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What is the effect of retrieval practice on competing associates in cued-recall?

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Title:
What is the effect of retrieval practice on competing associates in cued-recall?
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Akirmak, Umit
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Implicit memory
Retrieval induced forgetting
Competitors
Disruption
Cued recall task
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: There have been many theories on why we forget. One of the recent approaches to this phenomenon is retrieval induced forgetting (RIF). The present study investigated RIF and different kinds of disruptions and their effects by using extra-list cued recall task. Some participants studied two additional word lists after the target list and some participants studied and were tested from these interpolated lists before their final recall of target list. Relatedness of the interfering lists was also manipulated. There were two control groups that either got an immediate test or got a math task before memory test. The particular interest was on the target competitor effect. The results of the study indicated that all the disruption conditions reduced the effects of competitors. However, there was no effect of retrieval-induced forgetting and also no effect of relatedness. The importance of retention interval on forgetting was discussed.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Umit Akirmak.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 42 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001920948
oclc - 190787394
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001858
usfldc handle - e14.1858
System ID:
SFS0026176:00001


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What is the effect of retrieval practice on competing associates in cued-recall?
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ABSTRACT: There have been many theories on why we forget. One of the recent approaches to this phenomenon is retrieval induced forgetting (RIF). The present study investigated RIF and different kinds of disruptions and their effects by using extra-list cued recall task. Some participants studied two additional word lists after the target list and some participants studied and were tested from these interpolated lists before their final recall of target list. Relatedness of the interfering lists was also manipulated. There were two control groups that either got an immediate test or got a math task before memory test. The particular interest was on the target competitor effect. The results of the study indicated that all the disruption conditions reduced the effects of competitors. However, there was no effect of retrieval-induced forgetting and also no effect of relatedness. The importance of retention interval on forgetting was discussed.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Implicit memory.
Retrieval induced forgetting.
Competitors.
Disruption.
Cued recall task.
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PAGE 1

W ha t i s t he E f f e c t o f R e t r i e va l P r a c t i c e on C om pe t i n g A s s oc i a t e s i n C ue d R e c a l l ? by U m i t A ki r m a k A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogy C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : D ougl a s L N e l s on, P h. D C a t hy M c E voy P h D C ynt hi a C i m i no P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : O c t obe r 10, 2006 K e yw or ds : i m pl i c i t m e m o r y, r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng, c om pe t i t o r s di s r upt i on c ue d r e c a l l t a s k C opyr i ght 2006 U m i t A ki r m a k

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D e di c a t i on T hi s M a s t e r s T he s i s i s de di c a t e d t o m y c ol l e a gue s f r i e nds a nd m y f a m i l y L a t i f e O nur S e r ve t A ki r m a k w ho ga ve m e a l l t ha t I ne e de d t o s uc c e e d.

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A c know l e dgm e nt s I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk t he f ol l ow i ng pe opl e w i t hout w hom t hi s t he s i s w oul d ha ve ne ve r be e n pos s i bl e : D r D ougl a s N e l s on D r C a t hy M c E voy D r C ynt hi a C i m i no A nd B ur c u R odopm a n

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i L i s t of F i gur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v A bs t r a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 R e s pons e C om pe t i t i on a nd I nt e r f e r e nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 C ont e xt a nd F or ge t t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 R e t r i e va l I nduc e d F or ge t t i ng . I nhi bi t i on a nd S t r e ngt h I nde pe nde nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 P r oc e s s i ng I m pl i c i t a nd E xpl i c i t R e pr e s e nt a t i ons ( P I E R ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 E xt r a l i s t C ui ng T a s k a nd I m pl i c i t M e m or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 E f f e c t s of C ha nge s i n t he F oc us o f A t t e nt i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 R a t i ona l e f or t he C ur r e nt S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 C ur r e nt S t udy a nd H ypot he s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 M e t hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 D e s i gn a nd P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 M a t e r i a l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 P r oc e dur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 B r i e f S um m a r y of t he D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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i i D a t a A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 D i s c us s i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 S um m a r y of R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 C om pa r i s on of P r oc e dur e t o R I F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 I nt e r pr e t a t i on o f F i ndi ngs a nd I m pl i c a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 F ut ur e D i r e c t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 R e f e r e nc e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 A ppe ndi c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 A ppe ndi x A : M a t e r i a l s U s e d i n t he E xpe r i m e nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

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i i i L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 F i ndi ngs a dopt e d f r om N e l s on e t a l ( 1 993) s t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 T a bl e 2 L a yout f o r t he pr e s e nt s t udy a nd t he e xp e r i m e nt a l c ondi t i ons s how i ng t he t i m e s e que nc e f or e a c h o f t he m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 T a bl e 3 P r oba bi l i t y of c o r r e c t r e c a l l a s a f unc t i o n of num be r of c om pe t i t or s r e l a t e dne s s a nd di s t r a c t or t a s ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

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i v L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1 T he r e s ul t s of A nde r s on e t a l s ( 1994 ) R I F s t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

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v W ha t i s t he E f f e c t o f R e t r i e va l P r a c t i c e on C om pe t i ng A s s oc i a t e s i n C ue d R e c a l l ? U m i t A ki r m a k A B S T R A C T T he r e ha ve be e n m a ny t he or i e s on w hy w e f o r ge t O ne of t he r e c e nt a ppr oa c he s t o t hi s phe nom e non i s r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f o r ge t t i ng ( R I F ) T he pr e s e nt s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d R I F a nd di f f e r e nt ki nds of di s r upt i ons a nd t he i r e f f e c t s by us i ng e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l t a s k. S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d t w o a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s a f t e r t he t a r ge t l i s t a nd s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d a nd w e r e t e s t e d f r om t he s e i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s be f or e t he i r f i na l r e c a l l of t a r ge t l i s t R e l a t e dne s s of t he i nt e r f e r i ng l i s t s w a s a l s o m a ni pul a t e d. T he r e w e r e t w o c ont r ol gr oups t ha t e i t he r got a n i m m e di a t e t e s t or got a m a t h t a s k be f or e m e m o r y t e s t T he pa r t i c ul a r i n t e r e s t w a s on t he t a r ge t c om pe t i t or e f f e c t T he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t a l l t he di s r upt i on c ondi t i ons r e duc e d t he e f f e c t s o f c om pe t i t or s H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no e f f e c t of r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng a nd a l s o no e f f e c t of r e l a t e dne s s T he i m por t a nc e of r e t e nt i on i n t e r va l on f or ge t t i ng w a s di s c us s e d.

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1 H um a ns l i ve i n a c ons t a nt f l ow of i nf o r m a t i on a nd m os t of t ha t i nf or m a t i on i s f or got t e n du r i ng t he r out i ne of da i l y l i f e F o r p r a c t i c a l a nd t he or e t i c a l c onc e r ns f or ge t t i ng ha s be e n i nve s t i ga t e d e xt e ns i ve l y i n t he m e m or y l i t e r a t ur e O ne of t he m os t c om m onl y he l d vi e w s i s t ha t f o r ge t t i ng oc c ur s be c a us e ne w l y l e a r ne d m a t e r i a l i nt e r f e r e s w i t h t he ol d m e m or i e s i e r e t r oa c t i ve i nt e r f e r e nc e ( B a r ne s & U nde r w ood, 1959; J e nki ns & D a l l e nba c h, 1924 a s c i t e d i n M c G e oc h, 1932) I n a t ypi c a l r e t r oa c t i ve i nt e r f e r e nc e e xpe r i m e nt one g r oup o f s ubj e c t s ( c ont r ol ) l e a r ns w or d l i s t A a nd a f t e r a n i nt e r va l t he y a r e t e s t e d f or r e c a l l A s e c ond gr oup of s ubj e c t s ( e xpe r i m e nt a l ) l e a r ns l i s t A a nd t he n l i s t B a f t e r w hi c h t h e y a r e t e s t e d on l i s t A T he t ypi c a l f i ndi ng f o r t hi s e xpe r i m e nt i s t ha t t he r e c a l l pe r f or m a nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup i s w or s e t ha n t he c ont r o l gr oup A s a n e xa m pl e s uppos e you a r e t r yi ng t o r e m e m be r w hi c h m ovi e you s a w i n t he t he a t e r t w o m ont hs a go w i t h a f r i e nd I f t h i s w a s t he onl y m ovi e you w e nt t o w i t h t hi s f r i e nd t he f r i e nd i s a us e f ul pa r t of t he r e t r i e va l c ue B ut i f y ou ha ve gone t o t he m ovi e t he a t e r m a ny t i m e s w i t h t hi s f r i e nd a f t e r s e e i ng t hi s m ovi e t he n a l l t he s e oc c a s i ons m a ke i t ha r de r f o r you t o r e m e m be r t he pa r t i c ul a r e pi s ode you w a nt t o r e m e m be r A n e xpl a na t i on f or t hi s phe nom e non c om e s f r om r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on t he or y. M c G e oc h ( 1942) a r gue s t ha t w he n s t i m ul us B i s l e a r ne d w i t h t he s t i m ul us A t he r e i s t he A B l e a r ni ng. S i m i l a r l y, w he n t he s t i m ul us C i s l e a r ne d w i t h A A C l e a r ni ng oc c ur s A B a nd A C a s s oc i a t i ons a r e i nde pe nde nt of e a c h ot he r a nd i f t he s e r e s pons e s a r e l e a r ne d c ons e c ut i ve l y ( e g. s t udyi ng f i r s t A B pa i r s a nd t he n A C pa i r s ) t he n t he r e l a t i ve s t r e ngt h of a pa r t i c ul a r r e s pons e de t e r m i ne s w he t he r B or C w i l l be r e c a l l e d gi ve n t he s t i m ul us A i n t e s t A c c or di ng t o t he r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on e xpl a na t i on, i nt e r f e r e nc e oc c ur s di r e c t l y

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2 be c a us e of t he s t r e ngt h of a r e s pons e T he s t r onge r r e s pons e s ha ve a hi ghe r pr oba bi l i t y of be i n g r e c a l l e d ove r l e s s s t r ong r e s pons e s gi ve n t ha t bot h o f t he m w e r e pa i r e d w i t h t he s a m e c ont e xt or t e s t c ue H e nc e t he a m oun t of i nt e r f e r e nc e obs e r ve d de pe nds on t hi s s t r e ngt h c om pe t i t i on ( e g. i f C i s s t r onge r t ha n B a nd bot h of t he m w e r e s t udi e d w i t h s t i m ul us A t he n a t t he t i m e of t e s t w he n A i s gi ve n, C w i l l be r e c a l l e d m or e o f t e n c om pa r e d t o B ) T he s t r e ngt h de pe nde nc e a s s um pt i on of r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on t he or y f or i nt e r f e r e nc e ha s be e n c ha l l e nge d by r e c e nt w or k o n r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng ( A nde r s on, 2003) A nde r s on, B j or k & B j or k ( 199 4) c l a i m e d t ha t f or ge t t i ng de pe nds on t he a m ount of r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e c ons i s t i ng of t e s t s on t he t o be r e m e m be r e d s t i m ul i A c c or di ng t o t hi s c l a i m i n t e r f e r e nc e di s r upt s m e m or y a nd t r i gge r s a c ont r ol m e c ha ni s m t ha t i nhi bi t s c om pe t i ng i nf or m a t i on i n or de r t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l A s t i m ul us t ha t i s r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e d ( i e t e s t e d) r e m a i ns a c c e s s i bl e i n m e m or y. I n c ont r a s t a s t i m ul us t ha t i s m e a ni ngf ul l y r e l a t e d t o t he r e t r i e va l p r a c t i c e d s t i m ul us i s i nhi bi t e d i n or de r t o a voi d i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s H e nc e w ha t i s c e nt r a l t o t he c a us e of f or ge t t i ng i s i nhi bi t i on, not i nt e r f e r e nc e pr oduc e d by r e s pons e dom i na nc e T he f oc us of t he pa r a di gm i s i nhi bi t i on a t t he i t e m l e ve l A l t e r na t i ve l y s om e r e s e a r c h f i ndi n gs s ugge s t t ha t di s r upt i on of c ont e xt i s w ha t r e duc e s a s t udi e d w or d s a c c e s s i bi l i t y. N e l s on, M c E voy, J a nc z ur a & X u ( 1993) c l a i m e d t ha t f or ge t t i ng c a n be c a us e d by r e duc e d a c c e s s i bi l i t y t o t he c ont e xt ua l c ue s of t he l e a r ni ng e pi s ode due t o a t t e nt i on s hi f t s t o a ne w t a s k or a ne w c ont e xt W ha t r e m a i ns a m ys t e r y i n t he l i t e r a t u r e i s t ha t t he r e i s no a gr e e d upon e xpl a na t i on f or w hy w e f o r ge t w ha t w e l e a r n. W e m a y f or ge t be c a us e of r e s pons e dom i na nc e i nt e r f e r e nc e i nhi bi t i on of

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3 s pe c i f i c i t e m s or di s r upt i on o f t he c ont e xt ua l i nf o r m a t i on. T he a i m o f t he pr e s e nt s t udy i s t o i nve s t i ga t e a nd a dva nc e our kn ow l e dge of e pi s o di c f or ge t t i ng M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y t he s i m i l a r i t y of i nt e r pol a t e d a c t i vi t y t o t he or i gi na l s t u dy i t e m s w i l l be m a ni pul a t e d i n or de r t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he m e c h a ni s m s of f o r ge t t i ng. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy w i l l a f f e c t how m e m or y m ode l s a r e f o r m ul a t e d t o pr ovi de a b e t t e r a c c ount of how w e r e t r i e ve know l e dge T hi s s t udy w i l l a l l ow us t o de c i de be t w e e n i t e m a nd c ont e xt di s r upt i on i nt e r pr e t a t i ons f or f o r ge t t i ng. I n t e r f e r e nc e t he or y a t t r i but e s t he m a gni t ude o f f o r ge t t i ng t o t he s i m i l a r i t y of t he i nt e r pol a t e d a c t i vi t y t o t he i n i t i a l s t udy ( M c G e oc h, 1932) M c G e oc h, & M c D ona l d ( 1931 a s c i t e d i n M c G e oc h, 1942) s how e d how t he s i m i l a r i t y of i nt e r pol a t e d a c t i vi t i e s t o t he o r i gi na l l e a r ni ng t a s k a f f e c t e d r e m e m be r i ng. F or t h i s pur pos e t he y f or m e d t a r ge t l i s t s w i t h t w o s yl l a bl e a dj e c t i ve s a nd m a ni pul a t e d t he s i m i l a r i t y o f t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s t o t he t a r ge t a dj e c t i ve s S ubj e c t s l e a r ne d t he a dj e c t i ve s t o a pe r f e c t c r i t e r i on a f t e r w hi c h t he y e i t he r di d not h i ng f o r 10 m i nut e s l e a r ne d 3 di g i t n um be r s l e a r ne d nons e ns e s yl l a bl e s l e a r ne d unr e l a t e d a dj e c t i ve s l e a r ne d a nt onym s or l e a r ne d s ynonym s T he r e s ul t s of t he e xpe r i m e nt s how e d t ha t a s t he s i m i l a r i t y of t he i n t e r pol a t e d i t e m s i nc r e a s e d ( s i m i l a r i t y w a s j udge d by i nde pe nde nt r a t e r s ) t he r e c a l l of t a r ge t i t e m s de c r e a s e d. P a r t i c ul a r l y r e c a l l w a s hi ghe s t i n t he r e s t c ondi t i on a nd de c l i ne d s ys t e m a t i c a l l y i n t he ot he r c ondi t i ons w i t h l ow e s t r e c a l l f o r pa r t i c i pa nt s s t ud yi ng s ynonym s a s t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t H e nc e t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy de m ons t r a t e d t ha t i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s w e r e m ode r a t e d by t he de gr e e of s i m i l a r i t y be t w e e n t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t a nd t he t a r ge t l i s t H i g he s t

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4 i m pa i r m e nt s i n r e c a l l w e r e obs e r ve d w i t h hi ghl y s i m i l a r t a s ks t o t he t a r ge t l i s t a nd l e s s i nt e r f e r e nc e w a s obs e r ve d a s t hi s s i m i l a r i t y de c r e a s e d. A l t hough i nt e r f e r e nc e t he or y e xpl a i ns de c r e a s e d r e c a l l w he n t he i nt e r pol a t e d i t e m s a r e s i m i l a r t o t a r ge t i t e m s r e c e nt w or k on r e t r i e va l pr oc e s s e s pr ovi de s e vi de nc e a ga i ns t i nt e r f e r e nc e a c c ount s of f o r ge t t i ng. S pe c i f i c a l l y, A nde r s on e t a l ( 1994 ) a r gue d t ha t t he a c t o f r e t r i e va l c a n i nhi bi t r e l a t e d m e m or i e s i n or de r t o m a ke i t e a s i e r t o r e c a l l t he e pi s ode R e l a t e d m e m or i e s a r e i nhi bi t e d t o a voi d c onf us i on w i t h i t e m s t ha t ne e d t o be r e m e m be r e d. T hi s e xpl a na t i on i s ba s e d on t he r e t r i e va l pr oc e s s e s e nga ge d i n be t w e e n s t udy a nd f i na l r e c a l l r a t he r t ha n t a s k s i m i l a r i t i e s B ot h i nt e r f e r e nc e a nd r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng e xpl a na t i ons a s s um e t ha t c om pe t i t i on be t w e e n t he p a i r s of w or ds i s a ne c e s s a r y c ondi t i on f or i nt e r f e r e nc e t o oc c ur T he y di ve r ge i n t he t he or e t i c a l pos i t i on of t he s t r e ngt h of c om pe t i ng i t e m s I n ot he r t e r m s t he a m ount of i nt e r f e r e nc e i s s t r e ngt h de pe nde nt a c c or di ng t o i nt e r f e r e nc e t he or y S t r onge r r e s po ns e s dom i na t e w e a ke r r e s pons e s a nd c a n c a us e f or ge t t i ng of t he w e a ke r r e s pons e s A ny pr o c e dur e or m e t hod t ha t a f f e c t s t he s t r e ngt h of i n t e r f e r i ng m a t e r i a l ( e g p r e s e nt i ng t he i nt e r f e r i ng i t e m s 3 t i m e s i ns t e a d of 1 t i m e pr oduc e s m or e c om pe t i t i on) w i l l a l s o ha ve a n e f f e c t on t he m a gni t ude of i nt e r f e r e nc e ( H a l l 1989; R e i s be r g, 2001) I n c ont r a s t a c c or di ng t o t he r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng poi n t of vi e w t he i nt e r f e r e nc e obs e r ve d i s i nde pe nde nt of t he s t r e ngt h of i nt e r f e r i ng r e s pons e s but de pe nde nt on t he i nhi bi t or y c ont r ol pr oc e s s e s t ha t a r e us e d t o r e s ol ve t he i nt e r f e r e nc e P a r t i c ul a r l y, r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e i s a ne c e s s a r y c ondi t i on f or f or ge t t i ng t o oc c ur r e ga r dl e s s of t he s t r e ngt h ( B a um l 1996 )

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5 T he i de a of r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f o r ge t t i ng i s t e s t e d i n a p a r a di gm t ha t ha s f ou r s t a ge s ( A nde r s on e t a l 1994 ) T he e xpe r i m e nt a l s t i m ul i c ons i s t of c a t e gor i e s a nd c a t e gor y e xe m pl a r s I n t he s t udy pha s e pa r t i c i pa nt s m e m or i z e c a t e gor y e xe m pl a r pa i r s A f t e r s t udy, pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n a s t e m c om pl e t i on t e s t on ha l f of t he c a t e gor i e s w i t h ha l f of t he e xe m pl a r s i e r e t r i e va l p r a c t i c e F or e xa m pl e i f a ni m a l pl a ne t f r ui t a nd f ur ni t ur e a r e t he c a t e gor i e s a nd t i ge r w a l r us P l u t o M a r s c he r r y ba na na c ha i r t a bl e a r e t he e xe m pl a r s of t hos e c a t e gor i e s pa r t i c i pa nt s r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e ( i e ge t t e s t e d) on a ni m a l t i ge r a nd f r ui t ba na na W i t h t hi s pr oc e dur e t hr e e di f f e r e nt t ype s of i t e m s a r e c r e a t e d. R e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e d i t e m s a r e t he e xe m pl a r s f r om t he pr a c t i c e d c a t e gor i e s ( R P + ) e g. t i ge r ba na na N on r e t r i e va l p r a c t i c e d i t e m s a r e t he e xe m pl a r s t ha t be l ong t o a pr a c t i c e d c a t e gor y but a r e not p r a c t i c e d i n t he r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e pha s e ( R P ) e g w a l r us c he r r y. F i na l l y, t he r e a r e t he i t e m s t ha t a r e unp r a c t i c e d e xe m pl a r s f r om t he unpr a c t i c e d c a t e gor i e s ( N R P ) e g. P l ut o c ha i r A f t e r t he r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e pha s e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve a di s t r a c t or t a s k f o r 20 30 m i nut e s w hi c h i s us ua l l y a r e a s oni ng t a s k. I n t he f i na l pha s e t he y a r e gi ve n t he c ue s a nd a s ke d t o r e m e m be r a l l t he w or ds t he y ha ve s e e n t hr oughou t t he e xpe r i m e nt A s s how n i n F i gu r e 1 R P + i t e m s a r e ge ne r a l l y be t t e r r e m e m be r e d t ha n N R P i t e m s a nd R P i t e m s a r e r e m e m be r e d l e s s w e l l t ha n N R P i t e m s E nga gi ng i n r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e i m p r ove s m e m or y f or t he pr a c t i c e d i t e m s H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s a l s o s how e d t ha t unpr a c t i c e d i t e m s f r om t he pr a c t i c e d c a t e gor y a r e i nhi bi t e d, i e t he i r r e c a l l r a t e w a s l ow e r c om pa r e d t o unpr a c t i c e d c a t e gor y i t e m s ( A nde r s on, 2003; A nde r s on e t a l 1994) T he i nhi bi t i on, i n t h i s c ont e xt i s t he r e duc t i on of t he l e ve l of a c t i va t i on c om pa r e d

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6 t o ba s e l i ne ( A nde r s on e t a l 1994; V e l i ng & K ni pp e nbe r g, 2004) H e nc e i nhi bi t e d i t e m s ha ve a hi ghe r c ha nc e of be i ng f or got t e n. F i gur e 1. T he r e s ul t s of A nde r s on e t al s ( 1994 ) r e t r i e v al i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng s t udy P r obabi l i t y of c or r e c t r e c al l f or t he s e l e c t e d c at e gor i e s P r ac t i c e d C at e gor y U n p r ac t i c e d C at e gor y F r u i t s D r i n k s O r an ge ( R P + ) B an an a ( R P ) S c ot c h ( N R P ) R u m ( N R P ) T he r e s ul t s o f t he s e e xpe r i m e nt s a r e i nt e r e s t i ng be c a us e t he y s how t he i m por t a nc e of r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e on t he i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t A nde r s on, B j or k & B j or k ( 1994, 2000) de m ons t r a t e d t he i m por t a nc e o f r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e m or e c l e a r l y by m a ki ng a s l i ght c ha nge t o t he t a s k. I ns t e a d of g i vi ng a r e t r i e va l t e s t f or t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t t he y a s ke d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o s t udy s om e of t he c a t e gor y e xe m pl a r s i n t he a bs e nc e of t he r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e c om pone nt T hi s e xpe r i m e nt a nd ot he r s us i ng r e pe a t e d s t udy s e s s i ons i ns t e a d of t e s t t r i a l s f a i l e d t o f i nd i nhi bi t i on i e f a i l e d t o f i nd i nt e r f e r e nc e f r om t he i nt e r po l a t e d a c t i vi t y. A nde r s on ( 2003; A nde r s on e t a l 2000 ) c onc l ude d t ha t r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e i s ne c e s s a r y i n or de r t o ob t a i n i nhi bi t i on e f f e c t s M or e ove r t he i ne f f e c t i ve ne s s of e xt r a 73 38 50 50

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7 s t udy t r i a l s a l one s ugge s t s t ha t i nhi bi t i on i s s t r e ngt h i nde pe nde nt ( A nde r s on, 2003) A l t hough t he s t r e ngt h of t he pa i r s i s a s s um e d t o i n c r e a s e dur i ng e xt r a s t udy t r i a l s t he s e e xt r a t r i a l s f a i l e d t o p r oduc e i nhi bi t i on e f f e c t s B a um l ( 1996) a l s o f ou nd s uppor t f or t he i na de qua c y of e xt r a s t udy e xpos ur e s a l one H e m a ni pul a t e d t he de gr e e of or i gi na l l e a r ni ng a nd e xa m i ne d r e t r oa c t i ve i nt e r f e r e nc e w hi l e c ont r ol l i ng f or out put i n t e r f e r e n c e I n h i s e xpe r i m e nt t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d a l i s t of w or ds a f t e r w hi c h s om e of t he m o nl y s t udi e d t w o i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s a nd s om e s t udi e d a nd w e r e t e s t e d on t w o i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s A l s o, s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s f o r 3 s e c onds a nd s om e s t udi e d t he m f o r 5 s e c onds T he r e s ul t s of hi s e xpe r i m e nt s s how e d t ha t t he a m ount of r e t r oa c t i ve f or ge t t i ng w a s i nde pe nde nt of t he de gr e e of i nt e r pol a t e d s t udy. H ow e ve r i t di d va r y w i t h t he a m ount of r e t r i e va l p r a c t i c e on t he i nt e r pol a t e d m a t e r i a l a s i nd i c a t e d by pr e s e n c e of i nt e r f e r e nc e onl y w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t e s t e d on t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s ( B a um l 1996) M e r e l y s t udyi ng t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s f a i l e d t o pr oduc e i nt e r f e r e nc e T h i s di f f e r e nc e i ndi c a t e s a p r i vi l e ge d r ol e f or t he a c t of r e c a l l i ng ove r s t udyi ng a nd gi ve s s uppor t t o t he i de a t ha t r e t r i e va l i t s e l f m a y c a us e f or ge t t i ng of r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l I n o r de r t o obt a i n i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s i t a ppe a r s t o be ne c e s s a r y t o t e s t pa r t i c i pa nt s on t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t ( A nde r s on, 2003; B a um l 1996) H e nc e i t ha s be e n a r gue d t ha t s t udyi ng a n i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t i s ne i t he r s uf f i c i e nt no r ne c e s s a r y t o obs e r ve i nt e r f e r e nc e T he pr opos e d u nde r l yi ng m e c ha ni s m i s a n i nhi b i t or y pr oc e s s t ha t i s r e s pons i bl e f or r e duc i ng t he a c t i va t i on l e ve l s of r e l a t e d e pi s ode s r e l a t i ve t o t he r e t r i e ve d e pi s ode ( s e e A nde r s on ( 2003) f or a d e t a i l e d di s c us s i on of r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng)

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8 A di f f e r e nt vi e w of t he c a us e s of f or ge t t i ng c a n be f ound i n r e c e nt w or k a bout t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t t e nt i on a nd m e m o r y ( N e l s on & M c E voy, 2005) T hi s t ype o f r e s e a r c h ha s f oc us e d on how a ut om a t i c a l l y a c t i va t e d i nf or m a t i on i s m a i nt a i ne d i n a n a c c e s s i bl e s t a t e i n m e m or y, e g t he w or d D O G a ut om a t i c a l l y a c t i va t e s A N I M A L C A T B A R K a nd s o f or t h O ne m e m or y m ode l t ha t f oc u s e s on t he i nf l ue nc e of i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d m e m or i e s i s N e l s on e t a l s ( 1993) P r oc e s s i ng I m pl i c i t a nd E xpl i c i t R e pr e s e nt a t i ons ( P I E R ) A c c or di ng t o t hi s m ode l r e m e m be r i ng s om e t hi ng i s a f unc t i on of bot h e xpl i c i t a nd i m pl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i ons T he i nf l ue nc e of t he s e t w o r e pr e s e nt a t i ons i s i nve s t i ga t e d i n a n e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l t a s k. I n t h i s t a s k, pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udy a l i s t of w o r ds a nd t he n i n t he t e s t pha s e t he y a r e gi ve n c ue s t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o t he s t udi e d w or ds i n or de r t o a i d t he r e c a l l of t he s t udi e d w o r d s c a l l e d t a r ge t s T he c ue s pr e s e nt e d i n t he t e s t a r e not s how n i n t he s t udy pha s e a nd a r e r e l a t e d t o t he t a r ge t s vi a pr e e xi s t i ng c onne c t i ons ( e g. i f dog i s a s t udi e d w or d c a t m i ght be us e d a s a c ue t o t e s t m e m or y f or dog ) T hi s t ype of r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on t he i n f l ue nc e of i m p l i c i t l y a c t i va t e d i nf or m a t i on on e pi s odi c r e c a l l by e xa m i ni ng e f f e c t s t ha t t he a s s oc i a t i ve s t r uc t ur e of t he w or ds ha s on r e c a l l T he e xpl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he t a r ge t w or d i nc l ude s t he c ont e xt ua l i nf or m a t i on t ha t i s pr e s e nt dur i ng e nc odi ng a s w e l l a s t he qua nt i t y a nd qua l i t y of t he s t udy ( i e w he t he r i t i s r e he a r s i ng w or ds c ount i ng vow e l s or r a t i ng c onc r e t e ne s s e t c ) ( N e l s on & G oodm on, 2002; 2003) S t udyi ng a w o r d pr oduc e s a n e xpl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i on t ha t i s

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9 l i nke d t o t he c ont e xt of s t udy. I n a s e ns e t he c ont e xt 1 of t he l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e c a n a c t a s a r e t r i e va l c ue be c a us e c ont e xt ua l c ue s a r e e nc o de d i nt o t he e xpl i c i t r e p r e s e nt a t i on. M or e ove r c ont e xt c ue s i nf l ue nc e t he e f f e c t s of i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d m e m or i e s be c a us e t hos e m e m or i e s a r e bound t o t he t a r ge t T hus a ny di s r upt i on of c ont e xt a f f e c t s bot h e xpl i c i t a nd i m pl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he t a r ge t ( N e l s on & G oodm on, 2003) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t r e c a l l i n e xt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k va r i e s a s a f unc t i on o f t he a s s oc i a t i ve s t r uc t ur e of t he w or ds ( F or a de t a i l e d d i s c us s i on, s e e N e l s on & M c E vo y, 2005) I t i s a s s um e d t ha t s t udyi ng a w or d i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e s a l l of i t s a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d w or ds i n pa r a l l e l O f pa r t i c ul a r i nt e r e s t w o r ds a r e f ound t o ha ve d i f f e r e nt num be r of a s s oc i a t e s r e l a t e d t o t he m a va r i a bl e na m e d s e t s i z e I t ha s be e n s ho w n t ha t w or ds t ha t ha ve a s m a l l s e t s i z e a r e e a s i e r t o r e c a l l c om pa r e d t o w or ds t ha t ha ve l a r ge s e t s i z e a l l ot he r t hi ngs be i ng e qua l ( N e l s on e t a l 1994; N e l s on, M c K i nne y & M c E voy 2003 ) T he e xpl a na t i on f or s e t s i z e e f f e c t s r e s t s on t he p r oba bi l i t y of s a m pl i ng a t a r ge t a m ong i t s a s s oc i a t e s gi ve n t he c ue W he n w or ds a r e s t udi e d or w he n t he y s e r ve a s t e s t c ue s t he y i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e t he i r a s s oc i a t e s H e nc e t he a s s oc i a t e s of t he c ue a nd t he t a r ge t a r e a c t i va t e d dur i ng t e s t i ng a nd t he i nt e r s e c t i on be t w e e n t he t a r ge t s a nd t he c ue s a s s oc i a t i ve s e t s de t e r m i ne t he pr oba bi l i t y of r e c a l l ( N e l s on e t a l 1993) S o m e a s s oc i a t e s of t he t a r ge t a i d r e c a l l w he r e a s s om e of t he m di s r upt r e c a l l S pe c i f i c a l l y, a s s oc i a t e s of t he t a r ge t t ha t a r e not i n t he c ue s a s s oc i a t i ve s e t hi nde r r e c a l l be c a us e t he y c om pe t e w i t h t he t a r ge t f o r 1 M or e e vi de nc e f or t he i m po r t a nc e of c ont e xt ua l c ue s i n f or ge t t i ng i s a l s o f ound i n a ni m a l l e a r ni ng s t udi e s C a pa l di & N e a t h ( 1995 ) a r gue s t ha t m e m or y pe r f or m a nc e de pe nds on how w e l l a t e s t c ue di s c r i m i na t e s be t w e e n t o be r e m e m be r e d m e m or y a nd ot he r m e m or i e s

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10 r e c a l l T a r ge t s e t s i z e e f f e c t s a r e de r i ve d di r e c t l y f r om t he num be r of c om pe t i t or s a nd ha vi ng m or e a nd s t r onge r c om pe t i t o r s f or t he t a r ge t m a ke s s a m pl i ng i t l e s s pr oba bl e ( N e l s on, M c K i nne y, G e e & J a nc z ur a 1998) T a r g e t s w i t h m a ny c om pe t i t or s ha ve l e s s e r pr oba bi l i t y of be i ng r e m e m be r e d i n e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l c om pa r e d t o t a r ge t s w i t h f e w c om pe t i t or s T h i s i s c a l l e d t he c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t w hi c h s i gni f i e s t he r e c a l l a dva nt a ge o f t a r ge t s t ha t ha ve f e w c om pe t i t or s B e s i de s num be r of t a r ge t c om pe t i t or s ot he r m e a s ur e d va r i a bl e s a l s o i nf l ue nc e t he pr oba bi l i t y of c or r e c t r e c a l l I n P I E R t he c onne c t i ons t ha t l i nk c ue a nd t a r ge t a c t a s a m e a s ur e o f t he ne t s t r e n gt h of t he c ue t a r ge t r e l a t i ons hi p 2 N e t s t r e ngt h i s de c r e a s e d by di vi di ng by ne t s t r e ngt h pl us t he s t r e ngt h of t he c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s of t he c ue a nd o f t he t a r ge t ( N e l s on & M c E voy, 2005) I n ge ne r a l t a r ge t s t ha t ha ve s m a l l e r s e t s i z e s ( f e w e r c om pe t i t or s ) a nd m o r e l i nki ng c onne c t i ons w i t h t h e c ue yi e l d hi ghe r c ue d r e c a l l pe r f o r m a nc e ( N e l s on & M c E voy, 2005 ) S e t s i z e a nd ot he r l i nki ng c onne c t i ons ope r a t e i m pl i c i t l y a nd a f f e c t e pi s odi c m e m or y w he n t e s t e d w i t h a c ue d r e c a l l t a s k. T he pos i t i ve e f f e c t s o f s uc h i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d m e m or i e s a r e s u s c e pt i bl e t o s w i t c hi ng t he f oc us of a t t e nt i on ( N e l s on e t a l 199 8) M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, va r i a bl e s t ha t a r e f ound t o a f f e c t c ue d r e c a l l l os e t he i r a dva nt a ge w he n t he r e i s a c ha nge i n t he f oc us of a t t e nt i on. T a r ge t s e t s i z e e f f e c t s di m i n i s h w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s s ol ve m a t h pr obl e m s a f t e r s t udyi ng a l i s t of w or ds A l t hough w o r ds w i t h s m a l l s e t s i z e ha ve a r e c a l l a dva nt a ge due t o ha vi ng f e w e r c om pe t i t or s t hi s a dva nt a ge i s e l i m i na t e d w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s s w i t c h 2 T he s t r e ngt h of t he l i nk be t w e e n c ue a nd t he t a r ge t w a s de t e r m i ne d by f r e e a s s oc i a t i on. T he l i n ks m a y be f or w a r d ( c ue a c t i va t e s t a r ge t ) o r ba c kw a r d ( t a r ge t a c t i va t e s c ue ) A l s o t he l i nks m a ybe i ndi r e c t s uc h a s s ha r e d a s s oc i a t e s ( bot h c ue a nd t a r ge t a c t i va t e s a c om m on a s s oc i a t e ) or m e di a t or s ( c ue a c t i va t e s a n a s s oc i a t e w hi c h a c t i va t e s t a r ge t )

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11 a t t e nt i on t o a di f f e r e nt t a s k be f or e t he f i na l r e c a l l t e s t I n a n a t t e m pt t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s of di f f e r e nt i nt e r pol a t e d a c t i vi t i e s on f or ge t t i ng, N e l s on e t a l ( 1993) m a ni pul a t e d t he t ype s of a c t i vi t i e s e nga ge d i n be t w e e n s t udy a n d r e c a l l T he y us e d e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l a nd m a ni pul a t e d t a r ge t c om pe t i t or s i n or de r t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t s of i n t e r pol a t e d a c t i vi t y on i m pl i c i t m e m or i e s I n t he i r e xpe r i m e nt s pa r t i c i pa nt s f i r s t s t udi e d a l i s t of w or ds ( t a r ge t s ) S om e o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d t w o a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s of e i t he r r e l a t e d or un r e l a t e d w or ds s om e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w or ke d on m a t h pr obl e m s dur i ng t he r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l a nd s om e c ont r ol s w e r e t e s t e d i m m e di a t e l y. T he r e s ul t s r e ve a l e d a r e c a l l a dva nt a ge of s m a l l s e t s i z e w or ds ove r t he l a r ge s e t s i z e w or ds i e c om pe t i t or e f f e c t on t he i m m e di a t e t e s t I m po r t a nt l y, s e t s i z e e f f e c t s di s a ppe a r e d w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s s ol ve d m a t h pr obl e m s bu t not w he n t he y s t udi e d r e l a t e d or unr e l a t e d l i s t s of w o r ds a s s how n i n T a bl e 1 T he obt a i ne d r e s ul t s w e r e a t t r i b ut e d t o t he a t t e nt i on s hi f t f r om t he c ont e xt of s t udy i ng w o r ds t o t ha t of s ol vi ng m a t h p r obl e m s ( N e l s on e t a l 1993) D oi ng m ul t i pl i c a t i on pr ob l e m s a f t e r t he w or d l e a r ni ng e pi s ode r e duc e d a c c e s s t o c ont e xt c ue s a c qui r e d dur i ng t he w or d l e a r ni ng t a s k. I n t he c a s e of t he m a t h t e s t a t t e nt i on w a s s w i t c he d f r om a w o r d c ont e xt t o a m a t h c ont e xt t h a t m a de i t ha r de r t o ga i n a c c e s s t o t he pr e vi ous w or d c ont e xt be c a us e i t w a s not i n t he f o c us of a t t e nt i on ( N e l s on e t a l 1993 ) I n ot he r w or ds w he n a t t e nt i on i s s w i t c he d t o a ne w t a s k, a c c e s s t o m e m or y f or t he pr e vi ou s t a s k i s r e duc e d. I t m a y be r e duc e d be c a us e t he m e m or y of t he w or ds i s a c t i ve l y i nhi bi t e d or be c a us e pe r f or m a nc e on t he m a t h t a s k r e duc e s a c c e s s t o t he c ont e xt of w or d l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e

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12 T abl e 1. F i ndi ngs adop t e d f r om N e l s on e t al ( 199 3 ) s t udy P r ob abi l i t y of c or r e c t r e c al l as a f unc t i on of I nt e r pol at e d c ondi t i ons and t ar ge t s e t s i z e T a r ge t S e t S i z e _________________ C ondi t i ons S m a l l L a r ge M e a n ______________________________________________________ C ont r ol 67 52 60 R e l a t e d 52 38 45 U nr e l a t e d 51 35 43 M a t h 50 50 50 ______________________________________________________ H ow e ve r t he r e w a s onl y a s m a l l s pe c i f i c i n t e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t i n N e l s on e t a l s ( 1993) s t udy. I n t hi s pa r t i c ul a r e xpe r i m e nt r e c a l l o n t he r e l a t e d l i s t w a s not di f f e r e nt f r om r e c a l l on t he unr e l a t e d l i s t T hi s f i ndi ng i s i nt e r e s t i ng, be c a us e i t goe s a ga i ns t t he pr e di c t i ons of i nt e r f e r e nc e t he or y I nt e r f e r e nc e t he or y pr e di c t s t ha t t he s i m i l a r i t y of t he t w o t a s ks w i l l ha ve a ne ga t i ve i m pa c t on r e c a l l ( M c G e oc h, 1942) I t w oul d be e xpe c t e d t ha t s t udyi ng i nt e r pol a t e d w or d l i s t s t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t e s of t he t a r ge t s w oul d c a us e m or e i nt e r f e r e nc e c om pa r e d t o s t udyi ng i nt e r pol a t e d unr e l a t e d l i s t s of w or ds i e s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e N e l s on e t a l s ( 1993 ) r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t r e c a l l of t he or i gi na l l i s t di d not dr op a s m uc h a s w ha t m i ght be e xpe c t e d f r om t he i nt e r f e r e nc e t he or y w he n s ubj e c t s s t udi e d a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d w or ds r a t he r t ha n a s s oc i a t i ve l y unr e l a t e d w or ds G e ne r a l i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s w e r e p r e s e nt be c a us e r e c a l l a f t e r s t udyi ng a ddi t i ona l l i s t s w a s l ow e r t ha n i n t he c ont r ol c ondi t i on, but t he r e w e r e onl y s m a l l s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s c a us e d by w or d r e l a t e dne s s ( s e e T a bl e 1) F u r t he r m or e s t udyi ng i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s of

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13 e i t he r t yp e ha d no i nf l ue nc e on t he m a gni t ude of t h e c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s I n N e l s on e t a l s ( 1993) s t udy, s e t s i z e e f f e c t s w e r e r e duc e d onl y w he n a t t e nt i on w a s di ve r t e d t o a c onc e pt ua l l y di f f e r e nt t a s k. P a r t i c i pa nt s s uppos e dl y m a i nt a i ne d t he i r a t t e nt i on on w or ds w he n s t udyi ng i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s w he t he r t he y w e r e r e l a t e d or unr e l a t e d t o t he o r i gi na l t a r ge t s H ow e ve r w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s s ol ve d m a t h p r obl e m s i t r e qui r e d a s hi f t f r om t he c ont e xt of w or ds t o t he c ont e xt of num be r s w hi c h a r e t w o di f f e r e nt dom a i ns T he r e f or e e l i m i na t i ng s e t s i z e e f f e c t s s e e m s t o be m o r e c ont r ol l e d by a t t e nt i on s hi f t s r a t he r t ha n by t he s i m i l a r i t y o f t he t a s k. B a um l s ( 1996) s t udy i s r e l e va nt be c a us e t he r e s ul t s of hi s e xpe r i m e nt s ugge s t t ha t i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o t e s t m e m o r y f or t he i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t t o ob t a i n i nt e r f e r e nc e P a r t i c ul a r l y, N e l s on e t a l ( 1993) m a y not ha ve f ou nd s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s be c a us e t he y di d not t e s t m e m or y f or t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t i t e m s C om pe t i t i on pr oduc e d by onl y s t udyi ng i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s m a y ha ve be e n t oo w e a k t o pr oduc e l a r ge s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s i n t he e xt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k. T e s t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s on t he i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t s m a y be r e qui r e d i n or de r t o p r oduc e hi gh e nough c om pe t i t i on t o pr oduc e s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e H e nc e s w i t c hi ng a t t e nt i on t o a di f f e r e nt s t udy l i s t m a y be i ns uf f i c i e nt f or obs e r vi ng s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e c om pa r e d t o s hi f t i ng a t t e nt i on t o t hi s l i s t a nd a l s o be i ng t e s t e d on t he i t e m s a c qui r e d. M or e ove r w i t h l a r ge r s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s t he e f f e c t s o f c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s m a y ha ve be e n e l i m i na t e d by s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e a s w e l l a s by t a s k s w i t c hi ng. F ol l ow i ng A nde r s on s ( 2003) r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng pa r a di gm i t m i ght be t ha t s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s w i l l be l a r ge r w he n i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t i t e m s a r e bot h s t udi e d a nd t e s t e d. A c c or di ng t o A nde r s on e t a l ( 2000 ) r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e i nhi bi t s

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14 i t e m s t ha t a r e r e l a t e d t o t he t e s t e d i t e m s M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e t e s t e d on i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s t he y a r e not onl y ge t t i ng e xt r a s t udy e xpos ur e s t o i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t i t e m s a nd i nc r e a s i ng pr oba bi l i t y of c or r e c t r e c a l l f or t he s e i t e m s but t he y a r e a l s o i nhi bi t i ng r e l a t e d w or ds i nc l udi ng t a r ge t s f r om t he or i gi na l l i s t t ha t a r e r e l a t e d t o t he r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e d w or ds I t i s e xt r e m e l y i m por t a nt t o d i s t i ngui s h t w o s ou r c e s of i nt e r f e r e nc e ge ne r a t e d dur i ng a s t udy e pi s ode O ne s our c e c onc e r ns t he i n f l ue nc e of i m p l i c i t l y a c t i va t e d a s s oc i a t e s ( c om pe t i t or s ) on e pi s odi c r e c a l l H a vi ng m or e c om pe t i t o r s l e a ds t o g r e a t e r i nt e r f e r e nc e a nd t hus l ow e r r e c a l l C ue d r e c a l l pe r f or m a n c e i s hi ghe r f or s m a l l s e t s i z e t a r ge t s due t o f e w e r a s s oc i a t e s t ha t a r e i n c om pe t i t i on f or r e c a l l a nd t hus r e s ul t i ng i n l ow i nt e r f e r e nc e a r i s i ng f r om i t s a s s oc i a t i ve s t r uc t ur e T hus i nt e r f e r e nc e c a n be p r oduc e d by i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d a s s oc i a t e s T he ot h e r s our c e of i nt e r f e r e nc e i s p r oduc e d by t he e pi s odi c s t udy i t s e l f R e c a l l t ha t t he s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i nt e r pol a t e d t a s k c a n ha ve a n e f f e c t on r e c a l l W he n pa r t i c i pa nt s f i r s t s t udy a l i s t of w or ds a nd t he n s t udy a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y or s e m a nt i c a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h t he i ni t i a l l e a r ni ng r e c a l l pe r f o r m a nc e de c l i ne s m or e t ha n e nga gi ng i n unr e l a t e d i n t e r pol a t e d t a s ks T hus t hi s s our c e of i nt e r f e r e nc e c onc e r ns t he s i m i l a r i t y of t he i nt e r pol a t e d a c t i vi t y. I n t he c ont e xt of s t udyi ng w or d l i s t s r e c a l l pe r f o r m a nc e i s l ow e r w he n t he i n t e r pol a t e d l i s t s a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o t he t o be r e m e m be r e d l i s t i e s pe c i f i c i n t e r f e r e nc e c om pa r e d t o i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y unr e l a t e d t o t he t a r ge t l i s t i e ge ne r a l i nt e r f e r e nc e I n a g i ve n s t udy e pi s ode bot h of t he s e s our c e s of i nt e r f e r e nc e a r e pr e s e nt I t i s unknow n w he t he r m a ni pul a t i ons of e xpl i c i t s our c e s of i nt e r f e r e nc e h a ve a n e f f e c t on i m pl i c i t s our c e of

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15 i nt e r f e r e nc e a nd vi c e ve r s a O ne of t he a i m s o f t he pr e s e nt s t udy i s t o e x a m i ne t he e f f e c t s of i nt e r f e r e nc e ge ne r a t e d by c om pe t i t o r s on e pi s od i c r e c a l l a nd a not he r a i m i s t o e xa m i ne t he i nt e r f e r e nc e ge ne r a t e d by t he na t u r e of t he i nt e r pol a t e d s t udy a nd i t s i nf l ue nc e on s uc h c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd w ha t c a us e s s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e i n e pi s odi c t a s ks i t i s i m por t a nt t o va r y t he t ype o f i nt e r p ol a t e d a c t i vi t y i n a n e xpe r i m e nt a l s e t t i ng t o s e e w ha t di s r upt s pe r f or m a nc e F r om a t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve a t t e nt i on s hi f t s a nd r e t r i e va l i nduc e d i nhi bi t i on a c c ount s a r e t w o di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c he s t o e xpl a i ni ng f or ge t t i ng T he f or m e r m a ke s pr e di c t i ons a bout r e c a l l pe r f or m a nc e on t he ba s i s of t a s k s i m i l a r i t y a nd t a s k di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he or i gi na l l e a r ni ng a nd i nt e r pol a t e d l e a r ni ng. T he l a t t e r a t t r i but e s m e m or y pe r f or m a nc e t o r e t r i e va l pr oc e s s e s e nga ge d i n be t w e e n or i gi na l l e a r ni ng a nd f i na l r e c a l l I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd w hy t he e f f e c t s o f c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s di s a ppe a r a s i n N e l s on e t a l s ( 1993) s t udy, t he r e i s a ne e d t o de s i gn a n e xpe r i m e nt t ha t c r os s e s r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e w i t h t he r e l a t e dne s s of i nt e r pol a t e d w or d l i s t s W hi l e pur s ui ng t hi s a i m t h i s pr opos e d s t udy w i l l he l p us unde r s t a nd t he t w o s our c e s of i nt e r f e r e nc e ( e xpl i c i t a nd i m p l i c i t ) a nd t he i r e f f e c t s on m e m or y T he goa l o f t he p r e s e nt s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e w h e t he r r e t r i e va l p r a c t i c e w oul d pr oduc e l a r ge r i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s c om pa r e d t o s t udy onl y c ondi t i ons a nd w he t he r i t w oul d i nf l ue nc e t he e f f e c t s of c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s A l s o, t w o s our c e s of i nt e r f e r e nc e ( i m pl i c i t a nd e xpl i c i t ) w i l l be e xa m i ne d. T he s t i m u l i c ons i s t e d of w or ds ( t a r ge t s ) t ha t w e r e t a ke n f r om N e l s on, M c E voy & S c h r e i be r s ( 1999) f r e e a s s oc i a t i on nor m s H a l f of t he s t udy w or ds i n e a c h t a r ge t l i s t ha d l ow c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h a nd t he ot he r ha l f ha d hi gh

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16 c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h. W or d r e l a t e dne s s ( r e l a t e d a nd unr e l a t e d) i n t he i nt e r pol a t e d r e l a t e dne s s c ondi t i ons a nd t he na t ur e of t he i nt e r po l a t e d a c t i vi t y ( s t udy on l y, s t udy t e s t ) w e r e m a ni pul a t e d be t w e e n s ubj e c t s a nd t he t a r ge t c om pe t i t or s w a s m a ni pul a t e d w i t hi n s ubj e c t s A l s o, t he r e w e r e t w o c ont r ol gr ou ps one of w hi c h r e c e i ve d a n i m m e di a t e c ue d r e c a l l t e s t a nd t he ot he r r e c e i ve d 10 m i nut e s of m u l t i pl i c a t i on. T hi s i nt e r va l w a s e qua l t o t he r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l f o r s ubj e c t s w ho w e r e t e s t e d on i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s i n be t w e e n s t udy a nd t e s t T he f or m e r c ont r o l de t e r m i ne s t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e f or w o r ds t ha t ha ve f e w a nd m a ny c om pe t i t or s T he l a t t e r c ont r ol p r ovi de s i nf or m a t i on on t he e f f e c t s of t he m a t h t a s k on t he c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s T he s e c ont r ol c ondi t i ons a i m e d t o r e pl i c a t e pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs on c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t s a s a m a ni pul a t i on c he c k on ne w l i s t s I n e xpe r i m e nt a l c ondi t i ons pa r t i c i pa nt s f i r s t s t udi e d t he t a r ge t w or d l i s t w hi c h w a s f ol l ow e d by s om e s ubj e c t s s t udyi ng t w o a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s a nd t he ot he r s ubj e c t s s t udyi ng a nd ge t t i ng t e s t e d s ubs e que nt l y on t w o a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s T he s t udy onl y c ondi t i on r e f e r s t o t he f or m e r one i n w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d 3 l i s t s of w or ds a nd w e r e t e s t e d on t he f i r s t l i s t T he s t udy t e s t c ondi t i on r e f e r s t o t he l a t t e r gr oup i n w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d t he f i r s t l i s t t he n s t udi e d s e c ond l i s t a nd got t e s t e d on s e c ond l i s t s t udi e d t hi r d l i s t a nd got t e s t e d on t hi r d l i s t a nd f i na l l y got t e s t e d on t he or i gi na l l i s t I nt e r pol a t e d w or d l i s t s w a s a be t w e e n s ubj e c t s va r i a bl e c om pos e d of r e l a t e d a nd unr e l a t e d w or ds t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t s of r e l a t e dne s s on s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e I n t h e t e s t pha s e s ubj e c t s w e r e gi ve n ot he r w or ds a s c ue s t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d w i t h t h e t a r ge t s a c c or di ng t o N e l s on e t a l s ( 1999) no r m s T he t a s k of t he pa r t i c i pa nt w a s t o r e c a l l t h e w or d t ha t he / s he s a w i n t he s t udy e pi s ode w i t h t he he l p o f t he c ue pr ovi de d

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17 I t i s hypot he s i z e d t ha t i f t e s t i ng i s c r uc i a l i n e l e va t i ng r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on, t he n t he r e w i l l be m or e f or ge t t i ng obs e r ve d i n s t udy t e s t c ondi t i on c om pa r e d t o s t udy on l y c ond i t i on a t t he f i na l r e c a l l M or e ove r t he i nf l ue nc e of r e l a t e dne s s w a s i nve s t i ga t e d. B r oa dl y, t he p r e s e nt s t udy i nve s t i ga t e s w he t he r t he c om bi na t i on of t e s t i ng a nd r e l a t e dne s s w i l l i nc r e a s e r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on a nd t hus r e s ul t i n l a r ge r s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s T he s t a t us of c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s w a s e xa m i ne d by c om pa r i ng t he m a gni t ude of c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t s i n a l l c ondi t i ons t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h e xpe r i m e nt a l m a ni pul a t i on di s r upt s t he i r e f f e c t s m os t P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s f ound t ha t t he e f f e c t s of c om pe t i n g a s s oc i a t e s a r e r e duc e d onl y w he n m ul t i pl i c a t i on pr obl e m s w e r e e m pl oye d a s a di s t r a c t or t a s k. T he pr e s e nt s t udy a i m e d a t r e pl i c a t i ng t hi s f i ndi ng a nd a t de t e r m i n i ng w he t he r t he c om bi na t i on of s t udyi ng a nd be i ng t e s t e d on i t e m s i n i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s w oul d pr oduc e s i m i l a r r e s ul t s t o m a t h di s r upt i on. L a r ge r s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s i nduc e d by t e s t i ng m a y be s uf f i c i e nt t o e l i m i na t e c om pe t i t i on ge ne r a t e d by c om pe t i ng a s s oc i a t e s E l i m i na t i ng i m pl i c i t l y ge ne r a t e d i nt e r f e r e nc e m a y be de t e r m i ne d by bo t h l os s of c ont e xt a nd by s pe c i f i c i nhi bi t i on

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18 M e t hod D e s i gn and P ar t i c i pant s T he de s i gn of t he e xpe r i m e nt w a s a 2x2x2 m i xe d s ubj e c t s f a c t or i a l w i t h w or d r e l a t e dne s s ( i nt e r f e r i ng l i s t s w e r e e i t he r r e l a t e d or unr e l a t e d t o t he t a r ge t s ) a nd t e s t c ondi t i ons ( s t udy onl y a nd s t udy t e s t gr oups ) m a ni pul a t e d be t w e e n s ubj e c t s T a r ge t c om pe t i t or s ( m a ny o r f e w ) w e r e m a ni pul a t e d w i t hi n s ubj e c t s A l s o, t he r e w e r e t w o c ont r ol c ondi t i ons ( i m m e di a t e t e s t a nd t e s t a f t e r 10 m i nut e s of m a t h pr ob l e m s ) t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t he m a ni pul a t i on o f t a r ge t c om pe t i t or s w or ks a s e xpe c t e d. O ne hundr e d a nd t w e nt y pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e c r u i t e d f r o m U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da s pa r t i c i pa nt pool o f unde r g r a dua t e ps yc hol ogy s t ude nt s a nd t he y w e r e gi ve n e xt r a c r e di t f or t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy. T e n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s s i gne d r a ndom l y t o e a c h l i s t of w or ds i n t he e xpe r i m e nt w i t h a t ot a l o f 20 pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c ondi t i on. M at e r i al s A l l of t he w or ds w e r e c hos e n f r om N e l s on e t a l s ( 1999) pool of w or d no r m s t ha t a r e c ol l e c t e d by us i ng f r e e a s s oc i a t i on a nd a r e p r e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x A T a r ge t s w e r e t he w or ds t ha t w e r e s t udi e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he c ue s w e r e t he w or ds t ha t w e r e us e d t o t e s t m e m or y f o r t he t a r ge t s T he r e w e r e t w o m a i n t a r ge t l i s t s ( L i s t 1 a nd L i s t 2) a nd one ot he r t a r ge t l i s t ( L i s t 3) t o s e r ve a s a t hi r d unr e l a t e d w or d l i s t t ha t w a s us e d i n t he

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19 e xpe r i m e nt E a c h l i s t of w or ds c ons i s t e d of 24 t a r g e t s 12 of t he m ha vi ng m a ny c om pe t i t or s a nd 12 o f t he m ha vi ng f e w e r c om pe t i t or s A t a r ge t c om pe t i t or i s a n a s s oc i a t e of t he t a r g e t t ha t i s not c onne c t e d t o t he t e s t c ue T a r ge t s ha vi ng f e w e r c om pe t i t o r s ha d a m e a n of 4 25 c om pe t i t o r s ( S D = 1. 29 ) a nd t a r ge t s h a vi ng m a ny c om pe t i t or s ha d a m e a n o f 10. 83 c om pe t i t or s ( S D = 3. 98 ) T he nu m be r o f c ue c om pe t i t or s ( M = 7. 67, S D = 6. 05 a nd M = 9. 17, S D = 4. 73 r e s pe c t i ve l y f or f e w a nd m a ny t a r ge t c om pe t i t or s ) w a s e qua t e d a t e a c h l e ve l of t a r ge t c om pe t i t or s T he s t r e ngt hs of i ndi vi dua l c om pe t i t or s w e r e a dde d i n or de r t o f i nd t he t ot a l c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h a nd t he n t he a ve r a ge of t hi s va l ue w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne t he c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h o f a gi ve n l i s t T a r ge t c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h a ve r a ge d 78 f or t he w or ds t ha t ha ve m a ny c om pe t i t or s a nd 32 f or t he w o r ds t ha t ha ve f e w c om pe t i t or s T he w or ds t ha t c om pr i s e t he t a r ge t l i s t s a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y unr e l a t e d t o e a c h ot he r T he r e i s a un i que w or d a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o e a c h t a r ge t a nd i t s e r ve s a s a c ue t o t e s t t he m e m or y f or t ha t t a r ge t F o r e xa m pl e i f E X P E R T i s t he t a r ge t t ha t i s s t udi e d i n t he l i s t t he n N O V I C E s e r ve s a s t he t e s t c ue t o pr om pt m e m or y f o r t he t a r ge t T he f o r w a r d s t r e ngt h ( c ue t o t a r ge t c onne c t i on) ba c kw a r d s t r e n gt h ( t a r ge t t o c ue c onne c t i on) a nd m e di a t or s t r e ngt hs ( c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he c ue a nd t he t a r ge t t ha t a r e i ndi r e c t v i a ot he r w or ds t ha t l i nk t he m ) a f f e c t e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l s o i n t hi s e xpe r i m e nt t he y w e r e c ont r ol l e d a t e a c h l e ve l of t a r ge t c om pe t i t o r s T he s t r e ngt h va l ue s w e r e pool e d ove r t he t w o l i s t s of w o r ds T he pool e d m e a n f or w a r d s t r e n gt h i s 07 ( S D = 02) m e a n ba c kw a r d s t r e ngt h i s 02 ( S D = 03 ) a nd m e a n m e di a t o r s t r e n gt h i s 05 ( S D = 08 ) T he s e t w o l i s t s a r e t he one s t ha t w i l l be a na l yz e d f or s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e a nd c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s T he t e s t

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20 c ue s us e d i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy w e r e w e a ke r t ha n N e l s on e t a l ( 1993) s t udy w hi c h ha d a n a ve r a ge f or w a r d s t r e ngt h of 15 a nd ba c kw a r d s t r e ngt h o f 10 A l s o a not he r l i s t of t a r ge t s ( L i s t 3) i s c ons t r uc t e d t o f i l l t he ne e d f or a t hi r d un r e l a t e d w or d l i s t i n t he e xpe r i m e nt L i s t 3 s f o r w a r d s t r e ngt h i s 07 ( S D = 01) ba c kw a r d s t r e ngt h i s 02 ( S D = 03) a nd m e di a t or s t r e ngt h i s 02 ( S D = 04 ) T he s e t hr e e l i s t s a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y unr e l a t e d w i t h e a c h ot he r a nd t hus t he y w i l l s e r ve a s un r e l a t e d l i s t s i n t he e xpe r i m e nt T w o r e l a t e d i n t e r pol a t e d l i s t s w e r e c ons t r uc t e d f or t he t w o t a r ge t l i s t s ( f o r L i s t 1 a nd f or L i s t 2 ) T he s e l i s t s w e r e m a de by c hoos i ng t w o a s s oc i a t e s of t he t a r ge t F or e xa m pl e f or t he w o r d E X P E R T B E G I N N E R a nd A M A T E U R w e r e s e l e c t e d r e s pe c t i ve l y f or t he f i r s t a nd s e c ond i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t I f t he r e i s a t e s t f o r t he gi ve n i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t t he n s a m e c ue w i l l be us e d ( e g. N O V I C E ) t o t e s t m e m or y f or i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s a s us e d f or t he i ni t i a l l i s t s o t ha t c ha nge s i n r e c a l l m a y not be a t t r i but e d t o di f f e r e nt c ue s T he s e a s s oc i a t e s of t he t a r ge t s a r e a l s o e qua t e d on bot h f or w a r d a nd ba c kw a r d s t r e ngt h a t e a c h l e ve l o f c om pe t i t o r s t r e n gt h. F o r t he t a r ge t s w i t h l ow e r l e ve l s of c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h, f or w a r d s t r e ngt h a ve r a ge d 14 ( S D = 16 ) a nd 13 ( S D = 19) r e s pe c t i ve l y f or t he f i r s t a nd s e c ond i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t ; f or t a r ge t s w i t h hi ghe r l e ve l s of c om pe t i t i on, t he s e va l ue s a r e 15 ( S D = 17) a nd 1 4 ( S D = 19 ) B a c kw a r d s t r e ngt h i s a l s o c ont r ol l e d a t e a c h l e ve l of t a r ge t c om pe t i t o r s ( M = 02, S D = 04 ) A f our pa ge bookl e t t ha t ha s t he m ul t i pl i c a t i on pr o bl e m s w a s pr e pa r e d. T he num be r s w e r e w r i t t e n ve r t i c a l l y t o a l l ow e nough s pa c e f or pa r t i c i pa nt s t o w or k on m ul t i p l i c a t i on. T he num be r s w e r e ge ne r a t e d r a ndom l y. T he num be r s i n t he book l e t ha ve

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21 t w o or t h r e e di gi t s ( e g 24x123= ? ) T hi s bookl e t w i l l be gi ve n t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t a r e i n t he 10 m i nut e s of m a t h di s r upt i on c ondi t i on P r oc e dur e E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s t e s t e d i n i ndi vi dua l s e s s i ons E a c h w or d t ha t i s s t udi e d a ppe a r e d i ndi vi dua l l y f o r 3 s e c onds on a c om put e r s c r e e n. T he w or ds w e r e w r i t t e n i n uppe r c a s e bol d l e t t e r s a nd w e r e pos i t i one d i n t he m i ddl e of t he s c r e e n. E xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l w a s us e d t o t e s t m e m or y f or w or ds I n t hi s t a s k, pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udy a l i s t of w or ds a nd t he n a r e t e s t e d on t hi s l i s t by pr e s e nt i ng a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d w or ds a t t e s t S t udy i ns t r uc t i ons f or t he w or d l i s t s r e qui r e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r e a d a l oud a l i s t of w or ds on t he c om pu t e r s c r e e n a nd t o r e m e m be r a s m a ny of t he m a s pos s i bl e f o r l a t e r que s t i ons f r om t he l i s t T he f or m of t he m e m or y t e s t w a s not m e nt i one d B e f or e pr e s e nt i ng t he a c t ua l w or d l i s t t he r e w a s a p r a c t i c e s e s s i on i n w hi c h na m e s of pe opl e w e r e pr e s e nt e d s o t ha t pa r t i c i p a nt s c oul d a dj us t t o t he pr e s e nt a t i on r a t e o f t he w o r d l i s t s I m m e di a t e l y a f t e r t he p r a c t i c e w or ds t he a c t ua l e x pe r i m e nt s t a r t e d a nd t he pa r t i c i pa nt f ol l ow e d t he i ns t r uc t i ons o f a gi ve n e xpe r i m e nt a l c ondi t i on. P r e s e nt a t i on or de r of l i s t s w a s c ount e r ba l a nc e d. I nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s w e r e e i t he r r e l a t e d or unr e l a t e d t o t he l i s t of t a r ge t s a nd s ubj e c t s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o on e of t he s e c ondi t i ons I n or de r t o c ont r ol f o r t he pos s i bl e c onf ound of t i m e i e t o e q ua t e t he r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l e qua l f or a l l t he c o ndi t i ons pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy on l y c ondi t i on s t udi e d t he i nt e r pol a t e d w or d l i s t s t w i c e ( s e e T a bl e 2)

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22 T abl e 2. L ay out f or t he s t udy and t he e x pe r i m e nt al c ondi t i ons s how i ng t he t i m e s e que nc e f or e ac h of t he m ______________________________________ __________________ T i m e E xpe r i m e nt a l c ondi t i ons t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 t 6 ________________________________________________________ S t udy onl y ( R e l a t e d) S a 1 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 T b 1 ( U nr e l a t e d) S 1 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 T 1 S t udy t e s t ( R e l a t e d) S 1 S 2 T 2 S 3 T 3 T 1 ( U nr e l a t e d) S 1 S 2 T 2 S 3 T 3 T 1 I m m e di a t e T e s t S 1 T 1 D i s r upt i on S 1 10 m i nut e s of m a t h p r obl e m s T 1 _________________________________________________________ N ot e R e l at e d i ndi c at e s t hat t he i nt e r pol at e d l i s t i s c om pos e d of w or ds t hat ar e as s oc i a t e s of t he t ar ge t s and unr e l at e d i ndi c at e s t hat t he i nt e r pol at e d l i s t i s c om pos e d of w or ds t hat ar e not as s oc i at e s of t he t ar ge t A l s o, not e t hat t i m e ( r e t e nt i on i nt e r v al ) w as c ar e f ul l y c ont r ol l e d i n t hi s s t udy a St udy of t he num be r e d l i s t b T e s t of t he num be r e d l i s t I n t he s t udy onl y c ondi t i on t he pa r t i c i pa nt s f i r s t s t udi e d one of t he t a r ge t l i s t s A t t he e nd of t he pr e s e nt a t i on o f t he t a r ge t s pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t ol d t ha t e i t he r t he y w oul d s t udy a not he r unr e l a t e d l i s t of w or ds or t he y w oul d s t udy a l i s t o f w or ds r e l a t e d t o t he t a r ge t w or ds de pe ndi ng on w he t he r t he y w e r e a s s i gne d t o unr e l a t e d o r r e l a t e d w or d l i s t

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23 c ondi t i ons T he y w e r e t ol d t o c onc e nt r a t e on t he s e c ond l i s t t he y s e e a nd t o t r y t o r e m e m be r t he m T he y w e r e not t ol d t ha t t he r e i s a m e m or y t e s t a f t e r t he i n t e r pol a t e d l i s t of w or ds A f t e r t he f i r s t i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t of w or ds t he y w e r e t ol d t ha t t he y w oul d s e e t he s a m e l i s t a ga i n. T he n t he r e w a s a s e c ond i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n s a m e i ns t r uc t i ons a s w i t h t he f i r s t i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t of w or ds e xc e pt t o c onc e nt r a t e on t he t hi r d l i s t o f w o r ds S i m i l a r l y t he l a s t i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t w a s a l s o pr e s e nt e d s e c ond t i m e A f t e r t he p r e s e nt a t i on of t he f i na l w or d, i ns t r uc t i on s f or t he m e m or y t e s t w e r e r e a d t o t he m T he y w e r e t ol d t ha t t he y w o ul d s e e w or ds ( i e c ue s ) t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o t he w or ds t ha t t he y s a w i n t he f i r s t l i s t ( i e t a r ge t l i s t ) T he i r t a s k w a s t o r e a d t he c ue f i r s t a nd p r oduc e t he w or d t ha t c om e s f r om t he f i r s t l i s t a nd w a s s e m a nt i c a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h t he c ue T h e t e s t w a s pa c e d a t a 6 s e c ond r a t e T he s t udy a nd t e s t i ns t r uc t i ons w e r e t he s a m e i n t h e s t udy t e s t c ondi t i on. T he t e s t i ng of i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t s w a s t i m e d ( 6 s e c onds f or e a c h w or d) s o t ha t t he t i m e be t w e e n t he s t udy of t he f i r s t l i s t a nd t he t e s t of t he f i r s t l i s t w a s c ont r ol l e d ( a ppr oxi m a t e l y 5 m i nut e s f or t he t w o i n t e r pol a t e d t e s t s a nd a t o t a l of a ppr oxi m a t e l y 10 m i nut e s of r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l w i t h s t udy t i m e s a nd t i m e t o r e a d i ns t r uc t i ons a dde d a l l t oge t he r ) P a r t i c i pa nt s f i r s t s t udi e d t he l i s t of t a r ge t s A t t he e nd of t he t a r ge t l i s t t he y w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o s t udy t he f i r s t i n t e r pol a t e d l i s t of w o r ds a f t e r w hi c h t he i r m e m or y f o r t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t w oul d be t e s t e d. N e xt t he y s t udi e d t he s e c ond i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t a nd w e r e t e s t e d on t ha t l i s t A t t he e nd, t he r e w a d a f i na l c ue d r e c a l l t e s t f r o m t he f i r s t l i s t t ha t t he y s t udi e d. T he c ue s us e d i n t he r e l a t e d c ondi t i on w e r e t he s a m e i n a l l t he t e s t s w he r e a s t he c ue s us e d i n t he unr e l a t e d c ondi t i on w e r e di f f e r e nt f o r e a c h gi ve n i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t

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24 T he r e w e r e t w o c ont r ol gr oups of pa r t i c i pa nt s one of w hi c h s t udi e d t he t a r ge t w or ds a nd got a n i m m e di a t e e xt r a l i s t r e c a l l t e s t w i t h t he s a m e s t udy a nd t e s t i ns t r uc t i ons I n t he ot he r c ont r ol c ondi t i on pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d t he t a r ge t l i s t a nd a t t he e nd of t he s t udy pha s e t he y w e r e t ol d t ha t t he y w oul d do a s e c ond ve r y i m po r t a nt t a s k, w hi c h w a s r e l a t e d t o s pe e d of pr oc e s s i ng. T he y w e r e ha nde d a bookl e t t ha t c ont a i ne d m ul t i pl i c a t i on pr obl e m s T he dur a t i on of t he m a t h t e s t w a s 10 m i nut e s t o m a t c h t he r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l i n t he s t udy t e s t c ondi t i on. A f t e r 10 m i nu t e s of m a t h pr obl e m s pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l t e s t i ns t r uc t i ons a nd w e r e t e s t e d f or m e m or y f or t he t a r ge t s T hi s t e s t w a s s e l f pa c e d t o be c om pa r a bl e w i t h t he N e l s on e t a l ( 1993) s t udy.

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25 R e s ul t s T he r e s ul t s a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 3 i n w hi c h t he p r oba bi l i t i e s of f i r s t l i s t r e c a l l a r e s how n f or e a c h c ondi t i on. T he ove r a l l r e c a l l w a s be t t e r i n t he i m m e di a t e c ondi t i on ne xt be s t i n t he m a t h c ondi t i on a nd w or s e i n t he i n t e r f e r e nc e c ondi t i ons t ha t i nvol ve t he us e of w or ds A l s o, w or ds t ha t ha ve f e w c om pe t i t o r s w e r e r e c a l l e d be s t w he n t he r e w a s no i nt e r f e r e nc e T hi s c om pe t i t or e f f e c t w a s r e duc e d w i t h t he i nduc t i on o f e i t he r m a t h o r w or d i nt e r f e r e nc e D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d i n a s e r i e s o f t w o f a c t or A N O V A s i n w hi c h t he f a c t or s of i n t e r e s t w e r e s t udy c ondi t i ons a nd c om p e t i t or s T he i m m e di a t e a nd t he m a t h c ondi t i ons w e r e c ont r ol c ondi t i ons t o r e pl i c a t e t he pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs on c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s by us i ng di f f e r e nt m a t e r i a l s A 2x2 a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e t e s t r e s t r i c t e d t o t he c ont r ol c ondi t i ons s h ow e d t ha t m a i n e f f e c t s of c om pe t i t o r s F ( 1, 38) = 14 04, M S e = 02 a nd c ondi t i ons F ( 1 38) = 7. 52 M S e = 05. T a r ge t s w i t h f e w c om pe t i t or s w e r e r e c a l l e d be t t e r t ha n t a r ge t s w i t h m a ny c om pe t i t or s a nd r e c a l l w a s be t t e r i n t he i m m e di a t e c ondi t i on t ha n t he m a t h c ondi t i on T he C ondi t i ons x C om pe t i t o r s i nt e r a c t i on i s a l s o s i gni f i c a nt F ( 1, 38 ) = 5. 68 M S e = 02. A F i s he r s L S D of 09 i ndi c a t e d t ha t c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s w e r e pr e s e nt w he n pa r t i c i p a nt s m e m or y w a s t e s t e d i m m e di a t e l y, how e ve r t hi s a dva nt a ge of ha vi ng f e w c om pe t i t o r s w e r e e l i m i na t e d w i t h t he m a t h

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26 c ondi t i on. T hi s f i ndi ng r e pl i c a t e s t he pa s t r e s ul t s ( N e l s on e t a l 1993 ) by s how i ng t ha t c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s w e r e gr e a t e r i n t he i m m e di a t e c ondi t i on t ha n i n t he m a t h c ondi t i on T abl e 3 P r obabi l i t y of c or r e c t r e c al l as a f unc t i on of num b e r of c om pe t i t or s r e l at e dne s s and di s t r ac t or t as k s C ont r ol s S t udy onl y S t udy t e s t ______________ ______________________________ N um be r of c om pe t i t or s I m m e di a t e M a t h R e l a t e d U nr e l a t e d R e l a t e d U nr e l a t e d F e w 60 40 27 28 31 28 M a ny 42 36 20 22 24 20 M E A N 51 38 24 25 28 24 A 2 x 2 A N O V A r e s t r i c t e d t o t he i m m e di a t e a nd s t udy onl y c ondi t i ons i ndi c a t e d t he m a i n e f f e c t s o f s t udy c ondi t i ons F ( 2 57) = 3 5 06, M S e = 03 a nd c om pe t i t o r s F ( 1, 57 ) = 18. 08, M S e = 02 T he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n s t udy c ondi t i ons a nd c om pe t i t or s w a s r e l i a bl e F ( 2 57) = 3. 07 M S e = 02 A s c a n be s e e n f r om T a bl e 3, pa r t i c i pa nt s ove r a l l r e c a l l w a s be t t e r w he n t he r e w a s no di s r upt i on c o m pa r e d t o r e l a t e d or unr e l a t e d s t udy onl y c ondi t i ons w hi c h di d not d i f f e r f r om e a c h ot h e r ( L S D = 08 ) T a r ge t s w i t h f e w c om pe t i t or s w e r e r e c a l l e d be t t e r r e ga r dl e s s of t he s t udy c ondi t i on. H ow e ve r t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt r e duc t i on i n t he c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t i n s t u dy onl y c ondi t i ons c om pa r e d t o t he

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27 i m m e di a t e t e s t c ont r ol T he s t r e ngt h o f c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s dr oppe d f r om 18 ( i m m e di a t e c ondi t i on) t o 07 ( s t udy onl y r e l a t e d) a nd 06 ( s t ud y onl y unr e l a t e d) ( L S D = 08) A not he r 2 x 2 A N O V A r e s t r i c t e d t o t he i m m e di a t e a nd s t udy t e s t c ondi t i ons i ndi c a t e d s i m i l a r r e s ul t s a s w i t h s t udy on l y c ondi t i ons T he r e w a s a m a i n e f f e c t of s t udy c ondi t i ons F ( 2 57) = 25. 27 M S e = 0 03 i ndi c a t i ng t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he i m m e di a t e c ondi t i on r e c a l l e d be t t e r t ha n pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy t e s t c ondi t i on ( L S D = 08 ) T he r e w a s a m a i n e f f e c t o f c om pe t i t o r s F ( 1, 57 ) = 22 47, M S e = 02 i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t a r ge t s t ha t ha d f e w c om pe t i t or s w e r e r e c a l l e d be t t e r t ha n t a r g e t s w i t h m a ny c om pe t i t or s T he s t udy C ondi t i ons x C om pe t i t or s i nt e r a c t i on f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i gni f i c a nc e F ( 2, 57) = 2 50, p= 09 H ow e ve r s a m e t r e nd t ow a r ds r e duc t i on o f c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s c a n a l s o be obs e r ve d w he n t he m e a ns a r e e xa m i ne d i n T a bl e 3 T he m a gni t ude of c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t dr oppe d f r om 18 ( i m m e di a t e ) t o 07 ( s t udy t e s t r e l a t e d) a nd 08 ( s t udy t e s t unr e l a t e d) ( L S D = 07) A s e pa r a t e 2x2x2 a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e w a s c onduc t e d be t w e e n s t udy onl y a nd s t udy t e s t c ondi t i ons t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s of t e s t i ng a nd r e l a t e dne s s T he r e w a s a m a i n e f f e c t o f c om pe t i t o r s F ( 1, 76) = 12 33, M S e = 03 R e c a l l on t a r ge t s w i t h f e w c om pe t i t or s w a s be t t e r t ha n r e c a l l on t a r ge t s w i t h m a ny c om pe t i t or s H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no e f f e c t o f c ondi t i on ( s t udy onl y vs s t udy t e s t ) n o e f f e c t o f r e l a t e dne s s a nd no r e l i a bl e i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n t he m A l s o, s e t s i z e di d not i n t e r a c t w i t h a ny o f t he va r i a bl e s F i na l l y a 5x2 A N O V A c onduc t e d on t he i nt e r f e r e nc e c ondi t i ons ( m a t h a nd w or d i nt e r f e r e nc e c ondi t i ons ) i nd i c a t e d t ha t t he r e w a s a m a i n e f f e c t o f s t udy c ondi t i ons F ( 4 95) = 4. 57, M S e = 03 A n L S D of 08 i ndi c a t e d t ha t hi ghe s t r e c a l l w a s i n t he m a t h c ondi t i on w he r e a s t he w or d s t udy or w or d s t udy a nd t e s t c on di t i ons di d not di f f e r f r om e a c h ot he r

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28 T he r e w a s a m a i n e f f e c t o f c om pe t i t o r s F ( 1, 95) = 28. 13, M S e = 02, how e ve r t he r e w a s no r e l i a bl e i nt e r a c t i o n F = 13 p> 05. D i s c us s i on T a r ge t c om pe t i t or s a r e t he a s s oc i a t e s of t he t a r ge t t ha t a r e not a s s oc i a t i ve l y l i nke d t o t he c ue T a r ge t s t ha t ha ve f e w e r c om pe t i t or s a nd w e a ke r c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h w e r e f ound t o ha ve a r e c a l l a dva nt a ge ove r t hos e w i t h m a n y c o m pe t i t or s na m e d t he c om pe t i t or e f f e c t ( N e l s on e t a l 1993) T he p r e s e nt s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s o f t e s t i ng on t he c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t s i n e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l S pe c i f i c a l l y t he qu e s t i on of i nt e r e s t w a s w he t he r t he c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s w oul d be e l i m i na t e d a s a f unc t i on of di f f e r e nt di s t r a c t i on t a s ks a f t e r t he i ni t i a l s t udy. T he f i ndi ngs r e pl i c a t e d p r e vi ous r e s ul t s on c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s ( N e l s on e t a l 1993) P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c a l l e d w or ds w i t h f e w c om pe t i t or s be t t e r t ha n w or ds w i t h m a ny c om pe t i t or s O ve r a l l r e c a l l w a s hi ghe r i n t he i m m e di a t e c ondi t i on a nd ne xt hi ghe s t i n t he m a t h c ondi t i on, a nd i t w a s w or s e i n s t udy onl y ( m e r e s t udy of i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s ) a nd s t udy t e s t ( s t udy a nd t e s t of i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s ) c ondi t i ons C om pe t i t or e f f e c t s w e r e pr e s e n t w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s m e m or y w a s t e s t e d i m m e di a t e l y a s w e l l a s w he n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e i t he r s t udi e d or s t udi e d a nd w e r e t e s t e d on t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s but not pr e s e nt w he n t he y di d a m a t h t a s k. N e i t he r t e s t i ng nor t he r e l a t e dne s s of t h e i nt e r pol a t e d w or d l i s t s c ha nge d t he pr e s e nc e of t he c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s a s i ndi c a t e d by t he unr e l i a bl e i nt e r a c t i ons H ow e ve r

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29 t he r e w a s a r e duc t i on i n t he m a gni t ude of t he c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s i n a l l s t udy c ondi t i ons T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t bot h m a t h a nd s t udyi n g i nt e r f e r e nc e l i s t s r e duc e d t he e f f e c t s o f c om pe t i t or s t r e ngt h. I t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t t e s t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s m e m or y f o r t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s m i ght i nc r e a s e t he a m ount of i nt e r f e r e nc e a nd t hus r e duc e t he r e c a l l a dva nt a ge of w o r ds t ha t ha ve f e w c om pe t i t o r s W or ds t ha t a r e t he a s s oc i a t e s of t he f i r s t l i s t w e r e us e d i n t he r e l a t e d i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s a nd t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e i t he r s t udi e d or s t udi e d a nd w e r e t e s t e d on t he m W or ds t ha t ha ve f e w c om pe t i t or s w e r e r e c a l l e d be t t e r t ha n w o r ds t ha t ha ve m a ny c om pe t i t or s r e ga r dl e s s t e s t i ng on t he i nt e r pol a t e d s t udy l i s t s T hus t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy f ound no s uppor t f or t he pr opos e d hy pot he s i s T e s t i ng t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s di d not p r oduc e m or e i nt e r f e r e nc e c om pa r e d t o m e r e l y s t udyi ng t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s T he s i z e of t he c om pe t i t or e f f e c t w a s a bout t he s a m e f o r s t udy onl y a nd s t udy t e s t c ondi t i ons T he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy s how e d t ha t t he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e i n t he ove r a l l r e c a l l be t w e e n t he c ondi t i ons w hi c h pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d t he i nt e r p ol a t e d w or ds or pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d a nd got t e s t e d on t he m T e s t i n g i nt e r pol a t e d i t e m s s e e m s t o be not di f f e r e nt t ha n m e r e l y s t udyi ng t he m T hi s f i ndi ng i s i nt e r e s t i ng be c a us e r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng pa r a di gm pr e di c t s t ha t w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s ge t r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e on r e l a t e d i t e m s t o t he t a r ge t s t a r ge t s ge t i nhi bi t e d a nd t hus t he y a r e r e c a l l e d poor l y H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no s uppor t f o r a r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng m e c h a ni s m i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy. T he pr e s e nt s t udy f a i l e d t o f i nd r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng e f f e c t s i n t he e xt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k. T he a m ount o f f o r ge t t i ng w a s i nde pe nd e nt of t he r e t r i e va l pr a c t i c e w h i c h i s c ont r a r y t o t he f i nd i ngs by r e c e nt s t udi e s on r e t r i e v a l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng ( A nde r s on,

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30 2003) O ne r e a s on f or t hi s r e s ul t i s t ha t t he na t ur e of e xt r a l i s t c ue d r e c a l l t a s k i s d i f f e r e nt t ha n t he s t a nda r d r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f o r ge t t i ng pa r a di gm A n obvi ous di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o pa r a di gm s i s t ha t i n t he i nt e r pol a t e d t e s t s R I F pa r a di gm us e s s t e m c om pl e t i on w hi c h e na bl e s pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r e c a l l t he de s i r e d t a r ge t w or d ( e g. F r ui t O r ____ ) H ow e ve r i n c ue d r e c a l l t e s t pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve t he m e a ni ng c ue but no t t he i ni t i a l l e t t e r s of t he t a r ge t a nd t hus t he y do not a l w a ys r e c a l l t he s pe c i f i c w or d gi ve n t he c ue H e nc e one m a y a r gue t ha t t he m e m or y f or f i r s t l i s t w or ds w e r e not i nhi bi t e d s t r ongl y i n t he i nt e r pol a t e d s t udy t e s t pha s e be c a us e pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not r e c a l l t he w o r d t he y s t udi e d i n t he i nt e r po l a t e d l i s t s a t a h i gh r e c a l l r a t e ( M = 35) I n c ont r a s t t he s t e m c om p l e t i on t a s k us e d i n R I F pa r a di gm yi e l d a hi ghe r r e c a l l r a t e T h i s di f f e r e nc e i s a l i m i t a t i on of t he pr e s e nt s t udy a l t hough s t r ongl y r e l a t e d c ue t a r ge t pa i r s w e r e us e d i n t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s s o t ha t t he m e m or y f o r t he w or ds i n t hos e l i s t s w oul d be be t t e r A not he r di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he R I F pa r a di gm a nd t he pr e s e nt s t udy i s t he t ype of w or ds us e d. T he s t a nda r d R I F pa r a di g m us e s c a t e gor y e xe m pl a r pa i r s I t i s qui t e pos s i bl e t ha t t he us e of c a t e gor y e xe m pl a r pa i r s m a y be a s pe c i a l c a s e C a t e gor i e s a nd t he i r e xe m pl a r s m a y be r e l a t e d i n a s pe c i a l w a y. I n a ddi t i on, t he w or ds us e d i n a gi ve n l i s t of t he pr e s e nt s t udy w e r e unr e l a t e d t o e a c h ot he r a nd w he n r e l a t e d w or ds w e r e s t udi e d, t he y w e r e s t udi e d i n a d i f f e r e nt l i s t I n c ont r a s t a s i ngl e w or d l i s t i n a R I F pa r a di gm i s c om p os e d of r e l a t e d w or d l i s t s ( e g pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udy t he c a t e gor y m e m be r s of F r ui t : a ppl e or a nge ba na na e t c ) T hi s di f f e r e nc e i n t he w a y r e l a t e dne s s w a s m a ni pul a t e d m a y be c ont r i but i ng t o t he obt a i ne d r e s ul t s M a ni pul a t i ng t he r e l a t e dne s s i nt r a l i s t or i nt e r l i s t m a y pr oduc e di f f e r e nt out c o m e s i n t e r m s of t he a m ount of i nhi bi t i on

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31 or i nt e r f e r e nc e pr oduc e d. T hi s pos s i bi l i t y r e m a i ns t o be de t e r m i ne d. M or e ove r t he pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s t udy i t e m s w a s di f f e r e nt a m on g t w o t a s ks C a t e gor y e xe m pl a r pa i r s w e r e s how n on t he s c r e e n i n R I F pa r a di gm w he r e a s onl y t he t a r ge t w or d w a s s t udi e d i n t he e xt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k a nd t he c ue w or d w a s s ho w n a t t he t e s t pha s e T he R I F pr oc e dur e i s m or e s i m i l a r t o i nt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k w he r e t a r ge t a nd t he c ue pa i r s a r e s t u di e d t oge t he r N e ve r t he l e s s t he f oc us of t he pr e s e nt s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t he r e s ul t s of N e l s on e t a l ( 1993 ) s t udy m i ght be due t o t he a bs e nc e of t e s t t r i a l s t hus e xt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k w a s m or e a ppr opr i a t e i n or de r t o a ns w e r t hi s que s t i on. I n t e r m s o f t he t he or e t i c a l m ode l of P I E R t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy a r e i m por t a nt P I E R a s s um e s t ha t e xpl i c i t a nd i m pl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a r e i nde pe nde nt T he r e s ul t s of t he p r e s e nt s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he e xpl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i on s e e m e d t o be a f f e c t e d by t he s i m i l a r i t y of t he t a s k. O ve r a l l r e c a l l w a s be t t e r i n t he m a t h c ondi t i on c om pa r e d t o w or d s t udy/ t e s t c ondi t i ons H e nc e a s t he s i m i l a r i t y be t w e e n t he or i gi na l t a s k a nd t he i nt e r pol a t e d t a s k i nc r e a s e d t he a m ount o f ge ne r a l i nt e r f e r e nc e i nc r e a s e d a nd t hus yi e l de d l ow e r r e c a l l T hi s di f f e r e nc e m a y pa r t l y r e s t on t he l i s t l e ngt h e f f e c t A t l e a s t i n t he f r e e r e c a l l t a s k r e c a l l on l onge r l i s t s i s w or s e c om pa r e d t o s hor t e r l i s t s ( Y one l i na s 1994) P a r t i c i pa nt s s t udi e d 24 w or ds i n m a t h c ond i t i on ho w e ve r t he y s t udi e d 72 w o r ds i n t he ot he r di s t r a c t i on c ondi t i ons T h i s di f f e r e nc e i n t he num be r of w or ds s t udi e d m i ght ha ve c a us e d ge ne r a l i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s a nd t hus m i ght ha ve m a de t he ove r a l l r e c a l l w or s e c om pa r e d t o w or d l e a r ni ng t a s ks I n a ddi t i on, m ul t i pl i c a t i on of num be r s us e s di f f e r e nt t ype s of pr oc e s s i ng t ha n w or ki ng w i t h w o r ds F r o m a n i nt e r f e r e nc e t he or y pe r s pe c t i ve m or e i nt e r f e r e nc e w oul d be e xpe c t e d w he n t he or i gi na l a nd i nt e r pol a t e d t a s ks a r e s i m i l a r

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32 ( i e s t udyi ng w or ds a nd s t udy i ng o t he r w o r ds a s a di s t r a c t or t a s k) H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s of t he c ur r e nt s t udy f a i l e d t o s how a ny s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s R e l a t e d w or ds d i d not pr oduc e m o r e i nt e r f e r e nc e t ha n un r e l a t e d w or d s T he r e l a t e d ve r s us unr e l a t e d m a ni pul a t i on w a s us e d i n a n a t t e m pt t o p r oduc e r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on by us i ng a s s oc i a t i ve l y r e l a t e d w or ds a s c om pe t i t or s t o t he t a r ge t i n i nt e r f e r i ng l i s t s T he s e r e s ul t s a l s o r e pl i c a t e N e l s on e t a l ( 1993) s t udy, w hi c h a l s o f a i l e d t o f i nd s pe c i f i c i nt e r f e r e nc e e f f e c t s F r om t he s e r e s ul t s i t s e e m s t ha t r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on i s a n i na de qua t e e xpl a na t i on f or f or ge t t i ng obs e r ve d i n t he s e e xpe r i m e nt s T he r e s pons e c om pe t i t i on a c c ount pr e di c t s m or e f o r ge t t i ng s houl d be obs e r v e d w he n t he i nt e r pol a t e d l i s t s w e r e r e l a t e d c om pa r e d t o unr e l a t e d l i s t s be c a us e c om pe t i t i on i s hi ghe r w he n t he w o r ds a r e r e l a t e d t o e a c h ot he r H ow e ve r no di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n r e l a t e d or un r e l a t e d i nt e r pol a t e d w or ds w e r e f ound T he i m pl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i on s e e m e d t o be a f f e c t e d m or e by t he de l a y be t w e e n t he s t udy a nd t he t e s t be c a us e t he r e w a s a r e duc t i on o f t he c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t s i n a l l di s r upt i on c ondi t i ons N e l s on e t a l ( 1993) c l a i m e d t ha t t a s k r e l a t e d a t t e nt i on s hi f t s w e r e t he m a i n c a us e s of t he r e duc t i on i n c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s be c a us e t he m a t h t a s k e l i m i na t e d s uc h e f f e c t s but s t udyi ng a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s di d not C ont r a r y t o t hi s c l a i m t he p r e s e nt s t udy f ound t ha t w or d s t udy r e duc e d c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s T he be ne f i t s of t he i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d i nf or m a t i on m a y de pe nd m o r e on t he i nt e r va l be t w e e n s t udy a nd t e s t t ha n on a t t e nt i on s hi f t s pe r s e I n or de r t o s e e t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on i n t e r va l on c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s t he r e i s a ne e d t o c onduc t a s t udy by va r yi ng di f f e r e nt r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l s T he e xpe c t a t i on w oul d be t ha t w i t h l onge r r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l s c om pe t i t or e f f e c t s w oul d be

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33 f ur t he r r e duc e d. O ne r e a s on w hy t he p r e s e nt r e s ul t s m a y di f f e r f r om e a r l i e r f i ndi ngs i s t ha t t i m e w a s c ont r ol l e d c a r e f ul l y i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy. I n t he N e l s on e t a l ( 1993 ) s t udy t he r e t e nt i on i nt e r va l i n t he m a t h c ondi t i on w a s l on ge r t ha n t he r e t e nt i on i n t e r va l s us e d i n t he l i s t s t udy c ondi t i ons I t i s c r uc i a l t o poi nt out t he r o l e of c ont e xt i n i m pl i c i t m e m or y. I t i s w e l l kn ow n t ha t s hi f t s i n c ont e xt di s r upt e xpl i c i t r e c a l l o f e ve nt s ( G odde n, & B a ddl e y, 1975 ) T he pr e s e nt s t udy pr ovi de d s uppor t f or t he s e f i ndi ngs W or ds t ha t ha ve f e w c om pe t i t or s s t i l l ke pt t he i r r e c a l l a dva nt a ge w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s s w i t c h t o a c onc e pt ua l l y di f f e r e nt t a s k s uc h a s m ul t i pl yi ng num be r s H ow e ve r t he m a gni t ude of t hi s a dva nt a ge w a s s m a l l e r c om pa r e d t o t he t a s ks t ha t m a i nt a i n t he f oc us of a t t e nt i on s uc h a s s t udyi ng ot he r w o r ds A c c or di ng t o P I E R a n e xpl i c i t r e pr e s e nt a t i on ( e pi s odi c s t udy of t he w or d) a nd t he i m pl i c i t r e p r e s e nt a t i on ( a c t i va t e d a s s oc i a t i ve i nf or m a t i on) a r e bo t h e nc ode d i n a c e r t a i n c ont e xt a nd t hus i t i s i m por t a nt t o r e c ove r c ont e xt i nf or m a t i on f or s uc c e s s f ul r e c a l l W he n t he r e i s a ne e d t o a l l oc a t e a t t e nt i ona l r e s our c e s t o a c onc e pt ua l l y di f f e r e nt t a s k, a s hi f t i n t he m e nt a l a nd e nvi r o nm e nt a l c ont e xt oc c ur s a nd a c c e s s i bi l i t y t o t he or i gi na l s t udy e pi s ode i s r e duc e d be c a us e of t hi s c ha nge ( N e l s on, & M c E voy, 2005) S uc h a r e duc t i on i n a c c e s s oc c ur s be c a u s e t he de m a nds of a n e a r l i e r t a s k m a y be i r r e l e va nt t o t he de m a nds of a ne w t a s k a nd t hus e a r l i e r c ont e xt be c om e s l e s s a c c e s i bl e H e nc e w ha t i s a c t i va t e d d ur i ng t he s t udy e pi s ode ( i e a s s oc i a t i ve s t r uc t ur e of a w or d) m a y be ha r de r t o r e a c c e s s F or e xa m pl e s uppos e t ha t a pe r s on s t udi e s a l i s t of w or ds a nd t he n i s gi ve n m ul t i pl i c a t i on e xe r c i s e s i m m e di a t e l y a f t e r t he s t udy. H e / s he ne e ds t o put t he s t udy c on t e xt on hol d w hi l e doi ng t he m ul t i pl i c a t i on t a s k, be c a us e s t udy of t he w o r ds ha s no r e l e va nc e w i t h

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34 m ul t i pl yi ng num be r s H e nc e a c c e s s i bi l i t y t o t he s t udy c ont e xt i s w e a ke ne d w he n t ha t pe r s on s w i t c he s t o a c onc e pt ua l l y di f f e r e nt t a s k. I t i s a s s um e d t ha t s uc h a pr oc e s s oc c ur s a ut om a t i c a l l y a nd out o f t he a w a r e ne s s I f how e ve r pa r t i c i pa nt s t udi e s ot he r w or d l i s t s a f t e r t he i n i t i a l s t udy, t he r e i s a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he m S pe c i f i c a l l y, s t udyi ng di f f e r e nt w o r d l i s t s a r e not i r r e l e va nt t o e a c h ot he r a l t houg h t he y c ons t i t ut e s l i ght l y di f f e r e nt c ont e xt s T hus P I E R pr e di c t s t ha t s t udy or s t udy a nd t e s t o f a ddi t i ona l w or d l i s t s s houl d not a f f e c t t he be ne f i t s of i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d i nf or m a t i on be c a us e t he y i nvol ve us i ng s i m i l a r c onc e pt ua l r e s our c e s a nd t hu s do not p r oduc e a s t r ong c ha nge of c ont e xt T he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy ga ve w e a k s uppor t t o t he s e pr e di c t i ons of P I E R D i s r upt i ons t ha t i nvol ve d w o r ds r e duc e d t he m a gn i t ude of c om pe t i t o r e f f e c t s a f i ndi ng t ha t i s c ont r a r y t o P I E R s p r e di c t i ons F o r ge t t i ng m i ght ha ve c a us e d s om e by l os s of a c c e s s t o pr e vi ous or t o be r e m e m be r e d c ont e xt a n d a l s o m or e by t he de l a y be t w e e n s t udy a nd t e s t T he a m ount o f t i m e pa s s e s s e e m e d t o be t he m os t i m por t a nt f a c t or i n de t e r m i ni ng t he m a gni t ude of l os s i n i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d i nf or m a t i on s uc h a s c om pe t i t or s H ow e ve r i t i s not t he onl y f a c t or be c a us e t he ove r a l l r e c a l l pe r f or m a nc e i n m a t h t a s k w a s be t t e r c om pa r e d t o s t udy i nt e r f e r e nc e c ondi t i ons A l s o, t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy f ound t ha t f or ge t t i ng i n c ue d r e c a l l d i d not de pe nd on a n i nhi b i t i on p r oc e s s a s R I F s ugge s t s F ut ur e s t udi e s c a n l ook a t t he e f f e c t s of t e s t i ng o n i m pl i c i t m e m or y by us i ng i nt r a l i s t c ui ng t a s k. I n t hi s t a s k, t a r ge t a nd t he c ue pa i r s a r e s how n t oge t he r i n t he s t udy pha s e T hi s pr oc e dur e i s m o r e a l i ke t o t he w a y pa r t i c i pa nt s s t udy c a t e gor y e xe m pl a r pa i r s i n r e t r i e va l i nduc e d f or ge t t i ng ( R I F ) A l s o t he l i s t s t a t i s t i c s f or t he e xpe r i m e nt s done i n R I F

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35 pa r a di gm s houl d be i nve s t i ga t e d i n t e r m s o f t he s t r e ngt h of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c a t e gor y a nd e xe m pl a r pa i r s P r e vi ous s t udi e s c ont r ol l e d onl y pr i nt e d f r e que nc y. T a r ge t c om pe t i t or s c ue c om pe t i t o r s or t he s t r e ngt h i nde x e s m a y i nc r e a s e or de c r e a s e t he a m ount of i nt e r f e r e nc e F i na l l y, t he pr e s e nt s t udy us e d w or ds not c a t e gor i e s a s s t i m ul i I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t w he n c a t e gor y a nd e xe m pl a r s a r e us e d, s t a nda r d R I F e f f e c t s m a y be e vi de nt

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36 R e f e r e nc e s A nde r s on, M J ( 2003) R e t hi nki ng i nt e r f e r e nc e t h e or y: E xe c ut i ve c ont r ol a nd t he m e c ha ni s m s of f or ge t t i ng J ounal o f M e m or y and L anguag e 49 415 445 A nde r s on, M J B j or k, R A & B j or k, E L ( 199 4) R e m e m be r i ng c a n c a us e f or ge t t i ng: R e t r i e va l dyna m i c s i n l ong t e r m m e m o r y. J our nal of E x pe r i m e nt al P s y x hol ogy : L e ar ni ng, M e m or y and C ogni t i on 20 ( 5) 1063 1087 A nde r s on, M J G r e e n C & M c C ul l oc h, K C ( 2000) S i m i l a r i t y a nd i nhi b i t i on i n l ong t e r m m e m o r y: E vi de nc e f o r a t w o f a c t or t he o r y. J our nal of E x pe r i m e nt al P s y x hol ogy : L e ar ni ng, M e m or y and C ogni t i on 7( 3) 522 530 B a dde l e y, A D ( 1998 ) W he n m e m or y f a i l s I n H um an m e m or y : T he or y and pr ac t i c e R e v. E d. ( pp 169 189) N e e dha m H e i ght s M A : A l l yn & B a c on. B a r ne s J M & U nde r w ood B J ( 1959) F a t e of f i r s t l i s t a s s oc i a t i ons i n t r a ns f e r t he or y. J our nal of E x pe r i m e nt al P s y c hol ogy 58 97 105. B a um l K H ( 1996) R e vi s i t i ng a nd ol d i s s ue : R e t r oa c t i ve i nt e r f e r e nc e a s a f unc t i on o f t he de gr e e of or i gi na l a nd i nt e r pol a t e d l e a r ni ng. P s y c honom i c B ul l e t i n & R e v i e w 3 380 384 C a pa l di E J & N e a t h, I ( 1995) R e m e m be r i ng a nd f or ge t t i ng a s c ont e xt di s c r i m i na t i on L e ar ni ng an d M e m or y 2 107 1 32. E ks t r a nd, B R ( 1972) T o s l e e p, pe r c ha nc e t o dr e a m ( a bout w hy w e f o r ge t ) I n C P D unc a n, L S e c hr e s t a nd A W M e l t on ( E ds ) H um an m e m or y : F e s t s c hr i f t f or

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37 B e nt on J U nde r w ood ( pp. 59 82 ) N e w Y or k: A ppl e t on C e nt ur y C r of t s G odde n D R & B a ddl e y A D ( 1975) C ont e xt de pe nde nt m e m or y i n t w o na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt s : O n l a nd a nd unde r w a t e r B r i t i s h J o ur nal of P s y c hol ogy 66 325 331 H a l l F H ( 1989 ) R e t e nt i on a nd f or ge t t i ng T he f unc t i ona l a ppr oa c h c ont i nue d. I n L e ar ni ng and M e m or y 2 n d E d. ( pp 317 345) B os t on, M A : A l l yn & B a c on. M c G e oc h, J A ( 1932) F o r ge t t i ng a nd t he l a w o f di s us e P s y c hol ogi c al R e v i e w 39 352 370 M c G e oc h, J A ( 1942) F unda m e nt a l c ondi t i ons of f or ge t t i ng C ha pt e r X I T he P s y c hol o gy of H um an L e ar ni ng: A n I nt r oduc t i on. L ongm ans G r e e n & C o. N Y N e l s on, D L & G oodm on, L B ( 2002) E xpe r i e n c i ng a w or d c a n pr i m e i t s a c c e s s i bi l i t y a nd i t s a s s oc i a t i ve c onne c t i ons t o r e l a t e d w or ds M e m or y and C ogni t i on, 30( 3) 380 398 N e l s on, D L & G oodm on L B ( 2003) D i s r upt i n g a t t e nt i on: T he ne e d f o r r e t r i e va l c ue s i n w or ki ng m e m o r y t he or i e s M e m or y & C og ni t i on. V ol 31 ( 1) 65 76. N e l s on, D L & M c E voy C L ( 2005) I m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d m e m or i e s : T he m i s s i ng l i nks of r e m e m be r i ng. I n C hi z uk o I & N obuo, O ( E ds ) H um an l e ar ni ng and m e m or y : A dv anc e s i n t he or y and i t s appl i c at i on : T he 4 t h T s uk uba I nt e r nat i onal C onf e r e nc e on M e m or y ( 177 198) U S : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s N e l s on, D L M c E voy C L J a nc z ur a G A & X u, J ( 1993) I m p l i c i t m e m or y a nd i nhi bi t i on. J our nal of M e m or y and L anguage 32 667 691 N e l s on, D L M c K i nne y, V M G e e N R a nd J a nc z ur a G A ( 1998) I n t e r pr e t i ng t he i nf l ue nc e of i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d m e m or i e s on r e c a l l a nd r e c ogni t i on. P s y c hol ogi c al

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38 R e v i e w 105 ( 2) 299 324 N e l s on, D L M c K i nne y, V M a nd M c E voy, C L ( 2003) A r e i m pl i c i t l y a c t i va t e d a s s oc i a t e s s e l e c t i ve l y a c t i va t e d? P s y c honom i c B ul l e t i n & R e v i e w 10 ( 1) 118 124. N e l s on, D L & M c E voy C L a nd S c h r e i be r T A ( 1999 ) T he U ni v e r s i t y of Sout h F l or i da w or d as s oc i at i on, r hy m e and f r agm e nt nor m s ht t p: / / w 3. us f e du/ F r e e A s s oc i a t i on/ P l i ha l W & B or n J ( 1999 ) E f f e c t s of e a r l y a nd l a t e noc t ur na l s l e e p on p r i m i ng a nd s pa t i a l m e m or y. P s y c hophy s i ol ogy 36( 5) 571 582 R e i s be r g, D ( 2001) C ogni t i on: E xpl or i ng t he s c i e nc e of t he m i nd 2 n d e di t i on N e w Y or k: W W N or t on & C om pa ny, I nc V e l i ng, H & K ni ppe nbe r g, A ( 2004 ) R e m e m be r i ng c a n c a us e i nhi bi t i on: R e t r i e va l i nduc e d i nhi bi t i on a s c ue i nde pe nde nt p r oc e s s J our nal of E x pe r i m e nt al P s y x hol ogy : L e ar ni ng, M e m or y and C ogni t i on 30( 2) 315 318 Y one l i na s A P ( 1994 ) R e c e i ve r ope r a t i ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e c ogni t i on m e m or y: e vi de nc e f or a dua l pr oc e s s m ode l J our nal of E x p e r i m e nt al P s y c hol ogy : L e a r ni ng, M e m or y and C ogni t i on, 20 1341 54.

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39 A ppe ndi c e s A ppe ndi x A W or d l i s t s us e d i n t he e xpe r i m e nt s

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40 A ppe ndi x A M a t e r i a l s f or L i s t 1 ____________ I nt e r pol a t e d L i s t s ___________ 3 T he f i r s t 12 t a r ge t s ha ve f e w a nd t he l a s t 12 ha ve m a ny c om pe t i t or s T A R G E T S 3 F I R S T S E C O N D T E S T C U E S L A S T F I N I S H E N D F I N A L I N S E C T B I T E F L Y M O S Q U I T O D E C A Y R O T D E T E R I O R A T E D E C O M P O S E Y O U T H C H I L D K I D A D O L E S C E N T M I N U T E S E C O N D T I M E M O M E N T S I G H T S E E B L I N D V I E W G L U E S T I C K S T I C K Y S T I C K E R I N T E L L G E N T S M A R T D U M B W I S D O M S A N D O C E A N B E A C H I S L A N D C O R R E C T W R O N G M I S T A K E E R R O R P E P P E R S A L T S E A S O N I N G S P I C E J O G R U N L W A L K E X E R C I S E A W A Y F A R N E A R D I S T A N T A P A R T M E N T H O U S E R O O M B A L C O N Y B R A I N C E L L T U M O R N E R V E O R I G I N A L N E W C O P Y U N I Q U E C O A T J A C K E T S W E A T E R V E S T W I R E C O R D T E L E V I S I O N C A B L E M O N S T E R B U G U G L Y B E A S T S T R I N G R O P E T H R E A D K N O T S T E A K M E A T F O O D G R I L L I N N O C E N T C R I M E C O U R T V I C T I M D U C K H U N T B I R D Q U A I L A W K W A R D F U N N Y S T R A N G E C L U M S Y

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41 A ppe ndi x A ( c ont i nue d) M a t e r i a l s f or L i s t 2 ____________ I nt e r pol a t e d L i s t s ____________ T A R G E T S 4 F I R S T S E C O N D T E S T C U E S H A M M E R T O O L S C R E W D R I V E R W R E N C H L A U N D R Y S O A P W A S H D E T E R G E N T C A N O E S W I M B O A T R I V E R D I C T I O N A R Y W O R D S E N C Y C L O P E D I A A L M A N A C G E M J E W E L S T O N E R U B Y I S O L A T E D A L O N E L O N E L Y S E C L U D E D O R C H E S T R A V I O L I N I N S T R U M E N T C E L L O A F F E C T I O N K I S S L U S T H U G S T O P S T A R T B E G I N H E S I T A T E A I R P O R T P L A N E T R I P B A G G A G E M O M D A D M O T H E R P A R E N T S R I C H P O O R W E A L T H F O R T U N E D E C O R A T I O N H O L I D A Y C H R I S T M A S O R N A M E N T C O L D F L U H O T F E V E R A R C H I T E C T B U I L D I N G P L A N B L U E P R I N T G L A S S W I N D O W M I R R O R P A N E I N S U R A N C E C O M P A N Y G O V E R N M E N T A G E N C Y M E T E R Y A R D M E A S U R E M E A S U R E M E N T H A L L C O R R I D O R E N T R A N C E L O B B Y W R I T E P E N P E N C I L N O T E B O O K C A S T L E P A L A C E K N I G H T D U N G E O N M E T A L I R O N G O L D S C R A P S C U L P T U R E M O L D A R T C L A Y E X P E R T B E G I N N E R A M A T E U R N O V I C E 4 T he f i r s t 12 t a r ge t s ha ve f e w a nd t he l a s t 12 ha ve m a ny c om pe t i t or s

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42 A ppe ndi x A ( c ont i nue d) M a t e r i a l s f or L i s t 3 T A R G E T S 5 T E S T C U E S C A N D L E W I C K E R W H I T E B R O W N C I R C L E C Y L I N D E R M I D G E T G I A N T D E S E R T S A F A R I P R E C I S E S P E C I F I C A U T H O R T I T L E L U S T P A S S I O N M O I S T D E W R O B I N S P A R R O W I N T E R S T A T E F R E E W A Y T H I N W I D E A D V I C E S U G G E S T I O N A N X I E T Y S T R E S S D E N Y A D M I T D R I V E R T A X I F L O W E R W E E D J O I N T K N E E M I C R O S C O P E T E L E S C O P E P O L I T I C I A N G O V E R N O R P A N T S P O C K E T S T O R E C U S T O M E R T R A I N W A G O N W O L F F A N G S 5 T he f i r s t 12 t a r ge t s ha ve f e w a nd t he l a s t 12 ha ve m a ny c om pe t i t or s