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Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor

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Material Information

Title:
Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Mears, Jennifer
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Group exercise
Motivation
Adherence
Dissertations, Academic -- Physical Education & Exercise Science -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Physical activity reduces the risk for disease, improves overall health, and quality of life. Group exercise classes are large contributors for meeting physical activity recommendations. Improving long-term adherence to group exercise classes is essential in order to receive health and fitness benefits. Many contributing factors affect adherence rates including the role of the instructor. The instructor has great influence over the decision to return to a group exercise class. It is important to find out what qualities and characteristics are preferred among those who take classes to increase long-term adherence. Another important factor relating to adherence is body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor. These factors have been influential in other areas including performance enhancement consulting, counseling, teacher ratings, and willingness to accept health advice.However, little research has been done to determine if body type, appearance and attractiveness influence adherence to group exercise classes. Identifying if there are stereotypes associated with group exercise instructors will provide the opportunity to educate participants and improve the professional development of instructors. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between participants' perceptions of group exercise leaders and adherence to group exercise classes. Business cards will be distributed to participants after their exercise class, which will contain the web address to the survey. Participants will also have the opportunity to fill out a paper and pencil version of the survey if that is more convenient. The survey will be posted on surveymonkey.com. Flyers with the web address will also be posted around the facilities to promote the survey.Results showed that participants did not prefer significant differences in fatness and muscularity of the instructor nor were they related to motivation, effort, attendance, willingness to accept health information from the instructor, or perceived attractiveness. However, perceived attractiveness was related to attendance. Results also showed that participants preferred to be less fat and more muscular, similar to that of the current instructor body type, indicating that participants desired to have a physique similar to that of the instructor. Although, fatness and muscularity of the instructor were not associated with motivation or adherence to group exercise class, instructional quality was associated with these outcomes. It was found that instructional quality is more important to participants of a group exercise class than body type. Instructional quality was associated with motivation, effort, attendance, and willingness to accept health information.This demonstrates the importance of professional development of instructors. Results from the current study support that body type of the instructor is associated less with different psychosocial outcomes than instructional quality.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer Mears.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 75 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001921021
oclc - 190844818
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001947
usfldc handle - e14.1947
System ID:
SFS0026265:00001


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P e r c e pt i ons of G r oup E xe r c i s e P a r t i c i pa nt s B a s e d on B ody T ype A ppe a r a nc e a nd A t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he I ns t r uc t or by J e nni f e r M e a r s A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : M a r c us K i l pa t r i c k, P hD C a ndi A s hl e y, P hD J e f f r e y K r om r e y P hD D a t e of A ppr ova l F e br ua r y 21 2007 K e yw or ds : G r oup E xe r c i s e M ot i va t i on, A dhe r e nc e C opyr i ght 2007, J e nni f e r M e a r s

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i i T a bl e of C ont e nt s A bs t r a c t vi i C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on 1 R a t i ona l e 1 P ur pos e 2 O bj e c t i ve s 2 H ypot he s i s 2 L i m i t a t i ons 3 D e f i ni t i ons 3 C ha pt e r T w o R e vi e w of L i t e r a t u r e 4 I nt r oduc t i on 4 R ol e of t he I ns t r uc t or 8 Q ua l i t i e s a nd C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s 10 A ppe a r a nc e a nd A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 13 T e a c he r a nd P r o f e s s or E va l ua t i ons 16 C onc l us i on 17 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hods 19 I nt r oduc t i on 19 P a r t i c i pa nt s 19 M e a s ur e m e nt 20 P r oc e dur e s 21 S t a t i s t i c a l A na l ys i s 21 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s 29 C ur r e nt a nd P r e f e r r e d B ody T ype 29

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i i i C or r e l a t i ons B e t w e e n P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s 29 a nd F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y P r e di c t i ons of P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s f r om F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 30 P r e di c t i ons of P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s f r om I ns t r u c t i ona l Q ua l i t y 31 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on 46 I nt r oduc t i on 46 P r e f e r e nc e s of F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 46 R e l a t i ons hi ps A m ong B ody T ype I ns t r uc t i ona l Q u a l i t i e s 47 a nd P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s R e l a t e d t o F a t ne s s a nd M u s c ul a r i t y 49 P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s R e l a t e d t o I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t i e s 53 L i m i t a t i ons 54 C onc l us i ons 55 I m pl i c a t i ons f or P r a c t i t i one r s 56 S um m a r y 57 R e f e r e nc e s 58 A ppe ndi c e s 61 A ppe ndi x 1 S om a t om or phi c M a t r i x 62 A ppe ndi x 2 B e ha vi or a l R e gul a t i on f or E xe r c i s e Q ue s t i onna i r e 66 A ppe ndi x 3 P a r t i c i pa nt S u r ve y 67

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i v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 3. 1 D e m ogr a phi c D a t a 23 T a bl e 3. 2 C l a s s e s A t t e nde d P e r W e e k 24 T a bl e 3. 3 M e a n V a l ue s or B R E Q S ubs c a l e s a nd P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e s 26 T a bl e 3. 4 M e a n V a l ue s f or I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 27 T a bl e 4. 1 C ur r e nt a nd P r e f e r r e d F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 31 T a bl e 4. 2 C r os s t a bul a t i on f or I ns t r uc t o r F a t ne s s a nd M us c ul a r i t y 32 T a bl e 4. 3 I ns t r uc t or s I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y a nd P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e C or r e l a t i ons 33 T a bl e 4. 4 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A m ot i va t i on on B ody T ype 34 T a bl e 4. 5 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E xt e r na l R e gul a t i on on B ody T ype 34 T a bl e 4. 6 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt e gr a t e d R e gul a t i on on B ody T ype 35 T a bl e 4. 7 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I de nt i f i e d R e gul a t i on on B ody T ype 35 T a bl e 4. 8 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt r i ns i c M ot i va t i on on B ody T ype 36 T a bl e 4. 9 R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A t t e nda nc e on P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 36 T a bl e 4. 10 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or M ot i va t i on on B ody T ype 37 T a bl e 4. 11 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E f f o r t on B ody T ype 37 T a bl e 4. 12 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A t t e nda nc e on B ody T ype 38 T a bl e 4. 13 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e a l t h I nf or m a t i on on B ody T ype 38 T a bl e 4. 14 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s on B ody T ype 39

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v T a bl e 4. 15 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A m ot i va t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 39 T a bl e 4. 16 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E xt e r na l R e gul a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 40 T a bl e 4. 17 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt e gr a t e d R e gul a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 40 T a bl e 4. 18 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I de nt i f i e d R e gul a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 41 T a bl e 4. 19 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or I nt r i ns i c M ot i va t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 41 T a bl e 4. 20 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or M ot i va t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 42 T a bl e 4. 21 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or E f f o r t on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 42 T a bl e 4. 22 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or A t t e nda nc e on I n s t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 43 T a bl e 4. 23 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e a l t h I nf or m a t i on on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 4 3 T a bl e 4. 24 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s f or P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s on I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 44

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vi L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 3. 1 C l a s s P r e f e r e nc e s 25

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vi i P e r c e pt i ons of G r oup E xe r c i s e P a r t i c i pa nt s B a s e d on B ody T ype A ppe a r a nc e a nd A t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he I ns t r uc t o r J e nni f e r M e a r s A B S T R A C T P hys i c a l a c t i vi t y r e duc e s t he r i s k f or di s e a s e i m pr ove s ove r a l l he a l t h, a nd qua l i t y of l i f e G r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s a r e l a r ge c ont r i but or s f or m e e t i ng phys i c a l a c t i vi t y r e c om m e nda t i ons I m p r ov i ng l ong t e r m a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s i s e s s e nt i a l i n or de r t o r e c e i ve he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ne f i t s M a ny c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s a f f e c t a dhe r e nc e r a t e s i nc l udi ng t he r ol e of t he i ns t r uc t o r T he i ns t r u c t or ha s gr e a t i n f l ue nc e ove r t he de c i s i on t o r e t ur n t o a gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s I t i s i m por t a nt t o f i nd ou t w ha t qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e pr e f e r r e d a m ong t hos e w ho t a ke c l a s s e s t o i nc r e a s e l ong t e r m a dhe r e nc e A not he r i m por t a nt f a c t or r e l a t i ng t o a dhe r e nc e i s b ody t ype a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or T he s e f a c t or s ha ve be e n i nf l ue nt i a l i n ot he r a r e a s i nc l udi ng pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t i ng, c o uns e l i ng, t e a c he r r a t i ngs a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a dvi c e H ow e ve r l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n done t o de t e r m i ne i f body t ype a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i nf l ue nc e a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s I de nt i f yi ng i f t he r e a r e s t e r e ot ype s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or s w i l l pr ovi de t he oppor t uni t y t o e duc a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd i m pr ov e t he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of i ns t r uc t or s T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s a nd a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s B us i ne s s

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vi i i c a r ds w i l l be di s t r i but e d t o pa r t i c i pa nt s a f t e r t he i r e xe r c i s e c l a s s w hi c h w i l l c ont a i n t he w e b a ddr e s s t o t he s ur ve y. P a r t i c i pa nt s w i l l a l s o ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o f i l l out a pa pe r a nd pe nc i l ve r s i on of t he s ur ve y i f t ha t i s m o r e c on ve ni e nt T he s ur ve y w i l l be pos t e d on s ur ve ym onke y. c om F l ye r s w i t h t he w e b a ddr e s s w i l l a l s o be pos t e d a r ound t he f a c i l i t i e s t o pr om ot e t he s ur ve y. R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not pr e f e r s i g ni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or nor w e r e t he y r e l a t e d t o m ot i va t i on e f f or t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on f r om t he i ns t r uc t or o r pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s H ow e ve r pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s r e l a t e d t o a t t e nda nc e R e s ul t s a l s o s how e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r r e d t o b e l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or b ody t ype i ndi c a t i ng t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s de s i r e d t o ha ve a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t o f t he i ns t r uc t or A l t hough, f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on o r a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s e out c om e s I t w a s f ound t ha t i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s m or e i m p or t a nt t o pa r t i c i pa nt s of a gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s t ha n body t ype I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on, e f f or t a t t e nda nc e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i n f or m a t i on. T hi s de m ons t r a t e s t he i m por t a nc e of p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of i ns t r uc t or s R e s ul t s f r om t he c ur r e nt s t udy s uppor t t ha t body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r i s a s s oc i a t e d l e s s w i t h di f f e r e nt ps yc hos oc i a l out c om e s t ha n i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y

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C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on R at i onal e M a ny c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e t o e xe r c i s e D e pe ndi ng on t he i ndi vi dua l s m ot i va t i on a nd pr e f e r e nc e t he r e a r e a va r i e t y of a c t i vi t i e s pe opl e c hoos e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n r a ngi ng f r om i ndi vi dua l s por t s r e c r e a t i ona l s por t s o r gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s F or s om e a gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i s a m a j or c ont r i but o r f o r m e e t i ng t he r e c om m e nda t i ons f o r da i l y phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. R e duc i ng t he r i s k f or d i s e a s e a nd pr om ot i ng he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e s c a n be a c hi e ve d t hr o ugh pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e xe r c i s e i nc l udi ng gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s U nde r s t a ndi ng w ha t m ot i va t e s pe opl e t o r e t ur n t o a c l a s s m a y he l p i m pr ove a dhe r e nc e w hi c h w i l l ul t i m a t e l y ha ve a n e f f e c t on t he ove r a l l he a l t h of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s T he m a i n pu r pos e of g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s i s t o e nha nc e he a l t h r e l a t e d c om pone nt s of f i t ne s s w hi c h i nc l ude c a r di or e s pi r a t or y e ndur a nc e m us c ul a r s t r e ngt h a nd e ndur a nc e f l e xi bi l i t y a nd body c om pos i t i on. P a r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e t o g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s i s de pe nde nt upon a va r i e t y o f f a c t or s O ne i n pa r t i c ul a r i s t he r ol e of l e a de r s hi p. A l t hough s om e r e s e a r c h w oul d s how t h e r e i s not a c r uc i a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e a nd l e a de r s hi p, i ns t r uc t or s ha ve t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a t t e nd r e gul a r p hys i c a l a c t i vi t y s e s s i ons ( C a r r on, H a us e nbl a s & M a c k, 1996) H ow e ve r m o r e r e c e nt r e s e a r c h w oul d s uppor t t he no t i on t ha t l e a de r s hi p i s i m por t a nt r e l a t i ve t o g r oup e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e ( E s t a br ooks & M unr oe 2004)

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2 V a r i ous c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd qua l i t i e s m a ke u p e f f e c t i ve gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s S uc h qua l i t i e s i nc l ude t he a bi l i t y t o m ot i va t e pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc or por a t e p r ope r t e c hni que a nd s a f e i ns t r uc t i on, p r om ot e g r oup c ohe s i on, a nd pr ovi de a f un f r i e ndl y a t m os phe r e w hi l e c ha l l e ngi ng t he m t o w or k ha r d. A ppe a r a nc e of t he g r oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r i s a not he r f a c t or t ha t m a y ha ve a n e f f e c t on e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e T he l i t e r a t ur e ha s s how n t ha t phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on pe r c e i ve d i nt e l l i ge nc e c om pe t e nc e know l e dge a nd e f f e c t i ve n e s s a s w e l l a s s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; J a c ks on, H unt e r & H odge 1995; L ubke r W a t s on, V i s e k & G e e r 2005; L e w i s & W a l s h, 1978; R i ni ol o, J ohns on, S he r m a n & M i s s o, 2006) T he l i t e r a t ur e a l s o de m ons t r a t e s di f f e r e nc e s i n i m pr ove m e nt s o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d know l e dge w he n i t i s be i ng de l i ve r e d f r om ove r w e i ght ve r s us non ove r w e i ght i ndi vi dua l ( D e a n, A da m s & C om e a u, 2005) I t i s m or e l i ke l y t ha t pe opl e w i l l a dhe r e t o h e a l t hy be ha vi or s i f t he i nf o r m a t i on c om e s f r om a n i ndi vi dua l w ho l ooks l i ke t he y t he m s e l ve s pr a c t i c e t hos e he a l t hy be ha vi or s B ody t ype a nd a ppe a r a nc e e f f e c t pe r c e p t i ons of a va r i e t y of a s pe c t s H ow e ve r i t i s unc l e a r w he t he r t he y ha ve a ny i nf l ue nc e on e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e i n gr oup e xe r c i s e s e t t i ngs P ur pos e O ne pur p os e of t hi s s t udy i s t o r a t e a nd i de nt i f y qu a l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i ns t r uc t or s pr e f e r r e d by g r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s A not he r pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o a s s e s s t he pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ow a r ds t he i r e xe r c i s e l e a de r ba s e d on body t ype a p pe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T hi s s t udy i s de s i g ne d t o i de nt i f y t he m os t pr e f e r r e d qua l i t i e s a nd t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a pr e f e r r e d bo dy t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r

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3 O bj e c t i v e s T he f ol l ow i ng obj e c t i ve s w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. 1. D e t e r m i ne i f pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s a nd/ or c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i ns t r uc t or s 2. D e t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a pr e f e r r e d body t ype of t he e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or 3. D e t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n p r e f e r r e d body t ype a nd e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e 4. D e t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a ppe a r a nc e a n d a dhe r e nc e 5. D e t e r m i ne i f a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s a n i m pa c t on e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e H y pot he s e s T he f ol l ow i ng hypot he s e s w i l l be c ons i de r e d du r i n g t hi s s t udy. 1. P a r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t h i gh m us c l e body t ype 2. P a r t i c i pa nt s a r e m or e m ot i va t e d by i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e body t ype 3. P a r t i c i pa nt s m or e w i l l i ngl y a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s a dvi c e f r om i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e 4. A dhe r e nc e r a t e s a r e hi ghe r f or c l a s s e s t a ught by i ns t r uc t or s w i t h l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e 5. P e r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s a pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on w i t h r e gul a r a t t e nda nc e L i m i t at i ons L i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy i nc l ude t he a c c e s s a nd/ or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h us i ng c om put e r s i n or de r t o c om pl e t e t he s ur ve y. S e l f r e por t e d i nf or m a t i on r e g a r di ng a m ount of phys i c a l

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4 a c t i vi t y i nc l udi ng t he de gr e e of m ot i va t i on a nd e xe r t i on a l s o s e r ve a s l i m i t a t i ons P e opl e m a y ove r or unde r e s t i m a t e t he a m oun t of a c t i vi t y t he y ha ve c om pl e t e d w i t hi n a c e r t a i n pe r i od. I t i s o f t e n di f f i c ul t t o r e c a l l how m uc h a c t i vi t y w a s pe r f or m e d S i m i l a r l y pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ol l e c t i on o f m ot i va t i on or e f f o r t e x e r t e d w i t hi n s pe c i f i c bout s of e xe r c i s e c oul d be a f f e c t e d by ot he r f a c t or s D e f i ni t i ons G r oup e xe r c i s e i nt e nt i ona l phys i c a l a c t i vi t y w i t h i n a s t r uc t ur e d c l a s s a m ong o t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s A dhe r e nc e m a i nt a i ni ng a n e xe r c i s e r e gi m e n f o r a pr ol onge d pe r i od of t i m e ( L ox M a r t i n G i ni s & P e t r uz z e l l o, 2006 ) A ppe a r a nc e t he s t a t e c ondi t i on m a nne r o r s t yl e i n w hi c h a pe r s on or obj e c t a ppe a r s ; out w a r d l ook o r a s pe c t ( w w w di c t i ona r y. c om ) A t t r a c t i ve ne s s pr ovi di ng p l e a s ur e or de l i ght e s p. i n a ppe a r a nc e or m a nne r ; pl e a s i ng; c ha r m i ng; a l l ur i ng ( w w w di c t i ona r y. c om ) M ot i va t i on t he de gr e e of de t e r m i na t i on, dr i ve or de s i r e w i t h w hi c h a nd i ndi vi dua l a ppr oa c he s or a voi ds a be ha vi or ( L ox M a r t i n G i ni s & P e t r uz z e l l o, 2006) G r oup C ohe s i on a dyna m i c pr ope r t y of gr oups t h a t i s m a ni f e s t e d by t he t e nde nc y f or m e m be r s t o s t i c k t oge t he r a nd r e m a i n uni t e d a s he w or k t ow a r d c ol l e c t i ve goa l s a nd/ or f or s oc i a l pur pos e s ( C a r r on H a us e nbl a s & E s t a br ooks 2003)

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5 C ha pt e r T w o L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w I nt r oduc t i on A ppr oxi m a t e l y 97 m i l l i on a dul t s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a r e ove r w e i ght or obe s e ( A nde r s e n, 2003) B e i ng ov e r w e i ght i s de f i ne d a s a body m a s s i nde x ( B M I ) gr e a t e r t ha n 25 kg/ m a nd obe s e i s de f i ne d a s B M I gr e a t e r t ha n 30 kg/ m ( A nde r s e n, 2003 ) O ve r w e i ght a nd obe s i t y a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a n i nc r e a s e d f or r i s k o f de ve l opi ng a n a s s or t m e nt of ne ga t i ve he a l t h out c om e s T he s e out c om e s i nc l ude hype r t e ns i on, hype r c hol e s t e r ol e m i a t ype 2 di a be t e s c or ona r y a r t e r y di s e a s e a nd r e s pi r a t or y pr obl e m s s uc h a s s l e e p a pne a ( P a t e P r a t t & B l a i r 1995) I n de pe nde nt of c ha nge s t o body c om pos i t i on, pa r t i c i pa t i on i n r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i v i t y r e duc e s t he r i s k f or di s e a s e i m pr ove s he a l t h a nd ove r a l l qua l i t y o f l i f e ( P a t e e t a l 1995 ) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y i n or de r t o r e duc e t he r i s k f or di s e a s e a nd m a i nt a i n a he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e ( H e a l t hy P e opl e 20 1 0 ) R e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y, a s de f i ne d by A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge of S por t s M e di c i ne ( A C S M ) a nd t he U S S ur ge on G e ne r a l i s t o a c c um ul a t e 30 m i nut e s of m ode r a t e phys i c a l a c t i vi t y m os t da ys o f t he w e e k ( P a t e e t a l 1995) A ppr oxi m a t e l y 38% of a dul t s do not e ng a ge i n a ny l e i s ur e t i m e phys i c a l a c t i vi t y ( H e a l t hy P e opl e 2010) A l t hough r e s e a r c h ha s de m ons t r a t e d t he pos i t i ve e f f e c t s of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y, m ot i va t i ng pe opl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a nd a d he r e t o e xe r c i s e pr og r a m s i s di f f i c ul t D e pe ndi ng on t he i ndi vi dua l s m ot i va t i on a nd pr e f e r e nc e s t he r e a r e va r i e t i e s of a c t i vi t i e s

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6 pe opl e c hoos e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n T he s e a c t i vi t i e s i nc l ude i ndi vi dua l s por t s r e c r e a t i ona l s por t s a nd gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s G r oup e xe r c i s e i s a l a r ge c ont r i but or f o r m e e t i ng r e c om m e nda t i ons of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005 ) R e duc i ng t he r i s k f or di s e a s e a nd pr om ot i ng he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e s c a n be a c hi e ve d t hr ough pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e xe r c i s e s pe c i f i c a l l y gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s U nde r s t a ndi ng w ha t m ot i va t e s pe opl e t o r e t ur n t o a c l a s s m a y he l p i m p r ove a dhe r e nc e I m pr ovi ng a dhe r e nc e c a n ul t i m a t e l y ha ve a n e f f e c t on t he ove r a l l he a l t h o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s C e r t a i n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd qua l i t i e s t h a t i ns t r uc t or s pos s e s s m a y i nf l ue nc e w he t he r or not pa r t i c i pa nt s r e t ur n t o a pa r t i c ul a r g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s I ns t r uc t or s a r e r ol e m ode l s w ho s houl d di s pl a y a ppr opr i a t e he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ha vi or s D e m ons t r a t i ng a nd t e a c hi ng he a l t hy e xe r c i s e a t t i t ude s ul t i m a t e l y a f f e c t s pa r t i c i pa nt s he a l t h. G r oup c ohe s i on, ve r ba l r e i nf or c e m e nt a nd l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a r e e xa m pl e s of c ont r i but i ng i nf l ue nc e s on gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on ( L ox, M a r t i n G i ni s & P e t r uz z e l l o, 2006) R e s e a r c h ha s a l s o de m ons t r a t e d t he i nf l ue nc e of a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd a ppe a r a nc e on pe r c e i ve d i nt e l l i ge nc e pr o f e s s or a nd t e a c he r e va l u a t i ons know l e dge of he a l t h r e l a t e d f i t ne s s c om pone nt s a nd pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( D e a n, A da m s & C om e a u, 2005 ; G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; J a c ks on, H unt e r & H odge 2006; L e w i s & W a l s h, 1978; L ubke r W a t s on, V i s e k, & G e e r 2005; R i ni ol o, J ohns on, S he r m a n & M i s s o, 2006) F or e xa m pl e pe r c e i ve d i nt e l l i ge nc e e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd r a t i ngs w e r e hi ghe r f or t hos e pe r c e i ve d a s m or e a t t r a c t i ve ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; J a c ks on e t a l 1995; R i nol o e t a l 2006) H ow e ve r t he i nf l ue nc e of a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of g r oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s ha s not be e n de t e r m i ne d. G i ve n t ha t a l l ot he r f a c t or s a r e e qua l s uc h a s m ot i va t i ona l t e c hni que s a nd

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7 c l a s s e nvi r onm e nt t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a ppe a r a nc e a nd gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e ha s a l s o not be e n de t e r m i ne d. O ne r e l a t e d s t u dy e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n phys i que a nxi e t y, e a t i ng be ha vi or s a nd pr e f e r r e d qua l i f i c a t i ons a nd body t y pe of f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or s a m ong uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s i n e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s ( E va ns C ot t e r & R oy 2005 ) Q ue s t i ons r e l a t i ng t o c ur r e nt body t ype i d e a l body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne pr e f e r e nc e s A f i gur e dr a w i ng s c a l e w a s us e d t o de pi c t body i m a ge us i ng ni ne s i l houe t t e s ( S t unka r d, S or e ns e n & S c hul s i nge r 19 83) T he s i l houe t t e s w e r e num be r e d one t hr ough ni ne w i t h t he l ow e r num be r s c or r e s pondi ng w i t h t hi n body t ype s a nd t he hi ghe r num be r s c or r e s pondi ng w i t h ove r w e i ght bo dy t ype s T he r e s ul t s s t a t e d t ha t w om e n de pi c t e d a t hi nne r i de a l phys i que a s w e l l a s de s i r e d phys i que of t he e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or c om pa r e d t o c ur r e n t phys i que H ow e ve r w he n a s ke d t o c hoos e f r om a c he c kl i s t of pr e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or s t hi nne s s w a s not hi ghl y r a nke d. T he r e f or e i t i s unc l e a r i f pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r one body t ype t o a not he r E va ns e t a l pr opos e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s c oul d ha ve be e n i de n t i f yi ng a p r e f e r e nc e f o r a phys i c a l l y f i t i ns t r uc t or r a t he r t ha n a n e xc e s s i ve l y t hi n i ns t r uc t or T he y pr opos e d t ha t t he l a c k o f c l a r i t y w a s a r e s ul t of t he i ns t r um e nt a nd pe r ha ps t he us e of a di f f e r e nt s c a l e c oul d be t t e r i de nt i f y i f t he r e i s a pr e f e r r e d body t ype P r e f e r e nc e s be t w e e n ge nde r s m a y a l s o e xi s t E va ns e t a l ( 2005) f ound t ha t w om e n pr e f e r r e d t hi nne r i de a l s c om pa r e d t o m e n T he a ut hor s s ugge s t e d t ha t s oc i e t a l i nf l ue nc e s di c t a t e t ha t t hi n w om e n a nd m us c ul a r m e n a r e m or e a t t r a c t i ve a nd de s i r a bl e w hi c h m a y a c c ount f or t he ge nde r di f f e r e nc e s A dhe r e nc e t o e xe r c i s e pr ogr a m s i s ba s e d on i nt e r n a l a nd e xt e r na l f a c t or s I de nt i f yi ng

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8 w he t he r or not body t ype i s a n i m por t a nt e xt e r na l f a c t or r e l a t i ng t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i o n a nd a dhe r e nc e c a n be a n e f f e c t i ve he a l t h pr om ot i on t ool ( E va ns e t a l 2005) I de nt i f yi ng w hi c h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e m os t i nf l ue nt i a l t o pa r t i c i pa nt s r e l a t i ve t o r e t ur ni ng t o a g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i s i m por t a nt D e t e r m i ni ng w he t he r a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a r e i nf l ue nt i a l f a c t or s i s a l s o i m por t a nt L i m i t e d a m ount s of r e s e a r c h ha s t a r ge t e d t he pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa nt s r e l a t i ve t o p r e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd qua l i t i e s of i ns t r uc t o r s or t he i nf l ue nc e of a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or r e l a t i ve t o l ong t e r m pa r t i c i pa t i on i n gr o up e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s R ol e of t he I ns t r uc t or T he r ol e of t he i ns t r uc t or i s i m por t a nt r e l a t i ve t o e xe r c i s e c om pl i a nc e A l t hough s om e s t udi e s s how no r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e xe r c i s e a dhe r e nc e a nd l e a de r s hi p ( C a r r on H a us e nbl a s & M a c k, 1996) i ns t r uc t o r s ha ve t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a t t e nd r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y s e s s i ons ( E s t a br ooks & M unr oe 2004 ) C a r r on e t a l ( 1996) us e d f i ndi ngs f r om ni ne s t udi e s de t e r m i ni n g t he i m pa c t o f s oc i a l i n f l ue nc e s i nc l udi ng l e a de r s hi p, a nd f ound on l y a s m a l l e f f e c t T w o i m por t a nt r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of t he e xe r c i s e l e a de r a r e t o e ns ur e t he de m a nds of t he gr oup a r e m e t a nd s a t i s f i e d a nd e ns ur e t he ne e ds of t he g r oup a r e m e t a nd s a t i s f i e d ( E s t a b r ooks & M unr oe 2004) T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o e xa m i ne e xe r c i s e l e a de r s hi p qua l i t i e s pr e f e r r e d by ol de r a dul t s s om e qua l i t i e s hol d m or e va l ue t ha n ot he r s T h i s s t udy f ound t ha t ol de r a dul t s pr e f e r r e d l e a de r s w ho a r e c om pe t e nt a nd qua l i f i e d; de m ons t r a t e d a ppr o pr i a t e e xe r c i s e t e c hni que t ook i nt e r e s t i n t he i ndi vi dua l s ; ga ve e nc our a ge m e nt a n d pos i t i ve f e e dba c k, a nd t hos e t ha t s e t pr ope r e nvi r onm e nt ; a ppr op r i a t e m us i c vo i c e i ns t r uc t i on, a nd pr ovi de d gr oup c ohe s i on.

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9 T he i ns t r uc t or a l s o s e r ve s a s a r ol e m ode l f or pa r t i c i pa nt s ( L ox e t a l 2006) T he y a r e vi e w e d a s a r e l i a bl e s our c e of he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on. I ns t r uc t or s a l s o ha ve pot e nt i a l i nf l ue nc e on e xe r c i s e r e l a t e d t hought s f e e l i ngs a nd be ha vi or s D i s pl a yi ng a nd e nc our a gi ng pos i t i ve a nd a ppr opr i a t e e xe r c i s e a t t i t ude s a f f e c t s pa r t i c i pa nt s ( B r a y, G yur e c s i k, M a r t i n G i ni s & C ul os R e e d, 2004; B r a y G yur e c s i k, C ul os R e e d, D a w s on & M a r t i n, 2001; C a r r on & H a us e nbl a s 1998) T he r e s e a r c h by B r a y a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2001) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t a t h i r d pa r t y ( t he i ns t r uc t or ) ha s on c l a s s a t t e nda nc e T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p of pr o xy e f f i c a c y, s e l f e f f i c a c y, a nd c l a s s a t t e nda nc e P r oxy e f f i c a c y i s t he c on f i de nc e one h a s i n a t hi r d pa r t y s a bi l i t y t o a s s i s t i n a c hi e vi ng a s pe c i f i c goa l I t i s t o r e l i nqui s h of a l l o r s om e of pe r s ona l c ont r ol t o a n i nt e r m e di a r y pa r t y t o he l p a c hi e ve a de s i r e d out c o m e ( B r a y e t a l 2001 ) T hi s i s i m por t a nt t o f i t ne s s c l a s s e s w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e r e l yi ng on ot he r s t o pr ovi de a s t r uc t ur e d w or kout I n t hi s s i t ua t i on, pa r t i c i pa nt s do not ha ve t o w or r y a bout put t i ng t oge t he r a p r ogr a m f or t he m s e l ve s s o i t i s ne c e s s a r y f or t he m t o ha ve c onf i de nc e i n t he i r i ns t r uc t or s a bi l i t i e s T he r e f or e i t i s i m por t a nt t o de t e r m i ne pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of i ns t r uc t or s a nd pr e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s t udy f ound t ha t i ns t r uc t o r s be ha vi or s a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c l a s s a t t e nda nc e T h e l a r ge s t c or r e l a t i on obs e r ve d w a s be t w e e n i ns t r uc t or e f f i c a c y a nd e xe r c i s e e f f i c a c y s uppor t i ng t he not i on o f pr oxy e f f i c a c y ( B r a y e t a l 2004) T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t c onf i de nc e i n t he i ns t r uc t o r s c a pa bi l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o gr e a t e r c l a s s a t t e nda nc e a s w e l l a s t he e xe r c i s e r s c onf i de nc e t o c om pl e t e a s t r e nuous bout of e xe r c i s e

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10 Q ual i t i e s and C har ac t e r i s t i c s C e r t a i n i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ha ve gr e a t e r c or r e l a t i on w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on r a t e s a nd i nc r e a s e d a dhe r e nc e t ha n ot he r s ( B r a y G yu r e c s i k, M a r t i n G i ni s & C ul os R e e d, 2001; B r a y e t a l 2001; M a r t i n & F ox 2001 ; F ox R e j e s ki & G a uvi n, 2000) E m pl oye r s a l s o uphol d s t a nda r ds f or hi r i ng e f f e c t i ve l e a de r s t ha t m a i nt a i n hi gh pa r t i c i pa t i on r a t e s L e a de r s hi p i s one a s pe c t o f gr oup e xe r c i s e t ha t i nf l ue nc e s l ong t e r m pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd e nj oym e nt ( B r a y e t a l 200 4; B r a y e t a l 2 001; M a r t i n & F ox, 2001; F ox, R e j e s ki & G a uvi n, 2000) O t he r i nf l ue nc e s i m por t a nt t o g r oup e xe r c i s e a r e t he e nvi r onm e nt m us i c s e l e c t i on, e nt hus i a s m punc t ua l i t y a nd p r of e s s i ona l i s m of t he i ns t r uc t or a nd s a f e a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he c l a s s C e r t a i n s t a nda r ds s houl d be uphe l d w he n hi r i ng f i t ne s s s t a f f how e ve r l i t t l e r e s e a r c h h a s de t e r m i ne d w hi c h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t he m os t i m por t a nt t o pa r t i c i pa n t s U nde r s t a ndi ng w hi c h qua l i t i e s a f f e c t l ong t e r m a dhe r e nc e c a n a s s i s t i n t he p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of ne w c om e r s t o t he he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i ndus t r y. E f f e c t i ve l e a de r s hi p i s one i m por t a nt f a c t or i n g r ou p e xe r c i s e s e t t i ngs I t ha s t he a bi l i t y t o p r om ot e c onf i de nc e i n t he i ns t r uc t or i nc r e a s e s e l f e f f i c a c y, e ne r gy a nd e nt hus i a s m e nj oym e nt of t he c l a s s a nd i nt e nt i on t o r e t ur n a s w e l l a s de c r e a s e t he c onc e r n of e m ba r r a s s m e nt a nd pr o m ot e ne w e xe r c i s e s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ( L ox e t a l 2006 ) L e a de r s hi p s t yl e a nd gr oup c ohe s i on a r e t w o qua l i t i e s t ha t ha v e be e n s how n t o i m pa c t e nj oy m e nt of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a nd pr og r a m a dhe r e nc e ( F ox e t a l 2000) I n one pa r t i c ul a r s t udy c onduc t e d by F ox e t a l ( 2000) i t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t e nj oym e nt o f phys i c a l a c t i vi t y c l a s s w oul d be hi ghe s t w he n e nha nc e d l e a de r s hi p s t yl e w a s c om bi ne d w i t h e nha nc e d

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11 gr oup dyna m i c s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o a t w o by t w o de s i gn w i t h l e a de r s hi p s t yl e ( e nr i c he d ve r s us bl a nd) a nd gr oup dyna m i c s ( e nr i c he d ve r s us bl a nd) A s i ngl e f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or w a s t r a i ne d t o i ns t r uc t c l a s s i n bot h t he e nr i c he d a nd b l a nd l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a s w e l l a s e nr i c he d gr oup dyna m i c a nd bl a nd g r oup dyna m i c T he e nr i c he d l e a de r s hi p s t yl e pr ovi de d s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on, w a s pl e a s a nt a nd e ne r ge t i c I t i nvol ve d e nga gi ng i n c onve r s a t i on w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pos i t i ve r e i nf o r c e m e nt gi v i ng s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ons i gn or i ng m i s t a ke s a nd ve r ba l l y r e w a r di ng e f f or t T he bl a nd l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a voi de d c onve r s a t i on, f a i l e d t o f ol l ow up w i t h pr a i s e p r ovi de d ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s ga ve va gue i ns t r uc t i on a nd ve r ba l l y no t i ng m i s t a ke s G r oup dyna m i c s w a s a l s o m a ni pul a t e d by pl a nt i ng unde r gr a dua t e s w i t hi n e a c h of t he c l a s s e s t o pr om ot e e nr i c he d or bl a nd dyna m i c s T he e nr i c he d g r oup d yna m i c s i nt r oduc e d t he m s e l ve s t o ot he r m e m be r s ha d c a s ua l i nt e r a c t i on w i t h ot he r s w e r e c om pl i a nt w i t h i ns t r uc t or s w i s he s a nd ga ve pos i t i ve r e m a r ks a bo ut t he i ns t r u c t or T he bl a nd gr oup dyna m i c s di d not i nt r oduc e t he m s e l ve s t o ot he r m e m be r s or i ni t i a t e i nt e r a c t i on, w a s c om pl i a nt w i t h i ns t r uc t or s w i s he s but w i t hout e nt hus i a s m di d not gi ve e nc our a ge m e nt or r e s pond t o que s t i ons t ha t t he l e a de r di r e c t e d t o w a r d t he gr oup R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t a c om bi na t i on of e n r i c he d l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a nd e nr i c he d gr oup dyna m i c s pr oduc e d t he gr e a t e s t e nj oym e nt a nd i nt e nt i on t o r e t ur n t o s i m i l a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. I n t he s t udy d i s c us s e d a bove ( F ox e t a l 20 00 ) t he e f f e c t o f l e a de r s hi p s t yl e w a s e xa m i ne d i nde pe nde nt of a nd i n c om bi na t i on w i t h gr oup c ohe s i on. A l t hough r e s ul t s of t he s t udy w e r e gr e a t e s t w he n t he t w o w e r e c om bi n e d, gr oup c ohe s i on ha s be e n s how n t o be i nf l ue nt i a l i nde pe nde nt of ot he r f a c t o r s ( C a r r on W i dm e ye r & B r a w l e y, 1988; S pi nk &

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12 C a r r on, 1994 ) G r oup c ohe s i on i s l i nke d t o nu m e r o us f a c t or s c r i t i c a l t o t he de ve l opm e nt a nd vi t a l i t y o f t he g r oup ( S pi nk & C a r r on 1994 ) F a c t or s i nc l ude c om m uni c a t i on, c onf or m i t y, i nt e r a c t i ons pe r s i s t e nc e a nd a t t e n da nc e of ot he r gr oup m e m be r s ( W i dm e ye r B r a w l e y & C a r r on, 1985) A t t e nda nc e a nd a dhe r e nc e s pe c i f i c a l l y i n g r oup f i t ne s s c l a s s e s i s l a r ge l y a f f e c t e d by gr oup c ohe s i on ( C a r r on e t a l 1994 ) C a r r on e t a l ( 1994 ) c onduc t e d a s t udy t o de t e r m i n e t he c ohe s i on a dhe r e nc e r e l a t i ons hi p a s w e l l a s t he de gr e e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p. I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t c ohe s i on i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o a dhe r e nc e i n d i f f e r e nt s por t a nd p hys i c a l a c t i vi t y gr oups s uc h a s e l i t e s por t s t e a m s a nd f i t ne s s c l a s s e s T he i nve s t i ga t or s di vi de d t he c ohe s i on a dhe r e nc e r e l a t i ons hi p i nt o t w o s t udi e s T he f i r s t s t udy s pur p os e w a s t o i de nt i f y i f a s pe c t s of c ohe s i ve ne s s a r e r e l a t e d t o a dhe r e nc e i n s por t a nd phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. I n t he s e c ond s t udy, t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he t w o a r e r e l a t e d w a s m e a s ur e d. F our s a m pl e s w e r e e xa m i ne d. T he s a m pl e s i nc l ude f i t ne s s c l a s s a dhe r e r s f i t ne s s c l a s s non a dhe r e r s e l i t e s por t a dhe r e r s a nd e l i t e s por t non a dhe r e r s N on a dhe r e r s w e r e vol unt e e r s f r om a l a r ge uni ve r s i t y unde r gr a dua t e c l a s s T hos e t ha t ha d l e f t a f i t ne s s c l a s s or e l i t e s por t t e a m w i t hi n t he pa s t s i x m ont hs w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e t he que s t i onna i r e T he G r oup E nvi r onm e nt Q ue s t i onna i r e w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e t e a m c ohe s i ve ne s s M odi f i c a t i ons w e r e m a de t o t he s a m e que s t i onna i r e a nd us e d f or t he f i t ne s s c l a s s a dhe r e r s a nd non a dhe r e r s T he que s t i onna i r e w a s gi ve n a t t he e nd of t he c om pe t i t i ve s e a s on f or e l i t e t e a m s por t s or a t t he e nd of a s i x w e e k e xe r c i s e c l a s s Q ue s t i onna i r e s w e r e c om pl e t e d i ndi vi dua l l y a nd a nonym ous l y. T he r e s ul t s of s t udy one w e r e s i m i l a r f o r e l i t e s por t a nd f i t ne s s c l a s s a dhe r e r s T hos e

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13 t ha t m a i nt a i ne d e l i t e s por t i nvol ve m e nt w e r e m or e pe r s ona l l y a t t r a c t e d t o t he gr oup s t a s k a nd pe r c e i ve d t he gr oup a s m or e i nt e gr a t e d a r ound s oc i a l a nd t a s k di m e ns i ons F i t ne s s c l a s s non a dhe r e r s w e r e l e s s pe r s ona l l y a t t r a c t e d t o t he gr oup s t a s k a nd t o t he gr oup a s a s oc i a l uni t A c c or di ng t o t he i nve s t i ga t or s f oc us s houl d be pl a c e d on de ve l opi ng t he gr oup a s a w hol e o r uni t a s w e l l a s e nc our a ge c ohe s i ve t a s ks S t udy t w o w a s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne t he de gr e e o f c ohe s i ve ne s s a nd a dhe r e nc e be ha vi or C a r r on e t a l ( 1994) f ound t ha t t he gr oup a s a w hol e i n f l ue nc e s i t s m e m be r s t o c onf or m t o e s t a bl i s he d nor m s t o m a ke s a c r i f i c e s a nd c ont r i but e t o t he gr oup s e f f e c t i ve ne s s T he a ut hor s c onc l ude t ha t i t i s i m por t a nt t o e n c our a ge c ohe s i ve ne s s a m ong pa r t i c i pa nt s t o pos i t i ve l y i m pa c t a dhe r e nc e I m pl i c a t i ons of t he s t udy i nc l ude gr e a t e r a dhe r e nc e w he n t he f oc us i s on t he gr oup r a t he r t h a n t he i ndi vi dua l C ohe s i on of t he gr oup ha s a pow e r f u l e f f e c t on i t s m e m be r s r e l a t i v e t o a d he r e nc e T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt w he n de a l i ng w i t h g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s I n o r de r i nc r e a s e t he r e t ur n r a t e e xe r c i s e l e a de r s s houl d f i nd w a ys t o i nc or po r a t e c o he s i on a m ong t he m e m be r s A ppe ar anc e and A t t r ac t i v e ne s s T he r ol e of t he i ns t r uc t or a l on g w i t h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e de m ons t r a t e d t o be i nf l ue nt i a l i n t e r m s o f pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e n c e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e H ow e ve r l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he g r oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or ha s be e n c onduc t e d. A ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha ve be e n s how n t o i nf l ue nc e a va r i e t y of ot he r a r e a s O ne a r e a i nc l ude s pe r c e pt i ons of c om p e t e nc e ( J a c ks on e t a l 1995 ) A m e t a a na l ys i s of phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l c om pe t e nc e w a s c onduc t e d. I t w a s f ound t ha t pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e D i f f e r e nt

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14 t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s ha ve be e n us e d t o de s c r i be t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l c om pe t e nc e i nc l udi ng s t a t us ge ne r a l i z a t i on t he or y, i m pl i c i t pe r s ona l i t y t he or y, a nd t he e xpe c t a nc y t he or y ( J a c ks on e t a l 1995) W i t h t he s e t hr e e t he or i e s c om bi ne d, t he m e t a a na l ys i s by J a c ks on e t a l ( 1995) f ound t ha t a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e a nd e xpe c t a t i ons a r e hi ghe r i n m a l e s t ha n f e m a l e s P e r c e pt i ons of a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a r e s t r onge r w he n l e s s i nf or m a t i on a bout t he pe r s on i s know n w hi c h s uppor t s t he not i on t ha t f i r s t i m pr e s s i ons ha ve a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n pe r c e pt i ons of c om pe t e nc e H ow e ve r pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e a nd a c t ua l i nt e l l i ge nc e di d not de m ons t r a t e a s t r ong r e l a t i ons hi p. T hi s m e t a a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a n i ns i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd a c t ua l c om pe t e nc e but a ppe a r a nc e ha s a n i m por t a nt e f f e c t on f i r s t i m pr e s s i ons O t he r s t udi e s s uppor t t he not i on t ha t a ppe a r a nc e a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i ons of e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t a nt s a nd t he f e m a l e c ouns e l or ( L e w i s & W a l s h, 1978; L ubke r e t a l 2005) B ot h o f t he s e s t udi e s c onf i r m e d t ha t l ooki ng t he pa r t i s i m por t a nt i n bui l di ng c r e di bi l i t y F o r e xa m pl e t ho s e t ha t dr e s s e d m or e pr of e s s i ona l l y w e r e pe r c e i ve d t o do a be t t e r j ob t ha n t hos e t ha t di d not l ook a s pr of e s s i ona l T he s e pe r c e pt i ons i nf l ue nc e d j udgm e nt s r e l a t e d t o t a s k c om pl e t i on a s w e l l a s e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n pr oduc i ng r e s ul t s L e w i s a nd W a l s h ( 1978) f ound t ha t i ni t i a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he c ouns e l or w a s r e l a t e d t o gr e a t e r e xpe c t a t i ons i n t he a bi l i t y t o he l p i n c e r t a i n s i t ua t i ons T he a t t r a c t i ve f e m a l e w a s pe r c e i ve d t o be m or e c om pe t e nt l i ka bl e f r i e ndl y a nd m or e he l pf ul w he n de a l i ng w i t h c ol l e ge s i t ua t i ons s uc h a s dr i nk i ng, dr ugs or s pe a ki ng i n gr oups

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15 S i m i l a r l y, t he a ppe a r a nc e of t he pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t a nt w a s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s w i t h t he t a s k a t h a nd ( L ubke r e t a l 2005) T he f e m a l e c ons ul t a nt s w e r e vi e w e d a s m or e f r i e ndl y a nd a ppr oa c ha bl e w he r e a s t he m a l e s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m or e s por t s know l e dge I n t hi s s t u dy, t he y f ound t ha t c l ot hi ng a nd bui l d w e r e m or e i n f l ue nt i a l t ha n ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y A t hl e t e s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o s e e k i nf or m a t i on f r om t hos e t ha t w e r e dr e s s e d pr of e s s i on a l l y a nd ha d a n a t hl e t i c bui l d T hos e t ha t de m ons t r a t e d e xt e r na l c ue s s uc h a s a n a t hl e t i c bui l d a r e pe r c e i ve d t o ha ve g r e a t e r s por t know l e dge ( L ubke r e t a l 2005) K now i ng w ha t ot he r f a c t or s a s i de f r om t he s t r uc t ur e of a gr oup f i t ne s s c l a s s a nd m ot i va t i on a l t e c hni que s pr ovi de s t he oppor t uni t y t o i nf l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e t o g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s R e s e a r c h ha s a l s o f ound t ha t a ppe a r a nc e a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i ons of l e a de r s hi p, s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons a nd a c c e pt a nc e of he a l t h i n f or m a t i on a nd know l e dge ( C he r ul ni k, 1995; D e a n e t a l 2005; H a s h, M unna V oge l & B a s on, 2003; G oe be l & C a s he n 1995; R i ni ol o e t a l 2006) I t i s i m po r t a nt f o r r ol e m ode l s t o pr a c t i c e w ha t t he y pr e a c h i n or de r t o e xhi bi t e f f e c t i ve l e a de r s hi p. O ne pa r t i c ul a r s t udy c onduc t e d by D e a n e t a l ( 2005) f ound t ha t a c c e pt a nc e of he a l t h r e l a t e d know l e dge w a s l ow e r w he n c om i ng f r o m a n out of s ha pe pe r s on. T he r e i s s t r ong s uppor t f o r phys i c a l f i t ne s s i n phys i c a l e duc a t or s T hos e w ho e xhi bi t poor he a l t h ha bi t s c a n ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t t he i r s t u de nt s ( D e a n e t a l 2005) L i ke w i s e s m a l l but s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he w a y pa t i e nt s r e c e i ve he a l t h a dvi c e f r om obe s e ve r s us non obe s e phys i c i a ns w e r e f ound ( H a s h e t a l 2003 ) T hi s s t udy ha d hi ghe r c onf i de nc e s c or e s f or r e c e i vi ng di s e a s e t r e a t m e nt i nf or m a t i on f r om a non obe s e phys i c i a n. A dvi c e i s m or e r e a di l y a c c e pt e d w he n pr ovi de d f or by a he a l t h c a r e

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16 pr of e s s i ona l a nd e ve n m or e a c c e pt e d w he n t he he a l t h c a r e pr o f e s s i ona l di s pl a ys he a l t hy l i f e s t yl e ha bi t s ( G a l us ka W i l l S e r dul a & F or d 19 99; N a w a z A da m s & K a t z 2000) T hi s i s i m por t a nt r e l a t i ve t o f i t ne s s pr of e s s i ona l s C ha l l e ngi ng s t e r e ot ype s c a n ha ve a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on ne ga t i ve he a l t h a nd body i m a ge i s s ue s H ow e ve r r e s e a r c h de m ons t r a t e s t ha t he a l t h r e l a t e d i n f or m a t i on i s m or e w i de l y a c c e pt e d w he n c om i ng f r om s om e one w ho di s pl a ys c e r t a i n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t he r t ha n s om e one w ho i s ove r w e i ght o r unf i t T e ac he r and P r of e s s or E v al uat i ons N ot onl y ha s a ppe a r a nc e be e n s how n t o be i nf l ue nt i a l i n t he he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i ndus t r y a nd m e di c a l f i e l d, but i t a l s o ha s i nf l ue nc e on t e a c he r a nd pr of e s s or r a t i ngs ( G oe be l & C a s he n 1979; R i ni ol o e t a l 2006 ) T h e pur pos e of t he s e s t udi e s w a s t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pl a ys a ny s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n t e a c he r or pr o f e s s or e va l ua t i on. O ne s t udy s ur ve ye d 150 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s 2, 5, 8, 11, a nd 13 us i ng bl a c k a nd w hi t e phot ogr a phs A t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha d t he dom i na nt i nf l ue nc e on r a t i ngs ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979 ) T hos e w i t h t he l ow e s t r a t i ngs w e r e ol de r una t t r a c t i ve m a l e s a nd m i ddl e a ge d una t t r a c t i ve f e m a l e s M ul t i p l e s t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d i n a va r i e t y of s e t t i ngs a nd a l l a gr e e t ha t a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o f i r s t i m pr e s s i ons i nde pe nde nt of t he t a s k or s i t ua t i on t o be pe r f or m e d ( G oe be l & C a s he n, 1979; R i nol o e t a l 2006) A s e c ond s t udy by R i ni ol o e t a l ( 2006) c onc ur r e d t ha t a va r i e t y of f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e t e a c he r e va l ua t i ons t o i nc l ude a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s t udy us e d s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons f r om w w w r a t e m ypr of e s s or c om T he y a l s o obt a i ne d r e a l s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons f r om f our un i ve r s i t i e s w ho ha d p r of e s s or s w i t h a m i ni m um of 25 r e s pons e s f r om t he

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17 w e bs i t e W i t h t ha t i n f or m a t i on t he y f ound t ha t pr o f e s s or s w ho w e r e vi e w e d a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve ha d r e c e i ve d be t t e r e va l ua t i ons T hi s s t udy poi nt s out t ha t a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s pa r t i a l l y s ubj e c t i ve a nd t ha t pe r s ona l i t y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o i nf l ue nc e pe r c e pt i on. T he y m e nt i one d t ha t c l ot hi ng a nd s t a t us i nf l ue nc e a t t r a c t i ve ne s s r a t i ng a s w e l l L i m i t a t i ons t o t hi s s t udy i nc l ude t he i na bi l i t y t o de c i phe r how m a n y t i m e s one pa r t i c ul a r pe r s on vot e d w hi c h c oul d i nf l ue nc e t he out c om e A l t hough a r e l a t i ons hi p w a s s e e n a m ong a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd e va l ua t i ons i t i s not c a us a l H o w e ve r i t i s i m por t a nt t o unde r s t a nd t he i nf l ue nc e a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s ha s on pe r c e p t i ons r e ga r di ng pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s i nt e l l i ge nc e a nd a c c e pt a nc e of he a l t h i nf or m a t i on B y i de nt i f yi ng s t e r e ot ype s i nt e r ve nt i ons t o c ha l l e nge t he m c a n be m a de ( R i nol o e t a l 2006 ) C onc l us i on G r oup e xe r c i s e i s a m a j or c ont r i but o r f or m e e t i ng r e c om m e nda t i ons f or phys i c a l a c t i vi t y ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005 ) I t pr ovi de s t he oppor t uni t y t o a c hi e ve he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ne f i t s w hi l e i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h ot he r s M a ny c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s i n f l ue nc e a dhe r e nc e t o gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s i nc l udi ng t he r ol e of t he i ns t r u c t or I t i s t he i ns t r uc t or s r e s pons i bi l i t y t o m ot i va t e a nd e duc a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng t he c l a s s a s w e l l a s e nc our a ge t he m t o a t t e nd c l a s s e s on a r e gul a r ba s i s i n or de r t o r e c e i ve he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s be ne f i t s ( E s t a br ooks & M unr oe 2004) T he c ur r e nt s t udy i s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a dhe r e nc e A l t hough m a ny i de a s t ha t s uppor t a va r i e t y of f a c t or s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d t o i de nt i f y w hi c h a r e m or e i nf l ue nt i a l t o pa r t i c i pa nt s I nve s t i ga t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r i ns t r uc t or s w i l l h e l p i de nt i f y p r e f e r r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I n

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18 doi ng s o, he a l t h f i t ne s s pr of e s s i ona l s c a n t a i l or p r o gr a m s t o m e e t t he ne e ds a nd de m a nds of pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd u l t i m a t e l y i m pa c t a dhe r e nc e a s w e l l a s t he i r ove r a l l he a l t h.

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19 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hods P ar t i c i pant s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c r ui t e d f or t hi s s t udy w e r e m e m be r s of va r i ous f i t ne s s f a c i l i t i e s i n T a m pa F L i nc l ud i ng c or po r a t e p r i va t e / c om m uni t y, a nd c ol l e ge f a c i l i t i e s M e m be r s of e a c h of t he di f f e r e nt f a c i l i t i e s va r y on a ge f i t ne s s l e ve l a nd de s i r e d goa l s w hi c h w i l l of f e r uni ve r s a l i nf or m a t i on. S a m pl i ng a n a s s or t m e nt of f a c i l i t i e s pr ovi de s a b r oa d r a nge of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t s houl d i m pr ove t he ge ne r a l i z a b i l i t y of t he f i ndi ngs T he t ot a l s a m pl e s i z e f o r t he s ur ve y w a s 166 p a r t i c i pa nt s O f t hos e r e c r ui t e d, 136 f ul l y c om pl e t e d t he s ur ve y, t he r e s t o f t he s ur ve ys w e r e e i t he r i nc om pl e t e o r f i l l e d out i nc or r e c t l y. T he r e w e r e 112 f e m a l e s a nd 21 m a l e s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s ur ve y. O nl y f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nc l ude d f or a na l ys i s V a r i ous s i t e s w e r e us e d t o r e c r ui t pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l udi ng c o r por a t e f a c i l i t i e s ( N = 20; 17. 7% ) p r i va t e a nd c om m uni t y c e nt e r s ( N = 35; 30. 9 % ) a nd a c ol l e ge r e c r e a t i on c e nt e r ( N = 57; 51. 3% ) M e a n a ge s t a nda r d de vi a t i on = 27. 6 10. 3 a nd B M I = 23. 8 6. 0 O f t he w om e n w ho c om pl e t e d t he s ur ve y, 61. 9% w e r e W hi t e 18. 9% H i s pa ni c ( N on W hi t e ) 9. 7% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k, 7. 1% A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r a nd 2 7% c l a s s i f i e d t he m s e l ve s a s ot he r F e m a l e s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy a l s o r e por t e d a t t e ndi ng 3. 97 2 53 c l a s s e s pe r w e e k. C l a s s e s a t t e nde d i nc l ude ( N = a ve r a ge da ys a t t e nde d pe r w e e k) s t e p ( 0. 34 705) ki c kboxi ng ( 0. 47 977 ) c i r c ui t t r a i ni ng ( 0. 14 551) boo t c a m p ( 0. 04 207 )

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20 da nc e a e r obi c s ( 0. 38 850) i ndoo r c yc l i ng ( 0. 63 1. 01) c a r di o/ t on e c om bi na t i on c l a s s ( 0. 58 1 05) P i l a t e s / yoga ( 0. 50 849 ) t oni ng/ s t r e ngt h c l a s s ( 0. 54 976) w a t e r a e r obi c s ( 0. 01 094) Z um ba ( 0. 22 565) o r ot h e r ( 0 11 411) T a bl e s 3 1 a nd 3. 2 pr ovi de de m ogr a phi c da t a f or t hi s s t udy. O f t he f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s 58 % us e g r oup e xe r c i s e a l ong w i t h ot he r t ype s o f t r a i ni ng, 97% pl a n gr oup e xe r c i s e i nt o t he i r s c he dul e 93% a t t e nd r e gul a r gr oup e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons 75% pr e f e r a c om bi na t i on of c l a s s e s ( e g. Y oga a nd S pi nni ng) a nd 71 % ha ve no pr e f e r e nc e of ge nde r o f i ns t r uc t o r F i gur e 3. 1 i l l us t r a t e s r e s ul t s f or c l a s s pr e f e r e nc e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o c hoos e t he c l a s s t he y a t t e nd m os t of t e n a nd a ns w e r que s t i ons ba s e d on t ha t pa r t i c ul a r c l a s s A ve r a ge ye a r s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s pe c i f i c c l a s s w a s 1. 18 2. 5. M e as ur e m e nt T he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude e xe r c i s e m ot i va t i on, pe r c e i ve d e xe r t i on de m ons t r a t e d dur i ng c l a s s c l a s s a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on, a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s I nde pe nde nt va r i a b l e s m e a s ur e d i nc l ude d pe r c e i ve d body t ype o f s e l f a nd i ns t r uc t or pr e f e r r e d body t ype o f s e l f a nd i ns t r uc t or pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s S i xt e e n i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e c om bi ne d i nt o one s i ngl e s c or e T he f i r s t s e c t i on of t he s ur ve y i nc l ude d t he f ol l ow i ng de m ogr a phi c i nf o r m a t i on: a ge ge nde r he i ght w e i ght a nd r a c e f our que s t i ons i de nt i f yi ng t ype of f a c i l i t y a nd c l a s s e s ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s a nd f our que s t i ons i de nt i f yi ng body t ype A s om a t om or phi c m a t r i x w a s us e d t o i de nt i f y t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c ur r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d body

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21 t ype f or s e l f a nd i ns t r uc t o r ( S e e A ppe ndi x 1 ) T he m a t r i x i s a 10 x 10 s c a l e w he r e t he x a xi s r e pr e s e nt s f a t ne s s f r om l e f t t o r i ght a nd t he y a xi s r e pr e s e nt s m us c ul a r i t y f r om t op t o bot t om E s s e nt i a l l y, t he s c a l e w a s s pl i t i nt o f ou r qu a dr a nt s : l ow f a t l ow m us c l e ; hi gh f a t l ow m us c l e ; l ow f a t hi gh m us c l e ; hi gh f a t hi gh m us c l e P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o pr ovi de a l e t t e r w hi c h c or r e s ponds w i t h f a t ne s s a nd a num be r w hi c h c o r r e s ponds w i t h m us c ul a r i t y t o i de nt i f y t he i r c ur r e nt body t ype p r e f e r r e d body t ype i ns t r uc t or s c u r r e nt body t ype a nd t he i r pr e f e r r e d t he i r i ns t r uc t or body t ype T he s e c ond s e c t i on i nc l ude d t he B e ha vi or a l R e gul a t i on i n E x e r c i s e Q ue s t i onna i r e ( B R E Q 2) ( M ul l a n, M a r kl a nd & I nde gl e w 2004) w hi c h i s de s i gne d t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on f or e xe r c i s e ( S e e A ppe ndi x 2) T he B R E Q 2 i s c o m pr i s e d of 19 que s t i ons i de nt i f yi ng m ot i va t i on ba s e d on t he S e l f D e t e r m i na t i on T he or y ( D e c i & R ya n, 198 5) T he que s t i onna i r e i s a 5 poi nt l i ke r t s c a l e t ha t e s t a bl i s he s i ndi vi dua l s r e a s ons f or e nga gi ng i n phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. T he s c a l e r a nge d f r om z e r o t o f o ur w i t h one be i ng not t r ue f or m e t o f i ve be i ng ve r y t r ue f or m e T he i ns t r um e nt i s c om pos e d of f i ve d i m e ns i ons t ha t r e f l e c t unde r l yi ng m ot i va t i on T he di m e ns i ons a r e a m ot i v a t i on, e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on, i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on, i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on, a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. T he r e a r e t hr e e t o f our que s t i ons pe r t a i ni ng t o e a c h of t he s ubs c a l e s a nd c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x 2 I t e m s f i ve ni ne 12, a nd 19 c or r e s pond w i t h a m ot i va t i on. I t e m s one s i x, 11, a nd 16 c o r r e s pond w i t h e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on. I t e m s t w o s e ve n, a nd 13 c or r e s pond w i t h i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on. I t e m s t hr e e e i ght 14 a nd 17 c or r e s pond w i t h i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on a nd i t e m s f our 10 15 a nd 18 c or r e s pond w i t h i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. T he t hi r d s e c t i on i nc l ude d i t e m s r e l a t e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s a nd c a n be f ound

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22 i n A ppe ndi x 3. I t e m s a s s e s s e d i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s by a s ki ng pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r a t e how o f t e n t he i r i ns t r uc t or c a r r i e d out t he f ol l ow i ng t a s ks : s t a r t i ng a nd e ndi ng on t i m e c om i ng t o c l a s s pr e pa r e d, us i ng good voi c e p r oj e c t i on, pr ope r t one e nunc i a t i ng a ppr op r i a t e m us i c a nd a t t i r e di s pl a yi ng pr o f e s s i ona l i s m e nc our a gi ng gr oup c ohe s i on, pr om o t i ng a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e e xpl a i ni ng pr ope r t e c hni que pr ovi di n g pos i t i ve f e e dba c k, us i ng s i m pl e c ue s a nd c om m a nds gr e e t i ng upon a r r i va l a nd know i n g or us i ng t he i r na m e T he s c a l e r a nge d f r om one t o f i ve w i t h one be i ng ne ve r t o f i ve be i n g a l w a ys T he i t e m t ha t a ddr e s s e d i ns t r uc t or a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he y a gr e e w i t h t he s t a t e m e nt t ha t t he i r i ns t r uc t o r i s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve T he s c a l e r a nge d f r om one t o f i ve w i t h one be i ng s t r ong l y di s a gr e e t o f i ve be i ng s t r o ngl y a gr e e P a r t t w o of s e c t i on t hr e e c ont a i ne d f i ve s i ngl e i t e m que s t i ons r e l a t i ng t o i ns t r uc t or phys i que a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s w e l l a s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m ot i va t i on e f f or t a t t e nda n c e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on f r om t he i ns t r uc t o r a nd c a n a l s o be f ou nd i n A ppe ndi x 3 P r oc e dur e s A f t e r r e c e i vi ng a ppr ova l f r om t he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d a nd obt a i ni ng pe r m i s s i on f r om e a c h o f t he f a c i l i t i e s t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or di s t r i but e d bus i ne s s c a r ds a nd f l ye r s t o t he f a c i l i t i e s I ns t r uc t o r s w e r e a s ke d t o pr om ot e t he s ur ve y a nd ha nd out t he c a r ds a t t he e nd o f e a c h gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s T he bus i ne s s c a r ds ha d a w e b a ddr e s s t o t he s ur ve y, w hi c h w a s m a de a va i l a bl e f or t hr e e w e e ks on S ur ve ym onke y. c om P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a bl e t o vi s i t t he w e bs i t e a nd c om pl e t e t he s ur ve y a t t he i r c onve ni e nc e F l ye r s w e r e a l s o pos t e d i n t he l oc ke r r oom s a nd g r oup e xe r c i s e r oom s of t he f a c i l i t i e s t o pr om ot e t he p r oj e c t T he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a t t e n de d va r i ous c l a s s e s a t t he c or por a t e

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23 uni ve r s i t y a nd pr i va t e / c om m uni t y f a c i l i t i e s t o of f e r pa pe r a nd pe nc i l ve r s i ons of t he s ur ve y. I nf o r m a t i on c ol l e c t e d f r om t he s ur ve ys w a s i nput da i l y by t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or St at i s t i c al A nal y s i s D a t a a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d us i ng f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s onl y. T he da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e e de d i n t hr e e pha s e s P ha s e one i nc l ude d de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s on de m ogr a phi c s i nc l udi ng a ge body m a s s i nde x ( B M I ) r a c e t ype o f f a c i l i t y, t ype of c l a s s e s a nd ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e us i ng gr oup e xe r c i s e P ha s e t w o ut i l i z e d de pe nde nt t t e s t s t o de t e r m i ne d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y. D a t a r e l a t e d t o t hi s a na l ys i s a r e e xpr e s s e d a s m e a n s a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons P ha s e t hr e e ut i l i z e d c or r e l a t i on a nd r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s C or r e l a t i on a na l ys i s us i ng t he P e a r s on pr oduc t m om e n t c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt w a s c onduc t e d t o e va l ua t e pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r e xe r c i s e l e a de r a nd a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a dhe r e nc e t o t he c l a s s t he de gr e e of m o t i va t i on, e f f or t a nd pe r c e i ve d c r e di bi l i t y o f t he i ns t r uc t or P va l ue f or s i gni f i c a nc e w a s s e t a t 0 05 T he f i r s t s e t of r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e w i t h t he B R E Q 2 a nd f i ve s i ngl e i t e m s a s de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s C r onba c h a l pha f or t he s ubs c a l e s a l ong w i t h m e a ns S D a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 3. 3 A l pha va l ue s w e r e f ound t o be w i t hi n a n a c c e pt a bl e r a nge a nd a c t ua l va l ue s a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 3. 3 T he s e s i ngl e i t e m s w e r e t he de gr e e o f m ot i va t i on, l e ve l of e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on, a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T he s e c ond s e t of a na l ys e s i nvol ve d pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e a nd a t t e nda nc e a s t he

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24 de pe nde nt va r i a bl e T he t hi r d s e t of a na l ys e s us e d i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y a s t he p r e di c t or va r i a b l e w i t h B R E Q 2 a nd s i ngl e i t e m s a s out c om e va r i a bl e s M e a ns S D f or i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s p r ovi de d i n T a bl e 3. 4 T a bl e 3. 1 D e m ogr aphi c D at a D e m ogr a phi c s N M e a n S D P e r c e nt a ge A ge 112 27. 67 10 29 B M I 1 12 23. 74 6 03 R a c e 112 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k 10 9. 70 % H i s pa ni c ( N on W hi t e ) 21 18. 9 W hi t e 69 61. 9 A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r 7 7. 1 O t he r 3 2. 7 F a c i l i t y 112 C or por a t e 20 17. 7 P r i va t e / C om m uni t y 35 30. 9 U ni ve r s i t y 57 51. 3 Y e a r s of E xpe r i e nc e 112 3. 50 5 07

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25 T a bl e 3. 2 C l as s e s A t t e nde d P e r W e e k C l a s s M e a n S D C l a s s e s P e r W e e k 3. 97 2 53 S t e p 0. 34 0 71 K i c kboxi ng 0. 47 0 98 C i r c ui t T r a i ni ng 0. 14 0 55 B oot C a m p 0. 04 0 20 D a nc e A e r obi c s 0. 38 0 85 I ndoor C yc l i ng 0. 63 1 01 C a r di o / T one C om bi na t i on 0. 58 1 05 P i l a t e s / Y oga 0. 50 0 85 T oni ng/ S t r e ngt h 0. 54 0 98 W a t e r A e r obi c s 0. 01 0 09 Z um ba 0. 22 0 57 O t he r 0. 11 0 41

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26 F i gur e 3. 1

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27 T a bl e 3. 3 M e an V al ue s f or B R E Q S ubs c al e s and P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s ( N = 112 ) V a r i a bl e M e a n S D C r onba c h B R E Q A M 0. 14 0 37 0. 758 B R E Q E R 0. 59 0 74 0. 800 B R E Q I T 2. 16 0 91 0. 650 B R E Q I D 2. 90 0 65 0. 664 B R E Q I M 3. 31 0 71 0. 851 M ot i va t i on 4. 59 0 58 E f f or t 4. 57 0 61 A t t e nda nc e 4. 27 0 87 A c c e pt H e a l t h I nf o 4. 24 1 03 P e r c e i ve d A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 4. 02 0 92 N ot e B R E Q A M i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q E R B R E Q I D a nd B R E Q I M a t p < 0 01 a nd s i gni f i c a nt l y g r e a t e r t ha n B R E Q E R a t p < 0. 05 B R E Q E R i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q I M a t p < 0. 01 a nd B R E Q I T a t p < 0 05. B R E Q I T i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q I D a t p < 0 01. B R E Q I D i s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n B R E Q I M a t p < 0. 01.

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28 T a bl e 3. 4 M e an V al ue s f or I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y ( N = 112 ) V a r i a bl e M e a n S D S t a r t on t i m e 4. 53 0 62 E nd on t i m e 4. 50 0 63 C om e P r e pa r e d 4. 84 0 39 V oi c e pr oj e c t i on 4. 86 0 37 P r ope r t one 4. 80 0 53 E nunc i a t e 4. 68 0 75 U s e a ppr opr i a t e m us i c 4. 77 0 59 W e a r a ppr opr i a t e a t t i r e 4. 86 0 42 D i s pl a y pr of e s s i ona l i s m 4. 88 0 36 E nc our a ge gr oup c ohe s i on 4. 20 1 15 C r e a t e pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e 4. 84 0 46 E xpl a i n t e c hni que 4. 65 0 73 U s e pos i t i ve f e e dba c k 4. 69 0 69 U s e s i m pl e c ue s 4. 75 0 55 G r e e t upon a r r i va l 4. 63 0 80 U s e / know na m e 3. 66 1 53 I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y 4. 63 0 66

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29 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s C ur r e nt and P r e f e r r e d B ody T y pe A na l ys e s ba s e d on t he s om a t om or phi c m a t r i x r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt c ur r e nt body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d body t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d 5 55 2. 03 f o r c ur r e nt body f a t ne s s a nd 4. 25 1. 75 f or pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s [ t ( 1, 111) = 6. 74 p < 0. 01, E S = 0 68 ] C ur r e nt r a t i ng f o r m us c ul a r i t y = 2. 92 1 88, w hi l e p r e f e r r e d m us c ul a r i t y = 3. 81 1. 89 [ t ( 1 111 ) = 6. 21 p < 0 01, E S = 0 47] T he s e r e s pons e s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he i r pr e f e r r e d body t ype w a s t hi nne r a nd m or e m us c ul a r t ha n t he i r c ur r e nt body t ype I n c o nt r a s t no di f f e r e nc e s w e r e obs e r ve d be t w e e n c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype T he c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or body f a t ne s s = 4. 24 2. 22 a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t o r f a t ne s s = 4. 00 2 10 [ t ( 1, 111 ) = 1 56, p > 0 05 E S = 0 11] C ur r e nt i ns t r uc t or m us c ul a r i t y = 4. 60 2. 22 a nd pr e f e r r e d m us c ul a r i t y = 4. 69 2. 20 [ t ( 1 110 ) = 0. 543, p > 0. 05 E S = 0 032] T he s e da t a s ugge s t s pa r t i c i pa nt s do not p r e f e r c ha nge s i n f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y i n t he i r i ns t r uc t or C ur r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d body t yp e da t a f o r bot h t he pa r t i c i pa nt a nd t he i ns t r uc t or i s pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 4. 1 a nd c r os s t a bul a t i on da t a i s pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 4 2. C or r e l at i on s C or r e l a t i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d be t w e e n s i ngl e i t e m que s t i ons a nd body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i ns t r uc t o r T hi s da t a i s p r ovi de d i n T a bl e 4 3

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30 T he onl y s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i on f ound r e l a t i ve t o f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y w a s be t w e e n t he c ur r e nt body f a t ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or a nd t he d e s i r e t o ha ve a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he i ns t r uc t o r ( p < 0 05) A m ode r a t e ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on e xi s t s be t w e e n de s i r i ng a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t he i ns t r uc t or a nd i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s T hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t a s i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s i nc r e a s e s t he de s i r e of a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t he i ns t r uc t or de c r e a s e s N o s i gni f i c a n t c or r e l a t i ons w e r e f ound be t w e e n i ns t r u c t or body t ype a nd m ot i va t i on e f f or t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s or t he de c i s i on t o r e t ur n t o c l a s s ( p > 0 05) M ot i va t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d ( p < 0. 05) w i t h c om i ng pr e pa r e d t o c l a s s good voi c e p r oj e c t i on, e nunc i a t i ng, a nd a ppr op r i a t e m us i c a nd a t t i r e E f f or t w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d ( p < 0. 05 ) w i t h t he us e of good voi c e pr oj e c t i on, a ppr op r i a t e a t t i r e pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e s i m pl e c ue s a nd c om m a nds a nd w he n gr e e t e d up a r r i va l P r e di c t i ons of P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s F r om F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y M ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y a s t he pr e di c t or s a nd m ot i va t i on by w a y of t he B R E Q 2 a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a b l e s B ody t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt p r e di c t or o f a m ot i va t i on [ F ( 2 108) = 0 708, p > 0. 05] e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on [ F ( 2, 108) = 0. 380 p > 0. 05] i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 2, 108) = 1. 441, p > 0. 05 ] i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 2, 108) = 1. 018 p > 0 05] or i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on [ F ( 2 108 ) = 2 058, p > 0. 05 ] T he s e da t a a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e s 4. 4 t hr ough 4. 8. M ot i va t i on t o e xe r c i s e i s i nde pe nde nt f r om bo dy t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r T ha t i s body t ype i s not p r e di c t i ve of m ot i va t i on t o a t t e nd gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s A s e c ond s e t of r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e a l s o c onduc t e d us i ng f a t ne s s a nd

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31 m us c ul a r i t y a s t he pr e di c t or s a nd f i ve s i ngl e i t e m s a s de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s T he s e da t a a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e s 4. 9 t hr ough 4. 13 R e s ul t s of t he a na l ys e s i ndi c a t e t ha t body t ype o f t he i ns t r uc t or doe s not p r e di c t m ot i va t i on f o r e xe r c i s e a s m e a s ur e d by t he s i ngl e i t e m i ndi c a t or [ F ( 2 108 ) = 1 475, p > 0. 05 ] T he s e r e s ul t s m i r r o r t he f i ndi ngs f r om a na l ys e s r e l a t e d t o t he B R E Q 2. A ddi t i ona l l y no s i gni f i c a n t pr e d i c t i ons c a n be m a de f or e f f o r t [ F ( 2, 108 ) = 1. 155 p > 0. 05 ) ] a t t e nda nc e [ F ( 2 108 ) = 0. 421 p > 0 05) ] w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on [ F ( 2 108) = 0 053, p > 0. 05] or pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s [ F ( 2, 108) = 0 151, p > 0. 05] N one t he l e s s a t t e nda nc e w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t e d by pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s [ F ( 1, 110) = 9 850, p < 0 05] a s pr o vi de d i n T a bl e s 4. 14. G r e a t e r a t t e nda nc e e xi s t s f or c l a s s e s w he r e t he i ns t r uc t or i s pe r c e i ve d a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve P r e di c t i ons of P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s F r om I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y R e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f or m e d us i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y a s t he p r e di c t or va r i a bl e a nd t he B R E Q a s de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s E x t e r na l m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1, 110) = 8 229; p < 0. 05] w a s t he onl y s i gni f i c a nt out c om e va r i a bl e pr e di c t e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y. T he ot he r t ype s of m ot i va t i on i nc l udi ng a m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1, 110) = 0 022; p > 0. 05 ] i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 1 110 ) = 0 0285; p > 0 05] i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on [ F ( 1, 110) = 0. 256 ; p > 0. 05] a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1 1 10) = 2. 728; p > 0. 05 ) w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y, a s pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 4. 15 t hr ough 4. 19 F i na l l y, r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f or m e d us i ng i ns t r uc t i on qua l i t y a s t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e a nd s e ve n s i ngl e i t e m s a s de pe nde nt v a r i a bl e s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i n f l ue nc e m ot i va t i on [ F ( 1 11 0) = 11 827; p < 0 01] F u r t he r m or e i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s a s i gni f i c a nt p r e di c t or f or e f f or t [ F ( 1, 110) = 7. 471 ; p < 0. 01 ]

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32 w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on [ F ( 1 110 ) = 4 453; p< 0. 05] a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s [ F ( 1, 110) = 12 030; p < 0. 01 ] H ow e ve r i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or of a t t e nda nc e [ F ( 1, 110) = 2. 118; p > 0 05] T he s e r e s ul t s a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 4 20 t h r ough 4 24. T a bl e 4. 1 C u r r e n t an d P r e f e r r e d F at n e s s an d M u s c u l ar i t y f or S e l f an d I n s t r u c t or C ur r e nt ( M e a n S D ) P r e f e r r e d ( M e a n S D ) S i g S e l f F a t ne s s 5. 55 2 03 4. 25 1 75 0. 001 M us c ul a r i t y 2. 92 1 88 3. 81 1 89 0. 001 I ns t r uc t or F a t ne s s 4. 24 2 22 4. 00 2 10 0. 121 M us c ul a r i t y 4. 60 2 22 4. 69 2 20 0. 589

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33 T a bl e 4. 2 C r os s t abul at i on f or I ns t r uc t or F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y F a t ne s s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 0 2 14 2 0 1 3 3 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 10 3 0 2 4 9 2 3 2 2 1 1 0 26 4 0 0 1 1 5 2 3 1 3 0 0 16 5 0 0 2 6 1 5 4 4 0 0 0 22 M us c ul a r i t y 6 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 7 7 0 0 0 2 3 0 3 0 1 0 0 9 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 4 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 T ot a l 1 4 12 24 13 20 16 8 9 3 2 112

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34 T a bl e 4. 3 I ns t r uc t or I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t i e s and P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e C or r e l at i ons V a r i a bl e P s yc hos oc i a l O ut c om e M o t i v a t i o n E f f o r t A t t e n d a n c e H e a l t h I n f o A t t r a c t i v e P h y s S i m P h y s I n f l u F a t n e s s 0 0 9 1 0 0 6 9 0 0 9 5 0 0 5 3 0 0 4 6 0 2 7 1 0 0 3 4 M u s c u l a r i t y 0 0 6 7 0 0 4 2 0 0 1 8 0 0 7 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 8 0 S t a r t 0 0 8 2 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 6 0 1 2 7 * 0 2 5 9 0 0 2 7 E n d 0 0 9 9 0 0 7 0 0 0 4 9 0 0 4 8 0 0 7 8 0 1 3 3 0 0 6 8 C o m e P r e p a r e d * 0 2 6 2 0 2 3 6 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 9 0 1 5 8 0 1 4 6 0 0 7 7 V o i c e P r o j e c t i o n * 0 2 6 6 * 0 4 3 7 0 1 7 3 0 0 8 9 0 1 9 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 3 5 P r o p e r T o n e 0 1 4 5 0 2 0 9 0 0 3 7 0 0 1 1 * 0 2 6 4 0 0 1 9 0 0 1 4 E n u n c i a t e * 0 2 5 4 0 1 8 8 0 1 1 9 0 0 8 9 * 0 3 4 8 * 0 2 7 5 0 2 0 3 M u s i c * 0 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 0 0 5 3 0 0 3 4 0 2 4 2 0 1 3 1 0 0 2 4 A t t i r e * 0 2 3 8 * 0 2 5 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 2 4 0 1 6 9 0 1 8 3 0 1 4 0 P r o f e s s i o n a l 0 0 9 8 0 0 4 1 0 0 9 4 0 0 3 3 0 1 4 3 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 5 C o h e s i o n 0 1 2 3 0 2 1 1 0 1 3 7 0 2 1 1 0 1 6 8 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1 A t m o s p h e r e 0 1 9 1 * 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 7 8 0 3 5 0 * 0 2 5 9 0 0 1 9 E x p l a i n T e c h n i q u e 0 1 4 9 0 1 2 7 0 0 0 6 0 0 5 5 0 1 0 3 0 1 5 8 0 0 8 2 P o s i t i v e F e e d b a c k 0 1 9 6 0 2 1 5 0 0 8 1 0 0 5 6 0 1 6 6 0 1 1 5 0 1 2 4 U s e S i m p l e C u e s 0 1 8 6 * 0 4 0 6 0 1 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 2 2 4 0 1 7 4 0 0 6 3 G r e e t 0 2 3 0 * 0 4 0 8 0 1 2 0 0 1 8 8 * 0 2 6 8 0 0 4 1 0 0 3 4 U s e N a m e 0 1 5 6 0 1 7 0 0 0 8 2 * 0 3 2 5 0 0 3 6 0 0 8 7 0 0 6 0 N o t e p < 0. 05 ** p < 0. 01 D e s i r e a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he i ns t r uc t or I ns t r uc t or s phys i que i s i nf l ue nt i a l i n t he i r de c i s i on t o r e t ur n t o c l a s s

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35 T a bl e 4. 4 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A m ot i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 100 0. 031 F a t ne s s 0. 079 0. 017 0. 014 0. 417 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 067 0. 017 0. 012 0. 494 N ot e R = 0 013; F = 0 708 T a bl e 4. 5 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E x t e r nal M ot i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 201 0. 744 F a t ne s s 0. 022 0. 035 0. 008 0. 819 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 076 0. 034 0. 026 0. 438 N ot e R = 0 007; F = 0 380

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36 T a bl e 4. 6 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt e gr at e d M ot i v a t i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 246 2. 121 F a t ne s s 0. 125 0. 042 0. 055 0. 199 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 130 0. 041 0. 055 0. 184 N ot e R = 0 026; F = 1 441 T a bl e 4. 7 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I de nt i f i e d M o t i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 176 2. 824 F a t ne s s 0. 085 0. 030 0. 026 0. 384 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 125 0. 029 0. 038 0. 203 N ot e R = 0 018; F = 1 018

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37 T a bl e 4. 8 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt r i ns i c M ot i v at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 190 3. 001 F a t ne s s 0. 009 0. 033 0. 003 0. 929 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 190 0. 032 0. 063 0. 052 N ot e R = 0 037; F = 2 058 T a bl e 4. 9 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of M ot i v at i on on B o dy T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 156 4. 720 F a t ne s s 0. 166 0. 027 0. 046 0. 089 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 040 0. 026 0. 011 0. 682 N ot e R = 0 027; F = 1 475

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38 T a bl e 4. 10 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E f f or t on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 165 4. 763 F a t ne s s 0. 137 0. 028 0. 040 0. 160 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 025 0. 028 0. 007 0. 794 N ot e R = 0 021; F = 1 155 T a bl e 4. 11 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A t t e ndanc e on B o dy T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 237 4. 458 F a t ne s s 0. 760 0. 041 0. 032 0. 441 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 032 0. 040 0. 013 0. 743 N ot e R = 0 008; F = 0 421

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39 T a bl e 4. 12 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e al t h I nf or m at i on on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 282 4. 149 F a t ne s s 0. 014 0. 048 0. 007 0. 888 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 026 0. 047 0. 012 0. 795 N ot e R = 0 001; F = 0 053 T a bl e 4. 13 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of P e r c e i v e d A t t r ac t i v e ne s s on B ody T y pe P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 251 4. 015 F a t ne s s 0. 045 0. 043 0. 020 0. 648 M us c ul a r i t y 0. 038 0. 042 0. 016 0. 699 N ot e R = 0 003; F = 0. 151

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40 T a bl e 4. 14 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A t t e ndanc e on P e r c e i v e d A t t r ac t i v e ne s s P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 356 3. 179 A t t r a c t i ve ne s s 0. 287 0. 086 0. 271 0. 002 N ot e R = 0 082; F = 9 850 T a bl e 4. 15 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A m ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 444 0. 075 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 014 0. 006 0. 001 0. 883 N ot e R = 0 000; F = 0 022

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41 T a bl e 4. 16 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E x t e r nal M ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 851 3. 023 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 264 0. 011 0. 033 0. 005 N ot e R = 0 070; F = 8 229 T a bl e 4. 17 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt e gr at e d R e gul at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 090 2. 741 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 051 0. 015 0. 008 0. 595 N ot e R = 0 003; F = 0 285

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42 T a bl e 4. 18 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I de nt i f i e d R e gul at i on on I n s t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 777 3. 283 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 048 0. 010 0. 00 5 0. 614 N ot e R = 0 002; F = 0 256 T a bl e 4. 19 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of I nt r i ns i c M ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 084 1. 926 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 156 0. 011 0. 019 0. 101 N ot e R = 0 024; F = 2 728

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43 T a bl e 4. 20 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of M ot i v at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 658 2. 333 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 312 0. 009 0. 030 0. 001 N ot e R = 0 097; F = 11 827 T a bl e 4. 21 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of E f f or t on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ua l i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 0. 680 1. 739 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 370 0. 009 0. 038 0. 000 N ot e R = 0 137; F = 17 471

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44 T a bl e 4. 22 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of A t t e ndanc e on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 032 2. 771 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 137 0. 014 0. 020 0. 148 N ot e R = 0 019; F = 2 118 T a bl e 4. 23 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of W i l l i ngne s s t o A c c e pt H e al t h I nf or m at i on on I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 213 1. 689 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 197 0. 016 0. 034 0. 037 N ot e R = 0 039; F = 4 453

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45 T a bl e 4. 24 R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of P e r c e i v e d A t t r ac t i v e ne s s o n I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t y P r e di c t or B e t a S t d E r r or # S i g. ( C ons t a nt ) 1. 046 0. 400 I ns t r uc t i ona l Q ua l i t y 0. 314 0. 014 0. 049 0. 001 N ot e R = 0 099; F = 12 030

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46 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on I nt r oduc t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he pe r c e pt i ons of gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he body t ype a p pe a r a nc e a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i r gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r H ypot he s e s w e r e t e s t e d us i ng pa i r e d t t e s t s c or r e l a t i ons m ul t i p l e r e gr e s s i ons a nd s i m pl e r e gr e s s i ons I t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t m ot i va t i on, e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on w oul d be i m pa c t e d by body t ype a ppe a r a nc e a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s of t he i ns t r uc t or A ddi t i ona l l y i t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he e xe r c i s e l e a de r w oul d pr e di c t be ha vi or a l out c om e s P r e f e r e nc e s i n F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y S i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt c ur r e nt body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d body t ype M os t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d m e di um f a t ne s s not unde r or ove r w e i ght w i t h r e l a t i ve l y l ow m us c ul a t ur e H ow e ve r t he i r pr e f e r r e d body t ype w a s l e s s f a t w i t h s l i ght l y hi ghe r m us c l e T he r e w a s a gr e a t e r di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n i de a l f a t ne s s t ha n m us c ul a r i t y, but pr e f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r e nt a nd i de a l body t ype w e r e c l e a r T he pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r t o be l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r I n c ont r a s t t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t o r body t ype a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d s i m i l a r va l ue s f o r bot h c ur r e n t a nd pr e f e r r e d body t ype o f t he

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47 i ns t r uc t or T hi s m a y i ndi c a t e t ha t g r oup e xe r c i s e r s a r e c ont e nt w i t h t he i r i ns t r uc t o r body t ype or m a y not ha ve a pr e f e r e nc e a t a l l I t m a y be t ha t s i nc e t he i ns t r uc t or i s l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r c om pa r e d t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt t he y a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he i ns t r uc t o r s body t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r r e d body t y pe w a s ve r y s i m i l a r t o t ha t of t he c u r r e nt i ns t r uc t o r body t ype i ndi c a t i ng t he i r i ns t r uc t or w a s t hi nne r a nd m or e m us c ul a r a nd t he y de s i r e d t o ha ve a phys i que s i m i l a r t o t ha t o f t he i ns t r uc t or H ow e ve r i f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t hi nne r or m or e m us c ul a r t h e y m i ght pr e f e r t he i r i ns t r uc t o r s phys i que t o be di f f e r e nt A ddi t i ona l l y, va r i a bi l i t y o f i ns t r uc t o r body t ype w a s l ow A l l of t he i ns t r uc t or s ha d s i m i l a r l ow f a t m ode r a t e m us c l e body t ype H a d t h e r e be e n m or e va r i a bi l i t y i n i ns t r uc t or body t ype p r e f e r e nc e s m a y ha ve di f f e r e d. O ne s i m i l a r s t udy i nvol vi ng gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s s uppor t s t he s e out c om e s ( E va ns C ot t e r & R oy 2005) T he r e s e a r c he r s di d not f i nd s i gni f i c a nt pr e f e r e nc e s f or i ns t r uc t or body t ype U s i ng a pi c t ur e s c a l e pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e a s k e d t o i de nt i f y t he i r pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t o r body t ype O ve r a l l t he y c hos e a t hi nne r f i gur e H ow e ve r t hi s s t udy ut i l i z e d a one di m e ns i ona l f a t ne s s s c a l e t o i de nt i f y body t ype w he r e a s t he c ur r e nt s t udy us e d a t w o di m e ns i ona l s c a l e r e pr e s e nt i ng f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y. T he a ut hor s s ugge s t e d t he i de nt i f i c a t i on o f a pr e f e r r e d t hi nne r i ns t r uc t or c oul d be i nt e r p r e t e d a s pr e f e r e nc e f or a m or e f i t o r l e a ne r i ns t r uc t or T hough t he c ur r e nt s t udy t a r ge t e d bot h m us c ul a r i t y a nd f a t no di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n c u r r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or body t ype R e l at i ons hi ps A m ong B ody T y pe I ns t r uc t i onal Q u al i t i e s and P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s C ont r a r y t o t he hypot he s e s pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e not r e l a t e d w i t h m a ny o f t he ps yc hos oc i a l ou t c om e s S i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e not

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48 obs e r ve d be t w e e n pr e f e r r e d f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r a nd t he s i ngl e i t e m s N e ve r t he l e s s s om e s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e e s t a bl i s he d be t w e e n c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd s i ngl e i t e m s S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he s i ngl e i t e m s r e l a t e d t o m ot i va t i on e f f or t a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w e r e c or r e l a t e d w i t h m a ny di f f e r e nt qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s P a r t i c i pa nt s l e ve l o f m ot i va t i on a n d e f f or t a r e h i ghe r w he n i ns t r uc t or s c om e pr e pa r e d t o c l a s s us e a ppr opr i a t e m us i c us e good voi c e p r oj e c t i on, e nunc i a t e a nd pr ovi de s i m pl e c ue s or c om m a nds N a t ur a l l y w he n t he i ns t r uc t or i s pr e pa r e d a nd c r e a t e s a c l a s s t ha t i s e a s y t o f ol l ow pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be e nt hus e d, i nc r e a s i ng t he i r l e ve l of m ot i va t i on a nd e f f or t B ot h m ot i va t i on a n d e f f or t w e r e a l s o c or r e l a t e d w i t h a ppr opr i a t e a t t i r e pos i t i ve f e e dba c k, a nd a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e I t i s e s s e nt i a l t o c r e a t e a he a l t hy e nvi r onm e nt s uc h a s r e f r a i ni ng f r om c l ot hi ng t ha t i s t oo r e ve a l i ng o r s l oppy a nd by us i ng m us i c w i t h a pos i t i ve m e s s a ge C r e a t i ng a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e a l s o i nc l ude s c or r e c t i ng a nd r e c om m e ndi ng a l i gnm e nt c ha nge s i n a pol i t e a nd non t h r e a t e ni ng w a y ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005) C om m uni c a t i on i s a n i m por t a nt s ki l l i n m ot i va t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s O ne e xa m pl e i nvol ve s us i ng c l e a r s i m pl e c ue s w hi l e pr ovi di ng pos i t i ve f e e dba c k. A not he r e xa m pl e o f good c om m uni c a t i o n i s l e a r ni ng a nd us i ng t he i r na m e G e t t i ng t o know t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd he l pi ng t he m r e a c h t he i r e xe r c i s e goa l s c r e a t e s a pos i t i ve e nvi r o nm e nt G r oup c ohe s i on w a s a l s o r e l a t e d t o e f f or t P r om ot i ng c ohe s i on a m ong t he g r oup ha s a pow e r f ul e f f e c t B y s t r uc t ur i ng s om e c l a s s s e s s i o ns t o ha ve pa r t i c i pa nt s w or k i n pa i r s or gr oups e nha nc e s t he i r s e ns e of r e l a t e dne s s w hi c h m a y a f f e c t e f f or t W or ki ng i n pa i r s m a y e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o w o r k ha r de r A l t hou gh t he pr e s e nt s t udy di d not f i nd

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49 s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n gr oup c ohe s i on a nd a t t e nda nc e S pi nk & C a r r on ( 1994 ) f ound t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of c ohe s i ve ne s s pl a ys a n i m por t a nt r o l e i n a dhe r e nc e W or ki ng i n pa i r s or gr oups w i t hi n t he e xe r c i s e c l a s s pr ovi de s c a m a r a de r i e a m ong t he m e m be r s C ohe s i ve ne s s c ont r i but e s t o t he de ve l opm e nt m a i nt e na nc e a nd a c c om pl i s hm e nt of t he gr oup s t a s ks a nd goa l s ( C a r r on e t a l 1988) H ow e ve r i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a t t e nda nc e w a s f ound t o be a r e f l e c t i on of a f a c t or ot he r t ha n gr oup c ohe s i on. T he c ur r e nt s t udy f ound a t t e nda nc e t o be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd not a s a r e s ul t of i ns t r uc t i ona l q ua l i t y or body t ype P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s R e l at e d t o F at ne s s and M us c ul ar i t y F a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y w e r e not p r e di c t i ve of m o t i va t i on a s m e a s ur e d by t he B R E Q 2. D e c i a nd R ya n ( 1985) pr opos e d t ha t m ot i va t i on pr ogr e s s e s a l ong a c ont i nuum A c c or di ng t o t he t he or y, m ot i va t i on i s c a t e gor i z e d i nt o a m ot i va t i on, e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on, i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on, i de nt i f i e d r e gul a t i on a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. A s one m ove s up a l ong t he c ont i nuum s e l f de t e r m i na t i on i s i nc r e a s e d, a nd t hus a dhe r e nc e t o e xe r c i s e i s pr e di c t e d t o i nc r e a s e E s s e nt i a l l y, t he m or e he a l t hy f or m s o f m ot i va t i on a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i de nt i f i e d a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. M ot i ve s f or t he s e t w o t ype s c ons i s t of r e c e i vi ng he a l t h be ne f i t s a nd pur e e nj oym e nt of t he a c t i vi t y O n t he ot he r ha nd, a m ot i va t i on i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l a c k of m ot i va t i on E xt e r na l r e gul a t i on i s r e l a t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t i on i n o r de r t o a voi d f e e l i ngs o f gui l t or s ha m e a nd i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pa r t i c i pa t i on be c a us e of pr e s s ur e f r om a s pous e or f a m i l y m e m be r T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s s a m pl e a r e pr i m a r i l y m ot i va t e d t o e xe r c i s e by i nt r i ns i c r e a s ons T hi s f i ndi ng ge ne r a l l y s ugge s t s t ha t

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50 t he pa r t i c i pa nt s de r i ve d e nj oym e nt a nd pl e a s ur e t h r ough pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he a c t i vi t y i t s e l f a nd t ha t e xt e r na l m o t i va t i on w e r e l e s s s i gni f i c a nt T hi s da t a i ndi r e c t l y s uppor t s t he f i ndi ng t ha t body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t or w a s not i n f l ue nt i a l t o t he i r m ot i va t i on T he pa r t i c i pa nt s va l ue t he a c t i vi t y r e ga r dl e s s of f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r H ow e ve r i f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m ot i va t e d e xt e r n a l l y or by i nt e gr a t e d r e gul a t i on, f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y m i ght ha ve be e n a s t r ong pr e di c t or s i nc e a ppe a r a nc e i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h e xt e r na l t ype s of m ot i va t i on ( T hoge r s e n N t ou m a ni s & N t oum a ni s 2006 ) L i ke w i s e f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y w e r e not s t r o ng pr e di c t o r s f or t he s i ngl e i t e m m o t i va t i on, w hi c h a l s o i ndi r e c t l y s uppor t t he r e s ul t s f r om t he B R E Q 2. P a r t i c i pa nt s of t h i s s t udy a ppr e c i a t e t he be ne f i t s t ha t g r oup e xe r c i s e a nd phys i c a l a c t i vi t y pr ovi de a nd w e r e ge ne r a l l y l e s s f oc us e d on f or m s o f m ot i va t i on t ha t a r e l e s s de s i r a bl e s uc h a s body t ype of t he i ns t r uc t o r F a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e us e d t o pr e di c t e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on, a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s S i m i l a r t o m ot i va t i on, f a t ne s s a n d m us c ul a r i t y w e r e not pr e di c t or s of t he s e i t e m s O n t he s ur f a c e t hi s f i ndi ng m i ght be une xpe c t e d. H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he B R E Q 2 do s ugge s t t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve hi gh s e l f de t e r m i na t i on a nd i t i s pr oba bl e t ha t t he y w i l l e xe r t e qua l e f f or t dur i ng t he i r c l a s s e s r e ga r dl e s s of i ns t r uc t or body t ype T hos e w i t h l ow s e l f de t e r m i na t i on m i ght us e i ns t r uc t o r body t ype a s m ot i va t i on a nd t h us e xe r t m o r e e f f or t du r i ng c l a s s e s T he s e hi ghl y m ot i va t e d e xe r c i s e r s a ppr e c i a t e t he va l ue gr oup c l a s s e s pr ovi de a nd w or k ha r d t o a c hi e ve t he i r goa l I n t hi s s t udy, t he a m ount of e f f o r t e xe r t e d i s not de pe nde nt upon f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or L i ke w i s e i t c a n be e xpe c t e d t ha t t he gr oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l a t t e nd r e gul a r

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51 e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons w i t hout i nf l ue nc e of i ns t r uc t or b ody t ype P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng gr oup e xe r c i s e a l ong w i t h ot he r m ode s of t r a i ni ng, pl a n gr oup e xe r c i s e i nt o t he i r s c he dul e a nd us e i t r e gul a r l y T he y de s i r e t o be l e s s f a t a nd m or e m us c ul a r w hi c h c oul d s e r ve a s t he i r dr i vi ng f o r c e i n a t t e ndi ng gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s S i nc e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a ppr e c i a t e t he a c t i vi t y a nd va l ue t he he a l t h be ne f i t s body t yp e of t he i ns t r uc t or w oul d not be e xpe c t e d t o i nf l ue nc e a t t e nda nc e I n t hi s s t udy i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y i s not r e l a t e d t o r e gul a r a t t e nda nc e of gr oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s S ur pr i s i ngl y, w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on w a s not pr e di c t e d by f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or H a s h e t a l ( 2002) f o und t ha t pa t i e nt s r e c e pt i ve ne s s t o he a l t h a dvi c e w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r c om i ng f r o m non ove r w e i ght phys i c i a ns t ha n f r om ove r w e i ght phys i c i a ns I n f or m a t i on c om i ng f r om t hos e w ho a ppe a r t o p r a c t i c e he a l t hy be ha vi or s i s m or e l i ke l y t o r e s ul t i n be ha vi or c ha nge i n t he pa t i e nt s A di f f e r e nt s t udy c onduc t e d by A br a m s on, S t e i n, S c ha uf e l e F r a t e s & R oga n ( 1999) s ur ve ye d phys i c i a ns on t he i r c ur r e nt e xe r c i s e ha bi t s a nd c ou ns e l i ng pr a c t i c e s T he s e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t phys i c i a ns w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o c ouns e l a nd e nc our a ge t he i r pa t i e nt s t o be a c t i ve F ur t he r m or e phys i c i a ns t ha t r e por t e d t o c ouns e l t he i r pa t i e nt s on phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a l s o r e por t e d t o ha ve be t t e r c om pl i a nc e T hus i t i s une xpe c t e d t ha t w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on i s i nde pe nde nt o f f a t ne s s or m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he s e f i ndi ngs c oul d be a r e s ul t of di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n phys i c i a ns a nd i ns t r u c t or s P e r ha ps pa r t i c i pa nt s do not vi e w t he i r e xe r c i s e l e a de r a s e duc a t or s F o r e xa m pl e pa t i e nt s vi s i t t he i r phys i c i a ns t o s pe c i f i c a l l y d i s c us s t he i r he a l t h a nd s e e k i nf or m a t i on

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52 G r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s t ypi c a l l y a t t e nd c l a s s e s t o w or k out r a t he r t ha n t o r e c e i ve he a l t h a dvi c e D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o phys i c i a n s t udi e s a nd t he c ur r e nt s t udy m a y be a t t r i but e d t o t he f a c t t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s do not vi e w t he i r i ns t r uc t o r s a s e duc a t or s but pr i m a r i l y a s e xe r c i s e l e a de r s A not he r i m por t a nt f i ndi ng f r om A br a m s on e t a l ( 1 999) w a s t ha t phys i c i a ns di d not r e c om m e nd du r a t i on or i nt e ns i t y a c c or di ng t o t he U S S ur ge on G e ne r a l s gui d e l i ne s T he r e s e a r c he r s w ho c onduc t e d t hi s s t udy s t a t e d t h a t t he va s t m a j or i t y of t he popul a t i on r e l y on phys i c i a ns f or r e c om m e nda t i ons on phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. I t i s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t pe opl e a r e uns ur e w ha t t o be l i e ve w he n t he y he a r c onf l i c t i ng r e c om m e nda t i ons r e ga r di ng phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. T he r e s e a r c he r s s uppor t i m p r ovi ng phys i c a l a c t i vi t y e duc a t i on a m ong phys i c i a ns A ddi t i ona l l y, w he t he r gr oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s a r e vi e w e d e duc a t or s or not i t i s s t i l l i m por t a nt f or t he m t o e nc our a ge r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y s e s s i ons a c c or di ng t o t he U S S ur ge on G e ne r a l s r e c om m e nda t i ons I nt e r e s t i ngl y, pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s s t r ongl y pr e di c t e d a t t e nda nc e R e s e a r c h s how s t ha t pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a w i de r a nge of out c om e s T he s e out c om e s i nc l ude s oc i a l c om pe t e nc e gr e a t e r a c a de m i c pot e nt i a l by t e a c he r s pe r s ua s i ve c om m uni c a t i on, a s w e l l a s p r of e s s or a nd t e a c he r r a t i ngs ( E a gl y A s hm or e M a c ki j a ni & L ongo, 1991 ; R i t t s P a t t e r s on, & T ubbs 1992; C ha i ke n, 1979; a nd R i nol o e t a l 2006) T he s t udy c onduc t e d by R i nol o e t a l ( 2006) u t i l i z e d w w w r a t e m ypr o f e s s or c om t o e xa m i ne w he t he r or not t e a c he r s w e r e r a t e d a s a t t r a c t i ve or not T he r e s e a r c he r s obt a i ne d a c t ua l e va l ua t i ons of t he t e a c he r s by t he s t ude nt s a nd f o und t ha t t he m o r e a t t r a c t i ve t e a c he r s ha d hi ghe r e va l ua t i ons I m pl i c a t i ons f r o m t he c ur r e nt s t udy s uppor t t ha t

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53 pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pr e di c t s m a ny ou t c om e s i nc l udi ng a t t e nda nc e H ow e ve r i t i s unc l e a r how pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r p r e t e d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s A l t ho ugh t he que s t i on s pe c i f i c a l l y a s ke d a bout phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pe r c e pt i ons of t ha t c oul d be i n f l ue nc e d by ot he r f a c t or s s uc h a s pe r s ona l i t y. W e do not know w he t h e r t he y ba s e d t he i r r e s pons e s on f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e bodi l y a ppe a r a nc e o r how w e l l put t og e t he r t he i ns t r uc t or c a m e a c r os s E ve n t hough a t t e nda nc e w a s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s r e l a t e d t o a va r i e t y o f i ns t r uc t i o na l qua l i t i e s w hi c h m a y be a n unde r l yi ng f a c t or i n a t t e nda nc e e ve n i f t he r e s ul t s di d not di r e c t l y s uppor t t ha t P s y c hos oc i al O ut c om e s f r om I ns t r uc t i onal Q ual i t i e s A l t hough f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r w e r e not s t r ong pr e di c t or s of ps yc hos oc i a l out c om e s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n g r oup e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a s t r ong pr e di c t or f or s om e of t he s e s a m e out c om e s S i xt e e n di f f e r e nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e c om bi ne d i nt o one s c or e a nd us e d t o pr e di c t m ot i va t i on, bo t h a s a s i ngl e i t e m a nd a s i de nt i f i e d t hr ough t he B R E Q 2 O t he r de pe nde nt v a r i a bl e s i nc l ude d e f f or t w i l l i ngn e s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s T he onl y out c om e not i n f l ue nc e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y w a s a t t e nda nc e W he n us i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y a s t he pr e di c t or f or m ot i va t i on a s de f i ne d by t he B R E Q 2 t he on l y t ype of m o t i va t i on p r e di c t e d w a s e xt e r na l r e gul a t i on. E xt e r na l r e gul a t i on c a n be de s c r i be d a s pa r t i c i pa t i on t o a voi d f e e l i ngs of gui l t o r s ha m e T hi s t ype of m ot i va t i on i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l ow a dhe r e nc e l o w s e l f de t e r m i na t i on, a nd i s t ypi c a l l y s e e n i n novi c e e xe r c i s e r s T he y ha ve not de ve l ope d a s e ns e of a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he be ne f i t s of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y I t i s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t t hos e w ho a r e e xt e r na l l y m ot i va t e d

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54 a r e i nf l ue nc e d by pos i t i ve c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i r i ns t r uc t or A ddi t i ona l l y, i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s w oul d not be e xpe c t e d t o pr e di c t out c om e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i nt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t e d pa r t i c i pa nt s s i nc e t he y a l r e a dy f i nd p l e a s ur e a nd e nj oym e nt w i t h t he a c t i vi t y M ot i va t i on, a s a s i ngl e i t e m w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y. I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s i nc l ude e xpl a i ni ng pr ope r t e c hni que pr ovi di ng pos i t i ve f e e dba c k a nd c r e a t i ng a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e W he n i ns t r uc t or s c r e a t e a pos i t i ve e nvi r on m e nt m ot i va t i on a nd e f f or t a r e hi gh N ot onl y a r e pa r t i c i pa nt s go i ng t o be m ot i va t e d, t he y w i l l e xe r t hi gh a m o unt s o f e f f or t dur i ng t he i r e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s not onl y pr e di c t i ve of m ot i va t i on a nd e f f or t but w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on a s w e l l L i m i t at i ons L i m i t a t i ons t o t he s t udy i nc l ude a s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e a nd f a i l ur e of t he i ns t r um e nt t o pe r f or m a s e xpe c t e d. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he t ot a l s a m pl e s i z e w a s l ow e r t ha n a nt i c i pa t e d. H a d t he s a m pl e s i z e be e n l a r ge r s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s m i ght ha ve be e n s e e n, s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i ng t o s om e o f t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w i t h m ot i va t i on. A l i m i t e d num be r o f t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s a ppr oa c he d s i gni f i c a nc e a nd l i ke l y w oul d ha ve be e n s i gni f i c a nt ha d t he s a m pl e s i z e be e n l a r ge r H ow e ve r i t s houl d be not e d t ha t t he a s s oc i a t e d c or r e l a t i ons w e r e m ode s t T he i ns t r um e nt w a s pe r ha ps t he g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i on M a ny of t he s ur ve ys ha d t o be e xc l ude d be c a us e t he y w e r e i nc om pl e t e or f i l l e d o ut i m pr ope r l y O f t hos e t ha t w e r e f i l l e d out c or r e c t l y, pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y ha ve ha d di f f i c ul t y di s t i ngui s hi ng t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he m a t r i x. D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he f i gur e s w e r e s o s l i ght t ha t pe opl e m a y ha ve ha d s om e

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55 di f f i c ul t y i n s e l e c t i ng t he f i gur e t ha t m os t c l os e l y r e pr e s e nt e d t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r gr oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or A not he r di f f i c ul t y r e l a t i ng t o t h e s c a l e w a s t he l ow e r body o f t he i m a ge s I n c o m pa r i s on t o t he uppe r body t he c l a r i t y a nd i m a ge qua l i t y of t he l ow e r pa r t w a s que s t i ona bl e a nd m a y ha ve l i m i t e d t he a bi l i t y of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o p r ovi de r e l i a bl e r e s pons e s C onc l us i ons T he f ol l ow i ng c onc l us i ons w e r e m a de ba s e d on t h e s t udy s f i ndi ngs : 1. N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n c u r r e nt a nd pr e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y. 2. P r e f e r r e d i ns t r uc t or f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t or w e r e not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on e f f o r t w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf o r m a t i on o r a t t e nda nc e 3. A t t e nda nc e i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s 4. I ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on, e f f or t w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on a nd pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s b ut not a t t e nda nc e I m pl i c at i ons f or P r ac t i t i one r s F i ndi ngs f r om t he c ur r e nt s t udy i nd i c a t e t ha t f a t ne s s a nd m us c ul a r i t y of t he i ns t r uc t o r doe s not ha ve a l a r ge i nf l ue nc e on m ot i va t i on, e f f o r t a t t e nda nc e or w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s i nf or m a t i on or pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s H ow e v e r a t t e nda nc e w a s hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s M e a s ur e m e nt f or a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s a s i ngl e i t e m w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d i f t he y pe r c e i ve d t he i r i ns t r uc t o r a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve T he l i m i t a t i on t o t hi s que s t i on pe r t a i ns t o t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on. S om e m a y j udge

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56 ba s e d on f a c i a l qua l i t i e s ot he r s m a y ba s e i t on bod y a l one o r ot he r s m a y i nc or po r a t e how put t oge t he r t he i ns t r uc t or i s R e ga r dl e s s t h i s pi e c e of i nf o r m a t i on s houl d not be us e d w he n hi r i ng a nd f i r i ng i ns t r uc t or s T he pu r po s e of t ha t que s t i on i n t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn w a s t o i de nt i f y i f t he r e a r e s t e r e ot ype s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h gr oup e xe r c i s e i ns t r uc t or s a nd i f s o, w ha t c a n be done t o c om ba t t hos e s t e r e ot ype s A l t hough pe r c e i ve d a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o a t t e nda nc e e ve n m or e i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t i e s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e gul a r a t t e nda nc e a nd ps yc hos oc i a l out c om e s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n gr oup e xe r c i s e T hough i ns t r uc t or s s houl d ha ve t he f r e e dom t o de s i gn uni que e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s ge ne r a l gui de l i ne s s houl d be a ppl i e d t o a l l c l a s s e s r e ga r dl e s s of t he f o r m a t o r i ns t r uc t o r K e nne dy & Y oke ( 2005 ) a ddr e s s m a ny i m po r t a nt e l e m e nt s t o i nc or por a t e i n a g r oup e xe r c i s e c l a s s not onl y pe r t a i ni ng t o c l a s s s t r uc t ur e a nd f or m a t but t he i r s e c onda r y r ol e s a s w e l l I ns t r uc t or s s e r ve a s r ol e m ode l s a nd m ot i v a t or s a s w e l l G r oup e xe r c i s e l e a de r s ha ve t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o c r e a t e a nd pr o m ot e he a l t hy e xe r c i s e a t t i t ude s t e a c h pr ope r t e c hni que a nd e nc our a ge r e gul a r phys i c a l a c t i vi t y pa r t i c i pa t i on ( K e nne dy & Y oke 2005) I t i s i m por t a nt t o f oc us on t he s e e l e m e nt s i n t he pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of i ns t r uc t or s N ot on l y i s i t i m po r t a nt t ha t t he y unde r s t a nd e l e m e nt s of a w a r m up, but e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i on i s a l s o ke y R e s ul t s f r om t hi s s t udy di d not f i nd body t ype t o b e i nf l ue nt i a l I ns t e a d i ns t r uc t or qua l i t i e s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s m o r e i m po r t a nt I t i s e n c our a gi ng t o know t ha t g r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa nt s do not a t t e nd c l a s s e s ba s e d on s upe r f i c i a l m ot i ve s s uc h a s body t ype but r a t he r t he i ns t r uc t i ona l qua l i t y i s t he d r i vi ng f or c e O n t he ot h e r ha nd, a t t r a c t i ve ne s s w a s

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57 s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o hi ghe r a t t e nda nc e T hough t hi s one r e s ul t w a s s i gni f i c a nt ot he r l e s s s upe r f i c i a l f a c t or s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt a nd pe r ha p s m or e i m por t a nt Sum m ar y C ont r a r y t o o t he r a r e a s of s t udy, r e s ul t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e t ha t body t ype o f t he i ns t r uc t or doe s not i nf l ue nc e g r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on. A l t hough a ppe a r a nc e a nd body t ype ha ve be e n f ound t o i nf l ue nc e t e a c he r r a t i ngs pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt he a l t h i nf or m a t i on, t he c ur r e nt s t udy di d no t s uppor t t hos e f i ndi ngs G r oup e xe r c i s e pa r t i c i pa t i on i s m or e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t i ns t r uc t or s pos s e s s H ow e ve r a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h u s i ng a m or e c om p r e he ns i bl e i ns t r um e nt m i ght r e s ul t i n a di f f e r e nt out c om e

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58 L i s t o f R e f e r e nc e s A br a m s on, S S t e i n, J S c ha uf e l e M F r a t e s E & R oga n, S ( 1999) P e r s ona l e xe r c i s e ha bi t s a nd c ouns e l i ng pr a c t i c e s of pr i m a r y c a r e ph ys i c i a ns : A na t i ona l s ur ve y. C l i ni c al J our nal of Spor t s M e di c i ne 10 40 48. A nde r s e n, R ( E d. ) ( 2003) O be s i t y : E t i ol ogy as s e s s m e nt t r e at m e nt and pr e v e nt i on C ha m pa i gn, I L : H um a n K i ne t i c s B r a y, S R G yur e s i k, N C C ul os R e e d, S N D a w s on, K A & M a r t i n K A ( 2001 ) A n e xpl or a t or y i nve s t i ga t i on of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr oxy e f f i c a c y, s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd e xe r c i s e a t t e nda nc e J our nal of H e al t h P s y c hol ogy 6 ( 4 ) 425 434 B r a y, S R G yur e s i k, N C M a r t i n G i n i s K A & C ul os R e e d, S N ( 2004) T he p r oxy e f f i c a c y e xe r c i s e que s t i onna i r e : D e ve l opm e nt of a n i ns t r um e nt t o a s s e s s f e m a l e e xe r c i s e r s pr oxy e f f i c a c y be l i e f s i n s t r uc t ur e d g r o up e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s J our nal of Spor t and E x e r c i s e P s y c hol ogy 26 442 456 C a r r on, A V & H a us e nbl a s H A ( 1998) G r oup dy nam i c s i n s por t ( 2nd e d ) M or ga nt ow n, W V : F i t ne s s I n f or m a t i on T e c hnol og y. C a r r on, A V H a us e nbl a s H A & M a c k, D ( 19 96) S oc i a l i nf l ue nc e a nd e xe r c i s e : A m e t a a na l ys i s J our nal of Spor t and E x e r c i s e 18 1 16. C a r r on, A V W i d m e ye r W N & B r a w l e y, L R ( 1988 ) G r oup c ohe s i on a nd i ndi vi dua l a dhe r e nc e t o phys i c a l a c t i vi t y J our nal of Spor t and E x e r c i s e P s y c hol ogy 10 127 138.

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59 C a r r on, A H a us e nbl a s H & E s t a br ooks P ( 200 3) T he ps y c hol ogy of phy s i c al ac t i v i t y N e w Y or k, N Y : M c G r a w H i l l C ha i ke n, S ( 1979) C om m uni c a t or phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd pe r s u a s i on. J our nal of P e r s onal i t y and Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 37, 1387 1397 C he r ul ni k, P D ( 1995) P hys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e s oc i a l s ki l l a nd pe r f or m a nc e a s a l e a de r s hi p c a ndi da t e B as i c and A ppl i e d Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 16 ( 3) 287 295. D e a n, M B A da m s T M & C o m e a u, M J ( 200 5) T he e f f e c t of a f e m a l e phys i c a l e duc a t or 's phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e on phys i c a l f i t ne s s know l e dge a nd a t t i t ude s of j uni or hi gh s t ude nt s T he P hy s i c al E duc at or 14 24 E a gl y, A H A s hm or e R D M a khi j a ni M G & L ongo L C ( 1991) W ha t i s be a ut i f ul i s good, but : A m e t a a na l yt i c r e vi e w o f r e s e a r c h on t he phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s s t e r e ot ype P s y c hol ogi c al B ul l e t i n 1 10, 109 128 E s t a br ooks P A & M unr oe K J ( 2004) L e a de r s hi p i n phys i c a l a c t i vi t y g r oups f or ol de r a dul t s : A qua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s J our nal of A gi ng and P hy s i c al A c t i v i t y 12 232 245. E va ns R R C ot t e r E M & R oy, J P ( 2005) P r e f e r r e d body t ype of f i t ne s s i ns t r uc t or s a m ong uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s i n e xe r c i s e c l a s s e s P e r c e pt ual and M o t or Sk i l l s 101 257 266 F ox, L D R e j e s ki W J & G a uvi n, L ( 2000 ) E f f e c t s of l e a de r s hi p s t yl e a nd g r oup dyna m i c s on e nj oym e nt of phys i c a l a c t i vi t y. A m e r i c an J our nal of H e al t h P r om ot i on, 14 ( 5) 277 283 G oe be l B L & C a s he n, V M ( 1979) A ge s e x, a nd a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a s f a c t or s i n s t ude nt r a t i ngs of t e a c he r s : A de ve l opm e nt a l s t udy. J our na l of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy

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60 71 ( 5) 646 653 H a s h, R B M unna R K V oge l R L & B a s on, J J ( 2003) D oe s phys i c i a n w e i ght a f f e c t pe r c e pt i on o f he a l t h a dvi c e ? P r e v e nt at i v e M e di c i ne 36 41 44 J a c ks on, L A H unt e r J E & H odge C N ( 199 5) P hys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l c om pe t e nc e : A m e t a a na l yt i c r e vi e w S oc i al P s y c hol ogy Q uar t e r l y 58 ( 2) 108 122 L e w i s K N & W a l s h, W B ( 1978) P hys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s : I t s i m pa c t on t he pe r c e pt i on of a f e m a l e c ouns e l or J our nal of C oun s e l i ng P s y c hol ogy 25 ( 3) 210 216. L ox, C M a r t i n G i ni s K & P e t r uz z e l l o, S ( 2006 ) T he ps y c hol ogy of e x e r c i s e : I nt e gr at i ng t he or y and pr ac t i c e ( 2nd e d ) S c ot s da l e A Z : H ol c om b H a t ha w a y, P ubl i s he r s I nc L ubke r J R W a t s on, J C V i s e k, A J & G e e r J R ( 2005) P hys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd t he pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt c ons ul t a nt s T he Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 19 446 458. M a r t i n, K A & F ox L D ( 2001) G r oup a nd l e a de r s hi p e f f e c t s on s oc i a l a nxi e t y e xpe r i e nc e d dur i ng a n e xe r c i s e c l a s s J our nal of A ppl i e d Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 31 ( 5) 1000 1016 P a t e R R P r a t t M B l a i r S N e t a l ( 1995 ) P h ys i c a l a c t i vi t y a nd publ i c he a l t h A r e c om m e nd a t i on f r om t he C e nt e r s f o r D i s e a s e C ont r ol a nd P r e ve nt i on a nd t he A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge of S po r t s M e di c i ne J our nal of A m e r i c an M e di c al A s s oc i at i on, 273, ( 402 407) R i ni ol o, T C J ohns on, K C S he r m a n T R & M i s s o, J A ( 2006) H ot o r not : D o pr of e s s or s pe r c e i ve d a s phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve r e c e i v e hi ghe r s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons ? T he

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61 J our nal of G e ne r al P s y c hol ogy 133 ( 1 ) 19 35. R i t t s V P a t t e r s on, M L & T ub bs M E ( 1992 ) E xpe c t a t i ons i m pr e s s i ons a nd j udgm e nt s of phys i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve s t ude nt s : A r e vi e w R e v i e w of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 62, 413 426 S pi nk, K S & C a r r on, A V ( 1994) G r oup c ohe s i on e f f e c t s i n e xe r c i s e c l a s s Sm al l G r oup R e s e ar c h, 25, 26 42 U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s ( 1996) P hy s i c al A c t i v i t y and H e al t h: a R e por t of t he Sur ge on G e ne r al A t l a nt a G A : U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s U ni t e d S t a t e s N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r H e a l t h S t a t i s t i c s ( 1999) H e al t hy P e opl e 2000 R e v i e w 1998 1999. H ya t t s vi l l e M D : P ubl i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e pp. 29 37 W i ni n ge r S R ( 2002 ) I ns t r uc t or s a nd c l a s s r oom c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e xe r c i s e e nj oym e nt by f e m a l e s P e r c e pt ual and M ot or Sk i l l s 94 395 398.

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63 A ppe ndi x I S om a t om or ph i c M a t r i x

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66 A ppe ndi x 2 B e ha vi or a l R e gul a t i on f or E xe r c i s e Q ue s t i onna i r e ( B R E Q 2) S e c t i on I I We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g p e o p l e s d e c i s i o n s t o e n g a g e o r n o t e n g a g e i n p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e U s i n g t h e s c a l e b e l o w p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o w h a t e x t e n t e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s i s t r u e f o r y o u P l e a s e n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e n o r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s a n d n o t r i c k q u e s t i o n s We s i m p l y w a n t t o k n o w h o w y o u p e r s o n a l l y f e e l a b o u t e x e r c i s e Y o u r r e s p o n s e s w i l l b e h e l d i n c o n f i d e n c e a n d o n l y u s e d f o r o u r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s N O T T R U E F O R M E S O M E T I M E S T R U E F O R M E V E R Y T R U E F O R M E 1 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r pe opl e s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 2 I f e e l gu i l t y w he n I don t e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 3 I va l ue t he be ne f i t s of e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 4 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e i t s f un 0 1 2 3 4 5 I don t s e e w hy I s houl d ha ve t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 6 I t a ke pa r t i n e xe r c i s e be c a us e m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y/ pa r t ne r s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 7 I f e e l a s ha m e d w he n I m i s s a n e xe r c i s e s e s s i on 0 1 2 3 4 8 I t s i m por t a nt t o m e t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 9 I c a n t s e e w hy I s houl d bot he r e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 10 I e nj oy m y e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons 0 1 2 3 4 11 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r s w i l l not be pl e a s e d w i t h m e i f I don t 0 1 2 3 4 12 I don t s e e t he poi nt i n e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 13 I f e e l l i ke a f a i l ur e w he n I ha ve n t e xe r c i s e d i n a w hi l e 0 1 2 3 4 14 I t hi nk i t i s i m por t a nt t o m a ke t he e f f o r t t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 15 I f i nd e xe r c i s e a pl e a s ur a bl e a c t i vi t y 0 1 2 3 4 16 I f e e l unde r pr e s s ur e f r om m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 17 I ge t r e s t l e s s i f I don t e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 18 I ge t pl e a s ur e a nd s a t i s f a c t i on f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 19 I t hi nk e xe r c i s i ng i s a w a s t e of t i m e 0 1 2 3 4

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67 A ppe ndi x 3 P a r t i c i pa nt S u r ve y G r o u p E x e r c i s e P a r t i c i p a n t S u r v e y T h a n k y o u f o r y o u r i n t e r e s t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y A n E x e r c i s e S c i e n c e s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a i s c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s u r v e y f o r a M a s t e r s t h e s i s T h i s s u r v e y i s a n o n y m o u s p l e a s e D O N O T w r i t e y o u r n a m e a n y w h e r e o n t h e s u r v e y P l e a s e a n s w e r a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e b e s t o f y o u r a b i l i t y T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y

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68 D e m ogr ap h i c s A ge : G e nde r : H e i ght : W e i ght : R a c e : P l e a s e c he c k t he box t ha t r e pr e s e nt s you. A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ B l a c k H i s pa ni c ( N on w hi t e ) W hi t e A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r O t he r W hi c h t ype of f a c i l i t y/ gym a r e you a m e m be r of ? C a pi t ol O ne / W e l l C a r e U S A A L i f e s t yl e U S F Y M C A A pol l o B e a c h H e a l t h/ R a c que t S e c t i on I 1. F or e ac h of t h e pai r e d or gr ou pe d s t at e m e n t s p l e as e C H E C K t h e B O X f or t h e on e t h at be s t d e s c r i b e s you I us e gr oup e xe r c i s e a s m y p r i m ar y s ou r c e of phy s i c a l a c t i vi t y I us e gr oup e xe r c i s e al on g w i t h ot he r t ype s of t r a i ni ng I pl a n g r oup e xe r c i s e i nt o m y s c he dul e I f t he r e ha ppe ns t o be a c l a s s goi ng on a t t he t i m e I w i l l a t t e nd I us e gr oup e xe r c i s e R E G U L A R L Y ( c ons i s t e nt l y a t t e nd s pe c i f i c c l a s s e s ) I D O N O T us e gr oup e xe r c i s e R E G U L A R L Y ( do not c ons i s t e nt l y a t t e nd s pe c i f i c c l a s s e s ) I pr e f e r one s pe c i f i c c l a s s t ype ( i e S t e p onl y O R Y oga onl y ) I pr e f e r a c om bi na t i on of c l a s s t ype s ( i e S t e p and Y oga O R S pi nni ng and t oni ng) I ha ve no p r e f e r e nc e I pr e f e r a f e m a l e i ns t r uc t or I pr e f e r a m a l e i ns t r uc t or I pr e f e r a c om bi na t i on of i ns t r uc t or s I ha v e no p r e f e r e nc e 2 I n ge n e r al h ow l on g h ave you b e e n p ar t i c i p a t i n g i n gr ou p e xe r c i s e c l as s e s ? ( # of

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69 w e e k s m on t h s or ye ar s ) W e e ks M ont hs Y e a r s 3. O n ave r age h ow m an y c l as s e s d o you p ar t i c i p at e i n p e r w e e k ? ( i e s t e p ae r ob i c s p i l at e s yoga s t r e n gt h t r ai n i n g, i n d oor c yc l i n g, w at e r ae r ob i c s ) ? 4. H ow m an y t i m e s p e r w e e k d o you p ar t i c i p a t e i n t h e f ol l ow i n g? S t e p D a nc e A e r obi c s K i c kboxi ng S t r e ngt h/ T oni ng Y oga / P i l a t e s W a t e r A e r obi c s C a r di o/ t one c om bo C i r c ui t T r a i n i ng/ B oot C a m p I ndoor C yc l i ng/ S pi nni ng Z um ba O t he r ( s pe c i f y) P l e as e u s e t h e at t ac h e d m a t r i x t o an s w e r t h e f ol l ow i n g q u e s t i on s 5. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r c u r r e n t b o d y t yp e ? L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e ) 6. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r I D E A L b od y t yp e ? L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e ) 7. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r I N S T R U C T O R S b od y t yp e ? L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e ) 8. A c c or d i n g t o t h e m a t r i x, w h i c h o f t h e f ol l ow i n g r e p r e s e n t at i on s m os t c l os e l y r e s e m b l e s you r P R E F E R R E D I N S T R U C T O R b od y t yp e ?

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70 L e t t e r ( be ne a t h t he pi c t ur e ) N um be r ( t o t he l e f t of t he pi c t u r e )

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73 S e c t i on I I We ar e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e as on s u n d e r l yi n g p e o p l e s d e c i s i on s t o e n gage or n ot e n gage i n p h ys i c al e xe r c i s e U s i n g t h e s c al e b e l ow p l e as e i n d i c a t e t o w h at e xt e n t e ac h of t h e f o l l ow i n g i t e m s i s t r u e f or yo u P l e as e n ot e t h at t h e r e ar e n o r i gh t or w r on g an s w e r s an d n o t r i c k q u e s t i on s We s i m p l y w an t t o k n ow h ow you p e r s on al l y f e e l ab ou t e xe r c i s e Y ou r r e s p on s e s w i l l b e h e l d i n c on f i d e n c e an d on l y u s e d f or ou r r e s e ar c h p u r p os e s N O T T R U E F O R M E S O M E T I M E S T R U E F O R M E V E R Y T R U E F O R M E 1 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r pe opl e s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 2 I f e e l gu i l t y w he n I don t e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 3 I va l ue t he be ne f i t s of e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 4 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e i t s f un 0 1 2 3 4 5 I don t s e e w hy I s houl d ha ve t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 6 I t a ke pa r t i n e xe r c i s e be c a us e m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y/ pa r t ne r s a y I s houl d 0 1 2 3 4 7 I f e e l a s ha m e d w he n I m i s s a n e xe r c i s e s e s s i on 0 1 2 3 4 8 I t s i m por t a nt t o m e t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 9 I c a n t s e e w hy I s houl d bot he r e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 10 I e nj oy m y e xe r c i s e s e s s i ons 0 1 2 3 4 11 I e xe r c i s e be c a us e ot he r s w i l l not be pl e a s e d w i t h m e i f I don t 0 1 2 3 4 12 I don t s e e t he poi nt i n e xe r c i s i ng 0 1 2 3 4 13 I f e e l l i ke a f a i l ur e w he n I ha ve n t e xe r c i s e d i n a w hi l e 0 1 2 3 4 14 I t hi nk i t i s i m por t a nt t o m a ke t he e f f o r t t o e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 15 I f i nd e xe r c i s e a pl e a s ur a bl e a c t i vi t y 0 1 2 3 4 16 I f e e l unde r pr e s s ur e f r om m y f r i e nds / f a m i l y t o e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 17 I ge t r e s t l e s s i f I don t e xe r c i s e r e gul a r l y 0 1 2 3 4 18 I ge t pl e a s ur e a nd s a t i s f a c t i on f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 19 I t hi nk e xe r c i s i ng i s a w a s t e of t i m e 0 1 2 3 4

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74 S e c t i on I I I O f al l t h e gr ou p e xe r c i s e c l as s e s you p ar t i c i p at e i n p l e as e c h oos e t h e on e you p ar t i c i p at e i n M O S T O F T E N an d an s w e r t h e f o l l ow i n g q u e s t i on s b as e d on t h at on e c l as s an d i n s t r u c t or 1. H ow l on g h ave you b e e n p ar t i c i p at i n g i n t h i s c l as s ? ( # of w e e k s m on t h s or ye ar s ) W e e ks M ont hs Y e a r s 2. P l e as e i n d i c a t e h ow o f t e n you r i n s t r u c t or d o e s t h e t h i n gs l i s t e d b e l ow N E V E R R A R E L Y S O M E T I M E S U S U A L L Y A L W A Y S 1 S t a r t c l a s s on t i m e 0 1 2 3 4 2 E nd c l a s s on t i m e 0 1 2 3 4 3 C om e pr e pa r e d 0 1 2 3 4 4 U s e good voi c e pr oj e c t i on 0 1 2 3 4 5 U s e pr ope r t one 0 1 2 3 4 6 E nunc i a t e 0 1 2 3 4 7 U s e a ppr opr i a t e m us i c 0 1 2 3 4 8 W e a r a ppr opr i a t e a t t i r e 0 1 2 3 4 9 D i s pl a y pr of e s s i ona l i s m 0 1 2 3 4 10 E nc our a ge gr oup c ohe s i on ( w or k i n pa i r s o r g r oup s ) 0 1 2 3 4 11 P r om ot e a pos i t i ve a t m os phe r e f or e xe r c i s e 0 1 2 3 4 12 E xpl a i n pr ope r t e c hni que 0 1 2 3 4 13 P r ovi de pos i t i ve f e e dba c k 0 1 2 3 4 14 U s e s i m pl e c om m a nds / c ue s 0 1 2 3 4 15 G r e e t s upon a r r i va l 0 1 2 3 4 16 K now s / us e s your na m e 0 1 2 3 4

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75 3. P l e as e i n d i c at e h ow you agr e e t o t h e f ol l ow i n g s t at e m e n t s S T R O N G L Y D I S A G R E E S O M E WH A T D I S A G R E E N E I T H E R D I S A G R E E O R A G R E E S O M E WH A T A G R E E S T R O N G L Y A G R E E 1 I am h i gh l y m o t i vat e d i n c l as s 0 1 2 3 4 2 M y l e ve l of e f f or t d u r i n g t h i s c l as s i s h i g h 0 1 2 3 4 3 M y at t e n d an c e f or t h i s c l as s i s h i gh 0 1 2 3 4 4 I r e ad i l y ac c e p t h e al t h an d i n f or m at i on / ad vi c e f r o m m y i n s t r u c t or 0 1 2 3 4 5 I t h i n k m y i n s t r u c t or i s p h ys i c al l y at t r ac t i ve 0 1 2 3 4 6 I w ou l d l i k e a p h ys i q u e s i m i l ar t o m y i n s t r u c t or 0 1 2 3 4 7 P h ys i q u e of t h e i n s t r u c t or i s i n f l u e n t i al i n m y d e c i s i on t o r e t u r n t o t h e c l as s 0 1 2 3 4


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Mears, Jennifer.
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Perceptions of group exercise participants based on body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor
h [electronic resource] /
by Jennifer Mears.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2007.
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ABSTRACT: Physical activity reduces the risk for disease, improves overall health, and quality of life. Group exercise classes are large contributors for meeting physical activity recommendations. Improving long-term adherence to group exercise classes is essential in order to receive health and fitness benefits. Many contributing factors affect adherence rates including the role of the instructor. The instructor has great influence over the decision to return to a group exercise class. It is important to find out what qualities and characteristics are preferred among those who take classes to increase long-term adherence. Another important factor relating to adherence is body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor. These factors have been influential in other areas including performance enhancement consulting, counseling, teacher ratings, and willingness to accept health advice.However, little research has been done to determine if body type, appearance and attractiveness influence adherence to group exercise classes. Identifying if there are stereotypes associated with group exercise instructors will provide the opportunity to educate participants and improve the professional development of instructors. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between participants' perceptions of group exercise leaders and adherence to group exercise classes. Business cards will be distributed to participants after their exercise class, which will contain the web address to the survey. Participants will also have the opportunity to fill out a paper and pencil version of the survey if that is more convenient. The survey will be posted on surveymonkey.com. Flyers with the web address will also be posted around the facilities to promote the survey.Results showed that participants did not prefer significant differences in fatness and muscularity of the instructor nor were they related to motivation, effort, attendance, willingness to accept health information from the instructor, or perceived attractiveness. However, perceived attractiveness was related to attendance. Results also showed that participants preferred to be less fat and more muscular, similar to that of the current instructor body type, indicating that participants desired to have a physique similar to that of the instructor. Although, fatness and muscularity of the instructor were not associated with motivation or adherence to group exercise class, instructional quality was associated with these outcomes. It was found that instructional quality is more important to participants of a group exercise class than body type. Instructional quality was associated with motivation, effort, attendance, and willingness to accept health information.This demonstrates the importance of professional development of instructors. Results from the current study support that body type of the instructor is associated less with different psychosocial outcomes than instructional quality.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 75 pages.
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Advisor: Marcus Kilpatrick, Ph.D.
653
Group exercise.
Motivation.
Adherence.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Physical Education & Exercise Science
Masters.
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1947