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Geophysical investigations and groundwater modeling of the hydrologic conditions at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua

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Title:
Geophysical investigations and groundwater modeling of the hydrologic conditions at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua
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MacNeil, Richard Eric
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University of South Florida
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Caldera
Electromagnetic methods
Volcanic stucture
Hydrology
Transient electomagnetics
Dissertations, Academic -- Geology -- Masters -- USF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, has been the site of tremendous Plinian basaltic eruptions. Two eruptions ~6,500 and 2,250 BP formed the 6 kilometer (km) x 11 km, northwest trending Masaya caldera. The present day active Santiago Crater within the caldera is the site of persistent volcano degassing and occasional phreatic explosions. While the mechanism responsible for these phreatic explosions is unclear, one possible explanation is the interaction of groundwater with the shallow magma chamber beneath Masaya. This interaction with meteoric water is supported by the substantial steam discharge from the vent, which is significantly larger than other similar volcanoes in the world. To better understand these interactions, the distribution of groundwater was characterized for the volcano based on interpretation of 29 Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The TEM data were modeled using two independent methods to estimate resistivity as a function of depth. Results from modeli ng the TEM data indicate an overlying highly resistive layer throughout the caldera that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. The implied water table of the caldera is expressed as a subdued replica of the topography in the higher vent regions in the central and southern portions of the caldera and decreases to a level that coincides with the elevation Lake Masaya in the lower sections of the caldera. The water table elevation in the caldera also shows a marked difference from the regional groundwater flow system as there is a large gradient in head values suggesting a sharp change in transmissivity along the caldera boundaries, which indicate the caldera is hydraulically isolated from the surrounding region. In order to better understand the hydrologic processes at Masaya caldera, a 3-D finite difference groundwater model was created using the 29 estimated water levels and two groundwater flux measurements to simulate the hydrologic system The model calibration revealed that ^a deep, highly permeable layer must feed the active vent in order for the steam emissions to be maintained at their current levels. This information about the caldera provides a baseline for forecasting the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Richard Eric MacNeil.
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Geophysical Investigations and Groundwater Mode ling of the Hydrologic Conditions at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua by Richard Eric MacNeil A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Geology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Charles B. Connor, Ph.D. Mark Stewart, Ph.D. Sarah Kruse, Ph.D. Ward Sanford, Ph.D. Date of Approval: July 17, 2006 Keywords: caldera, electromagnetic methods, volcanic stucture, hydrology, transient electomagnetics Copyright 2006, Richard Eric MacNeil

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ACKNOWLEGEMENTS This research project at Masaya was made possible due to financial support provided in part by the Volcano Hazards Program of the Un ited States Geological Survey. I especially appreciate the assistance of the entire staffs fr om the Parque Nacional Volcn Masaya, ENECAL, and especially W. Strauch, Eduardo Mayorga, Jos Manuel Traa, and Enoc Castillo from INETER. I would also like to thank Mikel Di ez, Pedro Prez, and Flix Henrique for their invaluable help and support while working at Masaya caldera. I would like to thank Dr. Charles Connor for hi s direction, inspiration, and patience during this process. I am grateful to have worked with him during this project. I am also grateful for the chance to learn from and work wi th Dr. Stewart Sandberg on this and a variety of other projects. I would also like to thank Dr. Ward Sanford of the United States Geological Survey for his insight and guidance, and for providing me the opportunity to work at the USGS headquarters in Reston, Virginia. I am also appreciative of my committ ee members, Dr. Sarah Kruse and Dr. Mark Stewart for their recommendations on this project. I would like to thank everyone within t he geology department who provided support and advice throughout this process and especially the office staff that was there to support and help with all of the behind the scenes work and details. Finally, I wish to thank Loren North for all of her encouragement and support over the last few years.

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i Table of Contents LIST OF TABLES ii LIST OF FIGURES iii ABSTRACT iv INTRODUCTION 1 BACKGROUND 3 Groundwater and Volcanic Activity 3 Geology 4 Hydrogeology 6 Current Activity 9 TEM METHOD 11 Previous TEM Studies 12 TEM Survey 13 Data Processing 15 Results of TEM Survey 21 GROUNDWATER MODEL 25 Model Parameters 27 Model Simulations 28 Groundwater Model Results 30 CONCLUSION 32 Recommendations 33 REFERENCES 34 BIBLIOGRAPHY 37 APPENDICES 38 Appendix A: RAW TEM DATA 39 Appendix B: EINVRT 6 DATA 67

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ii LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary of TEM soundings collected in Masaya caldera. 24 Table 2: Final hydraulic parameters for groundwater model. 29 Table 3: Comparison of TEM soundings versus groundwater model results. 30

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iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Location Map of Masaya caldera, Nicaragua. 2 Figure 2: Example of the characteristics of many hydrothermal sy stems (modified from Goff and Janik, 2001). 4 Figure 3: Masaya caldera. 6 Figure 4: Digital elevation map showing ve rtical relief throughout the caldera. 7 Figure 5: The regional groundwater flow pattern near Masaya Caldera. 8 Figure 6: Lake Masaya water levels (1980-2003). 9 Figure 7: View of Santiago Crater from north rim. 10 Figure 8: Resistivity table showing varian ce between igneous rock and fresh water. (Modified from G. J. Palacky, 1998) 12 Figure 9: Example of typical central loop configuration used at Masaya caldera. 14 Figure 10: Protem 47 transmitter waveform. 15 Figure 11: Apparent resistivity graph of TEM 3. 17 Figure 12: Apparent resistivity graph of TEM 18. 17 Figure 13: Apparent resistivity graph of TEM 26. 18 Figure 14: Inverse modeling results for TEM 3, loca ted in the north part of the caldera floor, far from the active vent. 19 Figure 15: Inverse modeling results for TEM 18, located low on the south flank of Santiago crater in the SW portion of the caldera. 19 Figure 16: Inverse modeling results for TEM 26, located near the active Santiago crater rim. 20 Figure 17: Comparison of models base d on the two inversion algorithms. 20 Figure 18: Apparent resistivity cros s-sections along profile A-A’. 22 Figure 19: Apparent resistivity cros s-sections along profile B-B’. 22 Figure 20: Contour map of the estimated groundw ater table elevation at Masaya caldera. 23 Figure 21: Conceptual model of Masaya caldera. 25 Figure 22: Top and profile view s of groundwater model. 26 Figure 23: The locations of the zones, bound ary conditions, and well within the Masaya Caldera groundwater model. 29 Figure 24: Representation of the transmissive zone beneath crater region of Masaya caldera. 30

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iv Geophysical Investigations and Groundwater Modeling of the Hydrologic Conditions at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua Richard E. MacNeil ABSTRACT Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, has been the site of tremendous Plinian basaltic eruptions. Two eruptions ~6,500 and 2,250 BP formed the 6 kilometer (km) x 11 km, northwest trending Masaya caldera. The present day active Santi ago Crater within the caldera is the site of persistent volcano degassing and occasional ph reatic explosions. While the mechanism responsible for these phreatic explosions is uncl ear, one possible explanation is the interaction of groundwater with the shallow magma chamber beneath Masaya. This interaction with meteoric water is supported by the substantial steam discha rge from the vent, which is significantly larger than other similar volcanoes in the world. To be tter understand these interactions, the distribution of groundwater was characterized for the volcano based on interpretation of 29 Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The TEM data were modeled using two independent methods to estimate resistivity as a function of dept h. Results from modeling the TEM data indicate an overlying highly resistive layer throughout the caldera that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. The implied water table of the calder a is expressed as a subdued replica of the topography in the higher vent regions in the ce ntral and southern portions of the caldera and decreases to a level that coincides with the elev ation Lake Masaya in the lower sections of the caldera. The water table elevation in the caldera also shows a marked difference from the regional groundwater flow system as there is a large gradient in head values suggesting a sharp change in transmissivity along the caldera boundaries, which indicate the caldera is hydraulically isolated from the surrounding region. In order to better understand the hydrologic processes at Masaya caldera, a 3-D finite difference grou ndwater model was created using the 29 estimated water levels and two groundwater flux measurem ents to simulate the hydrologic system The

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v model calibration revealed that a deep, highly permeab le layer must feed the active vent in order for the steam emissions to be maintained at t heir current levels. This information about the caldera provides a baseline for forecasting the re sponse of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity.

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1 INTRODUCTION The distribution and flow of groundwater is poorly known for the vast majority of active volcanoes, and hydrologic properties of active volc anoes are rarely characterized. This situation persists because such volcani c systems are not typically developed for their groundwater resources. Given that theses systems may need to be characterized in the absence of sufficient well data, characterization of the groundwater system on active volcanoes can be practical through the application of transient electromagnet ic (TEM) soundings, which is a relatively fast and cost effective method to determine water le vels on active volcanoes, especially when compared to traditional drilling techniques. The us e of TEM sounding data, along with innovative inversion techniques, and three-dimensional groundwater modeling can be used for the characterization of the hydrologic systems on certain volcanic syst ems. This approach is utilized at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, one of the largest active basaltic calderas on Earth with a history of large phreatomagmatic eruptions ( Figure 1 ). This volcano complex has been the site of tremendous Plinian basaltic eruptions between 30 thousand and 2,250 years before present (BP) (Williams, 1983a; van Wyk de Vries, 1991; Walker et al., 1993; Rymer et al., 1997). The goal of this research is to provide a bas eline of the hydrologic system of Masaya Caldera and its likely response to changes in ma gmatic activity. This characterization of the hydrologic system in the caldera can then be us ed as one reference for possible prediction of future phreatomagmatic eruptions. In this thesis, a groundwater flow model for Masaya caldera is developed for the first time. Development of this model has required several steps. First, TEM soundings were made throughout the caldera. Second, these TEM soundings were modeled using two commercially available modeling codes (EM Vision from Encom, and EINVRT 6 from Geophysical Solutions), to develop a sense of resolution of the depth to the groundwater table. Third, a model was prepared using MODFLOW-2000 (modular three-dimensional finite difference groundwater flow model)

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2 developed by the US Geological Survey (Harbaugh et al., 2000). Development of appropriate hydrologic parameters is an important first step to the successful application of the model. In this case, hydrological parameters are developed through interpretation of the geologic setting, structures, and active volcanic processes oper ating within the caldera, and meteorological conditions observed throughout the region. Figure 1: Location Map of Masaya caldera, Nicaragua.

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3 BACKGROUND Groundwater and Volcanic Activity Volcanic eruptions occur when magma exsolves sufficient volatiles to accelerate flow by rapid volume expansion, typically in the upper few kilometers of the crust. As the magma ascends through the crust it may interact with shallow groundwater in several ways. First, degassing of volatiles from the magma may create a pressure gr adient that can actually drive groundwater to the surface (Delaney, 1982; Newhall et al., 2001) Sudden onsets of spring discharge have been observed during the initial stages of several volc anic eruptions, such as the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, Usu volcano, Japan, and t he Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat (Newhall et al., 2001; Shibata and Aki, 2001; Sparks, 200 3). Second, magma can heat groundwater directly, in some conditions resulting in phreati c eruptions. Such phreatic eruptions often precede the onset of episodes of volcani c eruption before magma reaches t he surface, such as the event that occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragu a, in 1995 (Connor et al., 1996). Third, steady boiling of groundwater may continue for decades or longer when magma exists in buoyant equilibrium in the shallow crust, creating shallo w hydrothermal systems (Goff and Janik, 2001). Finally, direct interaction between groundwater and magma, particularly in confined aquifers, may initiate a fuel coolant reaction that results in extremely violent phreatomagmatic eruptions (Morrissey et al., 2001). Hydrothermal systems in volcanic settings ty pically have many characteristic features which may include hydrothermal alteration of lithology, boiling springs, geysers, acid hot springs, mud pots, fumaroles, etc., as typified in Figure 2 These expressions of the interaction of groundwater and an active volcanic system, while common in many other calderas, are not typical for the Masaya caldera complex. With the caldera’s history of phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions, the characteristic s of the hydrothermal system need to be

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4 understood. Currently, the vent on Santiago crat er and the low temperature fumaroles near Comalito cinder cone are the only known outward expressions of the hydrothermal system at Masaya caldera. Thus, knowledge of the inte raction between the grou ndwater/hydrothermal system and the shallow magmatic system is crucial to understan ding the nature of heat and mass transfer at Masaya caldera. Figure 2: Example of the characteristics of many hydrothermal systems (modified from Goff and Janik, 2001). Geology The Masaya volcano, Nicaragua (11.98 N, 86.15 W) is part of the large complex of Pleistocene-Holocene shield volcanoes, nested ca lderas, small composite cones, cinder cones and pit craters that are cumulatively referred to as Masaya caldera ( Figure 3 ). This complex is part of the Central America volcanic arc, whic h is characterized during the Quaternary by predominantly basaltic volcanic systems formed within and along the Nicaragua Depression, a NW-trending fault zone along the arc that acco mmodates dextral slip resulting from oblique subduction (DeMets, 2001; La Femina et al., 2002). Volcanoes and faults associated with the arc and Nicaragua Depression form the predominant structures near Masaya caldera.

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5 This volcano complex has a history of large Plinian basaltic eruptions. Two eruptions ~6500 and 2250 BP formed a 6 kilometer (km) x 11 km, northwest trending caldera ( Figure 3 ). These eruptions were large volume (12-18 km3 dense rock equivalent) and resulted in widespread tephra fallout and pyroclastic flow s (Williams, 1983a). The prominent caldera rim preserves evidence of the magnitude of these erupt ions. The floor of this caldera gently slopes to the east. The caldera rim is up to 400 meters (m ) high on the west and northwest side of the caldera. The rim is approximately 200 m high above Lake Masaya on the eastern side of the caldera ( Figure 3 ). On the south side, the caldera rim has less relief and is partially buried by post-caldera lava flows and tephra, which predom inantly blows from post-caldera vents to the southwest. The caldera rim is subdued on the north side of the caldera and its exact position is inferred. The caldera walls, w here exposed, consist of thin aa-pahoehoe lava flows and minor pyroclastic fall and flow deposits (Williams, 1983b). T he total amount of slip that has occurred along these caldera-bounding faults is not clear fr om geologic outcrops or other data. Slip may have been very large if the caldera formed pr edominantly by foundering during evacuation of a large magma chamber (Williams, 1983a). Furthermor e, post-caldera activity included the eruption of lava flows from caldera-bounding faults, mapped by Williams (1983b) on the south and north flanks of the caldera (Walker et al., 1993). Based on this geologic setting, lithologic and hydrologic properties are likely to chan ge abruptly across the caldera boundary. Volcanic activity persisted after these calder a-forming eruptions. The entire floor of the caldera is armored by thin aa-pahoehoe basaltic la va flows, largely erupted from a group of vents within the caldera. These vents form a ~5-kmlong, W to NW-trending, semi-circular group of low–sloping volcanic cones. Pit craters at the summit of these cones, including Masaya, Santiago, Nindiri, and San Pedro pi t craters, have been the locus of historical eruptions in the caldera, with eruptions in 1670 and 1772 that formed 10-15 km-long lava flows (Rymer et al., 1997). The elevation of the crater rims along this chain of pit craters varies from 500 to 635 masl, meaning that the crater rims are ~140-275 m abov e the surrounding caldera floor, as measured by the relief of the volcanic cones on their SW side ( Figure 4 ). Each of these pit craters is 4001,000 m in diameter, formed by very steep walls wi th crater depth varying between 200-300 m.

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6 Figure 3: Masaya caldera. Note the position of Laguna de Masaya and the active vents of Masaya volcano in the topographically elevated region of the central part of the caldera. Map coordinates are in UTM Zone 16N and elevation in meters above sea level. Locations of TEM soundings and two profiles (A -A’) and (B-B’) are also shown. Hydrogeology The region surrounding Masaya caldera has a tropical climate with a mean annual rainfall of 1,655 mm and a rainy season lasting from May to October. Average temperature is 27C in the caldera. Evapotranspiration has been estimated as 1,560 mm/yr at Managua, approximately 25 km northwest of the caldera using a Class A evapotranspiration pan. No permanent streamflow occurs on the slopes in the region due to the hi gh permeability of soils an d surface formations although sporadic flow can be observed immediately after high rainfall in some large drainage channels (Krsny and Hecht, 1998).

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7 Figure 4: Digital elevation map showing vertical relief throughout the caldera. Vertical exaggeration is approximately 5 times. A major hydrologic feature of the caldera is Lake Masaya, which occupies the lower one fifth of the caldera by surface area. Data from a regional groundwater flow model developed in 1993 by the Empresa Nicargense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados (ENACAL) and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) indicate that groundwater elevation varies from ~190 meters above sea level (masl) south of the ca ldera to ~130 masl north of the caldera ( Figure 5 ) (ENACAL and JICA, 1993). No well data exist within the caldera itself, and prior to this study the only indication of water levels in the caldera is the level of Lake Masaya, which is monitored monthly by ENACAL ( Figure 6 ). Lake levels during this investigation were ~119 masl. This lake level, which is below the regional groundwater table ( Figure 5 ), provides strong evidence that this lake is not perched, but represents the leve l of the groundwater table in the caldera.

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8 Figure 5: The regional groundwater flow pattern near Masaya Caldera. Data based on a groundwater flow model developed by the Empresa Nicargense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados (ENACAL) and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The model indicates that groundwater levels vary from approximately 190 m above sea level south of the caldera to approximately 130 masl north of the caldera. Contour interval is 20 meters and map coordinates are UTM Zone 16, WGS84 Datum.

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9 Lake Masaya Water Levels (1980-2003)118.00 119.00 120.00 121.00 122.00 123.001980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003YearElevation (meters) AVG. MAX. MIN. Figure 6: Lake Masaya water levels (1980-2003). Data provided by Empresa Nicargense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados (ENACAL). Current Activity Presently, active degassing occurs from S antiago pit crater and a lava lake is occasionally visible through windows in the floor of Santiago pit crater ( Figure 7 ). Based on time-series of gravity observations on and about this cone complex, Rymer et al. (1997) and Williams-Jones et al. (2003) conclu ded that much of the pit crater alignment is underlain by an inosculated network of gas-ri ch, vesiculated magma, extending from approximately 200 masl (the elevation of the floor of the Santiago pit crater) to ~200 mbsl. This shallow crystallizing magma is the source of persistent degassing from Santiago crater since 1852 (Rymer et al., 1997) and infrequent small explosions. Rymer et al (1997) and WilliamsJones et al. (2003) attribute these small explosio ns to purely magmatic processes. They suggest that these explosions result from blockages in the degassing vent just below the surface. They hypothesize that pressure builds in the system until a small explosion clears the vent. While

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10 certainly a viable mechanism, the interaction of meteoric water in this large and complex magmatic system should not be ruled out. Duffell et al. (2003) suggest that the April 23, 2001 small explosive eruption at Masaya was consis tent with a magma-water interaction and that changes in gas composition during that perio d is best explained by the influence of a hydrothermal system. Also, on the flanks of Masa ya volcano, only 1,500 m from the Santiago pit crater, a fault and fracture zone hosts outflow of water vapor and CO2 at moderate temperatures (26-80 C), indicating that groundwater interacts with magmatic heat, and perhaps volcanic gases, even outside the pit crater system (Lewicki et al., 2003; 2004). This evidence, along with anecdotal reports that some of the small “vent -clearing” explosions may occur preferentially during the rainy season indicate that some of t hese events may be associated with pressurization due to persistent recharge. However, explosions in the pit crater have not occurred in response to single large recharge events, such as occurred during hurricane Mitch in 1998. Figure 7: View of Santiago Crater from north rim. Two vents are visible, with incandescence visible in the more distant vent, notably at night.

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11 TEM METHOD The transient electromagnetic method (TEM) or time-domain electromagnetic method (TDEM) is a geophysical technique originally us ed for the detection of large conductive ore bodies in resistive bedrock The use of TEM has expanded over the last two decades to include the mapping of fresh water aquifers, freshwater/sal twater interfaces, hydrothermal systems, and groundwater contamination plumes (Nabighian and Macnae, 1991). TEM requires energizing a large ungrounded wire loop by passing a strong cu rrent through it, producing a static magnetic field in the subsurface. After a finite time period, the transmitter current is abruptly terminated and in accordance to Faraday’s law of induction, the rapid change in transmitter current induces an electromagnetic force (emf) or electrical pulse pr oportional to the primary magnetic field, causing eddy currents to flow in the ground and subsurfa ce conductors (McNeill, 1980). The decay of these secondary currents produces a decaying magnetic field. This transient magnetic field, or its time derivative, is detected and recorded by a vertical dipole receiver at the surface over numerous time intervals (McNeill, 1982; Sandberg 1993). The rate of change of the induced currents and the subsequent magnetic field that is produced is dependant on the size, shape, conductivity, and depth of the conductor. For resistiv e targets, the initial voltages recorded by the receiver may be large, but will decay rapidly with time. Conductive targets will have lower initial voltages but the fields will decay more slowly. Lar ge resistivity contrasts of a target with the surrounding medium allow the identification of spec ific features (e.g. fr esh water versus salt water) ( Figure 8 ).

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12 Figure 8: Resistivity table showing variance between igneous rock and fresh water. (Modified from G. J. Palacky, 1998) Previous TEM Studies The transient electromagnetic method (M cNeill, 1982; Kaufman and Keller, 1983; Fitterman and Stewart, 1986) has been used extensively in geophysical groundwater exploration and along with other electrical resistivity methods, has been used to investigate shallow hydrothermal systems on volcanic edifices (Sakkas et al., 2001). In recent geoelectrical studies of volcanic systems, TEM has provided high-resoluti on data in the near surface (<1 km), and has been used to identify hydrothermal fluid circulatio n and aquifer systems. The correlation of water well data and TEM sounding depths on Kilauea volca no, Hawaii, Mt Somma-Vesuvius, Italy, Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Runion, and Newberry volcano, Oregon, have shown the effectiveness of this method (Kauahikaua, 1993; Fitterman et al., 1988; Lenat et al., 2000; Manzella et al. 2004). However, caution must be ex ercised, as the interpretation of resistivity in volcanic systems is complicated since the solutions are o ften non-unique (Kauahikaua, 1993 and Lnat et al. 2000). Large temperature gradients, multi-phase fl ow, hyper-saline brines and occurrences of clay-rich alteration minerals can affect resistivit y in volcanic systems. Separating the effect of each of these variables in order to determine t he depth to the water table can be problematic. Nevertheless, such estimates based on geophysical soundings may prove to be extremely worthwhile to development of a systematic view of groundwater systems on active volcanoes.

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13 At Masaya caldera, conditions for interp retation of resistivity soundings are less problematic than at some volcanic systems. Th ere is an absence of saline water, an areally extensive hydrothermal system, or clay altera tion in the Holocene stratigraphic section that comprises the geology of the caldera that coul d effect geophysical interpretation. The geology and hydrologic conditions at Masaya caldera create a situation where deposits with high electrical resistivities host a moderately deep (often > ~100 m) water table. In this situation, TEM soundings provide an efficient method of mapping de pth to the groundwater table, as the porous, saturated lava flows and scoria of the caldera floor offer an excellent electrical contrast with the overlying, dry basaltic rocks. Also the majority of the caldera is at ambient ground temperature, and Lake Masaya provides an excellent water level for nearby calibration of TEM soundings. The validity of the interpretations of TEM soundings was assessed in terms of depth to the groundwater table by collecting soundings alon g a profile down the topographic slope to the western edge of Lake Masaya. TEM Survey Multiple TEM soundings at different frequencies were made at 30 sites located throughout the caldera, including near the acti ve vent region of Santiago pit crater ( Figure 3 ). TEM data were collected using a Geonics Limited Protem 47 Digital Time Domain EM system and high-frequency receiver coil. The central loop sounding mode configuration was utilized, which has been used extensively and effectivel y in groundwater studies (Kaufman and Keller, 1983; Fitterman and Stewart, 1986)( Figure 9 ). Data were collected at 20 logarithmically spaced time intervals or “gates” following transmitter tu rnoff and sampled (or stacked) over many cycles to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (McNeill, 1980)( Figure 10 ). Transmitter loop sizes were square with 40 m on a side near Lake Masaya and 100 m on a side throughout the remainder of the caldera where the anticipated depth to the groundwater table was greater. Data were collected at three different base frequencies, 30, 75, and 285 Hertz (Hz) with the receiver gain set to minimize environmental noise, yet generate a su rvey signal appropriate for the given geologic terrain without distortion to the measurement. Output current on the Protem 47 transmitter was

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14 set from 1 Amp (A) to 3 A when using the smaller 40 m loops and at 3 A for 100 m loops. Multiple soundings and signal stacking were performed at each site to maximize the signal to noise ratio and to evaluate reproducibility of the so unding. Raw TEM data are presented in Appendix A The 30 TEM soundings are positioned throughout the caldera, with an emphasis on the historically active crater region and its flanks ( Figure 3 ). Several soundings were located adjacent to Lake Masaya for verification of depth to water table estimates. The remaining TEM soundings are located in the northern and northeastern sections of the caldera where there is little change in vertical relief. There are no soundings in the southeastern and extreme western portions of the caldera due to the difficulty of the terrain and la ck of access, but these regions are similar in elevation and slope to the northern and eastern areas. One sounding, TEM 10, was eliminated due to 60 Hz interference from an electrical transmission power line near the lake shore. Figure 9: Example of typical central loop configuration used at Masaya caldera. Transmitter loop sizes were square with 40 m on a side near Lake Masaya and 100 m on a side throughout the remainder of the caldera where the anticipated depth to the groundwater table was greater.

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15 Figure 10: Protem 47 transmitter waveform. Example of the waveform of the primary magnetic field generated by the transmitter and of the primary electric field (electromotive force) accompanying that magnetic field (modified from McNeill 1982). Data Processing All TEM data were transformed to apparent resi stivity for preliminary interpretation, data quality assessment, and to assist in initial param eters for layered-earth inverse models. The data were transformed using the technique of Sandberg (1988), which accounts for the finite transmitter-turnoff ramp. For large sample times (t), and/or high resistivities ( ), this apparent resistivity definition asymptotes to the so-c alled late stage approximation calculated by: 3 / 2 3 / 5 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 5 3 / 2 3 / 420 Z t A aR late a (1) Where a is the equivalent circular transmitter-loop radius, RA is the effective area of the receiver coil is the magnetic permeability (here the free-space value, 0 = 4 x 10-7 is

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16 used), t is the time since transmitter current turnoff, and Z is the mutual impedance (voltage in the receiver coil divided by the current in the transmitter loop). The apparent resistivity graphs for the calder a show a distinct pattern of a upper highly resistive layer (early sample times) underlain by one or more conductive layers ( Figure 11 later sample times) with the exception of the southw estern side of the historically active vents ( Figure 12 ), where the uppermost layer has a slight cond uctive zone probably produced by either alteration of this lava flow or the influence of the less resistive underly ing San Judas Formation tephra deposits, described by Williams (1983a). Soundings collected near the crater rim ( Figure 13 ) show greater depth to the groundwater t able and a more complex decay in apparent resistivity with time, possibly due to the presence of low resistivity magma in the active conduit. TEM data were modeled using two commercia lly available programs (EM Vision from Encom, and EINVRT 6 from Geophysical Solutions), which use non-linear least squares regression algorithms to adjust layered earth para meters, such as layer thickness and resistivity values, through an iterative process to minimi ze error between observed and model-derived data in layered Earth models (Sandberg, 1988). The EINVRT 6 program utilizes a Marquardt-type method that results in an undamped 95% confi dence level (Sandberg, 1983, Sandberg, 1988, Hohmann and Raiche, 1988). The second method used by EM Vision relies on the GRENDL algorithm for 1D inversion and outputs a 68% confid ence level. Inversion results from the EINVRT 6 program are presented in Appendix B

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17 Figure 11: Apparent resistivity graph of TEM 3. This pattern of a upper highly resistive layer (early sample times) underlain by one or more conductive layers is representative for the entire caldera except the crater regions and the southwestern side of the caldera. Figure 12: Apparent resistivity graph of TEM 18. The uppermost layer has a slight conductive zone produced by either alteration of this lava flow or the influence of the less resistive underlying San Judas Formation tephra deposits.

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18 Figure 13: Apparent resistivity graph of TEM 26. This sounding and others near the crater rim show greater depth to the groundwater table and a more complex decay in apparent resistivity with time, possibly due to the pre sence of low resistivity magma in the active conduit. All of the inversions are 1-D interpretations and were run with the fewest number of layers that give a reasonable fit to field data. Comparison of model results ( Figures 14-16 ) indicates consistency in the number of layers id entified and the bulk resistivities of these layers. Examples of common resistivity values are given in Figure 8 Some bias is observed in the inversion results. The GRENDL algorithm in the EM Vision code tends to estimate greater depths to the groundwater table than EINVRT 6, amount ing to a difference of about 8% or 7.8 m on average. This result is consistent regardless of the total depth to the groundwater table ( Figure 17 ). Due to the greater constraint on the data by the EINVRT 6 program with its undamped 95% confidence level, it provides a better statistica l model of the system. Furthermore, the EINVRT 6 results are more consistent with the observed lake level.

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19 Figure 14: Inverse modeling results for TEM 3, located in the north part of the caldera floor, far from the active vent. Figure 15: Inverse modeling results for TEM 18, located low on the south flank of Santiago crater in the SW portion of the caldera.

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20 Figure 16: Inverse modeling results for TEM 26, located near the active Santiago crater rim. Figure 17: Comparison of models based on the two inversion algorithms. Einvrt 6 models depth to water table approximately 8% shallower (~7.8 m ) than EMVision.

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21 Results of TEM Survey Model results of the TEM data indicate an ov erlying highly resistive layer throughout the caldera that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. The depths of these conductive layers increase with distance from Lake Masaya towa rds the topographically high volcanic vents. The large apparent resistivity contrast in the subsurfa ce is interpreted to be t he intersection of the dry overlying basalt and the underlying unconfined water table. This contrast is shown by the shallow conductive layer (<118 ohm-m) detected by TEM sounding 11 near Lake Masaya ( Figure 3 ) and in sounding TEM 7, also near the lake ( Table 1 ). This conductive layer coincides with the elevation of the nearby lake level at ~119 masl as shown in profile A – A/, and is assumed to be the top of the water table ( Figure 18 ). Using this assumption, the top of the conductive layer throughout the caldera is recognized to be the top of the hydrologic system. The water table elevation in the caldera is nearly flat throughout except in the high er vent regions in the central and southern portions of the calder a. In the vent regions, the wa ter table or conductive zone is expressed as a subdued reflection of the topogra phy. The resistivity cros s-section for the area near the active vent region shows a large gradient in the water table elevation in close proximity to TEM 26 along profile B – B/, near the south rim of the active Santiago vent ( Figure 19 ). The higher resistivities calculated at this location may be due to development of a vapor-dominated zone near the active vent, although in this case the 1-D inversion does not fully capture the 3-D complexity of the near-vent region. The predicted water table elevation in the cald era is markedly different from the regional water head levels projected by the JICA groundwat er model data. In the JICA model, the regional groundwater flow system is not affected by the presence of Masaya caldera and shows a steady decrease in hydraulic head from ~190 masl on the southwestern edge of the caldera to ~130 masl on the north and northeastern side. Results from this research indicate head values are up to 60 m lower than those proposed from the JICA data on the western, southern, and eastern boundaries of the caldera and slightly lower (1020 m), on the northern side of the caldera where

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22 the caldera rim is visibly absent at the surface ( Figure 20 ). These large gradients in head values suggests a sharp change in transmissivity along the caldera boundaries and indicate that the caldera is effectively hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region. A summary of TEM sounding positions and interpreted depths to water is presented in Table 1 Figure 18: Apparent resistivity cross-sections along profile A-A’. There is a large apparent resistivity contrast in the subsurface that is interpreted to be the intersection of the dry overlying basalt and the underlying unconfined water table. This conductive layer coincides with the elevation of the nearby lake level at ~119 masl just east of TEM 11 and is assumed to be the top of the water table. Figure 19: Apparent resistivity cross-sections along profile B-B’. A large gradient in the water table occurs near TEM 26, near the south rim of the active Santiago vent.

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23 Figure 20: Contour map of the estimated groundwater table elevation at Masaya caldera. TEM measurements shows a steady decrease in head from ~190 masl on the southwestern edge of the caldera to ~130 masl on the north and northeastern side. Head values are up to 60 m lower than those proposed from the JICA data on the western, southern, and eastern boundaries of the caldera and slightly lower (10-20 m), on the northern side of the caldera where the caldera rim is visibly absent at the surface. Triangles represent locations of wells outside Masaya Caldera used in JICA model.

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24 Table 1: Summary of TEM soundings collected in Masaya caldera. Map coordinates are given in UTM Zone 16N WGS84 and elevation in meters above sea level. Depth to groundwater table (dtw) is estimated from appli cation of two inversion algorithms (Einvrt 6 and EMVision).

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25 GROUNDWATER MODEL To better quantify the relative importance of the hydrologic processes of Masaya caldera and the implications for future phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions, a groundwater model was developed using the USGS Modular Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model, MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). This groundwater flow model was developed as a preliminary model of the caldera using the TEM sounding resu lts and available hydrologic data for this area. A conceptual model based on the known hydrol ogical properties and system boundaries was developed to assist in assigning hydrologic pa rameters and stresses. This simplification of the flow system was used to define the basic water budget of the flow system ( Figure 21 ). Figure 21: Conceptual model of Masaya caldera. Estimates of the hydrologic properties are obtained from measured rainfall, modified evapotranspiration rates, and published steam discharge values from Santiago Crater.

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26 A 3-D finite difference numerical model was co nstructed to simulate groundwater flow to quantify the relative importance of recharge, evapotranspiration, anisotropy, and hydraulic conductivity to replicate conditions representativ e at Masaya caldera using data from the TEM soundings performed in 2004. The model was developed with Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONE). Argus One is a m odel independent Geographical Information System (GIS) created for numerical modeling (Argus Interware, Inc. 1997). The model grid developed for this system consists of 64 rows and 113 columns. The dimensions of the rows and columns of the model vary within the grid to match the area of Masaya Caldera. The model has ten layers that represent three aquifers, represented as zones in the model, with different hydraulic properties. The ten layers are specified as confined ( Figure 22 ). Figure 22: Top and profile views of groundwater model. Top figure is of model dimensions and profile view is a representation of the 10 layers in the model.

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27 Model Parameters There are limited hydrogeological data avail able for Masaya Caldera and the surrounding region. Known hydraulic parameters from insi de the caldera include an estimate of net steam emissions flux of 400 kg/s from Santiago crater (Burton et. al, 2000) and monthly water levels for Lake Masaya (ENACAL). The water vapor emissions measured at Masaya by Burton et. al, are the highest recorded for a single volcano in this ty pe of system under quiescent conditions. It is assumed in this groundwater model that the signi ficant fraction of the observed water emissions is hydrothermal in origin. Even with these measured parameters, the available data are inadequate to directly assign varying hydraulic parameters, so uniform values were initially assigned to each model layer for preliminary simulations and varied through parameter estimation after a sensitivity analysis was performed. In itial parameter values selected were based on accepted ranges for this type of geologic setti ng, two groundwater flux measurements, and 29 estimated water levels from the TEM soundings and interpretations. The lake evaporation and steam vents are the only substantial discharg es of groundwater within the caldera, each accounting for about half of the annual recharge. Lake evaporation is accounted for with the net recharge data. Anisotropy values were mappe d into the model due to the multi-layered, approximately slope-parallel lava flows, which im plies that anisotropy should have a significant impact on groundwater flow throughout the caldera. The water level of Lake Masaya (119 masl) was assigned as a constant head boundary and assumed to be equivalent to the head of the surficial aquifer. A general head boundary was constructed around the perimeter of each layer. Initial heads were set at 100 masl up to the 350 m elevation contour. From the 350 m elevation, t he initial heads increased at a slope of 0.8 up to a maximum head of 150 masl. For the baseline simulation, recharge within t he caldera was set to account for a net flux into Lake Masaya of 1.2 m/yr. This net recharge into Lake Masaya was calculated from an estimate of lake evaporation and a transient lake-level record during the dry season.

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28 Model Simulations Refinement of the model parameters was acco mplished by running numerical simulations and by modifying the parameters to predict actu al, observed conditions and/or measurements within the caldera from the TEM soundings and lake levels. The sequence of model development consisted of completing several runs, followed by sensitivity analyses, and finally parameter estimation. The baseline simulation was run using the initial hydraulic parameters. The initial simulation predicted no change in heads. Bas ed on the results of the baseline simulation, hydraulic conductivity was varied spatially thr oughout the caldera and ultimately the area was divided into four “zones” of different hydraulic condu ctivity. The locations of the zones within the Masaya Caldera are presented on the map in Figure 23 The model was adjusted initially by varying hydraulic conductivity throughout the zones. Several model runs were completed; on each subsequent model run the hydraulic conductivity and the anisotropy were allowed to vary spatially. When the water levels in the model reasonably matched the measured TEM soundings, a well was added to the model to simulate the net steam emission flux of 400 kg/sec out of the active vent in Santiago crater. The well was added using the WELL package, which simu lates volumetric rate discharge from a cell and was open to all 3 zones of the model. The well accounts for 34,560 m3/day flux out of the system. After adding the well and evaluating the subsequent simulations, the model predicted a substantial region of dry cells around the area of Santiago crater. As the well accounts for a measured discharge from the hydrologic system, and TEM soundings near Santiago crater suggest the presence of a conductive zone interpreted as the top of the water table, an adjustment to the hydraulic conductivity was made in the middle layers or “aquifer” to account for the steam emissions. This zone of high hydraulic conductivity extends outward across the entire basin of the caldera ( Figure 24 ). Several sensitivity runs were performed to evaluate the effects of varying the anisotropy and hydraulic conductivity.

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29 Parameter estimation was completed to optimize values for hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy as part of the calibration process and final values are shown in Table 2 This was done until error was minimized within the specifi ed boundaries for each iterative time step. Table 2: Final hydraulic parameters for groundwater model. Parameter (m/day) HK Zone 2 6.00E+02 HK Zone 3 1.35E+00 HK Zone 4 1.00E+00 HK Zone 5 5.30E-01 HK Conductive layer 4.50E+01 Recharge 1.37E-03 Anisotropy caldera 1.00E+03 Anisotropy crater region 6.25E-01 Anisotropy conduct ive layer 1.00E+01 The water level in the upper aquifer was matched to observation points that were from the results of the TEM soundings and interpretati on. At the end of the parameter estimation, the model predicted water levels closely matched the head data results from the interpretation of the TEM soundings ( Table 3 ). The sum of the square weighted residuals equaled a relatively low 31.52. Figure 23: The locations of the zones, boundary conditions, and well within the Masaya Caldera groundwater model.

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30 Figure 24: Representation of the transmissive zone beneath crater region of Masaya caldera. This zone is necessary to sustain the net steam emission flux of 400 kg/sec from the active vent in Santiago crater. Table 3: Comparison of TEM soundings versus groundwater model results. Water table elevations shown for both with residuals. Observation TEM WTE (m) Model WTE (m) Residual Weighted Residual TEM_1 80 112 -32 -1.6 TEM_2 141 120 21 1.05 TEM_3 106 120 -13.5 -0.676 TEM_4 339 319 20.4 0.408 TEM_5 229 146 83.4 4.17 TEM_7 116 119 -3.09 -0.155 TEM_8 136 119 16.9 0.846 TEM_9 118 119 -1.22 -6.10E-02 TEM_11 110 119 -9.22 -0.461 TEM_12 118 119 -1.51 -7.53E-02 TEM_13 118 119 -1.77 -8.84E-02 TEM_14 116 120 -4.03 -0.201 TEM_15 110 120 -9.55 -0.478 TEM_16 119 120 -0.724 -3.62E-02 TEM_17 133 120 13.3 0.666 TEM_18 177 194 -16.8 -0.839 TEM_19 146 119 27.4 1.37 TEM_20 113 120 -6.6 -0.33 TEM_21 116 120 -3.41 -0.171 TEM_22 102 120 -17.8 -0.89 TEM_23 120 120 7.31E-03 3.65E-04 TEM_24 146 119 27.2 1.36 TEM_26 217 196 20.7 1.03 TEM_27 252 241 10.5 0.526 TEM_28 169 155 13.7 0.686 TEM_29 136 139 -3 -0.15 TEM_30 100 120 -19.6 -0.98 Groundwater Model Results The model constructed to represent the hydrol ogic system at Masaya Caldera presents an initial representation of the processes and hydraul ic properties within this caldera. The TEM soundings revealed a water table mound beneath the topographically high cone regions of the caldera, but not within the more permeable part of the caldera. The differences between our

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31 estimated water levels inside the caldera and known regional water levels outside the caldera suggest that the caldera walls are acting as hy drological barriers, e ffectively isolating the groundwater-flow system within the caldera. Th e model was therefore run as an isolated unit, excluding any input from the regional hydrologic system. The 29 estimated water levels and two groundwater-flux measurements were used to calibrate the model. Parameter estimation results confirmed that hydraulic conduct ivity was the parameter with the greatest variability on model results. Four zones with varying hydraulic condu ctivity were established throughout the caldera to more accurately simulate water levels estimated by the TEM soundings. After the addition of the well to simulate the steam emissions from Santi ago crater, the model predicted large portions of the model grid would go dry. To accurately sustai n the net steam emission flux of 400 kg/sec from the active vent in Santiago crater, a deep, highly permeable zone or layer must reside beneath the caldera to feed the active vent in order fo r the steam emissions to be maintained at their current rates. Masaya caldera varies from other basaltic shield volcanoes by its large amount of water vapor emissions (400 kg/s) compared to other sim ilar systems under quiescent conditions (Burton et al, 2000). While a fraction of the water emissions is due to the degassing magma body beneath Masaya, it has been suggested that a subs tantial proportion of the observed water vapor may be of meteoric origin. For this assumption to be valid, the presence of a highly transmissive layer must exist inside the caldera to provide the volume of water needed to produce the measured steam emissions. In addition, at steady state conditions, the evaporation from Lake Masaya, groundwater underflow out through the ca ldera walls, and degassing of meteoric water from the active vents must balance recharge in the system. The lake evaporation is estimated to be about 0.2 m3/yr per square meter of the caldera, t he groundwater underflow is assumed to be negligible, and the vent emissions are equivalent to about 0.3 m3/yr/m2, and the recharge was estimated to be about 0.5 m3/yr/m2 out of the 1.6 m/yr precipitation.

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32 CONCLUSION For the vast majority of active volcanoes, the distribution and flow of groundwater is poorly known and hydrologic properties are rarely characterized. In volcanic systems with a history of phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions characterizing the groundwater system is an important first step to the underst anding and prediction of future eruptions. This characterization can be practical through the application of transie nt electromagnetic (TEM) soundings, innovative inversion techniques, and 3-D groundwater modeling. This approach was utilized at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, to provide one potential bas eline for forecasting the response of this groundwater system to changes in magmatic activity. Results from the TEM surveys were interp reted with the use of two commercially available non-linear least squares regression algo rithms to adjust layered earth parameters and estimate depths to water. The fact that the soundings varied smoothly as a subdued reflection of this topographic rise is a strong indication that the position of t he groundwater table was accurately identified, rather than alteration of the Holocene stratigraphic se ction to clay minerals under the current floor of the caldera. These 29 TEM soundings have been interpreted to show that the caldera is effectively hydrologically is olated from the surrounding regional groundwater flow system by its caldera-boundi ng faults. These TEM results also present a water table that is a subdued reflection of the topography, except near the active Santiago vent, where dramatic gradients occur. These gradients are likely the result of vaporization of groundwater due to magmatic heating and may be a substantial component of the gas emissions at Masaya caldera. These 29 estimated water levels from the TEM soundings along with two groundwater flux measurements and the water level of Lake Masaya were then used to calibrate a 3-D finite difference numerical groundwater flow model (MOD FLOW). The model calibration revealed that a deep, highly permeable layer beneath the caldera must feed the active vent in order for the large steam emissions (400 kg/s) to be maintained at their current levels. The model shows this

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33 hydraulically conductive layer is the dominant co ntrol on water table elevation in the caldera and around the active Santiago vent. The integrated use of geophysics and groundwater modeling at Masaya caldera has provided a enhanced understanding of the hydrol ogic system beneath this active basaltic volcano. This assessment of the groundwater table at Masaya caldera is a first step in looking at the shallow hydrologic system and how changes in it may affect the active volcano. In addition to a long-term water balance within the caldera, short-term changes in volcanic activity, such as increased vaporization of groundwater due to heating, could be reflected in short-term changes in the level of the groundwater table. By monitori ng water levels and the hydrologic budget of the caldera, changes in heat flux may be detected. Recommendations Future investigations at Masaya caldera would benefit from the installation of one or more monitor wells to accurately gauge the water levels in the caldera for their use as a calibration tool for future geophysical surveys and quantifying the response of water levels to changes in heat flux. Regular monitoring of changes in gas emission s from Santiago crater and fluctuations in the water levels in Lake Masaya should give a better understanding on whether the lake level reflects volcanic activity or not. Also, advanced modeling techniques should be utilized to incorporate heat in the model simulations when looking at the hydrologic system and its variation with changes in magmatic activity. These steps would ultimately benefit the scientific community in its ability to better understand this volcanic system and better pred ict hazards for the surrounding communities in the future.

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34 REFERENCES Argus Interware, Inc., 1997, User’s Guide Ar gus ONE, Argus Open Numerical EnvironmentsA GIS Modeling System, Version 4.0, Jeri co, NY, Argus Holdings, Limited, 506 p. Burton, M. R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L. A ., and Francis, P. W., 2000. Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Geology, 28(10), 915-918. Connor, C., Hill, B., LaFemina, P., Navarro, M., and Conway, M., 1996. Soil 222Rn pulse during the initial phase of the June-A ugust 1995 eruption of Cerro Negr o, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 73, 119-127. Delaney, P. T., 1982. Rapid intrusion of magma into wet rock: groundwater flow due to pore pressure increases, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 7739-7756. DeMets, C., 2001. A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion: Implications for slip along Central American volcanic arc, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(21) 4043-4046. Duffell, H.J., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., Galle B., McGonigle, A.J.S., and Burton, M.R., 2003. Changes in gas composition prior to a minor explosive eruption at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126, 327-339. ENACAL and JICA, 1993. Hydrogeological map of Managua, Nicaragua, Empresa Nicargense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados and Japanese International Cooperation Agency, Managua, Nicaragua, Scale 1:50,000. Fitterman, D.V., Stanley, W. D., and Bisdorf, R. J., 1988. Electrical structure of Newberry volcano, Oregon, J. Geophys. Res., 93(B9), 10,119-10,134. Fitterman, D. V., and Stewart, M. T., 1986. Tran sient electromagnetic sounding for groundwater, Geophysics, 51(4), 995-1005. Goff, F., and Janik, C.J., 2000. Geothermal Systems, in Encyclopedia of Volcanology pp. 817855, H. Sigurdsson (ed. ), Academic Press. Harbaugh, A. W., Banta, E.R., Hill, M.C., and McDonald, M.G., 2000. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water mode l—User guide to modularization concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process: U.S. Geolog ical Survey Open-File Report 00-92, 121 p. Hohmann, G.W., and Raiche, A.P., 1988. Inversion of controlled-source electromagnetic data, in Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Volume 1: Investigations in Geophysics No. 3, pp. 469-503, M. N. Nabighian (ed.), Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK. Kauahikaua, J., 1993. Geophysica l characteristics of the hydr othermal systems of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, Geothermics, 22(4), 271-299. Kaufmann, A. A., and Keller, G. V., 1983. Fr equency and transient soundings, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

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35 Krsn, J., Hecht, G., 1998. Estudios Hidrogeolg icos e Hidroqumicos de la Regin del Pacfco de Nicaragua, INETER-Hidrogeologa, Managua. La Femina, P. C., Dixon, T. H., and Strauch, W., 2002. Bookshelf faulting in Nicaragua, Geology, 30(8), 751-754. Lnat, J. F., Fitterman, D., Jackson, D. B., and La bazuy, P., 2000. Geoelectrical structure of the central zone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Runion), Bulletin of Volcanology, 62, 75-89. Lewicki, J., C. B. Connor, K. St-Armand, J. St ix, and W. Spinner, 2003. Self-potential, soil CO2 flux, and temperature on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15) 18171821. Lewicki, J.L., G.E. Hilley, and C. Connor, 2004. The scaling relationship between self-potential and fluid flow on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, in Water-Rock Interactio n, pp. 153-156, R.B. Wanty and R.R. Seal II (ed.), Taylor and Francis Group, London, ISBN 90 5809 6416. Manzella, A., Volpi, G., Zaja, A., and Meju, M., 2004. Combined TEM-MT investigations of shallow-depth resistivity stru cture of Mt Somma-Vesuvius, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 131, 19-32. McBirney, A. R., 1956. The Nicaraguan Volcano Masaya and Its Caldera, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 37, 83-96. McDonald, M.G., and Harbough, Q.W., 1988. A m odular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model: U.S. Geologica l Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 6, chap. A1, 586p. McNeill, J. D., 1980. Applications of transient electromagnetic techniques, Technical note TN-7. McNeill, J. D., 1982. Use of electromagnetic me thods for groundwater studies, in Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, Volume II: Environm ental and Ground water, Investigations in Geophysics No. 5, pp. 191-218, S. H. Ward (ed.), Society of Expl oration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK. Nabighian, M., and Macnae, J., 1991. Time domain electromagnetic prospecting methods, in Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Vo lume 2: Application, Part A, chapter six, M. N. Nabighian (ed.), Society of Ex ploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK. Newhall, C. G., Albano, S.E., Matsumoto, N., and Sandoval, T., 2001. Roles of groundwater in volcanic unrest, Journal of the Geologic al Society of the Philippines, 56, 69-84. Morrissey, M., Zimanowski, B., Wohletz, K., and Buettner, R., 2000. Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation, in Encyclopedia of Volcanology pp. 431-445, Academic Press. Palacky, G. J., 1998. Resistivity Characteristics of Geologic Targ ets, in Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Volume 1: Investigat ions in Geophysics No. 3, pp. 53-129, M. N. Nabighian (ed.), Society of Explor ation Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK. Rymer, H., van Wyk de Vries, B., Stix, J., and W illiam-Jones, G., 1988. Pit crater structure and processes governing persistent activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Bulletin of Volcanology, 59, 345-355. Sandberg, S.K., 1993. Examples of resolution improv ement in geoelectrical soundings applied to groundwater investigations, Geophy sical Prospecting, 41, 207-227.

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36 Sandberg, S. K., 1998. Inverse modeling software fo r resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and transient electromagnetic (TEM, TDEM) soundings, Geophysical Solutions, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sanford, W., 2004. Personal communication, Reston, VA, USGS. Sakkas, V., Meju, M. A., Khan, M. A., Haak, V., Simpson, F., 2002. Magnetotelluric images of the crustal structure of Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya, Tecton ophysics, 346, 169-185. Shibata, T., and Akita, F., 2001. Precursory change s in well water level prior to the March 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(9), 1799-1802. Sparks, S., 2003. Forecasting volcanic eruptions Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 210, 1-15. Walker, J. A., Williams, S. N., Kalamarides, R. I., and Feigenson, M. D, 1993. Shallow opensystem evolution of basaltic magma beneath a subduction zone volcano: the Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanol ogy and Geothermal Research, 56, 379-400. William-Jones, G., Rymer, H., Rothery, D.A., 2003. Gravity changes and passive SO2 degassing at the Masaya caldera complex, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123, 137-160. Williams, S. N., 1983a. Plinian airfall deposits of basaltic composition, Geology, 11, 211-214. Williams, S. N., 1983b. Geology and eruptive mechanisms of Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua, PhD thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, (unpubl.).

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37 BIBLIOGRAPHY Connor, C. B., Williams, S. H., 1990. Interpretation of grav ity anomalies at Masaya caldera complex, Nicaragua. Transactions 12th Caribbean Conference, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Miami Geological Society, 495-502. Frischbutter, A., 2002. Structure of the Managu a graben, Nicaragua, from remote sensing images, Geofisica Internacional 41(2): 87-102. Geonics Limited, 2002. Protem 47D operating manual for 20/30 gate model. Smith, R. S., and Buselli, G., 1991. Examples of data proces sed using a new technique for presentation of coincident and in-loop impul se-response transient electromagnetic data. Explor. Geophysics, 22, 363-368.

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38 APPENDICES

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39 Appendix A: RAW TEM DATA TEM 1 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 1511 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA =31.4m*m / 151103 0 0 0 3 2.5 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 0/ / Comment: 0 / 151103 0 0 0 3 2.5 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 0/ / 1511 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 6+ #03293 60100 2298 -247 505.9 431.9 390.6 299 216.8 157.5 111 75.55 48.69 29.45 16.6 8.034 4.558 2.331 1.264 0.6977 0.4251 0.2621 0.0025 0.006813 3 10000/3293 1511 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 5a 6+ #03294 59800 6718 -1311 2288 1887 1485 1194 872.9 633.1 447.2 303.8 195.4 118.3 66.6 32.33 18.25 9.397 5.007 2.806 1.633 1.015 0.0025 0.006813 3 10000/3294 1511 0001 00003Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03295 61900 727.4 563 413.1 294.2 197.8 125.2 74.57 41.98 23.2 13.03 7.64 4.605 3.132 2.101 1.335 0.6788 0.7403 0.6329 0.6005 0.2507 0.0025 0.03525 3 10000/3295 1511 0001 00004Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #03296 61400 164 107.7 67.11 38.89 22.73 12.65 7.847 4.802 3.037 2.404 1.538 1.552 1.437 1.158 0.8306 0.4779 0.6694 0.1978 0.3246 0.1528 0.0025 8.81E02 3 10000/3296 1511 0001 00005Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #03297 60800 669.5 423.9 257.8 138.7 82.46 47.35 25.75 13.83 36.3 11.96 19.92 8.84 15.14 5.457 11.05 2.511 -5.487 0.04802 6.196 2.784 0.0025 8.81E02 3 10000/3297 1511 0001 00006Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03298 60800 39.79 26.28 16.03 9.447 5.487 3.181 1.902 1.278 0.8736 0.6624 0.4636 0.3401 0.2662 0.2159 0.1516 0.1174 0.08003 0.05255 0.03756 0.02216 0.0025 8.81E02 3 10000/3298 1511 0001 00007Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #03299 60800 9.276 6.074 3.697 2.206 1.219 0.7141 0.4119 0.283 0.1965 0.1523 0.09974 0.08105 0.05753 0.0438 0.03075 0.02224 0.01567 0.01093 0.00937 0.00473 0.0025 8.81E02 3 10000/3299

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40 Appendix A (Continued) 1511 0001 00008H HDR REF H 1a 8+ 3299 151103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 10000/3299 Comment: 0 3299 151103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 10000/3299 1511 0001 00008Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #03301 60100 8.274 5.492 3.395 2.025 1.176 0.6592 0.4029 0.2606 0.1752 0.1486 0.1053 0.07104 0.06198 0.04228 0.02788 0.02387 0.01698 0.01364 0.00691 0.00334 0.006 8.81E02 3 10000/3301 1511 0001 00009Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03302 TEM 2 59800 152.6 119.2 88.91 63.92 43.34 27.64 16.46 9.388 5.253 2.994 1.769 1.102 0.7469 0.5315 0.3561 0.2817 0.2049 0.1446 0.09407 0.06395 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3302 1511 0002 00010Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03303 -46100 262.8 28.78 -26.04 -28.51 -23.43 -20.08 -15.77 -12.38 -9.627 -7.515 -5.574 -4.397 -3.316 -2.382 -1.85 -1.366 -0.9233 -0.6097 -0.3912 -0.229 0.006 0.006813 3 10000/3303 1511 0002 00011Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #03304 -47700 1564 138.6 -141.6 -133.9 -113.3 -94.82 -73.9 -58.15 -45.21 -35.22 -26.57 -20.77 -15.78 -11.41 -8.679 -6.27 -4.34 -2.851 -1.807 -1.1 0.006 0.006813 3 10000/3304 1511 0002 00012Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #03305 -55000 96.45 11.89 -7.559 -8.541 -6.335 -5.786 -4.522 -3.604 -2.787 -2.197 -1.512 -1.209 -0.9297 -0.6828 -0.5195 -0.42 -0.2797 -0.1885 -0.1191 -0.06981 0.006 0.006813 3 10000/3305 1511 0002 00013Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03306 -56500 -18.52 -15 -12.12 -9.829 -7.987 -6.245 -4.907 -3.78 -2.912 -2.175 -1.606 -1.109 -0.7417 -0.4909 -0.3273 -0.1938 -0.1233 -0.06645 -0.03442 0.00699 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3306 1511 0002 00014Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03307 -56300 -70.93 -57.9 -47.72 -38.36 -31.08 -24.69 -19.33 -14.93 -11.35 -8.603 -6.249 -4.498 -2.995 -1.933 -1.222 -0.7819 -0.4648 -0.2795 -0.1794 -0.06958 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3307 1511 0002 00015Z OPR REF v 2a 5+ #03308 -56000 -9.586 -7.745 -6.269 -4.987 -4.087 -3.152 -2.457 -1.874 -1.443 -1.084 -0.7794 -0.5523 -0.3721 -0.2475 -0.1595 -0.0961 -0.06058 -0.03467 -0.02326 -0.01115 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3308

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41 Appendix A (Continued) 1511 0002 00016Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #03309 -47900 -2.409 -1.961 -1.425 -1.024 -0.8026 -0.573 -0.4119 -0.2878 -0.2114 -0.1097 0.08854 -0.06737 -0.02954 -0.02439 -0.01843 -0.01157 0.00938 0.00133 -0.00327 -0.00023 0.006 8.81E-02 3 10000/3309 1511 0002 00017Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #03310 -47900 -25.35 -20.6 -16.15 -13.07 -9.864 -7.619 -5.608 -3.992 -2.718 -1.914 -1.273 -0.8198 -0.449 -0.3256 -0.1962 -0.1093 -0.05886 -0.04121 -0.02878 -0.04962 0.006 8.81E-02 3 10000/3310 1511 0002 00018Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #03311 TEM 3 -47900 -93.29 -77.17 -64.19 -49.89 -40.7 -29.98 -22.09 -16.08 -11.13 -7.45 -4.882 -3.09 -1.933 -1.162 -0.6928 -0.2615 -0.3191 -0.2117 -0.2169 -0.03027 0.006 8.81E-02 3 10000/3311 1511 0003 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03312 59300 -320.1 -26.73 17.56 11.64 12.25 11.3 10.19 8.594 6.944 5.538 4.387 3.419 2.553 1.789 1.361 0.9176 0.6477 0.4401 0.2907 0.1815 0.006 0.006813 3 10000/3312 1511 0003 00002Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #03313 59100 -1456 -40.34 83.65 49.56 48.45 44.34 40.83 33.7 27.57 22.25 16.89 13.35 10.16 7.154 5.372 3.828 2.639 1.788 1.15 0.7509 0.006 0.006813 3 10000/3313 1511 0003 00003Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #03314 59100 -78.35 -5.875 3.943 2.579 3.429 2.98 2.647 2.173 1.762 1.41 1.239 0.9197 0.6686 0.4775 0.3529 0.2098 0.1542 0.101 0.06845 0.04368 0.006 0.006813 3 10000/3314 1511 0003 00004Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #03315 60600 1.542 1.477 1.41 1.298 1.007 0.8986 0.6526 0.5736 0.4149 0.3078 0.2266 0.1658 0.1284 0.08662 0.05053 0.0391 0.02087 0.01633 0.00851 0.00565 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3315 1511 0003 00005Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03316 60600 8.066 7.413 6.269 5.203 4.308 3.382 2.738 2.155 1.609 1.202 0.8689 0.6327 0.4806 0.3205 0.2116 0.1458 0.085 0.07013 0.04167 0.0235 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3316 1511 0003 00006Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03317 53500 32.17 29.76 24.93 20.65 17.03 13.42 10.75 8.312 6.237 4.566 3.416 2.472 1.754 1.191 0.8371 0.5455 0.3447 0.221 0.166 0.1311 0.006 0.03525 3 10000/3317 1511 0003 00007Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #03318 53500 -0.1754 0.2508 0.2828 0.07597 0.2838 0.1466 0.1652 0.1202 0.08766 0.06855 0.04306 0.0246 0.02242 0.01267 0.00856 0.00444 0.00759 0.0028 0.00512 0.0017 0.006 8.81E02 3 10000/3318

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42 Appendix A (Continued) 1511 0003 00008Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #03319 53500 65.98 45.64 39.18 30.99 23.06 17.28 12.7 10.09 6.154 4.871 2.579 2.915 1.875 0.7237 0.43 0.4628 0.563 -0.1989 -0.0274 0.581 0.006 8.81E02 3 10000/3319 XXXXXX 53500 65.98 45.64 39.18 30.99 23.06 17.28 12.7 10.09 6.154 4.871 2.579 2.915 1.875 0.7237 0.43 0.4628 0.563 -0.1989 -0.0274 0.581 0.006 8.81E02 3 10000/3319 TEM 4 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 1611 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 161103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 0/ / Comment: 0 / 161103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 0/ / 1611 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03321 214 2648 91.83 -277 -51.95 -45.73 -35.34 -25.36 -17.97 -12.77 -8.931 -6.163 -4.41 -3.011 -1.962 -1.371 -.9026 -.5689 -.3243 -.1854 -.1036 .006 .006813 3 10000/3321 1611 0001 00002Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03322 -55800 -22.08 -16.81 -12.64 -9.304 -7.034 -5.127 -3.642 -2.526 -1.748 -1.123 -.8898 -.4554 -.3218 -.1733 -.1108 -.0448 -.05191 -.02517 -.02311 -.0125 .006 .03525 3 10000/3322 1611 0001 00003Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03323 -55800 -86.27 -66.8 -49.6 -37.6 -27.7 -20.17 -14.5 -10.32 -7.111 -4.861 -3.117 -1.989 -1.258 -.7196 -.4909 -.2376 -.187 -.08028 -.02485 -.05639 .006 .03525 3 10000/3323 1611 0001 00004Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #03324 -47100 -280.3 -217.3 -167.4 -124.4 -91.86 -68.1 -49.73 -34.42 -23.66 -15.66 -10.43 -6.607 -4.229 -2.789 -1.248 -.9151 -.8289 -.4772 -.3961 -.3238 .006 .03525 3 10000/3324 1611 0001 00005Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03325 -47400 -5.982 -4.515 -3.289 -2.374 -1.622 -1.133 -.7903 -.4937 -.3373 -.187 -.1219 -.07064 -.03659 -.02271 -.03375 -.01583 -.01331 .00544 -.00034 -.00104 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3325 1611 0001 00006Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #03326 -59800 -27.04 -20.6 -14.99 -11.06 -7.624 -5.385 -3.552 -2.279 -1.47 -.9439 -.6204 -.407 -.2481 -.1248 -.1135 -.09069 -.03673 -.03126 -.01276 -.01932 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3326 1611 0001 00007Z OPR REF M 5a 6+ #03327 -59800 -3.445 -2.572 -1.689 -1.158 -.6896 -.5759 -.5282 -.1569 -.1638 -.1373 -.111 -.07952 -.01927 -.01046 -.04776 .02123 .01656 -.01687 .03052 .00433 .006 .3525 3 10000/3327 1611 0001 00008Z OPR REF v 5a 6+ #03328 -63900 -100.1 -76.64 -57.32 -42.89 -31.78 -23.14 -16.64 -11.8 -8.118 -5.418 -3.553 -2.284 -1.385 -.8382 -.4781 -.3169 -.1748 -.1219 -.06463 -.07073 .006 .03525 3 10000/3328 1611 0001 00009Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #03329 -53700 -25.25 -19.08 -13.58 -9.829 -7.108 -4.84 -3.348 -2.208 -1.346 -.8434 -.5935 -.3088 -.1955 -.1183 -.149 -.08258 -.03543 -.02042 -.00132 .00134 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3329 1611 0001 00010Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #03330 -54800 -22.88 -16.96 -12.94 -9.399 -6.777 -4.64 -3.213 -2.049 -1.27 -.8743 -.555 -.3802 -.2201 -.2049 -.0887 -.05967 -.0585 -.00372 -.01374 .00019 .006 .094125 3 10000/3330

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43 Appendix A (Continued) TEM 5 1611 0002 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 6+ #03331 -57000 699.6 7.772 -64.71 -39.22 -27.58 -20.77 -13.71 -8.718 -5.475 -3.475 -1.906 -1.25 -.7574 -.4104 -.2518 -.2159 -.1219 -.07502 -.05767 -.03341 .006 .006813 3 10000/3331 1611 0002 00002Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #03332 -57000 12300 1234 -1011 -828.2 -419.2 -325 -219.3 -142.5 -88.93 -57.02 -35.78 -22.86 -16.37 -10.02 -7.065 -4.641 -3.464 -1.519 -1.032 -1.223 .006 .006813 3 10000/3332 1611 0002 00003Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03333 -58800 -11.79 -7.971 -5.436 -3.627 -2.369 -1.545 -1.016 -.62 -.4265 -.2411 -.1884 -.1308 -.08633 -.05376 -.06255 -.02753 -.01879 -.02002 -.0047 -.00329 .006 .03525 3 10000/3333 1611 0002 00004Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #03334 -58800 -167 -115.3 -79.68 -55.57 -36.28 -23.83 -18.27 -10.48 -8.547 -5.997 -8.523 -10.67 -6.145 -1.616 -2.96 -2.361 -.9567 1.089 .862 -4.777 .006 .03525 3 10000/3334 1611 0002 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #03335 -48900 -3.193 -2.127 -1.432 -.9114 -.608 -.3744 -.2808 -.1472 -.09978 -.05217 -.05376 -.01657 -.02441 -.01181 -.01778 -.00661 -.01051 -.00547 -.00276 -.00187 .006 .03525 3 10000/3335 1611 0002 00006Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03336 -49700 -2.562 -1.729 -1.197 -.6403 -.559 -.2973 -.1989 -.1655 -.1414 -.06746 -.07276 -.02887 -.03643 -.01681 -.01926 -.01483 -.00587 .00952 -.0199 .00364 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3336 1611 0002 00007Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03337 -50700 -2.752 -1.857 -1.035 -.8664 -.5012 -.2462 -.2563 -.1319 -.13 -.08734 -.06766 -.03921 -.06488 -.00402 -.01036 -.02105 -.01378 -.01177 -.01806 -.00698 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3337 1611 0002 00008Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03338 -50400 -10.3 -6.795 -4.737 -3.081 -2.085 -1.405 -.8498 -.5362 -.3436 -.2608 -.1254 -.1151 -.07801 -.04494 -.04606 -.0301 -.02927 -.00948 -.01003 -.0069 .006 .03525 3 10000/3338 1611 0002 00009Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #03339 -50200 -143.6 -98.11 -78.51 -48.84 -32.02 -25.09 -14.98 -8.736 -8.27 -4.686 -3.117 -2.391 .4665 -1.121 -.7184 .3974 -1.868 -.7595 -1.531 .7281 .006 .03525 3 10000/3339 1611 0002 00010Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #03340 -49900 -3.26 -2.091 -1.501 -.9497 -.5949 -.433 -.2693 -.1611 -.098 -.06464 -.05317 -.02773 -.02975 -.0116 -.00412 -.00527 -.00946 -.00635 -.00205 -.00125 .006 .03525 3 10000/3340 1611 0002 00011Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03341 -49900 -36.72 -26.43 -17.44 -11.78 -7.882 -4.984 -3.213 -2.279 -1.194 -.8499 -.5783 -.4231 -.3483 -.187 -.1382 -.07014 -.08224 -.1226 -.05014 -.00549 .006 .03525 3 10000/3341 1611 0002 00012Z OPR REF v 5a 6+ #03342 -49900 -38.1 -25.37 -17.61 -11.83 -7.918 -4.783 -3.416 -2.191 -1.169 -.8614 -.5368 -.3899 -.3015 -.2277 -.1042 -.1408 -.1039 -.07059 -.02075 -.04492 .006 .03525 3 10000/3342

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44 Appendix A (Continued) 1611 0002 00013Z OPR REF u 5a 6+ #03343 -48900 2444 -70.66 -349.6 -160.2 -100.8 -72.42 -47.6 -30.12 -18.87 -11.95 -6.872 -4.431 -2.711 -1.521 -.9845 -.5908 -.3565 -.1993 -.1145 -.1065 .006 .006813 3 10000/3343 1611 0002 00014Z OPR REF u 1a 6+ #03344 -48900 139.9 -5.442 -16.27 -8.493 -5.192 -4.267 -2.76 -1.8 -1.135 -.68 -.2373 -.1752 -.1115 -.0488 -.03809 -.06233 -.03167 -.01963 -.01305 -.00844 .006 .006813 3 10000/3344 1611 0002 00015Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #03345 -50200 -7.391 -5.17 -3.45 -2.007 -1.497 -1.015 -.7164 -.4933 -.398 -.2035 -.1965 -.2266 -.1109 -.1339 -.08247 -.05021 -.00326 -.03554 -.0229 -.00162 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3345 TEM 6 1611 0003 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03346 -54500 -253 -240 -173.6 -105.7 -60.84 -35.91 -20.35 -11.45 -6.556 -3.934 -2.34 -1.27 -.6529 -.3587 -.3722 -.1179 -.1598 -.09598 -.0335 -.03146 .006 .006813 3 10000/3346 1611 0003 00002Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #03347 -54500 -1172 -994 -659.5 -420.2 -247.7 -145.9 -82.24 -48.06 -26.47 -15.76 -8.941 -5.639 -3.142 -1.472 -1.326 -.7442 -.6123 -.2672 -.149 -.05933 .006 .006813 3 10000/3347 1611 0003 00003Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #03348 -54500 -1723 -5577 -2438 -1560 -926.7 -575.8 -325 -186.2 -106.2 -63.57 -34.29 -23.41 -12.64 -8.989 -5.66 -2.638 -2.556 -1.617 -.9515 -.4958 .006 .006813 3 10000/3348 1611 0003 00004Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #03349 -56000 -4.434 -2.978 -2.018 -1.34 -.8947 -.5761 -.3122 -.2118 -.109 -.0805 -.03059 -.07458 -.01817 -.01558 -.01486 -.01062 -.00434 -.00291 -.009 .00031 .006 .03525 3 10000/3349 1611 0003 00005Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03350 -56000 -14.76 -9.624 -6.176 -3.962 -2.539 -1.6 -1.176 -.5381 -.4804 -.3065 -.1761 -.1575 -.1389 -.05933 -.04018 -.0509 -.04958 -.01541 -.02572 -.00772 .006 .03525 3 10000/3350 1611 0003 00006Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03351 -47700 -50.08 -31.8 -19.66 -13.21 -8.834 -5.328 -3.303 -2.297 -1.347 -.975 -.8015 -.3891 -.2885 -.2894 -.09365 -.1556 -.04945 -.05551 -.02605 -.01705 .006 .03525 3 10000/3351 1611 0003 00007Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #03352 -47700 -190.9 -121 -78.86 -50.89 -35.03 -19.91 -13.94 -9.123 -5.419 -3.89 -2.067 -2.707 -.9557 -1.071 -1.035 -.5455 -.4313 -1.569 -1.344 .5676 .006 .03525 3 10000/3352 1611 0003 00008Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03353 -47400 -3.087 -1.824 -1.188 -.7128 -.5839 -.4233 -.2034 -.2262 -.1602 -.09082 -.07624 -.05905 -.04994 -.0298 -.03147 -.01873 -.01792 -.00733 -.00352 -.00887 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3353 1611 0003 00009Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #03354 -47400 -7.598 -5.779 -3.648 -1.836 -2.014 -.8952 -.841 -.5923 -.3983 -.4349 -.1819 -.1809 .02907 -.2324 -.1093 -.0714 .01509 -.03238 .00692 -.02315 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3354 1611 0003 00010Z OPR REF v 5a 6+ #03355 -49200 -52.16 -33.15 -21.12 -13.93 -9.349 -5.442 -3.122 -2.544 -1.03 -1.192 -.6449 -.5874 -.3739 -.2203 -.728 -.03812 -.00519 -.01496 -.03251 -.0313 .006 .03525 3 10000/3355 XXXXXX -49200 -52.16 -33.15 -21.12 -13.93 -9.349 -5.442 -3.122 -2.544 -1.03 -1.192 -.6449 -.5874 -.3739 -.2203 -.728 -.03812 -.00519 -.01496 -.03251 -.0313 .006 .03525 3 10000/3355

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45 Appendix A (Continued) TEM 7 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 1711 0003 00011H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 171103 0 0 0 1 3.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 0/ / Comment: 0 / 171103 0 0 0 1 3.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 0/ / 1711 0003 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #03357 -31.5 .1606 -.07617 -.1438 .06789 .07472 .00742 -.0967 -.00457 .03254 -.09493 .04943 -.03473 -.00251 -.00094 -.04783 .01807 -.01871 -.00184 .00835 .00568 .0034 8.81E-2 1 1600/3357 1711 0003 00012Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #03358 -31.5 .1448 .2681 .03206 -.1309 -.04104 .1355 .0522 -.06497 .01463 .01849 .07012 .1124 .01541 -.01177 -.02795 -.03716 .02071 -.01209 .01973 .01678 .0034 8.81E-2 1 1600/3358 1711 0003 00013Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03359 -60600 -349.8 -152 -107.9 -67.69 -39.11 -23.86 -14.44 -8.594 -5.114 -3.027 -1.452 -1.008 -.6111 -.3508 -.2412 -.1902 -.1132 -.07803 -.04869 -.03173 .0034 .006813 1 1600/3359 1711 0003 00014Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #03360 -60600 -1754 -585.9 -434.7 -268.7 -158.7 -96.07 -58.4 -35 -20.9 -12.27 -6.411 -4.558 -2.616 -1.616 -1.044 -.6084 -.3959 -.2764 -.1939 -.1169 .0034 .006813 1 1600/3360 1711 0003 00015Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #03361 -60800 -5877 -2274 -2071 -1098 -620.6 -337 -239.6 -130.4 -81.07 -50.35 -28.48 -17.46 -10.9 -6.441 -4.154 -2.979 -1.783 -.9524 -.7397 -.4663 .0034 .006813 1 1600/3361 1711 0003 00016Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03362 -59600 -10.99 -7.291 -4.655 -2.895 -1.931 -1.17 -.7939 -.4476 -.321 -.1887 -.1518 -.09106 -.06073 -.01808 -.03307 .01009 -.01422 -.00775 -.00356 -.01068 .0034 .03525 1 1600/3362 1711 0003 00017Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03363 -59800 -41.77 -26.58 -17.67 -10.87 -7.292 -4.611 -3.009 -1.874 -1.194 -.8825 -.5919 -.3684 -.2692 -.08768 -.1244 -.09703 -.05096 -.05667 -.02556 -.02841 .0034 .03525 1 1600/3363 1711 0003 00018Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03364 -61100 -2.314 -1.544 -1.127 -.7484 -.5371 -.3419 -.2362 -.1423 -.08739 -.05424 -.04144 -.0276 -.02964 -.0166 -.01923 -.00938 -.00535 -.0085 -.00107 -.00114 .0034 8.81E-2 1 1600/3364 1711 0003 00019Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #03365 -61100 -6.152 -4.813 -3.056 -1.856 -1.492 -.96 -.5884 -.5344 -.4269 -.156 -.08226 -.1258 -.0799 -.06463 -.05551 -.05143 .01723 .02511 .01455 -.01419 .0034 8.81E-2 1 1600/3365 1711 0003 00020H HDR REF H 5a 8+ 03365 171103 0 0 0 3 3.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 1600/3365 Comment: 0 03365 171103 0 0 0 3 3.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 1600/3365 1711 0003 00020Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03367 -162000 -1452 -458 -399.6 -220.1 -121.5 -72.59 -44.04 -26.47 -15.86 -9.487 -4.857 -3.405 -2.074 -1.183 -.8082 -.5531 -.3466 -.2179 -.1381 -.08529 .0034 .006813 3 1600/3367 1711 0003 00021Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03368 -161000 -30.7 -20.67 -13.11 -8.541 -5.303 -3.525 -2.245 -1.426 -1.046 -.639 -.4166 -.2762 -.2142 -.1193 -.1018 -.06215 -.05299 -.03801 -.02877 -.02188 .0034 .03525 3 1600/3368

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46 Appendix A (Continued) 1711 0003 00022Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03369 -164000 -5.351 -3.725 -2.474 -1.691 -1.217 -.6831 -.6116 -.3625 -.2533 -.1741 -.149 -.06837 -.06109 -.04986 -.02589 -.0143 -.0035 -.00107 -.01116 -.00085 .0034 8.81E-2 3 1600/3369 1711 0020 00001H HDR REF H 3a 8+ 03369 171103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 1600/3369 Comment: 0 03369 171103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 1600/3369 TEM 8 1711 0020 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03371 280 -5.001 -.156 .5392 -.368 .2441 -.1614 -.109 .0792 .05833 -.0025 -.03465 .03027 -.04308 -.01755 .01226 -.01618 -.00454 .00635 .00611 .00116 .006 .006813 3 10000/3371 1711 0020 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03372 276 -7.333 .6285 .3073 .3082 .03298 -.4006 .05963 -.08938 .1797 -.1369 -.03431 -.00308 -.06682 .00504 -.04217 .01966 .00476 .02124 -.02462 -.01702 .006 .006813 3 10000/3372 1711 0020 00003Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03373 52700 156.8 351.6 322.2 248.3 184.8 134.2 94.31 64.93 43.48 28.7 18.64 11.76 7.445 4.258 2.76 1.554 .9017 .514 .275 .1435 .006 .006813 3 10000/3373 1711 0020 00004Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #03374 51700 415.1 1515 1283 991 735.2 532.2 374.7 257.2 173.8 113.6 73.78 47.57 29.5 17.65 11.34 6.927 4.648 3.04 1.435 .7386 .006 .006813 3 10000/3374 1711 0020 00005Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03375 53500 72.81 53.97 38.25 26.89 18.13 12.1 8.024 5.067 3.203 2.055 1.196 .7532 .427 .2485 .1479 .1008 .05 .03779 .00957 .02054 .006 .03525 3 10000/3375 1711 0020 00006Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03376 46100 251.9 188.4 132.3 93.93 63.45 43.72 28.89 18.94 12.05 6.784 4.106 1.888 1.237 1.781 .3134 .9352 .3053 -.6437 -.4482 -.9057 .006 .03525 3 10000/3376 1711 0020 00007Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #03377 44900 14.76 10.98 7.852 5.538 3.829 2.576 1.652 1.062 .6731 .4294 .2508 .173 .09397 .05597 .0314 .02445 .01461 .00663 .00379 .00391 .006 .03525 3 10000/3377 1711 0020 00008Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #03378 45100 12.08 8.942 6.17 3.844 2.759 1.612 1.027 .6532 .383 .2661 .1425 .09454 .04627 .01927 .02396 .01354 .0139 -.00241 -.01839 .01148 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/3378 1711 0020 00009Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03379 45400 63.81 46.32 33.45 23.17 15.96 10.56 6.943 4.414 2.676 1.782 1.059 .6754 .3684 .2546 .0957 .08457 .0381 .0142 .00821 -.01254 .006 .03525 3 10000/3379 XXXXXX 45400 63.81 46.32 33.45 23.17 15.96 10.56 6.943 4.414 2.676 1.782 1.059 .6754 .3684 .2546 .0957 .08457 .0381 .0142 .00821 -.01254 .006 .03525 3 10000/3379 TEM 9 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 1811 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 181103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 52 0/ / Comment: 0 /

PAGE 54

47 Appendix A (Continued) 181103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 52 0/ / 1811 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03381 198 -451.9 -386.4 -308.7 -237.6 -166.8 -106 -56.73 -22.91 -3.661 4.162 5.489 4.189 2.711 1.735 1.167 .6059 .3939 .2009 .05886 .1292 .006 .006813 3 10000/3381 1811 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03382 63400 -233.1 11.21 72.96 71.69 62.83 51.47 39.44 29.52 21.3 15.02 10.17 6.794 4.314 2.546 1.698 .9679 .565 .3567 .1915 .09984 .006 .006813 3 10000/3382 1811 0001 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #03383 63400 -1320 186.7 299.8 289.3 249.6 201.9 157.1 118.2 86.07 59.77 40.11 27.73 17.7 10.52 6.506 4.393 2.047 .6637 1.261 .9473 .006 .006813 3 10000/3383 1811 0001 00004Z OPR REF u 2a 5+ #03384 63100 -116.7 5.555 35.15 35.83 31.52 25.78 19.72 14.77 10.62 7.515 5.164 3.452 2.19 1.294 .8467 .4653 .2777 .1669 .09889 .05153 .006 .006813 3 10000/3384 1811 0001 00005Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #03385 63100 -209.4 19.31 72.37 71.3 62.5 51.12 39.25 29.4 21.18 14.92 10.09 6.781 4.314 2.542 1.675 .9578 .5847 .3258 .189 .09794 .006 .006813 3 10000/3385 1811 0001 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #03386 64400 29.02 21.96 17.2 12.4 9.128 6.245 4.07 2.756 1.637 1.192 .7217 .4402 .2857 .1476 .09419 .068 .02762 .01938 .0101 -.00761 .006 .03525 3 10000/3386 1811 0001 00007Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #03387 55000 6.217 4.967 3.744 2.817 2.04 1.486 .9711 .6204 .4035 .2378 .1642 .1081 .06749 .04421 .02116 .01349 .00365 .00373 .00444 -.00088 .006 .03525 3 10000/3387 1811 0001 00008Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #03388 54000 108.4 93.35 70.62 51.18 39.26 26.89 16.69 12.21 8.173 7.45 5.48 3.439 3.369 -.00053 -.1916 -.3873 1.24 2.195 1.834 2.135 .006 .03525 3 10000/3388 1811 0001 00009Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00001 56300 498.6 382.6 303.7 220.1 164.5 116.7 94.17 71.69 47.34 31.64 42.47 30.78 27.18 34.56 13.5 2.209 3.777 17.79 11.07 18.43 .006 .03525 3 10000/0001 1811 0001 00010Z OPR REF v 2a 6+ #00002 56000 11.49 8.639 6.973 5.203 3.829 2.792 1.855 1.225 .7999 .5131 .3262 .2318 .1292 .07512 .04696 .02458 .00806 .00989 -.00109 -.00338 .006 .04125 3 10000/0002 1811 0001 00011Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00003 56000 94.67 74.75 59.37 43.03 32.97 22.92 16.12 10.95 7.138 4.609 1.692 -.1323 -.4427 .4357 .4107 -1.622 .5 .9292 1.272 2.709 .006 .04125 3 10000/0003 1811 0001 00012Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00004 56000 6.446 4.346 3.168 2.336 1.418 1.029 .5879 .4 .3072 .2158 .1076 .05925 .08021 -.00459 .00637 -.00237 -.00089 .00096 -.01518 -.00609 .006 .094125 3 10000/0004 1811 0001 00013Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00005 55800 74.5 29.23 8.034 -2.297 16.04 4.49 .5621 -17.92 6.579 -1.931 9.61 28.65 40.5 .2539 11.67 28.49 32.43 5.969 14.9 44.16 .006 .094125 3 10000/0005 1811 0001 00014Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00006 55800 .883 .5457 .4574 .3575 .2535 .1486 .1164 .05622 .04661 .04119 .03 -.00308 .01467 .00168 -.00145 -.00449 -.00035 .00347 -.00399 -.00058 .006 .094125 3 10000/0006 1811 0001 00015Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00007 54200 52.46 59.95 54.28 48.65 41.76 34.22 27.15 20.7 15.37 10.99 7.777 5.25 3.416 1.979 1.364 .7819 .4904 .2749 .1709 .08195 .006 .012813 3 10000/0007 1811 0001 00016Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00008 54200 15.46 14.39 13.23 11.83 10.78 8.703 6.83 5.244 3.869 2.776 2.067 1.384 .8931 .5416 .3529 .1786 .1093 .06184 .03691 .02201 .006 .012813 3 10000/0008

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48 Appendix A (Continued) 1811 0001 00017Z OPR REF u 4a 5+ #00009 54200 101.9 116.1 109.5 97.74 83.27 68.65 54.38 41.33 30.55 21.85 15.54 10.33 6.813 4.105 2.657 1.594 .9057 .5788 .2689 .172 .006 .012813 3 10000/0009 TEM 10 1811 0001 00018H HDR REF u 4a 8+ 00009 181103 0 0 0 1 2.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 53 10000/0009 Comment: 0 00009 181103 0 0 0 1 2.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 53 10000/0009 1811 0001 00018Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00011 -66500 -355.7 -205.8 -88.15 -87.17 -43.64 -31.32 -13.87 -6.975 -9.793 -5.833 2.699 -1.794 -.4979 -.2591 -.1423 -.5732 -.1265 -.1823 -.03362 -.04496 .0024 .008813 1 1600/0011 1811 0001 00019Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00012 -65500 -82.31 -70.81 -89.26 -40.7 -41.1 -10.76 -18.27 2.049 -5.696 -10.28 2.793 -2.646 .2706 .691 -.4171 -.5405 -.06016 -.134 -.0663 -.04354 .0024 .012813 1 1600/0012 1811 0001 00020Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00013 -65500 -978.3 -1154 -1479 -561.4 -731.2 -169.8 -294.1 54.82 -94.59 -166.7 43.56 -43.56 6.035 10.58 -7.728 -8.54 -1 .7471 -.1101 -.2746 .0024 .012813 1 1600/0013 1811 0002 00001H HDR REF u 7a 8+ 00013 181103 0 0 0 3 2.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 1600/0013 Comment: 0 00013 181103 0 0 0 3 2.4 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 1600/0013 1811 0002 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00015 -156000 -201.7 -183 -287.6 -96.26 -123.4 -23.83 -60.52 16.26 -15.54 -37.03 10.97 -9.179 1.575 3.387 -1.238 -1.67 -.07447 -.4061 -.2145 -.1027 .0024 .012813 3 1600/0015 1811 0002 00002Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00016 -157000 -48.8 -45.57 -71.85 -24.89 -30.2 -5.757 -14.96 3.957 -3.758 -9.236 2.887 -2.223 .4636 .8586 -.2877 -.4301 -.02008 -.1107 -.04284 -.03135 .0024 .012813 3 1600/0016 1811 0002 00003Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00017 -157000 26.14 -304.3 -131.3 -50.61 -47.06 -35.28 -3.597 -11.24 -5.863 -2.973 1.35 -1.256 -.3955 -.5806 .03976 -.4829 -.1019 -.1344 -.03492 -.03239 .0024 .006813 3 1600/0017 1811 0002 00004Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00018 -155000 -17.03 4.845 -8.491 -8.159 3.492 -1.479 -.6318 -.6786 -.7105 -.1097 -.1531 -.1336 -.07424 -.01247 -.03979 -.0176 -.01266 -.01536 -.00306 -.00689 .0024 .03525 3 1600/0018 1811 0002 00005Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00019 -151000 -64.21 20.9 -30.96 -30.37 13.54 -6.044 -1.423 -3.374 -2.607 -.2043 -.7686 -.2118 -.2906 -.2019 -.1402 -.05944 -.05513 -.01659 -.01591 -.01979 .0024 .03525 3 1600/0019 1811 0002 00006Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00020 -153000 -9.801 -9.245 2.473 -4.047 -2.582 -.2135 -.7608 -.4354 -.2691 -.2518 -.1798 -.1235 -.03167 -.06639 -.05284 -.02014 -.01658 .00131 -.01929 .00021 .0024 8.81E-2 3 1600/0020 TEM 11 1811 0003 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00021 159000 -252.1 111.7 89.43 47.08 29.09 17.31 11.41 7.293 4.546 2.765 1.7 1.095 .6424 .3487 .246 .09788 .06565 .04387 .02693 .01425 .0024 .006813 3 1600/0021

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49 Appendix A (Continued) 1811 0003 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00022 159000 -272.4 463 404.8 185.6 113.1 69.22 44.94 28.64 17.75 10.77 6.104 4.001 2.342 1.294 .8179 .4728 .3092 .1885 .1238 .06998 .0024 .006813 3 1600/0022 1811 0003 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00023 159000 -3453 2257 1676 745.6 440.4 280.4 180.9 114.6 70.53 43 25 15.61 9.17 5.032 3.287 1.977 1.322 .7919 .493 .3115 .0024 .006813 3 1600/0023 1811 0003 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00024 159000 -13030 5991 4304 3503 1879 1102 739.2 474.9 282.7 169.4 100.5 60.8 35.58 20.21 12.85 7.929 4.979 3.103 2.078 1.158 .0024 .006813 3 1600/0024 1811 0003 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00025 158000 7.05 4.752 3.157 2.057 1.285 .8139 .4932 .3239 .2121 .1261 .08642 .05865 .04245 .03208 .01659 .01135 .00962 .00319 0 .00254 .0024 .03525 3 1600/0025 1811 0003 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00026 158000 30.9 20.9 13.87 8.923 5.634 3.525 2.295 1.377 .8607 .5887 .3717 .2712 .1926 .1288 .07926 .0523 .02616 .02642 .01032 -.00105 .0024 .03525 3 1600/0026 1811 0003 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00027 161000 132.2 87.15 58.55 38.12 23.91 15.2 9.605 5.986 3.633 2.492 1.692 1.088 .7521 .5028 .4139 .2248 .1259 .1538 .027 .0264 .0024 .03525 3 1600/0027 1811 0003 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00028 161000 495.9 347.1 231.7 151.4 96.85 59.36 36.84 23.61 15.08 9.672 6.172 4.571 3.063 1.69 1.361 1.075 .5335 .3753 .04225 .2233 .0024 .03525 3 1600/0028 1811 0003 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00029 161000 .3053 .1989 .07692 .1054 .00257 .07777 .01891 .03777 .03944 .02066 .01326 .00876 .0109 .00521 .00524 .00121 -.00148 .00124 -.00437 -.00223 .0024 8.81E-2 3 1600/0029 1811 0003 00010Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00030 163000 19.41 12.95 8.315 5.442 3.547 2.482 1.516 1.177 .7926 .5519 .4398 .2998 .1601 .114 .09981 .08885 .0164 .05468 .00087 -.02148 .0024 8.81E-2 3 1600/0030 1811 0003 00011Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00031 163000 77.37 52.75 34.8 22.74 14.9 10.36 7.372 5.244 3.619 2.404 1.401 1.209 1.006 .4081 .1888 .1521 .1275 -.00716 -.05298 -.1587 .0024 8.81E-2 3 1600/0031 1811 0003 00012Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00032 162000 247.3 323 201 119 84.59 56.62 38.03 25.02 15.82 9.913 5.625 3.808 2.237 1.286 .8306 .4854 .3171 .1916 .1045 .08365 .0024 .009813 3 1600/0032 TEM 12 1811 0004 00001H HDR REF u 3a 8+ 00032 181103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 1600/0032 Comment: 0 00032 181103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 1600/0032 1811 0004 00001Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00034 -53000 -319.6 -277.1 -237.5 -198.5 -157.4 -122.8 -91.51 -66.01 -45.6 -30.35 -18.98 -11.61 -6.829 -3.556 -2.211 -1.318 -.7816 -.4911 -.3076 -.1825 .006 .012813 3 10000/0034 1811 0004 00002Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00035 -53200 -81.32 -69.53 -59.25 -49.61 -38.74 -30.38 -22.67 -16.36 -11.33 -7.527 -4.584 -2.814 -1.643 -.8463 -.5259 -.3496 -.203 -.1263 -.07859 -.04795 .006 .012813 3 10000/0035 1811 0004 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00036 -54000 -1360 -1143 -966.8 -809.4 -646 -503.1 -374 -269.9 -186.6 -123.9 -77.9 -47.63 -27.88 -14.66 -9.018 -5.285 -3.19 -1.957 -1.242 -.7841 .006 .012813 3 10000/0036

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50 Appendix A (Continued) 1811 0004 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00037 -53700 -6528 -4211 -3859 -3254 -2528 -1987 -1483 -1074 -739.4 -491.5 -310.2 -189.8 -111.3 -58.83 -36.04 -20.83 -13.14 -8.042 -5.123 -3.333 .006 .012813 3 10000/0037 1811 0004 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00038 -55300 -17.23 -12.95 -9.428 -6.493 -4.308 -2.754 -1.709 -1.039 -.6307 -.3854 -.2577 -.1542 -.1185 -.07016 -.05638 -.03227 -.02373 -.01409 -.01173 -.0054 .006 .04125 3 10000/0038 1811 0004 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00039 -46400 -66.38 -50.26 -36.26 -25.32 -16.92 -10.79 -6.671 -4.114 -2.496 -1.509 -1.008 -.6599 -.4389 -.3031 -.2155 -.1477 -.09327 -.0585 -.04412 -.01727 .006 .04125 3 10000/0039 1811 0004 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00040 -46400 -264 -199 -144.1 -100.7 -67.24 -43.12 -26.74 -16.01 -9.82 -6.095 -3.92 -2.693 -1.785 -1.203 -.7986 -.5531 -.3348 -.2411 -.1563 -.07326 .006 .04125 3 10000/0040 1811 0004 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00041 -46400 -1006 -801.1 -569.5 -396.8 -267.8 -171 -105.9 -63.72 -39.04 -24.24 -15.71 -10.31 -6.582 -4.369 -3.691 -2.513 -1.264 -1.393 -.5666 -.6759 .006 .04125 3 10000/0041 1811 0004 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00042 -43800 -4.242 -2.85 -1.799 -1.203 -.7543 -.464 -.3421 -.203 -.1428 -.09147 -.07564 -.04789 -.03167 -.02206 -.01255 -.01337 -.00336 -.00581 -.00172 -.00352 .006 .094125 3 10000/0042 1811 0004 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00043 -42800 -13.97 -9.472 -5.984 -3.886 -2.442 -1.563 -1.036 -.656 -.4919 -.3281 -.2494 -.1428 -.09706 -.06729 -.03953 -.01397 -.02004 -.02173 .00606 -.00021 .006 .094125 3 10000/0043 1811 0004 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00044 -45400 -55.82 -38.6 -24.34 -15.31 -10.08 -6.073 -4.205 -2.897 -1.984 -1.399 -.9575 -.648 -.4664 -.2904 -.1712 -.1428 -.01864 -.06786 -.04447 .00584 .006 .094125 3 10000/0044 1811 0004 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00045 -46900 -233.1 -154.1 -98.49 -62.53 -41.21 -25.78 -18.47 -12.65 -7.845 -5.331 -3.817 -2.438 -1.111 -.8463 -1.484 -.626 .5886 -.1753 -.09079 .1378 .006 .094125 3 10000/0045 1811 0004 00013Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00046 -46100 -34.94 -373.3 -323.3 -248.9 -193.4 -145.1 -104.5 -72.71 -48.78 -31.5 -19.25 -11.48 -6.592 -3.374 -2.049 -1.209 -.7049 -.4386 -.2689 -.1691 .006 .006813 3 10000/0046 1811 0004 00014Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00047 -48700 -323.3 -273.5 -232.7 -194.9 -154.8 -120.8 -90.11 -64.99 -44.94 -29.85 -18.68 -11.46 -6.708 -3.506 -2.179 -1.295 -.7855 -.471 -.2992 -.1929 .006 .012813 3 10000/0047 1811 0004 00015Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00048 -53700 -253.5 -218.6 -188 -159.3 -128.8 -102.6 -78.03 -57.39 -40.3 -27.12 -17.31 -10.76 -6.408 -3.403 -2.133 -1.275 -.76 -.4818 -.3089 -.1891 .006 .016813 3 10000/0048 TEM 13 1811 0005 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00049 360 84.78 72.17 58.61 45.89 33.86 22.23 12.92 6.392 2.399 .4855 -.02303 -.2136 -.2131 -.1679 -.1575 -.18 -.1397 -.1103 -.09371 -.07655 .006 .006813 3 10000/0049 1811 0005 00002Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00050 51700 -49.98 60.7 53.98 41.12 34.56 26.72 20.24 14.82 10.52 7.264 4.934 3.123 1.901 1.047 .6479 .3295 .203 .1232 .07575 .04764 .006 .006813 3 10000/0050 1811 0005 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00051 51500 -506.6 851.9 1007 710.7 547.3 426.2 322.6 236.6 168.3 115.6 76.28 48.55 29.47 16.28 10.1 5.849 3.456 2.094 1.282 .7547 .006 .006813 3 10000/0051 1811 0005 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00052 51500 -8623 3175 3827 3403 2047 1569 1270 946.5 668.3 462.4 301.9 192.2 117 64.26 40.16 23.08 13.9 8.359 5.066 3.046 .006 .006813 3 10000/0052

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51 Appendix A (Continued) 1811 0005 00005Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00053 51200 45.03 39.28 34.5 29.94 25.49 20.43 15.86 12 8.755 6.172 4.285 2.767 1.717 .9403 .5997 .322 .1949 .1191 .07351 .04519 .006 .012813 3 10000/0053 1811 0005 00006Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00054 51200 177.8 158.7 140.1 120.9 100.3 80.99 63.05 47.75 34.88 24.54 16.57 10.75 6.65 3.737 2.366 1.348 .8131 .4957 .3052 .1805 .006 .012813 3 10000/0054 1811 0005 00007Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00055 52700 12.68 10.07 7.734 5.681 4.014 2.767 1.789 1.162 .6986 .4427 .2832 .1986 .1309 .08609 .05426 .04155 .02328 .01285 .00803 .00506 .006 .04125 3 10000/0055 1811 0005 00008Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00056 52700 15.06 11.97 8.901 6.397 4.456 2.952 1.953 1.19 .7224 .4518 .2875 .1945 .1231 .09325 .04824 .04064 .01994 .0144 .007 .00386 .006 .03525 3 10000/0056 1811 0005 00009Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00057 41800 9.645 7.887 6.074 4.462 3.16 2.128 1.403 .8975 .5527 .3429 .2171 .1538 .1075 .07216 .03812 .03182 .01505 .01084 .00278 .00247 .006 .04125 3 10000/0057 1811 0005 00010Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00058 39800 43.05 34.21 26.1 19.21 13.5 9.275 5.992 3.798 2.371 1.498 .9491 .633 .4337 .2911 .1915 .1161 .06944 .04503 .02832 .01275 .006 .04125 3 10000/0058 1811 0005 00011Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00059 45400 189.3 150 113.5 83.46 58.79 39.74 25.97 16.4 10.26 6.609 4.191 2.794 1.849 1.294 .8147 .5304 .2974 .204 .1369 .09538 .006 .04125 3 10000/0059 1811 0005 00012Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00060 45400 756.4 584.6 451.6 333.2 233.9 158.9 103.3 65.66 40.45 25.75 16.74 10.76 7.334 4.814 3.012 1.914 1.183 .6143 .3585 .0091 .006 .04125 3 10000/0060 1811 0005 00013Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00061 45400 2.064 1.452 1.152 .6977 .4905 .2785 .1809 .1533 .08008 .07561 .0445 .03707 .02001 .01275 .00878 .00449 .00346 -.00155 .00109 -.00075 .006 .094125 3 10000/0061 1811 0005 00014Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00062 45400 11.59 8.033 5.569 3.684 2.43 1.538 1.051 .7103 .4489 .3327 .2094 .1452 .1203 .05761 .04368 .02128 .00997 .01036 .00454 .00091 .006 .094125 3 10000/0062 1811 0005 00015Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00063 45400 49.49 34.81 23.52 15.41 10.23 6.445 4.341 2.985 2.066 1.268 .9406 .5709 .4126 .3344 .1926 .1271 .07887 .04488 -.00029 -.01061 .006 .094125 3 10000/0063 XXXXXX 45400 49.49 34.81 23.52 15.41 10.23 6.445 4.341 2.985 2.066 1.268 .9406 .5709 .4126 .3344 .1926 .1271 .07887 .04488 -.00029 -.01061 .006 .094125 3 10000/0063 TEM 14 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 1911 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 191103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 0/ / Comment: 0 / 191103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 0/ / 1911 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00065 -51700 -1.2 -3.133 -3.884 -4.299 -3.266 -3.267 -2.715 -2.226 -1.79 -1.388 -.8814 -.7332 -.5588 -.3852 -.2907 -.2416 -.1545 -.1012 -.05982 -.03687 .006 .012813 3 10000/0065

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52 Appendix A (Continued) 1911 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00066 -61400 -.1636 -9.624 -15.92 -18.21 -16.66 -14.94 -12.4 -9.97 -7.956 -6.226 -4.515 -3.573 -2.642 -1.826 -1.355 -.9703 -.6379 -.4216 -.2604 -.152 .006 .012813 3 10000/0066 1911 0001 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00067 -61600 48 -39.05 -61.59 -72.35 -68.9 -60.53 -50.4 -40.2 -31.86 -24.88 -18.67 -14.38 -10.68 -7.578 -5.495 -3.859 -2.535 -1.67 -1.017 -.5895 .006 .012813 3 10000/0067 1911 0001 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00068 -61400 766.2 -86.09 -354 -297.6 -292.7 -200.2 -204.5 -164.5 -126.6 -98.58 -74.54 -58.06 -42.78 -29.79 -21.69 -14.99 -10.05 -6.479 -3.956 -2.479 .006 .012813 3 10000/0068 1911 0001 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00069 -54200 -3.419 -2.633 -2.071 -1.664 -1.277 -.9884 -.762 -.5477 -.4086 -.2937 -.2208 -.1442 -.09381 -.06274 -.04827 -.02345 -.01895 -.01042 -.00692 -.00282 .006 .04125 3 10000/0069 1911 0001 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00070 -54000 -11.19 -8.942 -7.324 -5.872 -4.677 -3.639 -2.806 -2.085 -1.554 -1.111 -.8014 -.5556 -.378 -.2328 -.1658 -.1012 -.05037 -.02998 -.01241 -.00997 .006 .04125 3 10000/0070 1911 0001 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00071 -53500 -41.57 -34.51 -27.91 -22.6 -18.72 -14.28 -10.84 -8.436 -6.084 -4.434 -3.057 -2.237 -1.448 -.9689 -.5741 -.3521 -.2365 -.1281 -.07789 -.0094 .006 .04125 3 10000/0071 1911 0001 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00072 -53700 -163.3 -133.6 -110.1 -89.5 -71.33 -55.84 -42.1 -33.12 -24.88 -16.9 -11.85 -8.595 -5.682 -3.922 -2.072 -1.384 -.9705 -.5804 -.39 -.1863 .006 .04125 3 10000/0072 1911 0001 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00073 -54000 -1.85 -1.52 -1.019 -.6863 -.5488 -.4006 -.2623 -.1776 -.1441 -.07257 -.06358 -.0368 -.02111 -.01423 -.00907 -.0091 -.00707 .00021 -.00071 -.00112 .006 .094125 3 10000/0073 1911 0001 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00074 -53700 -5.317 -4.173 -3.128 -2.429 -1.691 -1.29 -.9085 -.646 -.4395 -.2635 -.1783 -.1235 -.07618 -.06364 -.03686 -.0211 -.01968 -.01367 .00105 -.00055 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0074 1911 0001 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00075 -53700 -18.32 -15.38 -11.12 -8.684 -6.629 -4.697 -3.507 -2.297 -1.776 -1.051 -.6889 -.4993 -.3171 -.2103 -.173 -.1209 -.02598 -.04341 .00315 -.00628 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0075 1911 0001 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00076 -53700 -71.62 -59.34 -44.86 -33.45 -26.52 -17.65 -13.71 -9.97 -6.542 -3.902 -3.109 -2.089 -.6268 -.5396 -.02097 -.6838 .1295 .07095 .05228 .1482 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0076 TEM 15 1911 0002 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00077 55000 -8.307 -4.198 -1.541 .1006 1.989 2.015 2.025 1.803 1.54 1.312 1.162 .8798 .6372 .4478 .3237 .1847 .1341 .08692 .06215 .03727 .006 .012813 3 10000/0077 1911 0002 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00078 56500 -32.36 -16.81 -5.097 1.908 6.224 7.533 7.644 7.152 6.306 5.243 4.242 3.331 2.474 1.707 1.267 .8422 .5827 .383 .2592 .1568 .006 .012813 3 10000/0078 1911 0002 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00079 56500 -47.41 -67.4 -21.42 7.782 23.03 29.55 30.38 28.36 25.02 20.78 16.59 13.01 9.743 6.795 4.997 3.425 2.321 1.589 1.074 .6835 .006 .012813 3 10000/0079 1911 0002 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00080 56300 -1237 -260.8 -4.239 38.31 115 83.71 126.4 114.8 95.31 83.58 65.18 52.3 37.99 26.91 19.73 13.64 9.363 6.355 4.192 2.64 .006 .012813 3 10000/0080 1911 0002 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00081 56000 .9262 .9808 .9794 1.041 .8297 .6831 .5992 .4305 .3366 .258 .1759 .1379 .08471 .06843 .03545 .03328 .01538 .01483 .00446 .00591 .006 .04125 3 10000/0081

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53 Appendix A (Continued) 1911 0002 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00082 50400 6.195 5.991 5.439 4.692 3.942 3.238 2.444 1.874 1.415 1.073 .7562 .5636 .3877 .2729 .1909 .1281 .06845 .04412 .03178 .01528 .006 .04125 3 10000/0082 1911 0002 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00083 51000 30.99 25.67 22.94 19.93 16.4 13.11 10.14 7.876 5.807 4.216 3.211 2.203 1.569 1.17 .7505 .4905 .3191 .1543 .1264 .08252 .006 .04125 3 10000/0083 1911 0002 00008Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00084 51000 29.02 25.9 23 19.98 16.48 13.28 10.03 7.947 5.724 4.292 3.049 2.21 1.627 1.191 .8082 .5933 .327 .2179 .1575 .05993 .006 .04125 3 10000/0084 1911 0002 00009Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00085 50700 119.2 104.5 93.29 80.98 64.86 51.92 41.22 31.53 23.09 17.18 12 8.971 6.329 4.616 3.048 2.333 1.574 .7826 .8402 .3856 .006 .04125 3 10000/0085 1911 0002 00010Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00086 51200 7.274 6.342 6.051 5.06 4.235 3.467 2.557 1.962 1.47 1.08 .7287 .5706 .3796 .2887 .1651 .1088 .08058 .05075 .03698 .03242 .006 .03525 3 10000/0086 1911 0002 00011Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00087 51000 .04143 .1929 .2724 .1926 .2328 .1617 .126 .1129 .06216 .04989 .02966 .03206 .01457 .01181 .00383 .00376 .00166 .00122 .00155 .00191 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0087 1911 0002 00012Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00088 51000 3.056 2.648 2.181 1.723 1.322 1.018 .7449 .5507 .3786 .3042 .1977 .1322 .1014 .05011 .02904 .02443 .00545 .00722 .00353 .00014 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0088 1911 0002 00013Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00089 50700 15.46 12.04 9.954 7.782 5.93 4.439 3.235 2.244 1.762 1.192 .8342 .6414 .4523 .3204 .191 .1434 .08476 .06087 .00873 .00742 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0089 1911 0002 00014Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00090 51000 71.83 52 40.47 32.5 24.9 19.34 13.49 10.67 7.554 5.298 3.681 2.384 2.021 1.451 .7794 .2563 .02183 .07967 .1866 .3381 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0090 XXXXXX 51000 71.83 52 40.47 32.5 24.9 19.34 13.49 10.67 7.554 5.298 3.681 2.384 2.021 1.451 .7794 .2563 .02183 .07967 .1866 .3381 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0090 TEM 16 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 2011 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 201103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 57 0/ / Comment: 0 / 201103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 57 0/ / 2011 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00092 58300 -38.5 -.9333 6.504 7.448 6.961 4.583 3.235 2.42 1.804 1.804 1.452 1.088 .7521 .4826 .3497 .1875 .1376 .07949 .04464 .02777 .006 .006813 3 10000/0092 2011 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00093 58300 -132.7 .3848 27.56 30.8 25.93 17.62 12.72 9.512 6.903 7.21 5.301 3.956 2.832 1.892 1.293 .8397 .5374 .3243 .1927 .1198 .006 .006813 3 10000/0093 2011 0001 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00094 58100 -506.4 16.2 119.1 126.2 102.4 70.11 50.61 37.56 27.73 28.59 20.67 15.87 11.32 7.24 5.292 3.398 2.309 1.424 .8499 .4825 .006 .006813 3 10000/0094

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54 Appendix A (Continued) 2011 0001 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00095 58100 -2314 -1876 767.8 596.5 447.6 258.3 206.9 149.2 111.2 113.5 82.16 61.89 43.89 28.66 20.94 13.5 9.252 5.958 3.616 1.639 .006 .006813 3 10000/0095 2011 0001 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00096 59600 1.525 1.496 1.342 1.471 1.068 .9032 .6677 .5158 .3766 .254 .1445 .12 .07388 .0447 .02875 .0215 .00725 .00383 -.00344 .00009 .006 .03525 3 10000/0096 2011 0001 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00097 52700 8.592 6.782 5.694 6.397 4.345 3.439 2.602 2.049 1.345 1.011 .642 .427 .285 .1884 .09413 .07014 .05748 .01935 .02309 .00873 .006 .03525 3 10000/0097 2011 0001 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00098 51700 36.22 29.16 25.4 26.46 18.69 14.37 10.68 8.471 5.059 3.836 2.554 1.559 .9662 .6092 .1963 .05216 -.06729 -.244 -.3246 -.3533 .006 .03525 3 10000/0098 2011 0001 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00099 52700 151.3 126.2 100.6 110.7 76.69 58.33 46.25 34.26 22.73 16.55 11.67 7.761 4.703 2.975 1.326 .709 -.6146 -.8583 -.2508 -.6152 .006 .03525 3 10000/0099 2011 0001 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00100 52700 .3713 .1936 .1008 .3234 .1574 .1239 .0594 .07217 .06878 .0298 .02566 .01437 .01037 -.00135 .00994 .01261 .00513 .00802 .00515 .00082 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0100 2011 0001 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00101 52000 3.194 2.549 2.414 1.736 1.206 .9199 .6677 .3584 .2783 .178 .08879 .0505 .04591 .00935 .00402 -.00903 .0034 -.00845 -.01348 -.0061 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0101 2011 0001 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00102 52000 17.53 13.48 9.369 8.207 5.082 4.124 2.511 1.98 1.158 .6764 .413 .2755 .1771 .1265 .0476 .07805 .01098 -.03018 -.06156 -.1017 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0102 2011 0001 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00103 51700 78.45 47.91 42.63 33.69 21.19 17.22 11.84 7.24 5.821 4.369 2.366 .953 1.295 -.3278 .07717 -.00136 .0803 -.1978 -.3912 .09554 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0103 2011 0001 00013Z OPR REF H 5a 6+ #00104 52200 16.54 11.51 9.778 6.589 5.487 3.611 2.896 1.72 1.153 .8049 .4505 .345 .3338 .1376 .1252 .1081 .111 .07674 -.02926 .00334 .006 .094125 3 10000/0104 TEM 17 2011 0002 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 6+ #00105 46900 -53.25 -23.93 -11.53 -5.251 -.5557 1.365 1.67 1.821 2.302 1.684 1.17 1.055 .7574 .4304 .3121 .1751 .1182 .07593 .05427 .03222 .006 .006813 3 10000/0105 2011 0002 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00106 50200 -198.4 -96.67 -43.16 -20.03 -3.66 4.669 6.106 7.01 9.101 6.609 4.131 3.929 2.853 1.603 1.187 .7643 .4786 .3243 .2218 .1387 .006 .006813 3 10000/0106 2011 0002 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00107 49900 -898.4 -354.2 -164.7 -80.6 -16.07 18.42 24.19 28.43 36.27 26.39 15.85 15.86 11.21 6.301 4.813 3.139 2.101 1.377 .8814 .5449 .006 .006813 3 10000/0107 2011 0002 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00108 49900 -4704 -3081 -104.2 -194.3 -47.53 73.45 93.88 108 144.5 103.9 60.45 60.43 42.14 22.14 16.94 10.02 5.965 2.669 1.103 1.708 .006 .006813 3 10000/0108 2011 0002 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00109 51500 .8564 1.877 1.903 1.356 .987 1.015 .7413 .5164 .3565 .2707 .1916 .1427 .1083 .07032 .03921 .03961 .0246 .01088 .01047 .00525 .006 .03525 3 10000/0109 2011 0002 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00110 51500 6.059 9.321 8.608 6.206 4.308 4.296 3.077 2.191 1.484 1.159 .7724 .583 .434 .2853 .2067 .1407 .09292 .05664 .04742 .01599 .006 .03525 3 10000/0110

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55 Appendix A (Continued) 2011 0002 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00111 51200 28.02 37.92 35.68 26.27 18.65 16.96 13.26 8.206 6.223 4.806 3.092 2.532 1.633 1.236 .8082 .6009 .3722 .2907 .1824 .09258 .006 .03525 3 10000/0111 2011 0002 00008Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00112 44900 27.63 34.81 32.22 23.74 15.68 15.66 11.41 7.452 5.627 4.151 3.015 2.217 1.485 1.006 .7922 .538 .3703 .2791 .1994 .118 .006 .03525 3 10000/0112 2011 0002 00009Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00113 45400 109.2 138.9 129.3 90.59 60.7 63.74 42.03 29.93 16.8 13.3 6.155 1.559 -.03059 -.8831 .2607 -.1721 -.1609 1.419 -6.653 -1.194 .006 .03525 3 10000/0113 2011 0002 00010Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00114 45400 .1281 .2457 .2892 .1921 .1921 .1534 .09647 .1022 .06865 .05782 .02651 .01651 .01665 .01136 .0119 .00454 -.00091 .00271 .00216 .00256 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0114 2011 0002 00011Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00115 45100 2.718 3.341 2.308 1.486 1.18 .9293 .6434 .5146 .4532 .225 .2164 .1005 .09407 .06979 .031 .02571 .02101 .00647 .01935 .01184 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0115 2011 0002 00012Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00116 45100 13.27 13.48 11.12 8.255 3.829 4.984 1.712 2.297 2.385 .4292 1.247 .4509 .3049 .3888 .2553 .05274 .07536 .1174 .1515 -.03447 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0116 2011 0002 00013Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00117 45100 65.59 60.85 42.93 33.83 22.66 21.86 8.272 9.988 6.792 3.508 -.2747 2.391 4.398 2.34 -5.362 -3.446 1.985 1.24 -6.302 -6.786 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0117 TEM 18 2011 0002 00014H HDR REF H 7a 8+ 00117 201103 0 0 0 1 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 58 10000/0117 Comment: 0 00117 201103 0 0 0 1 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 58 10000/0117 2011 0002 00014Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00119 21200 -75.88 -37.39 -17.79 -7.734 -1.275 2.181 2.579 2.968 3.716 2.7 1.743 1.707 1.2 .7073 .4909 .3195 .2089 .1358 .1003 .0561 .006 .006813 1 10000/0119 XXXXXX 21200 -75.88 -37.39 -17.79 -7.734 -1.275 2.181 2.579 2.968 3.716 2.7 1.743 1.707 1.2 .7073 .4909 .3195 .2089 .1358 .1003 .0561 .006 .006813 1 10000/0119 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 2111 0002 00015H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 211103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 59 0/ / Comment: 0 / 211103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 59 0/ / 2111 0002 00015Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00121 131 -218.7 -183.2 -131 -88.5 -55.73 -33.28 -17.57 -7.822 -2.468 -.1101 .7687 .7265 .6163 .5417 .4877 .4075 .3959 .6206 .3537 .4974 .006 .006813 3 10000/0121 2111 0002 00016Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00122 -54500 -361 -300.5 -198.6 -119.1 -66.51 -35.65 -17.8 -8.524 -3.869 -1.826 -.7359 -.4465 -.2973 -.1934 -.1416 -.137 -.0907 -.06152 -.03459 -.0242 .006 .006813 3 10000/0122

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56 Appendix A (Continued) 2111 0002 00017Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00123 -54200 -1374 -1211 -793.1 -475 -268.4 -143 -71.55 -34.03 -15.72 -7.417 -3.544 -2.109 -1.38 -.83 -.6446 -.4905 -.327 -.2086 -.143 -.09984 .006 .006813 3 10000/0123 2111 0002 00018Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00124 -54200 -5616 -4837 -3176 -1910 -1080 -575.8 -287.9 -136.7 -62.93 -29.74 -14.59 -8.83 -5.661 -3.613 -2.666 -1.805 -1.278 -.829 -.5096 -.3694 .006 .006813 3 10000/0124 2111 0002 00019Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00125 -54200 -13870 -13290 -12370 -7903 -4319 -2225 -1136 -540.9 -253 -117.8 -59.76 -35.5 -22.2 -14.94 -10.67 -7.253 -5.061 -3.323 -2.261 -1.528 .006 .006813 3 10000/0125 2111 0002 00020Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00126 -48200 -10.5 -5.79 -3.137 -1.76 -1.054 -.6345 -.4551 -.3125 -.2081 -.1501 -.1277 -.07792 -.05135 -.04175 -.03262 -.01956 -.01499 -.00526 -.00318 -.00505 .006 .03525 3 10000/0126 2111 0002 00021Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00127 -48400 -38.8 -21.28 -11.35 -6.254 -3.596 -2.239 -1.581 -1.071 -.8136 -.6006 -.4009 -.2914 -.2063 -.1328 -.1098 -.06838 -.04927 -.02707 -.0157 -.01455 .006 .03525 3 10000/0127 2111 0002 00022Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00128 -48400 -152 -83.59 -44.1 -23.89 -13.98 -8.646 -5.947 -4.273 -3.189 -2.164 -1.666 -1.169 -.7417 -.6174 -.3211 -.1785 -.1439 -.1278 -.07358 -.04078 .006 .03525 3 10000/0128 2111 0002 00023Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00129 -48200 -572.9 -304.2 -183.5 -90.59 -55.66 -34.05 -23.9 -16.79 -12.02 -9.193 -6.795 -4.424 -3.384 -2.349 -1.643 -.9452 -.5571 -.3274 -.2713 -.2338 .006 .03525 3 10000/0129 2111 0002 00024Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00130 -48200 -1.599 -1.175 -.8085 -.4746 -.3961 -.2465 -.1746 -.1286 -.09179 -.04543 -.04289 -.03067 -.02357 -.0098 -.00975 -.00769 -.00523 .00043 -.00238 -.00145 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0130 2111 0002 00025Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00131 -48200 -3.786 -2.584 -1.819 -1.314 -.879 -.6726 -.4573 -.3676 -.2525 -.1809 -.1275 -.08232 -.07566 -.03786 -.03007 -.01674 -.01652 -.00999 -.00017 -.00565 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0131 2111 0002 00026Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00132 -48200 -12.58 -8.261 -6.075 -4.188 -3.278 -2.439 -1.816 -1.354 -.9375 -.6143 -.4103 -.3113 -.2072 -.1186 -.1078 -.00941 -.06048 -.03054 -.02491 -.02032 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0132 2111 0002 00027Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00133 -47900 -46.22 -31.65 -23.06 -16.64 -12.88 -9.018 -6.355 -5.262 -3.896 -2.678 -1.598 -1.465 -.726 -.5192 -.4557 -.206 -.05688 -.1777 -.1357 -.03324 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0133 TEM 19 2111 0003 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00134 -59800 -169.5 -196.6 -131.2 -79.74 -46.51 -26.95 -14.66 -7.699 -3.952 -2.066 -.9237 -.5499 -.3428 -.2144 -.1543 -.1467 -.08979 -.05464 -.03577 -.02113 .006 .006813 3 10000/0134 2111 0003 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00135 -59800 -676.4 -800 -526.6 -318.9 -189.1 -108.6 -59.12 -31.09 -15.97 -8.33 -4.25 -2.532 -1.601 -.9729 -.6767 -.4955 -.3348 -.2148 -.1381 -.08081 .006 .006813 3 10000/0135 2111 0003 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00136 -59600 -2571 -3303 -2133 -1286 -764.6 -436.9 -238.1 -124.8 -64.21 -33.48 -17.6 -10.44 -6.471 -4.081 -2.899 -1.937 -1.298 -.8351 -.5217 -.3077 .006 .006813 3 10000/0136 2111 0003 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00137 -59600 -7779 -12040 -9894 -4758 -2758 -1746 -931.7 -486.6 -252.6 -132.5 -70.74 -41.99 -25.9 -16.1 -11.45 -7.567 -5.092 -3.204 -1.953 -1.195 .006 .006813 3 10000/0137 2111 0003 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00138 -61600 -10.3 -6.204 -3.584 -2.088 -1.356 -.7446 -.5026 -.386 -.2264 -.1656 -.1318 -.06763 -.05355 -.03941 -.02428 -.01145 -.01436 -.00632 -.00282 -.00289 .006 .03525 3 10000/0138

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57 Appendix A (Continued) 2111 0003 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00139 -52000 -33.75 -20.37 -11.71 -6.875 -4.124 -2.538 -1.683 -1.227 -.7878 -.5692 -.4244 -.2625 -.1772 -.1135 -.07759 -.03626 -.03528 -.01953 -.01449 -.00534 .006 .03525 3 10000/0139 2111 0003 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00140 -52000 -132.9 -79.29 -45.73 -26.65 -16.07 -10.04 -6.604 -4.626 -3.231 -2.186 -1.606 -1.095 -.7208 -.4499 -.3882 -.2261 -.1291 -.06945 -.01775 -.03774 .006 .03525 3 10000/0140 2111 0003 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00141 -52000 -515.3 -301.2 -183.8 -103.8 -62.61 -40.74 -25.81 -17.16 -12.66 -8.865 -6.565 -4.189 -3.042 -1.715 -1.245 -.7743 -.327 -.3366 -.1672 -.08117 .006 .03525 3 10000/0141 2111 0003 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00142 -52000 -1.598 -1.248 -.8027 -.4765 -.4038 -.2329 -.2049 -.1043 -.08918 -.03413 -.04229 -.03179 -.01137 -.00955 -.00161 -.00744 -.00539 .00145 -.00211 -.00221 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0142 2111 0003 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00143 -52000 -3.882 -3.451 -1.893 -1.224 -.853 -.707 -.3596 -.4647 -.2073 -.1126 -.1124 -.1219 .00099 -.05511 -.02132 -.02612 -.00515 .00862 -.01092 .00145 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0143 2111 0003 00011Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00144 -52000 -37.81 -22.34 -33.51 -6.827 -24.61 .2871 -13.9 -2.35 -5.391 .719 -1.341 -1.425 -.7887 -1.418 .9589 -.8221 -.2876 -.00201 .3537 -.1425 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0144 TEM 20 2111 0004 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00145 -43600 -556.5 -343.2 -182.5 -93.16 -42.24 -19.57 -8.385 -3.816 -1.887 -1.096 -.5323 -.4022 -.2924 -.1981 -.1487 -.1415 -.08539 -.05817 -.03514 -.02185 .006 .006813 3 10000/0145 2111 0004 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00146 -43600 -2297 -1372 -722.4 -369.6 -172.1 -79.03 -33.97 -15.35 -7.651 -4.468 -2.69 -1.935 -1.353 -.9076 -.6639 -.488 -.323 -.2101 -.1393 -.08604 .006 .006813 3 10000/0146 2111 0004 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00147 -43600 -10670 -6059 -2964 -1416 -704.8 -319.1 -138.3 -62.15 -30.91 -17.96 -11.27 -7.949 -5.561 -3.716 -2.731 -1.883 -1.228 -.7934 -.5363 -.2963 .006 .006813 3 10000/0147 2111 0004 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00148 -43300 -13830 -13300 -13080 -7893 -3039 -1361 -659.3 -302.1 -147.1 -84.13 -54.33 -37.87 -26.2 -17.72 -12.9 -8.711 -5.735 -3.872 -2.523 -1.667 .006 .006813 3 10000/0148 2111 0004 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00149 -43800 -6.211 -3.549 -2.095 -1.342 -.9498 -.7146 -.4972 -.3243 -.2493 -.1838 -.1371 -.08479 -.06598 -.03515 -.03635 -.01807 -.01587 -.00652 -.00649 -.00234 .006 .03525 3 10000/0149 2111 0004 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00150 -45900 -21.49 -12.35 -7.383 -4.847 -3.375 -2.441 -1.797 -1.266 -.9533 -.6667 -.4905 -.3129 -.2255 -.1405 -.1227 -.06455 -.03464 -.01465 -.01182 -.00533 .006 .03525 3 10000/0150 2111 0004 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00151 -45900 -83.4 -46.85 -28.56 -18.93 -12.8 -9.647 -7.033 -5.103 -3.661 -2.732 -1.888 -1.384 -.8723 -.6583 -.4557 -.2382 -.1699 -.1139 -.03053 -.00247 .006 .03525 3 10000/0151 2111 0004 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00152 -45900 -320.7 -166.7 -117.2 -74.02 -50.73 -37.88 -27.82 -20.02 -14.96 -10.63 -7.631 -5.619 -3.711 -2.686 -1.863 -1.27 -.9194 -.4942 -.1801 -.09872 .006 .03525 3 10000/0152 2111 0004 00009Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00153 -45600 -3.956 -2.766 -2.09 -1.44 -1.186 -.7775 -.5433 -.3907 -.3297 -.2058 -.1203 -.1095 -.05282 -.04351 -.0264 -.01051 -.01297 -.00352 -.00669 -.00558 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0153 2111 0004 00010Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00154 -45400 -48.99 -36.18 -28.26 -18.88 -15.2 -11.42 -8.634 -5.862 -4.324 -2.896 -1.991 -1.283 -.679 -1.039 .07547 -.3144 -.1529 .05429 .1709 .04277 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0154 XXXXXX

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58 Appendix A (Continued) -45400 -48.99 -36.18 -28.26 -18.88 -15.2 -11.42 -8.634 -5.862 -4.324 -2.896 -1.991 -1.283 -.679 -1.039 .07547 -.3144 -.1529 .05429 .1709 .04277 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0154 TEM 21 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 2211 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 221103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 0/ / Comment: 0 / 221103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 0/ / 2211 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00156 52700 8.574 13.03 7.031 3.503 3.313 2.791 2.534 2.226 1.845 1.498 1.273 .9464 .6581 .4571 .3226 .1741 .125 .07597 .04755 .02579 .006 .006813 3 10000/0156 2211 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00157 53500 12.98 47.99 30.31 15.31 11.81 10.62 9.966 8.86 7.402 5.986 4.694 3.6 2.611 1.727 1.258 .802 .5354 .3336 .2024 .1122 .006 .006813 3 10000/0157 2211 0001 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00158 53700 135.6 209 123.2 64.16 46.76 42.4 39.37 35 29.35 23.82 18.15 13.88 10.19 6.808 4.943 3.289 2.113 1.346 .8572 .4939 .006 .006813 3 10000/0158 2211 0001 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00159 54000 -31.69 815.4 528.6 324 160.5 164.8 159 139 116.2 94.98 73.23 55.74 41.07 27.73 19.97 13.4 8.657 5.737 3.345 1.826 .006 .006813 3 10000/0159 2211 0001 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00160 55500 1.684 1.715 1.55 1.403 1.163 .8957 .7 .5104 .3693 .2788 .1773 .1396 .07838 .06335 .03616 .02624 .01086 .00995 .00601 .00344 .006 .03525 3 10000/0160 2211 0001 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00161 55500 7.975 7.27 6.269 5.156 4.272 3.382 2.511 1.874 1.336 1.021 .6224 .4558 .2737 .2103 .1403 .0652 .05254 .03014 .02671 .01111 .006 .03525 3 10000/0161 2211 0001 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00162 44900 30.5 28.17 24.17 20.36 16.33 12.93 9.334 6.886 5.225 3.552 2.451 1.633 1.153 .7237 .4171 .2561 .1558 .09114 .09379 .06702 .006 .03525 3 10000/0162 2211 0001 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00163 44400 131.3 111.1 99.37 80.36 64.45 50.24 38.69 28.59 20.42 14.52 9.947 6.673 4.193 3.156 1.656 1.022 .7223 .4078 .1731 .06748 .006 .03525 3 10000/0163 2211 0001 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00164 45600 .09761 .06711 .1619 .2434 .15 .1355 .08726 .07287 .03737 .03826 .02023 .00696 .00482 .00168 -.00328 -.00487 .00075 .00297 .00037 .00016 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0164 2211 0001 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00165 45600 2.908 2.287 1.956 1.554 1.154 .8105 .5853 .397 .288 .1896 .0871 .06139 .05093 .02988 .02296 .0033 .00438 .01465 .00125 .02121 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0165 2211 0001 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00166 47100 14.46 12.04 8.901 6.827 5.487 3.754 2.76 1.735 1.241 1.013 .6392 .3254 .2726 .1768 .1104 .08948 .0433 .142 .07342 .03693 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0166 2211 0001 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00167 48200 56.22 56.54 40.24 28.99 22.29 14.94 10.82 8.894 4.906 2.82 2.571 2.102 .313 .8136 .2088 .7367 .2974 -.03461 .3076 .1825 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0167

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59 Appendix A (Continued) TEM 22 2211 0002 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00168 -58100 -5.223 -21.43 -17.56 -12.11 -6.924 -4.955 -3.371 -2.403 -1.776 -1.312 -.7953 -.6617 -.4936 -.3427 -.2605 -.2261 -.1487 -.09412 -.06209 -.03861 .006 .006813 3 10000/0168 2211 0002 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00169 -59800 -31.89 -87.07 -69.45 -47.27 -30.09 -20.63 -14.05 -9.882 -7.18 -5.407 -3.783 -2.955 -2.179 -1.492 -1.122 -.8121 -.565 -.366 -.2388 -.1492 .006 .006813 3 10000/0169 2211 0002 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00170 -59600 -94.17 -361.5 -283.2 -189.1 -124.3 -82.77 -56.69 -39.85 -29.21 -21.8 -15.74 -12.07 -8.855 -6.128 -4.538 -3.289 -2.266 -1.447 -.9829 -.6 .006 .006813 3 10000/0170 2211 0002 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00171 -59600 -1793 -1616 -989.4 -757.7 -456 -369.9 -217.2 -152.1 -116.4 -86.52 -63.66 -48.29 -35.53 -24.69 -17.96 -12.67 -8.647 -5.857 -3.932 -2.325 .006 .006813 3 10000/0171 2211 0002 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00172 -61400 -3.984 -2.888 -2.231 -1.704 -1.273 -.9344 -.7115 -.5237 -.3963 -.2953 -.2201 -.1488 -.1012 -.06052 -.05275 -.02838 -.01708 -.00783 -.00525 -.00294 .006 .03525 3 10000/0172 2211 0002 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00173 -61400 -12.28 -9.094 -7.031 -5.538 -4.308 -3.296 -2.466 -1.909 -1.429 -1.062 -.7597 -.5143 -.3613 -.2452 -.1742 -.1068 -.06691 -.04271 -.0226 -.01723 .006 .03525 3 10000/0173 2211 0002 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00174 -53000 -41.17 -32.62 -26.04 -19.98 -15.71 -12.05 -9.582 -6.993 -5.211 -3.759 -2.929 -2.008 -1.432 -.9199 -.6286 -.4301 -.2541 -.1469 -.09589 -.07734 .006 .03525 3 10000/0174 2211 0002 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00175 -53000 -162.4 -129.5 -100.8 -80.26 -61.65 -48.26 -38.15 -27.37 -21.29 -15.19 -11.13 -8.146 -5.456 -3.552 -2.308 -1.196 -.8584 -.5495 -.1754 -.07281 .006 .03525 3 10000/0175 2211 0002 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00176 -53000 -1.932 -1.317 -.8824 -.737 -.4521 -.3735 -.2949 -.1574 -.1098 -.09125 -.06341 -.04375 -.0299 -.01054 -.00859 -.00668 -.00346 -.00288 -.00006 -.00042 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0176 2211 0002 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00177 -52700 -4.425 -3.474 -2.576 -1.894 -1.526 -1.056 -.7557 -.5704 -.378 -.2641 -.1596 -.1478 -.08168 -.06823 -.04111 -.02362 -.0196 -.00195 .00099 -.00467 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0177 2211 0002 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00178 -52500 -14.86 -12.27 -9.018 -6.923 -5.377 -3.897 -3.099 -2.138 -1.595 -1.056 -.7256 -.4531 -.2898 -.1828 -.01727 -.086 -.01262 -.0204 -.01794 -.0233 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0178 2211 0002 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00179 -52500 -53.94 -42.69 -37.08 -27.56 -21.44 -15.6 -11.52 -8.171 -6.071 -4.139 -2.699 -1.478 -.9662 -.4745 -.2561 -.2687 -.02302 .3104 -.04797 -.133 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0179 TEM 23 2211 0003 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00180 -53200 28.82 7.784 1.389 -2.203 -.2703 -1.613 -1.6 -1.927 -1.47 -1.388 -.7071 -.6473 -.4788 -.3045 -.2182 -.1912 -.1292 -.07117 -.04167 -.02622 .006 .006813 3 10000/0180 2211 0003 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00181 -54800 229.2 77.17 4.49 -6.731 -4.456 -7.877 -7.983 -9.036 -6.903 -6.423 -3.911 -3.379 -2.437 -1.5 -1.022 -.8271 -.5138 -.3428 -.2012 -.1501 .006 .006813 3 10000/0181 2211 0003 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00182 -61600 1207 298.1 16.27 -33.12 -20.05 -33.22 -32.53 -37.58 -27.88 -26.24 -16.27 -14.13 -10.13 -6.297 -4.425 -3.114 -2.125 -1.397 -.9068 -.5515 .006 .006813 3 10000/0182

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60 Appendix A (Continued) 2211 0003 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00183 -61600 5676 2762 -90.26 -546.9 -21.04 -162.7 -127.6 -148.3 -114.2 -105 -67.13 -57.22 -40.54 -25.66 -18 -12.52 -9.592 -5.884 -3.27 -1.914 .006 .006813 3 10000/0183 2211 0003 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00184 -63100 -3.643 -2.51 -2.047 -1.726 -1.237 -1.027 -.7366 -.48 -.3579 -.2475 -.2067 -.1271 -.09156 -.06696 -.05114 -.03134 -.01692 -.01057 -.00429 -.00494 .006 .03525 3 10000/0184 2211 0003 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00185 -56000 -11.29 -8.109 -7.149 -6.015 -4.235 -3.697 -2.715 -1.909 -1.329 -.9206 -.7125 -.4827 -.3425 -.2373 -.1545 -.09607 -.0705 -.04536 -.02687 -.0253 .006 .03525 3 10000/0185 2211 0003 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00186 -55800 -40.48 -30.59 -27.68 -24.22 -16.48 -13.8 -10.75 -7.381 -5.405 -3.737 -2.98 -2.002 -1.353 -.8668 -.712 -.3647 -.2793 -.1881 -.1439 -.08353 .006 .03525 3 10000/0186 2211 0003 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00187 -55800 -179.7 -111 -112.1 -93.59 -67.98 -52.41 -41.94 -27.72 -20.85 -14.36 -10.39 -6.15 -4.714 -2.621 -.9897 .461 1.569 1.345 1.313 1.36 .006 .03525 3 10000/0187 2211 0003 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00188 -55800 -2.138 -1.49 -1.028 -.7205 -.4858 -.3479 -.2661 -.1707 -.1128 -.05924 -.05444 -.03894 -.03439 -.02349 -.01569 -.01147 -.0049 -.00355 -.00004 -.00227 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0188 2211 0003 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00189 -55800 -5.28 -3.794 -2.836 -2.079 -1.418 -1.053 -.8419 -.5649 -.4295 -.2982 -.2029 -.1484 -.1031 -.04884 -.04802 -.03444 -.02154 -.01068 -.00325 .00227 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0189 2211 0003 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00190 -55800 -17.13 -13.41 -10.19 -7.734 -5.672 -4.182 -3.168 -2.067 -1.498 -1.041 -.7971 -.438 -.3327 -.1922 -.1067 -.248 -.09028 -.02964 -.00212 -.02212 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0190 2211 0003 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00191 -55500 -64.9 -52.38 -41.52 -30.9 -20.19 -15.71 -11.57 -7.293 -4.615 -2.558 -2.084 -1.068 -2.453 -1.443 .5644 .2918 .8623 .5372 .5157 1.407 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0191 2211 0003 00013Z OPR REF M 5a 5+ #00192 -55800 -3.247 -2.525 -2.013 -1.333 -.8391 -.6788 -.3129 -.2794 -.05613 -.0893 -.00051 .01691 -.0788 -.08817 -.1392 -.08608 -.06555 -.04046 -.03946 -.1179 .006 .3525 3 10000/0192 TEM 24 2211 0004 00001H HDR REF M 5a 8+ 00192 221103 0 0 0 3 2.6 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 10000/0192 Comment: 0 00192 221103 0 0 0 3 2.6 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 10000/0192 2211 0004 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00194 -169000 -381.5 -376.9 -248.9 -161.8 -93.65 -54.56 -30.9 -17.6 -9.889 -5.614 -2.878 -1.794 -1.042 -.55 -.3489 -.2462 -.1363 -.07755 -.04119 -.0271 .0026 .006813 3 1600/0194 2211 0004 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00195 -169000 -2358 -1707 -1151 -659.8 -383 -219.1 -125.2 -71.14 -40.11 -22.71 -12.12 -7.479 -4.266 -2.27 -1.445 -.8724 -.5 -.2826 -.16 -.09537 .0026 .006813 3 1600/0195 2211 0004 00003H HDR REF u 3a 8+ 00195 221103 0 0 0 1 2.6 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 1600/0195 Comment: 0 00195 221103 0 0 0 1 2.6 40 40 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 1600/0195

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61 Appendix A (Continued) 2211 0004 00003Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00197 -63400 -192.7 -128.3 -86.29 -52.95 -30.34 -17.74 -10.12 -5.703 -3.231 -1.815 -.8203 -.5015 -.286 -.144 -.09201 -.09874 -.04972 -.0289 -.01455 -.0111 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0197 2211 0004 00004Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00198 -63400 -889.3 -511.1 -348.1 -213 -124.2 -72.11 -41.08 -23.3 -13.06 -7.385 -3.817 -2.425 -1.316 -.7319 -.4524 -.3043 -.1721 -.09813 -.0601 -.03453 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0198 2211 0004 00005Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00199 -63100 -2424 -2226 -1443 -864.5 -502.4 -290.6 -165.2 -93.51 -52.77 -29.95 -15.98 -9.842 -5.598 -2.991 -1.937 -1.102 -.6162 -.366 -.2121 -.1549 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0199 2211 0004 00006Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00200 -63100 -13330 -7547 -6414 -3915 -1801 -1159 -640.4 -370 -205.4 -117.1 -65.79 -38.78 -22.82 -11.96 -7.689 -4.337 -2.43 -1.612 -.9431 -.5762 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0200 2211 0004 00007Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00201 -61900 -7.474 -4.866 -2.995 -1.853 -1.119 -.6956 -.4317 -.2423 -.1691 -.1038 -.05997 -.03393 -.02729 -.0173 -.01856 -.00459 -.00395 -.00423 -.00289 -.00021 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0201 2211 0004 00008Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00202 -61900 -27.63 -17.26 -11.06 -6.779 -3.994 -2.545 -1.583 -.8943 -.6059 -.363 -.1962 -.1393 -.08555 -.06508 -.0414 -.02796 -.01646 -.01783 -.01104 -.00091 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0202 2211 0004 00009Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00203 -61900 -109.1 -68.39 -42.52 -26.13 -15.82 -9.848 -5.992 -3.833 -2.122 -1.487 -.8422 -.5633 -.3315 -.2113 -.1475 -.1171 -.04447 -.05794 -.01647 -.04394 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0203 2211 0004 00010Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00204 -61600 -1.867 -1.178 -.7521 -.4395 -.3266 -.2078 -.1278 -.07568 -.03792 -.03989 -.02847 -.01431 -.01194 -.00984 -.00421 -.00371 -.00381 -.00302 -.00211 -.00084 .0026 8.81E-2 1 1600/0204 2211 0004 00011Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00205 -61600 -4.069 -2.648 -1.716 -1.174 -.7027 -.4401 -.2507 -.2385 -.08353 -.1039 -.04144 -.04455 -.03125 -.03556 -.01036 .00308 -.01147 -.0159 -.00048 -.00407 .0026 8.81E-2 1 1600/0205 2211 0004 00012Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00206 -61600 -13.08 -8.942 -5.353 -3.775 -2.521 -1.349 -.8574 -.5763 -.3975 -.1781 -.2303 -.1062 -.128 .01333 -.01329 .003 .03243 .00224 .00373 -.00565 .0026 8.81E-2 1 1600/0206 TEM 25 2211 0005 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00207 -59600 -197.7 -107.6 -65.06 -37.69 -20.16 -11.82 -6.762 -3.922 -2.26 -1.301 -.5312 -.3623 -.2077 -.11 -.07117 -.07639 -.05394 -.0248 -.01633 -.01024 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0207 2211 0005 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00208 -59600 -814.3 -405.4 -257.7 -150.1 -82.68 -47.98 -27.28 -15.81 -9.032 -5.287 -2.724 -1.714 -1.048 -.5724 -.369 -.2666 -.1538 -.09319 -.05955 -.0422 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0208 2211 0005 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00209 -59300 -3044 -1706 -1059 -605.4 -337.2 -194.2 -110.9 -64.22 -36.77 -21.38 -11.4 -7.405 -4.345 -2.303 -1.555 -.9854 -.563 -.3197 -.1963 -.1074 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0209 2211 0005 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00210 -59300 -14330 -5292 -4524 -2423 -1323 -707.3 -437.2 -259.3 -147.2 -84 -47.79 -28.64 -17.46 -9.22 -6.248 -3.699 -2.161 -1.362 -.7446 -.5354 .0026 .006813 1 1600/0210 2211 0005 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00211 -57800 -5.409 -3.541 -2.145 -1.349 -.8398 -.528 -.3162 -.1932 -.1164 -.07268 -.05028 -.02887 -.02132 -.0137 -.01206 -.00285 -.00296 -.00489 -.00266 -.00051 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0211 2211 0005 00006Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00212 -57600 -5.455 -3.489 -2.178 -1.432 -.8753 -.53 -.3501 -.2141 -.1474 -.07822 -.04926 -.0362 -.02891 -.01873 -.01148 -.00668 -.00156 -.00181 -.00141 .00047 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0212

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62 Appendix A (Continued) 2211 0005 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00213 -57600 -73.01 -47.53 -29.61 -18.4 -11.74 -7.105 -4.432 -2.738 -1.873 -1.019 -.6016 -.5135 -.3606 -.1893 -.1696 -.1075 -.0362 -.04745 -.02898 .00808 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0213 2211 0005 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00214 -57600 -310.6 -185.4 -115.1 -74.02 -44.33 -28.29 -18.02 -12.21 -5.696 -4.489 -3.314 -1.559 -1.495 -.454 -.3529 -.2004 -.455 -.09406 -.09527 .02479 .0026 .03525 1 1600/0214 2211 0005 00009Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00215 -57800 -3.237 -2.253 -1.45 -.883 -.7064 -.3971 -.2711 -.1393 -.1007 -.08094 -.05359 -.0254 -.00744 -.01074 -.01579 -.00618 -.00415 .00602 -.00359 .00966 .0026 8.81E-2 1 1600/0215 2211 0005 00010Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00216 -59800 -10.5 -7.221 -4.776 -2.941 -1.797 -1.192 -.6827 -.5099 -.3375 -.2098 -.1423 -.08526 -.1266 -.03568 -.06271 -.03956 -.02093 -.0356 .0074 -.00099 .0026 8.81E-2 1 1600/0216 XXXXXX -59800 -10.5 -7.221 -4.776 -2.941 -1.797 -1.192 -.6827 -.5099 -.3375 -.2098 -.1423 -.08526 -.1266 -.03568 -.06271 -.03956 -.02093 -.0356 .0074 -.00099 .0026 8.81E-2 1 1600/0216 TEM 26 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 2311 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 231103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 63 0/ / Comment: 0 / 231103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 63 0/ / 2311 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00218 -61900 -346.6 -150 -54.1 -26.99 -13.87 -9.819 -6.219 -3.904 -2.371 -1.476 -.7373 -.4978 -.3194 -.1919 -.1267 -.1284 -.07831 -.04585 -.02878 -.02128 .006 .006813 3 10000/0218 2311 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00219 -61600 -1466 -592.7 -206.4 -103.9 -58.16 -39.97 -25.05 -15.79 -9.654 -6.019 -3.459 -2.317 -1.49 -.8422 -.5997 -.4276 -.2797 -.17 -.1145 -.05086 .006 .006813 3 10000/0219 2311 0001 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00220 -61600 -7258 -2800 -775.6 -368.8 -239.8 -161.2 -102.2 -63.74 -38.94 -24.23 -14.59 -9.4 -5.887 -3.547 -2.453 -1.653 -1.075 -.6807 -.436 -.2498 .006 .006813 3 10000/0220 2311 0001 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00221 -61600 -13670 -9453 -4135 -1517 -902.8 -757.9 -385.8 -248.9 -150.6 -94.27 -59.22 -37.92 -23.91 -13.99 -9.83 -6.44 -4.19 -2.694 -1.655 -1.136 .006 .006813 3 10000/0221 2311 0001 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00222 -57600 -5.321 -3.615 -2.381 -1.648 -1.01 -.6788 -.4995 -.3034 -.2134 -.132 -.1028 -.06199 -.04978 -.03343 -.02541 -.01231 -.01009 -.00516 -.00361 -.00081 .006 .03525 3 10000/0222 2311 0001 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00223 -58300 -18.22 -12.42 -8.256 -5.538 -3.753 -2.616 -1.627 -1.086 -.7153 -.5906 -.3463 -.2807 -.1802 -.1305 -.1086 -.04997 -.02728 -.0272 -.01482 -.00925 .006 .03525 3 10000/0223 2311 0001 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00224 -58300 -72.51 -49.8 -32.81 -22.17 -14.5 -9.876 -6.581 -4.431 -3.078 -2.175 -1.615 -1.035 -.7155 -.5274 -.3243 -.201 -.1166 -.06872 -.06228 .00389 .006 .03525 3 10000/0224 2311 0001 00008Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00225

PAGE 70

63 Appendix A (Continued) -46100 -288.6 -605 -471.8 -238.4 -144.4 -103.3 -67.98 -43.57 -27.16 -17.56 -10.53 -6.962 -4.387 -2.633 -1.811 -1.173 -.7954 -.4927 -.3222 -.2338 .006 .006813 3 10000/0225 2311 0001 00009Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00226 -48400 -14.07 -9.775 -6.973 -4.548 -3.035 -2.134 -1.458 -.939 -.5892 -.4656 -.3305 -.1799 -.169 -.07643 -.0799 -.05034 -.03324 -.00909 -.00851 -.00697 .006 .03525 3 10000/0226 2311 0001 00010Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00227 -48200 -55.33 -37.69 -25.87 -17.74 -12.58 -7.676 -5.45 -3.427 -2.399 -1.793 -1.196 -.9064 -.5588 -.3678 -.2598 -.1513 -.1159 -.09359 -.03135 .01364 .006 .03525 3 10000/0227 2311 0001 00011Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00228 -47900 -211.6 -149.4 -100.5 -68.59 -46.73 -31.96 -20.98 -12.54 -10.98 -7.101 -4.293 -3.09 -2.979 -1.562 -.8564 -.9176 -.5354 -.1052 -.2545 -.03809 .006 .03525 3 10000/0228 2311 0001 00012Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00229 -48200 -3.389 -2.456 -1.622 -1.074 -.8069 -.5289 -.3654 -.2941 -.1937 -.1366 -.1035 -.05778 -.03832 -.03314 -.01055 -.01284 -.00648 -.00437 .0076 .00022 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0229 2311 0001 00013Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00230 -49900 -11.19 -8.033 -5.69 -3.695 -2.773 -1.906 -1.355 -1.035 -.6444 -.4462 -.3148 -.1966 -.05915 -.1972 -.06384 -.04974 -.05868 -.00108 -.01925 -.01798 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0230 XXXXXX -49900 -11.19 -8.033 -5.69 -3.695 -2.773 -1.906 -1.355 -1.035 -.6444 -.4462 -.3148 -.1966 -.05915 -.1972 -.06384 -.04974 -.05868 -.00108 -.01925 -.01798 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0230 TEM 27 Data from Geonics TEM58 RX. / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/ / 2411 0001 00001H HDR REF a 8+RXA=31.4m*m / 241103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 64 0/ / Comment: 0 / 241103 0 0 0 3 6 100 100 0 0 31.4 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 64 0/ / 2411 0001 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00232 61400 -142.3 -34.74 1.351 5.681 6.151 4.869 3.575 2.509 1.762 1.202 .9661 .6579 .4363 .2818 .1858 .08104 .06095 .03903 .02365 .01399 .006 .006813 3 10000/0232 2411 0001 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00233 59300 -655.8 -150.2 7.91 24.89 23.61 19.54 14.3 10.05 7.097 4.828 3.51 2.398 1.559 .9566 .7569 .3999 .2836 .17 .1296 .05773 .006 .006813 3 10000/0233 2411 0001 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00234 61600 -2859 -616.9 34.91 102.6 95.56 77.85 57.16 40.45 28.34 19.86 13.48 9.192 6.408 3.947 2.744 1.833 1.201 .7224 .4687 .2811 .006 .006813 3 10000/0234 2411 0001 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00235 61600 -9978 -4687 213.7 420 362.2 401.7 218.6 149.3 109.7 78.19 52.83 36.87 24.92 15.96 11.2 7.043 4.929 3.027 1.796 1.264 .006 .006813 3 10000/0235 2411 0001 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00236 63400 1.998 1.601 1.234 .9796 .7459 .5428 .3908 .3032 .1828 .1529 .09728 .07705 .04926 .03372 .01994 .01306 .00701 .00647 .00319 .00195 .006 .03525 3 10000/0236 2411 0001 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00237 54500 8.708 6.807 5.01 3.837 2.732 2.058 1.453 .9511 .7183 .522 .3171 .2364 .1791 .1396 .1002 .0485 .02728 .02488 .01706 .00305 .006 .03525 3 10000/0237 2411 0001 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00238

PAGE 71

64 Appendix A (Continued) 51700 37.02 28.93 21.36 15.55 11.66 8.732 5.54 4.396 2.912 2 1.487 .953 .6529 .4335 .2372 .2037 .1129 .121 .0724 .06181 .006 .03525 3 10000/0238 2411 0001 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00239 51500 144.8 113.7 86.4 63.97 43.97 34.11 26.22 14.61 10.97 8.647 5.566 4.162 2.563 1.789 1.335 .7391 .7579 .4726 .3961 .2129 .006 .03525 3 10000/0239 2411 0001 00009Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00240 51500 149.2 113.3 85.64 64.54 46.73 32.99 23.51 15.92 11.96 8.188 5.574 4.001 2.848 2.097 1.487 .7467 .6753 .4772 .1831 .23 .006 .03525 3 10000/0240 2411 0001 00010Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00241 51500 -.3703 -.1944 -.09381 -.01949 .03518 .04047 .02814 .02848 .02428 .02719 .01062 .00736 .01011 -.00074 .00338 -.00217 .0013 -.00048 .00164 -.00176 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0241 2411 0001 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00242 49700 9.112 6.886 5.145 3.865 2.667 1.881 1.358 1.057 .7335 .5071 .3519 .2942 .2004 .1226 .1398 .08804 .05108 .05614 .01792 .05995 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0242 2411 0001 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00243 49200 37.81 30.14 21.71 13.93 12.73 7.533 5.744 4.149 3.217 1.946 1.324 .8798 .632 .6828 .3433 .3245 .1519 .2086 .08195 -.00369 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0243 TEM 28 2411 0002 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00244 -43300 65 13.48 -1.708 -3.894 -2.632 -2.227 -1.489 -.9459 -.6129 -.4061 -.1019 -.116 -.1004 -.08207 -.06066 -.08444 -.05237 -.03411 -.02215 -.01232 .006 .006813 3 10000/0244 2411 0002 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00245 -51200 279.2 60.93 -5.706 -14.55 -12.8 -9.791 -6.536 -4.131 -2.662 -1.782 -.9661 -.8131 -.6163 -.4087 -.3128 -.2629 -.183 -.1129 -.08441 -.05881 .006 .006813 3 10000/0245 2411 0002 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00246 -51200 1089 241.5 -38.19 -58.62 -54.48 -39.37 -26.81 -16.77 -10.88 -7.57 -4.447 -3.64 -2.506 -1.88 -1.274 -1.021 -.6576 -.4834 -.2762 -.1996 .006 .006813 3 10000/0246 2411 0002 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00247 -51200 4981 2653 -390.3 -392.5 -240.1 -144.2 -111.6 -67.21 -42.85 -29.78 -19 -14.36 -10.95 -6.989 -5.876 -3.79 -2.95 -1.874 -1.143 -.8772 .006 .006813 3 10000/0247 2411 0002 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00248 -43300 -2.119 -1.434 -.937 -.7228 -.4901 -.3519 -.2601 -.1679 -.1383 -.08289 -.07471 -.0384 -.03109 -.02042 -.02222 -.00416 -.00896 -.00508 -.00585 -.00275 .006 .03525 3 10000/0248 2411 0002 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00249 -45900 -5.621 -3.906 -2.682 -2.026 -1.417 -1.07 -.7443 -.5872 -.4216 -.3319 -.2489 -.1873 -.1461 -.1034 -.05268 -.05607 -.04741 -.01741 -.00644 -.01129 .006 .03525 3 10000/0249 2411 0002 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00250 -45900 -20.4 -13.71 -9.135 -7.448 -5.377 -3.811 -2.896 -2.208 -1.609 -1.214 -.9322 -.7166 -.4723 -.286 -.2944 -.1268 -.1002 -.02684 -.01981 -.03685 .006 .03525 3 10000/0250 2411 0002 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00251 -45900 -77.46 -52.07 -40 -26.23 -20.53 -15.86 -10.89 -9.671 -7.443 -5.309 -3.715 -3.278 -2.448 -2.175 -.8179 -.8548 -.3014 .04207 .2133 .0202 .006 .03525 3 10000/0251 2411 0002 00009Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00252 -45100 -1.955 -1.522 -1.063 -.7626 -.4927 -.4122 -.3311 -.2088 -.151 -.106 -.07454 -.0669 -.05146 -.02911 -.02856 -.00567 -.01625 -.0161 -.0076 -.00243 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0252 2411 0002 00010Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00253 -45100 -5.006 -3.915 -2.973 -2.106 -1.799 -1.244 -.9016 -.7887 -.6109 -.4141 -.2468 -.2738 -.1448 -.09885 -.04747 -.04495 -.03259 -.03756 -.02446 -.01378 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0253 2411 0002 00011Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00254

PAGE 72

65 Appendix A (Continued) -45100 -17.13 -14.85 -11.3 -8.923 -6.998 -5.471 -4.703 -3.78 -3.259 -2.514 -2.05 -1.256 -.8827 -1.059 -1.18 -.2943 -.4175 -.6283 -.1963 -.4673 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0254 TEM 29 2411 0003 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00255 -59600 71.53 16.66 -.6963 -2.595 -1.696 -1.617 -1.22 -.8186 -.5882 -.4714 -.1664 -.197 -.1741 -.1332 -.1045 -.1233 -.0761 -.05759 -.03184 -.02178 .006 .006813 3 10000/0255 2411 0003 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00256 -69000 341.9 86.24 .7189 -10.3 -10.52 -7.105 -5.54 -3.586 -2.718 -2.044 -1.29 -1.169 -.8983 -.6255 -.5163 -.4024 -.3073 -.1962 -.1321 -.08355 .006 .006813 3 10000/0256 2411 0003 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00257 -69000 1484 294.5 12.59 -46.94 -47.61 -29.55 -22.09 -14.56 -11.78 -7.799 -5.711 -5.055 -3.847 -2.74 -2.34 -1.721 -1.121 -.8475 -.5496 -.3656 .006 .006813 3 10000/0257 2411 0003 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00258 -69000 8076 2590 -52 -512.7 -133.8 -136.2 -84.43 -58.22 -41.13 -28.68 -21.65 -17.2 -12.11 -8.783 -5.841 -3.638 -1.292 -.8382 -.08165 .1865 .006 .006813 3 10000/0258 2411 0003 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00259 -71600 -2.048 -1.476 -1.047 -.7958 -.6384 -.437 -.371 -.2399 -.2128 -.1509 -.1174 -.07845 -.06723 -.03638 -.03487 -.01372 -.01254 -.00878 -.00418 -.00334 .006 .03525 3 10000/0259 2411 0003 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00260 -61100 -4.88 -3.93 -2.769 -2.334 -1.79 -1.426 -1.081 -.9035 -.6727 -.4969 -.3769 -.2919 -.2216 -.1485 -.1052 -.0608 -.04654 -.02741 -.00109 .01392 .006 .03525 3 10000/0260 2411 0003 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00261 -60800 -18.12 -13.26 -10.59 -8.827 -6.224 -5.041 -4.929 -3.109 -2.718 -2.077 -1.641 -1.109 -1.216 -1.067 -.4749 -.2148 -.07792 -.1354 -.0197 -.1406 .006 .03525 3 10000/0261 2411 0003 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00262 -60800 -69.64 -45.94 -37.72 -29.51 -23.47 -19.97 -16.33 -11.22 -8.298 -6.259 -4.874 -3.788 -2.437 -1.335 1.5 .05158 .6851 1.633 2.402 1.703 .006 .03525 3 10000/0262 2411 0003 00009Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00263 -60800 -2.582 -1.795 -1.474 -1.11 -.8636 -.6285 -.5293 -.3241 -.2697 -.2071 -.1417 -.1298 .02812 -.06303 -.03686 -.03847 -.00496 -.05211 -.00991 -.07581 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0263 2411 0003 00010Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00264 -60600 -7.119 -4.673 -4.997 -3.188 -3.987 -2.005 -1.803 -1.05 -1.35 -.7033 -.7576 -.8532 -.08366 -.03507 -.06744 .2161 .2046 -.1531 .02855 -.04428 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0264 2411 0003 00011Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00265 -60600 -27.33 -16.51 -18.78 -10.06 -9.533 -9.304 -6.762 -6.481 -4.171 1.137 2.938 1.579 2.611 2.118 2.986 3.04 3.309 5.389 3.762 3.031 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0265 TEM 30 2411 0004 00001Z OPR REF u 1a 5+ #00266 58300 -41.87 .08069 7.207 4.485 3.459 2.319 1.802 1.447 1.216 .9742 .9237 .7014 .5206 .3642 .2733 .1521 .1162 .07816 .0581 .03662 .006 .006813 3 10000/0266 2411 0004 00002Z OPR REF u 3a 5+ #00267 58300 -160.1 5.371 31.83 18.74 12.4 8.56 6.739 5.491 4.642 3.792 3.177 2.525 1.885 1.323 1.038 .6964 .502 .3536 .24 .152 .006 .006813 3 10000/0267 2411 0004 00003Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00268 58100 -675.3 63.77 131.3 74.97 48.6 33.77 26.74 21.69 18.19 15.13 12.07 9.775 7.445 5.56 4.102 2.957 2.087 1.455 .9842 .6693 .006 .006813 3 10000/0268 2411 0004 00004Z OPR REF u 7a 5+ #00269

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66 Appendix A (Continued) 58100 -3870 370.1 797 173.2 223.2 97.22 108.6 87.31 71.87 59.87 48.33 38.5 29.1 20.99 16.04 11.56 7.952 5.616 4.22 2.653 .006 .006813 3 10000/0269 2411 0004 00005Z OPR REF v 1a 5+ #00270 60100 .5955 .7091 .8934 .7664 .7151 .631 .4854 .4084 .3224 .2425 .1884 .1393 .09893 .08064 .04294 .03663 .01672 .01138 .00863 .00369 .006 .03525 3 10000/0270 2411 0004 00006Z OPR REF v 3a 5+ #00271 49900 4.475 4.343 3.963 3.318 2.867 2.354 1.861 1.562 1.152 .8717 .6392 .5046 .3428 .2577 .16 .1144 .06845 .04784 .03056 .0244 .006 .03525 3 10000/0271 2411 0004 00007Z OPR REF v 5a 5+ #00272 51200 22.38 18.25 16.97 14.74 11.92 9.589 8.362 6.481 4.227 3.792 2.656 2.116 1.495 1.001 .5901 .493 .3506 .2101 .01439 .07667 .006 .03525 3 10000/0272 2411 0004 00008Z OPR REF v 7a 5+ #00273 51000 87.65 77.99 67.58 61.14 47.79 39.43 33.5 23.97 19.08 14.5 9.547 7.985 4.671 3.865 2.631 1.407 1.314 .6437 .6477 .3989 .006 .03525 3 10000/0273 2411 0004 00009Z OPR REF H 1a 5+ #00274 51000 -.2748 -.07013 .07925 .1333 .1288 .1346 .07242 .082 .03834 .05402 .02779 .00742 .0109 .00156 .00624 -.0008 .00597 .00616 .00807 .00636 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0274 2411 0004 00010Z OPR REF H 3a 5+ #00275 51000 1.724 1.73 1.427 1.17 1.125 .7064 .6154 .5083 .3713 .2202 .158 .1407 .06305 .06536 .00663 .0301 .0145 .01044 .00573 .01006 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0275 2411 0004 00011Z OPR REF H 5a 5+ #00276 50700 15.36 -2.289 7.207 7.162 5.303 3.124 4.59 -.06497 2.732 1.892 .6361 -.4796 1.127 -.3198 .03552 -.07185 .1636 .2024 .03508 .1292 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0276 2411 0004 00012Z OPR REF H 7a 5+ #00277 50700 78.45 82.76 2.581 54.28 -18.5 43.06 -10.41 15.69 .6217 11.88 4.541 1.714 1.179 -1.15 3.924 -.9377 -.00981 .673 .9044 -.1666 .006 8.81E-2 3 10000/0277 2411 0004 00013Z OPR REF u 5a 5+ #00278 49200 -243.8 85.34 134.3 72.16 48.05 32.48 26.36 21.3 17.87 14.85 11.7 9.508 7.24 5.172 4.008 2.767 2 1.408 .9503 .618 .006 .006813 3 10000/0278 XXXXXX 49200 -243.8 85.34 134.3 72.16 48.05 32.48 26.36 21.3 17.87 14.85 11.7 9.508 7.24 5.172 4.008 2.767 2 1.408 .9503 .618 .006 .006813 3 10000/0278

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67 Appendix B: EINVRT 6 DATA TEM Sounding 1 Northing 1326524 Easting 592483 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 3.88876200E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1112.87792969 1148.99011230 1077.90063477 61.32877731 69.78953552 53.89373398 2.42693806 9.69806099 0.60734081 51.28548050 53.65629578 49.01942062 123.32608032 128.24496460 118.59585571 v-matrix 0.1267-0.2026 0.9668-0.0526 0.0744 -0.4154-0.5296-0.1134-0.6848 0.2552 0.1010 0.0030-0.0691 0.3004 0.9459 -0.6984-0.3272 0.0659 0.6222-0.1171 -0.5598 0.7559 0.2084-0.2258 0.1443 1.0000 0.9999 0.9965 0.9811 0.0670 final result: field model pct diff time window 38.3 37.4 2.3 2.7920 44.4 43.6 1.9 2.1900 49.9 50.9 -2.0 1.7190 59.3 60.4 -2.0 1.3490 71.7 72.6 -1.2 1.0590 91.7 87.8 4.3 0.8323 104.8 105.7 -0.8 0.6543 124.6 125.2 -0.4 0.5148 143.1 142.8 0.2 0.4055 155.1 155.0 0.0 0.3198 161.9 160.5 0.9 0.2525 164.4 161.9 1.5 0.1998 164.6 162.1 1.5 0.1583 166.0 166.7 -0.4 0.1258 171.4 175.5 -2.4 0.1003 184.2 189.5 -2.9 0.0803 203.2 208.9 -2.8 0.0648 231.4 233.9 -1.1 0.0525 268.0 265.0 1.1 0.0428 313.5 301.3 3.9 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1112.87792969 layer 2 resistivity= 61.32877731 layer 3 resistivity= 2.42693806 layer 1 thickness= 51.28548050 168.25944519 layer 2 thickness= 123.32608032 404.61312866 rcsq= 0.00010 l1= 0.00731 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 13 54 13

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68 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 2 Northing 1327235 Easting 591925 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.03447317E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1291.78955078 1354.84448242 1231.66906738 25.56589890 27.13841057 24.08450699 49.06314468 186.16770935 12.93023491 141.45539856 142.14356995 140.77055359 76.11779022 286.07443237 20.25318336 v-matrix -0.3069 0.6771-0.1074 0.6596-0.0283 -0.2626 0.6017-0.0722-0.7507 0.0192 -0.5296-0.1819 0.4304-0.0200-0.7077 -0.4965-0.3350-0.8001-0.0186-0.0284 -0.5567-0.1852 0.3974 0.0261 0.7051 1.0000 0.9979 0.9590 0.0331 0.0001 final result: field model pct diff time window 91.3 77.8 14.8 2.7920 72.8 79.1 -8.7 2.1900 81.1 80.8 0.4 1.7190 86.5 84.9 1.8 1.3490 91.5 91.0 0.6 1.0590 101.6 99.2 2.3 0.8323 111.7 110.7 0.9 0.6543 124.4 125.6 -0.9 0.5148 141.2 145.2 -2.9 0.4055 168.5 169.9 -0.9 0.3198 201.8 204.0 -1.0 0.2525 247.9 248.1 -0.1 0.1998 304.4 305.3 -0.3 0.1583 375.8 378.0 -0.6 0.1258 465.6 469.5 -0.8 0.1003 579.2 583.2 -0.7 0.0803 719.9 720.3 -0.1 0.0648 882.8 886.5 -0.4 0.0525 1092.9 1086.2 0.6 0.0428 1316.6 1310.2 0.5 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1291.78955078 layer 2 resistivity= 25.56589890 layer 3 resistivity= 49.06314468 layer 1 thickness= 141.45539856 464.09249878 layer 2 thickness= 76.11779022 249.73028564 rcsq= 0.00044 l1= 0.00871 iterations completed= 3 time at end= 15 48 38

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69 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 3 Northing 1327689 Easting 591987 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.49687482E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1954.00000000 2065.32983398 1848.67126465 22.00000191 23.61010170 20.49970245 14.00000095 20.99141121 9.33715248 172.00001526 172.56266785 171.43919373 84.00000763 92.73737335 76.08584595 v-matrix -0.1102 0.7967-0.4954 0.3140-0.0948 -0.0953-0.4243-0.8489-0.2427 0.1771 0.0241 0.1292 0.0989 0.1318 0.9775 -0.9886-0.0323 0.1414-0.0361 0.0192 0.0302 0.4092 0.0643-0.9076 0.0611 1.0000 0.9783 0.9535 0.8622 0.2982 final result: field model pct diff time window 59.8 70.0 -17.0 2.7920 76.6 76.7 -0.1 2.1900 94.8 85.2 10.1 1.7190 105.6 96.3 8.8 1.3490 116.4 110.5 5.0 1.0590 130.7 128.3 1.8 0.8323 154.3 149.3 3.2 0.6543 177.7 177.7 0.1 0.5148 210.5 211.5 -0.5 0.4055 252.0 253.5 -0.6 0.3198 307.9 306.3 0.5 0.2525 369.5 372.9 -0.9 0.1998 449.7 459.3 -2.1 0.1583 555.7 565.6 -1.8 0.1258 699.2 706.9 -1.1 0.1003 865.0 887.1 -2.5 0.0803 1087.9 1109.1 -2.0 0.0648 1361.0 1383.5 -1.7 0.0525 1703.3 1718.4 -0.9 0.0428 2230.3 2098.6 5.9 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1954.00000000 layer 2 resistivity= 22.00000191 layer 3 resistivity= 14.00000095 layer 1 thickness= 172.00001526 564.30450439 layer 2 thickness= 84.00000763 275.59057617 rcsq= 0.00069 l1= 0.01443 iterations completed= 0 time at end= 6 51 45

PAGE 77

70 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 4 Northing 1325187 Easting 590327 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 8.85149390E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1109.00024414 1121.77075195 1096.37524414 88.59999847 90.33428955 86.89900208 143.40002441 144.79930115 142.01425171 v-matrix 0.3338-0.9246 0.1835 0.5307 0.0234-0.8472 0.7791 0.3802 0.4985 1.0000 0.9990 0.9955 final result: field model pct diff time window 186.2 162.1 13.0 1.7190 158.7 167.8 -5.7 1.3490 202.5 177.6 12.3 1.0590 186.5 190.2 -2.0 0.8323 215.9 205.4 4.9 0.6543 221.8 224.2 -1.1 0.5148 243.3 247.2 -1.6 0.4055 267.9 274.0 -2.3 0.3198 295.3 308.5 -4.4 0.2525 338.5 350.2 -3.4 0.1998 389.3 400.9 -3.0 0.1583 455.2 462.2 -1.5 0.1258 532.8 536.2 -0.6 0.1003 625.4 625.1 0.0 0.0803 729.5 728.4 0.2 0.0648 860.3 848.5 1.4 0.0525 993.5 985.5 0.8 0.0428 1155.4 1129.4 2.3 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1109.00024414 layer 2 resistivity= 88.59999847 layer 1 thickness= 143.40002441 470.47250366 rcsq= 0.00061 l1= 0.01494 iterations completed= 0 time at end= 8 38 41

PAGE 78

71 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 5 Northing 1324863 Easting 591718 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 6.49308562E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1734.46313477 1856.07067871 1620.82312012 99.30870819 105.34701538 93.61650848 3.81691694 4.11716461 3.53856516 218.74584961 222.80007935 214.76539612 105.84070587 107.17465210 104.52336121 v-matrix -0.4589 0.0682-0.0594-0.7467-0.4731 -0.0784 0.0835 0.7670 0.3342-0.5357 -0.0768 0.3929 0.5515-0.3633 0.6353 -0.7402-0.5591 0.0975 0.2109 0.2923 -0.4791 0.7221-0.3076 0.3929-0.0128 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998 0.9986 final result: field model pct diff time window 122.2 133.6 -9.3 2.7920 202.9 194.4 4.2 1.7190 234.8 235.3 -0.2 1.3490 287.1 295.4 -2.9 1.0590 464.9 458.1 1.5 0.6543 575.0 576.0 -0.2 0.5148 721.0 710.8 1.4 0.4055 865.4 852.8 1.5 0.3198 936.1 980.1 -4.7 0.2525 1128.2 1078.8 4.4 0.1998 1094.0 1148.3 -5.0 0.1583 1193.4 1211.3 -1.5 0.1258 1390.9 1291.1 7.2 0.1003 1441.4 1402.2 2.7 0.0803 1577.1 1565.7 0.7 0.0648 1715.9 1769.5 -3.1 0.0525 1894.5 1997.3 -5.4 0.0428 1992.4 2210.8 -11.0 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1734.46313477 layer 2 resistivity= 99.30870819 layer 3 resistivity= 3.81691694 layer 1 thickness= 218.74584961 717.67010498 layer 2 thickness= 105.84070587 347.24639893 rcsq= 0.00056 l1= 0.01590 iterations completed= 5 time at end= 19 4 45

PAGE 79

72 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 6 Northing 1325700 Easting 591970 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 0.13445368 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1452.07958984 1480.79748535 1423.91857910 239.29620361 244.56399536 234.14189148 71.16038513 305.78323364 16.56009865 243.05577087 249.51628113 236.76254272 151.26618958 333.01931763 68.70910645 v-matrix -0.7187-0.0210-0.6901 0.0809-0.0164 -0.6947 0.0568 0.7096-0.1027 0.0047 -0.0134 0.0379 0.0529 0.5157 0.8542 -0.0245-0.9961 0.0508-0.0312 0.0595 -0.0084-0.0509 0.1217 0.8462-0.5162 1.0000 0.6919 0.4187 0.0049 0.0002 final result: field model pct diff time window 233.1 209.7 10.0 2.7920 263.4 229.5 12.9 2.1900 238.1 269.5 -13.2 1.7190 592.1 545.5 7.9 0.5148 722.0 635.6 12.0 0.4055 662.5 736.3 -11.1 0.3198 861.9 844.5 2.0 0.2525 1026.5 954.5 7.0 0.1998 1060.1 1063.6 -0.3 0.1583 1220.4 1171.4 4.0 0.1258 1294.3 1281.8 1.0 0.1003 1339.9 1398.4 -4.4 0.0803 1465.3 1517.3 -3.6 0.0648 1594.4 1632.7 -2.4 0.0525 1629.6 1734.3 -6.4 0.0428 1660.4 1811.6 -9.1 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1452.07958984 layer 2 resistivity= 239.29620361 layer 3 resistivity= 71.16038513 layer 1 thickness= 243.05577087 797.42706299 layer 2 thickness= 151.26618958 496.28015137 rcsq= 0.00175 l1= 0.02932 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 20 20 53

PAGE 80

73 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 7 Northing 1325804 Easting 595709 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 0.12513150 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 313.09045410 313.78561401 312.39685059 147.37446594 152.35807800 142.55386353 25.11103821 25.87099648 24.37340355 46.00000381 fixed parameter 86.21862793 93.53477478 79.47473907 v-matrix -0.9934 0.0673-0.0780 0.0493 -0.0781-0.4389 0.8292 0.3371 0.0088-0.7607-0.5450 0.3525 -0.0829-0.4736 0.0959-0.8716 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 final result: field model pct diff time window 87.8 82.1 6.4 0.6959 98.9 93.4 5.6 0.5456 108.4 106.2 2.0 0.4277 127.0 121.6 4.2 0.3352 134.8 139.6 -3.6 0.2628 172.6 160.4 7.1 0.2060 192.0 180.3 6.1 0.1664 208.8 206.3 1.2 0.1267 224.2 227.2 -1.4 0.0994 263.8 243.7 7.6 0.0779 242.3 255.3 -5.3 0.0611 256.3 263.8 -2.9 0.0479 271.5 272.3 -0.3 0.0376 289.4 283.9 1.9 0.0294 309.5 299.9 3.1 0.0231 334.3 321.2 3.9 0.0181 347.6 347.3 0.1 0.0142 384.0 378.3 1.5 0.0111 459.5 413.2 10.1 0.0087 395.7 452.2 -14.3 0.0068 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 313.09045410 layer 2 resistivity= 147.37446594 layer 3 resistivity= 25.11103821 layer 1 thickness= 46.00000381 150.91864014 layer 2 thickness= 86.21862793 282.86950684 rcsq= 0.00074 l1= 0.01939 iterations completed= 5 time at end= 18 42 33

PAGE 81

74 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 8 Northing 1326305 Easting 594825 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 9.30849910E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 957.34478760 1009.29760742 908.06616211 100.61487579 105.17475128 96.25269318 26.57939911 35.47103500 19.91665840 78.84240723 81.09316254 76.65412140 233.69670105 268.85641479 203.13499451 v-matrix -0.1456 0.8602 0.1335 0.4546 0.1200 -0.5938-0.2363 0.7570-0.0014 0.1361 0.0365 0.1425-0.0841-0.4629 0.8701 -0.7905 0.0248-0.5975-0.1027-0.0833 -0.0015 0.4282 0.2121-0.7540-0.4507 1.0000 0.9984 0.9949 0.9841 0.8504 final result: field model pct diff time window 122.1 127.8 -4.6 1.7190 151.8 138.6 8.7 1.3490 142.4 150.4 -5.7 1.0590 164.7 162.4 1.4 0.8323 174.0 173.4 0.4 0.6543 180.9 182.3 -0.8 0.5148 184.5 191.1 -3.6 0.4055 201.3 198.4 1.4 0.3198 208.1 209.4 -0.7 0.2525 228.6 223.5 2.2 0.1998 248.2 241.9 2.6 0.1583 268.0 265.0 1.1 0.1258 297.3 293.4 1.3 0.1003 329.2 327.8 0.4 0.0803 362.0 367.8 -1.6 0.0648 406.0 415.4 -2.3 0.0525 454.5 471.5 -3.8 0.0428 513.4 535.3 -4.3 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 957.34478760 layer 2 resistivity= 100.61487579 layer 3 resistivity= 26.57939911 layer 1 thickness= 78.84240723 258.66931152 layer 2 thickness= 233.69670105 766.72143555 rcsq= 0.00030 l1= 0.01129 iterations completed= 1 time at end= 17 31 4

PAGE 82

75 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 9 Northing 1326177 Easting 594284 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 6.38336241E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 9098.91503906 9718.63281250 8518.71484375 130.79086304 134.73233032 126.96469116 111.93248749 112.77388763 111.09736633 v-matrix 0.0478 0.1086-0.9929 0.3536 0.9279 0.1185 0.9342-0.3568 0.0059 1.0000 0.9969 0.9876 final result: field model pct diff time window 229.8 216.6 5.7 1.0590 222.9 225.7 -1.3 0.8323 243.4 239.3 1.7 0.6543 252.9 255.5 -1.0 0.5148 254.9 273.8 -7.4 0.4055 301.6 298.2 1.1 0.3198 330.6 327.5 0.9 0.2525 363.2 362.7 0.1 0.1998 403.0 405.4 -0.6 0.1583 448.2 457.0 -2.0 0.1258 497.8 519.6 -4.4 0.1003 584.9 595.6 -1.8 0.0803 681.7 686.2 -0.6 0.0648 795.5 795.6 0.0 0.0525 971.2 928.3 4.4 0.0428 1107.6 1082.5 2.3 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 9098.91503906 layer 2 resistivity= 130.79086304 layer 1 thickness= 111.93248749 367.23257446 rcsq= 0.00021 l1= 0.00958 iterations completed= 1 time at end= 19 2 44

PAGE 83

76 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 11 Northing 1323995 Easting 595063 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 0.13660671 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 951.12609863 1074.44445801 841.96154785 79.74688721 106.17813873 59.89524841 11.63359070 13.12540150 10.31133556 48.09865952 60.31246948 38.35825348 106.33586121 113.77901459 99.37962341 v-matrix -0.5281 0.3122-0.3326 0.7061-0.1205 -0.3762-0.5529-0.0604 0.0607 0.7386 -0.4241 0.3332-0.4868-0.6853 0.0499 -0.4553-0.5833 0.1221-0.1356-0.6474 -0.4387 0.3816 0.7961-0.0987 0.1355 1.0000 0.6218 0.0822 0.0146 0.0024 final result: field model pct diff time window 35.6 43.1 -21.1 1.7190 61.6 67.4 -9.4 0.8323 80.8 78.6 2.8 0.6543 92.1 91.6 0.6 0.5148 107.2 107.4 -0.2 0.4055 118.6 124.4 -4.9 0.3198 135.9 141.9 -4.4 0.2525 156.1 157.9 -1.2 0.1998 165.0 171.2 -3.8 0.1583 176.5 181.6 -2.9 0.1258 189.6 190.5 -0.5 0.1003 203.3 200.1 1.6 0.0803 213.0 211.9 0.6 0.0648 227.0 227.2 -0.1 0.0525 245.2 247.0 -0.7 0.0428 256.2 270.5 -5.6 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 951.12609863 layer 2 resistivity= 79.74688721 layer 3 resistivity= 11.63359070 layer 1 thickness= 48.09865952 157.80400085 layer 2 thickness= 106.33586121 348.87094116 rcsq= 0.00095 l1= 0.01556 iterations completed= 1 time at end= 15 6 36

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77 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 12 Northing 1324507 Easting 594507 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 3.87944244E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1790.78979492 2028.06127930 1581.27770996 118.36209106 118.74114990 117.98424530 18.65466118 19.45916748 17.88341522 70.34450531 70.91044617 69.78308868 153.91784668 156.17877197 151.68966675 v-matrix 0.1521-0.1062 0.2245 0.2819 0.9142 0.8155 0.5513-0.0101-0.1753-0.0151 0.1048 0.1182 0.3066 0.8718-0.3478 0.5439-0.8190 0.0132-0.0306-0.1794 0.0706-0.0043-0.9248 0.3589 0.1042 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998 0.9986 0.9708 final result: field model pct diff time window 79.8 83.4 -4.5 2.1900 89.5 92.4 -3.3 1.7190 107.6 103.6 3.7 1.3490 115.3 117.3 -1.7 1.0590 134.9 134.4 0.3 0.8323 153.3 154.1 -0.5 0.6543 175.7 178.6 -1.6 0.5148 198.8 204.2 -2.7 0.4055 229.9 229.8 0.1 0.3198 254.0 252.6 0.6 0.2525 273.0 270.4 1.0 0.1998 290.5 287.5 1.0 0.1583 302.7 304.4 -0.6 0.1258 321.1 324.4 -1.0 0.1003 346.3 350.4 -1.2 0.0803 378.3 383.7 -1.4 0.0648 422.5 426.1 -0.8 0.0525 479.8 478.6 0.3 0.0428 548.2 539.9 1.5 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1790.78979492 layer 2 resistivity= 118.36209106 layer 3 resistivity= 18.65466118 layer 1 thickness= 70.34450531 230.78906250 layer 2 thickness= 153.91784668 504.97979736 rcsq= 0.00009 l1= 0.00637 iterations completed= 5 time at end= 16 13 14

PAGE 85

78 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 13 Northing 1325103 Easting 594096 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 7.02867955E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1981.54089355 2158.22338867 1819.32250977 90.54529572 100.19400787 81.82575989 24.11980629 24.76006699 23.49610138 88.50362396 90.86470795 86.20388794 142.78909302 143.92712402 141.66004944 v-matrix -0.4623 0.1876 0.1681 0.5939 0.6083 -0.3846-0.3013 0.0025 0.5159-0.7037 -0.5405 0.4659 0.4736-0.4580-0.2382 -0.4360-0.7617 0.0158-0.3892 0.2791 -0.3951 0.2770-0.8644-0.1410-0.0091 1.0000 0.9996 0.9993 0.9577 0.7508 final result: field model pct diff time window 74.0 84.3 -13.9 2.7920 87.1 90.4 -3.8 2.1900 100.0 97.4 2.5 1.7190 116.5 107.6 7.6 1.3490 118.6 119.8 -1.0 1.0590 133.1 135.0 -1.4 0.8323 146.0 152.0 -4.1 0.6543 171.6 172.5 -0.5 0.5148 194.0 194.3 -0.1 0.4055 219.9 216.2 1.7 0.3198 240.6 236.3 1.8 0.2525 265.1 258.4 2.5 0.1998 285.9 281.8 1.4 0.1583 308.6 308.5 0.0 0.1258 339.0 341.4 -0.7 0.1003 378.7 382.9 -1.1 0.0803 428.7 434.0 -1.2 0.0648 495.4 497.4 -0.4 0.0525 579.4 574.8 0.8 0.0428 684.2 664.6 2.9 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1981.54089355 layer 2 resistivity= 90.54529572 layer 3 resistivity= 24.11980629 layer 1 thickness= 88.50362396 290.36621094 layer 2 thickness= 142.78909302 468.46813965 rcsq= 0.00038 l1= 0.01065 iterations completed= 1 time at end= 16 55 12

PAGE 86

79 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 14 Northing 1327928 Easting 589840 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 6.22065663E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 3615.88549805 3716.82958984 3517.68286133 40.93245697 44.25963211 37.85540009 5.20500183 5.38648796 5.02963066 164.38439941 164.93411255 163.83651733 249.26936340 293.18414307 211.93238831 v-matrix -0.3057 0.6425-0.4910 0.4530 0.2179 -0.3213 0.2374 0.6503 0.3966-0.5102 -0.3056 0.5093 0.2617-0.7365 0.1905 -0.8417-0.5029-0.1860-0.0618 0.0110 0.0368 0.1363-0.4827-0.3020-0.8098 1.0000 0.9998 0.9923 0.9784 0.5990 final result: field model pct diff time window 132.3 133.1 -0.6 2.7920 171.4 146.1 14.8 2.1900 142.5 144.3 -1.3 1.7190 151.0 147.5 2.4 1.3490 142.0 154.7 -9.0 1.0590 152.6 161.8 -6.0 0.8323 181.8 175.4 3.5 0.6543 196.2 195.4 0.4 0.5148 226.0 223.2 1.2 0.4055 262.9 260.3 1.0 0.3198 313.5 305.9 2.4 0.2525 370.3 367.1 0.9 0.1998 448.7 444.9 0.8 0.1583 539.9 543.1 -0.6 0.1258 662.3 667.2 -0.7 0.1003 812.5 823.6 -1.4 0.0803 998.4 1016.0 -1.8 0.0648 1222.1 1255.4 -2.7 0.0525 1506.7 1552.5 -3.0 0.0428 1789.5 1903.2 -6.4 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 3615.88549805 layer 2 resistivity= 40.93245697 layer 3 resistivity= 5.20500183 layer 1 thickness= 164.38439941 539.31890869 layer 2 thickness= 249.26936340 817.81286621 rcsq= 0.00057 l1= 0.01332 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 17 32 2

PAGE 87

80 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 15 Northing 1328274 Easting 592399 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.38167879E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 9099.99902344 11037.27929687 7502.75341797 27.99999619 33.44416809 23.44204903 6.00000048 8.31750011 4.32822418 174.99995422 175.42034912 174.58058167 290.00003052 829.23724365 101.41853333 v-matrix -0.0755 0.5207-0.3490 0.7664 0.1183 -0.1432 0.8157 0.2223-0.4215-0.2952 -0.0191 0.0932-0.7944-0.4821 0.3570 -0.9862-0.1652-0.0038 0.0133 0.0000 0.0302-0.1661-0.4446 0.0490-0.8783 1.0000 0.9983 0.8084 0.6036 0.0552 final result: field model pct diff time window 99.5 99.2 0.3 2.7920 91.5 100.5 -9.8 2.1900 110.1 104.2 5.4 1.7190 123.1 110.9 9.9 1.3490 121.3 122.1 -0.6 1.0590 138.9 136.4 1.8 0.8323 163.5 158.2 3.2 0.6543 193.0 185.2 4.0 0.5148 223.8 220.1 1.7 0.4055 273.3 264.6 3.2 0.3198 320.9 321.7 -0.3 0.2525 394.2 392.0 0.6 0.1998 481.8 486.1 -0.9 0.1583 592.0 606.7 -2.5 0.1258 715.9 761.1 -6.3 0.1003 910.6 958.7 -5.3 0.0803 1159.4 1205.1 -3.9 0.0648 1490.3 1516.1 -1.7 0.0525 1967.9 1907.8 3.1 0.0428 2654.2 2377.7 10.4 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 9099.99902344 layer 2 resistivity= 27.99999619 layer 3 resistivity= 6.00000048 layer 1 thickness= 174.99995422 574.14685059 layer 2 thickness= 290.00003052 951.44366455 rcsq= 0.00062 l1= 0.01642 iterations completed= 0 time at end= 18 16 25

PAGE 88

81 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 16 Northing 1328183 Easting 593029 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 0.11230405 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 7618.81933594 9608.90136719 6040.89990234 52.42739105 54.73231888 50.21952820 7.77132177 8.59817600 7.02398252 169.16345215 170.22434998 168.10916138 255.80816650 364.95083618 179.30584717 v-matrix -0.3094 0.4479-0.4059-0.4455 0.5835 -0.3571 0.1024 0.7812-0.4916-0.1000 -0.3667 0.3924 0.2851 0.7458 0.2721 -0.7370-0.6373-0.2173 0.0588-0.0077 -0.3150 0.4783-0.3106-0.0110-0.7586 1.0000 0.9991 0.9946 0.9137 0.2019 final result: field model pct diff time window 144.5 146.4 -1.3 2.7920 190.8 169.7 11.1 1.7190 138.3 174.5 -26.2 1.3490 181.3 185.4 -2.3 1.0590 222.6 195.7 12.1 0.8323 209.3 209.0 0.2 0.6543 236.9 229.1 3.3 0.5148 269.3 257.4 4.4 0.4055 304.8 295.6 3.0 0.3198 333.9 344.2 -3.1 0.2525 407.7 409.6 -0.5 0.1998 454.0 492.9 -8.6 0.1583 567.8 598.0 -5.3 0.1258 687.7 730.6 -6.2 0.1003 853.4 898.1 -5.2 0.0803 1445.5 1361.2 5.8 0.0525 1811.7 1681.9 7.2 0.0428 2134.2 2063.4 3.3 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 7618.81933594 layer 2 resistivity= 52.42739105 layer 3 resistivity= 7.77132177 layer 1 thickness= 169.16345215 554.99816895 layer 2 thickness= 255.80816650 839.26562500 rcsq= 0.00169 l1= 0.02591 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 17 50 30

PAGE 89

82 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 17 Northing 1328845 Easting 592132 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.26485518E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 9677.12011719 11812.05664062 7928.05761719 38.52540588 50.62232590 29.31921768 17.49149132 44.13447571 6.93227291 152.08093262 153.06452942 151.10366821 74.17723083 130.66685486 42.10908127 v-matrix -0.0274 0.1802-0.0418-0.9822 0.0177 -0.1481-0.0181 0.9396-0.0336 0.3063 0.0183 0.6022-0.2265 0.1332 0.7537 -0.9883-0.0009-0.1464 0.0331-0.0251 -0.0125 0.7776 0.2067 0.1238-0.5807 1.0000 0.9897 0.8645 0.7499 0.0475 final result: field model pct diff time window 75.4 73.5 2.6 2.7920 100.3 98.7 1.6 1.3490 109.1 112.7 -3.3 1.0590 133.8 130.4 2.5 0.8323 150.5 152.6 -1.4 0.6543 186.4 180.1 3.4 0.5148 207.1 213.3 -3.0 0.4055 269.3 254.3 5.6 0.3198 297.6 304.0 -2.1 0.2525 370.0 362.8 2.0 0.1998 453.6 433.9 4.3 0.1583 483.1 517.3 -7.1 0.1258 598.1 624.2 -4.4 0.1003 814.2 758.5 6.8 0.0803 926.6 924.7 0.2 0.0648 1071.6 1134.3 -5.9 0.0525 1449.2 1400.0 3.4 0.0428 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 9677.12011719 layer 2 resistivity= 38.52540588 layer 3 resistivity= 17.49149132 layer 1 thickness= 152.08093262 498.95318604 layer 2 thickness= 74.17723083 243.36361694 rcsq= 0.00042 l1= 0.01524 iterations completed= 1 time at end= 18 53 11

PAGE 90

83 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 18 Northing 1324351 Easting 590050 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 8.36965591E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 318.21337891 323.44201660 313.06927490 900.09674072 947.96459961 854.64605713 30.71520615 50.24788284 18.77539635 17.77905464 26.87269592 11.76267624 226.95381165 228.99662781 224.92922974 v-matrix -0.3572 0.7592-0.1925 0.5090-0.0029 0.0639 0.5705-0.0007-0.8072-0.1374 0.6299 0.2410 0.0236 0.0957 0.7317 0.6769 0.1458 0.0437 0.2703-0.6675 -0.1154 0.1372 0.9800 0.0851 0.0115 1.0000 0.9997 0.9990 0.9683 0.0854 final result: field model pct diff time window 102.8 117.7 -14.5 2.7920 153.3 157.5 -2.8 1.3490 184.4 178.4 3.2 1.0590 200.9 206.8 -3.0 0.8323 264.3 243.8 7.8 0.6543 293.8 288.8 1.7 0.5148 347.4 345.4 0.6 0.4055 417.2 416.8 0.1 0.3198 472.5 503.5 -6.6 0.2525 570.1 608.5 -6.7 0.1998 699.6 724.6 -3.6 0.1583 791.5 832.7 -5.2 0.1258 915.5 918.6 -0.3 0.1003 968.1 956.6 1.2 0.0803 957.3 948.6 0.9 0.0648 912.6 914.4 -0.2 0.0525 845.3 873.4 -3.3 0.0428 781.1 839.0 -7.4 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 318.21337891 layer 2 resistivity= 900.09674072 layer 3 resistivity= 30.71520615 layer 1 thickness= 17.77905464 58.33023071 layer 2 thickness= 226.95381165 744.59912109 rcsq= 0.00067 l1= 0.01630 iterations completed= 3 time at end= 20 57 45

PAGE 91

84 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 19 Northing 1324338 Easting 589466 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 6.64163381E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1488.49987793 1541.70715332 1437.12890625 714.41058350 725.02056885 703.95581055 72.14385986 94.47991180 55.08828354 8.07968712 9.33113480 6.99607754 235.49456787 238.66664124 232.36466980 v-matrix -0.4399 0.6000 0.3240 0.5343 0.2368 -0.4119-0.3108-0.7055 0.4775-0.0899 -0.4757 0.2220 0.0573-0.3286-0.7831 -0.4521 0.1545-0.2912-0.6153 0.5553 -0.4540-0.6858 0.5561 0.0061 0.1195 1.0000 0.8220 0.7554 0.3791 0.0017 final result: field model pct diff time window 192.2 183.5 4.5 2.1900 180.5 179.4 0.6 1.7190 232.2 222.6 4.1 1.0590 252.7 249.4 1.3 0.8323 304.9 283.2 7.1 0.6543 310.3 323.9 -4.4 0.5148 373.1 373.1 0.0 0.4055 410.8 432.0 -5.2 0.3198 498.6 501.8 -0.7 0.2525 580.8 582.1 -0.2 0.1998 699.0 670.0 4.1 0.1583 781.0 757.5 3.0 0.1258 840.3 833.1 0.9 0.1003 915.1 886.1 3.2 0.0803 934.2 913.5 2.2 0.0648 905.3 922.5 -1.9 0.0525 917.3 923.5 -0.7 0.0428 884.4 925.4 -4.6 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1488.49987793 layer 2 resistivity= 714.41058350 layer 3 resistivity= 72.14385986 layer 1 thickness= 8.07968712 26.50815964 layer 2 thickness= 235.49456787 772.61993408 rcsq= 0.00030 l1= 0.01184 iterations completed= 3 time at end= 10 18 30

PAGE 92

85 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 20 Northing 1325056 Easting 589067 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.50576448E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 652.32257080 654.40100098 650.25079346 951.51312256 979.58605957 924.24462891 41.70158768 62.46773911 27.83872795 10.06105328 16.12238693 6.27852440 208.95837402 210.13468933 207.78865051 v-matrix 0.2521-0.9195 0.2996 0.0279-0.0219 0.5137 0.0460-0.2216-0.8218-0.0971 0.4766 0.0586-0.3136 0.4654-0.6741 0.5087 0.0272-0.3208 0.3195 0.7318 0.4320 0.3851 0.8123 0.0713 0.0103 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9997 0.8200 final result: field model pct diff time window 139.7 141.5 -1.3 1.7190 138.3 155.0 -12.0 1.3490 166.9 173.5 -4.0 1.0590 193.2 196.1 -1.5 0.8323 226.1 224.8 0.6 0.6543 271.8 262.1 3.5 0.5148 306.8 308.9 -0.7 0.4055 371.6 366.3 1.4 0.3198 441.7 438.5 0.7 0.2525 519.6 524.2 -0.9 0.1998 630.7 633.4 -0.4 0.1583 742.9 762.1 -2.6 0.1258 882.1 905.1 -2.6 0.1003 1052.9 1048.0 0.5 0.0803 1170.4 1165.5 0.4 0.0648 1222.0 1240.7 -1.5 0.0525 1360.8 1270.2 6.7 0.0428 1213.3 1268.1 -4.5 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 652.32257080 layer 2 resistivity= 951.51312256 layer 3 resistivity= 41.70158768 layer 1 thickness= 10.06105328 33.00870514 layer 2 thickness= 208.95837402 685.55895996 rcsq= 0.00036 l1= 0.01089 iterations completed= 5 time at end= 10 52 3

PAGE 93

86 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 21 Northing 1328827 Easting 590572 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.45328036E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 7348.69482422 12431.60253906 4344.03515625 32.29949188 56.05233765 18.61219597 3.06074405 121314.17187500 7.72222702E-05 171.77713013 172.26046753 171.29513550 126.23189545 135.61898804 117.49455261 v-matrix 0.0045-0.1420-0.0378 0.9716-0.1856 -0.1405-0.0515-0.9664-0.0045 0.2090 0.0345-0.0867 0.2059 0.1782 0.9577 -0.9894 0.0142 0.1438 0.0129 0.0036 0.0106 0.9846-0.0399 0.1553 0.0684 1.0000 0.9966 0.9618 0.7780 0.0005 final result: field model pct diff time window 93.6 101.2 -8.1 2.7920 112.1 117.6 -4.9 2.1900 192.7 184.7 4.1 1.0590 207.9 208.8 -0.4 0.8323 215.1 231.4 -7.6 0.6543 235.1 252.7 -7.5 0.5148 277.5 276.4 0.4 0.4055 314.4 306.9 2.4 0.3198 364.0 349.1 4.1 0.2525 415.8 407.3 2.0 0.1998 509.9 487.8 4.3 0.1583 610.6 591.6 3.1 0.1258 716.7 733.3 -2.3 0.1003 889.6 916.4 -3.0 0.0803 1098.2 1145.0 -4.3 0.0648 1389.3 1432.8 -3.1 0.0525 1766.8 1794.4 -1.6 0.0428 2311.0 2226.6 3.7 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 7348.69482422 layer 2 resistivity= 32.29949188 layer 3 resistivity= 3.06074405 layer 1 thickness= 171.77713013 563.57324219 layer 2 thickness= 126.23189545 414.14663696 rcsq= 0.00047 l1= 0.01597 iterations completed= 1 time at end= 11 40 35

PAGE 94

87 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 22 Northing 1328554 Easting 590072 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 3.70766632E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1310.65209961 1539.85827637 1115.56298828 37.30236053 38.97982025 35.69709396 22.71507454 24.52173042 21.04152679 176.23283386 177.23516846 175.23617554 204.82637024 322.31671143 130.16340637 v-matrix -0.5365 0.0769-0.2699 0.6535-0.4543 -0.3588 0.1584 0.8982-0.0712-0.1854 -0.4546 0.2818-0.3424-0.7278-0.2588 -0.3701-0.9148 0.0136-0.1501 0.0581 -0.4897 0.2295-0.0548 0.1254 0.8300 1.0000 0.9999 0.9840 0.9321 0.0877 final result: field model pct diff time window 91.9 101.3 -10.3 2.7920 112.6 116.2 -3.2 1.7190 125.0 126.2 -1.0 1.3490 137.0 138.3 -1.0 1.0590 147.7 153.2 -3.7 0.8323 175.6 173.5 1.2 0.6543 202.2 197.9 2.1 0.5148 237.9 230.0 3.3 0.4055 272.5 270.3 0.8 0.3198 323.1 321.7 0.4 0.2525 391.6 384.2 1.9 0.1998 475.9 466.5 2.0 0.1583 588.5 569.2 3.3 0.1258 707.5 696.7 1.5 0.1003 858.3 853.7 0.5 0.0803 1038.1 1038.9 -0.1 0.0648 1255.9 1253.6 0.2 0.0525 1489.9 1489.5 0.0 0.0428 1682.0 1716.2 -2.0 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1310.65209961 layer 2 resistivity= 37.30236053 layer 3 resistivity= 22.71507454 layer 1 thickness= 176.23283386 578.19171143 layer 2 thickness= 204.82637024 672.00250244 rcsq= 0.00022 l1= 0.00870 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 12 24 30

PAGE 95

88 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 23 Northing 1329045 Easting 591384 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.35741225E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 4321.22851562 4551.42382812 4102.67578125 37.99295807 40.32080078 35.79950714 13.20526791 16.89471245 10.32151890 165.35394287 165.88320923 164.82635498 104.60902405 120.97402191 90.45783997 v-matrix -0.0089 0.4682-0.6303 0.6116 0.0965 0.1388 0.1899-0.5930-0.7664 0.0758 0.0352 0.4620 0.3762-0.0913 0.7972 0.9889-0.0678 0.0511 0.1213-0.0146 0.0394 0.7257 0.3272-0.1246-0.5909 1.0000 0.9961 0.9764 0.9524 0.4037 final result: field model pct diff time window 80.8 82.5 -2.1 2.7920 105.6 103.8 1.7 1.7190 121.5 117.5 3.3 1.3490 152.2 135.5 11.0 1.0590 145.6 155.6 -6.9 0.8323 190.7 183.5 3.8 0.6543 211.3 214.4 -1.5 0.5148 242.2 249.3 -2.9 0.4055 276.0 289.8 -5.0 0.3198 351.9 337.3 4.2 0.2525 406.5 396.4 2.5 0.1998 486.8 470.1 3.4 0.1583 555.7 561.5 -1.0 0.1258 686.3 684.1 0.3 0.1003 884.2 842.0 4.8 0.0803 978.1 1039.6 -6.3 0.0648 1269.2 1287.7 -1.5 0.0525 1672.3 1598.1 4.4 0.0428 1913.5 1966.6 -2.8 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 4321.22851562 layer 2 resistivity= 37.99295807 layer 3 resistivity= 13.20526791 layer 1 thickness= 165.35394287 542.49981689 layer 2 thickness= 104.60902405 343.20544434 rcsq= 0.00051 l1= 0.01593 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 13 4 48

PAGE 96

89 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 24 Northing 1321208 Easting 594511 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 0.13996093 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1608.73693848 1.10304700E+06 2.34625983 105.29621887 107.84059143 102.81188202 42.15211868 14694.72265625 0.12091424 7.76174450 9.06643200 6.64480543 104.32846069 125.35597229 86.82816315 v-matrix 0.3624-0.4389 0.3867-0.0232-0.7252 0.3188-0.4925-0.7960 0.1462 0.0283 0.3386-0.4677 0.4343-0.0821 0.6865 0.5824 0.4018-0.1426-0.6921-0.0061 0.5596 0.4297 0.0887 0.7017 0.0445 1.0000 1.0000 0.9950 0.1876 0.0002 final result: field model pct diff time window 82.9 89.4 -7.8 0.6959 86.0 90.3 -5.0 0.5456 93.1 94.7 -1.8 0.4277 96.0 94.7 1.4 0.3352 98.5 101.5 -3.0 0.2628 113.5 108.3 4.6 0.2060 117.6 114.2 2.9 0.1664 125.2 120.8 3.5 0.1267 124.8 125.5 -0.5 0.0994 133.7 131.9 1.4 0.0611 137.2 134.6 1.9 0.0479 139.6 138.1 1.1 0.0376 144.2 142.9 0.9 0.0294 148.1 149.3 -0.8 0.0231 154.7 157.8 -2.0 0.0181 161.8 168.4 -4.0 0.0142 175.9 182.0 -3.5 0.0111 204.7 199.0 2.8 0.0087 212.4 220.4 -3.8 0.0068 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1608.73693848 layer 2 resistivity= 105.29621887 layer 3 resistivity= 42.15211868 layer 1 thickness= 7.76174450 25.46504021 layer 2 thickness= 104.32846069 342.28497314 rcsq= 0.00027 l1= 0.01192 iterations completed= 5 time at end= 13 32 50

PAGE 97

90 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 25 Northing 1325386 Easting 595648 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 0.19824649 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 916.56536865 931.52990723 901.84124756 143.85923767 147.98594666 139.84761047 66.39032745 93.37098694 47.20605087 5.91973448 10.38031960 3.37593198 85.57138824 98.26649475 74.51637268 v-matrix -0.5230 0.8161-0.2057-0.0833-0.1055 -0.4245-0.4432-0.7754 0.0763 0.1277 -0.4140-0.0321 0.3960 0.5973 0.5603 -0.4460-0.2890 0.3022 0.1945-0.7671 -0.4194-0.2302 0.3291-0.7698 0.2650 1.0000 0.9776 0.8271 0.1034 0.0018 final result: field model pct diff time window 98.1 106.0 -8.1 0.6959 98.4 109.8 -11.5 0.5456 106.7 113.1 -6.0 0.4277 109.8 116.9 -6.5 0.3352 113.4 121.6 -7.2 0.2628 125.6 127.8 -1.8 0.2060 138.0 133.9 2.9 0.1664 142.3 142.6 -0.2 0.1267 149.5 149.9 -0.3 0.0994 165.9 165.4 0.3 0.0611 173.4 171.8 0.9 0.0479 179.0 177.2 1.0 0.0376 187.4 182.3 2.7 0.0294 192.8 187.8 2.6 0.0231 200.4 194.9 2.8 0.0181 203.3 204.1 -0.4 0.0142 211.1 216.6 -2.6 0.0111 231.0 232.7 -0.8 0.0087 235.7 253.3 -7.5 0.0068 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 916.56536865 layer 2 resistivity= 143.85923767 layer 3 resistivity= 66.39032745 layer 1 thickness= 5.91973448 19.42170143 layer 2 thickness= 85.57138824 280.74603271 rcsq= 0.00054 l1= 0.01471 iterations completed= 4 time at end= 8 56 1

PAGE 98

91 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 26 Northing 1324668 Easting 590421 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 4.05159220E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1886.34729004 1897.30358887 1875.45422363 261.66067505 293.79751587 233.03907776 71.68445587 82.54094696 62.25590897 158.93238831 161.78431702 156.13073730 135.92941284 156.65907288 117.94275665 v-matrix 0.3052-0.9332 0.1774-0.0088-0.0662 0.5047 0.1707-0.0038 0.8225-0.1989 0.4918 0.1875 0.4049-0.1623 0.7299 0.4563-0.0169-0.8456-0.2539 0.1095 0.4496 0.2539 0.2992-0.4822-0.6414 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9992 0.9979 final result: field model pct diff time window 273.6 265.4 3.0 1.0590 285.1 287.8 -1.0 0.8323 337.7 327.8 2.9 0.6543 381.1 377.2 1.0 0.5148 410.9 437.4 -6.5 0.4055 507.3 507.9 -0.1 0.3198 574.2 589.5 -2.7 0.2525 698.6 680.9 2.5 0.1998 811.9 779.8 4.0 0.1583 874.0 882.0 -0.9 0.1258 1014.7 984.9 2.9 0.1003 1058.6 1089.9 -3.0 0.0803 1203.8 1199.4 0.4 0.0648 1327.8 1322.4 0.4 0.0525 1455.1 1466.1 -0.8 0.0428 1553.7 1627.6 -4.8 0.0353 1832.7 1805.7 1.5 0.0294 2072.6 2078.5 -0.3 0.0231 2489.4 2383.3 4.3 0.0181 2670.5 2691.9 -0.8 0.0142 3253.9 3269.8 -0.5 0.0087 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1886.34729004 layer 2 resistivity= 261.66067505 layer 3 resistivity= 71.68445587 layer 1 thickness= 158.93238831 521.43170166 layer 2 thickness= 135.92941284 445.96264648 rcsq= 0.00018 l1= 0.00909 iterations completed= 5 time at end= 19 20 53

PAGE 99

92 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 27 Northing 1325698 Easting 590325 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 4.11611497E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 3982.22485352 4011.26757812 3953.39257812 102.41539764 119.82765961 87.53332520 60.73918533 71.14447784 51.85572815 183.50112915 184.45689392 182.55030823 97.21530914 108.85639954 86.81912231 v-matrix 0.0133-0.9928 0.0814-0.0761 0.0412 -0.1514-0.1110-0.3672 0.7444-0.5252 0.0052-0.0131-0.4700-0.6522-0.5946 -0.9881 0.0046 0.0741-0.1191 0.0633 -0.0239-0.0422-0.7951 0.0229 0.6041 1.0000 0.9996 0.9713 0.7596 0.6114 final result: field model pct diff time window 155.8 158.9 -2.0 2.7920 168.2 169.4 -0.7 2.1900 220.6 213.8 3.1 1.0590 248.6 239.8 3.5 0.8323 261.6 264.4 -1.1 0.6543 303.0 304.2 -0.4 0.5148 334.7 352.7 -5.4 0.4055 425.6 411.4 3.3 0.3198 466.8 482.2 -3.3 0.2525 612.1 567.0 7.4 0.1998 644.0 668.6 -3.8 0.1583 797.5 789.6 1.0 0.1258 934.5 934.5 0.0 0.1003 1096.4 1109.3 -1.2 0.0803 1307.4 1317.4 -0.8 0.0648 1589.9 1570.7 1.2 0.0525 1882.3 1881.6 0.0 0.0428 2239.7 2245.0 -0.2 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 3982.22485352 layer 2 resistivity= 102.41539764 layer 3 resistivity= 60.73918533 layer 1 thickness= 183.50112915 602.03784180 layer 2 thickness= 97.21530914 318.94784546 rcsq= 0.00023 l1= 0.00931 iterations completed= 3 time at end= 20 13 34

PAGE 100

93 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 28 Northing 1325997 Easting 590157 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 8.49288478E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 2665.00073242 3929.16259766 1807.56799316 110.99997711 265.33291626 46.43598557 18.00000000 74.29750061 4.36084700 221.00001526 234.67314148 208.12355042 76.00000000 85.64663696 67.43989563 v-matrix -0.3657 0.5922-0.1665 0.6585 0.2329 -0.4167 0.2975-0.0453-0.6905 0.5089 -0.4078 0.3457 0.2230-0.2017-0.7898 -0.4997-0.4759-0.7061 0.0274-0.1567 -0.5260-0.4635 0.6495 0.2196 0.1961 1.0000 0.9989 0.3694 0.0001 0.0000 final result: field model pct diff time window 121.8 116.9 4.0 2.7920 204.7 157.2 23.2 1.7190 157.2 181.7 -15.6 1.3490 210.5 214.7 -2.0 1.0590 312.3 312.1 0.1 0.6543 369.8 362.4 2.0 0.5148 466.5 451.6 3.2 0.4055 573.3 563.8 1.7 0.3198 701.6 703.0 -0.2 0.2525 883.7 871.0 1.4 0.1998 1044.4 1067.3 -2.2 0.1583 1307.9 1285.0 1.8 0.1258 1497.8 1515.1 -1.2 0.1003 1801.2 1753.0 2.7 0.0803 2029.6 1998.4 1.5 0.0648 2387.8 2267.9 5.0 0.0525 2617.3 2576.0 1.6 0.0428 2832.0 2912.7 -2.9 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 2665.00073242 layer 2 resistivity= 110.99997711 layer 3 resistivity= 18.00000000 layer 1 thickness= 221.00001526 725.06567383 layer 2 thickness= 76.00000000 249.34382629 rcsq= 0.00146 l1= 0.01798 iterations completed= 0 time at end= 21 6 18

PAGE 101

94 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 29 Northing 1326424 Easting 590423 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.69048934E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 1738.02319336 1772.79516602 1703.93310547 67.23608398 79.65492249 56.75343323 29.44706917 32.59357452 26.60431671 202.27770996 203.84870911 200.71881104 44.82120514 48.87635803 41.10249710 v-matrix 0.4741-0.2931 0.7867 0.1247 0.2341 0.4639-0.0555-0.0175-0.1487-0.8714 0.4657-0.2326-0.3763-0.6635 0.3836 0.3583 0.9178 0.0919-0.0428 0.1377 0.4634-0.1203-0.4803 0.7213 0.1409 1.0000 0.9972 0.9874 0.1780 0.0973 final result: field model pct diff time window 108.8 108.9 -0.1 2.7920 128.2 129.8 -1.2 1.7190 151.4 146.0 3.6 1.3490 171.3 190.8 -11.4 0.8323 248.7 225.3 9.4 0.6543 246.2 266.5 -8.2 0.5148 330.7 320.7 3.0 0.4055 375.5 381.0 -1.5 0.3198 470.9 465.6 1.1 0.2525 553.2 570.7 -3.2 0.1998 752.8 700.6 6.9 0.1583 825.6 857.8 -3.9 0.1258 1079.8 1044.3 3.3 0.1003 1216.3 1259.9 -3.6 0.0803 1501.7 1496.4 0.4 0.0648 1774.0 1750.8 1.3 0.0525 1987.2 2013.2 -1.3 0.0428 2203.1 2256.2 -2.4 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 1738.02319336 layer 2 resistivity= 67.23608398 layer 3 resistivity= 29.44706917 layer 1 thickness= 202.27770996 663.64074707 layer 2 thickness= 44.82120514 147.05119324 rcsq= 0.00060 l1= 0.01579 iterations completed= 2 time at end= 21 28 54

PAGE 102

95 Appendix B (Continued) TEM Sounding 30 Northing 1327779 Easting 590093 ****************** statistics ***************** NSR= 5.85169494E-02 undamped 95% confidence intervals parameter, high p, low p 9588.00097656 12014.96289062 7651.27343750 48.00000381 2542.97949219 0.90602404 23.00000000 29.88953972 17.69849968 184.99995422 186.04954529 183.95628357 17.00000191 4943.47216797 5.84609322E-02 v-matrix 0.4693-0.1893 0.8501 0.0370 0.1408 0.4602-0.1723-0.3770-0.4648 0.6327 0.4392-0.2569-0.3334 0.7937-0.0050 0.4059 0.9115-0.0214 0.0613-0.0148 0.4585-0.1942-0.1534-0.3858-0.7613 1.0000 0.9992 0.7553 0.0370 0.0001 final result: field model pct diff time window 72.8 85.0 -16.6 2.7920 94.0 90.5 3.7 2.1900 104.4 99.9 4.2 1.7190 123.1 111.8 9.2 1.3490 130.8 127.3 2.7 1.0590 156.3 146.6 6.2 0.8323 169.9 173.7 -2.2 0.6543 209.5 207.1 1.1 0.5148 240.9 250.0 -3.8 0.4055 305.7 299.8 1.9 0.3198 368.6 371.1 -0.7 0.2525 452.1 462.6 -2.3 0.1998 544.0 581.0 -6.8 0.1583 710.0 732.8 -3.2 0.1258 885.5 927.4 -4.7 0.1003 1126.0 1176.2 -4.5 0.0803 1460.7 1485.2 -1.7 0.0648 1840.5 1872.4 -1.7 0.0525 2438.6 2356.6 3.4 0.0428 3296.9 2930.9 11.1 0.0353 final parameters layer 1 resistivity= 9588.00097656 layer 2 resistivity= 48.00000381 layer 3 resistivity= 23.00000000 layer 1 thickness= 184.99995422 606.95520020 layer 2 thickness= 17.00000191 55.77428436 rcsq= 0.00087 l1= 0.01988 iterations completed= 0 time at end= 21 46 35


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MacNeil, Richard Eric.
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Geophysical investigations and groundwater modeling of the hydrologic conditions at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua.
h [electronic resource] /
by Richard Eric MacNeil.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2006.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, has been the site of tremendous Plinian basaltic eruptions. Two eruptions ~6,500 and 2,250 BP formed the 6 kilometer (km) x 11 km, northwest trending Masaya caldera. The present day active Santiago Crater within the caldera is the site of persistent volcano degassing and occasional phreatic explosions. While the mechanism responsible for these phreatic explosions is unclear, one possible explanation is the interaction of groundwater with the shallow magma chamber beneath Masaya. This interaction with meteoric water is supported by the substantial steam discharge from the vent, which is significantly larger than other similar volcanoes in the world. To better understand these interactions, the distribution of groundwater was characterized for the volcano based on interpretation of 29 Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The TEM data were modeled using two independent methods to estimate resistivity as a function of depth. Results from modeli ng the TEM data indicate an overlying highly resistive layer throughout the caldera that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. The implied water table of the caldera is expressed as a subdued replica of the topography in the higher vent regions in the central and southern portions of the caldera and decreases to a level that coincides with the elevation Lake Masaya in the lower sections of the caldera. The water table elevation in the caldera also shows a marked difference from the regional groundwater flow system as there is a large gradient in head values suggesting a sharp change in transmissivity along the caldera boundaries, which indicate the caldera is hydraulically isolated from the surrounding region. In order to better understand the hydrologic processes at Masaya caldera, a 3-D finite difference groundwater model was created using the 29 estimated water levels and two groundwater flux measurements to simulate the hydrologic system The model calibration revealed that ^a deep, highly permeable layer must feed the active vent in order for the steam emissions to be maintained at their current levels. This information about the caldera provides a baseline for forecasting the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 95 pages.
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Adviser: Charles B. Connor, Ph.D.
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Caldera.
Electromagnetic methods.
Volcanic stucture.
Hydrology.
Transient electomagnetics.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Geology
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1659