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The effects of role-playing on the development of adaptive skills in a parent training program

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Title:
The effects of role-playing on the development of adaptive skills in a parent training program
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Rodriguez-Del Valle, Chantell A
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Parenting practices
Parenting skills
Modeling
Parent-child interactions
Behavioral parent training
MyTell cards
Self-mediated discriminative stimuli
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Behavior Analysis -- Masters -- USF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Parent training programs are widely used to remediate ineffective strategies being used by parents of children with maladaptive behaviors. While there are a multitude of parenting workshops available, it has been estimated that over half have no established effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to advance our knowledge regarding the effects of modeling and role-playing (in an experimentally controlled design), used to supplement the parent workshop called "Winning at Parenting" and enhance development of adaptive parenting skills of participants.This study trained parents in the behavioral techniques of clear communication, differential attention, and time-out procedures via modeling by the instructor, role-playing with the parents, and instructor feedback to parents. A multiple-baseline design across four participants was used in an experimentally controlled manner to demonstrate the positive effect of modeling and role-playing on the development of these adapti ve skills in a parent training program.Two research questions were analyzed. The first considered whether participants would increase their use of adaptive parenting strategies via modeling, role-playing and instructor feedback, within the multiple baseline design. The results clearly showed a mean increase in correct demonstration of each target behavior for each parent only after the treatment condition was introduced, indicating a significant treatment effect. Furthermore, because there was no overlap of data points from baseline to treatment, changes in level were evident, providing a strong case that behavior was changed due to treatment effects. Although trend of the behaviors in baseline varied, data points in the treatment phase for each target behavior for each parent made such a dramatic and immediate jump that they each were indicative of a treatment effect. These findings are consistent with previous research demonstrating that the use of modeling and role-playing are^ superior to readings and lecture-style for parent training programs.The second question considered whether or not parent's ratings of competence, depression, and life stress, as measured on the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), would change as a result of the intervention. Results showed no clear trends in data for the effects of treatment on the PSI scores.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Chantell A. Rodriguez-Del Valle.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 121 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001794005
oclc - 145733058
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001534
usfldc handle - e14.1534
System ID:
SFS0025852:00001


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The effects of role-playing on the development of adaptive skills in a parent training program
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ABSTRACT: Parent training programs are widely used to remediate ineffective strategies being used by parents of children with maladaptive behaviors. While there are a multitude of parenting workshops available, it has been estimated that over half have no established effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to advance our knowledge regarding the effects of modeling and role-playing (in an experimentally controlled design), used to supplement the parent workshop called "Winning at Parenting" and enhance development of adaptive parenting skills of participants.This study trained parents in the behavioral techniques of clear communication, differential attention, and time-out procedures via modeling by the instructor, role-playing with the parents, and instructor feedback to parents. A multiple-baseline design across four participants was used in an experimentally controlled manner to demonstrate the positive effect of modeling and role-playing on the development of these adapti ve skills in a parent training program.Two research questions were analyzed. The first considered whether participants would increase their use of adaptive parenting strategies via modeling, role-playing and instructor feedback, within the multiple baseline design. The results clearly showed a mean increase in correct demonstration of each target behavior for each parent only after the treatment condition was introduced, indicating a significant treatment effect. Furthermore, because there was no overlap of data points from baseline to treatment, changes in level were evident, providing a strong case that behavior was changed due to treatment effects. Although trend of the behaviors in baseline varied, data points in the treatment phase for each target behavior for each parent made such a dramatic and immediate jump that they each were indicative of a treatment effect. These findings are consistent with previous research demonstrating that the use of modeling and role-playing are^ superior to readings and lecture-style for parent training programs.The second question considered whether or not parent's ratings of competence, depression, and life stress, as measured on the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), would change as a result of the intervention. Results showed no clear trends in data for the effects of treatment on the PSI scores.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Parenting practices.
Parenting skills.
Modeling.
Parent-child interactions.
Behavioral parent training.
MyTell cards.
Self-mediated discriminative stimuli.
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PAGE 1

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PAGE 8

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PAGE 9

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PAGE 10

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PAGE 13

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PAGE 14

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PAGE 15

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PAGE 16

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PAGE 17

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PAGE 18

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PAGE 19

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PAGE 21

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PAGE 22

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PAGE 23

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PAGE 24

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PAGE 25

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PAGE 26

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PAGE 27

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PAGE 28

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PAGE 29

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PAGE 31

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PAGE 33

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PAGE 40

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PAGE 43

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PAGE 45

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-F ,*Gnnn nH% +nn 2 $n652nn2 G'n +nn nH%+n 9n 2 $nn +n <54*52n22$n n nnE* =56nnn2n ?7n+ n n5n nnn n2+ n N ,*=9n n?G2 H <54*G++NH,n+$n856 2+n8 ,nrE nrn Gnnn H+22n nnGnH nn n n nn5 n E+ n Ern G2+nE +22H 7nn n n nnGAr-/H+ n2n Enn n# &!n En2nnnnn r nn=?; n E nEGnK7+@ICIH n

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-C nn2n2 nnn nn! nnn nn n GnK7+@ICIH E2 2nnn2+n nn n GnK%+@IFFH >!G.///H+ n !n G@H=Nnnn+2 n 2nNn nn?J G.H=nn nnn+2nN2 n n N? nn2 n nG+nn 2nnHJG-H =nnr n nN?G+ n 2nH 5 4n2>G@ICIH+ !n2 nn! n
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-I nrnn n$ n6 n nr2nn n nn # nnnn n=$? r +2n n n +nnn =$? nnnnnnn2 n n =$?nn2rnnnrn 2 nn n 2# + nn n2 n+2 nrn> +=Nnnn nnnnn nnnnn nn?G.///H 5n+nn + >!G.///Hnn2 nEn n nnnnn 2En n EnG$K+ @IIIHEnn nn =n nn# n nnn n# ?G+.///H5 n2n+2 nn n( n+ 2 nn+ nn nnn2 n n E nEn2En G nK7+@ICIH

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B/ 2 n2n n n# n rn n nn nn 22nEn + 2n nn nn+2n n 2n >nG@IFCH n 6n nn6nJ n# +n n+nn nn nr5 n+n7G@ICIH nnn n# n %nnnn2 n# n2 nn n+ n+rn n n522n 6nn2 # J2n nn n2nJ rn2n nn nn+nn n2 # nn nn>T n+ n2 !nn nnnnG HGKnn+@IC.J1K4n+ .//0J +$$nK+ .//BH+n+nn # n + +nnEGn K7+@ICIH

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B@ n" nn n rnn n n ++ n# 2n nn 2nnn n r nn n n = nn nn n nnn n ?Gn+.///H rn nn ++6 7+ n n 6n nnnn+2 nn! n nn G(K%+.//BHn2 n nnGE
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B. 7nnnnn %n nn nnr n# nE n> +.rBn nnnn +2.rBn nn +n 6n+n n+n n2 nnn%nn 2!nn+ nn 2 nnnn nnn nn2n + G @H( n+ 2n nnnnn+ 2+ nnn2 nn nn+n n nn ) +2 nnn 2

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Bnrnrn nnn n n nrn nrrrnrn r nrn nrrrnrn r r nrn nrrrnrn r r nrn nrrrnrn r

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BB 74n%nn ( @n2nn nnn nGn n@/n H+n 2 % n2!n2 nnn 2./Mn+ @FMn5+./Mn+@-Mn$% nn nr n2nn n+ n+rn n n nn n +nn n n nn nnn n n( n+ 2nnnnn n+ +nnn 2 n nn n2ICMn+I/ Mn5+I/Mn+@//M n$7+nn

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BA !rn"nn n

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B0 5 nn2( n A/M+2n22nnn n n n!nnn+ n@/Mnrn n n2 2n nn 7n+ n@//Mn n nn+ C/Mnnrn n -2n n+n n@//M+! n2 2nnnn22n nn+n n

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BF !#n!

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BC n5n2( 5nAAM nnnn n+2 5 n!nnn rn n n22n nn 7 n+5n@//Mnn nn+ C/Mn2rn n .2n n+5nnn n n @//M+!n2 56nnnrn n nn2An2n0/M+ 20n 2n @//M7+52nn/Mn nnrn n +nnC/Mn nn 2nnnn22nn n+n2 nJ +n n

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BI !$n!

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A/ nn2( B n A/M+n2!n2 nnn n nn.AM nnn n+!n2rn n n 22n nn> ) nn n@//Mnn n n+ nC/Mn2rn n 2nn+ 6n2nn n n @//M+nnnr n n n C/M2nnnn2 2nnn+ n J +nn

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A@ !%n!r

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A. n$n2( A +$ n--M+2n nnn n $nA/Mn nnnn + 2!n n@-Mn 2rn n +$n ./Mnrn n n nn + 2!n nAM n>) 2nnn$ n@//Mn n n+n +rn n 2n nnn22nnn+ n2 nJ +n n

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A!&n!r

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AB 5r7 5rnG57H2n n nnn n nn $ 2nn nn nn nn57 nnn nI/MnI-Mn2 nn n nnn+@/ @//.n2 57nn nn2 n--Mnnnnn (nn2 nnnn2> nG@IA0H+n nEn +nn2nn nnn nnn nn #nrnn'" nrr(n nrn"rr(n r(n))#)$)%)&) n r r

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AA %nD nn n# nn2 nnnnn 6nnnnn nn nr+ 6nnn2 n + 2n 2n n2 n2n n+n 2n nA/Mrn2nB0Mnr + n nnnn+ Gn n Hn6nr.FM(n n2+6n n n2 n.AM+n2 nE nn+56n 6n2@FMJ nn2 n@IM+ n2n nn+n n6 nr.0M(nn2+6 n2n@CM+ n2n2 nn 6nn;CMnn+$n2 n6 nr@@M(nn2+$6 n6n n@.M+n2n

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A0 $nrnrn +!nnn nrn+!nnn "n "n ! r ! r 5EG5H 52nn !n 6n n+n+nn nn2nnn 52n !2+nn # n2n B n 65 n nnnnE nE2 nnrnr+6 nEn nEn nn 2 n2nEn n rnrn nn2*n+ nn2nn+2nn+ nn nn2n nn+n nnn22 *n G./MnnH+nn2nn+2)n +n 2nn+ n

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AF n n2nr nr+56 nE+nE+ En n nnnn 5nn2*2 n+n+ 2nn+n 2 nn5nn n/+nnr n 6nEn En2 nrnr+6n En n nnn+n En nnn nEn 2nnn n+ n nr6 nn2*2n +n + nnn r2*2n +n +nnn n+n n n2n+$ 6nE nEnn nn nn + En nnnn $6nn 2*+nnn2n+ n$6 nr2*+nn n2n

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AC %-.rnn! /(nr (n 0 "!" r r 1n.rnrnrn n" n2n n nn GE?2nn n n nn 5n2n +nn2# n nnn n nnr7 2n

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AI 'Fn4r2n n@=n ?nnF =nn ?nn2 2nn n n+ nn 5n + nF(n +r7 2n n n. 52nn nn r7 n nF+nn2n n2n0(n5+ 5n2n n nA 2nn n n+ nn 5nn0J n r7 nB $2nn n n n+nn+5n r7 2nnF nnn22 2 n# +n nn + n+n n nn

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0/ &n-n"rn .n

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0@ n nn 2nn n2 n n+nr n n 2nn= >?=> ?n r2nn n => +?n2nn nG H 2n nnn rn n2n nn2+nn+ nnn 2nn52n! n n nn2nn+ n2n nn 2"n 2nn2nE nn Enn nn n nnrEn n%n nn n+n nnn nn # + Enn2n

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0. 2n# n2E# n2 2n n Gn n+ n+n Hn nn+nr+ 2 n2 nn nn+nr+ n n2n nG/Mr-/MHnnn n J 2C/r @//Mnnn n2n n nn nr nn rnnG%n +.//AJn+@IICJ K>+@IC-J&!nK+@II.J1 K +@ICIJ76+ @IFBJ>+@IC/H2!n n+n n& 2nnnn nn+ 2+nn n2 n n nn +n nnn ) G H+2 n 2n n n=>?n nnnn ;2nn6# n 2n n2n nn 2n n@//M22 +n2 # n

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02nn6nn! n n nn n nn22nn6 72n+=> ?2nn n n +n n+ n rn +nn n n nnn72 2n+2nn n n n n2n n n n# n+ n2n2nn nn 2 2n 2nn nn n2 n7 2+2nn n2 n n n =n N? 6n2 + n 72n +2n n nn n n n nr !=n N?(nE+2n nnnnn nnn7 n n nGnn+n2+H n n+n n =n NG +n+ H?n nr+22nn nn 2 nn+22nn nn 72+2nn n n=5r?5

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0B nn n 2 2nn nn # nGn n# nH+n n2+n nnnn nn + nn2 nnr !=5r?n nnnnnn +n n2 n n + nn2n+nE n+=5 NGnn nn n nH>5nn nnR?n n2r n E2n=U?2n =9?n=V?2 nnr+22nn nn 2nn +22nn n n72E+ nnr nr+2nn n6 n 22n n+2nn n 2n n n+nrn + nn n 1n22nn6nn nn n +2# nn2 2nn2nn nJ 2+n2 nnnn rn 2n

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0A 2nn2nnn n +n .n n -n2n nnnn 2+2n n nn n@//Mn n n( n+n2 n G-2nn n n nH+n$ n2n22 +2nn n n rn n 2n+.n nBn!n nrn nnrnn22nn 2nn2n n22n+ 2./Mn nrn 7+ n 2n n nrn @//M>6n+5 n n 2nn 52n 5 n n >nnn n+ n+r n rr+2nnn n n n,n( 0 nnnn rn n! n+ n nn2 nn!n nnn n nnnn 2 n nn nnnn2n n,+n nn n@//Mn n n

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00 ( 0rrnnn& nn n+ n+r7

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0F n# n226 nn+ n+ n n n+nr 2n nn nn5n2n nn 2 n 2n nn+n2n n G(K%+.//BJ nr+@IICH7n n2 n 2 ;6 nEnnn2 Jnnn Enn2Jn +Enn2 2nn 2 +A/Mn n nEn+ nEn n n 6nnnn n+ n nnnn n+E2n n 5nnn nn 2 nGHn nn nrnnEn + n n n nnn +6n2 n nn n+=9n ) 8?G7n + nnn n!n n nH

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0C nE+nn r 2FAMn nnnE+ r nr2n nn nn 2 n6 2n+n n7+ E2n n 5nn n+2 nn2 nnnnn # n*G@Hnn nn2n n2r n Jn2n) n 2rn n2G(n +@IC0HJG.Hrn 2n n =nn n?G1K4n+ .//0HJG-Hnn n2 nnn n nn G(+K >nnn+@IIIH5 n2nnnrn + +n2nn n+n + n Gn nH ;2n nnn 2n n n2 nn 6n G(K%+.//BHn n n n n 2+

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0I nnG%n +.//AJn+@IICJ+ @ICCJKnn+@IC.J(K%+. //BH &!n En2nnr nnnr nn= ?GnK7+@ICIH2 nn nn6n 2nn nn2 n2nn2nr 2 n n nn+ 2nn n nn# 2 n n2nnnG -nH+2nn nn2nn n n+ nrn n nr nn 2 2 ;+ + n+n+G) n 2H5nn !n !# 2nn2 rnJ n n# nn nJn # n5n n2n+ EnnEn nn nnn 2 nnn > n n+nn nnn2n

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F/ nn E nEn2 2En # n +2nnn nGn n2nH+nE2n nn%n 5=$?2 +2 n2%n nnEn + 2 n2 5+=5O 2Ln2n Pnn n n?Gn n n+$@F+.//0H5n n2 n nn+ n n>6n +E n n rn +n nn8G nn nnrn 2 n H+=$n5n nn 6 n2n256nn rn + 26rn 6n n n Jn2n nr n 6n) n25 ?Gnn n+$.A+.//0H 5nE n+2 n2 n" >nG@IFCH n nn5nn n n+ n 6 n# nn nn n( n+ nnnn

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F@ E n2 +n n n+n2nn 5 nn2nn2+n5 n nnn# 2 2 4n nn n n n nn+n+n n n6n nnGnn+
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F. n n n 2n )+nn,+ nE nn 2nn+ n n 2nn2 n n2n n nn n nnnrn nnn 222n +n6 2+n22n n n n nn2n+rn 2 7n2n +n n=>?2n nrn 2rn2nn # nnn 2nn+6n nr 2nnnn n2nn') r n+2 n 7n =>?2nn+ 2n n nn n n# +2n n n nn2 2nnn nn@/n =>?2nn+ nn@/n0nn n;Bnn 7@/n 2nn+An n n@nn nnn nn + nn n

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Fnnn n n n nn rn nnG(K%+.//BH $n=> ?2nnnn nn 5+n nnnnn 2nnnn nn nn n n n n nnn=nn GW0nHn nnnnn nG0AMn nHJnnrn2 nnGA/r0BMHJ nG.Ar-AMH?G% +2Kn+@IIIH5 +.n+@ @-n+@ @0rn5+>n +=6 nnn 6nJ?n# + 6n n+n2n nnn nr G@IFCH nn +n n2 n 2n n6 nG%+1+K !+@IC/J K>+@IC-J K+ @IC0Hn + nn* nnn+n+rnn +nnn+n2

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FB n+n2nnnn G +@IC0H(nE+n nnn+n n2Ernn n nnLnE +2 n# n r nn n# n n+ nG@IC0H5 n n+=r nn n n+nn2 ?G +@IC0H5 -nnn+@ nnC nn2+2n n+# n nn n n $n nn 2 nn J +nn 2nn n 6n+n !2 r n+n n# nnn +nn# n n+n n

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FA n+n2r nnn 2n+nn+ +nnn G$$nK>+@IICJ1K4n+.//0H nnn nn n 2;) n2nn n nn+n rn 2 # nn nn nnn+ n2 nn +n nnn( nnn n nn +=n n2r nnnn?G1K4n +.//0J$$nK>+ @IICHn+ n 2 nGC2+0n+@HJ n+n2n nn!nn n 26 nn nn n2# Jn+ n nn n n n n nnn n'+nn n n'n + n nEnr nnn

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F0 n2n n 2n r 2nnGnnnn nrnn r nH+nn n ( n n nn n2nn+ nnn n n nnrJ n n2nn n (+2n n n 2n nJn2 n nn6# nnn 2nnG1K4n+.//0H 1+ n=nn nn nN nnn ?G.//0H 'n +nnrn 2 nnn n! + nn n6 nn+ nn=$?nn nn $nnr n nn n) 6 nn nnE+# n

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FF n +G@IC-H ()!# n+"* nn n nG.//AH ,29nn$.@+ .//0+nn n>* *LL# nnn nLnLnn n LLnnn++1 ++>!+>QG@IC.H nn nn !n rn*+ +0@r0F +1+>!+>QG.///Hn nn n*nn n*-+-F-r-I@ % +G@IFFH .rn 2nn+,Q*r< %+4+% n+%+QG.//BH n nnnn6n n n ,/ *0+ +IIr @.A %++%n+$G@IICH ,29n+,9*& n %++2+&<+n+4G@III H r 1 # $n( ,29n+,9*& n %+DG@I0CHnn nn nn!n n/*23 +C@rIA %+1G@II@H rr GH,29n+,9*>n %n2!+%+&!n+$G@IF.H n* 2 /rn*04 +.IFr-@F %+$+1+$+ !+4G@I C/H7 n nn nr n n2 n n n*0-5+6 +0FFr0I@

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FC %+14+nn+4G@II@H4 2nn n*nnn n % nn*07 +-B@r-A0 %)n +>+%+$G@IFCH n 2nn+,Q*r< %n+%+n+"5G.//AHn 2nn 2 n OnnP #*2586 +-r@@ %n+4$+&n +11+r++ ++1+&+n + G.//AHnnnn nn n* 5n nn nn nn*-+5+6 +F.BrF-B +&+n+Q+nn+G@II@H nn nnnn n*8+5-6 +A.-rA-A 6n$<+5 G.//BH n9&!( / n*(9.//BGQ .//-rQ .//BH nnnn+%G@ICIH"+45Gn H 9:% n& OnP4n+nnn*n5 n( nnnnn+ nn+1++Q++4+%+4 +n+Q>G.//-H n nnnn n n*n )nnnn nn*03 +@0-r@C. nn+Q7+4G@ICFH n +,Q*r<+5 n+Q>G@IC-H n n*00 +0ArF@ n+Q>+&n1G@IFFHn nn n r $n*8; +@A@r@AI +$++$+$nn+$+!+ $G@II.Hnnn n n*55n nn %nn*040 +A/ArA@

PAGE 88

FI +G@I0IH !<#r5-6 ,29n* n+QG@IICHn nn n n22n2n nnn nrn #*88 +BB-rBFn+Q+%++n+(G@I I@H7nnr n2* n nn/*00 +F/-rF.F 2n+%+++$&+$+1+Q G@IC0Hnn nnn) n ,$n<*0 +./Ir..@ 2+QG@IABH r%% +7<*2n2 +G@IC-H r1=rr*nr r +$,*& ++$1+&G@IF0H nr +$,*& n+1++&G.//-Hnn nnnnn nn nn nn*-7 +-BIr -F@ QG.//AH$ r *nn n2 O nnP nn*-+5+6 +FFIrFI@ +Q++Q%G@IC0H n n*n nR /rn*8+586 +..Fr.-/ +Q+>+&G@IC-Hnn n n *$n nnnn *3 +-/@r-@+$G@ICCHrn *5nnn nn $nrn*04506 +--rB0 +$+nn+G@IC.Hr 5n*n (( n ,nn*00586 +@-/r@-F

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C/ (n+%5G@ICBHn# nn nn %nn*08 +-CAr-I0 (n++4n++"1+>% G@II/H4nr n nnr rn n n nn54n$ GH n +0.rC@,29n*' (+1+%+%4G.//BH nnnn nn 2E!n OnnP nn *--506 +@C.r@IA (n+G@IC0Hnn 2*n R $nrn*>5-6* @Ir.A (n++4n+,G@ICCH7 nn n +nnn2r + n /rn*04 +@.Ir@FF (n++$$n+QG@IC@H ?@ 1=r ,29n*& n (+Q+++>nnn+Q$G@I IIHnn 2n n #*8-506 + @/0r@.C (+Q+4+%%+4n++n r4n +$++$&+
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C@ &+$+!+$4G@ICCHn nnnn nn n nn5Q% ,!2nGH+ +@FFr.@C<+,Q* 42 n+5 <+Q+$$+"$G@II/H%n n *n #*0+ +.AAr.FC <+<+4+&>+% n+%G@II/H 6Enn n nnn*n2nn *;0 +@.Fr@-F <+>+n2+1+%n +$+ n2+$+ +% G@IICH #nr ,29n+,9*& n <+G@IC/HE *n n# n n5$(GH # n +-r@0,29n*4n < +4+4n2!+$$+n+4+> +47G@ICBHn nnn nn*84 +@@./r @@-B 5 r$n+$+$n+(G@ICCHn rnn n %@*08 +--r-I Qn +Q+$++$n++( +QG@IIFHn nn6nn nn2 r ,nn*;3 +-/Ir -@C 1+4$+4n+G.//0Hn nn*2 OnnP *000 +0B@r0A. 1!+G@IIAH G.H,2 +* 1+1>+4G.///H$n 2n* nnnr nn %nn*8> +--rB0

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C. 1+1+(n+G.///H(n n n Ennnnnnnn n nn*87506 +A-r0A 1++ +5+6 +-@Br-.. 1n+4++4+>+QG@IC/H %nn !nnn )nn*-45-6 +B..rB-F 1nn+G.//.H 5Q% $+4%+Q%+ +4G@ICIH&! nn* nn $nrn*00 +BAr0A 4 +Q+$n+1G@IIFHn Lnn *5nn nnn (#? ,*0> +./Ir../ $n++n+>7+42++$ +G.///H$n( rnnnn nn2 rn OnnP ,nn* 87586 +.00r.C@ $+&++QG@IIIH #9? G0 H'+,Q*r<+5 $&+++&G.//@H r$#? 5r& 6 8444 / 4n (n$<5 n$<42n+n

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C$$n+Q+>+1G@IICHn n 5*Q$ %GH+ r +@@@r./F,29n* & n $2+(QG@ICIH # n n+ *n ,n+$1+1!+G.//.Hr nr n OnnP ,nn*-0586 + @I-r./A 76+G@IFBHnn n*2 n *>0 +B@CrB-72++%+$+n n+$Q+, <4G.//-H nnnn *n OnnP )n*005+6 +..-r.-F n+"(+>+&G@IC0H n+n+ nnnn# n % nn*0+ +.0-r.FC nn+%+%+$G@II.H n+ n nn51n2 Q4GH+ n@ nn <+,Q*42 n n+&++Q%G@ICBHn nn* nnnn 2 n n nn*3 + .-Fr.0. n+&+n r4n+$G@ICBH nnn # *33 +@.IIr@-/F

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CB nr+4G@IICH&!n nnnnn n6 +I/CrI.n+>G.//BHrnn* nnnn n n+n + @*04+@Fr-/ n+$nr En+nnEn D n+Q&++$+%n+G.//@H n nn 2n n OnnP nn*-4506 +.A-r.0@ +Q%+n+&++QGH G.//.H n #( >n+*nnnn +$+%++% +>+% +1 +<+1$+Qn+Q+ n+Q+% ++++2+$+5 +$+%+4<+ '+QG@IIFHnnn # *82>5046 +C.-rC-. +$+$$n+Q++QG.//B Hnnnn6 nnnnnn n nn OnnP nn *--5-6 + A.BrA-A n+G@IA@H !rn %nn*
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CA +$++$+%n+>G@ICIHn E n nnnn nn rn nn ,nn*0>506 +F.rC+1++++G.//AH nnn!n nnr*5n n6) OnnP nn *-+5-6 + AI/rAI0 n+4+n2+1+n2+$ G@IIBHn n!nnn 2n nn nn*8+Fr@. +<+$ n+G@ICIHnn n # +n +n nn*32 +F@/rF@C n+(+%+$G@IFFH nnn!n n*04 +-BIr-0F n+(+7+&G@ICIHn n!n rn*84 +--Fr-AA n++%+14+$$n+Q+ 4 +4QG.///H %nn nn OnnP ,nn*87506 +@Fr.I +$+&+Q+!+1G@I C/H < $n &+,9*n%nn !+4G@IIIHnn # n @,,*+526 n+Q%G@IFAHn nn n 2n nn*++..r-@ 'n<< O<

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PAGE 95

C0 >+&G@IC/H n*+&+n+&+(+Q+4 +>G@II-Hn 2n nn rn %nn*80 +B.ArBB/ >+&+ +QG@IC0H$ nnnr n*n n n*07 +@-r.. >+<$+ +Q+n+>+ +$G.///H>2 nn*n nnn nOnnP )n*>506 +@-r.C >+4+1+1G.//@H nn nnr nnOnnP ,nn*-4586 +.0.r.FA >+>+n+<"G@IA0H ,29n*( >rn++rn+++$Q+++(n+G@ICBHE nnnn nnn %nn*08 +BI@r A/B >n+$$G@IFCHn*n ) nn2 n n*00 + ./-r.@B

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CF n

PAGE 97

CC n' nnnnn'nn (n5nnnn>n XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXnn2nnnn nn 2nnn 2 n 5n nn +nn () #* nnrnnn n $+# ,* n !+%nn+ () $* 6 ,n nn=>?2n nn nn n nnrn2n nrn22 n2nn+2nnE n 2>2nn nnnrn2 n n E nn n# .nnrnn 2n2 # n n2 nn n n22n n n2nn22n nn n+2n n# n+ nnn +nnn 'nn (nnnn. n n+22 ++n+ 6nnn n n# n+ nn2n nrr n22n nn 2n n n2n @Ar./ nn =>?2nn

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CI n'/nn0 9n nn2nn rnnn nnr 22n nn 2n n n2n @/r @A nn=> ?2nn 7nn2n 2+n@/r@A nn=>? 2nn+22n n # +nnn n n# +n n n n# n n nnn nnrr n2n n n 2nrn2 nn n 2# n2 n n n+2n n2n @/n @A nnn=> ?2nn+22nn n n.-n.n nnnn 2nnn2n n n n nn.% n n2n # + nnn 9n 2nn n2n nnrn # +nE nn n2n.2 2 n n nnnn nn nn-) 9n n2n nEn2 n! n+nnn << +'( 5 n2%n+n nn'(+ nnn) n2n '(nn2n 2> n n+ nn22 n n# n nn n +n2+nnn 2 n2nn,n nn2n 2 n nnn n n 2 n7En nn Ln + n# 2nn nnnn n

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I/ n'/nn0 +nn.9n nn nn 9n n n22 9n nn22n n2n nn n2nn .1n 5n # nn nn !GC@-H-@/r//@@n nnGC@-HIFBr0@CI5n # nn n n 2n n n nnn 'nn (nGC@-HIFBrA0-Cnn.n9n nnn n nnn n2n 9n n222 n # n+n n+ n nnn9n 22n n 'nn (n2n %n5* 5 nEn nnn n) 5nn n# nnn nn n2 5 5n 5 +5nn n)n n+ nn 5nnnn n+2n YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY n,n n!n 5 En nn 5 nnn2 nn +++n YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY n5n,n5 n 7 n!5n5n

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