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Mazzola, Joseph J.
Moderating effect of negative affectivity on the job satisfaction-turnover intentions and justice-turnover intentions relationships
h [electronic resource] /
by Joseph J. Mazzola.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
ABSTRACT: Although many people experiences dissatisfaction with their jobs at some time or another, not all of them quit their jobs because of it. Why do some employees simply continue to work in an unsatisfying environment? In this study, it is hypothesized that part of the reason is based on the individual's personality, specifically their scores on positive and negative affectivity. Results showed that neither NA nor PA moderated the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions/job search, contrary to previous literature. This study suggests that the moderation effect of personality on this relationship, either does not exist or is more complicated than formerly thought.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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Adviser: Paul E. Spector, Ph.D.
Intent to quit.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Moderating Effect of Negative Affectivity on the Job Satisfaction-Turnover Intentions and Justice-Turnover Intentions Relationships by Joseph J. Mazzola A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Psychology College of Arts & Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Paul E. Spector, Ph.D. Walter C. Borman, Ph.D. Jamie L. Goldenberg, Ph.D. Date of Approval: September 19, 2006 Keywords: positive affectivity, job search, personality, tenure, intent to quit Copyright 2006, Joseph Mazzola
Dedication This masters thesis is dedicated to my fa mily, friends, and colleagues, especially my parents, John and Debbie Mazzola, who always supported me in everything I did.
Acknowledgments I would like to thank the follo wing people, without whom this thesis would have never been possible: Dr. Paul Spector Dr. Walter Borman Dr. Jamie Goldenberg Dr. Jane Noll Shaeleigh Reesher and Joseph Stembler
i Table of Contents List of Tables................................................................................................................. ....iii List of Figures....................................................................................................................iv Abstract....................................................................................................................... .........v Introduction................................................................................................................... .......1 Negative Affectivity.................................................................................................1 Job Satisfaction........................................................................................................3 Justice.......................................................................................................................5 Turnover Intentions..................................................................................................7 Affective Disposition as a Moderator of Turnover Intentions and Search Behavior...................................................................................................................9 Method...............................................................................................................................15 Participants.............................................................................................................15 Measures................................................................................................................15 Demographics..........................................................................................15 Affective Dispositions.............................................................................15 Job Satisfaction........................................................................................16 Justice.......................................................................................................16 Intention to Quit.......................................................................................17 Search Behaviors.....................................................................................17
ii Procedure...............................................................................................................17 Results........................................................................................................................ ........19 Discussion..........................................................................................................................29 Limitations.............................................................................................................34 References..........................................................................................................................36 Appendices.........................................................................................................................42 Appendix A: Thesis Survey...................................................................................43
iii List of Tables Table 1 Descriptive St atistics.........................................................................................20 Table 2 Hierarchical Regressi on Analysis for Negative Affectivity ............................22 Table 3 Hierarchical Regressi on Analysis for Positive Affectivity...............................23 Table 4 Hierarchical Regre ssion Analysis for the Gripe Index.....................................24
iv List of Figures Figure 1 Job Satisfaction to Intent to Quit relationship moderated by NA.....................25 Figure 2 Job Satisfaction to Job Search relationship moderated by NA .........................25 Figure 3 Procedural Justice to Intent to Quit relationship moderated by NA ..................26 Figure 4 Procedural Justice to Job Search relationship moderated by NA ......................26 Figure 5 Distributive Justice to Intent to Quit relationship moderated by NA ................27 Figure 6 Distributive Justice to Job Search relationship moderated by NA ....................27
v Moderating Effect of Negative Aff ectivity on the Job SatisfactionTurnover Intentions and Justice-Tu rnover Intentions Relationships Joseph J. Mazzola ABSTRACT Although many people experiences dissatisfactio n with their jobs at some time or another, not all of them quit their jobs b ecause of it. Why do some employees simply continue to work in an unsatisfying environment? In this study, it is hypothesized that part of the reason is based on the individuals personality, specifically their scores on positive and negative affectivity. Results show ed that neither NA nor PA moderated the relationship between job satisfaction and tu rnover intentions/job s earch, contrary to previous literature. This study suggests that the moderation e ffect of personality on this relationship, either does not exist or is more complicated than formerly thought.
1 Turnover has a large financial impact on organizations because they must go through the process of recr uiting, selecting, training, a nd socializing replacement employees (Jex, 2002). It is therefore in an or ganizations best interest to avoid losing their employees, which is why organizations tr y to keep their employees as satisfied as possible. While the job satisfaction-turnove r relationship has been established, -.26 according to one meta-analysis (Carsten & Sp ector, 1987), there seems to be more at work in this relationship. Why do some peopl e react to dissatisfact ion (as well as other unfavorable job perceptions) by seeking greener pastures whil e others simply remain in their disappointing jobs? The pu rpose of this study is to determine if differences in situational reactions may be dispositionallybased and if organizations and employees alike benefit from a greater understanding of how affect dispositions influence responses to situations. Specifically, this study will inve stigate how affective dispositions moderate the relationship between j ob perceptions and turnove r intentions/behaviors. Negative Affectivity Negative affectivity (NA) is defined as a dispositional tra it that makes people more susceptible to experience negative em otions and distress (Watson & Clark, 1984). Individuals high in NA experience more feelings of nervousness, anxiety, tension, and worry. They tend to focus on their mistakes and shortcomings and hold less optimistic views. Conversely, positive aff ectivity (PA) is the general te ndency to experience events as positive. It is important to note that th ere is some debate as to whether positive
2 affectivity and negative affec tivity are opposite poles of the same construct. Most agree they should be considered separate constructs, particularly in light of the rather modest correlations between the two (r= -0.30 Judge & Locke, 1993). Ther efore, it is important to examine relationships involving NA and PA sepa rately, as well as th e various scales and procedures used to measure these concepts. Why are high-NA individuals prone to negative emotions and experiences? Two theories were put forth by McCrae and Costa (1991): the instrumental and temperamental views. The instrumental view states that personality influences attitudes through situations that the person creates for themselves (e.g. lo w-NA individuals may seek out and find a positive and rewarding situation). It is proposed that high-NAs do not tend to look for such opportunities, and thus find them selves in less satisfying situations. The temperamental view states that personalit y traits represent varying sensitivity or responses to stimuli. For example, a hi gh-NA individual may be more reactive to negative stimuli, thus causing a more extreme reaction to a negative experience, such as workplace injustice. The current study is root ed in the instrumental view that high-NA individuals will create negative situations fo r themselves and will not seek out more positive situations to replace them. This view of self-selection was supported by Judge and Hulin (1993), who found that affective di spositions were causally related to job satisfaction. It can be inferred that highNA dispositions cause low job satisfaction because employees with these dispositions are placing themselves in unsatisfying situations. The idea that job satisfaction has st able components to it, whether it is through NA or other personality variable s, is not new, and other re searchers have looked at the
3 relationship between personality and satisfac tion with ones job (Staw, Bell, & Clausen, 1986) Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction, or the degree to which someone finds their job enjoyable and rewarding, is often studied because of the im portant role it plays in the life of an employee. Job dissatisfaction has been shown to relate to other variables, such as job performance (r=-.22; Hochwarter, Perrewe, Ferris, & Brymer, 1999) and absenteeism (r=.12; Spector, 1985). While job satisfaction is certainly going to change from job to job, it has been shown to have a dispositional component as well. Staw and Ross (1985) found that attitudes remained somewhat stable over time, even in situations where there was considerable change in the nature of wo rk. Although the attitudes were less stable as the situational change became greater, this st udy presents a basis for the suggestion that job satisfaction is, at least in part, dispositional. Another line of research suggests that attitudes, dispositions, and personality variables have an effect on job satisfaction many years after they are measured. Staw et al. (1986) investigated affective disposition and satisfaction ratings from a sample of individuals beginning in ages 12-14 through to ages 54-62. They found that affective dispositions taken throughout the participants liv es where significantly related to job attitudes, including job and caree r satisfaction, even decades af ter those dispositions were measured. In another longitudinal study, Spector and OConnell (1994) collected personality variables from gra duating seniors, and then meas ured job satisfaction 12 to 15 months later. Job satisfaction was correlated wi th several previously assessed personality variables: negative affectivity (r=-.18), locus of control (r=-.27), and Type A behavior
4 (impatience-irritability, r=-.15; achievement, r=-.16). These studies st rongly suggest that job satisfaction is affected by underlying personal ity traits and dispositions and that it is relatively stable over long periods of time. Another way of looking at the effect of pe rsonality on job attitudes is whether an individual has the tendency to see and react to the world positively or negatively. Pulakos and Schmitt (1983) conducted a study where the job expectations of graduating high school seniors were measured before entering the work environment. They found that job satisfaction correlated with the extent to which the students expected the desired outcomes (good pay, cooperative workers, a nd self-esteem). These findings support the hypothesis that people who are generally posit ive and expect positive events are more likely to experience life positively. If job satisfaction does indeed have a dispositional component, attention should be tu rned to what comprises this aspect of job satisfaction and how dispositions affect an employees reaction to job satisfac tion/dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction has been found to be corre lated with negative affectivity between -.27 and -.33 (Agho, Mueller, & Price 1993, C onnolly & Viswesvaran, 2000). This means that those high in NA are less likely to be satis fied with their jobs. This idea makes sense since high NAs are often anxious and/or de pressed, two states th at do not typically translate to experiencing a satisfying work environment. This is also compatible with the temperamental view of negative affect that high-NA individuals have more a negative reaction to their environment (here decrease d job satisfaction). Le vin and Stokes (1989) look at the relationship between negative affectivity and vari ous job satisfaction facets. Their results showed that while NA was signifi cantly and negatively re lated to nature of work, supervisor, and coworkers, it did not relate to pay and promotions. This may be
5 due to the fact that pay and promotions are more concrete factors of the working environment and not as open to personal interpretation. In a study by Brief, Butcher, and Roberson (1995), participants were given small gifts (cookies, drinks, or a small toy) in an attempt to enhance their mood. It was found that those high in NA were less likely to ha ve their mood raised by these events. It was also found that the effects of the mood-inducing events on jo b satisfaction were significantly weaker among high NA subjects. This would suggest that high NAs who become dissatisfied with their jobs are less likel y to raise their job satisfaction in response to favorable situations. Thus, since a new, more favorable job is not likely to raise their satisfaction, high NAs may not seek out these types of new situations. Justice Justice refers to an employees perceptions of fairness. Recent research has broken justice into two distinctive compone nts (Thibault & Walker, 1975; Greenberg, 1990). Distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of organizational outcomes. This relates strictly to the final decisions of the company, such as salary and promotions, and does not include the process involved in reaching those outcomes. Procedural justice is the perception of how fair the decision proc ess is to the individual. A person can decide that although the decision made was fair, it perhaps was not made through a fair process. While these two constructs represent two discrete factors, injustice in either category can lead to thoughts about quitting by the empl oyee. Therefore, both were hypothesized similarly in this study. Negative affectivity has been shown to have a negative relationship with procedural justice, and to a lesser exte nt, distributive just ice (r=-.24 and r=-.10,
6 respectively; Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). Furthermore, researchers have looked at NA as a moderator between fairness and its reactions/outcomes (Skarlicki, Folger, & Tesluk, 1999). As employees e xperience injustice, they may have different responses to it depending on their overall view of the worl d. Others have suggest ed that since highNA individuals view experiences more negatively, this will lead them to perceive higher levels of injustice (Wanberg, Bunce, & Gavi n, 1999). Additional research is needed to determine the complex relationships negative affectivity has with these and other organizationally related variables. A meta-analysis has shown that both di stributive (mean r = .39) and procedural (mean r = .40) justice is re lated to job satisfa ction (Cohen-Charas h & Spector, 2001). Therefore, it can be inferred that perceptions of justice and satisf action are intertwined responses to the work environment and may cause similar reactions. In the same metaanalysis, it was found that procedural and di stributive justice are also negatively related to turnover intentions, both with a mean r of approximately .40. Thus, it can be said that those who perceive injustice in organizational decisions or pr ocedures are more likely to intend to leave that organization, which likely will lead to actual turnover. Researchers have hypothesized that as justice increases, employees should have less reason to leave the organization (Daly & Geyer, 1994), but that this phenomenon is especially salient for procedural justice (Dailey & Kirk, 1992). Nonetheless, it is hypothesized in the current study that this relationship between justice and turnover intentions will be stronger among low NAs than those high in NA.
7 Turnover Intentions A person who is dissatisfied with their job typically has the option to quit, but they may decide not to actively engage in a new job search if they do not believe viable alternatives exist for them. Research ha s shown that actual alternatives (i.e. unemployment rates in the given industry a nd personal marketability) have a greater impact on intentions to quit than do the percep tions of those alternat ives. There are mixed results on whether this relati onship holds for actual turnover; at least one study found that actual alternatives is related to turnover (Carston & Sp ector, 1987) while another found it was not (Kirschenbaum & Mano-Negrin, 1999). Additionally, perceived alternatives have been shown to slightly predic t turnover (Griffith et al, 2000 ). This would suggest that both objective market opportunities and employ ees perceptions of th em help to govern the decision process that could eventually re sult in the employee leaving the organization. It seems plausible that attitudes, especially negative affectivity, will help determine how those alternatives ar e perceived, and subsequently, how the employee reacts to them. Furthermore, in Mobleys (1977) model of the turnover deci sion process, it is expected that experienced dissa tisfaction and thoughts of quitting will tran slate into intent to quit only after an evaluation of the outcomes of possible job alte rnatives. Since those high in negative affectivity are unlikely to see other opportunities as positive, it is less likely that their dissatisfaction with their job will result in intentions to actually leave the organizations. Similarly, this interpretation of the alternatives will lead them to participate in fewer job search behaviors, esp ecially active job search behaviors. This is supported by the findings of Mobley, Horn er and Hollingsworth (1978) while testing their turnover model. They f ound that only intention to search is significantly related to
8 intent to quit, and only intention to quit is significantly related to actual turnover. HighNA individual may not be motivated to begi n the search process since they do not perceive other alternatives as positive, and therefore, they might also be unmotivated to continue the process of quitting and ev entually following through with it. To get a measure of how many employees quit, one can simply measure how many people leave the organization (i.e. tur nover), but there are methods which may be more advantageous. As previously mentioned, in tention to search and intention to quit are more proximal to dissatisfying work conditions then turnover in the turnover model. Intent to quit indices are helpful in tur nover research because more people may have intentions of quitting then will actually qu it the organization. Intent to quit has been shown to be enhanced by both dissatisfaction and the probability of finding an acceptable alternative job (Mobley et al., 1978). Another method of measuring whether an employee intends to leave an organization is by asking them about their search behaviors. According to Mobley (1977), the search for alternativ e job situations, along with the evaluations of that search, directly precedes the intent to quit. Job search has also been included in several other turnover models (Mobley, Griffeth, Ha nd, & Meglino, 1979, Steers & Mowday, 1981). Therefore, by measuring the search activities of employees, we can determine where and if they are in the turnover process Blau (1993) developed a scale in which he distinguished among three types of search behaviors: preparatory, active, and general. The general search scale measures the time and effort given to the search. The prepar atory and active search behaviors describe more specific search behaviors. Preparator y involves allocating resources to find job
9 alternatives for the employee to consider. Th e active search is when the employee is publicly communicating their av ailability by sending out resu mes and interviewing with prospective employers. Using confirmatory f actor analysis, Blau found that these three job search facets are indeed discernible from each other (1993). He also showed that the active measure has the strongest relationshi p to turnover and accounted for the most variance in turnover among the three search facets he proposed (Blau, 1993; Linnehan & Blau, 2003). This should not be surprising since it is the mo st proximal of the search behaviors to actual turnover. Affective Disposition as a Moderator of Turnover Intentions and Search Behavior The notion that NA affects the relations hip between job satisfaction and turnover is not a new one. Weitz (1952) used a test of general satisfaction calle d a gripe index to see if respondents were typical ly satisfied or dissatisfied with common, everyday things that they had little or no c ontrol over. These items included food prices, their first name, local speed limits, taxes, and popular music. It was assumed by Weitz, that those who indicated more dissatisfaction with these it ems had a general tendency to experience the world in a negative way. He then propos ed that those who have high general dissatisfaction and high job dissa tisfaction are less likely to qu it than those who have low general dissatisfaction and high job dissatisfaction. (p. 203) Without using the term negative affectivity, which would be coined by Watson and Clark 32 years later (Watson & Clark, 1984), he set forth the idea that high NAs tend to view everything negatively, and even if their job is dissatisfying, they tend to only consider it part of their dissatisfying life. Thus, it doe s not elicit the need to cha nge job situations for them.
10 Some studies have already been conducte d that were inspired by Weitzs general idea. Judge (1993) examined affective disposition as a moderator between job satisfaction and turnover. In this study, he surveyed 234 medical clinic workers, measuring their affective disposition with a scale derived from Weitzs gripe index (1952) and job satisfaction with the standard Job Descri ption Index (JDI; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). It should be noted that he found th at those individuals that endorsed more satisfaction with the items on the gripe index were more likely to leave an unsatisfying job. Judge called this positive affectivity, alt hough at face value, the gripe index appears to measure general life satisfact ion/dissatisfaction. Although it can be inferred that high satisfaction with these items would be highly related to trait positive affectivity, it is unclear whether the gripe index should be cons idered a measure for affectivity or simply a dispositional attitude variable. Tests need to be done to compare th ese results to the PA and NA measures that are more commonly used in research, such as the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). This will be th e first study to investigate these three measures in same study with turnover, and the first to look at NA as moderator in this job satisfaction-turnover relationship. Since negative affectivity is most related to a negative view of the world and that view is what will directly affect if an employee sees positive job alternatives in the future, it is necessary to investigate if high-NA individuals are less likely to leave an unsatisfying situation. T hus, it is hypothesized in this study that low NAs will have more turnover intentions when the job situation is less than satisfying. In a similar study, a measure of PA wa s tested as a moderator between job satisfaction and intention to quit in a sample of employees in the United Arab Emirates (Shaw, Duffy, Ali Abdulla, & Singh, 2000). Th e results showed a relationship that
11 mirrors the findings of Judge (1993), except turnover intentions were measured as the dependent variable instead of turnover. So, it seems that personality might affect the relationship between job satisfaction and intentions as well as behavior. Duffy, Ganster, and Shaw (1998) found that those highest in j ob search were high on trait PA and low in job sa tisfaction; however, they f ound this relationship was only true for high tenure individuals while the opposite was true for low tenures. In a survey of 181 fire and police department employees, Du ffy et al. (1998) examined the three-way interaction between job satisfaction, positiv e affectivity, and tenure on job search behaviors. Their results showed that for high tenured individuals, pos itive affectivity had a much stronger moderator effect on job satisfaction and job search (i.e. high PA employees searched for a new job more in an unsatisfying situation than low PA employees). For low tenure individuals, the exact opposite relationship occurred. The mean for tenure in this study was 4.5 with a standard deviation of 5.1., and tenure levels ranged from 1 to 35 years. These findings sugge st that as employees are more integrated into the work culture, their personality has more effect on whether or not they will search for a new job opportunity. Thus, high NAs may be more likely to connect their dissatisfying job with a dissa tisfying life, making them less likely to quit or even think about quitting, which is consistent with Judges (1993) work and the current hypotheses. However, it appears that tenure could play a key role in this relationship, with affectivity playing a role in job search and quitting decision in only longer tenured individuals. Iverson and Deery (2001) investigated the effects of PA between job satisfaction and other withdrawal behaviors. They found that PA moderated the relationship between job satisfaction and tardiness, as well as the relationship between job satisfaction and
12 early departure. This suggests that personal ity is important in how people react to job dissatisfaction. Based on previous findings that PA m oderates the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover (Judge, 1993) and in tent to quit (Shaw et al., 2000), it is hypothesized that several pers onality will also moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and the specific withdrawal behavi ors intent to quit and search behaviors. In this study, negative affectivity, positiv e affectivity, and the gripe index will be included as potential moderators of the rela tionship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Whereas the study of negative a ffectivity in this c ontext will be a new contribution, positive affectivity and the gr ipe index will be included as a means to replicate and extend previ ous studies (Judge, 1993; Sh awet al.h, 2000). Thus, the following hypotheses will be tested: Hypothesis 1a: NA will moderate the relati onship between job satisfaction and intent to quit such that job dissatisfaction will be mo re strongly related to intent to quit for low than high NA individuals. Hypothesis 1b: PA will moderate the relations hip between job satisfaction and intent to quit such that job dissatisfaction will be more strongly related to intent to quit for high than low PA individuals. Hypothesis 1c: The Gripe Index will modera te the relationship be tween job satisfaction and intent to quit such that job dissatisfaction will be more strongly related to intent to quit for those who score high than those who score low on the Gripe Index.
13 Hypothesis 2a: NA will moderate the rela tionship between job satisfaction and search behaviors such that job dissatisfaction will be more strongly related to Search Behaviors for low than high NA individuals. Hypothesis 2b: PA will moderate the relati onship between job satisfaction and search behaviors such that job dissatisfaction will be more strongly related to search behaviors for high than low PA individuals. Hypothesis 2c: The Gripe Index will modera te the relationship be tween job satisfaction and search behaviors such that job dissatisfactio n will be more strongly related to intent to quit for those who score high than t hose who score low on the Gripe Index. These hypotheses about dissatisfaction propos e that high NAs are less likely to react to unfavorable work conditions by quitt ing their job. Likewise employees react to injustice in various ways. For example, they can choose to retaliate towards the organization with activities such as theft, sabotage, or more overt retaliations, like withdrawal of citizenship beha viors and resistance. Prior res earch has found the justice to retaliation relationship was moderated by ne gative affectivity (Skarlicki, Folger, & Tesluk, 1999). When NA was high, both distribu tive and procedural justice were related to retaliation. Another way of responding to injustice, that co uld possibly harm an organization, is to leave the organization or begin to search for a new job. It is hypothesized that the moderating effect of personality will tr anslate to the relationship between perceptions of justice and intention to quit/search behaviors.
14 Hypothesis 3a: NA will moderate the relationship between both distributive and procedural justice and intent to quit such that injustice will be more strongly related to intent to quit for low than high NA individuals. Hypothesis 3b: PA will moderate the re lationship between both distributive and procedural justice and intent to quit such that injustice will be more strongly related to intent to quit for high than low PA individuals. Hypothesis 3c: The Gripe Index will modera te the relationship be tween distributive and procedural justice and intent to quit such that injustice will be more strongly related to intent to quit for those who score high than those who score low on the Gripe Index. Hypothesis 4a: NA will moderate the re lationship between both distributive and procedural justice and search behaviors such distributive injustice will be more strongly related to search behaviors for low than high NA individuals. Hypothesis 4b: PA will moderate the re lationship between both distributive and procedural justice and search behaviors such th at injustice will be more strongly related to search behaviors for high than low PA individuals. Hypothesis 4c: The Gripe Index will modera te the relationship be tween distributive and procedural justice and search behaviors such th at injustice will be more strongly related to search behaviors for those who score hi gh than those who score low on the Gripe Index.
15 Method Participants A sample of employed individuals work ing at least 20 hours per week (N=152) was recruited from undergraduate psychology classes at the University of South Florida. This sample was chosen because of its propens ity to change jobs frequently. There were no restrictions on participation besides the minimum number of hours worked per week. Participants fulfilled a course requ irement by participating in the study. The sample was predominantly female (73%) and had an average age of 21.8 (1846, SD=1.5). Participants had been employed fo r a wide range of time, from 1 month up to 23 years, with the average being ju st under 2 years (22.7 months, SD=33.5). The distribution of races was 63.8% White, 13.8% African-American, and 15.8% Hispanic, which is representative of the population in this area where the university is located (64.2% White, 26.1% African or Black Amer ican, and 19.3% Hispanic/Latino, 2000 U.S. Census, respondents could indicate more than one race). Measures Demographics. Basic demographic information was collected, specifically: gender, age, job title, tenure at company, tenure for position, marital status, race, and educational level. Affective disposition. Negative affectivity was measured using the 10-item Negative affectivity subscale of the PANAS (W atson et al., 1988). The participants are
16 given a list of adjectives and asked to indicate for each to what extent they generally feel this way, with values ranging from 1=not at all to 5=extremely. NA items included such adjectives as distressed, hostile, and n ervous. The responses ar e added together to get an overall NA score. Similarly, PA wa s measured using the 10-item Positive affectivity subscale of the PANAS, which uti lizes the same format as the NA items. The PA included items such adjectives as excited, proud, and determined. The reliabilities for the PANAS are acceptably high, .84 to .87 for NA and .86 to .90 for PA (Watson et al., 1988). General affective dis position was measured using Weitzs gripe index (1952) as modified by Judge (1993) to replicate the study he conducted. His modifications involved eliminated items that related to socioeconomic status and job characteristics, as well as some moderniza tion (like changing aut omobile to car). The original scoring was also cha nged to a trichotomous response scale (1 = dissatisfied; 2 = neutral; 3 = satisfied). Job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured us ing the abridged Job In General Scale (aJIG, Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989). The aJIG consists of 8 items that ask respondents if each adjective describes their job most of the time. The adjectives include enjoyable, makes me c ontent and undesirable (reverse-coded). Participants respond either Yes, No, or I dont know (?). Justice. The Distributive Justice Index (Price & Mueller, 1986) was used to assess distributive justice. It includes 5 items and as ks if the employee is being fairly rewarded considering their outputs. Response options range from 1=very unfairly to 5=very fairly. Procedural justice was measured with 6 it ems from the Moorman (1991) scale. Although it was originally meant to have two subscales: procedural and interactional justice, data
17 suggest that they lacked discriminability and an interpretable factor structure. Responses on this scale range from 1=very unfairly to 5=very fairly. A high score on these scales represents high levels of perceived justice. This method for measuring justice is similar to that used in other studies (e.g., Fox, Spector, & Miles, 2001). Intention to quit. Turnover intentions were recorded based on a single item used by Spector, Dwyer, and Jex (1988) Respondents were simply as ked to indicate how often they seriously considered leaving their job. Responses are on a scale from 1 to 6, with 1 never to 6 extremely often. Search behaviors. Search behaviors were measured with a 16-item scale developed by Blau (1993). Four of the items represented general effort, and the remaining 12 items asked the frequency with which a specific search behavior was carried out. Of these 12 behavioral items, 6 of them represented preparatory search, and the other 6 represented active job search. T hus, it is possible to compute a score for preparatory, active, and genera l job search behaviors. Responses were based on a 5-point scale (1=Never or 0 times, 2 = Rarely or 1 to 2 times, 3 = Occasionally or 3 to 5 times, 4 = Frequently or 6 to 9 times, and 5 = Very frequently or at least 10 times). In the initial testing of th is scale, confirmatory factor anal ysis supported the three previously mentioned subscales (Blau, 1993). Procedure The above measures were compiled into a survey (see a ppendix) that was distributed to a sample of employed students. Participants were recruited either by coming into their classes or through a uni versity sponsored website for conducting research. Paper and pencil surveys were distri buted either in a la b or classroom. Both
18 environments were free of distractions, and pa rticipants were not ab le to discuss their responses while they completed the survey. The participants were informed that their involvement was strictly volunt ary and that all information would be kept confidential.
19 Results Descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations, coefficient alpha reliabilities, and correlations among variables are presented in Table 1. As expected, job satisfaction, distributive justice, and procedur al justice were signi ficantly and negatively related to intention to quit (r=-.68, p<.01; r=-.39, p<.01; and r=-.47, p<.01, respectively). Similarly, job satisfaction was negatively correl ated to total job sear ch behaviors (r=-.20, p<.05). However, distributive and procedural justice had small positive correlations to total job search scores, meaning that perceivi ng the job environment as just resulted in slightly higher job search behaviors. The direction and approximate strength of these relationships held for each of the job search facets. Also, job satisfaction and negative affectivity were not significantly correlate d. There were high inte rcorrelations between each of the job search facet s (preparatory-active, r=.72, p<.01; preparatory-general, r=.71, p<.01; active-general, r=.78, p<.01). When these intercorrela tions were disattenuated for reliability, they became even higher (between .85 and .89.) Job search total was not related to NA or PA from the PANAS or the Gripe Index. The NA scale from the PANAS was only related to the PA scale at r=-.20 ( p<.05). Furthermore, positive affectivity from th e PANAS did not show much convergent validity (r=.26, p<.01) with the Gripe index as a PA score (as suggested by Judge, 1993). In fact, the Gripe index score was more highly correlated with NA on the PANAS (r=.41, p<.01).
20 Table 1 Descriptive Statistics M SD Range 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1. Intent to Quit 2.79 1.41 1-6 N/A 2. Job Satisfaction 17.98 6.2 0-24 -.678** .826 3. Job Search Total 30.97 12.47 16-76 .229** -.195* .930 4. Job Search Preparatory 12.72 4.73 6-26 .277** -200* .897** .743 5. Job Search Active 10.92 5.16 6-30 .122 -.143 .926** .721** .885 6. Job Search General 7.33 3.84 4-20 .238** -.196* .898** .710** .776** .932 7. Distributive Justice 16.8 5.2 5-25 -.393** .328** .149 .071 .181* .154 .916 8. Procedural Justice 24.26 6.32 9-35 -.470** .417** .187* .110 .235** .155 .704** .930 9. PANAS NA 19.55 7.01 10-46 .153 .003 -.002 .010 -.011 -.003 -.075 -.206* .873 10. PANAS PA 36.49 6.35 16-50 -.160 .265** .128 .177* .089 .077 .198* .236** -.194* .850 11. Gripe PA 60.46 6.36 46-75 -.266** .241** -.064 -.046 -.080 -.045 .237** .310** -.407** .261** .769 = p < .05; ** = p < .01
21 The moderated regressions for negative affectivity can be found in Table 2 (Hypotheses 1a, 2a, 3a, & 4a). A few of the main effects were significant at the .05 level, specifically intention to quit on job satisfac tion and procedural ju stice. None of the moderator terms were statisti cally significant for any of the hypotheses. Despite the nonsignificant results, regression lines were graphed by enteri ng in low (-1 SD), medium (mean), and high (+1 SD) values into the regression equations (See Figures 1-6). Only one graph (job satisfaction and job search) f its the expected patte rn as hypothesized (Hypothesis 2a, see Figure 2). However, fo r the procedural justice and job search relationships (Hypothesis 4a, see Figure 5), the pattern actually appears in the opposite direction than hypothesized, although they were nonsignificant. Hierarchical regressions for positive affectivity (Hypotheses 1b, 2b, 3b, & 4b) and the gripe index (Hypotheses 1c, 2c, 3c, & 4c) can be found in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. None of the main effects were significant for either intention to quit or total job search. None of the mode rator terms were significant for either PA or the Gripe Index. To further replicate the past studies that utilized PA a nd the Gripe Index, a regression was conducted with as many of their original controls as possible. Age and tenure were controlled in the regression of job satisfac tion and the gripe index on intentions to quit similar to the Judge (1993). The controls were not significant, and although these controls did make the main ef fect of job satisfaction significant, the interaction remained nonsignificant. Age, gender, negative affectivity, and tenure were controlled in the regression of job satisfaction and positive affectivity on intentions to quit similar to Shaw et. al (2000). In the overall model, negative affectivity and job satisfaction were significant, but the interaction was not.
22 Table 2 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Negative Affectivity Intention to Quit Job Search Total R Change R Change Main Effects Job Satisfaction -.747** -.421 Negative Affectivity .080 .484** -.243 .038 Interaction Job Sat X NA .104 .001 .341 .006 Main Effects Procedural Justice -.431* -.028 Negative Affectivity .092 .225** -.234 .036 Interaction Proc Just X NA -.041 .000 .326 .007 Main Effects Distributive Justice -.232 .129 Negative Affectivity .305 .170** -.015 .022 Interaction Dist Just X NA -.232 .002 .032 .000 = p < .05; ** = p < .01
23 Table 3 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Positive Affectivity Intention to Quit Job Search Total R Change R Change Main Effects Job Satisfaction -.640 -.337 Positive Affectivity .047 .460** .148 .073** Interaction Job Sat X PA -.056 .000 .113 .000 Main Effects Procedural Justice -.575 -.304 Positive Affectivity -.128 .224** -.227 .042* Interaction Proc Just X PA .156 .000 .630 .007 Main Effects Distributive Justice -.142 -.353 Positive Affectivity .052 .162** -.181 .032 Interaction Dist Just X PA -.296 .001 .611 .006 = p < .05; ** = p < .01
24 Table 4 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for the Gripe Index Intention to Quit Job Search Total R Change R Change Main Effects Job Satisfaction -.301 -.219 Gripe Index .007 .469** -.027 .038 Interaction Job Sat X GI -.395 .002 .032 .000 Main Effects Procedural Justice -.511 .500 Gripe Index -.162 .236** -.023 .051* Interaction Proc Just X GI .099 .000 -.326 .001 Main Effects Distributive Justice -.769 -.230 Gripe Index -.326 .186** -.246 .033 Interaction Dist Just X GI .478 .002 .460 .002 = p < .05; ** = p < .01
NA on Job Sat to ITQ 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.50lowmedhighJob Satisfaction Intention to Quit Negative Affectivity high med low Figure 1. Job Satisfaction to Intent to Quit relationship moderated by NA NA on Job Sat to Job Search 0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.00lowmedhighJob Satisfaction Job Search Total Negative Affectivity high med low Figure 2. Job Satisfaction to Job Search relationship moderated by NA 25
NA On Proc Just to ITQ 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.00lowmedhighProcedural Justice Intent to Quit Negative Affectivity high med low Figure 3. Procedural Justice to Intent to Quit relationship moderated by NA NA On Dist Just to ITQ 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.00lowmedhighDistributive JusticeIntent to Quit Negative Affectivity high med low Figure 4. Distributive Justice to Intent to Quit relationship moderated by NA 26
NA On Proc Just to Job Search 0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.00lowmedhighProcedural Justice Total Job Search Negative Affectivity high med low Figure 5. Procedural Justice to Job Search relationship moderated by NA NA On Dist Just to Job Search 27.0028.0029.0030.0031.0032.0033.0034.00lowmedhighDistributive JusticeTotal Job Search Negative Affectivity high med low Figure 6. Distributive Justice to Job Search relationship moderated by NA 27
28 To further explore relationships with j ob search, the scale was scored with the original 3 subscales and the moderated regres sions were repeated for each. No significant moderator relationships were found. Additionally previous research has shown that the moderating effect of NA in th ese types of relationships is stronger in higher tenured employees. To see how tenure may have influe nced these results, a 3-way interaction was conducted between the personality variable ( NA, PA, or gripe inde x), job satisfaction, and tenure with the dependent variable of inte ntion to quit. The 3-way interaction was not significant for any of the three personality variables (NA, PA, and gripe index). Similarly, a 3-way interaction was conducte d between the personality variable, job satisfaction, and gender. Again, there were no si gnificant 3-way intera ction for any of the three personality variables.
29 Discussion Many of the direct effects in this stud y between job perceptio ns and the turnover variables were statistically significant, as expected. Job satisfaction was negatively related to both intentions to quit and total search behaviors. It makes sense that those individuals who are generally dissatisfied with their jobs wi ll be more likely to think about quitting and/or search for new jobs. Both distributive and procedural justice were negatively related to intentions to quit, but these constructs had a small positive correlation with search behavior s. It is possible that those who experience injustice will consider quitting without going through any search behaviors; thus injustice might have more impact on attitudes and inte ntions than actu al behavior. There was no correlation found between j ob satisfaction and negative affectivity, which fails to replicate the r=-.27 to -.33 found in previous meta-analyses (Agho et al., 1993, Connolley & Viswesvaran, 2000). There are many possible reasons why diffe ring results were found in this study which failed to find moderator effects. Although there were more participants in the other two studies (Judge, 1993 N=234, Shaw et. al 2000 N=172), they did not vary greatly from the 155 participants utili zed in the current study. In pr evious research, there were variables controlled for in the regressions. J udge (1993) controlled for several variables: education, age, job tenure, wage rate, and alternate employment opportunities. The only one of these variables to have a significant effect on the dependent variable was wage
30 rate. However, it is not mentioned in the ar ticle if results were still found without the controls, so it is possible that these controls as a block contributed to the significant moderator effect. An attempt was made with th is data to replicate gripe index moderating effect on the job satisfaction/intention to qu it relationship while controlling for two the control variables from that study (age a nd tenure). The interaction still was not significant, suggesting that the moderation of the gripe index was not present. The current study did not include the other control variables used in the Judge study. Judge (1993) used the Gripe Index to look at the relationship with actual turnover instead of intention to quit, which may account for the differences in his results from those found here. While intention to quit and turnover have been shown to be related (Mobley et al., 1978), they are distinct cons tructs. Not every employee who intends to quit does so, and not every employee who quits goes through a long period of intending to quit first. Thus, it is possible that pers onality only moderates actual turnover and not intentions. Furthermore, the samples between the Judge (1993) study and this one differed. In contrast, my participants were younger on average, had a lower tenure, were taking undergraduate classes, and worked in a vari ety of occupations and organizations. The Judge sample consisted only of nurses within one organization, and it is impossible to tell how many of them were also students or were taking classes. There may be characteristics that are unique or differ ent in nursing that distinguish it from the workforce as a whole. In Judges samp le (1993), the gender distribution was not explicitly given, but since nursing tends to be a female-dominated occupation, it may have been higher than the 73% female sample that was tested in the current study. It is
31 possible that the moderating effect of persona lity have gender differe nces that have not previously been discovered, a factor that could account for the non-results here. The results from gender interacti on regression did not show evid ence of a gender difference, although the interaction between negative affectivity and gender were very near significance. It could be that the moderating effect of negative affectivity only exists in older, higher tenured employees. Duffy et al. (1998) found that the moderation effect of positive affectivity on job satisfaction and job sear ch was only found in higher tenured employees. In that study, the mean for tenure was 4.5 with a standard deviation of 5.1. In the current sample, the mean for tenure was much lower (just under two years), and only 17 participants would have been over the mean from that previous study, and therefore qualified as a high tenure employee. It se ems plausible that the longer an employee works at an organization, the harder it will be to actually leave for a new job. As initiating the turnover process becomes more difficult, it is likely that personality will begin to play more of a role. In Judges sample (1993), the average tenure was 12.1 years. Therefore, if tenure is acting in this way to buffer the moderation effect of personality, it would make sense that there would be a detect ed effect in that study, but not the current one. Furthermore, the Shaw et al. (2000) sample was collected in a culturally dissimilar country (United Arab Emirates) whic h may have also resulted in the different findings. Due to the many cultural, economic, a nd political differences between these two countries, it is very likely th at there would be inconsiste nt results between them. For example, the unemployment rate in the United Arab Emirates is about half that of the
32 United States (2.4% vs. 5.5%, CIA World Factbook, 2005; U.A.E. rate estimated in 2001, U.S. in 2005). If perceived alternatives are a factor in whether someone decides to search for a new job opportunity, it is very likely th at the unemployment rates are going to affect that relationship. Again, the participants of the current study were younger, shorter tenured, and worked a variety of jobs. The av erage tenure in that sample was 5.6 years, which would have fallen into the high tenu re category from Duffy et. al (1998). The United Arab Emirates workers were all wo rking in a bank setting within the same organization. The gender distribut ion was similar in the Shaw et al. (2000) study as in the current one (73% female). These researchers also controlled several variables: age, gender, tenure, nationality, and negative affec tivity, which may have affected their results. In their study, tenure and negative affectivity were significant. In the attempt to replicate this analyses (without the nationality variab le which was unavailable in this sample), the moderator effect was still not found when using the same controls. However, the negative affectivity control was significant in the current sample as well, along with the main effect of job satisfaction. Considering one of the hypothese s of the current study concerned negative affectivity, the fact that it was controlled fo r in the regression, a nd was significant, may have had a direct effect on the contrast in results. Since PA and NA are measuring highly related aspects of personality, it does not seem logical to c ontrol for NA when testing for PA. A fair amount of variance may be taken out, which is evident in the replication analysis where negative affectivity is signi ficant, while positive affectivity is not. The low negative correlati on between the PA and NA subscales from the PANAS contribute to the idea that th ese two constructs are not polar opposites of the same scale,
33 and especially not in this sample. Similarl y, the correlation between the Gripe index and the PA scale from the PANAS was quite mode st considering that some have suggested these two scales are measuring similar, if not identical, constr ucts (Judge, 1993). Taking into account the moderate relationships between the Gripe Index and the PANAS subscales (PA & NA), it would seem that this measure is different from, albeit related to, affectivity. Therefore, it does not seem logical to use the Gripe Index as a substitute for affectivity scales, particularly for PA, which had a smaller correlation with it than NA. If this scale is not measuring affectivity, then the interpretation of Judges (1993) results would be quite different. It would mean th at it is not PA that is moderating the relationship, but the general satisfaction/di ssatisfaction concept that the Gripe Index appears to measure. Job search behaviors have not been thoroughly investigated in the past literature. The results here seem to suggest that an overa ll total scale is one (if not the best) way to measure job search. Due to high intercorrela tions between the subs cales, there does not seem to be much discriminant validity among th ese facets, especially when reliability is taken into account. The total job search scor e was highly correlated with each of its own subscales. If the researcher does not have a reason to be lieve results will differ for preparatory, active, and genera l job search, it would be advantageous to use the total search scale. There were also several interesting findings with job search. In particular, there were no significant correlations with a ny of the personality va riables (NA, PA, or Gripe Index).
34 Limitations and Future Research There are several limitations to this st udy. As previously mentioned, an employed sample of participants, many of whom were working part-time and who were taking college classes was utilized. Many of these pa rticipants may not have considered their jobs to be permanent parts of their careers, and may not have been psychologically invested in their jobs. Additionally, the sample size was rather small, resulting in a lack of power for investigating m oderator effects. Similarly, the dependent variables were self-report measures of intention to quit a nd job search behaviors rather than actual turnover. Future research should continue to lo ok at these relationships to possibly determine why the discrepancies exist among different studies. Another investigation employing a more traditional working sample might be worthwhile. Also, work needs to be done to determine the difference be tween the gripe index and positive/negative affectivity. Specifically, are they being appropr iately measured with the current scales available and how do we distinguish between th ese concepts? Finally, this is one of only a few explorations into the concept of job s earch. This is an interesting construct that gives researchers a way to de termine if employees are activ ely engaging in the processes of finding a new job. Future researchers would do well to use this valuable tool. This study found that the job satisfaction and procedural justice were related to intent to turnover. There was also evidence th at the gripe index is a personality construct different from negative/positive affectivity and should not be used as a substitute for PA measurement. This study adds to the liter ature of the moderating effect of negative affectivity on relationships between job satis faction turnover intentions and preparatory
35 turnover behaviors. While no significant m oderator effects were found, the differences between this study and the ones that did suggest that there may be contextual factors that need to be further explored, especially te nure. Personality plays a large role in how people react to the world around them, and it is important that researchers continue to study personality and its effect s on work-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviors.
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Appendix A: Thesis Survey If you have more than one job, please answer these questions based on the job where you work the most hours. Gender (Circle) M F Age _______ How long have you worked for your employer? ________ How long have you had your current job title? __________ Job Title _________________________ Marital Status (Circle) Single Married Divorced Other_________ Race (Circle) White African-American Hispanic Asian Other_________ Education Level (Circle) Some High School High School Degree Some College Bachelors Degree Some Graduate School Masters Degree Doctoral Degree How often do you seriously consider leaving your job? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Never Extremely Often Think of your job in general. All in all, what is it like most of the time? For each of the following words or phrases, circle: Yes No ? Good........................................ 1 2 3 Undesirable............................. 1 2 3 Better than most...................... 1 2 3 Disagreeable........................... 1 2 3 Makes me content................... 1 2 3 Excellent................................. 1 2 3 Enjoyable................................ 1 2 3 Poor......................................... 1 2 3 43
44 Appendix C: (Continued) The following questions will only be used to match these responses to the follow-up email question: What month was your mother born? ________ What is the first street th at you remember living on? ________ Check the appropriate column if you are satisf ied, dissatisfied, or neutral concerning the items below. If you are more satisfied than dissatisfied, check satisfied. If you are neither satisfied nor dissa tisfied predominantly, check neutral If you are more dissatisfied than satisfied, check dissatisfied. If an item does not apply, draw a line through all three choices. Item Dissatisfied Neutral Satisfied 1. The city in which you live 2. The residence in which you live 3. The neighbors you have 4. The high school you attended 5. The climate where you live 6. The movies being produced 7. The quality of food you buy 8. Todays cars 9. Local newspapers 10. Your relaxation time 11. Your first name 12. The people you know 13. Television programs 14. Local speed limits 15. The way people drive 16. Advertising 17. The way you were raised 18. Telephone service 19. Public transportation 20. Restaurant food 21. Yourself 22. Modern art 23. Popular music 24. 8.5 X 11 paper 25. Your telephone number
45 Appendix C: (Continued) This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and then mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extent you have felt this way in general. 1 = very slightly or not at all 2 = a little 3 = moderately 4 = quite a bit 5 = extremely ____interested ____irritable ____distressed ____alert ____excited ____ashamed ____upset ____inspired ____strong ____nervous ____guilty ____determined ____scared ____attentive ____hostile ____jittery ____enthusiastic ____active ____proud ____afraid Please indicate the how often (within the last 6 months) you engaged in each behavior listed below: 1 = Never (0 times) 4 = Frequently (6 to 9 times) 2 = Rarely (1 or 2 times) 5 = Very Frequently(at least 10 times) 3 = Occasionally (3 to 5 times) 1. Read the help wanted/classified ads in a ne wspaper, journal, prof essional association or the internet. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Listed yourself as a job a pplicant in a newspaper, journa l, professional association, or the internet. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Prepared/revised your resume. 1 2 3 4 5
46 Appendix C: (Continued) 4. Sent out resumes to potential employers. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Filled out job application. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Read a book or article about getting a job or changing jobs. 1 2 3 4 5 7. Had a job interview with a prospective employer. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Talked with friends or rela tives about possible job leads. 1 2 3 4 5 9. Contacted some type of job search orga nization (e.g., employment agency, executive search fir m). 1 2 3 4 5 10. Spoke with previous employers or busin ess acquaintances about their knowing of potential job leads. 1 2 3 4 5 11. Directly contacted (e. g. via telephone, email) a prospective employer. 1 2 3 4 5 12. Used current within company resources (e.g. colleagues) to generate potential job leads. 1 2 3 4 5 13. Spent a lot of time looki ng for a job alternative. 1 2 3 4 5
47 Appendix C: (Continued) 14. Devoted much effort to looking for other jobs. 1 2 3 4 5 15. Focused time and effort on job search alternatives. 1 2 3 4 5 16. Gave best effort to find a new job. 1 2 3 4 5 Please indicate the degree to which you believe you are fairly rewarded based on these factors. 1=very unfairly 4=somewhat fairly 2=somewhat unfairly 5=very fairly 3=neither fairly or unfairly 1. Fairly rewarded considering the responsibilities. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Fairly rewarded in view of the amount of experience you have. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Fairly rewarded for the amount of effort you put forth. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Fairly rewarded for the work you have done well. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Fairly rewarded for the st resses and strains on your job. 1 2 3 4 5
48 Appendix C: (Continued) Please indicate how fair you believe the procedures at your job are. 1=very unfair 4=somewhat fair 2=somewhat unfair 5=very fair 3=neither fairly or unfair 1. Procedures designed to collect accurate information necessary to making decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Procedures designed to provi de opportunities to appeal or challenge the decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Procedures designed to have al l sides by the decision represented. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Procedures designed to generate standard s so that decisions could be made with consistency. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Procedures designed to hear the concer ns of all those aff ected by the decision. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Procedures designed to provide useful feedback regarding the decision and its implementation. 1 2 3 4 5 7. Procedures designed to allow for requests for clarification or additional information about the decision. 1 2 3 4 5