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Post-Charley evaluation of undamaged homes in Punta Gorda Isles

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Title:
Post-Charley evaluation of undamaged homes in Punta Gorda Isles
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English
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Pierrissaint, Virgilet
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Hurricane
Construction
High wind design
Proper connectors
Inspections
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- Masters -- USF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Hurricane Charley was the third named storm and the second major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. At that time, it was also the strongest hurricane to strike the US coast since 1992. Charley made landfall on Friday, August 13, 2004 on the barrier islands off Lee County, Florida whence it moved rapidly inland towards Port Charlotte, DeSoto and Hardee counties. The purpose of this study was to understand the performance of undamaged residential home in Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) in Port Charlotte County that was crossed by Charley's eye shortly after it made landfall. To achieve this goal, a representative sample of 20 undamaged residential homes (out of 210 identified in an earlier study) in PGI were selected from aerial photographs for detailed analysis. Unfortunately, information on dimensions of these buildings could not be obtained despite repeated attempts over a 6-month period. Consequently, a parametric study was conducted using an idealized building following procedures consistent with current practice. In the analysis, parameters such as wind velocity, exposure and building geometry were varied to assess the range of design forces. The maximum wind velocity was taken as 160 mph, based on findings reported in FEMA 488. Two idealized roof systems -- a gable and hip -- on a rectangular plan form were analyzed using ASCE 7-98's Method 2. Both Main Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and Components and Cladding (C&C) were evaluated. The results showed that forces resisted were significantly (over 70%) higher than those designed for. Since 210 out of 425 homes studied earlier were undamaged it suggests that properly constructed structures automatically have adequate reserve capacity to withstand higher-than-designed for lateral loads. If changes are needed, it should focus on inspection and construction rather than wind provisions in existing code.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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bt Virgilet Pierrissaint.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 180 pages.

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aleph - 001795406
oclc - 153915455
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001565
usfldc handle - e14.1565
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Post Charley Evaluation of Undamaged Homes in Punta Gorda Isles by Virgilet Pierrissaint A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering Department of Civil and Environmenta l Engineering College of Engineering University of South Florida Major Professor: Rajan Sen, Ph.D., P.E. Gray Mullins, Ph.D., P.E. Abla Zayed, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 28, 2006 Keywords: Hurricane, construction, high wind design, proper connectors, inspections Copyright 2006, Virgilet Pierrissaint

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Acknowledgments For the realization of this project, I specially thank: Dr. Rajan Sen., Structural Team research at the University of South Florida Dr Gray Mullins Stru ctural Team research at the University of South Florida Mr. John M. Harrington, PE, PSM. The Simpson strong Tie team, especially Billy

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i Table of Contents List of Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... iii List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... ix Abstract ......... ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... xi Chapter 1: Introduction General and Overview ................................ .......................... 1 1.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ 1 1.2 Project Background ................................ ................................ .................. 2 1.3 Project Objective ................................ ................................ ...................... 3 1.4 Organization of Thesis ................................ ................................ ............. 4 Chapter 2: Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 5 2.1 Development of Florida Building Code ................................ ................. 5 2.2 Using ASCE 7 for the Design Win d Load ................................ ............ 6 2.2.1 ASCE 7 98 and 7 02 Provisions ................................ ............................ 7 2.3 Hurricane Overview ................................ ................................ ................. 9 2.4 Hurricane Charley ................................ ................................ .................. 10 2.5 Punta Gorda Isles and Homes Characteristic ................................ ... 11 2.5.1 Punta Gorda Isles ................................ ................................ ................... 11 2.5.2 Houses Characteristics in PGI ................................ ............................. 12 Chapter 3: Methods to Obtain Data ................................ ................................ ........... 13 3. 1 Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 3.2 Method 1: Pictometry ................................ ................................ ............ 13 3.2 1 Definition ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 13 3.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages Using the Pictometry .................... 14 3.3 Method 2: Surveying Equipment ................................ .......................... 15 3.4 Method 3: Range of Data ................................ ................................ ...... 15 Chapter 4: Wind Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................. 17 4.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 4.2 Assumpti ons for Wind Calculation Using ASCE 7 98 ...................... 17 4.3 Design Process ................................ ................................ ....................... 21 4.3.1 Range of Data ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 Chapter 5: Design Examples and Results ................................ ................................ 23 5.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 23

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ii 5.2 Rationale for Analysis ................................ ................................ ............ 24 5.2.1 MWFRS ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 5.2.2 Components and Cladding ................................ ................................ ... 25 5.2.3 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 27 5.3 Examples ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 5.3.1 Example 1 Gable Roof ................................ ................................ ....... 27 5.3.2 Example 2 Hip r oof ................................ ................................ ........... 33 5.4 Parametric Study ................................ ................................ .................... 43 Chapter 6: Conclusions and Recommendations ................................ ...................... 46 6.1 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ............................. 46 6.2 Recommendations for Future Work ................................ .................... 48 References ... ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 49 Appendices ... ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 51 Appendix A: Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 52 Appendix B: Figures ................................ ................................ ............................... 138 Appendix C: Aerial Pictures ................................ ................................ ................... 156 Appendix D: Ground Pictures ................................ ................................ ................ 176

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iii List of Tables Table A.1 ...... Wind Speed in Saffir Simpson Scale ................................ .................. 52 Table A.2 ...... Building and Structure Classification Categories .............................. 53 T able A. 3 ...... Internal Pressure Coefficients ................................ .............................. 54 Table A.4 ...... MWFRS W all Pressur es (Gabble), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 55 Table A.5 ...... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exp osure C, Ang le 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 56 Table A.6 ...... MWFRS Wall Pressure s (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 57 Table A.7 ...... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 58 Table A .8 ...... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 59 Table A.9 ...... MWFRS Gable Roof P ressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 60 Table A.10 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft,160 mph, Exposure B, Ang le 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 61 Table A.11 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 1 60 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 62 Table A.12 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, A ngle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 63 Table A.13 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 64 Table A.14 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 65

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iv Table A.1 5 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 66 Table A.16 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Ga ble), MRH 20, 1 2 0 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 67 Table A.17 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 68 Table A. 18 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 69 Table A.19 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 70 Table A.20 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 71 Table A.21 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 f t, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 72 Table A.22 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 73 Table A.23 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 74 Table A.24 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Ex posure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 75 Table A.25 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 76 Table A.26 .... MW FRS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 77 Table A.27 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 ................................ ................................ ............ 78 Table A.28 .... MWFRS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 79 Table A.29 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 80

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v Table A.30 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 81 Table A.3 1 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 82 Table A.3 2 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 83 Table A.33 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 84 Table A.34 .... MWFRS Wall P ressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 85 Table A.35 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 86 Table A.36 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 87 Table A.37 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 120 mph Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 88 Table A.38 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 89 Table A.39 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 90 Table A.40 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 91 Table A.41 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 92 Table A.42 .... MWFRS Wall Pressu re s (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, E xposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 93 Table A.43 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 94 Table A.44 .... MWFRS Wall Pressure s (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, E xposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 95

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vi Table A.45 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mp h, Exposure C, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 96 Table A.46 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 1 2 0 mph, Exposure B Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 97 Table A.47 .... MWFRS Gab le Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 12 0 mph, Exp osure B, Angle 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 98 Table A.48 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Ang le 20 ................................ ................................ ............ 99 Table A.49 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 100 Table A.50 .... MWFRS Gab le Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, E xposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 101 Table A.5 1 .... MWFRS Wall Pressur e (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, E xposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 102 Table A.5 2 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 103 Table A.5 3 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 104 Table A.5 4 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 105 Table A.5 5 .... MWF RS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 12 0 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 106 Table A.5 6 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressure, MRH 2 5 ft, 12 0 mph, Expos ure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 107 Table A.5 7 .... MWFR S Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 108 Table A. 58 .... MW FRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 109 Table A.59 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 12 0 mph, Exposure B, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 110

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vii Table A.60 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposre B, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ ............ 111 Table A.61 .... MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gab le), MRH 2 5 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 112 Table A.62 .... MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 30 ................................ ................................ .......... 113 Table A.63 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 15 ft, 40 x 60 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 114 Table A.64 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 15 ft 40 x60 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 115 Table A.65 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 20 ft 40 x 60 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 116 Table A.66 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 20 ft 40 x 60 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 117 Table A.67 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 25 ft 40 x 60 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 118 Table A.68 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 25 ft 40 x 60 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 119 T able A .69 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 15 ft 60 x 80 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 120 Table A.70 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 15 ft 6 0 x 80 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 121 Table A.71 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 20 ft 60 x 80 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 122 Table A. 72 .... Hip Roof Wind Pre ssures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 20 ft 60 x 80 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 123 Table A.73 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 25 ft 60 x 80 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 124 Table A.74 .... Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 25 ft 60 x 80 ft ................................ ................................ ................................ 125 Table A.75 .... C&C Pressu res, 120 mph, Exp C MRH 15 ft, ht 12 ft ................... 126

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viii Table A.76 .... C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp B, MRH 15 ft, ht 12 ft .................... 127 Table A.77 .... C&C Pr ess ures, 160 mph, Exp C, MRH 15 ft ht 12 ft ................... 128 Table A.78 .... C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp B, MRH 15 ft ht 12 ft .................... 129 Table A.79 .... C& C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp C, MRH 20 ft ht 16 ft ................... 130 Table A.80 .... C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp B, MRH 20 ft, ht 16 ft .................... 131 Table A.8 1 .... C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp C, MRH 20 ft, ht 16 ft ................... 1 32 Table A.82 .... C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp B MRH 20 ft, ht 16 ft .................... 133 Tale A.83 ...... C&C Press ures, 120 mph, Exp C, MRH 25 ft ht 16 ft ................... 134 Table A.84 .... C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp B, MRH 25 ft, ht 22 ft .................... 135 T a ble A.85 .... C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp C MRH 25 ft, ht 22 ft ................... 136 Table A.86 .... C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp B, MRH 25 ft, ht 22 ft .................... 137

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ix Li st of Figures Figure B.1 ..... Hurricane Charley ................................ ................................ ................ 138 Figure B.2 ..... Plot of PGI Properties ................................ ................................ .......... 139 Figure B .3 ..... Locations of Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) ................................ ............... 140 Figure B.4 ..... ASCE 7 Wind Maps ................................ ................................ ............. 141 Figure B.5 ..... Path of Hurricane Charley ................................ ................................ ... 142 Figure B.6 ..... Pictometry Height The height ................................ ............................. 143 Figure B.7 ..... Overview of the Surveying Equipment Set U p in PGI .................... 144 Figure B.8 ..... US Wind Maps ................................ ................................ ...................... 145 Figure B.9 ..... C&C Gable/ Hip Roof External Pressure Coefficients .................... 146 Figure B.10 ... C&C Wall Pressure Coefficients ................................ ........................ 146 Figure B.11 ... All Height Method Pressure Coefficients ................................ .......... 148 Figure B.12 ... Complex Shape Into Simple Shape ................................ .................. 149 Figure B.13 ... Complex Roof Shape Into Two Rectangular Roof Shapes ........... 150 Figure B.14 ... Example 1 Plan Layout ................................ ................................ ....... 151 Figure B.16 ... Example 2 Hip Roof P lan Layout ................................ ....................... 153 Figure B.17 ... Case A Example 1 Pressure for 160 mph ................................ ........ 154 Figure B.18 ... Case B Example 1 Pressure for 160 mph ................................ ........ 155 Figure C.1 ..... Property # 1 ................................ ................................ ........................... 156 Figure C .2 ..... Property # 2 ................................ ................................ ........................... 157

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x Figure C.3 ..... Property # 3 ................................ ................................ ........................... 158 Figure C.4 ..... Property # 4 ................................ ................................ ........................... 159 Figure C.5 ..... Property # 5 ................................ ................................ ........................... 160 Figure C.6 ..... Property # 6 ................................ ................................ ........................... 161 Figure C.7 ..... Property # 7 ................................ ................................ ........................... 162 Figure C.8 ..... Property # 8 ................................ ................................ ........................... 163 Figure C.9 ..... Property # 9 ................................ ................................ ........................... 164 Figure C.10 ... Property # 10 ................................ ................................ ......................... 165 Figure C.11 ... Property # 11 ................................ ................................ ......................... 166 Figure C.12 ... Property # 12 ................................ ................................ ......................... 167 Figure C.13 ... Pr operty # 13 ................................ ................................ ......................... 168 Figure C.14 ... Property # 14 ................................ ................................ ......................... 169 Figure C.15 ... Property # 15 ................................ ................................ ......................... 170 Figure C.16 ... Property # 16 ................................ ................................ ......................... 171 Figure C.17 ... Property # 17 ................................ ................................ ......................... 172 Figure C.18 ... Property # 18 ................................ ................................ ......................... 173 Figure C.19 ... Property # 19 ................................ ................................ ......................... 174 Figure C.20 ... Property # 20 ................................ ................................ ......................... 175 Figure D.1 ..... Ground Picture # 1 ................................ ................................ ............... 176 Figure D.2 ..... Ground Picture # 2 ................................ ................................ ............... 177 Figure D.3 ..... Ground Picture # 3 ................................ ................................ ............... 178 Figure D.4 ..... Ground Picture # 4 ................................ ................................ ............... 179 Figure D.5 ..... Ground Picture # 5 ................................ ................................ ............... 180

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xi Post Charley Evaluation of Undamaged Homes in Punta Gorda Isles Virgilet Pierri ssaint A BSTRACT Hurricane Charley was the third named storm and the second major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. At that time, it was also the strongest hurricane to strike the US coast since 1992. Charley made landfall on Friday, Augu st 13, 2004 on the barrier islands off Lee County, Florida whence it moved rapidly inland towards Port Charlotte, DeSoto and Hardee counties. The purpose of this study was to understand the performance of undamaged residential home in Punta Gord a Isles (PGI) in Port Charlotte County that was crossed by Charleys eye shortly after it made landfall. To achieve this goal, a representative sample of 20 undamaged residential homes (out of 210 identified in an earlier study) in PGI were selected from a erial photographs for detailed analysis. Unfortunately, information on dimensions of these buildings could not be obtained despite repeated attempts over a 6 month period. Consequently, a parametric study was conducted using an idealized building following procedures consistent with current practice. In the analysis, parameters such as wind velocity, exposure and building geometry were varied to assess the range of design forces. The maximum wind velocity was taken as 160 mph, based on findings reported in FEMA 488.

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xii Two idealized roof systems a gable and hip on a rectangular plan form were analyzed using ASCE 7 98s Method 2. Both Main Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and Components and Cladding (C&C) were evaluated. The results showed that forces resisted were significantly (over 70%) higher than those designed for. Since 210 out of 425 homes studied earlier were undamaged it suggests that properly constructed structures automatically have adequate reserve capacity to withstand higher than designe d for lateral loads. If changes are needed, it should focus on inspection and construction rather than wind prov isions in existing code

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1 Chapter 1: Introduction General and Overview 1.1 Introduction During the month of August 2004, several Caribbean nat ions and the state of Florida encountered a very severe storm that affected thousands of people. Hurricane Charley (Figure B 1) impacted Cuba and moved into the Gulf of Mexico towards Florida. It subsequently turned northward and made land fall in Charlott e Harbor near Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) on August 13, 2004. Officials of the Cuban meteorological services indicated that Hurricane Charley made landfall in south of Cuba as a category 3 hurricane with 1 minute sustained wind speed of 105 mph (equivalent to a 125 mph with a maximum of 3 second peak gust wind). The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in its Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Charley, August 9 14 2004 stated that Charley struck the PGI area as a strong category 3 or borderline category 4 hurrica ne with 1 minute sustained wind speed of approximately 125 mph to 130 mph corresponding to a 3 second peak gust wind of 155 to 165 mph (Table A.1) According to CNN, Hurricane Charley was responsible for more than 13 deaths in Port Charlotte County alon e. In Cuba, Government officials placed damage estimates at more than $1 billion. Florida officials predicted that Hurricane Charley would cost over $7 billion in repairs.

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2 Hurricane Charley was the strongest hurricane to strike Florida since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Though it devastated old homes in Port Charlotte County, new homes in PGI that were subjected to the same wind intensity were relatively undamaged. This raised the obvious question why did the new homes perform well? This thesis attempt s to address to this question. 1.2 Project Background This project is an offshoot of a NSF funded study entitled Impact of Hurricane Charley on Residential and Commercial Construction (Meloy et al 2005). In the project, a systematic study was conducte d to evaluate roof damage in 425 homes in PGI that were built from 1996 to 2003. This represented 57% of the total homes built during that period. Forty seven percent (210) of the 425 were considered undamaged, 37% (158) were considered to have minor dama ge, and only 14% (57) had significant damage (Figure B.2). The main purpose of this project is to understand the performance of the undamaged homes in PGI after the impact of Hurricane Charley by selecting a sample of such homes and using information fro m drawings to conduct the detailed analysis. Unfortunately, the request for this information from the PGI Building Department was not met despite repeated requirements over an extended period of time. As a result, alternative strategies were considered, e.g. using specialized Pictometry software to determine dimensions from aerial photographs. However, not all dimensions could be accurately measured from the photographs because of the complexity of the roof system. An alternative method based on

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3 stereo scopic surveying was investigated (Mullins 2006). This also proved to be unsuccessful because it required unfettered access to buildings. A third option was subsequently used in which professionals in the design and construction field were contacted. T hese included Mr. Jack Harrington, a distinguished licensed engineer with many years of design and construction experience, Mr. Billy William and his staff at the Simpson Strong Tie, and others. They were contacted for input on the type of data that cou ld be reasonably used in the analysis. Mr. Harrington is a certified inspector and is very knowledgeable about residential design. He also lived in Port Charlotte County. As such he was able to provide information on common dimensions for roof slopes, bu ilding geometry etc. in PGI that was subsequently used in the parametric study reported in this thesis. Mr. Harrington also provided an EXCEL spreadsheet which he wrote for analyzing wind loads on low rise building. This was modified by the author for eva luating wind loads for the Main Wind Forces Resisting systems (MWFRS) and other loads conditions on the homes. Additionally, the wind pressures for Component and Cladding were determined using this EXCEL spreadsheet after it had been calibrated using avai lable solutions (ATC Council 2005). 1.3 Project Objective The overall goal of this study was to analyze wind loads on undamaged homes in PGI impacted by Charley and determined why these homes built from 1996 to 2004 performed well.

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4 PGI is located in sou thwest Florida at the confluence of Peace River and Charlotte Harbor (Figure B.3). As Charleys eye crossed PGI shortly after landfall the entire community was subjected to the strongest winds. The majority of homes in PGI are very expensive and represe nt the larger irregular home with complex roof configurations that are increasingly common in Florida. As stated already, plans for these homes could not be obtained. In view of this a parametric study was conducted in which (1) height (2) plan dimensions (3) roof slopes (4) wind velocity and (5) exposure were varied for idealized rectangular homes with simple gable or hip roofs. For the houses considered the prevalent codes wind provisions in ASCE 7 98 were used in design. This analysis provided a meas ure of the original design forces and the actual forces undamaged structures had been subjected to. It therefore provided an index of the reserve strength of post Andrew homes in Florida. 1.4 Organization of Thesis This thesis has six chapters and four a ppendices. Chapter 2 provides background information on the wind provisions of ASCE 7 and the Florida Building Code. Chapter 3 describes methods used for obtaining data for the analysis. Chapter 4 summarizes the wind design analysis. The main analysis is presented in Chapter 5 and conclusions and recommendations summarized in Chapter 6. Appendix A has list of Tables, Appendix B has list of Figures, Appendix C has aerial photographs of the 20 damaged buildings selected, and Appendix D has photographs of undamaged buildings taken from the ground during field visit

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5 Chapter 2: Background 2.1 Development of Florida Building Code In 1970, the state of Florida first mandated statewide building code. Following Hurricane Andrew in 1992, several counties in F lorida mandated new requirements to improve building construction and safety and introduced a new process of design. This led to changes in the requirements for windows shutters, reinforced garage door and specific roofing reinforcement that are defined as Components and Cladding. For many years, Florida followed the Standard Building Code (SBC, published by Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc, SBCCI, with local amendments), which provided basic design principles, but did not include specif ic prescriptive construction practices to resist hurricane forces. In the early 1990s, the Southern Building Congress developed SSTD10, which presented a prescriptive method for proper hurricane resistant construction. In March 2002, the state adopted a new building code, The 2001 Florida building Code (FBC). FBC 2001 provided clear guidance on design considerations in the windborne debris regions. Buildings at these sites are required to protect glazed openings (windows and doors) to ensure that the building envelope was undamaged. Protective measures were required to resist large or small debris (missiles), based on the height of the building. In a ddition, the 2001 (and recently

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6 completed 2004) FBC instituted improved design requirements for compon ents and cladding (such as roof coverings), and for debris impact criteria that were not previously required in the SBC. FBC was modeled after the 1999 edition of the Standard Building Code (SBC) and the South Florida Building Code and preserved wind spee d and debris designation used in these codes. The previous SBC code provisions were only directed toward ensuring structural integrity for resisting wind loads. To improve the performance of the wind resistance for components and cladding FBC adopted the wind design method used in the Standard developed by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE 7 98). FBC is based on national model building codes and national consensus standards, which are amended where necessary for Floridas specific needs. It is updated annually to incorporate interpretations and clarifications. FBC 2001 continued to regulate design until 2004. It was replaced in the summer of 2005 by FBC 2004. For the purposes of this study, FBC 2001 was the latest building Code available when Charley made landfall in Florida and was considered for the design of wind loads for the residential homes in PGI. 2.2 Using ASCE 7 for the Design Wind Load ASCE 7 contains maps with two wind zones for the majority of the country, and closely specif ied contours for Alaska and the coastal regions adjacent to the Golf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean (Figure B.4). The 1993 edition of ASCE was virtually a reprint of the 1988 edition. In the 1995 edition the basic wind speed was changed to a 3 second g ust from the fastest mile wind speed and a

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7 new wind map developed. As a consequence of the change in the definition of the basic wind speed, wind pressures increased in certain areas in the country. In 2000, ASCE published a revision to the 7 95 editions with updated wind loads provisions (ASCE 7, 2000) and a guide to the use of the wind load provisions referred to as 7 98. Complete revision of 7 98, especially section 6.0, using recent research and development achievements was incorporated in ASCE 7 02. The major changes involve expansion of the simplified procedure, load cases for main wind force resisting systems (MWFRS) (ASCE 7 02 Figure 6 9), and introduction of surface roughness length to define exposure coefficients. ASCE 7 02 incorporates the late st available technical information. However, the basic methodology of the standard remains the same as in ASCE 7 98. For the purpose of the study, ASCE 7 98 and 7 02 provisions were the latest provisions adopted by the Florida building Code for calculati ng wind loading before Charley made landfall in Florida and could be used to evaluate wind loads. 2.2.1 ASCE 7 98 and 7 02 Provisions The design wind load provisions in Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures (ASCE 7 98) is based on wind sp eed data collected during severe wind events in the United States. The wind speed contours are presented in this code in terms of a three second gust. Both ASCE 7 98 and 7 02 contain separate provisions for the design of main structural elements using Ma in Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS) loads and secondary structural elements using Component and Cladding (C&C) loads. According to this classification, MWFRS consist of structural elements assigned to provide support

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8 and stability for the overall struc ture and, as a consequence, generally receive wind loading from all surfaces of the building. It is also considered as an assemblage that works together to transfer wind load acting on the entire structure to the ground. It was developed to represent the critical loads on the main structural elements from two major orthogonal directions. The structural elements of the MWFRS are: cross bracing, roof trusses, and roof diaphragms (ASCE 7 98 ). Elements of building design that do not qualify as part of the MWFRS are identified as C&C and are designed for C & C wind Loads. The C&C loads were developed to represent peak forces, which can occur over small areas as a result of localized funneling and turbulence. Components receive wind loads directly or from t he cladding and transfer loads to the main wind force resisting system. The cladding receives wind loads directly. When designing for C&C special consideration is required because the load can be very high at discontinuities such as corners and ridges w here the air flow separates. Examples of components include fasteners, purling, girt, studs, roof decking and roof trusses. Components are considered as part of the main wind force resisting system when they act as a shear walls or roof diaphragms, but c an also be loaded as individual components. Examples of cladding consist of wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, windows and doors. In the case of the design of masonry walls, the MWFRS provisions are used to determine in plane shear forces, an d C&C provisions are used to determine the out of plane design bending load.

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9 ASCE 7 02 eliminated the parallel load case factors for MWFRS previously given in Figure 6 4 ASCE 7 98. These factors almost always produced the highest wind uplift cases. For the purpose of the study, the majority of the homes were designed using wind provisions in ASCE 7 98 Code. This is therefore used exclusively in the analysis. 2.3 Hurricane Overview Websters ninth new collegiate Dictionary defines a hurricane as a Tro pical cyclone with 1 minute sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or greater and it is usually accompanied by rain, thunder or lightning and that sometimes moves into temperate latitudes (SEAW Commentary on Wind Code Provisions, 2004). Sometimes terms like cyclone and typhoons are used instead of hurricane; however they are basically the same phenomena. A cyclone is a term used more often in Australia and across the Indian Ocean, and a typhoon is the term used in the far East (SEAW Commentary on Wind Code Provisions, 2004). Hurricanes can also be described as storms generated over tropical oceans where the temperature exceeds 26 degrees C. Its energy comes from the release of latent heat of vaporization. The amount of energy released by a hurricane in 1 hour equates the same of amount of electrical energy consumed by US in one week (Wiley, 1996). In 1953, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) named Atlantic tropical storms for the first time, but male names were excluded until 1979 when they were used alt ernately with womens names.

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10 In the past, the damage caused by a hurricane had been a fact of life for human beings from the time they move out of caves dwellings to the present day. Only important community buildings such as churches and temples were see n as a need to resist wind forces. For other types of construction, windstorm was generally seen as an Act of God. However, for the last two centuries, due to major structural failures and loss of lives engineers began to analyze wind forces. Due to the losses caused by hurricanes every year, special recommendations for their design are now required. Even though Charley exceeded the maximum wind speed for homes built in PGI from 1996 to 2003, large numbers of houses remained unscathed. 2 .4 Hurricane Charley On August 9, 2004, Charley was a well organized tropical wave approaching the Windward Islands. This wave organized enough to become the third tropical depression of the year (CNN 2004). On August 10 the National Hurricane Center (NHC) indicated that Hurricane Charley struck the Caribbean nations as a tropical depression and upgraded it from a tropical depression to a tropical storm (wind speed less than 74 mph 1 minute sustained). The storm reached hurricane strength just south of Jamaica on We dnesday, August 11, and came ashore on the southern shoreline of western Cuba between the towns of Bataban and Guanimar, Augu st 12, 2004. The NHC indicated that Charley was a category 3 hurricane just south of Cuba with estimated wind speeds of 105 mph. It moved to the Northwest at 17 mph. On Friday August 13, 2004 at 3:45 pm, Charley's eye passed over Punta Gorda with a maximum 3 second peak

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11 gust, 165 mph, and then struck the city of Port Charlotte and its neighborhood with devastating results. On the east side of Charlotte Harbor, the Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) estimated that the hurricane struck the Port Charlotte/Punta Gorda area as a strong Category 3 or borderline Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir Simpson Hurricane scale with 1 minute susta ined winds of approximately 125 mph to 130 mph, and maximum 3 second peak gust winds of 155 mph to 165 mph. (FEMA 488). Table A.1 in Chapter 1 shows the difference between the 1 minute sustained winds and 3 second peak gust in the Saffir Simpson scale. Th e 1 minute sustained wind is one minute averaging time in a hurricane environment. Figure B.5 shows the path of Charley as it made landfall in Florida. 2.5 Punta Gorda Isles and Homes Characteristic 2.5.1 Punta Gorda Isles Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) is loca ted on Floridas West coast, south of Port Charlotte. The development of this area started in 1957 and some different sections were opened over the years. PGI contains some of the finest waterfront properties. Homes are expensive and use top of the line materials. For example, prices for a single family waterfront home in PGI start in the mid $400,000 and higher. Other non waterfront communities in PGI offer homes up to $200,000. The sample homes used in this study represent the homes with an average living area of 3503 sq ft and an average value of $434,942. These kinds

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12 of homes are located on the east shore where the Peace River enters the Charlotte Harbor estuary. 2.5.2 Houses Characteristics in PGI T he predominant construction material is con crete masonry which is used for exterior walls. The primary roof structure on these masonry houses was wood framing or trusses. Wood rafters and plywood decks supported the building floors and roofs. All homes were required to have tiled roofs. A sele ction of undamaged homes obtained from Pictometrys database are shown in Appendix C. These are in the form of aerial photographs taken from a plane on August 21 st 8 days after the hurricane at an oblique angle of 40 45 degrees at an elevation of 2500 ft. Ground pictures of PGI were also taken on November 2005. Those pictures provide elevation views of the homes that aided in determining the data range for evaluating parameters for the wind load analysis.

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13 Chapter 3: Methods to Obtai n Data 3.1 Introduction Several methods were used to identify the location and dimensions on the homes. As stated in Chapter 1, aerial photos from Pictometry International were used in the first place to give an overview on the state of each home studied. The electronic Field Study 2.6(EFS 2.6) software developed by Pictometry International, includes tools useful to estimate distances, heights, areas etc. The data estimated from the EFS 2.6 was however incompatible with the surveying measurement s due to the limitation of the information provided by the Pictometry. A request for home plans through the Punta Gorda Building Department for original data for the design purposes was unfortunately not met despite repeated requests. A third method data range was therefore used which relied on judgment and input of highly qualified professionals in the field that was eventually used to conduct the parametric study. 3.2 Method 1: Pictometry 3.2. 1 Definition Pictometry is the world's largest digital, o blique aerial photography company. The company develops and markets a sophisticated, integrated information system that allows users to obtain high resolution images of neighborhoods, landmarks, roads, and complete municipalities from multiple

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14 directorie s at the click of a mouse ( www.pictometry.com ). For this study, Pictometry provided visual information that allowed all homes in PGI to be viewed. It is an information system that enables users to get access to more than 12 different views of any property, building, and highway. Pictometry helped to provide precise geographic coordinates of every pixel, as well as the ability to measure distances, areas, heights, perimeters, lengths, widths of objects within ima ges. 3.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages Using the Pictometry Pictometry has proven itself to be a valuable tool that enables public safety professionals to better understand the situation they are responding to with an easy to use visual tool that gives e nough information to quickly and more effectively respond to any given situation. However, data collected from the Pictometry could not be used for engineering calculations. Pictometry enhances the pre inspection process with a better visual inspection o f buildings and properties that can save time and resources. In the case of this study, the Pictometry provided aerial photographs of the homes taken on August 21, 2004, 8 days after Charley struck PGI. The aerial photographs identified the environmental factors or conditions of the site of study, obstacles, and other potential hindrances at the site that could prevent a successful survey. Pictometry also allows mean roof height, wall height, longitudinal and transverse dimension to be estimated by simpl y drawing a line around the designated area using the area tools. For instance, the mean roof height is estimated by drawing a horizontal line on the highest peak of the eave

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15 roof and drawing another line perpendicular to it to get the roof height. Figure B.6 shows an example for determining the roof height using the Pictometry tools. 3.3 Method 2: Surveying Equipment As discussed earlier, due to the unavailability of the plans requested and the limitations of the pictometry photographs, a second option w as proposed (Mullins 2006) in which surveying was used to obtain the desired data. Before the trials at Punta Gorda Isles, two trials were made around the University of South Florida campus to evaluate the method. Following success of the second trial, t wo visits were made to Punta Gorda Isles with the surveying equipment to collect data. After data was recorded for 3 or 4 homes over a period of 6 to 7 hours, its analysis showed that the results were not reasonable. The failure of this method occurs bas ically due to lack of visibility. Figure B.7 shows an overview of the surveying equipment set up in PGI. As the picture shows, two theodolites were set up on a single tripod and two electronic distance measurement (EDM) devices used with each one attache d to a theodolite. 3.4 Method 3: Range of Data Due to failure of the two previous methods, professionals in the field were contacted. One such was Mr. Jack M. Harrington, PE, who was also a resident of Port Charlotte and had first had knowledge of buildi ngs built in the area. Mr. Harrington suggested a range for the data that could be used for evaluating wind loads. This range related to average construction in PGI, e.g. mean roof height, height, wall type, dimensions and also components and cladding. T his method

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16 was used, but it is not really accurate for specific homes. However compared to the other methods, the data range method appeared more reasonable for calculating the wind pressures in residential homes in PGI. This is discussed in the next cha pter.

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17 Chapter 4: Wind Analysis 4.1 Introduction As noted earlier, the Florida Building Code (FBC) 2001, modeled after the 1999 edition of the Standard Building Code (SBC) and the South Florida Building Code, was used for the analysis. This code uses the latest wind design methods specified in chapter 6 of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE 7 98) the Minimum Design Load for Building and other Structures. 4.2 Assumptions for Wind Calculation Using ASCE 7 98 The basic wind speed was obtained from Figure B.8 by locating the site on wind speed map and reading the appropriate velocity contour. This was estimated to be 120 mph data. According to FEMA 488, the maximum wind speed at PGI determined from numerical modeling was 160 mph 3 second peak gust, correspond to a category 4 hurricane. For the purpose of analysis, a range of design wind speeds from 120 mph to 160 mph were selected. These wind speeds were used to determine the wind generated forces that ac ted on either the structural frame or load bearing elements (MWFRS) and exterior coverings of the houses (C&C). All wind loads for both MWFRS and C&C, were calculated using the wind load provisions in Section 6 of ASCE 7 98. This has three different meth ods for calculating wind loads on structures

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18 1. Method 1: This is a simplified procedure (specified in section 6.4 of the standard), for buildings meeting certain specific requirements. The requirements are set for main wind force resistance system (MWFRS) and components and cladding(C&C). 2. Method 2: Analytical procedure (section 6.5 of the standard), applicable to buildings and other structures that are not flexible 3. Method 3: Wind Tunnel Procedure, which meets certain test conditions as specified in section 6.6 of the standard. The house examples studied meets the requirements of Method 2 and therefore Method 2 was used in this thesis to evaluate wind loads on the structures. ASCE 7 (7 98 section 6.5.3) sets out a procedure for calculating wind loads is la id out. This has 10 steps as follows: 1. Determine basic wind speed, V, and directionality factor in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.4. 2. Determine an Importance factor, I in accordance with ASCE 7 98 Section 6.5.5. Table A.2 shows the importance factor f or building categories. 3. Determine an exposure category and velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K z or K h as applicable for each wind direction in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.6. When determining the wind load for MWFRS for a Low Rise Building use a velocity pressure q h based on the exposure resulting in the highest wind loads for any directions at the site when the external pressure coefficients is GC pf given in Figure 6 4 on the ASCE 7

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19 98). Exposure category for components and Cladding for build ings with mean roof height h of 60 ft or less (z<60 ft) is designed using velocity pressures q h based on the exposure resulting in the highest wind loads for any wind direction at the site (ASCE, 7 98 Section 6.5.6.3.1). The velocity pressure coefficients are determined from Table A.3 in this thesis. 4. Determine the topographic factor, K zt in accordance with ASCE 7 98 Section 6.5.7 defined by 2 3 2 1 ) 1 ( K K K K zt + = in which K 1 K 2 and K 3 are given in Figure 6 2 ASCE 7 98 5. Determine gust effect factor, G or G f in accordance with ACSE 7 Section 6.5.8. For rigid structures, gust effect factor is taken as 0.85 or can be calculated. 6. Determine an enclosure classification in accordance with ASCE Section 6.5.9. The houses for this study were considered as to be en closed. 7. Determine an internal Pressure Coefficient, GC pi in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.11.1 as given in Table A.4 (ASCE 7 98 Table 6.7). For Enclosed structures GC pi = + 0.18 inward or 0.18 for outward. 8. Determine an external pressure Coefficient s, C p in accordance with ASCE 7 98 Section 6.5.11.2. 9. Determine the base velocity pressure in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.10. The velocity pressure, q z evaluated at height z is calculated using following equation: I V K K K q d zt z z 2 00256 0 = (psf)

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20 where K d = wind directionality factor; K z = velocity pressure exposure coefficient; K zt = topographic factor and; q h = velocity pressure at mean roof height h. I = Importance factor. 10. Determine the design wind pressure, p, in accordance with Section 6.5.12. The equation for pressures an a building surface for MWFRS for building of all heights (equation 6 15, ASCE 7 98) The d esign wind pressures for main wind force resisting system is determined by following equation: ) / )]( ( [( 2 ft lb GC GC q p pi p h = where : q = q z for windward walls. q = q h for leeward walls, side walls and roofs; q i = q h for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls and roofs of enclosed buildings; q i = q z for positive internal pressure evaluation in partially enclosed buildings; G = Gust effect factor; C p = External pressure coefficient; (GC pi ) = Internal pressure coefficient The design pressure on component and cladding element is determined from the following equation: ) / )]( ( ) [( 2 & ft lb GC GC q P pi p h C C = where; P c&C = Design wind load, psf (C&C) q h = Base velocity pressure, psf. to evaluate the wind pressures in the Components and Cladding elements the effective load area of the component must be determined to evaluate the external pressure coefficients. For rectangular loaded areas, ASCE 7 98 a llow this area to be calculated as A= L 2 /3. The combined gust effect factor and external pressure coefficients for component and

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21 Cladding GC p are g iven in Figure 6 5A through 6 8.in ASCE 7 98 using those figures the gust effect factor and the coefficient shall not be separated. Figure B.9 and B.10 in this report showing t he representative of Figure 6 5A and Figure 6 5B respectively for walls and gable/hip roofs for roof angles from 10 0 to 30 0 (ASCE 7 98). 4.3 Design Process Design wind loads for buildings are generally treated separately for the design of structural system (MWFRS) and the design of the cladding and its attachment to the structural system. The determination of the design wind loads for MWFRS and the component in cladding acting on a buildin g is based on the standard provisions provide by ASCE 7. Wall and roof panels should be checked for out of plane loading associated with the component and cladding loads for the tributary areas. In the case of this study the design wind loads was evalua ted by using Method 2 Analytical procedure of the ASCE 7 98. This method has been the traditional and standard way to design buildings for wind since 1972 (edition of ANSI A58.1.). It is used for: 1) for any building of any height and width as long as it is regular and not flex ible 2) for low rise buildings, which are = 60ft in height, and whose aspect ratios of height to width meet certain requirements. The houses studied in PGI are low rise buildings, but with irregular roof shapes.

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2 2 4.3.1 Range of Data As mentioned in Chap ter 1, a range of data was used to evaluate the wind loads on the building studied; the data was ranged as follows. 1. Design Wind Velocity: the wind speeds were selected between 120 to 160 mph 3 second peak gusts. 2. Building size: a range of building footprin t was selected from 40 x 60 ft and 60 x 80 ft. 3. Building wall height was varied from 12 to 22 ft. 4. Roof Slope: The roof slope was varied from 15 to 30 degrees. 5. Mean Roof Height: Based on the range assumed roof slope, the mean roof h eight taken at the mid height of the roof selected from 15 to 25 ft. 6. Exposure B and C: The structures are located in suburban residential areas with mostly single family building (exposure B) and in open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 ft (Exposure C).

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23 Chapter 5: Design Examples and Results 5 .1 Introduction This chapter presents calculations that attempt to understand why the newer homes built in PGI performed satisfactorily. As mentioned earlier, dimensions for selected undamaged b uildings (Appendix C) could not be obtained from the building authorities nor from surveying trips to PGI. In view of this, calculations presented are based on idealized buildings for which assumptions were made regarding the building footprint, the roof t ype and other needed information. The basis for this idealization is outlined in Section 5.2. Step by step calculations for two roof systems are presented in Section 5.3. These examples provide long hand calculations that verify results obtained using an Excel spreadsheet that was developed to conduct the parametric studies outlined in Section 4.3. Complete results from the parametric study are included in Section 5.4. For convenience, both examples use the same building footprint although the roof co nfigurations are different. The first building has a gable roof and the second has a hipped roof. Such roofs are representative of the type of roofs in undamaged buildings. In each example exposures B and C were considered to reflect conditions in PGI. Two wind velocities 120 mph (design speed) and 160 mph were used these represent the design wind velocity and FEMA 488s estimation of the

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24 maximum wind velocity. The analytical procedure in ASCE 7 98 discussed in Chapter 4 is used for the analysis. 5.2 Rationale for Analysis The aerial photographs of undamaged homes show that they are typically one story, with non rectangular plan form and irregular roofs. The roofs are generally complex with elements of both gable (two slopes) and hip framing (see fo r example Property # 4 and 5 in Appendix C). As stated earlier, wind analysis as specified in ASCE 7 98 consists of determination of (1) wind forces for checking support and stability of the overall structure (MWFRS) consisting of the walls and the roof a nd (2) components and cladding. The rationale for using a simplified roof form is outlined in the next section. 5.2.1 MWFRS The calculations for main wind force resisting system (MWFRS) require the following information: 1. Rectangular plan dimensions, L and B 2. Mean roof height, h 3. Roof slope, T 4. Wind pressure coefficients The L/B ratio influences the wind pressure coefficients for walls on the windward and leeward side (Fig 6 3 ASCE 7 98). Note that since the wind has to be analyzed for two orthogonal direct ions, both L/B and B/L ratios have to be

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25 considered. It may be seen from the range of pressure coefficients in Fig. 6 3 ASCE 7 98 reproduced as Fig. B.11, it is not particularly sensitive to variations in the L/B ratio. Therefore, idealization of an irre gular plan form to a rectangular form will not lead to significant error (Fig. B.12) and is reasonable. Fig. 6.3 also has pressure coefficients for the four roof shapes mentioned earlier. The pressure coefficient specified in the figure depends only on (1) the ratio h/L (2) roof slope and (3) its area. Inspection of Fig. 6.3 shows that (negative) pressure coefficients reduce as the slope increases for wind normal to the ridge. For wind parallel to the ridge and T exceeding 10 degrees, pressure coeffic ients only depend on h. The commentary for ASCE 7 98 (C6.2), states that extensive wind tunnel data on actual structures indicate that relatively large changes from these (regular) shapes can, in many cases, have minor changes in wind loa.while seemingl y small changes have relatively large effects, particularly on cladding pressures . Thus, for calculating MWFRS wind forces, it appears reasonable to idealize an irregular structure into a regular one. The idealization consists of (1) converting an irre gular plan form to a rectangular plan form as shown in Fig. B.12 and the complex roof slopes to simple slopes as shown in Fig. B. 13 5.2.2 Components and Cladding Whereas MWFRS is associated with structural support and stability, the analysis of component s and cladding is related to treatment of localized pressures. Localized pressures can be very high and must be accounted for in

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26 the design particularly for designing fasteners and attachments. Otherwise it can lead to localized failure that can result i n failure of the building envelope. Pressure coefficients for component and cladding design in buildings with sloping roofs depend on the type of element, i.e. wall or roof (Fig. 6 5A and 6 5B). Pressures vary widely depending on the location of the ele ment. For this reason, codes define 5 separate zones in ASCE 7 98 Fig. 6 5A and 6.5B. Note that these coefficients have built in gust factors which cannot therefore be separated. The different pressure zones are determined from the a dimension in Fig B.9 and B.10 (Fig. 6.5A and 6 5B in ASCE 7 98). This depends on the height of the building and the least horizontal dimension. Once the location of the element is known, wind pressure coefficients for wall, roof or overhang elements can be read off fro m graphs shown in Fig. 6 5B if the effective wind area ( not the same as the tributary area ) of the element is known. To ensure localized effects are captured, ASCE 7 (Section 6.2) defines the effective area as the span length multiplied by an effective wi dth that need not be less than one third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener . Localized effects are largest when the effective area is smallest. It i s highest for areas up to 10 sq. ft and reaches a lower terminal value that ranges from 500 sq. for walls (Fig. 6 5A) to100 sq. ft in roofs and overhangs (Fig. 6 5B). As noted in the commentary, minor changes in shape can result in significantly higher p ressures. Such high localized pressures can only be

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27 determined for the complex roof configurations from wind tunnel testing. In the absence of wind tunnel testing it can be reasonable to break down the complex roof into individual gable or hip segments a nd calculate the wind press ure using the code (see Fig. B.13 ). This will not be exact; however, is likely to be the approach used by designers. 5.2.3 Summary The simplifications for MWFRS are shown in Fig. B.11 and B.15 while those for C&C are shown in Fig. B.9 and B.10 5.3 Examples Two examples are presented. One has a gable and the other a hip roof. Other parameters for the two examples are identical. These examples provide long hand verification of the calculations obtained using the Excel spreads heet. 5.3.1 Example 1 Gable Roof A 40 x 60 one story building with 18 in. overhang on all four sides has a gable roof (Figure B.14). The building is in Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) at a site subjected to a 120 mph design wind speed and a terra in representative of exposure C. The roof slope is 15 degrees with a mean roof height of 15 ft. The building considered is protected against wind borne debris. Determine the wind pressures for the main forces resistance systems (MWFRS).

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28 Solution : This example illustrates the calculation of the main wind force resistance system using the low rise method applicable for structures under 60 ft. This is used primarily because designers are likely to have used it as well rather than the more general all hei ghts method. It should be noted that the low rise method uses pseudo pressures to ensure that the envelope for maximum forces and moments is correct. It does not therefore use pressure shapes obtained from wind tunnel testing that are used in the all h eights method. However, as the results obtained using the all heights method for this roof system would be identical to that for the hip roof covered in Example 2 it is not repeated here. MWFRS consists of determining forces on the walls and the roof for the wind in two orthogonal directions (Case A and B in Fig. 6 4 ASCE 7 98). This example verifies results contained in Table A.4, A.5 obtained using the EXCEL spread sheet. The mean height of the building is 15 ft, and therefore the pressure is constan t over the entire height (Table 6 5 in ASCE 7 98). As the building is protected against wind borne debris it is an enclosed structure (6.5.9.3 ASCE 7 98 ). The internal pressure coefficient for enclosed buildings is 0.18 (Table 6.7, ASCE 7 98). Also, s ince the building is built on flat ground, K zt = 1. For exposure C, K z = 0.85. Because of the simplifications, steps 1 to 9 (in Section 4.3 of the thesis) can be eliminated and the velocity pressure calculated directly as:

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29 psf 6 26 1 120 85 0 1 85 0 00256 0 I V K K K 00256 0 q 2 2 d zt z z ) )( )( )( )( ( . = = = This b ase pressure is used to calculate the pressures acting on the walls and the roof using coefficients given in Fig 6 4 for Case A (wind perpendicular to the ridge) and Case B (wind parallel to the ridge). Figure 6 4(ASCE 7 98) is shown in Figure B.15 in thi s thesis. Pressure on Walls The pressure on the wall is either inward (positive) or outward (negative suction) depending on the direction of the wind. For Case A, the wind blows parallel to the 40 ft dimension, i.e. L = 40 ft, B = 60 ft. and L/B = 0.67. For Case B wind is parallel to the 60 ft dimension, i.e. L = 60 ft, B 40 ft and L/B = 1.5. Referring to Fig. 6 4, the values of the pressure coefficients for case A are obtained by interpolation between 0 5 and 20 roof slopes, e.g. for zone 1E the interp olation is between 0.61 (0 5 degrees) and 0.80 (20 degrees). The pressure coefficients for Case B are independent of the roof slope and can be directly read from the table. The values obtained for the 4 zones for Case A and 8 zones for Case B are given be low: Example 1 GC pf values for Walls (from Fig. 6 4, ASCE 7 98) Case A Case B Zone 1 4 1E 4E 1 4 5 6 1E 4E 5E 6E GCpf 0.49 0.38 0.74 0.57 0.45 0.45 0.4 0.29 0.48 0.48 0.61 0.43

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30 The wind pressure on the wall is determined using: ) ( ) ( pi h pf z w GC q GC q p = (Eq. 6 15 ASCE 7 02) In this equation, the internal pressure coefficient is .18 since the wall is part of a building that is enclosed (Table 6 7, ASCE 7 98). Note that the internal pressure depends on q h (pressure at elevation h) whereas q z depends on the elevation z. For this building however, q z = q h = 26.6 psf as calculated earlier. Since the internal pressure can be positive or negative, two sets of values are obtained. For example, for zone 1E, these pressures are given by: Positive: ) ( ) ( pi h pf z w GC q GC q p + = = 26.6(0.74) + 26.6(0.18) = 24.48 psf Negative: ) ( ) ( pi h pf z w GC q GC q p = = 26.6(0.74) 26.6(0.18) = 14.88 psf Values for the other cases are given below : Example 1 Pressure Samp le Calculation Values for Walls Case A Case B Zone ( 6 ft) 1 4 1E 4 E 1 4 5 6 1E 4E 5E 6E Pos (+ GC P i) 17.82 5.32 24.47 10.4 7.18 7.18 15.43 2.93 7.98 7.98 21.01 6.65 Neg( GC pi ) 8. 2 4 14.9 14.9 19.9 16.8 16.8 5.85 12.5 17.6 17.6 11.4 16.2

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31 Pressure on R oof s The pressure coefficients for the roof are also delineated into end zones (2E, 3E) and non end zones (2, 3). Pressure coefficients are included in the same table (Fig. 6 4 ASCE 7 98) as the walls and determined by interpolation for Case A (wind perpendicular to the ridge) and Case B (wind parallel to the ridge). The width of the end zone a is calculated in the same manner and works out as 3 ft. For Case A, the pressure coefficients are interpolated between 0 5 and 20 degree slope. For zone 3E, the interpolation is between 0.53 (0 5 deg rees) to 0.69 (20 degrees). This gives a value of 0.64 for the 15 degree slope. Remaining values are summarized below: Example 1 GC pf values for Roof s (from Fig. 6 4, ASCE 7 98): 2a Case A Case B 6 ft 2 3 2 E 3E 2 3 2E 3E 0.69 0.44 1.07 0.64 0.6 9 0.37 1.07 0.53

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32 Case A and Case B wind pressure are tabulated below: As noted before, the internal pressure can be positive or negative, and therefore two sets of values are obtained. Example 1 Pressure Sample Calculation Values for Roof s : 2a Cas e A Case B 6 ft 2 3 2 E 3E 2 3 2E 3E Positive (+GC pi ) psf 13.53 6.92 23.6 12.23 13.53 5.05 23.6 9.31 Negative ( GC pi ) psf 23.1 16 49 33.36 21.8 23.1 14.63 33.36 18.9 Roof Overhang Pressure For MWFRS, ASCE 7 98 Section 6.5.11.4.1 st ates that the roof overhang shall be designed for a positive pressure on the bottom surface of the windward roof using C p = 0.8. Therefore, GC pf = 0.8*0.85 = 0.68. The overhang pressure is: psf p w 09 18 6 26 68 0 = = (no internal pressure included). Fig 5.5 shows the calculated MWFRS pressures on the wall and the roof for the example problem with a gable roof. The values correspond to 120 mph wind speed. Since the pressure coefficients are independent of the wind velocity, magnitudes of the corresponding pr essure for wind velocity equal to 160 mph can be directly found by using a multiplier (160/120) 2 =1.777, that is, all values

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33 for 120 mph wind must be multiplied by 1.777. These values for Case A and B are shown in Figures B.17 and B.18. Complete numerical calculations for all other cases such as different heights, roof slopes, footprint dimensions are provided in Tables A.4 to A.62 in this thesis. 5.3.2 Example 2 Hip roof A 40 x 60 one story building with 18 in. overhang on all four sides has a hip roof (Figure B.16). This building is also in Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) at a site subjected to a 120 mph design wind speed and a terrain representative of exposure C. The roof slope is 15 degrees with main roof height of 15 ft. this building is protected agains t wind borne debris. Determine: 1. MWFRS P ressures 2. Components and Cladding P ressure s Solution: 1. MWFRS Pressures This example differs from the first example in two respects. Firstly, it has a hip roof. Hip roofs cannot be analyzed using Method 2 Low Rise Building. Instead, the all height method has to be used. For this reason, the pressure coefficients given in Fig. 6 3 (ASCE 7 98) are used. The wind velocity pressure is identical since the mean height and exposure are the same. This was determined to be 26.6 psf.

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34 The long hand calculation presented verifies the calculations from the EXCEL spre adsheet contained in Table A.63 and A.64 Pressure on Walls In the all height method, the wind must also be considered in two orthogonal directions. However, these directions are not defined as Case A or Case B as in for the low rise method used previously. In determining the coefficients, the direction of the wind is accounted for by interchanging the values of L and B. L is always the dimension parallel to the wi nd and B the dimension perpendicular to the wind. Therefore in first case, i.e. wind parallel to the long direction, L = 60 ft and B = 40 ft. or L/B = 1.5. In the second case, this value is 40/60 or 0.67.

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35 Pressure coefficients read off from Fig. 6 3(ASCE 7 98) are summarized below: Example 2 GCpf Values for Wall Surface Wind direction 1 (L/B =40/60 = 0.67 Wind direction 2 (L/B)= 60/40 = 1.5 Windward 0.8 0.8 Leeward 0.5 0.4 Side Wall 0.7 0.7 It may be noted that the magnitude of the wind pressure coefficient side on the leeward side reduces from 0.5 to 0.4 as the width of the building parallel to the wind direction increases. Pressures on the wall can be calculated as before using the same internal pressure coefficient of .18. A sample calcul ation is shown below: ) ( ) ( pi h pf z w GC q GC q p = psf psf p w 3 13 9 22 ) 18 0 ( 6 26 ) 8 0 85 0 ( 6 26 + = = :

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36 The wind pressures for all surfaces give the follow values: Example 2 Pressure Sample Calculation Values for Wall for 120 mph Wind direction 1 (L/B =40/60 = 0.67 Wind directio n 2 (B/L) = 60/40 = 1.5 Surface Pos (+GCpi) Neg (GC pi ) Pos.(GC pi ) Neg.(GC Pi ) Windward 22.9 13.3 22.29 13.3 Leeward 6.51 16.09 4.25 13.83 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 11.04 20.1 Pressures corresponding to 160 mph wind can be obtained as before by using the multiplier (160/120) 2 = 1.777. These are given in the table below Example 2 Pressure Sample Calculation Values for Wind speed 160 mph on Walls Wind direction1 (L/B =40/60 = 0.67 Wind direction 2 (B/L) = 60/40 = 1.5 Pos (+GCpi) Neg (GC pi ) Pos. (GC pi ) Ne g. (GC Pi ) Windward 40.69 23.63 40.69 23.63 Leeward 11.57 28.6 7.55 24.57 Sidewall 19.6 36.65 19.6 36.65

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37 Pressures on Roof s Roof pressure coefficients for hip roofs for wind parallel and perpendicular to the ridge are also given in ASCE Fig. 6 3. For wind normal to the ridge, coefficients are given for 5 degrees slope increments from 10 to 45 degrees that vary with h/L. In our case, h = 15 ft and L = 60 ft, i.e. h/L = 0.25. The coefficient can be read directly as 0.5. For wind parallel to the ridge, coefficients are given for two cases: h/L = 0.5 and h/L = 1. In our case, L is now 40 ft and h/L becomes 15/40 = 0.375. The roof pressure coefficients vary over the length of the building as 0.9 (upto h or 15 ft), 0.5 (from h to 2h, i.e. from 15 to 30 ft) and 0.3 for distance > 30 ft from the edge, i.e. from 30 to 60 ft in our case. Overhang values are calculated as before. Values of the wind pressure coefficients and actual pressures calculated taking into account internal pressure coefficie nts of .18 for enclosed buildings are summarized in the two tables that follow. Example 2 GCpf Values for roof Wind Direction1 (h/L=15/40 = 0.37 Wind Direction 2 (h/L) = 15/60 = 0.25 Windward 0.625 Windward 0.5 Leeward 0.5 Leeward 0.5 Parallel to ridge Parallel to ridge 0 h/2 0.9 0 h/2 0.9 h/2 2h 0.5 h/2 2h 0.5 2h end 0.3 2h end 0.3 Overhang 0.8 Overhang 0.68

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38 The internal pressure can be positive or negative, two set of values are obtaine d as before. Sample calculation: psf pst p 92 18 34 9 ) 18 0 ( 6 26 ) 85 0 625 0 ( 6 26 = = The wind pressures for all surfaces give the follow values: Example 2 Pressure Sample Calculation Values for roof for 120 mph Wind Direction1(h/L=15/40 = 0.375 Wind Directio n2 (h/L) = 15/60 =0.25 Pos.(+GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Pos.(GCpi) N.(GCpi) A (Windward) 9.34 18.92 6.517 16.09 B (leeward) 6.52 16.09 6.517 16.09 C&D 0 h/2 15.56 25.14 15.56 25.14 h/2 2h 6.52 16.09 6.517 16.09 2h end 2 11.57 2 11.57 Overhang 18.1 18.1

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39 For the 160 mph basic wind speed, the pressures for the roof are obtained by using the 1.777 multiplier as before: Example 2 Pressure Sample Calculation Values for Roof for 160 mph Wind Direction1 (h/L) =15/40 = 0.375 Wind Direction 2 (h/L) = 15/60 =0.25 Pos (+GCpi ) Neg( GCpi) Pos ( + GCpi ) N eg ( GCpi) A (Windward) 16.6 33.62 11.58 28.5 B (leeward) 11.58 28.5 11.58 28.5 C&D 0 h/2 27.65 44.67 27.65 44.67 h/2 2h 11.58 28.6 11.58 28.59 2h end 3.55 20.55 3.55 20.55 Overhang 32.16 32.16 2. Components and C ladding Pressures Section 5.2.2 gives a general overview of the calculations required for components and cladding. The pressures coefficient for walls, roofs element and fasteners etc are determin ed from Figure 6.5B of the standard that is common for walls and gable and hip roofs. Unfortunately, the pressures are very sensitive to minor changes in shape that are not addressed by the code. Nonetheless, by calculating the code

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40 pressures an estimate c an be made of the forces that the undamaged elements were at least designed for, i.e. 120 mph and the actual pressures that were sustained using a multiplier as before. P ressures on Walls Referring to 5.6, assuming the wall is a concrete masonry wall. The wall is 12 ft height for the assumed roof slope of 15 degrees and h = 15 ft. The Effective Wind Area (EWA) is: 2 ft 48 3 12 12 3 ht ht EWA = = = ) / ( / Referring to Figure 6 5A of ASCE, the wall pressures coefficients for this effective area can be directly read off from the plot. The values are summarized below: C&C Example 2 GCpf for wall Zone (3 ft) +GCpf GCpf 4 (interior wall) 0.88 0.98 5 (exterior wall) 0.88 1.16 The pressures on wall are determined as before using the same internal pressure coefficient of .18. )] ( ) [( & pi p h C C GC GC q P = psf q h 6 26 = therefore the pressures on wall are tabulated below:

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41 C&C Example 2 Pressures on Walll for 120 mph Zone (3 ft) Positive (+GCpi) Negative( GCpi) 4(interior wall) 28.2 31 5 (exterior wall) 28.2 36 For a design wind speed of 160 mph, can be determined by using the 1.777 multiplier: C&C Example 2 Pressures on Wall for 160 mph Zone (3 ft) Positive (+GCpi) Negative ( GCpi) 4(interior wall) 50.11 55.08 5 (exterior wall) 50.11 64 Pressures on Roof s As the roof has 18 in. overhang, its dimension is 40 ft +2(1.5) = 43 ft. In the other direction it is 60 + 2(1.5) = 63 ft. Since the wind pressure depends on the smallest effective wind area, the shorter direction is more critical. The effective area for this direction is: 2 616 ) 3 / 43 ( 43 ft EWA = =

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42 Figure 6 5B ASCE 7 98 gives the pressures coefficient below: C&C Example 2 GCpf on roof The pressure values are as follow: C&C pressures on Roof for 120 mph +GCpf GCpf 1(interior roof) 13 26 2(exterior roof) 13 42 1&2(ext overhang) N/A 59 3(corner roof) 13 42 3(corner overhang) N/A 66 +GCpf GCpf 1(interior roof) 0.3 0.8 2(exterior roof) 0.3 1.4 2(ext overhang) N/A 2.2 3(corner roof) 0.3 1.4 3(corner overhang) N/A 2.5

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43 For wind spe ed of 160 mph, the wind pressures are found by using the same multiplier. C&C Pressures on Roof for 160 mph Zone +GCpf GCpf 1(interior roof) 23.1 46.2 2(exterior roof) 23.1 74.64 2(ext overhang) N/A 104.8 3(corner roof) 23.1 74.64 3(corner overha ng) N/A 117.3 Complete numerical calculations are provided for both MWFRS and Components and cladding in Table A.63 to A.86 5.4 Parametric Study A parametric study was conducted to understand the response of idealized buildings using an Excel spreadshe et. The parameters varied were: (1) roof type gable and hip, (2) building height from 15 to 25 ft in steps of 5 ft, (3) roof slopes from 15 to 30 degrees in steps of 5 degrees, (4) building foot print two different sizes 40 ft x 60 ft; 40 ft x 80 ft. (5) wind velocity; 120, 160 mph, (5) exposure B and C. For the hip roof, both MWFRS and C&C were analyzed. For the gable only MWFRS was analyzed. Complete results for the above cases are summarized in Tables A.4 to A.86 Tables A.4 to A.62 summarize t he wind pressures on the main wind force

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44 resisting systems (MWFRS) for the gable roof. Tabl e A.63 to A.86 summarize the wind pressures on MWFRS and Component and Cladding (C&C) for hip roofs. For the gable roof, the pressure coefficient values were obtain ed from Figure 6 4 ASCE 7 98 for Case A and Case B wind directions. The definition of non end and end zones for walls and roofs are shown in Figures B.15. As the wind pressures are proportional to the velocity squared, an increase in wind velocity from 12 0 to 160 mph increases the pressure by (160/120) 2 = 1.77. This can be verified in all the tables. Similarly, a change in exposure from B to C for the same wind velocity increases the wind pressure in proportion to the coefficient K z e.g. for a 25 ft mea n height, K z is 0.94 (Figure 6.5 ASCE 7 98) for Exposure C vs 0.70 (C&C) or 0.66 (MWFRS). For the maximum pressure corresponding to 25 ft, the corresponding increase is 0.24/0.70 = 34% for C&C and 0.32/0.66 = 48.5%. Collectively, the combination of a high er wind speed and a different exposure results in significant increases to wind pressures. For Exposure C, an increase in the mean roof height from 15 ft to 20 ft, results in a pressure increase in the walls and roof of 6.2 %. This increase is 4.8 % for a n increase in the mean roof height from 20 ft to 25 ft. The corresponding increase for Exposure B is 8.5% (increase in mean roof height from 15 ft to 20 ft) and 6.5% for an increase from 20 to 25 ft. The variation of roof slope had no effect for wind dir ection corresponding to Case B. For Case A, wind pressures increased as the slope increased

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45 Similar findings were obtained for wind pressures acting on the walls and roofs for the hip roof case. The only difference for a change in exposure is a proport ional increase in wind pressure, e.g for 25 ft K z = 0.94 for exposure C vs 0.66 for Exposure B. The corresponding increase is (0.94 0.66)/0.66 = 42.42%. These resu lts are summarized in Table A.75 to A.86 Table A.75 to A.86 show that for walls, the perc ent increase in C & C pressure was 77 % (suction) and by 78.67% (positive), for mean roof height of 15 ft and wall height 12 ft for wind speed increasing from 120 mph to 160 mph for exposure C. For wall height 16 ft and mean roof height 20 ft this percent increase was 75% in suction and 75.8% (positive pressure). For exposure B the percent increases for the same case were somewhat higher 81% (positive) and 76% (suction) because the wind pressures were different. The variation in the footprint did not affect MWFRS. However, it affected components and claddings as the effective wind area increa sed that led to lower pressures.

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46 Chapter 6: Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions This study attempted to understand why a large prop ortion of the newer homes in PGI were relatively unaffected by Hurricane Charley. Wind speeds were not measured; however, models estimated the wind speed to be 125 140 mph for Exposure B and 140 160 mph for Exposure C (FEMA 488) in Punta Gorda. This was m uch higher than the 120 mph design speed. In the thesis, undamaged homes were idealized as rectangular buildings with idealized gable or hip roofs. They were analyzed for a range of wind pressures that were established following discussion with professio nal engineers. Parameters varied included (1) mean height (2) building footprint (3) roof slope (4) wall height (5) exposure and (6) wind velocity. While this cannot reflect actual pressures experienced by the irregular buildings, it provides bounds on th e wind forces that were in all likelihood used by designers (the code does not cater to complex roof shapes). Thus, it provides a measure of the reserve capacity of the structure under extreme loading that exceeded values stipulated by the code. ASCE 7 9 8s Method 2 was used to determine the wind loads. Both the All heights and the Low Rise Building methods were used. However, as the low rise method has pseudo rather than actual pressures, it is strictly not applicable for this study. It was includ ed since designers are likely to have used it for design.

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47 Based on the findings reported in the thesis the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Wind pressures on MWFRS using 160 mph were 76% higher than the design pressure of 120 mph. Since buildings were undamaged, this indicates that the homes in PGI had a reserve capacity that was able to withstand the much higher pressures. 2. Component and cladding pressures corresponding to 160 mph were 75% higher but were also successfully resisted by the building. Eve n though the uplift pressures increased significantly, adequate connections provided between the roof sheathing and the roof structural support system safely transferred the loads from the roof to the walls and into the foundation. 3. For the same wind veloci ty, a change in exposure from B to C varied with the mean height of the building. For a 25 ft high building, the increase in wind pressure was 42% from exposure B to C. 4. The satisfactory performance of 210 of 425 homes in PGI provide persuasive evidence th at current analysis and design practice for lateral load resistance is adequate. If any changes are to be made it should be to inspection and construction procedures. This study also indicates that even though exact wind pressures for complex roofs and ir regular floor plans cannot be strictly analyzed using existing

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48 codes, simplified analysis in which the building is idealized as rectangular buildings with simple roofs may be suitable for design. 6.2 Recommendations for Future Work 1. Conduct detailed evalu ation of actual building to characterize roof complexity and floor irregularity 2. Identify where simplified idealization is warranted and where it is not. 3. Develop simplified analysis for irregular homes with complex roof systems 4. Investigate the applicabilit y of the Low Rise Method for homes with irregular plans and complex geometries.

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49 References 1. Francis D.K Ching. And Adams Building Construction Illustrated, John Wiley & Son, New York, NY, 2001. 2. Structural Engineers Association of Washington, Apply Technology council, SEAW commentary on Wind Code Provisions Washington, 2005. 3. John D Homes, Wind Loading of Structures, Spon press, New York, NY, 2001. 4. Tropical Cyclones. The Wikipedia Website. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricanes#Intensities_of_tropical_cyclones > Last Accessed on 25 February 2006 5. Thompson, L. E., and Thompson, C. C. C. Hurricane Andrew Destruction on Housing, Inte rnational Journal for Housing Science and its Application Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 239 250, 1994. 6. 2001 Florida Building Code, Department of Community Affairs, Tallahassee, FL < http://www.floridabui lding.org/bc/default.asp > 7. ASCE 7 98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, New York, NY, 2000. 8. Charlotte County Geographic Information Systems (GIS) website. Last Accessed on 25 January 2006. 9. Southern Building Code Congress International (1999). Standard for Hurricane Resistant Residential Construction (SSTD 10 99), Birmingham, AL, 1999. 10. Hurricane Charley in Florida: Observations, Recommendations, and Technical Guidance Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Report 488. 2005. 11. Consideration in wind design of wood structure, Bradford K. Douglas, PE and Brian R. Weeks, PE. < http://www.awc.org/technical/ considerations.pdf >

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50 12. Wind resistance of light frame structures Ronald W. Wolfe. < http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf1998/wolfe98a.pdf > 13. Determining Wind Pressures, Yahya Al Menyawi, Russell Carter, Ernst Kiesling, and Kishor Mehta. 14. Load Determination and Structural Design Criteria, Federal emergency Management Agency. < http://www.fema.gov/pdf/fima/361_ch05.pdf > 15. ASCE 7 02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Oth er Structures, New York, NY, 2 003

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51 Appendices

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52 Appendix A: Tables Table A.1 Wind Speed in Saffir Simpson Scale Strength Sustained Wind Speed (mph)* Gust Wind Speed (mph)** Pressures (millibars) Category 1 (minimal) 74 95 90 119 >890 Category 2 (moderate) 96 110 120 139 965 979 Category 3 (Extensive) 110 130 140 164 945 964 Category 4 (Extreme) 131 155 165 194 920 944 Category 5 (Catastrophic) >155 >194 <920 1 minute sustained ** 3 second gust

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53 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.2 Building and Stru cture Classification Categories (Courtesy ASCE 7 98)

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54 Appendix A (Continued) T able A.3 Internal Pressure Coefficients (Courtesy ASCE 7)

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55 Appendix A (Continued ) Table A.4 MWFRS W Pressures (Gabble), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Walls (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 q h 26.6 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 17.82 8.246 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 5.32 14.9 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 24.47 14.9 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 10.4 19.9 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos (+GCpf) Neg ( Gcpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.18 16. 8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.18 16.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 15.43 5.852 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.93 12.5 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7..98 17.6 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 21.01 11.44 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 6.65 16.2

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56 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.5 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exp osure C Ang le 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 q h 26.6 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcp i Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 13.6 23.1 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 6.92 16.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 23.7 33.2 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 12.23 21.812 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 13.6 23.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.05 14.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 23.7 33.2 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 9.31 18.9 Overhang 0.68 18.09

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57 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.6 MWFRS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure o n Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 Qh 47.29 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GC pi ) Neg( GC pi ) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 31.68 14.66 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 9.458 26.5 1E 0.74 0. 92 0.56 43.5 26.48 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 18.44 35.5 Case B Zone GCpf GC pf +GC pi GCpf GC pi Pos(+GC pf ) Neg( GC pi ) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 12.77 29.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 12.77 29.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 27.43 10.4 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.202 22.2 1E 0. 48 0.3 0.66 14.19 31.2 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 14.19 31.2 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 37.36 20.33 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 11.82 28.8

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58 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.7 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 Qh 47.29 psf Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 24.1 41.1 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 12.3 29.3 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 42.1 59.1 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 21.8 38.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 24.1 41.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 8.98 26 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 42.1 59.1 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 16 .6 33.6 Overhang 0.68 32.16

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59 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.8 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Walls (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 q h 18.01 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 12.07 5.583 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 3.6 10.1 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 16.57 10.08 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 7.02 13.5 Case B Zone GCpf G Cpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 4.86 11.3 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 4.86 11.3 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 10.44 3.962 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 1.98 8.46 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.4 11.9 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.4 11.9 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 14.2 3 7.744 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 4.5 11

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60 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.9 MWFRS Gable Roof pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 15 qh 18. 01 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.18 15.7 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 4.68 11.2 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 16 22.5 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 8.28 14.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi G Cpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.18 15.7 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.42 9.9 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 16 22.5 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 6.3 12.8 Overhang 0.68 12.25

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61 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.10 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable ), MRH 15 ft 160 mph, Exposure B, Ang le 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 32.02 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 21.45 9.925 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 6.403 17.9 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 29.45 17.93 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 12.49 24 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 8.644 20.2 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 8.644 20.2 5 0 .4 0.58 0.22 18.57 7.043 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.522 15 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 9.605 21.1 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 9.605 21.1 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 25.29 13.77 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 8.004 19.5

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62 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.11 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 32.02 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0. 69 0.51 0.87 16.3 27.9 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 8.32 19.8 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 28.5 40 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 14.7 26.3 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 16.3 27.9 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 6.08 17.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 28.5 40 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 11.2 22.7 Overhang 0.68 21.77

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63 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.12 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), M RH 20 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, A ngle 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 20 q h 28.26 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 18.93 8.761 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 5.65 15.8 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 26 15.83 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 11 21.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.63 17.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.63 17.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 16.39 6.217 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.11 13.3 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.48 18.7 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.48 18.7 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 22.33 12.15 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.07 17.2

PAGE 78

64 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.13 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Ex posure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 28.26 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 14.4 24.6 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 7.35 17.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 25.2 35.3 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 13 23.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 14.4 24.6 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.37 15.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 25.2 35.3 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 9.89 20.1 Overhang 0.68 19.22

PAGE 79

65 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.14 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 20 qh 50.24 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 33.66 15.57 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 10.05 28.1 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 46.22 28.13 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 19.59 37.7 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf ) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 13.56 31.7 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 13.56 31.7 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 29.14 11.05 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.526 23.6 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 39.69 21.6 6E 0.43 0.2 5 0.61 12.56 30.6

PAGE 80

66 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.15 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 20 qh 50.24 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 25.6 43.7 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 13.1 31.1 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 44.7 62.8 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 23.1 41.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+G Cpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 25.6 43.7 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 9.55 27.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 44.7 62.8 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 17.6 35.7 Overhang 0.68 34.16

PAGE 81

67 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.16 MWFRS Wa ll Pressures (Gable), MRH 20, 12 0 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 20 qh 19.55 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 13 .1 6.061 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 3.91 10.9 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 17.99 10.95 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 7.625 14.7 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.279 12.3 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.279 12.3 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 11.34 4.301 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.151 9.19 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.865 12.9 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.865 12.9 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 15.45 8.407 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 4.888 11.9

PAGE 82

68 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.17 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 19.55 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.97 17 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 5.08 12.1 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 17.4 24.4 3E 0.57 0.39 0.75 7.62 14.7 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.97 17 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.71 10.8 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 17.4 24.4 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 6.84 13.9 Overhang 0.68 13.29

PAGE 83

69 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.18 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable) MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B Angle 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 34.76 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 23.29 10.77 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 6.952 19.5 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 31.98 19.46 4E 0.57 0 .39 0.75 13.56 26.1 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 9.385 21.9 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 9.385 21.9 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 20.16 7.647 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.823 16.3 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 10.43 22.9 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 10.43 22.9 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 27.46 14.95 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 8.689 21.2

PAGE 84

70 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.19 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 20 qh 34.76 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 17.7 30.2 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 9.04 21.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 30.9 43.4 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 16 28.5 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 17.7 30.2 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 6.6 19.1 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 30.9 43.4 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 12.2 24.7 Overhang 0.68 23.64

PAGE 85

71 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.20 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Walls (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 29.62 Case A Ang le 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 19.84 9.182 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 5.92 16.6 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 27.25 16.59 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 11.6 22.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( G cpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 8 18.7 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 8 18.7 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 17.18 6.516 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.26 13.9 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.89 19.5 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.89 19.5 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 23.4 12.74 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.4 18.1

PAGE 86

72 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.21 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 29.62 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 15.1 25.8 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 7.7 18.4 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 26.4 37 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 13.62 24.28 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( G cpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 15.1 25.8 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.63 16.3 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 26.4 37 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 10.4 21 Overhang 0.68 20.14

PAGE 87

73 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.22 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 52.66 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 35.28 16.32 4 0. 38 0.2 0.56 10.53 29.5 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 48.44 29.49 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 20.54 39.5 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 14.22 33.2 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 14.22 33.2 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 30.54 11. 58 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.792 24.7 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 41.6 22.64 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 13.16 32.1

PAGE 88

74 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.23 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 16 0 mph, Exposure C, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 52.66 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 26.9 45.8 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 13.7 32.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 46.9 65.8 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 24.2 43.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 26.9 45.8 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 10 29 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 46.9 65 .8 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 18.4 37.4 Overhang 0.68 35.81

PAGE 89

75 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.24 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Walls (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 20.84 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 13.96 6.46 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 4.17 11.7 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 19.17 11.67 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 8.13 15.6 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.63 13.1 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.63 13.1 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 12.09 4.584 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.29 9.79 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.25 13.8 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 13.8 13 .8 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 16.46 8.96 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 5.21 12.7

PAGE 90

76 Appendix A (Continued) T able A.25 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 20.84 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 10.6 18.1 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 5.42 12.9 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 18.5 26 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 9.58 17.088 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 10.6 18.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.96 11.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 18.5 26 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 7.29 14.8 Overhang 0.68 14.17

PAGE 91

77 Appendix A (Conti nued) Table A.26 MWFRS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 37.05 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.49 0.67 0.31 24.82 11.48 4 0.38 0.2 0.56 7.409 20.7 1E 0.74 0.92 0.56 34.08 20.75 4E 0.57 0.39 0.75 14.45 27.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 10 23.3 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 10 23.3 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 21.49 8.15 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 4.075 17.4 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 29.27 15.93 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 9.261 22.6

PAGE 92

78 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.27 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 15 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 25 qh 37.05 Case A Angle 15 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi G Cpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 18.9 32.2 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 9.63 23 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 33 46.3 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 17 30.4 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 18.9 32.2 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 7.04 20.4 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 33 46.3 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 13 26.3 Overhang 0.68 25.19

PAGE 93

79 Appendix A (Continued ) Table A.28 MWFRS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressu re on Wall Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 26.6 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos (+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 18.89 9.31 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 6.65 16.2 1E 0.8 0 .98 0.62 26.07 16.49 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 12.24 21.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.182 16.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.182 16.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 15.43 5.852 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.926 12.5 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 21.01 11.44 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 6.65 16.2

PAGE 94

80 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.29 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressu re on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 26.6 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 13.6 23.1 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 23.7 33.2 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 13.6 23.1 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 13.6 23.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.05 14.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 23.7 33.2 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 9.31 18.9 Overhang 0.68 18.09

PAGE 95

81 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.3 0 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 47.29 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 33.57 16.55 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 11.82 28.8 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 46.34 29.32 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 21.75 38.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+ GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 12.77 29.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 12.77 29.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 27.43 10.4 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.202 22.2 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 14.19 31.2 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 14.19 31.2 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 37 .36 20.33 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 11.82 28.8

PAGE 96

82 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.31 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 47.29 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 24.1 41.1 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 12.3 29.3 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 42.1 59.1 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 21.8 38.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 24.1 41.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 8.98 26 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 42.1 59.1 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 16.6 33.6 Overhang 0.68 32.16

PAGE 97

83 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.32 MWF RS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 18.01 psf Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi ) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 12.79 6.303 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 4.502 11 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 17.65 11.17 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 8.284 14.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 4.862 11.3 4 0.45 0.27 0 .63 4.862 11.3 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 10.44 3.962 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 1.981 8.46 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.403 11.9 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.403 11.9 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 14.23 7.744 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 4.502 11

PAGE 98

84 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.33 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 18.01 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcp i) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.18 15.7 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 5.4 11.9 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 16 22.5 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.18 15.7 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 9.18 15.7 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.4 2 9.9 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 16 22.5 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 6.3 12.8 Overhang 0.68 12.25

PAGE 99

85 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.3 4 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) E xposure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 32.02 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 22.73 11.21 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 8.004 19.5 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 31.37 19.85 4 E 0.64 0.46 0.82 14.73 26.3 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 8.644 20.2 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 8.644 20.2 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 18.57 7.043 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.522 15 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 9.605 21.1 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 9.605 21.1 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 25.29 13.77 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 8.004 19.5

PAGE 100

86 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.35 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exp osure B Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 32.02 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 16.3 27.9 3 0.44 0.26 0.62 8.32 19.8 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 28.5 40 3E 0.64 0.46 0.82 14.7 26.3 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 16.3 27.9 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 6.08 17.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 28.5 40 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 11.2 22.7 Overhang 0.68 21.77

PAGE 101

8 7 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.3 6 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 28.26 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 20.06 9.891 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.065 17.2 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 27.69 17.52 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 13 23.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.63 17.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.63 17.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 16.39 6.217 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.109 13.3 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.478 18.7 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.478 18.7 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 22.33 12.15 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.065 17.2

PAGE 102

88 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.37 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 120 mph, Ex posure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 28.26 Case A Angle 2 0 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 14.4 24.6 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.58 18.87 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 25.2 35.3 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 14.4 24.6 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) N eg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 14.4 24.6 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.37 15.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 25.2 35.3 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 9.89 20.1 Overhang 0.68 19.22

PAGE 103

89 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.38 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 50.24 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 35.67 17.58 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 12.56 30.6 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 49.24 31.15 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 23.11 41.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 13.56 31.7 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 13.56 31.7 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 29.14 11.05 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.526 23.6 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 39.69 21.6 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 12.56 30.6

PAGE 104

90 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.39 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MR H 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 50.24 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 25 .6 43.7 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.15 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 44.7 62.8 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 25.6 43.7 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 25.6 43.7 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 9.55 27.6 2E 1.07 0.8 9 1.25 44.7 62.8 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 17.6 35.7 Overhang 0.68 34.16

PAGE 105

91 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.4 0 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wi nd Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 34.76 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 24.68 12.17 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 8.689 21.2 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 34.06 21.55 4E 0.64 0.46 0.8 2 15.99 28.5 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 9.385 21.9 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 9.385 21.9 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 20.16 7.647 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.823 16.3 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 10.43 22.9 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 10.43 22.9 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 27.46 14.95 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 8.689 21.2

PAGE 106

92 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.41 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Win d Speed 160 Mean Roof Height 20 qh 34.76 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 17.7 30.2 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 10.42 22.94 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 30.9 43.4 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 17.7 30.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 17.7 30.2 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 6.6 19.1 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 30.9 43.4 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 12.2 24.7 Overhang 0.68 23.64

PAGE 107

93 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.42 MWFRS Wall Pressure s (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, E xposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 29.62 Case A Angle 2 0 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 21.03 10.37 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.405 18.1 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 29.03 18.36 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 13.62 24.3 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( G Cpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.997 18.7 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.997 18.7 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 17.18 6.516 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.258 13.9 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.886 19.5 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.886 19.5 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 23.4 12.74 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.405 18.1

PAGE 108

94 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.43 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 12 0 mph, E xposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 29.62 Case A Angl e 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 15.1 25.8 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.88 19.54 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 26.4 37 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 15.1 25.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 15.1 25.8 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.63 16.3 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 26.4 37 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 10.4 21 Overhang 0.68 20.14

PAGE 109

95 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.44 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 m ph, E xposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 25 qh 52.66 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 37.39 18.43 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 13.16 32.1 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 51.6 32.65 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 24.22 43.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 14.22 33.2 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 14.22 33.2 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 30.54 1 1.58 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.792 24.7 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 41.6 22.64 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 13.16 32.1

PAGE 110

96 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.45 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 25 qh 52.66 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 26.9 45.8 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.79 34.76 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 46.9 65.8 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 26.9 45.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 26.9 45.8 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 10 29 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 46. 9 65.8 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 18.4 37.4 Overhang 0.68 35.81

PAGE 111

97 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.46 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable) MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposure B Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 20.84 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 14.8 7.293 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 5.21 12.7 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 20.42 12.92 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 9.586 17.1 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.626 13.1 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.626 13.1 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 12.09 4.584 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.292 9.79 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.251 13.8 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.25 1 13.8 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 16.46 8.96 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 5.21 12.7

PAGE 112

98 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.47 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, M RH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exp osure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 20.84 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 10.6 18.1 3 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.252 13.75 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 18.5 26 3E 0.69 0.51 0.87 10.6 18. 1 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 10.6 18.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.96 11.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 18.5 26 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 7.29 14.8 Overhang 0.68 14.17

PAGE 113

99 Appendix A (C ontinued) Table A.48 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 20 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 25 qh 37.05 Case A Angle 20 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.53 0.71 0.35 26.3 12.97 4 0.43 0.25 0.61 9.261 22.6 1E 0.8 0.98 0.62 36.3 22.97 4E 0.64 0.46 0.82 17.04 30.4 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 10 23.3 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 10 23.3 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 21.49 8.15 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 4.075 17.4 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 29.27 15.93 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 9.261 22.6

PAGE 114

100 Appendix A (Conti nued) Table A.49 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 26.6 CaseA Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf G cpi Pos(+Gcpi) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 19.68 10.11 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.054 14.6 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 23.14 13.57 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.182 16.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.182 16.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 15.43 5.852 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.926 12.5 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 7.98 17.6 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 21.01 11.44 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 6.65 16.2

PAGE 115

101 Appendix A (Continue d) Table A.50 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 120 mph, E xposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Mean Roof Height 15 qh 26.6 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+Gc pi) Pos( Gcpi) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 10.374 8 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 6.25 16.22 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 11.97 2.394 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 9.31 18.889 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 13.6 23.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.05 14.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 23.7 33.2 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 9.31 18.9 Overhang 0.68 18.09

PAGE 116

102 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.51 MWFRS Wall Pressur e (Gable), MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, E xposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall (Gabl e) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 15 qh 47.29 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 34.99 17.97 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 8.985 26 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 41.1 4 24.12 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 14.19 31.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 12.77 29.8 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 12.77 29.8 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 27.43 10.4 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.202 22.2 1E 0.48 0.3 0.6 6 14.19 31.2 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 14.19 31.2 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 37.36 20.33 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 11.82 28.8

PAGE 117

103 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.52 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 15 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 15 qh 47.29 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 18.44 1.419 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 11.8 28.8 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 21.2 8 4.256 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 16.6 33.6 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 24.1 41.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 8.98 26 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 42.1 59.1 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 16.6 33.6 Overhang 0.68 32.16

PAGE 118

104 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.53 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 20 qh 50.24 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 37.18 19.09 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 9.546 27.6 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 43.71 25.62 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg ( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 13.56 31.7 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 13.56 31.7 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 29.14 11.05 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.526 23.6 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.07 33.2 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 39.69 21.6 6E 0.43 0.25 0. 61 12.56 30.6

PAGE 119

105 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.5 4 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 20 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 20 qh 50.24 Case A A ngle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 19.59 1.507 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 12.6 30.6 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 22.61 4.522 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 17.6 35.7 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 25.6 43.7 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 9.55 27.6 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 44.7 62.8 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 17.6 35.7 Overhang 0.68 34.16

PAGE 120

106 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.5 5 MWF RS Wall Pressure (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 1 2 0 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 29.62 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 21.92 11.26 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.628 16.3 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 25.77 15.11 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.886 19.5 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.997 18.7 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 7.997 18.7 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 17.18 6.516 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 3.258 13.9 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.886 19.5 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 8.886 19.5 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 23.4 12.74 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.405 18.1

PAGE 121

107 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.5 6 M WFRS Gable Roof Pressure, MRH 25 f t, 12 0 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 29.62 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 11.55 0.889 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 7.4 18.1 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 13.33 2.666 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 10.4 21 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 15.1 25.8 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 5.63 16.3 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 26.4 3 7 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 10.4 21 Overhang 0.68 20.14

PAGE 122

108 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.5 7 MWFR S Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Mai n Roof Height 25 qh 52.66 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 38.97 20.01 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 10 29 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 45.81 26.85 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 14.22 33.2 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 14.22 33.2 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 30.54 11.58 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 5.792 24.7 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 15.8 34.8 5E 0. 61 0.79 0.43 41.6 22.64 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 13.16 32.1

PAGE 123

109 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.58 MWFR S Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure C, Angle 30 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure C Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 25 qh 52.66 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 20.54 1.58 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 13.2 32.1 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 23.7 4.739 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 18.4 37.4 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 26.9 45.8 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 10 29 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 46.9 65.8 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 18.4 37.4 Overhang 0.68 35.81

PAGE 124

110 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.59 MWFRS Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 20 ft, 12 0 mph, Exposure B, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 20.84 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GC pi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 15.42 7.919 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.959 11.5 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 18.13 10.63 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.251 13.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 5.626 13.1 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 5. 626 13.1 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 12.09 4.584 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 2.292 9.79 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.251 13.8 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 6.251 13.8 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 16.46 8.96 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 5.21 12.7

PAGE 125

111 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.60 MWFR S Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 120 mph, Exposre B, Angle 30 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 120 Main Roof Height 25 qh 20.84 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi ) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 8.127 0.625 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 5.21 12.7 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 9.377 1.875 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 7.29 14.8 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 10.6 18.1 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 3.96 11.5 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 18.5 26 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 7.29 14.8 Overhang 0.68 14.17

PAGE 126

112 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.61 MWFR S Wall Pressures (Gable), MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 30 Pressure on Wall (Gable) Expo sure B Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 25 qh 37.05 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.56 0.74 0.38 27.41 14.08 4 0.37 0.19 0.55 7.039 20.4 1E 0.69 0.87 0.51 32.23 18.89 4E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+GCpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( GCpi) 1 0.45 0.27 0.63 10 23.3 4 0.45 0.27 0.63 10 23.3 5 0.4 0.58 0.22 21.49 8.15 6 0.29 0.11 0.47 4.075 17.4 1E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 4 E 0.48 0.3 0.66 11.11 24.5 5E 0.61 0.79 0.43 29.27 15.93 6E 0.43 0.25 0.61 9.261 22.6

PAGE 127

113 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.62 MWFRS Gable Roof Pressures, MRH 25 ft, 160 mph, Exposure B, Angle 30 Pressure on Gable Roof Exposure B Wind Speed 160 Main Roof Height 25 qh 37.05 Case A Angle 30 Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf GCpi Pos(+GCpi) Neg( GCpi) 2 0.21 0.39 0.03 14.45 1.111 3 0.43 0.25 0.61 9.26 22.6 2E 0.27 0.45 0.09 16.67 3.334 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 13 26.3 Case B Zone GCpf GCpf+Gcpi GCpf Gcpi Pos(+GCpf) Neg( Gcpi) 2 0.69 0.51 0.87 18.9 32.2 3 0.37 0.19 0.55 7.04 20.4 2E 1.07 0.89 1.25 33 46.3 3E 0.53 0.35 0.71 13 26.3 Overhang 0.68 25.19

PAGE 128

114 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.63 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 15 ft, 40 x 60 ft Wind Direction 1 Mean Roof Height 15 ft 120 mph/ExpC 120 mph/ExpB 160 mph/Exp.C 160 mph/Exp.B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos ( GCPI) Neg (GCpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall pressures 1 Windward Wall 22.875 13.3 15.48731 9.0042 40.667 23.644 27.533 16.008 2 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 7.47353 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 3 Leeward Wall 6.5 17 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 4 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 7.47353 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 Roof Pressures A Windward Roof 9.343 18.92 6.32548 12.81 16.61 33.63 11.25 22.77 B Leeward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 C&D 0 h/2 15.56 25.14 10.535 17.02 27.66 44.69 18.73 30.25 h/2 2h 6.517 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 2h end 1.995 11.57 1.35064 7.834 3.547 20.57 2.401 13.93 Ov erhang 18.088 18.088 12.24578 12.246 32.156 32.156 21.77 21.77

PAGE 129

115 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.64 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 15 ft 40 x60 ft Wind Direction 2 Mean Roof Height 15 120 mph/Expo.C 1 20 mph/ExpB 160 mph/ ExpC 160 mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg ( Gcpi) Pos (+GCPI) Neg ( GCPI) Pos (+GCPi) Neg ( Gcpi) Pos (+GCPi) Neg ( GCPi) Wall Pressures 1 Windward Wall 22.875 13.3 15.487 9.0042 40.667 23.644 27.533 16.008 2 Side Wall 11 .04 20.61 7.474 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 3 Leeward Wall 4.256 13.83 2.881 9.364 7.566 24.59 5.122 16.65 4 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 7.474 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 Roof pressures C Windward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.412 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 D Leeward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.412 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 A&B 0 h/2 15.56 25.14 10.53 17.02 27.66 44.69 18.73 30.25 h/2 2h 6.517 16.09 4.412 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 2h end 1.995 11.57 1.351 7.834 3.547 20.57 2.401 13.93 Overhang 18.088 18.088 12.246 12.246 32.156 32.156 21.77 21.77

PAGE 130

116 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.6 5 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 20 ft 40 x 60 ft Wind Direct ion 1 Mean Roof Height 20 120 mph/Exp C 120 mph/Exp B 160 mph/ExpC 160 mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCPI) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall Pressures 1 Windward Wall 24.304 14.13 16.81406 9.7756 43.206 25.12 29.892 17.379 2 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.11376 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 3 Leeward Wall 6.924 17.1 4.79005 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 4 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.11376 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 Roof Pressures A Windward Roof 11.73 21.9 8.11376 15.15 17.65 35.73 12.21 24.72 B Leeward Roof 6.924 17.1 4.79005 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 C&D 0 h/2 16.53 26.71 11.4375 18.48 29.39 47.48 20.33 32.85 h/2 2h 6.924 17.1 4.79005 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 2h end 2.12 12.29 1.46634 8.505 3.768 21.85 2.607 15.12 Overhang 19.217 19.217 13.29484 13.295 34.163 34.163 23.635 23.635

PAGE 131

117 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.66 Hip Roof Wind Press ures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 20 ft 40 x 60 ft Wind Direction 2 Mean Roof Height 20 120 mph/Expo.C 120 mph/ExpB 160 mph/Exp C 160 mph/Exp. B Pos (GCPi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCPI) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos(GCpi) Neg (GCpi) wall pressures 1 Windward Wall 24.304 14.13 16.814 9.7756 43.206 25.12 29.892 17.379 2 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.114 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 3 Leeward Wall 4.522 14.7 3.128 10.17 8.038 26.12 5.561 18.07 4 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.114 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 Roof pressures C Windward Roof 11.73 21.9 8.114 15.15 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 D Leeward Roof 6.924 17.1 4.79 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 A&B 0 h/2 16.5 3 26.71 11.44 18.48 29.39 47.48 20.33 32.85 h/2 2h 6.924 17.1 4.79 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 2h end 2.12 12.29 1.466 8.505 3.768 21.85 2.607 15.12 Overhang 19.217 19.217 13.295 13.295 34.163 34.163 23.635 23.635

PAGE 132

118 Appendi x A (Continued) Table A.67 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 25 ft 40 x 60 ft Wind Direction 1 Mean Roof Height 25 120mph/Exp C 120 mph/Exp B 160 mph/Exp C 160 mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall pressures 1 Windward Wall 25.473 14.81 17.92096 10.419 45.285 26.328 31.859 18.523 2 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.6479 16.15 21.85 40.81 15.37 28.71 3 Leeward Wall 7.257 17.92 5.105 39 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 4 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.6479 16.15 21.85 40.81 15.37 28.71 Roof pressures A Windward Roof 10.4 21.07 7.31946 14.82 18.5 37.45 13.01 26.35 B Leeward Roof 12.8 23.46 9.00216 16 .5 22.75 41.7 16 29.34 C&D 0 h/2 17.33 27.99 12.1904 19.69 30.8 49.76 21.67 35.01 h/2 2h 7.257 17.92 5.10539 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 2h end 2.221 12.88 1.56287 9.065 3.949 22.91 2.778 16.11 Overhang 20.141 20.141 14. 17006 14.17 35.806 35.806 25.191 25.191

PAGE 133

119 Appendix A Continued) Table A.68 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 25 ft 40 x 60 ft Wind Direction 2 Mean Roof Height 25 120 mph/Expo.C 120 mph/ExpB 160 mph/ Exp C 160mph/exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall pressures 1 Windward Wall 25.473 14.81 17.921 10.419 45.285 26.328 31.859 18.523 2 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.648 16.15 21.85 40.81 15.37 28.71 3 Leeward Wall 4.739 15.4 3.334 10.84 8.425 27.38 5.927 19.26 4 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.648 16.15 21.85 40.81 15.37 28.71 Roof pressures C Windward Roof 12.29 22.95 8.648 16.15 12.9 31 .86 9.076 22.41 D Leeward Roof 7.257 17.92 5.105 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 A&B 0 h/2 17.33 27.99 12.19 19.69 30.8 49.76 21.67 35.01 h/2 2h 7.257 17.92 5.105 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 2h end 2.221 12.88 1.563 9.065 3.949 22.91 2.778 16.11 Overhang 20.141 20.141 14.17 14.17 35.806 35.806 25.191 25.191

PAGE 134

120 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.69 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 15 ft 60 x 80 ft Wind Direction 1 main roof height 15 ft 120 mph/Exp C 120 mph/Exp B 160 mph/Exp C 160 mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall Pressures 1 Windward Wall 22.875 13.3 15.48731 9.0042 40.667 23.644 27. 533 16.008 2 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 7.47353 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 3 Leeward Wall 6.517 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 4 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 7.47353 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 Roof Press ures A Windward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 B Leeward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 C&D 0 h/2 15.56 25.14 10.535 17.02 27.66 44.69 18.73 30.25 h/2 2h 6.517 16.09 4.41208 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 2h end 1.995 11.57 1.35064 7.834 3.547 20.57 2.401 13.93 Overhang 18.088 18.088 12.24578 12.246 32.156 32.156 21.77 21.77

PAGE 135

121 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.70 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 15 ft 60 x 80 ft Wind Direction 2 Mean Hoof Height 15 ft 120 mph/Expo.C 120 mph/ExpB 160 mph/ Exp. C 160mph/Exp. B Pos (GCPi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Pos (GCPi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCPi) Neg (GCPi) Wall pr essures 1 Windward Wall 22.875 13.3 15.487 9.0042 40.667 23.644 27.533 16.008 2 Side Wall 11.04 20.61 7.474 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 3 Leeward Wall 5.002 14.58 2.881 9.364 8.892 25.92 6.02 17.55 4 Side Wall 11.04 2 0.61 7.474 13.96 19.62 36.65 13.29 24.81 Roof pressures C Windward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.412 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 D Leeward Roof 6.517 16.09 4.412 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 A&B 0 h/2 15 .56 25.14 10.53 17.02 27.66 44.69 18.73 30.25 h/2 2h 6.517 16.09 4.412 10.9 11.59 28.61 7.844 19.37 2h end 1.995 11.57 1.351 7.834 3.547 20.57 2.401 13.93 Overhang 18.088 18.088 12.246 12.246 32.156 32.156 21.77 21.77

PAGE 136

122 Append ix A (Continued) Table A.71 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 20 ft 60 x 80 ft Wind Direction 1 Mean Roof Height 20 120mph/exp C 120 mph/Exp B 160 mph/Exp C 160 mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCPI ) Neg (GCPI) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCPi) Neg (GCPi) Wall pressures 1 Windward Wall 24.304 14.13 16.81406 9.7756 43.206 25.12 29.892 17.379 2 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.11376 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 3 Leeward Wall 6.924 1 7.1 4.79005 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 4 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.11376 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 Roof pressures A Windward Roof 8.533 18.71 8.11376 15.15 15.17 33.26 10.5 23.01 B Leeward Roof 6.924 17.1 4.79005 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 C&D 0 h/2 16.53 26.71 11.4375 18.48 29.39 47.48 20.33 32.85 h/2 2h 6.924 17.1 4.79005 11.83 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 2h end 2.12 12.29 1.46634 8.505 3.768 21.85 2.607 15.12 Overhang 19.217 19.217 13.29484 13.295 34.163 34.163 23.635 23.635

PAGE 137

123 Appendix A (Continued) Tabl e A.72 Hip Roof Wind Pre ssures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 20 ft 60 x 80 ft Wind Direction 2 Mean Roof Height 20 120 mph/expo C 120mph/ExpB 160 mph/ Exp. C 160mph/exp. B Pos (GCPi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCPI) Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (Gpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall Pressures 1 Windward Wall 24.304 14.13 16.814 9.7756 43.206 25.12 29.892 17.379 2 Side Wall 11 .73 21.9 8.114 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 3 LeeWard Wall 5.314 15.49 3.128 10.17 8.038 26.12 6.536 19.05 4 Side Wall 11.73 21.9 8.114 15.15 20.85 38.94 14.42 26.94 Roof Pressures C Windward Roof 6.924 17 .1 8.114 4.79 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 D LeeWard Roof 6.924 17.1 4.79 4.79 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 A&B 0 h/2 16.53 26.71 11.44 11.44 29.39 47.48 20.33 32.85 h/2 2h 6.924 17.1 4.79 4.79 12.31 30.4 8.516 21.03 2h end 2.12 1 2.29 1.466 1.466 3.768 21.85 2.607 15.12 Overhang 19.217 19.217 13.295 13.295 34.163 34.163 23.635 23.635

PAGE 138

124 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.73 Hip Roof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 1, MRH 25 ft 60 x 80 ft Wind Direction 1 Me an Roof Height 25 120 mph/Exp C 120 mph/Exp B 160 mph/Exp C 160 mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Ne (Gcpi) Pos (GCPI) Ne (GCPI) Pos (GCPi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCpi) Neg (GCpi) Wall pressures 1 Windward Wall 25.473 14.81 17.92096 45.285 2 6.328 26.328 31.859 18.523 2 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.6479 21.85 40.81 40.81 15.37 28.71 3 Leeward Wall 7.257 17.92 5.10539 12.9 31.86 31.86 9.076 22.41 4 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.6479 21.85 40.81 40.81 15.37 28.71 Roof Pressures A Windward Roof 10.61 21.27 7.46116 14.96 18.85 37.81 13.26 26.6 B Leeward Roof 7.257 17.92 5.10539 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 C&D 0 h/2 17.33 27.99 12.1904 19.69 30.8 49.76 21. 67 35.01 h/2 2h 7.257 17.92 5.10539 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 2h end 2.221 12.88 1.56287 9.065 3.949 22.91 2.778 16.11 Overhang 20.141 20.141 14.17006 14.17 35.806 35.806 25.191 25.191

PAGE 139

125 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.74 Hip R oof Wind Pressures, Wind Direction 2, MRH 25 ft 60 x 80 ft Wind Direction 2 Mean Roof Height 25 120 mph/Expo C 120 mph/Exp B 160 mph/Exp C 160mph/Exp B Pos (GCpi) Neg (Gcpi) Pos (GCPI) Neg (GCPI) Pos (GCPi) Neg (Gc pi) Pos (GCPi) Neg (GCPi) Wall Pressures 1 Windward Wall 25.473 14.81 17.921 10.419 45.285 26.328 31.859 18.523 2 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.648 16.15 21.85 40.81 15.37 28.71 3 Leeward Wall 5.57 16.23 3.919 11.42 8.425 27.38 6.966 20.3 4 Side Wall 12.29 22.95 8.648 16.15 21.85 40.81 15.37 28.71 Roof Pressures C Windward Roof 8.516 19.18 5.991 13.49 12.9 31.86 10.65 23.99 D Leeward Roof 7.257 17.92 5.105 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 A&B 0 h/2 17.33 27.99 12.19 19.69 30.8 49.76 21.67 35.01 h/2 2h 7.257 17.92 5.105 12.61 12.9 31.86 9.076 22.41 2h end 2.221 12.88 1.563 9.065 3.949 22.91 2.778 16.11 Overhang 20.141 20.141 14.17 14.17 35.8 06 35.806 25.191 25.191

PAGE 140

126 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.75 C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp C MRH 15 ft, ht 12 ft Exposure C Wind Speed 120 ht = 12 ft Mean roof height 15.0 Kd= 0.85 Design are (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 18 29 16 28 15 27 14 27 13 26 13 26 13 26 2 (ex terior roof) 18 61 16 55 15 51 14 48 13 43 13 42 13 42 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 59 N/A 59 N/A 59 N/A 59 N/A 59 N/A 59 N/A 59 3 (corner roof) 18 61 16 55 15 51 14 48 13 43 13 42 13 42 3 (corner overhang) N/A 98 N/A 89 N/A 82 N/A 77 N /A 69 N/A 66 N/A 66 4 (interior wall) 31 34 30 33 29 32 28 31 27 30 26 29 23 16 5 (exterior wall) 31 42 30 39 29 37 28 36 27 33 26 31 23 16 Notes*: ht = Wall height

PAGE 141

127 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.76 C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp B, MRH 15 ft, ht 12 ft Exposure B Wind Speed 120 ht = 12 Mean roof height 15.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 15 24 14 23 13 23 12 22 11 22 11 22 11 22 2 (exterior roof) 15 50 14 45 13 42 12 40 11 36 11 35 11 35 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N /A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 3 (corner roof) 15 50 14 45 13 42 12 40 11 36 11 35 11 35 3 (corner overhang) N/A 81 N/A 73 N/A 68 N/A 63 N/A 57 N/A 55 N/A 55 4 (interior wall) 26 28 25 27 24 26 23 25 22 25 22 24 19 14 5 (exterior wa ll) 26 35 25 32 24 31 23 29 22 27 22 26 19 14

PAGE 142

128 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.77 C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp C, MRH 15 ft., ht 12 ft Exposure C Wind Speed 160 ht = 12 ft Mean roof height 15.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 32 51 29 50 27 49 26 48 23 47 23 46 23 46 2 (exterior roof) 32 108 29 98 27 91 26 85 23 77 23 75 23 75 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 104 N/A 104 N/A 104 N/A 104 N/A 104 N/A 104 N/A 104 3 (corner roof) 32 108 29 98 27 91 26 85 23 77 23 75 23 75 3 (corner overhang) N/A 175 N/A 158 N/A 146 N/A 136 N/A 122 N/A 118 N/A 118 4 (interior wall) 56 61 53 58 52 56 50 55 48 53 46 51 42 29 5 (exterior wall) 56 75 53 70 52 66 50 63 48 59 46 56 42 29

PAGE 143

129 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.78 C&C Pressures, 160 mp h, Exp B, MRH 15 ft ht 12 ft Exposure B Wind Speed 160 ht = 12 ft Mean roof height 15.0 Kd= 0.85 Design are (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqf t 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 27 42 24 41 23 40 21 39 19 39 19 38 19 38 2 (exterior roof) 27 89 24 81 23 75 21 70 19 64 19 62 19 62 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 3 (corner roof) 27 89 24 81 23 75 21 70 19 64 19 62 19 62 3 (corner overhang) N/A 144 N/A 130 N/A 121 N/A 112 N/A 101 N/A 98 N/A 98 4 (interior wall) 46 50 44 48 43 46 41 45 40 44 38 42 34 24 5 (exterior wall) 46 62 44 58 43 55 41 52 40 49 38 46 34 24

PAGE 144

130 Appendix A (Continued) Table A. 79 C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp C, MRH 20 ft ht 16 ft Exposure C Wind Speed 120 ht = 16 Mean roof height 20 .0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 19 31 18 30 16 29 15 29 14 28 14 28 14 28 2 (exterior roof) 19 64 18 58 16 54 15 51 14 46 14 45 14 45 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 62 N/A 62 N/A 62 N/A 62 N/A 62 N/A 62 N/A 62 3 (corner roof) 19 64 18 58 16 54 15 51 14 46 14 45 14 45 3 (corner overhang) N /A 105 N/A 94 N/A 87 N/A 81 N/A 73 N/A 71 N/A 71 4 (interior wall) 33 36 32 35 31 34 30 33 29 32 28 31 25 18 5 (exterior wall) 33 45 32 42 31 40 30 38 29 35 28 33 25 18

PAGE 145

131 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.80 C&C Pressures, 120 mph, Exp B, MRH 20 ft, ht 16 ft Exposure B Wind Speed 120 ht = 16 ft Mean roof height 20.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sq ft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 15 24 14 23 13 23 12 22 11 22 11 22 11 22 2 (exterior roof) 15 50 14 45 13 42 12 40 11 36 11 35 11 35 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 3 (corner roof) 15 50 14 45 13 42 12 40 11 36 11 35 11 35 3 (corner overhang) N/A 81 N/A 73 N/A 68 N/A 63 N/A 57 N/A 55 N/A 55 4 (interior wall) 26 28 25 27 24 26 23 25 22 25 22 24 19 14 5 (exterio r wall) 26 35 25 32 24 31 23 29 22 27 22 26 19 14

PAGE 146

132 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.81 C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp C, MRH 20 ft, ht 16 ft Exposure C Wind Speed 160 ht = 16 ft Mean roof height 20.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 34 54 31 53 29 52 27 51 25 50 24 49 24 49 2 (exterior roof) 34 115 31 104 29 97 27 91 25 82 24 79 24 79 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 111 N/A 111 N/A 111 N/A 111 N/A 111 N/A 111 N/A 111 3 (corner roof) 34 115 31 104 29 97 27 91 25 82 24 79 24 79 3 (corner over hang) N/A 186 N/A 168 N/A 155 N/A 145 N/A 130 N/A 126 N/A 126 4 (interior wall) 59 64 57 62 55 60 53 58 51 56 49 54 44 31 5 (exterior wall) 59 79 57 74 55 70 53 67 51 63 49 59 44 31

PAGE 147

133 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.82 C&C Pressu res, 160 mph, Exp B MRH 20 ft, ht 16 ft Exposure B Wind Speed 160 ht = 16 ft Mean roof height 20.0 Kd = 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 27 42 24 41 23 40 21 39 19 39 19 38 19 38 2 (exterior roof) 27 89 24 81 23 75 21 70 19 64 19 62 19 62 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 3 (corner roof) 27 89 24 81 23 75 21 70 19 64 19 62 19 62 3 (corner overhang) N/A 144 N/A 130 N/A 121 N/A 112 N/A 101 N/A 98 N/A 98 4 (interior wall) 46 50 44 48 43 46 41 45 40 44 38 42 34 24 5 (exterior wall) 46 62 44 58 43 55 41 52 40 49 38 46 34 24

PAGE 148

134 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.83 C&C Press ures, 120 mph, Exp C, MRH 25 ft ht 16 ft Exposure C Wind Speed 120 ht = 22 ft Mean r oof height 25.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 20 32 18 31 17 30 16 30 15 29 14 29 14 29 2 (exterior roof) 20 68 18 61 17 57 16 53 15 48 14 47 14 47 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 65 N/A 65 N/A 65 N/A 65 N/A 65 N/A 65 N/A 65 3 (corner roof) 20 68 18 61 17 57 16 53 15 48 14 47 14 47 3 (corne r overhang) N/A 110 N/A 99 N/A 92 N/A 85 N/A 77 N/A 74 N/A 74 4 (interior wall) 35 38 33 36 32 35 31 34 30 33 29 32 26 18 5 (exterior wall) 35 47 33 44 32 42 31 40 30 37 29 35 26 18

PAGE 149

135 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.84 C&C Pressu res, 120 mph, Exp B, MRH 25 ft, ht 22 ft Exposure B Wind Speed 120 ht = 22 ft Mean roof height 25.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 15 24 14 23 13 23 12 22 11 22 11 22 11 22 2 (exterior roof) 15 50 14 45 13 42 12 40 11 36 11 35 11 35 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 N/A 48 3 (corner roof) 15 50 14 45 13 42 12 40 11 36 11 35 11 35 3 (corner overhang) N/A 81 N/A 73 N/A 68 N/A 63 N/A 57 N/A 55 N/A 55 4 (interior wall) 26 28 25 27 24 26 23 25 22 25 22 24 19 14 5 (exterior wall) 26 35 25 32 24 31 23 29 22 27 22 26 19 14

PAGE 150

136 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.85 C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp C MRH 25 ft, ht 22 ft Exposure C Wind Speed 160 ht = 22 ft Mean roof height 25.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 36 57 33 55 30 54 29 53 26 52 25 52 25 52 2 (exterior roof) 36 120 33 109 30 101 29 95 26 86 25 83 25 83 2 (ext.overhang) N/A 116 N/A 116 N/A 116 N/A 116 N/A 116 N/A 116 N/A 116 3 (corner roof) 36 120 33 109 30 101 29 95 26 86 25 83 25 83 3 (corner overhang) N/A 195 N/A 176 N/A 163 N/A 152 N/A 136 N/A 132 N/A 132 4 (interior wall) 62 67 59 65 57 63 56 61 53 59 52 57 46 33 5 (exterior wall) 62 83 59 78 57 74 56 71 53 66 52 62 46 33

PAGE 151

137 Appendix A (Continued) Table A.8 6 C&C Pressures, 160 mph, Exp B, MRH 25 ft, ht 22 Exposure B Wind Speed 160 ht = 22 ft Mean roof height 25.0 Kd= 0.85 Design area (sqft) Zone 10 sqft 20 sqft 32 sqft 48 sqft 85 sqft 133 sqft 533 sqft Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1 (interior roof) 27 42 24 41 23 40 21 39 19 39 19 38 19 38 2 (exterior roof) 27 89 24 81 23 75 21 70 19 64 19 62 19 62 2 (ext.overh ang) N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 N/A 86 3 (corner roof) 27 89 24 81 23 75 21 70 19 64 19 62 19 62 3 (corner overhang) N/A 144 N/A 130 N/A 121 N/A 112 N/A 101 N/A 98 N/A 98 4 (interior wall) 46 50 44 48 43 46 41 45 40 44 38 42 34 24 5 (exterior wall) 46 62 44 58 43 55 41 52 40 49 38 46 34 24

PAGE 152

138 Appendix B: Figures Figure B.1 Hurricane Charley

PAGE 153

139 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.2 Plot of PGI Properties Damaged (red), Minor Damage (Green) no Dam age (Blue )

PAGE 154

140 Appendix B (continued) Figure B.3 Locations of Punta Gorda Isles (PGI )

PAGE 155

141 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.4 ASCE 7 Wind Maps (Courtesy ASCE 7 98)

PAGE 156

142 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.5 Path of Hurricane Charley (Courtesy FEMA 2005 )

PAGE 157

143 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.6 Pictometry Height. The height of this house is estimated:1 0+15 = 25 f (courtesy Pictomet r y international)

PAGE 158

144 Append ix B (Continued) Figure B.7 Overvie w of the Surveying Equipment Set U p in PGI

PAGE 159

145 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.8 US Wind Maps (Courtesy FBC 2001)

PAGE 160

146 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.9 C&C Wall Pressure C oefficients ( Courtesy ASCE 7 98)

PAGE 161

147 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.10 C&C Gable/Hip Roof External Pressure Coefficients (Courtesy ASCE 7 98)

PAGE 162

148 Appendix B (Continued ) Figure B.11 All Height Method Pressure Coefficients ( Courtesy ASCE 7 98)

PAGE 163

149 Appendix B (Continued) Complex Shape Figure B.12 Complex Shape Into Simple Shape

PAGE 164

150 Appendix B (Continued) Complex Roof Shape Figure B.13 Complex Roof Shape Into Two Rectangular Roof Shapes

PAGE 165

151 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.14 Example 1 Plan Layout

PAGE 166

152 Appendix B (Continued) ) Figure B.15 Low Rise Building ( Courtesy ASCE 7 98)

PAGE 167

153 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.16 E xample 2 Hip Roof P lan Layout (1, 2, 3, and 4) = wall surfaces (A, B, C, and D) = Roof Surfaces

PAGE 168

154 Appendix B (Continued) Figure B.17 Case A Example 1 Pressure for 160 mph (Courtesy ASCE 7 98) 18.48, 35.36 9.45 26.47 21.8, 38.75 31.54 14.67 43.48 26.47 24.05 41.04 12.29, 29.3 41.93, 59.28

PAGE 169

155 Appendix B (C ontinued) Figure B.18 Case B Example 1 Pressure for 160 mph (Courtesy ASCE 7 98) 12.75, 29.85 14.18, 31.27 12.77, 29.8 27.41, 10.39 14.19, 31.2 16.6, 33.6 5.18, 22.12 11.77, 28.78 24.1, 41.1 41.93, 59.28 8.98, 26 37.36, 20.33

PAGE 170

156 Appendix C: Aerial Pictures Figure C.1 Property # 1 (Source: Pictometry International)

PAGE 171

157 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.2 Property # 2 (Source: Pictomet ry International )

PAGE 172

158 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.3 Property # 3 (Source: Pictometry International )

PAGE 173

159 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.4 Property # 4 (Source: Pictometry International )

PAGE 174

160 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.5 Property # 5 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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161 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.6 Property # 6 (Source : Pictometry International)

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162 Appendix C (Continued ) Figure C.7 Property # 7 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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163 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.8 Pro perty # 8 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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164 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.9 Property # 9 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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165 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.10 Property # 10 ( Source: Pictometry International )

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166 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.11 Property # 11 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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167 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.12 Property # 12 ( Source: Pictometry International )

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168 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.13 Property # 13 ( Source: Pictometry International )

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169 A ppendix C (Continued) Figure C.14 Property # 14 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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170 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.15 Property # 15 (Source: Pictometry International)

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171 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.16 P roperty # 16 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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172 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.17 Property # 17 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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173 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.18 Property # 18 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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174 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.19 Property # 19 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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175 Appendix C (Continued) Figure C.20 Property # 20 ( Source: Pictometry International)

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176 Appendix D: Ground Pictures Figure D.1 Ground Picture # 1

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177 Appe ndix D (Continued ) Figure D.2 Ground Picture # 2

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178 Appendix D (Continued) Figure D.3 Ground Picture # 3

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179 Appendix D (Continued) Figure D.4 Ground Picture # 4

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180 Appendix D (Continued) Figure D.5 Ground Picture # 5


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Pierrissaint, Virgilet.
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Post-Charley evaluation of undamaged homes in Punta Gorda Isles
h [electronic resource] /
bt Virgilet Pierrissaint.
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[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2006.
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ABSTRACT: Hurricane Charley was the third named storm and the second major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. At that time, it was also the strongest hurricane to strike the US coast since 1992. Charley made landfall on Friday, August 13, 2004 on the barrier islands off Lee County, Florida whence it moved rapidly inland towards Port Charlotte, DeSoto and Hardee counties. The purpose of this study was to understand the performance of undamaged residential home in Punta Gorda Isles (PGI) in Port Charlotte County that was crossed by Charley's eye shortly after it made landfall. To achieve this goal, a representative sample of 20 undamaged residential homes (out of 210 identified in an earlier study) in PGI were selected from aerial photographs for detailed analysis. Unfortunately, information on dimensions of these buildings could not be obtained despite repeated attempts over a 6-month period. Consequently, a parametric study was conducted using an idealized building following procedures consistent with current practice. In the analysis, parameters such as wind velocity, exposure and building geometry were varied to assess the range of design forces. The maximum wind velocity was taken as 160 mph, based on findings reported in FEMA 488. Two idealized roof systems -- a gable and hip -- on a rectangular plan form were analyzed using ASCE 7-98's Method 2. Both Main Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and Components and Cladding (C&C) were evaluated. The results showed that forces resisted were significantly (over 70%) higher than those designed for. Since 210 out of 425 homes studied earlier were undamaged it suggests that properly constructed structures automatically have adequate reserve capacity to withstand higher-than-designed for lateral loads. If changes are needed, it should focus on inspection and construction rather than wind provisions in existing code.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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Adviser: Rajan Sen, Ph.D.
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Hurricane.
Construction.
High wind design.
Proper connectors.
Inspections.
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Dissertations, Academic
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x Civil Engineering
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1565