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Transfer track versus workforce development

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Title:
Transfer track versus workforce development implications for policy change in Florida community colleges
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English
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Griffin, Karen
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Career
Curriculum analysis
Institutional mission
Institutional goal
Strategic plan
Dissertations, Academic -- Higher Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Policy-makers intend community colleges to be the primary vehicles for workforce development education and training. In support of this intent, community college mission statements and curricular patterns should clearly indicate a workforce emphasis. Do these statements and curricular patterns reflect policy intent? If not, are resources being directed appropriately? This study was conducted to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provided evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce development as a primary component of the community college mission.^ ^An investigation also was made as to whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements provided evidence that workforce development increased as a component of the community college mission.Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study was that community colleges as institutions that allocate status confer a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. To carry out this study, a content analysis was conducted of 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 mission and institutional goal statements. Comparisons were made across time and between institutions. Size was included as a factor. Findings confirmed the study prediction that the transfer mission would remain paramount in the Florida community college curriculum. Findings also confirmed growth in workforce development education once non-credit sections were included in the overall curricular analysis.^ ^However, the liberal arts transfer mission remained the primary emphasis in the curriculum analysis, although not in the content analysis. Workforce retains a priority status among policy leaders, both at a national and state level. The findings from this study indicate that leadership policy directives are aligned well with institutional mission, goal, and planning documents: workforce development holds a dominant place. However, the findings suggest that leadership policy directives are not aligned well with curricular patterns. Community college stakeholders may wish to investigate what more can be done to promote the workforce development component to students.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ed.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Karen Griffin.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 174 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001926007
oclc - 191821257
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001908
usfldc handle - e14.1908
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SFS0026226:00001


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PAGE 1

Transfer Track Versus Workforce Development: Implications for Policy Change in Florida Community Colleges by Karen Griffin A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Adult, Career, and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Jan M. Ignash, Ph.D. Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Ph.D. W. Robert Sullins, Ed.D. William H. Young, Ed.D. Date of Approval: March 19, 2007 Keywords: career, curriculum analysis, institutional mission, institutiona l goal, strategic plan Copyright 2007, Karen Griffin

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Dedication I dedicate this work to my husband, Brian Robert Fisk. His faith in me went beyond my own and kept me going. As an anthropologist and political scientist, he provided insightful recommendations that helped to guide my way through the construction of this study. The support of my family, parents Edward and Donna Griffin, sister Kristine Griffin, brother Steven and his wife Carolyn and children Aidan and O ona, grandmothers Orpha Anderson and Flora Brock, in-laws Robert and Harriet Fisk and Clayton and Linda Fisk, added to Brian’s ongoing efforts to sustain my momentum to finish, and I truly appreciate them. Finally, I am grateful for the friendshi p of Mary Bendickson, Billie Byron, Maridru Clark, Gary Goff, Frank Harber, Ron and Cristy Johnsrud, Martha Plumb, and David, Kathy, and Emily Reddy, who all have been steadfast in cheering me onward.

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Acknowledgements I sincerely thank my major chair, Dr. Jan Ignash, for her guidance, encouragement, and patience in completing my degree. My appreciation also goes to my committee members for their willingness to provide assistance: Dr. Deirdr e CobbRoberts, Dr. Robert Sullins, and Dr. William Young. I am grateful to Dr. Gwendolyn Stephenson and Dr. Sylvia Marion Carley for their continuing commitment to professional development. My deep thanks go to Ms. Maridru Clark, who provided invaluable assistance in pursuing and obtaining missing data, and to Ms. Linda Waters for her research assistance. I also wish to acknowledge my Saturday disser tation group; our shared moral support benefits us all. Finally, my thanks go out to my community college colleagues in the State of Florida, who in many cases endured more tha n one telephone call or email from me in my pursuit of data. My appreciation for their willingness to advance my efforts is immeasurable.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables.....................................................................................................................iii Abstract................................................................................................................................v Chapter 1 Introduction.......................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem.........................................................................................3 Significance of the Problem...................................................................................12 Purpose of Study....................................................................................................14 Significance of Study.............................................................................................14 Research Questions/Hypotheses............................................................................15 Definition of Terms................................................................................................16 Limitations/Delimitations......................................................................................22 Summary/Organization of Study...........................................................................25 Chapter 2 Literature Review.............................................................................................27 Theoretical Perspectives on the Growth of Workforce Development Education..28 Functionalism, status-competition theory, and legitimation theory.......................................................................................................29 Policy theories – incremental theory, group theory, and political, terminal, and hidden agendas...................................................................33 The Growth of Workforce Development and the Community College Mission...38 The New Vocationalism........................................................................................44 Workforce Development........................................................................................49 The Florida Community College and the Role of Vocational Education..............53 Related Curriculum Studies...................................................................................62 The Method of Content Analysis...........................................................................73 Summary................................................................................................................76 Chapter 3 Method.............................................................................................................78 Introduction: Purpose of Study.............................................................................78 Researcher Objectivity...........................................................................................78 Research Questions/Hypotheses............................................................................79 Methods..................................................................................................................80 Research question 1...................................................................................80 Research question 2...................................................................................83 Research question 3...................................................................................86 Research question 4...................................................................................86 Summary................................................................................................................86

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ii Chapter 4 Results..............................................................................................................88 Introduction............................................................................................................88 Summary of Data Collection.................................................................................90 Results of Content Analysis...................................................................................95 Research question 1...................................................................................95 Results of Curricular Analysis.............................................................................121 Research question 2.................................................................................121 Research question 3.................................................................................125 Research question 4.................................................................................125 Summary..............................................................................................................130 Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Implications for Practice and Research.................................................................................................................133 Summary of Method............................................................................................134 Summary of Findings...........................................................................................135 Research question 1.................................................................................136 Research question 2.................................................................................138 Research question 3.................................................................................139 Research question 4.................................................................................139 Conclusions..........................................................................................................140 Limitations...........................................................................................................142 Implications for Theory.......................................................................................143 Implications for Practice......................................................................................144 Implications for Research....................................................................................145 Summary..............................................................................................................147 References........................................................................................................................149 Appendices.......................................................................................................................159 Appendix A Strategic plan display: transfer strong...........................................160 Appendix B Strategic plan display: transfer medium........................................165 Appendix C Strategic plan display: workforce development strong.................165 Appendix D Strategic plan display: workforce development medium..............174 About the Author...................................................................................................End Page

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Percentage of non-liberal arts sections offered (1998 and 1991)..............68 Table 2 Percentage of disciplines represented in non-liberal arts sections (1998 and 1991).......................................................................................70 Table 3 Percentage of liberal arts sections offered (1998 and 1991)......................71 Table 4 Percentage of disciplines represented in liberal arts sections (1998 and 1991).................................................................................................72 Table 5 Coding rubric for transfer and workforce emphases in mission statements................................................................................................82 Table 6 Coding rubric for transfer and workforce emphases in institutional goal statements........................................................................................83 Table 7 Sample section from state master file........................................................85 Table 8 1999/2000 institutional mission statements: transfer strong...................100 Table 9 1999/2000 institutional mission statements: transfer medium...............100 Table 10 1999/2000 institutional mission statements: workforce development strong.....................................................................................................101 Table 11 1999/2000 institutional mission statements: workforce development medium.................................................................................................103 Table 12 2004/2005 institutional mission statements: transfer strong...................103 Table 13 2004/2005 institutional mission statements: transfer medium...............104 Table 14 2004/2005 institutional mission statements: workforce development strong......................................................................................................105 Table 15 2004/2005 institutional mission statements: workforce development medium.................................................................................................106

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iv Table 16 1999/2000 institutional goal statements: transfer strong........................107 Table 17 1999/2000 institutional goal statements: transfer medium.....................107 Table 18 1999/2000 institutional goal statements: workforce development strong.....................................................................................................108 Table 19 1999/2000 institutional goal statements: workforce development medium.................................................................................................110 Table 20 2004/2005 institutional goal statements: transfer strong........................111 Table 21 2004/2005 institutional goal statements: transfer medium.....................111 Table 22 2004/2005 institutional goal statements: workforce development strong.....................................................................................................112 Table 23 2004/2005 institutional goal statements: workforce development medium.................................................................................................113 Table 24 Workforce development mission patterns 1999/2000.............................115 Table 25 Workforce development mission patterns 2004/2005.............................115 Table 26 Workforce development goal patterns 1999/2000...................................116 Table 27 Workforce development goal patterns 2004/2005...................................116 Table 28 Percentage of credit non-liberal arts and liberal arts sections as part of total credit sections....................................................................122 Table 29 Percentage of credit non-liberal arts and liberal arts sections as part of total credit sections: small, medium, and large institutions.....124 Table 30 Percentage of disciplines represented in credit non-liberal arts sections..................................................................................................126 Table 31 Comparison of total sections against credit-only sections.......................128 Table 32 Comparison of total sections against credit-only sections: small, medium, and large institutions.............................................................129

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v Transfer Track Versus Workforce Development: Implications for Policy Change in Florida Community Colleges Karen Griffin ABSTRACT Policy-makers intend community colleges to be the primary vehicles for workforce development education and training. In support of this intent, community college mission statements and curricular patterns should clearly indicate a workforce emphasis. Do these statements and curricular patterns reflect policy intent? If not, are resources being directed appropriately? This study was conducted to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida publ ic community college mission and planning statements provided evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce development as a primar y component of the community college mission. An investigation also was made as to whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements provided evidence that workforce development increased as a component of the community college mission.

PAGE 9

vi Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study was that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mis sion. To carry out this study, a content analysis was conducted of 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 mission and institutional goal statements. Comparisons were made across ti me and between institutions. Size was included as a factor. Findings confirmed the study prediction that the transfer mission would remain paramount in the Florida community college curriculum. Findings also confirme d growth in workforce development education once non-credit sections were included in the overall curricular analysis. However, the liberal arts transfer mi ssion remained the primary emphasis in the curriculum analysis, although not in the content analysi s. Workforce retains a priority status among policy leaders, both at a national and state level. The findings from this study indicate that leadership policy dire ctives are aligned well with institutional mission, goal, and planning documents: workforce development holds a dominant place. However, the findings suggest that leadership policy directives are not aligned well with curricular patterns. Community college stakeholders may wish to investigate what more can be done to promote the workforce development component to students.

PAGE 10

1 Chapter 1 Introduction On September 2, 2004, in his acceptance speech at the Republican National Convention, President George W. Bush proposed to increase funding for the nation’s community colleges to aid workers wishing to learn higher-level skills for bet ter jobs (Bush, 2004). This statement affirmed his earlier support in his January State of t he Union address to increase funding for the nation’s community colleges for workforce training purposes (Bush, 2004). President Bush has been consistent in linking community colleges with workforce development. In 2003, he praised community colleges as workforce development incubators: “Community colleges are particul arly important, he said, because they can adapt to economic challenges by training a nd retraining workers” (Dervarics, 2003, p. 10). Workforce development education as defined in this study is made up of community college vocational, occupational, and professional programs and courses intended to train students and allow them to become immediately employable. Clowes (1996) describes vocational, occupational, and professional education as being on a continuum, with the ratio of practice to theory shifting along that continuum. Vocational education emphasizes practice and deemphasizes theory, occupational educati on balances practice and theory, and professional education emphasizes theory and deemphasiz es

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2 practice. The Florida Department of Education (FLDOE) (2004a) incorporates t he concept of this continuum in its description of workforce development education: Workforce Development in the Florida Community College System (FCCS) consists of training programs that prepare adult students for today’s workforce. These programs serve adult learners, i.e., post-secondary students, by prepari ng them for employment in a variety of industries that require well-developed technical skills. Additional workforce development efforts are focused on providing skills maintenance and enhancement through continuing education to those already employed, and retraining for displaced workers. (p. 1) The workforce role of the community colleges is emphasized in key policy statements. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), which functions to support the nation’s community colleges, includes in its vision the intent to promote community colleges as the “premier workforce development providers in America” with the action of “influencing government and corporate funding polic ies to support the colleges in this key role” (AACC, 2004, p. 4). Reinforcing the workforce theme, in June 2003, AACC sponsored the leadership summit on technological education. The consensus of the attendees was that “developing a more agile, highly-skilled workforce is a key goal for the nation’s 1171 community colleges” (Patton, 2003, p. 2). In Florida, the focus on developing the nation’s workforce has been such that an Office of Workforce Education has been established in the FLDOE. The workforce training opportunities cut across the secondary and postsecondary boundaries and are overseen by the different divisions within Florida’s K – 20 education board. For example, the Chancellor of the state’s 28 public community colleges had workforce

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3 development added to his title in 2003 and is now the Chancellor of Florida Community Colleges and Workforce Education. Moreover, although workforce development cuts across the educational sectors, Florida’s 28 public community colleges again ar e seen as key sources for job training. Noting the relationship between economic growth and t he need for more college-educated workers, Windham (2003) drew the inference that in Florida, “community colleges will provide either the entire training or at leas t the initial training for a larger portion of the workforce in 2006 than is the current situation” (p.1). Growth in workforce was reiterated in the newsletter of the Chancellor of Flor ida Community Colleges and Workforce Education. In the newsletter, Chancellor Arm strong (2004a) tied the proposed state budget increases to an expansion in “nursing programs, technology programs, and other rapidly growing, well-paying career prog rams” (p. 1). Statement of the Problem Above are but a few examples of leadership policy statements that portray workforce development as a primary component of the community college mission. However, if policy-makers intend community colleges to be the primary vehicles for workforce development education and training, then community college mission statements and curricular patterns should clearly indicate a workforce empha sis if workforce development is a primary component of the community college mission. Does community college practice in terms of mission and curriculum in fact refle ct policy intent? If not, are resources being directed appropriately? For example, President Bush justified his proposal to provide more funds for workforce development by stating that American workers were lacking the s kills to keep

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4 up with changes and needed job training (Dervarics, 2003). However, some have argued that job creation rather than job training is the true goal toward which resources should be devoted (Lane, 2004; Seewer, 2004; Tampa Bay Workforce Alliance, 2004). If job creation rather than job training should be a priority, then national and statewide poli cy recommendations to divert resources to training may be inappropriate. Moreover, ev en if job training should be the focus, have community college workforce development programs been effective? In Florida, the 2001 program review of Florida Workforce Development Education Programs, performed by the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA), indicated that although community college program performance had improved for program completers who were placed in the positions for which they were trained, a majority of students did not complete the programs in which they were enrolled (OPPAGA, 2001). Completion of the program would appear to be tied to enhanced benefits for the student. According to the FLDOE in a 2004 budget presentation, A.S. degree completers on average experienced a 167% increase in earnings and made more than twice as much as students with a high sc hool diploma ($35,592 versus $16,032). In addition, 80% of them who completed their degree in 2001-2002 were employed by the fall of 2002 (FLDOE, 2004c, slide 6). Note that the A.S. degree is considered the occupational associate’s degree in Florida, equi valent to the A.A.S. degree in many other states (J. Ignash, November 19, 2004, personal communication). The OPPAGA program review provided empirical evidence that workforce program performance needed improvement, underscored by the FLDOE budget

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5 presentation that tied increased completion rates to enhanced student success. Howe ver, data-based decision-making with regard to workforce development education would appear to be limited. Bragg (2001b) noted that many of the arguments for or against vocational education (a subset of workforce development education as defined in this study) lacked the data to support them: Over much of the twentieth century, arguments for and against vocational education have been made on political and ideological grounds, but rarely have they been based on empirical results. This is unfortunate because it suggests that community colleges have missed opportunities to steer vocational education in directions that would provide the greatest benefit. (p. 13) Politically, ideologically, or empirically based, workforce development i nitiatives may not have assumed a primary role in the national community college curric ulum. Part of the attempts to assess the ratio between the transfer curriculum and the w orkforce development curriculum depends on what is included in the workforce development curriculum. Clowes (1996) discusses the rise of the practical curriculum as w ell as the growth in non-credit and work-related training activities in postsecondary educat ion. However, this increased infusion of the practical curriculum in the overall postsec ondary curriculum does not automatically mean that workforce development education has a primary role in the community college curriculum. In their analysis of the com munity college curriculum, Cohen and Ignash (1993) found that, “Despite frequent attempts to shift the curriculum toward studies more directly vocational, the liberal art s, with more than half the enrollment, remain the centerpiece of community college studies” ( p. 9). In

PAGE 15

6 an updated curriculum analysis, Brawer (1999) found that the liberal arts curr iculum retained a central role in the community college curriculum. Historically, Florida community colleges are no different. Even with the onse t of World War II, when the rest of the nation’s two-year higher education instituti ons were experiencing growth in defense-related coursework and training, Florida’s ef forts in these areas were covered in large part by trade schools (Stakenas, Mock, & Eaddy, 1984). Existing junior colleges often shared facilities with vocational schools. Th e director and secretary of the Community College Council, James L. Wattenbarger, provided t he basis for the long-range plan for public Florida community colleges with his 1950 doctoral dissertation (Wattenbarger, 1950). A later publication, A State Plan for Public Junior Colleges (Wattenbarger, 1953), noted that the existing two-year colleges appeared to subscribe to the junior college philosophy “except that the vocational and adult functions seem to have been passed over rather lightly” (p. 25). The transfer function was the primary function. Wattenbarger (1953) spoke directly to the functions of the junior college in Florida and its competition with vocational schools: Many of the functions of the junior college, such as terminal and adult education, are at the present time being carried on by vocational-technical schools . To allow these two types of institutions . to develop simultaneously, duplicating work and perhaps at some time even competing for students, is not only poor administrative practice but also expensive and inefficient . no new vocational-technical schools should be established as separate institutions, and the post-high school and adult work of the vocational school and of the junior college should be combined. (41-43)

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7 As described in more detail in Chapter 2, the battle for control over vocational education continued from the inception of the Florida public community colleges to the present. For example, in 2000, community college presidents petitioned the Florida legislature to discontinue the duplication of postsecondary vocational education and allow the community colleges jurisdiction over all postsecondary vocational educati on programs. Their bid was unsuccessful. Wattenbarger’s earlier plea for increased efficiency emerges t oday as a quest for seamlessness in the K-20 educational system. FS 1000.02, Policy and guiding principles for the Florida K-20 education system refers to the legislature’s policy to achieve a “seamless academic educational system that fosters an integrated conti nuum of kindergarten through graduate school education for Florida's students” as well as “funding efficiency of educational delivery systems by aligning responsi bility with accountability” (FS 1001.02, 2004b, p. 1). Accordingly, Florida’s K-20 education system includes a guiding principle to provide “a coordinated, seamless system for kinder garten through graduate school education” (FS 1001.02, 2004b, p. 1). In keeping with the theme of seamlessness, the Division of Florida Community Colleges and Workforce Education (FCCWE) has incorporated into its mission the desire to “increase the profici ency of all students within one seamless, efficient system,” and it includes as goals “s eamless articulation and maximum access” and “quality efficient services” (FC CWE, 2004, p. 1). The predominance of the role of workforce development education depends on how the data are presented. Looking at the 2000-2001 enrollment patterns for the State of Florida specifically (FLDOE, 2004), 26.91% of all community college students wer e enrolled in the Associate in Arts (A.A.) Degree program, which is driven by the l iberal

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8 arts curriculum. The percentage is based on duplicated headcount. Looking only at credit enrollment in the form of Associate in Science (A.S.) Degree program enrollm ent and College Credit Certificate enrollment (College Credit Certificat es focus upon workforce development areas), workforce development comes in at 11.43 percent. However, the picture changes when non-credit enrollment is included. Continuing Workforce Education consists of training for licensure or workplace skills for which no credit is awarded beyond continuing education units. Enrollment statistics (based on duplicated headcount) placed this category at the second highest following A.A. degree progr am enrollment, with 22.66% of all community college students enrolled. In addition, upon combining continuing workforce education with A.S. degree, vocational certificate, a nd college credit certificate enrollment, more than 38% of community college students were enrolled in workforce-related programs. The FLDOE Facts at a Glance document (FLDOE, 2004b), presents graduation rates only in terms of degrees awarded; that is, continuing workforce education completers are not represented. For total degrees awarded annually, the A.A degree has the highest performance, constituting 56% of the awards conferred. The A.S. degree constitutes 19%, and vocational and college credit certificates constitute 25%. As is seen by the examples above, the combinations of categories influence the Florida community college curriculum portrait of transfer education versus workforce education. In the 2000 Florida Curriculum Study (Griffin, 2002), liberal arts coursewor k (typically associated with transfer coursework) represented a pri mary place in the Florida community college curriculum, in part because the study was limited to credit coursework. In this study, six researchers collected catalogs and course schedules for the

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9 fall of 2000 from Florida’s 28 public community colleges. Utilizing a curriculum sc heme developed and used by researchers at the Center for the Study of Community Colleg es (CSCC) in seven national community college curriculum studies conducted betwee n 1975 and 1998, the researchers coded all credit course sections listed in the schedules. A seventh researcher reviewed all of the coding to check for accuracy and to minim ize error. Within the classification scheme were defined six liberal arts and t en non-liberal arts areas, remedial, distance learning, and transferability categori es. The researchers used the state master list for Florida’s Common Course Numbering System t o generate a consistent coding system and to determine transferability. The Florida researchers ultimately coded 42,928 credit course sections in the 28 community colleges. Findings indicated that nearly 67% of the course secti ons offered in the Fall 2000 term were found in the liberal arts. Once more, this finding supplies fur ther evidence of the primary role of liberal arts in Florida’s community college s: providing the A.A. degree and the general education component of the A.S. degree remains a maj or function of these institutions when only credit curriculum is considered. A limita tion of this study was the exclusion of the non-credit curriculum, which largely is relat ed to workforce development. Without considering the impact of the non-credit curriculum, it becomes difficult to estimate the actual dominance (or lack thereof) of the rol e of workforce development in the Florida community college curriculum. Again, the role and predominance of workforce education in the Florida community college system is not clearly specified. As stated in Richards on (1999), “Many observers of Florida higher education have concerns about the structure of t heir higher education system, including: (1) the limited capacity to address iss ues that the

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10 various sectors of higher education have in common (for example, vocational education and general education for students seeking the baccalaureate)” (p. 104). As if to underscore the uncertain role of workforce education, House Bill 769 was passed in the 2004 Florida legislative session, requiring the State’s Commissioner of Educati on to convene a workforce education task force. The task force was charged to conduct a comprehensive study of workforce education (Armstrong, 2004b). The intent of policy makers with regard to community colleges is reflected by more than policy statements. Financial evidence exists in terms of the support t hat President George W. Bush proposed. Rather than providing unrestricted funds to community colleges, the Bush proposal tied new dollars directly into workforce development in the form of “community-based job training grants. These competiti ve grants would be awarded to community and technical colleges that partnered wit h local employers who were seeking more skilled workers” (The White House, 2004). At the state level, Governor Jeb Bush supported a substantial increase to Florida’s community college budgets. In August 2004, the State Board of Education approved a budget increase of 6% for the community colleges and a 9% increase for workforce education (which in this use of the phrase includes secondary education programs) (Armstrong, 2004c). With regard to leadership policy statements and proposed budgets, policy makers clearly intend for community colleges to emphasize workforce development education as a key component. Employment projections support these types of policy statements. The Council for Education Policy Research and Improvement (CEPRI) reported in 2004 that for the next ten years, Florida’s top ten fastest growing jobs would require e ither an

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11 associate’s degree or postsecondary vocational certificate, that the most growth would occur in information technology, which would require a technical credential, and that 61% of the job growth projected through 2010 would require an associate’s degree, a postsecondary vocational certificate, or a high school diploma with vocational trai ning, but that “despite these enormous needs for education and training, the state’s priori ty is often focused on the college preparatory track . Workforce education programs often receive the lowest priority among all education programs” (CEPRI, 2004, p. 1-2). At the heart of the budgeting process and the establishment of priorities lies a deeper issue, which is why certain employment areas require certifica tion, credentials, or degrees beyond on-the-job training. This issue is directly related to the one that explores the growth of vocationalism in higher education in general. R. Roemer (1981) provided an overview of three theoretical models: functionalism, status-competition the ory, and legitimation theory. The functionalist theoretical approach ties a relationship between knowledge acquisition and job performance and would serve to explain the growth of vocationalism in higher education by the nature of the increasingly complex demands of the workplac e. In contrast, status-competition theory draws little or no relationships betwee n knowledge acquisition and occupational competence. This theoretical approach instead holds that acquisition of a certificate or degree improves one’s ability to attain a posit ion that is more economically beneficial or beneficial in other elevated status terms. F inally, legitimation theory ties together knowledge acquisition and occupational perform ance, as does functionalism, but legitimation theory goes beyond functionalism by emphasi zing the active role that postsecondary institutions have in placing value on obtaining

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12 certificates and degrees. Higher education serves to validate the degree req uirement. A more extensive discussion of these theoretical approaches and other approaches wi ll occur in Chapter 2. Harold Lasswell (as cited in Ginsberg, Lowi, & Weir, 2003) described politics a s “the struggle over who gets what, when, and how” (p. 19). The struggle for ownership of workforce education is indeed a political one, made more so by leadership policy statements with promises of future funding. The ownership issue becomes even more political with a potential for negative backlash against the Florida community college system if leadership policy intent is not matched by practice. This study will assess Florida community college documentation and curriculum patterns for evidence t hat workforce education is a primary function. Significance of the Problem Workforce development education as contained in the vocational, occupational, and professional curricula has been a component of the community college mission since the inception of the institution (Cohen & Brawer, 2003; Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger, 1994). Indeed, as institutions that support both the transfer and workforce development curricula, community colleges may become ideal workfor ce development institutions, particularly in terms of the structure of the “new vocationalism.” The new vocationalism utilizes a learner-centered approac h, the integration of academic and technical education, and the application of knowledge to problem-solving, critical thinking, and other demonstrations of higher-level thinking skills (Bragg, 2001b, Grubb, 1997). However, expectations may be too high at this point

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13 in time to place workforce development at the forefront of the community college mission. Mentioned previously, Cohen and Ignash (1993) and Brawer (1999) found that the liberal arts retained a central place in community college studies. The fi ndings of the 2000 Florida Curriculum Study support that statement. If policy-makers are intendi ng community colleges to be the primary vehicles for workforce development educat ion and training, then it is important to determine whether reality reflects int ent. Also, as discussed previously, whether leadership should direct funding toward job training for higher-skill or new jobs or whether the funding focus should be primarily upon job creation remains a point of debate. As an example, although CEPRI reported that the highest job growth in Florida would occur in information technology, graduates of computer science A.S. degree programs may not find immediate employment in high wage information technology jobs. Moreover, although the collapse of internet companies flooded the market with experienced computer science professionals, outsourcing of technology jobs also presented a major concern. As reported by Giegeric h (2004), “A recent report from Forrester Research projected that as many as 3.3 million American white collar tech jobs will go to overseas workers by 2015” (p. 1). The Tam pa Bay Workforce Alliance also noted the lowered projections for the computer and data processing services industry “due to weak demand for services and jobs moving to other countries” (p. 7). With a market saturated with experienced professionals and with extensive job outsourcing, it may be ill-advised to direct increased resources t oward workforce development education, at least in the computer science program area.

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14 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. To conduct the longitudinal assessment, the researcher will compare the current study against the 2000 Florida Curr iculum Study for the comparison data. The 2000 Florida Curriculum Study provides a strong comparison point because the researchers used the same curriculum classificat ion scheme being used in the current study and used the Florida community college credit curric ulum as the research data. Significance of Study The significance of the study is in the contribution to the understanding of policy versus practice and in the nature of the comprehensive community college curric ulum in the State of Florida. Empirical research that presents evidence of actual pra ctice versus statements of presumed practice is useful in separating rhetoric from real ity. In addition, no such study has been undertaken in Florida. Although research conducted at the state level provides information on overall program enrollment and completion, it does not

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15 provide a detailed focus on curriculum offerings as is provided by previous curriculum studies. The relationship between the credit and non-credit curriculum continues to be a challenge to assess, particularly in terms of quantifying the contributions e ach has towards the community college mission. The Community College Research Cente r (CRCC) at Teachers College, Columbia University, has directed a researc h focus upon mission integration and the role that the credit and non-credit curriculum has in the community college. The proposed study here, although not affiliated with CRCC, ca n contribute to further understanding of the role of the credit and non-credit curriculum, particularly with regard to policy development and its implementation. Research Questions/Hypotheses Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study is that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. Therefore, the study prediction is that transfer mission will remain param ount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction is that the longitudinal analysis will indicate g rowth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions place an active value on obtaining certificates and degrees and serve to validate the degree requi rement. In support of these assumptions, the specific research questions are as follows: 1. Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support national and state leadership policy statements with regard to the

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16 dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum? 2. What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme defined by the CSCC? 3. How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study? 4. What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included? Definition of Terms The following definitions are provided for use in interpreting this study. 1. College credit: College credit is the type of credit assigned to courses or course equivalent learning that is part of an organized and specified program leading to a graduate, baccalaureate, or associate degree. One (1) college credit is based on the learning expected from the equivalent of fifteen (15) fifty-minute periods of classroom instruction. (Florida State Board of Education, Administrative Rules [FSBEAR], 2004b, para 3) 2. College preparatory instruction: “courses through which a high school graduate who applies for any college credit program may attain the communication and computation skills necessary to enroll in college credit instruction” (Florida Statutes [FS], 2002, p. 2).

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17 3. Contact hour: as derived from the FSBEAR (2004b) definition of an instructional period, one fifty-minute period of classroom instruction. 4. Continuing workforce education: Instruction that does not result in a technical certificate, diploma, associate in applied science degree, or associate in science degree (defined below under workforce development curriculum – parentheses added). Continuing workforce education is for a. Individuals who are required to have training for licensure renewal or certification renewal by a regulatory agency or credentialing body; b. New or expanding businesses; c. Business, industry, and government agencies whose products or services are changing so that retraining employees is necessary o r whose employees need training in specific skills to increase efficiency and productivity; or d. Individuals who are enhancing occupational skills necessary to maintain current employment, to cross train, or to upgrade employment. (FS, 2002, p. 2-3) 5. Credit: Credit is a unit of measure assigned to courses or course equivalent learning. Credit is awarded if the learning activity it represents is pa rt of, or preparatory for, an organized and specified program leading to a postsecondary certificate or degree. Credit is a device which indicates t o the learner, to educational institutions, to employers, and to others how

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18 much of the program the learner has completed. The credit awarded may be independent of where the learning occurs. If a learning activity does not meet these requirements, credit shall not be awarded. (FSBEAR, 2004b, para 2) 6. General education: The process of developing a framework on which to place knowledge stemming from various sources, of learning to think critically, develop values, understand traditions, respect diverse cultures and opinions, and, most important, put that knowledge to use. It is holistic, not specialized; integrative, not separatist. (Cohen & Brawer, 2003, p. 330) 7. Gordon Rule curriculum: As defined in the Florida State Board of Education Administrative Rule 6A-10.030 (also known as the Gordon Rule), these courses are those defined by Florida public community colleges and universities as the ones a student must successfully complete prior to earning an A.A. degree or prior to entry into the upper division. They include twelve semester hours of English coursework, or coursework within the humanities, in which a student must complete writing assignments, and six semester hours of mathematics coursework at the level of college algebra or higher (FSBEAR, 2004a). 8. Liberal arts curriculum: As described by Cohen and Ignash (1993), the liberal arts curriculum is generally transferable credit coursework that contri butes to the attainment of an A.A. and/or Bachelor in Arts degree. For the purposes of this study, the liberal arts curriculum incorporates six major discipline s –

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19 humanities, English, fine and performing arts, social sciences, sciences, an d mathematics and computer sciences (at the more advanced level; for example programming). 9. New vocationalism: An educational phenomenon that “emphasizes career clusters or pathways that extend from the entry level to the professional level in career fields integral to the new economy (Bragg, 2001b). In contrast with traditional vocational education, the new vocationalism utilizes a learner-centered approach, the integration of academic and technical education, and the application of knowledge to problem-solving, critical thinking, and other demonstrations of higher-level thinking skills (Bragg, 2001b, Grubb, 1997). 10. Non-credit: Non-credit is a term indicating that credit, as defined herein, is not awarded. It applies . in the case of community colleges, to the instructional classifications of supplemental, adult basic and secondary, citizenship, and recreational . The unit of measure is hours of instruction. (SBEAR, 2004b, para 11). 11. Non-liberal arts curriculum: Credit and non-credit coursework that is primarily occupational or technical in nature and that contributes to the attainment of an occupational certificate and/or Associate in Science Deg ree. For the purposes of this study, the non-liberal arts curriculum includes agriculture, business and office, education, engineering technologies, health, marketing and distribution, personal skills and avocational courses, technical education, trade and industry, and other (Cohen and Ignash, 1993). “Other” is

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20 limited to occupational-technical categories that do not fit into the other categories. Home economics is excluded from this study. The non-liberal arts curriculum is used to represent the workforce development and occupational-technical curriculum in this study. 12. Occupational completion point: “the occupational competencies that qualify a person to enter an occupation that is linked to a career and technical program” (FS, 2002, p. 4). 13. Occupational-technical curriculum: Credit and non-credit coursework that is primarily occupational or technical in nature and that contributes to the attainment of an occupational certificate and/or A.S. degree. For the purposes of this study, the occupational-technical curriculum is equivalent to the non-liberal arts curriculum and includes agriculture, business and office, education, engineering technologies, health, marketing and distribution, personal skills and avocational courses, technical education, trade and industry, and other (Cohen and Ignash, 1993). “Other” is limited to occupational-technical categories that do not fit into the other categories. Home economics is excluded from this study. The occupational-technical curriculum is used to represent the workforce development and non-liberal arts curriculum in this study. 14. Traditional vocational education: An educational program directed toward training students to become workers, primarily in low-level, low-income jobs. Typically, traditional vocational education is characterized by an emphasis on

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21 practice rather than upon theory and does not tend to be designed to allow the student to explore a general area or move upward (Clowes, 1996). 15. Vocational credit: The type of credit assigned to courses or course equivalent learning that is part of an organized and specified program leading to a vocational certificate. It applies to postsecondary adult vocational courses. One (1) vocational credit is based on the learning expected from the equivalent of thirty (30) hours of instruction. (SBEAR, 2004b, para 4). 16. Workforce Development Curriculum: The State of Florida defines workforce development curriculum in the following manner: Workforce Development in the Florida Community College System (FCCS) consists of training programs that prepare adult students for today’s workforce. These programs serve adult learners, i.e., post-secondary students, by preparing them for employment in a variety of industries that require well-developed technical skills. Additional workforce development efforts are focused on providing skills maintenance and enhancement through continuing education to those already employed, and retraining for displaced workers. The following programs types are offered: a. Adult Basic Education and GED Preparation; b. Postsecondary Adult Vocational Certificates (noncollege credit occupational training);

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22 c. Applied Technology Diplomas (Occupational training offered by a vocational-technical school or community college and guaranteed to transfer to an AAS or AS degree); d. College Credit Certificate (Stand alone certificate, also part of an A AS or AS degree, 1 year or less); e. Associate in Applied Science (Two year occupational degree); f. Associate in Science (Two year occupational degree with general education transferable to a state university); g. Applied Technical Certificate (Certification beyond the AAS/AS degrees); h. Continuing Workforce Education (Non-credit courses for updating skills) (FLDOE, 2004a, p. 1). For the purposes of this study, the workforce development curriculum will include categories b through h, which encompass Clowe’s (1996) continuum of vocational, occupational, and professional curriculum as offered in the Florida community college system. Limitations/Delimitations Limitations of the study include the following: 1. The awarding of credit is based on established, formal structures as required by regional accrediting agencies. The Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (COCSACS), for example, has several mandates related to courses, notably including 3.4.1.,

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23 which requires each credit program to be approved by the faculty and administration and to have learning outcomes developed and assessed; 3.4.4., which requires a definite, published policy for assessing and accepting transfer credit and non-traditional credit such as experiential learning and advanced placement; and, most germane to the credit/non-credit issue, “The institution awards academic credit for course work taken on a noncredit basis only when there is documentation that the noncredit course work is equivalent to a designated credit experience. (COCSACS, 2004, p. 23) COCSACS also has structured guidelines for faculty. Faculty members teaching general education coursework or coursework designed for transfer to a bachelor’s degree should hold a master’s degree in the teaching discipline or a master’s degree with 18 graduate hours in the teaching discipline. Faculty members teaching associate degree cours es that are not designed for transfer should hold a bachelor’s degree in the teaching discipline or, minimally, an associate’s degree with experienc e in the teaching discipline (COCSACS, 2004). In contrast, non-credit offerings may be tailored to individual needs and tend to fulfill shorter-term goals than those affiliated with obtaining a degree (Cohen & Brawer, 2003). Non-credit programs that are articulated to credit programs may be based more on faculty credentials and overall curricular content rather than on the clock hours associated with a non-credit program. For example, at Hillsborough Community

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24 College, an articulation agreement was established between the non-credit fire fighter program and the credit fire science program in which the ent ire fire fighter program was equated to one three-credit hour fire science course. Developing a formula based on contact hours to measure the contributions of the non-credit curriculum plows through these distinctions and forces an arbitrary relationship between the non-credit and credit curriculum. 2. Although the Florida common course numbering system provides a template for the credit curriculum in developing a classification scheme that looks at individual courses, this numbering system does not extend to the non-credit curriculum. Therefore, I will define for this study how non-credit coursework is coded in the classification scheme for all Florida community colleges. 3. Not all colleges offer non-credit coursework in packaged schedules by term. This affected how the non-credit data could be collected because total non-credit coursework offered was only known after the term ended. For example, at Hillsborough Community College, the Postsecondary Adult Vocational fire fighter coursework was offered on an “as needed” basis and did not appear in a published course schedule. Delimitations of the study include the following: 1. The comprehensive curriculum is coded using a curriculum scheme developed and used by researchers at the CSCC in seven national community college curriculum studies conducted between 1975 and 1998.

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25 The specific coding sheet used is the one developed for the 1998 study. This curriculum scheme also takes into account the non-credit curriculum, which is organized according to the categories developed in the 1991 Non-Liberal Arts Study. 2. Vocational credit and non-credit coursework are coded as sections if they include at least 45 contact hours (the number of contact hours in a 3-credit hour course, which is a system standard for credit coursework). Non-credit coursework that does not fall into one of the non-liberal arts categories is excluded, as is non-credit coursework that is not employment-oriented. Examples of this type of coursework are special interest courses that foc us upon personal enrichment or development, such as Antiques, Secrets of Gourmet Cooking, and Introduction to Scrapbooking. Summary/Organization of the Study The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. Mentioned previously, the 2000 Florida Curriculum Study will be used as the basis for comparison in the longitudinal asse ssment.

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26 Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study is that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. Therefore, the study prediction is that transfer mission will remain param ount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction is that the longitudinal analysis will indicate g rowth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions serve to validate the certificate and degree requirement. Legitimation theory is descri bed in more detail in Chapter 2. This dissertation is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides the introduction. Chapter 2 provides a review of the literature. Chapter 3 provides the methods of conducting the study. Chapter 4 contains the results, including a summary of the data collection. Chapter 5 presents the conclusion, including a discussion of the results and their implications for future study.

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27 Chapter 2 Literature Review The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study is that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. Therefore, the study prediction is that transfer mission will remain param ount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction is that the longitudinal analysis will indicate g rowth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions serve to validate the certificate and degree requirement. To provide background to this study, several literature threads are presented: 1. Theoretical perspectives on the growth of workforce development education in the community college mission;

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28 2. Historical and contemporary background on the growth of workforce development education in the community college mission; 3. The new vocationalism; 4. Workforce development; 5. The Florida community college and the role of vocational education; 6. Related curriculum studies; and 7. The content analysis method. Theoretical Perspectives on the Growth of Workforce Development Education Central to this study is the relationship of the transfer mission to the workforc e development mission. As described in Chapter 1, workforce development education includes the community college coursework that falls along the vocational/occupat ional/ professional education continuum defined by Clowes (1996). The history of the growth of workforce development education in the community college curriculum will be explored in the next section. This section provides theoretical perspectives to offer explanations for that growth. At the heart of the growth is the question as to why certain employment areas came to require certification, credentials, or degrees beyond on-the-job training Roemer (1981) provided an overview of three theoretical models: functionalism, status-competition theory, and legitimation theory. Following a discussion of these theoret ical models is Anderson’s (as cited in Goodchild, Lovell, Hines, & Gill, 1997) portrayal of the public policy theories known as incremental theory and group theory. Finally,

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29 Palmer’s (1987) dissertation perspectives will be included as an additional theore tical perspective on policy and workforce development education. Functionalism, status-competition theory, and legitimation theory. The functionalist theoretical approach on workforce development education ties a relati onship between knowledge acquisition and job performance and would serve to explain the growth of workforce development education in higher education by the nature of the increasingly complex demands of the workplace. Whether individual values with rega rd to personal achievement or overall socioeconomic benefits drive the growth of workforce development education, Roemer (1981) indicated that the explanation for the growth remained the same: “certain kinds of knowledge are sought because of their occupati onal relevance” (p. 171). In his assessment of the links between education, employment, and the growth of workforce development education in the postsecondary curriculum, Collins (1971) evaluated functionalism based on empirical evidence. He distinguished the broader concept of functionalism from a specialized concept known as technical-function theor y. With regard to the broader concept of functionalism, Collins critiqued the overly s imple application of the theory. It tended to be applied as an explanation for a pattern without providing the conditions under which the pattern would likely occur again. In other words, straight functionalist theory had limitations as far as being testabl e, and it also placed too much focus on societal needs rather than upon group power dynamics. In describing the technical-function theory as a specific application of functionalism, Collins (1971) summarized the basic premises as follows: the nee d for

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30 increased skills occurred because of technological change. Two premises were involved: jobs requiring minimal skills declined while jobs requiring more advanced skills climbed, and skill requirements increased for existing jobs. On-the-job training was not adequate for the new skill requirements; rather, formal education was needed. Based on the empirical evidence, Collins (1971) found that technical-function theory failed to provide an adequate explanation for the growth of workforce development education in the postsecondary curriculum. The shift in the proportion of jobs requiring minimal skills versus those requiring advanced skills only accounted fo r 15% of the increased education in the workforce. The premise that existing job requirements were upgraded, thus requiring more formal education, was also dismis sed. Rather, the evidence indicated that the workforce tended to be over-educated for the positions it held. Clowes (1996) critiqued the functionalist approach as well. Functionalists assumed that workforce needs could be projected in a manner that could drive the development of training programs, and graduates of the programs would fill the workforce needs. The data supplying workforce projections, however, was limited i n its reliability, and this overly simplistic theoretical approach again did not take int o account other factors that influence employment. In short, the degree alone did not guarant ee future employment. According to Roemer (1981), in contrast to functionalism (which draws a relationship between performance, knowledge acquisition, and the socioeconomic for ces and technological changes that place continued demands for education and training) status-competition theory draws little or no relationships between knowledge a cquisition

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31 and occupational competence. Instead, status-competition theory proposes that the acquisition of a degree is a ticket to higher status in society. On the outset, thi s theory may appear to be very relevant to offering explanations for the growth of credential ing related to high-wage/high-skills jobs. However, a central premise of status-com petition theory is that the credential, i.e., college education, has little relations hip to occupational training. Therefore, this premise begs the question as to why resources woul d be devoted to workforce development education if the credential had no real relationship to future success. In Collins’ (1971) discussion of status, competition, and education, he stated, “The main activity of schools is to teach particular status cultures . in this li ght, any failure of schools to impart technical knowledge . is not important” (p. 1010). Collins further noted the historical relationship of education in the United States with higher status rather than with training: Education has been associated with high economic and status position from the colonial period on through the twentieth century. The result was a popular demand for education as a mobility opportunity. This demand has not been for vocational education at a terminal or commercial level, short of full university certification; the demand has rather focused on education giving entry into the elite status culture. (p. 1014) Summarizing Roemer (1981), status-competition theory may explain why a higher status is achieved by obtaining a certain credential, but it fails t o explain the growth of workforce education in the postsecondary curriculum if education is not needed for occupational proficiency. Under the premises of status-competition t heory,

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32 certification and formal training should not be needed for the “high skills” associ ated with occupational-technical fields. Consequently, as a theoretical approach, st atuscompetition theory loses ground as an explanation for the actual growth of workforc e development programs in postsecondary institutions, particularly in light of policy l eader statements about “job training” needs. As described by Roemer (1981), legitimation theory ties together knowledge acquisition and occupational performance, as does functionalism, but legitimation t heory goes beyond functionalism by emphasizing the active role that postsecondary insti tutions have in placing value on obtaining certificates and degrees. Higher educat ion serves to validate the degree requirement. For example, with the growth of technology has come the validation of the profession of computer science. No longer is it acceptable for an engineer to teach computer science courses that are determined to be transfe rable, that is, courses that equate to the first and second years of a baccalaureate. Instea d, computer science has become a legitimate profession and the certification needed to te ach transferable computer science coursework is a master’s degree with at l east 18 graduate semester hours in computer science coursework. Roemer (1981) acknowledged Meyer (1977) in his overview of legitimation theory. In a more detailed look, Meyer described the role that education not only has upon individuals through socialization effects but also as an institution upon society under the approach of legitimation theory. In his words, legitimation theory “tre ats education as both constructing or altering roles in society and authoritativel y allocating personnel to these roles . Modern education is seen . as an agent transforming society by creating new classes of personnel with new types of authorita tive knowledge”

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33 (p. 56). In his review of propositions regarding the role of education upon the individual and society, Meyer maintained that the educational credential and the follow-up socialization processes have more impact upon individuals than did the socializing process of the individual school. Summarizing Meyer, education as an institution asserted that certain types and levels of knowledge are authoritative, or legiti mate, and certain personnel by their educational credential were qualified in these knowle dge areas. Following this train of logic, higher education serves to validate the degree requirement. Growth in workforce education can be explained through legitimation theory in the active role that education as an institution plays in establishing new or additional credentialing for fields that were formerly learned on-the-job. I n addition, legitimation theory serves to affirm that educational institutions confer st atus overall, and that within the status hierarchy, the transfer credential remains the more prestigious and desired credential because of the perceived societal belief that this credent ial will “allocate people to positions of higher social status” (Meyer, 1977, p. 74). Policy theories – incremental theory, group theory, and political, terminal, and hidden agendas. If legitimation theory can be presented as an explanatory framework for the growth of occupational/technical fields in higher education, policy theory c an be cited as well, particularly in the framework of the decision theory known as increment al theory and the public policy theory known as group theory. Anderson (as cited in Goodchild, Lovell, Hines, & Gill, 1997), summarizes incremental theory in several steps tha t clearly indicate the shifting nature of decision making, in contrast to a rational approach t o decision making that presumes a concrete, structured approach with fully-inform ed

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34 policy leaders. The rational approach would presume that the leader is confronted wi th a discrete problem that can be assessed individually from other problems and subseque ntly translated into a clear action plan. The incremental approach better reflects reality. A summary of Anderson’s (as cited in Goodchild et al., 1997) description of the steps in incrementalism follows: 1. Policy leaders are confronted with intertwined problems that cannot be assessed independently using empirical data. 2. Solutions to the problem are not exhaustive and resemble existing policies. 3. Consequences for each solution are not examined exhaustively. 4. As solutions are being considered, the problem keeps being redefined. 5. The solution is achieved through compromise rather than consensus. Anderson (as cited in Goodchild, et al., 1997) concluded, “Incremental decision making is essentially remedial and is geared more to the amelioration of prese nt, concrete social imperfections than to the promotion of future social goals” (p. 179). With that conclusion and Anderson’s steps in mind, the recommendation for more funding for community college workforce development programs may be portrayed as an exa mple of incremental decision making: 1. The “problem” is complex. Jobs are being outsourced, technology is evolving, and a clear distinction is not being made between the need for job creation versus job training. Workforce development education itself is a conglomerate of courses and programs that cross the non-credit and credit boundaries. 2. Workforce development education is only a partial solution to the problem if in fact the problem encompasses both job training and job creation.

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35 Moreover, workforce development training is in place, so proposing more money for this area is not a radical departure from existing policy. 3. The consequences of allocating more funds to workforce development education do not appear to have been fully explored. For example, have students been asked what they want? As cited in Cohen and Brawer (2003), the 1986 CSCC survey of students indicated that 16% in workforce development education coursework did not know that they were enrolled in a workforce development program, and 26% indicated that they were going to transfer. How would current students respond to a similar survey? 4. The “problem” is being redefined through the continuing debate over the proper allocation of funding. 5. No clear-cut solution to the complex problem appears to exist, and any solution that is applied is predicted to be one of authority or compromise rather than of consensus, given the continuing controversy over the problem. 6. Finally, recommending more funds towards workforce development education is clearly a remedial rather than a progressive move if programs are not particularly effective and graduates are not obtaining employment in their fields. The public policy theory known as group theory also may be used to explain the workforce development education funding recommendations. The premise of the theory is that “interaction and struggle among groups is the central fact of politica l life” (Anderson as cited in Goodchild, et al., 1997, p. 183). As groups achieve power, public policy represents their interests. With that in mind, an analogy can made with t he

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36 struggle for resources between groups that advocate workforce development educa tion and groups that advocate the traditional transfer track. Under the current state and national administration, policy leaders have placed workforce development educati on as a primary function of community colleges. By inference, utilizing the prem ises of group theory, workforce development is the interest of the dominant group. A weakness of group theory is that, like functionalism, it tends to oversimplify the situation. Ander son (as cited Goodchild, et al.) argues that group theory overstates the importance of groups at the expense of the power of the individual public official in developing policies. Palmer (1987) provided additional insight on policies, or agendas, related to workforce development education. He introduced these agendas with the note that they were held based on the assumption that within community colleges, discrete curr icular tracks existed for students, including the transfer track, the vocational track, a nd the continuing education track. Focusing on vocational education, he described three agendas: the political agenda, the terminal education agenda, and the hidden agenda. As described by Palmer (1987), the political agenda underscores the policy leadership statements cited in Chapter 1, in that workforce development education is viewed as the means by which people will be effectively and readily trained to e nter the workforce. Students who pursue this track have as their primary goal to attain job training and not to further their education. Summarized by Palmer (1987), the terminal education agenda stemmed from early proponents of junior colleges and was upheld by the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC). The presumption was that a number of students were not truly suited for college. The vocational track was to serve as an honorable exit from educ ation

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37 with the benefit of providing training for the workforce. In promotion of this agenda, the AAJC convened the Commission on Junior College Terminal Education, about which Palmer proclaimed a lasting influence on vocational education direction: “Esse ntially, the Commission saw in postsecondary vocational education a means of streamlining the transition from school to work while at the same time performing the humane task of steering less able students away from overambitious academic goals tha t would probably lead to failure” (p. 14). Although the overt intent of the terminal agenda apparently was beneficial, a critique was provided by those who drew a relationship between large numbers of minority and lower-income students in two-year institutions to deduce a hidden agenda to channel these students away from upward mobility by placing them in vocational, “terminal” tracks. In his overview of this position, Palmer (1987) noted that although challenged, this agenda has been accepted as fact by many. Palmer (1987) proposed and concluded that all three agendas, political, terminal, and hidden, were based on the assumption that the curriculum could be divided into discrete segments. Based on student survey results, he found that student intentions did not support the construct. The theoretical strands above provide possible explanations for the growth and sustained momentum of workforce development education in the community college curriculum. The next section traces the growth of workforce development educat ion concomitantly with the rise of the junior college movement to its present day miss ion.

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38 The Growth of Workforce Development Education and the Community College Mission Institutions that offered two years or little more of higher education may h ave been around almost as long as higher education itself has existed in the United Sta tes. However, formally planned two-year colleges were not really in existence unt il the end of the nineteenth century. According to Ratcliff (1992), this time frame may in part be attributed to the perception that education was an individual responsibility rather than a national imperative. He indicated that social, economic and political factors as well as local support all were influential in the successful founding of new public two-year institutions. Like Ratcliff (1992), Cohen and Brawer (1996) and Witt, et al. (1994) cited social and economic factors as having primary influence on the growth of two-year institut ions. Specifically, they attributed the need for workers, the extended adolescence, a nd the demand for social equality as contributing to the growth of the movement. In essenc e, the movement’s origins could be argued to stem not only from the “populist” reaction of the late 1800s against the lack of access to higher education, but also the “elitist” desire to limit the university mission to research and specialization rather than to ge neral education (Cohen & Brawer, 1996; Ratcliff, 1992; Witt, et al., 1994). The socioeconomic factors immediately proceeding and subsequent to the Civil War that were integral to the birth of the junior college movement also contribut ed to the growing shift overall in higher education curriculum from a classical one t o a more pragmatic one. Various legislative acts underscored this shift, the Morrill A ct of 1862 being one of the earliest. Geiger (1986) referred to the Morrill Act as one of the two sources providing impetus to the “notion that colleges should teach subjects that would

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39 have some practical utility for their students”; the other source was the growing use of the elective system (p. 5). The Morrill Act authorized the set aside of federal la nd for the establishment of colleges whose primary mission would be to offer coursework relat ed to agriculture and mechanic arts. Acceptance of a “vocational trend” in higher education was not easily attai ned. The place of vocational education was a matter of debate at one of the earliest m eetings of the organization that ultimately was to become the South’s regional accredi ting agency, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. At its fourth meeting, Charle s Dabney, president of the University of Tennessee, presented the findings from his study of the curriculum of the member colleges. He referred to the college require ments for the Bachelor of Science degree as a “hotchpotch,” and he recommended distinguishing “sharply” between the technical and professional degrees in the Bachelor of Arts program and those offered in the Bachelor of Science (1898). In spite of Dabney’s dispar aging remarks about the state of Bachelor of Science degree programs, he actually was an advocate of vocational education. In his follow-up study at the next meeting of the Association, Dabney commented on the lack of appreciation for scientific and tec hnical education, and referred to the “poverty of equipment and the meagerness of the teaching staff as being the main trouble” (1899, p. 9). In his presentation, he clearly cited the ne ed for scientific and technical education, given the impoverished state of the South, and he recommended that the scientific and technical schools be held to the same standar ds as liberal arts schools. The spread of vocational education, therefore, had its advocates even at the “elitist” levels. By 1914, additional legislation supporting vocational education was

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40 being enacted. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 added to the Morrill Act by allocated federal financial aid for agricultural colleges to offer extension work in ag riculture and home economics. Specifically, the purpose of the act was “to provide for cooperative agricultural extension work between the agricultural colleges in the severa l States receiving the benefits of an Act of Congress approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two” (Smith-Lever Act, 1914). The second major act, the Smith-Hughes Ac t of 1917, directed funding primarily towards secondary education, but it established a Federal Board for Vocational Education. Its specific intent was “to provide for the promotion of vocational education” (Smith-Hughes Act, 1917), which ultimately becam e one of the three major missions of community colleges. The need for workers provides one of the earliest reasons for including the vocational, or, in the early days, “terminal” track in the two-year institution al mission. The extensive industrial growth following the Civil War along with an increase in the number of high school graduates provided an impetus to develop institutions that could increase the access to higher education as well as to respond to community needs for trained workers. The socioeconomic need, therefore, was in place. This same socioeconomic need that helped provide the impetus for increased growth of the pragmatic curriculum into the overall postsecondary curriculum als o provided the impetus for the formal development of junior colleges. Just as Meyer (1977) and Roemer (1981) might present the legitimating influence of the educational institution upon the rise of workforce development education in the overall postsecondary curriculum, Anderson (as cited in Goodchild, et al., 1997) could make a case for incrementalism in terms of the rise of junior colleges. The problem was a compl ex one

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41 involving both educational leadership roles, socioeconomic conditions, and the increasing demand for higher education. While more pressure was coming to bear to provide postsecondary education, universities were reluctant to accommodate the grow th based on a shift in mission focus to emphasize research over teaching (Cohen & Brawer, 2003) On the other hand, the overall solution to the rising educational demand does not appear to reflect incrementalism by being remedial in nature. Over the span of the t wentieth century, the growth of junior colleges represented a significant and progressi ve departure from existing institutional structures. The junior college movement spread in the Midwest and the West. Unlike the East, where small four-year institutions had been established for some time and “ public” education was considered to be “second rate,” the Midwest and the West accepted th e new junior college model or expanded high school. Another practice was to “decapitate” existing four-year institutions that were struggling to maintain enrollm ent by limiting them to the first and second years (Witt, et al., 1994). The early decades of the twentieth century continued the trend of industrial growth and migration from rural to urban settings. Concomitantly, the demand for low cost higher education continued to increase as well as the demand for more vocational education courses. The Great Depression also contributed to vocational education in the expanding junior college movement. The Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1934 allow ed for the creation of emergency junior colleges, which included a wide range of vocati onal education offerings. As Witt, et al. (1994) point out, by having junior colleges avail able and affordable, unemployed workers were temporarily removed from the overtaxe d workforce pool while they acquired necessary skills to be competitive.

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42 World War II provided another milestone to the movement, particularly with the passage of the GI Bill in 1944. Like the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1934, Wi tt et al. (1994) describe the GI Bill as a government social engineering program that kept returning soldiers from overburdening the economy by flooding the workforce. I nstead, returning soldiers went to school, and community college enrollment jumped by more than 100 percent. Three years later, the Truman Commission Report pushed the junior college even further forward by calling for a network of public community college s. Although the now “junior/community” college movement was to suffer setbacks in the 1950s, the momentum was irreversible. Proceeding with the second half of the twentieth century, Cohen and Brawer (2003) discussed 1964 as a time when a “tide of vocational education programs was beginning to inundate the two-year colleges” (p. 219). As they noted, the basis for thi s growth could be traced to the 1963 passage of the federal Vocational Education Act a nd the subsequent funding directed toward vocational programs. They commented further that in acknowledgement and support of this funding, the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) called for a greater emphasis on vocational and occupational education in the junior college curriculum, a trend which continues through the organization’s existence. As mentioned in Chapter 1, AACC, modern incarnation of the AAJC, is emphasizing the importance of the occupational curriculum in the community college curriculum today. Cohen and Brawer (2003) described the continued rise of vocational education in the community college curriculum in the second half of the twentieth century a s being caused by multiple factors. The sustained influence of early leaders of the two -year

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43 college movement; the federal vocational education funding acts from 1963 and on; the growth rate of two-year institutions; the growing and increasingly divers e student population, which began to include more women, part-time, disabled, disadvantaged, and older students; the change in the curriculum, which began to include programs previously held by secondary institutions; and the change in the labor market all contributed to the increase of vocational education in community colleges. In present times, the generic community college mission can be describe d as typically including a liberal arts component, a non-liberal arts component, and a non credit continuing education component, which includes workforce development, in the coursework offered (Bragg, 2001a; Cohen & Brawer, 2003). The liberal arts component consists of coursework within the broad framework of humanities and communications, social and behavioral sciences, and natural sciences. In Florida, this coursewor k generally is the basis for the A.A. degree and for the introductory coursework in t he majors in these fields. The non-liberal arts component consists of coursework that i s professional, occupational, or vocational in nature. In Florida, along with a core g eneral education requirement consisting of liberal arts courses, the combination of non-libe ral arts classes and liberal arts classes generally is the basis for the A.S degree. Non-liberal arts classes alone may constitute the basis for the Associate in Applied Sc ience (A.A.S.) degree and for occupational certificates. Finally, the continuing education c omponent consists of a variety of courses spanning from those necessary to prepare student s for entry-level employment, to upgrade skills, to maintain certification in a field, or to explore recreational and leisure opportunities. The degree to which each of these

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44 components is represented in individual community colleges nationally and in Florida varies according to factors such as local needs, state mandates, and historical di rectives. In the case of workforce development education, comprising the vocational, occupation, and professional coursework offered in community colleges, the continuum described by Clowes (1996) seems apparent. In addition, many educational and stat elevel leaders would concur that a better system could be in place. Bragg (2001a; 2001b ) is among many advocates of the “new vocationalism” who are calling upon governme ntal and educational leaders to look to new models that better articulate secondary and postsecondary programs in order to provide a seamless educational experience for students from entry to senior levels in the workforce. The next section provides an overview of the new vocationalism. The New Vocationalism Vocationalism has had a role in higher education arguably since the implementation of the land-grant universities. As Lynch points out, early vocational programs were designed to prepare “blue-collar-type students with practical skills for the nation’s farms, factories, and homes (2000, p. 1). Bragg (1997, 2001a) places the origin of the modern era of vocational education in the 1960s, when the Vocational Education Act of 1963 made federal funding available for vocational programs in higher educati on. However, these traditional vocational education programs tended to be limited in scope; their missions were to train workers for specific, entry-level employment Because of the limited scope and its association with low standards, traditional vocational educat ion was criticized for channeling its recipients into low-status, low-income jobs and,

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45 consequently, contributing to a perpetuation of race, ethnic, class, and gender divis ions (Grubb, 1997a). Moreover, not only was traditional vocational education unsatisfactory to its recipients, but also Grubb (1997b) noted that by the 1980s, the business community was expressing dissatisfaction; traditional vocational programs simply did not produce workers with the types of thinking skills and problem-solving abilities that were needed. Grubb (1997) links the origins of the new vocationalism to the publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983, which dramatically called attention to the failings of higher education in producing a competent workforce (National Commission on Excellence i n Education,1983). In contrast to traditional vocational education, the new vocationalism i s learner-centered and focuses on holistic career development, rather than tra ining for specific, entry-level jobs. According to Bragg, “the new vocationalism emphas izes career clusters or pathways that extend from the entry level to the professi onal level in career fields integral to the new economy (2001b, p. 8). Lynch (2000) notes the requirements of industry and technology, and speaks to the academic and general education contributions in the following description: This reformed vocational education is characterized with a curriculum based on the need for students to demonstrate mastery of (1) rigorous industry standards (b) high academic standards and related general education knowledge, (c) technology, and (d) general employment competencies. In addition, the curriculum seems to be teaching students all aspects of an industry i.e., in contras t to just a specific job skill(s). (p. 2) Bragg (2001b) also describes new vocationalism as an integration of academic and technical concepts. An effective integration incorporates a continuum of vocationa l

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46 education in the K-16 educational system, going from general career explorat ion in middle and high school and moving to more specific career clusters in higher education. This career cluster approach enables the student to explore occupations from the e ntry level to the advanced level, which demonstrates the career ladders available In the exploration of career clusters and their ladders, the curriculum covers the indus try comprehensively, so that students learn how occupations are linked from the basic level ; for example, technician, to the advanced level, such as scientist. Finally, the new vocationalism engages constructivist teaching strategies and learner-ce ntered, applied approaches. Orr (2001) also notes the need for the seamless K-16 transition, and describes the manner by which higher education can effect seamlessness via collaborations wi th secondary schools through dual enrollment mechanisms and accelerated college c redit; with other higher education institutions through mechanisms such as articulation agreements, and with business and industry in terms of tailoring programs to meet t heir needs. On that note, authors caution against letting business drive reform. For exa mple, Grubb notes, “the forms of the new vocationalism that require education to be driven solely by the requirements of employers and the demands of the 21st century labor f orce should be particularly suspect: no one can forecast what these demands will be (1996, p. 9). Gregson (1997) echoes the caution. He believes that the new vocationalism can aid in social reconstruction, but care needs to be taken to avoid reinstating old problem s with new solutions. In letting the business community set the educational agenda, the teaching profession has become deskilled and the curriculum becomes too prescribe d. In

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47 that respect, the new vocationalism has not changed from the old vocational education methods, and more is done to keep the workplace and work systems the same rather than to effect positive change in the workplace. As he states, “When vocational educa tional curriculum developers utilize only occupational experts through both task analysis a nd DACUM to make decisions for an about those who lack their industrial knowledge, they use vocational education as an instrument for perpetuating the existing industri al regime instead of operating as a means for its transformation” (p. 128). Owens (1997) reinforces Gregson, indicating that teachers will need to assu me greater mentoring and coaching responsibilities in the new vocationalism. Inc luded in these expanded roles are the parts that students, parents, and the community in genera l play. Students in the new vocationalism track will also not only need more education, but education that includes critical thinking skills, collaboration techniques, technologi cal education, and social and global engagement. Finally, because modern learners ar e affected by a much broader array of problems than learners of the past, the fa mily and the community in general will need to become more involved with the student to make the educational experience effective. In his discussion of the new vocationalism, Lynch (2000) indicates that few institutions have implemented such programs: “Only about 10 percent created structur ed, career-focused, comprehensive programs that integrated academic and car eer and technical courses, moved to broadly defined career clusters or majors, and gr ouped students together for career and academic classes” (p. 13). Phelps (1997) sugges ts that problems in adopting the new vocationalism could be related to a failure to engage stakeholders and achieve local consensus. In addition, he believes that educators ma y be

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48 looking for “simple and quick-fix solutions . while ignoring the important steps of building a shared local understanding of why new education-and-work initiatives ar e needed.” (Phelps, p. 22) Conflicting opinions clearly are apparent in higher education regarding the place of new vocationalism, how effectively it can be or is being implemented, and whether or not business should “drive the train of reform.” Regardless of the appropriateness of business directing educational reform, business and educational leaders both are l ooking at community colleges as being a logical vehicle for the delivery of new voc ationalism. Gleazer (1998) provides several characteristics associated with superi or community colleges, including the following: (a) they are adaptable; (b) they are continua lly aware of their communities; (c) they have ongoing relationships with learners; and (d) t hey provide opportunities for the “unserved.” The first three characteristics have a comm on theme of responsiveness: the hallmark of the community college mission is responsiveness to local needs, and now, national needs in terms of keeping pace with the global economy. With the fourth characteristic, by providing the new vocationalism, community colle ges are providing opportunities to not only the “unserved” but also the “underserved”; ostensibly, the new vocationalism will avoid the pitfalls of the faltering “w elfare-towork” programs. Grubb (1997a) speaks directly to the ability of community colleges to implement the new vocationalism through their offerings of “coherent programs” rather t han through fragmented courses. Community colleges also have the option of offering the new vocationalism through their relationships with business and industry, including employment agreements. In contrast to training and welfare-to-work progr ams, with

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49 their regimented “skills and drills” approach, community colleges are incor porating learner-centered approaches. As mentioned in Chapter 1, Bragg (2001b) emphasizes that many of the arguments for or against vocational education lack the data to support them. Rather decisions have been made based on politics and ideology. In order to steer community colleges appropriately, she urges leaders to look at the new ideas and models being proposed under the auspices of new vocationalism. However, the task for leadership may be a considerable challenge, given the scope of programs that may apply to the ne w vocationalism, their lack of ordered categories, and the fluid and flexible tracks that students take through their educational experiences, as will be seen in the followi ng section. Workforce Development The new vocationalism theme pertains to programs that allow students to move from entry level positions to senior level positions. As defined in this study, community college workforce development education programs embrace this theme. As menti oned earlier, community college workforce development education falls along a c ontinuum of vocational, occupational, and professional courses and programs and are inconsistent from college to college. In looking at a broader array of workforce development the categories are even less neatly ordered. Grubb (2001) discusses the syste ms of workforce development in place, or, in his words, “the confusing array of employment and training programs” (p. 29). Interestingly, Grubb notes that although programs may be simil ar, few actually duplicate each other, in part because of the networking and communic ation

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50 that takes place between program administrators. He provides a general descr iption of a typical state workforce development strategy: a state agency is cr eated and given a set of responsibilities on a statewide level. Local agencies are responsible fo r implementing state policy. Zemsky, Shapiro, Iannozzi, Cappelli, and Bailey (1998) also speak to the “confusing array” and disagree to some extent with Grubb’s comment on the lack of duplication. In their view, the United States has a plethora of “competing organiz ations and agencies often in pursuit of the same objective” (p. i). This plethora, along with the decentralized organization of the United States, has prevented the formation of an educational infrastructure that can provide clear direction to students in their pa th from the K-12 system to working life. In addition, they comment that “curricula frequent ly combine, confound, even confuse academic and vocational pursuits at both the secondary and tertiary levels” (p. ii). In section seven of the authors’ report, they tac kle the analysis by providing a matrix of major federally-funded programs that are associate d with work and schooling. The matrix is organized along four lines: programs that facilita te transitions, programs that improve education and training efficiency, programs tha t reduce labor market uncertainties, and programs that build networks. They then categorize 18 programs according to this matrix. The authors note that many of t he programs cross over into more than one line, and to make the project manageable, the programs are categorized by their primary goal and their major source of r evenue. Education and government leaders who are interested in applying the new models and programs being proposed under the auspices of new vocationalism, as Bragg (2001b)

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51 recommends, may wish to focus on those programs that are working to ease transitions from education to working life or to a career ladder path first and foremost. Students play a part in the “confusing array” of workforce development opportunities as well because of their lack of conformity to college-prescribed r oles: “Although state systems and individual colleges classify academic progra ms as transfer or nontransfer and assume students will behave accordingly once they complete the program, many students behave as though these classifications or tracks do not exist ” (Townsend, 2001, p. 69). For example, originally, in the manner of traditional vocational education, most Florida community college programs considered to be workforce-development related were non-transfer. Depending on the type of program, they could be non-credit as well, such as are the postsecondary adult vocational programs, which are intended to provide training for students who are already in the workforce. However, increasingly, students in the credit, traditionally non-transfer associate degree programs are in fact transferring to upper divisions. The implications of this pattern are at least two-fold: community colleges are motivated or even pressured to articulate t hese programs with their upper division counterparts, and community colleges are required to hire faculty members who have a master’s degree and 18 hours in the discipline being taught once non-transfer courses become designated to be transfer courses. The current Florida workforce development system is divided among federal, state, and local sectors and includes public, private, and nonprofit agencies. As descr ibed in the OPPAGA February 2004 Information Brief, workforce development agencies “share a common goal of providing training and employment services that enable people to become or remain economically self-sufficient, as well as promoting Flo rida’s

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52 economic growth by providing employers with trained workers” (p. 1). OPPAGA described the workforce development system as being complex. In addition to ent ities within the Department of Education, training occurs in multiple entities for spec ific populations, including the Department of Corrections, the Department of Elder Affair s, and the Department of Juvenile Justice. The workforce development system funding flow involves at least eleven entities. For the casual reader, this system meets Grubb’s (2001) criteria of constituting a “confusing array.” The workforce programs in the community college system include the followi ng categories: (a) Adult Basic Education and GED Preparation; (b) Postsecondar y Adult Vocational Certificates (noncollege credit occupational training); (c) Applied Technology Diplomas (occupational training offered by a vocational-technica l school or community college and guaranteed to transfer to an A.A.S. or A.S. degree); (d) College Credit Certificate (stand alone certificate, also part of an A.A.S. or A.S. de gree, 1 year or less); (e) A.A.S. (two year occupational degree); (f) A.S. (two year occ upational degree with general education transferable to a state university); (g) Applie d Technical Certificate (certification beyond the A.A.S./A.S. degrees); and (h) Continuing Wor kforce Education (non-credit courses for updating skills) (Florida DOE, 2004a). Although thes e programs were originally considered “terminal,” within the past five year s, the A.S. degree now has several state articulated degree options with senior instituti ons (Statewide Articulation Manual, 2004). Through a statewide career ladder agreement, Flori da public community college A.S. degrees in radiography, nursing, hospitality and tourism management, electronics engineering technology, business administration, c omputer engineering technology, and criminal justice technology will articulate with Florida

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53 public university degree programs in associated areas. Another option in the agreem ent is that any regionally-accredited A.S. degree program may articulate i nto a bachelor’s degree in applied science. Yet another is that A.S. degrees in certain emphase s in technology may articulate into a bachelor’s degree in technology teacher educa tion. Finally, through a statewide interdisciplinary capstone agreement, A.S. degr ee graduates from Florida public community colleges may articulate with individual public a nd private universities through capstone agreements. Florida Gulf Coast University, for e xample, offers a capstone arrangement with its B.S. in legal studies. The requireme nts to articulate are that students must hold an A.S. in Paralegal Studies or Legal As sisting. Workforce development programs in Florida continue to evolve. Consistent with the auspices of legitimation theory, community colleges are playing an a ctive role in the growth of specialized certificates and degrees. In a similar vein, the art iculation of the A.S. degree may add to the status of that degree and draw students who might otherwise choose the A.A. degree as one that would confer higher status. The changing relationship of the workforce and transfer degrees in Florida ha s a long history. The next section explores the growth and development of community colleges in Florida, particularly with regard to the relationship of vocational e ducation and the Florida community college mission. The Florida Community College and the Role of Vocational Education Like the rest of the South, Florida was an impoverished state following the Civil War. Consequently, facilities for the furtherance of higher education were li mited at best. Florida, for example, does not even merit an index reference in Frederick Rudolph’s

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54 classic work, The American College and University (1962). Nevertheless, the two seminaries that ultimately were to become the University of Florida a nd Florida State University were established by the mid-1800s (Hale, 1966, Stakenas, Mock, & Eaddy, 1984). Additionally, the establishment of the Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Southern States in 1895 (later, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools) demonstrated a concerted effort on the part of regional educational leade rs to improve the quality of education. The purpose of the Association was to organize higher education in the South, to raise the standards of scholarship, to recognize preparatory schools officially, and to prevent higher education institutions from engaging in preparatory work (Association of College and Preparatory Schools of the Souther n States, 1895). A review of the first years of Association proceedings indicates that the c harter members were indeed serious about raising the quality of education in the southern sta tes. For example, after the first year, research papers and opinion pieces on the sta te of education in the South were presented at the annual meetings. Mentioned previously, Dabney (1898, 1899) conducted curriculum analyses that revealed a lack of consistency in program structure and offerings. Babbitt (1901) continued the “laboratory work on college catalogs” initiated by Dabney and others. He demonstrated how southern educational institutions lagged behind the rest of the nation. Of particular relevance to this paper, Babbitt called for the development of junior colleges in the South from the many mid-range institutions that functioned on a level somewhat between a high school and a two-year college institution: “Their work would be condensed and strengthened i f they were organized on a type something like what President Harper has discusse d under

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55 the name of junior colleges” (p. 70). Notably, this was also the first mention of junior colleges in the proceedings of this Association. Arguably, the junior college movement was limited at best in Florida until the 1940s, and especially in the 1950s when legislation enacting public junior colleges was passed. However, at least one author makes a case that two-year higher educa tion institutions were established as early as 1907 (Hale, 1966). Hale (1966) credited Pal mer College as being the first junior college in Florida, opening in DeFuniak Springs unde r Presbyterian guidance in 1907. He also described four African-American insti tutions operating between 1918 and 1930. These were also church-based and eventually became four-year institutions. For all five institutions, vocational education was rudiment ary at best: All of these five early junior colleges had limited enrollments, operated in conjunction with a secondary program, experienced severe financial problems, and for the most part used the meagerest of facilities. Their programs were largely academic with but the beginning of some terminal work. (p. 1145) In his dissertation, Hale (1966) traced the history of 54 institutions that he credited with being junior colleges at some point in their history. Two of the earl iest that were formally designed to be junior colleges were St. Petersburg Junior Colleg e (now St. Petersburg College) and Palm Beach Junior College. Established in 1927, an early vocational mission of St. Petersburg Junior College was to train teachers. Like other colleges nationally, St. Petersburg Junior College was informally “accredi ted” by a major university, in this case, the University of Florida. Ultimately, the Colleg e attained

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56 accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1931 (Hale, 1966). Palm Beach Junior College was the first public junior college established in Florida. Although its vocational function was described in its first catalog i n 1939, the university transfer function remained the dominant purpose of the college in its earl iest years. Both colleges were established utilizing the Harper plan; that is, the y functioned as extensions of their local high schools (Hale, 1966). Of the junior colleges that Hale (1966) described, many, like Palm Beach Junior College, had an element of vocational education; that is, at least one or two courses were offered in secretarial sciences or business. Part of the explanation for the we ak vocational mission was that precollegiate institutions, both public and private, had already assumed responsibility for delivering vocational coursework. Stake nas, et al. (1984) traced the development of vocational education in Florida from before 1917 to 1980. Early Florida settlers had access to minimal education: apprenticeship tra ining, common schools, and private academies were typical of the first decades of the 1800s. Following the Civil War, public education struggled because of weak financial re sources. The adoption of segregation legislation in 1869 led to the development of vocationally-based school systems for African-Americans. According to Stakenas, et al., the establishment of these “industrial normal schools” had dire consequences: As teachers, the graduates taught as they were taught, so that black childre n received a public school education based on the Hampton-Tuskegee manual labor concept. This had a devastating effect over time. The teachers were taught the theory of industrial trades but not the skills to practice them . Study in the

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57 industrial normal schools failed to provide access to the economic benefits which blacks sought . The kind of education they were exposed to, especially in the rural areas, only enabled them to work in domestic and service occupations much like those experienced by their ancestors who had been slaves. (p. 18) Mentioned earlier, with the implementation of the regional accrediting agency, efforts toward improving and standardizing the curriculum increased. However, even had the teachers of the industrial normal schools been taught the skills in addition to theory, resources for vocational education remained quite limited. Stakenas, et a l. (1984) stated that no real vocational education program existed in Florida’s education sy stem until the authorization of the Smith-Hughes Act. In their estimation, the “seed mone y” provided by the federal funds helped create “moral, political, and additional financi al support that enabled schools either to initiate or to increase their vocational course offerings” (p. 86). Federal funding for vocational education weathered the Great Depression, but in Florida, these programs remained predominantly under the jurisdiction of secondary schools. As mentioned in Chapter 1, Stakenas, et al. (1984) reported that Florida two-year institutions did not share the growth caused by defense-related coursework; t his curriculum was managed through trade schools. Moreover, Florida junior colleges of ten shared facilities with vocational schools, with occasional conflict over owners hip of programs. Hale (1966), for example, detailed the friction between Orlando Junior College, Orlando Vocational School, and the local defense training school in 1941. Orlando Junior College, an infant, private institution, barely survived the fight, particularly after being accused by the local media of being a “sacred c ow” (p. 368).

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58 Orlando Junior College rallied and existed until Hale himself, president of the inst itution since 1949, closed it after losing a final battle over the establishment in 1967 of Valenc ia Community College, a state-planned and locally-supported public institution (J. Wattenbarger, personal communication, April 8, 2002). Junior colleges likely would have continued to play a small part in offering vocational education in Florida except for the passage of the Minimum Foundation Program law in 1947. This law provided for single district boards of public instruction in each county and authorized the addition of kindergarten and public junior college levels of education. However, a statewide system for organizing the junior colleges was not implemented until 1955, when the Community College Council was convened and a plan formulated (Witt, et al., 1994). As summarized in Chapter 1, the director and secretar y of the Council, James L. Wattenbarger, laid the groundwork for the long-range plan with hi s 1950 doctoral dissertation (Wattenbarger, 1950). In his subsequent publication, A State Plan for Public Junior Colleges (Wattenbarger, 1953), discussed the junior college philosophy as being followed in Florida except that the transfer function was by far the predominant function rather than the vocational one. Indeed, of the first group of public community colleges established since 1955, only white Daytona Beach Junior College and its counterpart, African-America n Volusia Junior College, had strong vocational education programs, primarily because these institutions partnered with the existing, segregated vocational schools in Volus ia County. Even so, Daytona Beach Junior College enrollment was nearly triple that of V olusia Junior College’s. In fact, the ten public African-American junior colleges that w ere established ultimately were absorbed by their white counterparts, and most ha d

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59 vocational education programs limited to secretarial science and business cour ses (Hale, 1966). Part of the vision of the Community College Council and James Wattenbarger was to strengthen the place of postsecondary vocational education in the junior college system. Cited in Chapter 1, Wattenbarger (1953) disparaged the duplication of effor ts between the Florida junior colleges and vocational schools. Stakenas, et al. (1984) also described the controversy between the budding junior college system and the vocational schools. As they stated, “the growing demand for well-trained technicians and paraprofessionals convinced junior college off icials to assume greater responsibility for vocational and technical training . but junior col leges’ curricular changes were slow and piecemeal” (p. 164). In fact, secondary school vocational educators attempted to convince the legislature to authorize the construc tion of area vocational centers, and ultimately, the Area Vocational-Technical Ce nters Act was passed in 1963 (Stakenas, et al., 1984). This new law obviously only exacerbated the situation for junior colleges and postsecondary vocational education programs. In a further blow to the junior colleges, the Senate Committee on Education gave the State Board for Vocational Education the authority for secondary and postsecondary vocat ional and technical training, which meant that the Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adul t Education had authority over the State Junior College Board in vocational education. However, the notion that the junior colleges were “comprehensive” rather than “trans fer” institutions was well understood and embraced by Florida junior college supporters, and they refused to relinquish the postsecondary junior college vocational program (Stake nas, et al., 1984). In fact, the notion of a “comprehensive” rather than “transfer” missi on

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60 provided the rationale for changing “junior” to “community” for most of the nation’s two-year postsecondary institutions (Witt, et al., 1995). In an interesting turn of events, the Florida legislature invited a consulting f irm headed by one of the major national leaders of the junior college movement, Doak Campbell, to consult on the situation in Florida. The consultants’ report foreshadowed the proponents of the “new vocationalism” in that they proposed that vocational and general education should not be treated distinctly. They recommended making bet ter use of existing facilities rather than building new area vocational centers. The y also questioned the need for a separate state entity, the Division of Vocational, Techni cal, and Adult Education, to administer vocational education programs, contending that it creat ed an “artificial separation of program content and administration” (Stakenas, et al., 1984, p. 167). Perhaps not surprisingly, area vocational center supporters criticized the re port: Critics . believed that the study’s findings were based on the false premise t hat vocational and general education were not separate entities. This belief, they claimed, predetermined the study’s endorsement of concentrating postsecondar y vocational-technical training in the junior colleges – institutions which they claimed had a poor record of providing vocational education. (Stakenas, et al., p. 167). Ultimately, appropriations were increased both for Florida junior colleges and for the area vocational centers, but the battle continued, which is to be expected when funding was involved. Stakenas, et al. (1984) recounted this continuing battle up to the early 1980s, and they closed with the remark that “unfortunately, the desired balanc e between academic and vocational education remains to be achieved in Florida” (p. 191).

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61 As discussed in Chapter 1, Florida community college presidents unsuccessfully petitioned the Florida legislature in 2000 to give community colleges authority over all postsecondary vocational education programs. Summarized in Chapter 1, the findings of OPPAGA in its November 2001 program review of workforce development education programs included the fact that most students did not complete programs in either the secondary or postsecondary educational systems and that a number of programs existed within both systems wit h fewer than five completers. The report also covered the “ongoing controversy” be tween the community colleges and the school districts: Community college proponents cite the different missions of the two systems and numerous efficiencies associated with such a consolidation, while the school districts note the success of the current program, the nature of students serve d by school districts, and costs associated with consolidation. (OPPAGA, 2001, p. 55) OPPAGA provided five options related to consolidating the two systems. Of interest is the response of the Interim Chancellor of the Community College Sy stem to OPPAGA about the current state of affairs: With regard to governance models for the workforce system, about the only consensus you will find, is that no one would design a system in this way. It has evolved over the years through a series of political decisions that have diffused ownership and commitment on the part of school districts and community colleges. The funding history of the last five years alone should be sufficient to prompt a new model. (OPPAGA, 2001, p. 82)

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62 In its report, OPPAGA provided a program review of workforce development. Other assessment methods include the analysis of the curriculum. The next sessi on provides a sampling of curriculum research that is germane to the current stud y. Related Curriculum Studies Examining the curriculum to determine actual patterns of behavior is not a new method of research. Early records of the regional accrediting agency of t he South, the Association of College and Preparatory Schools of the Southern States (precursor to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools) contain numerous research papers in which the authors analyzed catalogs of member institutions to determine patte rns of curriculum and program delivery. Mentioned previously, Dabney (1898), for example, found that college requirements for the bachelor in science degree varied so extens ively that he referred to them as a “hotchpotch.” The extensive variation possibly reflec ts the low status at the time of vocationally-related courses in higher education curric ulum, which retained an emphasis on the classics. Important to this status, and to the econom y of the South overall, Dabney clearly emphasized the need for scientific and t echnical education in his 1899 follow-up study into the methods and equipment required for completion of the bachelor in science degree (Dabney, 1899). More currently, Breneman (1994) looked at liberal arts colleges specifically. Assessing curricular changes from 1972 to 1988, he found that only about 200 institutions remain that could be classified as liberal arts colleges; that is, they award “less than 60 percent of its degrees in professional fields” (p. 139). Many other coll eges

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63 may still maintain a liberal arts “tradition” but “little of the reality of a traditional liberal arts institution” (p. 2). Breneman’s standards may be too pure for many researchers; for example Brawer (1999) found that in community colleges, the liberal arts were stable and represent ed more than 50% of the national offerings of community colleges. She derived this findi ng from her analysis of the curriculum studies conducted by CSCC from 1975 to 1998. Interestingly, she includes computer science in the liberal arts; Brenema n may disagree. Cohen and Brawer (2003) provided enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics that showed an increase of terminal-occupational program enrollments from 26% of the total enrollments to 35% of the program enrollments between 1963 and 1975. The authors indicated that to extend the analysis beyond 1975 was problematic because of the shifting methods by which states classifie d programs and enrollments, in part to accommodate vocational funding by making programs previously classified as the liberal arts into vocational programs. That being said, and foc using upon degrees awarded, the authors summarized the available data on program and course enrollments. They estimated that 40 to 45% of the total degree-credit curriculum was in “areas designed for direct employment” (p. 233). Zemsky, Shapiro, Iannozzi, Cappelli, and Bailey (1998) also analyzed data supplied from the National Center for Education Statistics and found an increasing trend of vocationalization in higher education curriculum: The purpose of pursuing a college or university education in the United States is becoming decidedly more vocational. . In the United States today, only 1 percent of all four-year undergraduate students and a minimal percentage of all students

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64 combined pursue degrees in either philosophy or religion. On the other hand, 16 percent of all undergraduate students pursue degrees in business, and 12 percent major in fields leading to careers in health care. (p. 10) Their analysis may be somewhat misleading. Philosophy and religion are respected degrees, but their place in the liberal arts has not been paramount since t he decline of classical education. Letters and liberal studies, social and behavi oral sciences, and natural sciences are not mentioned in the authors’ analysis. Moreover, on the act ual data table (p. 11) 19% of all students are undeclared (the figure jumps to 26% for two-year undergraduates). Business attracts at least 15% of the student body from the twoyear through the graduate level (health drops to eight percent at the four-year undergraduate level), but education takes first place in the percentage of stude nts at the graduate and professional level. Travis and Travis (1999) surveyed community college presidents specifically. They reported on a general shift from a transfer to a comprehensive focus, but t hey believed that community colleges would continue to maintain individuality as long as their missions continued to respond to their respective communities. Travis and Travis (1999) did report that workforce development represents one of the leading trends: In concert with similar findings from other studies, renewing and maintaining a n updated workforce has become a major curricular category for community colleges and is among the strongest trends indicated in the study. Based on the rapid pace of technological and social change, continuous retraining of the workforce is being regarded as the community college’s paramount responsibil ity to the local community. (p. 24)

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65 Badway (1998) examined the extent to which colleges integrated academic and occupational aspects of their curriculum. Using a rubric entitled “Domains of Ca reer Preparation,” she evaluated seven aspects of integrated curriculum: job speci fic/technical skills; foundation academic competencies; education for citizenship; career e xploration; utilizing systems; generic technical skills; and workplace organization. O ne third of each state’s public two-year institutions were randomly selected. Based on her findings, academic and vocational education were not well integrated, and she concluded that the eight years of federal legislation had had little impact on community coll ege curricula with regard to effecting this phenomenon. Frederickson (1998) conducted a study that profiled transfer students at North Carolina based on their classification at their respective community coll eges. General descriptive information and a two-tailed t-test were utilized to compare mean va lues for different variables from sample of technical students. Findings indicated that 70% of the students were in transfer programs, and 30% were in technical programs. Findings a lso indicated that transfer students were quite heterogeneous with regard to demogra phic and academic traits. Following transfer, academic patterns became more si milar, but students still did not follow a prescribed time frame or narrowly defined plans of study. Levin (2000) conducted a qualitative study that investigated seven sites or colleges in the Pacific Western region. Including site visits and interview s, he also conducted an analysis of documents. The study was longitudinal, with a 12 to 18 month interlude between site visits. Based on the study, he found that a mission shift was ta king place with less emphasis on community social needs and more on economic needs. In his words,

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66 The evidence from this study suggests that the community college mission shif ted in the 1990s from serving local communities to serving the economy, specifically serving the interests of capital by producing labor and reducing public sector spending . This suggests that for the twenty-first century, community colleges will function more on a model compatible with business norms: a fluid organization, with little reverence for academic traditions, little evidenc e of a dominant professional class of faculty and more evidence of a professional managerial class, and greater reliance upon technology and less upon full-tim e labor. (p. 7) Levin’s remarks (2000) about the transition from a “dominant professional class of faculty” to a “professional managerial class,” and especially the re mark about the lack of reverence to academic traditions, may help to explain some of the resistance of l iberal arts faculty to the workforce trend. The resistance of these faculty member s may be a holdover of the 19th century; faculty of the classics tradition deeply resented encr oaching utilitarian education. Brown (2001) administered a survey to technical education administrators at Texas two-year colleges. The survey queried the level of participation in “t ech prep” programs, or programs, as defined by Bragg (2001b) that “should prepare students for college who might not [otherwise] pursue careers requiring postsecondary-leve l math, science, and technological studies” (p. 10). Brown’s findings indicated that the maj ority of Texas two-year colleges were active participants in the implementati on and coordination of tech prep programs, and almost 50% indicated that tech prep programs had a moderate to significant effect on their own technical programs.

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67 Three studies that are specifically relevant to the current one are Cohen and Ignash (1994), Schuyler (1999), and Griffin (2002). The first two were conducted as part of the Center for the Study of Community College’s periodic assessments of chan ges in the community college curriculum. Utilizing a classification system tha t has been slightly modified for this current study, the researchers tabulated the cre dit curriculum from colleges that were randomly sampled from the Directory of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges. In each study, the percentages of courses offered in each major discipline area were reported. Various other aspec ts are reported as well, including, for example, the percentage of community colleges off ering liberal arts classes by institutional size. Cohen and Ignash (1994) reported on da ta collected in 1991 and 1992; Schuyler (1999) reported on data collected in 1998. Keeping in mind that the figures refer to credit curriculum only, the tables be low provide the portions of sections offered in the non-liberal arts and liberal arts respectively. These tables are derived from Table 1.5 in Schuyler (1998, p. 12). These tables are included in the literature review because they help illustrate a m ethod by which the data will be displayed in the current study. In summary, for both the liberal and non-liberal arts credit curriculum, Schuyler (2000) indicated, “All in all, other than some slight changes and shifts, the curric ulum has remained dominated by the same disciplines” (p. 11). The comparison of the non-liberal arts credit curriculum between 1991 and 1998 included three new categories in 1998: internships/practica, criminal justice, and military science. The tota l non-liberal art categories represented were as follows: (a) technical education, (b) busine ss and office, (c) health, (d) personal skills/avocational, (e) internships/practica, (f) educ ation, (g) trade

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68 and industry, (h) engineering/science technologies, (i) marketing/distr ibution, (j) criminal justice, (k) agriculture, (l) military science, and (m) other. Table 1 Percentage of non-liberal arts sections offered (1998 and 1991) Discipline Percentage of total credit sections in 1998 study n=139,083 Percentage of total credit sections in 1991 study n=104,565 Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other 8.5 8.0 5.8 6.9 3.1 1.7 6.8 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.1 0.2 7.9 10.7 4.4 8.3 1.1 8.1 0.8 1.5 0.5 0.14 Totals 44.9 43.4 Source: Schuyler (2000, p. 12). Provided with permission from G. Schuyler.

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69 In 1991, the non-liberal arts curriculum represented 43.4% of the overall curriculum whereas in 1998, the non-liberal arts curriculum represented 44.9%. Technical education, business and office, personal skills/avocational, and trade and industry sections were the categories with the highest percentages of sect ions for both studies. Table 2 provides the percentages of disciplines as they are represented in the nonliberal arts curriculum for both studies. In areas of growth, technical educat ion represented 19.0% of the non-liberal arts curriculum in 1998 versus 18.2% in 1991. Health represented 12.9% of the non-liberal arts curriculum in 1998 versus 10.2% in 1991. In areas of decline, business and office represented 24.6% of the non-liberal arts curriculum in 1998 versus 17.8% in 1991. Personal skills/ avocational represented 19.1% of the non-liberal arts curriculum in 1998 versus 15.4% in 1991. Overall, the liberal arts curriculum remained stable between 1991 and 1998. The categories represented were as follows: (a) English, (b) humanities, (c ) math, (d) natural sciences, (e) social sciences, and (f) fine and performing arts. Table 3 indica tes that the liberal arts experienced a decrease from 56.6% of the overall credit curriculum to 54.9%. The disciplines of English, humanities, and math had the highest percentages of representation for both studies. Table 4 depicts the representation of disciplines within the liberal arts curric ulum. The percentage of math sections increased from 18.9 in the 1991 sample to 20.5 in the 1998 sample, and the percentage of natural sciences sections decreased from 13.6 in the 1991 sample to 12.5 in the 1998 sample. A larger number of sections were coded in 1998: 76,466 versus 59,205 in 1991.

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70 Table 2 Percentage of disciplines represented in non-liberal arts sections (1998 and 1991) Discipline Percentage of non-liberal arts sections in 1998 study n=130,083 Percentage of non-liberal arts sections in 1991 study n=104,565 Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other 19.0 17.8 12.9 15.4 7.0 3.8 15.0 2.8 2.1 2.2 1.3 0.2 0.5 18.2 24.6 10.2 19.1 2.5 18.6 2.0 3.4 1.2 0.2 Totals 100.0 100.0 Source: Schuyler (2000, p. 12). Provided with permission from G. Schuyler.

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71 Table 3 Percentage of liberal arts sections offered as part of total credit sections (1998 and 1991) Discipline Percentage of Total Credit Sections in 1998 Study n=139,083 Percentage of Total Credit Sections in 1991 Study N=014,565 English Humanities Math Natural Sciences Social Sciences Fine and Performing Arts 12.1 12.8 11.3 6.9 6.5 5.3 12.7 13.4 10.7 7.7 6.7 5.4 Totals 54.9 56.6 Source: Schuyler (2000, p. 12). Provided with permission from G. Schuyler. In the 2000 Florida Curriculum Study (Griffin, 2002), mentioned earlier in Chapter 1, liberal arts coursework (typically associated with transfer c oursework) represented a large part of the Florida community college curriculum. In th is study, six researchers collected catalogs and course schedules for the fall of 2000 from Florida’s 28 public community colleges. Using the curriculum scheme developed and used by researchers at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC), the r esearchers coded all credit course sections listed in the schedules. A seventh researcher re viewed all of the coding to check for accuracy and to minimize error. Six liberal arts and te n nonliberal arts areas, remedial, distance learning, and transferability categories were defined in the classification scheme. The researchers used the state master list for Florida’s

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72 Table 4 Percentage of disciplines represented in liberal arts sections (1998 and 1991) Discipline Percentage of Liberal Arts Sections in 1998 Study n=139,083 Percentage of Liberal Arts Sections in 1991 Study N=104,565 English Humanities Math Natural Sciences Social Sciences Fine and Performing Arts 22.1 23.3 20.5 12.5 11.8 9.7 22.5 23.7 18.9 13.6 11.8 9.6 Total 100.0 100.0 Source: Schuyler (2000, p. 12). Provided with permission from G. Schuyler Common Course Numbering System to generate a consistent coding system and to determine transferability. The Florida researchers coded 42,928 credit cours e sections in the 28 community colleges. Findings indicated that nearly 67% of the course sections offered in the Fall 2000 term were found in the liberal arts. In related studies (such as the Brawer 1999 reference mentioned previously), researchers have taken different aspects of the curriculum data and reported fi ndings. For example, Palmer (1999) provided a more detailed analysis of the non-liberal art s curriculum in his study. He found that community colleges varied extensively, but a c ore set of courses were offered at 90% or more of the sample colleges, including busine ss and office skills, marketing and distribution, health sciences, computer applications, a nd education.

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73 In the next section, the method of content analysis will be explored. As a method of assessing trends and meaning, this approach will be used to evaluate Florida community college mission statements and planning documents. The Method of Content Analysis This study will utilize a content analysis approach applied to Florida public community college mission statements and planning statements in order to evalua te the dominance or lack thereof of transfer versus workforce development education in the Florida community college system. The content analysis method is defined in var ious ways, but all with the common theme of reducing information to patterns and attempting to discover meaning, trends, or other common denominators in the information. Weber (1985) defined content analysis as a “research methodology that utilizes a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text” (p. 9). Patton (2001) indicated that “content analysis is used to refer to any qualitative data reduction and sense -making effort that takes a volume of qualitative material and attempts to identify co re consistencies and meanings” (p. 453). Several authors drew distinctions between qualitative content analysis and quantitative content analysis approaches. Fields (1988) contrasted the two as foll ows, “Quantitative content analysts base analytical decisions on tests for sta tistical significance while qualitative approaches are more concerned with developing data that can be interpreted for theoretical significance” (p. 183). Shapiro and Markoff (1997) sta ted that content analysis referred to “any systematic reduction of a flow of text ( or other symbols) to a standard set of statistically manipulable symbols representing the pre sence, the

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74 intensity, or the frequency of some characteristics relevant to social s cience” (p. 14). Although the definition was ostensibly quantitative, the authors later stated that t heir definition included qualitative categories as long as the studies followed a sys tematic process. They provided examples of what earlier researchers had classifi ed as qualitative studies and stated that they could “only be called poor quantitative studies . these studies were based on inadequate samples utilizing unspecified coding methods in a whimsical fashion” (pp. 27-28). Rourke and Anderson (2004) also critiqued poorly constructed content analysis research. Focusing upon quantitative methods of content analysis, they stated that t hese methods should be thought of as a type of testing and measurement. The authors noted that few examples existed in which the coding protocol had been designed and validate d in a methodical and systematic manner. In short, tallying common content and determining frequencies of occurrence alone was not a sufficient basis upon w hich to draw inferences about behavior in a quantitative content analysis. Instead, the authors recommended procedures for making the inferences valid, including defining the purpose of the coding data, defining the elements that represented the construct, revi ewing the categories, piloting the project, and developing guidelines for administering, sc oring, and interpreting the scheme. With their focus upon quantitative aspects of content analysis, Rourke and Anderson (2004) did not deal extensively with qualitative content analysis except to recommend its use in defining the elements that represented the construct. In an e arlier work, Altheide (1987), reacting to quantitative portrayals of content analysis, sugg ested that the ethnographic research method could be wed to the content analysis method in

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75 order to produce a “reflexive analysis of documents” (p. 65). He contrasted ethnogra phic content analysis (also known as qualitative content analysis) with quantitati ve content analysis. In his discussion of quantitative content analysis, he cited Starosta who described this approach as translating the “frequency of occurrence of c ertain symbols into summary judgments” (p. 66). With regard to this definition of quantitative content analysis, it appears to be representative of those that laid the groundwork for Rourke and Anderson’s (2004) critique of quantitative content analysis as a method to draw inferences about the data. Altheide (1987) provided further highlights of the differences between qualita tive content analysis and quantitative content analysis. Looking at the process of data collection, analysis, and interpretation, he described qualitative content analys is as reflexive and circular and quantitative content analysis as serial. The qual itative content analysis sample was purposive and theoretical, and the quantitative content analy sis sample was random or stratified. The qualitative content analysis data included bot h narrative and numbers; the quantitative content analysis data was numerical. Na rrative description and comments were always included in qualitative content analysis re search, and concepts always emerged during the research. In quantitative content analys is, these phenomena seldom occurred. Summarizing qualitative content analysis in Altheide’s words: ECA (qualitative content analysis) consists of reflexive movement between concept development, sampling, data collection, data coding, data analysis, and interpretation. The aim is to be systematic and analytic, but not rigid. Although categories and “variables” initially guide the study, others are allow ed and

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76 expected to emerge throughout the study. Thus, ECA is embedded in constant discovery and constant comparison of relevant situations, settings, styles, images, meanings and nuances. (p. 68) Miles and Huberman (1994) also described the emergent nature of qualitative content analysis. They recommended early data analysis to allow the researc her to reflect upon the existing data and plan collection strategies for new data – analogous to Altheide’s (1987) words about qualitative content analysis data analysis bei ng reflexive and circular. In developing codes to classify the data, they recommended an initi al list with a clear structure and rationale. They also advocated the more inductive a pproach in which the researcher does not precode data until it has been gathered to allow for the determination of context and variety of data. In the next chapter, I will descri be the qualitative content analysis approach that will be used to evaluate the data for the first research question. Summary The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. To provide background to this study,

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77 several literature threads were presented. Theoretical perspective s on the growth of workforce development education in the community college mission included an overview of the sociological theoretical approaches of functionalism, status-c ompetition theory, and legitimation theory. An overview of public policy theoretical approaches, including incrementalism and group theory and political, terminal, and hidden agendas, was also provided. To lay the groundwork further, the historical and contemporary background was explored on the growth of workforce development education in the community college mission. This synopsis led to a depiction of the new vocationalism and workforce development. More specific information in this regard was provided about the Florida community college and the role of vocational education. Finally, curriculum studie s related to the current proposal were summarized, and the method of content analysi s was discussed. In the next chapter, the methods by which this current study was conducted will be presented.

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78 Chapter 3 Method Introduction: Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. Researcher Objectivity With 15 years of experience working for Florida community colleges, my background provides an insider’s perspective on the research topic, and, inevitably, a research bias. Max Weber, a seminal figure in social and behavioral theory, c alled for a separation of scientific objectivity and personal values ( Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names 2005). As a student of the behavioral sciences, I gained experience in obtaining my master’s degree in anthropology in striving for researcher obje ctivity while at the same time acknowledging the fact that the researcher, of neces sity, becomes part of

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79 the study. In this current study, I have applied my research background in an effor t to counter any employment bias. Research Questions/Hypotheses Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study is that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. Therefore, the study prediction was that transfer mission would remain paramount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction was that the longitudinal analysis would indicate growth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions served to validate the certificate and degree requirement. In support of these assumptions, the spec ific research questions are as follows: 1. Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support national and state leadership policy statements with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum? 2. What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme defined by the CSCC? 3. How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study?

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80 4. What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included? Methods Research question 1 : With regard to Research Question 1, (do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support leadership policy state ments with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum), the researcher conducted a content analysis of Florida community college mission and institutional goal statements. These statements were collected from 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 catalogs, and the content analysis included a comparison from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 as well as a comparison between colleges. The 1999/2000 documents were used because they provided the basis for the research in the 2000 Florida Curriculum Study, which was used as the basis for comparison in this study. 1. Hypothesis 1: There will be a greater emphasis on workforce development in the 2004/2005 documents as compared to the 1999/2000 documents. 2. Hypothesis 2: the transfer component will retain a dominant place in the mission and goals statements both in 1999/2000 and in 2004/2005. Following the guidelines put forth by Miles and Huberman (1994), I used a coding matrix that included the two broad categories “workforce development” and “transfer.” Subcategories of workforce development included the following (defi ned in Chapter 1): (a) adult basic education, (b) applied technical certificate, (c) applied technology diplomas, (d) associate in applied science, (e) associate in scienc e, (f) college

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81 credit certificates, (g) continuing workforce education, (h) GED preparat ion, (i) new vocationalism, (j) non-credit, (k) non-liberal arts curriculum, (l) occupational com pletion point, (m) occupational-technical curriculum, (n) postsecondary adult vocational certificates, (o) traditional vocational education, (p) vocational credit, and (q) w orkforce development curriculum. Subcategories of transfer included the following: (a) col lege preparatory instruction (although not transferable, these courses within the comm unity college curriculum are an essential part of the transfer function for students needing remedial coursework to enroll in college-level coursework), (b) general education, (c) Gordon Rule, and (d) liberal arts curriculum. Miles and Huberman (1994) point out that all coding approaches change during the field experience, and revisions, deletions, and new categories occur as the re searcher proceeds. The important rule in coding frameworks is to have a conceptual and structural order with larger conceptual codes and more definitive subcodes. With that in mind, the analysis included “strong,” “medium,” and “weak” categories for the miss ion and goal statements using the following rubric. In both cases, the frequency of the concept s helped assess strength or weakness across the continuum. The mission and goal statements were compared within colleges across time to determine any change and also between colleges for the respective time periods. Table 5 indicates the r ubric that was applied to mission statements; Table 6 indicates the rubric that was applied to institutional goal statements. I also divided colleges into categories of “small,” “medium,” and “large” using the definition in the 2000 Florida study. For that study, small colleges were those wi th an unweighted 1999/2000 FTE less than or equal to 2,748, medium colleges were those with

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82 an unweighted 1999/2000 FTE between 2,749 and 6,410, and large colleges were those with an FTE greater than or equal to 6,410. The same categories were used for the current study with 2004/2005 FTE. 3. Hypothesis 3: Small colleges will have a stronger workforce development emphasis in their mission and goals statements for 1999/2000 and for 2004/2005. Table 5 Coding rubric for transfer and workforce emphases in mission statements Level of Emphasis Transfer Workforce Strong More than one statement that includes a specific reference to a transfer category. More than one statement that includes a specific reference to a workforce category. Medium One statement that includes specific reference to a transfer category. One statement that includes specific reference to a workforce category. Weak No statements including specific references to a transfer category. No statements including specific references to a workforce category. An assessment was also conducted of current community colleges with regar d to current strategic plans. These plans were assessed using the same rubric approach along the categories of “strong,” “medium,” and “weak.” This analysis was only conduc ted

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83 Table 6 Coding rubric for transfer and workforce emphases in institutional goal statements Level of Emphasis Transfer Workforce Strong More than one goal that includes a specific reference to a transfer category. More than one goal that includes a specific reference to a workforce category. Medium One goal that includes specific reference to a transfer category. One goal that includes specific reference to a workforce category. Weak No goals including specific references to a transfer category. No goals including specific references to a workforce category. across colleges for plans that were current within the 2004/2005 academic year. S ize was included in this analysis. 4. Hypothesis 4: There will be a greater emphasis on workforce development than on the transfer program in college strategic plans. 5. Hypothesis 5: Small colleges will include the strongest emphasis on workforce development in their strategic plans. Research question 2 : With regard to Research Question 2, (what is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme defined by the CSCC), I collected catalogs and sch edules from Florida’s 28 public community colleges. Using a curriculum coding scheme develope d and applied by researchers at the CSCC in seven national community college curri culum

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84 studies conducted between 1975 and 1998, I coded all credit course sections listed in the schedules, excluding labs (unless the lab was included in the course as a “C,” which meant that the course was treated as one section). The three-credit hour secti on was used as the “standard.” Because the focus of this study was upon workforce development education, the coding for the liberal arts section was limited to the broad categor y “liberal arts areas.” The coding for the non-liberal arts categories included the sub -categories identified in Table 1 of Chapter 2: (a) technical education, (b) business and office, (c) health, (d) personal skills/avocational, (e) internships/practica, (f) educat ion, (g) trade and industry, (h) engineering/science technologies, (i) marketing/distribut ion, (j) criminal justice, (k) agriculture, and (l) military science. For the purposes of consistency, I used the State Master File obtained from the Florida Articulation Coordinating Committee, which included in its database the 1000 and 2000 level courses offered in Florida’s public community colleges and state universities. Through the state common course numbering system, each 1000 and 2000 level course is assigned a number, which is captured by the State Master Fil e. This numbering system allowed me to code like courses consistently by virtue of their common numbering scheme, even if course titles differed. I augmented the State Master File to include the coding classification. A sample section derived from the State Master File appears as Table 7. Vocational credit and non-credit coursework were coded as sections if they included at least 45 contact hours (the number of contact hours in a 3-credit hour course, which is a system standard for credit coursework). Non-credit coursework that did not

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85 Table 7 Sample section from state master file Code Prefix Century C Title 61-3 ACG 001 Principles of Accounting I 61-3 ACG 011 Principles of Accounting II 61-3 ACG 021 Accounting Prin – Condensed 61-3 ACG 031 Principles of Accounting III 61-3 ACT 062 Computer Focused Principles 61-3 ACG 071 Managerial Accounting I 61-3 ACG 071 C Managerial Accounting I With Lab fall into one of the non-liberal arts categories was excluded, as was non-credit coursework that was not employment-oriented. Examples of this type of coursew ork are special interest courses that focus upon personal enrichment or development, such as Antiques, Secrets of Gourmet Cooking, and Introduction to Scrapbooking. Following the coding process, the data was compiled in a master file and descriptive statistics were obtained. An overall presentation of the curriculum was provided. The data represented by the credit curriculum was compared against the Florida Study conducted in 2000. 6. Hypothesis 6: The overall curriculum will indicate that the ratio between transfer and workforce development coursework is close to equal, but the transfer coursework will represent a larger proportion of the overall curriculum.

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86 7. Hypothesis 7: The credit curriculum comparison against the 2000 Florida Study will indicate growth in workforce development offerings. Research question 3 : With regard to research question 3, (how have the nonliberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study), I used the same coding methods and scheme described for resear ch question 2 and obtained descriptive statistics for each category. 8. Hypothesis 8: The changes in the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings w ill include an increase in the category “technical education” and a decrease in the category “trade and industry.” Research question 4 : With regard to research question 4, (what proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included), I used the same coding met hods and scheme described for research question 2 and obtained descriptive statistics for each category. 9. Hypothesis 9: The proportion of the Florida community college curriculum that is workforce development when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included will approach 50%, but the transfer curriculum will retain a higher proportion of the overall curriculum. Summary The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence

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87 to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study is that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. Therefore, the study prediction is that the transfer mission will remain pa ramount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction is that the longitudinal analysis will indicate g rowth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions serve to validate the certificate and degree requirement. To carry out this study, a content analysis was conducted of 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 mission and institutional goal statements. Comparisons were made across time and between institutions. Size was included as a factor. The overall expecta tion was that the transfer function would retain its place as the primary component of the community college mission, institutional goals, and curriculum, but there would be evidence that workforce development coursework increased in the college-credit curriculum and that in the curriculum overall, it approached the transfer curricul um in weight.

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88 Chapter 4 Results Introduction The purpose of this study was twofold. One was to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provided evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second was to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements provided evidence that workforce development increased as a component of the community college mission. Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study was that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mis sion. Therefore, the study prediction was that transfer mission would remain paramount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction was that the longitudinal analysis would indicate growth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions serve to validate the certificate and degree requirement. To carry out this study, a content analysis was conducted of 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 mission and institutional goal statements. Comparisons were made across

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89 time and between institutions. Size was included as a factor. As noted in Chapter 3, the definition in the 2000 Florida study was applied to the categories of “small,” “medi um,” and “large.” In review, the five small colleges were those with an unweighted 1999/ 2000 FTE less than or equal to 2,748, the seven medium colleges were those with an unweighted 1999/2000 FTE between 2,749 and 6,410, and the 16 large colleges were those with an FTE greater than or equal to 6,410. The reader should note that this definition caused more than half of the colleges to be classified as large. The overall expectation was that the transfer function would retain its place as the primary component of the community college mission, institutional goals, and curriculum, but there would be evidence that workforce development coursework increased in the college-credit curriculum. Also, in the curriculum overall, the w orkforce development curriculum would approach the transfer curriculum in weight. In support of these assumptions, the specific research questions are as follows: 1. Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support national and state leadership policy statements with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum? 2. What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme defined by the CSCC? 3. How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study?

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90 4. What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included? Summary of Data Collection To conduct the study, the researcher collected information from Florida’s 28 public postsecondary institutions that were classified as community colleges The information included the following: (a) 1999/2000 institutional mission and goal statements; (b) 2004/2005 institutional mission and goal statements; (c) 2004/2005 strategic plans; (d) fall 2004 credit and non-credit course schedules; and (d) 2004/2005 college catalogs. The mission, goal, and strategic plans were used to respond to research question 1, and the course schedules were used to respond to the remaining research questions. The college catalogs guided interpretation of the data w ith descriptions of program and course offerings. Across the community college system, definitions varied with regard to miss ions, goals, and strategic plans. In these cases, the researcher worked with colle ge contacts to determine appropriate substitutes. For example, one college had a philosophy stat ement rather than a mission statement during the 1999/2000 period. Other colleges had priorities or objectives rather than goals. A brief description of the informati on provided for each college follows: 1. A: The mission changed from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005. The strategic plan was 57 pages long, and the content analysis included descriptive paragraphs as well as the mission and strategic objectives.

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91 2. B: The mission statement remained the same for the two time periods, but the goals changed. A two-page document contained strategic priorities. 3. C: The 2004/2005 mission differed from 1999/2000, but the goals were similar except for minor editorial changes. The college had a 15-page annua l plan, which referenced college operational unit plans (not analyzed in this study). 4. D: In 2004/2005, the mission changed to one sentence, and the goals changed as well. A 24-page strategic plan was provided. 5. E: The mission became a one-sentence statement in 2004/2005, but the goals remained substantially the same. A five-page strategic plan was provided. 6. F: The mission remained nearly identical for the two time periods, but the goals changed. The college provided an 11-page strategic plan. 7. G: For 1999/2000 the goal statements were the purpose statements, and the philosophy statement was analogous to a mission statement. The mission and goals (termed “objectives”) were different for 2004/2005. The strategic plan was not provided. 8. H: The 2004/2005 mission became a one-sentence statement, and the goals changed as well from the 1999/2000 time period, including dropping the references to specific degrees. The six-page strategic plan referenc ed unit strategy forms (not analyzed in this study). 9. I: The mission remained the same from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005, but the goals changed. The 30-page strategic plan included references to other plans (not analyzed in this study).

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92 10. J: The mission and goals were nearly identical for the two time periods. The 21-page strategic plan referenced other plans (not analyzed in this study). 11. K: The institutional priorities were treated as goals. In neither 1999/2000 nor 2004/2005 were the goal statements specific to transfer or workforce development. Only minor editorial changes were made to the mission and goals in 2004/2005 from 1999/2000. No strategic plan was provided. 12. L: The mission and goals remained nearly identical for the two time periods. The 317-page long range plan was treated as the strategic plan; it included more than 600 objectives. 13. M: The 2004/2005 mission and goals differed from the 1999/2000 versions. Strategic priorities guided the strategic planning process (the full strategic plan was provided after the fieldwork was completed and was not included in the study). 14. N: The mission remained the same from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005, but the goals changed. In the 10-page strategic plan, unit plans were referenced bu t not provided. 15. O: The mission and strategic goals were nearly identical for the two time periods except for the addition of the A.A.S. The five-page strategic plan cited individual unit plans (not provided). 16. P: The mission and goals changed for the two time periods, and the strategic plan was included in the college catalog.

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93 17. Q: The mission and goals changed. The 2004/2005 mission was a one-sentence statement. The 214-page strategic plan included 179 objectives, which were submitted by individual units. 18. R: The mission statement was identical for the two time periods, but the goals differed. The college had a 27-page strategic plan. 19. S: The mission remained the same during the two time periods, and the goals remained substantially the same. The strategic plan was not available. 20. T: The mission and goals were nearly identical (with the deletion of one goal in 2004/2005 that did not reference either transfer or workforce). The two-page strategic plan included the mission, goals, values, and vision statements. 21. U: The mission and goals changed from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005. The college had a 23-page strategic plan. 22. V: The 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 mission and goal statements were nearly identical, but there was a greater emphasis on workforce in the mission statement and more workforce options were listed in the goals. The college had a 10-page strategic plan. 23. W: The mission changed for the two time periods, but the objectives (treated as goals) remained similar. The 14 page strategic plan included 26 objectives. 24. X: The 2004/2005 mission, which was a one-sentence statement, differed from the 1999/2000 mission, as did the goals. The college had a 6-page strategic plan in effect during 1999/2000, and it remained in effect until 2005. 25. Y: The institution was not included in the mission, goal, or strategic plan analysis because only the mission statement was available.

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94 26. Z: The goals remained the same for the two time periods, but the mission changed. The college provided a 17-page strategic plan. 27. AA: In 2004/2005, no changes were made in the mission statement from 1999/2000, and the purposes (goals) were also quite similar to 1999/2000. The educational master plan was treated as the college’s strategic plan. 28. BB: The mission remained the same for the two time periods, but the goals changed. The college had a 17-page strategic plan, including the detail on the priorities. Documents that were titled “strategic plans” ranged from two-page missi on, vision, values, and goal statements to extensive documents including more than 500 planning objectives. In the cases where colleges did not have a document titled “st rategic plan,” appropriate substitutes included documents such as educational master plans or long-range plans. The key to the analysis was to assess the documents for prior ities with regard to the transfer and workforce functions. Of the colleges that provided documentation, 13 revised their mission statements from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 (Colleges A, C, D, E, G, H, M, P, Q, V, W, X, and Z). Fifteen revised their goals: A, B, D, F, G, H, I, M, N, P, Q, R, U, X, and BB. Four institutions changed their mission statements to one-sentence statements f or the 2004/2005 time period: D, E, H, and X. A limitation cited in Chapter 1 was the fact that not all colleges included non credit course offerings in printed course schedules. The assessment of non-credit course offerings was critical to the response to the fourth research question, and the r esearcher made ongoing attempts to collect the data through alternative means, such as c ollege-

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95 specific databases. However, the efforts had only partial success. Ultima tely, a Florida Department of Education database was secured that included a complete listing of all postsecondary adult vocational and continuing workforce education course sections that were offered in fall 2004. Based on the fact that it was comprehensive and complet e, the research used this database in the analysis in lieu of the non-credit schedules that had been collected. For the purposes of the study, each college was coded alphabetically. Because of missing data, not all colleges were included for each research question. For eac h research question and its corresponding hypotheses, any colleges that were excluded from the analysis are noted. Results of Content Analysis Research question 1. “Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support leadership policy statements with regard to the domina nce of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum?” This res earch question includes five hypotheses: 1. Hypothesis 1: There will be a greater emphasis on workforce development in the 2004/2005 documents as compared to the 1999/2000 documents. 2. Hypothesis 2: The transfer component will retain a dominant place in the mission and goals statements both in 1999/2000 and in 2004/2005. 3. Hypothesis 3: Small colleges will have a stronger workforce development emphasis in their mission and goals statements for 1999/2000 and for 2004/2005.

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96 4. Hypothesis 4: There will be a greater emphasis on workforce development than on the transfer program in college strategic plans. 5. Hypothesis 5: Small colleges will include the strongest emphasis on workforce development in their strategic plans. The overall findings indicate that Florida public community college mission and planning statements do support leadership policy statements with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum. However, in response to Hypothesis 1, there was not a greater emphasis on workforce development in 2004/2005 versus 1999/2000. In response to Hypothesis 2, the transfer component does not have a dominant place for either time period in the mission and goals statements. In response to Hypothesis 3, the relationship of workforce development emphasis and institutional size is not a strong one, but the relationship between workfor ce development emphasis and small size was stronger in 1999/2000 than in 2004/2005. In response to Hypothesis 4, workforce development clearly has a stronger emphasi s in strategic plans, and in response to Hypothesis 5, there tends to be a stronger emphasi s on workforce development in the larger rather than the smaller colleges, alt hough again, the emphasis is not pronounced. More detail on the findings is provided in the paragraphs that follow. To respond to research question 1, the researcher conducted a content analysis on college mission, goal, and strategic planning documents. Hypotheses 1 through 3 reference mission and goal statements only; hypotheses 4 and 5 reference strat egic planning documents only. For all hypotheses, no information was available for College Y. For hypotheses 4 and 5, strategic plans are missing for College G and College S

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97 As noted previously, Miles and Huberman (1994) indicate that coding approaches change during the field experience. The field experience for this study was no exception. Along with the strategic plans, mission and goal statements ranged in length a nd composition. Many were modeled after or directly copied the community college mission as set forth in Florida Statute 1004.65 Community colleges; definition, mission, and responsibilities : “Providing lower level undergraduate instruction and awarding associate degrees . .Preparing students directly for careers requiring l ess than baccalaureate degrees . Providing student development services . Promoting economic development” (2006). The overall precept in the content analysis was that a statement or phrase had to include specific references to concepts belonging either to the “transfer” category or the “workforce” category. Consequently, decision rules were set forth to guide what to include or exclude in the analysis: 1. Statements referring to “undergraduate programs” but not more specificall y to the A.A. or “transfer” degree were not included in the analysis since “undergraduate programs” could pertain to more than the A.A. degree. 2. Statements referring to “academic and career” programs were counte d in the workforce development category but not in the transfer category, since “career” has a specific workforce relationship, whereas “academic” does not have a specific transfer relationship. 3. The use of the phrase “economic development” was included if there was a specific relationship to developing educational or training programs or other workforce development references. A statement such as “provide economic

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98 development by working with other agencies and business to supply programs and services” would not have been included because it implies workforce development, but not directly, much in the same way that “academic” implies the A.A. degree, but not directly. 4. Colleges included statements that pertained to general education concepts, such as critical thinking, synthesizing knowledge, and effective communication. However, if the mission did not specifically indicate that these concepts were tied to a general education curriculum, they were not included in the analysis. 5. As noted in Chapter 3, subcategories of transfer included college preparatory instruction. Some colleges included references to pre-collegiate instruction and combined that phrase with adult basic education. Again, if the reference was not specific to college preparatory instruction, it was not included. 6. Unless specifically associated with an Associate in Science program, the use of the term “transfer” was counted towards the transfer (Associate in Arts ) category. In reminder, as stated in Chapter 1, note that the A.S. degree is considered the occupational associate’s degree in Florida, equivalent to the A.A.S. degree in many other states (J. Ignash, November 19, 2004, personal communication). 7. An occurrence of a category was counted based on how it was displayed. For example, if a college mission statement included three separate stateme nts referencing a transfer category, each was counted independently. However if the references were all included in one sentence, they were counted as one

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99 occurrence. The researcher’s interpretation was that an institution choosing to emphasize a concept in separate statements or goals was placing stronge r weight on the concept that one that combined concepts in one sentence or goal. The limitation to this interpretation lies in the fact that other factor s influence the development and display of mission and goal statements. For example, in its last mission review, Hillsborough Community College went from a three-paragraph mission statement to a single-sentence one – a trend that some of the other community colleges had adopted as well. The tables and associated information below provide a summary of the content analysis of the college mission and goal statements and provide the data to inform the findings on the first three hypotheses related to Research question 1. Colleges tha t were classified as having strong or medium statements appear in tables with the a ssociated key phrases. Colleges that were classified as having weak statements are simply listed. Mission statements are displayed in separate tables from goal statement s, and mission statements are presented first. The tables related to the transfe r category appear first and are separated by year and the “strong” and “medium” subcategor y. Mentioned earlier, overall results indicate that community colleges did plac e greater emphasis on workforce development in their missions, goals, and strategi c planning documents than they did on transfer. During 1999/00, out of the 27 institutions included in this analysis, eight have mission statements categorized as “tr ansfer strong” (Table 8), seven have statements categorized as “transfer medium” (Table 9), and 12 have statements categorized as “transfer weak” (A, G, I, J, K, L, P, S, T, V, X, and BB).

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100 Table 8 1999/2000 institutional mission statements: Transfer strong College Key phrases D (2) (a) Associate in Arts degree; (b) college preparatory courses E (2) (a) Associate in Arts degree; (b) developmental education N (3) (a) Associate in Arts degree; (b) transfer, (c) preparatory instruction Q (2) (a) Transfer; (b) remedial education U (2) (a) Associate of arts degree programs; (b) first language is not English. W (2) (a) Associate in arts degree; (b) preparatory instruction Z (2) (a) A two-year parallel program; (b) college-preparatory courses AA (2) (a) First two years of a four-year curriculum through a program of ge neral education; (b) college-preparatory instruction Table 9 1999/2000 institutional mission statements: Transfer medium College Key phrases B C F H M O R Associate in arts degree Associate in arts degree The first two years of study for the bachelor’s degree Associate in arts degree University parallel programs Associate of Arts degree First two years of university studies

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101 With regard to workforce development, 13 institutions have mission statements categorized as “workforce development strong” (Table 10), seven have statem ents categorized as “workforce development medium” (Table 11), and seven have state ments categorized as “workforce development weak” (A, G, L, P, T, X, BB). In additi on to having more statements in the “strong” category than transfer, the workforce development mission statements included more key phrases. The fact that most of t he colleges have only one associate in arts degree but several associate in scie nce and associate in applied science degrees as well as certificates and non-cr edit options adds weight to the workforce development mission. However, from an overall perspecti ve, the workforce development mission is emphasized more than the transfer mission during the 1999/2000 time period. Table 10 1999/2000 Institutional mission statements: Workforce development strong College Key phrases U (4) (a) Training opportunities; (b) associate of science degree programs; (c ) vocational-technical certificate programs; (d) programs for business, industr y W (4) (a) Technical/vocational programs; (b) retrain and upgrade employment skills ; (c) career/technical education; (d) technological education and career-re lated Programs Z (4) (a) Technical programs; (b) workplace preparedness; (c) meet needs of business/ industry through programs, courses, workshops, increase worker productivity; (d) well-trained workforce, workers wishing to reenter the job market, new occupational skills

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102 Table 10, continued College Key phrases AA (4) (a) Technical educational opportunities; (b) prepare individuals for employment; (c) economic development activities to meet the needs of business; (d) maintain competencies, upgrade skills, change occupations B (3) (a) Workforce development programs, Associate in Science Degree; (b) retraining opportunities; (c) vocational O (3) (a) Career training; (b) associate of science degree programs and voca tional certificate programs; (c) training and retraining D (2) (a) Associate in Science degree and/or certificate; (b) continuing educat ion for vocational/technical field, advancement in occupation, career change, customized programs E (2) (a) High-opportunity, growth-industry vocations; (b) Supporting economic development by providing basis for skilled and educated workforce F (2) (a) Workforce training and retraining; (b) career and personal goals H (2) (a) Careers in a global economy; (b) Associate in Science degree or cer tificate, job skills through continuing education N (2) (a) Workforce development programs, associate in science, certificates; (b) educational partnerships with business, industry Q (2) (a) Prepares students to enter the job market; (b) two-year technical progr ams, vocational programs R (2) (a) Career and technical programs (b) continuing education for recertific ation

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103 Table 11 1999/2000 Institutional mission statements: Workforce development medium College Key phrases C I J K M S V Workforce development programs, associate in science degrees, certificate s of training Professional and vocational training Vocational Job entry and retraining Occupational-technical programs Economic and workforce development Technical education During the 2004/2005 time period, transfer loses prominence in the mission statements. Only two colleges are represented in the “strong” category (Table 12). Eight colleges are represented in the medium category (Table 13), and 17 are r epresented in the weak category as follows: D, E, G, H, I, J, L, M, P, S, T, U, V, X, Z, AA, BB. From 15 institutions including “transfer” as a strong or medium category in 1999/2000, only 10 include “transfer” as a strong or medium category in 2004/2005. Table 12 2004/2005 Institutional mission statements: Transfer strong College Key phrases N (3) O (2) (a) Associate in arts degree; (b) upper-division transfer; (c) preparator y (a) Associate of arts degree; (b) precollegiate studies

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104 Table 13 2004/2005 Institutional mission statements: Transfer medium College Key phrases A B C F K Q R W University transfer, college preparatory Associate in arts degree Associate in arts degree First two years of study for the bachelor’s degree Development of basic skills. Undergraduate studies and associate degrees to pursue a baccalaureate degree Academic curriculum that provides the first two years of university studies Associate in arts As seen in Tables 14 and 15, six institutions are included in the “workforce development strong” category for 2004/2005, and 12 are included in the “workforce development medium” category. Nine colleges, E, G, L, M, P, T, X, AA, and BB, are categorized as “workforce development weak.” In contrast with 1999/2000, 18 rather than 20 institutions had statements categorized as strong or medium, but workforce development still retained a more prominent place in the institutional mission stat ements overall than transfer. Mission statements followed a variety of formats, ranging from a singl e statement to complex paragraphs that included college purposes. Goals also followed a variet y of formats, with some colleges affiliating each function with a separate goal, and other colleges combining functions into goals. Among concepts included as goals are

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105 objectives and priorities. A goal was counted as an occurrence if it appeared as a di stinct statement. Table 14 2004/2005 Institutional mission statements: Workforce development strong College Key phrases B (3) (a) Workforce development programs, Associate in Science Degree; (b) retraining opportunities; (c) vocational O (3) (a) Career training; (b) Associate of science degree programs, ass ociate of applied science degree programs, and vocational certificate programs; (c) training and retraining activities F (2) (a) Workforce training and upgrading; (b) career N (2) (a) Workforce development programs, associate in science, certificates; (b) educational partnerships with business, industry R (2) (a) Career and technical programs; (b) continuing education programs – recertification V (2) (a) Technical certificates, applied technology diplomas; (b) workforce development.

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106 Table 15 2004/2005 Institutional mission statements: Workforce development medium College Key phrases A C D H I J K Q S U W Z Workforce development Workforce development, associate in science degrees, associate in applied science degrees, certificates of training Career-oriented education Career Careers requiring professional and vocational training Vocational Job entry and retraining, Technical and vocational training Economic and workforce development Job training Associate in science and associate in applied science degrees, professiona l certificates, workforce development Workplace skills Tables 16 and 17 display the 1999/2000 institutional goals categorized as “transfer strong” (six institutions represented) and “transfer medium” (nine institutions represented). Common key phrases include transfer, baccalaureate degree, a ssociate in arts degree, and developmental. Within this time period, 13 institutions’ goals ar e categorized as “transfer weak”: D, F, H, I, K, M, R, T, W, X, Z, AA, and BB.

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107 Table 16 1999/2000 Institutional goal statements: Transfer strong College Key phrases V (3) B (2) J (2) L (2) N (2) P (2) (a) Transfer; (b) college preparatory; (c) general education (13 outcomes li sted) (a) Transfer; (b) visual and performing arts fields programs (a) Courses leading to baccalaureate degrees; (b) college preparator y (a) Postsecondary instruction that leads to the baccalaureate degree; (b) coll ege preparatory instruction (a) Meet student transfer needs . review the content of AA courses; (b) university transfer (a) General education; (b) foundation for study in the upper division Table 17 1999/2000 Institutional goal statements: Transfer medium College Key phrases A B C E I O Q S U Associate in Arts degree Preparatory/remedial education program Developmental Associate in Arts degree Developmental Lower division liberal arts education for transfer Freshman and sophomore level university-parallel programs Emphasis on the science, math Programs leading to transfer

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108 Tables 18 and 19 portray the institutional goal statements as “workforce development strong” (14 institutions) and “workforce development medium” (eight institutions) respectively. Of 14 institutions included in the “workforce developme nt strong” category, five contain more than two goals related to workforce deve lopment. Five institutions were categorized as “workforce development weak”: D, H, K, M, AA. Table 18 1999/2000 Institutional goal statements: Workforce development strong College Key phrases O (5) (a) occupational programs, workplace; (b) student support services career; (c ) workforce training; (d) customized training programs; (e) workforce needs U (5) (a) programs leading to employment; (b) vocational-technical certificat e programs; (c) cooperative education and apprenticeships; (d) well-prepared workforce; (e) customized training P (4) (a) Preparation for full-time employment; (b) occupational; (c) advisem ent services vocational choices; (d) regional and state occupational training L (3) (a) career and technical education programs (b) continuing education that enhance and update the skills of individuals; (c) education and training that promote and support economic development V (3) (a) Associate in science, certificate programs; (b) improve employa bility, enhance career skills; (c) economic development through technical courses, workshops C (2) (a) Workforce development; (b) workforce development (repeated) F (2) (a) Workforce development services; (b) educational and training programs

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109 Table 18, continued College Key phrases G (2) (a) Business and technical fields; (b) continuing education opportunities for business and industry, employee skills training J (2) (a) Occupational programs; (b) economic and workforce development N (2) (a) needs of the job market, respond to community and state labor market needs, internships, post secondary adult vocational programs; (b) community partnerships educational programs for business and industry, workforce development short-term training with AS course offerings, customized traini ng, vocational training, teacher education and recertification Q (2) (a) Vocational and technical programs; (b) Economic development, continuing education training: workforce readiness, special training needs S (2) (a) Technology education; (b) workforce development, employment, school-towork, welfare-to-work, and one-stop career center W (2) (a) Workforce programs; (b) students placed in a new job, continued in employment BB (2) (a) Career pursuits; (b) programs and training.

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110 Table 19 1999/2000 Institutional goal statements: Workforce development medium College Key phrases A B E I R T X Z Associate in Science degree Visiting area businesses and assessing training needs. Preparing students for direct entry into positions, attention to growth industry opportunities. Workforce development Educated, highly skilled workforce Workforce Development – provide student-centered workforce programs Workforce education provider Creating a learning workforce in a knowledge economy For the 2004/2005 time period, just as with the mission statements, transfer loses prominence in the goals. Table 20 includes three institutions categorized as “str ong,” and Table 21 includes the eight categorized as “medium.” With regard to the “transfe r weak” category, 16 are represented: A, B, C, E, F, H, K, L, P, Q, R, T, W, Z, AA, and BB. Table 22 delineates the 11 institutions and key phrases included in the “workforce development strong” category. Among these key phrases, a new note is included wit h the “Teacher Education Center.” Florida community colleges were approved to provide alternative teacher certification in 2004. This program enables students holding a baccalaureate degree to obtain a teaching credential through non-credit alte rnative certification.

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111 Table 20 2004/2005 Institutional goal statements: Transfer strong College Key phrases G (3) V (3) U (2) (a) Associate in arts degree; (b) visual and performing arts; (c) basic a cademic skills (a) Associate in Arts; (b) preparatory; (c) general education [13 outcomes] (a) Associate of arts; (b) preparatory instruction Table 21 2004/2005 Institutional goal statements: Transfer medium College Key phrases D I J M N O S X Associate in arts degree College preparatory program College preparatory Promote the retention and success of under-prepared students. Transfer Liberal arts education for transfer Emphasis on the science, math College transfer

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112 Table 22 2004/2005 Institutional goal statements: Workforce development strong College Key phrases O (5) (a) occupational programs, workplace; (b) student support services career; ( c) workforce training and retraining; (d) customized training programs; (e ) workforce needs G (4) (a) Associate in Science degree, applied technology diploma, technical certificates; (b) vocational programs; (c) workforce development; (d) continuing workforce education and training I (4) (a) Occupational degree/certificate programs; (b) Teacher Educat ion Center (c) web page career counseling, job placement; (d) review of Corporate Training and Continuing Education to identify future market growth/declines V (4) (a) Associate in science; (b) Associate in Science, Associate in Appli ed Science, selected Technical Certificate and Applied Technology programs; ( c) improve employability, enhance career skills; (d) economic development through special education and training programs J (2) (a) Certificate and degree programs for employment and careers; (b) ec onomic and workforce development U (2) (a) Associate of science (b) training for immediate employment by offe ring associate of applied science, vocational-technical certificate and conti nuing education programs

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113 Table 22, continued College Key phrases D (2) (a) Associate in Science degree, Associate in Applied Science degree, col lege credit certificate, Applied Technology Diploma, and Postsecondary Adult Vocational Certificate; (b) corporate training programs F (2) (a) Courses leading to employment; (b) training R (2) (a) Workforce development, training; (b) training S (2) (a) Technology education; (b) workforce development, employment, school-towork, welfare-to-work, and one-stop career center W (2) (a) Career educational pathways, training needs (b) placed in a new job, continued in employment Table 23 2004/2005 Institutional goal statements: Workforce development medium College Key phrases C E H T X Z BB Workforce development Entry into high-demand occupations Workforce education Workforce development Career workforce Creating a learning workforce in a knowledge economy Provide multiple opportunities for students to gain practical experience

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114 Table 23 displays the seven institutions categorized as “workforce development medium.” Nine institutions are categorized as “workforce development weak”: A, B, K, L, M, N, P, Q, and AA. With regard to Hypothesis 1 (there will be a greater emphasis on workforce development in the 2004/2005 documents as compared to the 1999/2000 documents), the findings do not support the hypothesis for the mission statements because 18 rather than 20 institutions have a “strong” or “medium” emphasis on workforce in 2004/2005 as opposed to 1999/2000. The findings do not support the hypothesis for the goals statements either because 18 rather than 22 institutions have a “strong” or “medium” emphasis on workforce in 2004/2005 as opposed to 1999/2000. The findings reject Hypothesis 2 (the transfer component will retain a dominant place in the mission and goals statements both in 1999/2000 and in 2004/2005). During neither time period did the transfer component have a dominant place, and as stated earlier, transfer lost ground in 2004/2005 both for mission and goal statements. To reiterate, transfer is ranked strong or medium in the mission statements of 15 ins titutions in 1999/2000, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in the mission statements of 20 institutions during that time period. Transfer is ranked strong or medium in 10 institutions in 2004/2005, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in 18 institutions. Comparable patterns occur with the goals. Transfer i s ranked strong or medium in 15 institutions’ goals in 1999/2000, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in 22 institutions goals. In 2004/2005, transfer is ranked strong or medium in 11 institutions’ goals, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in 18 institutions’ goals.

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115 For Hypothesis 3 (Small colleges will have a stronger workforce development emphasis in their mission and goals statements for 1999/2000 and for 2004/2005), the tables that follow indicate the patterns found among the institutions. Proportionatel y, small colleges had a stronger workforce development emphasis than other colle ges only for the 1999/2000 mission statements. Table 24 Workforce development mission patterns 1999/2000 Size of College Weak Representation Medium Strong Small (n=5) A C B, D, E Medium (n=7) G, L I, J, K F, H Large (n=15) P, T, X, BB M, S, V O, N, Q, R, U, W, Z, AA Table 25 Workforce development mission patterns 2004/2005 Size of College Weak Representation Medium Strong Small (n=5) E A, C, D B Medium (n=7) G, L H, I, J, K F Large (n=15) M, P, T, X, AA, BB Q, S, U, W, Z O, N, R, V

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116 Table 26 Workforce development goal patterns 1999/2000 Size of College Weak Representation Medium Strong Small (n=5) D A, B, E C Medium (n=7) H, K I F, G, J, L Large (n=15) M, AA R, T, X, Z N, O, P, Q, S, U, V, W, BB Table 27 Workforce development goal patterns 2004/2005 Size of College Weak Representation Medium Strong Small (n=5) A, B C, E D Medium (n=7) K, L H F, G, I, J Large (n=15) M, N, P, Q, AA T, X, Z, BB O, R, S, U, V, W The remaining hypotheses for research question 1 pertain to strategic plans. Stated previously, Colleges G, S, and Y were excluded from this analysis for lack of accessible strategic plans. Hypothesis 4 proposed that there will be a greate r emphasis on workforce development than on the transfer program in college strategic plans. Findin gs indicated that the emphasis was indeed greater on workforce development. Appendices A through D portray the institutions that are categorized as strong and medium for the transfer category and strong and medium for the workforce development categor y. Decision rules for counting references as occurrences followed a format si milar to that employed for the institutional mission and goal statements. A reference was counted as an occurrence based on context. Therefore, if a paragraph included a key theme with repeated occurrences of a transfer or workforce phrase, it counted as one occ urrence.

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117 This strategy was adopted with the intent of finding a method to treat the strateg ic plans in a comparable fashion even though they followed diverse formats, ranging from a one-page mission and goal document titled “strategic plan” to a 315-page document with multiple objectives. Note that only two institutions presented plans that included multiple objectives in this fashion, and they are referenced in the tables below. Col lege L included 179 unit plans; College Q included 677 objectives. Other institutions referenced planning at the unit level but did not provide unit plans during the duration of the field experience. As stated previously, just as with the mission and institutional goals, the community colleges included more comments or key phrases related to workforce development than to transfer. Many colleges included references to specific programs and workforce development initiatives. The length of the strategic plan had littl e relationship to size; the smallest college had one of the more complex and lengthy pl ans that apparently stemmed from a recent accreditation review. Again, the appendices include detailed notes and key phrases. Some key points and common themes are portrayed in the following paragraphs. For example, one holdover for retaining the perception that the transfer mission is dominant may lie with faculty perceptions or other key stakeholder impressions. College R reported that general education faculty viewed the historical mission of liberal arts and college t ransfer as increasing in significance. College X noted that the state legislature was increasing the emphasis in the community college mission upon workforce development and adult vocational education. Therefore, the College needed to pursue this opportunity, but not at the expense of its transfer program.

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118 College U took somewhat of an opposing view to protecting the transfer program, commenting that the baccalaureate would continue to be important to parents and high school graduates but that most adults would place more value upon the acquisition of knowledge and skills recognized by the marketplace. This same college referred t o workforce development as a hot topic – greatly supported by the fact that 18 of the respondents used the term “workforce” specifically in their strategic plans Nine of the colleges included specific references to workforce development programs in their strategic plans. Others included more generalized referenc es to workforce programs, including the development of new short-term certificates a nd customized training for businesses and industries. Customized training program s, in fact, may not likely be included in this research study because many are less than 45 conta ct hours in duration. Another point of interest in the strategic plans includes the emphasis on preparatory or remedial education. As noted in the decision rules, this category was included with the transfer category. With a growing number of students requiring remediation, this mission component remains a priority at the state level. Out of the responding colleges, 16 had specific references or goals related to improvin g success in their preparatory programs, including vocational preparatory programs. Returning to the more generalized findings, for the transfer category, 18 institutions are categorized as strong. In the following list, each institut ional code is followed by the number of “transfer strong” occurrences: A (11); U (10); N (9); F (8); BB (8); D (6); X (6); C (4); L (4); Z (4 with sub-objectives); AA (4); R ( 3); V (3); I (2); J (2); O (2); and W (2). As a specific example, institution A had 11 occurrences of

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119 comments or key phrases related to the transfer category. Institutions E, H, a nd Q are categorized as transfer medium, meaning they only had one occurrence of a tra nsferrelated comment or key phrase, and institutions B, K, M, P, and T are categorized as transfer weak, meaning they had no occurrences of a transfer-related comm ent or key phrase. Twenty institutions are categorized as “workforce development strong,” and t he list that follows also includes each institutional code followed by the number of “workforce development strong” occurrences: U (16); F (15); D (13); R (11); BB (10); J (9); A (7); Z (7); AA (7); V (6); C (5); L (5); O (5); W (5); X (5); I (4); H (3); N (3); Q (3); E (2). Institution T is the only one coded as “workforce development medium,” and institutions B, K, M, and P are coded as “workforce development weak.” When comparing the number of occurrences overall, the 18 institutions with a “transfer st rong” categorization total 88 occurrences. The 20 institutions categorized as “wor kforce development strong” total 141 occurrences. Therefore, the findings support the hypothesis indicating a greater emphasis on workforce development in the stra tegic plans. Hypothesis 5 again addresses size: Small colleges will include the strongest emphasis on workforce development in their strategic plans. Findings indicate a w eak relationship at best with size. With so few colleges categorized as “smal l” in this study (Colleges A through E), the researcher looked at the proportionate emphasis of w orkforce development occurrences to help answer the question. In the “workforce development strong” list above, the median occurrence is 5.5. Of large colleges in that li st, 11 out of 13 were categorized as “workforce development strong,” and six out of the 11 (0.54%) had higher occurrences than the median occurrence. Of medium colleges, five out of six

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120 were categorized as “workforce development strong,” and two out of the five (0.40% ) had higher occurrences than the median occurrence. Finally, of the small college s, four out of five were categorized as “workforce development strong,” and two out of the f our (0.50%) had higher occurrences than the median occurrence. Proportionately, therefore out of the institutions in the “workforce development strong” category, large institut ions had the highest occurrences above the median, which suggests that the findings refute the hypothesis. In summary, research question 1 queries, “Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support leadership policy statements with regar d to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum? ” The findings indicate that mission and planning statements do support leadership policy statements with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development. Althoug h a slight decline in workforce development emphasis occurs in 2004/2005 over 1999/2000, the transfer component does not have a dominant place for either time period in the mission and goals statements. The relationship of workforce development emphasis and institutional size is not a strong one, but workforce development clearly has a stronger emphasis in strategic plans. In the next section, the results of the curricular analysis are presented. Res earch questions 2, 3, and 4 explore aspects of the curriculum that include comparisons between colleges, between the 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 time periods, and between the credit curriculum and the total curriculum. Size is also included in the analysis.

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121 Results of Curricular Analysis The remaining research questions examine actual curricular patterns by assessing the numbers and types of course sections offered during the fall 2004 term. Each research question is treated in turn in the remainder of this chapter. Research question 2. “What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme define d by the CSCC?” This research question includes two hypotheses: 6. Hypothesis 6: The overall presentation of the curriculum will indicate that the ratio between transfer and workforce development coursework becomes close to equal, but the transfer coursework will represent a larger proportion of the overall curriculum. 7. Hypothesis 7: The credit curriculum comparison against the 2000 Florida Study will indicate growth in workforce development offerings. For the current study, the researcher coded 44,405 sections of credit coursework offered in fall 2005, comparable to the 42,928 sections that were coded for the 2000 study. Colleges J and O were excluded from the current study because the resear cher was unable to obtain copies of the fall 2004 credit schedules. Overall results indicated that neither hypothesis for research question 2 wa s supported and that the proportion of the community college curriculum devoted to transfer is actually larger than that devoted to workforce development educati on. Table 28 displays the percentage of credit non-liberal arts and liberal arts sections a s part of the total credit sections for the current study and the 2000 study. In the 2000 study, the non-liberal arts represented 33.7% of the total credit curriculum. In the current st udy, the

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122 Table 28 Percentage of credit non-liberal arts and liberal sections as part of total credit secti ons Discipline Total credit sections in 2007 study n=44,405 Total credit sections in 2000 study n=42,928 Non-liberal arts Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other Totals Liberal Arts # 3,491 2,706 2,459 1,522 643 876 973 441 245 366 128 75 186 14,111 30,294 % 7.9 6.1 5.5 3.4 1.4 2.0 2.2 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.4 31.8 68.2 # 3,541 3,109 1,999 1,756 1,003 969 867 505 337 176 112 60 16 14,450 28,478 % 8.2 7.2 4.7 4.1 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.0 33.7 66.3 Grand totals 44,405 100.0 42,928 100.0

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123 non-liberal arts represent 31.8% of the study. The findings reject Hypothesis 6 in that t he ratio between transfer and workforce development coursework do not become close to equal. In fact, the transfer coursework represents a larger proportion of the overall credit curriculum in the current study than in the 2000 study. The findings also reject Hypothesis 7 in that proportionately, workforce development offerings declined ra ther than grew. To investigate the research question further, institutional size was included in t he analysis. Five institutions were classified as small (an unweighted FT E less than or equal to 2,748), six were classified as medium (an unweighted FTE between 2,749 and 6,410), and 15 were classified as large (an FTE greater than or equal to 6,410). Again, Colle ges J and O were eliminated from the analysis because fall credit schedules wer e missing. Table 29 displays a comparison of the percentages of credit non-liberal arts a nd liberal arts sections as part of the total credit sections for small, medium, a nd large colleges. Small colleges have the highest percentage of the curriculum devote d to the non-liberal arts (37.6%) which contrasts with the 31.8% in the overall analysis. Me dium colleges also have a higher percentage of non-liberal arts sections (34.1%) than the overall analysis. The next research question takes the analysis to a greater l evel of detail by examining the representation of the disciplines within the non-liberal arts c urriculum.

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124 Table 29 Percentage of credit non-liberal arts and liberal sections as part of total credit secti ons: small, medium, and large institutions Discipline Total credit sections – small n=1,849 Total credit sections – medium n=4,434 Total credit sections – large n=38,122 Non-liberal arts Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/ avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/ distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other Totals Liberal Arts # 157 117 95 112 32 33 37 17 7 20 51 0 17 695 1,154 % 8.5 6.3 5.1 6.1 1.7 1.8 2.0 0.9 0.4 1.1 2.8 0.0 0.9 37.6 62.4 # 325 309 357 119 95 118 69 30 18 29 19 3 19 1,510 2,924 % 7.3 7.0 8.1 2.7 2.1 2.7 1.6 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.4 34.1 65.9 # 3,009 2,280 2,007 1,291 516 725 867 394 220 317 58 72 150 11,906 26,216 % 7.9 6.0 5.3 3.4 1.4 1.9 2.3 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.4 31.2 68.8 Grand totals 1,849 100.0 4,434 100.0 38,122 100.0

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125 Research question 3. “How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study?” This researc h question includes one hypothesis: 8. Hypothesis 8: The changes in the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings w ill include an increase in the category “technical education” and a decrease in the category “trade and industry.” Table 30 displays the percentage of disciplines represented within the credit nonliberal arts sections. The findings support the first part of the hypothesis: Tec hnical education increases slightly from 24.5% in the 2000 study to 24.7% in the current study. However, trade and industry also shows an increase from 6.0% to 6.9%. With regard to other areas of growth, health represents 17.4% of the non-liberal arts sections i n the current study, as opposed to 13.8% in the 2000 study, and criminal justice increases from 1.2% to 2.6%. The growth in the latter may be attributed to the impact of 9-11, although on a local level, the popularity of television shows such as “CSI” seem to have an influence as well. Research question 4. “What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included?” This research question includes one hypothesis: 9. Hypothesis 9: The proportion of the Florida community college curriculum that is workforce development when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included will approach 50%, but the transfer curriculum will retain a higher proportion of the overall curriculum.

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126 Table 30 Percentage of disciplines represented in credit non-liberal arts sections Discipline Non-liberal arts sections in 2007 study N=14,111 Non-liberal arts sections in 2000 study n=14,450 Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other # 3,491 2,706 2,459 1,522 643 876 973 441 245 366 128 75 186 % 24.7 19.2 17.4 10.8 4.6 6.2 6.9 3.1 1.7 2.6 0.9 0.5 1.3 # 3,541 3,109 1,999 1,756 1,003 969 867 505 337 176 112 60 16 % 24.5 21.5 13.8 12.2 6.9 6.7 6.0 3.5 2.3 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.1 Totals 14,111 100.0 14,450 100.0

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127 Table 31 displays the comparison of the total sections in the current study, noncredit sections included, against the credit-only sections. With the addition of the non credit sections, the percentage of non-liberal arts sections rose from 31.8% to 36.8%. The findings do not strongly support the hypothesis that the proportion will approach 50%, but they do support the statement that the transfer curriculum retains a higher proportion of the overall curriculum. In reminder, only those sections of workforce development that consisted of 45 contact hours or more were included in the analysis. Within the entire database of postsecondary adult vocational and continuing workforce education sections offered in fall 2004, only 36% met the criteria of 45 contact hours or above. The disciplines upon which the addition of non-credit sections had the greatest impact were (a) internships/practica, which includes apprenticeships, increasing from 1.4% to 2.5%, (d) trade and industry, increasing from 2.2% to 3.8%, and criminal justice, increasing fr om 0.8% to 2.2%. To examine the research question from a different perspective, size again wa s included in the analysis. Table 32 displays the percentages of total sections by institutional category: small, medium, and large. Findings reveal that the proport ion of non-liberal arts to liberal arts sections in small institutions do approach 50%, wit h the non-liberal arts at 46.1% and the liberal arts at 53.9%. The greatest gains in di scipline representation were in trade and industry at 5.7% and criminal justice at 7.1% versus 2.0% and 1.1% respectively when credit curriculum alone is included in the analysis.

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128 Table 31 Comparison of total sections against credit-only sections Discipline Total sections in 2007 study n=48,158 Total credit sections in 2007 study n=44,405 Non-liberal arts Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other Totals Liberal Arts # 3,763 3,201 2,866 1,545 1,219 938 1,835 482 340 1,074 134 75 252 17,724 30,434 % 7.8 6.6 6.0 3.2 2.5 1.9 3.8 1.0 0.7 2.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 36.8 63.2 # 3,491 2,706 2,459 1,522 643 876 973 441 245 366 128 75 186 14,111 30,294 % 7.9 6.1 5.5 3.4 1.4 2.0 2.2 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.4 31.8 68.2 Grand totals 48,158 100.0 44,405 100.0

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129 Table 32 Comparison of total sections against credit-only sections: small, medium, and large institutions Discipline Total sections – small n=2,140 Total sections – medium n=4,434 Total sections – large n=41,021 Non-liberal arts Technical education Business and office Health Personal skills/ avocational Internships/practica Education Trade and industry Engineering/science technologies Marketing/ distribution Criminal justice Agriculture Military science Other Totals Liberal Arts # 181 129 124 113 32 37 122 20 8 152 51 0 17 986 1,154 % 8.5 6.0 5.8 5.3 1.5 1.7 5.7 0.9 0.4 7.1 2.4 0.0 0.8 46.1 53.9 # 349 346 442 122 143 125 252 38 34 155 21 3 43 2,073 2,924 % 7.0 6.9 8.8 2.4 2.9 2.7 5.0 0.8 0.7 3.1 0.4 0.1 0.9 41.5 58.5 # 3,233 2,726 2,300 1,310 1,044 776 1,461 424 298 767 62 72 192 14,665 26,356 % 7.9 6.0 5.3 3.2 2.5 1.9 3.6 1.0 0.7 1.9 0.2 0.2 0.5 35.7 64.3 Grand totals 2,140 100.0 4,997 100.0 41,021 100.0

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130 The curricular proportions for medium institutions also become closer at 41.5% for the non-liberal arts and 58.5% for the liberal arts. Again, the greatest gains we re in the trade and industry discipline and the criminal justice discipline. The comparis ons are 5.0% versus 1.6% for trade and industry when the non-credit curriculum is included, and 3.1% versus 0.7% for criminal justice when the non-credit curriculum is included. As would be expected with the disproportionate number of large institutions, large institution findings are comparable to the overall findings. With the addition of the non-credit curriculum, the non-liberal arts proportion increases from 31.2% to 35.7%. The increase in trade and industry is from 2.3% to 3.6%, and in criminal justice is from 0.8% to 1.9%. Summary The purpose of this study is twofold. One is to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provide evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second is to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements will provide evidence that workforce development has increa sed as a component of the community college mission. To achieve this study, the researcher conducted a content analysis of institutional mission and goal statements for t he time periods of 1999/2000 and 2004/2005. Comparisons were made across the time periods and between institutions. The researcher also conducted a content analysis of

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131 institutional strategic planning documents that were in effect during the 2004/2005 ti me period, and a curricular analysis of credit and non-credit course offerings for t he fall 2004 term. Findings determined the responses to four research questions: 1. Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support national and state leadership policy statements with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum? 2. What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme defined by the CSCC? 3. How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study? 4. What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included? The content analysis indicated that mission and planning statements support national and state leadership policy statements regarding the dominance of wor kforce development in the community college curriculum, particularly in the strateg ic plans, with almost half as many more occurrences of workforce development refere nces as transfer references. The evaluation of the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, however, indicates that rather than declining in proportion, the liberal arts have grown in proportion from 66.3% to 68.2%. In terms of change from the 2000 study to the current one, technical education, trade and industry,

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132 health, and criminal justice show increases. Finally, with the addition of the non-cr edit sections, the percentage of non-liberal arts sections rises from 31.8% to 36.8%, but the liberal arts curriculum retains its dominant place in the overall curriculum When size is factored in, small and medium institutions do approach 50% in the proportional representation of the non-liberal arts to the liberal arts. The next chapter presents an overview of the findings, followed by conclusions and implications for practice and research. Included in the chapter is a summary o f the method as well as limitations of the study and a final summary statement.

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133 Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Implications for Practice and Research The purpose of this study was twofold. One was to determine whether the current composition of the overall Florida public community college curriculum and the content of Florida public community college mission and planning statements provided evidence to support Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. The second was to determine whether a longitudinal assessment of the curriculum and the content of mission and planning statements provided evidence that workforce development has increased as a component of the community college mission. Through the assumptions of legitimation theory, the overriding hypothesis of this study was that community colleges as institutions that allocate status conf er a higher status through their transfer mission than through their workforce development mis sion. Therefore, the study prediction was that transfer mission would remain paramount in the Florida community college curriculum. Also through the assumptions of legitima tion theory, a secondary prediction was that the longitudinal analysis would indicate growth in workforce development education because postsecondary institutions served to validate the degree requirement. To provide background to this study, several literature threads were presented. Theoretical perspectives were explored on the growth of workforce development education in the community college mission. Historical and contemporary background

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134 was reviewed on the growth of workforce development education in the community college mission. A description was supplied of the new vocationalism, workforce development, and the Florida community college and the role of vocational education. An overview was delivered of related curriculum studies, and a discussion was provided of the content analysis method. Summary of Method To achieve this study, the researcher conducted a content analysis of institut ional mission and goal statements for the time periods of 1999/2000 and 2004/2005. The year 1999/2000 was used because that was the year used in the 2000 Florida Curriculum Study, which provided the basis for comparison in the current study. Comparisons were made across the time periods and between institutions. Size was included as a factor The categories of “small,” “medium,” and “large” used the definition in the 2000 Fl orida study. The five small colleges were those with an unweighted 1999/2000 FTE less than or equal to 2,748, the seven medium colleges were those with an unweighted 1999/2000 FTE between 2,749 and 6,410, and the 16 large colleges were those with an FTE greater than or equal to 6,410. The researcher also conducted a content analysis of institutional strategi c planning documents that were in effect during the 2004/2005 time period, and a curricular analys is of credit and non-credit course offerings for the fall 2004 term. In order to conduct t he content analysis, the researcher established decision rules to define the cat egories that would be included in the general categories of “transfer” and “workforce deve lopment.” These decision rules are supplied in detail in Chapter 4. In order to conduct the curric ular

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135 analysis, the researcher collected fall 2004 catalogs and course schedules f rom the institutions that were included in the Florida public community college system and applied a classification scheme developed and applied by researchers at the CSCC in seven national community college curriculum studies conducted between 1975 and 1998. The researcher coded all credit course sections listed in the schedules, exc luding labs (unless the lab was included in the course as a “C,” which meant that the course wa s treated as one section). Because of difficulties in obtaining information on the noncredit curriculum, the researcher used a database supplied by the Department of Education which included all Florida community college postsecondary adult vocational and continuing workforce education sections offered during the fall of 2004. Because the three-credit hour section was used as the standard, only those non-credit sections t hat were 45 contact hours or greater in length were included in the study. For the curre nt study, the researcher coded 44,405 sections of credit coursework offered in fall 2005, comparable to the 42,928 sections that were coded for the 2000 study. With the addition of non-credit sections, the total number of sections became 48,158. Summary of Findings Four research questions guided the study: 1. Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support national and state leadership policy statements with regard to the dominance of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum?

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136 2. What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme defined by the CSCC? 3. How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study? 4. What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included? Research question 1. “Do Florida public community college mission and planning statements support leadership policy statements with regard to the domina nce of the role of workforce development in the community college curriculum?” This res earch question includes five hypotheses: 1. Hypothesis 1: There will be a greater emphasis on workforce development in the 2004/2005 documents as compared to the 1999/2000 documents. 2. Hypothesis 2: the transfer component will retain a dominant place in the mission and goals statements both in 1999/2000 and in 2004/2005. 3. Hypothesis 3: Small colleges will have a stronger workforce development emphasis in their mission and goals statements for 1999/2000 and for 2004/2005. 4. Hypothesis 4: There will be a greater emphasis on workforce development than on the transfer program in college strategic plans. 5. Hypothesis 5: Small colleges will include the strongest emphasis on workforce development in their strategic plans.

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137 With regard to Hypothesis 1 (there will be a greater emphasis on workforce development in the 2004/2005 documents as compared to the 1999/2000 documents), the findings do not support the hypothesis for the mission statements because 18 rather than 20 institutions have a “strong” or “medium” emphasis on workforce in 2004/2005 as opposed to 1999/2000. The findings do not support the hypothesis for the goals statements either because 18 rather than 22 institutions have a “strong” or “medium” emphasis on workforce in 2004/2005 as opposed to 1999/2000. The findings also do not support Hypothesis 2 (the transfer component will retain a dominant place in the mission and goals statements both in 1999/2000 and in 2004/2005). During neither time period did the transfer component have a dominant place, and as stated earlier, transfer lost ground in 2004/2005 both for mission and goal statements. To reiterate, transfer is ranked strong or medium in the missi on statements of 15 institutions in 1999/2000, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in the mission statements of 20 institutions during that time period. Transfer is ranke d strong or medium in 10 institutions in 2004/2005, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in 18 institutions. Comparable patterns occur with the goals. Transf er is ranked strong or medium in 15 institutions’ goals in 1999/2000, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in 22 institutions goals. In 2004/2005, transfer is ranked strong or medium in 11 institutions’ goals, and workforce development is ranked strong or medium in 18 institutions’ goals. For Hypothesis 3 (Small colleges wi ll have a stronger workforce development emphasis in their mission and goals stateme nts for 1999/2000 and for 2004/2005), proportionately, small colleges had a stronger

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138 workforce development emphasis than other colleges only for the 1999/2000 mission statements. Hypothesis 4 proposes that there will be a greater emphasis on workforce development than on the transfer program in college strategic plans. When compar ing the number of occurrences overall, the 18 institutions with a “transfer strong” categorization total 88 occurrences. The 20 institutions categorized as “wor kforce development strong” total 141 occurrences. Therefore, the findings support the hypothesis that there is a greater emphasis on workforce development in the coll ege strategic plans. Hypothesis 5 again addresses size: Small colleges will include the strongest emphasis on workforce development in their strategic plans. In the listing of occurrences of workforce development categories, the median occurrence is 5.5. Proportionately, out of the institutions in the “workforce development strong” cate gory, large institutions had the highest occurrences above the median, which suggests that t he findings refute the hypothesis. Research question 2. “What is the overall composition of the Florida public community college curriculum, utilizing the classification scheme define d by the CSCC?” This research question includes two hypotheses: 8. Hypothesis 6: The overall presentation of the curriculum will indicate that the ratio between transfer and workforce development coursework becomes close to equal, but the transfer coursework will represent a larger proportion of the overall curriculum.

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139 9. Hypothesis 7: The credit curriculum comparison against the 2000 Florida Study will indicate growth in workforce development offerings. In the current study, the non-liberal arts represent 31.8% of the curriculum. The findings reject Hypothesis 6 in that the ratio between transfer and workforce devel opment coursework do not become close to equal. In fact, the transfer coursework represe nts a larger proportion of the overall credit curriculum in the current study than in the 2000 study. The findings also reject Hypothesis 7 in that proportionately, workforce development offerings declined rather than grew. Research question 3. “How have the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings changed between the 2000 Florida findings and the current study?” This researc h question includes one hypothesis: 8. Hypothesis 8: The changes in the non-liberal arts college-credit offerings w ill include an increase in the category “technical education” and a decrease in the category “trade and industry.” The findings support the first part of the hypothesis: Technical education increases slightly from 24.5% in the 2000 study to 24.7% in the current study. However, trade and industry also shows an increase from 6.0% to 6.9%. Other areas of growth include health, which represents 17.4% of the non-liberal arts sections in the current study, as opposed to 13.8% in the 2000 study, and criminal justice, which increased from 1.2% to 2.6%. Research question 4. “What proportion of the Florida community college curriculum is workforce development education when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included?” This research question includes one hypothesis:

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140 9. Hypothesis 9: The proportion of the Florida community college curriculum that is workforce development when the non-credit and vocational credit curriculum is included will approach 50%, but the transfer curriculum will retain a higher proportion of the overall curriculum. With the addition of the non-credit sections, the percentage of non-liberal arts sections rose from 31.8% to 36.8%. The findings do not support the hypothesis that the proportion will approach 50%, but they do support the statement that the transfer curriculum retains a higher proportion of the overall curriculum. When size is fact ored in the analysis, small institutions do approach 50%, with the non-liberal arts curric ulum at 46.1% and the liberal arts curriculum at 53.9%. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that in general, planning statements provide support for Florida leadership policy statements that portray workforce developme nt as a primary component of the community college mission. Strategic plans in particula r emphasize workforce development as a priority. However, the curricular analysi s indicated growth in workforce development offerings only after the non-credit curr iculum was factored in. Without the non-credit offerings, the non-liberal arts curriculum declined in representation in 2004/2005 as opposed to 1999/2000. The liberal arts emphasis in the curriculum is unquestionably tied to the historical development of Florida community colleges. Described in more detail in Chapter 2, when the rest of the nation’s two-year higher education institutions were exper iencing growth in technical areas, trade schools covered much of Florida’s technical tr aining, and

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141 junior colleges frequently shared buildings with vocational schools (Stakenas, Mock, & Eaddy, 1984). The director and secretary of the Community College Council, James L. Wattenbarger, commented on the fact that vocational education was not well represent ed in Florida’s existing two-year colleges (Wattenbarger, 1953). As mentioned in Chapter 1, the emphasis on workforce development education does depend on how the data are presented. Sections were the unit of analysis for this study, and another study might pursue the nature of workforce development education being provided, particularly with regard to new program development. However, looking at enrollment versus sections still shows an emphasis on the liberal arts functi on and even suggests a decline in workforce development enrollment. In Chapter 1, 2000-2001 statistics were provided that indicated approximately 38% of enrollment in workf orcerelated programs. Looking at 2005-2006 enrollment statistics (FLDOE, 2007), approximately 35% of community college students are enrolled in workforce re lated programs. With regard to degree completers, which admittedly leaves out continuing workforce education completers, the A.A. degree retains a strong position at more than 50% (FLDOE, 2007). The A.S. Degree represents about 17%, which is lower than the 2001-2002 representation of 19%, and the vocational and college credit certificates represent approximately 32%, which is an increase from 25% in 2001-2002. This growth in certificate awards may suggest that more focus should be placed on the cert ificate credential in the workforce development arena. Expanding upon that note and mentioned in Chapter 4, a recurring theme in the strategic plans was the gener alized statements about the development of new programs, including short-term certific ates and customized training. Based on the fact that these types of workforce development

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142 activities may not have met the research study requirement of 45 contact hours, community colleges may well be offering a higher proportion of workforce developme nt offerings than this study found. Limitations The planning documentation was not exhaustive in that not all plans referenced were provided for the content analysis. In fact, the variety of the planning doc uments affirms the independent nature of Florida’s community college system. Som e of the institutional mission, goal, and strategic plans clearly reflected planning do cumentation at the state level. Others reflected regional accrediting requirements such as a focus on learning outcomes. With the content analysis approach, the researcher attempted a meaningful comparative analysis of documents that followed an array of patte rns and levels of depth. Although course sections tended to follow a consistent structure, a limitation might be the elimination from the study of non-credit sections that were not at lea st 45 contact hours in length. Only 4,407 out of 11,324 postsecondary adult vocational and continuing education workforce sections met these criteria. Of that 36%, 3,867 or 96% were sections that were greater than 45 contact hours. Under a different approac h, a researcher might have assigned more weight to sections that were twice, th ree times, or more than the baseline 45 contact hours. In this study, the section was the unit of analysis rather than the contact hours. Mentioned in the conclusion, another limitation related to the section being used as the unit of analysis is that workforce development programs by their nature have fewer

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143 sections. In terms of looking at workforce development representation in the curri culum, the question that has to be answered is whether the community is being adequately s erved by what is being represented in the curriculum, regardless of the quantity of s ections. Finally, the study relies upon a classification scheme that, like all c lassification schemes, is arbitrary in nature. Some may argue that courses developed specifi cally for workforce programs, such as anatomy and physiology, should be classified as “non-liberal arts” rather than “liberal arts.” The decision rules applied in thi s study categorized courses based on the decision rules applied in past studies for the purposes of consistency and comparison. Implications for Theory The researcher applied legitimation theory to hypothesize that community colleges as institutions that allocate status confer a higher status throug h their transfer mission than through their workforce development mission. In support of the theory, the transfer mission did remain paramount in the Florida community college curriculum. The longitudinal analysis proved not to support the secondary prediction that growth would occur in workforce development education. The premise behind the secondary prediction was that growth would occur because postsecondary institutions served to validate the certificate and degree requirement. The strength of the workf orce certificate and degree validation appeared to be outweighed by the higher status conferred upon the transfer mission, and legitimation theory would support that the transfer mission w ould retain a stronger emphasis. Other factors that may have a negative impact o n the strength

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144 of the workforce validation include the abilities of community colleges to compete with other institutions in providing workforce development educational and training programs Workforce development may gain in stature as Associate in Science degree options become increasingly transferable: legitimation theory would support incr eased status because the A.S. degree would link to baccalaureate options. However, students need to be made aware of this growing opportunity. Noted in Chapter 2, research suggests that many community college students are not necessarily clear o n the degree paths they are choosing. In summary, based on the findings, legitimation theory was supported by the strong emphasis of the transfer mission in the Florida community college curri culum. Community colleges as institutions that allocate status confer a higher stat us through their transfer curriculum – if not their transfer mission statements. However, the expected growth that would occur in workforce development coursework did not happen. This suggests that the workforce development mission has either not achieved sufficient validation to students as a postsecondary option or that legitimation theory may not sufficiently explain growth in the curriculum. Implications for Practice “Economic Development and Workforce” remains at the top of the list of hot issues on the American Association of Community Colleges website (AACC, 2007). Featured in the link are news items regarding job training, business partnerships workforce retraining, and community-based job training grants. In Florida, wor kforce also remains a priority among policy leaders. Among its recommendations to the

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145 community college council of presidents, the Performance Based Budgeting Subcommittee proposed that the additional $10 million being requested for performance incentive funding in 2007-08 be allocated to (a) targeted critical workforce needs, ( b) adult education, and (c) existing A.A., A.S., P.S.A.V., and apprenticeship measures (Cisek, 2006). The category of targeted critical needs would be added and would be intended to motivate colleges to respond to critical workforce shortages in the areas of nursing and teacher training. The findings from this study indicate that leadership policy directives are a ligned well with institutional mission, goal, and planning documents: workforce development holds a dominant place. However, the findings suggest that leadership policy directive s are not aligned well with curricular patterns. Community college stakeholder s should investigate what more can be done to promote the workforce development component to students. One critical area, again, is ensuring that community college student s do have a clear understanding of the options available to them. Are A.S. degrees being marke ted effectively? Are students aware of the “new vocationalism” approach in the s hift away from the “terminal” degree to a learner-focused, career-ladder degree? Implications for Research The results of this study point to additional areas for research. Noted in the previous section, economic development and workforce development remain hot topics for AACC and for Florida. Based on that, a more in-depth analysis could be undertaken of workforce development programs, including the innovations that are occurring to respond to community needs. A more comprehensive analysis of college planning

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146 documentation could be undertaken by analyzing planning at the departmental level a s well as additional institutional plans such as facilities master plans. More i mportant than the analysis of proposed plans is the analysis of what actually is occurring. The research could complement a study of additional planning documentation with interviews of college leaders to assess the directions their institutions are taking. Curricular analyses could include additional investigations of section offeri ngs by region or size. These analyses could be supplemented by student interviews to deter mine how and why students are choosing specific programs or courses of study. Mentione d earlier, many A.S. degrees are now articulated to the baccalaureate degr ee, which expands educational pathways for students. Again, Florida’s definition of the A.S. degree differs from many other states, and further study could take into account the choices students make between the A.S. degree and the A.A.S. degree. In fact, the researcher is participating in a multi-institutional research project funded by the Lumina Foundation: Urban Transfer Research Network (UTRN). The overarching purpose of the project is to improve transfer and success rates of students obtaining the baccalaureate. The project will include focus group interviews of students, and determining how and why students are choosing specific programs or courses of st udy falls within the scope of the project. Curricular analyses should also take into account the diverse range of non-credit offerings. Mentioned previously in this study, the section was the unit of analysi s, and only those sections with greater than 45 contact hours were included. This resulted in only 36% of the non-credit workforce development curriculum being included. Given

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147 different research designs, the non-credit curriculum offerings might e qual the credit curriculum offerings. Perhaps the most important area of research is to determine whether communi ty colleges are indeed meeting community needs with the volume and types of workforce development programs being provided. All of the strategic plans included refere nces to meeting with key stakeholders to align programs with business and industry needs As part of strategic planning, community colleges do include forums with key stakeholde rs to identify these needs. The question remains whether follow-through is occurri ng at adequate levels. Moreover, in addition to interviewing community leaders and key stakeholders in business and industry, the student voice plays a critical role. Again, i f students are failing to understand the opportunities being presented to them, providing that understanding is essential. Summary This study undertook an investigation of intent as it related to actual practice. In terms of the transfer and workforce development mission in Florida community colle ges, the findings were that the transfer mission remains the primary one. Although wor kforce development is emphasized in planning documentation, the emphasis is much lower in the curriculum – particularly the credit curriculum. Provided earlier in this c hapter, several factors may contribute to the lower emphasis, including the historical t radition of Florida’s community colleges and possibly the legitimation of the transfer degre e as the degree carrying more value. However, with the growing articulation of the A .S. degree

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148 to the baccalaureate, the balance may well shift in favor of a workforce devel opment emphasis. The need for workforce development programs is unquestionable. Florida continues to experience critical workforce shortages in areas such as nursing a nd teaching and is continuing to feel the impact of 9-11 on its criminal justice programs and training Implications for practice and research include a continued need to determine whether community colleges are meeting community needs. Most importantly, student s must have a clear understanding of program offerings and pathways. Research pr ojects such as UTRN are focusing on improved student success and improved student transfer rates. The findings from this current study support the need to determine whether communit y college intent is well-aligned with practice. Assuring that planning aligns w ell with practice may be one of the most important factors in improved student success.

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150 Babbitt, E. (1901). “The problems of the small college in the southern states.” Paper presented at the seventh meeting of the Association of Colleges and Preparat ory Schools of the Southern States, November, 1901Badway, N. (1998). Extent, quality and access for integrated curriculum in community colleges. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 23, 133-45. Bragg, D. (1997). Grubb’s case for compromise: Can “education through occupations” be more? Journal of Vocational Education Research, 22 (2), 115-122. Bragg, D. (2001a). Editor’s notes. New Directions for Community Colleges, 115 1-3. Bragg, D. (2001b). Opportunities and challenges for the new vocationalism in Americ an community colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 115, 5-15. Brawer, F. (2000). The liberal arts. New Directions for Community Colleges, 108 1729. Breneman, D. (1994). Liberal arts colleges: Thriving, surviving, or endangered? Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution Brown, C. (2001). Two-year colleges and tech prep partnerships: A Texas perspective. New Directions for Community Colleges (115), 51-62. Bush, G. W. (2004). State of the Union Address. Retrieved January 21, 2004, from http://www.news-journalonline.com/cgi-bin/printme.asp Bush, G. W. (2004). Speeches: President George W. Bush. Retrieved September 12, 2004, from http://www.gopconvention.com/cgi-data/speeches/files/ v46q7t4op60p0109d9b8i8373arhnn0r.shtml Cisek, E. (2006). Recommendations to the council of presidents. Retrieved January 11, 2007, from cjohnson@hccfl.edu.

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154 Grubb, W. (2001). From isolation to integration: Postsecondary vocational education and emerging systems of workforce development. New Directions for Community Colleges, 115, 27-37. Hale, M. (1966). A history of Florida junior colleges. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Peabody College for Teachers, Vanderbilt University. Lane, K. (2004, February 16). An honorable mention or political posturing. Community College Week 6-9. Levin, J. (2000). The revised institution: The community college mission at the end of the twentieth century. Community College Review, 28 (2), 1-25. Lynch, R. (2000). High school career and technical education for the first decade o fthe 21 st century. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 25 (2), 155-198. Meyer, J (1977). The effects of education as an institution. The American Journal of Sociology, 83 (1), 55-77. Miles, M. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook ( 2nd ed. ). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability. (2001). Program review: Workforce development education program. (Report No 01-56). Tallahassee, FL: Author. Orr, M. (2001). Community colleges and their communities: Collaboration for workforce development. New Directions for Community Colleges, 115, 39-49.

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156 Rudolph, F. (1962). The American college and university. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. Schuyler, G. (2000). A historical and contemporary view of the community college curriculum. New Directions for Community Colleges, 108 3-15. Seewer, J. (2004, February 3). Bush says training needed to offset job losses. Community College Times, 11. Shapiro, G. & Markoff, J. (1997). A matter of definition. In C.W. Roberts (Ed.), Text analysis for the social sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Smith-Hughes Act (1917). Reproduced in History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Http://galenet.galegroup.com/serviet/HistRC/ Smith-Lever Act (1914). Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Http://galenet.galegroup.com/serviet/HistRC/ Stakenas, R., Mock, D., and Eaddy, K. (1984). Educating hand and mind: A history of vocational education in Florida. Lanham, NY: University Press of America. Tampa Bay Workforce Alliance. (2004, April). Workforce estimating conference: Florida employment projections (Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation). Tampa, FL: Author. Task Force on Interinstitutional Course/Credit Transfer. (2004). Statewide articulation manual: AS to BA/BS and ATD to AS articulation. Tallahassee, FL: Author Townsend, B. (2001). Blurring the lines: Transforming terminal education to tra nsfer education. New Directions for Community Colleges, 115 63-71.

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157 Travis, J. & D. Travis. (1999). Survey of presidents reveals new trends in community college focus. Community College Journal, 69 (4), 20-25. The 2004 Florida Statutes. (2004a). 1004.02 Definitions. Retrieved October 3, 2004, from http://www.flsenate.gov/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute& Search _String=&URL=Ch1004/SEC02.HTM&Title=->2004->Ch1004->Section%2002#1004.02 The 2004 Florida Statutes (2004b). 1000.02 Policy and guiding principles for the Florida K-20 education system. Retrieved October 8, 2004, from http://www.flsenate.gov/ Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=C h1000 /SEC02.HTM&Title=->2004->Ch1000->Section%2002#1000.02 The 2006 Florida Statutes (2006). 1004.56 Community colleges; definition, mission, and responsibilities. Retrieved December 22, 2006, from http://www.flsenate.gov/ Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&String Wattenbarger, J. (1950). The organization, administration, and financing of public junior colleges in the State of Florida. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Wattenbarger, J. (1953). A state plan for public junior colleges. St. Augustine, FL: The Record Press, Incorporated. Weber, R. (1985). Basic content analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. The White House. (2004). Fact Sheet: Jobs for the 21 st Century. Retrieved January 22, 2004, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/01/print/ 20040121.html

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158 Windham, P. (2003) Who will train the labor force of 2006. (Fast Facts No. ff07). Retrieved August 30, 2003, from http://www.flboe.org/cc/OSAS/FastFacts/ ff07.asp Witt, A., Wattenbarger, J. Gollattscheck, J., & Suppiger, J. (1995). America’s community colleges: The first century. Washington, D.C.: The Community College Press. Zemsky, R., D. Shapiro, M. Iannozzi, P. Cappelli, & T. Bailey. (1998). The transition from initial education to working life in the United States of America. NCPI Project Paper #1. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

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159 Appendices

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160 Appendix A: Strategic plan display: Transfer strong College Comments and key phrases A Comment: Increase in AA degree enrollment but decline in completers – in part because AA students are transferring before completing degree. Comment: Opportunities to offer an advanced degree in the biological sciences and opportunities related to Social Sciences Department. Renovations include Fine Arts Center and Fine Arts Classroom and Lab. Key phrases: 1. university transfer, college preparatory 2. associate in arts degree Comments: 1. Benchmarks (p. 27) references modifications to AA degree to incorporate oral communication and show courses incorporating multi-cultural and diversity issues; revised general education requirements (of A.S. and A.A.S. degrees). A.A. degree to be reviewed in 2003-2004. 2. Assessments (p. 29) include state accountability outcome measures (transfer rates, GPA performance at senior levels, preparatory performance, CLAST). 3. Reference to decline in performance of college preparatory students (current ones are academically weaker than those in previous years – p. 30) 4. Results from graduating student interview are AA only. 5. Use of financial aid packages to recruit financial aid students for AA program. 6. Use of assessment results indicates that Levels of English Proficien cy exam implemented, minimum cut-off scores raised, prep reading II added, prep task force established, current college practices reviewed. Action plan to measure completion rates of students who completed prep in communication and algebra. Action plan to evaluate retention rates of students in college-level courses and to implement intervention strategies for those scoring below a certain level on exit exams. 7. References math faculty development. 8. References chair position for Arts and Sciences

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161 Appendix A, continued College Comments and key phrases C Key phrases: 1. Engage faculty in identifying learning outcomes for the General Education Core; college-level competencies for the general education core. 2. Beginning revision of syllabi to reflect learning outcomes . beginning with general education core courses 3. Increase instructional support for college-prep/remedial students. 4. Begin offering English and math courses on a trial basis in prisons D Key phrases 1. Offers Associate in Arts (AA) 2. Leading to an Associate in Arts degree 3. Centralize Developmental Studies 4. Enhance the transfer programs through additional articulation 5. Weaknesses lack of ESL 6. Legislative transfer GPA, science education facility needs, high-quality university transfer F Key phrases 1. Associate in Arts 2. Have 75% . have transferred 3. Have 75% . who transfer 4. Have 50% . in college preparatory 5. Have 60% . pass the CLAST. 6. First two years of study for the bachelor’s degree 7. Transfer 8. Developmental education services I Key phrases: College preparatory program Comments: Retention report relates to students with college prep needs, Fall to Spring term for first time in college students with at least one college prep need, and longitudinal tracking of students completing required college prep courses. J Key phrases: College preparatory Comments: The Learning Support Services Committee makes recommendations regarding college preparatory and study skills curriculum and monitors student performance in college preparatory classes.

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162 Appendix A, continued College Comments and key phrases L Key phrases: 1. The first two years of successful postsecondary instruction that lead to the baccalaureate degree 2. College preparatory instruction Comments: 10 unit plans related to transfer (out of 179). N Key phrases: 1. General and pre-professional education through the associate in arts degree 2. Access to baccalaureate degree programs through upper-division transfer 3. Preparatory instruction 4. Transfer 5. Identify competencies in the general education core 6. Adjust the assortment of EAP credit courses, EAP remedial courses 7. Implement Summer “Bridge” programs to move prep students through the pipeline and into programs 8. Increase students’ awareness of existing baccalaureate transfer opportunities, yielding year to year increases . and a 2% improvement in AA graduate SUS transfer rates. O Key phrases: 1. Associate in Arts degree programs 2. Preparatory education Q Key phrase: transferable. Comment: Unit plans include 677 objectives, 74 of which are directly related to transfer/AA category. R Key phrases: 1. First two years of university studies. 2. General education 3. General education faculty see the historical mission of liberal arts and college transfer as increasing in significance

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163 Appendix A, continued College Comments and key phrases U Key phrases: 1. Associate of arts 2. Preparatory instruction 3. General education requirements 4. Core general education courses 5. Writing Center 6. Arts Complex 7. Expanding ESOL/bilingual instruction Comments: 1. Appendix A includes comments on articulation; for example, why some courses are not credited for articulation at four year institutions. 2. Appendix C is the SWOT analysis and includes the honors program and the Science Building as opportunities. Threats include the majority of incoming students coming from high risk categories, including limited English proficiency. V Key phrases: 1. Education in the visual arts; increase science and related academic opportunities 2. Maintain/improve College Prep students’ performance; continue the development of an honors college 3. Honors/service learning courses W Key phrases: 1. Associate in arts 2. Comprehensive honors program, Honors Program Advisory Committee, honors track, honors students, honors faculty development, enhance honors students’ activities X Key phrases: 1. University parallel program 2. General education 3. Developmental education 4. The state legislature increasingly is moving community colleges in the direction of workforce development and adult vocational education. [The College] must pursue this opportunity, but not at the expense of its transfer program.. 5. Transfer performance data 6. College transfer

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164 Appendix A, continued College Comments and key phrases Z Key phrases: 1. Curriculum development in college preparatory courses in communications and mathematics 2. Continue to increase the percentage of college prep and foundation course sections taught by full-time career faculty, implement the new English for Academic Purposes (formerly ESL) curriculum, improve student mastery and success in preparatory courses, Level of remediation required for FTIC’s, College preparatory completion rates 3. Learning outcomes and assessment processes at the course level (Preparatory as example), CLAST Requirements, success in college prep, CLAST performance, transfer performance 4. Implement the Global Languages and Cultures Institute AA Key phrases: 1. Examine the full breadth of university transfer programs (Goal 1 strategy) 2. Incorporates ESL programming (Goal 2 strategy) 3. College preparatory curricula (Goal 3) 4. General education offerings to identify course competencies (Goal 7 rationale) BB Key phrases: 1. Academically underprepared for college in reading, writing, math or English language skills 2. Academically talented students are welcomed to the Honors College 3. Unique academic transfer agreements 4. Associate in Arts 5. Degrees in liberal arts and sciences 6. Associate in Arts graduates transfer immediately . 7. Continuing need for remedial and English as a Second Language 8. Completion of English as a second language coursework, college preparatory

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165 Appendix B: Strategic plan display: Transfer medium College Comments and key phrases E Key phrase: Develop a cohort system for college prep students H Key phrases: Positive annual trend of College Level Academic Success Ski lls Test, students transferring to the University System will perform academi cally at a higher level than native SUS students Appendix C: Strategic plan display: Workforce development strong College Comments and key phrases A Comment: References PSAV and advanced vocational program enrollment increase but decline in AS enrollment and completers. Opportunities to offer advanced degrees in diving business technology, marine propulsion, and seamanship. Opportunities related to nursing students and the Marine Public Safety Annex and Hyperbaric Facility. Renovations include Welding Building. Key phrases: 1. Workforce development 2. Associate in Science degree, an Associate in Applied Science degree, Certificates and Advanced Technical diplomas. Comment: Benchmarks references new Certificate in Business Data Processing and A.S. in Business Management; revised A.S., A.A.S. and Certificate programs in Marine Engineering, Management and Seamanship; new A.S. in Computer Information Technology; Revised A.S. in Computer Programming and Analysis, revised A.S. in Marine Engineering, evaluated A.A.S. and Certificates. Action Plan to review AS. and A.A.S. degrees and certificates. Comment: Assessments include statewide accountability outcome measures including nursing and state licensure passing rates. Comment: Marketing campaign to businesses to ask what the college can do for their business. Also, intent to provide Radiology and vocational degrees. Comment: Assessment results tracks numbers of PSAV/ workforce courses offered and enrollments. Development program references nursing director and acquisition of materials to assist legal assisting program.

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166 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases C Key phrases: 1. Retain and develop training programs, refine the integrated nursing curriculum, revised nursing curriculum, schedule an increased number of CNA offerings, paraprofessional cohort, Workforce Development faculty, grant funding for Workforce Development programs, Workforce Development Advisory Boards, law enforcement instructors, industry needs and training requests, refine [10 AS degree/certificate programs], potential training programs [4 AS], Department of Corrections new alternative delivery system, enhance the success of Public Service programs 2. Actively promote the Teacher Education Program, student teaching experiences 3. Placement office for both completers and students seeking part-time employment 4. Training partnerships, One-Stop Center and Regional Workforce Development Board 5. Continuing Education’s training opportunities, continue training and professional development for business and industry, maintain the Regional Professional Development Center for adult and vocational educators, seek new training opportunities for new and emerging businesses and industries

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167 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases D Key phrases: 1. Associate in Applied Science (AAS), Associate in Science degree (AS), Applied Technology Diplomas (ATD), College Credit Certificate (CCC), and Postsecondary Adult Vocational Certificate (PSAV) programs, as well as non-credit vocational supplemental 2. Associate in Science degree, Associate in Applied Science degree, College Credit Certificate, Applied Technology Diploma, and Postsecondary Adult Vocational Certificate in vocational and technical fields for career in business, industry, and service occupations. 3. Provide continuing education and corporate training programs 4. Improve vocational program articulation and increase the number of transfers into A.A.S. and A.S. programs. 5. The needs of the District’s law enforcement agencies, correctional officers, firefighters, and other emergency responders 6. Continue efforts with health care providers to support and expand the existing health-related programs, explore the addition of other allied health programs 7. Programs to serve emerging occupations, critical public need areas, and high wage/high demand occupations. 8. AS transfer programs through additional articulation 9. Workforce development 10. Corporate/Employee training, Health Sciences/Hospital Partnerships 11. Business community needs – skill upgrades, employability skills, work ethics, career training seminars 12. More high-tech and manufacturing jobs that pay higher wages, high priorities to crime fighting, healthcare 13. Legislative issues licensing exams and placement, nursing shortage, public safety personnel, early childhood education workers, emerging needs for workforce training, high-demand high-wage programs: Nursing and Electrical Distribution Technology, Nursing program expansion, fast-track Paramedic to R.N. Bridge program, Lineman training program, Early Childhood Education, demand for trained teachers, workforce development E Key phrases: 1. Direct entry into high-demand occupations 2. Occupational programs, certificate programs, new short-term certific ate programs, occupational programs to meet regional and national employment needs in high demand fields.

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168 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases F Key phrases: 1. Workforce training and upgrading 2. Career 3. Employment 4. Workforce 5. Associate in Science, and Associate in Applied Science, college and occupational credit certificates, Continuing Workforce Education, Apprenticeship training, a wide variety of customized training programs 6. Have 75% . employed 7. State licensure exams 8. Occupational program completers Comment: Economic and Workforce development – seven specific objectives related to workforce development, plus description of trends. Key phrases: 9. Level one program reviews of all A.S. Degree, A.A.S. Degree, College Credit Certificate, and Occupational Certificate 10. Associate degree programs – employment 11. Occupational and college credit certificate programs 12. Workforce development programs 13. Employer training needs, customized business and industry training, job retraining, and job skills upgrading courses 14. Cooperative education, career development, clinical, internships, and apprenticeships H Key phrases: 1. Career 2. Accountability report in licensure and vocational placement rates 3. Workforce education, align existing and proposed career programs, increase enrollment in present Workforce development programs I Key phrases: 1. Occupational degree/certificate programs 2. Teacher Education Center 3. Student services web page – career counseling, job placement 4. Program review of Corporate Training and Continuing Education

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169 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases J Key phrases: 1. Vocational 2. Certificate and degree programs that prepare students for employment and careers 3. Workforce development 4. Career and technical areas, increasing business and entrepreneurial opportunities, partner with business and industry to fund salaries for instructors in emerging disciplines and new programs (e.g. allied health) 5. Monitor local employment trends for training needs, seek local input regarding training needs, monitor high wage/high demand job trends, monitor new program options at the state level for emerging workforce needs 6. Monitor demographic, workforce 7. Development of workforce and economic development issues 8. Dental Assisting Program, the Surgical Technology Program, the Registered Nursing Program 9. Business and Industry workshops, classes and professional development activities should meet or exceed that of the previous year. L Key phrases: 1. Career and technical education programs 2. Continuing education that enhance and update the knowledge and skills of individuals 3. Educational training, enhanced by the development of partnerships 4. Need for additional career/technical programs as warranted by community needs and economic development Comment: 20 unit plans related to workforce development (out of 179) N Key phrases: 1. Workforce development programs 2. Educational partnerships with business, industry 3. Identify hot jobs, regional concerns O Key phrases: 1. Career 2. Career training 3. Associate in Science and Associate in Applied Science degree programs and certificate programs 4. Training and activities 5. Enhance Continuing Workforce Education (CWE) programs

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170 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases Q Key phrases 1. Career opportunities 2. Economic and workforce development Comment: Unit plans include 677 objectives; 149 are workforce. R Key phrases 1. New and expanding business and commercial interests, a burgeoning market for jobs 2. More training 3. Local leaders value workplace skills 4. Workforce development programs, build collaborative relationships with business and industry and developing programs and services to meet their needs 5. Employers identify continuing needs for training in workplace ethics, written and oral communication skills, critical thinking and teamwork 6. Career progression 7. Skilled workforce, workforce development 8. Career and technical programs 9. Continuing education programs . for recertification 10. Workforce development 11. Business partner for regional employers by educating and training the skilled employees needed

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171 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases U Key phrases: 1. Associate of science degree programs 2. Associate of applied science, vocational-technical certificate 3. Responding to critical shortages in essential fields such as nursing and teaching 4. Articulation of the A.S. degree 5. Transitional educational programs for those seeking career alternatives 6. Curriculum in Hospitality and Culinary Arts 7. Photography/Graphic Design programs 8. Training needs of the High Tech Corridor 9. Opportunities provided by the Advanced Technology Center 10. Technological resources that will provide students with a competitive edge in the marketplace 11. Internship program for computer students 12. Career awareness targeting students from under-represented groups 13. Serving training needs and supporting economic development, magnet programs . .attract new companies, programs targeted at employers seeking affordable high quality training, opportunities such as internships, classes . on their site if that is required by a particular target employer, specialized and emerging training needs of business and industry Comments: 1. Appendix A includes multiple statements related to workforce; e.g., strengthen opportunities for training business/employers 2. Appendix B lists major influences including three related to workforce; e.g., While a four year college degree will continue to be highly valued by parents and high school seniors, for most adults, obtaining knowledge and skills – especially those recognized by the marketplace – will be valued more than acquiring a “degree credential” and Workforce is a hot topic and driving the development of performance measures for community colleges. 3. Appendix C is the SWOT analysis and includes the Allied Health Building, the Hospitality/Tourism Building, and the television station as opportunities. Threats include the lack of high tech jobs and relatively low wage levels; competing economic growth in neighboring counties; students becoming more technologically proficient than faculty and staff, indicating a need for internal workforce training; and include competition from proprietary colleges that are able to exploit the demand for AS and certificate programs . by not requiring traditional courses in liberal arts

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172 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases V Key phrases: 1. A.S., Certificate programs and noncredit programs, selected allied health programs, new A.S. and certificate programs 2. Career counseling and employment services, certificate and special services programs, changing marketplace needs 3. Critical healthcare programs 4. Workforce development activities and programs 5. Education and training, technical education, expansion of corporate training, One Stop operations, critical healthcare programs 6. Extend the objectives of Project Eagle [access to workforce training] W Key phrases: 1. Associate in science and associate in applied science degree professional certificates, workforce development . 2. Career educational pathways to meet the educational and training needs 3. Placed in a new job, continued in employment 4. Gainful employment or other career choices, uniform College-wide internship and cooperative education program, internship and cooperative education programs, occupational exploration series, Career Consultants Network 5. Career pathway, workforce education and training needs X Key phrases: 1. Technical programs 2. The state legislature increasingly is moving community colleges in the direction of workforce development and adult vocational education. 3. Trend in the community college mission includes an increased focus on workforce development 4. Programs responding to workforce needs, partnering with business and industry to develop job-skill improvement programs 5. Career workforce

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173 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases Z Key phrases: 1. Workplace program created to provide faculty with the opportunity to work for a semester in a business . related to their discipline 2. Partnerships for community and workforce development 3. Workplace skills 4. Associate degree, certificate, and continuing professional education programs that prepare learners for entering and progressing in the workforce 5. Learning workforce in a knowledge economy, economic and workforce development mission, emerging workforce needs, collegiate and continuing education programs in workforce skills, design, delivery, and evaluation of all corporate, continuing, and technical education programs, major provider of high skill/high wage education and training, achieve specific workforce education and training outcomes, integrate workforce development into the culture and curriculum of the college. Comment: Action Agenda – 8 action items related to workforce development programs/training Key phrases: 6. Success rates for licensure, wages and placement of leavers, including measures of the business model and satisfaction of corporate clients AA Key phrases: 1. Vehicle of choice for training Comment – three strategies to carry out this goal. Key phrases: 2. Educator Preparation Institute 3. Collegewide review of all AS and technical programs 4. Increase visibility of advisory committees to include business CEO’s 5. Create externship and internship opportunities 6. Corporate training, workforce development

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174 Appendix C, continued College Comments and key phrases BB Key phrases: 1. Career 2. Training programs 3. Associate in Science, technical, scientific and research areas including aviation, allied health and nursing, entertainment, information technology, engineering, education 4. Vocational Credit Certificates 5. 24.4 million credit and non-credit hours of learning embodied in the workforce 6. Associate degrees in nursing 7. Occupational and professional graduates are working in their field 8. New business ventures in information technology, entertainment, biomedical, tourism and more are opening new workforce opportunities 9. Opportunities for students to gain practical experience, enhance co-op and intern opportunities, explore an “interns for resources” partnership, developing new intern opportunities 10. Labor, high-skill/high-wage occupational training, development of program and faculty for identified fastest-growing industries and occupations, increased level of cooperative work experiences, field placements, and internships Appendix D: Strategic plan display: Workforce development medium College Comments and key phrases T Workforce Development – Provide student-centered workforce programs

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About the Author Karen L. Griffin received a Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology in 1982 and a Master of Arts degree in anthropology in 1985 from the University of Florida. With more than 18 years in the Florida community college system, h er early professional background includes serving as a program coordinator for the Florida Comprehensive Council on Environmental Education and for the Used Oil Recycling Grant. From the Manager of Special Studies at Hillsborough Community College, she was promoted to SACS Accreditation Liaison Manager and subsequently to Director of Associate in Arts Program. In her current capacity as the Director, she helps develop and implement college-wide policy related to the Associate in Arts program, the college preparatory curri culum, the dual enrollment program, the libraries, and faculty development.