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Proactive personality, stress and voluntary work behaviors

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Title:
Proactive personality, stress and voluntary work behaviors
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Rodopman, Ozgun Burcu
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Proactivity
Work stress
Non-task performance
Citizenship behavior
Counterproductive work behavior
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The present study has two primary contributions to the existing literature linking stressors to employee reactions. First, job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion are proposed to mediate the relationship between stressors and both forms of voluntary workplace behaviors, specifically OCB and CWB. A comprehensive framework, which includes both streams of voluntary workplace behaviors (OCB and CWB) will expand the common practice of investigating them separately and helps us better understand the parallel mechanisms linked to OCB and CWB. Secondly, the role of proactive personality will be investigated to gain insights into how it relates to job attitudes and voluntary work behaviors. We will have new look at the dispositional antecedents of OCB and CWB by investigating how proactive people react, feel, and behave in the organizational context.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ozgun Burcu Rodopman.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 89 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001920925
oclc - 190773571
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001857
usfldc handle - e14.1857
System ID:
SFS0026175:00001


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Proactive personality, stress and voluntary work behaviors
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ABSTRACT: The present study has two primary contributions to the existing literature linking stressors to employee reactions. First, job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion are proposed to mediate the relationship between stressors and both forms of voluntary workplace behaviors, specifically OCB and CWB. A comprehensive framework, which includes both streams of voluntary workplace behaviors (OCB and CWB) will expand the common practice of investigating them separately and helps us better understand the parallel mechanisms linked to OCB and CWB. Secondly, the role of proactive personality will be investigated to gain insights into how it relates to job attitudes and voluntary work behaviors. We will have new look at the dispositional antecedents of OCB and CWB by investigating how proactive people react, feel, and behave in the organizational context.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Proactivity.
Work stress.
Non-task performance.
Citizenship behavior.
Counterproductive work behavior.
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PAGE 1

P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y, S t r e s s a nd V ol unt a r y W or k B e ha vi or s by O z gun B ur c u R odopm a n A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogy C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : P a ul E S pe c t or P h. D W a l t e r C B or m a n P h D K r i s t e n S a l om on, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : 11/ 14/ 2006 K e yw or ds : pr oa c t i vi t y, w or k s t r e s s non t a s k pe r f o r m a nc e c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or c ount e r pr oduc t i ve w or k be ha vi or C opyr i ght 2006 O z gun B ur c u R odopm a n

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D e di c a t i on T hi s M a s t e r s T he s i s i s de di c a t e d t o m y f a m i l y, f r i e nds a nd c ol l e a gue s e s pe c i a l l y m y pa r e nt s M ua l l a a nd K udr e t R odopm a n, w ho ga ve m e a l l t ha t I ne e de d t o s uc c e e d.

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A c know l e dgm e nt s I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk t he f ol l ow i ng pe opl e w i t hout w hom t hi s t he s i s w oul d ha ve ne ve r be e n pos s i bl e : D r P a ul B r a nni c k D r W a l t e r C B or m a n D r K r i s t e n S a l om on J e r e m y B a ue r K a t i e K l ough R ya n D ol a nd

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i L i s t of F i gur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v A bs t r a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 O r ga ni z a t i ona l C i t i z e ns hi p B e ha vi or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C o unt e r pr oduc t i ve W or k B e ha vi or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 I nt e gr a t i on o f C i t i z e ns hi p B e ha vi or s a nd C o unt e r p r oduc t i ve W or k B e ha vi or . . 12 G e ne r a l F r a m e w or k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 T he M e di a t i ng R ol e of J ob S a t i s f a c t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 T he M e di a t i ng R ol e of E m ot i ona l E xha us t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 T he R ol e of P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 T he C ur r e nt S t udy a nd H ypot he s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 M e t hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 M e a s ur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 P r oc e dur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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i i D i s c us s i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 G e ne r a l F i nd i ngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 L i m i t a t i on a nd F ut ur e D i r e c t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 C onc l us i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 R e f e r e nc e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 A ppe ndi c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 A ppe ndi x A : E m p l oye e Q ue s t i onna i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 A ppe ndi x B : C ow or ke r Q ue s t i onna i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

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i i i L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 O ne w a y A N O V A s f or e xa m i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s i n 2 s a m pl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 T a bl e 2 C or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s e l f r e por t s a nd c ow or ke r r e por t s o f C or r e s pondi ng O C B a nd C W B M e a s ur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 T a bl e 3 M e a ns S t a nda r d D e vi a t i ons a nd I nt e r c or r e l a t i ons ( C ow or ke r r e por t ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 T a bl e 4 D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s f or m a i n s t udy va r i a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 T a bl e 5 M e a ns S t a nda r d D e vi a t i ons a nd I nt e r c or r e l a t i ons ( S e l f r e por t C W B ove r a l l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 T a bl e 6 M e a ns S t a nda r d D e vi a t i ons a nd I nt e r c or r e l a t i ons ( S e l f r e por t C W B di m e ns i ons ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 T a bl e 7 A na l ys i s of m e di a t i ng r ol e o f j ob s a t i s f a c t i on ( S t r e s s or s O C B S t r e s s or s O C B O ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 T a bl e 8 A na l ys i s of m e di a t i ng r ol e o f j ob s a t i s f a c t i on

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i v ( S t r e s s or s C W B S t r e s s or s C W B O S t r e s s or s C W B P ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 T a bl e 9 A na l ys i s of m e di a t i ng r ol e o f e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on ( S t r e s s or s O C B O ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 T a bl e 10 A na l ys i s of m e di a t i ng r ol e o f j ob s a t i s f a c t i on ( S t r e s s or s C W B O S t r e s s or s C W B P ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 T a bl e 11 R e gr e s s i on of P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y b y J ob S a t i s f a c t i on on O C B . . . . . . . . 49 T a bl e 12 R e gr e s s i on of P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y b y J ob s a t i s f a c t i on on C W B . . . . . . . 49 T a bl e 13 R e gr e s s i on of P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y b y E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on on O C B . . . 51 T a bl e 13 R e gr e s s i on of P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y b y E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on on O C B . . . 51

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v L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1 T he c onc e pt ua l m ode l f or t he c u r r e nt s t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 F i gur e 2 I nt e r a c t i on B e t w e e n J ob S a t i s f a c t i on a nd P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y on C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 F i gur e 3 I nt e r a c t i on B e t w e e n E m ot i ona l E xha us t i on a nd P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y on O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

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vi P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y, S t r e s s a nd V ol unt a r y W or k B e ha vi or s O z gun B ur c u R odopm a n A B S T R A C T T he pr e s e nt s t udy ha s t w o p r i m a r y c ont r i but i ons t o t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e l i nk i ng s t r e s s or s t o e m pl oye e r e a c t i ons F i r s t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a r e pr opos e d t o m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd bot h f o r m s of vol unt a r y w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s s pe c i f i c a l l y O C B a nd C W B A c om pr e he ns i ve f r a m e w or k, w hi c h i nc l ude s bot h s t r e a m s of vol unt a r y w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s ( O C B a nd C W B ) w i l l e xpa nd t he c om m on pr a c t i c e of i nve s t i ga t i ng t he m s e pa r a t e l y a nd he l ps us be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he pa r a l l e l m e c ha ni s m s l i nke d t o O C B a nd C W B S e c ondl y, t he r ol e o f p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be i nve s t i ga t e d t o ga i n i ns i ght s i nt o how i t r e l a t e s t o j ob a t t i t ude s a nd vo l unt a r y w o r k b e ha vi or s W e w i l l ha ve ne w l ook a t t he di s pos i t i o na l a nt e c e de nt s of O C B a nd C W B by i nve s t i ga t i ng how pr oa c t i ve pe opl e r e a c t f e e l a nd be ha ve i n t he or ga ni z a t i ona l c ont e xt

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7 I nt r oduc t i on P e opl e e nga ge i n a va r i e t y of be ha vi or s i n t he w or kpl a c e i n a ddi t i on t o t he i r t a s k pe r f or m a nc e ( B or m a n & M ot ow i dl o 1993; D a l a l 2005) S uc h be ha vi or s t ha t a r e c ons i de r e d non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e i n f l ue nc e t he c on t e xt i n w hi c h t a s ks a r e pe r f or m e d a nd a r e unde r di s c r e t i on of t he i ndi vi dua l ( O r ga n, 1997 ) O r ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or ( O C B ) i nvol ve s a c t i ons t ha t c ont r i but e t o t he or ga ni z a t i ona l s oc i a l a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l e nvi r onm e nt i n t he or ga ni z a t i on ( O r ga n, 1997) a nd i nc l ude s a c t s s uc h a s he l pi ng c ow or ke r s de m ons t r a t i ng e f f or t a nd of f e r i ng i de a s t o i m pr ove t hi ngs C oun t e r p r oduc t i ve w or k be ha vi or ( C W B ) on t he ot he r ha nd, c onc e r n s i nt e nt i ona l a c t i ons t o ha r m t he or ga ni z a t i on or i t s m e m be r s ( F ox & S pe c t or 1999 ) a nd i nc l ude s a c t s s uc h a s t he f t ve r ba l a bus e w i t hhol di ng of e f f o r t s t e a l i ng, a nd phys i c a l a s s a ul t S i nc e t he y a r e r e c ogni z e d a s pa r t of a br oa d c onc e pt i on of pe r f or m a nc e t ha t goe s be yond a s s i gne d t a s ks t he r e ha s be e n a gr ow i ng i n t e r e s t i n e xpl o r i ng O C B a nd C W B ( R ot undo & S a c ke t t 2002 ) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t O C B i s t ypi c a l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pos i t i ve out c om e s f o r t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd f o r t he i ndi vi dua l s uc h a s or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt a nd hi ghe r pe r f or m a nc e r a t i ngs ( M ot ow i dl o & V a n S c ot t e r 1 994; P ods a kof f M a c K e nz i e P a i ne & B a c hr a c h, 2000 ) I n c ont r a s t C W B i s t ypi c a l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ne ga t i ve out c om e s f o r t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd f o r t he i ndi vi dua l s uc h a s f i na nc i a l l os s e s a nd poor w e l l be i ng ( P e nne y & S pe c t or 2002) T he r e f or e i t i s i m po r t a nt t o ga i n i ns i ght s i nt o O C B a nd C W B a ) t o s t udy t he m ul t i di m e ns i ona l i t y o f pe r f or m a nc e a nd t o a dva nc e t he m ode l s of pe r f o r m a nc e b) t o i m pr ove p r a c t i c a l a ppl i c a t i ons t ha t a i m a t i nc r e a s i ng O C B a nd a t de c r e a s i ng C W B T he c ur r e nt s t udy i s i ns t i ga t e d by t w o r e c e nt t r e nd s i n I O ps yc hol ogy. T he r e i s a gr ow i ng body o f r e s e a r c h t o i nve s t i ga t e O C B a nd C W B s i m ul t a ne ous l y. U p t o da t e t he r e ha ve be e n onl y a f e w s t udi e s w hi c h i nc l ude d bot h a s pe c t s of non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e

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8 na m e l y O C B a nd C W B ( D unl op & L e e 2004; L e e & A l l e n 2002; M i l e s B or m a n, S pe c t or & F ox 2002; R ot undo & S a c ke t t 2002) O ne obj e c t i ve of t he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he a nt e c e de nt s a nd pr oc e s s e s l e a di ng t o t w o di f f e r e nt ki n ds of w o r k be ha vi or s i n a c om m on f r a m e w or k S pe c i f i c a l l y, a s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k w a s ut i l i z e d t o dr a w pa r a l l e l s be t w e e n t he t w o c ons t r uc t s a nd t o e xa m i ne t he dyna m i c s be t w e e n t he e nv i r onm e nt a l s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B T he c ur r e nt s t udy a l s o r e c ogni z e s t he r e c e nt e m pha s i s on pos i t i ve a s pe c t s i n t he w or kpl a c e a dva nc e d unde r t he r ub r i c o f pos i t i ve ps yc hol ogy ( S e l i gm a n & C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi 2000) O C B a nd C W B c a n be c ons i de r e d a s a da pt i ve r e s pons e s ( D a l a l 2005) t o e nvi r onm e nt a l s t r e s s or s T hi s a da pt a t i on pr oc e s s c a n be i nf l ue nc e d by pe r s ona l i t y E s pe c i a l l y i n t he C W B l i t e r a t ur e t he r e ha ve be e n f e w s t udi e s w hi c h a s s e s s e d t he pe r s ona l i t y c or r e l a t e s of vol unt a r y be ha vi or s w i t h a pos i t i ve s pi n s uc h a s c ons c i e nt i ous ne s s a nd a gr e e a bl e ne s s ( O ne s V i s w e s va r a n & S c hm i dt 1993) P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s a ne w pe r s ona l i t y c ons t r uc t w hi c h r e f e r s t o a n i ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e i n t he t e nde nc y t o c ha nge t he e nvi r onm e nt t o be i n l i ne w i t h t he ne e ds a nd goa l s of t he i ndi v i dua l ( B a t e m a n & C r a nt 1993) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y ha s a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on t a s k pe r f o r m a nc e ( C r a nt 1995 ; T hom ps on, 2005 ) but t he r e i s l a c k of s t udi e s w hi c h c ons i de r e d ot he r a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e T he r e i s on l y o ne l ongi t udi na l s t udy ( S e i be r t K r a i m e r & C r a nt 2001) t ha t f ound no r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd voi c e be ha vi o r ( a s pe c i f i c t ype of O C B ) ; a nd no publ i s he d s t udy on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd C W B T he r e f or e t he ot he r obj e c t i ve o f t he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t o e xa m i ne t he r ol e of p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i n t he pr oc e s s e s t ha t l i nk s t r e s s or s t o s t r a i ns s uc h a s O C B a nd C W B T he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t he f i r s t s t udy t ha t e xa m i ne s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd bo t h a s pe c t s of non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e ( i e O C B / C W B ) i n t he s a m e f r a m e w or k. I n s um t he

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9 pr e s e nt s t udy ha s t w o pr i m a r y c ont r i but i ons t o t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e on non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e a s w e l l a s t o t he t he or e t i c a l a nd e m pi r i c a l w or k t ha t l i nks s t r e s s or s t o e m pl oye e r e a c t i ons F i r s t a c om p r e he ns i ve s t r e s s o r s t r a i n f r a m e w or k, w hi c h i nc l ude s bot h s t r e a m s of w o r kpl a c e be ha vi or s ( O C B a nd C W B ) w i l l a dva nc e t he c om m on pr a c t i c e of i nve s t i ga t i ng t he m s e pa r a t e l y a nd he l ps us be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he pa r a l l e l m e c ha ni s m s l i nke d t o O C B a nd C W B S pe c i f i c a l l y, j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a r e pr opos e d t o m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd bot h f o r m s of w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s S e c ondl y, t he r ol e of pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be i nve s t i ga t e d t o ga i n i ns i ght s i nt o t he di s pos i t i ona l a nt e c e de nt s of O C B a nd C W B by l ooki ng a t how p r oa c t i ve pe opl e r e a c t f e e l a nd be ha ve i n t he o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ont e x t F i r s t I w i l l pr ovi de a l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w of t he O C B a nd C W B S e c ond, I w i l l of f e r a s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k t o i nt e g r a t e bot h t ype o f be ha vi or s a nd r e vi e w c e r t a i n j ob s t r e s s or s a s c om m on a nt e c e de nt s T he n, I w i l l p r e s e nt e vi de nc e f or t he r ol e of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on i n l i nk i ng s t r e s s or s t o O C B a nd C W B L a s t l y, I w i l l f oc us on p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y t o dr a w a c l e a r pi c t ur e of i t s r ol e i n t he s t r e s s or s t r a i n r e l a t i ons hi p. O r gani z at i onal c i t i z e ns hi p be hav i or E m pl oye e s w ho c ont r i but e t o t he or ga ni z a t i on be y ond t he i r j ob r e qui r e m e nt s a r e va l ua bl e a s s e t s f or t he m s e l ve s a s w e l l a s f or t he o r ga ni z a t i on. P r oduc t i ve be ha vi or s t ha t a r e i nt e nde d t o he l p pe opl e or t he o r ga ni z a t i on a r e c ons i de r e d or ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or ( O C B ) ( O r ga n, 1997 ) T he s e a c t i vi t i e s c o nt r i but e t o t he ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt of t he w or kpl a c e a nd t o t he or g a ni z a t i on s pr oduc t i vi t y by a l l ow i ng t he c om pa ny t o a da pt t o c ha nge a nd i t s w or ke r s t o c oope r a t e ( S m i t h O r ga n & N e a r 1983) O C B i s c onc e pt ua l l y s i m i l a r t o ot he r c ons t r uc t s s uc h a s pr o s oc i a l be ha vi or s

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10 ( B r i e f & M ot ow i dl o, 1986) c ont e xt ua l pe r f or m a nc e ( B or m a n & M ot ow i dl o, 1993) a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l s pont a ne i t y ( G e or ge & B r i e f 1992 ) I n t he l i t e r a t ur e t he r e ha ve be e n di f f e r e nt c a t e gor i z a t i ons of O C B S m i t h O r ga n, a nd N e a r ( 1983) i de nt i f i e d t w o f a c t or s : a l t r ui s m a nd ge ne r a l i z e d c om pl i a nc e O r ga n pr opos e d a f i ve f a c t o r m ode l i nc l udi ng a l t r ui s m c ons c i e nt i ous ne s s s por t s m a ns hi p, c our t e s y, a nd c i vi c vi r t ue ( 1995) V a n D yne a nd L e P i ne ( 1998) s ugge s t e d he l pi ng be ha vi or a nd voi c e be ha vi or a s t w o t ype s of O C B T he y de f i ne d he l pi ng be ha vi or a s pr om ot i ve be ha vi or s w hi c h e m pha s i z e s s m a l l a c t s of c ons i de r a t i on ( p 109) V oi c e be ha vi or w a s de f i ne d a s pr om ot i ve be ha vi or s t ha t e m pha s i z e e xpr e s s i on of c ons t r uc t i ve c ha l l e nge i nt e nde d t o i m p r ove r a t he r t ha n m e r e l y c r i t i c i z e ( V a n D yne & L e P i ne 1998, p. 109) W i l l i a m s a nd A nde r s on ( 1991) de f i ne d O C B by i t s t a r ge t I n t e r pe r s ona l O C B ( O C B I ) i s di r e c t e d a t c ow or ke r s ( e g. he l pi ng ot he r s ) w he r e a s or ga ni z a t i ona l O C B ( O C B O ) t a r ge t s t he or ga ni z a t i on ( e g e nha nc i ng t he r e put a t i on of t he o r ga ni z a t i on) I n t e r m s o f a nt e c e de nt s O C B ha s b e e n r e l a t e d t o o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e g. g r oup c ohe s i ve ne s s ) l e a de r s hi p be ha vi or s a nd e m pl oye e a t t i t ude s s uc h a s j ob s a t i s f a c t i on ( P ods a kof f e t a l 2000) O t he r pr e di c t or s i nc l ude pe r c e i ve d j us t i c e ( O r ga n & R ya n, 1995) pe r c e i ve d or ga ni z a t i on a l s uppor t a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt ( M oor m a n & B yr ne 2005 ) T he r e a r e a l s o d i s pos i t i ona l a nt e c e de nt s of O C B H e l pf ul ne s s e m pa t hy, a gr e e a bl e ne s s pos i t i ve a f f e c t a nd c ons c i e nt i ous ne s s ha ve be e n f ound t o pr e di c t O C B ( A l l e n, F a c t e a u, & F a c t e a u, 2004; P ods a kof f e t a l 2000) F ur t he r m or e B or m a n, P e nne r A l l e n a nd M ot ow i dl o ( 2001 ) r e por t e d t ha t i nt e r na l l oc us of c ont r ol c ol l e c t i vi s m a nd pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve ( a c onc e pt ua l l y s i m i l a r c ons t r uc t t o p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y) a r e pos i t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h O C B

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11 C ount e r pr oduc t i v e w or k be hav i or B e s i de s pr os oc i a l be ha vi or s pe opl e a l s o e nga ge i n a nt i s oc i a l be ha vi or s i n t he w or kpl a c e T he s e i nt e nt i ona l a c t s t o ha r m t he o r ga ni z a t i on or i t s m e m be r s a r e c ons i de r e d c ount e r pr oduc t i ve w or k be ha vi or ( C W B ) ( S pe c t or & F ox, 20 02) a nd i nc l ude s a c t s s uc h a s t he f t s a bot a ge ve r ba l a bus e a nd w o r k s l ow do w ns ( P e nne y & S pe c t o r 2002) C W B i s c onc e pt ua l l y s i m i l a r t o c ons t r uc t s s uc h a s w or k a ggr e s s i on ( F ox & S pe c t or 1999; N e um a n & B a r on, 1998; S pe c t o r 1978) de vi a nc e ( R obi ns on & B e n ne t t 1995 ) a nt i s oc i a l be ha vi or ( G i a c a l one & G r e e nbe r g, 1997 ) r e t a l i a t i on ( S ka r l i c ki F ol ge r & T e s l uk, 1999) o r r e ve nge ( B i e s T r i pp, & K r a m e r 1997) L i ke O C B s C W B s c a n be di f f e r e nt i a t e d a c c or di ng t o t he t a r ge t o f t he be ha vi or ( S pe c t or & F ox, 2002) R obi ns on a nd B e nne t t ( 19 95) i de nt i f i e d t w o t ype s o f w or kpl a c e de vi a nc e C e r t a i n c ount e r pr oduc t i ve w or k be ha vi o r s a r e a i m e d a t ot he r pe r s ons i n t he or ga ni z a t i on ( C W B P ) w hi l e ot he r be ha vi or s t a r ge t t he or ga ni z a t i on ( C W B O ) F or e xa m pl e e m pl oye e s m a y ve r ba l l y a bus e a c ow or k e r ( C W B P ) o r s t e a l f r om t he or ga ni z a t i on ( C W B O ) G r e e nbe r g a nd B a r l i ng ( 19 99) f ound t ha t s i t ua t i ona l f a c t or s a nd di s pos i t i ona l f a c t or s pr e di c t a ggr e s s i on a ga i ns t di f f e r e nt t a r ge t s s uc h t ha t w or kpl a c e f a c t or s pr e di c t e d vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t a s u pe r vi s or w h e r e a s pe r s on f a c t or s pr e di c t e d vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t a c ow or ke r S i t ua t i ona l a nt e c e de nt s of C W B i nc l ude j ob s t r e s s or s s uc h a s r ol e a m bi gui t y r ol e c onf l i c t i nj us t i c e or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s a nd i n t e r pe r s ona l c onf l i c t ( C he n & S pe c t or 1992; S pe c t or & F ox 2002 ) A c c or di ng t o a ggr e s s i on f r us t r a t i on m ode l f r us t r a t i on i n r e s pons e t o s t r e s s or s i s a n i m por t a nt pr e di c t o r of C W B ( F ox & S pe c t or 1999) I n one s t udy, C r opa nz a no, H ow e s G r a nde y, a nd T ot h ( 19 97) f ound t ha t a nt a goni s t i c be ha vi or s ( e g. a r gui ng w i t h c ow or ke r s a nd s pr e a di ng r um or s or gos s i p a bout c ow or ke r s ) w e r e

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12 ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o o r ga ni z a t i ona l s uppor t a nd po s i t i ve l y t o or ga ni z a t i ona l po l i t i c s O t he r s t udi e s l ooke d a t t he i nf l ue nc e of t he s upe r vi s or a nd w or k g r oup on t he l e ve l of C W B S u pe r vi s or y a nd w o r k gr oup nor m s ( G r e e nb e r g & S c ot t 1996) a nd w or k g r oup l e ve l of C W B c oupl e d w i t h t a s k i nt e r de pe nde nc e o f gr oup m e m be r s ( R obi ns on & O R e a l l y, 1998) ha ve be e n f ound t o a f f e c t i ndi vi d ua l l e ve l s of C W B M or e ove r s e ve r a l r e vi e w e r s a gr e e t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd pe r c e i ve d j us t i c e a r e a m ong t he ke y a nt e c e de nt s of C W B a nd a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of C W B ( e g. J oc ki n, A r ve y, & M c G ue 2001; M a r t i nko, G undl a c h, & D ougl a s 2002 ) C W B a l s o ha s di s pos i t i ona l a nt e c e de nt s T r a i t a nge r a nd t r a i t a n xi e t y ha ve be e n s how n t o be pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B ( A qui no L e w i s & B r a df i e l d 1999; F ox & S pe c t or 1999; F ox S pe c t or & M i l e s 1999 ) O ne s e t a l ( 1993 ) f ound t ha t i nt e gr i t y t e s t s t ha t a s s e s s e d c ons c i e nt i ous n e s s a gr e e a bl e ne s s a nd e m ot i ona l s t a bi l i t y w e r e ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B O t he r s t udi e s r e por t e d M a c hi a ve l l i a ni s m ( B e nne t t & R obi ns on, 2000) l oc us of c ont r ol ( P e r l ow & L a t ha m 1993; S t or m s & S pe c t or 1987) ne ga t i ve a f f e c t i vi t y, a nd a gr e e a bl e ne s s ( S ka r l i c ki F ol ge r & T e s l uk, 19 99) a nd na r c i s s i s m ( P e nne y & S pe c t or 2002) a s pr e di c t or s o f C W B I nt e gr at i on of c i t i z e ns hi p be hav i or s and c ount e r pr oduc t i v e w or k be hav i or s T he t hr e e m a i n dom a i ns of j ob pe r f or m a nc e i nc l ud e t a s k pe r f or m a nc e c ont e xt ua l pe r f or m a nc e ( i e c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or s ) a nd c ount e r pr oduc t i ve w or k be ha vi or s ( R ot undo & S a c ke t t 2002 ) R e c e nt l y, t he r e ha ve be e n a t t e m pt s t o e xpl or e O C B a nd C W B i n a pa r a l l e l f a s hi on ( D unl op & L e e 2004; L e e & A l l e n, 2002; M i l e s B or m a n, S pe c t or & F ox, 2002 ) O C B a nd C W B ha ve be e n c onc l ude d t o be di s t i nc t c ons t r uc t I n a m e t a a na l ys i s on t he O C B C W B r e l a t i ons hi p, D a l a l ( 20 05) r e por t e d a m ode r a t e ne ga t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he t w o c ons t r uc t s S i m i l a r l y, K e l l ow a y, L oughl i n, B a r l i ng a nd

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13 N a ul t ( 2002) c onc l ude d t ha t O C B a nd C W B r e pr e s e nt t w o uni que f a c t or s T he r e a r e t hr e e m a i n a r e a s i n w hi c h O C B a nd C W B a r e d i s t i nc t : 1 ) T he y di f f e r i n t he de gr e e o f di s c r e t i on. W he r e a s a l l t ype s of C W B a r e a gr e e d t o be m or e unde r t he di s c r e t i on of t he pe r s on, t he r e i s de ba t e t o w hi c h e xt e nt s om e of O C B ( e g. he l pi ng c ow or ke r s ) a r e vol unt a r y. R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t c i t i z e ns hi p be h a vi or s a r e t a ke n i nt o a c c ount by s upe r vi s or s dur i ng pe r f o r m a nc e a ppr a i s a l t he r e f or e t he y a r e r e w a r de d a nd s om e a r e c ons i de r e d t o be i n r ol e j ob pe r f o r m a nc e t he r e f or e r e qui r e d ( O r ga n, 1997) 2 ) O C B a nd C W B m a y ha ve di f f e r e nt a nt e c e de nt s F or e xa m pl e M i l e s a t a l ( 2002 ) f ound t ha t t r a i t a nge r w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B but not t o O C B 3) R e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f i e d di f f e r e nt m ot i ve s f or O C B a nd C W B R i oux a nd B or m a n ( 2001) i de nt i f i e d pr os oc i a l va l ue s or ga ni z a t i ona l c onc e r n a nd i m pr e s s i on m a na ge m e nt a s m ot i ve f or e nga gi ng i n c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or s M e a nw hi l e P e n ne y a nd c ol l a gue s ( 2006) s ugge s t e d t ha t pe opl e e nga ge i n C W B due t o m ot i ve s r e l a t e d t o bor e dom r e t a l i a t i on a nd i nf l ue nc i ng ot he r s D e s pi t e t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n O C B a nd C W B t he or y a nd r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t t he pr oduc t i ve a nd c ount e r pr oduc t i ve a s pe c t s of j ob pe r f or m a nc e s ha r e s i m i l a r i t i e s 1) T he y ha ve s om e c om m on a nt e c e de nt s D a l a l ( 2 005) l i s t e d j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, pe r c e i ve d j us t i c e pos i t i ve a f f e c t i vi t y ne ga t i ve a f f e c t i vi t y, c o ns c i e nt i ous ne s s a s pr e di c t or s of bot h O C B a nd C W B 2) B ot h be ha vi or s a r e di f f e r e nt f r om t a s k pe r f or m a nc e i n t ha t t he y ha ve m or e r oom f or vol unt a r i ne s s W hi l e t a s k pe r f o r m a nc e pr e s e nt s a s t r ong s i t ua t i o n non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e ( i e c ont e xt ua l pe r f or m a nc e a nd c ount e r pr oduc t i ve pe r f or m a nc e ) c a n be i nt e r pr e t e d a s a m or e w e a k s i t ua t i on I ndi vi du a l s m a y pe r c e i ve m or e c ont r ol ove r t he i r c hoi c e s i n t he na t ur e a nd i nt e ns i t y of O C B a nd C W B T he r e f o r e c ondi t i ons or a nt e c e de nt s t ha t c r e a t e oppor t uni t i e s f or vol unt a r y be ha vi or s w i l l a f f e c t bot h O C B a nd

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14 C W B 3. R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t i ndi vi dua l s w ho r e por t hi gh l e ve l s of s t r e s s or s r e por t l e s s O C B a nd m or e C W B ( M i l e s e t a l 2002; S pe c t or & F ox, 2002) T he r e f or e a s t r e s s or s t r a i n m ode l pr ovi de s a p r om i s i ng f r a m e w or k. S oc i a l e xc ha nge t he or y ha s be e n ut i l i z e d t o e xpl a i n how va r i ous f a c t or s i nc l udi ng s t r e s s or s a f f e c t be ha vi or s i n t he w or kp l a c e ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 2003; T e kl e a b e t a l 2005) S oc i a l e xc ha nge t he or y pos i t s t ha t pe opl e w i l l r e c i pr oc a t e t he good done t o t he m ( C r opa nz a no, R upp & B yr ne 2003 ) I n c ont r a s t w he n pe opl e f e e l t ha t t he r u l e s of s oc i a l e xc ha nge be t w e e n t he e m pl oye e a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on a r e not he l d, t he y r e a c t t o r e s t or e t he ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he i r i nput s a nd t he out c om e s t he y r e c e i ve T he r e f or e w he n t he or ga ni z a t i on doe s not e nga ge i n pr ope r s oc i a l e xc ha nge ( i e v i ol a t i ons of ps yc hol ogi c a l c ont r a c t ) i nd i vi dua l s w i l l f e e l l e s s r e s pons i bl e t o e nga ge i n pr oduc t i ve be ha vi o r s t o he l p t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd i t s m e m be r s ( l ow O C B ) a nd m a y r e s pond by e nga gi ng i n de s t r uc t i ve be ha vi or s ( hi gh C W B ) T he ge ne r al f r am e w or k T he s t r e s s or s t r a i n m ode l ( S pe c t or & F ox 2002 ) o f f e r s a p r om i s i ng f r a m e w or k t o i nve s t i ga t e O C B a nd C W B s i m ul t a ne ous l y. L a z a r us a nd F ol km a n ( 1986 ) de f i ne d s t r e s s a s a pa r t i c ul a r r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he pe r s on a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt t ha t i s a pp r a i s e d by t he pe r s on a s t a xi ng or e xc e e di ng hi s or he r r e s our c e s a nd e nda nge r i ng hi s or he r w e l l be i ng ( p 19) A c c or di ng t o t he i r t r a ns a c t i ona l s t r e s s m ode l pe opl e m oni t o r a nd a pp r a i s e t he e nvi r onm e nt T he n pe opl e i n t e r pr e t s i t ua t i ons ba s e d on t he i r pe r c e pt i ons a nd m a ke de c i s i ons a bout t he i r be ha vi or s T hos e be ha vi or s i n r e s pons e t o s t r e s s c a n be e i t he r he l pf ul ( o r ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or / O C B ) or ha r m f u l ( c ount e r pr oduc t i ve be ha vi or / C W B ) t o t he o r ga ni z a t i on a nd pe opl e i n t he or ga ni z a t i on ( M i l e s e t a l ; 2002 ) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t s t r e s s or s a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h bot h O C B a nd C W B but i n

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15 oppos i t e di r e c t i ons ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 2003; D a l a l 200 5; P e nne y & S pe c t or 2002) S pe c i f i c a l l y, w he n pe opl e f a c e s t r e s s or s t he y a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B a nd m o r e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n C W B ( M i l e s e t a l 2002 ) T he pe r s on e nvi r onm e nt f i t m ode l p r ovi de s a ddi t i o na l s uppor t f o r t hi s f r a m e w or k ( E dw a r ds 19 91 ) A c c or di ng t o t hi s m ode l s t r e s s o c c ur s f r om a n i nc ongr ui t y be t w e e n t he i ndi vi dua l a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt T he r e a r e t w o t yp e s of m i s f i t T he r e c a n be l a c k of f i t be t w e e n t he de m a nds of t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he a bi l i t i e s a nd c om pe t e nc i e s of t he pe r s on. A l s o, t he r e c a n be l a c k of f i t be t w e e n t he n e e ds of t he pe r s on a nd s uppl i e s f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt ( S onne nt a g & F r e s e 2003 ) S t r a i n i nc r e a s e s a s de m a nds e xc e e d a bi l i t i e s a nd a s ne e ds e xc e e d s uppl i e s W he n pe opl e a r e f a c e d w i t h s t r e s s or s ( e g. c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e s t r e s s or s ) i n t he w o r kpl a c e t he y e xpe r i e nc e s t r a i n due t o t he m i s f i t be t w e e n t he e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons a nd i ndi vi d ua l s r e s our c e s I n t he c a s e of be ha vi or a l s t r a i n, pe opl e w i l l r e s pond by l ow l e ve l s of O C B a nd hi gh l e ve l s of C W B ( M i l e s e t a l 2002) P e opl e c a n f a c e m a ny di f f e r e nt ki nds of s t r e s s or s i n t he w or kpl a c e T he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l f oc us on pa r t i c ul a r s t r e s s or s t ha t a l l ow f or t he ope r a t i on of t he p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y. I n ot he r w or ds t he e f f e c t s of t he s e s t r e s s or s c a n be r e duc e d by di r e c t a c t i on t o c ha nge t he e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h c ons t i t ut e s t he t ypi c a l t e nde nc y of p r oa c t i ve pe opl e O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s a r e s i t ua t i ons a t w or k t h a t i nhi bi t t a s k pe r f or m a nc e ( P e t e r s a nd O C onnor 1980 ) S pe c t or ( 1978) s ugge s t e d c e r t a i n j ob c o ndi t i ons i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he s uc c e s s f ul c om pl e t i on of t a s ks E xa m pl e s of c ons t r a i nt s i nc l ude i ns uf f i c i e nt : ( a ) j ob r e l a t e d i nf o r m a t i on, ( b ) t ool s a nd e qui pm e nt ( c ) m a t e r i a l s a nd s uppl i e s ( d) budge t a r y s uppor t ( e ) r e qui r e d s e r vi c e s a nd he l p f r om ot he r s ( f ) t a s k pr e pa r a t i on ( g) t i m e a va i l a bi l i t y, a nd ( h) w or k e nvi r onm e nt ( P e t e r s & O C onnor 1980 ) T he s t r e s s f r us t r a t i on

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16 m ode l a dva nc e d by F ox a nd S pe c t or ( 1999) s ugge s t s t ha t s i nc e c ons t r a i nt s pr e ve nt goa l a c hi e ve m e nt pe opl e e xpe r i e nc e s t r e s s a nd f r us t r a t i on. A c c or di ng t o t he F ox S pe c t or s t r e s s or e m ot i on C W B m ode l s t r e s s or s l e a d t o ne ga t i ve e m ot i ons w hi c h r e s ul t i n C W B C ons t r a i nt s ha ve be e n pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h b ot h f r us t r a t i on a nd C W B ( C he n & S pe c t or 1992; F ox & S pe c t o r 1999) C onve r s e l y, c ons t r a i nt s w e r e ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h O C B ( M i l e s e t a l 2002 ) O r ga ni z a t i ona l j us t i c e c onc e r ns t he f a i r t r e a t m e nt of pe opl e i n or ga ni z a t i ons ( J e x, 2002) T he l i t e r a t ur e i de nt i f i e s t hr e e t ype s o f j us t i c e D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e r e f e r s t o t he pe r c e i ve d f a i r ne s s of t he ou t c om e s ( M oor m a n & B yr ne 2005 ) r e c e i ve d by s e l f a nd o t he r s f r om a n e m pl oye r P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e r e f e r s t o t he pe r c e i ve d f a i r ne s s of t he p r oc e s s e s a nd de c i s i ons t ha t de t e r m i ne or ga ni z a t i ona l out c om e s i nde pe nde nt of t he f a i r ne s s of t he a c t ua l out c om e s r e c e i ve d ( T hi ba ut & W a l ke r 197 5) I nt e r a c t i ona l j us t i c e a s pa r t of pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e r e f e r s t o t he pe r c e i ve d f a i r ne s s o f i nt e r pe r s ona l t r e a t m e nt by a s upe r vi s or ( B i e s 2005) J us t i c e pe r c e pt i ons a f f e c t pe opl e s a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s J us t i c e ha s be e n r e l a t e d t o or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt ( C ohe n C ha r a s h & S pe c t or 2001) a nd i n t e nt i ons t o t ur nove r a nd a c t ua l t ur nove r ( T e kl e a b, T a ke uc hi & T a yl or 2005 ) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t w he n pe opl e f e e l f a i r l y t r e a t e d, t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B ( O r ga n & R ya n, 1995) A c c or di ng t o a m e t a a na l ys i s by C ohe n C ha r a s h a nd S pe c t or ( 2001 ) pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e pr e di c t e d O C B I n one s t udy, pe r c e i ve d j us t i c e ( e g. pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ) w a s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o O C B t ow a r ds t he or ga ni z a t i on but not O C B t ow a r ds i ndi vi dua l s ( L e e & A l l e n, 2002) P e opl e pe r c e i ve i nj us t i c e a s a s t r e s s or I n t he s t udy by J udge a nd C ol qui t t ( 2004 ) ps yc hol ogi c a l s t r a i n c or r e l a t e d w i t h pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 14 ) di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( r =

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17 15) a nd i nt e r a c t i ona l j us t i c e ( r = 21) I n l i ne w i t h t he s t r e s s or e m ot i on m ode l di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e a nd pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e w e r e ne g a t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o ne ga t i ve e m ot i ons a nd C W B ( F ox e t a l 2001) S pe c i f i c a l l y, p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e c or r e l a t e d 26 a nd 15 w i t h C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd C W B pe r s ona l r e s pe c t i ve l y, w he r e a s di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e w a s onl y r e l a t e d t o C W B O ( r = 17) I n a not he r s t udy, S ka r l i c ki F ol ge r a nd T e s l uk ( 1999) f ound t ha t a l l t hr e e t ype s of j us t i c e ( pr oc e dur a l di s t r i but i ve a nd i nt e r a c t i ona l j us t i c e ) w e r e r e l a t e d ne ga t i ve l y t o or ga ni z a t i ona l r e t a l i a t or y be ha vi or ( r = 51, r = 40 r = 49 r e s pe c t i ve l y) R ol e a m bi gui t y r e f e r s t o t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h a n i nd i vi dua l i s unc e r t a i n a bout w ha t i s e xpe c t e d of hi m or he r ( K a hn W ol f e Q ui nn S n oe k, & R os e nt ha l ; 1964) S c ha ub r oe c k, G a ns t e r S i m e a nd D i t m a n ( 1993 ) s u gge s t e d t ha t t he r e i s a r ol e m a ki ng pr oc e s s be t w e e n t he r ol e s e nde r s a nd r ol e r e c e i ve r s I n t hi s pr oc e s s t he be ha vi or s of i ndi vi dua l s a r e i m por t a nt i n s ha pi ng a nd c l a r i f yi ng one s r ol e A s pa r t of s oc i a l i z a t i on pr o c e s s ne w c om e r s t r y t o l e a r n a bout t he i r r ol e s p ur pos e a nd r e l a t i ons hi p t o ot he r r ol e s ( K a m m e ye r M ue l l e r & W a nbe r g , 2003) A m bi gu ous s i t ua t i ons w i t h unc l e a r r ol e e xpe c t a t i ons m a y m a ke i t di f f i c ul t f or i ndi vi dua l s t o de c i de w he r e t o di r e c t t he i r e f f or t s a n d m a y r e s ul t i n c onf us i on a nd d i s s a t i s f a c t i on ( M i l l e r & J a bl i n, 1991 ) O ne of t he w a ys t o ove r c om e r ol e a m bi gui t y i s t o e nga ge i n pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s s uc h a s i nf or m a t i on s e e ki ng. I n a m e t a a na l ys i s J a c ks on a nd S c hul e r ( 1985) r e por t e d t ha t r ol e a m bi gui t y c or r e l a t e d ne ga t i ve l y w i t h j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd pos i t i ve l y w i t h t e ns i on a nd a nxi e t y. N e t e m e ye r B ur t on, a nd J ohns t on ( 1995 ) f ound t ha t r ol e a m bi gu i t y ha s di r e c t ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s on j ob s a t i s f a c t i on i nde pe nde nt o f t e ns i on. F ur t he r m or e r o l e a m bi gui t y r e l a t e s t o r e por t s of C W B c l a s s i f i e d a s a ggr e s s i on, hos t i l i t y, s a bot a ge a nd t he f t ( C he n & S pe c t o r 1992)

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18 T he m e di at i ng r ol e of j ob s at i s f ac t i on E ve nt s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt a f f e c t pe opl e s a t t i t ude s w hi c h i n t ur n i nf l ue nc e be ha vi or s s uc h a s O C B or C W B ( R e e s e 20 04) J o b s a t i s f a c t i on r e f e r s t o one s c ont e nt m e nt w i t h t he j ob a nd a s pe c t s of t he j ob ( F ox & S pe c t or 2002 ) I f pe opl e ha ve pos i t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s a t w or k ( e g. s upe r vi s or s upp or t ) t he i r j ob s a t i s f a c t i on i nc r e a s e s I n c ont r a s t c ont i nuous e xpos ur e t o s t r e s s or s w i l l a c c um ul a t e a nd l e a d t o di s s a t i s f a c t i on. I n one s t udy ( G ot t f r e ds on & H ol l a nd 1990) i ndi vi du a l s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 22) due t o t he l a c k o f pe r s on j ob f i t r e por t e d l ow l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. T he m e t a a na l ys i s by C ohe n C ha r a s h a nd S pe c t or ( 200 1) i ndi c a t e d t ha t pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e a r e ne ga t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. J udge a nd C ol qui t t ( 2004) f ound t ha t a l l t ype s of j us t i c e w e r e ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o ps yc hol ogi c a l s t r a i n a nd w e r e pos i t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h j ob s a t i s f a c t i on r e p or t e d by t he i ndi vi dua l a s w e l l a s j ob s a t i s f a c t i on r e por t e d by t he s i gni f i c a nt ot he r F ur t h e r m or e T e kl e a b, T a ke uc hi a nd T a yl or ( 2005) f ound t ha t pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd i nt e r a c t i o na l j us t i c e w e r e pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i on a f t e r t h r e e ye a r s I n t he l i t e r a t ur e j ob s a t i s f a c t i on ha s be e n f ound t o be a pr e di c t or of bot h O C B a nd C W B W he n e m pl oye e s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i r j ob s t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n he l pi ng be ha vi or s a nd l e s s l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n ha r m f ul be ha vi or s L e P i ne E r e z a nd J ohns on ( 2002) f ound t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on i s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o O C B O r ga n o f f e r e d t w o e xpl a na t i ons f or t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B ( O r ga n, 1997) F i r s t e m pl oye e s w ho f e e l f a i r l y t r e a t e d a r e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B t o m a i nt a i n e qui l i br i um be t w e e n t he m a nd t he o r ga ni z a t i on. I n l i ne w i t h t he t e ne t s of s oc i a l e xc ha nge t he or y ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 2003 ) e m pl oye e s r e c i pr oc a t e f a i r ne s s by e nga gi ng i n c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or s S e c ond, e m pl oye e s i n a pos i t i ve m o od due t o t he i r j ob s a t i s f a c t i on

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19 a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B I n t he c a s e of C W B D uf f y G a ns t e r a nd S ha w ( 1998 ) f ound t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h C W B ( r = 24) G ot t f r e ds on a nd H ol l a nd ( 1990) not onl y r e por t e d a s i m i l a r r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he t w o va r i a bl e s ( r = 43) but a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t C W B w a s c or r e l a t e d w i t h e xpe c t e d s a t i s f a c t i on ( r = 23) T he f r us t r a t i on a ggr e s s i on m ode l s ugge s t s t ha t s t r e s s or s a t t he w or kpl a c e l e a d t o f e e l i ngs o f f r us t r a t i on, w hi c h r e s ul t i n ha r m f ul be ha vi or s I n l i ne w i t h t hi s m ode l F ox a nd S pe c t o r ( 1999) f ound t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o f r us t r a t i on ( r = 41) a nd C W B ( r = 37) F u r t he r m o r e s oc i a l e xc ha nge t he or y pos i t s t ha t ps yc hol ogi c a l c ont r a c t vi ol a t i ons i nf l ue nc e a t t i t ude s i ndi vi dua l s ha ve t ow a r ds t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons I n s uppor t o f t hi s a s s e r t a t i on, T e kl e a b e t a l ( 2004) f ound t ha t w i t h ps yc hol ogi c a l c ont r a c t vi ol a t i ons ( a C W B c or r e l a t e ) w a s a s s oc i a t e d ne ga t i ve l y j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a f t e r t h r e e ye a r s T he m e di at i ng r ol e of e m ot i onal e x haus t i on B ot h O C B a nd C W B r e qui r e e ne r gy t ha t t r a ns l a t e s i nt o a m ot i va t i ona l s t a t e a nd l e a ds t o a c t i on. H ow e ve r c ont i nuous e xpos ur e t o s t r e s s or s m a y r e s ul t i n bu r nout a nd de pl e t i on of e ne r gy ( S onne nt a g & F r e s e 2003) A c c or di ng t o M a s l a c h s m ode l ( 1982 ) bur nout ha s t hr e e c om pone nt s D e pe r s ona l i z a t i on r e f e r s t o a t ype of i nt e r pe r s ona l di s t a nc i ng a nd l a c k of c onne c t e dne s s w i t h one s c o w or ke r s a nd c l i e nt s ( p. 160 ) D i m i ni s he d pe r s ona l a c c om pl i s hm e nt i nvol ve s a n e ga t i ve e va l ua t i on of t he s e l f E m ot i on a l e xha us t i on i s a c hr oni c s t a t e of e m ot i o na l a nd phys i c a l de pl e t i on ( p 160) S hi r om ( 1989) c l a i m e d t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on be s t c a pt ur e s t he c or e m e a ni ng o f bur nout R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on e xhi bi t e d a s t r onge r r e l a t i ons hi p

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20 t ha n d e pe r s ona l i z a t i on a nd di m i ni s he d pe r s ona l a c c om pl i s hm e nt w i t h i m por t a nt out c om e s s uc h a s O C B ( C r opa nz a no e t a l ; 2003) T he c onve r s a t i on of r e s our c e s t he or y by H obf ol l a nd F r e e dy ( 1993) s ugge s t s t ha t bur nout oc c ur s w he n c e r t a i n r e s our c e s a r e l os t o r i na de q ua t e t o m e e t de m a nds R ol e a m bi gui t y a nd s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s a r e a m ong t he m a j o r de m a nds a t w or k C ont r o l a nd pa r t i c i pa t i on i n de c i s i on m a ki ng a r e a m ong t he r e s our c e s I n t he i r m e t a a na l ys i s L e e a nd A s hf or t h ( 1996) i ndi c a t e d t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i o n r e l a t e d pos i t i ve l y t o r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 21) a nd s t r e s s f ul e ve nt s ( r = 52) T e ppe r ( 2000 ) f ound t ha t i n a s a m pl e of c i t y r e s i de nt s a l l t hr e e t ype s of j us t i c e w e r e r e l a t e d t o d e pr e s s i on a nd e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. I n a ddi t i on t o be i ng a pe r s ona l c os t due t o s t r e s s or s e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on m a y ha ve a n a dve r s e i m pa c t on vol unt a r y be ha vi or s E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on m a y s i gna l a vi ol a t i on of t he ps yc hol ogi c a l c ont r a c t be t w e e n t he e m pl oye e a nd t he e m pl oye r be c a us e i t i s a n unde s i r a bl e e xpe r i e nc e a nd of t e n s e e n a s unj us t i f i e d E m pl oye e s m a y be a pt t o r e s e nt t he or ga ni z a t i on t ha t ove r w o r ks t he m t o t he poi nt of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on t he r e f or e pe r c e i ve t he or ga ni z a t i on s a c t i ons a s unf a i r T he r e s ul t i ng l ow qua l i t y s oc i a l e xc ha nge r e l a t i ons hi p m a y l e a d t o m or e C W B a nd l e s s O C B I nde e d, C r opa nz a no, R upp a nd B yr e ( 2003) f ound t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on l e d t o a de c r e a s e i n or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt w hi c h i n t ur n pr e di c t e d l ow l e ve l s of t a s k pe r f o r m a nc e or ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or s di r e c t e d a t t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd d i r e c t e d a t t he s upe r vi s or T he r ol e of pr oac t i v e pe r s onal i t y P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y r e f e r s t o a s t a bl e t e nde nc y t o t a ke a c t i on t o i n f l ue nc e t he e nvi r onm e nt ( C r a nt 2000) B a t e m a n a nd C r a nt ( 1 993) de s c r i be d t he i ndi v i dua l hi gh i n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a s one w h o i s r e l a t i ve l y unc ons t r a i ne d by s i t ua t i ona l f o r c e s a nd w ho e f f e c t s e nvi r onm e nt a l c ha nge ( p 105) P r oa c t i ve pe opl e i de nt i f y oppor t uni t i e s a nd

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21 a c t on t he m l ook f or w a ys t o i m p r ove t he i r e nvi r o nm e nt s a nd t he i r ow n l i ve s T he y s how pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve i n a br oa d r a nge of a c t i vi t i e s a n d pe r s e ve r e unt i l t he y br i ng a bout c ha nge I n c ont r a s t nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e pa s s i ve a nd r e a c t i ve T he y t e nd t o a da pt t o t he c i r c um s t a nc e s r a t he r t ha n c ha nge t he m P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y ha s be e n f ound t o be a uni qu e c ons t r uc t unr e l a t e d t o l oc us of c ont r ol a nd m e nt a l a bi l i t y, a nd onl y m ode r a t e l y r e l a t e d t o ne e d f or a c hi e ve m e nt a nd ne e d f or dom i na nc e ( B a t e m a n & C r a nt 1993 ) R e s e a r c he r s a l s o l ooke d a t c om m on f e a t ur e s be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd B i g F i v e O nl y t he di m e ns i ons of c ons c i e nt i ous ne s s a nd e xt r a ve r s i on ha ve be e n f oun d t o be r e l a t e d t o pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y, but t he pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y e xpl a i ne d 8% a ddi t i ona l va r i a nc e i n pe r f or m a nc e a f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f o r c ons c i e nt i ous ne s s a nd e xt r a ve r s i on i n r e a l e s t a t e a ge nt s ( C r a nt 1995 ) I n hi s e xt e ns i ve r e vi e w o f pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or l i t e r a t ur e C r a nt ( 2000) c om pa r e d pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd pe r s ona l i n i t i a t i ve a s a nt e c e de nt s of pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s P e r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve c a pt ur e s a be ha vi or a l t e nde nc y t o t a ke a n a c t i ve s e l f s t a r t i ng a pp r oa c h t o w or k a nd go be yond f or m a l j ob r e qui r e m e nt s ( F r e s e F a y, H i l bur ge r L e ng, & T a g, 1997) B ot h pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve s t a nd out a s di s pos i t i ons t o e nga ge i n pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s F r e s e ( 1997 ) not e d t ha t pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve i s t he or e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd d i f f e r s f r om i t l a r ge l y on t he da t a c ol l e c t i on m e t hod W he r e a s pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s m e a s ur e d vi a s e l f r e por t s ur ve ys pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve i s m e a s ur e d vi a pe r s ona l i nt e r vi e w s P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y ha s be e n f ound t o be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi gh pe r f or m a nc e ( C r a nt 1995; T ho m ps on, 2005) h i gh c a r e e r s a t i s f a c t i on ( S e i be r t C r a nt a nd K r a i m e r ; 1999) pa r t i c i pa t i on i n or ga ni z a t i ona l i ni t i a t i ve s ( P a r ke r 1998 ) a nd t he de gr e e o f

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22 c ons t r uc t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l c ha nge r e ve a l e d i n e s s a ys of pa r t i c i pa nt m os t s i gni f i c a nt pe r s ona l a c hi e ve m e nt s a nd i nvol ve m e nt i n pr oa c t i ve c om m uni t y s e r vi c e a c t i vi t i e s ( B a t e m a n & C r a nt 1993) K a m m e ye r M ue l l e r a nd W a nbe r g ( 2003 ) f ound t ha t p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s r e l a t e d t o pos i t i ve ou t c om e s s uc h a s t a s k m a s t e r y, r ol e c l a r i t y, w or k gr oup i nt e gr a t i on a nd pol i t i c a l know l e dge du r i ng t he s oc i a l i z a t i on of ne w c om e r s i n t he w or kpl a c e F ur t he r m or e B e l l a nd S t a w ( 1989 ) s ug ge s t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y i nf l ue nc e de c i s i ons a f f e c t i ng t he i r p a y, p r om ot i ons a nd t he di s t r i but i on of ot he r or ga ni z a t i ona l r e w a r ds T he r e i s onl y one s t udy t ha t l ooke d a t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd s t r e s s T he f i ndi ngs by P a r ke r a nd S pr i gg ( 1999) ha ve s how n t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s ne ga t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h j ob s t r a i n i n de m a ndi ng j obs P r oa c t i ve e m pl oye e s r e por t e d l ow e r l e ve l s of j ob s t r a i n t ha n non pr oa c t i ve e m pl oye e s e s pe c i a l l y w he n t he r e w a s hi gh c ont r ol ove r j ob de m a nds ( i e p r oduc t i on p r obl e m s or unpl a nne d s c he dul i ng c ha nge s ) H o w e ve r j ob c ont r ol c or r e l a t e d w i t h p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y s i gni f i c a nt l y ( r = 22) T he r e s e a r c he r s r e a s one d t ha t pr oa c t i ve e m pl oye e s s e l f s e l e c t t he m s e l ve s i nt o m or e a ut onom ous r ol e s or c r e a t e d m or e a ut onom y f or t he m s e l ve s w i t hi n t he i r e xi s t i ng j obs s uc h a s vol unt e e r i ng f o r s upe r vi s or y dut i e s L i t t l e i s know n a bout w ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e do w he n t he y f a c e s t r e s s or s ot he r t ha n j ob de m a nds due t o pr oduc t i on pr obl e m s T he l i t e r a t u r e poi nt s out ba s i c a l l y t w o w a ys pr oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y s uc c e s s f ul l y de a l w i t h s t r e s s o r s i n t he w or kp l a c e F i r s t t he y e n ga ge i n be ha vi or s di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s t r e s s r e duc t i on by f oc us i ng on t he s our c e of s t r e s s C opi ng i s de f i ne d a s a c t i vi t i e s unde r t a ke n t o m a s t e r t ol e r a t e r e duc e or m i ni m i z e e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd i nt r a ps yc hi c de m a nds pe r c e i ve d t o r e pr e s e nt pot e nt i a l t hr e a t s e xi s t i ng ha r m or l os s e s ( L a z a r us &

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23 F ol km a n, 1991 p 19) P r obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng i nc l ude s pr obl e m s ol vi ng be ha vi or s t ha t a i m di r e c t l y t o c ha nge t he s t r e s s or ot he r a s pe c t s of t he e nvi r onm e nt o r one s ow n be ha vi or E m o t i on f oc us e d c opi ng r e f e r s t o a t t e m p t s t o m a na ge c ogni t i ons or e m ot i ons di r e c t l y. I n t he l i t e r a t ur e p r obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng i s t ypi c a l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m or e f a vor a bl e out c om e s t ha n e m ot i on f oc us e d c opi ng ( P a r ke s 1990) B a t e m a n a nd C r a nt ( 1993) p r opos e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e w i l l us e p r o bl e m f oc us e d s t r a t e gi e s f or c opi ng w i t h s t r e s s f ul de m a nds I n a ddi t i on P a r ke r a nd S pr i gg ( 1999) s ugge s t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n a c t i ve c opi ng w hi c h i s t he a t t e m pt t o c om e t o g r i ps w i t h pr obl e m s a t w or k by c ogni t i ve l y a na l yz i ng t he s i t u a t i on a nd/ or by c onc r e t e a c t i on i n or de r t o s ol ve or ove r c om e t he p r obl e m ( p 927 ) P r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y a l t e r t he i r ow n w or k m e t hods p r oc e dur e s a nd t a s k a s s i gnm e nt s F ur t he r m or e pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s a l s o a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a pr oa c t i ve c opi ng s t r a t e gy, i n w hi c h pe opl e a nt i c i pa t e p r obl e m s be f or e ha nd a nd t a ke a c t i on t o p r e ve nt pr obl e m s f r o m oc c ur r i ng ( A s pi nw a l l & T a yl or 1997) C r a nt ( 2000 ) a s s e r t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e xe r t c ont r o l ove r t h e i r w or k s i t ua t i ons a nd t he r e f o r e unde r s t a nd c ont i nge nc i e s i n t he i r e nvi r onm e nt s a nd a nt i c i pa t e c ha nge s a s w e l l a s f ut ur e pr obl e m s T he ot he r w a y pr oa c t i ve pe opl e de a l w i t h s t r e s s or s i s t o ut i l i z e ot he r r e s our c e s not di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s t r e s s or s F or e xa m pl e p r oa c t i v e pe r s ona l i t y a f f e c t s pe r s ona l c ont r ol f e e l i ngs ( C r a nt 2000) B e l l a nd S t a w ( 1989 ) c l a i m t ha t pe r s ona l i t y, t hr ough t he p r oc e s s of pe r s ona l c ont r ol c a n ul t i m a t e l y a f f e c t out c om e s t ha t a ppe a r t o be de t e r m i ne d by e nvi r onm e nt a l f or c e s C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he or i e s of p e r s ona l c ont r ol m or e p r oa c t i ve pe opl e s houl d ha ve a gr e a t e r s e ns e of s e l f de t e r m i na t i on a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y i n t he i r w or k l i ve s ( S e i be r t a t a l 2001) T he p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a l s o pr e di c t s r ol e br e a dt h s e l f e f f i c a c y, w hi c h r e f e r s t o e m pl oye e s pe r c e i ve d c a pa bi l i t y o f c a r r yi ng ou t a b r oa de r a nd m or e

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24 pr oa c t i ve s e t of w o r k t a s ks t ha t e xt e nd be yond pr e s c r i be d t e c hni c a l r e qui r e m e nt s ( P a r ke r 1998) P e r c e i ve d c ont r ol a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y a s c or r e l a t e s of pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i nf l ue nc e a f f e c t i ve r e a c t i ons a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l w e l l be i ng of i ndi vi dua l s M or e ove r p r oa c t i ve pe opl e w i l l do m or e t o s e l e c t w or k e nvi r onm e nt s t ha t m a t c h t he i r voc a t i ona l ne e ds a nd va l ue s S t r ong s uppor t ha s be e n f ound f o r t he pos i t i ve e f f e c t s of pe r s on or ga ni z a t i on f i t o n w or k a t t i t ude s a nd a f f e c t i ve out c om e s ( K r i s t of 1996) T he c ur r e nt s t udy and H y pot he s e s T he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l f oc us on t he c onne c t i on of s t r e s s or s s t r a i ns a nd pe r s ona l i t y w i t h C W B a nd O C B T he r e a r e t w o m a j or a i m s of t he c ur r e nt s t udy F i r s t I w i l l l ook a t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a s pot e nt i a l m e di a t or s be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s ( or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y) a nd vol unt a r y w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s ( O C B a nd C W B ) S e c ondl y, I w i l l i nve s t i ga t e t he di r e c t e f f e c t a nd t he m ode r a t i ng r ol e of pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i n t he pr oc e s s a nd i n t he out c om e s T he pr opos e d m ode l i s pr e s e nt e d i n F i gur e 1. C onc e pt ual m ode l f or t he c ur r e nt s t udy

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25 S t r e s s or s s uc h a s c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y a r e c om m on i n t he w or kpl a c e O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s ha ve be e n r e l a t e d t o bot h O C B a nd C W B ( P e nne y & S pe c t or 2002) I nj us t i c e ha s be e n c ons i s t e nt l y r e l a t e d t o j ob di s s a t i s f a c t i on, e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, l ow l e ve l s of O C B a nd hi gh l e ve l s o f C W B ( S pe c t or & F ox, 2002; T e ppe r 2000) R ol e a m bi g ui t y ha s be e n r e l a t e d t o C W B w he r e a s t he r e i s l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h a bout i t s r e l a t i on t o O C B T he c ur r e nt s t udy a i m s a t c om bi ni ng f i ndi ngs f r om s e pa r a t e s t r e a m s of r e s e a r c h t o f i l l t he ga ps a nd de t e r m i ni ng t he c om m on a nt e c e de nt s of bot h vol unt a r y w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s T o pr ovi de a f ounda t i on of t he pr opos e d m ode l ( i e s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k) t he f i r s t s t e p i nv ol ve s a r e pl i c a t i ng f i n di ngs t ha t r e l a t e d s t r e s s or s t o va r i ous s t r a i ns A c c or di ngl y, t he e xpe r i e nc e of s t r e s s l e a ds t o j ob di s s a t i s f a c t i on, e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd ne ga t i ve be ha vi or a l out c om e s w he r e a s l ow l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s l e a ds t o pos i t i ve out c om e s H y pot he s i s 1a : P e r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s ( or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y) w i l l be ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B H y pot he s i s 1b : P e r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s ( or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y) w i l l be pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd C W B P e r c e i ve d S t r e s s or s C ons t r a i nt s I nj us t i c e R ol e a m bi gui t y J ob S a t i s f a c t i on E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on O u t c om e s C W B O C B P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y

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26 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on ha s be e n r e l a t e d t o va r i ous j ob s t r a i ns i nc l udi ng O C B a nd C W B ( F ox & S pe c t or 1999; L e P i ne E r e z & J ohns on, 20 02) H ow e ve r f e w s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t e d bot h be ha vi or s i n t he s a m e f r a m e w or k F u r t he r m or e t he r e i s l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on t he m e di a t i ng r ol e o f j ob s a t i s f a c t i on b e t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd vol unt a r y w or k be ha vi or s ; a l t hough t he r e i s s t r ong t he or e t i c a l s uppor t f o r s uc h a r ol e N ot onl y w i l l j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w i l l be r e l a t e d t o pos i t i ve be ha vi or s i t w i l l m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B H y pot he s i s 2 : H i gh l e ve l s o f j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w i l l b e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of O C B a nd l ow l e ve l s of C W B H y pot he s i s 3 : J ob s a t i s f a c t i on w i l l m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B T he c om pr e he ns i ve m ode l w i l l a l s o i nt e gr a t e e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a s a ne w m e c ha ni s m t ha t l i nks s t r e s s or s t o vol unt a r y w o r k b e ha vi or s T he r e i s s ubs t a nt i a l e vi de nc e t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on l e a ds t o l ow e r l e ve l s of O C B ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 2003) H ow e ve r t he r e i s no s t udy w hi c h s pe c i f i c a l l y l ook e d a t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd C W B I n a s t udy, C r opa nz a no, H ow e s G r a nde y, a nd T o t h ( 1997) r e l a t e d C W B t o hi gh l e ve l s of j ob t e ns i on, s om a t i c t e ns i on, f a t i gue a nd ove r a l l bur nout N ot onl y w i l l e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w i l l b e r e l a t e d t o ne ga t i ve be ha vi or s i t w i l l m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B H y pot he s i s 4 : H i gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w i l l be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of O C B a nd hi gh l e ve l s o f C W B H y pot he s i s 5 : E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w i l l m e di a t e t h e r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B

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27 W he n pe opl e be l i e ve t ha t t he y c a n c ha nge t he s our c e s of s t r e s s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt t he y w i l l pe r c e i ve f e w e r s t r e s s or s P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y r e f e r s t o a di s pos i t i on t o t a ke a c t i on t o i nf l ue nc e a nd c ha nge t he e nvi r onm e nt T he r e i s onl y one s t udy w hi c h i nv e s t i ga t e d how pr oa c t i ve pe opl e r e s pond t o s t r e s s or s P a r ke r a nd S p r i gg ( 1999) f ound t ha t w he n j ob de m a nds i nc r e a s e m or e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e e xpe r i e nc e d l ow e r l e ve l s of j ob s t r a i n t ha n l e s s pr oa c t i ve pe opl e T he r e i s no r e s e a r c h w hi c h e xa m i ne d how pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i nf l ue nc e s pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s w he n pe opl e de a l w i t h s t r e s s or s ot he r t ha n pr obl e m s w i t h pr oduc t i on. A c c or di ng t o t he s t r e s s m ode l by L a z a r us a nd F ol k m a n ( 1991) pe opl e m oni t or a nd a ppr a i s e t he e nvi r onm e nt T he r e f or e pe opl e p e r c e i ve t he obj e c t i v e e nvi r onm e nt di f f e r e nt l y de pe ndi ng on s i t ua t i ona l a nd pe r s ona l f a c t or s ( F ox e t a l 2002) S i nc e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e ha ve hi gh c ont r ol f e e l i ngs a nd t e n d t o c ha nge t he e nvi r onm e nt a c c or di ng t o t he i r ne e ds a nd goa l s ( C r a nt 2000 ) ; t he y m a y pe r c e i ve f e w e r s t r e s s or s t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s a r e a m ong t he c om m on s t r e s s or s i n t he w or kpl a c e P r oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e a s s um e d t o be unc ons t r a i ne d by s i t ua t i ona l f or c e s by de f i ni t i on ( C r a nt 2002 p 24) S e i be r t e t a l ( 2001) de s c r i be d a pr oa c t i ve i ndi vi dua l a s a pe r s on w ho c r e a t e s pos i t i ve c ha nge i n hi s o r he r e n vi r onm e nt i n s pi t e of or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s F or e xa m pl e w he n p r oa c t i ve pe opl e h a ve i ns uf f i c i e nt i nf o r m a t i on, t he y t a l k t o ot he r pe opl e a nd e nga ge i n i nf or m a t i on ga t he r i n g. A not he r s t r e s s or i n t he w or kpl a c e i s i nj us t i c e P r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y ha ve di f f e r e nt pe r c e pt i ons of or ga ni z a t i ona l j us t i c e t ha n ot he r s F i r s t p r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y s e l f s e l e c t t he m s e l ve s i nt o hi gh j us t i c e or ga ni z a t i ons S e c ond, pr oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge i n o r ga ni z a t i ona l i ni t i a t i ve s t ha t i nf l ue nc e or ga ni z a t i ona l pr oc e s s e s F or e xa m pl e t he y m a y j oi n c om m i t t e e s w hi c h s ha pe t he pol i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s r e ga r di ng f a i r ne s s I n t ha t w a y, t he y m a y pe r c e i ve t he p r oc e dur e s

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28 t o be f a i r ( p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ) T h i r d, B e l l a nd S t a w ( 1989) s ugge s t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y a f f e c t s upe r vi s or s pe r f or m a nc e r a t i ng s a s w e l l a s pr om ot i on a nd pa y de c i s i ons T he r e f or e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y pe r c e i v e hi ghe r f a i r ne s s i n how t he r e w a r ds a r e a l l oc a t e d ( di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ) R e ga r di ng r ol e s t r e s s or s pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r ol e c l a r i t y ( K a m m e ye r M ue l l e r e t a l 2003 ) T he r ol e m a ki ng pr oc e s s l e a ve s r oom f or pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve s t o c l a r i f y one s r ol e i n t he o r ga ni z a t i on. P r oa c t i ve pe opl e w i l l t a ke t he oppor t uni t i e s t o m i ni m i z e r ol e a m bi gui t y. R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e c a n be t t e r de a l w i t h r ol e a m bi gui t y ( C r a nt 2000) F o r e xa m pl e t he y e nga ge pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s s uc h a s i nf or m a t i on s e e ki ng a nd t r y t o l e a r n a bout t he r e qui r e m e nt s of t he i r j ob a nd r ol e s H y pot he s i s 6 : P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be ne ga t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y. T he r e i s a l a c k of r e s e a r c h on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd j ob s a t i s f a c t i on i n a s t r e s s c ont e xt A r e c e nt s t udy ( E r doga n & B a ue r 2005 ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w he n pe r s on or ga ni z a t i on f i t i s hi gh P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m or e c a r e e r s a t i s f a c t i on ( S e i be r t e t a l 2001) w hi c h i s hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. O ne o f t he m os t c ons i s t e nt f i ndi ngs i n s t r e s s l i t e r a t ur e i s t ha t s t r e s s or s de c r e a s e j ob s a t i s f a c t i on ( S onne nt a g & F r e s e 2003) H i ghl y pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o pa s s i ve l y a da pt t o t he s t r e s s or s but t he y s t r i ve t o c ha nge t he m t hus t he y a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e l ow e r l e ve l s of c e r t a i n s t r e s s or s F ur t he r m or e w he n t he y e xpe r i e nc e t he m t he y a r e l i ke l y t o r e s pond m or e c ons t r uc t i ve l y. P r oa c t i ve pe opl e a l s o s t r i ve t o i m pr ove t he i r l i ve s T he r e f or e t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i r j obs H y pot he s i s 7 : P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be pos i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on.

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29 A l t hough t he r e i s s t r ong e vi de nc e t ha t e a c h o f t he s t r e s s or s l e a ds t o e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, no s t udy l ooke d a t t he i n f l ue nc e of pr o a c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i n t hi s p r oc e s s E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on oc c ur s w he n pe opl e c a nnot de a l w i t h s t r e s s or s e f f e c t i ve l y a nd w he n r e s our c e s a r e i na de qua t e t o m e e t t he de m a nd s f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt T he l i t e r a t u r e s ugge s t s t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e us e a l l t ype s of c ons t r uc t i ve c opi n g s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s pr obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng a nd pr oa c t i ve c opi ng t o d e a l w i t h s t r e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e s ( C r a nt 2000) M or e ove r t he y ha ve a ddi t i ona l r e s our c e s t o c ount e r ba l a nc e t he e f f e c t s of s t r e s s s uc h a s i nc r e a s e d f e e l i ngs of c ont r ol a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y ( P a r ke r e t a l 1999; P a r ke r 1998) S i nc e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e ha ve be t t e r w a ys a nd m o r e r e s our c e s t o de a l w i t h t he s t r e s s or s t he y a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. H y pot he s i s 8 : P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be ne ga t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o e m ot i ona l e xh a us t i on. A l t hough r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o hi ghe r i n r ol e pe r f or m a nc e ( T hom ps on, 2005 ) l i t t l e i s know n a b out t he vol unt a r y w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s of pr oa c t i ve pe opl e C r a nt ( 2000) ur ge d r e s e a r c he r s t o s t udy pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s i n ne w c ont e xt s H e r e a s one d t ha t i t s e e m s l i ke l y t ha t pr o a c t i ve be ha vi or w oul d be r e l e va nt t o t he e xhi bi t i on a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of e s pe c i a l l y O C B ( p. 455) I n one s t udy, S e i be r t e t a l ( 2001) l ooke d a t s om e e xt r a r ol e be ha vi or s w hi c h a r e c ons i de r e d be yond j ob r e qui r e m e nt s T he y f ound e vi de nc e t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n m or e i nnova t i on a c t i vi t i e s but not voi c e be ha vi or P r oa c t i ve pe r s on a l i t y i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve w hi c h ha s be e n s how n t o be a n a nt e c e de nt of O C B ( A l l e n e t a l 2 004; C r a nt 2000) T he r e i s no r e s e a r c h, w hi c h l ooke d a t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd ne ga t i ve be ha vi or s s uc h a s C W B H ow e ve r s om e t he or e t i c a l a nd e m pi r i c a l w or k s ugge s t s a l i nk be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd C W B A r e c e nt s t udy

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30 b y D i e f e ndor f f ( 2005 ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t C W B w a s ne ga t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a c hi e ve m e nt m ot i va t i on, w hi c h ha s a l s o be e n r e l a t e d t o pr oa c t i v e pe r s ona l i t y pr e vi ous l y ( C r a nt e t a l 1993) S i nc e C W B c ont r i but e s t o pe r f or m a nc e a pp r a i s a l de c i s i ons by s upe r vi s or s ( R o t undo & S a c ke t t 2002) p r oa c t i ve e m pl oye e s w i l l m ot i va t e d t o e nga ge i n l e s s C W B F or bot h vol unt a r y be ha vi or s c ont r ol pe r c e pt i ons a r e i m por t a nt s uc h t ha t c ont r ol pe r c e pt i ons i nc r e a s e t he l i ke l i hood of pos i t i ve be h a vi or a nd r e duc e t he l i ke l i hood of ne ga t i ve be ha vi or s ( S pe c t or & F ox 2002 ) P r oa c t i ve pe opl e pe r c e i ve m or e pe r s ona l c ont r ol ( C r a nt 2000 ) A s a r e s ul t o f a l l t he s e pos i t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e l i ke l y t o e xpe r i e nc e m o r e j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd l e s s e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on t ha n l e s s pr oa c t i ve pe opl e T he r e f or e t he y a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B a nd l e s s l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n C W B H y pot he s i s 9 : P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be pos i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o O C B H y pot he s i s 10: P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l be ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B P r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y a c t di f f e r e nt l y i n t he f a c e o f ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s s uc h a s j ob di s s a t i s f a c t i on a nd bur nout W he n f a c e d w i t h j ob di s s a t i s f a c t i on/ bur nout pr oa c t i ve pe opl e w i l l be m o r e c ons t r uc t i ve a nd e nga ge i n c ons t r uc t i ve r a t he r t ha n de s t r uc t i ve a c t s T he y w i l l t a ke i ni t i a t i ve t o de a l w i t h t he i r ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s w he r e a s l e s s pr oa c t i ve pe opl e w i l l r e m a i n pa s s i ve i n s ol vi ng t he i r pr obl e m s a nd m a y be p r one t o e nga ge i n f e w e r c ons t r uc t i ve a c t a nd m or e de s t r uc t i ve a c t s H y pot he s i s 11a : P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B / C W B P r oa c t i ve pe opl e r e s pond t o j ob di s s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h m or e O C B a nd l e s s C W B t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e

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31 H y pot he s i s 11b: P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w i l l m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd O C B / C W B P r oa c t i ve p e opl e w i l l r e s pond t o e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w i t h m or e O C B a nd l e s s C W B t ha n no npr oa c t i ve pe opl e

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32 M e t hod P ar t i c i pant s O ne hundr e d s e ve nt y e i ght e m pl oye e s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy O ne hundr e d t w e nt y e i ght i ndi vi dua l s w e r e s uppor t e m pl oye e s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a nd he l d a va r i e t y o f j ob t i t l e s s uc h a s pr o gr a m a s s i s t a nt a c c ount a nt a nd l i br a r i a n. F i f t y i ndi vi dua l s w e r e e m pl oye d ps yc hol ogy s t ude nt s a nd r e c e i ve d e xt r a c r e di t f or t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on T he o ve r a l l s a m pl e c ons i s t e d of 146 ( 82 % ) f e m a l e s a nd 30 m a l e s ( 17% ) a ve r a ge a ge w a s 40 ( SD = 15. 73 ) a ve r a ge or ga ni z a t i ona l t e nur e w a s 9. 7 ( SD = 9. 1) ye a r s a nd a ve r a ge pos i t i on t e nur e w a s 6. 5 ( SD = 6. 8 ) ye a r s S e ve nt y s e ve n pe r c e nt ( n = 137) o f t he pa r t i c i pa n t s w e r e C a uc a s i a n/ W hi t e 8 4% ( n = 15) w e r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k, 7. 8% ( n = 14) w e r e H i s pa ni c a n d 5. 6% ( n = 10) w e r e f r om ot he r m i nor i t y g r oups E m pl oye e s w or ke d on a ve r a ge 37 25 hour s pe r w e e k ( SD = 8 6) ; 58 of t he m ( 33% ) he l d m a na ge r i a l j obs P a r t i c i p a t i on w a s vol unt a r y a nd a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nf or m e d t ha t r e c or ds w oul d be ke pt c on f i de nt i a l F ur t he r m or e 118 c ow or ke r s c om pl e t e d m a t c he d s ur ve ys on e m pl oye e s be ha vi or s r e s ul t i n g i n 100 pa i r s of r e por t s f or e m pl oye e s a nd 18 pa i r s f o r e m pl oye e d s t ude nt s M e as ur e s A t w o s our c e ( e m pl oye e a nd c ow or ke r ) s ur ve y de s i gn w a s us e d f or t he c ur r e nt s t udy. T he e m pl oye e s ur ve y i nc l ude d m e a s ur e s of j ob s t r e s s or s ( or ga ni z a t i ona l

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33 c ons t r a i nt s r ol e a m bi gui t y a nd i nj us t i c e ) j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd vo l unt a r y w or k be ha vi or s ( O C B a nd C W B ) T he c ow or ke r s ur ve y i nc l ude d m e a s ur e s of or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s O C B a nd C W B ( S e e A ppe ndi x A a nd B ) O r gani z at i onal C ons t r ai nt s T he O r ga ni z a t i ona l C ons t r a i nt s S c a l e ( O C S ) de ve l ope d by S pe c t or a nd J e x ( 1998) w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e c ondi t i ons a t w or k t ha t i nt e r f e r e w i t h t a s k pe r f o r m a nc e T he s c a l e c ons i s t s of 11 i t e m s ba s e d on t he c ons t r a i nt s i de nt i f i e d by P e t e r s a nd O C onnor ( 1980 ) R e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d how of t e n t he y f ound i t di f f i c ul t o r i m pos s i bl e t o do t he i r j ob be c a us e of e a c h c ons t r a i nt ( e g i ns uf f i c i e nt i nf or m a t i on) F i ve r e s pons e c hoi c e s r a nge f r om l e s s t ha n onc e pe r m ont h or ne ve r t o s e ve r a l t i m e s pe r da y. T he c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha f or t hi s s c a l e w a s 85. R ol e am bi gui t y R ol e a m bi gui t y w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng a 6 i t e m s c a l e by R i z z o, H ous e a nd L i r t z m a n ( 1970 ) P a r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d t he e xt e nt t ha t t he y a gr e e w i t h e a c h i t e m on a 7 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e ( 1= s t r ongl y di s a gr e e a nd 7= s t r ongl y a gr e e ) L ow e r s c or e s i ndi c a t e d r ol e a m bi gui t y A s a m pl e i t e m i s I know e xa c t l y w ha t i s e xpe c t e d of m e ( r e ve r s e c ode d) T he c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha f or t hi s s c a l e w a s 88. J us t i c e P e r c e pt i ons O r ga ni z a t i ona l j us t i c e w a s a s s e s s e d w i t h di s t r i but i ve a nd pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e s c a l e s r e por t e d i n M oor m a n ( 19 91) D i s t r i bu t i ve j us t i c e w a s m e a s ur e d b y t he D i s t r i but i ve J us t i c e I nde x, o r i gi na l l y de ve l o pe d by P r i c e a nd M ue l l e r ( 1986) P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d a 5 poi nt s c a l e t o r e por t t he i r pe r c e pt i ons of how f a i r l y t he y a r e r e w a r de d c ons i de r i ng va r i ous a s pe c t s of t he i r j ob F i ve r e s pons e c hoi c e s r a nge f r om 1 = ve r y unf a i r l y t o 5 = ve r y f a i r l y P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e w a s m e a s ur e d w i t h a 12 i t e m s c a l e by M oor m a n ( 1991 ) R e s pons e c hoi c e s r a nge f r om 1 = s t r ongl y di s a gr e e t o 5 = s t r ongl y a gr e e H i ghe r s c or e s r e pr e s e nt gr e a t e r p e r c e i ve d l e ve l s of j us t i c e T he r e l i a bi l i t i e s f or di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e a nd pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e w e r e 96 a nd 88 r e s pe c t i ve l y.

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34 J ob Sat i s f ac t i on. A t hr e e i t e m m e a s ur e f r om t he M i c hi ga n O r ga ni z a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt Q ue s t i onna i r e ( C a m m a n F i c h m a n J e nk i ns & K l e s h 19 7 9 ) w a s us e d t o a s s e s s j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. T he t hr e e i t e m s a s s e s s ove r a l l j ob s a t i s f a c t i on us i ng a 6 poi nt s c a l e H i ghe r s c or e s i ndi c a t e m or e j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. T he c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha f or t hi s s c a l e w a s 87. E m ot i onal e x haus t i on E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng M a s l a c h a nd J a c ks on s ( 1981) f r e que nc y of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i o n s c a l e T he s c a l e i s a 9 i t e m 6 poi n t i ns t r um e nt t ha t a s ks r e s ponde nt s t o e va l ua t e how o f t e n t he y f e e l e xha us t e d by t he i r w or k R e s pons e s r a nge f r om 6 ( e ve r y da y) t o 1 ( a f e w t i m e s a ye a r ) H i ghe r s c or e s i ndi c a t e m or e e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. A s a m pl e i t e m i s I f e e l e m ot i ona l l y dr a i ne d f r o m m y w or k T he c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha f or t hi s s c a l e w a s 92 P r oac t i v e P e r s onal i t y P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s a s s e s s e d w i t h t he 10 i t e m s hor t e ne d ve r s i on of B a t e m a n a nd C r a nt s ( 1993 ) 17 i t e m P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e ( P P S ) R e s pons e s a r e m a de on a s c a l e r a ngi ng f r o m 1 ( s t r ong l y di s a gr e e ) t o 7 ( s t r ongl y a gr e e ) H i ghe r s c or e s i ndi c a t e a pr oa c t i ve or i e nt a t i on. A s a m pl e i t e m i s N o m a t t e r w ha t t he odds i f I be l i e ve i n s om e t hi ng, I w i l l m a ke i t h a ppe n T he c oe f f i c i e nt a l pha f or t hi s s c a l e w a s 91 O r gani z at i onal C i t i z e ns hi p B e hav i or O C B w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng L e e a nd A l l e n s ( 2002) s c a l e T o a voi d a ny ove r l a p w i t h C W B i t e m s L e e a nd A l l e n ( 2002 ) us e d a poo l c r e a t e d by pr e vi ous s c a l e s t o s e l e c t t he i t e m s w hi c h a r e c l e a r l y be ne f i c i a l t o t he i ndi vi dua l s a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on T he 16 i t e m s r e pr e s e nt t w o f a c e t s t ha t m e a s ur e O C B di r e c t e d a t i ndi vi dua l s o r a t t he or ga ni z a t i on A s a m pl e i t e m f or i nd i vi dua l di r e c t e d O C B ( O C B I ) i s H e l ps ot he r s w ho ha ve be e n a bs e nt A s a m pl e i t e m f o r or ga ni z a t i on di r e c t e d O C B ( O C B O ) i s O f f e r i de a s t o i m pr ove t he f unc t i oni ng of t he o r ga ni z a t i on

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35 P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t t he e xt e nt t ha t t he y a g r e e w i t h e a c h i t e m on a 7 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e ( 1= s t r ongl y di s a gr e e a nd 7= s t r on gl y a gr e e ) H i ghe r s c or e s r e f l e c t hi ghe r l e ve l s of O C B T he r e l i a bi l i t i e s f or O C B I a nd O C B O w e r e 89 a nd 91 r e s pe c t i ve l y. C ount e r pr oduc t i v e W or k B e hav i or C W B w a s a s s e s s e d us i ng a be ha vi or a l c he c kl i s t ( C W B C ) of 33 i t e m s de ve l ope d by S pe c t or F ox, P e nn e y, B r uur s e m a G oh a nd K e s s l e r ( 2006) T he s c a l e ha s f i ve di m e ns i ons a nd a l l ow s a f i ne r g r a i ne d a na l ys i s of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n C W B a nd i t s a nt e c e de nt s S a bot a ge r e f e r s t o de f a c i ng or de s t r oyi ng phys i c a l pr ope r t y be l ongi ng t o t he e m pl oye r ( e g I pur pos e l y w a s t e d your e m pl oye r s m a t e r i a l s / s uppl i e s ) A bus e i nc l ude s ha r m f ul be ha v i or s di r e c t e d t ow a r ds i ndi v i dua l s t ha t ha r m e i t he r phys i c a l l y or ps yc hol ogi c a l l y ( e g. I s t a r t e d a n a r gum e nt w i t h s om e one a t w or k) P r oduc t i on de vi a nc e i nvol ve s de l i be r a t e f a i l ur e t o pe r f or m j ob t a s ks e f f e c t i ve l y ( e g. I pur pos e l y w o r ke d s l ow l y w he n t h i ngs ne e de d t o ge t done ) T he f t r e f e r s t o s t e a l i ng f r om t he e m pl oye r ( e g I t ook m one y f r om m y e m pl oye r w i t hout pe r m i s s i on) W i t hdr a w a l c ons i s t s of be ha vi or s t ha t r e s t r i c t t he a m ount of t i m e w or k i ng l e s s t ha n i s r e qui r e d by t he or ga ni z a t i on ( e g I c a m e t o w or k l a t e w i t hout pe r m i s s i on) I n l i ne w i t h R obi ns on a nd B e nne t t s ( 1995) t ypo l ogy of or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd i nt e r pe r s ona l C W B s C W B a bus e t a r ge t s t he i ndi vi dua l s w i t hi n t he o r g a ni z a t i on ( C W B I ) a nd t he c om bi na t i on of C W B s a bot a ge C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e C W B t he f t a nd C W B w i t hdr a w a l a s s e s s e s C W B t ha t t a r ge t s t he or ga ni z a t i on ( C W B O ) T he r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t he f r e que nc y w i t h w hi c h t he y e nga ge i n s pe c i f i c be ha vi or s on a 5 poi nt s c a l e ( 1= ne ve r 5= e ve r y da y) H i gh s c or e s i ndi c a t e hi gh i nc i de nc e of C W B P r oc e dur e P a r t i c i pa nt s c ons i s t e d of uni ve r s i t y e m pl oye e s a nd ps yc hol ogy s t ude nt s T he uni ve r s i t y e m pl oye e s w e r e c ont a c t e d by phone a nd a s ke d w he t he r t he y w e r e w i l l i ng t o

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36 pa r t i c i pa t e i n a s t udy on w or kp l a c e e xpe r i e nc e s O nc e t he y a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e ( N = 282 98% of t he e m pl oye e s w ho w e r e c ont a c t e d) t he y w e r e s e nt a pa c ka ge c ont a i ni ng t w o que s t i onna i r e s a T ha nk you not e a nd a bookm a r k vi a c a m pus m a i l T he e m pl oye e que s t i onna i r e w a s f i l l e d out by t he e m p l oye e w ho a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. T he n, t he e m pl oye e c hos e one of hi s / he r c ow or ke r s w ho c oul d r e por t on t he pa r t i c i pa nt s be ha vi or a nd ga ve hi m / he r t he c ow o r ke r que s t i onn a i r e T he que s t i onna i r e s w e r e r e t u r ne d s e pa r a t e l y t o t he r e s e a r c he r vi a c a m pus m a i l T he r e s pons e w a s 45% f o r e m pl oye e s ( N = 128) a nd 35 % f o r c ow or ke r s ( N = 100) E m pl oy e e d s t ude nt s w ho w e r e c ur r e nt l y w or ki ng a t l e a s t 20 hour s a w e e k w e r e qua l i f i e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy a nd t ook t he s ur ve y a t a l l ot t e d t i m e s i n t he r e s e a r c he r s of f i c e f or e xt r a c r e di t T he e m pl oye d s t ude nt s f i l l e d out t he e m pl oye e que s t i onna i r e a t s c hool a nd w e r e a s ke d t o gi ve a c ow or ke r que s t i onna i r e t o one of t he i r c ow or ke r s T he n, c ow or ke r m a i l e d t he que s t i onna i r e t o t he r e s e a r c he r i n a pr e pa i d e nve l ope F i f t y e m pl oye e d s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d t he e m pl oye e s ur ve y a nd r e c e i ve d e xt r a c r e di t G i vi ng t he c ow or ke r s ur ve y w a s vol unt a r y a nd 18 c ow or ke r s ur ve ys w e r e r e t u r ne d c or r e s pondi ng t o a r e s pons e r a t e of 36 % T o m a t c h t he e m pl oye e a nd c ow or k e r que s t i onna i r e s pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o c r e a t e a 6 di gi t s e c r e t c ode a nd put t he s a m e c ode a t t he t op of t he i r s ur v e y a nd a t t he t op of t he c ow or ke r s s ur ve y. O nl y t he pa r t i c i pa nt a nd c ow or ke r kne w t h e i ndi vi dua l s c ode

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37 R e s ul t s T o ga i n i ns i g ht s i n t o t he a nt e c e de nt s a nd pr oc e s s e s r e l a t e d t o bot h O C B a nd C W B s ubs c a l e s c or e s f or be ha vi or s di r e c t e d a t i nd i vi dua l s ( O C B I a nd C W B P ) a nd be ha vi or s di r e c t e d a t t he or ga ni z a t i on ( O C B O a nd C W B O ) I n a ddi t i on I r e por t e d t he 5 di m e ns i ons of C W B T o c om pa r e t w o s a m pl e s of pa r t i c i pa nt s ( i e e m pl oye e s a nd e m pl oye d s t ude nt s ) one w a y A N O V A s w e r e r un f o r t he m a i n s t udy va r i a bl e s I ns t e a d of s e pa r a t e di m e ns i ons of O C B a nd C W B ge ne r a l s c or e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d f or bot h pe r f o r m a nc e va r i a bl e s a s a dvi s e d by D a l a l ( 2 005) A s s how n i n T a bl e 1 s i g ni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound f or c ons t r a i nt s ( F ( 1 177 ) = 7. 37 p < 01) p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( F ( 1 177 ) = 10. 38 p < 01) di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( F ( 1 177 ) = 13. 22 p < 01) j ob s a t i s f a c t i on ( F ( 1, 177) = 4 24, p < 05) C W B ( F ( 1, 177) = 4. 12 p < 05 ) s pe c i f i c a l l y C W B O ( F ( 1, 177) = 5 98, p < 05 ) a nd C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e ( F ( 1, 177) = 15. 01 p < 01) T he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he g r oups f or r ol e a m bi gui t y, e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y, O C B O C B I O C B O a nd C W B I T h e uni ve r s i t y e m pl oye e s ha d m or e or ga ni z a t i ona l t e nur e t ha n s t ude nt s A l m os t a l l of uni ve r s i t y e m pl oye e s he l d f ul l t i m e j obs w he r e a s s t ude nt s ha d us ua l l y pa r t t i m e j obs S i nc e t he s t udy i nt e nds t o i nc l ude i ndi vi dua l s w i t h a w i de r a nge of di f f e r e nt w o r k e x pe r i e nc e s s o t he s a m pl e s w e r e c om bi ne d f or f ur t he r a na l ys i s

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38 T abl e 1. O ne w ay A N O V A s f or e x am i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s i n 2 s am pl e s F ( 1, 177) R 2 E m pl oye e s M ( S D ) S t ude nt s M ( S D ) C ons t r a i nt s 7. 37** 04 2. 21 ( 06) 1. 90 ( 10) R ol e a m bi gui t y 2. 30 01 4. 66 ( 08) 4. 29 ( 13) P r oc e dur a l J us t i c e 10. 38** 06 4. 80 ( 13) 5. 57 ( 20) D i s t r i but i ve J us t i c e 13. 22** 07 2. 95 ( 10) 3. 64 ( 16) J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 4. 24* 02 4. 89 ( 11) 4. 46 ( 18) E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 0. 43 00 2. 37 ( 11) 2. 50 ( 18) P r o a c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 1. 74 01 5. 16 ( 09) 5. 36 ( 13) O C B t ot a l 0. 31 00 5. 00 ( 10) 4. 90 ( 15) C W B t ot a l 4. 12* 02 1. 18 ( 19) 1. 25 ( 24) O C B I n d i v i d u a l 12 00 5. 10 ( 1. 19 ) 5. 17 ( 1 12) O C B O rg an i zat i o n a l 1. 57 01 4. 90 ( 1 28) 4. 63 ( 1 37) C W B P 1. 74 01 1. 1 6 ( 21) 1. 21 ( 26) C W B O rg an i zat i o n al 5. 98* 03 1. 21 ( 22) 1. 31 ( 27) C W B S ab o t ag e 1. 90 01 1. 10 ( 25) 1. 16 ( 30) C W B P ro d u ct i o n d ev i an ce 15. 01** 08 1. 10 ( 22) 1. 29 ( 45) C W B T h eft 1. 60 01 1. 07 ( 17) 1. 11 ( 18) C W B W i t h d ra w al 1. 96 01 1. 57 ( 47) 1. 6 9 ( 57) * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) A na l ys e s w e r e r un t o c om pa r e t he c ow or ke r r e por t s of O C B a nd C W B W he r e a s s e l f r e por t da t a c a m e f r om 178 pa r t i c i pa nt s onl y 1 18 c ow or ke r r e por t s w e r e obt a i ne d t o i nc l ude i n t he a na l ys i s A s s how n i n T a bl e 2, t he r e w a s c onve r ge nc e f or O C B O a nd O C B

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39 ove r a l l A l t hough t he s e l f r e por t s a nd c ow or ke r r e por t s of C W B s e e m t o l a c k c onve r ge nc e a na l ys e s us i ng onl y e m pl oye e da t a i n di c a t e d t he r e w a s c onve r ge nc e f or C W B I a nd C W B ove r a l l A s s how n i n T a bl e 3 e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s r e l a t e d t o O C B ge ne r a l C W B ge ne r a l O C B or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd C W B pe r s ona l I n a ddi t i on r ol e a m bi gui t y, p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e a nd j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s r e l a t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y t o O C B or ga ni z a t i ona l r e por t e d by t h e c ow or ke r S i nc e t he s a m pl e s i z e f o r c ow or ke r da t a ( N = 118) w a s s m a l l s e l f r e por t da t a w a s us e d f or m e di a t i on a nd m ode r a t i on a na l ys e s O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s r e por t e d by t he c ow or ke r w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of O C B O C B I O C B O a nd w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, C W B C W B P C W B O C W B pr odu c t i on de vi a nc e C W B t he f t a nd C W B w i t hdr a w a l r e por t e d by t he c ow o r ke r T abl e 2. C or r e l at i ons be t w e e n s e l f r e po r t s and c ow or k e r r e por t s of C or r e s pondi ng O C B and C W B M e as ur e s O C B r C W B r O C B ove r a l l C W B ove r a l l O C B S e l f O C B C ow or ke r 26** C W B S e l f C W B C ow or ke r 17 I nt e r pe r s ona l O C B I n d i v i d u a l S O C B I n d i v i d u a l C 17 P e r s ona l C W B P e r s o n a l S C W B P e r s o n a l C 17 O r ga ni z a t i ona l O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C 38** O r ga ni z a t i ona l C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C 05 S a bot a ge C W B S a b o t a g e S C W B S a b o t a g e C 05 C ons t r a i nt s S e l f C ons t r a i nt s C ow or ke r 43** A bus e C W B A b u s e S C W B A b u s e C 17 P r oduc t i on de vi a nc e C W B P r o d u c t i o n d e v i a n c e S C W B P r o d u c t i o n d e v i a n c e C 02 T he f t C W B T h e f t S e l f C W B T h e f t C 05 W i t hdr a w a l C W B W i t h d r a w a l S C W B W i t h d r a w a l C 11 S: S el f rep o rt C: Co w o rk er * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) N = 1 1 5 1 2 1

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40 T abl e 3. M e a ns St andar d D e v i at i ons and I nt e r c or r e l at i ons ( C ow or k e r r e po r t ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. C ons t r a i nt s 2. C ons t r a i nt s ( c ow or ke r ) 43** 3. R ol e a m bi gui t y 42** 06 4. P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 47** 21* 48 5. D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 52** 16 23 56** 6. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 38** 14 28** 44** 37** 7. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 52** 30** 22** 37** 49** 55** 8. P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 08 05 22** 32** 28** 13 06 9. O C B I n d i v i d u a l 08 20* 12 04 01 05 12 16 10. O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 13 23* 23** 30** 27** 24** 30** 17 59** 11. C W B P e r s o n a l 03 22* 10 03 04 03 21* 13 52** 41** 12. C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 02 3 1 ** 16 00 02 01 14 11 51** 35** 13. O C B t ot a l 07 23* 13 00 01 16 23** 18 93** 93** 14. C W B t ot a l 02 34** 16 04 08 02 25** 12 49** 43** 15. C W B S a b o t a g e 14 04 07 12 16 07 05 00 44** 18* 16. C W B A b u s e 03 22 10 03 04 03 21* 13 52** 41** 1 7 C W B P r o d u c t i o n D e v i a n c e 02 26** 10 06 01 03 18 09 48** 34** 1 8 C W B T h e f t 04 22* 08 05 03 09 04 06 41** 16 1 9 C W B W i t h d r a w a l 02 25** 18 04 04 04 13 13 53** 40** 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. C ons t r a i nt s 2. C ons t r a i nt s ( c ow or ke r ) 3. R ol e a m bi gui t y 4. P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 5. D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 6. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 7. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 8. P r oa c t i ve P e r s on a l i t y 9. O C B I n d i v i d u a l 10. O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 11. C W B P e r s o n a l 12. C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 80** 13. O C B t ot a l 49** 46** 14. C W B t ot a l 96** 93** 49** 15. C W B S a b o t a g e 70** 82** 33** 79** 16. C W B A b u s e 80** 49** 96** 70** 1 7 C W B P r o d u c t i o n D e v i a n c e 77** 86** 44** 90** 34** 77** 1 8 C W B T h e f t 82** 85** 30** 85** 62** 82** 68** 1 9 C W B W i t h d r a w a l 64** 92** 50** 80** 69** 64** 68** 65** * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) N = 1 1 5 1 1 8

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41 M e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd c or r e l a t i ons a r e s how n i n T a bl e 4, T a bl e 5 a nd T a bl e 6 f or t he s t udy va r i a bl e s H ypot he s i s 1a s t a t e d pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s ( or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y) w oul d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s ( r = 38 p < 01) r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 28, p < 01) p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 44 p < 01) a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( r = 37, p < 01 ) w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. O C B O w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 23 p < 01) pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 30, p < 01 ) a nd d i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( r = 27 p < 01) T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c ons t r a i nt s a nd O C B O w a s n ot s i gni f i c a nt ( r = 13 ns ) O C B I w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o a ny s t r e s s or s : c ons t r a i nt s ( r = 08, ns ) r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 12 ns ) pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 12, ns ) a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( r = 08, ns ) T he r e f o r e H ypot he s i s 1a w a s pa r t i a l l y s uppor t e d. I ndi vi dua l s w ho pe r c e i ve d hi gh l e ve l s of r ol e a m bi gui t y a nd i nj us t i c e r e por t e d l ow l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B O T abl e 4. D e s c r i pt i v e s t at i s t i c s f or m ai n s t udy v ar i a bl e s N M e a n S t a nda r d D e vi a t i on R a nge M i ni m um M a xi m um C ons t r a i nt s 177 2 11 70 3. 27 1. 00 4. 27 R ol e a m bi gui t y 177 4. 72 93 4. 67 1. 17 5. 83 P r oc e dur a l J us t i c e 176 5. 02 1. 49 6. 00 1. 00 7. 00 D i s t r i but i ve J us t i c e 177 3. 15 1. 19 4. 00 1. 00 5. 00 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 176 5. 22 96 4. 60 2. 40 7. 00 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 175 2. 41 1. 26 4. 78 1. 00 5. 78 P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 176 4. 76 1. 27 5. 00 1. 00 6. 00 O C B t ot a l 177 4. 97 1. 10 4. 44 2. 56 7. 00

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42 C W B t ot a l 178 1. 20 21 1. 09 1. 00 2. 09 O C B I n d i v i d u a l 177 5 2 7 5. 12 1. 17 O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 177 5. 5 1. 5 7 4. 82 1. 31 C W B P e r s o n a l 178 1. 11 1 2. 11 1. 17 0. 22 C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 178 1. 53 1 2. 53 1. 24 0. 24 T abl e 5. M e ans St andar d D e v i at i ons and I nt e r c o r r e l at i ons ( Se l f r e por t C W B ge ne r al ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. C ons t r a i nt s 2. R ol e a m bi gui t y 42** 3. P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 47** 48 4. D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 52** 23 56** 5. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 38** 28 ** 44 ** 37 ** 6. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 52** 22** 37** 49** 55** 7. P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 08 22 ** 32 * 28** 13 06 8. O C B I n d i v i d u a l 08 12 042 0 1 15* 036 38** 9. O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 13 23** 30** 27** 48** 28** 43** 10. C W B P e r s o n a l 29** 20** 22** 05 21** 22** 07 11. C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 23** 17* 16* 10 33** 26** 13 12. O C B t ot a l 03 20** 20** 17* 36** 15 46** 13. C W B t ot a l 29** 20** 21** 08 29 23** 11 M e a n 2. 11 4. 72 5. 02 3. 15 5. 22 2. 40 4. 76 S t a nda r d de vi a t i on 70 92 1 4 8 1 19 96 1. 26 1. 27 8 9 10 11 12 13 1. C ons t r a i nt s 2. R ol e a m bi gui t y 3. P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 4. D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 5. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 6. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 7. P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 8. O C B I n d i v i d u a l 9. O C B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 59** 10. C W B P e r s o n a l 03 11 11. C W B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 12 24* 65** 12. O C B t ot a l 88** 90** 08 20** 13. C W B t ot a l 08 19* 92** 90** 15* M e a n 5. 11 4. 82 1. 17 1. 24 4. 97 1. 20 S t a nda r d de vi a t i on 1. 17 1. 31 22 24 1. 10 21 * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) N = 1 7 5 1 7 8

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43 T abl e 6. M e ans St andar d D e v i at i ons and I nt e r c or r e l at i ons ( Se l f r e por t C W B di m e ns i ons ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. C ons t r a i nt s 2. R ol e a m bi gui t y 42** 3. P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 47** 48 4. D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 52** 23 56** 5. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 38** 28 ** 44 ** 37 ** 6. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 52** 22** 37** 49** 55** 7. P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 08 22 ** 32 * 28** 13 06 8. C W B S a b o t a g e 11 00 07 02 17* 11 9. C W B A b u s e 29** 20** 22** 05 21** 22** 1 0 C W B P r o d u c t i o n d e v i a n c e 08 04 03 00 24** 21** 11. C W B T h e f t 18* 06 11 02 12 10 12. C W B W i t h d r a w a l 24* 25** 19* 15* 34** 27** 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. C ons t r a i nt s 2. R ol e a m bi gui t y 3. P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 4. D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 5. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 6. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 7. P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y 8. C W B S a b o t a g e 00 9. C W B A b u s e 07 47** 1 0 C W B P r o d u c t i o n d e v i a n c e 02 41** 53** 11. C W B T h e f t 09 59** 48** 48** 12. C W B W i t h d r a w a l 21** 37** 51** 36** 44** * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) N = 1 7 5 1 7 8 H ypot he s i s 1b s t a t e d pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s ( or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s i nj us t i c e a nd r ol e a m bi gui t y ) w oul d be a s s oc i a t e d hi gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd C W B T hi s hypot he s i s w a s pa r t i a l l y s uppor t e d. E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o a l l s t r e s s or s i nc l udi ng o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s ( r = 52, p < 01 ) r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 22, p < 01) p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 37, p < 01) a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( r = 49, p < 01) B ot h C W B P a nd C W B O w a s r e l a t e d t o c on s t r a i nt s ( r = 29 p < 01; r = 23 p < 01) r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 20, p < 01; r = 17, p < 05) a nd p r oc e dur a l j u s t i c e ( r = 16 p <

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44 05) C W B w i t hdr a w a l w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o c ons t r a i nt s ( r = 24, p < 01) r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 25, p < 01 ) p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 19, p < 05 ) a nd d i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ( r = 15 p < 05) C W B t he f t w a s onl y r e l a t e d t o c o ns t r a i nt s ( r = 18 p < 01) w he r e a s C W B a bus e w a s r e l a t e d t o c ons t r a i nt s ( r = 29 p < 01) r ol e a m bi gui t y ( r = 20 p < 01) a nd pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 21, p < 01) N one of t he s t r e s s or s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o C W B s a bot a ge or C W B pr oduc t i on d e vi a nc e I ndi vi dua l s w ho pe r c e i ve d hi gh l e ve l s of c ons t r a i nt s r ol e a m bi gui t y a nd i nj us t i c e r e por t e d hi gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd C W B P a nd C W B O H ypot he s i s 2 s ugge s t e d t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w oul d be pos i t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h O C B a nd ne ga t i v e l y C W B J ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o bo t h O C B I ( r = 15, p < 05 ) a nd O C B O ( r = 48, p < 01 ) J ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o bot h C W B P ( r = 21, p < 01) a nd O C B O ( r = 33, p < 01) T he r e f or e t hi s hypo t he s i s w a s s uppor t e d. F ur t he r a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y a nd ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B s a bot a ge ( r = 17, p < 01) C W B a bus e ( r = 21, p < 01 ) C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e ( r = 24, p < 01) C W B w i t hdr a w a l ( r = 34 p < 01 ) but not C W B t he f t ( r = 13 ns ) I ndi vi dua l s w ho a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i r j obs r e po r t e d hi gh l e ve l s of O C B a nd ge ne r a l l y l ow l e ve l s of C W B H ypot he s i s 4 s ugge s t e d t ha t hi gh l e ve l s of e m ot i o na l e xha us t i on w oul d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of O C B a nd hi gh l e ve l s of C W B E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o C W B P ( r = 22 p < 01) C W B O ( r = 26, p < 01 ) a nd O C B O ( r = 28 p < 01) but not t o O C B I ( r = 04, ns ) T he r e f or e t hi s hypot he s i s w a s pa r t i a l l y s uppor t e d. A m ong t he di m e ns i ons of C W B e m o t i o na l e xha us t i on w a s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B a bus e ( r = 22, p < 01 ) C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e ( r = 21, p < 01) C W B w i t hdr a w a l ( r = 27, p < 01 ) C W B s a bot a ge a nd C W B t he f t w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y

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45 r e l a t e d t o e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on ( r = 11, ns ; r = 1 0, n s r e s pe c t i ve l y) I ndi vi dua l s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on r e por t e d h i gh l e ve l s of O C B O a nd l ow l e ve l s of C W B P a nd C W B O M e di a t i on a na l ys e s w e r e r un t o t e s t H ypot he s i s 3 a nd 5 f ol l ow i ng t he pr oc e dur e r e c om m e nde d by B a r on a nd K e nny ( 1986) G e ne r a l s c or e s f or O C B a nd C W B w e r e c om put e d by c om bi ni ng t he s ubs c a l e s s c or e s T he pr oc e dur e e nt a i l e d i nve s t i ga t i ng t h r e e r e gr e s s i on m ode l s t he O C B / C W B on t he s t r e s s or t he pr opos e d m e di a t or ( j ob s a t i s f a c t i on/ e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on) on t he s t r e s s or a nd t he O C B / C W B on t he s t r e s s or a nd j ob s a t i s f a c t i on/ e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on t oge t he r T he r e i s e vi de nc e f or m e di a t i on, w he n t he be t a of t he s t r e s s or s i s s i gni f i c a nt i n t he f i r s t m ode l but nons i gni f i c a nt or s ubs t a nt i a l l y r e duc e d i n t he c om bi ne d m ode l F ur t he r m or e t h e S obe l t e s t ( 1982) w a s c a l c ul a t e d t o c he c k w he t he r t he de c r e a s e i n be t a w a s s i gni f i c a nt I f t he be t a of s t r e s s or i s nons i gni f i c a nt f ul l m e di a t i on i s c onc l ude d, be c a us e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or a nd s t r a i n di s a ppe a r s w he n t he e f f e c t o f t he m e di a t o r i s t a ke n out I f t he be t a of t he s t r e s s or i s s t i l l s i gni f i c a nt bu t s i gni f i c a nt l y r e duc e d ( i e S ob e l s z va l ue i s s i gni f i c a nt ) pa r t i a l m e di a t i on i s c onc l ude d, be c a us e s t r e s s or s s t i l l ha s a di r e c t e f f e c t on t he s t r a i n. H ypot he s i s 3 s t a t e d t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w oul d m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B A s s how n i n T a bl e s 7 a n d 8, t hi s hypot he s i s w a s pa r t i a l l y s uppor t e d. J ob s a t i s f a c t i on f ul l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s ( r ol e a m bi gui t y, p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e ) a nd O C B ove r a l l / O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on f ul l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s ( r ol e a m bi gui t y a nd pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ) a nd C W B / C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l w he r e a s i t pa r t i a l l y m e di a t e s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c ons t r a i nt s a nd C W B / C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l H ypot he s i s 5 s t a t e d t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w ou l d m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons be t w e e n

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46 s t r e s s or s a nd O C B / C W B T hi s hypot he s i s w a s not s uppor t e d, w he n t he ge ne r a l O C B / C W B s c or e s w e r e c ons i de r e d. A l t hough t he r e w a s a de c r e a s e i n be t a f or r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n r ol e a m bi gui t y C W B pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e C W B a nd c ons t r a i nt s C W B S obe l s z va l ue w a s not s i gni f i c a nt s o t he r e w a s no e vi de nc e t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd C W B ge ne r a l H ow e ve r a s s how n i n T a bl e 10 e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on f ul l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s ( i e r ol e a m bi gu i t y a nd p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ) a nd C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l I t pa r t i a l l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r o l e a m bi gui t y a nd C W B P e r s ona l F ur t he r m or e a s s how n i n T a bl e 9 e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on pa r t i a l l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s ( i e r ol e a m bi gu i t y a nd p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e ) a nd O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l T abl e 7. A nal y s i s of m e di at i ng r ol e of j ob s at i s f ac t i on ( St r e s s or s O C B O C B O ) O C B S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 20** 11 14** 14. 52** 2. 95** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 34** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 20** 04 14** 13. 93** 3. 6** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 35** D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 15* 03 13** 13. 19** 3. 4** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 35** O C B O S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 23** 11 24** 27. 00** 3. 31** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 45** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 30** 10 24** 27. 20** 4. 35** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 43**

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47 D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 27** 11 24** 26. 76** 3. 99** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 44** * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) T abl e 8. A nal y s i s of m e di at i ng r ol e of j ob s at i s f ac t i on ( St r e s s or s C W B C W B O C W B P ) C W B S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 20** 14 10** 9. 87** 2. 56* F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 25** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 21** 11 92** 8. 65** 2. 77** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 24** C on s t r a i nt s 29*** 24** 13** 13** 2. 33* P a r t i a l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 20** C W B O S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 17* 10 11** 11. 08** 2. 75** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 30** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 16** 02 11** 10. 39** 3. 39** F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 32** C ons t r a i nt s 23** 15** 13** 12. 83** 2. 95** P a r t i a l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 27** C W B P S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 20** 16* 07** 6. 18** 1. 93 N one J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 25** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 22** 16* 06** 5. 67** 1. 59 N one J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 24** C ons t r a i nt s 29*** 27** 10** 99** 4. 41** P a r t i a l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 10 * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed )

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48 H ypot he s i s 6 s t a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w ou l d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o r o l e a m bi gui t y ( r = 22 p < 01) pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e ( r = 32, p < 01 ) a nd di s t r i bu t i ve j us t i c e ( r = 28 p < 01) but no t c ons t r a i nt s ( r = 08, ns ) T he r e f o r e h ypot he s i s w a s pa r t i a l l y s uppor t e d. H ypot he s i s 7 s t a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w ou l d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. T hi s hypot he s i s w a s not s uppor t e d ( r = 13, ns ) H ypot he s i s 8 s t a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w oul d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l o w l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. T hi s hypot he s i s w a s not s uppor t e d ( r = 06, ns ) H ypot he s i s 9 s t a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w ou l d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of O C B T h i s hypot he s i s w a s s uppor t e d. P r o a c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o bot h O C B I ( r = 38 p < 01) a nd O C B O ( r = 43, p < 01) P r oa c t i ve pe opl e r e por t e d hi ghe r l e ve l of O C B T abl e 9. A nal y s i s of m e di at i ng r ol e of e m ot i ona l e x haus t i on ( St r e s s or s O C B O ) S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 23** 17* 10** 9. 77** 2. 19* P a r t i a l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 24** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 30** 21** 12** 11. 39** 2. 33* P a r t i a l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 20** D i s t r i but i ve j us t i c e 27** 21** 24** 55. 27** 1. 69 N one J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 15 * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) H ypot he s i s 10 s t a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w o ul d be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow l e ve l s of C W B P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o C W B P ( r = 07, ns ) or C W B O ( r = 13, ns ) T he r e f o r e t hi s hypot he s i s w a s not s uppor t e d. F ur t he r

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49 a na l ys i s ha s s how n t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s ne ga t i ve l y a nd s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o onl y C W B w i t hdr a w a l ( r = 21 p < 01) T he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd C W B ( C W B s a bot a ge C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e a nd C W B t he f t ) w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt ( r = 00 n ; r = 02, ns ; r = 09 ns r e s pe c t i ve l y) P r oa c t i ve pe opl e r e por t e d l ow e r l e ve l of C W B w i t hdr a w a l T abl e 10. A nal y s i s of m e di at i ng r ol e of j ob s at i s f ac t i on ( St r e s s or s C W B O C W B P ) C W B O S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 17* 11 08** 7. 30** 2. 17* F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 24** P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 22** 07 08** 6. 36** 2. 56* F ul l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 23** C ons t r a i nt s 23** 13 07** 6. 71** 1. 94 N one J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 18* C W B P S t e p 1 S t e p 2 R 2 c ha nge F S obe l z T ype B e t a B e t a R ol e a m bi gui t y 20** 15* 07** 6. 68** 1. 97* P a r t i a l J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 19* P r oc e dur a l j us t i c e 22** 16* 07** 5. 99** 1. 75 N one J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 15* C ons t r a i nt s 29** 24** 09** 8. 05** 0. 99 N one J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 09 * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) H ypot he s e s 11a a nd 11b i nvol ve d m ode r a t i on a nd w a s t e s t e d t hr ough m ode r a t e d m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on. T he pr oc e dur e e nt a i l s l ook i ng a t t he i n t e r a c t i on t e r m w he n p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y ( m ode r a t or ) a nd j ob s a t i s f a c t i on/ e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on ( pr e di c t or s ) a r e i nc l ude d i n t he r e gr e s s i on e qua t i on f or O C B / C W B I f t he i nt e r a c t i on t e r m i s s i gni f i c a nt

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50 t he r e s ul t s w i l l be c ons i s t e nt w i t h m ode r a t i on. H yp ot he s i s 11a s ugge s t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w oul d m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B / C W B T hi s hypot he s i s w a s not s uppor t e d. A s s how n i n T a bl e 11, t he i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d no t m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B A s s how n i n T a bl e 12, pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d not m ode r a t e t h e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd C W B H ow e ve r t he i n t e r a c t i on t e r m w a s ve r y c l os e t o be i ng s i gni f i c a nt f or C W B O ( p = 059) A s s how n i n F i gur e 1 t he f o r m w a s t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n l e s s C W B O t ha n non pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a t l ow l e ve l s o f j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. H ow e ve r a t hi gh l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, p r oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n m or e C W B O t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e T abl e 11. R e gr e s s i on of P r oac t i v e P e r s onal i t y by J ob Sat i s f ac t i on on O C B O C B I O C B O S t e p 1 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 15 09 P P 20 14 R 2 c ha nge 16** 37 ** S t e p 2 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on x P P 33 44 R 2 c ha nge 002 003 F 10. 67** 33. 38 ** O CB I: O CB i n d i v i d u al O CB O : O CB o rg an i zat i o n al PP: Pro act i v e Pers o n al i t y * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ), p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) B et a w ei g h t s are fro m t h e fi n al eq u at i o n T abl e 1 2 R e gr e s s i on of P r oac t i v e P e r s onal i t y by J ob s at i s f ac t i on on C W B C W B P e r s ona l C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l S t e p 1 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 88 1 15* P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y ( P P ) 49 66* R 2 c ha nge 05* 12 ** S t e p 2 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on x P P 86 1. 08 R 2 c ha nge 012 018 # F 3. 61* 8. 90 **

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51 C W B di m e ns i ons C W B S C W B A C W B P C W B T C W B W S t e p 1 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on 59 88 1. 24 54 98* P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y ( P P ) 27 49 62 36 61 R 2 c ha nge 03 05* 06** 02 15 ** S t e p 2 J ob s a t i s f a c t i on x P P 54 86 1. 28* 54 84 R 2 c ha nge 005 012 26* 005 011 F 1. 99 3. 61* 5. 39** 1. 52 10. 6 0** C W B S: C W B s ab o t ag e C W B A : C W B ab u s e C W B P: C W B p ro d u ct i o n d ev i an ce C W B T : C W B t h eft C W B W : C W B w i t h d ra w al ** p < 0. 01 l e ve l ( 2 t a i l e d) p < 0 05 l e ve l ( 2 t a i l e d ) # p< 0. 06 ( 2 t a i l e d ) B e t a w e i ght s a r e f r om t he f i na l e qua t i on F i gur e 2 I nt e r ac t i on B e t w e e n J ob Sat i s f ac t i on and P r oac t i v e P e r s onal i t y on C W B O r gani z at i onal H ypot he s i s 11b s ugge s t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w oul d m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd O C B / C W B T hi s hypot he s i s w a s not s uppor t e d. A s s how n i n T a bl e 12 t he pr oduc t t e r m w a s not s i gni f i c a nt f or t he r e gr e s s i on of pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y by e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on o n O C B a nd C W B H ow e ve r t he i nt e r a c t i on t e r m a ppr oa c he d s i gni f i c a nc e f or O C B O ( p = 055) A s s how n i n F i gur e 2

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52 t he t r e nd i ndi c a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n m or e O C B O t ha n nonp r oa c t i ve pe opl e a t l ow l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. A t h i gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, O C B O w a s r e duc e d f or bot h p r oa c t i ve a nd nonp r o a c t i ve pe opl e but pr oa c t i ve pe opl e s t i l l e nga ge d i n m or e O C B O A s s how n i n T a bl e 14, t h e i nt e r a c t i on t e r m s w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d no t m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd C W B T abl e 13 R e gr e s s i on of P r oac t i v e P e r s onal i t y by E m ot i onal e x haus t i on on O C B O C B I ndi vi dua l O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l S t e p 1 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 51 43 P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y ( P P ) 54** 67 ** R 2 c ha nge 13** 24 ** S t e p 2 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on x P P 48 7 3* R 2 c ha nge 007 016 # F 89 19. 22 ** * p < 0 0 1 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ) p < 0 0 5 l ev el (2 t ai l ed ), # p< 0. 06 ( 2 t a i l e d ) B et a w ei g h t s are fro m t h e fi n al eq u at i o n T abl e 14. R e gr e s s i on of P P by E m ot i onal e x haus t i on on C W B C W B P e r s ona l C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l S t e p 1 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 64 88** P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y ( P P ) 12 14 R 2 c ha nge 05* 08 ** S t e p 2 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on x P P 45 1. 65 R 2 c ha nge 006 014 F 3. 42* 5. 62 ** C W B di m e ns i ons C W B S C W B A C W B P C W B P C W B W S t e p 1 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on 21 64 59 46 1. 10* P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y ( P P ) 05 12 19 06 113 R 2 c ha nge 01 05* 04* 02 10 S t e p 2

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53 E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on x P P 10 45 41 39 79* R 2 c ha nge 00 006 005 005 02 # F 78 3. 42* 2. 87* 1. 26 65. 70** C W B S: C W B s ab o t ag e C W B A : C W B ab u s e C W B P: C W B p ro d u ct i o n d ev i an ce C W B T : C W B t h eft C W B W : C W B w i t h d ra w al ** p < 0. 01 l e ve l ( 2 t a i l e d) p < 0 05 l e ve l ( 2 t a i l e d ) # p< 0. 06 ( 2 t a i l e d ) B e t a w e i ght s a r e f r om t he f i na l e qua t i on F i gur e 3 I nt e r ac t i on B e t w e e n E m ot i onal E x haus t i on and P r oac t i v e P e r s onal i t y on O C B O r gani z at i onal

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54 D i s c us s i on G e ne r al F i ndi ngs T he c ur r e nt s t udy r e s ponde d t o c a l l s f or m or e r e s e a r c h t ha t l ooks s i m ul t a ne ous l y a t bot h C W B a nd O C B ( S pe c t or & F ox 200 2; p 2 87) O ne obj e c t i ve of t he s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he pa r a l l e l m e c ha ni s m s l i nke d t o O C B a nd C W B i n a s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k. S uc h a f r a m e w or k a l l ow s us t o s he d l i ght on t he s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t w o t ype s of non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e T he p r opos e d m ode l s ugge s t e d t ha t s t r e s s or s w oul d r e l a t e t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, w hi c h i n t ur n w oul d l e a d t o O C B a nd C W B A not he r obj e c t i ve of t he s t udy w a s t o de t e r m i ne t he r ol e of p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i n t he s t r e s s or s t r a i n c ha i n S pe c i f i c a l l y, w e f oc us e d on how pr oa c t i ve pe opl e pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s a nd how t he y r e a c t t o s t r e s s or s by e xa m i ni ng j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, O C B a nd C W B A s s ugge s t e d by pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h ( M i l e s e t a l 20 02; L e e & A l l e n, 2002) r o l e a m bi gui t y, p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o O C B t ot a l a nd O C B or ga ni z a t i o na l H ow e ve r s t r e s s or s w e r e not r e l a t e d t o O C B i ndi vi dua l T w o oppos i ng e f f e c t s m a y ha ve r e s ul t e d i n t hi s un e xpe c t e d f i ndi ng. O n t he one ha nd, t he s t r e s s or s i nc l ude d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy i nvol ve d e n vi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons t ha t a r e us ua l l y a t t r i but e d t o t he or ga ni z a t i on T he r e f or e a l t hough e m pl oye e s e xpe r i e nc e d s t r e s s or s t he y onl y t a r ge t e d t he s our c e of t he s t r e s s or ( i e t he o r ga ni z a t i on i n t he c a s e of r ol e a m bi gu i t y a nd i nj us t i c e ) by e nga gi ng i n l e s s O C B t ow a r ds t h e or ga ni z a t i on a nd r e s t r a i ne d t he m s e l ve s t o r e duc e t he i r O C B t ow a r ds i ndi vi dua l s O n t he o t he r ha nd D a l a l ( 2005) s ugge s t s t ha t O C B m a y s e r ve a s a n a da pt i ve r e s pons e T he r e f or e e m pl oye e s m a y t r y t o de a l w i t h ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s s uc h a s s t r e s s or s by e nga gi ng i n m o r e O C B t ow a r ds i ndi vi dua l s T h e s e t w o r e s pons e s m a y c a nc e l out e a c h ot he r out a nd l e a d t o a

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55 nons i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd O C B i nt e r pe r s ona l U nl i ke t he f i ndi ngs i n M i l e s e t a l ( 2002 ) s t udy, or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s di d not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e t o e i t he r O C B t ot a l O C B I or O C B O O ne e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t t he pa r t i c ul a r c ons t r a i nt s e m pl oye e s e xpe r i e nc e m a y not a f f e c t t he c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or s t ha t t he y w e r e a s ke d t o r e por t R e pl i c a t i ng t he f i ndi ngs i n pr e vi ous s t udi e s ( F ox e t a l 2001; C he n & S pe c t or 1992; S ka r l i c ki e t a l 19 99) or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s r ol e a m bi gu i t y a nd p r oc e dur a l j us t i c e w e r e r e l a t e d t o C W B t ot a l C W B pe r s ona l a nd C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l T he us e of t he ne w f i ve di m e ns i ona l c he c kl i s t f or C W B bor e i nt e r e s t i ng f i ndi ngs S t r e s s or s s how e d s om e di f f e r e nt i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h va r i ous di m e ns i ons of C W B a nd pr ovi de d e vi de nc e f or S pe c t or a nd F o x s a s s e r t a t i on ( 2006) t ha t not a l l C W B a r e c r e a t e d e qua l C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e a nd C W B s a bot a ge w e r e not r e l a t e d t o a ny s t r e s s or s w he r e a s C W B w i t hdr a w a l w a s r e l a t e d t o a l l s t r e s s or s C W B t he f t w a s r e l a t e d onl y t o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s a nd C W B a bus e w a s r e l a t e d t o a l l s t r e s s or s e xc e pt di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e I n s um C W B w i t hdr a w a l a nd C W B pe r s ona l ha d m or e s i g ni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h c ons t r a i nt s r ol e a m bi gui t y a nd i nj us t i c e t ha n C W B s a bot a ge C W B pr oduc t i on de vi a nc e a nd C W B t he f t H ow e ve r t he s e r e s ul t s s houl d be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t h c a ut i on, be c a us e t he obs e r ve d r a nge of C W B w a s ve r y s m a l l f or a l l C W B t ype s e s pe c i a l l y f or C W B s a bot a ge a nd C W B t he f t I n l i ne w i t h pr e vi ous s t udi e s ( L e P i ne e t a l 2002; O r ga n & R ya n, 1995) j ob s a t i s f a c t i on r e l a t e d t o O C B i ndi vi dua l O C B or ga n i z a t i ona l a nd t o a l l di m e ns i ons of C W B e xc e pt C W B t he f t E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o O C B O a nd pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o C W B a bus e C W B pr oduc t i o n de vi a nc e a nd C W B w i t hdr a w a l E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s r e l a t e d t o O C B O bu t i n c ont r a s t t o e xpe c t a t i ons not t o O C B

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56 I M os t s t udi e s i n l i t e r a t ur e ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 200 3) f ound a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd O C B I but t he j obs i n t hos e s t udi e s m a i nl y i nvol ve d s t r e s s f ul i nt e r pe r s ona l i nt e r a c t i on ( e g. nu r s i ng) I n c ont r a s t e m pl oye e s i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy ha d m os t l y w hi t e c ol l a r j obs w i t hout m uc h n e ga t i ve i nt e r a c t i on w i t h ot he r pe opl e ( e g. a c c ount i n g) a s pa r t o f t he i r j ob s o t he i r e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on m a y be i ns t i ga t e d by m or e or ga ni z a t i ona l f a c t or s s uc h a s i nj us t i c e E m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s not r e l a t e d t o C W B t he f t or C W B s a bot a ge O ne e xpl a na t i on f or t hi s f i ndi ng i s t ha t t he s e be ha vi or s m a y be m o r e s e r i ous a nd r i s ky t ha n t he ot he r t ype s of C W B s o i ndi vi dua l s m a y not r e s pond t o e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w i t h be ha vi or s t h a t pot e nt i a l l y i nc r e a s e s t he i r phys i ol ogi c a l a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l s t r a i n. A c c or di ng t o c ons e r va t i on of r e s our c e s t he or y ( H obf ol l & F r e e dy 1993) w he n pe opl e f a c e de m a nds f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt t he y w i l l t a ke a de f e ns i ve s t a t e a nd r e s t r a i n f r om be ha vi or s t ha t w i l l m o r e l i ke l y t o l e a d t o s t r a i ns s uc h a s t e ns i on a nd a nxi e t y. T he s t r e s s or s t r a i n m ode l o f O C B / C W B pr ovi de s a f e a s i bl e f r a m e w or k t o i nve s t i ga t e bot h vol unt a r y be ha vi o r s a nd t he i r a nt e c e de nt s s i m ul t a ne ous l y. F or t he m os t pa r t s t r e s s or s w e r e r e l a t e d t o bot h O C B a nd C W B I n l i ne w i t h t he s oc i a l e xc ha nge t he or y ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 2003) e m pl oye e s w i l l r e c i pr oc a t e w i t h pr oduc t i ve or c oun t e r pr oduc t i ve be ha vi or s t o ba l a nc e out t he i r i n put s a nd out put s t he y r e c e i ve f r om t he or ga ni z a t i on. W he n t he y ha ve pos i t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s t he y t r y t o e nga ge i n de s i r e d be ha vi or s s uc h a s O C B I n r e a c t i on t o br e a c he s of t he ps yc hol ogi c a l c ont r a c t be t w e e n t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r e m pl oye r t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n unde s i r a bl e be ha vi or s s uc h a s C W B ( S pe c t or & F ox 2002 ) O C B a nd C W B e xhi bi t e d oppos i t e pa t t e r ns i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r c om m on a nt e c e de nt s S t r e s s or s w e r e a l s o r e l a t e d t ypi c a l l y t o l ow l e ve l s of O C B a nd hi gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd c ount e r pr oduc t i ve be ha vi or

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57 H ow e ve r f i ndi ngs a l s o s ugge s t e d t ha t O C B a nd C W B m a y i nvol ve di f f e r e nt m e c ha ni s m s a s r e a c t i ons t o s t r e s s or s F or e xa m pl e w he r e a s or g a ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s w e r e r e l a t e d t o C W B but not t o O C B di s t r i bu t i ve j us t i c e w a s r e l a t e d t o O C B but not C W B O ne e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t C W B m a y be m o r e c onc e r ne d w i t h da i l y s t r e s s or s s uc h a s c ons t r a i nt s t ha t i nhi bi t pe opl e f r o m pe r f or m i ng t he i r j obs I n c ont r a s t O C B m a y a f f e c t e d by m o r e ove r a l l c onc e r ns s uc h a s di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e w hi c h i s not r e f l e c t e d i n da i l y e xpe r i e nc e s t a s ks a nd pr oc e s s e s F ur t he r m or e m os t s t r e s s or s w e r e r e l a t e d t o C W B pe r s ona l C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l a s w e l l a s O C B or ga ni z a t i ona l but not t o O C B i ndi vi dua l T he r e f or e t he dyna m i c s of how s t r e s s or s r e l a t e t o di f f e r e nt t ype s of non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e c a n be di f f e r e nt f or O C B a nd C W B a nd f o r di f f e r e nt t ype s of bot h c a t e gor i e s of be ha vi or F or e xa m pl e O C B m a y m or e c ha r a c t e r i z e d by pos i t i ve a t t i t ude s w hi c h de ve l op ove r t i m e a nd i nvol ve c ons i de r a bl e t hi nki ng. I n c ont r a s t C W B m a y be t he r e s ul t of qui c k a c t i on s c he m e s i n r e s pons e t o s t r e s s or s a nd m a y i nvol ve a c t i ons t a r ge t i ng bot h t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd t he i ndi vi dua l s A l t hough t he r e a r e s om e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n O C B a nd C W B t he s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k p r ovi de s a good f ounda t i on t o e xpl or e bot h vol un t a r y be ha vi or s I n s uppor t o f m y pr opos e d m ode l I f ound e vi de nc e t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on f ul l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r o l e a m bi gui t y pr oc e dur a l / di s t r i but i ve j us t i c e a nd O C B / O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l I n a ddi t i on, m y f i ndi ng s s uppor t t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on f ul l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r o l e a m bi gui t y pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd C W B / C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l a s w e l l a s pa r t i a l l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he c ons t r a i nt s a nd C W B / C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l / C W B P e r s ona l I n l i n e w i t h t he s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k s t r e s s or s m a y ha ve l e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, w hi c h i n t ur n l e d t o O C B / C W B H ow e ve r s i nc e t he s t r e s s or s i nc l ude d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy a r e us ua l l y a t t r i but e d t o t he or ga ni z a t i on

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58 a s oppos e d t o pe opl e t he m e di a t i ng e f f e c t w a s obs e r ve d m or e p r om i ne nt l y f or t he or ga ni z a t i ona l di m e ns i ons of O C B a nd C W B T he r e f or e t he r e w a s a m a t c h be t w e e n t he s our c e of s t r e s s or ( i e t he or ga ni z a t i on) a nd t he t a r ge t of t he s t r a i n ( i e O C B O a nd C W B O ) M os t i m po r t a nt l y, f i ndi ngs s uppor t e d t h e pos s i bi l i t y t ha t j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s a c om m on l i nk be t w e e n c e r t a i n s t r e s s or s a nd bot h t y pe s of w or kpl a c e be ha vi or s A l t hough O C B a nd C W B a r e di s t i nc t c ons t r uc t s bot h be ha vi or s w e r e r e l a t e d t o s t r e s s or s t hr ough j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. W he n pe opl e e xpe r i e nc e s r ol e a m bi gui t y a nd p r oc e dur a l i nj us t i c e t he i r j ob s a t i s f a c t i on de c r e a s e s t he r e f or e t he y a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd l e s s l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l C ont r a r y t o t he e xpe c t a t i ons t he da t a di d not s uppor t hypot he s e s t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on ( C r opa nz a no e t a l 2003) w oul d m e di a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t r e s s or s a nd ove r a l l O C B / C W B H ow e ve r a f i ne r gr a i ne d a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d t ha t e m ot i ona l e xha us t i o n f ul l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r ol e a m bi gui t y pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l w he r e a s i t pa r t i a l l y m e di a t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r o l e a m bi gui t y a nd C W B pe r s ona l M or e ove r e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on w a s a pa r t i a l m e di a t o r i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r ol e a m bi gui t y pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l A l t ho ugh t he m e di a t i ng e f f e c t w a s a s s t r ong a s i n t he c a s e of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, e s pe c i a l l y f or O C B e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on s t i l l c ons t i t ut e d a m e c ha ni s m t ha t l i nks s t r e s s or s t o O C B O r ga ni z a t i ona l a nd C W B O r ga ni z a t i ona l B ot h vol unt a r y be ha vi or s w e r e r e l a t e d t o s t r e s s or s t hr ough e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on t o a c e r t a i n e xt e nt T he s e f i ndi ngs r e nd e r a ddi t i ona l s uppor t f or t he s t r e s s s t r a i n f r a m e w or k a s a c om m on g r ound t o s t udy a n d t o i m pa c t bot h O C B a nd C W B T he c ur r e nt s t u dy a l s o c ont r i but e s t o t he g r ow i ng l i t e r a t ur e on p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd r e s ponds t o c a l l s t o s t udy pr oa c t i v e pe r s ona l i t y i n ne w c ont e xt s ( C r a nt 2000; p. 458) P r oa c t i ve pe opl e pe r c e i ve d hi ghe r l e ve l s of pr oc e dur a l a nd di s t r i but i ve

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59 j us t i c e a nd l ow e r l e ve l s of r ol e a m bi gui t y T he r e c a n be di f f e r e nt e xpl a na t i ons f o r t he s e f i ndi ngs F i r s t p r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y pe r c e i ve f e w e r s t r e s s or s be c a us e t he y e nj oy hi gh pe r c e i ve d c ont r ol ( P a r ke r & S p r i gg, 1999) S e c ond t he y m a y e nga ge i n p r oa c t i ve c opi ng, s o t he y m a y a dopt p r e ve nt a t i ve m e a s ur e s a nd s t r a t e gi e s be f or e s t r e s s or s ha ve a n i m pa c t on t he m ( C r a nt 2000 ) T hi r d, onc e t he y pe r c e i ve s t r e s s or s t he y m a y de a l w i t h t he m m or e e f f e c t i ve l y ( P a r ke r & S pr i gg 1999 ) by a c t i ve l y a p pr oa c hi ng t he pr ob l e m s a nd by t r yi ng t o s ol ve t he m c ons t r uc t i ve l y. I n one s t udy, pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve w a s pos i t i ve l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h pr obl e m f oc us e d c opi ng ( F r e s e e t a l 1997 ) F or e xa m pl e w he n pr oa c t i ve pe opl e e xpe r i e nc e r ol e a m bi gui t y t he y m a y a s k t he i r s upe r vi s or s a nd c ow or ke r s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i on. W he n t he y e xpe r i e nc e i nj us t i c e t he y m a y t a ke a c t i ons t o de a l w i t h s i t ua t i ons t ha t a r e pe r c e i ve d unf a i r l y. F o r e xa m pl e i f t he y a r e unf a i r l y t r e a t e d by t he i r s upe r vi s or t he y m a y a s k f or a di f f e r e nt s upe r vi s or F ur t he r m o r e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n or ga ni z a t i ona l f unc t i ons a nd c om m i t t e e s w hi c h a r e i nvol ve d w i t h de c i s i ons t ha t i nf l ue nc e j us t i c e pe r c e pt i ons A n une xpe c t e d f i ndi ng w a s t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d not r e l a t e t o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s A l t hough C r a nt ( 1 993) s ugge s t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be unc ons t r a i ne d by s i t ua t i ona l f or c e s t he c ons t r a i nt s w hi c h w e r e r e por t e d i n t he c u r r e nt s t udy d i d not di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve a nd nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. I n a n e f f o r t t o e xpl a i n t he m i xe d r e s ul t s f o r t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p i n t he l i t e r a t ur e C ha n ( 2006 ) i nt r oduc e d t he c onc e pt of s i t ua t i ona l j udgm e nt e f f e c t i ve ne s s I n hi s s t udy, p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on onl y w he n a c c om pa ni e d by s i t ua t i ona l j udgm e nt e f f e c t i ve ne s s I n ot he r w or ds i ndi vi dua l s w ho a r e pr oa c t i ve a nd w ho a r e e f f e c t i ve i n j udgi ng how t o a c t i n a s i t ua t i on a t t he s a m e t i m e r e por t e d hi gh l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on.

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60 F r e s e D a y, H i l bu r ge r L e ng a nd T a g ( 1997 ) o f f e r t w o oppos i ng r e l a t i ons hi p pa t t e r ns t ha t l i nk j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve ( a s i m i l a r c ons t r uc t t o pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y) F i r s t pe opl e w i t h hi gh i ni t i a t i ve ha ve hi gh c a r e e r a s pi r a t i ons a nd a r e l ong t e r m or i e nt a t i on, s o t he y m a y be l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i r j obs S e c ond, pe opl e w ho a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i r j obs m a y be m o r e l i ke l y t o t a ke pe r s ona l i ni t i a t i ve a nd e nga ge i n pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s B ot h C ha n s ( 2006) a nd F r e s e s ( 1997) a c c ount e m pha s i z e t he dyna m i c s of t he pa r t i c ul a r s i t ua t i ons a nd i nd i vi dua l s i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he s i t ua t i on, t he r e f or e t he r e i s no c l e a r c ut r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s a l s o not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. T he r e c a n be oppos i ng f a c t or s a t w o r k he r e a s w e l l P r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y be be t t e r a t de a l i ng w i t h c e r t a i n s t r e s s or s s uc h a s w or k de m a nds ( P a r ke r & S p r i gg, 1999) r o l e a m bi gui t y ( K a m m e ye r M ue l l e r & W a nbe r g 2003) ) a nd i nj us t i c e s o t he y m a y e xpe r i e nc e l e s s e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on due t o t he m H ow e ve r h i gh pr oa c t i vi t y m a y c om e a t t he c os t of hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons a t e nde nc y f o r r i s ky be ha vi or s a nd l e s s t ol e r a nc e t o ot he r s t r e s s or s ( C r a nt 2000 ) W he n de s i r e d out c om e s a r e not a t t a i ne d, ne ga t i ve f e e dba c k f r om t he s e l f a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt ( e g s upe r vi s or ) m a y l e a d t o s t r a i ns l i ke e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d not m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd O C B / C W B H ow e ve r t he r e w a s a s t r ong t r e n d s uc h t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l w a s s t r on ge r f or non p r oa c t i ve pe opl e t ha n pr oa c t i ve pe opl e W he n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s l ow p r oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n l e s s C W B O t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e W he n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w a s hi gh, p r oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n m or e C W B O t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e T hi s s ugg e s t s t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd C W B O i s m or e c om pl i c a t e d t ha n i ni t i a l l y f o r e s e e n. O ne pos s i bl e

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61 e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe opl e s C W B O i s d e t e r m i ne d by f a c t o r s ot he r t ha n j ob s a t i s f a c t i on, w he r e a s f or nonp r oa c t i ve pe opl e j ob s a t i s f a c t i on m a y be one o f t he s t r onge s t f a c t or s i n de c i di ng a nd e nga gi ng i n C W B O S i nc e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e hi gh i n ne e d f o r a c hi e ve m e nt ( B a t e m a n & C r a nt 1993) t he y m a y t a ke i nt o a c c ount pe r f o r m a nc e r e l a t e d f a c t or s i n a ddi t i on t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on w he n t he y e n ga ge i n C W B O P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d not m ode r a t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i on a l e xha us t i on a nd O C B / C W B H ow e ve r t he r e w a s a s t r ong t r e nd s uc h t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on a nd O C B O w a s s t r onge r f or pr oa c t i ve pe opl e t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e A t l ow a nd hi gh l e ve l s of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on, p r oa c t i ve pe opl e e nga ge d i n m o r e O C B O t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e T he r e w a s a s ha r pe r de c r e a s e i n O C B O f or pr oa c t i ve pe opl e t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e w he n e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on i nc r e a s e s T hi s f i ndi n g e m pha s i z e s a s t r ong t r e nd t ha t p r oa c t i ve pe opl e w i l l e nga ge i n m or e O C B t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e w he n t he y e xpe r i e nc e e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on. P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s pos i t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h bot h O C B or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd O C B i ndi vi dua l P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y ha s be e n r e l a t e d t o j ob pe r f or m a nc e ( C r a nt & B a t e m a n, 1995; T ho m ps on, 2005) S i nc e O C B ha s be e n s how n t o a f f e c t pe r f o r m a nc e r a t i ngs ( R ot unda & S a c ke t t 2002 ) pr oa c t i ve m a y be m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B t ha n nonpr oa c t i ve pe opl e A ddi t i ona l l y, pr oa c t i ve pe opl e a r e hi gh i n ne e d f o r a c hi e ve m e nt a nd a r e c a r e e r or i e nt e d ( B a t e m a n & C r a nt 1993; C r a nt 2000) T he r e f o r e t he y m a y s e e O C B a s a w a y t o pe r f or m be t t e r i n or ga ni z a t i ona l s e t t i ng s P r oa c t i ve pe opl e pe r c e i ve hi gh l e ve l s of r ol e c l a r i t y, pr oc e dur a l j us t i c e a nd di s t r i b ut i ve j us t i c e w hi c h ha ve be e n r e l a t e d t o O C B C ont r a r y t o e xpe c t a t i ons p r oa c t i ve pe r s o na l i t y w a s not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h C W B C W B pe r s ona l or C W B or ga ni z a t i ona l I nt e r e s t i ngl y, pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o C W B w i t hdr a w a l a m ong t h e f i ve di m e ns i ons of C W B O ne

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62 e xpl a na t i on c a n be t ha t i n r e s pondi ng t o s t r e s s or s pr oa c t i ve pe opl e opt e d t o a voi d t he w or k s i t ua t i on. I t i s unc l e a r w hy a nd w ha t t he y m i ght ha ve be e n doi ng dur i ng t he i r t i m e a w a y f r om w o r k. P e r ha ps t he y w e r e e nga ge d i n s o m e goa l di r e c t e d be ha vi or s uc h a s l ooki ng f or a ne w j ob. I n s um t he f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e d t ha t pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s di f f e r e nt i a l l y r e l a t e d t o va r i ous pe r f o r m a nc e t ype s W he r e a s pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y di d not r e l a t e t o C W B i t w a s r e l a t e d t o t a s k pe r f o r m a nc e a nd O C B L i m i t at i ons and f ut ur e di r e c t i ons T he c ur r e nt s t udy ha s s om e l i m i t a t i ons t ha t s houl d be not e d. I t w a s a c r os s s e c t i ona l s t udy, t he r e f or e i t i s i m pos s i bl e t o dr a w c a us a l c onc l us i ons T he da t a w e r e m a i nl y c ol l e c t e d i n one or ga ni z a t i on, a l t hough a n a t t e m pt w a s m a de t o i nc l ude pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om di ve r s i t y of s e t t i ngs by r e c r ui t i ng e m pl oye e s w ho a r e s t ude nt s a s w e l l M os t of t he j obs w e r e w hi t e c ol l a r j obs t he r e f or e t he t ype of j ob m a y ha ve l i m i t e d t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h c e r t a i n s t r e s s or s a nd s t r a i ns w e r e e xpe r i e nc e d. F ur t he r m or e t he r a nge of r e por t e d C W B w a s ve r y s m a l l t he r e f or e c or r e l a t i o ns w i t h t he m a i n va r i a bl e s m a y ha ve be e n a t t e nua t e d. A l t hough t he r e w a s c onve r ge nc e w i t h O C B O T he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s e l f r e por t e d a nd o t he r r e po r t e d vol unt a r y be ha vi o r s w e r e not ve r y hi gh H ow e ve r t hi s i s not a n unc om m on f i ndi ng i n l i t e r a t ur e a nd D a l a l ( 2 005) s ugge s t s t he us e of s e l f r e por t s f or vol unt a r y be ha vi or s m a y ha ve s om e a dva nt a ge s ove r ot he r s our c e s S e l f r e por t m a y be pr e f e r a bl e be c a us e e m pl oye e s t he m s e l ve s kno w be t t e r t ha n a nyone e l s e a nd be i n a be t t e r pos i t i on t o r e por t a c c ur a t e l y t he i r ow n be ha v i or O n t he ot he r ha nd, pe opl e a l s o m a y not r e po r t t he a c c ur a t e a m ount o f pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve be ha vi or s due t o va r i ous c onc e r ns s uc h a s s oc i a l de s i r a bi l i t y or i m pr e s s i on m a na ge m e nt H ow e ve r ot he r r e po r t s a r e s ubj e c t t o bi a s e s s uc h a s ha l o e f f e c t s ( D a l a l 20 05) O nc e a n i m pr e s s i on i s f o r m e d of

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63 t he e m pl oye e by a c ow or ke r t he e m pl oye e i s m or e l i ke l y t o be e va l ua t e d s i m i l a r l y on di f f e r e nt di m e ns i ons F ut ur e s t udi e s m a y s t r i ve t o l ook a t va r i ous m e c ha ni s m s ( i n a ddi t i on t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i on) t ha t a f f e c t bo t h O C B a nd C W B s i m ul t a ne ous l y. T he c ur r e nt s t udy f oc us e d on a s t r e s s or s t r a i n f r a m e w or k t o e xpl or e a nt e c e de nt s a nd pr oc e s s e s r e l a t e d t o vol unt a r y be ha vi or s O t he r f r a m e w or ks c a n be u t i l i z e d t o i nv e s t i ga t e s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s w i t h r e s pe c t t o p r oc e s s e s i nvol ve d i n O C B a nd C W B T he c ur r e nt s t udy a l s o f oc us e d on s t r e s s or s t ha t or i gi na t e d f r om t he o r ga ni z a t i on ( i e c ons t r a i nt s r ol e a m bi gui t y, pr oc e dur a l a nd di s t r i but i ve i nj us t i c e ) T he s t r e s s or s bor e m or e s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h O C B / C W B di r e c t e d a t t he or ga ni z a t i on t ha n w i t h O C B / C W B di r e c t e d a t i ndi vi dua l s I t w oul d be i nt e r e s t i ng t o s e e w he t he r t he m ode l w i l l hol d f or s t r e s s or s t ha t i nvol ve i nt e r pe r s ona l a s pe c t s of or ga ni z a t i ona l l i f e s uc h a s i nt e r pe r s ona l c onf l i c t F ut u r e s t udi e s s houl d a l s o l ook m or e i nt o s pe c i f i c pr oa c t i ve be ha vi or s ( e g t a ki ng c ha r ge pr oa c t i ve i de a i m pl e m e nt a t i on o r p r oa c t i ve c opi ng be ha vi or ) i ns t e a d of a ge ne r a l pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y c ons t r uc t A be ha vi or f oc us e d a ppr oa c h w oul d p r ovi de i ns i ght s i nt o how pr oa c t i ve pe opl e de a l w i t h s t r e s s or s a s w e l l a s unde r w hi c h c ondi t i ons t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e nga ge i n O C B a nd C W B F ut u r e r e s e a r c he r s m a y a l s o f oc us on t he e f f e c t s of pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y i n t he i nt e r pe r s ona l do m a i n. T hom ps on ( 2005) f ound t ha t p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y w a s l i nke d t o hi gh pe r f o r m a nc e t hr oug h ne t w or ki ng. P r oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y us e a di f f e r e nt s e t of s ki l l s a nd a ppr oa c he s i n t he i r i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h ot he r pe opl e T he r e f or e pr oa c t i ve pe opl e m a y e xpe r i e nc e i nt e r p e r s ona l s t r e s s or s di f f e r e nt l y a nd m a y us e s oc i a l c a pi t a l a s a n i m por t a nt r e s our c e t o de a l w i t h s t r e s s or s a nd be t t e r pe r f o r m i n t he w or kpl a c e I t w oul d be i nt e r e s t i ng t o e xpl or e e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons ( i e s t r e s s or s ) t ha t gi ve pr oa c t i ve pe opl e di f f i c ul t y. F or e xa m pl e s i nc e t he y a r e hi gh i n ne e d f o r

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64 a c hi e ve m e nt a n e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h doe s not f os t e r c a r e e r de ve l opm e nt or pe r s on e nvi r onm e nt f i t m a y be pr obl e m a t i c f or pr oa c t i ve pe opl e L a s t l y, a l ongi t udi na l s t udy w i l l he l p be t t e r unde r s t a nd how s t r e s s or s a t t i t ude s a nd vol unt a r y be ha vi or s a r e l i nke d t o pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y ove r t i m e C onc l us i on S t udyi ng O C B a nd C W B i n t he s a m e f r a m e w or k h a s bot h t he or e t i c a l a nd pr a c t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons I n t e r m s of t he or e t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons i t he l ps i de nt i f y t he s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s w i t h r e s pe c t t o a nt e c e d e nt s pr oc e s s e s a nd bounda r y c ondi t i ons of non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e T he r e f or e i t a dva nc e s our know l e d ge on bot h vol unt a r y be ha vi or s by c om pa r i ng a nd c ont r a s t i ng t he m a nd pr ovi de s i ns i ght s i nt o t he r e c e nt c a t e gor i z a t i ons of j ob pe r f o r m a nc e A l t houg h t he s t r e s s or t a s k pe r f or m a nc e l i nk bor e m i xe d r e s ul t s non t a s k pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h i n vol ve s be ha vi or s of a m o r e vol unt a r y na t ur e ( i e O C B a nd C W B ) w a s a f f e c t e d by pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or s I n t e r m s of p r a c t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons t he know l e dge o f c om m on a nt e c e de nt s of O C B a nd C W B a l l ow s m a na ge r s t o e f f e c t i ve l y de a l w i t h s t r e s s or s t ha t i nc r e a s e unde s i r e d out c om e s ( l ow O C B a nd hi gh C W B ) a nd t ha t de c r e a s e de s i r e d out c om e s ( hi gh O C B a nd l ow C W B ) T he i ns i ght s ga i ne d w i t h r e s pe c t t o p r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a dd t o t he t he or e t i c a l a nd e m pi r i c a l w or k on pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y. T he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t he f i r s t s t udy w hi c h l ooke d a t t h e e f f e c t of pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y on s t r e s s or s a t t i t ude s a nd w o r kpl a c e be ha vi or s i n a s t r e s s s t r a i n f r a m e w or k. P r oa c t i vi t y i s a p r om i s i ng a ve nue of r e s e a r c h. F ur t he r m o r e t he r e i s a n e m pha s i s on pr oa c t i vi t y a nd t he s e l f s uf f i c i e nt e m pl oye e m ode l i n t he va r i ous or ga ni z a t i ons ( C r a nt 2000 ) T he r e f or e i ns i ght s on pr oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y m a y he l p or ga ni z a t i ons a nd m a na ge r s i n t he i r s e l e c t i on e f f o r t s a nd l e a de r s hi p pr a c t i c e s

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65 R e f e r e nc e s A l l e n, T D F a c t e a u, J D & F a c t e a u, C L ( 200 4) S t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w i ng f or O C B : C ons t r uc t va l i di t y, f a ki ng, a nd t he e f f e c t s of que s t i on t ype H um an P e r f or m anc e 17( 1) 1 24 A s pi nw a l l L G & T a yl o r S E ( 1997) A s t i t c h i n t i m e : S e l f r e gul a t i on a nd p r oa c t i ve c opi ng. P s y c hol ogi c al bul l e t i n, 121 417 436. A qui no, K L e w i s M U & B r a df i e l d M ( 1999) J us t i c e c ons t r uc t s ne ga t i ve a f f e c t i vi t y, a nd e m pl oye e de vi a nc e : a p r opos e d m o de l a nd e m pi r i c a l t e s t J our nal of O r gani z at i onal B e hav i or 20 1073 1091. B a r on, R M & K e nny, D A ( 1986) T he m ode r a t or m e di a t or va r i a bl e di s t i nc t i on i n s oc i a l ps yc hol ogi c a l r e s e a r c h: C onc e pt ua l s t r a t e gi c a nd s t a t i s t i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons J our nal of P e r s onal i t y and Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 51 1173 1182. B a t e m a n, T S & C r a nt J M ( 1993) T he pr oa c t i ve c om pone nt of or ga ni z a t i ona l be ha vi or : A m e a s ur e a nd c o r r e l a t e s J our nal of O r gani z at i onal B e hav i or 14 103 118. B e l l N E & S t a w B M ( 1989) P e opl e a s s c ul pt or s ve r s us s c ul pt ur e : T he r ol e s of pe r s ona l i t y a nd pe r s ona l c ont r ol i n o r ga ni z a t i ons I n A r t hur M B & H a l l D T ( E ds ) H andb ook o f c ar e e r t he or y ( pp. 232 251) N e w Y or k, N Y U S : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s B e nne t t R J & R obi ns on, S L ( 2000 ) D e ve l opm e nt of a m e a s ur e of w o r kpl a c e de vi a nc e J our nal of A pp l i e d P s y c hol ogy 85 349 360. B i e s R J T r i pp, T M & K r a m e r R M ( 1997) A t t he br e a ki ng poi nt : C ogni t i ve a nd s oc i a l dyna m i c s of r e ve nge i n or ga ni z a t i ons I n R A G i a c a l one & J G r e e nbe r g

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67 C r a nt J M ( 1995 ) T he P r oa c t i ve P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e a nd obj e c t i ve j ob pe r f or m a nc e a m ong r e a l e s t a t e a ge nt s J our nal of A ppl i e d P s y c hol ogy 80( 4 ) 532 537 C r a nt J M ( 2000 ) P r oa c t i ve be ha vi o r i n or ga ni z a t i ons J our nal of M anage m e nt 26 ( 3) 435 462. C r opa nz a no, R H ow e s J C G r a nde y, A A & T ot h, P ( 1997 ) T he r e l a t i ons hi p of or ga ni z a t i ona l pol i t i c s a nd s uppor t t o w o r k be ha vi or s a t t i t ude s a nd s t r e s s . J our nal of O r gani z at i onal B e hav i or 18 159 180. C r opa nz a no, R R upp, D E & B yr ne Z S ( 2003 ) T he r e l a t i ons hi p of e m ot i ona l e xha us t i on t o w or k a t t i t ude s j ob pe r f or m a nc e a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or s J our nal of A ppl i e d P s y c hol ogy 88( 1 ) 1 60 169. D a l a l R S ( 2005) A m e t a a na l ys i s of t he r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n or ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or a nd c ount e r pr oduc t i ve w or k b e ha vi or J our nal of A ppl i e d P s y c hol ogy 90( 6) 1241 1255. D i e f e ndor f f J M & M e ht a K ( 2005) T he r e l a t i ons hi ps of m ot i va t i ona l t r a i t s w i t h w or kpl a c e de vi a nc e P a pe r p r e s e nt e d a t t he m e e t i n g of t he S oc i e t y o f I ndus t r i a l a nd O r ga ni z a t i ona l P s yc hol ogy, L os A nge l e s C A D unl op, P D & L e e K ( 2004) W or kpl a c e de vi a nc e or ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p be ha vi or a nd bus i ne s s uni t pe r f or m a nc e : T he ba d a ppl e s do s poi l t he w hol e ba r r e l J our nal o f O r gani z at i onal B e hav i or 25 67 80. D uf f y, M K G a ns t e r D C & S ha w J D ( 1998 ) P os i t i ve a f f e c t i vi t y a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s : T he r ol e of t e nur e a nd j ob s a t i s f a c t i on. J our nal of A ppl i e d P s y c hol ogy 83, 950 959 E dw a r ds J R ( 1991) P e r s on j ob f i t : A c onc e pt ua l i nt e gr a t i on l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a nd m e t hodol ogi c a l c r i t i que I n C L C oope r & I T R obe r t s on ( E ds ) I nt e r nat i onal

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76 r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong or ga ni z a t i ona l j u s t i c e s oc i a l e xc ha nge a nd e m pl oye e r e a c t i ons : T he r ol e of c ont a c t vi ol a t i ons A c ade m y of M anage m e nt J our nal 48 146 157. T e ppe r B J ( 2000) C ons e que nc e s of a bus i ve s upe r vi s i on. A c ade m y of M anage m e nt J our nal 43 176 190. T hi ba ut J & W a l ke r L ( 19 75) P r oc e dur al j us t i c e : A ps y c hol ogi c al anal y s i s H i l l s da l e N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s T hom ps on, J A ( 2005) P r oa c t i ve pe r s ona l i t y a nd j ob pe r f or m a nc e : A s oc i a l c a pi t a l pe r s pe c t i ve J our nal of A pp l i e d P s y c hol ogy 90( 5) 1011 1017. V a n D yne L & L e P i ne J A ( 1998) H e l pi ng a nd voi c e e xt r a r ol e be ha vi or s : E vi de nc e of c ons t r uc t a nd p r e di c t i ve va l i di t y A c ade m y of M anage m e nt J our nal 4 108 119. W i l l i a m s L J & A nde r s on, S E ( 1991) J ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt a s pr e di c t or s o f or ga ni z a t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p a nd i n r ol e be ha vi or s J our nal of M anage m e nt 17, 601 617.

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77 A ppe ndi c e s A ppe ndi x A E m pl oye e Q ue s t i onna i r e A ppe ndi x B C ow or ke r Q ue s t i onna i r e

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78 A ppe ndi x A E m p l oye e Q u e s t i on n ai r e E X P E R I E N C E S A T T H E W O R K P L A C E D e a r U S F E m pl oye e : T hi s que s t i onna i r e i s pa r t of m y m a s t e r s t he s i s s t u dy on pe opl e s r e a c t i ons t o t he i r j obs I do not a s k f or your na m e s o t he i nf or m a t i on you p r ovi de w i l l be a nonym ous Y ou w i l l r e c e i ve 2 que s t i onna i r e s one m a r ke d E m pl oye e Q ue s t i onna i r e a n d t he ot he r m a r ke d C ow or ke r Q ue s t i onna i r e P l e a s e be gi n b y l a be l i ng bot h t he E m p l oye e Q ue s t i onna i r e a nd t he C ow or ke r Q ue s t i onna i r e w i t h a m a t c hi ng s e c r e t c ode O t he r t ha n t he c ode t he r e w i l l be no pe r s ona l i de nt i f i c a t i on on e i t he r your s ur ve y or t ha t o f your c o w or ke r P l e a s e f i l l out t he E m pl oye e Q ue s t i onna i r e your s e l f ba s e d on your e xpe r i e nc e s on your p r e s e nt j ob. A l s o a s k a c ow or ke r i n your w or kgr oup t o f i l l out t he C ow or ke r Q ue s t i onna i r e w i t h r e ga r ds t o Y O U I ns t r uc t your c ow or ke r t o a n s w e r a l l que s t i ons ba s e d on hi s / he r obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s i m p r e s s i ons a nd c onve r s a t i ons w i t h Y O U on your pr e s e nt j ob I t i s i m po r t a nt t ha t you d o n o t d i s c u s s t h e s e q u e s t i on s w i t h you r c ow or k e r be f or e bot h o f you ha ve c om pl e t e d f i l l i n g out t he s ur ve y. P a r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy i s s t r i c t l y vol unt a r y a nd a nonym ous T he r e i s no w a y your r e s pons e s c a n be t r a c ke d t o you a s a n i ndi vi d ua l or t o your w or kgr oup O nc e you c om pl e t e t he que s t i onna i r e m a i l i t us i ng t he a t t a c h e d e nve l ope w i t h m y r e t ur n a ddr e s s on i t T ha nk you i n a dva nc e f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng F e e l f r e e t o c ont a c t i f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons S i nc e r e l y, O z gun B R odopm a n D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogy U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da or odopm a @ m a i l us f e du P C D 411 8G P u t you r ow n s e c r e t c od e h e r e ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ T h e c od e s h ou l d b e at l e as t 6 n u m b e r s / l e t t e r s B e s u r e t o p u t t h e s am e c od e on t h e c ow o r k e r q u e s t i on n ai r e

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79 H ow of t e n d o yo u f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t or i m p os s i b l e t o d o you r j o b b e c au s e of . ? 1 2 3 4 5 N e v e r O n c e o r t w i c e O n c e o r t w i c e p e r m o n t h O n c e o r t w i c e p e r w e e k E v e r y d a y 1. P oor e qui pm e nt or s uppl i e s 2. O r ga ni z a t i ona l r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s 3. O t he r e m pl oye e s 4. Y our s upe r vi s or 5. L a c k of e qui pm e nt or s uppl i e s 6. I na de qua t e t r a i ni ng 7. I nt e r r upt i ons by ot he r pe opl e 8. L a c k of ne c e s s a r y i nf or m a t i on a bout w ha t t o do or how t o do i t 9. C onf l i c t i ng j ob de m a nds 10. I na de qua t e he l p f r om ot he r s 11. I nc or r e c t i ns t r uc t i ons P l e as e i n d i c at e t o w h a t e xt e n t you agr e e or d i s a gr e e w i t h e ac h s t a t e m e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e M o d e r a t e l y d i s a g r e e N e i t h e r A g r e e n o r d i s a g r e e M o d e r a t e l y A g r e e A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e 12. I know e xa c t l y w ha t i s e xpe c t e d of m e 13. I know t ha t I ha ve di vi de d m y t i m e pr ope r l y 14. E xpl a na t i on i s c l e a r o f w ha t ha s t o be done 15. I f e e l c e r t a i n a bout how m uc h a ut hor i t y I ha ve 16. I know w ha t m y r e s pons i bi l i t i e s a r e 17. C l e a r pl a nne d goa l s / obj e c t i ve s e xi s t f or m y j ob

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80 P l e as e i n d i c at e t o w h a t e xt e n t you agr e e or d i s a gr e e w i t h e ac h s t a t e m e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e M o d e r a t e l y d i s a g r e e N e i t h e r A g r e e n o r d i s a g r e e M o d e r a t e l y A g r e e A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Wh e n d e c i s i on s ab ou t ot h e r e m p l oye e s i n ge n e r al or you i n p ar t i c u l ar ar e m ad e i n t h i s c om p an y . 18. r e que s t s f or c l a r i f i c a t i on a nd a ddi t i ona l i nf o r m a t i o n a r e a l l ow e d 19. you a r e t r e a t e d w i t h r e s pe c t a nd d i gni t y 20. you a r e de a l t w i t h i n a t r ut h f ul m a nne r 21. a l l t he s i de s a f f e c t e d by t he de c i s i ons a r e r e pr e s e nt e d 22. t he de c i s i ons a r e a p pl i e d w i t h c ons i s t e nc y t o t he p a r t i e s a f f e c t e d 23. you a r e of f e r e d a de qua t e j us t i f i c a t i on f or t he de c i s i ons 24. a c c ur a t e i nf or m a t i on upon w hi c h t he de c i s i ons a r e ba s e d i s c ol l e c t e d 25. c om pl e t e i nf or m a t i on upon w hi c h t he de c i s i ons a r e ba s e d i s c ol l e c t e d 26. oppor t uni t i e s a r e p r ovi de d t o a ppe a l or c ha l l e nge t he de c i s i ons 27. you a r e t r e a t e d w i t h ki ndne s s a nd c ons i de r a t i on 28. you a r e s how n c onc e r n f or you r r i ght s a s a n e m pl o ye e 29. you a r e he l pe d t o unde r s t a nd t he r e a s ons f or t he de c i s i on T o w h at e xt e n t ar e you f ai r l y r e w ar d e d . 1 2 3 4 5 V e r y u n f a i r l y U n f a i r l y U n d e c i d e d F a i r l y V e r y f a i r l y 30. c ons i de r i ng t he r e s pons i bi l i t i e s t ha t you ha ve 31. t a ki ng i nt o a c c ount t he a m ount o f e duc a t i on a nd t r a i ni ng you ha ve ha d 32. i n vi e w of t he a m ount of e xpe r i e nc e t ha t you ha ve 33. f or t he a m ount of e f f o r t t ha t you pu t f o r t h 34. f or t he w or k t ha t you ha ve done w e l l 35. f or t he s t r e s s e s a nd s t r a i ns of your j ob

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81 P l e as e i n d i c at e h ow of t e n t h e s t at e m e n t d e s c r i b e s you 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e M o d e r a t e l y d i s a g r e e N e i t h e r A g r e e n o r d i s a g r e e M o d e r a t e l y A g r e e A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e 36. I a m c ons t a nt l y on t he l ookout f o r ne w w a ys t o i m pr ove m y l i f e 37. W he r e ve r I ha ve be e n I ha ve be e n a pow e r f ul f or c e f or c ons t r uc t i ve c ha nge 38. N ot hi ng i s m or e e xc i t i ng t ha n s e e i ng m y i de a s t ur n i nt o r e a l i t y 39. I f I s e e s om e t hi ng I don t l i ke I f i x i t 40. N o m a t t e r w ha t t he odds i f I be l i e ve i n s om e t hi ng I w i l l m a ke i t ha ppe n 41. I l ove be i ng a c ha m pi on f or m y i de a s e ve n a ga i ns t ot he r s oppos i t i on 42. I e xc e l a t i de nt i f yi ng oppo r t uni t i e s 43. I a m a l w a ys l ooki ng f or be t t e r w a ys t o do t hi ngs 44. I f I be l i e ve i n a n i de a no obs t a c l e w i l l pr e ve nt m e f r om m a ki ng i t ha ppe n 45. I c a n s pot a good oppor t un i t y l ong be f or e ot he r s c a n H ow of t e n h ave you e xp e r i e n c e t h e f ol l ow i n g t h i n gs on you r p r e s e n t j ob ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 F e w t i m e s a y e a r M o n t h l y A f e w t i m e s a m o n t h E v e r y w e e k A f e w t i m e s a w e e k E v e r y d a y 46. I f e e l e m ot i ona l l y dr a i ne d f r o m m y w or k 47. I f e e l us e d up a t t he e nd of t he w or kda y 48. I f e e l f a t i gue d w he n I ge t up i n t he m o r ni ng a nd ha ve t o f a c e a not he r da y on t he j ob 49. W or ki ng w i t h pe opl e a l l da y i s r e a l l y a s t r a i n f o r m e 50. I f e e l bu r ne d out f r o m m y w or k 51. I f e e l f r us t r a t e d by m y j ob 52. I f e e l I a m w or ki ng t oo ha r d on m y j ob 53. W or ki ng w i t h pe opl e di r e c t l y pu t s t oo m uc h s t r e s s on m e 54. I f e e l l i ke I m a t t he e nd o f m y r ope

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82 P l e as e i n d i c at e t o w h a t e xt e n t you agr e e w i t h e a c h s t at e m e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 D i s a g r e e v e r y m u c h D i s a g r e e m o d e r a t e l y D i s a g r e e s l i g h t l y A g r e e s l i g h t l y A g r e e M o d e r a t e l y A g r e e V e r y m u c h 55. A l l i n a l l I a m s a t i s f i e d w i t h m y j ob 56. I n ge ne r a l I don't l i ke m y j ob 57. I n ge ne r a l I l i ke w or k i ng he r e H ow of t e n d o yo u e n gage i n e ac h of t h e f ol l ow i n g b e h avi or s on yo u r p r e s e n t j o b ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N e v e r R a r e l y O c c a s i o n a l l y S o m e t i m e s F a i r l y o f t e n V e r y o f t e n A l w a y s 58. H e l p ot he r s w ho ha ve be e n a bs e nt 59. W i l l i ngl y gi ve you r t i m e t o he l p ot he r s w ho ha ve w or k r e l a t e d pr obl e m s 60. A dj us t your w or k s c he dul e t o a c c om m oda t e ot he r e m pl oye e s r e que s t s f or t i m e of f 61. G o out of t he w a y t o m a ke ne w e r e m pl oye e s f e e l w e l c om e i n t he w or k g r oup 62. S how ge nui ne c onc e r n a nd c ou r t e s y t ow a r ds c ow o r ke r s e ve n unde r t he m os t t y r i ng bus i ne s s a nd pe r s ona l s i t ua t i ons 63. G i ve up t i m e t o he l p ot he r s w ho ha ve w o r k o r non w or k pr obl e m s 64. A s s i s t ot he r s w i t h t he i r dut i e s 65. S ha r e pe r s ona l pr ope r t y w i t h ot he r s t o he l p t he i r w or k 66. A t t e nd f unc t i ons t ha t a r e not r e qui r e d bu t t ha t he l p t he or ga ni z a t i ona l i m a ge 67. K e e p up w i t h de ve l opm e nt s i n t he or ga ni z a t i on 68. D e f e nd t he or ga ni z a t i on w he n ot he r e m pl oye e s c r i t i c i z e i t 69. S how pr i de w he n pr e s e nt i ng t he o r ga ni z a t i on i n pu bl i c 70. O f f e r i de a s t o i m pr ove t he f unc t i oni ng of t he o r ga ni z a t i on 71. E xpr e s s l oya l t y t ow a r ds t he or ga ni z a t i on 72. T a ke a c t i on t o pr ot e c t t he or ga ni z a t i on f r om pot e nt i a l pr obl e m s 73. D e m ons t r a t e c onc e r n a bout t he i m a ge of t he or ga n i z a t i on

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83 H ow of t e n h ave you d on e e ac h of t h e f o l l ow i n g t h i n gs on you r p r e s e n t j o b ? 1 2 3 4 5 N e v e r O n c e o r t w i c e O n c e o r t w i c e p e r m o n t h O n c e o r t w i c e p e r w e e k E v e r y d a y 74. P ur pos e l y w a s t e d your e m pl oye r s m a t e r i a l s / s uppl i e s 75. T ol d pe opl e out s i de t he j ob w ha t a l ous y pl a c e you w or k f or 76. P ur po s e l y di d you r w or k i nc or r e c t l y 77. C a m e t o w or k l a t e w i t hout pe r m i s s i on 78. S t a y e d h o m e f r o m w o r k a n d s a i d y o u w e r e s i c k w h e n y o u w e r e n t 79. P ur pos e l y da m a ge d a pi e c e of e qui pm e nt o r pr ope r t y 80. P ur pos e l y di r t i e d or l i t t e r e d you r pl a c e o f w or k 81. S t ol e n s om e t hi ng be l ongi ng t o your e m pl oye r 82. S t a r t e d or c ont i nue d a da m a gi ng or ha r m f ul r um o r a t w or k 83. B e e n na s t y or r ude t o a c l i e nt or c us t om e r 84. P ur pos e l y w or ke d s l ow l y w he n t hi ngs ne e de d t o g e t done 85. T a ke n a l onge r br e a k t ha n you w e r e a l l ow e d t o t a k e 86. P ur pos e l y f a i l e d t o f ol l ow i ns t r uc t i ons 87. L e f t w or k e a r l i e r t ha n you w e r e a l l ow e d t o 88. I ns ul t e d s om e one a bout t he i r j ob pe r f or m a nc e 89. M a de f un of s om e one s pe r s ona l l i f e 90. T ook s uppl i e s or t ool s hom e w i t hout pe r m i s s i on 91. P ut i n t o be pa i d f or m or e hour s t ha n you w or ke d 92. T ook m one y f r om your e m pl oye r w i t hou t pe r m i s s i on 93. I gnor e d s om e one a t w o r k 94. B l a m e d s om e one a t w or k f o r e r r or you m a de 95. S t a r t e d a n a r gu m e nt w i t h s om e one a t w or k 96. S t ol e s om e t hi ng be l ongi ng t o s om e one a t w o r k 97. V e r ba l l y a bus e d s om e one a t w or k 98. M a de a n obs c e ne ge s t ur e ( t he f i nge r ) t o s om e one a t w or k 99. T hr e a t e ne d s om e one a t w or k w i t h vi o l e nc e 100. T hr e a t e ne d s om e one a t w or k but not phys i c a l l y 101. S a i d s om e t hi ng obs c e ne t o s om e one a t w or k t o m a ke t he m f e e l ba d 102. D i d s om e t hi ng t o m a ke s om e one a t w or k l ook ba d 103. P l a ye d a m e a n pr a nk t o e m ba r r a s s s om e one a t w or k 104. L ooke d a t s om e one a t w o r k s pr i va t e m a i l / pr ope r t y w i t hout pe r m i s s i on 105. H i t or pus he d s om e one a t w or k 106. I ns ul t e d or m a de f un o f s om e one a t w o r k

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84 D e m ogr ap h i c Q u e s t i on s T hank y ou f or c om pl e t i ng t he que s t i onnai r e s P l e as e t ak e a m om e nt t o c om pl e t e t he f ol l ow i ng pe r s onal i nf or m at i on: 1. S e x: M F 2. A ge 3. W ha t i s your r a c i a l / e t hni c he r i t a ge ? 1. W hi t e / A ngl o o r E ur ope a n A m e r i c a n 2. B l a c k/ A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 3. A s i a n, A s i a n A m e r i c a n, P a c i f i c I s l a n de r 4. H i s pa ni c / L a t i no( a ) 5. N a t i ve A m e r i c a n 6. B i r a c i a l or m ul t i r a c i a l 7. O t he r 4. J ob S t a t us : F ul l t i m e P a r t t i m e 5. J ob t ype : M a na ge r i a l N on m a na ge r i a l 6. H ow l ong ha ve you be e n w or k i ng a t t hi s pos i t i o n? _________________________ 7. H ow l ong ha ve you be e n w or k i ng a t t hi s or ga ni z a t i on? ______________________ 8. H ow m a ny hou r s do you w or k pe r w e e k? _________________________________ Th an k you f or p a r t i c i p at i n g i n ou r s tu d y of w o r k b e h a vi or

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85 A ppe ndi x B C ow or k e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e E X P E R I E N C E S A T T H E W O R K P L A C E D e a r U S F E m pl oye e : T hi s que s t i onna i r e i s pa r t of m y m a s t e r s t he s i s s t u dy on pe opl e s r e a c t i ons t o t he i r j obs P l e a s e f i l l ou t t he C ow or ke r Q ue s t i onna i r e w i t h r e ga r ds t o Y O U R C O W O R K E R w ho i s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. A ns w e r a l l que s t i ons ba s e d on your obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s i m pr e s s i ons a nd c onve r s a t i ons w i t h Y O U R C O W O R K E R on hi s / he r pr e s e nt j ob. P a r t c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy i s s t r i c t l y vol unt a r y a nd a nonym ous O t he r t ha n t he c ode t he r e w i l l be no pe r s ona l i de nt i f i c a t i on on e i t he r your s ur ve y. T he r e i s no w a y your r e s pons e s c a n be t r a c ke d t o you a s a n i nd i vi dua l or t o your w or kg r oup. O nc e you c om pl e t e t he que s t i onna i r e p l e a s e m a i l i t us i ng t h e a t t a c he d e nve l ope w i t h m y r e t ur n a ddr e s s on i t T ha nk you i n a dva nc e f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng F e e l f r e e t o c ont a c t i f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons S i nc e r e l y, O z gun B R odopm a n D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogy U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da or odopm a @ m a i l us f e du P C D 4118G P u t you r ow n s e c r e t c od e h e r e ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ T h e c od e s h ou l d b e at l e as t 6 n u m b e r s / l e t t e r s B e s u r e t o h ave t h e s am e c od e on t h e e m p l oye e q u e s t i on n ai r e

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86 H ow of t e n d o yo u r c ow or k e r f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t or i m p os s i b l e t o d o h i s / h e r j ob b e c au s e of . ? 1 2 3 4 5 N e v e r O n c e o r t w i c e O n c e o r t w i c e p e r m o n t h O n c e o r t w i c e p e r w e e k E v e r y d a y 1. P oor e qui pm e nt or s uppl i e s 2. O r ga ni z a t i ona l r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s 3. O t he r e m pl oye e s 4. Y our s upe r vi s or 5. L a c k of e qui pm e nt or s uppl i e s 6. I na de qua t e t r a i ni ng. 7. I nt e r r upt i ons by ot he r pe opl e 8. L a c k of ne c e s s a r y i nf or m a t i on a bout w ha t t o do or how t o do i t 9. C onf l i c t i ng j ob de m a nds 10. I na de qua t e he l p f r om ot he r s 11. I nc or r e c t i ns t r uc t i ons

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87 H ow of t e n d oe s you r c ow or k e r e n gage i n t h e f o l l ow i n g b e h avi or s on h i s / h e r p r e s e n t j ob ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N e v e r R a r e l y O c c a s i o n a l l y S o m e t i m e s F a i r l y o f t e n V e r y o f t e n A l w a y s 12. H e l p ot he r s w ho ha ve be e n a bs e nt 13. W i l l i ngl y gi ve you r t i m e t o he l p ot he r s w ho ha ve w or k r e l a t e d pr obl e m s 14. A dj us t your w or k s c he dul e t o a c c om m oda t e ot he r e m pl oye e s r e que s t s f or t i m e of f 15. G o out of t he w a y t o m a ke ne w e r e m pl oye e s f e e l w e l c om e i n t he w or k gr oup 16. S how ge nui ne c onc e r n a nd c ou r t e s y t ow a r ds c ow o r ke r s e ve n unde r t he m os t t yr i ng bus i ne s s a nd pe r s ona l s i t ua t i ons 17. G i ve up t i m e t o he l p ot he r s w ho ha ve w o r k o r non w or k pr obl e m s 18. A s s i s t ot he r s w i t h t he i r dut i e s 19. S ha r e pe r s ona l pr ope r t y w i t h ot he r s t o he l p t he i r w or k 20. A t t e nd f unc t i ons t ha t a r e not r e qui r e d b u t t ha t he l p t he or ga ni z a t i ona l i m a ge 21. K e e p up w i t h de ve l opm e nt s i n t he or ga ni z a t i on 22. D e f e nd t he or ga ni z a t i on w he n ot he r e m pl oye e s c r i t i c i z e i t 23. S how pr i de w he n pr e s e nt i ng t he o r ga ni z a t i on i n pu bl i c 24. O f f e r i de a s t o i m pr ove t he f unc t i oni ng of t he o r ga ni z a t i on 25. E xpr e s s l oya l t y t ow a r ds t he or ga ni z a t i on 26. T a ke a c t i on t o pr ot e c t t he or ga ni z a t i on f r om pot e nt i a l pr obl e m s 27. D e m ons t r a t e c onc e r n a bout t he i m a ge of t he or ga n i z a t i on

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88 H ow of t e n h as you r c ow or k e r d on e e ac h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g t h i n gs on h i s / h e r p r e s e n t j ob ? 1 2 3 4 5 N e v e r O n c e o r t w i c e O n c e o r t w i c e p e r m o n t h O n c e o r t w i c e p e r w e e k E v e r y d a y 28. P ur pos e l y w a s t e d your e m pl oye r s m a t e r i a l s / s uppl i e s 29. T ol d pe opl e out s i de t he j ob w ha t a l ous y pl a c e you w or k f or 30. P ur pos e l y di d you r w or k i nc or r e c t l y 31. C a m e t o w or k l a t e w i t hout pe r m i s s i on 32. S t a y e d h o m e f r o m w o r k a n d s a i d y o u w e r e s i c k w h e n y o u w e r e n t 33. P ur pos e l y da m a ge d a pi e c e of e qui pm e nt o r pr ope r t y 34. P ur pos e l y di r t i e d or l i t t e r e d you r pl a c e o f w or k 35. S t ol e n s om e t hi ng be l ongi ng t o your e m pl oye r 36. S t a r t e d or c ont i nue d a da m a gi ng or ha r m f ul r um o r a t w or k 37. B e e n na s t y or r ude t o a c l i e nt or c us t om e r 38. P ur pos e l y w or ke d s l ow l y w he n t hi ngs ne e de d t o g e t done 39. T a ke n a l onge r br e a k t ha n you w e r e a l l ow e d t o t a k e 40. P ur pos e l y f a i l e d t o f ol l ow i ns t r uc t i ons 41. L e f t w or k e a r l i e r t ha n you w e r e a l l ow e d t o 42. I ns ul t e d s om e one a bout t he i r j ob pe r f or m a nc e 43. M a de f un of s om e one s pe r s ona l l i f e 44. T ook s uppl i e s or t ool s hom e w i t hout pe r m i s s i on 45. P ut i n t o be pa i d f or m or e hour s t ha n you w or ke d 46. T ook m one y f r om your e m pl oye r w i t hou t pe r m i s s i on 47. I gnor e d s om e one a t w o r k 48. B l a m e d s om e one a t w or k f o r e r r or you m a de 49. S t a r t e d a n a r gu m e nt w i t h s om e one a t w or k 50. S t ol e s om e t hi ng be l ongi ng t o s om e one a t w o r k 51. V e r ba l l y a bus e d s om e one a t w or k 52. M a de a n obs c e ne ge s t ur e ( t he f i nge r ) t o s om e one a t w or k 53. T hr e a t e ne d s om e one a t w or k w i t h vi o l e nc e 54. T hr e a t e ne d s om e one a t w or k but not phys i c a l l y 55. S a i d s om e t hi ng obs c e ne t o s om e one a t w or k t o m a ke t he m f e e l ba d 56. D i d s om e t hi ng t o m a ke s om e one a t w or k l ook ba d 57. P l a ye d a m e a n pr a nk t o e m ba r r a s s s om e one a t w or k 58. L ooke d a t s om e one a t w o r k s pr i va t e m a i l / pr ope r t y w i t hout pe r m i s s i on 59. H i t or pus he d s om e one a t w or k 60. I ns ul t e d or m a de f un o f s om e one a t w o r k

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89 D e m ogr ap h i c Q u e s t i on s T hank y ou f or c om pl e t i ng t he que s t i onnai r e s P l e as e t ak e a m om e nt t o c om pl e t e t he f ol l ow i ng pe r s onal i nf or m at i on: 1. S e x: M F 2. A ge 3. W ha t i s your r a c i a l / e t hni c he r i t a ge ? 1. W hi t e / A ngl o o r E ur ope a n A m e r i c a n 2. B l a c k/ A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 3. A s i a n, A s i a n A m e r i c a n, P a c i f i c I s l a nde r 4. H i s pa ni c / L a t i no( a ) 5. N a t i ve A m e r i c a n 6. B i r a c i a l or m ul t i r a c i a l 7. O t he r 4. J ob S t a t us : F ul l t i m e P a r t t i m e 5. J ob t ype : M a na ge r i a l N on m a na ge r i a l 6. H ow l ong ha ve you be e n w or k i ng a t t hi s pos i t i o n? _________________________ 7. H ow l ong ha ve you be e n w or k i ng a t t hi s or ga ni z a t i on? ______________________ 8. H ow m a ny hou r s do you w or k pe r w e e k? _________________________________ 9. H ow m a ny hou r s do you w or k w i t h or obs e r ve your c ow or ke r w ho i s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy on a n a ve r a ge w o r k da y ? 1= 0 1 hou r 2= 1 2 hou r s 3= 2 4 hou r s 4= 4 6 hou r s 5= 6 8 hou r s 6= M or e t ha n 8 hou r s Th an k you f or p a r t i c i p at i n g i n ou r s tu d y of w o r k b e h a vi or !!