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Audience interpretations of the representation of women in music videos by women artists

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Material Information

Title:
Audience interpretations of the representation of women in music videos by women artists
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
McKenna, Libby
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
cultural studies -- feminism -- mass media -- popular culture -- MTV music videos -- women's studies
Feminism
Mass media
Popular culture
MTV music videos
Women's studies
Dissertations, Academic -- Mass Communications -- Masters -- USF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study examined how young women audiences may make sense of music videos and how they relate music video messages to their own femininity. Studies of the representation of women in music videos mostly have focused on critiquing content, rather than audience interpretations. This study, using focus groups, looked at how young women interpret music videos featuring women artists and showed that young women perceive sexist and/or stereotypical depictions presented in the videos. During six focus groups, three music videos were reviewed by 49 college students, mostly consisting of young women in their early 20s. The researcher found themes emerging from the discussions recorded during the focus groups. Such themes reaffirmed previous critical scholarship on the content of music videos that women are presented as sex objects and objectified body parts in music videos, that portrayals of women function as unrealistic masculine fantasies, and that the videos contain narratives about cultural expectations for femininity. The results did support prior critical work, but they also uncovered interpretations filled with irony, contradiction, and paradox. This study examined women audience members' interpretations of feminine stereotypes in music videos and found that the women participants felt pressure to meet an impossible standard of an ideal feminine form, as defined by men. The results revealed the participants' concern about their own inadequacies in comparison. Participants generally observed that the women artists in the treatment music videos are not real women, but participants demonstrated a wistful desire to be more like the artists. The present study adds interpretive audience research to the literature on music video content analysis and supports prior conclusions based on content analysis.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Libby McKenna.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 114 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001909587
oclc - 173148287
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001670
usfldc handle - e14.1670
System ID:
SFS0025988:00001


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A udi e nc e I nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he R e pr e s e nt a t i on of W om e n i n M us i c V i de os by W om e n A r t i s t s by L i bby M c K e nna A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s S c hool of M a s s C om m uni c a t i ons C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : K i m G ol om bi s ky, P h D D e r i na H ol t z ha us e n, P h. D L a r r y Z L e s l i e P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : J ul y 21, 2006 K e yw or ds : c ul t ur a l s t udi e s f e m i ni s m m a s s m e di a popul a r c ul t ur e M T V m us i c vi de o s w om e n's s t udi e s C opyr i ght 2006 L i bby M c K e nna

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A c know l e dgm e nt s F i r s t a nd f o r e m os t t ha nks a r e due t o m y m e nt or a d vi s or a nd t he s i s c ha i r D r K i m G ol om bi s ky, w i t hout w hos e gui da nc e a nd e nc our a ge m e nt t hi s t he s i s w oul d not be w ha t i t i s t oda y. M a ny t ha nks t o D r D e r i na H ol t z ha us e n, w hos e pi one e r i ng w or k a i de d m y f oc us gr oups a nd t o D r L a r r y L e s l i e g r a m m a r e xt r a or di na i r e w ho pe r f or m e d one of t he f i r s t s t udi e s on M T V m us i c vi de os I w a s e xt r e m e l y f or t una t e t o ha ve s uc h a c om m i t t e e w i t h a l l t he e xp e r i e nc e a nd know how t ha t w i t hout t he i r a i d t h i s t he s i s w oul d not be M y s i nc e r e a ppr e c i a t i on goe s t o a l l o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy, R e be c c a H a ge n w ho ge ne r ous l y pr ovi de d m e w i t h a c c e s s t o t hos e pa r t i c i pa nt s S t e ve M ut i m e r w ho s e t up a l l o f t he e qui pm e nt f o r t he f oc us gr ou ps D r T i m B a j ki e w i c z f o r t e a c hi ng qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods a nd e di t i ng he l p, M a r i a P a ul f or he r i nt e r e s t a nd i nput a nd M a r c i a W a t s on f or a l l of he r s uppor t t hr oughout m y a c a de m i c c a r e e r F i na l l y, m y g r a t i t ude goe s t o m y f a m i l y a n d f r i e nds f or a l l of t he i r s uppor t t h r oughout t hi s pr oj e c t

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s A bs t r a c t i i C ha pt e r O ne : I nt r oduc t i on 1 C ha pt e r T w o: B a c kgr ound 4 3 C ha pt e r T hr e e : L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w 9 C ha pt e r F our : T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k 15 C ha pt e r F i ve : M e t hodol ogy 24 C ha pt e r S i x: R e s ul t s 29 C ha pt e r S e ve n: A na l ys i s 39 C ha pt e r E i ght : C onc l us i on 55 R e f e r e nc e s 60 A ppe ndi c e s A ppe ndi x A : F oc us G r oup C om m uni c a t i on F a c i l i t a t or s 63 A ppe ndi x B : M us i c V i de o L yr i c s 66 A ppe ndi x C : T r a ns c r i pt s 73

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i i A udi e nc e I nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he R e pr e s e nt a t i on of W om e n i n M us i c V i de os by W om e n A r t i s t s L i bby M c K e nna A B S T R A C T T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d how young w om e n a udi e nc e s m a y m a ke s e ns e of m us i c vi de os a nd how t he y r e l a t e m us i c vi de o m e s s a ge s t o t he i r ow n f e m i ni ni t y. S t udi e s of t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on of w om e n i n m us i c vi de os m os t l y h a ve f oc us e d on c r i t i qui ng c ont e nt r a t he r t ha n a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons T hi s s t udy, us i ng f oc us gr oups l ooke d a t how young w om e n i nt e r pr e t m us i c vi de os f e a t ur i ng w om e n a r t i s t s a nd s how e d t ha t young w om e n pe r c e i ve s e xi s t a nd/ or s t e r e ot ypi c a l de pi c t i ons pr e s e nt e d i n t he vi de os D ur i ng s i x f oc us g r oups t h r e e m us i c vi de os w e r e r e vi e w e d by 49 c ol l e ge s t ude nt s m os t l y c ons i s t i ng of young w om e n i n t he i r e a r l y 20s T he r e s e a r c he r f ound t he m e s e m e r gi ng f r om t he di s c us s i ons r e c or de d du r i ng t he f oc us gr oups S uc h t he m e s r e a f f i r m e d pr e vi ous c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s hi p on t he c ont e nt of m us i c vi de os t ha t w om e n a r e pr e s e nt e d a s s e x obj e c t s a nd obj e c t i f i e d body pa r t s i n m us i c vi de os t ha t po r t r a ya l s of w om e n f unc t i on a s unr e a l i s t i c m a s c ul i ne f a nt a s i e s a nd t ha t t he vi de os c ont a i n na r r a t i ve s a bout c ul t ur a l e xpe c t a t i ons f o r f e m i n i ni t y. T he r e s ul t s di d s uppor t pr i o r c r i t i c a l w or k but t he y a l s o unc ove r e d i nt e r pr e t a t i ons f i l l e d w i t h i r ony, c ont r a di c t i on a nd pa r a dox. T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d w om e n a udi e nc e m e m be r s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f f e m i n i ne s t e r e ot ype s i n m us i c vi de os a nd f ound t ha t t he w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s f e l t p r e s s ur e t o m e e t a n i m pos s i bl e s t a nda r d of a n i de a l f e m i ni ne f or m a s de f i ne d by m e n. T he r e s ul t s r e ve a l e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c onc e r n a bout t he i r ow n i na de qua c i e s i n c om pa r i s on P a r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a l l y obs e r ve d t ha t t he w om e n

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i i i a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os a r e no t r e a l w om e n, but pa r t i c i pa nt s de m ons t r a t e d a w i s t f ul de s i r e t o be m or e l i ke t he a r t i s t s T he pr e s e nt s t udy a dds i nt e r p r e t i ve a udi e nc e r e s e a r c h t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on m us i c vi de o c ont e nt a na l ys i s a nd s uppor t s pr i or c onc l us i ons ba s e d on c ont e nt a na l ys i s

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C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on M us i c T e l e vi s i on ( M T V ) w a s l a unc he d i n 1981 a s a 24 hour c a bl e pr ogr a m s e r vi c e pr e s e nt i ng a n e ndl e s s s t r e a m of m us i c vi de os a s t he vi s ua l pr oduc t i ons of c ur r e nt pop a nd r oc k s ongs ( B a nks 1996) C hr i s t e ns on a nd R obe r t s ( 1990) c l a i m t ha t m us i c i s i m por t a nt t o i de nt i t y a nd he l ps de f i ne i m por t a nt s o c i a l a nd s ub c ul t ur a l bounda r i e s S i nc e M T V c ont r i but e s t o de f i ni ng s oc i a l r ol e s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons M T V be c om e s a n i m por t a nt s i t e f or e xa m i ni ng s oc i a l a nd c ul t ur a l unde r s t a ndi n gs of ge nde r P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s f oc us e d on c r i t i qui ng t he c ons t r uc t i on o f ge nde r w i t hi n t he c ont e nt of m us i c v i de os W hi l e s uc h r e s e a r c h i s i m por t a nt f e w ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d t he w a ys a udi e nc e s pa r t i c ul a r l y w om e n a udi e nc e s i nt e r pr e t s uc h m e s s a ge s P r e vi o us r e s e a r c h on ge nde r e d c ont e nt i n m us i c vi de os a l s o a s s um e s m e n c ont r ol s e xua l i z e d i m a ge s of w om e n, but l i t t l e ha s be e n w r i t t e n a bout w om e n a r t i s t s por t r a yi ng t he m s e l ve s a s s e xua l be i ngs T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o e xa m i ne how w om e n pe r c e i ve i m a ge s of w om e n a r t i s t s on M T V P r e vi ous s c hol a r s hi p s ugge s t s M T V pr e s e nt s a he t e r os e xua l m a l e i de a l of w om e n, c ons i s t i ng of a e s t he t i c a l l y pl e a s i ng bod y pa r t s w hos e onl y us e f ul ne s s i s t he i r s e xua l a ppe a l T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne s how young a d ul t w om e n i nt e r p r e t po r t r a ya l s of w om e n by w om e n i n M T V T he que s t i on dr i vi ng t hi s r e s e a r c h i s t hi s one : D o young w om e n r e a d a nd i nt e r p r e t t he ge nde r e xpe c t a t i ons c om m uni c a t e d i n m us i c vi de os di f f e r e nt l y t ha n t he c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s w ho ha ve w r i t t e n a bout t hi s t opi c pr e di c t ?

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2 M T V i s popul a r a m ong young pe opl e a nd di r e c t l y t a r ge t s yout h c ul t ur e S e x a ppe a l i s of t e n us e d i n M T V t o ga i n popul a r i t y T h e i m a ge s pr e s e nt e d i n m us i c vi de os a r e of t e n l oa de d w i t h s e xua l c ont e nt a nd f e a t u r e hi ghl y s e xua l i z e d w om e n. T hus M T V s m e s s a ge s r e ga r di ng ge nde r a r e l ogi c a l a r t i f a c t s f or a na l ys i s H ow e ve r w hi l e i t i s i m po r t a nt t o s c r ut i ni z e t he m e s s a ge s f e a t ur e d on M T V i t i s e qua l l y i m por t a nt t o l ook a t bot h w ho i s de l i ve r i ng t he m e s s a ge s a nd how a udi e nc e s i nt e r pr e t t hos e m e s s a ge s W om e n a r t i s t s pr e s e nt i ng w om e n a s obj e c t s i n m us i c vi de os s ugge s t t ha t w om e n a c c e pt a nd a r e w i l l i ng t o pe r p e t ua t e ge nde r s t e r e ot yp e s a nd ge nde r r ol e s T hi s m a y c om m uni c a t e t o young f e m a l e a ud i e nc e m e m be r s t ha t t he i r f e m i ni ne r ol e m ode l s a r e a dj us t i ng t he i r t a l e nt a nd p r e s e nt a t i ons t o c onf or m t o w i de r s oc i o c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i ons of m a s c ul i ne f a nt a s y. T hi s s t udy us e d f oc us gr oups t o e l i c i t young w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of m us i c vi de os f e a t ur i ng w om e n a r t i s t s a nd t he n a na l yz e d t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r o m t he f oc us gr oups us i ng c r i t i c a l c ul t u r a l a nd f e m i ni s t f r a m e w or ks C r i t i c a l a pp r oa c he s t o c ul t ur a l s t udi e s pr ovi de t he a na l yt i c t ool s ne c e s s a r y f or e xa m i ni ng popul a r c ul t ur e T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o c om pa r e t he w a ys w om e n a udi e n c e s i nt e r pr e t ge nde r i n m us i c vi de os w i t h t he l i t e r a t ur e on ge nde r e d c ont e nt i n m us i c vi de os T he r e s e a r c he r c hos e f oc us gr oups a s t he m e t hod b e c a us e t he i n t e nt i on of t h i s s t udy i s t o e xpl or e a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons F oc us gr oups a l l ow pe opl e t o voi c e opi ni ons a nd pi ggyba c k i de a s w hi c h yi e l d pow e r f ul di s c us s i ons not pos s i bl e us i ng ot he r m e t hods T he gr oups c ons i s t e d of m os t l y w om e n, a nd t he m us i c a r t i s t s w e r e w om e n pe r f o r m e r s A n a ddi t i ona l di m e ns i on o f t hi s s t udy i s t he us e of m us i c vi de os f e a t ur i ng w om e n a r t i s t s w ho s e e m t o r e pr e s e nt t he m s e l ve s i n t he s a m e s e xua l i z e d m a nne r t ha t p r e vi ous c r i t i c a l

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3 c ont e nt a na l ys i s de s c r i be s of t he m us i c i ndus t r y, w hi c h i s dom i na t e d by m e n a s a r t i s t s a nd pr oduc e r s M us i c vi de os r e pr e s e nt a dr i vi ng f or c e i n popul a r yout h c ul t ur e a nd, a s s uc h, be c om e a va l i d s i t e f o r e xa m i ni ng c ul t ur a l de f i ni t i ons of ge nde r S t udyi ng a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of ge nde r i n m us i c vi de os c om pr i s e s a n i m por t a nt ne w f i e l d of i nqui r y. I n w ha t f ol l ow s C ha pt e r T w o p r ovi de s a br i e f hi s t or y of M T V a s a c ont e m por a r y f or c e i n popul a r c ul t ur e i n or de r t o s e t up t he ba c kgr ound f or t he p r e s e nt s t udy. C ha pt e r T hr e e r e vi e w s t he l i t e r a t ur e on pr e vi ous a pp r oa c h e s t o s t udyi ng t he phe nom e non o f m us i c vi de o a s w e l l a s i s s ue s of ge nde r r e pr e s e nt a t i ons w i t hi n m us i c vi de os C ha pt e r F our l a ys out t he c r i t i c a l c ul t u r a l a nd f e m i ni s t t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or ks dr i vi ng t he a na l ys i s of t he p r e s e nt s t udy. C ha pt e r F i ve e xpl a i ns a nd j us t i f i e s t he m e t h odol ogy us e d f or t hi s s t udy. C ha pt e r S i x r e por t s t he r e s ul t s C ha pt e r S e ve n pr ovi de s a n a na l ys i s of t hos e r e s ul t s a nd C ha pt e r E i ght p r ovi de s t he c onc l us i on f o r t he s t udy

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4 C ha pt e r T w o B a c kgr ound T hi s c ha pt e r pr ov i de s a br i e f ba c kgr ound o f M T V a s a c ont e m por a r y f o r c e i n popul a r c ul t ur e a nd a r gue s t o j us t i f y t he c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h. A b r i e f hi s t or y i s pr e s e nt e d t ha t obs e r ve s how a nd w hy M T V w a s s t a r t e d, a nd w ha t t ha t m e a ns t o s oc i e t y. T hi s c ha pt e r w i l l e nd by t yi ng ge nde r a nd m us i c i n t o t he M T V e xpe r i e nc e a s a w hol e M T V ha s gr ow n t o be a pe r va s i ve pa r t of yout h c ul t u r e a nd t he popul a r i t y o f s uc h pr og r a m m i ng i ndi c a t e s t he ne e d f or m a s s c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h t o e xa m i ne t h i s phe nom e non. S i nc e t he be gi nni ng, M T V ha s be e n a c a t a l ys t f o r s oc i a l c ha nge de m ons t r a t e d by i m i t a t i on, t r e nds a nd r e c or d s a l e s A s a dr i vi ng c ul t u r a l f o r c e M T V w a r r a nt s s c hol a r l y e xpl or a t i on M T V i s t he ol de s t a nd m os t i nf l ue nt i a l A m e r i c a n c a bl e ne t w or k s pe c i a l i z i ng i n m us i c r e l a t e d pr ogr a m m i ng I t w a s l a unc he d o n A ugus t 1, 1981 w i t h t he w o r ds L a di e s a nd ge nt l e m e n, r oc k a nd r o l l s poke n on c a m e r a b y J ohn L a c k, one of t he c r e a t or s of M T V T hi s i nt r oduc t i on w a s i m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow e d by t he B uggl e s V i de o K i l l e d t he R a di o S t a r T he t i t l e pr ove d s om e w ha t pr ophe t i c a s M T V t r a ns f or m e d t he na t ur e o f m us i c i ndus t r y s t a r dom ove r t he ne xt s e ve r a l ye a r s a nd, a t t he s a m e t i m e M T V be c a m e a m a j or pr e s e nc e i n t he c a bl e / T V i ndus t r y a nd i n f a c t i n t he ove r a l l A m e r i c a n c ul t ur a l l a nds c a pe ( B ur ns 1995) 1 P r i or t o t he a i r i ng o f t he ve r y f i r s t vi de o t he r e c or d i ndus t r y w a s s t a r vi ng f or a ne w e c onom i c a l a nd e f f i c i e nt m ode of pr om ot i on t o m a ke i t s pr oduc t s s t a nd out f r om

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5 t he pa c k ( L e w i s 1990) I n a vi s ua l l y s a t ur a t e d e nt e r t a i nm e nt a r e na t he s t r a t e gi e s of r e c or d pr om ot i on, r a di o pl a y a nd c onc e r t pe r f o r m a nc e w e r e be gi nni ng t o l ook out da t e d ( L e w i s 1990 ) S a l e s ha d be e n s t a gna nt a nd pe opl e i n t he i ndus t r y ne e de d t o r e gr oup; t hus t he bi r t h o f M T V M T V w a s us e d t o s a ve t he m us i c i ndus t r y. I t w a s s t a r t e d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d a s a c ha nne l of m us i c vi de o d i s t r i but i on, us e d pr i m a r i l y a s a pr om ot i on ve hi c l e M T V l i ke a ny bus i ne s s w a s m ot i va t e d by t he c om m e r c i a l i m pe r a t i ve s of pr o f i t m a r ke t c ont r ol a nd c or por a t e gr ow t h ( L e w i s 1990) E xpa ndi ng on t he ge ne r a l m ove m e nt i n m e di a i ndus t r i e s t ow a r d c a t e gor i z i ng l uc r a t i ve a udi e nc e gr oups M T V s or i gi na t i ng c om pa ny s ought t o t a r ge t a yout h a udi e nc e know n f or i t s e xpe nda bl e i nc om e a nd l i be r a l c ons um pt i on pa t t e r ns ( L e w i s 1990 ) T he t a r ge t a udi e nc e 12 t o 34 ye a r ol ds m a ke s up t he m a j or i t y of t he m us i c buyi ng m a r ke t a nd m a ke s f or a dyna m i c c ul t ur a l g r oup. M T V ha d s uc c e s s f ul l y c onvi nc e d t he r e c or d c om p a ni e s t o s t a r t m a ki ng w ha t a m ount e d t o t e l e vi s i on a dve r t i s e m e nt s f or r e c or ds a nd pe r f or m e r s T he r e a s on M T V w a s i ni t i a l l y s o s uc c e s s f ul w a s be c a us e of l ow c os t pr o gr a m m i ng i n t he f o r m o f m us i c vi de os s i nc e t he y w e r e or i gi na l l y pr ovi de d f or f r e e by r e c or d c om pa ni e s M T V p r e s e nt e d one vi de o a f t e r a not he r i n a c ons t a nt f l ow t ha t c ont r a s t e d w i t h t he di s c r e t e i ndi vi dua l pr ogr a m s f ound on ot he r t e l e v i s i on ne t w or ks ( B ur ns 1995) C l i ps w e r e r e pe a t e d f r om t i m e t o t i m e a c c or di ng t o a l i gh t m e di um or he a vy r ot a t i on s c he dul e a nd i n t hi s r e s pe c t M T V w a s l i ke T op 40 r a di o. M or e ove r i t s oon be c a m e a ppa r e nt t ha t M T V c oul d br e a k a r e c or di ng a c t ( m ove i t i nt o pr om i ne nc e e ve n s t a r s t a t us ) j us t a s r a di o ha d done f or de c a de s T oda y s m us i c i a ns a r e us ua l l y onl y s u c c e s s f ul i f t he y us e M T V t o pr om ot e t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r m us i c f or M T V now di c t a t e s t he i ndus t r y

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6 M T V e xe m pl i f i e s i t s i nf l ue nc e on popul a r c ul t ur e by pr e s c r i bi ng f a s hi on t r e nds f a n i m i t a t i on a nd f a n c l ubs M T V be c a m e a m one y m a ke r i n t he popul a r c ul t ur e i ndus t r y pl a yi ng on t he you t h c ul t u r e s de s i r e t o be bot h r e b e l l i ous a nd c onf or m i s t t o r e j e c t t he t r a ppi ngs of pa r e nt a l e xi s t e nc e a nd t he hi gh s c hool c ul t ur e w hi l e a t t he s a m e t i m e c r a vi ng t he pr os pe r i t y a nd a f f l ue nc e w hi c h t he y de l i ve r e d ( M undy, 1999) V i a c om t he c om pa ny t ha t ow ns M T V c l a i m s t o r e a c h 320 m i l l i on hous e hol ds on f i ve c ont i ne nt s 24 hou r s a da y ( M undy, 1999 ) A s t udy i n S a n J os e C A r e po r t e d t ha t 80 pe r c e nt of 600 hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s s ur ve ye d w a t c he d M T V a ve r a gi ng t w o hou r s a da y vi e w i ng m us i c vi de os ( G oodw i n, 1992) M T V ha s ga i ne d popul a r i t y a nd a udi e nc e s i z e a nd de s pi t e s e l f r e por t i ng f l a w s t he i nc r e a s e i s not i c e a bl e e s pe c i a l l y i n a t t e nda nc e a m ong s t a r s w a l ki ng t he r e d c a r pe t a t M T V s a nnua l vi de o a w a r ds P e r ha ps G oodw i n ( 1992) out l i ne s t he hi s t or y of M T V m os t s uc c i nc t l y by i de nt i f yi ng pha s e s i n t he hi s t or y of M T V s t a r t i ng a t t he be gi nni ng w he n t e s t m a r ke t s be ga n a i r i ng t h e p r ogr a m M T V be c a m e w i de l y a v a i l a bl e i n M a nha t t a n a nd L os A nge l e s i n 1983, a nd, i n 1986 M T V ha d s t a r t e d t o di ve r s i f y i t s m us i c a l of f e r i ngs m os t not a bl y i nt o r a p, da nc e m us i c a nd he a vy m e t a l T o s om e e xt e nt t he s e ge nr e s ha ve be e n s e gr e ga t e d i nt o t he i r ow n pr og r a m s l ot s ( Y o! M T V R a ps C l ub M T V a nd H e a dba nge r s B a l l r e s pe c t i ve l y) 2 A t t he s a m e t i m e t he m ove t o w a r d di s c r e t e pr ogr a m s ha s i nc r e a s i ngl y be c om e a m ove a w a y f r om m us i c v i d e o. I n t he pr oc e s s M T V ha s be c om e m or e l i ke a f ul l s e r vi c e ne t w or k, of f e r i ng ne w s s p or t s s i t c om s doc um e nt a r i e s c a r t oons ga m e s how s a nd ot he r t r a di t i ona l T V f a r e A l t hou gh M T V i s no l onge r t he onl y ne t w o r k pr e m i e r i ng m us i c vi de os i t ha s be e n t he s uc c e s s f u l pi one e r o f m us i c on t e l e vi s i on. M T V ha s f ound a n i nt e r na t i ona l m a r ke t a nd br oa dc a s t s w or l dw i de

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7 M ovi ng f r om h i s t or y a nd c ont e nt t o t he r ol e of ge n de r i n m us i c vi de os L e w i s ( 1990) d r a w s a c onne c t i on be t w e e n t e xt ua l s i gns o f pa t r i a r c ha l di s c our s e i n m us i c vi de os a nd t he pos i t i on of gi r l s a nd w om e n a s t he obj e c t s of m a l e voye ur i s m M T V ha s c a t e r e d t o t he r oc k i de ol ogy, t he e xc l us i on a nd de va l ua t i on of f e m a l e m us i c i a ns a nd f e m a l e a udi e nc e s a nd r e ve a l s a de s i gn i nt e nt on pe r pe t u a t i ng t he s oc i a l c ondi t i on of ge nde r i ne qua l i t y. B y s e l e c t i ng r oc k m us i c a s t he pr og r a m m i ng r e s our c e a nd yout h a s t he t a r ge t a udi e nc e M T V pr e s e nt e d t he i de ol ogy of r oc k, a d ol e s c e nc e w hi t e he t e r os e xua l m a l e pr i vi l e ge a nd e xpr e s s e d t he unde r l yi ng s oc i a l goa l of m a i nt a i n i ng w om e n i n a n unde r pr i vi l e ge d pos i t i on ( L e w i s 1990) T he c ont e nt of m us i c vi d e os w oul d be m i ni m a l w i t hout t he s c a nt i l y c l a d w om e n da nc i ng a r ound p e r f or m i ng t hi nl y d i s gui s e d pa nt om i m e s of s e x a c t s W he n e xa m i ni ng t he hi s t or y of M T V e s pe c i a l l y r e ga r di ng ge nde r i t i s di f f i c ul t not t o m e nt i on M a donna T he r e dunda nt t he m e of ove r t s e xua l i t y a l s o i s a ppa r e nt i n M a donna s vi de os i n w hi c h s he f r e que nt l y por t r a y s he r s e l f a s a s e x obj e c t M a donna ha s be e n one a r t i s t w ho ha s s t ood t he t e s t of t i m e a nd h a s be e n a f e a t ur e on M T V s i nc e i t s i nc e pt i on i n t he 1980s ( B r ow n & S hul z e 1990) H ow e ve r he r t a c t i c s i n m us i c vi de os s e e m t o s ugge s t t ha t s he a l w a ys ha s t he uppe r ha nd i n c ont r o l l i ng he r s e xua l pe r s ona M a donna ha s be e n a t r e nds e t t e r a nd i dol on M T V a nd ha s s how n t he m os t c onf l i c t e d a nd c ont r ove r s i a l i m a ge s of w om e n: ba d gi r l vi r gi n, pr e gna nt t e e n gl a m our que e n, a nd s t r i pt e a s e r ( L e w i s 1990 p 105) T he s e xua l e dge t o a l l of he r c ha r a c t e r s r e s ul t e d i n i nt e r p r e t a t i ons t ha t M a donna ope r a t e s i n c ol l us i on w i t h t he i ndus t r y, e s pe c i a l l y t he pa t r i a r c ha l i de ol ogy t o r e p r oduc e t h e s t a nda r d of f e m a l e r e pr e s e nt a t i on

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8 ( L e w i s 1990 ) A l t hough M a donna a nd ot he r t r e nd s e t t i ng w om e n a r t i s t s m a y s a y t ha t t he y a r e i n c ont r ol a nd l i be r a t e d, t he y a r e s t i l l s ubj e c t i ng t he m s e l ve s t o t he pa t r i a r c ha l m ol d t ha t ha s be e n a pa r t o f M T V pe r pe t ua t i ng t h e s t e r e ot ype s a ppa r e nt on t he ne t w or k s pr ogr a m m i ng. I n i t s de ve l opm e nt M T V ha s c om e a l ong w a y a nd ha s done a f i ne j ob o f c a t e r i ng t o t r e nds of w ha t i s a c c e pt a bl e t o t he c ur r e nt a udi e nc e T he f or m a t ha s ke pt i n t ouc h w i t h yout h a nd c ons t a nt l y a t t e m pt s t o out do i t s e l f by p r e s e nt i ng s om e t hi ng m or e c ont r ove r s i a l m or e e nt e r t a i ni ng a nd m o r e s hoc ki ng. P r oduc e r s a t M T V pus h t he bounda r i e s a s f a r a s pos s i bl e A l t hough a c ons t a nt f l ow of m us i c vi de o s i s no l onge r t he s ol e c ont e nt o f M T V pr ogr a m m i ng, t he vi de os t ha t do a i r on M T V ha ve t ha t s a m e c ons t a nt e l e m e nt of s e x a ppe a l a s a l w a ys W i t h i t s gl oba l a udi e nc e a nd w or l dw i de a ppe a l M T V ha s be e n s uc c e s s f ul t hus f a r i n t a ppi ng i nt o t he yout h c ul t ur e M T V de f i ne s w h a t i s popul a r a m ong young pe opl e a nd s e r ve s a s a gui de t o w ha t i s f a s hi ona bl e M T V i s a pow e r f ul c ul t ur e f or c e pa c ke d w i t h m e s s a ge s i nt e nde d f or c ons um pt i on. T he m a i n m o t i va t i on be hi nd M T V i s m a ki ng m one y, a nd e t hi c a l s t a nda r ds m a y be c om pr om i s e d i n or de r t o m a ke a p r of i t F r om a m or e s c hol a r l y poi nt of vi e w C ha pt e r T h r e e w i l l r e vi e w l i t e r a t ur e t ha t ha s e xa m i ne d t he m e s s a ge s pr e s e nt e d by M T V

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9 C ha pt e r T hr e e L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w M us i c i s a m e a ns of s e xua l e xpr e s s i on, a nd a m ode of s e xua l c ont r o l de nyi ng t he c onc e pt of f e m i ni ne r e s pe c t a bi l i t y; i t ha s c onf i r m e d t r a di t i ona l de f i ni t i ons o f w ha t c ons t i t ut e s m a s c ul i ni t y a nd f e m i ni ni t y a nd ha s de f i ne d a s a t i s f yi ng he t e r os e xua l r e l a t i ons hi p a s one t ha t p r ovi de s m a l e s e xua l f r e e d om a nd s pont a ne i t y ( F r i t h & G oodw i n 1990) P e opl e i de nt i f y w i t h popu l a r m us i c a nd us e i t a s a pe r s ona l f o r m o f e xpr e s s i on ( F r i t h 1998) A r e vi e w o f r e l e va nt l i t e r a t u r e s ugge s t s t ha t s c hol a r l y i nt e r e s t i n ge nde r a nd M T V m os t l y ha s be e n l i m i t e d t o c ont e nt a na l ys i s a nd s t udi e s of f e m a l e a r t i s t s r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of ge nde r a nd w om e n a r e vi r t ua l l y none xi s t e nt I f i t i s i m po r t a nt t o l ook a t t he c ul t u r a l e nt e r t a i nm e nt a s pe c t of M T V t he n i t i s i m por t a nt t o m e nt i on A do r no. I n m uc h of hi s w or k A dor no t ook a n e l i t i s t a t t i t ude t ow a r d popul a r c ul t ur e C ont e m por a r y s c hol a r s now unde r s t a nd t ha t popul a r c ul t u r e i s a s i gni f i c a nt pa r t o f c ul t ur e a nd s oc i e t y, no t l ow a r t of l i t t l e i m po r t a nc e a s he s ugge s t e d. A dor no s a w t he e f f e c t s o f m ode r n m e di a i n a ne ga t i ve l i ght s t a t i ng t ha t m e di a t e d popul a r c ul t ur e m a ni pul a t e a nd l i m i t i ndi vi dua l de ve l opm e nt ( A dor no 1991 ) A dor no he l d M a r xi s t vi e w s r e ga r di ng c a pi t a l i s m e s pe c i a l l y r e g a r di ng c a pi t a l i s m s t e nde nc y t o de s t r oy t he i ndi vi dua l s a bi l i t y t o m a ke s e ns e of t he w or l d. T he c ul t u r e i ndus t r y i s one of a nt i e nl i ght e nm e nt a nd m a s s de c e pt i on. H e a r gue d t ha t popul a r m us i c i s l i m i t e d, r e pe t i t i ous a nd c ont r ol l e d by r ul i ng c a pi t a l i s t e l i t e s i n t he m us i c c ul t ur e i ndus t r y S c hol a r s ha ve s t udi e d M T V s i nc e i t s i nc e pt i on i n t he e a r l y 1980s a nd a gr e e t ha t

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10 t he c ont e nt of m us i c vi de os i s r e pl e t e w i t h i m a ge s c ont a i ni ng s e xua l i m a ge r y a nd ge nde r s t e r e ot ype s ( B r ow n, 2002; M c K e e & P a r dun, 1999 ; S e i dm a n, 1992; S he r m a n & D om i ni c k, 1986) T he m a j o r i t y o f s uc h s t udi e s ha ve e m pl oye d c ont e nt a na l ys i s t o c ount t he num be r o f s e xua l i m a ge s ( M c K e e & P a r dun 1 999) S he r m a n a nd D om i ni c k ( 1986 ) a na l yz e d 166 vi de os a nd f ound 81 pe r c e nt o f vi de o s on M T V i nc l ude d s e xua l i m a ge r y T he y f ound t ha t vi de os a r e m os t l y s e xua l a nd/ or vi ol e nt T he i r c l a i m s o f s e xi s m hol d t ha t vi de o c l i ps pr ovi de f e w r ol e m ode l s f or young w o m e n a nd pr e s e nt of f e ns i ve s t e r e ot ype s S he r m a n a nd D om i ni c k ( 1986) c ha r ge d t ha t m us i c vi de os pr e s e nt i ng of f e ns i ve s t e r e ot ype s do not pr ovi de pos i t i ve r ol e m ode l s f or young w om e n. I n t he i r s t udy, t he w om e n w ho a ppe a r e d i n t he vi de os w e r e d r e s s e d pr ovoc a t i ve l y a nd w e r e po r t r a ye d a s s e x obj e c t s m e a nt f or a m a n s s e xua l c onque s t T he y c l a i m e d t ha t t he m e s s a ge s por t r a ye d i n m us i c vi de os a r e c ha uvi ni s t i c a nd s ugge s t e d i nt e r p e r s ona l phys i c a l c ont a c t s houl d be de voi d of a ny c om m i t m e nt o r e m ot i ona l i nvol ve m e nt B a xt e r e t a l ( 1985) e xa m i ne d 62 m us i c vi de os f or 23 c ont e nt c a t e gor i e s a nd f ound t ha t M T V s t r e s s e d s e xua l c ont e nt T hi s s t ud y a s ke d f our que s t i ons : ( a ) W ha t a r e t he m a j or c a t e gor i e s o f c ont e nt w hi c h e m e r ge f r om obs e r va t i on of m us i c vi de os a nd c a n t he s e c a t e gor i e s be a na l yz e d s ys t e m a t i c a l l y? ( b) D o s pe c i f i c c ont e nt c a t e gor i e s s uc h a s t hos e c e nt e r e d on s e x a nd vi ol e nc e a ppe a r w i t h g r e a t f r e que nc y i n m us i c vi de os ? ( c ) D o m us i c vi de os f oc us on bi z a r r e unc onve nt i ona l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons ? ( d) D o s ym bol s de a l i ng w i t h gove r nm e nt pol i t i c s a nd A m e r i c a n c ul t u r e a nd l i f e s t yl e s a ppe a r w i t h d i s c e r ni bl e f r e que nc y? T he s e que s t i ons w e r e a ns w e r e d a f t e r p a r t i c i pa nt s vi e w e d t he vi de os T he phys i c a l s t r uc t ur e o f t he m us i c vi de os s t udi e d r e ve a l s t ha t pr oduc e r s r e l y he a vi l y on s pe c i a l c a m e r a t e c hni que s f i l m i m a ge r y, a n d s pe c i a l e f f e c t s i n c r e a t i ng m us i c

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11 vi de os T he i nt e nt m a y be t o da z z l e t he e ye a nd t h us t o hol d t he a t t e nt i on o f a l a r ge l y a dol e s c e nt a udi e nc e T he s t udy f ound t he onl y c on t e nt c a t e gor y oc c ur r i ng m or e t ha n s e x w a s vi s ua l a bs t r a c t i on t he us e of s pe c i a l e f f e c t s t o pr oduc e odd unus ua l a nd/ o r une xpe c t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of r e a l i t y. I n t he s e x c ont e nt c a t e gor y, t he f ol l ow i ng c a t e gor i e s w e r e c ode d a s pos s i bl e s e x oc c ur r e nc e s i n t he vi de os : pr ovoc a t i ve c l o t hi ng, e m br a c e or ot he r phys i c a l c ont a c t da nc e m ove m e nt s of a s e xua l l y s ugge s t i ve na t ur e non da nc e m ove m e nt s of a s e xua l l y s ugge s t i ve na t ur e he t e r os e xua l da t e or c our t s hi p r i t ua l s ki s s i ng, m e n c ha s i ng w om e n o r vi c e ve r s a us e of m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt i n s e xua l l y s ugge s t i ve m a nne r s a dom a s oc hi s m ga y a nd l e s bi a n da t e or c our t s hi p r i t ua l s a nd s e xua l bo nda ge N ot onl y di d B a xt e r e t a l ( 1985) f i nd f r e que nt oc c ur r e nc e s of t he s e c a t e gor i e s t he y a l s o f ound t ha t w hi t e a dul t m a l e s a ppe a r e d i n 96 pe r c e nt of t he vi de os s t udi e d a nd w e r e m os t f r e que nt l y r e p r e s e nt e d on M T V vi de os W hi l e t he a bove s t udi e s i de nt i f y s e xua l c ont e nt i n m us i c vi de os t he m e t hod i n e a c h i s m a i nl y c ont e nt a na l ys i s C ont e nt a na l ys i s i s us e f ul i n i t s yi e l di ng s uppor t o f t he m e s but i t l a c ks t he m a i n c om pone nt t ha t t hi s s t udy a i m s t o i nve s t i ga t e : a u di e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i on. T he f ol l ow i ng s t udi e s l ook a t a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i on, but none l ook a t w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of w om e n a r t i s t s i n m us i c vi de os I nt e r e s t e d i n a ge r a c e a nd ge nde r B e r r y a nd S he l t on ( 1999) c onduc t e d f oc us gr oups i n or de r t o i nve s t i ga t e i ndi vi dua l a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons T he y f ound t ha t i ndi vi dua l s c ont r ol t he f i na l i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f m us i c vi de os a nd t ha t t he a udi e nc e m e m be r s w e r e a c t i ve not pa s s i ve T hi s i n t e r pr e t i v e r e s e a r c h s how s t ha t t he f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r pr e t e d i m a ge s i n m us i c vi de os a c c or di ng t o t he i r pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s

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12 pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t e r m s of how ge nde r a nd r a c e i nf l ue nc e s pe r s ona l r e l e va nc e a nd unde r s t a ndi ng. B e r r y a nd S he l t on ( 1999) r e f e r r e d t o s oc i a l r e l e va n c y, c ul t ur a l r e l e va nc y, a nd pe r s ona l r e l e va n c y i n t he i r di s c us s i on. E a c h c l i p w a s s how n, a nd t he di s c us s i on w a s br oke n dow n i nt o t hos e t he m e s i n o r de r t o unc ove r how t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m a de s e ns e of t he vi de os T he y i nc or por a t e d a ge r a c e a nd ge nde r w he n r e l a yi ng t he di f f e r e nt l e ve l s of r e l e va nc y. T he s t udy f ound t ha t m a ny di f f e r e nt i nt e r pr e t a t i on s c oul d e xi s t f or t he s a m e vi de o c l i p, w hi c h l e a ds t o t he c onc l us i on t ha t t he m e a ni n g i s s oc i a l l y ne got i a t e d a c c or di ng t o a ge r a c e a nd ge nde r T hi s s t udy i s s i gni f i c a nt be c a us e i t s how s t ha t pe opl e ha ve t he i r ow n i nt e r pr e t a t i ons but m o r e i m po r t a nt l y, t he y d r a w f r om pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s t o r e l a t e t o t he vi de os W hi l e B e r r y a nd S he l t on ( 1999) s how e d t ha t pe opl e i nt e r p r e t ba s e d on t he i r ow n ba c kgr ounds a nd e xpe r i e nc e s t he y di d not l o ok a t how w om e n i nt e r pr e t t he w a y w om e n pr e s e nt t he m s e l ve s i n m us i c vi de o. A ddi t i o na l l y, t he y d i d not f oc us on t he pr e s e nt a t i on of ge nde r r ol e s a nd s t e r e ot ype s D i f f e r i ng f r om B e r r y a nd S he l t on ( 1999) K a l of ( 1 999) doe s l ook s pe c i f i c a l l y a t ge nde r r ol e s but i ns t e a d of l ooki ng a t t he w a y w o m e n i nt e r pr e t t he s t e r e ot ype s a nd s t or i e s t ol d a bout f e m i ni ni t y, K a l of ( 1999) a t t e m pt s t o l i nk m us i c vi de os t o s e xua l vi ol e nc e W hi l e t hi s i s a c ons i de r a bl e a c c om pl i s hm e nt t he c u r r e nt r e s e a r c h i s not i nt e r e s t e d i n c a us a l i t y; t he f oc us o f t hi s s t udy i s i nt e r pr e t a t i on. K a l of s ( 1999) r e s e a r c h on ge nde r r ol e s a nd s t e r e o t ypi ng f ound t ha t e xpos ur e t o t r a di t i ona l s e xua l i m a ge r y ha d a s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho f i r s t w a t c he d m us i c vi de os a nd t he n c om pl e t e d a que s t i onna i r e T he que s t i on na i r e a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o

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13 pr ovi de ba s i c de m ogr a phi c i n f or m a t i on a nd t o a ns w e r 60 r a ndom l y or de r e d s t a t e m e nt s m e a s ur e d on a L i ke r t t ype s c a l e w i t h a ns w e r s r a ngi ng f r om a gr e e t o di s a gr e e T he s t a t e m e nt s m e a s ur e d pe r c e pt i ons of body s a t i s f a c t i on, pe r s ona l i t y s a t i s f a c t i on, i nf l ue nc e of c l os e f r i e nds a nd unf a m i l i a r s e t t i ng on be ha vi or a nd l oc us of c ont r ol I nc l ude d i n t he que s t i ons w e r e m e a s ur e m e nt s of be l i e f s c ons i s t e nt w i t h a c ul t ur a l s uppor t o f s e xua l a s s a ul t S e ve n i t e m s m e a s ur e d r a pe m yt h a c c e pt a nc e a nd f i ve i t e m s m e a s ur e d a c c e pt a nc e of i nt e r pe r s ona l vi o l e nc e T he s e i t e m s w e r e us e d t o a s s e s s t he i nf l ue nc e of s t e r e ot ypi c a l i m a ge s of ge nde r a nd s e xua l i t y on s e xua l a t t i t ude s K a l of ( 1999) us e d t he r e s ul t s of t he que s t i onna i r e t o r e por t t ha t m us i c vi de os i n f l ue nc e a t t i t ude s m oods a nd s e xua l be l i e f s K a l of ( 1999 ) f ound w om e n w ho w e r e e xpos e d t o t r a di t i ona l i m a ge s not onl y ha d gr e a t e r a c c e pt a nc e of i nt e r pe r s ona l vi ol e nc e t ha n w om e n not e xpos e d t o s t e r e ot ype d i m a ge r y, b ut a l s o ha d s c or e s hi ghe r t ha n t he m e n i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup. T h i s r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t w om e n m a y be m or e r e c e pt i ve t o s uc h m e s s a ge s a nd m or e t ol e r a nt o f s e xua l m i s t r e a t m e nt A l t hough K a l of ( 1999) di d s pe c ul a t e on e f f e c t s of m us i c vi de os t he f i nd i ngs i n t hi s s t udy m a y ha ve be e n m o r e e nl i ght e ni ng i f t he m e t hod ha d be e n qua l i t a t i ve a l l ow i ng f or m o r e ope n e nde d r e s pons e s I f t he w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d be e n i nvi t e d t o e xpl a i n w hy t he y f e l t unw e l c om e a dva nc e s w e r e a c c e pt a bl e t he r e s e a r c he r s m a y ha ve be e n a bl e t o l oc a t e t he r a t i ona l e f o r a c c e pt a nc e w i t hi n w i de r c ul t ur a l m yt hs A l s o, bi a s i n t he que s t i onna i r e a nd t he r e s e a r c he r s i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a nd c onc l us i ons m a y ha ve be e n r e duc e d by a l l ow i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a ns w e r i n t he i r ow n w or ds A l t hough pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s i de nt i f i e d t he e xi s t e n c e of s e xua l c ont e nt of a nd i nf l ue nc e f r om m us i c vi de os r e s e a r c he r s ha ve not e xa m i ne d w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of

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14 vi de os pe r f or m e d by f e m a l e a r t i s t s f r om a c r i t i c a l c ul t ur a l s t a ndpoi nt T hi s s t udy w i l l e xa m i ne w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of i m a ge s a l r e a d y s how n t o e xi s t i n m us i c vi de os W hi l e t he r e a r e m a ny ot he r s t udi e s t ha t f oc us on m us i c t e l e vi s i on, f a ndom a nd ot he r r e l a t e d t op i c s t he e xi s t e nc e of r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c a l l y on ge nde r i n m us i c vi de o i s s c a r c e T hi s i s a f a i r l y ne w a r e a of s t udy, a nd i t s bl e nd of ge nde r w i t h pop c ul t ur e bot h non t r a di t i ona l f or m s o f m a s s c om m uni c a t i on s c hol a r s hi p, i s s om e t i m e s m a r gi na l i z e d. T opi c s s uc h a s ge nde r s e x s t e r e ot ype s a nd w om e n i n M T V how e ve r a r e i m por t a nt s oc i a l f or c e s gui di ng popul a r c ul t ur e S om e s t udi e s a i m t o l ook a t M T V f r om a n a dve r t i s i ng pe r s pe c t i ve ot he r s f r om a t e c hni c a l t e l e vi s i on pa r a di gm bu t onl y a f e w ha ve t ouc he d on t he p r e s e nt t opi c A ddi t i ona l l y, t he r e a r e s c hol a r s w ho ha ve l ooke d a t M T V a s a c ul t u r a l f o r c e but t he m a t e r i a l i s l a r ge l y out da t e d. T he onl y c ons i s t e nt i n t e r e s t i n M T V s c ont e nt a nd i t s pos s i bl e e f f e c t s ha s be e n pa r e nt a l gr oups c onc e r ne d a bout t he c ont e nt R e s e a r c h ha s pr ove n i t s c ont e nt a nd i t i s t i m e t o e xpl o r e a udi e n c e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he c ont e nt o f m us i c vi de os

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15 C ha pt e r F our T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k R e pr e s e nt a t i on t he or y of f e r s a w a y t o e xpl o r e w ha t i s be i ng r e p r e s e nt e d on M T V N a r r a t i ve t he or y i s a w a y t o unde r s t a nd w ha t c ul t u r a l s t or i e s a nd m yt hs a r e be i ng t ol d t hr ough m us i c vi de os a nd vi s ua l r he t o r i c e xa m i ne s how m us i c vi de o m e s s a ge s a r e c om m uni c a t e d vi s ua l l y. T hi s t he s i s t i e s t he s e t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s t oge t he r w i t h c ul t ur a l s t udi e s a nd f e m i ni s t t he or y, w hi c h s e e k t o unde r s t a nd how c ul t ur a l i de ol og i e s of ge nde r a r e c ons t r uc t e d, m a i nt a i ne d r e pa i r e d, a nd t r a ns f or m e d ( C a r e y, 1989) E m e r gi ng f r om c r i t i c a l t he or y, c ul t ur a l s t udi e s e xa m i ne s m a s s m e di a s r ol e i n pr om ul ga t i ng i de ol ogy a nd pow e r r e l a t i ons i n br oa de r s oc i e t y t hr ough i m a ge s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i on. H a l l ( 1997) pr opos e s t ha t c om m uni c a t i on i s a l w a ys l i nke d w i t h pow e r a nd t ha t t hos e gr oups w ho w i e l d pow e r i n a s oc i e t y i n f l ue nc e w ha t ge t s r e pr e s e nt e d t hr ough t he m e di a M e s s a ge s w or k i n c om pl e x w a ys bu t t h e y a r e c onne c t e d w i t h t he w a y t ha t s oc i a l pow e r ope r a t e s M e di a a s a c ul t ur a l f or c e pr oduc e s ha r e d s oc i a l m e a ni ngs a nd pr ovi de gui de l i ne s f or how t o m a ke s e ns e of t he w or l d ( O D onne l l 2005) S i m i l a r l y, na r r a t i ve t he or y a nd vi s ua l r he t o r i c t he o r y a r gue t ha t t he m e di a r e pr e s e nt s t or i e s w i t h s i gns a nd s ym bol s r e pr e s e nt i ng r e a l i t y. B a r ba r t i s ( 2005 ) w r i t e s t ha t s t or yt e l l i ng i s a uni ve r s a l hum a n be ha vi or a nd pe o pl e unde r s t a nd t he i r l i ve s i n t e r m s of na r r a t i ve H um a ns ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o i n f l ue nc e e a c h ot he r s t hi nk i ng a nd be ha vi or t hr ough t he m e s s a ge s por t r a ye d on t e l e vi s i on. T hu s w hi l e c ul t ur a l s t udi e s l oc a t e

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16 dom i na nt i de ol ogi e s i n m a s s c ul t ur e na r r a t i ve t he o r y a na l yz e s t he ki nds of s t or y f or m ul a s t ha t c i r c ul a t e i n c ul t u r e M ovi ng f r om t e xt t o i m a ge v i s ua l r he t or i c t he or y a l l ow s s c hol a r s t o unde r s t a nd w ha t m e a ni ng i m a ge s a r e l i ke l y t o ha ve f or a n a udi e nc e ( F os s 2005) V i s ua l r he t o r i c t he or y i s a r e l a t i ve l y ne w a r e a of s t udy t ha t be gs t o f i t i n t he r he t or i c a l di s c i pl i ne a s a ve r ba l or nonve r ba l s e nt i m e nt t ha t e voke s a t t e nt i on, pe r c e pt i ons a t t i t ude s o r be ha vi or V i s ua l r he t or i c i s us e d t o m e a n bot h a vi s ua l obj e c t or a r t i f a c t a nd a pe r s pe c t i ve on t he s t udy of vi s ua l da t a ( F os s 2005, p. 143) V i s ua l r he t or i c a l s c hol a r s a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n s ym bol s a s f or m s o f c om m uni c a t i on s uc h a s m us i c vi de os f i l m c om m e r c i a l s a nd a dve r t i s e m e nt s T hi s t he or y a l l ow s s c hol a r s t o m a ke s e ns e of vi s ua l i nf o r m a t i on. I t i s s i m i l a r t o c ul t ur a l s t udi e s be c a us e s ym bol s unde r s c r ut i ny a r e pr oduc e d w i t hi n pa r t i c ul a r c ul t u r a l c ont e xt s a nd be c om e a r t i f a c t s of t he c ul t ur e T he d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n vi s ua l r he t or i c a nd c ul t ur a l s t udi e s i s t ha t w hi l e v i s ua l r he t or i c l ooks a t t he m e a ni ng o f t he s ym bol or vi s u a l m e s s a ge c ul t ur a l s t udi e s e xpr e s s e d pol i t i c a l a ge nda a s ks que s t i ons a bout pow e r r e l a t i o ns r e ga r di ng s uc h vi s ua l pr oduc t i ons I f M T V t e l l s s t or i e s or na r r a t i ve s t he n vi s ua l r he t o r i c s a ys t ha t t he i m a ge s a l s o c ont a i n s t or i e s t hus m e a ni ng f o r a udi e nc e s C r i t i c a l t he or y a nd c ul t ur a l s t udi e s go f ur t he r t o a s k w ho ha s t he pow e r t o pr oduc e m e a ni ng a nd how d o a udi e nc e s a c c e pt or r e s i s t s uc h m e a ni ngs F e m i ni s t s c hol a r s hi p ha s e nr i c he d a l l t he s e a ppr oa c h e s by f oc us i ng on t he f a c t t ha t w om e n ha ve l e s s a c c e s s t o pr oduc i ng m e di a t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd i m a ge s t hus i de ol ogy, publ i c r he t or i c o r c ul t ur a l na r r a t i ve s K a l of ( 1993 ) a r gue s t ha t w om e n be a r t he br unt of s e xua l e xpl oi t a t i on vi a t e l e vi s i on r e pr e s e n t a t i ons t ha t r e i nf o r c e t r a di t i ona l vi e w s

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17 of ge nde r a nd pow e r S he f i nds pr obl e m s i n c ul t u r a l pr e oc c upa t i on w i t h f e m a l e s e xua l i t y a s a c om m odi t y t o be bought s ol d, a nd u s e d i n ne got i a t i on of pow e r a nd s t a t us i n a pa t r i a r c ha l c ul t ur e ( p. 648) F e m i ni s t s c hol a r s hi p a l s o unc ove r s t he w a ys m a l e dom i na t e d m e di a i ns t i t ut i ons pr oduc e m e di a t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w o m e n t ha t e nf or c e a n i de ol ogy of he t e r o nor m a t i ve a s ym m e t r i c a l s oc i a l r e l a t i ons i n w hi c h w om e n a r e bot h a s ubor di na t e d c l a s s a nd a l s o s e xua l i z e d obj e c t s r a t he r t ha n s ubj e c t s w i t h a ge nc y. M e n a nd boys m onopol i z e t r a i t s t ha t a r e pr i z e d i n A m e r i c a a nd i n bus i ne s s ; gi r l s a nd w om e n, how e ve r a r e po r t r a ye d a s i nc om pe t e nt a nd f e a r f ul o f t e n r e pr e s e nt e d i n dom e s t i c r ol e s a nd f r e que nt l y a s vi c t i m s of m a s c ul i ne hos t i l i t y a nd de gr a da t i on. T hi s t he m e be c om e s a ppa r e nt w he n a na l yz i ng m e di a t e d m e s s a ge s K i l bour ne s ( 2000) K i l l i ng U s S of t l y I I I s ur ve ys c ont e m por a r y a dve r t i s e m e nt s c r i t i c a l l y t o e xa m i ne t he i m a ge s us e d t o po r t r a y w om e n a nd gi r l s i n a dve r t i s e m e nt s K i l bour n e s w or k ha s m a de i m por t a nt c ont r i but i on s t o t he f i e l d w i t h he r i nve s t i ga t i ons of ge nde r i n t he m e di a S he s e t s m a s s m e di a i m a ge s of f e m i ni ni t y a ga i ns t s oc i a l r e a l i t y a nd e nc our a ge s pe opl e t o c ons i de r t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he s t or i e s t he m e di a t e l l a bo ut gi r l s a nd w om e n a nd t he a c t ua l l i ve s gi r l s a nd w o m e n l e a d ( K i l bou r ne 2000 ) A f t e r br e a ki ng dow n a dve r t i s e m e nt s s e ve r a l f r i ght e ni ng t he m e s e m e r ge : unr e a l i s t i c goa l s o f w e i ght a nd a ppe a r a nc e por t r a yi ng vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t w om e n a s s e xua l l y a ppe a l i ng, a nd e nc our a gi ng w om e n t o be vi ol e nt w i t h one a not he r f or no a ppa r e nt r e a s on. O ne of K i l bou r ne s ( 2000) unde r l yi ng a r gum e nt s i s t ha t a dve r t i s i ng, a s a s t or yt e l l e r of c ul t ur e s e t s w om e n up f or i ne vi t a bl e f a i l ur e by pr oduc i ng a de s i r e f or c e r t a i n phys i c a l s t a nd a r ds de f i ne d by a dve r t i s e r s a s c ul t ur a l s t a nda r ds of f e m i ni ni t y,

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18 t ha t e ve nt ua l l y unde r m i ne t he w a y gi r l s a nd w om e n s e e t he m s e l ve s a l l w hi l e nor m a l i z i ng t he vi o l e nc e done t o t he m by m e n, o r i n s om e c a s e s ot he r w om e n. S he a r gue s t ha t t he r e i s l i t t l e t ha t i s na t ur a l a bout t he s t or i e s a dve r t i s i ng t e l l s a bout w om e n a nd t he onl y r e a s on f or t he e xi s t e nc e of s uc h da nge r ous m a t e r i a l s i s f o r t he p r of i t of t he s pons or K i l bour ne ( 2000 ) e xpl a i ns t ha t i t i s i m por t a nt t o un de r s t a nd t he di s t i nc t i ve a nd pe r va s i ve pa t t e r ns of f e m i n i ni t y po r t r a ye d i n t he m e di a K i l bour ne s e t s m a s s m e di a i m a ge s of f e m i ni ni t y a ga i ns t s oc i a l r e a l i t y f a nt a s y a ga i ns t t he m a t e r i a l e xpe r i e nc e s of gi r l s a nd w om e n, a nd e nc our a ge s t he vi e w e r t o c o ns i de r t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he s t or i e s t ol d a bout gi r l s a nd w om e n a nd t he a c t ua l l i ve s gi r l s a nd w om e n l e a d. S he f ur t he r a r gue s t ha t m e di a t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of ge nde r a r e m or e da nge r ous w he n pe opl e a r e not pa yi ng a t t e nt i on t o i de ol ogi e s dr i vi ng ge nde r m e s s a ge s w hi c h, i n t ur n r e duc e s vi e w e r s ow n a ge nc y a nd pow e r M ul ve y s ( 1975) t he or y of t he m a l e ga z e pos i t s t ha t w om e n a r e c a ught i n a n oppr e s s i on r oot e d i n a pa t r i a r c ha l c ul t u r e t ha t s e t s t he r ul e s a s w e l l a s c ont r ol s t he pr oduc t i on of f i l m a nd, i n t he pr e s e nt c a s e m us i c vi de os M ul ve y s t he or y of t he m a l e ga z e a r gue s t ha t t he c a m e r a l e ns a s a pr oxy f or t h e a udi e nc e s e ye t hus pe r s pe c t i ve pos i t i ons a udi e nc e s w i t hi n a m a s c ul i ne r ol e of w a t c he r w hi l e w om e n on s c r e e n a r e pos i t i one d a s obj e c t s m e a nt t o be w a t c he d. T hi s m a s c ul i ne w a t c hf ul ne s s t he pow e r t o s e e t he f e m i ni ne O t he r i s e qui va l e nt t o t he s e e r s pow e r t o c ont r ol t he s e e n/ s c e ne A c c or di ng t o M ul ve y, w om e n a r e p r e s e nt e d i n f i l m a s pa s s i ve s e xua l obj e c t s by w hi c h m e n c a n l i ve out f a nt a s i e s a nd obs e s s i ons a nd t ha t w om e n a r e r e pr e s e nt e d by t h e c a m e r a a s obj e c t s not s ubj e c t s P l e a s ur e e r ot i c i s m a nd de s i r e a l l c a t e r t o m e n s f a nt a s i e s i n

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19 w hi c h w om e n a r e s e xua l di s t r a c t i ons t ha t a dd l i t t l e or no m e a ni ng t o w ha t i s s how n on t he s c r e e n. W om e n a r e oppr e s s e d a nd bound by a n unc ons c i ous s t r uc t ur e d e e p r oot e d a nd a s pe r va s i ve a s l a ngua ge W om a n t he n s t a nds i n pa t r i a r c ha l c ul t ur e a s a s i gni f i e r f or t he m a l e ot he r bound by a s ym bol i c o r de r i n w hi c h m a n c a n l i ve out hi s f a nt a s i e s a nd obs e s s i ons t hr ough l i ngui s t i c c om m a nd by i m pos i ng t he m on t he s i l e nt i m a ge of w om a n s t i l l t i e d t o he r pl a c e a s be a r e r not m a ke r of m e a n i ng ( M ul ve y, 1975 p 59 ) M ul ve y s ( 1975) f i r s t di s c us s i on of t he m a l e ga z e s pa r ke d m uc h c ont r ove r s y, w hi c h l e d t o a f ol l ow up a r t i c l e e xpl a i ni ng he r or i g i na l r a t i ona l e C r i t i c s w e r e c ur i ous a bout w om e n i n t he a udi e nc e but M ul ve y ( 1989 ) ba c ke d he r or i gi na l vi s ua l pl e a s ur e a r gum e nt e xpl a i ni ng t ha t w hi l e w om e n i n t he a udi e nc e e xi s t i t i s no t a w om a n s poi nt o f vi e w t ha t a udi e nc e m e m be r s i de nt i f y w i t h M ul ve y s ( 1989) m a l e ga z e e x pl or e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he i m a ge o f t he w om a n on t he s c r e e n a nd t he 'm a s c ul i ni s a t i on' of t he s pe c t a t or pos i t i on, r e ga r dl e s s of t he a c t ua l s e x ( or pos s i bl e de vi a nc e ) of a ny r e a l l i ve m ovi e goe r ( p 12 ) J ha l l y s ( 1990) p r oduc t i on of D r e a m w or l d s : D e s i r e s e x a nd pow e r i n m us i c vi de os c r e a t e d c ont r ove r s y w i t hi n t he m us i c i ndu s t r y. M T V t hr e a t e ne d t o s ue J ha l l y f or hi s w or k, bu t t ha t di d not s t op hi m f r o m c ont i nui n g t o e duc a t e pe opl e a bout t he ge nde r r ol e s i n m us i c vi de os J ha l l y s c ont e nt a na l ys i s of M T V vi de os of f e r e d a c om pe l l i ng a r gum e nt t ha t m us i c vi de os a r e i r r e s pons i bl e ge nde r a dve r t i s e m e nt s pr om ot i ng pr ovoc a t i ve s e xua l i m a ge r y. J ha l l y s ( 1995) f ol l ow up doc um e nt a r y, D r e a m w or l ds I I : D e s i r e s e x a nd pow e r i n m us i c vi de os e xpl o r e s m us i c vi d e os i n t he s a m e w a y, us e s m or e r e c e nt vi de os a nd s how s how t he f o r m ul a e f o r m us i c vi de os ha ve not c ha nge d m uc h

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20 f r om t he pa s t J ha l l y s ( 1995) t he or y of m us i c t e l e vi s i on a s a m a l e dr e a m w or l d a r gue s t ha t w om e n e xi s t a s obj e c t s of a dol e s c e nt m a l e f a nt a s y w h e r e a l l m e n, i nc l udi ng m e n vi e w e r s a r e pr om i s e d s e xua l gr a t i f i c a t i on. J ha l l y no t e s t ha t w om e n a r t i s t s a r e de c or a t i ve s e x obj e c t s ; t he i r r e pr e s e nt a t i ons i n m us i c v i de os a r e p r e di c t a bl e a nd l i m i t e d a nd c ons i s t of t he s a m e f or m ul a t ha t ha s be e n s uc c e s s f ul i n t he pa s t I n t hi s f or m ul a t he nor m s o f f e m i ni ni t y po r t r a ye d i n t he vi de os a r e nym phom a n i a a nd de pe nde nc e on a nd s ubs e r vi e nc e t o m e n. I n hi s doc um e nt a r y, J ha l l y, a s na r r a t or i nt one s : I n t he dr e a m w or l d, w om e n va s t l y out num be r m e n, a t t r a c t i on i s i ns t a nt a nd s e x ha ppe ns w i t hout c our t s hi p. J ha l l y ( 1995) a gue s t ha t f e m a l e a r t i s t s a r e f a c e d w i t h a di l e m m a dur i ng t he pr oduc t i on of m us i c vi de os : T he s t or y t ol d a bout w om e n s bodi e s a nd f e m a l e s e xua l i t y i s not l i m i t e d t o vi de os o f m a l e a r t i s t s t he s t or y i s a p ow e r f ul i nf l ue nc e on t he i m a ge of f e m a l e a r t i s t s a s w e l l . be c a us e t he s a m e m e n a r e b e hi nd t he c a m e r a s he r e a s w e l l J ha l l l y e xa m i ne s t he ga z e i nvol ve d i n m us i c vi de os a nd c om pa r e s vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t w om e n i n m us i c vi de os t o ot he r c i ne m a t i c f oot a ge of r a pe a nd vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t w om e n. T ur ni ng t he m us i c of f i n J ha l l y s e xa m pl e s of vi ol e nt m us i c vi de os a nd j uxt a pos i ng t he m w i t h, f o r e xa m pl e t he r a pe s c e ne i n t he c r i t i c a l l y a c c l a i m e d 1988 f i l m T he A c c us e d ( s t a r r i ng J odi e F os t e r ) a bout a young w om a n s s t r uggl e t o pr os e c ut e t he m e n w ho ga ng r a pe d he r pr ovi de s a c hi l l i ngl y s i m i l a r vi s ua l s pe c t a c l e f or t w o pr oduc t i ons w i t h dr a m a t i c a l l y di f f e r e nt pur pos e s : m us i c vi de os a s h a r m l e s s e nt e r t a i nm e nt a nd a H ol l yw ood f i l m pol i t i c i z i ng t he di f f i c ul t i e s w om e n e xpe r i e nc e i n t a ki ng t he i r r a pi s t s t o t r i a l

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21 C om bi ne d, t he s e t he or i s t s s ugge s t t ha t i m a ge s of w om e n, e s pe c i a l l y i n m us i c vi de os por t r a y w om e n a s s e xua l obj e c t s w i t h i ns a t i a bl e a ppe t i t e s f or s e x, but w ho ha ve no pe r s ona l i t i e s dr e a m s o r i nd i vi dua l i t y ( J ha l l y, 1 995; K i l l bour ne 2000; M ul ve y, 1975 ) M os t of t hi s c r i t i c a l w or k, how e ve r i s j us t t ha t t e x t ua l c r i t i c i s m of f e r i ng l i t t l e e m pi r i c a l e vi de nc e of how a udi e nc e s a c t ua l l y r e c e i ve a nd m a ke s e ns e of t he s e i m a ge s a nd c ul t ur a l na r r a t i ve s O n t he ot he r ha nd, H a l l ( 198 0 ) a nd F i s ke ( 1987) e m pha s i z e a c t i ve r a t he r t ha n pa s s i ve a udi e nc e s H a l l ( 1980) a r gue d t ha t t he do m i na nt i de ol ogy i s t yp i c a l l y i ns c r i be d a s t he pr e f e r r e d r e a di ng i n a m e di a t e xt but t he pr e f e r r e d r e a di ng i s no t a ut om a t i c a l l y a dopt e d by vi e w e r s T he s oc i a l s i t ua t i ons of vi e w e r s m a y yi e l d di f f e r e n t i nt e r pr e t a t i ons he nc e t he ne e d f or r e c e pt i on s t udi e s H a l l ( 1980) out l i ne s t hr e e t ype s of r e a di ngs : dom i na nt r e a di ngs a r e t he pr e f e r r e d r e a di ng t ha t t he pr oduc e r i nt e nde d; ne got i a t e d r e a di ngs t a ke i nt o a c c ount i ndi vi dua l s s oc i a l pos i t i on; oppos i t i o na l r e a di ngs a r e i n di r e c t c on f l i c t w i t h t he pr e f e r r e d r e a di ng. H a l l ( 1980) not e s t ha t r e c e pt i on i s a s t r uggl e f or m e a ni ng. F i s ke ( 1987) s a ys t ha t c ul t u r e i s a s e ns e m a ki ng pr oc e s s a nd m a i ns t r e a m c ul t ur e m a ke s m a i ns t r e a m s e ns e B ut F i s ke ( 1987) a l s o s u gge s t s t ha t a udi e nc e m e m be r s m a ke t he i r ow n s e ns e f r om m a i ns t r e a m c ul t ur e i nc l udi n g m a s s m e di a a nd popul a r c ul t ur e L i ke H a l l ( 1980) F i s ke ( 1987) a dvoc a t e s f or a n a c t i ve a udi e nc e a nd s ugge s t s t ha t vi e w e r s m a ke t he i r ow n s e ns e of t he i m a ge s t he y c ons um e T hus t he pl e a s ur e t ha t a udi e nc e m e m be r s de r i ve f r om vi e w i ng i s due t o t he i r a bi l i t y t o pa r t i c i pa t e a c t i ve l y i n c ul t ur e a nd m e a ni ng. H a l l s ( 1980) do m i na nt i de ol ogy a nd F i s ke s ( 1987) m a i ns t r e a m s e ns e m a ki ng s e e m t o s ugg e s t t ha t pa yi ng a t t e nt i on t o m e s s a ge s m a y he l p pe opl e a dj us t t o f i t i nt o dom i na nt s oc i a l nor m s

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22 D e s pi t e w ha t pr oduc e r s i nt e nd, m e s s a ge s a r e a m bi guous a nd e ve n c ont r a di c t or y A udi e nc e s a l s o m a y r e a d c ont r a di c t or y a nd di f f e r e nt m e s s a ge s i nt o pr oduc e r s t e xt s C ondi t ( 1989) s t a t e s t ha t t he c ont e nt o f a ny t e xt i s pol ys e m ous s ugge s t i ng a m ul t i pl i c i t y of pos s i bl e m e a ni ngs F ur t he r m or e C ondi t ( 1989) s ugge s t s t ha t pol ys e m ous t e xt s a r e pr e s e nt e d t o pol yva l e nt a udi e nc e s w ho c a n c ons t r uc t a va r i e t y o f i n t e r pr e t a t i ons a nd, ul t i m a t e l y, di f f e r e nt m e a ni ngs A udi e nc e r e c e pt i on s t udi e s go f ur t he r t o e xa m i ne r e a l a udi e nc e s vi a i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w i ng, pa r t i c i pa nt obs e r va t i on, e t hnogr a phy a nd f oc us gr oups T he or i e s of a udi e nc e r e c e pt i on s ugge s t t ha t a udi e nc e s a r e a c t i ve m e a ni ng m a ke r s i n m a ki ng s e ns e of m e di a c ont e nt ( A ng, 1985; M or l e y, 1980 ; R a dw a y, 1984) R e c e pt i on s c hol a r s a t t e m pt t o unde r s t a nd m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on by f oc us i ng o n pr oduc t i on a nd r e c e pt i on. R e c e pt i on a na l ys i s f oc us e s on a udi e nc e s m a ki ng s e ns e of t he m e di a a nd how t hi s s e ns e m a ki ng c ont r i but e s t o t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e a l i t y ( B a r ba t s i s 2005) S o, f or e xa m pl e r e c e pt i on a na l ys i s m a y e xa m i ne t he w a y m e s s a ge s a r e pr oduc e d, how t he y a r e por t r a ye d i n t he m e di a or how p r oduc e d m e s s a ge s a r e c ons u m e d a nd i nt e r pr e t e d by a udi e nc e s F ol l ow i ng t he c r i t i c a l i nt e r p r e t i ve t r a di t i on of a udi e nc e r e c e pt i on, t hi s s t udy s e e ks t o unde r s t a nd how young w om e n a c t ua l l y m a ke s e ns e of m us i c vi de os c ont a i ni ng s e xua l i z e d i m a ge s of w om e n a nd na r r a t i ve s o f a m a l e f a nt a s y dr e a m w or l d w he r e w om e n a r e de voi d o f a ny i nt e l l e c t or va l ue be s i de s t he w or t h of t he i r s e x a ppe a l ( J ha l l y, 1995) C ul t ur a l s t udi e s na r r a t i ve t he or y, a nd vi s ua l r he t or i c t he or i e s s uppor t t he i de a t ha t m us i c vi de os pr e s e nt m e s s a ge s t ha t c ont r i but e m e a ni ng t o s oc i e t y. M us i c vi de os t e l l s t or i e s vi s ua l l y, a nd pe opl e i nt e r pr e t t hos e m e s s a g e s ba s e d on t he i r s oc i a l c ont e xt s I n t hi s

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23 r e s pe c t e nc odi ng a nd de c odi ng, a nd a udi e nc e r e c e pt i on a r e he l pf u l i n e xa m i ni ng t he w a ys t ha t t he m e s s a ge s a r e unde r s t ood. A f t e r c onduc t i ng f oc us gr oups i n w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s vi e w a nd di s c us s m us i c vi de os t he r e s e a r c he r a na l yz e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s f or t he m e s pr e di c t e d by c r i t i c a l a nd r e c e pt i on t he or i e s : W om e n a r e por t r a y e d a s obj e c t s or body pa r t s ( K i l bou r ne 2000) f a nt a s y w om e n i n m us i c vi de os di f f e r f r om t he m a t e r i a l e xpe r i e nc e s of or di na r y w om e n ( J ha l l y, 1995 ) a nd ge nde r po r t r a ya l s s ugg e s t w om e n s s oc i a l us e i s t i e d t o t he i r ge nde r a nd s e xua l i de nt i t i e s ( M ul ve y, 1975) T he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i on gui de t h i s s t udy. D o w o m e n vi e w m us i c vi de os c r i t i c a l l y i n w a ys s i m i l a r t o t ha t of c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s w ho ha ve a na l yz e d s i m i l a r popul a r c ul t ur e t e xt s ?

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24 C ha pt e r F i ve M e t hodol ogy T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t h e por t r a ya l o f w om e n a r t i s t s s pe c i f i c a l l y, a nd ge n de r ge ne r a l l y, i n m us i c vi de o s I n o r de r t o e xa m i ne t he w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons f oc us gr oups w e r e e m pl oye d F oc u s gr oups w e r e c hos e n t o f a c i l i t a t e gr oup c onve r s a t i on a nd t o e nc our a ge w om e n t o t a l k f r e e l y a bout t he i r i nt e r pr e t a t i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e c r ui t e d f r o m a l a r ge s out he a s t e r n uni ve r s i t y s m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons pr ogr a m T hr e e vi de os f e a t ur i ng w om e n a r t i s t s w e r e s how n t o t he m os t l y c ol l e ge a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho t he n w r ot e dow n a nd di s c us s e d w ha t w a s oc c ur r i ng i n t he vi de os a nd how t he y f e l t a bout w ha t t he y s a w F oc us gr oups a r e a va l ua bl e w a y t o e xpl o r e s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d m e a ni ngs a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i ons be c a us e w or ki ng w i t h a s m a l l gr ou p pr ovi de s oppor t uni t i e s f or f e e dba c k a nd di s c us s i on e m pow e r i ng a n a udi e nc e ( L unt & L i vi ngs t one 1996) F oc us g r oup s a r e a n e xc e l l e nt w a y t o i nve s t i ga t e i nt e r p r e t a t i on be c a us e t he y a l l ow f o r a di ve r s i t y of i ndi vi dua l r e s pons e s ( B e r r y & S he l t on 1999) W i m m e r a nd D om i ni c k ( 2003) e xpl a i n t ha t f oc us gr oups a r e a dva nt a ge ous s i nc e i ndi vi dua l s f e e l l e s s i nhi bi t e d t ha n i n i nd i vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s a nd t ha t m a ke s t he r e s ul t s m or e c om pl e t e O ne r e s ponde nt s r e m a r ks t e nd t o s t i m ul a t e ot he r s t o pu r s ue l i ne s of t h i nki ng t ha t m i ght not ha ve be e n e l i c i t e d i n a s i t ua t i on i nvol vi ng j us t one i ndi vi dua l ( p 125 ) T hi s m a y b e e s pe c i a l l y us e f ul i n di s c us s i ons r e l a t i ng t o ge nde r a nd M T V due t o t he c ont r ove r s i a l na t ur e of ge nde r a nd f e m i ni s m F r e que nt l y us e d i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s f oc us gr oup m e t hodol ogy i s pa r t i c ul a r l y

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25 us e f ul w he n r e s e a r c he r s s e e k t o di s c ove r pa r t i c i pa nt s m e a ni ngs a nd w a ys of unde r s t a ndi ng. T he f oc us gr oup ha s be e n us e d, va r i ous l y, t o d i s c ove r c ons um e r a t t i t ude s a nd m ot i va t i ons a nd t o r e ve a l publ i c di s c our s e s a nd i nt e r pr e t i ve c om m uni t i e s ( L unt & L i vi ngs t one 1996 ) T he r e s e a r c he r c hos e f oc us gr oups f or t hi s s t udy be c a us e t he i nt e nt i on of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xpl o r e a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons T hi s s t udy us e d s i x f oc us gr oups e a c h c ons i s t i ng o f s i x t o 12 m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons unde r gr a dua t e a nd gr a dua t e s t ude nt s m os t l y w om e n. 3 T hi s pa r t i c ul a r popul a t i on i s e s pe c i a l l y us e f ul f or a num be r of r e a s ons F i r s t M T V s t a r t e d i n t he e a r l y 1980s w he n m os t of t he s e s t ude nt s w e r e bor n M o s t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s gr e w up w a t c hi ng M T V T he y do not know t he w or l d w i t hout t he e xi s t e nc e of m us i c vi de os T he y a l s o a r e t he gr oup w ho c om m onl y vi e w s m us i c vi de os M us i c vi de os a r e pr e dom i na nt l y c ons um e d by a udi e nc e s w i t hi n t he c ol l e ge a ge c o m m uni t y ( B e r r y & S he l t on, 1999) S e c ond, t he s e s t ude nt s m a y ha ve a m o r e he i ght e ne d a w a r e ne s s of M T V s i nc e t he y a r e s t ude nt s of m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons w i t hi n t he t a r ge t e d a ge r a nge F i na l l y, t hi s gr oup w a s r i pe f or yi e l di ng i ns i ght due t o t he vi s ua l c ou r s e s f r om w hi c h t he y w e r e r e c r ui t e d: a gr a dua t e c our s e t i t l e d V i s ua l M e di a C om m uni c a t i on a nd unde r gr a dua t e c our s e s t i t l e d M a ga z i ne a nd N e w s p a pe r P r oduc t i on, P ubl i c R e l a t i ons D e s i gn, a nd A dve r t i s i ng D e s i gn. F or t y ni ne pa r t i c i pa nt s ( 43 w om e n a nd s i x m e n) vi e w e d t hr e e vi de os f r om T ot a l R e que s t L i ve ( T R L ) w hi c h a i r s on M T V M onda y t hr ough F r i da y f r om 5 6 p m E T / P T T R L a i r s t he 10 m os t popul a r v i de os da i l y, a nd M T V s a udi e nc e be l i e ve s t ha t i t ha s i nput i n a i r i ng c e r t a i n vi de os t hr ough a vi e w e r vot i ng pr oc e s s T R L w a s c hos e n be c a us e t he vi de os i t a i r s a r e t he or e t i c a l l y t he m os t popul a r

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26 T he vi de os f or t hi s s t udy w e r e s e l e c t e d t he w e e k o f F e br ua r y 25, 2005. O nl y f e m a l e a r t i s t vi de os w e r e s e l e c t e d. A s J ha l l y ( 1995 ) a r gue s i n t he d r e a m w or l d, w o m e n a r t i s t s a r e e nc our a ge d t o p r e s e nt t he m s e l ve s i n a w a y t ha t s uppor t s m e n a nd t he i r f a nt a s i e s a nd de s i r e s E xpl or i ng how w om e n a r t i s t s r e pr e s e nt t he m s e l ve s w oul d be m or e va l ua bl e t ha n r e pr oduc i ng w e l l doc um e nt e d c l a i m s t ha t m e n por t r a y w om e n a s s e x obj e c t s i n t he i r vi de os D ur i ng t he w e e k o f F e b r ua r y 25 t h r e e f e m a l e a r t i s t s pr e m i e r e d i n t he t op 10 s pot s on T R L : L i nds a y L oha n s O ve r D e s t i ny s C hi l d s S ol di e r a nd J e n ni f e r L ope z s G e t R i ght F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s s a w t he vi de os vi a a pr oj e c t e d l i nk t hr oug h m t v. c om a nd t he T R L l i nk I n L i nds a y L oha n s O ve r L oha n p l a ys t he m a i n c ha r a c t e r S he ha s a boyf r i e nd w ho i s de a l i ng w i t h s om e s e r i ous i s s ue s w hi c h be c om e he r i s s ue s a l s o. H e r l ove i nt e r e s t i s be i ng a bus e d by hi s f a t he r w ho m a y be a ngr y a t hi s s on s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n r e be l l i ous a c t i vi t i e s w i t h L i nds a y. T he s c e ne s f l a s h be t w e e n L i nds a y s i ngi ng a nd s c e ne s i n w hi c h s he a nd he r boyf r i e nd a r e ge t t i ng i nt o t e e na ge r e l a t e d t r oubl e i nc l udi ng s e xua l r e l a t i ons D e s t i ny s C hi l d s S ol di e r i s not pl ot o r i e nt e d. T he f oc us i s on t he t hr e e s i nge r s T he y da nc e i n p r ovoc a t i ve c l ot hi ng s ur r ounde d by m e n por t r a ye d a s s t r e e t t hugs a nd ga ngs t a s T he s ong s l yr i c s pe r ha ps w i t h pur pos i ve i r ony, a r gue t ha t t he s i nge r s w a nt s t r e e t s ol di e r s t o pr ot e c t a nd s uppor t t he m J e nni f e r L ope z s t a r s a s a l l o f t he m a i n c ha r a c t e r s i n he r vi de o G e t R i ght w he r e s he i s i n a ni ght c l ub de a l i ng w i t h t he w or k a nd s oc i a l a s pe c t s of a popul a r ni ght c l ub L ope z por t r a ys a ba r t e nde r a da nc e r a di s c j oc ke y a nd t h r e e c us t om e r s i n t he c l ub. T he t hr e e c us t om e r s i nc l ude t w o w om e n di s c us s i ng t he i r pr obl e m s c onc e r ni ng m e n a nd a n

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27 i nt oxi c a t e d w om a n r e m ovi ng he r c l ot hi ng t o i ndi c a t e s he i s l e t t i ng he r ha i r dow n t o ha ve f un. T he l y r i c s of a l l t h r e e vi de os a ppe a r i n A ppe ndi x B F or t he f oc us gr oups t he s t ude nt s w e r e r e c r ui t e d a s a pa r t of a c l a s s a c t i vi t y. T he y s how e d up a t t he i r nor m a l c l a s s t i m e on F e br ua r y 25, 2005 a nd w e r e t he n a s ke d t o j oi n t he f a c i l i t a t or i n a s m a l l c onf e r e nc e r oom w i t h a t a bl e t ha t s e a t e d 12 c om f o r t a bl y. A f t e r t a ki ng t he i r s e a t s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t o l d m us i c vi de os w oul d be s how n dur i ng t he s t udy a nd i f t he y be c a m e unc om f or t a bl e a t a ny t i m e dur i ng t he s t udy, t he y w e r e w e l c o m e t o l e a ve A f t e r vi e w i ng t he vi de os pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d f or t he i r f e e dba c k i n w r i t i ng a s w e l l a s i n c onve r s a t i on f a c i l i t a t e d by t he r e s e a r c he r T hr e e s he e t s of pa pe r w e r e di s t r i but e d t o e a c h o f t he s t ude nt s a f t e r w a t c hi ng t he vi de os one a t a t i m e T he pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d f i ve m i nut e s t o f i l l out e a c h s he e t be f or e be i ng a s ke d t o m ove on t o t he ne xt s he e t s T he t hr e e s he e t s w e r e i nt e nde d t o r e p r e s e nt t hr e e d i f f e r e nt s c e na r i os t he f i r s t be i ng t w o w om e n t a l ki ng ; t he s e c ond, t w o m e n t a l ki ng; a nd t he t hi r d r e pr e s e nt e d a m a n a nd w om a n t a l ki ng. T he i c ons w e r e c a r t oon f i gur e s w i t h s pe e c h bubbl e s a bove t he he a ds t o i ndi c a t e t ha t t he y w e r e e nga gi ng i n c onve r s a t i on 4 T he s t ude nt s t he n w e r e a s ke d t o w r i t e w ha t t he y t hought t he c ha r a c t e r s w oul d be d i s c us s i ng i f t he c ha r a c t e r s ha d j us t vi e w e d t he vi de os A f t e r t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n t i m e t o f i l l i n t he i r d i a l og s he e t s t he y w e r e a s ke d a s e r i e s of que s t i ons r e ga r di ng t he i r r e s pons e s a nd t he i r i n t e r pr e t a t i ons of t he m us i c vi de os T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o r e f e r t o t he i r r e s pons e s a nd r e l a y w ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t hought t he f e m a l e c a r t oon c ha r a c t e r s w e r e s a yi ng, w ha t t he m a l e c a r t oon c ha r a c t e r s w e r e s a yi ng, a nd w ha t t he m a l e a nd f e m a l e c a r t oon c ha r a c t e r s w e r e s a yi ng.

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28 A f t e r t ha t t he f oc us gr oup c onve r s a t i ons t o ok on a n i nt e r e s t i ng s yne r gy r e ga r di ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f t he ge nde r r o l e s i n t he vi de os how t he y f e l t a bout t he vi de os a nd w ha t de f i ni t i ons of f e m i ni ni t y t he m us i c vi de os pr ovi de d. ( S e e A ppe ndi x A f or c opi e s of t he f a c i l i t a t i on s he e t s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s c om pl e t e d. ) A na l ys i s f oc us e d on pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s a nd w e r e a na l yz e d f or t he m e s pr e vi ous l y e s t a bl i s he d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e by t he or i s t s : w om e n a s obj e c t s or body pa r t s ( K i l bour ne 2000) f a nt a s y w om e n i n m us i c vi de os ve r s us t he m a t e r i a l l i ve s of r e a l w om e n ( J ha l l y, 1995 ) a nd m a l e ga z e ( M ul ve y, 1975) A ddi t i ona l l y, ne w or une xpe c t e d t he m e s e m e r ge d a nd w e r e a na l yz e d. A ddi t i ona l l y, du r i ng a na l ys i s t he m e n s r e s pons e s i f a ppl i c a bl e w e r e no t e d. A l t hough t he m e n pr ovi de d va l ua bl e i nf o r m a t i on t he f oc us of t h i s s t udy i s on w om e n a udi e nc e m e m be r s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons T he m a j or i t y o f pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e w o m e n, a nd w om e n pr ovi de d t he m a j or i t y of r e s pons e s

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29 C ha pt e r S i x R e s ul t s A ba s i c que s t i on gui di ng t hi s s t udy i s do w om e n v i e w m us i c vi de os c r i t i c a l l y i n w a ys s i m i l a r t o t ha t of c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s w ho ha ve a na l yz e d s i m i l a r popul a r c ul t ur e t e xt s R e s ul t s f r om t he f oc us g r oups i ndi c a t e t ha t pa r t i c i p a nt s t o s om e e xt e nt di d m a ke obs e r va t i ons a bout t he t hr e e t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de o s s i m i l a r t o t he c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t ur e a l t hough t he de gr e e t o w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r pr e t e d t he t hi ngs t he y obs e r ve d ne ga t i ve l y va r i e d. D i s c us s i on t he m e s i nc l ude d pa r t i c i pa nt s obs e r va t i ons t ha t w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os w e r e po r t r a ye d by c a m e r a a ngl e s a s s e xua l i z e d body pa r t s ( K i l bour ne 2000) de pi c t e d a s obj e c t s of m a l e f a nt a s y ( J ha l l y, 1995) a nd p os i t i one d a s obj e c t s of t he m a l e ga z e ( M ul ve y, 1975 ) A ddi t i on a l l y, t w o ot he r t he m e s e m e r ge d une xpe c t e dl y: a ki nd of t hi r d pe r s on e f f e c t ( D a vi s on, 1983) on t he e f f e c t s of vi e w i ng ne ga t i ve i m a ge s of w om e n i n m us i c vi de os a nd a p r e di l e c t i on t o c a l l t he w om e n pe r f or m i ng i n t he m us i c vi de os i ns ul t i ng na m e s B a s e d on t he f oc us gr oup t r a ns c r i pt s t he r e s ul t s r e por t e d be l ow f a l l i nt o f i ve t he m a t i c c a t e gor i e s i nc l udi ng: ( 1 ) w om e n de pi c t e d i n m us i c vi de os a s obj e c t s / body pa r t s ( 2) w om e n por t r a ye d a s obj e c t s o f f a nt a s y, ( 3) na r r a t i ve s t or i e s t ol d a bout f e m i ni ni t y ( 4) pa r t i c i pa nt s be l i e f / de gr e e o f i nf l ue nc e a nd c om pa r i s on t o s e l f a nd pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e a nd ( 5) pa r t i c i pa n t s na m e c a l l i ng a nd j udgm e nt of t he w om e n po r t r a ye d i n m us i c vi de os S t ude nt c om m e nt s r e pr e s e nt w om e n f oc us gr oup p a r t i c i pa nt s unl e s s ot he r w i s e not e d.

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30 W om e n as obj e c t s / body par t s K i l bour ne s ( 2000) c r i t i que of a dve r t i s i ng i m a ge s of w om e n a r gue s t ha t w om e n s bodi e s a r e a t om i z e d i nt o d i s c r e t e s e xua l i z e d body pa r t s F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s m i r r or e d s i m i l a r c onc e r ns a bout t he pr e s e nt a t i on o f w om e n s bodi e s a f t e r vi e w i ng t he t hr e e t r e a t m e nt m us i c v i de os I nde e d, t hi s t he m e r e pr e s e nt s one of t he s t udy s s t r ong e s t f i ndi ngs S i nc e t he a r t i s t s i n t he vi de os w e r e a l l w om e n, a n um be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s s pe c ul a t e d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s ha d a f a i r a m oun t of c r e a t i ve f r e e dom i n t he pr oduc t i on of t he vi de os w hi c h m a de t he a r t i s t s r e s pons i bl e f or t he vi de os r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n, i nc l udi ng t he a r t i s t s t he m s e l ve s F or e xa m pl e F oc us G r oup 1, S t ude nt 1 not i c e d t he w om e n s i nge r s w e r e da nc i ng a r ound s c a nt i l y c l a d. S he s a i d t ha t s he w oul d ha ve e xpe c t e d m e n s i nge r s t o por t r a y t he w om e n a s s e x obj e c t s but i t w a s f r i ght e ni ng t ha t w om e n w oul d a dopt t he m us i c i ndus t r y s vi s ua l c o nve nt i ons t o pr e s e nt w om e n a s s e x obj e c t s ( F oc us G r oup 1 S t ude nt 1) A f t e r pa r t i c i pa nt s w r ot e dow n t he i r i de a s a bout w h a t a m a n a nd a w om a n w oul d di s c us s upon w a t c hi ng t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os one pa r t i c i pa nt s ha r e d he r i m a gi ne d di a l og: M a l e f i gur e : D i d you s e e how hot t hos e c hi c ks i n t he vi de o w e r e ? I w a s j us t w a t c hi ng t he m s ha ke t he i r a s s e s i n m i ni m a l c l ot hi n g. F e m a l e f i gur e : D on t you t hi nk i t i s w e i r d t ha t w o m e n s i nge r s por t r a y t he m s e l ve s a s s e x obj e c t s ? D o you t hi nk i t i s t he m a l e s e x s f a ul t ? M a l e f i gur e : W ho c a r e s t he y a r e hot ( F oc us G r ou p 1, S t ude nt 8 ) A not he r pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt e d t ha t t he vi de os w e r e s t e r e ot ypi c a l j us t f l a unt i ng t he i r

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31 bodi e s a r ound ( F oc us G r oup 1, S t ude nt 7 ) S t ude nt s 1 a nd 3 ( F oc us G r oup 2) s a i d t hi s m e a nt t ha t w om e n a r e s e x obj e c t s W om e n a r e vul ne r a bl e ( F oc us G r oup 2, S t ude nt 5) T he y ha ve not hi ng be t t e r t o of f e r t ha n t he i r bo di e s i m a ge s a nd s e x, a nd w i t hout m e n, w e w oul d w i t he r a nd di e ( F oc us G r oup 2 S t ude nt 1) P a r t i c i pa nt s di d not i c e t he us e of c l os e up s hot s of w om e n s body pa r t s i n t he vi de os O ne pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d s he not i c e d a l ot of bo dy pa r t s i n t he vi de os ( F oc us G r oup 1 S t ude nt 2) C a m e r a s s hot s i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c v i de os r e pe a t e dl y z oom e d i n t o f oc us on pa r t i c ul a r bo dy pa r t s o f t he pe r f or m e r s s uc h a s s t om a c hs r e a r e nds a nd b r e a s t s a l t hough s om e c a m e r a a ngl e s w e r e m or e pr e va l e nt t ha n ot he r s S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s not e d t ha t t he f oc a l poi nt w a s f l a t s t om a c hs ( F oc us G r ou p 1, S t ude nt 2; F o c us G r oup 2, S t ude nt 8; F oc us G r oup 5 S t ude nt 8; F oc us 5, S t ude nt 1) S hot s of J e nni f e r L ope z s s t om a c h w e r e e s pe c i a l l y not i c e d. J e nni f e r L ope z pe r f o r m e d i n s hi r t s t ha t e xpos e d he r m i d r i f f a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d s e ve r a l t hi ngs t o s a y a bout i t F o r e xa m pl e S t ude nt 4 ( F oc us G r oup 1) s a i d, I t hi nk t ha t J L o w a s j us t s how i ng he r m i d s e c t i on. . be c a us e s he w or ke d out f or t ha t vi de o. O t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s not e d t he e m pha s i s on br e a s t s ( F oc us G r oup 1, S t ude nt 9, S t ude nt 10, S t ude nt 2, S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4; F oc us G r oup 5, S t ude nt 8) a nd ot he r s not e d r e a r e nds ( F oc us G r oup 1, S t ude nt 8, p. 3; S t ude nt 9, p 6) T hi s w a s e s pe c i a l l y r e ve a l e d w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d w ha t i t t a ke s t o m a k e a s uc c e s s f ul vi de o. A n ove r w he l m i ng r e s pons e w a s l a r ge br e a s t s a nd s hor t s ki r t s ( F oc us G r oup 1, S t ude nt 2, p. 4; S t ude nt 9, S t ude nt 6, a nd S t ude nt 4) O ne pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d t ha t t he vi de os w e r e us i ng t he not i on of s e x t o s e l l t he a r t i s t a nd t ha t t he bodi e s s how n w i t hout c l ot hi ng a r e t he s e l l i ng poi nt ( F oc us G r oup 2 S t ude nt

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32 4) F or pa r t i c i pa nt s t hi s s e e m e d t o be s t a t i ng t he o bvi ous E a c h f oc us gr oup c a m e t o s om e a gr e e m e nt t ha t t he m us i c vi de os t he y w a t c he d w e r e us i ng s e x a s a t ool t o s e l l t he vi de o, a r t i s t a nd m us i c K i l bour ne ( 2000 ) c ont r a s t s m e di a t e d i m a ge s of f e m i ni ni t y a ga i ns t s oc i a l r e a l i t y a dve r t i s i ng f a nt a s y ve r s us t he a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e s of gi r l s a nd w om e n a nd e nc our a ge s m e di a c ons um e r s t o c ons i de r t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t or i e s a dve r t i s i ng t e l l s a bout gi r l s a nd w om e n ve r s us t he a c t ua l l i ve s gi r l s a nd w om e n l e a d. F oc us g r oup pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d t o c onc ur w i t h K i l bou r ne s ( 2000 ) c r i t i que w i t hout c i t i ng he r w or k. T he t r a ns c r i pt s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s be l i e ve t ha t w om e n's bodi e s w e r e obj e c t i f i e d i n t he m us i c vi de os t he y w a t c he d. W om e n as f ant as y J ha l l y s ( 1995) w or k e xpl or e s he t e r os e xua l a dol e s c e nt a nd young a dul t m a l e s e xua l i t y i n m us i c vi de os J ha l l y c ont e nds t ha t w o m e n i n m us i c vi de os f ound on M T V s e r ve no ot he r f unc t i on t ha n obj e c t s of he t e r os e xua l m a l e s e xua l f a nt a s y. M us i c vi de os por t r a y i de a l i z e d w om e n a s obj e c t s of l us t A s e c ond s t r ong f i ndi ng i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy s how s f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s a gr e e i ng w i t h J ha l l y s t he s i s F oc us g r oup pa r t i c i p a nt s ge ne r a l l y be l i e ve d t ha t t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os w e r e po r t r a ye d a s s e x obj e c t s ( F oc us G r oup 1, S t ude nt 1 a nd S t ude nt 5; F oc us G r oup 2, S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 6; S t ude nt 1 a nd S t u de nt 3 f or e xa m pl e ) W he n t a l ki ng a bout t he w om e n i n t he vi de os S t ude nt 7 s a i d t hos e a r e n t r e a l gi r l s ; t he a r t i s t s a r e j us t t r y i ng t o s e l l r e c or ds be c a u s e t ha t i s w ha t pe opl e w a nt t o s e e ( F oc us G r oup 1 S t u de nt 7) J ha l l y ( 1995) a l s o f ound di s t ur bi ng s i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n w om e n s r ol e s i n m us i c

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33 vi de os a nd ga ng r a pe A f t e r w a t c hi ng t he vi de os s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s not e d bot h t he s e xua l de vi a nc e a nd f a nt a s y i nvol ve d. W he n a s ke d i f t he m e n f i gur e s on t he i r d i s c us s i on s he e t s ha d a nyt hi ng i nt e r e s t i ng t o s a y a bout t he vi de os m a l e S t ude nt 2 s a i d t ha t he w a nt e d t o be l oc ke d i n t he r oom w i t h D e s t i ny s C hi l d. S t ude nt 9 s a i d t ha t t he a udi e nc e p r oba bl y t hought a bout t hr e e s om e s a f t e r w a t c hi ng a nd S t ude nt 6 s a i d t ha t t he m e n w oul d be f a nt a s i z i ng a bout t he w om e n ( F oc us G r oup 1) O ne pa r t i c i pa nt poi nt e d out t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he w om e n i n t he s e vi de os a nd nor m a l w om e n. I n H ol l yw ood s e x a ppe a l a nd s ki nni ne s s a l w a ys s e l l s a nd w hy c a n't nor m a l a ve r a ge l ooki ng gi r l s ge t on t he r e a nd do t h e s a m e t hi ng ( F oc us G r oup 6, S t ude nt 5) T hus s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s no t e d i ns t a nc e s w he r e t he w om e n i n t he s e vi de os r e pr e s e nt f a nt a s y w om e n. I n a ddi t i on t he s e f a nt a s y w om e n i n t he vi de os a r e not l i ke nor m a l w om e n, a c c or di ng t o s om e f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o not i c e t ha t t he w om e n i n t he vi de os w e r e f a nt a s y w om e n. F or e xa m pl e S t ude nt 4 ( F oc us G r oup 4) s t a t e d, I t hi nk i t pl a ys i nt o t he m a l e f a nt a s y of how t he y w a nt w om e n t o l ook A m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s uppor t e d t ha t s t ude nt s s t a t e m e nt by s t a t i ng of t he w om e n i n t he vi de os T he s e a r e our f a nt a s y w om e n ( F oc us G r oup 6, S t ude nt 5) A c c or di ng t o J ha l l y ( 1995) w om e n i n m us i c vi de o s i nha bi t a f a nt a s y l a nds c a pe i n w hi c h w om e n a r e m e r e l y he t e r os e xua l m a l e s e x ob j e c t s P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy vi e w e d m us i c vi de os t ha t f e a t ur e d w om e n a r t i s t s t a ki ng l e a di ng r ol e s i n t he m us i c a l na r r a t i ve s Y e t pa r t i c i pa nt s not e d t he a r t i s t s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n p r e s e nt i ng r ol e s w i t h ove r t s e xua l i t y a nd, t hus s uppor t e d J ha l l y s t he or y t ha t m us i c vi de os a r e ove r w he l m i ngl y s e xua l a nd t ha t m us i c vi de os f e a t ur e a w o r l d of he t e r os e xua l m a l e s e xua l f a nt a s y.

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34 M al e gaz e M ul ve y s ( 1975) c r i t i que of H ol l yw ood f i l m r e ve a l e d t he s oc i a l c onve nt i ons of s e xua l di f f e r e nc e t ha t i n f l ue nc e s w a ys of l ooki ng a nd c i ne m a t i c s pe c t a c l e M ul ve y's t he or y of vi s ua l pl e a s ur e t he or y oc c ur s i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os us e d i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy by s how i ng t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s f r o m a m a l e pe r s pe c t i ve T he w om e n a r e d r e s s e d i n a s e xua l l y a ppe a l i ng w a y, t he i r m ove m e nt s a nd gyr a t i ons a r e i nt e nde d f o r a he t e r o m a l e a udi e nc e M us i c vi de os ha ve s e t s t yl e t r e nds a nd m a y be c on s i de r e d a r e f l e c t i on o f popul a r c ul t ur e O ne f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d t ha t M T V pr ovi de s a n i ndi c a t or of how t o dr e s s how l e s s c l ot hi ng i s be t t e r a nd how us i ng s e xua l i t y i n f a s hi on i s a w a y t o ge t w ha t you w a nt ( F oc us G r oup 6, S t ude nt 4 ) T hi s s uppor t s M ul ve y s m a l e ga z e s i nc e t he pa r t i c i pa nt not e s t he w om e n i n t he vi de os a r e d r e s s i ng a nd a c t i ng i n a w a y t ha t s a t i s f i e s m a l e de s i r e t hus gi ve s m e n a r e a s on t o w a t c h. M ul ve y s c e nt r a l t he s i s s t a t e s t ha t f i l m p r oduc t i on pr i vi l e ge s a m a l e poi nt of vi e w i n ot he r w o r ds a n a c t i ve m a l e ga z e a nd t ha t w om e n a r e pos i t i one d a s pa s s i ve obj e c t s of t hi s m a l e ga z e F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s not i c e d t h i s ga z e e ve n t hough t he y di d no t di r e c t l y a c know l e dge i t a s m a l e ga z e F or e xa m pl e S t ude nt 6 ( F oc us G r oup 6 ) a dde d: I f t he s e a r e w om e n w ho don't w a nt t o be l ooke d a t a s s e x obj e c t s a nd t he s e a r e t he i r vi de os t he n w hy w oul dn't t he y be f ul l y c l ot he d a n d ha ve c a m e r a a ngl e s a t t he i r f a c e s ; t hi s i s t he i r m us i c do t he y w a nt t o be t a ke n s e r i ous l y f or t he i r m us i c ? A ddi t i ona l l y, w he n a s ke d w ho pr oduc e s m us i c vi d e os t he r e s pons e w a s a l w a ys m e n ( de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t m a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s be l i e ve d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s f e a t ur e d i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os ha d c r e a t i ve l i c e ns e i n t he i r o w n pr oduc t i ons ) T o s uppor t t hi s a n

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35 e xc e r pt ha s be e n t a ke n f r om F oc us G r oup 3: M ode r a t or : W ho i s m a ki ng t he s e vi de os ? S t ude nt 5: M e n S t ude n t 4: Y oung m e n i n t he i r 20s m os t of t he m e n S t ude nt 5: N o w om e n ha ve e ve r w on a n O s c a r f or di r e c t i ng. A nd I t hi nk t he f i l m s c hool s a r e gr a dua t i ng a n e qua l num be r of m e n a n d w om e n but t he r e a r e no f e m a l e di r e c t or s A l l t he m e n a r e di r e c t or s a nd you c a n k i nda t e l l P a r t i c i pa nt s a l s o not e d t he pu r pos e of s uc h p r oduc t i ons i s s e x. F or e xa m pl e w he n a s ke d w ha t s t or i e s t he s e vi de os t e l l a bout f e m i ni ni t y, s e ve r a l s t ude nt s r e s ponde d s e x ( F oc us G r oup 6 S t u de nt s 1, 2 5 a nd 8) O ne s t ude nt i n pa r t i c ul a r s a i d t ha t a l t hough t he c ol l e ge s a r e pr oduc i ng e qua l num be r s of m e n a nd w om e n g r a dua t e s w om e n i n t he f i e l d a r e vi r t ua l l y non e xi s t e nt ( F oc us G r oup 2 S t u de nt 2) T hi s s t a t e m e nt r e ga r d l e s s of i t s t r ut h i n f a c t s how s s om e s uppor t t he not i on t ha t w om e n m a y ope r a t e on t he a s s um pt i on t ha t m e n pr oduc e t he s e m us i c vi de os f r om a m a l e pe r s pe c t i ve P a r t i c i pa nt s s uppor t e d t he not i on t ha t t he ga z e a nd pr oduc t i on r e pr e s e nt a m a n s poi nt of vi e w a l t hough t he m a l e ga z e w a s ne ve r di r e c t l y m e nt i one d. P a r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o s uppor t t ha t m e n a r e pr oduc i ng t he vi de os a nd t he pr oduc t i ons a r e l i nke d t o s e x. C a m e r a a ngl e s w e r e a l s o m e nt i one d. H ow e ve r t he m a l e pr oduc t i on of t he vi de os a s w e l l a s t he us e of m a l e ga z e t ype c a m e r a a ngl e s w a s not a s pr e va l e nt a s t he m e nt i on of b ody pa r t s a nd m a l e f a nt a s y. B e l i e f / de gr e e of i nf l ue nc e and c om par i s on t o s e l f a nd pe r s onal e x pe r i e nc e T hi s s e c t i on e xpl or e s a n une xpe c t e d r e s ul t s i m i l a r t o t hi r d pe r s on e f f e c t ( D a vi s on,

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36 1983) w hi c h f i nds t ha t pe opl e t e nd t o ove r e s t i m a t e t he i nf l ue nc e o f m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons on t he a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi o r of o t he r s S pe c i f i c a l l y i ndi vi dua l s e xpe c t a pe r s ua s i ve m e s s a ge t o ha ve gr e a t e r e f f e c t s on ot he r s i ns t e a d of t he m s e l ve s ( D a vi s on, 1983) F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy s e e m e d t o f e e l t ha t ot he r pe opl e e xpe r i e nc e de l e t e r i ous e f f e c t s f r om m us i c vi de os S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s f e l t t ha t t he y w e r e not i nf l ue nc e d by m us i c vi de os a nd t he m e s s a ge s c onve ye d. S om e voi c e d c onc e r n a bout t he ne ga t i ve i nf l ue nc e of m us i c vi de os i n ge ne r a l o n younge r pe opl e w hi l e pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o di s s oc i a t e t he m s e l ve s f r om t he pos s i bi l i t y of be i ng i nf l ue nc e d by m us i c vi de os i n ge ne r a l a nd t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os s pe c i f i c a l l y. S t ude nt 7 ( F oc us G r oup 2 ) s a i d, I t hi nk w ha t I w a s t r yi ng t o s a y w he n I w r ot e t hi s w a s e ve n t hough i t i s not hi ng ne w w i t h s e x s e l l i ng, m a ybe now i t ha s a younge r c r ow d w a t c hi ng t hi s S t ude nt 6 ( F oc us G r oup 2) a dde d, T he y us e d t o j us t hi nt a t i t ( s e x) but now i t i s j us t obvi ous I t i s a younge r a u di e nc e w a t c hi ng t he s e vi de os a nd i t ge t s youn ge r a nd younge r a nd I w onde r w ha t t he y a r e s e e i ng. A not he r pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d, I t j us t i r r i t a t e s m e be c a us e i f a 12 ye a r o l d gi r l s e e s t hi s s he w oul d t hi nk t ha t i t i s c ool ( F oc us G r oup 3 S t u de nt 5) O t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s how e ve r r e l a t e d t he e f f e c t s of m u s i c vi de os on younge r a udi e nc e s t o t he i r pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s w he n t he y w e r e younge r vi e w e r s of m us i c vi de os F or e xa m pl e one pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d, A not he r t hi ng, w he n I w a s younge r I w oul d t r y a nd r e l a t e s ongs t o r e a l l i f e a nd w i t h t hos e s ongs i t i s l i ke w hy don t I ha ve a boyf r i e nd? ( F oc us G r oup 2 S t u de nt 6) S t ude nt 3 ( F oc us G r o up 2) c ont i nue d W e l l i f you go e ve n younge r . t he y j us t s i ng i t T he y c a n pr oduc e a w h ol e s ong a f t e r he a r i ng i t a c oupl e o f t i m e s a nd t he y don t e ve n know w ha t t he y a r e s a y i n g.

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37 O t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s a ppe a r e d t o be r e f e r r i ng t o pe r s o na l e xpe r i e nc e w hi l e s pe a ki ng i n t hi r d pe r s on. F or e xa m pl e S t ude nt 6 ( F oc us G r o up 2) s a i d, T he pe opl e a r e l ooki ng a t t hos e bodi e s a nd s a yi ng, I w i s h I c oul d be t ha t I w i s h I c oul d ha ve t ha t A n ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t c he d f r om t hi r d pe r s on t o f i r s t pe r s on: T he guy i n t he f i r s t vi de o w a s s o c ut e or m a ybe I ha ve t o l ook l i ke t ha t t o ge t a guy l i ke t ha t ( F oc us G r oup 2, S t ude nt 10) N am e c al l i ng and j udgm e nt of t he w om e n pe r f or m i ng i n m us i c v i de os A not he r f i ndi ng ha d t o do w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s j udgi n g t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os r a t he r ha r s hl y. P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d a nu m be r of ne ga t i ve t e r m s t o de s c r i be t he s t a r s of t he m us i c vi de os i nc l udi ng s l ut a nd w hor e T he us e of w o r ds a bout p r om i s c uous f e m a l e s e xua l i de nt i t i e s a nd r ol e s w a s pr e va l e nt S t ude nt 5 ( F oc us G r oup 1 ) ha d he r di s c u s s i on s he e t c ha r a c t e r s t a l k a bout t he vi de os : M y guy w a nt e d t he gi r l t o buy t hos e out f i t s w a l k a r ound t he hous e l i ke t ha t N o, I a m not a s l ut P a r t i c i pa nt s s a i d m us i c vi de os m a ke w om e n l ook s l ut t y : i t i s ge t t i ng w or s e e ve r y da y ( F oc us G r oup 3, S t ude nt 5) T h e y a l l l ooke d t he s a m e A l ot of t r a s hy hot l ooki ng c hi c ks ( F oc us G r oup 1 S t ude nt 1) S t ude nt 5, ( F oc us G r oup 5) c om m e nt e d t ha t w he t he r you s a i d s he w a s r e a l l y pr e t t y or t ha t s he l ooke d l i ke a w ho r e i s a m a t t e r o f i nt e r pr e t a t i on S t ude nt 6 ( F oc us G r oup 5) s t a t e d of t he w om e n i n t he vi de os s he l ooks l i ke s uc h a w hor e P a r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d t he w om e n i n t he vi de os a s s l ut t y a nd w hor e s I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t t he on l y w or ds t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge pr ovi de s f or i ndi c a t i ng a c t i ve f e m a l e s e xua l i t y a r e ne ga t i ve t e r m s M e n m a y be d e s c r i be d a s buc ks or s t uds f or e xa m pl e s i gni f yi ng pos i t i ve c onnot a t i ons B ut s e x ua l l y a c t i ve w om e n a r e a l w a ys de s c r i be d w i t h i ns ul t i ng t e r m i nol ogy.

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38 Sum m ar y T he s t r onge s t f i ndi ngs f r om t he f oc us g r oups w e r e t he not i on t ha t s e x s e l l s t he us e of body pa r t s a nd m a l e f a nt a s y. P a r t i c i pa nt s s t a t e d t ha t t he vi de os us e s e x t o s e l l t he a r t i s t s a nd t he i r m us i c I n a ddi t i on t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pa i d m uc h a t t e nt i on t o t he us e of body pa r t s i n t he vi de os T he f i ndi ngs a l s o s how e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s be l i e ve d t ha t t he v i de os w e r e us e d t o e nga ge a m a l e f a nt a s y w or l d o f how w om e n s houl d l ook. T he r e w a s a l s o s t r ong s uppor t of t he t hi r d pe r s on e f f e c t t he or y ( D a vi s on, 1983 ) a nd t he us e of na m e c a l l i ng. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s di d s e e m t o r e l a t e t o t he v i de os a nd m e nt i one d t ha t t he y d i d not t hi nk i t a f f e c t e d t he m but t he vi de os i n t he i r opi ni ons di d a f f e c t ot he r s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o c om m e n t e d on t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he vi de os w i t h ne ga t i ve l a ngua ge c a l l i ng t he m s l ut s a nd w hor e s L e s s s t r ong f i ndi ngs i nc l ude t he us e of t he m a l e ga z e i n t he v i de os I n ge ne r a l f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os a s i nt e nde d f or a he t e r os e xua l m a l e a udi e nc e a nd a s us i ng i de a l i z e d f e m a l e bodi e s t o pl a y i nt o m a l e s e xua l f a nt a s y i n or de r t o s e l l t he m us i c a r t i s t s a nd vi de o s T he f oc us gr oups w e r e ge ne r a l l y c onc e r ne d a bout t he e f f e c t vi de os ha ve e s pe c i a l l y on younge r pe opl e P a r t i c i pa nt s not e d t ha t m a l e s pr oduc e d t he m us i c v i de os a nd pa r t i c i p a nt s t e nde d t o us e de r oga t or y l a ngua ge t o de s c r i be t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os A na l ys i s br e a ks dow n t he s e t he m e s t o l ook m or e de e pl y a t t he m e a ni ngs be hi nd t he m

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39 C ha pt e r S e ve n A na l ys i s I n a ns w e r t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on, t he r e s ul t s of t h i s s t udy pr ovi de e vi de nc e t ha t t he w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s di d r e a d t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os i n w a ys s i m i l a r t o c r i t i c a l t he or i s t s w ho ha ve w r i t t e n a bout t hi s t opi c H ow e v e r t he w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not r e c ogni z e t he i r oni e s c ont r a di c t i ons a nd pa r a doxe s ge ne r a t e d by t he i r ow n c r i t i c a l r e a di ngs A na l ys i s s uppor t s a n a r gum e nt t ha t a l t h ough f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m ot i va t e d t o c r i t i que t he i m a ge s of w om e n t he y vi e w e d i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os f oc us gr o up pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e not a bl e t o ge ne r a t e l ogi c a l a r gum e nt s t o s uppor t t he i r ne ga t i ve opi ni ons of r e p r e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o c r i t i c i z e t he i ndi vi dua l w om e n a r t i s t s r a t he r t ha n t he c ul t ur a l va l ue s a n d pr a c t i c e s t ha t c ondone d a nd e nc our a ge d t he w om e n a r t i s t s on s c r e e n pe r f or m a nc e s I a r gue t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r pr e t e d i nc ongr uou s s t or i e s a bout t he i de a l i z e d f or m s of f e m i ni ni t y r e pr e s e nt e d by t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os but di dn t s e e m t o r e c ogni z e t he i nc ongr ui t i e s w i t hi n t he i r ow n i nt e r p r e t a t i ons : S om e w om e n i n t he f oc us gr oups s a i d t ha t t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt v i de os ha ve f a ke body pa r t s a r e not r e a l w om e n, a nd l a c k a ut he nt i c t a l e nt Y e t de s pi t e t he s e a s s e s s m e nt s s om e w om e n i n t he f oc us gr o ups e xpr e s s e d a w i s t f ul de s i r e t o be l i ke t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os A ddi t i ona l l y, e ve n t hough s om e w om e n i n t he f oc us gr oups e xpr e s s e d a de s i r e t o be m or e l i ke t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os w om e n i n t he f oc us gr oups a l s o t e nde d

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40 t o be l i e ve t ha t m us i c v i de os i n ge ne r a l ha ve m or e i nf l ue nc e on ot he r s t ha n on t he m s e l ve s S om e of t he w om e n i n t he f oc us gr oups f u r t he r s pe c ul a t e d t ha t t he vi de os w e r e p r oduc e d by m e n f o r m e n e ve n a s s om e f oc us g r oup w om e n be l i e ve d t ha t t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os ha d a de g r e e of i nde pe nde nc e i n how t he y r e pr e s e nt e d t he m s e l ve s i n t he vi de os I n s um w om e n i n t he f oc us gr oups bot h r e c ogni z e d t ha t t he r e p r e s e nt a t i ons of f e m i ni ni t y i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os w e r e un r e a l i s t i c m a l e f a nt a s i e s a nd a l s o ye a r ne d t o be m or e l i ke t he s e unr e a l i s t i c r e pr e s e nt a t i ons de pi c t e d by w om e n a r t i s t s c hoos i ng t o pe r f or m m a l e f a nt a s i e s C ondi t ( 1989) w r i t e s t ha t a udi e nc e s do no t s i m pl y r e c e i ve m e s s a ge s ; t he y de c ode t e xt s A udi e nc e s do not de c ode m e s s a ge s i n uni f or m w a ys a nd t h e y do not ne c e s s a r i l y i nt e r pr e t t he s a m e m e a ni ng t ha t p r oduc e r s i nt e nd ( C ondi t 1989) I f a l l t e xt s a r e pol ys e m i c i e c a pa bl e o f be a r i ng m ul t i pl e m e a ni ngs t he n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a r e pol ys e m i c a s w e l l C ondi t ( 1989 ) a l s o a r gue s t ha t a udi e nc e s c r e a t e t he i r ow n r e s pons e s t o m e di a t e d t e xt s ba s e d on a udi e nc e s ow n ba c kgr ounds a nd s i t ua t i ons N ot a l l a udi e nc e m e m be r s a r e c a pa bl e of p r oduc i n g t he s a m e r e a di ngs ; e a c h a udi e nc e m e m be r br i ngs he r or hi s ow n l i f e e xpe r i e nc e w or l dvi e w a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l a bi l i t y t o be a r i n de c odi ng m e di a t e d t e xt s C ondi t ( 1989 ) not e s t h a t m e m be r s of m i nor i t y or m a r gi na l i z e d gr oups m a y ha ve dr a m a t i c a l l y di f f e r i ng w a ys of de c odi ng t e xt s pa r t i c ul a r l y i f t he t e xt s r e pr e s e nt t he va l ue s of dom i na nt s oc i a l gr oups S u c h po l ys e m y w a s a ppa r e nt w i t hi n t hi s s t udy s f oc us g r oups s i nc e t he a udi e nc e m e m be r s i nt e r p r e t e d t he t e xt s i n m a ny di f f e r e nt w a ys N e ve r t he l e s s a s t hi s s t udy s r e s ul t s s how pa r t i c i pa nt s di d t e nd t o s ha r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons on a num be r o f t he m e s a nd t opi c s F or e xa m pl e on s e ve r a l oc c a s i ons pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy de c l a r e d t ha t t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s w e r e not r e a l w om e n, but

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41 t he pa r t i c i pa nt s f a i l e d t o put t oge t he r a pe r s ua s i ve a r gum e nt t o ba c k t he not i on t ha t t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s a r e not r e a l w om e n S i m i l a r l y one o f C ondi t s ( 1989 ) pa r t i c i pa nt s not e d t ha t C ondi t s t r e a t m e nt t e l e vi s i on pr ogr a m di d no t r e pr e s e nt a n a ve r a ge e ve r yda y A m e r i c a n, but t he s a m e pa r t i c i pa nt c oul d not de f i ne a n a ve r a ge e ve r yda y A m e r i c a n ( p. 109 ) C ondi t s ( 1989 ) pa r t i c i pa nt s e x e m pl i f y t h e s t r a i ns a udi e nc e s m a y e xpe r i e nc e w he n a t t e m pt i ng t o i nt e r pr e t m e di a e s pe c i a l l y w he n t r yi ng t o r e l a t e c ha r a c t e r s f e a t ur e d i n t he m e di a t o s o c a l l e d no r m a l pe opl e I n a ddi t i on C ondi t s ( 1989) pa r t i c i pa nt s que s t i one d i f C ondi t s t r e a t m e nt t e l e vi s i on pr ogr a m w a s r e a l i s t i c j us t a s s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy que s t i one d w he t he r t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os r e pr e s e nt e d r e a l i t y. C ondi t ( 1989) w r i t e s T he t r a de of f a m ong w ha t m a r gi na l a udi e nc e gr oups w a nt w ha t ot he r a udi e nc e gr oups w a nt a nd w ha t t he pr oduc e r s a r e w i l l i ng t o gi ve t he m a s a c o m pr om i s e m a y s t i l l r e t a i n a g r e a t de a l of c ont r ol f or pr oduc e r s a nd dom i na nt g r oups ( p. 110) T he w om e n f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy m a y r e p r e s e nt a m a r gi na l gr oup be c a us e t he y a r e w o m e n, a nd w hi l e t he y m a y f i nd s om e pl e a s ur e i n t he m us i c vi de os m us i c vi de os s uc h a s t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a l s o m a y ha v e a s i l e nc i ng e f f e c t on w om e n be c a us e m us i c vi de os a r e pr oduc e d by a nd f o r m a s c ul i ne s e ns i bi l i t i e s T hus w om e n a udi e nc e s m a y f i nd t he c ont e nt of s uc h m e s s a ge s f or e i gn t o t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e s a nd di f f i c ul t t o i nt e r pr e t W om e n a udi e nc e s a l s o m a y ha ve di f f i c ul t y a r t i c ul a t i ng t he l ogi c a l f l a w s t he y r e c ogni z e w i t hi n s uc h t e xt s ( e g. t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os a r e no t r e a l w om e n; r e a l w om e n s houl d be m or e l i ke t he un r e a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n i n m us i c vi de os ) S i nc e t he f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy w e r e not a bl e t o a r t i c ul a t e a l ogi c a l c ount e r r he t or i c i n r e s pons e t o t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e not a bl e

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42 e f f e c t i ve l y t o c om m un i c a t e t he i r r e s i s t a nc e t o t he m e s s a ge s t ha t t he y w e r e vi e w i ng. O nl y i f a s t r ong a nd pe r va s i ve r e s pons e t o dom i n a nt m e s s a ge s c a n be de m ons t r a t e d c a n w e a s s e r t t ha t t he l i m i t e d r e pe r t oi r e of m a s s m e di a t e d m e s s a ge s r e a l l y c oe xi s t s w i t h a s e m i ot i c de m oc r a c y ( C ondi t 1989 p 111 ) T he d om i na nt i de ol ogy r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he m us i c vi de os m a y do oppr e s s i ve w or k by a ddr e s s i ng t he dom i na nt a udi e nc e pr om o t i ng i t s i nt e r e s t a nd l a r ge l y i gno r i ng m a r gi na l a udi e nc e s i nt e r e s t s C ondi t s ( 1989) s t udy de m ons t r a t e d a m a r g i na l i z e d a udi e nc e s i ne f f e c t i ve a t t e m pt s t o a r t i c ul a t e c ount e r a r gum e nt s t o m e di a t e d t e xt s i t f ound of f e ns i ve C ondi t s w or k s ugge s t s t ha t be c a us e m a r gi na l i z e d a udi e nc e s onl y ha ve t he c ul t u r a l e qui pm e nt f or de c od i ng m e s s a ge s t ha t t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e a nd m e di a pr ovi de m a r gi na l i z e d a udi e nc e s m a y ha ve di f f i c ul t y e xpr e s s i ng t he i r r e s i s t a nc e t o d om i na nt i de ol ogy. A t t he s a m e t i m e m e m be r s of dom i na nt gr oups w ho do not ha ve t he e xpe r i e nc e s of m a r gi na l i z e d g r oups m a y ha ve di f f i c ul t y de c odi ng m a r gi na l i z e d gr oups a r gum e nt s R a dw a y ( 1986) s ugge s t s t ha t a l t hough m a r gi na l i z e d gr oups i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of dom i na nt m e s s a ge s m a y be l ogi c a l l y f l a w e d ( p r e c i s e l y be c a us e m a r gi na l i z e d gr oups l i ve i n w i t h a nd t hr ough dom i na nt c ul t u r e ) t he s e not ye t f ul l y a r t i c ul a t e d a r gum e nt s be c om e m a r ke r s f or l oc a t i ng e a r l y i nt ui t i ve c ons c i ous ne s s of a nd gr ow i ng r e s i s t a nc e t o a dom i na nt gr oup s opp r e s s i ve i de ol ogi e s a nd/ or pr a c t i c e s R a dw a y ( 1986) de s c r i be s i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s a s pl a c e s w he r e di s c our s e a nd pr a c t i c e j oi n i m pe r f e c t l y t o pe r s ua de w om e n t ow a r d c ont r a di c t or y de s i r e s : be i ng i nde pe nde nt a nd r e s pe c t e d ve r s us be i ng t he obj e c t of m a l e de s i r e T hi s c ont r a di c t i on be t w e e n w ha t i s pos s i bl e a nd w ha t i s l ogi c a l l y i nc ongr ue nt i s a ppa r e nt i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy w he r e w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s bot h ha d ne ga t i ve r e a c t i ons t o i de a l i z e d r e pr e s e nt a t i ons

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43 of w om e n a nd a l s o e xp r e s s e d de s i r e t o be m or e l i k e t hos e r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n. O f R a dw a y s ( 1986) c onc e pt of i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s G ol om bi s ky ( 1999) e xpl a i ns t he s i gni f i c a nc e of s uc h a m ode l c a l l s our a t t e nt i on t o j unc t i ons w he r e pi e c e s of t he i de ol ogi c a l w or l dvi e w l ogi c a l l y do not f i t but t he y be c om e ba s t e d t oge t he r a nyw a y a nd na t ur a l i z e d t hr ough une xa m i ne d a s s um pt i ons ( p 3 ) G ol om b i s ky s ugge s t s t he s e j unc t i ons r e pr e s e nt a na s c e nt ki nd of f e m i ni s m r i pe f or f e m i ni s t i n t e r ve nt i on. I n t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy, R a dw a y s ( 1986 ) i de a of s l i ppa ge s a nd i m pe r f e c t j oi ni ngs be c om e s a ppa r e nt i n f oc us gr o up pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s E nc our a ge d t o f i l l i n t he bl a n ks w om e n ne ve r r e a l i z e t he w hol e e nt e r pr i s e i s m a t e r i a l l y i m pos s i bl e w i t hi n t he ve r y i de ol ogy, w hi c h t e l l s t he m t ha t i t i s not onl y pos s i bl e but a l s o s houl d be t he i r goa l ( G ol om bi s ky, 1999 p 4 ) T he i nc ongr u ous i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s e xe m pl i f i e d i n t he r e s p ons e s of f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s de m ons t r a t e d t he c onf l i c t s a m ong t he unr e a l i s t i c i de a l s of w om e n t he vi de os por t r a y, pa r t i c i pa nt s i na bi l i t y t o a c hi e ve s uc h i de a l s pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ogni t i on t ha t s uc h i de a l s a r e unr e a l i s t i c a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s de s i r e t o a c hi e ve s uc h i de a l s be c a us e t he y a r e t he i de a l s t ha t t he c ul t ur e va l ue s C ondi t s ( 1989) pol ys e m y a nd R a dw a y s ( 1986) i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s he l p t o e xpl a i n t he i r oni e s c ont r a di c t i ons a nd pa r a doxe s t ha t f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a t e d i n t he i r r e s pons e s t o t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os F ak e body par t s ( w om e n as obj e c t s / body par t s ) F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s not i c e d t he pr e va l e nc e of body pa r t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os T he pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o r e c ogni z e d t he w om e n i n t he vi de os a s i de a l i z e d i m a ge s of w om e n s va r i ous body pa r t s : r e a r e nds s t om a c hs a nd br e a s t s K i l bour ne ( 2000) a r gue s t ha t a dve r t i s i ng s how s w om e n s bod i e s a s c r oppe d/ c hoppe d pi e c e s a nd

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44 pa r t s ; K i l bour ne s pur pos e i s t o i nc r e a s e a udi e nc e a w a r e ne s s of t hi s pr a c t i c e a nd i t s ha r m f ul m e s s a ge t ha t s e e m s t o e ndor s e vi ol e nc e a g a i ns t w om e n. P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy di d not i c e t he us e of body pa r t s i n t h e t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os but pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not c or r e l a t e t he i m a ge s of w om e n s body pa r t s t o vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t w om e n. I ns t e a d, pa r t i c i pa nt s que s t i one d t he a ut he n t i c i t y of s uc h body pa r t s e ve n t hough t he c r oppe d c l os e up body pa r t s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s que s t i one d c l e a r l y w e r e a t t a c he d t o r e a l w om e n s bodi e s F or e xa m pl e w he n r e f e r r i ng t o L i nds a y L oha n s b r e a s t s one s t ude nt a s ks a r e he r boobs r e a l ? ( G r oup 1 S t ude nt 9) I n t ha t s a m e gr oup, a not he r s a i d t ha t s om e f e m a l e s w i s he d t he y l ook l i ke L i nds a y ( G r oup 1, S t ude nt 2) A not he r pa r t i c i pa nt di d not s pe c i f y w ha t a r t i s t s s he r e f e r r e d t o w he n s he ponde r e d I w onde r i f he r boobs a r e r e a l ( G r oup 5 S t ud e nt 6) K i l bour ne ( 2000 ) hypot he s i z e s t ha t i f a udi e nc e s a r e t a ught t o r e c ogni z e t he pr a c t i c e i n w hi c h c a m e r a a ngl e s i n e f f e c t s e ve r pa r t s of w om e n s bodi e s f or v i e w i ng pl e a s ur e t he n a udi e nc e s m a y not a c c e pt s o e a s i l y t he not i on t ha t w om e n a r e m e r e l y a s s e m bl a ge s of s e xua l i z e d body pa r t s a va i l a bl e f o r s e xua l gr a t i f i c a t i on. F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy di d not i ndi c a t e i f t he y a r e a w a r e of a ny da nge r s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he w a y t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s w e r e pr e s e nt e d. R a t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s que s t i one d t he a ut he nt i c i t y of t he a r t i s t s body pa r t s T he i r ony he r e l i e s i n t he not i on t ha t c r oppe d a nd s e xua l i z e d w om e n s body pa r t s a r e f a ke d body pa r t s P a r t i c i pa nt s di r e c t e d t he i r c r i t i c i s m a t t he m e di a t e d w om e n de t a c he d f r om t he i r ow n body pa r t s not t he pr od u c t i on t e c hni que t ha t e f f e c t e d t he a m put a t i ons V i a R a dw a y s ( 1986) t he or y of i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s t he ur ge t o c r i t i que s uc h

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45 i m a ge s how e ve r i ne f f e c t i ve l y r e p r e s e nt s w om e n ha vi ng l oc a t e d a n i de ol ogi c a l s e a m t he s e a r e not t ypi c a l w om e n; I a m be i ng ur ge d t o l ook l i ke t he s e a t ypi c a l w om e n. V i a C ondi t s ( 1989) t he or y o f pol ys e m y, t he n, pa r t i c i p a nt s m a y ne e d m or e c r i t i c a l e qui pm e nt t ha n s i m pl e a w a r e ne s s of t he pr a c t i c e o f c r oppi ng w om e n s s e xua l i z e d body pa r t s be f or e pa r t i c i pa nt s c a n di r e c t w e l l a r t i c ul a t e d c r i t i c i s m t o t he w i de s pr e a d a nd r out i ne a e s t he t i c pr a c t i c e s of m e di a pr oduc t i on t e c hni que r a t he r t ha n a t t he i nd i vi dua l w om e n f e a t ur e d i n s uc h pr a c t i c e s I t be c om e s a c a s e of b l a m i ng t he m e s s e nge r f or t he m e s s a ge F e m al e ar t i s t s not r e al w om e n ( m al e f ant as y ) T he w om e n f e a t u r e d i n t he vi de os a ppe a r e d t o be u s e d a s s e x obj e c t s a c c or di ng t o s om e f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a s one d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s por t r a ye d t he m s e l ve s a s s e x obj e c t s be c a us e s e x s e l l s A c c or di ng t o J ha l l y ( 1995 ) w om e n i n m us i c vi de os r e p r e s e nt a m a s c ul i ne s e xua l f a nt a s y w or l d w he r e e ve r y w om a n i s s e xua l l y i de a l a nd s e xua l l y a va i l a bl e A s i de a l i z e d he t e r os e xua l m a s c ul i ne f a nt a s i e s w om e n i n m us i c vi de os a r e n ot va l i d r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t ypi c a l w om e n T hus w e c a n r e a s on, w om e n i n m us i c vi de os a r e not r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of r e a l w om e n. I n s e ve r a l i ns t a nc e s f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s que s t i one d t he a ut he nt i c i t y o f t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os but t he n a l s o e xpr e s s e d l ongi ng t o be m or e l i ke t he s e s om e how i na ut he nt i c r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n. H e r e t he c ont r a di c t i on l i e s i n be l i e vi ng t ha t a c hi e vi ng i de a l i n a ut he nt i c i t y i s bot h a c c e pt a bl e a nd doa bl e P a r t i c i pa nt s j us t i f i e d t he not i on t ha t t yp i c a l w om e n ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o l ook l i ke t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he vi de os by r e a s oni n g t ha t t he a r t i s t s w or k out a l l da y a nd ha ve pe r s ona l t r a i ne r s a nd nut r i t i oni s t s a s s i s t i ng a nd gui di ng t he m t ow a r d t he i r i de a l un r e a l i t y. I f pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d pe r s ona l t r a i ne r s a nd c oul d w a t c h w ha t t he y e a t t h e y s e e m e d w i l l i ng t o t h i nk t ha t t he y

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46 a l s o c oul d ha ve t he s a m e ( i na ut he nt i c ) bodi e s a s t h e a r t i s t s i n t he v i de os O ne pa r t i c i pa nt e xpl a i ne d, I f I ha d s om e one f i xi ng a l l m y na i l s a n d a l l I ha d t o do i s s i t t he r e a nd w or k out a l l da y, i f I ha d a l l t ha t m one y s om e one doi ng m y ha i r a nd m a ke up I w oul d l oo k l i ke t ha t t oo ( G r oup 6, S t ude nt 7 ) S e ve r a l ot he r s voi c e d c ont r a di c t o r y s t a t e m e nt s r e g a r di ng t he w om e n i n t he m us i c vi de os S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s s a i d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s a r e not r e a l w om e n but t he i de ol ogi c a l s e a m be c a m e a ppa r e nt w he n t hos e s a m e pa r t i c i pa nt s s a i d t he y t he m s e l ve s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o l ook l i ke t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s F or e xa m pl e one pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d: T he w om e n w e r e no t r e a l i s t i c how r e a l i s t i c i s t ha t ? H ow c a n t he w om e n l ook l i ke t ha t ? B ut a t t he s a m e t i m e t he y w i s h t ha t t he yl ook l i ke t he w om e n i n t he vi de os ( G r oup 1, S t ude nt 3) T he c onc e pt of r e a l w om e n w a s voi c e d on s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt oc c a s i ons : T hos e a r e n't r e a l gi r l s t he y a r e j us t t r yi ng t o s e l l r e c or ds t ha t i s w ha t pe opl e w a nt t o s e e ( G r oup 1, S t ude nt 7) A not he r e xpr e s s e d c o nc e r n a bout t he s c a nda l ous c l ot he s t he w om e n a r t i s t s w e r e w e a r i ng: W he n ot he r pe opl e m i ght put t he m on, you know r e a l w or l d pe opl e . nor m a l pe opl e w ho don't ha ve pe r s ona l t r a i ne r s a n d s t uf f l i ke t ha t w oul dn' t l ook good i n t he m ( G r oup 3 S t ude nt 2 ) S t i l l a not he r s a i d, A ny of us c oul d pr oba bl y l ook l i ke t ha t t oo. W e c oul d a l l l ook l i ke a r t i f i c i a l t r a s h ( G r oup 5, S t ude nt 6) Y e t a not he r s a i d, I f I w e r e a t r i pl e s i z e z e r o, I c oul d l ook l i ke t ha t ( G r o up 2, S t ude nt 6 ) I r oni c a l l y, w hi l e c r i t i c i z i ng t he i n a ut he nt i c i t y o f t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt v i de os pa r t i c i pa nt s ne ve r que s t i one d t he i r ow n de s i r e t o b e l i ke t hos e i na ut he nt i c i m a ge s W hi l e a num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s a gr e e d t ha t t he w o m e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os a r e not r e a l w om e n, t he pa r t i c i pa n t s s t i l l be l i e ve d t ha t t he y ha v e t he a bi l i t y t o l ook t ha t w a y. I n

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47 a ddi t i on, t he w om e n a r t i s t s f e a t ur e d i n t he m us i c v i de os a r e i nde e d r e a l w om e n s o f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s de f i ni t i ons of r e a l w om e n r e m a i n s om e w ha t unc l e a r I n t hi s s t udy, pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o s e e m e d t o unde r s t a n d a nd c onc ur w i t h J ha l l y s ( 1995) c r i t i que t ha t w om e n i n m us i c vi de os f unc t i on a s s e x obj e c t s but t he s a m e pa r t i c i pa nt s ne ve r que s t i one d t he i r ow n de s i r e t o b e s e x obj e c t s t he m s e l ve s O nc e a ga i n, r a t he r t ha n c r i t i c i z i ng t he pr oduc t i on pr a c t i c e f oc u s gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s c r i t i c i z e d t he w om e n w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he p r a c t i c e e ve n a s t h e s a m e pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpr e s s e d de s i r e t o be m or e l i ke t hos e t he y c r i t i c i z e d. A ga i n, pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons unde r s c or e t he i r r e c ogni t i on of a n i de ol o gi c a l s e a m ( R a dw a y, 1986 ) but pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d i l l e qui ppe d t o a r t i c ul a t e a n a de qua t e r e a di ng or l ogi c a l c r i t i q ue of t he m e di a t e xt s ( C ondi t 1989 ) L ac k of t al e nt ( t he s t or y t ol d about f e m i ni ni t y ) T he s t or y t o l d a bout f e m i ni ni t y i n t h i s s t udy s a ys m uc h a bout t he i r oni e s a nd pa r a doxe s t ha t t ypi c a l w om e n f a c e i n e ve r yda y l i f e F r om t he s e f oc us g r oups t he s t o r y t ol d a bout f e m i ni ni t y pa i nt s a bl e a k por t r a i t o f t he r ol e of w om e n ( t o be c om e t he obj e c t of he t e r os e xua l m a l e ga z e a nd de s i r e ) a nd t he w or k w om e n ne e d t o do t o s uc c e e d i n t ha t r ol e ( e m body unna t ur a l i de a l s o f be a ut y) F u r t he r m or e i f t he w om e n r e p r e s e nt e d i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os por t r a y w om a nl y i de a l s of m a l e f a nt a s y, t he n i de a l w om e n a r e s l ut s w ho l a c k t a l e nt a c c or di ng t o f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s P a r t i c i pa nt s not e d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os t e nde d t o ha ve bi g br e a s t s l a r ge r e a r e nds a nd f l a t s t om a c hs P a r t i c i pa nt s how e ve r a l s o c om m e nt e d t ha t t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s a r e a l l ve r y t hi n F or e xa m pl e one pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d t ha t s he ( t he a r t i s t ) l ooke d unus ua l l y s ki nny ( G r oup 5, S t ude nt 4) a nd a not he r s a i d t ha t a l l t he gi r l s a r e s ki nny a nd be a ut i f ul ( G r oup 5, S t ude nt 8)

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48 T he t r ut h of t he m a t t e r i s i f t he y w e r e up t he r e a nd t he y w e r e n't s ki nny or t hi n a nd pr e t t y a nd be a u t i f u l or w ha t e ve r t he y w o ul dn't be up t he r e m a ki ng a l l t ha t c a s h pr oba bl y. W e w oul dn't i do l i z e t he m a nym or e ( G r oup 5, S t ude nt 7) T he w om e n i n t he vi de os ha d s uc h l a r ge br e a s t s t h a t pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt e d on t he s i z e a nd a l s o doubt e d t he i r a ut he nt i c i t y. T he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os a r e a l s o know n f or t he i r vo l upt uous bot t om s pa r t i c ul a r l y J e nni f e r L ope z w hos e ba c ks i de ha s i ns pi r e d ur ba n l e ge nds on t he a m ount o f i ns ur a nc e s he c a r r i e s on t hi s f e a t ur e t ha t m a ke s he r f a m ous T he c ur vy na t ur e of t he i de a l i z e d f e m a l e f or m pr e s e nt e d by t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s a nd not e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i s a t t he s a m e t i m e i m pos s i bl y t hi n S i nc e t he m e s s a ge i s t o ha ve no f a t but a t t he s a m e t i m e t o h a ve vol upt uous br e a s t s a nd r e a r e nds t he a c hi e ve m e nt of s uc h a phys i c a l s t a nda r d m a y b e di f f i c ul t a nd i s not c om m on a m ong m os t w om e n, s a ns c os m e t i c s ur ge r y. P a r t i c i pa nt s d i d not s e e m t o que s t i on t hi s c ont r a di c t i on be t w e e n t he r e qui r e m e nt of ge ne r ous a m ount s of body f a t i n s om e a r e a s of t he phys i que a nd i t s l a c k i n ot he r s W hi l e pa r t i c i pa nt s a c know l e dge d t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s i de a l but i na ut he nt i c l ooks pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e qui c k t o no t e t ha t t he a r t i s t s do not ha ve a ny t a l e nt : w e ha ve t o r e m e m be r t he y ( t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s ) a r e no t ve r y t a l e nt e d ( G r oup 1 S t ude nt 5) S he i s de f i ni t e l y l e s s t a l e nt e d s o you w oul d t hi nk t ha t s he w oul d r e s or t t o ot he r m e a ns of ( l e s s c l ot hi ng) of a t t r a c t i ng a n a udi e nc e ( G r oup 4, S t ud e nt 2) O ne pa r t i c i pa nt not e d t he w a y a r t i s t s a r e s uc c e s s f ul de s pi t e t he i r l a c k of t a l e nt e ve n i f t he t a l e nt i s not t he r e s he i s s t i l l hot ( G r oup 4, S t ude nt 9 ) G ood t hi ng t he y a r e a l l c ut e or e l s e t he y w oul d be on t he s t r e e t be ggi ng s om e w he r e ( G r oup 1 S t ude nt 4 )

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49 K i l bour ne ( 2000 ) f ound a dve r t i s e m e nt s e nc our a gi ng w om e n t o be vi ol e nt w i t h ot he r w om e n f or no a ppa r e nt r e a s on. T he ha r s h c r i t i c i s m a nd c r ue l l a ngua ge t ha t f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d t o de s c r i be t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt v i de os m a y r e l a t e t o K i l bour ne s ( 2000) obs e r va t i on. I n t he pr e s e nt s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s m e a n s pi r i t e d e va l ua t i ons of t he w om e n a r t i s t s m a y be a r e f l e c t i o n of c ul t u r a l va l ue s t ha t a ut ho r i z e w om e n s c om pe t i t i on w i t h w om e n f o r t he a pp r ova l of m e n. F or a t h i r d t i m e pa r t i c i pa nt s di r e c t e d t he i r c r i t i c i s m t ow a r d pe r s ona l a t t a c ks on t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he m us i c vi de os i ns t e a d of on t he c ul t ur a l va l ue s t ha t pr i z e w om e n f or t he i r be a ut y a nd e nc our a ge w om e n t o a c hi e ve f a m e a nd w e a l t h ba s e d on w ha t t he y l ook l i ke r a t he r t ha n w ha t t he y c a n do T hi s onc e a ga i n m a y i ndi c a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ogni t i on of t he pr e s e nc e of a n i de ol ogi c a l s e a m ( pe r f e c t i on i s r e qui r e d but i m pos s i bl e ) but i n t he i r r e a di ngs o f t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e una bl e t o i s ol a t e a nd a r t i c ul a t e t he pa r a dox i t s e l f B e l i e f / de gr e e of i nf l ue nc e & c om par i s on t o s e l f & pe r s onal e x pe r i e nc e E ve n t hough f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s ponde d t o t he di f f i c ul t phys i c a l s t a nda r ds pr e s e nt e d by t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os by c r i t i c i z i ng t he w om e n a r t i s t s f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o que s t i one d t he m s e l ve s by l a m e nt i ng t he i na de qua c i e s of t he i r ow n bodi e s S i nc e t he m a j o r i t y o f t he f o c us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i n t he 20s t he a ge g r oup m os t c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ul t ur a l i de a l s of w o m e n s bodi e s i t i s t r oubl i ng t ha t s uc h young w om e n f i nd t he m s e l ve s l a c ki ng. P a r t i c i pa nt s di d e xpr e s s di s s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h t he i r o w n bodi e s i n c om pa r i s o n t o t he w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os P a r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt s i nc l ude d: I w a nt t o be l i ke t ha t ( G r oup 5 S t ude nt 3) I w i s h I l ooke d l i ke t ha t ( G r oup 5, S t ude nt 8) a nd I ha ve t o l ook

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50 l i ke t ha t t o ge t a guy ( G r oup 1, S t ude nt 10) W om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s f r e que nt l y c om pa r e d t he m s e l ve s or w ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e f e r r e d t o a s r e a l w om e n, t o t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s : I r e m e m be r w he n I w a s i n hi gh s c hool t hi nki ng I w i s h I c oul d w e a r a n out f i t a nd l ook l i ke t ha t ( G r oup 2 S t ude nt 8 ) A not he r c ont i nue d S t om a c h, c he s t e ve r yt hi ng oh w ow s he ha s s uc h a gr e a t body. S he i s l ook i ng r e a l l y good, I w a nt m i ne t o l ook l i ke t ha t ( G r oup 2) P a r t i c i pa nt s di d not s e e m t o r e c ogni z e a ny da nge r i n c om pa r i ng t he m s e l ve s t o unr e a l w om e n a nd f i ndi ng t he m s e l ve s l a c ki ng, b ut t he y di d m e nt i on c onc e r n f or younge r m us i c vi de o vi e w e r s by pr ovi di ng e xa m pl e s of t he i r ow n yout h or by c i t i ng t he i r ow n c hi l dr e n. F or e xa m pl e one pa r t i c i pa nt e xpl a i n e d: w he n I w a s younge r I w oul d t r y a nd r e l a t e s ongs t o r e a l l i f e a nd w i t h t hos e s ongs i t i s l i k e w hy don't I ha ve a boyf r i e nd? ( G r oup 2 S t ude nt 6) A not he r voi c e d c onc e r n a bo ut t he yout hf ul ne s s of t he a udi e nc e s t a t i ng t ha t t he r e i s not h i ng ne w w i t h s e x s e l l i ng, m a ybe now i t ha s a younge r c r ow d w a t c hi ng t hi s ( G r oup 2 S t ude nt 7 ) I t i s a young e r a udi e nc e w a t c hi ng t he s e vi de os a nd i t ge t s younge r a nd younge r a nd I w onde r w ha t t he y a r e s e e i ng ( G r oup 2, S t ude nt 6 ) I f you go e ve n younge r l i ke s e ve n or e i ght t he y j us t s i ng i t a bs or b i t T he y c a n pr oduc e a w hol e s ong a f t e r he a r i ng i t a c oupl e o f t i m e s a nd t he y don't e ve n know w ha t t he y a r e s a yi ng ( G r oup 2, S t ude nt 3) T he i r ony he r e l i e s w i t h i n pa r t i c i pa nt s c onc e r n f o r t he yout hf ul a udi e nc e s w a t c hi ng m us i c vi de os T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w or r y t ha t younge r a udi e nc e s of w om e n a r e a bs or bi ng t he m e s s a g e s a nd i m a ge s w i t hout know i ng w ha t i t a l l m e a ns F oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s di d m e nt i on t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e s a s young a udi e nc e m e m be r s but t he y di d not c onne c t t hos e e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h pos s i bl e i nf l ue nc e s on t he i r ow n l i ve s O ne s t a t e m e nt

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51 de m ons t r a t e s t hi s f l i p f l op be t w e e n s e l f obs e r va t i o n a nd c onc e r n f o r a younge r a udi e nc e : I w a s j us t t hi nki ng m a ybe no t ne c e s s a r i l y gi r l s our a ge but younge r g i r l s w oul d be t hi nki ng, be c a us e I ha ve a younge r gi r l l i ke m y da ught e r i s 12 s o I gue s s I t hi nk of w ha t t he y t h i nk w he n t he y w a t c h t ha t t y pe of t h i ng. I j us t put w ow I w i s h I l ooke d l i ke t ha t R e a l l y I j us t w i s h I ha d t he i r m one y. U m i t m us t be a l ot of f un t o m a ke t ha t vi de o ye a h i t 's be t t e r t ha n s c hool ( G r oup 5 S t ude nt 8) B e c a us e of t he us e of t he f i r s t pe r s on i n t hi s s t a t e m e nt i t i s unc l e a r w he t he r t he pa r t i c i pa nt i s i de nt i f yi ng m or e w i t h t he vi de o a s he r s e l f or he r da ught e r T he t hi r d pe r s on e f f e c t t he or y c a m e up une xpe c t e d l y a nd w a s a n i nt e r e s t i ng w a y t o l ook a t t he pe r s ona l be l i e f s o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a b out t he da nge r s of m us i c vi de os T he m us i c vi de os s e e m e d t o be a c c e pt a bl e f or t he m a t u r e a udi e nc e s s uc h a s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s be c a us e t he y a r e a w a r e of t he m e s s a ge s a nd a r e not a s i m pr e s s i ona bl e H ow e ve r pa r t i c i pa nt s di d a dm i t t o w a t c hi ng t he s e t ype s of v i de os w he n t he y w e r e younge r a nd t he y ge ne r a l l y di d not t hi nk i t w a s a s ba d t he n a s i t i s now F or e xa m pl e w he n di s c us s i ng s e xua l l y gr a phi c m a t e r i a l i n m us i c vi de os one pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d t ha t be f or e i t w a s l e s s obvi ous w ha t t he y w e r e doi ng a nd now i t i s obvi ou s T he y us e d t o j us t hi nt a t i t bu t now i t i s obvi ous ( G r oup 2, S t ude nt 6) P a r t i c i pa nt s w hi l e a dm i t t i ng t ha t t he i r ow n bodi e s s e e m e d i na de qua t e i n c om pa r i s on t o w om e n i n t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os s e e m e d t o be l i e ve t ha t s uc h i m a ge s ha ve gr e a t e r i nf l ue nc e on ot he r s e s pe c i a l l y younge r w om e n. I r oni c a l l y pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not s e e m a w a r e of a ny c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he i r di s s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h t he i r ow n bodi e s a nd e xpos ur e t o unr e a l i s t i c i m a ge s of w om e n s bodi e s Y e t i n t he i r c onc e r n f o r t he s e i m a ge s e f f e c t s on younge r w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s c l e a r l y be l i e ve d c a us a l r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n

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52 w ha t w om e n vi e w a nd how w om e n f e e l a bout t he m s e l ve s a r e pos s i bl e I n t hi s c a s e i t m a y be a r gue d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e una w a r e of t he s l i ppa ge or i de ol ogi c a l s e a m t ha t e nc our a ge s ot he r s but not t he m s e l ve s t o s t r i ve t ow a r d i m pos s i bl e body i m a ge i de a l s P r oduc e d by m e n f or m e n ( M al e gaz e ) T he r e s ul t s s how e d f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a l l y be l i e ve t ha t m e n a r e r e s pons i bl e f or t he p r oduc t i on o f m us i c vi de os S o m e pa r t i c i pa nt s s t a t e d t ha t t he a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os w e r e r e s pons i bl e f or pa r t o f t h e c r e a t i ve i nput be hi nd t he vi de os but i t w a s m e n w ho ha d t he m os t i npu t be hi nd pr oduc t i on. A l o t of a r t i s t s ha ve a l ot of pow e r J L o doe s he r ow n vi de os a nd pr oduc i ng bu t l i ke t he ot he r a r t i s t s t he y a r e done by 40 ye a r ol d w hi t e bus i ne s s m e n ( G r oup 6, S t u de nt 6) A l t hough pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ogni t i on of M ul ve y s ( 1 975) m a l e ga z e w a s not di r e c t l y s uppor t e d i n t he t r a ns c r i pt s pa r t i c i pa nt s unde r s t ood t ha t m us i c vi de os a r e pr oduc e d by m e n f or m e n a nd t ha t w om e n a r t i s t s pe r f or m w ha t m e n w a nt M ul ve y ( 1975) t he or i z e s t ha t pr oduc t i on a e s t he t i c s t e nd t o r e pr oduc e t he he t e r os e xua l m a l e ga z e O ne f oc us g r oup pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d: I f t he s e a r e w om e n w ho don't w a nt t o be l ooke d a t a s s e x obj e c t s a nd t he s e a r e t he i r vi de os t he n w hy w oul dn't t he y l i ke a l l t h e guys i n t he i r vi de os w e r e f ul l y c l ot he d c a m e r a a ngl e s w e r e a t t he i r f a c e s i t i s l i ke t h i s i s t he i r m us i c do t he y w a nt t o be t a ke n s e r i ous l y f o r t he i r m us i c ? ( G r oup 6 S t ude nt 6) T hi s pa r t i c i pa nt not e d t ha t c a m e r a a ngl e s t e nd t o f oc us on m e n s f a c e s a nd w om e n s bodi e s T hi s pa r t i c i pa nt not e s t ha t w he n i t c om e s t o w om e n on s c r e e n, t he c a m e r a a ngl e s f l a s hi ng s w i m s ui t s ( G r oup 6, S t ude nt 6 ) A l t hough t he pr e s e nt s t udy s

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53 t r a ns c r i pt s o f f e r l i t t l e d i r e c t s uppor t t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ogni z e d t he m a l e ga z e i t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s do not know t he m e d i a w i t hout a m a l e ga z e F i l m a nd vi de o pr oduc t i on a e s t he t i c s f e a t ur i ng w om e n w ho a r e t o be l ooke d a t m a y be s o c ul t ur a l l y i ngr a i ne d t ha t m os t pa r t i c i pa nt s di d no t t hi nk t o qu e s t i on i t I n t he c a s e of t he m a l e ga z e pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d t o unde r s t a nd t ha t p r oduc t i on t e c hni que s t e nd t o e m pha s i z e w om e n a s obj e c t s t o be l ooke d a t r a t he r t ha n a c t or s w i t h a ge nc y t o pr ope l t he na r r a t i ve I n t he c a s e of t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os f e a t ur i ng w om e n i n l e a di ng na r r a t i ve r ol e s ot he r t ha n t he pa r t i c i pa nt n ot e d a bove f e w pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d t o not i c e t he ge nde r e d doubl e s t a nda r d t ha t t r e a t s m e n on s c r e e n a s i f t he y dr i ve t he a c t i on a nd w om e n a s i f t he y a r e t he vi s ua l obj e c t s of na r r a t i ve a c t i on. B y bot h C ondi t s ( 1989) a nd R a dw a y s ( 1986) w a ys of a ppr oa c hi ng s uc h i s s ue s i t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t t he f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s do not ha ve t he c ul t ur a l e qui pm e nt t o r e c ogni z e t he m a l e ga z e a s m e r e l y one c hoi c e a m ong m a ny a e s t he t i c pos s i bi l i t i e s l e t a l one t o c r i t i que i t Sum m ar y E ve n t hough pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy i de nt i f i e d t he m e s a ki n t o i s s ue s i de nt i f i e d by c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s e xa m i ni ng w om e n i n a dve r t i s i ng a nd m us i c vi de os t hi s s t udy s how s h ow pr obl e m a t i c i t w a s f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o m a ke s e ns e of ge nde r r ol e s i n t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y i nt e r e s t i ng gi ve n t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a s m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons s t ude nt s t he or e t i c a l l y a r e m or e m e di a s a vvy t ha n t he i r non m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons pe e r s c ons um i ng m e di a c ont e nt A c c or di ng t o t he f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s t he p r oduc e r s of m us i c vi de os a r e ge n e r a l l y m e n w ho c a t e r t o t he pl e a s ur e of m e n a s a udi e nc e s I n m us i c vi de os e ve n t hos e f e a t ur i ng w om e n a s a r t i s t s w om e n a s pe r f or m e r s r e m a i n obj e c t s of he t e r os e xua l m a l e f a nt a s y a nd w om e n a s a udi e nc e s a r e

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54 l a r ge l y i gnor e d. I a r gue t ha t be c a us e of t hi s t he w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy ha d di f f i c ul t y i de nt i f yi ng w i t h t he w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os I nde e d, w om e n a r t i s t s i n t he m us i c vi de os be c a m e t he t a r ge t s of c r i t i c i s m f or t hi s s t udy s w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s t ur ne d w om e n a ga i ns t w om e n i n t he i r pu r s ui t of m e n s a ppr ova l not a ppr ova l f or t a l e nt o r a bi l i t y but a ppr ova l f or i m p os s i bl e i de a l s of phys i c a l be a ut y. I n s um pa r t i c i pa nt s di r e c t e d t he i r di s s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n on s c r e e n t ow a r d t he w om e n on s c r e e n, e ve n a s pa r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a l l y a gr e e d t ha t t he m us i c i ndus t r y i s c ont r ol l e d by m e n w ho t a r ge t a m a l e a u di e nc e A l t hough t he w or k of s c hol a r s s uc h a s K i l bour ne ( 2000) a nd J ha l l y ( 1995) i s i nt e nde d t o pr om o t e c r i t i c a l m e di a l i t e r a c y w or k d a t i ng ba c k t o t he 1980s by bot h C ondi t ( 1989) a nd R a dw a y ( 1986) s ugge s t s t ha t a udi e nc e s m a y l oc a t e t he pr e s e nc e of i de ol ogi c a l i r r i t a nt s w i t hout be i ng a bl e c r i t i c a l l y t o a r t i c ul a t e e xa c t l y w ha t t he i r r i t a nt s a r e or w hy t he y a r e i r r i t a nt s M e di a s c hol a r s a nd e duc a t or s t h e n, ne e d bot h t o p r om ot e c r i t i c a l m e di a l i t e r a c y a nd t o pr ovi de pe opl e w i t h t he c r i t i c a l r e a s oni ng t ool s r e qui r e d t o unpa c k pa r a doxi c a l doubl e bi nds a nd c i r c ul a r l ogi c s I n e duc a t i on, e duc a t or s a l s o ought t o e nc our a ge w om e n t o go i nt o t he i ndus t r y a s m e s s a ge pr oduc e r s but not t o pe r pe t ua t e t he s t a t us quo. N e w ge ne r a t i ons of w om e n a nd m e n e n t e r i ng m e di a i ndus t r i e s m us t be t r a i ne d t o r e c ogni z e de c ons t r u c t a nd r e c ons t r uc t ne w l e s s ha r m f ul a nd c ont e nt i ous w a ys t o r e pr e s e nt w om e n ( a nd m e n ) a s w e l l a s r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n w om e n a nd m e n.

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55 C ha pt e r E i ght C onc l us i on M T V r e pr e s e nt s a s our c e of c ul t u r a l t r e nds f or you t h c ul t ur e C ul t ur a l s t udi e s na r r a t i ve t he or y a nd v i s ua l r he t or i c a r e a l l e m pl oy e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h t o t he or i z e ge nde r m e s s a ge s i n m us i c vi de os A udi e nc e r e c e pt i on t he or y he l pe d t o unc ove r a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of ge nde r e d m e s s a ge s pr e s e nt e d by M T V m us i c vi de os A f t e r c onduc t i ng f oc us gr o ups i n w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s vi e w e d a nd di s c us s e d t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os t he r e s e a r c he r a na l yz e d t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s f or t he m e s pr e di c t e d by c r i t i c a l ge nde r f e m i ni s t a nd r e c e pt i o n t he or i e s T he que s t i on dr i vi ng t hi s s t udy ha s be e n: D o w om e n vi e w m us i c v i de os c r i t i c a l l y i n w a ys s i m i l a r t o t ha t of c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s w ho ha ve a na l yz e d s i m i l a r popul a r c ul t ur e t e xt s ? T he pa r t i c i pa nt s di d a ppe a r t o c om pr e he nd t he v i d e os a nd t he y di d i nt e r pr e t t he vi de os s i m i l a r l y t o w ha t pr i o r c r i t i c a l r e s e a r c h ha d pr e di c t e d. T h i s s t udy bui l t upon t he ba s e t ha t ha s a l r e a dy be e n f ounde d: m us i c vi de os c ont a i n s e xua l c ont e nt m us i c vi de os f e a t ur e f e m a l e body pa r t s a nd w om e n a r e por t r a ye d a s obj e c t s of m a l e f a nt a s y a nd de s i r e T hi s s t udy e xe m pl i f i e d t he i r oni e s c ont r a di c t i ons a nd pa r a doxe s w i t hi n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f t he m us i c vi de os w hi c h i s a ne w a ddi t i on t o t he e xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h. T hi s s t udy i s i m po r t a nt t o t he f i e l d be c a us e i t t a ke s t he ne xt s t e p f r om c ont e nt a na l ys i s a nd unc ove r s t he i r oni e s c on t r a di c t i ons a nd pa r a doxe s w i t hi n t he a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons S t udi e s ha ve s t a t e d t ha t s e xi s m e xi s t s i n m us i c vi de os but t he ne xt l og i c a l

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56 que s t i on i s w ha t doe s t ha t m e a n? A s t he s e i m a ge s a r e r e dunda nt l y bl a s t e d t h r ough t e l e vi s i on s e t s t o pr om ot e popul a r c ul t ur e i t i s i m p or t a nt t o l ook a t how a udi e nc e s of w om e n i nt e r pr e t s uc h m e s s a ge s a nd i m a ge s T hi s s t udy a s ks t he w om e n of yout h c ul t u r e M T V s t a r ge t a udi e nc e w ha t t hi s ge nde r e d c om m uni c a t i on m e a ns t o t he m pe r s ona l l y. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s s t a t e m e nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y ge ne r a l l y be l i e ve d t ha t t he m us i c vi de os w e r e pr oduc e d by m e n f or a m a l e a udi e nc e a nd t ha t t he f e m a l e a r t i s t s w e r e us e d a s s e x obj e c t s W ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not s e e m t o not i c e w a s t he i r s t a t e m e nt s w e r e f i l l e d w i t h c ont r a di c t i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o no t e t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s w e r e e xa m pl e s of w ha t m e n w a nt a l t hough onl y on a ph ys i c a l l e ve l P a r t i c i pa nt s obs e r ve d t ha t i t i s i m pos s i bl e f or r e a l w om e n t o l i ve up t o t hi s s t a nda r d, but a t t he s a m e t i m e pa r t i c i pa nt s r a t i ona l i z e d how i t c oul d be pos s i bl e t o ha ve bodi e s l i ke t he w om e n a r t i s t s S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt e d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s ha d no t a l e nt a nd t ha t t he y por t r a ye d t he m s e l ve s i n de m e a ni ng w a ys ; ye t s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s s t i l l voi c e d a de s i r e t o be m or e l i ke t he w om e n a r t i s t s P a r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a l l y s t a t e d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s w e r e not r e a l w om e n, ha d no t a l e nt a nd w e r e w hor e s but a t t he s a m e t i m e pa r t i c i pa nt s c l e a r l y s how e d t he i r de s i r e t o be l i ke t he w om e n a r t i s t s p a r t i c ul a r l y i n t e r m s of phys i c a l be a ut y w hos e s ol e f unc t i on i s t o a t t r a c t he t e r os e xua l m a l e ga z e a nd de s i r e T he s t r e ngt h o f t hi s r e s e a r c h i s t ha t i t de m ons t r a t e s w om e n s s t r uggl e s t o r e c onc i l e m e di a t e d i m a ge s of w ha t w om e n s houl d be w i t h w ha t t he i ndi vi dua l w om e n be l i e ve t he y a r e P a r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o c om pa r e t h e m s e l ve s w i t h a nd i dol i z e t he w om e n a r t i s t s a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s voi c e d unha ppi ne s s a t t he i r f a i l ur e t o m e a s ur e up t o t he phys i c a l s t a nda r ds of t he w om e n a r t i s t s A t t he s a m e t i m e p a r t i c i pa nt s j udge d t he w om e n f e a t ur e d i n t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os ha r s hl y i n t e r m s of t a l e nt a bi l i t y, a nd s e xua l pr om i s c ui t y. T he s e

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57 i r oni e s a nd c ont r a di c t i ons a r e a n i m por t a nt s t e p t o w a r d unde r s t a ndi ng w om e n s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of m e di a t e d i m a ge s of w om e n. T he m e t hodol ogy of t hi s s t udy e na bl e d r i c h r e s ul t s a nd e xpos e d t he e xi s t e nc e of ge nde r s t e r e ot ype s a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s f e e l i ngs of i na de qua c y i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r ow n f e m i ni ni t y. T he l i m i t a t i ons a nd w e a kne s s e s of t hi s s t udy i nc l ude t he l a c k o f de m ogr a phi c i nf or m a t i on a bout t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a s w e l l a s a m e di a a udi t v i e w i ng ha bi t s a nd hi s t or y o f vi e w i n g m us i c vi de os S uc h i nf or m a t i on m a y ha ve pr ovi de d f u r t he r i ns i ght i nt o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt s a nd obs e r va t i ons t ha t e m e r ge d dur i ng t he f oc us gr oups I t a l s o m a y be a w e a kne s s t ha t m e n w e r e i nvo l ve d i n t he f oc us gr oups I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t i nc l udi ng m e n i n t he f oc us gr oups i n f r i nge d on t he pa r t i c i pa t i on o f t he w om e n. T he f e w m e n w ho di d pa r t i c i pa t e how e ve r a gr e e d w i t h t he w om e n pa r t i c i pa nt s w he n t he w om e n s t a t e d t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s a r e t he t ype of w om e n t ha t m e n w a nt a nd de s i r e C ondi t ( 1989) R a dw a y ( 1986 ) H a l l ( 1980 ) a nd F i s ke ( 1987) a l l s ugge s t t ha t a udi e nc e m e m be r s m a y i nt e r pr e t t he s a m e m e s s a ge i n di f f e r e nt w a ys T he or e t i c a l l y m e s s a ge s m a y be a c c e pt e d a nd i nt e r na l i z e d, a dj us t e d t o f i t w i t hi n i ndi vi dua l s w or l dvi e w s or r e s i s t e d a nd r e j e c t e d ( C ondi t 1989 ; F i s ke 1987; H a l l 1980) I n t hi s s t udy, how e ve r t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o i nt e r pr e t a s i m i l a r m e s s a ge f r om t he t r e a t m e nt vi de os a nd m us i c vi de os i n ge ne r a l : w om e n a r e us e d a s s e x obj e c t s i n or de r t o s e l l m us i c T he unc e r t a i nt y t he n oc c ur s a f t e r t he m e s s a ge i s c ons um e d: w ha t t he a udi e nc e m e m be r s do w i t h t ha t i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he m e s s a ge R e s ul t s of t he p r e s e nt s t udy s ugge s t t ha t w om e n a udi e nc e s s t r uggl e t o m a ke pe r s ona l s e ns e of m e di a t e d s t a nda r ds of i de a l f e m i ni n e be a ut y a s a n i m pos s i bl e s t a nda r d, by w hi c h w om e n s t i l l f e e l c om pe l l e d t o j udge t he m s e l ve s a nd c om e up l a c ki ng. B y R a dw a y s ( 1 986) not i on of i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s t he

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58 nons oc i a l m e e t i ng of w ha t i s por t r a ye d ( i de a l f e m i ni ne be a ut y) a nd w ha t i s r e a l ( r e a l w om e n s bodi e s ) e xpl a i ns w hy f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s f oc us e d on t he pr e s e nc e of a n i l l ogi c a l pr e m i s e but c oul d not a r t i c ul a t e i t w i t hout c ont r a di c t i ng t he m s e l ve s A c c or di ng t o f oc us g r oup pa r t i c i pa nt s t he t r e a t m e nt m us i c vi de os de m ons t r a t e d t ha t w om e n a r e s e xua l l y de s i r a bl e t o he t e r os e xua l m e n i f w om e n ha ve a n i de a l f e m a l e f or m w hi c h, a l s o a c c or di ng t o f oc us gr oup pa r t i c i pa nt s i s t he m e s s a ge t ha t t he vi de os m a l e pr oduc e r s i nt e nd f or w om e n t o r e c e i ve W om e n a s a udi e nc e m e m be r s w a t c h t he s e m e s s a ge s a nd und e r s t a nd t ha t t hi s i de a l f e m i ni ne f or m i s w ha t a l l m e n w a nt of r e a l w om e n. B e c a us e of t he i r de s i r e t o be de s i r e d/ de s i r a bl e w om e n a s vi e w e r s a l s o de s i r e t o be l i ke t he w om e n a r t i s t s por t r a ye d. T hi s m a y ha p pe n de s pi t e t he w om e n vi e w e r s unde r s t a ndi ng of a not he r c ul t ur a l m e s s a ge : w om e n s houl d not r e l y on s e x t o ge t w ha t t he y w a nt W ha t e ns ue s i s a s t r uggl e t o r e c onc i l e t he s e t w o c om pe t i ng c ul t ur a l i m pe r a t i ve s : I w ant t o l ook l i k e t hat s o t hat m e n l ook at / de s i r e / w ant m e s e x ual l y w hi c h I am s how n i s t he onl y w a y t hat a m an w ant s a w om an; I do not ne e d t o r e l y on any t hi ng ot he r t han m y l ook s and s e x ual i t y t o be s uc c e s s f ul ; al l m y e ne r gy s houl d be f oc us e d on how I l ook i n or de r t o hav e m al e at t e nt i on, w hi c h i s t he f e m al e g oal ac c or di ng t o t he m us i c v i de os T al e nt e duc at i on and ot he r t r ai t s do not m at t e r a s l ong as I am at t r ac t i v e and d i s pl ay t hat at t r ac t i v e ne s s F r om t he f oc us gr oups w e l e a r n t ha t t he de e pe r m e s s a ge w i t hi n t he s e m us i c vi de os i s i t i s be t t e r t o be a t a l e nt l e s s w hor e de s i r e d by he t e r os e xua l m e n t ha n t o be a s uc c e s s f ul r e a l w om a n no m a n de s i r e s T hi s m e s s a ge unde r m i ne s a nd c ont r a di c t s ha r d w on ga i ns of t he w om e n s m ove m e nt

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59 F ut ur e r e s e a r c h t r a c i ng w om e n s hi s t or y of vi e w i n g i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r body i m a ge s w oul d be he l pf ul i n e s t a bl i s hi ng i f t he r e i s a ny r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m e di a ha bi t s a nd body i m a ge / s e l f w or t h A ddi t i ona l l y, i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t he p r oduc e r s of m us i c vi de os m a y pr ovi de i ns i ght a bout e nc odi ng s uc h m e s s a ge s t o a dd t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on m us i c vi de o c ont e nt a nd a udi e nc e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons I n a ddi t i on t o f ur t he r s t udy t ha t a na l yz e s t he de c odi ng pr oc e s s e s of a udi e nc e m e m be r s i t a l s o i s i m por t a nt t o s t udy t he i nt e nt of p r oduc e r s a s t he e nc ode r s of t he s e m e di a t e d m e s s a ge s I f t he r e i s a n i de ol ogi c a l s e a m i n t he pr oduc t i on/ c ons u m pt i on o f t he s e vi de os t he n f u r t he r r e s e a r c h a l s o s houl d f oc us on m us i c vi de o p r oduc e r s : pr oduc e r s di r e c t o r s m us i c i a ns e di t or s a nd m us i c a nd t e l e vi s i on i ndus t r y e xe c ut i ve s T hi s r e s e a r c h de m ons t r a t e s t he i m por t a nc e o f t e a c hi ng c r i t i c a l m e di a l i t e r a c y, not onl y t o m a s s c om m uni c a t i ons s t ude nt s but t o e ve r yone a nd e s pe c i a l l y be f or e t he y ge t t o c ol l e ge Y oung a udi e nc e m e m be r s ne e d t o l e a r n h ow t o de c ode m e di a t e d m e s s a ge s c r i t i c a l l y f o r t he w a ys t ha t c om pe t i ng i nt e r e s t s a m ong va r i ous gr oups a nd a ge nda s e c onom i c pol i t i c a l s oc i a l r e l i gi ous a m ong ot he r s vi e f or i ndi vi dua l s a c c e pt a nc e e ve n i f s uc h m e s s a ge s a r e not a l w a ys l ogi c a l or i n t he be s t i nt e r e s t of t he c ons um e r

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60 R e f e r e nc e s A dor no, T ( 1991) H ow t o l ook a t t e l e vi s i on. I n J B e r ns t e i n ( E d. ) T he C ul t u r e I ndus t r y L ondon: R out l e dge A ng, I ( 1985) W a t c hi ng D a l l a s N e w Y or k: M e t h e un. B a nks J ( 1996) M onopol y t e l e vi s i on: M T V 's que s t t o c ont r ol t he m us i c B oul de r C O : W e s t vi e w P r e s s B a r ba t s i s G ( 2005 ) N a r r a t i ve t he o r y. I n K S m i t h S M or i a r t y G B a r ba t s i s & K K e nne y ( E ds ) H a ndbook o f vi s ua l c om m un i c a t i on: T he or y m e t hods a nd m e di a ( pp. 329 349) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s P ubl i s he r s B a xt e r B D e R i e m e r C L a ndi ni A L e s l i e L & S i ngl e t a r y M W ( 1985) A c ont e nt a na l ys i s of m us i c vi de os J our na l o f B r oa dc a s t i ng a nd E l e c t r oni c M e di a 29( 1) 333 340. B e r r y, V & S he l t on V ( 1999) W a t c hi ng m us i c : I nt e r pr e t a t i ons of vi s ua l m us i c pe r f or m a nc e J our na l of C om m uni c a t i on I nqui r y, 2 3( 2) 132 151 B r ow n, J D ( 2002 ) M a s s m e di a i nf l ue nc e s on s e xua l i t y. T he J our na l o f S e x R e s e a r c h, 39( 1) 42 48 B r ow n, J & S hul z e L ( 1990 ) T he e f f e c t s of r a c e ge nde r a nd f a ndom on a udi e nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of M a donna s m us i c vi de os J our na l of C om m uni c a t i on 40 ( 1) 88 1 02. B ur ns G ( 1995) M us i c T e l e vi s i on. T he M us e um of B r oa dc a s t C om m uni c a t i ons ht t p: / / w w w m us e um t v/ a r c hi ve s / e t v/ M / ht m l M / m us i c t e l e vi s / m us i c t e l e vi s ht m C a r e y, J ( 1989) S pa c e t i m e a nd c om m uni c a t i ons : a t r i but e t o H a r ol d I nni s i n C om m uni c a t i on a s C ul t ur e N e w Y o r k: R out l e dge C hr i s t e ns on, P & R obe r t s D ( 1990 ) O n popul a r m us i c i n e a r l y a dol e s c e nc e W a s hi ngt on, D C : C a r ne gi e C ounc i l M e di c i ne C ondi t C M ( 1989 ) T he r he t or i c a l l i m i t s o f pol y s e m y. C r i t i c a l S t udi e s i n M a s s C om m uni c a t i on, 6( 2 ) 1 03 122. D a vi s on, W P ( 1983 ) T he t hi r d pe r s on e f f e c t i n c om m uni c a t i on. T he P ubl i c O pi ni on Q uar t e r l y 47 161 173

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61 F i s ke J ( 1992) C ul t ur a l s t udi e s a nd t he c ul t ur e of e ve r yda y l i f e I n L G r os s be r g, C N e l s on, P A T r e i c hl e r ( E ds ) C ul t ur a l S t udi e s ( p p. 154 173 ) N e w Y or k: R out l e dge F i s ke J ( 1987) T e l e vi s i on C ul t ur e N e w Y or k: M e t hue n. F os s S ( 2005) T he or y o f vi s ua l r he t or i c I n K S m i t h, S M or i a r t y, G B a r ba t s i s & K K e nne y ( E ds ) H a ndbook o f vi s ua l c om m un i c a t i on: T he or y m e t hods a nd m e di a ( pp. 141 151) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um F r i t h, S ( 1988 ) M us i c f or p l e a s ur e : E s s a ys i n t he s oc i ol ogy of pop. N e w Y or k: R out l e dge F r i t h, S & G oodw i n A ( 1990 ) O n r e c or d: R oc k, pop, a nd t he w r i t t e n w or d N e w Y or k: P a nt he on B ooks G ol om bi s ky, K ( 1999) L a di e s hom e e r ot i c a : R e a di ng t he s e a m s be t w e e n hom e m a ki ng a nd H ous e B e a ut i f ul J our na l o f M a ga z i ne a nd N e w M e di a R e s e a r c h, 1( 1) 1 18 G oodw i n, A ( 1992 ) D a nc i ng i n t he di s t r a c t i on f a c t or y. M i nne a pol i s : T he U ni ve r s i t y o f M i nne s ot a P r e s s H a l l S ( 198 0) : E nc odi ng/ de c odi ng'. I n C e nt r e f or C ont e m por a r y C ul t ur a l S t udi e s ( E d. ) : C ul t ur e M e di a L a ngua ge L ondon: H ut c hi ns on J ha l l y, S ( 1990 ) D r e a m w or l ds : G e nde r / S e x/ P ow e r i n R oc k V i de o [ M ot i on pi c t ur e ] ( A va i l a bl e f r om M e di a E duc a t i on F ounda t i on, 60 M a s oni c S t r e e t N or t ha m pt on, M A 01060 ) J ha l l y, S ( 1995 ) D r e a m w or l ds I I : G e nde r / s e x/ po w e r i n m us i c vi de o [ M ot i on pi c t ur e ] ( A va i l a bl e f r om M e di a E duc a t i on F ounda t i on, 60 M a s oni c S t r e e t N or t ha m pt on, M A 01060 ) J ha l l y, S ( D i r e c t or / P r oduc e r ) ( 1997 ) S t ua r t H a l l : R e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd t he m e di a [ M ot i on pi c t ur e ] ( A va i l a bl e f r o m M e di a E duc a t i o n F ounda t i on, 60 M a s oni c S t r e e t N or t ha m pt on, M A 01060 ) J ha l l y, S ( D i r e c t or / P r oduc e r ) ( 2000) J e a n K i l bou r ne : K i l l i ng us s of t l y 3: A dve r t i s i ng's i m a ge of w om e n [ M ot i on pi c t u r e ] ( A va i l a bl e f r o m M e di a E duc a t i on F ounda t i on 60 M a s oni c S t r e e t N or t ha m pt on, M A 01060) K a l of L ( 1999) T he e f f e c t s of ge nde r a nd m us i c vi de o on s e xua l a t t i t ude s J our na l of S oc i a l P s yc hol ogy, 39 ( 3) 378 386 K uhn, A ( 1993 ) T he pow e r of t he i m a ge I n S J a c ks on ( E d. ) W om e n's s t udi e s : E s s e nt i a l r e a di ngs ( pp. 484 486) N e w Y o r k: N e w Y or k U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s

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62 L e w i s L ( 1990) G e nde r a nd pol i t i c s a nd M T V : V oi c i ng t he di f f e r e nc e P hi l a de l phi a P A : T e m pl e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s L unt P & L i v i ngs t one S ( 1996) R e t hi nki ng t he f oc us gr oup i n m e di a c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h. J our na l of C om m uni c a t i on, ( 46) 2 79 98. M c K e e K & P a r dun C ( 1999 ) R e a di ng t he vi de o: A qua l i t a t i ve s t udy of r e l i gi ous i m a ge s i n m us i c vi de os J our na l o f B r oa dc a s t i ng & E l e c t r oni c M e di a 1( 43 ) 110 120. M ul ve y, L ( 1975 ) V i s ua l pl e a s ur e a nd na r r a t i ve c i ne m a S c r e e n 16 ( 3) 6 18 M ul ve y, L ( 1989 ) V i s ua l a nd ot he r pl e a s ur e s B l o om i ngt on, I N : I ndi a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s M undy, J ( 1999 ) P opul a r m us i c on s c r e e n: F r om H ol l yw ood m us i c a l t o m us i c vi de o N e w Y or k: S t M a r t i n's P r e s s O 'D onne l l V ( 2005) C ul t u r a l s t udi e s t he or y I n K S m i t h, S M or i a r t y G B a r ba t s i s & K K e nne y ( E ds ) H a ndbook o f vi s ua l c om m uni c a t i on: T he or y m e t hods a nd m e di a ( pp. 521 537) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um R a dw a y, J ( 1984) R e a di ng t he r om a nc e C ha pe l H i l l N C : U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h C a r ol i na P r e s s R a dw a y, J ( 1986) I de nt i f yi ng i de ol ogi c a l s e a m s : M a s s c ul t ur e a na l yt i c a l m e t hod a nd pol i t i c a l pr a c t i c e C om m uni c a t i on, 9 93 12 3. S e i dm a n, S A ( 1992) A n i nve s t i ga t i on of s e x r o l e s t e r e ot ypi ng i n m us i c v i de os J our na l of B r oa dc a s t i ng & E l e c t r oni c M e di a 36( 2) 209 2 16 S he r m a n, B & D om i ni c k J ( 1986) V i o l e nc e a nd s e x i n m us i c vi de os : T V a nd r oc k n r ol l J our na l of C om m u ni c a t i on, 36( 1) 79 93 W i m m e r R & D om i ni c k J ( 2003) M a s s m e di a r e s e a r c h: A n i nt r oduc t i on. B e l m ont C A : W a ds w or t h.

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63 A ppe ndi x A : F oc us G r oup C om m uni c a t i on F a c i l i t a t or s __________________________________________________________________ ________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

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64 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

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66 A ppe ndi x B : M us i c V i de o L yr i c s A r t i s t : J e nni f e r L ope z S ong: G e t R i ght ( Y e a h) [ V e r s e 1] : Y ou' r e l ooki n' j us t a l i t t l e t oo ha r d a t m e S t a ndi n' j us t a l i t t l e t oo c l os e t o m e Y ou'r e s a yi n' not qui t e e nough t o m e Y ou'r e s i ppi n' j us t a l i t t l e t oo s l ow f o r m e N o doubt you pl a y i t r e a l c ool hom i e G ot m e t hi nki n' w ha t i s i t you do f o r m e T r i ppi n' ( t r i pp i n ') a l i t t l e m o r e t ha n I s houl d be S o l e t you r s e l f go a nd ge t r i ght w i t h m e [ H ook] : I 'm a bout t o s i gn you up ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght w e c a n ge t r i ght ( w e c a n ge t r i gh t ) I 'm a bout t o f i l l you r c up ( s o w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght t oni ght ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) [ B s e c ] : H e r e I c om e H e r e I c om e H e r e I c om e H e r e I . c om e [ V e r s e 2] : Y our l i ps t a l ki n' 'bout I pl a y t oo m uc h C a n't a w om a n t a ke a dva nt a ge of w ha t s he w a nt s ? M y hi ps m ovi n' oh s o s l ow ( s o s l ow ) B a r t a b l ooki n' l i ke a c a r not e ( c a r not e ) A l l I ne e d i s you he r e r i ght by m y s i de T a ke w ha t e ve r you w a nt ba by l e t 's r i de A nd w ha t e ve r w on't do l e t m e de c i de J us t put your na m e on t he dot t e d l i ne

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67 [ H ook] : I 'm a bout t o s i gn you up ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght w e c a n ge t r i ght ( w e c a n ge t r i gh t ) I 'm a bout t o f i l l you r c up ( s o w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght t oni ght ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) [ B r i dge ] : S o m uc h w e 've got t o s a y but s o l i t t l e t i m e A nd i f t on i ght a i n't l ong e nough don't l e a ve l ove b e hi nd ( D on't l e a ve t hi s l ove be hi nd) B a by t a ke m y ha nd, I 'l l s how you w hy [ H ook] : I 'm a bout t o s i gn you up ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght w e c a n ge t r i ght ( w e c a n ge t r i gh t ) I 'm a bou t t o f i l l you r c up ( s o w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght t oni ght ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) [ B r e a k] : ( Y e a h) [ H ook] : I 'm a bout t o s i gn you up ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght w e c a n ge t r i ght ( w e c a n ge t r i gh t ) I m a bout t o f i l l you r c up ( s o w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght t oni ght ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) I 'm a bout t o s i gn you up ( w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght w e c a n ge t r i ght ( w e c a n ge t r i gh t ) I 'm a bout t o f i l l yo u r c up ( s o w e c a n ge t r i ght ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s up W e c a n ge t r i ght t oni ght ( w e c a n ge t r i ght )

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68 A r t i s t : L i nds a y L oha n S ong: O ve r I w a t c he d t he w a l l s a r ound m e c r u m bl e B ut i t s not l i ke I w on't bui l d t he m up a ga i n S o he r e 's your l a s t c ha nc e f or r e de m pt i on S o t a ke i t w hi l e i t l a s t s be c a us e i t w i l l e nd A nd m y t e a r s a r e t ur ni ng i nt o t i m e I 've w a s t e d t r yi ng t o f i nd a r e a s on f or goodbye [ C hor us : ] I c a nt l i ve w i t hout you C a n't br e a t he w i t hout you I dr e a m a bout you hone s t l y T e l l m e t ha t i t s ove r B e c a us e t he w or l d i s s pi nni ng a nd I 'm s t i l l l i vi ng I t w ont be r i ght i f w e r e not i n i t t oge t he r T e l l m e t ha t i t 's ove r A nd I 'l l be t he f i r s t t o go D on't w a nt t o be t he l a s t t o know I w on't be t he one t o c ha s e you B ut a t t he s a m e t i m e you'r e t he he a r t t ha t I c a l l ho m e I 'm a l w a ys s t uc k w i t h t he s e e m ot i ons A nd t he m or e I t r y t o f e e l t he l e s s I 'm w ho l e M y t e a r s a r e t ur ni ng i nt o t i m e I 've w a s t e d t r yi ng t o f i nd a r e a s on f or goodbye [ C hor us ] M y t e a r s a r e t ur ni ng i nt o t i m e I 've w a s t e d t r yi ng t o f i nd a r e a s on f or goodby e [ C hor us ] T e l l m e t ha t i t 's ove r O ve r H one s t l y t e l l m e H one s t l y t e l l m e D on't t e l l m e t ha t i t s ove r D on't t e l l m e t ha t i t s ove r . [ w w w a z l yr i c s c om ]

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69 A r t i s t : D e s t i ny s C hi l d ( f / T I L i l W a yne ) S ong: S ol di e r [ F i r s t R a p: T I ( D C ) ] H e y ( I w a nt a S ol di e r ) T he w a y you got i t I 'm t he hot t e s t a r ound T he y'l l know i t w he n t he y s e e you r ol l i n' i m pa l a 's a r ound ( I got a S ol d i e r ) W i t t he t op dow n f e e l i ng t he s ounds Q ua ki n' a nd vi br a t i n' your t hi ghs r i di n' ha r de r t ha n guys W i t t he c hr om e w he e l s a t t he bot t om w hi t e l e a t he r i ns i de W he n t he m f l a m e s be s pi t t i n' a t you t e l l 'e m don't e ve n t r y i t T o s hot i t w i t C he l l e a nd ki c k i t w i t K e l l y or hol l a a t B Y a got t a be g's you w a y out t a your l e a gue P l e a s e [ F i r s t V e r s e : K e l l y ( D C ) ] W e l i ke de m boys t ha t be i n t he m l a c 's l e a ni n' ( L e a ni n') O pe n t he i r m out h t he i r gr i l l gl e a m i n' ( G l e a m i n') C a ndy pa i nt ke e p t ha t w hi p c l e a n a nd ( C l e a n a nd) ( T he y a l w a ys be t a l ki n t ha t c ount r y s l a ng, w e l i ke ) T he y ke e p t ha t be a t t ha t be i n t he ba c k be a t i n' ( B e a t i n') E ye s be s o l ow f r om t ha t c hi e f ( c hi e f a nd) I l ove how he ke e p m y body s c r e a m i n' ( S c r e a m i n') A r ude boy t ha t 's good t o m e w i t s t r e e t c r e di bi l i t y [ H ook: D C ] I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l oo ki n' a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e K now n t o c a r r y bi g t h i ngs I f you know w ha t I m e a n I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki ng a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e G ot t a know t o ge t dough A nd he be t t a be s t r e e t [ S e c ond V e r s e : B e yonc e ( D C ) ]

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70 W e l i ke de m boys up t op f r om t he B K ( B K ) K now how t o f l i p t ha t m one y t h r e e w a ys ( T hr e e w a ys ) A l w a ys r i di n' bi g on t he f r e e w a y ( F r e e w a y) ( W i t t ha t e a s t c oa s t s l a ng t ha t us c ount r y gi r l s be l i ke ) L ow c ut c a e s a r s w i t t he de e p w a ve s ( de e p w a ve s ) S o qui c k t o s na t c h up your B e yonc e ( B e yonc e ) A l w a ys c om i n dow n poppi n ou r w a y ( O ur w a y) ( T e l l i n us t ha t c ount r y gi r l s t he ki nda gi r l t he y l i ke ) [ H ook: D C ] I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c h e c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki n' a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e K now n t o c a r r y bi g t h i ngs I f you know w ha t I m e a n I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki ng a t m e I ne e d a s ol d i e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e G ot t a know t o ge t dough A nd he be t t a be s t r e e t [ B r i dge : B e yonc e ( D C ) : ] I know s om e s ol di e r s i n he r e ( W he r e t he y a t w he r e t he y a t ) T he y w a nna t a ke c a r e o f m e ( W he r e t he y a t ) I know s om e s ol di e r s i n he r e ( W he r e t he y a t w he r e t he y a t ) W oul dn't m i nd t a ki n one f o r m e ( W he r e t he y a t ) I know s om e s ol di e r s i n he r e ( W he r e t he y a t w he r e t he y a t ) T he y w a nna s pe nd t ha t on m e ( W he r e t he y a t ) I know s om e s ol di e r s i n he r e ( W he r e t he y a t w he r e t he y a t ) W oul dn't m i nd put t i n t ha t on m e ( W he r e t he y a t ) [ S e c ond V e r s e : T I ] N e xt t o t he s pe a ke r s ke e p a t oy i n t he t r unk of t he l a c A r e f or m e d D boy us e t o r un i nt o t r a ps S t i l l a s ol di e r do t o w a r i f you r unn i ng your t r a p A bout m y gi r l s a i n't no t hi ng t o put you unde r t he m a p W a l k t he s t r e e t s f i ve de e p w i t h not hi ng l e s s t ha n a s t a c k A nd 80 c a r a t s on m y c he s t pr ovi de s a s pe c i a l a t t r a c t i on 50 G 's i n m y j e a ns pl us t he dough f r om t he w a l l e r I t 's t he r e a s on I 'm t he ki ng gi r l I know w ha t you l i ke

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71 [ H ook: D C ] I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki n' a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e K now n t o c a r r y bi g t h i ngs I f you know w ha t I m e a n I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki ng a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e G ot t a know t o ge t dough A nd he be t t a be s t r e e t [ T hi r d V e r s e : M i c he l l e ( D C ) ] I l i ke de m boys ove r t he r e t he y l ooki n' s t r ong t oni ght ( S t r ong t oni ght ) J us t m i ght gi ve one t he phone t oni ght ( P hone t oni g ht ) H om e y i n t he di c ki e s i n m y z one t oni ght ( Z one t on i ght ) H e don't know i t m i ght be on t oni ght ( O n t oni gh t ) O oh he l ooki n' good a nd he t a l ki n' r i ght ( T a l ki n' r i ght ) H e t he t ype t ha t m i ght c ha nge m y l i f e ( C ha nge m y l i f e ) E ve r yt i m e he l ook a t m e m y gi r l s be l i ke ( G i r l s be l i ke ) ( T ha t one m a y be t he one t oni ght ) [ H ook: D C ] I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki n' a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e K now n t o c a r r y bi g t h i ngs I f you know w ha t I m e a n I f you r s t a t us a i n't hood I a i n't c he c ki n' f or hi m B e t t a be s t r e e t i f he l ooki ng a t m e I ne e d a s ol di e r T ha t a i n't s c a r e d t o s t a nd up f or m e G ot t a know t o ge t dough A nd he be t t a be s t r e e t [ S e c ond R a p: L i l W a yne ] H e y, s e e c a s h m one y i s a a r m y I 'm w a l ki n' w i t pur pl e he a r t s on m e

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72 Y ou t a l ki n' t o t he s a r ge a nt B ody m a r ke d up l i ke t he s ubw a y i n ha r l e m C a l l hi m w e e z y f ba by, pl e a s e s a y t he ba by I f you don't s e e m e on t he bl oc k I a i n't t r yna hi de I bl e nd i n w i t t he hood, i 'm c a m ouf l a ge B a nda na t i e d, s o m om m y j oi n m y t r oop N ow e ve r y t i m e s he he a r m y na m e s he s a l ut e [ B r i dge : B e yonc e ( D C ) : ] I know s om e s ol di e r s i n he r e ( W he r e t he y a t w he r e t he y a t ) T he y w a nna t a ke c a r e o f m e ( W he r e t he y a t ) I know s om e s ol di e r s i n he r e ( W he r e t he y a t w he r e t he y a t ) W oul dn't m i nd put t i n t ha t on m e ( W he r e t he y a t )

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73 A ppe ndi x C : T r a ns c r i pt s F O C U S G R O U P #1 W oul d any one l i k e t o v ol unt e e r t o t e l l m e w hat t he y w r ot e ? I t hi nk t ha t t he y w oul d t hi nk or di s c us s t ha t t he w o m e n w e r e not r e a l i s t i c how r e a l i s t i c i s t ha t h ow c a n t he w om e n l ook l i ke t ha t but a t t he s a m e t i m e t he y w i s h t ha t t he y w oul d l i ke t o l o ok l i ke t he w om e n i n t he vi de os M i ne s a i d t ha t t he y ha ve n't w a t c he d M T V s i nc e t h e y w e r e i n hi gh s c hool not hi ng s e e m s t o be d i f f e r e nt e xc e pt l e s s vi de os but t he y s e e m t o be t he s a m e w om e n da nc i ng a r ound s c a nt i l y c l a d. A nd t he n t he ot he r one ha d s a i d s he ha d not i c e d t ha t a s w e l l a n d t hought i t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t ha t t he v i de os w e r e a l l by w om e n s i ng e r s S he w oul d ha ve e xpe c t e d m e n s i nge r s t o por t r a y t he w om e n a s s e x obj e c t s but i t w a s f r i ght e ni ng t ha t w om e n po r t r a y t he m s e l ve s t ha t w a y. T he w om e n di d t he s a m e t hi ngs t he m s e l ve s M y t w o w e r e a r gui ng ove r ou t c om e s one w a s a dv oc a t i ng e nt e r t a i ne r s poi nt i ng out he r f a c e s pr e t t y a nd m a ke up i s c or r e c t a nd s he l ooks l i ke ho oke r s t he y a r e a r gui ng a bout t ha t O ne i s t hi nki ng, t he y a r e ve r y pr e t t y a nd I w a nt t o be l i ke t he m one i s a ga i ns t i t I t 's c a l l e d c a t t y I w e nt i n t he s a m e di r e c t i on but t he y w e r e t a l ki ng a bout s hoe s a nd pur s e s C l ot he s m a ke up a nd da nc i ng H ow t he y di dn' t r e a l l y ge t t he f i r s t one T he ot he r i s l i ke a l w a ys got t he ou t f i t s da ng t he y' r e s ki nny L i ke a t hom e you s houl d s t i l l w e a r s e xy c l ot he s a nd m a ke up be c a us e dr e s s i ng dow n i s ki nd of l i ke l e t t i ng you r s e l f go S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8

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74 W e r e y ou al l f am i l i ar w i t h M T V be f or e t hi s v i de o o r t hos e gr oups be f or e ? T he gr oup s how s t hat t he y w e r e not f am i l i ar ? Si m i l ar or di f f e r e nt ? I t hi nk t he y a r e s i m i l a r i n t he e l e m e nt o f s e x, r e a l l y r e l yi ng on s e x. I r e m e m be r t he vi de os be i ng m or e c r e a t i ve i n s t or y l i ne F e m a l e s e xua l i t y, a nd ol de r vi de os h a s t ha t a l s o, bu t i t di d not s ol e l y r e l y on i t W e ha ve t o r e m e m be r t he y a r e not ve r y t a l e nt e d A s l ong a s t he y ha ve t he b l i ng bl i ng a r ound t he m I ha ve n't w a t c he d M T V i n ye a r s w he n I di d, i t w a s m or e di ve r s e m us i c a nd now I f e e l l i ke i t i s a l l t he one t yp e of m us i c I t w a s n't a l l hi p hop. M i ne w e r e c onve r s i ng i n t he vi de o, oh t he y w e r e t a l ki ng a bout t he i r m e n a nd w ha t bum s a nd t he y w a nt t he m t o t a ke c a r e of t he m O bj e c t i f yi ng w om e n, but t he y w e r e obj e c t i f yi ng m e n, r i ppe d a r m s I di d no t i c e t ha t t he y ha d m a n a r m s ba c kgr ound a s a r m c a ndy T he guy i n t he f i r s t vi de o w a s s o c ut e or m a ybe I h a ve t o l ook l i ke t ha t t o ge t a guy l i ke t ha t Se c ond m e n t al k i ng t o e ac h ot he r w hat w e r e t he y s ay i ng? T he y w e r e t a l ki ng a bout how a l l t he gi r l s di d not s t a r t l ooki ng l i ke J L o unt i l t he f i f t h s i xt h dr i nk I s L i nds a y 18 ye t a r e he r boobs r e a l ? A l l t he gi r l s i n t he vi de os w e r e hot I w i s h m y ne xt door ne i ghbo r l ooke d l i ke L i nds a y W i s he d t he y l ook l i ke L i nds a y W onde r how t he guy i n t he t r a i l e r pa r k got t he hot c hi c k I t hought i t s e e m e d l i ke i f t he guys w e r e hi t t i ng on ot he r gi r l s or t he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t t he guy de c e i ve d t he gi r l f r i e nd, t h a t w oul d a l l be f or gi ve n a s l ong a s he s e duc e s he r c or r e c t l y, s a t i s f i e s he r i n be d, a nd s how e r s he r w i t h gi f t s e s pe c i a l l y j e w e l r y D i d t he m e n hav e any t hi ng i nt e r e s t i ng t o s ay about t he v i de os ? S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 9 S t ude n t 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 9

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75 T he y w a nt t o be l oc ke d i n t he r oom w i t h D e s t i ny's C hi l d T hr e e s om e s F a nt a s i z i ng a bout t he w om e n G ood t hi ng t he y a r e a l l c ut e or e l s e t he y w oul d be on t he s t r e e t be ggi ng s om e w he r e T he y a l l l ooke d t he s a m e A l ot of t r a s hy hot l oo ki ng c hi c ks W om e n s houl d dr e s s i n s ki m py c l ot he s t o a l l ur e m e n, be s t i f w om e n a r e t ur ne d on by ot he r w om e n, e s pe c i a l l y i f s he w o ul d do s e xua l t hi ngs w i t h t he ot he r w om e n f o r hi s e nt e r t a i nm e nt T he n he hope d i t w oul d e nd i n a t h r e e s om e I w oul dn't pu t i t i n t hos e t e r m s a s a guy W e r e s e x ual t hi ngs w e r e t he m ai n t opi c ? I us e d t he t e r m pe dophi l e I t w a s ve r y s e xua l S he i s 18 M i ne s a i d t ha t you c oul d pu t t he s ound ba c k on, a f t e r t he t hi r d one w a s ove r O ne of t he guys w a s t a l ki ng, w a i t i ng f o r t he boobs t o be s e e n. H e r s hi r t w a s ve r y c l os e t o be i ng ope n but i t ne ve r c om e s o f f j us t a t e a s e di s a ppoi nt m e nt M y t w o guys L i nds a y i s hot not a good s i nge r no t a good a c t r e s s but s he ha s a ni c e r a c k T he m e n di dn't t a l k a bout t he m us i c a t a l l A l l t he gi r l s w e r e hot a nd t he y s hook t he i r a s s e s T hi r d s i t uat i on, w he r e a m al e and a f e m al e ar e di s c us s i ng, w hat ar e t he y s ay i ng? M a de t he w om a n j e a l ous t a l ke d ne ga t i ve l y a bout t he w om e n be c a us e s he w a s j e a l ous W hat w as s he j e al ous of ? S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 4

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76 S he di dn't l ook l i ke t he m T he y w e r e s o s ki nny a n d pr e t t y T r yi ng t o r e a s s ur e he r t hos e a r e n't r e a l gi r l s t he y a r e j us t t r yi ng t o s e l l r e c or ds t ha t i s w ha t pe opl e w a nt t o s e e D i d you s e e how hot t hos e c hi c ks i n t he vi de o w e r e ? P l e a s e W ha t di d you t hi nk a bout t he m us i c ? T he r e w a s m us i c ? I w a s j us t w a t c hi ng t he m s ha ke t he i r a s s e s i n m i ni m a l c l ot hi ng. D on't you t h i nk i t i s w e i r d t ha t w om e n s i nge r s por t r a y t he m s e l ve s a s s e x obj e c t s ? D o you t hi nk i t i s t he m a l e s e x's f a ul t ? W ho c a r e s t he y a r e hot M y guy w a nt e d t he gi r l t o buy t hos e out f i t s w a l k a r ound t he hous e l i ke t ha t N o I a m not a s l ut T he y a r e s o s ki nny be c a us e t he y don't e a t t he y s m oke a l ot a nd do a l ot of c oc a i ne t ha t ki nd o f t hi ng. A c c us e d t he m a l e a bout a l w a ys t hi nki ng a bout s e x, I l i ke t he m us i c t oo i t j us t he l ps t ha t t he y a r e ho t M y guy m a ke s a s e xi s t r e m a r k, a bout t he onl y r e a s on t he y a r e f a m ous i s be c a us e t he y ba nge d t he pr oduc e r a nd t he n t he y ge t i n a n a r gum e nt a bout s e xi s t r e m a r ks . . t r ai l s of f M i ne ha d a c onve r s a t i on, w e l l I don't know m a ybe w e c oul d ha ve a dr i nk f i r s t D o y ou t hi nk a m an or w om an pr oduc e d t he i r v i de os ? I t i s a m a n, m a n, m a n, a l w a ys t he m a n S i m i l a r t o e a c h ot he r ? T he y a l l s e e m s pr e t t y s i m i l a r da nc e o r i e nt e d no s t or yl i ne J L o a nd B e yonc e s e e m t he s a m e H i gh s c hool pa r t i e s a nd s t e a l i ng t he c a r W ha t w a s s he c r yi ng a bout ? I a l s o t hought t ha t w hi l e a l l t h r e e vi de os a r e j us t l a t e nt w i t h s e xua l l y gr a phi c m a t e r i a l t he y D e s t i ny a nd J l o s how e d t he f e m a l e s i n a m or e S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 1 9 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 9

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77 a ut hor i t a t i ve r ol e e ve r yone w a s huddl e d a r ound, r ol e m ode l s Y e a h, s he c a l l e d hi m a pe nda ho L i nds a y w a s c r yi ng T he w om e n a r e s o a ut hor i t a t i ve t he y w e r e a l l bi g a nd ba d, w i t h t he i r dogs but t he n t he y a r e r unni ng a r ound i n da i s y du ke s I di dn't l i ke t he ne r dy gi r l i n t he J L o vi de o? T he ne r dy w hi t e gi r l ? I di dn't l i ke t ha t t ha t i s be c a us e you a r e a w hi t e gi r l ? S e ve r a l c a r s ha d m e s s a ge s on t he l i c e ns e pl a t e s di s c us s i on of t he m e a ni ng of t he l i c e ns e pl a t e s W ha t di d t ha t s t a nd f or ? N ow i f y ou had t o pr oduc e a m us i c v i de o w hat do y ou t hi nk y ou w oul d ne e d? B i g boobs a nd s hor t s ki r t s ? S t or yl i ne good s ong B i g boobs s hor t s ki r t s A nd t he n s om e boobs a nd s hor t s ki r t s I m i s s a l l t he a l t e r na t i ve vi de os be c a us e t he y don't ha ve na ke d w om e n r unni ng a r ound I a m s o not t he t a r ge t a udi e nc e A r e t he y t r y i ng t o t a r ge t young m a l e s ? T ha t i s w ha t I w oul d t hi nk W om e n vs m e n w ho buy t he s e C D s I w oul d ha ve t o ve nt ur e t ha t m o r e w om e n buy T a r ge t i s 15 ye a r ol d gi r l s T he m e n w oul d l i ke t he vi de os a nd w om e n w oul d buy i t I l i ke t he vi de os w i t h a s t or y, w he r e t he ot he r t w o w e r e j us t pe opl e da nc i ng a r ound na ke d B a by got ba c k w a s e nt e r t a i ni ng, c ol or f ul C an y ou t al k a l i t t l e abou t i f t he v i de os t e l l a s t or y about f e m al e s e x ual i t y w hat w oul d t he s e v i de os be s ay i ng? S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 3

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78 A m a n t o t a ke c a r e of t he m S e xua l i t y I f you' r e a hooc hi e s ka nk, you t oo c a n ge t l ot s of b l i ng. T h e s e c ond one w a s s o s t e r e ot ypi c a l t o m e j us t f l a unt i ng t he i r bodi e s a r ound. F oot l oos e a nd f a nc y f r e e G ood a c c ur a t e de s c r i pt i on a bout w ha t i s goi ng on i n hi gh s c hool t ha t i s w ha t t he y do, go out t o f ool a r ound i n a t r a i l e r a c c ur a t e por t r a ya l O ut of c ont r ol no r a t i ona l do w ha t I f e e l S t r ong s e xua l w om e n, t he y de c i de d. I t hi nk t ha t i s a be t t e r r ol e m ode l be c a us e t he y de c i de T he y ha ve a c hi e ve d t ha t pow e r be c a us e of t he i r s e xua l i t y I w a nt a s ol di e r S t r ong bl a c k w om e n i n ne e d of a ppr ova l pr ot e c t i on. L oo k don't t ouc h t ype a t t i t ude D e s t i ny's pow e r t he y ne e d a s ol di e r a nd t he y a r e us i ng t he i r s e x t o ge t i t I t hi nk i t i s s e ndi ng a m e s s a ge t ha t you ha ve t o dr e s s pr ovoc a t i ve l y a c t a nd dr e s s a c e r t a i n w a y. I n o r de r t o ha ve pow e r yo u ne e d t o d r e s s a nd a c t a c e r t a i n w a y. W hat doe s t hi s s ay t o t he audi e nc e ? H ow you l ook i s t he m os t i m por t a nt t hi ng. T a ke your c l ot he s o f f S e e how m uc h m e n de s i r e t hos e w om e n i n t he vi d e os A ny s y m bol s ? B ody pa r t s a l o t of S t om a c hs A s s e s t he y a l l s hook t he i r a s s e s t he s a m e e xa c t w a y. T he y m us t ha ve ha d t he s a m e c hor e ogr a phe r S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 10 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 6

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79 F O C U S G R O U P #2 A f t e r w at c hi ng t hos e v i de os w hat do y ou t hi nk t w o f e m al e s w oul d t al k about ? P e r f or m a nc e s I gue s s L i ke t he pe r f or m a nc e i n t he vi de o I n w hat s e ns e ? L i ke how t he y da nc e a nd w ha t t he y w e a r w ha t t he i r a c t i ons a r e D i d t he c har ac t e r s s ay a ny t hi ng about t hos e ? W e l l ye a h, e s pe c i a l l y i n t he L i nds a y L oha n v i de o i n t he f i r s t one s he bi g c he s t I t hi nk s he i s onl y 18 r i s qu W hat about al l t he ot he r s di d t he f e m al e s s ay any t hi ng e l s e ? L i ke J e nni f e r L ope z a nd s t uf f s he i s a l l a bout da nc e a nd s t uf f s he l ooks s ki nni e r a nd s he s ounde d l i ke G w e n S t e f a ni a l i t t l e bi t A ny one e l s e ? I ha ve s om e s i m i l a r s t uf f t he c onve r s a t i on I ha d i s t he t r a ns f or m a t i on w ow s he r e a l l y c ha nge d a l ot H ow has s he t r ans f or m e d? S he t ur ne d i n t o a hoe ba g, A s m y w i f e w oul d s a y, e ve r yone i s t ur ni ng i nt o a B r i t ne y. E ve r yone i s c opyi ng t he hoe ba g l ook be c a us e s e x s e l l s So e v e r y one i s c opy i ng t he hoe bag l ook ? S ki m py c l ot he s da nc i ng pr ovoc a t i ve l y D o y our c har ac t e r s di s c us s t hat t he ac c e pt e d or e x pe c t e d? M or e s o a c c e pt e d t ha n e xpe c t e d, but w i t h a c c e pt e d c om e s e xpe c t e d. s e x i n t he vi de os i s not hi ng ne w I t hi nk w ha t I w a s t r yi ng t o s a y w he n I w r o t e t hi s w a s e ve n t hough i t i s not hi ng ne w w i t h s e x s e l l i ng, m a ybe now i t ha s a y ounge r c r ow d w a t c hi ng S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 7

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80 t hi s T he s e x s e l l s t hi ng i s w ha t I w a s ge t t i ng a t a nyone w ho ha s s e l f r e s pe c t f o r t he m s e l ve s a ny m a t ur e a dul t not i c e s i t o r ha s not i c e d i t bu t t h e y a r e num b t o i t I f not t he r e i s a hi nt of s e xua l i nnue ndo i t i s j us t bl a t a nt l y t he r e on t he s c r e e n t he r e i s not doubt a bout i t l i ke t he L i nds a y L oha n vi de o t he y w e r e doi ng i t i n t he t r a i l e r w he r e be f or e i t w a s l e s s obvi ous w ha t t he y w e r e doi ng a nd now i t i s obvi ous T he y us e d t o j us t h i nt a t i t but now i t i s obvi ous I t i s a younge r a udi e nc e w a t c hi ng t he s e vi de os a nd i t ge t s younge r a nd younge r a nd I w onde r w ha t t he y a r e s e e i ng. L i ke w hoa w ha t a r e t he y t h i nki ng. T he g i r l c om e s i n t he c or ne r a nd s a ys ye a h, m y f r i e nd i s l e ga l now W e know w ha t 's goi ng on I don't know i t i s a you nge r a udi e nc e t he ge t younge r a nd younge r I j us t t r i e d t o put m ys e l f i n t hos e pe opl e 's s hoe s t h e pe opl e w ho w oul d w a t c h t hi s s how I r e m e m be r w he n I w a s i n hi gh s c hool t hi nki ng I w i s h I c oul d w e a r a n out f i t a nd l ook l i ke t ha t T ha t 's t he s a m e t hi ng I w a s s a yi ng. T he pe opl e w a t c hi ng t ha t a r e t oo young t o ha ve r e a l s e l f r e s pe c t T he pe opl e a r e l ooki ng a t t hos e bodi e s a nd s a yi ng, I w i s h I c oul d be t ha t I w i s h t ha t I c oul d ha ve t ha t B ody i m a ge i s t he t hi ng i f you not i c e w i t h t he w ho l e s e x s e l l i ng, t he y a r e n't w e a r i ng m a ny c l ot he s a nd bodi e s a r e t he f oc a l poi nt w i t hout m uc h c l ot he s on. S t om a c h, c he s t e ve r yt h i ng, oh w ow s he ha s s uc h a gr e a t body. S he i s l ooki ng r e a l l y good I w a nt m i ne t o l ook l i ke t ha t I t hi nk L i nds a y w a s a l i t t l e bi t s e l f r e s pe c t i ng t o s om e de gr e e but c om e on, t e e ny bi t t y boy s hor t s W e a r a br a I don't t h i nk s he w a s w e a r i ng a br a O ne t hi ng I not i c e d i t doe s n't r e a l l y ha ve t o do w i t h s e x, but uh i t i s no t a good m e s s a ge but i n t he de s t i ny c hi l d's v i de o t he l yr i c s w e r e l i ke i ne e d a S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 6

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81 s ol di e r I 'm not s t r ong e nough. I ne e d a s ol di e r I ne e d a m a n t o pr ot e c t m e I ne e d a boy t o do t hos e t hi ngs I a m t oo da i nt y t o pi c k up t hi ngs c a r r y bi g t hi ngs i f you know w ha t I m e a n T he y w a l k a r ound a l l da i nt y T a l ki ng a bout l a r ge e qui pm e nt t he y a r e r e a l l y bl unt R e a l l y good f i gur e s o f s pe e c h A not he r t hi ng, w he n I w a s younge r I w oul d t r y a n d r e l a t e d s ongs t o r e a l l i f e a nd w i t h t hos e s ongs i t i s l i ke w hy don't I ha ve a boyf r i e nd? W e l l i f you go e ve n younge r l i ke s e ve n or e i ght t he y j us t s i ng i t a bs or b i t t he y c a n p r oduc e a w hol e s ong a f t e r he a r i ng i t a c ou pl e of t i m e s a nd t he y don't e ve n know w ha t t he y a r e s a yi ng. I don't t hi nk t he L i nds a y L oha n s ong w oul d m a ke i t w i t hout t he vi de o. Y ou ne e d t he vi de o t o w a t c h be c a us e ot he r w i s e you w o ul d be l i ke t hi s s ong s uc ks Y ou j us t l i ke w a t c h i t bu t i t 's not l i ke you w a s t e your t i m e on i t I t hi nk t he D e s t i ny's C hi l d i s t he s a m e w a y. T he v i de os ar e ne e de d be c aus e w i t hout t he v i de o t he s ongs w oul d f l op? T he s ongs qual i t y w as poor ? T he s ongs w e r e m a de f o r t he vi de o, t he vi de os w e r e n't m a de f or t he s ongs T he de s t i ny's c hi l d vi de o, t he y w e r e j us t s i ngi ng B e yonc e 's na m e how de gr a di ng F or t he e xc e pt i on of m a ybe J L o be c a us e s he a c t ua l l y ha s a voi c e . i nt e r j e c t i ons di s agr e e m e nt s . I don t k now about t hat S e e I l i ke L i nds a y L oha n bu t s he i s s o young A ny ot he r c om m e nt s ? O K now l e t s l ook at t he m a l e s t al k i ng W e a l l know w ha t t he y w oul d be s a yi ng Y ou w ant t o e l abor at e ? C ha nc e s a r e I don't e ve n know i f t he y he a r d t he w or ds i t i s one s t e p a bove f r e e l ow br ow po r n S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 7 S t u de nt 1 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2

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82 M y l i t t l e br ot he r w a t c he s H e j us t s t a r e s he w ont e ve n l ook a w a y, w a i t i ng f or a w a r dr obe m a l f unc t i on M y guys w e r e t a l ki ng a bout t he gi r l s J L o e a r r i ngs c om pa r i ng t he out f i t s B r i t t a ny S pe a r s da nc e s l i ke a s t r i ppe r l i ke a s t r i p c l ub. T he gi r l s l ook a t t ha t a nd t he y s a y t he y w i s h t he y h a d t ha t a nd t he guys w a t c h t ha t a nd s a y I w i s h I H A D t ha t N ot i n t he s a m e s e ns e m or e i n a s e xua l a ppe a l t hi ng. G uys w i s h t he y c oul d be he r g uy. M a ybe e ve n pos s i bl y i n t he B e yonc e vi de o, t he bu f f guys i n i t l i ke t he guys w oul d t hi nk t he y a r e not good e nough m a ybe s om e guys ge t s e l f c ons c i ous B a s i c a l l y t he guy on guy c onve r s a t i on w ow s he 's got s om e j unk i n t he t r unk. W ho w oul d you c hos e ? I w oul d c hos e t hi s one I w oul d c hos e t ha t one I t hi nk I ha ve a ve r y good s pe e c h he r e w hi c h one a m I gonna ha ve s e x w i t h I w i l l r e a d i t i f you w a nt O k i f y ou w oul d l i k e you dude di d you s he L i nds a y L oha n m a n ye a h br o bi t c h i s hot w oul d you hi t t ha t ye a h of you t h i nk of a l l t he S T D s you w oul d ge t I s t hat j us t be c aus e y ou k now s om e t hi ng about t he i r bac k gr ounds ? I t hi nk i t i s t he f a c t t ha t t he y know t he y c a nnot ha ve t ha t t he y w i l l t r y a nd knoc k t he m t o m a ke t he m s e l ve s f e e l be t t e r D o you t hi nk i f t he y ha d t he c ha nc e t he y w oul d ho ok up? O h ye a de f i ni t e l y W he n i t c om e s t o c l ot he s l e s s i s m or e O k s o t he m al e and t he f e m al e ar e c onv e r s i ng, w hat a r e t he y s ay i ng? I w oul d hope t he y w oul d be a gr e e i ng, I t hi nk t he b oy w oul d be de f e ndi ng S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4

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83 t he vi de o a nd t he gi r l w oul d s a y t he y f e m a l e s a r e d r e s s e d l i ke s ka nks oh ye a h, do you t hi nk s he 's pr e t t y. you c oul d l ook j us t l i ke t ha t I f I w e r e a t r i pl e s i z e z e r o, I c oul d l ook l i ke t ha t W hy a r e you s o obs e s s e d w i t h t ha t ? I ki nd o f ha d t he s a m e ki nd o f t h i ng. I ha d a hus ba nd a nd w i f e a nd t he hus ba nd s a i d, w hy don't you dr e s s l i ke t ha t a nd t he w i f e s a ys be c a us e a ny s e l f r e s pe c t i ng f e m a l e w oul d s a y be c a us e I a m not t he ne i ghbor hood w hor e I t 's ba s i c a l l y t he s a m e t hi ng, s om e guys a r e obs e s s e d w i t h t ha t S om e w om e n w oul d a r gue i t s a yi ng t ha t i f t he y got i t you m a y a s w e l l us e i t T he y a r e us i ng w ha t t he y've got t o ge t w ha t t he y w a nt I f t he y a r e w i l l i ng t o do i t W hat s t or i e s di d t he s e v i de os t e l l about f e m i ni ni t y and t he r ol e s of f e m al e s ? s e x obj e c t s s e x obj e c t s w om e n a r e vul ne r a bl e t he y ha ve not hi ng be t t e r t o of f e r t ha n t he i r bodi e s i m a ge s a nd s e x, t ha t w i t hout m e n w e w oul d w i t he r a nd di e I t hi nk J L o w a s j us t s how i ng he r m i d s e c t i on, I t hi nk be c a us e s he w or ke d out f or t ha t vi de o he r l yr i c s a r e e ve n s a yi ng t ha t s he ba s i c a l l y s l e e ps a r ound a nd w ha t i s w r ong w i t h t ha t I t 's ki nd of w ha t I w a s ge t t i ng a t I di dn't he a r w ha t t he y w e r e s a yi ng, I w a s j us t w a t c hi ng I f i t i s ok f or m e n, w hy i s i t not ok f o r w om e n B e c a us e s he i s ol de r s he m a y ha ve e nough c onf i d e nc e t o s a y t ha t w he r e i f L i nds a y t r i e d t o pul l t ha t of f s he w oul d l o ok c om e of f l i ke m e ga s l ut A nd by doi ng t ha t t he y m a y t hi nk t he i r i nne r f e m i n i s t s i de i s c om i ng o ut S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 1

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84 L i ke t ha t g i r l s a nd guys a r e e qua l s a nd t he y c a n ge t s e x t he s a m e w a y. g i r l s w a nt s e x j us t a s m uc h a s guys do, but t he y a r e t a ug ht t o not e xpr e s s i t i t i s pr e t t y m uc h t he s a m e t hi ng but now t he y j us t e xpl oi t i t W ho do y ou t hi nk i s m ak i ng t he s e v i de os ? T he w r i t e r s R e c or d c om pa ni e s r e c or d l a be l s T he guys w ho ba s i c a l l y w r ot e a l l t he s ongs f or B r i t t a ny L ou P e a r l m a n T ha t w a s s o s a d. A s adv e r t i s i ng s t ude nt s c an y ou s e e t hi s i ndus t r y f r om an adv e r t i s i ng pe r s pe c t i v e ? pr oduc t pl a c e m e nt I s e e i t f r om m a ga z i n e pe r s pe c t i ve a nd I r e l a t e i t t o M T V l i ke L i nds a y L oha n got w a y s ki nny, l i ke m a ga z i ne W he n I s e e L i nds a y I t hi nk of f e z s i nc e t he y w e r e t oge t he r f or s o l ong S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 8 F O C U S G R O U P #3 C an y ou t e l l m e w hat y our f e m al e s ar e s ay i ng t o e ac h ot he r ? I 'l l go s i nc e I 'm a guy I ki nda d i dn't t a l k a bout t he vi de os i f t ha t 's ok. T ha t 's A t ha t 's B O K W ha t i s your boy f r i e nd do i ng? I 'm not s ur e but I c a n't w a i t t o s e e hi m S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 4

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85 I know I w i s h I ha d one but now I ha ve t o go t o m y s hi t t y j ob. W e l l m a ybe s om e da y a guy c a n t a ke c a r e o f you M a ybe s om e da y. So, f r om t he v i de os y ou got t hat t hat t he f e m al e s ne e de d t o be t ak e n c ar e of ? T ha t i s w ha t I got out o f i t G uys ne e d t o t a ke c a r e of he r T he y ne e d a boy f r i e nd? S or t of L i ke t he f i r s t one I don' t k now I t s e e m e d l i ke t he f i r s t one s he w a s ki nd of t a l ki ng a bout a he a vy ha nde d i s s ue l i ke w om e n i n t he w o r k pl a c e t he ot he r t w o s e e m e d c e nt e r e d a r ound a guy. . t ha t 's w ha t I got out of t ha t A ny one e l s e f e e l t he s am e about t hat or di f f e r e nt ? W e l l I t h ought be i ng a gi r l m ys e l f t ha t i t w a s a l i t t l e um t he pe opl e w ho m a de t he s e vi de os w e r e n't t r yi ng t o s e l l t he i r m us i c S or t of l i ke t he y w e r e t r yi ng t o s e l l s e x, be c a us e i n a l l t hr e e o f t he m t he y dr e s s e d ve r y pr ovoc a t i ve l y a nd s om e w om e n w oul d t a ke of f e n s e t o t ha t A nd t he y di s c us s t ha t a f t e r w a r ds l i ke t he y w e r e s e l l i ng t he m s e l ve s s hor t B ut t he n a ga i n ot he r w om e n m i ght t a l k a bout how t he y w e r e e nvi ous of how t he y l ooke d i n t he vi de os a nd how t he y w i s h t ha t t he y c oul d l ook l i ke t ha t I j us t s or t of s um m a r i z e d i t I di dn't pu t a ny di a l og dow n. W hat ar e t he y j e al ous of ? J e a l ous of m a ybe how t he i r bodi e s l ook, you know how t he y'r e ve r y f i t a nd t one d, a nd t he y ha ve on a l l t he s e c l ot he s a nd t he y l ook good i n t he m W he n ot he r pe opl e m i gh t put t he m on you know r e a l w or l d pe opl e nor m a l pe opl e w ho don't ha ve pe r s ona l t r a i ne r s a n d s t uf f l i ke t ha t w oul dn' t l ook good i n t he m A nd y ou s ai d s om e t hi ng abou t s e x s e l l s ? T he t hi ng i s e s pe c i a l l y i n t he j l o vi de o, I t hought t ha t i t w a s a p r e t t y good i s s ue s he w a s t r yi ng t o ge t a t you know l i ke you s a i d w om e n i n t he w or kpl a c e a nd you know e s pe c i a l l y i f you a r e a s i ngl e m om a nd you ha ve a l ot of s t uf f t o do a nd you'r e t r yi ng t o s uppor t t w o pe opl e but t he n t he r e S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2

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86 c oul d ha ve be e n be t t e r w a ys t o ge t t ha t a c r os s t ha n ha vi ng he r be a w a i t r e s s or a ba r t e nde r or w ha t e ve r s he a l l po r t r a ye d i n t ha t vi de o. I m e a n. Y e a h, I t ho ught t ha t w a s ki nd of s t r a nge S he 's ki n d of goi ng a f t e r t hi s i s s ue of w om e n be i ng obj e c t i f i e d a l i t t l e b i t t he n s he c o m e out i n t he s e s ki m py c l ot he s a nd s t r i ppe r t hi ng Y ou t ot a l l y ne ga t e d w ha t you a r e t r yi ng t o s a y by doi ng t ha t Y e a h. U m I ha d t he t w o w om e n t a l ki ng a bout T ha t D e s t i ny's C hi l d vi de o ge t s on m y ne r ve s I don't know w he n t he y got s o ghe t t o a nd t he n t he y e nc our a ge t he guys t o a c t l i ke t hugs Y ou know a nd ba s i c a l l y t r e a t t he m l i ke obj e c t s S o t ha t w a s ki nd of m y di a l og I t j us t got on m y ne r ve s y ou know w e w a nt t he gr i l l a nd t he s ol di e r a nd a l l t ha t s t uf f T he w hol e i t s pl a ye d out s or r y W as t hat m or e f r om t he l y r i c s or w as t hat f r om w a t c hi ng t he v i de o? I he a r d t he s ong on t he r a di o I j us t t hought i t w a s s om e one doi ng t he s a m e ol d t hi ng, but t he n w he n I s a w i t w a s D e s t i ny's C hi l d I w a s ki nd of a ppa l l e d be c a us e t he y a r e a c t ua l l y t a l e nt e d be c a us e you kno w t ha t w hol e ghe t t o ga ngs t e r t hi ng i s j us t pl a ye d out a nd t he y a r e e nc o ur a gi ng t he guys t o a c t l i ke t ha t a nd t r e a t t he m l i ke obj e c t s a nd s t uf f l i ke t ha t Y ou t hi nk t he y w e r e obj e c t i f i e d i n t hat v i de o? Y e a h, w e l l t ha t one w ha t w a s t ha t s hi r t s he w a s w e a r i ng? A nd w ha t w a s t he w hol e p r e gna n t be l l y t hi ng? Y e a h! T he y a r e a l l l i ke ghe t t o a nd ha ngi ng out a nd s he 's pr e gna nt I m e a n, I don't know i t j us t i r r i t a t e s m e B e c a us e i f a 12 ye a r ol d gi r l s e e s t hi s s he w oul d t hi nk t ha t i s c ool I f a 1 2 ye a r o l d guy s a w t ha t he 's goi ng t o t hi nk t h a t t he onl y w a y he 's S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6

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87 goi ng t o ge t a gi r l i s t o a c t l i ke a t hug a nd ha ve a g ol d t oot h a nd be a punk a nd a l l t ha t W e l l t ha t i s t he a ge gr oup t ha t w a t c he s t ha t s how T he gr oup t ha t w a t c he s t ha t s how i s pr i m a r i l y hi gh s c hool e r s a nd t e e na ge r s A ny m or e c om m e nt s ? O n t he J L o vi de o t he pa r t o f i t t ha t bot he r e d m e a bout i t i t s e e m e d s o e goc e nt r i c be c a us e w hy di d s he ha ve t o pl a y a l l t h e c ha r a c t e r s I a l w a ys t hought t ha t a bout he r a nyw a y. B ut r e a l l y, I don't t hi nk i n t he r e a l w o r l d t ha t a ny m om w oul d br i ng he r da ught e r t o a c l ub i f s he w a s a D J S he I di dn' t ge t i t i s s he t he m om or t he s i s t e r ? M y f r i e nd a nd I w e r e a c t ua l l y t a l ki ng a bout t ha t l a s t ni ght W e w e r e c onf us e d f r om t he be gi nni ng, i s s he t he m om o r t he s i s t e r T ha t 's a l l w e w e r e t a l ki ng a bout W e l l e i t he r w a y, w hy w oul d you br i ng a ki d i nt o a c l ub? I n t he r e a l w or l d t ha t w oul dn't ha ppe n, you w oul dn't be a bl e t o br i n g your c hi l d i nt o t he c l ub. I f you di d t ha t w oul d be hor r i b l e I t hi nk t hat i t w as ac t ual l y t he o l de r s i s t e r t he y di s c us s t hat i n t he be gi nni ng I ha d t he m t a l ki ng a bout t he c l ot hi ng a nd t r yi ng t o s e e w ha t t he y w e r e t r yi ng t o t a l k a bout i n t he vi de o. W hat w e r e t he y t r y i ng t o t al k about do y ou t hi nk ? I 'm not s ur e T he L i nds a y L oha n vi de o w a s obvi ou s S he w a nt e d t o ha ve a r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t ha t guy a nd t he da d w oul dn't l e t he r B ut you know how i t i s how ol d s he i s l i ke s he i s ou r a ge r i gh t ? O r a t l e a s t 18 r i ght ? I t hought i t w a s a l i t t l e w e i r d w i t h t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he boy a nd t he da d. A nd t he j l o a bout t h e w or ki ng w om a n a nd i t be i ng w e i r d s he pl a ye d e ve r y pa r t D e s t i ny's C hi l d i s out t he r e I t hi nk t hos e t w o vi de os ki nd of ha d s or t o f a de e pe r m e a ni ng t o t he m you know L i nds a y L oha n a nd t he J L o one W e l l t he L i nds a y L oha n one w a s S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude n t 1 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2

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88 obvi ous l y s om e t hi ng a bout a w e i r d / ba d r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he guy a nd hi s f a t he r a nd you know t he y w e r e bot h t r yi ng t o t a c kl e t he s e unde r l yi ng i s s ue s but t he y di d i t i n a s l ut t y s or t o f w a y t o be f r a nkl y hone s t s o, you know t he r e a r e be t t e r w a ys of goi ng a r ound t ha t a nd i f I w a s t a l ki ng t o a not he r gi r l a bout t hi s t ha t i s e xa c t l y w ha t I w oul d be s a yi ng. L i ke w hy do t he y ha ve t o w e a r c l ot he s t ha t onl y c ove r a t hi r d o f t he i r body t o ge t t hi s i s s ue a c r os s ? T he y w e r e a l l w e a r i ng hi gh he e l s N o one w a s w e a r i ng w hi t e t e nni s s hoe s or f l i p f l ops Y e a h, t he kne e hi gh boot s A l ot of kne e hi gh boot s D i d y our c har ac t e r s t al k about s hoe s ? N o, but I not i c e d t ha t B ut um t he ot he r t hi ngs a bout t he D e s t i ny's C hi l d vi de o, t he y w a nt e d t o be e m pow e r e d, l i ke s a yi ng w ha t t he y w a nt e d ye t t he y a r e s t i l l d r e s s e d pr ovoc a t i ve l y l i ke t he y w e r e s a yi ng onl y l ook a t m e i f you a r e a t hug, but i f you'r e w a l ki ng dow n t he s t r e e t l ooki ng l i ke t ha t a n yone i s goi ng t o l ook a t you. A l r i ght w e l l w e c an m ov e on t o t he m al e c onv e r s a t i on now W hat do y ou t hi nk t w o m al e s w oul d be di s c us s i ng af t e r w at c hi ng t hos e v i de os ? H ow hot t he w om e n a r e i n t he vi de os L a ught e r N o, be c a us e I a r gue w i t h m y br ot he r a bout t ha t a l l t he t i m e B e c a us e he i s l i ke ye a h, t ha t i s w ha t t he guys a r e l ooki ng a t t o be hone s t I c a n put hi m on a hi ghe r pe de s t a l but you t ol d m e not t o, but t ha t i s w ha t w e 'r e l ooki ng a t f or r e a l I c a n't s pe a k f o r t he guys but R i ght I don't know w ha t t he y w oul d be t h i nki ng, b ut I c a n pr e t t y m uc h s a y f or s ur e t ha t m y boyf r i e nd w oul d not l i s t e n t o t hos e s ongs on t he r a di o but S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 2

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89 he w oul d w a t c h t he m on T V S o you know m a ybe t he r e i s de e pe r m e a ni ng, I don't know I 'm not a guy s o i t 's ha r d f o r m e t o be obj e c t i ve a bout t hi s I w oul d ne ve r w a t c h t he v i de os or l i s t e n t o t he i r m us i c I a m pr e t t y a nt i M T V r i ght n ow I t j us t s e e m s l i ke e ve r y s i ngl e vi d e o, w e l l a t f i r s t i t w a s ki nd of nove l L i ke oh, hot w om e n da nc i ng a r ound l i ke oh ye a h I 'm goi ng t o w a t c h, bu t a f t e r s o m a ny t i m e s i t j us t s e e m s l i ke t he s a m e pe opl e a r e m a ki ng a l l of t he vi de os A l l t he y know i s s e x a nd i t 's a l l t he y us e t o s e l l t he i r v i de os I t j us t s e e m s l i ke i t i s s uc h a c l os e d of f w or l d T ha t t he y'r e no t l e t t i ng a nybody e l s e i n w i t h di f f e r e nt opi ni ons A nd t he s e w om e n do w ha t t he di r e c t or s s a y, s o t he y s a y w e a r t he s e c l ot he s a nd da nc e a r ound, a nd t ha t i s how i t i s B ut I do l i ke t he w om e n da nc i ng a r ound, I 'l l a dm i t i t B ut a l s o w i t h t he D e s t i ny's C hi l d s ong, a bout t he b e i ng a s ol di e r be c a us e I gr e w up i n t he s ubur bs a nd I 'm l i ke ok I don't f i t t ha t pr of i l e a t a l l W he n I t hi nk of s ol di e r I t h i nk of a r m y or na vy or t he a r m e d f or c e s a nd t he y a r e t a l ki ng a bout t he s t r e e t s i t i s s o f a r of f f r om w he r e I a m a t i t 's ha r d t o e ve n c om pr e he nd a l i t t l e bi t W hy ar e y ou ant i M T V ? W he n t he y f i r s t c a m e out M T V w a s ki nd o f a nt i e s t a bl i s hm e nt a nt i nor m a nd now t he y ha ve be c om e t he nor m a nd I a m ki n d of a nt i nor m Y e a h, I don't ha ve M T V e i t he r be c a us e i t ha s t u r ne d i nt o a bi g j oke w he n I w a s a ki d t he y pl a ye d m us i c a l l t he t i m e T he y don 't e ve n pl a y vi de os a ny m or e R e a l i t y T V N ow t he y j us t pl a y t ha t c r a p. A l l of t h os e vi de os c oul d ha ve be e n be t he s a m e s ong. T he y don't e ve n pl a y m us i c S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5

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90 I t hi nk t he y w oul d a l s o t a l k a bout c a r s i n t he vi de os t he m us t a ng i n t he L i nds a y L oha n vi de o a nd t he m ul t i t ude of c a r s i n D e s t i ny s C hi l d t o ge t a w a y f r om t he w om e n. G uys f or t he m os t pa r t a r e s om e w ha t i nt e r e s t e d i n c a r s s o t ha t m a y c om e up i n c onve r s a t i on a s w e l l I s a i d t he y m a y a l s o be i nt e r e s t e d, I know s om e gu ys a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he m us i c l i ke t he be a t T he y t a l k a bout t he w om e n f i r s t but you know t he n t he y m a y t a l k a bout t he be a t t he m us i c a nd t he ba c kgr ound a f t e r t ha t A ny ot he r c om m e nt s ? I di dn't e ve n not i c e t he c a r s W e l l t he c a r w a s goi n g a r ound i n c i r c l e s i n t he L i nds a y L oha n vi de o. I m a y ha ve not i c e d t ha t be c a us e I l ove c a r s W hat w oul d t he m al e and f e m al e be t al k i ng about ? I t hi n k t he y w oul d f i nd s om e t hi ng t o a r gue a bout F or i ns t a nc e t he guy w oul d s a y, oh w ow B e yonc e l ooks hot or w ha t e ve r m a ybe t he gi r l w oul d s i t t he r e a nd s a y, w e l l you kn ow i t i s not how t he y l ook i n t he vi de o t he y'r e t r yi ng t o ge t s om e t hi ng a c r os s but t he n t he w om a n m a y s a y, ye a h s he doe s l ook hot I w i s h I c oul d l ook l i ke t ha t s o . I j us t ha ve t he m t a l ki ng a bout you know t he s ongs t a l ki ng a bout t he J L o s ong a nd s he s a ys ye a h s he 's a gr e a t da nc e r a nd t h e n t he D e s t i ny s C hi l d. . t he L i nds a y L oha n vi de o, he w a s n't r e a l l y pa yi ng m uc h a t t e nt i on t o t ha t vi de o, but m or e t o t he D e s t i ny's C hi l d be c a us e t he y w e r e s how i ng m or e I ha d t he guy ye l l i ng a t t he l a dy, w hy s he m a de hi m w a t c h t he vi de o I a m ki nd of c onf us e be c a us e 90% of t he guys I kn ow w oul d w a t c h t ho s e vi de os but i t s e e m s l i ke t hos e vi de os w e r e m a de f o r guys a nd i t 's I don't know w hy. D i d y ou w at c h m us i c v i de os w he n y ou w e r e gr ow i ng up? Y e a h, I w a t c he d i t m o r e t he n. S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 4

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91 T hi ngs l i ke t ha t m a ybe m a t t e r e d m or e I t s e e m e d m or e a bout t he s ong, now i t s e e m s m or e a bout t he vi de o t ha n a nyt hi ng. I t w a s n't s o l i ke pop or i e nt e d. T hos e s ongs a r e ba d, t ha t m us i c i s bor i ng A r e t he i r vo i c e s e ve n t ha t good? D u r i ng t he vi de o m us i c a w a r ds t he hos t c a m e out C hr i s R oc k w a s hos t i ng o r s om e body a n d he w a s l i ke you don't e ve n ha ve t o ha ve a good voi c e t hi s i s a bout t he vi de o. I t 's not a G r a m m y ba s e d on how good t he s ong i s i t i s ba s e d on how good t he vi de os a r e U nl e s s pe opl e l i ke t he vi de os now be c a us e t he y a r e s e x or i e nt e d. T he y dr i ve t ha t poi n t a c r os s I m e a n you don't ne e d t o l o ok i n a nude y m a ga z i ne a nym or e you c a n j us t t ur n on M T V a nd w a t c h i t o n M T V W hat r ol e s of f e m i ni ni t y w oul d y ou s ay ar e por t r ay e d i n m us i c v i de os ? Y ou ha ve t o a c t l i ke a hooc hi e t o ge t a boyf r i e nd. T ha t w hol e D e s t i ny's C hi l d t hi ng i r r i t a t e d m e T he guy ha s t o a c t l i ke a t hug, t o ge t a gi r l t o pa y a t t e nt i on t o hi m I m e a n i t i s s e ndi ng t he w r ong m e s s a ge s t o bot h s e xe s A nd i f t he y' r e 12, i t 's j us t w o r s e D o y ou t hi nk t he y ar e s e ndi ng be l i e v abl e m e s s age s ? Y e a h, i f you' r e 12 or 13 boy or gi r l ye a h. T o s om e one w ho w oul d w a t c h t he s e vi de os i n t he younge r a ge gr oup I m e a n you w oul d ge t t he i m p r e s s i on f r om t he J L o vi de o t ha t l i f e i s r e a l l y r e a l l y t ough a nd you a r e goi ng t o ha ve t o a c t t ha t w a y t o m a ke m one y a nd t ha t i s not t r ue Y ou c oul d go t o c ol l e ge you c oul d ge t a n e duc a t i on, you c oul d ge t a ni c e r e s pe c t a bl e j ob. W he r e yo u c a n w e a r a bus i ne s s s ui t a nd you know i f you gr ow up s e e i ng t ha t I m e a n w ho i s t o s a y t ha t you' r e not goi ng t o g r ow up t hi nki ng t ha t i s t he w a y your goi ng t o l i ve ? I don 't t hi nk i t 's a c c e pt a bl e I w oul d ne ve r w a nt t ha t f or m ys e l f how w oul d y ou dr aw t he l i ne i nt e r nal l y ? S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 2

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92 I don t know i f you w oul d be a bl e t o, you s e e youn ge r gi r l s l i ke 15, 16 ye a r s ol d a nd t he y w e a r s t uf f l i ke t ha t M y pa r e nt s w oul d ha ve ne ve r a l l ow e d t ha t I a m not s a yi ng t ha t t he y ha ve ba d pa r e nt s but t he y obvi ous l y don't know how t o dr a w t he l i ne T he w hol e t hi ng f r i ght e ns m e t he r e a r e 12 13 ye a r ol ds w a t c hi ng t ha t a l l da y l ong T he y a r e s o e a s i l y, w he n t he y s e e t hi s s t uf f on T V t he y f e e l l i ke t he y ne e d t o do t ha t I ha ve t o dr e s s l i ke t ha t I ne e d a s ol di e r t he l e s s t he y ha ve on T ha t i s t he r e e duc a t i on, t he i r vi e w of t he w or l d W ho i s m ak i ng t he s e v i de os ? M e n young m e n i n t he i r 20s m os t of t he m e n N o w om e n ha ve e ve r w on a n O s c a r f o r di r e c t i ng. a nd I t h i nk t he f i l m s c hool s a r e gr a dua t i ng a n e qua l num be r of m e n a n d w om e n but t he r e a r e no f e m a l e di r e c t o r s A l l t he m e n a r e di r e c t or s a nd you c a n ki nda t e l l H ol l yw ood i s pr e t t y c l os e d a nd I c ons i de r t hi s a pa r t of H ol l yw ood i n t hi s I t i s a p r e t t y t i ght kni t gr o up T he y don't l e t a nyone e l s e i n, s o i t i s a l l t he i de a s a r e t he s a m e i t i s a l l c om i ng f r om one t ype s e t of pe r s on. I t hi nk t he t hi ng i s t he a r t i s t t he m s e l ve s t he pe opl e w ho s i ng t he s e s ongs t he y don't obj e c t i ve be c a us e t he y know t he y s e l l r e c or ds I t hi nk t he y ha ve a l ot o f c r e a t i ve i npu t a nd I don't s e e w ha t you w oul d w a nt t o r e pr e s e nt J L o s houl d not be a bl e t o r e pr e s e nt w om e n, s he 's t hi s ps yc ho f r e a k t ha t ha s t o be m a r r i e d a l l t he t i m e r e p r e s e nt i ng ne e dy s t upi d w om a n t ha t ne e ds t o be m a r r i e d a l l t he t i m e So i f y ou had c hi l dr e n w oul d y ou l e t t he m w at c h M T V ? M y ki ds c a n w a t c h C M T I t i s a l l t he s a m e t hi ng A nym or e f a i t h hi l l t he y m a de he r s l ut t y i n t ha t v i de o. I t i s ge t t i ng w or s e e v e r yda y. I t hi nk i t w a s f e m i n i s t a s s e r t i ng w om e n's i nde pe nde nc e bu t t hos e vi de os S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4

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93 s e e m l i ke t he y a r e t u r ni ng e ve r yt h i ng ba c kw a r d. I t i s di f f e r e nt t hough. I ns t e a d of hous e w i ve s now t he y'r e a s l ut t y w i ve s I t i s j us t l i ke t ha t s how de s pe r a t e hous e w i ve s a nd l ook how popul a r t ha t i s I s t hat w om e n c at c hi ng up and j us t be i n g l i be r at e d? I t hi nk t he y m i s s e d t he m a r k Y ou don't ha ve t o dr e s s l i ke t ha t a nd a c t t ha t w a y t o be l i be r a t e d s e xua l l y, you know I t hi nk be i ng l i be r a t e d s e xua l l y i s be l i ke you w a nn a be I t hi nk t he y a l l f e e l t ha t t he y ha ve t o be a nd a c t t ha t w a y i n t he v i de os I t hi nk i f a w om a n w a s r e a l l y s t r ong, s he c oul d por t r a y w ho s he w a nt e d t o be e ve n i f t ha t w a s i n a t s hi r t a nd j e a ns B e s i de s s om e pe opl e t hi nk a t s hi r t a nd j e a ns i s s e xy S om e pe opl e don't t hi nk a l l t ha t i s s e xy. N ot j us t hi gh he e l s a nd s l ut t y c l ot he s S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 F O C U S G R O U P #4 O k now i f w e c an f l i p t o t he f e m al e s t al k i ng? W hat i n ge ne r al w e r e t he f e m al e s t al k i ng about ? S t uf f a bout c l ot hi ng de f i ni t e l y e s pe c i a l l y i n s om e of t he vi de os w he r e i t w a s t he l a c k of c l ot hi ng M or e l i ke or m a ybe l i ke I t hi nk a l ot of g i r l s I know I do l i ke t a l k a bout I di dn't ge t w hy J L o ha d l i ke a m i l l i on o f he r s e l f i n t he r e s o i f I w e r e t a l ki ng t o he r I w oul d pr oba bl y b e l i ke w hy I t hi nk l i ke m or e pe opl e c a r e a bout t he c onc e pt of t he vi de o t ha n a nyt hi ng e l s e S t ude nt 2

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94 I put ou t f i t s a nd phys i que s A bs ol ut e l y, I t ot a l l y a gr e e A l l t hr e e t he w om e n ha d di f f e r e nt but ve r y good p hys i que s a nd s a m e w i t h t he out f i t s So y ou l i k e t he ou t f i t s ? I m e a n not hi ng t ha t I w oul d w e a r but ye a h, I m e a n, f or vi de o pur pos e s ye a h, i t 's e nt e r t a i ni ng D i f f e r e nt t han r e al i t y ? I t hi nk s o. Y ou don't s e e pe opl e w a l ki ng on t he s t r e e t w i t h s t uf f l i ke J L L i ke t he i r m a ke up w a s r e a l l y he a vy l i ke t he y j us t w a l ke d out of a M a c c a t a l og, or i f you a r e ou t a t Y bo r I gue s s A nd l i ke go i ng ba c k t o t he c onc e pt t h i ng, w ha t w i t h t he ba by i n t he de s t i ny's c hi l d vi de o? T ha t w a s r a ndom W ha t w a s up w i t h t he ol d m a n i n t he L L vi de o c om i ng t o ge t t he boy l i ke I di dn't ge t t ha t T he r e w e r e pa r t s of t he vi de o I gue s s gi r l s l ook a t i t t he y a s k w hy, ye a h, a nd guys j us t l ook a t i t a nd go w ha t s he 's hot I pe r s ona l l y t hi nk I t hi nk l i ke a guy be c a us e I d i dn 't e ve n not i c e a ny o f t hos e t hi ngs I w a s de f i ni t e l y m or e i n t e r e s t e d i n w ha t t he y l ook l i ke a nd w ha t t he y'r e w e a r i ng t ha n t he c onc e pt s of t he vi de o W hat about t he i r m us i c w as t hat i m por t ant ? I t i s j us t a l l a l i t t l e a nt i c l i m a t i c no t ve r y good s i n ge r s I don't t hi nk s he 's a ve r y good s i nge r W hat y our c har ac t e r s w oul d s ay about t he m us i c a s c om par e d t o t he v i de o? I don't t hi nk t he vi de o, m a ybe t he D e s t i ny s C hi l d m or e t ha n t he ot he r s go a l ong w i t h a s t or y l i ne c oi nc i de l i ke how w e a r e l i ke w ha t 's up w i t h t he m a n, w ha t 's up w i t h t he ba by I t hi nk t ha t i s goi ng t o t oo de e p, t he y a r e j us t m us i c vi de os l i ke I don't S t u de nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1

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95 t hi nk I w oul d c a r r y on a c onve r s a t i on a bout a s t or y l i ne or how t ha t you w e nt r a t he r t ha n how t he y l ooke d. I t hi nk e a c h one r e pr e s e nt e d t he i r t ype o f m us i c l i ke t he f i r s t one i s pop a nd i t 's t e e ny boppe r s a nd t he y ha ve s e x. T he s e c ond i s l i ke c l ub m us i c a nd t he t hi r d hi p hop, D e s t i ny s C hi l d, t he s a m e t h i ng. A l r i ght now c an w e t al k about w hat t he m al e c har ac t e r s w e r e t al k i ng about ? H ow t he y l ook. T he y'r e hot W hi c h one s l ook t he be s t E s pe c i a l l y w i t h D e s t i ny s C hi l d, t he y ha ve t o c om pa r e I l i ke M i c he l l e no I l i ke B e yonc e I put t he s a m e a s i f t he y w e r e t w o f e m a l e s H ow hot t he y a r e w ho l ooks t he be s t w ho ha s t he be s t body. D o t he guy s t al k about c l ot he s at al l ? U m I put t he a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of f e m a l e s w ho i s t he hot t e s t w ho ha s t he be s t body O k I put t he s a m e t hi ng, w he r e m y gi r l s w e r e t a l ki ng a bout t he s a m e t hi ng w i t h t he e xc e pt i on o f t he w a r dr obe I put t he guys m a ybe t hought t ha t t he gi r l s dr e s s e d l i ke be c a us e t he y don't s e e gi r l s l i ke w e w oul dn' t d r e s s l i ke t ha t I t hough t t he y w oul d t hi nk t ha t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng how t he y dr e s s e d, w hy t he i r c l ot he s di dn't m a t c h, or w hy t he y w e r e n't w e a r i ng a ny c l ot he s I t hi nk i t pl a ys i n t o t he m a l e f a nt a s y of how t he y w a nt w om e n t o l ook I t hi nk ve r y f e w m e n w oul d e ve n di s c us s t he s ong, i t w oul d be l i ke s he 's hot T he y w oul d t a l k a bout t he be a t m a ybe a f e w I don't t hi nk t he guys w oul d e ve n t a l k a bout t he m us i c onl y i f t he y a r e r e a l l y i nt e r e s t e d i n m us i c S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2

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96 O k w e l l now w e c an t al k abou t w hat t he f e m al e a nd m al e ar e di s c us s i ng. I w oul d s a y t he y w oul d be s a yi ng t he s a m e a s f e m a l e a nd f e m a l e a nd m a l e a nd m a l e i t 's p r oba bl y a bout t he s a m e t hi ng phys i que s a nd s e x a ppe a l I j us t don't s e e w he r e t he r e w oul d be a ny di f f e r e nc e I n t hat c onv e r s at i on, how do y ou t h i nk t he f e m al e w oul d f e e l di s c us s i ng t hos e v i de os ? I s s he f e e l i ng di f f e r e nt l y t al k i ng be t w e e n f e m al e s ? I w oul d s a y t ha t i n t hi s c onve r s a t i on t he f e m a l e w o ul d pr oba bl y be s c r ut i ni z i ng a l i t t l e m or e t ha n t he m a l e w oul d be o r m a ybe on s om e l e ve l s de f e ns i ve but t ha t i s w ha t I put T he m a l e w oul d s a y how t he y w e r e hot a nd t he f e m a l e w oul d t a l k a bout t he l a c k of c l o t hi ng o r you know ye a h w e l l l i ke s he s a i d m or e s c r ut i ni z i ng a nd m or e pi c ki ng on t he m I t hi nk i t de pe nds on w ha t ki nd o f pe opl e t he y a r e be c a us e on one ha nd s om e m a y be r e s e r ve d, ho l di ng ba c k w ha t t he y r e a l l y t hi nk, but on t he ot he r ha nd t he y m a y be s or t of out l a ndi s h a nd e a c h one ge t s de f e ns e a nd t he y s t a r t a r gui ng I t 's not l i ke t he y a r e di s c us s i ng X X X por nogr a phy, but t he w om e n m i ght c a l l t he ot he r a h oe W hat k i nd o f s t or i e s do y ou t hi nk t he s e v i de os ar e t e l l i ng about ge nde r i s s ue s or ge nde r r ol e s ? I t hi nk now l i ke I t hi nk i n t he pa s t m us i c vi de os u s e d t o por t r a y w om e n a s m a ybe not a s pow e r f ul a s t he m a l e s i n t he vi de os or m a ybe a l i t t l e s ubm i s s i ve B ut now I t hi nk i t ha s c ha nge d t o w he r e t he w om e n i n e a c h of t he s e vi de os w e r e por t r a ye d a s um ha vi ng pow e r o r ha vi ng s om e t ype of a ut hor i t y N ot j us t s e xua l a ppe a l I t hi nk t he r ol e s ha ve r e ve r s e d e s pe c i a l l y i n t he s e v i de os N ot i n t he L i nds a y L oha n vi de o, but i n t he o t he r t w o vi de os W a s n't s he s i ngi ng a bout how s he c a n't l i ve w i t hout h i m ? S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 3

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97 I t hi nk t ha t t he L oha n vi de o w a s pr oba bl y t a r ge t i n g a di f f e r e nt de m ogr a phi c t ha n t he o t he r t w o vi de os s o I t hi nk t ha t w a s m or e a t e e na ge gi r l t ha t t he y a r e f oc us i ng o n s o t he dyna m i c s a r e g oi ng t o be a l i t t l e bi t di f f e r e nt t ha n t he y w i l l f oc us m or e on t e e na ge gi r l s I f you t hi nk a bout T R L t ha t i s t he i r de m ogr a phi c A nd l i ke e a c h one of t hos e vi de os i s t ot a l l y t a r ge t i ng s om e one di f f e r e nt W ho do y ou t hi nk t he y ar e t ar ge t i ng? W e l l t he y s houl d be t a r ge t i ng ol de r pe opl e t he l a s t t w o w e r e t a r ge t i ng ol de r t ha n t he f i r s t l i ke young a dul t s but t he L i nd s a y L oha n w a s de f i ni t e l y m or e l i ke t he S w e e t V a l l e y H i gh H ow di d y ou f e e l about t he v i de os ? E nt e r t a i ni ng. N ot m y t y pe o f m us i c T he J L o vi de o r e a l l y a nnoye d m e T he c ons t a nt hor n i n t he ba c kgr ound. S e e i ng J L o i n t he vi de o t he w hol e t i m e . W ho do y ou t hi nk m ade t hos e v i de os ? M a l e s I don't know I w oul d ve nt ur e t o s a y t ha t e a c h o f t h os e pe r f or m e r s pr oba bl y ha d a l ot t o do w i t h t he a c t ua l i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f t he vi de o. L i ke I w oul dn't s a y t ha t i t w a s j us t a m a n m a ki ng t he vi de o. W e l l l i ke di r e c t or s a nd pr oduc e r s be c a us e I know t he i ndus t r y i s a c t ua l l y dom i na t e d by m a l e s be i ng di r e c t or s a nd p r oduc e r s I do a gr e e t hough I t hi nk a l l t h r e e of t hos e a l l of t hos e a r t i s t s ha d t he i nput of how t he vi de o w a s s hot A ny f i nal c om m e nt s or r e ac t i ons ? I t hi nk i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t ha t t he w om e n a r e t r yi ng t o por t r a y gi r l pow e r ki nda l i ke w om e n a r e pow e r f ul a nd ye t t he y a r e f l a unt i n g a r ound w i t h t he i r no c l ot he s on. L i ke a n oxym o r on S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 5

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98 I t 's pr e t t y hypoc r i t i c a l i f you t hi nk a bout i t ye a h y ou w a nt t o be a s t r ong w om a n a nd you'r e da nc i ng a r ound f or a guy ha l f n a ke d, i t 's j us t a l i t t l e s t r a nge t o m e F or ye a r s I gue s s w e ha ve be e n t o l d a b out t he w o m e n's m ove m e nt you know w a s t ot a l l y a nt i s how i ng your body t o ge t p ow e r or m ovi ng or w ha t e ve r a nd now i t i s ki nd of t he oppos i t e N ow i t i s you c a n f l a unt you r body, a nd i t i s now not l ooke d a t a s m uc h, l i ke t he y ha d m or e pow e r i n t he vi de o, b e f or e I t hi nk i t w oul d ha ve be e n m or e l i ke t he y w e r e s ubm i s s i ve a nd now you c a n do t ha t a nd i t doe s n't l ook l i ke yo u don't ha ve pow e r I don't know B ut i s n't t ha t r e a l l y t he t hi ng, i s n't i t w he r e w e a r e r i ght now ? W e c a n be s e xy, w e c a n be s t r ong w e c a n s how t ha t w e 'r e s e xy a nd t ha t w e a r e a s s e xua l a s t he m e n a r e a nd i t 's ok be c a us e w e do ha ve a s m uc h, I t hi nk i t i s a good t hi ng. B e f or e i t w oul d ha ve be e n l ooke d a t a s a ba d t h i ng N ow i t i s j us t l i ke s he s a i d, t he y a r e f l a unt i ng t he m s e l ve s a nd i t s e e m s l i ke a n oxym or on but I don't t hi nk s oc i e t y l ooks a t i t l i ke t ha t a nym or e I j us t t hi nk f o r a t e e n a udi e nc e i t i s a l i t t l e m uc h. I f you t h i nk de m ogr a phi c a l l y T R L I m e a n g r a nt e d c ul t ur e i s m ovi ng t ha t w a y but I t hi nk i t i s a l i t t l e m uc h a l i t t l e t o o s oon. I m e a n, t he y a r e t a r ge t i ng l i ke 14, 15, 16 ye a r ol ds I don't t hi nk t hos e gi r l s s houl d be s e xua l a nd I don't t hi nk t ha t t he y s houl d t hi nk t ha t be i ng s e xy s houl d be e m pow e r i ng a s w e l l M y br ot he r he j us t s i t s t he r e a nd j us t w a t c he s a nd j us t s a ys ye a h, s he 's hot I t hi nk t he s e vi de os w e r e pr e t t y t a m e i n c om pa r i s on t o s om e of t he m I w oul d s a y t ha t I f a l l on t he c ons e r va t i ve s i de a nd I w a s not of f e nde d a t a l l by a ny o f t he s e vi de os w he r e s om e of t he vi de os t ha t m y boy f r i e nd w a t c he s or s om e of t he one s on M T V I m e a n I ge t r e a l l y o f f e nde d by t he y w e r e r e a l l y a l ot m or e t a m e t ha n a l ot of B r i t n e y vi de os N o one w a s i m i t a t i ng s e x, i n b i ki ni s hum pi ng t he f l oor I w a s not o f f e nde d a t a l l by t he s e vi de os S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1

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99 I us ua l l y t ur n i t of f be c a us e I a m ve r y of f e nde d by t hos e I w a s of f e nde d a l i t t l e by t he D C l yr i c s i f you s i t a nd l i s t e n t o w ha t t he y a r e t a l ki ng a bout l i ke t he y c a r r y bi g t hi ngs a nd t he i r i ns i nua t i ons I t hi nk i t w a s good i n t he L oha n, s he w a s n't s how i ng t oo m uc h w he n B r i t ne y S pe a r s or C hr i s t i na A gui l e r a t he y w e r e w a y m or e s how i ng g r a phi c t hi ngs s he i s de f i ni t e l y l e s s t a l e nt e d s o you w oul d t hi nk t ha t s he w oul d r e s or t t o ot he r m e a ns of ( l e s s c l ot hi ng) of a t t r a c t i n g a n a udi e nc e D o y ou t hi nk l e s s t al e nt m e ans y ou hav e t o t ak e of f m or e c l ot he s ? I don't t hi nk i t m e a ns you ha ve t o bu t i t de f i ni t e l y he l ps a nd i t i s w ha t ha ppe ns W hy i s B r i t t ne y how s he i s ? B e c a us e s he c a n't s i ng. Y ou know l i ke I m e a n, I w ou l dn't s a y i t i s a n a c r os s t he boa r d phe nom e non, but I t hi nk i t i s t he na t ur e of hu m a n be i ngs i ns e c ur i t y. A l s o, j us t t he s hoc k e f f e c t A nyt hi ng t o c r e a t e . I f B r i t ne y S pe a r s w or e a bi g o l d pa pe r ba g i n he r vi de os no one w oul d r e a l l y w a t c h i t I t 's be c a us e s he a l w a ys got t he vi de os w i t h s o m uc h da nc i ng, s o m uc h s e xua l i t y. S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 3 F O C U S G R O U P #5 I f w e c an f l i p t o t he t w o f e m al e s and w hat t he y ar e t al k i ng about ? I w a s j us t t hi nki ng m a ybe no t ne c e s s a r i l y gi r l s our a ge but younge r g i r l s w oul d be t hi nki ng be c a us e I ha ve a younge r g i r l l i ke m y da ught e r i s 12, s o I gue s s I t hi nk of w ha t t he y t hi nk w he n t he y w a t c h t ha t t ype o f t hi ng I j us t put w ow I w i s h I l ooke d l i ke t ha t R e a l l y I j u s t w i s h I ha d t he i r m one y. U m i t m us t be a l ot o f f u n t o m a ke t ha t vi de o, ye a h i t 's be t t e r t ha n s c hool T he y w e r e t al k i ng about l ook s and m at e r i al t hi ngs ? Y e a h. M i ne t a l ke d a bout e a c h vi de os w ha t m e a nd m y f r i e nds w oul d t a l k a bout S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 6

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100 l i ke oh t he y l ook l i ke L i nds a y, I m e a n i t w a s j us t n ot ne c e s s a r y. M a ybe t ha t i s a n i s s ue t ha t ne e ds t o be a ddr e s s e d, a bus i ve pa r e nt s W e l l he r da d's a bus i ve A nd t he n, I got J L o's vi de o w a s pr e t t y good, i t ga ve a l ook i nt o one ni gh t a t t he c l ub l i ke a l l t he di f f e r e nt c ha r a c t e r s T ha t w a s j us t bor i ng i t w a s j us t t he t hr e e of t he m up t he r e s i ngi ng. T he y us ua l l y do s uc h c ool vi de os but t hi s one w a s not t oo e xc i t i ng. I f I w e r e a l i t t l e gi r l I w oul d be l i ke L i nds a y ha s r e a l l y bi g boobs a nd J L o ha s a r e a l l y f l a t s t om a c h a nd you know a l l t he gi r l s i n D e s t i ny s C hi l d a r e s ki nny a nd be a ut i f ul L i ke I t hought t he y w e r e t oo s ki nny I m e a n I a m a t hi n pe r s on but I don't t r y, l i ke I e a t M c D ona l ds a nd s t uf f l i ke t ha t M i c he l l e i n t ha t vi de o l ooke d r e a l l y s ki nny, e ve n L i nds a y L oha n s he l ooke d unu s ua l l y s ki nny I t hought s he j us t l ooke d r e a l l y s w e a t y t he w hol e t i m e H e r f a c e i s a l l s hi ny. S he l ooke d, s he got s ki nny or s om e t hi ng H e a l t hy S he w or ke d out a l ot H e r but t w a s r e a l l y bi g, a nd now i t not a s bi g. H e r B ut t w a s he r t r a de m a r k. E ve r yone got r e a l l y s ki nny. I t hi nk i t i s f i ne t he y ha ve pe r s ona l t r a i ne r s I m e a n, t he y'r e w or ki ng ou t a l l t he t i m e t ha t i s t he i r w hol e p oi nt t o be a n i m a ge t o be t hi n a nd be a ut i f ul a nd gor ge ous or w ha t e ve r T he t r ut h of t he m a t t e r i s i f t he y w e r e up t he r e a nd t he y w e r e n't s ki nny or t hi n a nd pr e t t y a nd be a ut i f u l or w ha t e ve r t he y w o ul dn't be up t he r e m a ki ng a l l t ha t c a s h pr oba bl y W e w oul dn't i dol i z e t he m a nym or e M y s pe e c h pe opl e t he y w e r e n't t a l ki ng a bout be i n g s ki nny or a nyt hi ng be c a us e I a m a da nc e r S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 1

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101 A l l I c oul d s e e w a s J L o's s t om a c h s o I don't t hi nk t he r e i s m uc h va l ue i n f oc us i ng on your s t om a c h, w hi l e you'r e s i ngi ng. E ve r yone i s j us t w a t c hi ng l ooki ng a t w ha t t he y a r e w e a r i ng a nd w ha t t he y a r e doi ng a nd no one i s r e a l l y l i s t e ni ng t o t he m us i c W ha t t he y w e a r w ha t t he y l ook a t T he y w e r e de f i ni t e l y t hr e e d i f f e r e nt t ype s of vi de os L i ke t he L oha n v i de o I w a s de f i ni t e l y s pe ndi ng m or e t i m e f oc us i ng on w ha t i s goi ng on i n t he v i de o r a t he r t h a n t he s ong. J L o's vi de o you c a n i de nt i f y w i t h, I ha ve be e n t ha t g i r l a t t he c l ub. D e s t i ny s C hi l d w a s l i ke ok, s he 's w i gg l i ng, ok no w s he 's w i ggl i ng; ok, now s he 's w i ggl i ng on hi s l a p T he y w e r e de f i ni t e l y t ot a l l y oppos i t e you know w ha t I m e a n. I w oul d l i k e t o he ar w hat y our c har ac t e r s di s c us s e d. . J us t a s a s i de ba r I pr e t t y m uc h w r o t e a bout how t he gi r l s vi e w e d t he vi de o s I t h i nk gi r l s m a y l ook a t t he vi de os a nd de p i c t i t out w e l l l ook a t w ha t he 's w e a r i ng a nd I w a nt a guy w ho you kno w be c a us e t he y s e e B e yonc e a nd M i c he l l e a nd pe opl e t he y l ook up t o, you know s i ngi ng a bout you know I w a nt a guy w ho's a s ol di e r a nd w ho h a d r i m s a nd he ha s t hi s ne c kl a c e a nd gol d t e e t h, you know a nd he t hi s i s w ha t t he y w a nt I ha d t he s e t w o gi r l s a nd t he y w e r e t a l ki ng a bout t he vi d e os a nd t he y w e r e l i ke ye a h gi r l you s e e hi s m us c l e s l ook a t B e yonc e da nc i ng a nd I w i s h I c oul d do t ha t a nd s t uf f l i ke t ha t I s t hi s an e nv i ous t one ? N ot a n e nvi ous t one but m o r e I w a nt t o be l i ke t ha t M y l i t t l e c ous i ns t he y s i t i n f r ont of t he T V a nd t h e y w a t c h t he s e vi de os a nd t he y da nc e a l l you know w ha t I 'm s a yi ng, t he da nc i ng a nd t he l a ngua ge t he y us e I m a gi ne a n 8 ye a r ol d w ho i s s i ngi ng I w a nt a s ol di e r w ho c a n c a r r y bi g t hi ngs i f you know w ha t I m e a n s o. T he y m e m or i z e d a nd t he y don't e ve n know w ha t t he y a r e s a yi ng I c a l l e d m y da ught e r s c e l l phone t he ot he r da y a nd s he ha d a s ong on he r vo i c e m a i l t ha t w a s s o i na pp r opr i a t e L ove r s a nd f r i e nds a nd s he i s S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 8

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102 t hi nki ng not hi ng of i t a nd t he s ong i s s a yi ng your l e gs c a n go t he i r s e pa r a t e w a ys I m e a n, s he w a s c l ue l e s s ha d no i de a w ha t t he y w e r e s a yi ng. S he j us t l i ke s t he s ong. T he y ha ve t o be ve r y c a r e f ul o f not onl y t he i r i m a g e but how t he y a r e por t r a ye d. L i ke i f I s a w a nyone dr e s s e d l i ke t he y w e r e w a l ki n g dow n t he s t r e e t I w oul d be l i ke oh m y gos h, s he l ooks l i ke t he bi gge s t s ka nk a nd t ha t m a y j us t be m e be c a us e I a m m or e o f a c ove r up t ype p e r s on, I don't know but l i ke i n T a m pa i f t he y a r e w a l ki ng dow n t he s t r e e t t he y pr oba bl y be s om e ki nd of p r os t i t ut e C or ne r of N e br a s ka S om e pe opl e dr e s s l i ke t ha t a t s c hool E ve n a m ovi e on a F r i da y, w ha t do t he y c a l l t he m pr os t i t ot s ? S he i s t w e l ve a nd s he i s w e a r i ng a t op on up t o he r e w i t h a s hi r t t ha t s a ys bl onde s a r e e a s y. T he y r e a l l y t hi nk t he w hol e c e l e br i t y t hi ng i s r e a l l y how t he y ne e d t o be . . . . . D i d y ou w at c h M T V w he n y ou w e r e y ounge r ? O h ye a h, ye s M y pa r e nt s pr e f e r r e d t ha t I di d not w a t c h W he n I r e m e m be r w a t c hi ng M T V w he n i t f i r s t c a m e out t he r e w e r e a w hol e l ot m o r e vi de os A l l i t w a s w a s m us i c vi de os I m e a n w e us e d t o r a c e hom e t o w a t c h t he ne w e s t P r i nc e vi de o. B e c a us e i t w a s m us i c a nd i t w a s f un a nd i t w a s ne w T hi s i s w ha t I a m g o i ng t o do w i t h m y l i f e K i ds a r e s o i m pr e s s i ona bl e G o do s om e t hi ng, ge t out s i de go do s om e t hi ng. N ow t o t he m al e s S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt s 3, 5, 6 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 3

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103 I w i l l s ha r e a bout t ha t one W i t h t he gi r l s i t w a s l i ke o l ook a t he r c l ot he s a nd w i t h t he guys i t w a s l i ke o you' r e s o hot T he y'r e hot W hat m ak e s t he m hot ? W hy ar e t he y c ons i de r e d hot ? A l ot of pe opl e i t 's s a d, but t he y a r e s o s upe r f i c i a l S he 's hot s he hot P r e t t y w om e n, a t t r a c t i ve I t hi nk s he i s ve r y a t t r a c t i ve O ne of t he m s a i d, oh ye a h, s he 's hot I t i s not l i ke t he y w a nt t o m a r r y he r I w onde r i f he r boobs a r e r e a l N a t ur a l l y good l ooki ng pe opl e a r e on T V Y ou ha ve t o be a t t r a c t i ve I f t he r e a r e a t t r a c t i ve pe opl e you ha ve t o r e s pond t o i t P hys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e So di d any one t al k about t he t al e nt of t he s i nge r s ? I t i s l i ke e ve n i f t he t a l e nt i s not t he r e s he i s s t i l l h ot W e c an m ov e on t o t he guy and t he gi r l S om e t i m e s w he n m e a nd m y boyf r i e nd a r e w a t c hi ng T V a nd t he m us i c vi de o i s on, I a m l i ke w hy you s t a r i ng a t t ha t T V you be t t e r t u r n t ha t of f S he 's up t he r e a nd s he 's da nc i ng, a nd he 's j us t l i ke w ow I ha ve t he s a m e t hi ng a nd I c a n pr oba bl y do i t be t t e r t ha n s he i s doi ng. H e 's j us t l i ke w ha t e ve r I t i s be c a us e t he y a r e f a nt a s i e s L i ke oh t ha t 's . A ny of us c oul d pr oba bl y l ook l i ke t ha t t oo W e c o ul d a l l l ook l i ke a r t i f i c i a l t r a s h. O h ye a h. D a nc i ng a r ound i n b i ki ni i n publ i c I f you s a w a w om a n w a l ki ng dr e s s e d, you w oul d s e e he r you w oul d be l i ke oh l ook! a nd w he t he r you s a i d s he w a s r e a l l y pr e t t y or t ha t s he l ooke d S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 5

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104 l i ke a w hor e i s a m a t t e r of i nt e r pr e t a t i on . . I t m a ke s you f e e l i na de qua t e . Y ou ha ve t o l ook l i ke t ha t a l l t he t i m e I don't t hi nk t ha t guys r e a l l y e xpe c t t ha t t hough I don't t hi nk t he y a r e t ha t s ha l l ow O n t he s ur f a c e t ha t m a y be w ha t guys t a l k a bout b ut I t hi nk i nt e r na l l y t he y don't w a nt t o m a r r y s om e one l i ke t ha t t he y don' t r e a l l y w a nt t o be s e e n out i n publ i c w i t h t hi s pe r s on t ha t s om e pe opl e m a y t hi nk l ooks l i ke a s l ut I j us t t hi nk t ha t m a y be w ha t t he y t hi nk of f i r s t I t i s j us t f or f un, i t 's pur e l y e nt e r t a i ni ng I don't t hi nk t he y t a ke i t s e r i ous l y. A nd I gua r a nt e e t ha t i f a guy w a s s i t t i ng i n he r e r i g ht now he 'd be l i ke uh I don't know I t hi nk s he l ooke d good T he y don't a na l yz e i t I t 's j us t a vi de o. M y guy s a i d, I t hi nk t he r e ne e ds t o be m or e s ki n s how i ng a nd m or e c l e a va ge i n t h e vi de o. T he g i r l s a ys you don't c a r e a bout m e Y ou s ai d t hi s i s pur e e nt e r t ai nm e nt ? I t hi nk i t i s j us t a s e nt e r t a i ni ng f or m e n a s f or w om e n. I t i s not e ve r yda y. I t hi nk i t w o r ks bot h w a ys I t i s j us t l i ke pa y a t t e nt i o n t o m e I t hi nk boys ha ve s i m i l a r i n s e c ur i t i e s I f t he s e v i de os w e r e t o t e l l a s t or y about f e m i ni ni t y and t he r ol e s of t he f e m al e and any k i nd of s t e r e ot y pe s w hat w oul d t he y be t e l l i ng? T he D e s t i ny s C hi l d w a s l i ke I ne e d a m a n t o t a ke c a r e of m e I f t he r e w e r e a ny k i nd of f e m a l e e m pow e r m e nt i t w oul d be pur e l y s e xua l e m pow e r m e nt be c a us e i t w a s t a l ki ng a bout I ne e d a s ol di e r a nd t hi s a nd a l l t he s e m a t e r i a l t hi ngs a nd you know t a ke c a r e of m e ye a h. . D o y ou t hi nk t he y ar e c ont r adi c t or y y ou k now t he l y r i c s I w ant a s ol di e r t o t ak e c ar e of m e and y e t t he y hav e t hi s e m pow e r i ng i nde pe nde nt f r ont ? Y e s ki nd of be c a us e t he y a r e s t a ndi ng t he r e w i t h D obe r m a ns a nd e ve r yt hi ng a nd t r yi ng t o be a l l t ough obvi ous l y I t hi nk t he y w a nt us t o S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6

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105 l ook a t i t l i ke w e a r e nor m a l gi r l s a nd w e ne e d m e n t o t a ke c a r e of us I 'm j us t a gi r l I ne e d a m a n t o t a ke c a r e of m e A l l gi r l s j us t w a nt a guy t o t a ke c a r e of t he m H e r va l ue s ys t e m f or f i ndi ng boys i s a l i t t l e of f I t hi nk t hi s i s w ha t ou r s oc i e t y i s i n ge ne r a l t o s om e de gr e e T hi s i s w ha t pe opl e a r e w a t c hi ng t hi s i s w ha t pe opl e w a nt t o s e e t hi s i s w ha t pe opl e c om e hom e t o a nd w a t c h f or hour s s o obvi ous l y I t hi nk i t ha s s om e t ype of w e l l ye a h, i t i s j us t e nt e r t a i nm e nt but i t i s a r e f e c t i on of w ha t pe opl e r e a l l y w a nt t o s e e T he y w a nt t o s e e a t t r a c t i ve pe opl e a nd i t 's you know vi de os a r e f un a nd w ha t e ve r A s f a r I w a s not t oo t h r i l l e d a bout L i nds a y, I di dn' t r e a l l y ge t i t but t he pa r t t ha t I di d ge t j us t a s f a r a s he r be i ng a younge r pe r s on, you know he r a udi e nc e be i ng a l i t t l e youn ge r I t hi nk o f l i ke m y da ught e r a nd s t uf f j us t t he w a y t he y por t r a ye d he r a s you know s he w a s l i ke a l l br oke n up be c a us e of t hi s guy, you know ? I don't know I a m j us t s o s i c k of l i t t l e gi r l s be i ng br oke n up be c a us e of a guy L i ke s he t a l ks a bout not w a nt i ng t o w a l k a w a y, w h y doe s n't s he j us t w a l k a w a y? I t r e a l l y doe s n't s how a nyt hi ng f o r a ny ki nd o f e m pow e r m e nt f or he r E ve r yt hi ng w a s a l l a bout t he guy, l i ke i f I c a n't ha v e hi m m y l i f e i s ove r a l l br oke n up I s a w a t t he ve r y e nd o f i t t he vi de o got c a ught o f f w he n t he guy w a s ge t t i ng be a t a nd I w a s l i ke w ow di d he di e ? T he n I r e a l i z e d i t w a s j us t a w hol e di f f e r e nt s t or y. I t m a ke s he r l ook s o ne e dy a nd w e a k, a nd he r e I a m s o br oke n he a r t e d a nd s he i s put t i ng he r s e l f i n t he s e ve r y s e r i ous s i t ua t i on s S he i s s ne a ki ng of f t o t he t r a i l e r t o go m e s s a r ound w i t h he r boy f r i e nd, g oi ng t o t he s e pa r t i e s a nd s he i s da t i ng t hi s guy t ha t i s obvi ous l y be i ng be a t e n by he r gua r di a n o r w ha t e ve r s he i s t ur ni ng r e a l l y s e r i ous s t uf f a nd i f t he s e younge r pe opl e w a t c hi ng t he s e t he y a r e go i ng t o w a t c h a nd be l i k e w oa i s t ha t w ha t hi gh S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 2 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7

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106 s c hool i s l i ke ? L i ke oh m y gos h, you know ? L i ke t ha t i s how you s houl d ha ndl e i t t ha t i s w ha t s houl d ha ppe n, r i ght So, r e f l e c t i on of r e al i t y ? E xa c t l y. Y e a h. J L o w a s s he e r e nt e r t a i nm e nt I t w a s ve r y ge n e r i c T he r e w a s n't l i ke a s t or y. I t w a s j us t l i ke you a r e w a t c hi ng i t a nd you don't h a ve t o t hi nk o r a nyt hi ng E xa c t l y, a nd I t hi nk t ha t i s w ha t vi de os a r e s uppos e d t o be Y ou a r e s uppos e d t o w a t c h i t a nd s a y oh t ha t w a s c ool ve r s us oh m y god t ha t pi s s e s m e of f s he l ooks l i ke s uc h a w hor e A d you know I c a n't be l i e ve s he di d t hi s O r l i ke w ha t j us t ha ppe ne d, I don't unde r s t a nd? Y e a h! ha ha W ho i s t he t ar ge t f or t he s e v i de os ? T he t a r ge t a udi e nc e a nyone w ho w i l l w a t c h S om e w ha t younge r I f l i p t hr ough i t T he y a r e doi ng t oo m a ny t hi ngs i t i s a young s ho w M y br ot he r w a t c he s i t a l l t he t i m e he i s f ou r t e e n. T he y w a t c h t he s a m e vi de os ove r a nd ove r a nd ove r a ga i n, w e e k a f t e r w e e k. W ho i s m a ki ng t he s e vi de os ? A l ot of a r t i s t s ha ve a l ot o f pow e r J L o doe s he r o w n vi de os a nd pr oduc i ng, but l i ke t he ot he r a r t i s t s t he y a r e done by 40 ye a r ol d w hi t e bus i ne s s m e n. T he y a r e p r oba bl y be i ng l e d m or e by t he r e c or ds l a be l s S t ude nt 9 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6

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107 F O C U S G R O U P #6 W hat ar e t he t w o f e m al e s t al k i ng about ? I j us t put t ha t L i nds a y L oha n, m y da d ne ve r be a t s up m y boyf r i e nd. H i s da d be a t hi m up O h r e a l l y? I t w a s hi s da d? I t hought t ha t w a s j us t a j oke M a ybe hi s da d t hought t ha t s he w a s l i ke a hooc hi e or s om e t hi ng H e di dn't w a nt hi m t o da t e he r or s om e t hi ng I w a s n't pa y i ng c l os e a t t e nt i on, but w a s s he w i t h t h r e e guys or w a s t ha t t he s a m e guy? I t w a s t he s a m e guy, w e a r i ng d i f f e r e nt t hi ngs I don't know w ha t I w a s w a t c hi ng, I d i dn't s e e t ha t M a ybe s he w a s t r a s hy or e a s y a nd t he da d t hought he c oul d do be t t e r I t houg h t ha t he w a nt e d h i s s on f or hi m s e l f H e w a s ha vi ng a pa r t y he c om e s t o t he pa r t y t o ge t hi s s on. T ha t i s f r e a ky t o m e H e di dn't l ook l us t f ul he w a s a ngr y I t hi nk i t w a s he w a nt e d hi m f or h i m s e l f a nd t he bo y ke e ps goi ng ove r t o he r W ow I w a t c h a l o t of L a w a nd O r de r I s e e a l ot o f t ha t s t uf f D i d any one c om m e nt on t he ot he r t w o v i de os ? M i ne t a l ke d a bout t he D e s t i ny s C hi l d, I s a i d t ha t t w o gi r l s w oul d s a y t ha t t he i r out f i t s w e r e t oo r e ve a l i ng t he i r bodi e s a r e a no r e xi c l ooki ng. I n H ol l yw ood s e x a ppe a l a nd s ki nni ne s s a l w a ys s e l l s a nd w hy c a n't nor m a l a ve r a ge l ooki ng gi r l s ge t on t he r e a nd do t he s a m e t hi ng. W i t h J L o, I s a i d he r out f i t s a r e f a s hi ona bl e but a l w a ys s ki m py a nd he r body l i ke a l w a ys S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5

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108 pe r f e c t i n a l l of t he m M i ne i s j us t l i ke I w onde r w ha t t he i r da ds t hi nk W he n t he y a r e w a t c hi ng i t m y da d w oul d j us t ha ve a f i t E s pe c i a l l y w he n t he y s t a r t e d a s a C hr i s t i a n gr oup, D e s t i ny s C hi l d. M i c he l l e s t i l l i s s he c a m e i nt o m y c hur c h a nd s a ng gos pe l B e yonc e ha d s ol o pr oj e c t s but M i c he l l e a l w a ys ha d he r g os pe l s i de pr oj e c t s M i ne s a ys w hy a r e t he y s o s l ut t y? T he y j us t t a l k a bout how s l ut t y i t i s T he ot he r s a ys I w oul d ne ve r dr e s s l i ke t ha t T he n one of t he m s a ys w a nna ge t s om e t hi ng t o e a t ? A r e w e goi ng t o t he c l ub t oni ght ? C uz i t ki nda t r i gge r s t ha t i de a be c a us e of t he J L o vi de o S e e t he m i n t h e c l ub a nd s t uf f A nd t he ot he r one s a ys L oha n s houl d s t i c k t o a c t i ng. T he l a s t one s a ys w e ne e d t o go s hoppi ng. M T V i s a ba c kgr ound S om e t i m e s t h e y ha ve M T V on i n t he ba c kgr ound not t o r e a l l y w a t c h i t T O j us t h a ve a b a c kgr ound j us t t o. . B ut t he y w at c h i t e nough t o c om m e nt t hat t he gi r l s w e r e s l ut t y ? Y e a h. T he y gl a nc e a t i t a nd i t i s pr e t t y e a s y t o not i c e M y t hi ng w a s t he f a s hi on, you know t ha t 's H ol l yw ood, t ha t 's M T V t ha t i s t he w hol e t hi ng a nd I t hi nk i f you c a n w e a r i t you s houl d w e a r i t A nd t he y c a n w e a r s o t he y do. I t hought e ve r yt hi ng l ooke d r e a l l y good on t he m I f I c oul d w e a r i t I w oul d do i t T ha t i s w ha t m y gi r l s a i d. I t i s m o r e of your be ha vi or I t i s not w ha t you w e a r i t i s how you a c t w he n you w e a r t ha t T he y don't ha ve t o e xpl oi t t he m s e l ve s I t hi nk you c a n a ppr e c i a t e t he f a s hi on. I a gr e e but t he one D e s t i ny s C hi l d, s he w a s j us t w e a r i ng a s w i m s ui t a nd a f ur c oa t L i ke how i s t ha t f a s hi ona bl e I di dn't not i c e I di dn't not i c e S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5

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109 I di dn't not i c e I t i s r e a l l y s ubl i m i na l W ow s he j us t f l a s he d us M os t of m y c onve r s a t i on w a s a r ound t ha t I f t he s e a r e w om e n w ho don't w a nt t o be l ooke d a t a s s e x obj e c t s a nd t he s e a r e t h e i r vi de os t he n w hy w oul dn't t he y, l i ke a l l t he guys i n t he i r vi de os w e r e f ul l y c l ot h e d, c a m e r a a ngl e s w e r e a t t he i r f a c e s i t i s l i ke t hi s i s t he i r m u s i c do t he y w a nt t o be t a ke n s e r i ous l y f or t he i r m us i c ? B e c a us e B e yonc e c a n s i ng, L oha n s uc ks J L o s a l r i ght . but t he D e s t i ny s C hi l d, I m e a n, t he y'r e a m a z i ng, but e ve n t he c a m e r a a ngl e s a nd f l a s hi ng s w i m s ui t s I m e a n, I w a s w onde r i ng i f t ha t vi de o w a s a j oke be c a us e t he i r c a r e e r ha s be e n r e a l l y s e r i ous a nd i t ha s be e n r e a l l y c l a s s y, a nd I di dn't know i f i t w a s s om e t hi ng f un t he y d i d, l i ke a f un p r oj e c t t o l i ght e n t hi ngs up. I t ne ve r s e e m e d l i ke t he y w a nt e d t o c om e a c r os s l i ke f r om t he hood I gue s s or I don't know T he y ha ve c om e f u l l c i r c l e L i ke doi ng e ve r yt hi ng? T he y a r e a ppe a l i ng t o a l l gr oups B e yonc e w i l l a l w a ys be c l a s s y, r e ga r dl e s s of t hi s vi de o I c a n't j udge be c a us e I go t o t he c l ub a nd I dr e s s l i ke t ha t a nd you'r e r i ght i f you go t i t f l a unt i t B ut I s t i l l don't l i ke J L o. I t hi nk J L o s houl d j us t s t i c k t o a c t i ng S he i s not a good pe r s on. S he i s a l w a ys f or publ i c i t y, s he j us t us e s pe opl e t o ge t w he r e s he i s E ve r yone di d s o m e t hi ng t o boos t he r c a r e e r I t hi nk s he i s s o s e l f i s h. . W e l l w hat ar e t he m al e s s ay i ng t o e ac h ot he r ? I s a i d, t he y' r e hot t he y'r e s e xy. S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 3

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110 L i nds a y j us t goe s f r om D i s ne y t o t h i s w ha t i s s he ? I s s he a s i nge r o r a n a c t r e s s I put I w oul d be he r s ol di e r a ny da y. I a m l ook i ng f o r a s ol di e r Y ou w a nt a r e a l s ol di e r S he 's got bi g boobs I s a w t he boobs J L o i s r e a l l y i n t o he r s e l f E ve r yone w a s he r w a s t h a t a l e s bi a n c l ub? T he w om e n w e r e f l i r t i ng w i t h e a c h ot he r W e ne ve r s a w I w onde r i f J L o w a s t he ki d t oo I di dn't unde r s t a nd t ha t vi de o T he r e w a s f i ve m i nu t e s of t a l ki ng. . W ha t I got f r o m i t w a s a l l t he d i f f e r e nt r ol e s w om e n t a ke s he 's a m om a nd s he 's w or ki ng but s he s t i l l ha s t o br i ng t he ki d t o t h e c l ub. T ha t i s he r s i s t e r O h, ne ve r m i nd. T he y w e r e a l l w or ki ng w om e n. . I w oul d put he r he a r t h r ough t he dr y w a l l H e y I a m a C hr i s t i a n. I 'm m a r r i e d I a m j us t s a yi ng, t ha t i s w ha t m y c ha r a c t e r s s a i d. L i nds a y L oha n s uc ks c ha nge t he c ha nne l H e y t ha t 's B e yonc e 's s i s t e r a nd s he i s pr e gna nt t he y j us t ha d t o put t ha t i n t he r e I w a nt t he s e gi r l s A r e t he s e r e gul ar f e m al e s ? T he y ge t m e hor ny I a m l ook i ng f o r a one ni ght o r a s m a ny ni ght s a s pos s i bl e Y ou c oul d s e e he r c he s t w i t h t ha t t s hi r t O h, s he s uc ks a t s i ngi ng but s he i s pr e t t y hot S o you c a n va l ue he r by he r l ooks a nd not by he r t a l e nt s ? R i ght E xc e pt D e s t i ny s C hi l d, be c a us e t he y c a n s i ng a nd t he y a r e pr e t t y S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 5

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111 good a nd t he y l ook pr e t t y good. T he y a r e not a s r e ve a l i ng a s J L o. M i ne w oul d s a y, ni c e body pr e t t y f a c e not I w a nt t o put you r he a d t h r ough t he he a d boa r d. H e f e e l s i t i n hi s l oi ns I t 's l i ke I a m s ur e t ha t L i nds a y L oha n a nd B e yonc e w oul d not a pp r e c i a t e know i ng t ha t w e a r e t a l ki ng a bout t he m l i ke t hi s O h, t he y w a nt t o put m y he a d t hr ough t he dr y w a l l T he y know e xa c t l y w ha t t he y a r e do i ng I t hi nk t he y know I t hi nk t he y know T he y m e a n t o do t ha t T he y know t hi s i s w ha t t he y ne e d t o do t o s e l l r e c or ds I gue s s m y que s t i on i s w hy H e j us t s a i d i t i t s e l l s W hy a r e t he y t r yi ng t o t a r ge t m e n? M a ybe w om e n a r e t r yi ng t o l ook a nd be l i ke t h e m T he y know t ha t w e l i ke i t ba s i c a l l y. S o t ha t w e c a n be de s i r e d a s w e l l ? Y e a h. T ha t i s w hy you w e a r t he s a m e P r a da s hoe s a nd a l l t ha t s a m e c r a p a nd t he t hi ng t ha t B r i t t a ny w e a r s l i ke he r s hi r t s a nd s t uf f I s e e i t a l l ove r c a m pus I ne e d a hus ba nd. . W he n B r i t ne y a nd C hr i s t i na c a m e out t he y w e r e l i ke I w a nt t o be r ol e m ode l s a nd s t uf f l i ke t ha t a nd t he ne xt t hi ng t he y a r e c om i ng out na ke d L ook a t M a donna m a ki ng out l ook a t w ho t he y a r e t a r ge t i ng l e s bi a ns a nd m e n W ho a r e t he y t r yi ng t o s e l l r e c or ds t o, 13, 14 ye a r ol ds I don't know I t hi nk t he y a r e s e l l i ng i t t o you I t hi nk t he y a r e t r yi ng t o s e l l i t t o guys a nd gi r l s M y l i t t l e c ous i n i s 12 a nd s he know s a l l t hi s s t uf f I m e a n t he L i nds a y L oha n t ha t w a s c l e a r l y a t e e na ge pa r t y. S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7

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112 P e opl e w ho know he r f r om D i s ne y t hi nk t ha t i t i s ok. W e c an t al k about t he m al e and f e m al e c onv e r s at i on. M i ne i s a boyf r i e nd a nd gi r l f r i e nd a nd t he guy s a ys da ng ba by w hy c a n't you m ove a nd l ook l i ke t ha t ? S he i s l i ke t ha t i s a l l f or s how D o you t hi nk t he y a l w a ys l ook t ha t good? I f I ha d s om e one f i xi n g a l l m y na i l s a nd a l l I ha d t o do i s s i t t he r e a nd w o r k out a l l da y i f I ha d a l l t ha t m one y s om e one doi ng m y ha i r a nd m a ke up I w oul d l ook l i ke t ha t t oo. W ha t e ve r w hy c a n't you l ook m o r e l i ke D e ns e l l W a s hi ngt on? T he n w h e n t he y ge t ol de r w e know t he r e a l de a l A l l I ha d t o do i s w or k out s om e one i s f i xi ng a l l m y f ood m a ki ng s ur e I e a t j us t r i ght t r a i ne r s I c oul d l ook j us t l i ke t he y do T ha t i s not r e a l i t y. T hi s i s r e a l i t y. T ha t 's not r e a l i t y. I f t he r e i s a m a n l ook i ng f or t ha t t he n he i s goi ng t o be l ooki ng f or t he r e s t of h i s l i f e A nd i f t h i s i s a l l i t t a ke s f or a r e l a t i ons hi p, w hy a r e t he r e s o m a ny di vor c e s i n H o l l yw ood? W hy c a n't one pe r s on m a ke J L ha ppy, or s he c a n't m a ke t hi s pe r s on ha ppy. W ho w oul d di vor c e H a l l i e be r r y i f t ha t i s a l l i t t ook? Y ou kno w w ha t I m e a n? S he 's j e a l ous s he 's pos s e s s i ve a l l of t ha t S he 's i n a bus i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps be c a us e i f t ha t 's a l l i t t ook a nd i t 's m or e t ha n t ha t E xa c t l y, you ge t dow n t o t he r e a l de a l a f t e r a w hi l e R i ght r i ght T o m a ke you r w a i s t s ki nny, m a ke up j us t l i ke B r i t n e y S pe a r s S he l ooks a l l s ki nny a nd good i n t he vi de os but t he n you s e e he r i n t he m a ga z i ne s w a l ki ng i n ga s s t a t i ons w i t hout s hoe s a nd a l l t ha t I he a r d B e yonc e l ooks hor r i bl e w i t hou t m a ke up. I he a r d t ha t a f e w t i m e s T oni B r a xt on w e nt ba nkr upt a nd t he y w e nt t h r oug h he r budge t a nd s he s pe nt t hous a nds a nd t hous a nds of dol l a r s on m a ke up. L i ke O pr a h t oo, di d you e ve r s e e t he pa r t be f o r e t h e s how w he r e t he y s how he r ge t t i ng r e a dy? S he c om e s on a nd you'r e l i ke da m n, t ha t 's O pr a h? S he l ooks t e r r i bl e w i t hou t m a ke up. S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ud e nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 6

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113 S he know s i t 's j us t f o r t he c a m e r a W e w a nt s om e t hi ng t o l ook a t T he s e a r e our f a nt a s y w om e n. I t 's a l l i m a ge f or a m a n t o w a nt hi s w om a n t o l ook l i ke t ha t t he n s w e e t i e I 'm not t he one f or yo u. So do m e n r e al l y w ant t hat ? T he f a ke ne s s ? T he t ons of m a ke up a nd s t uf f ? I t w oul dn't hur t but w e 'r e not go i ng t o r ul e a nyt hi ng e l s e out I t w oul d be ni c e D o you l i ke i t of c our s e w e l i ke i t A s l ong a s your na t u r a l be a ut y, a s l ong a s you a r e hot t he n you don't ne e d a l l t ha t A s l ong a s you a r e ho t na t ur a l l y W e c a n t e l l w he n t he r e i s a l ot of m a ke up us ua l l y. L i ke t ha t c a ke y f a c e s t uf f A l ot of l augh i ng. . I s y our f e m al e j e al ous ? Y e a h, A nd s he i s j us t m a d t ha t I w a nt t o t a ke m y ho r ni ne s s f or L i nds a y o ut on he r B e f or e w a t c hi ng t he vi de o you w e r e n't hor ny, a nd a f t e r you a r e l i ke ye a h, c om e he r e M a ybe s he i s ups e t t ha t i t got hi m ho r ny. I t hi nk t h a t got he r ki nda ups e t L i ke w hy a r e n't I good e nough or a nyt hi ng? W hy i s n't s he ? S om e t hi ng di f f e r e nt T e l l he r t o put on a w i g. I t hi nk t ha t r e a l l y i s t ha t s om e t i m e s ha ppe ns w he r e you j us t l i ke you ha ve S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 1 S t ude nt 1, 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 3 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 8

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114 t o ke e p i t f r e s h. I m e a n w he n you'r e m a r r i e d you g ot t o do di f f e r e nt t hi ngs I f m y m a n j us t s a w t ha t a nd t he n c a m e ont o m e I w oul d be l i ke no w a y you a r e not t a ki ng you r f r us t r a t i on you a r e f e e l i ng f or he r out on m e us i ng m y body. O r but a not he r one w oul d be i f t he gi r l i s a l i t t l e i n s e c ur e a nd s he 's a l i t t l e l i ke a m I not pr e t t y e nough? T he s e gi r l s t he w a y t he y por t r a y t he s e gi r l s i s t ha t t he y w oul d c a l l t he guy, m a ke t he f i r s t m ove a nd t o t a l l y t a ke ove r I f t he s e v i de os w e r e t o t e l l a s t or y about f e m i ni ni t y w hat do y ou t hi nk t he y w oul d be t e l l i ng? S e x. s e x. W e ha ve t o us e our bodi e s t o ge t w ha t w e w a nt i n l i f e I f you a r e be a ut i f ul a nd you ha ve a gr e a t body yo u c a n ge t a l o t m o r e t ha n you know s om e one w ho i s m a ybe ove r w e i ght or n ot a s pr e t t y. I don't t hi nk i t s houl d be l i ke t ha t U nf or t una t e l y, i t i s j us t a s e ns e of r e a l i t y Y e a h, t ha t i s j us t how i t i s W e a r e c ol l e ge e duc a t e d w om e n. I m e a n t h e s e w om e n, m a ybe t he y'l l ge t a be t t e r qu a l i t y of m a n or w ha t e ve r A nd w e c a n ge ne r a l i z e i t a nd s a y t ha t w e a r e i n c ol l e ge a nd w e a r e di f f e r e nt w e a r e t r yi ng t o be t t e r our s e l ve s but I kn ow a l ot o f w om e n i n c ol l e ge w ho t r y t o us e s e x t o t he i r a dva nt a ge Y ou c a n t e l l I m e a n how s om e of t he m t he y r ol l u p t he i r s hor t s M os t of t he m S pa ghe t t i s t r a ps a nd e ve r yt hi ng l i ke t ha t S om e of t he m c om e t o c l a s s dr e s s e d r e a dy f or Y bo r di s c us s i on t r ai l s di s c u s s i ng pe opl e i n t he pr ogr am T hank y ou f or y our t i m e and i np ut S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 5 S t ud e nt 4 S t ude nt 1, 2, 5 8 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 5 S t ude nt 7 S t ude nt 8 S t ude nt 4 S t ude nt 6

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1 M T V ha s c ha nge d i t s f o r m a t s i nc e i t s i nc e pt i on I t i s a c om m on c om pl a i nt a bout M T V t ha t i t doe s not pl a y m us i c vi de os a nym o r e T he r e a r e s e ve r a l s pi n of f s s uc h a V H 1 a nd M T V 2 t ha t f oc us m o r e on m us i c O ne o f t he onl y pr ogr a m s l e f t pl a yi ng m us i c vi de os i s T R L w hi c h i s w hy t h a t p r ogr a m w a s s e l e c t e d f or t hi s s t udy. T he c i t a t i ons us e d i n t he ba c kgr ound of M T V a r e a r e f l e c t i on o f t he t i m e w he n M T V w a s us e d t o a i r m us i c vi de os t he m a j or i t y of t he t i m e 2 R a c e w a s i nt e nt i ona l l y l e f t out of t hi s s t udy, due t o t he s t r i c t f oc us on ge n de r T hi s m a y be c ons i de r e d a l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t udy. R a c e i s a n i m por t a nt f a c t o r i n M T V i t s hi s t or y, a nd i t s i m pa c t i n t he m us i c i ndus t r y M or e i nf or m a t i on on t he hi s t or y o f r a c i a l di s c r i m i na t i on on M T V c a n be f ound a t : ht t p: / / e n. w i ki pe di a o r g/ w i ki / M T V #R a c i a l _di s c r i m i na t i on 3 W hi l e m e n w e r e a pa r t of t he f oc us g r oups t he y d i d not a ppe a r t o i m pa c t t he r e s ul t s T w o gr oups ha d no m e n a nd t hos e r e s pons e s di d not di f f e r f r om t he gr oups w i t h m e n. T he m e n di d s ubs t a nt i a t e w ha t t he w om e n t hought t o be t r ue : t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s a r e t he i de a l f e m a l e f or m t ha t m e n w a nt T he m e n di d voi c e t ha t t he w om e n a r t i s t s a r e s e xua l l y de s i r a bl e a nd t ha t i s t he t ype o f w om e n t ha t t he y w a nt T he w o m e n pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not a ppe a r i nt i m i da t e d o r r e s e r ve d by t he m a l e pr e s e nc e 4 T he s pe e c h bubbl e t ool us e d w i t hi n t hi s s t udy s m e t hodol ogy w a s bor r ow e d f r om D r D e r i na H ol t z ha us e n, w ho i nt r oduc e d t hi s a s a w a y t o i ni t i a t e c onve r s a t i on w i t h i n t he f oc us g r oups T he s pe e c h bubbl e s a l l ow e d t he p a r t i c i pa nt s t o or ga ni z e t he i r t hought s ga ve e ve r yone a c ha nc e t o s pe a k, a nd a l s o a l l ow e d f or une xpe c t e d r e s ul t s


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McKenna, Libby.
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Audience interpretations of the representation of women in music videos by women artists
h [electronic resource] /
by Libby McKenna.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2006.
3 520
ABSTRACT: This study examined how young women audiences may make sense of music videos and how they relate music video messages to their own femininity. Studies of the representation of women in music videos mostly have focused on critiquing content, rather than audience interpretations. This study, using focus groups, looked at how young women interpret music videos featuring women artists and showed that young women perceive sexist and/or stereotypical depictions presented in the videos. During six focus groups, three music videos were reviewed by 49 college students, mostly consisting of young women in their early 20s. The researcher found themes emerging from the discussions recorded during the focus groups. Such themes reaffirmed previous critical scholarship on the content of music videos that women are presented as sex objects and objectified body parts in music videos, that portrayals of women function as unrealistic masculine fantasies, and that the videos contain narratives about cultural expectations for femininity. The results did support prior critical work, but they also uncovered interpretations filled with irony, contradiction, and paradox. This study examined women audience members' interpretations of feminine stereotypes in music videos and found that the women participants felt pressure to meet an impossible standard of an ideal feminine form, as defined by men. The results revealed the participants' concern about their own inadequacies in comparison. Participants generally observed that the women artists in the treatment music videos are not real women, but participants demonstrated a wistful desire to be more like the artists. The present study adds interpretive audience research to the literature on music video content analysis and supports prior conclusions based on content analysis.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Adviser: Kim Golombisky, Ph.D.
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cultural studies
feminism
mass media
popular culture
MTV music videos
women's studies
Feminism.
Mass media.
Popular culture.
MTV music videos.
Women's studies.
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Dissertations, Academic
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x Mass Communications
Masters.
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