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The pragmatist and the aesthete

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Title:
The pragmatist and the aesthete late nineteenth-century religion and theology in Harold Frederic's The Damnation of Theron Ware and Ellen Glasgow's Phases of an Inferior Planet
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Antonio, Matthew
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
William James
Liberal Christianity
Roman Catholic modernism
Methodism
Religious novel
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: A comparison between Ware, Forbes, and Soulsby from The Damnation of Theron Ware provides a glimpse into one aspect of the theological upheaval of the time. A comparison between Ware, Forbes, and Algarcife, from Phases of an Inferior Planet, however, hearkens forward to the alienation and questioning of identity so much a part of the Twentieth Century. By viewing Ware as a foil for Forbes and Soulsby in tandem with Algarcife, a more complete picture of the transition between nineteenth and twentieth-century religion and theology may be found. Understanding the encounter between the traditional and the liberal clergy requires a close examination of the way Ware, Forbes, Soulsby, and Algarcife interact with religions and theologies and adjust their actions in order to maintain the balance between the two, and how each character's interaction with the figure of the aesthete aids in the negotiation. Ware cannot aspire to the erudition of scholars like Forbes and Algarcife, nor is he able to understand the aestheticism, the "art for art," of Madden, from Damnation, and Musin, from Phases. He is unable to maintain a dogmatic theology in the service of religion like Soulsby. He is an anachronism, caught between centuries, caught between two religious, theological, and aesthetic historical moments.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Matthew Antonio.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 40 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001967327
oclc - 263421805
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001928
usfldc handle - e14.1928
System ID:
SFS0026246:00001


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ABSTRACT: A comparison between Ware, Forbes, and Soulsby from The Damnation of Theron Ware provides a glimpse into one aspect of the theological upheaval of the time. A comparison between Ware, Forbes, and Algarcife, from Phases of an Inferior Planet, however, hearkens forward to the alienation and questioning of identity so much a part of the Twentieth Century. By viewing Ware as a foil for Forbes and Soulsby in tandem with Algarcife, a more complete picture of the transition between nineteenth and twentieth-century religion and theology may be found. Understanding the encounter between the traditional and the liberal clergy requires a close examination of the way Ware, Forbes, Soulsby, and Algarcife interact with religions and theologies and adjust their actions in order to maintain the balance between the two, and how each character's interaction with the figure of the aesthete aids in the negotiation. Ware cannot aspire to the erudition of scholars like Forbes and Algarcife, nor is he able to understand the aestheticism, the "art for art," of Madden, from Damnation, and Musin, from Phases. He is unable to maintain a dogmatic theology in the service of religion like Soulsby. He is an anachronism, caught between centuries, caught between two religious, theological, and aesthetic historical moments.
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PAGE 1

T he P r a gm a t i s t a nd t he A e s t he t e : L a t e N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y R e l i gi on a nd T he ol ogy i n H a r ol d F r e de r i c s T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e a nd E l l e n G l a s gow s P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t by M a t t he w A nt oni o A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e q ui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of E ngl i s h C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : J ohn F l e m i ng P h. D M a r t y G oul d, P h. D J a y H opl e r M F A D a t e of A ppr ova l : A pr i l 13, 2007 K e yw or ds : W i l l i a m J a m e s L i be r a l C hr i s t i a ni t y, R om a n C a t hol i c M ode r ni s m M e t hodi s m R e l i gi ous N ove l C opyr i ght 2007 M a t t he w A nt oni o

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T hi s t e xt i s de di c a t e d t o T a m a r a B r a t t on, J a m e s a nd W e ndy A nt oni o, S a uc e a nd A ppl e D a ni e l e P a nt a no, D e bbi e M c L e od, L e e D a v i ds on P a t N i c ki ns on, a nd J ohn F l e m i ng, w ho a l l g r a c e f ul l y a c c e pt e d m y un r e a s ona bl e i m pos i t i on on t he i r e a r s a nd t i m e I w oul d ha ve be e n ha r d p r e s s e d t o c om pl e t e t hi s pi e c e w i t hout t he i r pr of e s s i ona l a nd pe r s ona l a s s i s t a n c e

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T a bl e of C ont e nt s A bs t r a c t i i T he E nd of t he N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y 1 S ur ve y of C r i t i c i s m 11 T he D i vi de be t w e e n R e l i gi on a nd T he ol ogy 18 T he P r a gm a t i s t a nd t he A e s t he t e 28 T he B e gi nni ng of t he T w e nt i e t h C e nt ur y 35 W or ks C i t e d 37

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i i L a t e N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y P r a gm a t i c C l e r gy i n F r e de r i c s T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e a nd G l a s gow s P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t M a t t he w A nt oni o A B S T R A C T A c om pa r i s on be t w e e n W a r e F or be s a nd S oul s by f r om T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e pr ovi de s a gl i m ps e i nt o one a s pe c t of t he t he ol ogi c a l uphe a va l o f t he t i m e T he a bove c om pa r i s on be t w e e n W a r e a nd A l ga r c i f e f r o m P has e s of an I n f e r i or P l ane t how e ve r he a r ke ns f or w a r d t o t he a l i e na t i on a nd q ue s t i oni ng of i de nt i t y s o m uc h a pa r t o f t he T w e nt i e t h C e nt ur y B y vi e w i ng W a r e a s a f oi l f or F o r be s a nd S oul s by i n t a nde m w i t h A l ga r c i f e a m or e c om pl e t e pi c t ur e o f t he t r a ns i t i o n be t w e e n ni ne t e e nt h a nd t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy m a y be f ound. U nde r s t a ndi ng t he e nc ount e r be t w e e n t he t r a di t i on a l a nd t he l i be r a l c l e r gy r e qui r e s a c l os e e xa m i na t i on of t he w a y W a r e F o r be s S oul s by, a nd A l ga r c i f e i n t e r a c t w i t h r e l i gi ons a nd t he ol ogi e s a nd a dj us t t he i r a c t i o ns i n or de r t o m a i nt a i n t he ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he t w o, a nd how e a c h c ha r a c t e r s i n t e r a c t i on w i t h t he f i gur e of t he a e s t he t e a i ds i n t he ne got i a t i on W a r e c a nnot a s pi r e t o t he e r udi t i on of s c hol a r s l i ke F or be s a nd A l ga r c i f e no r i s he a bl e t o unde r s t a nd t he a e s t he t i c i s m t he a r t f or a r t of M a dde n, f r om D am nat i on a nd M us i n, f r om P has e s H e i s una bl e t o m a i nt a i n a do gm a t i c t he ol ogy i n t he s e r vi c e of r e l i gi on l i ke S oul s by. H e i s a n a na c hr oni s m c a ught be t w e e n c e nt ur i e s c a ught be t w e e n t w o r e l i gi ous t he ol ogi c a l a nd a e s t he t i c hi s t or i c a l m om e nt s

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1 C ha pt e r O ne : T he E nd of t he N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y s c i e nt i f i c de ve l opm e nt s c ont r i but e d t o t he c ons t a nt f unda m e nt a l c ha nge t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z e d A m e r i c a n C hr i s t i a ni t y of t he t i m e T he s e c ha nge s a r os e f r om i nnu m e r a bl e a dva nc e s i n s c i e nt i f i c w or k i nc l udi ng ge ol ogy a nd, m os t s i gni f i c a nt l y, A l f r e d R us s e l W a l l a c e s a nd C ha r l e s D a r w i n s e f f o r t s i n e vol ut i on. M a ny ge ol ogi s t s of t he e a r l y ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a t t e m pt e d t o r e c onc i l e t he B i bl e w i t h ge ol ogy, w hi c h pr e s e nt e d a s s i gni f i c a nt a c ha l l e nge t o B i bl i c a l a c c ur a c y a s e vol ut i on l a t e r di d r e s ul t i ng i n w ha t C on r a d W r i ght t e r m s T he R e l i gi on of G e ol ogy a t e r m us e d t o de f i ne t he pur s ui t of t he s c i e nc e a s a w a y t o pr ovi de e vi de nc e f or t he C hr i s t i a n G od ( 336) 1 F ol l ow i ng t he publ i c a t i on of D a r w i n s T he O r i gi n of Spe c i e s ( 1859) a nd D e s c e nt of M an ( 1871) r e l i gi ous i ns t i t ut i o n s w e r e a ga i n a t pa i ns t o de f e nd a l i t e r a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t he B i bl e B y t he l a s t de c a de of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, w he n T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e ( 1896) a nd P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t ( 1898) w e r e publ i s he d, e vol ut i on s uppl a nt e d ge ol ogy a s t he a r e na f o r de ba t e be t w e e n s c i e nc e a nd r e l i gi on J us t a s ot he r s c i e nt i s t s ne got i a t e d t he di vi s i on be t w e e n ge ol ogy a nd r e l i gi on, a ut hor s s uc h a s J ohn W i l l i a m D r a pe r i n H i s t or y of t he C onf l i c t be t w e e n R e l i gi on and Sc i e nc e ( 1874) A ndr e w D i c ks on 1 W r i gh t s pa pe r a l s o t i t l e d T he R e l i gi on of G e ol o gy ( 1941) t a ke n f r om E dw a r d H i t c hc oc k s 1851 book, T he R e l i gi on of G e ol ogy a nd i t s C onne c t e d Sc i e nc e s di s c us s e s t hr e e A m e r i c a n ge ol ogi s t s w ho a t t e m pt e d t o us e ge ol ogy f or t he gl o r i f i c a t i on of G od; B e nj a m i n S i l l i m a n ( 1779 1864) E dw a r d H i t c hc oc k ( 1793 1864 ) a nd J a m e s D w i ght D a na ( 1813 95) W r i gh t a r gue s t ha t T he O r i gi n of Spe c i e s ul t i m a t e l y unde r m i ne d t he s e ge ol ogi s t s e f f or t s

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2 W hi t e i n H i s t or y of t he W ar f ar e of Sc i e nc e w i t h T h e ol ogy i n C hr i s t e ndom ( 1896) a nd L ym a n A bbot t i n T he T he ol ogy of an E v ol ut i oni s t ( 1897) a t t e m pt e d t o r e c onc i l e e vol ut i on a nd r e l i gi on O ne m i ght vi e w t he a t t e m p t e d r e c onc i l i a t i on a s t he p r e va l e nt m ode i n w hi c h e vol ut i on a nd r e l i gi on i n t e r a c t e d i n t he publ i c m i nd. R ona l d L N um be r s i n hi s 1985 pa pe r S c i e nc e a nd R e l i gi on e xpl a i n s t ha t no s uc h ne a t di vi s i on be t w e e n t he t w o t e r m s i s t e na bl e N um be r s c onc l ude s t ha t t o s e e a s i m pl e c onf l i c t be t w e e n s c i e nc e a nd r e l i gi on a s s um e s t he e xi s t e nc e of t w o s t a t i c e nt i t i e s s c i e nc e a nd r e l i gi on t hus i gnor i ng t he f a c t t ha t m a ny of t he de ba t e s f oc us e d on t he que s t i ons of w ha t s houl d be c ons i de r e d s c i e nc e a nd r e l i gi on [ ] i t di s t or t s a c om pl e x r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t r a r e l y i f e ve r f oun d s c i e nt i s t s a nd t he ol ogi a ns i n s i m pl e op pos i t i on ( 80) W hi l e a s i m pl e oppos i t i on m a y not f r om a c ur r e nt poi nt o f vi e w be de f e ns i bl e f o r t hi s di s c us s i on t he pe r t i ne nt vi e w s a r e t hos e of ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w r i t e r s s uc h a s F r e de r i c a nd G l a s gow w ho, i n t he i r nove l s pr e s e nt s c i e nc e a nd r e l i gi on a s s e pa r a t e e nt i t i e s i n a m ut ua l l y s uppor t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p. T he a t t e m pt t o s ynt he s i z e s c i e nc e a nd t he B i bl e w a s i n pa r t w ha t l e d t o t he gr ow t h of a m ode r ni s t or l i be r a l a ppr oa c h i n t he ol o gy. 2 W i l l i a m J a m e s m a de one s uc h 2 F or e xa m pl e i n hi s book C at hol i c s i n A m e r i c a ( 2 004) P a t r i c k W C a r e y de s c r i be s l i be r a l C hr i s t i a ns i n t he C a t hol i c C hur c h a t t he e nd of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a s w a nt i ng t o gi ve a C a t hol i c di r e c t i on t o c ont e m por a r y c ur r e nt s of l i f e a nd t hought by a c c om m oda t i ng C a t hol i c i s m t o w ha t w a s be s t i n t h e ne w a ge w hi l e pr e s e r vi ng t he e s s e nt i a l s of f a i t h a nd e c c l e s i a s t i c a l gove r nm e nt ( 55) R e s i s t a nc e t o l i be r a l t hi nki ng r a n hi gh, pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n P ope P i us X r e pl a c e d P ope L e o X I I I i n 1903 I n 1907 P i us r e l e a s e d L am e nt abi l e a nd P as c e ndi D om i ni c i G r e g i s a pa pa l de c r e e a nd a n e nc yc l i c a l w hi c h c onde m ne d w ha t t he P ope r e f e r r e d t o a s m ode r ni s m ( 68) T he M e t hodi s t a bol i t i on e f f o r t i s a n e xa m pl e of t he s oc i a l r e f o r m e l e m e nt f r e que nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l i be r a l t e nde nc i e s w i t hi n C hr i s t i a ni t y B ut e ve n w i t hi n t he M e t hodi s t or ga ni z a t i on oppos i t i on t o a bol i t i on a r os e r e s ul t i ng i n t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he M e t hodi s t E pi s c opa l

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3 a t t e m pt a t r e c onc i l i ng t r a di t i ona l C hr i s t i a ni t y, e vol ut i on, a nd s c i e nc e a s a w hol e a n a t t e m pt c r uc i a l t o t he t e xt s unde r c ons i de r a t i on i n hi s w or k on t he phi l os ophy of pr a gm a t i s m 3 H e r e c ogni z e d t ha t da r w i ni s m ha s o nc e f or a l l [ s i c ] di s pl a c e d de s i gn f r om t he m i nds of t he s c i e nt i f i c t he i s m ha s l os t t ha t f o ot hol d; a nd s om e ki nd of a n i m m a ne nt or pa nt he i s t i c de i t y w o r ki ng i n t hi ngs r a t he r t ha n a bove t he m i s i f a ny t he ki nd r e c om m e nde d t o our c ont e m por a r y i m a gi na t i on ( P r a gm a t i s m 34) T he pr a c t i c e of pr a gm a t i s m a c c or di ng t o J a m e s i s t o t r y t o i nt e r pr e t e a c h opt i on by t r a c i ng i t s r e s pe c t i ve pr a c t i c a l c ons e que nc e s W ha t di f f e r e nc e w oul d i t pr a c t i c a l l y m a ke t o a ny one i f t hi s not i on r a t he r t ha n t ha t not i on w e r e t r ue ? ( P r a gm a t i s m 23) T hi s i s a phi l os ophy di vor c e d f r om t he m e t a phys i c a l a nd de di c a t e d t o t he phys i c a l w or l d. W i l l i a m J a m e s ve r s i on of p r a gm a t i s m e m pha s i z e s t he di s c ove r y of pe r s ona l t r u t hs a t t he i ndi vi dua l l e ve l t hr ough e xpe r i e nc e P r a gm a t i s m ha s a num be r of c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s pe r t i ne nt t o t hi s s t udy, s pe c i f i c a l l y t he f oc us on a c t i on a nd t he de f i ni t i on of t r ut h O ne m u s t a s k, w he n c ons i de r i ng a ny a c t i on t he pr a c t i c a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c om pe t i ng r e s ul t s A f t e r c om pa r i ng t he pr a c t i c a l r e s ul t s of e a c h a c t i on, t he one t ha t of f e r s up t he m os t be ne f i t i s c ons i de r e d t r ue A bout t r u t h, or t r ut hs J a m e s w r i t e s t he pr a gm a t i s t c l i ngs t o f a c t s a nd c onc r e t e ne s s obs e r ve s t r ut h a t i t s w or k i n pa r t i c ul a r c a s e s a nd ge ne r a l i z e s T r ut h f o r hi m be c om e s a c l a s s na m e f or a l l C hur c h a nd t he M e t hodi s t E pi s c opa l C hur c h S out h f ol l ow i ng t he s c hi s m of 1844 ( H e m pt on 106 7 ) 3 C S P e i r c e c oi ne d t he t e r m pr a gm a t i s m i n hi s a r t i c l e H ow t o M a ke O ur I de a s C l e a r publ i s he d i n P opul ar Sc i e nc e M ont hl y J a n ua r y 1878 ( J a m e s 23) i n w hi c h he pr om ot e d t he phi l os ophy a s a s c i e nt i f i c m e t hod by w hi c h t o a c hi e ve a n obj e c t i ve t r ut h t ha t t r a ns c e nds i ndi vi dua l c i r c um s t a nc e s F or a t hr ough e xa m i na t i on of t he i nc e pt i on a i m s a n d de ve l opm e nt o f e a r l y pr a gm a t i c t hought a nd a l s o r e c e nt t r e nds i n t he phi l os ophy, s e e J a m e s T K l oppe nbe r g s 1996 e s s a y, P r a gm a t i s m : A n O l d N a m e f or S om e N e w W a ys of T hi nki ng?

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4 s or t s of de f i ni t e w or ki ng va l u e s i n e xpe r i e nc e ( P r a gm a t i s m 33) A ga i n w e f i nd a di s t a nc e f r om a bs t r a c t i on a nd m e t a phys i c s i n f a vor of e xpe r i e nc e a nd a c t i on. A not he r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t r ut h f o r t he pr a gm a t i s t i s t ha t t r ut h i s a l w a ys t r ue i n s o f a r f or t h o r put s i m pl y, t r ut h i s pr ov i s i ona l a nd s ubj e c t t o hi s t o r i c a l c ha nge A s t he c i r c um s t a nc e s of m a t e r i a l w or l d c ha nge s o t oo m a y t he pr ovi s i ona l t r ut hs de pe ndi ng on w he t he r or not t hos e t r ut hs s t i l l of f e r t he gr e a t e s t pr a c t i c a l be ne f i t J a m e s a ddr e s s e s t he pot e nt i a l f or t r ut hs t o c l a s h w he n he obs e r ve s t he gr e a t e s t e ne m y of a ny one of our t r ut hs m a y be t he r e s t of ou r t r u t hs ( P r a gm a t i s m 37 ) A p r ovi s i ona l t r ut h onl y c a n be e s t a bl i s he d i f one s c ur r e nt s t a bl e of t r ut hs doe s not c onf l i c t w i t h t he n e w a r r i va l T hr e e of t he f our c ha r a c t e r s t o be e xa m i ne d F a t h e r V i nc e nt F or be s S i s t e r S oul s by, a nd A nt hony A l ga r c i f e de m ons t r a t e t he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a l l ow us t o i de nt i f y t he pr a gm a t i s t a s a n e m e r ge nt c ha r a c t e r t ype i n l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y f i c t i on a bout A m e r i c a n r e l i gi on. T he pr a g m a t i s t c l e r gy, r e a dy t o a da pt t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r t he ol ogi e s t o t he c ha ngi ng r e l i gi ous c l i m a t e of t he e r a a ppe a r a s m a j or f i gu r e s i n bot h H a r ol d F r e de r i c s T he D am n at i on of T he r on W ar e a nd E l l e n G l a s gow s P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t T he t i t l e c ha r a c t e r of F r e de r i c s nove l a f unda m e nt a l i s t i nnoc e nt na i ve M e t hodi s t c l e r gym a n, a c t s a s a f oi l t o t he pr a gm a t i s t s W a r e i s gi f t e d a t publ i c s pe a ki ng, but ba s e d on h i s s e m i na r y e duc a t i on l a c ks know l e dge of H i ghe r B i bl i c a l s c hol a r s hi p. 4 N e ve r t he l e s s hi s a m bi t i on dr i ve s hi m t o pur s ue a t r a di t i ona l pa t h t o s uc c e s s w i t hi n hi s M e t hodi s t c hur c h. 4 A s J ohn B G a be l w r i t e s i n r e f e r e nc e t o t he r i s e o f H i ghe r B i bl i c a l c r i t i c i s m P i one e r s of t he H i ghe r C r i t i c i s m r e c ogni z e d t ha t i n s om e r e s pe c t s a t l e a s t t he B i bl e w a s unde ni a bl y a book l i ke a ny ot he r w i t h a ut hor s l a n gua ge s s t yl e s m e s s a ge s a udi e nc e s a nd a hi s t or y o f t r a ns m i s s i on a l l of w hi c h c oul d be e xa m i ne d by t he s a m e

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5 D ur i ng t he l a s t ha l f of t he n i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y M e t h odi s m w a s pul l e d i n t w o di r e c t i ons M e t hodi s t c ongr e ga nt s s ur ge d f r o m l e s s t ha n t hr e e pe r c e nt of a l l r e l i gi ous l y a f f i l i a t e d A m e r i c a ns i n 1776 t o ove r t hi r t y f our pe r c e nt by 1850 ( H a t c h 178) F ol l ow i ng s uc h e xpa ns i on, how e ve r M e t hodi s m de ve l ope d i nt o a n or ga ni z a t i on t ha t pr ov i de d oppor t uni t y f or f i na nc i a l a nd s oc i a l a dva nc e m e nt r a t he r t ha n t he g r a s s r oot s m ove m e nt t ha t i n A m e r i c a t r a ns c e nde d c l a s s ba r r i e r s a nd e m pow e r e d c om m on pe opl e t o m a ke r e l i gi on t he i r ow n ( H a t c h 179) H a t c h not e s a s t he num be r of M e t hodi s t s e xpa nde d, w ha t i t m e a nt t o be M e t hodi s t be c a m e f a r l e s s c l e a r S om e M e t hodi s t s c ont i nue d t he pl a i n s t yl e w or s hi p [ ] of t he e a r l y c a m p m e e t i ng B y t he 1850s ot he r s w e r e bui l di ng got hi c c hur c he s a nd f ol di ng ge nt i l i t y a nd r e f i ne m e nt i nt o t he ve r y de f i ni t i on of be i ng r e l i gi ous ( 188 89) F r e de r i c dr a m a t i z e s t hi s di vi s i on be t w e e n t he pl a i n s t yl e w or s hi p a nd ge nt i l i t y a nd r e f i ne m e nt i n T he r on W ar e I n t he f i r s t c ha pt e r W a r e a nd hi s w i f e A l i c e a r e a t t e ndi ng t he a nnua l N e da hm a C onf e r e nc e o f t he M e t hodi s t E pi s c opa l C hur c h, a n e ve nt us e d t o a s s i gn t he c l e r gy t o c ongr e ga t i ons 5 F r e de r i c w r i t e s f o r a ha n ds om e a nd e xpe ns i ve c hur c h bui l di ng l i ke t hi s a nd w i t h s uc h a m ode r n a nd go a he a d c ongr e ga t i on, i t w a s s i m pl y a vi t a l ne c e s s i t y t o s e c ur e a n a t t r a c t i ve a nd f a s hi ona bl e pr e a c he r ( 7 ) G i ve n hi s r e now n f o r o r a t or y, W a r e a nt i c i pa t e s r e c e i vi ng t he T e c um s e h c ongr e ga t i on a s l i t e r a r y/ hi s t or i c a l m e t hods t ha t ha d l ong be e n br ou ght t o be a r upon s e c ul a r l i t e r a t ur e ( 24) W a r e by hi s t r a i ni ng, i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t he B i b l e a s t he w or d o f G od r a t he r t ha n a doc um e nt c om pos e d by hum a ns a n i s s ue he i s f or c e d t o c onf r ont w he n he a t t e m pt s t o w r i t e a w or k a bout A b r a ha m 5 T he s t r uggl e be t w e e n e pi s c opa c y a nd e ga l i t a r i a ni s m i s s e e n f r om t he ve r y i nc e pt i on o f A m e r i c a n M e t hodi s m I n 1784 F r a nc i s A s bur y r e f us e d t o t a ke on t he r ol e o f bi s hop a s s i gne d t o hi m by J ohn W e s l e y hi m s e l f unl e s s t he pr e a c he r s he w a s t o gove r n e l e c t e d hi m ( S c he l l 76)

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6 hi s ne w a s s i gnm e nt T e c um s e h i s a c ongr e ga t i on o f t he ne w k i nd, a n e xpe ns i ve bui l di ng w i t h hi gh p r i c e s on t he be s t pe w s de m a ndi ng a f a s hi ona bl e voi c e C ont r a r y t o t he e xpe c t a t i ons of bot h t he W a r e s a nd t he ot he r a t t e n de e s W a r e i s not a ppoi nt e d t o T e c um s e h, but r a t he r t o t he c ongr e ga t i on of O c t a vi us I n s ha r p c ont r a s t t o t he m ode r n t one of T e c um s e h, W a r e i s pl a c e d i n t o a c ong r e ga t i on i ns i s t e nt on s i m pl e r e l i gi on. A f t e r t he W a r e s m ove t o t he i r ne w ho m e i n O c t a vi us W a r e c onduc t s hi s f i r s t m e e t i ng w i t h t he t r us t e e s H e i s t ol d w e don t w a nt no book l e a r ni n or di c t i ona r y w or ds i n ou r pul pi t s om e f ol ks m a y s t om a c h e m ; w e w on t T he m t w o s e r m ons o your s p r a ps t he y d do dow n i n s om e c i t y pl a c e ; but t he y r e l i ke your w i f e s bunni t he r e t he y r e t oo f l ow e r y t o s ui t us ( 29) F or T he r on W ar e t he m os t pe r t i ne nt e l e m e nt of M e t hodi s m i n t he s e c ond ha l f of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt u r y i s t he c onf r ont a t i on o f t he ba r e a nd s i m pl e pe opl e s r e l i gi on w i t h t he G i l de d A ge de s i r e f o r o r na m e nt T he A e s t he t i c M ove m e nt i n A m e r i c a p r ovi de s a c o m pl i m e nt a r y va nt a ge poi nt w i t h w hi c h t o vi e w t he s e nove l s A l l i s on P e a s e of f e r s a ge ne r a l ove r vi e w o f t he e l e m e nt s of a e s t he t i c i s m i n t he l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w he n s he w r i t e s : r oughl y, A e s t he t i c i s m t e nds t o pl a c e a hi gh va l u e o n t he f ol l ow i ng: a r t i s t i c f or m a he i ght e ne d c ons c i ous ne s s t ha t i s a l e r t t o bo t h phys i c a l a nd s pi r i t ua l e xpe r i e nc e ( s pi r i t ua l i t y o f t e n de r i vi ng f r om phys i c a l i t y) a r t s a bi l i t y t o c r e a t e s ym pa t hy, a r t s a bi l i t y t o r e c r e a t e t he i ndi vi dua l be hol de r t h r oug h a pr oc e s s of c ons c i ous s e l f t r a ns c e nde nc e ( t hi s m a y a l s o be c a l l e d s e l f c ul t ur e ) a nd t he i ndi vi dua l s ne e d f o r s e l f e xpr e s s i on i n s pi t e of o r a t t he e xpe ns e of s oc i a l nor m s ( 98 9 )

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7 T he pr a gm a t i s t ha s no r oom f or a ny a c t i on t a ke n a t t he e xpe ns e of s o c i a l no r m s T hus t he pr a gm a t i s t s i s ol a t i on or t he a bs e nc e c r e a t e d by hi s or he r di vi s i on be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy m a y be s oot he d by c ont a c t w i t h s e l f e xpr e s s i on. T he r on W ar e pr e s e nt s t he a e s t he t e C e l i a M a dde n, w i t h w hom W a r e be c om e s obs e s s e d. R oge r B S t e i n poi nt s out t he a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of M a dde n f or not onl y t he c ha r a c t e r W a r e but a l s o t he publ i s he r s of t he nove l S t one a nd K i m ba l l S t e i n w r i t e s i n a n e xa m i na t i on of a pos t e r a dve r t i s i ng T he r on W ar e t ha t S t one a nd K i m ba l l [ ] s a w t h e s e ns uous l y a e s t h e t i c C e l i a a s t he ke y t o a t t r a c t i ng r e a de r s i s e vi de nt i n t he pos t e r t ha t t he y c om m i s s i one d f r om J ohn H T w a c ht m a n ( 1853 1902 ) t o a dve r t i s e t he book ( 4 3) T he pos t e r doe s not de pi c t t he t i t l e c ha r a c t e r but r a t he r p r e s e nt s M a dde n dr a pe d i n t h e l ong r e d ha i r s he he r s e l f i de nt i f i e s a s a n i c on of he r a e s t he t i c i s m ( T w a c ht m a n) M a r i a nn a M us i n f r om P has e s pr e s e nt s a s i m i l a r c ha r a c t e r de di c a t e d t o m us i c a nd i t s e phe m e r a I n t he ope ni ng s c e ne w e s e e M us i n buy a phot ogr a ph o f M a x A l va r y i n t he c ha r a c t e r of L oh e ngr i n f r om W a gne r s ope r a S he i s he r s e l f a n a s pi r i ng s i nge r w ho a s w i l l be s e e n l a t e r s uf f e r s g r e a t l y w he n f or c e d t o a ba ndon he r a r t i s t i c pur s ui t s T hough M a dde n a nd M us i n a r e t he t w o m or e s t r a i ght f or w a r d a e s t he t e s i n t he nove l s e ve n t he p r a gm a t i s t s d e m ons t r a t e a n a ppr e c i a t i on, a nd pe r ha ps a ne e d, f or t he a e s t he t i c W a r e s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h hi s ne w c ongr e ga t i on pr i m e s hi m t o be dr a w n i n by t he a e s t he t i c s of t he w e l l e duc a t e d, m ode r ni s t C a t hol i c pr i e s t F a t he r F o r be s a nd t he t r a ve l i ng a c t r e s s c um r e vi va l i s t S i s t e r S oul s by. 6 B y hi s de s i r e t o l e a d t he T e c um s e h c ongr e ga t i on, W a r e e s t a bl i s he s hi m s e l f t o t he r e a d e r a s a s oc i a l a s pi r a nt a nd w he n he 6 D ur i ng W a r e s i ni t i a l e nc ount e r w i t h F or be s m os t of a l l he w a s m ove d by t he r i c h, nove l s ound of t he L a t i n a s t he pr i e s t r ol l e d i t f o r t h ( 45) T he a udi t or y or na m e nt s ubor di na t e s t he t r ue m e a ni ng o f t he e xpe r i e nc e t o W a r e

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8 e nc ount e r s t he e m bodi m e nt s of w ha t he de s i r e s t o be c om e F or be s a nd S ou l s by, t he t r a ppi ngs of t he i r r e l i gi ons pr e s e nt a m e t hod t o hi m by w hi c h he m a y a c hi e ve hi s onl y va gue l y i m a gi ne d goa l s W a r e s de s i r e t o be c om e l i ke F or be s a nd S oul s by i s not bo r n o f a ne e d t o s e r ve hi s f l oc k, nor doe s he unde r s t a nd h ow hi s ne w m e nt or s r e l i gi ons a r e c ons t r uc t e d f or t he be ne f i t o f t he i r c ongr e ga nt s W a r e i s s ubj e c t t o hi s ow n a s pi r a t i ons r a t he r t ha n a de s i r e t o be ne f i t hi s c ongr e ga t i on H e t hus c ont r a s t s w i t h t he pr a gm a t i c e l e m e nt c om m on t o t he r e l i gi ous l e a de r s F a t he r F or be s a nd S i s t e r S oul s by i n T he r on W ar e a nd A nt hony A l ga r c i f e i n P has e s W a r e s s t or y e xe m pl i f i e s w ha t ha ppe ns t o a t r a di t i ona l ( de s pi t e hi s de s i r e t o be c om e w o r l dl y) na i ve a nd a m bi t i ous m a n i n t he l a s t de c a de of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w he n he e nc ount e r s m ode r ni s t a nd p r a gm a t i c r e l i gi ous l e a de r s l i ke F or be s S oul s by, a nd A l ga r c i f e F or be s be l i e ve s t ha t t he C hur c h i s a hum a n i ns t i t ut i on, not a di vi ne one s ubj e c t t o hi s t or i c a l c ha nge s a nd hum a n i nvol ve m e nt H e e xp l i c i t l y s t a t e s t ha t t he C hur c h a t hi s t i m e i s not t he C hur c h a s i t w a s f ounde d. A s w i l l b e di s c us s e d l a t e r F or be s ba l a nc e s pe r s ona l r e l i gi on w i t h publ i c t he ol ogy A s E l m e r F S ude r m a n poi nt s out r e l i gi on w a s a pe r s ona l a f f a i r i n t he l a t e N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t he i ndi v i dua l s c onduc t [ . ] t ow a r d G od a nd t ow a r d hi s f e l l ow m e n ( 61) T he o l ogy on t he ot he r ha nd, i s t he i ns t i t ut i ona l i z a t i on of r e l i gi on w i t h f or m a l hi e r a r c hi e s a nd a n a l t oge t he r m o r e dogm a t i c vi e w of hum a nki nd s r e l a t i ons t o G od ( 6 1) R e l i gi on i s i ndi vi dua l T he ol ogy i s i ns t i t ut i ona l S ude r m a n s di s t i nc t i ons a l s o de f i ne a di vi di ng l i ne be t w e e n f unda m e nt a l a nd l i be r a l c l e r gy F o r be s c onf i ne s t he e xpr e s s i on of hi s r e l i gi o n t o a s e l e c t gr oup of f r i e nds H e c onduc t s hi s C hur c h a f f a i r s a c c or di ng t o i ns t i t ut i ona l l y e s t a bl i s he d m e a ns t ha t he be l i e ve s a r e ne c e s s a r y f or t he good o f t he c ongr e ga t i on. A t t he c onc l us i on of t he

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9 nove l F or be s de s pi t e w i t ne s s i ng t he w a y hi s ow n r e l i gi on c ont r i bu t e s t o T he r on W a r e s de ge ne r a t i on, r e m a i ns c he e r f ul l y de di c a t e d t o a m o de r ni s t a ppr oa c h t o C hr i s t i a ni t y I n P has e s G l a s gow pr e s e nt s a c ha r a c t e r s i m i l a r t o F or be s i n A nt hony A l ga r c i f e t he s c i e nt i s t a nd a vow e d a t he i s t w ho be c om e s a n E pi s c opa l i a n c l e r gym a n, t hough no t t hr ough s i nc e r e c onve r s i on. J us t a s F r e de r i c doe s G l a s gow por t r a ys a pr i e s t w hos e r e l i gi on i s a t odds w i t h hi s t he ol ogy. E ve n t hough A l ga r c i f e a f f i r m s hi s a t he i s m f ol l ow i ng t he a dopt i on of hi s ne w voc a t i on he pe r f or m s a dm i r a bl y a t hi s pos t ga r ne r i ng t he r e s pe c t a nd a l l e gi a nc e of t he l a i t y. B y a n a s s i duous de di c a t i on t o t he s m a l l e s t i s s ue s a ny of hi s pa r i s hi one r s a dva nc e he i s de s c r i b e d a s r i va l i ng i n popul a r i t y t he B r oc ke nhur s t s c a nda l a nd hi s pow e r i s onl y e qua l e d by t ha t of o f T a m m a ny ( 191) W hi l e F or be s s e e m s t o m a i nt a i n a r e c onc i l i a t i on be t w e e n hi s r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy, A l ga r c i f e ne e ds t he dur a t i on of t he nove l t o a c hi e ve e ve n a gr udgi ng c om pr om i s e A t t he e nd of t he t e xt A l ga r c i f e m us t by hi s ow n m a nda t e c hoos e be t w e e n s ui c i de a nd us i ng hi s e va nge l i c a l pow e r t o a i d t he l ow e r r a nks o f N e w Y o r k s oc i e t y. H e a l l ow s hi m s e l f t o l i ve a nd de c i de s t o c ont i nue hi s doubl e l i f e a l i e a s he w oul d de s c r i be i t be c a us e l i vi ng i s t he a c t i on t ha t yi e l ds t he m os t be ne f i t T hus A l ga r c i f e c ut s a pr a gm a t i c f i gu r e s i m i l a r t o F or be s t hough a c ons i de r a bl y da r ke r one T he r on W ar e a l s o de pi c t s a not he r pr a gm a t i s t S i s t e r S oul s by. S he a nd he r hus ba n d a r e t r a ve l i ng r e vi va l i s t s m ovi ng f r om one M e t hodi s t c ongr e ga t i on t o t he ne xt us i ng t he i r t he a t r i c a l e xpe r i e nc e a nd e xpe r i e nc e a s gr i f t e r s t o r a i s e f unds f or e a c h l oc a l boa r d of t r us t e e s L i ke F a t he r F or be s S i s t e r S oul s by s r e l i gi on i s unor t hodox U nl i ke F a t he r F or be s S oul s by e xpl i c i t l y out l i ne s he r r e l i g i on i n a s e r i e s of di s c us s i ons w i t h W a r e S he p r e a c he s a r e l i gi on ( t he ol ogy a s S ude r m a n i de nt i f i e s i t i s a bs e nt f r om he r

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10 a ppr oa c h) of p r a gm a t i s m i ni t i a l l y uns e t t l i ng t o W a r e B e c a us e of he r ove r t e xpl a na t i ons of he r r e l i gi on s c hol a r s s uc h a s P a t r i c k K D ool e y a nd D a vi d H Z i m m e r m a nn i de nt i f y S oul s by a s a f i gur e of s a l va t i on. H ow e ve r L ut he r S L ue dt ke a nd S c ot t D ona l ds on vi e w he r a s a s na ke i n t he ga r de n. S he pr ov i de s a not he r pr a gm a t i c f oi l t o W a r e t hough one di s t i nc t f r om F or be s a nd A l ga r c i f e be c a us e of he r f r e e dom f r om t he f or m a l hi e r a r c hy o f a c hur c h a nd t hus f r om dogm a t i c t he ol ogy. S he us e s t he c onve nt i ons of a dog m a t i c c ongr e ga t i on l i ke O c t a vi us t o a c hi e ve he r goa l s b ut i s not s ubj e c t t o t he M e t hodi s t i ns t i t ut i on. S ou l s by a ppe a r s i n t he f i na l s c e ne of t h e nove l a i di ng W a r e i n hi s t r a ns i t i on f r om ups t a t e N e w Y o r k c l e r gym a n t o S e a t t l e pol i t i c i a n. S he r e m a i ns de di c a t e d t o he r pr a gm a t i c r e l i gi on but unl i ke F or be s s he de m ons t r a t e s a n unde r s t a nd i ng of t he c os t W a r e ha s pa i d i n t r yi ng t o e m br a c e i t m uc h a s A l g a r c i f e unde r s t a nds t he t ol l t a ke n by h i s doubl e l i f e o f a t he i s t a nd p r i e s t T he a bove c om pa r i s on be t w e e n W a r e F or be s a nd S oul s by pr ovi de s a gl i m ps e i nt o one a s pe c t of t he t he ol ogi c a l uphe a va l o f t he t i m e T he a bove c om pa r i s on be t w e e n W a r e a nd A l ga r c i f e how e ve r he a r ke ns f or w a r d t o t he a l i e na t i on a nd que s t i oni ng of i de nt i t y s o m uc h a pa r t o f t he T w e nt i e t h C e nt ur y B y vi e w i ng W a r e a s a f o i l f o r F or be s a nd S oul s by i n t a nde m w i t h A l ga r c i f e a m or e c om pl e t e pi c t ur e of t he t r a ns i t i on be t w e e n ni ne t e e nt h a nd t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy m a y be f ound. U nde r s t a ndi ng t he e nc ount e r be t w e e n t he t r a di t i on a l a nd t he l i be r a l c l e r gy r e qui r e s a c l os e e xa m i na t i on of t he w a y W a r e F o r be s S oul s by, a nd A l ga r c i f e i n t e r a c t w i t h r e l i gi ons a nd t he ol ogi e s a nd a dj us t t he i r a c t i o ns i n or de r t o m a i nt a i n t he ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he t w o, a nd how e a c h c ha r a c t e r s i n t e r a c t i on w i t h t he f i gur e of t he a e s t he t e a i ds i n t he ne got i a t i on

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11 C ha pt e r T w o: S ur ve y of C r i t i c i s m P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t i s r e ga r de d on t he r a r e oc c a s i on i t i s r e m e m be r e d, a s t he l e a s t of G l a s gow s m i nor w or ks G l a s gow ga i ne d he r c r i t i c a l r e put a t i on f r om he r V i r gi ni a nove l s a nd P has e s i s one of he r t hr e e N e w Y or k nove l s 1 P has e s c ur r e nt l a c k of c r i t i c a l a t t e nt i on c a n be a t t r i but e d t o a c om bi na t i on of i t s poor i ni t i a l r e c e pt i on a nd t he c r i t i c a l f oc us on G l a s gow s V i r g i ni a nove l s a nd a u t obi ogr a phi c a l w or k t o t he e xc l us i on of a l l e l s e P e r ha ps a r e e va l ua t i on of t he w or k pa r t i c ul a r l y i n c om pa r i s on t o one of t he m i nor c l a s s i c s of t he l a s t de c a de of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, c a n do m uc h t o di s pe l t he i de a t ha t E l l e n G l a s gow s s e c ond nove l w a s of a n i n f e r i or qua l i t y t o he r m or e r e ve r e d w or ks s uc h a s B ar r e n G r ound or T he R om ant i c C om e di ans O f t he s c a nt c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l a va i l a bl e on P has e s o f an I n f e r i or P l ane t m os t i s f ound i n ge ne r a l s ur ve ys of G l a s gow s w r i t i ngs s u c h a s J R R a pe r s W i t hout She l t e r : T he E ar l y C ar e e r of E l l e n G l as gow ( 1971) a nd M a r i on K R i c ha r ds E l l e n G l as gow s D e v e l opm e nt as a N ov e l i s t ( 1971) E a c h t e nds t o s um m a r i z e t he nove l s a nd e va l ua t e G l a s gow s gr ow t h i n t he c r a f t of f i c t i on r a t he r t ha n a na l yz e P has e s T h r ough a s t r uc t u r a l e xa m i na t i on of l a t e ni ne t e e nt h a nd e a r l y t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y nove l s bot h e va nge l i c a l w or k i nt e nde d t o c onve r t t he r e a de r a nd m or e l i t e r a r y e f f or t s E l m e r F S ude r m a n s 1961 1 T he D e s c e nda nt ( 1897) P ha s e s of a n I n f e r i or P l a n e t ( 1898) a nd T he W he e l o f L i f e ( 1906) L i f e a nd G a br i e l l a ( 1916) m a y be c ons i de r e d a f our t h N e w Y or k nove l t hough onl y pa r t o f t he s t or y oc c ur s t he r e

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12 di s s e r t a t i on R e l i gi on i n t he A m e r i c an N ov e l : 1870 1900 pr ovi de s a n e xc e l l e nt t hough br i e f l ook a t P has e s a nd T he r on W ar e a s w e l l T h e onl y m e nt i on S ude r m a n m a ke s of P has e s c om e s i n hi s s e c t i on on how t he nove l i s t s of t hi s e r a ha ndl e d de a t h w i t h r e ga r ds t o r e l i gi on, e xpl a i ni ng t ha t a t t ha t t i m e t he pos s i bi l i t y of unc e r t a i nt y a nd a nxi e t y a bout t he a f t e r l i f e w e r e be c om i ng a c c e pt a bl e by a w i de r r e a d i ng publ i c E l l e n G l as gow : T he C ont e m p or ar y R e v i e w s ( 1992) e di t e d by D or o t hy S c ur a p r ovi de s i ns i ght i nt o t he i ni t i a l r e c e pt i on of t he nove l by pr e s e nt i ng a r a nge of c r i t i c a l vi e w s f r om t he pe r i od i m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow i ng t he publ i c a t i on of P has e s M os t r e vi e w s w e r e unc om pl i m e nt a r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n c om pa r e d t o t he pr om i s e of he r f i s t nove l T he D e s c e ndant T he r e vi e w a ppe a r i ng i n t he N e w Y or k T i m e s Sat ur day R e v i e w of B ook s and A r t w a s t ypi c a l w he n i t publ i s he d: w e m us t c onf e s s t ha t P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t i s di s t i nc t l y a d i s a ppoi nt m e nt ( 17) N ot a l l t he c r i t i c s w e r e a s di s pl e a s e d w i t h t he w o r k A p i e c e t ha t or i g i na l l y a ppe a r e d i n t he B os t on E v e ni ng T r ans c r i pt pr a i s e d he r f o r he r de ve l opm e nt s i nc e he r f i r s t nove l a nd e ve n w e nt s o f a r a s t o c om pa r e he r w i t h T hom a s H a r dy ( 23 25 ) D e s pi t e a f e w a dm i r i ng voi c e s t he ove r a l l r e c e pt i on of P has e s w a s l a c kl us t e r T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e ha s a t t r a c t e d f a r m or e c r i t i c a l a t t e nt i on t ha n P has e s T hom a s O D onne l l i n hi s a r t i c l e H a r ol d F r e de r i c ( 1856 1898) ( 1967) m a i nt a i ns t ha t F r e de r i c s c hol a r s h i p di d not pr ope r l y be gi n unt i l P a ul H a i ne s w r ot e hi s 1945 di s s e r t a t i on on t he s ubj e c t T w o ot he r di s s e r t a t i ons ha d a ppe a r e d be f or e 1945 bot h of w hi c h a ddr e s s e d F r e de r i c s w o r k, t hough t he y d i d not m a ke i t t he pr i m a r y f oc us ( 39 ) 2 D e s pi t e H a i ne s di s s e r t a t i on, F r e de r i c s c hol a r s hi p di d not be ga n i n e a r ne s t unt i l t he l a t e 2 N at ur al i s m i n t he A m e r i c an N ov e l by C ha r l e s W a l c ut t ( 1938) a nd C l e r gy m e n i n R e pr e s e nt at i v e A m e r i c an F i c t i on, 1830 1930: A S t udy i n A t t i t ude s T ow ar d R e l i gi on by E m e r s on C S huc k ( 1943 )

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13 1950s due i n l a r ge pa r t t o O D onne l l s w or k W hi l e t he pe r i od f r om F r e de r i c s de a t h i n 1898 t o 1959 s a w onl y t hi r t e e n t e xt s a na l yz i ng F r e de r i c s w or k, t he pe r i od f r om 1960 t o 1969 s a w f or t y n i ne ne w s c hol a r l y w o r ks on F r e de r i c a nd hi s w r i t i ngs S i nc e 1969, a s t e a dy s t r e a m of F r e de r i c s c hol a r s hi p ha s be e n pr o duc e d, t hough a t a de c r e a s i ng r a t e T he 1970s s a w a s l i ght de c l i ne t o t h i r t y s e ve n t e xt s w h i l e i n t he 1980s t he num be r dr oppe d t o onl y t w e nt y t hr e e A s udde n r e s ur ge nc e be t w e e n 1990 a nd 1999 ge ne r a t e d t hi r t y s i x w or ks i nc l udi ng B r i dge t B e nne t t s e xc e l l e nt bi ogr a phy i n 1997. T he c ur r e nt de c a de s qua nt i t y of F r e de r i c s c hol a r s hi p ha s dr oppe d t o a l e ve l r i va l e d onl y by t ha t of t he 1940s w i t h f our t e xt s O ne of t hos e f our t e xt s how e ve r i s R obi n T a yl or R oge r s w e b ba s e d bi bl i ogr a phy of H a r ol d F r e de r i c s c hol a r s hi p f or t h e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. I t i s he r w e bs i t e w hi c h, s uppl e m e nt e d by m y ow n bi bl i ogr a phi c s e a r c he s f or s c hol a r s hi p i n t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y i n m a j o r da t a ba s e s pr ovi de s t hi s hi s t o r y of F r e de r i c s c hol a r s hi p. 3 O f T he r on W ar e s c hol a r s hi p t he r e a r e a f e w a r t i c l e s a nd books de a l i ng w i t h pr a gm a t i s m a nd t he r e l i gi ous t r a ns f or m a t i on t ha t p r ovi de s a ba c kdr op f o r bot h nove l s 3 O ne of t he m os t us e f ul r e s our c e s f or t he T he r on W ar e s c hol a r i s R obi n T a yl o r R oge r s 2003 w e bs i t e H ar ol d F r e de r i c s T he D a m na t i on o f T he r on W a r e : A St udy G ui de w i t h A nnot at e d B i bl i ogr aphy R oge r s ha s c om pi l e d a n e xha us t i ve bi bl i ogr a phy of a r t i c l e s books r e vi e w s a nd a ny ot he r pe r t i ne nt w o r k done on T he r on W ar e i n t he T w e nt i e t h C e nt ur y. R oge r s a l s o i nc l ude s 83 f ul l a nnot a t i ons of va r i ous s our c e s T he bi bl i og r a phy i s a c c e s s i bl e i n f ul l or d i vi de d i nt o 14 A r e a s of C r i t i c i s m i nc l udi ng R e l i gi on a nd t he C l e r gy, P r a gm a t i s m G e nde r I s s ue s S i s t e r S oul s by a nd C ul t u r a l C ont e xt a l l o f w hi c h a r e pe r t i ne nt t o t hi s s t udy. R oge r s a l s o i nc l ude s l e n gt hy a ddi t i ona l r e s our c e s t i t l e d B i ogr a phy, T i m e l i ne of S i gni f i c a nt E ve nt s W r i t i n gs by F r e de r i c F r e de r i c a nd C ont e m por a r i e s : O n W r i t i ng B i bl i og r a phi c a l S t ud i e s C r i t i c a l R e c e pt i on, D i s s e r t a t i ons a nd T he s e s D i s c us s i on Q ue s t i ons a nd T opi c s f or E s s a ys a nd a G l os s a r y. F or a n e ve n m or e de t a i l e d bi bl i og r a phy of w or k pr i or t o 1975, i nc l udi ng w r i t i ngs by F r e de r i c a nd t e xt s a bout F r e de r i c be f or e 1900 s e e A B i bl i ogr aphy of W r i t i ngs by and about H ar ol d F r e de r i c c om pi l e d by T hom a s F O D onne l l S t a nt on G a r ne r a nd R obe r t H W oodw a r d ( 1975)

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14 P a t r i c k K D ool e y s F a ke s a nd G ood F r a uds : P r a gm a t i c R e l i gi on i n T he D am nat i on o f T he r on W ar e ( 1982) i s t he be s t e xa m i na t i on o f ho w pr a gm a t i c t hought pl a ys a c r i t i c a l r ol e i n t he nove l D ool e y r e l i e s on J a m e s ve r s i on of pr a gm a t i s m a s oppos e d t o C S P e i r c e s t o de m o ns t r a t e t he w a y i n w hi c h F r e de r i c a ddr e s s e s t he c ha l l e nge s c i e nc e pr e s e nt s t o r e l i gi on du r i ng t he l a s t de c a de of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y. D ool e y e s t a bl i s he s how J a m e s us e s pr a gm a t i s m a s a w a y t o ne got i a t e a s uppor t i ve t r uc e be t w e e n e vol ut i ona r y t hought a nd t he t r a di t i ona l C hr i s t i a ni t y i t s e e m s t o r e pudi a t e D ool e y w r i t e s t ha t J a m e s be l i e ve d t he t r ut h o f r e l i gi on a nd r e l i gi ous be l i e f i s i t s be ne f i c i a l c ons e que nc e s a nd va l ua bl e e f f e c t s ( 75) A be l i e f i n G od i s be ne f i c i a l ; t hus G od i s t r ue F r e de r i c s por t r a y a l of c ha r a c t e r s l i ke t he S oul s bys a nd F a t he r F or be s i s a n a c c ur a t e r e f l e c t i on of pr a gm a t i c p r a c t i c e t ha t ne got i a t e s be t w e e n s c i e nt i f i c a nd r e l i gi ous t hought T he s e c t i on on F a t he r F o r be s e xe m pl i f i e s t hi s c ha i n of r e a s oni ng. D ool e y e xa m i ne s F or be s e xpl a na t i on of r e l i gi on a s a s oc i a l m e di a t o r a nd a c c ount s f or F o r be s vi e w t ha t t he ol ogi c a l di s c us s i on s a r e [ . ] m e nt a l gym na s t i c s ( 78) S c ot t D ona l ds on s T he S e duc t i on of T he r on W a r e ( 1975) a l s o a ddr e s s e s t he i s s ue of pr a gm a t i s m but w i t h a de c i de dl y l e s s a dm i r i ng t one D ona l ds on pr e s e nt s S i s t e r S oul s by a s t he t r ue vi l l a i n of t he pi e c e ( 441 ) H e de t a i l s t hr ough a n e xa m i na t i on of t he i nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n S i s t e r S oul s by a nd T he r on W a r e how S oul s by i s a t he ol ogi c a l pr e da t or w ho a f f e c t s W a r e s de ge ne r a t i on w i t h he r gr ubby phi l os ophy ( 451) C r i t i c a l t o t hi s di s c us s i on i s D ona l ds on s pr e s e nt a t i on of W a r e a s a n i nnoc e nt w or t hy of pi t y, or a t l e a s t e m pa t hy, r a t he r t ha n a s a c ons c i ous a ge nt of hi s ow n de s t r uc t i on. D ona l ds on di s c us s e s W a r e s e xc ha nge s w i t h S oul s b y a s i ndoc t r i na t i on i n he r gos pe l o f pr a gm a t i s m ( 450) N ot hi ng i n hi s t he ol ogi c a l t r a i ni ng or p r a c t i c e ha s e qui ppe d W a r e t o

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15 c ont e nd w i t h S oul s by s a r gum e nt s f or pr a gm a t i c r e l i gi on. T hus he i s dr a w n a w a y f r om hi s s i m pl e f a i t h by he r r a t i ona l i z a t i ons a nd a ppe a l s t o hi s a m bi t i on. H e l os e s i nnoc e nc e i f not na i ve t t h r ough he r a ge nc y. W ha t D ona l ds on e s t a bl i s he s i s t he c ha r a c t e r of a t r a di t i ona l c l e r gym a n c ont e ndi ng w i t h t he pr a gm a t i c a l t e r a t i ons t o hi s r e l i gi on a t t he e nd of t he c e nt ur y I n T he D a m na t i on o f T he r on W a r e a s a C r i t i c i s m of A m e r i c a n R e l i gi ous T hought ( 1969) E l m e r F S ude r m a n f oc us e s on t he w a y F r e de r i c de pa r t s f r om t he c onve nt i ons of t he t ypi c a l r e l i gi ous c onve r s i on no ve l of hi s t i m e i n w hi c h a young a nd i nnoc e nt w om a n br i ngs a s ke pt i c a l m a n t o G od 4 F r e de r i c s di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c h a l l ow s hi m t o i nve i gh a ga i ns t t he s uc c e s s s e e ki ng, c om f or t l ovi ng m a t e r i a l i s t i c hope f ul G i l de d A ge f or i t s pr e t e ns e a nd s e nt i m e nt a l i t y a nd i t s bl i n d f a i t h i n m a n s i n t ui t i ve g r a s p of t he t r ut h ( 66 ) T he va l ue of S ude r m a n s a r t i c l e i s hi s e xa m i na t i on of F r e de r i c s r e f us a l t o a dhe r e t o t he s e nt i m e nt a l o r m e l od r a m a t i c t ype s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o A m e r i c a n f i c t i on a bout r e l i gi on c ont e m por a r y t o T he r on W ar e T he r on W a r e pr ovi de s t he a nt i dot e t o a n e xc e s s i v e t r us t i n m a n s ho l y i nc l i na t i ons U nl i ke w ha t t he r e a de r f i nds i n t he s e nt i m e nt a l nove l s pe r s ona l r e l i gi on i s not ne c e s s a r i l y t he pa t h t o G od but r a t he r f o r W a r e a t l e a s t t he pa t h a w a y f r om G od S ude r m a n i s a l s o va l ua bl e f or c ont e xt ua l i z i ng l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a t t i t ude s t ow a r d t he ol ogy a nd r e l i gi on a s d i s t i nc t a r e na s H e e xpl a i ns t ha t 4 S ude r m a n p r e s e nt s a r a nge of nove l s s uc h a s T he G at e s A j ar ( 1869) by E l i z a be t h S t ua r t P he l ps T he y M e t i n H e av e n ( 1894) by G e or ge H H e pw or t h, a nd I n H i s St e ps ( 1897) by C ha r l e s M S he l d on ( f r om w he nc e c om e s t he s t i l l popul a r W ha t W oul d J e s us D o? pr e e m pt or y a dm oni t i on ) j us t t o na m e a f e w S ude r m a n c ont r a s t s F r e de r i c s ha ndl i ng t o t he s e nt i m e nt a l a ppr oa c h by e xa m i ni ng t he w i l l f ul H e l l e ni s t i c C e l i a M a dde n t o t he t ypi c a l f e m a l e m or a l gua r di a n f i gur e t ha t pr e c i pi t a t e s a c onve r s i on. H e goe s on t o t r a c e W a r e s c ha nge f r om t ha t poi nt on t h r ough t he nov e l a nd f i nds t ha t a t e a c h s i gni f i c a nt poi nt i n t he s e nt i m e nt a l c onve r s i on t a l e F r e de r i c h a s upe nde d t he r e a de r s e xpe c t a t i ons c r e a t i ng a s t or y o f c ount e r c onve r s i on

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16 t he ol ogy w a s f e l t t o be m o r e m yopi c dr y a nd e xc l us i ona r y, w he r e a s r e l i gi on w a s s e e n a s br oa d, i nt e r e s t i ng, a nd i nvi t i ng ( 61) L a r z e r Z i f f i n hi s 1966 book T he A m e r i c an 1890 s de di c a t e s a l m os t a n e nt i r e c ha pt e r t o a s t udy of F r e de r i c i n ge ne r a l a nd T he r on W ar e i n pa r t i c ul a r Z i f f pr ovi de s t he r e a de r w i t h t he r e l i gi ous a e s t he t i c a nd s c i e nt i f i c c ont e xt of t he 1890s r e qui r e d t o unde r s t a nd W a r e s i nt e r a c t i on w i t h F or be s C e l i a M a dde n, a nd D r L e ds m a r O f s pe c i f i c va l ue t o t hi s s t udy a r e Z i f f s obs e r va t i ons a bout t h e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n W a r e a nd, a s Z i f f c a l l s i t t he ne w a e s t he t i c i s m a nd t he ne w s c i e nc e ( 213) Z i f f de t a i l s how W a r e e xc ha nge s hi s i nnoc e nc e f or w or l dl y pur s ui t s but t he know l e dge a nd e xpe r i e nc e he i m a gi ne s he a c qui r e s a r e a s ha m H e c a nnot ga i n a c c e s s t o t he know l e dge of F a t he r F or be s H e c a nnot a pp r e c i a t e a r t l i ke t he a e s t he t e C e l i a M a dde n. H e c a nnot unde r s t a nd t he s c i e nc e of D r L e ds m a r A nd a f t e r a t t e m pt i ng t o de ve l o p hi m s e l f a c c or di ng t o t he m ode l s of hi s s uppos e d m e nt or s he c a nnot m a i nt a i n hi s pl a c e a s a n na i ve c l e r gym a n Z i f f c onc l ude s t ha t f or W a r e t he r e i s no w a y ba c k a f t e r he ha s be e n e xpos e d t o t he c or r upt i ng, t hough W a r e s e e s i t a s br oa de ni ng, i nf l ue nc e o f t h e t r i o. Z i f f c ha r a c t e r i z e s t hi s une qua l e xc ha nge a s t he l os s of i nnoc e nt pur pos e i n A m e r i c a ( 214) I n W a r e s ne w c a r e e r a s a n a s pi r a nt pol i t i c i a n, Z i f f s e e s a s hi f t f r om a s i nc e r e de s i r e t o de ve l op one s s e l f t o a c yni c a l e xpl oi t a t i on of t hos e w ho ha ve not ye t be e n a l t e r e d by t he s or t s of e xpe r i e nc e s W a r e ha s e xpe r i e nc e d. I n D a vi d H Z i m m e r m a nn s C l a y F e e t M ode r ni s m a nd F unda m e nt a l O pt i on i n H a r ol d F r e de r i c s T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e ( 1994) t he r e a de r i s pr e s e nt e d w i t h a n e xa m i na t i on of F a t he r F or be s m ode r n i s t t houg ht a nd a n e xpl i c i t r e f ut a t i on of D ona l ds on s vi e w of S i s t e r S oul s by. A c c or di ng t o Z i m m e r m a n, W a r e goe s t h r ough a

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17 t ype of c onve r s i on w he n he w i t ne s s e s F or be s gi vi ng l a s t r i t e s t o a n I r i s h w or km a n W hi l e W a r e i s c e r t a i nl y not c onve r t e d t o C a t hol i c i s m t he e xpe r i e nc e l e a ds hi m t o i nve s t i ga t e F a t he r F or be s m os t c r uc i a l l y t he pr i e s t s t hought F or be s i s a m ode r ni s t c l e r gym a n w ho i s a w a r e of t he s hi f t s w i t hi n h i s ow n s e c t ne c e s s i t a t e d by t he un f ol di ng o f hi s t or y Z i m m e r m a nn c ont e nds onc e F o r be s ha s a l t e r e d T he r on s unde r s t a ndi ng of hi s t or y, he ha s a l t e r e d T he r on s unde r s t a ndi ng of r e l i gi on ( 3 9) W a r e i s f i r m l y s i t ua t e d w i t h i n hi s ow n hi s t or i c a l m om e nt t ha t i s de f i ne d by t he l i be r a l dr i f t of r e l i gi on a s i t ua t i on f o r w hi c h he i s w oe f ul l y un p r e pa r e d. Z i m m e r m a nn pa ys pa r t i c ul a r a t t e nt i on t o t he w a y F or be s doe s not pr ovi de W a r e w i t h a w a y t o l i ve w i t h hi s ne w pe r s pe c t i ve on t he pur pos e a nd hi s t or y of r e l i gi on S i s t e r S oul s by i s gi ve n t ha t t a s k, one t h a t i s c ont r a di c t or y t o t he M e phi s t ophe l i a n t a s k a t t r i but e d t o he r by D ona l ds on. S oul s by s p r a gm a t i c t e a c hi ngs a r e a va i l a bl e t o, t hough pr oba bl y not a dopt e d by, W a r e T he s e t e a c hi ngs i nc l udi ng S oul s by s i ns i s t e nc e on t he ne e d f or de c e pt i on i n C hr i s t i a n w or k a nd t he i de a t ha t no one i s da m ne d unt i l J udgm e nt D a y, w oul d a l l ow W a r e t o c ont i nu e hi s M e t hodi s t w or k. W ha t Z i m m e r m a nn p r ovi de s i s a c l e a r de l i ne a t i on of ho w t he c ha r a c t e r s f unc t i on t o a l t e r t r a di t i ona l r e l i g i on t o s ur vi ve i n a t he ol ogi c a l w o r l d i nc r e a s i ngl y de f i ne d by a l i be r a l a ppr oa c h t o C hr i s t i a ni t y.

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18 C ha pt e r T hr e e : T he D i vi de be t w e e n R e l i gi on a nd T he ol ogy B e f or e e m ba r ki ng on a n a na l ys i s of W a r e s F o r be s S oul s by s a nd A l ga r c i f e s m e t hods of e xe r c i s i ng t he i r r e l i gi ons a nd t he ol ogi e s t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy be a r s r e pe a t i ng. S ude r m a n, i n T he D a m na t i on of T he r on W a r e a s a C r i t i c i s m of A m e r i c a n R e l i gi ous T hought poi nt s out t ha t t h e di vi s i on l a y, t o t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y r e a de r be t w e e n t he pe r s ona l a nd t he i ns t i t ut i ona l A s G a us t a d w r i t e s i n r e f e r e nc e t o W hi t e s H i s t or y of t he W ar f ar e of Sc i e nc e w i t h T he ol ogy i n C hr i s t e ndom ( t o w hi c h G a us t a d a t t r i but e s t he t i t l e H i s t or y of t he W ar f ar e be t w e e n Sc i e nc e and T he ol ogy ) W hi t e s t r e s s e d t ha t t he w a r f a r e w a s not w i t h r e l i g i on, but onl y w i t h t he ol ogy: t ha t i s w i t h r e l i gi on ha r de ne d i nt o dogm a ( 173 ) R ona l d L N um be r s not e s t ha t W hi t e hi m s e l f di s t i ngui s he d hi s ow n book f r om a n e a r l i e r w o r k a ddr e s s i ng t he s a m e t he m e J ohn W i l l i a m D r a pe r s 1874 book, H i s t or y of t he C onf l i c t be t w e e n R e l i gi on and Sc i e nc e W hi t e f e l t t ha t b e t w e e n t he w or ks t he r e w a s a f u nda m e nt a l di f f e r e nc e : D r a pe r r e ga r de d t he s t r uggl e a s one be t w e e n S c i e nc e a nd R e l i gi on, w hi l e W hi t e vi e w e d i t a s a s t r uggl e be t w e e n S c i e nc e a nd D ogm a t i c T he ol ogy ( 60 1 ) E ve n W i l l i a m J a m e s i n T he V ar i e t i e s of R e l i gi ous E x pe r i e nc e ( 1902) s t a t e s i n di s c us s i ng t he de f i ni t i on of r e l i gi on a t t he out s e t w e a r e s t r uc k by one gr e a t pa r t i t i on w hi c h d i vi de s t he r e l i gi ous f i e l d. O n t he one s i de of i t l i e s i ns t i t ut i ona l on t he ot he r pe r s ona l r e l i gi on ( 48) T he r on W a r e t he p r o t a goni s t of F r e de r i c s t e xt i ni t i a l l y ha s no di vi s i on i n hi s ow n pr a c t i c e be t w e e n t he r e l i g i ous a nd t he ol ogi c a l H i s pe r s ona l a c t i ons a r e i n ha r m ony

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19 w i t h t hos e he pe r f o r m s i n publ i c H i s a dhe r e nc e t o t he M e t hodi s t i ns t i t ut i on i s de m ons t r a t e d f r om t he out s e t of t he t e xt T he nove l be gi ns a t t he a nnua l N e da hm a C onf e r e nc e of t he M e t hodi s t E pi s c opa l C hur c h dur i ng w hi c h T he r on i s not a w a r de d t he c ove t e d T e c um s e h c ongr e ga t i on a s e xpe c t e d. 1 H e i s i ns t e a d s e nt t o O c t a vi us a s m a l l or t hodox c ongr e ga t i on B ot h he a nd hi s w i f e A l i c e a r e c r e s t f a l l e n a t t he s e e m i ng unf a i r ne s s of t he a s s i gnm e nt B ut W a r e i n di s c us s i on w i t h hi s w i f e s a ys C om e l e t us m a ke t he be s t of i t m y gi r l A f t e r a l l w e a r e i n t he ha nds of t he L or d ( 12) W a r e e qua t e s t he a c t i ons of t he gove r ni ng body of t he M e t hodi s t E pi s c opa l C hur c h w i t h t he w i l l of G od. H e doe s not s e pa r a t e pe r s ona l be l i e f f r om t he i ns t i t ut i on. I f t he i ns t i t ut i on ha s m a de a n a s s e r t i on, i t i s h i s dut y t o r e c onc i l e hi s pe r s ona l f e e l i ngs t o i t W a r e s ha r m oni ous pe r s pe c t i ve a t t he out s e t o f t he nove l c ont r a s t s s ha r pl y w i t h t he W a r e f ound i n t he f i na l t hi r d of t he nove l H e n ot e s t hi s hi m s e l f i n c onve r s a t i on w i t h F or be s w he n he s t a t e s you ha ve a t hous a nd t hi ng s t o i nt e r e s t a nd pl e a s a nt l y oc c upy you i n your w o r k a nd i t s c e r e m oni e s s o t ha t m e r e be l i e f or non be l i e f i n t he dogm a ha r dl y m a t t e r s B ut i n our c hur c h dogm a i s e ve r yt hi ng. I f you t a ke t ha t a w a y, or c e a s e t o ha ve i t s s uppor t t he r e s t i s i nt ol e r a bl e hi de ous ( 285 ) W a r e c onf e s s e s t ha t he ha s l os t t he a bi l i t y t o s ubs c r i be t o t he dogm a of hi s C hur c h. P a t r i c k K D ool e y poi n t s t o t he i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n W a r e s a bi l i t y t o be l i e ve a nd t he qua l i t y of hi s pr e a c hi ng a s p r oof of W a r e s pr a gm a t i c a ppr oa c h. D ool e y obs e r ve s none of t he c e nt r a l r e l i g i ous f i gur e s i n t he 1 F or a t hr ough e xa m i na t i on o f C onf e r e nc e i n A m e r i c a n M e t hodi s m s e e R us s e l l E R i c he y s 1996 book, T he M e t hodi s t C onf e r e nc e i n A m e r i c a T he i m por t a nc e of C onf e r e nc e i n M e t hodi s t t he ol ogy c a nnot be ove r e s t i m a t e d. A s R i c he y w r i t e s C onf e r e nc e s e r ve d a s a gove r ni ng a s s e m bl y i n c on c e r t a nd of t e n a t odds w i t h t he e pi s c opa c y. B e yond gove r na nc e a nd di s t r i but i on o f pr e a c he r s C onf e r e nc e s e r ve d t o m a r k t i m e e s t a bl i s h ge ogr a phi c a l bor de r s of c ong r e ga t i ona l di s t r i c t s a nd s t r uc t u r e t he na t u r e of M e t hodi s t w or s hi p ( 13 4)

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20 nov e l W a r e F or be s or t he S oul s bys be l i e ve i n G od i n t he o r di na r y l i t e r a l s e ns e Y e t e a c h i s s ki l l e d i n t he m a nu f a c t ur e of t he be ne f i c i a l e f f e c t s of r e l i g i on a nd be l i e f i n G od ( 76) A s w i l l be de m ons t r a t e d, F or be s t he S oul s bys a n d A l ga r c i f e f r om P has e s a l l do pos s e s s t hi s be ne f i c i a l s ki l l W a r e hi m s e l f how e ve r di f f e r s f r om t he m i n hi s i nt e nt I n c onve r s a t i on w i t h C e l i a M a dde n, W a r e s a ys I ve l e a r ne d t o be a s how m a n. I c a n pr e a c h now f a r be t t e r t ha n I us e d t o a nd I c a n ge t t h r ough m y w or k i n ha l f t he t i m e [ ] I w a s t oo gr e e n be f o r e I t ook t he t h i ng s e r i ous l y, a nd I l e t e ve r y m e a n f i s t e d c u r m udge on a nd c r a z y f a na t i c w or r y m e a nd ke e p m e on pi ns a nd n e e dl e s I don t do t ha t a nym or e ( 257 8) W a r e i s c e r t a i nl y s ki l l e d a t or a t o r y, but hi s s ki l l doe s not m a ke hi m a p r a gm a t i s t T he onl y m e nt i on he m a ke s of a nyone but hi m s e l f i n hi s de c l a r a t i on t o M a dde n i s of e ve r y m e a n f i s t e d c ur m udge on a nd c r a z y f a na t i c T he r e i s no c onc e r n f or s e e ki ng t he gr e a t e s t be ne f i t or c hoos i ng hi s a c t i ons w i t h a m i nd t o hi s c ong r e ga t i on s w e l l be i ng. I ns t e a d, W a r e f oc us e s on hi m s e l f a nd hi s ow n de s i r e t o c a s t hi m s e l f a s a n e r udi t e w o r l d w e a r y s c hol a r H e i s una bl e t o br i dge t he ga p be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy w i t h a pr a gm a t i c a ppr oa c h. H e t oggl e s f r om w hol l y or t hodox t o e nt i r e l y he t e r odox, w i t h no i nt e r ve ni ng m ode r a t e s t a nc e r e ga r dl e s s of t he e f f e c t i t ha s on hi s c ongr e ga nt s F or be s S oul s by, a nd A l ga r c i f e di f f e r f r om W a r e i n t ha t t he y do de m ons t r a t e a de s i r e t o c r e a t e t he g r e a t e s t be ne f i t F or be s e xpl a i ns hi s r e l i gi on i n a nu m be r o f pa s s a ge s O ne of t he m os t t e l l i ng c om e s i n a c onve r s a t i on w i t h W a r e F o r be s s t a t e s I da r e s a y, t hough t ha t i f w e c oul d go ba c k s t i l l ot he r s c or e s of c e nt ur i e s w e s houl d f i nd w hol e r e c e di ng s e r i e s of t ype s o f t hi s C hr i s t m yt h of our s ( 74 ) Y e t F o r be s r e m a i ns l oy a l t o t he C hur c h F or be s gi ve s W a r e a n

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21 e xpl a na t i on of w hy he c a n m a i nt a i n a di vi s i on be t w e e n hi s r e l i gi on a nd hi s t he ol ogy i n a l ong pa s s a ge w or t h quot i ng i n f ul l : W ha t you m us t s e e i s t ha t t he r e m us t a l w a ys be a c hur c h. I f one di d not e xi s t i t w oul d be ne c e s s a r y t o i nve nt i t I t i s ne e de d, f i r s t a nd f or e m os t a s a pol i c e f or c e I t i s ne e de d, s e c ondl y s o t o s pe a k, a s a f i r e i ns ur a nc e I t pr ovi de s t he m os t e ve n t e m pe r a t u r e a nd pu r e a t m o s phe r e f or t he gr ow t h of young c hi l dr e n. I t f ur ni s he s t he be s t obt a i na bl e s oc i a l m a c hi ne r y f o r m a r r yi ng o f f one s da ught e r s ge t t i ng t o know t he r i ght pe opl e pa t c hi ng up qua r r e l s a nd s o on. T he pr i e s t hood e a r n t he i r s a l a r i e s a s t he a ge nt s f or t he s e va l ua bl e s oc i a l a r r a nge m e nt s T he i r t he ol ogy i s t hr ow n i n a s a s or t of i nt e l l e c t ua l di ve r s i on, l i ke t he r i t ua l o f a be ne vol e n t or ga ni z a t i on. T he r e a r e s om e w ho ge t e xc i t e d a bout t hi s pa r t of i t j us t a s one he a r s of F r e e M a s on s w ho be l i e ve t ha t t he s un r i s e s a nd s e t s t o e xe m pl i f y t he i r c e r e m oni e s O t he r s t a ke t he i r dut i e s m or e qui e t l y, a nd, unde r s t a ndi ng j us t w ha t i t a l l a m ount s t o, m a ke t he be s t o f i t l i ke you a nd m e ( 250 1 ) F or be s pr ovi de s t he r e a de r w i t h pe r ha ps t he c l e a r e s t s t a t e m e nt of t he p r a gm a t i c r e l i gi ous l e a de r H i s r e l i gi on i s be s i de t he poi n t F or be s u nd e r s t a nds t ha t t he t he ol ogy, t he i nt e l l e c t ua l di ve r s i on, a l l ow s hi m t o p r ovi de t he s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e s o be ne f i c i a l t o hi s c ongr e ga t i on. D a vi d H Z i m m e r m a n e xa m i ni ng F or be s a s a m od e r ni s t s t a t e s w he n F or be s m us t i nt e r a c t w i t h hi s pa r i s hi one r s a nd t he i r f a i t h, he r e t ur ns t o t he t r a di t i ona l f o r m ul a s a nd r i t ua l s of t he C hur c h; i nde e d, hi s pe r c e pt i ons o f t he s e a r e a t t i m e s c ons e r va t i ve a nd a r c ha i c H e c onc l ude s F or be s l a c ks t he s t r e ngt h of c ha r a c t e r t o i na ugur a t e t he

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22 t he ol ogi e s he e s pous e s ( 39) I n Z i m m e r m a n s a r g um e nt he s i t ua t e s F or be s a c t i ons a s de r i ve d pr i m a r i l y f r om a m ode r ni s t hi s t or i c a l vi e w H ow e ve r i f F or be s i s s e e n a s a m ode r ni s t w hos e a c t i ons a r e t a ke n f r om a pr a gm a t i c pos i t i on, hi s a c t i ons a c hi e ve a ba l a nc e be t w e e n hi s r e l i gi on a nd t he o l ogy T o pub l i c l y c ha l l e nge t he or t hodoxy of t he C hur c h w oul d be w hol l y i r r e s pons i bl e be c a us e t he e nt i r e s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e o f t he c ongr e ga t i on de pe nds on i t H e doe s not l a c k t he c ha r a c t e r t o p r om ot e hi s r e l i gi on, but pos s e s s e s t he c ha r a c t e r t o r e a l i z e i t s l i m i t a t i ons i n t he publ i c s phe r e S i s t e r S oul s by pr ovi de s a n a ddi t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve on F or be s m e t hod of m a i nt a i n i ng hi s t he ol ogy f or t he be ne f i t of t he l a i t y S he s t a t e s i n r e a c t i on t o W a r e s de s c r i pt i on of F o r be s a s one w ho doe s n t be l i e ve a n a t om i n i n t hi ngs t ha t t he y ve got hor s e s e ns e t hos e pr i e s t s T he y r e a r t i s t s t oo T he y know how t o a l l ow f or t he m a c hi ne r y be hi nd t he s c e ne s ( 179) T he t he a t r e a nd t he m a c hi ne r y be hi nd t he s c e ne s f or m t he ba s i s of S i s t e r S oul s by s r e l i gi on. D i s s e m bl i ng f or m s t he ba s i s of he r p r a gm a t i c a ppr oa c h t o t he w e l l be i ng of t he M e t hodi s t c ongr e ga t i ons t o w hi c h s he a nd he r hus ba nd t r a ve l S oul s by out l i ne s he r a ppr oa c h t o W a r e c om pa r i ng he r a ppr oa c h t o t ha t o f a t he a t r i c a l pr oduc t i on: t he pe r f or m a nc e l ooks one w a y f r om w he r e t he a u di e nc e s i t a nd qui t e a di f f e r e nt w a y w he n you a r e be hi nd t he s c e ne s T he r e you s e e t ha t t he t r e e s a nd hous e s a r e c l ot h, a nd m oon i s t i s s ue pa pe r a nd t he f l yi ng f a i r y i s a m i ddl e a ge d w om a n s t r ung u p on a r ope T ha t doe s n t pr ove t ha t t he pl a y out i n f r ont i s n t be a ut i f ul a nd a f f e c t i ng a nd a l l t h a t I t onl y s how s t ha t e ve r yt hi ng i n t h i s w or l d i s pr oduc e d by m a c hi ne r y by or ga ni z a t i on. T he t r oubl e i s t ha t you ve be e n l e t i n on t he s t a ge be hi nd t he s c e ne s s o t o s pe a k a nd you r e gr e e n i f you l l pa r don m e t ha t you w a nt t o s i t dow n

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23 a nd c r y be c a us e t he t r e e s ar e c l ot h, a nd t he m oon i s a l a nt e r n. A nd I s a y, D on t be s uc h a goos e ( 177) S oul s by ha s r e c onc i l e d t he t r a di t i ona l w i t h t he pr o gr e s s i ve T he t r a di t i ona l i n he r a na l ogy i s t he pl a y i t s e l f t he be a ut y a nd t he a f f e c t T he p r o gr e s s i ve r e ve a l s i t s e l f a s not hi ng m or e t ha n a n a dm i s s i on of a ba c ks t a ge L i ke F a t he r F o r b e s S oul s by r e c ogni z e s t he pow e r a nd i m por t a nc e of a n or ga ni z a t i on. F or be s poi n t s out t ha t a n or ga ni z a t i on i s c r e a t e d f r o m t he a e s t he t i c di s pl a y of t he ol ogy, a n or ga ni z a t i on be ne f i c i a l t o t he l a i t y. S oul s by a g r e e s w i t h F or be s but e l a bor a t e s on t he ne e d f or a n or ga ni z a t i on be hi nd t he c u r t a i n. S oul s by s a r gum e nt i s pa r a doxi c a l l y, f or t he s t a t us quo i na s m uc h a s i t s uppor t s t he w e l l be i ng o f t he w or s hi ppe r s A t he ol ogy i s ne e de d t o c ons t r uc t a s oc i a l or ga ni z a t i on. S oul s by doe s not how e ve r a l i gn he r s e l f w i t h a s pe c i f i c t he oc r a t i c gove r ni ng body W he r e F or be s a c t s f r om w i t h i n t he s t r i c t ur e s of t he C a t hol i c C hur c h t o pr om ot e s oc i a l o r ga ni z a t i on, S oul s by i s a n i nde pe nde nt t ha t us e s t he e s t a bl i s he d M e t hodi s t or de r t o m a ni pul a t e f r om t he out s i de H e r i nde pe nde nc e a nd m e t hods how e ve r ha ve p r om pt e d s om e s c hol a r s pr om i ne nt l y L ue dt ke a nd D ona l ds on, t o c onc l ude t ha t S oul s by i s t he a nt a goni s t o f t he pi e c e l ur i ng W a r e t o hi s dow nf a l l W a r e hi m s e l f h a s hi s r e s e r va t i ons a bout S oul s by s m e t hods I n r e s pons e t o hi s que s t i on a bout w he t he r s he a nd he r hus ba nd ha ve e ve r be e n s i nc e r e l y c onve r t e d, S oul s by a ns w e r s N ot onl y o nc e doz e ns of t i m e s I m a y s a y e v e r y t i m e W e c oul dn t do good w or k i f w e w e r e n t ( 184 5 ) I n r e s pons e t o he r de c l a r a t i on, L ue dt ke w r i t e s t ha t he r de c l a r a t i on i s gl i b, w i t hout s ubs t a nc e a nd t ha t S oul s by i s a bl e t o be a t dow n T he r on s m or a l r e s e r va t i ons a nd c onvi nc e hi m t ha t t he S oul s bys ha d gi ve n up t he i r e a r l i e r w a y of l i f e be c a us e t he y ha d bot h s our e d on l i vi ng by

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24 f a ke s a nd w e r e now good f r a uds [ ] i t i s a n e l e m e nt a r y m i s t a ke t o a c c e pt S i s t e r S oul s by s ow n s e l f j us t i f i c a t i ons ( 93 ) T he m i s t a ke l i e s not i n a c c e pt i ng S oul s by s s e l f j us t i f i c a t i ons but i n a s s um i ng a n e qui va l e nc e be t w e e n t he S oul s by s a c t i ons a nd t he a c t i ons of c onf i de nc e m e n s uc h a s t he D uke a nd D a uphi n f r om T w a i n s H uc k l e be r r y F i nn a s L ue dt ke doe s l a t e r i n t he s a m e s e l e c t i on. T he di f f e r e nc e i s a ppa r e nt f r om t he s oc i a l r e s ul t of e a c h pa i r s a c t i ons T he D uke a nd D a uphi n a r e w i t hout c onc e r n f o r t he de s t r uc t i ve ne s s of t he i r a c t i ons w he r e a s t he S oul s bys w or k i s be ne f i c i a l t o e a c h c ongr e ga t i on f or w hom t he y pe r f o r m T hi s i s t he e s s e nc e of t he di vi s i on be t w e e n t he f a ke a n d t he good f r a ud. T he c he e r f ul di vi s i on be t w e e n f a ke a nd good f r a ud i s a bs e nt f r om A nt hony A l ga r c i f e s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h ba l a nc i ng r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy. T he s e c ond pa r t of P has e s dur i ng w hi c h t he a t he i s t A l ga r c i f e ha s be c om e a n E pi s c opa l i a n P r i e s t be gi ns w i t h a n e pi gr a m f r o m M a r c us A ur e l i us m e di t a t i ons : A nd not e ve n he r e do a l l a gr e e no, not a ny one w i t h hi m s e l f ( 189) A u r e l i us w or ds a r e p e r f e c t l y a ppl i c a bl e t o A l ga r c i f e a nd no c ha r a c t e r i s m or e a w a r e of hi s i nt e r na l di v i s i on t ha n A l ga r c i f e hi m s e l f T he na r r a t or s a ys of A l ga r c i f e w ha t i f he ha d l i ve d a l i e de c e nt l y, w ha t i f he ha d f ought a good f i ght f or a c a us e he oppos e d, w ha t i f he i n t he na m e of t ha t c a us e ha d c l os e d hi s e ye s a nd hi s nos t r i l s t o t he t h i ngs t ha t r e pe l a nd ha d l a bo r e d t o c l e a ns e t he s e w e r a t hi s door w a s i t a ny t he l e s s a l i e ? ( 218 9 ) I n P has e s t he r e a de r f i nds a n e c ho of t he f a ke s a nd good f r a uds of T he r on W ar e A l ga r c i f e a t t e m pt s t o l i ve a l i e de c e nt l y, but t he t one i s f a r m o r e s om be r a l m os t r e g r e t f ul A l ga r c i f e unde r s t a nds t he ne c e s s i t y of t he l i e but i s not a t e a s e i n i t s a ppl i c a t i on. M uc h of h i s une a s i ne s s c a n be a t t r i but e d t o t he f a c t t ha t he i s not a pr a gm a t i s t w he n he c hoos e s t o l i ve a dua l l i f e be t w e e n hi s r e l i gi on, i f hi s a t he i s m m a y be

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25 s e e n a s hi s r e l i gi on ( i na s m uc h a s i t i s hi s pe r s ona l a f f i r m a t i ve be l i e f ) a nd hi s t he ol ogy. W he n he f i r s t a s s um e s t he r ol e o f P r i e s t f ol l ow i ng t he de a t h of hi s m e nt or F a t he r S pe a r s he [ A l ga r c i f e ] w a s c a l l e d t o t he c ha r ge he a c c e pt e d i t w i t hout a s t r uggl e a nd w i t hout e m ot i on. H e s a w i n i t bu t a n ope ni ng t o he a vi e r l a b or a nd a n o ppor t uni t y t o ha s t e n t he pr ogr e s s of hi s s l ow s ui c i de ( 241 ) A l ga r c i f e s f e e l i ngs a r e not c om m e ns ur a t e t o t he a c t i on of t he pr a gm a t i s t T he f oc us i s w hol l y upon t he i ndi vi dua l a nd t he a c t i on ha s not be e n t a k e n w i t h t he goa l of c r e a t i ng t he gr e a t e s t be ne f i t B y t he e nd of t he nove l how e ve r A l ga r c i f e a r r i ve s a t t he r ol e of t he pr a gm a t i s t I n t he f i na l s c e ne of t he nove l he i s c onf r ont e d w i t h a c hoi c e be t w e e n s ui c i de i ns pi r e d by t he de a t h of hi s f or m e r w i f e a nd he l pi ng hi s l a i t y A l ga r c i f e i s s t a ndi ng i n hi s l i br a r y, a phi a l of c ya ni de unc o r ke d a nd r e a dy f or c ons um pt i on, w he n a m e s s e nge r c a l l s t o hi m f r om hi s doo r : H e r e pl a c e d t he s t oppe r s t i l l hol di ng t he phi a l i n h i s ha nd. F o r a m om e nt t he he a vy s i l e nc e hung opp r e s s i ve l y, a nd t he n he a ns w e r e d: W ha t i s i t ? H i s voi c e s ounde d l i f e l e s s l i ke t ha t o f one a w a ke ni ng f r om he a vy s l e e p or a t r a nc e Y ou a r e t he r e ? C om e qui c kl y Y our m e n a t t he B e a s l e y R ol l i ng M i l l s ha ve gone on a s t r i ke A pol i c e m a n w a s s hot a nd s e ve r a l of t he s t r i ke r s w ounde d. Y ou a r e w a nt e d t o s pe a k t o t he m T o s pe a k t o t he m ? I ha ve a c a b. Y ou m a y pr e ve nt bl oods he d. C om e

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26 F a t he r A l ga r c i f e r e t ur ne d t he phi a l t o i t s d r a w e r w i t hdr e w t he ke y f r om t he l oc ke r a nd r os e H e ope ne d t he door a nd f a c e d t he m e s s e nge r H i s w or ds c a m e t hi c kl y. T he r e i s no t i m e t o l os e he s a i d. I a m r e a dy. H e s e i z e d hi s ha t de s c e nde d t he s t e ps a nd r us he d i nt o t he s t r e e t ( 324 5) A t t hi s poi nt i n t he na r r a t i ve A l ga r c i f e i s a bl e t o m a ke a c hoi c e ba s e d on w ha t yi e l ds t he gr e a t e s t be ne f i t D e s pi t e hi s de s i r e t o di e he c hoos e s t o l i ve be c a us e he w i l l be a bl e t o m ol l i f y t he s t r i ke r s H e doe s not how e ve r di s pos e of t he poi s on. I t s t i l l r e s i de s i n hi s dr a w e r r e a dy a t a m om e nt t o e nd hi s l i f e A l ga r c i f e i s a ga i n de m ons t r a t i ng t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pr a gm a t i s t T he t r ut h of hi s e xi s t e nc e t ha t i t y i e l ds t he gr e a t e s t be ne f i t i s p r ovi s i ona l a nd a ne w t r ut h m a y be a s s e r t e d a t a ny m om e nt V e r y l i t t l e of P has e s c onc e r ns i t s e l f w i t h A l ga r c i f e s d ut i e s a s a P r i e s t i ns i de hi s C hur c h. I ns t e a d t he r e a de r s e e s hi m m a ki ng c a l l s a t i ndi vi dua l s hom e s a nd c onve r s i ng a s a l e a de r out s i de of t he c e r e m ony of hi s pos t I t i s hi s pr a gm a t i c a bi l i t y t o r e c ogni z e t he va l ue of s oc i a l or ga ni z a t i on t ha t a l l ow s A l ga r c i f e t o ba l a n c e hi s r e l i gi on w i t h h i s t he ol ogy. T he r on W a r e a s s e e n i n t he a bove e xa m i na t i on, c ont r a s t s s ha r pl y w i t h t he f i gur e of t he p r a gm a t i s t W he r e a s F or be s S oul s by, a nd A l ga r c i f e a r e a bl e t o r e c onc i l e t he i r r e l i gi ons a nd t he ol ogi e s W a r e a t t he e nd o f t he no v e l c ut s hi m s e l f a d r i f t f r om t he M e t hodi s t C hur c h t o pur s ue a c a r e e r i n r e a l e s t a t e a nd pol i t i c s F r e de r i c pr ov i de s a hi nt o f W a r e s f ut ur e voc a t i on ne a r t he be gi nni ng of t he n ove l w he n he w r i t e s i n r e f e r e nc e t o W a r e s f or m e r m e nt or i f he di dn t t hi nk i t w oul d be be t t e r f o r hi m t o s t udy l a w w i t h a vi e w t o s l i di ng out of t he m i n i s t r y w he n a good c h a nc e of f e r e d. I t a m a z e d hi m now t o

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27 r e c a l l t ha t he ha d t a ke n t hi s hi nt s e r i ous l y, a nd e ve n gone t o t he l e ngt h o f f i ndi ng out w ha t books l a w s t ude nt s be ga n upon ( 24) T he s e r i ous ne s s w i t h w hi c h W a r e a ppr oa c he s t he s ugge s t i on of a n a l t e r na t e c a r e e r pa t h s ugge s t s a n a m bi va l e nc e t ow a r d hi s pos i t i on a s a m i ni s t e r H e s houl d ha ve be c om e a l a w ye r a nd d oe s be c om e a n a s pi r a nt pol i t i c i a n. W a r e ne ve r r e c onc i l e s hi s r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy; h e m e r e l y de f e r s t he i s s ue unt i l i t r e a c he s a m om e nt of c r i s i s

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28 C ha pt e r F our : T he P r a gm a t i s t a nd t he A e s t he t e W hi l e F or be s S ou l s by, a nd A l ga r c i f e m a na ge t o n e got i a t e s om e r e c onc i l i a t i on be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy t hr ough pr a gm a t i s m a ga p s t i l l r e m a i ns a n a bs e nc e a nd i s ol a t i on c r e a t e d by t he i nt e r na l di v i s i on, a nd e a c h s e e ks t o a ddr e s s t hi s a bs e nc e t hr ough hi s or he r r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he a e s t he t i c T he r e l a t i on s hi ps e a c h m a i nt a i ns w i t h t he f i gu r e of t he a e s t he t e a r e how e ve r f unda m e nt a l l y di f f e r e nt a nd yi e l d di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s F or be s a l l i e s hi m s e l f w i t h t he H e l l e ni s t i c C e l i a M a dde n, h i s C hur c h or ga ni s t S oul s by i s he r s e l f a n a e s t he t e l ong ve r s e d i n t he t he a t e r a nd s t i l l p r a c t i c i ng he r c r a f t a s a t r a ve l i ng r e vi va l i s t A l ga r c i f e m a r r i e s t he a s pi r a nt ope r a s i n ge r M a r i a nna M us i n, t hough he r e m a i ns une a s y w i t h he r a e s t he t i c pur s ui t s A ga i n, W a r e c ont r a s t s w i t h t he ot he r c ha r a c t e r s i n hi s a l i gnm e nt t o t he a e s t he t e H e pur s ue s M a dde n a s a n obj e c t of a dor a t i on but f or e nt i r e l y di s s i m i l a r r e a s ons t ha n t hos e F or be s ha s f or m a i nt a i ni ng a r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h he r T he pr a gm a t i s t s a r e e a c h t o s om e e xt e nt l i vi ng w i t h t he di vi s i on be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy bu t w i t h t ha t di vi s i on c om e s i s ol a t i on, a ga p be t w e e n w ha t t he y be l i e ve a nd w ha t t he y do T he s e ns e of a r t f o r a r t s s a ke or m or e a c c ur a t e l y, t he a e s t he t i c m ood, s e r ve s t o c a l m t he pr a gm a t i s t s s e ns e of a bs e nc e by pr ovi di ng a L e be ns k ns t l e r f i gur e de di c a t e d t o t he pr a c t i c e o f a n a r t i s t i c l i f e 1 T ha t w hi c h ge ne r a t e s t he gr e a t e s t 1 D a vi d A ndr e w s i n hi s book A e s t he t i c i s m N abok ov and L ol i t a de m ons t r a t e s t ha t t he a e s t he t i c m ood di f f e r s f r om t he i de a o f l ar t pour l ar t A s he w r i t e s w ha t m a ke s a r t f o r a r t s s a ke m or e s pe c i f i c t ha n a e s t he t i c i s m i s t ha t t he f o r m e r s t i pul a t e s w ha t a r t be a ut y, a nd t a s t e a r e not w hi l e t he l a t t e r s t i pul a t e s not hi ng ( 13) H e goe s on t o a r g ue

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29 be ne f i t bi nds t he p r a gm a t i s t U t i l i t y de t e r m i ne s hi s or he r a c t i on. T he a e s t he t e i s bound onl y by a de di c a t i on t o be a ut y a nd t hus pr ov i de s t h e pr a gm a t i s t s i m pl y by p r oxi m i t y w i t h t he or na m e nt m i s s i ng f r om a n e nt i r e l y pr a c t i c a l l i f e T he r on W a r e be c om e s i nf a t ua t e d w i t h C e l i a M a dd e n t o s uc h a n e xt e nt t ha t a t t he e nd of t he nove l he m i s a ppr opr i a t e s C hur c h f unds t o f ol l ow he r t o N e w Y or k i n a va i n a t t e m pt t o w i n he r a f f e c t i ons I t i s he r a e s t he t i c s e ns e t ha t t ur ns hi m f r om a c l e r gym a n t o a b e s ot t e d de vot e e T hi s t r a ns f or m a t i on i s c om pl e t e d dur i ng c ha pt e r ni ne t e e n, a f t e r w hi c h i t w a s a ppa r e nt t o t he R e v. T he r on W a r e f r om t h e ve r y f i r s t m om e nt of w a ki ng ne xt m or ni ng, t ha t bot h he a nd t he w or l d ha d c ha nge d o ve r ni ght ( 210) D ur i ng t he c our s e o f t hi s c ha pt e r M a dde n, ha vi ng br ought W a r e t o he r hom e l e a ds hi m t hr ough he r w or ks hop w i t h t he a c c out r e m e nt s of pa i nt i ng, s c ul pt ur e boo kbi ndi ng, c a r pe nt r y, a nd dr a w i ng i nt o a not he r c ha m be r a c ha m be r ha l f l i ght e d a nd f i l l e d w i t h nude s t a t ua r y pa i nt i n gs o f t he M a donna a nd C hi l d, c ol um ns a nd c us hi ons A l s o i n t he r oom i s a pi a no w hi c h W a r e f i r s t m i s t a ke s f or a c a s ke t a l l m a r ks of he r a e s t he t i c m ood ( 197 8) S he pr ovi de s t oba c c o, t o w hi c h W a r e i s una c c us t om e d, t hough he w i l l t r y a nyt hi ng t o f ur t he r i n g r a t i a t e hi m s e l f w i t h M a dde n. S he i s a n a e s t he t e c onc e r ne d w i t h c r e a t i ng be a ut y f or i t s ow n s a ke w i t h a r om a nt i c not i on of t he a nc i e nt G r e e ks w ho s he vi e w s a s a na t i on w he r e a l l t he pe opl e w e r e a r t i s t s w he r e e ve r ybody w a s a n i nt e l l e c t ua l a r i s t oc r a t w he r e t he P hi l i s t i ne w a s a s unknow n, a s e xt i nc t a s t he dodo ( 200) W a r e und e r s t a nds none of t hi s e xpl a na t i on. H i s t ha t us i ng t he t e r m s i nt e r c ha nge a bl y m i s r e pr e s e nt s a ny a r t i s t t ha t c a n be vi e w e d a s w or ki ng i n t he a e s t he t i c m ood by a pp l yi ng a n ove r l y r e s t r i c t i ve s e pa r a t i on be t w e e n t he c r e a t i on of a r t a nd i t s e xt a nt r e s ul t s W hi l e be a ut y i s t he pr i m a r y goa l of a r t t o t he a e s t he t e i t doe s not ba r ut i l i t y f r om be i ng a n a t t e n da nt e l e m e nt t hough one a l w a ys s ubor di na t e t o f o r m

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30 r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h M a dde n i s obs e s s i ve r a t he r t ha n t ha t w hi c h f ul f i l l s a ne e d f or s om e t hi ng ot he r t ha n t he pr a gm a t i c F a t he r F or be s m a i nt a i ns hi s p r oxi m i t y t o M a dde n a nd M a dde n t a ke s up he r c ha r ge w i t h z e a l I n a c onve r s a t i on c onc e r ni ng t he m us i c a nd a r t ha t i ng D r L e ds m a r s he t e l l s W a r e I w a nt you on m y s i de a ga i ns t t ha t do c t or a nd hi s he a r t l e s s bl ood l e s s s c i e nc e ( 102) H e r s t a t e m e nt i s a c l e a r r e ve l a t i on of t he na t u r e of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n F or be s a nd M a dde n. D r L e ds m a r F o r be s onl y o t he r f r i e nd i n O c t a vi us i s oppos e d t o a r t a nd vi e w s i t a s a s i gna l o f a ny c i vi l i z a t i on s i m pe ndi ng dow nf a l l ( 83 84 ) M a dde n s e e k s t o c or r e c t t ha t i nf l ue nc e by m a i nt a i n i ng t he pr i m a c y of a r t a nd be a ut y i n t he pr i e s t s l i f e F o r be s be c om e s a ba t t l e gr ound f or t he oppos i ng f a c t i ons o f s c i e nc e a nd be a ut y a nd M a dde n s e e ks t o r e c r ui t W a r e t o s w e l l he r f or c e s r a nks B e a ut y s e e m s t he pr ovi s i ona l vi c t or i n t he ong oi ng s t r uggl e how e ve r W hi l e F or be s a nd L e ds m a r ha ve a n ol d f r i e nds hi p, s he hol ds a pl a c e i n hi s C hur c h. I t i s s he F or be s pr a i s e s by s a yi ng s he m i ght be t he da ught e r o f a hund r e d ki ngs ( 288 ) I t i s M a dde n w i t h w hom he t r a ve l s t o N e w Y or k a t t he e nd of t he nove l L e ds m a r m a y b e c l os e t o F or be s but M a dde n i s a pa r t of hi m S i s t e r S oul s by di f f e r s f r om F o r be s i n he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he a e s t he t i c J us t a s s he ne e ds t o be l ong t o no e xt e r na l t he ol ogi c a l i ns t i t ut i on t o e xe r c i s e he r pr a gm a t i s m s he ne e ds no o ut s i de s our c e t o f ul f i l l he r ne e d f or t he a e s t he t i c S he i s a t he s pi a n, l ong pr a c t i c e d i n t he a c t or s t r a de S he t e l l s W a r e I s u ppor t e d m ys e l f f or a good m a ny ye a r s ge ne r a l l y, a t f i r s t on t he s t a ge I ve be e n a f r ont r a nke r i n A m a z on ba l l e t s a nd I ve be e n l e a di ng l a dy i n c om i c ope r a c om pa ni e s o ut W e s t I ve t ol d f or t une s i n one r oom of a m i ni ng c a m p hot e l w he r e t he b i gge s t ga m e of f a r o i n t he T e r r i t o r y w e nt on i n

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31 a not he r ( 183) S oul s by i s by no m e a ns pr a c t i c i ng a r t f or a r t s s a ke S he s uppor t s he r s e l f w i t h he r t he a t r i c a l pur s ui t s a nd, i n a B ohe m i a n m a nne r doe s s o i n t he l e a s t r e put a bl e ve nue s a va i l a bl e H e r e xpe r i e nc e a l l ow s he r t o c r e a t e t he ki nds of i ns pi r a t i ona l e f f e c t s t ha t s he a nd B r ot he r S oul s by e l i c i t i n t he e pi s ode o f t he L ove F e a s t : 2 T he n t he w om a n l i f t i ng he r he a d, be ga n t o s i ng T he w or ds w e r e R oc k o f A ge s but no one pr e s e nt ha d he a r d t he t une t o w h i c h s he w e dde d t he m H e r voi c e w a s f ul l a nd ve r y s w e e t a nd ha d i n i t t e nde r c a de nc e s w hi c h a l l he r he a r e r s f ound t ouc hi ng. S he kne w how t o s i ng, a nd s he put f or t h t he w or ds s o t ha t e a c h w a s di s t i nc t l y i nt e l l i gi b l e T he r e c a m e a pa r t w he r e B r ot he r S oul s by, l i f t i ng hi s he a d i n t ur n t ook up a t une f ul s e c ond t o he r a i r A l t hough t he t w o di d no t a s one c oul d he a r by l i s t e ni ng c l os e l y, s i ng t he s a m e w or ds a t t he s a m e t i m e t he y pr oduc e d no ne t he l e s s m os t m ovi ng a nd de l i ght f ul ha r m on i e s of s ound. ( 155 ) I f s he us e s he r a e s t he t i c t a l e nt s f or t he g r e a t e r be ne f i t of ot he r s t he n s he s e e m s t o e m pha s i z e ut i l i t y ove r a r t B ut he r m ot i va t i ons f o r pur s ui ng t he pr a c t i c e o f a r e vi va l i s t s how t ha t a r t m a i nt a i ns a f a vor e d pos i t i on. S he e xp l a i ns t o W a r e i n di s c us s i ng how s he a nd B r ot he r S oul s by c a m e t o be r e vi va l i s t s : t he r e w a s a r e vi va l a t t he l oc a l M e t hodi s t c hur c h, a nd w e w e nt e ve r y e ve ni ng, a t f i r s t j us t t o k i l l t i m e a nd t he n be c a us e w e f ound w e l i ke t he noi s e a nd e xc i t e m e nt a nd ge ne r a l r a c ke t of t he t hi n g. A f t e r i t w a s a l l ove r 2 T he L ove F e a s t w a s a s F r a nk B a ke r w r i t e s a de l i be r a t e r e vi va l by J ohn W e s l e y of t he m e a l of C hr i s t i a n f e l l ow s hi p or agape w hi c h w a s p r a c t i c e d w i t h va r yi ng s uc c e s s i n t he e a r l y C hr i s t i a n c hur c h a nd r e vi ve d by t he G e r m a n M or a vi a ns ( 131) I t s e r ve d a s a c om m una l e x pe r i e nc e w he r e c ongr e ga nt s f r om a c i r c ui t ga t he r e d t o e a t t oge t he r he a r s e r m ons a nd of f e r t e s t i m oni e s ( S c hne i de r 83)

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32 e a c h of us f ound t ha t t he ot he r ha d be e n m i ght y ne a r goi ng up t o t he r a i l a nd j oi ni ng t he m our ne r s A nd a not he r t hi ng ha d o c c ur r e d t o e a c h o f us t oo, t ha t i s w ha t t r e m e ndous i m pr ove m e nt s t he r e w e r e pos s i bl e i n t he w a y t ha t a m a t e ur r e vi va l i s t w or ke d up hi s bus i ne s s T h i s s t uc k i n ou r c r ops a nd w e f i gur e d on i t a l l t h r oughout t he w i nt e r W e l l t o m a ke a l ong s t or y s hor t w e f i na l l y w e nt i nt o t he t hi ng our s e l ve s ( 184) N ot hi ng i n t hi s or i gi n l e a ds t he r e a de r t o be l i e ve t h a t ut i l i t y t a ke s pr e c e de nc e ove r t he S oul s bys a t t r a c t i on t o t he a r t i f i c e t he noi s e a nd e xc i t e m e nt a nd ge ne r a l r a c ke t a nd t he i r a r t i s t i c a m bi t i on t o i m pr ove upon t he e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h l e a ds t he m t o be c om e r e vi va l i s t s T he be ne f i t t o e a c h c ongr e ga t i on be c o m e s i n l i ght of S oul s by s a e s t he t i c m ood, s ubor di na t e t o t he c r e a t i on of e f f e c t H e r m e t hod of ha r ne s s i ng t he t he ol ogi c a l f or pr a gm a t i c a i m s f ul f i l l s he r ne e d f or t he a e s t he t i c A nt hony A l ga r c i f e i s a w a r e pe r ha ps m o r e t ha n F o r be s a nd S oul s by, o f t he i s ol a t i on bor n f r om h i s di vi s i on be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy. H e how e ve r r e j e c t s t he a e s t he t i c w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y t a ki ng t he e m bodi m e nt of i t f o r hi s w i f e M a r i a n a M us i n l i ve s i n a N e w Y or k hot e l c a l l e d t he G ot ha m popu l a t e d by a r t i s t s a nd one de t e r m i ne d s c i e nt i s t A l ga r c i f e S he i s de di c a t e d t o m us i c a nd t he m ys t i que s ur r oundi ng m us i c T he e f f e c t i t ha s on he r d i s pl a ys i t s e l f i n a pa s s a ge w e l l i nt o t he c oupl e s m a r r i a ge w he n t he y a t t e nd a n ope r a : a s s he s a t t he r e i n t he f i f t h ga l l e r y, dr i nki ng w i t h i n s a t i a bl e t hi r s t t he s w e l l i ng ha r m ony, he r e m ot i ona l na t ur e w hi c h a s s oc i a t i on w i t h A l ga r c i f e ha d s om e w ha t s ubdue d, w a s r e vi vi f i e d [ ] S he f e l t t a l l e r s t r onge r f ul l e r

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33 of uni m pr e gna t e d ge r m s of pow e r a nd, l i ke a n i nf us i on of s pl e ndi d ba r ba r i c bl ood, t he r e s ur ge d t hr ough he r ve i ns a f l a m e of c ol o r ( 117 8 ) O nl y w i t ne s s i ng a m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e c a n ha ve s uc h a pr of ound e f f e c t on t he a e s t he t e M us i n. B ut unl i ke F o r be s a nd S oul s by, A l ga r c i f e i s not f ul f i l l e d by t he e xe r c i s e of t he a e s t he t i c I n f a c t he c a nnot t ol e r a t e i t H e doe s a l l he c a n t o e xc i s e t he ne e d f or i t f r om h i s w i f e I n r e f l e c t i on upon h i s pr oj e c t o f di vi d i ng t he a e s t he t e f r om t he a e s t he t i c he i s de s c r i be d a s f e e l i ng: r e l i e f i n t he t hought t ha t hi s i nf l ue nc e ove r he r w a s w e i ght i e r t ha n t he a ppe a l of he r a r t W i t h a dol e s c e nt e got i s m he c on vi nc e d hi m s e l f t ha t he w a s s ha pi ng a nd pe r f e c t i ng a m e nt a l e ne r gy i nt o c ha nne l s ot he r t ha n t he pr e de s t i ne d one s ; a nd w hi l e M a r i a na w a s m a t ur e d i nt o a pa l pi t a nt r e f l e c t i on of hi s ow n i m a ge he be l i e ve d t ha t he w a s l i be r a t i ng a n i n t e l l e c t e nt hr a l l e d by s upe r f i c i a l i t i e s ( 119 ) A l ga r c i f e s ne e d f or t he f i gur e o f t he a e s t he t e i s r e ve a l e d not a s s om e t hi ng t o f i l l a n e xi s t e nt i a l a bs e nc e but r a t he r a s s om e t hi ng t o dom i na t e s om e t hi ng i n w hi c h he m a y f or c e a t r a ns f or m a t i on. B e t w e e n t he pr a gm a t i s t s f r om T he r on W ar e a nd t h e pr a gm a t i s t f r o m P has e s a di s t i nc t c ha nge i n t he c ha r a c t e r of t he pr a gm a t i s t o c c ur s F or be s a nd S ou l s by c a n be s e e n a s pr oduc t s of t he n i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w he r e a s A l ga r c i f e r e pr e s e nt s t he i m pe ndi ng t w e nt i e t h. A hi n t of t hi s pl a c e m e nt i s f ound i n c om m e nt s a bout F a t he r S pe a r e s t he p r i e s t w ho m e nt or e d A l ga r c i f e a s a boy a nd young m a n a nd f r om w hom A l ga r c i f e i nhe r i t s hi s ow n pos i t i on a s a pr i e s t F a t he r S pe a r e s i s de s c r i be d a s one w ho A t t he c l os e of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y [ ] s t ood a pi c t ur e s que a nd pa t he t i c f i gur e c om ba t i ng w i t h a

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34 m e di a e va l e l oque nc e t he a dva nc i ng s pi r i t o f hi s t i m e a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he l os t a ge of f a i t h l i nge r i ng f a r i nt o t he ne w f ound a ge of r a t i on a l i s m ( 105) A l ga r c i f e i s t he pe r s on w ho t a ke s S pe a r e s pl a c e a s a f i gu r e of t he c om m e nc e m e nt of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y, a s t he e xe m pl a r of t he a ge o f r a t i ona l i s m A s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he s hi f t be t w e e n c e n t ur i e s he a l s o r e pr e s e nt s t he de c l i ne of t he a e s t he t i c i s m I n w r i t i ng a bout t he c ul t ur a l s hi f t a w a y f r om a e s t he t i c i s m f ol l ow i ng t he c onvi c t i on of O s c a r W i l de i n 1895, W i l l i a m G a unt w r i t e s I t ha d c a us e d a w hol e s a l e l i t e r a r y a nd s oc i a l f um i ga t i on ( 180) W hi l e G a unt i s s pe c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r i ng t o t he a e s t he t i c m ove m e nt i n B r i t a i n, hi s c om m e nt s do i ndi c a t e t he s t e a dy de c l i ne of t he a e s t he t i c e r a A l ga r c i f e w hi l e no m or a l i s t hi m s e l f i s e m bl e m a t i c of t he c ul t ur a l s hi f t a w a y f r om e ve n a t a c i t a c c e pt a nc e of t he a e s t he t e C a ught a s he i s a t t he m om e nt of s uc h a pa r a di gm s hi f t A l ga r c i f e i s bo t h a t t r a c t e d t o a nd a nt a goni s t i c t ow a r d t he f i gur e of t he a e s t he t e H e r e c ogni z e s M us i n s va l ue t o hi m onc e he ha s e nt e r e d t he pr i e s t hood, a s t ha t w hi c h m a y r e m e dy hi s i s ol a t i on but t he r e m e dy i s s t i l l a na t he m a t o hi m

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35 C ha pt e r F i ve : T he B e gi nni ng of t he T w e nt i e t h C e nt ur y T he c ha r a c t e r of t he p r a gm a t i c f i gu r e b r i dgi ng t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y di vi de be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he ol ogy i s c l e a r l y de l i ne a t e d i n bot h T he D am nat i on of T he r on W ar e a nd P has e s of an I nf e r i or P l ane t N one o f t h e s e f i gur e s c a n a c c e pt t he r e c e i ve d dogm a of t he i r r e s pe c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons nor c a n a ny of t he m publ i c l y pr e a c h t he i r ow n r e l i gi ons T o a c c e pt t he i r t he ol ogi e s w oul d be t a nt a m ount t o de n yi ng t he i r ow n be l i e f s a nd t o pr e a c h t he i r r e l i gi ons w oul d a f f e c t a de ge ne r a t i on i n t he l a i t y t he ve r y pe opl e f or w hom t he pr a gm a t i s t w i s he s t he g r e a t e s t be ne f i t J a m e s i a n pr a gm a t i s m a ns w e r s t he ne e d f or t he i ndi vi dua l c a ught be t w e e n r e l i gi on a nd t he o l ogy w he n he o r s he a c c e pt s t ha t a s D ool e y w r i t e s i n di s c us s i ng J a m e s a t t e m pt t o r e c onc i l e t he t w o, t he t r u t h of r e l i gi on a nd r e l i gi ous be l i e f i s i t s be ne f i c i a l c ons e que nc e s a nd va l ua bl e e f f e c t s T ha t i s r e l i gi ous t r ut hs a r e not s t a t e m e nt s of hi s t or i c a l f a c t or c l a i m s a bout s upe r na t ur a l e nt i t i e s ; r e l i gi ous t r ut hs a m ount t o t he a dva nt a ge ous c ons e que nc e s t ha t c om e w i t h be l i e f i n G od ( 75 ) A t t e nda nt t o br i dg i ng t he di vi de i s t he ope ni ng of a ga p c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he pr a gm a t i s t s i s ol a t i on bor n of l i vi ng a d ua l l i f e T h e pr oxi m i t y of t he f i gu r e of t he a e s t he t e s e r ve s t o r e m e dy t hi s i s ol a t i on, be t he a e s t he t e a not he r i ndi vi dua l or s i m pl y t he pr a gm a t i s t s ow n a e s t he t i c m e t hods of a c hi e vi ng p r a gm a t i c e nds F r om t he c he e r f ul a c c e pt a nc e of t he a e s t he t i c by F or be s a nd S oul s by t o t he t e ns i on be t w e e n i t s m a gne t i s m a nd r e pugna nc e e m bodi e d i n A l ga r c i f e t he a e s t he t e i s a ne c e s s a r y f i gur e f o r t he pr a gm a t i s t a nd de m ons t r a t e s t he c ul t ur a l s hi f t o f t h e e r a A s Z i m m e r m a n w r i t e s :

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36 N e i t he r t he i l l i be r a l f a na t i c i s m t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he t ow n s M e t hodi s t s nor t he bl i nd c onf o r m i t y o f O c t a vi us C a t hol i c s e n c om pa s s t he w hol e of r e l i gi on. T he f a i l ur e o f c r i t i c s t o r e c ogni z e t h i s s i m pl e t r ut h ha s pr e ve nt e d t he m f r om r e c ogni z i ng F r e de r i c s po r t r a ya l o f t he t r a ns f or m a t i on C hr i s t i a n t hou ght unde r w e nt a t t he e nd o f t he ni ne t e e nt h c e n t ur y a nd t he be gi nni ng of t he t w e nt i e t h ( 35) W hi l e F a t he r F o r be s a nd S i s t e r S oul s by r e pr e s e nt t he be gi nni ng of t hi s s hi f t be t w e e n c e nt ur i e s a nd A nt hony A l ga r c i f e e pi t om i z e s i t s c o m pl e t i on, T he r on W a r e e m bodi e s t he a xe l on w hi c h t he s hi f t t u r ns J ohn H e nr y R a l e i gh r e i nf or c e s t hi s vi e w w he n, i n hi s o f t e n r e f e r e nc e d a r t i c l e T he D a m na t i on of T he r on W a r e he w r i t e s : T he D am nat i on i s a bout how t he pow e r f ul r e l e nt l e s s e xpe r i e nc e d i nt e l l e c t of t he l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y c om b i ne d w i t h i t s l ove o f a r t f or a r t s e duc e d, qui c ke ne d, a nd f i na l l y da m ne d t he l i nge r i ng i nt ui t i ona l i s m a nd t he r e l i a nc e upon f e e l i ngs a nd t he a nt i a e s t he t i c i s m w hi c h w e r e t he l e ga c y of t he e a r l y ni ne t e e nt h a nd of w hi c h T he r on W a r e i s t he a n a c hr oni s t i c e m bodi m e nt ( 213 4) W a r e c a nnot a s pi r e t o t he e r udi t i on of s c hol a r s l i ke F or be s a nd A l ga r c i f e no r i s he a bl e t o unde r s t a nd t he a e s t he t i c i s m t he a r t f o r a r t o f M a dde n a nd M us i n. H e i s una bl e t o m a i nt a i n a dogm a t i c t he ol ogy i n t he s e r vi c e of r e l i gi on l i ke S oul s by H e i s a n a na c hr oni s m c a ught be t w e e n c e nt ur i e s c a ught be t w e e n t w o r e l i gi ous t he ol ogi c a l a nd a e s t he t i c hi s t or i c a l m om e nt s

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37 W or ks C i t e d A bbot t L ym a n. T he T he ol ogy o f a n E vol ut i oni s t N e w Y or k: H ought on M i f f l i n 1897 A ndr e w s D a vi d. A e s t he t i c i s m N a bokov a nd L ol i t a N e w Y or k: E dw i n M e l l e n P 1999. B a ke r F r a nk L ove F e a s t H i s t or i c a l D i c t i ona r y of M e t hodi s m E ds C ha r l e s Y r i goye n J r a nd S us a n E W a r r i c k M a r yl a nd: S c a r e c r ow P 1996. 131 132 B e nne t t B r i dge t T he D a m na t i o n of H a r ol d F r e de r i c : H i s L i ve s a nd W o r ks N e w Y or k : S yr a c us e U P 1997 C a r e y, P a t r i c k W C a t hol i c s i n A m e r i c a : A H i s t or y C onne c t i c ut : P r a e ge r 2004 D ona l ds on, S c ot t T he S e duc t i on of T he r on W a r e N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y F i c t i on 29 ( 1975) : 441 452. D ool e y P a t r i c k K F a ke s a nd G ood F r a uds : P r a g m a t i c R e l i gi on i n T he D a m na t i on of T he r on W a r e A m e r i c a n L i t e r a r y R e a l i s m 15 ( 19 82) : 74 85 D r a pe r J ohn W i l l i a m H i s t or y of t he C onf l i c t be t w e e n R e l i gi on a nd S c i e nc e N e w Y o r k: D A ppl e t on, 1874. F r e de r i c H a r ol d. T he D a m na t i on of T he r on W a r e C a m br i dge : H a r va r d U P 1996. G a be l J ohn B T he N e w B i bl i c a l C r i t i c i s m a nd T he L i t e r a r y G ui de t o t he B i bl e M ode r n L a ngua ge S t udi e s 20 ( 1990) : 24 37 G a unt W i l l i a m T he A e s t he t i c A dve nt ur e O xf or d: A l de n P 1945. G a u s t a d, E dw i n S c ot t R e l i gi on R e l i gi ous I s s ue s i n A m e r i c a n H i s t or y E d. E dw i n S c ot t G a us t a d. N e w Y or k: H a r pe r & R ow 1968. 1 73 176. G l a s gow E l l e n. B a r r e n G r ound N e w Y or k: D oubl e da y, 1925.

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