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The ethics of the spirit in Galatians

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Title:
The ethics of the spirit in Galatians considering Paul's paranesis in the interpretation of his theology
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Meigs, Steven Douglas
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Christianity
New Testament
Pauline
New perspective
Ethical systems
Dissertations, Academic -- Religious Studies -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The faith versus works dichotomy that has been a foundation of Protestant Christianity for centuries is derived in large part from a flawed understanding of Paul's theology in the epistles to the Galatians and Romans. In the wake of WWII, scholars began reexamining Pauline theological constructs and proposing new ways of understanding Paul's arguments regarding faith and works. James D. G. Dunn dubbed this dialogue the "new perspective." This paper will contribute to one particular aspect of new perspective dialogue: understanding the relation of the paranetic material in the final two chapters of Galatians to Paul's theological arguments in the main body of the letter (1:1-5:12). The ethical imperatives in 5:13-6:10 have often been ignored or explained away due to the fact that they are difficult to reconcile with the faith-only, anti-works bias in the traditional Lutheran interpretation of Paul's theology.^ ^It has been customary to view the fruit of the Spirit in Galatians more as a description of what the Spirit does in the life of a believer than any kind of an ethical imperative (though similar imperatives are found throughout the New Testament). Some scholars have suggested that the ethical section of the letter was appended later, or perhaps attached as a general directive unrelated to the specific occasion of the main body of the letter. However, if the ethics cannot be reconciled with their theological foundations, the theology must be misunderstood; we cannot respond by devaluing or deemphasizing ethical systems. Theology cannot be interpreted without considering the ethical imperatives it enjoins. My thesis is that the Pauline ethical imperatives in Galatians are directly related to the theological arguments that precede them, and that a scholarly engagement of these imperatives can illuminate Paul's theology and facilitate a more fruitful understanding.^ ^In demonstrating the theological/ethical connections, I will consider the occasion of the letter, Paul's narrative reinterpretations, antithetical constructions, and indicative/ imperative formulas, the tension between salvation-historical and apocalyptic perspectives, and the truth for Paul that transcends the occasion of the epistle.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Steven Douglas Meigs.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 114 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001919630
oclc - 184904313
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001820
usfldc handle - e14.1820
System ID:
SFS0026138:00001


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PAGE 1

T he E t hi c s o f t he S pi r i t i n G a l a t i a ns : C ons i de r i ng P a ul s P a r a ne s i s i n t he I nt e r pr e t a t i on of H i s T he ol ogy by S t e ve n D ougl a s M e i gs A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of R e l i gi ous S t udi e s C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : J a m e s F S t r a nge P h D P a ul G S c hne i de r P h. D D a r r e l l J F a s c hi ng, P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : N ove m be r 14, 2006 K e yw or ds : C hr i s t i a ni t y, N e w T e s t a m e nt P a u l i ne ne w pe r s pe c t i ve e t hi c a l s ys t e m s C opyr i ght 2006 S t e ve n D ougl a s M e i gs

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D e di c a t i on T o m y w i f e C a r i f or m a ny ye a r s of l ovi ng s uppor t a nd gr e a t pa t i e nc e

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A c know l e dge m e nt I w oul d l i ke t o a c know l e dge t he pr of e s s or s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l o r i da w ho c ont r i but e d t o m a ki ng m y e xpe r i e nc e i n t he D e pa r t m e nt of R e l i gi ous S t udi e s a s r i c hl y r e w a r di ng a s i t w a s F i r s t a nd f or e m os t m y g r e a t a ppr e c i a t i on t o our D i s t i ngui s he d U ni ve r s i t y P r of e s s or J a m e s F S t r a nge c a nnot be a de qua t e l y e x pr e s s e d he r e A s m y m e nt or a nd g r a dua t e di r e c t or hi s i n f l ue nc e i n t he c l a s s r oom i n f i e l d w or k i n I s r a e l a nd i n m y g r a dua t e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n i nva l ua bl e I n a f i e l d w he r e a l l t oo o f t e n s c hol a r s s e e k t o di s t i ngui s h t he m s e l ve s by e m br a c i ng nove l t y a nd c o nt r ove r s y, P r of S t r a nge ha s be e n t he c ons t a nt voi c e of r e a s on a nd c a ut i ous obj e c t i vi t y, a nd I w i l l c ont i nue t o be ne f i t f r om hi s w i s e e xa m pl e i n a l l I do T o t he ot he r pr o f e s s or s w ho ha ve be e n m os t i n f l ue nt i a l i n m y r e s e a r c h, I e xt e nd m y gr a t i t ude : t o P a u l G S c h ne i de r f o r c ons t a nt l y c ha l l e ngi ng m e a nd be i ng m os t l i ke l y t o t h r ow a w r e nc h i n t he ge a r s of m y t hi nki ng, a nd f or t he pr i vi l e ge of a l l ow i ng m e t o t e a c h hi s N e w T e s t a m e nt c l a s s t hi s ye a r ; t o D a r r e l l J F a s c hi ng f or s t i m ul a t i ng m y i nt e r e s t i n P a u l a s a c ons t r uc t i ve m ode l f o r pos t H ol oc a us t C hr i s t i a n t he ol ogy a nd a n e t hi c of hum a n di gni t y ; a nd l a s t but by no m e a ns l e a s t t o D e l l de C ha nt w ho t a ught m e s o m uc h a bout be i ng a n e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t or a nd i ns pi r i ng s t ude nt s t he w a y he s o gr e a t l y i ns pi r e d m e dur i n g m y t i m e a t U S F I a l s o w i s h t o e xpr e s s m y a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he e nc our a ge m e nt o f P r of e s s or s S a ndr a G a r c i a G a i l H a r l e y a nd W e i Z ha ng, a nd m y c om pa t r i ot s i n a c a de m i a T or i L oc kl e r a nd C hr i s t i ne O B r i e n w ho a l w a ys s e e m t o m a ke t he w or l d a l i t t l e b r i ght e r

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i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s L i s t of T a bl e s i i A bs t r a c t i i i C ha pt e r O ne : I n t r oduc t i on 1 P a ul i ne I nt e r p r e t a t i on i n A ugus t i ne a nd L u t he r 3 T he N e w P e r s pe c t i ve D i a l ogue 8 T h e G a l a t i a ns D e ba t e 13 T he s i s S t a t e m e nt 14 S ur ve y of S c hol a r s hi p 15 C ha pt e r T w o: T he C r i s i s i n G a l a t i a 21 M e t hodol ogy i n a M i r r o r R e a di ng of G a l a t i a ns 21 T he O ppone nt s i n G a l a t i a 24 T he S t a t e o f t he G a l a t i a ns R e s pons e t o t he O ppon e nt s 28 T he A t t r a c t i on of t he O ppone nt s D oc t r i ne 31 C ha pt e r T hr e e : P a ul s T he ol ogi c a l A r gum e nt s 36 A ppe a l t o t he L a w F r e e G os pe l t o t he G e nt i l e s 37 A ppe a l t o t he G a l a t i a ns E xpe r i e nc e of t he S p i r i t 40 R e i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he A br a ha m i c C ove na nt 43 C ont i nui t y a nd D i s c ont i nui t y 54 A S oc i ol ogi c a l M ode l of B r e a ka w a y S e c t s 57 T he A poc a l ypt i c C ont e xt o f P a ul s G os pe l 62 T he I ndi c a t i ve / I m pe r a t i ve P r i nc i pl e 68 C ha pt e r F our : P a ul s E t hi c s 71 M e r gi ng t he M e a ni ngs of t he F l e s h 76 F l e s h a nd S pi r i t 79 F a i t h W or ki ng T hr ough L ove 86 F r e e dom t o B e c om e S l a ve s i n L ove 88 F ul f i l l i ng t he L a w of C hr i s t 91 C ha pt e r F i ve : C onc l us i ons 94 N ot e s 101 R e f e r e nc e s 112

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i i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a bl e 1 S pi r i t / F l e s h D ua l i s m i n C ha pt e r s 5 6 of G a l a t i a ns 83 T a bl e 2 A nt i t he t i c a l T e r m s i n G a l a t i a ns C ha pt e r s 1 3 84 T a bl e 3 A nt i t he t i c a l T e r m s i n G a l a t i a ns C ha pt e r s 4 6 85

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i i i T he E t hi c s o f t he S pi r i t i n G a l a t i a ns : C ons i de r i ng P a ul s P a r a ne s i s i n t he I nt e r pr e t a t i on of H i s T he ol ogy S t e ve n D ougl a s M e i gs A B S T R A C T T he f a i t h ve r s us w or ks di c hot om y t ha t ha s be e n a f ounda t i on of P r ot e s t a nt C hr i s t i a ni t y f or c e nt ur i e s i s de r i ve d i n l a r ge pa r t f r om a f l a w e d unde r s t a ndi ng of P a ul s t he ol ogy i n t he e pi s t l e s t o t he G a l a t i a ns a nd R om a ns I n t he w a ke o f W W I I s c hol a r s be ga n r e e xa m i ni ng P a ul i ne t he ol ogi c a l c ons t r uc t s a nd pr opos i ng ne w w a ys of unde r s t a ndi ng P a ul s a r gum e nt s r e ga r di n g f a i t h a n d w or ks J a m e s D G D unn du bbe d t hi s di a l ogue t he ne w pe r s pe c t i ve T hi s pa pe r w i l l c ont r i but e t o one pa r t i c ul a r a s pe c t of ne w pe r s pe c t i ve di a l ogue : unde r s t a ndi ng t he r e l a t i on of t he pa r a ne t i c m a t e r i a l i n t he f i na l t w o c ha pt e r s of G a l a t i a ns t o P a ul s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s i n t he m a i n body o f t he l e t t e r ( 1 : 1 5: 12) T he e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s i n 5: 13 6: 10 ha ve of t e n be e n i gno r e d o r e xpl a i ne d a w a y due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he y a r e di f f i c ul t t o r e c onc i l e w i t h t he f a i t h onl y a nt i w or ks bi a s i n t he t r a di t i ona l L ut he r a n i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f P a ul s t he ol ogy. I t ha s be e n c us t om a r y t o vi e w t he f r u i t of t he S pi r i t i n G a l a t i a ns m or e a s a de s c r i pt i on of w ha t t h e S pi r i t doe s i n t he l i f e o f a be l i e ve r t ha n a ny ki nd o f a n e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve ( t hough s i m i l a r i m pe r a t i ve s a r e f ound t hr oughout t he N e w T e s t a m e nt ) S om e s c hol a r s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t t he e t h i c a l s e c t i on of t he l e t t e r w a s a ppe nde d l a t e r or pe r ha ps a t t a c he d a s a ge ne r a l di r e c t i ve unr e l a t e d t o t he s pe c i f i c oc c a s i on of t he m a i n body of t he l e t t e r H ow e ve r i f t he e t hi c s c a nnot be r e c onc i l e d w i t h

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i v t he i r t he ol ogi c a l f ounda t i ons t he t he ol ogy m us t be m i s unde r s t ood; w e c a nnot r e s pond by de va l ui ng or de e m pha s i z i ng e t hi c a l s ys t e m s T he o l ogy c a nnot be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t hout c ons i de r i ng t he e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s i t e nj oi ns M y t he s i s i s t ha t t he P a ul i ne e t hi c a l i m p e r a t i ve s i n G a l a t i a ns a r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s t ha t pr e c e de t he m a nd t ha t a s c hol a r l y e nga ge m e nt of t he s e i m pe r a t i ve s c a n i l l um i na t e P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd f a c i l i t a t e a m or e f r u i t f ul unde r s t a ndi ng. I n de m ons t r a t i ng t he t he ol ogi c a l / e t hi c a l c onne c t i o ns I w i l l c ons i de r t he oc c a s i on of t he l e t t e r P a ul s na r r a t i ve r e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a nd i nd i c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a s t he t e ns i on be t w e e n s a l va t i on hi s t or i c a l a nd a poc a l ypt i c pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd t he t r ut h f or P a ul t ha t t r a ns c e nds t he oc c a s i on of t he e pi s t l e

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v U nl e s s ot he r w i s e not e d, a l l s c r i pt ur a l quot a t i ons a r e f r om T he H ol y B i bl e N e w R e vi s e d S t a nda r d V e r s i on 1989 by t he D i vi s i on of C hr i s t i a n E duc a t i on o f t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l of t he C hur c he s of C hr i s t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a

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1 C h a p t e r O n e I n t r o d u c t i o n T he f a i t h ve r s us w or ks di c hot om y t ha t ha s be e n a f ounda t i on of C hr i s t i a ni t y f o r c e nt ur i e s i s de r i ve d i n l a r ge pa r t f r om a f l a w e d und e r s t a ndi ng of P a ul s t he ol ogy i n t he e pi s t l e s t o t he G a l a t i a ns a nd R om a ns R e a di ng e a c h l e t t e r t h r ough t he l e ns of t he ot he r ha s r e i nf or c e d t hi s t he ol ogi c a l pr e di s pos i t i on. S t r o ng r he t or i c t ow a r d J e s us J e w i s h oppone nt s i n t he G os pe l s of M a t t he w a nd J ohn s ub s t a nt i a l l y f ue l e d t he f i r e s of a nt i J uda i s m w hi l e m i s a ppl i e d P a ul i ne t he ol ogy j us t i f i e d a nd s a nc t i f i e d t he s e nt i m e nt T w o of t he g r e a t e s t t he ol ogi a ns i n t he h i s t or y of C hr i s t i a ni t y, A ur e l i us A ugus t i ne o f H i ppo a nd M a r t i n L ut he r e a c h unde r s t ood t he i r ow n s a l va t i on e xpe r i e nc e s a s a t r i um ph o f G od s pow e r a nd gr a c e t hr ough f a i t h a l one a pa r t f r om a nyt hi ng t he y c oul d ha ve a c hi e ve d t he m s e l ve s B ot h w e nt on t o pow e r f ul l y a r t i c ul a t e a nd de f e nd t he i r unde r s t a ndi ngs of P a ul s s ot e r i ol ogy a ga i ns t doc t r i ne s t he y pe r c e i ve d a s s t r i ki ng a t t he ve r y f ounda t i ons of t hi s t r ut h, A ugus t i ne i n c on f l i c t w i t h P e l a gi us a nd L ut he r i n c onf l i c t w i t h t he pope O ne unha ppy r e s ul t of t hi s t he ol ogi c a l f a i t h/ w or ks di c hot om y i s t ha t t he J e w be c a m e t he s ym bol f or t he s uppos e d w or ks ba s e d r i ght e ous ne s s t ha t w a s r e j e c t e d by G od; t he J e w w a s s e e n a s a r e be l l i ous c r e a t ur e t oo pr oud t o a c c e pt t he r i ght e ous ne s s gi ve n f r e e l y by G od s g r a c e a nd f i na l l y r e j e c t e d b y G od a f t e r t he m u r de r o f G od s S on. A f t e r i t be c a m e c l e a r t ha t t he H ol oc a us t ge noc i de of s i x m i l l i on J e w s ha d be e n j u s t i f i e d i n N a z i i de ol ogy by a s or t of m odi f i e d L ut he r a n t h e ol ogy, m a ny b r a nc he s of t he

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2 w or l dw i de C hr i s t i a n c hur c h s l ow l y be ga n t o t a ke s om e r e s pons i bi l i t y f or t he a nt i S e m i t i s m t he y ha d t o l e r a t e d ( i f not e nc our a ge d) f o r c e nt ur i e s S c hol a r s be ga n a ggr e s s i v e l y r e e xa m i ni ng P a ul i ne t he ol ogi c a l c ons t r uc t s a nd pr opos i ng ne w w a ys of unde r s t a ndi ng P a ul s a r gum e nt s r e ga r di n g f a i t h a n d w or ks f l e s h a nd s pi r i t s l a ve r y a nd f r e e dom a nd J e w a nd G e nt i l e J a m e s D G D unn dubbe d t hi s di a l ogue r e ga r di ng r e i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f P a ul i ne a nt i J uda i c s upe r s e s s i oni s t t e a c hi ngs ( e s pe c i a l l y i n G a l a t i a ns a nd R om a ns ) t he ne w pe r s pe c t i ve 1 T hus m uc h o f ne w pe r s pe c t i ve P a ul i ne s c hol a r s hi p s t a nds i n s t a r k c ont r a s t t o t he t r a di t i ona l A ugus t i ni a n a nd L ut he r a n pe r s pe c t i ve s A s t he bo dy of s c hol a r s a nd va r i e t y o f a ppr oa c he s ha ve m ul t i pl i e d, s o ha ve t he c or r e c t i ve s f r om s c hol a r s r e a f f i r m i ng ke y a s pe c t s of t he L ut he r a n unde r s t a ndi ng. B e c a us e t he ne w p e r s pe c t i ve on P a ul i s a t r oot a r e s pons e t o A ugus t i ni a n a nd L ut he r a n pe r s pe c t i ve s a n i n t r o duc t i on t o t he i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f P a ul e s t a bl i s he d by t he s e t w o gr e a t t he ol ogi a ns i s a ppr o pr i a t e

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3 P a u l i n e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n A u g u s t i n e a n d L u t h e r T he A ugus t i ni a n a ppr oa c h t o unde r s t a ndi ng P a ul i s l a r ge l y ba s e d on A ugus t i ne 's pe r s ona l c onve r s i o n e xpe r i e nc e e s pe c i a l l y a s i t w a s pr ogr e s s i ve l y i nt e r pr e t e d t h r ough hi s c onf l i c t s w i t h he r e t i c a l t e a c hi ngs A ugus t i ne 's t he ol ogi c a l ge ni us w a s m os t r e a l i z e d i n hi s de f e ns e s a ga i ns t c ha l l e nge s t o or t hodoxy t hou gh, of c our s e h i s de f i ni t i on of or t hodoxy w a s be i ng pe r f e c t e d i n t he pr oc e s s F or A ugus t i ne t he m a i n l e ns t hr ough w hi c h t o unde r s t a nd t he he a r t a nd s oul of P a ul 's go s pe l m e s s a ge w a s G od s gr a c e t r i um phi ng ove r hum a n w e a kne s s A ugus t i ne i n t e r pr e t e d hi s ow n c onve r s i on pu r e l y a s a n a c t of d i vi ne gr a c e w hi c h a c c om pl i s he d t he m i r a c ul ous t r a ns f or m a t i on t ha t w a s r e qui r e d w i t hout a ny e f f e c t i ve a c t i on or m e r i t on A ugus t i ne 's pa r t T he C onf e s s i o n s 2 i s A ugus t i ne s a ut obi ogr a phy, i nc l udi ng hi s e a r l y l i f e a nd he doni s m hi s s pi r i t ua l j our ne y, i nc l udi ng hi s de c a de w i t h M a ni c ha e i s m a nd t he p r oc e s s of hi s l a t e r c onve r s i on t o C hr i s t i a ni t y. M uc h of A ugus t i ne s r e a s oni ng r e ga r di ng t he na t ur e of s i n i s r e ve a l e d i n t hi s book, a s w e l l a s hi s unde r s t a ndi ng of G od s w or ki ng i n hi s l i f e dr a w i ng hi m t o s a l va t i on t h r oug h C hr i s t I n B ook 8 o f T he C onf e s s i on s A ugus t i ne e xpl a i ns how G od a ns w e r e d hi s a goni z e d pr a ye r gi vi ng hi m t he a bi l i t y t o ove r c om e t he l us t f o r pl e a s ur e t o w hi c h he f e l t s o a ddi c t e d. S o w a s I s pe a ki ng a nd w e e pi ng i n t he m os t bi t t e r c ont r i t i on o f m y he a r t w he n, l o! I he a r d f r om a ne i ghbour i ng hous e a voi c e a s of a boy o r gi r l I know not w hi c h, c ha nt i ng a nd of t r e pe a t i ng, T a k e up a nd r e a d; t a ke up a nd r e a d. . S o c he c ki ng t he t o r r e nt of m y t e a r s I a r os e ; i nt e r pr e t i ng i t t o be no ot he r t ha n a c om m a nd f r o m G od t o ope n t he book, a nd r e a d t he f i r s t c ha pt e r I s houl d f i nd. . I s e i z e d, ope ne d, a nd i n s i l e nc e r e a d t ha t s e c t i on on w hi c h m y e ye s f i r s t f e l l : N ot i n r i ot i ng a nd d r unke nne s s not i n c ha m be r i ng a nd w a nt onne s s not i n s t r i f e a nd e nvy i ng; but put ye o n t he L or d J e s us C hr i s t a nd m a ke not p r ovi s i on f o r t he f l e s h i n c onc upi s c e nc e . I ns t a nt l y a t t he e nd of t hi s s e nt e nc e e nde d, by a l i g ht a s i t w e r e of s e c ur i t y i nf us e d i nt o m y he a r t a l l t he da r kne s s of doubt va ni s he d a w a y. 3

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4 A ugus t i ne unde r s t ood hi s pr i or i na bi l i t y t o ove r c o m e s i nf ul ne s s i n t he l i ght of c ha pt e r 7 of P a ul s l e t t e r t o t he R om a ns : he s a w hi m s e l f a s t he m a n l e d c a pt i ve by s i n dw e l l i ng i n hi s m e m be r s ; he w a s t he w r e t c he d m a n c r yi ng out f or de l i ve r a nc e f r om t he body o f t h i s de a t h. 4 A ugus t i n e o r i gi na l l y unde r s t ood t hi s w r e t c he d s t a t e t o r e f e r t o t he s t a t e of t he un be l i e ve r t ha t i s be f o r e t he m i r a c l e of G od's gr a c e H e w oul d l a t e r r e ve r s e hi s vi e w on t hi s A s not e d a bove m uc h o f A ugus t i ne 's t he ol ogy w a s c ons t r uc t e d i n r e s pons e t o he r e s i e s a nd hi s r e a c t i on w a s of t e n t o e m br a c e a n e xt r e m e pol e m i c a l pos i t i on i n r e l a t i on t o t he c ha l l e nge A p r i m e e xa m pl e o f t h i s i s s e e n i n A ugus t i ne 's r e s pons e t o P e l a gi us w ho a f f i r m e d hum a ni t y s i nhe r e nt goodne s s a nd p ow e r of w i l l i e t ha t hum a ns pos s e s s e d t he a bi l i t y t o c hoos e t o s e r ve G od A ug us t i ne be i ng e s pe c i a l l y s e ns i t i ve t o hi s ow n ne e d f or t he s upe r na t ur a l a c t of gr a c e t ha t f a c i l i t a t e d hi s ow n c onve r s i on, s a w t he P e l a gi a n he r e s y a s a t t a c ki ng t he ve r y f ounda t i ons of C hr i s t i a n f a i t h a s he unde r s t o od i t A ugus t i ne r e s ponde d t o P e l a gi us by a f f i r m i ng hum a ni t y s t ot a l d e pr a v i t y a nd i na bi l i t y t o e f f e c t s a l va t i on, a nd by f or m ul a t i ng t he doc t r i ne of pr e de s t i na r i a ni s m w hi c h a f f i r m s t ha t G od pr e de t e r m i ne s w ho w i l l be s a ve d a nd c on ve r s e l y w ho w i l l not t hu s r e m ovi ng t he pos s i bi l i t y of hu m a n r e s pons e a s a de t e r m i na nt of s a l va t i on. 5 H um a n r i ght e ous ne s s i s not pos s i bl e be c a us e of t he s i nf ul na t u r e ; f a i t h i s p ur e l y t he gi f t o f G od s g r a c e a c c or di ng t o G od s w i l l gi ve n a pa r t f r om a ny a bi l i t y of t he b e l i e ve r t o c hoos e i t A l s o i n hi s r e a c t i on t o P e l a gi us doc t r i ne A ugus t i n e r e ve r s e d hi s e a r l i e r pos i t i on on t he R om a ns 7 w r e t c he d m a n a s t he pr e r e ge ne r a t e s t a t e of t he C hr i s t i a n, a nd a s s e r t e d t ha t P a ul w a s a c t ua l l y r e f e r r i ng t o hi m s e l f pe r s ona l l y a nd t o hi s pr e s e nt s t a t e a t

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5 t he t i m e of t he R om a n l e t t e r T hus A ugus t i ne r e i n t e r pr e t e d t he pa s s a ge a s t he de s c r i pt i on of t he ongoi ng s pi r i t ua l s t r uggl e i n t he l i f e of e ve r y t r ue be l i e ve r T he i m pl i c a t i on i s t ha t t hos e w ho de ny t hi s ongo i ng s t r uggl e a r e not t r ue be l i e ve r s t hus e f f e c t i ng t he f ul l c e ns ur e o f P e l a gi us 6 T he C ounc i l of O r a nge ( 529 C E ) di d i nde e d r e j e c t P e l a gi a ni s m a f f i r m i ng t he pr e ve ni e nc e of G od's gr a c e a l one but s t oppi ng s ho r t of e ndor s i ng A ugus t i ne 's s e ve r e pr e de s t i na r i a ni s m 7 O ve r t he f ol l ow i ng c e nt ur i e s t he c hur c h c a m e t o s e e s a l va t i on m o r e a nd m or e a s a g r a c e i m pa r t e d i n c hur c h r i t ua l s of c om m uni on, a nd t he pos t A qui na s dr i f t w a s t ow a r d a m or e P e l a gi a n pe r s pe c t i ve 8 I n t he s i xt e e nt h c e nt ur y, M a r t i n L ut he r m o r e f ul l y e m br a c e d A ugus t i ne s p r e de s t i na r i a ni s m i n h i s r e j e c t i on of t he C a t hol i c c hur c h's doc t r i ne s of m e r i t a nd E r a s m us s e m i P e l a gi a ni s m i n T he F r e e dom of t he W i l l 9 T he R e f or m a t i on w a s f ounde d on L ut he r 's doc t r i ne s of s ol a gr a t i a a nd s ol a f i de e xpr e s s e d m os t di s t i nc t l y i n P a ul 's e pi s t l e t o t he R om a ns M a r t i n L ut he r 's a ppr oa c h l i ke A ugus t i ne 's i s ba s e d on hi s pe r s ona l r e l i gi ous e xp e r i e nc e a nd i s de ve l ope d i n t he c ont e xt of hi s doc t r i na l c onf l i c t s L ut he r w a s a n A ugus t i ni a n m onk f o r ye a r s t o r t ur e d by gui l t a nd f e a r a nd by h i s ow n a dm i s s i on ha t e d t he r i ght e ous ne s s of G od, w hi c h t hr e a t e ne d hi m H i s f a m ous t ow e r e xpe r i e nc e i nvol ve d a ne w r e ve l a t i on of G od's r i gh t e ous ne s s a s r e ve a l e d by t he gos pe l na m e l y t he pa s s i ve r i ght e ous ne s s w i t h w hi c h m e r c i f u l G od j us t i f i e s us by f a i t h a s i t i s w r i t t e n H e w ho t h r ou gh f a i t h i s r i ght e ous s ha l l l i ve 1 0 T hi s e xpe r i e nc e of i m put e d r i ght e ous ne s s a pa r t f r om a l l w or ks be c a m e t he l e ns t h r ough w hi c h L ut he r s a w a l l of P a ul s w r i t i ngs L i ke A ugus t i ne L ut he r r e c ogni z e d hi s pe r s ona l s t r uggl e of c ons c i e n c e i n t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he w r e t c he d m a n i n R om a ns 7 a nd he l d t ha t

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6 P a ul w a s r e f e r r i ng t o hi m s e l f a nd hi s ow n s t r uggl e a nd t o t he s t a t e o f a l l t r ue be l i e ve r s L i ke A ugus t i ne L ut he r pr oc l a i m e d hum a ni t y's t ot a l de pr a vi t y a nd pow e r l e s s ne s s t o pe r f or m a ny a c t l e a di ng t o s a l va t i on. F o r L ut he r s a l va t i on w a s by G od's unm e r i t e d gr a c e a nd c a m e t hr ough f a i t h i n C hr i s t a l one a nd he de ni e d t he e f f i c a c y o f a ny w or ks i n s e c ur i ng G od's f a vor L ut he r unde r s t ood G od's ( s uppos e d) r e j e c t i on o f J e w i s h r i t ua l i s t i c a nd l e g a l i s t i c r e l i gi on i n t he c ont e xt o f hi s c u r r e nt s t r ugg l e a ga i n s t t he r i t ua l a nd m e r i t ba s e d s a l va t i on of t he C a t hol i c c hu r c h. T he s c r i pt ur e s t ha t s poke m os t c l e a r l y t o L ut he r a bout t he a pos t a s y of t he C a t hol i c c hur c h i n de pa r t i ng f r om t he t r ue f a i t h w e r e t hos e t ha t a l s o s e e m e d t o i ndi c t t he J e w s f or t he i r r e j e c t i on o f t he t r ue f a i t h L ut he r r e c ogni z e d t he of f e ns e s of t he C a t hol i c c hu r c h i n t he va r i ous N e w T e s t a m e nt i ndi c t m e nt s a ga i ns t J uda i s m P ha r i s a i s m a nd J uda i z e r s L ut he r r e ga r d e d t he pa pa c y a s pa r t o f a de m oni c de l us i on s e nt by G od a s puni s hm e nt upon t he c hur c h be c a us e t he c hur c h ha d t ur ne d t he s a c r a m e nt s i nt o e m pt y w or ks a nd he m a ke s a di r e c t c or r e l a t i on w i t h G od's puni s hm e nt of t he J e w s f or t he i r pe r ve r s i on o f s a c r a m e nt i nt o w or ks r i ght e ous ne s s : T he r e f or e G od a l s o de l i ve r e d us i nt o a l l s or t s of t e r r i bl e bl i ndne s s a nd i nnum e r a bl e f a l s e doc t r i ne s a nd, f ur t he r m o r e he p e r m i t t e d M uha m m a d a nd t he pope t oge t he r w i t h a l l de vi l s t o c om e upon us . . T he pe opl e of I s r a e l f a r e d s i m i l a r l y. . B ut now t ha t w e h a ve gr ow n ol d t he pope c om e s a l ong a nd t he de vi l w i t h hi m a nd. . s e ve r s w or d a nd s i gn f r om e a c h ot he r t e a c hi ng t ha t w e a r e s a ve d by our ow n c ont r i t i on w or k a nd s a t i s f a c t i on. W e s ha r e t he e xpe r i e nc e r e l a t e d by S t P e t e r i n I I P e t e r 2: 22: T he dog t ur ns b a c k t o hi s ow n vom i t a nd t he s ow i s w a s he d onl y t o w a l l ow i n t he m i r e T hus our s a c r a m e nt ha s be c om e a w or k, a nd w e e a t our vom i t a ga i n. L i ke w i s e t he J e w s a s t he y gr e w ol d, r ui ne d t he i r good c i r c um c i s i on pe r f or m e d on t he e i ght h da y, s e pa r a t e d t he w or d f r om t he s i gn, a nd m a de a hum a n or e ve n a s w i ni s h w or k out of i t I n t hi s w a y t he y l os t G od a nd hi s w or d a nd now no l onge r ha ve a ny unde r s t a ndi ng of t he S c r i pt u r e s 1 1

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7 T hus i de nt i f yi ng t he s i ns of t he R e f or m a t i on e r a p a pa c y a s c or r e l a t i ng w i t h f i r s t c e nt ur y J uda i s m a l s o e f f e c t i ve l y l oc a t e d t he R e f or m a t i on m ove m e nt i n f unda m e nt a l oppos i t i on t o J uda i s m ( bot h a nc i e nt a nd c ont e m po r a r y) a s w e l l L ut he r a n t he ol ogy f i r m l y e s t a bl i s he d t he vi e w of J uda i s m a s a r e l i gi o n of w o r ks ba s e d r i ght e ous ne s s a nt i t he t i c a l t o s a vi ng f a i t h a nd c onc l ude d t hi s a s t he ba s i s of G od s r e j e c t i on of t he J e w s T hi s c onc e pt i on of J uda i s m w a s us e d a s a l e ns t o i nt e r pr e t a ny P a ul i ne a r gum e nt t ha t w oul d be a r i t ( a nd c ol o r e d t he unde r s t a ndi ng of f a i t h i t s e l f ) T hi s br i e f t r e a t m e nt d oe s not w e l l r e pr e s e nt L ut he r or L ut he r a ni s m a s a w hol e a nd om i t s m a ny pos i t i ve a s pe c t s but i t i nt r oduc e s t hos e t he ol ogi c a l c ons t r uc t s t ha t t he ne w pe r s pe c t i ve m os t s pe c i f i c a l l y c ha l l e nge s a nd w hi c h a r e t hus r e l e va nt t o t h i s t he s i s

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8 T h e N e w P e r s p e c t i v e D i a l o g u e S hor t l y a f t e r W W I I ne w c ha l l e nge s t o t he L ut he r a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on of P a ul be ga n t o a ppe a r l a r ge l y i n r e s pons e t o t he H ol oc a us t S c hol a r s be ga n a ggr e s s i ve l y r e e xa m i ni ng P a ul i ne t he ol ogi c a l c ons t r uc t s a nd pr opos i ng ne w w a ys of unde r s t a ndi ng P a ul s a r gum e nt s r e ga r di ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p of f a i t h a nd w or ks f l e s h a nd s pi r i t s l a ve r y a nd f r e e dom a nd J e w a nd G e nt i l e A s not e d a bove I t w a s J a m e s D G D unn w ho dubbe d t hi s di a l ogue r e ga r di ng t he r e i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f P a ul i ne t he ol ogy ( e s pe c i a l l y i n G a l a t i a ns a nd R om a ns ) t he ne w pe r s pe c t i ve 1 2 I n 1967, W D D a vi e s c ha l l e nge d t he t r a di t i ona l L ut he r a n vi e w of P a ul i n P a ul a nd R a bbi ni c J uda i s m : S om e R a bbi ni c E l e m e nt s i n P a ul i ne T he ol ogy 1 3 S e e n t hr ough t he l e ns of t he P r ot e s t a nt R e f or m a t i on, P a ul 's t r ue m e a ni ng w a s l os t D a vi e s a r gue d t ha t j us t i f i c a t i on by f a i t h w a s not t he f ounda t i on of P a u l i ne t he ol ogy a t a l l but a c onve ni e nt pol e m i c 1 4 P a ul w a s f i r s t a nd a l w a ys a R a bbi but one w ho c a m e t o be l i e ve t ha t J e s us w a s t he M e s s i a h. T o be unde r s t oo d, P a ul m us t be e nga ge d i n t he c ont e xt o f P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m ; P a ul s m a j or t he m e s a r e de r i ve d f r om R a bbi ni c a nd P ha r i s a i c t r a di t i on a nd i nf or m h i s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he ne w r e ve l a t i on i n C hr i s t A s a J e w P a ul 's c ha r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y J e w i s h f us i on of na t i ona l i s t i c a nd r e l i gi ous i de nt i t y i nva de d hi s C hr i s t i a ni t y, 1 5 w hi c h ne i t he r i nvol ve d a r e j e c t i on of J e w i s h pr a c t i c e f or J e w s nor a de ni a l of c om m uni t y w i t h t he m 1 6 F or D a vi e s P a ul 's ow n i de nt i t y a r gue s a ga i ns t t he L ut he r a n i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f P a ul s t he ol o gy. 1 7 K r i s t e r S t e nda hl 's l a ndm a r k e s s a y T he A pos t l e P a ul a nd t he I nt r os pe c t i ve C ons c i e nc e of t he W e s t f i r s t a ppe a r e d i n 1963 i n t he H a r va r d T he ol ogi c a l R e vi e w 56,

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9 a nd w a s pr e s e nt e d i n l e c t ur e s a t A us t i n P r e s byt e r i a n S e m i na r y i n 1963 a nd C ol ga t e R oc he s t e r D i vi ni t y S c hool i n 1964. 1 8 I n 1974, a m or e f ul l y de ve l ope d ve r s i on o f S t e nda hl 's t hought a ppe a r e d i n P a ul A m ong J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s 1 9 F i na l A c c ount : P a ul 's L e t t e r t o t he R om a n s 2 0 a ppe a r e d i n 1993 S t e nda hl a r gue s t ha t P a ul ne ve r e m pl oys t he doc t r i ne of j us t i f i c a t i on by f a i t h i n a w a y t ha t c a n be a ppl i e d t o t he i nt r os pe c t i ve c ons c i e nc e of t he m ode r n w e s t e r n w o r l d. P a ul i s n e i t he r t hw a r t e d by hi s i na bi l i t y t o l i ve r i ght e ous l y ( l i ke A ugus t i ne ) nor t or m e nt e d by c ont i nue d pa ngs of gui l t ( l i ke L ut he r ) nor i s hi s gos pe l f or m ul a t e d i n r e s pons e t o a ny s uc h uni ve r s a l pr obl e m pe r c e i ve d i n m ode r n w e s t e r n t hought R a t he r P a ul pos s e s s e s i n S t e nda hl 's w or ds a r obus t c ons c i e nc e 2 1 s e e i ng hi m s e l f a s a f a i t hf ul P ha r i s e e a nd a J e w w ho ha d l i ve d r i ght e ous l y ( G a l a t i a ns 1: 14; P hi l i ppi a ns 3: 4 7) 2 2 S t e nda hl 's c onc l us i on i s t he u t t e r i r r e c onc i l a bi l i t y of P a ul s t he ol ogy w i t h A ugus t i ne 's i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( ba s e d on hi s ga r de n c onve r s i on e xpe r i e nc e ) a nd L ut he r 's i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( ba s e d on hi s t ow e r c onve r s i on e xpe r i e nc e ) W i t h E P S a nde r s 1977 l a ndm a r k w or k P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m 2 3 a nd hi s 1983 f ol l ow up P a ul t he L a w a nd t he J e w i s h P e o pl e 2 4 t he ne w pe r s pe c t i ve ke t t l e c a m e t o a r ol l i ng boi l I n P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m S a nde r s pur pos e a s he s t a t e s i t i s t o c om pa r e P a ul on hi s ow n t e r m s w i t h J uda i s m on i t s ow n t e r m s a c om pa r i s on not of one l i ne e s s e nc e s or of s e pa r a t e m ot i f s but o f a w hol e r e l i gi on w i t h a w hol e r e l i gi on. 2 5 S a nde r s i nt e nt i s t o know how t he r e l i gi on f unc t i o ns i n t he l i ve s o f i t s a dhe r e nt s a nd t o r e c ogni z e c e r t a i n s ot e r i ol ogi c a l pa t t e r ns t ha t f ol l o w a l ogi c a l o r de r i n t he e xpe r i e nc e o f t he a dhe r e nt ( not i n s ys t e m a t i c t he ol ogi c a l c ons t r u c t i ons ) T he m a i n i s s ue s i n a ny pa t t e r n of r e l i gi on f o r S a nde r s a r e how one ge t s i n a nd how one s t a ys i n. 2 6 S a nde r s e nga ge s t he

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10 D e a d S e a S c r ol l s a nd P s e ude pi gr a pha l A poc r ypha l a nd R a bbi ni c a l w o r ks t o de t e r m i ne t he pa t t e r ns of r e l i gi on r e c ogni z a bl e i n e a c h. T hr o ughout t he di f f e r e nt J uda i s m s e nc ount e r e d i n t he s e w r i t i ngs S a nde r s r e c ogni z e s one c om m on p a t t e r n a nd f unda m e nt a l uni t y. S a nde r s t e r m i no l ogy f o r t h i s c om m on pa t t e r n of r e l i gi on i s c ove na nt a l nom i s m 2 7 T he pa t t e r n be gi ns w i t h G ods e l e c t i on a n a c t of H i s good w i l l a nd hi s o f f e r of a c ove na nt a r t i c ul a t e d i n t he L a w G od s c ont i nue d pr om i s e s of bl e s s i ng a r e c ont i nge nt on f a i t hf ul a dhe r e nc e t o t he L a w T r a ns gr e s s i ons of t he c ove na nt a r e puni s ha bl e a nd i f s e r i ous a nd ha bi t ua l w i l l i nvol ve a r e voki ng of t he c ove na nt O be di e nc e m a i nt a i ns t he c ove na nt r e l a t i ons hi p. R e c ogni z i ng t ha t t r a ns gr e s s i ons a r e una voi da bl e t he m e a ns f or a t one m e nt r e s t or a t i on of t he c ove na nt r e l a t i ons hi p a r e pr ovi de d w i t h i n t he L a w T he m a i nt e na nc e of t he c ove na nt i s t hus ba s e d on G od s f or gi ve ne s s a nd r e e s t a bl i s hm e nt T hos e w ho f a i t hf u l l y a bi de i n t he c ove na nt by obe d i e nc e a nd r e pe nt a nc e / a t one m e nt w he n ne c e s s a r y w i l l be s a ve d. F r o m be gi nni ng t o e nd e l e c t i on t o s a l va t i on t he c ove na nt a l r e l a t i ons hi p i s ba s e d on G od s m e r c y a nd gr a c e no t on hum a n m e r i t 2 8 H ow e ve r S a nde r s a l s o r e c ogni z e s t ha t P a ul s pa r t i c i pa t i oni s t t h e ol ogy t r a ns c e nds t he c ove na nt a l nom i s m m ode l 2 9 P a ul s e xpe r i e nc e of C hr i s t a s t he ul t i m a t e s ol ut i on bot h pr e c e de d a nd l e d hi m t o t he r e a l i z a t i on o f t he u l t i m a t e pl i ght of a l l hu m a ni t y. 3 0 P a ul s ne w unde r s t a ndi ng of J e s us a s S a vi or a nd L or d of a l l c onvi nc e d hi m t ha t a c ha nge of l or ds hi p w a s r e qui r e d t o be s a ve d, a nd t hus t ha t t h e r e a l pr obl e m w a s hum a ni t y s bonda ge t o a not he r l o r ds hi p t ha t br ought de a t h t he bonda ge t o s i n. 3 1 T he e vi de nc e of t hi s pr ogr e s s i on f r om t he uni ve r s a l s ol ut i on t o t he uni ve r s a l pr obl e m S a nde r s s a ys i s t he gr e a t i nc ons i s t e nc y of P a ul s s t a t e m e nt s a bout uni ve r s a l s i nf ul ne s s a nd bonda ge t o i t 3 2

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11 T he e m pl oym e nt o f pa r t i c i pa t i oni s t a nd c ove na nt a l / j udi c i a l m ode l s t oge t he r i n w ha t s e e m s a n unr e s ol ve d t e ns i on c a us e s no a ppa r e nt c onf l i c t i n P a ul s t ho ught C hr i s t s de a t h w or ks a c c or di ng t o bot h m ode l s i n s e c ur i ng f r e e dom : j udi c i a l l y i n pr ovi di ng a t one m e nt t o r e ne w t he c ove na nt a nd be a c qui t t e d i n j udgm e nt a nd pa r t i c i pa t i ona l l y a s t he be l i e ve r di e s w i t h C hr i s t t o s e c ur e f r e e dom f r o m t he pow e r of s i n a nd t o s ha r e i n hi s r e s ur r e c t i on bot h t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l pr om i s e a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e of ne w f r e e dom a nd pow e r i n t he pr e s e nt T he r e i s no r e a l c onf l i c t be t w e e n c ove na nt a l nom i s m a nd pa r t i c i pa t i oni s t e s c ha t ol ogy 3 3 S a nde r s c onc l us i on i s t ha t P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m c a nnot be unde r s t ood a s a w o r ks ba s e d r e l i gi on ( t hus r e de e m i ng J uda i s m f r om t he L ut he r a n c a r i c a t ur e ) a nd t ha t t h i s i s not P a ul s a r gum e nt a ga i ns t J uda i s m T he ba s i s of P a ul s a r gum e nt i s hi s s ot e r i ol ogy: i f C hr i s t i s t he a ns w e r f o r t he un i ve r s a l pr obl e m a ppl yi ng t o bot h J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s s i n a nd de a t h t he J e w i s h c ove na nt a l one c a nnot be e f f e c t i ve f or s a l va t i on; pa r t i c i pa t i on i n C hr i s t i s w ha t i s r e qui r e d. 3 4 S i m pl y put S a nde r s c onc l us i on i s t ha t w ha t P a ul f i nds w r ong i n J uda i s m [ i s t ha t ] i t i s not C hr i s t i a ni t y. 3 5 D ue t o s ubs t a nt i a l c r i t i c i s m S a nde r s l a t e r e xpl a i ne d t ha t t hi s s t a t e m e nt w a s m e a nt t o c o m m uni c a t e t ha t t ha t w a s a l l t ha t P a ul f ound w r ong w i t h J uda i s m 3 6 S a nde r s gr e a t c ont r i but i on t o t he ne w pe r s pe c t i ve i s i n r e de f i ni ng J uda i s m a s a r e l i gi on ba s e d on t he m e r c y o f G od, not w or ks r i g ht e ous ne s s but he s t ops s hor t of a r e a l e nga ge m e nt of P a ul s t he ol ogy T h i s r e s t r a i nt i s t h e ba s i s of N T W r i ght s c r i t i que of S a nde r s : a t hor ough r e t hi nki ng of P a ul s t hought i s l a c ki ng. 3 7 J a m e s D G D unn i s not a bl e a m ong t he s c hol a r s w ho ha ve a t t e m p t e d t o f i l l t hi s de f i c i e nc y. 3 8 D unn ha s

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12 e m pha s i z e d t ha t P a ul s c ont e nt i on w i t h t he t r a di t i o na l J e w i s h unde r s t a ndi ng of t he L a w w a s l a r ge l y f oc us e d on t he s e pa r a t i on i t p r oduc e d be t w e e n J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s ; a f unda m e nt a l pr i nc i pl e i n a l l of P a ul s t hought w a s t he r e c onc i l i a t i on of J e w a nd G e nt i l e due t o t he w o r k of C hr i s t 3 9 A m ong t he m a ny r e s pons e s t o t he di s pa r a ge m e nt o f L ut he r s t he ol ogy S t e ve n W e s t e r hol m s 2004 of f e r i ng, P e r s pe c t i ve s O l d a nd N e w on P a ul ha s be e n a m ong t he m or e ba l a nc e d a nd c om pr e he ns i ve c or r e c t i ve s W e s t e r hol m f oc us e s on t he P a ul i ne a r gum e nt s ( e g. R om a ns 4: 4 5) t ha t s e e m t o pr e s e nt w or ks a s t he hum a n a t t e m pt t o m e r i t s a l va t i on a nd f a i t h a s r e l i a nc e on t he g r a c e of G o d a l one 4 0 F u r t he r m or e t he m or e L ut he r a n unde r s t a ndi ngs i n E phe s i a ns a nd t he P a s t or a l s how e ve r de ut e r o P a ul i ne t he s e l e t t e r s m a y be c onc l ude d t o be c a nnot be s a i d t o r e pr e s e nt t he e a r l y pe r ve r s i on of P a ul s ge nui ne t hought i f s uc h t hought i s c l e a r l y p r e s e nt i n R om a ns 4 1 D ue t o i t s l i m i t e d s c ope t hi s pa pe r c a nnot c ons i de r t he body o f P a ul i ne a nd de ut e r o P a ul i ne t he ol ogy but w i l l be c onf i ne d t o t he c ont e xt of G a l a t i a ns a nd t he r e l a t i on of t he t he ol ogi c a l a nd e t hi c a l s e c t i ons t he r e i n. T hi s i nt r oduc t i on s houl d a l s o s i gna l t ha t t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of t he s c hol a r s i nvol ve d i n t he G a l a t i a ns de ba t e a r e of t e n i n f or m e d by pos i t i ons t he y oc c upy w i t hi n t he f ul l e r s c ope a nd c ont e xt of ne w pe r s pe c t i ve di a l ogue a nd, a s s uc h, m a y r e f l e c t b r oa de r a ge nda s t ha t ou r s t udy c a nnot i l l um i na t e

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13 T h e G a l a t i a n s D e b a t e T hi s pa pe r w i l l c ont r i but e t o one pa r t i c ul a r a s pe c t of ne w pe r s pe c t i ve di a l ogue : unde r s t a ndi ng t he r e l a t i on of t he pa r a ne t i c m a t e r i a l i n t he f i na l t w o c ha pt e r s of G a l a t i a ns t o P a ul s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s i n t h e m a i n body o f t he l e t t e r ( 1 : 1 5: 12) T he e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s i n 5: 13 6: 10 ha ve of t e n be e n i gno r e d o r e xpl a i ne d a w a y due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he y a r e di f f i c ul t t o r e c onc i l e w i t h t he f a i t h onl y a nt i w or ks bi a s i n t he t r a di t i ona l L ut he r a n i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f P a ul s t he ol ogy. I t ha s be e n c us t om a r y t o vi e w t h i s f r ui t of t he S pi r i t m or e a s a de s c r i pt i on of w ha t t he S pi r i t doe s i n t he l i f e o f a be l i e ve r t ha n a ny ki nd of a n e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve ( t hough s i m i l a r i m pe r a t i ve s a r e f ound t hr oughout t he N e w T e s t a m e nt ) F ur t he r m or e t he i de a o f a j udgm e nt o f be l i e ve r s ba s e d on t he i r w or ks t hough w e l l doc um e nt e d bi bl i c a l l y, w a s i nc om pa t i bl e w i t h t he p r e va i l i ng L ut he r a n t he ol ogy. S om e s c hol a r s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t t he s e s e c t i ons of t he l e t t e r w e r e a ppe nde d l a t e r o r pe r ha ps a t t a c he d a s a ge ne r a l di r e c t i ve un r e l a t e d t o t he s pe c i f i c oc c a s i on of t he m a i n body of t he l e t t e r H ow e ve r i f t he e t hi c s c a n not be r e c onc i l e d w i t h t he i r t he ol ogi c a l f ounda t i ons t he t he ol ogy m us t be m i s u nde r s t ood; w e c a nnot r e s pond by de va l ui ng or de e m pha s i z i ng P a ul s e t hi c a l s ys t e m s T he ol ogy c a nnot be i nt e r p r e t e d w i t hout c ons i de r i ng t he e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s i t e nj oi ns

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14 T h e s i s S t a t e m e n t M y t he s i s i s t ha t t he P a ul i ne e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s i n G a l a t i a ns a r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s t h a t pr e c e de t he m a nd t ha t a s c hol a r l y e nga ge m e nt of t he s e e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s c a n i l l um i na t e P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd f a c i l i t a t e a m o r e f r ui t f ul unde r s t a ndi ng of i t A ny ne w pe r s pe c t i v e a t t e m pt t o c or r e c t t he c e nt ur i e s ol d m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs of P a ul s t he ol ogy i n G a l a t i a ns m us t a l s o pr e s e nt a c or r e c t i ve t o t he de e m pha s i z i ng of t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s a nd de m ons t r a t e i t s di r e c t r e l a t i on t o P a ul s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s pr e c e di ng i t

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15 S u r v e y o f S c h o l a r s h i p O ppos e d t o t hi s t he s i s a r e s om e s c hol a r s w ho ha ve pr opos e d t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s ha s no r e a l r e l a t i on t o t he p r e c e di ng l e t t e r a t a l l but w a s a ppe nde d t o i t l a t e r O t he r s s uppos e t ha t P a ul a dde d a ge ne r a l pur pos e pa r a ne s i s t o hi s s pe c i f i c t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt a nd ne ve r i nt e nde d a pr e c i s e r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he pa r a ne s i s a nd w ha t pr e c e de s i t A t t hi s poi nt a s ur ve y o f s om e of t he t he or i e s r e ga r di ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p of t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s a nd t he ol ogy i s a ppr opr i a t e I w i l l be gi n w i t h s om e of t he a r gum e nt s t ha t a s s e r t t he di s c onne c t i on of P a ul s pa r a ne s i s a nd t he ol ogy i n G a l a t i a ns a nd/ or j us t i f y t he i nva l i da t i on of t he pa r a ne t i c s e c t i ons i n s t udyi n g P a ul s t he ol ogy I w i l l t he n a ddr e s s pos i t i ons t ha t a l l ow f o r m o r e of a m e a ni ngf ul c onn e c t i on be t w e e n pa r a ne s i s a nd t he ol ogy, e ndi ng w i t h s om e of t he s c hol a r s of f e r i n g t he m or e t e na bl e a nd f r ui t f u l unde r s t a ndi ngs upon w hi c h m y t he s i s w i l l f oc us O ne of t he m or e a m bi t i ous a ppr oa c he s i s t o a s s e r t t ha t P a ul w a s c onf us e d a nd m i s unde r s t ood t he i s s ue s or t ha t he f l i p f l oppe d on hi s t he ol ogi c a l pos i t i ons H e i kki R i s ne n c onc l ude s t ha t P a ul i s i nc ons i s t e nt a nd c ont r a di c t or y i n hi s t he ol ogy 4 2 W i l l i M a r xs e n onc e pr opos e d t ha t P a ul s i nc ons i s t e nc y m a y be due t o c onf us i on s t e m m i ng f r om l a c k of i nf or m a t i on a bout t he oppone nt s i n G a l a t i a 4 3 W e w oul d a t l e a s t not e t ha t i t s e e m s doubt f ul w e c a n unde r s t a nd t he w o r l d o f P a ul t oda y be t t e r t ha n he kne w i t h i m s e l f A not he r a ppr oa c h i nvol ve s t he pr opos a l t ha t t he pa r a ne t i c s e c t i ons w e r e l a t e r a ppe nde d t o t he G a l a t i a ns e pi s t l e J C O N e i l l f i n ds t he G a l a t i a n pa r a ne s i s i nc ongr uous w i t h t he G a l a t i a n s i t ua t i on a nd de c i de dl y non P a ul i ne 4 4 O ur pur pos e i s t o s how t ha t t he r e i s a r e a l a nd l ogi c a l c onne c t i on of t he ol ogy a nd pa r a ne s i s i n G a l a t i a ns a nd t ha t bot h

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16 a r e c l e a r l y P a ul i ne A num be r o f s c hol a r s ha ve a c c e p t e d a de f i ni t i on of pa r a ne s i s a s a s or t of ge ne r a l w i s dom l i t e r a t ur e of t e n s e e n a s a c ol l e c t i on of a phor i s m s a ppe nde d t o doc um e nt s t o w hi c h t he y a r e not di r e c t l y r e l a t e d. T hus by t hi s d e f i ni t i on, t he pa r a ne s i s i n G a l a t i a ns c oul d ha ve be e n t a c ke d on t o j us t a bout a nyt hi ng P a ul e ve r w r ot e a nd ne e d not ha ve a ny r e l a t i on t o t he oc c a s i on or c ont e xt of P a ul s e p i s t l e C hi e f a m ong t he s e s c hol a r s w oul d be M a r t i n D i be l i us w ho not e s t ha t t he s e [ p a r a ne t i c ] s e c t i ons a r e t he l e a s t e pi s t ol a r y i n c ha r a c t e r i n t he e nt i r e P a ul i ne c or pus R a t he r t he y a r e g r oups of s a yi ngs ve r y di ve r s e i n c ont e nt l a c ki ng a ny pa r t i c ul a r or de r a nd c ont a i ni ng no e m pha s i s upon a s pe c i a l t hought of p r e s s i ng i m por t a nc e f o r a pa r t i c ul a r s i t ua t i on. 4 5 T hus t he r e w oul d be no ne e d t o e x pl a i n t he r e l a t i on of t he pa r a ne t i c t o t he t he ol ogi c a l be c a us e t he ge nr e o f pa r a ne s i s by de f i ni t i on ne e d not ha ve a ny r e l a t i on. A ga i n, ou r obj e c t i ve i s s t r i c t l y t o de m ons t r a t e t he r e l a t i on o f t he ol ogy a nd pa r a ne s i s a s r e ga r ds t he e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns W e c a nnot w i t hi n t he s c ope of t hi s pa pe r e nga ge D i be l i us de f i ni t i on of t he ge nr e p r ope r a s t hi s w oul d r e qui r e t oo e xt e ns i ve a n e nga ge m e nt of t he m a ny ot he r pa r a ne t i c s e c t i ons i n t he N e w T e s t a m e nt W e w i l l c ha l l e nge hi s de f i ni t i on a s r e ga r ds t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s A l a r ge r num be r of s c hol a r s ha ve a s s e r t e d t ha t t he pa r a ne s i s i n G a l a t i a ns i s of f e r e d p r i m a r i l y a s a de f e ns e a ga i ns t t he c ha r ge ( w he t he r r e a l i z e d or a nt i c i pa t e d) t ha t P a ul s t he ol ogy w oul d pr oduc e l a w l e s s ne s s 4 6 T h i s s e e m s s om e w ha t t e na bl e but one m i ght a s k w hy P a ul bot he r s t o de ve l op t hi s e nt i r e body of pa r a ne s i s i t be i ng obvi ous t ha t m uc h of i t doe s not s e e m t o e xhi bi t a n a pol oge t i c o r de f e ns i ve pos t ur e I t s houl d be not e d t ha t w he n P a ul i s de f e ndi ng hi m s e l f e l s e w he r e i t i s us ua l l y f a i r l y obv i ous t ha t he i s doi ng

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17 s o. R a t he r a m o r e ba l a nc e d unde r s t a ndi ng, w hi l e a c know l e dgi ng t he r e c ur r i ng a c c us a t i ons of l a w l e s s ne s s a ga i n s t P a ul a nd t he c o nt i nue d ne e d f or de f e ns e s w oul d not l os e s i ght of t he f a c t t ha t P a ul s c l e a r goa l i s t he pe r s ua s i on of t he G a l a t i a ns not a de f e ns e be f or e hi s oppone nt s w hom he i s not a ddr e s s i ng. H i s e t hi c a l m a xi m s a r e a r t i c ul a t e d t o de m ons t r a t e t he s upe r i or i t y of hi s go s pe l t o t he G a l a t i a ns T ha t hi s pa r a ne s i s a l s o m a y a ns w e r t he us ua l obj e c t i ons of l a w l e s s ne s s i s a ha ppy be ne f i t F r a nk M a t e r a 4 7 a nd J ohn B a r c l a y 4 8 e xpr e s s he a l t hy r e s e r va t i ons a ga i ns t a w hol l y a pol oge t i c unde r s t a ndi ng of t he pa r a ne t i c m a t e r i a l A not he r w a y of r e c onc i l i ng t he a nt i l a w a nd pr o e t hi c s s e c t i ons of G a l a t i a ns i s t o s uppos e t ha t P a ul i s c ha l l e ngi ng oppone nt s on t w o s e pa r a t e f r ont s T ha t i s w he n P a ul i s done w i t h t he J uda i z i ng m ove m e nt he t ur ns t o t he ne xt s e t of oppone nt s ; t he pa r a ne t i c s e c t i on i s i nt e nde d t o c om ba t t he l a t t e r gr oup s l i b e r t i ne t e nde nc i e s T hi s vi e w ha s f e w s uppor t e r s t oda y, but de m ons t r a t e s w e l l t he di f f i c u l t y i m a gi ni ng a l l of G a l a t i a ns w r i t t e n i n r e s pons e t o t he s a m e pr obl e m S c hm i t ha l s i m a g i ne s a s i t ua t i on r e s ul t i ng f r om a s i ngl e s ync r e t i s t i c oppos i t i ona l f r ont o f s om e ki nd pe r ha ps m a de up of J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n G no s t i c l i be r t i ne c i r c um c i s e r s 4 9 W e not e d a bove M a r xs e n s s ugge s t i on t ha t P a ul m i s unde r s t ood t he na t ur e of t he G a l a t i a n pr obl e m M a r xs e n pr opos e d a s i m i l a r s or t of H e l l e ni s t i c s pi r i t ua l i s t l i be r t i ne m ove m e nt t ha t s a w c i r c um c i s i on a s a pow e r f ul m ys t i c a l i ni t i a t i on r i t e t h i s be i ng w ha t t he c onf us e d P a ul m i s t ook f or a J uda i z i ng nom i s m S i m i l a r l y, R obe r t J e w e t t a s s e r t s t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns w e r e c onf us e d by t he i r H e l l e ni s t i c unde r s t a ndi ng of t he w a y of t he S pi r i t a nd ha d e m br a c e d pne um a t i c l i be r t i ni s m de s i r i n g c i r c um c i s i on a nd c ul t i c c a l e ndr i c a l obs e r va nc e s out of t he i r i ns t i nc t i ve r e s pe c t

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18 f or t he c os m i c pow e r s a nd t o e ns ur e e nt r a nc e i nt o t he m yt hi c a l s e e d of A br a ha m 5 0 S uf f i c e t o s a y he r e t ha t a c l e a r l a c k of da t a ha s not de t e r r e d bol d s pe c ul a t i on a s t o w ha t oppone nt s t he G a l a t i a n pa r a ne s i s c oul d a ddr e s s I t i s m y c onvi c t i on t ha t m a ny s c hol a r s ha ve c onf us e d t he i s s ue a s m uc h a s t he y ha ve i l l um i na t e d i t T o e m pl oy a m e t a phor t he r e i s a t e nde nc y t ow a r ds t hr ow i ng t he ba by out w i t h t he ba t hw a t e r a nd t he n s pe c ul a t i ng a s t o w ha t ki nd of ba by m i ght ha ve e nj oye d t he ne w l y dr a w n ba t h. I n t he i n t e r e s t of a n e nt i r e l y ne w pe r s pe c t i ve s om e s c hol a r s ha ve di s c a r de d t r a di t i ona l vi e w s t ha t w e r e not i r r e de e m a bl y pr obl e m a t i c ( e g J uda i z i ng i nf l ue nc e s pr os e l yt i z e r s ) a nd p r opos e d l e s s c r e di bl e s ugge s t i ons a s t o t he i de nt i t y of t he oppone nt s a nd w ha t doc t r i ne t he y m i ght be pr o m ot i ng. I f i nd t he s c hol a r s pr e s e nt e d be l ow t o ha ve pr e s e nt e d m or e f r u i t f ul a s s e s s m e nt s of t he G a l a t i a n s i t ua t i on. H D B e t z s ugge s t s t ha t i t i s t he G a l a t i a ns w ho ha ve be e n i nc ons i s t e nt ha vi ng e xpe r i e nc e d gr e a t s pi r i t ua l pow e r a nd e nt hus i a s m i ni t i a l l y, onl y t o ha ve s om e of t he i r m e m be r s l a t e r f a l l i nt o f l e s hl y i ndul ge nc e s T hos e G a l a t i a ns w ho s ought a m e a ns of c ur t a i l i ng t he l i be r t i ne a bus e s of P a ul s gos pe l of f r e e dom i n C hr i s t m a y ha ve c ons i de r e d t he J uda i z e r s pr om ot i on o f ( a t l e a s t pa r t i a l ) T or a h obs e r va nc e a s a m e a ns of de a l i ng w i t h t he s e e xc e s s e s 5 1 O bvi ous l y, i t i s ha r d t o e nf o r c e a l a w i f you do no t ha ve one T hus P a ul w oul d be c onc e r ne d no t onl y t o di s s ua de t he a dopt i on of r i t ua l T or a h obs e r va nc e a s t he s ol ut i on t o t he p r obl e m but a l s o t o s how t ha t hi s l a w f r e e gos pe l w a s i nde e d s uf f i c i e nt t o de a l w i t h t he e xi s t i ng pr ob l e m of l i be r t i n i s m bot h i n t e r m s of s pi r i t ua l pow e r a nd a be t t e r nom os t he l a w of l ov e T hi s i de a ha s m uc h t o c om m e nd i t but t he r e a r e que s t i ons w e m us t c ons i de r H ow c a n c i r c um c i s i on i t s e l f he l p t o r e i gn i n

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19 e xi s t i ng l i be r t i ni s m i n a ny w a y e xc e pt i n i m pos i ng a n obl i ga t i on t o f ur t he r l a w obs e r va nc e ? I f t he G a l a t i a ns unde r s t ood t hi s a nd t hi s i s w ha t t he y ha d i n m i nd w hy doe s P a ul a r gue i n 5: 3 t ha t t hos e w ho l e t t he m s e l ve s be c i r c um c i s e d w oul d be obl i ga t e d t o ke e p t he e nt i r e l a w ? M or e t o t he poi nt w hy doe s P a ul not i ndi c a t e know l e dge of t he G a l a t i a ns de s i r e t o us e t he L a w t o c ount e r e xi s t i n g l i be r t i ni s m ? W hy doe s P a ul not na m e a ny s pe c i f i c oc c ur r e nc e s of l i be r t i ne be ha vi o r ? T he s t a t e m e nt i n 6 : 1 I f a nyone i s di s c ove r e d i n a t r a ns gr e s s i on s e e m s a bi t t oo hy pot he t i c a l P a ul s m e t hod o f de a l i ng w i t h s uc h i s s ue s i n o t he r e pi s t l e s i s us ua l l y m uc h m or e s pe c i f i c ; t he e xa m pl e s i n 1C or i nt hi a ns a l one w oul d f i l l a pa r a gr a ph. B e t z s r he t or i c a l a na l ys i s of G a l a t i a ns ha s l e d hi m t o c l a s s i f y i t a s a r a r e e xa m pl e of a n a pol oge t i c l e t t e r 5 2 B e c a us e pa r a ne s i s i s not ge ne r a l l y a n i m por t a nt f e a t ur e of f or e ns i c r he t or i c ( a s B e t z hi m s e l f not e s a nd f i nds s om e w ha t f r us t r a t i ng) hi s i de nt i f i c a t i on i s not pa r t i c ul a r l y he l pf ul he r e O n t he ot he r ha nd, K e nne dy s c onc l us i on t ha t t he e pi s t l e i s a n e xa m pl e of de l i be r a t i ve r he t o r i c w i t h e ve r y t h i ng be f or e t he pa r a ne s i s onl y s e r vi ng a s a n i nt r oduc t i on t o i t i s a bi t t oo c onve ni e nt 5 3 W e c a nnot de va l ue P a ul s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s t o t hi s de gr e e ; our pu r pos e i s t o s how t h e uni t y of t he ol ogy a nd e t hi c s w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng t he va l ue o f bot h A t t e m pt i ng not t o m i ni m i z e e i t he r j udi c i a l or de l i be r a t i ve a s pe c t s L onge ne c ke r c onc l ude s t ha t G a l a t i a ns r e pr e s e nt s a c a s e of m i xe d r he t o r i c a l ge nr e s a nd not e s t ha t t he unc ons c i ous f us i ng of r h e t or i c a l c onve nt i ons t o a c hi e ve one s pur pos e s w a s c om m on, e s pe c i a l l y i n t he c ont e xt of ove r l a ppi ng c ul t u r e s 5 4 T hi s s e e m s t e na bl e but i s no t pa r t i c ul a r l y he l pf u l f o r ou r pur p os e s he r e D unn c a ut i ons t ha t a t oo gr e a t f oc us on r he t or i c a l t ype s none of w hi c h i s a good f i t w i t h G a l a t i a ns obs c ur e s t he

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20 de gr e e t o w hi c h P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd pol e m i c a l pa s s i on de t e r m i ne t he s t r uc t u r e of hi s a r gum e nt s 5 5 B e c a us e r e c e nt l i t e r a r y ( s t r uc t ur a l r h e t or i c a l ) c r i t i c i s m s of G a l a t i a ns ha ve not yi e l de d a he l p f ul c ons e ns us i l l um i na t i ng t he e t hi c a l s e c t i ons of G a l a t i a ns w i t h w hi c h w e a r e c on c e r ne d, t he y w i l l no t be u t i l i z e d. T he s e c t i on a bove ha s s e r ve d t he pur p os e of s ur ve yi ng s c hol a r s hi p t ha t w i l l not be s ubs t a nt i a l l y e nga ge d be l ow ( w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of B e t z M a t e r a a nd B a r c l a y) T hos e s c hol a r s a nd t he or i e s t ha t w i l l be m or e f ul l y e n ga ge d be l ow ne e d not be s ur ve ye d he r e T he s c hol a r s I w i l l e nga ge i n t he pr e s e nt a t i on o f m y t he s i s be l ow i nc l ude J ohn M G B a r c l a y, H D B e t z F F B r uc e J a m e s D G D un n, T r oe l s E ngbe r g P e de r s e n, R i c ha r d L onge ne c ke r F r a nk M a t e r a F r a nc i s W a t s on, a nd B e n W i t he r i ngt on. T he i r i ns i ght s ha ve be e n m os t he l pf ul i n m y r e s e a r c h a nd i n t he de ve l o pm e nt of m y t he s i s A c om m on t he m e a m ong m os t of t he s e s c hol a r s i s t he r e a l i z a t i on t ha t i n P a ul i ne t hought t he i m pe r a t i ve i s bui l t on t he i ndi c a t i ve 5 6 P a ul s c ha l l e nge i s t o be w ho you a r e l i ve t he ne w l i f e you ha ve be e n gi ve n. T hi s obs e r va t i on i n i t s e l f i s a n a f f i r m a t i on o f t he r e l a t i on of P a ul s pa r a ne s i s t o hi s t he ol ogy ge ne r a l l y, a nd i s a t t he he a r t of t hi s t he s i s

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21 C h a p t e r T w o T h e C r i s i s i n G a l a t i a M e t h o d o l o g y i n a M i r r o r R e a d i n g o f G a l a t i a n s O ur ove r vi e w o f s c hol a r s hi p a bove r e ga r di n g t he i de nt i t y a nd m e s s a ge of t he oppone nt s i n G a l a t i a ha s de m ons t r a t e d s om e of t he w i l dl y di ve r ge nt t he or i e s t ha t m a y r e s ul t f r om a m e t hodol ogi c a l l y de f i c i e nt m i r r or r e a di ng of G a l a t i a ns J ohn M G B a r c l a y e xpl a i ns t he c r i t i c a l m e t hod of m i r r o r r e a di ng a s [ us i ng] t he t e xt w hi c h a ns w e r s t he oppone nt s a s a m i r r or i n w hi c h w e c a n s e e r e f l e c t e d t he pe opl e a nd t he a r gum e nt s unde r a t t a c k. 5 7 M a ny o f t he b i bl i c a l s c hol a r s na m e d a bove a s f ounda t i ona l t o t hi s t he s i s ha ve not e d t he pr obl e m s o f m i r r o r r e a di ng a nd ha v e ur ge d s pe c i f i c a r e a s of c a ut i on, i f not m or e de t a i l e d m e t hodol ogy H D B e t z 5 8 a nd B e n W i t he r i ngt on I I I 5 9 pr ovi de he l p f ul i ns i ght s i n t hi s r e ga r d B a r c l a y ha s m os t c l os e l y a na l yz e d t he pr obl e m s a nd pi t f a l l s w i t h m i r r or r e a di ng pol e m i c a l e pi s t l e s s uc h a s G a l a t i a ns a nd ha s de ve l ope d a num be r o f c r i t e r i a w hi c h, w he n c a ut i ous l y e m pl oye d, m a y a v oi d t he c om m on pi t f a l l s w i t hout di s c a r di ng t he pos s i bl e be ne f i t s 6 0 T he pr ob l e m s i de nt i f i e d by B a r c l a y i n a t t e m pt i ng t o m i r r or r e a d G a l a t i a ns a r e br i e f l y, t ha t ( 1 ) P a ul i s n ot a ddr e s s i ng hi s oppone nt s but r a t he r t he a udi e nc e of hi s oppone nt s ( 2) P a ul i s n ot be i ng e ve n ha nde d o r obj e c t i ve but i s pa s s i ona t e l y pol e m i c a l a nd ( 3) w e a r e he a r i ng o nl y one s i de of a c onve r s a t i on e xi s t i ng i n a f o r e i gn s oc i a l a nd l i ngui s t i c c ont e xt 6 1 F ur t he r m or e unl i ke a f a c e t o f a c e or t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on, i t i s not t he c a s e w he r e on e pa r t y w oul d be a bl e t o i ns t a nt l y

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22 r e s pond t o t he ot he r s s t a t e m e nt s R a t he r w e ha ve P a ul s c ons t r uc t e d e pi s t ol a r y r e s pons e a nd t hi s m a ke s t he l a t t e r pr obl e m e ve n m or e di f f i c ul t B a r c l a y ha s a l s o e va l ua t e d t he r e a l i z e d pi t f a l l s o f m a ny r e c e nt s c hol a r s a t t e m pt i ng a m i r r o r r e a di ng of G a l a t i a ns a nd ha s a r r a nge d t he m i n f our ove r l a ppi ng c a t e gor i e s w hi c h, i n b r i e f a r e ( 1) t he a r bi t r a r i ne s s of s e l e c t i n g a nd pr i o r i t i z i ng t he da t a t o be c ons i de r e d, ( 2) ove r i nt e r p r e t a t i on of P a ul s s t a t e m e nt s a s s um i ng t he m a l l t o be di r e c t r e but t a l s t o s pe c i f i c a c c us a t i ons ( 3) m i s ha ndl i ng pol e m i c s e i t he r by i m a gi ni ng e ve r y t he ol ogi c a l s t a t e m e nt of P a ul a s a r e s pons e t o a n o ppos i t e t he ol ogi c a l c ons t r uc t o r a s i s t oo of t e n t he c a s e i n ne w pe r s pe c t i ve s t udi e s by t a ki ng s i de s i n t he c onf l i c t a nd f i na l l y ( 4) a s s um i ng s pe c i f i c w or ds a nd phr a s e s t o be e c h oi ng t hos e of P a ul s oppone nt s a nd t he n us i ng t he m t o r e c ons t r uc t t he oppone nt s doc t r i ne s 6 2 B y e m pl oyi ng s t r i nge nt c ont r ol s t he pi t f a l l s a bove m a y be a voi de d B a r c l a y s m e t hod ut i l i z e s s e ve n c r i t e r i a t o he l p de t e r m i ne w h a t c a n be s a f e l y c onc l ude d f r om a ny of P a ul s s t a t e m e nt s A l l of t he s e ve n s e e m s o l ogi c a l a s t o be good c om m on s e ns e I n br i e f w e m us t c ons i de r ( 1) t he t ype o f s t a t e m e nt P a ul i s m a ki ng ( a s s e r t i on, de ni a l pr ohi bi t i on, c om m a nd, e t c ) ( 2) t he t one o r u r ge n c y of t he s t a t e m e nt ( 3) t he f r e que nc y of r e pe t i t i on, ( 4) c l a r i t y o f m e a ni ng / l a c k of a m bi gu i t y, ( 5 ) un f a m i l i a r m ot i f s w hi c h m a y be s pe c i f i c t o t he s i t ua t i on, ( 6 ) c ons i s t e nc y w i t h ot he r s t a t e m e nt s a nd ( 7) hi s t or i c a l pl a us i bi l i t y. 6 3 E m pl oyi ng t he s e c r i t e r i a i n e va l ua t i ng t he e vi de nc e B a r c l a y a da pt s a c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m pr e vi ous l y us e d by E P S a n de r s i n e va l ua t i ng t he or i e s r e ga r di ng hi s t or i c a l J e s us r e s e a r c h, us i ng s e ve n c a t e gor i e s r a ngi ng f r om C e r t a i n or V i r t ua l l y C e r t a i n t o I nc r e di bl e I t i s no t s ur pr i s i ng t ha t t h e hypot he s e s not e d a bove i n c ha pt e r

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23 one t ha t c onc e i ve of P a ul s oppone nt s a s G nos t i c s l i be r t i ne s o r c os m i c m ys t i c a l s pi r i t ua l i s t s a l l e nd up r e l e ga t e d t o t he I nc r e di bl e c a t e gor y. 6 4 B e i ng m i ndf ul of B a r c l a y s c r i t e r i a w e w i l l c on s i de r e vi de nc e r e ga r di ng P a ul s oppone nt s a t G a l a t i a D ue t o l i m i t e d s c ope a nd be c a us e t he oppone nt s a r e not t he c e nt r a l f oc us of t hi s t he s i s a s pe c i f i c a na l ys i s of how e a c h c r i t e r i on va l i da t e s e a c h obs e r va t i on c a nnot be of f e r e d.

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24 T h e O p p o n e n t s i n G a l a t i a A s not e d a bove s om e s c hol a r s w ho c oul d not r e c o nc i l e t he G a l a t i a ns e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve s w i t h t he p r e c e di ng t he ol ogy a t t e m pt e d t o s ol ve t he pr obl e m by a s s e r t i ng t w o s e pa r a t e gr oups of a gi t a t or s a nd c or r e s pondi ng di vi s i ons i n t he G a l a t i a n c hur c h T he pa r t s e m pha s i z i ng f a i t h a nd f r e e dom w oul d t hus be pr i m a r i l y a ddr e s s e d t o t he g r oup a t t r a c t e d t o l e ga l i s m a nd t he pa r a ne s i s t o t he g r oup e nga gi ng i n l i be r t i ni s m T hi s ki nd of hypot he s i s i s i nc ons i s t e nt w i t h t he e vi de nc e w e do ha ve A l t hough P a ul a dd r e s s e s di vi s i on i n t he G a l a t i a n c hur c h ( G a l 5: 15 20 ; 5: 26 6: 5) he none t he l e s s a ddr e s s e s t he G a l a t i a ns t hr oughout t he e pi s t l e a s one body of be l i e ve r s not a s t w o f a c t i ons P a ul doe s not s e e m t o di r e c t l y a ddr e s s t he oppone nt s a t a l l 6 5 but he r e f e r s t o t he i r doc t r i ne a s a di f f e r e nt gos pe l ( s i ngul a r ) i n 1: 6 W e m us t c onc l u de t ha t a l t hough t he r e a r e d i f f e r e nt r e s pons e s i n t he c hur c h t o t he oppos i ng doc t r i ne t he r e i s no r e a l e vi de nc e of m ul t i pl e oppos i ng doc t r i ne s 6 6 I de nt i f yi ng t he oppone nt s 6 7 w i t h c e r t a i nt y i s not po s s i bl e but w e c a n m a ke a num be r of va l ua bl e obs e r va t i ons r e ga r di ng t he i r d oc t r i ne a nd t he i r a r gum e nt s A s w e ha ve j us t not e d, P a ul r e f e r s t o t he i r t e a c hi ng a s a di f f e r e nt gos pe l one t ha t ha s c onf us e d t he G a l a t i a ns a nd pe r ve r t e d t he gos pe l of C h r i s t ( 1: 6 7) I f t hi s w e r e a di r e c t r e f ut a t i on o f t he C hr i s t i a n 6 8 m e s s a ge t ha t i s a de ni a l of J e s us a s t he C hr i s t P a ul w oul d ne i t he r ha ve c a l l e d i t a gos pe l no r w oul d i t ha ve c on f us e d ( 1: 7; 5: 10) or be w i t c he d ( 3: 1) t he G a l a t i a ns ; a di r e c t r e f ut a t i on w oul d c l a r i f y t he c ont r a s t m or e t ha n obs c ur i ng i t F ur t he r m or e onl y a m odi f i c a t i on of t he gos pe l o f C hr i s t c oul d pe r ve r t i t I t i s t he r e f or e r e a s ona bl e t o c onc l ude t ha t t he oppone nt s c ons i de r e d t he m s e l ve s C hr i s t i a ns a nd t ha t t he

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25 G a l a t i a ns r e c e i ve d t he m a s s uc h. 6 9 W e c a n a l s o c onc l ude t ha t a ke y pa r t o f t he oppone nt s t e a c hi ng i nvol ve d t he ne e d f or t he G a l a t i a ns t o be c i r c um c i s e d ( 2: 3; 5: 1 3, 6, 1 1 12; 6: 12 15 ) T hi s ha s l e d m a ny s c hol a r s t o c onc l ude t ha t t he oppone nt s w e r e J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns 7 0 B e c a us e of P a ul s e xt e nde d e nga ge m e nt of A br a ha m i c t he m e s ( e s pe c i a l l y i n t he l i ght of h i s nove l i nt e r pr e t a t i ons ) i t i s c onc e i va bl e t ha t t he oppone nt s ha d a ppe a l e d t o A br a ha m a nd t he or i gi na l c ove na nt of c i r c um c i s i on i n t he i r a r gum e n t s a nd t hi s w o ul d a l s o i m pl y a J e w i s h he r i t a ge I t i s doubt f ul t ha t t he oppone nt s c a m e f r om w i t hi n t he G a l a t i a n c hur c h o f P a ul s c onve r t s but l i ke l y t ha t t he y w e r e out s i de r s be c a us e a s not e d a bove P a ul a l w a ys t a l ks a bout t he m i n t he t hi r d pe r s on a nd ne ve r a ddr e s s e s t he m di r e c t l y, a s he doe s t he G a l a t i a ns 7 1 I n f a c t P a ul doe s not s e e m t o be c e r t a i n e xa c t l y w ho t he y a r e ( 3 : 1, 5: 7, 10) T he r e i s i ns uf f i c i e nt e vi de nc e t o e qua t e t he G a l a t i a n oppone nt s w i t h t he f a l s e be l i e ve r s w ho w e r e s pi e s ( 2: 4) or t he pe opl e f r om J a m e s ( 2: 12) t ha t P a ul r e f e r s t o i n hi s a c c ount of pr i o r c onf l i c t s 7 2 T hough i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t P a ul m a y ha ve m e a nt t o i m pl y t he s i m i l a r i t y of t he oppos i t i on t he e ve nt s o f t he J e r us a l e m / A nt i oc h s t or y do no t c or r e l a t e w e l l w i t h t he G a l a t i a n i nc i de nt W h a t i s c l e a r ho w e ve r i s t ha t P a ul be l i e ve s t he c e nt r a l i s s ue i n t he s e pr i or c onf l i c t s t o be di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he pr e s e nt s i t ua t i on i n G a l a t i a : by w ha t m e a ns a r e G e nt i l e s t o e nt e r t he c hur c h of C hr i s t ? W e m a y w e l l w onde r w he t he r t he c onc e s s i on of t he J e r us a l e m e l de r s t o a N oa c hi a n s t a nda r d f or G e nt i l e s r e pr e s e nt e d t he m i ni m um r e qui r e m e nt onl y a nd l e f t t he i r c onc e pt i on of t he i de a l G e nt i l e r e s pons e i nt a c t ( i e c i r c um c i s i on a nd p r os e l yt e c onve r s i on) I n t h e c a s e of G e nt i l e s w ho c onf or m t o t he m i ni m um a n d no t t he i de a l ( i e t hos e w ho r e m a i n unc i r c um c i s e d) a c e nt r a l i s s ue w oul d

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26 i nvol ve t he que s t i on t o w ha t de gr e e G e nt i l e s a nd J e w s m a y be uni t e d i n C hr i s t s oc i a l l y T he t a bl e f e l l ow s hi p i nc i de nt a t A nt i oc h i s t he pe r f e c t s t a ge f or t hi s dr a m a a nd P a ul ha s t he f i r s t l a s t a nd onl y w o r d i n t he pe r f or m a nc e ( W he t he r ve r s e s 2: 15 21 r e pr e s e nt P a ul s c ont i nue d a r gum e nt t o P e t e r or hi s e xpl a na t i on t o t he G a l a t i a ns i s unc l e a r ) T he r e i s a l s o no c onc l us i ve e vi de nc e t ha t t he oppo ne nt s w e r e s e nt by t he J e r us a l e m a pos t l e s a nd P a ul s a c c ount of t he c oun c i l s ve r di c t ( 2 : 3, 6 10) w oul d c e r t a i nl y s ugge s t ot he r w i s e D unn s pe c ul a t e s t ha t P a ul s c onf r ont a t i on w i t h P e t e r a t A nt i oc h e f f e c t e d a b r e a k w i t h t he J e r us a l e m e l de r s 7 3 H e i m pl i e s t ha t t he c ounc i l m a y ha ve r e ve r s e d i t s de c i s i on, a nd t he pe opl e f r om J a m e s c a m e t o A nt i oc h t o c or r e c t t he pr obl e m a nd r e i ns t a t e t he pr ope r r e qui r e m e nt s f or G e nt i l e s l a t e r br a nc hi ng out i n t o A s i a M i nor t o a ppl y s i m i l a r c or r e c t i ons i n t he c hur c he s t ha t w e r e be gun by P a ul w hi l e he w a s s t i l l unde r t he e ndor s e m e nt of J e r us a l e m 7 4 T he r e i s no P a ul i ne r e c or d of s uc h a s pl i t a nd no s ol i d e vi de nc e t ha t J e r us a l e m w a s be hi nd a c om pr e he ns i ve J uda i z i ng pr oj e c t a m ong G e nt i l e s T hough i t i s l i ke l y t ha t t he oppone nt s i n G a l a t i a ha d s om e pr i or c on ne c t i on w i t h t he a pos t l e s a nd m a y ha ve e ve n c l a i m e d t ha t t he y r e pr e s e nt e d t he a pos t l e s ( or a s s um e d t he y di d) P a ul s e e m s una w a r e of a ny s uc h c l a i m o r s ur e l y he w oul d ha ve m uc h m or e e xpl i c i t l y a dd r e s s e d i t 7 5 H e s ur e l y w oul d no t ha ve r e f r a i ne d f r om c om m e n t i ng on J e r us a l e m s be t r a ya l or r e s t r a i ne d hi s c r i t i que of t he l e a de r s a nd pi l l a r s i n J e r us a l e m a s he di d. H ow e ve r i t doe s s e e m c l e a r i n c h. 1 2 t ha t P a ul i s de f e ndi ng hi m s e l f by a f f i r m i ng t he J e r us a l e m e l de r s e ndor s e m e nt of h i s m i ni s t r y a nd t he va l i di t y of hi s l a w f r e e gos pe l t o t he G e nt i l e s T h i s w oul d s ugge s t t ha t t he oppon e nt s ha d a t t a c ke d P a ul s c r e di bi l i t y o r

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27 t ha t P a ul t hought t he y ha d W e c a nnot r e c ons t r uc t t he oppone nt s c ha r ge s f r om P a ul s de f e ns e how e ve r be c a us e w e c a nnot be s ur e of P a ul s know l e dge a nd unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he c ha r ge s W i t h l i m i t e d know l e dge of t he pr opa ga nda a ga i ns t hi m P a ul s r e a c t i on m a y ha ve be e n m or e of s hot gun a ppr oa c h t ha n a di r e c t r e but t a l o f s pe c i f i c s 7 6 M or e a bout t he oppone nt s doc t r i ne m a y be c om e c l e a r i n c ons i de r i ng t he G a l a t i a ns r e s pons e s t o t he m be l ow I t s houl d be n ot e d a t t hi s poi nt how e ve r t ha t t he s c ope of t hi s t he s i s w i l l not pe r m i t a n e nga ge m e nt of t he de ba t e a s t o w he t he r P a ul us e s t he t e r m G a l a t i a t o r e f e r t o c hur c he s i n t he nor t he r n a r e a s of A s i a M i nor ( t hos e w ho w oul d c a l l t he m s e l ve s G a l a t i a ns ) or t he c hur c he s P a ul f ounde d i n s out he r n A s i a M i nor a c c or di ng t o t he r e c or d i n A c t s ( w hi c h w e r e w i t hi n t he t e r r i t or y of f i c i a l l y de s i gna t e d a s G a l a t i a by R om e ) I t w i l l a l s o not be pos s i bl e t o a ddr e s s t he de ba t e a s t o how t he e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns f i t s i n t o t he c hr onol ogy o f P a ul s l e t t e r s T hough c ons i de r i ng pa r a l l e l s i n ot he r c hur c he s m a y ha ve va l ue w e m us t a bs t a i n f r om c onc l us i ons ba s e d upon a ny s uppos e d hi s t or i c a l pr ogr e s s i on of t he J uda i z i n g p r obl e m i n P a ul s l e t t e r s F u r t he r m or e c onc l us i ons ba s e d on a ny s uppos e d de ve l opm e nt of P a ul s t he ol ogy t hr oughou t hi s l e t t e r s l a c k s pe c i f i c r e l e va nc e a s our f oc us he r e i s on l y o n t he uni t y of t he e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns a nd t he c onne c t i on of P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd pa r a ne s i s i n hi s t hought a t t ha t t i m e

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28 T h e S t a t e o f t h e G a l a t i a n s R e s p o n s e t o t h e O p p o n e n t s I a m a s t oni s he d t ha t you a r e s o qui c kl y de s e r t i ng t he one w ho c a l l e d you i n t he gr a c e o f C hr i s t a nd a r e t u r ni ng t o a di f f e r e nt gos pe l . ( 1: 6 ) H e r e P a ul a c know l e dge s t ha t a t l e a s t s om e of t he G a l a t i a ns ha d a l r e a dy a c c e pt e d t he m e s s a ge of t he oppone nt s a nd m a r ve l s a t t he s pe e d w i t h w hi c h t he opp one nt s ha ve c onvi nc e d t he m I n 4: 8 11 P a ul pr e s e nt s a di s t ur bi ng a s s e s s m e nt : F or m e r l y, w he n you di d not know G od you w e r e e ns l a ve d t o be i ngs t ha t by na t ur e a r e not gods N ow how e ve r t ha t you ha ve c om e t o know G od, or r a t he r t o be know n by G od, how c a n you t ur n b a c k a ga i n t o t he w e a k a nd be gga r l y e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s ? H ow c a n you w a nt t o be e ns l a ve d t o t he m a ga i n? Y ou a r e obs e r vi ng s pe c i a l da ys a nd m ont h s a nd s e a s ons a nd ye a r s I a m a f r a i d t ha t m y w or k f or you m a y ha ve be e n w a s t e d. P a ul he r e de s c r i be s t he G a l a t i a ns a s ha vi ng r e g r e s s e d i n s om e s e ns e ba c k t o t he i r f or m e r e ns l a ve d s t a t e a s pa ga ns e m pha s i z i ng c a l e ndr i c a l obs e r va nc e s A s not e d a bove i n t he s ur ve y of s c hol a r s hi p ( p 16 ) s om e s c hol a r s ha ve c onc l ude d t ha t t he G a l a t i a n oppone nt s c oul d not ha ve j us t be e n C hr i s t i a n J e w s e nc our a gi ng pr os e l yt e c onve r s i on, bu t w e r e pe r ha ps G nos t i c s H e l l e ni s t i c s pi r i t ua l i s t s or J e w i s h m ys t i c s B e c a us e c i r c um c i s i on w a s i ndi s put a bl y a c e nt r a l i s s ue s om e o f t he s e s c hol a r s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t i t w a s a s or t of m ys t i c a l i ni t i a t i on. T hi s i s a n i m a gi na t i ve s ol ut i on t o t he pr obl e m but i t i s unne c e s s a r y. A s w e w i l l s e e w he n e nga gi ng P a ul s a r gum e nt s r e ga r di ng f r e e dom a nd s l a ve r y be l ow t hi s c or r e l a t i on o f t he J uda i z i ng m ove m e nt w i t h t h e f or m e r pa ga n s t a t e of t he G a l a t i a ns m a ke s pe r f e c t s e ns e T he y ha ve be e n s e t f r e e by C hr i s t a t gr e a t pr i c e but now de s i r e t o t r a de s om e of t he i r f r e e dom f or a m or e r e gi m e nt e d f or m of r e l i gi on P a ul i s d r i vi ng hom e t he poi nt t ha t t he e l e m e nt s of J e w i s h r i t ua l obs e r va nc e a r e a s w e a k a nd be gga r l y a s t he pa ga n e l e m e nt s t he G a l a t i a ns w e r e f or m e r l y i n bon da ge t o. M or e ove r t he i r c ur r e nt s t a t e

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29 i s a c t ua l l y w or s e be c a us e by de s e r t i ng t he f r e e do m i n C hr i s t t he y ha d a l r e a dy a t t a i ne d, t he y a r e de s e r t i ng t he O ne w ho c a l l e d t he m t o t ha t f r e e dom P a ul s pa s s i ona t e r e s pons e i s t o be e xpe c t e d i n l i ght o f hi s p r i or s t r uggl e s i n e s t a bl i s hi ng t he l a w f r e e gos pe l t o t he G e nt i l e s a nd hi s r ol e i n i m pa r t i ng t ha t f r e e dom t o t he G a l a t i a ns S uc h e xt r e m e pol e m i c i s di s t i nc t i ve l y P a ul i ne N o G nos t i c / m ys t i c oppon e nt s a r e r e qui r e d t o r e c onc i l e P a ul s pol e m i c t o t he c ont e xt T hough t he s e c t i ons f r om G a l a t i a ns a bove i ndi c a t e s om e r i t ua l obs e r va nc e ha s be gun, i t i s c l e a r t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns f or t he m os t pa r t a r e not f ul l pr os e l yt e s ye t V e r s e s l i ke 4: 12, 5: 1 3 a nd 5 : 10 m a ke i t c l e a r t ha t P a ul s t i l l ha s hope t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns m a y m a ke t he r i ght c hoi c e a nd t he c r i s i s m a y be a ve r t e d ( s e e a l s o 6; 1, 9, 12 13) P a ul s w hol e f or c e of i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve a r gum e nt f u r t he r i m pl i e s t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns ha ve not ye t l os t i t a l l ( 3: 26 27 29; 4: 6 7 28 31 ; 5: 10 13 16 25) F ur t he r m or e P a ul s w a r ni ng t ha t i f t he y a r e c i r c um c i s e d t he y w i l l be obl i ga t e d t o ke e p t he e nt i r e l a w ( 5: 2 3) a t t he ve r y l e a s t i ndi c a t e s t ha t m a ny a r e not ye t c i r c um c i s e d, a nd pr oba bl y s ugge s t s t ha t s om e ha ve not f ul l y c ons i de r e d t he i m pl i c a t i ons of be i ng j udg e d by t he s t a nda r d o f f ul l T or a h obs e r va n c e I n a l l of t hi s P a ul i s c l e a r l y t r y i ng t o di s s ua de t hos e s t i l l c ons i de r i ng c i r c um c i s i on. F i na l l y, P a ul doe s not s e e m t o a ddr e s s a ny G a l a t i a ns w ho ha ve a l r e a dy be e n c i r c um c i s e d. T ha t none ha ve be e n c i r c um c i s e d ye t i s unl i ke l y. P e r ha ps t hos e w ho ha ve a l r e a dy gone t oo f a r a r e be i ng r e f e r r e d t o by P a ul i n t he t hi r d pe r s on, l i ke t he oppone nt s I t i s de ba t e d w he t he r 6: 12 13 r e f e r s t o t he oppone n t s or t o t hos e G a l a t i a ns w ho ha ve be e n c i r c um c i s e d a nd a r e a t t e m pt i ng t o ge t t he i r f e l l ow G a l a t i a ns t o f ol l ow s ui t or bot h W e

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30 c a nnot r e s ol ve t hi s a m bi gui t y he r e bu t w oul d not e t he m ot i va t i ons t o not be pe r s e c ut e d f or t he c r os s of C hr i s t a nd t o be a bl e t o boa s t a b out your f l e s h. O ne of t he i m por t a nt i s s ue s t ha t P a ul a ddr e s s e s i n t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s i s di vi s i on i n t he c hu r c h ( 5: 15 26 ) C e r t a i nl y t he J ud a i z i ng m ove m e nt c oul d ha ve e xa c e r ba t e d a ny e xi s t i ng di vi s i ons I f s om e G a l a t i a ns ha ve be e n c i r c um c i s e d a nd a r e e i t he r pr e s s ur i ng t he i r r e s i s t a nt br e t hr e n or w i t hdr a w i ng f r om t he m t hi s m a y be a m a j o r gr ou nd of di vi s i on. H ow e ve r P a ul s pa r a ne s i s r e ga r di ng di vi s i on doe s not s e e m t o e xpl i c i t l y a ddr e s s t hi s i s s ue T he e xhor t a t i on i n 6: 1 t o ge nt l y r e s t or e one w ho ha s be e n de t e c t e d i n a t r a ns gr e s s i on ha r dl y s e e m s t o a ppl y t o t he c a s e of t he r e c e nt l y c i r c um c i s e d br ot he r w ho i s now obl i ga t e d t o ke e p t he w hol e l a w a nd i s c ut o f f f r om C hr i s t ( 5: 3 4) I t s e e m s c l e a r t ha t t he di vi s i on i n t h e pa r a ne t i c s e c t i on i nvol ve s m or e t ha n t he di f f e r e nt r e s pons e s t o t he oppone nt s J uda i z i ng doc t r i ne ( a nd t he l a t t e r m a y r e p r e s e nt a m or e i r r e c onc i l a bl e s c hi s m t ha t i s not be i ng a ddr e s s e d i n t he pa r a ne s i s ) W ha t w e r e t he s pe c i f i c c onf l i c t s not r e l a t e d t o t he J uda i z i ng m ove m e nt ? O f c our s e w e c a nnot know W e c a n onl y r e c ogni z e t ha t t he pa r a ne s i s a ddr e s s e s c onf l i c t s i n t he c hur c h ne ve r e xpl i c i t l y c onne c t e d t o J uda i z i ng. 7 7

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31 T h e A t t r a c t i o n o f t h e O p p o n e n t s D o c t r i n e W e m us t a s k w hy t he G a l a t i a ns r e s ponde d a s f a vor a bl y a s t he y di d t o t he oppone nt s a nd t he i r m e s s a ge of T or a h obs e r va nc e f or G e nt i l e C hr i s t i a ns W e w i l l ne e d t o c ons i de r t hr e e a r e a s of a t t r a c t i on: t he ol ogi c a l s oc i a l a nd p r a c t i c a l / e t hi c a l T he s e c a t e gor i e s i nvol ve s ubs t a nt i a l ove r l a p. T he y w i l l b e br i e f l y i nt r oduc e d he r e but w i l l be r e vi s i t e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r s i n t he c ont e xt s of P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd e t h i c s T he t he ol ogi c a l a t t r a c t i on of t he oppone nt s a r gum e nt s t o t he G a l a t i a ns s houl d not be unde r e s t i m a t e d; P a ul w oul d not ha ve e nga ge d i n s uc h e xt e nde d t he ol ogi c a l e xpos i t i on i f he w e r e not c e r t a i n of i t s i m por t a nc e t o hi s r e c i pi e nt s P a ul s e xt e nde d f oc us on t he A br a ha m i c na r r a t i ve s i gna l s t ha t he c ons i de r s t ha t m ot i f di r e c t l y r e l e va nt t o t he oppone nt s t he ol ogy. T he oppone nt s m a y ha ve l a r ge l y ba s e d t he i r a r gum e nt on A br a ha m s obe di e nc e a nd t he c ove na nt of c i r c um c i s i on. A f ur t he r i ndi c a t i on t ha t P a ul i s pr oba bl y r e s pondi ng t o t he oppone nt s t he ol ogi c a l e xpos i t i on i s t he w a y he r a di c a l l y r e i nt e r pr e t s t he A b r a ha m i c s t or y t o yi e l d ne w m e a ni ngs t ha t c ont r a di c t t he t r a di t i ona l J e w i s h unde r s t a ndi ng. W e w i l l e xa m i ne P a ul s i n nova t i ve r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons i n de pt h be l ow S uf f i c e t o s a y he r e t ha t P a ul s r e s pons e w oul d m a ke m uc h s e ns e i f t he oppone nt s w e r e us i ng t he A br a ha m i c s t or y t o pe r s ua de t he G a l a t i a ns t ha t t he y s houl d f ol l ow A br a ha m s obe di e nt e xa m pl e a nd c onf i r m t he m s e l ve s a s t he c hi l dr e n of t he c ove na nt t hr ough c i r c um c i s i on. H ow e ve r e ve n i f P a ul m i s i nt e r pr e t e d t he oppone nt s m e s s a ge a s s om e c ont e nd, t hi s i s not r e a l l y p r obl e m a t i c O ur t he s i s i s t ha t P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd P a ul s e t hi c s i n G a l a t i a ns a r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d; t hus t he r e l a t i ons hi p of P a ul s t he o l ogy t o t he oppone nt s t he ol ogy i s not t he c e nt r a l i s s ue W e c a n a t l e a s t s a f e l y c onc l ude t ha t P a ul

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32 a s s e s s e s a t he ol ogi c a l m ot i ve i n t he G a l a t i a ns pos i t i ve r e s pons e t o t he oppone nt s a nd t ha t he i s i n s om e w a y a ddr e s s i ng w ha t he s uppos e s t he oppone nt s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s t o be P a ul s t r e s s e s t he G a l a t i a ns i de nt i t y a s t he t r ue c hi l dr e n of A br a ha m t hr o ugh hi s pr om i s e d s e e d ( s i ngul a r ) t he C hr i s t ( 3: 16) a nd i n t hi s hi s t he ol ogi c a l f oc us a ddr e s s e s t he i s s ue of t he G a l a t i a ns s oc i a l i de nt i t y a s w e l l T he G a l a t i a ns w e r e f or m e r w or s hi pe r s of pa ga n de i t i e s w ho ha d r e j e c t e d t ha t i de nt i t y a nd l i f e s t yl e a nd, i n t he m i ds t of ove r w he l m i ng s oc i a l pr e s s ur e a nd pos s i bl e os t r a c i s m w e r e a t t e m pt i ng t o unde r s t a nd a nd m a i nt a i n t he i r ne w i de nt i t y. T hi s w oul d ha ve be e n e s pe c i a l l y di f f i c ul t a f t e r P a ul l e f t G a l a t i a a nd t he y c oul d no l onge r r e l y on hi s s t r ong l e a de r s hi p. A s B a r c l a y not e s t he G a l a t i a ns ne w i de nt i t y a s C hr i s t i a ns i nvol ve d not onl y m a s s i ve c ogni t i ve r e a dj us t m e nt s but a l s o s oc i a l di s l oc a t i on. . [ a nd] s e r i ous di s r upt i o n i n. . r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h f a m i l y f r i e nds f e l l ow c l ub m e m be r s bus i ne s s a s s oc i a t e s a nd c i vi c a ut hor i t i e s 7 8 T hus i n a ddi t i on t o a l i e na t i on f r om t he i r pa ga n c ul t ur e t he r e m a y ha v e be e n c onf l i c t s w i t h c i vi l a ut hor i t i e s r e ga r di ng a bs t i ne nc e f r om e m pe r or w or s hi p. A nd t hough t he G a l a t i a ns ha d r e c e i ve d a gos pe l w i t h f ounda t i ons i n J uda i s m a nd t he J e w i s h M e s s i a h, t he y w e r e a s unc i r c um c i s e d G e nt i l e s out s i de r s f r om t he l oc a l s yna gogue W e do not know c e r t a i nl y i f t he l oc a l s yna gogue w oul d ha ve s t i l l a c c e pt e d c i r c um c i s e d f ol l ow e r s of J e s us a t t hi s da t e but a n e a r l y da t e f o r G a l a t i a ns w oul d i nc r e a s e t he l i ke l i ne s s T he s yna gogue m a y ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d a t hi r d f r ont of oppos i t i on a ga i ns t t he G a l a t i a n C hr i s t i a ns a nd r e c onc i l i a t i on w i t h t he J e w i s h c om m uni t y w oul d ha ve be e n de s i r a bl e

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33 T he J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n oppone nt s w ho c a m e t o G a l a t i a pr oba bl y i de nt i f i e d t he m s e l ve s w i t h t he t r ue a pos t l e s of J e s us a nd t he t r ue J e r us a l e m c hur c h. T he oppor t uni t y t o be c onne c t e d w i t h t he t r ue J e r us a l e m ba s e d C hr i s t i a n m ove m e nt m a y ha ve be e n ve r y a t t r a c t i ve f or t he s oc i a l l y di s l oc a t e d a nd m a r gi na l i z e d G a l a t i a ns I f t he l oc a l s yna gogue a c c e pt e d c i r c um c i s e d C hr i s t i a ns t hi s w oul d ha ve be e n a g r e a t a t t r a c t i on a l s o. C om m uni t y obs e r va nc e of t he t r a di t i ona l J e w i s h f e s t i va l s a nd r i t ua l s w oul d be e n s e r ve d t o r e i nf o r c e t he G a l a t i a ns i de nt i t y a nd uni t y. I n t h e l i ght o f t he s e a t t r a c t i ons P a ul s e a r l y c om m e nt s a bout hi s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h J e r us a l e m a nd t he a pos t l e s m a ke s e ns e P a ul s r e m a r ks i n 2: 6 a bout t he J e r us a l e m l e a de r s s t a t us not be i ng pa r t i c ul a r l y i m po r t a nt t o hi m s t op s hor t of be i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y de pr e c a t or y or a c c us a t or y; how e ve r hi s c om m e nt s w oul d s e r ve t o di s c our a ge a n i nor d i na t e e s t i m a t i on of t he J e r us a l e m a pos t l e s a nd t he J e r us a l e m c om m uni t y a s t he s oc i a l / e t hni c m ode l f or G e nt i l e C hr i s t i a n c om m uni t i e s out s i de of P a l e s t i ne 7 9 M e m be r s hi p i n a ny s oc i e t y i nvol ve s a n e s t a bl i s he d m or a l c ode P a ul s gos pe l of f r e e dom i n C hr i s t a nd w a l ki ng i n t he S pi r i t m i ght ha ve s e e m e d a bi t a m bi guous t o t he G a l a t i a ns a s c om pa r e d w i t h t he i r pr e vi ous c ul t ur e a nd e ve n m or e s o i n c ont r a s t t o t he T or a h of t he J e w s I n t he c ont e xt o f r e a l c onf l i c t s w i t hi n t he c hur c h P a ul s f r e e dom t he ol ogy m a y ha ve s e e m e d t o t he G a l a t i a ns t o l a c k c l e a r a nd p r a c t i c a l a ns w e r s a bout how t o r e s pond t o s pe c i f i c pr obl e m s 8 0 I n t he c ont e xt o f s t r a i ne d r e l a t i ons ou t s i de t he c hur c h, c ha r ge s of l a w l e s s ne s s m i ght a l s o be a p r obl e m T he s e ne e d not a l w a ys ha ve be e n c ha r ge s of l i c e nt i ous / l i be r t i ne be ha vi or pe r s e bu t s i m pl y t he a bs e nc e of a de f i ne d a nd obs e r va bl e l e ga l s ys t e m T hus t o a ddr e s s c onf l i c t s i n t he c hur c h a nd s t e m t he t i de of

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34 m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs a m ong out s i de r s t he G a l a t i a ns m a y ha ve now de s i r e d t o t r a ns f or m s om e of t he i r a m bi guous i de ol ogi c a l f r e e dom i nt o a m or e r e gi m e nt e d f or m of r e l i gi on t ha t w oul d ha ve g r e a t e r pr a c t i c a l va l ue 8 1 A r e t ur n t o t he i r f o r m e r s ubm i s s i on t o pa ga n de i t i e s t he y ha d e xpr e s s l y r e j e c t e d w oul d ha ve be e n t he G a l a t i a n C hr i s t i a ns l e a s t vi a bl e opt i on, a nd t he y w oul d not ha ve c ons i de r e d t he i m pe r i a l c ul t a n opt i on T he C hr i s t i a n c ul t i t s e l f m a y ha ve be e n s e e n a s a s or t of a ne w m ys t e r y r e l i gi on, w hi c h w oul d not ha ve he l pe d t he m e s c a pe c ha r ge s of l i be r t i ni s m C e r t a i n phi l os ophi c a l m o ve m e nt s m a y ha ve be e n a t t r a c t i ve t o t he G a l a t i a ns but w e ha ve no good e vi de nc e of t hi s H a vi ng gon e f r om be i ng w or s hi pe r s o f pa ga n de i t i e s t o w or s hi pe r s of t he J e w i s h G od a nd M e s s i a h, de vot i ona l s t r uc t u r e w oul d be t he i r m or e l i ke l y i nc l i na t i on. T he a nc i e nt a nd r e s pe c t e d c ode of t he J e w s m a y ha ve be e n pa r t i c ul a r l y a t t r a c t i ve t o t he G a l a t i a ns be c a us e of i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n a l l e vi a t i ng i nt e r na l c onf l i c t s T he T or a h m uc h m o r e f ul l y a ddr e s s e s c or r e c t be ha vi or w i t hi n t he c om m uni t y, a nd t he a ppr opr i a t e r e c om pe ns e s f or a l l m a nne r o f vi ol a t i ons a r e de f i ne d. 8 2 A s not e d a bove c om m una l obs e r va nc e of t r a di t i on a l r i t ua l s pr oduc e d a uni t y a m ong t he J e w s t r a ns c e ndi ng t ha t of m a ny c ul t ur e s 8 3 T he T or a h a l s o e m bodi e d m a ny of t he H e l l e ni s t i c vi r t ue s t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns w oul d e s t e e m but i nve s t e d t he m w i t h g r e a t e r m e a ni ng i n t he c ont e xt of G od s r e ve l a t i on o f t he m 8 4 I t t e r m s of t he G a l a t i a n C hr i s t i a ns pos i t i on i n t he gr e a t e r s oc i e t a l s t r uc t ur e e m br a c i ng T or a h w oul d not ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d a be t r a ya l of t he i r C hr i s t i a n s t a nd a ga i ns t pa ga ni s m or t he i m pe r i a l c ul t a nd i t m a y ha ve pr ovi de d s om e e xe m pt i on f r om c om pul s i on r e ga r di ng t he l a t t e r i f t he y w e r e e s t e e m e d t o be a s e c t of t he J e w s a nd t hus a r e l i gi o l i c i t a I f s om e of t he pe r s e c ut i on t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e d c a m e

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35 f r om t he J e w i s h c om m uni t y i t s e l f t he a l l e vi a t i on o f t hi s c onf l i c t c oul d ha ve be e n a c ons i de r a t i on. M os t i m por t a nt l y, T or a h obs e r va nc e w oul d ha ve a s s oc i a t e d t he G a l a t i a n c hur c h w i t h a n e s t a bl i s he d s ubc ul t ur e w e l l r e pr e s e nt e d t hr oughout t he e m pi r e a nd r e s pe c t e d by m a ny. 8 5

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36 C h a p t e r T h r e e P a u l s T h e o l o g i c a l A r g u m e n t s A c om pr e he ns i ve e nga g e m e nt of P a ul s t he ol ogi z i ng i n G a l a t i a ns i s not pos s i bl e w i t hi n t he l i m i t e d s c ope of t hi s pa pe r O u r goa l i n t hi s c ha pt e r i s t o i de nt i f y t he m a j or P a ul i ne c onc e pt s a nd m ot i f s t ha t w i l l i nf or m our s t udy of P a ul s e t hi c s i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r W e w i l l c ons i de r t he i m por t a nc e of P a ul s a ppe a l t o t he G a l a t i a ns pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e W e w i l l be e s pe c i a l l y i nt e r e s t e d i n ho w t he bi bl i c a l na r r a t i ve s a ppr opr i a t e d by P a ul a r e r e i nt e r p r e t e d a nd i nve s t e d w i t h r a di c a l l y ne w m e a ni ng. W e w i l l obs e r ve c ont i nui t y a nd di s c ont i nui t y w i t h J uda i s m i n P a ul s a r gum e nt s c ons i de r i ng how h i s r e de f i ni t i ons a nd m odi f i c a t i ons s e r ve a nd i l l u m i na t e hi s pur pos e s W e w i l l s e e k a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s oc i a l f unc t i on o f t he r e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons of t r a di t i ona l m ot i f s i n br e a ka w a y r e l i gi ous c om m uni t i e s W e w i l l c ons i de r how s uc h r e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons f unc t i on i n a poc a l ypt i c / e s c ha t ol ogi c a l t hought a nd s i gna l t r a ns i t i on t o t he ne w a ge a nd obs e r ve t he pr e s e nc e of a n a poc a l ypt i c f r a m e w or k i n G a l a t i a ns W e w i l l obs e r ve t he i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve dyn a m i c s t ha t a r e e s s e nt i a l t o P a ul s t h ought i n G a l a t i a ns ( a nd e l s e w he r e ) a nd c ons i de r pa r a l l e l s i n S t oi c i s m a nd t he a nc i e nt e t hi c a l t r a di t i on

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37 A p p e a l t o t h e L a w F r e e G o s p e l t o t h e G e n t i l e s P a ul s r e s pons e t o t he G a l a t i a ns be gi ns w i t h a n a p pe a l t o t he hi s t or y of t he l a w f r e e gos pe l t o t he G e nt i l e s ( 1: 11 2: 21) f o l l ow e d b y a n a ppe a l t o t he hi s t or y of t he G a l a t i a n c hur c h s r e c e pt i on of t he gos pe l ( 3: 1 5; s e e a l s o 4: 13 15) W e ha ve br i e f l y vi s i t e d t he i s s ue of t he A nt i oc h c onf r on t a t i on a nd t he que s t i on t o w ha t de g r e e unc i r c um c i s e d G e nt i l e C hr i s t i a ns a nd J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns m a y be uni t e d s oc i a l l y. T hough w e c a nnot a ddr e s s m a ny i nt e r e s t i ng a s pe c t s of t hi s c onf r ont a t i on, t he c e nt r a l i s s ue f or P a ul i s t he e qua l i t y of J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s t hr ough f a i t h i n C hr i s t P a ul s a r gum e nt i n 2: 14 21 ( w he t he r hi s t or i c a l o r r e f l e c t i ve ) a ga i ns t P e t e r s i nc ons i s t e nc y pr ovi de s t he t r a ns i t i on i nt o P a ul s a r gum e nt s t o t he G a l a t i a ns a n d i nt r oduc e s t he m a i n t he m e s 8 6 P e t e r s w i t hdr a w a l f r om t he G e nt i l e s upon t he a r r i va l of J e r us a l e m J e w s s i gni f i e d t ha t s om e t hi ng w a s ye t l a c ki ng f or t he c om pl e t e s o c i a l e qua l i t y of J e w a nd G e nt i l e ; t he obs e r ve d s oc i a l r e a l i t y c ont r a di c t e d t he r e ve l a t i on i n C hr i s t H e r e w e s e e a di s pa r i t y of i ndi c a t i ve a nd i m pe r a t i ve ; t he s e pa r a t i s t be ha vi or d oe s not c or r e l a t e w i t h t he i r uni f i e d i de nt i t y i n C hr i s t T hi s m or e t ha n s i m pl e hypoc r i s y, i s P a ul s c ha r ge : t he y w e r e not a c t i ng c ons i s t e nt l y w i t h t he t r ut h o f t he gos pe l . ( 2: 14, e m pha s i s m i ne ) W e w oul d not e he r e t ha t P a ul s a r gum e nt i s no t a ga i ns t w or ks p r o pe r but a ga i ns t t he w or ks o f t he l a w t ha t m a i nt a i n J e w i s h i de nt i t y i n s uc h a w a y a s t o i n vol ve ne c e s s a r y s e pa r a t i on f r om G e nt i l e s 8 7 T o m a i nt a i n t he s e f o r m e r J e w i s h i de nt i t y m a r ke r s w oul d e f f e c t i ve l y f or c e G e nt i l e s t o pr os e l yt i z e i f t he y w i s he d t o ha v e c om pl e t e uni t y i n C hr i s t w i t h be l i e vi ng J e w s H e nc e P a ul s que s t i on: how c oul d P e t e r w h o ha d a l r e a dy t r a ns gr e s s e d t he t r a di t i ona l s e pa r a t i on of J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s i n t a bl e f e l l ow s hi p, t he n r e ve r s e hi s s t a nc e a nd

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38 c om pe l t he G e nt i l e s t o l i ve l i ke J e w s ? ( 2: 14) P a ul e s t e e m s t he A nt i oc h i s s ue a nd hi s pos i t i on r e ga r di ng i t t o be d i r e c t l y r e l e va nt t o t he G a l a t i a n c r i s i s 8 8 T he oppone nt s a t G a l a t i a o pe r a t e on t he p r e m i s e t ha t t he t r a di t i ona l J e w i s h i de nt i t y m a r ke r s of c i r c um c i s i on a nd T o r a h obs e r va nc e a r e s t i l l i n pl a c e i n C hr i s t a nd t he G a l a t i a ns i nc om pl e t e a dop t i on of J e w i s h i de nt i t y l e a ve s t he i r i de nt i t y i n C hr i s t de f i c i e nt a nd i nc om pl e t e P a ul s gos pe l i nvol ve s a n unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t t he s e di vi s i ons a r e no l onge r va l i d, t ha t be i ng i de nt i f i e d w i t h C hr i s t s upe r s e de s t r a di t i ona l i de nt i t y m a r ke r s P a ul de f i ne s t he t r a di t i ona l J e w i s h i de nt i t y m a r ke r s a s c i r c um c i s i on a nd t he w or ks of t he l a w a nd i de nt i f i e s t he ne w m a r k of t he C hr i s t i a n a s f a i t h i n C hr i s t P a ul a ppe a l s he r e t o t he e ve nt s t ha t s i gna l t he i n a u gur a t i on of t hi s ne w a ge o f f a i t h a nd c onf i r m t he be l i e ve r s i de nt i t y i n C hr i s t T he c r uc i f i xi on of C hr i s t i s t he c r uc i a l e ve nt i n t he ne w c ove na nt a nd t he ne w s t a t us of be l i e ve r s 8 9 C hr i s t by hi s de a t h s e t s be l i e ve r s f r e e f r om t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge ( 1: 4) a nd r e de e m s t he m f r om t he c ur s e of t he l a w by be c om i ng a c ur s e hi m s e l f ( 3: 13; D e ut 21: 23) C hr i s t di e d c onde m ne d by t he l a w a nd s i m i l a r l y, P a ul s t a t e s t ha t t hr ough t he l a w he di e d t o t he l a w be i ng c r uc i f i e d w i t h C hr i s t ( 2: 19) T he r e s ul t i s t ha t no w C hr i s t l i ve s i n hi m a nd he l i ve s t o G od by f a i t h ( 2: 20, 19 ) B y ba pt i s m i nt o C hr i s t t he be l i e ve r i s c l o t he d w i t h C hr i s t ( 3: 27) J us t i f i c a t i on c a n no l onge r c om e f r om t he l a w onl y t h r ough f a i t h i n C hr i s t ( 2: 16) T o s e e k j us t i f i c a t i on f r om t he l a w i s t o nul l i f y t he w or k of C hr i s t bot h r e ga r di ng t he s oc i a l uni t y of J e w a nd G e nt i l e i n C hr i s t a nd i ndi vi dua l j us t i f i c a t i on ( 2 : 21; 5: 2, 4) W e s houl d r e c ogni z e he r e t he i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a : t he i ndi c a t i ve i s j us t i f i c a t i on by f a i t h i n C hr i s t ( 2: 16) a nd t he i m pe r a t i ve i s l i vi ng by f a i t h i n C hr i s t ( 2: 20) C onve r s e l y, t he i m pl i c a t i on i s t ha t

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39 be c a us e j us t i f i c a t i on doe s not c om e f r o m t he l a w a ny l onge r s o t he l a w s houl d no l onge r pr e s c r i be t he be ha vi or o f t he be l i e ve r

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40 A p p e a l t o t h e G a l a t i a n s E x p e r i e n c e o f t h e S p i r i t W hi l e t he c r uc i f i xi on of C hr i s t a nd t he i de nt i f i c a t i on of t he be l i e ve r i n hi s c r uc i f i xi on ( 2: 20) i s t he c r uc i a l e ve nt i n ne w a ge a nd c ha nge of s t a t us t he a bs ol ut e e vi de nc e of t he r e a l i t y a nd e f f i c a c y of t he e ve nt i s t h e e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t T hi s i s t he f i r s t a nd m os t c om pe l l i ng a r gum e nt P a ul d i r e c t s t o t he G a l a t i a ns Y ou f ool i s h G a l a t i a ns W ho ha s be w i t c he d you? I t w a s be f or e your e ye s t ha t J e s us C hr i s t w a s publ i c l y e xhi bi t e d a s c r uc i f i e d! T he onl y t hi ng I w a nt t o l e a r n f r om you i s t hi s : D i d you r e c e i ve t he S p i r i t by doi ng t he w or ks o f t he l a w or by be l i e vi ng w ha t you he a r d? A r e you s o f ool i s h? H a vi ng s t a r t e d w i t h t he S p i r i t a r e you now e ndi ng w i t h t h e f l e s h? D i d you e xpe r i e nc e s o m uc h f or not hi ng? i f i t r e a l l y w a s f or not hi ng W e l l t he n, doe s G od s uppl y you w i t h t he S pi r i t a nd w or k m i r a c l e s a m ong you by your doi ng t he w or ks o f t he l a w o r by your be l i e vi ng w ha t you he a r d? ( 3: 1 5) P a ul he r e a ppe a l s t o t he i r pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e : t he y r e c e i ve d t he S pi r i t s t a r t e d i n t he S pi r i t e xpe r i e nc e d m uc h, a nd G od s s uppl y of t he S pi r i t w a s a c c om pa ni e d by m i r a c l e s i n t he c hur c h. T he i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve d i s pa r i t y s e e n he r e i s i n be gi nni ng w i t h t he S pi r i t a nd e ndi ng w i t h t he f l e s h. H e r e P a ul s ubt l y i nt r od uc e s a r a di c a l he r m e n e ut i c t ha t he w i l l e m pl oy t o g r e a t e f f e c t H i s nove l e m pl oym e nt of S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n t hi s c ont e xt f a c i l i t a t e s c or r e l a t i on o f t he S pi r i t w i t h f a i t h ( be l i e vi ng) w hi c h i m pl i e s t he pa r a l l e l c or r e l a t i on of t he w o r ks of t he l a w w i t h t he f l e s h! 9 0 W e w i l l e nga ge P a ul s us e of f l e s h/ S pi r i t dua l i s m m or e l a t e r i nc l udi ng hi s bl u r r i ng of t he di f f e r e nt s e ns e s of f l e s h t o i m pl y a s t oundi ng c or r e l a t i ons H i s a ppe a l t o t he G a l a t i a ns a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t ( w hi c h i s not f a l s i f i a bl e ) i s us e d t o va l i da t e h i s t he ol ogy. A not he r a ppe a l t o t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e i s s e e n i n 4: 4 6. T he goa l o f G od s r e de m pt i on i s f o r t hos e e ns l a ve d unde r t he l a w t o b e a dopt e d a s c hi l dr e n, a nd t hi s

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41 t r a ns f or m a t i on i s e vi de nc e d by t he S pi r i t be i ng s e nt f or t h i nt o t he be l i e ve r s he a r t s c r yi ng A bba F a t he r T he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t e vi de nc e s t ha t t he y a r e a l r e a dy c hi l dr e n of G od. T he r e ve r s e i m pl i c a t i on he r e w o ul d be t ha t t hos e w ho a r e ye t pr om ot i ng t he l a w a r e not ye t de l i ve r e d f r om s l a ve r y a nd a dopt e d a s c hi l dr e n of G od. O ne f ur t he r obs e r va t i on i s i n or de r he r e T he gi vi n g of t he S pi r i t not onl y e vi de nc e s t he s t a t e of t he be l i e ve r ; i t ha s e s c ha t ol ogi c a l s i gni f i c a nc e s i gna l i ng t he c om i ng of t he ne w a ge I n t r a di t i ona l J e w i s h t hou ght t hi s i nvol ve d t he f ut u r e pour i ng out of t he S pi r i t on t he na t i on of I s r a e l ( E z 37: 1 14 39: 28 29 ; J oe l 2: 28 29; I s 32: 15 18 44: 1 5) T he unc i r c um c i s e d r e p r e s e nt t he unhol y a nd c a nnot r e c e i ve t he S pi r i t B e c a us e l a w obs e r va nc e i s a n a bs ol ut e r e qui r e m e nt onl y t h e G e nt i l e s w ho pr os e l yt e c onve r t e d c oul d r e c e i ve t he pr o m i s e E ve n c i r c um c i s e d J e w s w oul d r e qui r e a ne w c i r c um c i s i on of t he he a r t 9 1 T hi s w a s a t t he l e a s t a s s um e d t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o t hos e w i t h phys i c a l c i r c um c i s i on, of c our s e T ha t t he unc i r c um c i s e d c oul d r e c e i ve t h e S p i r i t a s e vi de nc e of t hi s e s c ha t ol ogi c a l c i r c um c i s i on of t he he a r t w hi l e l a w obs e r va nt J e w s di d not i s unt hi nka bl e ye t P a ul c l a i m s t ha t t hi s ha s a l r e a dy t a ke n pl a c e 9 2 T he pr e s e nc e of a n a poc a l ypt i c / e s c ha t ol ogi c a l t he m e i n G a l a t i a ns w i l l be e xpl or e d m or e f ul l y l a t e r I p r e s e nt i t he r e t o i nt r oduc e P a ul s i nt e nt i on of r e i nf o r c i ng t he G a l a t i a ns unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t i n t h i s c ont e xt P a ul a l s o a ppe a l s t o t he f or m e r c l os e ne s s of hi s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns a nd l a m e nt s t he s t a t e of c ont e nt i on t ha t e xi s t s ( 4: 1 3 16) H i s e m ot i ona l a ppe a l s i n c onc e r t w i t h t he a ppe a l s t o t he G a l a t i a ns ow n e xpe r i e nc e s w oul d ha ve be e n m or e pow e r f ul t ha n a l l t he l ogi c i n t he w or l d 9 3

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42 B e f or e m ovi ng on t o t he A br a ha m i c na r r a t i ve s w e w oul d not e t he i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a s P a ul e s t a bl i s he s H a vi ng be e n j us t i f i e d by f a i t h t he be l i e ve r / c om m uni t y m us t c ont i nue t o l i ve by f a i t h. H a vi ng be gun i n t he S pi r i t t he be l i e ve r / c om m uni t y m us t c ont i nue i n t he S pi r i t T he s e pr e c e pt s i nha bi t P a ul s t hought t hr oughout G a l a t i a ns a nd a r e f ounda t i ona l t o hi s e t hi c s l a t e r

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43 R e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A b r a h a m i c C o v e n a n t P a ul ha s a ppe a l e d t o t he G a l a t i a ns r e c e pt i on of t h e S pi r i t a s pr oof of t he i r j us t i f i c a t i on by G od on t he ba s i s of t he i r f a i t h i n C hr i s t I n 3 : 6, P a ul c or r e l a t e s t hi s f a i t h w i t h A br a ha m s r e s pons e t o G od w he n pr om i s e d a n i nnum e r a bl e m ul t i t ude of de s c e nda nt s : H e [ G od] b r ought hi m [ A b r a ha m ] o ut s i de a nd s a i d, L ook t ow a r d he a ve n a nd c ount t he s t a r s i f you a r e a bl e t o c ount t he m T he n he s a i d t o hi m S o s ha l l your de s c e nda nt s be A nd he be l i e ve d t he L O R D ; a nd t he L O R D r e c kone d i t t o hi m a s r i ght e ous ne s s ( G e ne s i s 15: 5 6) T hi s i s a c r uc i a l pr oof t e xt i n P a ul s a r gum e nt a s i t i s one of t he f e w ve r s e s i n t he L X X w he r e f a i t h a nd r i ght e ous ne s s a r e us e d t oge t he r 9 4 P a ul doe s not m a ke a ny r e f e r e nc e he r e t o A br a ha m s c i r c um c i s i on i n G e ne s i s 17 t ha t i s t o be t he s i gn of h i s c ove na nt w i t h G od a s he doe s i n R om a ns 4: 9 13. F o r P a ul t o ha ve done s o he r e w oul d ha ve de f e a t e d h i s pur pos e a s t he G a l a t i a ns / oppone nt s c oul d ha ve c ount e r e d t ha t t he i r c i r c um c i s i on w oul d l i ke w i s e b e t he s i gn f ol l ow i n g t he i r f a i t h j us t a s A br a ha m s w a s 9 5 P a ul a l s o m a ke s no r e f e r e nc e t o t he t e s t i ng of A br a ha m i n w hi c h he w a s f ound f a i t hf ul ( G e ne s i s 22: 1 18; J a m e s 2: 21 24) no r t o t he w i de l y a c c e pt e d unde r s t a ndi ng of f a i t h a s f a i t h f ul ne s s 9 6 T hus P a ul c om pl e t e l y di vor c e s be l i e vi ng f r om a ny s ubs e que nt a c t i on a s t he s ol e c r i t e r i a i n G od s j udgm e nt of r i ght e ous ne s s I t i s t hos e w ho be l i e ve l i ke A br a ha m w ho a r e h i s de s c e nda nt s ( 3: 7) I n 3: 8, P a ul e xpl a i ns G od s bl e s s i ng pr onounc e d o n A br a ha m a s a p r ophe c y of t he gos pe l by w hi c h t he G e nt i l e s w i l l be j us t i f i e d by f a i t h a l one ( w i t hou t c i r c um c i s i on) G e ne s i s 18: 18 c ont a i ns t he c r i t i c a l t e r m P a ul ne e ds t o ut i l i z e na t i ons ( ge nt i l e s ) but t hi s ve r s e i s not w or de d pr e c i s e l y a s a pr om i s e s po ke n t o A br a ha m G e ne s i s 12: 3,

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44 how e ve r i s c l e a r l y w or de d a s a p r om i s e but i t us e s t he w or d f a m i l i e s i ns t e a d of na t i o ns P a ul s i m pl y c om bi ne s t he ve r s e s s o G od s e e m s t o us e t he w or d na t i ons i n s pe a ki ng hi s pr om i s e t o A br a ha m P a ul s c onc l us i on i s t ha t a l l t he G e nt i l e s w ho be l i e ve l i ke A b r a ha m a r e t he one s t o w hom t he bl e s s i ng pe r t a i ns ( 3: 9) 9 7 H e r e a ga i n P a ul i s s e l e c t i ve om i t t i ng t he ve r s e t ha t r e f e r s t o A b r a ha m s de s c e nda nt s doi ng r i ght e ous ne s s a s a c ondi t i on of t he pr om i s e ( G e n 18: 19) w h i c h c oul d w o r k a ga i ns t hi s pur pos e s P a ul s a r gum e nt i s t ha t t he s e pr om i s e s t o A br a ha m s pe c i f i c a l l y r e f e r t o hi s l a w f r e e gos pe l t o t he G e nt i l e s I n 3: 10 13 P a ul j uxt a pos e s A br a ha m s bl e s s i ng ba s e d on hi s f a i t h w i t h t he c ur s e of t he l a w I n t he or i gi na l pa s s a ge i n D e ut 27: 26 t he c ur s e i s on t hos e w ho do not c ont i nue i n e ve r yt hi ng t he l a w c om m a nds B ut us i ng H a ba kkuk 2: 4 t he r i ght e ous l i ve by t he i r f a i t h c onj oi ne d w i t h L e vi t i c us 18: 5 ke e p m y s t a t ut e s a nd m y o r di na nc e s ; by doi ng s o one s ha l l l i ve P a ul he r e pe r f or m s a r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ona l m a gi c a c t t ha t da z z l e s t he s e ns e s c onc l udi ng t ha t t hos e w ho t r y t o ke e p t he l a w a r e t he c ur s e d one s 9 8 U s i ng hi s r e a di ng of D e ut 21: 23 C ur s e d i s e ve r yon e w ho ha ngs on a t r e e P a ul c onc l ude s t ha t t hi s c ur s e of t he l a w i s c onque r e d b y C hr i s t s ubs t i t ut i ona l l y be c om i ng t he c ur s e f or t he be l i e ve r s 9 9 T he w hol e pl a n a l l a l ong w a s t ha t i n C hr i s t J e s us t he bl e s s i ng of A br a ha m m i ght c om e t o t he G e nt i l e s s o t ha t w e m i ght r e c e i ve t he pr om i s e of t he S pi r i t t hr ough f a i t h ( 3 : 14) 1 0 0 I n t hi s f i na l e o f r e a s oni ng, A br a ha m s pr o m i s e t ha t c om e s t o t he G e nt i l e s t hr ough f a i t h i n C hr i s t i s t he S pi r i t 1 0 1 O f c our s e t he r e i s no pl a c e i n t he T a na k w he r e A br a ha m i s c onne c t e d w i t h t he pr om i s e of t he S p i r i t P a ul c or r e l a t e s A br a ha m s f a i t h, by w hi c h he r e c e i ve d r i ght e ous ne s s w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns f a i t h, by w hi c h t he y r e c e i ve d t he S pi r i t 1 0 2 T hus t he G a l a t i a ns e x pe r i e nc e of r e c e i vi ng t he S pi r i t i s

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45 t a nt a m ount t o G od de c l a r i ng t he m r i ght e ous t h r ou gh f a i t h. 1 0 3 H a vi ng i nt r oduc e d C hr i s t s c r uc i f i xi on a s t he c e nt r a l e ve nt i na ugur a t i ng t he bl e s s i ng t o t he G e nt i l e s P a ul w i l l e xpl i c i t l y i de nt i f y C hr i s t i n t he A br a ha m i c c ove na nt i t s e l f I n 3 : 15, P a ul f i r s t e xpl oi t s t he l a ngua ge of t he L X X w hi c h t r a ns l a t e s t he H e br e w w or d f or c ove na nt be r i t t o t he G r e e k di a t he ke w h i c h c oul d be us e d t o r e f e r t o a l a s t w i l l a nd t e s t a m e nt 1 0 4 T he H e br e w i de a of c ove na nt m or e c l os e l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he m ode l of t he s uz e r a i n va s s a l t r e a t y of t he a nc i e nt N e a r E a s t a c ove na nt be t w e e n a n i m pe r i a l pow e r a nd a va s s a l ki ngdom 1 0 5 I n no w i s e c oul d be r i t ha ve r e f e r r e d t o a l e ga l c ont r a c t be t w e e n e qua l s ( a s us i ng t he G r e e k s ynt he ke w oul d ha ve i m pl i e d) B e t z a nd L onge ne c ke r a r e a m ong t hos e w ho ha ve not e d t ha t di a t he ke di d not i nhe r e nt l y i nvol ve i m m ut a bi l i t y, 1 0 6 but i n us i ng t he w or d t o r e f e r t o a f i na l t e s t a m e nt a nd de s i gna t e d he i r P a ul c l e a r l y a f f i r m s t ha t i t doe s 1 0 7 I n 3: 16, P a ul m a ke s a n a r gum e nt r e ga r di ng C hr i s t a s t he s ol e he i r of t he A br a ha m i c c ov e na nt ( t he o f t a s s e r t e d f l a w s of w hi c h m a y not be e nt i r e l y w a r r a nt e d) T he w or d s e e d ( N A S B N I V N K J V K J V ; of f s pr i ng i n N R S V R S V ) c a n be us e d a s a c ol l e c t i ve s i ngul a r i n bot h H e br e w a nd G r e e k. A s s uc h, c ons i de r i ng P a ul s a r gum e nt he r e a s i f i t w e r e e s s e nt i a l l y l i ngui s t i c m a ke s no s e ns e T he i s s ue i s t o w hom t he pr om i s e pe r t a i ns F i r s t a nd m os t pr e c i s e l y, A br a ha m s s e e d m e a nt I s a a c t he s i ngul a r c hi l d of t he pr om i s e a nd not I s hm a e l ( U s e d a s a c ol l e c t i ve s i ngul a r he r e s e e d c oul d ha ve i m pl i e d bot h s ons ) 1 0 8 T he w o r d s e e d t he n be c om e s a c ol l e c t i ve noun i n r e f e r r i ng t o a l l t hos e w ho a r e de s c e nde d f r om t he one c hos e n s e e d I s a a c 1 0 9 P a ul how e ve r doe s not ha ve I s a a c but C hr i s t i n m i nd a s t he S e e d of A br a ha m a nd t h e c ol l e c t i ve t e r m s e e d r e f e r s t o t hos e

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46 w ho be l ong t o C hr i s t t he y a r e t he he i r s of A br a h a m r e c i pi e nt s of t he p r om i s e ( 3: 29 ) P a ul w oul d ha ve t he G a l a t i a ns unde r s t a nd t ha t t he y a r e A br a ha m s s e e d t h r ough C hr i s t W e m a y not e he r e t ha t a m ong P a ul s a r gum e nt s t h i s i s one of t he f e w t ha t w oul d not ha ve be e n a bs ur d t o J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n oppone nt s ; t he i de a of t he M e s s i a h a s S e e d of A br a ha m w a s f a m i l i a r I n J ubi l e e s 16, a nge l i c vi s i t or s f or e t e l l t ha t A br a ha m w oul d ha ve s i x s ons a f t e r I s a a c w ho, l i ke I s hm a e l w oul d be c om e G e nt i l e na t i ons O ne of I s a a c s de s c e nde nt s w oul d be uni que : T he s e e d of hi s s ons s houl d be G e nt i l e s a nd be r e c kone d w i t h t he G e nt i l e s ; but f r om t he s ons of I s a a c one s houl d be c om e a hol y s e e d, a nd s houl d not be r e c kone d a m ong t he G e nt i l e s F or he s houl d be c om e t he por t i on of t he M o s t H i gh a nd a l l hi s s e e d ha d f a l l e n i nt o t he pos s e s s i on of G od, t ha t i t s houl d be unt o t he L o r d a pe opl e f or ( H i s ) pos s e s s i on a bove a l l na t i ons a nd t ha t i t s houl d be c om e a ki ngdom a n d pr i e s t s a nd a hol y na t i on. ( J ubi l e e s 16: 17a 19a ) 1 1 0 C ont i nui ng hi s d i s c us s i on of t he A br a ha m i c pr om i s e a s a n i m m ut a bl e l a s t w i l l a nd t e s t a m e nt P a ul a r gue s i n 3: 17 t ha t t he M os a i c L a w c a nnot a nnul o r s upe r s e de t he A br a ha m i c c ove na nt t ha t pr e c e de d i t O f c our s e n o J e w w oul d ha ve c ont e nde d t ha t t he M os a i c a nnul l e d t he A br a h a m i c ; P a ul s a r gum e nt s e e m s t o be di r e c t e d t ow a r d r e f ut i ng t ha t t he M os a i c l a w a dde d r e qui r e m e nt s t o t he A b r a ha m i c c ove na nt ( a nd pe r ha ps a s w a s c om m onl y be l i e ve d, t ha t A br a ha m s om e how ke pt a l l t he T o r a h by a n i nna t e know l e dge of i t 400+ ye a r s be f or e i t w a s gi ve n ) 1 1 1 T hus t he i nhe r i t a nc e c a n ha ve onl y one or i gi n be c a us e i t c om e s f r om t he pr om i s e i t c a nnot a l s o c om e f r om t he l a w ( 3: 18) P a ul now t ur ns t o t he pur pos e of t he l a w i n 3: 19 2 5. T he L a w w a s i ns t a l l e d t e m por a r i l y, be c a us e of t r a ns gr e s s i ons a nd a ppl i e d onl y unt i l t he p r om i s e d S e e d w oul d c om e t o r e c e i ve t he pr om i s e s ( 3: 19a ) T hi s t e m po r a r i ne s s c e r t a i nl y r a n c ount e r t o t he

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47 J e w i s h i de a of t he l a w e ndur i ng f o r e ve r 1 1 2 P a ul f u r t he r a r gue s t ha t t he l a w w a s not di r e c t l y r e c e i ve d f r om G od but w a s o r da i ne d t h r o ugh a nge l s a nd t he n by a m e di a t or ( M os e s ) ; i n c ont r a s t he m a i nt a i ns t ha t t he pr om i s e s t o A br a ha m c a m e di r e c t l y f r om G od ( 3: 19 20) 1 1 3 T he l a w t hough r i gh t e ous c oul d not i m pa r t r i ght e ous ne s s ( 3: 21) ; i t s f unc t i on w a s t o de a l w i t h t r a ns gr e s s i o ns T he m os t obvi ous i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t hi s w oul d be t he H e l l e ni s t i c i de a of t he di vi ne or i gi n of t he l a w t o c ont r ol c r i m i na l a c t i vi t y. 1 1 4 B ut i n 3: 22 23 P a ul s e e m s t o ha ve s om e t hi ng e l s e i n m i nd. T he m or e E pi c ur e a n c onc e pt w a s t ha t t he l a w w a s gi ve n t o pr o t e c t t hos e w ho di d not r e qui r e a l a w f r om t hos e w ho di d, a nd t hi s i s not unl i ke t he J e w i s h i de a of t he f e nc e a r o und I s r a e l 1 1 5 H ow e ve r P a ul s a r gum e nt i s t ha t t he l a w i m p r i s one d a l l unde r s i n w hi c h w oul d i m pl y t ha t t he J e w i s h f e nc e w a s l e s s pr o t e c t i ng a f or t r e s s t ha n l oc ki ng dow n a pe ni t e nt i a r y ( 3: 22) 1 1 6 F or be l i e ve r s how e ve r t he l a w i m p r i s one d a nd gua r de d t he m unt i l f a i t h w a s r e ve a l e d ( 3: 23 ) t hus i m pl yi ng a m or e pos i t i ve f unc t i on. 1 1 7 T he l a w c oul d not j us t i f y o r i m pa r t r i ght e ous ne s s ; t he l a w w a s t he t e m por a r y d i s c i pl i na r i a n 1 1 8 unt i l t he t i m e w he n j us t i f i c a t i on by f a i t h t h r ough C hr i s t w a s r e ve a l e d ( 3: 24 25) I n 3: 26 29 P a ul be gi ns t o m a ke s hi s c onc l us i ons e xpl i c i t T he t i m e o f t he di s c i pl i na r i a n s c ont r ol i s pa s t be c a us e f a i t h ha s c om e T he G a l a t i a ns a r e now c hi l dr e n of G od t hr ough f a i t h. B y ba pt i s m t he y a r e c l ot he d w i t h C hr i s t 1 1 9 T he i r i de nt i t y i s now i n C hr i s t not i n t he f or m e r J e w i s h i de nt i t y m a r ke r s o f T o r a h. T he gr e a t di v i s i ons J e w a nd G r e e k, m a l e a nd f e m a l e s l a ve a nd f r e e a r e a l l do ne a w a y i n C hr i s t P a ul s c onc l us i on i s t ha t be c a us e t he y be l ong t o C hr i s t t he G a l a t i a ns a r e A br a ha m s s e e d a nd he i r s a c c or di ng t o t he A b r a ha m i c pr om i s e

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48 I n 4: 1 7 P a ul e m pl oys a m e t a pho r of c hi l dr e n und e r a gua r di a n t ha t c or r e l a t e s t o 3: 23 25. W hi l e not pr e c i s e l y de a l i ng w i t h A br a ha m i c t he m e i t doe s f u r t he r a dd r e s s t he pur pos e of t he l a w r e ga r di ng t he c hi l d r e n of t he p r om i s e I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng, t o s a y t he l e a s t how P a ul ha r m oni z e s t he t he m e s of gua r d i a ns hi p, s l a ve r y t o t he l a w a nd t he f or m e r pa ga ni s m of t he G a l a t i a ns T he m i nor s on pl a c e d unde r a t r us t e e a ppoi nt e d by t he f a t he r doe s not ye t ha ve t he r i ght s of a n a dul t ove r h i s i nh e r i t e d pr ope r t y t o be s ur e but t o s a y t ha t he i s no be t t e r t ha n a s l a ve 1 2 0 hi nt s a t t he up s e t t o f ol l ow P a ul c or r e l a t e s t he s on s s l a ve r y he r e t o t he G a l a t i a ns f or m e r s t a t e be i ng e ns l a ve d t o e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s of t he w or l d. F or a J e w t h i s c oul d a l l ude t o be i ng s ubj e c t t o t he e l e m e nt a r y t e a c hi ngs of t he M os a i c L a w 1 2 1 H ow e ve r P a ul c o r r e l a t e s t hi s w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e of be i ng e ns l a ve d by be i ngs t ha t by na t ur e a r e not gods i n 4: 8 9. 1 2 2 T hus i t w oul d s e e m t ha t t he J e w i s h L a w a nd t he pa ga n e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s ha ve p e r f or m e d t he s a m e f unc t i on i n e ns l a vi ng t he c hi l dr e n of t he p r om i s e T he a na l og y s e e m s t o br e a k dow n f ur t he r i n P a ul s c onc l us i on. G od s e nt hi s s on, bor n a s a hu m a n unde r t he l a w t o r e de e m t hos e unde r t he l a w s o t he y c a n r e c e i ve a dopt i on a s s ons R e de m pt i on a nd a dopt i on a gr e e w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e ha vi ng not be e n c hi l d r e n of G od pr e vi ous l y ( 4: 8) a nd ha vi ng be e n de l i ve r e d f r o m p a ga n e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s by C hr i s t ( 4: 9) C hr i s t s bi r t h unde r t he l a w c a n pe r ha ps be unde r s t ood ( i n G r e c o R om a n pe r s pe c t i ve ) a s hi s bi r t h unde r pa ga n e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s H ow e ve r a s r e ga r ds t he s ons ke pt s a f e unde r gua r di a ns hi p by t he p r ovi s i on of t he f a t he r ( i e G o d) c a n t he i r i nhe r i t a nc e a t m a t u r i t y r e a l l y be de s c r i be d a s a dopt i on ? 1 2 3 B e yond t he a n a l ogi c a l br e a kdow n, a dopt i on doe s not s qua r e w i t h t he J e w i s h unde r s t a n di ng; how e ve r t h i s i s a n a r gum e nt m a de t o G e nt i l e s 1 2 4

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49 a nd a gr e e s w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e P a ul c o nf i r m s t ha t r e c e i vi ng t he S pi r i t of G od s S on i n t he i r he a r t s c r yi ng out a s a c hi l d t o t he f a t he r pr ove s t he i r a dopt i on a s c hi l dr e n ( 4: 6 7) C onve r s e l y, t o s ubm i t t o J e w i s h l a w ke e pi ng i s t a nt a m ount t o r e t ur ni ng t o t he i r f or m e r s l a ve r y t o i dol s ( 4: 9 11) T ha t t hi s c or r e l a t i on m a ke s s e ns e t o t he G a l a t i a ns i s a l l t ha t m a t t e r s t o P a ul I n 4: 11 20 P a ul a ga i n a ddr e s s e s t he G a l a t i a ns pa s t e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he i r i nt i m a t e r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h P a ul a s w e ha ve no t e d a bove W i t he r i ngt on e xpl a i ns I t i s no s ur pr i s e t ha t P a ul s a r gum e nt s a r e s o e m ot i on l a de n. . H e k now s t ha t a ppe a l s t o t he e m ot i ons a nd t o t he G a l a t i a ns ow n e xpe r i e nc e s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o m ove t he m t ha n a l l t he l ogi c i n t he w or l d. 1 2 5 I n 4: 21 31 P a ul pr e s e nt s hi s m os t s t unni ng r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ona l a r gum e nt pr e s e nt i ng t he A br a ha m i c s t or y of H a ga r / I s hm a e l a nd S a r a h/ I s a a c a s a n a l l e gor y of f r e e dom a nd s l a ve r y. P a ul s s t r a nge a nd e ve n a r b i t r a r y e xe ge s i s 1 2 6 p r oba bl y i ndi c a t e s t he oppone nt s us e of t hi s ve r y s t or y t o m a ke t he i r poi nt 1 2 7 W he r e a s t he oppone nt s w oul d ha ve w a nt e d t o s t r e s s t ha t I s r a e l a nd t he l a w c a m e f r om t he l i ne a ge of t he c hi l d o f t he pr om i s e P a ul s o vi ol e nt l y r e i nt e r p r e t s t he s t or y t ha t he c onc l ude s t he b i ol ogi c a l de s c e nda nt s of I s a a c unde r t he l a w a s t he e ns l a ve d c hi l dr e n of H a ga r a nd I s hm a e l C ont r a r i w i s e t he G e nt i l e s w ho be l i e ve i n C hr i s t a r e t he t r ue c hi l dr e n o f I s a a c O ne c a n onl y i m a gi ne t he c ons t e r na t i on a nd out r a ge o f t he oppone nt s a t t hi s poi nt W e w oul d obs e r ve he r e t ha t A br a ha m f a t he r s t he G e nt i l e s t hr ough I s hm a e l be f o r e he f a t he r s I s a a c ye t I s a a c i s t he one t o w hom t he f i r s t bor n i nhe r i t a nc e pe r t a i ns ( a nd s o w i t h J a c ob, c om i ng a f t e r E s a u) P hi l o s a l l e gor i c a l t r e a t m e nt o f H a ga r / I s hm a e l a nd

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50 S a r a h/ I s a a c a s e l e m e nt a r y l e a r ni ng/ s ophi s t r y a nd v i r t ue / w i s dom r e s pe c t i ve l y c oul d ha ve be e n f a m i l i a r t o P a ul a nd t he J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns oppone nt s a t G a l a t i a 1 2 8 R e ga r di ng t he c om pa r i s on of P hi l o s a l l e gor y t o P a ul s L onge ne c ke r obs e r ve s t ha t t he r e a r e s ur f a c e s i m i l a r i t i e s : B ot h de pe nd on s i m i l a r e l e m e nt s i n t he s t or y: T he c ont r a s t be t w e e n s l a ve a nd f r e e ; t he t w o s ons ; t he ba ni s hm e nt o f H a ga r a nd I s hm a e l i n f a vor o f S a r a h a nd I s a a c I n bot h H a ga r a nd I s hm a e l r e pr e s e nt a pr e l i m i na r y a nd pr e pa r a t or y s t a ge t ha t i s s upe r s e de d by s om e t hi ng gr e a t e r . 1 2 9 A s P a ul i s de a l i ng he r e w i t h f r e e dom ve r s us s l a ve r y r a t he r t ha n l e ve l s of l e a r ni ng o r vi r t ue h i s i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd P hi l o s a r e no t ha r m o ni ous ye t one c a nnot he l p but r e m e m be r P a ul s r e f e r e nc e t o e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s a bove H ow e ve r P a ul doe s not ha ve t he M os a i c L a w i n m i nd; he r e t he t w o c ove na nt s a r e bot h i n A br a ha m a nd t he c ove na nt of s l a ve r y c om e s f i r s t f ol l ow e d by t he c ove na nt of pr om i s e T hus t hi s s e que nc e pa r a l l e l s t he l a t e r s e que nc e of t he gi vi ng of t he l a w a nd t he c om i ng of f a i t h i n C hr i s t I n bot h c a s e s t he i nf e r i o r i s di s pl a c e d by t ha t w hi c h c om e s a f t e r a nd s l a ve r y by f r e e dom T he i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a i n P a ul s c onc l u s i on he r e i s e s pe c i a l l y i nt e r e s t i ng a s i t pe r t a i ns t o t he oppone nt s B e c a us e t he G a l a t i a ns a r e t he c hi l dr e n o f t he pr om i s e l i ke I s a a c ( 4: 28) a nd c hi l dr e n o f t he f r e e w om a n, not t he s l a ve ( 4: 31) t he y w i l l be a l s o pe r s e c ut e d by t he s l a ve s j us t a s S pi r i t bo r n I s a a c w a s pe r s e c ut e d by f l e s h bor n I s hm a e l ( 4: 29) B ut w ha t doe s t he s c r i pt u r e s a y? D r i ve out t he s l a ve a nd he r c hi l d; f or t he c hi l d of t he s l a ve w i l l not s ha r e t he i nhe r i t a nc e w i t h t he c hi l d of t he f r e e w om a n ( 4: 30) I t s e e m s P a ul i s t e l l i ng t he G a l a t i a ns t o ph ys i c a l l y dr i ve o ut t he oppone nt s 1 3 0 C ons i de r i ng P a ul s c onf i de nc e t ha t t he oppone nt s w oul d pa y t he pe na l t y i n 5: 10 a nd hi s w i s h t ha t t he y w oul d c a s t r a t e t he m s e l ve s i n 5: 12, c a s t i ng t he m out s e e m s t o be

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51 e xa c t l y w ha t P a ul hope d t o a c c om pl i s h. W e c a nnot a ddr e s s a l l o f t he i nt e r e s t i ng a s pe c t s a nd i r r e gul a r i t i e s of P a ul s a l l e gor y, o f c our s e A f i na l obs e r va t i on he r e i s i m por t a nt r e ga r di ng P a ul s us e o f f l e s h i n 4: 23 a nd 29 t o r e f e r t o t he c hi l d w ho w a s bor n a c c or di ng t o t he f l e s h. P a ul s us a ge of f l e s h he r e s i gni f i e s hum a n m e a ns or e f f or t a s w e l l a s hum a n de s c e nt 1 3 1 T he i de a of f l e s h a s hum a n e f f or t i s i n ha r m ony w i t h 3: 3 not e d a bove a nd t hi s ve r s e c onne c t s e ndi ng w i t h t he f l e s h t o t he w or ks of t he l a w ( 3 : 2) I n 4: 23, f l e s h i s o ppos e d t o t he p r om i s e w hi l e i n 4: 29 f l e s h i s oppos e d t o t he S pi r i t a s i t a l s o i s i n 3: 3. W e ha ve a l r e a dy obs e r ve d P a ul s c or r e l a t i on of t he A br a ha m i c p r om i s e w i t h t he c om i ng of t he S pi r i t a nd w e s e e i t r e i nf or c e d a ga i n he r e 1 3 2 A t t h i s poi nt P a ul ha s w e l l e s t a bl i s he d t he f l e s h/ S pi r i t dua l i s m he w i l l c ont i nue t o e m pl oy t o g r e a t e f f e c t 1 3 3 W e w i l l r e t ur n t o t hi s i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r G a l a t i a ns 5: 1 12 f ol l ow s t he a nt i c i r c um c i s i on a nd f r e e dom t he m e s s o c l os e l y t ha t i t s r e l a t i ons hi p a s pa r t o f t he a ut he nt i c G a l a t i a ns l e t t e r i s not i n que s t i on. 1 3 4 W hi l e 5: 7 12 f oc us e s m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y on t he i s s ue i n G a l a t i a ( a nd pe r ha ps m or e w i de s pr e a d oppos i t i on i n 5: 11) 5: 1 6 c onc l ude s t he pr e c e di ng a r gum e nt a nd w e w i l l e nga ge t hi s he r e 5 : 1 i n pa r t i c ul a r m a y ha ve pe r ha ps be e n be t t e r l oc a t e d a s e m pha t i c c onc l us i on a t t he e nd of c h. 4 1 3 5 B e t z i de nt i f i e s 5: 1 a s t he f i r s t o f t hr e e i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a s i n t he pa r a ne t i c s e c t i on 1 3 6 ( t he onl y one i n t he undi s put e d s e c t i on) T he i ndi c a t i ve he r e s pr i ngs f r om 4 : 31. T he G a l a t i a ns a r e c hi l dr e n of t he f r e e w om a n, t he he a ve nl y J e r us a l e m ( 4: 31, s e e 26 ) C hr i s t ha s s e t t he m f r e e t o l i ve i n f r e e dom ( 5: 1) T o s ubm i t a ga i n t o t he s l a ve r y f r om w hi c h C hr i s t de l i ve r e d t he m w oul d r e nde r C hr i s t s w or k of no be ne f i t ( 5: 2 ) T hi s w oul d be a de c i s i on t o be c ut of f f r om C hr i s t a f a l l f r o m gr a c e ( 5: 4, s e e 2: 21)

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52 T he m e a ni ng of 5: 3 m a y be t w o f ol d. T he oppone n t s m a y ha ve be e n pr om ot i ng t he t oke n i ni t i a t i on r i t e of c i r c um c i s i on a pa r t f r om f ul l T or a h obs e r va nc e o r t he y m a y ha ve not be e n e xpl i c i t a bout w ha t w o ul d be r e qui r e d of t he G a l a t i a ns l a t e r 1 3 7 H ow e ve r P a ul m a y a l s o be a l l udi n g t o t he f r e e dom / s l a ve r y a l l e gor y he r e a nd dr i vi ng hom e t he poi nt t ha t one c a nnot r e t ur n pa r t i a l l y t o s l a ve r y t he obl i ga t i on t o ke e p t he e nt i r e l a w s i gni f i e s a t ot a l r e t u r n t o s l a ve r y. W e w i l l a ga i n not e 5: 5 be l ow i n t he c ont e xt of t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l / a poc a l ypt i c t he m e s ; a t t hi s poi nt w e w oul d s i m pl y r e c ogni z e t h e f a m i l i a r P a ul i ne a l r e a dy bu t not ye t T he G a l a t i a ns l i ke A br a ha m ha ve be e n de c l a r e d r i ght e ous by f a i t h, a s e vi de nc e d by t he S pi r i t but t he y m us t c ont i nue t h r ough t he S pi r i t b y f a i t h, i n t he hope o f t he c om i ng r i ght e ous ne s s 1 3 8 T hi s e s c ha t ol ogi c a l a l r e a dy a nd not ye t w or ks qui t e w e l l w i t h t he P a ul i ne i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a s a s w e s ha l l s e e T he f i na l ve r s e i n t h i s s e c t i on, 5: 6 w i l l be t he m os t c r uc i a l t o t hi s t he s i s P a ul f i r s t m a ke s a n e xpl i c i t de c l a r a t i on of t he us e l e s s ne s s of t he f o r m e r i de nt i t y m a r ke r s of c i r c um c i s i on a nd unc i r c um c i s i on, t hus i nva l i da t i ng t he oppone nt s a r gu m e nt r e ga r di ng t he i nc om pl e t e ne s s of t he G a l a t i a ns s t a t us i n C hr i s t M or e i m por t a nt l y P a ul he r e br oa c he s t he t he m e of l ove a s t he w or k of f a i t h. T hi s i s now t he onl y r e a l c r i t e r i on I f not f or t hi s i m po r t a nt t r a ns i t i ona l ve r s e l oc a t e d i n t he undi s put e d s e c t i on of G a l a t i a ns t he p r opone nt s f or t he uni t y of t he e pi s t l e m a y no t ha v e f a r e d s o w e l l A s i s i t t hi s r e vol ut i ona r y dyna m i c gr ounds a nd i n f or m s P a ul s e t hi c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a t e ve r y t ur n a s w e s ha l l s e e F i na l l y w e w oul d a ga i n not e t ha t P a ul i s not a r gui ng a ga i ns t w or ks a s s uc h. H e r e w e s e e c l e a r l y t ha t he i s r e qui r i ng w or ks o f l o ve a s t he r e s ul t of f a i t h i n C hr i s t 1 3 9

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53 A s r e ga r ds P a ul s obs e r ve d r he t o r i c a l de f t ne s s i n t ur ni ng T o r a h on i t s he a d, w e m a y s t i l l w onde r h ow e f f e c t i ve t hi s w oul d ha ve be e n i n c onvi nc i ng t he G a l a t i a ns W e ha ve not e d t ha t t he s e na r r a t i ve s m a y w e l l ha ve be e n us e d by t he oppone nt s i n t he i r a r gum e nt s t o t he G a l a t i a ns undoubt e dl y ne ve r c ons i de r i ng t ha t t he i r obvi ous l ogi c c oul d be s o i m pugne d. P a ul w oul d ha ve ha d t o know t ha t t he oppone nt s w oul d c on s i de r hi s e xpos i t i ons r i di c ul ous ; t he f a c t t ha t P a ul a r gue s s o c onf i de nt l y m a y i ndi c a t e hi s a s s um pt i on t ha t t he G a l a t i a n G e nt i l e s di d no t ha ve s uf f i c i e nt ba c kgr ound i n J e w i s h t r a di t i on t o pe r c e i ve t he i r r e gul a r i t y a nd a bs ur di t y i n hi s r e a s oni ng. I t w oul d ha ve t a ke n gr e a t pa t i e nc e on t he pa r t o f t he oppone nt s t o s ys t e m a t i c a l l y w or k t h r ough t he body o f P a ul s e xpos i t i ons e xpl a i ni ng t he l ogi c a l f l a w s a c c or di ng t o J e w i s h t r a di t i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng t o t he G e nt i l e e x pa ga ns M or e i m p or t a nt l y, P a ul ba s e s hi s a r gu m e nt s s qua r e l y on t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e o f t he S pi r i t w hi c h i s not f a l s i f i a bl e by a ny l ogi c a nd t he oppone nt s w oul d ha ve ha d t o r e c onc i l e t he i r a r gum e nt s t o t ha t e xpe r i e nc e a nd va l i da t e i t a t e ve r y t ur n. F i na l l y, P a ul s a ppe a l t o hi s ow n di vi ne r e ve l a t i on ( 1: 1, 11 12 15 17; 2: 1 2 7 9) i s a l s o not f a l s i f i a bl e a nd i f t he G a l a t i a ns ha ve i nde e d e xpe r i e nc e d e ve nt s t hr ough P a ul s m i ni s t r y t ha t t he y c ons i de r t o be m i r a c l e s ( 3: 5 ) t he a ppe a l t o t he di vi ne w oul d c a r r y s ubs t a nt i a l w e i ght P a ul s a ppe a l t o pe r s ona l r e ve l a t i on a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e of C hr i s t w oul d i m pl y t ha t t hos e w ho d i s a gr e e d l a c ke d t he s e t hi ngs A s D unn poi nt s out P a ul s a r gum e nt s ne e d not m a ke s e ns e t o t he oppone nt s W e c a n ha r dl y a s s um e t ha t s uc h r e a s oni ng w oul d ha ve c ut m uc h i c e w i t h t he ot he r m i s s i ona r i e s . . A s f or t he G e nt i l e c onve r t s a t G a l a t i a t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t s houl d ha ve be e n s uf f i c i e nt t o c onf i r m t he ba s i c pos i t i on; a l l t ha t w a s ne c e s s a r y be yond t ha t w a s a s uf f i c i e nt l y c ohe r e nt de f e ns e t o e na bl e t he m t o c ount e r t he pr opa ga nda of t he ot he r m i s s i ona r i e s a nd t o m a i nt a i n t he i r ow n s e l f unde r s t a ndi ng. 1 4 0

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54 C o n t i n u i t y a n d D i s c o n t i n u i t y A s w e ha ve s e e n, P a ul r e pe a t e dl y m a ke s a ppe a l t o t he bi bl i c a l na r r a t i ve s i n hi s e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns t o but t r e s s hi s a r gum e nt s b ut hi s i nt e r p r e t a t i on a nd a ppl i c a t i on of t he t r a di t i ona l m ot i f s r e pr e s e nt nove l unde r s t a ndi n gs t ha t a r e of t e n r e vol ut i ona r y. P a ul pr e s e nt s hi s gos pe l a s t he c ul m i na t i on of G od s c o ve na nt pr om i s e s i n t he T or a h, but e ve r yt hi ng i s now r e i nt e r pr e t e d i n l i ght of t he c r uc i f i xi on of C hr i s t a nd t he c om i ng of t he S pi r i t by f a i t h T he C hr i s t e ve nt pr o f oundl y a f f e c t s P a ul s pe r c e pt i on of e ve r yt hi ng a s W i t he r i ngt on not e s : A s s e s s i ng c ont i nui t y ve r s us di s c ont i nui t y w i t h J ud a i s m i n P a ul s t hi nki ng i s c r i t i c a l A s a s e c t a r i a n pe r s on, P a ul ov e r a nd ove r a ga i n t a ke s up a nd us e s hi s J e w i s h he r i t a ge but m odi f i e s i t i n t he l i ght o f hi s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he C hr i s t e ve nt T he m odi f i c a t i on i s pr of ound no t t r i vi a l a f f e c t i ng t he w a y he v i e w s t he na t ur e o f G o d, t he f unc t i on a nd p ur pos e of t he l a w w ho t he t r ue pe opl e o f G od a r e t he c r i t e r i a f or be i ng i n t ha t pe opl e a nd t he c om i ng f ul f i l l m e nt of a l l t h i ngs . 1 4 1 W hi l e a f f i r m i ng c ont i nui t y w i t h t he J e w i s h t r a di t i o n, P a ul a ppe a l s t o di r e c t r e ve l a t i on f r om G od t hr ough C hr i s t t ha t va l i da t e s a l l hi s he r m e ne ut i c a l a c t i vi t y i n t ur ni ng t he c om m on unde r s t a ndi ngs of T or a h i ns i de out a nd u ps i de dow n. W e w oul d c e r t a i nl y e xpe c t t hi s t he ol ogi c a l c ont i nui t y a nd di s c ont i nui t y t o a f f e c t t he p r e s e nt a t i on a nd c ont e nt of P a ul s e t hi c s a s w e l l 1 4 2 W e ha ve s e e n a f e w c om pe l l i ng e xa m pl e s of t hi s c ont i nui t y a nd di s c ont i nui t y B a r c l a y not e s t ha t i t i s c r uc i a l f o r P a ul t o p r ove t ha t G e nt i l e s a r e t he c ove na nt c hi l dr e n o f A br a ha m a nd t ha t t he i r r e de m pt i on i s i n c ont i nui t y w i t h t he pr om i s e s m a de t o A b r a ha m a nd s c r i pt ur a l de c l a r a t i on t ha t G od w oul d j us t i f y t h e G e nt i l e s by f a i t h ( 3: 8) O n t he ot he r ha nd, P a ul s a ys t ha t t hi s f a i t h w a s onl y r e ve a l e d i n C hr i s t ( 3: 23) P a ul c e r t a i nl y w a s of a

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55 di f f e r e nt m i nd t ow a r d C hr i s t i a ns be f or e t he gos pe l w a s r e ve a l e d t o hi m ( 1: 11 17 ) 1 4 3 T hi s doe s not i m pl y c ont r a di c t i on A s S a nde r s e xp l a i ns i t w a s w i t h t he r e ve l a t i on of C hr i s t t ha t P a ul c a m e t o r e a l i z e i t w a s ne ve r G od s pl a n f o r t he l a w t o i de nt i f y t he e l e c t a nd r e c ogni z e d t ha t G od s p l a n t o j us t i f y a l l by f a i t h a l one w a s pr e vi ous l y a nnounc e d i n t he A br a ha m i c na r r a t i ve T he t r ue m e a ni ng of t he s c r i pt ur e w a s a l w a ys pr e s e nt but i t w a s hi dde n unt i l r e ve a l e d i n C hr i s t 1 4 4 ( W e w oul d a ga i n not e t ha t i f t he t r ue s e ns e w a s s t i l l hi dde n t o P a ul s oppone nt s a de f i c i e nc y i n t h e i r e xpe r i e nc e of C hr i s t i s i m pl i e d. ) I n 4: 1 7 t he a na l ogy of t he c hi l d he i r w ho i s s ubj e c t t o gua r di a ns a ppoi nt e d by hi s f a t he r unt i l c om i ng t o m a t ur i t y t a ke s a n une xpe c t e d t ur n w he n t he c onc l us i on i nvol ve s s l a ve s be i ng s e t f r e e a nd t he n a dopt e d a s c h i l dr e n! T hus t he i de a o f t he J e w s a s c hi l dr e n gua r de d by t he l a w now r e ve a l s t he s l a ve r y of J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s a nd t he ne e d f or a l l t o be s e t f r e e a nd a dopt e d 1 4 5 W e ha ve not e d t he i m p l i e d pa r a l l e l be t w e e n t he l a w a s pe da gogue / di s c i pl i na r i a n ( 3: 24) o r gu a r di a n/ t r us t e e ( 4: 2) a nd t he s l a ve r y t o e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s ( 4: 9) T he H a ga r / I s hm a e l a nd S a r a h/ I s a a c a l l e gor y i n 4: 21 31 i s t he m os t r e vol ut i ona r y r e de f i ni ng o f t he A br a ha m i c c ove na nt ye t i n s uc h di s c ont i nui t y w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng, P a ul m a i nt a i ns t he pe r m a ne nt va l i di t y of t he A b r a ha m i c c ove na nt i n c ont i nui t y w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns pos i t i on i n C hr i s t 1 4 6 T he bl e s s i ng i n 6: 16 i s pe r ha ps t he e pi t om e of c ont i nui t y a nd di s c ont i nui t y A f t e r r e a f f i r m i ng hi s c onvi c t i on t ha t c i r c um c i s i on a nd u nc i r c um c i s i on m e a n not hi ng a ny l onge r a nd a ne w c r e a t i on i n C hr i s t i s e ve r y t hi ng ( 15 ) P a ul bl e s s e s t hos e t ha t w a l k a c c or di ng t o t hi s r ul e T he l a ngua ge he r e m a y i ndi c a t e a t r a di t i ona l f or m of bl e s s i ng, a nd i s r e m i ni s c e nt of t he c onc l us i ons of P s a l m s 125 a nd 128: P e a c e be upon I s r a e l H e r e

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56 P a ul pr onounc e s hi s bl e s s i ng upon t hos e w ho f ol l o w t he r ul e of t he ne w c r e a t i on: P e a c e be upon t he m a nd m e r c y a nd upon t he I s r a e l of G od. C ons i de r i ng t he i m m e di a t e c ont e xt ( t he r e i s no di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n J e w a nd G e nt i l e ) a nd P a ul s p r e vi ous r a di c a l r e i de nt i f i c a t i ons ( J e w s c a n be H a ga r s c hi l dr e n G e nt i l e s c a n be S a r a h s ) i t s e e m s P a ul i s r e de f i ni ng t he t r ue I s r a e l of G od a s t hos e J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s t ha t a r e uni t e d i n C hr i s t t o t he e xc l us i on of unbe l i e vi ng J e w s 1 4 7 A s B a r c l a y poi nt s out i f e ve n t he na m e I s r a e l c a n be s o r e de f i ne d, c l e a r l y not h i ng c a n be r e ga r de d a s e xe m pt f r om r a di c a l r e i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n t he l i ght o f C hr i s t 1 4 8

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57 A S o c i o l o g i c a l M o d e l o f B r e a k a w a y S e c t s F r a nc i s W a t s on ha s pr opos e d t ha t P a ul s r a di c a l r e i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t r a di t i ona l J uda i s m c a n be s t be unde r s t ood a s t he i de ol ogy o f a s e c t br e a ki ng a w a y f r o m i t s pa r e nt r e l i gi on a nd s e e ki ng t o l e gi t i m a t e i t s e xi s t e nc e a s t he t r ue he i r s o f t he r e l i gi ous t r a di t i on. T he s oc i a l r e a l i t y w hi c h unde r l i e s P a ul s d i s c us s i on of J uda i s m a nd t he l a w i s hi s c r e a t i on o f G e nt i l e C hr i s t i a n c om m un i t i e s i n s ha r p s e pa r a t i on f r om t he J e w i s h c om m uni t y. H i s t he ol ogi c a l r e f l e c t i on l e gi t i m a t e s t he s e pa r a t i on of c hur c h f r om s yna gogue 1 4 9 W hi l e W a t s on a s s um e s a c om pl e t e br e a k be t w e e n P a ul a nd t he J e r us a l e m c hur c h a nd bl ur s t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns a nd t he s yna gogue hi s i ns i ght i nt o how r e f or m m ove m e nt s a nd br e a ka w a y s e c t s i nt r oduc e uni que r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f t r a di t i ona l t he m e s t o de f i ne t he m s e l ve s i n c ont r a s t t o t he i r pa r e nt r e l i gi on i s he l pf ul E ve n i f t he br e a k be t w e e n J e r us a l e m a nd t he G e nt i l e c ongr e ga t i ons i s ove r s t a t e d, t he oppos i t i on of t he c i r c um c i s i on f a c t i on i n G a l a t i a w oul d ha ve ne c e s s i t a t e d t he de ve l opm e nt of s e c t a r i a n i de ol ogy a s a r e s po ns e bot h t o di s t i ngui s h t he G e nt i l e s C hr i s t i a ns a s t he t r ue he i r s o f t he pr om i s e s t o A br a ha m a nd d i s c r e di t t he m o r e t r a di t i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng of t he oppone nt s C l e a r l y t he de ve l opm e nt of s e c t a r i a n i de ol ogy a nd s e pa r a t i on/ oppos i t i on f r om t he pa r e nt r e l i gi on a r e m ut ua l l y de pe nde nt a nd c e r t a i n s i t ua t i ons m a y i nvi t e t he c hi c ke n or t he e gg que s t i on. W a t s on us e s t w o s oc i ol ogi c a l m ode l s T he f i r s t m ode l c onc e r ns how a r e l i gi o us m ove m e nt i s t r a ns f or m e d i nt o a s e c t a s t he r e s ul t o f oppos i t i on a nd r e s ponds by c ons t r uc t i ng c l e a r l y de f i ne d boun da r i e s be t w e e n i t s e l f a nd t he pa r e nt r e l i gi on 1 5 0 T he pr obl e m be gi ns w i t h a c onf l i c t be t w e e n t he c ha r i s m a t i c l e a de r s hi p of t he r e f o r m e r s a nd t he t r a di t i ona l a ut ho r i t y s t r uc t u r e s B e c a us e i t c a n not a c qui r e t he pow e r t o a c hi e ve i t s

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58 goa l s t he r e f o r m m ove m e nt m us t b r e a k a w a y f r o m t he r e s i s t a nt t r a di t i on t o s ur vi ve B e c a us e t he ne w s e c t s or i gi na l hope f u l ne s s i n G od s w or ki ng i n s oc i e t y ha s be e n f r us t r a t e d, i t a dopt s a n i ns i de r / out s i de r dyna m i c a n d a f oc us on i t s e s c ha t ol ogi c a l vi ndi c a t i on. A t t hi s poi n t s oc i e t y out s i de t he s e c t i s w r i t t e n of f I t s t a nds c onde m ne d; i t i s l i a bl e t o G od s j udgm e nt S a l va t i on i s t o be f oun d e xc l us i ve l y t hr ough m e m be r s hi p of t he s e c t T he s e c t i s t hus di f f e r e nt i a t e d f r om t he r e f or m m ove m e nt by i t s a l i e na t i on f r om s oc i e t y. 1 5 1 T hough one m i ght c ons i de r W a t s on s c onc l us i ons on t he f i na l s t a t e o f t he s e c t a bi t t oo c a t e gor i c a l he r i ght l y s t r e s s e s t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t a c c om pa ni e s r e l i gi ous s e c t a r i a ni s m a nd w e w i l l r e t ur n t o t hi s a s pe c t 1 5 2 W a t s on s s e c ond s oc i ol ogi c a l m ode l c onc e r ns t he s e c t s ne e d f or a s ha r e d i de ol ogy t o l e gi t i m a t e t he s e c t s s e pa r a t i on f r om t h e pa r e nt r e l i gi on T he f i r s t a s pe c t of t hi s i s t he de nunc i a t i on o f t he s e c t s oppone nt s f ol l ow e d by t he us e of a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons i n w hi c h t he s e c t m e m be r s r e pr e s e nt l i ght t r ut h, s pi r i t r i ght e ous ne s s e t c a nd t he oppone nt s t he oppos i t e H ow e ve r P a ul s m a ny a nt i t he s e s i n G a l a t i a ns a r e r a r e l y pr e c i s e l y f oc us e d on hi s oppone nt s T hi s m a y be d ue t o P a ul s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w hom he w a s de a l i ng w i t h, o r m o r e s i m pl y be c a us e he t hou ght pr e c i s e de l i ne a t i on of hi s oppone nt s w oul d not be he l p f ul T he f i na l a s pe c t i s of W a t s on s s e c ond m ode l i s t he r e i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he r e l i gi ous t r a di t i ons o f t he c om m uni t y a s a w ho l e i n t he l i ght of t he be l i e f t ha t t he s e c t a r i a n gr oup i s t he s ol e l e gi t i m a t e he i r t o t hos e t r a di t i ons 1 5 3 T he goa l of t he s e c t s t he ol ogi c a l r e i nt e r pr e t a t i on i s t he di s qua l i f i c a t i on o f a l l o t he r s out s i de t he s e c t 1 5 4 I n t he pa r e nt r e l i gi ous c om m uni t y . t he r e i s onl y c onde m na t i on. 1 5 5

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59 T hi s m ode l t hough s t a t e d i n e xt r e m e t e r m s i s he l pf ul T he pr obl e m a r i s e s i n r e l a t i on t o W a t s on s e va l ua t i on o f P a ul W a t s on a r gue s t ha t t he s e pa r a t i on of c hur c h a nd s yna gogue t ook pl a c e f or p r a c t i c a l r e a s ons a nd no t be c a us e of a ny t he or e t i c a l i nc om pa t i bi l i t y be t w e e n t he p r a c t i c e of J uda i s m a nd f a i t h i n C hr i s t . . F a i t h i n C hr i s t i s i nc om pa t i bl e w i t h w or ks o f t he l a w be c a us e t he c h ur c h i s s e pa r a t e f r om t he s yna gogue 1 5 6 I f t hi s w e r e t r ue e va l ua t i ng t he r e l a t i on of P a ul s e t hi c s t o h i s t he or y w oul d s e e m poi nt l e s s H ow e ve r w e c a n a ppr e c i a t e W a t s on s i ns i ght i nt o how r e l i gi ous r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons f unc t i on i n s e c t a r i a n g r oups w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng t ha t P a ul s t he o r e t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a nd e t hi c a l s ys t e m s a r e ba s e d on m or e t ha n w ha t w a s c onve ni e nt f o r hi s pol i t i c a l a ge nda s 1 5 7 W e a r e e nt i t l e d t o c ha l l e nge W a t s on s pr e di s pos i t i on t ha t P a ul s pr i m a r y m ot i ve i s t o e f f e c t s e pa r a t i on a nd de m oni z e t he pa r e nt r e l i gi on. I f P a ul d i d t e l l t he t r ut h a bout hi s e xpe r i e nc e s he r e c e i v e d t he r e ve l a t i on t ha t J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s w e r e be i ng b r ought t oge t he r i nt o one body t h r ough t he c r uc i f i xi on a nd r e s ur r e c t i on of C hr i s t a nd t he f or m e r di vi s i ons a nd i de nt i t y m a r ke r s no l onge r m a t t e r e d. H i s s t a t e d goa l w a s ne ve r s e pa r a t i on f r om J e w s ; w he n s e pa r a t i on s e e m e d i ne vi t a bl e P a ul s t i l l a f f i r m e d G e nt i l e s a nd J e w s ha d be e n uni t e d i n C hr i s t ( e g R om a ns 3: 29 30 4: 12 10: 12) P a ul s i de a l w a s uni t y, t hough a dm i t t e dl y, t ha t w a s of t e n not pos s i bl e P a ul s a ge nda w a s t o pr ot e c t t hos e c om m uni t i e s he s t a r t e d f r o m a va r i e t y of da nge r s f r om i ns i de r a nd out s i de r gr oups t r yi ng t o e xe r t c ont r ol i n w a ys he t hought w e r e da m a gi ng. P a ul w a s de vot e d t o hi s c hi l dr e n a nd of t e n w a xe d pa s s i ona t e a bout t he i r c ont i nui ng i n t he t r ut h of t he gos pe l t he y ha d e xpe r i e nc e d F o r our s t udy t o be pr o f i t a bl e

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60 w e m us t a c c e pt P a ul s r e a l c onc e r n f or t he w e l f a r e of hi s pe opl e a nd w e m us t m a i nt a i n P a ul s i nt e gr i t y a s a be l i e ve r hi m s e l f s e e ki ng t r ut h not di s r e ga r di ng i t w he ne ve r c onve ni e nt a s W a t s on m a i nt a i ns 1 5 8 W i t he r i ngt on s a s s e s s m e nt of P a ul s i nt e gr i t y m a y he l p t o ba l a nc e t he s c a l e s he r e T he P a ul w ho of f e r e d l e t t e r s o f t he ol ogi z i ng a nd e t hi c s ha d hi m s e l f be e n t r a ns f or m e d a nd w a s be i ng t r a ns f or m e d i nt o t he i m a ge of C hr i s t . H e ha d e xpe r i e nc e d hi s t he ol ogy be f o r e he e ve r e x pr e s s e d i t ha d s t r i ve n t o l i ve out hi s e t hi c s be f or e he e ve r e xho r t e d ot he r s t o go a nd do l i ke w i s e . H i s ne w c om m uni t i e s a nd c onve r t s t he body of C hr i s t ga ve hi m a c ont e xt i n w hi c h he c oul d be e m be dde d a nd do t he ol ogy a nd e t hi c s H e kne w ve r y w e l l w ho he w a s be c a us e he kne w w hos e he w a s a nd t o w hom he w a s c a l l e d t o p r e a c h a nd t e a c h a nd nu r t u r e H i s w or l d w a s C hr i s t a nd hi s body, a nd hi s t hough t a s e xpr e s s e d i n hi s l e t t e r s m a ke s r e gul a r j our ne ys be t w e e n t he s e t w o pol e s 1 5 9 W i t he r i ngt on a l s o r e c og ni z e s P a ul a s a s e c t a r i a n i n vol ve d i n he l pi ng hi s c hur c he s ( m a de up of bot h J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s ) t o r e i nt e r pr e t a nd a p pr opr i a t e t he r e l i gi ous c onc e pt s of t r a di t i ona l J uda i s m t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he i r ne w i de nt i t y a s c hi l dr e n o f G od. P a ul us e d hi s c ons i de r a bl e r he t or i c a l s ki l l t o gr e a t a dva nt a ge i n a dva nc i ng hi s a ge nda but w i t hout c om pr om i s i ng t he i nt e gr i t y o f w ha t he be l i e ve d. 1 6 0 P a ul s s oc i a l a ge nda of c our s e i nvol ve d t he l e gi t i m a t i on of C hr i s t i a ni t y s e xi s t e nc e i n di s t i nc t i on f r om t r a di t i ona l J uda i s m a nd, i n t he c a s e of G e nt i l e s t he l e gi t i m a t i on of t he i r f a i t h i n C hr i s t w i t hout p r os e l yt e c onve r s i on. B ut P a ul s s oc i a l a ge nda i nvol ve d m uc h m or e I t i s a m e a s ur e of hi s s uc c e s s a s a r he t or t ha t he w a s a bl e t o c onvi nc e pe opl e of s oc i a l l y di s c onc e r t i ng not i ons a bout s e r va nt hood, s e l f s a c r i f i c e e qua l i t y o f pe r s onhood, l ove o f e ne m i e s a nd gr a c e r a t he r t ha n r e c i pr oc i t y, us i ng t he f o r m a l c onve nt i ons o f t he da y t o hi s a dva nt a ge 1 6 1 T he c ha r a c t e r o f P a ul s m i ni s t r y w a s s e r va nt hood a nd s e l f s a c r i f i c e ba s e d o n t he

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61 e xa m pl e of C hr i s t a s he unde r s t ood i t H i s e t hi c s w e r e ba s e d on a f a i t h t ha t w o r ks by l ove a nd a f r e e dom t ha t c hoos e s t o s e r ve ot he r s s o f ul f i l l i ng t he l a w of C hr i s t P a ul c ha l l e nge d t he s oc i a l c onve nt i ons of hi s da y i n a f f i r m i ng no di s t i nc t i on i n G od s e va l ua t i on be t w e e n s l a ve s a nd f r e e m e n, m a l e a nd f e m a l e J e w a nd G e nt i l e W i t hi n t he c hur c h, t hos e of l ow e r s oc i a l s t a t us c oul d be on e q ua l f oot i ng w i t h t hos e of m or e pr i vi l e ge d pos i t i on, a s br ot he r s a nd s i s t e r s i n t he s a m e f a m i l y. T he l oc a l c hur c h e xi s t e d a s a r e l i gi ous s ubc ul t ur e i n t he l a r ge r s oc i e t y, but t hi s di d not i nvol ve a n i de ol ogy de m a ndi ng f ul l s e pa r a t i on 1 6 2 T he r a di c a l s e c t a r i a ni s m W a t s on de s c r i be s m or e c l os e l y a ppl i e s t o t hos e c hur c he s r e j e c t e d a nd pe r s e c ut e d b y t he pa r e nt s oc i e t y. T he be s t e xa m pl e of a J e w i s h br e a ka w a y s e c t c ont e m por a r y t o t he e a r l y C hr i s t i a n m ove m e nt i s f ound a t Q um r a n 1 6 3 T he s c r i pt u r a l e xe ge s i s f ound i n s om e of t he Q um r a n doc um e nt s f e a t ur e s r a di c a l r e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons of t r a d i t i ona l J e w i s h t e xt s a nd m ot i f s ba s e d on s pe c i a l r e ve l a t i ons a f f i r m i ng t he s e c t s c hos e n s t a t us a nd t he i r i m m i ne nt e s c ha t ol ogi c a l vi ndi c a t i on. 1 6 4 T he a nt i t he s e s r e f e r r i ng t o t he c hos e n f a i t hf ul ve r s us t he out s i de r s a r e a bunda nt a nd W a t s on s m ode l f i t s w e l l he r e a l i t t l e be t t e r t ha n i t f i t s m os t of P a ul s c hu r c he s T he obvi ous di f f e r e nc e s s e e m t o be f ound i n t he de gr e e of s e pa r a t i on f r om s oc i e t y ( a nd e xpl i c i t c onde m na t i on of i t ) a nd t he s pe c i f i c c ha r a c t e r of t he a poc a l ypt i c / e s c ha t ol ogi c a l t hought N ot w i t hs t a ndi ng, W a t s on i s c or r e c t i n hi s a s s e s s m e nt of t he i m por t a nc e of a nt i t he s e s i n P a ul s r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons i n G a l a t i a ns ( a nd i n hi s c onc l us i on t ha t t he f a i t h ve r s us w or ks a nt i t he s i s i s m i s unde r s t ood i n t r a di t i ona l L ut he r a n t he ol ogy) 1 6 5 W e w oul d a l s o m a i nt a i n t ha t a poc a l ypt i c / e s c ha t ol ogi c a l t hought i s a di s t i nc t i ve f e a t ur e of P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd i t i s t o t hi s a s pe c t t ha t w e now t ur n

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62 T h e A p o c a l y p t i c C o n t e x t o f P a u l s G o s p e l E ve n a c ur s or y t r e a t m e nt of a l l o f P a ul s a poc a l ypt i c t he m e s i n G a l a t i a ns i s be yond t he s c ope of ou r b r i e f e nga ge m e nt he r e bu t w e c a n i de nt i f y s om e m a j or t he m e s a nd obs e r ve a n a poc a l ypt i c f r a m e w or k t hr oughou t t he e pi s t l e F or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, w e ne e d not e s t a bl i s h a pr e c i s e di s t i nc t i on b e t w e e n a poc a l ypt i c a nd e s c ha t ol ogi c a l H ow e ve r w e m us t a t l e a s t s pe c i f y w ha t w e m e a n t o i ndi c a t e by t he s e i nt e r c ha nge a bl e t e r m s J ohn J C ol l i ns of f e r s a de f i ni t i on o f a n a poc a l yps e a s a r e ve l a t i on m e di a t e d by a s upe r na t ur a l be i ng di s c l os i ng a t r a ns c e nde nt r e a l i t y w hi c h i s bot h t e m por a l i ns of a r a s i t e nvi s a ge s e s c ha t ol ogi c a l s a l va t i on, a nd s pa t i a l i ns of a r a s i t i nvol ve s a not he r s upe r na t ur a l w or l d. 1 6 6 T hi s dua l i t y be t w e e n t e m p or a l a nd s pa t i a l i s e nha nc e d i n W a yne A M e e ks l i s t i ng of a poc a l ypt i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I n br i e f ( 1 ) s e c r e t s ha ve be e n r e ve a l e d t o t he a ut hor or pr ophe t ( 2) ha vi ng t o do w i t h a n i m m i ne nt c os m i c t r a ns f or m a t i on ( 3 ) w hi c h w i l l s e pa r a t e t hi s a ge f r om t he a ge t o c om e a nd ( 4) i nc l ude f i na l j udgm e nt s e pa r a t i on of t he good f r om t he w i c ke d, a nd r e c t i f i c a t i on of t he w or l d or de r ( 5) T he a poc a l ypt i c uni ve r s e i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t hr e e c or r e s pondi ng dua l i t i e s : ( a ) c os m i c : he a ve n/ e a r t h, ( b) t e m por a l : t hi s a ge / t he a ge t o c om e a nd ( c ) s oc i a l : t he s ons of l i ght / s ons of da r kne s s r i gh t e ous / unr i ght e ous t he e l e c t / t he w or l d. 1 6 7 T he t e r m e s c ha t on ne e d not r e f e r t o t he e nd of t he w or l d pe r s e but t o t he c os m i c t r a ns f or m a t i on t ha t i na ugur a t e s t he ne w a ge w hi c h i s di v i ne l y r e ve a l e d, a nd t hus a po c a l ypt i c T he qui c ke s t w a y t o be gi n t o e m pha s i z e t he i m por t a nc e of t he a poc a l ypt i c i n G a l a t i a ns i s t o not e t ha t t he s e t he m e s c ha r a c t e r i z e P a ul s i nt r oduc t i on a nd c onc l us i on. I n G a l a t i a ns 1: 1 ( a s i n 1: 12 15 16; 2: 2 8 9) P a ul e m pha s i z e s t ha t hi s gos pe l c om m i s s i on t o

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63 t he G e nt i l e s c a m e by di vi ne r e ve l a t i on, a nd t hi s r e ve l a t i on c a m e t hr ough t he r e s ur r e c t e d C hr i s t I n 1: 3 4, C hr i s t s s a c r i f i c i a l de a t h ha s s e t us f r e e f r om t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge a c c or di ng t o t he w i l l o f G od, our F a t he r 1 6 8 I n hi s c onc l us i on i n 6: 16 P a ul s f i na l bl e s s i ng i s on t hos e w ho f ol l ow t he ne w c r e a t i on w hi c h i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he c om pl e t e r e or de r i ng o f s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps i n 6: 15. 1 6 9 T hi s ne w r e a l i t y i s i na ugur a t e d by C hr i s t s c r uc i f i xi on i n 6: 14, a nd P a ul s pa r t i c i pa t e s i n t he n e w c r e a t i on by hi s r e l a t i on t o t ha t e ve nt : t he w or l d ha s be e n c r uc i f i e d t o m e a nd I t o t he w or l d T he s e f e w ve r s e s a l one r e ve a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c a poc a l ypt i c / e s c ha t ol ogi c a l t he m e s w hi c h a r e s om e of t he m a j or t he m e s of t he e pi s t l e R e s ur r e c t i on i s t he gr e a t e s c ha t ol ogi c a l pr om i s e a nd t he r e s ur r e c t i on of J e s us i n G a l a t i a ns 1: 1 s i gna l s t ha t a l l t ha t f ol l ow s i s i n l i ne w i t h t ha t hope 1 7 0 R e s ur r e c t i on i s a m a j or t he m e i n t he a l r e a dy a nd not ye t t he ol ogy t h a t i s s o pr e va l e nt i n P a ul a nd m os t of N e w T e s t a m e nt C hr i s t i a ni t y. C hr i s t i s t he f i r s t f r ui t f r om t he de a d, a nd c e r t i f i e s t he r e a l i t y of t he r e s ur r e c t i on hope but t he be l i e ve r s a r e s t i l l hope f ul l y l ooki ng f or w a r d t o t he r e a l i z a t i on of t he pr om i s e T hi s t e ns i on of pr e s e nt r e a l i t y a nd f u t ur e hope i n t he c ont e xt of t he r e s ur r e c t i on t he m e i s s e e n i n t he c onc l us i on i n 6: 14 16 a s t he c r os s of C hr i s t s i gni f i e s one s de a t h i n r e l a t i on t o t he pr e s e nt w or l d a nd s ubs e que nt l i f e a s a ne w c r e a t i on a nd ye t t he be l i e ve r ve r y m uc h c ont i nue s t o s t r uggl e i n hope i n t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge W e m a y a l s o s e e t he a l r e a dy a nd not ye t t e ns i on i n P a ul s c onf e s s i on i n 2: 19 20, a s P a ul r e c kons hi m s e l f c r uc i f i e d w i t h C hr i s t a nd i t i s not he but C hr i s t w ho now l i ve s i n hi m ; on t he ot he r ha nd, he doe s c ont i nue t o l i ve hi s l i f e i n t he f l e s h by f a i t h i n C hr i s t

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64 C l os e l y c onne c t e d t o t he r e s ur r e c t i on t he m e but m uc h m or e e xpl i c i t l y e xpr e s s e d i n G a l a t i a ns i s t he t he m e o f c r uc i f i xi on. T he t r a ns i t i on f r o m t he o l d e vi l a ge t o t he ne w c r e a t i on a ge i s s i gna l e d by t he de a t h of C hr i s t 1 7 1 T he r e a s ons t ha t P a ul c hos e t o f oc us on C hr i s t s c r uc i f i xi on m o r e e xpl i c i t l y t ha n hi s r e s ur r e c t i on a s t he c r uc i a l e ve nt i n t hi s t r a ns i t i on be c om e a ppa r e nt w he n w e c ons i de r t he w a ys P a ul us e s t he t he m e s of c r uc i f i xi on a nd dyi ng i n G a l a t i a ns a nd t he c or r e l a t i ons he s e e m s t o i nt e nd. I n 1: 4, C hr i s t di e d f or s i ns t o s e t us f r e e f r om t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge I n 2: 19 P a ul i s c r uc i f i e d w i t h C hr i s t a nd t h r ough t he l a w di e s t o t he l a w s o he m i ght l i ve t o G od. I n 3: 13 C hr i s t s de a t h r e de e m s us f r om t he c ur s e of t he l a w by be c om i ng a c ur s e hi m s e l f ( j udge d t hus by t he l a w ) I n 5: 24 t hos e i n C hr i s t ha ve c r uc i f i e d t h e f l e s h a nd i t s de s i r e s 1 7 2 A nd i n 6: 14 15, t he c r os s of C hr i s t s i gni f i e s c r uc i f i xi on of t he b e l i e ve r t o t he w or l d a nd t he w or l d t o t he be l i e ve r r e s ul t i ng i n a ne w c r e a t i on a nd t he r a di c a l s oc i a l r e or de r i ng of r e l a t i ons hi ps 1 7 3 T he r e a r e i nt e r e s t i ng pa r a l l e l s ; f or i ns t a nc e i n c ons i de r i ng t he t hi ngs C hr i s t s de a t h i s s a i d t o s e t us f r e e f r om t he l a w a c c om pa ni e s t he pr e s e nt e vi l a g e t he f l e s h s oc i a l i ne qua l i t y a nd t he w or l d! 1 7 4 W e a ga i n not e t he a l r e a dy a nd not ye t a s pe c t T he c ur s e of t he l a w a nd s oc i a l i ne qua l i t y a r e f e a t u r e s of t he p r e s e nt e vi l a ge t ha t a r e s a i d t o be a bol i s he d i n C hr i s t T hough not r e a l i z e d i n t he w or l d ye t t hi s l a c k of d i vi s i ons s houl d be r e a l i z e d i n t he c hur c h o f be l i e ve r s a c c or di ng t o P a ul t o w hom t he w or l d i s c r uc i f i e d. T he f l e s h a nd i t s de s i r e s c r uc i f i e d by be l i e ve r s a r e s t i l l be i ng ove r c om e i n t he l i f e of be l i e ve r s l i vi ng by t he S pi r i t ( 5: 16 ) W e c a n a l s o not e t he i m pl i c a t i ons of 3: 13 14 a nd 2 : 19 20 c ons i de r e d t oge t he r I t w a s unde r t he l a w t ha t C hr i s t w a s c onde m ne d t o d e a t h a nd i t w a s t he l a w t ha t p r onounc e d

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65 hi m a c c ur s e d. T hr ough t hi s a c t i on P a ul a f f i r m s t h a t C hr i s t r e de e m e d us D unn s e e s J e s u s a c t i ng i n a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve c a pa c i t y he r e a s a n e na c t m e nt of hum a n de s t i ny, be a r i ng t he f ul l i m p r i nt o f t he c ur s e on hi m s e l f s o t o e xha us t i t s pow e r 1 7 5 T he l a w c a nnot c onde m n a nd ki l l a pe r s on t w i c e ; a f t e r de a t h i t s pow e r i s br oke n. T he l a w c onde m ne d C hr i s t a nd ki l l e d hi m but G od vi ndi c a t e d hi m a nd r a i s e d hi m out s i de of t he l a w a nd f r e e f r om i t s c ur s e 1 7 6 I de nt i f yi ng w i t h C h r i s t i n hi s c r uc i f i xi on P a ul s a ys i n 2: 19 20 t ha t t hr ough t he l a w he di e d t o t he l a w a n d now l i ve s i n C hr i s t I t i s a f t e r dyi ng unde r t he c ur s e of t he l a w t ha t ne w l i f e ( 2: 20) a nd t he pr om i s e of t he S pi r i t ( 3: 14) a r e r e a l i z e d ( t he a l r e a dy of t he be l i e ve r s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n C hr i s t s r e s ur r e c t i on) T hus t o r e t ur n t o t he bonda ge unde r t he c u r s e of t he l a w f r om w hi c h C hr i s t s de a t h f r e e d hi m w oul d ha ve be e n unt hi nka bl e f or P a ul ; i t w oul d ha ve m e a nt t ha t C hr i s t di e d f or not hi ng ( 2: 21) W e obs e r ve d e a r l i e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r t ha t t he gi v i ng of t he S p i r i t not onl y e vi de nc e d t he s t a t e of t he be l i e ve r but i t ha d e s c ha t ol ogi c a l s i gni f i c a nc e a nd w a s unde r s t ood i n J uda i s m a s s i gna l i ng t he c om i ng of t he ne w a ge F or P a ul t he S pi r i t i s t he S pi r i t of G od s S on ( 4: 6) a nd i t i s C hr i s t w ho br i ngs t he t r a ns i t i on j us t a s he di d i n P a ul s ow n e xpe r i e nc e 1 7 7 W he t he r t he s t r e s s i s put on t he c r u c i f i xi on or r e s ur r e c t i on i t i s c l e a r i n G a l a t i a ns t ha t t he c om i ng o f C hr i s t i s t he c r uc i a l e ve nt be t w e e n t he ol d a nd t he ne w a ge s 1 7 8 N ow f a i t h ha s be e n r e ve a l e d a nd t he S pi r i t gi ve n. T he s l a ve s a r e f r e e d, t he c hi l dr e n a dopt e d, t he c ur s e r e m ove d t he w o r l d c r u c i f i e d. A nd ye t t he r e s c ue f r om t hi s pr e s e nt e vi l a ge i s not c om pl e t e t he e vi l not va nqu i s he d, t he w i c ke d not j udge d, t he de a d not r a i s e d. T he A br a ha m i c pr om i s e of r i ght e ous ne s s by f a i t h ha s be e n r e ve a l e d, t he

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66 gi vi ng of t he S pi r i t e vi de nc e s t he de c l a r a t i on of r i g ht e ous ne s s a nd t he r i ght e ous now l i ve by t he i r f a i t h. A nd ye t t hr ough t he S pi r i t by f a i t h, w e e a ge r l y w a i t f o r t he ho pe of r i ght e ous ne s s ( 5: 5) T he f ut ur e hope i nva de s t he pr e s e nt a nd t he s oc i e t y o f t he be l i e ve r s e vi de nc e s i t s r e a l i t y, a s pr e vi ous di vi s i on s a r e a bol i s he d a nd t he onl y t hi ng t ha t c ount s i s f a i t h w or ki ng t hr ough l ove ( 5 : 6) 1 7 9 T he t e ns i on of t he a l r e a dy a nd not ye t t hus pe r m e a t e s t he c os m i c t e m por a l a nd s oc i a l dua l i t i e s 1 8 0 P a ul por t r a ys t h i s t e ns i on us i ng a num be r of a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons i n G a l a t i a ns i nc l udi ng f l e s h/ S pi r i t s l a ve r y/ f r e e dom l a w / f a i t h c u r s e / bl e s s i ng, w or l d/ ne w c r e a t i on. W e ha ve s e e n a va r i e t y o f w a ys P a ul us e s t he c r uc i f i xi on t he m e i n a nt i t he t i c a l t r a ns i t i ons : f r om l a w t o f a i t h ( 2: 19 20 ) f r om c ur s e t o bl e s s i ng ( 3: 13 14) f r om f l e s h t o S pi r i t ( 5: 24 25 ) a nd f r om t hi s w o r l d t o t he ne w c r e a t i on ( 6: 14 15 ) W e a l s o ha ve s e e n t h a t P a ul us e s pa r a l l e l s be t w e e n a nt i t he s e s t o i m pl y s om e pr ovoc a t i ve c or r e l a t i ons E a r l i e r i n t he c ha pt e r w e not e d t he w a y t ha t P a ul i n hi s us a ge of S p i r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m a nd t he f a i t h/ l a w a nt i t he s i s c o r r e l a t e d t he S pi r i t w i t h f a i t h, t hus i m p l yi ng t he c or r e l a t i on of t he f l e s h a nd t he w or ks of t he l a w W e ha ve ye t t o e xpl or e P a ul s a r t i s t r y i n c onf us i ng t he va r i ous m e a ni ngs of t he t e r m f l e s h w hi c h w e w i l l do i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r W e a l s o ha ve ne e d t o r e t u r n t o P a ul s p r e va l e nt i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve pr i nc i pl e w i t h w hi c h hi s a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a nd t he a l r e a dy a nd not ye t e s c ha t ol ogi c a l f oc us w or k s o w e l l T hi s w i l l be a ddr e s s e d i n t he f i na l s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r A f i na l t e ns i on s houl d be not e d be t w e e n t he a poc a l ypt i c m ot i f s P a ul e m pl oys a nd hi s s a l va t i on hi s t or i c a l out l ook. 1 8 1 W e ha ve obs e r ve d P a ul s va l i da t i on o f t he bi bl i c a l na r r a t i ve a nd hi s c l a i m s t ha t t he c om i ng of C hr i s t a nd t he j us t i f i c a t i on of t he G e nt i l e s by

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67 f a i t h a r e s e e n i n t he pr o m i s e s t o A br a ha m O n t he ot he r ha nd, w e ha ve r e c ogni z e d t he a poc a l ypt i c br e a k be t w e e n t hi s e ns l a ve m e nt of t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge a nd t he f r e e dom of t he ne w c r e a t i on i na ugur a t e d by C hr i s t s c r uc i f i xi on, r e s ul t i ng i n t he a bol i t i on of t he f or m e r r e l i gi ous a nd s oc i a l di s t i nc t i ons T hi s t e ns i on be t w e e n s a l va t i on hi s t or i c a l a nd a poc a l ypt i c pe r s pe c t i ve s i s pr e s e nt i n J e w i s h a poc a l ypt i c f r om D a ni e l t o Q um r a n 1 8 2

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68 T h e I n d i c a t i v e / I m p e r a t i v e P r i n c i p l e W e ha ve not e d a num be r of e xa m pl e s of i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve s t r uc t ur e i n G a l a t i a ns E ve n w he n t he s t r u c t ur e i s e xpl i c i t t he pr i nc i pl e of be i ng w ho you ha ve be c om e a nd l i vi ng t he l i f e you ha ve be e n gi ve n i s pr e va l e nt t hr oughout T he ba s i c f or m ul a i nvol ve s f i r s t a s t a t e m e nt of f a c t r e ga r di ng i de nt i t y/ s t a t e / pos i t i on, f ol l ow e d by a di r e c t i ve t o be ha ve / t hi nk/ l i ve i n w a ys a ppr op r i a t e t o t he f a c t P a ul a l s o us e s t he f o r m ul a t o i l l us t r a t e t he di s pa r i t y o f i de nt i t y/ s t a t e a nd pr a c t i c e t o gr e a t e f f e c t a s w e ha ve s e e n i n 3: 3: H a vi ng s t a r t e d i n t he S pi r i t a r e you now e nd i ng w i t h t he f l e s h? S i m i l a r i l l us t r a t i ons of i nd i c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve di s pa r i t y a r e s e e n i n 2: 14 a nd 4: 7 9 T he f or m ul a c a n a l s o be us e d t o i de nt i f y w i t h a bi bl i c a l c ha r a c t e r a nd/ or s i t ua t i on a nd t he n i s s ue a n i m pe r a t i ve t o a c t a c c or di ngl y. T he gr e a t e xa m pl e of t hi s i n G a l a t i a ns i s i n t he c onc l us i o n of t he H a ga r / I s hm a e l a nd S a r a h/ I s a a c a l l e gor y i n c h. 4 T he G a l a t i a ns a r e c hi l dr e n o f t he f r e e w om a n, 1 8 3 a nd t he y s houl d do w ha t t he f r e e w om a n a nd he r c hi l d di d dr i ve out t he s l a ve w om a n a nd he r c hi l d ( t he oppone nt s ) W e c a n he r e s um m a r i z e P a ul s i n di c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve t he m e s i n G a l a t i a ns S om e di s pl a y t he c l a s s i c s t r uc t ur e ot he r s a r e m or e o r l e s s i m pl i c i t but a l l a r e e s s e nt i a l de a d t o t he l a w c r uc i f i e d w i t h C h r i s t ( 2: 19 20 ) l i ve by f a i t h i n t he S on of G od ha vi ng s t a r t e d w i t h t he S pi r i t ( 3 : 3) don t e nd w i t h t he f l e s h ( c ont i nue w i t h t he S p r i t ) c hi l dr e n of A br a ha m by f a i t h ( 3: 7 10 ) [ i m pl i c i t ] c ont i nue i n f a i t h not w or ks o f l a w c hi l dr e n of G od, c l o t he d w i t h C hr i s t ( 3: 26 28) no m or e di v i s i ons ; a l l one i n C hr i s t a dopt e d a s c hi l dr e n know n by G od ( 4: 5 9 ) do not r e t u r n t o be i ng e ns l a ve d c hi l dr e n of t he f r e e w om a n, a nd of t he p r om i s e bor n a c c or di ng t o t he S pi r i t ( 4: 26 30) c a s t out t he s l a ve a nd he r c hi l d s e t f r e e f or f r e e dom ( 5: 1) do not s ubm i t t o a yoke of s l a ve r y w e a r e c a l l e d t o f r e e dom ( 5: 13) us e f r e e dom t o be s l a ve s t o ot he r s w e l i ve by t he S pi r i t ( 5 : 25) be gui de d by t he S pi r i t c r uc i f i e d t o t he w or l d ( 6: 14 16) l i ve a s a ne w c r e a t i on

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69 E ngbe r g P e de r s e n r e c ogni z e s a ge ne r a l ove r a r c hi n g i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve pr i nc i pl e i n a l l of P a ul s pa r a ne s i s a nd a r gue s t ha t t he pe r c e i ve d pr obl e m s a nd i nc ohe r e nc i e s i n P a ul be gi n t o m a ke s e ns e w i t h a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he l ogi c a l c onne c t i on of t he i ndi c a t i ve a nd i m pe r a t i ve i n hi s t hought E ngbe r g P e de r s e n f i nds t he c l os e s t pa r a l l e l t o P a ul s t hought pa t t e r n i n S t oi c i s m a nd t he a nc i e nt e t hi c a l t r a di t i on ge ne r a l l y. 1 8 4 T he f or m of P a ul i ne pa r a ne s i s i nvol ve s a r e s t a t i ng of t he no r m a t i ve t r ut h o f t he be l i e ve r s pos i t i on i n C hr i s t w hi c h t he y a l r e a dy ha ve a ba s i c know l e dge of f ol l ow e d by a n a ppe a l t o put t he i r r e ne w e d know l e dge i nt o pr a c t i c e T hus P a ul i ne pa r a ne s i s i s a l w a ys a c c om pa ni e d by doi ng t he ol ogy. 1 8 5 O ne ha s onl y t o r e c ogni z e how m a ny o f P a ul s s t a t e m e nt s be gi n w i t h do you not know or i nc l ude f or w e know t o r e a l i z e t ha t E ngbe r g P e de r s e n i s c or r e c t ; i n doi ng t he ol ogy P a ul c us t om a r i l y a ppe a l s t o hi s a udi e nc e a s i f t he y a l r e a dy know a nd w i l l a c qui e s c e t o w ha t he i s s a yi ng. H ow e ve r i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t m os t o f t he s e know i ng s t a t e m e nt s a r e f ound i n R om a ns a nd t he C or i nt hi a n a nd T he s s a l oni a n e pi s t l e s I t i s e s pe c i a l l y i nt e r e s t i ng t ha t i n G a l a t i a ns P a ul m a ke s no t he ol ogi c a l s t a t e m e nt t ha t he e xpl i c i t l y c onf i r m s t he G a l a t i a ns know a l r e a dy; t he onl y s uc h s a yi ng i s a f f i r m i ng w ha t he a nd P e t e r know ( 2: 16 ) P a ul i s i n f a c t a s t oni s he d a t how l i t t l e t he y a ppa r e nt l y do unde r s t a nd ( 1: 6) a nd f e a r s hi s w or k f o r t he m s o f a r m a y ha ve be e n w a s t e d ( 4: 11) E ngbe r g P e de r s e n a l s o not e s t he a poc a l ypt i c f r a m e w or k i n G a l a t i a ns be gi nni ng w i t h t he C hr i s t e ve nt e f f e c t i ng de l i ve r a nc e out o f t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge ( 1 : 4) a nd c onc l udi ng w i t h t he be l i e ve r s c r uc i f i x i on t o t he w or l d i n 6: 14. T he l e t t e r be gi ns w i t h

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70 G od s pl a n, a nd s how s how t he i nt e nde d r e s ul t i s a c c om pl i s he d. 1 8 6 W e ha ve pr e vi ous l y r e c ogni z e d how c onduc i ve a n a poc a l ypt i c c ont e xt i s t o i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a e A n i m por t a nt s i m i l a r i t y t o S t oi c i s m a nd t he a nc i e n t e t hi c a l t r a di t i o n i n P a ul i s h i s f oc us on i nt e l l e c t ove r w i l l 1 8 7 T he i ndi c a t i ve i s a b out know i ng, a nd P a ul s pa r a ne s i s c onc e r ns t he l ogi c a l out w or k i ng of w ha t one e s t e e m s t o be t r ue T he r e i s l i t t l e l a ngua ge i n P a ul f oc us e d on t he pow e r of t he w i l l ; r a t he r i t i s a bout t he pow e r o f know i ng a nd unde r s t a ndi ng one s i de nt i t y a nd pos i t i on i n C hr i s t ( a nd i n t he body of C hr i s t ) P a ul s e e m s t o a gr e e t ha t t he be s t w a y t o a f f e c t pe opl e s be ha vi or i s t o c ha nge t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r w or l d P a ul s pa r a ne s i s pr e s uppos e s t he s pe c i f i c a l l y S t oi c m or a l ps yc hol ogy. I t a ddr e s s e s not t he w i l l but t he unde r s t a ndi ng. 1 8 8 T hi s i nt e l l e c t ua l a pp r oa c h w ou l d ha ve be e n f a m i l i a r t o t he G e nt i l e G a l a t i a ns how e ve r l i t t l e t he y unde r s t ood o f P a ul s c ont or t i ons of t he t r a di t i ona l J e w i s h na r r a t i ve s A nd a s w e ha ve not e d, P a ul s a ppe a l t o t he i r a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t a s pr oof of t he i r i de nt i t y a n d pos i t i on i n C hr i s t w o ul d ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d a pow e r f ul a r gum e nt I n de m ons t r a t i ng t he pa r a l l e l s t o S t oi c i s m i n P a ul s t hought E ngbe r g P e de r s e n e nga ge s a num be r of t he G a l a t i a n t he m e s t ha t w e h a ve pr e vi ous l y c ons i de r e d, w i t h s ur pr i s i ngl y s i m i l a r c onc l us i ons 1 8 9 W e a r e now i n a pos i t i on t o c ons i de r t he pa r a ne t i c m a t e r i a l i n G a l a t i a ns 5: 13 6: 10.

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71 C h a p t e r F o u r P a u l s E t h i c s I n e xa m i ni ng t he di s put e d e t hi c a l s e c t i ons of t he e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns i n 5: 13 6: 10, w e w i l l a t t e m pt t o i de nt i f y s i gni f i c a nt c onne c t i ons t o t he c onc e pt s obs e r ve d i n t he pr e c e di ng s e c t i ons of G a l a t i a ns a nd i n t he c onc l udi ng s e c t i on i n 6: 11 18. W e ha ve s t i pul a t e d, a t t he ve r y l e a s t t ha t P a ul kno w s s om e t hi ng a bout t he r e a l s i t ua t i on i n G a l a t i a i e t ha t he i s not l a r ge l y m i s t a ke n a bout t he na t ur e of t he pr ob l e m a nd t he oppone nt s ba s i c a r gum e nt s W e ne e d no t be c e r t a i n a bout a l l t he i s s ue s ( a nd i nde e d w e ha ve l e f t m a ny que s t i ons una ns w e r e d) but be c a us e w e s e e k c onne c t i ons be t w e e n P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd e t hi c s i n G a l a t i a ns w e m us t ope r a t e on t he a s s um pt i on t ha t P a ul s r e s pons e s a r e i n f a c t r e l e va nt t o t he s i t ua t i o n i n G a l a t i a S e c ondl y, w e ha ve s t i pul a t e d t ha t P a ul i s c onc e r ne d w i t h t r ut h a s he unde r s t a nds i t T hi s doe s not m e a n t ha t w e ha ve t o a gr e e w i t h hi s r e a s oni ng or c onc l us i ons or f i nd s pe c i f i c pr e c e de nt f or t he l i be r t i e s he t a ke s i n r e i nt e r pr e t i ng t he t r a di t i ona l m a t e r i a l I t m e a ns t ha t i n t e r m s of P a ul s m ot i ve s w ha t he i s t r yi ng t o s a y m us t not r un a f a r di s t a nt s e c ond t o w ha t he t r yi ng t o do 1 9 0 T r ut h m us t be m or e f or P a ul t ha n a t ool t o f ur t he r hi s pol i t i c a l m ot i ve s H e m us t be l i e ve t ha t he i s t e l l i n g t he t r u t h bot h i n t e r m s of t he hi s t or i c a l r e c or d a nd hi s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he gos p e l of C hr i s t a s he ha s e xpe r i e nc e d i t H e m us t be t r yi ng t o a c c om pl i s h w ha t he i nt e nds b y c om m uni c a t i ng w ha t he a l r e a dy be l i e ve s t o be t r ue ; t r ut h m us t not be e nt i r e l y r e l a t i ve t o hi s pur pos e s

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72 W e c a n he r e s t a t e t he m a i n c r i t e r i a i n c onc l udi ng t he s ubs t a nt i a l c onne c t i ons w e a r e s e e ki ng. B ot h P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd e t hi c s m us t be s how n t o be r e l e va nt t o t he c r i s i s i n G a l a t i a a nd a ns w e r t he ne e ds of t he c hur c h t he r e A ddi t i ona l l y, P a ul s t he ol ogy a nd e t hi c s i n G a l a t i a ns m us t be s how n t o be di r e c t l y r e l e va nt t o e a c h ot he r O ur m e t hod f i r s t i nvo l ve d a n e va l ua t i on o f t he G a l a t i a n c r i s i s W e ha ve i de nt i f i e d t he m os t c r e di bl e t he o r i e s a s t o w hy t he G a l a t i a ns m i ght ha ve be e n w i l l i ng t o e nt e r t a i n t he doc t r i ne of t he oppone nt s a nd c ons i de r c i r c um c i s i on a nd l a w obs e r va nc e i e t he r e a l ne e ds f or w hi c h J uda i z i ng m i ght pr ovi de a ns w e r s / s ol ut i ons O ur pos s i bi l i t i e s f a l l i nt o t w o ge ne r a l c a t e gor i e s : t he ne e d f or l e gi t i m a t i on a nd t he ne e d f o r a s ys t e m of m o r a l di r e c t i ve s T he pe r c e i ve d ne e d f o r l e gi t i m a t i on m a y ha ve i nvo l ve d a num be r of a s pe c t s i nc l udi ng t he G a l a t i a ns unc e r t a i nt y of t he i r pos i t i on i n C hr i s t i n r e l a t i on t o t he J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n a pos t l e s i n J e r us a l e m a nd t he i r pos i t i on i n r e ga r d t o J uda i s m a nd t he J e w i s h c ove na nt L oc a l pr e s s ur e s f r om a J e w i s h or J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n s yna gogue m a y ha ve a dde d t o t he c onf us i on a nd ur ge nc y f or r e s ol ut i on. D e s i r e f or a c l e a r e r s oc i e t a l i de nt i t y i n c ont r a s t t o t he i r f or m e r pa ga ni s m a nd o t he r c ul t u r a l / r e l i gi ous gr oups m a y ha ve f i gu r e d i n t he e qua t i on. T he J uda i z i ng m ove m e nt m a y ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d t he oppor t uni t y t o s ol i di f y t he i r c onne c t i on t o t he J e w i s h r oot s of t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h, a s w e l l a s a c hi e ve a uni t y w i t h J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n be l i e ve r s w ho s t i l l pe r c e i ve d a n o bs t a c l e t o f ul l f e l l ow s hi p be c a us e of t he G a l a t i a ns unc i r c um c i s i on. J uda i z i ng m a y a l s o ha ve be e n pr e s e nt e d a s t he f i na l r e m a i ni ng s t e p t o f ul l pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he J e w i s h c ove na nt w hi c h m a ny J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns m a y s t i l l ha ve e m br a c e d.

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73 T he pe r c e i ve d ne e d f o r a s pe c i f i c m or a l c ode c oul d ha ve be e n t he r e s ul t of a r i s e of l i be r t i n i s m i n t he c hur c h. H ow e ve r t he r e ne e d not ha ve be e n a w i de s pr e a d m ove m e nt t ow a r d s uc h a bus e s onl y oc c a s i ona l c a s e s i n w hi c h t he G a l a t i a ns w e r e uns ur e how t o r e s pond. A not he r pos s i bi l i t y i s t ha t t he r e c oul d ha ve be e n c ha r ge s of l a w l e s s ne s s a ga i ns t t he c hur c h due t o a m i s unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he l a w f r e e gos pe l ( a s P a ul hi m s e l f e xpe r i e nc e d r e pe a t e dl y) A f i na l pos s i bi l i t y i nvol ve s t he di vi s i on i n t he c hur c h t ha t i s e vi de nc e d i n t he e t hi c a l s e c t i on i t s e l f F or di vi s i on t o ha ve be e n a k e y i s s ue w e w oul d e xpe c t t ha t ( 1) t he G a l a t i a ns c oul d c onc e i ve of t he s e di vi s i ons be i ng a l l e vi a t e d by J uda i z i ng, a nd t ha t ( 2) P a ul c oul d c onc e i ve of t he s e di vi s i ons be i ng a l l e vi a t e d by hi s e t hi c s ( a nd t he i r t he ol og i c a l f ounda t i ons ) T he G a l a t i a n ne e ds m a y be out l i ne d i n t he f o l l ow i ng w a y: N e e d s t h e G a l a t i a n C h u r c h C o u l d B e T r y i n g t o F i l l b y J u d a i z i n g L e g i t i m a t i o n ne e d f or f ul l pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on D e s i r e t o c om pl e t e t he i r i de nt i f i c a t i on w / J e w i s h C hr i s t i a n a pos t l e s D e s i r e f o r f ul l uni t y w i t h ot he r J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns D e s i r e t o c om pl e t e t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he J e w i s h c ove na nt N e e d f o r c l e a r e r s oc i e t a l i de nt i t y i n c ont r a s t t o ot he r gr oups ( pa ga ns J e w s m ys t e r y r e l i gi ons e m pi r e e m pe r or w or s hi p) L a c k o f s p e c i f i c m o r a l c o d e ne e d f or t he l a w N e e d t o c ur b l i be r t i ni s m m ove m e nt L a c k of m e t hods t o de a l w i t h oc c a s i ona l i nf r a c t i o ns C ha r ge s of l a w l e s s ne s s D i vi s i on i n c hur c h w hi c h G a l a t i a ns c oul d c onc e i ve of be i ng a l l e vi a t e d by J uda i z i ng w hi c h P a ul c oul d c onc e i ve of be i ng a l l e vi a t e d by hi s e t hi c s

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74 T he ne xt s t e p i n our m e t hod o f s t udy i nvol ve d a n a s s e s s m e nt of P a ul s a r gum e nt s a ga i ns t J uda i z i ng i n t he m a i n body of t he l e t t e r P a ul l e gi t i m a t e d t he G a l a t i a ns i de nt i t y a s c hi l dr e n of G od t hr ough f a i t h i n C hr i s t a s e vi de nc e d by t he S pi r i t a nd a r gue d t ha t a c c e pt i ng t he l i f e o f T or a h obs e r va nc e w oul d r e pr e s e nt f or t he G e nt i l e s a f a t a l s t e p a w a y f r om t he f r e e dom i n w hi c h t he y ha d be e n e s t a bl i s he d. P a ul s a r gum e nt s f o r l e gi t i m a t i on a ga i ns t J uda i z i ng i nc l ude d t he a ppe a l t o t he G a l a t i a ns r e a l e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t a s pr oof o f t he i r s t a t us a nd r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o f t he A br a ha m i c m ot i f s t o i l l um i na t e G od s pl a n f or t he G e nt i l e s H e e m pl oys a n a poc a l ypt i c / e s c ha t ol ogi c a l unde r s t a ndi ng w i t h C hr i s t s c r uc i f i xi on a s t he c r uc i a l i na ugur a t i ng e ve nt a nd a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons of f a i t h a nd w or ks f r e e dom a nd s l a ve r y, a nd S p i r i t a nd f l e s h, a m ong ot he r s I nd i c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a s c ha r a c t e r i z e P a ul s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e nt s A c c or di ng t o our f i r s t c r i t e r i on, P a ul s a r gum e nt s s houl d c onc e i va bl y a ns w e r t he pr obl e m s a nd ne e ds of t he G a l a t i a ns a n d w e ha ve c onc l ude d a num be r o f w a ys i n w hi c h t he y a r e di r e c t l y r e l e va nt A s f a r a s t he l e gi t i m a t i o n of t he G a l a t i a ns e xi s t e nc e i n C hr i s t a pa r t f r om t he c ove na nt o f t he l a w P a ul s a r gum e nt s ha ve be e n f or c e f ul B ut a s i ns pi r i ng a nd c om pe l l i ng a s P a ul s t he o r e t i c a l a nt i t he t i c a l a n d i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve c ons t r uc t i ons a r e how p r a c t i c a l a r e t he y i n de t e r m i ni ng e t hi c a l b e ha vi or ? P a ul m a y ha ve hope d t ha t t he f r ui t of w a l ki ng i n t he S p i r i t w oul d ha ve oc c ur r e d m or e na t ur a l l y a s t he r e a l i z e d r e s ul t of t he G a l a t i a ns i de nt i t y a nd pos i t i on i n C hr i s t 1 9 1 a nd w e m i ght r e c ogni z e s i m i l a r c l ue s of s uc h a t hw a r t e d hope e l s e w he r e i n t he N e w T e s t a m e nt e s pe c i a l l y i n 1C or i nt hi a ns 1 9 2 I m a gi ne P a ul a dd r e s s i ng t he C or i nt hi a ns pr obl e m s by pr e s e nt i ng a f e w c ha pt e r s of l e gi t i m a t i ng t he or e t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a nd t he n t e l l i ng t he m a ga i n t o w a l k i n t he S p i r i t

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75 W e i m m e di a t e l y r e c ogni z e how i na de qua t e s uc h a n a ppr oa c h w oul d ha ve be e n S i m i l a r l y, t he e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns w oul d ha ve b e e n s e r i ous l y de f i c i e nt w i t hout t he pr a c t i c a l e xhor t a t i ons t ha t a r e i nc l ude d i n t he l a s t t w o c ha pt e r s H a vi ng e s t a bl i s he d t he ne e d f or p r a c t i c a l e t hi c a l di r e c t i ve s i n t he a bs e nc e of a n e s t a bl i s he d l e ga l c ode unde r s t a ndi ng how t he s pe c i f i c pr e c e pt s a ns w e r t he c hur c h s ne e ds i n t hi s r e ga r d w i l l be f a i r l y s t r a i ght f or w a r d. O ur e f f o r t s i n t hi s c ha pt e r w i l l l a r ge l y be f oc us e d on our f i na l c r i t e r i on w hi c h w i l l i nvo l v e e xa m i ni ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p of t he e t hi c a l pr e c e pt s t o t he t he o r e t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons i n t he m a i n body o f t he l e t t e r C a n P a ul s a r gum e n t s s um m a r i z e d a bove be r e c ogni z e d a s ba s e s f or t he e t h i c a l i nj unc t i ons i n t hi s e pi s t l e ? O r t o pos e t he que s t i on m or e f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t hi s c ha pt e r c a n P a ul s e t hi c s be r e c ogni z e d a s t he pr a c t i c a l out w or ki ng of hi s t he or y? U nde r s t a nda bl y, w e c a n not a ddr e s s a l l of t he i m po r t a nt c onc e pt s i n t he e t hi c a l s e c t i on or a l l o f t he s i gni f i c a nt c onne c t i ons t o t he m a i n body a nd c onc l us i on o f t he l e t t e r T he goa l i s t o pr e s e nt a f e w of t he m os t c om pe l l i n g e xa m pl e s of w a ys t ha t t he di s put e d e t hi c a l s e c t i ons of G a l a t i a ns a r e e s s e nt i a l t o t he a r g um e nt s a nd pur pos e s of t he l e t t e r

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76 M e r g i n g t h e M e a n i n g s o f t h e F l e s h I n 5: 13, t he N R S V doe s a di s s e r vi c e by t r a ns l a t i ng t he G r e e k s a r ki ( f l e s h) a s s e l f i ndul ge nc e T he pr obl e m i s not w i t h t he N R S V s a s s e s s m e nt of t he s i ngl e be s t m e a ni ng of t he t e r m i n t hi s c ont e xt but t ha t us i ng s uc h dyna m i c e qui va l e nt s ( 1) obs c ur e s t he gr e a t va r i e t y of w a ys P a ul us e s t he t e r m f l e s h a nd ( 2) pr e c l ude s r e c ogni t i on of a ny dua l s i gni f i c a nc e ( s e c onda r y m e a ni ng) o f t he t e r m t ha t t he a ut hor w i s he d t o i m p l y. P a ul us e s t he t e r m f l e s h i n m a ny di f f e r e nt w a ys e s pe c i a l l y i n G a l a t i a ns a nd R om a ns I n G a l a t i a ns s i m i l a r dyna m i c e qui va l e nt s a r e f ound i n 1: 16 ( hum a n be i ng i n N R S V vs f l e s h a nd bl ood i n N K J V ) a nd 4: 14 ( c ondi t i on i n N R S V v s t r i a l . i n m y f l e s h i n N K J V ) O f c our s e t h i s r e i nf o r c e s t he ne c e s s i t y of s t udyi ng t he l a ngua ge of t he N e w T e s t a m e nt i n t he o r i gi na l G r e e k. T he t e r m f l e s h a s us e d i n t he N e w T e s t a m e nt c a n s i gni f y phys i c a l l i f e phys i c a l a nc e s t r y, t he phys i c a l body, hum a ni t y, hum a n r e l a t i ons hi p, na t ur a l a bi l i t y, hum a n e nde a vor s e l f i ndul ge nc e o r pr i de t he de s i r e s of t he body, a nd t he s i nf ul na t ur e 1 9 3 I n t he a poc a l ypt i c f r a m e w or k of G a l a t i a ns m os t of t h i s c a n be s ubs um e d unde r t he c a t e gor y of w ha t i s m e r e l y hum a n. 1 9 4 T he s e ns e s of t he t e r m of t e n ove r l a p, a nd t he a m bi gui t y i n a num be r of N e w T e s t a m e nt pa s s a ge s f ue l s ongoi ng de ba t e T he m i s unde r s t a ndi ng ( non di s c e r ni ng) of P a ul s va r i ous us e s of t he t e r m i n R om a ns a c c om pa ni e d m i l l e nni a of a nt i J uda i c s e nt i m e nt P a ul bl ur s a nd m e r ge s t he di f f e r e nt s e ns e s of f l e s h t o hi s a dva nt a ge ne ve r m or e a m bi t i ous l y t ha n i n G a l a t i a ns I n hi s va r i o us us e s of S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n G a l a t i a ns he e s t a bl i s he s e ve n m or e pr ovoc a t i ve c o r r e l a t i ons T hough P a ul i n t he N e w T e s t a m e nt us e s

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77 S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n bot h t he ol ogi c a l a nd ( l e s s f r e que nt l y) e t hi c a l di m e ns i ons i n no ot he r e pi s t l e doe s he us e S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n bot h w a ys 1 9 5 T hi s ha s l e d s om e s c hol a r s t o di s c ount t he r e l a t i on of t he e t hi c a l s e c t i on of G a l a t i a ns w he r e f l e s h i s us e d i n a s pe c i f i c e t hi c a l s e ns e f r om t he m a i n body of t he l e t t e r w he r e t he a ppl i c a t i on i s t he ol ogi c a l or a nt h r opol ogi c a l H ow e ve r a f t e r obs e r vi ng t he a s t oundi ng uno r t hodox c or r e l a t i ons P a ul m a ke s i n hi s t he ol ogi c a l a r gum e n t s w e a r e e nt i t l e d t o q ue s t i on w he t he r bl ur r i ng t he l i ne s of t he ol ogi c a l / a nt hr opol ogi c a l / e t hi c a l a ppl i c a t i ons w oul d r e a l l y be out of bounds e s pe c i a l l y c ons i de r i ng t he oc c a s i on of t he e pi s t l e a s w e unde r s t a nd i t T he f a m i l i a r J e w i s h t e r m i nol ogy c ove na nt i n you r f l e s h f r om G e ne s i s 17 a l r e a dy a s s oc i a t e d t he t e r m f l e s h w i t h t he c ove na nt of c i r c um c i s i on. 1 9 6 P a ul i n t r oduc e s S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n G a l 3: 3 w i t h t he t e r m i nol o gy e ndi ng w i t h t he f l e s h, f l e s h he r e c or r e l a t i ng w i t h w or ks of t he l a w i n 3: 2 ( a nd of c our s e c i r c um c i s i on) T hi s s e t s t he s t a ge f or e xpl i c i t c or r e l a t i on of c i r c um c i s i on w i t h t he f l e s h i n P a ul s c onc l us i on i n 6: 12 13, w he r e he a t t a c ks t he oppone nt s de s i r e t o m a ke a good s how i ng i n t he f l e s h a nd t o boa s t a bout your f l e s h. T he m ot i va t i ons a r e s e l f s e r vi ng ( t o a voi d pe r s e c ut i on; t o be a bl e t o boa s t ) a nd hypoc r i t i c a l ( t he y don t e ve n ke e p t he l a w but w a nt t o a ppe a r s o) W ha t i s i nt e r e s t i ng he r e i s t ha t t he s e c onc l udi ng c o r r e l a t i ons w oul d not be ve r y e f f e c t i ve w i t hout ha vi ng i nt r oduc e d t he c onc e pt o f t he f l e s h a s s e l f s e r vi ng de s i r e i n 5: 13 a nd 5: 16 T he i de nt i f i c a t i on of di s s e ns i ons a nd f a c t i ons a s w or ks of t he f l e s h i n 5: 20 a dds t o t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he c or r e l a t i on T he onl y de ve l opm e nt of t he f l e s h c onc e pt a f t e r 3: 3 i n t he undi s put e d s e c t i on i s t he S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n t he H a ga r / S a r a h a l l e gor y ( 4: 21 31 ) H ow e ve r t he f l e s h he r e

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78 doe s not r e pr e s e nt l a w ke e pi ng/ c i r c um c i s i on or s e l f s e r vi ng de s i r e ; t he a nt i t he s i s he r e i nvol ve s be i ng bor n a c c or di ng t o t he f l e s h ( na t ur a l l y, by hum a n m e a ns or hum a n de s c e nt ) ve r s us be i ng bor n a c c or di ng t o t he pr om i s e T he m e nt i on of pe r s e c ut i on de ve l ops t he i de a of t he f l e s h no f ur t he r m a i nt a i n i ng t he s a m e t e r m i nol ogy bor n a c c or di ng t o t he f l e s h, a nd not us i ng f l e s h t o i m pl y m ot i va t i on o r de s i r e T he S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n t he H a ga r / S a r a h a l l e gor y i s t hus a n i ne f f e c t i ve br i dge be t w e e n t ha t i n 3: 3 a nd 6: 12 13 i n t he c onc l us i on. A s w e ha ve s e e n, w ha t m a ke s t he c on c l us i on s o e f f e c t i ve i s t he de ve l ope d c or r e l a t i on of t he de s i r e t o c i r c um c i s e w i t h f l e s h a s s e l f i ndul ge nt de s i r e i n 5: 13 a nd 5: 16 T hi s i s f a c i l i t a t e d by P a ul s m e r gi ng o f t he s e ns e s of f l e s h, a nd by hi s us a ge of S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n bot h t he ol ogi c a l a nd e t h i c a l a ppl i c a t i ons A nd m o r e ge ne r a l l y t hi s i s one e xa m pl e of how t he di s put e d e t hi c a l s e c t i on of G a l a t i a ns t i e s t oge t he r t he m a i n body of t he l e t t e r a nd t he c onc l us i on ve r y ni c e l y i n de e d.

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79 F l e s h a n d S p i r i t B e c a us e our e xa m i na t i on o f t he m e r gi ng o f t he m e a ni ngs of t he f l e s h ha s na t ur a l l y l e d i nt o t he c ons i de r a t i on of S pi r i t / f l e s h d ua l i s m i n G a l a t i a ns a n ove r vi e w of P a ul e m pl oym e nt o f t hi s dua l i s m a nd hi s c or r e l a t i o ns w i t h ot he r a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons w i l l f i t w e l l he r e T hough w e ha ve a l r e a dy e nga ge d s om e of t he s e c ons t r uc t i ons m o r e s ubs t a nt i a l l y t ha n w e w i l l he r e t hi s s ur ve y w i l l b e he l pf ul i n a s s e s s i ng c ont i nui t y w i t h P a ul s pa r a ne s i s T hough S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i s i nt r oduc e d i n 3: 3 i t i s c or r e l a t e d w i t h a nt i t he s e s i nt r oduc e d pr e vi ous l y. I n 2: 16 P a ul i nt r oduc e s t h e f a m i l i a r a nt i t he s i s of f a i t h ( p i s t i i s a l s o r e nde r e d a s be l i e vi ng ) ve r s us w or ks of t he l a w O nl y by f a i t h i s one de c l a r e d r i ght e ous ( r e nde r e d j us t i f i e d ) I n 2: 19 20, P a ul e n ha nc e s t he a nt i t he s i s w i t h hi s pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e of dyi ng t o t he l a w a nd l i v i ng i n f a i t h I n 3: 2, t he G a l a t i a ns r e c e i ve d t he S pi r i t by f a i t h ( N R S V be l i e vi ng = p i s t e w ) not by d oi ng w or ks of t he l a w a nd i n 3: 3 t he i nt r oduc t i on of S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m f i r m l y e s t a bl i s he s t he c or r e l a t i on o f f l e s h w i t h w or ks of t he l a w 3: 5 e nha nc e s t he s e ns e of 3: 2 a s G od c ont i nue s t o s uppl y t he S pi r i t a n d w or k m i r a c l e s t hr ough he a r i ng w i t h f a i t h not do i ng w or ks of t he l a w H e a r i ng i s i m pl i e d i n A br a ha m s be l i e vi ng G od ( 3: 6) a nd P a ul s e e m s t o be s e t t i ng up t he s a m e i m pe r a t i ve t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns m us t be l i e ve w ha t t he y a r e he a r i ng f r om hi m B y be l i e vi ng, r i ght e ous ne s s i s r e c kone d t o A br a ha m a nd i n 3: 7 t hos e w ho be l i e ve a r e t he t r ue de s c e nda nt s of A br a ha m f a i t h > r i ght e ous n e s s > S pi r i t w or ks of t he l a w > no j u s t i f i c a t i on > f l e s h

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80 W e m us t a l s o now a ba ndon our ve r s e by ve r s e a pp r oa c h a nd m or e s i m pl y i de nt i f y c or r e l a t i ons I n 3 : 9 14, t he t r a di t i ona l a nt i t he s i s of bl e s s i ng a nd c ur s i ng i s a ppl i e d a s t he bl e s s i ng of A br a ha m a nd t he c u r s e of t he l a w ( I t i s s o s ubt l e a s t o be ove r l ooke d, but A br a ha m hi m s e l f s e e m s he r e t o be i n a n a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i on ove r a ga i ns t t he l a w ) T he bl e s s i ng of A b r a ha m c om e s t o t he G e nt i l e s a nd b r i ngs a bout t he pr om i s e of t he S pi r i t t hr ough f a i t h a nd t he p r om i s e t o A br a ha m w a s t he bl e s s i ng of t he G e nt i l e s t hr ough hi m ( 3: 8 14 ) T hough t he c onc e pt s of b l e s s i ng a nd pr om i s e s e e m s om e w ha t i nt e r w ove n he r e ou r f i r s t w r e nc h i n t h e ge a r s i s P a ul s e m pha t i c s t a t e m e nt t ha t t he pr om i s e s a r e not oppos e d t o t he l a w e ve n t hough t he pr om i s e i s j uxt a pos e d w i t h t he l a w i n 3: 18 1 9 7 W e w i l l not e t ha t w e m us t i ns i s t on e xpl i c i t c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n a nt i t he s e s t ha t c l e a r l y t r a ns c e nd t he i r i m m e di a t e c ont e xt s F a i t h a nd l a w a r e r e vi s i t e d l a t e r i n 3: 23 29 a nd t he l a w i s c om pa r e d t o a pe da gogue ove r a m i no r c hi l d w a i t i ng f o r hi s i nhe r i t a nc e a t m a t ur i t y I n 4: 1 7 t he s c e n a r i o t a ke s a s ha r p t ur n, a nd t he c ont r a s t be c om e s one of s l a ve s be i ng a dopt e d a s c hi l dr e n/ he i r s ( W e ha ve not e d t hi s di s c ont i nui t y pr e vi ous l y, a nd w e w i l l s e e i t a ga i n. ) T he e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t i s t he c r uc i a l e vi de nc e of t he ne w s t a t us a s c hi l dr e n/ he i r s T he f i na l s i gni f i c a nt de ve l opm e nt o f f l e s h/ S pi r i t d ua l i s m i s i n t he H a ga r / I s hm a e l a nd S a r a h/ I s a a c a l l e gor y ( 4: 21 31) T hi s i s a m or e c om pl e x c ons t r uc t i on, but P a ul m a ke s hi s m e a ni ng e xpl i c i t A br a ha m i s t he f a t he r a nd t he t w o m ot he r s a r e t w o c ove na nt s f r e e w om a n our m ot he r he a v e nl y J e r us a l e m be a r s c hi l dr e n of t he pr om i s e bor n a c c or di ng t o t he S pi r i t s l a ve w om a n H a ga r M t S i na i / pr e s e nt J e r u s a l e m be a r s c hi l dr e n f or s l a ve r y bor n a c c or di ng t o t he f l e s h

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81 P a ul i s c a r e f ul not t o e m pl oy t he f a i t h/ l a w a nt i t he s i s i n t hi s a l l e gor y a s he ha s a l r e a dy r ul e d out o f c our t t he oppos i t i on of t he l a w t o t he p r om i s e ( 3: 21) H ow e ve r t he s l a ve r y/ f r e e dom a nd f l e s h/ S pi r i t a nt i t he s e s a r e e xp l i c i t l y m e r ge d. T he c onc l us i on o f t he s t or y i n 4: 3 1 i s t ha t w e a r e t he c hi l dr e n o f t he f r e e w om a n, not t he s l a ve w om a n. 1 9 8 H ow e ve r i n t he ne xt ve r s e w e s e e t he s a m e di s c ont i nui t y w e s a w a bove ( be t w e e n c hi l dr e n ga i ni ng t he i r i nhe r i t a nc e a nd s l a ve s a dopt e d a s c hi l dr e n) I n 5: 1 w e ha ve i ns t a nt l y gone f r o m f r e e bor n c hi l d r e n t o e m a nc i pa t e d s l a ve s ( I f w e ha d not s e e n t hi s s a m e di s c ont i nui t y e a r l i e r w e m i ght ha ve c onc l ud e d 5: 1 be ga n t he di s put e d s e c t i on! ) W e m us t r e a l i z e t ha t P a ul i s a l w a ys a f f i r m i ng t he p os s i bi l i t y of a c ha nge o f s t a t us a nd f or hi m b e i ng de l i ve r e d f r o m s l a ve r y t o f r e e dom i s t a nt a m ount t o ha vi ng be e n t he f r e e bor n c hi l d of t he pr om i s e a l l a l ong. T hi s i s ve r y s i m i l a r t o t he t e ns i on i n t he s a l va t i on hi s t or i c a l a nd a poc a l ypt i c a ppr oa c he s t ha t w e obs e r ve d i n t he l a s t c ha pt e r A c c or di ng t o t he f or m e r t he pr om i s e s w e r e f or e t ol d a nd pr om i s e d i n A br a ha m a nd a l l hi s t or y ha s m ove d t ow a r d t he f u l f i l l m e nt t ha t i s no w be i ng r e a l i z e d. A c c or di ng t o t he l a t t e r i t i s C hr i s t s de a t h t ha t ha s s e t us f r e e f r om t he pr e s e nt e vi l w or l d a nd t r a ns f or m e d us i nt o a ne w c r e a t i on T he t e ns i on c a nnot be e xpl a i ne d a w a y or c onc l ude d a s i nc ons i s t e nc y; i t i s di s t i nc t i ve l y P a ul i ne a nd r e c og ni z i ng t hi s i s e s s e nt i a l t o a n unde r s t a ndi ng of P a ul s t hought i n G a l a t i a ns W hi c he ve r w a y t he s l a ve r y/ f r e e dom a nt i t he s i s i s p e r c e i ve d, a s t he f r e e bor n of 4: 31 or t he f r e e d s l a ve of 5: 1 a nd 4: 7, P a ul s c r uc i a l m e s s a ge i n 5: 1 i s t he s a m e : F o r f r e e dom C hr i s t ha s s e t us f r e e S t a nd f i r m t he r e f or e a nd do no t s ubm i t a ga i n t o a yoke of s l a ve r y. T he t e r m i nol ogy o f t he yoke ( a s w i t h t he yoke o f t he l a w ) a nd t he r e f e r e nc e s t o c i r c um c i s i on a nd l a w obs e r va nc e i n

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82 5: 2 4 m a ke i t ve r y c l e a r t ha t t he l a w i s t he s l a ve r y P a ul ha s i n m i nd he r e T he a l t e r na t i ve t o t hi s s l a ve r y i s vi s i t e d a ga i n i n 5: 5 but i ns t e a d of s t r e s s i ng f r e e dom a ga i n ( a s i f i t w e r e a c os m i c or s pi r i t ua l f or c e t ha t one c oul d e m pl oy) P a ul a ga i n s t r e s s e s t he r i ght e ous ne s s hope d f or t hr ough t he S pi r i t by f a i t h t hus m e r gi ng t he t w o c r i t i c a l c onc e pt s a ga i n. A nd w he r e i s t he f l e s h i n t hi s not s o ha ppy r e uni on of m a j or a nt i t h e s e s ? Y ou ha ve c ut your s e l ve s of f f r om C hr i s t ( 5: 4) I t i s c l e a r t ha t t he t hr e e m a j or a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons P a ul us e s i n G a l a t i a ns a r e f l e s h/ S pi r i t l a w / f a i t h a nd s l a ve r y/ f r e e dom W hi l e s l a ve r y a nd f r e e dom r e l a t e t o one s s t a t us f a i t h a nd l a w a r e oppos i ng m e t hods / m e a ns t ow a r d r i ght e ous ne s s be f or e G od. T hough l a w c l e a r l y i m pl i e s m o r a l a c t i on, i t r e l a t e s m or e t o a l e ga l c ode t ha n i nhe r e nt m or a l c ha r a c t e r F a i t h i s a b i t a bs t r a c t a nd f a i t h f ul ne s s w hi l e i m pl yi ng m o r a l c ha r a c t e r s t i l l r e qui r e s a n unde r s t a ndi ng of w ha t pr a c t i c e one m us t be f a i t h f ul i n ne c e s s i t a t i ng s om e ki nd of d i r e c t i on. W e a r e l e f t w i t h t he dua l i s m of f l e s h a nd S pi r i t T he s e c onc e pt s a s us e d i n G a l a t i a ns bot h i nvol ve e xpe r i e nc e W h e t he r f l e s h i s us e d i n t he s e ns e of phys i c a l l i f e hum a n e f f o r t s e l f i ndul ge nc e or l us t s t he s e ns e i s e xpe r i e nt i a l L i ke w i s e P a ul ha s r e pe a t e dl y a ppe a l e d t o t he G a l a t i a ns r e a l ( a nd non f a l s i f i a bl e ) e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t i n m a ki ng hi s a r gum e nt s f o r t he i r s t a t us a s c hi l dr e n of G od. P a ul s i m pe r a t i ve i nvol ve s c ont i nui ng i n t he S pi r i t T hi s i m pl i e s a c t i on, a nd a t t he l e a s t P a ul s e e m s t o ha ve a good i de a w ha t k i nd of a c t i on t hi s m e a ns ; unf or t una t e l y, hi s na i ve t i n t hi nki ng hi s c hur c he s a l s o know w ha t ki nd o f a c t i on t hi s m e a ns ha s be c om e a pp a r e nt e s pe c i a l l y he r e a nd i n t he C or i n t hi a n c or r e s ponde nc e a s w e ha ve not e d a bove

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83 I w oul d p r opos e t ha t P a ul ha s he r e r e a l i z e d t he c r u c i a l i t y of o f f e r i ng pr a c t i c a l di r e c t i on on how t o l i ve i n f a i t h w i t hout a l e ga l c o de s uc h a s T or a h. H i s i m pe r a t i ve s w i l l t r ue t o P a ul i ne f o r m a f f i r m t he i ndi c a t i ve o f t he G a l a t i a ns i de nt i t y i n C hr i s t a s r e a l i z e d by t he r e a l e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t O f t he a nt i t he s e s P a ul ha s e m pl oye d i n hi s a r gum e nt s f l e s h/ S pi r i t dua l i s m o f f e r s t he m os t vi a bl e c ont e xt i n w hi c h t o i l l us t r a t e t he l i f e of f a i t h a nd c om pl e t e w ha t he ha s s e t out t o do i n hi s e pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns W e w i l l e xpe c t t o s e e f l e s h/ S pi r i t a s t he pr i m a r y a n t i t he s i s i n P a ul s pa r a ne t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons w i t h t he t e r m f l e s h ut i l i z e d t o r e pr e s e nt t he f ul l r a nge o f f a i t h l e s s l i vi ng, f r om s e l f i s h p r i de t o l i be r t i ni s m N ot e be l ow t he a bs e nc e of c i r c um c i s i on. I n t he c ha r t on p. 86, t he pos i t i ve us e s of t he c onc e pt s of w o r ks l a w a nd s l a ve r y a r e i n bol d i t a l i c T a b l e 1 : S p i r i t / F l e s h D u a l i s m i n C h a p t e r s 5 a n d 6 o f G a l a t i a n s l a w c i r c u m c i s i o n f l e s h f l e s h S p i r i t g e n s e l f s e r v i n g e x p l i c i t l y a s v i c e 5 : 3 4 5 : 2 4 5 : 5 5 : 6 5 : 1 1 5 : 1 3 5 : 1 4 5 : 1 6 5 : 1 6 5 : 1 7 5 : 1 7 5 : 1 8 5 : 1 8 5 : 1 9 5 : 2 0 5 : 2 0 5 : 2 1 5 : 2 1 5 : 2 2 5 : 2 3 5 : 2 4 5 : 2 4 5 : 2 5 6 : 1 6 : 2 6 : 8 6 : 8 6 : 1 3 6 : 1 2 1 3 6 : 1 2 1 3 6 : 1 5 6 : 1 5

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84 T a b l e 2 : A n t i t h e t i c a l T e r m s i n G a l a t i a n s C h a p t e r s 1 3

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85 T a b l e 3 : A n t i t h e t i c a l T e r m s i n G a l a t i a n s C h a p t e r s 4 6

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86 F a i t h W o r k i n g T h r o u g h L o v e W e w i l l r e c a l l t ha t t he a dm oni s hm e nt i n 5: 1 w a s i n c ont e xt of t he a n t i t he s i s of f r e e dom a nd s l a ve r y. T he e xhor t a t i on w a s t o s t a n d f i r m i n f r e e dom a nd do not s ubm i t t o t he yoke of s l a ve r y a nd t he ne xt 3 ve r s e s c onc ur I n 5: 5, t he t r ue be l i e ve r w a i t s f or t he hope of r i ght e ous ne s s T he pr a c t i c a l i m pe r a t i ve s he r e a r e r e ga r di ng w ha t not t o do T he br oa c hi ng of t he e t hi c a l i m pe r a t i ve c om e s i n 5: 6: F or i n C hr i s t J e s us ne i t he r c i r c um c i s i on nor unc i r c um c i s i on c ount s f o r a nyt hi ng; t he onl y t hi ng t ha t c ount s i s f a i t h w or ki ng t hr ough l ove 1 9 9 H e r e w e s e e t ha t w e w e r e c or r e c t : t he pr obl e m ne ve r w a s w or ks pe r s e ; i t w a s t he w or ks o f t he l a w t he t r a di t i ona l i de nt i t y m a r ke r s of c i r c um c i s i on a nd l a w obs e r va nc e t ha t di vi de d J e w a nd G e nt i l e w hi c h ha ve be e n done a w a y i n C hr i s t W or ks do c ount ; f a i t h w or ki ng t hr ough l ove i s t he onl y t hi ng t ha t now m a t t e r s T he s i ngl e m e nt i on of l ove pr e vi ous l y i n G a l a t i a ns i s C hr i s t s l ove i n s a c r i f i c i ng hi m s e l f ( 2: 20) I f t he i m pl i c a t i on he r e i s t ha t f a i t h a c t s i n s e l f s a c r i f i c i a l l ove w e s houl d s e e t he e vi de nc e of t hi s i n t he l a t e r ( di s put e d) pa r a ne s i s W e s ha l l r e t ur n t o t hi s 5: 7, w hi c h a t f i r s t gl a nc e m i ght s e e m t o c ha nge t he s ubj e c t a c t ua l l y s e e m s t o e nt a i l a l ogi c a l m ove f r om t he p r e c e pt t o t he G a l a t i a ns pa s t pr a c t i c e Y ou w e r e r unn i ng w e l l . . R unni ng a r a c e i s a c om m on m e t a ph or ; t h e ne ga t i ve pos s i bi l i t y f or P a ul i n G a l 2: 2 w a s t ha t he m i gh t be r unni ng i n va i n. 2 0 0 R u nni ng w e l l i m pl i e s t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns f a i t h w a s onc e w or ki ng c or r e c t l y T he e nd of v 7 m a i nt a i ns t he f oc us : W ho pr e ve nt e d you f r om obe yi ng t he t r ut h ? O b e di e nc e i m pl i e s p r e s c r i be d a c t i on a n i m pe r a t i ve but t he t r ut h P a ul r e f e r s t o he r e i s c l e a r l y t he i ndi c a t i ve t he t r ut h o f t he gos pe l ( 2: 5, 14; c f 4: 16 ) T he f oc us t u r ns t o t he oppone nt s t r ut h now : t he i r pe r s ua s i on i s not f r om G od

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87 ( 5: 8) ; P a ul ha s a l w a ys c l a i m e d di r e c t r e ve l a t i on f r o m G od. H ow e ve r P a ul i s c onf i de nt t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns w i l l now t hi nk c or r e c t l y a ga i n ( 5 : 10) 2 0 1 ( A s a n a s i de P a ul s pe r s e c ut i on i n 5: 11 s e e m s t o r e c a l l 4: 29. ) T he m or e obvi ous poi nt he r e i s t ha t t he e t hi c a l i m p e r a t i ve i s i nt r oduc e d be f or e t he di s put e d s e c t i on of t he e pi s t l e a s w e ha d a l r e a dy n ot e d. S e c ondl y, t h i s ne w c onc e pt of f a i t h w or ki ng by l ove m a y not be c om pl e t e l y ne w t o t he G a l a t i a ns I m m e di a t e l y a f t e r i nt r oduc i ng i t P a ul r e f e r s t o t he i r r unni ng w e l l i n t h e pa s t a nd que s t i ons w ho i m pe de d t he i r obe yi ng t he t r ut h I f t he y w e r e do i ng w e l l i n P a ul s e s t i m a t i on, t he y m a y w e l l ha ve ha d s om e unde r s t a ndi ng of t hi s c onc e pt pr e s e nt e d i n 5: 6 T he y ha ve n t r e pudi a t e d i t e xpl i c i t l y; t he y ha ve j us t e nt e r t a i ne d a not he r t r ut h ( a di f f e r e nt gos pe l 1: 6) t ha t f oc us e s on m a r ks of di s t i nc t i on r a t he r t ha n un i t y, e qua l i t y, a n d s e l f s a c r i f i c e F i na l l y I w oul d m a i nt a i n t ha t 5: 1 12 pr ov i de s a l ogi c a l c om pr e he n s i bl e a nd m e a ni ngf ul t r a ns i t i on t o t he pa r a ne s i s t ha t f ol l ow s

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88 F r e e d o m t o B e c o m e S l a v e s i n L o v e F or you w e r e c a l l e d t o f r e e dom b r ot he r s a nd s i s t e r s ; onl y do not us e your f r e e dom a s a n oppor t uni t y f or [ t he f l e s h] but t h r ou gh l ove be c om e s l a ve s t o one a not he r ( G a l 5: 13 ) 2 0 2 T hi s ve r s e i s t he s e c ond i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a obs e r ve d by B e t z i n t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s 2 0 3 a nd ope ns t he di s put e d s e c t i on. T he s l a ve r y/ f r e e dom a nt i t he s i s i s e m pl oye d f or t he l a s t t i m e i n t he e pi s t l e he r e but t o s t r i ki ngl y di f f e r e nt e f f e c t T he f r e e dom i n 5: 13 e c hoe s t ha t i n 5: 1 w hi c h C hr i s t e n a c t s a nd i nt e nds P a ul ha s be e n a r gui ng t ha t t he G a l a t i a ns s houl d not s a c r i f i c e t he f r e e dom t ha t C hr i s t b r i ngs t o be c om e s l a ve s a ga i n. P a ul e ndor s e s he r e not be c om i ng s l a ve s t o t he l a w o r e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s a ga i n, but t o e a c h ot he r T hi s i s t he s e c ond a ppe a l t o l ove a s a m e a ns t o r i ght a c t i on ( pr e v. 5: 6) T he l ove of C hr i s t de m ons t r a t e d i n s e l f s a c r i f i c e ( 2: 20 ) i s t he i r m ode l a s i n P hi l 2 : 2 8, w he r e t he c ont e xt i s a l s o p r om ot i ng un i t y i n t he body ove r a ga i ns t s e l f s e r vi ng i nt e r e s t s ( t hough t he t e r m f l e s h i s not us e d) 2 0 4 W e ha ve a ddr e s s e d t he va r i ous s e ns e s of t he w or d f l e s h e a r l i e r i n t he c ha pt e r a nd P a ul s c r e a t i ve w a ys of e xpl o i t i ng i t s a m bi gui t y. W e a l s o r e c ogni z e d t ha t P a ul s c onc l udi ng c or r e l a t i ons i n 6: 12 13 w ou l d not be v e r y e f f e c t i ve w i t hout ha vi ng i nt r oduc e d t he c onc e pt of t he f l e s h a s s e l f s e r vi ng de s i r e he r e i n 5: 13 a nd i n 5: 16 T he ki nd o f s e l f s e r vi ng t ha t i s i n f oc us he r e w oul d i nc l ude t he pr i d e f ul de s i r e t ha t s e e ks t o a dva nc e a dva nt a ge a nd di s t i ngui s h one s e l f ov e r a not he r P a ul s pr e vi ous us e s of f l e s h de not e d hum a n e f f or t t he w or ks o f t he l a w a nd t he t i s s ue c ut i n c i r c um c i s i on ( vs S p i r i t a nd f a i t h) a nd t ha t w hi c h i s m e r e l y hum a n ( t he s l a ve p e r s e c ut i ng t he S pi r i t bor n f r e e c hi l dr e n) T o now b r i ng t hi s e t hi c a l di m e ns i on i nt o t he m i x s e e m s qui t e c l e ve r I t ha s a

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89 dua l f unc t i on: t o i m pugn t he oppone nt s m ot i ve s a nd t o pr ov i de a ne ga t i ve m ode l or f oi l t o t he ki nd of c om m uni t y e t hi c P a ul i s a dvoc a t i ng A f t e r a l l t hi s ki nd o f s e l f s e r vi ng i nt e r e s t i s a f e a t ur e i n a l l ki nds of pe r s ona l c onf l i c t s a nd s oc i a l di vi s i ons A s w e not e d w e ha ve no s ol i d e vi de nc e i n t he undi s put e d s e c t i o ns of G a l a t i a ns f or t he e xi s t e nc e of c hur c h di vi s i ons not di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he oppone nt s but P a ul s t r e a t m e nt i n hi s pa r a ne s i s c onf i r m s s om e ki nd of di vi s i on ( 5: 15, 20 26) a nd t he r e i s no m e nt i on of c i r c um c i s i on i n t he pa r a ne s i s ( s e e t he c ha r t s a bove ) T ha t P a ul w oul d w a i t unt i l t hi s po i nt i n t he l e t t e r t o a dd r e s s di vi s i ons i s unde r s t a nda bl e i n a ny c a s e a nd e s pe c i a l l y s o i f t he di vi s i ons w e r e pr e e xi s t i ng a nd t he oppone nt s pr op os e d t ha t l a w obs e r va nc e w oul d a l l e vi a t e t he m 2 0 5 W i t h t he a ddi t i on o f qua r r e l s d i s s e ns i on s a nd f a c t i ons t o t he vi c e s l i s t e d i n 5: 19 21 w e c a nnot but c onc l ude t ha t t he y w e r e r e l e va nt ( s e e v. 20 ) 5: 15 5 : 26, a nd 6: 3 f u r t he r c on f i r m t hi s A l m os t a l l of t he e xh or t a t i ons c oul d a ddr e s s s uc h c ondi t i ons a nd t he m ode l s of s oc i a l e qua l i t y a nd s e l f l e s s s e r vi c e w oul d be j us t w ha t t he doc t or or de r e d s o t o s pe a k. T hi s s l a ve r y i n l ove a f f i r m s t he uni t y of t he bod y of C hr i s t a nd t he r a di c a l r e or de r i ng o f s oc i a l s t a ndi ngs e f f e c t e d by C hr i s t s de a t h t he r e m ovi ng of t he f or m e r di vi s i ons ( 3: 28) a nd t he t r a di t i ona l i de nt i t y m a r ke r s t ha t e s t a bl i s he d t he m ( 5: 6) C onve r s e l y, t he f l e s hl y de s i r e he r e a dds t he e t hi c a l di m e ns i on of s e l f i ndul ge nc e t o t he de s i r e t o m a i nt a i n t he f or m e r i de nt i t y m a r ke r s a nd di vi s i ons t ha t i m pa r t s pe c i a l p r i vi l e ge T hi s i s a m a s t e r f ul c or r e l a t i on O ne m a y a s k, W he r e i s t he S pi r i t i n a l l t hi s ? C l os e a t ha nd t he ne xt us e of f l e s h i n 5: 16 e m p l oys t he f l e s h/ S pi r i t dua l i s m W hy w a i t ? O ne pos s i bl e r e a s on i s t ha t

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90 t he us e of t he t e r m S pi r i t i n a n e t hi c a l dua l i s m i s u nc om m on, a nd P a ul m a y w i s h t o a l l ow t he a m bi gui t y a nd m a l l e a bi l i t y o f t he t e r m f l e s h t o e f f e c t t he t r a ns i t i on. P a ul s us a ge of S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m i n vi c e a nd vi r t ue l i s t s i s unpr e c e de nt e d i n hi s ot he r e pi s t l e s a nd e l s e w he r e he e m pl oys t he e t hi c a l di m e ns i ons of f l e s h/ S pi r i t dua l i t y onl y i n R om 7 8 2 0 6 W e w oul d a l s o not e t ha t i n P a ul s s i m i l a r c ons t r uc t i ons of t he s e t f r e e t o be a s l a ve m ot i f ( R om 6: 17 22 ; 1C or 9: 19 ) he doe s n ot e m pl oy t he S pi r i t e i t he r I n 1C or 9: 19 23, l i ke G a l a t i a ns l a w i s a l s o t he c ont e xt I n R om 6: 17 22 t he t he m e i s be c om i ng s l a ve s t o r i ght e ous ne s s not s i n I n G a l a t i a ns how e ve r t he c om m una l ne e d i s m uc h m or e a ppa r e nt a s t he m ode l i s s l a ve s t o ot he r s not s e l f P a ul a l s o m a y w i s h t o pr e s e nt hi s r a r e pos i t i ve obs e r va t i on on t he M os a i c l a w i n 5: 14 ( be l ow ) be f or e b r i ngi ng t he S pi r i t i nt o t he e qua t i on i n 5: 16 a s t he S pi r i t ha s s o f a r be e n s e t i n oppos i t i on t o t he l a w t hr oughout t he e p i s t l e T hi s a ga i n i ndi c a t e s a pu r pos e f ul c ont i nui t y of t hought t h r oughout t he e pi s t l e de s pi t e P a ul s s e e m i ng a r bi t r a r i ne s s P a ul s pur pos e i s not be hol de n t o t he a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons he us e s he r e ; he a da pt s t he m a nd di s pos e s of t he m a s ne e de d. ( T he c ha r t s a bove t e l l a c om pe l l i ng s t or y of di s pos a bl e a nt i t he s e s ) I t w oul d s ur e l y be a m i s t a ke t o t r y a nd di s c e r n P a ul s f ounda t i ona l be l i e f s o r s ym bol i c uni ve r s e by t he t e ns i ons he c r e a t e s or t he ba t t l e s he s t a ge s f or h i s dr a m a t i c pr e s e nt a t i ons P a ul s s t or y i s t he one t ha t r e m a i ns a f t e r he put s a l l t he ve r s a t i l e a c t or s i n hi s dr a m a s t o be d.

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91 F u l f i l l i n g t h e L a w o f C h r i s t F or a l l t he l a w i s f ul f i l l e d i n one w or d e ve n i n t hi s : Y ou s ha l l l ove you r ne i ghbor a s your s e l f ( G a l 5: 14, N K J V ) 2 0 7 B e a r one a not he r s bur de ns a nd s o f u l f i l l t he l a w of C hr i s t ( 6: 2 N K J V ) P a ul s c i t a t i on of L e v 19: 18 pr oba bl y i ndi c a t e s a n e a r l y J e s us t r a di t i on, a nd J e s u s us e of t hi s pa s s a ge i s w e l l a t t e s t e d t he S yno pt i c s 2 0 8 T ha t t hi s i n voke s J e s us i n s om e s e ns e i s a l s o s ugge s t e d by t he us e of l a w o f C hr i s t i n 6: 2, a nd by t he l ove pr i nc i pl e i nt r oduc e d i n 5: 6 a nd 5: 13 poi nt i ng ba c k t o C hr i s t s s a c r i f i c i a l l ove i n 2: 20. A f f i r m i ng t he obvi ous c onne c t i on be t w e e n ve r s e s 13 a nd 14, w e ha ve not e d t ha t t he f r e e dom i n 5: 13 e c hoe s t ha t i n 5: 1 w hi c h C hr i s t e n a c t s a nd i nt e nds C hr i s t i s not onl y t he m e a ns but t he m ode l f or t he ne w l i f e of f r e e dom s e r vi c e s e l f s a c r i f i c e l ov i ng one s ne i ghbor a s one s e l f V e r s e 14 p r e s e nt s t he L X X p r oof t e xt / J e s u s t r a di t i on a s j us t i f i c a t i on f or t he i m pe r a t i ve i n ve r s e 13 W e w oul d not e he r e how w e l l ve r s e s 13 a nd 14 w o r k t oge t he r T he pa r a doxi c a l j uxt a pos i t i on of t he f or m e r s l a ve r y w i t h t he ne w s l a ve r y i n 5: 13 14 i s e vi de nc e of P a ul s de f t ne s s i n e s t a bl i s hi ng a nt i t he t i c a l t e ns i on. I t s e r ve s t o c l a r i f y t he c hoi c e s of f r e e dom i n C hr i s t a nd s e r vi ng one s ne i ghbor i n l o ve ve r s us t he r e t ur n t o f or m e r s l a ve r y unde r t he l a w o r t he e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s a nd l os i ng C hr i s t I t a l s o s e r ve s t o s t r e s s t ha t t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l ne w c r e a t i on doe s i nde e d ha ve a s or t of e t h i c a l nom os j uxt a pos e d a ga i ns t t he l a w of t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge 2 0 9 A ppe a l i ng t o t he he a r t of t he l a w a s J e s us unde r s t ood i t pr ovi de s f ur t he r l e gi t i m a t i on B ut m os t i n t e r e s t i ngl y he r e ( a nd i n 6 : 2) P a ul doe s not s pe a k of ke e pi ng t he l a w but of f ul f i l l i ng i t

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92 B ot h 5: 14 a nd 6: 2 e m pl oy t he s a m e c onc e pt J e s us e m pl oye d i n M a t t 5: 17 t o f ul f i l l t he l a w 2 1 0 I n J a m e s 2: 8, t he t e r m f u l f i l l i s a l s o a ppl i e d t o L e v 19: 18 c a l l e d t he r oya l l a w P a ul us e s t he t e r m f u l f i l l i n r e ga r d t o t he l a w i n R om a ns 8: 3 4 a nd 13: 8 10, t he l a t t e r a l s o r e f e r e nc i ng L e v. 19 : 18. T hi s ve r s e w a s r a r e l y quot e d i n J uda i s m 2 1 1 s o i t s pr e s e nc e i n t he G os pe l s a nd e l s e w he r e i n t he N e w T e s t a m e nt pr oba bl y doe s i ndi c a t e a s t r ong J e s us t r a di t i on. 2 1 2 I n l i ght of t he of t e n pe r c e i ve d di s pa r i t y of P a ul a nd J a m e s r e ga r di ng t he r e l a t i on o f f a i t h a nd w o r ks i n j us t i f i c a t i on, t he s e a gr e e m e nt s a r e c om pe l l i ng. M os t c om pe l l i ng i s t he f a c t t ha t t he G r e e k w or d f u l f i l l i s ne ve r us e d t o r e f e r t o t he l a w i n t he L X X nor i s i t s H e br e w c ount e r pa r t i n t h e T a na k. 2 1 3 T he c onc e pt of f ul f i l l i ng/ c om pl e t i ng / f ul l y a c c om pl i s hi ng t he J e w i s h l a w i s uni que t o J e s us a nd t he C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i on. T he a m bi gui t y of t hi s t e r m a s a ppl i e d t o t he l a w i s a l s o w e l l s ui t e d t o t he C hr i s t i a n u s e I t c a n be unde r s t ood a s s um m i ng up t he l a w 2 1 4 but i t m or e p r ope r l y r e f e r s t o c om pl e t i ng i t a nd s a t i s f yi ng i t s r e qui r e m e nt s T he t e r m pr e s e r ve s t he t e ns i on be t w e e n be i ng s e t f r e e f r om t he l a w ( or dy i ng t o i t ) a nd ye t f ul f i l l i ng i t i n t he e t hi c of l ove W e c a n unde r s t a nd t hi s w i t hi n t he a poc a l ypt i c f r a m e w or k a nd t e ns i on of t he a l r e a dy a nd not ye t i n G a l a t i a ns a nd i n t he t e ns i on be t w e e n t he s a l va t i on hi s t or i c a l a nd a poc a l ypt i c di m e ns i ons 2 1 5 W ha t i s t he l a w of C hr i s t i n 6: 2? I s i t t he l a w i n 5 : 14? I s t he w a y t he l a w i s f ul f i l l e d i n L e v. 19: 18 ( 5: 14 ) c om pa r a bl e t o how b e a r i ng e a c h ot he r s bu r de ns f ul f i l l s t he l a w of C hr i s t ( 6: 2) ? 2 1 6 I f t he t e r m r oya l l a w i n J a m e s 2: 8 r e f e r s t o L e v 19: 18 i n J e s us t e a c hi ng a nd e a r l y C hr i s t i a ni t y how do t he t e r m s l a w of f r e e dom i n J a m e s 2: 12 a nd

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93 l a w of C hr i s t i n G a l 6: 2 c or r e l a t e ? D o t he l a t t e r t e r m s be a r r e l a t i on t o t he l a w o f t he S pi r i t o f l i f e i n C hr i s t J e s us i n R om 8: 2? R e gr e t t a bl y, w e c a nnot pu r s ue t he s e que s t i ons he r e I w oul d a t t he l e a s t c o nc ur w i t h W i t he r i ngt o n t ha t i t i s unl i ke l y P a ul m e a ns t he l a w of C hr i s t a s t he M os a i c l a w e s pe c i a l l y i n l i g ht of 1C or 9 : 19 23, e s p. 21 2 1 7 E s t a bl i s hi ng s om e s e m bl a nc e of e t hi c a l nom os a nd l e gi t i m a t i ng i t ove r a ga i ns t t he c ont i nue d va l i di t y of t he M os a i c l a w w a s c r i t i c a l f or P a ul s p r e s e nt a t i on t o t he G a l a t i a ns t o be pr a c t i c a l T hi s e s t a bl i s hm e nt ( 5: 6 13 14 ) w o ul d l ogi c a l l y p r e c e de hi s r e i nt r oduc t i on o f f l e s h/ S pi r i t a s a n e t hi c a l dua l i s m ( 5: 16 18) a nd t he s ubs e que nt vi c e a nd vi r t ue l i s t s ( 5: 19 24) A r e s t a t e m e nt of t he dua l i s t i c i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve ( 5 : 25) p r e c e de s pr a c t i c a l a ppl i c a t i ons of hi s l a w of C hr i s t I t w i l l not be pos s i bl e t o c ons i de r a l l t he uni que s i t ua t i ons t ha t m i ght be i ndi c a t e d i n t he G a l a t i a ns pa r a ne s i s but p r e c i s e l y di s c e r ni ng e ve r y a s pe c t of t he oc c a s i on of t he e pi s t l e w a s ne ve r t he pr i m a r y goa l N o r w a s i t ne c e s s a r y t o i de nt i f y e ve r y m e a ni ngf ul c onne c t i on of t he or y a nd e t hi c i n G a l a t i a ns T he f or e goi ng obs e r va t i ons of c ont i nui t y a r e m or e t ha n s uf f i c i e nt t o c onf i r m m y t he s i s a nd f a c i l i t a t e a m e a ni ngf ul c onc l us i on.

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94 C h a p t e r F i v e C o n c l u s i o n s D e m ons t r a t i ng t he c ont i nui t y of G a l a t i a ns 1: 1 5: 12 6: 11 18 w i t h t he di s put e d pa r a ne t i c a l s e c t i ons i n 5: 13 6: 10 ha s not be e n pr ob l e m a t i c H ow e ve r w e ha ve ne e d t o e xe r c i s e c a ut i on r e ga r di ng w ha t t he ol ogy w e c a n c ons t r uc t f r om P a ul s t he ol ogi z i ng a c t i vi t y i n G a l a t i a ns T he r e i s c l e a r c ont i nu i t y o f p ur pos e a pa s s i ona t e c onc e r n f or t hos e he ha s de vot e d hi m s e l f t o a nd a c om m i t m e nt t o t h i s c a us e P a ul i s on a m i s s i on; he i s t r yi ng t o w i n a f i ght H ow e ve r e nga gi ng P a ul s r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a nd i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f or m ul a s ha s s how n us he ha s m a ny w e a pons of t r ut h t o a c c om pl i s h hi s pu r pos e P a ul us e s va r i o us t r ut hs t o c om m uni c a t e hi s t r ut h f or t he G a l a t i a ns w hi c h he s om e how de r i ve s f r om T h e T r ut h B y t he l a t t e r I do not m e a n t o i m pl y a bs t r a c t i on or t r a ns c e nde nc e onl y t ha t w hi c h f or P a ul i s m os t r e a l a t t he he a r t o f hi s s t or i e d uni ve r s e t ha t by w hi c h a l l e l s e i s i nt e r p r e t e d, va l ue d, j udge d. D i s c e r n i ng t he f i r s t l e ve l of t r ut h be c a m e e a s i e r w i t h a r e c ogni t i on of t he s ym bol i c t ool s t ha t w e r e be i ng r e de pl oye d a nd t he na r r a t i ve s t ha t w e r e r e i nt e r pr e t e d a s ne e de d. C or r e l a t i on of i ndi c a t i ve a nd i m pe r a t i ve h e r e i s a l l pa r t of t he f or m ul a I f one doe s not f i t P a ul c ha nge s i t I s a a c be c om e s t he f a t he r of t he G e nt i l e s a nd t he y be c om e t he t r ue c hi l d r e n of I s r a e l w hi l e t he I s r a e l i t e s be c om e t he s l a ve c hi l dr e n o f H a ga r T hus t he G e nt i l e s a r e t he f r e e bor n r i ght f ul he i r s N ow P a ul c a n t w i t c h hi s nos e a nd c ha nge t he G e nt i l e s i nt o t he s l a ve s t ha t G od ha s s e t f r e e T he i m pe r a t i ve i s t he s a m e e i t he r w a y:

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95 Y ou a r e t he f r e e bor n, s o don t l e t t he m m a ke you i nt o s l a ve s Y ou ha ve be e n s e t f r e e s o don t go ba c k t o s l a ve r y. L i ke w i s e t he a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons P a ul e m pl o ys m a ke s om e poi nt but t he y a r e not t he r e a l i s s ue T he y c a n i l l um i na t e a nd c l a r i f y e ve n a s t he y c a r i c a t u r e a nd hype r bol i z e T he n t he y m a y c om e ba c k a nd pl a y a di f f e r e nt r ol e T he y c ha r t s a bove t ol d a r e ve a l i ng s t or y o f di s pos a bl e a nt i t h e s e s T hi s doe s not i m pl y t ha t a nt i t he t i c a l pol e s l i ke f a i t h a nd S pi r i t do not on a not he r l e ve l r e pr e s e nt a n e xpe r i e nc e d r e a l i t y or t ha t t he y l a c k r e a l va l ue a nd s ubs t a nc e O ne t a l ks of A br a ha m s t r ue f a i t h, a nd c ol or s i t pur pl e H a vi ng e xpe r i e nc e d f a i t h w e w oul d l ook t o ou r s f or a hi nt of c ol or T he S pi r i t w a s e xpe r i e nc e d a s a r e a l i t y t o t he G a l a t i a ns s o e ve r y t i m e t he dua l i s t i c a bs t r a c t i on i s i nvoke d i t ha s a c e r t a i n c onc r e t e ne s s a nd va l i di t y t o i t T hi s c a n obs c ur e a c e r t a i n de gr e e of di s pa r i t y, but t o be r e a l l y e f f e c t i ve t he s ym bol i c m e a ni ng c a nnot c ont r a di c t t he e xpe r i e nt i a l unde r s t a ndi ng. I f e ve r y t i m e t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e d t he S pi r i t t he y got i nt o f i ght s l ove one a not he r i n t he S pi r i t w oul d be i ne f f e c t i ve pa r a ne s i s O n t he ne xt l e ve l t he c or r e l a t i ons a r e m or e c onc r e t e c l os e r t o t he oc c a s i on of t he e pi s t l e a nd P a ul s pr a c t i c a l pu r pos e C i r c um c i s i on c a n be us e d i n p l a ys on w or ds a nd doubl e e nt e ndr e s but doe s not l e nd i t s e l f w e l l t o a n a bs t r a c t i on i n t h i s c ont e xt be c a us e i t i s t he r e a l da nge r I t c a n be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he f l e s h a t one poi nt a nd s l a ve r y a t a not he r but i t c a nnot f unc t i on w e l l s ym bol i c a l l y o n i t s ow n ( he r e ) T hus m os t of P a ul s c om m e nt s on c i r c um c i s i on a r e s t r a i ght f or w a r d C hr i s t w i l l be of no be ne f i t t o you P a ul m a y m a ke a pl a y on w or ds t o t a ke a c ut a t t he oppone nt s H e m a y m a ke a n a ppe a l

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96 t o t he f r e e dom C hr i s t di e d f or B ut c om i ng ba c k t o t he s ubj e c t of c i r c um c i s i on i s c om i ng ba c k t o t he c onc r e t e oc c a s i on: t he r e a l da nge r P a ul s r e s pons e t o t he r e a l da nge r t ha t c r uc i a l m e s s a ge w hi c h he m us t i m pa r t i s hi s t r ut h W e m i ght s a y i t i s hi s gos pe l t r ut h be c a us e i t i s t o be c om m uni c a t e d a nd unde r s t ood. T he gos pe l i s a l w a ys t he good ne w s on t he one ha nd, but i t i s a m e s s a ge c om m uni c a t e d t o pr oduc e a r e s pons e a nd how i t i s de f i ne d w i l l ha ve di f f e r e nt r a m i f i c a t i ons i n di f f e r e nt s oc i a l s e t t i ngs H e r e t he gos pe l s a ys : G e t t i ng c i r c um c i s e d i s c ont r a r y t o t he gos pe l of gr a c e T he ot he r gos pe l y ou he a r d i s a l i e H e r e t he gos pe l s a ys : Y ou ha ve got t o s t o p f i ght i ng, be c a us e t he r e a r e no d i vi s i ons i n C hr i s t T he s e a r e t he a r gum e nt s P a ul m us t be s uc c e s s f ul i n c om m uni c a t i ng. H e m a y us e va r i ous ot he r t r ut hs t o c om m uni c a t e a nd pe r s ua de but t he y a r e s e c onda r y. P a ul s unde r s t a ndi ng of H a ga r a nd I s hm a e l ha s not hi ng t o do w i t h w hy he s o de s pe r a t e l y doe s n t w a nt t he G a l a t i a ns c i r c um c i s e d. N ot e ve n t he s t or y of A br a ha m s pr om i s e d s e e d i s a nyw he r e ne a r t he c e nt e r of hi s b e l i e f s ys t e m T he gos pe l m a y ha ve be e n pr e a c he d i n A br a ha m ( 3: 8) but P a ul a f f i r m s t ha t t h i s f a i t h w a s r e c e nt l y r e ve a l e d ( e g. 3: 23, 25) T he s e s t or i e s a r e not s o s a c r e d a nd i m m ut a bl e t ha t t he y c a n e s c a pe P a ul s t w i s t i ng a nd c ont or t i ng t he m how e ve r he m us t t o g e t t he r i ght m e a ni ng. I t i s t he m e a ni ng t ha t i s i ns pi r e d. I f H a ga r ha s t o be c om e J e r us a l e m a nd S i na i t o ge t t he m e a ni ng, P a ul w i l l m a ke i t ha ppe n. H e unde r s t a nds t he s t or i e s a s i ns pi r e d i n t ha t t he y a r e i nve s t e d w i t h a m e s s a ge t ha t a l w a ys t r a ns c e nd s a nd r e l a t i vi z e s t he na r r a t i ve E ve n t he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e o f t he S pi r i t of G o d, w h i c h P a ul s a ys i s pr oof t he y a r e A br a ha m s c hi l dr e n ha s j us t be c om e a m e a ns t o de c l a r e t hi s i ndi c a t i ve f or t he

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97 pur pos e of r e i n f or c i ng t he i m pe r a t i ve : D on t be c i r c um c i s e d! D on t e nvy your ne i ghbor a nd c a us e di vi s i ons Y ou a r e not s ubj e c t t o t he l a w T he r e i s no f oul he r e f or P a ul nor w i t h f r a m i ng t he f r ui t a nd vi c e l i s t s unde r S pi r i t / f l e s h dua l i s m w hi c h P a ul ha d ne ve r us e d i n t hi s ki nd o f e t hi c a l s e ns e be f or e nor w i t h e xpa ndi ng t he vi c e l i s t s t o f i t t he G a l a t i a n s qua bbl e s S om e t hi ng bi gge r i s a f oo t r e l a t i vi z i ng a l l of t hi s H ow c a n w e know w he n s om e t hi ng t r a ns c e nds P a ul s c r uc i a l i s s ue or m a i n t he m e ( hi s gos pe l t r ut h) a nd a ppr oa c he s T he T r ut h f o r P a ul ? W e be gi n b y i s ol a t i ng t he m a i n t he m e f r om t he t r ut hs us e d a s a r gum e nt s f or i t F o r i ns t a nc e s om e m i ght c ons i de r t he m a i n t he m e of G a l a t i a ns t o be t he S pi r i t ve r s us t he f l e s h. H ow e ve r P a ul ne ve r e ve n br oa c he s t he s ubj e c t of t he S pi r i t t i l l hi s e ndi ng w i t h t he f l e s h a r gum e nt be gi ns i n 3: 2. H i s e nt i r e hi s t or y c om m un i c a t e d i n t he f i r s t 2 c ha p t e r s d oe s not r e qui r e a ny m e nt i on of t he S pi r i t T he S pi r i t i s not e ve n pr e s e nt i n hi s ope ni ng 5 ve r s e s w he r e G od a nd C hr i s t a r e na m e d 6 t i m e s 10 t i m e s i nc l udi ng p r onouns T he G a l a t i a ns e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t be c a us e i t i s non f a l s i f i a bl e m a y ha ve be e n t h e s t r onge s t pa r t o f P a ul s a r gum e nt ; t hus he ba s e s hi s w hol e e t hi c on t he S pi r i t B ut t h e S pi r i t i s c l e a r l y not t he m a i n i s s ue O f a l l t he c a t e gor i e s l i s t e d i n ou r c ha r t m u l t i pl e m e nt i ons of c i r c um c i s i on i n P a ul s ope ni ng a c c ount i n c h. 2 s i gna l a m a i n i s s ue P a ul ne ve r na m e s c i r c um c i s i on i n c ha pt e r 3 or 4. H e c a nnot us e t he t e r m be c a us e t he J e w i s h na r r a t i ve s a l l f e a t ur e a nd c om m a nd i t a nd he c a nnot a l l e gor i z e i t H e f oc us e s on t he l a w i ns t e a d, pr e s e nt e d a s a n i nf e r i or c ove na nt a gua r di a n, c om pa r a bl e t o i dol a t r y, a s s l a ve r y. W he n P a ul na m e s c i r c um c i s i on a ga i n i n c h. 5, i t i s c l e a r i t w a s a l w a ys i n f oc us ; i t i s t he s l a ve r y, a nd he i s m a d: c ut of f f r om C hr i s t w i l l pa y t he pe na l t y c a s t r a t e t he m s e l ve s T he e ndi ng of

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98 t he e pi s t l e a t t a c ks t he c i r c um c i s e r s m ot i ve s a ga i n: hypoc r i t e s boa s t e r s i n t he f l e s h, a f r a i d of pe r s e c ut i on. A nd he t he n r e s t r i c t s t he f i n a l bl e s s i ng t o t hos e w ho a gr e e t ha t c i r c um c i s i on m e a ns not hi ng! A nd now w e unde r s t a nd t ha t t he doubl e a na t he m a s i n t he be gi nni ng w e r e di r e c t e d he r e a l s o a c ur s e on t he c i r c um c i s e r s be gi nni ng t o e nd. H a ve w e e f f e c t i ve l y s i ngl e d out t he m a j o r t he m e i n t hi s l e t t e r ? C i r c um c i s i on? C oul dn t i t r e a l l y be t he l a w ? T he w o r ks of t he l a w ? Y e s but . O ne c a n s t op e a t i ng kos he r or ke e pi ng S a bba t h a t a ny t i m e ; c i r c um c i s i on i s f or e ve r t he pe r m a ne nt i de nt i t y m a r ke r t ha t s o e nr a ge s P a ul t ha t w e ha ve t o a s k w h y W hy, i nde e d F ur t he r m or e w i t hout di s c e r ni ng t he t r ue he a r t of P a ul s s t or i e d uni ve r s e m a ny of t he c onne c t i ons I ha ve c onc l ude d c oul d not be a f f i r m e d t o ha ve f oun da t i ons t r a ns c e ndi ng t hi s c ont e xt W he r e doe s P a ul s t r ut h f or t he G a l a t i a ns c onne c t w i t h T he T r ut h f o r P a ul ? I i ndi c a t e d pr e vi ous l y t ha t i t w oul d be a m i s t a ke t o t r y a nd di s c e r n P a ul s c or e be l i e f s a nd s ym bol i c uni ve r s e by t he a nt i t he t i c a l t e ns i ons he e s t a bl i s he s or t he na r r a t i ve s he r e i nt e r pr e t s H ow e ve r by di s m i s s i ng t he m o r e ob vi ous l y ut i l i t a r i a n a nd m a l l e a bl e t r u t hs i s ol a t i ng t he c onc r e t e i s s ue s s pe c i f i c t o t hi s oc c a s i on a nd P a ul s p r a c t i c a l pur pos e s a nd goa l s s pe c i f i c t o t hi s s oc i a l c ont e xt t he l a s t m a n s t a ndi ng m a y be gi n t o r e s e m bl e T he T r ut h f or P a ul S t a ndi ng out s i de a l l t he a nt i t he t i c a l c ons t r uc t i ons a nd na r r a t i ve r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons a nd i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve f o r m ul a s w e f ound t he c i r c um c i s i on c ont r ove r s y f r a m i ng t he e pi s t l e f r o m t he f i r s t a na t he m a t hr ough P a ul s ye a r s o f s t r uggl e w i t h t he c i r c um c i s i on f a c t i on, t hr ough t he a ngr y p ol e m i c s t o t he f i na l de ni a l of bl e s s i ng. T hi s i s t he c or e of P a ul s m a i n m e s s a ge t o t he G a l a t i a ns E ve r yt hi ng c onne c t s s om e how B ut i t i s not T he T r ut h ; i t i s not t he c r ux of w ha t P a ul be l i e ve s

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99 T he f r a m e w or k of t he p r e s e nt c r i s i s ha s a not he r s t r uc t ur e s t a ndi ng out s i de of i t ove r i t be f or e i t a nd a f t e r i t I t i s r e vi s i t e d t hr oug hout ye t ne ve r r e l a t i vi z e d ne ve r r e duc e d t o a m e a ns ne v e r i nvoke d w i t hout s om e c l ue t ha t i t i s t he c r ux of e ve r yt hi ng P a ul a n a pos t l e t hr ough J e s us C hr i s t a nd G od t he F a t he r w ho r a i s e d hi m f r om t he de a d G r a c e t o you a nd pe a c e f r o m G od our F a t he r a nd t he L or d J e s u s C hr i s t w ho ga ve hi m s e l f f o r our s i ns t o s e t u s f r e e f r om t he pr e s e nt e vi l a ge a c c or di ng t o t he w i l l of our G od a nd F a t he r t o w hom be t he gl or y f or e ve r a nd e ve r A m e n. ( 1: 1a 1c 3 5) F or t hr ough t he l a w I di e d t o t he l a w s o t ha t I m i ght l i ve t o G od. I ha ve be e n c r uc i f i e d w i t h C hr i s t ; a nd i t i s no l onge r I w h o l i ve but i t i s C hr i s t w ho l i ve s i n m e A nd t he l i f e I now l i ve i n t he f l e s h I l i ve by f a i t h i n t he S on o f G od, w ho l ove d m e a nd ga ve hi m s e l f f or m e ( 2: 19 20) Y ou f ool i s h G a l a t i a ns W ho ha s be w i t c he d you ? I t w a s be f o r e your e ye s t ha t J e s us C hr i s t w a s publ i c l y e xhi bi t e d a s c r uc i f i e d! ( 3: 1 ) C hr i s t r e de e m e d us f r om t he c ur s e of t he l a w b y be c om i ng a c ur s e f or us f or i t i s w r i t t e n C ur s e d i s e ve r yone w ho ha ngs on a t r e e ( 3: 13) A s m a ny of you a s w e r e ba pt i z e d i nt o C hr i s t ha ve c l ot he d your s e l ve s w i t h C hr i s t T he r e i s no l onge r J e w or G r e e k, t he r e i s n o l onge r s l a ve or f r e e t he r e i s no l onge r m a l e a nd f e m a l e ; f or a l l o f you a r e on e i n C hr i s t J e s us ( 3: 27 28 ) F or f r e e dom C hr i s t ha s s e t us f r e e S t a nd f i r m t he r e f or e a nd do not s ubm i t a ga i n t o a yoke of s l a ve r y. ( 5: 1) F or i n C hr i s t J e s us ne i t he r c i r c um c i s i on no r unc i r c um c i s i on c ount s f or a nyt hi ng; t he onl y t hi ng t ha t c ount s i s f a i t h w or ki n g t hr ough l ove ( 5: 6) F or you w e r e c a l l e d t o f r e e dom br ot he r s a nd s i s t e r s ; onl y do not us e your f r e e dom a s a n oppor t uni t y f or s e l f i ndul ge nc e bu t t hr ough l ove be c om e s l a ve s t o one a not he r F or t he w hol e l a w i s s um m e d up i n a s i ngl e c om m a ndm e nt Y ou s ha l l l ove your ne i ghbor a s y our s e l f ( 5: 13 14) A nd t hos e w ho be l on g t o C hr i s t J e s us ha ve c r uc i f i e d t he f l e s h w i t h i t s pa s s i ons a nd de s i r e s ( 5: 24) B e a r one a not he r s bu r de ns a nd i n t hi s w a y yo u w i l l f ul f i l l t he l a w of C hr i s t ( 6: 2 ) M a y I ne ve r boa s t of a nyt hi ng e xc e pt t he c r os s of our L o r d J e s us C hr i s t by w hi c h t he w o r l d ha s be e n c r uc i f i e d t o m e a nd I t o t he w or l d. F or ne i t he r c i r c um c i s i on nor unc i r c um c i s i on i s a nyt hi ng; but a ne w c r e a t i on i s e ve r yt hi ng! A s f o r t hos e w ho w i l l f ol l ow t h i s r ul e pe a c e be upon t he m a nd m e r c y, a nd upon t he I s r a e l of G od. F r om now on l e t no one m a ke t r oubl e f or m e ; f or I c a r r y t he m a r ks o f J e s us br a nde d on m y b ody. ( 6: 14 17)

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100 M y t he s i s a f f i r m s t he di r e c t r e l a t i on of P a ul s t he ol ogy t o hi s e t hi c a l s ys t e m i n G a l a t i a ns a nd I ha ve de m ons t r a t e d c onvi nc i ng c on ne c t i ons B ut I ha ve de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he s e c onne c t i ons t r a ns c e nd P a ul s t he ol ogi z i ng. P a ul s e t hi c s do not ul t i m a t e l y de r i ve f r om hi s r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons o r a nt i t he s e s or i ndi c a t i v e / i m pe r a t i ve f or m u l a s or a ny doi ng of t he ol ogy. T he i r or i gi ns a r e not i n P a ul s a poc a l ypt i c f r a m e w or k or a s a l va t i on hi s t or i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve or t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l a l r e a dy a nd not ye t T he s e pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e i m por t a nt a nd t he l i ne s of c onne c t i on r un t hr ough t he m a ga i n a nd a ga i n a nd a r e e nr i c he d by t he m B ut f or P a ul t he r e i s one t r ut h t ha t pe r m e a t e s t h e m a l l ye t s t a nds out s i de t he m a l l f i xe d a t a f i ni t e pl a c e i n t i m e a nd s pa c e w he r e t he i nf i ni t e i m pi nge s on t he c os m os a nd w he r e f or P a ul a l l t r ut h c onve r ge s : t he c r os s of J e s u s of N a z a r e t h H e r e a l l di vi s i ons a nd s pe c i a l pr i vi l e ge a r e a bol i s he d a nd a l l s t a nd e qua l be f or e G od, w ho s how s m e r c y t o a l l T o be gi n t o r e c onc i l e a ny of t he m a ny d i f f i c ul t i e s i n P a ul a nd ga i n, not j us t a ne w pe r s pe c t i ve but P a ul s pe r s pe c t i ve t he r e i s onl y o ne va nt a ge poi nt w he r e w e m a y s e e t hi ngs a s he di d. I t i s one o f t he gr e a t pa r a doxe s o f P a ul s t hought . t ha t t he ve r y he a r t of h i s s ym bol i c w or l d hi s gos pe l a nd hi s t he ol ogi z i ng i s a c ont i nge nt hi s t or i c a l e ve nt a nd G od s r e s pons e t o i t : t he c r uc i f i xi on a nd r e s ur r e c t i on of J e s us of N a z a r e t h. H e r e t he e t e r na l a nd t he t e m p or a l t he c ont i nge nt f a c t s of hi s t or y a nd t he e t e r na l t r ut hs of t he ol ogy c om e t oge t he r 2 1 8 P a ul s e e s t he c r os s a t t he he a r t o f t he s t or y o f J e s us T he c r os s not onl y m a r ks t he t r a ns i t i on f r om ol d w or l d t o ne w c r e a t i on ( 1: 4, 6: 14 15 ) not onl y s t a nds a bs ol ut e l y oppos e d t o a nyt hi ng w h i c h l i m i t s t he g r a c e of G od or pe r s i s t s i n s e t t i ng di vi s i on be t w e e n pe opl e s ( 2: 21; 3: 13 14) bu t a l s o s e t s t he pa t t e r n f or C hr i s t i a n c onduc t a s s e l f g i vi ng l ove ( 2: 20) I n t hi s w a y not l e a s t t he e t hi c of t he S pi r i t i s c on f o r m e d t o t he pa t t e r n of t he c r os s ; t he S pi r i t w hos e l e a d t he G a l a t i a ns m us t f o l l ow i s t he S pi r i t o f t he c r uc i f i e d. 2 1 9

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101 N o t e s 1. I n D unn s a ddr e s s a t t he T W M a ns on M e m or i a l L e c t ur e 1982, c om m e nt i ng on E P S a nde r s c ont r i but i on t o t he di a l ogue i n hi s book P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m F or m o r e de ve l ope d ve r s i ons of t hi s a ddr e s s s e e D unn, T he N e w P e r s pe c t i ve i n P a ul B ul l e t i n of t he J ohn R yl a nds U ni ve r s i t y L i br a r y 65 ( 1983) 95 122; a nd T he N e w P e r s pe c t i ve i n P a ul i n J e s us P a ul a nd t he L a w ( L o ui s vi l l e : W e s t m i ns t e r J ohn K nox, 1990) 183 214. 2. A ugus t i ne C onf e s s i ons t r E dw a r d P us e y ( N e w Y or k: R a ndom H ous e 1949) 3. I bi d. B ook V I I I 166 67. 4. I bi d. B ook V I I I 154. 5. S e e A ugus t i ne A T r e a t i s e on t he P r e de s t i na t i on of t he S a i nt s i n N e w A dve nt w e bs i t e : < ht t p: / / w w w ne w a dve nt or g/ f a t he r s / 1512 ht m > 6. S e e A ugus t i ne A T r e a t i s e A ga i ns t T w o L e t t e r s of t he P e l a gi a ns : I n F our B ooks W r i t t e n t o B oni f a c e B i s hop of t he R om a n C hur c h book I : 17 24 i n C hr i s t i a n C l a s s i c s E t he r e a l L i br a r y w e bs i t e : < ht t p: / / w w w c c e l or g/ f a t he r s 2/ N P N F 1 05/ npnf 1 0 5 36. ht m > 7. J N D K e l l y, E a r l y C hr i s t i a n D oc t r i ne s ( S a n F r a nc i s c o: H a r pe r S a nF r a nc i s c o, 1978) 357 f f e s p. 368 72; M i l l a r d J E r i c ks on, C h r i s t i a n T he ol ogy ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : B a ke r 1998) 924 8. E r i c ks on, 925. 9. W i l l i a m C P l a c he r A H i s t or y of C hr i s t i a n T he ol ogy: A n I nt r oduc t i on. ( P hi l a de l phi a : W e s t m i ns t e r 1983 184 5; E r i c ks on 926 10. M a r t i n L u t he r L ut he r s W or ks V ol um e 34 C a r e e r of t he R e f or m e r I V ( S t L oui s C onc or di a P ubl i s hi ng H ous e 1960 ) p. 336 337, a va i l a bl e onl i ne : < ht t p: / / w w w m ode r nr e f o r m a t i on. o r g/ m l c onve r s i on ht m > 11. M a r t i n L u t he r T he J e w s a nd T he i r L i e s t r M a r t i n H B e r t r a m i n M e di e va l S our c e book w e bs i t e : < ht t p: / / w w w f or dha m e du/ ha l s a l l / ba s i s / 1543 L ut he r J e w s a ndL i e s f ul l ht m l > 12. S e e n. 1. 13. W D D a vi e s P a ul a nd R a bbi ni c J uda i s m : S o m e R a bbi ni c E l e m e nt s i n P a ul i ne T he ol ogy 3r d e d. ( N e w Y or k; E va ns t on: H a r pe r & R ow 1967) 14. I bi d. 22 1 2. 15. I bi d. 32 2. 16. I bi d. 32 3. 17. I bi d. 32 1 3. 18. K r i s t e r S t e nda hl T he A pos t l e P a ul a nd t he I n t r os pe c t i ve C ons c i e nc e of t he W e s t i n H a r va r d T he ol ogi c a l R e vi e w 56 ( 1963) 199 215.

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102 19. K r i s t e r S t e nda hl P a ul A m ong J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s a nd O t he r E s s a ys ( P hi l a de l phi a : F o r t r e s s 1976) 20. K r i s t e r S t e nda hl F i na l A c c ount : P a ul s L e t t e r t o t he R om a n s ( M i nne a pol i s : F or t r e s s 1995) 21. S t e nda hl P a ul A m ong J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s 15. 22. T he a ut ho r of A c t s a l s o por t r a ys hi m t hus i n 2 2: 3; 26: 4 5 23. E P S a nde r s P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J ud a i s m ( M i nne a pol i s : F or t r e s s 1977) 24. E P S a nde r s P a ul t he L a w a nd t he J e w i s h P e opl e ( M i nne a pol i s : F or t r e s s 1985) 25. S a nde r s P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m 12. 26. I bi d. 17 18. 27. I bi d. 75 422. 28. I bi d. 42 2. 29. I bi d. 51 4. 30. I bi d. 44 2, 474, 499, 5 55. 31. I bi d. 44 3. 32. S a nde r s P a ul t he L a w a nd t he J e w i s h P e opl e 35 33. S a nde r s P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J uda i s m 547 9. 34. I bi d. 55 1. 35. I bi d. 55 2. 36. S a nde r s P a ul t he L a w a nd t he J e w i s h P e opl e 165 6, n. 38. 37. N T W r i ght W ha t S a i nt P a ul R e a l l y S a i d ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 1977) 19 38. S e e e s p. J a m e s D G D unn T he T he ol ogy of P a ul t he A pos t l e ( G r a nd R a pi ds ; C a m br i dge : E e r dm a ns 1998 ) 39. J a m e s D G D unn, I n S e a r c h of C om m on G r ound, i n P a ul a nd t he M os a i c L a w e d. J a m e s D G D unn ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 2000) 334 40. S t e phe n W e s t e r hol m P e r s pe c t i ve s O l d a nd N e w on P a ul : T he L ut he r a n" P a ul a nd H i s C r i t i c s ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r d m a ns 2004) 429 31, 444, a nd e l s e w he r e 41. I bi d. 40 4 7. 42. H e i kki R i s ne n, P a ul a nd t he L a w ( P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1986) 264. 43. W i l l i M a r xs e n, I nt r oduc t i on t o t he N e w T e s t a m e nt ( P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1968) 58 44. J C O 'N e i l l T he R e c ove r y of P a ul s L e t t e r t o t he G a l a t i a ns ( L ondon: S P C K 1972) 47 45. M a r t i n D i be l i us J a m e s : A C om m e nt a r y on t h e E pi s t l e of J a m e s 11t h e d. r e vi s e d by H e i nr i c h G r e e ve n, H e r m e ne i a : a C r i t i c a l a nd H i s t or i c a l C om m e nt a r y on t he B i bl e ( P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1976) 3

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103 46. T hi s i s i n s ubs t a nt i a l ha r m ony w i t h t he t r a di t i o na l L ut he r a n v i e w L ut he r s e e s t he s e a dm oni t i ons a nd pr e c e pt s a s a f ol l ow up, l e s t out s i de r s m i s unde r s t a nd t he C hr i s t i a ns l i be r t y: I n or de r t o a voi d t he a ppe a r a n c e a s i f C hr i s t i a ni t y m i l i t a t e d a ga i ns t good w or ks or oppos e d c i vi l gove r nm e nt t he A po s t l e a l s o ur ge s us t o gi ve ou r s e l ve s unt o good w or ks . M a r t i n L ut he r A C om m e nt a r y on S t P a ul s E pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns t r a ns T he odor e G r a e bne r ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : Z on de r va n, 1939) 129 T hi s book i n pdf f or m a t i s a va i l a bl e on l i ne a t : < ht t p: / / w w w c c e l o r g / c c e l / l ut he r / ga l a t i a ns pdf > 47. F r a nk J M a t e r a N e w T e s t a m e nt E t hi c s : T he L e ga c i e s of J e s u s a nd P a ul ( L oui s vi l l e : W e s t m i ns t e r J ohn K nox 1996) 169 48. J ohn M G B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h: P a ul s E t hi c s i n G a l a t i a n s ( V a nc ouve r B C : R e ge nt C ol l e ge P ub l i s hi ng, 2005 ) 13 a nd e l s e w he r e 49. W a l t e r S c hm i t ha l s T he H e r e t i c s i n G a l a t i a i n P a ul a nd t he G no s t i c s t r a ns J ohn S t e e l y ( N a s hvi l l e : A bi ngdon 1972) 13 64. 50. R obe r t J e w e t t T he A gi t a t or s a nd t he G a l a t i a n C ongr e ga t i on, i n T he G a l a t i a ns D e b a t e : C ont e m por a r y I s s ue s I n R he t or i c a l A nd H i s t or i c a l I nt e r pr e t a t i on e d. M a r k D N a nos ( P e a body M A : H e ndr i c ks on, 2002 ) 344 7. 51. H a ns D i e t e r B e t z G a l a t i a ns : A C om m e nt a r y o n P a ul 's L e t t e r t o t he C hur c he s i n G a l a t i a H e r m e ne i a A C r i t i c a l a nd H i s t or i c a l C om m e nt a r y on t he B i bl e ( P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1979) 273 4, a nd e l s e w he r e 52. I bi d. 14 25. 53. G e or ge A K e nne dy, N e w T e s t a m e nt I nt e r pr e t a t i on T hr ough R he t or i c a l C r i t i c i s m ( C ha pe l H i l l N C : U ni ve r s i t y of N o r t h C a r ol i na P r e s s 1984 ) 145. 54. R i c ha r d N L onge ne c ke r G a l a t i a ns W or d B i b l i c a l C om m e nt a r y, V ol 41 ( N a s hvi l l e : T hom a s N e l s on, 1990 ) 185 6. 55. J a m e s D G D unn, T he E pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a n s B l a c k' s N e w T e s t a m e nt C om m e nt a r y, V ol I X ( P e a body, M A : H e ndr i c ks o n, 1993) 20 56. B e t z ha s obs e r ve d t hr e e ke y e xa m pl e s of i ndi c a t i ve / i m pe r a t i ve i n G a l a t i a ns 5: 1, 13 a nd 25 S e e G a l a t i a ns : A C om m e nt a r y 25 4 5. 57. J ohn M G B a r c l a y, M i r r or R e a di ng a P ol e m i c a l L e t t e r : G a l a t i a ns a s a T e s t C a s e i n T he G a l a t i a ns D e ba t e e d. M a r k D N a no s ( P e a body, M A : H e ndr i c ks on, 2002) 367. 58. B e t z 5 7. 59. B e n W i t he r i ngt on I I I G r a c e i n G a l a t i a : C om m e nt a r y on G a l a t i a n s ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 1998) 21 3 ; a nd W i t he r i ng t on, T he P a ul Q ue s t : T he R e ne w e d S e a r c h f or t he J e w of T a r s u s ( D ow ne r s G r ove I L : I nt e r V a r s i t y, 1998 ) 292. 60. B a r c l a y, M i r r o r R e a di ng a P ol e m i c a l L e t t e r 367 82; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h, 36 41. 61. M i r r or R e a di ng a P ol e m i c a l L e t t e r 368 70 62. I bi d. 37 2 5. 63. I bi d. 37 6 8. 64. I bi d. 38 1.

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104 65. B e t z 5. 66. J e w e t t 344 5; L onge ne c ke r xc i v. 67. W e c a nnot he r e e nga ge t he de ba t e a s t o w he t h e r t he t e r m J uda i z e r s t r a di t i ona l l y a s s um e d t o r e f e r t o t hos e w ho p r om ot e d c i r c um c i s i on f or G e nt i l e s m o r e pr ope r l y r e f e r s t o t hos e G e nt i l e s w ho r e s ponde d t o t he m e s s a g e a nd w e r e c i r c um c i s e d. I t s e e m s be s t t he r e f or e t o a voi d t he t e r m I w i l l t he r e f or e r e f e r t o t hos e oppos i ng P a ul s l a w f r e e gos pe l i n G a l a t i a a s t he oppone nt s T he r e i s no c onf l i c t i n r e f e r r i ng t o a J uda i z i ng m ove m e nt how e ve r 68. T hough C h r i s t i a n m a y be a n a na c hr oni s t i c t e r m w e us e i t he r e a nd t hr oughout t hi s t he s i s t o r e f e r t o t hos e w ho a r e c on s i de r e d t o be f o l l ow e r s of C hr i s t 69. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 9; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r u t h 42; M i r r or R e a di ng, 378, 380. 70. B e t z 7; W i t he r i ngt on G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 25; L onge ne c ke r xc v; M a t e r a 162 3; D unn G a l a t i a ns 10. 71. F F B r uc e E pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a n s N e w I nt e r na t i ona l G r e e k T e s t a m e nt C om m e nt a r y ( G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 1982 ) 24 5; D unn G a l a t i a ns 10; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r u t h 43. 72. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 23. 73. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 12 15 74. A c c or di ng t o P a ul s a c c ount t he m e n f r om J a m e s c a m e be f or e t he c onf r ont a t i on w i t h P e t e r a nd t he hypot he t i c a l br e a k w i t h J e r us a l e m s o t he y w oul d not ha ve ha d t he c or r e c t i ve a ge nda ye t T he a l t e r na t i v e w oul d be t ha t t he c onc i l i a r r e ve r s a l oc c ur r e d be f or e t he c onf r on t a t i on w i t h P e t e r w hi c h t he n c oul d not ha ve pr e c i pi t a t e d t he br e a k. T he onl y ot he r pos s i bi l i t y i s t ha t P a ul ( a nd L uke i n A c t s 15) m i s r e pr e s e nt e d t he c ounc i l s e ndor s e m e nt i n t he f i r s t pl a c e a nd no g r e a t r e ve r s a l of pos i t i on a c t ua l l y t ook pl a c e ; s o w i t h F r a nc i s W a t s on, P a ul J uda i s m a nd t he G e nt i l e s ( N e w Y or k: C a m br i dge 1989) 55 75. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 43 4 n 18; M i r r or R e a di ng, 380. 76. B a r c l a y, M i r r o r R e a di ng, 379 77. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 71. 78. I bi d. 58 79. I bi d. 59 60. 80. B e t z 9; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 70, 106. 81. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 70 72 82. J os e phus A ga i ns t A pi on 2 c h. 8 170 71. A va i l a bl e o nl i ne a t : < ht t p: / / w w w c c e l or g/ c c e l / j os e phus / w or ks / f i l e s / a pi on 2. ht m > 83. I bi d. c h 9 179 81. 84. I bi d. c h 8 168 85. I bi d. c h. 14, 281 6. 86. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 76. 87. M a t e r a 165; W a t s on 65; B a r c l a y O be yi ng t he T r ut h 82.

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105 88. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 150; M a t e r a 164 89. M a t e r a 166. 90. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 155 6; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 85. 91. T he c onc e pt o f c i r c um c i s i on of t he he a r t i s s e e n i n D e ut 10: 16 30: 6 a nd i n J e r 4: 4, 9: 25 26 J ubi l e e s 1: 23 26 s e e m s t o a f f i r m t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of D e ut 30. 92. D a vi e s 203 5; D unn, G a l a t i a ns 153 4; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 84. 93. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 296. 94. B e t z 138; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 87, n. 28. 95. B r uc e 154 5; W i t he r i ng t on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 219. 96. B e t z 139 41; D unn, G a l a t i a ns 161 2 97. M a t e r a 167; B r uc e 156; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t h e T r ut h 87 8. 98. T he L ut he r a n m e t hod ha d be e n t o r e s ol ve t hi s r i ddl e by a s s e r t i ng t ha t P a ul ha s i n m i nd t he a t t e m pt t o e s t a bl i s h one s s e l f r i gh t e ous ne s s by l a w ke e pi ng. H ow e ve r t he c ont e xt he r e ne i t he r f oc us e s on t he hub r i s of s e l f r i ght e ous ne s s nor t he p r a c t i c a l i m pos s i bi l i t y of ke e pi ng t he l a w S e e D unn, G a l a t i a ns 171. 99. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 67; B r uc e 160 f f 100. D unn, G a l a t i a n s 164. 101. P a ul s w or di ng he r e i s i nt e r e s t i ng: s o t ha t w e m i ght r e c e i ve t he pr om i s e of t he S pi r i t t hr ough f a i t h T o s uppos e t ha t P a ul i s s a yi ng t he J e w s w i l l r e c e i ve t he S pi r i t w he n t he bl e s s i ng c om e s t o t he G e nt i l e s m a y be r e a di ng f a r t oo m uc h t he ol ogi c a l l y i nt o t he pr onoun c hoi c e I n t hi s c ont e xt i t s e e m s m or e l i ke l y t ha t P a ul us e s t he pr onoun w e t o de m ons t r a t e hi s s ol i da r i t y w i t h t he G a l a t i a ns ove r a ga i ns t t he c i r c um c i s i on f a c t i on. D unn s ugge s t s t ha t t he pr onoun w e w oul d i nc l ude a l l t he na t i ons i nc l udi ng J e w s w ho ha ve r e c e i ve d t he S pi r i t G a l a t i a ns 179. S e e a l s o n 134 102. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 228; B a r c l a y O be yi ng t he T r ut h 88; B r uc e 168. 103. D unn, G a l a t i a n s 179. 104. M a r t yn, J L oui s G a l a t i a ns A nc hor B i bl e ( N e w Y o r k: D oubl e da y, 1997) 343 4; B r uc e 169 70 ; 105. B r uc e 170 106. B e t z 155 6; L onge ne c ke r 128 30; s e e W i t h e r i ngt on s c r i t i que i n G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 242 3 107. I f t hi s w e r e not t he G a l a t i a ns unde r s t a ndi ng a l s o, P a ul w oul d ha ve l os t a l l c r e di bi l i t y r i ght he r e I t s e e m s be t t e r t o a l l ow t ha t w e m a y l a c k s om e da t a 108. T he H e br e w w or d s e e d ( z e r a ) i s a l s o us e d t o r e f e r t o a s i ngul a r pe r s on i n G e ne s i s 4: 25, s pe a ki ng of S e t h I n G e n 21: 13, t h e L X X t r a ns l a t e s t he H e br e w w or d s on a s s e e d i n s pe a ki n g of I s hm a e l 109. J a m e s D G D unn, T he T he ol ogy of P a ul s L e t t e r t o t he G a l a t i a ns ( C a m br i dge ; N e w Y or k: C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1993) 122 3; D unn G a l a t i a ns 183 5; W i t he r i ngt on G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 244.

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106 110. F r om R H C ha r l e s T he A poc r ypha a nd P s e ude pi gr a pha of t he O l d T e s t a m e nt ( O xf or d: C l a r e ndon P r e s s 1913) A va i l a bl e onl i ne a t : < ht t p: / / w e s l e y. nnu. e du/ bi bl i c a l _s t udi e s / nonc a non/ ot / ps e udo/ j ubi l e e ht m > 111. B e t z 159; L onge ne c ke r 133. 112. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 253 4; L ong e ne c ke r 139. 113. T he r e ha ve be e n a m ul t i t ude of i nt e r p r e t a t i ons he r e s o D unn 19 0 91; L onge ne c ke r 140 41. S uf f i c e t o s a y t hi s s e e m s t o di s t a nc e G od f r om t he gi vi ng of t he l a w ve r s us hi s di r e c t pr om i s e t o A br a ha m w i t h no i nt e r m e di a r i e s 114. B e t z 164. 115 I bi d. 1 65. 116. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 260. 117. D unn, 194 5 118. S o i n N R S V P a i da gogos i s t r a ns l a t e d a s t ut o r i n t he N A S B a nd N K J V a nd a s s c hool m a s t e r i n t he K J V 119. B a pt i s m i s not m e nt i one d e l s e w he r e i n G a l a t i a ns nor be i ng c l ot h e d w i t h C hr i s t 3: 27 28 m a y be a n e a r l y ba pt i s m a l f o r m ul a f a m i l i a r t o t he G a l a t i a ns W i t he r i ngt on, 270 ; L onge ne c ke r 154 I n a ny c a s e s i nc e P a ul doe s not e l a bor a t e t he c onc e pt s s pe c i f i c a l l y a s w or de d m us t not be e s s e nt i a l t o P a ul s a r gum e nt he r e B a pt i s m w a s a f ounda t i ona l c onc e pt i n C hr i s t i a ni t y ( e g. R om a ns 6: 3 11) a nd w oul d ha ve be e n unde r s t ood. B e i ng c l ot he d w i t h r i ght e ous ne s s s a l va t i on, s t r e ngt h a nd g l or y a r e f a m i l i a r c onc e pt s i n J e w i s h t hought L onge ne c ke r 156. 120. T he N A S B a nd N K J V doe s not di f f e r a t a l l f r om a s l a ve s e e m s t o be l e s s of a n ove r s t a t e m e nt ( a t l e a s t t o m ode r n e a r s ) N o be t t e r t ha n s e e m s t o i m pl y l a c k of i nt r i ns i c w or t h; not s upe r i or t o m i gh t be a be t t e r r e nde r i ng t o r e f e r t o l e ga l or s oc i a l s t a t us s o D unn, G a l a t i a ns 2 10 121. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 287. 122. W i t he r i ngt on no t e s f our pos s i bl e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of e l e m e nt a l s pi r i t s a c c or di ng t o G r e c o R om a n t hough t but be i ng l oa t he t o va l i da t e t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he m a s be i ngs di s m i s s e s t he r e f e r e nc e i n 4 : 9 a s t o o a m bi guous t o be c onc l us i ve G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 284 6, 297. L onge ne c ke r not e s s i x pos s i bi l i t i e s but f i nds no e xt e r na l e vi de nc e f or a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on a s be i ngs be f or e t he t hi r d or f ou r t h c e nt ur y C E 165 B r uc e how e ve r s ugge s t s t ha t t he y w e r e c o unt e r f e i t gods ( a s i n 1C or 12: 2) w hi c h ha d be e n de m yt hol ogi z e d; t hi s s e e m s t o ha r m oni z e vs 3 a nd 8 be t t e r 202. D unn no t e s t ha t by na t ur e he r e doe s not de not e a H e br e w c onc e pt a nd pr oba bl y i ndi c a t e s a m or e S t oi c pe r s pe c t i ve on t he na t ur e o f r e a l i t y; P a ul m a y ha ve i n m i nd t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n gods i n r e a l i t y a nd gods by hum a n c onve nt i on, G a l a t i a ns 224; s o B e t z 214. B e t z c ont r a L onge ne c ke r a nd W i t he r i ngt on, w oul d op t f or t he m o r e de m onol ogi c a l unde r s t a ndi ng, w hi c h he f i nds a t t e s t e d i n H e l l e ni s t i c ( a poc a l ypt i c ) J uda i s m 215 123. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 96 7 124. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 223. 125. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 296. 126. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 91 2

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107 127. L onge ne c ke r 199f f ; B e t z 246; D unn, T he ol ogy of P a ul s L e t t e r 96; D unn G a l a t i a ns 243; M a r t yn, 433f f 128. H ow e ve r m os t s c hol a r s a r e he s i t a nt t o a l l ow f or a c onne c t i on. B e t z s e e s no i ndi c a t i on of P a ul s know l e dge of t he P hi l oni c a l l e gor y, 239; L onge ne c ke r l e a ns t ow a r d i nde pe nde nc e 205; B r uc e s e e s no r e l a t i on, 215. W i t he r i ngt on, how e ve r s e e m s t o a l l ow f or a de e pe r c onne c t i on, 325; D unn not e s t ha t t he G r e e k w o r d a l l e gor y i s us e d onl y he r e i n t he N T bu t c om m on t o P hi l o, T he ol ogy of P a ul s L e t t e r 123 129. L onge ne c ke r 205. 130. M a r t yn, 433; W i t h e r i ngt on G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 325. 131. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 246, 257. 132. B r uc e 223 133. B e t z 249. 134. S i m i l a r l y t he c l os i ng s e c t i on i n 6 : 11 18 d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s t o t he a r gum e nt s a nd m ot i va t i ons of t he c i r c um c i s i on f a c t i on, a nd i s not pr ob l e m a t i c 135. S o W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 240; B r uc e a l s o e nga ge s i t t hus 226; pa c e B e t z w ho s e e s a r a di c a l br e a k f r om 4: 31 t o 5: 1, 255; D unn a ppr e c i a t e s t he a br upt ne s s of t he e xc l a m a t i on a s P a ul s de s i gn t o e ns ur e r e c ogni t i on of i t s c r uc i a l i t y a s m uc h m or e t ha n a n obvi ous c onc l us i on t o t he pr e v i ous s e c t i on, G a l a t i a ns 261. 136. B e t z 254 6 137. B r uc e 229 30. 138. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 269 70; B r uc e 231 2; B e t z 261 2; pa c e W i t he r i ngt on, 369, w ho f ol l ow s L onge ne c ke r i n r e s t r i c t i ng P a ul s pr onoun w e t o r e f e r t o J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns a s i f P a ul w e r e s a yi ng: [ e ve n] w e J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns [ m us t ] hope f o r r i ght e ous ne s s t hr ough t he S pi r i t by f a i t h. I n t hi s unde r s t a ndi ng, ve r s e 6 i s d i vi de d a nd 6a a ppe nde d t o 5; s o w i t h L onge ne c ke r 229 T hi s unde r s t a ndi ng s e e m s f or c e d; t he s e ns e of [ e ve n] w e J e w s doe s not s e e m e xpl i c i t e nough t o be P a ul s i n t e nde d poi nt R a t he r t ha n w e ( i n 5: 5) r e f e r r i ng t o J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ns a nd you ( i n 5 : 4) r e f e r r i ng t o t he G e nt i l e G a l a t i a ns a s s ugge s t e d by W i t he r i ngt on a nd L ong e ne c ke r i t s e e m s m or e c ont i guous w i t h P a ul s i ndi c a t i ve s t ha t t he di vi s i on be be t w e e n t hos e w ho hope t hr ough t he S pi r i t ( i n s ol i da r i t y w i t h P a ul 5 : 5) a nd t hos e w ho s e e k j us t i f i c a t i on t hr ough t he l a w ( i n s ol i da r i t y w i t h t he oppone nt s 5: 4) T hus t he w e a nd you w o ul d c onf or m t o t he di vi s i ons i n t he G a l a t i a n c r i s i s not t he di vi s i ons t ha t a r e done a w a y w i t h i n C hr i s t F u r t he r m or e t he i m pl i e d pr e c i s i on of P a ul s us e o f f i r s t a nd s e c ond pe r s on pr onouns i s pr oba bl y ove r s t a t e d; f or e xa m pl e s e e 4: 6, w hi c h w oul d ha v e t o be i nt e r pr e t e d, be c a us e you G e nt i l e s a r e c hi l dr e n, G od ha s s e nt hi s S pi r i t i n t o t he he a r t s of us J e w s c r yi ng A bba F a t he r T o m a i nt a i n P a ul s p r onoun p r e c i s i on t h us l y r e s ul t s i n a bs ur di t i e s S e e a l s o n 97. 139. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 93 4 140. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 175 6 141. W i t he r i ngt on, T he P a ul Q ue s t 283. 142. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 96. 143. I bi d.

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108 144. S a nde r s P a ul t he L a w a nd t he J e w i s h P e opl e 46. 145. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 283; B a r c l a y O be yi ng t he T r ut h 96 7 146. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 97. 147. S e e t he di s c us s i on i n B e t z 321 3; W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 451 3, e s p. 453; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 98 not e s 53 a nd 54; a nd D unn G a l a t i a ns 544 5. I ha ve om i t t e d t he di s c us s i on of t he N i ne t e e nt h B e ne di c t i on due t o unc e r t a i n da t i ng, t hough a n e a r l y da t e m i ght i ndi c a t e t he c l os e s t pa r a l l e l t o P a ul s bl e s s i ng he r e 148. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 98. 149. W a t s on, 19. 150. I bi d. 151. I bi d. 3 9. 152. T he G a l a t i a n s i t ua t i on m a y not be a pr e c i s e f i t i n ot he r w a ys t hough P a ul s G a l a t i a n c onf l i c t w a s not w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l pow e r s t r uc t ur e s of J uda i s m or J e s us a s M e s s i a h w oul d ha ve be e n a ke y i s s ue of c onf l i c t T he J e r us a l e m a pos t l e s w e r e a r e f or m m ove m e nt t he m s e l ve s a nd ha d t he i r ow n c o nf l i c t s w i t h t he i r r e l i g i ous t r a di t i on W e ha ve no c onc r e t e e vi de nc e t ha t t he oppone nt s i n G a l a t i a of f i c i a l l y r e pr e s e nt e d J e r us a l e m but i n a ny c a s e J e w i s h C hr i s t i a ni t y i n ge ne r a l w a s a r e f or m m ove m e nt w i t hi n J uda i s m W e m a y a c t ua l l y ha ve a s t r uggl e be t w e e n r e f or m m ove m e nt s i n G a l a t i a ( A s a n a s i de w e m i ght a l s o not e t ha t P a ul s t he ol ogi z i ng s om e t i m e s i nvol ve d oppos i t i on f r om ot he r c ha r i s m a t i c l e a de r s s uc h a s t he s upe r a pos t l e s i n C or i nt h. ) 153. I bi d. 2 0. 154. I bi d. 4 0. 155. I bi d. 4 6. 156. I bi d. 4 7. 157. W hi l e W a t s on s ha r e s a n a ge nda t o di s c r e di t t he t r a di t i ona l L ut he r a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on, hi s a ppr oa c h t oo i nhe r e nt l y i nvol ve s di s pa r a gi ng P a ul s m o t i ve s W a t s on c ha l l e nge s t he t r ut h of P a ul s a c c ount s ( e g. 54) a nd P a ul s c onc e r n f or t r ut h a l t oge t he r ( e g. 46) W a t s on s P a ul c a r e s not w he t he r w ha t he s a ys i s t r ue ; he c a r e s onl y a bout w ha t he i s t r yi ng t o a c c om pl i s h f or W a t s on, t hi s i s a l w a ys t o e f f e c t t he c om pl e t e s e pa r a t i on of t he c hur c h f r o m t he s yna gogue s e e 46 7. 158. I bi d. 4 6. 159. W i t he r i ngt on, T he P a ul Q ue s t 297. 160. I bi d. 3 00. 161. I bi d. 162. I bi d. 1 68 9. 163. W e a r e r e f e r r i ng t o t hos e r e s pons i bl e f or t he s e c t a r i a n r ul e s a nd pe s ha r i m f ound i n c a ve s ne a r Q um r a n, w he t he r or not t he s e c t a c t ua l l y l i ve d t he r e 164. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 98. 165. W a t s on, 63 72 166. J ohn J C ol l i ns I nt r oduc t i on: T ow a r ds t he M or phol ogy of a G e nr e i n A poc a l yps e : T he M or phol ogy of a G e nr e e d. J ohn J C ol l i ns S e m e i a 14 ( 1979) : 9.

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109 167. W a yne A M e e ks S oc i a l F unc t i ons of A po c a l ypt i c L a ngua ge i n P a ul i ne C hr i s t i a ni t y, i n A poc a l ypt i c i s m i n t he M e di t e r r a n e a n W or l d, e d. D a vi d H e l l hol m ( T ubi nge n: M ohr 1983 ) 689. 168. S e e D unn, T he ol ogy of P a ul s L e t t e r 44, 47 48. 169. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 102. 170. T hough s om e s c ho l a r s ha ve obs e r ve d t he l a c k of e xpl i c i t r e f e r e nc e s t o t he r e s ur r e c t i on i n G a l a t i a ns i t i s i m pl i c i t t hr oughout T he oc c a s i on of t he G a l a t i a n e pi s t l e di c t a t e s t he i m por t a nc e of s t r e s s i ng t he a l r e a dy e xpe r i e nc e of t he S pi r i t a nd ne w l i f e i n C hr i s t ove r t he not ye t f u t ur e hope of r e s ur r e c t i o n. 171. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 103. 172. T hough t hi s us a ge i s i n t he di s put e d s e c t i on t ha t w e ha ve ye t t o a ddr e s s i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r ( 5: 13 6: 10 ) i t i s i nt r oduc e d he r e f or t he s a ke of c ont i nui t y 173. W e c o ul d a l s o i nc l ude i m pl i c i t r e f e r e nc e s t o de a t h, s uc h a s 3: 15, w he r e t he t he m e of t he l a s t w i l l a nd t e s t a m e nt r e i nf o r c e s t he i de a of t he p r om i s e c om i ng t hr ough de a t h, a nd 3: 27 w he r e ba pt i s m i nt o C hr i s t ( e xpl a i ne d a s ba pt i s m i nt o hi s de a t h i n R om a ns 6: 3f f ) r e s ul t s i n r a di c a l s oc i a l r e or de r i ng a nd c onf i r m a t i on a s he i r s of t he pr om i s e t o A br a ha m 174. T he t e r m kos m os i s us e d i n a m or e ne ga t i ve l i ght he r e t o r e pr e s e nt t he pr e s e nt w or l d, w hi c h i s pa s s i ng a w a y. 175. D unn, G a l a t i a ns 177. 176. S e e D unn, T he ol ogy of P a ul s L e t t e r 86. 177. D unn, T he ol ogy of P a ul t he A pos t l e 179 80. 178. I bi d. 3 18 19; B a r c l a y O be yi ng t he T r ut h 10 1. 179. W e c a n a l r e a dy r e c ogni z e he r e i n l i ne w i t h o ur t he s i s t ha t not f ur t he r e nga gi ng t he pr a c t i c a l a s pe c t s of t hi s r a d i c a l e s c ha t ol ogi c a l r e or de r i ng of s oc i e t y w oul d ha ve be e n a s e ve r e de f i c i e nc y i n P a ul s a r gum e nt t o t he G a l a t i a ns 180. M e e ks op. c i t 181. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 104 5 182. I bi d. U nf o r t una t e l y, w e c a nnot w i t hi n t he s c o pe of t hi s pa pe r pur s ue a n e xa m i na t i on of t he m a ny pa r a l l e l s he r e 183. N ot e he r e a l s o t he i m pr i n t i ng o f t he a poc a l yp t i c m ot i f he a ve nl y J e r us a l e m a s our m ot he r on t he s a l va t i on/ hi s t or i c a l S a r a h, t he m ot he r c hos e n a c c or di ng t o G od s pr om i s e 184. T r oe l s E ngbe r g P e de r s e n, P a ul a nd t he S t oi c s ( L oui s vi l l e : W e s t m i ns t e r J ohn K nox, 2000) 4 7 8. 185. I bi d. 1 38. 186. I bi d. 1 40. 187. I bi d. 1 68 9. 188. I bi d. 1 69.

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110 189. F or m or e on C hr i s t s de a t h a c c ur s e d by t he l a w a nd t he be l i e ve r s i de nt i f i c a t i on i n hi s de a t h, s e e 169 70; f o r m o r e on P a ul s i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h C hr i s t i n hi s de a t h, s e e 146 8. 190. C ont r a W a t s on, 46 a nd e l s e w he r e 191. W i t he r i ngt on, T he P a ul Q ue s t 269. 192. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 71. 193. S e e D unn, T he ol ogy of P a ul t he A pos t l e 62 70; B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 203 212 194. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 206, 209. 195. I bi d. 1 81. 196. S e e i bi d 180, n. 4. 197. T he r e a r e a num be r of r e a s ons gi ve n: t he p r o m i s e c om e s di r e c t l y f r o m G od a nd i s pe r m a ne nt ; t he l a w w a s a dde d be c a us e of t r a ns gr e s s i on s w a s or da i ne d t hr ough a nge l s a nd a m e di a t or a nd i s onl y t e m por a r y un t i l t he he i r c om e s H ow e ve r w e s e e t ha t t he he i r o f pr o m i s e C hr i s t ha s c om e f a l l e n und e r t he c ur s e of t he l a w be c om e a c ur s e hi m s e l f a nd a bol i s he d t he c ur s e of t he l a w s o t ha t t he bl e s s i ng/ pr om i s e m i ght c om e t o t he G e nt i l e s F ur t he r m or e w e w i l l s e e t ha t t he c hi l d of p r om i s e > f r e e dom a nd t he c hi l d of f l e s h > s l a ve r y T he s ubs e que nt i de nt i f i c a t i on of l a w obs e r va nc e a s a r e t u r n t o a yoke of s l a ve r y c e r t a i nl y i nvol ve s t h e i de a o f l e a vi ng t h e pr om i s e f or t he l a w a nd t hus c hoos i ng be t w e e n t he pr om i s e a nd t he l a w P e r ha p s t he a nt i t he s i s i n t hi s c a s e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t he hum a n r e s pons e W e c a nnot pur s ue t hi s c om pl e xi t y a ny f u r t he r he r e e xc e pt t o not e t ha t w e m us t i ns i s t on e xpl i c i t c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n a nt i t he s e s t ha t c l e a r l y t r a ns c e nd t he i r i m m e di a t e c ont e xt s 198. W e ha ve pr e vi ous l y not e d t he pe r s e c ut i on t h e m e a nd t he i m pe r a t i ve t o c a s t out t he bondw om a n a nd he r s on. 199. E m pha s i s m i ne a nd t hr oughou t 200. A l s o P hi l 2: 16; c f 1C or 9: 26 201. E ngbe r g P e de r s e n, 168 9 202. F or r e a s ons pr e vi ous l y s t a t e d, w e s ubs t i t ut e t he f l e s h f or t he N R S V s s e l f i ndul ge nc e 203. B e t z 254 6 204: I n 1C or 9: 19 a nd 2C or 4: 5 t hi s i s P a ul s e x a m pl e a l s o. 205: T hi s doe s not p r e c l ude t ha t t he oppone nt s d oc t r i ne e xa c e r ba t e d t he or i g i na l di vi s i ons ( pe r ha ps e xt r e m e l y s o) nor t ha t t he or i gi na l di vi s i ons di d not ha ve a f a c e t o f J e w i s h/ G e nt i l e di s t i nc t i on t o t he m 206. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 178 9 207. N e w K i ng J a m e s V e r s i on, c opyr i gh t 1982, T hom a s N e l s on, I nc T hi s t e xt i s us e d he r e t o m a i nt a i n t he c ons i s t e nt t r a ns l a t i on o f p l hr o /w a nd a na p l hr o w a s f ul f i l l 208. M a r k 12: 31; M a t t 19: 19 22: 39; L uke 10: 27; R om 13: 8 10; J a m e s 2: 8. 209: T hi s w oul d a ddr e s s s om e o f t he i m po r t a nt ne e ds of t he G a l a t i a ns a s w e ha ve unde r s t ood t he m ( a nd a s ha ve s c hol a r s quot e d)

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111 210. p l hr o /w i n M a t t 5: 17 a nd G a l 5: 14; a na p l hr o w i n G a l 6: 2 211. W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 383. 212. S e e n. 204. 213. B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 138. 214. A s i n N R S V r e nde r i ng o f G a l 5: 14. S e e n 2 03. 215. S e e B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 135 45 ; s e e a l s o W i t he r i ngt on, G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 381 4 216. S e e W i t he r i ngt on G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 423 8; s e e a l s o B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 126 34 2 17. S e e W i t he r i ngt on G r a c e i n G a l a t i a 424 5; i d e m T he P a ul Q ue s t 264, 270; pa c e B a r c l a y, O be yi ng t he T r ut h 132 4. 218. W i t he r i ngt on, T he P a ul Q ue s t 284. 219. D unn, T he ol ogy of P a ul s L e t t e r 120

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112 R e f e r e n c e s A ugus t i ne C onf e s s i ons T r a ns l a t e d by E dw a r d P us e y. N e w Y or k: R a ndom H ous e 1949. _______. A T r e a t i s e A ga i ns t T w o L e t t e r s of t he P e l a gi a ns : I n F our B ooks W r i t t e n t o B oni f a c e B i s hop of t he R om a n C hur c h I n C hr i s t i a n C l a s s i c s E t he r e a l L i br a r y w e bs i t e : < ht t p: / / w w w c c e l or g / f a t he r s 2/ N P N F 1 05 / npnf 1 05 36 ht m > _______. A T r e a t i s e on t he P r e de s t i na t i on of t he S a i nt s I n N e w A dve nt w e bs i t e : < ht t p: / / w w w ne w a dve nt or g/ f a t he r s / 1512 ht m > B a r c l a y, J ohn M G O be yi ng t he T r ut h: P a ul s E t hi c s i n G a l a t i a ns V a nc ouve r B C : R e ge nt C ol l e ge P ubl i s hi ng, 2005 ________. M i r r or R e a di ng a P ol e m i c a l L e t t e r : G a l a t i a ns a s a T e s t C a s e I n T he G a l a t i a ns D e ba t e : C ont e m por a r y I s s ue s I n R he t or i c a l A nd H i s t or i c a l I nt e r pr e t a t i on e di t e d by M a r k D N a nos P e a body M A : H e ndr i c ks on, 2002. B e t z H a ns D i e t e r G a l a t i a ns : A C om m e nt a r y on P a ul 's L e t t e r t o t he C hur c he s i n G a l a t i a H e r m e ne i a A C r i t i c a l a nd H i s t or i c a l C om m e nt a r y on t he B i bl e P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1979. B r uc e F F E pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a n s N e w I nt e r na t i ona l G r e e k T e s t a m e nt C om m e nt a r y G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 1982 C ha r l e s R H T he A poc r ypha a nd P s e ude pi gr a pha of t he O l d T e s t a m e nt O xf or d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1913 C ol l i ns J ohn J I nt r oduc t i on: T ow a r ds t he M or p hol ogy of a G e nr e I n A poc a l yps e : T he M or phol ogy of a G e n r e e di t e d by J ohn J C ol l i ns S e m e i a 14 ( 1979 ) 1 19 D a vi e s W D P a ul a nd R a bbi ni c J uda i s m : S om e R a bbi ni c E l e m e nt s i n P a ul i ne T he ol ogy 3 r d e d N e w Y or k; E va ns t on: H a r pe r & R ow 1967 D i be l i us M a r t i n. J a m e s : A C om m e nt a r y on t he E pi s t l e of J a m e s 1 1t h e di t i on. R e vi s e d by H e i nr i c h G r e e ve n. H e r m e ne i a A C r i t i c a l a nd H i s t or i c a l C om m e nt a r y on t he B i bl e P h i l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1976. D unn, J a m e s D G T he E pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a n s B l a c k's N e w T e s t a m e nt C om m e nt a r y, V ol I X P e a body, M A : H e ndr i c ks on, 1993 ________. I n S e a r c h of C om m on G r ound I n P a ul a nd t he M o s a i c L a w e di t e d by J a m e s D G D unn G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r d m a ns 2000.

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113 ________. T he N e w P e r s pe c t i ve i n P a ul I n B u l l e t i n of t he J ohn R yl a nd s U ni ve r s i t y L i br a r y 65 ( 1983 ) 95 122 _____ ___. T he N e w P e r s pe c t i ve i n P a ul I n J e s us P a ul a nd t he L a w L oui s vi l l e : W e s t m i ns t e r J ohn K nox, 1990. ________. T he T he ol ogy of P a ul t he A pos t l e G r a nd R a pi ds ; C a m br i dge : E e r dm a ns 1998. ________. T he T he ol ogy of P a ul 's L e t t e r t o t he G a l a t i a ns C a m br i dge ; N e w Y o r k: C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1993 E ngbe r g P e de r s e n, T r oe l s P a ul a nd t he S t oi c s L oui s vi l l e : W e s t m i ns t e r J ohn K nox, 2000. E r i c ks on, M i l l a r d J C hr i s t i a n T he ol ogy. G r a nd R a pi ds M I : B a ke r 1998. J e w e t t R obe r t T he A gi t a t o r s a nd t h e G a l a t i a n C ongr e ga t i on. I n T he G a l a t i a ns D e ba t e : C ont e m por a r y I s s ue s I n R h e t or i c a l A nd H i s t or i c a l I nt e r pr e t a t i on e di t e d by M a r k D N a nos P e a body, M A : H e ndr i c ks on, 2 002. K e l l y, J N D E a r l y C hr i s t i a n D oc t r i ne s S a n F r a nc i s c o: H a r pe r S a nF r a nc i s c o, 1 978. K e nne dy, G e or ge A N e w T e s t a m e nt I nt e r pr e t a t i o n T hr ough R he t or i c a l C r i t i c i s m C ha pe l H i l l N C : U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h C a r ol i na P r e s s 1984. L onge ne c ke r R i c ha r d N G a l a t i a ns W or d B i bl i c a l C om m e nt a r y, V ol 41 N a s hvi l l e : T hom a s N e l s on, 1990. L ut he r M a r t i n. A C om m e nt a r y on S t P a ul s E pi s t l e t o t he G a l a t i a ns T r a ns l a t e d by T he odor e G r a e bne r G r a nd R a pi ds M I : Z onde r va n, 1939 ________. T he J e w s a nd T he i r L i e s T r a ns l a t e d b y M a r t i n H B e r t r a m I n M e di e va l S our c e book w e bs i t e : < ht t p: / / w w w f or dha m e du/ ha l s a l l / ba s i s / 1543 L ut he r J e w s a ndL i e s f ul l ht m l > ________. L ut he r s W or ks V ol um e 34, C a r e e r of t he R e f or m e r I V S t L oui s C onc or di a P ubl i s hi ng H ous e 1960. A va i l a bl e onl i ne : < ht t p: / / w w w m ode r nr e f o r m a t i on. o r g/ m l c onve r s i on > M a r t yn, J L oui s G a l a t i a ns T he A nc hor B i bl e N e w Y or k: D oubl e da y, 1997. M a r xs e n, W i l l i I nt r oduc t i on t o t he N e w T e s t a m e nt P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1968 M a t e r a F r a nk J N e w T e s t a m e nt E t hi c s : T he L e ga c i e s of J e s u s a nd P a ul L oui s vi l l e : W e s t m i ns t e r J ohn K nox, 1996.

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114 M e e ks W a yne A S oc i a l F unc t i ons of A poc a l ypt i c L a ngua ge i n P a ul i ne C hr i s t i a ni t y. I n A poc a l ypt i c i s m i n t he M e di t e r r a ne a n W or l d, e d i t e d by D H e l l hol m T ubi nge n: M ohr 1983. O 'N e i l l J C T he R e c ove r y of P a ul 's L e t t e r t o t he G a l a t i a ns L ondon: S P C K 197 2. P l a c he r W i l l i a m C A H i s t or y of C hr i s t i a n T he ol ogy: A n I nt r oduc t i on. P hi l a de l phi a : W e s t m i ns t e r 1983. R i s ne n, H e i kki P a ul a nd t he L a w P h i l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1986. S a nde r s E P P a ul a nd P a l e s t i ni a n J ud a i s m M i nne a pol i s : F or t r e s s 1977. ____ ____. P a ul t he L a w a nd t he J e w i s h P e opl e M i nne a pol i s : F or t r e s s 1983. S c hm i t ha l s W a l t e r T he H e r e t i c s i n G a l a t i a I n P a ul a nd t he G nos t i c s T r a ns l a t e d by J ohn S t e e l y. N a s hvi l l e : A bi ngdon, 1972. S t e nda hl K r i s t e r T he A pos t l e P a ul a nd t he I nt r o s pe c t i ve C ons c i e n c e of t he W e s t I n P a ul A m ong J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s 1976. F i r s t publ i s he d i n E ngl i s h i n H a r va r d T he ol ogi c a l R e vi e w 56 ( 1963) ________. P a ul A m ong J e w s a nd G e nt i l e s a nd O t he r E s s a ys P hi l a de l phi a : F or t r e s s P r e s s 1976. ________. F i na l A c c ount P a ul s L e t t e r t o t he R o m a ns M i nne a pol i s : F or t r e s s 1995. W a t s on, F r a nc i s P a ul J uda i s m a nd t he G e nt i l e s N e w Y or k: C a m br i dge 1989. W e s t e r hol m S t e phe n. P e r s pe c t i ve s O l d a nd N e w on P a ul : T he L ut he r a n" P a ul a nd H i s C r i t i c s G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 2004. W i t he r i ngt on, B e n I I I G r a c e i n G a l a t i a : C om m e nt a r y on G a l a t i a n s G r a nd R a pi ds M I : E e r dm a ns 1998 ________. T he P a ul Q ue s t : T he R e ne w e d S e a r c h f or t he J e w of T a r s us D ow ne r s G r ove I L : I nt e r V a r s i t y, 1998. W r i ght N T W ha t S a i nt P a ul R e a l l y S a i d. G r a nd R a pi ds : E e r dm a ns 1977


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Meigs, Steven Douglas.
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The ethics of the spirit in Galatians :
b considering Paul's paranesis in the interpretation of his theology
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by Steven Douglas Meigs.
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[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2006.
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ABSTRACT: The faith versus works dichotomy that has been a foundation of Protestant Christianity for centuries is derived in large part from a flawed understanding of Paul's theology in the epistles to the Galatians and Romans. In the wake of WWII, scholars began reexamining Pauline theological constructs and proposing new ways of understanding Paul's arguments regarding faith and works. James D. G. Dunn dubbed this dialogue the "new perspective." This paper will contribute to one particular aspect of new perspective dialogue: understanding the relation of the paranetic material in the final two chapters of Galatians to Paul's theological arguments in the main body of the letter (1:1-5:12). The ethical imperatives in 5:13-6:10 have often been ignored or explained away due to the fact that they are difficult to reconcile with the faith-only, anti-works bias in the traditional Lutheran interpretation of Paul's theology.^ ^It has been customary to view the fruit of the Spirit in Galatians more as a description of what the Spirit does in the life of a believer than any kind of an ethical imperative (though similar imperatives are found throughout the New Testament). Some scholars have suggested that the ethical section of the letter was appended later, or perhaps attached as a general directive unrelated to the specific occasion of the main body of the letter. However, if the ethics cannot be reconciled with their theological foundations, the theology must be misunderstood; we cannot respond by devaluing or deemphasizing ethical systems. Theology cannot be interpreted without considering the ethical imperatives it enjoins. My thesis is that the Pauline ethical imperatives in Galatians are directly related to the theological arguments that precede them, and that a scholarly engagement of these imperatives can illuminate Paul's theology and facilitate a more fruitful understanding.^ ^In demonstrating the theological/ethical connections, I will consider the occasion of the letter, Paul's narrative reinterpretations, antithetical constructions, and indicative/ imperative formulas, the tension between salvation-historical and apocalyptic perspectives, and the truth for Paul that transcends the occasion of the epistle.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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Adviser: James F. Strange, Ph.D.
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Christianity.
New Testament.
Pauline.
New perspective.
Ethical systems.
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Dissertations, Academic
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x Religious Studies
Masters.
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1820