Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor

Citation
Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor

Material Information

Title:
Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor
Creator:
Mears, Jennifer
Place of Publication:
[Tampa, Fla]
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Group exercise
Motivation
Adherence
Dissertations, Academic -- Physical Education & Exercise Science -- Masters -- USF ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Physical activity reduces the risk for disease, improves overall health, and quality of life. Group exercise classes are large contributors for meeting physical activity recommendations. Improving long-term adherence to group exercise classes is essential in order to receive health and fitness benefits. Many contributing factors affect adherence rates including the role of the instructor. The instructor has great influence over the decision to return to a group exercise class. It is important to find out what qualities and characteristics are preferred among those who take classes to increase long-term adherence. Another important factor relating to adherence is body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor. These factors have been influential in other areas including performance enhancement consulting, counseling, teacher ratings, and willingness to accept health advice.However, little research has been done to determine if body type, appearance and attractiveness influence adherence to group exercise classes. Identifying if there are stereotypes associated with group exercise instructors will provide the opportunity to educate participants and improve the professional development of instructors. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between participants' perceptions of group exercise leaders and adherence to group exercise classes. Business cards will be distributed to participants after their exercise class, which will contain the web address to the survey. Participants will also have the opportunity to fill out a paper and pencil version of the survey if that is more convenient. The survey will be posted on surveymonkey.com. Flyers with the web address will also be posted around the facilities to promote the survey.Results showed that participants did not prefer significant differences in fatness and muscularity of the instructor nor were they related to motivation, effort, attendance, willingness to accept health information from the instructor, or perceived attractiveness. However, perceived attractiveness was related to attendance. Results also showed that participants preferred to be less fat and more muscular, similar to that of the current instructor body type, indicating that participants desired to have a physique similar to that of the instructor. Although, fatness and muscularity of the instructor were not associated with motivation or adherence to group exercise class, instructional quality was associated with these outcomes. It was found that instructional quality is more important to participants of a group exercise class than body type. Instructional quality was associated with motivation, effort, attendance, and willingness to accept health information.This demonstrates the importance of professional development of instructors. Results from the current study support that body type of the instructor is associated less with different psychosocial outcomes than instructional quality.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 75 pages.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer Mears.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
001921021 ( ALEPH )
190844818 ( OCLC )
E14-SFE0001947 ( USFLDC DOI )
e14.1947 ( USFLDC Handle )

Postcard Information

Format:
Book

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001921021
003 fts
005 20080116114557.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 080116s2007 flu sbm 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0001947
035
(OCoLC)190844818
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
GV341 (ONLINE)
1 100
Mears, Jennifer.
0 245
Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor
h [electronic resource] /
by Jennifer Mears.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2007.
520
ABSTRACT: Physical activity reduces the risk for disease, improves overall health, and quality of life. Group exercise classes are large contributors for meeting physical activity recommendations. Improving long-term adherence to group exercise classes is essential in order to receive health and fitness benefits. Many contributing factors affect adherence rates including the role of the instructor. The instructor has great influence over the decision to return to a group exercise class. It is important to find out what qualities and characteristics are preferred among those who take classes to increase long-term adherence. Another important factor relating to adherence is body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor. These factors have been influential in other areas including performance enhancement consulting, counseling, teacher ratings, and willingness to accept health advice.However, little research has been done to determine if body type, appearance and attractiveness influence adherence to group exercise classes. Identifying if there are stereotypes associated with group exercise instructors will provide the opportunity to educate participants and improve the professional development of instructors. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between participants' perceptions of group exercise leaders and adherence to group exercise classes. Business cards will be distributed to participants after their exercise class, which will contain the web address to the survey. Participants will also have the opportunity to fill out a paper and pencil version of the survey if that is more convenient. The survey will be posted on surveymonkey.com. Flyers with the web address will also be posted around the facilities to promote the survey.Results showed that participants did not prefer significant differences in fatness and muscularity of the instructor nor were they related to motivation, effort, attendance, willingness to accept health information from the instructor, or perceived attractiveness. However, perceived attractiveness was related to attendance. Results also showed that participants preferred to be less fat and more muscular, similar to that of the current instructor body type, indicating that participants desired to have a physique similar to that of the instructor. Although, fatness and muscularity of the instructor were not associated with motivation or adherence to group exercise class, instructional quality was associated with these outcomes. It was found that instructional quality is more important to participants of a group exercise class than body type. Instructional quality was associated with motivation, effort, attendance, and willingness to accept health information.This demonstrates the importance of professional development of instructors. Results from the current study support that body type of the instructor is associated less with different psychosocial outcomes than instructional quality.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 75 pages.
590
Advisor: Marcus Kilpatrick, Ph.D.
653
Group exercise.
Motivation.
Adherence.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Physical Education & Exercise Science
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1947



PAGE 1

P e r c e pt i ons of G r oup E xe r c i s e P a r t i c i pa nt s B a s e d on B ody T ype A ppe a r a nc e a nd A t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he I ns t r uc t or by J e nni f e r M e a r s A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : M a r c us K i l pa t r i c k, P hD C a ndi A s hl e y, P hD J e f f r e y K r om r e y P hD D a t e of A ppr ova l F e br ua r y 21 2007 K e yw or ds : G r oup E xe r c i s e M ot i va t i on, A dhe r e nc e C opyr i ght 2007, J e nni f e r M e a r s

PAGE 2

i i T a bl e of C ont e nt s A bs t r a c t vi i C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on 1 R a t i ona l e 1 P ur pos e 2 O bj e c t i ve s 2 H ypot he s i s 2 L i m i t a t i ons 3 D e f i ni t i ons 3 C ha pt e r T w o R e vi e w of L i t e r a t u r e 4 I nt r oduc t i on 4 R ol e of t he I ns t r uc t or 8 Q ua l i t i e s a nd C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s 10 A ppe a r a nc e a nd A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 13 T e a c he r a nd P r o f e s s or E va l ua t i ons 16 C onc l us i on 17 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hods 19 I nt r oduc t i on 19 P a r t i c i pa nt s 19 M e a s ur e m e nt 20 P r oc e dur e s 21 S t a t i s t i c a l A na l ys i s 21 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s 29 C ur r e nt a nd P r e f e r r e d B ody T ype 29

PAGE 3

i i i C or r e l a t i ons B e t w e e n P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s 29 a nd F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y P r e di c t i ons of P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s f r om F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 30 P r e di c t i ons of P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s f r om I ns t r u c t i ona l Q ua l i t y 31 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on 46 I nt r oduc t i on 46 P r e f e r e nc e s of F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 46 R e l a t i ons hi ps A m ong B ody T ype I ns t r uc t i ona l Q u a l i t i e s 47 a nd P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s R e l a t e d t o F a t ne s s a nd M u s c ul a r i t y 49 P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s R e l a t e d t o I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t i e s 53 L i m i t a t i ons 54 C onc l us i ons 55 I m pl i c a t i ons f or P r a c t i t i one r s 56 S um m a r y 57 R e f e r e nc e s 58 A ppe ndi c e s 61 A ppe ndi x 1 S om a t om or phi c M a t r i x 62 A ppe ndi x 2 B e ha vi or a l R e gul a t i on f or E xe r c i s e Q ue s t i onna i r e 66 A ppe ndi x 3 P a r t i c i pa nt S u r ve y 67

PAGE 4

i v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 3. 1 D e m ogr a phi c D a t a 23 T a bl e 3. 2 C l a s s e s A t t e nde d P e r W e e k 24 T a bl e 3. 3 M e a n V a l ue s or B R E Q S ubs c a l e s a nd P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s 26 T a bl e 3. 4 M e a n V a l ue s f or I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 27 T a bl e 4. 1 C ur r e nt a nd P r e f e r r e d F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 31 T a bl e 4. 2 C r os s t a bul a t i on f or I ns t r uc t o r F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 32 T a bl e 4. 3 I ns t r uc t or s I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y a nd P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e C or r e l a t i ons 33 T a bl e 4. 4 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A m ot i va t i on on B ody T ype 34 T a bl e 4. 5 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E xt e r na l R e gul a t i on on B ody T ype 34 T a bl e 4. 6 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt e gr a t e d R e gul a t i on on B ody T ype 35 T a bl e 4. 7 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I de nt i f i e d R e gul a t i on on B ody T ype 35 T a bl e 4. 8 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt r i ns i c M ot i va t i on on B ody T ype 36 T a bl e 4. 9 R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A t t e nda nc e on P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 36 T a bl e 4. 10 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or M ot i va t i on on B ody T ype 37 T a bl e 4. 11 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E f f o r t on B ody T ype 37 T a bl e 4. 12 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A t t e nda nc e on B ody T ype 38 T a bl e 4. 13 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e a l t h I nf or m a t i on on B ody T ype 38 T a bl e 4. 14 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s on B ody T ype 39

PAGE 5

v T a bl e 4. 15 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A m ot i va t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 39 T a bl e 4. 16 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E xt e r na l R e gul a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 40 T a bl e 4. 17 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt e gr a t e d R e gul a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 40 T a bl e 4. 18 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I de nt i f i e d R e gul a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 41 T a bl e 4. 19 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt r i ns i c M ot i va t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 41 T a bl e 4. 20 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or M ot i va t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 42 T a bl e 4. 21 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E f f o r t on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 42 T a bl e 4. 22 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A t t e nda nc e on I n s t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 43 T a bl e 4. 23 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e a l t h I nf or m a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 4 3 T a bl e 4. 24 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 44

PAGE 6

vi L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 3. 1 C l a s s P r e f e r e nc e s 25

PAGE 7

vi i P e r c e pt i ons of G r oup E xe r c i s e P a r t i c i pa nt s B a s e d on B ody T ype A ppe a r a nc e a nd A t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he I ns t r uc t o r J e nni f e r M e a r s A B S T R A C T P hys i c a l a c t i vi t y r e duc e s t he r i s k f or di s e a s e i m pr ove s ove r a l l he a l t h, a nd qua l i t y of l i f e G r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s a r e l a r ge c ont r i but or s f or m e e t i ng phys i c a l a c t i vi t y r e c om m e nda t i ons I m p r ov i ng l ong t e r m a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s i s e s s e nt i a l i n or de r t o r e c e i ve he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ne f i t s M a ny c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s a f f e c t a dhe r e nc e r a t e s i nc l udi ng t he r ol e of t he i ns t r uc t o r T he i ns t r u c t or ha s gr e a t i n f l ue nc e ove r t he de c i s i on t o r e t ur n t o a gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s I t i s i m por t a nt t o f i nd ou t w ha t qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e pr e f e r r e d a m ong t hos e w ho t a ke c l a s s e s t o i nc r e a s e l ong t e r m a dhe r e nc e A not he r i m por t a nt f a c t or r e l a t i ng t o a dhe r e nc e i s b ody t ype a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or T he s e f a c t or s ha ve be e n i nf l ue nt i a l i n ot he r a r e a s i nc l udi ng pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t i ng, c o uns e l i ng, t e a c he r r a t i ngs a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a dvi c e H ow e ve r l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n done t o de t e r m i ne i f body t ype a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i nf l ue nc e a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s I de nt i f yi ng i f t he r e a r e s t e r e ot ype s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or s w i l l pr ovi de t he oppor t uni t y t o e duc a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd i m pr ov e t he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of i ns t r uc t or s T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s a nd a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s B us i ne s s

PAGE 8

vi i i c a r ds w i l l be di s t r i but e d t o pa r t i c i pa nt s a f t e r t he i r e xe r c i s e c l a s s w hi c h w i l l c ont a i n t he w e b a ddr e s s t o t he s ur ve y. P a r t i c i pa nt s w i l l a l s o ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o f i l l out a pa pe r a nd pe nc i l ve r s i on of t he s ur ve y i f t ha t i s m o r e c on ve ni e nt T he s ur ve y w i l l be pos t e d on s ur ve ym onke y. c om F l ye r s w i t h t he w e b a ddr e s s w i l l a l s o be pos t e d a r ound t he f a c i l i t i e s t o pr om ot e t he s ur ve y. R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not pr e f e r s i g ni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or nor w e r e t he y r e l a t e d t o m ot i va t i on e f f or t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on f r om t he i ns t r uc t or o r pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s H ow e ve r pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s r e l a t e d t o a t t e nda nc e R e s ul t s a l s o s how e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r r e d t o b e l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or b ody t ype i ndi c a t i ng t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s de s i r e d t o ha ve a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t o f t he i ns t r uc t or A l t hough, f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on o r a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s e out c om e s I t w a s f ound t ha t i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s m or e i m p or t a nt t o pa r t i c i pa nt s of a gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s t ha n body t ype I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on, e f f or t a t t e nda nc e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i n f or m a t i on. T hi s de m ons t r a t e s t he i m por t a nc e of p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of i ns t r uc t or s R e s ul t s f r om t he c ur r e nt s t udy s uppor t t ha t body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r i s a s s oc i a t e d l e s s w i t h di f f e r e nt ps yc hos oc i a l out c om e s t ha n i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y

PAGE 9

C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on R at i onal e M a ny c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e t o e xe r c i s e D e pe ndi ng on t he i ndi vi dua l s m ot i va t i on a nd pr e f e r e nc e t he r e a r e a va r i e t y of a c t i vi t i e s pe opl e c hoos e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n r a ngi ng f r om i ndi vi dua l s por t s r e c r e a t i ona l s por t s o r gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s F or s om e a gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i s a m a j or c ont r i but o r f o r m e e t i ng t he r e c om m e nda t i ons f o r da i l y phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. R e duc i ng t he r i s k f or d i s e a s e a nd pr om ot i ng he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e s c a n be a c hi e ve d t hr o ugh pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e xe r c i s e i nc l udi ng gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s U nde r s t a ndi ng w ha t m ot i va t e s pe opl e t o r e t ur n t o a c l a s s m a y he l p i m pr ove a dhe r e nc e w hi c h w i l l ul t i m a t e l y ha ve a n e f f e c t on t he ove r a l l he a l t h of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s T he m a i n pu r pos e of g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s i s t o e nha nc e he a l t h r e l a t e d c om pone nt s of f i t ne s s w hi c h i nc l ude c a r di or e s pi r a t or y e ndur a nc e m us c ul a r s t r e ngt h a nd e ndur a nc e f l e xi bi l i t y a nd body c om pos i t i on. P a r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e t o g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s i s de pe nde nt upon a va r i e t y o f f a c t or s O ne i n pa r t i c ul a r i s t he r ol e of l e a de r s hi p. A l t hough s om e r e s e a r c h w oul d s how t h e r e i s not a c r uc i a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e a nd l e a de r s hi p, i ns t r uc t or s ha ve t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a t t e nd r e gul a r p hys i c a l a c t i vi t y s e s s i ons ( C a r r on, H a us e nbl a s & M a c k, 1996) H ow e ve r m o r e r e c e nt r e s e a r c h w oul d s uppor t t he no t i on t ha t l e a de r s hi p i s i m por t a nt r e l a t i ve t o g r oup e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e ( E s t a br ooks & M unr oe 2004)

PAGE 10

2 V a r i ous c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd qua l i t i e s m a ke u p e f f e c t i ve gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s S uc h qua l i t i e s i nc l ude t he a bi l i t y t o m ot i va t e pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc or por a t e p r ope r t e c hni que a nd s a f e i ns t r uc t i on, p r om ot e g r oup c ohe s i on, a nd pr ovi de a f un f r i e ndl y a t m os phe r e w hi l e c ha l l e ngi ng t he m t o w or k ha r d. A ppe a r a nc e of t he g r oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r i s a not he r f a c t or t ha t m a y ha ve a n e f f e c t on e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e T he l i t e r a t ur e ha s s how n t ha t phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on pe r c e i ve d i nt e l l i ge nc e c om pe t e nc e know l e dge a nd e f f e c t i ve n e s s a s w e l l a s s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; J a c ks on, H unt e r & H odge 1995; L ubke r W a t s on, V i s e k & G e e r 2005; L e w i s & W a l s h, 1978; R i ni ol o, J ohns on, S he r m a n & M i s s o, 2006) T he l i t e r a t ur e a l s o de m ons t r a t e s di f f e r e nc e s i n i m pr ove m e nt s o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d know l e dge w he n i t i s be i ng de l i ve r e d f r om ove r w e i ght ve r s us non ove r w e i ght i ndi vi dua l ( D e a n, A da m s & C om e a u, 2005) I t i s m or e l i ke l y t ha t pe opl e w i l l a dhe r e t o h e a l t hy be ha vi or s i f t he i nf o r m a t i on c om e s f r om a n i ndi vi dua l w ho l ooks l i ke t he y t he m s e l ve s pr a c t i c e t hos e he a l t hy be ha vi or s B ody t ype a nd a ppe a r a nc e e f f e c t pe r c e p t i ons of a va r i e t y of a s pe c t s H ow e ve r i t i s unc l e a r w he t he r t he y ha ve a ny i nf l ue nc e on e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e i n gr oup e xe r c i s e s e t t i ngs P ur pos e O ne pur p os e of t hi s s t udy i s t o r a t e a nd i de nt i f y qu a l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i ns t r uc t or s pr e f e r r e d by g r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s A not he r pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o a s s e s s t he pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ow a r ds t he i r e xe r c i s e l e a de r ba s e d on body t ype a p pe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T hi s s t udy i s de s i g ne d t o i de nt i f y t he m os t pr e f e r r e d qua l i t i e s a nd t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a pr e f e r r e d bo dy t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r

PAGE 11

3 O bj e c t i v e s T he f ol l ow i ng obj e c t i ve s w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. 1. D e t e r m i ne i f pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s a nd/ or c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i ns t r uc t or s 2. D e t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a pr e f e r r e d body t ype of t he e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or 3. D e t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n p r e f e r r e d body t ype a nd e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e 4. D e t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a ppe a r a nc e a n d a dhe r e nc e 5. D e t e r m i ne i f a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s a n i m pa c t on e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e H y pot he s e s T he f ol l ow i ng hypot he s e s w i l l be c ons i de r e d du r i n g t hi s s t udy. 1. P a r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t h i gh m us c l e body t ype 2. P a r t i c i pa nt s a r e m or e m ot i va t e d by i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e body t ype 3. P a r t i c i pa nt s m or e w i l l i ngl y a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s a dvi c e f r om i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e 4. A dhe r e nc e r a t e s a r e hi ghe r f or c l a s s e s t a ught by i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e 5. P e r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s a pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on w i t h r e gul a r a t t e nda nc e L i m i t at i ons L i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy i nc l ude t he a c c e s s a nd/ or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h us i ng c om put e r s i n or de r t o c om pl e t e t he s ur ve y. S e l f r e por t e d i nf or m a t i on r e g a r di ng a m ount of phys i c a l

PAGE 12

4 a c t i vi t y i nc l udi ng t he de gr e e of m ot i va t i on a nd e xe r t i on a l s o s e r ve a s l i m i t a t i ons P e opl e m a y ove r or unde r e s t i m a t e t he a m oun t of a c t i vi t y t he y ha ve c om pl e t e d w i t hi n a c e r t a i n pe r i od. I t i s o f t e n di f f i c ul t t o r e c a l l how m uc h a c t i vi t y w a s pe r f or m e d S i m i l a r l y pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ol l e c t i on o f m ot i va t i on or e f f o r t e x e r t e d w i t hi n s pe c i f i c bout s of e xe r c i s e c oul d be a f f e c t e d by ot he r f a c t or s D e f i ni t i ons G r oup e xe r c i s e i nt e nt i ona l phys i c a l a c t i vi t y w i t h i n a s t r uc t ur e d c l a s s a m ong o t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s A dhe r e nc e m a i nt a i ni ng a n e xe r c i s e r e gi m e n f o r a pr ol onge d pe r i od of t i m e ( L ox M a r t i n G i ni s & P e t r uz z e l l o, 2006 ) A ppe a r a nc e t he s t a t e c ondi t i on m a nne r o r s t yl e i n w hi c h a pe r s on or obj e c t a ppe a r s ; out w a r d l ook o r a s pe c t ( w w w di c t i ona r y. c om ) A t t r a c t i ve ne s s pr ovi di ng p l e a s ur e or de l i ght e s p. i n a ppe a r a nc e or m a nne r ; pl e a s i ng; c ha r m i ng; a l l ur i ng ( w w w di c t i ona r y. c om ) M ot i va t i on t he de gr e e of de t e r m i na t i on, dr i ve or de s i r e w i t h w hi c h a nd i ndi vi dua l a ppr oa c he s or a voi ds a be ha vi or ( L ox M a r t i n G i ni s & P e t r uz z e l l o, 2006) G r oup C ohe s i on a dyna m i c pr ope r t y of gr oups t h a t i s m a ni f e s t e d by t he t e nde nc y f or m e m be r s t o s t i c k t oge t he r a nd r e m a i n uni t e d a s he w or k t ow a r d c ol l e c t i ve goa l s a nd/ or f or s oc i a l pur pos e s ( C a r r on H a us e nbl a s & E s t a br ooks 2003)

PAGE 13

5 C ha pt e r T w o L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w I nt r oduc t i on A ppr oxi m a t e l y 97 m i l l i on a dul t s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a r e ove r w e i ght or obe s e ( A nde r s e n, 2003) B e i ng ov e r w e i ght i s de f i ne d a s a body m a s s i nde x ( B M I ) gr e a t e r t ha n 25 kg/ m a nd obe s e i s de f i ne d a s B M I gr e a t e r t ha n 30 kg/ m ( A nde r s e n, 2003 ) O ve r w e i ght a nd obe s i t y a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a n i nc r e a s e d f or r i s k o f de ve l opi ng a n a s s or t m e nt of ne ga t i ve he a l t h out c om e s T he s e out c om e s i nc l ude hype r t e ns i on, hype r c hol e s t e r ol e m i a t ype 2 di a be t e s c or ona r y a r t e r y di s e a s e a nd r e s pi r a t or y pr obl e m s s uc h a s s l e e p a pne a ( P a t e P r a t t & B l a i r 1995) I n de pe nde nt of c ha nge s t o body c om pos i t i on, pa r t i c i pa t i on i n r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i v i t y r e duc e s t he r i s k f or di s e a s e i m pr ove s he a l t h a nd ove r a l l qua l i t y o f l i f e ( P a t e e t a l 1995 ) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y i n or de r t o r e duc e t he r i s k f or di s e a s e a nd m a i nt a i n a he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e ( H e a l t hy P e opl e 20 1 0 ) R e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y, a s de f i ne d by A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge of S por t s M e di c i ne ( A C S M ) a nd t he U S S ur ge on G e ne r a l i s t o a c c um ul a t e 30 m i nut e s of m ode r a t e phys i c a l a c t i vi t y m os t da ys o f t he w e e k ( P a t e e t a l 1995) A ppr oxi m a t e l y 38% of a dul t s do not e ng a ge i n a ny l e i s ur e t i m e phys i c a l a c t i vi t y ( H e a l t hy P e opl e 2010) A l t hough r e s e a r c h ha s de m ons t r a t e d t he pos i t i ve e f f e c t s of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y, m ot i va t i ng pe opl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a nd a d he r e t o e xe r c i s e pr og r a m s i s di f f i c ul t D e pe ndi ng on t he i ndi vi dua l s m ot i va t i on a nd pr e f e r e nc e s t he r e a r e va r i e t i e s of a c t i vi t i e s

PAGE 14

6 pe opl e c hoos e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n T he s e a c t i vi t i e s i nc l ude i ndi vi dua l s por t s r e c r e a t i ona l s por t s a nd gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s G r oup e xe r c i s e i s a l a r ge c ont r i but or f o r m e e t i ng r e c om m e nda t i ons of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005 ) R e duc i ng t he r i s k f or di s e a s e a nd pr om ot i ng he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e s c a n be a c hi e ve d t hr ough pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e xe r c i s e s pe c i f i c a l l y gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s U nde r s t a ndi ng w ha t m ot i va t e s pe opl e t o r e t ur n t o a c l a s s m a y he l p i m p r ove a dhe r e nc e I m pr ovi ng a dhe r e nc e c a n ul t i m a t e l y ha ve a n e f f e c t on t he ove r a l l he a l t h o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s C e r t a i n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd qua l i t i e s t h a t i ns t r uc t or s pos s e s s m a y i nf l ue nc e w he t he r or not pa r t i c i pa nt s r e t ur n t o a pa r t i c ul a r g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s I ns t r uc t or s a r e r ol e m ode l s w ho s houl d di s pl a y a ppr opr i a t e he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ha vi or s D e m ons t r a t i ng a nd t e a c hi ng he a l t hy e xe r c i s e a t t i t ude s ul t i m a t e l y a f f e c t s pa r t i c i pa nt s he a l t h. G r oup c ohe s i on, ve r ba l r e i nf or c e m e nt a nd l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a r e e xa m pl e s of c ont r i but i ng i nf l ue nc e s on gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on ( L ox, M a r t i n G i ni s & P e t r uz z e l l o, 2006) R e s e a r c h ha s a l s o de m ons t r a t e d t he i nf l ue nc e of a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd a ppe a r a nc e on pe r c e i ve d i nt e l l i ge nc e pr o f e s s or a nd t e a c he r e va l u a t i ons know l e dge of he a l t h r e l a t e d f i t ne s s c om pone nt s a nd pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( D e a n, A da m s & C om e a u, 2005 ; G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; J a c ks on, H unt e r & H odge 2006; L e w i s & W a l s h, 1978; L ubke r W a t s on, V i s e k, & G e e r 2005; R i ni ol o, J ohns on, S he r m a n & M i s s o, 2006) F or e xa m pl e pe r c e i ve d i nt e l l i ge nc e e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd r a t i ngs w e r e hi ghe r f or t hos e pe r c e i ve d a s m or e a t t r a c t i ve ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; J a c ks on e t a l 1995; R i nol o e t a l 2006) H ow e ve r t he i nf l ue nc e of a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of g r oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s ha s not be e n de t e r m i ne d. G i ve n t ha t a l l ot he r f a c t or s a r e e qua l s uc h a s m ot i va t i ona l t e c hni que s a nd

PAGE 15

7 c l a s s e nvi r onm e nt t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a ppe a r a nc e a nd gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e ha s a l s o not be e n de t e r m i ne d. O ne r e l a t e d s t u dy e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n phys i que a nxi e t y, e a t i ng be ha vi or s a nd pr e f e r r e d qua l i f i c a t i ons a nd body t y pe of f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or s a m ong uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s i n e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s ( E va ns C ot t e r & R oy 2005 ) Q ue s t i ons r e l a t i ng t o c ur r e nt body t ype i d e a l body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne pr e f e r e nc e s A f i gur e dr a w i ng s c a l e w a s us e d t o de pi c t body i m a ge us i ng ni ne s i l houe t t e s ( S t unka r d, S or e ns e n & S c hul s i nge r 19 83) T he s i l houe t t e s w e r e num be r e d one t hr ough ni ne w i t h t he l ow e r num be r s c or r e s pondi ng w i t h t hi n body t ype s a nd t he hi ghe r num be r s c or r e s pondi ng w i t h ove r w e i ght bo dy t ype s T he r e s ul t s s t a t e d t ha t w om e n de pi c t e d a t hi nne r i de a l phys i que a s w e l l a s de s i r e d phys i que of t he e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or c om pa r e d t o c ur r e n t phys i que H ow e ve r w he n a s ke d t o c hoos e f r om a c he c kl i s t of pr e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or s t hi nne s s w a s not hi ghl y r a nke d. T he r e f or e i t i s unc l e a r i f pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r one body t ype t o a not he r E va ns e t a l pr opos e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s c oul d ha ve be e n i de n t i f yi ng a p r e f e r e nc e f o r a phys i c a l l y f i t i ns t r uc t or r a t he r t ha n a n e xc e s s i ve l y t hi n i ns t r uc t or T he y pr opos e d t ha t t he l a c k o f c l a r i t y w a s a r e s ul t of t he i ns t r um e nt a nd pe r ha ps t he us e of a di f f e r e nt s c a l e c oul d be t t e r i de nt i f y i f t he r e i s a pr e f e r r e d body t ype P r e f e r e nc e s be t w e e n ge nde r s m a y a l s o e xi s t E va ns e t a l ( 2005) f ound t ha t w om e n pr e f e r r e d t hi nne r i de a l s c om pa r e d t o m e n T he a ut hor s s ugge s t e d t ha t s oc i e t a l i nf l ue nc e s di c t a t e t ha t t hi n w om e n a nd m us c ul a r m e n a r e m or e a t t r a c t i ve a nd de s i r a bl e w hi c h m a y a c c ount f or t he ge nde r di f f e r e nc e s A dhe r e nc e t o e xe r c i s e pr ogr a m s i s ba s e d on i nt e r n a l a nd e xt e r na l f a c t or s I de nt i f yi ng

PAGE 16

8 w he t he r or not body t ype i s a n i m por t a nt e xt e r na l f a c t or r e l a t i ng t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i o n a nd a dhe r e nc e c a n be a n e f f e c t i ve he a l t h pr om ot i on t ool ( E va ns e t a l 2005) I de nt i f yi ng w hi c h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e m os t i nf l ue nt i a l t o pa r t i c i pa nt s r e l a t i ve t o r e t ur ni ng t o a g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i s i m por t a nt D e t e r m i ni ng w he t he r a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a r e i nf l ue nt i a l f a c t or s i s a l s o i m por t a nt L i m i t e d a m ount s of r e s e a r c h ha s t a r ge t e d t he pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa nt s r e l a t i ve t o p r e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd qua l i t i e s of i ns t r uc t o r s or t he i nf l ue nc e of a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or r e l a t i ve t o l ong t e r m pa r t i c i pa t i on i n gr o up e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s R ol e of t he I ns t r uc t or T he r ol e of t he i ns t r uc t or i s i m por t a nt r e l a t i ve t o e xe r c i s e c om pl i a nc e A l t hough s om e s t udi e s s how no r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e a nd l e a de r s hi p ( C a r r on H a us e nbl a s & M a c k, 1996) i ns t r uc t o r s ha ve t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a t t e nd r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y s e s s i ons ( E s t a br ooks & M unr oe 2004 ) C a r r on e t a l ( 1996) us e d f i ndi ngs f r om ni ne s t udi e s de t e r m i ni n g t he i m pa c t o f s oc i a l i n f l ue nc e s i nc l udi ng l e a de r s hi p, a nd f ound on l y a s m a l l e f f e c t T w o i m por t a nt r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of t he e xe r c i s e l e a de r a r e t o e ns ur e t he de m a nds of t he gr oup a r e m e t a nd s a t i s f i e d a nd e ns ur e t he ne e ds of t he g r oup a r e m e t a nd s a t i s f i e d ( E s t a b r ooks & M unr oe 2004) T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o e xa m i ne e xe r c i s e l e a de r s hi p qua l i t i e s pr e f e r r e d by ol de r a dul t s s om e qua l i t i e s hol d m or e va l ue t ha n ot he r s T h i s s t udy f ound t ha t ol de r a dul t s pr e f e r r e d l e a de r s w ho a r e c om pe t e nt a nd qua l i f i e d; de m ons t r a t e d a ppr o pr i a t e e xe r c i s e t e c hni que t ook i nt e r e s t i n t he i ndi vi dua l s ; ga ve e nc our a ge m e nt a n d pos i t i ve f e e dba c k, a nd t hos e t ha t s e t pr ope r e nvi r onm e nt ; a ppr op r i a t e m us i c vo i c e i ns t r uc t i on, a nd pr ovi de d gr oup c ohe s i on.

PAGE 17

9 T he i ns t r uc t or a l s o s e r ve s a s a r ol e m ode l f or pa r t i c i pa nt s ( L ox e t a l 2006) T he y a r e vi e w e d a s a r e l i a bl e s our c e of he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on. I ns t r uc t or s a l s o ha ve pot e nt i a l i nf l ue nc e on e xe r c i s e r e l a t e d t hought s f e e l i ngs a nd be ha vi or s D i s pl a yi ng a nd e nc our a gi ng pos i t i ve a nd a ppr opr i a t e e xe r c i s e a t t i t ude s a f f e c t s pa r t i c i pa nt s ( B r a y, G yur e c s i k, M a r t i n G i ni s & C ul os R e e d, 2004; B r a y G yur e c s i k, C ul os R e e d, D a w s on & M a r t i n, 2001; C a r r on & H a us e nbl a s 1998) T he r e s e a r c h by B r a y a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2001) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t a t h i r d pa r t y ( t he i ns t r uc t or ) ha s on c l a s s a t t e nda nc e T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p of pr o xy e f f i c a c y, s e l f e f f i c a c y, a nd c l a s s a t t e nda nc e P r oxy e f f i c a c y i s t he c on f i de nc e one h a s i n a t hi r d pa r t y s a bi l i t y t o a s s i s t i n a c hi e vi ng a s pe c i f i c goa l I t i s t o r e l i nqui s h of a l l o r s om e of pe r s ona l c ont r ol t o a n i nt e r m e di a r y pa r t y t o he l p a c hi e ve a de s i r e d out c o m e ( B r a y e t a l 2001 ) T hi s i s i m por t a nt t o f i t ne s s c l a s s e s w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e r e l yi ng on ot he r s t o pr ovi de a s t r uc t ur e d w or kout I n t hi s s i t ua t i on, pa r t i c i pa nt s do not ha ve t o w or r y a bout put t i ng t oge t he r a p r ogr a m f or t he m s e l ve s s o i t i s ne c e s s a r y f or t he m t o ha ve c onf i de nc e i n t he i r i ns t r uc t or s a bi l i t i e s T he r e f or e i t i s i m por t a nt t o de t e r m i ne pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of i ns t r uc t or s a nd pr e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s t udy f ound t ha t i ns t r uc t o r s be ha vi or s a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c l a s s a t t e nda nc e T h e l a r ge s t c or r e l a t i on obs e r ve d w a s be t w e e n i ns t r uc t or e f f i c a c y a nd e xe r c i s e e f f i c a c y s uppor t i ng t he not i on o f pr oxy e f f i c a c y ( B r a y e t a l 2004) T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t c onf i de nc e i n t he i ns t r uc t o r s c a pa bi l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o gr e a t e r c l a s s a t t e nda nc e a s w e l l a s t he e xe r c i s e r s c onf i de nc e t o c om pl e t e a s t r e nuous bout of e xe r c i s e

PAGE 18

10 Q ual i t i e s and C har ac t e r i s t i c s C e r t a i n i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ha ve gr e a t e r c or r e l a t i on w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on r a t e s a nd i nc r e a s e d a dhe r e nc e t ha n ot he r s ( B r a y G yu r e c s i k, M a r t i n G i ni s & C ul os R e e d, 2001; B r a y e t a l 2001; M a r t i n & F ox 2001 ; F ox R e j e s ki & G a uvi n, 2000) E m pl oye r s a l s o uphol d s t a nda r ds f or hi r i ng e f f e c t i ve l e a de r s t ha t m a i nt a i n hi gh pa r t i c i pa t i on r a t e s L e a de r s hi p i s one a s pe c t o f gr oup e xe r c i s e t ha t i nf l ue nc e s l ong t e r m pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd e nj oym e nt ( B r a y e t a l 200 4; B r a y e t a l 2 001; M a r t i n & F ox, 2001; F ox, R e j e s ki & G a uvi n, 2000) O t he r i nf l ue nc e s i m por t a nt t o g r oup e xe r c i s e a r e t he e nvi r onm e nt m us i c s e l e c t i on, e nt hus i a s m punc t ua l i t y a nd p r of e s s i ona l i s m of t he i ns t r uc t or a nd s a f e a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he c l a s s C e r t a i n s t a nda r ds s houl d be uphe l d w he n hi r i ng f i t ne s s s t a f f how e ve r l i t t l e r e s e a r c h h a s de t e r m i ne d w hi c h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t he m os t i m por t a nt t o pa r t i c i pa n t s U nde r s t a ndi ng w hi c h qua l i t i e s a f f e c t l ong t e r m a dhe r e nc e c a n a s s i s t i n t he p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of ne w c om e r s t o t he he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i ndus t r y. E f f e c t i ve l e a de r s hi p i s one i m por t a nt f a c t or i n g r ou p e xe r c i s e s e t t i ngs I t ha s t he a bi l i t y t o p r om ot e c onf i de nc e i n t he i ns t r uc t or i nc r e a s e s e l f e f f i c a c y, e ne r gy a nd e nt hus i a s m e nj oym e nt of t he c l a s s a nd i nt e nt i on t o r e t ur n a s w e l l a s de c r e a s e t he c onc e r n of e m ba r r a s s m e nt a nd pr o m ot e ne w e xe r c i s e s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ( L ox e t a l 2006 ) L e a de r s hi p s t yl e a nd gr oup c ohe s i on a r e t w o qua l i t i e s t ha t ha v e be e n s how n t o i m pa c t e nj oy m e nt of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a nd pr og r a m a dhe r e nc e ( F ox e t a l 2000) I n one pa r t i c ul a r s t udy c onduc t e d by F ox e t a l ( 2000) i t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t e nj oym e nt o f phys i c a l a c t i vi t y c l a s s w oul d be hi ghe s t w he n e nha nc e d l e a de r s hi p s t yl e w a s c om bi ne d w i t h e nha nc e d

PAGE 19

11 gr oup dyna m i c s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o a t w o by t w o de s i gn w i t h l e a de r s hi p s t yl e ( e nr i c he d ve r s us bl a nd) a nd gr oup dyna m i c s ( e nr i c he d ve r s us bl a nd) A s i ngl e f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or w a s t r a i ne d t o i ns t r uc t c l a s s i n bot h t he e nr i c he d a nd b l a nd l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a s w e l l a s e nr i c he d gr oup dyna m i c a nd bl a nd g r oup dyna m i c T he e nr i c he d l e a de r s hi p s t yl e pr ovi de d s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on, w a s pl e a s a nt a nd e ne r ge t i c I t i nvol ve d e nga gi ng i n c onve r s a t i on w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pos i t i ve r e i nf o r c e m e nt gi v i ng s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ons i gn or i ng m i s t a ke s a nd ve r ba l l y r e w a r di ng e f f or t T he bl a nd l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a voi de d c onve r s a t i on, f a i l e d t o f ol l ow up w i t h pr a i s e p r ovi de d ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s ga ve va gue i ns t r uc t i on a nd ve r ba l l y no t i ng m i s t a ke s G r oup dyna m i c s w a s a l s o m a ni pul a t e d by pl a nt i ng unde r gr a dua t e s w i t hi n e a c h of t he c l a s s e s t o pr om ot e e nr i c he d or bl a nd dyna m i c s T he e nr i c he d g r oup d yna m i c s i nt r oduc e d t he m s e l ve s t o ot he r m e m be r s ha d c a s ua l i nt e r a c t i on w i t h ot he r s w e r e c om pl i a nt w i t h i ns t r uc t or s w i s he s a nd ga ve pos i t i ve r e m a r ks a bo ut t he i ns t r u c t or T he bl a nd gr oup dyna m i c s di d not i nt r oduc e t he m s e l ve s t o ot he r m e m be r s or i ni t i a t e i nt e r a c t i on, w a s c om pl i a nt w i t h i ns t r uc t or s w i s he s but w i t hout e nt hus i a s m di d not gi ve e nc our a ge m e nt or r e s pond t o que s t i ons t ha t t he l e a de r di r e c t e d t o w a r d t he gr oup R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t a c om bi na t i on of e n r i c he d l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a nd e nr i c he d gr oup dyna m i c s pr oduc e d t he gr e a t e s t e nj oym e nt a nd i nt e nt i on t o r e t ur n t o s i m i l a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. I n t he s t udy d i s c us s e d a bove ( F ox e t a l 20 00 ) t he e f f e c t o f l e a de r s hi p s t yl e w a s e xa m i ne d i nde pe nde nt of a nd i n c om bi na t i on w i t h gr oup c ohe s i on. A l t hough r e s ul t s of t he s t udy w e r e gr e a t e s t w he n t he t w o w e r e c om bi n e d, gr oup c ohe s i on ha s be e n s how n t o be i nf l ue nt i a l i nde pe nde nt of ot he r f a c t o r s ( C a r r on W i dm e ye r & B r a w l e y, 1988; S pi nk &

PAGE 20

12 C a r r on, 1994 ) G r oup c ohe s i on i s l i nke d t o nu m e r o us f a c t or s c r i t i c a l t o t he de ve l opm e nt a nd vi t a l i t y o f t he g r oup ( S pi nk & C a r r on 1994 ) F a c t or s i nc l ude c om m uni c a t i on, c onf or m i t y, i nt e r a c t i ons pe r s i s t e nc e a nd a t t e n da nc e of ot he r gr oup m e m be r s ( W i dm e ye r B r a w l e y & C a r r on, 1985) A t t e nda nc e a nd a dhe r e nc e s pe c i f i c a l l y i n g r oup f i t ne s s c l a s s e s i s l a r ge l y a f f e c t e d by gr oup c ohe s i on ( C a r r on e t a l 1994 ) C a r r on e t a l ( 1994 ) c onduc t e d a s t udy t o de t e r m i n e t he c ohe s i on a dhe r e nc e r e l a t i ons hi p a s w e l l a s t he de gr e e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p. I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t c ohe s i on i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o a dhe r e nc e i n d i f f e r e nt s por t a nd p hys i c a l a c t i vi t y gr oups s uc h a s e l i t e s por t s t e a m s a nd f i t ne s s c l a s s e s T he i nve s t i ga t or s di vi de d t he c ohe s i on a dhe r e nc e r e l a t i ons hi p i nt o t w o s t udi e s T he f i r s t s t udy s pur p os e w a s t o i de nt i f y i f a s pe c t s of c ohe s i ve ne s s a r e r e l a t e d t o a dhe r e nc e i n s por t a nd phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. I n t he s e c ond s t udy, t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he t w o a r e r e l a t e d w a s m e a s ur e d. F our s a m pl e s w e r e e xa m i ne d. T he s a m pl e s i nc l ude f i t ne s s c l a s s a dhe r e r s f i t ne s s c l a s s non a dhe r e r s e l i t e s por t a dhe r e r s a nd e l i t e s por t non a dhe r e r s N on a dhe r e r s w e r e vol unt e e r s f r om a l a r ge uni ve r s i t y unde r gr a dua t e c l a s s T hos e t ha t ha d l e f t a f i t ne s s c l a s s or e l i t e s por t t e a m w i t hi n t he pa s t s i x m ont hs w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e t he que s t i onna i r e T he G r oup E nvi r onm e nt Q ue s t i onna i r e w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e t e a m c ohe s i ve ne s s M odi f i c a t i ons w e r e m a de t o t he s a m e que s t i onna i r e a nd us e d f or t he f i t ne s s c l a s s a dhe r e r s a nd non a dhe r e r s T he que s t i onna i r e w a s gi ve n a t t he e nd of t he c om pe t i t i ve s e a s on f or e l i t e t e a m s por t s or a t t he e nd of a s i x w e e k e xe r c i s e c l a s s Q ue s t i onna i r e s w e r e c om pl e t e d i ndi vi dua l l y a nd a nonym ous l y. T he r e s ul t s of s t udy one w e r e s i m i l a r f o r e l i t e s por t a nd f i t ne s s c l a s s a dhe r e r s T hos e

PAGE 21

13 t ha t m a i nt a i ne d e l i t e s por t i nvol ve m e nt w e r e m or e pe r s ona l l y a t t r a c t e d t o t he gr oup s t a s k a nd pe r c e i ve d t he gr oup a s m or e i nt e gr a t e d a r ound s oc i a l a nd t a s k di m e ns i ons F i t ne s s c l a s s non a dhe r e r s w e r e l e s s pe r s ona l l y a t t r a c t e d t o t he gr oup s t a s k a nd t o t he gr oup a s a s oc i a l uni t A c c or di ng t o t he i nve s t i ga t or s f oc us s houl d be pl a c e d on de ve l opi ng t he gr oup a s a w hol e o r uni t a s w e l l a s e nc our a ge c ohe s i ve t a s ks S t udy t w o w a s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne t he de gr e e o f c ohe s i ve ne s s a nd a dhe r e nc e be ha vi or C a r r on e t a l ( 1994) f ound t ha t t he gr oup a s a w hol e i n f l ue nc e s i t s m e m be r s t o c onf or m t o e s t a bl i s he d nor m s t o m a ke s a c r i f i c e s a nd c ont r i but e t o t he gr oup s e f f e c t i ve ne s s T he a ut hor s c onc l ude t ha t i t i s i m por t a nt t o e n c our a ge c ohe s i ve ne s s a m ong pa r t i c i pa nt s t o pos i t i ve l y i m pa c t a dhe r e nc e I m pl i c a t i ons of t he s t udy i nc l ude gr e a t e r a dhe r e nc e w he n t he f oc us i s on t he gr oup r a t he r t h a n t he i ndi vi dua l C ohe s i on of t he gr oup ha s a pow e r f u l e f f e c t on i t s m e m be r s r e l a t i v e t o a d he r e nc e T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt w he n de a l i ng w i t h g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s I n o r de r i nc r e a s e t he r e t ur n r a t e e xe r c i s e l e a de r s s houl d f i nd w a ys t o i nc or po r a t e c o he s i on a m ong t he m e m be r s A ppe ar anc e and A t t r ac t i v e ne s s T he r ol e of t he i ns t r uc t or a l on g w i t h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e de m ons t r a t e d t o be i nf l ue nt i a l i n t e r m s o f pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e n c e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e H ow e ve r l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he g r oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or ha s be e n c onduc t e d. A ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha ve be e n s how n t o i nf l ue nc e a va r i e t y of ot he r a r e a s O ne a r e a i nc l ude s pe r c e pt i ons of c om p e t e nc e ( J a c ks on e t a l 1995 ) A m e t a a na l ys i s of phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l c om pe t e nc e w a s c onduc t e d. I t w a s f ound t ha t pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e D i f f e r e nt

PAGE 22

14 t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s ha ve be e n us e d t o de s c r i be t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l c om pe t e nc e i nc l udi ng s t a t us ge ne r a l i z a t i on t he or y, i m pl i c i t pe r s ona l i t y t he or y, a nd t he e xpe c t a nc y t he or y ( J a c ks on e t a l 1995) W i t h t he s e t hr e e t he or i e s c om bi ne d, t he m e t a a na l ys i s by J a c ks on e t a l ( 1995) f ound t ha t a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e a nd e xpe c t a t i ons a r e hi ghe r i n m a l e s t ha n f e m a l e s P e r c e pt i ons of a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a r e s t r onge r w he n l e s s i nf or m a t i on a bout t he pe r s on i s know n w hi c h s uppor t s t he not i on t ha t f i r s t i m pr e s s i ons ha ve a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n pe r c e pt i ons of c om pe t e nc e H ow e ve r pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e a nd a c t ua l i nt e l l i ge nc e di d not de m ons t r a t e a s t r ong r e l a t i ons hi p. T hi s m e t a a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a n i ns i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd a c t ua l c om pe t e nc e but a ppe a r a nc e ha s a n i m por t a nt e f f e c t on f i r s t i m pr e s s i ons O t he r s t udi e s s uppor t t he not i on t ha t a ppe a r a nc e a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i ons of e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t a nt s a nd t he f e m a l e c ouns e l or ( L e w i s & W a l s h, 1978; L ubke r e t a l 2005) B ot h o f t he s e s t udi e s c onf i r m e d t ha t l ooki ng t he pa r t i s i m por t a nt i n bui l di ng c r e di bi l i t y F o r e xa m pl e t ho s e t ha t dr e s s e d m or e pr of e s s i ona l l y w e r e pe r c e i ve d t o do a be t t e r j ob t ha n t hos e t ha t di d not l ook a s pr of e s s i ona l T he s e pe r c e pt i ons i nf l ue nc e d j udgm e nt s r e l a t e d t o t a s k c om pl e t i on a s w e l l a s e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n pr oduc i ng r e s ul t s L e w i s a nd W a l s h ( 1978) f ound t ha t i ni t i a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he c ouns e l or w a s r e l a t e d t o gr e a t e r e xpe c t a t i ons i n t he a bi l i t y t o he l p i n c e r t a i n s i t ua t i ons T he a t t r a c t i ve f e m a l e w a s pe r c e i ve d t o be m or e c om pe t e nt l i ka bl e f r i e ndl y a nd m or e he l pf ul w he n de a l i ng w i t h c ol l e ge s i t ua t i ons s uc h a s dr i nk i ng, dr ugs or s pe a ki ng i n gr oups

PAGE 23

15 S i m i l a r l y, t he a ppe a r a nc e of t he pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t a nt w a s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s w i t h t he t a s k a t h a nd ( L ubke r e t a l 2005) T he f e m a l e c ons ul t a nt s w e r e vi e w e d a s m or e f r i e ndl y a nd a ppr oa c ha bl e w he r e a s t he m a l e s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m or e s por t s know l e dge I n t hi s s t u dy, t he y f ound t ha t c l ot hi ng a nd bui l d w e r e m or e i n f l ue nt i a l t ha n ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y A t hl e t e s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o s e e k i nf or m a t i on f r om t hos e t ha t w e r e dr e s s e d pr of e s s i on a l l y a nd ha d a n a t hl e t i c bui l d T hos e t ha t de m ons t r a t e d e xt e r na l c ue s s uc h a s a n a t hl e t i c bui l d a r e pe r c e i ve d t o ha ve g r e a t e r s por t know l e dge ( L ubke r e t a l 2005) K now i ng w ha t ot he r f a c t or s a s i de f r om t he s t r uc t ur e of a gr oup f i t ne s s c l a s s a nd m ot i va t i on a l t e c hni que s pr ovi de s t he oppor t uni t y t o i nf l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e t o g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s R e s e a r c h ha s a l s o f ound t ha t a ppe a r a nc e a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i ons of l e a de r s hi p, s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons a nd a c c e pt a nc e of he a l t h i n f or m a t i on a nd know l e dge ( C he r ul ni k, 1995; D e a n e t a l 2005; H a s h, M unna V oge l & B a s on, 2003; G oe be l & C a s he n 1995; R i ni ol o e t a l 2006) I t i s i m po r t a nt f o r r ol e m ode l s t o pr a c t i c e w ha t t he y pr e a c h i n or de r t o e xhi bi t e f f e c t i ve l e a de r s hi p. O ne pa r t i c ul a r s t udy c onduc t e d by D e a n e t a l ( 2005) f ound t ha t a c c e pt a nc e of he a l t h r e l a t e d know l e dge w a s l ow e r w he n c om i ng f r o m a n out of s ha pe pe r s on. T he r e i s s t r ong s uppor t f o r phys i c a l f i t ne s s i n phys i c a l e duc a t or s T hos e w ho e xhi bi t poor he a l t h ha bi t s c a n ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t t he i r s t u de nt s ( D e a n e t a l 2005) L i ke w i s e s m a l l but s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he w a y pa t i e nt s r e c e i ve he a l t h a dvi c e f r om obe s e ve r s us non obe s e phys i c i a ns w e r e f ound ( H a s h e t a l 2003 ) T hi s s t udy ha d hi ghe r c onf i de nc e s c or e s f or r e c e i vi ng di s e a s e t r e a t m e nt i nf or m a t i on f r om a non obe s e phys i c i a n. A dvi c e i s m or e r e a di l y a c c e pt e d w he n pr ovi de d f or by a he a l t h c a r e

PAGE 24

16 pr of e s s i ona l a nd e ve n m or e a c c e pt e d w he n t he he a l t h c a r e pr o f e s s i ona l di s pl a ys he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e ha bi t s ( G a l us ka W i l l S e r dul a & F or d 19 99; N a w a z A da m s & K a t z 2000) T hi s i s i m por t a nt r e l a t i ve t o f i t ne s s pr of e s s i ona l s C ha l l e ngi ng s t e r e ot ype s c a n ha ve a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on ne ga t i ve he a l t h a nd body i m a ge i s s ue s H ow e ve r r e s e a r c h de m ons t r a t e s t ha t he a l t h r e l a t e d i n f or m a t i on i s m or e w i de l y a c c e pt e d w he n c om i ng f r om s om e one w ho di s pl a ys c e r t a i n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t he r t ha n s om e one w ho i s ove r w e i ght o r unf i t T e ac he r and P r of e s s or E v al uat i ons N ot onl y ha s a ppe a r a nc e be e n s how n t o be i nf l ue nt i a l i n t he he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i ndus t r y a nd m e di c a l f i e l d, but i t a l s o ha s i nf l ue nc e on t e a c he r a nd pr of e s s or r a t i ngs ( G oe be l & C a s he n 1979; R i ni ol o e t a l 2006 ) T h e pur pos e of t he s e s t udi e s w a s t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pl a ys a ny s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n t e a c he r or pr o f e s s or e va l ua t i on. O ne s t udy s ur ve ye d 150 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s 2, 5, 8, 11, a nd 13 us i ng bl a c k a nd w hi t e phot ogr a phs A t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha d t he dom i na nt i nf l ue nc e on r a t i ngs ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979 ) T hos e w i t h t he l ow e s t r a t i ngs w e r e ol de r una t t r a c t i ve m a l e s a nd m i ddl e a ge d una t t r a c t i ve f e m a l e s M ul t i p l e s t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d i n a va r i e t y of s e t t i ngs a nd a l l a gr e e t ha t a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o f i r s t i m pr e s s i ons i nde pe nde nt of t he t a s k or s i t ua t i on t o be pe r f or m e d ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; R i nol o e t a l 2006) A s e c ond s t udy by R i ni ol o e t a l ( 2006) c onc ur r e d t ha t a va r i e t y of f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e t e a c he r e va l ua t i ons t o i nc l ude a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s t udy us e d s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons f r om w w w r a t e m ypr of e s s or c om T he y a l s o obt a i ne d r e a l s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons f r om f our un i ve r s i t i e s w ho ha d p r of e s s or s w i t h a m i ni m um of 25 r e s pons e s f r om t he

PAGE 25

17 w e bs i t e W i t h t ha t i n f or m a t i on t he y f ound t ha t pr o f e s s or s w ho w e r e vi e w e d a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve ha d r e c e i ve d be t t e r e va l ua t i ons T hi s s t udy poi nt s out t ha t a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s pa r t i a l l y s ubj e c t i ve a nd t ha t pe r s ona l i t y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o i nf l ue nc e pe r c e pt i on. T he y m e nt i one d t ha t c l ot hi ng a nd s t a t us i nf l ue nc e a t t r a c t i ve ne s s r a t i ng a s w e l l L i m i t a t i ons t o t hi s s t udy i nc l ude t he i na bi l i t y t o de c i phe r how m a n y t i m e s one pa r t i c ul a r pe r s on vot e d w hi c h c oul d i nf l ue nc e t he out c om e A l t hough a r e l a t i ons hi p w a s s e e n a m ong a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd e va l ua t i ons i t i s not c a us a l H o w e ve r i t i s i m por t a nt t o unde r s t a nd t he i nf l ue nc e a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s on pe r c e p t i ons r e ga r di ng pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s i nt e l l i ge nc e a nd a c c e pt a nc e of he a l t h i nf or m a t i on B y i de nt i f yi ng s t e r e ot ype s i nt e r ve nt i ons t o c ha l l e nge t he m c a n be m a de ( R i nol o e t a l 2006 ) C onc l us i on G r oup e xe r c i s e i s a m a j or c ont r i but o r f or m e e t i ng r e c om m e nda t i ons f or phys i c a l a c t i vi t y ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005 ) I t pr ovi de s t he oppor t uni t y t o a c hi e ve he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ne f i t s w hi l e i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h ot he r s M a ny c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s i n f l ue nc e a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i nc l udi ng t he r ol e of t he i ns t r u c t or I t i s t he i ns t r uc t or s r e s pons i bi l i t y t o m ot i va t e a nd e duc a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng t he c l a s s a s w e l l a s e nc our a ge t he m t o a t t e nd c l a s s e s on a r e gul a r ba s i s i n or de r t o r e c e i ve he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ne f i t s ( E s t a br ooks & M unr oe 2004) T he c ur r e nt s t udy i s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e A l t hough m a ny i de a s t ha t s uppor t a va r i e t y of f a c t or s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d t o i de nt i f y w hi c h a r e m or e i nf l ue nt i a l t o pa r t i c i pa nt s I nve s t i ga t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r i ns t r uc t or s w i l l h e l p i de nt i f y p r e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I n

PAGE 26

18 doi ng s o, he a l t h f i t ne s s pr of e s s i ona l s c a n t a i l or p r o gr a m s t o m e e t t he ne e ds a nd de m a nds of pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd u l t i m a t e l y i m pa c t a dhe r e nc e a s w e l l a s t he i r ove r a l l he a l t h.

PAGE 27

19 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hods P ar t i c i pant s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c r ui t e d f or t hi s s t udy w e r e m e m be r s of va r i ous f i t ne s s f a c i l i t i e s i n T a m pa F L i nc l ud i ng c or po r a t e p r i va t e / c om m uni t y, a nd c ol l e ge f a c i l i t i e s M e m be r s of e a c h of t he di f f e r e nt f a c i l i t i e s va r y on a ge f i t ne s s l e ve l a nd de s i r e d goa l s w hi c h w i l l of f e r uni ve r s a l i nf or m a t i on. S a m pl i ng a n a s s or t m e nt of f a c i l i t i e s pr ovi de s a b r oa d r a nge of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t s houl d i m pr ove t he ge ne r a l i z a b i l i t y of t he f i ndi ngs T he t ot a l s a m pl e s i z e f o r t he s ur ve y w a s 166 p a r t i c i pa nt s O f t hos e r e c r ui t e d, 136 f ul l y c om pl e t e d t he s ur ve y, t he r e s t o f t he s ur ve ys w e r e e i t he r i nc om pl e t e o r f i l l e d out i nc or r e c t l y. T he r e w e r e 112 f e m a l e s a nd 21 m a l e s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s ur ve y. O nl y f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nc l ude d f or a na l ys i s V a r i ous s i t e s w e r e us e d t o r e c r ui t pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l udi ng c o r por a t e f a c i l i t i e s ( N = 20; 17. 7% ) p r i va t e a nd c om m uni t y c e nt e r s ( N = 35; 30. 9 % ) a nd a c ol l e ge r e c r e a t i on c e nt e r ( N = 57; 51. 3% ) M e a n a ge s t a nda r d de vi a t i on = 27. 6 10. 3 a nd B M I = 23. 8 6. 0 O f t he w om e n w ho c om pl e t e d t he s ur ve y, 61. 9% w e r e W hi t e 18. 9% H i s pa ni c ( N on W hi t e ) 9. 7% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k, 7. 1% A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r a nd 2 7% c l a s s i f i e d t he m s e l ve s a s ot he r F e m a l e s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy a l s o r e por t e d a t t e ndi ng 3. 97 2 53 c l a s s e s pe r w e e k. C l a s s e s a t t e nde d i nc l ude ( N = a ve r a ge da ys a t t e nde d pe r w e e k) s t e p ( 0. 34 705) ki c kboxi ng ( 0. 47 977 ) c i r c ui t t r a i ni ng ( 0. 14 551) boo t c a m p ( 0. 04 207 )

PAGE 28

20 da nc e a e r obi c s ( 0. 38 850) i ndoo r c yc l i ng ( 0. 63 1. 01) c a r di o/ t on e c om bi na t i on c l a s s ( 0. 58 1 05) P i l a t e s / yoga ( 0. 50 849 ) t oni ng/ s t r e ngt h c l a s s ( 0. 54 976) w a t e r a e r obi c s ( 0. 01 094) Z um ba ( 0. 22 565) o r ot h e r ( 0 11 411) T a bl e s 3 1 a nd 3. 2 pr ovi de de m ogr a phi c da t a f or t hi s s t udy. O f t he f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s 58 % us e g r oup e xe r c i s e a l ong w i t h ot he r t ype s o f t r a i ni ng, 97% pl a n gr oup e xe r c i s e i nt o t he i r s c he dul e 93% a t t e nd r e gul a r gr oup e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons 75% pr e f e r a c om bi na t i on of c l a s s e s ( e g. Y oga a nd S pi nni ng) a nd 71 % ha ve no pr e f e r e nc e of ge nde r o f i ns t r uc t o r F i gur e 3. 1 i l l us t r a t e s r e s ul t s f or c l a s s pr e f e r e nc e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o c hoos e t he c l a s s t he y a t t e nd m os t of t e n a nd a ns w e r que s t i ons ba s e d on t ha t pa r t i c ul a r c l a s s A ve r a ge ye a r s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s pe c i f i c c l a s s w a s 1. 18 2. 5. M e as ur e m e nt T he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude e xe r c i s e m ot i va t i on, pe r c e i ve d e xe r t i on de m ons t r a t e d dur i ng c l a s s c l a s s a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on, a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s I nde pe nde nt va r i a b l e s m e a s ur e d i nc l ude d pe r c e i ve d body t ype o f s e l f a nd i ns t r uc t or pr e f e r r e d body t ype o f s e l f a nd i ns t r uc t or pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s S i xt e e n i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e c om bi ne d i nt o one s i ngl e s c or e T he f i r s t s e c t i on of t he s ur ve y i nc l ude d t he f ol l ow i ng de m ogr a phi c i nf o r m a t i on: a ge ge nde r he i ght w e i ght a nd r a c e f our que s t i ons i de nt i f yi ng t ype of f a c i l i t y a nd c l a s s e s ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s a nd f our que s t i ons i de nt i f yi ng body t ype A s om a t om or phi c m a t r i x w a s us e d t o i de nt i f y t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c ur r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d body

PAGE 29

21 t ype f or s e l f a nd i ns t r uc t o r ( S e e A ppe ndi x 1 ) T he m a t r i x i s a 10 x 10 s c a l e w he r e t he x a xi s r e pr e s e nt s f a t ne s s f r om l e f t t o r i ght a nd t he y a xi s r e pr e s e nt s m us c ul a r i t y f r om t op t o bot t om E s s e nt i a l l y, t he s c a l e w a s s pl i t i nt o f ou r qu a dr a nt s : l ow f a t l ow m us c l e ; hi gh f a t l ow m us c l e ; l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e ; hi gh f a t hi gh m us c l e P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o pr ovi de a l e t t e r w hi c h c or r e s ponds w i t h f a t ne s s a nd a num be r w hi c h c o r r e s ponds w i t h m us c ul a r i t y t o i de nt i f y t he i r c ur r e nt body t ype p r e f e r r e d body t ype i ns t r uc t or s c u r r e nt body t ype a nd t he i r pr e f e r r e d t he i r i ns t r uc t or body t ype T he s e c ond s e c t i on i nc l ude d t he B e ha vi or a l R e gul a t i on i n E x e r c i s e Q ue s t i onna i r e ( B R E Q 2) ( M ul l a n, M a r kl a nd & I nde gl e w 2004) w hi c h i s de s i gne d t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on f or e xe r c i s e ( S e e A ppe ndi x 2) T he B R E Q 2 i s c o m pr i s e d of 19 que s t i ons i de nt i f yi ng m ot i va t i on ba s e d on t he S e l f D e t e r m i na t i on T he or y ( D e c i & R ya n, 198 5) T he que s t i onna i r e i s a 5 poi nt l i ke r t s c a l e t ha t e s t a bl i s he s i ndi vi dua l s r e a s ons f or e nga gi ng i n phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. T he s c a l e r a nge d f r om z e r o t o f o ur w i t h one be i ng not t r ue f or m e t o f i ve be i ng ve r y t r ue f or m e T he i ns t r um e nt i s c om pos e d of f i ve d i m e ns i ons t ha t r e f l e c t unde r l yi ng m ot i va t i on T he di m e ns i ons a r e a m ot i v a t i on, e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on, i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on, i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on, a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. T he r e a r e t hr e e t o f our que s t i ons pe r t a i ni ng t o e a c h of t he s ubs c a l e s a nd c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x 2 I t e m s f i ve ni ne 12, a nd 19 c or r e s pond w i t h a m ot i va t i on. I t e m s one s i x, 11, a nd 16 c o r r e s pond w i t h e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on. I t e m s t w o s e ve n, a nd 13 c or r e s pond w i t h i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on. I t e m s t hr e e e i ght 14 a nd 17 c or r e s pond w i t h i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on a nd i t e m s f our 10 15 a nd 18 c or r e s pond w i t h i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. T he t hi r d s e c t i on i nc l ude d i t e m s r e l a t e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s a nd c a n be f ound

PAGE 30

22 i n A ppe ndi x 3. I t e m s a s s e s s e d i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s by a s ki ng pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r a t e how o f t e n t he i r i ns t r uc t or c a r r i e d out t he f ol l ow i ng t a s ks : s t a r t i ng a nd e ndi ng on t i m e c om i ng t o c l a s s pr e pa r e d, us i ng good voi c e p r oj e c t i on, pr ope r t one e nunc i a t i ng a ppr op r i a t e m us i c a nd a t t i r e di s pl a yi ng pr o f e s s i ona l i s m e nc our a gi ng gr oup c ohe s i on, pr om o t i ng a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e e xpl a i ni ng pr ope r t e c hni que pr ovi di n g pos i t i ve f e e dba c k, us i ng s i m pl e c ue s a nd c om m a nds gr e e t i ng upon a r r i va l a nd know i n g or us i ng t he i r na m e T he s c a l e r a nge d f r om one t o f i ve w i t h one be i ng ne ve r t o f i ve be i n g a l w a ys T he i t e m t ha t a ddr e s s e d i ns t r uc t or a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he y a gr e e w i t h t he s t a t e m e nt t ha t t he i r i ns t r uc t o r i s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve T he s c a l e r a nge d f r om one t o f i ve w i t h one be i ng s t r ong l y di s a gr e e t o f i ve be i ng s t r o ngl y a gr e e P a r t t w o of s e c t i on t hr e e c ont a i ne d f i ve s i ngl e i t e m que s t i ons r e l a t i ng t o i ns t r uc t or phys i que a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s w e l l a s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m ot i va t i on e f f or t a t t e nda n c e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on f r om t he i ns t r uc t o r a nd c a n a l s o be f ou nd i n A ppe ndi x 3 P r oc e dur e s A f t e r r e c e i vi ng a ppr ova l f r om t he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d a nd obt a i ni ng pe r m i s s i on f r om e a c h o f t he f a c i l i t i e s t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or di s t r i but e d bus i ne s s c a r ds a nd f l ye r s t o t he f a c i l i t i e s I ns t r uc t o r s w e r e a s ke d t o pr om ot e t he s ur ve y a nd ha nd out t he c a r ds a t t he e nd o f e a c h gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s T he bus i ne s s c a r ds ha d a w e b a ddr e s s t o t he s ur ve y, w hi c h w a s m a de a va i l a bl e f or t hr e e w e e ks on S ur ve ym onke y. c om P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a bl e t o vi s i t t he w e bs i t e a nd c om pl e t e t he s ur ve y a t t he i r c onve ni e nc e F l ye r s w e r e a l s o pos t e d i n t he l oc ke r r oom s a nd g r oup e xe r c i s e r oom s of t he f a c i l i t i e s t o pr om ot e t he p r oj e c t T he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a t t e n de d va r i ous c l a s s e s a t t he c or por a t e

PAGE 31

23 uni ve r s i t y a nd pr i va t e / c om m uni t y f a c i l i t i e s t o of f e r pa pe r a nd pe nc i l ve r s i ons of t he s ur ve y. I nf o r m a t i on c ol l e c t e d f r om t he s ur ve ys w a s i nput da i l y by t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or St at i s t i c al A nal y s i s D a t a a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d us i ng f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s onl y. T he da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e e de d i n t hr e e pha s e s P ha s e one i nc l ude d de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s on de m ogr a phi c s i nc l udi ng a ge body m a s s i nde x ( B M I ) r a c e t ype o f f a c i l i t y, t ype of c l a s s e s a nd ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e us i ng gr oup e xe r c i s e P ha s e t w o ut i l i z e d de pe nde nt t t e s t s t o de t e r m i ne d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y. D a t a r e l a t e d t o t hi s a na l ys i s a r e e xpr e s s e d a s m e a n s a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons P ha s e t hr e e ut i l i z e d c or r e l a t i on a nd r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s C or r e l a t i on a na l ys i s us i ng t he P e a r s on pr oduc t m om e n t c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt w a s c onduc t e d t o e va l ua t e pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r e xe r c i s e l e a de r a nd a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a dhe r e nc e t o t he c l a s s t he de gr e e of m o t i va t i on, e f f or t a nd pe r c e i ve d c r e di bi l i t y o f t he i ns t r uc t or P va l ue f or s i gni f i c a nc e w a s s e t a t 0 05 T he f i r s t s e t of r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e w i t h t he B R E Q 2 a nd f i ve s i ngl e i t e m s a s de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s C r onba c h a l pha f or t he s ubs c a l e s a l ong w i t h m e a ns S D a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 3. 3 A l pha va l ue s w e r e f ound t o be w i t hi n a n a c c e pt a bl e r a nge a nd a c t ua l va l ue s a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 3. 3 T he s e s i ngl e i t e m s w e r e t he de gr e e o f m ot i va t i on, l e ve l of e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on, a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T he s e c ond s e t of a na l ys e s i nvol ve d pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e a nd a t t e nda nc e a s t he

PAGE 32

24 de pe nde nt va r i a bl e T he t hi r d s e t of a na l ys e s us e d i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y a s t he p r e di c t or va r i a b l e w i t h B R E Q 2 a nd s i ngl e i t e m s a s out c om e va r i a bl e s M e a ns S D f or i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s p r ovi de d i n T a bl e 3. 4 T a bl e 3. 1 D e m ogr aphi c D at a D e m ogr a phi c s N M e a n S D P e r c e nt a ge A ge 112 27. 67 10 29 B M I 1 12 23. 74 6 03 R a c e 112 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k 10 9. 70 % H i s pa ni c ( N on W hi t e ) 21 18. 9 W hi t e 69 61. 9 A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r 7 7. 1 O t he r 3 2. 7 F a c i l i t y 112 C or por a t e 20 17. 7 P r i va t e / C om m uni t y 35 30. 9 U ni ve r s i t y 57 51. 3 Y e a r s of E xpe r i e nc e 112 3. 50 5 07

PAGE 33

25 T a bl e 3. 2 C l as s e s A t t e nde d P e r W e e k C l a s s M e a n S D C l a s s e s P e r W e e k 3. 97 2 53 S t e p 0. 34 0 71 K i c kboxi ng 0. 47 0 98 C i r c ui t T r a i ni ng 0. 14 0 55 B oot C a m p 0. 04 0 20 D a nc e A e r obi c s 0. 38 0 85 I ndoor C yc l i ng 0. 63 1 01 C a r di o / T one C om bi na t i on 0. 58 1 05 P i l a t e s / Y oga 0. 50 0 85 T oni ng/ S t r e ngt h 0. 54 0 98 W a t e r A e r obi c s 0. 01 0 09 Z um ba 0. 22 0 57 O t he r 0. 11 0 41

PAGE 34

26 F i gur e 3. 1

PAGE 35

27 T a bl e 3. 3 M e an V al ue s f or B R E Q S ubs c al e s and P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s ( N = 112 ) V a r i a bl e M e a n S D C r onba c h B R E Q A M 0. 14 0 37 0. 758 B R E Q E R 0. 59 0 74 0. 800 B R E Q I T 2. 16 0 91 0. 650 B R E Q I D 2. 90 0 65 0. 664 B R E Q I M 3. 31 0 71 0. 851 M ot i va t i on 4. 59 0 58 E f f or t 4. 57 0 61 A t t e nda nc e 4. 27 0 87 A c c e pt H e a l t h I nf o 4. 24 1 03 P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 4. 02 0 92 N ot e B R E Q A M i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q E R B R E Q I D a nd B R E Q I M a t p < 0 01 a nd s i gni f i c a nt l y g r e a t e r t ha n B R E Q E R a t p < 0. 05 B R E Q E R i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q I M a t p < 0. 01 a nd B R E Q I T a t p < 0 05. B R E Q I T i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q I D a t p < 0 01. B R E Q I D i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q I M a t p < 0. 01.

PAGE 36

28 T a bl e 3. 4 M e an V al ue s f or I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y ( N = 112 ) V a r i a bl e M e a n S D S t a r t on t i m e 4. 53 0 62 E nd on t i m e 4. 50 0 63 C om e P r e pa r e d 4. 84 0 39 V oi c e pr oj e c t i on 4. 86 0 37 P r ope r t one 4. 80 0 53 E nunc i a t e 4. 68 0 75 U s e a ppr opr i a t e m us i c 4. 77 0 59 W e a r a ppr opr i a t e a t t i r e 4. 86 0 42 D i s pl a y pr of e s s i ona l i s m 4. 88 0 36 E nc our a ge gr oup c ohe s i on 4. 20 1 15 C r e a t e pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e 4. 84 0 46 E xpl a i n t e c hni que 4. 65 0 73 U s e pos i t i ve f e e dba c k 4. 69 0 69 U s e s i m pl e c ue s 4. 75 0 55 G r e e t upon a r r i va l 4. 63 0 80 U s e / know na m e 3. 66 1 53 I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y 4. 63 0 66

PAGE 37

29 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s C ur r e nt and P r e f e r r e d B ody T y pe A na l ys e s ba s e d on t he s om a t om or phi c m a t r i x r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt c ur r e nt body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d body t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d 5 55 2. 03 f o r c ur r e nt body f a t ne s s a nd 4. 25 1. 75 f or pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s [ t ( 1, 111) = 6. 74 p < 0. 01, E S = 0 68 ] C ur r e nt r a t i ng f o r m us c ul a r i t y = 2. 92 1 88, w hi l e p r e f e r r e d m us c ul a r i t y = 3. 81 1. 89 [ t ( 1 111 ) = 6. 21 p < 0 01, E S = 0 47] T he s e r e s pons e s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he i r pr e f e r r e d body t ype w a s t hi nne r a nd m or e m us c ul a r t ha n t he i r c ur r e nt body t ype I n c o nt r a s t no di f f e r e nc e s w e r e obs e r ve d be t w e e n c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype T he c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or body f a t ne s s = 4. 24 2. 22 a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t o r f a t ne s s = 4. 00 2 10 [ t ( 1, 111 ) = 1 56, p > 0 05 E S = 0 11] C ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or m us c ul a r i t y = 4. 60 2. 22 a nd pr e f e r r e d m us c ul a r i t y = 4. 69 2. 20 [ t ( 1 110 ) = 0. 543, p > 0. 05 E S = 0 032] T he s e da t a s ugge s t s pa r t i c i pa nt s do not p r e f e r c ha nge s i n f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y i n t he i r i ns t r uc t or C ur r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d body t yp e da t a f o r bot h t he pa r t i c i pa nt a nd t he i ns t r uc t or i s pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 4. 1 a nd c r os s t a bul a t i on da t a i s pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 4 2. C or r e l at i on s C or r e l a t i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d be t w e e n s i ngl e i t e m que s t i ons a nd body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i ns t r uc t o r T hi s da t a i s p r ovi de d i n T a bl e 4 3

PAGE 38

30 T he onl y s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i on f ound r e l a t i ve t o f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y w a s be t w e e n t he c ur r e nt body f a t ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or a nd t he d e s i r e t o ha ve a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he i ns t r uc t o r ( p < 0 05) A m ode r a t e ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on e xi s t s be t w e e n de s i r i ng a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t he i ns t r uc t or a nd i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s T hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t a s i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s i nc r e a s e s t he de s i r e of a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t he i ns t r uc t or de c r e a s e s N o s i gni f i c a n t c or r e l a t i ons w e r e f ound be t w e e n i ns t r u c t or body t ype a nd m ot i va t i on e f f or t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s or t he de c i s i on t o r e t ur n t o c l a s s ( p > 0 05) M ot i va t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d ( p < 0. 05) w i t h c om i ng pr e pa r e d t o c l a s s good voi c e p r oj e c t i on, e nunc i a t i ng, a nd a ppr op r i a t e m us i c a nd a t t i r e E f f or t w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d ( p < 0. 05 ) w i t h t he us e of good voi c e pr oj e c t i on, a ppr op r i a t e a t t i r e pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e s i m pl e c ue s a nd c om m a nds a nd w he n gr e e t e d up a r r i va l P r e di c t i ons of P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s F r om F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y M ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y a s t he pr e di c t or s a nd m ot i va t i on by w a y of t he B R E Q 2 a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a b l e s B ody t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt p r e di c t or o f a m ot i va t i on [ F ( 2 108) = 0 708, p > 0. 05] e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on [ F ( 2, 108) = 0. 380 p > 0. 05] i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 2, 108) = 1. 441, p > 0. 05 ] i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 2, 108) = 1. 018 p > 0 05] or i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on [ F ( 2 108 ) = 2 058, p > 0. 05 ] T he s e da t a a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e s 4. 4 t hr ough 4. 8. M ot i va t i on t o e xe r c i s e i s i nde pe nde nt f r om bo dy t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r T ha t i s body t ype i s not p r e di c t i ve of m ot i va t i on t o a t t e nd gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s A s e c ond s e t of r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e a l s o c onduc t e d us i ng f a t ne s s a nd

PAGE 39

31 m us c ul a r i t y a s t he pr e di c t or s a nd f i ve s i ngl e i t e m s a s de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s T he s e da t a a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e s 4. 9 t hr ough 4. 13 R e s ul t s of t he a na l ys e s i ndi c a t e t ha t body t ype o f t he i ns t r uc t or doe s not p r e di c t m ot i va t i on f o r e xe r c i s e a s m e a s ur e d by t he s i ngl e i t e m i ndi c a t or [ F ( 2 108 ) = 1 475, p > 0. 05 ] T he s e r e s ul t s m i r r o r t he f i ndi ngs f r om a na l ys e s r e l a t e d t o t he B R E Q 2. A ddi t i ona l l y no s i gni f i c a n t pr e d i c t i ons c a n be m a de f or e f f o r t [ F ( 2, 108 ) = 1. 155 p > 0. 05 ) ] a t t e nda nc e [ F ( 2 108 ) = 0. 421 p > 0 05) ] w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on [ F ( 2 108) = 0 053, p > 0. 05] or pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s [ F ( 2, 108) = 0 151, p > 0. 05] N one t he l e s s a t t e nda nc e w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t e d by pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s [ F ( 1, 110) = 9 850, p < 0 05] a s pr o vi de d i n T a bl e s 4. 14. G r e a t e r a t t e nda nc e e xi s t s f or c l a s s e s w he r e t he i ns t r uc t or i s pe r c e i ve d a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve P r e di c t i ons of P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s F r om I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y R e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f or m e d us i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y a s t he p r e di c t or va r i a bl e a nd t he B R E Q a s de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s E x t e r na l m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1, 110) = 8 229; p < 0. 05] w a s t he onl y s i gni f i c a nt out c om e va r i a bl e pr e di c t e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y. T he ot he r t ype s of m ot i va t i on i nc l udi ng a m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1, 110) = 0 022; p > 0. 05 ] i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 1 110 ) = 0 0285; p > 0 05] i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 1, 110) = 0. 256 ; p > 0. 05] a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1 1 10) = 2. 728; p > 0. 05 ) w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y, a s pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 4. 15 t hr ough 4. 19 F i na l l y, r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f or m e d us i ng i ns t r uc t i on qua l i t y a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e a nd s e ve n s i ngl e i t e m s a s de pe nde nt v a r i a bl e s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i n f l ue nc e m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1 11 0) = 11 827; p < 0 01] F u r t he r m or e i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s a s i gni f i c a nt p r e di c t or f or e f f or t [ F ( 1, 110) = 7. 471 ; p < 0. 01 ]

PAGE 40

32 w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on [ F ( 1 110 ) = 4 453; p< 0. 05] a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s [ F ( 1, 110) = 12 030; p < 0. 01 ] H ow e ve r i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or of a t t e nda nc e [ F ( 1, 110) = 2. 118; p > 0 05] T he s e r e s ul t s a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 4 20 t h r ough 4 24. T a bl e 4. 1 C u r r e n t an d P r e f e r r e d F at n e s s an d M u s c u l ar i t y f or S e l f an d I n s t r u c t or C ur r e nt ( M e a n S D ) P r e f e r r e d ( M e a n S D ) S i g S e l f F a t ne s s 5. 55 2 03 4. 25 1 75 0. 001 M us c ul a r i t y 2. 92 1 88 3. 81 1 89 0. 001 I ns t r uc t or F a t ne s s 4. 24 2 22 4. 00 2 10 0. 121 M us c ul a r i t y 4. 60 2 22 4. 69 2 20 0. 589

PAGE 41

33 T a bl e 4. 2 C r os s t abul at i on f or I ns t r uc t or F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y F a t ne s s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 0 2 14 2 0 1 3 3 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 10 3 0 2 4 9 2 3 2 2 1 1 0 26 4 0 0 1 1 5 2 3 1 3 0 0 16 5 0 0 2 6 1 5 4 4 0 0 0 22 M us c ul a r i t y 6 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 7 7 0 0 0 2 3 0 3 0 1 0 0 9 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 4 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 T ot a l 1 4 12 24 13 20 16 8 9 3 2 112

PAGE 42

34 T a bl e 4. 3 I ns t r uc t or I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t i e s and P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e C or r e l at i ons V a r i a bl e P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e M o t i v a t i o n E f f o r t A t t e n d a n c e H e a l t h I n f o A t t r a c t i v e P h y s S i m P h y s I n f l u F a t n e s s 0 0 9 1 0 0 6 9 0 0 9 5 0 0 5 3 0 0 4 6 0 2 7 1 0 0 3 4 M u s c u l a r i t y 0 0 6 7 0 0 4 2 0 0 1 8 0 0 7 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 8 0 S t a r t 0 0 8 2 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 6 0 1 2 7 * 0 2 5 9 0 0 2 7 E n d 0 0 9 9 0 0 7 0 0 0 4 9 0 0 4 8 0 0 7 8 0 1 3 3 0 0 6 8 C o m e P r e p a r e d * 0 2 6 2 0 2 3 6 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 9 0 1 5 8 0 1 4 6 0 0 7 7 V o i c e P r o j e c t i o n * 0 2 6 6 * 0 4 3 7 0 1 7 3 0 0 8 9 0 1 9 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 3 5 P r o p e r T o n e 0 1 4 5 0 2 0 9 0 0 3 7 0 0 1 1 * 0 2 6 4 0 0 1 9 0 0 1 4 E n u n c i a t e * 0 2 5 4 0 1 8 8 0 1 1 9 0 0 8 9 * 0 3 4 8 * 0 2 7 5 0 2 0 3 M u s i c * 0 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 0 0 5 3 0 0 3 4 0 2 4 2 0 1 3 1 0 0 2 4 A t t i r e * 0 2 3 8 * 0 2 5 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 2 4 0 1 6 9 0 1 8 3 0 1 4 0 P r o f e s s i o n a l 0 0 9 8 0 0 4 1 0 0 9 4 0 0 3 3 0 1 4 3 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 5 C o h e s i o n 0 1 2 3 0 2 1 1 0 1 3 7 0 2 1 1 0 1 6 8 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1 A t m o s p h e r e 0 1 9 1 * 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 7 8 0 3 5 0 * 0 2 5 9 0 0 1 9 E x p l a i n T e c h n i q u e 0 1 4 9 0 1 2 7 0 0 0 6 0 0 5 5 0 1 0 3 0 1 5 8 0 0 8 2 P o s i t i v e F e e d b a c k 0 1 9 6 0 2 1 5 0 0 8 1 0 0 5 6 0 1 6 6 0 1 1 5 0 1 2 4 U s e S i m p l e C u e s 0 1 8 6 * 0 4 0 6 0 1 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 2 2 4 0 1 7 4 0 0 6 3 G r e e t 0 2 3 0 * 0 4 0 8 0 1 2 0 0 1 8 8 * 0 2 6 8 0 0 4 1 0 0 3 4 U s e N a m e 0 1 5 6 0 1 7 0 0 0 8 2 * 0 3 2 5 0 0 3 6 0 0 8 7 0 0 6 0 N o t e p < 0. 05 ** p < 0. 01 D e s i r e a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he i ns t r uc t or I ns t r uc t or s phys i que i s i nf l ue nt i a l i n t he i r de c i s i on t o r e t ur n t o c l a s s

PAGE 43

35 T a bl e 4. 4 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A m ot i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 100 0. 031 F a t ne s s 0. 079 0. 017 0. 014 0. 417 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 067 0. 017 0. 012 0. 494 N ot e R = 0 013; F = 0 708 T a bl e 4. 5 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E x t e r nal M ot i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 201 0. 744 F a t ne s s 0. 022 0. 035 0. 008 0. 819 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 076 0. 034 0. 026 0. 438 N ot e R = 0 007; F = 0 380

PAGE 44

36 T a bl e 4. 6 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt e gr at e d M ot i v a t i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 246 2. 121 F a t ne s s 0. 125 0. 042 0. 055 0. 199 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 130 0. 041 0. 055 0. 184 N ot e R = 0 026; F = 1 441 T a bl e 4. 7 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I de nt i f i e d M o t i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 176 2. 824 F a t ne s s 0. 085 0. 030 0. 026 0. 384 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 125 0. 029 0. 038 0. 203 N ot e R = 0 018; F = 1 018

PAGE 45

37 T a bl e 4. 8 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt r i ns i c M ot i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 190 3. 001 F a t ne s s 0. 009 0. 033 0. 003 0. 929 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 190 0. 032 0. 063 0. 052 N ot e R = 0 037; F = 2 058 T a bl e 4. 9 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of M ot i v at i on on B o dy T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 156 4. 720 F a t ne s s 0. 166 0. 027 0. 046 0. 089 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 040 0. 026 0. 011 0. 682 N ot e R = 0 027; F = 1 475

PAGE 46

38 T a bl e 4. 10 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E f f or t on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 165 4. 763 F a t ne s s 0. 137 0. 028 0. 040 0. 160 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 025 0. 028 0. 007 0. 794 N ot e R = 0 021; F = 1 155 T a bl e 4. 11 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A t t e ndanc e on B o dy T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 237 4. 458 F a t ne s s 0. 760 0. 041 0. 032 0. 441 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 032 0. 040 0. 013 0. 743 N ot e R = 0 008; F = 0 421

PAGE 47

39 T a bl e 4. 12 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e al t h I nf or m at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 282 4. 149 F a t ne s s 0. 014 0. 048 0. 007 0. 888 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 026 0. 047 0. 012 0. 795 N ot e R = 0 001; F = 0 053 T a bl e 4. 13 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of P e r c e i v e d A t t r ac t i v e ne s s on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 251 4. 015 F a t ne s s 0. 045 0. 043 0. 020 0. 648 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 038 0. 042 0. 016 0. 699 N ot e R = 0 003; F = 0. 151

PAGE 48

40 T a bl e 4. 14 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A t t e ndanc e on P e r c e i v e d A t t r ac t i v e ne s s P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 356 3. 179 A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 0. 287 0. 086 0. 271 0. 002 N ot e R = 0 082; F = 9 850 T a bl e 4. 15 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A m ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 444 0. 075 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 014 0. 006 0. 001 0. 883 N ot e R = 0 000; F = 0 022

PAGE 49

41 T a bl e 4. 16 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E x t e r nal M ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 851 3. 023 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 264 0. 011 0. 033 0. 005 N ot e R = 0 070; F = 8 229 T a bl e 4. 17 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt e gr at e d R e gul at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 090 2. 741 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 051 0. 015 0. 008 0. 595 N ot e R = 0 003; F = 0 285

PAGE 50

42 T a bl e 4. 18 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I de nt i f i e d R e gul at i on on I n s t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 777 3. 283 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 048 0. 010 0. 00 5 0. 614 N ot e R = 0 002; F = 0 256 T a bl e 4. 19 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt r i ns i c M ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 084 1. 926 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 156 0. 011 0. 019 0. 101 N ot e R = 0 024; F = 2 728

PAGE 51

43 T a bl e 4. 20 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of M ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 658 2. 333 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 312 0. 009 0. 030 0. 001 N ot e R = 0 097; F = 11 827 T a bl e 4. 21 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E f f or t on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ua l i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 680 1. 739 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 370 0. 009 0. 038 0. 000 N ot e R = 0 137; F = 17 471

PAGE 52

44 T a bl e 4. 22 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A t t e ndanc e on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 032 2. 771 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 137 0. 014 0. 020 0. 148 N ot e R = 0 019; F = 2 118 T a bl e 4. 23 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e al t h I nf or m at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 213 1. 689 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 197 0. 016 0. 034 0. 037 N ot e R = 0 039; F = 4 453

PAGE 53

45 T a bl e 4. 24 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of P e r c e i v e d A t t r ac t i v e ne s s o n I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 046 0. 400 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 314 0. 014 0. 049 0. 001 N ot e R = 0 099; F = 12 030

PAGE 54

46 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on I nt r oduc t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he pe r c e pt i ons of gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he body t ype a p pe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i r gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r H ypot he s e s w e r e t e s t e d us i ng pa i r e d t t e s t s c or r e l a t i ons m ul t i p l e r e gr e s s i ons a nd s i m pl e r e gr e s s i ons I t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t m ot i va t i on, e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on w oul d be i m pa c t e d by body t ype a ppe a r a nc e a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or A ddi t i ona l l y i t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he e xe r c i s e l e a de r w oul d pr e di c t be ha vi or a l out c om e s P r e f e r e nc e s i n F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y S i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt c ur r e nt body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d body t ype M os t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d m e di um f a t ne s s not unde r or ove r w e i ght w i t h r e l a t i ve l y l ow m us c ul a t ur e H ow e ve r t he i r pr e f e r r e d body t ype w a s l e s s f a t w i t h s l i ght l y hi ghe r m us c l e T he r e w a s a gr e a t e r di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n i de a l f a t ne s s t ha n m us c ul a r i t y, but pr e f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r e nt a nd i de a l body t ype w e r e c l e a r T he pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r t o be l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r I n c ont r a s t t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t o r body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d s i m i l a r va l ue s f o r bot h c ur r e n t a nd pr e f e r r e d body t ype o f t he

PAGE 55

47 i ns t r uc t or T hi s m a y i ndi c a t e t ha t g r oup e xe r c i s e r s a r e c ont e nt w i t h t he i r i ns t r uc t o r body t ype or m a y not ha ve a pr e f e r e nc e a t a l l I t m a y be t ha t s i nc e t he i ns t r uc t or i s l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r c om pa r e d t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt t he y a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i ns t r uc t o r s body t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r r e d body t y pe w a s ve r y s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he c u r r e nt i ns t r uc t o r body t ype i ndi c a t i ng t he i r i ns t r uc t or w a s t hi nne r a nd m or e m us c ul a r a nd t he y de s i r e d t o ha ve a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t o f t he i ns t r uc t or H ow e ve r i f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t hi nne r or m or e m us c ul a r t h e y m i ght pr e f e r t he i r i ns t r uc t o r s phys i que t o be di f f e r e nt A ddi t i ona l l y, va r i a bi l i t y o f i ns t r uc t o r body t ype w a s l ow A l l of t he i ns t r uc t or s ha d s i m i l a r l ow f a t m ode r a t e m us c l e body t ype H a d t h e r e be e n m or e va r i a bi l i t y i n i ns t r uc t or body t ype p r e f e r e nc e s m a y ha ve di f f e r e d. O ne s i m i l a r s t udy i nvol vi ng gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s s uppor t s t he s e out c om e s ( E va ns C ot t e r & R oy 2005) T he r e s e a r c he r s di d not f i nd s i gni f i c a nt pr e f e r e nc e s f or i ns t r uc t or body t ype U s i ng a pi c t ur e s c a l e pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e a s k e d t o i de nt i f y t he i r pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t o r body t ype O ve r a l l t he y c hos e a t hi nne r f i gur e H ow e ve r t hi s s t udy ut i l i z e d a one di m e ns i ona l f a t ne s s s c a l e t o i de nt i f y body t ype w he r e a s t he c ur r e nt s t udy us e d a t w o di m e ns i ona l s c a l e r e pr e s e nt i ng f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y. T he a ut hor s s ugge s t e d t he i de nt i f i c a t i on o f a pr e f e r r e d t hi nne r i ns t r uc t or c oul d be i nt e r p r e t e d a s pr e f e r e nc e f or a m or e f i t o r l e a ne r i ns t r uc t or T hough t he c ur r e nt s t udy t a r ge t e d bot h m us c ul a r i t y a nd f a t no di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n c u r r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype R e l at i ons hi ps A m ong B ody T y pe I ns t r uc t i onal Q u al i t i e s and P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s C ont r a r y t o t he hypot he s e s pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e not r e l a t e d w i t h m a ny o f t he ps yc hos oc i a l ou t c om e s S i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e not

PAGE 56

48 obs e r ve d be t w e e n pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r a nd t he s i ngl e i t e m s N e ve r t he l e s s s om e s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e e s t a bl i s he d be t w e e n c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd s i ngl e i t e m s S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he s i ngl e i t e m s r e l a t e d t o m ot i va t i on e f f or t a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w e r e c or r e l a t e d w i t h m a ny di f f e r e nt qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s P a r t i c i pa nt s l e ve l o f m ot i va t i on a n d e f f or t a r e h i ghe r w he n i ns t r uc t or s c om e pr e pa r e d t o c l a s s us e a ppr opr i a t e m us i c us e good voi c e p r oj e c t i on, e nunc i a t e a nd pr ovi de s i m pl e c ue s or c om m a nds N a t ur a l l y w he n t he i ns t r uc t or i s pr e pa r e d a nd c r e a t e s a c l a s s t ha t i s e a s y t o f ol l ow pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be e nt hus e d, i nc r e a s i ng t he i r l e ve l of m ot i va t i on a nd e f f or t B ot h m ot i va t i on a n d e f f or t w e r e a l s o c or r e l a t e d w i t h a ppr opr i a t e a t t i r e pos i t i ve f e e dba c k, a nd a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e I t i s e s s e nt i a l t o c r e a t e a he a l t hy e nvi r onm e nt s uc h a s r e f r a i ni ng f r om c l ot hi ng t ha t i s t oo r e ve a l i ng o r s l oppy a nd by us i ng m us i c w i t h a pos i t i ve m e s s a ge C r e a t i ng a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e a l s o i nc l ude s c or r e c t i ng a nd r e c om m e ndi ng a l i gnm e nt c ha nge s i n a pol i t e a nd non t h r e a t e ni ng w a y ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005) C om m uni c a t i on i s a n i m por t a nt s ki l l i n m ot i va t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s O ne e xa m pl e i nvol ve s us i ng c l e a r s i m pl e c ue s w hi l e pr ovi di ng pos i t i ve f e e dba c k. A not he r e xa m pl e o f good c om m uni c a t i o n i s l e a r ni ng a nd us i ng t he i r na m e G e t t i ng t o know t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd he l pi ng t he m r e a c h t he i r e xe r c i s e goa l s c r e a t e s a pos i t i ve e nvi r o nm e nt G r oup c ohe s i on w a s a l s o r e l a t e d t o e f f or t P r om ot i ng c ohe s i on a m ong t he g r oup ha s a pow e r f ul e f f e c t B y s t r uc t ur i ng s om e c l a s s s e s s i o ns t o ha ve pa r t i c i pa nt s w or k i n pa i r s or gr oups e nha nc e s t he i r s e ns e of r e l a t e dne s s w hi c h m a y a f f e c t e f f or t W or ki ng i n pa i r s m a y e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o w o r k ha r de r A l t hou gh t he pr e s e nt s t udy di d not f i nd

PAGE 57

49 s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n gr oup c ohe s i on a nd a t t e nda nc e S pi nk & C a r r on ( 1994 ) f ound t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of c ohe s i ve ne s s pl a ys a n i m por t a nt r o l e i n a dhe r e nc e W or ki ng i n pa i r s or gr oups w i t hi n t he e xe r c i s e c l a s s pr ovi de s c a m a r a de r i e a m ong t he m e m be r s C ohe s i ve ne s s c ont r i but e s t o t he de ve l opm e nt m a i nt e na nc e a nd a c c om pl i s hm e nt of t he gr oup s t a s ks a nd goa l s ( C a r r on e t a l 1988) H ow e ve r i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a t t e nda nc e w a s f ound t o be a r e f l e c t i on of a f a c t or ot he r t ha n gr oup c ohe s i on. T he c ur r e nt s t udy f ound a t t e nda nc e t o be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd not a s a r e s ul t of i ns t r uc t i ona l q ua l i t y or body t ype P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s R e l at e d t o F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y F a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y w e r e not p r e di c t i ve of m o t i va t i on a s m e a s ur e d by t he B R E Q 2. D e c i a nd R ya n ( 1985) pr opos e d t ha t m ot i va t i on pr ogr e s s e s a l ong a c ont i nuum A c c or di ng t o t he t he or y, m ot i va t i on i s c a t e gor i z e d i nt o a m ot i va t i on, e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on, i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on, i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. A s one m ove s up a l ong t he c ont i nuum s e l f de t e r m i na t i on i s i nc r e a s e d, a nd t hus a dhe r e nc e t o e xe r c i s e i s pr e di c t e d t o i nc r e a s e E s s e nt i a l l y, t he m or e he a l t hy f or m s o f m ot i va t i on a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i de nt i f i e d a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. M ot i ve s f or t he s e t w o t ype s c ons i s t of r e c e i vi ng he a l t h be ne f i t s a nd pur e e nj oym e nt of t he a c t i vi t y O n t he ot he r ha nd, a m ot i va t i on i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l a c k of m ot i va t i on E xt e r na l r e gul a t i on i s r e l a t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t i on i n o r de r t o a voi d f e e l i ngs o f gui l t or s ha m e a nd i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pa r t i c i pa t i on be c a us e of pr e s s ur e f r om a s pous e or f a m i l y m e m be r T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s s a m pl e a r e pr i m a r i l y m ot i va t e d t o e xe r c i s e by i nt r i ns i c r e a s ons T hi s f i ndi ng ge ne r a l l y s ugge s t s t ha t

PAGE 58

50 t he pa r t i c i pa nt s de r i ve d e nj oym e nt a nd pl e a s ur e t h r ough pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he a c t i vi t y i t s e l f a nd t ha t e xt e r na l m o t i va t i on w e r e l e s s s i gni f i c a nt T hi s da t a i ndi r e c t l y s uppor t s t he f i ndi ng t ha t body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t or w a s not i n f l ue nt i a l t o t he i r m ot i va t i on T he pa r t i c i pa nt s va l ue t he a c t i vi t y r e ga r dl e s s of f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r H ow e ve r i f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m ot i va t e d e xt e r n a l l y or by i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on, f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y m i ght ha ve be e n a s t r ong pr e di c t or s i nc e a ppe a r a nc e i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h e xt e r na l t ype s of m ot i va t i on ( T hoge r s e n N t ou m a ni s & N t oum a ni s 2006 ) L i ke w i s e f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y w e r e not s t r o ng pr e di c t o r s f or t he s i ngl e i t e m m o t i va t i on, w hi c h a l s o i ndi r e c t l y s uppor t t he r e s ul t s f r om t he B R E Q 2. P a r t i c i pa nt s of t h i s s t udy a ppr e c i a t e t he be ne f i t s t ha t g r oup e xe r c i s e a nd phys i c a l a c t i vi t y pr ovi de a nd w e r e ge ne r a l l y l e s s f oc us e d on f or m s o f m ot i va t i on t ha t a r e l e s s de s i r a bl e s uc h a s body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r F a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e us e d t o pr e di c t e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on, a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s S i m i l a r t o m ot i va t i on, f a t ne s s a n d m us c ul a r i t y w e r e not pr e di c t or s of t he s e i t e m s O n t he s ur f a c e t hi s f i ndi ng m i ght be une xpe c t e d. H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he B R E Q 2 do s ugge s t t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve hi gh s e l f de t e r m i na t i on a nd i t i s pr oba bl e t ha t t he y w i l l e xe r t e qua l e f f or t dur i ng t he i r c l a s s e s r e ga r dl e s s of i ns t r uc t or body t ype T hos e w i t h l ow s e l f de t e r m i na t i on m i ght us e i ns t r uc t o r body t ype a s m ot i va t i on a nd t h us e xe r t m o r e e f f or t du r i ng c l a s s e s T he s e hi ghl y m ot i va t e d e xe r c i s e r s a ppr e c i a t e t he va l ue gr oup c l a s s e s pr ovi de a nd w or k ha r d t o a c hi e ve t he i r goa l I n t hi s s t udy, t he a m ount of e f f o r t e xe r t e d i s not de pe nde nt upon f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or L i ke w i s e i t c a n be e xpe c t e d t ha t t he gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l a t t e nd r e gul a r

PAGE 59

51 e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons w i t hout i nf l ue nc e of i ns t r uc t or b ody t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng gr oup e xe r c i s e a l ong w i t h ot he r m ode s of t r a i ni ng, pl a n gr oup e xe r c i s e i nt o t he i r s c he dul e a nd us e i t r e gul a r l y T he y de s i r e t o be l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r w hi c h c oul d s e r ve a s t he i r dr i vi ng f o r c e i n a t t e ndi ng gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s S i nc e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a ppr e c i a t e t he a c t i vi t y a nd va l ue t he he a l t h be ne f i t s body t yp e of t he i ns t r uc t or w oul d not be e xpe c t e d t o i nf l ue nc e a t t e nda nc e I n t hi s s t udy i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y i s not r e l a t e d t o r e gul a r a t t e nda nc e of gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s S ur pr i s i ngl y, w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on w a s not pr e di c t e d by f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or H a s h e t a l ( 2002) f o und t ha t pa t i e nt s r e c e pt i ve ne s s t o he a l t h a dvi c e w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r c om i ng f r o m non ove r w e i ght phys i c i a ns t ha n f r om ove r w e i ght phys i c i a ns I n f or m a t i on c om i ng f r om t hos e w ho a ppe a r t o p r a c t i c e he a l t hy be ha vi or s i s m or e l i ke l y t o r e s ul t i n be ha vi or c ha nge i n t he pa t i e nt s A di f f e r e nt s t udy c onduc t e d by A br a m s on, S t e i n, S c ha uf e l e F r a t e s & R oga n ( 1999) s ur ve ye d phys i c i a ns on t he i r c ur r e nt e xe r c i s e ha bi t s a nd c ou ns e l i ng pr a c t i c e s T he s e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t phys i c i a ns w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o c ouns e l a nd e nc our a ge t he i r pa t i e nt s t o be a c t i ve F ur t he r m or e phys i c i a ns t ha t r e por t e d t o c ouns e l t he i r pa t i e nt s on phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a l s o r e por t e d t o ha ve be t t e r c om pl i a nc e T hus i t i s une xpe c t e d t ha t w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on i s i nde pe nde nt o f f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he s e f i ndi ngs c oul d be a r e s ul t of di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n phys i c i a ns a nd i ns t r u c t or s P e r ha ps pa r t i c i pa nt s do not vi e w t he i r e xe r c i s e l e a de r a s e duc a t or s F o r e xa m pl e pa t i e nt s vi s i t t he i r phys i c i a ns t o s pe c i f i c a l l y d i s c us s t he i r he a l t h a nd s e e k i nf or m a t i on

PAGE 60

52 G r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s t ypi c a l l y a t t e nd c l a s s e s t o w or k out r a t he r t ha n t o r e c e i ve he a l t h a dvi c e D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o phys i c i a n s t udi e s a nd t he c ur r e nt s t udy m a y be a t t r i but e d t o t he f a c t t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s do not vi e w t he i r i ns t r uc t o r s a s e duc a t or s but pr i m a r i l y a s e xe r c i s e l e a de r s A not he r i m por t a nt f i ndi ng f r om A br a m s on e t a l ( 1 999) w a s t ha t phys i c i a ns di d not r e c om m e nd du r a t i on or i nt e ns i t y a c c or di ng t o t he U S S ur ge on G e ne r a l s gui d e l i ne s T he r e s e a r c he r s w ho c onduc t e d t hi s s t udy s t a t e d t h a t t he va s t m a j or i t y of t he popul a t i on r e l y on phys i c i a ns f or r e c om m e nda t i ons on phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. I t i s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t pe opl e a r e uns ur e w ha t t o be l i e ve w he n t he y he a r c onf l i c t i ng r e c om m e nda t i ons r e ga r di ng phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. T he r e s e a r c he r s s uppor t i m p r ovi ng phys i c a l a c t i vi t y e duc a t i on a m ong phys i c i a ns A ddi t i ona l l y, w he t he r gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s a r e vi e w e d e duc a t or s or not i t i s s t i l l i m por t a nt f or t he m t o e nc our a ge r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y s e s s i ons a c c or di ng t o t he U S S ur ge on G e ne r a l s r e c om m e nda t i ons I nt e r e s t i ngl y, pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s s t r ongl y pr e di c t e d a t t e nda nc e R e s e a r c h s how s t ha t pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a w i de r a nge of out c om e s T he s e out c om e s i nc l ude s oc i a l c om pe t e nc e gr e a t e r a c a de m i c pot e nt i a l by t e a c he r s pe r s ua s i ve c om m uni c a t i on, a s w e l l a s p r of e s s or a nd t e a c he r r a t i ngs ( E a gl y A s hm or e M a c ki j a ni & L ongo, 1991 ; R i t t s P a t t e r s on, & T ubbs 1992; C ha i ke n, 1979; a nd R i nol o e t a l 2006) T he s t udy c onduc t e d by R i nol o e t a l ( 2006) u t i l i z e d w w w r a t e m ypr o f e s s or c om t o e xa m i ne w he t he r or not t e a c he r s w e r e r a t e d a s a t t r a c t i ve or not T he r e s e a r c he r s obt a i ne d a c t ua l e va l ua t i ons of t he t e a c he r s by t he s t ude nt s a nd f o und t ha t t he m o r e a t t r a c t i ve t e a c he r s ha d hi ghe r e va l ua t i ons I m pl i c a t i ons f r o m t he c ur r e nt s t udy s uppor t t ha t

PAGE 61

53 pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pr e di c t s m a ny ou t c om e s i nc l udi ng a t t e nda nc e H ow e ve r i t i s unc l e a r how pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r p r e t e d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s A l t ho ugh t he que s t i on s pe c i f i c a l l y a s ke d a bout phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pe r c e pt i ons of t ha t c oul d be i n f l ue nc e d by ot he r f a c t or s s uc h a s pe r s ona l i t y. W e do not know w he t h e r t he y ba s e d t he i r r e s pons e s on f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e bodi l y a ppe a r a nc e o r how w e l l put t og e t he r t he i ns t r uc t or c a m e a c r os s E ve n t hough a t t e nda nc e w a s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s r e l a t e d t o a va r i e t y o f i ns t r uc t i o na l qua l i t i e s w hi c h m a y be a n unde r l yi ng f a c t or i n a t t e nda nc e e ve n i f t he r e s ul t s di d not di r e c t l y s uppor t t ha t P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s f r om I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t i e s A l t hough f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r w e r e not s t r ong pr e di c t or s of ps yc hos oc i a l out c om e s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n g r oup e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a s t r ong pr e di c t or f or s om e of t he s e s a m e out c om e s S i xt e e n di f f e r e nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e c om bi ne d i nt o one s c or e a nd us e d t o pr e di c t m ot i va t i on, bo t h a s a s i ngl e i t e m a nd a s i de nt i f i e d t hr ough t he B R E Q 2 O t he r de pe nde nt v a r i a bl e s i nc l ude d e f f or t w i l l i ngn e s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T he onl y out c om e not i n f l ue nc e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a t t e nda nc e W he n us i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y a s t he pr e di c t or f or m ot i va t i on a s de f i ne d by t he B R E Q 2 t he on l y t ype of m o t i va t i on p r e di c t e d w a s e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on. E xt e r na l r e gul a t i on c a n be de s c r i be d a s pa r t i c i pa t i on t o a voi d f e e l i ngs of gui l t o r s ha m e T hi s t ype of m ot i va t i on i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow a dhe r e nc e l o w s e l f de t e r m i na t i on, a nd i s t ypi c a l l y s e e n i n novi c e e xe r c i s e r s T he y ha ve not de ve l ope d a s e ns e of a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he be ne f i t s of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y I t i s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t t hos e w ho a r e e xt e r na l l y m ot i va t e d

PAGE 62

54 a r e i nf l ue nc e d by pos i t i ve c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i r i ns t r uc t or A ddi t i ona l l y, i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s w oul d not be e xpe c t e d t o pr e di c t out c om e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i nt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t e d pa r t i c i pa nt s s i nc e t he y a l r e a dy f i nd p l e a s ur e a nd e nj oym e nt w i t h t he a c t i vi t y M ot i va t i on, a s a s i ngl e i t e m w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y. I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s i nc l ude e xpl a i ni ng pr ope r t e c hni que pr ovi di ng pos i t i ve f e e dba c k a nd c r e a t i ng a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e W he n i ns t r uc t or s c r e a t e a pos i t i ve e nvi r on m e nt m ot i va t i on a nd e f f or t a r e hi gh N ot onl y a r e pa r t i c i pa nt s go i ng t o be m ot i va t e d, t he y w i l l e xe r t hi gh a m o unt s o f e f f or t dur i ng t he i r e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s not onl y pr e di c t i ve of m ot i va t i on a nd e f f or t but w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on a s w e l l L i m i t at i ons L i m i t a t i ons t o t he s t udy i nc l ude a s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e a nd f a i l ur e of t he i ns t r um e nt t o pe r f or m a s e xpe c t e d. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he t ot a l s a m pl e s i z e w a s l ow e r t ha n a nt i c i pa t e d. H a d t he s a m pl e s i z e be e n l a r ge r s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s m i ght ha ve be e n s e e n, s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i ng t o s om e o f t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w i t h m ot i va t i on. A l i m i t e d num be r o f t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s a ppr oa c he d s i gni f i c a nc e a nd l i ke l y w oul d ha ve be e n s i gni f i c a nt ha d t he s a m pl e s i z e be e n l a r ge r H ow e ve r i t s houl d be not e d t ha t t he a s s oc i a t e d c or r e l a t i ons w e r e m ode s t T he i ns t r um e nt w a s pe r ha ps t he g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i on M a ny of t he s ur ve ys ha d t o be e xc l ude d be c a us e t he y w e r e i nc om pl e t e or f i l l e d o ut i m pr ope r l y O f t hos e t ha t w e r e f i l l e d out c or r e c t l y, pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y ha ve ha d di f f i c ul t y di s t i ngui s hi ng t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he m a t r i x. D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he f i gur e s w e r e s o s l i ght t ha t pe opl e m a y ha ve ha d s om e

PAGE 63

55 di f f i c ul t y i n s e l e c t i ng t he f i gur e t ha t m os t c l os e l y r e pr e s e nt e d t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r gr oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or A not he r di f f i c ul t y r e l a t i ng t o t h e s c a l e w a s t he l ow e r body o f t he i m a ge s I n c o m pa r i s on t o t he uppe r body t he c l a r i t y a nd i m a ge qua l i t y of t he l ow e r pa r t w a s que s t i ona bl e a nd m a y ha ve l i m i t e d t he a bi l i t y of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o p r ovi de r e l i a bl e r e s pons e s C onc l us i ons T he f ol l ow i ng c onc l us i ons w e r e m a de ba s e d on t h e s t udy s f i ndi ngs : 1. N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n c u r r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y. 2. P r e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on e f f o r t w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf o r m a t i on o r a t t e nda nc e 3. A t t e nda nc e i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s 4. I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on, e f f or t w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s b ut not a t t e nda nc e I m pl i c at i ons f or P r ac t i t i one r s F i ndi ngs f r om t he c ur r e nt s t udy i nd i c a t e t ha t f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r doe s not ha ve a l a r ge i nf l ue nc e on m ot i va t i on, e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e or w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on or pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s H ow e v e r a t t e nda nc e w a s hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s M e a s ur e m e nt f or a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s a s i ngl e i t e m w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d i f t he y pe r c e i ve d t he i r i ns t r uc t o r a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve T he l i m i t a t i on t o t hi s que s t i on pe r t a i ns t o t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on. S om e m a y j udge

PAGE 64

56 ba s e d on f a c i a l qua l i t i e s ot he r s m a y ba s e i t on bod y a l one o r ot he r s m a y i nc or po r a t e how put t oge t he r t he i ns t r uc t or i s R e ga r dl e s s t h i s pi e c e of i nf o r m a t i on s houl d not be us e d w he n hi r i ng a nd f i r i ng i ns t r uc t or s T he pu r po s e of t ha t que s t i on i n t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn w a s t o i de nt i f y i f t he r e a r e s t e r e ot ype s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or s a nd i f s o, w ha t c a n be done t o c om ba t t hos e s t e r e ot ype s A l t hough pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o a t t e nda nc e e ve n m or e i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e gul a r a t t e nda nc e a nd ps yc hos oc i a l out c om e s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n gr oup e xe r c i s e T hough i ns t r uc t or s s houl d ha ve t he f r e e dom t o de s i gn uni que e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s ge ne r a l gui de l i ne s s houl d be a ppl i e d t o a l l c l a s s e s r e ga r dl e s s of t he f o r m a t o r i ns t r uc t o r K e nne dy & Y oke ( 2005 ) a ddr e s s m a ny i m po r t a nt e l e m e nt s t o i nc or por a t e i n a g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s not onl y pe r t a i ni ng t o c l a s s s t r uc t ur e a nd f or m a t but t he i r s e c onda r y r ol e s a s w e l l I ns t r uc t or s s e r ve a s r ol e m ode l s a nd m ot i v a t or s a s w e l l G r oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s ha ve t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o c r e a t e a nd pr o m ot e he a l t hy e xe r c i s e a t t i t ude s t e a c h pr ope r t e c hni que a nd e nc our a ge r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y pa r t i c i pa t i on ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005) I t i s i m por t a nt t o f oc us on t he s e e l e m e nt s i n t he pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of i ns t r uc t or s N ot on l y i s i t i m po r t a nt t ha t t he y unde r s t a nd e l e m e nt s of a w a r m up, but e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i on i s a l s o ke y R e s ul t s f r om t hi s s t udy di d not f i nd body t ype t o b e i nf l ue nt i a l I ns t e a d i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s m o r e i m po r t a nt I t i s e n c our a gi ng t o know t ha t g r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s do not a t t e nd c l a s s e s ba s e d on s upe r f i c i a l m ot i ve s s uc h a s body t ype but r a t he r t he i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s t he d r i vi ng f or c e O n t he ot h e r ha nd, a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s

PAGE 65

57 s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o hi ghe r a t t e nda nc e T hough t hi s one r e s ul t w a s s i gni f i c a nt ot he r l e s s s upe r f i c i a l f a c t or s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt a nd pe r ha p s m or e i m por t a nt Sum m ar y C ont r a r y t o o t he r a r e a s of s t udy, r e s ul t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e t ha t body t ype o f t he i ns t r uc t or doe s not i nf l ue nc e g r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on. A l t hough a ppe a r a nc e a nd body t ype ha ve be e n f ound t o i nf l ue nc e t e a c he r r a t i ngs pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on, t he c ur r e nt s t udy di d no t s uppor t t hos e f i ndi ngs G r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on i s m or e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t i ns t r uc t or s pos s e s s H ow e ve r a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h u s i ng a m or e c om p r e he ns i bl e i ns t r um e nt m i ght r e s ul t i n a di f f e r e nt out c om e

PAGE 66

58 L i s t o f R e f e r e nc e s A br a m s on, S S t e i n, J S c ha uf e l e M F r a t e s E & R oga n, S ( 1999) P e r s ona l e xe r c i s e ha bi t s a nd c ouns e l i ng pr a c t i c e s of pr i m a r y c a r e ph ys i c i a ns : A na t i ona l s ur ve y. C l i ni c al J our nal of Spor t s M e di c i ne 10 40 48. A nde r s e n, R ( E d. ) ( 2003) O be s i t y : E t i ol ogy as s e s s m e nt t r e at m e nt and pr e v e nt i on C ha m pa i gn, I L : H um a n K i ne t i c s B r a y, S R G yur e s i k, N C C ul os R e e d, S N D a w s on, K A & M a r t i n K A ( 2001 ) A n e xpl or a t or y i nve s t i ga t i on of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oxy e f f i c a c y, s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd e xe r c i s e a t t e nda nc e J our nal of H e al t h P s y c hol ogy 6 ( 4 ) 425 434 B r a y, S R G yur e s i k, N C M a r t i n G i n i s K A & C ul os R e e d, S N ( 2004) T he p r oxy e f f i c a c y e xe r c i s e que s t i onna i r e : D e ve l opm e nt of a n i ns t r um e nt t o a s s e s s f e m a l e e xe r c i s e r s pr oxy e f f i c a c y be l i e f s i n s t r uc t ur e d g r o up e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s J our nal of Spor t and E x e r c i s e P s y c hol ogy 26 442 456 C a r r on, A V & H a us e nbl a s H A ( 1998) G r oup dy nam i c s i n s por t ( 2nd e d ) M or ga nt ow n, W V : F i t ne s s I n f or m a t i on T e c hnol og y. C a r r on, A V H a us e nbl a s H A & M a c k, D ( 19 96) S oc i a l i nf l ue nc e a nd e xe r c i s e : A m e t a a na l ys i s J our nal of Spor t and E x e r c i s e 18 1 16. C a r r on, A V W i d m e ye r W N & B r a w l e y, L R ( 1988 ) G r oup c ohe s i on a nd i ndi vi dua l a dhe r e nc e t o phys i c a l a c t i vi t y J our nal of Spor t and E x e r c i s e P s y c hol ogy 10 127 138.

PAGE 67

59 C a r r on, A H a us e nbl a s H & E s t a br ooks P ( 200 3) T he ps y c hol ogy of phy s i c al ac t i v i t y N e w Y or k, N Y : M c G r a w H i l l C ha i ke n, S ( 1979) C om m uni c a t or phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd pe r s u a s i on. J our nal of P e r s onal i t y and Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 37, 1387 1397 C he r ul ni k, P D ( 1995) P hys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e s oc i a l s ki l l a nd pe r f or m a nc e a s a l e a de r s hi p c a ndi da t e B as i c and A ppl i e d Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 16 ( 3) 287 295. D e a n, M B A da m s T M & C o m e a u, M J ( 200 5) T he e f f e c t of a f e m a l e phys i c a l e duc a t or 's phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e on phys i c a l f i t ne s s know l e dge a nd a t t i t ude s of j uni or hi gh s t ude nt s T he P hy s i c al E duc at or 14 24 E a gl y, A H A s hm or e R D M a khi j a ni M G & L ongo L C ( 1991) W ha t i s be a ut i f ul i s good, but : A m e t a a na l yt i c r e vi e w o f r e s e a r c h on t he phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s s t e r e ot ype P s y c hol ogi c al B ul l e t i n 1 10, 109 128 E s t a br ooks P A & M unr oe K J ( 2004) L e a de r s hi p i n phys i c a l a c t i vi t y g r oups f or ol de r a dul t s : A qua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s J our nal of A gi ng and P hy s i c al A c t i v i t y 12 232 245. E va ns R R C ot t e r E M & R oy, J P ( 2005) P r e f e r r e d body t ype of f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or s a m ong uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s i n e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s P e r c e pt ual and M o t or Sk i l l s 101 257 266 F ox, L D R e j e s ki W J & G a uvi n, L ( 2000 ) E f f e c t s of l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a nd g r oup dyna m i c s on e nj oym e nt of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. A m e r i c an J our nal of H e al t h P r om ot i on, 14 ( 5) 277 283 G oe be l B L & C a s he n, V M ( 1979) A ge s e x, a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s f a c t or s i n s t ude nt r a t i ngs of t e a c he r s : A de ve l opm e nt a l s t udy. J our na l of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy

PAGE 68

60 71 ( 5) 646 653 H a s h, R B M unna R K V oge l R L & B a s on, J J ( 2003) D oe s phys i c i a n w e i ght a f f e c t pe r c e pt i on o f he a l t h a dvi c e ? P r e v e nt at i v e M e di c i ne 36 41 44 J a c ks on, L A H unt e r J E & H odge C N ( 199 5) P hys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l c om pe t e nc e : A m e t a a na l yt i c r e vi e w S oc i al P s y c hol ogy Q uar t e r l y 58 ( 2) 108 122 L e w i s K N & W a l s h, W B ( 1978) P hys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s : I t s i m pa c t on t he pe r c e pt i on of a f e m a l e c ouns e l or J our nal of C oun s e l i ng P s y c hol ogy 25 ( 3) 210 216. L ox, C M a r t i n G i ni s K & P e t r uz z e l l o, S ( 2006 ) T he ps y c hol ogy of e x e r c i s e : I nt e gr at i ng t he or y and pr ac t i c e ( 2nd e d ) S c ot s da l e A Z : H ol c om b H a t ha w a y, P ubl i s he r s I nc L ubke r J R W a t s on, J C V i s e k, A J & G e e r J R ( 2005) P hys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd t he pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t a nt s T he Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 19 446 458. M a r t i n, K A & F ox L D ( 2001) G r oup a nd l e a de r s hi p e f f e c t s on s oc i a l a nxi e t y e xpe r i e nc e d dur i ng a n e xe r c i s e c l a s s J our nal of A ppl i e d Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 31 ( 5) 1000 1016 P a t e R R P r a t t M B l a i r S N e t a l ( 1995 ) P h ys i c a l a c t i vi t y a nd publ i c he a l t h A r e c om m e nd a t i on f r om t he C e nt e r s f o r D i s e a s e C ont r ol a nd P r e ve nt i on a nd t he A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge of S po r t s M e di c i ne J our nal of A m e r i c an M e di c al A s s oc i at i on, 273, ( 402 407) R i ni ol o, T C J ohns on, K C S he r m a n T R & M i s s o, J A ( 2006) H ot o r not : D o pr of e s s or s pe r c e i ve d a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve r e c e i v e hi ghe r s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons ? T he

PAGE 69

61 J our nal of G e ne r al P s y c hol ogy 133 ( 1 ) 19 35. R i t t s V P a t t e r s on, M L & T ub bs M E ( 1992 ) E xpe c t a t i ons i m pr e s s i ons a nd j udgm e nt s of phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve s t ude nt s : A r e vi e w R e v i e w of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 62, 413 426 S pi nk, K S & C a r r on, A V ( 1994) G r oup c ohe s i on e f f e c t s i n e xe r c i s e c l a s s Sm al l G r oup R e s e ar c h, 25, 26 42 U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s ( 1996) P hy s i c al A c t i v i t y and H e al t h: a R e por t of t he Sur ge on G e ne r al A t l a nt a G A : U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s U ni t e d S t a t e s N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r H e a l t h S t a t i s t i c s ( 1999) H e al t hy P e opl e 2000 R e v i e w 1998 1999. H ya t t s vi l l e M D : P ubl i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e pp. 29 37 W i ni n ge r S R ( 2002 ) I ns t r uc t or s a nd c l a s s r oom c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e xe r c i s e e nj oym e nt by f e m a l e s P e r c e pt ual and M ot or Sk i l l s 94 395 398.

PAGE 70

62 A ppe ndi c e s

PAGE 71

63 A ppe ndi x I S om a t om or ph i c M a t r i x

PAGE 72

64

PAGE 73

65

PAGE 74

66 A ppe ndi x 2 B e ha vi or a l R e gul a t i on f or E xe r c i s e Q ue s t i onna i r e ( B R E Q 2) S e c t i on I I We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g p e o p l e s d e c i s i o n s t o e n g a g e o r n o t e n g a g e i n p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e U s i n g t h e s c a l e b e l o w p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o w h a t e x t e n t e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s i s t r u e f o r y o u P l e a s e n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e n o r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s a n d n o t r i c k q u e s t i o n s We s i m p l y w a n t t o k n o w h o w y o u p e r s o n a l l y f e e l a b o u t e x e r c i s e Y o u r r e s p o n s e s w i l l b e h e l d i n c o n f i d e n c e a n d o n l y u s e d f o r o u r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s N O T T R U E F O R M E S O M E T I M E S T R U E F O R M E V E R Y T R U E F O R M E 1 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r pe opl e s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 2 I f e e l gu i l t y w he n I don t e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 3 I va l ue t he be ne f i t s of e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 4 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e i t s f un 0 1 2 3 4 5 I don t s e e w hy I s houl d ha ve t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 6 I t a ke pa r t i n e xe r c i s e be c a us e m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y/ pa r t ne r s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 7 I f e e l a s ha m e d w he n I m i s s a n e xe r c i s e s e s s i on 0 1 2 3 4 8 I t s i m por t a nt t o m e t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 9 I c a n t s e e w hy I s houl d bot he r e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 10 I e nj oy m y e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons 0 1 2 3 4 11 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r s w i l l not be pl e a s e d w i t h m e i f I don t 0 1 2 3 4 12 I don t s e e t he poi nt i n e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 13 I f e e l l i ke a f a i l ur e w he n I ha ve n t e xe r c i s e d i n a w hi l e 0 1 2 3 4 14 I t hi nk i t i s i m por t a nt t o m a ke t he e f f o r t t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 15 I f i nd e xe r c i s e a pl e a s ur a bl e a c t i vi t y 0 1 2 3 4 16 I f e e l unde r pr e s s ur e f r om m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 17 I ge t r e s t l e s s i f I don t e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 18 I ge t pl e a s ur e a nd s a t i s f a c t i on f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 19 I t hi nk e xe r c i s i ng i s a w a s t e of t i m e 0 1 2 3 4

PAGE 75

67 A ppe ndi x 3 P a r t i c i pa nt S u r ve y G r o u p E x e r c i s e P a r t i c i p a n t S u r v e y T h a n k y o u f o r y o u r i n t e r e s t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y A n E x e r c i s e S c i e n c e s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a i s c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s u r v e y f o r a M a s t e r s t h e s i s T h i s s u r v e y i s a n o n y m o u s p l e a s e D O N O T w r i t e y o u r n a m e a n y w h e r e o n t h e s u r v e y P l e a s e a n s w e r a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e b e s t o f y o u r a b i l i t y T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y

PAGE 76

68 D e m ogr ap h i c s A ge : G e nde r : H e i ght : W e i ght : R a c e : P l e a s e c he c k t he box t ha t r e pr e s e nt s you. A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k H i s pa ni c ( N on w hi t e ) W hi t e A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r O t he r W hi c h t ype of f a c i l i t y/ gym a r e you a m e m be r of ? C a pi t ol O ne / W e l l C a r e U S A A L i f e s t yl e U S F Y M C A A pol l o B e a c h H e a l t h/ R a c que t S e c t i on I 1. F or e ac h of t h e pai r e d or gr ou pe d s t at e m e n t s p l e as e C H E C K t h e B O X f or t h e on e t h at be s t d e s c r i b e s you I us e gr oup e xe r c i s e a s m y p r i m ar y s ou r c e of phy s i c a l a c t i vi t y I us e gr oup e xe r c i s e al on g w i t h ot he r t ype s of t r a i ni ng I pl a n g r oup e xe r c i s e i nt o m y s c he dul e I f t he r e ha ppe ns t o be a c l a s s goi ng on a t t he t i m e I w i l l a t t e nd I us e gr oup e xe r c i s e R E G U L A R L Y ( c ons i s t e nt l y a t t e nd s pe c i f i c c l a s s e s ) I D O N O T us e gr oup e xe r c i s e R E G U L A R L Y ( do not c ons i s t e nt l y a t t e nd s pe c i f i c c l a s s e s ) I pr e f e r one s pe c i f i c c l a s s t ype ( i e S t e p onl y O R Y oga onl y ) I pr e f e r a c om bi na t i on of c l a s s t ype s ( i e S t e p and Y oga O R S pi nni ng and t oni ng) I ha ve no p r e f e r e nc e I pr e f e r a f e m a l e i ns t r uc t or I pr e f e r a m a l e i ns t r uc t or I pr e f e r a c om bi na t i on of i ns t r uc t or s I ha v e no p r e f e r e nc e 2 I n ge n e r al h ow l on g h ave you b e e n p ar t i c i p a t i n g i n gr ou p e xe r c i s e c l as s e s ? ( # of

PAGE 77

69 w e e k s m on t h s or ye ar s ) W e e ks M ont hs Y e a r s 3. O n ave r age h ow m an y c l as s e s d o you p ar t i c i p at e i n p e r w e e k ? ( i e s t e p ae r ob i c s p i l at e s yoga s t r e n gt h t r ai n i n g, i n d oor c yc l i n g, w at e r ae r ob i c s ) ? 4. H ow m an y t i m e s p e r w e e k d o you p ar t i c i p a t e i n t h e f ol l ow i n g? S t e p D a nc e A e r obi c s K i c kboxi ng S t r e ngt h/ T oni ng Y oga / P i l a t e s W a t e r A e r obi c s C a r di o/ t one c om bo C i r c ui t T r a i n i ng/ B oot C a m p I ndoor C yc l i ng/ S pi nni ng Z um ba O t he r ( s pe c i f y) P l e as e u s e t h e at t ac h e d m a t r i x t o an s w e r t h e f ol l ow i n g q u e s t i on s 5. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r c u r r e n t b o d y t yp e ? L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e ) 6. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r I D E A L b od y t yp e ? L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e ) 7. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r I N S T R U C T O R S b od y t yp e ? L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e ) 8. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r P R E F E R R E D I N S T R U C T O R b od y t yp e ?

PAGE 78

70 L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e )

PAGE 79

71

PAGE 80

72

PAGE 81

73 S e c t i on I I We ar e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e as on s u n d e r l yi n g p e o p l e s d e c i s i on s t o e n gage or n ot e n gage i n p h ys i c al e xe r c i s e U s i n g t h e s c al e b e l ow p l e as e i n d i c a t e t o w h at e xt e n t e ac h of t h e f o l l ow i n g i t e m s i s t r u e f or yo u P l e as e n ot e t h at t h e r e ar e n o r i gh t or w r on g an s w e r s an d n o t r i c k q u e s t i on s We s i m p l y w an t t o k n ow h ow you p e r s on al l y f e e l ab ou t e xe r c i s e Y ou r r e s p on s e s w i l l b e h e l d i n c on f i d e n c e an d on l y u s e d f or ou r r e s e ar c h p u r p os e s N O T T R U E F O R M E S O M E T I M E S T R U E F O R M E V E R Y T R U E F O R M E 1 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r pe opl e s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 2 I f e e l gu i l t y w he n I don t e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 3 I va l ue t he be ne f i t s of e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 4 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e i t s f un 0 1 2 3 4 5 I don t s e e w hy I s houl d ha ve t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 6 I t a ke pa r t i n e xe r c i s e be c a us e m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y/ pa r t ne r s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 7 I f e e l a s ha m e d w he n I m i s s a n e xe r c i s e s e s s i on 0 1 2 3 4 8 I t s i m por t a nt t o m e t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 9 I c a n t s e e w hy I s houl d bot he r e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 10 I e nj oy m y e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons 0 1 2 3 4 11 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r s w i l l not be pl e a s e d w i t h m e i f I don t 0 1 2 3 4 12 I don t s e e t he poi nt i n e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 13 I f e e l l i ke a f a i l ur e w he n I ha ve n t e xe r c i s e d i n a w hi l e 0 1 2 3 4 14 I t hi nk i t i s i m por t a nt t o m a ke t he e f f o r t t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 15 I f i nd e xe r c i s e a pl e a s ur a bl e a c t i vi t y 0 1 2 3 4 16 I f e e l unde r pr e s s ur e f r om m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 17 I ge t r e s t l e s s i f I don t e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 18 I ge t pl e a s ur e a nd s a t i s f a c t i on f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 19 I t hi nk e xe r c i s i ng i s a w a s t e of t i m e 0 1 2 3 4

PAGE 82

74 S e c t i on I I I O f al l t h e gr ou p e xe r c i s e c l as s e s you p ar t i c i p at e i n p l e as e c h oos e t h e on e you p ar t i c i p at e i n M O S T O F T E N an d an s w e r t h e f o l l ow i n g q u e s t i on s b as e d on t h at on e c l as s an d i n s t r u c t or 1. H ow l on g h ave you b e e n p ar t i c i p at i n g i n t h i s c l as s ? ( # of w e e k s m on t h s or ye ar s ) W e e ks M ont hs Y e a r s 2. P l e as e i n d i c a t e h ow o f t e n you r i n s t r u c t or d o e s t h e t h i n gs l i s t e d b e l ow N E V E R R A R E L Y S O M E T I M E S U S U A L L Y A L W A Y S 1 S t a r t c l a s s on t i m e 0 1 2 3 4 2 E nd c l a s s on t i m e 0 1 2 3 4 3 C om e pr e pa r e d 0 1 2 3 4 4 U s e good voi c e pr oj e c t i on 0 1 2 3 4 5 U s e pr ope r t one 0 1 2 3 4 6 E nunc i a t e 0 1 2 3 4 7 U s e a ppr opr i a t e m us i c 0 1 2 3 4 8 W e a r a ppr opr i a t e a t t i r e 0 1 2 3 4 9 D i s pl a y pr of e s s i ona l i s m 0 1 2 3 4 10 E nc our a ge gr oup c ohe s i on ( w or k i n pa i r s o r g r oup s ) 0 1 2 3 4 11 P r om ot e a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e f or e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 12 E xpl a i n pr ope r t e c hni que 0 1 2 3 4 13 P r ovi de pos i t i ve f e e dba c k 0 1 2 3 4 14 U s e s i m pl e c om m a nds / c ue s 0 1 2 3 4 15 G r e e t s upon a r r i va l 0 1 2 3 4 16 K now s / us e s your na m e 0 1 2 3 4

PAGE 83

75 3. P l e as e i n d i c at e h ow you agr e e t o t h e f ol l ow i n g s t at e m e n t s S T R O N G L Y D I S A G R E E S O M E WH A T D I S A G R E E N E I T H E R D I S A G R E E O R A G R E E S O M E WH A T A G R E E S T R O N G L Y A G R E E 1 I am h i gh l y m o t i vat e d i n c l as s 0 1 2 3 4 2 M y l e ve l of e f f or t d u r i n g t h i s c l as s i s h i g h 0 1 2 3 4 3 M y at t e n d an c e f or t h i s c l as s i s h i gh 0 1 2 3 4 4 I r e ad i l y ac c e p t h e al t h an d i n f or m at i on / ad vi c e f r o m m y i n s t r u c t or 0 1 2 3 4 5 I t h i n k m y i n s t r u c t or i s p h ys i c al l y at t r ac t i ve 0 1 2 3 4 6 I w ou l d l i k e a p h ys i q u e s i m i l ar t o m y i n s t r u c t or 0 1 2 3 4 7 P h ys i q u e of t h e i n s t r u c t or i s i n f l u e n t i al i n m y d e c i s i on t o r e t u r n t o t h e c l as s 0 1 2 3 4


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close
Choose Size
Choose file type
Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.