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Menendez versus Mickey :
b a study of heritage tourism in Florida
h [electronic resource] /
by Monica Rowland.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
ABSTRACT: The National Trust for Historic Preservation defines heritage tourism as: "traveling to experience the places and activities that authentically represent the stories and peoples of the past and present. It includes irreplaceable historic, cultural, and natural resources." Heritage tourism is a lucrative industry in the United States. On average, heritage tourists spend $623 per trip compared to $457 for all U.S. travelers. The rise of heritage tourism is inextricably linked with several trends in American society, namely: the historic preservation movement, the desire for a sense of place, and nostalgia. These motivating tendencies often inspire problems of authenticity, commodification, and an unhealthy romanticization of the past.The present study seeks to analyze the heritage tourism industry in Florida. Chapter one offers a brief look at the history and anthropology of tourism. Chapter two provides an explanation of heritage tourism and the human motivations th at drive it, as well as an examination of several U.S. locations where it is practiced. Chapter three provides a short history of tourism in Florida, an overview of state organizations and agencies that promote and practice heritage tourism, and a look at several of Florida's unique heritage tourism locations.Chapter four is a case study focusing on the heritage tourism industry in St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest city in the United States. St. Augustine presents the best example of heritage tourism in Florida, and offers a perfect setting in which to examine many of the typical problems of heritage tourism. A popular tourist site since the 1800s, St. Augustine followed the lead of Colonial Williamsburg by extensively renovating its historic district in the 1960s. Tourism is the city's only true industry, but the number of tourists that visit annually pales in comparison to non-historical Florida attractions like Disney World. St. Augustine raises unique questions about the negle ct of the Hispanic influence in the history of the United States, the American public's fascination with myth and primacy, and the inherent difficulties of maintaining authenticity in any heritage tourism location.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 115 pages.
Adviser: Raymond O. Arsenault, Ph.D.
Sense of place.
x Liberal Studies
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Menendez Versus Mickey: A Study Of Heritage Tourism In Florida by Monica Rowland A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Liberal Arts Department of Humanities College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Co-Major Professor: Raymond O. Arsenault, Ph.D. Co-Major Professor: Gary R. Mormino, Ph.D. Susan R. Parker, Ph.D. Date of Approval: July 18, 2006 Keywords: St. Augustine, historic, preser vation, authenticity, sense of place Copyright 2006 Monica Rowland
i Table of Contents Abstract iii Introduction 1 Chapter One: An Overview of Tourism 5 Early Tourism 6 Tourism in the United States 8 The Anthropology of Tourism 12 Chapter Two: An Overview of Heritage Tourism 15 Motivations behind Heritage Tourism 17 The Historic Preservation Movement and the National Trust 18 Tourist Motivations 20 Problems of Heritage Tourism 23 Heritage Tourism Locations 25 New England 25 Colonial Williamsburg 26 Santa Fe 29 Conclusions 30 Chapter Three: Heritage Tourism in Florida 32 History of Tourism in Florida 33 Disney World 37 Floridas Heritage Touris m Organizations and Agencies 39 Visit Florida 40 Florida Main Street 44 The Florida Division of Histori cal Resources 46 The Florida Humanities Council 47 Floridas Unique Heritage Tourism Locations 49 Miami 50 Key West 55 Pensacola 58 Volusia County 61 Conclusions 62
ii Chapter Four: Heritage Tourism in St. Augustine, Florida 64 History of Tourism in St. Augustine 65 Henry Flagler 69 Twentieth-century St. Augustine 71 Historic Restoration a nd Post-1950s St. Augustine 72 Historic Preservation Funding 77 St. Augustine Tourist Motivations 79 Primacy 81 The Black Legend 83 Authenticity in St. Augustine 86 The Fountain of Youth 89 Solutions 93 Conclusion 96 Bibliography 102
iii Menendez versus Mickey: A Study of Heritage Tourism in Florida Monica Rowland ABSTRACT The National Trust for Historic Preservation defines heritage tourism as: traveling to experience the places and activitie s that authentically represent the stories and peoples of the past and present. It includes irreplaceable hi storic, cultural, and natural resources. 1 Heritage tourism is a lucrative industry in the United States. On average, heritage tourists spend $623 per tr ip compared to $457 for all U.S. travelers. 2 The rise of heritage tourism is inextricably linked with several trends in American society, namely: the historic preservation move ment, the desire for a sense of place, and nostalgia. These motivating tendencies often inspire problems of authenticity, commodification, and an unhealthy roma nticization of the past. The present study seeks to an alyze the heritage tourism industry in Florida. Chapter one offers a brief look at the history and anthropology of tourism. Chapter two provides an explanation of her itage tourism and the human mo tivations that drive it, as well as an examination of several U.S. locat ions where it is practi ced. Chapter three provides a short history of t ourism in Florida, an overvie w of state organizations and 1 I prefer the term heritage tourism to cultural he ritage tourism as cultural tourism often refers to travel concerned strictly with the visual and performi ng arts, for example: travel to attend music or art festivals, view a theater performance, or to attend an art museum. While these activities may be considered heritage tourism in some instances often they have no thing to do with the hist oric character of the place where they are held. National Trust fo r Historic Preservation, "2005 Cultu ral Heritage Tourism Fact Sheet," National Trust for Historic Preservation, http://www.nationaltrust.org/her itage_tourism/Dec05_CHT_FactSh t.pdf (accessed 3/3/06, 2006). 2 National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2005 Cultural Heritage Tourism Fact Sheet 2.
iv agencies that promote and practice heritage tourism, and a look at several of Floridas unique heritage tourism locations. Chapter four is a case study focusing on the heritage tourism industry in St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest city in the United States. St. Augustine presents the best example of heritage tourism in Florida, and offers a perfect setting in which to examine many of the typical problems of heritage tour ism. A popular tourist site since the 1800s, St. Augustine followed the lead of Colonial Williamsburg by extensively renovating its historic district in the 1960s Tourism is the citys only tr ue industry, but the number of tourists that visit annually pa les in comparison to non-historic al Florida attractions like Disney World. St. Augustine raises unique que stions about the neglect of the Hispanic influence in the history of the United States, the American publics fascination with myth and primacy, and the inherent difficulties of maintaining authenticity in any heritage tourism location.
1 Introduction Tourism is not just an aggregat e of merely commerci al activities; it is also an ideological framing of history, nature, and tradition; a framing that has the power to reshape culture and nature to its own needs. -Dean MacCannell, Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers 1 Tourism can be a revealing lens through which to examine society. Why, where, and how people travel all have resonance in individual character and national id entity. The study of tourism can also provide insight into a societys interpretation of itself. Heritage tourism, in particular, represents an attempt to engage with a collective American history, or to find a sense of pl ace in an increasingly homogenized national landscape. Defined as travel to experience the places and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present, he ritage tourism promises many benefits but also possesses many dangers. Heritage tourism contri butes greatly to the historic preservation movement and provides millions of people with tangible connections to their own history. But thr ough heritage tourism history has become a consumer good, and as such, is frequently mo lded into its most appealing form before being marketed to a traveling public. Heritage tourism in Florida is ofte n overlooked as indus try professionals, scholars, and tourists focus on the states myriad theme parks, beautiful beaches, and warm winters. Yet Florida possesses some of the United States most historic and 1 As quoted in: Nuala C. Johnson, Where Geography and History Meet: Heritage Tourism and the Big House in Ireland, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86, no. 3 (1996): 551.
2 impressive heritage tourism locations. Consider for a moment that Florida is home to the nations oldest city and oldest military fortif ication. It boasts the nations first twentiethcentury historic district, its second larg est military history museum, and was the birthplace of Historic Tours of America, one of the countrys most successful heritage tourism companies. As Floridians begin to realize the economic value of their rich history, numerous state organizations have begun to underwrite programs to support and promote heritage tourism initiatives, includ ing Visit Florida, the states tourism marketing agency, and the Florida Division of Historical Resources. Scores of cities and towns around the state are trying to tap into the popularity of heritage tourism, hoping to attract some of the more than 85 million t ourists that will visit Florida in 2006. When one thinks of heritage tourism in Florida (if one thinks of it at all), surely what comes to mind is St. Augustine, the nati ons oldest continuously occupied city. But St. Augustine, an enchanting city with more than 400 years of history to share, captures less than five percent of the millions of tour ists visiting Florida each year, an astounding fact considering the growing trend of her itage tourism in Amer ica. St. Augustines tourism industry seems to lack a common identity and purpose, and tourism officials struggle to define it as a premier heritage tourism city. They face many obstacles. Lacking regular preservation funding from the state, city officials constantly search for money to maintain St. Augustines unrivaled historic attributes. Tourism professionals must overcome a lingering American contempt or at least amnesia, of the areas Hispanic origins. While attempting to interpret a Hispanic past for a largely AngloAmerican audience St. Augustines tourism i ndustry constantly struggles to maintain authenticity, a problem best illustrated by the citys well-known Fountain of Youth Park.
3 Studying heritage tourism in St. Augustine is i lluminating and instructive. It speaks to Americans fascination with myth and reveal s flaws in public historical memory. It raises questions about the lack of a preservation ethic in Florida. But the heritage tourism industry in St. Augustine also reveals the citys incredible ab ility to endure siege, whether it be from English war ships, a mega-theme park, or the black legend. This thesis seeks to analyze heritage touris m as it is practiced in Florida, and in particular, St. Augustine. Before any discussi on of heritage touris m can begin, one must first examine the multiple meanings of tourism. When and where did the word originate, and what, exactly, does it mean? How have th ese meanings changed over time? What is the history of tourism? And what are its motivational underpinnings, especially in American society? Chapter One will address these questions. Chapter Two will provide an explanation of heritage tourism and explore the motivations that drive it. The rise in heri tage tourism is often linked to the historic preservation movement, and is frequently rela ted to American nostalgia and desire for a sense of place. A look at some well-known heritage tourism locat ions will round out the chapter and provide tangib le examples of its promises and problems. Chapter Three examines the practice of heritage tourism in Florida. A brief history of Florida tourism will be followed by an overview of the agencies and organizations that guide heritage tourism in the state. By exploring some of Floridas unique heritage tourism locations, including Miami, Key West, Pensacola, and Volusia County, we can begin to understand the dive rsity and challenges of the industry.
4 Chapter Four delves into Floridas most well-known heritage tourism location: St. Augustine. The chapter include s a study of the citys long history of tourism, a look at the motivations that prompt tourists to vi sit St. Augustine and an examination of what keeps them away. The citys struggles with historic preservation, authenticity, and the black legend will also be analyzed. By all accounts it appears that heritage tourism is here to stay. It offers great promise as well as pitfalls to those that engage in its practice. By exploring the problems and profits that heritage touris m has generated in St. Augustine and the rest of Florida we can learn not just about the stat es past, but also its future.
5 Chapter One: An Overview of Tourism The etymology of the word tour--derived from the Latin tor nare-to turnor round off--implies a circular journey, one that begins and ends in the same place. So tourism, then, could be defined as the action of taking a circular j ourney; a tourist, by implication, is one who undertakes such a journey. There is some disagreement as to when the word tourist first appeared in print. Some scholars argue that the English priest and writer Samuel Pegge first used it in 1800; others contend that it was coined by the French novelist Stendhal in 1838. The first dicti onary definition of tourists appeared in 1876. It defined them as persons who travel out of curiosity and id lenessfor pleasure of travelfor being able to tell that they traveled. 2 Defining contemporary tourism is compli cated. Neither scholars that study tourism nor members of the tourism industr y agree upon a modern definition. This may stem from the different purposes of the tw o parties. For those within the tourism industry, there is a need for a statistical, pr actical definition of tourism for the purposes of measurement and analysis. For exampl e, the World Tourism Organization defines tourism as the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecuti ve year for leisure, business and other purposes. The Travel Industr y Association of America defines tourism as all round2 Zbigniew Mieczkowski, World Trends in Tourism and Recreation (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1990), 20; William F. Theobald, ed., Global Tourism (Boston: Elsevier, 2005), 9-10.
6 trips with a one-way route mileage of 100 mile s or more and all trips involving one or more nights away from home, regardless of distance. 3 While those in the tourism industry requi re a practical definition, scholars in the fields of history, anthropology, sociology, geography and cultural studies are more interested in the social and cultural aspects of tourism. Their definitions almost invariably include words like leisure and culture, and many expand these with discussions of consumption and commodificatio n. For the purposes of this study, I will define a tourist as one who travels to experience unfamiliar surroundings, usually for pleasure. 4 Early Tourism Humans have always traveled. In ea rly times travel was usually motivated by some form of economic or moral imperative : trading, re-settlement, grazing, warfare, religion. Greeks, for instance, traveled extensivel y to visit sacred sites. The first tourist may have been the Greek historian Herodotus, in the fifth century B.C., who traveled purely for the sake of learning about other places and the people who lived there. But the first practitioners of true mass tourism were the Romans. Citizens eager to escape the heat and unpleasantness of me tropolitan Rome created a tour ism industry that reached 3 World Tourism Organization, "Tourism: General Definition," available from: http://www.worldtourism.org/aboutwto/eng/menu.html ; Internet; accessed 3/11/2006; David M. Wrobel and Patrick T. Long, eds., Seeing and Being Seen: Tour ism in the American West (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2001), 15. 4 Wrobel and Long, Seeing and Being Seen 16.
7 its peak in the second century B.C., complete with tour guides, scheduled travel connections, museums, and travel offices. 5 The years following the fall of the Roman Em pire saw a sharp decline in tourism. The roads, communication systems, inns, and other infrastructure that supported tourism disappeared, and a newly ascenda nt Christian ideology critici zing the excesses of Roman recreation meant that travel for pleasure was now considered sinful. However, travel for the purpose of visiting holy sites was acceptable, and by the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, pilgrimage had become a ma ss phenomenon. By the beginning of the Renaissance, these pilgrims had added cu ltural and pleasure excursions to their itineraries, becoming true tourists, while at the same time creating demand for a new genre of writing: the travel book. 6 It was not until the Enlightenment, howev er, that the foundations of modern tourism were truly laid. New philosophi cal, cultural, and so cio-economic patterns created a change in thought and approach to wards nature, travel, and recreation. Nature was no longer viewed as savage and danger ous, a thing to be tamed. Instead it was becoming a thing of beauty to be discovered and celebrated. By the end of the eighteenth century European tourists, inspired by romantic writers and landscape painters, and seeking sublime experiences in nature, had become commonplace. During this same time the Grand Tour became fashionable for the young sons of England s wealthy elite as a culmination of their classical education. 7 5 Maxine Feifer, Tourism in History: From Imperial Rome to the Present (New York: Stein and Day, 1985), 8-9; Mieczkowski, World Trends 46-47. 6 Mieczkowski, World Trends 43-53; Feifer, Tourism in History 25-62. 7 John Sears, Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 3; Marguerite S. Shaffer, See America First: Tourism and National Identity: 1880-
8 While the philosophical and cultural changes of the Enlightenment were pivotal in the development of modern tourism, the ec onomic and political changes created by the Industrial Revolution were even more influential. The resultant accumulation of capital and, most importantly, the development of tr ansportation networks led to the rise of tourism as we know it today. 8 Tourism in the United States It is necessary to explore the early history of tourism in the United States separately from that of the European e xperience. Although tourism in Europe was common by the eighteenth century, Americans di d not really begin to tour until the 1820s and 1830s. During the Revolutionary and Early National periods Americans were engrossed in the work of developing thei r new nation: clearing wilderness, fighting Indians, developing towns, gaining independence. Domestic travel in the U.S. was a rare activity limited to an elite segment of th e population and lacking a reliable economic infrastructure. Few citizens had the time, m oney, or inclination to travel in the United States before the 1820s. Several factors caused this to change. 9 First and foremost, a transportation revolut ion started in the first decades of the nineteenth century. Steamboats began to ply the Hudson River in 1807; the opening of 1940 (Washington and London: Smithsonian Ins titution Press, 2001), 11; Mieczkowski, World Trends, 5356; Feifer, Tourism in History, 63-93; Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The Grand Tour, available from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grtr/hd_grtr.htm ; Internet; accessed 13 March 2006. 8 Mieczkowski, World Trends 58; Sears, Sacred Places 3; Rosalie Schwartz, Pleasure Island: Tourism and Temptation in Cuba (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997), xiv; Shaffer, See America First 34. 9 Sears, Sacred Places 3; Dona Brown, Inventing New England: Regional Tourism in the Nineteenth Century (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Pr ess, 1995), 22-23.; Cindy S. Aron, Working at Play: A History of Vacations in the United States (New York: Oxford Univer sity Press,1999), 16-18; Mieczkowski, World Trends, 63-65; Shaffer, See America First 11-12.
9 the Erie Canal in 1825 facilitated travel ac ross upstate New York; and, most importantly, construction of railroads accelerated in the 1830s and 1840s. Revolutions in transportation created the infrastructure needed for tourism. These technological advances not only allowed for easier travel, but also spurred the development of industrial and commercial cente rs. These developments, in turn, greatly expanded the capitalist market and, most importantly for tourism, the American middle classes. 10 A second contributing factor in the de velopment of American tourism was the growing influence of romanticis m. Celebrating the beauty of nature, artists like Thomas Cole of the Hudson River School painted stunning views of the Hudson River Valley and the White Mountains. Writers like Washi ngton Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Fennimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant described the dramatic scenery of the Northeast through poetry and fiction. Thes e depictions inspired many Americans to travel, not only to see the beautiful landscapes that were described, bu t also to participate in the creation of a national identity. 11 Americans had long tied their sense of id entity to the land that they settled. So when Americans in the early nineteenth cen tury sought to develop a distinct national culture and identity it was only natural for them to look to the American landscape to distinguish their new nation. Tourism, in turn, provided the means by which Americans could engage with the very thing th at gave them their new identity. 12 The combination of a rapidly developing transportation system, a growing middle class with the time and money to travel, and a desire to partake in the creation of a 10 Sears, Sacred Places 3-5; Shaffer, See America First 13. 11 Shaffer, See America First 13. 12 Ibid.
10 national identity contributed to the growth of the early American tourism industry. Such tourists visited health an d recreational resorts like Sa ratoga, Ballston Springs, and Albany, New York, and Cape May, New Jersey. They also traveled to what were becoming the sacred places of America: Niag ara Falls, the White Mountains, and other sites where visitors participated in a sort of American pilgrimage promising spiritual and physical renewal. Another equally impor tant motivator for ear ly American tourism was the desire for tourists to be viewed as part of an elite stratum with the means to travel-tourism as a form of conspicuous consumption. 13 Following the conclusion of the Civil War, the modern nation-sta te was firmly set in place and a new kind of nationalism bega n in the United States. As described by Marguerite Shaffer in See America First: Tourism and National Identity, 1880-1940 Americas nascent tourism industry began vigorously promoting travel as a ritual of American citizenship in the late nineteenth century. Tourism became almost a patriotic duty, as evidenced by the popular See America First campaign that swept the nation in the first two decades of the twentieth ce ntury. Railways and tour operators tapped Americans sense of civic duty when they im plored them to See Europe if you will, but see America first. The message was that citizens would become better Americans by spending their tourist dollars at home rather than abroad. 14 By waging such a potent campaign geared towards domestic travel, the early U.S. tourism industry essentially created a canon of must-see American sites, many of them focusing on the grandeur of the Ameri can West, places like the Grand Canyon and 13 Aron, Working at Play 17-21; Sears, Sacred Places 4-6; Brown, Inventing New England 23-25; Shaffer, See America First 15. 14 Shaffer, See America First 4-36.
11 Yellowstone National Park. Carefully ma rketed to convey certain meanings and reinforce particular national myths, these sites promoted the idea that the American West represented the true America. As Shaffe r notes, the concept of See America First suggested that the true America could be s een in western scenery, where the promise of nature, representing both divine sanction of an American empire and the wealth of natural resources supporting the progress of that empire, offered an inspiring alternative to the decaying ci vilization of the Old World. 15 In short, the West represented the pow er and potential of a great nation, and to be good Americans citizens needed to spend their money to see it. The economic prosperity and political stability of the earl y twentieth century proved beneficial to tourism. Not even th e U.S. entry into the Great War in 1917 could stem the growth of the American tourist indu stry, as citizens chose to express patriotism and loyalty by embracing their national land scape and landmarks. The 1920s saw the beginnings of paid vacations in the United St ates as well as a rise in the popularity and affordability of the automobile, advances that allowed increasing numbers of people to travel. Those Americans that could afford to travel during the Depression and World War II did so, eager to escape the bleak real ities of the time. The phenomenal economic boom that followed World War II allowed even more American citizens the luxury of travel, and by 1950 two of every three families took an annual vacation. The age of modern tourism had begun. 16 15 Ibid., 34. 16 Mieczkowski, World Trends 68-69; Shaffer, See America First 100; Aron, Working at Play 204-205, 248-249; Gary R. Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005), 77.
12 Modern tourism is distinguishable from the tourism of the past by several features, the most important being the m eans of transportation used. No longer constrained by the limits of pre-industrial tr avel, modern tourists can move about the world in greater comfort and with greater sp eed than in the past. In addition, modern tourism is characterized by its availability a nd popularity with almost all segments of an economically developed society, a result of th e increases in discretionary income and time afforded by the industrial revolution. 17 This democratization of tourism fostered a great deal of interest in the study of tourism during the last few decades of the 20 th century, both by practitioners in the touris m industry and by professional scholars. In particular, the anthropology of tourism has garnered a great deal of attention. The Anthropology of Tourism Prior to the 1970s, anthropologist s paid little attention to the study of tourism. In fact, studying tourism was often seen as a fr ivolous and not wholly legitimate academic endeavor. Dennison Nash, commenting on the dearth of anthropological study of tourism in 1981, argued that tourism was an obvious and natural focus for anthropologists. Amanda Stronza echoed this argument recently in an essay detailing th e factors that make tourism relevant to anthropology: its ubi quity across human societies, its economic impact across the globe, and its natural te ndency to inspire face-to-face encounters between people of diverse cultural backgrounds. 18 17 Mieczkowski, World Trends 72-73. 18 Dennison Nash, Anthropology of Tourism (Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon, 1996), 461; Amanda Stronza, "Anthropology of Tourism: Forging New Ground for Ecotourism and Other Alternatives," Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (2001): 261-283, [journal online] available from:
13 The anthropological study of tourism ha s focused on two areas of interest: the impact of tourism and the origins/motivations of tourism. The first area generally deals with contacts between cultures and societal changes brought about by tourism. For the purposes of this study, the origins, and part icularly, motivations, of tourism hold more importance. 19 Tourism is often viewed as a search fo r the sacred, an attempt by humans to add meaning or purpose to their lives. An act of inquiry and consumption, tourism is a quintessentially modern activity. Tourists visit a particular place because of the expectation that it will bri ng enjoyment, usually through some characteristic that differentiates it from the visitors normal surroundings. Tourists daydream about their holiday; they look forward to it as a chan ce to re-energize, to be an adventurous individual, to seek romance, entertainment, or knowledge. 20 Dean MacCannells seminal study, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class, proposes that in modern society tourism can act as a unifying in fluence, serving to unite people in an effort to define collect ively the events, symbols, and places deemed meaningful and important and, therefore, especially worthy of seeing. Encountering these symbols and sharing that experience with others affirms and reinforces what people think they know about the world. MacCanne ll argues that tourists are searching for authentic experiences that will reconnect them with the pristine, the primitive, the http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com.proxy.usf.edu/hww/resu lts/results_single_fulltext.jhtml:js... ;Internet; accessed 14 March 2006. 19 Ibid. 20 Nelson Graburn, "Tourism: The Sacred Journey" in Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism ed. Valene L. Smith (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989), 22; John Urry, The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies (London: Sage Publications, 1990), 10; Schwartz, Pleasure Island xvii; Dean MacCannell, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class (New York: Schocken Books, Inc., 1972), 15.
14 natural, that which is as yet untouched by modernity. 21 This desire is arguably one of the primary reasons behind the rising popularity of heritage tourism. 21 Stronza, Forging New Ground, 265; MaCannell quote 265; MacCannell, The Tourist, 13-15.
15 Chapter Two: An Overview of Heritage Tourism The National Trust for Historic Preservation defines heritage tourism as travel to experience the places and activities that authen tically represent the stories and peoples of the past and present. It includes irreplaceable historic, cultural, and natural resources. 22 Tourism researchers at the University of Flor ida define a heritage tourist as one whose primary purpose or motivation to visit the st udy area is to visit th e historical areas, museums, and historic architecture or heritage/cultural attractions. 23 A 2003 study on Historic/Cultural Traveler s conducted by the Travel Industry Association of America (TIA) and Smithsonian magazine showed that 81 percent of U.S. adults who traveled in 2002 were considered cultural heritage travelers. A more narrowly focused study by the TIA showed that in 2003 a majority (58 percent) of U.S. adult travelers included an historic activity or event in their vacation. In 2004, visiting a historic place, site, or museum ranked seve nth in the list of mo st popular activities by U.S. travelers, behind shopping, attending a social event, outdoor activities, city 22 I prefer the term heritage tourism to cultural he ritage tourism as cultural tourism often refers to travel concerned strictly with the visual and performi ng arts, for example: travel to attend music or art festivals, view a theater performance, or to attend an art museum. While these activities may be considered heritage tourism in some instances, often they have no thing to do with the historic character of the place where they are held. National Trust fo r Historic Preservation, "2005 Cultu ral Heritage Tourism Fact Sheet," available from: http://www.nationaltrust.org/heritage_tourism/Dec05_CHT_FactSht.pdf ; Internet; accessed 3 March 2006. 23 John Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns County Florida (Gainesville: Center for Tourism Research and Development, University of Florida, 2002), 12, available from: http://www.visitoldcity.com/membe rs/research/files/1118131328.pdf# ; accessed 8 October 2004.
16 sightseeing, rural sightseeing, and beach activities. Notably, visiting historic sites tends to rank above visiting a theme or amusement park. 24 Heritage tourism can be very lucr ative. A 2003 press release from TIA announced that tourists who consider themselv es historic traveler s (those basing their trips solely on historic sites, or visiting some historic sites when traveling) spend more money and stay on vacation longer than the averag e tourist. Heritage tourists tend to be older than the average traveler. 25 Retired in many cases, they are more likely to have a graduate degree, to have a higher annual income to participate in more activities, and are more likely to stay in hotels, motels, or B&Bs while traveling. On average, cultural heritage tourists spend $623 per trip compared to $457 for all U.S. travelers, excluding the cost of transportation. These characteris tics point to significant differences between the nature of heritage tour ism and more general tourism. 26 Heritage tourism often has a deeper meani ng than just visiting a place to learn the specifics of that sites past. Inherent in the idea of heritage tourism is a connection 24 It should be noted that shopping, city sightseeing, and rural sightseeing also fall under the umbrella of heritage tourism, as heritage settings not only attract tourists seeking to learn about the past but also provide historic ambience to an e nvironment that can then be used for entertainment, relaxation, and shopping. Also, city and rural sightseeing certainly draw upon local heritage to provide an enjoyable experience to tourists. National Trust for Historic Preservation, "Cultural Heritage Tourism: Research," available from: http://www.culturalheritagetouris m.org/resources/research.htm ; Internet; accessed 14 March 2006; Travel Industry Associa tion of America, "Travelers Desire to Experience History and Culture Stronger than Ever," available from: http://www.tia.org/dev2/Pr ess/pressrec.asp?Item=284 ; Internet; accessed 14 November 2004; Travel Industry Asso ciation of America, "Domestic Trip Activity Participation by U.S. Traveler s, 2004," available from: http://www.tia.org/resour ces/images/charts/domestic_tip_activity_2004.gif ; Internet; accessed 21 February 2006; Gordon Waitt, "Consuming Heritage: Perceived Historical Authenticity," Annals of Tourism Research 27, no. 4 (2000): 836. 25 Participation in heritage activities peaks between the ages of 45 and 65Kathleen Brown, Tourism Trends for the 1990s, LORD Cultural Resources and Planning Management ; available from: http://www.lord.ca/publications/ar ticles/tourism_trends_1990.html ; Internet; accessed 6 October 2005. 26 Travel Industry Association of America, Travelers Desire; Nationa l Trust for Historic Preservation, "Cultural Heritage Visitor Profile," available from: http://www.culturalheritagetourism. org/resources/visitorProfile.htm ; Internet; accessed 14 March 2006; Confer and others, 8; National Trust for Historic Preservation, 005 Cultural Heritage Tourism Fact Sheet, 2.
17 between the past and the presen t. Perhaps more importantly, heritage places tend to be defined by their relationship with people, even ts, and activities. Heritage tourism calls into question ideas about cultur es, societies, and economies, and asks tourists to consider notions of history and identity. 27 The rise of heritage tourism is inextricably linked with several trends in American society, namely: the historic preservation move ment, the desire for a sense of place, and nostalgia for a more innocent time. These motivating tendencies often inspire problems of commodification, inauthentici ty, and an unhealthy romanticiz ation of the past. Motivations behind Heritage Tourism Motivations behind the rise of heritage tourism in the United States fall into two camps: what motivates the stewards of herita ge sites, and what motivates the heritage tourist. We will first explore the motivations that promoted the creation of heritage sites, and then determine why tourists choose to visit those sites. The choice of heritage tourism as an ave nue for a particular town or site is typically tied to the desire fo r historic preservation and econo mic sustainability. Tourism appears to be a clean industry (a debatable idea that we do not have room to explore here) that can diversify local economies. Heritage tourism has the added value of preserving a communitys unique character, and historic preservation and heritage tourism have been influencing each other for decades. 28 27 Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns County Florida 7. 28 National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2005 Cu ltural Heritage Tourism Fact Sheet, 2; Peter H. Brink, "Heritage Tourism in the U.S.A: Grassroots Efforts to Combine Preservation and Tourism," APT Bulletin 29, no. 3/4 (1998), [journal online] available from JStor Journal Storage: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0848-
18 The Historic Preservation Movement and the National Trust Before the 1880s there was a general l ack of concern for the preservation of American historic buildings or sites (with a few notable exceptions like the preservation of Mount Vernon and the Hermitage in the 1850 s.) The notion of progress was so deeply entrenched in early American society that lit tle consideration was given to protecting or saving places that had surpassed their point of usefulness. This began to change in the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstructi on, when several divers e groups began to decry the destruction of the nations built heri tage. Patrician families in New England; descendants of the antebellum planter class of the Old South; and wealthy industrialists all began to agitate for the preservation of disappearing landmarks and life-ways. The 1906 Antiquities Act, which gave the president of the United States the authority to set aside public lands as national monuments, pe nalize the destruction of ruins, and grant permits for educational field research, was one of the first legislat ive successes of the nascent preservation movement. 29 The true watershed in preservation activities was the decade after World War I when Americans turned to the past as an antid ote to the frightening vision of the future they had witnessed in the European trench es. A growing conservation movement had already seen the esta blishment of the National Park System in 1916, and by the mid1920s historic house museums dotted the United States, dedicated to educating tourists 8525%281998%2929%3A3%2F4%3C59%3AHTITUG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X ; Internet; accessed 12 March 06. 29 Michael Wallace, "Reflections on the History of Historic Preservation" in Presenting the Past: Essays on History and the Public eds. Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier and Roy Rosenzweig (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), 166-171; Charles B. Hosmer, Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926-1949 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981), 1-8.
19 and inspiring patriotism. An increasing body of professionals committed to preservation, coupled with a handful of multi-millionaire indu strialists intent on pr eserving vestiges of the past (that they were, ironically, partiall y responsible for destroying), led to a fullblown, recognizable, historic preservati on movement by the 1930s. The federal government even became involved through such New Deal programs as the Works Progress Administration, the Civilian Conserva tion Corps, and in 1935, the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Department of th e Interior to acquire, preserve, and operate historic sites in the U.S. The most notable of this periods preserva tion efforts, Colonial Williamsburg, will be discussed later in this chapter. 30 The preservation movement gained serious financial backing and a centralized guiding entity with the foundation of the Nationa l Trust for Historic Preservation in 1949. The work of the Trust led to the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966, which allowed for the creation of the Natio nal Register of Historic Places. The Trust went on to create the Main Street pr ogram in the 1970s in an effort to revitalize decaying commercial business districts, a nd then struggled throughout the Reagan administration years to maintain federal funding. 31 In 1990, the National Trust created an initiative devoted specifically to promoting and supporting heritage tourism pr ograms across the U.S. Working with 16 pilot areas in four states-Indiana, Te nnessee, Texas, and Wisconsin-the Trust identified five guiding principl es for the development of cultu ral heritage tourism. These 30 Wallace, "Reflections on the Hist ory of Historic Preservation," 166173; Brink, Heritage Tourism in the U.S.A, 59; National Trust for Historic Preservation, "Preservation Timeline," available from: http://www.nationaltrust.org/about_the_trust/timeline/INDEX.HTM ; Internet; accessed 15 March 2006; Hosmer, Preservation Comes of Age, 1-8. 31 Richard Francaviglia, "Selling Heritage Landscapes" in Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America eds. Arnold R. Alanen and Robert Z. Melnick (Balti more: John Hopkins University Press, 2000), 44-45; National Trust for Historic Preservation, Preservation Timeline.
20 were later published, in cooperati on with American Express, in Getting Started: How to Succeed in Heritage Tourism 32 By the year 2000 the National Trust could identify cultural heritage tourism programs in more th an half of U.S. states, most established within the preceding five years. The Trus t continues to operate a Heritage Tourism Program that offers consulting advice to communities consideri ng heritage tourism. 33 Tourist Motivations Just because a building is preserved and opened to tourists does not necessarily mean that the public will visit. There must also be a driving force, or set of forces, inspiring tourists to visit a historic site instead of going to the beach, a theme park, or some other attraction. What is it then, that motivates people to visit heritage tourism destinations? The most obvious answer is hist orical education. But scholars and industry professionals generally agree that few heritage tourists are motivated by a simple desire to enhance their knowledge of American histor y. Equally important, they insist, is a growing need for a sense of place in an increasingly globalized, homogenous, and commercialized society. In part, this quest rests on nostalgia for a simpler, more romantic past (the legitimacy of that nostalgia will be considered in the next section). Against a tide of rapid gl obalization, modern American tourists are longing for rich, fulfilling experiences that resonate with them as human beings and as Americans. 32 The five principles are: 1.Focus on authenticity and quality. 2. Preserve and protect resources 3. Make sites come alive. 4. Find the fit between your community and tourism. 5. Collaborate, Brink, Heritage Tourism in the U.S.A, 60. 33 National Trust for Historic Pres ervation, "Why are Cultural Heritage Programs Successful?" available from: http://www.nationaltrust.org/heritage_tourism/whysuccess.html ; Internet; accessed 15 March 2006; National Trust for Historic Preservation, "Nationwide, Heritage Tourism is Booming," available from: http://www.nationaltrust.org/news/docs/20001219_heritage_tourism.html ; Internet; accessed 15 March 2006.
21 They are searching for a sense of place. Th e phrase was used by Regionalist writers in the South during the 1960s and gained popul arity among geographers in the 1970s, likely in connection with the rise of environmental and historic pr eservation efforts during that time. But the idea of place is as old as hum anity. Place is integral to a well-balanced society; it is the foundation of community; it binds groups of people together and connects them with their culture. Yet places in America are falling victim to the sameness of development. Hence, modern experien ces become increasingly shallow, lacking a sense of originality and place. Daniel Kemmis, in his book Community and the Politics of Place, likens this placeless-ness to the modern fast food culture: public life as we all too often experience it now is very much lik e a Big Mac-it can be replicated, in exactly the same form, anywhere. 34 The World Tourism Organization argues that consumers refusal to be treated as a homogenous mass has spurred the growth of niche tourism mark ets like heritage tourism. They view it as just one expression of modern preferences for unique, quality experiences. 35 Tourists today are searching fo r knowledge, meaning, and a connection with the stories of American and human so ciety, a connection to themselves. Writer Garrison Keillor describes this search beautifully: Travelers dont want to waste time in the freeway-strip mall-franchise-warehouse-outletlow rise-taco stand-burger stand landscape of America th at we all know and dont see as it spreads. They want to see magnificent things in 34 Herb Hiller, "Tourism and Florida's Emerging Downtowns and Small Towns: A Guide to New Tourism Partnerships and Enhancing New Product Developmen t and Marketing," (Delray Beach, Florida: Visit Florida, October 13-16, 2005); Daniel Kemmis, Community and the Politics of Place (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990), 7. 35 Waitt, Consuming Heritage, 838.
22 Americathey want to see where the music comes from, where the books come fromThats the job of the tourism industry. Its like any host w ith a friend coming to town. You pick them up at the airpor t and bring them into town by the scenic route. You try to avoid the linseed oil plant and the salvage yard and you try to show them what they came here for. They came here for America. 36 When tourists visit a heritage site, they are often seeking things that are different from where they came from, things that are uniquethose things that provide a sense of place. But they are often also looking to g aze upon remnants of a past that they believe was somehow easier than today. Michael Kammen, a scholar of the historical imagination, believes that nostalgia is responsible for the popular appeal of the heritage i ndustry. He contends that Americans have been longing for the golden da ys of their past since the turmoil of the late 1960s. 37 Facing uncertainty in the ec onomic world, and surrounded by suburban sprawl at home, a tourist can visit a historic town and experience a familiarity linked to an idealized past. 38 Other scholars agree that herita ge tourism is often a form of escapism. As David Lowenthal says If the pa st is a foreign country, nostalgia has made it the foreign country with the he althiest tourist trade of all. 39 But therein lies danger. If nostalgia is the motivating fact or behind heritage tourism then there is always the chance that the market will shape itself to satisf y that nostalgia, perhap s at the expense of authenticity. 36 Garrison Keillor, "In Search of th e Real America: Tourists Venture Out in Search of Uniqueness Not Sameness," STPP Progress, 1996, 3-4. 37 Michael Kammen, In the Past Lane: Historical Perspectives on American Culture (London: Oxford University Press, 1997), 219. 38 Aylin Orbasli, Tourists in Historic Towns: Urban Conservation and Heritage Management (London: Taylor and Francis Group, 2000), 9. 39 David Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 4.
23 Problems of Heritage Tourism Commodification, romanticizat ion, and questions of authenticity are the most commonly cited pitfalls of heritage tourism. Critics tend to argue that heritage tourism sites are not authentic representations of the past, but are instead a romanticized version provided for consumption by the tourist. 40 As early as 1961 Daniel Boorstin was arguing that Americans cannot experience reality directly, but thrive on pseudo-events, tourism being the prime example. 41 To Boorstin and others he ritage tourism is a form of bogus history, glorifying pleasant memories while submerging atrocities, and placing a price tag on the entire staged experience. Critics argue that the sanitized history of many heritage tourism sites is presented as such to reinforce the legitimacy of modern circumstances, either social or political. Through a selective presentation of eviden ce--simplifying histori cal complexities, reinforcing stereotypes, etc.-heritage tour ism sites often end up sanctioning a glorified version of our national history. Take, for exam ple, the Statue of Liberty. The statue, and in particular, the Emma Lazarus poem insc ribed upon it, have a tendency to portray American immigration as a quest for freedom, and tend to obscure the complexity of the immigrant experience in the U.S. 42 Restored towns are also s ubject to this danger. A good example is the California Ghost Town of Bodie, now operated as a stat e park. Here visitors can experience an authentic Old West town, and get a taste of the life that their brave and rugged 40 Orbasli, Tourists in Historic Towns 4. 41 MacCannell, The Tourist 103; Urry, The Tourist Gaze 7. 42 Martha K. Norkumas, The Politics of Public Memory (Albany: State Univers ity of New York Press, 1993), 6.
24 pioneer ancestors lived. Of course, the few remaining buildings in town-single-family homes with hardly any hotels or rooming houses-and the absence of hardened miners and their impoverished families, present B odies history as one of middle class domesticity rather than the desperate st ruggle for survival that it more likely was. 43 The selective presentation of history at Bodie reinforces popularly held ideas about the mythic west and Americans virt uous pioneer forbearers. One can understand such nostalgia. Yet, this historical naivet is ironic coming from people with a deep appreciation for the past. Dean MacCa nnell comments on tourists preoccupation with authentic experiences: The rhetoric of tourism is fu ll of manifestations of the importance of the authenticity of the relationship between tourists and what they see: this is a typical native house; this is the actual pen used to sign the law; this is the original manuscript 44 Perhaps these tourists do not realize th ey are not learning th e whole truth at many heritage tourism sites. Michael Kammen notes that one of the biggest threats created by the pervasiveness of heritage in American so ciety is that it enge nders an illusion that historical knowledge and understanding ar e alive and well in the United States. 45 In reality, however, there is the danger that, thr ough heritage tourism, history will become (or has already become) a consumer good that ca n be recreated, marketed, and sold to the consumer. 46 43 Dydia DeLyser, "Authenticity on the Ground: Engaging the Past in a California Ghost Town," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89, no. 4 (1999): 602-632. 44 Dean MacCannell, The Tourist 14. 45 Kammen, In the Past Lane 220. 46 Orbasli, Tourists in Historic Towns 2.
25 Heritage Tourism Locations Thousands of heritage tourism sites ex ist in the United States. They include historic houses, living-history museums, battlefields, and monuments. They exist in such diverse places as Ellis Isla nd, Gettysburg, and the Californi a missions. For the purposes of this study I have chosen to focus on New England, Colonial Williamsburg, and Santa Fe, New Mexico. These three sites will provi de interesting points of comparison for a detailed analysis of St. Augustine, Florida, in Chapter Three. New England In Inventing New England: Regional Tour ism in the Nineteenth Century Dona Brown carefully documents one of the earliest and best examples of heritage tourism in the United States. Brown shows how late nine teenth-century tourists seeking an escape from modern urban industrial life via an imagined world of pastoral beauty, rural independence, virtuous simplicity, and reli gious and ethnic homogeneity prompted a sentimental interpretation of New England. This new conceptualization of the region, expressed through historical literature, novels, short stories, and landscape and architectural reforms, actually created a mythic New England on which the tourist industry quickly learned to capitalize. New Englanders could now market their decaying towns and buildings as quaint and romantic ve stiges of a simpler time, an antidote to the modern industrial world, that ironically, New Englanders ha d been praised for creating just a few decades before. And where those ro mantic vestiges of a rustic colonial past
26 did not exist, local promoters created them, as in the case of Nantucket, a decaying whaling town that successfully recast itself as a quaint seaside village. 47 Colonial Williamsburg Perhaps the best known of all herita ge tourism locations is Colonial Williamsburg. Conceived during the height of the historic-preservation movement of the 1920s, Williamsburg was a physical manifestation of Americanism, a restoration not only of buildings, but also of the tr aditional lifestyles and values that the restorations backers felt truly represented America. Williamsburg served as the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1780, making it the most influential town in Virginia during that time. Site of the College of William and Mary, the town was at one time home to such influential men as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry. It was a complex community, with inhabitants from every level of society, from the royal governor to slaves. When the capital was moved to Richmond in 1780, Williamsburg entered a 146-year period of relative obscurity. Many of the original colonial buildings remained standing but fell into disrepair. The once-vibrant town became a Virginia backwater until a rector and William and Mary College professor named W.A.R. Go odwin dedicated himself to the restoration of the town he considered to be the Cra dle of the Republic. Goodwin viewed the restoration of Williamsburg as an opport unity to inculcate Americans with an appreciation of their common back ground and a shared national purpose. 48 47 Brown, Inventing New England, 9, 105-134. 48 Anders Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002), 1-9.; Warren Leon and Margaret Piatt, "Living History Museums" in History Museums in the United
27 Williamsburg presented a realistic location in which to display colonial life and architecture precisely because it had become a backwater. Cities like Boston and Philadelphia had matured too far beyond their colonial roots to return them to a preindustrial appearance. But even in Williamsburg an undertaking as large as the restoration of an entire town required enor mous financial backing, and in 1926 Goodwin was able to convince John D. Rockefeller Jr. to support the project. The artistic and aesthetic possibilities of Williamsburg, combined with the chance to refurbish a positive family legacy, appealed to the Standard Oil titan, and over the next 10 years he contributed more than 79 million dollars to the restoration. Over 700 structures that postdated 1790 were demolished, an d the railroad was re-routed to restore the town to its eighteenth-century appearance. Costumed guides appeared in 1932, followed soon after by enormously popular craft demonstrations. 49 During a time of social uncertainty a nd economic upheaval in the United States the restoration of Williamsburg stood as a shri ne to the cultural values of colonial America. Williamsburg celebrated democracy and a republican government through representation of the great wh ite men of the eighteenth ce ntury. Over the next thirty years more than thirteen million people would partake of Williamsburgs portrayal of early America. But a rise in popularity of social history during the 1960s forced Williamsburg to confront the unseemly aspects of colonial America that it had long been downplaying. The old focus on patriotism, indi vidualism, and laudatory history gave way to a more encompassing interpretation that incorporated blacks (both slave and free), States: A Critical Assessment eds. Warren Leon and Roy Rosenzweig (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 66. 49 Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg 9; Leon and Piatt, Living History Museums, 66-67.
28 women, and workers. This new bottom-up interpretation of Ameri can history was not always popular with visitors. Tourists coming to visit what they imagined to be an idyllic colonial town did not necessarily want to be confronted with the atro cities of slavery and the unpleasantness of labor and social relations of early America. Colonial Williamsburg and other living history museums remained st eadfast in their commitment to education and authenticity, but the cross pressure of the commercial mark et required them to please and entertain their guests enough to inspire them to return. 50 Though Colonial Williamsburg remains Virginias single most popular tourist attraction, its attendance rates have fallen steadily since th e early 1990s. Down from a late 1980s peak of 1.2 million visitors a year, annual paid attendance fell to 710,457 in 2005. Efforts to boost attendance have incl uded new marketing campaigns and the addition of innovative attractions and educational programs, to little effect. In recent years officials at the Colonial Williamsbur g Foundation have had to dip into their substantial endowment to offset budget deficits Tourism officials in Virginia hope that the upcoming 400 th anniversary celebration of the Jamestown settlement in 2007 will help draw attention back to Colonial Williamsburg. 51 50 Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg 9-15, 136; Marguerite S. Shaffer, "Book Review: Selling the Past/Co-Opting History: Colonial Williamsburg as Republican Disneyland," American Quarterly 50, no. 4 (1998), [journal online] available from: http://muse.jhu.edu.proxy.usf.edu/journals/american_quarterly/v050/50.4br_handler.html 51 Sonja Barisic, AP, Virginia: New Program at Colonial Williamsburg, MSN Travel ; available from: http://travel.msn.com/Guides/article/aspx?cp-documentid=345515 ; Internet; accessed 17 July 2006; Megan Hoyer, Tourists Leave Old Williamsburg Out in the Cold, The Virginian-Pilot, 21 February 2006; available from: http://home.hamptonroads.com/stories/story.cfm?story=99944&ran=26819 ; Internet; accessed 17 July 2006.
29 Santa Fe The town of Santa Fe, New Mexico offers an interesting point of comparison with St. Augustine, Florida. The celebration of a Hispanic past in both of these places is unusual for an American tourist destination, and raises questi ons about the motivations of tourists that visit there. In the case of Santa Fe, its foreignness and well preserved historic fabric instilled a quality of i ndividuality and mysticism that town boosters promoted to very lucrative ends. Once a busy trading town, by 1900 Santa Fe had been bypassed by the railroad and overshadowed by Albuquerque. It wa s saved from obscurity by a cultural entrepreneur named Edgar L. Hewett. In the early 1900s Hewett, a former college president and amateur archaeologi st, worked to make Santa Fe a cultural destination. He founded the Museum of Fine Arts and the Mu seum of New Mexico; helped organize the Santa Fe Fiesta, revived the Indian Mark et, oversaw the establishment of Bandelier National Monument, and implemented an unoffici al building code that helped the town retain the physical faade that contributed greatly to its historical ambience. In short, Hewett was responsible for a cultural and hi storical revival in Santa Fe, creating a mythical reputation that would prove to be very popular, firs t with a cultural elite and then with a wider swath of Americans. 52 In contrast to contemporary locations like Colonial Williamsburg and New England that celebrated an Anglo-American colonial heritage, Hewett embraced Santa Fes Hispanic and Indian past and recognized the citys unique local heritage. He flaunted the nearby cliff dwellings, celebrated the Spanish architecture set against the 52 Hal K. Rothman, Devil's Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 81-88.
30 backdrop of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and supported the arch itectural trend of Pueblo Revival style. Santa Fe seemed sl eepy and peaceful, the Spanish language filled the streets, and everywhere one looked there were reminders of a different, older world. Santa Fe boosters worked hard to retain that appeal, striving for the appearance of authenticity. They re-named Anglo sounding st reet names such as Telephone Road to the more authentic sounding Camino del Monte Sol, appealing to Americans worried about modernity and industrialization. 53 Artists and writers, including Ansel Adams, Willa Cather, and Mary Austin, came to Santa Fe in droves. The town became a center for the Regionalist movement of the interwar years. Ironically, Austin worked hard to preserve the authenticity of her adopted community, but inadvertently supporte d the contrived authenticity that Edgar Hewett had created years earlier. Long-time residents barely recognized the town. In 1880 Hispanic Americans owned approximately 65 percent of the land in Santa Fe, but by 1910 Anglo-Americans owned 65 percent. By 1920 Santa Fe had become a mainstream tourist destination, its role as a mythical place that time forgot firmly affixed in the American imagination. 54 Conclusions Heritage tourism is a popular and lucr ative trend in American society. The motivations that prompted the rise of heritage tourism are varied. A growing preservation ethic and nostalgia for a simpler time led to the restoration and recreation of 53 Ibid., 89-98. 54 Ibid., 97-112; Robert L. Dorman, Revolt of the Provinces: The Regionalist Movement in America, 19201945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993), 35.
31 historic sites across the nati on during the twentieth-centur y. A growing homogenization of the national landscape has left many Americ ans searching for unique experiences that provide them with a sense of place. Through he ritage tourism citizens are able to engage with those places and experiences that resona te with their sense of collective American history. Inherent problems exist in almost all heritage tourism locations. The commodification of history, where the past be comes a product fashioned to fit the image of what the consumer wants, often leads to problems of authenticity and claims of bogus history. The motivations and problems behind heritage tourism can be seen in Americas most popular heritage tourism locations--pl aces like Colonial Williamsburg, where the historic preservation movement saw its greatest successes, New England, where the tourism industry was founded upon decaying town s and buildings portrayed as vestiges of a simpler time, and Santa Fe, where civi c boosters manipulated the towns authentic Hispanic past to appeal to Americans desp erately searching for a sense of place.
32 Chapter Three: Heritage Tourism in Florida Having explored the concept of heritage tourism--its bac kground, motivations, and problems--we will now look at how herita ge tourism is practiced and promoted in Florida, a state that is far better known for its beaches, th eme parks, and suburban sprawl than it is for its historic attributes or unique sense of place. Tourism in Florida is big business--the biggest business, in fact. Tourism is Floridas largest industry, employing nearly on e million people across the state. In 2005 an estimated 85.8 million visitors came to the land of sunshine, generating $57 billion in taxable dollars. How did Florida become the most popular tourism destination in the United States? Are these tourists all comi ng to see the theme parks, beaches, and golf courses for which Florida is fam ous? Or are they also interest ed in the historic fabric of the state that is home to some of the olde st cities, buildings, and landmarks in the country? By examining the history of touris m in Florida, the state organizations and agencies that promote and practice heritage tourism, and some of Floridas most unique heritage tourism locations we can gain a bett er understanding of th e industry and what it says about Floridians and Americans. 55 55 Visit Florida, Florida Tourism Fast Facts, (Tallahassee: Visit Florida, 2006); Visit Florida, 2004 Florida Visitor Study (Tallahassee: Visit Florida, 2005); Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study ; State of Florida.com, "Florida Qu ick Facts," available from: http://www.stateofflorida.com/Portal/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=95#27199 ; Internet; accessed 16 April 2006.
33 History of Tourism in Florida Florida was sighted in 1513 by the Spanis h explorer Juan Ponce de Leon, marking the first official landfall of Europeans on the North American continent. But an arguably more important discovery of Florida cam e in the decades preceding the Civil War, when tourists began to delight in the salubr ious climate and stunning scenery of the Edenlike state. Its popularity as a tourist destination gr ew after the war ended, spurred in part by Union soldiers reminiscing about their time stationed in north Florida. Steamboat companies and small railroad lines capitali zed on the growing appeal and began touting the state to vacationers, part icularly those suffering from physical ailments. The states temperate weather and ocean breezes were hail ed as the cure for all manner of disease, from consumption to catarrh. 56 A flood of guidebooks, travel accounts, and newspaper and magazine articles portrayed the state as a peninsula blessed w ith the perfect climate, the sweetest singing birds, and a ground always covered with flow er blossoms. All of this broadened the publics awareness of Florid a as a newfound paradise. One observer estimated that 33,000 tourists visited Florida between 1874 and 1875, generating $3,000,000 for the economy. Cruising the states many waterway s by steamboat was exceptionally popular, in particular the Ocklawaha River and the magnificent Silver Springs. Port towns and cities like Jacksonville and Palatka catered to the whims of early tourists. But the 56 Paul S. George, "Passage to the New Eden: Tour ism in Miami from Flagler through Everest G. Sewell," Florida Historical Quarterly LX, no. 4 (April 1981), 440-441.; Gary Mormino, "Trouble in Tourist Heaven: Weeki Wachee Mermaids an d Ram-n-Rob Murders Don't Mix," Forum (Summer 1994): 11-12.; Anne E. Rowe, The Idea of Florida in the American Literary Imagination (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992), 27; Edward Akin, Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and Florida Baron (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1991).
34 greatest boon to nineteenth-cen tury Florida tourism was the appearance of the railroad and its Gilded Age passengers. 57 Recognizing the dearth of rail lines in the state, oil tycoon Henry Flagler and railroad magnate Henry Plant began building extensive transportation networks in the 1880s, sparking a new age in Florida tourism. Both men built magnificent hotels to entice wealthy tourists to the remote cities their railroads visited. Plants Tampa Bay Hotel, complete with turrets, domes and minarets, opened in 1891, two years after Henry Flaglers grand Hotel Ponce de Leon debuted in St. Augustine. Flagle r, in particular, was pivotal in transforming the state from a slee py backwater to a desi rable destination for Americas wealthy elite. Afte r realizing that St. Augustine was too cold for Northerners trying to escape brutal winters, Flagler extended his Florida East Coast railroad down the eastern seaboard, building luxurious hotels in Palm Beach, and eventually realizing his dream of an overseas rail-line to Key West. Flagler, perhaps more than any other man before Walt Disney, was instrumental in the development of Florid a as a tourist mecca. 58 Mirroring a national trend, the 1920s brought a democra tization of tourism to Florida. Buoyed by the advent of paid vaca tions, newly affordable automobiles, and an increase in good roads, tourists began visiting Florida by the carload s. State and city boosters promoted a land of eternal suns hine and youth, capitaliz ing on what scholars have referred to as the Florida Dream, described by historia n Raymond Arsenault as the centuries-old promise of perpetual warm th, health, comfort, a nd leisure. Florida 57 Ibid. 58 Henry Flagler and his relationship to St. Augustine w ill be discussed in greater detail in Chapter three. George, Passage to the New Eden, 441; Mormino, Trouble in Tourist Heaven, 12; Michael Gannon, Florida: A Short History (Gainesville: University Press of Flor ida, 1993), 55-59; Thomas Graham, Flagler's Magnificent Hotel Ponce De Leon (St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Societ y, 1990), 13; Akin, Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and Florida Baron 222.
35 land sales boomed as binder boys and othe r hucksters played upon northerners dreams of owning a piece of Florida paradise. Th e state government officially sanctioned the practice of catering to tour ists by abolishing the state income tax in 1924, hoping to entice visitors to become reside nts. The selling of Florida was in full swing, and tourists were the prime customers. In 1925, 2.5 million tourists visited Florida. 59 By 1926 the boom was over, and Florida plunged into economic depression three years ahead of the rest of the nation. By 1932 the annual number of vi sitors to the state had plummeted to half a million. But not ev en the Great Depression could keep people away from the sunshine for long; by 1935 visi tation numbers were back up in the range of two million people. 60 The true watershed in the history of tourism in Florida was World War Two. Rationing and wartime restrictions on travel kept away many of the states traditional tourists, but this loss was made up for by a new crop of visitors: soldie rs in training. As historian Gary Mormino has commented, Floridas pork-barrel politi cs, ample sunshine, and jungle-like terrain made it especially attractive for military training. Empty resorts beckoned. Initially hesitant about the prospect, hotel operators soon realized that rooms occupied by soldiers were bett er than rooms occupied by no on e at all. As visitors to 59 Mormino, Trouble in Tourist Heaven, 12; Mark S. Foster, Castles in the Sand: The Life and Times of Carl Fisher (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000); Raymond Arsenault, "Is there a Florida Dream?" Forum, (Summer 1994), 24-25; Herbert L. Hiller, Highway A1A: Florida at the Edge (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005), 8; William W. Rogers, "The Paradoxical Twenties," in The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon (Gainesville: Univers ity Press of Florida, 1996), 292-293. 60 Ibid., 294-295; William W. Rogers, "The Great Depression," in The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996), 319.
36 Florida are wont to do, many of these young so ldiers fell in love with the tropical paradise and hoped to return after the War. 61 Bolstered by postwar prosperity, Flor ida and its tourism industry boomed. Rebounding from the war years, Americans were eager to enjoy the fruits of the Florida dream. Between 1940 and 1950 the number of tourists visiting Florida nearly doubled, from 2.8 to nearly 5 million. These postwar visitors typically arrived by automobile, cruising down U.S. 1, and delighting in the many roadside attraction, diners, and motels that sprang up to cater to their needs. The popularity of many of Floridas early theme parks flourished during this time, including Cypress Gardens, Weeki Wachee Springs, and Marine Land. These sites manipulated the beautiful natu ral surroundings of the state to enchant tourists looking for the Eden they perceived Florida to be Cities also enjoyed the growing influx of visitors, as Miami, Miami Beach, St. Petersburg, Daytona, Fort Lauderdale and Key West thrived on the tourist trade. 62 Throughout the 1950s and 1960s visitation to Florida climbed steadily. In 1960 over 10 million tourists visited, by 1965 that number jumped to over 16 million. In 1970 it was up to 23 million. Lured by sunshine and the promise of rest and relaxation, tourists flocked to Florida well before a famous animat or set his sites on the state. Even so, the opening of Walt Disney World in 1971 woul d forever change the complexion of the states tourism industry. 63 61 Gary Mormino, "World War II" in The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996), 323-325. 62 Mormino, Trouble in Tourist Heaven, 12; Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams 76-95. 63 Florida Division of Tourism, Florida Tourist Study (Tallahassee: Florida Division of Tourism, 19581996).
37 Disney World No study on tourism in Florida, even one on heritage tourism, could possibly be complete without a discussion of Walt Disn ey World. As the worlds most popular tourist site, it begs to be st udied for the insights it can provide into tourist motivations. But for the purposes of this study what is perhaps more interes ting than the history of Disney World is the presentation of history at Disney World. Blessed with a balmy climate, an accommodating local government, and plenty of cheap land, the sleepy Central Florida to wn of Orlando was discovered by Disney officials in the early 1960s. With Walt Disney s magic touch, a vast tract of land situated between two major highways (Interstate 4 and the Florida Turnpike) would become the worlds greatest tourist attr action. In 1969, prior to the opening of Disney World in Orlando, 3.5 million people visited Central Florid a. Within the first year of the Magic Kingdoms opening, that number had skyrocketed to 10 million. In 2000, nearly 43 million tourists visited Walt Disney World. By then the mega-theme park had doomed most of Floridas historic roadside attrac tions and changed the face of Florida tourism forever. 64 The Disney Corporations phenomenal succe ss in Florida serves as an interesting counterpoint in a study on heritage tourism, for several reasons. First, it is ironic that to millions of people Florida and Disney World are almost inseparable concepts. As historian Gary Mormino has pointed out, Disney World is in Florida, but offers visitors precious little of Florida. 65 The landscape in and around the theme park has been 64 Richard E. Foglesong, Married to the Mouse: Walt Disney World and Orlando (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 3; Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams 102-104. 65 Ibid., 104.
38 manipulated almost beyond recognition. Murky brown Florida lakes were turned aquablue to align with Disneys vision. What a ppear to be healthy trees composed of bark and leaves are really man-made vinyl rep licas. Visiting Disney World is truly the antithesis of a sense-ofplace experience; vi sitors leave knowing little more about Florida than they did when they arrived. Rather, it is the epitome of a homogenized, commercialized, and corporate experience, ever ything that heritage tourism practitioners rail against. The second counterpoint that Disney World offers in a study of heritage tourism is its flawed presentation of history. Many heritage t ourism sites struggle with authenticity in their presentations of the past Yet, presumably, mo st heritage sites are dedicated to accurate representations of history and strive to maintain authenticity. The same cannot be said of Walt Disney World, where a nostalgic, romanticized version of history is unabashedly offered for the enjoyment of tourists. A Disney imagineer(as the designers are called) explaine d it this way: What we create is Disney Realism, sort of Utopian in nature, where we carefully prog ram out all the negative, unwanted elements and program in the positive elements. 66 Anthropologist Steven Fjellman dubs Disneys version of history Distory and observes that in Distory one need never acknowledge the ugly episodes in Americas past. Instead, th e over-riding theme of Distory is that of progress, and, in the words of historian Mich ael Wallace, progress is measured at Disney by the availability of emancipatory consumer goods. 67 66 Michael Wallace, "Mickey Mouse History: Portraying the Past at Disney World" in History Museums in the United States eds. Warren Leon and Roy Rosenzweig (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 161. 67 Stephen M. Fjellman, Vinyl Leaves: Walt Disney World and America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), 59-84; Wallace, Mickey Mouse History , 165.
39 Granted, Walt Disney World is a for-profit theme park and should not be held to the same standards as heritage sites that claim to accurately re present history. But, as one scholar notes, when one considers the millions upon millions of tourists that have visited Disney World over the years, One might fair ly say that Walt Disney has taught people more history, in a more memorable way, than they ever learned in school, to say nothing of history museums. 68 Ironically, millions of visitors to Florida imbibe this romantic version of American history annually, perhaps never realizing that the nations oldest city lies within a few hours drive, or that the st ate they are visiting brims with historic treasures and stirring sens e-of-place experiences. Floridas Heritage Tourism Organizations and Agencies The study of heritage tourism in Florida holds fascinating potential. In a state accustomed to manipulating itself to appeal to tourists, a state in which the biggest theme park in the world presents a skewed version of American history to millions of visitors each year, is it possible to generate an interest in heritage sites? S ites that often represent a Florida and America far different from the one many visitors are familiar with? Recent studies show that it is possible. According to the 2002 report Economic Impacts of Hist oric Preservation in Florida, heritage tourism generated $3.721 billion in expenditures in the state during the year 2000. A February 2005 survey conducted by Visit Florida, the states tourism marketing consortium, revealed that 44.4 percent of visitors to Florida in the past year had participated in a history-based activity (described as vi siting historical museums or 68 Ibid., 158.
40 memorials, old homes, historic villages, Indian sites, military sites, parks or other places important in history). Thes e tourists may have been vi siting one of over 1,500 Florida sites listed on the National Register of Histor ic Places, or one of the states 340 museums, more than half of which are historical. Vis itors to historical mu seums alone garnered 9.7 million visitors in 2000. 69 Perhaps even more revealing than heritage tourisms economic impact in Florida are the number of marketing campaigns, hist oric preservation programs, and grant initiatives devoted to improving and promoting heritage tourism in the state. In particular Visit Florida, Florida Main Street, the Flor ida Division of Historic al Resources, and the Florida Humanities Council have initiated programming over the past few decades to generate heritage tourism resources in Florida. Visit Florida In 1996 the Florida Department of Commerces Division of Tourism was dismantled and replaced by the Florida T ourism Industry Marketing Corporation, a public/private partnership devoted to the prom otion of Florida tourism. The corporation adopted the brand name Visit Flor ida a year later. The first public/private partnership of 69 Though many of the sites listed on the National Regi ster of Historic Places ar e not open to the public they often still contribute to the historic character of an area. University of Florida Levin College of Law, Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida (2002), available from: www.law.ufl.edu/cgr/pdf/historic_report.pdf ; Internet; accessed 5 November 2005; Jennifer Driscoll, Culture, History, and Nature-Based Travel among Visitors to Florida: February 2005 Survey (Tallahassee: Visit Florida, 2005); Florida Associati on of Museums, "About the Florida Association of Museums," available from: www.flamusuems.org ; Internet; accesse d17 April 2006.
41 its kind in state tourism, Visit Florida leverages government funds and corporate partnerships to promot e travel to the state. 70 The formation of Visit Florida stemmed from a realization that the marketing strategies used by the Department of Comm erces Division of Tourism were not only ineffective, but in some cases, damaging. Visitation to Florida was stagnant in the 1990s, and many industry professionals blamed the Division of Tourism. In the years prior to the formation of Visit Florida, the division spent just $14.2 million on promotion, an amount that paled in comparison to similar vacation states. Hawaii, for instance spent $30 million on tourism promotion. Even Illinois sp ent more. The Divisions slogans were vague, and often seemed geared towards dissuading tourists from visiting the state. Florida travel commentator Herb Hiller notes that the Divisions One Florida, Many Faces slogan was not only murky, but implie d that at best, the Florida vacation is a crowd experience. 71 One of the most telling as pects of the decreasing visitation in the 1990s was a look at the people who were not coming. A 1994 study of Floridas Non-Visitors and Lapsed Visitors revealed that many recent visitors to Florida felt that the state lacked diversity in historical, cultu ral, and natural resources. 72 Apparently, visitors to Florida were seeking a sense of place, and Visit Fl orida took notice. While much of their promotion still focused on the beach, golf, and theme park tourism that had long 70 Visit Florida, Celebrating Ten Years of Florida Tourism Success (Tallahassee: Visit Florida, 2006); Beth Dickey, "A Model Plan: U.S. To urism Promoters See the Visit Florida Partnership as a Blueprint for a National Effort," Florida Trend, (October 2002), [p eriodical online] available from: www.floridatrend.com/issue/default.asp?a=4730&s=&&d=10/1/2002 ; Internet; accessed 18 April 2006; Herbert L. Hiller, "Marke ting the Real Florida," Florida Trend, (March 1996), 42. 71 Ibid. 72 Ibid., 43.
42 dominated the industry, they also began a se ries of marketing st rategies aimed at exploring those historic and cultural attributes th at made the state unique. 73 In 1999 Visit Florida launched its Worth the Drive campaign, featuring driving itineraries designed to lead tourists off-th e-beaten-path and on to discover some of Floridas best-kept secrets (Visit Florida co ntinue to use the campaign today.) In the wake of 2001s September 11 th terrorist attacks, Visit Florida teamed up with American Express to create Culturally Florida, an enormously successful marketing campaign promoting Floridas cultural and heritage destinations. Kerri Post, Vice President for New Product Development for Visit Florida, commented on the resistance Visit Florida encountered when launching the Culturally Fl orida campaign: A lot of people in the industry were skeptical about how it would be received. Ini tially there was grumbling. But the results opened so many peoples eyes. The results, in fact, are impressive. Of the 100,000 households that received a direct mailing related to the campaign, a staggering 59 percent ended up vi siting Florida within a year. 74 Visit Florida launched its newest initia tive in 2005. The Downtowns and Small Towns campaign features revitalized and vibrant downtowns and small towns throughout the state. With this newest program, Visit Florida pledges to combat generica with sense of place by providing a p ortal to Florida's rich cultural heritage, multi-cultural, natural and architectural assets . Kerri Post remarked upon Visit Floridas 73 Herb Hiller, "Tourism and Florida's Emerging Downtowns and Small Towns, 12. 74 Visit Florida, Celebrating Ten Y ears of Florida Tourism Success; Flor ida Division of Cultural Affairs, "Cultural Tourism," available from: http://www.florida-arts.org/re sources/culturaltourism.htm ; Internet; accessed 17 April 2006; To m Stieghorst, "Florida's New Marke ting Campaign Promotes Lower-Profile Communities," South Florida Sun Sentinel, October 23, 2005, [periodical online] available from Lexis Nexis Academic: http://web.lexisnexis.com.proxy.usf.edu/universe/document?_m=cff5b7d2f4ccc6c8511aa41afcb115ab&_docnum=1&wch p=dGLzVlz-zSkVb&_md5=a13e31e91396d4d3a19f54c667659a86 ; Hiller, Highway A1A, 3; Kerri Post, Interview by author, telephone, 5 May 2006.
43 motivations: We are encouraging people to see another side of Florid a. Over 94 percent of Florida visitors are repeat visitors. They have a familiarity with Florida, and we dont want them to say, been there, done that. We have to keep Florida fresh, and diligently get that message out that there is a lot more to Florida than people realize. So with cultural heritage tourism, thats what consumers want and we have to expand upon that. 75 To help promote Floridas heritage site s, a portion of the Visit Florida website (which attracts nearly 10 million visitors a ye ar) is dedicated to detailing the historic and cultural attributes the state ha s to offer. In addition to the extensive promotion Visit Florida finances for the state s heritage and cultural touris m industries, the organization also provides funding through its grant program to outside organizations for marketing projects that promote cultural her itage tourism efforts in Florida. 76 State officials seem satisfied with the work of Visit Florida. Official reviews conducted in 1999 and 2003 concluded that Visit Florida performed well and recommend that its state f unding should be continued. But some heritage tourism managers criticize the state for directing mo st of its advertising money towards major theme parks. Dr. William (Bill) Adams, the director of St. Augustines Department of Heritage Tourism, said in 2004: I think th e state does not emphasize St. Augustine or its history. If you look at the st ate dollars that are spent, their expenditures for tourism 75 Ibid.; Visit Florida, "Downtowns and Small Towns," available from: http://www.visitflorida.org/index.cf m?fla=web&webpageid=429&mid=664 ; Internet; accessed17 April 2006; Post interview. 76 Visit Florida, "Become a Partner," available from: http://www.visitflorida.org/index.cf m?fla=web&webpageid=129&mid=217 ; Internet; accessed 23 April 2006; Visit Florida, "History and Culture," available from: http://www.visitflorida.com/experience/history/ Internet; accessed 23 April 2006; Visit Florida, Grant Programs (Tallahassee: Visit Florida 2006).
44 purposes are directed by the big attractions like Disney World and Universal Studios. 77 Adams words may hold some truth. Just 2 percent, or $540,000 of Visit Floridas 2006 budget of $21 million will be spent on the D owntowns and Small Towns initiative. 78 But Kerri Post of Visit Florida disputes claims of critics. She argues: That perception is out there, but the absolute opposite is reality. Visit Floridas progr ams really benefit the little guy. The major theme parks and CVBs [convention and visitors bureaus] have far more money than we do. The theme parks, the Miamis, they dont need us. They have three or four times the budget that we do. The Orlando CVB alone brings in hundreds of millions of dollars a year. In the 2004 fiscal year 72 percen t of Visit Floridas partners were small businesses. From a marketing perspective the little guys benefit. The big guys dont really need us, and thats the fact of the matter. 79 Florida Main Street Established by the National Trust for Hi storic Preservation in 1980, the Main Street program has proven to be a successful tool for economic and historic preservation across the United States. Designed to revita lize the historic main street commercial areas of communities, Main Street programs help to recruit new businesses, rehabilitate buildings, improve economic management, and increase the potential for enjoyment of traditional downtowns. Main Street promotes heritage tourism by preserving historic properties and making them appealing and en joyable to visit. Florida Main Street Program Coordinator Joan Jefferson notes: Heritage tourism is not specifically mentioned in our program literature, but it is very important to the success of the Florida 77 Bill Adams, Interview by author, St. Augustine, Fl, 25 October 2004. 78 Stieghorst, Florida's New Marketing Campaign ; Visit Florida, 2004 Florida Visitor Study summary, 24; Foglesong, Married to the Mouse 3. 79 Post interview.
45 Main Street Program. Heritage tourism reinforces historic preservation by demonstrating that historic resources are str ong assets for attracti ng visitors. Many cultural and historic structures have been rehabilitated by state cult ural and historic gran ts, and act as magnets to the downtown area. 80 Floridas Main Street program began in 1985, administered by the Bureau of Historic Preservation, Divisi on of Historical Resources. Between 1985 and 2002 more than $569 million was reinvested in over 80 communities across the state. Designated Main Street communities receive technical assi stance in each of the four points of the Main Street strategy: organization, promoti ons, design, and economic restructuring. For up to three years Main Street communities are eligible to re ceive this technical assistance via consultant team visits, design and historic preservation assistance, and architectural advice. Joan Jefferson cites DeLand, Fort Pierce, Leesburg, Panama City, St. Cloud, Stuart, and Winter Haven as Floridas most successful Main Street programs, and comments upon heritage tourism in these, and other, Main Street communities, Almost all programs, by virtue of being a Main Street offer an insight into the heritage of the community. Many Main Street communities offer heritage day type programming. Everything from cane grinding to Boom Town days. In fact, many people have told me that they make vacation plans that include visiting as many Main Street communities as time allows. 81 80 Michael Zimny, "Preserving Florida's Historic Downtowns," Florida History and the Arts, (Spring 2002): 8; Joan Jefferson, Interview by author, telephone, 4 May 2006. 81 Ibid.
46 The Florida Division of Historical Resources Main Street falls under the auspices of th e Bureau of Historic Preservation at the Florida Department of States Division of Historical Resources. The Bureau also maintains the states Master Si te File, a database of all know n historical structures and archaeological sites in Florida. In addition to the Bureau of Historic Preservation, the Division of Historical Resour ces oversees several other pr ograms relating to heritage tourism in the state: the Bureau of Arch eological Research, the Museum of Florida History, and a Grant Services program. 82 The preservation and exhibit grants cha nneled through the Division of Historical Resources require that funded projects meet rigorous criteria for authenticity and are certainly the Divisions biggest contribution to heritage tourism in Florida. But a more publicly recognizable contributi on are the Divisions magazines, heritage trail guides, historic markers, and websites produced as pa rt of its art and public ations program. The magazine Florida History and the Arts published quarterly and dist ributed as an insert in the popular business magazine Florida Trend, covers issues relating to Florida heritage. The Great Floridians program recognizes individuals that have enhanced the lives of Florida citizens by placing plaques in their honor in cities across the st ate. A historic markers program memorializes important hist oric resources, persons and events in architecture, archaeology, Florida history and tr aditional culture. A series of five heritage trails help visitors explore World War Tw o, Jewish history, African-American history, womens history, and Cuban hi story throughout the state. And, finally, an interactive 82 My Florida.com, "Office of Cultural and Historical Programs," available from: http://www.flheritage.com ; Internet; accessed 4/17/2006; My Florid a.com, "Preservation," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/preservation/ ; Internet; accessed 17 April 2006.
47 website, the Florida Heritage Tourism Interactive Catalog allows tourists and citizens to search a catalog of historic sites arou nd the state in preparation for a visit. 83 The Florida Humanities Council The Florida Humanities Council (FHC), es tablished as the Florida Endowment for the Humanities in 1973, is the state affilia te of the National Endowment for the Humanities. Its mission, to build comm unities and informed citizens by providing Floridians with the opportunity to explore the heritage, traditions and stories of the state and its place in the world is symbiotic with the development of heritage tourism infrastructure in the state. In particul ar the Councils Gather ing program and grant program foster the sense of place experiences that are integral to heritage tourism. 84 The Florida Humanities Council began the Ga thering in 1996 as an experiment in cultural heritage tourism. The idea for the Gathering began in the home of then University of South Florida President Betty Castor, whose husband Sam Bell was a former state legislator and me mber of the FHC Board of Di rectors. Noting the popularity of FHCs week-long experiential placed-based seminars for Florida teachers, Bell 83 My Florida.com, "Arts and Publications," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/services/ ; Internet; accessed 17 Apri 2006; My Florida.com, "Florida History and the Arts Magazine," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/services/magazine/ ; Internet; accessed 17 April 2006; My Florida.com, "Great Floridians," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/services/sites/floridians/ ; Internet; accessed 17 April 2006; My Florida.com, "Histori cal Markers," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/services/sites/markers/ ; Internet; accessed 17 Apr il 2006; My Florida.com, "Heritage Trails," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/services/trails/bht/ ; Internet; accessed 17 April 2006; My Florida.com, "Heritage Tourism Interactive Catalog," available from: http://www.flheritage.com/services/sites/fht/ ; Internet; accessed 17 April 2006. 84 Florida Humanities Council, "Mission," available from: http://www.flahum.org/sections/about_fhc/index.html ; accessed 18 April 2006.
48 suggested that the Council offer similar cultural weekends to non-teachers as well. Thus, the Gathering was born. 85 FHCs director of grants, Susan Lock wood, was the first coordinator of the Gathering program. She laughs when rememb ering Sam Bells reacti on to the Councils choice of location for the fi rst Gathering: the rural a nd remote region around Lake Okeechobee. Im not sure that it is exactly what Sam had in mind for a cultural weekend. But the Council had been worki ng with community colleges, historical societies, museums, chambers of commerce, and city governments around Okeechobee since 1990. Through its grants program, FHC had funded many projects in the region prior to the first Gathering, including a brochure of historic information and maps, titled The Lure of Lake Okeechobee: Historic Tours of the Towns Around the Lake; an exhibit and series of public programs in Palm Beach County interpreting the folk life of Lake Okeechobee; a collection of oral histories in the City of Pahokee; and an exhibit in the city of South Bay on the prehistory, hi story, and cultures of the Lake Okeechobee region. The Gathering in Okeechobee offered activities such as a trip to a Seminole Indian Reservation, an oral history program with Okeechobee old-timers, and an exploration of an ecosystem restoration program. 86 FHCs Gathering in Okeechobee proved to be popular and successful, and the Council has been conducting the cu ltural heritage tourism week ends ever since. Since 1996 Gatherings have been held in: Ho mosassa, Polk County, Mount Dora, DeLand, 85 Susan Lockwood, Interview by author, St. Petersburg, Fl., 4 May 2006. 86 Florida Humanities Council, Heritage Tourism In itiative (St. Petersburg: Florida Humanities Council, 2000); Florida Humanities Council, S ome Cultural Heritage Gr ants Funded by FHC (St. Petersburg, FL: Florida Humanities Council, 2000); Lockwood, Interview by author; A Florida Gathering at Lake Okeechobee, (St. Petersburg: Florida Humanities Council, 1996).
49 Fernandina Beach, the Everglades, St. A ugustine, Cedar Key, and Fort Pierce. In addition, through its grant program, FHC continue s to fund projects th at enhance cultural tourism infrastructure in the state, like th e Zora Neale Hurston Dust Tracks Heritage Trail in Fort Pierce, and a walking map of Calle Ocho in Miami. As much as possible, FHC tries to combine its Gathering and grants programs for maximum benefit. Susan Lockwood credits the popularity of the Gathering weekends and grant funded cultural heritage projects to the authen ticity that FHC brings to the table. If you want to explore Florida as Florida, not as the Dark Continent of Busch Gardens or the fantasy of Disney World, if you want an authentic experience, then the Florida Humanities Council can help with that. Wh at distinguishes our programming are the scholars, and the processing, analysis, and interp retation that are such integral tools of the humanities. 87 Floridas Unique Heritage Tourism Locations Clearly there are several statewide organizations and agencies dedicated to the promotion, design, and implementation of heritage tourism in Florida. What exactly, then, would a geographical snapshot of the st ates heritage touris m industry look like? What cities, towns, counties, or regions, are doing it well? Where has it been most successful? The most obvious answer is St. Augustine, the oldest city in the United States, and the heritage tourism industry there will be explored in greater detail in chapter three. But other communities and sites ar ound the state have also successfully tapped into the desire of tourists seeking more than just sunshi ne, sand, and super-mice. 87 Ibid.
50 During an interview with Florida travel commentator Herb Hiller, I engaged in a virtual heritage tour through Fl orida, analyzing areas of the state that have long practiced heritage tourism, and those that are engage d in innovative new practices. Hiller sees a positive future for heritage tourism in Florida. He points out that since the beginning of Floridas popularity as a tour ist destination it was the hi story, heritage, and natural environment that attracted people. He notes If you look at all of the old touring books they are all about the heritage and history of Florida: the Castillo de San Marcos, the Bridge that Went to Sea. But he argues that, for a long while, the heritage, culture, and nature of the state were the three great dism issed attributes of Florida tourism, a trend that he feels is changing due to increase d cooperation between the tourism industry and local communities. 88 For the purposes of this thesis, I will c onduct a similar virtual tour, but in the interest of time and space I will highlight just a few heritage tourism sites that stand out, in particular Miami, Key West, Pensacola, a nd Volusia County. While heritage tourism is successfully practiced in many other Florida communities, these particular locations demonstrate well-established or uni que approaches to the industry. Miami With a history that dates back only to the late 1800s, the bust ling city of Miami may seem an ironic place to begin a discussi on of successful heritage tourism. But few places in the United States possess the diversit y, vitality, and unique cultural heritage of Miami, Florida, and fewer still have learned to sell it to tourists as well as Miami does. 88 Herbert L. Hiller, Interview by auth or, Georgetown, Fl., December 23, 2005.
51 Originally founded as an army outpost, Miami began luring modest numbers of visitors with its tropical warmth in the 1880s and 1890s. A hard freeze in 1895 convinced Henry Flagler that balmy Miami might be a more suitable location than St. Augustine for his winter resorts. He built the Royal Palm Hotel and the Miami Country Club in the late 1890s, and then offered five -week package tours of Florida to entice visitors. For a cost of $350, tourists recei ved transportation to Florida, meals, and lodging at any of Flag lers luxurious hotels. 89 The Magic City, as Miami became known, boomed. Visitors flocked to the city and new hotel construction thrived. Men like George Merrick and Carl Fisher transformed nearby Coral Gables and Miami Beach into resort capitals in their own right. By 1915 annual visitation to Miami neared 1,000,000 tourists. They came for the sun, and they came to be seen. The Miami Chamber of Commerce, under the leadership of Everest G. Sewell, organized social events, festivals, boat shows, a nd sporting events to keep the tourists entertained. 90 A stroke of bad luck plagued Miami in the mid-1920s as hurricanes, government crackdowns on pari-mutuel betting, and the cl osing of the Royal Palm hotel plunged the city into an economic slump. By the mid-1930s Miami Beach had taken over as the glamorous resort community of south Florida. The beach itself was largely man-made, dredged out of the ocean by Carl Fisher in 1914. Some 50 new hotel s were built in 1935 89 George, Passage to the New Eden, 442-454. 90 Ibid.
52 and 1936 alone, their development coinciding wi th the height of the Art Deco design movement. 91 In terms of tourism, Miami followed much the same trajectory as the state at large during World War Two, and in the decade th at followed both Miami and Miami Beach learned to cater to a more middle class clientele. In 1950 almost two million tourists visited, and that number continued to clim b in following years. But by the 1970s, the glitter of the Miami area had worn off, as Americans caught up in an economic recession stayed home. The glamorous hotels of Miam i Beach fell into disrepair. Fortunately, Miamis tourism industry rebounded in the 1980s, thanks largely to the popular television show Miami Vice which depicted Miami Beach as sexy, glamorous, and slightly dangerous. By 1987 more than 25 percent of air-travelers to Florida were headed to Miami-Dade County. Miamis popularity holds steady today. 92 The Miami area has always appealed to t ourists for reasons different than other Florida resort towns. Miami suggests danger, raunchiness, and vitality. Even a rising crime rate, a staggering influx of Hispanics, and one of the most devastating hurricanes in U.S. history have not dampened the visitation numbers. It would be unreasonable to argue that tourists are visiting Miami purely to seek out its history and cultural heritage, but Miami has done an admirable job of preservi ng the very attributes that made it unique and appealing to tourists in the first place. A case in point is the Art Deco district. 91 Ibid., 454-459; Foster, Castles in the Sand 153; Jon Nordheimer, "Miami Beach Art Deco: Restoring a Flamboyant 1935 House," New York Times, 20 March 1986, [newspaper online], available from ProQuest Historical Newspapers. 92 Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams, 92-97; Florida Division of Tourism, Florida Tourist Study 1980; Visit Florida, 2004 Florida Visitor Study 24; Cheryl Blackerby, "MIAMI'S PAST GLITZ, GLAMOUR AND THE LURE OF SUN, FUN," Palm Beach Post sec. Travel, 23 June 2002, [newspaper online] available from: Lexis Nexis Academic.
53 In the mid-1970s, tourism to Miami Beach wa s stagnant. City leaders attributed this to the deteriorating condition of many buildings and the large numbers of elderly people, mostly Jews, that had relocated to Miami Beach beginning in the 1930s. In an attempt to wipe the slate clean and start fres h, the city commission declared the southern portion of the city blighted and targeted it fo r redevelopment, despite the fact that more than 80 percent of the buildi ngs in the area were actually deemed to be in good or excellent shape. Elderly residents of Miami Beach feared for the loss of their homes and their way of life. Others lamented the poten tial loss of the unique architecture of 1930s South Beach. 93 In 1976 a middle-aged widow named Barbara Capitman formed the Miami Design Preservation League in an effort to sa ve the historic buildings of South Beach. The group identified a concentration of 1930s build ings designed in the Art Deco style, and worked to have it designated a historic di strict. In 1979 their efforts paid off, as a mile-square section of South Miami Beach containing more than 1,200 art deco hotels and apartments became the nations first twenti eth-century historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Artists, fashion design ers, and musicians poured in. When Miami Vice began filming in South Beach in 1984 the tourists came in droves, looking for the tropical colored buildings a nd quirky architecture they saw each week on television. The preservation of the Art Deco district had pa id off, and it continues to draw hordes of visitors today. The Miami C onvention and Visitors Bureau claims that 93 Barron M. Stofik, Saving South Beach (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005), 21-28; Dennis Wilhelm, "Chronology of the Miami Design Preservation League and Historic Preservation in Miami Beach," available from: http://www.mdpl.org/About%20Us/history.html2006 ; Internet; accessed 4 May 2006; Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams 129.
54 over 11 million people visited the greater Miami area in 2005. The Art Deco/South Beach area was the top area visited. 94 The Miami Design Preservation League offers several walking tours a week of the Art Deco district, but the lea gue is not alone in capitalizing on the unique heritage of the Magic City. In the late 1980s an enterprising historian name d Paul George linked up with the Historical Museum of Southern Florida to offer Historic Tours with Dr. George-guided explorations of Miamis storied streets, cemeteries, and buildings. Tour topics range from the Secrets of Coconut Grove to a Murder and Mayhem tour that looks at the citys criminal element. George conduc ts over 100 tours a year and routinely turns away private tours for lack of time. Geor ge credits the popularity of his tours to the thorough research conducted beforehand. He comments: People perceive them as extremely comprehensive. Other people conduc ting tours arent hist orians, and tourists know this. People want it straight out, including the negative aspects, and I try to be as objective as possible. George sees a great n eed for similar tours all over Florida. He comments, Every city has its distinct qua lities, and so many people are unaware of place. 95 94 This number is different than that given by Visit Florida. The Visit Florida 2004 visitor study shows Miami-Dade County capturing 6.2%, or 4,941,400 of that years Florida tourists. Visit Florida, 2004 Florida Visitor Study 192; Stofik, Saving South Beach 24, 106-109; Ralph Blum enthal, "Miami Beach Fights To Regain its Superstar Billing," New York Times 17 June 1979, [newspaper online] available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers; Wilhelm, Chronology of the Miami Design Preservation League ; Greater Miami Convention and Visitors Bureau, Twenty-One Reasons Why Tourism is the Number One Industry in Greater Miami and the B eaches in 2005, available from: http://www.gmcvb.com/pictures/pressreleas es/MPR233_21%20Reasons%20for%202005.pdf ; Internet; accessed 4 May 2006. 95 Paul George, Interview by author, telephone, 3 May 2006; Historical Museum of South Florida, "Historic Tours with Dr. George," available from: http://www.historicalmuseum.org/educate/tours/tours.htm#june ; Internet; accessed 7 May 2006.
55 Miami has done an excellent job of protecting and highlighting the unique attributes that make it special. By preservi ng the architecture and heritage of the area through efforts like those of the Miami Design Preservation League and historian Paul George, Miami has been able to retain a very definable sense of place. Key West The island city of Key West boasts a long and colorful history. Incorporated in 1828, its salvage and fishing industries made it Floridas largest city by 1890. The U.S. Navy has a long relationship w ith the town, operating in so me capacity on the island since 1822. For the next century most of Key Wests citizens made their living from the sea, and a distinct culture emerged. The artist s and writers that were attracted to the town in the twentieth century only added to its fascinating and unusual character. 96 Realizing the value of the citys hi story, citizens formed the Key West Art and Historical Society in 1949 to begin preser ving the distinctive character and maritime heritage of the area. The Society acquired and preserved the East Martello Civil War Fort, and in 1960 opened an old lighthouse keepers home as a military museum. Following the lead of the Key West Art and Historical Society, the Old Island Restoration Foundation formed in the 1960s fo r the express purpose of preserving what remained of nineteenth-century Key West One of their first successes was the preservation of the Audubon House, a ninet eenth-century sea cap tains home where James Audubon stayed during his 1832 visit. The Foundation also arranged for the demolition of the old city docks to create a public promenade at Mallory Square, where 96 City of Key West, "City Information," available from: http://www.keywestcity.com/ourcity/cityinfo.asp ; Internet; accessed 7 May 2006.
56 they restored several historic buildings. During the same period of the 1960s, the city council established an area known today as Old Town, a 190-block area containing 2,580 structures, including the largest collec tion of wooden buildings in Florida. 97 Tourism is Key Wests mainstay. The 2000 census showed that 30 percent of the population was employed in the tourist indus try. The city estimates that over 18,000 tourists visit every day ; far more come for special events and holidays. Over two million tourists visited Monroe County (which incl udes all of the Flor ida Keys) in 2004 alone. 98 The tourists come for the translucent blue waters, and the debauchery to be found on lively Duval Street, but first and foremost they come for a sense of place. They come to discover the island that enchanted the likes of Ernest Hemingway, Tennessee Williams, and Jimmy Buffett, with its distinctive history and matchless beauty. As a 1978 study conducted by the Key West Chamber of Comme rce observed, In many ways, history is Key Wests leading product. 99 In the early 1970s an enterprising young visionary named Edward Swift decided to capitalize on the citys unique past. Swif t grew up poor on an island just north of Key West, and worked in his fathers photo s hop on Duval Street, one of Key Wests main thoroughfares. When Key West plunged into an economic depression in the early 1970s Swift joined up with two pa rtners to buy and repair buildings on the run-down Duval Street, kicking off a second-wave of historic preservation in the city. In the early 1980s Swift and his partners ventured farther in to the tourism industry, purchasing the Old 97 City of Key West, "City Information; Maureen Ogle, Key West: History of an Island of Dreams (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003), 12 2, 221-222. Martha Thompson and David Johnson, History Preserved, Florida Keys Magazine (3 rd Quarter, 1979): 34-37. 98 City of Key West, City Information; Visit Florida, 2004 Florida Visitor Study 1-92. 99 City of Key West, City Information; Thomson and Johnson, History Preserved, 36.
57 Town Trolleys and the Conch Tour Train, risky ventures in the tumultuous years following the Mariel boatlift. The Conch T our Train, originally founded in 1948, was a beloved Key West attraction. It rumbled along a 14-mile route at 20 miles-per-hour, entertaining visitors with tales of the Is lands famous and infamous characters. 100 Swifts gambles paid off in a big way. The business venture he began with two partners in the 1970s would become Historic Tours of America, which now owns and operates 40 attractions in the city, includi ng the Shipwreck Historeum, the Key West Aquarium, and the Harry S. Truman Little Wh ite House. Swift and his partners are the largest leaseholders of city land in Key West, and their su ccess has spilled over into new markets. Historic Tours of America now runs tour trains and other attractions in Boston, San Diego, Savannah, Washington D.C., and St Augustine. Dubbing themselves, The Nations Storytellers the company has honed a method of keeping to urists entertained while at the same time educating them about the history of the c ity they are visiting. 101 Some say that Historic Tours of America have become too successful, and that success is harmful to Key West. Critics ca ll the HTA tours Disneyesque attractions that are sustained only by massive crowds of tourists. For years, environmentalists have decried the impact of millions of annual tour ists trampling through the fragile ecosystem of the Florida Keys. Their dreams of fewer tourists may be materializing. As of May 2006, tourist numbers in Key West are down significantly from past years. Many cite economic factors that affect Americans travel patterns. Others note the spate of 100 Cara Buckley, "Land Owner Lures Tour ists, Gathers Critics in Key West, Fla.," The Miami Herald 16 September 2003, [newspaper online] available from: Lexis-Nexis Academic; Marika Lynch, "All Aboard! All about the Conch Tour Train," Miami Herald 23 December 1998, [newspap er online] available from: Lexis-Nexis Academic. 101 Buckley, Land Owner Lures Tourists; Dana Ste. Claire, Interview by author, St. Augustine, Fl., 27 December 2005.
58 hurricanes that have damaged or threatened th e area over the past coup le of years. Still others credit the decreasing number of hotel rooms available to tourists because of conversion of old hotels and motels to condom iniums and single-family homes, part of the gentrification process threatening tourism in Key West. Dana Ste. Claire, National Museum Director for Historic Tours of Amer ica, admits that the market for heritage tourism in Key West is not what it once was. He says, The market is at an extreme point of fluctuation. Its not what it normally is a nd its going to be a while before it comes out of that. Its a real challenge for us. Fortunate ly its not our only market or we would be in real trouble. Were still doing real well dow n there, but the market is changing. Dramatically. Environmental damage and ge ntrification are threaten ing the very history and atmosphere that make Key West such a popular tourism destination. 102 Pensacola After St. Augustine, Pensacola may have th e best claim to the title of Floridas most historic city. Certainly many Pensacola bo osters feel that they have a more rightful claim to the title of Floridas oldest city. Founded by Tristan de Luna in 1559, the area that is now the city of Pensacola was home to the first Spanish colony in present-day Florida. But beleaguered by dissension, a l ack of supplies, and a failure to find any valuable natural resources, the colonists left the area just two years later. They took with 102 Ste. Clair interview; Buckley, Land Owner Lu res Tourists; Thompson and Johnson, History Preserved, 37; Kevin Fox Gotham, Tourism Gentrification: The Case of New Orleans Vieux Carre. Urban Studies Vol. 42, No 7, (2005): 1099-1121.
59 them Pensacolas claim to the title of oldest city in the United States, which went to St. Augustine, a city with the distinction of being continuously occupied since 1565. 103 Despite losing the oldest city title, Pensacola residents and booste rs still take great pride in their long and rich history, and they have been preserving and showcasing that history for years. In 1959 Pensacola was the site of the kickoff cel ebration of Floridas quadricentenary; in 1967 the New York Times wrote about the historic preservation of Seville Square, where most of the areas hist oric buildings are situ ated. Pensacolans have continued to preserve and proudly displa y their heritage. In addition to the lovely Seville Square, Pensacola boasts the Historic Pensacola Village, an area encompassing twenty properties on the Nationa l Register of Historic Places. 104 But what makes Pensacolas heritage tour ism unique is not its Spanish Colonial past, or its admirabl e preservation efforts over the years. Pensacola has instead discovered a niche market in the world of heritage tourism: military tourists. Home to the first Naval Air facility in the United Stat es, and located adjacent to the massive Eglin Air Force base in Okaloosa County, Pensaco la still relies heavily on defense spending and military payrolls. The city has tapped into an interest am ongst retired military personnel, military history buffs, and families vacationing at Pensacola beach that want to teach their children something about U.S. military history (or at least keep them 103 Pensacola was the second Spanish colony in the present-day United States, after San Miguel de Gualdape in what is today Georgia. Michael Gannon, First European Contacts, in Michael Gannon,ed. New History of Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996): 22; Associated Press, "Pensacola Celebrates Tricentennial of Se cond Founding Second Time," The Associated Press State and Local Wire ,19 November 1998; Pensacola CVB, "Pensacola Bay Area Convention and Visitors Bureau," available from: www.visitpensacola.com ; Internet; accesse d 12 May 2006. 104 C. E. Wright, "Florida Looks Back Over 400 Years of History," New York Times 24 May 1959, [newspaper online] available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers; C. E. Wright, "A Walk into History on a Pensacola Square," New York Times 22 January 1967 [newspaper online] available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers; Pensacola CVB, Pensacola Bay Area Convention and Visitors Bureau.
60 entertained with flight simulators and restored planes.) Pensacola is home to several sites relevant to military history, including f our forts built by the Spanish, British, and Americans--Fort Barrancas, Fort Pickens, Fort McRee, and the Advanced Redoubt of Fort Barrancas--and also the site of The Wall South, a replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washi ngton DC. Opened in 1992 the Wa ll is located in a five-acre park that also houses memorials to World War I and World War II. 105 Pensacolas most impressive military tourism site is the National Museum of Naval Aviation at Pensacola Naval Air Stat ion (also home to the popular tourist draw the Blue Angels, a flight demonstration team .) The second larges t aviation museum in the United States, it is Floridas largest and most visited museum, welcoming more than a million visitors a year since 1997. Established by the Secretary of the Navy in 1962, it has grown exponentially and now occupies a facility with 291,000 square feet of space. The museum offers dynamic exhibits like th e Flight Adventure Deck, an interactive exhibit that teaches children about gravity, lift, and propulsion; a Blue Angels flight simulator; an extensive array of restored planes; and moving exhibits on Prisoners of War, Medals of Honor, the South Pacific, a nd a host of other topics. The museum touts itself as the leading tourist attraction between Orlando and New Orleans, and it consistently ranks among the t op ten attractions in Florida. 106 105 Mormino, Land of Sunshine 159-160; Gulf Islands National Seashore, "Forts," available from: http://www.nps.gov/guis/extended/FLA/History/Forts.htm ; Internet; accessed 12 May 2006; Veterans Memorial Park, Pensacola Florida, "Home of the Vietnam Veterans Wall South," available from; http://www.pensacolawallsouth.org/ ; accessed 12 May 2006; Judy Wells, "On the Wings of History: The National Museum of Aviation is just 'Plane' Fun." Florida Times-Union 15 August 2004, [newspaper online] available from: Lexis-Nexis Academic. 106 Wells, On the Wings of History; National Museum of Naval Aviation, "Museum History," available from: http://www.naval-air.org/joinus/museum-history.htm ; Internet; accessed 12 May 2006.
61 Volusia County Volusia Countys inclusion in a study of heritage tourism may come as a surprise. But tourism leaders in the western portion of the county, a region comprised mainly of small towns and rural landscapes that attract all manner of visitors, are currently engaged in a concerted attempt to save the area from the onslaught of devel opment. Officials are diligently trying to generate support for th e River of Lakes Heritage Corridor, a geographical region lying amidst the St. Johns River and Highway 17. The proposed heritage area is comprised of historic bu ildings, roadways, landscapes, and places known for their art, literature, and ways of life--places like the Ca ssadaga Spiritualist camp, the city of DeLand, Blue Spring State Park, and the town of Lake Helen. In addition, part of this heritage corridor strate gy focuses on the development of agritourism--tours of the regions numerous citrus, dairy, and vegetable farms. 107 Gaining support for the herita ge corridor is a first st ep towards designation by the National Park Service as a National Herita ge Area, defined as a region in which residents, businesses, and governments join together to preserve, promote and celebrate their heritage, culture, and na tural resources for the bene fit of current and future generations. Designation as a heritage ar ea entitles regions to limited technical and financial assistance from the National Park Service, connects them with other federal agencies, and lends the weight of the National Park Service na me to the designated area. There are currently twenty-four National Heri tage Areas in the United States, including 107 West Volusia Tourism Advertising Agency, A Her itage Corridor for West Volusia's Future, (2006); Hiller, Tourism and Florida's Emerging Downtowns and Small Towns, 36; Diane Sears, "Cash Crop: A West Volusia County Effort Hopes to Create a New In dustry Bringing Tourists and Farmers Together," Florida Trend, (June 2005) [magazine on line] available from: www.floridatrend.com/issue/defa ult.asp?a=5536&s+8&d=6/1/2005 ; Internet; accessed 8 May 2006.
62 the Cane River National Heritage Area in Louisiana, the Augusta Canal National Heritage Corridor in Georgia, the National Coal Heritage area in West Virginia, and the Rivers of Steel National Heritage Area in Pe nnsylvania. Volusia Countys attempts to garner support for such a designation represents a dist inctive and forward thinking strategy in Florida. 108 Conclusions We have looked at just a few of the many places where heritage tourism is being practiced in Florida. A laundr y list of other heritage site s and activities could include such diverse projects as th e restored Mission San Luis in Tallahassee, the murals depicting local history in De Land and Lake Placid, the antique shops of Mount Dora, the sponge docks of Tarpon Springs, tours of Fr ank Lloyd Wrights architectural works in Lakeland, the Tampa Bay Black Heritage Festiv al, the Zora Neale Hurston Heritage Trail in Fort Pierce, Fort Clinch in Fernandina Beach, the seafood festival in Cedar Key, and scores of other historic home s, heritage days, history festivals, and museums across the state. Florida has a rich heritage that many of the 85 million tourists who visited the state in 2005 might have missed. Blessed (o r cursed, depending on how one looks at it) with beautiful beaches and the worlds most popular theme parks, the state has little difficulty attracting visitors. Instead the challenge that Floridas heritage tourism industry faces is one of recognition and le gitimacy. But with the support of state organizations like Visit Florida, the Flor ida Humanities Council, and the Division of 108 National Park Service, "Nationa l Heritage Areas," available from: http://www.cr.nps.gov/her itageareas/FAQ/INDEX.HTM ; accessed 7 May 2006.
63 Historical Resources, heritage tourism locations in Florida are becoming more established and well known. The Art Deco dist rict of Miami, Old Town in Key West, the National Museum of Aviation History in Pe nsacola, and the River of Lakes Heritage Corridor in Volusia, are just some of places in Florida that have made a name for themselves in the world of heritage tourism. They provide a sense of place for tourists who know little about Florida and its history and contribute to a growing awareness of the state as more than just a home to Mickey Mouse.
64 Chapter Four: Heritage Tourism in St. Augustine, Florida There is no better place to study heritage tourism in th e United States than St. Augustine, Florida. Founded in 1565, the city boasts more than 250 years of Spanish colonial history, 20 years of British colonial history, and 175-plus years of American history. Tourists have long been drawn to the narrow alleys, the br oad tree-shaded plaza, and the unusual coquina buildings of the oldest city in the United States. The Castillo de San Marcos, the giant fort that stands guard over the city, has drawn curious visitors since it was decommissioned in 1899, and the patina of the ancient downtown lends a warm and inviting glow to souvenir shops and re staurants alike. Tourism has been St. Augustines leading industry since the 1820s But a recent study of tourism in St. Augustine showed that more than 40 percent of the citys visitors came from within the state of Florida, and another 20 percent hail ed from states along or near the eastern seaboard; places all within a days drive of th e town. This would suggest that the city lacks a broader national and international appeal as a travel destination. Of the 75 million tourists that visited Florida in 2003, barely 5 percent of them paid a visit to the Oldest City. Why so few? 109 Like Colonial Williamsburg, New England, and Santa Fe, St. Augustine provides a perfect setting in which to study some of the common trends and contradictions of 109 National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos, available from: http:www.nps.gov/casa/; Internet; accessed 9 May 2006; St. Augustine, Ponte Vedra, an d the Beaches Convention and Visitor's Bureau, Tourism and Economic Impacts Research, available from: http://www.visitoldcity.com/mem ers/research/files/0621121246.pdf ; Internet; accessed 12 October 2004.
65 heritage tourism. Tourists are beguiled by the unique sense of place created by the Spanish ambience of the Ancient City, but maintaining funding to preserve that historic character is a constant uphill battle for the city government. St. Augustines long history is meticulously documented, yet the town struggles to maintain historical authenticity in many of its tourist attractions. The city also faces problems that are unique to it as a heritage tourism location: the question of primacy, and a historical disregard for the Hispanic influence in the discovery and settlement of North America. Studying the history and pr oblems of the heritage tourism industry in St. Augustine raises fascinating que stions. If heritage touris m is gaining in popularity, why does one of the most historic cities, in one of the most visited states in the country, struggle to attract visitors? Does this neglect indicate a di sdain for Americas Hispanic roots? What does the paucity of state fundi ng for historic preser vation in St. Augustine say about Floridians preservation ethic? Do th e questions of authenticity raised at some of St. Augustines tourist attractions demonstr ate a sentimental interp retation of the past that is detrimental to Americans histori cal memory? The questions are difficult to answer in a place like St. Augustine where contentious battles over preservation, authenticity, and the commodification of history have raged for decades. History of Tourism in St. Augustine In many ways St. Augustine has always been the proverbial neglected stepchild. Founded in 1565 by the Spanish Naval Commander Pedro Menendez de Aviles, the town did little more than subsist as an outpost of Imperial New Spain for its first two hundred years. Its sandy soils, oppressive heat, tort urous mosquitoes, and lack of any valuable
66 natural resources meant that its only real value for Spain wa s its strategic location. As the only European foothold in the area, St. Augustine was in the perfect position to defend the Gulf Stream, the vital shipping route used to transport Spains newfound riches from Mexico and the Caribbean back home. The Spanish began construction on the great coquina fort, the Castillo de San Ma rcos, in 1672 to further secure their claim on the area. 110 Between 1565 and 1762 St. Augustine endured sieges from English colonies to the north, deadly epidemics, ch ronic food shortages, Indian ra ids, and the neglect of its mother country, but it survived as a Spanish colony. Spain finally lost the colony in 1763, when it was awarded to England as part of the treaty ending the Seven Years War. England controlled St. Augustine for just twen ty years, before it was handed back to Spain as part of yet another treaty in 1783. Spain maintained a tenuous hold over Florida for another thirty-eight years, unt il it became a U.S. territory in 1821. 111 Despite the periodic Indian troubl es, St. Augustine began to develop a reputation as a health resort in the 1830s. In the early ni neteenth-century a change in climate was the most prescribed cure for di seases of the lungs like tuberculosis and asthma. Northern newspapers printed favorable descriptions, often written by local boosters, of the beneficial climate to be f ound in St. Augustine, Florida. The sea breeze that blew through the town on most winter mornings was nicknamed the doctor, and one guidebook even cited powerful chemical ingredients in the air that acted as a neutralizer to disease. By 1827 the likes of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Achille Murat, 110 Amy Bushnell, The Noble and Loyal City: 1565-1668 in Jean Parker Waterbury, ed., The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival (St. Augustine: St. Augustine Hist orical Society: 1983); Jean Parker Waterbury, The Castillo Year s: 1668-1763, in Waterbury, The Oldest City 111 Ibid.; Daniel L. Schafer, Not So Gay a Town in America as This, in Waterbury, The Oldest City.
67 nephew of Napoleon, had visited the town in search of rejuvenation and relaxation. Emerson complained in letters and poems about the lazy and motley population of St. Augustine, but conceded that the air and s ky of this ancient sand-bank of a town are really delicious. 112 At least one unlucky stranger, as tourists were called in nineteenthcentury St. Augustine, died while in search of recuperation in the oldest city. An 1829 poem published in the Florida Herald memorialized a Mr. Morton, whose pursuit of health in St. Augustine was unsuccessful: The Jesamine lends its perfume, Geranium Rosemary, Thyme The rose ever smiles, in rich bloom, In this Temperate, much favourd clime Yet Here is no refuge from Death Though some for a time are reprievd But Morton! Thoust drawn thy last breath, And children and wife are bereaved. 113 Nineteenth-century travelers destined fo r a winters sojourn in St. Augustine had to choose between two equally unpleasant modes of travel to reach the town. One could approach from the sea, risking not only wret ched motion-sickness but also the chance of shipwreck on the treacherous sandbar at the entrance to St. Augustines harbor. It was not uncommon in the 1830s to read an advert isement in the local paper thanking a ships captain for delivering his passengers to the town alive! Or one could choose to approach by river and land, traveling via steamboat dow n the St. Johns River to the town of 112 Thomas Graham, The Awakening of St. Augustine (St. Augustine: St. Augu stine Historical Society, 1978), 67-69; Patricia C. Griffin, "Ralph Waldo Emerson in St. Augustine," El Escribano 32 (1995): 120; Mrs. Henry L Richmond, Ralph Waldo Emerson in Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly XVIII, no. 2 (October 1939): 76-93; Sylvia Su nshine, Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes, (Gainesville: The University Press of Florida; Facsimile Reproduc tion of the 1880 Edition, 1976), 161. 113 "Poetry," Florida Herald, 15 April 1829.
68 Picolata, then jostling over eighteen mile s of rugged dirt roads in a mule-drawn stagecoacha trip one guidebook author de scribed as hours of torture. 114 Upon arrival in St. Augustine visito rs had a rather limited choice of accommodations. Though various hotels exis ted, many travelers opted to stay in boarding houses, where the food was often better and a well-conn ected hostess might gain guests entry into the more cultivated ci rcles of society. One popular establishment, the Fatio House (recently restored by the Col onial Dames of America) now serves as a heritage tourism location, providing visitors wi th a glimpse at an early nineteenth-century boarding house. 115 Tourism in St. Augustine has always been heritage tourism. The great hope of all invalid tourists was that the favorable climate would restore their he alth and allow them to enjoy the many historic at tractions that made St. Augus tine unlike any other American city. Visitors risked twiste d ankles and gouged shoe leather by traversing streets made of oyster shells and sand to visit the Castillo de San Marcos (then calle d Fort Marion), the old City Gate, and the Huguenot Cemetery. Invalids were often accompanied by ablebodied relatives, and these more energetic tour ists might sail across th e inlet to Anastasia Island to visit the lighthouse or have a picnic on the beach. Almost all nineteenth 114 "Port of St. Augustine," Florida Herald, November 1829; "St. Augustine," Florida Herald, 2 December 1830; "St. Augustine," Florida Herald, 25 November 1830; "The Ancient City," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, December 1874, [periodical online available from: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/gifcache/moa/harp/harp00 50/00011.TIF6.gif ; Internet; accessed 6 January 2005; Ledyard Bill, A Winter in Florida (New York: Wood & Holbrook, 1869), 154; Edward A. Mueller, "East Coast Florida Steamboating," Florida Historical Quarterly 40, no. 3 (January 1962), 242.; Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, "Going South," The Atlantic Monthly, (1876), 32-33, [periodical online], available from : www.cdl.library.cornell.edu ; Internet; accessed 6 Januar y 2005; Author name unavailable, "The Great South: Pictures from Florida," Scribner's Monthly, (November 1874), 10. 115 John Hammond Moore, "A South Carolina Lawyer Visits St. Augustine, 1837," Florida Historical Quarterly 43 (April 1965): 366; Jean Parker Waterbury, "Long Neglected, Now Restored: The XimenezFatio House (Ca. 1797)," El Escribano 22 (1985): 1-29.
69 century visitors took frequent strolls along the sea-wall, a popular place to see-and-beseen, and its likely that more than one roma nce blossomed on this promenade. After his visit to Florida the poet Sidney Lanier pr aised the U.S. government for building the seawall just wide enough for two people to wa lk hand-in-hand, claimi ng that it was the rightful place of the federal government to encourage romance! 116 St. Augustines popularity as a winter retr eat continued to grow in the mid-1800s. Even war did little to dampen enthusiasm for the town. Throughout the Seminole Wars, determined travelers risked ambush to jour ney to the city, and the Union troops that occupied St. Augustine during the Civil War re turned home to relate fond memories of the balmy weather and unique atmosphere of the town. Travel, however, still posed hazards, and St. Augustines future as a wi nter resort was not truly secured until the completion of the Jacksonville, St. Augustine, and Halifax Railway in 1883. With the railroads arrival, the town lacked only an enterprising soul determined to develop the areas potential as a true winter haven for Americas upper crust. 117 Henry Flagler In the early 1880s St. Augustine received its most important visitor since Pedro Menendez: Gilded Age millionaire Henry Flag ler, partner of John D. Rockefeller in Standard Oil. Enchanted by the towns ol d-world feel but dismayed by the lack of 116 "Six Visions of St. Augustine," The Atlantic Monthly, (August 1886), 187-195; Author name unavailable, The Ancient City; George Barbour, Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and Settlers (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1884), 101-105; Author name unavailable, The Great South, 9-19; Sydney Lanier, Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, Facsimile Reproduction, 1973), 41. 117 George E. Buker, "The Americanization of St. Augustine" in The Oldest City 151; Graham, The Awakening of St. Augustine ; Thomas Graham, Flagler's Magnificent Hotel Ponce De Leon; Thomas Graham, "The Flagler Era" in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival ed. Jean Parker Waterbury (St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983), 181.
70 lodging befitting someone of his stature, Flagler aimed to create a luxurious resort in the town. Foreshadowing Edgar Hewetts activitie s in Santa Fe, Flagler worked diligently to maintain St. Augustines Spanish ambience, rea lizing that it was the key to the citys charm. In the process Flagler created his own version of Spanish her itage in the town. His two young architects, Thomas Hastings and John Carrere, designed the spectacular Ponce de Leon and Alcazar Hotels in style they deemed Spanish Renaissance and, in keeping with St. Augustines long history of resourcefulness, built them largely out of locally quarried materials. Briefly but brilli antly, St. Augustine enjoyed great success as a premier winter resort. Presidents, milli onaires, and blue-blooded Americans lounged in Turkish baths, gazed through Tiffany windows, swam in an indoor pool, and danced beneath hundreds of lights lit by Edison electricity, all in th e comfort of Flaglers St. Augustine hotels. 118 Ironically, the towns original appealits climate-served its downfall. As the lower part of Florida became more accessible, tourists fleeing frigid temperatures at home chose to explore the subtropical southern climate. Faced with the shortcomings of St. Augustines weather, and annoyed by the towns apathy towards civic improvement, Flagler extended the railroad down Floridas east coast. Always the savvy businessman, he built hotel after hotel as he went and e ffectively stole his own clientele from the St. Augustine resorts. Flagler, however, remain ed charmed by the city, and continued to spend winters there until his death in 1913. He remains in St. Augustine to this day, 118 Graham, Flagler's Magnificent Hotel Ponce De Leon ; Graham, The Flagler Era 181
71 interred in a marble mausoleum in the spect acular Presbyterian Church he built in the town. 119 Twentieth-century St. Augustine Much as Palm Beach eclipsed St. Augustine as Floridas premier winter resort, the automobile of the twentieth century ecl ipsed the much-heralded railroad of the nineteenth century. St. Augustinians, realizing that a successful future in tourism hinged on the availability of good road s, completed the St. Johns County portion of the Dixie Highway (todays U.S. 1) in early 1916. Th e 1920s ushered in middle-class tourism, and St. Augustine had its fair share of camps filled with tin-can tourists. 120 Throughout the end of the nineteenth centu ry and much of th e twentieth century the economy of St. Augustine was bolstered by the Florida East Coast Railroad, fishing boat fleets, and farming, but the citys most r ecognizable industry, tourism, still provided many St. Augustine citizens w ith their day-to-day living. 121 Minorcan descendants sold palmetto hats and fans to tourists unaccustom ed to the glaring Florida sun. Top-hatted Negroes drove carriages and regaled tourists with historical tales as they transported them to and from hotels. That ubiquitous Florida amphibian, the alligator, was turned into an asset, as live baby gators were p ackaged in cigar boxes and shipped home to unsuspecting relatives. In f act, the surprising popularity of the quintessential Florida animal led to the creation of one of the state s longest running roadsi de tourist attractions, 119 Ibid. 120 Robert N. Dow, Jr., "Yesterday and the Day Before: 1913 to the Present" in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival ed. Jean Parker Waterbury (St. Augus tine: St. Augustine Hi storical Society, 1983), 211. 121 Sixth Census of the State of Florida, (Tallahassee: State of Florida,) 1935, 130; John R. Dunkle, Population Change as an Element in the Historical Geography of St. Augustine, The Florida Historical Quarterly 37, no. 1 1958): 24.; Dow, Yesterday and the Day Before.
72 the St. Augustine Alligator Farm, opened in 1893. 122 Other enterprising citizens exploited the towns title of oldest city. The writer Ring Lardner wryly commented on the phenomena in the early 1920s: First we went to St. George Street and visited the oldest house in the United States. Then we went to Hospital Street and seen the oldest house in the United States. Then we turned the corner and went down St. Francis Street and inspected the oldest house in the United States. We passed up lunch and got into a carriag e drawn by the oldest horse in Florida, and we rode through the country all afternoon and the driver told us some o the oldest jokes in the book. 123 Historic Restoration and Post1950s St. Augustine In the mid-1930s, in an attempt to cap italize on the unique history and atmosphere of the old town, St. Augustines power broke rs looked to the success of the Colonial Williamsburg restoration. Their motivations were by no means purely economic; many dedicated residents were deep ly concerned about the vanish ing vestiges of the citys colonial heritage. By 1935 there were only thirty-five colonial buildings remaining in the city of St. Augustine, down from about 300 buildings that were standing at the end of the colonial era in 1821. In the depths of the Great Depression, civic leaders sought a means of stimulating the economy while at the same time preserving St. Augustines historic character. In 1937 the St. Augustin e Historical Program, organized under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution and the St. Augustine Historical Society, began the 122 The Ancient City, 7, 15; Six Visions of St. Augustine, 187; Author name unavailable, "Gator Tale," Folio Weekly, 8 May 2001, 15; Karen Harvey, "Popular Attraction Enters Second Century," St. Augustine Record, 20 May 1993. 123 Ring W. Lardner, Gullibles Travels (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1917), 117.
73 research needed to restore the historic tow n. The St. Augustine Historical Society had been a local leader in historic preservati on for years; their purchase of the GonzalesAlvarez House in 1918 was the first of ma ny acquisitions dedicated to preserving significant properties. 124 A desire to capitalize on nostalgia and roma ntic notions of the past was evident in the early rhetoric of restoration advocates. The public relations di rector for the program professed that restoring St. A ugustines streets to their colo nial appearance would allow the visitor to experience the peace and quiet wh ich is so much a part of their original character. 125 World War Two halted the restoration e fforts, and St. Augustinians involved in the tourist industry feared the Wars rati oning and general belt-tightening might keep tourists away from the city and undermine the towns economy. In a stroke of good fortune, the magnificent Ponce de Leon hotel was taken over by the US. Coast Guard, and the rhythmic sound of marching cadets re placed the idle chatter of sightseeing tourists during the war years. 126 Restoration efforts gained renewed mo mentum after 1945 and came to fruition in 1959 when the State of Florida formed the Hi storic St. Augustine Preservation Board. Because the Preservation Board was under-f unded by the state (making it difficult to purchase and restore historic properties) a private founda tion was organized to raise money for the restoration progr am. Under supervision of th e newly formed Preservation 124 Albert Manucy, Toward Re-Creation of 16 th Century St. Augustine El Escribano 14 (1977) 1-4, Eleanor Beeson, The St. Augustine Historical Restoration Florida Historical Quarterly XVI 2 (1937): 110-118; William Adams, An analysis of the Manageme nt of Historical Resources in the city of St. Augustine: A Report to the City Co mmissions, St. Augustine, Fl., 1996. 125 Manucy, Toward Re-Creation of 16 th Century St. Augustine, 1-4; Beeson, The St. Augustine Historical Restoration, 110-118. 126 Dow, Yesterday and the Day Before, 233-237.
74 Board and St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, work began on the restoration project, with the specific goal of helping Americans understand more fully the Spanish role in the spread of western civilization in this he misphere. The project caused some discord within preservation and academic circles, main ly relating to the question of exactly what time period the buildings should be restored to (those debates continue today.) In the end, the restoration of a historic quarter anchored by a recreated 1740s village dubbed San Agustin Antigua was complete d just in time for the citys 400 th anniversary celebration in 1965. The recreated village has go ne through several name changes. It is presently known as the Colonial Spanish Qu arter and is maintained and operated by the City of St. Augustines Department of Heritage Tourism. 127 St. Augustine shared in the general post war boom that fueled Florida tourism, though perhaps not to the extent its citizens might have hoped. Roadside motels and motor courts sprouted along US 1 and A1A, offering middle class families more egalitarian accommodations than the stuffy Ponce de Leon Hotel. And starting in 1949, tourists could save their shoe leather by boa rding sightseeing trains designed to maneuver the narrow streets and give them 400 years of history in just a few hours. Yet by and large, American vacationers destined for Flor ida bypassed the oldest city for destinations farther south. 128 Hoping to spur tourism by drawing nationa l attention to its unrivaled historic attributes, St. Augustine planned a gr and yearlong celebration of the 400 th anniversary of 127 Bradley G. Brewer, "A Synopsis of Restoration," El Escribano 7, no. 1 (January 1970); Manucy, "Toward Re-Creation of 16th Century St. Augustine"; C. E. Wright, "Spanish Touch: St. Augustine Benefits from Restoration," New York Times 20 February 1966 [newspaper online] available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers; Adams, An Analysis. 128 Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams 80.; Bill Eby, "Sightseeing Dispute Spans Three Decades," St. Augustine Record 19 February 1981.
75 the citys 1565 founding. But national attention was destined to focus on the city for a much less self-congratulatory reason. T hough the towns white citizenry had long considered the paternalis tic race relations in the city to be natural and healthy, the veneer of civility created by the se rvice-oriented demands of th e tourist industry was wearing off. In 1964, Martin Luther King Jr.s civi l rights organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), targeted St. Augustine as the site of its next campaign, hoping to maintain public pressure on Congr ess to pass a public accommodations bill. Building on a local movement led by black de ntist Robert Hayling, and hoping to take advantage of national and international media coverage of the upcoming quadricentennial celebration, the SCLC staged marches, sit-in s, and even wade-ins at a local beach. Tourist numbers plummeted during the 1964 demons trations, as visitors fearful for their own safety chose to avoid a town where a motel owner had thrown acid into a pool filled with protestors. The unrest eventually quiet ed down with the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Bill, though race re lations in the city remained far from harmonious. In an ironic twist of fate, chartered tour trains curr ently drive visitors through St. Augustines historically black neighbor hood, Lincolnville, to see the ho uses where King slept during the civil rights campaign. 129 Though the historic restorat ion program and the quadricentennial celebrations were considered a success, they stimulated only a modest increase in tourist visitation to the city. A look at the state s annual visitor study reveals th at the percentage of Florida 129 Brewer, A Synopsis of Restoration; Manucy, Toward Re-Creation of 16th Century St. Augustine; Wright, Spanish Touch: St. Augustine Benefits from Restoration, xx-7; David Colburn, Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine, Florida 1877-1980 (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1991); Larry Goodwyn, "Anarchy in St. Augustine," Harper's Magazine, (January 1965): 74.; Larry Bingham, "Putting Black History on the Map," Baltimore Sun Journal 7 February 2000.
76 visitors destined for St. Augustine hovered ju st below one percent in the early 1960s and crept slightly over the one percent mark in the years after completion of the restoration program. But St. Augustine truly ceased to be a major player in Flor ida tourism after the opening of Walt Disney World in Orlando in 1971. Even though hundreds of thousands of tourists continued to visit St. Augustine during the 1970s, the massive increase in the total number of tourists coming to Flor ida rendered St. Augustines percentage unrecordable in the Florida Visito r study. In fact, th e citys name never again appeared in the study, though St. Johns County captured en ough visitors in 1989 and 1990 to surface briefly, before dropping into oblivion again in 1991. 130 Officials debate the number of tourists that annually visit St. Augustine today. The total lies somewhere between a conservative estimate of 4 million people (a figure based on the number of overnight hotel stay s in 2003), and a more generous 6.2 million people (a number cited by the University of Florida in 2003 that takes into account the large number of day trippers visiting the to wn.) While these numbers are sufficient to support the economy of St. Augus tine, they seem meager wh en one realizes that 75 million tourists visited Florida in 2003. 131 Why does St. Augustine fail to capture a larger percentage of Floridas tourists? Do es the city lack a broad American appeal? What motivates the millions of tourists that do visit St. Augustine each year? Do they 130 Florida Division of Tourism, Florida Tourist Study (Tallahassee: Florida Division of Tourism, 19581996). 131 St. Augustine, Ponte Vedra, and the Beaches Convention and Visitor's Bureau, Tourism and Economic Impacts Research 4; National Trust for Historic Preservation, Heritage Tourism Assessment and Recommendations for St. Augustine, Florida (Washington D.C: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2003); Karen Janine Cohen, "Rising Florida Retailer Confidence Doesn't Yet Translate into Jobs," South Florida Sun Sentinel 25 February 2004, [newspaper online] available from: http://web.lexisnexis.com.proxy.usf.edu/universe/printdoc ; Internet; accessed 25 October 2004.
77 come to St. Augustine for its history, or its beach es? Will they continue to visit if the city loses its historic ambience or authenticity? Historic Preservation Funding Before determining the reasons why St. Augustine has not become a more wellknown American tourist site, on e must consider the citys struggles to maintain funding for historic preservation. If the city is unable to preserve the historic treasures that provide its charm and ambience, will the millions of tourists that do visit St. Augustine each year continue to come? Beginning with the formation of the Hist oric St. Augustine Preservation Board in 1959, the state of Florida provided annual funding to St. Augustine to maintain the thirtythree historic properties that had been re stored or reconstruc ted during the citys historical restoration. But in 1997 that funding was eliminated. Due to budget constraints and internecine politics, the stat e of Florida dismantled the five Preservation Boards it once funded, leaving St. Augustine, Pensacola, Key West, Tampa, and Palm Beach solely responsible for the cost of pres erving their historic sites. The City of St. Augustine was given responsibility for the upkeep of the thirty-three state-owned historic properties in the city, but the deeds remained with the state of Florida. Susan Parker, a historian for the Florida Divi sion of Historical Resources, calls it the worst of both worlds. The city has the mainte nance, but not the ownership. 132 132 Katie Bexley, "City Hopes to Get State Funding for Historic Properties," St. Augustine Record 5 December 2005 [new spaper online] available from: http://staugustine.com/stories/120505/new_3497668.shtml ; Susan R. Parker, Interview by author, telephone 25 May 2006.
78 Bill Adams of the Department of Heritage Tourism points out that the city spends $400,000 a year on maintenance of the state-ow ned historic properties. The money is generated through four sources of revenue: museum admissions, museum store sales, grants and gifts, and income from sub-leas ing some of the properties. Though the city received a $425,000 preservation subsidy from the state after the Preservation Board was dismantled in 1997 and has received approxi mately $800,00 in state grants since then, city leaders feel that is inadequate. They claim they barely have money to maintain the state owned buildings (Adams notes many of them are held together with chewing gum and band-aids) much less purchase historic properties in danger of demolition. Destruction of historic propert ies is a serious problem in St. Augustine; on average, one historic property is demolis hed in the city every month. 133 Adams comments upon the States apathy towards preserva tion of the oldest city: If you had given any other stat e in this union the kinds of resources of the significance and extent and quality that we have in St. Augustine, they woul d regard it as a prize to be funded and supported and preserve d and exhibited. In eight years here as the director of the Historic Preservation Board I got zero money in capital development funds in order to preserve or construct or even maintain the resources that we had. Zero. Estimates for the cost of properly preser ving all of St. Augustines historic sites range from $10 million to $100 million. But with a meager tax base (the citys population is less than 15,000 and 38 percent of all land in St. Augustine is off the tax 133 Bexley, City Hopes; City of St. Augustine, City Seeks Assistance for Hist oric Properties, (2006) [Press release online] available from: http://www.ci.st-augustine.fl.us/pressreleases/2_06/city_histpropasst.html ; Internet; accessed 24 May 2005; Amy Sancetta, "St. Augustine: Historic City Can't Afford its Past." USA Today (2005) [newspaper online] available from: http://usatoday.printhis.clickabililty.c om/pt/cpt?action+cpt&title=USATODAY.com ; Adams Interview.
79 roles) where will the funding originate? 134 And is there enough support for restrictive legislation aimed at maintaining the citys hist oric attributes? Busine ss owners in the city have traditionally opposed propos als meant to preserve the c itys historic character. Susan Parker notes, A lot of business people dont give enough thought to what brings their business in. They fight the historic stuff because they think it impedes their business. 135 Are these business leaders correct? Do th e restrictions and costs that historic preservation demands hamper the citys abilit y to attract visitors? Or is it just the opposite? If St. Augustine citizens fail to mainta in those historic site s and structures that make the city unique will tourists visit anyw ay? What exactly are tourists coming to St. Augustine to see? St. Augustine tourist motivations In order to determine why millions of visitors to Florida overlook the oldest city, we must first explore why millions of tourists do visit St. Augustine. What motivates them to spend time there? What activities do they participate in when they visit? And how satisfied are they with their experiences? Several studies have been conducted to answer these questions in the past few years, including a 2002 Heritage Tourism Study by the University of Florida, a 2003 Heritage Tourism Assessment by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and a 2003 Tourism and Economic Impact Research Report by the St. Johns County Visitors and Convention Burea u. In addition to th e trends revealed by these market research studies, we will cons ider such contributing factors as sense of 134 Bexley, City Hopes; Sancetta, S t. Augustine: Historic City. 135 Parker interview.
80 place, nostalgia, and the human fascination wi th primacy when trying to determine the reasons why people visit St. Augustine, Florida. By considering motivations for visiting St. Augustine, we can theorize why so many millions of Florida tourists do not visit the oldest city. The 2002 and 2003 studies conducted by the University of Florida (UF) and the St. Johns County Visitors and Convention Bure au reveal that the primary reasons for visiting St. Augustine are general sightseeing and visits to hist orical sites and museums. Over 22 percent of respondents in the UF study note that they came specifically to visit historic sites, while 80 percent of respondents said they visite d one or more historic sites while they were in town. Interestingly, the beach was rarely listed as a primary reason for visiting the area, and only 51 percent of respondents even went to the beach during their stay. More than half (54 percent) of the visitors to St. Johns County in 2002 were repeat visitors, and 49 percent of survey respondents in 2003 said they visited the area because it was a nearby getaway. According to the UF study, the most visited historic attractions in St. Augustine in 2002 were the Castillo de San Marc os (52 percent of respondents), the Colonial Spanish Quarter (41 percent), the St. Augustine Lighthouse and Museum (37 percent), and the Oldest H ouse Museum (35 percent). Over 90 percent of visitors surveyed reported satisfaction wi th their visit, and more than 36 percent indicated that the quality of their experience was perfect 136 Clearly most tourists in St. Augustine come to visit heritage sites. And yet one wonders, how much do these t ourists know about St. Augusti ne and its history before 136 A discussion of which attractions the UF study consider s historic will be considered later in this chapter. John Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns County Florida (Gainesville: Center for Tourism Research and Development, University of Florida,2002); St. Augustine, Ponte Vedra, and the Beaches Convention and Visitor's Bureau, Tourism and Economic Impacts Research 25.
81 they visit, and where did they learn this information? Over 88 percent of the visitors surveyed in the UF study indicated that they had some previous historical knowledge about the sites they visited, though most of them admitted that knowledge was limited. Over 13 percent of the surveyed to urists reported that they first heard of the area through school or history class, a surprisingly large number, considering that many school textbooks overlook the founding of St. Augustine completely. For example, the popular high school textbook The American Pageant, has only one reference to St. Augustinea map portraying its discovery in 1565. This perfunctory nod to St. Augustine is typical in many history textbooks that have been used in American classrooms for years, though this trend is slowly changing as scholars of the Spanish borderlands work towards better covera ge of North Americas Hispanic past. 137 Primacy It is interesting to consider the neglec t of St. Augustine in history textbooks and American travel plans in the face of the human fascination with primacy. In his 1996 book Possessed by the Past: The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History historian David Lowenthal comments upon the claims of primacy that permeate what he calls the heritage industry. Lowenthal notes, pre cedence evokes pride and proves title. Not only does being first show s uperiority and rights of po ssession, but it also proves 137 Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns County Florida 4, 45; Thomas A. Bailey and David M. Kennedy, The American Pageant: A History of the Republic (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1979), 7. These conclusions were reached after a systematic review of 21 American history texts, conducted for a graduate rese arch paper: Monica Rowland, The Treatment of Florida in American History Books, unpublished seminar paper, December 2004, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg.
82 durability and worth. It suggest s an accumulation of wisdom. 138 This fixation on being first has led to long-running competitions between St. Augus tine and other locations that claim primacy in Florida and the United St ates, like Pensacola, Jamestown, and Plymouth Rock. When the distinguished colonial hist orian Michael Gannon suggested that the first feast of Thanksgiving actually took place in St. Augustine in 1565, and not Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts, New Englanders began referring to him as the Grinch that stole Thanksgiving. 139 Considering this fascination with primacy and the popularity of heritage tourism, why has St. Augustine not earned a place in the canon of American tourist sites? Why is the city unable to tap into Americans nostalgia for the golden days of the past? Could it be because the past portrayed in St. Augustin e is not the typical Anglo-American version to which most Americans relate? In a 2003 journal article, The Core of Heritage Tourism, researchers showed that the more a t ourist considers a site to be part of their personal heritage the more they regard their visit as an emotiona l experience; indeed tourists who considered a site absolutely pa rt of their heritage were more likely to revisit. 140 Perhaps the Spanish colonial past po rtrayed in St. Augustine is so alien, so different than the common background a nd shared national purpose portrayed at Colonial Williamsburg, that tourists have difficulty relating to the experience. 138 David Lowenthal, Possessed by the Past: The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History (New York: The Free Press, 1996), 173-187. 139 Natalie Troyer, "Grinch Gives Florida Credit for First Thanksgiving," The Washington Times, 25 November 2004, [newspaper online] available from: http://washingtontimes.com/national/20041125011215-4343r.htm ; Internet; accessed 25 May 2005. 140 Yaniv Poria, Richard Butler and David Aiery, "The Core of Heritage Tourism," Annals of Tourism Research 30, no. 1 (2003): 245-248.
83 The Black Legend Some scholars and tourism professionals in St. Augustine attribute the neglect of St. Augustine in the American hi storical record and the canon of American tourists sites to the black legend. Passed down from Amer icans Protestant forebears, la leyanda negra portrays Spaniards [as] unusually cruel, avaricious, treacherous, fanatical, superstitious, cowardly, corrupt, deca dent, indolent, and authoritarian. 141 This lingering scorn can be traced to sixteenth-century Eu ropean Protestants contempt for Spains aggressive Catholicism and triumphant imperi alism. The black legend appeared in the New World as a scathing critic ism of Spanish colonial polic y, portraying the Spanish as murderous thieves who tortured and killed millions of Indians. Competition between Spain and England, and later the United States for territory in North America fueled the dislike, and the anti-Spanish rhetoric of Spanish-American revolutionaries in the early nineteenth century revived and reinforced th e black legend in the English speaking world. Julian Jederias eloquently summarized the stigma against his nation when, in 1914, he described the black legend as an assertion that our country constitutes an unfortunate exception in the community of European nations in all that relates to toleration, culture, and political progress. 142 Many people intimately involved with tourism in St. Augustine believe that disdain for Hispanic history and culture still taints Americans views of the ancient city. Bill Adams, director of the City of St. A ugustines Department of Heritage Tourism, 141 David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), 336. 142 Gary Mormino, The Black Legend, unpublished paper; Ramon Menendez Pidal, Father Las Casas: His Double Personality, 1963 in The Black Legend Charles Gibson, ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1971): 206-218; Julian Juderias The Black Legend, 1914 in The Black Legend 193-195.
84 argues that Americans are reared in the E nglish historical tradition and that this tendency has led to an ignorance of all of the cont ributions and partic ipation of Spanish speaking people in the development and settlement of this country. 143 Dr. Tony Ganong, director of the St. Augustine Historical Society from 2003 to 2006, likewise credits the black legend with responsibility fo r American ignorance of the oldest city in the nation. Ganong however, sees an inherent barrier to St. Augustines hopes of fully overcoming the black legend. He points out that, unlike restored Colonial Williamsburg, St. Augustines heritage tourism i ndustry is trying to interpret a Hispanic culture for an English speaking audience, and is therefore automatically one step away from accuracy. 144 Dana Ste. Claire, the National Museum Director for Historic Tours of America (based in St. Augustine), dismisses the bl ack legend as the reason for low visitation numbers to the city, and instead attributes it to poor interp retation of the citys varied historic attributes. He belie ves that by limiting historic interpretation to the arcane Spanish colonial period, the tourism industr y in St. Augustine is wasting a valuable opportunity. He notes: The preservation board and the city have decided that in this four hundred-plus years of history we are going to interpret and bring everything back to the period of 1750, not recognizing the historic al richness, the eclectic architectural feel of the cit y. When you start talking to people about Spanish colonial, that doesnt make any sense to them. Youve got to bri ng them in another door and you 143 Adams interview. 144 Tony Ganong; Interview by author; St. Augustine, FL, October 2004.
85 have to help them connect to that history through tangible links that they understand. 145 Ste. Claire suggests that more time and effort should be sp ent interpreting St. Augustines British colonial period, a time that resonates better with many Americans. He contends that by conducting thorough rese arch on the heritage tourism market (a market that he notes is not homogenous and is constantly changing) tourism professionals in St. Augustine can retool their programs and attractions to connect more with the American public. 146 Is Dana Ste. Claire corr ect? Are some tourism professionals in St. Augustine using the black legend as a convenient excuse for low visitation nu mbers that should be blamed instead on poor product quality and interp retation? Or is there some merit to the idea that St. Augustine is often neglected because of its Hispanic past? Marguerite Shaffers study of American tourism argues th at modern tourism evolved in the United States during the nineteenthcentury, a point in the nations history when its citizens were searching for a national identity. The budding travel and tourism industry seized this opportunity to sell Americas landscape and historic site s as the embodiment of the American spirit and character. This translat ed into a celebration of Western scenery and an embrace of Anglo-American heritage that essentially created a canon of American tourist sites. St. Augustine, a city settled by Spanish conquista dors, has never fit into this mold of a quintessentially American place. Lacking the wide-open scenery of the West that had become so symbolic of American individualism, St. Augustines 250 years of Spanish history do not mesh with the nostalgic American myth. Could this be part of the 145 Ste. Claire interview. 146 Ibid.
86 reason that a visit to the fascinating old city of St. Augus tine did not become an early ritual of American tourism like a trip to Mammoth Caves, or Yellowstone National Park? 147 Authenticity in St. Augustine Having explored historic pr eservation funding and the black legend as obstacles to heritage tourism in St. Augustine, we will now examine how we ll the citys tourism industry informs the millions of visitors who do make a stop in the oldest city each year. With such a rich and well-documented history, historic interpretation should be an easy task for the citys tourism industry. But from its earliest days as a tourist destination St. Augustine has struggled with historical au thenticity. From the Huguenot Cemetery (where no Huguenots are buried), to the Old Sl ave Market (where few slaves were ever sold), to the Oldest School House (that pr obably was never a school house), to the citys most famous historical hoaxthe Fountain of Youth-St. Augustine has always kept tourists entertained with inauthentic interpretation. The 2002 heritage tourism study conducted by the University of Florida showed that on a scale of 1 to 5, tourists gave St. Augustines historic arch itecture, museums, and historic objects a 4.1 ranking for perceived authenticity. Almost nine in ten of the tourists said they felt that they had learned something new by visiting sites in the oldest city, a number that suggests a large degree of trust that they are being presented with truthful, accurate versions of history. 148 Travelers in St. Augustine believe what they 147 Shaffer. See America First; Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America ; Kammen, In the Past Lane 148 Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns County Florida 83-91.
87 are being told, even though, in the tradition of the manufactured heritage sites of nineteenth-century New England, many of St. Augustines most popular tourist attractions lack authenticity. The National Trust for Historic Preserva tion divides St. Augustines attractions into three categories: 1.) Authentic : Those sites managed by pr ofessional preservationists, historians, and interprete rs that seek to preserve and promote a sites authentic history. These include the Oldest House and the Castillo de San Marcos. 2.) Not authentic: Sites presented as heritage attractions, but which do not meet standards of authenticity. The National Trust criticizes these sites for embellishing stories a nd relying on myths to improve on the historical facts. They cite the Fountain of Youth and the Oldest Wooden School House as not authentic sites. 3.) Theme park attractions Those sites that have little to do with St. Augustines history, but capit alize on the large numb er of tourists that come to St. Augustine, including Ripleys Believe It or Not, and the areas many Ghost Tours. 149 Interestingly, the University of Florid a study on heritage tourism did not even include most of the not authentic sites or theme park attractions in its questionnaire to determine St. Augustines most visited attr actions, making it difficult to determine how many tourists are visiting these sites. In 2003 John Fraser, general manager of the 149 National Trust for Historic Preservation, Heritage Tourism Assessment 24.
88 Fountain of Youth Park, put the number of annual visitors to that attraction at well over 125,000 people a year. 150 This number may seem small when compared to the Castillos 2003 visitor tally of 1.3 million people, but it is more impressive when compared with the estimated 50,000 people visiting the St. Augustine Historical Societys Oldest House each year, the 15,000 estimated annual tourists that visit the Government House museum (managed by the Department of Heritage Touris m and located in the heart of the historic district), and the approximat ely 50,000 tourists that visited the Colonial Spanish Quarter in 2004. 151 Both the Historical Society and the Depa rtment of Heritage Tourism are managed by professional historians, pres ervationists, and interpreters, and endeavor to portray an accurate version of St. Augustines history. Ye t, these sites, and others like them, are non-profits whose limited budgets often hinder th eir marketing potential, a problem that many of the for-profit attractions in St. A ugustine do not have. Consequently, tourists, many of whom have little or in accurate prior knowledge of St. Augustine and its role in American history, choose to visit places like the Fountain of Youth Park where they are subjected to distorted versions of the past. A close look at this popular attraction reveals the difficulty in maintaining authenticity in St. Augustine. 150 Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns County Florida ; Douglas Kalajian, "Fountain of Youth, Ancient Reptiles-Florida Sells it all," Palm Beach Post, 14 January 2003, [newspaper online] available from: http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/printdoc ; Internet; accessed 23 October 2004. 151 Ganong interview; Adams interview; Margo Po pe, Perspective: Keeping Tourism Numbers High Depends on Us, St. Augustine Record 6 October 2004; Katie Bexley, Spanish Quarter Short on Visitors: City Seeks Ways to Bring People into the St. George Street Museum, St. Augustine Record 16 April 2005.
89 The Fountain of Youth The Fountain of Youth Park occupies fift een acres on the Matanzas River, just north of the Mission Nombre de Dios in St Augustine. It was opened in 1909 by Luella Day McConnell, who claimed that she had di scovered a coquina cross consisting of fifteen stones in the up-right, and thirteen stones in the crossbeam. The cross, supposedly discovered after a heavy storm uprooted a tree on McConnells property, lay neatly beside an old well. Also discovered in the area was a Spanish casque, or salt cellar, containing a piece of parchment that read, in Spanish: Be it known by this, that I, Alonzo Soriano, shareholder and resident of Brillar, contri buted and certify to the public that I was present at the beginning of the foundation, which is the religion, and is with th e rising and setting of the Sun. By order of the Royal Crow n of Aragon he made his description at the Fountain which is good and sweet to the taste. It was in the year 1513. McConnell claimed that the discovery of the pa rchment, salt cellar, and coquina cross in the immediate vicinity of the old well was in controvertible proof that Ponce de Leon had landed in this precise spot in 1513 and disc overed a natural spring that he hoped was his long-sought Fountain of Youth. She immediat ely opened the historic site to paying visitors. The property was later purchased by Walter Fras er, a former Florida state senator and mayor of St. Augustine from 1936 to1943 (who, somewhat contradictorily, was a leader of the historical restoration effort in the late 1930s.) Fraser bestowed the name Fountain of Youth Park on the attraction and went to great le ngths to prove that the coquina cross and the story of Ponce de Le ons landing site were authentic. He even went so far as to sue the Saturday Evening Post in 1949 for libel after they printed an
90 article criticizing his numerous tourist attractions in the c ity (including, among others, the Oldest Wooden Schoolhouse.) Fraser, referred to in the article as the local Barnum, claimed the statements were injurious to his reputation. He won the case. 152 The Fountain of Youth Park still displays the coquina cross, and tour guides inform visitors that the well was a natura l spring around which Timucuan Indians built a village, and that this spring and village were what drew Ponce de Leon to land at this location upon sighting Florida in 151 3. It is remarkable that th is story is still being told. Virtually all professional historians now belie ve that the principal motivation for Ponces journey was riches, not a magically heali ng fountain. Historia n Michael Gannon notes that nowhere in Ponces charter from Fernando II, a fastidiously detailed account of the expeditions purpose and goals, was there any me ntion of mythical waters. In addition, no mention of a fountain is found in any first-ha nd report or narrative. Carl Sauer refers to a contemporary of Ponce, citing that Las Casas, who had soldiered with Ponce in Higuey, said Ponces purpose in going north wa s to take slaves. Sauer argues that middle-aged Ponce was not seeking a Fountai n of Youth. Gannon agrees, stating that gold and the glory of conquest were probably most important to Juan Ponce de Leon. Still, the idea of Ponce sear ching for healing waters need not be wholly discounted. There may be some merit to the idea that in addition to his search for gold, Ponce may have been seeking restorative waters, rumored by the Indians to exist to the North. 152 Dolph (tour guide at Fountain of Youth Park), interview by author, St. Augustine, Florida, October 25, 2004; Charles B. Reynolds, Fact vs. Fiction: For the new Historical St. Augustine. A review in support of E. Chattlains declaration: The Program at St. Augustine must be absolutely sound historically without any flimflams or phony stories ( Mountain Lakes, NJ: published by author, 1937); The First Landing Place of Juan Ponce de Leon On the North American Continent in the Year 1513 (S t. Augustine: published by Walter Fraser, 1956.) Leigh White, The Cities of America, The Saturday Evening Post (March 1949); Pellicer Testifies in Federal Court Th at Historical Society Refused to Endorse Frasers Oldest Schoolhouse, The St. Augustine Record, 8 April 1952.
91 Consideration must be taken of the sixteenth-century hist orian Antonio de Herreras account of Ponces voyage, in which he states It is certain that Juan Ponce de Leon was intent upon finding out the Springs of Bi mini, and a River in Florida where there is a continual spring of running water of such marvelous virt ue, that the water there of being drunk, perhaps with some diet, make the old men young again. Such legends abounded in the world of sixteenth-century Sp ain, and a place with healing waters may not have seemed as far fetched then as it does now. 153 Yet even if we lend weight to a Spanish belief in healing waters, it is historically inaccurate to portray Ponces voyage as a search for a fountain of youth, and it is ludicrous to suggest that he discovered such a fountain in the vicinity of present day St. Augustine. All historic and ar cheological evidence points to the likelihood that Ponce de Leon landed in the vicinity of Melbourne, 137 miles south of St. A ugustine. In addition, coquina, a native shellstone quarried on near by Anastasia Island, was not discovered until 1580, some sixty-seven years after the coquina cross was supposedly laid by Ponce de Leon. The salt cellar that reputedly containe d the parchment with a Spanish inscription has been lost and lengthy testimony shows that the spring which Ponce reportedly believed to be his Fountain of Youth was no more than a well dug in 1875 by the property owners of that time. 154 What makes the Fountain of Youth story ev en more incredible is that the fifteen acres the park encompasses truly are home to one of the most important archeological 153 Carl Ortwin Sauer, Sixteenth Century North America: The Land and the People as Seen by the Europeans (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1971), 26-68.; Mi chael Gannon, "First European Contacts" in The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, 1996), 17. 154 Douglas T. Peck, "Reconstruction and Analysis of the 1513 Discovery Voyage of Ponce De Leon," The Florida Historical Quarterly 71, no. 2 (1992) :133-154; Reynolds, Fact vs. Fiction.
92 finds in Florida and American history. Arch eological excavations in the 1980s revealed that there was a sixteenth-century European occupation of the site. Further research suggested that it was in fact the original occupation site of Pedro Menendez de Aviles upon the founding of St. Augustine in 1565. The irony is noteworthy. One can almost visualize innocent tourists liste ning to the fabricated story of Ponce de Leons coquina cross and mythical spring while just yards away renowned archeologist Kathleen Deagan uncovers the remains of the first European settlement in the United States. 155 Why is such a rich opportunity for ed ucation about St. Augustines place in American history squandered in favor of a fa brication? A tour gui de at the Fountain of Youth Park explained it this way: Its not about a history lesson. This is a happy attraction. Mythical. What we do here is how accurate? I dont know. Its not my job to know. People come because its the Fountain of Youth. People are mo re interested in that than the archeological significance. 156 Bill Adams, Director of St. Augustines Depart ment of Heritage Tourism, alludes to the profit motive involved in promoting the story of the Fountain of Youth as opposed to the important archeological finds at the site when he comments: Ponce de Leon is much better known than Kathy Deagan. Dr. Deag an agrees. She remarks, no one is going to pay seven dollars to look at an archeological site. At the same time Deagan is keenly aware that the enduring popularity of the attr action makes her archeological excavations 155 Site information for 8-SJ 31: Fountain of Youth, Historical Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, available from: http://flmnh.ufl.edu/histarch/Coll ections/sa_site_info.asp?site_name =fountain%20of; Internet; accessed 5 December 2004. 156 Dolph (tour guide at Fountain of Youth Park) interview.
93 possible. Had the park not been so successful it likely would have been sold off to realestate developers years ago. As such, The Fountain of Youth Park has perhaps served historical interpretation more than it has damaged it. 157 Solutions Can the St. Augustine tourism industry strike a balance between authentic historical interpretation and entertaining attractions based on myth and legend? The National Trust for Historic Preservation recommended the creation of authenticity guidelines for St. Augustine, using Lancaste r, Pennsylvania as a model. Lancaster County, home to one of the largest Amish communities in the United States, created criteria for different types of authentic res ources including heritage sites, services, and events. They then devised a logo used to identify a site, service, or event that authentically presented Lancasters heritage Venues that qualify for the authentic designation may use the logo for advertising and promotion. 158 Tony Ganong, former director of the St. A ugustine Historical So ciety, chuckled at the idea of an authenticity board in St. Augustine. He commented, Theoretically it would be possible to have an or ganization like that. But it, we ll, it may be hard to do. I think it would be hard to do. Th is is a very competitive place. 159 Dana Ste. Claire of Historic Tours of America echoed this sentim ent when he noted that St. Augustine has become this major heritage tourism destin ation, but we dont know how to market and 157 Adams interview; Kathleen Deagan,, iInterview by author, St. Augustine, 22 June 2006. 158 National Trust for Historic Preservation, Heritage Tourism Assessment, 25-26. 159 Ganong interview.
94 manage our resources. Its just sort of there, and it always has been, and the tourists have always come. 160 But will the tourists always come? Will heritage tourism remain St. Augustines bread-and-butter industry? Presumably it will, as St. Augustine has a long, long history of survival. It is certain th at with millions upon millions of tourists visiting Florida each year, some of them will always pay a visit to the oldest city. Perhaps, as the nations Hispanic population continues to grow at a phenomenal rate, the history of the Ancient City will resonate more with the Amer ican public, and the black legend will be overcome. Perhaps the citizens of Florida, and the United States at large, will realize the unrivaled value of the historic treasures to be found in St. Augustine, and will designate funding to preserve them. Perhaps with more cooperation and better interpretation the citys tourism leaders can demand and enforce more authentic historical interpretation. There surely is no better place in the Unite d States to study heritage tourism than St. Augustine, Florida. With over 400 years of history it has been a popular tourist destination since the 1800s, draw ing visitors eager for a glimps e at the areas unique past. St. Augustine is matchless in its quality and quan tity of historic sites, yet it struggles with many of the same problems found in other he ritage tourism locations: commodification of its history, authenticity, and a romanticiza tion of the past. St. Augustine also presents some unique problems for a heritage tourism s ite. City officials constantly fight for money to preserve its unpara lleled historic attributes, and the tourism industry must overcome a lingering American scorn for the citys Hispanic past. But despite these 160 Ste. Clair interview.
95 obstacles, the heritage tourism industry seems destined to survive in St. Augustine. For as long as Americans are searching for a sense of place, romantic views of the past, and a dose of history while on vacation there will be a demand for the ambience of Americas Ancient City.
96 Conclusion Tourism has been called the largest p eacetime movement of people. It has a unique ability to mold and redefine physic al and cultural lands capes, and can greatly influence peoples interp retation and definition of themselves. In the United States alone the tourism industry generates $1.3 trillion a year in economic activity. Tourism begs to be studied for the insights it can reveal about human behavi or, culture, and personal and national identity. 161 Tourism, in its most basic form, can be defined as a circular journey. Though humans have always traveled, the foundations of modern tourism were laid during the Enlightenment, when new philosophical, cultu ral, and socio-economic patterns created a change in thought and approach towa rds nature, travel, and recreation. 162 Tourism in America developed as a result of the tr ansportation revolution of the 1820s and 1830s, when technological advances spurred the gr owth of industrial and commercial centers and greatly expanded the American middle classes. 163 The influence of romanticism and a burgeoning patriotism in the United States inspired many Americans to travel to see the 161 D. J. Greenwood, Tourism as an Agen t of Change: A Spanish Basque Case, Ethnology 11 (1972): 8091, as quoted in John F. Collins, Efforts to Promote Tourism as a Ca talyst for Urban Redevelopment in Florida: Insights from the Anthropology of Tourism and an Annotated Bibliography (Masters thesis, University of South Florida, 2004), 13; Shaffer, See America First 6; Travel Industry Association of America, Travel Industry Fun Facts, available from: http://www.tia.org/pressmedia/fun_facts.html ; Internet; accessed 11 July 2006. 162 Sears, Sacred Places 3; Shaffer, See America First 11; Mieczkowski, World Trends 53-56; Feifer, Tourism in History, 63-93; Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The Grand Tour, available from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grtr/hd_grtr.htm ; Internet; accessed 13 March 2006. 163 Sears, Sacred Places 3-5; Shaffer, See America First 13.
97 countrys beautiful landscapes and participat e in the creation of a national identity. 164 By 1950 the age of modern tourism had begun, with two out of three American families taking an annual vacation. 165 As the U.S. tourism industry grew, professional scholars realized its potential as an avenue for academic inquiry, and the anthropological and historical study of tourism has acquire d increasing legitimacy since the 1970s. Heritage tourism is particularly intere sting for what it reveals about human behavior. Why do millions of tourists spend bi llions of dollars a year to visit historic places? What exactly are thes e tourists hoping to find? Her itage tourism raises thoughtprovoking questions about American culture a nd society, and encourages tourists to contemplate their national history and identity. 166 Heritage tourism is a popular and lucrative trend in the United States, with over 80 percent of American tourists participating in a historic or cultural activity while traveling. 167 Heritage tourism gained popularity in ta ndem with several trends in American society: the historic preser vation movement, a growing American desire for a sense of place, and nostalgia for a more innocent time. Driven by these motivating trends, heritage tourism often falls victim to a poten tially damaging romanti zation of the past and can lead to a troubling commodification of hi story and a lack of authenticity at many heritage sites. Of the many possible heritage tourism lo cations in the United States few people would suggest Florida as a potentially succe ssful locale. Famous for its beaches, golf 164 Shaffer, See America First 13. 165 Mieczkowski, World Trends 68-69; Shaffer, See America First 100; Aron, Working at Play 204-205, 248-249; Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams 77. 166 Confer and others, Heritage Tourism Study: St. John's County Florida 7. 167 Travel Industry Association of America, T ravel Industry Fun Facts, available from: http://www.tia.org/pressmedia/fun_facts.html ; Internet; accessed 11 July 2006.
98 courses, and amusement parks, the Sunshine State is often overlooked in the American historical memory. But Florida is home to so me of the oldest and most historic sites in the United States, and Floridas well-establis hed tourism industry is perfectly positioned to take advantage of the growing popularity of heritage tour ism. Studies reveal that tourists visiting Florida are s eeking historical a nd cultural diversity. Already, heritage tourism generates billions of dollars in the state. With the ever increasing number of marketing campaigns, grant initiatives, and heritage tourism programs operated by organizations like Visit Florida, Florida Main Street, the Florida Division of Historical Resources, and the Florida Humanities Council, the heritage tourism industry in Florida promises continued growth. Perhaps such growth will inspire more awareness of the value of Floridas historic landmarks and la ndscapes, and lead to a heightened sense of place for Florida tourists and residents. Already, locations like Miami, Key West, Pensacola, Volusia County, and St. Augustine ha ve realized the valu e in preserving and promoting those attributes that define and distinguish them. It is only fitting that a study of heritage tourism in Florida should conclude with a reflection on the remarkable town of St. Augus tine. As the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United St ates it is easily rec ognizable as the states most historic city. Mi llions of tourists have visited the Ancient City since the early 1800s, eager to soak up a bit of history along with the Florida sunshine. But one wonders how many of them see beyond th e superficiality of tourist traps like the Fountain of Youth, the Oldest Wooden School House, and th e t-shirt shops that clutter historic St. George Street. One wonders if the day-trippe rs that partake in one of the narrated tour trains (often subjecting themselves to bad hi story and bad Ponce de Leon jokes) are able
99 to truly appreciate the significance of the Oldest City. Do they re alize that the streets on which they are traveling are some of the olde st in the United States, and that the town plan itself is a National Hist oric Landmark? Can they appr eciate the importance of Fort Mose, the first free black town in what is now the United States, which lies just north of downtown? Do they even know that it is th ere? Do they really know anything at all about the history of Spanish St. Augustine? Or about Spanish colonization in the presentday United States? St. Augustine faces unusual challenges as a heritage tourism location, perhaps the most glaring of which is an ignor ance of Americas Spanish past. Has this led to a lack of concern for preserving the vestiges of such a past? St. Augustine has certainly struggled to obtain funding to restor e and maintain the remn ants of its colonial history. Can this be attribut ed to the black legend? Is there a lingering American scorn for all things Hispanic? Do Americans schooled in the English roots of American history simply not relate to a story outside of the traditional master narrative? Perhaps. But one must also consider the complexity of tourism in a town like St. Augustine. Unlike Colonial Williamsburg, where scores of modern buildings were razed to bring the area back to its colonial a ppearance, St. Augustine is a living town. People have been occupying its historic streets since the 1600s; working, eating, playing, living. St. Augustine is not a stagnant museum and it can not be understood as such. The old Ponce de Leon Hotel, a Gilded-A ge marvel, rises imposingly along Cordova Street, the former western edge of the coloni al walled city. The ol d hotel is now Flagler College, home to twenty-first century student s. It sits upon what used to be Maria Sanchez Creek, filled in by Henry Flagler in orde r to build his hotel. Conjecture says that
100 the fill dirt came from the site of Fort Mose, Americas first free black town. Tourists riding by on tour trains often confuse the 19 th century hotel for a remnant of St. Augustines colonial Spanish past. It all serv es to show the depth of history in this unusual American city, and the difficulties of authentically depicting that history to a public that is often completely unfamiliar with it. Little wonder that city and tourism industry officials in St. Augustine struggl e to find accord when dealing with the preservation and display of the citys ex ceptional heritage. A 1937 subcommittee report from the Carnegie Institution could be mistak en for a report written in 2006 to describe many of the problems facing St. Augustine: The visitor, upon his arrival in St. Augustine, is able nowhere at present to secure a comprehensive statement of the principal historical feat ures in relationship to each other.Confronted as he is with the confusion of badly congested traffic conditions, disconcerting signs, overhead wires, and other obstructions to his full appreciation of an historical situation, he is likely to make a timid attempt to enjoy and to understand old St Augustine, after which he finds relief in driving his car out of the town, probably with the unsatisfactory feeling of realizing that he has not gotten what he came here to find. 168 Yet, despite the difficulties that St. Augus tine faces, it is certainly successful as a heritage tourism location. Its visitation numbers may pale in comparison to the amount of tourists that visit Disney World annually, but certainly t hose tourists that visit St. Augustine come away with a better sense of Florida, and a better understanding of the diverse history of the present-day United States And in the end, what more can heritage tourism hope to achieve in Amer ican culture? In cl osing, let us look back at the words of 168 Report of Sub-Committee No. 2 of National Committee for the Survey and Development of the Historical Resources of St. Augustine, FL., March 1937, 5, as quoted in Hosmer, Preservation Comes of Age 318.
101 the venerable Florida historian Albert Manucy as he reflected on the progress of the St. Augustine historical restoration in 1944, in the midst of the Second World War: Though St. Augustine prides itself upon the title of Ancient City, yet its ci tizens are forward-looking. Pushed aside for the moment are the memories of Spanish soldiery who gave life to the town centuries ago, for present concern involves a military in less colorful dress. But if St. Augustine has any less on to teach, it is that peace must come eventually. Florida has undergone many wars, many sacrifices, many privations. And St. Augustine, the logical focal point for telling the dramatic story of Spanish colonial effort as related to the beginnings of our own nation, will not be denied the opportunity to present that narrative of inspiring tenacity. Time is nothing in the story of the Ancient City. Its peopl e can wait. For what use is history if histor y remains untold? 169 169 Albert Manucy, A Review of the St. Augustine Historical Program, The Hispanic American Historical Review 24 (2): (May 1944: 356.
102 Selected Bibliography Books Akin, Edward. Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and Florida Baron Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1991. Aron, Cindy S. Working at Play: A History of Vacations in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Bailey, Thomas A., and David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1979. Barbour, George. Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and Settlers. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1884. Bill, Ledyard. A Winter in Florida New York: Wood & Holdbrook, 1869. Brown, Dona. Inventing New England: Regional Tourism in the Nineteenth Century Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995. Buker, George E. "The Americanization of St. Augustine." in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival. ed. Jean Parker Waterbury. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983. Bushnell, Amy. The Noble and Loyal City: 1565-1668 in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival. ed. Jean Parker Waterbury. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983. Colburn, David. Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine, Florida 1877-1980 Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1991. Dorman, Robert L. Revolt of the Provinces: The Regionalist Movement in America, 1920-1945 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. Dow, Robert N. Jr. "Yesterday and the Day before: 1913 to the Present." in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival. ed. Jean Parker Waterbury. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Histori cal Society, 1983. Feifer, Maxine. Tourism in History: From Imperial Rome to the Present New York: Stein and Day, 1985. Fjellman, Stephen M. Vinyl Leaves: Walt Disney World and America Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.
103 Foglesong, Richard E. Married to the Mouse: Walt Disney World and Orlando New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. Foster, Mark S. Castles in the Sand: The Life and Times of Carl Fisher Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. Francaviglia, Richard. "Selling Heritage Landscapes." in Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America eds. Arnold R. Alanen, Robert Z. Melnick. Baltimor e: John Hopkins University Press, 2000. Gannon, Michael. "First European Contacts." in The New History of Florida. ed. Michael Gannon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. . Florida: A Short History Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. Garraty, John A. The American Nation: A History of the United States New York: Harper and Row, 1983. Graburn, Nelson. "Tourism: The Sacred Journey." in Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism., ed. Valene L. Smith. Philadelphia: Univers ity of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. Graham, Thomas. Flagler's Magnificent Hotel Ponce De Leon. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1990. . "The Flagler Era." in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival. ed. Jean Parker Waterbury. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983. . The Awakening of St. Augustine St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978. Greenspan, Anders. Creating Colonial Williamsburg Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002. Herbert, David T., ed. Heritage, Tourism, and Society London: Mansell Publishing Limited, 1995. Hiller, Herbert L. Highway A1A: Florida at the Edge Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005. Hosmer, Charles B. Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926-1949. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981. Juderias, Julian. The Black Legend, 1914 in The Black Legend Charles Gibson, ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1971. Kammen, Michael. In the Past Lane: Historical Perspectives on American Culture London: Oxford University Press, 1997. Kemmis, Daniel. Community and the Politics of Place Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.
104 Lanier, Sidney. Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, Facsimile Reproduction, 1973. Lardner, Ring W. Gullibles Travels New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1917. Leon, Warren, and Margaret Piatt. "Living History Museums." in History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment. eds. Warren Leon and Roy Rosenzweig. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Lowenthal, David. Possessed by the Past: The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History New York: The Free Press, 1996. . The Past is a Foreign Country Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. MacCannell, Dean. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class New York: Schocken Books, Inc., 1972. Mieczkowski, Zbigniew. World Trends in Tourism and Recreation New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1990. Mormino, Gary. Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005. ."World War II." in The New History of Florida. ed. Michael Gannon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. Nash, Dennison. Anthropology of Tourism Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon, 1996. Norkumas, Martha K. The Politics of Public Memory Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Ogle, Maureen. Key West: History of an Island of Dreams. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. Orbasli, Aylin. Tourists in Historic Towns: Urban Conservation and Heritage Management London: Taylor and Francis Group, 2000. Pidal, Ramon Menendez Father Las Ca sas: His Double Personality, 1963 in The Black Legend Charles Gibson, ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1971. Rogers, William W. "The Great Depression." in The New History of Florida. ed. Michael Gannon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. . "The Paradoxical Twenties." in The New History of Florida. ed. Michael Gannon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.
105 Rothman, Hal K. Devil's Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Rowe, Anne E. The Idea of Florida in the American Literary Imagination Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986. Sauer, Carl Ortwin. Sixteenth-Century North America: The Land and the People as Seen by the Europeans Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1971. Schwartz, Rosalie. Pleasure Island: Tourism and Temptation in Cuba Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. Schafer, Daniel L. Not So Gay a Town in America as This, in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival. ed. Jean Parker Waterbury. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983. Sears, John. Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Shaffer, Marguerite S. See America First: Tourism and National Identity Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. Starnes, Richard, ed. Southern Journeys: Tourism, History, and Culture in the Modern South. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003. Sunshine, Sylvia. Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes. Gainesville: The University Press of Florida. Facsimile Reproduction of the 1880 Edition, 1976. Stofik, Barron M. Saving South Beach Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005. Theobald, William F., ed. Global Tourism Boston: Elsevier, 2005. Urry, John. The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies London: Sage Publications, 1990. Wallace, Michael. "Mickey Mouse History: Portraying the Pa st at Disney World." in History Museums in the United States. eds. Warren Leon and Roy Rosenzweig. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. . "Reflections on the History of Historic Preservation." in Presenting the Past: Essays on History and the Public. eds. Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier and Roy Rosenzweig. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986. Waterbury, Jean Parker. The Castillo Years: 1668-1763. in The Oldest City: St. Augustine Saga of Survival. ed. Jean Parker Waterbury. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983. Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
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