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The faceless mountain and the Key West route

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Title:
The faceless mountain and the Key West route interdisciplinary study of the pilgrimage archetype
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Smith, Gregory Vance
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Supermodernity
Jimmy Buffett
Carmelite
Asceticism
Carnivalesque
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Masters -- USF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The following essay developed from extended research on spiritual, psychic, and physical pilgrimages in medieval mystic texts compared to contemporary nonfiction texts with the idea that a person could be compelled to travel in the mind or across the globe to deal with a troubled growth of personality. The chapters explain the resulting theory and what it says about the contemporary nonfiction pilgrimage novel, biography and lyrics from popular music, and the cultural production of the Tampa Bay Parrot Heads and of Key West as they relate to the motivated pilgrimage. An interdisciplinary, multi-theory approach forms the core of the research and analysis.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gregory Vance Smith.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 40 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001795463
oclc - 154204851
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001573
usfldc handle - e14.1573
System ID:
SFS0025891:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


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The faceless mountain and the Key West route :
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ABSTRACT: The following essay developed from extended research on spiritual, psychic, and physical pilgrimages in medieval mystic texts compared to contemporary nonfiction texts with the idea that a person could be compelled to travel in the mind or across the globe to deal with a troubled growth of personality. The chapters explain the resulting theory and what it says about the contemporary nonfiction pilgrimage novel, biography and lyrics from popular music, and the cultural production of the Tampa Bay Parrot Heads and of Key West as they relate to the motivated pilgrimage. An interdisciplinary, multi-theory approach forms the core of the research and analysis.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Adviser: Silvia Ruffo Fiore, Ph.D.
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Supermodernity.
Jimmy Buffett.
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Asceticism.
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PAGE 1

T he F a c e l e s s M ount a i n a nd t he K e y W e s t R out e : I nt e r di s c i pl i na r y S t udy of t he P i l gr i m a ge A r c he t ype by G r e gor y V a nc e S m i t h A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of E ngl i s h C o l l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : S i l vi a R uf f o F i or e P h. D A D a vi d P a yne P h D D a vi d P S c he nc k P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : A pr i l 5 2006 K e yw or ds : s upe r m ode r ni t y, j i m m y buf f e t t c a r m e l i t e a s c e t i c i s m c a r ni va l e s que C opyr i ght 2006 G r e gor y V a nc e S m i t h

PAGE 2

D e di c a t i on T hi s t he s i s w oul d not ha ve be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout t he s uppor t of m y w i f e L i nda L e vi t t H e r pa t i e nc e a nd s uppor t m a de t he e f f or t f r ui t f ul

PAGE 3

A c know l e dge m e nt s S pe c i a l t ha nks t o S i l vi a R uf f o F i or e f or he r de s i r e t o he l p m e f i nd t he t r ut h w i t hi n t he c ha os M y g r a t i t ude e xt e nds t o M a r k N e um a nn w ho a dde d t he d i m e ns i ons of t i m e a nd s pa c e t o m y pe r c e pt i on t o A D a vi d P a yne f or l e t t i ng m e know t ha t r oc k a nd r ol l a i n t noi s e pol l ut i on a nd t o D a vi d P S c he nc k f o r ge ne r ous l y pr ovi di ng hi s e xpe r i e nc e

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of F i gur e s i i A bs t r a c t i i i C ha pt e r O ne : I n t r oduc i ng t he A r c h e t ype of t he M ount a i n R e ve l a t i on 1 C ha pt e r T w o : P i l g r i m a ge t hr ough D a r kne s s t o P e a ks 4 H i gh A l t i t ude s 5 P a r a di s e of t he S e c ul a r 7 K e y W e s t of t he H i m a l a ya s 1 1 T he R he t or i c of F ol l y a nd D e a t h on T ou r 15 P a r a di s e L os t : T he C a r ni va l e s que of S i n 16 T he S a c r e d P r of a ne 24 C ha pt e r T hr e e : T he R e l i gi ous P i l gr i m a ge 25 T he D a r kne s s of t he S oul 25 I nt o t he D a r k N i ght 25 T he M a ns i ons of I nt e r na l C onf l i c t 31 T he P a ga n P a t h 32 C ha pt e r F our : C onc l us i on 36 S our c e s C i t e d 38

PAGE 5

i i L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1. T he r e s a s S e ve n M a ns i ons c om pa r e d t o J ung s I nd i vi dua t i on P r oc e s s 2 F i gur e 2. T he P ow e r F i e l ds S ur r oundi ng S t J ohn of t he C r os s 30

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i i i T he F a c e l e s s M ount a i n a nd t he K e y W e s t R out e : I nt e r di s c i pl i na r y S t udy of t he P i l gr i m a ge A r c he t ype G r e gor y V a nc e S m i t h A B S T R A C T T he f ol l ow i ng e s s a y de ve l ope d f r om e xt e nde d r e s e a r c h on s pi r i t ua l ps yc hi c a nd phys i c a l pi l gr i m a ge s i n m e di e va l m ys t i c t e xt s c om pa r e d t o c ont e m por a r y nonf i c t i on t e xt s w i t h t he i de a t ha t a pe r s on c oul d be c om pe l l e d t o t r a ve l i n t he m i nd o r a c r os s t he gl obe t o de a l w i t h a t r oubl e d gr ow t h of pe r s ona l i t y. T he c h a pt e r s e xpl a i n t he r e s ul t i ng t he or y a nd w ha t i t s a ys a bout t he c ont e m po r a r y non f i c t i on pi l gr i m a ge nove l bi ogr a phy a nd l yr i c s f r om popul a r m us i c a nd t he c ul t u r a l p r oduc t i on of t he T a m pa B a y P a r r ot H e a ds a nd of K e y W e s t a s t he y r e l a t e t o t he m ot i va t e d p i l gr i m a g e A n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y m ul t i t he or y a ppr oa c h f or m s t he c or e of t he r e s e a r c h a nd a na l ys i s

PAGE 7

1 C ha pt e r O ne : I n t r oduc i ng t he A r c he t ype of t he M ount a i n R e ve l a t i on I ha d be e n s t udyi ng t he di s c a l c e d C a r m e l i t e s S t J ohn of t he C r os s a nd T he r e s a of A vi l a a nd c om pa r e d t he m w i t h M a r ge r y K e m pe a n d J ul i a n of N o r w i c h. I w a s i nt e r e s t e d i n e xpl or i ng how t he r he t or i c s of t he di f f e r e nt c ul t ur e s m i ght pr oduc e va r i a nc e s i n s pi r i t ua l j our ne y na r r a t i ve s B ut t he m a i n di f f e r e n c e I f ound i n t he w or ks w a s t ha t a l l of t he w r i t e r s e xc e pt K e m pe t r a ns f or m e d f r om a pe r s on w i t hout pe a c e t o one t ha t c oul d e xpe r i e nc e bl i s s I f ou nd a di r e c t c om pa r i s on o f J ung s s t a ge s of i n di vi dua t i on t o T he r e s a s s e ve n m a ns i ons a s I pl ot t e d on t he c ha r t i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r a nd l a ngua ge i n t he w or ks of J ul i a n, J ohn, a nd K e m pe t ha t m i m i c s t he l a ngua ge of J ung a nd J os e ph C a m pbe l l B ut K e m pe s book di f f e r s S he f i nds no l a s t i ng pe a c e e ve n t hough s he s t a t e s t ha t s he c om e s c l os e t o G od a s s he goe s t hr ough he r phys i c a l pi l g r i m a ge s S he de s c r i be s goi ng i n unc ons c i ous s t a t e s but s he ne ve r r e a c he s he r pe a c e I c a m e a c r os s a s i m i l a r na r r a t i ve i n P e t r a c ha s l e t t e r T he A s c e nt of M ount V e nt oux H e f e e l s c om pe l l e d t o c l i m b a m ount a i n f or no r e a s on a nd a ga i ns t a dvi s e m e nt a n d w he n he r e a c he s t he s um m i t he r e a l i z e s t ha t he ha s r e a l l y m ove d a w a y f r o m G od. B ut a s he de s c e nds t he m ount a i n, he c ont i nue s l ooki ng ba c k. U s i ng t he m oun t a i n a s a n a na l ogy, I de t e r m i ne d t ha t w he n one e xpe r i e nc e s a c r i s i s t ha t ne c e s s i t a t e s gr ow t h, he or s he m a y r e a c h t he s um m i t of bl i s s or c r e a t e a f a l s e s um m i t on t he f a c e l e s s pos s i bi l i t i e s of t he m i nd

PAGE 8

2 F i gu r e 1: T h e r e s a s S e ve n M an s i on s c om p ar e d t o Ju n g s I n d i vi d u a t i on P r oc e s s T he t op o f t he a bove c ha r t s how s t he l a ngua ge S t T he r e s a us e d t o de s c r i be t he a bi l i t y of t he s oul t o ha ve uni on w i t h G od a nd t he bot t om s e c t i on l i s t s s t a ge s i n J ung s t he or y of w ha t a pe r s on e xpe r i e nc e s w hi l e goi ng t h r ough a n e vol ut i on of i de nt i t y a nd pe r s ona l i t y. B ot h j our ne ys be gi n w i t h t he e l e m e nt s t ha t pr ope l t he s e l f t o e nt e r a pe r i od of t r i a l s t ha t m us t be o ve r c om e v i p e r s a n d w i l d b e a s t s s o u l s a r e d e a f a n d d u m b t e m p t e d t o g o b a c k t h o u g h t s f a i l : n o v i p e r s d i s s a t i s f i e d w / w o r l d l y p h y s i c a l t r i a l s U ni on s e n s i t i v e t o c e n t e r p e r i o d s o f u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s u n i t e d a n d a b s e n t o f b o d y c a n s e e i n n e r l e v e l s u n c o n t r o l l e d e v i l t h o u g h t s s e l f k n o w l e d g e v e n o m o u s c r e a t u r e s g u a r d s s h a d o w p e r s o n a

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3 T he s ha dow a nd ve nom ous c r e a t ur e s e xi s t a s a ps y c hi c e ve nt t ha t pr ope l s t he s e l f pa s t t he pe r s ona t he gua r ds t ow a r d a n e ve nt t ha t p r om ot e s s t a bi l i t y. I f one s e a r c he s f or t hi s a s a n i ndi vi dua l out s i de o f t he c ul t ur e t he j ou r ne y m us t e nd i n t he s e ve nt h l e ve l of uni on t ha t m a r ks a t ot a l s e pa r a t i on f r om s oc i a l a nd c ul t ur a l be l i e f s U ni on m a r ks t he s um m i t of t he a r c he t ypa l m ount a i n i n bot h s pi r i t ua l a nd s e c ul a r c ul t ur e s T he pi l gr i m be c om e s a n e l e m e nt w i t hout t he c ul t u r a l l y p r oduc e d dr i ve f or s e l f s ur ve i l l a nc e B ut i n a c ul t ur e w he r e t he c onc e pt of t he i ndi vi dua l ha s l e s s i m por t a nc e or i n w hi c h t he i ndi vi dua l e xi s t s onl y a s a n e l e m e nt c ont r ol l e d by t he l a r ge r c ul t ur a l s t r uc t ur e t he f our t h a nd f i f t h l e ve l s of f e r a n e s c a pe f r om t he m unda ne w or l d t o a pl a c e w he r e a r i t ua l i z e d, c ul t u r e uni f yi ng e ve nt c a n t a ke pl a c e F or a s e l f t ha t m us t r e a c h a s t a t e of s e l f un i f i c a t i on, t he f our t h a nd f i f t h l e ve l s m a y a ppe a r t o be t he s t a ge o f he a l i ng, t he m yt hol og i c a l s t a ge of a f i na l de s t i na t i on. T h i s f a l s e s um m i t

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4 C ha pt e r T w o: P i l g r i m a ge t hr ough D a r kne s s t o P e a ks T r a ve l a nd t ou r i s m a l l ow a phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt t o w or k out t he i n t e r na l j ou r ne y a nd t he s pi r i t ua l j o ur ne y c a n be a c c om pl i s he d by a s e l f i nduc e d s e pa r a t i on f r om t he e xt e r na l w or l d O n t he e xt r e m e e nd, s om e pi l gr i m s go i nt o s i t ua t i ons w he r e de a t h l ur ks c ons t a nt l y. H i gh a l t i t ude m ount a i n c l i m be r s c ha r a c t e r i z e t hi s phe nom e non. G e or ge M a l l or y, one o f t he f i r s t t o di e c l i m bi ng M ount E v e r e s t t ol d t he w or l d t ha t he put hi s l i f e a t r i s k on t he m oun t a i n be c a us e i t w a s t he r e T h e i t c a n be f a m e g r a c e m one y, or a be ne f i c i a l a f t e r l i f e a s ym bol i c pe a c e I f t he pi l g r i m f i nds pe a c e t hr ough uni f i c a t i on he or s he r e t i r e s f r om t he j our ne y I f t he p i l gr i m f i nds r e s ol ut i on i n a c ul t ur a l l y pr e s c r i be d r i t ua l t r i a l he or s he w i l l be i n a c yc l e of r e pe a t i ng t he c yc l e a s of t e n a s t he c ul t u r e pr e s c r i be s T he pi l gr i m w ho m us t uni f y t he s e l f ha s t o go be yond c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s s o e ve n w he n t he pi l gr i m c om pl e t e s t r i a l s a nd j our ne ys i n t he c ul t ur a l m yt hos he o r s he r e a l i z e s t he f a l l a c y of a c c om pl i s hi ng goa l s not r e l a t e d t o t h e c r i s i s be i ng e xpe r i e nc e d. T he t he s i s c onc e nt r a t e s on t he a ut obi ogr a phi e s o f m ount a i ne e r B e c k W e a t he r s s i nge r J i m m y B uf f e t t a nd t he he a vy m e t a l ba nd M t l e y C r e a l ongs i de t he a ut obi ogr a phi e s / s pi r i t ua l gui de s of S t J ohn of t he C r os s a nd T he r e s a of A vi l a a nd a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by P e t r a r c h. E xpl or a t i on of K e y W e s t a nd t he P a r r ot H e a d s oc i a l c l ub s how how t he t he or y goe s be yond t he s c ope of w r i t t e n t e xt s de m ons t r a t i ng a c ul t ur a l a r c he t ype T he t w o c or e a na l ogi e s of t he pi l gr i m a ge c ont a i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s a r e c l i m bi ng a m ount a i n a nd S t J ohn s i de a t ha t t he s pi r i t ua l j ou r ne y be gi ns by e nt e r i ng t he da r k n i ght

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5 of t he s oul S t J ohn e s t a bl i s he d hi s gui de s t o uni on w i t h G od on a f ounda t i on t ha t a l l w or l dl y a m bi t i ons m us t be gi ve n up a nd a pe r s on w ho w i s he s t o ha ve t hi s uni on m us t l i ve a n a s c e t i c l i f e I n c ont e m por a r y l i f e m oun t a i n c l i m be r s l i ve a s c e t i c l i ve s t o ge t t o t he t op of a m ount a i n H i gh A l t i t ude s C l i m be r s a ut obi ogr a phi c a l t e xt s o f t e n r e ve a l t he c yc l e of be i ng dr i ve n t o do s om e t hi ng t ha t t he y know w i l l c a us e phys i c a l di s c om f or t o r m a y e nd i n t he i r de a t h, ye t t he y c ont i nue t o c l i m b. T he y a r e a s c e t i c s w ho gi ve up a l l c om f or t w hi l e w a i t i ng t o a c c l i m a t i z e a nd a r e f or c e d t o a l l ow t he i r bod i e s t o c ons um e t he i r m us c l e s w he n i n t he t hi n a i r a bove 26, 000 f e e t H a l l uc i na t i ons a nd m i r a c l e s a r e a s m uc h a pa r t o f m ount a i ne e r i ng l or e a s of m ys t i c e xpe r i e nc e but o f t e n goa l s l i ke t he S e ve n S um m i t s t he t a l l e s t m ount a i n on e a c h c ont i ne nt l e a d c l i m be r s t o t he i r de a t hs a f t e r m a ny s um m i t s a r e m a de I n hi s a ut obi ogr a phy B e c k W e a t he r s a dm i t s m oun t a i n c l i m bi ng g r e w a s a n e s c a pe f r om a pe r s ona l e m pt i ne s s t ha t he l a be l s t he bl a c k dog w hi c h c oul d be ke pt a w a y w i t h he a vy t r a i ni ng a nd t he e go bo os t t ha t l e a d hi m f r om a s ui c i da l s t a t e by f oc us i ng hi s e ne r gy on c l i m bi ng t he s e ve n s um m i t s E ve r e s t w oul d be hi s s i xt h. H i s w i f e s t a t e s : B e c k s e e m e d s e l f i s hl y de t e r m i ne d t o e i t he r ki l l hi m s e l f or ge t hi m s e l f ki l l e d I s e ns e d he w e nt t o E ve r e s t ha l f c onvi nc e d t ha t he w a s goi ng t o di e t he r e I s e ns e d he w a s s c a r e d ( W e a t he r s 84) W e a t he r s be c om e s bl i nd on hi s s um m i t pus h, a nd t he gui de t e l l s hi m t o w a i t f or hi m t o r e t ur n f r om t he s um m i t a nd t ha t he w i l l he l p hi m dow n T i m e pa s s e s a nd r e t ur ni ng c l i m be r s of f e r t o l e a d hi m but he w a i t s b e c a us e t o go dow n w i t h t he m w oul d

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6 be t o a bs ol ut e l y c onc e de I d f a i l e d ( W e a t he r s 43) A l r e a dy i n a ha l l uc i na t o r y s t a t e a nd unde r s t a ndi ng hi s f a i l i ng he a l t h B e c k l e a ve s w i t h a not he r gui de a nd a gr oup of a l t i t ude dr a i ne d c l i m be r s T he y s l ow l y m a ke t he i r w a y do w n, but a s t or m h i t s a nd t he y a r e s t r a nde d i n a w hi t e out W he n i t l i f t s t he he a l t hy c l i m be r s go ba c k t o hi gh c a m p f or he l p, but t hr e e r e s c ue pa r t i e s de t e r m i ne t ha t B e c k ha s f a l l e n unde r hypoxi a a nd w i l l not s u r vi ve L e f t f or de a d, he s l i ps i nt o a c om a but he w a ke s a nd s e e s a vi s i on of hi s f a m i l y, t he e pi pha ny t ha t l e t s hi m unde r s t a nd t ha t i f [ he ] di d no t s t a nd a t o nc e [ he ] w oul d s pe nd a n e t e r ni t y on t ha t s pot ( W e a t he r s 61 ) A l m os t bl i nd a nd w i t hou t t he us e of hi s ha nds he r e a s ons t ha t w a l ki ng upw i nd w i l l l e a d hi m t o c a m p. W he n he a r r i ve s hi s c om pa ni ons pl a c e hi m i n a t e nt a nd e xpe c t he w i l l di e be f or e m o r ni ng, but w he n i t c om e s t he y f i nd t he t e nt f a l l e n, f i l l e d w i t h s now B e c k out of hi s s l e e pi ng ba g a l i ve H e i s he l pe d dow n t o C a m p I I I bu t t he c l i m be r s c a nnot c a r r y hi m t hr ough t he ne xt pa r t o f t he de s c e nt R e s c ue he l i c opt e r s c a nnot f l y i nt o a i r t ha t t hi n w i t hout r i s k o f f a l l i ng f r om t he s ky, s o t he c om pa ni ons ha ve no hope I n D a l l a s h i s w i f e a n d he r f r i e nds us e pol i t i c a l c onne c t i ons t o i ns pi r e a n a t t e m pt e d r e s c ue a nd a N e pa l e s e pi l ot doe s t he i m pos s i bl e by r e t r i e vi ng B e c k. W he n B e c k s e e s hi s w i f e he s t a t e s I ha d a s e ns e t ha t I w a s f i na l l y ba c k, no l onge r j us t j ou r ne yi ng ( W e a t he r s 104) B e c k ne ve r r e a c he s hi s c l i m bi ng goa l but a f t e r t he e pi pha ny a nd r e t u r n t o hi s f a m i l y, he s a ys f or t he f i r s t t i m e i n m y l i f e I ha v e pe a c e I no l onge r s e e k t o de f i ne m ys e l f e xt e r na l l y, t hr ough goa l s a nd a c hi e ve m e nt s a nd m a t e r i a l pos s e s s i on s I ve s e a r c he d a l l ove r t he w o r l d f o r t ha t w hi c h w oul d f ul f i l l m e a nd a l l a l ong i t w a s i n m y ow n ba c kya r d ( W e a t he r s 338 ) H e ha s r e a c he d t h e s um m i t t hough hi s r e l i g i ous vi s i on doe s not f oc us on one m a j or r e l i gi on H e s t a t e s t ha t i f a ny r e l i gi on i s t o ha ve a ny

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7 m e a ni n g f or m e i t m us t no t e xc l ude a ny s uc h s pi r i t ua l i t y. I t m us t e nc om pa s s H i ndus B uddhi s t s a nd J e w s a nd M us l i m s a nd C hr i s t i a ns a nd a ny ot he r f a i t h t ha t s ha r e s m y c or e va l ue s ( W e a t he r s 336 37) H i s r he t o r i c t he hi gh a l t i t ude c l i m b a s a t r a ns c e nde nt e ve n, de r i ve s f r om s e c ul a r l a ngua ge b e c a us e he ha s no s pe c i f i c r e l i gi ous s ym bol s ys t e m t o i nt e r pr e t hi s unc ons c i ous e xpe r i e nc e P a r a di s e of t he S e c ul a r I n A P i r a t e L ooks a t F i f t y J i m m y B uf f e t t t e l l s hi s phi l os ophy of l i f e s t a r t e d a s a c hi l d by w a t c hi ng a F a t T ue s da y pa r a de f l oa t of F o l l y c ha s i ng D e a t h. W he n he s a w D e a t h, B uf f e t t s c r e a m e d. H e he a r d m e l ooke d m y w a y, a nd s t a r t e d t o l a ugh. [ ] W hi l e D e a t h ha d be e n s o pr e oc c upi e d w i t h s c a r i ng t he l i vi ng he l l ou t of m e F ol l y ha d s nuc k up be hi nd hi m a nd ha d g i ve n hi m a w a l l op o n t he but t t ha t c oul d be he a r d t w o bl oc ks a w a y. I s t a r t e d l a ughi ng hys t e r i c a l l y. ( B uf f e t t 36 7) T he e l e va t i on of F ol l y be c om e s t he f oc a l po i nt of T a m pa B a y P a r r o t H e a ds i n P a r a di s e m e e t i ngs w he r e t he s pi r i t of B uf f e t t s m ove m e nt f r om t he m unda ne c a pi t a l i s t e xi s t e nc e t o a n i de a l i z e d va c a t i on de s t i na t i on pe r m e a t e s t he m e m be r s of t he gr oup. T hr ough c os t um e r i t ua l s a nd i s l a nd m us i c t he y c ons t r uc t a s ys t e m a t i c e s c a pe f r om t he m unda ne a nd r e a c h f or t he f our t h l e ve l o f c r e a t i ng a c ul t ur a l a nd s e l f u ni t y w he r e non of t he vi pe r s o f e ve r yda y s t r e s s e xi s t T he P a r r o t H e a ds i n P a r a di s e I nc or po r a t e d i s a N ot F or P r of i t C or por a t i on w hos e pur pos e i s t o a s s i s t i n c om m uni t y a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l c onc e r ns a nd pr ovi de a va r i e t y of s oc i a l a c t i vi t i e s f or pe opl e w ho a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he m us i c of J i m m y B uf f e t t

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8 a nd t he t r opi c a l l i f e s t yl e he pe r s oni f i e s ( P H I P ) T he or ga ni z a t i on c ont a i ns hundr e ds of l oc a l s oc i a l c l ubs t ha t m i x t r opi c a l t he m e d pa r t i e s a nd c ha r i t y e ve nt s a nd i nt e r c l ub pa r t i e s a t B uf f e t t c onc e r t s S t or m i n s P a l a c e i n C l e a r w a t e r hos t s e a c h T a m pa B a y m e e t i ng. T he s e t t i ng i s a s t a nda r d c l ub w i t h s e ve r a l ba r s a bs e nt of t r op i c a l d c or T he s unke n s t a ge m a y be de c or a t e d w i t h i nf l a t a bl e pa l m s s i gns a nd c or por a t e s pons or s l i ke C a pt a i n M or ga n R um O ne a r e a i s de di c a t e d t o c l ub m e r c ha ndi s e a nd a no t he r t o a f r e e buf f e t T he c l ub m e m be r s br i ng t he a m bi e nc e w i t h t he m w he n t he y a r r i ve a t 5: 00 p m w e a r i ng H a w a i i a n s hi r t s be a ds l e i s p i r a t e ba nda nna s gr a s s s ki r t s bi ki ni t ops o r ot he r ki t s c hy e xa m pl e s of t r opi c a l f e s t i vi t y. T he c l ub t a ke s one o f i t s t he m e s f r om L ove l y C r u i s e f r om t he 1977 a l bum C ha nge s i n L a t i t ude s C ha nge s i n A t t i t ude s T he n a r r a t or o f t he s ong t e l l s hi s hone y : I t 's be e n a l ove l y c r u i s e / I 'm s or r y i t 's e nde d M a y you a l w a ys r e m e m be r / T he s e m om e nt s a r e s ha r e d by f e w ( M a r ga r i t a vi l l e ) T hi s s um s up a nd t i e s t he T a m pa B a y c l ub s phi l os ophy t o J i m m y B uf f e t t s i de a t ha t w e r e c ogni z e de a t h a nd l i ve w i t hou t f e a r of t he know l e dge T he c l ub ha s a s t a nda r d m e e t i ng s c he dul e A t 5: 00 t he c l ub ope ns w i t h J i m m y B uf f e t t m us i c a nd m e m be r s w e a r i ng r e c ogni z a bl e t oy j e w e l r y be gi n s e l l i ng r a f f l e t i c ke t s A l i ne f o r m s a t t he buf f e t a nd i t us ua l l y t a ke s a f e w hour s f or e ve r yone t o s e r ve t he m s e l ve s O ne of t he of f i c e r s m a y ha ve a n e a r l y a nnounc e m e nt but t he of f i c i a l s t a r t oc c ur s w he n m os t pe opl e a r e f i ni s hi ng t he i r m e a l M e e t i ng S c he dul e : O ur L ove l y C r ui s e A ge nda 05: 00 07 : 30P M : B uf f e t t M us i c a nd D a nc i ng 07: 30 07 : 50P M : C l ub H a ppe ni ngs a nd R a f f l e

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9 07: 50 08 : 30P M : B uf f e t t M us i c a nd D a nc i ng 08: 30 08 : 45P M : N e w M e m be r I nduc t i on ( ha ve a dr i nk r e a dy) 08: 45 09 : 15P M : S e c ond R a f f l e 09: 15 10 : 30P M : B uf f e t t M us i c a nd D a nc i ng 10: 30 11 : 00P M : J a m a i c a F a r e w e l l S ongs ( f i ns up. c om ) D ur i ng t hi s f i r s t a nnounc e m e nt t he of f i c e r s r a f f l e of f p r i z e s I w on a s hi r t a t one of m y f i r s t m e e t i ngs a nd a s I m a de up t he s t a i r s t o t he s t a ge t he D J s t a r t e d s t r i p t e a s e m us i c I d i d a s i l l y da nc e t o e ve r yone s a ppr ova l w hi l e a w om a n unbut t one d m y s hi r t t ook i t o f f a nd put m y pr i z e on m e T hi s s t a nda r d r i t ua l a l l ow s a r e s t r a i ne d s e xua l di s pl a y t o m i x w i t h t he s ha r e d hum or of t he gr oup T he ne xt t i m e t he o f f i c e r s t a ke t he s t a ge t he y ho l d a s e c ond r a f f l e a nd i nt r oduc e ne w m e m be r s w i t h a s ym bol i c vi r gi n s a c r i f i c e N e w m e m be r s w e a r w hi t e l e i s on s t a ge t he y kne e l s a y t he c l ub pl e dge a nd a r e o f f e r e d a s e x on t he be a c h, a m i xe d dr i nk w hi c h s i gna l s t he f e l l ow m e m be r s t o ha ve a d r i nk. B e f or e l e a vi ng t he s t a ge t he w hi t e l e i i s r e m ove d a nd r e pl a c e d w i t h a c ol o r e d one T he c ont r ol l e d r e be l l i on o f s e xua l i nnue ndo m i xe d w i t h r e l i gi ous ove r t one s pi c ks ba c k up w he ne ve r t he s ong M a r ga r i t a vi l l e p l a ys T he m us i c i s pa us e d a f t e r t he l y r i c l ooki ng f or s a l t a nd t he c l ub c ha nt s S a l t S a l t W he r e s t he godda m ne d s a l t ? I n M i gr a t i on, t he l y r i c s G ot a C a r i bbe a n s oul I c a n ba r e l y c ont r ol / a nd s om e T e xa s hi dde n he r e i n m y he a r t c ue t he da nc e r s t o gr a b t h e i r c r ot c he s i n a m a s c ul i ne ge s t ur e of di s pl a y. T hi s t ype of be ha vi or a l s o oc c ur s dur i ng da nc e s T w i c e a n i ght w he n t he D J pl a ys B uf f e t t s F i ns a c onga l i ne f o r m s a nd w i n ds of f t he da nc e f l oor a nd t h r ough t he ba r D a nc e r s hi gh f i ve t he pe opl e s e a t e d or s t a ndi ng be s i de t he l i ne A s t he y r e e nt e r t he da nc e f l oor f r om t he ot he r s i de t he y pa i r o f f l i nk ha nds a nd t he ot he r da nc e r s l i m bo

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10 unde r t he ha nds t ha t a r e he l d a t a poi nt w hi c h m i m i c w a ve s w he n t he c ha i n gr ow s l ong e nough. A s a not he r r i t ua l t he g r oup s i ngs T i n C up C ha l i c e i n c onc e nt r i c c i r c l e s t i ght l y f or m e d a r ound one of t he o f f i c e r s hol di ng a m i c r o phone O ne of f i c e r i ns t r uc t s t he w om e n t o pr e s s t he i r t i t t i e s i n t he ba c k of t he pe r s on i n f r ont of t he m T he c i r c l e s o f t e n s w a y i n di f f e r e nt di r e c t i ons t ur ni ng t he m a s s of pe opl e i nt o a s ym bol i c w a t e r body f or t he s e c ond t i m e T he w a t e r c a n be c om pa r e d t o t h e da r k ni ght i n t he S t J ohn s t e xt s w hi c h m a r k t he br e a k a w a y f r om out w a r d c onc e r n of t he w o r l d i nt o t he i nd i vi d ua l s s pi r i t ua l / ps yc hi c s e l f a c om bi na t i on o f t he f our t h a nd f i f t h l e ve l s of t he pi l gr i m a ge c ha r t W a t e r e xi s t s i n J ungi a n t he o r y a s a s l i p i nt o t he unc ons c i ous a nd t he P a r r ot H e a ds s i gn i f y i t a s a de s t i na t i on of r e ne w a l I n T i n C up C ha l i c e t he s e nt i m e nt I w a nt t o go ba c k t o t he i s l a nd i s f ol l ow e d by t hr e e c hor us e s : I w a nt t o l i e by t he s e a t he r e I w a nt t o ge t hi gh t he r e a nd I w a nt t o d i e t he r e ( B uf f e t t M e e t M e ) T he e s c a pi s t vi e w of i s l a nd pa r a di s e or i s l a nd ot he r de ve l ops t o s i gni f y t r a ns c e nde nc e a f t e r t he de a t h o f t he da y t o da y l i f e t o a n e xpe r i e nc e of pot e nt i a l r e ne w a l a nd f or a s l ong a s a m e e t i ng or a t r i p, t he P a r r ot H e a ds e ve r yda y s t a t e s of be i ng c e a s e t o e xi s t a nd t he y e m b r a c e t he f a nt a s y of bl i s s J ohn w r i t e s t ha t pe a c e j oy, ha ppi ne s s a nd de l i ght e xi s t f or t he pi l gr i m w he n he no l onge r de s i r e s t he m a di r e c t c om pa r i s on t o t he m ove m e nt f r om t he f i f t h t o s e ve nt h m a ns i on i n T he r e s a s gui de ( S t J ohn 110) D e s i r e f or a know a bl e i nne r pe a c e c om pe l s t he s pi r i t ua l a nd s e c ul a r pi l g r i m O ne of J ohn s t e xt s e xpl a i ns a poe m t ha t he ha s w r i t t e n i n w hi c h a s oul s pe a ks a f t e r ha vi ng m a de c ont a c t w i t h G od T he na r r a t i ve be gi ns on a da r k n i ght T he n t he s pe a ke r s ne a ks a w a y f r om t he s a f e t y of he r o r hi s hous e be c a us e of l ove s ur ge nt

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11 l ongi ngs ( S t J ohn 358 59 ) T he pi l gr i m t r a ve l s t hr ough t he da r kne s s gui de d by a n i nt e r na l l i ght r e l a t e d t o know l e dge of G od, a nd f i n a l l y, a s c e ne be s t e xpl a i ne d a s pos t or ga s m bl i s s de m ons t r a t e d t hr ough r om a nt i c t ouc h i ng s ym bol i z e s t he bl i s s of t he uni on s t a t e T he ge ne r a l m e t a phor of e nt e r i ng t he da r kne s s a nd w a t e r de m ons t r a t e s a m ove m e nt f r om t he f our t h t hr ough t he s e ve nt h l e v e l of t he pi l gr i m a ge c ha r t f o r t he s pi r i t ua l j our ne y a nd f r o m t he f our t h t hr ough f i f t h l e ve l i n t he r e ne w a l t hr ough s e c ul a r e s c a pi s m E ve r y f i r s t t hi r d a nd f i f t h W e dne s da y of t he m ont h, a g r oup t hi c k w i t h pr of e s s i ona l s a nd e nt r e pr e ne ur s i nvol ve t he m s e l ve s i n a c ul t ur e t ha t ha s be e n m a nuf a c t ur e d t o b r e e c h s t a nda r d c ul t ur e N o r m s b r e a k dow n a nd t he gr oup i nvol ve s i t s e l f i n a n unc ons c i ous c l e a ns i ng. T hi s be ha vi or m e a ns m or e t o t he gr oup t ha n w he t he r or not one l i ke s B uf f e t t s m us i c or w he t he r one d r i nks a l c ohol A s D e a n M a c C a nne l l e xpl a i ns S t r a nge r s w ho ha ve t he s a m e c ul t ur a l g r oundi ng c a n c om e t oge t he r i n a c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on e a c h know i ng w ha t t o e xpe c t ne xt a nd f e e l a c l os e ne s s or s ol i da r i t y, e ve n w he r e no e m pi r i c a l c l os e ne s s e xi s t s ( M a c C a nne l l 32 ) T he c ul t u r e pr oduc e d a l l o w s a pe opl e f r om m ul t i pl e ge ne r a t i ons t o c r e a t e a m ove m e nt i n a n unc ons c i ous pl a y t ha t r e f r e s he s a nd r e j uve na t e s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s by t he r i t ua l i z e d l e i s ur e i n t he s he l l o f a nt i c ul t ur a l be ha vi or F r om t he c os t um e t o r i t ua l t he gr oup c ons t a nt l y r e a l i z e s t he e vi l oppr e s s i on i n s oc i e t y a nd ba t t l e s i t w i t h f un T he g r oup a c c e pt s de a t h a nd m unda ne e xi s t e nc e by s l i di ng i nt o t he unc ons c i ous t hr ough t he f a nt a s y of a pe r m a ne nt va c a t i on. K e y W e s t of t he H i m a l a ya s P a r r ot H e a ds c hoi c e o f K e y W e s t a s t he na t i ona l c onve nt i on s i t e e xe m pl i f i e s t he l oc a t i on s a dhe r e nc e t o t he c onc e pt o f e s c a pi s m t o f i nd one s s e l f T he m a i n c onne c t i on

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12 c om e s f r om J i m m y B uf f e t t m ov i ng t he r e pe nni l e s s i n t he 1970 s H e l e f t hi s w i f e hi s j ob, a nd s t a nda r d A m e r i c a n c ul t ur e t o l i ve a l i f e a s a dr ug us i ng, w om a ni z i ng, be a c h bum a nd s i nge r T he l oc a l c ul t ur e m a de t ha t l i f e s t yl e p os s i bl e T he i s l a nd, a t one t i m e c oul d onl y be r e a c he d by b oa t l a t e r by t r a i n, a nd e ve nt ua l l y t he O ve r s e a s H i ghw a y br ought i n di f f e r e nt t ype s of t ou r i s t s a nd r e s i de nt s B e c a us e of t he l i m i t e d a c c e s s t he f i r s t r e s i d e nt s w e r e w a r r i ng I ndi a n t r i be s w ho w e r e f ol l ow e d by pi r a t e s s m uggl e r s a nd s a l va ge c r e w s w ho pr of i t e d f r om w r e c ks L oc a l s us e t he vi ol e nc e of t he pa s t a nd t he f i na nc i a l ups a nd d ow ns t o m a r ke t a n i m a ge of a s e c l ude d de s t i na t i on w he r e a nyt hi ng c a n ha ppe n. I n t he 1980 s a f or m e r r um r unne r a nd l oc a l s a l oon ow ne r C a pt a i n T ony T e r r a c i no be c a m e m a yor H e r a n on a pl a t f o r m t h a t s t a t e d K e y W e s t ha d t o r e s t r i c t de ve l opm e nt or w ha t m a de pe opl e c om e t o t he i s l a nd w oul d be de s t r oye d. H un t e r S T hom ps on i s m or e bl unt C r a z y M e a n B r i a n s ne w boa t i s t i e d up j us t be hi nd m i ne T he l oc a l c ha r t e r f i s he r m e n a r e not c om f or t a bl e w i t h t he s i ght o f i t be c a us e i t r e m i nds t he m of t he ol d da ys w he n e ve r ybody w a s c r a z y ( T hom ps on 213 ) O n a 2004 t r i p, I s t a ye d a t M a r r e r o s G ue s t M a ns i on, a B e d a nd B r e a kf a s t w hi c h a dve r t i s e s ha ppy hour da i l y, c l ot hi ng opt i ona l pool a r e a a nd a l l a dul t s ( M a r r e r o s ) T he a dul t pl a ygr ound a nd a nyt hi ng g oe s i m a ge of K e y W e s t ha s pr om i s e d a n E de n a s e xe m pl i f i e d by t he br oc hur e ha nde d t o m e by a s t r e e t ba r ke r f or t he N a ke d L unc h r e s t a ur a nt I t s how s a n A da m a nd E ve i m a ge on t he c ove r a nd on t he ba c k, t he y c l a i m t o be t he onl y c l ot hi ng opt i ona l ba r a nd r e s t a ur a nt i n t he w or l d ( N a ke d L unc h) A not he r c a r d gi ve n m e on t he s t r e e t T he G a r de n of E de n d i s pl a ys a nude w om a n l yi ng unde r a pa l m w i t h a s na ke c ur l e d a r ound i t T hi s s i gni f i e s a r e gr e s s e d s t a t e a p r e c ul t ur e

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13 a nd pr e gui l t e xi s t e nc e T hi s c a n be s um m e d up b y E r i k C o he n s E xpe r i m e nt a l M ode of t our i s t i c e xpe r i e nc e : t hi s m ode of t he t ou r i s t i c e x pe r i e nc e i s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of pe opl e w ho do not a dhe r e a ny m o r e t o t he s pi r i t ua l c e nt r e of t he i r ow n s oc i e t y, but e nga ge i n a que s t f or a n a l t e r na t i ve i n m a ny di f f e r e nt d i r e c t i on s ( C ohe n 189) K e y W e s t be c om e s t he de s t i na t i on t o e xpl or e t he s e l f a p r i m a l e nvi r on m e nt f or s om e one w ho ha s e xpe r i e nc e d t he he i ght e ne d s e ns e of pe r s ona l a w a r e ne s s a nd i s pr om pt e d t o be gi n t he s um m i t a t t e m pt A t t he f i r s t m e e t i ng, a m e m be r t o l d m e t h a t m a ny of t he m e m be r s w e r e pr of e s s i ona l s s om e w e r e e xt e nde d f a m i l i e s a nd m a ny w e r e i n r e c ove r y f r om s ubs t a nc e a bus e T he m e e t i ngs a l l ow di f f e r e nt pe opl e w i t h d i f f e r e nt de f i ne d l i f e s t yl e s t o br e a k f r om t he r i gi d s t r uc t ur e s t ha t dom i na t e t he m a nd e m br a c e a n e qua l i t y i n s i l l i ne s s O nc e t hr ough t he doo r s of t he ba r e a c h m e m be r be c om e s c ha r a c t e r s i n t he f a nt a s y. N a m e t a gs s how c a pt a i ns a nd pi r a t e s i n a c onga l i ne not c om pa ny pr e s i de nt s a nd r e c ove r i ng a ddi c t s S i nc e t he P a r r ot H e a ds ha ve c ons t r uc t e d a c ul t u r e t ha t be l i e ve s i n r i t ua l c l e a ns i ng t hr ough m e r r i m e nt K e y W e s t be c om e s a pe r f e c t s e t t i ng K e y W e s t a t t r a c t i ons be c om e a m e a ns of r e l e a s i ng r e pr e s s e d de s i r e s O nc e a pe r s on f e e l s a s e ns e of hi ghe r s e l f a w a r e ne s s t ha t c a n be s a t i s f i e d by a f our t h a nd f i f t h l e ve l e s c a pe K e y W e s t of f e r s t he c a t a l ys t A s T r udi ne [ a w a i t r e s s a t N a ke d L unc h] ha s not i c e d, m a ny o f t he nudi s t s dr a w n t o K e y W e s t a r e i n t he i r 40s 50s a nd 60s T ha t 's how l ong i t t a ke s m a ny pe opl e t o l e a r n t o a c c e pt t h e i r bodi e s s he s a i d. A nd t o m a ke e nough m one y t o a f f or d va c a t i oni ng i n K e y W e s t ( B uc kl e y ) L i ke W e a t he r s t he s e pe opl e ha ve f ound t ha t t he y no l onge r ne e d t o de f i ne t he i r s e l ve s e xt e r na l l y, e l i m i na t i ng t he ne e d f or a m a j or e pi pha ny.

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14 K e y W e s t of f e r s a s t r uc t ur e f or t he s u m m i t a t t e m pt by of f e r i ng a c om bi na t i on o f br ut a l hi s t or y a nd r e l a xe d m o r a l j udgm e nt T he O l d T ow n o f t he i s l a nd pl a ys of f i t s e a r l y hi s t or y of be i ng t he s l a ught e r gr ounds f o r a t r i be o f na t i ve A m e r i c a ns t he hi de out o f pi r a t e s t he ope r a t i ng ba s e of r um a nd dr ug r unne r s a nd a pl a c e c ut of f f r om A m e r i c a n he ge m ony. T hi s r e f l e c t s B a kht i n s i de a of t he c hr onot ope i n l i t e r a t ur e : t he w or k a nd t he w or l d r e pr e s e nt e d i n i t e nt e r t he r e a l w o r l d a nd e nr i c h i t a nd t he r e a l w or l d e nt e r s t he w or k a nd i t s w o r l d a s p a r t of t he pr oc e s s of i t s c r e a t i on, a s w e l l a s pa r t of i t s s ubs e que nt l i f e i n a c ont i nua l r e ne w i ng o f t he w or k t h r ough t he c r e a t i ve pe r c e pt i on of l i s t e ne r s a nd r e a de r s ( B a kht i n 254) I ns t e a d of t he l i f e of a l i t e r a r y t e xt t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on a s w i t hi n t he P a r r ot H e a d m e e t i ngs ha s de ve l ope d a r e a l i t y t ha t m i xe s a nd m i ngl e s w i t h t he a c t ua l s oc i e t y of w hi c h t he y a r e pa r t T he y di s t or t e xa gge r a t e a nd b r e a k s oc i a l nor m s i n a r e l e a s e t ha t hum a ni z e s s oc i e t y. K e y W e s t s i s ol a t i on a nd c ul t i va t e d r e put a t i on a l l ow B a kht i n s c a r ni va l e s que t o be w r i t t e n a s a n ove r l a yi ng c ul t ur a l r he t or i c i n w hi c h t he pi l gr i m c a n c om e t o f i nd a r e f uge f r om t he di s c i pl i ni ng s t r uc t ur e s of nor m a l c om m uni c a t i on. T r udi ne de s c r i be s w hy pe opl e go nude a t t he r e s t a ur a nt I t s a b out t he a c c e pt a nc e of doi ng w ha t e ve r you w a nt t o do, a nd not w or r yi ng a bout w ha t pe opl e t hi nk ( B uc kl e y) A s t r uc t ur e bui l t t o a l l ow t he i d e a of i ndi vi dua l m ot i va t i ons a nd a c t i ons e s t a bl i s he s t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of ol d t o w n K e y W e s t t he P a r r ot H e a ds a nd t he ne w t r a ve l e r w ho doe s not p i l gr i m a ge f or t he s pi r i t ua l uni on or t he c r e a t i on of a s e l f de t a c he d f r om s oc i e t y T he P a r r ot H e a d s r he t o r i c de f i ne s t he f a c e l e s s m ount a i n a s a s e r i e s of c ont r i ve d e s c a pe s t ha t r a i s e t he m be yond t he ne e d f or a he r o l i ke B uf f e t t t o e xpe r i e nc e t he t r i a l s f ound i n l i f e D e a t h w i l l c om e but e nc our a gi ng F ol l y m a ke s t he c om m uni t y pe a c e f ul

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15 T he R he t or i c of F ol l y a nd D e a t h on T ou r F ol l y a nd de a t h m i x i n T he O r i gi na l K e y W e s t G hos t T our W hi l e s om e s pot s on t he t our s pe a k of t r a gi c c i r c um s t a nc e s ot he r s o f f e r hum or ous s t or i e s L oc a l s c a m e t o t he ol d c e m e t e r y t o w a t c h one l e ge nda r y ghos t w a l k out of t he ga t e a nd i n t o t he ni ght but i t t u r ne d out t ha t i t w a s a goa t A t t he be gi nn i n g of ou r t ou r our gui de s e r i ous l y w a r n e d us t ha t w e w oul d be he c kl e d by pe opl e dr i vi ng by a nd s hout i ng boo a nd w e s houl d r e s pond by poi nt i ng a nd s hout i ng, Y ou r e doom e d! W e di s c ove r e d t ha t m or e he c kl e r s s hout e d t he r e s pons e t ha n boo. S i nc e t he gui de a dm i t t e d t ha t t he c om pa ny ha d m a de d e a l s w i t h t he r e s i de nt s t o a l l ow us on t h e i r pr ope r t i e s I be l i e ve t ha t a l oc a l i nf r a s t r uc t ur e ha s de ve l ope d t o s uppor t t he pr i va t e l y ow ne d bus i ne s s s pa w ni ng t hi s m e t hod o f s m a c ki ng t he a s s t ha t w oul d not be po s s i bl e i n s t a nda r d c ul t ur a l p r a c t i c e s O u r ghos t t our gui de a l s o m a de a poi nt t o s pe a k t o a H a r d R oc k C a f e m pl oye e w ho w a l ke d i n t he r oom i nt e r r upt i ng t he na r r a t i ve a nd i t s a t m os phe r e I ns t e a d of a s ki ng f or a t he e m pl oye e t o not i n t e r r upt or i gnor i ng hi s pr e s e nc e t he gui de i n a f r i e ndl y m a nn e r a s ke d i f he kne w hi m f r om a l oc a l ha i r s t yl i s t W hi l e onl y t r yi ng t o pr e ve nt f ut ur e i nt e r r upt i ons by c r e a t i ng a s c e na r i o o f f a m i l i a r i t y a nd e nf o r c i ng uns poke n r ul e s o f c om m uni t y be ha vi or he e xe m pl i f i e d t he r e i nf or c e m e nt of c om m un i t y w hi c h ho l ds a t ba y t he de ve l opm e nt t he a ppe a r a nc e of s upe r f i c i a l i t y a nd a nonym i t y t ha t C a pt a i n T ony w a r ne d w oul d r ui n w ha t pe opl e w a nt e d f r om K e y W e s t F or t he ghos t t our t he be d a nd br e a kf a s t s or t he ba r s on D uva l S t r e e t t o r e m a i n i n bus i ne s s t he i de a m us t pe r s i s t t h a t K e y W e s t t hr i ve s a s a c ol l e c t i on of i ndi vi dua l c ha r a c t e r s w ho i nha bi t a s pa c e t ha t ha s not be e n m a nuf a c t ur e d a s ha vi ng t he he ge m ony of m a i nl a nd r e s or t s m a nuf a c t ur e d f or a pur pos e H i s t or y a nd na t ur a l ne s s e xi s t a s a m e a n s of c r e a t i ng t he c hr onot ope f or e s c a pe

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16 K e y W e s t e xi s t s be c a us e i t gr e w f r om a c ol l e c t i on of pe opl e w ho d i d not c a r e w ha t a nyone e l s e w a s doi ng, s o ne i t he r t he t ou r i s t s l oc a l s no r pol i c e s e e m i nt e r e s t e d i n i nt e r r upt i ng a nyone s pe r s ona l i z e d e xpe r i e nc e B e f or e t he r e c or d c om pa ny r e l e a s e d M a r ga r i t a vi l l e t he y c ut out one o f B uf f e t t s l y r i c s t ha t de m ons t r a t e s t he s t r uc t ur e of e m pa t hy t ha t t he l oc a l s ha ve f or t our i s t s : O l d m e n i n t a nk t ops c r ui s i ng t he gi f t s hops c he c ki ng out c hi qui t a s dow n by t he s hor e da ydr e a m a bout w e i ght l os s w i s h t he y c oul d be t h e i r ow n bos s T hos e t hr e e da y va c a t i ons be c om e s uc h a bo r e ( M a i l boa t R e c or ds ) T he l oc a l s unde r s t a nd t ha t pe opl e c om e t o e s c a pe t he pr e s s ur e s a nd c ons t r a i nt s of t he s t a nda r d A m e r i c a n c ul t ur e T he y know t hr e e da y va c a t i ons c a n be c om e a bor e a nd ha ve c r e a t e d m or e t ha n a ne t w or k o f bus i ne s s e s ; t he y ha ve f a s hi one d a s t r uc t ur e o f c ul t u r e out of s a m e t he i de a l i z e d pe r c e pt i on of t he s t a nda r d c u l t ur e t ha t a t t r a c t e d t he P a r r ot H e a ds P a r a di s e L os t : T he C a r ni va l e s que of S i n B y t he e a r l y 1980 s N e w W a ve m us i c a nd c ul t ur e ha d be c om e t he m a i ns t r e a m s ound. L i ght c l e ve r a nd r om a nt i c m us i c dom i na t e d t he a i r w a ve s M t l e y C r e w e nt a ga i ns t t he t r e nd a nd c r e a t e d a r oc k a nd r ol l he a vi l y i nf l ue nc e d by m e t a l a nd punk W hi l e doi ng s o, t he y s c r i pt e d a c ha r a c t e r know n a s M t l e y C r e f r om t he i r de c a de nt l i f e s t yl e A ne w r he t or i c ha s be e n c r e a t e d f o r a n a udi e nc e t h a t goe s be yond t he i r ni hi l i s t f a ns i n t he 1980 s a nd ha s gi ve n t he m a c ont e m por a r y a udi e nc e of m e n a nd w om e n w ho ha ve l i ve d t hr ough t he i r ow n t r i a l s a nd e r r o r s t he pr om ot e r s de m ogr a phi c i s m e n 24

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17 54 a nd w om e n of t he s a m e a ge s ( B i ondo) T he g r oup c a t e r e d a c a r ni va l e s que of ni hi l i s m t o t he young u r ba ni t e s i n t he i r e a r l y ye a r s a nd t he y o f f e r t he i r s t or y t o pr ovi de a c a r ni va l e s que of s i n t o t hos e w ho ha ve s uf f e r e d t hr ough t he a ngs t a nd a nxi e t y of t he l a s t 25 ye a r s T he c onc e pt o f s ur vi va l pe r m e a t e s t he C a r ni va l of S i n t ou r w hi l e t he a bs e nc e of hope s a t ur a t e s 1987 s G i r l s G i r l s G i r l s t our T he di f f e r e nc e c a n be s e e n i n a c om pa r i s on of t he l yr i c s of 1987 s W i l d S i de a n d 2005 s I f I D i e T om or r ow a nd a r e a di ng of t he dr a m a t i c m om e nt s i n t he gr oup s pe r s ona l l i ve s I n t he i r 2001 a ut obi og r a phy, T he D i r t t he m e m be r s of M t l e y C r e a dm i t t o ha vi ng ha d t r oubl e d c hi l dhoods t r a ve l i ng f r om ho m e t o hom e a nd f or m i ng t he ba nd ( L e e ) F r om t ha t poi nt e a c h m e m be r f e l l i nt o ob l i vi on a nd r e t u r ne d. J ung poi nt s out t ha t a n e a r l y C hr i s t i a n r i t ua l of s ym pa t he t i c m a gi c i s m a r ke d i n t he L a t i n pr a ye r O G od w ho t hr ough t hy S on w ho i s c a l l e d t he c o r ne r s t one ha s t br ought t he f i r e o f t hy l i ght t o t he f a i t hf ul m a ke ho l y f o r ou r f u t ur e us e t hi s ne w f i r e s t r uc k f r om t he f i r e s t one B y t he a na l ogy of C hr i s t w i t h t he c o r ne r s t one t he f i r e s t on e i s br ought up t o t he l e ve l o f C hr i s t hi m s e l f ( J ung P or t a bl e 35 ) A nd by t he i r s a c r i f i c e s t he ba nd m e m be r s t he f i r e s t one s ha ve br ought f i r e t o t he l i s t e ne r s ps yc hi c l a nds c a p e s a nd ha ve be c om e t he C hr i s t / D i onys us t ha t de s t r oys a nd br i ngs c ha ot i c pl e a s ur e t hr ough t he i r ow n s a c r i f i c e E d i t h H a m i l t on pr e s e nt s D i ony s us a s one w ho br i ngs pl e a s ur e t o ot he r s t hr ough hi s s uf f e r i ng a nd w ho, a t t he s a m e t i m e de s t r oys hi s s e l f T hi s s t r a nge god, t he ga y r e ve l e r t he c r ue l hunt e r t he l of t y i ns pi r e r w a s a l s o t he s uf f e r e r H e l i ke D e m e t e r w a s a f f l i c t e d, not be c a us e of gr i e f f o r a not he r a s s he w a s but be c a us e of hi s ow n pa i n H e w a s t he vi ne w hi c h i s a l w a ys pr une d a s not hi ng e l s e t ha t be a r s f r ui t ; e v e r y br a nc h c ut a w a y,

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18 onl y t he ba r e s t oc k l e f t ; t hr ough t he w i nt e r a de a d t hi ng t o l ook a t a n ol d gna r l e d s t um p s e e m i ng i nc a pa bl e of e ve r put t i ng f or t h l e a ve s a ga i n. L i ke P e r s e phone D i onys us di e d w i t h t he c om i ng of t he c ol d. U nl i ke he r hi s de a t h w a s t e r r i bl e : he w a s t or n t o p i e c e s [ ] H e w a s t he a s s ur a nc e t ha t de a t h doe s not e nd a l l ( 74 75 ) N i kki S i xx f or m e d a n i nc r e di bl e he r oi n ha bi t dur i n g w hi c h he ove r dos e d a nd w a s pr onounc e d de a d. A dr e na l i ne s hot s br ought hi m b a c k t o l i f e but he c he c ke d hi m s e l f out of t he hos pi t a l a nd s hot up m or e t ha n he e ve r ha d b e f or e H e t a ke s on t he r ol e of t he l e a de r w ho di e s a nd r e t u r ns f or a l l m a n s s i ns a he r o w ho c a n p r e a c h t o t he ul t r a s e c ul a r t he l e s s on of i ndi vi dua l s t r i um phi ng a nd f i ndi ng s e c ul a r va l ue s a f t e r t he ba t t l e V i nc e N e i l i nj e c t e d c oc a i ne t o t he de t r i m e nt of t he ba nd, a nd w he n he c a m e c l e a n, he be ga n dr i nki ng he a vi l y. D ur i ng a pa r t y he a nd a f r i e nd d r ove t o t he l i quo r s t or e a nd on t he r e t u r n, he w r e c ke d, ki l l i ng hi s f r i e nd a nd c a us i ng br a i n da m a ge t o s om e one i n a not he r c a r L a t e r he w a t c he d hi s f ou r ye a r ol d da ught e r s uc c um b t o c a nc e r H e be c a m e be s t know n f or hi s phys i c a l l y vi ol e nt be ha vi o r I n a 2005 doc um e nt a r y, R e m a ki ng V i nc e N e i l he goe s t h r ough a t r a ns f or m a t i on w he r e he q ui t s dr i nki ng a nd unde r goe s pl a s t i c s ur ge r y. H e ha s l i t e r a l l y t r a ns f or m e d hi s a ppe a r a nc e a nd i m pl i c i t l y t r a ns f or m e d h i s i de nt i t y. N o l onge r t he de ba uc he d, t he a s c e t i c goe s ba c k t o be a s uc c e s s i n hi s ow n m i nd M i c k M a r s ha s hi s ow n m e nt a l c ol l a ps e w he n und e r t r e a t m e nt f or de pr e s s i on, l e a vi ng hi m w i t h a di a gnos i s of s c hi z ophr e ni a on t op of hi s de ge ne r a t i ve bone di s e a s e A dd t o t ha t a s t r i ng of f a i l e d r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd a hi p r e pl a c e m e nt be f or e t he 2005 t our a nd he be c om e s t he ul t i m a t e s ur vi vo r o f t he f a i l i ng body a nd o f t he f a l s e pr om i s e of l ove

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19 H e s e t out on t he 2005 t ou r w hi l e be i ng s ue d by a f or m e r gi r l f r i e nd. L i ke B e c k W e a t he r s he f ound t he s t r e ngt h t o f e nd of f de s pa i r a nd r e e nt e r hi s l i f e T om m y L e e f a c e d publ i c hum i l i a t i on a nd ba d r e l a t i ons hi ps T w o f a i l e d m a r r i a ge s a p r i va t e s e x t a pe m a de publ i c a nd t i m e i n pr i s on f or s pous a l a bus e ga ve hi m r e a s on t o s hr i nk f r om t he s pot l i ght but he i ns t e a d f or m e d hi s ow n ba nd a nd now c l a i m s t o be de di c a t e d t o hi s c hi l dr e n. H e i s on t he s pi r a l a nd c a n onl y s e e f a l s e pe a ks I n t he c om bi ne d c ha r a c t e r of t he ba nd t he he r o, t h e m ys t i c a nd t he pow e r o f a n i ndi vi dua l c r e a t e a s e ns e of s oc i a l l y a c c e pt a bl e c ha nge t ha t r e f l e c t s a he i ght e ne d s e ns e of s e l f I ni t i a l r e l e a s e s s uc h a s W i l d S i de i n t he 19 80 s pl a ys on ni hi l i s m a nd i m m e di a c y, but a f t e r e xpe r i e nc i ng t ha t l i f e s t yl e a nd s ur vi vi ng t he y r e f l e c t w i t h ne w unde r s t a ndi ng i n I f I D i e T om o r r ow de m ons t r a t i ng t he know l e dg e of f a l s e s um m i t s a nd a c ont i nue d de s i r e t o t r y T he s e s ongs e s t a bl i s h a c ont i nuum f or t he l i s t e ne r s w hos e l i ve s ha ve c ha nge d f r om f a t a l i s m t o be c om i ng s ke pt i c a l c om pone nt s of t he p r ogr e s s na r r a t i ve o f m i ddl e c l a s s A m e r i c a W i l d S i de be gi ns w i t h t he l yr i c s : K ne e l dow n you s i nne r s t o s t r e e t w i s e r e l i gi on / G r e e d s be e n c r ow ne d t he ne w K i ng ( M t l e y) S e c ul a r pow e r s r un by t he de s i r e f or m one y r e pl a c e s t he c onc e pt of r e l i gi on T hi s s e c ul a r r e l i gi on i s a dogm a t ha t m u s t c ont a i n r ul e s c r e a t e d by t he f e a r of de a t h f r o m s e c ul a r gods D e a t h i s no l onge r a pa s s a ge be c a us e he a ve n a nd he l l e xi s t i n t he p r e s e nt T he c onc e pt o f r e w a r d a nd puni s hm e nt ha s m ove d f r om t he a f t e r l i f e t o t he pr e s e nt l i f e D i onys us i s be i ng r i ppe d t o pi e c e s T he m e t a l c ul t u r e s vi e w of puni s hm e nt a nd r e w a r d w a s r e f l e c t e d i n t he vi de os a nd s ongs of t he t i m e P ove r t y de s pe r a t i on o f bl u e c ol l a r l i f e a nd r e nunc i a t i on o f t he

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20 pr ot e s t a nt e t hi c m a de w a y f or s e x, dr ugs a nd vi ol e nt out bur s t s S ki d R ow s vi d e o 18 a nd L i f e de m ons t r a t e d a t ypi c a l m e t a l m a l e yout h : hi s f a t he r l i t e r a l l y t h r ow s hi m out of t he door ; he l i ve s i n a r un dow n ne i ghbor hood; he c om m i t s r obbe r y; he dr i nks t oo m uc h; a nd he a c c i de nt a l l y s hoot s hi s f r i e nd e ndi ng hi s o w n t or t ur e d l i f e i n t he w or l d f or one i n pr i s on ( S ki d R ow ) T hi s f or m a t c a n onl y be j uxt a pos e d by s ongs l i ke M t l e y C r e s G i r l s G i r l s G i r l s w hi c h s how t he ba nd on m ot o r c yc l e s t a t t ooe d, d r e s s e d i n bl a c k l e a t he r pus hi ng t he i r w a y i n t o a s t r i p c l ub, t hr e a t e ni ng a pa t r on w i t h a s w i t c hbl a de a nd t he n e nj oyi ng t he s t r i p s how s w hi l e pr a i s i ng t he s e xua l a s pe c t s of gi r l s ( M t l e y ) L i f e e qua l s H e l l a nd pl e a s ur e i s t he s i n w hi c h w oul d b e c om m i t t e d t o r e l i e ve t he t or t ur e T hi s m yt h ha s t o ha ve a ne w l a ngua ge t ha t f i t s w i t h t h e c onc e p t of i m m e di a t e gr a t i f i c a t i on f ol l ow e d by a n e ve nt ua l de a t h. T he f ol l ow i ng ve r s e e s t a bl i s he s C hr i s t i a n r he t or i c a s a de a d, or m oc ke d, l a ngua ge t o of f e r a f or m t o t hi s c onc e pt G od be c om e s a s r e a l a s S a nt a C l a us t o a n a dul t a nd t he t e r m i nol og y ha s be e n f i t t e d t o a s t r uc t u r e of de s pa i r m i xe d w i t h s e l f r e l i a nc e I c a r r y m y c r uc i f i x U nde r m y de a t h l i s t F or w a r d m y m a i l t o m e i n he l l L i a r s a nd t he m a r t yr s L os t f a i t h i n T he F a t he r L ong l os t i s t he w i s hi ng w e l l ( M t l e y) T he c r uc i f i x i s hi dde n unde r ha t r e d or a s e ns e t ha t hol di ng pow e r i s t he onl y s a l va t i on. H e l l i s t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he l i f e s poke n a nd t he ongoi ng puni s hm e nt of e xi s t i ng i n t he s i t ua t i on T he r e a ppe a r s t o be no be ne f i c e nt pr e s e nc e t o pr ot e c t t he c ha r a c t e r or t he e m pa t he t i c l i s t e ne r be c a us e t he w i s hi ng w e l l a nd hope ha ve pa s s e d i nt o a n e m pt y f a i r y t a l e T hi s hope l e s s ne s s m i xe d w i t h f e a r pr ope l s t he oc c upi e r s of t he

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21 s ong s w or l d t o be w a r r i o r s t o s ur vi ve but t he ba t t l e i s a ga i ns t a l l ow i ng de a t h t o be t he dom i na nt m ot i va t i o n f or how t he y c hoos e t o l i ve T hi s c om pa r e s t o t he be l i e f t ha t a nge l s f e l l f r om he a ve n be c a us e t he y t r i e d t o w a ge a pow e r m ove a ga i ns t G od but t he y di d not ha ve t he pow e r t o s uc c e e d. T he l i ve s de s c r i be d by t he s ong s na r r a t o r w a ge w a r a ga i ns t t he nor m a l c y, know i ng t he y ha ve no hope of a pe r m a ne nt vi c t or y I t i s a f ut i l e a t t e m pt c om pe l l e d by pr i de a nd t he de s i r e f or s t a t ur e or pow e r t oke ns of va l ue i n H e l l T hi s r e f l e c t s t he j a r gon i n m a ny of t he o t he r l yr i c s T hy ki ngdom c om e c om e s f r o m t he C hr i s t i a n L or d s P r a y e r a nd i s f ol l ow e d i n t he r e l i g i ous t e xt by t hy w i l l be done on e a r t h a s i t i s i n he a ve n, but i n t he s ong i t i s f ol l ow e d by O ur f a t he r / W ho a i n't i n he a ve n/ B e t hy na m e on t he w i l d s i de ( M t l e y) T he s pe a ke r de ve l ops hi s i de nt i t y a s a C hr i s t f i gu r e b or n onl y t o be s a c r i f i c e d. T he F a t he r G od i s not i n he a ve n, a nd t he s a c r i f i c e w i l l onl y be ne ga t i ve I n t he f i na l pa r t of t he s ong, P a pa w on t be hom e t oni ght / f ound de a d i n t he a r m s of hi s be s t f r i e nd s w i f e r e f l e c t s t he s e c ul a r f a t he r a l s o i nc a pa bl e of l e ndi ng s t r e ngt h. A nd H ol y M a r y/ m ot he r m a y I / P r a y f or us on t he w i l d s i de t ur ns M a r y i nt o t he c hi l d p l a yi ng t he ga m e w he r e s he a ns w e r s a que s t i on w hi l e t r yi ng t o t r i c k t he s pe a ke r i nt o a c t i ng s e l f di r e c t e d pr a ye r w i l l c a us e hi m t o l os e I t c a n a l s o be s e e n a s a n e qua t i o n of a s a i nt s i nt e r ve nt i on be i ng a s di m i nut i ve a s t he c hi l d r e n s ga m e D i onys us pr e di c t s hi s ow n de s t r uc t i on a nd t ha t of t he s ong s l i s t e ne r s T he s ong be c om e s c om pl e t e l y s e c ul a r a nd i t e nds m or a l l y que s t i one d de a t h. T he l yr i c s r e f e r t o s t r e e t v i ol e nc e a nd dr ugs c r e a t i ng a f i ni t e e xi s t e nc e out of w ha t w oul d ha ve be e n, i n r e l i gi ous t e r m s j udge d by G od a nd p uni s he d or f o r gi ve n. T he e xi s t e nc e w i t hi n t hi s w or l d i s pr e s e nt a nd f i na l T he r e i s no hi nt of a ny a f t e r l i f e but t he vi ol e nc e of

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22 t he w or l d c r e a t e s a f oc us e d s t r uggl e t o s ur vi ve w i t h de f i ni t e c ons e que nc e s T he s pe a ke r l i ve s i n a c yc l e w i t hout e ve n a n e xpe c t a t i on o f a M a r ga r i t a vi l l e r e ne w a l T he l i f e di c t a t e s one m us t e xi s t or c e a s e t o be be c a us e t he r e i s N o w a y ba c k f r om t he w i l d s i de ( M t l e y) B ut t ha t ni hi l i s m b r e a ks dow n i n I f I D i e T om o r r ow a nd t he vi de o p r om ot i ng t he s ong. T he l y r i c s i n t he f i r s t s t a nz a e s t a bl i s h t he s pe a ke r a s a n i ndi vi dua l r e ga i ni ng a s e l f r e a l i z a t i on t ha t ha s be e n l os t by l e t t i ng pr e s e nt c on c e r ns c l oud t he f a c t of ha vi ng s ur vi ve d w or s e i n t he pa s t I w a ke up t o f i nd m ys e l f A f t e r a l l t he s e ye a r s A nd w he r e a l l t he t i m e ha s gone S t i l l s e e m s s o unc l e a r 'C a us e t he r e 's no one e l s e S i nc e I f ound you ( S i xx) T he l yr i c s s ound l i ke a l ove s ong, but t he vi de o i m a ge s s how a de pr e s s e d w om a n w a l ki ng a r ound a n a r t ga l l e r y, a nd e a c h pa i nt i ng pl a c e s he r i n t he ps yc he of a ba nd m e m be r r e l i vi ng t he i r m os t publ i c pr obl e m W i t h N e i l s c a r c r a s h, M a r s he a l t h L e e s i m pr i s onm e nt a nd S i xx s ove r d os e t he gi r l e nds u p vi c a r i ous l y l i vi ng t he i r m os t pa i nf ul m om e nt s A s t he ba nd p l a ys a n i nt e ns e vi ol e nt s e s s i on, s he be gi ns t o ge t i nt o t he m us i c a nd da nc e pr om pt i ng he r c l ot hi ng t o c ha nge t o a b i ki ni S he doe s not da nc e f or or t o t he ba nd, a nd s he doe s not da nc e f o r t he vi e w e r H e r body l a ngua ge r e m a i ns c om pl e t e l y s e l f a bs or be d f l ow i ng i n a nd out of a s pi r a l i ng A m e r i c a n f l a g t ha t ha s ha d t he bl ue r e pl a c e d w i t h m or e r e d. S he br e a ks out o f t he pa i n t i ng, ha ppy a nd r e j uve na t e d. S he a s w i t h a l l di s c us s e d w ho f i nd t he i nne r pe a k ha s f ound pe a c e a nd c ont e nt m e nt B ut ne i t he r M t l e y C r e no r S t J oh n, e ve r s t a t e t ha t t he pe a c e w i l l r e m a i n

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23 a t a pi nna c l e O ne c a n onl y f i nd i t w i t hi n one s s e l f unde r s t a nd t ha t i t e xi s t s t he r e a nd r e t ur n f o r r e j uve na t i on. I s pe nt a l l m y l i f e L ooki ng f o r ou r i nnoc e nc e I 've got not hi ng t o l os e O ne t hi ng t o pr ove I w on't m a ke t he s a m e m i s t a ke s N ow I know T ha t e ve r yt hi ng w i l l be ok W he n I di e t om or r ow I n a W a s hi ngt on P os t i nt e r vi e w S i xx s pe a ks a bout t he m ovi e ba s e d on T he D i r t a nd he r e f l e c t s a vi e w t ha t s how s t he ba nd, a s a g r oup o f i ndi vi dua l s c r e a t e d a n a m a l ga m t ha t l e d t o t he c ha r a c t e r of M t l e y C r e t ha t f a s t e ne d t h e i r i ndi vi dua l i t i e s i nt o a uni s on t ha t pr ot e c t e d t he m f r om t he i r w e a kne s s e s I nt e r vi e w e r : S i xx i ns i s t s t he m ovi e w i l l not s i m pl y be a r e c a p o f hi gh a nd or l ow l i gh t s but a r oc k r oot e d s ur vi va l s t or y. S i xx: T ha t i s our s t or y. I t doe s n't m a t t e r i f t he ba c kgr ound i s f oot ba l l pl a ye r s or boxi ng or c a r r a c i ng T o m e t he r oc k 'n' r ol l l i f e s t yl e i s no m or e i m por t a nt t h a n a nybody e l s e 's s t or y. I t 's t he s t or y o f f ou r guys out c a s t s of s oc i e t y, w ho got t oge t he r a nd pu t t oge t he r s om e t hi ng t ha t w e ha d t o s ur vi ve be c a us e i t 's s o pot e nt ( H a r r i ngt on ) A nd s ur vi va l r e m a i ns t he ke y t he m e t o a n a udi e nc e w ho m a y not ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d t he de c a de nc e of t he ba nd, bu t w ho ha ve l i ve d i n a s up e r m ode r n w or l d of di s c onne c t a nd a nxi e t y. T he c onc e r t s pr ov i de a ve nue w he r e m i dd l e a ge d w om e n c a n w a l k a r ound i n r e ve a l i ng t a nk t ops a nd t i ght s ki r t s t ha t do not a l l o w t he m t o s i t B a l d m e n c a n r a i s e t he i r de vi l s hor ns f i s t ( i nde x a nd pi nky f i nge r e xt e nde d ) a nd pum p t he a i r l i ke t e e na ge w a r r i or s f ue l e d by t e s t os t e r one a nd a dr e na l i ne Y u ppi e s c a n c om e s e e t he f r e a k s how s t a ge a c t a nd t he i nf a m ous ba nd a nd know t ha t a r o und t he w a t e r c ool e r t he y c a n t e l l

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24 gos s i p a bout how N e i l s pl a s t i c s ur ge r y w e nt w hi l e s e c r e t l y de c i di ng i f B ot ox w i l l be w or t h t he i r t i m e A nyone c a n go s e e t he ba nd t ha t s ur vi ve d a nd vi c a r i ous l y r e a l i z e t he i r m unda ne s ur vi va l i n t he C a r ni va l ( e s que ) of S i n T he S a c r e d P r of a ne M t l e y C r e a nd J i m m y B uf f e t t i nve r t t he m i ddl e a ge a s c e t i c vi e w t o r e ve r t i t t o a pr e C hr i s t i a n, pa ga n c e l e br a t i on T he y c om pl a i n b e c a us e t he y do not ha ve e ve r yt hi ng w or l dl y t ha t t he y w a nt unl i ke t he m e di e va l a s c e t i c s w ho w a nt e d not hi ng t ha t w oul d br i ng c om f o r t unt i l t he a f t e r l i f e T he y f i nd t he m s e l ve s i n a pa r a dox o f T he r e s a s f i f t h l e ve l of be i ng uns a t i s f i e d w i t h t he w or l dl y be c a us e t he w or l dl y i s a l l t ha t e xi s t s C r e a t i ng a c a r ni va l e s que t ha t e xa gge r a t e s a nd de f l a t e s t he s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e s t ha t oppr e s s t he m B ut bot h i n t he s e c ul a r pr e s e nt a nd t he C hr i s t i a n pa s t a s c e t i c i s m w he t he r or not c hos e n, be gi ns a s a ne e d f or t he pi l gr i m t o e s c a pe e ve r yda y l i f e a nd onl y t he r he t o r i c of t he c ul t ur e ( m ys t i c o r s e c ul a r ) a l l ow s f or t he c om m uni c a t i on of t he i nt e r na l i z e d e xpe r i e nc e o r f or a c t i ng out t he c r i s i s of e xi s t e nc e a s a r ow dy f a n or a s a hi gh a l t i t ude m ount a i ne e r

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25 C ha pt e r T hr e e : T he R e l i gi ous P i l gr i m a ge T he D a r kne s s of t he S oul J ungi a n t e r m s a nd c onc e pt s c a n he l p c ha r t t he s pi r i t ua l a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l m i nd. J ung s m i nd i nc l ude s a n e go, a n unc ons c i ous a pe r s ona a nd s e l f T he pe r s ona m a s ks t he ot he r f i e l ds m a ki ng one a ppe a r i ndi vi dua l t o one s e l f a nd ot he r s i n s oc i a l r ol e s U nc ons c i ous e l e m e nt s i nhe r i t e d i m a ge s a nd l i bi do s of pr i m a l m a n a nd w om a n, a r e ne c e s s a r y f or t he e go a nd s e l f t o f unc t i on, but t he y be c om e di s r upt i ve i f e go or s e l f i de nt i f i e s w i t h t he m c r e a t i ng a c or r up t c om pl e x. T he e go, t he c e nt r a l c om pl e x of e xpe r i e nc e a nd unc ons c i ous i m pr e s s i ons i s c onf us e d w i t h s e l f unde r s t a ndi ng a nd t he s e l f i s t he e nt i r e t y of t he ps yc he w ha t J ung s a i d, m i ght e qua l l y w e l l be c a l l e d t he G od w i t hi n us or t he r oot s of our w hol e ps yc hi c l i f e ( S ha r p 49, J ung 7: 238 ) T he pr oc e s s of i ndi vi dua t i on o r t he m ove m e nt t o pe r s ona l a w a r e ne s s of t he ps yc hi c c om pone nt s m a y us e r e l i gi ous s ym bol s t o i nt e r p r e t t he e go s a w a r e ne s s of t he pr i m a l e l e m e nt s dur i ng t he s t r a i n a s t he m or e s of s oc i e t y c onf l i c t w i t h l i b i dos W he n one c om e s t o t e r m s w i t h a w a y of be i ng i n a s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e w hi l e not a l l ow i ng t h e dr i ve s a nd de s i r e s t o c ont r ol be ha vi or or be w hol l y s uppr e s s e d by t he s oc i a l c ondi t i ons t he s t r a i n ba l a nc e s a nd a ps yc hi c w hol e ne s s i s r e a l i z e d. A pe r s on c a n l ook a t t he w o r l d s ubj e c t i ve l y w i t hout f e a r o f i t l ooki ng ba c k w i t h a pi e r c i n g obj e c t i ve s t a r e o f de nounc e m e nt I nt o t he D a r k N i ght I n T he A s c e nt of M ount V e nt oux, P e t r a r c h de m ons t r a t e s t he qua l i t y of t he c om pe l l e d t r a ve l e r on a j our ne y t ha t m a ke s l i t t l e s e ns e t o hi m H e w a nt s t o c l i m b t he

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26 m ount a i n, but he doe s not ha ve a va l i d r e a s on. H e pi c ks hi s br ot he r t o a c c om pa ny hi m a nd c onde m ns hi s f r i e nds pe r s ona l i t y de f e c t s s i nc e on a j our ne y s uc h w e a kne s s e s be c om e m or e s e r i ous ( P e t r a r c a 12) H e br e a ks f r om s oc i e t y a nd e m ba r ks on t he c l i m b A s he phe r d, w ho s um m i t e d be f or e w a r ns P e t r a r c h t ha t t he r e w a s not hi ng va l ua bl e e nough t o ba l a nc e t he puni s hm e nt o f t he c l i m b. W he n he ge t s t o t he s um m i t P e t r a r c h r e a ds a quot e f r o m A ugus t i ne t ha t c ons t r uc t s a ne o pl a t oni c a r gum e nt on t he c onne c t i on of body t o s oul a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on of t he m i nd i n w hi c h t he pe r c e pt i on of t he w or l d t hr ough body s e ns e s pr ovi de s m e m or i e s a nd s ym bol s t ha t a l l ow a m i nd t o r e a s on t ha t G od e xi s t s P e t r a r c h doe s not unde r s t a nd t he t e xt but he r e a l i z e s t ha t he doe s not pos s e s s t he s pi r i t ua l r e w a r ds o f hi s b r o t he r A ugus t i ne o r hi s c onf e s s or H e s t i l l de s i r e s t he pe a c e a nd m us t c ont i nue l ooki ng a t V e nt oux s s um m i t o n hi s de s c e nt e xpl a i ni ng t he unc e r t a i nt y or s ha m e t ha t pr e ve nt e d hi m f r om s e nd i ng t hi s l e t t e r t o hi s c on f e s s or S t J ohn o f t he C r os s di s pl a ys t h e oppos i t e r e a c t i on on t he s um m i t J ohn us e s t he da r k ni ght a nd a m ount a i n m ot i f t o s how a pos i t i ve s um m i t e xpe r i e nc e i n T he A s c e nt of M ount C a r m e l a w o r k t ha t be gi ns a s a n e xpl a na t i o n of a c ont e m pl a t i ve poe m w hi c h of t e n i nc l ude d a m a p dr a w n by J ohn of t he s pi r i t ua l pi l gr i m a ge H e of f e r s hi s t he or y of c ont e m pl a t i ve s pi r i t ua l i s m a s t e s t a m e nt t o hi s s pi r i t ua l s um m i t a nd gui de f or t he m e n, w om e n, a nd c l e r gy of t he di s c a l c e d C a r m e l i t e s T he poe m e xpr e s s e s t he m e a ni ng of de e p c ont e m pl a t i on i n a n a l l e go r i c r e nde z vous w he r e t h e s pe a ke r s ne a ks out of he r hous e i nt o t he ni ght f i nds he r l ove r a nd e nj oys s e xua l bl i s s I f one a ppl i e s J ung s i de a of t he s e l f a s pa r t of t he c ol l e c t i ve unc ons c i ous t he G od pow e r t o S t J ohn s uni on c onc e pt t he da r k ni ght m ot i f s houl d be e xpl or e d a s a ps yc hi c j our ne y. J ung w r i t e s t he c om pl e t e s w a l l ow i ng up a nd di s a ppe a r a nc e of t he he r o i n t h e be l l y of t he dr a gon r e pr e s e nt s t he

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27 c om pl e t e w i t hdr a w a l of i nt e r e s t f r om t he out e r w or l d, a nd S ha r p a dds I n t he l a ngua ge of t he m ys t i c s i t i s t he da r k ni ght of t he s oul ( J un g 8: 36 S ha r p 91) I n J ohn s T he S a yi ngs of L i ght a nd L ove he s a ys W ha t G od s e e ks he be i ng hi m s e l f G od by na t ur e i s t o m a ke us gods t hr ough pa r t i c i pa t i on j us t a s f i r e c onve r t s a l l t hi ngs i nt o f i r e ( S t J ohn 93) F or J ohn, t he a c t of c om m uni ng w i t h G od r e q ui r e s t he pa r t i c i pa t or y a c t of f a i t h t ha t a l l ow s one t o e nt e r t he da r kne s s S t a nz a s e xpl a i ne d i n T he A s c e nt of M ount C a r m e l i nt r oduc e s S t J ohn s r oa d t o G od c onc e pt a nd t he J ungi a n c onc e pt of r e bi r t h ( S t J ohn 113 14 ) H e e xpl a i ns hi s c onc e pt a s a m e t a phor of a m ount a i n w i t h pa t hs t o f a l s e s um m i t s of w or l dl y de s i r e s a nd a t r ue pa t h t ha t r e nounc e s a l l w or l d l y de s i r e s t ha t ha s a s i m i l a r f unc t i on a s T he r e s a s s e ve n m a ns i ons T he pa t h up t he m ount a i n f oc u s e s on T he r e s a s a nd J ung s f i f t h l e ve l s w he r e w or l dl y de s i r e s m us t be gi ve n up a nd t he unc ons c i ous m us t be e m br a c e d. T he poe m be gi ns a f t e r t he f i f t h l e ve l ha s be e n pa s s e d. I n t he f i r s t s t a nz a J ohn de f i ne s t he ni ght a s a pur g a t i on of t he s e ns e s a nd i n t he s e c ond s t a nz a a s a p ur ga t i on of t he s pi r i t J ohn de f i ne s t he hi e r a r c hy o f a m i nd a s : a l l t he na t ur a l a nd s upe r na t ur a l a ppr e he ns i ons of t he i nt e l l e c t ; s e c ond, t he i nt e l l e c t unde r s t a nds t hr ough t he body s e ns e s a nd s upe r na t ur a l know l e dge [ t ha t i s ] i m pa r t e d t o t he i nt e l l e c t i n a w a y t r a ns c e ndi ng t he i nt e l l e c t s n a t ur a l a bi l i t y a nd c a pa c i t y ; t hi r d s upe r na t ur a l know l e dge c a n c om e t hr ough t he s e ns e s or a l l t ha t t he i m a gi na t i on c a n a ppr e he nd, f or m or f a s hi on ; f our t h s pi r i t ua l kno w l e dge i s e i t he r di s t i nc t o r va gue da r k, a nd ge ne r a l ; t he pa r t i c ul a r know l e dge unde r s t a nds t hr ough vi s i ons r e ve l a t i ons l oc ut i ons a nd s pi r i t ua l f e e l i ngs ; t he da r k a nd ge n e r a l know l e dge i s c ont e m pl a t i on ( S t J ohn 178 79) J ohn c onne c t s w i t h t he m i nd w i t h a s upe r na t ur a l c a pa c i t y, s o bodi l y s e ns e s

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28 a nd i m a gi na t i ve s e ns e s w or k i n uni s on t o a c qui r e a c onne c t i on w i t h G od a nd c ons t r uc t a know l e dge t ha t e xi s t s be c a us e of c ont e m pl a t i on. W e ha ve t o l e a d t he s oul t o t h i s c ont e m pl a t i on by gui di ng i t t hr ough a l l t he s e ot he r a ppr e h e ns i ons a nd di ve s t i ng i t o f t he m be gi nni ng w i t h t he f i r s t ( S t J ohn 178) O n c e t he know l e dge ha s be e n a c qui r e d, t he e l e m e nt s t ha t bui l d a pe r s on s pe r c e pt i ons of t h e w or l d m us t be f or f e i t e d a nd no t a ppl i e d be c a us e t he y a r e i nc a pa bl e of i n t e r pr e t i ng t he know l e dge T hi s s how s how P e t r a r c h s r e l i a nc e on t he l i t e r a l l e ve l o f hi s pe r c e pt i ons of na t ur e w oul d ne ve r a l l ow hi m t o r e a c h a s pi r i t ua l pe a c e a w hol e ne s s a c c or di ng t o t he m ys t i c s O ne m a y s e e a n e xt e r na l m e a ni ng t o J ohn s phi l os ophy a nd poe m i f one l ooks a t t he out s i de f or c e s t ha t s ha pe d hi m a s hi s l i f e i s pr e s e nt e d i n K i e r a n K a va na ugh s B i ogr a phi c a l S ke t c h ( S t J ohn 9 28 ) H e w a s r a i s e d by a s i ngl e i m pove r i s he d m ot he r a nd t he l oc a l C hur c h gu i de d hi m t hr ough a s e r i e s o f f a i l e d a ppr e nt i c e s hi ps i n e ve r yt hi ng f r om c a r pe nt r y t o s c ul pt ur e un t i l hi s c om pa s s i on w or ki ng w i t h t he i l l i ns pi r e d a hos pi t a l di r e c t or t o a f f or d hi m a n e duc a t i on ( S t J ohn 9 28 ) J ohn e nt e r e d t he uni ve r s i t y a t S a l a m a nc a a t a t i m e w he n f a c t i ons of s c hol a r s w e r e a t odds : t he s c h ol a s t i c s t r a di t i ona l i s t s i n t he c hu r c h doc t r i ne a nd s c r i pt u r i s t s r e vi s i oni s t s w i t h a hum a ni s t i c c onc e r n f or i nc or por a t i ng c ont e m por a r y s c i e nc e a nd l a ngua ge s t udi e s t o t he s c r i pt u r e s A l t hough hi s s c hol a r s hi p w e nt w e l l he l e f t f e e l i ng t ha t no one kne w a de f i ni t e t r ut h a nd t ha t pe opl e c oul d onl y l e a r n m i s t a ke s t o a voi d. H e e nc ount e r e d S t T e r e s a of A vi l a a nd w a s dr a w n t o he r c ont e m pl a t i ve or de r w i t h i t s e qu a l i t y a nd s i nc e r i t y o f pu r pos e A t he r r e que s t S t J ohn j oi ne d t he nuns w i t h t he i nt e nt i on t o c r e a t e a m a l e or de r i n i t s l i ke ne s s but s he l a t e r b r ought hi m i n a s he r c onf e s s or J ohn w a s of t e n i n t he w r ong pl a c e a t t he w r ong t i m e J ohn a nd T e r e s a w e r e s e nt t o A vi l a b y t he F r a nc i s c a n vi s i t a t or F e r n nde z

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29 w ho ha d hi s pow e r f r om P ope P i us V a nd a not he r vi s i t a t or V a r ga s be ga n e s t a bl i s hi ng ne w C a r m e l i t e or de r s i n A nda l us i a w hi c h w e nt a g a i ns t t he pr i or ge ne r a l s or de r s I n a m e e t i ng i n P i a c e nz a I t a l y, t he C a r m e l i t e O r de r de c i de d t ha t t hos e w ho ha d t a ke n ne w pos i t i ons i n S pa i n, unde r t he a us pi c e s of F e r n nde z a nd V a r ga s s houl d be puni s he d f or di s obe di e nc e i f t he y di d not c onf e s s gui l t T os t a do w a s s e nt by t he O r de r t o r e f o r m t he di s c a l c e d gr oups i n S pa i n. I n a pa pa l br i e f G r e go r y X I I I or de r e d t he D om i ni c a n vi s i t a t i on no l onge r va l i d, a nd a ne w s e t of v i s i t a t or s w oul d ha ve pow e r K i ng P hi l i p I I di d not w a nt c hur c h r e f or m i n S pa i n t o p r oc e e d w i t hout hi s a ppr ova l but nunc i o N i c ol s O r m a ne t o, w or ki ng a s a b r i dge be t w e e n t he ki ng a nd R om e a ppoi nt e d G r a c i n a s vi s i t a t or t o A nda l us i a D ur i ng t hi s t i m e J ohn a nd T e r e s a w e r e s e pa r a t e d, a nd J ohn, be i ng i n a pol i t i c a l l y s e ns i t i ve pos i t i on, s ought t o l e a ve t he or de r T he nunc i o pr ot e c t e d hi m but a f t e r O r m a ne t o s de a t h, T os t a do o r de r e d J ohn i m pr i s one d. W hi l e i n i s ol a t i on, he w r ot e poe t r y a nd f or m ul a t e d hi s t he or y of t r a ns c e nde nc e t o be c om i ng one w i t h G od. T he ne w nunc i o, S e ga t r i e d t o r e i gn i n t he ve l oc i t y of t he s pr e a di ng di s c a l c e d or de r s but t he ki ng t ook i nt e r e s t a nd a ne w nunc i o w a s a ppoi nt e d. J ohn w a s t he n m ove d t o t he out s ki r t s of t he or de r unt i l m or e f a vor a bl e e nt i t i e s ga i ne d pow e r T he f ol l ow i ng di a gr a m de pi c t s S t J ohn i n r e l a t i on t o t he pow e r f i e l ds of hi s l i f e T he + s ym bol de not e s t he a r e a s of hi ghe s t pow e r a nd t he s how s t he l e a s t T he pope t he ki ng a nd t he a c a de m y he l d pow e r ove r J ohn, but pr obl e m s a t t he nunc i o a nd vi s i t a t or l e ve l c a us e d t e ns i on t o de ve l op be t w e e n t he m a i n pow e r f i e l ds of t he C hur c h a nd m ona r c hy. S t J ohn w or ke d a ga i ns t be c om i ng pa r t of a ny pow e r f i e l d a nd on l y ha d t he s uppor t of pow e r by h i s f r i e nds ba r t e r i ng o r by ha p pe ns t a nc e

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30 F i gu r e 2: T h e P ow e r F i e l d s S u r r ou n d i n g S t Jo h n of t h e C r os s J ohn l e f t t he uni ve r s i t y be l i e vi ng t ha t no m a n kno w s a ny a bs ol ut e t r ut h, but he f oc us e d on know l e dge of m i s t a ke s a s a m a ppi ng t o ol t ha t de f i ne s pe r i m e t e r s a s i f a m a n f a l l e n i n a r i ve r w oul d know not t o t r y s a vi ng hi m s e l f by c ont i nua l l y gr a s pi ng a ba nk t ha t c r um bl e s i n hi s ha nd. H e i gnor e d t he ki ng a nd t he pope a nd i s ol a t e d hi m s e l f w i t hi n t he s m a l l or de r o f di s c a l c e d C a r m e l i t e s H i s de pa r t ur e f r om t he a c a de m y dur i ng a b i pa r t i s a n pow e r s t r uggl e a l l ude s t o di s t a s t e f or s t r i c t i nvol ve m e nt P i e r r e B our di e u w r ot e : F i e l ds of c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on pr opos e t o t hos e w ho a r e i nvol ve d i n t he m a s pa c e of pos s i bl e s t ha t t e nds t o or i e nt t he i r r e s e a r c h, e ve n w i t hou t t he i r know i ng i t by de f i ni ng t he uni ve r s e of pr obl e m s r e f e r e nc e s i nt e l l e c t ua l be nc hm a r ks c onc e pt s i n i s m i n s hor t a l l t ha t on e m us t ha ve i n t he ba c k of one s m i nd i n o r de r t o be i n t he ga m e ( 176) I f r e a de r s c ons i de r J ohn s pa s s i ve be ha vi or t ow a r d s oc i e t y w he n r e a di ng S t a nz a s t he n t he y m a y a r gue t ha t t he pa s s i vi t y t o G od i s m o r e t h a n a ps yc hi c e ve nt a nd c a n be Sch o l as t i cs Scri p t u ri s t s Po p e Pi u s V K i n g Ph i l l i p II G r eg o ry X III Car mel i t es v i s i t at o r Fern n d ez N u n ci o O r man et o N u n ci o Seg a + + + v i s i t at o r G r aci n v i s i t at o r T o s t ad o D i s c a l c e d S t J ohn Pi acen z a Co n v en t i o n

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31 a t t r i but e d t o a phi l os ophy de ve l ope d by e xpe r i e nc i ng s e ns e l e s s pow e r f i e l ds c ons t a nt l y pl a yi ng a n i m pe r i a l i s t i c ga m e of t ug of w a r t o a voi d be i ng a bs or be d by t he ot he r t e a m H e w e nt out f r om s oc i e t y i n s e c r e t f or no one s a w [ hi m ] / no r di d [ he ] l ook a t a nyt hi ng/ w i t h no ot he r l i ght or gui de a nd he f ound t he pa s s i ve ga ve hi m m or e i ns i ght i nt o m a n s w or l d a nd s oul ( S t J ohn 114) H e be c a m e a pi l gr i m be c a us e he r e c ogni z e d t he pow e r s t ha t di c t a t e d hi s w or l d a nd he unde r s t ood t ha t t he y ha d no m e a ni ng be yond t he c ont r ol t he y e xe r t e d. F or hi m t o f i nd G od he ha d no c hoi c e but t o e nt e r t he da r k ni ght a nd r e nounc e t he va l i di t y of t he w or l dl y pow e r s H e h a d t o be a n a s c e t i c be c a us e m e a ni ng i n t he s oc i a l r e a l m of hi s w or l d ha d a l r e a dy be e n obl i t e r a t e d by hi s i ns i ght T he M a ns i ons of I nt e r na l C onf l i c t T e r e s a us e s m a ns i ons a s a m e t a phor of he r a bs t r a c t vi s i on of t he s oul I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by F r a y D i e go de Y e pe s ye a r s a f t e r ha vi ng a c onve r s a t i on w i t h T e r e s a w e l e a r n t ha t he r vi s i on w a s o f a be a ut i f ul c r ys t a l gl obe t he ne a r e r one got t o t he c e nt r e t he s t r onge r w a s t he l i ght ; out s i de t he pa l a c e l i m i t s e v e r yt hi ng w a s f oul da r k a nd i n f e s t e d w i t h t oa ds vi pe r s a nd ot he r ve nom ous c r e a t ur e s ( T e r e s a 8) J ung c a l l s a s phe r e s ym bol a w hol e ne s s t ha t t r a ns c e nds c ons c i ou s ne s s [ ] t he s e l f s ym bol s of w hol e ne s s f r e que nt l y oc c ur a t t he be gi nni ng of t he i ndi v i dua t i on pr oc e s s ( J ung 9. 1: 164 65) I n he r t e xt T e r e s a s a ys t ha t s he be ga n t o t hi nk o f t he s oul a s i f i t w e r e a c a s t l e m a de of a s i ngl e di a m ond or o f ve r y c l e a r c r ys t a l i n w hi c h t he r e a r e m a ny r oom s j us t a s i n H e a ve n t he r e a r e m a ny m a ns i ons ( T e r e s a 28) T o go f r om one s e r i e s of m a ns i ons t o t he ne xt c ont e m pl a t i ve pr a ye r m us t de t a c h t he pi l gr i m f r om t he w or l d a nd s i n, a nd G od br i ngs t he m i n t o t he c e nt e r a t t he e nd

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32 T e r e s a s t a t e s t ha t t he out e r l e ve l i s da r k a nd t ha t t h e l i ght c om e s f r om t he c e nt e r s how i ng how s he a nd S t J ohn i nf l ue nc e d e a c h ot h e r s phi l os ophy. T he pi l gr i m e nt e r s t he s oul t hr ough c ont e m pl a t i ve p r a ye r a nd e xpe r i e nc e s s e l f know l e dge i n t he f i r s t m a ns i ons I n t he f i r s t r oom ve nom ous r e pt i l e s r e p r e s e nt t he d e vi l or s ha dow B y t he f i f t h l e ve l t he pi l gr i m i s c l e a r e d of t he c ons t a nt ba r r a ge o f t he e vi l e l e m e nt s of t he s ha dow a nd c l os e r t o t he c e nt e r t he good e l e m e nt s of t he s ha dow t he t e s t i ng G od, i n f l i c t pa i n O nc e i n t he c e nt e r t he e xhi l a r a t i on r e m ove s t he pi l gr i m f r om t he di s r upt i on of ne ga t i ve e l e m e nt s bu t t h e pi l gr i m c a nnot s t a y i n t he c e nt e r pe r m a ne nt l y i n t he s a m e w a y t he ps yc he i s ne ve r s t a t i c T he P a ga n P a t h A not he r w a y t o s t udy S t T e r e s a s t e xt s i s t o m a ke c onne c t i ons w i t h f ol k be l i e f s A m a i n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of he r pi l gr i m a ge i s t ha t one m us t c ons t a nt l y put up w i t h e vi l t o ga i n ba l a nc e w he t he r t he s oul a ga i ns t t he de vi l o r t he e go a ga i ns t t he s ha dow A s M t l e y C r e de m ons t r a t e s i n c ont e m por a r y s oc i e t y, t he r e w e r e c om pe t i ng be l i e f s ys t e m s t ha t a c t e d t o s t r uc t ur e t he r e a l i t y of m e di e va l c ul t u r e T he o f f i c i a l c hur c h c ul t ur e s pr e a d onl y a s f a r a s i t c oul d a f f or d t o a ppoi nt c l e r gy T hi s de ve l ope d m a j or c i t i e s w e r e dom i na t e d by c hur c h t hought but a s one got f u r t he r f r om t he c hur c h, pa ga n be l i e f s ys t e m s be c a m e m or e dom i na nt B e c a us e of t h i s l a ps e a ddi ng di s c a l c e d m onks a nd nuns t o t he m i x m a de t he m pa r t i c ul a r l y da nge r ous be c a us e of t he i r l a c k of r e l i a nc e on t he C hur c h s doc t r i ne O ne pa r t i c ul a r c ul t u r e de m ons t r a t e s a c ons t r uc t e d r e a l i t y s i m i l a r t o t he c ont e m por a r y s e c ul a r be l i e f s i n B uf f e t t s a nd M t l e y C r e s t ha t de a l t w i t h t he w o r l d a s a ne c e s s i t y. I n a l os t or a l t r a ns c r i pt di s c ove r e d by C a r l o G i nz bur g t r a ns l a t e d f r om a 1580

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33 w i t c hc r a f t t r i a l i n C i vi da l e I t a l y, t he i ndi vi dua l s pi r i t i s s how n w or k i ng f o r a ba l a nc e of good a nd e vi l w i t h i n t he uni ve r s e ( G i nz bur g 147 171) T he w or l dl y ( c r ops l i ve s t oc k, a nd he a l t h i s s ue s ) w e r e di c t a t e d by i ndi v i dua l s w ho be l i e ve d t ha t t he y l e f t t he i r bod i e s a nd f ought f or t he s uc c e s s a nd f a i l ur e of t he i r a gr a r i a n ne e ds E ve n a f t e r t he C hur c h ha d m a de i t s pr e s e nc e f e l t t he ol d be l i e f s ys t e m m a i nt a i ne d be c a us e t he pe r c e i ve d r e a l i t y c oul d not be c ha l l e nge d by t he a ut ho r i t y o f a ny o t h e r be l i e f s ys t e m T he y be l i e ve d t ha t f or l i f e t o c ont i nue a t s t a t us quo i ndi vi dua l s m us t be i nvol ve d di r e c t l y i n t he s upe r na t ur a l ba l a nc e P a ol a G a s pa r ut t o a nd B a t t i s t a M oduc o w e r e t r i e d f or w i t c hc r a f t but pr o f e s s e d i nnoc e nc e be c a us e t he y w e r e be na nda nt i A c c or di ng t o t he t e s t i m ony, t he be na nda nt i a r m e d w i t h bundl e s o f f e nne l w e nt out f our t i m e s a ye a r t o f i ght w i t h w i t c he s w ho w e r e a r m e d w i t h s or ghum s t a l ks a nd t he out c om e di vi n e d t he s uc c e s s w i t h gr a i ns l i ve s t oc k, vi ne ya r ds a nd f r ui t T he y w e r e bor n unde r t he c a ul a p l a c e nt a w hi c h i f t he y w or e a s a dul t s t he i r s pi r i t w oul d be c a l l e d f r om a dr e a m l i k e s t a t e t o go a r m e d w i t h f e nne l t o f i ght w i t c he s I f t he w i t c he s w on, t he c r ops w oul d f a i l but i f t he be na nda nt i w on t he ha r ve s t w oul d be good. B e na nda nt i w oul d ha ve be e n pr e s e nt e d t he c a ul a nd t ol d t ha t t he y w oul d one da y be c a l l e d t o f i ght i f t he y w or e i t a r ound t h e i r ne c k. A s a pe r s on w ho de pe nde d on t he ye a r s p r oduc t i on t o s ur vi ve a be na nda nt e w oul d ha ve ha d r e a s on t o c ont e m pl a t e t he be l i e f a nd e n f or c e i t w i t hi n hi s or he r r e a l i t y. M ys t i c s s uc h a s S t T e r e s a a nd S t J ohn w e r e f ul l y i ndoc t r i na t e d w i t h t he dogm a of s t r i vi ng f or he a ve n ove r e a r t h l y c onc e r ns bu t a pa ga n m ys t i c s uc h a s t he be na nda nt e w oul d ne ve r ha ve t r i e d t o c om m une w i t h G od w he n i m m e di a t e c onc e r ns l i ke s t a vi ng o f f s t a r va t i on pul l e d t he m c ons t a nt l y. N e ve r t he l e s s t he y s e e m e d t o i nha bi t t he f our t h

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34 pi l gr i m a ge l e ve l a t l e a s t f our t i m e s a ye a r ; t he y w e r e uni t e d w i t h t he da r kne s s a nd a bs e nt of body. T he pi l g r i m a ge w a s c yc l i c a l a nd e ve n t h ough t he y di d not a l w a ys w i n a good ha r ve s t t he y w e r e c ons i de r e d be ne f i c i a l by t he c o m m uni t y. A s w i t h t he P a r r ot H e a ds t he y l e f t t h e i r e ve r yda y l i ve s a nd e m ba r ke d on a r e ne w a l e ve nt t ha t l e d t o be ne f i t s f or t he c om m uni t y t o w hi c h t he y w oul d r e t ur n T hi s m e e t s t he r e qui r e m e nt s of J os e ph C a m pbe l l s he r o s j our ne y, bu t s i nc e t hi s w a s a n i nt e r c om m uni t y a c t i vi t y, i t w oul d not r e qui r e t h e be na nda nt i t o p r ogr e s s t hr ough i ndi vi d ua t i on a t t he s e ve nt h l e ve l but onl y t o unde r go a n e nl a r ge m e nt o f t he pe r s ona l i t y a t t he f o ur t h a nd f i f t h l e ve l s t ha t c oul d t a p t he unc ons c i ous of t he gr oup. T he c ol l e c t i ve unc ons c i ous ne e de d t he r i t ua l t o m a i nt a i n a be l i e f t ha t na t ur a l e ve nt s w oul d c ont i nue t o r un t he i r c our s e a nd t he i ndi v i dua l s di d not ne e d t o r e a c h a ne w unde r s t a ndi ng of s e l f t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s a c t C a m pbe l l f a i l s t o di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n t he he r oi c s e l f t i e d t o t he c o m m uni t y i n a w a y t ha t t he r e w a r d c a n be obt a i ne d i n T e r e s a a nd J ung s f ou r t h l e ve l w he r e unc ons c i ous e xpe r i e nc e he a l s t he e xpe c t a t i ons of t he c om m uni t y T he m onom yt h d oe s not f a i l but t he l i vi ng m yt h doe s not a c c om pl i s h t he s e ve nt h l e ve l of uni on e ve n t ho ugh t he r e t u r n t o s oc i e t y c r e a t e s a ba l a nc e d r e a l i t y. W e a t he r s a nd t he m ys t i c s de m ons t r a t e t ha t C a m pb e l l s vi e w of t he he r o a s s a i nt doe s not hol d up i n t e xt s w r i t t e n by t he a s c e t i c s t he m s e l ve s a nd t he s e t e xt ua l e xa m pl e s nul l i f y hi s i de a t ha t t he s oul di s s ol ve s i n a n oc e a n of bl i s s a nd t he a s c e t i c ha s no c onne c t i on t o t he w or l d ( C a m pbe l l 354) T he phys i c a l c ha l l e nge de m ons t r a t e d by W e a t he r s i nvoke d by T he r e s a i n he r s i xt h l e ve l e nc ount e r e d by J ohn i n t he pol i t i c a l s ys t e m a l l que l l t he i de a of bl i s s E ve n a f t e r uni o n w i t h G o d t he y m us t r e t ur n t o t he w or l d a nd i t s t r i a l s A s c e t i c i s m r e qui r e s a c e r t a i n l e ve l of pa i n w hi c h w i l l r e m a i n a n

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35 i r r i t a t i on e ve n i f a c t i ng a s a s pi r i t ua l a s t r i nge nt C a m pbe l l s t a t e s t ha t t he s a i nt or a s c e t i c t he w or l d r e nounc e r a r e he r oe s be yond t he m yt h s i nc e t he y ha ve s t e ppe d a w a y f r o m t he r e a l m of f o r m s a nd m yt h i s t he pe nul t i m a t e s i l e nc e t he ul t i m a t e w o r d ( C a m pbe l l 354, 355) T hi s i nf e r s t ha t t he e xpe r i e nc e c a nnot b e c om m uni c a t e d i n a s t or y bu t j us t a s M t l e y C r e c r e a t e d a n a l l e gor i c a l p r e s e nc e t ha t o nl y e xi s t e d i n t he l i s t e ne r s m i nds S t J ohn s a i d t ha t t he c ont e m pl a t i ve e xpe r i e nc e c oul d not be t r a ns l a t e d, but he r e m a i ne d i n s oc i e t y a nd w r ot e poe m s t e xt s a nd d r a w i ngs t o s p a r ks t he r e a de r s i n t u i t i on T he s i l e nc e of t he s e ve nt h l e v e l o f i ndi v i dua t i on or uni on r e s ona t e s a nd t he a s c e t i c s c r e a t e ne w m yt h s out of t he voi d w i t h t he c onc e pt s a va i l a bl e t o t he m a nd t he s t or i e s of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s

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36 C ha pt e r F our : C onc l us i on J ohn us e s hi s e duc a t i ona l ba c kgr ound t o c ons t r uc t a pa r ody of a r o m a nt i c poe m t o gi ve c ha r a c t e r t o t he m ount a i n he s e e s T he s pe a ke r c l i m bs f r om t he pr ot e c t i on o f he r hous e a nd i s c om pe l l e d t hr ough t he ni ght T he ba s i c s of pr ot e c t e d hous i ng a nd da nge r ous na t ur e f or m t he l a nds c a pe H e r e a c he s t he s e ve nt h l e ve l s um m i t w he n hi s s pe a ke r m e e t s w i t h he r l ove r but t he a c c om pl i s hm e nt i s r e a l i z e d w he n pe r s ona l c onc e r ns a r e l a i d i n t he f a l l ow f i e l d of pur i t y T e r e s a i m a gi ne s he r m ount a i n a s a M e di t e r r a ne a n hi l l vi l l a ge popul a t e d by a r i s t oc r a t s T he s e ve n m a ns i ons t e xt r e m a i ns a n a l l e gor y f or he r pe r i od a nd r e a de r s hi p. I t gui de s w i t h s pe c i f i c i nt e nt i ons a nd c l e a r di r e c t i o ns t o r e a c h he r pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e of uni on S he a dm i t s t ha t one m a y dr op dow n t o a l o w e r l e ve l of t he m ount a i n out o f f r us t r a t i on, a nd t ha t uni on i s a f l e e t i ng s t a t e W he n c ont r a s t e d w i t h J ung s pa t h t o i ndi vi dua t i on, i t r e p r e s e nt s a ps yc hi c c r i s i s t ha t ha s be e n ove r c om e a nd w i l l ne ve r ha ve t o be e xpe r i e nc e d a ga i n. I n t he s e c ul a r c ont e m por a r y c ul t u r e t he i de a of pi l gr i m a ge ha s s hi f t e d t o m or e c l os e l y r e s e m bl e t he be na nda nt i s pe r c e pt i on t ha t r e qui r e s t he i ndi vi dua l t o i m a gi na t i ve l y i nt e r a c t w i t h a da nge r ous pow e r f ul na t ur e t o a s s ur e s us t e na nc e T he e xa m pl e s s ubm i t t e d de f i ne t ha t na t ur e a s a m e t a phor i c br e a k f r om s oc i a l nor m s e i t he r i n t e s t s of t he i nt e r i or s e l f a ga i ns t t he phys i c a l w or l d o r a s a n a c t e d s t r a i n a ga i ns t t he dom i na t i on of s oc i e t y. B uf f e t t ba t t l e s w i t h h i s C a t hol i c c hi l dhood a nd e m br a c e s a pa ga ni s m t ha t be ga n a s a n a nc i e nt a l l e gor y. M t l e y C r e e s t a bl i s he s t ha t t he i r or i gi ns t ur ne d t he m i nt o de s t i t ut e

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37 out c a s t s w hi c h a l l ow e d t he m t o c ons t r uc t t he i r o r i g i na l gr oup i m a ge a s a nt i s oc i a l s pe a ke r s f or t he pe r m a ne nt l y di s e nf r a nc hi s e d a nd t hos e w ho w i s h t o r e be l T he t e xt s a nd e ve nt s t ha t t he y de s c r i be be gi n w i t h t he e l e m e nt of r e bi r t h not i n a J ungi a n s e ns e but a s i f s om e one w or ks a ne w j ob f or t he da y i ns t e a d of goi ng i n t o t he one t he y ha ve w or ke d f or t he l a s t de c a de T he y r e f e r t o br e a ks w i t h t he pi l gr i m s unde r s t ood c ul t ur e s E ve r y i nne r pi l gr i m a ge s t a r t s w i t h a n a w a r e ne s s t ha t c a nnot be e xpl a i ne d by t he pe r s on w ho e xpe r i e nc e s t he c om p ul s i on t o a c t A f t e r t hi s good a nd e vi l a r e de f i ne d a nd m us t be ba l a nc e d i f one c a n s uc c e s s f ul l y c om pl e t e t he j ou r ne y. T he j our ne y i s s pi r a l W he n one e nt e r s a he i ght e ne d pe r s ona l a w a r e ne s s t ha t pe r s on w i l l on l y f ol l ow a c i r c ul a r pa t h i f a s P e t r a r c h a nd M t l e y C r e t he y ne ve r r e a c h a di s t i nc t a w a r e ne s s a nd f i nd l ong t e r m pe a c e O nc e pe a c e ha s be e n f ound, t he t r i a l s a r e e a s i e r a nd f ur t he r pi l gr i m a ge s a r e not ne c e s s a r y. E ve n a f t e r i ndi vi dua t i on a pe r s on c ont i nue s t o gr ow a nd a s pi r i t ua l uni on m us t be gi ve n up be c a us e t he body s t i l l m us t e xi s t i n t he w or l d. C onf i de nc e f r om pa s t s uc c e s s l oc a t e s t he pi l gr i m c l os e r t o t he s hr i ne of pe a c e s o w he n t he ne xt m ove m e nt t o t he c e nt e r oc c ur s t he s pe a ke r ha s a m a p of obs t a c l e s pr e ve nt i ng e m ot i ona l s t a bi l i t y a nd ke e pi ng t he m f r om s pi r i t ua l s a t i s f a c t i on A m i s r e a d s um m i t w i l l p r ovi de t he f ool s gol d f ound by P e t r a r c h, but H e nr y M i l l e r a t t e s t s t o t he t r ue boon i n hi s pi l gr i m a ge nove l T he C o l os s us of M a r ous s i : I c a m e hom e t o t he w o r l d, ha vi ng f ound t he t r ue c e nt e r a nd t he r e a l m e a ni ng of r e vol ut i on N o w a r r i ng c onf l i c t s be t w e e n t he na t i ons of t he e a r t h c a n d i s t ur b t hi s e q ui l i br i um ( M i l l e r 241)

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38 S our c e s C i t e d B a kht i n, M M T he D i a l ogi c I m a gi na t i on: F ou r E s s a ys T r a ns C a r yl E m e r s on a nd M i c ha e l H ol qui s t A us t i n: U of T e xa s P 1981. B i ondo, A dr i a ne P e r s ona l i nt e r vi e w 03 M a r 20 05. B our di e u, P i e r r e T he F i e l d of C ul t u r a l P r oduc t i on T r a ns C l a ud D uV e r l i e N e w Y o r k: C ol um bi a U P 1993. B uc kl e y, C a r a T a ke Y our C l ot he s O f f a nd S t a y f or L unc h M i a m i H e r a l d 2 N ov 2003. 13 J ul y 2004 < ht t p: / / w w w m i a m i c om / m l d/ m i a m i he r a l d/ ne w s / f r ont / 7161886. ht m > B uf f e t t J i m m y A P i r a t e L ooks a t F i f t y 1998 N e w Y or k: B a l l a nt i ne 2000 . M e e t M e i n M a r ga r i t a vi l l e : T he U l t i m a t e C ol l e c t i on U ni ve r s a l M us i c E nt e r pr i s e s 2003. C a m pbe l l J os e ph. T he H e r o w i t h a T hous a nd F a c e s B ol l i nge n S e r i e s X V I I N e w J e r s e y: P r i nc e t on U P 1973 C ohe n, E r i k A P he nom e nol ogy of T our i s t E xpe r i e nc e s S oc i ol og y 13 ( 1979) F i ns up. c om T a m pa B a y P a r r ot H e a d C l ub 2 A pr i l 2004 < ht t p: / / w w w f i ns up. c om > G a r de n of E de n, T he A dve r t i s e m e nt 2004 G i nz bur g, C a r l o T he N i gh t B a t t l e s : W i t c hc r a f t a nd A gr a r i a n C ul t s i n t he S i xt e e nt h a nd S e ve nt e e nt h C e nt ur i e s T r a ns J ohn T e de s c hi a nd A nne T e de s c hi B a l t i m o r e : J ohns H opki ns U P 1992. H a m i l t on, E di t h. M yt hol og y B os t on: L i t t l e B r o w n, a nd C o. 1942

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39 H a r r i ngt on, R i c ha r d. T r ue t o T he i r C r ue A f t e r 24 Y e a r s E nt e r t a i nm e nt G ui de W a s hi ngt onP os t c om 04 M a r 2 005 < ht t p: / / w w w w a s hi ngt onpos t c om / a c 2/ w p dyn? node = e nt e r t a i nm e nt / pr of i l e & i d= 1037983& t y pe I d= 17 > J ung, C G T he C ol l e c t e d W o r ks of C G J ung 2 nd e d. T r a ns R F C H ul l E d. B ol l i nge n S e r i e s X X 20 vo l s N e w J e r s e y: P r i nc e t on U P 1960 92. T he P or t a bl e J ung T r a ns J os e ph C a m pbe l l 1971. N e w Y or k: P e ngui n, 1976. L e e T om m y a nd e t a l T he D i r t : C onf e s s i ons of t he W or l d s M os t N ot or i ous R oc k B a nd N e w Y or k: H a r pe r C ol l i ns 2001 M a c C a nn e l l D e a n. T he T our i s t : A N e w T he or y o f t he L e i s ur e C l a s s N e w Y or k : S hoc ke n, 1976. M a i l boa t R e c or ds M a r ga r i t a vi l l e by J i m m y B u f f e t t M a i l boa t R e c or ds 2 A p r i l 2004 < ht t p: / / w w w m a i l boa t r e c or ds c om > M a r ga r i t a vi l l e M a r ga r i t a vi l l e 2 A pr i l 2004 < ht t p : / / w w w m a r ga r i t a vi l l e c om > M a r r e r o s G u e s t M a ns i on. A dve r t i s e m e nt 2004 M i l l e r H e nr y T he C ol os s us of M a r ous s i N e w Y or k: N e w D i r e c t i ons 1941 M t l e y C r e M t l e y C r e : G r e a t e s t V i de o H i t s U ni ve r s a l M us i c G r oup, 2003 N a ke d L unc h. A dve r t i s e m e nt 2004 P e t r a r c ha F r a nc e s c o. T o D i oni s i o da B or ga S a n S e pol c r o. 26 A pr 1336. T he A s c e nt of M ount V e nt oux. S e l e c t i ons f r om t he C a nz oni e r e a nd O t he r W or ks T r a ns M a r k M us a O xf or d W or l d s C l a s s i c s O xf o r d: O xf or d U P 1999. P H I P N a t i ona l P a r r ot H e a ds i n P a r a di s e I nc 2 A pr i l 2004 < ht t p: / / w w w phi p c om > S ha r p, D a r y l J ung L e xi c on: A P r i m e r o f T e r m s & C onc e pt s T or ont o: U of T o r ont o P 1991.

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40 S i xx, N i kki e t a l I f I D i e T om or r ow R e d, W h i t e a nd C r e H i p O R e c or ds 2005. S ki d R ow 18 a nd L i f e A t l a nt i c R e c or ds V H 1. c om < ht t p: / / w w w vh1. c om / a r t i s t s / a z / s ki d_r ow / vi de os j ht m l > S t A ugus t i ne B ook X A ugus t i ne s C onf e s s i ons C hr i s t i a n C l a s s i c s E t he r e a l L i b r a r y C a l vi n C ol l e ge 15 F e b. 2004. < ht t p: / / w w w c c e l o r g/ c c e l / a ugus t i ne / c onf e s s xi ht m l > S t J ohn o f t h e C r os s T he C ol l e c t e d W or ks o f S a i nt J ohn of t he C r os s T r a ns K i e r a n K a va na ugh a nd O t i l i o R odr i gue z I nt r o K i e r a n K a va na ugh. W a s hi ngt on: I C S P ubl i c a t i ons 1991. S t T e r e s a of A vi l a I nt e r i or C a s t l e s T r a ns E A l l i s on P e e r s N e w Y or k : I m a ge 19 89 T hom ps on, H unt e r S S a l va ge i s N ot L oot i ng. T he K e y W e s t R e a de r : T he B e s t of t he K e y W e s t s W r i t e r s 1830 90 E d. G e or ge M ur phy K e y W e s t : T or t uga s 1989 W e a t he r s B e c k. L e f t f or D e a d N e w Y or k: D e l l 2000.