The influence of the "Book of Job" on the Middle English morality plays

Citation
The influence of the "Book of Job" on the Middle English morality plays

Material Information

Title:
The influence of the "Book of Job" on the Middle English morality plays
Creator:
Hunt-Logan, Cameron
Place of Publication:
[Tampa, Fla]
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castle of perseverance
Mankind
Wisdom
Everyman
Medieval drama
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Masters -- USF
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The Book of Job was extremely popular in the Middle Ages, especially in England, because of its role in liturgy as well as lay religious devotion. I argue that the Book of Job was heavily influential in the writing of the medieval morality plays Castle of Perseverance, Mankind, Wisdom, and Everyman. In the plays, the dramatists mirrored many of Job's structural and artistic elements, creating direct parallels between the Biblical text and the morality plays. The authors also relied on Job's ideological framework to establish their own arguments, forming not only a textual but ideological linkage. Yet the most intriguing connection between Job and the morality plays is their function within the medieval religious context; the Hebrew Book of Job is used as a model for the Christian morality plays. By examining the role of Job in medieval England, I demonstrate how the figure of Job can be used as a Christian rather Jewish model. The influence of the Book of Job is central to the morality plays' structures, artistic techniques, and ideological arguments. I argue that, as other Scriptural books acted as patterns for the medieval cycle and mystery plays, the Book of Job stood as a pattern for the medieval morality plays.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 77 pages.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Cameron Hunt-Logan.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
001916254 ( ALEPH )
181017760 ( OCLC )
E14-SFE0001794 ( USFLDC DOI )
e14.1794 ( USFLDC Handle )

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The influence of the "Book of Job" on the Middle English morality plays
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ABSTRACT: The Book of Job was extremely popular in the Middle Ages, especially in England, because of its role in liturgy as well as lay religious devotion. I argue that the Book of Job was heavily influential in the writing of the medieval morality plays Castle of Perseverance, Mankind, Wisdom, and Everyman. In the plays, the dramatists mirrored many of Job's structural and artistic elements, creating direct parallels between the Biblical text and the morality plays. The authors also relied on Job's ideological framework to establish their own arguments, forming not only a textual but ideological linkage. Yet the most intriguing connection between Job and the morality plays is their function within the medieval religious context; the Hebrew Book of Job is used as a model for the Christian morality plays. By examining the role of Job in medieval England, I demonstrate how the figure of Job can be used as a Christian rather Jewish model. The influence of the Book of Job is central to the morality plays' structures, artistic techniques, and ideological arguments. I argue that, as other Scriptural books acted as patterns for the medieval cycle and mystery plays, the Book of Job stood as a pattern for the medieval morality plays.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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PAGE 1

T he Infl ue n c e of t h e Book of J ob on t he M i ddl e E ngl i s h M ora l i t y P l a ys by Ca m e ron H unt L og a n A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa rt i a l fu l fi l l m e n t O f t he re qui re m e nt s for t h e de gr e e of M a s t e r of A rt s D e pa rt m e n t of E ngl i s h Col l e ge of A rt s a nd S c i e nc e s U n i ve rs i t y of S out h F l ori da M a j or P rofe s s or: N i c ol e G ue nt h e r D i s c e n z a P h.D Re gi na H e w i t t P h.D E l t on S m i t h, P h.D D a t e of A pprova l : N ove m be r 8, 2006 K e yw ords : c a s t l e of pe rs e ve ra n c e m a nki n d, w i s dom e ve rym a n, m e di e va l dra m a Copyri ght 2006, Ca m e ron H unt L oga n

PAGE 2

i T a bl e of Con t e nt s Cha pt e r I 1 Cha pt e r II 11 Cha pt e r III 65 W orks Ci t e d 69 W orks Cons ul t e d 74

PAGE 3

i i T he Infl ue n c e of t h e Book of J ob on t he M i ddl e E ngl i s h M ora l i t y P l a ys Ca m e ron H unt L og a n A BS T RA CT T he Book of J ob w a s e xt re m e l y popul a r i n t he M i ddl e A ge s e s pe c i a l l y i n E ngl a nd, be c a us e of i t s rol e i n l i t urgy a s w e l l a s l a y r e l i g i ous de vot i on. I a rgue t ha t t he Book of J ob w a s he a vi l y i nfl u e nt i a l i n t he w ri t i ng of t he m e di e va l m ora l i t y p l a ys Ca s t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Mank i nd Wi s dom a nd E v e r y m an In t he pl a ys t he dr a m a t i s t s m i rr ore d m a ny of J obs s t ruc t ura l a nd a r t i s t i c e l e m e nt s c re a t i ng di re c t p a ra l l e l s be t w e e n t h e Bi bl i c a l t e xt a nd t he m or a l i t y pl a ys T he a ut hors a l s o re l i e d on J obs i de ol ogi c a l fra m e w ork t o e s t a bl i s h t h e i r ow n a rgu m e n t s form i ng not onl y a t e x t ua l bu t i de o l ogi c a l l i nka ge Y e t t he m os t i nt r i gui ng c onn e c t i o n be t w e e n J ob a nd t h e m or a l i t y pl a ys i s t h e i r func t i on w i t h i n t he m e di e va l r e l i gi ous c on t e xt ; t he H e bre w Book of J ob i s us e d a s a m ode l for t h e Chri s t i a n m ora l i t y p l a ys By e xa m i n i ng t he ro l e of J ob i n m e di e va l E ngl a nd, I de m ons t ra t e how t he f i gure of J ob c a n be us e d a s a Chri s t i a n r a t he r J e w i s h m ode l T h e i nfl u e nc e of t he Book of J ob i s c e nt ra l t o t he m ora l i t y p l a ys s t ruc t ur e s a rt i s t i c t e c hni que s a nd i de o l ogi c a l a rgu m e nt s I a rgue t h a t a s ot he r S c ri p t ura l book s a c t e d a s pa t t e rns for t he m e di e va l c yc l e a n d m ys t e ry pl a ys t h e Book of J ob s t ood a s a pa t t e rn for t he m e di e va l m ora l i t y pl a ys

PAGE 4

1 B ook s ar e not abs ol ut e l y de ad t hi ng s but doe c ont ai n a po t e nc i e of l i f e i n t he m t o b e as ac t i v e as t hat s oul e whos e pr oge n y t h e y ar e ; nay t he y do pr e s e r v e as i n a v i ol l t he p ur e s t e f f i c ac i e and e x t r ac t i on of t ha t l i v i ng i n t e l l e c t t hat br e d t h e m -M i l t on, A re opa g i t i c a I. A l l t e xt s be a r m a rks of t h e s oc i a l c on t e xt of t he i r produc t i on. A t e x t c a n be s e e n a s a c hi l d of i t s a ge of t e n w i t h t he c ul t ur e i m pre gna t i ng t h e a ut hor. T hi s t e xt ua l c hi l d, onc e de l i ve r e d i nt o t he w orl d, s t a nds a p e r m a ne nt c om bi n a t i on, a vi o l l of t he f a t h e r a nd m o t he r i t ha d. Y e t t e xt s a re no t m e r e m e m ori a l s e xi s t i ng s t a t i c a l l y. T h e y i nf l ue nc e t he s oc i a l c ont e xt s of ge n e ra t i ons t o c om e fos t e ri ng ot he r a ut hors t o produc e m or e t e xt s T hi s c yc l e of i nfl u e nc e a nd produc t i on, t h e l i t e ra ry di s c ou rs e i s a m e a ns not onl y of e xa m i n i ng t he t e xt s of t h e pa s t but a l s o of produc i ng ne w t e x t s i n re s pons e t o t h e m L i t e r a ry di s c ours e o c c urs a nyt i m e a n a ut h or i s i nfl ue nc e d by a t e xt w he t he r t h a t i nfl ue nc e i s i nt e nt i on a l or not T hus e a c h t e xt c ont a i ns a l i ne a ge of w orks t ha t i nf l ue nc e d i t a nd t h e s e i nfl u e nc e s he l p hi gh l i ght m e a ni ng i n t he d e s c e nde d t e x t T hi s l i ne a g e of i nfl ue nc e i s a l s o de p e nde n t upon t he s oc i a l c ondi t i ons of t he t i m e t he a u t hor w ri t e s for c ont e m por a ry i d e ol ogi e s gui de a t e xt s rol e i n l i t e ra ry d i s c ours e F o r m e di e va l w ri t e rs i n E ngl a nd, t he r e w e re num e rous s ourc e s for l i t e r a ry di s c ours e H ow e ve r, t he m os t prol i fi c s our c e of l i t e ra ry d i s c us s i on a nd i n t e rpre t a t i on w a s

PAGE 5

2 t he Bi bl e N o ot he r t e xt i n m e di e va l E ngl a nd bi rt he d m or e c r e a t i ve a nd c ri t i c a l t e x t s T he Bi bl e be c a m e t h e pa re n t of S c ri pt ur a l c o m m e nt a r i e s Ca t ho l i c l i t urgy, l a i t y de vo t i on a l s a nd m e di e va l s e c ul a r w ri t i ngs 1 It s i nfl ue nc e w a s s o w i de s pre a d t ha t t he B i bl e w a s a rgua bl y t h e m os t c e nt r a l t e xt i n m e di e va l E ngl i s h l i f e T he re fore i t i s not s urpri s i ng t ha t m e d i e v a l dra m a t i s t s re l i e d h e a v i l y on t h e Bi bl e i n t he i r dr a m a s a nd m uc h of t he dra m a t h a t e m e rg e d i n t h e M i ddl e A g e s i s e i t h e r Bi b l i c a l or re l i gi ous T h e a ut hors of t h e c y c l e p l a y s us e d Bi bl i c a l na rra t i v e s t o s t ruc t ur e t he i r pl ot s w hi l e ot he r a ut hors s i m pl y quo t e d ve rs e s or a l l ude d t o Bi bl i c a l fi gure s But t he Bi b l e s i nfl ue nc e on m e d i e v a l dra m a w a s de e p e r t ha n t he s upe rfi c i a l c orr e l a t i ons A ut hors a l s o borrow e d l i t e r a ry s t ruc t ure s rhe t or i c a l t e c hni que s a nd i de o l ogi c a l fr a m e w orks A ddi t i ona l l y, m e d i e va l dra m a t i s t s oft e n d e pe nde d on a s i ng l e Bi b l i c a l book or e ve n a s i ngl e Bi bl i c a l fi gure t o ba s e t h e i r p l a ys o n; for i ns t a nc e t he W a k e fi e l d Cyc l e us e s G e ne s i s a nd t he G os pe l s t o port r a y A da m a nd E ve N oa h, M a ry, a nd J e s us L i ke t h e a ut hors of t he c y c l e p l a ys t h e a ut hors of t he m e di e va l m ora l i t y p l a ys a l s o re l i e d on a pa rt i c u l a r S c ri p t ura l book for t he i r prot a g oni s t s a nd pl ot s ; t h e pl a ys c on t a i n bo t h di r e c t a nd i ndi re c t c o rre l a t i ons w i t h t he Book of J ob. T he Book of J ob w a s he a vi l y i nfl ue n t i a l i n t he w ri t i ng of t he m e di e v a l m o ra l i t y pl a ys Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Mank i nd W i s dom a nd E v e r y m an In t h e pl a ys t h e dra m a t i s t s m i rrore d m a ny of J obs s t ruc t u ra l a nd a r t i s t i c e l e m e nt s c re a t i ng d i re c t pa ra l l e l s be t w e e n t h e Bi bl i c a l t e x t a nd t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys T h e a ut hors a l s o re l i e d on J obs i de ol ogi c a l fra m e w ork t o e s t a bl i s h t he i r ow n a rgum e n t s form i ng not on l y a t e xt ua l 1 S e e D a vi d C F ow l e r s T he B i bl e i n M i ddl e E ngl i s h L i t e r at ur e

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3 but i de ol og i c a l l i nk a ge Y e t t he m os t i nt r i gui ng c onne c t i on be t w e e n J ob a nd t he m o ra l i t y pl a ys i s t he i r fun c t i on w i t hi n t h e m e d i e v a l re l i gi ous c on t e xt ; t he H e b re w Book of J ob i s us e d a s a m ode l for t he Chri s t i a n m o ra l i t y pl a ys W hi l e t he l i t e ra ry d i s c ours e s on t he Book of J ob a nd t he m e d i e va l E ngl i s h m o ra l i t y p l a ys ha ve produ c e d m uc h re s e a rc h on a nd m a ny i n t e rpr e t a t i ons of t he t e xt s t h e c orr e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he Book of J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y pl a ys ha v e gone vi rt ua l l y unnot i c e d i n t he c ri t i c a l a r e na T h e i nfl u e nc e of J ob i s c e nt ra l t o t h e m or a l i t y pl a ys s t ruc t ure s a r t i s t i c t e c hn i que s a nd i d e ol ogi c a l a rgum e n t s A s ot he r S c ri pt ura l books a c t e d a s pa t t e rn s for t he m e di e va l c yc l e a nd m ys t e ry pl a y s s o t he Book of J ob s t ood a s a pa t t e rn for t h e m e di e v a l m or a l i t y pl a ys T he Book of J ob w a s ve ry popul a r i n t he M i ddl e A ge s i ns pi ri ng num e rous c om m e n t a ri e s l i t urg i c a l w ri t i ngs a nd a rt i s t i c w orks It s a m bi guous m e a ni ngs a nd s e e m i ngl y c ont ra d i c t o ry pa s s a ge s offe r di ve rs e i nt e rpr e t a t i ons of t h e t e x t ; t hus i t s l i t e ra ry di s c ours e i s a bunda nt t o s a y t he l e a s t M e di e va l t he ol og i a ns T hom a s A qui na s A l be rt t he G re a t a nd N i c ho l a s of L yr a a l l w rot e vol u m e s of c om m e nt a ry on J ob. H ow e ve r, t he m os t popul a r c om m e nt a ry w a s G re gory t he G re a t s Mor al s on t he B ook o f J ob L a w re nc e Be s s e rm a n a rgue s t h a t G re gory t he G re a t s Mor al s w a s unri va l e d i n i t s i nfl ue n c e o n Chri s t i a n i n t e rpre t a t i on of J ob i n t he M i dd l e A ge s a nd w a s on e of t he m os t i m por t a nt c om pe ndi a of Chri s t i a n doc t r i ne (52, 56). Be c a us e of i t s popul a ri t y a nd t ho roughne s s Mor al s on t he B ook of J ob w a s c ruc i a l i n m e di e v a l i n t e rpr e t a t i on a nd d i s c ours e on J ob. Y e t t he Book of J ob i ns pi re d m ore t h a n c om m e nt a ri e s W h i l e no c yc l e pl a y on J ob s urvi ve s i n E ngl i s h, a F re n c h m ys t e ry p l a y t i t l e d L a P ac i e nc i a d e J ob off e rs a n a c c ount of J ob i n dra m a t i c form T he t e xt do e s not fol l ow t he pl o t of t he S c r i pt ura l J ob, but i t

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4 doe s e s t a bl i s h J ob a s a n e xe m p l um of p a t i e nc e a n d obe d i e nc e (Be s s e rm a n 94). M ore ove r, t he fi gur e of J ob a ppe a rs i n P rude nt i us P s y c hom ac h i a ; J ob he l ps P a t i e n c e off t he ba t t l e f i e l d a ft e r he r de f e a t of W ra t h a n d i s de s c ri be d a s now w i t h a s m i l e on hi s s t e rn fa c e a s he t hought of hi s he a l e d s ore s a nd, by t he num be r of h i s s c a rs re c oun t e d hi s t hous a nds of ha rd w on fi ght s a nd P a t i e n c e i s c a l l e d hi s i nvi nc i bl e m i s t r e s s (qt d. i n Be s s e rm a n 70 1) M ode rn c ri t i c i s m on t h e Book of J ob ha s be e n m uc h m ore pro l i fi c A t t e m pt s t o c l a s s i fy J ob ha ve be e n num e rous but m od e rn s c hol a rs ha v e foc us e d on t h e books pl a c e i n w i s dom l i t e ra t ur e H a rol d Bl oo m i n hi s i nfl ue nt i a l book Wh e r e Shal l W i s dom B e F ound? pa i rs J ob w i t h E c c l e s i a s t e s t houg h he de c l a re s J ob [i s ] a s phe r e a pa r t (11) J ob i s a l s o oft e n di s c us s e d i n e s s a y c ol l e c t i ons on w i s dom l i t e r a t ure a nd m a ny a nnot a t e d Bi bl e s c l a s s i fy i t a s s uc h. 2 O t he r s c hol a rs h a ve e xa m i n e d t he v a ri ous i nt e rpre t a t i ons o f t he Book of J ob i n c e rt a i n t i m e pe r i ods Be s s e rm a n di s c us s e s t he m e di e v a l b i bl i c a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a nd a po c ryph a l p e rc e p t i ons of J ob i n T he L e ge nd of J ob i n t he Mi dd l e A ge s ; J ona t ha n L a m b, i n T he R h e t or i c o f Suf f e r i ng: R e adi ng t h e B ook o f J ob i n t he E i ght e e nt h Ce n t ur y e x a m i n e s t he re l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e nt of d i vi ne j us t i c e i n J ob w i t h va ri ous l i t e ra ry t r e a t m e n t s of j us t i c e i n t he e i ght e e nt h c e nt ury ; Bl oom s c ol l e c t i on of e s s a ys Mode r n Cr i t i c al In t e r pr e t at i ons T he B ook o f J ob offe rs c ont e m por a ry s c hol a rs hi p on bot h t h e t he ol ogy a nd l i t e ra ry qu a l i t y of J ob. A ddi t i on a l l y, m uc h w ork ha s be e n don e c onne c t i ng J ob w i t h ot he r t e xt s de m ons t r a t i ng t he t e xt s 2 F or J ob a s w i s dom l i t e r a t ur e s e e J ohn D a y a nd R P G or don s W i s dom i n A nc i e nt I s r ae l : e s s ay s i n honour of J A E m e r t on B r uc e K W a l t ke J I P a c ke r a nd S ve n S ode r l und s T he W ay of W i s dom : e s s ay s i n honor of B r uc e K W al t k e R N W hybr a y s I n S e ar c h of T r ue W i s dom : e s s ay s i n O l d T e s t am e nt i nt e r pr e t at i on i n honour of R ona l d E C l e m e nt s J e w i s h St udy B i bl e N I V St udy B i bl e a nd T he N e w O x f or d A nnot at e d B i bl e

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5 e xt e ns i ve w e b of i nfl ue n c e S t e ve n M a rx, i n Shak e s pe ar e and t h e B i b l e e xa m i ne s J obs i nfl ue nc e on Ki ng L e ar ; Robe r t P a c k c onn e c t s t he Book of J ob w i t h F ros t s A M a s que of Re a s on i n B e l i e f and U nc e r t ai nt y i n t h e P oe t r y o f R obe r t F r os t ; H a rol d F i s c h dr a w s pa ra l l e l s be t w e e n J ob a nd P ar adi s e L os t i n Mi l t on and Sc r i p t ur al T r adi t i on: T he B i bl e i nt o P oe t r y T he c ri t i c a l hi s t ory of t he m ora l i t y pl a ys i s l e s s e xt e ns i ve t h a n J obs L ong di s re ga rde d a s e i t h e r s i m pl e o r vul ga r, t he pl a ys ha ve onl y r e c e nt l y r e c e i ve d s e ri ous c ri t i c a l a t t e nt i on. S c hol a rs ha v e be gun t o unpa c k not onl y t he pl a ys l i t e ra ry a nd rhe t ori c a l t e c hn i que s but a l s o how t he y e n ga ge d i n t h e l i t e r a ry di s c ours e s of t he i r t i m e a nd t he c e nt uri e s t o fol l ow E a rl y c r i t i c i s m of t h e m or a l i t y pl a ys i n t h e fi rs t ha l f of t he t w e n t i e t h c e nt ury, a t t e m pt e d t o c l a s s i fy a nd de f i ne t h e m i n r e s pe c t t o ot h e r form s of m e d i e v a l dra m a U nl i ke t he num e rous c y c l e a nd m ys t e ry pl a ys t h e e xt a nt m ora l i t y pl a ys a re f e w i n num be r four c om pl e t e t e xt s a nd a s e c t i on of a fi f t h. T h e four c om pl e t e p l a ys di s c us s e d he r e a re T he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Mank i nd W i s dom a nd E v e r y m an O nl y a fra gm e nt of T he P r i de of L i f e re m a i ns t hough t he fra g m e nt do e s c ont a i n i t s prol ogue s o t h e pl ot c a n b e l oo s e l y re c ons t ruc t e d. T h e s e pl a ys a r e c a t e gori z e d t oge t he r, a nd not l u m pe d w i t h t he c yc l e a nd m ys t e ry pl a ys be c a us e of s pe c i fi c e l e m e n t s t he y a l l s ha re P a m e l a K i ng not e s s om e c om m on qua l i t i e s of t he m ora l i t y pl a ys : m ora l i ns t ru c t i on t hrough dra m a t i c a c t i on, a n e m pha s i s on fre e w i l l a b e l i e f i n j udg m e n t a nd t he a ft e r l i fe a nd t h e us e of a l l e gory a nd pe rs oni fi c a t i on (240 2). M a rk E c c l e s di s c us s e s m ore s pe c i fi c f e a t ure s s uc h a s t he Confl i c t of t he V i rt u e s a nd V i c e s t h e D e b a t e of t h e H e a v e nl y G ra c e s a nd t he Co m i ng of

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6 D e a t h (xxv). Robe rt P ot t e rs book T he E n gl i s h Mor al i t y P l ay e m pha s i z e s t h e pl a ys c om m un a l c a l l [s ] t o re pe n t a nc e (32) a n d pl a c e s t h e prot a goni s t s m om e nt s of re pe nt a n c e a s t he c l i m a c t i c t he a t ri c a l e ve nt (49). M ode rn s c hol a rs a t t e m p t s a t de f i ni ng t he m ora l i t y p l a y, how e v e r, re fl e c t t he c on t e m pora ry n e e d for c l a s s i fi c a t i on ra t h e r t h a n t he m e d i e va l de s i r e for c ont i nui t y ; for t he pl a ys de m ons t ra t e t h a t w hi l e m e di e v a l pl a yw ri ght s us e d c e r t a i n m ot i fs a nd e l e m e nt s t he s e w e re fa r from a n e s t a bl i s he d form ul a s O t he r t w e nt i e t h c e nt ury s c ho l a rs e xa m i ne t he m ora l i t y p l a ys i n re s pe c t t o ot he r m e di e v a l pl a ys 3 P e t e r H a pp e s E ngl i s h D r am a B e f or e Shak e s pe ar e a nd M a rk E c c l e s e di t i on of T he Ma c r o P l ay s gi v e hi s t ori c a l a nd t e xt u a l not e s t o t he s phe r e t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys oc c upi e d i n m e di e va l dr a m a a nd i n m e di e v a l s oc i e t y i n g e ne r a l Bot h a ut hors t ra c e va ri ous pos s i bl e i nfl u e nc e s on t h e pl a ys a s w e l l a s de ve l op t he i r re l a t i ons hi ps t o l i t ur gi c a l dra m a J e rom e T a yl or a nd A l a n H N e l s ons Me di e v al E ngl i s h D r am a e s t a bl i s h e s a c om pa ra t i ve d i s c ours e on m e di e v a l dra m a ra t he r t h a n t h e s e que nt i a l a c c oun t P ot t e r offe rs Ri c ha rd S out he rns i nf l ue nt i a l boo k Me di e v a l T he at r e i n t he R ound s pa w ne d num e rous di s c us s i ons a nd e xa m i na t i ons of m e di e v a l s t a g e c r a ft a nd t e c hno l ogy. Re s e a rc h i n t he l a s t fi ft y y e a rs ha s foc us e d on t he i nfl u e nc e of t he m or a l i t y pl a ys on l a t e r dr a m a t i c t e x t s D a vi d Be vi ng t on t ra c e s dra m a t i c de v e l opm e nt s be t w e e n m e di e va l a nd T udor dra m a i n F r om Mank i nd t o Ma r l ow: G r owt h of St r uc t ur e i n t h e P opul ar D r am a of T udor E ngl and O t he rs ha ve s how n t he c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys 3 S e e C ox, W ya t t C ha m be r s a nd D i l l e r

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7 a nd M a rl ow e s D oc t or F aus t us a nd t h e V i c e fi gure s i n m a ny of S ha ke s p e a re s w ork s 4 P ot t e r not onl y l ooks ba c k t o i nfl ue n c e s o n t he m e d i e va l m or a l i t y pl a ys but a l s o c a t a l o gue s t he p rogre s s of t he ge nr e t hrou gh t he m ode rn e ra M i c ha e l K e l l e y e xa m i ne s t he pl a ys a s pa r t of a fl a m boy a nt t r a di t i on, w i t h c om bi n a t i ons of dra m a t i c e xa gge r a t i on a nd re a l i s m (13). T he four c om p l e t e m or a l i t y pl a ys s t i l l i n e xi s t e nc e T he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Mank i nd Wi s dom a nd E v e r y m an w e re a l l w ri t t e n be t w e e n 1400 a nd 1520. T he C as t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e t h e e a r l i e s t m ora l i t y pl a y e xt a nt w a s c o m pos e d be t w e e n 1400 142 5; Mank i nd a nd Wi s dom da t e be t w e e n 1460 a nd 1470. T he s e t hr e e p l a ys know n a s t he M a c ro P l a ys w e re pre s e rv e d on t he s a m e m a nus c ri pt 5 w hi c h re v e a l s a h i s t ory of ow ne rs hi p t hrough va ri ous s i gna t ur e s ; t h e e a rl i e s t na m e s i gne d i s t he m onk T hom a s H yngha m w ho s om e s c hol a rs s pe c ul a t e w a s i nvol ve d w i t h w ri t i ng a nd c opyi ng t h e pl a ys 6 T he l a t e s t p l a y, E v e r y m an ha s a n u nc e rt a i n hi s t ory a nd p e rform a nc e d a t e s a r e s pe c ul a t i ve but i t w a s publ i s he d i n E ngl a nd be t w e e n 1510 a nd 1519 ; t h e ge ne r a l c ons e ns us a m ong s c hol a rs i s t ha t E v e r y m a n i s a t ra ns l a t i on of t h e D ut c h pl a y E l c k e r l i j k T he s oc i a l c l i m a t e dur i ng t he produ c t i on o f t he m ora l i t y p l a ys w a s c ruc i a l t o t he s t ruc t ure s a nd a rgu m e n t s of t he t e xt s T he t hi rt e e nt h a nd four t e e nt h c e nt uri e s w e re a t i m e of s oc i a l unre s t a nd e c onom i c s t ruggl e T h e Bl a c k D e a t h w re a ke d ha vo c on E ngl a nd s popul a t i on w he n t h e fi rs t p a nde m i c fro m 1348 t o 1349, s pre a d a c ros s E ngl i s h s oi l S ubs e que nt e pi de m i c s a nd ou t bre a ks fol l o w e d, a nd by t he s e c ond h a l f of t he fourt e e nt h 4 S e e C r a i g, G ods ha l k, S hi m m a n, a nd K oz i kow s ki 5 W a s hi ngt on, D C F ol g e r M S V a 354 ( V ) 6 S e e H a ppe ( 44 )

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8 c e nt ury, E ng l a nds popul a t i on h a d be e n r e duc e d by ha l f 7 T he Bl a c k D e a t h a ff e c t e d ne a rl y e v e ry E ng l i s h h ous e hol d a nd t hi s p re va l a n c e of d e a t h i n t he c ul t ur e c a us e d m e di e v a l E ng l a nd t o b e obs e s s e d w i t h d e a t h a nd t h e fe a r of dyi ng (G ol db e rg 186 ). T he c e n t ury fol l ow i ng t he fi rs t B l a c k D e a t h out bre a ks w a s m a rk e d by a t t e m p t s t o re bui l d E ng l i s h s oc i e t y. T he E ng l i s h popu l a t i on b e ga n t o grow a g a i n, bu t l a bor r e m a i ne d a va l ua b l e c om m odi t y. F a rm e rs a nd t ra d e r s w e re t he m os t s uc c e s s ful i nha bi t a n t s a n d t he m e rc ha n t c l a s s i nc re a s e d i n e c onom i c a nd num e ri c a l s t re ng t h. E a s t A ngl i a i n pa rt i c ul a r w a s pros pe rous i n t ra de a nd a gri c u l t ure G ui l ds a l s o be c a m e i nc r e a s i ngl y popu l a r, bo t h re l i gi ous a nd c ra ft M os t gui l ds ha d t hr e e di s t i nc t a t t r i but e s : t he p a t ron s a i nt t h e c h urc h ba s e a nd t he a nnua l fe a s t (F a rnhi l l 10) a n d w e re re s pons i bl e for t he org a ni s a t i on o f t ra de s a nd i n dus t ry, a nd a hug e ra nge of s oc i a l a nd re l i gi ous a c t i v i t y (H a pp e E ngl i s h 4). T he s e s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c c h a nge s w e re he a vi l y t i e d w i t h t he Chur c h, w hi c h w a s t he c e n t ra l i ns t i t u t i on i n m e di e va l E ngl i s h l i fe A ft e r t he F ourt h L a t e ra n Counc i l i n 1 215, t he re w a s a m a rke d i nc re a s e i n w ha t H a pp e c a l l s de m ons t r a t i v e form s of pi e t y (5) i n t he Churc h, a nd t he s e form s c ont i nu e d t hr ough t he fourt e e nt h a nd f i ft e e nt h c e nt ur i e s duri ng t he de v e l opm e nt of L o l l a rdy. Re l i g i ous l i t e r a t ure s uc h a s pra ye r a nd de vot i o na l b ooks w e re c i rc ul a t e d t o t h e l a i t y i n v e rna c ul a r E ng l i s h, a nd c hu rc h m e m be rs w e re re qui re d t o a t t e nd c onf e s s i on onc e a y e a r duri ng L e nt a nd t he n r e c e i ve t he hos t duri ng E a s t e r. T h e i n c re a s e i n l a y d e vot i on w e n t ha nd i n ha nd w i t h t he popul a r di s c us s i ons of t he a ft e rl i f e i n t h e m i ds t of t he Bl a c k D e a t h. T he c l e rgy re i nforc e d Chr i s t i a n do c t ri n e on t he a ft e rl i f e t hrough s e r m ons a nd S c ri pt ur a l re a d i ngs a nd pl a c e d h e a vy re l i gi ous foc us on 7 G ol dbe r g ( 71) ; P l a t t ( 9) ; G r i f f i t h ( 39 ) ;

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9 t he S a c ra m e nt s i n p a rt i c ul a r pe na n c e a nd t he E uc h a ri s t P a ul W hi t e fi e l d W h i t e a nd P e t e r H a ppe e xa m i ne t he e m pha s i s on re pe n t a n c e a nd c onf e s s i on i n c ont e m por a ry s e rm o ns a nd not e s i m i l a r di s c us s i ons i n t h e m ora l i t y p l a ys a nd P ot t e r c l a i m s t he i m m e di a t e or i g i ns of t he m ora l i t y p l a ya r e i n t he t r a di t i on of s e rm ons a nd pe ni t e nt i a l l i t e ra t ure a dvo c a t i ng re pe nt a n c e a nd pre a c hi ng t h e forgi ve n e s s of s i ns (7). P i e t y a nd de vo t i on a l s o i nc re a s e d out s i d e t he c hurc h w a l l s a s num e rous l a y de vot i ona l s w e re c op i e d i n t he ye a rs fol l o w i ng t he F ourt h L a t e ra n Coun c i l T he P a t e rnos t e r, or L ords P ra y e r, w a s popul a r a m ongs t c hurc h d e vot i on a l s a nd a m e a ns of pe na nc e 8 P a t e rnos t e r be a ds w e re m a de by c ra ft gui l ds a nd s e ve r a l P a t e rnos t e r pl a ys w e re put on by re l i g i ous gui l ds (P ot t e r 23). T he s e pl a ys de t a i l e d t he L ords P ra ye r a nd w e re oft e n l i nk e d w i t h t h e S e ve n D e a dl y S i ns P ot t e r c l a i m s t h a t t h e P a t e rnos t e r p l a y w a s i n s ubs t a nc e a re p e nt a nc e dr a m a (28). A l on gs i de t he P a t e rnos t e r w a s t h e P rym e r, or c om m on pra y e r book, w hi c h c ont a i ne d s e ve ra l pra y e rs for de vot i on a t ho m e i n c l ud i ng t he O ffi c e of t he D e a d, w hi c h l i s t e d S c ri p t ura l pra ye rs for t h e de c e a s e d. L i ke a l l w ri t e rs t he a ut hors of t he M i dd l e E ngl i s h m ora l i t y p l a ys dre w from t h e s oc i a l c on t e xt i n w hi c h t h e y l i ve d. T h e Bl a c k D e a t h a nd t h e s oc i o e c onom i c c ha ng e s i t brought a nd t he r e form of d e vot i on i n a nd out of t he Churc h l e ft s t rong i m pre s s i ons on t he m ora l i t y p l a ys t he c onc e pt s of de a t h, t he a ft e rl i f e a nd d e vot i on a re c e nt ra l t o t he m ora l s of t he t e xt s Y e t t he pl a ys a c t e d no t onl y a s a produc t of t he s oc i a l c ondi t i on but a s a n i ns t ruc t i ve forc e w i t h i n i t A s m uc h a s t he s oc i a l c l i m a t e i nfl ue n c e d t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys t he m or a l i t y pl a ys i nf l ue nc e d t h e s oc i a l c l i m a t e Be c a us e t h e y w e re i ns t ruc t i ona l 8 S e e M ank i nd ( 547 73 )

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1 0 de m ons t ra t i ons of Chri s t i a n do c t ri n e (K e l l e y 23), t h e y s ha pe d t h e de v e l opm e nt of Chri s t i a n t h e ol og y a m i d t h e pre s e n c e of L ol l a rdry a nd j us t pri or t o t he P rot e s t a nt Re form a t i on. T he do c t ri n e w i t h i n t he m e d i e va l m ora l i t y pl a ys re m a i ne d i nfl ue n t i a l a m i d t he re l i gi ous t urm o i l of t h e c e n t ury t o c om e T he m ora l i t y p l a ys re fl e c t t he r e l i g i ous s oc i a l c ont e x t o f t he i r produc t i on s pe c i fi c a l l y t hrough t he i r re l i a n c e on t h e Book of J ob. By us i ng t he m e s m ot i fs a nd e l e m e nt s pre s e nt i n t h e Book of J ob, t he m ora l i t y pl a ys not on l y de m ons t r a t e J obs rol e i n t he m e d i e va l re l i gi ous c on t e xt bu t a l s o c o ns t ruc t t he i r ow n C hri s t i a n a rgum e nt s i n re s pons e t o a J e w i s h fra m e w ork.

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11 T he e ar l y dr am a of E ngl and m ay no l on ge r be t r e at e d as m e r e l i t e r at ur e or as m e r e t he at r i c a l e nt e r t ai nm e nt f or t hat m at t e r T o appl y m e t hodol ogi e s appr opr i at e t o po e t r y or t he s t age al one wou l d i s ol at e t he s e p l a y s f r om t he i r hi s t or i c al c ont e x t and s e v e r i ng t he m f r om t he v i br ant t r adi t i ons i n wh i c h t he y l i v e d and m ov e d and had t he i r be i ng o nl y woul d s e r v e t o adv an c e t h e de e p m i s c onc e pt i ons t hat hav e pl ague d t he m i n t h e pas t Cl i fford D a vi ds on, T e c hnol og y G ui l ds and E ar l y E ngl i s h D r am a II. T he t he o l ogi c a l i nf l ue n c e of t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys i n m e d i e va l E ngl a nd i s c l os e l y l i nke d w i t h t he pl a ys re l a t i ons hi p t o t he Book of J ob. D uri ng t he M i ddl e A ge s J ob w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h de a t h a nd t he a f t e rl i fe c e nt ra l i s s ue s i n t h e m ora l i t y p l a ys H e w a s a popul a r fi gure a s w e re t h e t e x t s a bout hi m i n bot h c l e ri c a l a nd l a y c i r c l e s Be s s e r m a n c l a i m s J obs popul a ri t y c a m e from t hr e e s ourc e s of l i t e ra t ur e : B i bl i c a l a poc rypha l a nd e c c l e s i a s t i c a l A l l t hr e e a r e a s c ont r i but e d t o t he J ob l e ge nd, bu t t he B i bl i c a l t e x t a nd s pe c i fi c t e xt s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i t G re gory t he G re a t s Mor al s a nd t h e O ffi c e of t he D e a d ha ve t h e m os t e vi de n t c orre l a t i ons w i t h t he m or a l i t y pl a ys T hough B e s s e rm a n i nc l ude s Mor al s a nd t h e O ffi c e of t he D e a d unde r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s ourc e s bot h t e xt s c ont a i n t he Bi b l i c a l Book of J ob, Mor al s i n ful l a nd t h e O ffi c e of t he D e a d i n pa r t J obs a s s oc i a t i on w i t h de a t h c o m e s not fro m hi s ow n de a t h but r a t he r fro m hi s a ffl i c t i on w i t h a ve ry gr i e vous ul c e r, f ro m t he s ol e of t he foot t o t he t op of hi s he a d

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12 (2: 7) 9 i n t he B i bl i c a l a c c ount ; J obs s ki n di s e a s e w a s s i m i l a r t o t he s ym p t om a t i c boi l s of t he Bl a c k D e a t h, a nd m e di e v a l a r t oft e n d e pi c t e d J ob, w i t h hi s l e s i ons on e i t he r a pi l e of a s he s or a dunghi l l 10 T h us he be c a m e t he p a t ron s a i nt of s ki n d i s e a s e s a nd w i t h t he ons e t of t he Bl a c k D e a t h, J ob ha d pl e nt y o f i nt e rc e s s i on t o pe rform S i n c e t h e boi l s of t he Bl a c k D e a t h a l m os t a l w a ys l e d t o d e a t h, J ob be c a m e not onl y t he p a t ron s a i n t of s ki n di s e a s e s but a l s o c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h d e a t h. H ow e ve r, J obs a ffi l i a t i on w i t h s ki n di s e a s e s w a s not t he onl y c onne c t i on h e ha d w i t h de a t h ; pa s s a ge s from t h e Book of J ob w e re s a i d i n t h e O ffi c e of t he D e a d t he s e t of pra ye rs s a i d by bot h t h e c l e rgy a nd t he l a i t y a ft e r a l ove d on e s de a t h. T he s e pra y e rs w e re re c i t e d oft e n, s i n c e t he Bl a c k D e a t hs hi gh m ort a l i t y ra t e l e ft m a ny de a d, a nd t h e pa s s a ge s pra ye d for t h e de a d w e r e us ua l l y s a i d on t he t h i rd, s e ve nt h, a nd t hi r t i e t h da y a ft e r a e a c h de a t h. Be s s e rm a n do e s not e t h a t i t i s di ffi c u l t t o s pe a k of a s i ngl e O ffi c e of t he D e a d or s pe c i fi c a l l y a bout J obs rol e i n i t ; how e ve r, h e s a ys t ha t J ob i s t he pr i n c i pa l bi bl i c a l fi gur e i n t h e ful l y d e ve l ope d O ffi c e of t he D e a d of t he H i gh M i ddl e A ge s ( 58). Be s s e rm a n c ont i nue s t ha t m os t of t h e m e d i e va l l a i t y w oul d ha ve know n a bout J ob t hrough t he O ffi c e of t he D e a d (59) ra t he r t ha n t he e nt i r e S c ri pt u ra l book b e a ri ng h i s na m e T h e P rym e r, or l a y fol ks pra y e r bo ok, c i rc ul a t i ng a s e a r l y a s 1420 ( P r y m e r vi i ), c i t e s ni n e J ob pa s s a ge s i n t he O ffi c e of t he D e a d : l e c c i o.1. P ar c e m i c h i d omi n e [J ob vi i 1 6 21] Le c c i o i i : Te d e t an i mam. [J ob x. 1 7.] 9 A l l B i bl i c a l quot a t i ons a r e f r om t he D oua y R he i m s t r a ns l a t i on of t he V ul ga t e unl e s s ot he r w i s e not e d. 10 T he w o r d H e br e w w or d e phe r i n J ob 2: 8 i s t r a ns l a t e d a s dunghi l l i n t he V ul ga t e ; t he m o r e a c c ur a t e t r a ns l a t i on w oul d be a s he s

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13 Le c c i o i i j: M an u s tu e [J ob x. 8 12] l e c c i o i i i j: Q u an tas h ab e o [J ob xi i i 23 28] l e c c i o v: H omo n atu s d e mu l i e r e [J ob xi v. 1 6] Le c c i o vj: [ Q u i s mi c h i h oc tr i b u at]. [J ob xi v. 13 16.] l e c c i o vi j: S p i r i tu s me u s [J ob xvi i 1 3, 1 1 15] l e c c i o vi i j: p e l l i m e e [J ob xi x. 20 27] l e c c i o i x: [J ob x. 18 22] Cl os e l y l i nk e d w i t h J obs a s s oc i a t i on w i t h de a t h w a s hi s c onne c t i on w i t h t h e a ft e rl i fe Be s s e rm a n n ot e s In t he M i dd l e A ge s J obs fa i t h i n a pe rs ona l r e de e m e r a nd hi s be l i e f i n a n a f t e rl i fe i n w hi c h a l l of t h i s w orl ds i nj us t i c e s w i l l b e ri ght e d w e re c ons i de re d t o b e hi s pri m a ry re s pons e t o r i ght e ous s uffe ri ng e ve n t hough t he pr e s e nc e of t he s e m ot i fs i n t he b i bl i c a l t e xt i s dubi o us a t be s t (27). T h e m e di e v a l be l i e f i n a re s urre c t i on m i nd e d J ob i s pri m a r i l y ba s e d on t w o pa s s a ge s J ob 14: 12 4 a nd J ob 19: 25 7. T he V ul ga t e t r a ns l a t e s 14: 12 4 S o m a n w he n he i s fa l l e n a s l e e p s ha l l not ri s e a ga i n ; t i l l t h e he a ve ns be broke n, he s ha l l no t a w a k e nor ri s e up out of hi s s l e e p. W ho w i l l gra nt m e t hi s t ha t t hou m a y e s t prot e c t m e i n h e l l a nd hi de m e un t i l t hy w ra t h pa s s a nd a ppoi nt m e a t i m e w he n t hou w i l t re m e m be r m e ? S ha l l m a n t ha t i s de a d, t hi nk e s t t hou, l i ve a g a i n ? A l l t h e da ys i n w hi c h I a m now i n w a rfa re I e xpe c t un t i l m y c h a nge c o m e V e rs e s 19: 25 7 a re t r a ns l a t e d

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14 F or I know t ha t m y Re de e m e r l i v e t h, a nd i n t he l a s t d a y I s ha l l r i s e out of t he e a r t h. A nd I s ha l l b e c l o t he d a g a i n i n m y s ki n, a nd i n m y f l e s h I w i l l s e e m y G od. W hom I m ys e l f s ha l l s e e a n d m y e ye s s ha l l b e hol d, a nd no t a not he r: t hi s m y hope i s l a i d up i n m y bos om Be s s e rm a n a pt l y de m ons t r a t e s t ha t J obs fa i t h i n r e s urre c t i on [i s ] c l e a r a nd i nc ont e s t a bl e (28) i n t he V ul ga t e t r a ns l a t i on. T he s e t w o c ruc i a l ve rs e s a l s o a pp e a r i n t he O ffi c e of t he D e a d i n v e rna c u l a r E ng l i s h, bol s t e ri ng t h e i r a s s oc i a t i on w i t h re s urre c t i on a nd t he a f t e rl i fe T he P rym e r t ra ns l a t e s J ob 14: 13 4, [13] W ho m a i gr a unt e t o m e t hi s t h a t t ho u de fe nde m e i n he l l e & hi d e m e t i l t h i gre e t ve ni a unc e pa s s a & t h a t t hou o rde yne m e a t ym e i n w hi c h t hou ha ue m ynde of m e ? [14] ge s s i s t t hou not t ha t a de e d m a n s c ha l l yue a y e n? / A l l e t h e da i e s i n w hi c h e y t ra u e l e now y a bi de t i l m y c ha ungyng c o m e V e rs e s 25 27 of c ha pt e r 19 a re t r a ns l a t e d, [25] ffor y w ot t ha t m yn a ye nbi e r l yu e t h; & i n t he l a s t e d a i y s c ha l ri s e fro t he e rt h e [26] & e ft y s c ha l be c u m pa s s i d w i t h m y s kyn; & i n m y fl e s c h y s c ha l s e god m y s a ue our. [27 ] w hom y m y s i l f s c ha l s e & m yn hope & ke pt i n m y bos um T he ve rs e s from c h a pt e r 19 a l s o a pp e a r a t t he c onc l us i on of L e s s on 1: I bi l e ue t ha t m yn a y e nbi e r l yue t h ; & y s c h a l ri s e out of t he e r t he i n t he l a s t e da i ; & i n m y fl e s he y s c ha l s e god, m y s a uyour. W hom y m y s i l f s c h a l s e be yng e not a not he r, & m yn i y e n s c hul e n b i hol de hi m

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15 [Re pe e t ] A nd i n m y fl e i s c h, y s c ha l s e e go d, m y s a ue our. T he i ns t ruc t i on t o r e pe a t t h e l a s t s e c t i on n ot onl y e m ph a s i z e s J obs be l i e f i n a re s urre c t i on, bu t a l s o re a ffi r m s J obs a s s e rt i on t ha t he w i l l s e e G od i n hi s ow n fl e s h. T hus t he O ffi c e of t he D e a d de pi c t s J ob a s a t ype for Chri s t be c a us e of hi s d e a t h a n d s uppos e d re s urre c t i on. T h e Chri s t i a ni z a t i o n of J ob i n t he M i ddl e A ge s i s s i gni f i c a n t i n re s pe c t t o t he m or a l i t y pl a ys be c a us e J ob s c onne c t i on w i t h de a t h a nd t he a f t e rl i fe m a de hi m a us e fu l m ode l for t he m or a l i t y pl a ys doc t ri ne a nd prot a goni s t s T he p l a ys dra m a t i z e Chri s t i a n doc t ri ne t hrough a di s t i nc t l y Chr i s t i a n prot a goni s t a nd bo t h of t he s e e l e m e nt s de a t h a nd t he a ft e r l i fe dr a w from t he Boo k of J ob. T he m os t obvi ous s i m i l a r i t y be t w e e n t h e Book of J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y p l a ys i s t he i r dra m a t i c n a t ure W hi l e J ob i s not a d ra m a i n t he prop e r s e ns e i t s dra m a t i c e l e m e nt s c l os e l y re l a t e i t t o dra m a 11 Ra ba nus M a rurus a nd ot he r m e d i e v a l c o m m e n t a t ors c l a s s i fi e d t he book a s of a m i xe d m ode b ot h n a rr a t i ve a nd dra m a t i c (A s t e l l 15 7). T h e boo k a s a w hol e l e nds i t s e l f w e l l t o dr a m a t i c org a n i z a t i on a nd i n t e rpr e t a t i on a nd h a s oft e n be e n re a d a nd i n t e rpr e t e d a s a n a nc i e nt dr a m a w i t h s c hol a rs bre a k i ng t h e t e x t s i nt o a c t s a nd s c e ne s a s a w a y of org a n i z i ng t he di a l ogu e s e c t i ons 12 M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, t he Book of J ob ut i l i z e s s e ve ra l dra m a t i c fe a t ure s t h e pro l ogue e s t a b l i s he s t he pr e l i m i n a ry a c t i on, t he e pi l ogue c onc l ud e s t he book, a nd t he d i a l ogue s a dva nc e t he books a rgu m e nt A l s o, e a c h of t he c ha r a c t e rs w ho s pe a k i s pe rs ona l l y de ve l ope d t hrough t he po e t i c di a l ogue s a n d t he pros e prol ogue t hough a c t i on b e t w e e n c h a ra c t e rs (s t a ge a c t i on i n a t ypi c a l dra m a ) i s 11 S e e t he I nt r oduc t i on t o J ob i n t he J e w i s h St udy B i bl e K a l l e n s T he B ook of J ob as a G r e e k T r age dy a nd H ur w i t z s T he I m m or t al D r am a of L i f e ( T he B ook of J ob) 12 S e e K a l l e n s T he B ook of J ob as a G r e e k T r age dy a nd W a l l s s T he O l de s t D r am a i n t he W or l d, T he B ook of J ob

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16 m i ni m a l a t be s t W h a t i s t ru l y dra m a t i c t h ough, a bout J ob i s t he i n t e l l e c t ua l a rgum e nt t he c ha ra c t e rs a r e e nga g e d i n. T h e i r di s c us s i o n ove r t he m e a ni ng of d i vi n e j us t i c e a c t s a s t he progre s s i on of t he pl ot w i t h t he c l i m a x c o m i ng i n G ods re s pons e t o t he i r de b a t e T he m e d i e va l E ngl i s h m ora l i t y p l a ys a re n ot onl y dra m a t i c but a r e ful l fl e dg e d dra m a s T he t e xt s a re broke n i nt o a c t s a n d s om e t i m e s s c e ne s a nd w e r e i nt e nde d fo r pe rform a nc e W h i l e e vi de n c e i s s c a n t on t he pe rform a n c e h i s t ory of e a c h m ora l i t y p l a y, s c hol a rs ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e a nd Mank i nd w e re pe rfor m e d by a t r a ve l i ng t roup e 13 a nd t ha t W i s dom w a s l i ke l y t he w ork of a m ona s t e ry. E v e r y m an, publ i s he d a s a m ora l p l a y, a ppe a rs s i m i l a r t o a c l os e t dr a m a t hough i t s pe rfor m a n c e hi s t ory pri or t o publ i c a t i on i s unc e rt a i n. T hough t he pl a ys ha v e no form a l prol ogu e a nd e p i l ogue t he y do e s t a bl i s h a nd c onc l ude a c t i on s i m i l a r l y t o J ob. In a l l four pl a ys a n ope ni ng c ha r a c t e r, s uc h a s M a nki nd i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e M e rc y i n Man k i n d W i s dom i n Wi s dom or G od i n E v e r y m an e s t a bl i s he s t h e a c t i on of t h e pl a y, a s t he prol og ue of J ob doe s T he pl a ys c onc l ude s i m i l a r l y, w i t h a c ha r a c t e r offe ri ng a not he r m ora l i s t i c s pe e c h: G od i n t h e Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e M e rc y i n Mank i nd A ni m a i n Wi s dom a nd a D oc t or i n E v e r y m an A s i de from t he pl a ys prol ogue a nd e pi l ogue s i m i l a r i t i e s t he fi gur e s i n t he m ora l i t y pl a ys a re i ndi vi du a l l y d e ve l op e d, a s J ob a nd hi s fri e nds a re t hrough t he i r ow n s pe e c he s a b out t he m s e l ve s H ow e ve r, t h e dra m a of t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys i s not t he phys i c a l a c t i ons of t he c ha r a c t e rs but ra t he r t h e i nt e l l e c t u a l di s c us s i o n, a di s c us s i on s i m i l a r t o J obs t ha t t he y a re e nga ge d i n. T he p l a ys us e t he i r 13 C l oppe r s pe c ul a t e s t ha t i n t he C as t l e of P e r s e v e r a nc e s c a s e pe r ha ps i t w a s t he t e xt t ha t m ove d r a t he r t ha n t he a c t or s ( 191)

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17 uni ve rs a l prot a goni s t s i nt e ra c t i on w i t h go od a nd e vi l for c e s t o furt h e r t h e i r pl o t s a n d de pi c t t he prot a goni s t s ul t i m a t e c hoi c e of good ove r e vi l a s t he c l i m a x. Y e t i t i s a t e xt s a b i l i t y t o t r a ns l a t e t h e w ri t t e n t e xt m ys t i c a l l y i n t o a phys i c a l re a l i t y t ha t m a k e s i t t rul y dra m a t i c W h i t e s a ys dra m a c o m m uni c a t e [s ] i de o l ogy e ffe c t i ve l y a nd e n t e rt a i ni ng l y t o t h e ge ne r a l publ i c i n c on c re t e vi s ua l a nd ora l t e r m s (135). T he vi s u a l a nd ora l t e rm s a re c ruc i a l t o t he t a s k of a ny dr a m a t i c t e xt b e c a us e dra m a i s not s o m u c h r e ad a s s e e n a nd he ar d for t he w ri t t e n t e xt i s m a ni f e s t e d i n t o phys i c a l a c t i on a nd s poke n w ords T hi s c o nc e pt of dr a m a t i c m a n i fe s t a t i on of t he w ri t t e n w ord i s pre s e nt i n t he Book of J ob J ob oft e n pa i rs s e e i ng a nd he a ri ng t og e t h e r; i n J ob 13: 1, he s a ys M y e ye s ha ve s e e n a l l t hi s m y e a rs ha ve h e a rd a nd unde rs t ood i t a nd l a t e r, M y e a rs ha d h e a rd of you but now m y e ye s ha ve s e e n you (42 : 5). A ddi t i on a l l y, t o t he m e d i e va l l a i t y, t h e fi gur e of J ob w a s ve ry m uc h s e e n a nd he a rd, s i nc e J ob w a s popul a r i n c hur c h a r t w ork a nd pa i n t i ngs u s ua l l y s e e n on a dungh i l l or a s he s w i t h hi s w i fe a nd S a t a n. A l s o, pa s s a ge s from t h e Book of J ob w e re oft e n quot e d dur i ng t h e m a s s a nd t he O ffi c e of t he D e a d w a s re a d a l oud by e i t he r t he c l e rgy or t he l i t e r a t e l a i t y. L i k e w i s e t he m ora l i t y p l a ys w e re e qua l l y s e e n a nd he a rd, s i nc e t he i r vi s ua l a nd ora l c om pone nt s i n t he di a l ogue s a nd a c t i on of t he c ha ra c t e rs w e re t he pri m a ry c om m un i c a t ors t o t he m e di e v a l a ud i e n c e In t he c a s e s of bot h t he Book of J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y pl a ys dra m a t i c m a ni fe s t a t i on c a n b e s e e n a s a t ool for bri ngi ng t he w ri t t e n re v e l a t i on i n S c ri pt ur e t o t he l a i t y i n t he phys i c a l a nd ora l l a ngu a ge t h e y unde rs t ood. S i n c e a c c e s s t o hol y t e x t s w a s l i m i t e d i n m e di e va l E ngl a nd, d ra m a w a s one of t he be s t t he ol og i c a l ve h i c l e s for

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18 c om m uni c a t i ng Chri s t i a n doc t r i ne A s P ot t e r not e s t h e m ora l i t y p l a ys purpos e w a s t o m a ke vi s i b l e t h e i nvi s i b l e t ru t hs (8). J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y p l a ys a l s o s ha r e s i m i l a r rhe t ori c a l s t ruc t ur e s : bot h a r e fa t on di a l ogue a nd t hi n on phys i c a l a c t i on. In J o b, t he prol ogue a nd e pi l ogue c ont a i n a l m o s t a l l t he t e x t s a c t i on. In t h e fi rs t t w o bri e f c ha pt e rs J ob goe s from upri ght s a c r i fi c i ng fa t he r t o boi l ri dd e n, de j e c t e d m a n on a s he s In c ha pt e r 42 J obs re ve rs e of for t une i s e qu a l l y qui c k, oc c urr i ng ove r a t ot a l of t e n ve rs e s T he i nt e rve ni ng t hi rt y n i ne c ha pt e rs ove r ni ne t e n t hs of t he book, c on t a i n J ob a nd hi s fri e nds l ong di s c us s i on on t he na t ure o f di vi ne j us t i c e a nd G ods re s pons e t o i t T h e t e xt s c l i m a x, G ods a ppe a r a nc e i n a w hi rl w i nd, i s a l s o a n a c t of di s c us s i on. J o b e ve n a s ks hi s fri e nds S ha l l w i ndy w ords ha ve no e nd ? (16: 3). T hi s l a c k of a c t i on a nd profus i on of di a l ogu e de m ons t r a t e s t he t e xt s c onc e rn w i t h i n t e l l e c t ua l di s c us s i on a nd a bs t ra c t i nqui ry ov e r phys i c a l a c t i on. L i ke J ob, t he m ora l i t y pl a ys re l y on d i a l og ue ove r a c t i on t o c om m uni c a t e t he i r a rgum e nt T he s pe e c he s of t h e a l l e gori c a l fi gure s of t he m or a l i t y pl a ys t e nd t o h a ve m a n y w i ndy w ords (J ob 16: 3), a nd c ha r a c t e rs oft e n a nnounc e t he m s e l v e s a nd t he i r qua l i t i e s i n l e ngt hy, d e s c ri pt i ve s pe e c he s w hi c h K e l l e y d e s c ri b e s a s c ont a i ni ng a s t a t i c a bs t ra c t qua l i t y (36). In t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e t he ope n i ng s pe e c he s by W orl d, B e l i a l a nd F l e s h e nc om pa s s a l m os t t hre e hundre d l i n e s w hi l e t he S e v e n V i rt u e s a nd V i c e s ve r ba l a t t a c ks t a ke ov e r a t hous a nd. L i k e w i s e M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a nd i ng i n Wi s dom i nt roduc e t he m s e l ve s ove r t he c ours e of a pproxi m a t e l y a hundr e d l i n e s a nd W i s dom oft e n s pe a ks t hi r t y or fort y l i ne s a t a t i m e T he c ha r a c t e rs i n Mank i nd a re g e ne r a l l y m ore s uc c i nc t e xc e pt M e rc y, w hos e s e rm on, s t r e t c hi ng t hrough S c e ne I, c om pos e s t w e n t y

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19 pe rc e nt of t he pl a y. In E v e r y m an G ods ope ni ng s pe e c h s t r e t c he s fort y l i ne s a nd m a ny of E ve rym a ns s ol i l oqui e s t a ke up t w e nt y or t hi rt y l i ne s L i k e J ob, t he m or a l i t y pl a ys a r e c onc e rne d w i t h i nt e l l e c t ua l a bs t ra c t i nqui ry s uc h a s t he di ffe r e nc e be t w e e n j us t i c e a nd m e rc y, t h e m e a ni ng of r i ght e ous ne s s a nd t he fa l l e n hum a n c ondi t i on ov e r phys i c a l a c t i on. T he w i ndy w ords of J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y pl a ys s t e m from m os t of t he pl a y s pl ot be i ng ps yc ho l ogi c a l ; t he a l t e ra t i ons i n c ha ra c t e rs c o m e not fro m c a t a s t rophi c e v e nt s but from t he ps yc ho l ogi c a l t e m pt a t i ons by a L uc i f e r fi gur e re buke s by a n a nge l i c or Chri s t fi gure a nd t he c h a ra c t e rs ow n ra t i ona l e T he c ha r a c t e rs i nt e rna l t ra ns form a t i ons i n J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y p l a ys a r e de pi c t e d t hrough t h e us e of s pe c i fi c t he m e s a nd m ot i fs O ne fe a t ure i n s e v e ra l of t he t e xt s i s t he pe rs oni fi e d D e a t h f i gure F or e x a m p l e J ob s a ys D e a t h a nd d e s t ruc t i on ha v e s a i d, W i t h our e a rs w e ha ve h e a rd t h e fa m e t he re of (28: 22), a nd t h e m ora l i t y p l a ys e l a b ora t e on t he fi gure m a ki ng h i m a fu l l fl e dge d c ha ra c t e r. In t h e Cas t l e o f P e r s e v e r anc e M ors c om e s fo r M a nki nd, i n Man k i nd M e r c y s pe a ks of t he c rue l l vys yt a c yon of de t h (7 36), a nd i n E v e r y m an t he m e s s e nge r D e a t h i s s e nt t o re t ri e v e E v e rym a n. T he pe rs oni f i c a t i on of de a t h e l e va t e s i t s rol e i n no t onl y J ob b ut a l s o, a nd m or e pre v a l e n t l y, i n t he m or a l i t y pl a ys A ddi t i ona l l y, bot h t he Book of J ob a nd t he m or a l i t y pl a ys de p i c t S a t a n a s t he i ni t i a t or of t e m pt a t i on. T hough G od m a y boa s t of J ob fi rs t i n t he B i bl e S a t a n offe rs t he w a ge r a ga i ns t J ob (1: 9 11 ) a nd e v e n re t ur ns t o up t he a nt e (2: 4 5). T h e S a t a n fi gur e s i n t he m ora l i t y p l a ys be a r a s t rong re s e m bl a n c e t o t h e a ggr e s s i ve S a t a n i n J ob. In t he C as t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Be l i a l s e rve s a s t he S a t a n fi gure boa s t i ng i n t he op e ni ng l i ne s N o I s yt t e S a t a n a s i n m y s a d s ynne s o t h a t M a nkynde be s t roye d / B e dyk ys a nd be d e nne

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20 (207 8). H e w i t h hi s e nt oura g e of V i c e s goe s a ft e r M a nki nd t o bri ng hi m i nt o s i n. I n Mank i nd t he S a t a n fi gur e i s M ys c he ffe f or he orga ni z e s N e w G ui s e N ow a da ys a nd N ought a nd e ve n T i t yvi l l i us t o t e m p t M a nki nd t o s i n. T he d e ve l op m e nt of L uc i f e r i n Wi s dom a l s o re l i e s on t h e de pi c t i on of S a t a n i n t he Book of J ob. L u c i fe r s a ys I x a l l t e m pt e he m s o s orre a nd I w yl l dys vygure (331, 353), e x c l a m a t i ons di re c t l y c onn e c t e d t o S a t a ns a c t i ons t o J ob: S a t a n w e nt for t h from t he pre s e n c e of t he L ord, a nd s t ruc k J ob w i t h a ve ry gri e vous ul c e r, from t h e s ol e o f t he foot t o t he t op e ve n t o t he t op of h i s he a d (2: 7). T he J ob poe t a l s o us e s l a ngua g e a nd i n p a rt i c ul a r na m e s t o i ndi c a t e t h e na t ur e of hi s c ha ra c t e rs K e n F ri e d e n e xa m i ne s t h e H e bre w s i gni fi c a n c e of t he na m e s of J ob, G od, a nd ha s at an i n t he t e xt J obs na m e i s s i m i l a r t o t he A ra b i c w ord awab m e a ni ng o ne w ho t urns or re t urns t o G od (91). S e ve ra l na m e s for G od a re us e d i n va ri ous pa r t s of t he t e xt s a nd by va r i ous s pe a ke rs T h e P rol og ue a nd E pi l ogue us e Y a hw e h for G od, but t he poe t i c d i a l ogu e s us e di ffe r e nt na m e s T ho ugh s om e a t t r i but e t hi s s hi ft i n n a m i ng t o c om pos i t e a ut hors hi p, F ri e d e n a rgu e s t ha t t he di ffe r e nc e i n na m i ng i s i n t e nde d by t h e a ut hor a s a s i gna l of t he c ha r a c t e r of J ob s fri e nds (92). E l i ph a z Bi l da d, Z opha r, a nd E l i hu us e l e s s e xa l t e d na m e s for G od, l i ke E l E l oh i m a nd S ha dd a i w hi l e t he p ros e s e c t i ons us e t he m os t s a c r e d na m e for G od, Y a hw e h (92). T he na m e ha s at an a l s o s i gna l s a n a s pe c t of S a t a ns c h a ra c t e r. U nl i k e t he m ode rn i nt e rpre t a t i on of ha s at an a s t he s i ngl e e nt i t y S a t a n, t h e na m e s i m pl y m e a ns a dv e rs a ry (92) T h e i nde f i ni t e a rt i c l e ha be fo re t he t e r m a l s o i nd i c a t e s t h a t t h i s fi gure w a s not t he a dv e rs a ry but s i m p l y an a dv e rs a ry F ri e de n de fi n e s ha s at an a s a v a ri e t y of o ppos i ng forc e s (93). T hus a t ri a d of m a n,

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21 good, a nd e vi l i s e s t a bl i s he d t hrough t h e u s e of e m bl e m a t i c n a m e s i n J ob. T h e poe t di s t i ngui s he s e a c h c ha ra c t e rs i nt e ra c t i on w i t h J ob, t he c e n t ra l hu m a n pro t a goni s t a s e i t he r good or e vi l G re gory t he G re a t e xa m i ne s t h i s t ri a d of G od, S a t a n, a nd m a n i n hi s Mor al s T hough hi s e xa m i na t i on i s not a s i n d e pt h a s F ri e de ns i n re s pe c t t o t he fi gur e s na m e s he doe s t ra ns l a t e J ob a s m ourn e r i n 1 : 1 a nd fra m e s m a ny of hi s di s c us s i ons of J ob a round hi s g ri e f a nd i n t urn hi s de p e nde n c e on G od. G re gorys de fi ni t i on of J ob a s m ourne r b e c o m e s e ve n m ore s i gni f i c a n t w he n vi e w e d i n l i ght of t h e O ffi c e of t he D e a d, for J obs rol e i n de a t h a nd r e s urre c t i on m a ke s hi m a uni v e rs a l fi gur e for m e di e va l re a de rs G re go ry a l s o c om m e nt s on t he po l a ri t y b e t w e e n S a t a n a nd t he a nge l s w he n t he y a re pre s e nt b e fore G od; t hough S a t a n di d not pa rt w i t h a na t ur e l i k e t o [ t he a ng e l s ] (1: 4) a nd t hus c oul d b e pre s e n t i n t h e i r a s s e m bl y, hi s pl a c e t he r e w a s obvi ous l y di ffe re nt from t he a ng e l s be c a us e a s G re gory not e s G od i nqui re s W he n c e c om e s t t hou? (1 : 7, 2: 2). H e de pi c t s S a t a n a s t he oppos i t e of G od a nd t he a nge l s a pi c t ure s i m i l a r t o t h e G ood a nd Ba d A nge l s i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e T ho m a s A qui na s a l s o di s c us s e s t he us e of na m e s i n t h e Book of J ob a nd t he J obe a n t ri a d. A qui na s not e s t ha t S a t a n m e a ns a dve rs a ry a nd t h e t e r m a ng e l s m e a ns m e s s e nge rs (76), r e l yi ng on Is i dor e s E t y m ol ogi a e for hi s de fi n i t i ons H e a l s o uphol ds t he J obe a n t r i a d by di v i di ng t h e for c e s a t w or k i n t he t e x t i nt o good a nd e vi l : e a c h c l a s s of s pi ri t s m ove s m e n t o c e rt a i n a c t i ons t he good s pi ri t s i nd e e d t o good a c t i ons but t he e vi l s pi ri t s t o e vi l (76). S i m i l a r l y, t he w ri t e rs of t he m ora l i t y pl a ys us e e m bl e m a t i c n a m e s t o d e fi ne t he i r c ha ra c t e rs Com m on fi gure s i n c l ude t he s e ve n c a rdi n a l s i ns know n a s t he V i c e s ; t h e

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22 s e ve n V i rt ue s ; a good a nd e v i l fi gur e he a d us ua l l y i n t h e form of G od a nd t h e D e vi l ; a nd a uni ve rs a l pro t a goni s t P ot t e r not e s t h e f orm ul a i c w orl d of t he m ora l i t y pl a ys de t e rm i ne s t hi s c a t a l ogue of ro l e s for a l l t he pe rs ons of t he dra m a t e m pt e rs a s w e l l a s a ge nt s of re pe n t a n c e a r e pl a y i ng t he i r pa rt s i n t he ne c e s s a ry s e que n c e of hum a n l i f e (39 40). T he na m e s of a l l t he s e f i gure s l i ke P ri de M e rc y, W i s dom D e v i l a nd E ve rym a n c l e a rl y p l a c e e a c h c h a ra c t e r i nt o one of t he t hre e c a t e gori e s (m a n, good or e vi l ) e s t a bl i s he d i n J ob, a nd t he G od a nd D e vi l fi gure s w ho K i ng c a l l s pol a ri z e d (240), a re di re c t d e s c e nda n t s of t he i r J obe a n c ou nt e rpa rt s T he J ob prot a goni s t f i gure how e v e r, i s a l t e re d i n t h e four m or a l i t y pl a ys c h a nge d from t he bl a m e l e s s ri ght e ous fi gur e of t h e Bi bl i c a l book t o a n a ve r a ge f a l l e n fi gure T he prot a goni s t s of t he p l a ys a l s o re pr e s e nt bo t h a n i ndi v i dua l a nd c ol l e c t i v e fi gure E ve rym a n, M a nk i nd, a nd e ve n A ni m a a re i ndi vi dua l c ha r a c t e rs i n t h a t t h e y a re p l a ye d by one a c t or a nd t h e y ha ve s pe c i fi c dow nfa l l s ; ye t t h e y a re a l s o re pr e s e nt a t i ve of hum a nki nd, de m ons t ra t i ng uni ve rs a l dow nfa l l s In Mank i nd t hi s dua l i t y i n c ha r a c t e r i s s e e n i n M a nki nds us e of bot h s i ngul a r a n d pl ura l pronouns K e l l e y quot e s t h e fol l o w i ng pa s s a ge t o de m ons t r a t e : O f t he e rt h a nd of t he c l e y w e h a ue ow r pr opa ga c yon. By t he prouyde ns of G ode t hus be w e d e r yva t t T o w hos m e rc y I re c om e nd e t hi s hol l c on gryga c yon: I hope ont o hys bl ys s e ye be a l l pr e de s t yn a t t E ue ry m a n for hys de gr e e I t rus t xa l l be p a rt yc ypa t t Y f w e w yl l m ort yfye ow r c a rna l l c ondyc y on

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23 A nde ow r vol unt a rye dys yre s t h a t e u e r be pe rve rc yon a t t T o re nunc e t he m a nd ye l de w s w nde r G odys provyc yon. (186 93) T he uni ve rs a l prot a goni s t fi gur e be i t J ob re pre s e nt i ng m ourne rs or M a nki nd re pre s e nt i ng hu m a nki nd, p l a ys t h e dua l ro l e of re l a t i ng t o i ndi v i dua l s i n t he a udi e n c e w hi l e de m ons t r a t i ng un i ve rs a l t rut hs Mank i nd a l s o c on t a i ns t h e m os t di r e c t l i nk be t w e e n t h e Book of J ob a nd t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys N ot onl y i s J ob quot e d fou r t i m e s duri ng t he pl a y, but re f e re n c e i s m a de t o J ob a s a m ode l for t he prot a goni s t M a n ki nd. In l i ne 228, M e r c y s a ys F or t he r ys e ue r a ba t e l l be t w yx t he s oul l a nd t h e body a n d t he n quot e s J ob 7: 1 i n L a t i n : T he l i fe o f m a n upon e a rt h i s a w a rf a re a nd hi s da ys a re l i ke t he da ys of a h i re l i ng. T he s pi ri t ua l w a rfa re be t w e e n L u c i f e r a nd M a nki nd i n Mank i nd pa ra l l e l s t he s i t ua t i on be t w e e n S a t a n a nd J ob i n t he Book of J ob. L a t e r i n M e r c ys s e rm on, he i ns t ruc t s M a n ki nd, Y e m a y not ha u e yow r i nt e nt a t yow r fi rs t dys ye re S e t he gre t t pa c y e nc e of J ob i n t ri bu l a c yo n; L yke a s t he s m y t h t ri e t h e rn i n t h e fe e r e S o w a s he t ri e de by G odys vys yt a c yon. H e w a s of yow r na t ure a nd of yow r fra gyl yt e ; F ol ow t he s t e ppys of hym m y ow n s w e t e s on, A nde s e y a s he s e yde i n yow r t roby l l a nd a due rs yt e : D om i nus de di t D om i nus a bs t u l i t ; s i c ut s i bi pl a c u i t i t a fa c t um e s t ; nom e n D om i ni be n e di c t um (285 93)

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24 M e rc y l i nks J ob w i t h M a nki nd by c l a i m i n g t he t w o a re of t he s a m e n a t ure a nd f ra gyl yt e (289) a nd i ns t ruc t s M a nki nd t o fol l ow t he s t e ppys of hym (290) i n or de r t o w i t hs t a nd t he t robyl l a nd a du e rs yt e (291 ) t o c om e E ve n M e r c ys us e of t he w ord a due rs yt e de m ons t ra t e s a l i nk w i t h ha s at an or a dve rs a ry, i n J ob. L i ne 287 de s c ri b e s J obs a dve rs i t i e s l i k e t he s m yt h t r i e t h e rn i n t he fe e re a re f e re nc e t o J ob 23: 10: B ut he know e t h m y w a y, a nd he h a s t ri e d m e a s gol d t ha t p a s s e t h t hrough t h e fi re T h i s pa s s a ge de pi c t s J obs t ri a l s a s a m e a ns of puri fi c a t i on, a m ot i f a l s o pre s e nt i n Mank i nd : M e rc y s a ys G ode w yl l proue M a nki nd, a nd i f M a nki nd pa s s e s he s ha l l e n t e r h e a ve n (28 3 4). T he ve rs e M e r c y quot e s a t t he e nd of hi s i ns t ruc t i on i s ve rs e 1 : 21; t he L ord g i ve a nd t he L ord ha t h t a ke n a w a y: a s i t ha t h p l e a s e d t he L ord s o i t i s d one : bl e s s e d be t he n a m e of t he L ord. J obs ri ght e ous re s pons e t o hi s a ff l i c t i ons s e rve s a s a m ode l for M a nki nds re s pons e s t o hi s t e m pt a t i ons t o c om e A ft e r M e rc ys s e rm on i s c om pl e t e M a nki nd re fl e c t s on hi s nobyl l c ondyc yon (318), s a yi ng, T o ha u e re m os a nd m e m ory of m ys yl ff t hus w re t yn yt ys / T o d e fe nde m e from a l l s upe rs t yc yus c h a rm ys : / M e m e nt o, hom o, quod c i ni s e s e t i n c i ne r e m re u e rt e r i s (319 21); t he v e rs e i n L a t i n i s a re f e re nc e t o J ob 34: 15: A l l f l e s h s ha l l p e ri s h t oge t h e r, a nd m a n s ha l l r e t urn i n t o a s he s . A t t h i s poi nt i n t h e pl a y, M a nk i nd a ppe a rs t o ha v e he e de d M e rc ys w a rni ng. K i ng not e s t ha t a l l t hre e J ob ve rs e s M e rc ys quot e s w e re s a i d a t m a s s on A s h W e dne s da y (250), w hi c h c onne c t s a ff l i c t i on w i t h r e pe n t a nc e t w o t h e m e s t ha t dra w c e nt r a l l y on t he Book of J ob (K i ng 249) i n t he m or a l i t y pl a ys T h e s e t w o t he m e s re c ur t hroughou t Mank i nd a nd t h e ot he r m ora l i t y p l a ys be c a us e l a t e r M a nk i n d doe s not he e d M e rc y s i ns t ruc t i ons a bou t

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25 t e m pt a t i on a nd fa l l s i nt o s i n, unl i ke J ob, w ho re s i s t e d t he t e m p t a t i on t o c urs e G od a nd di e (2: 9). 14 V e rba l l i nks be t w e e n J ob a nd t he m or a l i t y pl a ys oc c ur l e s s di re c t l y i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Wi s dom a nd E v e r y m an T he Cas t l e o f P e r s e v e r anc e c onne c t s M a nki nd t o J ob t hrough t he i n e vi t a bi l i t y of de a t h. T he o pe ni ng ba nns de c l a re W hou M a nky nde i nt o t hi s w e rl d born i s ful ba re / A nd ba re s c ha l be rye d b e a t hys l a s t e nd e (16 7), w hi c h i s s i m i l a r t o J obs s t a t e m e nt N a k e d c a m e I out of m y m o t he rs w om b, na ke d s h a l l I re t urn t hi t he r (1: 21). D uri ng J obs l a m e nt he s a ys t o G od, I know t ha t t hou w i l t de l i ve r m e t o de a t h, w he r e a hous e i s a ppo i nt e d f or e ve ry one t h a t l i ve t h (30: 23). T he fi gu re M ors or D e a t h, i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r a nc e e c ho e s t hi s s e nt i m e n t ; I durk e a nd dow nbrynge t o now t h / L ordys a nd l a dy s i n e ue ry l onde (2793 4). T h e broa d, ge n e r a l s t a t e m e nt s a bout d e a t h t ha t M a nki nd a nd M ors m a ke de m ons t ra t e J obs i nfl ue n c e o n t he pl a ys pe rc e p t i on of d e a t h a nd bol s t e r M a nki nds rol e l i k e J obs a s a uni ve rs a l prot a goni s t T he m ora l i t y p l a y Wi s dom re l i e s on t h e B ook of J ob by a ddre s s i ng one of i t s c e nt ra l que s t i ons : W he r e i s w i s dom t o be found, a nd w he re i s t he p l a c e of unde rs t a n di ng? (28: 12). A ni m a phra s e s t h i s que s t i on i n a J ob l i ke a ppe a l : O e ndl e s s w i s dom how m a y I ha ue know ynge / O ff t hi G odhe d e i n c om p re he ns ybl e ? (93 4). J ob de s c ri b e s w i s dom a s hi d from a l l e y e s of t he l i vi ng, a nd t he fo w l s of t he a i r know i t no t (28: 21), w hi l e W i s dom i n hi s ope n i ng s pe e c h, s a ys N o c re a t ur e know yt ful l e xpos yc yon (26). J ob 14 T he V ul ga t e us e s bl e s s i ns t e a d of c ur s e ; how e ve r t he H e br e w w or d bar ak us e d i n J ob 2 : 9 c a n m e a n e i t he r bl e s s or c ur s e B ot h G r e gor y t he G r e a t a nd T hom a s A qui na s not e t ha t t he bl e s s us e d i n t he V ul ga t e m e a ns c ur s e

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26 a l s o c l a i m s G ol d a nd c rys t a l c a nno t e qu a l i t n e i t h e r s ha l l a ny ve s s e l s of gol d b e c ha nge d for i t (28: 17 ), w hi l e W i s dom no t e s W ys dom ys be t t e r t h a n a l l w orl dl y pre c yos ne s (33). Wi s dom c l e a rl y r e l i e s on t he J obe a n de s c r i pt i on of w i s dom t o de fi ne t he t e r m i n t h e pl a y. A ddi t i on a l l y, t h e re a r e t w o pa s s a ge s i n Wi s dom t ha t c a n b e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he f i gure of J ob. W i s dom i ns t ruc t s L o, w ho s uffyryt h m os t for G o de ys m os t l e w e / S l a ndyr, re pr e ve ony a du e rs yt e (1019); t hough t he p a s s a ge m a ke s no di re c t re fe re n c e t o J ob, t h e de s c ri p t i on fi t s t he m e di e va l pe r c e pt i on of J ob a s pa t i e nt a nd s uffe ri ng a nd, l i k e Mank i nd us e s t h e t e rm a due rs yt e a pos s i bl e re fe r e nc e t o J obs a dve rs a ry. A l s o, A ni m a h a t h e w yffe c hy l de rne a nd s e rw a nt ys be s y (406), a s J ob doe s E v e r y m an s ha re s bot h s t ru c t ura l a nd ve rb a l l i nks t o t h e Book of J ob. T he ope n i ng di a l ogue b e a rs a s t rong r e s e m bl a nc e t o G ods ope ni ng di a l ogu e s i n J ob, a s b ot h s e c t i ons e s t a bl i s h t h e c e n t ra l pl ot s of t h e pl a ys i nv ol ve G od, m a n, a nd a dve rs a ry f i gure s a nd offe r t he re a d e r a g l i m ps e i nt o a pr i va t e c ounc i l t ha t t h e prot a gon i s t s a re not p ri vy t o. A ddi t i ona l l y, s om e pa s s a ge s i n t he pl a y e c ho J obs ow n w ord s F or i ns t a nc e J ob, i n hi s di s t re s s e xc l a i m s L e t t h e da y p e ri s h w he re i n I w a s born, a nd t he ni gh t i n w hi c h i t w a s s a i d, A m a n c hi l d i s c onc e i v e d (3: 3) ; E ve rym a n c r i e s a s i m i l a r pl e a A l a s t h a t e ve r I w a s bore (348). T he s e p a s s a ge s l i ke t hos e i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e Wi s dom a nd Mank i nd c onne c t J obs s uffe ri ngs w i t h t h os e of t he prot a gon i s t A ddi t i on a l l y, a s J obs fri e nds a b a ndon hi m i n hi s t i m e of n e e d, s o E ve rym a ns c o m pa n i ons l e a v e hi m on e by one J ob s a ys of hi s fri e nds H e ha t h put m y bre t hre n f a r from m e a nd m y a c qu a i nt a nc e l i ke s t ra ng e rs ha ve d e pa rt e d from m e / M y ki ns m e n ha ve fors a k e n m e a nd t h e y t ha t kne w m e ha ve forgo t t e n m e (19: 13 4). E ve rym a n c r i e s A l l h a t h fors a k e n m e (8 51)

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27 a ft e r e a c h of h i s c om pa n i ons i nc l ud i ng C ous i n a nd K i ns m e n a s i n J obs pa s s a ge de pa rt i n t urn. J ob e ve n c a l l s hi s fri e nds t roubl e s om e c om fort e rs (16: 2) w hi l e E v e rym a n re fl e c t s de s pa i ri ng l y, N ow m a y I t rue fri e nds s e e (855). T he s i m i l a ri t i e s be t w e e n t he Book of J ob a nd t he m or a l i t y pl a ys de m ons t ra t e t h e Bi bl i c a l books i nfl u e nc e on t he l a t e r pl a y s M e di e va l pe r c e p t i ons of t he Book of J o b a nd i t s prot a goni s t s ha p e d t he p l a ys s t ruc t u re s rhe t ori c a l d e vi c e s c ha ra c t e rs a nd i n pa rt i c u l a r, t h e i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t he J obe a n t ri a d. H um a nki nds rol e a m i d good a nd e vi l forc e s c onne c t s e ve ry a s pe c t of bo t h t he B ook of J ob a nd t he m ora l i t i e s T hi s rol e s o c ruc i a l t o a l l t h e t e xt s i s de pi c t e d i n e a c h a s a j ourne y. T he m ot i f of hum a n l i fe a s a pi l gr i m a ge w a s us e d i n l i t e ra t ur e be for e t he Book of J ob or a ny of t he m ora l i t y p l a ys w e re w ri t t e n. H um a n progre s s pa rt i c ul a rl y i n t e l l e c t ua l progre s s pa ra l l e l s t he c onc e p t of a phys i c a l j ourne y w e l l ; h ow e v e r, a p i l gri m a ge i m pl i e s not onl y a progre s s i on but a l s o a n ul t i m a t e de s t i na t i on, bot h of w hi c h a re e nc om p a s s e d n t he pi l gr i m a g e m ot i f. F or t he Book of J ob a nd t he m or a l i t y pl a ys t h e j ourn e y de pi c t e d c ont a i ns bot h t he progre s s a nd t h e de s t i na t i on, t ho ugh t he l a t t e r i s of gre a t e r i m por t a nc e i n a l l t he t e xt s D uri ng t he M i ddl e A ge s J obs l i fe a s de pi c t e d i n t he Book of J ob w a s s e e n a s a j ourne y, one a k i n t o t h e e pi c l i ve s of O dys s e us a nd A e ne a s A nn W A s t e l l no t e s t ha t t he Book of J ob be a rs no obvi ous form a l r e s e m bl a n c e t o e i t h e r t h e H om e ri c e pi c s or t h e A e ne i d (2); y e t G re gory t h e G re a t a nd Ra ba nus M a urus c a l l J ob he ro i c (A s t e l l 2) i n hi s c om ba t w i t h S a t a n, a nd t h e hi s t ori c a l w i t ne s s of Be de Ra ba nus M a urus a nd ot he rs c i t e s J ob a s a n i ns t a n c e of e p i c c o m pa ra bl e t o t h e c l a s s i c a l e pi c s (A s t e l l 3).

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28 A s t e l l a l s o not e s t ha t h e roi c e pi c s t o m e d i e va l re a de rs i nvo l ve d t he s t rong a nd w i s e he ro w hos e pa rt i c ul a r s t ory re pr e s e nt s t he c om i ng t o pe rfe c t i on, t h e t ru e na t ur e of a ge ne ra l i z e d hum a nk i nd (72). T h e pa rt i c u l a r c ouc h e d i n t h e ge n e ra l a s m e di e va l r e a de rs i nt e rpre t e d t h e he ro i c e p i c s i s a pa t t e rn e s s e nt i a l t o t he Book of J ob a nd c oi nc i de nt l y, t o t he m ora l i t y p l a ys W hi l e form a l c onne c t i ons a re di ffi c u l t t o f i nd be t w e e n t h e he roi c e pi c s a nd J ob or t he m ora l i t y pl a ys a l l t he t e xt s port ra y a l s of t he i r prot a goni s t s l i v e s a s j ourne ys e s t a bl i s h a t e x t ua l l i ne a ge a m ong t he m T he he roi c m od e l of t h e prot a gon i s t s j our ne y i nvol ve s progre s s t ow a rd a s pe c i f i c de s t i na t i on. M e di e v a l c o m m e nt a t ors s a w progre s s t ow a rd a de s t i n a t i on, w hi c h A s t e l l c a l l s m oda l i t i e s of hom e w a rd j ourn e y ( 14), i n J ob. U nl i ke t he h e roi c e pi c s t houg h, t he Book of J obs j ourne y i nvol ve s t he progr e s s of t he t e xt s i nt e l l e c t u a l di s c us s i on: W h a t i s di vi ne j us t i c e ? J obs de s t i na t i on i s t he a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on, a nd t hough hi s j ourn e y ha s fe w e r phys i c a l c ount e rpa rt s t h a n t he h e roi c e pi c s he do e s m a k e i nt e l l e c t u a l progre s s a nd a rgua bl y re a c h e s a n a ns w e r by t he c onc l us i on of t he t e xt M ore ove r, t he pi l gri m a ge e xpre s s e d i n t h e Book of J o b de t a i l s s pe c i fi c s t a ge s t hrough w hi c h J ob m us t pa s s i n orde r t o r e a c h hi s phi l os ophi c a l a ns w e r; t hi s s e t of s t a ge s re l i e s on t h e fa i t h pa t t e rn d e t a i l e d i n t he P e nt a t e uc h, s pe c i fi c a l l y dra w i ng on t h e hi s t ory of t he Is ra e l i t e s T h e pa t t e rn d e m ons t ra t e s t he pa t h G ods s a l va t i on i n t he P rom i s e d L a nd a nd t he ful f i l l m e nt of h i s c ove na n t w i t h A bra ha m T he fi rs t s t a g e i n t h e H e bre w fa i t h pa t t e rn i s s om e w ha t obvi ous l y, bi r t h. T he s t ory of Is ra e l G ods c hos e n na m e for A bra ha m s gra nds on J a c ob, b e ga n w i t h R e be c c a J a c obs m ot he r, be i ng i ni t i a l l y b a rre n, but G od c ure d he r from t h i s a ffl i c t i on a nd s he

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29 be c a m e pre gn a nt w i t h t w i ns E s a u a nd J a c ob (G e n. 25: 21). G e ne s i s re c oun t s t ha t t h e t w o boys s t ruggl e d i n h e r w om b (G e n. 25: 2 2). A l t hough J a c ob w a s t he younge r of t h e t w i ns he re c e i ve d h i s fa t he r Is a a c s bl e s s i ng a nd bi rt hri gh t (G e n. 25: 34); t hus he a n d hi s t w e l ve s ons founde d t he c hos e n Is ra e l i t e t r i be T hi s s t a g e i n t h e H e bre w pa t t e rn i s not onl y t he bi r t h of t he Is ra e l i t e n a t i on, bu t a l s o G ods ful fi l l m e nt of h i s c ove na n t w i t h A bra ha m w ho be l i e v e d G od, a nd i t w a s re put e d t o h i m unt o j us t i c e (G e n. 15 : 6); G od honors A bra ha m s de s c e nda n t s be c a us e A bra ha m w a s ri ght e ous or j us t (G e n. 15: 16), a nd be c a us e [G od] prom i s e d by o a t h t o A bra ha m Is a a c a nd J a c ob (D e ut 9: 5). T hus t he bi rt h s t a ge i s c orr e l a t e d w i t h ri ght e ous ne s s i n t he H e bre w pa t t e rn. A ge ne ra t i on l a t e r, fa m i ne l e d t h e Is ra e l i t e s i nt o E gypt w he re t he i r d e s c e nd a nt s w e re e ve nt u a l l y e ns l a v e d m a ny y e a rs a ft e r w a rd (E xodus 1). H ow e ve r, M os e s l e d t he Is ra e l i t e s out of s l a ve ry, m a rk i ng t he i r e xo dus w i t h a pa s s a ge t hrough w a t e r, t h e Re d S e a (E xod. 14: 21 2). O n t he i r w a y t o t h e P rom i s e d L a nd, G od de l i ve r e d t he L a w t o t h e pe opl e from M ount S i n a i (E xod. 19 : 20), s ol i di fyi ng t he bounda r i e s for s i n a nd re pe nt a n c e fo r G od de t a i l e d w ha t s i n w a s a nd how t o be c l e a ns e d of i t T hus t h e L a w e s t a bl i s he d t he pos s i bi l i t y of obe d i e nc e or di s obe di e nc e O nc e t he Is ra e l i t e s re a c h t he P rom i s e d L a nd, t he y di d i nd e e d t r a ns gre s s t he L a w for t he y w e re a fra i d t o e nt e r t he l a nd (N u m b. 14). Be c a us e of t he i r l a c k of fa i t h, G od c om m a nd e d t he m t o w a nd e r fort y ye a rs i n t he D e s e rt of S i na i (N um b. 14: 34) a s a t i m e of puni s hm e nt for t h e i r t r a ns gre s s i on; ye t t hi s t i m e offe r e d m ore oppor t uni t i e s for t e m pt a t i on. In t he de s e rt t h e Is ra e l i t e s fa c e d s t a rva t i on, t hi rs t a nd t he t e m pt a t i on of i dol a t ry, for food a nd w a t e r w e re s c a r c e a nd t he fore i gn e rs t he y e nc ount e re d w ors hi ppe d

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30 m a ny i dol s D uri ng t h e Is ra e l i t e s puni s hm e nt i n t he de s e r t G od re i t e ra t e s t he p a t t e rn of obe di e nc e bri ngi ng re w a rd a nd d i s obe di e n c e bri ngi ng pun i s hm e nt W he n t h e Is ra e l i t e s fol l ow e d t he L a w t he y w e re re w a rd e d w i t h vi c t ory i n b a t t l e ; how e v e r, w he n t h e y t ur ne d a w a y, t he y w e r e puni s he d w i t h p l a gue s d e a t h, or de f e a t i n ba t t l e T he l a s t s t a ge of t h e Is ra e l i t e hi s t ory i s de a t h. W he n t he unfa i t hful g e ne r a t i on, w ho w e re a fra i d t o e nt e r t he P rom i s e d L a nd, ha d di e d a w a y, G od p e rm i t t e d t he fa i t hful ge ne ra t i on t o c l a i m t h e l a nd. S i n c e M os e s di e d be fore e nt e ri ng, t h e ne w ge ne r a t i on w a s l e d i n by J os hua H ow e ve r, de a t h i s t h e ul t i m a t e e n d for J os hua a nd t h e fa i t hful ge ne ra t i on a s w e l l T hough one g e ne ra t i on re c e i v e d t h e puni s hm e n t a nd t h e ot he r re c e i v e d t h e re w a rd, bot h g e ne ra t i ons e nd e d i n de a t h. T he s e e ve n t s i n t he P e n t a t e uc h for m t he f a i t h pa t t e rn of t h e Is ra e l i t e s a nd e s t a b l i s h t he fr a m e w ork fol l ow e d i n t he Book of J o b. D ra w i ng on t he ge ne ri c s t a ge s de s c ri b e d i n t he s pe c i f i c e v e nt s of t h e Is ra e l i t e h i s t ory, t he P e nt a t e uc h e s t a b l i s he s t he f a i t h p a t t e rn : B I R T H T E M P T A T I O N O B E D I E N C E / D I S O B E D I E N C E R E W A R D / P U N I S H M E N T D E A T H T he Book of J ob us e s t hi s pa t t e rn of fa i t h t o uni fy i t s a rgu m e nt a nd s t ruc t ur e i t s pl ot a s t he t e xt d i s t i nc t l y de p i c t s J ob prog re s s i ng t hrough t he s e s t a g e s T he t e xt f i rs t de s c ri be s hi m a s a pros pe rous m a n w i t h s e ve n s ons a nd t hre e da ugh t e rs (1: 2), off e ri n g s a c ri fi c e s for t he m i n c a s e t he y h a d s i nne d T hough no di re c t a c c ount of h i s bi rt h i s g i ve n, J ob i s re pre s e nt e d a s i n a s t a g e of ri ght e ou s ne s s l i ke A bra ha m for he i s obe di e nt t o G od (1: 5) a nd c a l l e d bl a m e l e s s a nd upri ght ( 1: 1). J ob i s fi rs t t e m pt e d by S a t a n, w ho de s t r oy s hi s pos s e s s i ons ki l l s hi s s ons a nd da ught e rs a nd a ff l i c t s J ob w i t h boi l s J obs w i fe i n l i ght of t he i r c i rc u m s t a n c e s t e m pt s

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31 J ob t o c urs e G od a nd di e (J ob 2: 9). J ob s t hre e fri e nds E l i pha z Bi l d a d, a nd Z opha r a l s o re pre s e nt t e m pt a t i on t o J ob, for t he y c l a i m J obs t roubl e s a re a r e s ul t of hi s ow n s i n. E l i pha z urge s hi m t o re p e nt for hi s m a ni f ol d w i c ke dne s s a nd i nfi n i t e i ni qui t i e s (22: 5); Bi l d a d re m i nds J ob t ha t G od w i l l not c a s t a w a y t he s i m p l e nor r e a c h ou t hi s ha nd t o t he e vi l do e r (8 : 20); Z oph a r t e l l s hi m t ha t G od ha s s o ge ne rous l y, e x a c t e t h m uc h l e s s of t he e t ha n t hy i ni qu i t y de s e rv e t h (11: 6). T he l e ng t hy de ba t e b e t w e e n J ob a nd h i s fri e nds i s c ruc i a l t o t he n e xt pha s e s of t h e H e bre w pa t t e rn. J ob c l a i m s t ha t he i s j us t (12: 4) a nd ha s not g i ve n i n t o t e m pt a t i on H ow e ve r, he a l s o a ffi rm s t ha t m a n c a nno t be j us t i f i e d c o m pa re d w i t h G od (9: 2) a n d m e nt i ons hi s ow n s i n, s pe a ki ng of t he s i n s of m y yout h (13: 26) a nd t ha t G od h a s t num be re d m y s t e ps but s pa re m y s i ns T h ou ha s t s e a l e d up m y offe ns e s a s i t w e re i n a ba g, but ha s t c ur e d m y i n i qui t y (14: 16 7) A ddi t i ona l l y, J obs fi na l l i ne s i n t h e t e x t a re I re pre h e nd m ys e l f a nd do pe na n c e i n du s t a nd a s he s (42: 6). T w o i n t e rpr e t a t i ons c a n be de ri ve d from t he s e c ont ra d i c t ory p a s s a ge s ; e i t h e r J ob i s t rul y bl a m e l e s s a nd ha s not s i nne d a t a l l or he h a s s i nne d, a s he c l a i m s a l l m e n h a ve but t ha t h i s s i ns ha ve be e n forgi ve n a nd he do e s not de s e rv e hi s pre s e nt c i rc u m s t a nc e s T he l a t t e r i n t e rpre t a t i on i s m ore l i k e l y w he n t h e w hol e t e xt i ns t e a d o f s i m pl y t he d i a l ogu e s i s c ons i de re d. H ow e ve r, J obs obe di e nc e or d i s obe di e n c e i s t he c e nt r a l c on c e rn for J ob a nd hi s fri e nds i n re ga rds t o t h e fa i t h pa t t e rn e xhi bi t e d. T he c ha ra c t e rs a rgue a bou t w ha t Be s s e rm a n c a l l s t he D e ut e ronom i s t t he ory (11) or w h e t h e r re w a rd i s i n r e a c t i on t o ob e di e n c e a nd puni s hm e nt i n r e a c t i on t o d i s obe di e nc e J o bs fri e nds s upport t hi s t he ory, but t he y w rongl y c onc l ude t ha t J ob s i n h a s brought on hi s a ffl i c t i ons ; t hi s pos i t i on i s w ha t S t ua rt

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32 L a s i ne c a l l s t he w orm s e y e vi e w o f J ob, i n w hi c h J obs fri e nds a r e onl y t hi nk i ng w i t hi n t he s t r i c t for m ul a of ob e di e n c e or s i n, re w a rd or puni s hm e n t In t rut h, t he Book of J ob ul t i m a t e l y uphol ds t he D e ut e ronom i s t t he ory, bu t de pi c t s J obs s uffe ri ngs a s t e m pt a t i ons ra t he r t ha n puni s hm e n t s J ob e ve n a d m i t s [G od] ha s t ri e d m e a s gol d t h a t pa s s e t h t hrough t h e fi re (23: 10). A ddi t i ona l l y, t h e re a d e r, unl i k e J ob a nd hi s fri e nds ha s a c c e s s t o G ods c ounc i l w i t h S a t a n, w hi c h a c know l e dge s t h a t J obs t ri a l s a re t e m pt a t i ons r a t he r t ha n pun i s hm e nt s ; m or e ove r, J ob i s ge ne rous l y re w a rde d for hi s obe d i e nc e duri ng t h e s e t e m pt a t i ons a t t h e c onc l us i on of t he t e x t H e re c e i v e s hi s pos s e s s i ons t w i c e ove r (42: 10 ) be c a us e h e s poke of G od w ha t i s ri ght (4 2: 7), unl i ke hi s w i fe a nd fri e nds T h e Book of J ob c o nc l ude s w i t h J ob dyi ng a n ol d m a n, a nd ful l of da ys (42: 17), w i t h no m e n t i on of a n a ft e rl i fe or a re w a rd i n h e a ve n. In t hi s fra m e w ork, w i t h J obs obe di e n c e dur i ng t e m pt a t i on, t h e t e x t fol l ow s t he H e b re w fa i t h pa t t e rn. J ob be g i ns bl a m e l e s s i s t e m pt e d but obe ys re c e i ve s hi s re w a rd, a nd di e s T he m ora l i t y p l a ys t oo, us e t h e pi l g ri m a g e m ot i f fro m a Bi b l i c a l pa t t e rn t o not onl y de pi c t t he i r prot a gon i s t s on a j ourn e y but a l s o t o e s t a bl i s h t h e rout e t o s a l v a t i on H ow e ve r, t he y dra w on t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn, a re v i s i on of t he H e br e w one T hi s pa t t e rn us e s a l m os t i d e nt i c a l e l e m e n t s a s t hos e i n t he Is ra e l i t e hi s t ory bi rt h, t e m pt a t i on, obe di e nc e / di s obe d i e n c e re p e nt a n c e r e w a rd/ puni s hm e nt a nd de a t h but t h e s e e l e m e nt s a re not i n t he s a m e s e que n c e i n t he Chr i s t i a n hi s t ory. In t he s t ory of J e s us bi rt h, t he e l e m e n t s pre s e nt i n J a c obs bi r t h s t ory re c ur. E l i z a be t h, l i ke R e be c c a w a s ba rr e n but e v e nt ua l l y c onc e i v e d a s on (L uke 1 : 7). T he r e w e re a l s o t w o pre gn a nc i e s E l i z a be t hs a n d M a rys a nd t hough t he t w o s on s w e re n ot

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33 brot he rs t he y a r e c ous i ns T h e G os pe l of L uke e ve n r e fe r e nc e s t h e s t ruggl i ng m e nt i on e d i n G e ne s i s 25: 22, for w he n M a ry vi s i t e d E l i z a be t h, J ohn l e a p t i n he r w o m b (1: 41). T he s e c o m m on e l e m e nt s pa r a l l e l J e s us bi rt h t o Is ra e l s W h e n J e s us w a s b orn, he w a s i n a s t a t e of i nnoc e n c e no t s i m pl y b e c a us e he w a s pe rf e c t bu t be c a us e he ha d n ot ye t a dva nc e d i n w i s dom a nd a ge a nd gra c e w i t h G od a nd m e n ( L uke 2 : 52). L i ke t h e Is ra e l i t e s J e s us w a s s e t a pa rt by hi s pa s s a ge t hrough w a t e r, a s hi s c ous i n J ohn ba pt i z e d h i m i n t he J orda n (M a t t 3: 1 5 6). H e t he n i m m e di a t e l y e n t e re d t he de s e rt for fort y da ys of t e m p t a t i on (M a t t 4 : 1), w he re t he e l e m e n t s of bre a d a nd i dol a t ry a s t e m pt a t i ons re c ur, a s w i t h Is ra e l s w a nde ri ngs S a t a n t e m p t e d J e s us t o t urn t h e s t on e s i nt o bre a d a nd t o bow dow n a nd w ors hi p hi m ( M a t t 4: 3, 9). T h e s e t e m pt a t i ons a l i gn Chr i s t w i t h t he Is ra e l i t e s t hough hi s obe di e nc e t o G od duri ng t he m a l s o de m ons t ra t e s t h a t unl i ke t h e Is ra e l i t e s he di d not s i n. T he G os pe l s a l s o re c ord s e v e ra l i ns t a nc e s of Chri s t e nga gi ng i n s e l f re fl e c t i on a nd i nt e ns e pr a ye r, us ua l l y a t a m oun t a i n t op. T hough Chr i s t ne ve r s i nne d, t h e s e i ns t a nc e s of s e l f e xa m i na t i on a nd pra ye r a re s i m i l a r t o t i m e s of re pe nt a n c e W hi l e t he e l e m e nt s of t e m pt a t i on a nd re pe n t a n c e w e re pr e s e nt i n Chr i s t s l i fe t h e y a c t e d m o re s o a s m a rk e rs for ot h e r be l i e ve rs t h a n i ndi c a t ors of s i n. T hus t he Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn e s t a bl i s he s a s t a g e of t e m pt a t i on a nd re p e nt a n c e e v e n t hough J e s us ne ve r ne e d e d t o r e pe nt T he fa i t h pa t t e rn i n t he G os pe l s a l s o i nc l u de s a re fa s hi oni ng of t he L a w M os e s re c e i v e d on M ount S i na i : J e s us de l i v e re d hi s N e w Cove na nt i n t h e S e rm on on t h e M ount (M a t t 5 7). H i s t e a c hi ngs t h e re c orr e l a t e w i t h t he L a w s de l i ve r e d on S i na i a s he a ddre s s e d m urde r, a dul t e ry, oa t hs a c t s of r i ght e ous ne s s pra ye r, f a s t i ng, w orry, a nd

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34 j udgm e nt T he c l i m a x of t he G os pe l s c om e s a t Chri s t s de a t h; t hough un l i ke t he H e bre w pa t t e rn, Chr i s t s l i fe d i d not e nd i n de a t h. Ra t he r, hi s de a t h w a s t h e ve hi c l e for r e w a rd or puni s hm e nt a nd h e re c e i v e d hi s re w a rd i n he a ve n a t t h e ri ght h a nd of G od (M a rk 16: 19). M a t t he w re c ords t h a t m a ny de a d hol y m e n w e re re l e a s e d from t he gra v e a nd w a l k e d t he s t re e t s of J e rus a l e m a ft e r J e s us re s urre c t i on (M a t t 27: 52 3), de m ons t ra t i ng t he re l e a s e of not onl y Chri s t but of ho l y m e n from t h e gra ve By l e a d i ng t he s e s oul s i n t o he a v e n, J e s us pa ra l l e l e d J os hua ; c o i nc i d e nt l y, t he G re e k na m e fo r J os hua i s J e s us T hus t he l i f e of Chri s t a s de s c r i be d i n t he G os pe l s e s t a bl i s he s t he Chr i s t i a n pa t t e rn of f a i t h a s : BIRT H (IN N O C E N C E ) T E M P T A T IO N O BE D IE N CE / RE PE N T A N C E D E A T H RE W A R D / PU N IS H M E N T 15 T he c om pon e nt s of t he H e b re w a nd Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rns a r e ne c e s s a ri l y s i m i l a r, for Chr i s t s pa t t e rn c a n be vi e w e d a s i nt e nt i ona l l y re vi s i on a ry of t h e O l d T e s t a m e nt one T he d i ffe re n c e be t w e e n t h e H e bre w s t a ge of ob e di e n c e or di s obe d i e nc e a nd t he Chri s t i a n obe d i e n c e or re p e nt a n c e re s ul t s from a di ff e re nc e i n i de ol ogy. T ho ugh t he H e bre w pa t t e rn p l a c e s e m pha s i s on ob e di e nc e or di s obe d i e nc e w hi l e t he Chri s t i a n pa t t e rn e m pha s i z e s obe d i e nc e or re pe n t a n c e t he t w o s t a ge s a r e vi rt u a l l y s ynonym o us for bot h de a l w i t h t he a c t i ons of be l i e ve rs a nd bot h de t e r m i ne pun i s hm e nt or r e w a rd. T h e pri m a ry di ff e re n c e be t w e e n t h e fa i t h pa t t e rns of J uda i s m a nd Chri s t i a n i t y, of J ob a n d t he m ora l i t y pl a ys i s t h e t e m pora l re l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n de a t h a nd re w a rd/ pun i s hm e nt A c c ordi ng t o t h e H e bre w pa t t e rn, r e w a rd or puni s hm e nt for de e ds c om e s duri ng a pe rs ons phys i c a l l i f e on e a rt h. D e a t h, t he n, i s t he fi na l e for t h e H e bre w be l i e v e r. A ndre w 15 R obe r t L e e R a m s e y us e s a s i m i l a r pa t t e r n f o r t he m or a l i t y pl a ys i n hi s e di t i on o f M agny f y c e nc e S e e S c he l l ( 280)

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35 K e y de s c ri be s S he ol (or t h e H e bre w pl a c e of de a t h) a s a p l a c e c l os e t o not h i ngne s s w i t h no m ora l c o m pone nt (241 2 ), a nd t h e m os t a n Is ra e l i t e c oul d l ook forw a rd t o i n S he ol w a s c a rryi ng ove r a ny e a r t hl y pre s t i ge (24 2) F e y doe s not e t ha t s i nc e G od prov i de d e a rt hl y pr e s t i ge a s a re w a rd, t he n w he n t h a t re w a rd c a rri e d ove r i n t o S he ol t h e c onc e pt of G ods c ont rol ove r t he gr a ve e m e rg e d; ho w e ve r t hi s c onne c t i on s t i l l e m ph a s i z e s G o ds e a rt hl y a s oppos e d t o he a ve nl y r e w a rds t o t he Is ra e l i t e s H e a l s o not e s t h e pe rs oni fi c a t i on of D e a t h i n m a ny O l d T e s t a m e nt S c ri p t ure s (245), w hi c h not onl y m a rks out a c l e a r S c ri pt ura l s pa c e for t h e s t a g e of de a t h but a l s o bol s t e rs t he c onne c t i on b e t w e e n t he J ob a nd t he m or a l i t y pl a ys By us i ng t he s a m e s t a ge s t ha t oc c ur i n J ob but re w orki ng t he m i nt o a n e xpl i c i t l y Ch ri s t i a n pa t t e rn, t he m or a l i t y pl a ys de m o ns t ra t e t h e ful fi l l e d Chr i s t i a n i de a l onl y h i nt e d a t i n J ob. T he Book of J ob de p i c t s i t s prot a goni s t t he r e s urre c t i on m i nde d J ob a s m e di e v a l re a de rs s a w hi m i n t he H e br e w fra m e w ork. H ow e ve r, J ob hi nt s a t a di ff e r e n t fra m e w ork, s pe c i f i c a l l y t he Chri s t i a n one J obs de s i re s for a re s urre c t i on, s o e m pha s i z e d i n m e di e va l r e l i g i ous l i t e ra t ure w oul d ha v e be e n s e e n a s ful fi l l e d i n t he Chr i s t i a n f a i t h pa t t e rn. T he r e fore m e di e v a l re a de rs w oul d ha ve pe rc e i v e d J ob, t hough he func t i ons i n t he pre c urs ory H e br e w pa t t e rn, a l m os t a s a prophe t t o t he Chri s t i a n fa i t h p a t t e rn e xh i bi t e d i n t he m or a l i t y pl a ys a nd t he s i m i l a ri t i e s be t w e e n t h e t w o fa i t h pa t t e rns a l ong w i t h J obs s uppos e d be l i e f i n a re s urre c t i on, w oul d h a ve l i nk e d t he fr a m e w ork i n t he Book of J ob t o t ha t of t h e m ora l i t y p l a ys In a l l t h e t e x t s t hough, t he pi l gr i m a g e of t he pro t a gon i s t s l i fe i s re a l l y t he pi l gri m a ge of hi s f a i t h, b e i t J e w i s h or Chri s t i a n. P ot t e r c a l l s t he fr a m e w ork

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36 of t he m ora l i t y p l a ys t he pa t t e rn of s a l va t i on (53), a nd t h e s e pa t t e rns of fa i t h a r e c e nt ra l not onl y t o t h e pl ot s but a l s o t he t he ol og i c a l m ora l s of t he dra m a s P ot t e r c l a i m s t h a t t h e m or a l i t y p l a y p l ot s a re not ba s e d on t h e pi l gr i m a ge m o t i f or e ve n a S c ri p t ura l pa t t e rn but c re di t s t he e l e m e nt of r e pe nt a nc e a s t he c e nt e r pi n of a l l t he t e xt s c a l l i ng a l l t he m or a l i t y pl a ys re pe n t a nc e dra m a (30). H e be gi ns hi s hi s t ory of t he E ngl i s h m ora l i t y p l a y w i t h a di s c us s i on on t he Cas t l e o f P e r s e v e r anc e Man k i nd Wi s dom a nd E v e r y m an (a l ong w i t h P r i d e of L i f e Mundus e t In f ans H i c k s c or ne r a n d Y out h ) 16 a nd re duc e s t h e pl a ys t o t he e s s e nt i a l pa t t e rn of i nnoc e nc e f a l l a nd re de m pt i on (34), a pa t t e rn ot h e r s c hol a rs us e 17 W hi l e a c know l e dgi ng t h a t not a l l m ora l i t y pl a ys fi t i nt o t hi s pa t t e rn, P ot t e r d oe s c l a i m t ha t t he c om m on e l e m e n t of re pe nt a n c e i s t he foc us of a l l t h e pl a ys H ow e ve r, P ot t e r a pp e a rs t o ha v e a rri v e d a t hi s e xpl a n a t i on by r e a di ng t hrough l i t e r a ry a nd s e c ul a r g l a s s e s H e doe s not e vi t a l e l e m e nt s i n t he m or a l i t y pl a ys but fa i l s t o vi e w t he re l i gi ous fra m e w orks i n w hi c h t h e pl a ys w e re produ c e d. W h i l e t he y m a y n ow be a rt i fa c t s of a pa s t c ul t u ra l r e l i g i ous e ra t h e y a re not m e r e pre de c e s s ors of be t t e r l a t e r E ngl i s h m ora l i t y p l a ys D uri ng t he i r t i m e of produc t i on, t h e M i ddl e E ngl i s h m or a l i t y pl a ys w e re r e l i g i ous ; t he y w e re w ri t t e n by re l i gi ous pe op l e t o s e rv e re l i gi ous func t i o ns for a re l i g i ous popul a t i on, a nd t h e y s how e d t he re l i gi ous l i f e j ourne y of t he i r r e l i gi o us uni ve rs a l prot a goni s t s K e l l e y not e s t he re l i gi ous founda t i on of t he p l a ys de s c ri b i ng t he m a s i ns t ruc t i ona l d e m ons t ra t i ons of Chri s t i a n doc t ri n e (23). T he di d a c t i c t on e of t he t e xt s 16 P r i de of L i f e i s a f r a gm e nt M undus e t I nf ans i s a s hor t pr oduc t i on pr i nt e d l a t e r i n t he 16 t h C a nd H i c k s c or n e r a nd Y out h a r e l e s s m or a l i t i e s a nd m o r e e a r l y m ode r n c om e di e s 17 S e e K e l l e y a nd K i ng

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37 s upport s K e l l e ys c l a i m E a c h p l a y e v e n h a s a c ha r a c t e r w ho a c t s a s a pr i e s t a nd us u a l l y quot e s S c ri pt ure t o t he pro t a goni s t T he r e f ore i t i s l o g i c a l t o vi e w t he p a t t e rns w i t hi n t he m ora l i t y pl a ys t hrough a l e ns of a know n i nfl ue nc e t he Bi b l e a s i n fa c t a l m os t a l l m e di e v a l dra m a i ne vi t a bl y h a s t o be s c rut i ni z e d t hrough t he l e ns s uppl i e d by t h e Ch urc h (T yde m a n 4). T he p l a ys do not s o m uc h r e l a t e w ha t i t m e a ns t o be hu m a n (P ot t e r 6 ) a s w ha t i t m e a ns t o be a Chri s t i a n. T h i s di s t i nc t i on doe s not d i m i n i s h ot he r s e c u l a r r e a di ngs ; how e ve r, i t doe s offe r d e e p e r i ns i ght i nt o t he t e xt s pos s i bl e i nfl ue n c e s not a bl y t h e Book of J ob, ba s e d on t he s oc i a l i de o l ogi c a l a n d re l i gi ous c on t e xt s of t h e pl a ys T hus a s P ot t e r c l a i m s t h e e l e m e nt of re p e nt a n c e i s c ruc i a l t o t h e m or a l i t y pl a ys but on l y a s one e l e m e nt a m ong m a ny. T he p l a ys de m on s t ra t i ons of Chri s t i a n doc t r i ne (K e l l e y 23 ) do not re l y s ol e l y on re pe n t a n c e but r a t he r o n i t s pl a c e i n a s e r i e s of e l e m e nt s or t he Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn. T he pre s e nc e of t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn i n t he m or a l i t y pl a ys i nd i c a t e s s om e t he ol ogi c a l i m pl i c a t i ons i n t h e t e xt s W hi l e t he Book of J ob us e s t he H e bre w fr a m e w ork t o re l a y t he fa i t h p a t t e rn t o i t s re a de rs t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys re l y on t he s a m e e l e m e nt s a s t hough i n a di ff e re nt s e qu e nc e t ha n, t he H e bre w pa t t e rn t o d e m ons t ra t e t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn t o t he i r a udi e nc e s E a c h m ora l i t y p l a y m a n i fe s t s t he Chr i s t i a n fr a m e w ork s how n, a nd t hough t he s t a ge s t a k e s l i ght l y di ffe re nt form s a l l of t he e l e m e nt s of t he p a t t e rn a re pre s e nt In T he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e t he s t ru c t u re of t he pl a y e xpl i c i t l y d e m ons t ra t e s t he pa t t e rn of M a nki nds l i fe K i ng c l a i m s t ha t t h e m a j or t h e m a t i c m ove m e nt of t he pl a y de pe nds on t he pre s e n t a t i on of m a ns l i fe a s a j ourne y or a p i l gri m a ge fro m bi rt h t o

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38 de a t h (244). E dga r T S c he l l de s c ri b e s M a nki nds phys i c a l m ove m e nt t hrough t he pl a yi ng a r e a a s a l l e gori c a l for hi s s pi ri t ua l j our ne y, w i t h good a nd e vi l [a s ] i t s l a t e r a l c oordi na t e s a s he a v e n a nd he l l [a s ] i t s ve rt i c a l c oordi na t e s (285). T he pl a ys s t ruc t ur e a l s o fi t s P ot t e rs m od e l of i nnoc e n c e f a l l a nd re de m p t i on (34). H ow e ve r, t he s e pa t t e rns do not a c c ount for t h e w hol e t e xt ; t he pl a ys a c t i on do e s not m e re l y r a nge fr om bi rt h t o d e a t h but from b i rt h t o t he a ft e r l i fe L i k e w i s e t he f i na l s c e ne i s not one of re de m pt i on but ra t he r r e w a rds a s M a nki n d e nt e rs he a v e n. Re d e m pt i on i n t h e m ora l i t y pl a ys c om e s from t he re p e nt a nc e of s i n a n d t he re t urn t o t he s t a t e of ri ght e ous ne s s but t he re w a rd s t a g e i nvo l ve s t he pro t a goni s t s e nt ra nc e t o he a ve n. T he s urvi vi ng m a nus c ri pt of t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e fi rs t de t a i l s t he re qu i re d s t a ge s e t up: on e c e nt e r s c a ffol d, us e d for t he Ca s t l e of P e rs e v e ra n c e a nd G ods t hron e s urrounde d by fi ve s c a ffol ds oc c upi e d by W orl d, F l e s h, Be l i a l Cov e t ous ne s s a nd G od, a nd t he a ud i e n c e a round t he c onf i gura t i on T hi s pos i t i oni ng p l a ys a n i n t ri c a t e ro l e i n bot h t he pl ot a nd m e a ni ng of t h e t e xt a s i s a pp a re nt i n t he ope n i ng s c e n e s T he pl a y be gi ns w i t h M a nki nds bi rt h, a s t h e ba nns de s c r i b e : T he c a s e of our e c o m ynge you t o d e c l a re E ue ry m a n i n hi m s e l f fors ot he he i t m a y f ynde : W hou M a nki nd i nt o t hi s w e rl d born i s ful ba re A nd ba re s c ha l b e rye d be a t hy s l a s t e nde ( 14 17) M a nki nd a ppe a rs a s a n i nfa n t i n t h e ope ni ng s c e ne : A ft yr oure form e fa d e rys ke nde T hi s nyt h I w a s od m y m odyr born

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39 I a m na kyd of l y m a nd l e nde A s M a nkynde i s s c ha pyn a nd s c horn ( 275 6, 279 80) W hi l e M a nk i nd s pe a ks t he s e l i n e s he i s l o c a t e d i n t he c e n t e r of t h e round, unde r t h e c e nt ra l s c a ffol d (K i ng 244) H i s na ke dne s s i s s ym bol i c of hi s puri t y, a s w a s t he na ke dne s s of A da m a nd E v e i n t he G a rde n of E de n. T he w ords of t he b a nns a nd hi s ope ni ng pos i t i on und e r t he c e nt ra l s c a ffol d de m ons t ra t e M a nki nds s t a t e of i nno c e n c e for he i s ye t uni nf l ue nc e d by t h e V i c e s t h a t e x i s t out s i de t h e c a s t l e a nd h e i s a l i gne d w i t h be ne vol e n t c h a ra c t e rs l a t e r t o o c c upy t h e c e nt e r s c a ffo l d, na m e l y t he S e ve n V i r t ue s a nd G od. A ddi t i ona l l y, a s t he ba nns re po rt M a nki nd w i l l r e t urn fu l ba r e t o t ha t s a m e s pot s e ve ra l t i m e s a s t h e pl a y progre s s e s t he b a re ne s s s ym bol i z i ng one uns oi l e d by s i n. T he c e nt e r s c a ffol d t h e n m a rks out t he s pa c e o f s i nl e s s ne s s for M a nki nd, fi rs t i n hi s i nno c e nc e a nd l a t e r i n hi s re p e nt a nc e a nd re de m pt i on D uri ng M a nki nds ope ni ng s c e ne W orl d S a t a n, a nd F l e s h i n t roduc e t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r rol e i n t h e pl a y f rom t h e e xt e ri or s c a ffol ds w hi c h m a rks t h e i r d e fi ni t i ve pos i t i on a s e v i l c h a ra c t e rs i n c ont ra s t t o M a n ki nd, w ho i s pre s e nt e d i ni t i a l l y a s i n a s t a t e of i nnoc e nc e M a nki nd fi rs t s pe a ks i n t h e fourt h s c e n e s t i l l i n a s t a g e of i nnoc e nc e H e e xpl a i ns T o a unge l s be n e a s ynyd t o m e : L ord J he s u, t o t hou I bydde a bon e T ha t I m a y fol w e be s t r e t a nd s t a l l e T he a ungyl t ha t c a m fro he ue n e t rone ( 3 01, 315 7)

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40 T he pos s i bi l i t y for a nd i n e vi t a bi l i t y of t e m pt a t i on i s s e t up i n t hi s s c e ne T hough M a nki nd s t a rt s out a n i nnoc e n t i nfa n t he r e c ogni z e s t ha t t he r e a re t w o s pi ri t ua l forc e s hi s G ood a nd Ba d A nge l s vyi ng fo r hi s s oul a s i t ua t i on c l e a r l y s i m i l a r t o J obs T he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e re i nfor c e s t he J ob e a n t ri a d by re pr e s e nt i ng M a nk i nd s t ruggl i ng w i t h hi s Ba d A nge l a nd a t t e m pt i ng t o fol l ow hi s G ood A nge l Be c a us e t he a bi l i t y t o c hoos e be t w e e n t he t w o a nge l s c on s t i t ut e s hi s t e m pt a t i on, M a nk i nds s t a ge of i nno c e nc e i s m a rke d not by a de c l a r a t i on of b l a m e l e s s ne s s a s i n t he c a s e of J ob, but i n h i s pl e a t o L ord J he s u t o he l p hi m In hi s fi rs t s pe e c h, he ha s not ye t c hos e n t o fol l ow t he B a d A nge l t o W orl d, F l e s h, or S a t a n, a nd i ns t e a d c ri e s out t o Coryow s Cri s t e a nd c hoos e s t o fol l ow t he a ungyl t h a t c a m fro h e ue ne ( 320, 317). Y e t M a nki nds i nnoc e n c e i s s hort l i ve d, a s i s t he c a s e i n a l l m ora l i t y pl a ys W i t hi n t he s a m e s c e n e M a nki nds Ba d A nge l t e m pt s hi m w i t h a c a t a l ogue of p l e a s ure s a nd l ure s hi m a w a y t o W orl d, w hos e pos i t i on on a n e xt e ri or s c a ffol d i ndi c a t e s t ha t M a nki nd ha s l e ft h i s s t a t e of gr a c e M a nki nds fa l l i s furt he r h i ghl i gh t e d by hi s vow t o W orl d, I w yl go w i t h t he a nd a s a y. I ne l e t t e for fr e nde ne r fo, But w i t h t he W e rl d I w yl go p l a y In t hi s W orl d i s a l m y t rus t T o l yuyn i n l ykyng a nd i n l us t (394 6, 39 8 9)

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41 Cha ra c t e ri s t i c of t h e m ora l i t y p l a y, M a nki nd c ont i nue s t o us e t he re l i gi ous l a ngua g e from hi s e a rl i e r di s c us s i on w i t h hi s G ood A nge l but di re c t s i t t o h i s e vi l c ount e rp a rt i ns t e a d, a nd hi s pre vi ous pra ye rs t o L ord J he s u a re re pl a c e d w i t h hi s vow s t o W or l d. T he ne xt s c e ne c l e a rl y de p i c t s M a nki nds s t a t e of s i nful n e s s A pa ra de of t he ve rbos e vi c e s a nd t he i r a ge n t s W orl d, F l e s h, a nd S a t a n e ns ue e a c h vi c e e xt o l l i n g hi s ow n e vi l qua l i t i e s M a nki nd t he n a ppe a rs w i t h t he vi c e s Cove t ous ne s s P ri de W r a t h, E nvy, G l ut t ony, L e c he ry, a nd S l ot h a nd vow s hi s l oya l t y t o e a c h i nd i vi dua l l y. T h i s l e ngt hy s e c t i on, s t re t c hi ng 227 l i n e s s o l i di fi e s M a nki nds s i nful s t a t e t o t he m e di e v a l a udi e nc e ; t h e S e ve n V i c e s w hi c h w e re f a m i l i a r t o m e di e v a l a udi e n c e s t hrough s e r m ons a nd re l i g i ous l i t e ra t ur e s i gna l t ha t M a nki n d i s i nde e d s oyl yd a nd s a ggyd i n s ynne (1291). M a nki nd fa l l s s o fa r i n t o di s obe di e nc e t ha t he e ve n r e buffs Confe s s i on i ni t i a l l y, for w he n Confe s s i on t hre a t e ns M a nki nd w i t h H e l l M a nk i nd re pl i e s t ha t he c a n re p e nt on P a l m S unda y or G ood F ri da y (1349, 1352 ) a nd de m a nds Confe s s i on go h e ns (137 6). H i s re m a rks de m ons t ra t e t ha t h i s i n t e r e s t i n re l i gi on i s now s upe rfi c i a l ra t he r t h a n ge nui ne In M a nki nds ope n i ng s c e n e he bydde [s ] a bone 18 / T ha t [he ] m a y fow l e [G od], be s t re t e or s t a l l e ( 315 6), but by t he t i m e of hi s e n c ount e r w i t h Confe s s i on, he w a nt s t o de l a y h i s pra ye rs unt i l E a s t e r. Y e t P e na nc e a rri v e s w i t h a l a nc e a poi n t of pe na unc e w i t h a drope of m e rc y (1377, 1380), a nd pi e rc e s M a nki nds he a r t w i t h i t c a us i ng t he pro t a goni s t t o fe e l a s e t e of s ow re (1403). T hus M a nki nd re p e nt s of h i s s i n, M e rc y, G od, forge ue m e t h ys ! (1484), a nd a s ks for gra c e a nd forg i ve ne s s (1454). A s 18 A s ks i n pr a ye r

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42 hi s t urn t o s i n w a s m a rke d by h i s vow t o W orl d, F l e s h, a nd S a t a n, s o hi s re t urn t o G od i s m a rke d by a p l e dg e t o fors a k e you, s ynnys a nd fro you fl e (1447). T o furt he r hi gh l i ght M a nk i nds re pe n t a nc e a nd t he forg i ve n e s s of hi s s i ns M a nki nd goe s t o t he C a s t l e of P e rs e v e ra n c e l oc a t e d a t t he c e nt e r s c a ffol d. Confe s s i on de s c ri be s t he C a s t l e a s a pre c yous pl a c e F ul of ve rt u a nd of gra c e ; W hos o l e uyt h t h e re hys l yuys s pa c e N o s ynne s c ha l hym s c h e nde (1555 1559 ). M a nki nds e nt ra nc e i n t o t he C a s t l e i ndi c a t e s a s hi ft i n hi s s t a t e be c a us e t he Ca s t l e oc c upi e s t h e s pa c e of ri ght e ous ne s s t he c e nt e r s c a ffo l d. T hough M a nki nd do e s not re t urn t o i nnoc e n c e a s he w a s a s a n i nfa n t hi s s i ns a re forgi ve n, a nd h e i s m a de ri gh t e ous a ga i n. M a nki nd, a w a re of t h e Ca s t l e s ge ogra ph i c a l di s t i nc t i on, a s ks Confe s s i on t o put t e [ hi m ] / Int o s um pl a c e of s ure t e / T ha t t he i [ t he V i c e s ] m a y not h a rm yn m e (1542 4). Ins t e a d of be i ng ful b a re (16 ) a nd n a kyd (279 ) a s i n t he ope n i ng s c e n e s M a nki nd i s put a w a y i n a s e c ure p l a c e t h e Ca s t l e of P e rs e ve ra n c e T hi s di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n i nno c e nc e a n d a w a re ne s s of s i n m i rrors t h e A da m a nd E v e pa ra l l e l e s t a b l i s he d e a rl i e r i n t h e pl a y ; a s A da m a nd E ve s i nno c e n c e w a s i ndi c a t e d by t h e i r na k e dne s s s o t he i r r e c ogni t i on of s i n w a s m a rke d by t he m c ov e ri ng t h e m s e l v e s In t he Ca s t l e of P e rs e ve r a nc e M a nk i nd m e e t s t he S e v e n V i rt u e s P a t i e n c e Cha ri t y, A bs t i ne n c e Cha s t i t y, Bus i ne s s H um i l i t y, a nd T hri f t w ho de m ons t ra t e t h e i r m ora l oppos i t i o n t o t h e S e ve n V i c e s of t h e pre vi ous s c e ne s A s he pre v i ous l y pl e dg e d

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43 hi m s e l f t o t he V i c e fi gure s M a nki nd vow s hi m s e l f t o t h e s e vi rt uous c h a ra c t e rs s a yi ng, T he s e ue n e s ynnys I fors a ke / A nd t o t h e s e s e ue ne ve rt u i s I m e t a ke (1690 1). A t t hi s poi nt i n t he pl a y, t he t ypi c a l c y c l e of i nnoc e nc e fa l l a nd r e de m p t i on ha s be e n c om p l e t e d. O ne w oul d e xp e c t M a nk i nd t o di e s oon a nd e n t e r h e a ve n. H ow e ve r t he a ut hor c hoos e s t o re p e a t M a nki nds fa l l a n d re de m pt i on be fore M a nki nds de a t h i n S c e ne 20. T hough t he ot h e r m ora l i t y p l a y p l ot s us e onl y one fa l l i nt o s i n a nd one i ns t a nc e o f re pe nt a n c e T he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e de m ons t ra t e s t h a t s i n a nd r e pe n t a nc e a re a c ont i nuous proc e s s t hroughout M a nk i nds l i fe a r e pe t i t i on found i n t he H e bre w a nd Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rns ; t he Is ra e l i t e s c yc l e of s i n a nd re pe n t a n c e re p e a t s duri ng t he i r fort y ye a rs w a nde r i ng, w hi l e J obs t e m pt a t i ons a re re p e a t e d w i t h e a c h of h i s t hre e fri e nds s pe e c h e s a nd S a t a n t e m p t s Chri s t not onc e but t hre e t i m e s i n t h e de s e rt D uri ng M a nki nds c o nve rs i on, t he hos t of vi c i ous c ha r a c t e rs pl ot t o l ure M a nk i nd a w a y from t he C a s t l e a nd ba c k i nt o s i n. A ft e r m uc h s c h e m i ng, t he S e v e n V i c e s a t t a c k t he Ca s t l e but a re w a rd e d off by t he S e v e n V i rt ue s e qui ppe d w i t h S c ri pt ur e ve rs e s T h e ba t t l e s c e ne b e t w e e n t he V i c e s a nd V i rt u e s a t t he Ca s t l e furt h e r hi ghl i ght s t he s pi r i t ua l ba t t l e de s c ri b e d i n J ob. Cove t ous n e s s e ve nt ua l l y dr a w s M a nki nd a w a y from t h e Ca s t l e w i t h prom i s e s of w e a l t h a nd ri c he s M a nk i nd fa l l s t o t e m p t a t i on onc e a ga i n, pl e dg i n g t o Cove t ous ne s s t o do a l t hi byddynge a nd fors a ke t he C a s t e l of P e rs e u e ra un c e (25 33 4). T hi s e xc ha ng e be t w e e n M a nki nd a nd Cove t ous ne s s pa ra l l e l s t he pro t a gon i s t s pre vi ous fa l l i nt o s i n i n l i ne s 393 401 M a nki nd l i ve s out h i s ye a rs i n s i n, i n l e a g ue w i t h Cove t ous ne s s u nt i l he i s a pa rt y w e l e i n a g e (2700) a nd m e ky l of h ys l yf he ha t h m ys pe n t (2781). W h e n D e a t h

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44 a rri ve s t o re t ri e ve hi m M a nki nd c r i e s out t o t he W or l d for he l p, t hough he s oon re a l i z e s t ha t none of t he vi c e s d e dys t [hi m ] n e ue r e no m a ne r good (2944). O nc e a ga i n, M a nki nd re pe nt s s a yi ng, N ow I a m s ory of m y l yf ( 2970) a nd c on c l ude s hi s s pe e c h w i t h a w a rni ng, N ow good m e n, t a ky t he e xa m p l e a t m e / D o for yours e l f w hyl y e ha n s p a s e (2995 6). M a nki nd re c ogni z e s t h a t hi s l i fe hi s pa t t e rn of f a i t h, do e s not l e a d t ow a rd t he re w a rd of s a l va t i on a nd h e w a rns t he a ud i e nc e t o t a k e he e d of h i s e xa m p l e w hi l e t he y a re a l i ve T he s e t w o c om m e nt s not onl y r e i nf orc e t he pr e s e nc e of t he Chr i s t i a n f a i t h p a t t e rn but m ore pa r t i c u l a r l y t he n e c e s s i t y of r e pe nt a nc e b e for e d e a t h. In t he fol l ow i ng s c e ne i t i s not M a nki nd b ut A ni m a hi s s oul w ho s pe a ks m a rki ng t h e pl a ys m ov e m e nt from t he e a rt hl y t o t h e he a v e nl y w orl d. M a nk i nds re pe nt a n c e b e f or e t h i s s c e ne i s c ru c i a l t o t he t he ol ogy of t he pl a y a nd t h e Chri s t i a n f a i t h pa t t e rn, a s i s di s c us s e d i n t he h e a v e nl y s c e ne s t ha t fol l ow T he re m a i ni ng t hre e s c e ne s of t h e pl a y d e pi c t M a nki nds a f t e rl i fe Ini t i a l l y, G od bri ngs A ni m a t o hi s t hron e l oc a t e d a t t he c e nt e r s c a ffol d, t o b e j udg e d. T hi s he a ri ng i s a l s o a t t e nde d by G ods fo ur da ught e rs J us t i c e T ru t h, M e rc y, a nd P e a c e w ho w e re popul a r fi gure s i n m e di e va l l i t e ra t ure T h e de ba t e b e t w e e n t he m t ha t e ns ue s e xe m pl i fi e s t he c om p l e xi t y of di vi n e j us t i c e a c onc e pt m e di e v a l w ri t e rs w re s t l e d w i t h. L i k e J ob a nd hi s c om pa ni ons t h e fou r da ught e rs of G od a t t e m pt t o d i s s e c t t h e w a ys of G od. J us t i c e a rgue s t ha t e u e rym a n t ha t w yl fu l fi l l / t h e de dl y s ynnys a nd fol w m ys de de / T o gra unt e hye m m e r c y m e t hynkyt h i t no s kyl (315 5 7) a nd s he quot e s M a t t h e w 7: 21, N ot e ve ry one t ha t s a i t h t o m e L ord, L ord, s ha l l e nt e r i nt o t he k i ngdom of he a ve n (3168). T ru t h a gre e s s a yi ng t h a t w he n e a c h m a n di e s s he m us t w e i gh hys goode d e dys a nd hys s yne

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45 / A nd w e ydyr of he m be m or e or m ynn e / H e s c ha l i t ry t h s one fynde (3187 9). But M e rc y re t ort s t h a t i f he d e y i n ve ry c ont ri c i oun, / L ord, t he l e s t drope of t h i bl od / F or hys s ynne m a kyt h s a t ys fa c c i oun (3367 9 ). P e a c e a l s o a rgue s t h a t G od de s i gne d m a n t o fi l l t h e pl a c e of t h e fa l l e n a nge l s (3496 35 06) a nd re m i nds G od of Chri s t s forgi vi ng bl ood, quot i n g, H e w a s l e d a s a s he e p t o t he s l a ught e r ( 3552, A c t s 8: 32). S i nc e M a nki nd re pe nt e d be for e hi s de a t h, M e rc y a nd P e a c e w i n t he d e ba t e a vi c t ory fore s ha dow e d by G ods pos i t i on on t he c e nt e r s c a ffol d, e s t a bl i s he d e a rl i e r a s a s pa c e ful of ve rt u a nd of gra c e (1556), a nd G od c o m m a nds t o bryng e [M a nki nd] t o m y bl ys s e ful c l e re / In he u e ne t o dw e l l e e nde l e s l y (35 67 8). T hi s s c e ne di s pl a ys t he c om pl e x c o nc e pt of di vi ne j us t i c e a nd i s i nt e gra l t o t he Chr i s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn, for a c c ord i ng t o t h e pa t t e rn, re pe nt a n c e m us t c o m e be for e de a t h, no m a t t e r how s oon be fore a nd re w a rds a nd puni s hm e nt m us t c om e a ft e r. M a nk i nd do e s re pe nt be for e he d i e s a nd doe s re c e i v e hi s re w a rd a ft e r hi s de a t h, e ve n t hough M a nki nds re pe nt a nc e a nd d e a t h a re c l os e t e x t ua l l y a nd c hronol ogi c a l l y. T hus t h e s c ope of T h e Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r an c e doe s not s t r e t c h m e re l y fro m i nnoc e nc e t o re p e nt a n c e or fr om bi rt h t o d e a t h ; t he p l a y progr e s s e s from i nnoc e nc e t o r e w a rd a nd from b i rt h t o t he e t e rna l a ft e rl i fe E c c l e s a gre e s t h a t t he fi na l s c e ne s i n he a v e n a r e t he r e fore e s s e nt i a l t o t he Chri s t i a n m e a ni ng of t h e pl a y (xxv), a nd t he y t hus re i nfor c e t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn s e t dow n by t he G os pe l s Mank i nd a l s o fol l ow s a prot a goni s t n a m e d M a nki nd t hrough hi s l i f e j ourne y. I t s t hre e s c e n e s c l e a rl y d i vi de d i nt o s t a g e s of i nnoc e nc e s i nful ne s s a nd r e pe nt a nc e a l i gn w i t h P ot t e rs m ode l for t he m ora l i t y pl a ys Y e t de s pi t e t he pl a ys c onve n i e nt s c e ne bre a ks i t e n c om p a s s e s not j us t i nnoc e nc e s i nful ne s s a nd re pe nt a nc e but t h e e nt i re

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46 Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn. T he r e i nforc e m e n t of t hi s pa t t e rn c om e s t hrough M e rc ys s e r m on a bout how M a nki nds l i fe s houl d b e l i v e d; t hus t he s e rm on i s t h e fra m e w ork of t he pl a y, a ppe a ri ng i n t he f i rs t a nd l a s t s c e n e a nd pr ovi di ng t he m ora l for t he a ud i e n c e K i ng e ve n c a l l s t h e pl a y a s e r m on w i t h i l l us t ra t i ve d ra m a t i z a t i ons (71), a nd K e l l e y e xpl a i ns t ha t t he m a j or orga n i z i ng pr i nc i pl e i n Mank i n d i s not pl ot but r a t he r, t he e xpos i t ory s e r m on (89). M e rc ys s e rm on ope ns t he pl a y, c a l l i ng t h e a udi e n c e t o re pe n t a nc e H e re m i nds hi s he a re rs t o pryk e not yow r fe l yc yt e s i n t hyngys t ra ns yt orye / B e hol de no t t he e rt h, but l yft e yow r e y w ppe (30 1). T h i s ope n i ng s t a t e m e nt e s t a bl i s he s t he s pi ri t ua l di m e ns i on of t h e pl a ys m or a l ; for t hough t he pl a y us e s t hyngys t ra ns yt orye t o d e p i c t i t s m ora l M e r c y w a nt s t he a udi e nc e t o l y ft e [t he i r] e y[s ] w ppe t o t he h e a ve n l y re a l m for t he a ppl i c a t i on of i t M e rc y a l s o i nt rod uc e s t he fi rs t of s e v e ra l fa rm i ng re fe r e nc e s s a yi ng, T he c orn xa l l be s a uyd e t he c ha f fe xa l l b e bre nt e (43), a re fe r e nc e t o M a t t he w 3: 12 a nd L uke 3 : 17. W hi l e c orn a nd c h a ff a re e a rt hl y i t e m s t he y t a ke on a s pi r i t ua l s e ns e e s t a bl i s hi ng t he pl a ys m e t a phor of s a l v a t i on: t he good ha rv e s t s ha l l b e s a ve d, bu t t h e c ha ff w i l l b e burne d. M i d s e rm on, M ys c he ffe e nt e rs a s a foi l t o M e rc y a nd m oc ks M e r c ys c orn a nd c ha ff m e t a phor, t a unt i ng t h e c orn xa l l s e r ue t o bre de a t t h e ne x t e ba kyng e (59). T h e i r e xc ha nge i s c ut s hort by a bre a k i n t he m a nus c ri pt but t h e e xt a nt t e xt d e m ons t ra t e s t he oppos i t i on i n t h e t w o c ha r a c t e rs M e r c y a nd M ys c he ffe w i t h M a nki nd w ho e nt e rs l a t e r, fol l ow t he J obe a n t ri a d of good, e vi l a nd hum a n c ha r a c t e rs a s t he y a re c l os e pa r a l l e l s t o G od, S a t a n, a nd J ob i n J ob a nd t he G ood a nd Ba d A nge l a nd M a nki nd i n t he Cas t l e of

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47 P e r s e v e r anc e T he a ut hor re i nfor c e s t h i s t ri a d by us i ng t hre e na m e s t ha t be gi n w i t h M , a t a c t i c t ha t s e pa ra t e s t hos e c h a ra c t e rs fro m t he vi c e fi gur e s N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought w ho a re di s t i ngui s he d by t he l e t t e r N . T he s e t hr e e v i c e c ha ra c t e rs pa ra l l e l J obs t hre e fri e nds Bi l d a d, E l i pha z a nd Z opha r. A ft e r t he pl a ys good a nd e v i l dyna m i c s a re e s t a bl i s he d, M a nki nd e nt e rs a nd t he e xpos i t i on of t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn b e gi ns H i s ope ni ng s pe e c h, l i ke M e r c ys i s di da c t i c a s he d e s c ri b e s hi s c om pos yc yo n / O f a body a nd of a s oul l of c ondyc yon c ont ra rye (194 5) a nd e s t a bl i s he s hi s a l l e gi a nc e t o hi s s oul ra t h e r t h a n hi s body. K e l l e y de s c ri be s M a nki nds a pp e a ra n c e i n S c e ne 1 a s i n a s t a t e of gra c e (64) be c a us e t ho ugh he i s not s i nl e s s he ha s be e n gra n t e d gra c e be c a us e of h i s a l l e gi a nc e t o M e rc y. M a n ki nd e ve n s a ys t o M e rc y, O yow r l ou e l y w ord ys t o m y s oul l a re s w e t e re t h e n hony (22 5) a nd M e rc y re pl i e s t h a t i f M a nk i nd re m a i n s c ons t a nt O f hys bl ys s e pe rpe t u a l l y e xa l l be pa rt e ne r (284). M a nki nd i ni t i a l l y prove s hi s c ons t a n c y w he n he m e e t s N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought T he t hr e e fi gur e s fi nd M a nki nd pl a n t i ng hi s c orn a nd e a c h i n t urn a t t e m pt t o pe rs ua d e hi m t ha t h i s ha rd w ork i s ke e pi ng hi m fro m e nj oy i ng hi s l i f e T hi s s c e na ri o i s s i m i l a r t o t h e a rr i va l of J o bs t hre e fri e nds a nd t he i r e ns ui ng di s c us s i on i n w hi c h e a c h fr i e nd t ri e s t o t e m p t J ob t o s pe a k fa l s e l y of G od or hi m s e l f. A ddi t i ona l l y, t hough t he t e m pt a t i ons N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought offe r di ffe r fro m t hos e S a t a n offe re d Chri s t i n t he de s e r t t h e t hre e t e m p t a t i o ns dra w a p a ra l l e l be t w e e n M a nki nd a nd Chri s t But M a nki nd, l i ke J ob a nd Chri s t re buffs t he t hre e t e m pt a t i ons a nd h e re m a i ns l oya l t o h i s l a bor, s a yi ng, W yt h m y s pa d e I w yl l de pa r t e m y w ors c hyppul l s oure n c e / A nde l yue e ue r w i t h l a bure t o c ore c t e m y i ns ol e nc e / I xa l l go fe t t c orn for m y l ond e ; I

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48 pre y yow of pa c ye n c e (409 11). T he c or n m e t a phor, us e d h e re i n pl a n t i ng, a l s o s i gni fi e s M a nki nds a t t e m pt t o r e a p t h e good ha rv e s t F urt he rm ore hi s pra y e r for pa t i e n c e a l i gns hi m w i t h J ob, w hom M e rc y t e l l s hi m i s a m ode l of pa t i e n c e i n l i n e 286. M a nki nds m a i nt e na nc e of hi s s t a t e of gr a c e (K e l l e y 64) be gi ns t o w a n e by t he s e c ond s c e ne T h e s e c t i on ope ns w i t h M ys c he ffe m e e t i ng w i t h N e w G ys e N ow a da y s a nd N ought t o pl ot m ore t e m pt a t i ons for M a nki nd. M ys c he ffe not e s t h a t hys s pa d e t ha t w a s hys w e pyn (421), a nd t he four de c i d e t o t e m pt M a nki nd by frus t r a t i ng h i s fa r m i ng. T hi s t a c t i c us e s t h e pre v i ous c orn m e t a pho r t o i l l us t r a t e t he s pi ri t ua l b a t t l e pr e s e nt i n J ob. A t t hi s poi nt i n t he pl a y, T i t yvi l l us e nt e rs t o a i d t he t hre e v i c e s a nd m e nge hys c orn w i t h dra w ke a nd w i t h durn e l l [s o] yt x a l l no t be l yke t o s ow nor t o s e l l (537 8) by p l a c i ng a boa rd unde r M a nki nds s oi l H e o c c upi e s a uni que pl a c e i n Mank i nd s fra m e w ork be c a us e w hi l e he s yngnyfyt h t he F e nd of he l l e (886), he i s not t he oppos i t e of M e r c y, a s M ys c he ffe i s a nd a ppe a rs pa rt v i l l a i n a nd pa rt c l ow n ra t he r t ha n s ol e l y e vi l M a nki nds fi rs t re s pons e t o t hi s t e m pt a t i o n pa ra l l e l s hi s re a c t i on i n t h e pre vi ous s c e ne ; he kn e e l s dow n i n pra ye r a nd b e g i n s t o s a y hi s P a t e rnos t e r i n a t t e m pt s t o w a r d off t he t e m pt a t i on. H ow e ve r, t hi s t i m e M a nki nd be c om e s t i re d of hi s pra y e rs a nd de c i d e s t o go do t ha t m us t be don (563) a nd re t urn s t o hi s phys i c a l l a bors A t t hi s poi nt T i t y vi l l us ha s frus t ra t e d M a nki nds phys i c a l a nd s pi r i t ua l l a bors c a us i ng h i m t o f a l l i nt o s i n. M a nki nds s i nful ne s s l i ke a l l m or a l i t y pl a y prot a goni s t s i s de m ons t r a t e d by h i s di s a vow i ng of goodne s s w i t h t he s a m e z e a l he vow e d i t or i gi na l l y: E w yns ong ha t h be i n t h e s a ynge I t row a fa y e r w yl l I a m yrke of yt ; yt ys t o l ong e be on m y l e

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49 D o w e y! I w yl l no m ore s o oft oue r t h e c h yrc he s t yl e Be a s be m a y, I x a l l do a not h e r. O f l a bure a nd pr e ye r, I a m ne re yrk e of bo t h; I w yl l no m ore of yt t how M e rc y be w rot h. (581 586) T i t yvi l l us s ol i di f i e s M a nki nds c hoi c e of s i n by w hi s pe ri ng t o hi m w hi l e h e s l e e ps t h a t M e rc y di e d from a broke n n e c k, e i t he r fro m a ri di ng a c c i de n t or i n t h e ga l l ow s a nd he a dds t ha t M a nki nd m us t now a s ke m e rc y of N e u G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought (602). U pon w a ki ng, M a nki nd obe di e n t l y s e e ks t he t hre e f i gure s out a nd a m o c k s a l va t i on s c e ne w i t h re l i gi ous l a ngua g e a nd i m a ge r y, fol l ow s M a nki nd fi rs t a s ks m e r c y of a l l t ha t [he ] dyd e a m ys s e (659 ) a nd c on t i nue s I w yl l m a ke yow a m e ndys (650, 652). M ys c he ffe N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought t he n m a ke M a nki nd s w e a r t ha t he w i l l c om m i t va ri ous s i ns for t he m i nc l udi ng a dul t e ry, l e c he ry, robbe ry, t h e ft ki l l i ng, a n d bre a ki ng t h e S a bba t h. M a nki nd re s ponds t o e a c h re qu e s t I w yl l s e r (705). T h e e xc ha nge p a ra l l e l s t he s c e n e i n t h e Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e w he re M a nk i nd s w e a rs a l l e g i a nc e t o t h e pa r a de of V i c e s a nd t hou gh e a c h of t h e s i ns i s not pe rs oni fi e d i n Mank i nd t he y a re pr e s e nt a nd m a rk M a nk i nds fa l l i n t o s i n. S c e ne 3 be gi ns w i t h M e r c ys e nt r a nc e w h i c h j uxt a pos e s t he e v i l a c t i v i t i e s of t he pre vi ous s c e ne M e r c y fi nd M a nki nd w i t h M ys c he ffe N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought a nd c om m e nt s on hi s s t a t e of s i nful l n e s s A t t he s i ght of M e rc y, M a nk i nd c ri e s out t ha t he i s not w ort hy (800) a nd a s ks for a rope t o ha ng hi m s e l f. T he s e que n c e of M a nk i nds w ords he re i s c ruc i a l t o t he m or a l of t h e pl a y a nd t he Chr i s t i a n f a i t h p a t t e rn. A s i n t h e Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e t he r e c ogni t i on a n d re pe nt a n c e of s i n o c c ur pri or t o de a t h, fo r

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50 M a nki nd re c ogni z e s f i r s t t h a t h e i s not w ort hy t o be s e e n by M e r c y a nd t he n goe s t o ha ng hi m s e l f. M a nki nds fl a w he re i s not a l a c k of re pe nt a n c e bu t ra t h e r a l a c k of fa i t h i n M e rc ys forgi ve ne s s T hough t h e re s ol ut i o n be t w e e n M a nki nd a nd M e rc y c om e s a f t e r M a nki nds a t t e m pt e d s ui c i de M a nki nds r e pe nt a n c e b e gi ns be fore i t i n k e e pi ng w i t h t he Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn. M ys c he ffe re pl i e s t o M a nki nds c ry for a r ope I ha ue y t he r e re dy, / W yt h a t re a l s o (801 2), a nd N e w G ys e t he n t e l l s M a nki nd t o do a s I do (804) a s he d e m ons t ra t e s how t o ha ng hi m s e l f. Y e t i n t h e c om m ot i o n of M e rc ys a rri va l N e w G ys e a c c i d e nt l y ha ngs hi m s e l f i ns t e a d, a n i nc i d e nt p a ra l l e l t o T i t yv i l l us e a rl i e r re m a rk t o M a nk i nd t ha t M e rc y di e d by a brok e n ne c k. T he e l e m e n t of de a t h, i n pa rt i c ul a r by a brok e n ne c k, i s c l e a r i n t he t e x t e ve n t hough onl y a m i nor c ha ra c t e r d i e s W hi l e M a nki nd do e s not d i e i n t he pl a y, h e doe s pa s s t hrough t h e s t a ge of de a t h i n h i s ne a r h a ngi ng. M a nki nd c ont i nu e s t o re pe n t t hough a t fi r s t he i s re l uc t a nt t o a c c e p t M e rc ys forgi ve ne s s s a yi ng, I a m not w or t hy t o h a w e m e rc y b e no pos s i bi l i t e a nd T he e g a l l j us t ys e of G od w yl l not pe rm y t t e s yc h a s ynful l w re c h (822, 831). H e re M a nki nd re c ogni z e s t ha t hi s puni s hm e nt o r re w a rd w i l l be i n t he a f t e rl i fe but f a i l s t o s e e t h e r ol e of m e rc y i n t ha t pun i s hm e nt or r e w a rd. Bu t w he n M e rc y s a ys T hy obs t i n a c y w yl l e xc l ude t he fro t h e gl or i us pe rpe t u i t e (82 9), he a c c e de s L yt yl l ys our pa rt e of p a ra di s e w e re m e r c y ne w e re / G ood M e rc y, e xc us e t he i n e uyt a by l l obj e c c i on of m y gos t l y e nm y (836 8). T hi s di s c us s i on be t w e e n M e rc y a nd M a nki nd i s s i m i l a r t o J obs di s c us s i on w i t h hi s fri e nds for bot h s e t s of c ha r a c t e rs de b a t e a bou t t he n a t ur e of di vi n e j us t i c e A ddi t i ona l l y, Mank i nd dr a w s on t he de b a t e of t he F our D a ught e rs of G od, a s s e e n i n t he

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51 Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e M e rc y obvi ous l y s pe a ks i n fa vor of M e rc y a nd P e a c e w hi l e M a nki nd t ri e s t o m a ke s e ns e of d i vi n e J us t i c e a nd T rut h M a nk i nd e v e nt ua l l y a c c e p t s M e rc ys i ns t ruc t i ons t o r e pe n t i n a c c orda nc e w i t h t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn, a nd t h e di s c us s i on c onc l ude s w i t h M e r c ys w ords G od w yl l not m a ke yow pre uy on t o hys l a s t j uge m e n t J us t yc e a nd E qui t e xa l l b e fort yfyi d, I w yl l not de nye T row t he m a y no t s o c rue l l y proc e de un hy s s t re yt a rgum e n t But t ha t M e r c y s c ha l l re w l e t he m a t e r w yt how t e c ont ra u e rs ye (839 42) M e rc ys c onc l us i on i m pl i e s t ha t M a nki nd s re w a rd c a n onl y c om e a ft e r r e pe nt a nc e a nd de a t h, for M e rc y re m i nds M a nki nd t ha t i n t hi s pre s e nt l yf e m e r c y ys pl e n t e t y l l de t h m a kyt h hys dyw ys i on (861) a nd c on t i nu e s by quot i ng 2 Cori nt hi a ns 6: 2 19 M e rc y a l s o e xpl a i ns Y our m e ryt ys w e re no t pre m y a byl l t o t h e bl ys a bow e / N ot t o t he l e s t j oy of he w yn, of your propyr e ffort e t o a s c e nd. / W yt h m e r c y ye m a y; I t e l l yow no fa byl l s c rypt ure dot h prow e (868 70). T he p l a y re i nforc e s t h e Chri s t i a n pa t t e rn t ha t r e pe nt a nc e m us t c om e b e fore de a t h, w hi l e m e rc y ys pl e nt e (861), i n ord e r for re w a rd t o c om e a ft e r de a t h, w he n J us t yc e a nd E qui t e xa l l be fo rt yfi d (840). A t t h e c on c l us i on, M a nki nd i s re s t ore d t o hi s s t a t e of gra c e a nd M e rc y a s ks G od t o pre s e rue hym fro a l l w y c kyd c a pt i u i t e (905). T h e e nd of M e rc ys s e r m on bri ngs hom e t h i s m ora l i n t he p l a y: M a nke nd ys w re c hyd, he ha t h s uffi c i e nt p row e T he re fore G od gr a nt yow a l l pe r s ua m m i s e ri c ordi a m T ha t ye m a y be p l e yf e rys w i t h t he a nge l l y s a bow e 19 B e hol d, now i s t he a c c e pt a bl e t i m e ; be hol d now i s t he da y of s a l va t i on.

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52 A nd ha w e t o your po rc yon vi t a m e t e rn a m A m e n! (911 4) T hus M e rc ys s e rm on c onc l ude s w i t h a s s ura nc e of M a nki nds s a l v a t i on, or re w a rd. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he c onc l us i on s upport s t h e e a rl i e r c orn a nd c ha ff m e t a phors s i nc e M a nki nd prove d t o be p a rt of t h e good ha r ve s t t hrough hi s a dhe r e nc e t o t h e Chrs i t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn, h e w i l l ha w e t o [hi s ] porc yo n vt i a m e t e rn a m (914). Wi s dom dra w s on t he Chri s t i a n fra m e w or k i n a uni que w a y, for t e m p t a t i on i nvol ve s not j us t a s i ngl e s i n bu t a de v i a t i o n from t he ove r a l l Chr i s t i a n p a t t e rn. Be v i n gt on be l i e v e s t ha t t he pl a y w a s l i k e l y pe rfor m e d i n a m ona s t e ry by m ona s t i c boys be c a us e of t he t h e ol ogi c a l s ophi s t i c a t i on, t h e l a c k o f ra uc ous hum or or phys i c a l a bus e a nd t h e de t a i l e d a c qua i nt a n c e w i t h l e ga l l e a rni ng (xi ), 20 a nd i t s di d a c t i c l a ngua g e fur t he r s upport s a n i ns t ruc t i v e i nt e nt i on. L i ke Mank i nd Wi s dom ope ns w i t h a s pe e c h by i t s l e a di ng good fi gur e W i s dom T hi s be gi nni ng i de nt i fi e s W i s dom a s Chri s t a nd t he hus ba nd of e c h e c hos e s ow l e (16). H e re W i s dom s rol e i n t h e J obe a n t r i a d i s c l e a r, a s i s A ni m a s rol e w he n s he e nt e rs a fe w l i ne s l a t e r. T h e e v i l fi gur e L uc i fe r, how e v e r, doe s not a ppe a r unt i l t h e s e c ond s c e n e A s w i t h J ob, t he Cas t l e o f P e r s e v e r anc e a nd Mank i nd t he p l a y be g i ns w i t h i t s prot a go ni s t i n a s t a t e of i nnoc e nc e A ni m a s i nno c e nc e i s de fi ne d no t by he r bi r t h but by h e r re l a t i ons hi p w i t h W i s dom a s M a nki nds g ra c e i n t he b e gi nni ng of Man k i nd de p e nds on hi s re l a t i ons hi p w i t h M e rc y. A ddi t i ona l l y, Wi s dom us e s c os t um e s a s a w a y t o pre s e nt m e a ni ng i n vi s ua l t e rm s t o s i gn i fy t he m o ra l c ondi t i on of e a c h c ha ra c t e r (K i ng 254) T he fi rs t s c e ne de s c r i be s A ni m a a s w e a ri ng a w yght e c l ot h e [a nd] a m a n t yl l of b l a ke 20 K e l l e y a gr e e s w i t h t hi s c onj e c t ur e ( 4)

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53 (114), re pre s e nt i ng h e r pot e nt i a l for bot h r i ght e ous ne s s a nd s i n. T hi s re pr e s e nt a t i on of t he di vi de d s e l f i s s i m i l a r t o M a nki n ds de s c r i pt i on of hi m s e l f a s a c ondyc yon c on t ra ry e ( Mank i nd 195) be t w e e n hi s body a nd s oul T o de m ons t ra t e he r ri ght e ous ne s s or t he pre va l e n c e of t he w hi t e c l o t h ove r t h e bl a c k m a nt l e A ni m a a ppe a rs i n t hi s s c e n e kne e l i ng dow n t o W i s dom (115), a nd s he u s e s m a r r i a ge i m a ge ry w h e n di s c us s i ng he r re l a t i on s hi p w i t h hi m c a l l i ng he rs e l f h i s s pow s e a nd l oue r (19, 20), i m pl y i ng t ha t s he i s one of W i s dom s c hos e s ow l e [s ]. W i s dom e v e n de s c ri be s A ni m a a s a c l e a n s ow l (45) a nd re s ponds w i t h m ore m a rr i a g e i m a ge ry. W i s dom a nd A ni m a t h e n di s c us s ori gi na l s i n, w hi c h i s a ddre s s e d i n A ni m a s ope ni ng c o s t um e W i s dom s a ys F or e u e ry c r e a t ur e t ha t ha t h be n or xa l l / W a s i n n a t ure of t he fi rs t m a n, A da m e / O ff hym t a kyng e t h e fyl t h e orygyna l l (109 11). Y e t he c ont i nu e s t ha t Ba pt e m c l e ns yt h e s ynne orygyna l l A nd re form yt t he s ow l l i n fe yt h e ve rr a y A nd m a kyt yt a s fa y e r a nd a s c e l e s t ya l l A s yt ne ue r dyffow l yde ha d be (l 126 7, 1 29 30) T he re fore o ri gi n a l s i n c a n be re m ove d t hr ough ba pt i s m a nd hu m a n ki nd, e ve n A ni m a m a y e xi s t i n a s t a t e of ri gh t e oun e s s a s pure a s be fore t h e F a l l A ni m a i n he r s t a t e of ri ght e ous ne s s i s t he Chri s t i a n a ns w e r t o J ob; for w he re J ob w a s bl a m e l e s s a nd upri ght , A ni m a i s a dm i t t e dl y s i nful a s s e e n i n he r c os t um e a nd t he d i s c us s i on on ori g i na l s i n H ow e ve r, A ni m a s puri t y c om e s not fro m pre e m pt i ve s a c ri fi c e s l i k e J ob, but from h e r re l a t i ons hi p t o W i s dom w ho i s Chri s t A ft e r t hi s di s c us s i on w i t h W i s dom A ni m a s fi ve

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54 w i t s e nt e r a s f i ve vyrgyn e s i n w hi t e (11 9), furt he r hi g hl i ght i ng A ni m a s puri t y, a n d A ni m a s t he m i ght s M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng a l l vow t he i r b e l i e f i n a nd a dhe r e nc e t o W i s dom H ow e ve r, A ni m a s t hre e m i gh t s a re s oon t e s t e d by L uc i fe r, w ho a pp e a rs s hort l y a ft e r A ni m a s e xc h a nge w i t h W i s dom A t t hi s poi n t i n t he pl a y, t he J obe a n t ri a d i s c om pl e t e a nd t he i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n t he t hre e fi gure s prop e l s t he p l ot L u c i fe r e nt e r s i n a de w yl l ys a rr a y (125), a s oppos e d t o A ni m a s w hi t e c l ot h, a nd e xpl a i ns hi s m i s s i on: T o t he M ynde of t h e S oul e I xa l l m a k s ugg e s t yun, A nde brynge hys W ndyrs t ondynge t o dyl e c t a c yon, S o t ha t hys W yl l m a ke c onfyrm a c yon, T ha n a m I s e kyr i now e T ha t de t he xa l l s e w of da m na c yon. (365 3 69) T hi s s c e ne c l e a rl y m a rks t he s t a g e of t e m p t a t i on i n A ni m a s l i fe a nd i nt e r e s t i ng l y, t h re e t e m pt a t i ons oc c ur In t h e Book of J ob, t he G os pe l of M a t t he w a nd Mank i nd t h e prot a goni s t s a l l unde rgo t hr e e t e m p t a t i ons : J ob i s t e m pt e d by hi s t hre e i ni t i a l fri e nds S a t a n t e m pt s Chri s t t hr e e t i m e s i n t he d e s e rt a nd N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought a l l t e m pt M a nk i nd. S i m i l a rl y, A ni m a unde rg oe s t hre e t e m pt a t i ons but t he y a re di r e c t e d t o he r t hre e m i ght s M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng. L uc i f e r be gi ns t h e s e t e m pt a t i ons by s e duc i ng t he t hre e m i ght s t hrough l ogi c a n d re a s on. H e c l a i m s fi rs t t o M i nd t ha t t hou gh t he re a r e t i m e s for fa s t i ng a nd pra y e r, t he r e a re t i m e s for w ork a nd l a bor (401 411), for M e rt ha pl e s yde G ode gre t t l y (413). H e t he n m a ke s t h e poi nt t ha t Chr i s t di d not l e a d a w hol l y c ont e m pl a t i ve l i fe (421 ), t o w hi c h M i nd a gre e s t ha t L u c i fe r ha ue r e s on (44 5).

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55 T o W i l l a nd U nde rs t a nd i ng, he a rgue s t ha t G od orde nyde t o m a n t o i n c l yn e (475) t o t hi ngs l i ke food, w i n e a nd s e x. W i l l i n e c ho of M i nd, s a ys L uc i fe rs re s ons be goo de (480). T he n, i n pa r a l l e l t o S c e ne 1 w i t h W i s dom t he t hr e e m i ght s c om e i nt o a c c ord w i t h L uc i fe r a nd vow t he i r l oya l t y t o t he i r n e w w a ys (497 518); t hus A ni m a fa l l s i nt o s i n be c a us e M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a nd i ng c oul d not w i t hs t a nd t he t e m pt a t i ons O nc e t he t hre e m i ght s e xi t L uc i fe r bo a s t s t ha t A t hys de t h I xa l l a pe r e i nform a bl e S c he w ynge hym a l l hys s ynnys a bhom yna bl e P re w ynge hys S oul e da m na bl e S o w i t h dys pe ye r I xa l l hy m qw e l l ( l 539 542) T he t hi rd s c e ne b e gi ns w i t h t h e t hre e m i g ht s i n ne w a rra y (551), s i gna l i ng t h e s hi ft i n t he i r c ha r a c t e rs T hi s c os t u m e c h a nge i s pa i re d w i t h t he m i ght s a vow a l t o f ol l ow L uc i fe rs t e m pt a t i ons ; M i nd s a ys f a rw e l l pe rfe c c yon ! (553), w hi l e W i l l fi nds j oy i n fre s c he dys gys ybge t o s e m e a m i a b l e (5 90), a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng w a nt s t o hurde w ppe ryc he s (582). T h e t hre e c ha r a c t e rs di re c t t he i r pl e dge s t o L u c i f e r i ns t e a d of t o W i s dom a s t he y di d i n t he fi rs t s c e ne E a c h m i ght a l i gns w i t h a vi c e M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng t a k e on t h e ne w na m e s M a i nt e n a nc e L e c he ry, a nd P e r j ury re s pe c t i v e l y a nd t he y boa s t i n t he t ypi c a l s e l f a nnoun c i ng w a y of m e d i e va l a l l e gor i c a l fi gure s of t he i r e xp l oi t s a nd s i n, s ol i di fyi ng A ni m a s fa l l e n s t a t e A s i n a l l t he m e di e va l m ora l i t y p l a ys w he re t e m p t a t i on a nd s i nful n e s s a re re pe nt a n c e i s s oon t o fol l ow W i s dom e nt e rs a ga i n i n t he fourt h s c e ne a nd re buke s M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng :

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56 T urne t hi w e ys t hou gos t a m ys e S e w ha t t hi e nd e ys t hou m i gh t not fl e : D e t he t o e u e ry c r e a t ur e c e r t e n ys T he y t ha t l yue w e l l t h e y xa l l ha u e bl ys ; T ha y t ha t e ndyn yl l t he y goo t o he l l (874 8). H e re W i s dom e s t a bl i s h e s t he founda t i ona l pri nc i pl e of t he Chr i s t i a n f a i t h p a t t e rn. A s w i t h t he H e bre w pa t t e rn, e a rt h l y de e d a re e i t h e r re w a rde d or puni s he d a nd de a t h c om e s for e ve ryone Y e t W i ds om no t e s t ha t i n t h e C hri s t i a n fra m e w ork, t he re w a rd or puni s h m e nt for de e ds oc c urs onl y a ft e r d e a t h, e i t h e r i n bl ys or i n he l l A t t h e s e w ords t he t hr e e m i ght s a re i ni t i a l l y unw i l l i ng t o re p e nt ; ho w e ve r, W i s dom s how s t he m how dys vyguryde (901) A ni m a i s w he n s he r e e nt e rs i n t he m os t horrybul l w ys e fow l e re t ha n a fe nd e (143). A ni m a s c os t um e ha s s hi ft e d from t h e dua l w hi t e a nd b l a c k c l o t he s of e a rl i e r i nt o a n e n t i re l y foul fi e nd l i k e c os t um e s i m i l a r t o L uc i f e rs de w yl l ys a rr a y. A t t hi s s i ght M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng re a l i z e t h e i r s t a t e of s i nfu l ne s s a nd re p e nt M i nd c ri e s out A l ord e N ow I brynge t o m ynde / M y horri bl e s ynnys a nd m yn off e ns (924 5); U nde rs t a ndi ng a c know l e dg e s t ha t H e l e f t e vp t h e m t h a t d e s c e ndyde / H e ys re s urre c c yon a nd l yw e ; t o he m W yl l r e s ort (939 940); a nd W i l l vow s I w yl l re t o rne t o G ode a nd ne w be gynn e (943). A ni m a a l s o a c know l e dg e s he r s i n, a s t h e c ol l e c t i v e of M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng, a nd c r i e s out for m e rc y. In k e e p i ng w i t h c onv e nt i on t he t hre e m i ght s vow a l l e gi a n c e t o W i s dom a ga i n, m a rk i ng t he i r re t urn t o a s t a t e of ri ght e ous ne s s W i s dom e xp l a i ns A ni m a s forgi ve ne s s a nd re t urn t o ri ght e ous ne s s : F yrs t ye w e re re form yd e by ba pt y m e of y gnora ns

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57 A nd c l e ns yde from t h e s ynnys orygyna l l A nde now ye be re form yd e by t he s a kyr m e nt of pe na n c e A nde c l e ns yde from t he s ynnys a c t ua l l (1 109 1112) T he c yc l e of i nno c e n c e t e m pt a t i on, a nd re pe nt a nc e a s P ot t e r de s c ri b e s i s c om pl e t e A ni m a ha s re t urn e d t o h e r ri ght e ous s t a t e a s s he be ga n; w he n s he e nt e rs i n l i ne 1065 s he i s e ve n w e a ri ng he r e fi rs t c l ot hynge (14 9). T hough l e s s e xpl i c i t t he e l e m e nt s of de a t h a nd puni s hm e nt / re w a rd, w hi c h fi ni s h t he Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn, o c c ur i n t he t e x t Ins t e a d of de p i c t i ng de a t h a nd t he a f t e rl i fe t he a ut hor of W i s dom us e s t he Chri s t i a n f a i t h pa t t e rn t o for e c a s t t hos e e v e nt s ba s e d o n A ni m a s s t a t e a t t h e c on c l us i on of t h e pl a y. T he re l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n phys i c a l de a t h a nd s pi ri t ua l pun i s hm e nt or r e w a rd i s e xp l i c i t l y e s t a bl i s he d i n t he p l a y, t hough t he a c t u a l e ve nt s a re n e ve r phys i c a l l y de pi c t e d. W he n M i nd, W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ng f a l l i nt o s i n t hrough L uc i f e rs t e m p t a t i ons L uc i fe r bo a s t s of A ni m a I xa l l m a ke yt [A ni m a ] m os t re proua b l e E w yn l yke t o a f e nde of h e l l A t hys de t h I xa l l a pe r e i nform a bl e S c he w ynge hym a l l hys s ynnys a bhom yna bl e A nde w e n yt ys i n de dl y s ynne Y t ys w e re l y D e ue l ys pl a c e T hus by c ol ours a nd fa l s o gynne M a ny a s oul e t o he l l I w yn. (537 540, 545 548)

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58 W he n A ni m a i s i n s i n, t he pro j e c t e d e ndi n g of t he pl a y i s A ni m a s de a t h a nd pun i s hm e nt i n H e l l A t t h a t t i m e L uc i f e r w oul d a pp e a r a nd hol d he r a c c oun t a bl e for a l l he r s i ns a nd s he w oul d go fore ve r t o t h e D e u e l ys pl a c e . But t h e t hre e m i gh t s re pe n t a nc e a t t he c onc l us i on proj e c t s a d i ffe r e nt e nd i ng for A ni m a for W i s dom r e m i nds t h e m T he y t ha t l yue w e l l t he y xa l l ha u e bl ys ; / T ha y t ha t e ndyn yl l t h e y goo t o he l l (877 8 ). M i l l W i l l a nd U nde rs t a ndi ngs re p e nt a n c e a s s ure s t h e m a nd t h e a udi e nc e t ha t t he y w i l l re c e i v e a he a ve nl y r e w a rd. T h e t e x t c onc l ude s w i t h W i s dom s s pe e c h t o A ni m a : N ow ye be fa yre s t Crys t ys ow n s pe c ya l l ; D ys fygure yo w ne ue r t o t he l ykn e s of t he fe nde N ow ye ha ue re c e yuyde t h e c row nnys vi c t orya l l T o re gne i n b l ys w yt how t yn e nde (1113 1116) T hus Wi s dom l e a ve s i t s prot a goni s t he a di ng t ow a rd he a ve n a nd re i nforc e s t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn, i n pa rt i c u l a r i n r e ga rd s t o re w a rd or puni s hm e nt a f t e r d e a t h. E v e r y m an t he l a t e s t of t h e M i ddl e E ngl i s h m ora l i t i e s us e s a ve ry d i ffe r e nt pl o t s t ruc t ure t o d e m ons t ra t e t he Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn. W hi l e t h e pl a y r e l i e s he a vi l y on t he pi l gri m a ge or j ourn e y m ot i f, us i ng t hos e t e rm s re pe a t e d l y i n t h e t e x t t o de p i c t t he prot a goni s t s progre s s t ow a rds de a t h a nd be yond, i t l a rge l y i gnore s m a ny of t he c onve nt i ons s e e n i n t he e a r l i e r m ora l i t i e s K i ng c l a i m s t ha t dur i ng t hi s pi l gri m a ge t he pa t t e rn of [ E ve rym a ns ] l i f e a rra ng e d i n t e rm s of Y out h, M a nhood, M i ddl e A ge a n d O l d A ge pa s s e s be fore hi s e ye a s a s e ri e s of t r e a c he rous t r a ns i e n t c om p a ni ons (258); t hus E ve rym a ns j ourn e y i s not c hrono l ogi c a l but na rra t i ve Ins t e a d of a c t ua l l y de p i c t i ng e a c h s t a ge of l i f e a s i s done i n t he o t h e r m or a l i t y pl a ys E v e r y m an e s t a b l i s he s t he s t a ge s of l i fe

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59 i n t he na rr a t i v e e x c ha nge b e t w e e n E ve ry m a n a nd hi s va r i ous c om pa n i ons A ddi t i o na l l y, E v e r y m an i s t he on l y m or a l i t y p l a y t ha t d oe s not i nc l ud e a c l e a r s t a t e of i nnoc e nc e ; none t he l e s s t he pl a y s t i l l fo l l ow s t he Chri s t i a n fra m e w ork, a nd E v e rym a n pro c e e ds t hrough t he re m a i n i ng s t a g e s duri ng t he c ours e of t he pl ot T he ope ni ng s c e ne i n E v e r y m an port ra ys G od s e ndi ng hi s m e s s e nge r D e a t h t o re t ri e v e t h e prot a gon i s t E ve ry m a n for j ud gm e nt T h e i nt e ra c t i on b e t w e e n G od a nd D e a t h, i n pa rt i c ul a r G ods s pe e c h, pa ra l l e l t he pr ol ogue i n J ob, a s bot h s c e n e s pe rm i t a n i n s i de l ook i nt o t h e w ords of G od, w ho i n bot h c a s e s i s i n c ounc i l w i t h a no t he r c ha ra c t e r, a nd offe r t he he a re r / re a d e r of t he t e xt m ore i nf orm a t i on t ha n i s a v a i l a bl e t o t h e prot a gon i s t Bot h s c e ne s a l s o e s t a bl i s h t h e pl ot s of t h e t w o t e xt s a nd i n t roduc e t he J obe a n t ri a d. I n J ob, S a t a n a c t s a s t h e a dv e rs a ry t o J ob, w hi l e i n E v e r y m an D e a t h re pr e s e nt s t he pr i m a ry e vi l fi gur e T he unfo l di ng of G ods s um m o ns of E ve rym a n t hrough D e a t h o c c upi e s t he re s t of t he pl o t E ve rym a ns s t ory be g i ns i n m e di as r e s for he i s ne ve r de p i c t e d a s a n i nfa nt a nd he doe s not be gi n i n l e a gue w i t h t he good fi gure s of t he pl a y. In fa c t he b e gi ns i n a f a l l e n s t a t e w i t h h i s book of a c c oun t s a l l unre a dy w he n D e a t h a rri ve s (134). T h e onl y i nkl i ngs of a pre v i ous s t a t e of i nnoc e n c e c om e s i n a pa s s a ge w he re E v e rym a n d i s c us s e s A da m a nd Chri s t duri ng h i s c onfe s s i on: O e t e rna l G od, O he a ve nl y f i gure O w a y of ri ght e ous ne s s O goodl y vi s i on, W hi c h de s c e nde d dow n i n a vi rgi n pur e Be c a us e he w oul d e ve ry m a n re d e e m

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60 W hi c h A da m forf e i t e d by hi s di s obe di e nc e (581 5) T he pa s s a ge s upport s t he B i bl i c a l i de a t ha t hum a nki nd w a s onc e i nnoc e nt w he n A da m w a s i n t he G a rde n but forfe i t e d pe rfe c t i on a nd fe l l i nt o s i n. A l s o, E ve rym a ns t e m pt a t i ons a r e i m p l i e d ra t he r t h a n de p i c t e d be c a us e t he y oc c urre d b e fore t h e t i m e fra m e of t h e pl a y S i nc e t he a udi e n c e m e e t s E ve rym a n w hi l e he i s i n a s i nful s t a t e i t i s obvi ous t ha t he ha s s uc c um be d t o v a ri ous t e m pt a t i ons T h e s e t e m pt a t i ons l i ke t hos e of t he ot h e r m or a l i t y pl a ys a re pre s e nt e d a s e m bl e m a t i c c ha ra c t e rs pa r t i c u l a rl y F e l l ow s hi p, K i ndr e d, a nd G oods a nd de s c ri b e t he n a t ure of E ve rym a ns fa l l e nn e s s F e l l ow s hi p, t he fi r s t c om pa ni on h e m e e t s s a ys i f t hou w i l t e a t a nd dri nk a nd m a k e goo d c he e r, O r ha unt t o w om e n t h e l us t y c o m pa ny, I w oul d not fors a ke you w hi l e t he d a y i s c l e a r, T rus t m e ve r i l y! (272 5) E ve rym a n a l s o re m e m b e rs t ha t F e l l ow s hi p he re be for e w i t h m e w oul d m e rry m a ke (307), i m pl yi ng F e l l ow s hi p s t a nds for t he s oc i a l ove r i ndul ge n c e of food, dr i nk, a nd l us t H e ne xt e nc oun t e rs K i ndre d a nd Cous i n, w ho bot h re fus e t o a c c om p a ny hi m on h i s j ourne y t o D e a t h, a nd G oods w ho i s t rus s e d a nd pi l e d s o hi gh (394), a r e fe re n c e t o M a t t he w 6: 19, L a y not up t o yours e l v e s t re a s ure s on e a r t h: w he re t he rus t a nd m ot h c ons um e a nd w he r e t hi e ve s bre a k t hroug h a nd s t e a l a nd pos s i bl y J ob 27: 16 w he r e t he w i c ke d m a n he a p[s ] t oge t h e r s i l ve r. E ve rym a n s a ys A l l m y l i fe I h a ve l ov e d ri c h e s (398) a nd t he s t a t e of G oods i ndi c a t e s t ha t he ha s fa l l e n i nt o t he s i n of c ov e t ous ne s s

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61 E ve rym a ns s i nful s t a t e i s a ppa r e nt not on l y from t he i m pl i e d l i fe s t yl e t hrough hi s e nc ount e rs w i t h h i s c om pa n i ons but a l s o f rom hi s re pe a t e d pro t e s t s t ha t hi s c ount i ng book i s a l l unr e a dy (134 ). T he a ut hor fu rt he r hi ghl i ght s E ve ry m a ns s i n by c ont ra s t i ng G oods w ho i s pi l e d s o hi gh w i t h G ood D e e ds w ho i s c ol d i n t h e ground (486) a nd c a nnot s t a nd (498). T he fi gur e of G ood D e e ds a l s o pa ra l l e l s J obs c a t a l ogu e of hi s ow n good de e ds i n Cha pt e r 29, w hi c h h e us e s a s a de fe ns e a g a i ns t hi s fri e nds w hi l e t h e i m a ge of t he a c c ount i ng book a ppe a rs i n J ob, a s he a s ks t o s e t j udg m e nt b e fore [G od] s o t ha t G od m a y propos e e qui t y a g a i ns t [hi m ], a nd l e t [hi s ] j udg m e nt c om e t o vi c t ory (2 3 : 4, 7). J ob re l i e s on bot h hi s good de e ds a nd h i s c l e a n j udgm e nt t o prove h i s ri ght e ous ne s s ; E ve rym a n m us t do t he s a m e t o b e re a dy f or D e a t h. T he t e x t a l s o de p i c t s E v e rym a ns s t a t e of re pe nt a n c e T hi s s t a ge l i ke t he t e m pt a t i ons i s pe rs oni f i e d a s a c ha r a c t e r, na m e l y Conf e s s i on, w ho i s s i m i l a r t o i t s c ount e rpa r t i n t h e Cas t l e o f P e r s e v e r anc e K now l e dge a dvi s e s E ve rym a n t o go T o Confe s s i on, t ha t c l e a ns i ng r i ve rfor h e i s i n good c onc e i t w i t h G od A l m i ght y (536 544). E ve rym a n h e e ds t h i s a dvi c e a nd kne e l s be fore Confe s s i on t o a s k m e r c y. H i s re pe nt a n c e s pe e c h i s t yp i c a l of t he m ora l i t y pl a y prot a gon i s t a s he a c know l e dg e s hi s ow n s i n a nd a c c e pt s forgi v e ne s s from t he god l y fi gure D uri ng hi s c onfe s s i on, he c ri e s out O gl ori ous fount a i n t ha t a l l un c l e a nne s s dot h c l a ri fy (545), a nd c ont i nu e s hi s us e of O i n hi s pra ye r of re p e nt a n c e t o G od i n l i ne s 58 1 597. T he s e e xc l a m a t i ons a re s i m i l a r t o h i s pre vi ous gre e t i ngs t o hi s c om p a ni ons : t o D e a t h, he s a ys O D e a t h, t hou c o m e s t w h e n I ha d t he e l e a s t i n m i nd (1 19); t o G oods O fa l s e G ood, c urs e d t hou be (451); a nd t o G ood D e e ds O G ood D e e ds I s t a nd i n fe a r (489). L i ke t he ot h e r m ora l i t y p l a y

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62 prot a goni s t s E ve ry m a n us e s re l i gi ous l a n gua ge t ow a rd bot h good a nd e v i l c h a ra c t e r s a nd hi s us e t he re of i ndi c a t e s h i s s t a t e of e i t he r obe di e nc e or di s obe di e nc e In t hi s i ns t a nc e E ve rym a n re t urns t o G od, m a ki n g hi s pl e a for re p e nt a nc e c l e a r, H e re I c ry t he e m e rc y (588), a nd K now l e dge a s s ure s hi m of hi s forgi ve ne s s T hus I be qu e a t h yo u i n t he ha nds of our S a vi our: N ow m a y you m a ke your re c koni ng s ure (608 9). A ft e r hi s c onfe s s i on, E ve ry m a ns re c koni ng be c om e s c l e a r a nd he a ppe a rs re a dy t o m e e t D e a t h. A s E v e rym a n c ont i nu e s on hi s j ourne y, he t r a ve l s w i t h S t r e ngt h, D i s c re t i on, a nd B e a ut y un t i l a l l t hre e a ba n don hi m l i k e hi s pre vi ous c o m pa ni ons a n d hi s onl y fa i t hfu l c om p a ni on i s G ood D e e ds S i nc e G ood D e e ds a ff e c t s E v e rym a ns re c k oni ng a nd i s t he ba s i s on w hi c h E ve rym a ns pun i s hm e nt or re w a rd i s a s s i gne d, hi s fa i t hful ne s s i s c ruc i a l t o t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e rn. W hi l e t h e pl a y upho l ds t he Chri s t i a n doc t ri n e of m e rc y a nd forg i ve n e s s pe rm i t t i ng e n t ra nc e i nt o he a ve n, t h e i m po rt a n t pos i t i on of G ood D e e ds a s E ve rym a ns l a s t c o m pa ni on a l s o s upport s t he i de a t ha t E ve ry m a ns de e d de t e rm i ne hi s re w a rd or puni s hm e n t H ow e ve r i n J obs c a s e J obs good de e ds a nd c l e a n a c c ount pr e pa r e d hi m for G ods j udgm e nt out of t he w hi rl w i nd a nd hi s l i f e a ft e r t h a t e nc ount e r ; ye t E ve ry m a ns de e ds a nd a c c ount m us t be re a dy for hi s e nc oun t e r w i t h G od af t e r de a t h. A s E ve rym a n a ppro a c he s D e a t h he s a ys Int o t hy ha nds L ord, m y s oul I c om m e nd : Re c e i v e i t L ord, t ha t i t b e not l os t (880 1). H e a nd G ood D e e ds t he n d e s c e nd i nt o t he gr a ve a nd t he e ve nt s t h a t oc c ur i n t he he a v e nl y r e a l m a re r e port e d by K now l e dge a nd a n A nge l F i rs t K now l e dge r e por t s N ow he ha t h m a de e ndi ng,

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63 M e t hi nke t h t ha t I h e a r a nge l s s i ng A nd m a ke gre a t j oy a nd m e l ody W he re E v e rym a ns s oul re c e i ve d s ha l l be (890 3) H e a ve n a nd E v e rym a ns a ft e r l i fe a re re p re s e nt e d off s t a ge s o t h e A nge l s pe a ks from w i t hi n a nd re por t s E v e rym a ns pa s s a ge i n t o he a ve n; Com e e xc e l l e nt e l e c t s pous e t o J e s u! H e re a bove t hou s h a l t go Be c a us e of t hy s i ngu l a r vi r t ue N ow t he s oul i s t a ke n t h e body fro, T hy re c koni ng i s c rys t a l c l e a r: N ow s ha l t t hou i nt o t h e he a v e nl y s phe r e (894 9) A s e s t a bl i s he d i n t h e Chri s t i a n fa i t h pa t t e r n, s i nc e E ve ry m a n vi s i t e d Conf e s s i on a nd a s ke d forgi ve ne s s pri or t o h i s de a t h, hi s a c c ount i s m a d e c l e a n a nd he e n t e rs he a v e n. A D oc t or re i t e ra t e s t hi s poi n t a s t he m ora l of t he pl a y : F or a ft e r de a t h a m e nds m a y no m a n m a ke F or t he n m e rc y a nd pi t y do t h hi m fors a k e If hi s re c koni ng be no t c l e a r w he n h e dot h c om e G od w i l l s a y, It e m al e di c t i i n i gne m e t e r num 21 A nd he t ha t ha t h hi s a c c ount w hol e a nd s o und, H i gh i n he a ve n h e s ha l l b e c row ne d. (91 2 7) 21 D e pa r t ye c ur s e d, i nt o e ve r l a s t i ng f i r e ( 467)

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64 A s i n W i s dom s c onc l udi ng s pe e c h, t h e D oc t or e m ph a s i z e s t ha t d e a t h i s t he t urn i ng poi nt w he re re w a rd or puni s hm e nt i s m e t e d ou t A s i n J ob t hough, a l l t he m ora l i t y pl a ys de pi c t re w a rd a nd puni s hm e n t for obe d i e nc e a nd di s obe di e nc e t hrough t h e l i f e j ourn e y of t h e i r prot a goni s t s ; i t i s onl y t h e s e que nc e of de a t h a nd t hos e re w a rds or puni s hm e nt t ha t s e pa ra t e s t h e Chri s t i a n pa t t e rn fro m t he H e bre w

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65 # $ % & . 22 J ohn 19:30 III. D e a t hs c ruc i a l ro l e i n t he m or a l i t y pl a ys c onne c t i on w i t h t h e Book of J ob hi ghl i ght s t h e s oc i a l i nfl u e nc e s t h a t s ha p e d t he pl a ys T h e Bl a c k D e a t hs e ffe c t s i n t he M i ddl e A ge s brought de a t h t o t h e fore fron t of m e di e va l t hought for hi gh l y Chri s t i a n i z e d E ngl a nd t urn e d t o t h e Bi bl e for a r e l i g i ous unde rs t a ndi ng a bou t t he i r s oc i a l c i rc um s t a nc e s D e a t hs rol e i n fa i t h i s pa r a m ount i n t he H e bre w a nd Chri s t i a n fra m e w orks for O l d T e s t a m e n t fi gure s l i k e J ob hope d for t he i r r e w a rds duri ng t h e i r e a rt hl y l i ve s w he r e a s Chri s t i a n fi gure s be l i e ve d i n re w a rds a f t e r de a t h, a c onc e p t ve ry a ppe a l i ng t o pl a gue s t r i c ke n E ngl a nd. T hu s t he func t i on of d e a t h i n a l l t he m ora l i t i e s i s i m pe ra t i ve t o unde rs t a ndi ng t h e i r i d e ol ogi c a l a rgu m e nt s b e c a us e t he pl a ys us e t he e l e m e nt of de a t h t o e m ph a s i z e t he Chri s t i a ns he a ve nl y re w a rd ra t h e r t ha n e a rt h l y s o rrow s Y e t t he c onn e c t i ons be t w e e n J ob a nd t he m ora l i t y pl a ys i nvo l ve ot h e r e l e m e nt s be s i de s de a t h. T he m o ra l i t y pl a ys s i m i l a ri t i e s t o J ob i ndi c a t e m ore t ha n s i m p l e l i t e ra ry borrow i ng; t he y poi n t t o a m e a n i ngful l i t e ra ry di s c ours e us e d t o p e rpe t u a t e t he m or a l i t i e s a rgum e nt s In pa r t i c ul a r, t he pl a ys dra w on t he Book of J obs de pi c t i on of i t s prot a g oni s t t hrough t he t e xt s s t ruc t ur e rhe t ori c a nd H e bre w fa i t h pa t t e rn, t o de m ons t ra t e i n a re vi s i ona ry fa s hi on, t he i r ow n port ra ya l s of a Chri s t i a n pro t a goni s t A ddi t i ona l l y, i n a l l four of t he pl a ys t h i s Chri s t i a n pro t a goni s t s l i fe i s us e d i ns t ru c t i on a l l y, a s a m e a ns of 22 I t i s f i ni s he d.

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66 c onve yi ng t h e fa i t h pa t t e rn t o t he a udi e n c e w he re a s t he Book of J ob gi ve s no hi n t of a n i nform a t i ve purpos e T hough t he S c r i pt ur a l book ha s l ong be e n us e d t o i ns t ru c t t h e t e xt i t s e l f m a i nl y c ons i s t s of i nform a t i ve d i a l o gue s ; t he m or a l c o m e s from t h e i n t e rpre t a t i on of t he t e x t not from w i t hi n t h e t e x t i t s e l f. H ow e ve r, t he m or a l i t y pl a ys de s c r i be and i ns t ruc t for a s t h e i r di d a c t i c f i gure s n ot e t he Chri s t i a n f a i t h p a t t e rn e xh i bi t e d w i t hi n t he m i s m e a nt for t he r e l i gi ous i ns t ru c t i on of t he a udi e nc e T hus t he m ora l i t y pl a y a u t hors re fa s hi on J ob t o s ui t t h e s oc i a l a nd r e l i g i o us ne e ds of m e di e v a l E ng l a nd. O ne of t he ne e ds of m e di e va l E ngl a nd, i n t he Churc hs e ye s w a s t h e re i nforc e m e nt of o rt hodox Ca t hol i c doc t r i ne i n t he m i ds t of t h e e m e rge n c e of L o l l a r dry. 23 E a c h of t h e m ora l i t y p l a ys c on t a i n C a t hol i c e l e m e nt s t h a t s t a nd i n oppos i t i on t o t he L ol l a rds t e ne t s Bi b l i c a l v e rs e s a re s poke n i n L a t i n, ra t h e r t h a n E ngl i s h, i n bot h t h e Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e a nd Mank i nd a s w a s done i n t he Churc h. W i s dom s e m pha s i s on t he s a c r a m e nt ys s e vyn[w hi c h] a l l s ynn e w a s c he a w e y (124 5), a nd E v e r y m an s di s c us s i on of pri e s t s t he s a c r a m e n t s a nd S t P e t e r re ve a l t h e i r C a t hol i c e m pha s i s W hi l e e a c h uni v e rs a l pro t a goni s t c a n be v i e w e d a s a m ode l for t he l a y a ud i e nc e e a c h pl a y a l s o c ont a i ns a pr i e s t fi gur e w ho gui de s t h e pr ot a goni s t t o r e l i g i ous unde rs t a ndi ng ; t hus w hi l e t he p l a ys do e m ph a s i z e pe rs ona l d e vot i on, a s t he L ol l a rds do, t hi s de vot i on i s unde r t he gui da n c e of a p ri e s t l i ke f i gure a s i n Ca t hol i c doc t r i ne A ddi t i ona l l y, w hi l e t he L ol l a rds be l i e v e d c onf e s s i on t o be a n i m p ort a nt rol e i n t h e Chri s t i a n l i f e t h e y di d n ot s upport c onfe s s i ons t o a pri e s t In t h e m or a l i t y p l a ys t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e a n d E v e r y m an bot h c on t a i n a Confe s s i on c h a r a c t e r, a nd W i s dom a nd M e rc y t a ke on s i m i l a r 23 F or ge ne r a l i nf o r m a t i on a bout L ol l a r dr y a nd i t s t e ne t s s e e L ol l a r ds

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67 rol e s i n Wi s dom a nd Mank i nd ; i n a l l c a s e s t he prot a gon i s t s c onfe s s i on i s i nvol v e s a s e c ond pa rt y, a s i s e n c oura g e d by t he C a t h ol i c Churc h. M ore ov e r, t h e pl a ys c onn e c t i on w i t h t he Book of J ob a s de pe nds on Ca t ho l i c ra t he r t h a n L o l l a rd i nt e rpr e t a t i ons of t h e Bi bl i c a l fi gur e T he m ora l i t y p l a ys do a dd re s s t he c ruc i a l r e l i g i ous t opi c s of t h e fi ft e e nt h c e nt ury, but do s o by s uppo rt i ng C a t hol i c ra t he r t h a n L ol l a rd i de ol ogy. T he m ora l i t y p l a ys i nfl u e nc e re m a i ne d s t e a dy unt i l s i m i l a r re l i gi ous i s s ue s re s urfa c e d i n t he s i xt e e n t h c e n t ury w i t h t h e P rot e s t a nt R e form a t i on. T h e s e re l i gi ous i s s ue s c a rri e d ove r i nt o t he l i t e r a t ure of t h e d a y, a nd t h e i m p a c t of t he m ora l i t y pl a y s c a n be e a s i l y s e e n i n s om e e a r l y m ode rn dr a m a T he F our D a ught e rs of G od di s c us s i on found i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e a nd e c hoe d i n Mank i nd re c urs i n t he c ourt s c e n e of T he Me r c hant of V e ni c e ; P ort i a a rgu e s for m e rc y w hi l e S hyl oc k de m a nds j us t i c e a n d a s i n t he m e di e v a l dr a m a s m e rc y w i ns In M ac be t h S ha ke s pe a re us e s t h e m ora l i t y p l a y fra m e w ork; for, l i ke m a ny S ha ke s pe a re s prot a goni s t s M a c be t h w a nd e rs a w a y fro m t he t rue pa t h a l w a ys unde r t he m i s t a ke s or t h e de c e pt i ons of e vi l [, bu t ] he e ve nt u a l l y c o m e s t o hi m s e l f t hrough hi s ow n c ons c i e n c e or t he forc e s of j us t i c e a nd t rut h (H a rdi n 71). But M a rl ow e s D oc t or F as ut us by fa r re l i e s m os t on t he M i ddl e E ngl i s h m or a l i t y pl a y t ra di t i on. T he G ood a nd B a d A nge l s a nd t h e S e ve n D e a dl y V i c e s a r e di re c t de s c e nd a nt s of t he s a m e c ha r a c t e rs i n t he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e ; L uc i fe r a c t s a s t he S a t a n fi gur e found i n a l l t he m or a l i t i e s a nd M e phos t op hi l i s a nd Be l z e bub r e s e m bl e N e w G ys e N ow a da ys a nd N ought i n Mank i nd F a us t us s qu e s t for know l e dge a nd pow e r re pr e s e nt s t w o of hum a ni t ys c e nt ra l de s i r e s t hus m a ki ng F a us t us a uni ve rs a l pro t a goni s t T hou gh

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68 e a rl y m od e rn dra m a borrow s from t he m o ra l i t y p l a ys m a ny of t he Book of J obs i nfl ue nc e s di d not c a rry ove r. T he c onne c t i on b e t w e e n t he M i dd l e E ng l i s h m ora l i t i e s a nd t h e Book of J ob a l s o ope ns m a ny ne w pos s i bi l i t i e s for s c hol a rs hi p t o di s c ove r s pe c i fi c Bi bl i c a l i nfl u e nc e w he re pre vi ous l y onl y bro a d re l i gi ous c on ne c t i ons w e re t hought t o e xi s t ; for t hough t he m ora l i t y pl a ys do not e xpl i c i t l y re l y on B i bl i c a l c ha r a c t e rs or pl ot s upon c l os e r e xa m i n a t i on, t he i m pa c t of t h e Book of J ob i s a ppa re nt W i t h t he w i d e s pre a d pre s e n c e of t he Churc h, t h e s oc i a l c on t e xt for a l l M i dd l e E ngl i s h l i t e ra t ur e w a s hi ghl y r e l i g i ous ; t he re fore i t i s l i ke l y t ha t t ha t s oc i a l c ondi t i on, a nd i n pa r t i c u l a r s pe c i fi c Bi bl i c a l t e x t s i ns pi re d a nd e v e n i m pr e gna t e d m a ny m e d i e va l a u t hors By e xa m i ni ng m e di e va l l i t e r a t ure for de e pe r m e a n i ngs t ha n t h e s upe rfi c i a l u s e of S c ri pt ure c r i t i c i s m c a n e s t a bl i s h ri c h e r t e xt ua l l i n e a ge s a nd pos s i bl y unpa c k m a n y of t he m ora l a rgum e nt s c l a i m e d i n t he t e xt s

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69 W O RK S CIT E D A qui na s T hom a s T he L i t e r al E x pos i t i on on J ob T ra ns A nt hony D a m i c o. A t l a nt a : S c hol a rs P 1989. A s t e l l A nn W J ob, B o e t hi us and E p i c T r ut h It ha c a : Corn e l l U P 1994. Be a dl e R i c ha rd, E d. T he Cam br i dge Com pani on t o Me di e v al E ngl i s h T he at r e Ca m bri dge : Ca m br i dge U P 1994. Be s s e rm a n, L a w r e nc e L T he L e ge nd of J ob i n t he Mi dd l e A g e s Ca m bri dg e : H a rv a r d U P 1979. Be vi ngt on, D a vi d. In t roduc t i on. T he Mac r o P l ay s E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. N Y : J ohns on Re pri nt 1972. --. F r om Mank i nd t o Mar l owe : G r owt h i n St r uc t ur e i n t h e P opul ar D r am a of T udor E ngl and Ca m br i dge : H a rv a rd U P 1962. Bl oom H a rol d, E d. Mod e r n Cr i t i c a l Int e r pr e t at i ons of T he B oo k of J ob N Y : Che l s e a H ous e 1988. --. Whe r e Shal l Wi s dom B e F ound? N Y : Ri ve rhe a d, 2004. T he Book of J ob: Int rodu c t i on. J e wi s h St udy B i b l e N Y : O xford U P 2004. T he Book of J ob: Int rodu c t i on. Ne w O x f or d A nnot at e d B i bl e N Y : O xford U P 2001. T he Book of J ob: Int rodu c t i on NIV St u dy B i bl e G ra nd Ra pi ds M I: Z ond e rva n, 1 995.

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70 Cha m be rs M a rk. P hys i c a l i t y, V i o l e n c e a nd t he P s yc hom a c hi a i n t h e E a r l y E ngl i s h M ora l i t y P l a ys . T udor T he at r e : A l l e gor y i n t he T he at r e B e rn, S w i t z e r l a nd: P e t e r L a ng, 2000. 1 20. Cl oppe r, L a w re n c e M D r am a, P l ay and G am e Chi c a go: Chi c a go U P 2001. Cox, J ohn. D D e vi l s a nd V i c e s i n E ng l i s h N on Cyc l e P l a ys : S a c r a m e nt a nd S oc i a l Body. Com par at i v e D r am a 30.2 (1996): 188 219. Cra i g, H a rdi n. T he M ora l i t y P l a y a nd E l i z a be t h a n D ra m a . Shak e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 1.2 (A pr. 1950): 64 72. D a vi ds on, Cl i fford, C. J G i a na ka r i s a nd J ohn H S t roupe E d. D r am a i n t he Mi ddl e A ge s N Y : A M S P 1982. D a y, J ohn, a nd R. P G ordon, E d. Wi s dom i n A nc i e nt Is r ae l : e s s ay s i n honour of J A E m e r t on N Y : Ca m bri dge U P 1995 D i l l e r, H a ns J urge n. F rom S ynt he s i s t o C om prom i s e : t he F our D a ught e rs of G od i n E a rl y E ng l i s h D ra m a E ar l y D r am a, A r t and Mus i c R e v i e w 18.2 (1996) : 88 103. E c c l e s M a rk, e d. T he Mac r o P l ay s O xford: O xford U P 1969. --. Int roduc t i on. T he Ma c r o P l a y s O xford: O xford U P 1969. vi i xl v. E ve rym a n. Nor t on A n t hol ogy o f E ngl i s h L i t e r at ur e : T he Mi ddl e A ge s 1A 7 t h E d. E d. M H A bra m s N Y : N ort on, 2000. 445 4 67. F a rnhi l l K e n. G ui l ds and t h e P ar i s h Com m uni t y i n L at e M e di e v al E as t A ngl i a, c 1 470 1550 Roc he s t e r, N Y : Y ork M e di e v a l P 2001.

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71 F i s c h, H a rol d. Cre a t i on i n R e ve rs e : T he Book of J ob a nd P ar adi s e L os t . Mi l t on a nd t he Sc r i pt ur al T r adi t i on: T he B i bl e i nt o P o e t r y E d. J a m e s H S i m s a nd L e l a nd Ryke n. Col um bi a : U of M i s s ouri P 1984. 104 116. F ri e de n K e n. J obs E nc ount e r w i t h t he A dve rs a ry. Bl oom 91 102. F ow l e r, D a vi d C. T he B i bl e i n Mi dd l e E ng l i s h L i t e r at ur e S e a t t l e : U of W a s hi ng t on P 1984. G ods ha l k, W L A l l s We l l t hat E nds We l l a nd t h e M ora l i t y P l a y. Sha k e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 25.1 (W i nt e r 197 4): 61 70. G ol dbe rg, P J P Me di e v al E ng l and: A S oc i al H i s t or y 1250 1550 N Y : O xford U P 2004. G re gory t he G re a t Mor al s on t he B oo k of J ob V ol 2. T ra ns J a m e s Bl i s s O xford: J .H P a rke r, 1845. G ri ffi t h, Ra l ph, E d. T he F our t e e nt h and F i f t e e nt h Ce n t ur i e s N Y : O xford U P 2003. G ri ffi t hs J e re m y. T ho m a s H yngha m M o nk of Bury a nd t he M a c ro P l a ys M a nus c ri pt . E ngl i s h Manus c r i pt St ud i e s 1100 1700 5 ( 1995): 214 9. H a ppe P e t e r. E ng l i s h D r am a B e f or e Shak e s pe ar e N Y : L ongm a n, 1999. T he H ol y Bi bl e D oua y Rhe i m s V e rs i on. E d. Ri c ha rd Ch a l l on e r. Roc kford, I L : T a n Books a nd P ubl i s he rs 1971. H urw i t z N a t ha n. Int rodu c t i on. T he Im m or t al D r am a of L i f e Ca pe T ow n: S t e w a rt P ri nt i ng, 1944. 13 23. K a l l e n, H ora c e M T he B ook o f J ob as a G r e e k T r age dy N Y : H i l l a nd W a ng, 1959 K e l l e y, M i c h a e l R. F l am boy an t D r am a C a rbonda l e : S out he rn Il l i noi s U P 1979.

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72 K e y, A ndre w F T he Conc e p t of D e a t h i n E a rl y Is ra e l i t e Re l i gi on. J our nal of B i bl e and R e l i g i on 32.3 (1964): 239 247. K i ng, P a m e l a M ora l i t y P l a ys . Be a dl e 2 40 264. K oz i kow s k i S t a ni s l a us J T he T hre e M e di e va l P l o t s of H am l e t : P s yc hom a c hi a A r s M ori e ndi M e m e n t o M ori . H a m l e t S t udi e s : A n Int e rna t i on a l J ourna l of R e s e a r c h on T he T ra g e di e of H a m l e t P ri nc e of D e n m a rke 20.1 2 (1998 S um m e r W i nt e r) : 63 70. L a m b, J ona t h a n. T he R he t or i c of Su f f e r i ng : R e adi ng t h e B ook o f J ob i n t he E i ght e e nt h Ce nt ur y N Y : O xford U P 1995. L a s i ne S t ua r t Bi rds E y e a nd W orm s E ye V i e w s of J us t i c e i n t h e Book of J ob. T he P oe t i c al B oo k s E d. D a vi d J .A Cl i ne s S h e ffi e l d : S he ffi e l d A c a de m i c P 1997. 2 74 296. L ol l a rds . T he Cat hol i c E n c y c l ope d i a 1 3 O c t obe r 2006 < ht t p: / / w w w .ne w a dve nt .org/ c a t h e n/ 09333 a .ht m > M a rx, S t e ve n. Shak e s pe ar e and t he B i bl e N Y : O xford U P 2000. M i l t on, J ohn. A re opa gi t i c a . S e l e c t e d P r os e E d. C. A P a t ri de s Col um b i a : U of M i s s ouri P 1985. 196 248. P a c k, Robe rt B e l i e f and U nc e r t ai nt y i n t h e P oe t r y o f R obe r t F r os t H a nove r, N H : M i ddl e bury Col l e ge P 2003. P l a t t Col i n. Ki ng D e at h: t he B l ac k D e a t h and i t s af t e r m at h i n l at e m e d i e v a l E ngl an d T oront o: U of T oront o P 1996. P ot t e r Robe rt E ngl i s h Mor al i t y P l ay L o ndon: Rout l e dg e & K e ga n P a u l 1975.

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73 T he P r y m e r or L ay f ol k s pr ay e r book E d. H e nry L i t t l e ha l e s a nd E dm und Bi s hop. L ondon: K e ga n P a ul T re n c h, T rubne r & Co, 1895 1897. S c he l l E dw a rd T O n t he Im i t a t i on of L i fe s P i l gr i m a g e i n T he Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r a nc e . Me di e v a l E ngl i s h D r am a E d. J e rom e T a y l or a nd A l a n H N e l s on. Chi c a go: U of Chi c a go P 1972. 279 291. S hi m m a n, L a ure n L T h e M ora l i t y P l a y i n D oc t or F a us t us : F a us t us a s Re proba t e M a n. D i s c ove ri e s : S out h Ce n t ra l R e na i s s a nc e C onfe re nc e N e w s a nd N ot e s 17.3 (2000 F a l l ): 5 6. S out he rn, Ri c ha rd. M e di e v al T he a t r e i n t h e R ound: A St ud y of t h e St agi ng o f t h e Cas t l e of P e r s e v e r anc e and R e l at e d Mat t e r s N Y : T he a t re A rt s Books 1975. T a yl or, J e rom e a nd A l a n H N e l s on. Me di e v al E ng l i s h D r am a; e s s ay s c r i t i c al and c ont e x t ual Chi c a go: U of Chi c a go P 197 2. T yde m a n, W i l l i a m Int rodu c t i on. B e a dl e 1 36. W a l l s A l fre d. T he O l d e s t D r am a i n t he W or l d, t he B ook o f J ob N Y : H unt & E a t on, 1891. W a l t k e Bruc e K J I. P a c ke r, a nd S ve n S ode r l und. T he Way of W i s dom : e s s ay s i n honor of B r uc e K. Wal t k e G r a nd Ra pi ds M I: Z o nde rva n, 2000. W hi t e P a u l W hi t fi e l d. T h e a t e r a nd R e l i g i ous Cul t ure . A Ne w H i s t or y of E ar l y E n gl i s h D r am a E ds J ohn D Cox a nd D a vi d S c ot t K a s t a n. N Y : Col um bi a U P 1997. W hybra y, R.N W i s dom S uffe r i ng, a nd t he F re e dom of G od i n t h e Book of J ob. I n Se ar c h of T r ue Wi s dom E d. E dw a rd Ba l l S he ffi e l d: S he ff i e l d A c a de m i c P 1999. 231 245.

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75 W O RK S CO N S U L T E D A s t on, F re de ri c k. S om e T he ori e s on t he D a t e of t he Book of J ob. E v ang e l i c al Q uar t e r l y 10.1 (1938): 92 98. Be a dl e R i c ha rd. M onk T hom a s H yngha m s H a nd i n t he M a c ro M a nus c ri pt Ne w Sc i e nc e O ut of O l d B oo k s : St udi e s i n Man us c r i pt s and E ar l y P r i nt e d B ook s i n H onour of A I. D oy l e E d. Ri c ha rd B e a dl e A l de rs hot : S c ol a r, 1995. 315 41. Be vi ngt on, D a vi d. Cas t l e s i n t he A i r: T h e M ora l i t y P l a ys . T he T he at r e of M e di e v al E ur ope E d. E c k e ha rd S i m on. C a m br i dge : Ca m bri dge U P 1991. 97 116. Bre nne r, A t ha l y a J ob t h e P i ous ? T h e Ch a ra c t e ri z a t i on of J ob i n t he N a rr a t i v e F ra m e w ork of t he Book. T he P oe t i c a l B o ok s E d. D a vi d J .A Cl i ne s S he ffi e l d: S he ffi e l d A c a d e m i c P 1997. 298 313. Bri s c oe M a ri a nn e G a nd J ohn C. Col de w e y, E d. Cont e x t s f or E ar l y E ngl i s h D r am a Bl oom i ngt on : Indi a n a U P 1989. Bri s c oe M a ri a nn e G P re a c hi ng a nd M e di e va l E ngl i s h D ra m a . Br i s c oe a nd Co l de w e y. 150 172. Cl oppe r, L a w re n c e M L a y a nd C l e ri c a l I m pa c t on C i vi c R e l i g i ous D ra m a a nd Ce re m ony . Br i s c oe a nd Col de w e y. 102 1 36. F i fi e l d, M e rl e T h e Com m un i t y of M ora l i t y P l a ys . D a vi ds on. 286 303. H a be l N orm a n C. T he B oo k of J ob, A Co m m e nt ar y P hi l a de l ph i a : W e s t m i ns t e r P 1 985.

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76 H a ppe P e t e r. T he D e v i l i n t he M ora l i t y P l a ys : T he Ca s e of W i s dom . D i v e r s T oy e s Me ngl e d : E s s a ys on M e di e va l a nd Re n a i s s a nc e Cul t ur e E d. M i c h e l Bi t ot T ours : U of F ra nc oi s Ra be l a i s 1996. 113 24 K i ng, P a m e l a T he Y ork Cyc l e a nd Ins t r uc t i on on t h e S a c ra m e n t s . L e ar ni ng and L i t e r ac y i n M e di e v al E ngl and and A br oad E d. S a r a h Re e s J one s T urnhout Be l gui m : Bre pol s 2003. 155 178. M c Curdy, J F T he M ora l i t y of t he O l d T e s t a m e nt . T he B i bl i c a l Wor l d 23.6 (J une 1904): 408 416. M a c K e nz i e Rod e ri c k. T h e Cul t ur a l a nd Re l i gi ous Ba c kground of t he Book of J ob. J ob and t he Si l e nc e o f G od N Y : S e a bury P 1983. 3 7. P i ne a s Ra i ne r. T he E ngl i s h M ora l i t y P l a y a s a W e a pon of R e l i g i ous Cont rove rs y. St udi e s i n E ng l i s h L i t e r at ur e 1500 1900 2.2, E l i z a be t h a n a nd J a c obe a n D ra m a (1962): 157 80. P ot t e r, Robe rt T he U ni t y of M e di e v a l D r a m a : E urope a n Cont e x t s for E a rl y E ngl i s h D ra m a t i c T r a di t i ons . Bri s c oe a nd Col de w e y. 41 55. S a nde rs P a ul S ., E d. T we nt i e t h Ce nt ur y I nt e r pr e t at i ons of t he B oo k of J ob: a c ol l e c t i on of c r i t i c al e s s ay s E ngl e w ood Cl i ffs N J : P re nt i c e H a l l 1968. S a ul N i ge l E d. O x f or d Il l us t r at e d H i s t or y of Me di e v al E ngl and O xford: O xford U P 1997. S c hm i t t N a t a l i e Crohn. T he Id e a of a P e rs on i n M e di e va l M ora l i t y P l a ys . D a vi ds on. 304 315.

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77 S he i ngorn, P a m e l a T h e V i s ua l L a ngua g e of D ra m a : P ri n c i pl e s of Com pos i t i on. Bri s c oe a nd Col d e w e y. 173 191. T ri s t ra m P hi l i ppa F i gur e s of L i f e and D e at h i n Me di e v al E ngl i s h L i t e r at ur e N Y : N e w Y ork U P 1976. W e rt z D orot hy. T h e T he o l ogy of N om i n a l i s m i n t he E ng l i s h M ora l i t y P l a ys . T he H ar v ar d T he ol ogi c al R e v i e w 62.3 (J ul ., 1 969): 371 374. W e s t l und, J os e ph. T h e O rt hodox Chri s t i a n F ra m e w ork of M a rl ow e s F a us t us . St ud i e s i n E ngl i s h L i t e r at ur e 1500 1900 3.2, E l i z a be t ha n a nd J a c ob e a n D ra m a (1963): 191 205.


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