students. I asked Brittany, who earlier had mentioned liking it when we talk to Greenwood Park in Spanish, whether she preferred the Spanish videos or going to the Tele

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191 Caf. When she didnt immediately respond, I went on to ask her if she likes it when there is videoconferencing with Mr. Stra ten. She quietly answered, Yes. After I had obtained confirmation that she likes that better than the videos, my next question to her was What are the ma in differences between the videos and Spanish in the Tele Caf? She told me, Sometimes we have fun over there, and over here we just sit dow n and write things, what we see, what we see on video (Interview, 1/21/05). In spite of her preference for Spanish in the Tele Caf, in her last interview Brittany said that if Spanish we re taught at Dolphin Point just by watching the videotapes, she w ould still want to ta ke it (Interview, 5/2/05). Ciaras preference was to have a Span ish lesson done in real life by Mrs. Ford, who knows who the students are, as opposed to watching a video lesson taught by a lady who dont even know who we is (Transcript, 1/6/05). Later he elaborated on the differences bet ween the two teaching situations, saying that its much better in the Tele Caf, c ause I dont understand on TV. Cause she doing it all by herself, and she cant even hear us (Interview, 1/21/05). When I asked him if he would want to take Spanish if it were just taught by watching the videotapes, he told me that hed try to l earn it that way (Interview, 5/2/05). Edward, who very much preferred Spani sh in the Tele Caf with Mrs. Ford to watching the videotapes, explained the differences between the two teaching situations in terms of rewards, first making reference to Spanish with Mrs. Ford: Well, you have something to work for, cause with Mrs. Ford: four stars, you can get food, and Im sure a whole bunch of people like the Spanish cooking. I know I do. He felt that in the video lessons there was no reward that was worthwhile: All it is is putting your card up on the board. Thats not really worth working for. He suggested that there be a prize at the end of the year for the person who has the most cards on Mrs. Fords Knowledge Wall (Interview, 1/21/05). He told me that he would still take Spanish if it were just taught through watching the videotapes, but he said, It wouldnt be as fu n, or it wouldnt be the same without Mrs. Ford (Interview, 5/2/05). Because Claire at first didnt voic e a preference for either having the Spanish videos in her classroom or going to the Tele Caf for Spanish with Mrs. Ford, I asked her if she liked both, and she said, Yeah. When I asked her about the main differences between the tw o teaching situations, however, her answer favored the Tele Caf: I think that its like you learn more things at the Tele Caf, because we kind of talk about more stuff, and we dont spend as much time on one thing (Interview, 1/21/ 05). If Spanish were only taught by watching the videotapes, Clair e probably wouldnt take i t. As she explained, I kinda wouldnt want to, because Seora Ford, she helps you learn better, because before we start the Spanish, shell be talking in English, and shell tell us some words (Interview, 5/2/05). T able 14 summarizes the opinions of the participants about Spanish in the Tele Caf and the Spanish instructional videos.

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192 Table 14 Participants Opinions in January and May About Spanish in the Tele Caf and Spanish Instructional Videos Participant January a May Claire Likes both videos and Spanish in the Tele Caf. They learn more in the Tele Caf, because they talk about more things and dont spend as much time on any one thing. If Spanish were only taught by watching videos, probably wouldnt take it. Mrs. Ford helps them learn better, because she tells them some words in English. Videos arent as fun as other classes, because you have to sit and watch, but theyre fun when you have to say the words. However, Claire said theres really nothing she doesnt like about the videos. Through the videos, learned some words that Mrs. Ford uses. Brittany Likes going to the Tele Caf better than the videos. Sometimes they have fun in the Tele Caf, but during the videos, they just sit and write things. The best thing about Spanish in the Tele Caf is the more you learn it, the better youll get at it. In the Tele Caf, likes singing Tic tac and Enero and turning the signs, indicating which language is being spoken. If Spanish only taught by watching videos, would want to take it. In Espaol para ti theyre answering questions and learning new words. In the Tele Caf, they review the words. Theres nothing she doesnt like about Spanish in the Tele Caf, and theres nothing she doesnt like about the videos.

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193 Table 14 (Continued). Participant January a May Ciara Prefers Spanish in the Tele Caf its more fun because Mrs. Ford is doing it in real life, and she knows who they are. The video teacher is doing it bad and doesnt even know who they are. (1/6/05) The main difference between Spanish in the Tele Caf and the videos is that in the former they do it live. Its much better in the Tele Caf, because he cant understand the videos; the video teacher is doing it by herself and cant even hear them. If Spanish only taught by watching videos, would try to learn it that way. Likes everything about Spanish in the Tele Caf. Edward Likes Spanish with Mrs. Ford better than the videos, because Mrs. Ford tells them what things mean or explains in other ways. If you dont understand something on the videos, they keep going, because they dont know you dont understand. One of the main differences between Spanish in the Tele Caf and the videos is that the cooking sessions in the Tele Caf are a reward worth working for. Doing cards with the videos to have them put on the board isnt really worth working for. Would rather have more questions with Mrs. Ford than more questions about the videos. In the Tele Caf, likes the games and songs and how Mrs. Ford tells them the words. If Spanish were only taught by watching the videos, he would take it, but it wouldnt be as much fun, and it wouldnt be the same without Mrs. Ford. Theres nothing he doesnt like about Spanish in the Tele Caf. Doesnt like having to write about the videos, but otherwise they have been okay. a All January comments were made in interviews on January 21, 2005, except for one comment from Ciara, which is followed by its date.

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194 I also asked the students about their pref erences in regard to the different video series they watched. In January, I asked if they liked Espaol para ti or Muzzy better. In May, I included the choice of La Familia Contenta as well. When a preference was expressed, it was usually for Muzzy. I consider all of my participants qualified to talk about Muzzy, even Claire and Edward who missed a number of showings, because they had s een these videos the previous year. In January, Edward said that he liked Muzzy better than Espaol para ti When I asked him why, he said that it was fun and mentioned having seen it before: Because Muzzy is fun, and then, plus we sa w it more than once, and Id started to know most of t he words that theyre saying. After I confirmed that he was talking about having seen it in the fourth grade, he w ent on: And then I know what theyre saying. Thats like a mo vie. Well, a song. If you listen to the song once, and then you keep listening to it, youll start memorizing what theyre saying. Thats like with Muzzy. Although Muzzy is all in Spanish, he explained his comprehension of it, upon seeing it again, by saying that he can kind of tell what theyre saying in Engl ish (Interview, 1/21/05). By the end of the school year, Edwa rds preferences had changed. His favorite video series in May was Espaol para ti followed by Muzzy. He said that he liked the play at Halloween (that includes me mbers of a family of monsters) but implied t hat he didnt really like La Familia Contenta videos (Interview, 5/2/05). In both January and May, Claire told me that her favorite video series was Muzzy. In January when I asked her why she liked it better than Espaol para ti she said, Its like an adventure, and its kinda funny (Interview, 1/21/05). She explained further in May, when I asked her why it was her favo rite of the three video series: Because, um, its more characters Like the animations, theyll do something funny, [with a laugh in her voice:] and then you can laugh about it. Its like watching a cartoon on a Sa turday or a Sunday, but youre in school watching it, and its in Spanish. (Interview, 5/2/05) There was an episode of La Familia Contenta Galletas, no! [ Cookies, No! ], that Claire talked about in positive terms. When I asked her if she had a favorite character in this video series, she named her favorite and went on to describe in detail part of Galletas, no! an episode that was shown a month before: CM : I like Abuela [Grandmother]. AN : Oh. [I laugh.] CM : because one time she was saying, um, I think the cookies are, I think cookies are called gallas, AN : Galletas. CM : uh, and, Galletas, no! And she sa id it three times, and he [Uncle] woke up, and she took [I laugh.] t he packet, and then he left, and she was [with a laugh in her voice:] eat ing em. (Int erview, 5/2/05) In January, Brittany told me that she liked Muzzy better than Espaol para ti because it taught her more Spanish. When asked how it did this, she

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195 explained, Theyre countin in Spanish. I count with them, and it help me more to learn how to do my Spanish (Intervi ew, 1/21/05). By May, however, when I gave her a choice between Muzzy, Espaol para ti and La Familia Contenta she indicated that she liked them all the same. Like Brittany, Ciara didnt prefer any one video series in May, replying to my question about his favorite of the three, No, theyre all t he same (Interview, 5/2/05). In January, however, he had at first said that he liked Espaol para ti better than Muzzy, but when I had asked him why, he had changed his answer to Muzzy, Cause we dont got to say nothing and just watch it (Interview, 1/21/05). Table 15 summarizes the opinions of the participants about the different Spanish instructional videos. As far as lessons in the Tele Caf were concerned, I looked into whether my participants preferred being taught th rough videoconferencing or being taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing. When given a choice between the two teaching situations, all of my participants sa id that they preferred being taught by Mrs. Ford. At the beginning of my January intervie w with Brittany, after she had said that Spanish was her favorite class, I asked her, What do you like about Spanish? She told me that she liked it when we talk to Greenwood Park in Spanish. In view of this response, I wa s a bit surprised when Brittany later said that she liked Spanish better when Mrs. Fo rd was teaching by herself, without the videoconferencing. I asked her why that was, and she replied, Because we can concentrate better and not have people joking around and not messin with us (Interview, 1/21/05). Brittanys preference for being taught by Mrs. Ford was confirmed to me in May when she res ponded, No, to the fo llowing question: If a Spanish teacher wasnt here at this school, would you want to take Spanish with a teacher teaching you from t he other school? (Interview, 5/2/05). Ciara, like Brittany, answered my question, What do you like about Spanish? with a reference to talking to the other school, possibly in this case, meaning talking to them on fieldtrips: CN : I like when we go to like, the other school and speak to the other school, yeah. AN : Oh, yeah. CN : And learn Spanish with the other sc hool and stuff like that. (Interview, 1/21/05) Also like Brittany, he later said that he preferred being taught by Mrs. Ford without the videoconferencing. He explained to me the reasons for this choice, describing what he had to do during videoconferencing: Cause we got to look on the TV and cant look nowhere else (Int erview, 1/21/05). He maintained his preference for being taught by Mrs. Ford when I asked him if he would want to take Spanish if he were being taught by a teacher at another school with no Spanish teacher at his school. His respon se was Thatd be kind of foreign. I like when Seora Ford teach better (Interview, 5/2/05).

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196 Table 15 Participants Opinions in January About Muzzy and Espaol para ti and in May About Muzzy Espaol para ti and La Familia Contenta Participant January May Claire Muzzy Favorite because an adventure and funny Espaol para ti Likes descriptions of clowns and talking about fruit Muzzy Favorite because more characters, funny, and its like watching a cartoon La Familia Contenta Likes Galletas, no! episode Brittany Muzzy Favorite because it teaches her more Spanish, and she can count along with the videos Espaol para ti What she likes best is when they teach her how to do the large numbers Espaol para ti, Muzzy, and La Familia Contenta She likes them all the same. Ciara Muzzy Favorite because students dont have to say anything; they just watch it Espaol para ti Likes when they pick the words and show you what they mean Espaol para ti, Muzzy, and La Familia Contenta Theyre all the same. Edward Muzzy Favorite because fun and familiar Espaol para ti Liked it last year but doesnt really like it this year. The Chocolate song, countries, and practicing times and action words are things he likes this year. Espaol para ti Favorite, followed by Muzzy La Familia Contenta Doesnt really like the videos Claire was consistent in her pref erence for having Mrs. Ford teach her class by herself, as opposed to receiving lessons through videoconferencing. In January, she talked about communication difficulties in videoconferencing: Like if the other teacher asks us a question, sometimes we dont know what hes talking about, and, with Miss Ford, we c an, she shows us what were talking

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197 about, and we can actually learn what shes saying (Interview, 1/21/05). In May, she said that she really wouldnt want to take Spanish if there were no Spanish teacher at her school, and she were being taught by a teacher at another school through videoconferencing, because a Spanish teacher here, she could ask you to come in any time and teach you so me words. And someone from another school, they would have to call in, and they would have to have a schedule when to. I followed up by asking her if she thought it would be harder for the teacher at the other school to know if she had a problem in class, and she answered, Yes, because theyre not really teaching you, so they wouldnt know (Interview, 5/2/05). Edward liked being taught by Mrs. Ford without the videoconferencing, because he got to answer more questi ons: Yeah, and then we can answer all the questions ourself instead of like, Stra ten and then Dolphin Po int (Interview, 1/21/05). But he told me that he would take Spanish even if there were no Spanish teacher at his school, and he were being taught by a teacher at another school (Interview, 5/2/05). Table 16 summa rizes the opinions of the participants about Spanish instructional session s with and without videoconferencing. Beyond being interested in my parti cipants preferences in regard to receiving instruction thr ough videoconferencing or not, I was also interested in how they felt about the students in classe s at the schools with whom they had videoconferencing. I asked if they knew any of them, whether they preferred communicating with them or with students in their own cl ass, and how they felt about competition between their own cla ss and the class at the other school. Of my participants, only Ciara and Cla ire said that t hey had ever known any of the students in a class at another school they had had videoconferencing with. Ciara told me, Yeah, I know somebody in Greenwood Park, yeah. Demetrius, Cedric, and all of them. I know all of t hem. Mm-hmm, I know all of them kids in Greenwood Park since about three years now. Because of the timeframe of his answer and his reference to all of them, I wondered if it were only through videoconferencing that he knew these students. I asked him what it was like to see them through videoconf erencing, and he replied that he felt nervous because he had told them that he was going to be in the sixth grade that year. It didnt seem possible that he could have told them this during a videoconferencing session, so I didnt pursu e the matter of his relationship with them any further (Interview, 5/2/05). Claire gave an affirmative answer to my question, Have you ever known any of the students in a class at another school that youve had videoconferencing with? When I asked her what it was like to see them through videoconferencing, she answered in terms of the quality of the transmission received on the television monitor: I think its a little [brief pause] weird, because when they talk, it, um, for it to come onto the TV, it takes a wh ile, because it kind of like makes em freeze, and then it lets em go. So lik e, they would move to the side, and they would freeze, and then they w ould keep on moving. (Interview, 5/2/05)

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198 Table 16 Participants Opinions in January and May About Spanish Instructional Sessions With and Without Videoconferencing Participant January May Claire Prefers Spanish without VC, because sometimes they dont know what Mr. Straten is talking about. Mrs. Ford shows them what shes talking about, and they can learn what shes saying. Wouldnt really want to take Spanish if just taught through VC with no teacher at her school because of scheduling difficulties. It would also be harder for the teacher at the other school to know if you had a problem, because that teacher isnt really teaching you. What she doesnt like about Spanish in the Tele Caf is VC. She doesnt like VC because its harder to learn. Brittany Likes VC with Mr. Straten and Greenwood Park. Likes Spanish better without VC they can concentrate better and not have people joking around and not messing with them. Wouldnt want to take Spanish if just taught through VC with no teacher at her school. Ciara Likes going to and speaking to the other school. Likes it when Mrs. Ford is teaching without VC, because with VC they have to look at the TV and cant look anywhere else. Says that if Spanish just taught through VC with no teacher at his school, it would be kind of foreign. He likes Mrs. Ford better. Edward Likes being taught by Mrs. Ford without VC, because his class can answer all the questions themselves without having to wait for students at Greenwood Park to take turns. Would want to take Spanish if just taught through VC with no teacher at his school. Note. VC = videoconferencing

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199 In the area of communicating with students at another school through videoconferencing, I mistakenly asked the question, How do you feel about saying things in Spanish to students in t he class at the other school? This was not a good question, because Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten led the classes and asked the questions of the students, and my participants did not feel like they were talking to the students in the other class. Edward was the first student to whom I posed the question concerning how he felt saying things to students in the class at the other school. His reply was I dont know. I conceded that in communicating with the other school, he mostly said things to that teacher, and I rephrased my question: How do you feel about the other students hearing it ? He answered, explaining his perceptions of what goes on in class: Its okay. I never really t hought of it like that. I ju st like try to impress the class, and then raise my hand real qui ck, and then [unintelligible] she always picks on me, and then I just know [unintelligible; background noise]. (Interview, 5/2/05) Edward confirmed that it was his own cl ass he was trying to impress and told me that he would rather say things to students in his class than to students in the class at the other school. Like Edward, Ciara told me that he didnt know, when I asked him how he felt about saying things in Spanish to st udents in the class at the other school. After he confirmed that he mostly said things to the teachers, I asked him, Would you rather say things in Spanish to students in your class or to students in the class at the other school? He responded that he preferred saying things to students in his class (Interview, 5/2/05). Claire responded as follows to my statem ent that she mostly said things to the teacher at the other school and not to the students: Yeah. Cause the kids arent really asking the questions. I followed up by asking, What about them listening? She thought that was all righ t, because they dont laugh if we mess up. She also told me that she would rat her say things to students in the class at the other school than to students in her class, because students in her class would not realize that she was trying to speak in Spanish (Interview, 5/2/05). The question I asked Brittany was If y ou ever have a chance to say things to the students in the class at the other school, how do you feel about that? She replied that she feels comf ortable (Interview, 5/2/05). Given a choice of listening to what st udents in their class or in the class at the other school had to say, three of my participants told me that they preferred listening to students in the class at the other school. Brittany was the exception to this, saying that she would rather list en to students in her class, because they know how to teach me the words without laughing at me (Int erview, 5/2/05). Ciara told me that he wanted to listen to students in the class at the other school to figure out what they got to say about it (Interview, 5/2/05). Edward said that he wanted to listen to student s in the other school in order to know like whose school is better, because I already know how our school is good in Spanish. I

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200 want to see like what they say [unintel ligible]. Our school is much better than them in Spanish (Interview, 5/2/05). All of my participants were in favor of competing against the class at the other school in games (Inter views, 5/2/05). I first t hought about looking into the area of competition between classes after I observed a videoconferencing session involving two fourth-grade classes on April 5, 2005. A teacher who was being mentored by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Strate n led the session from the Tele Caf at Dolphin Point. Mr. Straten, who wa s present with the fourth grade class at Greenwood Park, offered to keep score. After the class session was over, Mr. Straten reestablished a videoconferenc ing connection with Dolphin Point and apologized profusely for setting up a co mpetition between the two classes by adding the points for each class separatel y instead of adding them together. He had started adding the points separately wit hout thinking and said that he would never do it intentionall y (Field notes, 4/5/05). The question that I asked Edward, Ciara, Claire, and Brittany was What do you think would be better in games with the class at the other school: adding the points for both classes together or adding the points separately for each class so that youre playing against each other? All of my participant s said that it was better to add the points separately (Interviews, 5/2/05). I also sought to find out if my par ticipants liked competitions within their own class. I phrased my question in this way: What about in your own class, do you like doing things all t ogether; or in teams; or so metimes together, sometimes in teams? Whereas Brittany and Ciara to ld me that they liked doing things all together, the preference of Claire and Edward was for doing things in teams (Interview, 5/2/05). To sum up the inductively derived findings of this section, Brittany, Claire, Edward, and Ciara all had a generally positiv e attitude toward Spanish. Each of them told me that they pref erred receiving Spanish instru ction in the Tele Caf to watching the Spanish videotapes. Muzzy was the video series that was usually chosen as the favorite when a prefer ence was expressed. When the four students were directly questioned about w hether they prefe rred being taught through videoconferencing or being taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, they all indicated t hat what they liked better was being taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing. Ho wever, all of them had at least some interest in the students in the cla ss with whom they had videoconferencing sessions. This interest was expressed in terms of saying things to the other students, if given the chance; listening to them; or simply competing with them.

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201 Chapter 7. Themes and Supporting Evidence During the course of this research certain themes emerged. In this chapter I present three and provide supporti ng evidence for each. These themes are (a) the importance of t he on-site Spanish teacher, (b) contributions of the video lessons, and (c) limitations in in teraction and output. The discussions of the first and third themes are more extens ive than the treatment of the second. I found that the longer discussions subs umed some minor themes that I had noted. For example, the role of English in Spanish instruction in the Tele Caf is included in the discussion on the comprehension of input. Importance of the On-S ite Spanish Teacher Evidence of the importance of the onsite Spanish teacher to the FLETT program can be found by taking both a wide and a narrow view. The evolution of the FLETT program itself points to the cent ral role of Mrs. Ford, Dolphin Points on-site teacher, as do the words of Mr. Baxter and the students who were participants in this research. The pattern of the participants Spanish output in the different instructional settings is also worth considering in this regard. Having observed Spanish classes at Dolphin Point in the 2003 school year, at which time Spanish teac hers at different schools alternated on a weekly basis in assuming sole teachi ng responsibility for matched classes in videoconferencing sessions, I was struck by the change in the following school year to the use of team teaching for videoc onferencing. Until Ma rch of that year, there were no instances of either Mrs. Ford at Dolphin Po int or of Mr. Straten at Greenwood Park assuming sole responsibili ty for teaching the paired classes of Mr. Baxter and Mr. Allen from the two schools. On the occasions when Mr. Straten was absent from Greenwood Park, Mrs. Ford taught Mr. Baxters class without videoconferencing, not providing instruction fo r Mr. Allens class at Greenwood Park. On the occasions w hen Mrs. Ford was absent from Dolphin Point, Mr. Baxters class did not receive Spanish instruction through videoconferencing. Even during the tw o videoconferencing sessions that Mr. Straten taught in March, Mrs. Ford remai ned in the Tele Caf with Mr. Baxters class. I was surprised by the shift to team teaching for videoconferencing in the 2004 school year, because it meant th at the schools involved were not taking advantage of one of the most obvious potential benefits of this teaching technology. Mrs. Ford emphasized this benefit to me when I asked her, What do you consider the advantages of t eaching through videoconferencing? and she said, Well, the first thing, of course is reaching more children. Thats the

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202 number one advantage of videoconferencing: that you can teach more children with less staff (I nterview, 3/8/05). Although Mrs. Ford could articula te benefits of team teaching for videoconferencing, these benefits did not involve reaching more children with less expense. In fact, her answer to my que stion, Are there any cost benefits to team teaching via videoconferencing? onl y made reference to the cost benefits of the teaching technology itself. She talked about the expense of the videoconferencing units but said that in the long run they were much more economical than paying the salary of another teacher. She also pointed out the Countys difficulty in filling foreign language teaching positions and said that videoconferencing covers a lot of issues. She concluded, its trying to reach more children; its what were tr ying to do (Interview, 3/8/05). Mrs. Ford talked about the advantages of team teaching with Mr. Straten, the World Languages Curriculum Coordina tor at Greenwood Park, in very positive terms: Oh, its very good. We feed off each others strengths. Sometimes one is very strong in a particular lesson, so the other one just kind of lets the other coordinator take that lesson, and thats their strength. So, yeah, we kind of just feed off of each others strength, and thats the one greatest advantage. Also with planning, bec ause we do have to meet and plan. (Interview, 3/8/05) I witnessed the positive collegial re lationship between Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten throughout the school year. For example, toward the beginning of the Spanish jeopardy game in Mr. Baxters classroom on Novem ber 19, Mrs. Ford sent Colleen to the Tele Caf to ge t Mr. Straten, who had been meeting with Mrs. Ford there: Colleen, would you go to my room, and Seor Straten is in my room. Invite him over. He needs to see this. When he ent ered Mr. Baxters classroom with a FLES teacher from yet another school Mrs. Ford greeted them, Los invito a ver este juego tan fantstico [I invite y ou to see this game that is so terrific] (Transcript, 11/19/04). Another example of the friendly re lationship between Mr. Straten and Mrs. Ford can be seen toward the end of a brief consultation they had prior to the first videoconferencing session in March that Mr. Straten assumed responsibility for teaching: Mr. Straten : OK. Tan pronto lleguen el, la clase de seor Baxter, empezamos, y gracias, seora. [As s oon as Mr. Baxters class arrives, well start, and thank you, maam.] Mrs. Ford : OK. Mr. Straten : Un placer siempre trabajar contigo. [Always a pleasure to work with you.] Mrs. Ford : Igualmente. [And with you, too.] (Transcript, 3/17/05) Team teaching not only afforded Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten the opportunity to engage in joint lesson planning and to capitalize on each others strengths during instructional sessions, it also pr ovided the opportunity for them to engage each other in conversation during videocon ferencing so that the students were

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203 able to listen to two adult speakers of Spanish interacting in this language. These advantages of team teaching, however do not fully account for the shift in teaching procedure from the previous school year. Other evidence points to the importance of the on-site Spanish t eacher and a desire for her continuing presence during videoc onferencing sessions. On November 11, 2004, Mrs. Ford prov ided me with a copy of the results of a survey on the Spanish program at Do lphin Point that had been completed by 24 teachers. (The Dolphin Point Personnel Directory 2004/2005 lists 22 regular classroom teachers in kindergarten through the fifth grade.) Respondents were asked to answer two open-ended questions, rate the effectiveness of different program components on a scale of 1 (not effective) to 5 (highly effective), and provide additiona l comments or suggestions. As will be discussed below, several items touch on or address videoconferencing. In some responses perceptions concerning Mrs. Ford are shared, as is the case in this additional comment: Li ssette is wonderful. In the survey, videoconferencing with the coordinator (Mrs. Ford) present received much higher effectiveness ra tings than videoconferencing without a coordinator present at both si tes. The first item to wh ich I am referring here is worded PolyCom/PicTel with Coordinator pres ent. It received 3 ratings of 3, 1 rating of 4, and 13 ratings of 5 (highly effective). (A choice of N/A is also provided on the survey, but the summary of results states that no tally was made for this type of response.) The second it em to which I am referring is worded PolyCom/PicTel without C oordinator present on both si des (classroom teacher only). It received 2 ratings of 1 (not effective), 4 ratings of 2, 6 ratings of 3, and 1 rating of 5. Some of the responses to t he two open-ended questions are also pertinent to this discussion. The first ques tion asks, What was most effective or helpful about the Spanish program startup at our school? Of the 21 responses, 5 make reference to Mrs. Ford or Spanish in the Tele Caf: Having a World Lang. Coordinator, Having Mrs. Ford as c oordinator, Estb. In itial year of the lab, Coordinator Enthusiasm, and Tel e Caf for students, then the extra Spanish classes just for teachers. (Other comm ents have to do with the instructional videos and other materials, teacher training, use of the target language, and inability to provide a response to the question.) The second open-ended question asks, How would you recommend starting the Spanish program differently at future sites? There were 12 responses to this question, of which 3 ma ke reference to Spanish in the Tele Caf: Start with Tele Caf before going to videos to generate excitement at the very beginning of the year; Model the facilitation of the videos . remain in room during Spanish lab [ellipsis points appear in original summary of results]; and No video conferencing [ sic ]. (Other responses have to do with teacher training, instructional videos, and inability to answer the question.) In our first interview, I asked Mrs. Ford to comment on the results of the survey that indicated that teachers felt that PolyCom/PicTel with the coordinator present is more effective than without a c oordinator present on both sides. She

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204 expressed her belief that teachers comf ort levels with not having a coordinator present at their site influenced their ratings of the effectiveness of this situation. She also shared her belief that the teac hers with more experience in the program were more comfortable. She continued: I think its something that has to be bu ilt on. You have to take baby steps in order to do this. The problem w ould be the new teachers joining the staff. They are learning the program Theyre learning the videos [slight pause] program. Theyre learning so much, even the language, and then to add that to them [not having an on-site coordinator with them] just really raises their anxiety. (Interview, 3/8/05) She commented that these teachers were not comfortable with language learning and that some of them may have even had a bad experience in high school with learning language. She concluded, So, y eah, I think the longer theyre here, the longer theyre in the pr ogram, the more comfortable they feel with just the other coordinator at the other site (Interview, 3/8/05). Although Mrs. Fords answer expl ained why she and Mr. Straten would use team teaching with the classes of new teachers, it did not address the question of why they would use it with t he class of an experienced teacher like Mr. Baxter. However, I learned from the la tter that new teachers werent the only ones who might have looked to Mrs. Ford as the mainstay of the Spanish program at Dolphin Point. When I asked Mr. Baxter, Are ther e benefits to videoconferencing versus just having Mrs. Ford teach? he replied, I tell you what, thats a hard one for me to say, because I love Miss Ford. He next observed, The kids love her, and described her at the front of the class: She has all that energy, and she does an awful lot of neat things. He continued his answer: We dont get the same feeling off a TV. I think maybe that has to do with kids watching television and not parti cipating with the TV and things like that. You know, TVs not a big deal any more. But Miss Ford is a fantastic teacher. She just has all this energy, you know, she loves the language, and the kids can see this. And when s hes in front of them, she can pull out whatever she wants. But videoc onferencing, . the TV doesnt get the same feeling as having Miss Ford live in front of you. (Interview, 2/17/05) Mr. Baxter also praised Mrs. Ford in comparison to the Espaol para ti videos, which he didnt believe to be a gr eat device (Interview, 2/17/05). He shared his thoughts with her on April 28 after the Spanish baseball game between his class and Mrs. Jacksons class. On his way out of the Tele Caf, he told Mrs. Ford that the student s had learned a lot in her cl ass that day and that it was good for them to be there with her. He said that th ey were tired of the Para ti videos (Field notes, 4/28/05). The influence of Mrs. Ford and Mr. Ba xter on the attitude s of the students in his class seemed a real possibility to me. Mrs. Ford herself shared her observations on a case of possible teacher influence after a cooking session on April 21 that had featured flan. Mrs. Fo rd told me that there had been two

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205 classes in which the teacher s wouldnt take or said they didnt like flan. It seemed that in those classes le ss students said they liked flan than in a class in which the teacher had eaten it (Field notes, 4/21/05). Besides the possible influence of Mr. Ba xters belief that Spanish with just Mrs. Ford teaching was superior to both Espaol para ti and videoconferencing, I considered the possible in fluence of several statement s that Mrs. Ford made on days when there would be no videoconferen cing. In these statements, she frames not having videoc onferencing on a given day as advantageous. On December 9, for example, she told Mr. Baxt ers class, Oh, by the way, were not going to be calling Seor Straten, because their school is having like a tornado drill, and it wont be part. Thats good, bec ause I really want to practice with you the countries (Transcript, 12/9/04). On January 20, after Mrs. Ford had explained to Mr. Baxters students why Mr. Allens class wouldnt be able to take part in a videoconferencing session with them she said, So heres what were gonna do today, which turns out actually bet ter, cause we have a concentration game, and that way you get all the points. We dont have to share any points with them (Transcript, 1/20/05). Again on April 14, Mrs Ford highlighted for Mr. Baxters students an advantage of not having videoconferencing when she said, Greenwood Park is having their field day today. We have it tomorrow; theyre having theirs today. So were not calling. Okay? So thats why were able to play baseball (Transcript, 4/14/05). It is interesting that on January 21, the day after Mrs. Ford talked about not having to share points from a conc entration game with Mr. Allens class, Edward Jones told me that he liked it better when Mrs. Ford taught his class without videoconferencing, expressing himself in terms of not having to share with the class at Greenwood Park. In Ed wards case, however, he was talking about not having to share opportunities to answer questions: AN : Do you like it better when Mrs. Ford teaches you by herself, just the class with her, or when theres videoc onferencing with Seor Straten and the other class; which do you like better? EJ : When she teaches our class, [ AN : You like that.] like yesterday. AN : Yeah. Do you feel like you get mo re attention; whats the reason? EJ : Yeah, and then we can answer all t he questions ourself instead of like, Straten and then Dolphin Point. AN : Oh, yeah, back and forth. EJ : And then you want answer the question, but you cant cause of Stratens side. AN : Uh-huh. EJ : I like it better with our, just our class. (Interview, 1/21/05) Returning now to Mrs. Fords statem ents that the program is something that has to be built on and that you have to take baby steps in order to do this (Interview, 3/8/05), it woul d seem to me that this type of building would imply experiences with the Spanish teacher/curri culum coordinator at one site taking responsibility for teaching the matched clas ses at some time earlier than March. It was in March, however, that she described to me what she and the curriculum

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206 coordinators at two other schools were doi ng in order to help the classroom teachers feel more comfortable in vi deoconferencing sessions without an on-site Spanish teacher. She said that each coordinator was taking responsibility for teaching the paired classes from one grade level. The coordinator who wasnt teaching the paired classes would sit with th e classroom teacher in order to help him or her feel comfortabl e. As Mrs. Ford said, I am now sitting with the classroom teacher back here, and now theyre having to call on students. Theyre having to answer. And so its needed. Im here with them so that, hopefully, maybe even after Spring Break, Im gone. (Interview, 3/8/05) As I have pointed out elsewhere, the only occasions on which one Spanish teacher assumed responsibility fo r teaching both Mr. Baxters class at Dolphin Point and Mr. Allens class at Greenwood Park were on March 17 and March 31. Of my case study participants, both Claire and Brittany were absent on the first occasion, and Claire was again absent on the second occasion. Because of the brevity of the time involved in these videoconferencing sessions compared to the time my participants spent in Spanish instructional sessions led by Mrs. Ford, it might be misleading to merely compare the average number of minutes between utterances for the participants in these two settings. For example, Brittany produced 1 utterance (Jueves [Thursday]) in the 22-minute videoconferencing session led by Mr. Stra ten on March 31 (Transcript, 3/31/05). In the 4 hours and 21 minutes that I obser ved Brittany in instructional sessions led by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, she produced 11 utterances; therefore, the average number of minutes between her utterances was 24, making her less productive in this setting (where she produced her highest number of utterances) than in the 22 mi nutes of the videoconf erencing session led by Mr. Straten. A description of some of the things that happened and excerpts of some of the things that were said during and a fter the videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Straten provide a better idea of how Mr. Baxters class reacted. I have mentioned elsewhere Edwards reaction in the videoconferencing session led by Mr. Straten on March 17. During a song about Florida, he was sitting with his head in his hands, was frowning, and wasnt singing. In answering questions about Florida, he whispered, Tallahassee, to Mrs. Ford, who directed him, Dcelo [ sic ] a seor Straten [Tell it to Mr. Strate n]. Then he said, Tallahassee, more loudly. He also answered a question with Willie. During the closing song, however, he sat with his hands in front of his face (Field notes, 3/17/05). The words to the closing song had appeared on one of the television monitors in the Tele Caf before Mr. Straten said anything about them. When they appeared, Ciara said, Tic tac, the first two words. Mrs Ford chided him: Ah, excuse me! After Tic tac had been sung and the videoconferencing connection had ended, Mrs. Ford addressed the whole class:

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207 Boys and girls, I think you noticed that I wasnt involved in this lesson, that I was also receiving th is lesson, and thats because were going to be doing more and more of th is as the year goes on, where one of us will teach, and the other one will not be in the room at all. And I thought that was very, very, ve ry rude, and it wasn t just him. There were three of you that kept re minding me what time it was. I am very aware of what time it is, and so is Seor Straten. You dont have to tell us what time. So please, dont ev er do that again, cause youre just sending him the message that you want him off, and you want it to be over, and thats rude. (Transcript, 3/17/05) After Mrs. Stephens, who was substituting fo r Mr. Baxter that day, had reminded the students that she had told them not to get up to leave class until it was over and after there had been a brief discussion about releasing students for Chorus, Mrs. Ford returned to rebuking the students: Never, never, never, never do that again, where he can hear you do Tic tac like that. Thats not, th ats, thats rude. We know what time it is. Well le t you know when you can go to Chorus (Transcript, 3/17/05). Before the students left the Tele Caf, I heard Glenn, a large boy who often teased other students, whisper to Ciara Tic tac! Ciara replied, I thought he was just talkin (Transcript, 3/17/05). Two weeks later Mr. Straten again led Mr. Baxters class and Mr. Allens class in a videoconferencing session, but Mrs. Ford apparently didnt remember that there had been anot her such session before Spring Break, because she asked Mr. Baxters class after this one was over what they thought about their first experience with only Mr. Strat en teaching them. Mr. Baxter responded, talking about needing to listen more closely: Mr. Baxter : I think they had the same pr oblem that I had at the very beginning, which was we need to listen cl oser to Seor Straten when he is doing it than when you are in front of us. Mrs. Ford : Yeah. Mr. Baxter : So sometimes I, when he asks a question, then he says, Baxter, you know, then Im saying to myself, Now what was the question? Mrs. Ford : Right. Mr. Baxter : You know, because Im not listening that closely to it, because usually you are the one [ Mrs. Ford : That I would ask the question.] that I would answer. Mrs. Ford : So its kind of different. So maybe something like this needs to start at the beginning of the school year, so that they get used to it. Mr. Baxter : Mm-hmm. (Transcript, 3/31/05) Mrs. Ford then addressed Edward, for whom I have no utterances recorded on that day: You were very qui et today, Edward. [Brief pause.] Usually youre raising your hand and then S panish. Any reason why? No? He shrugged his shoulders but continued to remain silent. Mr. Baxter offered Mrs. Ford his own interpretation of this silence: I dont think it had anything to do with

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208 Spanish. Its been kind of a little bit of a rough day (Field notes & transcript, 3/31/05). Perhaps Edwards rough day contributed to his silence in this videoconferencing session led by Mr. Stra ten, but in general he was much more eager to participate in classes that Mrs. Ford had a part in teaching, whether she was teaching by herself or in videoc onferencing sessions with Mr. Straten. Edward told me that he liked being taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing the best. However, his relationship wit h her (which I discussed more fully in the previ ous chapter) seemed to encourage his production of Spanish utterances, whet her videoconferencing was involved or not. Claire, Brittany, and Ciara, also told me that they liked being taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing the best. These three students were much more productive of Spanish utterances as indivi duals in instructional sessions led by Mrs. Ford than in videoconferencing sessions led by both Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten. Although the pres ence or absence of videoconferencing should not be ignored as a factor affecting their productivity, the role of Mrs. Ford as their Spanish teacher and their relationship wi th her was important to all of them. Spence Rogers, from whom Mrs. Ford has received training in her school district, and coauthor Lisa Renard have wr itten about using relationship-driven teaching to enhance motivation to learn ( 1999). One of their six standards for this type of teaching is Caring, which involves letting students know that they are liked and accepted. Rogers and Renard state, Simply using students names correctly on the first day of sc hool sends a powerful you count to me message (p. 37). At Dolphin Point, I observed various examples of the effects of using students names. On De cember 8, after an Espaol para ti video, Edward saw my messy notes and commented on them. I turned in my notebook to a blank page and wrote his name neatly in cursive. He asked me in a tone of wonder, How do you know my name? I paused and then said, It was on your permission form. Some other students had gathered around us by then, and one of them pointed to Elena and asked me if I knew her name. I replied, Elena, and someone started spelling it (Field notes, 12/8/04). On January 13, as students were coming into the Tele Caf, Mrs. Ford said, Hola. Hola, Colleen. Colleen happily exclaimed, You know my name! (Mrs. Ford had actually used it in the past.) Mrs. Ford drew in her breath and replied, Youre famous (Transcript, 1/13/05). Mrs. Ford strengthened her relationship with Edward by often using his name during classes in the Tele Caf, sometimes inviting him to participate and sometime s directing her comments to him in particular. In this section, the evolution of the FLETT program to a team teaching mode has been shown to be related to the importance of the on-site Spanish teacher, Mrs. Ford. The results of a surv ey of teachers showed that most felt that videoconferencing sessions in which she was present were more effective than those without her. Mr. Baxters comments also showed how important he felt her to be to the Spanish program. The possibility of his attitudes influencing those of his students was presented, as was the possibility of Mrs. Fords

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209 comments influencing them. Next in th is section, student reactions to and teacher comments on the two videoconfer encing sessions led by Mr. Straten were presented. The producti vity of the four case st udy participants in terms of individual Spanish utterances in the instructional settings under discussion was considered. The section ended with comment s on the importance of Mrs. Fords relationships with the students. Contributions of the Video Lessons Although the video lessons were not t he favored mode of instruction of the case study participants, the role they pl ayed in the FLETT program should not be discounted. Neither should the role played by Mr. Baxter in the facilitation of the video lessons be discounted. This section will take a brief look at the contributions of both. I got the clearest sense of what the videos contributed to student learning from Claire and Brittany. In May, I asked Claire, So out side of the Tele Caf, in your classroom, have there been certain thi ngs that have helped you in learning Spanish? She answered by talking about learning words from the videos and how this related to Mrs. Fords use of the words: Yeah, because some of the words, they would be new when we would watch the videos. And then we would learn those. And it would help, because Seora Ford, we would learn more; we would learn what the words [are] Seora Ford is using when shes talking to us in Spanish, so its a little more helpful. (Interview, 5/2/05) In January, Claire had told me that one of the things she liked about Espaol para ti was talking about the fruits. Later in this interview, when I asked her what some of the things she had learned in Spanish were, she mentioned having learned how to say apple and orange (Interview, 1/21/05). Beyond her learning of words, Claire provided evidence to me that she had taken in what was happening in a La Familia Contenta video by giving an accurate description of its plot (Interview, 5/2/05). Brittany talked about learning from the videos in both of her interviews. In January, she said that she preferred Muzzy to Espaol para ti because it taught her more Spanish. When I asked her how it did this, she said, Theyre countin in Spanish. I count with them, and it help me more to learn how to do my Spanish. In the same interview, she told me that what she liked best about Espaol para ti was when they teach me how to do the large numbers (Interview, 1/21/05). In May, Brittany talked about the re lationship of what she learned from videos and what she did in the Tele Caf. She said that in Espaol para ti youre answering questions and stuff and l earning new words. And then in Tele Caf, you have, you like review the words (Interview, 5/2/05). Ciara was quick to point out the defici encies of the videos, such as the fact that the video teacher in Espaol para ti had no awareness of who the students were (Transcript, 1/6/05). He did tell me, however, that he likes the part of

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210 Espaol para ti where they pick the words and show you what they mean (Interview, 1/21/05). Edward didnt really like Level 5 of Espaol para ti as a whole but did name a few things from it that he liked: the Chocolate song, countries, and practicing times and action words (Int erview, 1/21/05). He preferred Muzzy, saying that it was fun and that because he had seen it more than once, he had started to know most of the words in it. He went on to explai n: And then I know what theyre saying. Thats like a movie. Well, a song. If y ou listen to the song once, and then you keep listening to it, youll start memorizing what theyre saying. Thats like with Muzzy (Interview, 1/21/05). The four participants varied in their production of Spanish utterances during Espaol para ti videos. Edward was the most productive with an average of 5 minutes between his utterances. Brittany and Ciara occasionally produced Spanish utterances during these videos (with an average of 39 and 49 minutes between their utterances, respectively). Claire did not produce any utterances. Taking into account all of the instru ctional settings, the participants were most similar in the number of Spanish utterances they produced and in the frequency with which they produced them duri ng the activities that Mr. Baxter sometimes led after Espaol para ti videos. Edward produced utterances with an average of 5 minutes between them, as he di d during the videos from this series. There was an average of 6 minutes between Ciaras utterances during the postvideo activities and an average of 7 minutes between those of both Claire and Brittany. Mr. Baxter only facilitated a limited number of activities. He explained to me his hesitancy to lead some types of activities because of his lack of a background in Spanish: A lot of times I wont do activities like t hat [activities that reinforce what is being done in class] from the teac hers edition, because I dont have a background, and I get caught into situat ions where I dont feel at ease, and then Ill just skip it (Interview, 2/17/05) When I asked him what he liked going over in Spanish with his class, he mentioned geography and math (Interview, 2/17/05). All of the participants mentioned going over or learning numbers when I asked, How does Mr. Baxter help you learn Spanish? (Interviews, 1/21/05). Claire elaborated a little more: Somet imes he talks about the calendar, and he makes us say the numbers and the month in Spanish. (Most of Claires Spanish utterances as an individual were based on number, date, and calendar vocabulary.) She also talked about how they had prepared for the concentration game that had taken place in the Tele Caf the previous day: Yesterday he was making us say numbers in Spanish so we could know about the number board for, um, in the Tele Caf (Interview, 1/21/05). Like Claire, Edward talked about how Mr. Baxter had helped his class prepare for the concentration game:

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211 We were ready for that. I had my paper in my de sk, but we had practiced our words and numbers, and thats how he helps us. He tell us ahead of time what our lesson is gonna be about. (Interview, 1/21/05) Edward also gave credit to Mr. Baxt er when he talked about how he thought knowing Spanish would help him: Mr. Baxter said knowing Spanish will help you get a job easier, cause you know both languages, and you have a customer coming in who is Spanish, and then you know the Spanis h. Then you could speak to the customer, and then the other more Spanish people could come in your business, and you can get more money, and then you could earn the profit. (Interview, 1/21/05) Mr. Baxter told me that he avoided fa cilitating activities in which proper Spanish pronunciation was impor tant (Interview, 2/17/05). I asked him about this later, and he explained: Its quite hard for me to hear t he correct pronunciation of Spanish words, and I worry that if I dont say them correctly, you know, this will affect the children in the cl assroom (Interview, 3/16/05). In spite of his concern, the only instance I noticed of a student pronouncing something incorrectly in the same way Mr. Baxter did was when Ciara used piquio instead of pequeo [small] (Transcript, 12/15/04). In talking about Dolphin Points fifth -grade students, Mrs. Ford observed, But I do find that the pronunciation is very good. She gave credit to Espaol para ti and the opportunities the students had to listen to her and listen to other Spanish teachers at other site s. She continued her praise of the students, Their pronunciation is very good, excellent, nativ e-speaking pronunciation (Interview, 3/8/05). Mr. Baxter recognized his shortcomings in the area of Spanish and only facilitated certain types of activities, but he did contribute to the Spanish program and to his students learning of Spanish. The instructional videos had certain limitations, as well, and we re not the participants favorite part of the Spanish program, but they also contributed to the program and to the students learning of Spanish. Limitations in Interaction and Output The discussion in this section is fr amed in terms of t he influence of the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) on the Spanish Program at Dolphin Point and includes reflections on the compr ehension of input and on the affective filter and anxiety. However, in terms of the primary focus of this research, the most important part of the discussion is that dealing wit h limitations in interaction and output. These limitations are, in fact one of the major t hemes that emerged during the course of this study. The sect ions preliminary discussion is offered in part to set the stage for this theme. The influence of the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) and of the related Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985) can be seen in Dolphin Points FLETT program. In Chapter 3, I described a summer Span ish institute, attended by Mr. Baxter, Mrs. Ford, and other classroom and FLES/FLETT teachers from

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212 different County schools, at which the Na tural Approach principle of stages in students language development was highlighted. In Chapter 4, I explained the relationship of the Natu ral Approach to the Espaol para ti video-based language program. Later in this sect ion, I will add my observatio n that the influence of the Natural Approach and Input Hypothesis could be observed in Mrs. Fords speech when she talked about lowering students affe ctive filters (Field notes, 4/14/05; interviews, 3/8/05 & 4/21/05). With the purpose of elucidating some of the implications of the Natural Approachs influence on the Spanish program at Dolphin Point, I will now turn to a discussion of my participants perceptions of how well they understood in different instructional settings. This re lates to the Natural Approachs emphasis on comprehending input. As Krashen and Te rrell (1983) explain: We acquire (not learn) language by understanding input that is a little beyond our current level of (acquired) compet ence (p. 32). Although the fi rst point of focus around which this dissertation is organized deals with instances of interaction and output rather than input, in the discussion of t he fourth point of fo cus, dealing with the participants preferences and perceptions some of their comments on how well they understood in different settings were included. These comments and related ones will be brought together and gi ven fuller treatment here before I move on to a discussion of limitations in the participants interaction and output. There was variation among the parti cipants in the comments they made about how much they understood. In our first interview, I asked Claire if there were many times in the Tele Caf when she didnt understand something in Spanish, and she indicated that there were. Prior to that question she had compared how well she could understand Mr. Straten and Mrs. Ford: If the other teacher asks us a question, sometimes we dont know what hes talking about, and with Miss Ford, we can; she shows us what were talking about, and we can actually learn what shes saying (Interview, 1/21/05). Cla ire made similar comments several months later about Mrs Ford helping them understand words but Mr. Straten not knowing that they don t really know those words (Interview, 5/2/05). Claire talked about understanding more Spanish than she did when she started learning it. As she explained, When we first started Spanis h, it was kind of new to us, so we didnt even know what she was saying. And now, since weve been through the classes, we understand some of the stu ff. And the new things, [it] just starts coming to us. (Interview, 1/21/05) She also told me that she liked Spanish be tter at that time than in the beginning. Brittany, in comparing her Spanish cl asses when she first started learning and at the present time, told me, Each ti me they get better and better. At my prompting, she agreed that she had learned more Sp anish as she went along, which helped her to understand more (Interview, 1/21/05). Unlike Claire, Brittany responded, N o, to my question, In Tele Caf, are there many times when you dont understand something in Spanish? Her reply was affirmative when I asked if she understood a lot of Spanish. I also inquired,

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213 When you dont understand something, what helps you understand? She replied, At the end when we ask, or she say, she tell us to turn the sign to English, and then I ask her, What does it mean? (Interview, 1/21/05). Apparently, the opportunity to ask what something meant was important to Brittany, although she never took advantage of that oppor tunity herself in the 2004 school year. Not understanding Spanish was a recu rring theme for Ciara. In our conversation on January 6, he explained to me that the reas on he just kinda liked Spanish was that I dont understand what shes sayin. At my prompting, he continued, Once you get it, and then the next moment she change the word. Youll get confused by her. At that time, Ciara commented about Mrs. Ford talking back and forth with Mr. Straten, We ll, I say its not confusing. Weve been doing that for years (T ranscript, 1/6/05). However, 15 days later when I asked him if there were many times he didnt understand something in Spanish in the Tele Caf, he told me, Y es. What theyre sayin back and forth, like a word I never heard of. I wanted to know if there were anything that helped him understand; he told me t hat there wasnt (I nterview, 1/21/05). Ciaras complaints of not understanding extended to the Spanish videos. He explained the reasons for this, re ferring to the video teacher, Cause she doing it all by herself, and she cant even hear us (Interview, 1/21/05). (Ciara also talked about not understanding Spanish on television away from school: If I dont understand one word they saying, child, please, Im gonna turn the channel; Interview, 1/21/05.) Unlike Claire and Brittany, Ciara told me that he liked Spanish about the same as when he started learning it. He elaborated, talki ng about being able to understand at some times and not being able to understand at other times. He did concede that Spanish was harder for him when he first started learning it (Interview, 1/21/05). After all of Ciaras complaints about not understanding, I was somewhat surprised when he told me what would ma ke him want to try harder in Spanish class: If everybody speakin Sp anish, and I dont understand one word (Interview, 5/2/05). Like Claire, Edward told me that Mrs. Ford helped him understand. In his interview prior to the excerpt that follows, he had been talking about things he liked about Spanish with Mrs. Ford and had mentioned songs and games. He continued his list of what he liked: . how she tells us the words, and then, like yesterday, she drew the house, la casa, and the apartments, cause I di dnt know what she was talking about. And then she drew it out . . So then, now I know. Now I memorized la casa. (Interview, 1/21/05) Upon my questioning him further about what helped him understand, Edward recalled an activity associated with Muzzy that Mrs. Ford had used in the previous school year: EJ : Last year on Muzzy, um, you know her bag? AN : Uh-huh.

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214 EJ : Well, she had take a whole bunch of stuff out of her bag, and then she showed us, and she showed us a pictur e so that well know what they were. And like if we had another vi deo about how Muzzy, about some of the stuff in her bag, then well know what they m eant. She had pictures of each one, everything in her bag. (Interview, 1/21/05) Like Edward, I recalled this activity that Mrs. Ford had used the previous January. (I included a brief de scription of it in Chapter 3.) Edward contrasted the situation in the Tele Caf, where, he said, there wasnt really anything he didnt understand because Mrs. Ford explained things, to the Espaol para ti videos in which, If they say something [that you dont understand], theyll just keep going cause t hey dont know you dont understand (Interview, 1/21/05). Some of the comments of the partici pants point to the need for the person who is speaking Spanish to be able to recognize a students lack of understanding. The comments referred not only to the videos, with which there is no possibility of this recogniti on, but also to videoconferencing. Mrs. Ford talked in March about the difficulties of using the document camera at the other site and not being ab le to see the students there while this camera was in use. As she explained, because you lose that touch with those kids, .. you really cant do the document camera for too long. She told me, however, that having a camera on the student s at the other site you can realize that theyre enjoying the less on, that there is a problem that theres questions, or anything like that (Interview, 3/8/05). Claires comments concerning students in her cl ass not always knowing what Mr. Straten is talking about (Intervi ew, 1/21/05) and concerning his lack of awareness when they didnt know somethi ng (Interview, 5/2/05) seem to imply either that Mr. Straten is not good at making input comprehensible or that the use of videoconferencing creates greater difficulties in understanding than Mrs. Fords comments in the previous paragr aph indicate. I would guess that the latter is the case. Like Mrs. Ford, Mr. Straten is an experienced, well-educated, and professionally active FLES teacher whom I have known and respected for years. Among the techniques he uses to make input more comprehensible is acting out different Spanish words. Summing up the discussion on the comprehension of input, the participants did not always understand the Spanish input, but Mrs. Ford helped them through showing them what she m eant during the Spanis h-only portion of lessons or through telling them what she meant in English afterwards. Participants said they were able to under stand more than when they first started learning Spanish. However, compla ints about not being able to understand in many settings were voiced by Ciara. Difficulties in understanding the videos and in understanding during videoconferencing were mentioned by different participants. The role of input and its comprehension in the Spanish program at Dolphin Point is an area that could be res earched in the future in order to build a base of empirical data and move beyond th e observations that I offer here.

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215 Turning now to the area of interaction, I will focus on my observation that students in the FLETT program did not interact much with each other in Spanish. I was aware of this lack of interaction but was not thinking about it when I mistakenly phrased a question for my partici pants as follows: When youre in the Tele Caf, how do you feel about saying things in Spanish to students in the class at the other school? I needed to rephrase the question in terms of students in the class at the other school hearing my participants. As Claire pointed out, the kids arent really asking the questions (Interview, 5/2/05). This lack of student interaction was apparent not only in videoconferencing sessions but also in instructional sessions in t he Tele Caf without videoconferencing. The only activity I observed that involved students saying things to each other occurred in Mr. Baxters classroom w hen he directed students to share an action word and ask a person in the classroom to do that action (Transcript, 10/26/04). Students occasionally used Spanish with each other on their own. This happened when one was prompti ng another on how to answer a question or one was telling another how to say a word in Spanish. Once during a cooking session, I observed two of Edwards friends trying to communicate with each other in Spanish. The students were not required to speak Spanish to each other at that time, but I heard Calvin say, espaol, es paol, to Damarcus, who replied, Im trying to say it in espaol. Calvin commented, ay, ay, ay, with multiple repetitions, and then Damarcus did the same (Field notes, 3/10/05). Damarcus had been in the Spanish pr ogram since the second grade, and his Spanish abilities were categorized by Mrs. Ford as being in the mid to high range in comparison to those of his classmates (Fie ld notes, 4/28/05), but he showed limitations in his abi lity to express himself in Spanish. I have already discussed limitations in the output of my participants, all of whom for the most part produced utterances that were three words or less in length. Mrs. Ford was careful to provide her students with a lot of Spanish input, which she tried to make comprehensible As far as students output was concerned, I believe she was influenced by the Natural Approach principle that students production of the new language shoul d be allowed to emerge in stages . : (1) response by nonverbal communica tion, (2) response with a single word . (3) combinations of two or three word s . ., (4) phrases . (5) sentences, and finally (6) more complex discourse (Krashen & Terrell, 1983, p. 20). Although she had probably relied on certai n patterns of questioning for many years, the advice (based on t he Natural Approach principl e of stages in language development) that she and other teac hers received at the summer Spanish institute in June 2003 bears r epetition here. Keeping in mind students stage of language development, the teachers were advised to (a) elicit nonverbal responses and student names, (b) ask yes/no [s/no] questions, (c) ask either/or questions, and (d) ask questions that would prompt students to produce language on their own, such as the questi on, Qu es esto? [What is this?] (Field notes, 6/23/03). I observed Mrs. Ford ask many either /or questions, even at times when certain students looked eager to answer before a choice was given. She

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216 seemed satisfied with student responses that were limited to several words and didnt seem to expect the language dev elopment of her students to progress much beyond that stage. Although the FLE TT program at Dolphin Point involves goals and an investment of ti me that are much more limited than those in an immersion program, an observation by Swain (1985) about immersion students is pertinent here. These student s, Swain noted, are only gi ven limited opportunities to produce output and are not pushed. In Swains observation, the students were not pushed to be more comprehensible than they already are (p. 249). In the case of the students at Dolphin Po int, they were not pushed to produce utterances that were more than a few word s in length. The lack of complexity of their utterances is reflected in the small number of these utterances that involved grammatical errors. There were few opportunities for students as individuals to produce utterances based on action words in Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf. (I have maintained action words as a designation, because this term is used instead of verbs in Espaol para ti. In my vocabulary categories, I also distinguished utterances based on Me gusta [I like] from those based on action words .) Of the 173 Spanish utterances that Edward produced in Spanish instructional sessions wit h and without videoconferencing only 3 were based on action words, and only 1 was based on Me gusta Edward was the only participant who produced any utterances ba sed on action words in the Tele Caf. As far as utterances based on Me gusta were concerned, Edward and Brittany (with two utterances) were the only parti cipants who produced any utterances of this type in Spanish instructional sessions in the Tele Caf. Returning to my observation that t he students at Dolphin Point were not pushed to produce utterances that were more than a few words in length, I believe that Mrs. Ford did not push in this way because of her desire to foster a low affective filter in the students. In my discussion of the relationship of the Natural Approach to Espaol para ti in Chapter 4, I presented information on the Natural Approach principle that the acti vities done in the classroom aimed at acquisition must foster a lowering of the af fective filter of t he students (Krashen & Terrell, 1983, p. 21). In explaining this principle, Krashen and Terrell state, An environment which is conducive to acquisiti on must be created by the instructor low anxiety level, good rapport with the teacher, friendly relationship with other students; otherwise acquisition will be impossible (p. 21). I heard Mrs. Ford talk about student s affective filters on several occasions. In her interview on March 8, she told me about her idea of having students who were new to Dolphin Point and the Spanish program come into the Tele Caf during the first 2 weeks of the following school year to teach them colors, and a few songs, and the calendars, and the days of the week, just so that their affective filter is lowered, and that they get used to the room, and they get a little acclimated with second language learning (Interview, 3/8/05). In another interview, Mrs. Ford mentioned the affective filter in talking to me about Brittany as a Spanish student:

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217 So shes very afraid to make a mi stake. And even though I lower that affective filter a lot in here, and hopefully I make them all feel comfortable, theres always that competitive mode. And she would not fit in that mode at all. She would rather stay quiet than volunteer. (Interview, 4/21/05) After the first Spanish baseball game, Mrs. Ford also told me that when students got up to answer a question she could tell that their affective filters went up (Field notes, 4/14/05). The teacher-centered instruction that predominated in Spanish lessons in the Tele Caf did, in fact, often br ing with it the need for students to answer questions in front of their class and, in the case of videoconfer encing sessions, in front of the class at t he other school, as well. When confronted with such situations, students may well experience greater anxiety than when working in dyads or in small groups. A number of grouping po ssibilities (including dyads, small groups, and large groups) are offered by the Natura l Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) in order to facilitate activit ies in which the student has the opportunity to produce the target language (p. 124). Mrs. Ford apparently did not take advantage of these possibilities because of her concept ion of the limitations of teaching through videoconferencing. As she explaine d to me, There are certain activities that you cant do. Of course ; its obvious. Cooperative-learning type of activities, where you put kids in groups; that is something that we cant do (Interview, 3/8/05). It should be noted, however, that even in the instructional sessions that she led without videoconferencing, Mrs. Fo rd relied on whole-group activities, choosing not to push students to produce output in order to keep their affective filter low, instead of using the small-group activities in which a raised affective filter might not have been as much of a concern. Turning now to a consideration of anxie ty in relation to my participants, I would like to share some of my observ ations and reflections. Because I heard Claire and Brittany express concerns about being laughed at and heard Claire and Ciara talk about being scared or nervous, I know that such concerns were real to three of the partici pants. However, in the cour se of this study, I did not become convinced that anxiety was always detrimental to their development as Spanish students. For example, Claire told me that she feels embarrassed when her Saber es poder card is selected and shown to students in the class at the other school, because sometimes a word could be wr itten wrong, and she [Mrs. Ford] would have to correct it. And I just always th ink that theyre gonna laugh (Interview, 5/2/05). I also heard her tell Mr. Baxter, Im scared, when he signaled to her to raise her hand during the first Spanish bas eball game (Field notes, 4/14/05). However, in her interview several wee ks later (after the second game), she talked about the Spanish baseball games in positive terms: AN : What do you think youll remem ber the longest about Spanish here over the years youve taken it? [Pause.] CM : The baseball games.

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218 AN : Oh, I think that there may be one more. Thats what Mr. Baxter told me, maybe the last week. CM [very quietly]: Oh, cool. [I laugh.] AN : Do you want to say anything else about Spanish? CM : Uh. [Pause.] Just that I [with a laugh in her voice] hope they do have another baseball game. (Interview, 5/2/05) Claire also had a positive attitude toward the Spanish jeopardy game in which she had been team captain/spokesper son and had produced more Spanish utterances as an individual than she did in any other setting. When I asked her about the game in her first interview she sa id, That was fun (I nterview, 1/21/05). Brittany told me she feels comfortable when her Saber es poder card is selected and shown to students in the cl ass at the other school, when she repeats Spanish phrases after the teacher, and if she ever has a chance to say things to the students at the other school (Interview, 5/2/05). She explained to me, however, that she would rather lis ten to students in her class than to students in the class at the other school, because the former know how to teach me the words without laughing at me (Inter view, 5/2/05). Brittany produced less Spanish utterances as an individual than any of my other participants. As I pointed out, Mrs. Ford expressed the belief that she was very afraid to make a mistake (Interview, 4/21/05). Brittany however, was able to help Colleen name colors in Spanish when she was called upon to do this (Field notes, 2/24/05). Ciara told me he feels nervous when his Saber es poder card is selected and shown to students in the class at the other school and when, through videoconferencing, he sees students at the other school whom he knows. He also told me that it made him nervous when the camcorder I used for this research was pointed at him and that he fe lt nervous the first time he saw the Spanish teacher from the other school in person. Ciara, however, was often eager to participate, especially in Spanish instructional sessions led by Mrs. Ford, in which he produced 41 of his 83 utte rances. (It is possible that anxiety may have contributed to the much lower oral productivity of Ciara, as well as of Claire and Brittany, during vi deoconferencing sessions.) Li ke the role of input and its comprehension, the occurrence and influence of anxiety in the Spanish program at Dolphin Point is an area that could be examined in more detail in future research. Returning to a consideration of the influence of the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) on the Spanish pr ogram at Dolphin Point, I would like to point out that Terrell himself, in an interview (D. J. Young, 1995), expresses concern about the possibilit y that anxiety might sometimes be reduced too much in the implementation of this approach: If a teacher is too good at reducing anxiety and getting the students really relaxed into the Natural Approach and so forth, what happens with some of the students some of the time (and probably mu ch more than I would like) is that they dont attend to the input very carefully. That is, they learn to attend to the input just enough to understand what the question is, or

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219 what the comment is, and they ignore everything else. (D. J. Young, 1995, p. 109) Terrell further states that for acquisition to take place there must be a positive drive to go after something (D. J. Young, 1995, p. 109). In his view, this drive includes both communicative need and some sort of identification with a target language group. In the Spanish program at Dolphin Point, the case study participants received input that wasnt always comprehensible to them, but Mrs. Ford helped them to understand. Concer n was expressed about Mr. Straten not being able to recognize a lack of understanding on the part of the students at Dolphin Point. There were also comments about di fficulty in understanding him and understanding the videos. Students at Dolphin Point rarely inte racted in Spanish with the students at Greenwood Park or with each other. The Spanish output of my participants was limited to utterances that were rarely l onger than three words in length and were not syntactically complex. Mrs. Ford did not seem to expect their language to progress much beyond this point while t hey were at Dolphin Point, limiting her expectations to the early stages of language development described in the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) She did not push her students to produce Spanish output, not wanting to raise their affective filters. Nevertheless, I observed that Claire, Brittany, and Ciara did not seem to suffer as Spanish students when put in situations where they were called upon to produce individual utterances in spite of feelings of anxiety or nervousness that they expressed.

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220 Chapter 8. Summary and Discussion Case studies of four fifth-gr ade students learning Spanish through interactive videoconferencing and vi deo-based lessons have been presented in this dissertation. In Chapter 8, I will re view the methods that were used in this study and reflect on the quantity and quality of the data. The points of focus with which this research was begun will be restated, and I will discuss how these subsequently evolved in response to changes in the implementation of the Spanish program under study and based upon my ever-increasing familiarity with both the setting and the participa nts. I will list the final points of focus and will summarize the findings associated with them. I will also explain how these points of focus relate to the themes pres ented in the previous chapter. A final discussion will be offered. Methodology and Quantity and Quality of the Data The research reported in this dissertation was conducted in the 2004 2005 school year. It is an interpretive, qualitative, multi-case study involving four participants. (I alternatel y describe the research as consisting of four case studies.) The design of the study was emergent; additional design decisions were made as data from multiple source s were collected and analyzed. The data collection techniques consisted of obs ervations, videotaping and audio recording of lessons with subsequent transcription, field notes, informal conversations, and interviews of students and t eachers that were audio recorded and subsequently transcribed. This use of triangulation strengthened the objectivity of the study and its results. From the beginning of October 2004 to the beginning of May 2005, I spent 27 hours 13 minutes observing my participant s in the different instructional settings. (Their attendance in these class sessions varied.) I spent additional time with them that is not included in this total: I observed them in August and September 2004 and later spent time with them in interviews, in the school cafeteria, between classes, at special ev ents, and in three Spanish reviews that I provided for Mr. Baxters class at the end of the school year. I recorded what the participants said in Spanish in my field notes and wrote about other things that I observed, as well. I carefully transcribed audio recordings of class sessions and referr ed to video recordings for additional information. Although the possibility exists that I occasionally missed something a participant said in Spanish in instructi onal sessions, I feel that omissions of this kind would only have a very s light effect on my findings.

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221 Some of the questions I asked in in terviews might not have been phrased in the best way. However, I learned a lot from the interviews, and I was accurate in my transcriptions. Having reviewed the methodology of this study and reflected on the quantity and quality of data, I will now move on to a consi deration of the points of focus. Evolution of the Points of Focus Prior to presenting the points of fo cus that guided this research, I will explain how they were formulated, beginni ng with a description of what I learned during the previous school year about the Spanish program at Dolphin Point Elementary School. In the 2003 school year, I observ ed 33 Spanish class sessions at Dolphin Point. During that time, I became familiar with the Schools FLETT (Foreign Language in the Elementary School Through Technology) program, the basic components of which are interact ive videoconferencing and video-based lessons. I learned that each class at Do lphin Point was matched with a class of the same grade level from one of two other elementary schools for weekly videoconferencing sessions. The Spani sh teachers at the different schools alternated on a weekly basis in assuming sole teaching responsibility for the matched classes. The program component of video-based lessons relied on classroom teachers as facilitators, and I was able to gain an understanding of what this facilitation involved. For the case studies that I propos ed conducting the following school year (the basis of this dissertation), I was in terested in the acquisition of Spanish by fifth-grade students, who had been in the Spanish program the longest. Although the possibility existed of beginning the research with another focus, I chose to examine interaction and output, because t here is a theoretical basis for their study (see Input, Interaction, and Output in Chapter 2), because they are easily observed if present, and because of my prior experience studying interaction in a Spanish FLEX program (s ee Researcher Background and Perspectives in Chapter 3). Besides differences in inte raction and output in different settings, I was interested in possible patterns of change in language production over time. The points of focus with which I began th is research study early in the 2004 2005 school year are presented below in question form. In them, the term learners is applied to the case study participants. 1. In videoconferencing lessons that are taught by the FLES teacher in the research site, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 2. In videoconferencing lessons that are taught by the FLES teacher in the remote site, what instances of interaction and output are observed? 3. In video-based lessons and in activities that are facilitated by the classroom teacher, what instances of interaction and output are observed?

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222 4. Are patterns of change observe d in learners' language production during the period under study? When I returned to Dolphin Point Elementary early in the 2004 school year, I learned that team teaching during videoc onferencing sessions had replaced the alternation of teaching responsib ilities between the FLES teacher in the research site and the FLES teacher in the remote site that I had observed the year before, thus making the first two points of focus untenable. However, I maintained an interest in instances of interaction and output in different instructional settings. The first Spanish instructional settings that I was able to distinguish in August and September 2004 were Espaol para ti video lessons and associated activities facilitated by Mr. Baxter (the classroom teacher of my participants), Spanish instructional sessions taught by Mrs. Ford (Dolphin Points FLES teacher) without videoconferencing, and videoconferencing sessions taught by both Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten (the FLES teacher at Greenwood Park Elementary). As time w ent by, I also observed cooking sessions, Spanish plays, a modified jeopardy game, supplementary video lessons, and two videoconferencing sessions for which Mr. Straten assumed sole teaching responsibility. I decided to group the settings toget her in replacing my first three points of focus, not only for the sake of brevity but al so to reflect the process through which I observed my participants in the different settings and came to realize that verbal output on the part of individual students was not encouraged in all of them. Thus, I stated the new point of focus in this way: What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings? I maintained an interest in patterns of change in the language production of my case study participants over time and felt that my origin al fourth point of focus was worth retaining: Are patterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under study? A careful consideration of the oral Spanish output of my case study participants and of possible patterns of change in their language production over time revealed notable differences among the par ticipants. My gr owing interest in the reasons for the differences led me to explore the followi ng point of focus: What individual learner factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? In reporting my findings on this point of focus, I devoted a separate section to each participant. However, I chose to bring together in one section the participants preferences and percepti ons in regard to diffe rent aspects of the FLETT program, because I felt that the patterns of preferences that could be discerned in this way were important and could further an understanding of the FLETT program and not just of the individual participants. In ex ploring this area, I relied on the following point of focus: What are the participants prefer ences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program?

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223 In order to clearly present the points of focus on which this dissertation is based, I list them together here: 1. What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instructional settings? 2. Are patterns of change observe d in learners' language production during the period under study? 3. What individual learner factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? 4. What are the participants prefer ences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? I summarize my findings in regard to these points of focus below. Summary of the Findings As I addressed the first point of focu s (What instances of interaction and output are observed in the different instru ctional settings?), I learned that the participants differed among themselves in the amount of oral Spanish output each produced and that individual participants showed differences in productivity in the different instructional settings. The basic measure that I used to gauge output was an utterance which I defined as anything said in Spanish that ranged from a word to a sentence in length. During the 7 months of this study, Brittany produced 31 utterances, Claire 45, Ciara 83, and Edward 309. In arrivi ng at these totals, I only considered individual utterances, not par ticipation in group responses, except in a limited number of cases where the timing or vo lume of an individuals utterance was different enough from those of the group to make the utterance stand out. Because the participants varied in the am ount of time they were present for Spanish classes, I calculated the av erage number of minut es between their utterances; for Brittany this was 39 mi nutes, for Claire 23, for Ciara 17 and for Edward 4. The average number of minutes between Spanish utterances was also calculated for each participant in each of the instructional settings. Claire and Edward were very productive in the Spanish jeopardy game before the Thanksgiving Break (with an average of 2 and 3 minutes between their utterances, respectively). Brittany and Ciara did not produce any utterances in this setting. Equaling Edwards produc tivity in the jeopardy game was his productivity in Spanish instructional sessions facilitated by Mrs. Ford and in videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Ford and Mr. Straten. Next in decreasing order of productivity for Edward were the Espaol para ti video lessons and the activities that Mr. Baxt er facilitated after t hem (with 5 minutes between his utterances in both). In fact the participants were most similar in their productivity in these postvideo acti vities. (There were 6 minutes between Ciaras utterances in this setting and 7 minutes between Claires and Brittanys.) Unlike Edward, the other participants were much more productive of Spanish utterances in Spanish instructional sessions led by Mrs. Ford than in videoconferencing sessions led by Mrs. Fo rd and Mr. Straten (Claire: 16 versus

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224 48 minutes between her utterances; Brittany : 24 versus 84; Ciara 8 versus 33). Caution should be exercised in interpreting the results for the two videoconferencing sessions led by Mr. Stra ten (Claire: not present; Brittany: 22 minutes between utterances; Ciara: 15; Ed ward 9) because of the small amount of time they involved. Claire di d not produce any utterances during Espaol para ti videos, and Brittany did not produce any during cooking sessions. The other participants varied in their productivity in these two settings. Most of the Spanish utterances of the participants were three words in length or shorter. The par ticipants linguistic errors involved mispronunciations and incorrect lexical selections for the most part. The small number of grammatical errors coincides with the la ck of complexity of most utterances. I classified the utterances of the participants according to the type of vocabulary on which they were based. T he names of numbers in Spanish were the basis for the highest number of utte rances (97) from any one category of vocabulary. Geography vocabulary was t he basis for the next highest number of utterances (55), followed by the vocabul ary categories Date & calendar (42), Action word (34), and Greeting (32). I also looked at the types of activiti es in which utterances were produced. Edward and Ciara not only produced more utterances than Claire and Brittany, they also produced them during more types of activities. All four students produced utterances in the calendar s egment of lessons and in number and lineup activities. Edward, Ciara, and Claire, produced utterances in question-andanswer activities and concentration and baseball games. During Espaol para ti videos, Edward, Ciara, and Brittany prac ticed time telling and practiced action words. Instances of interactions in which the participants were involved in Spanish lessons were considered, and excerp ts of some of these were given in order to help place the participants utterances in context. The detailed study of t he participants utterances helped me to address the second point of focus: Are pa tterns of change observed in learners' language production during the period under st udy? I was unable to discern any patterns of change in the language used by Claire and Brittany, partly owing to the small number of utterances that t hey produced. Ciara showed evidence of learning the Spanish names of capitals and countries as time went by. I also noted growth in his use of Spanish greet ings, which occurred toward the end of the school year. Edward was the student in whom I sa w the most growth in Spanish. At the beginning of the school y ear (before his selection as a participant), his friend Willie took an active part in Spanish classes, while he remained fairly quiet. When he did respond to video prompts, I not iced various things that he hadnt yet mastered, but he was wil ling to make mistakes in the process of learning. By the end of the school year, Edward was able to take an active part in lessons, and he used Spanish to communicate. In looking for patterns of change in t he participants langua ge production, I also calculated the average number of mi nutes between the utterances of each

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225 of them in each month fr om October 2004 through April 2005. The participants varied in their production of individual Sp anish utterances fr om month to month but did not show consistent patterns. One thing I noted wa s that the last individual utterance that Britt any produced occurred in March. Before summarizing the findings asso ciated with the third point of focus ( about learner factors), I would like to repeat Met and Rhodes (1990) statement that it is important to ensure that all students regardless of learning style, achievement level, race/ethnic origin, socioeconomic status, home language or future academic goals be given the opport unity to begin language learning early (p. 438). I do this because of the differences in learning style, achievement level, race, and socioeconom ic status that existed among my participants. The third point of focus was: What individual learner factors help to explain differences in the participants Spanish output? In summarizing the findings associated with this point of focus, I will write about each participant separately, beginn ing with Claire. Claire Montgomery was a sm all, White, middle-cla ss girl who was 9 years old when I began observing Mr. Baxters class in Augu st 2004. She had been in the Spanish program at Dolphin Point since the second grade. Overall, she produced few Spanish utterances but produced them with a high degree of accuracy. Both in Mr. Baxters cl assroom and in the Tele Caf, her attention was very focused during Spanish lessons. She listened attentively and produced good written work on her Saber es poder card s. She spoke quietly and told me that she didnt always feel like answering questions in Spanish I got the impression in Claires interviews that her attitude toward Spanish was somewhat ambivalent. She told me that she and her friends didnt try to speak Spanish with each other in school, and t here were only a few isolated occasions on which I heard her say anything in Spanish to them. Her mother told me that Claire practiced Spanish with her sister, who had been in the Spanish program at Dolphin Po int before going on to middle school. Claire didnt seem to remember such practice when I asked her about it. Although Claire expressed concern to me about being laughed at if she were wrong, she sometimes took on a leadership role and became a spokesperson for her peers. I found that she could ex press herself well. She was a high academic achiever and at the end of second grade had shown the majority of the characte ristics of a gifted child. Brittany Johnson was a large Black girl who was 10 years old when I began observing Mr. Baxters class in August 2004. She was economically disadvantaged and participated in the f ederal meal program. She had been studying Spanish at Dolphin Point since the second grade. Although Brittany took part in so ngs and group responses during Spanish lessons, as did all of my participants, s he produced fewer Spanish utterances as an individual than any other participant. She exhibited extroverted behavior in informal settings but tended to remain qui et in certain situations, such as interviews and competitive games. Mr. Baxter described her as academically

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226 challenged but said that she loved sc hool and worked hard. She had been considered for retention in the third grade and again in the fourth but was not retained in either grade. Brittany told me that Spanish was her favorite class. She showed interest in learning the language and said that so metimes she taught her mother how to say things in Spanish. During Espaol para ti lessons, she usually watched the video and wrote on her Saber es poder card. She sometimes responded orally and physically to prompts and music on the videos, answering, singing, and moving her shoulders around. She was more likely to produce Spanish utterances in instructional sessions led by Mrs. Ford than in videoconferencing sessions. Ciara Nivea was a tall, thin Black boy who was 11 years old when I began observing Mr. Baxters class in August 2004. He was economically disadvantaged and participated in the federal meal program. Like Claire and Brittany, he was in his fourth year of Spanish while this study was being conducted. Ciara had a hard time focusing, and so metimes his attention would shift back and forth between a lesson and ot her people and things. He was academically challenged and had been retained in the third grade. In January of the year of his third-grade repetition, it was recommended that he begin to attend an Exceptional Student Educ ation (ESE) class in reading, as well as one for speech and language therapy and that he continue to attend them through the first half of the following school year (Cumulative folder, 1/31/03). Although Ciara talked about being nervous in Spanish lessons, he actively participated, producing 83 Spanish utterances, more than twice as many as Brittany. A higher percentage of Ciaras utte rances involved linguistic errors than did the utterances of the other participant s, partly owing to the fact that he sometimes used English pronunciation for Spani sh words. However, it was also true that sometimes his performance exce eded others expectations for him. Ciara often demonstrated an interest in different places. He told me that Spanish countries had helped him to accomplish as much as he had in Spanish (Interview, 5/2/05). Capita lizing on his interest in geography, his strong musical inclinations, and his eagerness to participate, he was able to take an active part in Spanish classes, and he showed evidence of growth in Spanish. Edward Jones, a small Black boy with an engaging smile, was 10 years old when I began observing Mr. Baxters class in August 2004. He was economically disadvantaged and participated in the federal meal program. He began learning Spanish when he entered Dolphin Point at the beginning of the fourth grade. Edward produced far more oral Span ish utterances (309) than the other participants. When I asked him how he thought he compared with other students in the amount of Spanish hed learned, he sa id, I think other students dont like it as much as I do (Interview, 5/2/05). Edward and his friend Willie practiced Spanish together, and outside of school he practiced Spanish with a cousin who was taking Spanish in the seventh grade.

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227 Edward had a special relationshi p with Mrs. Ford, who encouraged his growth in Spanish. He used the languag e to communicate and enjoyed learning new words and sharing them with his friends. He enjoyed competing, and he was willing to take risks in his language learning. My final point of focus was What are the participants preferences and perceptions concerning different aspects of the Spanish program? I collected data to address this question through interviews In these, I learned that all of my participants preferred receivi ng Spanish instruction in the Tele Caf to watching the Spanish videotapes. Muzzy was the video series that was usually chosen as the favorite when a preference was expr essed. When the four students were directly questioned about whether they preferred being taught through videoconferencing or being taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing, they all indicated that they liked the latter better. Howeve r, all of them had at least some interest in the students in the cla ss with whom they had videoconferencing sessions. This interest was expressed in terms of saying things to the other students, if given the chance; listening to them; or simply competing with them. Themes and Their Relation to the Points of Focus In Chapter 7, I identifie d three themes that emerged during the course of this research. These themes are (a) the importance of the on-site Spanish teacher, (b) contributions of the video lessons, and (c) limitations in interaction and output. In this section, I will discuss how the points of focus relate to these themes. Evidence of the importance of Mrs. Ford, Dolphin Points on-site Spanish teacher, to the schools FLETT program comes from various sources. This theme is substantiated by findings on t he preferences and per ceptions of the participants, the fourth point of focus. Consideration of the first point of focus revealed the pattern of the participants Spanish output in different instructional settings, which also points to this theme. Perhaps the strongest evidence for the importance of t he on-site teacher is provided by the circumstance that nece ssitated the alteration of the original points of focus. This was the adopti on of team teaching for videoconferencing sessions, which took the place of t he weekly alternation of teaching responsibilities between Spanish teachers at different schools. Mrs. Fords idea of taking baby steps with teachers w ho were new to the school was perhaps encouraged by a teacher survey in whic h videoconferencing with the coordinator (Mrs. Ford) present received much higher effectiveness ratings than videoconferencing without a coordi nator present at both sites. The case study participants voiced thei r preference for Spanish in the Tele Caf over watching the Spanish videotapes. They also said they preferred being taught by Mrs. Ford wit hout videoconferencing to being taught through videoconferencing. The latter preference was reflected in the pattern of the participants oral Spanish output. Claire, Brittany, and Ciara were much more productive in Spanish instructional sessions taught by Mrs. Ford without videoconferencing than in videoconferencing sessions led by both Mrs. Ford and

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228 Mr. Straten. Edward was equally productive in both types of instructional setting but was less productive in the videoconfer encing sessions led by Mr. Straten. Evidence for the contribution of the video lessons, the second theme, again comes from both the fourth and firs t points of focus. Although the participants expressed a preference for Spani sh in the Tele Caf to watching the Spanish videos, some of their comments i ndicated that they learned things from the videos that were reinforced in Spanish lessons in the Tele Caf. The participants also told me the ways in which Mr. Baxter helped them learn Spanish. All of them menti oned the way in which he helped them learn numbers. During the postvideo activities that Mr. Baxter facilitated, the participants were all fairly productive of Spanish utterances as individuals. Evidence for the third theme, limitat ions in interaction and output, is primarily provided by the first point of focus (about interact ion and output). The discussion is framed in terms of the influence of Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) on the Spanish program at Dolphin Point. This discussion is supported by evidence from the fourth point of focus (about preferences and perceptions). The emphasis of the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983) on comprehending input prompted an examination of the pa rticipants perceptions on how well they could comprehend in di fferent settings. The participants told me that they did not always understand t he Spanish input but that Mrs. Ford helped them through showi ng them what she meant during the Spanish-only portion of lessons or through telling them w hat she meant in English afterwards. Ciara complained about not being able to understand in many settings. Difficulties in understanding the videos and in understanding during videoconferencing were voiced by different participants. Based on the instances of interaction and output that I observed in the course of this study, I f ound that students at Dolphin Point rarely interacted in Spanish with the students at Greenwood Park or with each other. The Spanish output of my participants was limited to utterances that were rarely longer than three words in length and were not syntactically complex. Mrs. Ford did not seem to expect their language to progre ss much beyond this point while they were at Dolphin Point, limiting her expect ations to the early stages of language development described in the Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983). She did not push her students to produce Span ish output, not wanting to raise their affective filters, another Natural Approach concept. The thick descriptions that have been offered in this dissertation, along with the grounding of its conclusions in t he data of the study, provide a basis for extension of its findings, where appropriate. Whereas it is not appropriate to offer generalizations based on qualitative research findings, the applicability of findings to similar situations, or the possibility of extending them, is both appropriate and desirable. As McMillan and Schumacher note (2001, p. 414), the extension of findings enables other s to understand sim ilar situations and apply these findings in subsequent research or practical situations. Each new situation must be thoroughly examined on an i ndividual basis to ascertain if it is

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229 similar enough to the original situation that was studied to justify the extension of findings. Discussion In this section, I will first offer so me general reflections on the findings of this study. Next I will relate the latter to theories of input, interaction, and output that were covered in the review of lit erature. Additional connections will be made to studies of video-based language pr ograms and videoconferencing. After some recommendations for further res earch, I will conclude with a few further reflections. What I learned about the FLETT progr am at Dolphin Po int disappointed me in some ways. The use of team teaching in videoconferencing may take advantage of the strengths of two teachers, but it cannot be justified financially. Considered from a financial point of view, the change to team teaching seemed a step backward instead of forward in the fourth year of the programs implementation. It made sense, howev er, in view of the preferences of classroom teachers and of students for Mrs. Ford to teach without videoconferencing or at least to be present in the Tele Caf during videoconferencing. I was also somewhat disappointed that the participants abilities to express themselves in Spanish hadnt progress ed farther. None produced syntactically complex speech, using one to three word utterances and occasionally a slightly longer chunk of speech. I was unable to discern patterns of change in the language production of Claire or Brittany, but I could see growth in Edwards language production over time. I also saw growth in Ciaras language production, this growth being more pronounc ed at the end of the school year. I wondered what other changes I might have seen in the participants language if the school year had lasted longer. In considering the participants language in relation to the Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985), it is always pos sible to say that the reason they had not progressed farther was t hat the input to which they were exposed was not comprehensible enough. However, they said t hat they had grown in comprehension over time, and Ciara, who complained the most about not understanding, was able to comprehend a qu estion like Cul es el pas que est directamente al sur de Mxico? [Wha t country is directly to the south of Mexico?] (Field notes, 4/28/05). It is also possible to consider the participants language in relation to the Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1996). Here I would observe t hat although there were instances of negotiation for meaning between Mrs. Ford and the participants, on many occasions she gave students a choice between two alternative answers through asking eit her/or questions. When students were prompted to produce Spanish on their own, their utteranc es were usually so brief that the scope for negotiation for meaning was relatively restrict ed. In keeping with the Interaction Hypothesis, it is certainly possible to say that more negotiation for meaning could have facilitated language acquisition.

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230 The findings of this study may also be interpreted in te rms of the Output Hypothesis, in which Swain (1985) argued for comprehensible output as a necessary mechanism of acquisition indep endent of the role of comprehensible input (p. 252). There were limitations in what was expected of the students at Dolphin Point in terms of oral Spani sh output. Although there could be other explanations for Edwards growth as a language learner, such as his motivation, I observed that as he used the language, he continued to make progress. However, only in Espaol para ti lessons did he have much chance or encouragement to practice using verbs, referred to in those lessons as action words Not only is it appropriate to consider t he findings of this study in relation to theories of input, interaction, and output, but also in relation to prior studies on the use of videos and videoconferencing, as these relate to foreign language education. In Morris (2000) study of the implement ation of the Elementary Spanish Program of videotapes, classroom teachers knowledge of and rapport with their own students were found to be advantageous. This was also the case at Dolphin Point, where Mr. Baxters knowledge of and rapport with his students positively contributed to the impl ementation of the video-bas ed component of the FLETT program. It should be observed, however, that the video-based component of the Dolphin Points FLETT program is not t he sole basis of the schools foreign language instruction but is used in conjunction with instruction that involves an on-site Spanish teacher. This is in consonance with the recommendations of the Center for Applied Linguistics (Rhodes & Pufahl, 2003). The contributions of the different program components at Dolp hin Point have been described in this dissertation. Lopes (1996) study exposed the extent to which instruction contained in the Spanish version of the Elementary Language Fundamentals ( ELF ) videobased language program was teacher centered. Spanish instruction at Dolphin Point also tended to be teacher centered. In the cases of the Spanish plays and the supplementary video lessons, my participants produced no Spanish utterances as individuals ( with the exception of Edward s uvas [grapes] during a Muzzy video; field notes, 1/7/05). In other instructional settings, the participants availed themselves of opport unities to produce Spanish u tterances as individuals to different extents. The cooking sessions were the one Spanish instructional setting where students were routinely give n an opportunity to interact with each other. Their interactions at that ti me, however, were rarely in Spanish. Cavanaugh (1998) conducted a meta -analysis of interactive distance education technologies in the K-12 setting. Three foreign language studies (Gray, 1996; R. E. Smith, 1990; Wick, 1997) were inclu ded. Their average effect size was .801, a large negative effect si ze. In view of the potential advantages of videoconferencing for foreign languag e instruction, Cavanaugh recommended further study in this area.

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231 In the research conducted at Dolphin Point, the results associated with videoconferencing in comparison to instruction offered by the Spanish teacher without videoconferencing were also disa ppointing. Three out of the four participants in this study showed much greater oral production of Spanish as individuals in sessions taught by the S panish teacher without videoconferencing, and all four participants preferred in struction without vi deoconferencing. Baker and his colleagues (1992) c onducted an evaluation of different elementary school classes taught th rough videoconferencing in which a preference for face-to-face instruction was also expressed by the majority of students. In the previous chapter, I made seve ral specific suggestions for further study. One was for study of the role of input and its comprehension in the Spanish program at Dolphin Point. This area of study could also be pursued in other research settings. In the same wa y, my suggestion for the study of the occurrence and influence of anxiety in the Spanish program at Dolphin Point could be pursued more broadly. Another ar ea that might be fruitfully investigated in the future involves the relationship of individual learner differences to oral Spanish output and language development. Returning to my reflections on the res earch reported in this dissertation, I should state that it is not my desire to l eave the impression that my overall feeling toward the Spanish program at Dolphi n Point is one of disappointment or disapproval. On the contrary, I was pleas ed to find that my participants were learning and using Spanish and had a pos itive attitude toward the language, expressing a desire for further language study. They also displayed a heightened awareness of and interest in S panish speakers and their culture. I feel that this Spanish pr ogram at Dolphin Point prov ides an opportunity for early language learning to many students who wouldnt otherwise have one, preparing them for future language learning and broadening their horizons. I say this because Dolphin Points student populati on differs from the elitist image associated with foreign language study during much of the last century (Curtain & Pesola, 1994, p. 265). In October 2004, 72.3% of the students at the school were economically disadvantaged, and 34.7% were Black. I enjoyed the time I spent at Dolphin Point and gained many insights there. I am grateful to my participants fo r sharing their early language learning experiences with me and to Mrs. Ford and Mr. Baxter, who welcomed me into their classrooms and facilitated this study.

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246 Appendices

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247 Appendix. Schedule of My Research at Dolphin Point Elementary. Tuesday August 3, 2004 First day of school Monday August 9, 2004 I met with Lloyd Baxter. Thursday August 12, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 1. Mrs. Jacksons class was with Mr. Baxter. Monday August 16, 2004 I att ended a meeting with Dennis Newberry, Lissette Ford, and Joyce Nutta. Thursday August 19, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 2 Friday August 20, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 3 Wednesday August 25, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 4 Wednesday September 1, 2004 I went to observe, but no one was in Mr. Baxters classroom. I waited from 2:00 to 2:15 p.m. Thursday September 2, 2004 There was no lesson in the Tele Caf. Mr. Baxter was doing curriculum writing. The substitute teacher did not send his class. Wednesday September 15, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 8 Thursday September 16, 2004 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf. There was no videoconferencing; Mr. Straten was sick. Wednesday September 22, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 10 Thursday September 23, 2004 Videoconferencing session Friday September 24, 2004 I met with the data prepar ation clerk. Wednesday September 29, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 11 Thursday September 30, 2004 There was no lesson in the Tele Caf. Mrs. Ford was away.

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248 Appendix (Continued). Friday October 1, 2004 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf at a special time. There was no videoconferencing. Wednesday October 6, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 12 Thursday October 7, 2004 Videoconferencing session Monday October 11, 2004 Cooking session Wednesday October 13, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 13 Thursday October 14, 2004 There was no lesson in the Tele Caf. Mrs. Ford was away at a conference. Tuesday October 19, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 14 Wednesday October 20, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 15 Thursday October 21, 2004 There was no lesson in the Tele Caf. Mrs. Ford was away. Tuesday October 26, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 16 Wednesday October 27, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 17 Thursday October 28, 2004 Fieldtrip to see presentation of La Familia Cicatriz Tuesday November 2, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 18 Thursday November 4, 2004 Videoconferencing session (This was the first time the Chor us students left before the end of the lesson.) Tuesday November 9, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 20 Wednesday November 10, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 21 Thursday November 11, 2004 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf. There was no videoconferencing; Mr. Straten was sick.

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249 Appendix (Continued). Tuesday November 16, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 22 Wednesday November 17, 2004 There was no Espaol para ti lesson because of the Great American Teach-In. Thursday November 18, 2004 Videoconferencing session Friday November 19, 2004 Spanish Jeopardy game in Mr. Baxters classroom 11/20/04 11/28/04 Thanksgiving Break Tuesday November 30, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 23 Wednesday December 1, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 24 Thursday December 2, 2004 Videoconferencing session Tuesday December 7, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 25 (Chorus Road Trip 9:45-1:30) Wednesday December 8, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 26 Thursday December 9, 2004 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf. There was no videoconferencing because of a tornado drill at Greenwood Park Elementary. Tuesday December 14, 2004 Espaol para ti Lesson 27 Seasons Greetings Program, 7:00 p.m. Wednesday December 15, 2004 Cooking session. Afterwards, I ate lunch with Mr. Baxters class. Espaol para ti Lesson 28 Thursday December 16, 2004 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf. There was no videoconferencing, because something special was happening at Greenwood Park Elementary. 12/17/04 1/2/05 Winter Holidays Tuesday January 4, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 29

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250 Appendix (Continued). Thursday January 6, 2005 Videoconferencing session Friday January 7, 2005 Muzzy Tuesday January 11, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 31 Wednesday January 12, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 32 Thursday January 13, 2005 Videoconferencing session Friday January 14, 2005 Muzzy (I came at 9:00 a.m. but had to come back at 2:00 p.m. to see it.) Tuesday January 18, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 33 Wednesday January 19, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 34 Thursday January 20, 2005 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf. There was no videoconferencing; Mr. Allens class was doing a special activity for the president ial inauguration. Friday January 21, 2005 Muzzy (I came at 9:00 a.m. but had to come back at 2:00 p.m. to see it.) I interviewed Ciara, Edward, Brittany, and Claire. Wednesday January 26, 2005 Cooking session Thursday January 27, 2005 Videoconferencing session Thursday February 3, 2005 Videoconferencing session Friday February 4, 2005 I ca me at 9:00 a.m. to see Muzzy, but Mr. Baxters class wasnt seeing it at that time. Wednesday February 9, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 39 Thursday February 10, 2005 There was no lesson in the Tele Caf. Mrs. Ford was sick. Friday February 11, 2005 Muzzy

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251 Appendix (Continued). Wednesday February 16, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 41 Thursday February 17, 2005 I interviewed Mr. Baxter. Videoconferencing session Thursday February 24, 2005 Videoconferencing session Friday February 25, 2005 Muzzy Saturday February 26, 2005 World Languages Field Day Wednesday March 2, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 44 Thursday March 3, 2005 Videoconferencing session 3/7/05 3/17/05 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test administered (March 11, 16, 17: make-up testing) Tuesday March 8, 2005 I interviewed Mrs. Ford. Thursday March 10, 2005 Cooking session Wednesday March 16, 2005 I interviewed Mr. Baxter. Thursday March 17, 2005 Videoc onferencing session taught by Mr. Straten Friday March 18, 2005 I came to see La Familia Contenta but it wasnt shown. 3/19/05 3/27/05 Spring Holiday Wednesday March 30, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 47 (Principals List Bowling Party 9:00-12:00) Thursday March 31, 2005 Videoc onferencing session taught by Mr. Straten Friday April 1, 2005 La Familia Contenta Tuesday April 5, 2005 I obser ved a videoconferencing session that involved fourth-grade classes.

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252 Appendix (Continued). Wednesday April 6, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 49 Thursday April 7, 200 5 Videoconferencing session (Mr. Baxters class and a fourth-grade class were together in the Tele Caf.) Friday April 8, 2005 La Familia Contenta Monday April 11, 2005 A Spanish play in honor of Ocean Week Thursday April 14, 2005 Mrs. Ford taught a lesson in the Tele Caf. There was no videoconferencing because of a Field Day at Greenwood Park Elementary. (This was the first time Mrs. Ford led a Spanish baseball game.) Thursday April 21, 2005 Cooking session I interviewed Mrs. Ford. Friday April 22, 2005 I observed Edward making morning announcements and led Mr. Baxters class in a review of Spanish. Thursday April 28, 2005 Espaol para ti Lesson 54 I led Mr. Baxters class in a review of Spanish and observe d a Spanish baseball game between Mr. Baxters class and Mrs. Jacksons class in the Tele Caf. Friday April 29, 2005 I attended a Chorus party. Saturday April 30, 2005 I attended the Recycle Regatta. Monday May 2, 2005 I interviewed Edward, Ciara, Claire, and Brittany. I ate lunch in the teachers lounge. Wednesday May 4, 2005 Part of Espaol para ti Lesson 53; Espaol para ti Lesson 55. I led Mr. Baxters class in a review of Spanish. Thursday May 5, 2005 Cooking session

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253 Appendix (Continued). Tuesday May 10, 2005 I gave out Informed Consent forms for interviews for Dr. Nuttas study. Wednesday May 11, 2005 I interviewed David for Dr. Nutta. Thursday May 12, 2005 A Spanish baseball game between Mr. Baxters class and Mrs. Jacksons class. I missed it because of an unannounced change in its time. I interviewed Cassandra and Amanda for Dr Nutta. I also interviewed Mr. Baxter. Tuesday May 17, 2005 Last day of school. Students helped me dramatize a Curious George story. I interviewed Shaquila for Dr. Nutta. Thursday May 19, 2005 Retirement luncheon for Mr. Baxter

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About the Author Annette L. Norwood holds an Asso ciate in Arts Degree from St. Petersburg Junior College. She receiv ed a Bachelors Degr ee in Spanish in 1988 and a Masters Degree in Spanish in 1993 from the Univ ersity of South Florida. Ms. Norwood has taught Spanish at the university level. At the elementary school level, she has worked as a Spanish teacher and tester as part of her assignment under the New Frontiers grant. She has also worked as a research assistant under the SEEDS (Supp ort for Elementary Educators through Distance Education in Span ish) and the Video Vivo grants and was Research Coordinator for Project ESOL TAPESTRY (T raining for All Pre-service Educators Stressing Technology). Besides teaching Spanish, Ms. Norwood has acted as a facilitator for distance-learning courses, including Cross Cultural Issues in ESL. Ms. Norwoods volunteer activities include work as an instructor, tutor, translator, interpreter, and museum docent.