USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Late Holocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Orca Basin

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Late Holocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Orca Basin effects of dissolution on faunal assemblages
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Palmer, Denise D
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Gulf of Mexico
Globigerinoides ruber
Interdomal basin
Calcium carbonate
Foraminifera
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Masters -- USF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Studies of planktic foraminifers have been, and continue to be, very important to paleoceanographic reconstructions and are dependent on the integrity of the carbonate tests. This study investigates the methods and procedures that can be used to obtain an accurate planktic foraminifer assemblage. Samples from Orca Basin boxcore OB-BC4D were processed and examined to obtain census data on planktic foraminifers. Experimentation of the splitting technique demonstrates the method is acceptable for estimating a planktic foraminifer assemblage. The effects of a sonication step in the processing of the faunal assemblage were also examined and revealed that sonication is not recommended for processing planktic foraminifers for faunal-assemblage analyses. Census data revealed downcore variation in the foraminifer species and intervals of increased dissolution over the last 1000 years.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Denise D. Palmer.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 36 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001911068
oclc - 173641517
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001693
usfldc handle - e14.1693
System ID:
SFS0026011:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001911068
003 fts
005 20071003095337.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 071003s2006 flu sbm 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0001693
040
FHM
c FHM
035
(OCoLC)173641517
049
FHMM
090
GC11.2 (ONLINE)
1 100
Palmer, Denise D.
0 245
Late Holocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Orca Basin :
b effects of dissolution on faunal assemblages
h [electronic resource] /
by Denise D. Palmer.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2006.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Studies of planktic foraminifers have been, and continue to be, very important to paleoceanographic reconstructions and are dependent on the integrity of the carbonate tests. This study investigates the methods and procedures that can be used to obtain an accurate planktic foraminifer assemblage. Samples from Orca Basin boxcore OB-BC4D were processed and examined to obtain census data on planktic foraminifers. Experimentation of the splitting technique demonstrates the method is acceptable for estimating a planktic foraminifer assemblage. The effects of a sonication step in the processing of the faunal assemblage were also examined and revealed that sonication is not recommended for processing planktic foraminifers for faunal-assemblage analyses. Census data revealed downcore variation in the foraminifer species and intervals of increased dissolution over the last 1000 years.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 36 pages.
590
Adviser: David Hollander, Ph.D.
653
Gulf of Mexico.
Globigerinoides ruber.
Interdomal basin.
Calcium carbonate.
Foraminifera.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Marine Science
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1693



PAGE 1

L a t e H o l o c e n e P l a n k t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a l A s s e m b l a g e s F r o m O r c a B a s i n ; E f f e c t s o f D i s s o l u t i o n o n F a u n a l A s s e m b l a g e s b y D e n i s e D P a l m e r A t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t o f M a r i n e G e o l o g y C o l l e g e o f M a r i n e S c i e n c e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a M a j o r P r o f e s s o r : D a v i d H o l l a n d e r P h D R i c h a r d Z P o o r e P h D T e r r e n c e M Q u i n n P h D D a t e o f A p p r o v a l J u l y 1 0 2 0 0 6 K e y w o r d s : G u l f o f M e x i c o f o r a m i n i f e r a G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r i n t e r d o m a l b a s i n c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e C o p y r i g h t 2 0 0 6 D e n i s e D P a l m e r

PAGE 2

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S T U D Y L O C A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 M E T H O D S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 N o n s o n i c a t e d P r o c e d u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 S o n i c a t e d P r o c e d u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 F a u n a l S p l i t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 R E P L I C A T E E X P E R I M E N T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 E F F E C T S O F P R O C E S S I N G A N D D I S S O L U T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 D I S C U S S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 A P P E N D I C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 A p p e n d i x I : R a w d a t a f o r s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 A p p e n d i x I I : R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t . . . . . . 3 0 A p p e n d i x I I I : R a w d a t a f o r n o n s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 A p p e n d i x I V : R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r n o n s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t . . . 3 4 A p p e n d i x V : T a x o n o m i c n o t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6 i

PAGE 3

i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e 1 S p l i t f r a c t i o n r e f e r e n c e c h a r t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 T a b l e 2 R a r e l y o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s ( > 1 5 0 m ) i n c o r e O B B C 4 D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 T a b l e 3 C e n s u s d a t a a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r c o r e O B B C 4 D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 T a b l e 4 R a w d a t a f o r O B B C 4 D r e p l i c a t e e x p e r i m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6

PAGE 4

i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i g u r e 1 M a p o f G u l f o f M e x i c o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 F i g u r e 2 P l o t o f r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f r o m r e p l i c a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s f r o m i n t e r v a l 2 0 2 5 m m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 F i g u r e 3 P l o t o f r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f r o m r e p l i c a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s f r o m i n t e r v a l 2 5 3 0 m m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 F i g u r e 4 P l o t o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x a n d r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r s o n i c a t e d a n d n o n s o n i c a t e d s p e c i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 F i g u r e 5 V a r i a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e a n d f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x o f s e l e c t e d n o n s o n i c a t e d s p e c i e s d o w n c o r e t o 2 7 5 m m o f c o r e O B B C 4 D . . . . . . . 2 3

PAGE 5

i v L a t e H o l o c e n e P l a n k t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a l A s s e m b l a g e s f r o m O r c a B a s i n ; E f f e c t s o f D i s s o l u t i o n o n F a u n a l A s s e m b l a g e s D e n i s e D P a l m e r A B S T R A C T S t u d i e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s h a v e b e e n a n d c o n t i n u e t o b e v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o p a l e o c e a n o g r a p h i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s a n d a r e d e p e n d e n t o n t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e c a r b o n a t e t e s t s T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e m e t h o d s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t c a n b e u s e d t o o b t a i n a n a c c u r a t e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e S a m p l e s f r o m O r c a B a s i n b o x c o r e O B B C 4 D w e r e p r o c e s s e d a n d e x a m i n e d t o o b t a i n c e n s u s d a t a o n p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s p l i t t i n g t e c h n i q u e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e m e t h o d i s a c c e p t a b l e f o r e s t i m a t i n g a p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e T h e e f f e c t s o f a s o n i c a t i o n s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e w e r e a l s o e x a m i n e d a n d r e v e a l e d t h a t s o n i c a t i o n i s n o t r e c o m m e n d e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s f o r f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e a n a l y s e s C e n s u s d a t a r e v e a l e d d o w n c o r e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e f o r a m i n i f e r s p e c i e s a n d i n t e r v a l s o f i n c r e a s e d d i s s o l u t i o n o v e r t h e l a s t 1 0 0 0 y e a r s

PAGE 6

1 I N T R O D U C T I O N F a u n a l a n d c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s p r e s e r v e d i n d e e p s e a s e d i m e n t s a r e c o m m o n l y u s e d t o e s t i m a t e s e a s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s ( S S T ) ( I m b r i e a n d K i p p 1 9 7 1 K i p p 1 9 7 6 ) p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n w i t h h i g h e r a b u n d a n c e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n f e r s ( M i x 1 9 8 9 ) a n n u a l t e m p e r t a t u r e a s a f u n c t i o n o f m i x e d l a y e r d e p t h i n t h e t r o p i c a l A t l a n t i c ( R a v e l o e t a l 1 9 9 0 ) a n d t h e r m o c l i n e d e p t h i n t h e t r o p i c a l P a c i f i c ( A n d r e a s o n a n d R a v e l o 1 9 9 7 ) P l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a a r e s i n g l e c e l l e d p r o t o z o a n s w h i c h l i v e i n t h e h i g h l a t i t u d e p o l a r o c e a n s t o t h e w a r m t r o p i c a l s e a s T h e y s e c r e t e a c a l c a r e o u s t e s t m a d e o f c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e w h i c h r e c o r d s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e w a t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h e r e t h e y f o r m e d T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n p r e s e n t d a y e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r a n a l y s e s o f f o s s i l p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a l a s s e m b l a g e s ( B e 1 9 6 7 ) E a r l y s t u d i e s c o m p a r i n g f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e s f r o m p l a n k t o n t o w s t o w a t e r c o l u m n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( t e m p e r a t u r e s a l i n i t y t h e r m o c l i n e ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e m o s t h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o S S T s a l i n i t y a n d n u t r i e n t s ( B e r g e r 1 9 6 9 ) A l t e r a t i o n o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a s s e m b l a g e s b y s e l e c t i v e r e m o v a l o f s p e c i e s d u e t o s e a f l o o r d i s s o l u t i o n c o u l d m a s k t h e s e p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( P a r k e r a n d B e r g e r 1 9 7 1 ; C o u l b o u r n e t a l 1 9 8 0 ) a n d m a y i n f l u e n c e p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s b a s e d o n r e l a t i v e s p e c i e s a b u n d a n c e s ( B e r g e r 1 9 7 0 ) P l a n k t i c f o a m i n i f e r s f a l l i n t o t w o g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s S p i n o s e f o r m s s u c h a s t h e s p e c i e s G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r h a v e s p i n e s f r o m 1 3 m m l o n g t h a t r a d i a t e o u t f r o m t h e

PAGE 7

2 s u r f a c e o f t h e i r s h e l l I n c o n t r a s t s p e c i e s s u c h a s G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i l a c k s p i n e s a n d a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s n o n s p i n o s e f o r m s ( P a r k e r 1 9 6 2 ) A l t h o u g h m o s t i f n o t a l l s p e c i e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s a r e o m n i v o r o u s i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s a r e m o s t l i k e l y h e r b i v o r e s o r c a r n i v o r e s I n g e n e r a l t h e s p i n o s e s p e c i e s a p p e a r t o b e p r e d o m i n a t e l y c a r n i v o r o u s a n d t h e n o n s p i n o s e s p e c i e s p r e d o m i n a t e l y h e r b i v o r o u s ( B 1 9 6 7 ) T h i s m a y e x p l a i n w h y t h e c a r n i v o r o u s s p i n o s e s p e c i e s G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s s a c c u l i f e r a n d G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s c o n g l o b a t u s a m o n g o t h e r s u s u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e t h e b u l k o f t h e f o r a m i n i f e r p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e m i x e d z o n e o f t h e S a r g a s s o S e a a n d o t h e r n u t r i e n t p o o r o c e a n i c r e g i o n s ( B a n d T o l d e r l a n d 1 9 7 1 ) M o r e o v e r t h e s p i n o s e s p e c i e s p o s s e s s y m b i o t i c o r c o m e n s a l a l g a e w h i c h m a n u f a c t u r e a d d i t i o n a l n u t r i e n t s t o s u s t a i n t h e i r h o s t s i n a n o l i g o t r o p h i c e n v i r o n m e n t T h i s m a y a l s o e x p l a i n i n p a r t w h y t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r i n c i d e n c e o f n o n s p i n o s e s p e c i e s i n e u t r o p h i c w a t e r s a n d u p w e l l i n g r e g i o n s w h e r e h i g h p h y t o p l a n k t o n p r o d u c t i v i t y o c c u r s ( B a n d T o l d e r l a n d 1 9 7 1 ) T h e d e p t h h a b i t a t o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s i s p r e d o m i n a t e l y i n t h e e u p h o t i c z o n e w h e r e t h e i r p h y t o p l a n k t o n a n d z o o p l a n k t o n f o o d o c c u r i n h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s S y m b i o n t b e a r i n g s p e c i e s s u c h a s G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( p i n k a n d w h i t e v a r i e t i e s ) a n d G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s s a c c u l i f e r a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e u p p e r p h o t i c z o n e i n n e a r s u r f a c e w a t e r s ( 0 6 5 m ) w h e r e a s s p e c i e s t h a t a r e s y m b i o n t f r e e s u c h a s P u l l e n i a t i n a o b l i q u i l o c u l a t a a n d G l o b i g e r i n a c a l i d a a r e n o t l i m i t e d b y l i g h t a n d c a n r e s i d e i n d e e p e r w a t e r s ( 1 0 5 2 0 0 m ) ( B 1 9 6 7 ) M a j o r s t u d i e s h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m l i v i n g o r g a n i s m t o c a r b o n a t e t e s t r a t e s o f s i n k i n g a n d e x t e n t o f d i s s o l u t i o n i n t h e w a t e r c o l u m n a n d o n t h e s e a b o t t o m

PAGE 8

3 ( T h u n e l l a n d H o n j o 1 9 8 1 ) A n e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s i n s e d i m e n t t r a p s a m p l e s w a s c o n d u c t e d f r o m t h e c e n t r a l A t l a n t i c a n d t h e t r o p i c a l P a c i f i c o c e a n s T h u n e l l a n d H o n j o ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o u n d a d e c r e a s e i n c a r b o n a t e f l u x w i t h d e p t h a t b o t h s i t e s T h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s v a r i e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n d e p t h a s w e l l F o r m a l l y d i a g e n e s i s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d t o s t a r t u n t i l t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r t e s t r e a c h e s t h e s e a f l o o r b u t p e l a g i c c a r b o n a t e s c a n b e a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t w e e n d e a t h i n t h e u p p e r w a t e r c o l u m n a n d d e p o s i t i o n o n t h e s e a f l o o r ( M i l l i m a n e t a l 1 9 9 9 ) C a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e i s m o r e a b u n d a n t i n A t l a n t i c O c e a n s e d i m e n t s a n d g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s i n s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t s t o d e e p e r d e p t h s t h a n i n P a c i f i c O c e a n s e d i m e n t s T h i s i s d u e t o t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n b e i n g l e s s s a t u r a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e t h a n A t l a n t i c O c e a n w a t e r s A n o t h e r f a c t o r l e a d i n g t o b e t t e r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e i n A t l a n t i c s e d i m e n t s i s d u e t o t h e h i g h e r i n f l u x o f t e r r i g e n o u s m a t e r i a l s i n t h e A t l a n t i c w h i c h a l l o w s t h e c a r b o n a t e t o b e b u r i e d a n d t h e r e f o r e p r e s e r v e d ( A r c h e r 1 9 9 6 b ) P r o d u c t i v i t y i n t h e o v e r l y i n g w a t e r s d u e t o u p w e l l i n g c a n c a u s e h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t o b e d e p o s i t e d A f i n a l m a j o r f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t h e r e l a t i v e C a C O 3 t o o r g a n i c c a r b o n r a i n r a t i o b e c a u s e o x i d a t i o n o f s e d i m e n t a r y o r g a n i c m a t t e r c a n d e c r e a s e t h e s a t u r a t i o n o f p o r e w a t e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o C a C O 3 b y i n c r e a s i n g p C O 2 ( M e k i k e t a l 2 0 0 2 ) T h e c a r b o n a t e c o m p e n s a t i o n d e p t h ( C C D ) ( B r a m l e t t e 1 9 6 1 ) i s t h e b o u n d a r y i n t h e w a t e r c o l u m n w h e r e t h e d i s s o l u t i o n i s e q u a l t o t h e f l u x a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f C a C O 3 b e l o w t h i s d e p t h i s u n l i k e y T h e l y s o c l i n e ( B e r g e r 1 9 6 8 ) i s t h e r e g i o n i n t h e w a t e r c o l u m n

PAGE 9

4 w h e r e t h e r a t e o f d i s s o l u t i o n r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e s a n d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l a c k o f t h i n s h e l l e d f o r a m i n i f e r s o r p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s t h a t s h o w s i g n s o f d i s s o l u t i o n a n d w a s d e f i n e d b y B e r g e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) a s t h e d e p t h w h e r e t h e d o m i n a n t t y p e o f f o r a m i n i f e r a s h i f t s f r o m s o l u b l e t o r e s i s t a n t s p e c i e s i n b o t t o m s e d i m e n t s A s t h e w a t e r d e p t h i n c r e a s e s a r a g o n i t i c p t e r o p o d s a r e t h e f i r s t t o d i s a p p e a r f o l l o w e d b y t h e s m a l l a n d d e l i c a t e t y p e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s u n t i l o n l y f r a g m e n t s o f t h e r o b u s t t h i c k s h e l l e d f o r a m i n i f e r s r e m a i n i n t h e s u r f a c e s e d i m e n t s R e s i s t a n c e t o s o l u t i o n i n p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i e s ( B e r g e r 1 9 6 8 ) A t s h a l l o w t o i n t e r m e d i a t e s e a f l o o r d e p t h s ( < 3 0 0 0 m ) f o r a m i n i f e r a l t e s t s t e n d t o b e w e l l p r e s e r v e d i n b o t t o m s e d i m e n t s T h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c a r b o n a t e s h e l l s a n d s k e l e t o n s d i f f e r s a n d t h e w a l l t e x t u r e s d i c t a t e t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d i s s o l u t i o n F o r e x a m p l e t h e s m o o t h w a l l e d G l o b o r o t a l i a a r e h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o d i s s o l u t i o n w h e r e a s t h e c r a t e r e d w a l l o f G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s a r e m o s t s u s c e p t i b l e t o d i s s o l u t i o n T h e G l o b i g e r i n a f o r m s s h o w e l o n g a t e d s p i n e s i n w e l l p r e s e r v e d s a m p l e s a n d t e n d t o s h o w a m e d i u m r e s i s t a n c e t o d i s s o l u t i o n S t u d i e s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s h a v e b e e n a n d c o n t i n u e t o b e a v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o p a l e o c e a n o g r a p h i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s a n d a r e d e p e n d a n t o n t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e t e s t s T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e m e t h o d s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t c a n b e u s e d t o o b t a i n a n a c c u r a t e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e t o c o m p l e t e a c e n s u s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e s i n a b o x c o r e f r o m t h e O r c a B a s i n a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a n y a s s e m b l a g e c h a n g e s t h a t w e r e o b s e r v e d

PAGE 10

5 w i t h d e p t h i n t h e c o r e a n d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n y d i s s o l u t i o n f o u n d w a s d u e t o m e t h o d o l o g y o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s S T U D Y L O C A T I O N T h e O r c a B a s i n i s c e n t e r e d n e a r 2 6 5 7 N l a t i t u d e a n d 9 1 1 9 W l o n g i t u d e o n t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s l o p e s o u t h w e s t o f L o u i s i a n a ( F i g u r e 1 ) I t i s a s m a l l i n t e r d o m a l b a s i n t h a t i s e l b o w s h a p e d t h a t i s 2 5 k m l o n g a n d 5 k m t o 6 k m w i d e T h e l o n g a x i s o f t h e b a s i n t r e n d s n o r t h e a s t t o s o u t h w e s t a n d t h e b a s i n r i m l i e s b e t w e e n 1 7 0 0 m a n d 1 9 0 0 m w a t e r d e p t h a n d t h e b a s i n f l o o r i s l o c a t e d a t a d e p t h o f a b o u t 2 4 0 0 m s u b b a s i n o n t h e s o u t h w e s t s i d e s e p a r a t e d b y a s a d d l e ( 2 1 5 8 m ) i n t h e c e n t e r T h e s u b b a s i n s h a v e a 2 0 0 m t h i c k h y p e r s a l i n e ( 2 5 0 p p m ) a n o x i c b r i n e l a y e r o v e r t h e f l o o r d u e t o t h e e r o s i o n o f s a l t d i a p e r s w i t h o x i c c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g e l s e w h e r e i n t h e b a s i n ( S h o k e s e t a l 1 9 7 7 ; M c K e e e t a l 1 9 7 8 ; T r a b a n t a n d P r e s l e y 1 9 7 8 ) B o x c o r e O B B C 4 D w a s c o l l e c t e d o n t h e g e n t l e n o r t h w e s t e r n s l o p e o f t h e O r c a B a s i n t o r e d u c e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g s e d i m e n t s t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t t o s l u m p i n g

PAGE 11

6 F i g u r e 1 M a p o f G u l f o f M e x i c o O r c a B a s i n i s l o c a t e d S W o f L o u i s i a n a o n t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s l o p e B a s i n r i m l i e s b e t w e e n 1 7 0 0 1 9 0 0 m a n d b a s i n d e p t h i s 2 4 0 0 m

PAGE 12

7 M E T H O D S B o x c o r e O B B C 4 D w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e g e n t l e w e s t e r n s l o p e o f t h e o x i c O r c a B a s i n f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h v e s s e l R V L o n g h o r n i n J u n e 2 0 0 3 ( F i g u r e 1 ) T h e 5 5 c m b o x c o r e w a s s u b c o r e d o n b o a r d a n d s a m p l e s w e r e e x t r u d e d a t c m i n t e r v a l s f r o m t h e c o r e a n d p p l a c e d i n 2 o z j a r s a n d f r o z e n T h e O B B C 4 D s u b s a m p l e s w e r e s t o r e d i n a d e e p f r e e z e r a t C o l l e g e o f M a r i n e S c i e n c e S t P e t e r s b u r g F l o r i d a u n t i l a n a l y s e s b e g a n i n J u n e 2 0 0 5 F a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s u b s a m p l e s e t s i n t h e u p p e r 2 7 c m o f t h e c o r c o r e N o n s o n i c a t e d P r o c e d u r e S a m p l e s f r o m O B B C 4 D w e r e p r o c e s s e d w i t h a n d w i t h o u t a s o n i c a t i o n s t e p S a m p l e s e t s f r o m e q u i v a l e n t d e p t h s w e r e p r o c e s s e d s e p a r a t e l y F o r n o n s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t t h e m u d a n d s e d i m e n t s a m p l e w a s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e f r e e z e r a n d p l a c e d i n a s m a l l t r a y w i t h c o l d w a t e r t o d e f r o s t f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e m i n u t e s A c l e a n N a l g e n e b o t t l e w a s l a b e l e d a n d f i l l e d h a l f w a y w i t h d e i o n i z e d ( D I ) w a t e r A p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 m l o f s o d i u m m e t a p h o s h a t e ( N a P O 4 ) w a s a d d e d t o t h e D I w a t e r M u d w a s g e n t l y r e m o v e d f r o m t h e j a r a n d p l a c e d i n t h e D I N a P O 4 s o l u t i o n T h e s a m p l e w a s t h e n a g i t a t e d o n a N e w B r u n s w i c k S c i e n t i f i c i n n O v a 2 1 0 0 p l a t f o r m s h a k e r a t 1 7 2 r p m f o r 2 h o u r s u n t i l w e l l s e p a r a t e d T h e s a m p l e w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o a w e t s i e v e ( 6 3 P f D Q G J H Q W O \ Z D V K H G Z L W K Z D W H U ) L O W H U p a p e r w a s l a b e l e d a n d i n s e r t e d i n t o a f u n n e l a n d t h e s a m p l e w a s c a r e f u l l y w a s h e d i n t o t h e

PAGE 13

8 f u n n e l t o a l l o w e x c e s s w a t e r t o d r i p f o r 2 4 h o u r s T h e s a m p l e s w e r e p l a c e d o n t h e t o p r a c k i n a c l e a n o v e n a t 5 0 F t o d r y f o r 1 2 2 4 h o u r s T h e s a m p l e s w e r e d r y s i e v e d P f D Q G S O D F H G L Q D V D P S O H Y L D O O D E H O H G P I R U W K H F R D U V H V D P S O H D Q G P I R U W K H I L Q H V D P S O H 7 K H P V D P S O H Y L D O V Z H U H V W R U H G S o n i c a t e d P r o c e d u r e F o r t h e s e c o n d s u b s e t t h e p r o c e s s w a s t h e s a m e e x c e p t a f t e r t h e 6 3 u m w e t s i e v i n g s t e p W K H P S D U W R I W K H V D P S O H Z D V U H V X V S H Q G H G L Q D P O E H D N H U L Q a P O R I Z D W H U a n d s o n i c a t e d i n a F i s h e r S c i e n t i f i c F S 2 0 s o n i c a t o r f o r 8 s e c o n d s T h i s s a m p l e s e t i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e s o n i c a t e d s u b s a m p l e s e t F a u n a l S p l i t T h e f a u n a l s p l i t t i n g p r o c e d u r e i s a s f o l l o w s A s p r e a d s h e e t w i t h c o r e s a m p l e i n t e r v a l s p l i t f r a c t i o n n u m b e r o f p l a n k t i c s a n d c o m m e n t s c o l u m n w a s c o n s t r u c t e d S t a r t i n g w i t h D V D P S O H Y L D O R I P V L ] H I U D F W L R Q W K H V D P S O H Z D V G U \ V L H Y H G P f W R E H V X U H D O O P D W H U L D O Z D V L Q W K H P V L ] H I U D F W L R Q 7 K H P I U D F W L R Q V D P S O H Z D V V S O L W X Q W L O W K H s p l i t c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s h o w e v e r t h e r e a r e s a m p l e s t h a t c o n t a i n m o r e o r l e s s p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s T o o b t a i n t h e f a u n a l s p l i t w e s t a r t e d w i t h a c l e a n w o r k s u r f a c e b r u s h e s t r a y s t h r e e h o l d i n g t r a y s m i c r o s p l i t t e r ( 2 2 5 ; ; f D Q D L U F D Q D Q G W Z R G H Q R P L Q D W R U V T h e m i c r o s p l i t t e r w a s s e t u p w i t h t w o h o l d i n g t r a y s u n d e r n e a t h a n d t h e d e n o m i n a t o r p l a c e d t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e m i c r o s p l i t t e r A 2 8 p l y 6 0 s q u a r e c a r d b o a r d s l i d e w a s l a b e l e d

PAGE 14

9 w i t h n a m e o f c o r e s a m p l e i n t e r v a l a n d s i z e f r a c t i o n a n d t h e n a s s e m b l e d w i t h t h e g l a s s m i c r o s l i d e a n d m e t a l s l i d e h o l d e r T h e s l i d e w a s t h e n p l a c e d o n a b l a c k m e t a l g r i d t r a y a n d p u t a s i d e T h e > 1 5 0 P V D P S O H Z D V W U D Q V I H U U H G L Q W R D Q D O X P L Q X P Z H L J K L Q J W U D \ D Q G W K H Q c a r e f u l l y p o u r e d i n t o t h e t o p o f t h e m i c r o s p l i t t e r m o v i n g e v e n l y a c r o s s t h e c h u t e s T h e w e i g h i n g t r a y w a s t a p p e d g e n t l y w i t h a b r u s h t o r e m o v e a l l m a t e r i a l t h e m i c r o s p l i t t e r w a s g e n t l y t a p p e d a n d t h e s u r f a c e s o f t h e m i c r o s p l i t t e r w e r e b r u s h e d t o e n s u r e a l l r e m a i n i n g s a m p l e w e n t d o w n t h e c h u t e s a n d i n t o t h e h o l d i n g t r a y s T h e d e n o m i n a t o r w a s h i t t o r e a d 1 T h e h o l d i n g t r a y o n t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e m i c r o s p l i t t e r w a s r e m o v e d p o u r e d i n t o t h e w e i g h i n g t r a y a n d r e p l a c e d T h i s p r o c e s s w a s r e p e a t e d a n d e a c h s p l i t w a s r e c o r d e d o n t h e d e n o m i n a t o r u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 0 3 5 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s r e m a i n e d i n t h e h o l d i n g t r a y o n t h e r i g h t s i d e E y e b a l l i n g t h e c o r r e c t a m o u n t c a m e w i t h e x p e r i e n c e a n d v a r i e s w i t h e a c h c o r e A t h i r d h o l d i n g t r a y w a s u s e d t o c a t c h h a l f o f t h e l a s t s p l i t i n c a s e t h e e s t i m a t e w a s l o w a n d m o r e m a t e r i a l w a s n e e d e d t o b e a d d e d t o r e a c h 3 0 0 3 5 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s W h e n t h e s a m p l e l o o k e d t o b e a b o u t t h e r i g h t s i z e i t w a s p o u r e d o n t o a b l a c k g r i d t r a y a n d c o u n t e d w i t h a s e c o n d d e n o m i n a t o r F r a g m e n t s o r b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r s w e r e n o t c o u n t e d I t w a s i m p o r t a n t t o d e c i d e a h e a d o f t i m e i f t h e f o r a m i n i f e r s o n t h e l i n e s w o u l d b e c o u n t e d w i t h t h e s q u a r e t o t h e t o p o r b o t t o m r i g h t o r l e f t o f t h e l i n e a n d t o r e m a i n c o n s i s t e n t I f t h e s l i d e c o n t a i n e d 3 0 0 3 5 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s t h e s p l i t t i n g w a s d o n e I f t h e s l i d e c o n t a i n e d > 3 5 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s s p l i t t i n g w a s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e c o r r e c t a m o u n t w a s r e a c h e d I f t h e s l i d e c o n t a i n e d < 3 0 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s m a t e r i a l w a s

PAGE 15

1 0 a d d e d f r o m t h e 3 r d h o l d i n g t r a y t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e l a s t s p l i t u n t i l t h e c o r r e c t a m o u n t w a s r e a c h e d T h e r e a r e a f e w s l i d e s t h a t h a v e m o r e o r l e s s o f t h e i d e a l 3 0 0 p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s h o w e v e r t h e y a r e m i n i m a l a n d w o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e c e n s u s W h e n t h e s p l i t t i n g w a s f i n i s h e d t h e s a m p l e w a s p l a c e d o n t h e 2 8 p l y s l i d e c o v e r e d w i t h t h e g l a s s s l i d e a n d t h e f r a c t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e w a s c a l c u l a t e d ( b y t a k i n g t h e n u m b e r o f s p l i t s f r o m t h e f i r s t d e n o m i n a t o r a n d c o n v e r t i n g t o f r a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S p l i t f r a c t i o n t a b l e ) ( T a b l e 1 ) T h e s p l i t a n d n u m b e r o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s w e r e e n t e r e d o n s p r e a d s h e e t a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g s a m p l e r e t u r n e d t o t h e > 1 5 0 P Y L D O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 / 2 1 / 4 1 / 8 1 / 1 6 1 / 3 2 1 / 6 4 1 / 1 2 8 1 / 2 5 6 1 / 5 1 2 1 / 1 0 2 4 1 / 2 0 4 8 T a b l e 1 S p l i t f r a c t i o n r e f e r e n c e c h a r t T o p r o w r e p r e s e n t s n u m b e r o f s p l i t s B o t t o m r o w r e p r e s e n t s f r a c t i o n o f s p e c i m e n s f o r t h e s u b s a m p l e s e t T h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s p e c i m e n s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g a N i k o n S M Z 2 T s t e r e o m i c r o s c o p e a n d c o u n t e d t o o b t a i n t h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f t h e s p e c i e s a n d s p e c i e s g r o u p s ( T a b l e s 2 a n d 3 ) A n E x c e l s p r e a d s h e e t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h c o r e i n t e r v a l p l o t t i n g d e p t h a l l s p e c i e s o b s e r v e d b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r s f r a g m e n t s t o t a l p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s a n d c o m m e n t s e c t i o n A m a p w a s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h 6 0 s q u a r e s t o m a t c h t h e 2 8 p l y s l i d e a n d l a b e l e d w i t h t h e c o r e i n t e r v a l s i z e f r a c t i o n a n d c o m m e n t l i n e s

PAGE 16

1 1 A n a d h e s i v e w a s p r e p a r e d b y a d d i n g a c o u p l e o f d r o p s o f E l m e r s g l u e t o a s m a l l v i a l o f D I w a t e r a n d a p p l i e d t o t h e 2 8 p l y s l i d e w i t h a s m a l l b r u s h T h e s p e c i m e n s w e r e a d h e r e d t o t h e s l i d e u s i n g a s i z e 0 s c r i p t p a i n t b r u s h w h i l e c a r e f u l l y l a b e l i n g t h e m a p w i t h t h e p r o p e r l o c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r s a n d f r a g m e n t s T h e r e s u l t s w e r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e E x c e l s p r e a d s h e e t f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s

PAGE 17

1 2 T a x o n G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s t e n e l l u s G l o b i g e r i n a d i g i t a t a G l o b i g e r i n a r u b e s c e n s G l o b i g e r i n a b u l l o i d e s G l o b i g e r i n a f a l c o n e n s i s G l o b i g e r i n i t a i o t a G l o b i g e r i n a p a c h y d e r m a ( d u p a c ) G l o b i g e r i n a p a c h y d e r m a ( r i g h t c o i l i n g ) G l o b o r o t a l i a c r a s s i f o r m i s G l o b o r o t a l i a i n f l a t a G l o b o r o t a l i a t o s a e n s i s G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a C a n d e i n a n i t i d a S p h a e r o i d i n e l l a d e h i s c e n s H a s t i g e r i n a p e l a g i c a N o n i d e n t i f i e d T a b l e 2 R a r e l y o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s ( > 1 5 0 P f i n c o r e O B B C 4 D T h e s p e c i e s l i s t e d a r e p l a c e d i n o t h e r ( O T ) c a t e g o r y i n c e n s u s d a t a D u p a c r e f e r s t o G l o b i g e r i n a p a c h y d e r m a i f s p e c i e s i s r i g h t c o i l i n g a n d h a s m o r e t h a n f o u r c h a m b e r s

PAGE 18

1 3 H e a d i n g s C o d e G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( w h i t e ) r u b W G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( p i n k ) r u b P G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s s a c c u l i f e r s a c G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s c o n g l o b a t u s c o n G l o b i g e r i n a c a l i d a c a l G l o b i g e r i n e l l a a e q u i l a t e r a l i s a e q G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a g l u P u l l e n i a t i n a o b l i q u i l o c u l a t a a n d P f i n a l i s o b l O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a o r b G l o b o q u a d r i n a d u t e r t r e i d u t G l o b o r o t a l i a t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e s t r u G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i m e n G l o b o r o t a l i a t u m i d a t u m G l o b o r o t a l i a u n g u l a t a u n g O t h e r O T B e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r s b e n F r a g m e n t s f r a g T o t a l G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( p i n k a n d w h i t e ) T r u b G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i g r o u p ( G m e n a r d i i G t u m i d a G u n g u l a t a T m e n T o t a l p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s T p l k T o t a l P l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s + B e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r s T P + B I n t e r v a l D e p t h ( m m ) d e p t h m m T a b l e 3 C e n s u s d a t a a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r c o r e O B B C 4 D

PAGE 19

1 4 R E P L I C A T E E X P E R I M E N T T h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f s p e c i e s a n d s p e c i e s g r o u p s o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s i n s a m p l e s f r o m c o r e O B B C 4 D w e r e e s t i m a t e d b y i d e n t i f y i n g a n d c o u n t i n g s p e c i m e n s i n a 3 0 0 s p e c i m e n s u b s a m p l e o r c o u n t i n g s p l i t f r o m t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s e d s a m p l e i n t h e > 1 5 0 u m s i z e f r a c t i o n T o t e s t t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s t h r e e s e p a r a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s w e r e o b t a i n e d a n d t a b u l a t e d f r o m t w o s a m p l e s O B B C 4 D 2 0 2 5 m m a n d O B B C 4 D 2 5 3 0 m m ( T a b l e 4 ) R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e w a s c a l c u l a t e d a s n u m b e r o f a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s d i v i d e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f t o t a l p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s i n t h e s u b s a m p l e T h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f s p e c i e s a n d s p e c i e s g r o u p s i n t h e t h r e e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s f r o m e a c h s a m p l i n g l e v e l w e r e t h e n c o m p a r e d ( F i g u r e s 3 a n d 4 ) T h e r e s u l t s a r e s h o w n i n F i g u r e s 2 a n d 3 I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t s p e c i e s a b u n d a n c e s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r i n t h e r e p l i c a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s f r o m e a c h s a m p l e F o r e x a m p l e s a m p l e i n t e r v a l 2 0 2 5 m m G r u b e r ( p i n k v a r i e t y ) h a s r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e v a l u e s o f 1 3 t o 1 4 % w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 1 3 5 % L i k e w i s e i n s a m p l e 2 5 3 0 G r u b e r ( p i n k v a r i e t y ) h a s v a l u e s o f 1 2 % r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r a l l t h r e e s a m p l e s p l i t s G l o b o r o t a l i a t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e s i l l u s t r a t e s s i m i l a r v a l u e s i n r e p l i c a t e s p l i t s w i t h v a l u e s b e t w e e n 9 t o 1 2 % r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e i n s a m p l e i n t e r v a l 2 0 2 5 m m w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 1 0 % a n d v a l u e s f r o m 1 0 t o 1 1 % w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 1 0 5 % i n s a m p l e i n t e r v a l 2 5 3 0 m m T h e r e p l i c a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s i l l u s t r a t e c o n s i s t e n c y i n e a c h s a m p l e a n d i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s p l i t t i n g t e c h n i q u e u s e d p r o d u c e d

PAGE 20

1 5 a c o n s i s t e n t e s t i m a t e o f t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a l a s s e m b l a g e i n t h e s a m p l e s f r o m O B B C 4 D .

PAGE 21

d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T T p l k b e n f r a g T P + B T r u b T m e n 2 0 2 5 A 6 4 4 7 1 6 1 0 2 9 1 5 1 4 5 2 6 2 3 3 4 2 6 4 1 0 3 5 0 4 8 5 3 5 4 1 1 1 3 0 2 0 2 5 B 7 7 4 9 2 3 4 2 5 1 9 1 7 4 8 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 9 9 3 5 4 1 1 8 2 3 6 5 1 2 6 1 9 2 0 2 5 C 6 8 4 6 1 6 9 2 3 8 1 3 5 6 1 9 1 7 4 1 2 4 1 3 7 3 5 1 7 7 0 3 5 8 1 1 4 2 8 A V G 7 0 4 7 1 8 8 2 6 1 4 1 5 5 2 1 2 2 1 3 5 2 3 2 1 8 3 5 2 7 7 9 3 5 9 1 1 7 2 6 2 5 3 0 A 6 3 3 7 1 5 3 2 9 1 6 1 2 4 0 1 3 2 2 3 1 1 6 2 5 1 0 3 1 4 4 9 1 3 1 8 1 0 0 2 3 2 5 3 0 B 6 8 3 6 1 4 6 1 4 1 0 1 7 4 0 9 1 5 3 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 8 9 8 6 4 2 9 7 1 0 4 1 7 2 5 3 0 C 6 0 3 7 2 1 4 3 1 1 5 1 2 3 7 1 6 1 7 3 3 1 5 4 4 1 1 3 1 7 7 7 7 3 2 4 9 7 2 3 A V G 6 4 3 7 1 7 4 2 5 1 4 1 4 3 9 1 3 1 8 3 2 1 5 2 4 1 0 3 0 7 6 7 7 3 1 3 1 0 0 2 1 ( A ) d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T b e n f r a g T r u b T m e n 2 0 2 5 A 1 8 1 3 5 3 8 4 4 1 5 2 7 1 0 7 1 0 3 1 2 4 3 2 9 2 0 2 5 B 2 2 1 4 6 1 7 5 5 1 4 3 6 9 5 0 0 3 3 2 3 3 6 5 2 0 2 5 C 1 9 1 3 5 3 7 2 4 1 6 5 5 1 2 7 0 1 2 2 2 0 3 2 8 A V G 2 0 1 3 5 2 7 4 4 1 5 3 6 1 0 7 0 0 2 2 2 2 3 3 7 2 5 3 0 A 2 0 1 2 5 1 9 5 4 1 3 4 7 1 0 5 1 2 4 1 2 9 3 2 7 2 5 3 0 B 2 4 1 2 5 2 5 3 6 1 4 3 5 1 1 4 0 1 4 3 2 2 3 6 6 2 5 3 0 C 1 9 1 2 7 1 1 0 5 4 1 2 5 5 1 0 5 1 1 4 2 2 4 3 1 7 A V G 2 1 1 2 5 1 8 4 4 1 3 4 6 1 0 5 1 1 3 2 2 5 3 3 7 ( B ) T a b l e 4 ( A ) R a w d a t a f o r O B B C 4 D r e p l i c a t e e x p e r i m e n t ( B ) r e p l i c a t e s p l i t r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e A v e r a g e s ( A V G ) o f t h e t h r e e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s a r e d i s p l a y e d 1 6

PAGE 22

O B B C 4 D R e p l i c a t e 2 0 2 5 m m0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 G r u b e r ( w ) G r u b e r ( p ) G s a c c u l i f e r G n t g l u t i n a t a P o b l i q u i l o q u l a t a G q d u t e r t r e i G b t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e s G b m e n a r d i i S p e c i e sR e l a t i v e A b u n d a n c e 2 0 2 5 m m A 2 0 2 5 m m B 2 0 2 5 m m C 2 0 2 5 m m A v g F i g u r e 2 P l o t o f r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f r o m r e p l i c a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s f r o m i n t e r v a l 2 0 2 5 m m D a r k b l u e b a r r e p r e s e n t s t h e a v e r a g e o f a b a n d c 1 7

PAGE 23

O B B C 4 D R e p l i c a t e 2 5 3 0 m m0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0G r u b e r ( w ) G r u b e r ( p ) G s a c c u l i f e r G n t g l u t i n a t a P o b l i q u i l o q u l a t a G q d u t e r t r e i G b t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e s G b m e n a r d i iS p e c i e s F i g u r e 3 P l o t o f r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f r o m r e p l i c a t e c o u n t i n g s p l i t s f r o m i n t e r v a l 2 5 3 0 m m D a r k b l u e b a r r e p r e s e n t s t h e a v e r a g e o f a b a n d c .R e l a t i v e A b u n d a n c e 2 5 3 0 m m A 2 5 3 0 m m B 2 5 3 0 m m C 2 5 3 0 m m A v g 1 8

PAGE 24

19 E F F E C T S O F P R O C E S S I N G A N D D I S S O L U T I O N O n e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f u s i n g a b r i e f s o n i c a t i o n s t e p o n t h e a s s e m b l a g e s d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c e n s u s r e s u l t s f r o m s a m p l e s p r o c e s s e d w i t h a n d w i t h o u t t h e s o n i c a t i o n s t e p r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o d a t a s e t s ( A p p e n d i c e s I I I V ) I n g e n e r a l t h e n u m b e r o f r o b u s t h e a v i l y c a l c i f i e d s p e c i e s a n d t h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f f r a g m e n t s o f f o r a m i n i f e r s w e r e e l e v a t e d i n t h e s a m p l e s e t t h a t u n d e r w e n t t h e s o n i c a t i o n s t e p T h e d i f f e r e n c e i s v e r y p r o n o u n c e d i n t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x ( F i g u r e 4 a ) N o t e t h a t v a l u e s f o r t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x ( c a l c u l a t e d a s n u m b e r o f f r a g m e n t s / n u m b e r o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s ) a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s m u c h h i g h e r i n s a m p l e s f r o m t h e d a t a s e t u s i n g t h e s o n i c a t i o n s t e p t h a n i n t h e e q u i v a l e n t s a m p l e s t h a t d i d n o t u n d e r g o t h e s o n i c a t i o n s t e p T h e d i f f e r e n c e v a r i e s w i t h d e p t h i n t h e c o r e a n d r e a c h e d a m a x i m u m i n t w o i n t e r v a l s c e n t e r e d a t a b o u t 1 2 5 m m a n d 2 2 5 m m d e p t h A t t h e i n t e r v a l s o f g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x i n t h e s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t r e a c h e s v a l u e s n e a r 2 0 0 w h e r e a s m a x i m u m v a l u e s i n t h e n o n s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t d o n o t e x c e e d 8 0 A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i s p r e s e n t i n t h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e v a l u e s f o r t h e G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i g r o u p b e l o w a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 5 m m d e p t h ( F i g u r e 4 b ) T h e G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p i n c l u d e s G b m e n a r d i i G b t u m i d a a n d G b u n g u l a t a T h e s e t a x a a r e h e a v i l y c a l c i f i e d c o m p a c t f o r m s w i t h s o l i d c a l c i t e k e e l s B e l o w 7 5 m m v a l u e s o f t h e G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p i n t h e s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t a r e u s u a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s i n t h e s a m p l e s e t t h a t w a s n o t s o n i c a t e d

PAGE 25

0 4 0 8 0 1 2 0 1 6 0 2 0 0F r a g / T o t a l P l a n k t i c s 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 D e p t h ( m m ) F r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i g r o u p ( G m e n a r d i i G t u m i d a G u n g u l a t a ) G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( P i n k & W h i t e ) 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0% 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0% 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 F i g u r e 4 P l o t o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x a n d r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s f r o m s o n i c a t e d ( b l a c k ) a n d n o n s o n i c a t e d ( r e d ) s a m p l e s ( A ) r e p r e s e n t s t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x w h i c h i s c a l c u l a t e d a s n u m b e r o f f r a g m e n t s / t o t a l n u m b e r o f p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e s h o w n i n ( B ) f o r r o b u s t s p e c i e s G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i g r o u p a n d ( C ) d e l i c a t e s p e c i e s G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( p i n k a n d w h i t e v a r i e t i e s ) .A B C 2 0

PAGE 26

21 In the int e rva l s a s soc i a t e d w i th m a x i m a in the f r a g m ent a t ion inde x, the v a lue s of the G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p a r e m u c h h i g h e r i n t h e s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s c o m p a r e d t o t h e n o n s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s T h e d o w n c o r e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( p i n k a n d w h i t e v a r i e t i e s ) a r e p l o t t e d o n F i g u r e 4 c I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r a r e a m o r e d e l i c a t e l i g h t l y c a l c i f i e d f o r m w i t h a m o r e p o r o u s t e s t w a l l T h e v a r i a t i o n s i n r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f G r u b e r a r e o p p o s i t e t h e v a r i a t i o n s o b s e r v e d i n t h e G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p a n d t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x M a x i m a i n t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x a n d G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p a b u n d a n c e c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h m i n i m a i n t h e a b u n d a n c e o f G r u b e r ( t o t a l ) I n g e n e r a l t h e a b u n d a n c e o f G r u b e r i n t h e s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t a r e l o w e r t h a n v a l u e s i n t h e n o n s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n v a l u e s i s l a r g e s t w h e n t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x v a l u e s a r e t h e h i g h e s t T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o n s i s t a n t w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m e c h a n i c a l a g i t a t i o n c a u s e d b y t h e s o n i c a t i o n s t e p a l t e r e d t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e s F r a g m e n t a t i o n w a s g r e a t e r i n m o r e d e l i c a t e l e s s h e a v i l y c a l c i f i e d f o r m s t h a n i t w a s i n m o r e r o b u s t h e a v i l y c a l c i f i e d f o r m s T h e d o w n c o r e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e a m o u n t o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n o b s e r v e d i n t h e s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d i n t h e G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p a n d t o t a l G r u b e r c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d s o l e l y b y t h e s o n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s s i n c e t h e s t e p w a s a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l y t o a l l s a m p l e s y e t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o a r e m u c h m o r e p r o m i n e n t a t t h e t w o p e a k s V a r i a t i o n s i n s e l e c t e d c o m p o n e n t s f r o m t h e n o n s o n i c a t e d s a m p l e s e t a r e c o m p a r e d ( f i g u r e 5 ) T h e m o r e r o b u s t s p e c i e s G q d u t e r t r e i G b t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e s

PAGE 27

2 2 G b m e n a r d i i g r o u p a n d t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x h a v e s i m i l a r d o w n c o r e p a t t e r n i n r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e s T h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f t h e m o r e r o b u s t s p e c i e s a n d f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x s h o w a m a x i m u m c e n t e r e d a r o u n d 1 0 0 1 2 5 m m a n d a n o t h e r a r o u n d 2 0 0 2 5 0 m m I n c o n t r a s t t h e t o t a l G r u b e r w h i c h i s a m o r e d e l i c a t e s p e c i e s s h o w s m i n i m u m r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e a t t h o s e s a m e i n t e r v a l s T h e m o s t l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p a t t e r n i s t h a t t w o i n t e r v a l s o f i n c r e a s e d d i s s o l u t i o n a r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e s a m p l e a n d a r e a c c e n t u a t e d b y t h e s o n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h a p p e a r s t o y i e l d m o r e f r a g m e n t s a n d h i g h e r a b u n d a n c e s o f t h e r o b u s t s p e c i e s a n d l o w e r r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e s o f t h e d e l i c a t e G r u b e r

PAGE 28

1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0% 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 D e p t h ( m m ) G r u b e r ( P i n k & W h i t e ) 4 8 1 2 1 6% 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 G q d u t e r t r e i 4 8 1 2 1 6 2 0% 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 G b t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e sF i g u r e 5 V a r i a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e a n d f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x o f s e l e c t i v e n o n s o n i c a t e d s p e c i e s d o w n c o r e t o 2 7 5 m m o f O B B C 4 D 0 4 8 1 2 1 6 2 0% 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 G m e n a r d i i g r o u p ( G m e n a r d i i G t u m i d a G u n g u l a t a ) 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0f r a g m e n t s / t o t a l p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 02 7 5 2 5 0 2 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 2 5 7 5 5 0 2 5 F r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d e x 2 3

PAGE 29

2 4 D I S C U S S I O N T h e v a r i a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f r o b u s t a n d d e l i c a t e s p e c i e s p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e f o r t w o p u l s e s o f d i s s o l u t i o n i n t h e u p p e r 2 7 5 m m o f c o r e O B B C 4 D D i s s o l u t i o n d o w n c o r e w a s n o t e x p e c t e d d u e t o d e p t h s i n c e t h e d e p t h o f t h e O B B C 4 D ( 2 4 0 0 m ) i s w e l l a b o v e t h e l y s o c l i n e ( 3 8 0 0 m ) a n d C C D ( 4 8 0 0 m ) w h i c h i s b a s e d o n t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n T h e b o x c o r e w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m a s i t e f r o m t h e o x i c a r e a o f O r c a B a s i n w h i c h i s k n o w n f o r t h e t w o s u b b a s i n s t h a t c o n t a i n a h y p e r s a l i n e b r i n e l a y e r ~ 1 5 0 m a b o v e t h e a n o x i c b a s i n f l o o r P e r h a p s t h e h y p e r s a l i n e b o u n d a r y i s d y n a m i c a n d w a s p r e s e n t o v e r t h e s t u d y s i t e d u r i n g t h o s e i n t e r v a l s D i s s o l u t i o n d u e t o s u l f a t e r e d u c i n g m i c r o b e s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h s a l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t s c o u l d a l s o b e a f a c t o r O B B C 4 D w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m a n o r g a n i c r i c h o x i c r e g i o n o f O r c a B a s i n a n d d i s s o l u t i o n d u e t o b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s a t t h e w a t e r s e d i m e n t i n t e r f a c e s u c h a s r e s p i r a t i o n a n d o x i d a t i o n c o u l d b e a c a u s e T h e r e m u s t b e o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s o n t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s p e r h a p s a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i g n a l b e i n g r e c o r d e d i n t h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e C o m p a r i s o n o f O B B C 4 D p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e w i t h o t h e r f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s w i t h i n t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o i e : P i g m y B a s i n w h i c h i s l o c a t e d ~ 1 7 k m N W m a y s h e d l i g h t o n w h e t h e r o r n o t d i s s o l u t i o n i s a l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l f e a t u r e S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S S a m p l e s f r o m O r c a B a s i n c o r e O B B C 4 D w e r e p r o c e s s e d a n d e x a m i n e d t o o b t a i n c e n s u s d a t a o n p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e s A n e x p e r i m e n t w a s c o n d u c t e d t o t e s t

PAGE 30

2 5 t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f c o u n t i n g s p l i t s t o e s t i m a t e a s s e m b l a g e s T h e r e s u l t s w e r e v e r y s i m i l a r a n d c o n s i s t e n t i n b o t h i n t e r v a l s a n d i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s p l i t t i n g t e c h n i q u e u s e d w a s a n a c c e p t a b l e m e t h o d t o e s t i m a t e t h e p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a s s e m b l a g e T h e e f f e c t s o f a b r i e f s o n i c a t i o n s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o n t h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s w e r e a l s o e x a m i n e d T h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e c o m p o s i t i o n s w e r e a l t e r e d a n d t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l t e s t s f r a g m e n t e d o r d e s t r o y e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s o n i c a t i o n s t e p S o n i c a t i o n i s n o t r e c o m m e n d e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r s f o r f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e a n a l y s e s D o w n c o r e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e f o r a m i n i f e r s p e c i e s r e v e a l e d t w o i n t e r v a l s o f i n c r e a s e d f r a g m e n t a t i o n a n d i n c r e a s e d r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f t h e r o b u s t f o r a m i n i f e r s p e c i e s a n d a d e c r e a s e i n t h e d e l i c a t e f o r a m i n i f e r s p e c i e s T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t t w o i n t e r v a l s o f i n c r e a s e d d i s s o l u t i o n a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e u p p e r 2 7 c m o f t h e O B B C 4 D r e c o r d

PAGE 31

2 6 R E F E R E N C E S A n d r e a s o n D J a n d A C R a v e l o ( 1 9 9 7 ) T r o p i c a l P a c i f i c O c e a n t h e r m o c l i n e d e p t h r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e L a s t G l a c i a l M a x i m u m P a l e o c e a n o g r a p h y 1 2 3 9 5 4 1 3 A r c h e r D ( 1 9 9 6 b ) A d a t a d r i v e n m o d e l f o r t h e l y s o c l i n e G l o b a l B i o g e o c h e m i s t r y C y c l e s 1 0 5 1 1 5 2 6 B )Tj5.28 0 Td(, A a n d W H H a m l i n ( 1 9 6 7 ) E c o l o g y o f r e c e n t p l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a D i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 6 2 M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y 1 3 8 7 1 0 6 B )Tj5.28 0 Td(, A a n d D S T o l d e r l a n d ( 1 9 7 1 ) D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d E c o l o g y o f l i v i n g p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a i n t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r s o f t h e A t l a n t i c a n d I n d i a n O c e a n s i n F u n n e l l B M a n d R e i d e l W R ( e d s ) T h e M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y o f O c e a n s : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s C a m b r i d g e p p 1 0 5 1 4 9 B e r g e r W H ( 1 9 6 8 ) P l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a ; s e l e c t i v e s o l u t i o n a n d p a l e o c l i m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n D e e p S e a R e s 1 5 3 1 4 3 B e r g e r W H ( 1 9 7 0 ) P l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a ; S e l e c t i v e s o l u t i o n a n d t h e l y s o c l i n e M a r i n e G e o l o g y 8 1 1 1 1 3 8 B r a m l e t t e M N ( 1 9 6 1 ) P e l a g i c s e d i m e n t s I n O c e a n o g r a p h y A A A S P u b l i c a t i o n 6 7 ( e d M S e a r s ) A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e A d v a n c e o f S c i e n c e W a s h i n g t o n D C p p 3 4 5 3 6 6 C o u l b o u r n W T F L P a r k e r a n d W H B e r g e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) F a u n a l a n d s o l u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a i n s u r f a c e s e d i m e n t s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c M a r i n e M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y 5 3 2 9 3 9 9 I m b r i e J a n d N G K i p p ( 1 9 7 1 ) A n e w m i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l m e t h o d f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e p a l e o c l i m a t o l o g y : a p p l i c a t i o n t o a l a t e p l e i s t o c e n e c a r i b b e a n c o r e I n T h e l a t e C e n o z o i c g l a c i a l a g e s K K T u r e k i a n Y a l e U n i v P r e s s N e w H a v e n p p 7 1 1 8 1 K i p p N G ( 1 9 7 6 ) N e w t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n f o r e s t i m a t i n g p a s t s e a s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s f r o m s e a b e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a l a s s e m b l a g e s i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f l a t e Q u a t e r n a r y P a l e o c e a n o g r a p h y a n d P a l e o c l i m a t o l o g y G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a M e m o i r 1 4 5 3 4 1

PAGE 32

2 7 M c K e e T R e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) H o l o c e n e s e d i m e n t g e o c h e m i s t r y o f c o n t i n e n t a l s l o p e a n d i n t r a s l o p e b a s i n a r e a s n o r t h w e s t G u l f o f M e x i c o i n B o u m a A H M o o r e G T a n d C o l e m a n J M ( e d s ) F r a m e w o r k F a c i e s a n d O i l T r a p p i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e U p p e r C o n t i n e n t a l M a r g i n A m A s s o c P e t G e o l S t u d y 7 3 1 9 M e k i k F A P W L o u b e r e a n d D E A r c h e r ( 2 0 0 2 ) O r g a n i c c a r b o n f l u x a n d o r g a n i c c a r b o n t o c a l c i t e f l u x r a t i o r e c o r d e d i n d e e p s e a c a r b o n a t e s : d e m o n s t r a t i o n a n d a n e w p r o x y G l o b a l B i o g e o c h e m i s t r y C y c l e s 1 6 1 1 5 M i l l i m a n J D P J T r o y W M B a l c h A K A d a m s Y H L i a n d F T M a c k e n z i e ( 1 9 9 9 ) B i o l o g i c a l l y m e d i a t e d d i s s o l u t i o n o f c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e a b o v e t h e c h e m i c a l l y s o c l i n e D e e p S e a R e s I 4 6 1 6 5 3 1 6 6 9 M i x A C ( 1 9 8 9 ) P r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e A t l a n t i c o c e a n e s t i m a t e d f r o m f o r a m i n i f e r a l s p e c i e s : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a l e o C O 2 N a t u r e 3 3 7 5 4 1 P a r k e r F L ( 1 9 6 2 ) P l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a l s p e c i e s i n P a c i f i c s e d i m e n t s M i c r o p a l e o n t o l g y 8 n o 2 p p 2 1 9 2 5 4 P a r k e r F L ( 1 9 6 7 ) L a t e T e r t i a r y B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y ( P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a ) o f t h e t r o p i c a l I n d o P a c i f i c D e e p S e a C o r e s B u l l e t i n s o f A m e r i c a n P a l e o n t o l o g y v 5 2 P a r k e r F L a n d W H B e r g e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) F a u n a l a n d s o l u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a i n s u r f a c e s e d i m e n t s o f t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c D e e p S e a R e s e a r c h 1 8 7 3 1 0 7 R a v e l o A C a n d R G F a i r b a n k s ( 1 9 9 0 ) R e c o n s t r u c t i n g t r o p i c a l A t l a n t i c h y d o g r a p h y u s i n g p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a a n d o c e a n m o d e l P a l e o c e a n o g r a p h y 5 ( 3 ) 4 0 9 4 3 1 S h o k e s R F P K T r a b a n t B J P r e s l e y a n d D F R e i d ( 1 9 7 7 ) A n o x i c h y p e r s a l i n e b a s i n i n t h e n o r t h e r n G u l f o f M e x i c o S c i e n c e 1 9 6 1 4 4 3 1 4 4 6 T h u n e l l R C a n d S H o n j o ( 1 9 8 1 ) P l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n f e r a l f l u x t o t h e d e e p o c e a n i c s e d i m e n t t r a p r e s u l t s f r o m t h e t r o p i c a l A t l a n t i c a n d t h e c e n t r a l P a c i f i c M a r i n e G e o l o g y 4 0 2 3 7 2 5 3 T r a b a n t P K a n d B J P r e s l e y ( 1 9 7 8 ) O r c a B a s i n a n o x i c d e p r e s s i o n o n t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s l o p e n o r t h w e s t G u l f o f M e x i c o i n B o u m a A H M o o r e G T a n d C o l e m a n J M ( e d s ) F r a m e w o r k F a c i e s a n d O i l T r a p p i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e U p p e r C o n t i n e n t a l M a r g i n A m A s s o c P e t G e o l S t u d y G e o l 7 3 0 3 3 1 1 V i n c e n t E a n d W H B e r g e r ( 1 9 8 1 ) P l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a a n d t h e i r u s e i n p a l e o c e a n o g r a p h y i n E m i l i a n a C ( e d ) T h e O c e a n i c L i t h o s p h e r e : T h e S e a 7 ; J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s N e w Y o r k p p 1 0 2 5 1 1 1 9 .

PAGE 33

A P P E N D I C E S

PAGE 34

A p p e n d i x I R a w d a t a f o r s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T T p l k b e n f r a g T P + B T r u b T m e n 0 5 5 4 8 0 2 0 8 1 4 6 3 2 4 1 3 2 0 4 7 5 7 3 1 2 5 5 4 3 1 7 1 3 4 5 1 5 2 0 6 7 4 9 2 0 2 2 5 1 5 1 3 4 6 1 1 2 1 3 7 1 9 2 8 3 4 0 1 1 9 0 3 5 1 1 1 6 2 1 2 0 2 5 7 0 4 7 1 8 8 2 6 1 4 1 5 5 2 1 2 2 1 3 5 2 3 2 1 5 3 5 2 7 7 9 3 5 9 1 1 7 2 6 2 5 3 0 6 4 3 7 1 7 4 2 5 1 4 1 4 3 9 1 3 1 8 3 2 1 5 2 4 6 3 0 7 6 7 7 3 1 3 1 0 0 2 1 3 0 3 5 9 4 5 4 1 0 5 4 1 1 7 2 3 3 4 7 3 5 3 0 1 4 5 5 2 6 4 0 6 8 9 4 4 1 4 1 4 8 2 4 3 5 4 0 6 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 0 8 2 0 3 0 6 1 9 3 1 1 2 9 7 1 4 2 9 6 1 1 6 9 3 0 7 9 3 2 8 4 0 4 5 8 1 4 0 8 1 1 6 1 3 1 5 3 6 6 2 7 2 9 1 5 4 8 1 3 3 1 6 1 0 1 0 7 3 2 6 1 2 1 2 7 4 5 5 0 8 0 3 9 9 5 1 9 7 1 7 3 6 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 4 2 8 4 9 8 7 2 9 3 1 1 9 1 6 5 0 5 5 1 0 0 3 9 9 1 1 8 1 3 1 5 2 3 6 3 6 3 4 1 4 6 8 6 3 3 2 1 1 1 8 4 3 4 3 1 3 9 2 8 5 5 6 0 9 6 3 0 7 4 2 3 1 3 1 3 3 6 9 2 2 2 7 1 1 5 7 3 3 1 1 1 0 1 3 2 3 2 1 1 2 6 2 3 6 0 6 5 5 8 2 5 9 3 1 3 1 3 1 0 3 4 8 2 3 4 2 8 8 1 3 2 6 1 9 1 4 6 2 7 0 8 3 1 7 6 5 7 0 1 2 6 3 5 1 9 6 1 9 2 0 1 7 6 3 1 0 3 3 3 7 2 5 7 8 4 4 3 9 8 2 0 3 4 4 7 1 6 1 4 0 7 0 7 5 7 3 1 5 1 0 6 1 9 8 8 4 0 8 3 4 3 4 3 7 5 1 1 3 0 4 1 3 2 0 7 3 1 7 8 8 4 3 7 5 8 0 8 2 2 5 1 5 9 2 0 1 0 7 4 2 1 2 3 6 3 2 1 6 9 3 3 3 2 5 1 5 2 6 0 3 4 0 1 0 7 2 8 8 0 8 5 5 7 1 4 1 3 7 9 1 1 7 4 5 1 6 3 2 3 3 2 3 8 3 4 2 8 6 1 3 2 7 3 2 9 9 7 1 3 4 8 5 9 0 8 5 1 0 5 6 6 5 5 2 5 7 2 6 3 4 1 5 6 1 4 2 4 4 1 1 2 4 1 2 5 5 9 5 2 2 9 0 9 5 4 8 1 3 1 4 1 5 5 1 0 5 5 3 1 0 5 2 5 6 3 0 1 2 3 1 3 2 7 1 8 2 4 2 3 4 5 6 1 4 5 9 5 1 0 0 4 7 1 0 1 1 1 4 1 1 9 6 4 6 1 6 4 1 4 2 3 2 1 7 4 3 1 2 1 0 2 6 5 3 2 2 5 7 4 9 1 0 0 1 0 5 2 8 3 1 1 1 3 9 4 1 6 3 1 6 3 1 6 3 3 8 1 4 4 3 0 6 1 0 3 8 3 3 1 6 3 1 5 2 1 0 5 1 1 0 3 3 4 7 1 7 9 9 2 5 9 1 3 3 9 6 0 3 6 1 7 1 8 3 2 1 1 5 5 0 2 3 3 6 3 7 5 4 1 1 0 1 1 5 4 3 4 1 3 2 4 7 5 4 6 4 1 5 5 2 4 9 5 0 2 7 1 7 3 7 1 2 4 5 2 2 3 9 5 4 7 7 8 1 1 5 1 2 0 2 3 4 7 1 6 5 4 2 5 0 7 3 6 3 8 4 6 3 0 2 2 7 3 2 6 5 0 9 2 9 9 2 7 7 6 1 2 0 1 2 5 1 4 1 6 2 8 3 6 2 7 0 1 2 3 5 2 2 5 6 4 3 1 3 0 7 2 7 4 4 7 3 3 4 1 5 9 9 1 2 5 1 3 0 2 2 6 1 1 1 7 1 1 8 3 7 5 2 6 4 6 3 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 1 5 1 7 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 8 5 5 1 3 0 1 3 5 4 2 1 1 9 1 6 5 8 1 0 7 1 1 8 4 6 4 2 4 4 1 6 0 3 4 2 2 1 4 3 0 3 6 3 5 3 6 0 I n t e r v a l u s e d i n r e p l i c a t e s p l i t e x p e r i m e n t 2 8

PAGE 35

A p p e n d i x I R a w d a t a f o r s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t ( c o n t i n u e d ) d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T T p l k b e n f r a g T P + B T r u b T m e n 1 3 5 1 4 0 6 5 1 3 1 3 6 9 8 1 1 5 4 1 6 4 0 6 1 3 2 1 7 1 3 3 5 2 1 1 3 6 2 3 6 3 7 8 5 0 1 4 0 1 4 5 4 4 1 7 2 0 7 1 4 1 1 7 6 7 1 8 3 2 4 3 1 4 1 9 2 1 3 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 3 3 0 6 1 3 5 1 4 5 1 5 0 4 5 2 1 7 1 4 4 1 0 5 6 1 9 3 7 5 3 4 4 1 7 1 3 2 5 8 3 0 9 3 3 3 4 7 6 1 1 5 0 1 5 5 9 0 2 1 1 9 8 4 1 4 1 1 6 4 1 0 3 2 4 6 3 5 1 0 1 1 3 7 3 1 8 2 4 4 3 9 1 1 1 1 4 6 1 5 5 1 6 0 5 8 1 6 2 5 1 5 9 1 9 3 5 0 1 7 3 2 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 1 3 5 8 1 1 2 7 2 3 6 9 7 4 7 5 1 6 0 1 6 5 5 6 9 1 0 2 0 7 3 6 6 5 2 1 4 4 2 9 2 7 2 0 1 3 2 0 2 3 2 5 7 3 4 3 6 5 4 7 1 6 5 1 7 0 2 8 1 2 2 1 2 5 5 8 6 5 7 2 3 4 2 5 1 3 1 1 9 3 3 3 6 1 3 2 0 0 3 4 9 4 0 5 0 1 7 0 1 7 5 9 3 3 1 3 7 1 0 1 7 2 2 1 5 2 0 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 6 3 5 7 1 3 1 6 9 3 7 0 1 2 4 3 4 1 7 5 1 8 0 8 7 1 9 3 7 1 7 7 9 1 4 3 9 1 0 3 4 2 7 3 1 1 9 2 3 3 6 2 1 8 2 0 4 3 8 0 1 0 6 5 2 1 8 0 1 8 5 7 4 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 0 5 1 3 2 5 1 5 2 7 4 1 1 7 1 0 2 5 2 9 4 1 3 1 7 9 3 0 7 8 5 2 9 1 8 5 1 9 0 9 3 2 6 2 8 1 9 1 0 4 1 3 2 9 1 4 3 1 2 7 2 2 9 3 4 3 3 4 1 7 2 1 1 3 5 1 1 1 9 3 4 1 9 0 1 9 5 5 1 9 2 9 1 1 2 0 4 9 4 1 1 6 3 8 4 2 2 8 2 5 1 7 3 3 3 2 3 2 9 2 3 5 6 6 0 5 4 1 9 5 2 0 0 7 9 1 4 1 6 1 3 8 4 1 0 2 3 6 2 6 4 3 4 7 3 1 5 3 3 0 2 9 3 0 1 3 5 9 9 3 7 8 2 0 0 2 0 5 2 8 0 1 4 1 8 4 6 4 5 5 2 5 4 5 4 3 3 9 2 9 3 3 1 4 1 6 2 3 7 3 3 0 2 8 6 8 2 0 5 2 1 0 2 9 3 1 4 1 6 1 2 3 8 1 3 5 0 4 1 4 4 4 9 3 3 0 4 3 0 4 4 5 3 3 4 3 2 9 3 2 1 0 2 1 5 2 8 8 1 1 8 8 8 1 5 0 1 2 3 3 4 9 5 5 3 7 3 3 1 3 2 4 5 9 1 3 3 7 3 6 9 2 2 1 5 2 2 0 2 4 4 8 8 8 5 2 4 4 1 6 5 4 5 7 4 5 2 8 4 3 0 8 2 9 4 9 5 3 3 7 2 8 7 3 2 2 0 2 2 5 1 3 0 7 5 3 5 3 3 6 1 1 4 2 7 4 6 3 5 4 5 3 2 1 2 9 5 5 7 3 5 0 1 3 1 1 7 2 2 5 2 3 0 1 5 5 1 6 4 2 4 6 3 7 5 6 6 6 3 8 2 4 1 2 2 7 7 2 1 5 3 6 2 9 8 2 0 6 3 2 3 0 2 3 5 1 8 6 3 4 2 2 1 2 5 8 3 0 5 0 3 4 2 6 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 4 2 3 3 2 4 6 0 2 4 5 2 5 0 8 2 2 9 2 4 4 2 1 1 1 8 2 4 7 2 2 5 1 3 3 1 1 8 3 4 2 1 4 3 1 3 3 5 6 1 1 1 4 4 2 5 0 2 5 5 2 8 2 0 2 5 2 7 8 1 4 2 9 3 0 6 9 5 1 7 2 1 3 0 3 9 2 1 5 3 1 2 4 8 6 0 2 5 5 2 6 0 4 6 1 9 1 8 3 7 1 2 6 4 4 1 4 3 4 4 2 3 8 1 5 7 3 0 6 9 2 2 7 3 1 5 6 5 5 3 2 6 0 2 6 5 3 9 2 8 2 5 3 1 3 1 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 7 4 5 3 4 8 5 2 8 8 4 1 8 9 2 9 2 6 7 4 2 2 6 5 2 7 0 4 7 1 6 2 8 7 1 6 1 5 5 3 6 7 3 1 6 0 3 6 1 1 3 1 3 2 1 1 3 1 9 7 3 3 4 6 3 5 0 2 9

PAGE 36

A p p e n d i x I I R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T b e n f r g T r u b T m e n 0 5 1 7 2 6 6 3 4 2 1 8 4 6 1 5 2 0 0 2 2 1 7 4 3 2 1 5 2 0 2 0 1 4 6 1 7 4 4 1 4 3 6 1 1 6 1 0 2 3 2 6 3 4 6 2 0 2 5 2 0 1 3 1 1 3 6 4 1 9 3 6 1 2 6 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 7 2 5 3 0 2 1 1 2 2 3 7 7 4 4 1 5 3 6 1 0 7 0 0 2 0 1 3 3 7 3 0 3 5 2 3 1 3 2 2 4 8 4 4 1 3 4 6 1 0 5 1 1 6 0 1 3 6 6 3 5 4 0 2 1 1 0 4 1 1 0 3 7 1 0 2 6 1 0 4 3 2 5 4 2 3 3 1 9 4 0 4 5 2 6 1 3 3 0 5 4 5 1 1 2 9 9 5 1 3 4 3 3 4 3 8 9 4 5 5 0 2 8 1 4 3 2 7 2 6 1 3 1 4 8 4 0 1 5 3 3 1 4 2 6 5 0 5 5 3 0 1 2 3 0 5 4 5 7 2 1 1 1 0 4 2 2 2 3 5 5 4 2 8 5 5 6 0 3 1 1 0 2 1 7 4 4 1 2 3 7 9 4 2 2 1 3 4 2 4 1 7 6 0 6 5 2 2 1 0 3 1 5 5 4 1 3 3 9 1 6 3 3 0 1 3 5 6 3 2 7 6 5 7 0 2 9 8 4 1 4 5 4 1 4 2 8 8 6 2 2 1 2 4 6 3 7 9 7 0 7 5 2 4 5 3 2 6 3 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 4 6 8 2 9 1 4 7 5 8 0 2 5 8 5 3 6 3 2 1 3 4 1 1 1 0 5 3 1 1 4 8 0 3 3 9 8 0 8 5 2 0 5 5 2 3 4 2 1 6 6 1 1 1 2 8 3 1 1 4 9 5 2 5 1 2 8 5 9 0 3 5 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 0 3 1 1 1 4 6 2 0 2 4 9 9 3 9 9 9 0 9 5 1 5 4 4 5 2 3 2 1 6 3 1 6 1 7 9 4 1 0 5 7 4 1 9 1 4 9 5 1 0 0 1 5 3 4 4 4 3 2 1 5 5 1 3 1 3 1 0 5 0 1 3 8 5 1 8 1 6 1 0 0 1 0 5 9 1 4 4 3 1 0 2 1 5 1 0 2 1 1 2 5 0 1 3 1 2 5 1 0 1 7 1 0 5 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 5 3 3 1 1 8 4 1 2 1 9 1 1 5 0 2 4 1 5 6 1 2 1 7 1 1 0 1 1 5 1 2 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 7 4 1 4 1 3 1 3 7 0 2 6 1 4 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 5 1 2 0 8 1 3 6 2 1 1 1 8 3 1 3 1 4 1 7 1 1 0 1 9 1 8 6 1 0 2 8 1 2 0 1 2 5 5 0 2 9 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 1 7 1 8 1 4 0 0 8 1 4 6 5 3 2 1 2 5 1 3 0 7 2 3 5 3 3 1 2 4 8 1 5 1 0 1 0 8 0 1 5 1 7 6 9 1 7 1 3 0 1 3 5 1 2 3 3 5 1 2 3 2 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 3 5 0 0 6 1 2 6 1 5 1 8 I n t e r v a l s u s e d i n r e p l i c a t e e x p e r i m e n t 3 0

PAGE 37

A p p e n d i x I I R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t ( c o n t i n u e d ) d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T b e n f r g T r u b T m e n 1 3 5 1 4 0 1 8 4 4 2 3 2 3 1 5 5 1 1 1 7 9 5 0 1 3 1 0 3 2 2 1 4 1 4 0 1 4 5 1 4 5 6 2 4 3 2 2 1 6 1 0 1 3 4 6 1 0 3 6 3 1 9 1 1 1 4 5 1 5 0 1 4 1 5 4 1 3 2 1 9 3 1 1 1 6 1 4 5 0 0 2 9 5 1 4 1 9 1 5 0 1 5 5 2 4 6 5 2 1 4 3 1 7 3 9 1 2 9 3 0 0 5 6 5 3 0 1 2 1 5 5 1 6 0 1 6 4 7 4 3 5 1 1 4 5 9 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 7 6 2 1 2 1 1 6 0 1 6 5 1 8 3 3 6 2 1 2 2 0 7 1 4 9 8 6 0 0 7 8 0 2 0 1 5 1 6 5 1 7 0 8 4 6 7 1 2 2 1 7 7 1 3 1 5 9 6 0 1 4 6 0 1 2 1 5 1 7 0 1 7 5 2 6 9 1 0 3 5 6 4 6 6 7 6 6 3 1 2 4 4 7 3 5 1 0 1 7 5 1 8 0 2 4 5 1 0 5 2 2 4 1 1 3 9 7 9 5 1 1 5 5 6 2 9 1 4 1 8 0 1 8 5 2 5 4 8 4 3 2 4 9 5 9 1 4 6 3 1 2 4 6 1 2 9 1 0 1 8 5 1 9 0 2 8 8 8 6 3 1 4 9 4 9 8 7 3 1 1 5 6 3 3 6 1 0 1 9 0 1 9 5 1 5 3 9 3 6 1 3 1 2 5 1 1 1 3 8 8 0 2 6 8 8 1 8 1 6 1 9 5 2 0 0 2 4 4 5 4 2 1 3 7 2 8 1 3 1 4 9 0 2 8 9 1 2 8 2 4 2 0 0 2 0 5 9 0 4 6 1 2 1 1 8 8 1 4 1 4 1 2 9 0 1 5 7 5 9 2 2 2 0 5 2 1 0 1 0 1 5 5 0 0 1 1 3 4 1 6 1 3 1 4 1 6 0 1 9 1 4 6 1 1 3 1 2 1 0 2 1 5 9 3 4 3 3 3 0 1 6 4 1 1 1 6 1 8 1 2 0 1 7 1 8 9 1 2 2 9 2 1 5 2 2 0 8 1 3 3 3 2 1 1 4 5 1 8 1 9 1 5 9 0 1 9 1 6 1 9 2 4 2 2 0 2 2 5 4 0 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 0 1 7 0 2 8 1 7 4 4 3 6 2 2 5 2 3 0 5 2 6 1 1 1 2 1 3 0 2 0 2 4 1 4 9 0 1 7 1 9 4 7 2 3 2 3 0 2 3 5 9 3 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 4 1 4 2 4 1 6 1 2 0 1 9 1 4 9 1 1 2 8 2 4 5 2 5 0 2 4 8 7 1 6 3 2 7 2 6 1 5 1 0 3 0 2 4 9 2 3 2 1 3 2 5 0 2 5 5 9 7 8 1 2 3 0 1 4 3 1 0 2 3 1 7 2 1 0 3 7 1 1 6 2 0 2 5 5 2 6 0 1 5 6 6 1 2 4 2 1 4 5 1 1 1 4 1 2 5 0 2 3 7 4 2 1 1 7 2 6 0 2 6 5 1 4 1 0 9 1 5 4 1 1 1 4 9 1 6 1 2 3 0 2 1 6 6 2 3 1 5 2 6 5 2 7 0 1 5 5 9 2 5 5 2 1 1 2 1 0 1 9 1 1 3 1 0 4 6 1 2 0 1 6 3 1

PAGE 38

A p p e n d i x I I I R a w d a t a f o r n o n s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T T p l k b e n f r a g T P + B T r u b T m e n 0 5 7 0 7 6 1 1 6 1 7 2 0 1 9 3 2 1 2 2 9 4 5 8 1 2 4 3 7 0 2 1 7 7 3 9 1 1 4 6 9 1 5 2 0 6 9 3 3 2 0 5 3 0 2 0 1 7 4 1 9 2 1 2 8 2 3 2 0 3 3 6 1 6 5 0 3 5 2 1 0 2 2 3 2 0 2 5 5 5 3 8 1 4 6 2 2 1 7 1 2 3 7 1 7 2 6 3 0 1 6 1 2 2 6 3 1 9 2 1 4 3 3 4 0 9 3 1 9 2 5 3 0 7 2 2 4 1 7 4 1 6 3 0 1 8 4 3 2 8 1 9 1 7 1 8 3 3 2 5 3 3 7 2 2 5 9 3 5 9 9 6 2 4 3 0 3 5 6 2 2 4 1 8 5 1 9 1 9 1 0 3 2 1 4 2 5 2 0 1 3 4 3 1 8 2 8 6 1 5 5 8 3 0 1 8 6 2 0 3 5 4 0 5 5 4 5 1 3 3 1 4 4 2 1 4 4 2 2 1 2 0 2 1 1 3 4 1 1 3 3 2 1 1 8 5 8 3 3 9 1 0 0 1 8 4 0 4 5 4 6 4 4 9 3 2 1 2 1 1 5 1 9 9 2 0 3 0 1 9 2 2 9 2 8 7 7 5 6 2 9 4 9 0 2 1 4 5 5 0 8 7 2 0 9 6 1 3 2 2 1 2 2 9 1 7 2 3 2 1 1 4 5 2 0 2 9 8 1 4 5 0 3 1 2 1 0 7 1 9 5 0 5 5 8 0 3 6 8 1 1 8 2 2 1 6 3 2 1 2 2 0 2 5 1 4 9 3 2 0 3 1 6 4 7 3 3 2 0 1 1 6 2 6 5 5 6 0 7 6 4 0 7 5 1 6 2 7 1 2 4 6 1 0 1 9 2 7 1 5 4 4 1 1 3 1 9 4 5 5 3 2 3 1 1 6 2 3 6 0 6 5 5 2 4 2 1 4 6 2 4 1 9 1 5 3 4 1 8 2 2 1 6 1 5 4 1 1 4 2 9 6 1 1 8 5 3 0 7 9 4 2 0 6 5 7 0 4 5 4 5 2 1 4 2 0 1 6 6 4 1 1 6 1 9 3 0 1 0 7 3 7 2 9 0 7 5 3 2 9 7 9 0 2 0 7 0 7 5 7 4 1 5 1 1 3 2 3 1 7 1 6 3 8 8 2 5 3 2 1 9 4 4 8 2 9 7 1 1 9 7 3 0 8 8 9 2 7 7 5 8 0 8 7 3 3 1 0 6 1 4 2 1 1 0 4 3 1 0 3 0 2 9 1 5 1 5 9 3 2 3 1 9 9 1 3 4 2 1 2 0 2 1 8 0 8 5 8 0 2 3 1 6 5 1 3 2 1 5 3 6 1 8 3 1 3 2 1 9 5 2 1 0 3 1 6 1 3 7 8 3 2 9 1 0 3 2 6 8 5 9 0 7 5 1 6 1 4 6 1 8 2 3 7 4 6 1 8 3 4 3 2 1 8 5 6 1 4 3 3 2 1 7 1 0 3 3 4 9 9 1 2 9 9 0 9 5 7 3 1 9 1 6 5 2 4 8 1 0 3 7 7 3 2 4 3 1 6 8 4 1 5 3 1 7 1 3 1 2 1 3 3 0 9 2 2 8 9 5 1 0 0 9 4 1 9 1 6 8 1 3 2 7 9 5 8 2 7 3 7 3 5 2 3 5 3 1 7 3 9 1 1 7 1 2 5 4 0 8 1 1 3 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 5 7 3 7 1 8 6 1 0 1 1 4 4 0 1 2 3 7 2 9 8 4 4 1 5 2 7 8 9 9 9 2 8 7 8 0 1 6 1 0 5 1 1 0 5 6 1 2 2 3 3 1 9 1 5 4 4 9 1 8 4 0 3 3 1 8 8 2 9 3 0 9 2 2 1 3 4 3 3 1 6 8 2 8 1 1 0 1 1 5 7 3 1 2 2 7 7 2 2 1 8 1 3 2 8 2 6 2 7 2 4 1 5 2 1 9 3 0 4 1 9 1 7 3 3 2 3 8 5 1 8 1 1 5 1 2 0 5 3 2 4 1 8 1 3 1 2 1 9 5 4 6 2 7 2 0 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 1 3 1 4 1 0 8 1 3 2 4 7 7 3 4 1 2 0 1 2 5 4 4 1 4 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 6 4 6 2 2 1 2 6 3 4 2 3 9 1 9 3 0 1 2 4 1 3 0 3 2 5 5 8 3 3 1 2 5 1 3 0 5 7 1 5 1 6 1 0 1 2 1 3 1 4 3 8 1 6 3 7 3 9 2 0 6 1 1 1 3 0 5 2 2 1 7 5 3 2 7 7 2 2 7 1 3 0 1 3 5 6 6 9 2 3 1 1 1 8 2 3 9 3 7 1 4 2 8 2 0 1 8 8 4 1 5 3 0 3 1 0 1 5 1 3 1 3 7 5 3 0 3 2

PAGE 39

A p p e n d i x I I I R a w d a t a f o r n o n s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t ( c o n t i n u e d ) d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T T p l k b e n f r a g T P + B T r u b T m e n 1 3 5 1 4 0 6 7 2 1 3 0 7 1 3 9 5 3 5 1 7 3 8 2 2 2 2 2 1 9 2 9 8 1 9 1 3 0 3 1 7 8 8 2 5 1 4 0 1 4 5 7 6 1 9 2 0 6 6 2 1 8 3 0 2 5 3 0 2 8 1 6 1 1 5 3 0 1 1 3 7 4 3 1 4 9 5 2 7 1 4 5 1 5 0 9 4 2 3 2 4 6 9 1 6 1 4 3 4 1 5 2 8 1 6 1 9 3 7 1 0 3 1 8 8 8 4 3 2 6 1 1 7 2 9 1 5 0 1 5 5 9 8 2 3 1 8 1 2 9 1 6 1 2 4 0 2 1 1 9 2 6 2 3 6 4 9 3 3 6 1 3 7 8 3 4 9 1 2 1 3 3 1 5 5 1 6 0 6 9 2 3 2 3 7 1 1 2 6 5 3 1 2 5 1 7 2 3 1 9 7 6 9 3 0 1 2 0 8 1 3 2 1 9 2 3 2 1 6 0 1 6 5 6 7 3 2 1 6 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 8 1 9 1 1 6 4 8 2 9 9 2 6 1 0 9 3 2 5 9 9 2 1 1 6 5 1 7 0 7 4 1 9 2 1 1 0 1 8 1 4 1 0 3 4 2 1 1 9 2 0 2 1 6 5 1 0 3 0 2 2 0 1 0 7 3 2 2 9 3 3 2 1 7 0 1 7 5 5 9 1 4 3 4 1 4 2 1 1 1 4 3 4 1 5 2 6 2 8 1 7 7 6 1 3 3 0 3 1 0 1 0 4 3 1 3 7 3 3 0 1 7 5 1 8 0 6 4 2 1 3 4 1 4 1 1 1 3 8 3 1 2 2 2 5 1 4 1 2 8 8 7 2 9 2 1 2 8 5 3 0 4 8 5 2 8 1 8 0 1 8 5 1 0 4 3 3 2 5 8 2 0 1 4 9 2 9 1 2 2 1 1 4 1 7 7 3 1 0 3 2 6 1 0 7 2 3 3 6 1 3 7 2 7 1 8 5 1 9 0 7 9 1 8 3 4 1 1 1 8 1 2 9 3 8 1 8 2 6 1 6 1 9 9 4 8 3 1 9 3 3 1 4 8 3 5 2 9 7 3 2 1 9 0 1 9 5 8 6 2 4 2 8 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 8 2 8 1 4 1 7 2 7 1 7 1 1 8 1 3 3 2 5 2 1 1 3 9 3 4 6 1 1 0 3 6 1 9 5 2 0 0 4 0 2 0 3 0 1 3 1 3 1 7 1 0 3 7 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 1 9 3 6 3 1 9 1 7 1 3 3 3 3 6 6 0 4 5 2 0 0 2 0 5 4 9 1 2 3 3 1 3 7 1 0 1 3 4 5 2 3 3 3 1 9 2 3 1 5 1 7 3 0 3 3 4 1 2 7 3 3 7 6 1 3 9 2 0 5 2 1 0 3 9 8 3 5 5 1 4 8 1 0 4 4 1 3 4 6 3 8 4 2 1 5 2 5 3 2 4 2 5 2 0 4 3 4 9 4 7 5 9 2 1 0 2 1 5 4 7 6 2 6 6 1 2 1 9 5 3 5 2 3 4 1 3 2 1 8 1 5 4 8 2 9 7 2 9 1 6 8 3 2 6 5 3 3 7 2 1 5 2 2 0 6 0 1 0 3 7 4 4 1 4 1 0 3 0 1 1 3 7 3 3 3 2 1 6 4 1 0 3 1 2 2 9 2 0 7 3 4 1 7 0 5 2 2 2 0 2 2 5 4 9 4 2 7 2 9 2 0 1 4 3 7 2 1 4 4 3 1 3 8 1 9 8 3 2 3 2 9 2 0 8 3 5 2 5 3 5 7 2 2 5 2 3 0 4 2 6 2 6 4 1 1 8 1 4 2 1 1 3 9 5 0 2 4 2 3 2 1 1 3 0 0 2 8 2 2 7 3 2 8 4 8 4 9 2 3 0 2 3 5 6 0 1 4 2 3 5 1 0 1 0 9 4 2 1 9 3 6 3 2 1 8 1 2 4 1 8 3 1 2 3 2 2 4 8 3 4 4 7 4 3 4 2 4 5 2 5 0 5 0 1 8 1 8 4 1 4 1 1 8 3 2 1 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 6 1 1 2 3 0 9 2 0 1 8 1 3 2 9 6 8 4 0 2 5 0 2 5 5 4 5 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 9 8 2 5 9 3 2 4 5 3 5 8 2 3 2 9 6 1 9 1 0 5 3 1 5 7 6 4 5 2 5 5 2 6 0 8 6 2 6 3 0 1 1 6 1 7 1 0 2 9 1 2 1 9 3 5 1 3 5 4 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 1 0 7 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 6 0 2 6 5 7 2 3 8 2 4 1 7 1 8 5 2 2 1 1 2 4 3 9 2 3 5 1 2 3 1 0 8 7 6 3 1 8 1 1 0 2 8 2 6 5 2 7 0 7 7 2 7 3 6 1 2 6 3 1 8 3 0 1 7 1 5 3 5 3 8 6 1 8 3 5 6 1 1 1 8 7 3 6 7 1 0 4 4 5 2 7 0 2 7 5 1 0 7 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 5 1 4 3 0 1 3 1 8 2 8 2 7 4 9 3 5 1 1 3 1 4 6 3 6 4 1 3 9 3 1 3 3

PAGE 40

A p p e n d i x I V R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r n o n s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T b e n f r a g T r u b T m e n 0 5 1 9 2 1 3 2 5 5 5 9 3 8 1 2 2 0 0 6 5 2 1 3 9 2 1 5 2 0 2 1 1 0 6 1 9 6 5 1 2 3 6 8 7 0 0 6 5 1 5 3 0 7 2 0 2 5 1 7 1 2 4 2 7 5 4 1 2 5 8 9 5 0 1 8 6 1 3 2 9 6 2 5 3 0 2 1 7 5 1 5 9 5 1 3 8 6 5 5 1 1 7 6 1 8 2 8 7 3 0 3 5 2 2 8 6 2 7 7 3 1 1 5 9 7 5 1 1 6 5 2 0 3 0 7 3 5 4 0 1 7 1 4 4 1 4 1 3 4 1 3 7 6 7 4 1 0 4 5 1 8 3 1 6 4 0 4 5 1 6 1 5 3 1 7 7 5 7 3 7 1 0 7 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 3 1 7 4 5 5 0 2 9 7 3 2 4 7 4 1 0 6 8 7 5 2 0 7 4 1 7 3 6 6 5 0 5 5 2 5 1 1 3 0 6 7 5 1 0 4 6 8 4 3 1 6 1 2 3 3 7 8 5 5 6 0 2 4 1 3 2 2 5 8 4 1 4 3 6 8 5 1 1 3 1 1 7 3 6 7 6 0 6 5 1 8 1 4 5 2 8 6 5 1 1 6 7 5 5 1 0 5 4 2 9 3 2 7 6 5 7 0 1 6 1 6 7 1 7 6 2 1 4 6 7 1 0 3 2 1 2 2 1 8 3 1 7 7 0 7 5 2 5 5 4 1 8 6 5 1 3 3 8 1 1 6 1 1 3 4 3 3 3 0 9 7 5 8 0 2 7 1 0 3 2 4 7 3 1 3 3 9 9 5 0 2 3 6 2 8 3 7 7 8 0 8 5 2 5 7 5 2 4 7 2 1 1 6 1 0 1 0 6 2 1 3 4 2 5 3 3 8 8 5 9 0 2 3 5 4 2 5 7 2 1 4 5 1 0 1 0 5 2 2 4 5 3 1 2 7 9 9 0 9 5 2 3 6 5 2 8 3 3 1 2 2 1 0 1 4 5 3 1 5 4 3 8 2 9 9 9 5 1 0 0 2 4 5 4 2 3 7 2 1 5 7 9 9 6 1 1 4 4 3 2 2 9 8 1 0 0 1 0 5 2 6 3 6 2 4 4 1 1 4 4 1 3 1 0 3 1 1 5 3 3 6 2 9 6 1 0 5 1 1 0 1 8 4 7 1 6 5 1 1 6 6 1 3 1 1 6 3 1 3 7 4 3 2 2 9 1 1 0 1 1 5 2 4 4 9 2 7 6 4 9 9 9 8 5 1 0 3 6 5 7 2 8 6 1 1 5 1 2 0 1 7 8 6 4 4 6 2 1 5 9 6 7 8 2 1 7 3 2 6 2 5 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 5 1 5 5 5 4 4 5 1 2 1 7 9 1 1 8 3 0 3 7 4 3 1 9 1 1 1 2 5 1 3 0 1 9 5 5 3 4 4 5 1 2 5 1 2 1 3 7 2 0 4 7 5 7 2 4 9 1 3 0 1 3 5 2 2 3 8 4 6 8 3 1 2 5 9 7 6 3 1 5 3 5 0 2 5 1 0 3 4

PAGE 41

A p p e n d i x I V R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e f o r n o n s o n i c a t e d O B B C 4 D s a m p l e s e t ( c o n t i n u e d ) d e p t h m m r u b W r u b P s a c c o n c a l a e q g l u o b l o r b d u t t r u m e n t u m u n g O T b e n f r a g T r u b T m e n 1 3 5 1 4 0 2 2 7 1 0 2 4 3 2 1 2 6 1 3 7 7 1 0 3 6 4 4 3 0 8 1 4 0 1 4 5 2 5 6 7 2 2 7 3 1 0 8 1 0 9 5 4 0 2 4 2 5 3 2 9 1 4 5 1 5 0 3 0 7 8 2 3 5 4 1 1 5 9 5 6 1 2 3 2 2 6 3 7 9 1 5 0 1 5 5 2 9 7 5 4 3 5 4 1 2 6 6 8 7 2 1 3 4 2 3 3 6 1 0 1 5 5 1 6 0 2 3 8 8 2 4 9 2 1 0 8 6 8 6 2 2 3 6 2 7 3 1 1 1 1 6 0 1 6 5 2 2 1 1 5 4 4 5 4 1 1 7 9 6 4 2 1 3 8 3 6 3 3 7 1 6 5 1 7 0 2 5 6 7 3 6 5 3 1 1 7 6 7 7 2 2 3 6 3 5 3 1 1 1 1 7 0 1 7 5 1 9 5 1 1 5 7 4 1 1 1 5 9 9 6 2 2 4 3 3 4 2 4 1 0 1 7 5 1 8 0 2 2 7 1 2 5 4 4 3 1 1 8 9 5 4 3 3 2 4 2 9 2 9 1 0 1 8 0 1 8 5 3 2 1 0 8 2 6 4 3 9 4 6 4 5 2 1 3 3 2 2 4 2 8 1 8 5 1 9 0 2 5 6 1 1 3 6 4 3 1 2 6 8 5 6 3 1 3 9 4 6 3 0 1 0 1 9 0 1 9 5 2 6 7 9 3 4 4 6 9 4 5 8 5 3 2 4 6 4 3 3 4 1 1 1 9 5 2 0 0 1 3 6 9 4 4 5 3 1 2 7 1 0 1 0 7 6 1 2 5 4 2 1 9 1 4 2 0 0 2 0 5 1 6 4 1 1 4 2 3 4 1 5 8 1 1 6 8 5 0 2 1 0 4 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 5 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 2 3 1 4 4 1 4 1 2 1 3 5 1 2 7 6 3 1 5 1 8 2 1 0 2 1 5 1 6 2 9 2 4 6 2 1 2 8 1 4 1 1 6 5 1 3 9 5 7 1 8 1 2 2 1 5 2 2 0 1 9 3 1 2 1 1 4 3 1 0 4 1 2 1 1 1 0 5 1 3 9 6 6 2 2 1 7 2 2 0 2 2 5 1 5 1 8 1 3 6 4 1 1 7 1 4 1 0 1 2 6 0 2 8 6 4 1 6 1 8 2 2 5 2 3 0 1 4 2 9 1 4 3 0 1 4 4 1 3 1 7 8 8 1 4 9 7 6 1 6 1 6 2 3 0 2 3 5 1 9 4 7 2 3 3 3 1 3 6 1 2 1 0 6 4 1 6 9 7 9 2 4 1 1 2 4 5 2 5 0 1 6 6 6 1 5 4 3 1 0 5 1 5 1 4 1 1 2 0 4 6 5 9 2 2 1 3 2 5 0 2 5 5 1 5 1 0 7 0 7 3 3 8 3 1 1 1 5 1 2 3 1 1 6 3 5 2 6 1 5 2 5 5 2 6 0 2 7 8 1 0 0 5 5 3 9 4 6 1 1 4 2 1 4 5 3 4 3 6 7 2 6 0 2 6 5 2 3 1 2 8 0 5 6 2 7 4 8 1 3 7 2 0 4 3 2 5 3 5 9 2 6 5 2 7 0 2 2 8 1 0 0 7 9 2 8 5 4 1 0 1 1 2 0 2 3 5 3 2 9 1 3 2 7 0 2 7 5 3 0 9 6 1 6 7 4 9 4 5 8 8 0 1 3 4 4 2 4 0 9 3 5

PAGE 42

36 A p p e n d i x V : T a x o n o m i c n o t e s T a x o n C a n d e i n a n i t i d a d O r b i g n y G l o b i g e r i n a b u l l o i d e s d O r b i g n y G l o b i g e r i n a c a l i d a P a r k e r G l o b i g e r i n a f a l c o n e n s i s B l o w G l o b i g e r i n a d i g i t a t a B r a d y G l o b i g e r i n a r u b e s c e n s H o f k e r G l o b i g e r i n a a e q u i l a t e r a l i s ( B r a d y ) G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a ( E g g e r ) G l o b i g e r i n i t a i o t a P a r k e r G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s c o n g l o b a t u s ( B r a d y ) G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s s a c c u l i f e r ( B r a d y ) G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( w h i t e v a r i e t y ) ( d O r b i g n y ) G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r ( p i n k v a r i e t y ) ( d O r b i g n y ) G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s t e n e l l u s P a r k e r G l o b o r o t a l i a c r a s s i f o r m i s ( G a l l o w a y a n d W i s s l e r ) G l o b o r o t a l i a i n f l a t a ( d O r b i g n y ) G l o b o r o t a l i a m e n a r d i i ( P a r k e r J o n e s a n d B r a d y ) G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a ( B r a d y ) G l o b o r o t a l i a t r u n c a t u l i n o i d e s ( d O r b i g n y ) G l o b o r o t a l i a t u m i d a ( B r a d y ) G l o b o r o t a l i a t o s a e n s i s T a k a y a n a g i a n d S a i t o G l o b o r o t a l i a u n g u l a t a B e r m u d e z H a s t i g e r i n a p e l a g i c a ( d O r b i g n y ) G l o b o q u a d r i n a d u t e r t r e i ( d O r b i g n y ) G l o b i g e r i n a p a c h y d e r m a ( E h r e n b e r g ) O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a d O r b i g n y P u l l e n i a t i n a o b l i q u i l o c u l a t a ( P a r k e r a n d J o n e s ) S p h a e r o i d i n e l l a d e h i s c e n s ( P a r k e r a n d J o n e s ) L i s t o f s p e c i e s S p e c i e s ( > 1 5 0 u m ) i d e n t i f i e d i n t o p 2 7 5 m m o f b o x c o r e O B B C 4 D ( P a r k e r 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 7 ) G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s r u b e r s p e c i m e n s w e r e s p l i t i n t o t w o c a t e g o r i e s t h e w h i t e v a r i e t y i s e n t i r e l y w h i t e a n d t h e p i n k v a r i e t y i s c o n s i d e r e d p i n k i f o n e o r m o r e c h a m b e r s a r e p i n k I f b o t h w h i t e a n d p i n k l i s t e d t h e s p e c i e s w e r e c o m b i n e d L i k e w i s e t h e G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s s a c c u l i f e r c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s s p e c i m e n s o f G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s q u a d r i l o b a t u s a n d G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s t r i l o b u s S i n g l e o r b i c h a m b e r e d O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a w e r e p l a c e d i n o n e c a t e g o r y T h e P u l l e n i a t i n a f i n a l i s w a s p l a c e d i n t h e P u l l e n i a t i n a o b l i q u i l o c u l a t a c a t e g o r y W o r k e r s o c c a s i o n a l l y s e p a r a t e H o l o c e n e S p h a e r o i d i n e l l a d e h i s c e n s i n t o t w o s p e c i e s S d e h i s c e n s a n d S e x c a v a t u m h o w e v e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y b o t h s p e c i m e n s w e r e p l a c e d i n S d e h i s c e n s W o r k e r s s e p a r a t e G l o b i g e r i n a p a c h y d e r m a i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s R i g h t c o i l i n g s p e c i m e n s w i t h f o u r c h a m b e r s a r e G g p a c h y d e r m a ( r i g h t ) a n d G g p a c h y d e r m a ( d u p a c ) i f r i g h t c o i l i n g a n d m o r e t h a n f o u r c h a m b e r s T h e l e f t c o i l i n g s p e c i m e n s w i t h a n y n u m b e r o f c h a m b e r s a r e G g p a c h y d e r m a ( l e f t ) M a n y t a x o n o c c u r r e d o c c a s i o n a l l y a n d h a d i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l a b u n d a n c e s a n d w e r e p l a c e d i n t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 2 )