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Study of the ethical values of college students
h [electronic resource] /
by Victor Mercader.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on five main purposes, all of them interrelated and each focused on ethical values, virtues, or character values. The five purposes are: a) Investigate college students' perceptions of ethical values, including their importance, application, usefulness, origin, benefits, need for education, and courses proposed to be included in the curricula; b) Review literature in areas related to ethical values, virtues or character values of college students; c) Develop and pilot an instrument to assess the ethical values of college students; d) Improve and use the developed instrument to describe the status of college students' ethical values; and e) Present conclusions and recommendations from the analysis of the data results.The primary research question was, "What are the ethical values that college students have?" Nine secondary research questions were also studied.This study reviews a summary of 28 lists of values or character strengths proposed by various authors and philosophers across time, as well as the opinions by others who are not a part of any given list. The study will provide an analysis and selection by the author of 28 values identified from the 28 lists. Finally, an instrument which includes a list of 28 values, to assess the above areas of research was developed. This instrument will be available for other researchers to utilize or to conduct additional research as a consequence of this study's findings.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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Adviser: Harold William Heller, Ed.D.
x Educational Leadership
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Study of the Ethical Values of College Students by Victor Mercader A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Harold William Heller, Ed.D. Robert Anderson, Ph.D. Jeffrey Kromrey, Ph.D. Karolyn Snyder, Ed.D. Date of Approval: March 21, 2006 Keywords: Ethics, education, college student s, values, character education, moral, philosophy, educational leadership, higher edu cation, teaching, famil y, society, religion, multidisciplinary studies, self-improvement, and inner development. Copyright 2006, Victor Mercader
DEDICATION To my parents, Carmen and Jos, who from another dimension where they are beyond this material world, have not desisted in their silent but eff ective advice to guide me with the inspiration and pe rseverance required to overcome any temporal obstacles in search of my goals rooted in an educational and ethical improvement. To my wife Elizabeth for supporting a nd comprehending me in the scholar journey during the good and the not so good times in order to fulfill the long and patient proof that a doctorate implies. Thanks for always being close to me tolerating my changeable mood and allowing me to be myself with my dreams, trials, and achievements. To my daughter and son, Or iana and Victor, who duri ng the change of country, language, friends, schooling, and li fe style have been observer s, learners, and helpers as well as part of this transition, from the birt h of a decision of initiating a wish to the culmination of this doctoral dissertation. To Dr. Heller, who during this whole proc ess trusted my ideals hopes, and I as a person, and restlessly helped me achieve th is study experience with knowledge, patience, and humility. To LIFE! For giving me the opportunity to recognize and frequently bond with the universal energy finding a variety of co nnectiveness in the search of flow and synchronicity towards the ultimate goal of HAPPINESS!
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To Dr. Heller, who has shared my ideals and trials, keeping alive the faith, and enthusiasm I was in need of at certain mo ments during this process. His dedication for discussing the different themes involved, the constant reading and editing, his trust, and the gentle manner to push me ahead are hard to describe and went beyond compare to any of the expectations, making possible the cu lmination of this dissertation. Thanks! To Dr. Jeffrey Kromrey, who always insi sted in quality, results, and extreme precision in all data obtained sharing at times moments of tension while the refined product was in the process of continuous improvement; as well as making me create a strong structure and use of the rationale. Thanks! To Dr. Karolyn Snyder, who introduced me in the scholar journey and motivated me to continue along the way with the ups and downs that li fe offers to everyone. Since the starting of the first courses of the docto ral program, she had deeply carved in me and in many other students a global mind w ith multidisciplinary, interactive, and multicultural perspectives, strengthening my faith on the achievement of the endless educational learning. Thanks! To Dr. Robert Anderson, who has always been a role model as a scholar and gave me the human value and confidence to pe rform in my searching making emphasis in quality, correctness, and a balanced mind. His clever and accurate comments and his sense of humor encouraged me when indeci sions wanted to emerge, consolidating my path throughout the final st age of this study. Thanks!
i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES vii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 4 Justification for the Study 5 Research Questions 7 Research Design and Population 9 Definition of Terms 11 CHAPTER TWO. LITERATURE REVIEW 15 Introduction 15 Previous Research and Relationships With Empirica l Studies 20 Theoretical Background 33 Selection of Ethical Values a nd Comparisons Among Different Authors 37 List of Ethical Values Selected From Different Authors 39 Summary 61 CHAPTER THREE. METHODS 64 Research Questions 64 Instrumentation 65 Foundations for the Developed Instrument 65 Definitions of Selected Ethical Values 66
ii Pilot Questionnaire Applie d to College Students 69 Ethical Values Selected for th e Pilot Study 71 Sample 71 Demographics 72 Demographic characteristics 74 Importance and Application of Ethical Values 75 Usefulness of Ethical Values 79 Benefits of Ethical Values 80 Ethical Values Origin 82 Necessary Ethical Values to Apply in Education 83 Instrument 84 The Questionnaire 84 Analysis of the Instrument 90 Advantages of the Instrument 97 Selection of the Sample 98 Descriptive and Statistical Met hodology Procedures 99 CHAPTER FOUR. ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS 105 Purpose and Research Questions 105 Presentation of Data 106 Sample 108 Demographics 109 Importance and Application of Ethical Values 119 Usefulness of Ethical Values 139 Benefits of Ethical Values 142 Ethical Values Origin 148 Necessary Ethical Values to Apply in Education 151 Interest in Themes Related to Ethical Values 153 Importance to Provide Courses and Workshops Related to Ethical Values to College Students 154 Courses Suggested 154
iii Students Rationale 157 Summary 158 CHAPTER FIVE. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 162 Introduction 162 Summary and Results of the Study 163 Brief Description of the study 164 Results of the Study 165 Conclusions 170 Implications 173 Limitations of the Study 175 Recommendations for Further Research 175 REFERENCES 177 APPENDIX A LIST OF ETHICAL VALUES SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER 185 APPENDIX B TABLE 1. LIST OF ETHICAL VALUES SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS 188 APPENDIX C TABLE 2. LIST OF ETHICAL VALUES SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS SIMILAR TO THE ETHICAL VALUES COMPRISING THE STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE 195 APPENDIX D STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART A 201 APPENDIX E STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART B. 203 APPENDIX F PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART A. 212 APPENDIX G PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART B. 215 APPENDIX H COURSES AND SECTION NUM BERS OF SAMPLE 219 APPENDIX I TERMS AND VAL UES NOT PREVIOUSLY IDENTIFIED AND NOT COMPILED WITHIN THE 360 VALUES OF THE AUTHORS LISTS 221
iv APPENDIX J COMPARISON OF AUTHORS SELECTED VALUES WITH VALUES REPEATED IN AUTHORS LISTS 223 APPENDIX K SAMPLE WITH 40 COLLEGE STUDENTS TO DETERMINE ANY SIMILARITY OR ASSOCIATION OF VALUES OR TERMS 225 APPENDIX L ASSOCIATED VALUES COMPRISED IN THE AUTHORS LIST 228 APPENDIX M ASSOCIATED VALUES COMPRISED IN THE AUTHORS LISTS 230 APPENDIX N FIGURE 1. AUTHORS ETHICAL VALUES CATEGORIZATION 232 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 234
v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 List of ethical values selected from different authors (see Appendix B). 188 Table 2 List of ethical values selected from different authors similar to the ethical values comprising the study questionnaire (see Appendix C). 195 Table 3 The pilot study questionnaire demographics 73 Table 4 Importance of ethical values (pilot study questionnaire). 77 Table 5 Application of ethical valu es (pilot study questionnaire). 78 Table 6 Usefulness of ethical values (pilot study questionnaire). 80 Table 7 Origin of ethical values (pilot st udy questionnaire). 83 Table 8 Study questionnaire demographics 111 Table 9 The study questionnaire demographics Major and Minor 117 Table 10 Important ethical values selected by college students (Part A) 122 Table 11 Percentage of important va lues for college students by choice from (Part A) 123 Table 12 Proportions of important et hical values for college students and confidence intervals 124 Table 13 Important ethical values other people hold selected by students (Part A) 130 Table 14 Proportions of important et hical values other people hold selected by college students by choice from (Par t A) 132 Table 15 Proportions of important ethical values other people hold and confidence intervals 133
vi Table 16 Importance of ethical values (Questionnaire -Part B) 134 Table 17 Application of ethical va lues (Questionnaire -Part B) 136 Table 18 Comparison of ethical values from Questionnaire Part A and B 139 Table 19 Usefulness of ethical values in the st udy 140 Table 20 Rating of usefulness of ethical values 141 Table 21 Benefits of ethical valu es for individuals and family 143 Table 22 Benefits of ethical valu es for education and society 144 Table 23 Origin of ethical values 149 Table 24 Origin of ethical values -Most important priorities 150 Table 25 Necessary ethical values to apply in education 152 Table 26 Courses suggested related to ethi cal values by college students 155
vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Authors ethical values categorization (see Appendix N) 232
viii Study of Ethical Values of College Students Victor Mercader ABSTRACT This study focuses on five main purposes all of them interrelated and each focused on ethical values, virtues, or char acter values. The five purposes are: a) Investigate college students perceptions of ethical values including their importance, application, usefulness, origin, benefits, need for education, and courses proposed to be included in the curricula; b) Review literature in areas related to ethical values, virtues or character values of college students; c) Deve lop and pilot an instrument to assess the ethical values of college students; d) Im prove and use the developed instrument to describe the status of college students ethical values; an d e) Present conclusions and recommendations from the analysis of the data results. The primary research question was, Wha t are the ethical values that college students have? Nine secondary resear ch questions were also studied. This study reviews a summary of 28 lists of values or character strengths proposed by various authors and philosophers across time, as well as the opinions by others who are not a part of any given li st. The study will provide an analysis and selection by the author of 28 valu es identified from the 28 lists.
ix Finally, an instrument which includes a lis t of 28 values, to assess the above areas of research was developed. This instrument will be available for other researchers to utilize or to conduct additional research as a consequence of this studys findings.
1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Those who consider others improvement and development, frequently ask themselves why things do not always work out in a way that is good and fair for most of the people. Educators should ask themselves this question and research possible answers (DeRoche & Williams, 2001; Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Based upon the research available it is possible to sa y that ethical values have no t been effectively taught and applied to education. Proof that this has not occurred is evident in the injustice, wars, crime, drugs, corruption, illegal businesses, an absence of fairness and trust, as well as the lack of peace that still persists worldwide (Gadner, 1990). Educational systems at all levels need to dedicate greater effort to fi nd solutions for the preceding problems if they are to be effective (Rodriguez, 1996). Ethical values are roots that s upport the endless improvement of humankind enhancing reason, which distinguishes us from animals (Holmes, 2003). It seems, as Lockwood (1997) indicates, that there is not enough time for this extremely signif icant matter while educational systems focus upon more immediate concerns related to the ever increasing accountability requir ements solicited by the state and federal government. For much of the last decade, the focus on values has been primarily on the microethics that guide individual behavior, the private virtues that build character. I want to argue that the recent turn to ethics in our public schools, in American higher education, and in public life must now include the macroethics of large syst ems and institutions, the public values that build community (Joseph, 2002, p. 6)
2 Philosophers throughout history have rep eatedly provided an answer. Their message is very simple and may be summarized as the lack of application of ethical values. Many centuries ago, people such as King Salomon, Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tse, Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, Jesus, and Buddha were able to find an essential sense of life just looking out for others more than for themselves, and arising and awakening virtues, love, peace, human comprehension, and care. Since the very beginning of civilization ethical behavior has been a priority for numerous philosophers, educators, and thinkers, who taught and shar ed their ideas and e xperiences with disc iples, societies, politicians, and other people (Honderi ch, 1995; Peterson & Seligman, 2004). History shows the paths and relevance of ethics infl uence. Since 2000 B.C., Indian thought from the Far East has been related to ethical valu es and virtues. While the latter varied from Western thought, nonetheless, a constant but characteristic root has remained. This constant finds it is possible to achieve spiritua l perfection in this life by cultivating virtue. Confucius, as early as 500 B. C., dedicated his whol e life to teaching the moral and ethical codes of the Far East in a simple, ex emplary, and profound manner, exalting and dignifying the virtues, which still remain alive and app licable today (Holmes, 2003). Jesus Christ, 2000 years ago, was the most pro lific Western protagonist and demonstrator of consummate and sublime virtue for Chris tians and Catholics. Consequently, Richey (2000) suggests that meaningful essential comparisons related to the relevance and transcendence of ethical values historically join together in thought an d practice through centuries, and across different cultures. It is possible to affirm through the obs ervation and analysis of many writings, according to Peterson and Seligman (2004), th at most of the thoughts and tendencies
3 related to virtues are derive d from ancient people. Times may change the way to focus and to announce ethics and virtues, but the essence remains the same, because the essence of life and human beings are ethical va lues or virtues (Carr & Steutel, 1999). The main point is to accept ethical values benefits in all aspects of life (material, mental, and spiritual); and then, to be aw are of these advantages and to start applying and developing them in our daily activities in order to find more quality in life, success, harmony and joy. What is very interesting is that quality life, harmony, and joy are related with ethical values, which makes it possible and easier to learn, to understa nd, to be more enthusiastic, to accomplish, and to succeed. Th oughts and actions awake virtues such as achievement, help, care, service, contentmen t, humbleness, tolerance, honesty, respect, responsibility, thankfulness, kindness, friendliness, unsel fishness, generosity, and fairness. All on the path to a continuous s earch for integrity and improvement. These are simply ethical values, charac ter values or virtues, avai lable for everyone and free! It is worth remembering that many leaders, albeit with differing sources of power and dominant status positions, have coll ege backgrounds and degrees in different disciplines. Thus, Homann (1996) predicted that students of today would be leaders of the future. This belief is even more accura te when referring to college students. The students ethical values may have a relevant influence in their decisions and actions of life. People are bound to change their pattern of life when they discover that ethical beliefs and behavior may substantially help them contribute to an improved society (DeRoche & Williams, 2001). In 1972, Danto emphasized that changes of heart may come through changes of mind, and vice-versa Education is requir ing a more ethical endeavor with enthusiasm and integrity which will contribute as a key component for a
4 more satisfying life; then, people through education at all levels will be able to create the conditions that promote authentic and gene ral ethical behavior (Bell, 2002; McGrath, 1994). The goal of both individuals and society vi a education is to fr ee the individuals ethical self and thereby become the author of ones own actions and not the mere conduit of others desires and plans (Breeden, 2001; Chrismer, 1998). Ethics are fed by ethical values. Every significant profession and every institution that thinks anything of itself has its something ethics to proclaim whether it is environmental ethics, media ethics, research ethics, corporate ethics or char acter education (Ginsburg, S., Regehr, G., & Lingard, L., 2003; McGrath, 1994; Vokey, 1997). Knowing what ethical values guide college students decisions a nd actions is knowledge that educators and society should possess. Purpose of the Study This study contained four main purposes ; all of them interrelated and each focused on ethical values, virtue s, or character values. The four purposes were to accomplish the following: 1. Investigate college students percepti ons of ethical values, including their importance, application, useful ness, origin, and benefits. 2. Review literature in areas related to ethical values, virtues or character values of college students. 3. Develop and pilot an instrument to assess the ethical values of college students.
5 4. Use the developed instrument to descri be the status of college students ethical values. Justification for the Study A synthesis achieved after a careful literatu re review identified and created a firm base of 12 emerging needs that focused and ra tified the purpose of this research. These needs continuously emerge and must be fulfille d and satisfied in orde r for one to improve individually and as a member of society. These needs confirm and should answer the numerous doubts presented by various inquiries and research, which awake initiatives to find new sources for change and a better and balanced life. Twelve priority needs were researched a nd tested, which described the strength or weakness of ethical values in fluence upon college students. 1. There is little research or knowledg e about the ethical values (EVs) of college students. 2. A wide range of interpretations for defining EVs exists. 3. There are terms which are usually confus ed such as ethical values, ethics, moral values, religious values, virtue s, and character education values. 4. It is difficult for people in general an d students, teachers, and professors to explain the meaning and application of EVs. 5. Teachers, instructors, and professors do not usually assume responsibility for clarifying explanatio ns and interpretations, or hold discussions about EVs during their preparation programs or teachings.
6 6. There are very few studies of EVs re lated to those which college students have and apply when they enroll, during their study, or upon graduation. 7. There are numerous studies related to codes of ethics for every institution or organization as well as rules for most professions, but they almost never identify consequences or delineate the reasons and benefits of EVs. 8. There are some relevant curricula related to EVs, virtues, and character education in elementary school, but less in middl e school, and almost none in high school or college. 9. EVs of college students and people in general are assumed to be fostered through their families, church, associations, and friends. 10. Many individuals talk about EVs and mention their relevance, but when asked to explain EVs, very few of these same individuals can do it. 11. There appears to be a big gap betwee n elementary and college education concerning the consolidation, applicati on, and benefits of EVs, which is unfortunate because this is the age of adolescence and the time when students and young people often make deci sions that direct and/or change their course of life. 12. People who have not been educated regarding the meaning of EVs, application, and transcendence of them, will not have the critical, logical, sensible, and analytical bases to beha ve and make life decisions in their occupational or profession al positions and family.
7 The literature review undertak en in this study intended to clarify most of these needs and corroborate why ethical responses ar e required for different situations across ones lifetime. The analysis of the results regarding EV s led the researcher to generate and confirm a variety of conclusions. It was expe cted also to direct the research to the justification of the need and aw areness of ethical values and their application and benefits in career, life, and work activities. If these objectives were attained, a justification and validation of the need for teaching and lear ning ethical values in public and private schools as well as colleges and universities would be attained. This project was congruent w ith societal concern related to the lack of knowledge or application of ethical values. Modern hi story has shown how di fferent trends have avoided this core theme, such as hedonism of the 1960s, the narcissism of the 1970s, the materialism of the 1980s, and the apathy of the 1990s (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Society can not find balanced effectivene ss and satisfaction and thus, seems to be incapable of assuring fairness and equity worldwide. Research Questions Due to the continuous intervention of the n eed for ethical values application in the different spheres of action and development of humanity and college students, who will be leaders in their professions and probably in society, it was critical that the values that make the scaffolding for building college st udents future and success were known. However, there was a lack of research focu sed on what ethical values college students
8 have. Further, there was a lack of research related to what ethica l values students hold when they enroll to the univers ity and when they leave it. The primary question to be an swered by this study was: What are the ethical values that college students have? Other secondary questions were: 1. What ethical values do college st udents consider most important? 2. What ethical values do college stud ents think others hold as the most important? 3. What ethical values do college st udents apply most in their life? 4. Do college students consider ethical values useful for people in work, family, society, and education? 5. What do college students feel are the main benefits of applying ethical values to individuals, familie s, education, and society? 6. Where do college students acquire and develop their ethical values? 7. Are college students interested in themes related to ethical values? 8. What ethical values do college students consider are the most important to apply in education? 9. Do college students consider that et hical values are important to be included in curricula? If so, do colle ge students think that educational institutions should offer courses on ethical values?
9 Research Design and Population In order to answer the primary and s econdary questions of the research, an instrument was developed utiliz ing a strategy combining a literature review with data acquired from the conduct of a pilot study and this study. The literature review included knowledge from ancient times to the present validating the fact that ethics, virtues, and morals have been the source of wisdom across generations. Knowledge rooted in ethical values has been left as a heritage for past and future populations by many different thinkers, philosophers, writers, and religious people. Yet, in spite of this heritage, humanity conti nues to not fully apply ethical values to life and work albeit individuals continue to espouse its importance. This study summarized and validated the importance of ethical values from many authors as result of a review of the literature as a first stage. A set of 28 lists of ethical values elaborated and selected by experts uti lizing criteria they established was analyzed and summarized, thereby providing a foundation for the creation of an instrument and a resource for further reference. In order to acquire ample knowledge about the subject and give validity to the study other empirical research was reviewed comparing it with the proposed study. The relationship between ethical values, educat ion, and college students exists and is reasonably obvious. Considerable resear ch has been conduc ted studying the two components of education and ethical values, mora ls, virtues, character strengths or traits; unfortunately, little research has been conduc ted with college students and almost none identifying the ethical values of college stude nts. This discrepancy formed the basis for this research.
10 Investigating the ethical values of colle ge students required the creation of a survey /questionnaire type instrument in orde r to both answer the research questions and to assess the ethical values of college students. The instrument ultimately developed by the author consisted of 28 ethical values. A de finition for each ethical value was selected as a strategy for understanding its meaning. Th e instrument was initially developed and tested as part of a pilot study with a sample of 196 college students from the University of South Florida. Both the pilot study as well as this study focused upon the importance and application of ethical values of college students. Like wise, the study focused on the usefulness and benefits of ethical values as well as their origin and necessity for application in education. An additional focus referred to what courses related to ethical values college students would suggest being a part of a college/ university curricula. The pilot study, in tandem with the literature review, provided the validity required for the instrument selected for th is study. Some changes on the pilot study questionnaire which are explained in chapter Th ree were incorporated into the instrument selected for this study. The population sample for this study was 207 undergraduate college students enrolled of the University of South Florid a. The students were representative of the university at large and not any one specific college. The responses obtained in this survey were analyzed and the data obtained were compared with that from the pilot study. Conclusions and recomm endations emanated from the data and findings of the study.
11 Definition of Terms Ethics, as well as morals, are terms that have been very widely discussed from ancient times to the present. These terms have been defined in this section of this chapter and identified and analyzed in the second and third chapters. It was essential for this research to establish an ethical values definition in order to avoid semantic misinterpretations and void or useless arguments. The definition assumed by the researcher was the product of a thorough review and analysis of the literature. The author, after analyzing the vari ous interpretations, concluded that the terms ethical values, virtues and character education values or strengths may be considered closely related for the purposes of this research. Moral virtues and moral character we re possible to add, but only when they were not involving religious intentions or the latters rules and laws. Consequently, religious definitions were not included within this research. The ex clusion of religion did not mean it was non related or coincidental with ethical values. Rather the main intention was to study and analyze ethical values fr om an external, universal, and neutral perspective, devoid of the constraints a religi ous-oriented context mi ght precipitate. All of these terms were continuous ly confused, mixed, and used arbitrarily and indistinctly by different authors. An exemplar of this is the book written by expert scholars which comprises 800 pages explaining the classification and distinction of character strengths and virtues (Peterson and Seligman, 2004). It is also highly important to recogni ze the various definitions presented in specialized dictionaries. As th e preceding demonstrates, defi nitions are always a subject
12 for continuous discussion due to the different criteria and arguments from very different points of view or subjective perspectives. It is interesting to note that ethical values are not well defined in the literature review. Nevertheless, it is obvious that they are the values included and to be applied by ethics. The intention of the author is to o ffer a clear understanding of ethical values in order to make them applicable to college students. These definitions of terms were consistent with the meaning of those defined in the literature and form a clear basis for this research. The wide variety of definitions and interpretations of the terms considered in this study were treated th rough the literature review in chapters Two and Three, both individually and together, due to their interdependence and the differing combinations that different authors have postulated. After a thorough analysis of the multiple definitions and concepts generated by the literature the following definitions were adopted for this study: Ethics: The study of morals. The branch of philosophy that analyzes moral concepts (such as goodness and moral truths ) and moral precepts (such as that of reciprocity) (Bunge, 1999, p. 83). What this definition affirms is the Good in order to be moral, which supports the content of wellbeing that is part of the authors belief. Value: Something as a principle or ideal intrinsically valuable or desirable, human rather than material (Websters Ninth New Collegiat e Dictionary, 1989, p. 1303). Ethical values are also closely related to Morality and to the term Virtue, which are defined as follows.
13 Morality: In ethics morality can be defined as a shared set of nonmaterial values, such as fairness, truth, and compassion, the pursuit of which cons titutes one aim of community life (Hutchinson, 1994, p. 359). Virtues: Disposition to do good to self or others. Examples: compassion, curiosity, fairness, fortitude, goodwill, honesty, industriousness, ingenuity, intelligence, judgment, justice, love of truth, loyalty, moderation, prudence, rationality, rectitude, reliability, sincerity, solidarity, and toleran ce. Intellectual virtues are those conducive to acquiring knowledge. Moral virtues are those conducive to helping ot hers. Civic virtues are those conducive to improving the social orde r. All virtues are bo th intrinsically and instrumentally valuable; the manifestation of them is a part of b ecoming a decent person and helping others. Some virtues, such as uprightness, are personal; others, such as solidarity, are social; still others, such as ju stice, are both persona l and social (Bunge, 2003, p. 309). It is worthwhile to reinforce the defi nition assumed with the concept of another main category that is moral virtue and moral virtues whic h are thought to be significant in leading a good life. Virtue and the virtues, as well as vice and the vices, are studied in the type of philosophical theory called virtue theory. When applied to ethics (instead, say, of being applied to epistemology) virtue theory is today called character ethics or agentbased ethics, or virtue ethics. This is the ethical side of vi rtue theory. Yet, it should be noted that the practical (and not merely ethical) scope of vi rtue theory also covers the study of epistemic or intellect ual virtue (Iannone, 2001, p. 541).
14 These definitions of virtues affirm th e intent of this study, which was seeking a better identification of college students ethi cal values or virtues and their consequent relationships in all inner and outer aspects of human growth. Education: All of these important pr evious terms appeared intimately related with education and obviously with college students, even when they were not necessarily taken into account as a priority or focuse d in their practical learning and application. Within the innumerable definitions of edu cation, a particularly simple but complete meaning was shown very close to the aut hors focus on the concept of this study. Education is in broad terms, the lif e-long process of acquiring new knowledge and skills through both formal and informal exposure to information, ideas, and experiences (Shafritz, Ko eppe, & Saper, 1988, p. 164). Character education: The last term mentioned in this chapter, which was closely related to this study and necessary to be de fined is character educ ation. Two definitions from two different authors seemed appropriate and related to the intent of this research. a) Character education is an inte ntional, systematic effort to identify and foster in students positive virtues such as caring, cooperation, respect, responsibility, honesty, integrity,--virtues fundamental to the development of good character (Kagan, 2001, p.52). b) Current character education advocates emphasize the development of virtue, life skills, citizenship skill s, and so on (Lockwood, 1997, p. 5). The preceding definitions were highly interrelated and frequently are confused or taken one for the other. They do undoubtedly impact education.
15 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Ethical values have been discussed acro ss centuries including their influence upon education in many different ways as well as those values that people should apply. Wynne (1998) emphasized, Many educators are re-discovering an hist oric truth, that good character and good learning complement e ach other (p. 201). Especially now when there are many different c odes of ethics that people follow in order to behave appropriately within organizations and society. Nevertheless, it is not a matter of law; it is a matter of wholeness and inner success where virtues have a very significant influence because virtues pertain to people and the li ves they lead (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). College students' ethical values have not been sufficiently considered and measured even when codes of ethics exist in most colleges and universities. Most people seemingly ignore these codes. Some efforts were made at the beginning of the 20th century to focus attention on th e relevance of ethics and valu es due to the erosion of a variety of societal standards and an integrity problem. Nevertheless, at those times, the results of large-scal e research done by Hartshorne a nd May (1927) found that schooling values did not change individuals' choice of be havior in real-life situations. These results satisfied the researcher's interest at that time and served to minimize the teaching of
16 character education in the public school s for many years (Lockwood, 1997). This tendency continues today and of course has been expanded to incl ude higher education. Interpretations about ethics, virtues, mora ls, ethical values, ch aracter values and strengths, and all kind of values differ widely and many are contradictory, which supports the need for knowing and clarifying these terms. Education and ethical values consequently have also had different defini tions, interpretations, trends, and ways of application according to the perspectives of various groups and disciplines. It is just a matter of choosing different dictionaries spec ialized in different s ubjects like philosophy, civic knowledge, education, psychology, religio n, morals, and many others. Therefore, the flexibility and usefulness of ethical values in education are also exposed to different interpretations and even manipulation. Ch aracter education emphasizes the knowledge and development of virtue, life skills, ci tizenship skills, moral behavior, etc. while the word values is frequently avoi ded. Educators might well be sensitive to the political discussions and contro versies often associated with the term value, morals, and ethics (Lockwood, 1997). It is noteworthy to observe that both edu cation and ethical valu es help people to find the course towards wisdom and knowledge that incorporates material, mental, and spiritual development of humankind and peace. Ethical values and education are naturally linked by service and respect, which are fundament al keys for raising the moral quality of human decisions, behavior, and action (B ando, 1994; King Jr., 1992; Nair, 1996; Terkel, 1992). When Socrates posed the question, What is a virtuous man? he also went on to ask, What is a virtuous society? Of course, today we are more likely to ask What is a virtuous man or woman, and is it possible to build a virtuous society? (Joseph, 2002, p.
17 6). This author concludes that the answer to this question remains unanswered even today, which is a matter of importance to education due to its responsibility for improving society. This review of the literature indicate d, enhanced, and reaffirmed thoughts and criteria that impact college students and society as a cons equence of their knowledge and application of ethical values. The application of ethical values implies a commitment as we meet life's day-to-day challenges and opportunities, which suggests an assumption of risks in honor of self and all others. This assumption is not only a political issue; it goes beyond the latter as an ethical imperative if society and nations e xpect to realize and enjoy a high quality of life (Bell, 2002; Kane, 1994; Kung, 1995). Once the actual ethical values of colle ge students are know n, a review of the literature may provide answers to the questions of how to apply ethical values in education, which ethical values are applied more, and how it has been interpreted and applied up to now. This literature review pr esented trends for ethical values application in all domains of society and education as well as the main fields of research studied that may still require more attention. The different lists of ethical values created by different experts and authors in this study are presente d in Tables 1 and 2 shown in Appendix B and C respectively. College st udents are exposed to all areas of society, jobs, and environments; this is a fact that Eisenberg (1999) emphasized should be a main role in their education. These opportuni ties make even more releva nt the influence of their ethical foundations. Ethical values, virtues, and character e ducation values and strengths of college students formed the basis of this study. This group of values merges into an analogous
18 pair of terms known as ethics and morals. These last word s, derived from the Greek and Roman words ethos and mores, are respec tively signifying the customs, conventions, rules, standards, and distintictive charact eristics of communal groups (Holmes, 2003). The best translation of ethos (spelled with a long "e") is probably moral character or simply character. Character is related to habit (ethos spelled with a short "e") but it is not the sa me. Both habits and character can be good or bad. Good character is acquir ed in two stages. The preliminary stage occurs during childhood when othe rs direct us toward good feeling actions; however, authentic good character does not emerge until a person begins making his or her own decisions to seek what is good for its own sake. Repeated good decisions coalesce into enduring states that can be identified as character virtues, virtue s such a justice, temperance, and so forth. Thus, deliberately chosen good actions create the virtuous states that form good character (Devettere, 2002, p. 139) The term virtue, closely related to ethics and morality, arises also as one of the qualities that people develop in order to achie ve excellence. These may include natural, acquired, temperamental, religious, and char acter qualities among ot hers. According to Holmes (2003), the ethic of virtue is related mainly to persons rather than to actions. The theory of ethics takes the notion of virtue as primary, rather than a view either of the good for the sake of which we act or the rules of action established for us to act (Blackburn, 1994). Cuneo (1999) notes that the influence of Greek philosophy has been the fundamental foundation for beliefs and patterns of behavior of western culture. In ancient Greece, for Aristotle's ethics, to be virtuous was a practice of life, which if done well, nurtures the good life. Socr ates (470-399 B.C.) affirmed that the purpose of our acquiring knowledge is to live be tter lives. He held that one w ho was not knowledgeable could not do the morally right thing. In Socrates' view if men do evil, it is always through ignorance, which makes ethics a relevant goal of education (Dan to, 1972; Elkind, 1997;
19 McBeath & Webb, 2002). Greek ethi cs is about happin ess, not obligation or duty. It is about liberation, not law. It is grounded in experience, not moral theory. So, in 2002, Devettere noted that the motivation for bei ng ethical comes from the deepest of human desires, the desire to make our lives go we ll in order to find happiness while we live. Plato (429-347 B.C.), for whom there is a parallel between virtues applied to the individual and to the ideal state or society, sees goodness at the heart of human activity. To live well is to live both happ ily and morally. This thought, the Idea of the Good was the foundation for his morality school, which emerged from the teachings of the Sophists (Holmes, 2003). Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle su stained a thesis of the unity of the virtues as a pivotal doctrine; which means that ther e is a high relationship between each virtue, so each virtue makes others emerge a nd are many times complementary (Honderich, 1995). Hindu philosophy considers virtue as the tool for improving the individual and society, as well as to manifest with the co smos and reach the ultimate realization. Hindu thought precedes Plato by more than 1500 years. Thus, beliefs and the teachings of ethics and virtues have been an axis of heritage, behavior, and knowledge in different cultures for centuries. This introduction to the literature revi ew was intended to bridge the ancient philosophies to the modern ones reaffirming that the knowledge and need of ethical values have survived throughout history as a critical requi rement for human improvement and a more balanced and peaceful world. In one way or another, a lack of the application of ethical values by many of the most power ful leaders around the world has prevented the ultimate attainment of a balanced and peaceful world.
20 Previous Research and Relatio nship With Empirical Studies Little research has been conducted with college student s as a target population and those studies that have been done were somewhat limited in their focus. Regardless, in one-way or another, they have provide d a basis for comparison. Examples of the research alluded to are provide d in the following paragraphs. Homann (1996) in a dissertation entitled A multiple case study examining ethics teaching and learning mode ls in baccalaureate nursing education programs supported this study by conducting an in -depth inquiry into nurse educators who teach the baccalaureate nursing curricula, perceptions of ethics. Three areas of ethics teaching in baccalaureate nursing education were explor ed: (a) how moral philosophy and ethics principles were integrated into curricula, (b ) how teaching strategies were used in ethics teaching, and (c) how educational leadership impacted ethics teaching in baccalaureate nursing education. Selection of cases for study in the teachi ng of ethics in baccalaureate nursing curricula was based on the following assumptions: 1. That there would be sufficient intere st, confidence, and felt need among nursing programs regarding the teaching of ethics to warrant a base for successful interviews. 2. That the presence of an interviewer would not detract from the intrinsic quality of the nurse educators' comments. 3. That there would be identifiable them es in the teaching of moral philosophy and ethics principles.
21 4. That the use of effective leadership sk ills by the deans of colleges of nursing would enhance ethics teaching by faculty. 5. That faculty interviewed would be able to perceive a relationship between the leadership skills of the dean of the college of nursing and other leaders in the institution studied and the nurse educat ors' teaching of ethics (Homann, 1996). The purpose of this research about nur sing college faculty was considered comparable to this study related to ethical values of college students because: 1. An equally high level of interest, c onfidence, and felt need exists among college students regardi ng ethical values, their a pplication, and teaching, thereby assuring the existence of a sufficient information base to support a response to both a questionnaire a nd an interview by an expert. 2. That the presence of the interviewer or researcher would not detract from the intrinsic quality of the ulterior comments or different points of view. 3. That there would be identif iable ethical valu es in the selec tion, prioritization, and in the thought about virtues and ethics lear ning, as well as ethical principles. 4. That the use of effective leadership skills could be enhanced by ethical values application as a part of the career st udies and further professional work. 5. That experts and professors interviewed would be able to analyze and perceive a possible relationship between ethical value needs, college students success, and leadership skills. Rodriguez (1996) presented a very helpful dissertation A review of ethics and educational leadership, a philosophical statement that clearly suppo rted the need for
22 this study. In fact, his research provided a soli d base for the theoreti cal construct of this study. Rodriguezs research focused on whether education majors should be required to study ethics and moral standards as part of their educational cu rricula for better preparation. Secondly, he studied whether ethics has been historically taught as part of the U.S. educational system. Third, he sought to determine whether there is a need for character education in the learning process of student s today. The study documented several cases of decadent behavior committe d by prominent leaders, which justify why there is a need for teaching ethics. Rodriguez (1996) analyzed the answers and recommenda tions given by prominent educators for resolving various behavioral and moral situat ions. One of the educators analyzed was Bennett (1992), who indicated th e critical significance of including moral issues in curricula. Gadner (1990) emphasized the regeneration of ethics within the framework of values education. Dant (1993) in sisted there was a need to bring back the classic ideals to education and to emphasize ethical role models. Kant (1960) believed that a good education had to ha ve four elements: discipline, culture, discretion, and moral training. Kant also considered that the ultimate aim of e ducation was the formation of character, which is intimatel y interrelated with moral knowin g, moral feelings, and moral behavior. According to Lickona (1991), schoo ls can not be ethical bystanders when society is in a persistent moral dilemma; schools and colleg es can not stand back and allow ethical and moral factor s to fester without any ini tiative and/or focused action. These outstanding educators agree that the topic of ethics in education is a critical need for students and society; yet, it remains in research, a philosophical, sociological, political, and psychological argument (B ennett, 1992; Gadner, 1990; Greene, 1978;
23 Lickona, 1991; Rodriguez, 1996). The way mo st people are knowle dgeable of ethical values is through tenets such the Golden rule, the Ten Commandments, or any tenet chosen by their own criteria. All efforts undertaken in order to create a mutual collaboration and harmonious human wellbeing are worthwhile because they are mainly rooted in ethical behavior. Of course, no one is wise and ethical enough to solve every situation of life in a perfect manner; however people who are better prepared and apply consciously ethical values in any activity of their life, wo rk, opportunities, choices, and decisions will likely be more successful and sa tisfied with their life (Rodriguez, 1996). When people apply ethical values in their life and educate others based upon reasoning, good behavior, integrity, and ethical values a pplication and usefulness, that learning will beget harmony, justice, and the di gnifying of life (Spinoza, 2000). In spite of the preceding, education systems and educators are mostly excluding ethics within their curricula. Infusing ethics into education curricula is extremely difficult and often is why most scholar s avoid the effort. Resolving this situation will require educators and scholars to be be tter prepared and continuously trained as role models both inside and outside schools and colleges in order to demonstrate high quality, ethical behavior, and values to students (Greene, 1978). Rodriguez concluded that pe ople in general tend to feel shy when issues are controversial, as do many professors. Educat ional leaders and teachers consider these themes to be outside of their responsibility becaus e of the concerns they could raise with other teachers, parents, and leaders of groups or communities even when these themes involve common sense issues. Bennett (1992) noted th at it is the responsi bility of parents, churches, and the educational system to teach ethical values that contribute to improve
24 progress and character in soci ety and furthermore foster world peace and wellbeing. Everyone generally expects students to follo w ethical patterns a nd as Bennett (1992) states, There are values that all American citizens share and that we should want all American students to know a nd to make their own: honesty, fairness, self -discipline, fidelity to task, friends, and fa mily, personal responsibility, love of country, and belief in the principles of liberty, e quality, and the freedom to practice ones faith (p.58). Year after year educators seem to send warning signals rega rding their concern about the lack of ethical and moral behavior of their student s and the need to introduce ethical standards into classrooms at a ll levels (Rodriguez, 1996). In 1990, Gadner proclaimed examination of leadership would be incomplete without the attention to the decay and possible regeneration of the value framework (p.14). Sometimes, it seems that educational authorities and lead ers live in denial, intending the educational system to remain in a kind of false illusion and artificial optimism on one hand, and on the other in a continuous criticism without bringi ng feasible and effec tive solutions (Frankl, 1963). The main point here is that history continues in this new millennium with the same symptoms and yet, little urgency. Rodriguez (1996) cited an article by Michael S. Da nt dated October 27, 1993, and published in the Arizona Republic which stated that students need heroes with real values, not recording contracts. The Arizona Republic refocuses what we want students to become, i.e., adults who have a good values system and who use their latent potential. He stated, It is interesting that the four major universities in Arizona which prepare professional educators to be teachers in the states school districts do not have explicit
25 course work requirements in ethics and moral education in their curriculum. It is possible that professors teaching education courses do not see the need for such courses? (p.79). The same is true with the College of Edu cation of the University of South Florida, site for this study and in so many other uni versities throughout th e United States. There are philosophy classes in ethi cs; courses in ethics are included in mass and social communication, business, sciences bioethics, and medicine but not education. This is indeed unfortunate when one is reminded by Bennett (1992) that Thomas Jefferson, so much an architect of American public educat ion, believed and empha sized that education should aim at the improvement of both ones morals and faculties. A research study involving college student s and related to moral issues with parallels to this st udy was conducted by OFlaherty and Gleeson (2004), who investigated the relationshi p between levels of moral judgment at the point of undergraduate college entry and certain variab les: gender, type of secondary school attended, third level course, ac ademic performance, and soci al class. A sample of 682 students representing six co lleges within the universit y (Education; Business; Humanities; Engineering; Science and Informatics & Electronics) was selected for the study. The study found that Irish students levels of moral judgment appeared to be lower than their United States (U.S.) counterparts and that student teachers demonstrated lower moral judgment scores than other college stud ents. The study also f ound that the level of moral judgment is influenced by the course of study at the third leve l (which is related to academic performance) as well as social class. Gender did not produce significant differences in moral judgment.
26 The positive effect of higher and continued education on the development of moral judgment has been well document ed by Cartwright & Good (1998); Rest & Narvaez (1994); Pascarella et al. (1991); an d Rest (1986). The Ireland study utilizes Rests Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT2), an ob jective measure based on the principles of Kohlbergs Moral Judgment Interview. OFlaherty and Gleeson sought to examin e several areas. First, it was the relationship between relevant variables and levels of moral judgment. The researchers studied the breakdown of students levels of moral judgment as measured by the DIT2 across a number of different academic discip lines. Pre-service education students were investigated and their levels of moral judgment compared to that of their international counterparts and university peers. Differences between the levels of moral judgment of students in the U.S. and Ireland were analyzed. The research clearly indicated diffe rences between the moral judgment development of Irish and U.S. students. The average mean (P) score for U.S. freshmen students was 42.3 while the mean Irish (P) score was 20.79. OFlaherty and Gleeson generated questions related to gender and its relationship to the level of moral judgment. No differe nces were found among participants according to gender, which is consistent with a number of other studies conduc ted by Cummings et al. (2001); Rest et al .(1999a); Rest and Narvaez (1994); and Pascarella et al. (1991). Thoma (1986) conducted a meta-analysis of DIT studies involving almost 6,000 subjects and concluded that gender accounts for 0.002 of th e variance of (P) sc ores compared with education, which accounts for more than 250 times the variance.
27 The Ireland research indicated that pre-service teacher education students demonstrate lower principled moral judgment than college students majoring in all the other disciplines studied and more spec ifically those stude nts studying science, humanities, and informatics & electronics. One attempt to explain the lower than average moral judgment scores of education majors was made by McNeel (1994), who suggested it may be more likely that factors inherent in the disc ipline or in the curriculum may account for the problem. Curriculum factors may include the failure to include ethical considerations within the curriculum or perhaps failure to inform faculty regarding the importance of teaching ethical awareness in their courses. Teacher education programs may fail to integrate an awareness of, or more importantly, a discussion of et hical issues. If te achers are to be characterized as moral agents then proper exposure to varying levels of moral judg ment development is required so that they too can improve their reasoning skills. The need for generic modules was highlighted in the Irish research as a conse quence of the poor scores given by pre-service teacher education students relative to moral judgment. Training in applied ethics is required in Irish universities as a means of ensuring the professional integrity of Irish professionals. Obviously more needs to be done in Irish teacher education programs to facilita te higher levels of moral judgment. The question emanating from this research was, would U.S. students score in an equal manner on the same dimension of moral judgment? The OFlaherty and Gleeson comparisons would tend to indicate th at the answer would be yes.
28 Eisenberg (1999) focused his dissertation research The search for integrity: A leadership impact study on integrity. He considered integrity to be a unique individual characteristic because it is one of the few personality variables required of every person. Integrity is an ethical value that plays a f undamental role in leadership and integrates other values such as trust, honesty, truthful ness, rightness, role modeling, the value of wholeness, and others. Eisenberg goes even further when he says that in any organization, integrity is necessary from each member of the organization, independent of the position, hierarchy, status or title. This author likewise affirms that integrity is an essential assumption that people hold about themselves as a co re evaluation, which according to Judge, Locke, Durham, & Kluger (1998) refers to subconscious conclusions individuals reach about themselves, other peopl e, and the world. The same is true to a greater or lesser degree with most ethical valu es, which are usually related to results and the positive improvement need ed for college students. DeRoche and Williams, (2001) conducted a values survey entitled VIP consensus building (Values Identification Prioritizati on) which integrated a basic set of core values. This survey with a list of values wa s easy to apply, less stressful, and generated the results expected, the use of terms and core values. This survey aligned with this study because it requested that one choose valu es from a list of 24 ethical values. Hays (1994) in his book Practicing virtues presented a study with six boarding schools comparing Quaker virtues used in boarding schools with military values in boarding schools. Hays also described how mora l traditions remain in the everyday lives of teachers and students. None of the schools studied were ex clusively for Quakers or for descendants of military personnel. Hays (199 4) research was relevant for the present
29 study given that it looked at virtues underlying different styl es of teaching interactions with students. Each style saw ethics from a different perspective; the Quakers focus on an ethic of openness that promotes tolerance and fairness while the military, concentrates on an ethic of personal responsibil ity and respect promoting discipline, fulfillment, and selfrestraint. The values ruling the Quakers schools st yle for fostering what the latter called the Inner Light in every individual are equality, community, simplicity, and peace. Quaker schools also encourage students to us e words and phrases that manifest, in one way or other, such traits as openness, sharing thoughts, listeni ng, caring, speaking out, sharing, accepting, feeling comfortable, bei ng kind, and others. The values governing the private military academies have other kinds of values, such as loyalty, competence, selflessness, integrity, and pride. It is not particularly difficult to understa nd how the values of each individual tend to be in different directions. Quakers tend to di rect their values internally in order to help others while the military tends to direct its values externally in order to preserve themselves over others. The military talk about integrity, which is also included by the Quakers as a very important value; however, for Quakers, integrity is understood as an essential virtue of self-improvement and harmony while for the military it could be interpreted as necessary for respect, therefor e also for self-respect, and as lawful and obedient patterns of conduct. One seems to be the product of self-convincement while the other seems to be the re sult of self-obligation. The importance of Hays (1994) study as background for this study was that Hays demonstrated how the variety of values is very wide as is their in terpretation. Therefore,
30 the need for open discussion and the presentation of a diverse field of perspectives should be encouraged at college in order to prepar e more open-minded professionals able to find equitable and fair solutions. Most of the ethical values selected by the author in the present study were designed to increase inner understanding and then, be able to help others apply them naturally into family a nd society thereby achie ving better answers for the concept of goodness. Hays (1994) insisted there is a crisis of morality in the schools and a failure to teach character, especially in public schools wh ere they are often rele gated to parents and society. The same crisis is applicable to colle ges. A lack of purposef ul moral or character education is evident in bo th levels of education. Peterson and Seligman (2004) devel oped a questionnaire entitled Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS). This instrument is derived from a nonoverlapping questionnaire the Wellspringscreated by Diener, Isaacowitz, Clifton, and Seligman, who used it for measuring character strengths. The VIA-IS uses Likert-style items for measurement. Peterson & Seligman applied VIA-IS to adults and to adolescents (aged 10-17 years old) consid ering 24 character strengths, cr eating self-report scales for each strength. This survey was also previously conducted with adults in the fall of 2000 and piloted with 250 people findi ng alphas of >.70. The resear chers were able to create reasonable reversed scored items for the charact er strengths selected after several trials fulfilling psychometrics and correlation c onditions. There were 10 items per strength scattered throughout the survey and three item s per scale were reversed scored. There were no psychometric differences between paper or web versi ons. One hundred fifty thousand people completed this instrument in what the authors called five incarnations.
31 Morrill (1980) refers in his book called Teaching values in college. Facilitating development of ethical, moral, and value awareness in students to research by Heath (1977), who surmised that a college's impact on undergraduates was significantly different from what the alum ni reported a number of years after graduation. The alumni ranked the college's effects after attending colle ge in this order: (1) stability of selfconcept, (2) stability of values, (3) integrati on of self-concept, (4) integration of values, (5) development of allocentric values, and (6 ) development of allocentric personal relations. The integration of cognitive skills pertained to the primary areas of influence that students perceived such as the symbolizatio n of the self-concept; the integration, symbolization, and allocentric development of personal relati ons; and the integration of the self-concept. It is difficult to separate the influence of ethical values application in the daily life of intellectual and emotional growth. Heat h (1977) pointed out how a teacher claimed, The Quaker ideal came through more strongly than I real i zed ... It is with me all the time. I don't think the content stayed with me. That's mostly gone. But the values have remained. (p. 9). He also quotes an army of ficer who felt that college had a tremendous influence in forming my ethical opinions made me realize the importance of even having an ethical sense. (p. 9). At the end, Heath summarized his study of alumni by saying that the college's dis tinctive, most salient, endur i ng effect was to permanently alter the character, the values, and the motives of many men (p. 9). Heath (1977) clearly centered the devel opment of values and morals within an ample vision of human development. There is natural tendency to keep the development of integrity and values togeth er to the other aspects of th e human person, but people have
32 created artificial concepts and links for k eeping such development separated. Emotional and intellectual growth are interrelated w ith ethical values; ther efore to know which are the values and tendencies that college student s have makes an effort to understand better their perspectives, changes, and their success and satisfaction at work and in life. DeRoche and Williams (2001) discusse d a character education manifesto (developed by school character educators m eeting in Aspen, Colorado in July 1992) which provided the rational guide to the unde rstanding of ethical values. These authors pointed out how Lickona, Scha ps, and Lewis proposed eleven principles that offer a course toward character edu cation and serve as support fo r a framework for character traits. These principles help principals and leaders to have an overview in order to prepare schools for character education work. 1. Character education promotes core ethical values as a basis of good character. 2. Character must be comprehensively defi ned to include thinking, feeling, and behavior. 3. Effective character education requires an international, proactive, and comprehensive approach that promotes the core values in all phases of schools life. 4. The school must be a caring community. 5. To develop character, students need opportunities for moral action. 6. Effective character education includes a meaningful and challenging academic curriculum that respects all l earners and helps them succeed. 7. Character education should strive to develop students in trinsic motivation.
33 8. The school staff must become a learni ng and moral community in which all share responsibility for character education and attempt to adhere to the same core values that guide th e education of students. 9. Character education requires moral lead ership from both students and staff. 10. The school must recruit parents and co mmunity members as full partners in the character-building effort. 11. Evaluation of character education should asses the character of the school, the school staffs functioning as character educators, and the extent to which students manifest good character. (DeRoche and Williams, 2001, p. 4) The preceding character principles may also be followed in higher education. It is a matter of need to make clear and propel di scussions and brainstorms meetings at all levels of education in order to answer the fr equently asked questions that form a gap in the actual understanding and application; such as: What is character? What is a value? What do ethics mean? What are ethical valu es? What values are taught and learned at college and school? Why teach values at college and school? Theoretical Background The relationship between education and et hics, as well as the urgent need to merge education with ethical values and rela te them with all areas of knowledge, domains of society, work, and life has historically ha d contradictory tendencie s, different criteria and diverse interpretation (Kenway & Bulle n, 2001). For example, Sappir (1998) noted that in school settings, when an issue has a pplication to real life, it often doesn't come up as a topic in class. He reaffirmed that the goa l is to nurture the character and moral values
34 of our students. Some attempts are taking th is into account in research and curriculum settings mainly in nursing, medicine, busine ss, and science (Homann, 1996). The point is more related to rules, codes or standards of fu lfillment than the actual fact or the essence of ethics itself. Other authors and educators think that morals and ethical values training and development are the responsibility of the family and religious institutions; consequently, this may account for the concepts that make people feel that ethical values need not be taught in schools a nd colleges. Fisher (2003) made it clear when he asserted that a surface approach to ethics, which is a ssociated with self-int erest, will not promote ethical behavior. However, a deep approach, mo tivated by the desire to do the right thing does have the potential to do so. College students should understand the role of ethics in public life as presented by Joseph (2002), who stated, Three changes in th e role of ethics in public life should inform our moral imagination and guide our intellectual inquiry: 1) A new moral consciousness is da wning in which many people who strive to live morally are now insi sting that their institutions do the same; 2) While we have often used ethics to humanize and domesticate power, we now live in an era where ethics is power; 3) The private virtues, which gave us our moral strength at the dawning of independent nation states, must now be transformed into public values appropriate for an interdepen dent world that is integrating and fragmenting at the same time. (p. 8). Gadner (2003) believes that when education is integrated with ethical values, the result can be impressively positive and highly related with the reality of development, a position similar to that of Shafritz, Ko eppe, and Saper (1988), and Springer (2000). Gadner also emphasized the ethics activists who through the centuries, continued stubbornly to seek justice and liberty and a world that honore d the worth and dignity of
35 each person. Their example, he feels, can give us strength today and justify the need for integrating ethical va lues into education. The desire for integrating ethical values in to education as part of the curricula has been discussed in many different ways and within a variety of careers (Homann, 1996). The need for clarifyi ng how such integra tion might and should occur has provoked many different interpretations and disagreements by higher education and local level education authorities. The question still remained, how mi ght ethical values a pply to education in order to reach positive and effective results for the individual, families, and society? Without an answer to this que stion, we were merely guessing about what were the ethical values that college students hold. Centuries ago, Aristotle ( 384-322 B.C.) believed in the need of educating individuals and society. Yet, how individuals are developing their essentia l goals through education has created a kind of dilemma. Educati on has to deal with different trends such as the acquisition and application of knowledge the training of the mind mastering life and society, the search for and finding of ha ppiness, or simply how to survive. All of these options should find equitable answers and provide propitious paths for equitable and natural solutions as well as increasing the awareness of people (Oksenberg, 1993). Ethical values are almost always immersed in these trends in some form or another. Joseph (2002) stated John Winthrop calle d making the condition of others our own. Getting involved in the needs of the ne ighbor provides a new perspective, a new way of seeing ourselves, a new understanding of the purpose of the human journey. In other words, doing something for someone else making the condition of others our own is a powerful force in building community (p. 9).
36 An analysis of the most important points presented in this theoretical background and introduction supported the purpose of this study. The most important points were: 1. Ethical values are recognized as valuable but are not always applied in the proper manner into life (Bennett, 1992, Conroy, 2000; DeRoche & Williams, 2001; Devettere, 2002; Hays, 1994; McBeath & Webb, 2002; Oksenberg, 1993; Rodriquez, 1996; Springer, 2000; Wilson, 1993) 2. One of the best places to learn and to apply ethical values is most likely in education and college is the highest level (Edwards, 1996; Eisenberg, 1999; Hutchison, 2002; McNeel, 1994; Morrill, 1980; OFlaherty & Gleeson, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Rest & Narvaez, 1994; Vessels, 1998; Yeazell & Johnson, 1998) 3. There is a global need for people and leaders, who previously were college students in most cases, of thinking deep ly about decisions, facts, solutions, and analysis of immediate and future c onsequences of their actions (Chavez, 1999; Cummins, Tatto, & Hawkins, 2001; Hitt, 1996; Sappir, 1998; Schwartz, 1994) 4. Whatever people do in life and at work, if they apply ethical values, the results will be improvements that benefit most of the people and not only the particular interests of individuals or groups (Bando, 1994; Bell, 2002; Bennett, 1993; Butts, 1988; Conroy, 2000; Cummins, Tatto, & Hawkins, 2001; DeRoche & Williams, 2001; Frankl 1984; Franklin, 1990; Hall, 2000; Quinn, 1997; Peterson & Seligman, 2004; Richey, 2000; Wynne, 1998)
37 Selection of Ethical Values and Comparisons Among Different Authors When researchers are talking about et hics, to know what ethical values are included in ethics results as an interesting clue because there are so many ethical values that may be considered. Therefore, it was a ch allenge after an extended literature review to summarize the many different classif i cations that people have generated related to character values, traits, or strengths, also to virtues, moral values, and ethical values. Not included in this study were values dealing wi th civic, human, and life issues, such as peace, democracy, patriotism, global awaren ess, ecological, science, biomedical, diversity, multiculturalism, family, societal, wo rk, religious, national, cultural values, and others. However, all of these, when app lied, are highly related with ethical values. Since very early times, history and ph ilosophy have shown a wide variety of concepts, classifications, and interpretations th at continue being attained today. It was the intention of this literature review to summa rize the most relevant ones according to the focus of this study. A summary in the form of a table which comprises 28 lists generated by a variety of authors is presented in Tabl e 1 in Appendix B and Table 2 in Appendix C. Another summary is also shown in Appendix A, which presents alphabetically the whole number of values, virtues, or character strengths cited in the 28 lists, offering a total of 360 values for choosing the selected values used in the proposed study. Those shown shaded were the ones which co incided with those selected fo r inclusion in this study. The fact that there were more than 28 shaded valu es is because this major list included values that are very similar to one another, a nd sometimes the adjective and the noun version were provided. This extended list has the advant age of depicting in a gestalt faction the actual variety of possibilities and choices from where differe nt experts and authors make
38 selections of values, virtues, or character st rengths and how the latter use them in their particular classifications. As a base for the instrument the resear cher selected 28 ethical values which coincidently equal the number of lists analyze d. There were 28 sets of values but ten sets comprised two values, which resulted in a total of 38 values. The ethical values selected were: 1. Attentiveness/Kindness 2. Communication 3. Comprehension 4. Courage 5. Creativity 6. Decision making 7. Enthusiasm 8. Fairness/Justice spirit 9. Forgiveness/Compassion 10. Friendliness/Unity 11. Generosity 12. Gratitude/Appreciation 13. Honesty 14. Humility 15. Humor 16. Integrity 17. Knowledge/Learning 18. Love 19. Patience 20. Perseverance/Hard worker 21. Respect 22. Responsibility 23. Self-discipline/Temperance
39 24. Self-fulfillment/Diligence 25. Self-motivation 26. Service 27. Tolerance 28. Vision/Objectivity All the terms used in the instrument are defined according to different authors in Chapter Three. List of Ethical Values Selected From Different Authors Table 1 in Appendix B incl udes the list of different authors showing a very extensive number of ethical values, virtues or character strengths. The same number of authors is referred to in Table 2 in Appendix C but in this presentation, only those ethical values that coincided with the ones selected under this study were included. The tables were formatted in alphabetical order. Due to the number of values listed by the different authors, the reader should refer to the Appendices A, B, and C, especially when the list is too long. Additionally, Appendix J shows the proportions and times the di fferent values have repeated within the 28 authors lists. Appendices B and C show in a row at the t op of the tables, over the list of values and below the names, the number of values in cluded in each authors respective list. In the following row, the number of values coinci ding with the ones selected in this study is shown, over each authors respective list of values. 1. The list designed by the author in hi s pilot study had a total of 28 values. Twenty-two values from the total of 28 were retained for this research. These values are explained in detail in chapter Three as we ll as the pilot study its elf and also found in Appendix G where the questionnaire of the pilot study is presented.
40 2. Aristotle (384 -322 B.C.) made empha sis in (trans. 2000, IV, p. 46) about Plato's four virtues, courage, justice, self-r estraint, and wisdom plus six more virtues he added, friendliness, generosity, greatness of soul, magnificence, truthfulness, and wit considering temperance similar to self-restra int, giving from the ancient Greek times a core selection of ten virtues. From these, five were also in this present work. They were courage, friendliness, generosity, justice, a nd temperance. Aristotle' s characterization of virtue is known as the doctrine of the mean considering that virtues lie between the extremes of disposition, those of excess or deficiency (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). This fact reinforced the known idea that virtue s go beyond time and they should go together with the advancement of civilization. 3. Bennett (1993) selected eleven values. Ei ght of them were the same as those used in the questionnaire sele cted for this study, such as compassion, courage, friendship, honesty, perseverance, responsibility, self-disci pline, and work. Three values, democracy, faith, and loyalty were not used in this st udy. The fact that eight of eleven values coincided is very important since Bennett is one of the most recognized experts in character education. He has occupied hi gh and governmental positions related to education and he made a great emphasis on the importance of virtues relative to affirmative action, multicultural courses, curriculum reform, and religion in education as well as the enforcement of drug laws and hi gher standards in edu cation. Also, during his term as Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education, he advocat ed giving opportunities to knowledgable persons to teach even when they had not graduated from schools of education, supported performance-based pay, and evaluating teachers according to how much students learn, and argued for the comp etency testing of teachers. Paradoxically,
41 this extraordinary man gained much notor iety throughout the country when he was discovered to be a high-stakes gambler who had lost millions of dollars in Las Vegas. 4. The list of the wellknown values presented in the Boy Scouts handbook is directed to some areas of c onduct, but none necessarily relate s directly to ethical values or moral virtues per se according to Peterson & Seligman (2004). Nevertheless, it was important to cite it due to the wide use, influence, and know ledge the handbook has brought to thousands of boys and adults (former scouts) all around the world. Three of the 12 Boy Scouts values were selected for this study. These are brave, considered equivalent to courage; friendly as friendlin ess, and kind. The other eight values relevant to them were cheerful, clean, courteous, help ful, loyal, obedient, reverent, thrifty, and trustworthy. There is no doubt that all of these values or strengths build a good person with a good character. The Boy Scouts organi zation has been dedicated as a mission to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath an d Law. They became the older and nation's foremost youth program of character developm ent and values-based leadership training concentrating in offering young people respon sibility, fun and adve nture as well as service spirit, leadership and citizenship. 5. Butts (1988) also selected 12 values ; they were author ity, diversity, due process, equality, freedom, hu man rights, participation, pa triotism, privacy, property, truth, and justice, which was th e only one similar to the list of this study. The focus was more towards civic and democracy matters rath er than ethical issues. That means that even when civic education is linked to ethical and moral values (and they cannot be disconnected) many of the values selected fo r civic application are frequently focused
42 towards different view. This list was incl uded and compared with other authors of a chapter called United States: Reason over faith by Cummings, Ta tto, & Hawkins (2001) in the book Values education for dynamic societ ies: Individualism or collectivism edited by these same authors who were with the University of Hong Kong. 6. Character Training Institu te (www.characterfirst.com) is a non-profit organization based in Oklahoma City, Oklahom a and its mission is to encourage true success in businesses, schools, families, communities, and other organizations through character strengths. They also promote char acter development in individuals from all walks of life working and focusing on a spec ific character quality. This organization took into account 55 values possible to see in Table 1, Appendix B. From these values, 17 were the same as those selected for this re search. In a special program for students in schools, in order to correspond with the nine -month school calendar, they have divided its curriculum into four sets of nine character qualities which are included within the previous 55 values mentioned. In their progr ams pertinent questions assist students in self-evaluation creating awareness of the far-reaching effects of character. 7.Chavez (1999), a Venezuelan communicator and theologian, in a book called Laboratorio de tica y moral translated the title to English as Ethics and moral laboratory edited only in Spanish, mentioned two t ypes of divisions. The first included spiritual, moral, and ethical values; and th e second, vitals, theological, philosophical, logical, useful, esthetical, and for good livi ng. He also gave a general list of universal values which is shown in tables 1 and 2 of this study together with the other authors. Chavez listed 24 values and 13 of thes e were consonant with this study.
43 8. The list by Conroy (2000) was the longest list of values considered by this literature review. It containe d 101 values and 23 of these were consonant with those selected for this study. All the values li sted by Conroy were included in Table 1, Appendix B. It is interesting to note that in spite of the numbe r of values she listed, there were eight values that Conroy did not consider in her list which were considered by the author. These values were communication, decisiveness, enthusiasm, friendliness, generosity, knowledge, diligence, and service. She talked about 101 ways to integrate personal development into core curriculum, wh ich is at the same time the name of her book. Each way was represented by one value a nd given as a lesson in order to enhance the good character of students. Additionally, each lesson supported one or more of six guiding principles for developing a comple te student such as clear and effective communicators, self-directed and life-long learners, crea tive and practical problem solvers, responsible and involved citizens, collaborative and quality workers, and integrative and informal thinkers. 9. DeRoche & Williams (2001) designe d the VIP (Values Identification Prioritization) survey composed of a list of 24 core values showed in Table 1, Appendix B. He considered these values as very impor tant for the school and the community. From the DeRoche list, 14 values were similar to those adopted for this study; they are compassion, courage, fairness, forgiveness, hone sty, justice, love, patience, perseverance, respect, responsibility, self-discipline, toleran ce, and courtesy assume d as attentiveness or kindness. It is important to note that De Roche & Williams based the list for the VIP Consensus Building on three steps: 1) Participants answer the five values in the list they think are more important for them as people; 2) Participants answer the five values in the
44 list they think are more impor tant for children to learn in school; and 3) Participants working as group smaller than six people, fi nd the values should be taught in their schools and community by consensus. 10. Eyre & Eyre (1993) identified 16 main values. Eight of them coincided with the present list of ethical values considered by the author. They were courage, friendliness, honesty, jus tice, kindness, love, self-disciplin e, and respect. In their book Teaching your children values these authors made emphasis in the need of teaching ethical values since the very early age. Th ey considered that ch ildren growing up in a family involved with values and making them part of their lives, had a greater opportunity to develop themselves and help others to develop. They categorized the values in two main groups, values of bei ng, and values of giving. Other values not included in the authors list were also cited by Eyre and Eyre such as peaceability, fidelity/chastity, loyalty/dependability, modera tion, unselfishness, sensitivity, potential, and self-reliance. 11. Benjamin Franklin (1790) author of one of the most well known and repeated rules for moral values in the United States th rough history, listed th e virtues he advocated in his autobiography selecting 13 values. Five coincided with the present list of ethical values considered by the author. They were hum ility, industry (as a hard worker), justice, temperance, and sincerity (as honesty). Pete rson and Seligman (2004) also included Franklin's values in a comparative table as part of their research and writing. Franklin intended to conceive a way looking for mora l perfection minimizing faults and keeping conscious of behavioral conduct and reactions He found arduous this task and thus, he decided to develop the habitude related to the thirteen virtues he determined as priority.
45 12. Hall (2000) created a list of 23 positive character tra its intimately related to character education pr esented in a storybook using pictures to teach children. Fourteen of her positive character traits coincided with the presen t study. She concentrated the teaching of character traits us ing picture storybooks. She affirmed that we tell stories because a statement would be inadequate. Her thought ratified that story characters make alive hypothetical dilemmas that make stude nts emerge an intellectual and rational interchange of ideas and crite ria creating learning discussion s. Always there are natural and human situations that may be associated with role models and people who apply ethical values in their life. Presenting lear ning ethical values stor ies is easy and makes people aware of values importance. 13. Ethics educator Michael Josephson ( 1998) established "six pillars" of good character: trustworthiness, respect*, responsibility*, fair ness*, caring, and citizenship. Three of these values were similar to the one s in this research and are noted with an asterisk. After two decades as a law professor and as a CE O of a legal education and publishing company, he left these duties to create an Institute of Ethics designed to have a great influence about the releva nce of character education. 14. Kagan (2001) listed 98 vi rtues considered of great importance in character education. Kagan also emphasized 12 core virtue s in order to develop a positive character and integrates other virtues re lated with each of these core values. The full Kagan's list provided 26 ethical values for this study's que stionnaire, most of them denoted with an asterisk below; seven of them coincided with the core virtues he emphasized. This author classified the values in the following way.
46 1. Caring: Charity Compassion* Concern Empathy Forgiveness* Gentleness Kindness* Love* Selflessness Sensitivity Respect* Tolerance*. 2. Citizenship: Activism Caring Concern Coope ration Helpfulness Obedience Patriotism 3. Cooperation: Helpfulness Generosity* Leadership Patience* Peacefulness Sharing 4. Courage*: Assertiveness Bravery Confidence Endurance Honor Perseverance* 5. Fairness*: Citizenship Compassion* Consci ence Equality Justice* Responsibility* 6. Honesty*: Genuineness Honor Integrit y* Sincerity Trustworthiness 7. Integrity*: Charisma Conscience Constancy Consistency Honesty* Morality Righteousness Sincerity Virtue 8. Leadership: Caring Charisma Confidence C ooperation Courage* Inspiration 9. Loyalty: Commitment Constancy Devotion Faithfulness Integrity* Steadfastness 10. Perseverance*: Ambition Commitment Endurance Enthusiasm* Patience* Resilience 11. Respect*: Compassion* Courtesy Deference Politeness Reverence Tolerance* 12. Responsibility*: Citizenship Dependability Honor Reliability (The twelve core values are the ones aligned with an Arabic number) This author has worked many years in ch aracter education a nd created numerous books, guides and handouts for increasing the know ledge and application of values in schools and youth. 15. Kidder (1994) is an expert on universal values and he is president of the Institute for Global Ethics. Kidder presente d eight core universal values, which he concluded humanity must uphold in order to survive and prosper in an increasingly complex and fragile world. He based his resu lts on twenty-four interviews asking the
47 same question: If you could develop a global code of ethics, what would it be? Kidder reported in his book, Shared values for a troubled world these core universal values: Love*, truthfulness, fairness*, freedom, unity, tolerance*, responsibility*, and respect* for life. The five with an asteri sk were selected for this study. 16. Lickona (1991) is a researcher whose work in character education is very well known. He identified 12 main values, compa ssion, cooperation, courage, democratic values, fairness, honesty, pruden ce, respect, responsibility, self -discipline, tolerance, and helpfulness; eight of them coincided with those selected for this study. The four not included in this work were cooperation, prude nce, democratic values, and helpfulness. From Lickonas point of view there are two great moral values: resp ect and responsibility considering that many of other values may be included within these two major moral values. He stated that we progress in life in relation to the progress in our character raising virtues and increasing a reliable inne r disposition to respond to situations in a morally good way. Character has three interr elated moral aspects or parts: knowing, feeling, and action or behavi or. Knowing, desiring and doing the good lead and create the good character creating a habit of mind, heart, and action. All values in his list were totally related to this concept and leading a moral life. 17. Merlin (2001), in his Precepts of Merlin, provided another perspective that comes from ancient knowledge legacy. Three of the seven virtues cited by Merlin as precepts: abhor evil, acquire knowledge, be lo ved by all men, fortitude, love virtue and your neighbor, obedience, and d ecide reasonably coincided w ith those selected for this study; they were decisi on, knowledge, and love. He also pointed what he called the Seven Stars which are also ethical values or virtues guiding the Circle Branch of Druids, such as
48 honor, truth, justice, faith, hope, love, and benevolence; once more two of these were similar than the selected on this study, justice, and love. Other values considered by Merlin as principles for the Chapter Bran ch were equity, integrity, and obedience; integrity was considered in this study. The Druids were the members of the Druidic Fraternity, a group who in their view belonge d to all humanity, were non-sectarian and subscribed to the motto of the Druids whic h is United to assist. Unity, peace, and concord are the aim of the Druids. Merlin is considered the gr eatest of all Druidic teachers, and his Seven Precepts are c onsidered as a moral way of life. 18. Peterson and Seligman (2004) are two of the most prominent scholars involved in character streng ths and virtues research, fi nding and analyzing a great diversity of studies about this theme. They presented six main core virtues which contain other virtues within each afte r a huge collection of data and different references. The authors dedicated a full handbook called Character strengths and virtues of 800 pages to these values they selected as priority comparing each one with many other authors points of view and with the widest list of re ferences related to character traits, ethical values, and virtues presented up to now. It is one of the most complete studies achieved and very recent, just published in 2004. They also were assisted by numerous experts in the analysis and comments related to differe nt character strengths. From the 34 values included in their list, 15 coincided with the pres ent study; four of them were similar to the list of six core virtues designated with an as terisk. These core virt ues were wisdom and knowledge* as one, courage*, humanity, justi ce*, temperance*, and transcendence. 19. Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) (1993) referred ei ght main values (caring, courage, democracy, golden rule, honesty, patriotism, re ligious, and tolerance); three of them,
49 courage, honesty, and tolerance were similar to those selected for this study. Phi Delta Kappa is an international educational association promoting quality education towards the development and maintenance of a democra tic way of life through research, service, and leadership in education. PDK publishes a professional journal for education that addresses issues of policy and practice for ed ucators at all levels that appears monthly September through June. The organization is enhancing research-based school improvement and possible reforms. The core eight values selected by the PDK have considerable credibility because of its reputation in the field of education. 20. Plato (427-347 B.C.) as one of the firs t great masters of the Greek ancient philosophy concluded in his writing The Republic that four core values: courage, justice, self-restraint, and wisdom give pe ople the possibility to fulfill the ideal human society. The first three are incl uded in the list developed for use in this study, (trans.1968; IV, 427). Plato believed that any function ma y be performed well or poorly and that depends on how people apply virtues. He also fo cused in the role of soul that enables the possibility of functioning well and gives the capacity of awakening virtue, therefore, happiness and moral life that relates to living. Plato saw how families apply values; families who apply values well will live well in their society, and therefore, more people will be happier. Virtue moves people to the Idea of the Good, which is eternal and immutable. Virtues cause human societies to be have within personal, social, and political affairs under the foundations of morality bringing peace and progress (Holmes, 2003). The four core virtues offered by Plato form the heart of individuals, families, and societies and a legacy across centuries.
50 21 and 22. Rokeach (1973), in a book entitled The nature of human values, created a useful compound of values. He classi fied a list of valu es as terminal and instrumental values. Both are shown in a separated list in the Table 1 and 2 comparing values achieved on this study. The first list of terminal values counts 18 values as more related with life success and lif e aspirations as ends and coinciding with this study are self-respect, mature love, and friendship. The se cond list of instrumental values primarily provided the means necessary to achieve the ends. The instrumental values were more closely related to the purpose of this research; six of the va lues by Rokeach were selected for this study; they were courage, forgiven ess, honesty, love, and responsibility, and selfcontrol. When both classified lists were analyzed, they place together the whole relationship that people hold between individual and soci al value support during life. 23. Saint Paul cited the three very we ll known fundamental virtues of good people; faith, hope, and charity. It is important to note that no ne of these three virtues has been included in the list selected for this study; however, they are heavily linked with many of those that were selected. These virt ues are rarely repeated on the lists from different authors. The reason why these were not included is beca use these are very simple and at the same time very sublime, being connected with the spiritual growth; most of people think values are mainly applie d to our daily and surv ival life saving the spiritual aspect for later. 24. Schwartz and Bilsky (1987, 1990) genera ted a list in a different way drawing upon earlier studies achieved by Rokeach (1973), then, they proposed ten values universally well recognized. This list was prepared taken the following values: achievement, benevolence, conformity, hedo nism, power, security, self-direction,
51 stimulation, tradition, and universalism. The list assumed for this study taken from them, joined together the universal values selected by Schwartz, ten priority classes of values as a total with the corresponding character strengths interpreted from Peterson and Seligman, culminating in a total listing of 26 trai ts. From these, nine were similar to those selected for this study; they were: kindne ss, creativity, fairness, gratitude, honesty, appreciation of beauty, love of learning, pe rsistence taken as perseverance, and selfregulation. Schwartz's working definition of value is a conception of a desirable that influences the way people select action and evaluate events (Sch wartz & Bilsky, 1987, p.550). Therefore, some of values need to be related because they are universal requirements of survival for individuals and societies. 25. Stirling (2000) talked about ch aracter traits in her work, Character education connections with data obtained from different sc hool districts utilizing a consensusbuilding process that involved students, teachers, parents, and local community. From a total of 48 values or traits, she found seven to be the most repeated by the majority of districts. These were: Cooperation, honesty, perseverance, respect, responsibility, selfcontrol, and service. Six of these seven valu es were included in this study; the one not included was cooperation. Of her total of 48 va lues, 14 were considered for this study. Stirling emphasized how character educa tion can be assessed hand-in-hand with academic learning. Therefore, she achieved a research-based consensus-building process including educators, students, parents, and members of the local community, looking for infusing character education into school environments, classrooms, and curriculums finding out character traits or values which different district s identify as most important.
52 26. There are two foundation categories fo r the list developed by Gordon Vessels (1998). These are those related to personal integrity and thos e for social integrity. He took four major or primary vi rtues from within the personal integrity category, which are kindness, courage, ability, and effort. Each one contained twelve virtues intimately related to the primary virtue. Social integr ity included three main values; they were friendship, teamwork, and citizenship with each one of these integrating twelve virtues. This study includes 23 of Vessels list of 91 valu es that are shown in Tables 1 and 2 in appendices B and C respectively. Vessels in sisted in the importa nce of evaluation; students are usually chosen on the basis of improvement in stead of who has kept an exemplary model role of virtuous behavior. A bunch of values should be in the mind of students and teachers. He added the concept th at persons with moral character develop a strength and ability to think for themselves and solve conflicts and hard situations including those containing moral dilemmas. 27. Peterson and Seligman (2004) develo ped a questionnaire called VIA-IS, Values in action inventory of strengths which included a summary list of 24 values or character strengths. Twelve of the 24 values coincided with the present study; these were kindness, creativity, fairness, forgiveness, gr atitude, humility, humor, integrity, learning, love, persistence, and self-re gulation. They also concentrat ed their effort in a very scientific and extensive work that ended in a well documented book summarizing most of the knowledge related to virtues and character strengths as mentioned before. All of these 24 character strengths or virtues included in th e VIA-IS instrument are also in the list mentioned before by Peterson and Seligman that hold 34 character stre ngths, which is the framework for their handbook. The authors genera ted this list of character strengths as a
53 base for a questionnaire for researching a nd measuring a persons strengths which was applied to adults and youth as separate m odels obtaining reliable results for both cases. According their criteria, al l the measurements obtained through the character traits evaluated by the participants of the survey analyzed on this instrument target to the good life and contribute as character education to positive youth development, life coaching, workplace wellness promotion, and the like. 28. Wilson (1993) maintained, based upon cons iderable supportiv e research, that there exists a universal sense related to virt ues and morals. He deduced, after an analysis of the multiple opinions and cultures, that there are four main sentiments: sympathy, fairness, self-control, and duty. Three of the four (sympathy, fairness, and self-control) were selected for this study, with sympathy be ing considered within the family of the compassion virtue. Wilson summarized these four virtues as sentiments because these affect in one way or other th e joy and sorrows of others. R eacting to situations of life shows human character and makes people diffe rent and at the same time reflects relationship, necessary to social and moral life. An important statement he emphasized was that people values change in importan ce according each person but people are not certain why, or at least say why w ith enough conviction to persuade others. After examining this review of 28 lists of values from numerous authors of different poques of humanity, it was clear that ethi cal values, virtues, or character strengths have a remarkable influen ce upon people and their development. Also, the following ten values listed in the order of their fr equency on the 28 lists from different experts and philosophers we re fairness/justice spirit with 78.57 %, followed by self-discipline/temperance w ith 67.86 % and courage with 53.57%. Those
54 with 50 % included, honesty, love, and res ponsibility and with 46.43 %, respect, attentiveness/kindness, forgiveness/compassi on, and perseverance/hard worker. All the others appeared a minimum of 10 times or less. A table was created summarizing all the selected values and the corresponding number of times these values were selected by the lists authors including their respective percentages whic h is shown in Appendix J. The analysis of the 28 lists in context w ith an extensive literature review validated the selected 28 sets of ethical values (a total of 38 values) as a basis for the questionnaire developed as a research instrument. Other criteria from authors not included in the Tables 1 and 2 were also worthy of mention such as the cardinal virtues. Thes e virtues, considered ethical ideals by the ancient Greeks, were prudence, justice, te mperance, and fortitude. Two of the preceding four were used in this study. Continuing a quest for finding and defining universal values, Hitt (1996) drew a framework of moral principles he called th e Temple of Humanity that can serve both the individual and the global community. Within this framework composed by humanita, daily life, philosophy, religion, and science, he created the Temple of Goodness that mirrored the Temple of Humanity. Lini ng up corresponding ch ambers of the two temples, he got the following parallelism or alignment: humanita: integrity* daily life: contribution philosophy: communication* religion: compassion* science: cooperation The values with asterisk coincided with the authors list of ethical values.
55 Hitt (1996) created in this way, a framew ork for defining what constituted the Good Life. As defined by Hitt, the Good Life follows when one understands that the universal attributes of ethical values emanat e from an emphasis on five main core values, such as integrity, cooperation, compassion, co mmunication, and cont ribution. These core values support people in the fulfillment of th eir responsibilities and rights, thereby easing their reach to peace. Three of these five core values were similar to the virtues identified for this study. Edwards (1996) noted that in the 1990s the National Curric ulum Council (NCC) reminded schools that the whole curriculum was broader than the core and foundation subjects. The NCC renamed cross-curricular themes, emphasized attitudes and values in one of its working documents which, althoug h not widely circulated, provided formal recognition that these themes should prov ide opportunities to promote the following attitudes and values. Those aligned with th is study are denoted with an asterisk. Respect* in all its fields; for evidence a nd rational argument, for different ways of life, beliefs, opinion and the le gitimate interests of others; regard for equal opportunities including the challengin g of stereotypes and an active c oncern for human rights; for nonviolent ways of resolving conflict; for qual ity and excellence; for valuing oneself and others; for constructive interest in commun ity affairs; for independence of thought; for consideration for others; and of course, for self-respect. Tolerance* and open-mindedness. Enterprising; associated with initiative and courage* Persistent approach to tasks and cha llenges; associated with perseverance* Determination to succeed; associated w ith decision making* a nd self-fulfillment*
56 Self-discipline* and self-confidence; Sense of responsibility* for personal and collective action. Flexibility and adaptability to change ; associated with comprehension* and decision-making*. It is important to mention that the em phasis over the past years on information technology, vocational qualifications, and the b ack to basics efforts coupled with the busy teachers activities has m eant that those parts of th e national curriculum proposed by the NCC (which are non-stat utory) have been subjugated and sometimes ignored by many educational institutions (Edwards, 1996). Hitt (1996) also suggested that it was po ssible to find a common core of ethics across the various views by philosophers rela ted to thought and behavior. Philosophy and even religion directed their concept of the Good Life under a simple, but well known principle, the Golden Rule. Buddhism: Hurt not others with that which pains yourself. Christianity: Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them. Confucianism: What you do not wa nt done to yourself do not do unto others. Hinduism: Good people proceed while considering what is best for others is best for themselves. Islam: No one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself Judaism: And thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself. Zoroastrianism: Whatever is di sagreeable to yourself do not do unto others. (p.111). College students, teachers, community, and people collectively are looking for essentially the same answers. The Internati onal Values Education Sigma Survey found in the Appendix of Values education for dynamic socie ties: Individualism or collectivism
57 edited by Cummings et al. (2001) focused upon finding answers to what are the reasons for improving values education in today's so ciety. The survey summarized 17 statements that prevail today. All of th ese statements supported the n eed for ethical values as a means of reaching goals and responding to the question, Why should there be values education? It is easy to observe how within the al luded to 17 statements a number of ethical values and virtues are immersed. Those rela ting to this study are indicated with an asterisk. 1. To help youth interpret the values transmitted by the mass media, the internet, and other information technologies. 2. To provide a foundation for spiritual development*. 3. To promote more orderly and car ing* school communities and thus facilitate learning*. 4. To help* each young person develops a reflective and autonomous* personality. 5. To develop an appreciation* for our he ritage and to strengthen national identity*. 6. To provide a guide for be havior* in daily life. 7. To combat juvenile delinquency including bullying, gang violence, and drug abuse. 8. To foster economic development by strengthening values* such as hard work*, creativity*, and individual competitiveness*. 9. To improve the respect* and opp ortunities extended to girls and women. 10. To combat the recent trends of ecological abuse. 11. To promote world peace. 12. To combat the tendency for social prejudice and to promote greater tolerance* for ethnic, la nguage, and racial groups. 13. To increase the sense of individual responsibility*. 14. To strengthen families. 15. To encourage* greater civic consciousness and thus strengthen democracy. 16. To promote pride* in local communities and community life. 17. To promote the values of justice* and equity* (p. 304). These statements, according to Cummings et al., (2001) and Eisenberg (1999) were applicable also to college students w ho need to have a clear knowledge of ethical
58 values in order to improve th eir performance in both work a nd society and as leaders in their different fields. Another important question that still re quires a deep focus through research is, knowing what percent of a school's or coll eges time and effort was and should be devoted to values in education? DeRoche & Williams (2001) cited several statements related to the importance and application of ethical values, each made by different experts, which were very signi ficant and applicable to coll ege students as well as the greater society. Brooks (1997) stated What is important is that children develop values and character traits that make it possible for them to live harmoniously and at peace. This is especially critical as the world continue s to move toward instantaneous global communication and interaction (p.18). Dalton & Watson (1997). The importance of the social and ethical values that children experience in the classroom the va lues that are modeled and lived there cannot be overemphasized: children need to experience fairness, respect, responsibility, and kindness in order to recipr ocate such behavior (p. 19). Quinn (1997) noted, Today, more than ever education represents a moral as well as intellectual investment in our youth It cost s little or nothing to infuse core values into every aspect of school life (p. 117). Values in education tend to integrate students, teachers, and communities around many different places approaching a diversity of themes but th e interesting issue is that all of them are interrelated and creating connectiveness through th e implementation of ethical values direct or indirectly. After an an alysis of the values lis ted in tables 1 and 2 it
59 was easy to see the influence of values educ ation and how each one may apply to several different countries. Values for education were compared for different countries and were substantially integrated into the following groups in alphabetic order, civic values, democracy values, diversity and multiculturali sm values, ecological awareness, family values, gender equality, global awareness, moral values, national identity and patriotism, peace and conflict resolution, values of pe rsonal autonomy and reflection, religious values, and work values. Cummings et al. (2001) showed the ranges of priority for different themes and for different countries. While there might be so me differences of opi nion concerning the content of each one, these differences of opinion will not exist in terms of their need. What is important for this research is that each of the themes utilized by different countries and educational systems always requi res the application of ethical values. As history indicates, if ethical values are not present, solutions to their implementation will not be found. Most instruments or questionnaires include questions or statements relating to ethical values. Some of these items (as noted by Cummings, et al. (2001)), are provided below as an example. The asterisk indicates one or more ethical value in each statement. 1. Schooling should first promote an understanding* and love* of nation and then teach about the rest of the world. 2. Schools should foster an unde rstanding* of all religions. 3. Schooling should assist each child in developing their own individual* values* as social values* and moral Values*. 4. Schools should stress that all are equal* before the law. 5. As sound preparation for the world of work, habits of loyalty*, obedience*, hard work*, and punctua lity* need to be stressed in school. 6. Schools should help* young people gain viewpoints from the most conservative to the most liberal.
60 7. Schools should teach young people to venerate* their heroes and promote national pride*. 8. Schools should note* social differences and stress the duty* of the fortunate to help* those who encounter difficulties. 9. It is important to highlight the role of individual competitiveness* and creativity* in realizing both social and economical success. 10. Girls are destined to have signif i cant home-should prepare* them for this future. 11. Schools should help* young people appreci ate* the essential role of unions in guaranteeing safe work conditions and fair* wages. 12. School should teach each child th e value of critical thinking*. 13. It is best for schools to teach co mmon values* to all children without differentiation on the basis of class, ethnicity, or re ligion (p. 306). The combination of values education util ized by different societies is very mixed. This phenomenon is significant when different forms or ways for choosing or presenting values were reviewed. This is apparent when different cl assifications of values from philosophers, educators, psychologi sts, religious leaders, poli ticians, leaders, and others placed more emphasis on some values than ot hers; yet, all of them included ethical values, virtues, or character strengths. It also happened that when some educators such as Butts (1998), Bennett (1993), Eyre & Eyre ( 1993), Lickona (1991), and Phi Delta Kappa (1993) were compared by Cummings et al. (2 001) their lists of values, as shown in followings statements aligned well with other common themes, 1. Individual responsibility and away from individualism. 2. Tolerance in ethnic, gender, and religion searching for equity in all aspects. 3. Democratic thought and equal oppor tunities with common values. 4. Selfrespect and respect for others and for different religious faiths. DeRoche and Williams (2001) noted how many schools developed Value-aMonth Programs (VAMP). For example, it was possible to compare the values chosen by East View Elementary School (Oswego Community School District, No. 308, Oswego,
61 Illinois), which had a character education prog ram with the values selected for study in this research. From September to May, eight of the nine monthly East View values were considered by the present study. These valu es were respect, generosity, fairness, perseverance, honesty, friendship, responsib ility, and decision-making. The only one listed but not in this study was cooperation. (Pl ease note that this list is not included as part of either table 1 or table 2). The analysis of all these lists in contex t with an extensive literature review has validated the selected ethical values that were part of the questionnaire developed for this research. It also provided a strong basi s for a more open-minded and widespread knowledge base regarding the va riety of ethical values, char acter strengths, and traits. These values were modeling our expectations of life and goals w ith our patterns of conduct and behavior. Values are enduring human nature responses but may, according to Rokeach (1973), be inactive or hidden in their application. This phenomenon demonstrates how ethical values remain with us but are not alwa ys those we apply. A statement made in Aspen, 1992 by 30 American leaders convened by the Josephson Institute of Ethics stated: Effective character education is based on core ethical values which form the foundation of a democratic society is cited by DeRoche and Williams (2001) (p.2). This statement re presents a significan t goal for present and future generations. Summary During this extensive literature review, many important topics related to ethical values, virtues, character strengths, and mo rals were found. Nevertheless, no research
62 was found that referred to college students ethical values and none were answering the research questions posed for this study. It is important to realize that we are at the present in an era where ethics is recognized as important and necessary for educat ion and society. It is also true that while many people talk about ethics, few really understand the actual meaning of it. Such individuals are using the word for mani pulating and confusing people, political correctness, and for cove ring their backsides. The relevance of ethical valu es, virtues, and character st rengths is everywhere and several organizations and inst itutions intend to enhance its knowledge and sometimes its implementation. The results have been slow but the increasing numb er of organizations based on prevailing and sustaining principles an d values in spite of the difficulties makes the efforts worthwhile. From all disciplines th ere is a convergence of the application of ethical values in order to succeed and to im prove in all areas of life and work. When students are conscious as well as their teachers and professors of what values they hold as well as those held by others, it will be easier to improve and solve situations of all kinds. The literature related to ethics, character, values, morals, virtues and similar themes is wide and applies to all domains of life and society. Nevertheless, the need for understanding the meaning of ethical values their importance, their benefits, their application, and the usefulness that they offer to individuals, families, work, and society is still obscure to most people. They have heard about ethics but they do not understand its actual meaning, relevance, and consequences This fact validated once more the urgent need for research, especially with college stude nts, who directly or indirectly, will be the leaders in their different fields of comp etence in the near and foreseeable future.
63 What was interesting after all this literature review was that no research or writing has been found focused in identifying the ethi cal values that coll ege students hold and showing the benefits, importance, application, and criteria that college students give to ethical values. This finding provided ampl e support for the authors focus and the proposal study.
64 CHAPTER THREE METHODS This chapter describes and explains th e design of the st udy and the research methodology utilized to determine the ethical va lues of college students. It includes the research design, the pilot study developed and conducted, and the design of the final instrument used to gather the required data. It also includes the procedures for identifying the population and sampling, data collection, and the statistical methods applied. Research Questions The primary research question to be answered by this study was: What are the ethical values that college students have? Secondary questions to be answered were: 1. What ethical values do college st udents consider most important? 2. What ethical values do college students think others hold as the most important? 3. What ethical values do college st udents apply most in their life? 4. Do college students consider ethical values useful for people in work, family, society, and education? 5. What do college students feel are the main benefits of applying ethical values to individuals, families, education, and society?
65 6. Where do college students acquire an d develop their ethical values? 7. Are college students interested in themes related to ethical values? 8. What ethical values do college students consider are the most important to apply in education? 9. Do college students consider that et hical values are important to be included in curricula? If so, do colle ge students think that educational institutions should offer courses on ethical values? These questions regarding ethical values we re linked one to another and create a wide network of learning and understanding of life and work while, at the same time, providing a basis for new ques tions and further researc h. College students are the professionals and leaders of the future a nd a better understanding of the ethical values that they hold and apply are important especi ally for those people who will interact with them in whatever their future role might be. Instrumentation Foundations for the Developed Instrument The instrument developed for the presen t study was based on an examination of the trends related to ethical values in the literature and a pilot study developed by the author, who designed both questionnaires, pilot and the current instrument on ethical values to be applied to college students. The instrument was developed in order to find answers to the primary and secondary resear ch questions. The instrument was founded upon a series of ethical values selected from different authors and researchers after a detailed analysis reviewed and analyzed in chapter Two. The complete lists comprising
66 all the ethical values from these authors a nd the list showing which values were similar are shown in Tables 1 and 2. From the whole set of 28 lists, 28 values were selected. Strictly by coincidence the number of selected lists was the same as the number of ethical values selected. Definitions were attained from different expe rts for each one of these values according to the focus of this study. Definitions of Selected Ethical Values The definitions of selected ethical values are presented as follows: 1. Appreciation: An emotionally tinged awareness of the worth value, or significance of anything. An intellectual and emotional awareness of or sensitivity to the aesthetic phenome na, often concerned with critical evaluation and understanding (Good, 1973). 2. Attentiveness: keeping your eyes, ears, and thoughts on the person who is speaking or leading your group (Vessels, 1998). 3. Communication: engaging in genuine dialogue (Hitt, 1996). 4. Compassion: demonstrating an active concern fo r the well-being of others (Hitt, 1996). Empathy: (use for Compassion) Ability to share another's emotions, thoughts, or feelings in order to better understand the person (Hall, 2000). Sympathy: the capacity for and inclination to imagine the feelings of others (Wilson, 1993). 5. Comprehension: understanding: acting in a way that caus es others to conclude that you are fully aware of their feelings and circ umstances and are willing to make adjustments to lessen or limit their difficulties (Vessels, 1998). 6. Courage: (use for Integrity) Attitude of facing what is difficult, painful, or dangerous in a brave manner (Hall, 2000) Being strong enough to do what is right when you are afraid to do so. (Vessels, 1998). 7. Creativity: using your imagination to make so mething that has never been made or seen before; solving new and differe nt problem when you are not sure how to do this at first (Vessels, 1998). 8. Decision making: making decisions conf idently and without hesitancy, self-doubt, or troublesome delay afte r considering enough relevant information to make a good decision (Vessels, 1998). 9. Diligence: (use for Dedication, Integrity) Being stea dfast and careful in effort (Hall, 2000). 10. Enthusiasm: absorbing or controllin g possession of the mind by any interest or pursuit (Iannone, 2001).
67 11. Fairness: equity, reciprocity, and impartia lity (Wilson, 1993). Fair/just: making sure that people get what they deserve after thinking about thei r needs, rights, and behavior (Vessels, 1998). 12. Forgiveness: to give up resentment against a nd stop being angry with someone in order to pardon or release one for an offense (Hall, 2000). 13. Friendship: treating others the way you want to be treated (Vessels, 1998). 14. Generosity: (use for Charity, Giving, Sharing) Unse lfish willingness to give or share (Hall, 2000). 15. Gratitude: A sentimental and thankful emotion on the part of the recipient of a favor directed at the benefactor and motivating actions that return some good to that person (Bunnin & Yu, 2004). 16. Hard worker: doing your best and not stopping until you are finished even when your work is not very fun (Vessels, 1998). 17. Honesty: (use for Integrity, Trustworthiness, Tr uthfulness) Free of deceit and untruth (Hall, 2000). 18. Humility: viewing yourself in a manner characte rized by an absence of alienating pride, vanity, conceit, boastfulness, arrogance, and vindictiveness and acting accordingly so others do not feel de valued or inferior (Vessels, 1998). 19. Humor: the capacity to see and feel what is loveable, admirable, in a thing, and what is laughable in it, at the same time (Bunnin & Yu, 2004). 20. Integrity: living by a set of moral principles (Hitt, 1996). 21. Justice: (use for Fairness, Integrity) To uphold wh at is right, correct, honorable, and fair and to be free of prejudice, partiality, discrimination, and dishonesty. (Hall, 2000). 22. Kindness: (use for Caring, Charity, Civility, Co mpassion, Thoughtfulness) Acting with goodwill toward another (Hall, 2000). Ma king others feel better by knowing how they feel and either shar ing or causing good feelings (Vessels, 1998). 23. Knowledge: apprehending truth (Hitt, 1996). 24. Learning: the acquisition of a form of knowle dge or ability through the use of experience. Not all modifications of beha vior as a result of experience involve learning (Honderich, 1995). 25. Love: a desire for beauty which should tr anscend the physical and even the personal culminating in philosophy , the love of wisdom itself (Honderich, 1995). 26. Objectivity: being able to look at a person, problem, or situation factually or without distortion due to personal fe elings and prejudices (Vessels, 1998). 27. Patience: waiting or enduring without complaint (Hall, 2000). 28. Perseverance: continued persistent effort (Ha ll, 2000). Persisting or not giving up in an endeavor or situation in spit e of counter influences, opposition from others, unanticipated obstacles or hardship, and personal feelings of discouragement that naturally accompany barriers to success (Vessels, 1998). 29. Respect: feelings of deference, re gard, and honor (Hall, 2000). 30. Responsibility: (use for Dependability, Trustworth iness) Accountable and dependable (Hall, 2000).
68 31. Self-discipline: (use for Integrity, Temperance) Controlling one's conduct and desires (Hall, 2000). Self-control: the ability to restrain impulses fo r immediate pleasure in the light of higher values (Wilson, 1993). 32. Self-fulfillment: the fulfillment or actualization of ones best capacity is held to lead to a successful life and the achieveme nt of a true or realm self (Bunnin & Yu, 2004). 33. Self-motivation: determination of behavior in whic h the welfare of ones self is an important factor and in which th ere is ego involvement (Good, 1973). 34. Service: the performance of a task for the be nefit of others whether voluntarily, by request, or to fulfill a social need (Good, 1973). 35. Temperance: showing moderation in action, thought and feeling particularly in situations where over-in dulgence and extreme passion could be harmful to yourself or others (Vessels, 1998). 36. Tolerance: (use for Integrity) Accepting that whic h one may not especially like (Hall, 2000). 37. Unity: wholeness; the integration of all parts and elements into an inseparable oneness of interdependent parts (Good, 1973). 38. Vision: (Visual field) The totality of a persons visual sense-impressions or immediate perceptions at a given time. This field includes all true or false visual data immediately ac quired without nay elemen t of inference (Bunnin & Yu, 2004). There are 38 definitions albeit the study included just 28 ethical values. This discrepancy was due to the fact that there we re some ethical values the questionnaire at times included a group of two highly related values such as attentiveness/kindness; selfdiscipline/temperance; fulfillment/diligence; vision/objectivity; forgiveness/compassion; perseverance/hard worker; fairness/justice spirit; knowledge/learning; friendliness/unity; and gratitude/appreciation. There were ten sets with double values, therefore, there were ten more ethical values and definitions given and enumerated. These definitions reinforced the criteria for selection and clarified the ample possibilities of different inte rpretations especially for so me ethical values which had various meanings completely different as it has for example the own word value.
69 Pilot Questionnaire Applie d to College Students The study presented an instrument which was primarily founded on an instrument developed as part of a pilot study. The author intended through the questionnaires to find answers on ethical values, virtue s, or character strengths a pplied to college students. A paper presented to the Civic Education a nd Research Conference at Reno, Nevada, September 2004 by the author included this pilot study (Mercader, 2004). A set of twenty-eight ethical values were selected by the researcher in order to create a base for the instrument in research ing and acquiring the data necessary to provide measurable results. The ethical values select ed by the author in the pilot st udy are shown within the questionnaire include d in Appendix F and G. The ethi cal values as well as the final instrument selected by the author for this study are also shown within the questionnaire included in this chapter and ag ain in Appendix D and E. Both are compared and discussed in this chapter. The purpose of the questionnaire for the pilo t study as well as th at for the current study was to determine what ethical values college students possess while they are enrolled pursuing a degree program. Also, whic h of these ethical values were the most important to students and which were the most applied according to the latters criteria, their origin, their benefits, and their usefulness once acquired. There were sets of variables that referred to ethical values that were categorized in the following groups. Each group contained othe r secondary variables. All of them may be linked in different ways and they were of ten closely interrelated and created a set of variables dealing with ethical values. The variables were:
70 1. Demographics: Age, gender, academic major, academic minor, student status, marital status, employment status, type of employme nt at present, employer, ethnicity, citizenship, residence in a nother country, home background. 2. Most important ethical values in life based on importance. 3. Most important ethical values in life based on their application. 4. Usefulness of ethical values for pe ople at work, family, society, and education. 5. Main benefits of the application of ethical values for individuals, families, education, and society. 6. Origin or roots for the ethical values acquired and developed: home, religion, community, college, elementary school middle school, friends, high school, and others. 7. Courses and workshops rela ted to ethical values in educational programs suggested by college students. A list of the ethical values selected in the pilot study is shown. Some blank spaces (others) were provided to add some ethical valu es that were not on th e list, which in their opinion were relevant. The list of ethical va lues was presented in the pilot questionnaire in four different formats designed to avoid the possibility of participants reading and analyzing the first values more than the last ones. Twenty eight -ethical values were selected for the pilot study and were listed as follows:
71 Ethical Values Selected for the Pilot Study Initiative Respect A ttentiveness/Kindness Self-motivation Responsibility Taking opportunities Honesty Good humor Fulfillment/Diligence Service spirit Integrity Vision/Objective Patience Humility Perseverance/Hard worker Generosity Communication Fairness/Justice spirit Comprehension Tolerance Analysis/Logic Knowledge/Learning Enthusia sm Organization/Planning Love Detachment Decision-making Self-contentment Other _______ Other ________ The answers from the students were quite complete and fulfilled the required expectations. Very few questions were unanswered. The methodology used and the re sults obtained fr om the pilot study are presented to give credibility to the study and provide va lidity for the instrument developed for this study. Sample Students enrolled in 12 differe nt courses at the Universi ty of South Florida were selected because it was easier to reach a spec trum of students from any major in this way. A total of 196 college students answered Part A and Part B of the questionnaire in these courses and three more answered only Part A. The sample courses and enrollments were: Undergraduate 4 courses of Spanish I with 71 stude nts from all different colleges. 1 course of economics in Spanish with 15 students from all different colleges. 2 courses of electrical engineering w ith 61 students from the College of Engineering.
72 1 course of equity in education with 19 students from different colleges. 1 course in education with 8 stude nts from the College of Education. 1 TOEFL course with 13 foreign speaking students. Subtotal undergraduate: 187 students Graduate 1 course in education with 9 stude nts from the College of Education. Subtotal graduate: 9 students Demographics Many different variables were considered in the pilot study. A number are omitted in this brief summary of results of the pilot study but all the variable s, data analyzed, and the results related to the administration of th e current instrument are presented in chapter 4 of this study. For this reason, the results pr ovided for the pilot study in this chapter represent only the major percentages and not always the total of them. See the pilot instrument in Appendix F and G, for the term s and issues included within the variables and questions. Statistical methods as conf idence intervals were appl ied in this pilot study to demographic characteristics data and also to data obtained from other research questions. These results made it possible to assure that the author was 95 percent confident that the population proportion or mean of the variables analyzed we re between certain ranges, which are presented in the following tables. Confidence intervals are significant in order to understand the sample projection to popula tion in all areas of demographic concerns under this study.
73 Table 3 The Pilot Study Questionnaire Demographics Sample (n) Percentage (%) Confidence interval CI = 95% Age 18 25 26 35 111 55 56.35 27.92 49.41 63.29 21.64 34.20 Gender Male Female 93 103 47.45 52.55 40.46 54.44 45.56 59.54 Student status Junior Senior 48 101 24.74 52.06 18.70 30.78 45.07 59.05 Marital status Single Married 152 38 76.77 19.19 70.86 82.68 13.68 24.70 Employment Part-time Full-time Unemployed 87 52 57 44.39 26.53 29.08 37.43 51.35 20.35 32.71 22.72 35.44 Type of employment Services Sales Others Education Engineering Technology 28 21 21 15 13 8 20,59 15.44 15.44 11.03 9.56 5.88 14.93 26.25 20.50 10.38 10.38 20.50 6.64 15.42 5.44 13.68 2.59 9.17 Type of Employer Private/Corporation Government Other Self-employed 93 24 16 9 65.49 16.90 11.27 6.34 58.83 72.15 11.65 22.15 6.84 15.70 2.93 9.75
74 Table 3 (Continued). The Pilot Study Questionnaire Demographics Sample (n) Percentage (%) Confidence interval CI = 95% Ethnics Caucasian Hispanic African-American Asian Others 108 31 23 15 20 54.82 15.74 11.68 7.61 10.15 47.85 61.79 10.64 20.84 7.18 16.18 5.92 14.38 3.90 11.32 Citizenship USA Others 160 36 81.63 18.36 76.21 87.05 12.94 23.78 Residence in other country YES NO 71 125 36.22 63.78 29.49 42.95 57.05 70.51 Home background Suburban Urban Rural Other 108 65 19 4 55.10 33.16 9.69 2.04 48.14 62.06 26.57 39.75 5.55 13.83 0.06 4.02 Demographic characteristics. These characteristics are summarized in Table Three and describe the sample as follows: 1. Age Most of the students were under 25 years old (56.35 %). 2. Gender The ratio between males and females in the sample was very similar (Male, 47.45 %, Female, 52.55 %). 3. Academic Major. There were college students fr om a wide number of majors, with the largest number (60) from electri cal engineering. Ten st udents were taking psychology, eight English education, and seven were communication majors. In
75 terms of minors, eighteen were minoring in mathematics and eight others had minors in Spanish. 4. Student status Most of the participants were senior level students (52.06 %); 24.74 % were junior level. 5. Marital status The percentage of single persons was 76.77 %. 6. Employment A large number of students ha d some part time job (44.39 %). 7. Type of employment All kinds of jobs were noted with services (20.59 %) and sales (15.44 %) being the most common. 8. Type of Employer. The majority of students who were employed were working for private corporations (65.49 %). 9. Ethnics. Over one half of the student s were Caucasians (54.82 %). 10. Citizenship American college students represented a high percentage of the population surveyed (81.63 %). 11. Residence in other countries A high percentage of students have not lived abroad (63.78 %). 12. Countries of residence A number of countries we re indicated; however, none were of sufficient quantity to denote a concentration. 13. Home background Most of the students were from suburban environments (55.10 %), 33.16 % were from urban settings. Importance and Application of Ethical Values. From a list of twenty-eight ethical values, college students selected as the highest ethical value in importance to be Honesty with 73.30 %. Next, in order, were Respect (56.32 %), Integrity (56.21%), Responsibility (55.15 %), Kn owledge/Learning (54.61 %),
76 Perseverance (54.36 %), Love (53.95 %), Sel f-motivation (45.33 %), and Fairness (44.37 %). Results indicated that these values are important to college students but are almost never directly taught at the college level. No existing courses reinforce directly these ethical values nor do any existing courses an alyze their pros and cons, benefits, or consequences.
77 Table 4 Importance of Ethical Values (Pilot Study Questionnaire) Ethical Values (*) Importa nce Confidence Intervals Percentage (%) Percentage (%) Honesty* Respect* Integrity* Responsibility* Knowledge/Learning* Perseverance* Love* Self-motivation Fairness Communication Self-contentment Good humor Tolerance Vision/Objectives Comprehension Initiative Decision-making Kindness/Attentiveness Organization/Planning Fulfillment Patience Taking opportunities Analysis/Logic Generosity Enthusiasm Service Spirit Humility Detachment 73.30 % 56.32 % 56.21 % 55.15 % 54.61 % 54.36 % 53.95 % 45.33 % 44.37 % 42.31 % 37.10 % 36.18 % 35.21 % 33.59 % 32.06 % 31.85 % 30.83 % 30.56 % 30.50 % 29.41 % 29.14 % 28.26 % 27.86 % 26.53 % 24.81 % 22.13 % 20.14 % 9.80 % 67.11 79.49 49.38 63.26 49.26 63.16 48.19 62.11 47.64 61.58 47.39 61.33 46.97 60.93 38.36 52.30 37.41 51.33 35.39 49.23 30.34 43.86 29.45 42.91 28.52 41.90 26.98 40.20 25.53 38.59 25.33 38.37 24.36 37.30 24.11 37.01 24.05 36.95 23.03 35.79 22.78 35.50 21.96 34.56 21.58 34.14 20.35 32.71 18.76 30.86 16.32 27.94 14.53 25.75 5.64 13.96 Other values: Discipline Honor Loyalty Power Reliable Trust Independence (*) Highest values denoted with asterisk
78 Table 5 Application of Ethical Valu es (Pilot Study Questionnaire) Ethical Values (*) Application Confidence intervals Percentage (%) Percentage (%) Honesty* Love* Respect* Integrity* Perseverance* Responsibility* Knowledge/Learning* Good humor Fairness Communication Generosity Self-motivation Tolerance Analysis/Logic Vision/Objectives Kindness/Attentiveness Decision-making Comprehension Organization/Planning Taking opportunities Patience Self-contentment Initiative Enthusiasm Fulfillment Service Spirit Detachment Humility 41.62 % 41.22 % 38.15 % 37.33 % 35.37 % 32.73 % 30.72 % 27.92 % 27.70 % 23.84 % 22.56 % 20.67 % 20.00 % 19.12 % 17.56 % 17.23 % 16.67 % 15.63 % 14.39 % 13.53 % 13.42 % 13.01 % 12.69 % 12.59 % 10.83 % 8.92 % 7.00 % 6.47 % 34.72 48.52 34.33 48.11 31.35 44.95 30.56 44.10 28.68 42.06 26.16 39.30 24.26 37.18 21.64 34.20 21.43 33.97 17.87 29.81 16.71 28.41 15.00 26.34 14.40 25.60 13.61 24.63 12.23 22.89 11.95 22.53 11.45 21.89 10.55 20.71 9.48 19.30 8.74 18.32 8.65 18.19 8.30 17.72 8.03 17.35 7.95 17.23 6.48 15.19 4.93 12.91 3.43 10.57 3.03 9.91 Other values: Freedom Honor Power (*) Highest values denoted with asterisk
79 It is significant that the ethical values chosen by college students as the most important coincided in most cases with the most applicable; however, the percentage was always lower in the application of th e values than in its importance. Related to the application of ethical values by college students the highest ethical value in importance was again Honesty with 41.62 % but this time followed closely by Love (41.22 %), with Respect (38.15 %), In tegrity (37.33 %), Perseverance (35.37 %), Responsibility (32.73 %), and Knowledge/Lea rning (30.72 %) not as close. Although they had lower percentages, values such as Good humor (27.92 %), and Fairness (27.70 %) were also important. The order of selection of ethical values in general coincided well between their importance and their applicati on, but the percentages of application were considerably lower than the percentages of importance. Thus, what students apply is lower than the importance level they give to the ethical value. This gap between importance and application should be a signal to coll ege authorities to incorporate ethical values courses, workshops, seminars, and ot her activities to help students develop and reinforce those ethical values they consider as important. Usefulness of Ethical Values How useful ethical values were for wo rk, family, society, and education was a question answered as strongly agree in most cases, over 66 %. When applied to family the percentage was 78.19 %. It s hould be noted that when the strongly agree scores were added to the agree scores, th e percentage exceeded 93 %.
80 Table 6 Usefulness of Ethical Values (Pilot Study Questionnaire) Usefulness of E.V. n Percentage (%) Confidence intervals (%) To Work Agree Strongly agree 49 132 26.06 70.21 19.91 32.21 63.81 76.61 To Family Agree Strongly agree 31 147 16.49 78.19 11.29 21.69 72.41 83.97 To Society Agree Strongly agree 53 125 28.19 66.49 21.89 34.49 60.51 72.47 To Education Agree Strongly agree 50 127 26.60 67.55 21.89 31.31 61.53 73.57 Benefits of Ethical Values This question in the pilot study was in tended to find out how college students related new terms, factors, values, virtues, or concepts with the benefits that the application of ethical values bring to individuals, families, education, and society. College students had absolute freedom to choose their own terms and not necessarily those selected on the previous list of ethical values of the pilot instrument. Therefore, new values, virtues, or terms related to the study were added. Each participant listed in priority order three values or terms for individuals, families, education, and society. College students gave some new terms and so me of the ones included in the list of the questionnaire within the wide and free variet y of ethical values, virtues, or character strengths that exist. The results in priority order were as follows: Benefit of ethical values to Individuals 1. Happiness 2. Fulfillment
81 3. Success 4. Respect/Self-respect 5. Self-contentment 6. Peace 7. Trust Happiness, fulfillment, and success were the most frequently selected by college students related to individuals. Benefit of ethical values to Family 1. Love 2. Unity 3. Happiness 4. Respect 5. Trust 6. Togetherness 7. Bonding Togetherness, bonding, and unity were ve ry close collectively, creating a highly important factor or value to be considered. Love was th e most often repeated value related to families as a benefit. Benefit of ethical values to education 1. Knowledge 2. Success 3. Understanding 4. Integrity 5. Learning 6. Respect 7. Honesty Knowledge and success were hi ghly identified as the most important terms related to education. Some terms such as achieveme nt, advancement, degree, and growth were also listed, which seemed to cluster together, perhaps as one factor. Benefit of ethical values to society 1. Respect 2. Peace
82 3. Tolerance 4. Unity 5. Communication 6. Understanding 7. Justice Respect and peace were most often selected as benefits for society when the ethical values of students are applied. The ethical value respect has always been answered. There were several relevant non-listed values in the pilo t questionnaire with relationship to: Individuals, such as happiness, success, peace, and trust Families, such as happiness, unity, trust, togetherness, and bonding Education, such as success Society, such as peace, and unity The college students answered many ot her ethical values but only those cited most often have been shown. Ethical Values Origin The research question where college stude nts acquired and deve loped the ethical values they hold and apply in life was cons idered to be very important. Based on importance according to their criteria, a gra duated choice from 1 to 10 was implemented, with 10 being the highest rati ng. The results were clear; the home is the first and most influential place. As a summary, results were shown as pe rcentages taking into account the ones rated 10 (the most important) and also the percentages from the ra tings of 9, 8, and 7 (important). A sum of the combined averages of the most important plus the important is provided for greater clar ification to a rating.
83 Table 7 Origin of Ethical Values (Pilot Study Questionnaire) Ethical values origin Most important % Important % Sum % Important + Most Important Confidence intervals Home 72.53 14.28 86.81 82.07 91.55 College 2.98 42.26 45.24 38.27 52.21 Friends 8.00 46.85 54.85 47.88 61.82 Religion 8.97 35.06 54.03 47.05 61.01 Elementary 5.99 29.34 35.33 28.64 42.02 High School 3.59 33.53 37.12 30.36 43.88 Community 3.49 39.54 43.03 36.10 49.96 Middle School 1.84 23.92 25.76 19.64 31.88 Others 36.36 31.82 68.18 62.11 74.25 Necessary Ethical Values to Apply in Education Given the freedom to select ethical values to apply in education, with or without a list of existing values, results were atta ined in the following priority listing. 1. Honesty 2. Respect 3. Self-motivation 4. Integrity 5. Responsibility 6. Patience 7. Knowledge 8. Perseverance 9. Tolerance 10. Communication 11. Comprehension After a thorough review of the results obt ained by the pilot study instrument it was judged to be appropriate for use in the present study. A paper summarizing the
84 results of the pilot study was presented to the Civic Educa tion and Research Conference in Reno, Nevada, USA, September 2004. Instrument The author developed for this study an instrument derived from the pilot instrument. Some modifications were made to the pilot instrument in order to improve it after an analysis and review of the pilot study results. The instrument was designed in a questionnaire format and based on ethical va lues, virtues, or character strengths of college students. The Questionnaire The instrument is divided in two parts A and B. Questionnaire A contains the demographics information desired plus a quest ion related to the most important ethical values for the participants, who were coll ege students and another question related to what they thought others hold as th e most important ethical values. At this stage, no information about ethica l values had been administered to the participants and the interest of the researcher was to find any value they considered in a fresh, natural, and spontaneous way. Once participants had finished this pa rt, Questionnaire B was administered to students. This questionn aire contained a list of 28 selected ethical va lues, plus two more free options (others), in order to grade the importance and application of these ethical values. Questionnaire B also cont ained questions related to: 1. The usefulness of ethical values for wo rk, family, education, and society rated as: Strongly agree; Agree; Neither agree nor disagree; Disagree; Strongly disagree
85 2. Words related to the main benefits that th e application of ethi cal values bring to individuals, family, education, and society. 3. Place or environment and its prioritizati on where ethical values held by the college students were acquired and developed. 4. Ethical values considered as ne cessary to be applied in education. The list of ethical values was presented in the current questionnaire in Part B in four different formats designed to avoid the possibil ity of participants re ading and analyzing the first values more than th e last ones. See Appendix E The questionnaire is shown on the followi ng pages and in Appendices D and E.
86 QUESTIONNAIRE PART A The purpose of this questionnaire is to de termine what values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled; and what ethical values do you think others hold as the most important. Last four digits of your USF ID # Demographic characteristics 1. Age: Year of birth __________ 2. Gender : Male Female 3. Academic Major _________________ Minor (If applicable) _______________ 4. Student status: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Non-degree Other _________ 5. Marital status: Single Married Divorced Widowed 6. Employment status: Unemployed Part time Full time 7. Employer: Government Private Agency/Corporation Self-employed Other ______________ 8. Ethnicity: African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Other____________________ 9. Citizenship: USA Other ___________________ 10. Have you ever resided in another country? Yes / No Duration of residence What countries? 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 1. ______ 2. ______ 11. Home background : What type of community did you spend the majority of your life before age 20? Urban Subur ban Rural Other ___________ 12. How many years did you study in K-12 in : Private school ______ Public school ______ Other _________________ What are the most important ethical values for you? 1.-_____________________ 2.-_____________________ 3.-___________________ What ethical values do you think others hold as the most important? 1.-_____________________ 2.-_____________________ 3.-___________________
87 QUESTIONNAIRE Part B Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and ma intain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students a nd what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is provided. A dditional blank spaces give the possibility to add some ethical values that are not on the list, but are releva nt in your opinion. Last four digits of your USF ID # 1. Rate the following ethical values from this list Step 1. Based on their importance (Imp.) according to your criteria rate each ethical value from 1 to 10 with (1 = th e lowest) and (10 = the highest). Step 2. Based on how much do you apply (Appl.) them in your life, rate each ethical value from 1 to 10 with (1 = th e lowest) and (10 = the highest). A Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Creativity Respect Attentiveness / Kindness Self-motivation Self-discipline/Temperance Responsibility Fulfillment Diligence Honesty Humor Service Integrity Vision and objectivity Patience Perseverance -Hard worker Other _________________ Other _________________ Humility Communication Fairness / Justice spirit Generosity Comprehension Courage Tolerance Knowledge / Learning Enthusiasm Forgiveness / Compassion Love Decision making Gratitude / Appreciation Friendliness / Unity Other _______________ Other _______________
88 2. Do you think ethical values are useful for people in the following environments? Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree a) Work b) Family c) Society d) Education Why?_______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write two different words that explain th e main benefits that the application of these ethical values bring to the following entities a. Individuals 1._______________________ 2._________________________ b. Families 1._______________________ 2._________________________ c. Education 1._______________________ 2._________________________ d. Society 1._______________________ 2._________________________ 4. Where did you acquire and devel op your ethical values? (1 = most important) Prioritize from 1 to 10, based in importance according to your criteria. Home ____ Religion ____ Community ____ College ____ Elementary School ____ Middle school ____ Friends ____ High school ____ Other ____________ __ Other ____________ __ 5. Which ethical values do you consid er are most necessary to apply in education? Please, write them in a pr iority order (1 is most necessary) 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 3. ______________ 4. _____________ Please, explain your response _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Comments: Please, feel free to write if needed in the back of the page. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
89 ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS 6. In responding to the questions, what degree of thought did you have to give to the task? Considerae Mimal Other ______________________ _________________________________________________________________ 7. Are you interested in themes related to values and ethical values? High Medium Low 5 4 3 2 1 Circle the appropriate number Please, explain your response ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 8. Please indicate your attitude towards completing this questionnaire?(Circle) Excellent Fine Good More or less Bad / Down 9. Do you feel it is important to provide courses and workshops related to ethical values to college students as part of their educational program? (Circle one) Yes / No If Yes, should this course be: An elective A required courses? Which courses do you suggest? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Why? _____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Comments: Please, feel free to write if needed. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Thanks for your help and collaboration on this study related to Ethic al Values of College Students
90 The section with additional questions pr ovides reference data focused on four questions, two of them more informative as to the degree of thought college student had to give to answer the questi onnaire and the attitude toward s completing it. The other two questions were looking for how much interest they have related to themes of ethical values and if they felt it was important to provide courses and workshops related to ethical values at the college/ university level, what they s uggested the latte r to be, and why. These last two questions were included in the additional questions section that was part of the secondary research questions. Analysis of the Instrument Because the utilized questionnaire was sim ilar to the pilot instrument with some variations, it was highly important to compar e, and then point out, the modifications and differences between the pilot questionnaire and the questionnaire developed for this study. First, the changes are listed wi th an explanation. The changes were: In part A: Demographics were essentially the same as in the pilot questionnaire with the following differences: 1. The type of employment at present was omitted in the present study. The kinds of work were very wide a nd ambiguous, thus it seemed not to be very significant. The main reasons were: a) There were 29.08% of sample students unemployed and 44.39% employed only part-time a nd in temporary jobs re lated to employment status; this permitted sustainable results from just 26.53% of the sample.
91 b) The option of others in type of employment at present did not specify in a precise manner as reflected by a percentage of just 15.4 %. c) Service employment was also variable with a percentage of only 20.6%. d) Sales, like service had a huge range of sales possibilities and a percentage of only 15.5%. 2. A new question was added related to th e number of years that participants were studying in different types of schoo ling such as private, public, or other kinds. It is important to research and know if some influence could come from the type of school attended. 3. On the first page of the current stud y questionnaire, below the demographics questions, two questions, expl ained before in the instrument selected section, required an answer related to ethical values from college students. The answers obtained give their importance and what college students think are the values other people hold. Know ing which ethical values emerged spontaneously from college students without having any suggested list to choose from was very important. Thus, a comparison of ethical values was made with the ones selected from the list presented in Part B of the questionnaire. In part B: The number of ethical values listed was th e same, 28; but the following six values were removed: Analysis/Logic, Detachme nt, Initiative, Orga nization/Planning, Taking opportunities, and Self -contentment. Six new ethi cal values were included in the list and substituted for those re moved. The new values were: Courage,
92 Creativity, Forgiveness/Compassion, Frie ndliness/Unity, Gratitude/Appreciation, and Self-discipline/Temperance. There were five main reasons for selecti ng the chosen ethical values and rejecting others. The ones selected were: 1. Those ethical values, virtues, or character strengths mostly included in the different models through history res earched and described in chapter Two. Most of the ethical values selected were contained in these models with more or less frequency according to the type and length of values of each model. 2. Those ethical values that might be dire cted in the good or right direction may be called pure ethical values or pure virtues such as: respect, kindness/attentiveness, honesty, service sp irit, integrity, humility, generosity, fairness/justice spirit, co mprehension, tolerance, co mpassion, forgiveness, and love. 3. Those ethical values that seemed (dep ending on their use or interpretation) more as qualities or character strengths, which might be directed for good or bad goals depending the interest and inte ntion of people. These include ethical values such as creativity, self-discipline/temperance, fulfillment/diligence, responsibility, good humor, vision/objectivity, patien ce, friendliness/unity, perseverance/hard worker, communicat ion, knowledge/learning, enthusiasm, decision-making, gratitude/ appreciation, self-motiva tion, and courage. Most of these are also included in th e lists analyzed in chapter Two. All of these ethical values tend to be (most of the time) in the good direction but it could be, as an easy and explic it example, a thief, cheater, or an
93 assassin, who feels gratitude, appreciati on to his or her accomplices, may have great knowledge and capacity for learni ng, have plenty of vision and objectivity, makes very good decisions be responsible, have good selfdiscipline, great enthusiasm, a good se nse of humor, and extraordinary communication skills, etc. These could be applied with multiple purposes. 4. Those ethical values that were selected as most important by college students in the pilot study have been ratified in the instrument. 5. Those ethical values assumed in the pilo t study that appear to be managerial qualities, abilities, or skills have been taken out. These were always within the lower range of priority according to the criteria of college students. The major reasons that the six ethical va lues provided in the pilot study were removed from the authors li st are explained as follows. 1. Analysis/Logic, both of these were very important as mana gerial qualities but not necessarily as ethical values. Thes e were not included in any of the wellknown models from the experts cited in chapter Two. It was the third lowest priority of the student s in the pilot study. 2. Detachment was a term that brings imme diate confusion in its definition and it has a contradictory meaning from the east to the west and even philosophical interpretation. Also, it did not appear in any of the models of ethical values analyzed in chapter Two, and it was the one with the lowest percentage of selection by students in the pilot study. 3. Initiative was only included in one of the models and it was in a lower range of importance according to the choices of students. It is more a quality or a
94 skill and was not included in many of th e models analyzed. Too, it was one of these qualities that may be directed for good or for bad. There were other qualities with this dual tendency, which have been included in the list as cited above, for example, perseverance and communication. 4. Organization/Planning was in fact a mana gerial quality more than an ethical value. This quality or process was im portant for achieving goals and possible success in life but it was not direct ly related to ethical values. 5. Taking opportunities was also an ability or quality that may come from inside as intuitional ability or from outside after training and study of managerial skills. It was not directly related to ethical values. 6. Self-contentment was a term with diverse interpretations that generated confusion in its definition with a cont radictory meaning from east to west, and even in its philosophical in terpretation. This term did not appear in any of the models of ethical values analyzed in chapter Two, and was one with a low percentage of selection by students in the pilot study. Six ethical values were incl uded in this study that were not included in the pilot study. All of these new ethical values were included in many of the models studied. See Table 1 and 2. These values were: 1. Courage was an ethical value, virtue, or character strength in cluded in most of the models studied since the ancient tim es and ratified by numerous authors such as Aristotle, Bennett, Conroy, DeRoche, Eyre & Eyre, Hall, Kagan, Lickona, Phi Delta Kappa, Peterson & Seligman, Plato, Rokeach, and Stirling.
95 2. Creativity was also a very flexible and adaptable character strength cited in the models of the Character Training Institute, Conroy, Kagan, Peterson & Seligman, and Schwartz. 3. Forgiveness/Compassion was such a str ong ethical value that it was necessary to be included not just for its releva nce but also because it has been included in many models such as those by Benne tt, the Character Training Institute, Conroy, DeRoche, Hall, Kagan, Lickona Peterson & Seligman, Rokeach, and Stirling. 4. Friendliness/Unity was an ethical value that was emphasized by students in the pilot study when they were finding the benefits obtained by family and individuals. It is also ratified in the models of Aristotle, Bennett, Boy Scouts, Chavez, Eyre &Eyre, and Kidder. 5. Gratitude/Appreciation were pointed in ma ny of the models and are very deep ethical values. They were included by the Character Training Institute, Chavez, Conroy, Kagan, Peterson & Seligman, and Schwartz. 6. Self-discipline/Temperance was a good ex ample of character strength that was necessary to have in order for success and was included in models such as those by Bennett, Chavez, DeRoche, Hall, Lickona, and Stirling. Rokeach mentioned Self-control while Schwartz and Peterson & Seligman mentioned Self-regulation. Plato included it as Self -restraint while Aristotle, Franklin, Peterson & Seligman, and Kagan mentioned temperance. Other changes in part B of the questionnaire were:
96 1. In question number three, the choice of words associated with the benefits produced by the application of ethical values was reduced to two instead of three as in the p ilot questionnaire. The main reason for this change related to making the selection easier and possibly even more accurate, requiring students to think more deeply when making their selection. This also eased th e data and procedure analysis by the researcher. 2. In question number five, the number of et hical values considered as necessary to apply in education was redu ced from eight options to four. Selecting eight ethical values as th e most necessary, prioritizing, and rating them, created confusion for some stude nts. Too many students did not fill all the blanks; therefore, it was decided to reduce the se lection to four ethical values, intending to make the choice easier and to be more precise, forcing students to answer the four blanks se lection. In this ca se the process of analysis was also simplified. 3. Questions 3, 4, 5, and 6 from the section of additional questions were eliminated because all of them were related to the quality, easiness, and improvement of the pilot questionnaire. 4. A new question was introduced in the pr esent study about the attitude of participants while completing the questionnaire. The last question of the part B questionn aire contained two research questions which were included in the additional section of questions. These questions
97 remained exactly the same as in the p ilot study and deal with the importance of providing courses related to ethical values and what these courses should be. Advantages of the Instrument The developed instrument addresses both, the primary and the secondary research questions in a precise manner. The questionnai re was easy to apply and may be used with a wide population, types of employment, and a diverse range of environments with only slight modifications. The fact that it was previously us ed with a pilot study with satisfactory results, and then, modified slightly to adapt it to this present study, reinforced and validated the use of the instrument selected. Because no instrument was found working with so many ethical values, it was necessary to develop a new in strument that afforded opport unities for its use by other researchers. The use of this instrument was based on 28 ethical values pre-selected by the researcher, while providing fr eedom to individual college st udents to select any quality, virtue, strength, or any word as an ethical value, according th eir personal criteria. It is worth mentioning that most of the current studi es concentrate or focus on one or very few values (Eissenberg, 1999; DeRoche & W illiams, 2001; OFlaherty & Gleeson, 2004; Wilson, 1993) The developed instrument is a good t ool for helping researchers motivate participants to think about a variety of values, virtues, character strengths or even qualities. Also, it was flexible enough to be used with a variety of participants and groups. This study also opened the possibility of combining demographics with the data obtained in answering th e research questions.
98 The instrument was judged to be appropriate for this study. Selection of the Sample College students from the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (USF), formed the sample population. Students enrolle d in language courses were selected to participate. This was because language cour ses typically enroll st udents from throughout the University thereby providing a repres entative population. Nearly every degreeseeking student is required to earn credits in at least one language. Therefore, the choice of this population of students provided a repres entative sample of st udents enrolled at the University of South Florida. Classes enrolling approximately 20 students or more were expected to complete the questionnaire. Th e classes were chosen according to their availability and permission of the instruct or. The access to these classes was already known as possible for the surveys administra tion. There were some professors that had already been contacted who offered to suppor t the study thereby allowing the researcher to take some time of their classes to answer the questionnaire. These professors also thought that it was a good opportun ity for their students to re flect about ethical values while they were answering the questionnaire. The total sample was 207 students, requi ring 11 different classes/courses for inclusion in the study. It was e xpected that the population woul d be similar to that of the pilot study. This quantity was beli eved to be sufficient to offe r reliable data and allowed the researcher to use t = 1.96 coefficient for confidence in terval statistical procedures. Confidence intervals were obtained in orde r to authenticate th e responses of the population.
99 Descriptive and Statisti cal Methodology Procedures The statistical methods selected for this study were descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. Most of data was pres ented as descriptive statistics through the answers of the questionnaire with the different factors an d variables involved in the study. When the different data obtained was an alyzed and the sample was projected to the population, confidence intervals we re judged to be appropriate. The research questions were validated by confidence intervals. This procedure assumed it was possible to assure the research er a 95 percent level of confidence that the population proportion or mean of the variable analyzed was between certain ranges which were expressed in the form of data results. For a 95% confidence interval and a sample size larger than 120, a coefficient of z = 1.96 was necessary. It seemed appropriate to start with th e application of sta tistical methods to demographics characteristics data. Confidence intervals were utilized in order to find and to understand better the sample and its pr ojection to population in all areas of demographic concerns under this study. Confid ence intervals were analyzed for: age, gender, student status, marital status, em ployment, type of employment, type of employer, ethnicity, citizenship, residenc e in other countries, home background, and years in different types of sc hools or educational programs. The primary research question to be answered in this study and analyzed statistically was: What are the ethical values that college students have? The college students in this study, w ithout any kind of guide, spontaneously provided, according to their pers onal criteria three ethical va lues that they considered most important. The results obtained to this question were the product of answering the
100 survey question What are the most important ethical values for you? included in the questionnaire, part A. The ethical values given by college students generated a list of their ethical values which were presented in dicating the proportions Confidence intervals were applied to the proportions. A secondary question What ethical values do you th ink others hold as the most important? was similar to the previous one in te rms of how statistics were applied and included in the questionnaire, part A. The difference betwee n these questions was related to what college students thi nk other people hold as the most important ethical values. Each student selected three values and a lis t with all data was cr eated and analyzed. Ethical values given as the most importa nt for college students were compared with those ethical values they thought were the most important to others. In both cases the choice was perceptive. Statistics gave proportions and means which offered visual and numerical results aiding th e understanding of college students criteria. Knowing these values and how many times the participants in the sample selected them was very important. Applying confidence intervals to the values obtained was statistically acceptable. The preceding comparisons were analyzed in combination with the ethical values chosen by college students within the selected list of 28 values that were presented in Part B of the questionnaire shown in chapter Three and Appendix E, which answered the following research question again: What ethical values do you consider most important? Therefore, it was possible to dete rmine how many of the chosen most important values of the previ ous research questions were ma tching with the ethical values under the selected list give n in the questionnaire.
101 The research question What ethical values do college students consider most important? was answered in questionnaire, part B. Rate the following ethical values from this list based on their impor tance according to your criteria The results were rated having a numerical value from 1 to 10 (1 = the lowest and 10 = the highest). Therefore, a statistic al analysis was achieved for the ethical values and confidence intervals applied to the means and proportions. What ethical values do college stud ents apply more in their life? was answered by college students rating ethical values within the selected li st of 28 values presented in Part B of the questionnaire shown in chap ter Three and Appendix E. The statistical treatment for this question was exactly the same as that related to importance in part B. Both, the importance and the application of valu es within the selected list of 28 ethical values were checked by confidence intervals for the mean and proportions of each value shown in the list. How college students rated ethical values useful for people in work, family, society, and education was eval uated using five choices, strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The results obtained gave proportions and means for the five choices that were directly related to the usefulness of ethical values for people. Confidence interval s were also analyzed for the proportions and the means obtained. This answered the research question Do college students consider ethical values useful for people in work, family, society, and education? Benefits of applying ethical values to i ndividuals, families, education, and society were achieved in such a way that an associ ated word to the benefit for people was expected to be found as an answer. The research question, What are the main benefits of
102 applying ethical values to individuals, families, education, and society? It was possible in the pilot study to realize that these word s are usually also values. Therefore, these values were added or related to the ethical values previously considered, giving even more relevance to ethical values. Knowing whic h ethical values were most often selected by participants in this study a nd how frequently, compared to other ethical values, gave a better understanding of the relevance of this research. A percentage procedure was performed for this research question. Confidence intervals for the proportions were considered when the origin of the college students acquisition and development of their ethical values was analyzed statistically. The research question was Where do colleges students acquire and develop their ethical values? The proportions obtained for each of the nine possibilities were presented, considering some students may answer others. See Part B of the questionnaire shown in chapter Three and Appe ndix E, which was answering the research questions with the data obtained once the surveys were achieved. Another secondary re search question was What ethical values do college students consider necessary to apply in education? Percentages were used for analyzing the most necessary ethical valu es to apply in education. Pa rticipants had the opportunity to choose freely the four they considered most necessary. Some values might possibly have some influence on college students from the list of 28 values delivered within the questionnaire. It was important to check how many of the values written were coinciding with the ones included in the list. The interest that college students had on th emes of values or ethical values was evaluated from 1 to 5; 1 being the lowest and 5 the highest. These results answered the
103 research question: Are college students interested in themes related to ethical values? The data obtained gave a mean for the five choices and percentages that were directly related to the interest of ethical values for people. Another secondary res earch question was: Do college students think that educational institutions should offer courses on ethical values? College students answering the end of the questionnaire in pa rt B suggested different courses and also suggested if they should be elective or requi red. These suggested courses were evaluated finding similarities and differe nces. A broad list of the diffe rent courses was determined. Also, college students offered a specific answer related to the consideration of ethical values for inclusion in curricula. A precise quantity of yes or no was possible. This answer identified the proportion of college students who preferred to have courses offered or not offered on ethical values by educational institutions. This answer also related to how many students that answered yes to add courses either electives or required. Statistically these results we re not necessarily to be analyzed. An additional point to mention was that va lues or character strengths, chosen by college students when they answered the que stionnaire, which were different than the ones selected in the list given by the author in the survey were listed and classified searching for those that were highly related. Association and similarity created grouping and categories of values. In order to follow a process of defensibility of categories, the author gave these categories to four people who integrated or related to some kind of ethical values knowledge finding a percentage of coincidence and analyzing the different points of view and judgment.
104 The analysis of the data obtained through the questionnaire opened new fields of research in descriptive and statistical research. According how results from demographics da ta were, it might be worth to relate them with the results achieved from the main questions. These relations or comparisons may be analyzed with other statistical pro cedures depending of the case. Nevertheless, it is important to say that these analysis proce dures were not necessarily at the present the main focus of this dissertation. Sample demographics results were compared with the University of South Florida demographics in order to validate or dete rmine how representative or how were the differences between the sample and the actual population of the Univ ersity. This process was achieved when data results were analy zed which are explained in chapter Four. All of these statistical results regarding ethical values are interconnected and created a huge network of unders tanding of the data obtained. It is believed that if the awareness, knowledge, and introspection of these themes internal ize within college students, numerous doubts, hesitations, and lack of decisions will decrease and feasible results will arise along their lif e as students and professionals.
105 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS Purpose and Research Questions The purpose of this chapter is to descri be and explain the compendia and analysis of the data and information gathered by the questionnaire for this study that was conducted with college students, as well as comparisons with the results from the previous pilot study. It also includes the summaries for identifying the population and sampling, data collection, and the statistical results. The results obtained give answers to the primary and secondary research questions. These answers regarding ethical va lues are interconnected one to another and form an ample and diverse network of unders tanding of the ethical values of college students. These results also suggest the n eed for new questions and further research useful for learning more about ethical values and how they are applied and considered by different people within higher e ducation and society at large. It is importan t to know how ethical values are added directly or indirectly to individuals professionally and to their future life success. Before starting the data analysis, the re search questions are presented once more in order. The primary question to be an swered by this study is: What are the ethical values that college students have?
106 Secondary questions are: 1. What ethical values do college st udents consider most important? 2. What ethical values do college students think others hold as the most important? 3. What ethical values do college st udents apply most in their life? 4. Do college students consider ethical values useful for people in work, family, society, and education? 5. What do college students feel are the main benefits of applying ethical values to individuals, families, education, and society? 6. Where do college students acquire an d develop their ethical values? 7. Are college students interested in themes related to ethical values? 8. What ethical values do college students consider are the most important to apply in education? 9. Do college students consider that et hical values are important to be included in curricula? If so, do colle ge students think that educational institutions should offer courses on ethical values? Presentation of Data The instrument analyzed for this study is based on an examination and interpretation of the trends re lated to ethical valu es in the literature the pilot study, and the study questionnaire; the last ones de veloped by the author, who designed questionnaires (pilot and the instrument) on ethical values to be applied to college students.
107 There are groups of variables that refer to ethical values which are categorized and analyzed. Each group contains other sec ondary variables and most of them are linked in different ways and cl osely interrelated dealing with ethical values. The variables under study and analyzed are: In Questionnaire part A Demographics: Age, gender, academic major, academic minor, student status, marital status, employment status, employer, ethnicity, citizensh ip, residence in another country, what countries a nd duration of residence, home background, and how many years student s have students spent in K-12 in private or public schools. Most important ethical values for you (3 values). Most important ethical values you think others hold (3 values). These variables were also included in th e pilot questionnaire, with the exception of how many years have student s spent in K-12 in private or public schools, and the most important ethical values for you (3 values) and the most important ethical values you think others hold (3 values). In Questionnaire part B 1. Most important ethical values in life based on importance from a list of values. 2. Most important ethical values in li fe based on their application from the same given list of values.
108 3. Usefulness of ethical values for pe ople at work, family, society, and education. 4. Main benefits of the application of ethical values for individuals, families, education, and society. 5. Origin or roots for the ethical va lues acquired and developed: home, religion, community, college, elementa ry school, middle school, friends, high school, and others. 6. Necessary ethical values to apply in education. 7. Interest in themes related to ethical values. 8. Attitude towards completing the questionnaire. 9. Importance of providing c ourses or workshops relate d to ethical values to college students in educational programs 10. Courses suggested by college students All these variables were in the pilot questionnaire with the exception of that asking about the attitude toward s completing the questionnaire. Sample Students enrolled in 11 different u ndergraduate courses offered by the World Language Department at the University of S outh Florida (Tampa) we re selected because these students had different majors and belonge d to different colleges, and some language is required for the baccalaureate degree. It was easier to find a variety of students from any major in this way. A total of 207 college st udents were enrolled in these courses. The selected courses and their enrollments were: 2 courses of Spanish I with a total of 32 students.
109 2 courses of Spanish II with a total of 35 students. 1 course of French I with a total of 18 students. 1 course of Chinese I with a total of 19 students. 1 course of Italian I with a total of 15 students. 1 course of Japanese I with a total of 22 students. 1 course of German I with a total of 14 students. 1 course of Linguistics with a total of 40 students. 1 course of Arabic with a total of 12 students. (Course and section numbers ar e provided in Appendix H) The percentage of students registered fo r studying Spanish is almost always the same as the percentage of students studying other languages. This is the reason for selecting more courses of Spanish than thos e from other languages. The linguistics course is a course in English that st udents from different majors ta ke in order to improve their English language for professional purposes. The responses obtained from all students were very satisfactory and the number completing the instrument was very high which demonstrates interest in answering the questionnaire. This is noteworthy given th at the questionnaire was optional and not compulsory for any class or student. Demographics This study considered many different variable s. A summary of results is presented in this chapter.
110 Percentages and number of people answeri ng the different ques tions represent the results provided. See the instrument in Appe ndix D and E, for the terms included within the variables and questions. Confidence intervals have been applied in this study as a statistical method. This method makes it possible to a ssure that we are 95 percent confident that the population proportion or mean of the variables analyz ed are between certain ranges, which are presented in the following tables for demogra phic characteristics data and also to data obtained from other research questions. Conf idence intervals are important in order to understand the sample projection to population in all areas of demographic concerns under this study. In the table for Demographics (Table 8) some important results are summarized as follows.
111 Table 8 Study Questionnaire Demographics Sample Percentage Confidence interval (n) (%) CI=95% Age Total 204100.00% 17 25 16580.88% 74.93 85.68 26 35 2914.22% 10.09 19.67 36 45 52.45% 1.05 5.61 46 55 52.45% 1.05 5.61 Older than 56 00.00% 0.00 0.00 Gender Total 207100.00% Female 12861.84% 55.06 68.18 Male 7938.16%31.81 44.94 Student status Total 207100.00% Senior 8239.61%33.19 46.40 Junior 6933.33% 27.26 40.00 Sophomore 3717.87% 13.25 23.66 Freshman 115.31%2.99 9.26 Other 62.90%1.34 6.18 Non-degree 20.97%0.27 3.46 Marital status Total 195100.00% Single 17087.18%81.76 91.16 Married 2110.77%7.15 15.90 Divorced 42.05%0.80 5.15 Widowed 00.00%0.00 0.00 Employment status Total 206100.00% Part-time 11254.37%47.55 61.03 Unemployed 5124.76%19.36 31.08 Full time 4320.87%15.88 26.93 Employer Total 157100.00% Private/Corporation 10365.61%57.89 72.59 Government 2012.74%8.40 18.86 Self-employed 117.01%3.96 12.11 Other 2314.65%9.96 21.02
112 Table 8 (Continued Study Questionnaire Demographics Sample Percentage Confidence intervals (n) (%) CI=95% Ethnicity Total 205100.00% Caucasian 14470.24%63.66 76.08 African-American 2512.20% 8.40 17.39 Hispanic 136.34% 3.74 10.54 Asian 157.32% 4.49 11.72 Other 83.90% 1.99 7.51 Citizenship Total 207100.00% USA 19091.79% 87.25 94.82 Other country 178.21% 5.19 12.75 Residence in other country Total 207100.00% No 16378.74% 72.67 83.76 Yes 4421.26% 16.24 27.33 Home background Total 204100.00% Suburban 13164.22% 57.43 70.48 Urban 4120.10% 15.18 26.13 Rural 3014.71%10.50 20.22 Others 20.98%0.27 3.50 K-12 studies Total 206100.00% Public school 14268.93% 62.31 74.85 Public/Private 5225.24% 19.80 31.59 Private school 73.40%1.66 6.85 Public/Other 41.94% 0.76 4.88 Other (Home) 10.49% 0.08 2.71 Demographic characteristics summarized in Table 8 describe the sample of the current study. 1. Age Most of the students (80.88%) who an swered the questionnaire were under 25 years old and 14.22% were between 25 to 36 years old. The age of the sample
113 presents a picture of persons with limited experience in highly responsible jobs or even any experience in the professional field. 2. Gender The ratio between males and females in the sample showed more women than men (Male, 38.16%, Female, 61.84%). The gender distribution for undergraduates at the University of Sout h Florida for fall 2004 according to the Planning and Analysis Office of Deci sion Support was 40.8% male and 59.2% female which is very similar to the sample taken in this study. (http://usfweb2.usf.edu/infomart/infomartapps/ ). In the pilot st udy the distribution was closer (Male, 52.55%; Female, 47.45%) The pilot percentages seem to be larger because the male population in engineering is usually larger than the female population and there were 60 students in the sample of 196 students who were engineering majors. The statistical met hod of chi-square g oodness-of-fit testing was applied to gender in order to describe the extent to which the distributions were similar or different between the sample and the USF demographics, finding a Cohens small effect size for gender (w= 0.054), less than 0.10 which reinforce the representativeness of the sample. 3. Academic Major. College students from a wide numb er of majors comprised the sample and collectively cited a total of 65 different majors. The largest number was 17 college students from political sc ience or 8.25% of the sample. Fourteen students were taking criminology as well as psychology, thirteen students were in English education, and eleven were in in ternational studies. A total of 60 students indicated 38 different minor s. Five of these minors we re in history representing 8.33%, four in Spanish, and three in mathematics, criminology, and sociology.
114 Table 9 shows with detail all major a nd minors in which college students who answered this questionnaire were enrolle d. Most of the majors and minors were oriented toward non-technical areas. The r eason for this orientation was that most of students were majors in the College of Arts and Sciences, the Universitys largest college. 4. Student status Most of the participants were senior level students (39.61%). Junior level students represented 33.33% and sophomore students represented 17.87%. It is important to note that statistics from the Un iversity of South Florida (USF) for fall 2004 indicated that of th e 32,442 undergraduate st udents registered, 11,469 students were senior level (35.35%) and 8,996 students were junior level (27.73%). These figures indicate a high de gree of congruency between the sample and the actual enrollment of the Univer sity. A chi-square go odness-of-fit testing statistics was applied to student status in order to describe the extent to which the distributions were similar or differe nt between the sample and the USF demographics. A large Cohens effect size was found for this distribution of students (w= 0.39) which is less than 0.50 and bigger than 0.30, limits for large and medium size coefficient respectively. 5. Marital status The percentage of single persons was very high (87.18 %) while only 10.77% were married. This fact coincides with the average age which was under 25 years old. 6. Employment status A large number of students had some part time job (54.37%). The percentages of students unemployed (24.76%) and those working full time (20.87%) were quite similar.
115 7. Employer. The majority of students who were employed were working for private corporations (65.61%). In the pilot st udy, this percentage was 65.49%, which is nearly equivalent to the present study. 8. Ethnicity. Almost three fourths of the st udents were Caucasians (White) (70.24%). African-American students comprised 12.20% followed by Asian and Hispanic ethnics with 7.32% and 6.34% respectively. The USF statistics for fall 2004 related to the ethnicity of colle ge students listed 68.01% as White, 12.55% Afro-American, 10.62% Hispanics, and 5.59% Asian, corroborating once again the congruency of the sample with the University population as a whole. Once again, a chi-square goodnessof-fit testing statistical method was applied to ethnicity of college students in order to describe similar or di fferent distributions between the sample and the USF ethni city demographics, finding a medium Cohens effect size considering White, Af rican-Americans, Hispanic, Asians, and others students (w= 0.158) wh ich is less than 0.30 and bi gger than 0.10, limits for medium and small effect size coefficient respectively. 9. Citizenship American college students represen ted a very high percentage of the population surveyed (91.79%). 10. Residence in other countries A high percentage of stude nts had not lived abroad (78.74%). Those who had resided abroad cite d 33 different countries of residence such as England (7 students), Germany (6 students), and Japan (4 students) among others, over the total of 207 students. Als o, 17 students reported living in more than one country. Most of these student s were likely orig inally from other
116 countries. From this group, 16 had lived ab road for more than 10 years, including some with 33, 22 and 20 years of residence in other countries. 11. Home background Most of the students ( 64.22%) were from suburban environments, 20.10% were from urban settings, and 14.71% were from rural settings. 12. Years studied in K-12 and type of school. Most of students ha d studied in public schools (68.93%) while 25.24% had studied in both private and public schools. A very low percentage of students had studi ed in private school for their whole K-12 experience, (3.40%). One student reported completing all of her K-12 schooling at home.
117 Table 9 The Study Questionnaire Demographics Major and Minor MAJOR NumberPercentage MINOR NumberPercentage Political Sciences 178.25% History 58.33% Criminology 146.80% Spanish 46.67% Psychology 146.80% Criminology 35.00% English education 136.31% Mathematics 35.00% International studies 115.34% Sociology 35.00% Business. Administration. 94.37% Anthropology 23.33% Anthropology 73.40% Asian studies 23.33% History 73.40% English 23.33% Biology 52.43% French 23.33% Education 52.43% International relations 23.33% English 52.43% Marketing 23.33% International relations 52.43% Music 23.33% Accounting 41.94% Psychology 23.33% International business 41.94% Religious studies 23.33% Mass communications 41.94% Aerospace studies 11.67% Mathematics 41.94% American sign language 11.67% Music Performance 41.94% Applied physics /Biology 11.67% Linguistics 41.94% Biology 11.67% Art History 31.46% Business Management 11.67% Communication 31.46% Economics 11.67% Economics 31.46% Education 11.67% Electrical Engineering 31.46% Gerontology 11.67% Interpreter 31.46% Humanities 11.67% Journalism 31.46% International affairs 11.67% Undecided 31.46% International business 11.67% Advertising 20.97% Italian 11.67% Biochemical science 20.97% Japanese 11.67% Creative writing 20.97% Latin 11.67% English Literature 20.97% Leadership 11.67% Finance 20.97% Management 11.67% French 20.97% Marine sciences 11.67% Gerontology 20.97% Mass Communications 11.67% Philosophy 20.97% Microbiology 11.67% Sociology 20.97% Physical education 11.67% Political sciences 11.67% Continue next page Public health 11.67% Russian 11.67% Uncertain 11.67% Total 60100.00%
118 Table 9 (Continued) The Study Questionnaire Demographics Major and Minor MAJOR NumberPercentage African studies 10.49% Architecture 10.49% Art 10.49% Biomedical science 10.49% British-American literature 10.49% Chemistry 10.49% Communication disorders 10.49% English/Creative writing 10.49% Environmental sciences 10.49% Film 10.49% Foreign language education 10.49% Geography 10.49% German 10.49% ITT 10.49% Language 10.49% Legal Studies 10.49% Management information systems10.49% Mechanical engineer 10.49% Medical technology 10.49% Non-degree seeking 10.49% Nursing 10.49% Religious studies 10.49% Social work 10.49% Special education 10.49% Speech path 10.49% Studio art 10.49% Telecommunications 10.49% Theatre 10.49% Urban geography 10.49% Video game making 10.49% Visual arts 10.49% Total 206100.00%
119 Demographics reflect the similarities and dissimilarities among the different variables chosen for this research offering a wi de range of possibilitie s of interactions and relationships. Importance and Application of Ethical Values The instrument developed included questions related to the importance of ethical values in part A and in part B, The difference is that in part A, students were required to answer what were the most important values for themselves and what were the most important ethical values others hold accordi ng their criteria. These two questions were asked without any reference, exte rnal help or sugges tion, while in part B, a list of 28 ethical values was given which students ra ted according to their importance and their application. In part B, student s also had the opportunity to add any value they considered of real importance but this opportunity was seldom utilized. A list with all the values selected by co llege students trying to identify the most important ethical values in Part A for them is summarized in Table 10. A quantity of 133 values and terms were summarized; from thes e values and terms, 56 were not included in the 360 values considered by the different au thors and experts li sts from which the selected list of values used in this study originated. The procedure for classifying the importan ce of ethical values is presented in three groups of values. 1. Values previously identified and selected by the authors list. 2. Values previously identified and sel ected within the 360 values compiled in the authors lists. See Table 1 in Appendix B. 3. Values not previously identified and selected by authors lists.
120 Table 10 is subdivided in three sections according to the type of values. There were 56 answers that comprise te rms as ethical values not previously identified and not compiled within the 360 valu es of the authors lists. These were given for analysis to four external persons in order to clarify if the term belonged to an ethical value consideration or were just something else as a matter of judgment. These four persons were professionals from the Univers ity of South Florida who affirmed to be conscious about ethical values criteria, two current professors one administrative director dealing with college students scholarships, and one former coordinator of languages with international and multidisciplinary background. From this consensus, 12 terms were considered ethical values and the rest, 44 terms were not within the scope of the focus of this study. These values and terms together wi th those obtained from the question related to the most important ethical values that other people hold in Part A are summarized in Appendix I. As an example, some of the verbatim terms like being human, being nature, be yourself, improving life, work ethics, live life to the fullest, improving life, manners, and others may be related in some way with ethical values but are not actually ethical values. Some do not have dir ect relationships such as opi nion, personality, team player, uncertainty, strong belief, sportsmanship, sc hool, environment, keep language, money, wealth, and others. A number of students wr ote terms which involved ethical values but these again are not actually ethical values su ch as church, God, believing in God, put God first. Another category of terms within th ose called something else were terms like abortion, pro life, heterosexual marriage, which deserve attention because these represent differing points of view depending upon the crite ria people use to think about values.
121 As previously said, the 56 terms which co mprised those terms defined as ethical values for the reviewers and those calle d something else terms are included in Appendix I together with those treated later in the same way in order to choose the ethical values not previously identified within the 360 values of the authors lists of Table 13. None of the terms mentioned as something else were selected more than twice; therefore, they do not represent much influence in the study conclusions.
122 Table 10 Important Ethical Values selected by College Students (Part A) 1. Values previously identified and selected by the authors list Compassion Honesty Patience Courage Humbleness Respect / Self-respect Courteously / Courteous Humor Responsibility Creativity Integrity Self-control Discipline Justice Service Fairness Kindness Tolerance Friends Knowledge Unders tanding / Self-Understanding Generosity Love Unity Hard work Motivations / Self-motivation Total: 26 values 2. Values previously identified a nd compiled in the authors lists. Accountability Education Privacy Altruism Equality Punctuality Being genuine Excellence Reliability Being supportive Faith / Faithfulness Religion / Religiousness Care / Caring Family Resourcefulness Charity Family / Respect Rightness Choice Freedom / Free Safety Commitment Happiness Security future Culture Health Self-Loyalty Democracy Help others / Helpfulness Sensitivity Dependable Honor Selflessness Determination Loyalty Sincerity Devotion Morality Spirituality Discrete Open minded Telling Truth Diversity Peace Trust / Trustworthy Due Process Personal values Truth / Truthful / True to self Duty Pride Wisdom Total: 51 values 3. Values not previously identified and selected by the authors lists Acceptance Following laws Piety Decency Fortitude Purity Dignity Humanitarianism Reason / Reasonable Dont cheat Impartiality Willpower Total: 12 values Total all kind of values: 89 values Table 11 shows the percentages of the different values college students cited four or more times as most important in Part A of the questionnaire as their three choices and the total of these choices.
123 Table 11 Percentage of Important values for co llege students by ch oice from Part A Table 12 shows the total of the proporti ons for each important ethical value for college students with more than four choices with their respective confident intervals. 1st choice 2nd choice 3rd choice Total Honesty 9947.37%2713.43%157.98% 14168.12% Integrity 94.31%2612.94%105.32% 4521.74% Loyalty 20.96%167.96%1910.11% 3717.87% Respect/Self-respect 83.83%136.47%168.51% 3717.87% Trust/Trustworthy 62.87%136.47%73.72% 2612.56% Family 178.13%52.49%21.06% 2411.59% Morality 31.44%52.49%63.19% 146.76% Compassion 20.96%31.49%63.19% 115.31% Equality 31.44%21.00%63.19% 115.31% Hard work 20.96%73.48%21.06% 115.31% Responsibility 20.96%21.00%42.13% 83.86% Culture 20.96%31.49%21.06% 73.38% Education 41.99%31.60% 73.38% Faith/Faithfulness 41.91%21.00%10.53% 73.38% Fairness 10.48%41.99%10.53% 62.90% Friends 31.49%31.60% 62.90% Kindness 20.96%21.00%21.06% 62.90% Religion/Religiousness 31.44%31.49% 62.90% Generosity 21.00%31.60% 52.42% Honor 10.48%10.50%31.60% 52.42% Love 20.96%21.00%10.53% 52.42% Truth/True to self 10.48%21.00%21.06% 52.42% Care/Caring 10.48%10.50%21.06% 41.93% Courage 21.00%21.06% 41.93% Justice 10.48% 31.60% 41.93% Sincerity 21.00%21.06% 41.93% Total values: 26 Number of students 207 201 188 207 (*) Values similar to the list of et hical values selected in this study
124 Table 12 Proportions of important ethi cal values for college stude nts and confidence intervals n Total Confidence intervals Honesty 14168.12%61.49 74.09 Integrity 4521.74%16.66 27.85 Loyalty 3717.87%13.25 23.66 Respect/Self-respect 3717.87%13.25 23.66 Trust/Trustworthy 2612.56%8.72 17.77 Family 2411.59%7.91 16.67 Morality 146.76%4.07 11.03 Compassion 115.31%2.99 9.26 Equality 115.31%2.99 9.26 Hard work 115.31%2.99 9.26 Responsibility 83.86%1.97 7.43 Culture 73.38%1.65 6.81 Education 73.38%1.65 6.81 Faith/Faithfulness 73.38%1.65 6.81 Fairness 62.90%1.34 6.18 Friends 62.90%1.34 6.18 Kindness 62.90%1.34 6.18 Religion/Religiousness 62.90%1.34 6.18 Generosity 52.42%1.04 5.53 Honor 52.42%1.04 5.53 Love 52.42%1.04 5.53 Truth/True to self 52.42%1.04 5.53 Care/Caring 41.93%0.75 4.86 Courage 41.93%0.75 4.86 Justice 41.93%0.75 4.86 Sincerity 41.93%0.75 4.86 Number of students 207 (*) Values similar to the list of et hical values selected in this study Some results shown in Ta ble 10, 11, and 12 are very noticeable and have high relevance.
125 Honesty was selected as the most importa nt ethical value. Honesty generated a percentage of 68.12% considered as a total of 3 choices over the number of students surveyed, which was much higher than the second choice, integrity which was selected at a rate of less than one thir d that honesty (21.74%%). Loyalty and respect/self-respect represented less than one four th (17.87%) of honesty. As a fi rst choice, the ethical value honesty was cited by nearly half of the sample population (47.83%). Students counted only 26 values four or more times as a total of the three choices. Four ethical values appear to be the mo st important for college students, honesty, integrity, loyalty, and respect/self-respect. The fact that 141 students selected honesty is very important and will be discussed in ch apter Five. Except for the third choice, honesty was the first selection while integrity was th e second both as a total and as a second and third choice. In Part A, answers refer to ethical valu es that college students think other people hold. The college students responses provided 140 ethical values which are depicted in Table 13, and 14. These tables are similar to the previous Table 10 and 11 which account for the number of values and the percentages as totals and for the three choices respectively. Table 13 is subdivided into three sections according to the type of values as it was similarly done in Table 10. There were 64 answ ers that comprise term s as ethical values not previously identified and not compiled within the 360 values of the authors lists but were considered by students when they answ ered what ethical values college students think other people hold. These te rms and values were given for analysis to the same four external persons as shown in Appendix I togeth er with those terms and values related to
126 the important values for college students. Appendix I joins those terms from answers according to the importance of ethical values of college students in part A and those from answers related to the importance of ethica l values others hold as judged by college students, also in part A. This consensus helped to clarify if the terms belong to an ethical value consideration, or were just something else as a matter of judgment. From this consensus, 10 were considered as ethical valu es and are shown in Ta ble 13; the rest, 54 were considered as something else, which are not necessarily with in the scope of the focus of this study. Appendix I shows terms for both cases (EVs important for C.S. and EVs others hold) where EVs = ethical values. The consensus was achieved from four pr ofessional persons from the University of South Florida who expressed an understanding of ethical values. From the list of terms not included in the authors lists shown in Appendix I, they selected those terms they considered ethical values which were a total of 27. Person A selected 12 EVs, pe rson B selected 8 EVs, person C selected 7 EVs, and person D selected 11 EVs; some of the values were similar for the reviewers. Percentage agreement Number of EVs 100% 6 75% 6 50% 5 From the total of 27 di fferent ethical values: 6 EVs were common across all f our reviewers (Decency, dignity, humanitarianism, impartial ity, dont cheat, and piety).
127 6 EVs were common across three of the reviewers (Dont kill, dont lie, dont steal, dont hurt others, will power, and purity). 5 EVs were common across two of th e reviewers (Acceptance, following laws, fortitude, reason, and liberty). The other 10 ethical values were not taken into account because those were selected by only one pers on (Non-judgment, consent, character, do good to others, professionalism, self-involvement good character, team player, treat others good, and work ethics). Some new terms appear when students answer the ethical values other people hold such as arrogant certitude, egos, greed, and vanity which indeed are antivalues. Also, other terms like looks, cars, degree, so cials, wealth, success, winning, superiority, popularity, reputation, social cont rol, serving me, and career ar e highly related with status and personal material goals depending on what persons expect in li fe. Another group of terms seems to be more directed to pers onal improvement like be a good person, live life to the fullest, prompt, and possibly marriage. Some terms were more related with civic issues like democracy, fighting terrorism, po litical integrity, survival, sexual monogamy, concluding with relativism which offers ample possibilities fo r interpretation. In Appendix I, it is possible to observe all of these terms and values. Antivalue is considered in this study as opposite to an ethical value. For example, the antivalue of love could be hate the antivalue of resp ect could be lack of respect, in the case of honesty coul d be lie or cheat, and so forth. A decision was made by the author to use the college students responses verbatim. The author associated the students responses with values previously identified
128 in the authors list and with values previously identified in the authors lists in order to determine whether or not the auth ors association was appropriate. The appropriateness was determined by asking the four external reviewers previously mentioned to either agree or disagree with the authors association. If three of the four reviewers were in ag reement, the association was verified. Three analyses were conducte d. In all the analyses, at least three of the four reviewers agreed. The first analysis was conducted with a sa mple of 40 students. When the college students answered the last two questions of Part A of the questionnaire, they had the freedom to select values or terms spontane ously. Some of these te rms or values were close in meaning and were associated by the author. The author sele cted the answers of 40 students out of the 207 students who answer ed the question rela ted to the values college students considered important, a nd out of the 197 student s who answered the question related to the ethical values othe r people considered im portant. Every fifth student from each class was se lected to comprise the samp le of 40 students. In the German class, the 9th and the 14th students were selected as the 10th student did not answer the two questions and there were only fourteen students in the class. A list with the authors associated values selected by the au thor from all the values or terms that these 40 college students answered in Part A of the questionnaire was sent to these four external reviewers (see Appendix K). The question for the four reviewers in the three analyses was: I have matched the verbatim values of the college students as follows. Do you agree or disagree with the matched values?
129 In the second analysis, the reviewers were asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the authors association of the values identified in the authors list and the values selected by all the students (see Appendix L). In the third analysis, the reviewers were asked similarly whether they agreed or disagreed with the authors asso ciation of the values identifi ed in the authors lists and the values selected by all the students (see Appendix M).
130 Table 13 Important ethical values other people hold selected by students (Part A) 1. Values previously identified and selected by the authors list Attentiveness Forgiveness Knowledge Be honest Friendship Love Be Kind Generosity Patience Communication Hard work Respect / Self-respect Compassion Honesty Responsibility Courage Humility Service Creativity Integrity Tolerance Diligence Justice Understanding Fairness Kindness Unity Total: 27 values 2. Values previously identified a nd compiled in the authors lists. Altruism Equality Pride Ambition Excellence Privacy Attitude Faith / Faithfulness Reliability Care Family Religion / Religiosity Caring for environment Freedom Pursuit of Happiness Charity Freedom of speech Resourcefulness Choice / Pro-Choice Frugality Rightness Commitment Happiness Safety Competition Honor Self-esteem Consideration Loyalty Selflessness Culture Morality / Morals Spirituality Dedication Optimism Supporting others Dependability Peace Take care of family Devotion Politeness Team Player Diversity Open minded / Openness Truth / Truthfulness Duty Power Trust / Trustworthy Education Total: 49 values 3. Values not previously identified and selected by the authors lists Acceptance Don't Kill Impartiality Dignity Don't Lie Liberty Don't cheat Following laws Dont steal Don't hurt Total: 10 values Total of all kind of values: 86 values
131 Table 14 shows the percentage s of the different values college students cited four or more times as the most important that other people hold. The table shows the three choices they answered pl us the total of them. A very relevant fact, once more, is th at honesty was selected as the most important ethical value people hold. Hone sty generated a percentage of 51.79% considered as a total of 3 choices over the number of students surveyed, which is higher than the following three selected ethical valu es, respect, integrity, and loyalty. As a first choice, honesty had a percentage of 32.49% fo llowed by respect with 7.11% and family with 5.58%. This difference is important because it is more than four times the next most selected value. Considering the sum of the three choices and finding their percentage over the number of college students surveyed, only six values ar e over 10% (honesty, respect, integrity, loyalty, trust, and family); only si x values are over 5%, (hard work, religion, kindness, money, equality, and faith). There we re 25 values that occurred four or more times among a total of 140 values or something else that college students wrote in their answers. These figures generate thought about the la rge number of ethical values, values of all kinds, strengths, virtues, attributes, wish es, terms, and something else terms that people may confuse and interpret in differe nt ways when they are questioned about ethical values.
132 Table 14 Proportions of important ethical values other people hold sele cted by college students by choice from (Part A) 1st choice 2nd choice 3rd choice Total Honesty 6432.49%2011.11%1811.11% 10251.78% Respect 147.11%73.89%116.79% 3216.24% Integrity 84.06%116.11%116.79% 3015.23% Loyalty 63.05%147.78%106.17% 3015.23% Trust/Trustworthy 94.57%147.78%21.23% 2512.69% Family 115.58%52.78%53.09% 2110.66% Hard work 63.05%63.33%63.70% 189.14% Religion/Religiosity 73.55%42.22%53.09% 168.12% Kindness 10.51%63.33%53.09% 126.09% Money 73.55%31.67%21.23% 126.09% Equality 21.02%63.33%21.23% 105.08% Faith/Faithfulness 63.33%42.47% 105.08% Morality/Morals 21.02%31.67%42.47% 94.57% Culture 31.52%31.67% 0.00% 63.05% Friendship 10.51%31.67%21.23% 63.05% Compassion 10.56%42.47% 52.54% Justice 42.03%10.56% 0.00% 52.54% Love 31.52%10.56%10.62% 52.42% Responsibility 21.02%21.11%10.62% 52.54% Courage 31.67%10.62% 42.03% Education 10.51%31.67% 0.00% 42.03% Freedom 10.51%21.11%10.62% 42.03% Honor 31.67%10.62% 42.03% Not stealing 10.51%31.67% 0.00% 42.03% Open minded 10.51% 31.85% 42.03% Total values: 25 Number of students 197 180 162 197 (*) Values similar to the list of et hical values selected in this study Table 15 shows the total of the proporti ons for each ethical value that college students considered others ho ld, with more than four choices with their respective confidence intervals.
133 Table 15 Proportions of important ethical values ot her people hold and confidence intervals n Total Confidence intervals Honesty 10251.78%44.83 58.65 Respect 3216.24%11.74 22.03 Integrity 3015.23%10.88 20.91 Loyalty 3015.23%10.88 20.91 Trust/Trustworthy 2512.69%8.74 18.06 Family 2110.66%7.08 15.75 Hard work 189.14%5.86 13.98 Religion/Religiosity 168.12%5.06 12.78 Kindness 126.09%3.52 10.34 Money 126.09%3.52 10.34 Equality 105.08%2.78 9.09 Faith/Faithfulness 105.08%2.78 9.09 Morality/Morals 94.57%2.42 8.45 Culture 63.05%1.41 6.49 Friendship 63.05%1.41 6.49 Compassion 52.54%1.09 5.80 Justice 52.54%1.09 5.80 Love 52.54%1.09 5.80 Responsibility 52.54%1.09 5.80 Courage 42.03%0.79 5.10 Education 42.03%0.79 5.10 Freedom 42.03%0.79 5.10 Honor 42.03%0.79 5.10 Not stealing 42.03%0.79 5.10 Open minded/Openness 42.03%0.79 5.10 Total values: 25 Number of students 197 (*) Values similar to the list of et hical values selected in this study In Part B of the questionnaire of the study, a selected 28 sets of values were presented to college students in order to score the importance and the application of ethical values from 1 to 10; 10 being the maximum, according their criteria. Table 16
134 shows the mean for each ethical value related to importance, resulting from the score that students did to each one of the 28 ethical valu es selected by the author from larger to smaller score. Table 17 does the same relate d to the application of ethical values by college students. Confidence intervals validated both scores for the mean. Table 16 Importance of ethical values (Questionnaire Part B) Mean Confidence intervals Respect 9.389.20 9.55 Honesty 9.339.11 9.54 Responsibility 9.198.98 9.40 Knowledge/Learning 9.068.85 9.27 Integrity 8.988.76 9.19 Fairness/Justice 8.968.74 9.18 Perseverance/Hard work 8.918.68 9.14 Self-motivation 8.878.64 9.09 Love 8.868.59 9.13 Self-Discipline/Temperance 8.788.54 9.02 Communication 8.758.52 8.98 Attentiveness/Kindness 8.688.47 8.90 Forgiveness/Compassion 8.678.42 8.92 Gratitude/Appreciation 8.598.35 8.82 Patience 8.518.27 8.75 Decision making 8.458.21 8.69 Fulfillment/Diligence 8.448.22 8.66 Friendliness/Unity 8.418.14 8.69 Generosity 8.348.07 8.60 Tolerance 8.308.03 8.57 Humor 8.117.82 8.40 Vision/Objectivity 8.087.82 8.34 Comprehension 8.077.81 8.33 Enthusiasm 7.987.71 8.25 Humility 7.907.62 8.19 Courage 7.777.48 8.07 Service 7.547.23 7.85 Creativity 7.507.16 7.84
135 The highest score for an et hical value in importance was respect with a mean of 9.38 (10 maximum), which was almost the sa me as honesty with 9.33. Next, in order, were responsibility (9.19), knowledge/learning (9.06), inte grity (8.98), fairness/justice (8.96), perseverance/hard work (8.91), self-motiv ation (8.87), love (8.86), and the others as detailed in Table 16. All va lues are close (one to next) and their means ranged from 9.38 to 7.50; suggesting that college students scored all values high. Even the freedom to write in four spaces other values and score those if they wished, only one person additi onally cited morality and loyalty in the current study. When results from the current study were compared with those of the pilot study, a high level of congruency was found. The first ten values preferred in the current study were respect, honesty, responsibility, knowle dge/learning, integrity fairness/justice, perseverance/hard work, self-motivation, love and self-discipline/ temperance while in the pilot study, the order was honesty, respect, integrity, responsibility, knowledge/learning, perseverance/hard work, lo ve, self-motivation, fa irness/justice, and communication. These similarities confirm that college students us e common criteria to determine the importan ce of ethical values. Once again results indicate that these va lues are important to college students; however, they are not emphasized directly at the college level even in discussions or workshops for foundation, analysis, or reinforcement. Table 17 is similar to Table 16 but is rela ted to the applicatio n of ethical values.
136 Table 17 Application of Ethical Valu es (Questionnaire Part B) Mean Confidence intervals Respect 8.878.669.07 Honesty 8.598.368.81 Knowledge/Learning 8.578.348.8 Responsibility 8.518.298.76 Integrity 8.348.078.60 Fairness/Justice 8.308.068.55 Perseverance/Hard work 8.268.018.51 Attentiveness/Kindness 8.258.038.48 Friendliness/Unity 8.227.968.48 Love 8.217.898.54 Humor 8.087.808.37 Gratitude/Appreciation 8.027.748.29 Generosity 7.957.698.22 Communication 7.907.638.17 Self-motivation 7.897.628.16 Forgiveness/Compassion 7.767.496.04 Comprehension 7.727.477.98 Decision making 7.657.387.91 Self-Discipline/Temperance 7.607.337.87 Fulfillment/Diligence 7.577.327.83 Tolerance 7.577.287.87 Vision/Objectivity 7.577.327.83 Enthusiasm 7.427.137.71 Creativity 7.206.877.53 Humility 7.156.847.46 Patience 7.096.787.41 Courage 6.956.677.24 Service 6.746.417.06 The highest score for an ethical value in application was respect with a mean of 8.87 (10 maximum), closely followed by honest y with 8.59 and knowledge/learning with 8.57. Next, in order, were res ponsibility (8.51), integrity (8 .34), fairness/justice (8.30), perseverance/hard work (8.26), attentivene ss/kindness (8.25), friendl iness/unity (8.22),
137 love (8.21), and the others as it may be detailed in Table 17. All values were close again (one to next) and their means ranked from 8.87 to 6.74. Most of the ethical values selected by college students as the most important concurred with the ones chosen as the most applicable, both in Part B. However, when both percentages were analyzed, the importan ce of the values was always higher than their application. For ex ample, when respect and honesty we re analyzed, just to mention the two highest values scored, it was found that the scores were 9.38 and 9.33 respectively for importance, while their scores for applica tion were 8.87 and 8.59 respectively. The difference was 0.51 in th e score for respect and 0.74 for honesty which represented a proportion of 5.45% and 7.93% less in application in relation to importance. These proportions and differe nces were higher in the pilot study. Congruency on the selection of values among this study and the pilot study was very high related to application similar to wh at happened related to importance. The first ten values preferred in this study were respect, honesty, knowledge/learning, responsibility, integrity, fairness/ Justice, perseverance/hard wo rk, attentiveness/ kindness, friendliness/unity, and love, wh ile in the pilot study, the or der was honesty, love, respect, integrity, perseverance/hard work, res ponsibility, knowledge/le arning, good humor, fairness/justice, and communicati on. In this case, the order va ried, showing that love was one of the most highly scored in the pilot but not as high in this study. These similarities again confirm the commonality used by college students to judge the application of ethical values. In order to understand some differences be tween the results related to scores and proportions between both studies, it is importa nt to say that in the pilot study, college
138 students did not necessarily have to score all the values, just the twelve more important for them while in the current study they were scoring all the values This fact explains why the means are lower for importance and application. When results of Table 16 about the im portance and those of Table 17 about application of ethical values fr om answers in Part B were compared with results of Table 12 and also Table 15 about the im portance of ethical values of college students and those than other people hold in Part A, once agai n a congruency emerged and the same values seemed to have priority. Four of these values appeared in the four tables; these are honesty, respect/self-respect, inte grity, and hard work. All of them are also included in the authors list. Most of the other values (8) included in the Table 18, a ppear in two tables from the four compared. Values frequently match together according if they belonged to the questionnaire in Part A or B; thus, family, loyalty, and trus t/trustworthy matched in Part A; and love, fairness/justice, knowledge/learning and responsibility coincided in Part B. Only kindness was selected among the ten higher priorities in Part A and B matching only twice. The relevance of Table 18 is that s hows a comparison of the most important selected values and their applic ation from four different sour ces in only one table easing the discussion and helping to vi sualize better the preference of the values and the answers obtained. This whole set of data, analysis, and interp retations represented also in tables have supported the study results of the main resear ch question, What are the ethical values that college students have.
139 Table 18 Comparison of Ethical Values from Questionnaire Part A and part B Usefulness of Ethical Values The question, Do you think ethical values are useful for people in work, family, society, and education was answered as strongly agree in most cases. More specifically, work received percentage of 71.92% and family received a percentage of 84.73% which was the highest. Society was 70.44% and education 67.49%. It is noteworthy and important that when the str ongly agree scores are added to the agree scores, the percentage for family rose to 99.02%. Results are also high for the other three Part A Part A Part B Part B Importance from Table 12 Values other people hold from Table 15 Importance from Table 16 Application from Table 17 Honesty Honesty Respect Respect Integrity Respect Honesty Honesty Loyalty Integrity Responsibility Knowledge/Learning Respect/Selfrespect Loyalty Knowledge/Learning Responsibility Trust/Trustworthy Trust/Trustworthy Integrity Integrity Family Family Fairness/Justice Fairness/Justice Morality Hard work Perseverance/Hard work Perseverance/Hard work Compassion Religion/ReligiosityS elf-motivation Attentiveness/Kindness Equality Kindness Love Friendliness/Unity Hard work Money SelfDiscipline/TemperanceLove Total of the ten highest scored va lues in each table: 40 values Values repeated in the four tables: 4 (Marked with (*) Values repeated in two tables: 8
140 areas; thus, work was 95.07% while soci ety and education were 94.58% and 93.60% respectively. All these results are shown in Table 19. Confidence intervals were applied to the proportions. Table 19 Usefulness of Ethical Values in this study n Proportion (%) Confidence intervals (%) To work Strongly agree 14671.92%65.37 77.65 Agree 4723.15%17.88 29.42 Neither agree nor disagree 62.96%1.36 6.30 Disagree 41.97%0.77 4.95 Strongly disagree 00.00% 203100.00% To family Strongly agree 17284.73%79.14 89.03 Agree 2914.29%10.14 19.77 Neither agree nor disagree 20.99%0.27 3.53 Disagree 00.00% Strongly disagree 00.00% 203100.00% To society Strongly agree 14370.44%63.83 76.29 Agree 4924.14%18.77 30.47 Neither agree nor disagree 94.43%2.35 8.20 Disagree 10.49%0.08 2.73 Strongly disagree 10.49%0.08 2.73 203100.00% To education Strongly agree 13767.49%60.77 73.56 Agree 5326.11%20.55 32.56 Neither agree nor disagree 125.91%3.41 10.04 Disagree 10.49%0.08 2.73 Strongly disagree 00.00% 203100.00%
141 The maximum possible score was 1,015, wh ich is the product of 203 students who answered this question multiplied by 5 as the maximum possible score corresponding to strongly agree. Table 20 sh ows the mean of the ra ting of usefulness of ethical values for the four areas consid ered, work, family, society, and education. Table 20 Rating of usefulness of ethical values The data obtained, once analyzed, reve aled that only two students answered neither agree nor disagree to usefulness of ethical values for family; all other answers were agree or strongly agree ethical va lues for family. With regard to work, six answered neither agree nor disagree and four signed disagree while nine preferred neither agree nor disagree, one chose dis agree, and another strongly disagree for society. This was the only str ongly disagree choice for a ll areas. In the area of education twelve answered, neither agr ee nor disagree and only one, disagree. Two hundred three students answered this particul ar research question which suggests college Mean Confidence intervals Work 4.65 4.56 4.74 Family 4.84 4.78 4.89 Society 4.64 4.55 4.72 Education 4.61 4.52 4.69 Strongly agree = 5; Agree = 4, Neith er agree nor disagree = 3; Disagree = 2; Strongly disagree = 1
142 students are very conscious of the usefulness of ethical values. This was also the case with the pilot study. Benefits of Ethical Values The question, Try to say in two different words what ar e the main benefits that the application of these ethical values bring to individuals, families, education, and society found out how college students relate ethical values applica tion with new terms, factors, values, virtues, or concepts. College students had absolute freedom to choose their own terms and not n ecessarily those selected on the prev ious list of ethical values of the pilot instrument; therefore, new values, vi rtues, or terms related to the study emerged. Each participant listed in priority order tw o values or terms for individuals, families, education, and society. The results revealed th at college students wrote some new terms and others coincided with the ones included in the list of the questi onnaire or within the wide variety of values selected by the author s lists. Only those values repeated more than five times (counting the two choices) are shown in Tables 21 and 22. The percentages in the table were calculated cons idering the number of repeated terms or values given by students divide d by the total number of st udents who answered. Because there were two choices, percentages tend to be higher when the total of values is considered. Benefits of ethical values to individuals indicate that respect and happiness are the two most selected values with 13.16% and 11.58 % respectively followed by fulfillment, self-respect, and friendship. Pride, trust, self-esteem, integrity, and confidence are included among the values approximating 5%.
143 Benefits of ethical values to family vary in the selection of values compared with individuals. With regard to family, love em erged as the most important benefit with a percentage of 34.72% followed by unity with 20.21%. When these two values are added, college students confirm that more than 50% of them are focused on these two values. Togetherness, cohesiveness, and closene ss considered togeth er summed 21.76% and these values seemed very close related and were selected as benefits for family. This is true because there is less dispersion of values and terms in reference to family than in individuals, education, and soci ety. Respect was selected as be nefit in individuals, family, education, and society. Table 21 Benefits of ethical values for individuals and family Benefits for individuals Benefits for family n Percentage (%) n Percentage (%) Respect 25 13.16% Love 67 34.72% Happiness 22 11.58% Unity 39 20.21% Fulfillment 18 9.47% Trust/Trustworthiness 25 12.95% Self-respect 16 8.42% Respect 21 10.88% Friendship 13 6.84% Togetherness 19 9.84% Pride 11 5.79% Cohesiveness 12 6.22% Trust 10 5.26% Closeness 11 5.70% Self-esteem 10 5.26% Happiness 11 5.70% Integrity 9 4.74% Understanding 11 5.70% Confidence 9 4.74% Strength 8 4.15% Understanding 7 3.68% Security/Safety 7 3.63% Honesty 6 3.16% Communication 7 3.63% Self-worth 6 3.16% Cooperation 6 3.11% Content 5 2.63% Harmony 6 3.11% Peace/Inner peace 5 2.63% Boldness 6 3.11% Responsibility 5 2.63% Honesty 6 3.11% Tolerance 5 2.63% Loyalty 5 2.59% Peace 5 2.59% Responsibility 5 2.59% Answers=190 n/190 Answers=193 n/193 (*) Values similar to the list of et hical values selected for this study
144 Table 22 is similar to the previous bu t is related to education and society. Table 22 Benefits of ethical values for education and society Benefits for education Benefits for society n Percentage (%) n Percentage (%) Knowledge 42 22.83% Unity 24 12.77% Success 26 14.13% Respect 23 12.23% Fulfillment 14 7.61% Peace 20 10.64% Respect 14 7.61% Fairness 14 7.45% Integrity 13 7.07% Tolerance 10 5.32% Learning 13 7.07% Understanding 9 4.79% Fairness 12 6.52% Justice 9 4.79% Understanding 10 5.43% Harmony 7 3.72% Comprehension 9 4.89% Trust 7 3.72% Intelligence 8 4.35% Friendships 7 3.72% Motivation 8 4.35% Equality 7 3.72% Accomplishment 6 3.26% Cooperation 6 3.19% Patience 5 2.72% Productivity 6 3.19% Wisdom 5 2.72% Responsibility 6 3.19% Equality 5 2.72% Success 6 3.19% Progress 6 3.19% Service 5 2.66% Communication 5 2.66% Compassion 5 2.66% Acceptance 5 2.66% Community 5 2.66% Happiness 5 2.66% Integrity 5 2.66% Togetherness 5 2.66% Kindness 5 2.66% Answers=184 n/184 Answers=188 n/188 (*) Values similar to the list of et hical values selected for this study Benefits of ethical values to education indicated that the main concentration was with the values knowledge and success, with 22.83% and 14.13% respectively. The following values were five values approximati ng 7%, which is half that of success. The second most selected was fulfillment, self-resp ect, integrity, learning, and fairness. Other
145 values are around 5% such as understanding, comprehension, intelligence, and motivation. Benefits of ethical values to society identified three values to be very similar, unity (12.77%), respect (12.23%), and peace (10.64%). In this area, besides the three already noted, the variety of values was larger as may be seen in Table 22. Each area has its own characteristics and va ries in the selection of values. This fact is very noticeable with regard to fam ily where love emerged as the most important benefit with a percentage of 34.72%, followe d by unity with 20.21%. If these two values are added, college students confirm that more than 50% of them are focused in these two values. This is more remarkable when toge therness, cohesiveness, and closeness which are very closely related each other are added. Th ese three values together rose to 21.76% more, which added to the 54.93% of the two fi rst mentioned, love and unity total 76.69%. This supports the criteria that there is less di spersion of values and terms in reference to family than in individuals, education, and soci ety. Values such as trust and respect also had high influence in family represented by 12.95% and 10.88% respectively. Fewer of the 207 students answered questions related to the benefits for education (184) and for society (188) than for individuals (190) and family (193). Another point is that when results fr om this study are compared with those obtained in the pilot study, the congruence betw een these results is very similar. In the pilot study the order of selec tion was for individuals, happiness, fulfillment, success, respect/self-respect, self-contentment, peace, and trust. Only success is not included in Table 20 because it was selected only four times in the current study. For family is even more impressive when the pilot indicated in priority order, love, unity happiness, respect,
146 trust, togetherness, and bonding, almost the same order as t hose values selected in the current study. Comparing this study with the pilot st udy in the area of education again concurrence seems to be the rule. The order in the pilot was knowledge, success, understanding, integrity, learning, and respect; all of them ar e included in the table and the two first in the same order and in a very cl ose order the others. In the area of society, respect, peace, tolerance, unity, communication, understand ing, and justice formed the sequence in the pilot study i ndicating once more the great similarity between the responses of the pilot and this study. It is important to note that almost all th e benefits most selected were also ethical values and from these, more than the half in the area of education and nearly half in the other areas were included in the list of the au thor. The rest were in the lists of the other authors studied. Those terms that were som ething else are usually not repeated more than twice even when there was a very wide variety of all kinds of terms. The ethical value, respect, was always selected in all areas as one with higher percentages; also appears Understanding in th e four areas. Other values that appear in three areas are peace, happi ness, integrity, responsibilit y, and trust. Most of the similarities are between individuals and fa mily and between education and society. Love had the highest number of repeated values (67 times) even when appearing in only one area, followed by knowledge (42) th at also appears once but only in the area of education. Considering all the areas together, respect (83 times) was the most selected benefit followed by love (67) and unity (63) They are followed by knowledge and trust with 42, and happiness and understanding with 38 and 37 times respectively.
147 There are, among the total of values or te rms selected by college students, several relevant and interesting non-listed values or terms within the variety of their answers, summarized in Tables 21 and 22, that encourag e the benefits of ethi cal values linked to: 1. Individuals: Terms related with person al self-growth such as companionship, confidence, contentment, great self-e steem, leadership, motivation, personal gain, pride, belief in one self, ca tharsis, common sense, dignity, honor, independence, tranquility, l ongevity, and sense of dir ection; and others with even more inner roots such as bala nce, enlightenment, humanity, sense of being, uniqueness, guilt-free, good hear tedness, self-awareness, satisfaction, self-growth, peace of mind, prosperit y, wholeness, and be yourself. 2. Families: Students associated the terms w ith ethical values such as stability, character, connection, morals, care, direction, nurturing, support, belonging, discipline, intimacy, better understandi ng, loyalty, compassion, acceptance, agreement, and future. 3. Education: Many of the terms and valu es related with ed ucation are highly related with goal achievement as accomp lishment, willingness, focus, concern for quality, belief, dedication, decision-ma king, perseverance, self-discipline, self-motivation, dedication, determination, encompassing, drive, goal attainment, and future while others are more oriented to further success like vision, worthiness, professionalism, m oney, leadership, pride, judgment, freedom and independence. 4. Society: Some students cited terms that tend to be very positive such as less chaos, less problems, less violence non ignorance, non conflict, liberty,
148 collaboration, compatibility, advancemen t, stability, progress, productivity, solidarity, stabilization, accountabili ty, culture, common responsibility, rewards, safety, support, solid work ethi cs, safe harbor, prosperity, and overall happiness. However, some students men tioned what they think indirectly about society as organized chaos, rule s, conflict, control, greed, measure, duty, leadership, critics, get messy, and power. Ethical Values Origin The research question considered where college students acqui red and developed the ethical values they hold and apply. Base d on importance according to their criteria, a graduated choice from 1 to 10 was implem ented, with 1 being the most important environment. The results were clear; home is the first and most influential place by far. As a summary, results are shown in Tabl e 23 taking into account those rated 1 as the most important and also the percentages from the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th priority order plus those ranked between 5th and 10th order. When the data obtained were analyzed, home origin for acquiring ethical values rated 45.27% as a first choice and 12.94% as a second followed by religion with 16.15% as a firs t choice and 19.79 as a second. The third selection was friends, especia lly as second priority (17.26%), third priority (14.72%, and fourth priority (10.15%). Edu cation in all its levels was always in the middle of the selection as well as community.
149 Table 23 Origin of ethical values Origin Home Origin college Origin Friends Origin Religion Choice Order n % n % n % n % 1 91 45.27%84.15%94.57% 31 16.15% 2 26 12.94%73.63%3417.26% 38 19.79% 3 6 2.99%2311.92%2914.72% 19 9.90% 4 2 1.00%2010.36%2010.15% 10 5.21% 5 to 10 76 37.81%13569.95%10553.30% 94 48.96% 201 100.00%193100.00%197100.00% 192 100.00% Choice Order Origin Elementary School Origin High School Origin Community Origin Middle School n % n % n % n % 1 4 2.06%42.11%42.08% 5 2.67% 2 17 8.76%73.68%115.73% 3 1.60% 3 30 15.46%157.89%2211.46% 18 9.63% 4 22 11.34%2613.68%3116.15% 19 10.16% 5 to 10 121 62.37%13872.63%12464.58% 142 75.94% 194 100.00%190100.00%192100.00% 187 100.00% When the results were carefully review ed, it appears that in the two highest priority selections, home and re ligion, also these were the hi ghest rating of tens, creating a quest for interpretation. Two main possibilities were cons idered, the first was that family as well as religion are the first priori ties for many people, also some people really dislike them for diverse reasons and they placed them at the bottom. The second possibility, which the author of this study thin ks is more probable, is that students rated 10 as the highest priority because they failed to read well the instructions of the questionnaire. Forty-eight of 201 college student s selected home tenth in priority and 32
150 of 197 students selected religion tenth in pr iority. This question, in subsequent results should be presented in a different manner. Table 24 helps to understand the influe nce of different environments where college students acquire and de velop ethical values across time. It is fairly similar than Table 23 but is presented in different manner and the proportions are statistically tested with confidence intervals as it was done in the pilot study. Table 24 Origin of ethical values -Most important priorities It is easy to appreciate th e order of selection and to r ealize that education is placed far for the first three preferences. Even community displayed more relevance than college, high school, and middle school. In the pilot study, home was the first or igin with higher percentage as first (72.53%) and as total 86.81% which means a c onsiderable difference with this study which is probably due to the reason explaine d previously. Also, frie nds and religion were the second selection as the most influential for origin of ethical values with 8.00% and Ethical values origin 1st priority (%) 2nd, 3rd, 4th priority (%) Total 1st to 4th Priority (%) Confidence intervals (%) Home 45.2716.9262.1955.32 68.60 Religion 16.1534.9051.0544.03 58.03 Friends 4.5742.1346.7039.86 53.66 Elementary school 2.0635.5737.6331.12 44.63 Community 2.0833.3335.4128.99 42.40 College 4.1525.9130.0624.03 36.87 High school 2.1125.5627.6721.80 34.43 Middle school 2.6721.3924.0618.50 30.67
151 8.97% respectively, and as tota l for first, second, third, and fourth were 54.85% and 54.03%. Other different origins were added and prioritized by college students in the two spaces left for others. They considered 48 sources in one choice and 26 sources in the other. Some of them were general life, self-education, Army ROTC, books, boyfriend and girlfriend, Boy Scouts, history, life experience, contem plation, government, prostitutes, hobbies, philosophy, and personal relationship among others. Also in this group and more repeated than the previous ly mentioned, were media, TV, work, and myself. None of these origins were prioritized as the most important. Necessary Ethical Values to Apply in Education Given the freedom to select four ethical va lues to apply in e ducation, included or not in the list of existing values, result s were attained and are shown in Table 25. When the table is analyzed, once more, honesty appears as the ethical value most required for applying in education with a pe rcentage of 33.50% as a total of the four choices and 18.00% as a first choice. Very cl ose considering totals, is self-motivation with 33.00% and as a first choice 12.00%. These two values are the only ones that exceed the 30.00%. Respect, responsibility, knowledge, integrity, and patience approximated 24.00%. It is important to recognize that all th ese required ethical valu es in education are included in the list of values presented in this study. Pe rseverance and comprehension approximated 18% with fairness, self-disci pline, and communication approximating 13% followed by creativity, tolerance, and hard work.
152 Table 25 Necessary ethical values to apply in education Ethical values TotalTotal 1stchoice 2ndchoice 3rdchoice 4thchoice Needed in education n % n % n % n % n % Honesty 6733.50%3618.00%147.00% 115.53%63.08% Self-Motivation 6633.00%2412.00%157.50% 178.54%105.13% Respect 4924.50%115.50%136.50% 126.03%136.67% Responsibility 4924.50%63.00%178.50% 147.04%126.15% Knowledge 4824.00%168.00%126.00% 105.03%105.13% Integrity 4723.50%105.00%147.00% 178.54%63.08% Patience 4221.00%73.50%189.00% 63.02%115.64% Perseverance 3819.00%84.00%94.50% 105.03%115.64% Comprehension 3417.00%63.00%52.50% 94.52%147.18% Fairness 2814.00%84.00%94.50% 52.51%63.08% Self-discipline 2713.50%73.50%73.50% 84.02%52.56% Communication 2613.00%84.00%42.00% 63.02%84.10% Creativity 2311.50%52.50% 105.03%84.10% Tolerance 2110.50%42.00%42.00% 73.52%63.08% Hard work 2010.00%84.00%63.00% 63.08% Diligence 136.50%73.50% 63.08% Enthusiasm 136.50%42.00% 42.01%52.56% Decision Making 105.00% 52.51%52.56% Vision 94.50% 42.01%52.56% Objectivity 84.00%84.00% Fulfillment 42.00% 42.05% Kindness 42.00% 42.01% Learning 42.00%42.00% Understanding 42.00% 42.01% Number of students 200 200 199 195
153 All values selected are in the list of the authors quest ionnaire. Reasons for this fact might be that it was easier for students to copy values from the list of Part B of the questionnaire or that these values rema ined in their minds after answering the questionnaire. The fact is that there is a great coinci dence between the most important values they decided at the beginning of the questionn aire and the ones selected as a need for education. Also is an extrao rdinary coincidence with the order obtained for the same question in the pilot study when they prior itized these values as honesty, respect, selfmotivation, integrity, responsibility, patie nce, knowledge, perseverance, tolerance, communication, and comprehension. None of these themes are act ually taught at higher educa tion levels in a direct way even when there is a need for college students and probably for instructors and professors. This fact is ratify in the commen ts and answers to why of the questionnaire by the sample of college students survey ed. These comments are analyzed in the students rationale section in this chapter. In the section of Part B, additional que stions, three main answers are compiled and results analyzed. Interest in Themes Related to Ethical Values One hundred ninety seven college students an swered rating from five to one their interest to themes related to ethical values, being five the highest score. More than the half of the sample population seems to ha ve a good interest about ethical values. The results ranked from students with high interest (5) 27.92%; followed by (4) 29.95%; (3) 27.92%; (2) 10.15%; to those not interested (1) 4.06%.
154 Importance to Provide Courses and Workshops Related to Ethical Values to College Students. This question is believed of great importance because it is a message to the higher education authorities. From 195 students wh o answered the question related to the importance to provide courses, 153 answeri ng Yes which represen ts 78.46% while 42 students respond with No, indicating a per centage of 21.54% of the sample population answering the question. Once this result is known, which indicates the importance and therefore, the need for courses related to ethical values according the college students criteria; the question, for those that think courses ar e recommendable, focused in the type of courses, elective or required course. One hundred fifty nine students answered this question. From these 114 students affirmed the importance to provide electiv e courses which repres ent 71.70% while 45 students preferred required courses appro aching this quantity to 28.30%. Some students even when they answered no, they select ed elective and even two of them, cited courses such as sexual behavior and another said should be offered to Elementary and Middle school. One student answ ered both type of courses. Courses Suggested This is the last question of the survey. A full list of the courses proposed by the college students is presented in Table 26, indi cating also those repeated by more than one student. The variety was very wide but most of all of the courses are within the parameters of ethical values. A total of 112 students answered the question Which courses do you suggest; from these, only 9 an swered in undefined manner as follows,
155 dont know (twice), not sure (s elected three times), no ideas, anything, it is required, and I dont know but they are important which means a good interest for the students to learn more about et hical subjects or issues. A total of 99 different courses were suggested by the college students. Table 26 Courses suggested related to ethi cal values by college students Acquisition of knowledge Ethics for the masses, Ethical dialectics Analysis and current social moral Ethics in business Anything that teaches people proper virtues Ethics in medicine, engineering, and business Applied ethics in medicine, and education Ethics in society Applied ethics, Interpersonal communication Ethics in society or workplaces ethics Basic ethics & Ethics in Pop culture Ethics in the workplace Biomedical ethics Ethics in today's society Business ethics (selected twice) Ethics in your field and life Business ethics, general ethics Ethics, Philosophy Business ethics, personal ethics Ethics, theories in behavior Business Ethics. Ethics in Society Evolution of values Business, Education, and Religion's Ethics For Elementary to build confidence, responsibility Civic course, citizenship History class (origins of ethical values) Community ethicsEncourages tolerance Human sexual behavior Courses dealing with the study of people (sociology, psychology) Humility and confidence Courses in Tolerance and worldly matters Intro to Ethics (selected twice) Courses should vary depending Life after death Courses to expand the world view of Americans and materialists Living morally, Dealing with others Courses which expose political figures, religions, and cultures. Mass Communication ethics Creativity and decision making Middle East and N. Africa Creativity and self discipline Moral Ethics, Work ethics Decision making Morals Depends on Major Motivation and Discipline Differing Ethical values in world, religion One most definitely on unity Each program should have a specific course of ethics for that field One that provides different perspectives on values Education classes, and Business Ones that examine the differences between people Equity in schools Philosophical ethics course Ethical arguments, religion classes Philosophy
156 Table 26 (Continued) Courses suggested related to ethi cal values by college students Ethical concepts, Ethics of life Philosophy courses/Religion courses Ethical issues Classroom/family/work/society Philosophy, world humanities Ethical issues relating to area of study Political Ethics Ethical issues surrounding family care giving Political science and Psychology courses Ethical perspectives Professional ethics, Societal ethics Ethical studies of different lifestyles and cultures Psychology, AFA Ethical Values Respect & Humility Ethical values & Society Self-discipline Ethical values and morals Self-respect, Respect towards others, Loving yourself Ethical values in life Should be offered to Elementary & middle school Ethical values in our society Society & Ethical values Ethical values in society Sociology, Psychology Ethical values should be in middle & high school Tolerance and vision/objectivity Ethics (selected four times) Tolerance-Racism, Sex issues Ethics & Values Values & the reason to them Ethics and business Values as a part of life Ethics and most other philosophy courses We have them already Ethics and Objectivity Women's studies Ethics and values to the workplace Work & School ethics Ethics and ways to apply them Work ethics Ethics applied at SPIC Workshops on self-motivation Ethics class Half of the sample population of college students have a fine attitude towards completing the questionnaire (52.79%). Those who affirmed to have excellent attitude summed 17.26% while those telli ng just good were 18.78%. Mo re or less were 10.66%. Only one person said to feel a bad/down attitude.
157 Most of the students (70.77%) thought to answer the questionnaire was considerable degree of thought and only 22.05% answered minimal. The rest, 7.18% answered others like in between, mo derate, middle, some, and average. Students Rationale A number of students provi ded responses to questions number 2 and 5 of the questionnaire in Part B, as to why they gave a particular answer. A sample of these responses follows. Ethical values are the backbone of ot her important values needed to produce productivity. Setting and completing goals are all related to ethical values. Because having high ethical values increa ses the positive atmosphere in each of these and allows for better relationships and more success. Ethical values are important for all aspe cts of social life, emotional life, and physical life. Because they are things people need to work together. Because ethical values are important in decision making about the future and if you have no values then, what do you have? At work and school it is important to have values in order to run smoothly, but in family and society, it is important for happiness. Family helps you whether you are ethical or not. In work a nd education, ethical values will help you as much as you apply th em. In a social environment or society, you need them to just survive. All are used in different levels. Ethical values are the key to making everything successful.
158 Society as a whole wouldnt survive without ethical values in place. It would be complete chaos if people did not follow ethical values. Everyone is faced with several choices a day and you need a moral compass. People need them in order to contribute to society. It is a way to live your life. The ethical values shape peoples personal ity and view of life while help to go along way of life. Ethical values are what drives and motiv ates us to become better people for the betterment of society and ourselves. Ethical values affect everything in your life because they are how you treat yourself and others. The preceding answers to the question of why indicate that many college students were conscious about the relevanc e of ethical values and their different influences in life, college life, and future work and their applicat ion to individuals, family, education, and society. Summary Chapter Four presents and analyzes all the data from the questionnaire. One by one all the research questions have been answered according to the different gathered information and the results obtained. Most of the questionnaires were completed well. Only one person answered in a non-serious manner. Approximately two hundred college students answered most of the questions in Pa rt B. In part A, all 207 students provided answers. See Tables 8 and 9.
159 Comparing the results from the pilot study a nd the actual study has helped to give more reliability to this study and va lidity to the developed instrument. Congruency between most of variables was high. Demographic characteristics compare well with the statistical numbers of the Univ ersity and also with the pilot study in mo st of the themes and areas studied. The research question about the importance of ethical values brought results from answers in Part A and Part B and also compar ed with the pilot study; therefore, a greater understanding of the importance of ethical values and applica tion details, similarities, and differences among the variables considered is now known. College students selected the ethical values they considered most important in Part A without any reference, external help, or suggestion according their own criter ia; then, they answered a similar question but this time referred to those ethical valu es they considered ot her people hold. Once more college students selected the most important values in Part B, but in this opportunity from a list of et hical values included in th e questionnaire. Thus, the importance of ethical values is obtained a nd compared among three sources. See Tables 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 18. When college students selected their ow n criteria values without any reference from the questionnaire in Part A, related to the most important ethical values of college students and those that other pe ople hold, they generated all kinds of terms. A consensus achieved by four external reviewers relative to which of these terms were ethical values and which terms were just something els e. See Appendix I and Tables 10 and 13. Ethical values which college students apply most were also evaluated in Part B of the questionnaire in the same way it was atta ined related to the importance in part B,
160 finding the results very similar in the preferen ce of terms and order to those considered by college students most important, but with lower scores. See Table 17. The question to the usefulness of ethica l values for people in work, family, education, and society was considered by colle ge students as strongly agree in most cases. The five ranges of strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree were eval uated, reaffirming that college students are conscious of the high influe nce of the usefulness of et hical values in the four environments analyzed. See Tables 19 and 20. Questions related to the benefits of ethica l values were answered with terms that college students associated with the benefits that apply to the four areas analyzed, individuals, family, education, and society. Students had absolu te freedom to choose their terms and their responses usually associated et hical values with bene fits. See Tables 21 and 22. Where college students acquired and deve loped their ethical values took into account eight environments. Answers showed th at home by far was the most highly rated, followed by religion and friends. Behind these environments, all levels of schooling and college were evaluated and mentioned along w ith other additional sources. See Tables 23 and 24. The most necessary ethical values to education according the college students criteria offered a wide variety of values when answers to the four blanks to fill with ethical values were selected in the questionnaire See Table 25.
161 Interest in the themes related to ethical values gave five possible answers with ranges comprising the highest (5 ) and the lowest (1). More than the half of the sample population manifested a good interest. When asked if it was important to provide courses related to ethical values, college students provided posit ive responses. More than thr ee fourths of the sample of college students responded yes. College stude nts were free to sugge st courses and they provided a very ample list which is shown in Table 26. Descriptive statistics and confidence intervals were the statistical methods selected for this study. The research questio ns were validated by confidence intervals thereby assuring a 95 percent le vel of confidence that the po pulation proportion or mean of the variables analyzed were between certain ranges. These are expressed in the form of data and when the sample size is larger than 120, a coefficient of z = 1.96 is used. In most cases the sample size approximate d 200 with the maximum being 207.
162 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Values in education tend to integrate students, teachers, and communities around a diversity of themes but the interesting issue is that all of these themes are interrelated and create connectiveness through the implem entation of ethical values, directly or indirectly. All disciplines rely upon a convergence of the applicatio n of ethical values in order to succeed and to improve in all areas of life and work. When students, teachers, and professors are conscious of what values they hold as well as those held by others, it will be easier to improve as well as resolve situations of all kinds. Therefore, the need and importance of a study related to ethical va lues of college students has relevance and will help educators and others know more about ethical values and their influence in the education, work, and life of college students. The combinations of values utilized by different societies are very mixed. This mixture is significant when different forms or ways for choosing or presenting values are reviewed. This is apparent when different classifications of values from philosophers, educators, psychologists, religious leaders, politicians, leaders, and others place more emphasis on some values than others; yet, all of them include ethica l values, virtues, or character strengths.
163 After an analysis of the values listed in Tables 1 and 2 and the results from the wide variety of answers by college student s of the questionnaire focused upon ethical values, it is easy to se e how ethical values are involved in all areas of life and education. Ethical values are able to be applied everywhe re and to several different types of societies and countries influencing and integrating different groups of world values mentioned in alphabetic order, such as civic values, democracy values, diversity and multiculturalism values, ecological awareness, family valu es, gender equality, global awareness, moral values, national identity and patriotism, p eace and conflict resolution, values of personal autonomy and reflection, religious values, and work values. Summary and Results of the Study This study has answered questions that ha ve not previously b een researched, such as the importance, application, usefulness, bene fits, origin, and need for ethical values by college students. The methodology followed in this study comprised a summary of the following stages: Statement and development of the research questions. Extended literature review related to ethical values of college students. Analysis of previous empirical studies. Selection and comparison of ethical valu es from different authors lists. Selection of ethical values used in the instrument developed. Application and analys is of the pilot study. Improvement and fineness of the current instrument.
164 Definitions of ethical values select ed for the instrument by different authors. Application and analysis of the inst ruments questionnaire to a college student sample. Statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. Analysis of data and achievement of results from literature review and from answers to the research questions Conclusions and recommendations Brief Description of the Study A comprehensive review of the literatur e was conducted and is summarized in chapter Two. This review pr ovided a knowledge base and jus tification for th is research study. The author focused his review of th e literature on three main topics: 1. Finding and relating previ ous empirical studies. 2. Finding and analyzing the sources of importance of ethical values. 3. Finding and comprising lists of ethica l values from different authors. The preparation and actual conduct of a pilot study was necessary and provided a foundation for the development of an instrume nt that focused upon each of the research questions proposed. These questions were fo cused on the importance of ethical values obtained in Part A of the questionnaire for college students and al so related to those ethical values they think other people hold. In Part B, college students gave scores to a list of twenty eight ethical values compiled by the author in relation to importance. A question related to the applic ation of ethical values follo wed and later, findings about
165 what college students think about the usefulne ss, the benefits of et hical values for work, family, education, and societ y were obtained. Where the students acquire and develop their ethical values was anothe r finding. The necessity of ethi cal values to be applied in education was another question presented to college students. Determining how much interest college students have in ethical values and if they consider these important enough to provide courses related to ethical values issues or themes revealed important knowledge about how college students think and develop judgment. A list of courses suggested by college students was also generated. Definitions by different authors for each value selected by the author and included in the questionnaire are pres ented in chapter Three. A total of 26 tables were compiled which summarize the information gathered from college students, from the literature review, the pilot study, administration of this instrument and selected demographic data or information. An analysis of this information provided an opportunity to study the ethical values of college students and to open the doors for other researchers to conduct additional studies using the instrument developed by this research. Results of the Study A wide variety of results was obtained and is summarized in the following paragraphs. Most of the results derived from this st udy relate to the res earch questions and others proceed from the literature review. All of the questions regard ing ethical values are interconnected and provoke a series of new questions thereby crea ting a huge network of understanding for life and work.
166 There was little research focused about et hical values of colle ge students and none was found focused on the resear ch questions posed by this study. Research about ethics in many different fields is very abundant and knowledge about ethics has existed throughout civilization. Teaching ethical issues at the college level does not occur in all career areas although teaching is increasing in areas such bio-medics, nursing, business, mass communications, and research fields. Very often these c ourses are linked more with the law, codes of ethics, and policies than w ith the essence of the application of ethical values as a natural and obvious need for a bett er society as well as with the benefits and usefulness of ethical values in all areas of life and wor k. Philosophy provides different courses but these are taught in a theoretica l way and not necessarily directed to the application of ethical values. Character education is often li nked with ethical values and is presented as a part of th e curricula in elementary schoo ls and often in middle schools, but is almost completely absent in high sc hool and college. This is unfortunate because adolescents and young people are experiencing important cha nges in their lives which form the foundations of their future. The necessity for teaching courses or work shops related to ethical values at the college level, mainly in an elective way, wa s clearly recognized. The students provided a long list of different types of courses, all of them based upon ethical values. This list was compiled and is presented in Table 26. These courses could be extended and adapted to all levels of education including adult, sp ecial education, continuing education, and corporate education. Close congruency between the demographics identified by the instrument and the data from the University of South Florida confirms the representativeness of the sample.
167 Some of the most interesting data related to demographics found that approximately four fifths of the sample population were between 17 to 25 years old, si ngle, and most were female (61.84%). College students within th e sample had 65 different majors and 38 different minors. Half of the sample was wo rking part-time and of the total number of students working, nearly 65% of them were doi ng so in private corpor ations. In terms of ethnicity, 70% of the sample was Caucas ian (White) and 91% were United States citizens. Also, about 64% had a suburban b ackground and about 69% had graduated from public schools. The majority of students rated the impor tance of ethical values very high and almost all answered the questionnaire completely in Part A and also in Part B. Comments of college students answering the why questio ns of the instrument suggest they have a greater idea of their et hical thought and are consciously aw are of the influence of ethical values in their lives. This fact is confirmed when the importan ce of ethical values is evaluated from different sources of questions in Part A a nd part B of the instrument. Many types of values appear from the answers of college students which were categorized into four areas: 1. Values previously identified and select ed by the authors list (Appendix B, Table 1; and Appendix C, Table 2; and also in Figure 1). 2. Values previously identified and compiled in the authors lists (Appendix A; Appendix B, Table 1; and Appendix C, Table 2). 3. Values not previously identified and selected by the authors lists (Table 10 and Table 13)
168 4. Values considered as somethi ng else (included in Appendix I) Even when many differing values appear in the study, the most frequently selected by college students as importa nt values were found within the 28 ethical values of the authors classification (S ee a summary in Table 18). Honesty and respect/self-respect were by far the most se lected in an unstructured free choice opportunity, followed by integrity and hard work. Others also included in the authors list like love, fairness, responsib ility, knowledge/learning, and kindness followed in order together with other values su ch as loyalty, family, trust, which are not included in the authors list but are included in the lists of 28 philosophers and experts (authors lists). See Appendix A; Appendix B, Tabl e 1; and Appendix C, Table 2. Student participants always evaluated the application of ethica l values lower than their importance. The same happened in th e pilot study but the difference between the importance and the application in the latte r instance was larger. There was a great congruency among the ethical va lues selected in both case s which concurred with the most preferred values which were respect and honesty first, followed by responsibility, knowledge/learning, integrity, fairness/justice, and perseverance/hard work, which also coincided with the values selected by college students in the pilot study. It was remarkable to discover how the et hical values confirmed by many different parts of the questionnaire directed the resu lts to the same preferred values and how almost all of them were included in the authors list. This list from the author was conceived and later validated after the selection and compendia of 28 lists of different author s and philosophers thr oughout history which summarized a total of 360 values (Appendix A) These lists offer a good base for other
169 researchers. The author, after an extensive re view of literature, selected 28 ethical values which concurred by chance with the number of lists. The authors list was an essential component for the conceptualization of the re search instrument developed for this study. An extraordinarily high result related to the usefulness of ethical values for people in work, family, society, and educati on was generated. This is confirmed by the answers to the questionnaire by college st udents where the choice of strongly agree was the dominant one for the four areas (w ork, family, society, and education). When combined with the agree responses, these va lues exceed 93% in all four areas with family approaching 100% (99.02%). When college students were requested to de scribe the benefits of ethical values using two words for each area, most of th em provided words which were values. Terms like respect, happiness, fulfillment, and self-respect appeared as benefits for individuals. Love, unity, trust, respect, togetherness, cohesiveness culminated referred to family while knowledge, success, fulfillment, respect, and in tegrity were linked with education. In relation to society, unity, respect, peace, fa irness, tolerance, and understanding were connected. Benefits are totally interrelated wi th ethical values and other kind of values which ratifies the need of ethical values. College students considered that there are many different ethical values that should be applied to educati on, starting as a priority wi th honesty, self-motivation, respect, responsibilit y, knowledge, and integrity. It is in teresting and important at the same time, to realize how these students can relate needs for education with ethical values and align these once more with almost the same values that have been mentioned
170 before. This is reinforced when most of stude nts, more than half of them, answered that they have an interest in et hical issues and felt good about answering the questionnaire. There is no doubt that home was the priority environment where most of college students think they had rooted and developed their ethical values, followed by religion and friends. Interesti ngly, schools and colleges have not had a similar level of influence. How college students answered and explaine d the why of some questions of the instrument, reflected clear and rational t hought about the importance, application, and benefits of ethical values in their lives. Cl early, the results from the application of the instrument provide an understanding of co llege students knowledge regarding ethical values. Conclusions This study offers conclusions from the results achieved whic h are summarized in the following manner: 1. A void existed regarding the knowledge of ethical values of college students. 2. The development of an instrument was necessary to determine the importance, usefulness, benefits, origin, and interest of ethical values of college students as well as ethical values needed for educatio n and courses suggeste d for inclusion in the curricula. 3. Additional research relating to the ethical values of colle ge students is required to apply to other students from other unive rsities, national and internationally.
171 4. College students are highly conscious of the usefulness of appl ying ethical values to individuals, families, education, and society. 5. Most college students have a consistent set of criteria an d knowledge base for selecting ethical values and developing comments about them. 6. Student participants usually considered the same ethical values related to importance to those related to applica tion, although they te nded to evaluate application of ethical values lower th an their importance of ethical values. 7. College students consistently confirm th e importance of some preferred ethical values, being almost all included in the authors list of the instrument. Among these, two values were by far remarkably important for college students, honesty, and respect/self-respect. 8. Ethical values are benefits for individuals, families, education, and society. Therefore, there exist links and interrela tions among ethical values and benefits that college students may have which ratif ies in some way the need of ethical values. 9. There is a need for authorities and educat ional instructors of all courses to be more prepared and knowledgeable on ethica l values concepts and application of these to different subjects and environmen ts. A multiplicity of necessary ethical values should be applied to education. 10. The teaching of courses related to ethical values at the university level is limited and college students are able to propose to authorities a variety of feasible courses and workshops to be included in the curricula.
172 11. A new categorization of ethical values is presented by the author who divides these values into four categories: inner values, behavioral-societal values, growth future values, and personal gi fted values. The new model of ethical values the author used in the instrument is categorized in four groups and each group comprised seven sets of values; ten of these sets are doubles, which equates to a total of 38 values. In order for an indi vidual to grow with balance, all of these values should be applied constantly and with connectiveness. Figure 1 in Appendix N presents graphically these ethical values categories which are comprised as: Inner values Humility, Patience, Tolerance, Forgiveness/Compassion, Comprehension, Gratitude/Appreciation, and Love Behavioral-societal values Respect, Responsibility, Honesty, In tegrity, Attentiveness/Kindness, Fairness/Justice spirit, and Friendliness/Unity Growth values Vision/Objectivity, Self-fulfillment/Diligence, Self-discipline/Temperance, Self-motivation, Communication, K nowledge/Learning, Decision making Personal gifted values Courage, Enthusiasm, Generosity, Creativ ity, Humor, Service spirit, and Perseverance/Hard worker This model presents a new categorization where one of the most relevant conclusions revealed that most of peopl e and society placed ethical values under the umbrella of the Behavioral-societal values. The values most selected by college students were exactly the same, such as respect, responsibility, honesty, integrity, attentiveness/kindness, and fairness/justice spirit. Only
173 knowledge/learning and perseverance/hard wo rk were within the first ten most selected categorized within Growth values and Personal gifted values respectively. 12. Most of the values cited, except integrit y, honesty, and fairness, in general, as well as the majority of others, may be positive or negative depending upon how they are applied. Only the Inner values are always positive and directed to good. Many others could be directed to ba d too. Examples, would be values such loyalty, responsibility, humor, courage, creativity, vision/objectivity, decisionmaking, knowledge, and self-motivation. Howe ver, values such as love, patience, tolerance, forgiveness/compassion, co mprehension, gratitude/appreciation, and humility directed to life and ot hers only may be positive and good. Implications Implications derived from this study ar e many and very diverse because they are linked with life, education, family, work, so ciety, and of course with ourselves as students and professionals or simply individuals. This research helps to open new persp ectives to ethical in fluence upon life and work loaded with semantic challenges and combined with discussion and interpretation of a variety of values and ethos Focused in the field of ethical values of college students, this study compiled a large am ount of information about coll ege students enrolled at the University of South Florida (USA). This study evokes at the same time the emerging knowledge and nature of ethical values of college students when they identified their criteria to multiple selections while they answered one by one the research questions.
174 This study also supports the need for fu rther research about this theme and presents an instrument that assembles multip le responses in order to know better the relationship among college student s, ethical values, and the in fluences of these values. A multiplicity of variables are identifie d, which helps to better understand the usefulness, benefits, importance, application, needs, and origin of ethical values, and the interaction and rela tionship among them. A wide reference for subsequent studies and consultation for researchers is provided by the 28 lists of values from philo sophers, authors, and experts on the theme. In addition to the authors list s, other authors with their conc epts and opinions related to ethical values, virtues, or character strengt hs are presented with their empirical or theoretical perspective in order to broade n the application of ethical values. This variety also generates a wide range of interpretations which are condensed into definitions for each ethical value select ed, offering to researchers and readers the possibility to understand better the meani ng of each value considered within the instrument and in the study. The study offers the opportuni ty to clarify differences among a whole variety of values. Also, pointed out is the rationale a nd difference between those values and ethical values emphasizing how ethical values are al ways present and inte rvening in other kind of values such as civic, democratic, peace, family, multicultural, ecological, moral, religious, and global values, among many others. This research intends to make leaders, teachers, and individuals aware of the importance of the application of ethical values in work, educ ation, family, society, and in the world. Knowledge, application, and practi cal benefits of ethica l values should be
175 emphasized in educational curricula espe cially when this study found that little knowledge of ethical values is ac quired in schools and colleges. A need for college courses related to ethical values is evident as a result of the number of proposed courses suggested the co llege students. This finding suggests that educators believe it is enough to teach character strengths, virtues, or ethical values at elementary schools and at times in middle schools. This creates a gap where many teachers and professors do not accept respon sibility for teaching ethical values, a condition that is not acceptable when they shou ld be role models for students. This is further supported with the usefulness that st udents affirmed ethical values had upon work, family, education, and society. Limitations of the Study Only college students from the University of South Florida participated within the sample population. All college students were undergraduate students. All data collection was by questionnaire and no interviews of students occurred. The questionnaire in Part B does not in clude two ethical values, loyalty and trust/trustworthy which were identified as very important by college students when they answered Part A of the questionnaire. Recommendations for Further Research Ethical values form an important part of the life of colleg e students, many times without conscientiously knowing they are applying them in their different aspects and activities of life. When students are constant ly learning the releva nce and usefulness of
176 ethical values application, they are able to help people and themselves more to know and to understand better their continuous improvement Further research in this area is needed to confirm how humanity may gradually be improved through ethics applied to education. Similar research should be conducted and applied to teachers, principals, professors, and boards of education. Additiona lly, this new research could be applied to other college students from different uni versities nationally and internationally. Further research is suggested interac ting directly through interviews and other procedures with the partic ipants and not only from da ta provided by questionnaires. In the same manner, research should be applied to other groups, such as CEOs, professionals, different types of em ployee, and the general population. The literature related to ethics, character, values, morals, virtues and similar themes is very broad and applies to all asp ects of life and society. Nevertheless, the need for a better understanding of the meaning of ethical values, their importance, their benefits, their application, and the usefulness that they offer to individuals, families, and society is still obscure to most people. They have heard about ethics but do not understand its actual meaning, relevance, and consequences. This supports the urgent need for additional research, especially with all persons who, directly or indirectly, will be influencing society in their different fields of competence in the near and foreseeable future. When ethical values are applied in life, evil vanishes while happiness becomes a reality. (The author)
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185 APPENDIX A LIST OF ETHICAL VALUES SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER
186 List of ethical values selected from different authors in alphabetical order Abhor Evil Clear Due process Greatness of soul Ability Collaborate Duty Happiness Abstinence Comfort Educated/Employed Hard work Accomplishment Commitment Effect Harmony Accountability Compassion Efficiency Health-conscious Achievement Competitive Effort Healthy lifestyle Acquire Knowledge Compliment Emotions Hedonism Admiration Comprehension Empathy Helpfulness Affect Compromising Empower Historically literate Alertness Concentration Endurance Honesty Altruistic Concern Energetic Honor Ambition Confidence Enthusiasm Hope Apologize Conformity Evolve Hospitality Appreciation Connected Equality Human rights Appreciation of Beauty Conscience Ethical behavior Humanity Assertiveness Conscientious Excellence Humility Attentiveness Consequences Exciting life Humility & Modesty Attitude Considerate Explore Humor Authority Constancy Exploring Idealism Availability Contentedness Fair/Just Identity Awakeness Contentment Fairness Imagination Be loved by all men Cooperation Faith Impress Beauty Courage Family security Include Belonging Courtesy Family-valuing Independence Benevolence Creativity Fidelity / Chastity Industriousness Boldness Culturally literate Flexibility Industry Bond Curiosity Follow Ingenuity Brave Decide Reasonably Forgiveness Initiative Brave/Heroic Decision-Making Forgiveness & Mercy Inner harmony Bravery Decisiveness Fortitude Inquisitive Broad mind Dedicated Freedom Integrity Capability Deference Friendliness Intellectuality Care Deliberate Friendly Interdependent Caring Democracy Friendship Interested Cautiousness Dependability Frugality Inventiveness Celebrate Determination Generosity Inspiration Centered Devoted/Loyal Gentle Joy Charisma Devotion Gentleness Joyfulness Charity Diligence Genuine/Sincere Justice Chastity Direction Genuineness Justice / Mercy Cheerfulness Discernment Goal-setting Kindness Choice Discretion Golden rule Knowledge Citizenship Diversity Grateful Knowledgeable Civic-mind Dream Gratefulness Law-abiding Cleanliness Drug-free Gratitude Lead
187 Continued APPENDIX A List of ethical values selected from different authors in alphabetical order Leadership Peacefulness Respectful Spirituality Learning Peace-loving Responsibility Steadfastness Leniency Peacemakers Restraint Stimulation Limits Perseverance Reverence Strength Listen Persistence Reverent Studious Logic Personal Rewards Supportive Love Perspective Righteousness Sympathy Love of Learning Persuasivene ss Right-respecting Teacher Love virtue Pleasure Risk-taking Teamwork Love your neighbor Politeness Rule-following Temperance Loving Positive Safe Temperate Loyalty Positive self-communication Salvation Thankful Loyalty / Dependability Positive self-concept Security Thankfulness Magnificence Positive work ethic Self-Awareness Thriftiness Mature love Power Self-control Thrifty Mediate Practical Self-Direction Time management Mediating Prepared Self-discipline Tolerance Mediator Present Self-disclosing Tradition Meekness Pride Self-esteem Tranquility Mentor Principled Self-evaluating Transcendence Mercy Priority Self-fulfillment True friendship Missing Privacy Self-Improvement Trust Moderation Problemsolving Selflessness Trustworthiness Modesty Productive Self-Regulation Trustworthy Morality Promise Self-reliance Truth Motivation Property Self-respect Truthfulness National security Provider Self-restraint Understanding Neatness Prudence Self-sufficient Unique Nice Prudent Sensibility Unity Obedience Punctual/Prompt Sensitive Universalism Objective Punctuality Sensitivity Unselfishness On-task Purpose Server Values Open-mindedness Quality Service Values of being Optimism Realistic Share Values of giving Order Recognize Sharing Virtue Orderliness Reflect Sharing/Giving Vision Organized Relate Silence Visionary Organizer Relax Similar Visualize Ownership Reliability Simplicity Vitality Participation Religious Sincerity Volunteerism Patience Resilience Skillful Wellness Patriotic Resolution Social Intelligence Wisdom Patriotism Resourceful Social recognition Wit Peace Resourcefulness Socially conscious Work Peaceability Respect Sorry/ Remorseful Zeal
188 APPENDIX B TABLE 1 LIST OF ETHICAL VALUES SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS
Table 1. List of ethical values selected from different authors 1 2 3 4 5 Mercader (Instrument) Mercader (Pilot study) Aristotle Bennett Boy Scouts Butts 28 28 10 11 12 12 22 5 8 3 1 Attentiveness/Kindness Analysis/Logic Courage Compassion Brave Authority Communication Attentiveness/Kindness Friendliness Courage Cheerful Diversity Comprehension Communication Generosity Democracy Clean Due process Courage Comprehension Greatness of soul Faith Courteous Equality Creativity Decision Making Justice Friendship Friendly Freedom Decision Making Detachment Magnificence Honesty Helpful Human rights Enthusiasm Enthusiasm Temperance Loyalty Kind Justice Fairness/Justice Fairness/Justice Truthfulness Perseverance Loyalty Participation Forgiveness/Compassion Fulfillment/Diligence Wisdom Responsibility Obedient Patriotism Friendliness/Unity Generosity Wit Self-discipline Reverent Privacy Generosity Good Humor 10 Work Thrifty Property Gratitude/Appreciation Honesty 11 Trustworthy Truth Honesty Humility 12 12 Humility Initiative Humor Integrity Integrity Knowledge/Learning Knowledge/Learning Love Love Organization/Planning Patience Patience Perseverance/Hard Worker Perseverance/Hard Worker Respect Respect Responsibility Responsibility Self-discipline/Temperance Self-contentment Self-fulfillment/Diligence Self-motivation Self-motivation Service Spirit Service Taking Opportunities Tolerance Tolerance Vision/Objectivity Vision/Objective 28 28 189
Table 1 (Continued). List of ethical values selected from different authors 6 7 8 9 Character Training Institute. Chavez Conroy DeRoche 55 24 101 24 18 13 22 14 Alertness Loyalty Charity Admiration Follow Perspective Ambition Attentiveness Mediator Cleanliness Affect Forgive Polite Care Availability Meekness Efficiency Apologize Freedom Positive Civic-mind Benevolence Obedience Faith Appreciation Gentleness Practical Compassion Boldness Orderliness Freedom Awakeness Grateful Present Cooperation Cautiousness Organizer Friendliness Bond Happy Pride Courage Compassion Patience Gratitude Care Harmony Priorities Courtesy Contentment Persuasiveness Hard work Centered Helpful Promise Ethical behavior Creativity Provider Honesty Celebrate Hope Purpose Fairness Decisiveness Punctuality Hope Choice Humble Quality Forgiveness Deference Resourcefulness Humility Clear Humor Recognize Helpfulness Dependability Responsibility Joy Collaborate Impress Reflect Honesty Determination Security Justice Comfort Include Relate Justice Diligence Self-Control Love Compassion Independent Relax Logic Discernment Sensitivity Peacefulness Compliment Inquisitive Respect Love Discretion Server Respect Comprehension Integrate Responsible Loyalty Endurance Sincerity Responsibility Concentration Integrity Safe Patience Enthusiasm Teacher Self-discipline Confidence Interdependent Self-control Patriotic Faith Thriftness Self-fulfillment Connected Joy Self-esteem Perseverance Flexibility Tolerance Self-esteem Consequences Just Self-improvement Respect Forgiveness Truthfulness Service Courage Kind Share Responsibility Generosity Virtue Sincerity Creativity Lead Similar Self-discipline Gentleness Visionary Tolerance Dependability Limits Simplicity Tolerance Gratefulness Wisdom Truth Diverse Listen Strength Trustworthy Honor 55 24 Dream Love Supportive 24 Hospitality Effect Loyal Tolerance Humility Emotions Mediate Trust Idealist Empathy Mentor Truth Initiative Empower Merciful Unique Joyfulness Evolve Motivate Values Justice Excellence Patient Vision Explore Peace Visualize Fair Persevere Wisdom Flexible Personal 101 190
10111213 Eyre & Eyre FranklinHall Josephson 161323 6 8514 3 CourageChastityCooperationCaringAmbitionGenerosityPatriotism Fidelity / ChastityCleanlinessCourageCitizenshipAppreciationGentlenessPeacefulness FriendlinessFrugalityCourtesyFairnessAssertivenessGenuinenessPerseverance HonestyHumilityDiligenceRespectAttentivenessGratitudePoliteness Justice / MercyIndustryDiscernmentResponsibilityBraveryHappinessPride KindnessJusticeEmpathyTrustworthinessCaringHarmonyPriority LoveModerationForgiveness6CharismaHelpfulnessPurpose Loyalty / DependabilityOrderFortitudeCharityHonestyReliability ModerationResolutionGenerosityCitizenshipHonorResilience PeaceabilitySilenceHelpfulnessCleanlinessHumilityResolution PotentialSincerityHonestyCommitmentHumorRespect RespectTemperanceHopeCompassionIdealismResponsibility Self-disciplineTranquilityJusticeConcernIdentityRestraint Self-reliance13KindnessConfidenceImaginationReverence SensitivityLoyaltyConscienceIndustriousnessRighteousness UnselfishnessPatienceConstancyIngenuitySelf-awareness 16PerseveranceContentednessInspirationSelf-control PrudenceCooperationIntegritySelf-esteem ResourcefulnessCourageInventivenessSelf-reliance RespectCourtesyJoyfulnessSelflessness ResponsibilityCreativityJusticeSensitivity Self-disciplineDeferenceKindnessSharing ToleranceDependabilityLeadershipSincerity 23DevotionLeniencySteadfastness DirectionLoveTemperance EmpathyLoyaltyThankfulness EnduranceMercyThriftiness EnthusiasmModerationTolerance EqualityMoralityTranquility ExcellenceNeatnessVision FairnessOptimismWisdom FaithfulnessOrderZeal ForgivenessPatience98 26 Table 1 (Continued). List of ethical values selected from different authors 14 Kagan 98 191
Table 1 (Continued). List of ethical values selected from different authors 15 16 17 18 19 20 Kidder Lickona Merlin Peterson & Seligman Phi Delta Kappa Plato 8 1 2 1 6 3 4 8 4 5 8 5 1 5 3 3 Fairness Compassion Abhor Evil Appreciation of Beauty Caring Courage Freedom Cooperation Acquire Knowledge Bravery Courage Justice Love Courage Be loved by all men Citizenship Democracy Self-restraint Respect Democratic Benevolence Cleanliness Golden rule Wisdom Responsibility Fairness Decide Reasonably Courage Honesty 4 Tolerance Helpfulness Equity Creativity Patriotism Truthfulness Honesty Faith Curiosity Religious Unity Prudence Fortitude Fairness Tolerance 8 Respect Honor Forgiveness / Mercy 8 Responsibility Hope Gratitude Self-discipline Integrity Hope Tolerance Justice Humanity 12 Love / Love virtue Humility Love your neighbor Humor Obedience Integrity Truth Justice 16 Kindness Knowledge Leadership Love Missing Moderation Modesty Open-mindedness Persistence Perspective Prudence Self-regulation Social intelligence Spirituality Temperance Transcendence Vitality Wisdom 34 192
21222324 Rokeach (Terminal)Rokeach (Instrumental)Saint PaulSchwartz 1818326 3609 AccomplishmentAmbitionFaithAchievementAccountabilityPatience BeautyBroad mindHopeAppreciation of BeautyAbstinencePeacemakers Comfortable lifeCapabilityCharityBenevolenceAssertivenessPerseverance EqualityCheerfulness3CitizenshipAttitudePositive self-concept Exciting lifeCleanlinessConformityBelongingPositive self -communication Family securityCourageCreativityCaringPositive work ethic FreedomForgivenessCuriosityCitizenshipProblemsolving HappinessHelpfulnessExcellenceCommitmentReliability Inner harmonyHonestyFairnessCompassionRespect Mature loveImaginationGratitudeConfidenceResponsibility National securityIndependenceHedonismCooperationRewards PeaceIntellectualityHumilityCourageSharing PleasureLogicKindnessDecision-makingSelf-control SalvationLoveLeadershipDiscretionSelf-discipline Self-respectObedienceLove of LearningEqualitySelf-esteem Social recognitionPolitenessPersistenceFreedomService True friendshipResponsibilityPerspectiveGoal-settingTime management WisdomSelf-controlPowerHealthy lifestyleUnselfishness 1818PrudenceHonestyValue SecurityHumanityVolunteerism Self-DirectionInitiativeWellness Self-RegulationIntegrity48 SpiritualityJustice StimulationKindness TraditionLoyalty UniversalismMotivation 26Ownership 14Table 1 (Continued). List of ethical values selected from different authors25 Stirling 48 193
Table 1 (Continued). List of ethical values selected from different authors 26 27 28 Vessels VIA IS Wilson 91 24 4 23 12 3 Ability Fair / Just Positive Appreciation of Beauty Duty Altruistic Family-valuing Prepared Bravery Fairness Ambitious Flexible Principled Citizenship Self-control Assertive Forgiving Productive Creativity Sympathy Attentive Friendly Prudent Curiosity 4 Brave / Heroic Friendship Punctual / Prompt Fairness Charitable Gentle Realistic Forgiveness / Mercy Cheerful Genuine/Sincere Resourceful Gratitude Citizenship Hard-working Respectful Hope Comforting Health-conscious Responsible Humility / Modesty Compassionate Helpful Right-respecting Humor Competitive Historically literate Risk-taking Integrity Compromising Honest Rule-following Kindness Conscientious Humble / Modest Self-disciplined Leadership Considerate Idealistic Self-disclosing Learning Cooperative Independent Self-evaluating Love Courage Interested Sensitive Open-mindedness Courteous Kindness Sharing / Giving Persistence Creative Knowledgeable Skillful Perspective Culturally literate Law-abiding Socially conscious Prudence Decisive Loving Sorry / Remorseful Self-regulation Dedicated Mediating Studious Social intelligence Deliberate Nice Supportive Spirituality Determined Objective Teamwork Vitality Devoted / Loyal On-task Temperate 24 Drug-free Optimistic Thankful Educated / Employed Organized Trustworthy Effort Patient Understanding Empathetic Peace-loving Volunteering Energetic Persevering 91 Exploring Persistent 194
195 APPENDIX C TABLE 2. LIST OF ETHICAL VALUES SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS SIMILAR TO THE ETHICAL VALUES COMPRISING THE STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE
12345 Mercader (Instrument)Mercader (Pilot study)Aristotle Bennett Boy ScoutsButts 282810111212 225831 78.58%50%72.72%25%8.33% Attentiveness/KindnessAttentiveness/KindnessKind CommunicationCommunication ComprehensionComprehension CourageCourageCourageBrave Creativity Decision makingDecision making EnthusiasmEnthusiasm Fairness/JusticeFairness/JusticeJusticeJustice Forgiveness/CompassionCompassion Friendliness/UnityFriendlinessFriendshipFriendly GenerosityGenerosityGenerosity Gratitude/Appreciation HonestyHonestyHonesty HumilityHumility HumorGood humor IntegrityIntegrity Knowledge/LearningKnowledge/Learning LoveLove PatiencePatience Perseverance/Hard WorkerPerseverance/Hard WorkerPerseverance/Work RespectRespect ResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibility Self-discipline/TemperanceTemperanceSelf-discipline Self-fulfillment/DiligenceFulfillment/Diligence Self-motivationSelf-motivation Service Service spirit ToleranceTolerance Vision/ObjectivityVision / Objective 28225831Table 2. List of ethical values comprising the study questionnaire 196
Table 2 (Continued). List of ethical values comprising the study questionnaire 6 7 8 9 10 11 Character Training Institute. Chavez Conroy DeRoche Eyre & Eyre Franklin 55 24 101 24 16 13 18 13 22 14 8 5 32.72% 54.16% 21.78% 58.33 50.00% 38.46% Attentiveness Kind Courtesy Kindness Comprehension Courage Courage Courage Creativity Creativity Decisiveness Enthusiasm Justice Justice Fair / Just Fairness / Justice Justice Justice Forgiveness / Compassion Forgive / Compassion Forgiveness / Compassion Friendliness Friendliness Generosity Gratefulness Gratitude Grateful / Appreciation Sincerity Honesty Honesty Honesty Sincerity Humility Humility Humble Humility Humor Integrity Love Love Love Love Patience Patient Patience Hard work Persevere Perseverance Industry Respect Respect Respect Respect Responsibility Responsibility Responsible Responsibility Self-control Self-discipline Self-control Self-discipline Self-discipline Temperance Diligence Self-fulfillment Motivate Server Service Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Visionary Vision 17 13 22 14 8 5 197
Table 2 (Continued). List of ethical values comprising the study questionnaire 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hall Josephson Kagan Kidder Lickona Merlin 23 6 98 8 12 16 14 3 26 5 8 5 60.87% 50% 26.53% 62.50% 66.67% 31.25% Kindness Attentiveness / Kindness Courage Courage Courage Creativity Decide reasonably Enthusiasm Justice Fairness Fairness / Justice Fairness Fairness Justice Forgiveness / Empathy Forgiveness / Compassion Compassion Generosity Generosity Gratitute / Appreciation Honesty Honesty Honesty Humility Humor Integrity Integrity Acquire knowledge Love Love Love / Love virtue Patience Patience Perseverance Perseverance / Industriousness Respect Respect Respect Respect Respect Responsibility Responsibility Responsibility Responsibility Responsibility Self-discipline Self-control / Temperance Self-discipline Diligence Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Vision 14 3 26 5 8 5 198
Table 2 (Continued). List of ethical values comprising the study questionnaire 18 19 20 21 22 23 Peterson & Seligman Phi Delta Kappa Plato Rokeach (Terminal) Rokeach (Instrumental) Saint Paul 34 8 4 18 18 3 15 3 3 3 6 0 44.12% 37.50% 75% 16.66% 33.33% 0% Kindness Courage Courage Courage Courage Creativity Fairness / Justice Justice Forgiveness Forgiveness True frienship Gratitude Honesty Honesty Humility Humor Integrity Knowledge Love Mature love Love Persistance Self-respect Responsibility Self-regulation / Temperance Self-restraint Self-control Tolerance 15 3 3 3 6 0 199
Table 2 (Continued). List of ethical values comprising the study questionnaire 24 25 26 27 28 Schwartz Stirling Vessels VIA IS Wilson 26 48 91 24 4 9 1 4 2 3 1 2 3 34.62% 29.17% 25.27% 50% 75% Kindness Kindness Attentive / Kindness Kindness Understanding Courage Courage Creativity Creative Creativity Decision-making Decisive Fairness Justice Fair / Just Fairness Fairness Compassion Forgiving / Compassionate Forgiveness Sympathy Friendly Gratitude / Appreciation of beauty Gratitude Honesty Honesty Honest Humble Humility Humor Integrity Integrity Knowledgeable Learning Love of Learning Loving Love Patience Patient Persistence Perseverance Persevering / Hard-working Persistence Respect Respectful Responsibility Responsible Self-regulation Self-discipline Self-disciplined / Temperate Self-regulation Self-control Motivation Service Objective 9 1 4 2 3 1 2 3 200
201 APPENDIX D STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART A
QUESTIONNAIRE Appendix D The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. Last four digits of your USF ID. # Demographics 1. Age: Year of birth __________ 2. Gender: Male Female 3. Academic Major _________________ Minor (If applicable) _______________ 4. Student status: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Non-degree Other _________ 5. Marital status: Single Married Divorced Widowed 6. Employment status: Unemployed Part time Full time 7. Employer: Government Private Agency/Corporation Self-employed Other ______________ 8. Ethnicity: African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Other____________________ 9. Citizenship: USA Other ___________________ 10. Have you ever resided in another country? Yes / No Duration of residence What countries? 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 1. ______ 2. ______ 11. Home background: What type of community did you spend the majority of your life before age 20? Urban Suburban Rural Other ___________ 12. How many years did you study in K-12 in : Private school ______ Public school ______ Other _________________ What are the most important ethical values for you? 1.-_____________________ 2.-_____________________ 3.-___________________ What ethical values do you think others hold as the most important? 1.-_____________________ 2.-_____________________ 3.-___________________ 202
203 APPENDIX E STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART B
QUESTIONNAIRE Part B-1 Appendix E Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is given. Some blank spaces are provided should you care to add some ethical values that are not on the list, which in your opinion are very relevant. Last four digits of your USF ID. # 1. Grade the following ethical values from this entire list i) Based in their importance according to your criteria. Importance (Imp.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1 ii) Based on how much do you apply them in your life. Application (Appl.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1) A Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Creativity Respect Attentiveness/Kindness Self-motivation Self-discipline/Temperance Responsibility Fulfillment/Diligence Honesty Humor Service Integrity Vision and objectivity Patience Perseverance/Hard worker Other _________________ Other _________________ Humility Communication Fairness/Justice spirit Generosity Comprehension Courage Tolerance Knowledge/Learning Enthusiasm Forgiveness/Compassion Love Decision making Gratitude/Appreciation Friendliness/Unity Other _______________ Other _______________ 204
2.Do you think ethical values are useful for people in Continued Appendix E Strongly Agree Neither agree Disagree Strongly agree nor disagree disagree a. Work b. Family c. Society d. Education Why?___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3.Try to say in two different words what are the main benefits that the application of these ethical values bring to a. Individuals 1.-_______________________ 2.-_________________________ b. Families 1.-_______________________ 2.-_________________________ c. Education 1.-_______________________ 2.-_________________________ d. Society 1.-_______________________ 2.-_________________________ 4.Where did you acquire and develop your ethical values? (1 most important) Prioritize from 1 to 10, based in importance according to your criteria. Home ____ Religion ____ Community ____ College ____ Elementary School ____ Middle school ____ Friends ____ High school ____ Other ____________ __ Other ____________ __ 5.Which ethical values do you consider are more necessary to apply in education? Please, write them in a priority order (1 is most necessary) 1.-______________ 2.-______________ 3.-______________ 4.-_____________ Why?___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Comments: Please, feel free to write if needed. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 205
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS Continued Appendix E 1. In responding to the questions, what degree of thought did you have to give to the task? Considerable Minimal Other ________________ _________________________________________________________________ 2. Are you interested in themes related to values and ethical values? 5 4 3 2 1 (Circle) ( Highest 5 / Lowest 1 ) Why?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Please indicate your attitude towards completing this questionnaire? (Circle) Excellent Fine Good More or less Bad / Down 4. Do you feel it is important to provide courses and workshops related to ethical values to college students as part of their educational program? (Circle) ( Yes / No ) If Yes, should this course be an a) elective or required courses? Which courses do you suggest? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comments: Please, feel free to write if needed. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Thanks for your help and collaboration for this study related to Ethical Values of College Students 206
207 APPENDIX E (Continued) STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PA RT B (ALTERNATIVES)
QUESTIONNAIRE Part B-1 Continued Appendix E Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is given. Some blank spaces are provided should you care to add some ethical values that are not on the list, which in your opinion are very relevant. Last four digits of your USF ID. # 2. Grade the following ethical values from this entire list i) Based in their importance according to your criteria. Importance (Imp.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1 ii) Based on how much do you apply them in your life. Application (Appl.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1) 1 Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Creativity Respect Attentiveness/Kindness Self-motivation Self-discipline/Temperance Responsibility Fulfillment/Diligence Honesty Humor Service Integrity Vision/Objectivity Patience Perseverance/Hard worker Other ________________ Other ________________ Humility Communication Fairness/Justice spirit Generosity Comprehension Courage Tolerance Knowledge/Learning Enthusiasm Forgiveness/Compassion Love Decision making Gratitude/Appreciation Friendliness/Unity Other _______________ Other _______________ 208
QUESTIONNAIRE Part B-2 Continued Appendix E Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is given. Some blank spaces are provided should you care to add some ethical values that are not on the list, which in your opinion are very relevant. Last four digits of your USF ID. # 3. Grade the following ethical values from this entire list i) Based in their importance according to your criteria. Importance (Imp.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1 ii) Based on how much do you apply them in your life. Application (Appl.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1) 2 Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Friendliness/Unity Gratitude/Appreciation Decision making Love Forgiveness/Compassion Perseverance/Hard worker Knowledge/Learning Tolerance Comprehension Generosity Fairness/Justice spirit Communication Humility Self-discipline/Temperance Other _________________ Other _________________ Patience Vision/Objectivity Integrity Enthusiasm Service Humor Honesty Fulfillment/Diligence Courage Responsibility Self-motivation Attentiveness/Kindness Respect Creativity Other _______________ Other _______________ 209
QUESTIONNAIRE Part B-3 Continued Appendix E Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is given. Some blank spaces are provided should you care to add some ethical values that are not on the list, which in your opinion are very relevant. Last four digits of your USF ID. # 4. Grade the following ethical values from this entire list i) Based in their importance according to your criteria. Importance (Imp.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1 ii) Based on how much do you apply them in your life. Application (Appl.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1) 3 Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Integrity Humility Patience Honesty Friendliness/Unity Fairness/Justice spirit Respect Forgiveness/Compassion Tolerance Gratitude/Appreciation Self-motivation Self-discipline/Temperance Perseverance/Hard worker Service Other _________________ Other _________________ Love Gratitude/Appreciation Humor Communication Responsibility Creativity Attentiveness/Kindness Vision/Objectivity Generosity Comprehension Courage Fulfillment/Diligence Knowledge/Learning Decision making Other _______________ Other _______________ 210
QUESTIONNAIRE Part B-4 Continued Appendix E Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is given. Some blank spaces are provided should you care to add some ethical values that are not on the list, which in your opinion are very relevant. Last four digits of your USF ID. # 5. Grade the following ethical values from this entire list i) Based in their importance according to your criteria. Importance (Imp.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1 ii) Based on how much do you apply them in your life. Application (Appl.) From 10 to 1 (Highest 10, Lowest 1) 4 Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Attentiveness/Kindness Communication Comprehension Courage Creativity Decision making Enthusiasm Fairness/Justice spirit Forgiveness/Compassion Friendliness/Unity Fulfillment/Diligence Generosity Self-discipline/Temperance Perseverance/Hard worker Other _________________ Other _________________ Gratitude/Appreciation Integrity Honesty Humility Humor Knowledge/Learning Patience Respect Responsibility Self-motivation Service Tolerance Vision/Objectivity Love Other _______________ Other _______________ 211
212 APPENDIX F PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART A
QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. Demographics 1. Age: In what year were you born? __________ 2. Gender: Male Female 3. Academic Major _________________ Minor (If applicable) _______________ 4. Student status: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Non-degree Other _________ 5. Marital status: Single Married Divorced Widow 6. Employment status: Part time Full time Unemployed 7. Type of Employment at present: (Circle) (It could be more than one if it is the case) Sales Medicine / Nursing Engineering Business Education Commerce Sports Technology Military Service to communities Research Arts Services (Cook / Waiter / Mechanic / Clerk / Security / Others _______________) Others __________________ ___________________ 8. Employer: Government Private Agency/Corporation Self-employed Other ______________ 9. Ethnics: African-American Asian Hispanic Caucasian Other____________________ 10. Citizenship: USA Other ___________________ 11. Have you ever resided in another country? Yes / No Duration of residence What countries? 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 1. ______ 2. ______ 12. Home background: What type of community did you spend the majority of your life before age 20? Urban Suburban Rural Other ___________ VM/ 213
QUESTIONNAIRE Part A-i 1.What are the most important values in life? (You may write more if you like) For you For all others, according your criteria 1.-______________ 1.-______________ 2.-______________ 2.-______________ 3.-______________ 3.-______________ 2.Do you think these values are useful for people in Strongly Agree Neither agree Disagree Strongly agree nor disagree disagree a. Work 214 b. Family c. Society d. Education Why?___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3.Try to say in one word what are the main benefits that the application of these values bring to a. Individuals 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ b. Families 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ c. Education 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ d. Society 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ 4.Where did you acquire and develop your values? Prioritization: Based in importance according to your criteria. From 1 to 10, each environment (Higher 10, Lower1) Home ____ Religion ____ Community ____ College ____ Elementary School ____ Middle school ____ Friends ____ High school ____ Others _____________ Comments: Please, feel free to write on the back of this page if needed. ________________________________________________________________________
215 APPENDIX G PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PART B
QUESTIONNAIRE Part B-1 A Questions related to ETHICAL VALUES The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what ethical values college students hold when they enroll in the University and maintain while enrolled. Which of these ethical values are the most important to students and what are their benefits, usefulness, and application once acquired. A list of ethical values is given. Some blank spaces are provided should you care to add some ethical values that are not on the list, which in your opinion are very relevant. 1. What are the twelve most important ethical values in life from this entire list? i) Grade : Based in importance according to your criteria. Importance (Imp.) From 1 to 10, (Higher 10, Lower 1) ii) Grade: How much do you apply in your life. Application (Appl.) From 1 to 10. (Higher 10, Lower 1) A Ethical values Imp. Appl. Ethical values Imp. Appl. Initiative Respect Attentiveness/Kindness Self-motivation Taking opportunities Responsibility Fulfillment/Diligence Honesty Good humor Service spirit Integrity Vision/Objective Patience Perseverance/Hard worker Other _________________ Other _________________ Humility Communication Fairness/Justice spirit Generosity Comprehension Analysis/Logic Tolerance Knowledge/Learning Enthusiasm Organization/Planning Love Decision making Detachment Self-contentment Other _______________ Other _______________ 216
2.Do you think these ethical values are useful for people in Strongly Agree Neither agree Disagree Strongly agree nor disagree disagree a. Work 217 b. Family c. Society d. Education Why?___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3.Try to say in one word what are the main benefits that the application of these ethical values bring to b. Individuals 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ b. Families 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ e. Education 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ f. Society 1.-________________ 2.-______________ 3.-_______________ 4.Where did you acquire and develop your ethical values? Prioritization: Based in importance according to your criteria. From 1 to 10, each environment (Higher 10, Lower1) Home ____ Religion ____ Community ____ College ____ Elementary School ____ Middle school ____ Friends ____ High school ____ Others _____________ 5.Which ethical values do you consider are more necessary to apply in education? Grade from 1 to 10, each ethical value (Higher 10, Lower1) 1.-______________ 2.-______________ 3.-______________ 4.-______________ 5.-______________ 6.-______________ 7.-______________ 8.-______________ Why?___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Comments: Please, feel free to write on the back of this page if needed. ________________________________________________________________________
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS 1. In responding to the questions, what degree of thought did you have to give to the task? Considerable Minimal Other ________________ _________________________________________________________________ 2. Are you interested in themes related to values and ethical values? 5 4 3 2 1 (Circle) ( High 5 / Low 1 ) 3. How did you feel while completing this survey? (Circle) 218 Excellent Fine Good More or less Bad / Down 4. Did you have any problems understanding any of the questions on the questionnaire? (Yes / No) (Circle) Which ones? ________________________ 5. How would you rate the difficulty in completing the items on the questionnaire with five (5) being the most difficult and one (1) being the least difficult? 5 4 3 2 1 (Circle) 6. How would you improve this questionnaire? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you feel it is important to provide courses and workshops related to ethical values to college students as part of their educational program? (Yes / No) If Yes, should be elective or required courses? Which ones do you suggest? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comments: Please, feel free to write on the back of this page if needed. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Thanks for your help and collaboration for this study related to Ethical Values of College Students, which it is a very important issue for the research and for future recommendations.
219 APPENDIX H COURSES AND SECTION NUMBER OF SAMPLE
Courses and section number of sample Course Ref # Class Numbers students Instructor Date Time Introduction Linguistics 80880 LIN 310-001 40 Iona Sarieva 10/18/2005 12:30 pm Beginning Spanish II 80922 SPN 1121-903 15 Y. Gonzalez 10/19/2005 6:00 pm Beginning Spanish I 80900 SPN 1120-009 19 Derrick Frazier 10/20/2005 2:00 pm Modern Japanese I 80878 JPN 1120-901 22 Y. Hamasaki 10/20/2005 5:00 pm Beginning Spanish II 80923 SPN 1121-904 20 Y. Gonzalez 10/20/2005 6:00 pm Beginning Italian I 89062 ITA 1120-003 15 Ryan Orgera 10/27/2005 8:00 am. Beginning French I 80838 FRE 1120-003 18 Ryan Orgera 10/27/2005 1:00 pm. Beginning German I 83105 GER 1120-003 14 Huber 11/08/2005 1:00pm. Modern Chinese I 80835 CHI 1120-001 19 Carroll 11/08/2005 10:00 pm. Beginning Spanish I 80906 SPN 1120-904 13 Derrick Frazier 11/09/2005 6:00 pm Modern Arabic I 84429 ARA 1120-002 12 A. Al-Jallad 11/22/2005 2:00 pm Total: 207 220
221 APPENDIX I TERMS AND VALUES NOT PREVIOUSLY IDENTIFIED AND NOT COMPILED WITHIN THE 360 VALUES OF THE AUTHORS LISTS
Terms and values not previously identified and not compiled within the 360 values of the authors lists. Abortion(pro-life) Character Don't cheat Free Speech Impartiality Acceptance Church Don't Hurt others Future Improving life Arrogant Certitude Consent Don't Kill God Individualism/Individuality Be a good person Decency Don't Lie Good Character Keep Language Be yourself Degree Don't Steal Good Manners Lack of wisdom Being human Democracy Egos Greed Liberty Being nature Descent Environment Group Think Life Believing in God Dignity Fighting Terrorism Hetero sexual marriage Live life to the fullest Career Discrimination Following laws Human life Looks Cars Do good to others Fortitude Humanitarianism Manners Marriage Professionalism Sanctity Strong Belief Wealth Money Pro-life School Success Willpower Non-Judgment Prompt Self-gratification Superiority Winning Not Compromising Purity Self-involvement Survival Work Ethics Opinion Put God first Service my country Team Player Personal Prejudice Reason/Reasonable Serving me Transparency in government and military Personality Relativism Sexual Monogamy Treat others good Piety Reputation Social Treat others like you would like to be treated Political Integrity Right to live Social Control Uncertainty Popularity Rights for oppressed Sportsmanship Vanity Total: 94values and something else (*) Values or something else that coincide in importance of EVs of college students and EVs others hold according them 222
223 APPENDIX J COMPARISON OF AUTHORS SELECTED VALUES WITH VALUES REPEATED IN AUTHORS LISTS
224 Comparison of authors selected values w ith values repeated in authors lists. VALUES Times selected by authors Percentage Fairness / Justice spirit Self-discipline / Temperance Courage Honesty Love Responsibility Attentiveness / Kindness Forgiveness / Compassion Perseverance / Hard worker Respect Tolerance Humility Patience Creativity Friendliness / Unity Gratitude / Appreciation Integrity Decision making Generosity Humor Knowledge / Learning Self-fulfillment / Diligence Service Comprehension Enthusiasm Self-motivation Vision / Objectivity Communication 22 19 15 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 10 9 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 78.57 % 67.86 % 53.57 % 50.00 % 50.00 % 50.00 % 46.43 % 46.43 % 46.43 % 46.43 % 35.71 % 32.14 % 28.57 % 25.00 % 25.00 % 25.00 % 25.00 % 17.86 % 17.86 % 17.86 % 17.86 % 14.29 % 14.29 % 10.71 % 10.71 % 10.71 % 10.71 % 3.57 % Total: 28 values
225 APPENDIX K SAMPLE WITH 40 COLLEGE STUDENTS TO DETERMINED ANY SIMILARITY OR ASSOCIATION OF VALUES OR TERMS
Sample with 40 college students to determined any similarity or association of values or terms 1 Imp Value 2 Imp Value 3 Imp Value 1 Other V Import 2 Other V Import 3 Other V Import Honesty 16 Honesty 5 Loyalty 5 Honesty 10 Honesty 6 Honesty 4 Family 4 Respect 5 Respect 5 Family 3 Integrity 3 Respect 3 Integrity 2 Integrity 3 Equality 3 Respect 3 Equality 2 Family 2 Abortion(pro-life) 1 Compassion 2 Honesty 2 Justice 2 Family 2 Loyalty 2 Accountability 1 Fairness 2 Integrity 2 Loyalty 2 Kindness 2 Religion 2 Believing in God 1 Family 2 Descent 1 Trust 2 Loyalty 2 Commitment 1 Compassion 1 Loyalty 2 Devotion 1 Arrogant Certitude 1 Respect 2 Devotion 1 Culture 1 Trustworthy 2 Education 1 Culture 1 Being humane 1 Fairness 1 God 1 Choice 1 Faithfulness 1 Don't harm others 1 Consideration 1 Friendship 1 Good Morals 1 Church 1 Free Speech 1 Education 1 Culture 1 God 1 Hard work 1 Courage 1 Friends 1 Equality 1 Descent 1 Impartiality 1 Kindness 1 Culture 1 Friendship 1 Fighting Terrorism 1 Faith 1 Individualism 1 Morality 1 Hard Working 1 Generosity 1 Friends 1 Forgiveness 1 Integrity 1 Privacy 1 Hetero sexual marriage 1 Honorable 1 Hard work 1 Freedom 1 Kindness 1 Put God first 1 Impartiality 1 Humanitarianism 1 Integrity 1 Group Think 1 Knowledge 1 Respect 1 Love you neighbor 1 Improving life 1 Life 1 Hard Workers 1 Lack of wisdom 1 Responsibility 1 Manners 1 Justice 1 Love 1 Honor 1 Morality 1 Spirituality 1 Morality 1 Keep Language 1 Not lying 1 Honorable 1 Not cheating 1 Telling Truth 1 Morals 1 Kindness 1 Open Minded 1 Liberty 1 Optimism 1 Trust 1 Not harming others 1 Knowledge 1 Professionalism 1 Making abortion illegal 1 Peace 1 Uncertainty 1 Piety 1 Love 1 Responsibility 1 Manners 1 Politeness 1 Religion 1 Patience 1 Self-esteem 1 Morality 1 Pursuit of Happiness 1 Sincerity 1 Professionalism 1 Self-Respect 1 Not stealing 1 Respect/Tolerance 1 Strong Belief 1 Self-respect 1 Telling Truth 1 Popularity 1 Spirituality 1 Unity 1 Understanding 1 Religion 1 Survival 1 Wealth 1 Unity 1 Understanding 1 Wisdom 1 Wealth 1 40 40 39 40 39 34 226
227 Appendix K (Continued) The most important ethical values for colle ge students and the values other people hold according their criteria are pr esented in three groups of values with different colors. 1. Values previously identified and selected by the authors list (yellow or lighter shade). 2. Values previously identified and sel ected within the 360 values compiled in the authors lists shown in Table 1 in Appendix B (peach or darker shade ) 3. Values not previously identified and sele cted by authors lists (white or none) Question: Would you agree or disagree this matching? 1. Morals 2. Morality 3. Good morals 4. Honor 5. Honorable 6. Abortion (pro life) 7. Making abortion illegal 8. Trust 9. Trustworthy 10. Faith 11. Faithfulness 12. Hard work 13. Hard working 14. Hard workers 15. Friends 16. Friendship 17. Respect 18. Self-respect 19. Respect/Tolerance 20. Not harming others 21. Don't harm others
228 APPENDIX L ASSOCIATED VALUES COMPRISED IN THE AUTHORS LIST
229 Associated values comprised in the authors list. 1. Courteous 2. Courteously 3. Attentiveness 4. Kindness 5. Be kind 6. Discipline 7. Self-discipline 8. Fairness 9. Justice 10. Unity 11. Friends 12. Friendship 13. Friendliness 14. Humbleness 15. Humility 16. Hard work 17. Hard workers 18. Hard working 19. Humor 20. Good humor 21. Learning 22. Knowledge 23. Understanding 24. Self-understanding 25. Respect 26. Self-respect 27. Motivation 28. Self-motivation 29. Self-control 30. Self-discipline 31. Self-restraint 32. Temperance 33. Honesty 34. Be honest 35. Diligence 36. Self-fulfillment 37. Compassion 38. Forgiveness 39. Vision 40. Objectivity
230 APPENDIX M ASSOCIATED VALUES COMPRISED IN THE AUTHORS LISTS
231 Values previously identified and compiled in the authors lists 1. Altruism 2. Altruistic 3. Being genuine 4. Genuine 5. Genuineness 6. Care 7. Caring 8. Caring for environment 9. Take care of family 10. Religion 11. Religious 12. Religiosity 13. Religiousness 14. Choice 15. Pro choice 16. Competition 17. Competitive 18. Consideration 19. Considerate 20. Culture 21. Culturally literate 22. Dedication 23. Dedicated 24. Dependable 25. Dependability 26. Discrete 27. Discretion 28. Education 29. Educated 30. Faith 31. Faithfulness 32. Supportive 33. Supporting others 34. Being supportive 35. Openness 36. Open-minded 37. Open-mindedness 38. Morality 39. Morals 40. Free 41. Freedom 42. Freedom of speech 43. Resourceful 44. Resourcefulness 45. Happiness 46. Pursuit of happiness 47. Rightness 48. Righteousness 49. Safe 50. Safety 51. Teamwork 52. Team player 53. Trust 54. Trustworthy 55. Truth 56. Truthfulness 57. Telling truth 58. True to self 59. Help others 60. Helpfulness 61. Loyalty 62. Self-loyalty 63. Values 64. Personal values 65. Security 66. Security future
232 APPENDIX N FIGURE 1 AUTHORS ETHICAL VALUES CATEGORIZATION
233 Respect Honesty Responsibility Fairness / Justice Attentiveness / Kindness Friendliness / Unity Integrity Courage Enthusiasm Service spirit Perseverance / Hard worker Generosity Creativity Humor Self-discipline / Temperance Self-fulfillment / Diligence Knowledge / Learning Vision / Objectivity Decision making Communication Self-motivation LOVEHumility Patience Tolerance Comprehension Gratitude / Appreciation Forgiveness / CompassionEthical ValuesVictor Mercader firstname.lastname@example.org Inner Values Growth Values Behavioral Societal Values Personal gifted Values Figure 1
234 About the author Victor Mercader was born in Spain, and he moved to Venezuela when he was a child. He graduated as a Civi l Engineer in the Universidad Central de Venezuela and obtained a MSc. degree in Management Cons truction at Salford University in England. He successfully managed his own cons truction companies for ten years in Venezuela. Later, Mercader decided to make an important professional change, motivated by the ethical values application a nd human factor developm ent. Therefore, he decided to develop his c oncepts of Life Management and human improvement. Consequently, he became an in ternational consultant and sp eaker for profit and non profit organizations. He also created two new academ ic courses Life and Career Management and Management and Leadership, and wrot e three books Life Management, Crisis versus Development, and Challenge Yourself to be Happy. He moved to USA, and enrolled in the Doctorate Program Educational Leadership in the College of Education at University of South Florida, with special emphasis in Global Organizati on Development and Ethical Values. He also created the Center for Development and Ethical Valu es in order to make people conscious of the usefulness of human and ethi cal factor applied to education, society, and work areas. After his doctorate, his goal is to continue developing a ne twork integrating universities, schools, and organizations with a global a nd multidisciplinary perspective, provoking a positive change rooted in ethical valu es towards productivity and happiness.