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Cano, Cynthia Rodriguez.
The role of ethnic compatibility in attitude formation :
b marketing to America's diverse consumers
h [electronic resource] /
by Cynthia Rodriguez Cano.
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the meaning of advertising through the eyes of the Hispanic consumer and how that meaning is apparent in attitudes and purchase intention. Specifically, the study investigates how ethnic minorities judge print advertisement that feature ethnically diverse models as communication cues. For the first time, data of how minorities evaluate the compatibility of models from different ethnic groups featured together in an advertisement was collected. Qualitative data was collected from Hispanics and typologies of cultural pointers for Hispanics and African-Americans developed. Experimental design, 3x2 within-group analysis, was conducted to test the 14 hypothesized relationships. Finding clearly support the notion that perceived ethnic compatibility of models featured in an advertisement influence resulting attitudes (i.e., toward the actors and advertisement). Of crucial importance is the finding that when viewing an advertisement featuring mixed models (i.e., one Hispanic model and one African-American model), both strong and weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers did not exhibit an intention to purchase the advertised product. This finding challenges the value of multicultural advertising, which feature various ethnic models together to reach several groups simultaneously, to effectively connect with ethnic minorities.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Advisor: David J. Ortinau, Ph.D.
x Business Administration
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
The Role of Ethnic Compatibility in Attitude Formation: Marketing to Americas Diverse Consumers by Cynthia Rodriguez Cano A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Marketing College of Business Administration University of South Florida Major Professor: David J. Ortinau, Ph.D. Barbara A. Lafferty, Ph.D. Miriam B. Stamps, Ph.D. Karin Braunsberger, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 23, 2007 Keywords: In-Group Bias, Ethnicity, Advertising, Optimal Distinctiveness Copyright 2007, Cynthia Rodriguez Cano
DEDICATION The Ph.D. journey was an immense challenge that brought me overwhelming gratification. My journey was not one trav eled alone. I am blessed with family and friends that encouraged and supported me th roughout the years. This dissertation is dedicated to those special people. First and foremost, my endless love and gratitude goes to my husband and best friend, Daniel, who ma de me believe I was worthy. I could not have entered or endured the Ph.D. program without gentle prodding from my three daughters, Kimberly, Kelly, and Kris, to wh om I am deeply grat eful. The greatest motivation throughout the program was the love of my five gra ndsons, Daniel, Jack, Alex, Ethan, and Eli, who put the progra m in perspective and provided a constant reminder of how precious family is. Last, but definitely not least, my eternal gratitude goes to my fellow Ph.D. students: Dee Sa ms, Madeline Domino, Wesley Austin, and my fellow members of the Fabulous Four Fernando Jaramillo, Jay Mulki, and Francois Carrillat.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to acknowledge the work and support of my major professor, Dr. David J. Ortinau. Through his honor of scientific rigor, I am a better researcher and scholar. Dr. Ortinau is devoted to the health and quality of the Ph.D. program. It was a privilege to have Dr. Ortinau serve as my major professor. I also want to ac knowledge the work and support of my dissertation committee members, Dr. Miriam B. Stamps, Dr. Barbara A. Lafferty, and Dr. Karin Braunsberger.
i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES.................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT............................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................1 Statement of the Problem................................................................................6 Ethnically Diverse Actors as Cues to Ethnic Identification............................8 The Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model....................................................9 Proposed Model...................................................................................11 Ethnic Identification.............................................................................11 Ethnic Compatibility............................................................................12 Attitudes and Purchase Intention.........................................................12 Contribution of Research to Existing Literature...........................................14 Theoretical Contributions....................................................................14 Methodological Contributions.............................................................15 Managerial Contributions....................................................................17 Summary.......................................................................................................18 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.................................................20 Theoretical Foundation.................................................................................22 Ethnicity...............................................................................................22 Distinctiveness and Differentiation......................................................23 Preference fo r Similarity...............................................................................25 Crossed Categorization........................................................................25 Minority versus Majority Groups........................................................26 Advertisement as a Story.....................................................................27 Social Judgment...................................................................................28 Strength of Ethnic Identification...................................................................29 Ethnic Compatibility.....................................................................................34 Attitudes and Purchase Intention..................................................................39 Summary of Hypothe sized Relationships.....................................................42 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY..........................................................................45 Construct Development................................................................................46 Strength of Ethnic Identification..........................................................46 Ethnic Compatibility............................................................................48
ii Attitude toward the Actors...................................................................49 Attitude toward the Advertisement......................................................49 Purchase Intention................................................................................50 Research Design............................................................................................51 In-Depth Interviews.............................................................................51 Sample...................................................................................52 Incentives..............................................................................52 Procedures.............................................................................53 Data Analysis........................................................................54 Pilot Study............................................................................................55 Pre-Screening........................................................................55 Experiment...........................................................................................57 Experimental Design.............................................................57 Pre-Screening........................................................................60 Sample...................................................................................60 Experimental Environment...................................................61 Treatments.............................................................................61 Procedures.............................................................................64 Study Materials.....................................................................65 Manipulation Check..............................................................66 Data Analysis........................................................................67 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA...................................................................71 In-Depth Interviews.............................................................................71 Procedures.............................................................................71 Norm Data.............................................................................72 Ethnic Related Behaviors..........................................72 Religion.................................................................................73 Hispanics Perceptions of In-Group Membership................73 Culture and Lifestyle.............................................................75 Hispanics Perceptions of Out-Group Membership..............76 Pilot Study............................................................................................79 Missing Data.........................................................................80 Measure of Strength of Ethnic Identification........................80 Measure of Ethnic Compatibility..........................................82 Measure of Attitude toward the Actors.................................83 Measure of Attitude toward the Advertisement....................84 Measure of Purchase Intention..............................................85 Reliability..............................................................................85 Convergent Validity..............................................................85 Discriminant Validity............................................................88 Experiment...........................................................................................89 Sample...................................................................................89 Data.......................................................................................90 Manipulation Check..............................................................90
iii Factorial Sample...................................................................92 Test of Hypotheses...............................................................................93 Hypotheses 1 and 2...............................................................94 Hypothesis 3..........................................................................97 Hypothesis 4..........................................................................98 Hypothesis 5..........................................................................99 Post Hoc Analyses H 4 and H 5 ..........................................100 Strong Hispanic Ethnic Identifiers (SHEI)...................100 Weak Hispanic Ethnic Identifiers (WHEI)...................101 Hypothesis 6........................................................................102 Hypothesis 7........................................................................103 Hypothesis 8........................................................................103 Post Hoc Analyses H 8 ......................................................103 Treatment Conditions....................................................104 Post Hoc Analyses of Between Group Differences............106 Summary............................................................................................108 CHAPTER 5DISCUSSION.................................................................................112 Findings .............................................................................................113 Strength of Ethnic Identification and Attitude Formation.................113 Ethnic Compatibility..........................................................................114 Attitudes and Purchase Intention.......................................................117 Between Group Differences SHEI versus WHEI...........................118 Implication of the Findings.........................................................................120 Role of Ethnic Compatibility.............................................................120 The Hispanic Market..........................................................................121 Target, Target, Target........................................................................122 The Culture of the Message...............................................................123 SHEI versus WHEI............................................................................124 Contributions .............................................................................................125 Theoretical Contributions..................................................................125 Extension of Assimilation/Contrast Theory........................125 A New Predictor of Attitude Formation.............................126 Methodological Contributions...........................................................127 Managerial Contributions..................................................................128 Direction for Future Research.....................................................................131 Advertising.........................................................................................131 Other Marketing Activities................................................................133 Limitations .............................................................................................135 Conclusions .............................................................................................136 REFERENCES .............................................................................................137 APPENDICES .............................................................................................151
iv Appendix 1 Coupon..................................................................152 Appendix 2 In-Depth Interview Form......................................................153 Appendix 3 Cover Letter to Reviewers...................................................160 Appendix 4 Reviewer Consent Form.......................................................163 Appendix 5 Pre-Screening Script.............................................................164 Appendix 6 Introduction to Experiment..................................................167 Appendix 7 Informed Consent For An Adult..........................................169 Appendix 8 Study Booklet.......................................................................172 Appendix 9 Debriefing Letter..................................................................193 ABOUT THE AUTHOR..............................................................................End Page
v LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary of the Constructs, Theoretical Foundation, and Select Literature of the Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses to Advertising...........21 Table 2: Research Design...................................................................................45 Table 3: Construct Development.......................................................................46 Table 4: Measure of Strengt h of Ethnic Identification.......................................48 Table 5: Measure of Ethnic Compatibility.........................................................49 Table 6: Measure of Attitude toward the Actors................................................50 Table 7: Measure of Attitude toward the Advertisement...................................51 Table 8: Measure of Purchase Intention.............................................................51 Table 9: Pre-Screening Ethnic Identity Index....................................................56 Table 10: Experimental Desi gn: Post-Measure Only..........................................58 Table 11: Experimental Treatments.....................................................................58 Table 12: Factorial Design...................................................................................59 Table 13: Manipulation Check.............................................................................66 Table 14: Summary of Hypothese s and Statistical Analyses...............................68 Table 15: Typology of Hispanic Surface Pointers as Cues to In-Group Membership.........................................................................73 Table 16: Typology of Hispanics Pe rceptions of African-Americans Surface Pointers as Cues to Out-Group Membership..........................77 Table 17: Principle Component F actor Analysis Strength of Ethnic Identification.............................................................................81 Table 18: Principle Component Factor Analysis Ethnic Compatibility............83 Table 19: Principle Component Factor Analysis Attitude toward the Actors.............................................................................................84 Table 20: Principle Component Factor Analysis Attitude toward the Advertisement................................................................................84 Table 21: Reliability of Measures........................................................................85 Table 22: Convergent Validity St rength of Ethnic Identification.....................86 Table 23: Convergent Validity Ethnic Compatibility.......................................86 Table 24: Convergent Validity Attitude toward the Actors..............................87 Table 25: Convergent Validity Atti tude toward the Advertisement.................87 Table 26: Convergent Validity Purchase Intention...........................................88 Table 27: Discriminant Validity...........................................................................88 Table 28: Summary of Data.................................................................................90 Table 29: Manipulation Check Summary............................................................91 Table 30: Observations by Treatment Condition and Strength of Ethnic Identification..........................................................93
vi Table 31: Findings of Hypotheses Testing...........................................................93 Table 32: Post Hoc Analyses Summary by Treatment Condition.....................105 Table 33: Differences between St rong and Weak Et hnic Identifiers by Treatment Condition.....................................................................106 Table 34: Between Group Differences Strong versus Weak Hispanic Identifiers............................................................................119 Table 35: Group Differences Within SHEI and WHEI.....................................124
vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Tommy Girl Ma gazine Advertisement..................................................9 Figure 2: Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising.............................................................11 Figure 3: Hypotheses One and Two of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................35 Figure 4: Hypothesis Three of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................36 Figure 5: Hypotheses Four and Five of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................39 Figure 6: Hypothesis Six of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................40 Figure 7: Hypotheses Seven and Eight of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................42 Figure 8: Hypothesized Relationships of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................43 Figure 9: Spurious Advertisement One...............................................................62 Figure 10: Spurious Advertisement Two..............................................................62 Figure 11: Treatment Condition II Two Hispanic Models.................................63 Figure 12: Treatment Condition OO Two African-American Models...............63 Figure 13: Treatment Condition IO One Hispanic Model and One African-American Model.............................................................64 Figure 14: Disaggregated Ethnic Comp atibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising...........................................................110 Figure 15: The Role of Ethnic Compatibility in Marketing................................134
viii THE ROLE OF ETHNIC COMPATIBILITY IN ATTITUDE FORMATION: MARKETING TO AMERICAS DIVERSE CONSUMERS Cynthia Rodriguez Cano ABSTRACT This study investigates the meaning of advertising through the eyes of the Hispanic consumer and how that meaning is ap parent in attitudes a nd purchase intention. Specifically, the study investigates how ethnic minorities judge print advertisements that feature ethnically diverse models as communication cues. For the first time, data of how minorities evaluate the compatibility of models from different ethnic groups featured together in an advertisement was collected. Qualitative data was collected from Hispanics and typologies of cultural point ers for Hispanics and African-Americans developed. Experimental design, 3x2 within-g roup analysis, was conduc ted to test the 14 hypothesized relationships. Fi ndings clearly support the notion that perceived ethnic compatibility of models featured in an advertisement influences re sulting attitudes (e.g., toward the actors and advertisement). Of crucial importance is the finding that when viewing an advertisement f eaturing mixed models (e.g., one Hispanic model and one African-American model), both strong and weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers did not exhibit an intention to purcha se the advertised product. Th is finding challenges the value of multicultural advertising, which feature vari ous ethnic models together to reach several groups simultaneously to effectively connect with ethnic minorities.
1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The rapid pace of change in consumer markets during the last 50 years has induced the evolution of promotional effo rts from mass marketing to mass choices (Woods, 1995). In the 1950s and 1960s, compan ies directed their business strategies toward the average consumers economic in terests (Woods. 1995). These strategies succeeded for several reasons, including both the minimal size of ethnic minorities (who made up less than 11% of the population) and international trade (w hich represented less than 5% of United States Gross Domestic Product) (Tharp, 2001). Today, while U.S. consumers are becoming more diverse, th eir preferences and behaviors in the marketplace show more variety. Furthermore, free trade affords companies an opportunity to gain a competitive advantag e by introducing new products throughout the world simultaneously (Church, 1997). These changes make geographic borders irrelevant because marketing borders and ma rkets are redefined as groups of consumers with both mutual economic interests a nd cultural compatibility (Tharp, 2001). Ethnicity, the sense of kinship, gr oup solidarity, and common culture, comprises one of the basic modes of hu man association and community (Hutchinson and Smith, 1996a, p. 3). Today, ethnicity is a more prominent base of personal identity and collective action than it was in the past (Light and Gold, 2000). Ethnic minorities are
2 more aware of their relative positions in U.S. society and seek both political and economic advantages (Light and Gold, 2000). Although Whites continue to be the ethnic majority in U.S society, the exponential grow th of such ethnic minorities as Hispanics and Asian-Indians threatens to reverse the position of Whites to minority status by the mid-2000s (U.S. Census Bureau, 2003). U.S. mainstream culture now competes with sub-cultural values, which provide an impor tant source of identit y. Consumers no longer have to relinquish their ethnicity to partic ipate in the U.S. mosaic (Tharp, 2001). As such, it is impossible to unde rstand consumers motivations or predict behaviors without insight into how consumers use the ma rketplace as a venue of expression. Several marketing strategies have evolve d to help businesses adapt to a growing multicultural environment. First, companie s change the marketing mix (e.g., targeted price discounts), translate advertisements into foreign languages, and use different models and settings in advertising campaigns (Wilkes and Valencia, 1986). Proctor and Gamble is a leader in the development of such strategies, which they call micromarketing (Schiller, 1989). Second, comp anies may redesign their overall marketing strategies to reach ethnic minorities. Such strategies, which emerged in the 1980s and became dominant in the 1990s, place ethni c marketing budgets within companies ongoing marketing plans (Turow, 1997). For example, Pacific Bell established an Ethnic Markets Group to reach ethnic minority business owners (Mehta, 1994). The third strategy, which is typical in most U.S. cons umer goods markets, makes no change to the marketing plan (e.g., a non-adaptation strate gy) (Tharp, 2001). This strategy assumes that most consumers in a target market, su ch as those 25 to 35 years old, respond as a homogeneous mass market. Such companies as Schick, Pepsi, and Federal Express use
3 this all inclusive advertising pl an by featuring ethnically diverse actors together to convey the message that their product is for everyone. Historically, the repr esentation of ethnic minorities in advertising is relatively rare. Marketers propose that ethnic minorities react positively to seeing people who share their et hnic origins (Green, 1999). According to Tharp (2001), there is little evidence to support the effec tiveness of the non-adaptation marketing strategy and the existing literature does not examine the effectiveness of this strategy. Consequently, featur ing ethnically diverse models in an advertisement as a means of connecting with ethnic minorities might be an erroneous strategy. The objective of the current study is to empirically investigate the value of the non-adaptation advertising strategy employed to attract ethnic minorities. This objective is the basis for the following research questions. 1. How do ethnic minorities judge advertisem ents featuring ethnically diverse models as a communication cue? 2. How does the portrayal of models influence ethnic minor ities attitudes toward the actors, their attitudes toward the advertisements, and their intent to purchase the product being advertised? The current research also addresses several factors that hamper a clear understanding of the pervasive nature of ethnic group membership. In their social perceptions, people categorize indi viduals on the basis of traits or as persons-in-situations (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). These classificati ons, along with self-cat egorization and rolecategorization (e.g., stereotypes), influence individuals inferen ces about social stimuli. Social role categorizations or social stereo types are more informative, generate more associations, and more effectively cue memory than traits (e.g., skin color) do (Fiske and
4 Taylor, 1991). Whereas race classifies humans based on such physical traits as skin color and hair texture, ethnicity cat egorizes people in terms of th eir culture group relationships and is superior to trait cla ssification (Eriksen 1996). Fo r example, both Asian-Indians and Africans have dark skin and may be seen as members of the Black race. However, ethnic cues (e.g., dress, religious jewelry, body paint) are superi or to traits when drawing social inferences a bout an individual. Marketing scholars research consistently relies on race to investigate facets of ethnic phenomena. For example, Forehand a nd Deshpande (2001) use the statement for Asian hair as an ethnic primer because it primed self-categorization along an ethnic dimension (p. 340). The relationship between race and ethnicity is dubious, at best, for two reasons (Eriksen, 1996). First, interb reeding between humans makes it meaningless to talk of fixed boundaries between races. Second, the distribution of hereditary physical traits does not follow boundaries: there is gr eater variation within a racial group than there is systematic variati on between two groups (Eriksen, 1996, p. 29). Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that relying on race to connect with ethnically diverse consumers may produce a false outcome of either no connection or a negative connection. Several issues in ethnic research bring pr evious research findings into question. First, the assumption of univers ality of the U.S. mainstream brings forward conceptual issues. Burlew (2003) notes that universality ignores the reality that the theoretical perspective developed on one group may not n ecessarily reflect the life experiences of another group (Sue and Sue, 2003). Thus the data derived through a universal instrument may be misleading and lack validity For example, research on the locus of control among Whites suggests th at an internal orientation is preferable because it is
5 associated with such positive outcomes as performance and pers istence (Rotter, 1990; Strickland, 1989). However, research on African Americans argues that holding an external orientation, rath er than an internal orientation, re flects a realistic appraisal of the role of such external fact ors as discrimination (Burlew, 2003). Moreover, universality does not encourage the development of alterna tive models and associated variables that may be important to understanding different groups. For instance, some CubanAmerican children are more proficient in th e English language than their parents (Gracia and De Greiff, 2000). Second, the heterogeneity of subgroups continues to be a theme in ethnic research, but it is generally not honored. For example, the term Hispanics 1 represents subgroups that differ in terms of national origi n, race, and generational status in the U.S. (Casas, 1992), yet studies of Hispanics and generalizations of findings are commonplace in marketing research (e.g., Deshpande, Hoyer, and Donthu, 1986; Donthu and Cherian, 1994; Herbig and Yelkur, 1997). Heterogene ity presents several problems for the research design: 1. within-group diversity of ethnic groups makes it difficult to collect a representative sample; 2. important within-group differences in social conditions and lifestyle must be considered findings from research on ethnic groups (behaviors, attitudes, etc.) limited to a sample of college stude nts may not be generalizable to other segments of that population (Eriksen, 1996). 1 The term Hispanics was created by the U.S. Census Bureau and has not been conceptually consistent since its conception. For example, the cultural criterion used to define Hispanics in 1940 was a linguistic definition (persons of Spanish mother tongue); in th e 1950 and 1960 censuses, the criterion was Spanish surnames; in 1970, persons chose from a list of countries of origin (Rodriguez, 2000).
6 Third, equivalence is achieved when a m easurement developed in one culture is valid in other cultures (Berry, 1980). The assumption that existing measurements are legitimate across ethnic groups is not valid (S ue and Sue, 2003). However, researchers continue to adapt or modify measurem ents without validating these instruments across the populations of st udy (Bravo, 2003). This practice introduces test bias and brings into question the findings and analysis drawn from the research (Allen and Walsh, 2000). 2 These types of methodological issues ar e further addressed in the current study. Statement of the Problem The growth of ethnic diversity, the fragmentation of groups by ethnic membership, and loyalties to diverse cultura l backgrounds have forced marketers to reexamine the traditional manner in which th ey deal with ethnic minorities (Wilson and Gutierrez, 1995). Sub-cultural values and norms are important elements in ethnic marketing. For example, in collective societie s, such as Africa, Latin America, and Asia, individuals are defined by gr oup membership and self-identity is synonymous with group identity (de Mooij, 1998; Hofstede, 1997). In contrast, mainstream U.S. culture focuses on individualism and group membership is a choice that individuals make as part of their self-identity (Tharp, 2001). Communication styles also are culturally determin ed (Singer, 1998). For instance, low-context cultures, such as the U. S., seek meaning in the verbal aspects of messages rather than the contexts within which messages are sent (de Mooij, 1998). 2 Test bias is present when an existing instrument does not measure the equivalent underlying psychological construct in a new group or culture as wa s measured within the original groups in which it was standardized (Allen and Walsh, 2000, p. 67).
7 High-context cultures, such as Asia and Latin America, derive mean ing from nuances of speech (e.g., tone and pace), the relationshi ps between speakers and receivers, and all other elements involved in communi cating a message (Hofstede, 1997). Research on ethnic marketing is limite d to studies that compare non-Whites and Whites. Extensive research on communicati on effectiveness finds that Whites have no significantly different preferen ces regarding advertisements featuring a Black model than advertisements featuring a White model. Ho wever, research shows that Blacks form a more favorable attitude toward an advert isement featuring a Black model than an advertisement featuring a White model. The rationale for these findings evolved from the notion that Blacks psychologi cally identify with the oppr essor (e.g., Whites) in an attempt to escape from their hopeless positi on and traditional culture (Schlinger and Plummer, 1972) to the idea that ethnicity is mo re salient to subordina te groups (Grier and Deshpande, 2001). Given that mainstream marketing for most U.S. consumer goods features ethnically diverse models to attr act consumers from vari ous ethnic groups, the existing research provides lit tle insight into the theoreti cal (e.g., in-group bias) or operational (e.g., diverse consumers within the same age group respond as homogeneous mass market) validity of this strategy. A positive connection between the ethnic mi nority viewer and the ethnic cues (e.g., ethnically diverse models) in advertisements could elicit ethnic self-awareness and interest in the ad message. However, an absence of ethnic self-awareness might negate the ad messages effectiveness. Moreover, the use of ethnically diverse models in nonadaptation advertising strategy may result in a negative impact on consumers attitudes toward the actors, their attit udes toward the advertisements, and their purchase intentions.
8 As such, this strategy could fail to reach ethnic minorities, in creasing the cost of advertising per consumer and eroding the companys competitive advantage. A great deal of advertising expenditu res are based largely on tria l-and-error he uristics and a substantial body of theory has yet to develop (Des hpande and Stayman, 1994). Ethnically Diverse Actors as Cues to Ethnic Identification Because ethnicity is more salient to ethnic minorities than dominant group members (McGuire, 1984), these consumers fi rst seek out cues to determine whether particular advertisements are targeted at them. The presence of ethnic cues elicit ethnic self-awareness (Dimofte, Forehand, and Des hpande, 2003-2004). Research shows that the strength of consumers et hnic identification influences both their ethnic awareness (Forehand and Deshpande, 2001) and their per ception of the context in which the cues are portrayed (Dimofte et al ., 2003-2004). This element is particularly important for advertisements featuring ethnically diverse models together in the same context. Although models in advertisements may be ethnically congruent w ith the viewer, the context and/or the interaction among the models may not be. Take, for example, the advertisement in Figure 1 featuring one Black model and one White model. Now consider the social presentation of the two models: They are close together, wrapped in one jacket with smiles on their face s (friends), wearing similar shirts (the dominant stripes on the Black models shirt are white and the dominant stripes on the White models shirt are black), and displaying equality of position and similar hairstyles. A Black vi ewer may be ethnically congruent with the Black model, but find
the portrayed intimacy of inte raction with a White model offensive, and, therefore, may judge the advertisement to be not like me. Figure 1. Tommy Girl Magazine Advertisement The Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model The proposed model is driven by the inte gration of ethnicity theory, narrative paradigm theory, distinctiveness theor y, norm theory, in-gro up bias theory, and assimilation-contrast theory of social j udgment. Ethnicity theory relates to the classification of people and group relationshi ps (Nash, 1996) and self-concept as a matter of own-group learned cultural customs, traditions, and behaviors (Betancourt and Lopez, 1993). Ethnicity theory explains what el ements make up ethnicity and the boundaries that maintain different ethnic groups. 9
10 Narrative paradigm theory suggests th at the evaluation (e.g., meaning) of a communication is based on the story being told (Stutts and Barker, 1999). The probability that the story is true and the messa ges fidelity (e.g., consistency with life experience) determine how the communication is evaluated. Truth and fidelity are elements of how normal the viewer perceives the stor y. Norm theory accounts for individuals judgments about how normal (abnormal) an event is perceived to be (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Distinctiveness theory suggest s that an individuals distin ctive traits in relation to other people will be more salient to the individual than will more common traits (McGuire, 1984). This theory supports the notion that ethnic group membership is more salient to ethnic minorities than to ethnic majority. In-group bias theory (Brewer, 1979) suggest s that individuals have attitudinal and perceptual biases that cause them to favor members of their own group over members of other groups. The theory ar gues that there is a greater social distance between an individual and members of th e out-group than between individuals and members of the in-group. Furthermore, indivi duals biases toward member s of their in-group impact their comparisons and/or evaluations. Assimilation-contrast is a social judgment theory. When forming a judgment about a target stimulus, the perceiver retrieves some cognitive representation of the stimulus and some standard of comparison to evaluate it (Schwarz and Bless, 1992). How the stimulus is categorized in the comparison process determines assimilation (like me) or contrast (not like me).
Proposed Model The Proposed Compatibility Model of Attitude Formation toward Advertisement is presented in Figure 2. Ethni c compatibility influences both attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement. St rength of ethnic identification influences attitude toward the actors and attitude towa rd the advertisements both directly and indirectly through ethnic compatibility. In turn, attitudes toward the actors and attitudes toward the advertisements a ffect purchase intentions. Strength of Ethnic Identification Ethnic Com p atibilit y Purchase Intention Attitude toward Advertisemen t Attitude toward the Actors Figure 2. Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising Ethnic Identification Ethnicity is a social classification. Ethnicity and ethnic groups only make sense in a context of relative processes of identification (Tonkin, McDonald, and Chapman, 1995). Deshpande et al. (1986) conceptualized ethnic iden tification as an enduring identification to an ethnic community of people For the current st udy, the strength of ethnic identification is conceptualized as how strongly an individual recognizes ethnic group membership as part of optimal distinctiveness. 11
12 The strength of ethnic identification influe nces attitudes, such as attitudes toward the advertisements (Whittler, 1989). Strong et hnic identifiers more favorably evaluate advertisements featuring models from th eir own ethnic group than do weak ethnic identifiers. When more than one actor is featured in advertisements, the association between the actors within the c ontext of the adver tisements is essential for understanding the resulting attitudes. However, this relationship, which considers the interaction between actors, has not been empirically tested. Intuitively, the strength of ethnic identific ations influence on attitudes toward the advertisements is mediated through ethnic compatibility. (See the following section for a discussion of ethnic compatibilit y.) Strong ethnic identifier s perceive group membership as an important element of self-distinc tiveness. When their own ethnic group is portrayed as less distinctive, weak ethnic iden tifiers may perceive the actors to be not like me, resulting in a contrast effect. A less favorable attitude toward the actors and the advertisements would result. Weak ethnic id entifiers, who rely more on individual cues to define their distinctiveness, would seek personal cues such as age and style in forming attitudes. Therefore, weak identifiers might perceive the models in Figure 1 like me (assimilation effect) and form a more fa vorable attitude toward the actors and advertisements than strong identifiers. Ethnic Compatibility Ethnic identification implies constraint s on group members interaction with members of other ethnic groups (Barth, 1996). Fo r this research, ethnic compatibility is defined as the viewers perception of the degree to which related or engaged people exist
13 or act in harmony As such, ethnic compatibility is a contextual, cognitive evaluation that is socially constructed. Consider an individual who strongly identifies with the Aryan ethnic group. Figure 1 shows an egalita rian, intimate portrayal of a White model and a Black model. For an Aryan group me mber, this advertisement would likely be perceived as not like me because the equa lity and intimacy of Whites and Blacks is not ethnically compatible. As pr edicted by assimilation-contra st theory, an unfavorable attitude results. However, advertisements showing a White man having his shoes shined by a Black man would likely be ethnically co mpatible with a strong Aryan identifier because the interaction between the actors is one of superior /inferior and consistent (e.g., ethnically compatible) with his/her ethnic gr oup. Hence, a viewe rs strength of ethnic identification impacts how he/she perceive s the ethnic compatibility of the models featured in an advertisement. Attitudes and Purchase Intention Consumers attitudes toward the actors influences attitude toward the advertisement; these attitudes toward the actor and the advertisement have strong implications for purchase in tentions (Brown and Stay man, 1992; Leonard, Cronon, and Kreie, 2004). For this research, the cons umers attitude toward the actors is conceptualized as a learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward actors featured in print advertisements and the consumers attitude toward advertisements is conceptually defined as a learned disposition to react positively /negatively toward the overall print advertisement.
14 Extensive research supports the positive relationship be tween purchase intentions and attitudes toward the actor s and the advertisements (B rown and Stayman, 1992). For the current research, a purchase intention is conceptualized as a cognitive state of readiness to act Contributions of Research to the Existing Literature The current research represents a unique extension of the existing literature on ethnic attitudes. This study represents the first effort to em pirically test how the ethnic compatibility of actors featured in advertisements impacts attitudes and purchase intentions. Consequently, this study provides several potentia lly meaningful theoretical, methodological, and managerial contributions. Theoretical Contributions The present research makes two theoretical contributions to the existing literature. First, including ethnic compatibility as a determinant of attitudes extends the assimilation-contrast theory. This new con cept may explain how the interaction between ethnically diverse models in print advertisem ents influences viewers attitudes and their product purchase intentions. A lthough existing research exam ines assimilation-contrast in marketing (e.g., Ahluwalia, 2000; Meyers-Levy and Sternthal, 1993; Raghunathan and Irwin, 2001), psychology (e.g., Mackie, 1986; Pickett, Bonner, and Coleman, 2002; Wilder and Thompson, 1988), communication (e.g., Gunther and Schmitt, 2004), and organization behavior (e.g., Fo ti and Hauenstein, 1993; van de n Bos, 2002), the impact of viewers perceptions of the harmony between ac tors portrayed in print advertisements has
15 yet to be empirically substant iated in the literature. Ethnic compatibility may explain which ethnic group interactions (e.g., Black and White, Asian and Black, Hispanic and Black) result in favorable/unfavorable att itudes. For example, Kohatsu, Dulay, Lam, Concepcion, Perez, Lopez, and Euler (2000) find that Asians demonstrate moderately high levels of racial mistrust of Africans. Th erefore, an Asian viewer of an advertisement featuring an Asian and an African model engaged in a business tr ansaction would likely result in a contrast e ffect (e.g., not like me). Methodological Contributions The advertisement stimuli and measures used in the current research are developed to be ethnic-specific (emic), elim inating test bias that is introduced by generalizing stimuli and instruments across ethni c groups. Contrary to previous research in which a panel of judges, who are not n ecessarily in-group members (e.g., with the same ethnic membership as the group under st udy), determine the s timulis validity (e.g., what constitutes a Hispanic), the current re search develops emic stimuli based on data collected from the specific ethnic groups under study. Ethnic-specific data are collected from in-depth interviews and a typology of ethnic cultural markers, which serve as the mechanism that defines and maintains ethnic group boundaries (Barth, 1996), is developed. This research develops phrase-completion scales that address the shortcomings of the Likert-type scales. Phrase-completion scales capture the ri ght data (e.g., less cognitive complexity) and demonstrate hi gher psychometric quality measures (e.g., increased reliability) that render more information (e.g., granulated responses) than do
16 Likert-type scales. Conseque ntly, analyses and interpretations of the data are more meaningful. For instance, Like rt-type scales require indivi duals to think along at least two dimensions: content and intensity (Br ody and Dietz, 1997; D uncan and Stenbeck, 1987). Hence, responses to Likert-type ite ms are not unidimensi onal ordinal, thus violating a central measurement tenet (Hodge and Gillespie, 2003). Phrase-completion scale items assess a single dimension with re sponses that approximate a continuous range of options (Brody and Dietz, 1997). This approach reduces cogniti ve complexity and avoids the problem of symmetrically desi gned scales. Hodge and Gillespie (2003) develop a phrase-completion scale using the or iginal items from Allport and Ross (1967) Likert-type scale of intrinsic religiosity. I try hard to carry my religion over into all other dealings in life is an item from the Li kert-type scale. The phrase-completion item corresponding to this statement follows: (1) My religious beliefs affect: No Aspect Absolutely every of my life aspect of my life 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 In testing the Likert-typ e and phrase-completion scales, Hodge and Gillespie (2003) find higher reliability, measured by Cr onbachs Alpha (.80 for Likert-type and .95 for phrase-completion) and highe r factor loadings for the phrase-completion scale than Likert-type scale.
17 Managerial Contributions The current research offers marketers a tool for more efficient allocation of advertising resources, a source for reaching different ethnic consumers simultaneously, and a scientific basis for understanding ethni cally diverse markets. In the current fragmented consumer market, ethnic minoritie s exhibit within-group heterogeneity. For example, Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Rican s comprise the notion of Hispanics. Efficiencies may be gained by designing prom otional campaigns that combine ethnically diverse models that are more likely to resu lt in consumer assimilation. For instance, unlike Cubans, African-Americans and Puer to Ricans tend to be geographically segregated even within neighborhoods that are populated with various ethnic group members. Advertisements portraying Africans and Puerto Ricans segregated within a neighborhood context would be more like me for Africans than advertisements featuring Africans and Cubans t ogether (not like me). The ability to effectively reach multiple ethnic groups simultaneously allows marketers to positively connect with more consumers at less cost per consumer. This research offers practitioners a scie ntific tool that is future-oriented. Substantial research focuses on concepts that practitioners have already tested in the marketplace. Although companies such as Benetton have practiced multicultural advertising since 1983 featuring et hnically diverse models togeth er in an effort to reach numerous ethnic groups simultaneously (Cor tese, 1999). Research on how ethnic group viewers perceive the portrayal of ethnically diverse models has yet to be undertaken. With the continued erosion of the national border as a marketing boundary, this research offers insight into how to e ffectively promote products in th e world market. The current
18 research offers U.S. companies that are considering expanding to foreign markets a means of more effectively reaching divers e consumers, while efficiently allocating advertising resources. Summary The growth of ethnic diversity and loyalt ies to diverse cultural backgrounds are forcing marketers to reexamine how they have traditionally dealt with ethnic minorities. Although companies have employed multicultural advertising campaigns for over 20 years, how the ethnic compatibility of these portrayals in print advertisements influence consumers attitudes and purchas e intentions has yet to be scientifically investigated. The concept of ethnic compatibility is intr oduced to account for et hnic diversity in advertisements and the attit udinal judgments formed like me or not like me. Ethnicity is a social classification that cannot be disregarded or temporarily set aside (Barth, 1996); therefore, it is a co mpelling factor in understanding consumer behavior. The strength of id entification with an ethnic group influences how individuals form attitudes about advertising stimuli. The relationship between the strength of ethnic identification and ethnic compatibility has not ye t been investigated in scholarly research. Furthermore, the direct and indirect influences of ethnic co mpatibility and the strength of ethnic identification on attitude s toward the actors, attitudes toward the advertisements, and purchase intentions have ye t to be studied. The existing literature strongly supports a positive relationship between attitudes and purchase intentions. It is proposed that attitudes toward the actors and attitudes toward the advertisements have a positive relationship with intentions to purchase the advertised products.
19 The current study addresses a gap in the literature: how the portrayed ethnic compatibility of models influences consum ers attitudes toward the models, their attitudes toward the advertisements, and thei r purchase intentions. Furthermore, this research accounts for the limitation of existing literature, which conceptualizes people of color as a deviation from the standard (Wh ite), the use of race as a proxy for ethnicity, the universality of the U.S. mainstream, and the equivalence of measures across ethnic groups. By empirically testing ethnic compatib ility in the attitudinal formation process, the current research extends the assimilati on-contrast theory of social judgment. Methodological contributions in clude the developmen t of the cultural marker typology and the construction of phrase-completion, culture-specific measures. The managerial contribution of the current research is th e development of a framework that allows practitioners to more efficiently design advertising campaigns to reach multiple ethnic groups simultaneously. This new ethnic framework allows companies to more effectively and efficiently alloca te their advertising resources. Chapter 2 elaborates the th eoretical foundation and literat ure review that form the basis for the relationships among the stre ngth of ethnic iden tification, ethnic compatibility, attitudes toward the actors, attitudes toward the advertisements, and purchase intentions.
20 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The current chapter presents the theoretical foundation a nd relevant literature in support of the hypothesized relationships among strength of ethnic id entification, ethnic compatibility, attitudes toward the actors, attitudes toward the advertisement, and purchase intention (Table 1). The following disc ussion is organized into five sections. In the first section, the proposed models theo retical foundation is pr esented. (See Figure 2, Chapter 1). The strength of ethnic iden tification and its influence on attitudes toward both the actors and the advertisement are the subjects of Section Two. Section Three is dedicated to the construct of ethnic compatibility and th e rationale for its proposed relationship with strength of ethnic identificati on and attitude toward the acto rs and attitudes toward the advertisement. The relationship between att itude and purchase intention is the topic of section four. The final section summari zes the hypothesized relationships in the proposed model.
21 Table 1. Summary of the Constructs, Theoreti cal Foundation, and Select Literature of the Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses to Advertising Construct Definition Theoretical Foundation Select Literature Trimble, Helms, and Root (2003) Saylor and Aries (1999) Phinney (1992) Primordial Theory of Ethnicity Thompson (1989) Dewsnap and Jobber (2002) Webster (1994) Strength of Ethnic Identification How strongly an individual recognizes ethnic group membership as part of optimal distinctiveness. Distinctiveness Theory (reactive distinctiveness hypothesis; optimal distinctiveness) Deshpande, Hoyer, and Donthu (1986) Stutts and Barker (1999) Narrative Paradigm Theory (evaluation of communication) Blyler (1996) Ethnic Compatibility Viewers perception of the degree to which related or engaged people exist or act in harmony. Norm Theory (normality of stimulus) Kahneman and Miller (1986) Elaboration Likelihood Model (attitude formation) Cacioppo, Petty, Kao, and Rodriguez (1986) Homophily (preference for similarity) McPherson, SmithLovin, and Cook (2001) Assimilation-Contrast Theory (social judgment) Moody (2001) Sherif and Hovland (1961) Attitude toward Actors and Advertisement Attitude toward the Actors A learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward models featured in a print advertisement. Attitude toward the Advertisement A learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward the overall advertisement. In-Group/Out-Group (ingroup bias) Eiser (1991) Fiske and Taylor (1991) Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw (1988) Purchase Intention A cognitive state of likelihood to act. Theory of Reasoned Action (deliberate processing model) Ajzen and Fishbein (1980)
22 Theoretical Foundation Ethnicity Theories of ethnicity are divided into two major types: instrumentalism and primordialism (Espiritu, 2001; Hutchinson and Smith, 1996b). Instrumentalists suggest that ethnicity is a strategic tool; they view ethni c groups as sentimental associations of persons sharing affective ties and interests (Espiritu, 2001). In th eir view, ethnic groups can more effectively organize as intere st groups because they are culturally homogeneous. Primordialists suggest that culture and tradition explain the emergence and retention of ethnicity groups (Hutchin son and Smith, 1996b). Bell (1975) argues that ethnicity has become more sali ent in modern society because of its primordial character: "It provides a tangible set of common iden tifications in language, food, music, names when other social roles become more abstract and impersonalIn trying to account for the upsurge of ethnicity t oday, one can see this ethnicity as the emergent expression of primordi al feelings. . ". (p. 169). 3 The current research applies the primor dial approach because enduring ethnic identification (see Strength of Ethnic Identific ation below), which is the subject of the current research, remains relatively stable over time (Deaux, 1991; Saylor and Aries, 1999). Phenotypic traits (e.g., skin color, ha ir texture) and sym bolic artifacts (e.g., religious objects, jewelry) are cues to ethnic group membership (Nash, 1996). This 3 For a detailed discussion of theories of ethnicity, see Thompson (1989).
23 approach is appropriate for the current st udy because print advert ising relies on easily visible ethnic cues that are quickly recognizable. Cultural surface pointers, such as skin color, are prevalent in scholarly research as cues to ethnic affiliation and attitudinal responses (Dimofte et al., 2003-2004; Green, 1999; Hirschman, 1980). McGuire (1984) and Pitts, Whalen, OKeefe, and Murray (1989) argue that advertisements are most effective when cultural surface pointers are used as cues to identificati on. Individuals who perceive si milarities in cultural surface pointers (ethnic identification) are more in fluenced by media content than when ethnic identification is absent (Appiah, 2001). Applying the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), Leach and Liu (1998) find that indi viduals who identify culturally with an advertisement, as opposed to those who do not, are more likely to have a positive attitude toward the actors and the advertisement. Distinctiveness and Differentiation Individuals associate themselves with gr oups that provide them with a sense of positive distinctiveness (Fiske and Taylor, 1991 ; Tajfel and Turner, 1979). Social group membership is important to individuals becau se they are motivated to see themselves and their groups as different from other groups and as better beside s (Fiske and Taylor, 1991, p. 165). People typically develop systems to categorize and classify themselves and others. These systems allow individuals to attach significant meanings to the classification groupings (Trimble, Helms, a nd Root, 2003). Ethnicity, along with other elements, such as gender and occupation, help define ones social identity (Messick and
24 Mackie, 1989). Categorization tends to exa ggerate inter-group differences and enhance intra-group similarities (F iske and Taylor, 1991). In-group bias theory suggests that in dividuals are favorably biased toward members of their own group (Brewer, 1979; Pe rkins, Thomas, and Taylor, 2000). Social schemas influence how new information is encoded, the capacity to remember old information, and inferences about missing in formation (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Outgroup schemas are less variable (e.g., all Blac k people are lazy) and less complex (e.g., White people think of Black people only along racial dimensions) than in-group schemas (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Tajfels (1959a 1959b, 1969) and subsequently Deschamps (1977) and Deschamps and Doises (1978) seminal works on categorization and accentuation provide the foundation for the pr oposed attitudinal model. Tajfel (1969) predicts that individu als tend to react to members of an alien group simply in terms of group membership without taking indivi dual differences into account. The reactive distinctiveness hypothesis suggests that group members strive to differentiate their own group from relevant comparison groups (Grier and Deshpande, 2001; Hewstone, Islam, and Judd, 1993; Jetten, Spears, and Postmes, 2004), and predicts that threats to inter-group distinctiveness would instigate attempts to restore distinctiveness (Jetten et al ., 2004; Niemann and Dovidio, 1998) In a meta-analysis of inter-group distinctiveness, Jetton et al. (2004) offer overwhelming support for the reactive distinctiv e hypothesis. The theories of distinctiveness and differentiation discussed above explain that individuals are motivated to seek group membership in order to maximize and maintain self-regard and distinctiveness. Attempts to dilute the distinctiveness result in retaliation to secure their position. Therefore, it follows that an
25 image of ethnic group members portrayed as equal, such as in the Tommy Girl advertisement shown below, erodes the di stinctiveness of et hnic groups, leading individuals to differentiate themselves from the out-group member to maintain their distinctiveness (see Figure 1, Chapter 1). Preference for Similarity Homophily explains the perceived simila rity between two people and the preference for similarity in social re lations (McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, 2001; Moody, 2001). Gilly, Graham, Wolfinbarger, an d Yales (1998) study of demographic homophily and attitudinal homophily was a pr edictor of interpersonal influence and word-of-mouth. Their findings suggest that attitudinal homophily has a direct and positive relationship with interpersonal influenc e. In advertising, homophily is achieved through ethnic congruence between the viewer of an advertisement and the models portrayed in the advertisement and has a direct and positive influence on purchase intent (Simpson, Snuggs, Christiansen, and Simples, 2000). Crossed Categorization Crossed categorization describes the so cial context in which at least two dichotomous dimensions of group membership operate simultaneously in the representation and use of so cial categorization in eval uative judgments (Crisp, Hewstone, Richards, and Paolini 2003, p. 25). For example, a viewer of the advertisement in Figure 1 may be a member of the racial group (White or Black) and also a member of the age group (teenager). Mult icultural advertising, su ch as ads featuring
26 ethnically diverse models of the same age, relies on crossed categorization to attract consumers of various ethnic groups (e.g., White or Black), hoping that these consumers will behave as a homogenous group (e.g., age). Some researchers conclude that a persons ethnicity (or race) is a more important factor for identifying ones soci al group membership than other personal factors, such as nationality (Hewstone et al., 1993; Stangor, Lynch, Duan, and Glass, 1992; Triandis and Triandis, 1960, 1962). Triandis and Triandis (1 960) indicate that individuals perceive a greater social distance between their own ethnic group (e.g., in-gr oup) and other ethnic groups (e.g., out-groups) than between their social class, religious affiliation, and nationality and those of others A hierarchical pattern desc ribes an intera ction between two category dimensions (e.g., race and age), in which one dimension must be dominant (Triandis and Triandis, 1960). On the dominant dimension, in-group and out-group members are differentially evaluated, whereas in-group and out-group status on the other dimension is ignored (Klauer, Ehrenberg, a nd Wegener, 2003; Urban and Miller, 1998). Considering the superiority of ethnicity to other social categorizations, it follows that ethnic cues, such as skin color, are evaluated while other cues, such as gender, are ignored. Therefore, advertisements featuring ethnically diverse actor s of similar age will initiate evaluation based on the ethnic dimension. Minority versus Majority Groups Optimal distinctiveness theory supports th e notion that social identification and in-group favoritism are greater for members of minority groups than members of majority groups (Mullen, Brown, and Smith, 1992). In his review and extension of commercial
27 advertising featuring White and Black models and the viewers attitudes toward those advertisements, Whittler (1991) finds that while White consumers are unaffected by a Black model in an advertisement (e.g., no signi ficant difference in attitude toward the advertisement), Black viewers judge the advertisement featuring Black actors more favorably than the advertisemen t featuring a White model. Perkins et al. (2000) suggest that advertisements featuring ethnically diverse models may assist in recruiting minority job seekers but have little e ffect on non-minorities (p. 248). Pitts et al. (1989) indicate that Blacks display a more positive affect toward commercial messages featuring Black actors than do comparable Whites (p. 322). Advertisement as a Story The narrative paradigm theory argues that the evaluation or m eaning derived from a communication is a matter of the story be ing told by the comm unication (Stutts and Barker, 1999). The actors actions featured in the advertisement tell a story of ethnic group interaction. Viewers compare the stor y being told in the advertisement with psychological schemas that allow them to ma ke sense of the world around them (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Interpretive or narrative fidelity comes fr om the perceived probability that the story being told is true, coherent, and consistent w ith the viewers life experiences (Stutts and Barker 1999). Therefore, when viewing an advertisement, the viewer considers the story (e.g., truth, cohere ncy, consistency) when forming an attitude about that advertisement.
28 Social Judgment The assimilation-contrast model predicts that individuals whose own attitudes are more extreme, whether pro or con, tend to rate more items within the more extremely favorable and extremely unfavorable response categories, compared with more neutral judges (Eiser, 1991, p. 61). When evaluating st imuli, individuals use their own position (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, values) as anchors. Stimuli that are closer to the individuals own positions tend to be assimilated and those further away tend to be contrasted. Assimilation/contrast depends on whether the stimuli fall within the judges latitude of acceptance, rejection, or non-commitment (Eiser, 1991). Muzafer Sherif and colleagues (She rif and Hovland, 1961; Sherif, Taub, and Hovland, 1958) seminal laboratory research on assimilation-contrast effects led Kahneman and Miller (1986) to explore how subjects make judgments in less controlled situations, where they define their own standa rds and frames of refe rence. Norm theory (Kahneman and Miller, 1986) suggests that in dividuals own definitions of objects and events as members of a particular category determine the degree of normality or abnormality (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Categoriza tion is an essential aspect of attitudinal responses (Sherif and Hovland, 1961). The assimilation-contrast theory of soci al judgment suggests that when evaluating a target stimulus, such as an advertisement, the perceiver retrieves a cognitive representation of it and a sta ndard of comparison to evaluate it (Eiser, 1991). How the stimulus is categorized in the comparison pr ocess determines the degree of assimilation (like me) or contrast (not like me). Furthe rmore, norm theory and assimilation-contrast theory suggest that viewers of advertisements featuring ethnically diverse actors (e.g.,
29 Figure 1) will find the intimate pos ture of the models either surprising (e.g., abnormal) or not surprising (e.g., normal) when compared to the norms of thei r personal ethnic membership. Strength of Ethnic Identification Phinney (1992) defines ethnic identity as an individuals kno wledge of his/her membership in an ethnic community, as we ll as the value and emotional significance attached to that membership. Some theori sts (e.g., Phinney, 1989) us e ethnic identity and racial identity synonymously. In contrast, ot her theorists (e.g., Trimble et al., 2003; Van de Berghe, 1967) argue that ethnic identity pertains to a self-conception based on owngroup cultural customs, traditions, and behavi oral practices needed to function in ones ethnic group. Racial identity refers to a psychological mechanism that people use to function in society; political and econom ic forces impose this mechanism based on visible characteristics. 4 Ethnic identification is conceptualized as a continuous variable ranging from very weak to very strong. Although research that directly focuses on the strength of ethnic identification is sparse (Appiah, 2001), some researchers suggest that ethnic identification provides a greater discriminating power of cl assification than more traditionally used measures of ethnicity (D eshpande et al., 1986). The strength of ethnic id entification may be tempor ary or enduring. Episodic ethnic identification occurs when feelings of ethnic identity emerge as a result of an ethnic encounter that is temporal in nature (Landale and Oropesa, 2002; Stayman and 4 For further discussion of racial and ethnic id entification see Trimble, Helms, and Root (2003).
30 Deshpande, 1989). Episodic ethnic identificatio n is situational and determines which of several communal identities are appropriate at a point in time (Stayman and Deshpande, 1989). An episodic ethnic id entification, also referred to as ethnic self-awareness by Forehand and Deshpande (2001), is prompted by various factors including personality, social situations, and context. In contrast, enduring ethnic identification relates to the baselevel intensity of affiliation with a parent culture (Don thu and Cherian, 1994, p. 384) and remains relatively stable over time (Deaux, 1991; Saylor and Aries, 1999). Forehand, Deshpande, and Reed (2002) support the enduring nature of strength of ethnic id entification. In an empirical investigation of Asians and Caucas ians, these researchers report that neither social distinctiveness nor identity primes a ffect the strength of ethnic identification. Furthermore, the absence of such influence i ndicates, strength of identification is an enduring trait that is rela tively resistant to situational variables (p. 1,092). The salience of ethnic iden tification is further supported by distinctiveness theory which argues that a persons ow n distinctive traits (e.g., blac k skin color, kinky hair) will be more salient to him or her than more co mmon traits (e.g., white skin color, straight hair) of people in their environment (Deshpande and Stayman, 1994; McGuire, 1984; McGuire, McGuire, Child, and Fujioka, 1978). Individuals selectively notice and encode stimuli by unique aspects because these peculia r characteristics are more informative in distinguishing them from othe r stimuli (McGuire et al., 1978). Stereotypes, which are socially shared representations about social groups, create classifications that allow individuals to efficiently pro cess environmental and societal events (Fiske and Taylor, 1991; Lyons and Kashima, 2001).
31 The significance of the strength of et hnic identification as a determinant of individual differences in cons umer behavior is demonstrated in the marketing literature (Green, 1999). Whittlers (1991) review of the early marketing literature on the effect of actors race on consumers responses to advertisements indicate s that Blacks form a more favorable attitude toward the actors and advertisements when Black models are featured in the advertisements. Whites do not dem onstrate an extremely negative reaction to advertisements featuring Black actors. Whittle r (1991) uses prejudice to measure racial attitudes of Whites, as well as Blacks id entification with Black culture to measure Blacks racial attitudes. Th e effect is greater for strong ethnic identifiers than weak ethnic identifiers. Deshpande et al. (1986) indicate that strong Hispanic id entifiers (SHI) form more favorable attitudes toward government inst itutions than private businesses. These researchers suggest that SHI are more likely than weak Hispanic iden tifiers (WHI) to use Spanish language media, are more brand loya l, and are more likely to purchase brands advertised to their ethnic group. Simila rly, Donthu and Cherian (1994) argue that strongly identified Hispanics are more brand loyal than weakly id entified Hispanics. These researchers uncover an interaction effect between the strength of ethnic identification and customer involvement, such that preferences for Hispanic vendors are less between SHI and WHI for hi gh-involvement services than low-involvement services. Webster (1994) reports SHI identifiers are less responsive to store marketing tactics. Furthermore, SHI husbands are more likely th an WHI husbands to be the family decision makers. Dewsnap and Jobber (2002) argue th at the strength of in-group identity
32 positively influences inter-group differentiati on, which, in turn, negatively influences the perceived effectiveness of th e marketing-sales relationship. Grier and Deshpande (2001) empirically investigate the relationship among numeric and social status distinctiveness and ethnic salience 5 and conclude that both numeric minority status (e.g., Blacks in Cape Town and Whites in Johannesburg) and social distinctiveness are better predictors of ethnic salience than numeric distinctiveness alone. These researchers also suggest that an increase (decrease) in ethnic salience results in an increase (decrease) in positive attitude toward the advertised brand. Using an experimental design (2 x 2 x 2) of Asia n and Caucasian participants, Forehand et al., (2002) report the existence of a three-wa y interaction among ethnic identity (e.g., Asian or Caucasian), identity prime (e.g., presence or absence), and social distinctiveness (e.g., congruence/incongruence between viewer and actors) on attitudes toward the spokesperson and the advertisement. The fi ndings indicate that Asians, who perceive themselves as socially distinctive from Ca ucasians and receive a prime stimulus, respond more positively to an Asian spokesperson than do Asians who perceive themselves as less socially distinct from Caucasians and do not receive the prime stimulus. The results also suggest that Caucasians with high-i dentity salience respond more negatively to Asian spokespeople and advertisements th an do those of lowidentity salience Caucasians. Therefore, the followi ng is hypothesized (see Figure 3). 5 Deshpande and colleagues (Forehand, Deshpande, and Reed, 2002; Grier and Deshpande, 2001) distinguish between identity salience from the strength of ethnic identification by their temporal and enduring properties. The strength of ethnic identificatio n is an enduring trait, whereas identity salience is momentary activation of ones group membership (Forehand et al., 2002, p. 1,092).
H 2 Attitude toward Advertisement Strength of Ethnic Identification H 1 Attitude toward the Actors Figure 3. Hypotheses One and Two of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising In the following hypotheses, in-group me mbers (e.g., Hispanics) are noted as I (e.g., two Hispanic models featured in th e advertisement = II) and out-group members (e.g., African Americans) are noted as O (e.g., two African-American models featured in the advertisement = OO and one Hispanic and one African-American model = IO). H 1 (a): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifi ers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) featured in an advertisement more favorably than out-group models (e.g., two African-Americans) (II > 00). H 1 (b): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) featured in an advertisement more favorably than mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (II > IO). H 1 (c): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifi ers (SHEI) will evaluate out-group models (e.g., two African-Americans) featured in an advertisement more favorably than mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (OO > IO). 33
34 H 1 (d): Weak Hispanic ethnic identifi ers (WHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) as favorably as they do out-group models (e.g., two African Americans) and mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African American) (II = OO = IO). H 2 (a): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifier s (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group m odels (e.g., two Hispanics) more favorably than an advertisement featuring out-group mode ls (e.g., two African-Americans) (II > 00). H 2 (b): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group m odels (e.g., two Hispanics) more favorably than an advertisement featuring mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one AfricanAmerican) (II > IO). H 2 (c): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifier s (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring out-group models (e.g., two African -Americans) more favorably than an advertisement featuring mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one AfricanAmerican) (OO > IO). H 2 (d): Weak Hispanic ethnic identifier s (WHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group mode ls (e.g., two Hispanics) as favorably as they do an
35 advertisement featuring out-group mode ls (e.g., two African Americans) and mixed group models (e.g., one Hispan ic and one African American) (II = OO = IO). Ethnic Compatibility For the purpose of this study, ethnic compatibility is defined as a viewers perception of the degree to which related or engaged people exist or act in harmony. Ethnic compatibility is a matter of interpretation and assessment and is supported by narrative paradigm theory, which has been utili zed as an approach to qualitative research in consumer behavior (Shankar and Goulding, 2001) and offers a rich er explanation of the relationships between vari ables (Pentland, 1999). Accord ing to Narrative Paradigm Theory, advertisements are stories that indi viduals seek to interp ret through logic and reason (e.g., does the story satisfy the demands of a coherence theory of truth?) (Blyler, 1996; Stutts and Baker, 1999). The ethnic co mpatibility of the actors portrayed in an advertisement is derived from the probability that the story being to ld is true, coherent, and consistent with the view ers life experiences. For example, a White individual married to a Black individual might find the models featured in Figure 1 normal (norm theory) and hence, high in ethnic comp atibility. The story being told by the advertisement is one of harmony, which is cons istent with the viewers life experience and has a high probability of being true. In contrast, a member of the Aryan ethnic group would likely find the portrayal of the actors featured in Figure 1 abnormal and ethnically incompatible.
An individuals life reality may be quite different based on ethnicity (Penaloza, 2001). A Black may experience the civil rights movement as the rise of freedom, while a White may experience the same event as a de terioration of the U.S. way of life. Primordialism suggests that life experience s, which are passed down from one generation to another, define ethnic group boundari es, whereas group membership implies constraints on group members interactions with other ethnic group members (Barth, 1996). It follows that the stronger the et hnic identification with a group, the more delineated the norms of inter-group social inte raction. For instance, a strongly identified White might find the intimate interaction of a Black and White depicted in Figure 1 abnormal. Drawing from empirical studies, De wsnap and Jobber (2002) develop a conceptual framework of the psychological cause-effect of inter-group relationships. These researchers propose that strength of in -group identity is positively related to intergroup differentiation. The existi ng literature supports the rationale for the relationship between ethnic compatibility and strength of ethnic identificati on, and, therefore, the following hypothesis is put forth (Figure 4). H 3 : There is a relationship between stre ngth of ethnic iden tification and ethnic compatibility. Strength of Ethnic Identification H 3 Ethnic Compatibility Figure 4. Hypothesis Three of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising 36
37 Overall, the marketing and advertising liter atures are relatively sparse in reporting the influences of ethnicity on attitudinal responses (Alexander, Benjamin, Hoerrner, and Roe, 1998). Recent efforts by Deshpande and colleagues (Deshpande et al., 1986; Deshpande and Stayman, 1994; Forehand and Deshpande, 2001; Forehand et al., 2002) attempt to close this gap in the literature. Recent empiri cal investigations focusing on ethnicity and attitudinal respons es to advertising provide enc ouraging insights, such as: Hispanics rely on advertising as a significant source of information (Deshpande et al., 1986); there is a posi tive relationship between ethnic identity and advertising effectiveness (Deshpande and St ayman, 1994); ethnic self-awareness moderates a viewers response to advertising (Foreha nd and Deshpande, 2001); and priming ethnic membership elicits a more favorable attitude toward the spokesperson and advertisement when the ethnicities of the viewer and spokesperson are congruen t (Forehand et al., 2002). Applying the concept of distinctiven ess, Deshpande and Stayman (1994) investigate the impact of ma jority/minority populations on ethnic identity. Using a sample of Hispanics from Austin, Texas, where Hispanics are the numerical minority population, and a sample of Hispanics from Sa n Antonio, Texas, where Hispanics are the numerical majority, Deshpande and Stayman (1994) find that ethnicity is more salient for Hispanics in Austin. The results also suppor t the existence of a ca rryover between ethnic identity and advertising effectiveness. Grier and Deshpandes (2001) research on numerical status indicates that ethnic salien ce is a multidimensional construct consisting of numeric status distinctiveness and social status distinctiven ess; ethnic salience moderates the relationship between spoke sperson ethnicity and brand attitude.
38 Assimilation-contrast theory explains at titudinal responses to social stimuli (Sherif and Hovland, 1961). Two recent models of assimilation-contrast are proposed in social comparison studies (Hafner, 2004). First, Lockwood and Kunda (1997, 1999) suggest that assimilation or c ontrast is a matter of comparison to a standard. If the standard is attainable (unattainable), assim ilation (contrast) occurs. These researchers ask participants to read a descrip tion of a superstar, rate the s uperstar, and evaluate their own characteristics as related to the superstar. The results suggest that exposure to a superstar may result in either self-enhancement (e.g., assi milation) or self-def lation (e.g., contrast), depending of the attainability of superstar status. In contrast, Hafner (2004) suggests that the social cognitive model may be more useful in accounting for assimilation-contrast effects. In the comparison process that underlines the social cognitive model, individuals make a holistic assessment, then seek specific knowledge that suppor ts their assessment of similarity (dissimilarity) and assimilate (contrast) (Mussweile r, 2001). Here, the similarity of advertisements featuring ethnically diverse models depends on the view ers holistic assessment of the interaction between the models (e.g., context). A mediating effect occurs when an interv ening variable is a cause of the criterion variable (e.g., attitude toward the actors and attitude of the advertisement) and is caused by the independent variable (e.g., strength of ethnic identification) (Baron and Kenny, 1986). The proposed mediating effect of ethni c compatibility is rationalized by applying optimal distinctiveness theory. Optimal distinctiveness determines the rigidity of boundaries between ethnic groups and the et hnic compatibility of such inter-group interactions. The more one relies on group membership to sustain self-concept (the
strength of ethnic identificat ion), the more rigid the bounda ries between ones own group and an out-group; hence, the less compatible interactions between in-group and out-group members. A highly identified Black viewer of Figure 1 might interpret the holistic portrayal as being surprising (e.g., abnormal) because the story being told by that advertisement has a low probability of being true and is not consistent with the viewers life experience. The Black viewer might find the Black model like me, favoring that model to other out-group mode ls, but forms an unfavorable attitude because the ethnic compatibility renders the advertisement dissimilar to the Black viewer. Ethnic compatibility is caused by the strength of ethnic identification and causes the attitudes toward the actors and advertisement suppor ting mediation. Therefore, the following hypotheses are tested (Figure 5). H 4 : Ethnic compatibility mediates the re lationship between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the actors. H 5 : Ethnic compatibility mediates the re lationship between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the advertisement. 39 Strength of Ethnic Identification Attitude toward Advertisement H 5 H 4 Attitude toward the Actors Ethnic Compatibility Figure 5. Hypotheses Four and Five of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising
Attitudes and Purchase Intention The positive relationship between attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement is both intuitive and s upported by recent marketing research. The overall attitude toward the advertisement is a holistic evaluation of advertisement attributes (e.g., models, narrativ e, and context). Therefore, the models featured in an advertisement, as an element of the overall a dvertisement, influence the resulting attitude toward that advertisement. In an experime nt using Asian and White models, Martin, Lee, and Yang (2004) report a strong, positive relati onship between consumers attitude toward the model and their attit ude toward the advertisement ( r = .61, p < .001). Hence, the following hypothesized relatio nship is tested (Figure 6): H 6 : There is positive relationship between attitude toward the actors featured in an advertisement and attitude toward the advertisement, such that the more favorable (unfavorable) the attitude to ward the actors, the more favorable (unfavorable) the attitude toward the advertisement. 40 H 6 Attitude toward Advertisement Attitude toward the Actors Figure 6. Hypothesis Six of Proposed Et hnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising
41 The effect of perceived similarity on purch ase intention has been examined in the sales literature. Br ock (1965) suggests that the simila rity of attitudes between the salesperson and the consumer positively im pacts purchase behaviors. Graeffs (1996) research of self image and brand image reve als that similarity between brand and self image has a positive effect on purchase intention. Woodside and Davenports (1974) experiment regarding salespersons gender and race reveals that the greater the perceived similarity between the salesperson and the consumer, the greater the likelihood that the consumer will purchase. Empirical research on perceived similar ity and purchase intention in ethnic advertising is limited to one study. Simp son et al. (2000) re port that perceived homophily (e.g., racial similarity between viewer and model featured in an advertisement) and purchase intention ar e positively related. In addition, these researchers indicate that the strength of ethnic identification moderates the relationship between racial congruence and perceived homophily. The relationship between att itudes and purchase intention is a matter of deliberate processing. Deliberate processing models sugge st that considerable cognitive work takes place while available information is scrutinized and the positiv e and negative features are analyzed during attitude formation. On e of the most acknowledged deliberative processing models is Ajzen and Fishbeins ( 1980) theory of reasoned action. This theory posits that behaviors stem from behavior intentions, which themselves are the consequences of an individuals attitude a ssessment. Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw (1988) conduct a meta-analysis of the th eory of reasoned action and report strong
support for the overall predictive utility of th e Fishbein and Ajzen model (Sheppard et al., 1988, p. 336). It follows that attitude toward both th e actors and the advertisement influence purchase intention. Therefore, viewers of advertisements featuring ethnically diverse models who form favorable (unfavorable ) attitudes toward the actors and the advertisement are more (less) likely to purchase the product being advertised. The extensive empirical sup port of the relationship between at titudes and purchase intentions brings about the following hypotheses (Figure 7). H 7 : Positive (favorable) att itude toward the actors in an advertisement increase the likelihood of purchase intention of the product advertised. H 8 : Positive (favorable) at titude toward the advertis ement increase the likelihood of purchase intention of the product advertised. Attitude toward the Actors H 8 H 7 Purchase Intention Attitude toward Advertisement Figure 7. Hypotheses Seven and Eight of Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising 42
Summary of Hypothesi zed Relationships Eight relationships are hypothesized in the current research (Figure 8). The strength of ethnic identification has both a di rect and an indirect influence on attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement. It is proposed that when viewing an advertisement featuring two Hispan ic models, strong Hispanic identifiers will evaluate the advertisements and the models more favorably than an advertisement featuring two African-American models or an advertisement featuring one Hispanic model and one African-American model. Furt hermore, strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers will form a more favorable attitude toward the actors and advertisement when the advertisement features two African-Americans than one Hispanic and one African American. Weak Hispanic ethn ic identifiers will not form different attitudes toward the advertisement or the models featured in the advertisement between the treatment conditions (e.g., two Hispanic models, two Af rican-American models, and one Hispanic model and one African-American model). 43 Strength of Ethnic Identification Ethnic Compatibility Attitude toward the Actors Attitude toward Advertisement H 3 H 2 H 4 H 5 H 6 H 7 H 8 Purchase Intention H 1 Figure 8. Hypothesized Relationships of Propos ed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising
44 The direct relationship between ethnic identification and attitu dinal responses are addressed in the existing literature. The i ndirect influence of et hnic compatibility is introduced in the current research and supported by optimal distinctiveness theory and narrative paradigm theory. The strength of ethnic identification determines the rules by which in-group and out-group members interact Strong ethnic iden tifiers, more than weak ethnic identifiers, rely on group membership to su stain their self-concept and maintain more rigid ethnic group boundaries. In viewing advertisements featuring ethnically diverse models, the strength of et hnic identifications influence on attitudinal responses is mediated by the perceived ethnic compatibility of the models. Hence, the indirect relationship between strength of ethnic identifica tion on attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement is mediated by ethnic compatibility. The mediating effect of ethnic compatibility is the theoretical contribution of the current research. The relationship between attit udes and purchase intention is a matter of extensive research and is supported by the pr oposed relationships among attitude toward the actors, attitude toward the adve rtisement, and purchase intention. In Chapter 3, the methodology used to te st the hypothesized relationships is discussed. Qualitative and quantitative data ar e collected to develop measures and test the eight hypothesized relati onships of the Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Formation toward Advertising.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The current chapter presents the re search design employed to test the hypothesized relationships of the Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising (see Figure 8, Chapter 2). The methodology draws on both exploratory (e.g., in-depth interviews) a nd causal (e.g., experimental) research. Table 2. Research Design Research Type Method Sample Analysis Exploratory In-depth Interviews Purposeful sample of Hispanics; continue until redundancy achieved Common Theme Descriptive Pilot Study Size =99 45 Scale purification and manipulation effect assessment Reliability, Validity Causal Experiment; Factorial Design Size = 179 3 X 2 Factorial Design Correlation, ANOVA, Regression A pilot study of the experiment was c onducted to purify scales and assess the treatments effectiveness. The objectives of the in-depth interviews were to construct a typology of cultural surface markers, determin e out-group members, and provide insight for scale development. The qualitative data collected through in-depth interviews served as input to the experiment, which tests th e hypothesized relationships. The current chapter is organized into construct development, research design, and summary.
Construct Development In the following discussion, the constructs of the Proposed Ethnic Compatibility Model of Attitudinal Responses toward Advertising are defined, conceptually and operationally, and measures of these constructs developed (Table 3). Table 3. Construct Development Definitions Construct Conceptual Operational Measure Strength of Ethnic Identification How strongly an individual recognizes ethnic group membership as part of optimal distinctiveness. A self-preference of attachment and belonging to an ethnic group and ethnic practices and behaviors that maintain membership. Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney 1992) (modified). Ethnic Compatibility Viewers perception of the degree to which related or engaged people exist or act in harmony. Overall attitude toward other ethnic groups. New Likert-type measure incorporating Phinneys (1992) Attitude toward Other Groups and elements emerging from in-depth interviews. Attitude toward the Actors A learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward actors featured in a print advertisement. Cognitive evaluation and affective response to the appearance of actors featured in an advertisement. New phrase completion scales using descriptors from Feltham (1994). Attitude toward the Advertisement A learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward the overall advertisement. An affective reaction to an advertisement. New phase completion scales adapted from Madden, Allen, and Twible (1988). Purchase Intention A cognitive state of likelihood to act. The likelihood to do a future planned activity. New phrase-completion scale. Strength of Ethnic Identification Ethnic identification, concep tualized as how strongly an individual recognizes ethnic group membership as part of optimal distinctiveness, is operationalized as a selfpreference for attachment and belonging to an ethnic group and the ethnic practices and 46
47 behaviors that maintain membership Although some researchers claim that a one-item, self-labeling measure is preferred to m easure ethnic identification (e.g., Hirschman, 1981), racial and ethnic minority psychologists (e.g., Santiago-Rivera, 1999; Trimble et al., 2003) argue that self-declara tion cannot capture the full e ffect of ethnic identification, and, therefore, behaviors and situation-context also should be considered. To measure behaviors, situation-co ntext (e.g., achievements), and selfdeclaration, Phinneys (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Me asure (MEIM) was used in this research (Table 4). Questions were modified from direct, using I, to indirect, using people from my ethnic group, to reduce potential bias from socially acceptable responses. The MEIM measures common elements of ethnic identification and is valid across different ethnic groups (Phinne y, 1992). Factor analysis of the MEIM reveals a multidimensional construct (Phinney, 1992). The re ported reliability (e.g., Cronbachs alpha) was .81 for high school students an d .90 for college students. Although partitioning individuals into a specific number of groups is an analytical simplification, this methodology helps resear chers understand variance among different groups (Deshpande et al., 1986) and is an a dopted method in ethnic marketing research (e.g., Deshpande et al., 1986; Williams and Qualls, 1989).
48 Table 4. Measure of Strengt h of Ethnic Identification No Statement Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree 1. People from my ethnic group spend time trying to find out more about their own ethnic group, such as its history, traditions, and/or customs 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. People from my ethnic group are active in organizations or social groups that include mostly members of their own ethnic group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. People from my ethnic group have a clear sense of their ethnic background and what it means to them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. People from my ethnic group think a lot about how their lives are affected by their ethnic group membership. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. People from my ethnic group are happy to be a member of the group they belong to. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. People from my ethnic group have a strong sense of belonging to their own ethnic group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. People from my ethnic group understand pretty well what their ethnic group membership means to them in terms of how to relate to their own group and/or other groups. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. In order to learn more about their ethnic background, people from my ethnic group often talked to other people about their own ethnic group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. People from my ethnic group have a lot of pride in their ethnic group and its accomplishments. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. People from my ethnic group participate in cultural practices of their own group, such as special food, music, or customs 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. People from my ethnic group feel good about their cultural and/or ethnic background. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ethnic Compatibility Attitude toward other ethnic groups are a f actor in ones social identity in the larger society (Phinney, 1992). Ethnic compa tibility, conceptualized as the viewers perception of the degree to which related or engaged people exist or act in harmony, is operationalized as an overall attitude toward other ethnic groups To measure ethnic compatibility, a new scale was developed that integrates items from Phinneys (1992) Attitude toward Other Groups scale and items that emerged from in-depth interviews
49 (Table 5). The reported reliability of Ph inneys (1992) scale was .75 and .86 for high school and college students, respectively. Table 5. Measure of Ethnic Compatibility No Statement Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree 1 People from other ethnic groups are not like me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I sometimes feel it would be better if different ethnic groups didnt try to mix together. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 My closest friends are members of my own ethnic group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 When I see people from different ethnic groups together, it does not seem right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I prefer people from my own ethnic group to people from other ethnic groups. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attitude toward the Actors Attitude toward the actors (A ACTOR ), conceptualized as a learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward actors featured in print advertisement, is operationalized as a cognitive evaluation of and an affe ctive response to the appearance of actors featured in an advertisement. Scale descriptors from Felthams (1994) Judgment of Ads-Viewer Judgment of Ads: Th e Persuasive Disclosure Inventory (PDI) scale, the ethos, which concentrates on the source rather than the message, and the pathos which considers the emotional or affective appeal, are used to measure A ACTOR (Table 6). Attitude toward the Advertisement An attitude toward the advertisement (A AD ), a learned disposition to react positively/negatively toward a print advertisement, is operationalized as an affective
50 reaction to an advertisement Drawing on Felthams (1994) Judgment of Ads-Viewer Judgment of Ads: The Persuasive Disclosure Inventory (PDI) scale pathos which considers the emotional or affective appeal, was used to measure A Ad (Table 7). Table 6. Measure of Attitude toward the Actors The models in the advertisement are Unbelievable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Believable Not Credible 1 2 3 4 5 6 Credible Not Trustworthy 1 2 3 4 5 6 Trustworthy Unreliable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reliable Undependable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dependable Does not affect my feelings 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affects my feelings Does not touch me emotionally 1 2 3 4 5 6 Touches me emotionally Is not stimulating 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stimulating Does not reach out to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reaches out to me Is not stirring 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stirring Is not moving 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is Moving Is not exciting 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is exciting Purchase Intention Purchase intention, conceptualized as a cognitive state of likelihood to act, is operationalized as the likelihood to do a future planned activity The purchase intention scale is a new phrase-completion measure (Table 8).
51 Table 7. Measure of Attitude to ward the Advertisement Overall, the advertisement Does not affect my feelings 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affects my feelings Does not touch me emotionally 1 2 3 4 5 6 Touches me emotionally Is not stimulating 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stimulating Does not reach out to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reaches out to me Is not stirring 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stirring Is not moving 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is moving Is not exciting 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is exciting Table 8. Measure of Purchase Intention When it comes to Corbis Cola, I would Definitely not buy this product 1 2 3 4 5 6 Definitely buy this product Absolutely not try this product 1 2 3 4 5 6 Absolutely try this product Never consider purchasing this product 1 2 3 4 5 6 Positively consider purchasing this product Research Design In-Depth Interviews The objectives of the in-depth interviews are twofold: 1) to create a typology of cultural surface pointers and 2) to understa nd individuals attitudes toward other ethnic groups. Although cultural surface markers may include features not visible in social interactions (e.g., undergarments of devout Jews), visible mark ers in print advertisement are the interest of the current research. Th ese markers include dress, skin color, hair
52 texture and form, height, physical size, eye sh ape, facial structure (e.g., nose shape), body modifications (e.g., tattoos), and cultural artifacts (e.g., religious jewelry). Sample A naturalistic inquiry framework, inductive analysis, is adopted for the in-depth interviews. In naturalist inquiry, all samp ling is done with a purpose in mind (Lincoln and Guba, 1985, p. 199). The target population is Hispanics residing in the Southeastern U.S. Hispanics were selected because they represent the largest single minority ethnic group in the U.S. (U.S. Census, 2000). Furthermore, Hispanics' purchasing power of $452 billion in 2000 continues to increase as they climb the socioeconomic ladder (U.S. Census, 2000). Hispanics rely on advertisi ng as a source of product information (Woods, 1995) making these consumers relevant to the current research. Participants were solicited using sn owball sampling. Snowball sampling is appropriate when the population of interest is unique and compiling a complete list of the population is impossible (Hair, Bush, and Ortinau 2006). Moreover, snowball sampling is appropriate for a purposeful sample, whic h is prescribed for naturalist inquiry. Participants are solicited by referra ls known to the primary researcher. Incentives To increase participation and referrals, participants received one chance to win a television for participating in the in-depth in terview and another chance for each referral who participates in the study. At the end of the interview, participants were given a coupon. The coupon was divided into two sectio ns: one for the participant to complete
53 and return to the researcher and one for the participant to keep that outlines rules for the drawing (Appendix 1). The portion of th e coupon retained by the interviewer was reviewed for completeness and accuracy, folded to conceal the participants name, and deposited in a locked box. Participants were offered additional chan ces for referring individuals to become participants in subsequent interviews or e xperimental testing sessions. The interviewer distributed blank coupons to the interviewees w ho chose to take advantage of this offer. The interviewee completed the referral coupon an d sent it with the referrer when he or she participated in a subsequent study session. Once data collection for the study was completed, the winning coupon was selected. The drawing took place on March 30, 2007. Coupons collected from the indepth interviews, pilot test, and experiment were combined and placed in a container. The drawing took place at the University of South Florida (USF). A USF staff member drew the winning coupon, witnessed by three individuals not involved in the current research project. The person drawing the winning coupon and three witnesses signed and dated the winning coupon. 6 The winner was notified by certified mail and had 30 days from the date of mailing to retrieve the prize. The winner was required to produce a photo identification to colle ct his or her winnings. Procedures Before each interview began, the purpose of the interview, the guidelines for the session, and the approximate length of the se ssion (45 minutes) were communicated to 6 The coupons are folded and the pa rties present at the drawing do not have access to the winners name.
54 the interviewee by the interviewer. In compliance with USF human research requirements, the researcher (e.g., interviewe r) obtained two executed consent forms: one for the interviewee and one for the researcher The researcher obtai ned consent to tape record the interview and advised the interview ee of his or her right to stop the interview at any time. Although the interviewee guides the dire ction of the interview, an outline (Appendix 2) assured consistent execution. Photographs of Hispanics (one female and one male) were used to construct a typol ogy of cultural surface makers. In addition, photographs of different ethni c group members were used to determine the ranking of out-group members, from least like me to most like me. These data determined the out-group members for the experimental treatm ents. Finally, data about products were collected to assure that the product featured in the experimental treatments was relevant to the ethnic group of study. Data Analysis The tape recorded conversations were transcribed (e.g., typed) verbatim. In addition to the primary researcher, two indepe ndent reviewers were solicited to code the interview transcripts: 1) Dr. Jay Mulki, Assi stant Professor of Marketing at Northeastern University, Boston, MA and 2) Dr. Doreen Sa ms, Assistant Professo r of Marketing at Georgia College & State University, Milledgevi lle, GA. Both reviewers are skilled in scientific research and have completed at least one doctoral-level course in qualitative research methods.
55 Consistent with naturalistic inquiry, a re viewer packet, includ ing copies of the transcripts, a cover letter (Appendix 3), and a consent form (Appendix 4), was delivered to each independent reviewer (Lincoln a nd Guba, 1985). The reviewers communicated via telephone and electronic mail to compare th eir findings and resolv e inconsistencies. Findings from the in-depth interviews served as input to scale and treatment development. Pilot Study A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the clarity of sc ale items, the reliability of measures, treatment effectiv eness, and the time needed to complete the experiment. Ninety-nine (99) Hispanics and who did not pa rticipate in the in-depth interviews, were solicited to participat e in the pilot study. Hispanics were solicited to participate in the pilot study through referrals known to the pr imary researcher (e.g., snowball sampling). Pre-Screening Pre-screening was used to determine in to which group, strong ethnic identifiers or weak ethnic identifiers, each participant belonged. Potentia l participants were contacted by telephone to: 1) determine their strength of ethnic identificati on, 2) obtain contact information, and 3) gather preferences for testing times. Employing Trimbles (1995) four-domain ethnic self-iden tification model, a pre-screening form was developed (Appendix 5). 7 Allocating points to each pre-screen ing element created an identity index (Table 9). The range of the index was zero to 12 points and the mean was six; 7 The four domains of ethnic self-identification are na tal background, subjective labeling, situation-context, and behaviors.
56 participants scoring above si x were assigned to the str ong ethnic identifiers group, and those scoring below six were assigned to the weak ethnic identifiers group. The researcher contacted each participant to coordinate and schedule pilot study sessions. For details of the procedures employed for th e pilot study, refer to Procedures in the Experiment section below. At the end of the interview, participates were debriefed about the current study. After collection of data for the pilot study and experiment, each participant received a debriefing letter. This procedure was a dopted in lieu of de briefing immediately following data collection because participants in one study may know other participants and debriefing information might be shared with participants of subsequent studies. Table 9. Pre-Screening Ethnic Identity Index No. Domain Question Answer Points Value U.S.A. 0 1. Natal Background Where were you born? Other country 1 Mother = Outside U.S.A. 1 Mother = U.S.A. 0 Father = Outside U.S.A. 1 2. Natal Background Where were your parents born? Father = U.S.A. 0 Language other than English 1 3. SituationContext What language do you generally speak at your job? English 0 4. SituationContext What language to you generally speak at home Language other than English 1
57 Table 9. Pre-Screening Ethnic Iden tity Index (continued) English 0 One or more 1 5. Behaviors What social organizations are you a member of? None 0 Yes 1 6. Behaviors Do you read (e.g., newspapers, magazines), view (e.g., television) or listen to (e.g., radio) information in a language other than English? No 0 Hispanic/Latino 2 Multiple group including Hispanic/Latino 1 7. Subjective Self-Labeling To what ethnic group do you belong? Any other group 0 Very strongly 3 Strongly 2 Weakly 1 Very Weakly 1 8. Subjective Self-Labeling How strongly do you identify with the ethnic group selected in question seven? Not at all 0 Experiment Experimental Design The primary interest of the experiment was to compare treatments. In this design, the post-treatment conditions were measured (Pedhazur and Schmelkin, 1991) (Table 10). A randomized block design was selected because it is appropriate for comparing treatments within blocks of relatively ho mogeneous experimental units (Mendenhall and Sincich, 1996). For the current study, particip ants were assigned to a treatment group of either strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) or weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers (WHEI). Participants self-identifying as strong or very strong were assigned to the SHEI group. Participants self-identifying as somewhat strong, somewhat weak, weak, or very weak were assigned to the WHEI group.
58 Table 10. Experimental Design: Post-Measure Only Treatment Measure X 1 O X 2 O X 3 O Participants were exposed to three advertisements. Firs t, each partic ipant viewed two spurious advertisements. Next, part icipants viewed one of three treatment advertisements: 1) an adve rtisement featuring two in-g roup members (II), 2) an advertisement featuring one in-group member and one out-group member (IO), or 3) an advertisement featuring two out-group members (OO) (Table 11). The treatments were randomly assigned to the participants within each treatment group (e.g., strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers and weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers). In summary, each participant was shown three advertisements two spur ious advertisements and one treatment advertisement (e.g., II, OO, or IO). Table 11. Experimental Treatments Treatments I = In-Group O = Out-group Strong (SHEI) OO II IO Strength of Ethnic Identification Weak (WHEI) OO II IO The independent variables were strength of ethnic identifica tion (e.g., strong or weak ethnic identifiers) and ethnic compatibil ity. Ethnic compatibility was the viewers perception of the compatibility of the actors featured in the treatment advertisement.
59 There were three levels of ethnic compa tibility: high [advertisement featuring two models of the same ethnic group as the part icipant (II)], mixed [advertisement featuring one model of the same ethnic group and one mo del of an ethnic out -group (IO)], and low [advertisement featuring two out-group models (OO)]. The predicted outcomes or dependent variables were at titude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement. The viewers perceived ethnic compatibility of the models featured in the advertisement predicted the attitude toward the actors and the advertis ement (Table 12). The current study examines differences among treatment conditions within SHEI and within WHEI. As hypothesized in H 1 and H 2 when SHEI view an advertisement featuring models high in ethnic compatibility and members of their own ethnic group (II), the most favorable evaluation of the act ors and the advertisement was predicted. Table 12. Factorial Design Ethnic Compatibility Low* (OO) High* (II) Mixed* (IO) Strong (SHEI) Less Favorable Most Favorable Least Favorable Strength of Ethnic Identification Weak (WHEI) No Difference No Difference No Difference *I = in-group member O = out-group member SHEI form a more favorable attitude to ward the actors and advertisement when two out-group (e.g., African-American) models are featured in the advertisement then when one in-group (e.g., Hispanic) and one out-group (e.g., African-American) model are featured in the advertisement. This predic tion is based on the noti on that a SHEI would find two out-group members (African-American s) more compatible because they are
60 from the same ethnic group, whereas a mix of in-group and out-group (Hispanic and African-American) models would be less compatible. SHEI rely on group membership to su stain their self-concept and perceive attempts to intrude on group boundaries (e.g., out-group member with in-group member) negatively. SHEI form the least favorable attitude when viewing an advertisement featuring an in-group member and an out-group member together. SHEI do not connect with advertisements featuring two out-group members and form less favorable attitudes than those in the in-group/in-group condition. However, the out-group/out-group context is expected to result in a more favorable attitude than the in-g roup/out-group condition, which threatens self-concept. It is predicted that WHEI, who rely less than SHEI on group membership to sustain self-concept, will form similar attit udes when viewing an advertisement featuring two in-group (II), two out-group models ( OO), or one in-group and one out group model (IO), not favoring one advertisement over another. Pre-Screening Pre-screening was used to determ ine into which group (e.g., SHEI, WHEI) participants belong. For deta ils, see Pre-Screening in th e Pilot Study section above. Sample Snowball sampling was used to obtain Hispanic group members. The primary researcher contacted Hispanics known to her to solicit participation in the study. A power analysis revealed that an approximate ly 50% probability of detecting a moderate
61 effect size (e.g., .5) yielded a sample size of 30 observations per treatment group (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, and Black, 1998). Therefore, six treatment groups (Table 12) render a total sample size of 180. Experimental Environment The experiment was conducted in a priv ate room, which was examined prior to the study session to assure optimal conditions (e.g., available chairs, air-conditioning working). The experimental sessions began no later than ten minutes after the scheduled start time. Participants a rriving after the commencement of the study were not permitted to participate in the session. Treatments Participants were exposed to three adve rtisements, two spurious advertisements (Figures 9 and 10) followed by one of th e three treatment advertisements: 1) advertisement featuring two Hispanic models (Figure 11), 2) advert isement featuring two African-American models (Figure 12), and 3) advertisement featuring one Hispanic model and one African-American model (Fig ure 13). The purpose of the spurious advertisements was to avoid hypotheses guess ing. The product, a soft drink, is a lowinvolvement, inexpensive item. 8 A fictitious brand name was used to assure the product did not bias attitudes. 8 The product was determined from in-depth interviews.
Experience The Newness of Corbis Figure 9. Spurious Advertisement One Experience The Ne wness of Corbis Figure 10. Spurious Advertisement Two 62
Experience The Ne wness of Corbis Figure 11. Treatment Conditi on II Two Hispanic Models Experience The Ne wness of Corbis Figure 12. Treatment Condition OO Two African-American Models 63
Experience The Ne wness of Corbis Figure 13. Treatment Condition IO One Hispanic Model and One African-American Model Procedures The primary researcher contacted referrals to participate in the study. The story line was that a fictitious company is conduc ting research to determine which of three potential advertisements consumers find the mo st effective in promoting their new (brand name). Potential participants were pre-screened by telephon e. Pre-screening continued until the required sample size was achieved. Refer to Pre-Screening in the Pilot Study section above for details of th e pre-screening process. Info rmation obtained from the prescreening provided guidance for scheduling th e study. Three potential research times were offered to those agreeing to participate. The primary researcher was present at each study session. The study materials were randomly placed on the table in front of each seat. Participants were instructed to 64
65 sit in the next available seat starting with the first row. The instructions for the experiment (Appendix 6) were read verbatim to assure consistency in presentation. Consent forms (Appendix 7) were collected before the experiment began. Although there was no time limit to complete the study, the approximate time needed to complete the study was 30 minutes. The primary researcher began the study and remained in the study room until all participants were finished. Participants were instructed to exit the room upon completing the study and deliver their study booklet to the researcher, w ho collected the study materials and issued an incentiv e coupon to the participant. The half of the coupon with the participants contact information was retained, folded to conceal personal information, and placed in a locked box. The other half of the coupon, which stated guidelines for the drawing, was given to th e participant (Appendix 1). A debriefing statement was mailed to each participant after completion of the experiment (Appendix 8). Study Materials The study booklet consisted of three s ections: 1) introduction and general instructions, 2) scenario and treatments and 3) measures. The study booklet was translated to Spanish, back to English, and back to Spanish. The final study materials included both English and Spanish (Appendix 9). After an introduc tion to the study and general instructions, a scenario for the advertisement that followed was presented. Participants were asked to vi ew three advertisements and re spond to a series of questions and statements that followed each advertisement. The two spurious advertisements
66 (Figures 9 and 10) were presented first, followed by measures of attitude toward the actors (Tables 6) and attitude toward the advertisements (Tab le 7). To avoid order bias, the spurious advertisements were random ized. Next, one of the three treatment advertisements (Figure 11, 12, or 13) followed by measures of attitude toward the actors, attitude toward the advertis ement, purchase intention, and the manipulation check were presented (Tables 13). Measures of strength of ethnic identifi cation (Table 4) and ethnic compatibility (Table 5) followed the measures of attitude s, intention, and the manipulation check. Finally, demographic da ta were collected. Manipulation Check To check strength of ethic identifi cation, the following question was asked: My identification with the et hnic group indicated above is. Very Weak Somewhat Somewhat Strong Very Weak Weak Strong Strong 1 2 3 4 5 6 To test the manipulation of ethnic compatibility, a manipulation check (Table 13) followed the treatment advertisement. Table 13. Manipulation Check ONE of the models in the advertisement is 49 Not at all like me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very much like me 50 Not at all compatible with me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Definitely compatible with me
67 Table 13. Manipulation Check (continued) 51 Not at all sensible 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely sensible THE OTHER MODEL in the advertisement is 52 Not at all Like me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very much like me 53 Not at all compatible with me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Definitely compatible with me 54 Not at all sensible 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely sensible Hypothesis guessing by participants was also tested. Before measures of ethnic compatibility and strength of ethnic identific ation questions were presented, participants were asked what product was advertised in th e advertisements they viewed to direct participants attention from the models in th e advertisements. Next, participants were asked, What do you think this study was about? Participants res ponses that included ethnicity or race were eliminated from the study. Data Analysis The hypothesized relationships in the curre nt study were tested using correlation, ANOVA, and regression (Table 14). ANOVA analyses were used to predict strong and weak ethnic identifiers attitudes toward both the actors and the advertisements (H 1 and H 2 ). The correlation between ethnic comp atibility and the strength of ethnic identification determined whether a relati onship between these variables exists (H 3 ). To test the mediating effect of ethnic compatib ility between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement (H 4 and H 5 ), the Baron and Kenny (1986) causal-step approach was conducted. A correlation analysis between attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement was conducted to test H 6 To test the relationship between purch ase intention and attitude toward the
68 actors (H 7 ) and attitude toward the advertisement (H 8 ), regression analyses were conducted. The validity and reliability of the measures used in the current study are examined in the following Chapter 4. In addition, the hypot heses set forth in this chapter are tested and the findings reported in Chapter 4. Finall y, the findings and implications of post hoc analyses are presented. Table 14. Summary of Hypothese s and Statistical Analyses Hypothesis Analysis H 1 H 1 (a): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) featured in an advertisement more favorably than out-group models (e.g., two African-Americans) (II > 00). H 1 (b): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) featured in an advertisement more favorably than mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (II > IO). H 1 (c): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate out-group models (e.g., two African-Americans) featured in an advertisement more favorably than mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (OO > IO). H 1 (d): Weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) as favorably as they do out-group models (e.g ., two African Americans) and mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African American) (II = OO = IO). ANOVA A ACTOR = 0 + 1 Strength Ethnic ID (SEI) + (Bonferroni)
69 Table 14. Summary of Hypotheses and Statistical Analyses (continued) H 2 H 2 (a): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) more favorably than an advertisement featuring outgroup models (e.g., two African-Americans) (II > 00). H 2 (b): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) more favorably than an advertisement featuring mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one AfricanAmerican) (II > IO). H 2 (c): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring out-group models (e.g., two AfricanAmericans) more favorably than an advertisement featuring mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one AfricanAmerican) (OO > IO). H 2 (d): Weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) as favorably as they do an advertisement featuring out-group models (e.g., two African Americans) and mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African American) (II = OO = IO). ANOVA A AD = 0 + 1 Strength Ethnic ID (SEI) + (Bonferroni) H 3 H 3 : There is a relationship between strength of ethnic identification and ethnic compatibility. Correlation Strength Ethnic ID (SEI) and Ethnic Compatibility (EC) H 4 H 4 : Ethnic compatibility mediates the relationship between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the actors. Regression Mediation Baron and Kenny (1986) causal step approach EC = 0 + 1 SEI + A ACTOR = 0 + 1 EC + A ACTOR = 0 + 1 SEI + A ACTOR = 0 + 1 EC + 2 SEI + Moderation A ACTOR = 0 + 1 SEI + 2 EC + 3 EC*SEI + H 5 H 5 : Ethnic compatibility mediates the relationship between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the advertisement. Regression Mediation Baron and Kennys (1986) causal step approach EC = 0 + 1 SEI + A AD = 0 + EC + A AD = 0 + 1 SEI + A AD = 0 + 1 EC + 2 SEI + Moderation A AD = 0 + 1 SEI + 2 EC + 3 EC*SEI +
70 Table 14. Summary of Hypotheses and Statistical Analyses (continued) H 6 H 6 : There is positive relationship between attitude toward the actors featured in an advertisements and attitude toward the advertisement, such that the mo re favorable (unfavorable) the attitude toward the actors, the more favorable (unfavorable) the attitude toward the advertisement. Correlation A AD and A ACTOR H 7 H 7 : Positive (favorable) attitudes toward the actors in an advertisement increase the likelihood of purchase intention of the product advertised. Regression PI = 0 + 1 A ACTOR + H 8 H 8 : Positive (favorable) attitudes toward the advertisement increase the likelihood of purchase intention of the product advertised. Regression PI = 0 + 1 A AD +
71 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA Chapter 4 provides detailed analyses of th e data collected. Three studies were conducted: 1) in-depth interviews, 2) a pilo t study, and 3) experiment. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and common theme detection. Quantitative data were subjected to regressi on analysis, ANOVA, and correlation analysis using SPSS statistical software. In-Depth Interviews Procedures The primary researcher met with each part icipant in a public facility (e.g., Barnes & Nobles Book Store, Outback Steakhouse). The primary resear cher advised the participant that taking part in the study wa s completely voluntary and the participant could choose not to answer a question a nd stop the interview at any time. The participants were given an Informed Cons ent, which they read and signed before proceeding further. Participants were aske d to use a fictitious name so that any association between the transc ript from the tape recorded session and the individual would not be possible. Verbal permission to tape record the interview session was obtained before beginning. Before ending th e session, each participan t was asked if they
72 wished to add anything. Partic ipants were thanked for their time and the session end time was noted at completion. The primary researcher of the current study transcribed the tape recorded interviews verbatim. The transcripts were sent to the independent reviewers (see Appendix 3), Dr. Jay Mulki and Dr. Doreen Sams, for coding. Reviewers communicated by electronic mail to review coding results and no conflicts in coding were revealed. Norm Data In-depth interviews were conducte d between August 2006 and September 2006. The sample was a purposeful sample and part icipants were solicited using the snowball sampling method. All participan ts in the in-depth interviews were Hispanic (e.g., three Cubans, one Puerto Rican, and one Mexican). The participants cons isted of three women and two men whose ages ranged between 18 and 50. Three of the five participants reported Catholic as their religious affiliation; one participant reported Jehovah Witness, and one non-denominational. All participants were married and four of the participants were married to a Hispanic spouse. All inte rviewees and their pare nts were born in the United States. Ethnic Related Behaviors Four of the five interviewees speak Spanish at home; all speak English at work unless conversing with another Hispanic. Interviewees reported having friends from various ethnic backgrounds (e.g., Whites and Blacks), enjoying Salsa and other Latin music along w ith more traditional U.S. music such as heavy metal and rock, and partaking in vari ous ethnic foods (e.g., Mexican and Chinese) as well as native cu isine (Appendix 2).
73 Religion Participants reported that religion is very important and attendance at church is expected in most families. Once predom inantly Catholic (Marin and Gamba, 1993), todays Hispanics follow a variety of faiths including Jehovah Witness and nondenominational as reported by the participan ts. Participants reported that religion continues to be an important element in Hispanic life. Hispanics Perceptions of In-Group Membership Boundaries define cultural groups, and where there are boundaries there are mechanisms to maintain those boundarie s (Nash, 1996). For ethnic groups, these mechanisms are cultural markers of differen ces including ethnographic records, such as kinship. Secondary to ethnographic records are surface pointers, which make recognition of group membership possible at a distance or in a fleeting instance, such as dress and physical features (Nash, 1996). A typology of Hispanic surface pointers that serve as cues to in-group membership was developed from the findings (Table 15). Table 15. Typology of Hispanic Surface Pointers as Cues to In-Group Membership Surface Pointer/Dimension Description Overall appearance Neat well-groomed Jewelry indicator of membership varies by subgroup Darker than White in visible features Fashion is important Face Overall Holistic perception difficult to dissect by features
74 Table 15. Typology of Hispanic Surface Pointers as Cues to In-Group Membership (continued) Color Varies darker hair signals inclusion Texture Curley to kinky Hair Style Long hair is considered attractive Women have long hair usually wear it down Men have cropped (some wear long) Eyes Color Brown Women wear make-up Nose Shape Varies with subgroup; Mexicans are broader, Cubans are pudgy Skin Color Olive or darker than Whites Women are tanned Height Short relative to U.S. Stature Weight Slim for men; full figure for women Overall Colorful Fitted Women Provocative; fitted; show figure Short skirts; low necklines Gold jewelry (chains); long big earrings Dress Men Conservative; open collars Show chest hair Dress to go out; neat and well-groomed Women Gold Often have religious symbols (cross) Heavy chains Jewelry Men Very similar to women but not as much Gold Often have religious symbols (cross) Heavy chains; glitzy watches Body Modification s Piercing (particularly ears) are very common for women Piercing is not common for men
75 Culture and Lifestyle Data about cultural values and lifestyles were also collected to assure that the content of the treatment was consistent with the intent of the message. Participants reported that Hispanics are family oriented and paramount in their value system is the care and rearing of their childre n. Participants reported that they are flexible as to time deadlines. Participants also reported the following: Hispanics are social people that respect their culture and adopt U.S. culture as necessary; the male is the dominant member of the family; women are expected to take care of the house and children; Hispanics dine together as an important elem ent of family life; elders are valued with extended family members often living together ; and children are expected to live at home until married. Marriage is very importantthe exte nded family like aunts and uncle are part of the family (M. E. D.) You marry to have childrenthis is your lifewe live to guide our children and make sure they are safe. (K. D.) Your son may leave [the parental home] sooner, but daughters go from here [parental home] to the home of their husbands. (V. E. D.) We [Mexicans] are expected not to get pregnant until after we marrybut, today parents have to deal with the reality (M. E. D.)
76 Economic efforts are communal. Res ources (e.g., earnings) are pooled to promote the health of the family. If a child needed to go to school, ev eryone contributed aunts, uncles everyone pitched in (V. E. D.) Not all family are the same, but we take care of our own [grandparents] (C. L.) We my family comes from New Jerse y, they all stay in my small house, and I pay for the food (C. L.) Education is essential with children e xpected to become professionals (e.g., bankers, lawyers). We dont ask our kids if they want to go to college we start out telling them they will go to collegeit doesnt take long for them to figure out its a better deal than work ing at McDonaldss (K. D.) Hispanics Perceptions of Out-Group Membership Three out-groups were addressed duri ng the in-depth interview: Whites (Caucasians), Blacks (African-American), and Asian-Indians. Participants were shown three pictures (e.g., African-American couple, Asian-Indian couple, and White couple)
77 and asked to arrange the photographs in order of most like m e to least like me (Appendix 2). An interesting finding is that although Hispanics differ within homogenous subgroups (e.g., Cubans, Mexicans), Hispanics seem to agree on the group least like me, African-Americans. Based on this finding, African-Americans were retained as the out-group for the treatment conditions of the experiment. A topology of the surface pointers that Hi spanics use to identify Blacks is presented in Table 16. Table 16. Typology of Hispanics Perceptions of African-Americans Surface Pointers as Cues to Out-Group Membership Surface Pointer/Dimension Description Overall appearance Not concerned with social norms (e.g., dress) Proud of gangs tattoos, etc. Face Overall Big; wide noses Color Black; kinky Texture Men sometimes shave hair off Hair Style Women have weird styles (weaves) Eyes Color Black Nose Shape Broad Skin Color Black or dark brown Height Tall Weight Varied; heavier than Hispanics Stature Build Muscular Overall Dress to draw attention Loose clothing with pull down pants and underwear showing Dress Women Revealing clothing Gold teeth Odd make-up (e.g., colors) Platted hair
78 Surface Pointer/Dimension Description Men Tank tops Jailing (e.g., loose clothing with pull down pants and underwear showing) Gold teeth Earrings (Bling, Bling) Women Large hoop earrings Jewelry Men Big chains with lots of glitz Body Modifications Tattoos Branding Participants perceptions of Black cultur e and life-style focused on the notion of gangs. Participants of the in-depth intervie w reported that Blacks are less likely to consider social norms, what other people thi nk. Participants also reported that Blacks are loud, party people (e.g., like to drink) who have little consideration for others. Interviewees reported that although some Black s work hard, they do not have the work ethic of Hispanics. Overall, respondents re ported that Blacks do not value education. They [Blacks] dont care about others. If you go to the movies, they talk and dont care if it disturbs others. (K. D.) I teach school and it is hard to get them [Blacks] to be quiet in classmost of them only come to school because they have to they dont care about an educationthey are looking for the quick money without working too hard. (K. D.)
79 Participants cues to White group member ship was based on phenotype traits. For example, participants consistently noted light skin and eye color as predominant cues. Cultural and lifestyle characteristics reported included rigid, goal orie nted, individualist, impassionate, intolerant of othe rs, and not education oriented. Pilot Study A pilot study to assess measures and determine time requirement for completion of the study was conducted (Appendix 6). Th e study materials were delivered by hand and by mail using snowball sampling. Participants were asked to note on the first page of the study packet how long it took them to complete the study. The data was recorded in Word Excel and transferred to SPSS 14.0 for statistical analyses. The pilot study consisted of a sample of ninety-nine (99) respondents. Females made up 63% of the sample. Participants ages ranged between 18 and 60. Thirty-five percent (35%) of the sample reported household annual income before taxes as greater than $70,000; 35% reported annual hous ehold income between $30,000 and $69,999, and 30% reported less than $30,000. Component analysis was conducted to eval uate measures of strength of ethnic identification, ethnic compatibility, attitude toward the actors, attitude toward the advertisement, and purchase intention (see Ta bles 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8). Principle component factor analysis is appropriate when the objective of the analysis is to account for the greatest amount of total varian ce (e.g., common, specific, and error) (Hair et al., 1998; Kim and Mueller, 1978). Component analys is considers total variance and derives factors that contain small propor tions of unique variance and some error variance (Hair et
80 al., 1998). However, the variance extracted is not enough to distort the factor structure (Hair et al., 1998). Assumptions of component an alysis were tested. Depa rture from assumptions of normality, homoscedasticity, and linearity apply onl y to the extent that they diminish the observed correlation (Hair et al., 1998, p. 99). However, sufficient correlation is required to justify component factor analysis (Hair et al., 1998). To assure sufficient correlation, the Bartlett test of sphericity was conducted. Missing Data A review of the data detected missing data (e.g., participants did not record a value or improperly responded to the question by selecting two responses). Missing data were replaced by the average value of all va lid responses for that particular item. Measure of Strength of Ethnic Identification An inter-item correlation matrix was examined to assure correlation among items. Item 2 (e.g., people from my ethnic group are acti ve in organizations or social groups that include mostly members of their own ethnic group) was not correlated to Item 5 (e.g., people from my ethnic group are happy to be a member of the group they belong to) ( r = .08) and demonstrated marginal correlati on with Items 6 (e.g., people from my ethnic group have a strong sense of bel onging to their own ethnic group) ( r = .38), and 11 (e.g., people from my ethnic group feel good about their cultural and/or ethnic background) ( r =.35) (refer back to Table 4). Therefor e, Item 2 was deleted from the scale.
81 The remaining ten items were subjected to principle component factor analysis. Bartlett test of spheri city was significant ( 2 = 1317.07, Sig. = .00) and assured sufficient correlation among the items. Items with commun alities of <.60 were deleted [e.g., Items 1 (e.g., people from my ethnic group spend tim e trying to find out more about their own ethnic group, such as its hist ory, traditions, and/or customs), 4 (e.g., people from my ethnic group think a lot about how their lives are affected by their ethnic group membership), and 5 (e.g., people from my et hnic group are happy to be a member of the group they belong to] (Table 4). The seven remaining items represent a one-factor solution that accounts for 77% of the variance (Table 17). Content validity was maximized by using item s previously subjected to scientific rigor and having those items reviewed by marketing colleagues (DeVellis, 2003). Cronbachs Alpha, a measure of internal cons istency, indicates the proportion of variance that is attributable to the true score. It in dicates the extent to which a set of items can be treated as measuring a single late nt variable. Higher values of this statistic are favored, because low values are evidence that the it ems are not measuring the same thing (e.g., latent variable) (Pedhazur and Schmelkin, 1991). Table 17. Principle Component Factor Anal ysis Strength of Ethnic Identification Item Description Factor Loading 60 People from my ethnic group have a clear sense of their ethnic background and what it means to them. .91 63 People from my ethnic group have a strong sense of belonging to their own ethnic group. .84 64 People from my ethnic group understand pretty well what group membership means in terms of how to relate to their own group and other groups. .87 65 In order to learn more about their ethnic background, people from my ethnic group often talked to other people about their own ethnic group. .79
82 Item Description Factor Loading 66 People from my ethnic group have a lot of pride in their ethnic group and its accomplishments. .93 67 People from my ethnic group participate in cultural practices of their own group, such as special food, music, or customs .85 69 People from my ethnic group feel good about their cultural and/or ethnic background. .93 Strength of Ethnic Identifi cation scale demonstrated internal consistency, = .95, which is above Nunnally and Bernsteins ( 1994) suggested value of .70. Item-scale correlation reveals the appropria teness of inclusion of the seven items. According to DeVellis (2003), for a nine-item scale to achieve an alpha of .80, the inter-item correlation should be about .31. The inter-i tem correlation among the seven items ranged between .52 and .90. Measure of Ethnic Compatibility The five items were subjected to princi ple component factor analysis. Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant ( 2 = 377.03, sig. = .00). Communalities among the variable ranged from .79 and .86 and were with in the acceptable level for retention of the items (Kerlinger and Lee, 2000). The initial solution revealed a two-factor solution. However, Items 70 and 74 did not load on one factor. Principle component analysis was repeated using Promax rotation and rendered a two-factor solution (Table 18). Factor One represents the notion of boundary preservation (e.g., I sometimes feel it would be better if different ethnic groups didnt try to mix together) and Factor Two represents distinctiveness (e.g., people from other ethnic groups are not like me).
83 Table 18. Principle Component Factor An alysis Ethnic Compatibility No. Item Factor 1 (Boundary Preservation) Factor 2 ( Distinctiveness) 70 People from other ethnic groups are not like me. .93 71 I sometimes feel it would be better if different ethnic groups didnt try to mix together. .91 72 My closest friends are members of my own ethnic group. .88 73 When I see people from different ethnic groups together, it does not seem right. .77 74 I prefer people from my own ethnic group to people from other ethnic groups. .92 The two-factor solution accounts for 79% of the variance. Content validity was maximized by using items previously subjected to scientific rigor and having those items reviewed by marketing colleagues (DeVellis, 2003). Correlation among the items ranged between .21 and .73. Cronbachs Alpha, a m easure of internal consistency, was acceptable at = .80 (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). Measure of Attitude toward the Actors The 12 items were subjected to principl e component factor analysis and Promax rotation. Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant ( 2 = 3002.62, sig. = .00). Communalities among all variables ranged fr om .78 and .91 and were within the acceptable level for retention (Kerlinger and Lee, 2000). Pr inciple component factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution that explained 87% of the variance (Table 19). Attitude toward the actors measures demonstrated internal consistency at = .97. Correlation among the items ranged between .34 and .93.
84 Table 19. Principle Component Factor Analys is Attitude toward the Actors Item Description Factor 1 Pathos Factor 2 Ethos 37 Unbelievable/Believable .99 38 Not Credible/Credible .99 39 Not Trustworthy/Trustworthy .92 40 Unreliable/Reliable .87 41 Undependable/Dependable .82 42 Does not affect my feelings/Affects my feelings .79 43 Does not touch me emotionally/Touches me emotionally .86 44 Is not stimulating/Is stimulating .96 45 Does not reach out to me /Reaches out to me .88 46 Is not stirring/Is Stirring .98 47 Is not moving/Is Moving .98 48 Is not exciting/Is Exciting .99 Measure of Attitude toward the Advertisement An inter-item correlation matrix of attitude toward the advertisement was examined to assure correlation among items ; correlation ranged between .70 and .92. Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant ( 2 = 1804.08, sig. = .00). The seven items were subjected to principles component analysis. Communalities among the variables ranged between .76 and .90 and within the acceptable level for retention of the items (Kerlinger and Lee, 2000). The one-factor so lution cumulatively explains 86% of the variance. Factor loadings ranged between .87 and .95 (Tab le 20). The measure of attitude toward the advertisement de monstrated internal consistency at = .97. Table 20. Principle Component Factor Analys is Attitude toward the Advertisement Item Description Factor Loading 42 Does not affect my feelings/Affects my feelings .87 43 Does not touch me emotionally/Touches me emotionally .94 44 Is not stimulating/Is stimulating .94 45 Does not reach out to me /Reaches out to me .93 46 Is not stirring/Is Stirring .92 47 Is not moving/Is Moving .95 48 Is not exciting/Is Exciting .94
85 Measure of Purchase Intention Correlation among items ranged between .74 and .81. The purchase intention scale demonstrated internal consistency, = .91. Reliability A summary of the reliability (e.g., internal consistency) of the measures used in the current study is presented in Table 21. Th e five measures demonstrated reliability with Cronbachs Alpha values greater than the recommended minimum of .70 (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). Table 21. Reliability of Measures Measure No. Of Items Cronbachs Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Strength of Ethnic Identification 7 .95 4.08 3.14 4.63 Ethnic Compatibility 5 .81 2.92 2.37 3.67 Attitude toward the Actor 12 .96 3.45 3.33 3.61 Attitude toward the Advertisement 7 .97 3.43 3.35 3.62 Purchase Intention 3 .91 3.39 3.12 3.64 Convergent Validity The existence of discriminant and convergent validity provides evidence of construct validity (Trochim, 1999) For convergent validity, th e measures that should be related are related. Using Pearsons r analysis, correlations among the items in a measure were calculated to test convergent validity. St rength of ethnic identification demonstrates convergent validity with correlations between items of the scale ranging between .52 and .90 (Table 22).
86 Table 22: Convergent Validity Strength of Ethnic Identification Q60 Q63 Q64 Q6 5 Q66 Q67 Q69 Q6o 1.00 Q63 .78 1.00 Q64 .80 .74 1.00 Q65 .66 .52 .66 1.00 Q66 .79 .69 .77 .78 1.00 Q67 .70 .69 .64 .63 .76 1.00 Q69 .84 .74 .74 .64 .90 .82 1.00 Ethnic compatibility is a two-dimensional measure. Items 70 and 74 represent one dimension and demonstrate convergent validity (e.g., r = .73, = .01). Furthermore, items making up the second dimension are significantly correlated (e.g., r ranging between .49 and .71, = .01), and were moderately correlated with items of the other dimension (e.g., r ranging between .21 and .42, = .01) supporting convergent validity (Table 23). Table 23. Convergent Validity Ethnic Compatibility Q70 Q71 Q72 Q73 Q74 Q70 1.00 Q71 .34 1.00 Q72 .21 .71 1.00 Q73 .37 .59 .49 1.00 Q74 .73 .37 .28 .44 1.00 Attitude toward the actors is a two-dimensional measure. Items 37 through 41 represent the one dimension and de monstrate convergent validity (e.g., r ranging between .73 and .89, = .01). Furthermore, items maki ng up the second dimension, Items 42 through 48, are signific antly correlated (e.g., r ranging between .72 and .93, = .01), and
87 moderately correlated with most items of the other dimension (e.g., r ranging between .30 and .63, = .01) supporting convergent validity (Table 24). Table 24. Convergent Validity Attitude toward the Actors Q37 Q38 Q39 Q40 Q41 Q42 Q43 Q44 Q45 Q46 Q47 Q48 Q37 1.00 Q38 .87 1.00 Q39 .82 .89 1.00 Q40 .78 .81 .87 1.00 Q41 .73 .77 .85 .85 1.00 Q42 .43 .50 .5 7 .60 .62 1.00 Q43 .49 .53 .5 7 .60 .60 .87 1.00 Q44 .38 .43 .5 4 .52 .56 .82 .90 1.00 Q45 .43 .50 .5 9 .58 .63 .79 .86 .88 1.00 Q46 .30 .36 .4 6 .49 .50 .72 .78 .80 .84 1.00 Q47 .39 .43 .5 1 .54 .52 .76 .83 .87 .86 .91 1.00 Q48 .34 .40 .4 8 .51 .50 .77 .84 .89 .83 .87 .93 1.00 Attitude toward the advertisement is a unidimensional construct. Correlation among the items was significant at = .01. Correlation among the variables ranged between .70 and .93 supporting conve rgent validity (Table 25). Table 25. Convergent Validity Attitude toward the Advertisement Q30 Q31 Q32 Q 33 Q34 Q35 Q36 Q30 1.00 Q31 .83 1.00 Q32 .82 .89 1.00 Q33 .81 .86 .88 1.00 Q34 .70 .84 .81 .82 1.00 Q35 .75 .87 .85 .85 .91 1.00 Q36 .76 .83 .88 .84 .81 .93 1.00
88 The measure of purchase intention is a three-item, unidime nsional scale. Convergent validity is supported (sig. = .01) with correlations ranging between .74 and .81 (Table 26). Table 26. Convergent Validity Purchase Intention Q55 Q56 Q57 Q55 1.00 Q56 .81 1.00 Q57 .79 .74 1.00 Discriminant Validity Discriminant validity is the notion that measures what should not be related are not related. To test for di scriminant validity, Pearsons r statistic was calculated for the standardized means of the measures. Two meas ures are significant: 1) attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement, and 2) strength of ethnic identification and ethnic compatibility. These relationships are expected as both relationships are hypothesized in the current study and supported by theory and re levant literature (refer back to Chapter 2). The insignificance of correlation among other constructs suggests sufficient distinctiveness among the measures supporting discriminant validity (Table 27). Table 27. Discriminant Validity SEI EC A AD A ACTOR PI SEI 1.00 EC .63* 1.00 A AD .04 .07 1.000 A ACTOR -.01 .08 .66* 1.00 PI -.01 .00 .04 .12 1.00 *Significant at .01
89 Experiment Sample Data were collected from the southeas tern U.S. (e.g., Florida and Georgia) and western U.S. (e.g., Texas). One hundred eigh ty Hispanics were included in the data collection process. One participant was eliminated because of hypothesis guessing rendering a usable sample of 179. The majority of the particip ants (53%) were born in th e U.S.; other birth countries include Mexico (29%) and South America (12 %). Characteristics of the participants include the following: participants ranged in age between 21 and 54; approximately 60% of the participants were single; 60% of th e participants were females; 38% of the participants were married and 2% were di vorced; and 82% of participants had some college education (60%) or completed a b achelor's degree (22%). At the upper bound, 8% of participants earned a masters degree, and at the lower bound 10% of participants completed high school. The annual household income is consiste nt with educationa l attainment: 72% reported income between $20,000 and $40,000; 10% reported income over $40,000; and 8% reported income less than $20,000. An overwhelming number (93%) self-identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino with some participants self-i dentifying as Mexican (2%), Puerto Ricans (2%), Cuban (1%), and Spanish (1%). The average number of years living in the U.S. varied among participants a nd their parents: part icipants averaged 23.5 year, participants fathers av eraged 28.3 years, and partic ipants mothers averaged 33.2 years. Consistent with the relatively long homestead in the U.S., most participants reported speaking English at home (57%). A lthough 48% of the par ticipants reported
90 Catholic as their religious affiliation, 25% reported Christian, 5% reported Jehovah Witness, and 15% reported other (e.g., Nazarene and Methodist), which is consistent with the findings of the in-depth interviews. Data The data were reviewed for errors in input. The six scales examined in the experiment used six-point descriptors. A desc ription of the scales is presented in Table 28. Table 28. Summary of Data Scale Scale Type Descriptors Number Items Observations Response Range Strength of Ethnic Identification Likert Strongly Disagree (1) to Strongly Agree (6) 7 179 1.00 6.00 Ethnic Compatibility Likert Strongly Disagree (1) to Strongly Agree (6) 5 179 1.00 6.00 Attitude toward the Actors Phrase Completion Different appropriate scale point descriptors 12 179 1.00 6.00 Attitude toward the Advertisement Phrase Completion Different appropriate scale point descriptors 7 179 1.00 6.00 Purchase Intention Phrase Completion Different appropriate scale point descriptors 3 179 1.00 6.00 Manipulation Check To check strength of ethnic identifica tion, the responses to the one-items asking how strongly (e.g., very str ongly, strongly, somewhat strongly, somewhat weakly, weakly, and very weakly) partic ipants associated with their ethnic groups were compared to the mean values of the measure of st rength of ethnic identification. A one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the groups (F=.84, sig. =.62). Therefore, the manipulation check for strength of ethnic identific ation was supported.
91 To check the manipulation of ethnic comp atibility, participants were asked to complete the measure shown in Table 13 in Chapter 3. According to Triandis and Triandis (1960, 1962), ethnicity or race is a mo re important factor for identifying ones social group membership than other persona l factors. Research shows that on the dominant dimension, ethnicity, in-group a nd out-group members were differentially evaluated, whereas in-group and out-group st atus on the other dimension, gender, was ignored (Klauer et al., 2003; Urban and Miller, 1998). Ther efore, in the current study, participants evaluated the models like me or not like me on ethnic membership first and ignored gender of the models. To assess the difference between the mode ls, the difference between statements for one model (e.g., statements 49-51) and th e other model (e.g., statements 52-54) were computed. The absolute difference between the models was subjected to a t-test to detect significant differences between the conditions. A summary of the results is reported in Table 29. Table 29. Manipulation Check Across Treatment Conditions Treatment Condition Sample Size Absolute Mean Difference Between The Two Models in The Treatment Ad Lower Upper Sig. OO 50 .66 .35 .97 .00 II 66 2.14 1.54 2.74 .00 IO 63 5.97 4.97 6.97 .00 The difference between the two African-Ame rican models (OO) was the lowest of all conditions (mean = .66). As expected, th is finding suggests that Hispanics consider African-Americans not like me and a defi nitive out-group seei ng little difference
92 between the models. The findings support the notion that ethnic ity is superior in social group identity to other cues such as gender. The difference between the two Hispanic models suggests that particip ants may be reacting to phenot ype (e.g., skin color, hair texture) differences, which vary between subgroups of Hispanics. The treatment condition that tests ethnic compatibility is the IO, one Hispanic model portrayed with one African-American model. The difference between the models was the greatest of all three conditions. The finding suggests that pa rticipants detected the incompatibility of the Hispanic a nd African-American models, supporting the manipulation check. Findings are consistent with previous res earch of the superiority of ethnic affiliation to other factors (Triandis and Triandis, 1960, 1962). Hypothesis guessing was also tested. Th e next-to-last question in the study booklet asked participants what product was featured in the advertisements they viewed. The intent of this question was to direct part icipant attention away from the models in the advertisement and to the product. The la st question asked participants, What do you think this study was about? One participant, who indicated race as the answer to this question, was eliminated from the study. Factorial Sample Of the 179 usable participants in the experiment, an uneven design was detected (Table 30). Participants self-labeling as very strong or strong were assigned to the SHEI. Participants selecting all ot her choices (e.g., somewhat strong, somewhat weak, weak, and very weak) were assigned to the WHEI group. This method is consistent with existing literature (Des hpande et al., 1986).
93 Table 30. Observations by Treatment Condition a nd Strength of Et hnic Identification Treatment Condition OO (two AfricanAmerican models) II (two Hispanic models) IO (one Hispanic model and one African-American model) Strong SHEI 31 36 32 Strength of Ethnic Identification Weak WHEI 19 30 31 Test of Hypotheses A summary of the findings for the hypothe ses testing is presented in Table 31. Table 31. Findings of Hypotheses Testing Hypothesis Relationship Supported Not Supported H 1 (a) SHEI A ACTOR II > OO X H 1 (b) SHEI A ACTOR II > IO X H 1 (c) SHEI A ACTOR OO > IO X H 1 (d) WHEI A ACTOR II = OO = IO X H 2 (a) SHEI A AD II > OO X H 2 (b) SHEI A AD II > IO X H 2 (c) SHEI A AD OO > IO X H 2 (d) WHEI A AD II = OO = IO X H 3 SEI EC X H 4 SEI EC A ACTOR X H 5 SEI EC A AD X H 6 A ACTOR A AD X H 7 A ACTOR PI X H 8 A AD PI X
94 Of the 14 hypothesized relationships, nine rela tionships were supported and five were not supported. The following discussion states each hypothesis followed by a discussion of the findings. Hypotheses 1 and 2 H 1 (a): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifi ers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) featured in an advertisement more favorably than out-group models (e.g., two African-Americans) (II > 00). H 1 (b): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) featured in an advertisement more favorably than mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (II > IO). H 1 (c): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifi ers (SHEI) will evaluate out-group models (e.g., two African-Americans) featured in an advertisement more favorably than mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (OO > IO). To test H 1 (a), H 1 (b), and H 1 (c), ANOVAs of SHEI were conducted. The model was significant (F = I19.32, sig. = .00). Bonferroni analys is, which is appropriate for uneven designs, was conducted to test sign ificant differences between treatment conditions (e.g., II, OO, and IO) within SHEI A significant difference as to attitude toward the actors (sig. = .00) within SHEI was found between condition OO (e.g., two
95 African-American models) and II (e.g., two Hi spanic models) (sig. = .00). Hence, H 1 (a) was supported. Similarly, SHEI demonstrated significant differences in their evaluation of the models between the II (e.g., two Hispanics) and IO (e.g., one African-American and one Hispanic) conditions (s ig. = .00), supporting H 1 (b). However, no significant difference was found within SHEI as to attitude toward the actors between adve rtisements featuring two African-Americans (OO) and advertisem ents featuring one Hispanic and one African-American (IO) (si g. = .70). Therefore, H 1 (c) is not supported. A comparison of means showed that the most favorable atti tude was formed under the II condition (mean = 4.42) followed by condition OO (mean = 3.25) and condition IO (mean = 2.91). H 1 (d): Weak Hispanic ethnic identifi ers (SHEI) will evaluate their own group models (e.g., two Hispanics) as favorably as they do out-group models (e.g., two African Americans) and mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African American) (II = OO = IO). To test H 1 (d), ANOVA was conducted to det ect differences among treatment conditions for weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers (WHEI). The mode l was not significant ( F = .28, sig. = .76) and indicated no significant differences in WHEI attitudes toward the actors among the three conditions (e .g., II, OO, and IO). Hence, H 1 (d) was supported. H 2 (a): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifier s (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group m odels (e.g., two Hispanics) more favorably than an
96 advertisement featuring out-group mode ls (e.g., two African-Americans) (II > 00). H 2 (b): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group m odels (e.g., two Hispanics) more favorably than an advertisement featuring mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one AfricanAmerican) (II > IO). To H 2 (c): Strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring out-group mode ls (e.g., two African-Americans) more favorably than an advertisement featur ing mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African-American) (OO > IO). To test H 2 (a), H 2 (b), and H 2 (c), an ANOVA comparing differences in attitude toward the advertisement within SHEI betw een treatment conditions (e.g., II, OO, and IO) was conducted. Findings similar to attit ude toward the actors were found for attitude toward the advertisement. The model was significant ( F = 23.47, sig. = .00). Bonferroni analysis revealed a significant difference (sig. = .00) as to attitude toward the advertisement within SHEI between condition OO (e.g., two AfricanAmerican models) and II (e.g., two Hispanic models), supporting H 2 (a). Significant difference (sig. = .00) within SHEI as to their evaluation of the II condition (e.g., two Hispanics) and IO condition (e.g., one Af rican-American and one Hispanic) were detected. Hence, H 2 (b) was also supported. Bonferroni analysis revealed no significant
97 difference within SHEI as to their attitude toward the advertisement between conditions OO (e.g., two African-Americans) and IO (e.g., one African-American and one Hispanic) (sig. = .76). Hence H 2 (c) was not supported. A comparison of means within SHEI shows that the most favorable attitude was formed under the II condition (mean = 4.77) followed by condition OO (mean = 3.39) and condition IO (mean = 3.05). H 2 (d): Weak Hispanic ethnic identifier s (SHEI) will evaluate an advertisement featuring their own group mode ls (e.g., two Hispanics) as favorably as they do an advertisement featuring out-group mode ls (e.g., two African Americans) and mixed group models (e.g., one Hispanic and one African American) (II = OO = IO). ANOVA analysis found no signifi cant differences as to attitude toward the advertisement between the th ree conditions for WHEI ( F = .14, sig. = .87). H 2 (d) was supported. Hypothesis 3 H 3 : There is a relationship between stre ngth of ethnic iden tification and ethnic compatibility.
98 To test H 3 Pearsons r statistic was calculated between strength of ethnic identification and ethnic compatibility. St rength of ethnic identification and ethnic compatibility are related ( r = .63, sig. = .01) 9 Therefore, H 3 was supported. Hypothesis 4 H 4 : Ethnic compatibility mediates the re lationship between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the actors. Baron and Kennys (1986) causal step approach was conducted to test the mediating effect of ethnic compatibility be tween strength of et hnic identification and attitude toward the actors. Le venes test of equality of error variance was significant at .06. A regression analysis of ethnic compatib ility (e.g., dependent variable) and attitude toward the actors (e.g., independent variab le) rendered a non-s ignificant model ( F = .70, sig. = .84). At any point during the Baron and Kenny (1986) step approach nonsignificance is found; mediati on is not supported. Therefore, ethnic compatibility does not mediate the relationship betw een strength of ethnic identi fication and attitude toward the actor. Hence, H 4 was not supported. Strength of ethnic identifi cation and ethnic compatib ility were regressed on attitude toward the actors (A ACTOR = 0 + 1 SEI + 2 EC + 3 EC*SEI + to test a possible 9 There is an inverse relationship between strength of ethnic identification and ethnic compatibility. The positive sign of the r statistic results from the orientation of the scale items (e.g., items of the ethnic compatibility scale are negatively worded and items of the strength of ethnic identification scale are positively worded).
99 moderating effect. The m odel was not significant ( F = .61, sig. = .92) eliminating a moderating effect of ethnic compatibility be tween strength of et hnic identification and attitude toward the actors. Hypothesis 5 H 5 : Ethnic compatibility mediates the re lationship between strength of ethnic identification and attitude toward the advertisement. Regression analysis and Baron and Kenny s (1986) causal step approach were conducted to test H 5 A regression analysis of et hnic compatibility (e.g., dependent variable) and attitude toward the advert isement (independent variable) rendered a significant model ( F = 2.96, sig. = .00). Next, streng th of ethnic id entification (e.g., independent variable) was regressed to attitu de toward the advertisement (e.g., dependent variable). The model was not significant ( F = 1.02, sig. = .44). Therefore, H 5 is not supported. To test for possible modera ting effects, the re gression equation A AD = 0 + 1 SEI + 2 EC + 3 EC*SEI + was tested. The model was not significant ( F = 1.20, sig. = .20). Hence, ethnic compatibility does not moderate the relationship between strength of ethnic identification and attit ude toward the advertisement.
100 Post Hoc Analyses H 4 and H 5 From an aggregated level of analysis, ethnic compatibility does not moderate or mediate the relationship between strength of ethic identificat ion and attitudes toward the actors or advertisement. A post hoc analys is at a disaggregated level was warranted. Strong Hispanic Ethnic Identifiers (SHEI) A series of regression analyses using Baron and Kennys (1986) causal step appr oach were conducted. The relationship between strength of ethnic iden tification (SEI) and ethnic compatibility (EC) was tested, EC = 0 + 1 SEI + and found to be significant ( F = 14.92, sig. = .00, = .37), as well as the relationship between EC and AD ACTOR (EC = 0 + 1 Aactor + F = 5.14, sig. = .03, = .25), and the relationship between SE I and attitude toward the actors (A ACTOR ) (SEI = 0 + 1 Aactor + F = 10.88, sig. = .00, = .33). Regression anal ysis found the equation AD ACTOR = 0 + 1 EC + 2 SEI + to be significant ( F = 6.08, sig. = .00). After controlling for the mediator (EC), the independent variable (SEI) remains significant ( t = 2.58, sig. = .01, = .28), and hence, total mediation is not supported. However, the significance of the relationship between SEI and AD ACTOR decreases when SEI and EC are regressed to AD ACTOR ( = .28) then when only SEI is regressed to AD ACTOR = .33), supporting partial mediation. The equation A ACTOR = 0 + 1 EC + 2 SEI + 3 EC*SEI + was subjected to regression analysis to test moderation. The interaction term was non-significant ( F = 1.39, sig. = .24), however, the main e ffect of ethnic compatibility ( F = 2.09, sig. = .03) and strength of et hnic identification ( F = 2.12, sig. = .03) as to attitude toward the actors was significant.
101 The mediation of EC between SEI and attitude toward the advertisement (AD AD ) was supported for SHEI. A regression analysis revealed that the in teraction between SEI and EC was non-significant (F = 1.54, sig. = .20). Regression analysis of the equation EC = 0 + 1 SEI + was significant ( F = 14.92, sig. = .00, = .37). Regression to test the relationship between EC and AD AD was significant (EC = 0 + 1 Aad + F = 8.81, sig. = .00, = .35), as well as the relationship between SEI and AD AD (SEI = 0 + 1 Aad + F = 17.61, sig. = .00, = .43). Regressing SEI and EC to AD AD the model was significant ( F = 10.33, sig. = .00) and the beta for SEI decreased ( = .36) compared to the regression of SEI to AD AD ( = .43) supporting partial mediation. Weak Hispanic Ethnic Identifiers (WHEI). The findings are not consistent for WHEI. Regression analysis (SEI = 0 + 1 EC + supported the relationship between SEI and EC (F = 13.77, sig. = .00, = .34), however, the relationship between EC and AD ACTOR was not supported ( F = .37, sig. = .54) and media tion was not supported. The interaction term (SEI*EC) was not significant ( F = 1.23, sig. = .28) and moderation was not supported. Similar findings were disclosed for the mediating effect of EC between the relationship of SEI and A AD The regression of SEI (e.g., independent variable) to EC (e.g., dependent variable) was signification ( F = 3.71, sig. = .00). However, the relationship between EC (e.g., independent variable) and A AD (e.g., dependent variable) was not significant, and mediation was not supported. The interaction term was not significant ( F = .85, sig. = .65) and mode ration was not supported.
102 The findings of the post hoc analysis are intuitive as WHEI compared to SHEI are less dependent on ethnic group membership to support self-concept. WHEI demonstrate no significant differences among the three treatment conditions (e.g., two Hispanic models, two Black models, and one Hispanic and one Black model). However, for SHEI, the ethnic compatibility of the models featur ed in the advertisement is essential for the resulting attitudes. Drawing more heavily on ethnic group membership than WHEI, SHEI seek cues to maintain their ethnic membership boundaries. Hence, the compatibility of the models mediates the resu lting attitude toward the actors for SHEI. Hypothesis 6 H 6 : There is positive relationship between attitude toward the actors featured in an advertisement and attitude toward the advertisement, such that the more favorable (unfavorable) the attitude to ward the actors, the more favorable (unfavorable) the attitude toward the advertisement. Pearsons r analysis was conducted to test the relationship between attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement. H 6 was supported at significance level .01 ( r = .66).
103 Hypothesis 7 H 7 : Positive (favorable) att itudes toward the actors in an advertisement increase the likelihood of purchase intention of the product advertised. The equation PI = 0 + 1 Aactor + was tested using regression analysis to test H 7 The model was significant ( F = 2.68, sig. = .10). Hence, H 7 was supported. Hypothesis 8 H 8 : Positive (favorable) attitudes toward the advertisement increase the likelihood of purchase intenti on of the product advertised. Regression analysis was conducted (PI = 0 + Aad + and rendered a nonsignificant model ( F = .30, sig. = .58). H 8 was not supported. Post Hoc Analyses H 8 The non-significant relationship between attitude toward the advertisement and purchase intention, which is supported in the literature, warranted additional analysis. Strength of ethnic identification (SEI) has been found to moderate the relationship between homophily (e.g., ethnic congruence between the viewer of an advertisement and the model portrayed in an advertisement) a nd purchase intentions (Simpson, et al. 2000).
104 Hence, the following equation was subjected to regression analysis, PI = 0 + 1 SEI + 2 Aad + 3 SEI*Ad + The model was significant ( F = 2.38, sig. = .01). The interaction between SEI and A AD was significant at ( F = 3.13, sig. = .00). Significance in the interaction term eliminates interpretation of the main effects. Therefore, SEI moderates the relationship between A AD and purchase intention. The linear regression model explains 49% (e.g., adjusted R 2 = .49) of the variance in purchase intention. To examine the role of ethnic compatib ility in attitudina l formation, a MANOVA was conducted (A ACTOR + A AD = 0 + 1 EC + At = ethnic compatibility predicts attitude toward the actors ( F = 1.51, sig. = .10), but not attitude toward the advertisements ( F = .62, sig. = .86). The finding is intuitive as ethni c compatibility related to the viewers percep tion of the compatibility of the models featured in the advertisement. Treatment conditions To investigate the relationship between attitudes and purchase intention within a common element, the data was grouped by treatment condition. The findings are su mmarized in Table 32. When viewing an advertisement featuring one Hispanic and one Black model, there was no relationship between attitudes (e .g., toward the actors or advertisement) and purchase intentions (PI). The findings show that Hispanics att itudes do not lead to purchase intention when viewing a mixed c ouple advertisement (e.g., IO). The findings suggest that a variable not examined in th e current study might moderate the relationship between attitudes and PI when the models featured in the advertisements are not
105 ethnically compatible (e.g., from different ethnic groups). For example, Hispanics rely heavily on word-of-mouth advertising to form purchase decisions, so the print advertisement does not solicit a PI. Table 32. Post Hoc Analyses Summary by Treatment Condition Description Two Black Models (OO) Two Hispanic Models (II) One Hispanic Model & One Black Model (IO) A ACTOR + A AD PI PI = 0 + 1 Aactor + 2 Aad + 3 Aactor*Aad + Interaction F = 1.08 Sig. = .46 F = .86 Sig. = .68 F = .97 Sig. = .55 PI = 0 + 1 Aactor + 2 Aad + Direct Effect F = .40 Sig. = .68 F = 3.58 Sig. = .03* F = 1.04 Sig. = .36 A ACTOR PI PI = 0 + 1 Aactor + 2 SEI + 3 Aactor*SEI + Interaction F = 2.75 Sig. = .13 F = 1.04 Sig. = .53 A AD PI PI = 0 + 1 Aad + 2 SEI + 3 Aad*SEI + Interaction F = 3.66 Sig. = .04* F = 1.91 Sig. = .17 Significant at = .05 For treatment condition II (e.g., two Hispanic models), A ACTOR and A AD predict PI. This is consistent with existing lite rature. When viewing two Black models, the relationship between A AD and PI is moderated by strength of ethnic identification. The non-significance of A ACTOR is reasonable, because the actors featured in the advertisement (e.g., visual images) are one of the various elements (e.g., linguistics) of the overall advertisement (Kellner, 2003). In the current study, A AD is a measure of overall attitude, which encompasses the various elements of the advertisement. Purchase intention is a matter of attitude toward the advertisement and strength of ethnic identification. It is reasonabl e that ones own ethnic group me mbership is elicited when
106 viewing an advertisement featur ing two out-group members. Therefore, the strength of ones own ethnic membership m oderates the resulting intention. Post Hoc Analyses of Between Group Differences ANOVAs were conducted to examine the diffe rence in attitude toward the actors and attitude toward the advertisement be tween SHEI and WHEI. Significance is supported at = .05 (Table 33). Table 33. Differences between Strong and Weak Ethnic Identifiers By Treatment Condition Model Strong SHEI Weak WHEI Treatment Condition Variable F Value Sig. Mean Mean A ACTOR .00 .98 3.25 .94 3.25 .80 OO (two African-American models) A AD .62 .44 3.39 .90 3.18 .90 A ACTOR 11.60 .00* 4.34 1.13 3.44 1.03 II (two Hispanic models) A AD 19.98 .00* 4.68 1.24 3.21 1.43 A ACTOR 4.57 .04* 2.91 .91 3.36 1.04 IO (one African-American model and one Hispanic model) A AD .17 .69 3.15 1.26 3.05 .94 *Significant at = .05 In the OO condition (e.g., two African-Ame rican models), findings reveal no significant difference as to attitude toward the actors ( F = .00, sig. = .98) or attitude toward the advertisement ( F = .62, sig. = .44) between SHEI and WHEI. When viewing an advertisement featuring two Hispanic m odels (II), significan t differences between strong and weak ethnic identifiers as to attitude toward the actors ( F = 11.60, sig. = .00) and attitude toward the advertisement (F = 19.98, sig. = .00) were found. SHEI formed a
107 more favorable attitude toward the actors (mean = 4.34, standard deviation = 1.13) than did WHEI (mean = 3.44, standard deviation = 1.0 3). Similar results emerged for attitude toward the advertisements with SHEI form ing more favorable attitudes (mean = 4.68, standard deviation = 1.24) than WHEI (m ean = 3.21, standard deviation = 1.43). In the IO condition (e.g., one African-American model and one Hispanic model), there is no significant difference as to attitude toward the advertisement ( F = .17, sig. = .69) between strong and weak ethnic identifiers. However, a significa nt difference exists between strong and weak ethnic identifiers as to attitude toward the actors ( F = 4.57, sig. = .04). In summary, between group (e.g., strong versus weak ethnic identifiers) differences were found in the post hoc anal yses (Table 33). When viewing an advertisement featuring two African-American models, no si gnificant differences were found between strong and weak identifiers attitu de toward the actors or advertisement. Because the models in the advertisement we re both out-group members it is reasonable that both strong and w eak identifiers would contrast evaluating the stimulus as not like me. For the II condition (two Hispanic models), the findings are intuitive. Hispanics assimilate with models from their own ethnic group and evaluate them like me. However, SHEI form a more favorable attitude toward the actors and advertisement than WHEI. SHEI rely more heavily on group member ship as part of their self-concept than do WHEI, supporting the more favorable attitude. The findings for the between group differe nces in condition IO (e.g., one AfricanAmerican model and one Hispanic model) we re interesting. SHEI were significantly
108 different from WHEI forming a less favorable attitude toward the model (mean = 2.91, standard deviation = .91) than weak identifiers (mean3.36, standard deviation = 1.04). The finding supports the notion th at ethnic compatibility of the models featured in an advertisement influences the viewers atti tude toward the models. SHEI, who draw heavily on ethnic membership for their self -concept, will move to retain their distinctiveness and form le ss favorable attitudes when boundaries to membership are threatened. In the following Chapter 5, an in-depth discussion of the findings and implications of those findings, the direction for future research and limitations of the study are presented. Summary In-depth interviews of five Hispan ics created a typology of cultural surface pointers for African-Americans. The findings of the interviews serv ed as input to the development of the treatment adve rtisements for the experiment. Dimensionality of measures was conf irmed in a pilot study consisting of 99 participants. Principle component factor analysis and Promax rotation rendered the following results: strength of et hnic identification is a seven-item unidimensional scale; ethnic compatibility is a five-item two-di mensional scale (e.g., distinctiveness and boundary preservation); attitude toward the act or is a 12 item two-dimensional scale (e.g., pathos and ethos); attitude toward the advertisement is a seven-item unidimensional; and purchase intention is a three-item unidimensional measure. The experiment consisted of 179 Hispanics. The majority (60%) of participants were single, educated (e.g., 82% either completed a bachelor degree or had some college education), of moderate-income househol ds (e.g., $20,000 $40,000), and, on average,
109 lived in the U.S. all their lives. All measur es demonstrated internal consistency with Cronbachs Alpha ranging from .80 to .97. The manipulation checks were supported. Hypothesis guessing resulted in the e limination of one participant. Hypotheses H 1 (a), H 1 (b), H 1 (d), H 2 (a), H 2 (b), H 2 (d), H 3 H 6, and H 7 were supported. H 1 (c), H 2 (c), H 4 H 5 and H 8 were not supported. A post hoc analysis to investigate the non-support of H 4 and H 5 (e.g., mediating effect of ethnic compatibility between strength of ethnic iden tification and attitude towa rd the actors and attitude toward the advertisement) at the aggregat e level showed support for the hypothesized mediation at the disaggregated leve l for SHEI, but not for WHEI. Post hoc analysis was also conducted for the non-support of H 8 (e.g., relationship between attitude toward the advertisement a nd purchase intention) Research supports the moderating affect of streng th of ethnic identification and homophily as predictors of purchase intention. Similarly, post hoc analys is revealed that attitude toward the advertisement and strength of ethnic identification interaction to predict purchase intention. Hypotheses testing and post hoc analysis rendered a revised disaggregated model (Figure 14). All relationships in the model are supported for SH EI. For WHEI, only the relations noted by a dotted line are supported. Post hoc analyses were conducted to examine the between group differences (e.g., strong versus weak ethnic identifiers) as to attitude toward the actors and advertisements.
Figure 14. Disaggregated Ethnic Compatib ility Model of Atti tudinal Responses toward Advertising Legend for Figure 14 Relations supported for both w eak (WHEI) and strong (SHEI) ethnic identifiers Relations supported for only SHEI Strength of Ethnic Identification Ethnic Com p atibilit y Attitude toward the Actors Attitude toward Advertisement Purchase Intentions SHEI and WHEI form signi ficantly different attitude toward the actors and advertisement when viewing an advertisement featuring two Hispanic models. Significant difference between strong and weak ethnic identifiers as to attitude toward the actors was also found for the IO condition (e.g., one Hispanic model and one Black model). These findings were predicable, because SHEI, more so than WHEI, draw heavily on ethnic group membership to support th eir self-concept. Th erefore, SHEI more favorably evaluate an advertisement featuri ng two Hispanic models than do WHEI. An advertisement featuring one Hispanic a nd one Black model cause a strong ethnic identifier to retaliate to maintain his or her ethnic group boundaries, forming a less favorable attitude toward the actors than WH EI. In the following ch apter, a discussion of 110
111 the findings, implication of the findings, cont ributions, direction for future research, limitations of the study, and conclusion are presented.
112 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The consumer is the ultimate author of the meaning of an advertisement and the intentions of the maker becomes of sec ondary importance (OBa rr, 1994, p. 8). The current research investigates the meaning of advertising through the ey es of the Hispanic and how that meaning is apparent in attit udes and purchase intenti on. Specifically, the current study investigated how ethnic minoritie s judge print advertis ements that feature ethnically diverse models as communication cues. For the first time, data of how minorities evaluate the compatibility of models from different ethnic groups featured together in a print advertisement was collecte d. Findings of this st udy clearly support the notion that perceived ethnic compatibility of models featured in an advertisement influence resulting attitudes about the models. Consistent with existing literature (e.g., Donthu and Cherian, 1994), strength of ethnic id entification is an important variable in explaining attitude formation. New findings suggest that strength of ethnic identification moderates the relationship between attitude s toward the advertisement and purchase intention for SHEI. Of crucial importance is the finding that when viewing an advertisement featuring mixed ethnic models both strong Hispanic ethnic identifiers (SHEI) and weak Hispanic ethnic identifiers (WHEI) did not exhibit an intention to purchase the product. Chapter 5 offers a disc ussion of the key findings of this empirical
113 study, implication of those findings, contribu tions (e.g., theoretical, methodological, and managerial), direction for future research, limitations, and conclusion. Findings Strength of Ethnic Identifica tion and Attitude Formation The findings of the current study rendered both expected and unexpected results as to the relationship between strength of ethnic identifica tion and attitude formation. SHEI, who draw more heavily on group membership to sustain self-concept, form more favorable attitudes (e.g., toward the actors and advertisement) when viewing an advertisement featuring two Hispanic models (II) than when viewing advertisements featuring either two African-Americans (OO) or one Hispanic and one African-American (IO). As expected, WHEI, who do not rely he avily on group membership to sustain selfconcept, formed similar attitudes among the three treatment advert isements (e.g., II, OO, IO). An unexpected finding is the non-significan ce of attitudes towa rd the actors and advertisement for SHEI between treatmen t conditions OO and IO. An alternative explanation for this finding is the need for consistency (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Research shows that people strive to ma intain consistency in their self-impression, looking for and adopting behaviors that conf irm their self-conception (Backman, 1988). Furthermore, they resist information that is not consistent with their self-conception (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Therefore, it is re asonable that when viewing the mixed ethnic models (IO), SHEI simply avoid the informati on because it is inconsistent with their selfconception. The IO image is as inconsistent with their self-conception as the OO image.
114 Rather than retaliati ng to maintain their ethnic gr oup boundaries in the IO condition, which results in a significant difference be tween attitudes in the IO and OO conditions, SHEI simply avoid the information (e.g. disc onnect between their se lf-conception and the images). Simply stated, the inconsistency of the image (IO) and se lf-conception result in a disconnection, and a similar (to the OO ) contrast effect occurs. Ethnic Compatibility Ethnic compatibility (EC), a new construct developed in the current research, was shown to be an important variable in understa nding Hispanics attit udes toward the actors and advertisement. For SHEI, ethnic compa tibility mediates the relationship between strength of ethnic identificati on and attitudes (e.g., toward th e actors and advertisement). The finding argues that promotional campaigns aimed directly at one ethnic group would be more effective than a non-adaptive pr omotional campaign (e.g., inclusion of mixed ethnic group members to connect with mu ltiple ethnic consumers simultaneously), because Hispanics notice portr ayals of their own ethnic gr oup members (e.g., II) and take steps to stop the erosion of ethnic boundaries and distin ctiveness when mixed ethnic models (e.g., IO) are us ed in advertisements 10 An unexpected finding is the lack of support for the mediation effect of EC between strength of ethnic identificati on and attitude toward the actors and advertisement. The findings suggest that because WHEI do not heavily rely on ethnic group membership to sustain self-concepti on, the context of th e advertisement (e.g., ethnicity of the models portrayed in the advertisement) does not influence resulting 10 Refer to Chapter 4, Test of Hypotheses, Post Hoc Analysis H 4 and H 5 for the statistical analyses of mediating effects of EC on the relationship between SEI and A ACTOR and A AD
115 attitudes. This phenomenon might be better understood in the framework of acculturation and assimilation. Research shows that acculturation, the process of adapting to new conditions of life (T hurnwald, 1932, p. 557), may occur at the individual or group level and may result in change in value orientation and even change in values (Teske and Nelson, 1974). Some individuals resist acculturation (e.g., antagonistic acculturation) because they want to maintain ethnic distinctiveness and the in-group/out-group distinction (Devereux and Loeb, 1943). Antagonistic acculturation best describes SHEI and the resulting attitudes (e.g., toward the actors and advertisement). SHEI form more favorable attitudes when viewing an advertisement featuring two Hispanic models (e.g., II, mean = 4.77) than when viewing two AfricanAmerican models (e.g., OO, mean = 3.39) or one Hispanic model and one AfricanAmerican model (e.g., IO, mean = 3.05) b ecause they seek to maintain their distinctiveness 11 For WHEI, the notions of assimilation and acculturation provide an alternative explanation for the non-signifi cant mediating effect of et hnic compatibility between strength of ethnic identificati on and attitudes (e.g., toward th e actors and advertisement). Assimilation and acculturation are separa te processes (Teske and Nelson, 1974). Johnston (1963) defines assimilation as follows. assimilation is defined here as a process of change during which the immigrant seeks to identify himself in various respects with members of the host group and becomes less distinguishable fr om them. Both external [manifest 11 Refer to Chapter 1, Distinctiveness and Differentiation for further discussion.
116 change that leads to similarity of a ppearance and actions] and subjective [the psychological life of the immigrant that seeks to identify (p. 295)] assimilation form the components of the process. One without the other is only partial assimilation (p. 296). Assimilation differs from acculturation in two ways: 1) assimilation requires outgroup acceptance and acculturation does not, a nd 2) assimilation requires both a positive attitude toward the out-group and identifica tion with the out-group and acculturation does not (Teske and Nelson, 1974). A cculturationis reserved fo r those changes in practice and beliefs which can be incorporated in the value structure of the society, without destruction of its functiona l autonomy (Linton, 1940, p. 513). Assimilation, by contrast, requires incorporation of new values and forfe iture of group distinctiv eness. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the diffe rence between SHEI and WHEI might be acculturation in the former and assimilation in the latter. The findings in the current study [e.g., EC does not mediate relations hip between SEI and attitudes (e.g., A ACTOR and A AD ) for WHEI] support the non-significance influence of ethnic compatibility on attitudes, because WHEIs identify with the out-group, surrendering distinctiveness, and as such do not find the context of the adve rtisement [e.g., mixed ethnic models featured together (IO) or out-group members featured together (OO)] incompatible with their selfconception.
117 Attitudes and Purchase Intention The non-significance of the relationships between attitude toward the advertisement and purchase intention warranted additional analysis. A post hoc analysis found that strength of ethnic identification moderates the re lationship between attitude toward the advertisement and purchase inten tion for SHEI, but no relationship between attitudes and purchase inte ntion was found for WHEI. Although the Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) theory of reasoned action posits that other variables that influence intention do so only through attitudes and subjective norms, Bagozzi (1981) and Bagozzi, Baumgarter, and Yi (1992) found that the effects of past behavior on intentions are sometimes not fully mediated by attitudes and subjective norms. The current findings are similar to th e relationship between customer satisfaction and repeat purchase behaviors. A consumer may be completely satisfied with a product and not repurchase that product, because th ere is a lack of commitment in customer satisfaction that exists in brand loyalty (Mowen and Mi nor, 2001). An alternative explanation for WHEI is that although they may form favorab le attitudes (e.g., toward the advertisement), a commitment to purchase th e product is not present. Hispanics are brand loyal (Woods, 1995), and product hi story, reputation, and consistency are important issues for Hispanics (Saegert, Hoover, and Hilger, 1985). Therefore, as suggested by Bagozzi (1981), past experience (e.g., product hist ory, reputation, and consistency) may not be fully mediated through attitudes. Next, the lack of support for H 8 [e.g., positive (favorable) attitudes toward the advertisement increase the like lihood of purchase intention of the product advertised] as to SHEI is discussed. Simpson et al. (2000) found a direct relationship between
118 perceived homophily (e.g., ethnic congruence of models featured in the advertisement and the viewers of the advertisement) and purchase intent. This finding supports the notion that, as with the findings for WHEI discussed previous ly, purchase intention is not necessarily mediated by attitudes. The post hoc analysis (see Chapter 4, Test of Hypotheses, Post Hoc Analysis H 8 ) shows that strength of ethnic identification moderates the relationship between attitude toward the advertisement and purchase intention. For SHEI, the degree to which they rely on group membership to sustain selfconception moderates purchase intention. It is reasonable that the commitment to group distinctiveness tr ansfers to purchase intention through the transference process (Strub and Priest, 1976). The transference process is a matter of causal observation, information, and validation and allows individuals to ascribe a third pa rty as trustworthy (Strub and Priest, 1976). Therefore, the moderating e ffect of strength of ethnic identification between attitudes and purcha se intention is explained by how SHEI draw on in-group experiences (e.g., observation, information, and validation) to transfer their commitment (to the in-group) to purch ase intention (e.g., define product as trustworthy). Between Group Differences SHEI versus WHEI A post hoc analysis was conducted to investigate between group differences, SHEI versus WHEI (Table 34). For both groups, SHEI and WHEI, the most favorable attitude toward the actors a nd the advertisement were evident in the II condition (e.g., two Hispanic models). This finding is cons istent with social group theories, such as homophily (Simpson et al., 2000), in-group bias (Fiske and Taylor, 1991), and existing literature (e.g., Deshpande and Stayman ,1994).
119 Table 34. Between Group Differences Strong versus Weak Hispanic Identifiers Treatment Condition Variable OO (two African-American models) II (two Hispanic models) IO (one African-American, one Hispanic) Attitude toward the Actors Non-significant difference between SHEI and WHEI Significant difference between SHEI and WHEI Significant difference between SHEI and WHEI Attitude toward the Advertisement Non-significant difference between SHEI and WHEI Significant difference between SHEI and WHEI No significant difference between SHEI and WHEI There were no significant di fferences between SHEI and WHEI as to attitude toward the actors or advertisement when viewing an advertisement featuring two African-American models (OO). The finding is intuitive, as Hispanics would not connect or assimilate with members from another ethnic group. However, when viewing an advertisement featuring one African-American and one Hispanic model, SHEI formed the least favorable attitude toward the actors in the IO condition (mean = 2.91) compared to the OO condition (mean = 3.25) and II c ondition (mean = 4.34). The low ethnic compatibility of the mixed ethnic models featur ed in the advertisement resulted in SHEI evaluating the models as not like me. A si milar pattern is evident for attitude toward the advertisement: II condition mean = 4.68; OO condition mean = 3.39; and IO condition mean = 3.15. Overall, SHEI formed less favorable attitude toward the actors and advertisement than did WHEI. The mean of WHEI attitude toward the actors in the II, OO, and IO conditions were 3.44, 3.24, and 3.36, respectively. The mean of WHEI's attitude toward the advertis ement in the II, OO, and IO conditions were 3.21, 3.18, and 3.05, respectively. The findings suggest that both SHEI and WHEI seek ethnic homophily, which renders the most favorable attitude toward the actors and the advertisement.
120 An interesting finding is the significant difference in attitude toward the actors between SHEI and WHEI in condition IO. SH EI formed the least favorable attitude toward the actors for the IO condition (mean = 2.91), wh ile WHEI formed the least favorable attitude toward the actors for the OO condition (mean = 3.24), although not significantly different than the IO condition (mean = 3.36). The difference between the groups might be a matter of acculturation of SHEI and assimilation of WHEI (see discussion of Ethnic Compatibility above). Implication of the Findings The current research is the first em pirical study to examine how the ethnic compatibility of actors featured in advertis ement influence attitudes, and, in turn, purchase intentions. The current study is al so the first to inve stigate how one ethnic minority (e.g., Hispanics) pe rceives another ethnic minor ity (e.g., African-Americans). Furthermore, the current study is future-orien ted by taking the first step in considering ethnic minorities as the new majority (e.g., minorities are projected to be the majority of the U.S. population by the year 2050) (U.S. Census, 2000). Role of Ethnic Compatibility The finding that ethnic minorities (e.g., Hi spanics) do not connect (e.g., form a more favorable attitude) with multicultural advertising (e.g., advertisement featuring a mix of ethnic models) is profound. The pervasive nature of the current findings impact both scholars (e.g., one piece in th e larger puzzle of ethnic ma rketing) and practitioners (e.g., the most effective and efficient wa y to reach ethnic minorities). At the
121 disaggregated level, the findings support the intervening role of ethnic compatibility in forming evaluative judgments (e.g., attitudes) and, in turn, influen ce purchase intention. The following figure represents the di saggregated model (see Figure 14). The findings suggest that ethnic minorities seek recognition of their status in the U.S. (e.g., a considerable consumer group) a nd want advertisements that validate their social position. Although ethnic minoritie s share a great deal of common culture through the media, ethnic minorities have little to do with the crea tion of mainstream culture (Cortese, 1999, p. 12). Ads provide a barometer of the extent to which ethnic minorities have penetrated social institutions dominated by white males (Cortese, 1999, p. 13). From this perspective, the notion of multicultural advert ising (e.g., featuring various ethnic minorities models in one advertisement to reach them simultaneously) is explained. However, the findings show that multicultural advertising did not effectively reach Hispanics. To connect with Hispanic consumers requires not only the inclusion of Hispanic models in advertisements, but also a shift from low-context to high-context communications. 12 The Hispanic Market Hispanics are in the marketplace in a big way. Hispanics, for the first time in U.S. history, are the largest minority population (U .S. Census, 2000). As ethnic minorities in the U.S. increase in number, educational at tainment, and political power, they exert 12 Overall, the U.S. is considered a low-context society where people seek meaning in the verbal aspects of messages rather than the context within which messages ar e sent (de Mooij, 1998). However, Hispanics, as well as other ethnic minorities such as Asians, derive meaning from nuances of speech (e.g., tone and pace), the relationships between spea kers and receivers, and all other el ements involved in communicating a message (Hofstede, 1997).
122 greater influence in the marketplace. Furthermore, in 2002, Hispanics owned approximately 7% (1,573,464) of all U.S. firms (U.S. Census, 2002), more than double that of 1992 (771,768) (Light and Gold, 2000). In these ethnic economies, ethnic owners hire within their own ethnic group. 13 For example, Korean business owners monopolized the wig industry and excluded all non-Koreans employees until the U.S. government brought an anti-trust suit under the Sherman Act (Light and Gold, 2000). The findings of this study (e.g., importa nce of ethnic compatibility) and the economic power of Hispanics reinforce the value of target marketing. The ethnic compatibility of models featur ed in advertising affect how Hispanics draw meaning from the advertisement. The findings show th at Hispanics seek communication cues [e.g., ethnicity of models featured in the advertisement and the co ntext of the portrayal (ethnic compatibility)] in advertising, and these cues connect or disconnect the Hispanic viewer with the advertisement. Furthermore, th e findings suggest that failure to recognize Hispanics as an important consumer group (e.g., advertisement featuring mixed ethnic models) results in a disconnect (e.g., less favorable attitudes under IO condition than II condition). The Hispanic market and othe r ethnic markets (e.g., African-American and Asian) are too large to ignore. These markets offer a rich field of research, as well as a potential competitive advantage for American companies. Target, Target, Target The current research supports the notion th at Mass marketing is dead. Marketing segmentation is the way of the future (W oods, 1995). For people of color (e.g., non13 An ethnic economy consists of co-ethnic self-employed and employers and their co-ethnic employees (Light and Gold, 2000, p. 4)
123 Whites), their ethnicity plays a significant ro le in individual identity and group unity (Cortese, 1999). Ethnic group membership is a way of preserving what is unique and distinct about groups of people (Wood, 1995). In essence, ethnic advertising, which seeks a specific audience, is at the fore front of target marketing (Burrell, 1992). Hispanics favor promotions (Wood, 1995) and trust companies that display interest in them and their families (Corte se, 1999). A non-adaptive advertising strategy (e.g., portraying various ethnic group models together in one adve rtising) that attempts to connect with various ethnic groups simultane ously, might be perceived by the SHEI as being trivializing and devaluing as suggest ed by the findings of this study [e.g., less favorable attitudes formed under IO condition (mean 2.91) and most favorable attitude formed when under II condition (mean = 4.42)]. The Culture of the Message Consumers do not relinquish their ethnic identi ty to participate in the U.S. mosaic (Tharp, 2001). Furthermore, ethnic minorit ies use the marketplace as a venue of expression. To understand and reach ethnic group members, marketers must understand how these consumers react to marketing effo rts, such as advertising. The primary discourse of advertising is about the goods and service, and the secondary discourse refers to ideas about society and culture contained in the advertisement (OBarr, 1994). The findings of the current study show that when viewing advertising, Hispanics consider the culture of the message and use it to form attitudes more favorable attitudes are formed when the viewer of an advertisement and models portrayed in the advertisement are ethnically compatibility (Table 35).
124 The secondary discourse (e.g., portrayal of models in the advertisement) is essential in attitude formation for str ong Hispanic identifie rs. Hispanics may contrast based on the culture of the message (e.g., ethnic compatibility of the models featured in the advertisement), and the value of the prim ary message about the product and/or service might be lost. For ethnic minorities (e.g., Hisp anics), the meaning of an advertisement is in the cultural message. Therefore, the context or secondary discourse of the advertisement becomes paramount in the de velopment of promotional campaigns that target Hispanic consumers. Table 35. Group Differences Within SHEI and WHEI Treatment Condition Ethnic Identification OO (Two AfricanAmerican models) II (Two Hispanic models) IO (One African-American, one Hispanic) Strong H1 (b) A ACTOR More Favorable Supported H2 (b) A AD More Favorable Supported H1 (a) A ACTOR Most Favorable Supported H2 (a) A AD Most Favorable Supported H1 (c) A ACTOR Least Favorable Not Supported H2 (c) A AD Least Favorable Not Supported Strength of Ethnic Identification Weak H1 (b) A ACTOR No Difference Supported H2 (c) A AD No Difference Supported H1 (a) A ACTOR No Difference Supported H2 (c) A AD No Difference Supported H1 (b) A ACTOR No Difference Supported H2 (c) A AD No Difference Supported SHEI versus WHEI Hispanics responded most favorably to adve rtisements featuring Hispanic models. A post hoc analysis was conducted to investig ate between group differences, SHEI versus WHEI (see Table 34). For both groups, SHEI and WHEI, the most favorable attitude
125 toward the actors and the advertisement we re evident in the II condition (e.g., two Hispanic models). This is consistent w ith social group theories, such as homophily (Simpson et al. 2000) and in-group bias (Fiske and Taylor, 1991), and existing literature (e.g., Deshpande and Stayman, 1994). The between group analyses suggest that ethnically mixed visual models (e.g., African-American and Hispanic models) are not as effective in reaching Hispanic consumers as ethnically compatible visual models (e.g., two Hispanic models). Hispanics are geographically concentrated in easily identifiable metropolitan areas, and promotional campaigns that speak directly to Hispanics (e.g., advertisements featuring only Hispanic models) would be a superior allocation of resource s than non-adaptive campaigns. Contributions Theoretical Contribution Extension of Assimilation/Contrast Theory The assimilation/contrast model of social judgment theory sugge sts that to form a judgment of a target stimulus the perceiver retrieves some cognitive representation of it and some standard of comparison to evaluate it. Individuals access a subset of potentially relevant information that is most accessibl e at the time of judgment (e.g., Bodenhausen and Wyer, 1985). Categorization determines whet her the stimuli result in assimilation or contrast. Individuals assimilate stimuli with in their latitude of acceptance and contrast stimuli within their latitude of rejection. Although ambiguous, individuals tend to contrast stimuli that they cannot categorize as within their latitude of acceptance.
126 The current research extends the assimila tion/contrast theory by determining how individuals categorize stimulus when it co ntains elements of acceptance (e.g., in-group member) and rejection (e.g., out-group member) together. The ethnic compatibility of the models featured in an advertisement may result in either assimilation or contrast, depending on the viewers strength of ethnic identification. The ha rmony of the stimuli influences resulting judgments (e.g., attitudes). The current study makes a substantial theoretical contributi on with the introduction of the no tion of compatibility in the formation of social judgments. The findi ngs provide a clearer understanding of the boundaries of acceptance and rejecti on in social judgment evaluation. A New Predictor of Attitude Formation Ethnic compatibility serves as a meaningful predictor of attitudes that people hold toward actors featured in an advertisement. Ethnic compatibility is the first variable to be identified as an input to at titude formation in ethnic mark eting since Deshpande et al. (1986) introduced the notion of intensity of et hnic affiliation and subsequently strength of ethnic identification. A review of published ar ticles revealed that of the 206 articles published on ethnicity or race, strength of et hnic identification and a situational trait (e.g., ethnic awareness) are the only ethnic vari ables found to influence attitude formation. 14 Therefore, the findings of the current study make a crucial contri bution to the ethnic marketing literature. 14 A search of ethnic or race in the citation or abst ract in marketing or consumer publications of the ABI/Inform Global database rendered 206 scholarly publications.
127 Methodological Contribution New phrase-completion scales (e.g., attitude toward the actors, attitude toward the advertisement, purchase inten tion) developed for the current study demonstrated higher internal consistency than traditional scales from which the phrase-completion measures were developed. Felthams (1994) measur es of attitude toward the actors and advertisement reported reliabi lity between .79 and .89. Cronbach's Alpha for the phrasecompletion scales of attitude toward the actors and advertisement developed in the current study show internal consistency of .96 and .97, respectively. Internal consistency of the new phrase-completion measure of purchase intention performed similarly to the attitude measures with = .91. These psychometrically sound measures, which are new in marketing research, provide a more accurate measure of latent variables and demonstrate high reliability. The phrase-comple tion scale structure is easier to respond to because it assesses a single dimension w ith responses that approximate a continuous range of options. An emic methodology (e.g., method of developi ng cultural spec ific stimuli), which has never been done in marketing rese arch, is used in the current research. Emic methods reduce the probability of systematic errors (e.g., measurement or design error) and, therefore, increase the qua lity and meaningfulness of th e data collected. In the development of treatment adver tisements, data collected from Hispanics were inputs to the development of the experimental stimuli. In previous research, a panel of judges, not necessarily from the ethnic group under study, de termined if the stimuli were appropriate (e.g., is this model Hispanic). In the current study, a topology of w hat is Hispanic was developed from in-depth interviews of Hispan ics. Furthermore, Hispanics perceptions
128 of what is not Hispanic were inputs to development the out-group stimuli. The complexity of ethnic group association commands emic (e.g., cultural specific) diligence in the process of scientific research of et hnicity. The notion of seeing through the eyes of the ones we study is an essential elem ent in honoring scientif ic rigor in ethnic marketing. Managerial Contributions Findings of the current study speak to the very objective of corporate America selling their products. Table 35 summarizes the post hoc analyses. A crucial finding of the current study is th at Hispanics did not intend to purchase the product advertised when viewing an adve rtisement featuring ethnically mixed models (e.g., IO). Of equal importance is the finding that attitudes direc tly influence purchase intention ( F = 3.58, sig. = .03) only under condition II (e.g., two Hispanic models). In summary, if you want Hispanics to buy a product, companies must connect with these consumers through culturally specific comm unications. These findings have a vital impact on how companies advertise products to minority consumers. The findings of the current study offer ne w evidence of the ineffectiveness of multicultural advertising to connect with various ethnic groups simultaneously. The motivation to retain ones ethnic identity and pr otect erosion of that identity results in a less favorable attitude toward stimuli that do not honor ethn ic group boundaries (e.g., presence of a Black model in the advertis ement targeted to Hispanic consumers). Ethnic minorities seek communication cues th at the advertisement speaks to them. In allocating resources to promotional campa igns, multicultural advertising may prove to
129 be a poor return on the investment because the intended communication cue and the meaning derived by the viewer of the cue may not be consistent. The current study provides a valuable managerial tool for allo cation of valuable and limited resources for effective ethnic marketing. Several business strategies are suggested in light of the findings of the current study. First, because communications are cultura lly driven, ethnic advertising campaigns must consider context of th e advertisement when marke ting to ethnic minorities. Hispanics derive meaning from advertisements partially from their relationship with the models featured in the advert isements (Hofstede, 1997). Therefore, it is necessary, but not sufficient, to have ethnic congruence betwee n the viewer and the model(s) featured in an advertisement (e.g., communication cue); it is also necessary for the context of the advertisement be culturally congruent. For example, an advertisement featuring a Hispanic shopping alone would honor the congruence between the viewer and the model, but violate the cultural congruence because Hi spanics are social and typically shop with family and/or friends (Halter, 2000). Second, it is proposed that companies should move from a broad-spectrum marketing strategy to a deliberate marketing strategy, defined as strategies that are purposeful in understanding culturally based values, beliefs, and customs that drive precise wants and need, to reach ethnic minorities. The intent of multicultural advertising, a broad spectrum marketing strategy, is to connect with various ethnic groups simultaneously. However, the findings of th is study show that Hispanics disconnect with such advertisements (refer back to Table 35). To reach ethnic minorities, companies should engage in deliberate marketing strategies.
130 Third, the monitoring and evaluation of de liberate marketing strategies, by its very nature, must be developed. Traditional advertising effectiveness is driven by the notion of reaching the target market (e.g., br oad spectrum). For example, reach is the percentage of target market exposed to th e advertisement, GRP (e.g., gross rating points) is the average reach times the frequency of exposure, and CPM (e.g., cost per thousand) is the cost of delivering the advertisement per 1,000 people or homes. The findings of the current study show that just reaching th e targeted minority group is not enough to persuade ethnic minority consumers to purch ase the product it is the meaning derived from the advertising that is essential. Ther efore, evaluative tools for understanding ethnic marketing effectiveness must be developed. Fourth, ethnicity speaks to the very foundation of marketing understand your customers. The knowledge gained from th e current findings provides a platform for analyzing and assessing intern ational markets. Understa nding how diverse consumers react (e.g., assimilate or contrast) to promoti onal efforts allows companies to make better decisions about the allocation of resources (e.g., how to allocate promotional budgets) and, in turn, increase profits. To enjoy th e best return (e.g., in creased sales) on an investment (e.g., promotional campaign), compan ies seek to design advertisements that connect with their target population. The fi ndings of the current study argue that the most effective and efficient allocation of resources (e.g., money, expertise, opportunity costs) to connect with ethnic consumers is target advertising (e.g., advertisements featuring models from the ethnic group targeted). The findings of this study are significant in globalization and the development of global marketing strategy. Jeannet and Hennessey (2004) define global marketing
131 strategy as a marketing strategy in which a single, coherent, integrated, and unified marketing strategy for a product or service is crafted to encompass an entire global market across many countries simultaneously for leveraging commonalities throughout markets. However, the pervasive nature of social structures makes successful global marketing strategy virtually unattainable. The findings of this study support the notion of think global, act local. Companies operating in the global marketplace may effectively standardize (e.g., globalize) production of goods, but eff ective global promotional campaigns must adapt or customize to maxi mize the effectiveness of their marketing efforts. Although interaction among individuals the world over contributes to homogeneity of wants and needs (Ramarapu, Timmerman, and Ramarapu, 1999), how marketers reach and connect with diverse consum ers is a matter of the distinctiveness that divides humans. To reach and connect with these consumers, marketers must develop targeted advertising campaigns to assure that the intention of the advertisement (e.g., persuade ethnic minorities to buy the product) is consistent with th e interpretation (e.g., this advertisement speaks to me). The findings are important in both managing todays companies, because of the diversity of the U.S. population, and future global companies that seek to satisfy the wa nts of needs of an even mo re diverse world population. Direction for Future Research Advertising Ethnic advertising is a relatively new fi eld of study in the marketing discipline and a rich area for future research. Heteroge neity within ethnic groups has received little attention in the literature. How do sub-ethn ic groups (e.g., Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and
132 Mexicans within Hispanics) differ in attitude formation toward advertising? What are the out-groups (e.g., not like me) of sub-ethnic groups? Which ethnic memberships are more silent for members of multiple ethnic backgr ounds and why? What sub-ethnic groups are more likely to assimilate? What traits or states affect attitudinal res ponses to adve rtising? In addressing these questions, seve ral factors must be considered. First, the interracial and interethnic ma rriages in the U.S. are making unclear which ethnic memberships are dominant. Futu re research might consider what factors (e.g., parent that rears the child, customs practiced in the household, religion, gender roles of parents) determine how individua ls draw on ethnic membership for selfconception. Second, the ancestry of the sub-et hnic groups might explain the differences between these groups. For example, the indigenous population conquered by the Spaniards differs among states (e.g., Zunis in New Mexico, Seminoles in Florida). Third, the history of the sub-cultures in the U.S. might explain how advertising cues are interpreted and how those interpretations influence attitudes and purchase intention. For example, the history for African-Americans and Mexicans is one of oppression, while the history of Cubans is one of freedom. These histories create a different frame from which et hnic minorities make sense of the world around them. Fourth, some ethnic minorities in the U.S. ar e able to return to their parent nation and some are not. Puerto Ricans may travel back to Puerto Rico, but Cubans may not return to Cuba. The ability to stay connected with ones motherland might serve as an important variable in underst anding why some people accultur ate and others assimilate. It is reasonable that the connection to th e motherland might reinforce the importance of ethnic distinctiveness and, in turn, influence the importan ce of ethnic compatibility.
133 These variables (e.g., ancestry, history of pow er, and mobility) might work together to influence strength of ethnic identification a nd ethnic compatibility and, in turn, resulting attitudes toward the actors and a dvertisement and purchase intention. With annual advertising expenditures of U.S. firms estimated at $265 billion for 2004 (Solomon, Marshall, and Stuart, 2006), the im portance of connecti ng with the target market (e.g., Hispanics) cannot be unders tated. The amount spent on advertising represents more than 2% of the 2004 GDP of the U.S. ($11,667,515 million, World Book, 2005). The difficulty of associating specific advertisements to coinciding revenues may result in business decisions based on aggregat ed information that either understated or overstated the effectiveness of a promotiona l campaign. Therefore, the findings of the current study offer firms an invaluable tool for better connecting with the intended target population and, hence, a better return on advertising expenditures. Other Marketing Activities The relatively sparse resear ch of ethnicity in the mark eting literature suggests a broad approach to ethnic marke ting research. Ethnicity is a pervasive concept that affects all marketing efforts. Consider the areas of consumer behavior, business-to-business, international marketing, and st rategic planning (Figure 15). In the arena of consumer behavior, eff ective customer relationship management, which facilitates one-to-one marketing, require s companies to consid er the interaction between the company agent and customers of different ethnicity. Research of what variables influence a positive service encounter when the customer and service providers are members of different ethnic groups is an important topic for future research. In the
area of business-to-business, investiga tion of performance of mixed ethnic group members (e.g., buyer and seller not ethnica lly congruent) versus same ethnic group members (e.g., buyer and seller ethnical ly congruent) shou ld be undertaken. 134 Strategic Planning SBU Ethics Marketin g mix International Ownership Agency Powe r Ethnic Compatibility B-2-B Team diversity Trust Relationships Consumer Behavior Personal variables CRM Boundary spanning Figure 15. The Role of Ethnic Compatibility in Marketing Several questions warrant investigation. How do di fferent ethnic groups build authentic trust, a major element of long-te rm relationships? Ho w do different values, beliefs, and lifestyles (e.g., cu lture) influence business struct ures (e.g., joint ventures)? How do ethnic values impact perceived gender roles, power positioning, and social placement? How do those perceptions influence effective team groupings? In the area of international marketing, re search of how or if ethnic values differ across national boundaries should be pursue d. Elements of cultural dimensions developed in the U.S. (e.g., Hofstede, 1997) s hould be tested to assess the practical quality of such frameworks. Are alternative frameworks more useful in less developed or developing countries? How doe s the notion of power (one ethnic groups control over another) influence marketing efforts?
135 Strategic planning and strategic business uni ts must eliminate barriers to effective performance. Ethnicity, a core cultural element that is not easily changed, has an affect on how people perceive their place in the wo rkforce and what behaviors they employ in various situations. Ethnic consideration in the adaptation of product, price, distribution, and promotions continues to be important in strategic planning and warrants further scholarly investigation. An area of research that has received al most no scholarly atten tion is the notion of ethics and ethnicity. Although pressure to promote ethical be haviors, corporate stewardship, and socially res ponsible behaviors continues to be an important topic in marketing research, how ethnicity affects et hical/unethical behaviors has yet to be investigated. Limitations Some limitations of the current study are acknowledged. Because the identification of the target population was difficult to fi nd, the non-probability sample used in this study limits the generalizability of th e findings. Minorities are geographically located in metropolitan areas. Future research might consider a sample from these major metropolitan areas. For exam ple, the majority of Hispanics reside in the southwest (e.g., California and Texas) (U .S. Census Bureau, 2006). Furthermore, the Hispanics used in this study are from the southern U.S. Variations between geographically disbursed populations might exis t, further limiting the generalizability of the current findings.
136 Another limitation of the st udy is the quality of the a dvertisements used in the study. The photos used in the current study were colored and repr oduced in black and white for the experiment booklet. Variations in skin tone and hues were not as vivid in the reproduced black and white photo, lesseni ng the effect of visual cultural surface pointers (e.g., darkness of skin). Future re search should use color photos to limit design errors in the study. The allocation of participants as strong or weak ethnic identifiers was consistent with previous research, but not consistent wi th scientific rigor. An upper/lower quartile split is a more conservative approach to group allocation and future research should employ this methodology. Finally, it was extremely difficult to find weak ethnic identifiers. Future research should consider soliciting Hispanics that are married or living with non-Hispanics as a means of locating potentially WHEI. Conclusions It is hoped that this research sparks enthusiasm for scholars pursuing the study of ethnic marketing. The complexity of ethni city is the gateway to understanding the pervasive nature of how societ al changes impact marketing. The interdisciplinary nature of ethnicity allows the interchange of knowledge and the revitalizing of scientific curiosity.
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Appendix 1 Coupon Coupon #00001 PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY Last Name: ________________________ First Name: ________________________ Address: ________________________ ________________________ City: ________________________ State: ___________________ Zip Code: _________________ 152 Coupon Ticket #0001 Participants Copy This coupon entitles the holder to one chance to win a wide-screen television, s ubject to the following: 1. This chance is non-transferable. The winner must claim the prize. 2. This winner will be notified by certified mail. If the winner cannot be reached at the address provided, another drawin g will take place to select another winner. 3. The winn er must pick up the TV at 307 North Himes Avenue, Tampa, FL within 30 days of notification of winning. Winner should call Cynthia Cano at (813) 877-7925 to arrange for pick-up. Failure to retrieve the TV will result in the selection of another winner. 4. A picture identification, such as a drivers license, is required to claim the TV. 5. The exact date of the drawing in uncertain, but is anticipated to be so metime in March 2007. Questions about the dr awing date should be addressed to Cynthia Cano by telephone at (813) 877-7925 or e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org The coupon drawing takes place at the University of South Florida (USF). Th e winning ticket will be selected by a USF faculty or staff member and witnessed by 3 individuals other than the primary researcher of the study or her dissertation committee members. The odds of winning are projected to be 1 in 300. Questions concerning this coupon should be addressed to Cynthia Cano by telephone at (813) 877-7925 or by e-mail at email@example.com
153 Appendix 2 In-Depth Interview Form Introduction My name is Cynthia Cano and today is (day of week), (date), (time). This interview is being conducted at the Univer sity of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL in room (number) and I am joined by (interviewee). The purpose of this interview is to bette r understand the Hispanic culture. Your identity will be held in c onfidence and any reference to th is interview in the research document will be by a fictitious name of your choosing. This interview is tape recorded, as required by scientific research. At no time will the taped records or transcripts be accessible by individuals other than those directly involved in the current research project. The physical tape an d transcript will be maintained by me and kept in a locked file cabinet. A requirement of this research is the in terviewees consent. Please review this document and sign it, acknowledging your consent to this interview ( one executed copy is given to the interviewee and one is maintained by the interviewer ). You may choose to stop the in terview at any time. Do I have your permission to tape record this interview? For purpose of this interview, what name do you prefer I call you?
154 Appendix 2 (Continued) Interview Script Observed trait information: ______Male _______Female _____<30 years old _____30 50 years old _____ 50+ years old First, I would like to as k some background questions. Ethnic Identification Natal Background 1. I am interested in the birthplace of you and your family. In what country were you and your parents born? Ill start with you. Interviewee: ___________________________ Natural Mother: ___________________________ Natural Father: ___________________________ Ethnic Identification Self-Labeling 2. To what ethnic group do you belong? _______________________ 3. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being weakly and 10 being strongly, how would you rate your identification as a (ethnic group above)?
155 Appendix 2 (Continued) Ethnic Identification Behaviors 4. What language (s) do you speak? a._______________________________________ b._______________________________________ c._______________________________________ 5. When do you speak (language a)? 6. When do you speak (language b)? 7. When do you speak (language c)? 8. In general, how would you describe your friends in terms of ethnic group membership? 9. What kinds of music do you prefer? 10. What kinds of foods do you prefer? 11. To what social organi zations do you belong? Ethnic Self-Identification 12. What is your religious affiliation? 13. How would you describe your involvement with the (religion specified above)? 14. How often do you go to Church or Temple? 15. What sort of religion-related activiti es, other than Church or Temple, do you participate in?
156 Appendix 2 (Continued) Typology of Cultural Surface Markers Now, I am going to ask you a series of questions concerning the physical attributes of two models. I am interested in what cues let you know that a person is a member of your ethnic group. To what ethnic group would you say this woman belongs? Phenotype Subcategory Response Phenotype Subcategory Response Color Type Texture Dress Color Hair Style Type Shape Religious Ornaments Meaning Skin Color Type Complexion Body Modification Meaning Face Bone Structure Type Shape Jewelry Meaning Lips Thickness Color Shape Position Eyes Depth Shape Width Nose Length Height Structure Weight
Appendix 2 (Continued) Hispanic Man Hispanic Woman I am also interested in et hnic groups that are not like Hispanics. In the next set of photographs, I would like to know to which et hnic groups you think th e model belongs. I am interested in which of these mode ls you think are most like you and least like you. Would you arrange the photos in order, fr om the models that are most like you to those that are least like you? Out-Group Members Black Couple Asian-Indian Couple White Couple 157
158 Appendix 2 (Continued) Product Relevance I am interested in some products that you may or may not use. I will name a few products and I would like you to tell me if you use each product very often, occasionally, seldom, or never. Do you use Very Often Occasionally Seldom Never Ballpoint pens Soft drinks Bottled water Kleenex Chewing gum Demographic 1. What is your highest level of education? _____Technical School _____High School _____High School + _____AA _____AA+ _____BA/BS+ _____BA/BS+ _____Masters _____Masters+ _____PhD 2. How long have you lived in the U.S.? _______ years 3. What is your marital status? _____Married _____Single
159 Appendix 2 (Continued) _____Divorced _____Widowed 4. What is your current occupation? ___________________________________________________ Is there anything you would like to add be fore we conclude this interview? Thank you for participating in this project. Please contact me at the numbers shown on the consent form if you have any questions Again, thank you for your participation. This interview concluded at ________a.m./p.m.
160 Appendix 3 Cover Letter to Reviewers Date Reviewers Name Address City, State, Zip Dear Reviewer: Thank you for taking time out of your busy life to participate in my dissertation research study. Enclosed please find the following. 1. (#) transcripts of in-depth interviews, 2. A consent form that indicates permission to use your comments in published research, 3. Coding instructions, and 4. Coding forms. A meeting of the review er panel, you, me, and (other reviewers name), is scheduled for (day of week), (date), (time) at (location). Please bring your executed consent form, along with the transcripts and your findings, to the meeting. Again, thank you for your time and participation. Very truly yours, Cynthia M. Cano, Ph.D. Candidate cc: Enclosures (#)
161 Appendix 3 (Continued) Coding Instructions The objectives of the in-depth interviews are to: 1) create a typology of cultural surface markers, and 2) understand individuals attitudes and perceptions about their own, as well as other ethn ic groups (out-groups). Cultural Surface Pointers Cultural surface pointers of interest in th is study are those that are visible (e.g., skin color, hair texture) a nd can easily be detected in a print advertisement. These markers include such elements as dress, skin color, hair texture a nd form, height, physical size, eye shape, facial structure (e.g., nose shape), body modification (e.g., tattoos), and cultural artifacts (e.g., re ligious jewelry). Ethnic In-Group/Out-Group Attitudes and Perceptions Ethnic group membership and all that it entails is an important part of an individuals social identity. The topic of interest is how individuals identify (perceive) other individuals as members of their ethnic group or members of an out-group. Cultural surface markers serve as cues to identification and categor ization. Furthermore, group membership constrains inter-group intera ction and is an important element of understanding group membership. A coding sheet is provided to help guide your in terpretation of the data into general topic areas. Please indicate the line and page number supporting your interpretation of the data.
162 Appendix 3 (Continued) Coding Form Coder: ________________________________________________ Transcript Number: ______________________________________ Topic Page No. Line No. Concept Subjective Self-Labeling Behaviors Religious Affiliation Cultural Surface Pointers Out-Groups Additional Comments
163 Appendix 4 Reviewer Consent Form Thank you for acting as a reviewer of in-depth interviews in a study of Hispanics. Your task is to review the enclosed in-d epth interview transcripts for factual and interpretative information The objectives of the explorat ory research at hand are: 1. To develop a typology of visible cultural surface markers (e.g., skin color, bone structure, clothing, cultura l jewelry) of Hispanics, 2. To understand how Hispanics categorize members of their ethnic group, as well as members of other ethnic groups, 3. To determine which out-groups Hispanic s perceive as most/least like them, and 4. To determine how frequently Hi spanics use a set of products. Anonymity is essential, so be reminded not to discuss these data with anyone outside the research team. Please sign the following and bring this form with you to the reviewer meeting. I, ______ (reviewer) _________, _____give/_____do not give consent to have my review comments quoted in a published research paper. _____________________________________ Reviewers Signature
164 Appendix 5 Pre-Screening Script My name is Cynthia Cano, and I am conducting research on advertising effectiveness. You were referred to me by (name of referral) as a possible participant in this research. The purpose of this pre-screen ing is to gather general information about potential participants. If you choose to participate in the study, you will be contacted by mail one-week prior to study as a reminder. The day before the study, you will be contacted by telephone to confir m your participation. If you choose to participate in the study, you will receive a chance to win a television. If at any time you would like to discontinue this conversation, please let me know. I will ask a series of questions about you, obt ain contact information, and ask for times that would be convenient for you to particip ate in the study. Do you have any questions before we begin? Thank you for participating in th is important research study.
165 Appendix 5 (Continued) Pre-Screening Form No. Domain Question Answer Points Value Foreign Country 1 1. Natal Background Where were you born? United States 0 Mother = Foreign 1 Mother = United States 0 Father = Foreign 1 2. Natal Background Where were your parents born? Father = United States 0 Language other than English 1 3. SituationContext What language do you generally speak at your job? English 0 Language other than English 1 4. SituationContext What language to you generally speak at home English 0 What social organizations are you a member of? One or more 1 5. Behaviors None 0 Yes 1 6. Behaviors Do you read (e.g., newspapers, magazines), view (e.g., television) or listen to (e.g., radio) information in a language other than English? No 0 Hispanic/Latino 2 Multiple groups including Hispanics 1 7. Subjective Self-Labeling To what ethnic group do you belong? Any other group 0 Very strongly 3 Strongly 2 Weakly 1 Very Weakly 1 8. Subjective Self-Labeling How strongly do you identify with the ethnic group selected in question seven? Not at all 0
166 Appendix 5 (Continued) Contact Information: Name: _______________________________________________________________ Mailing Address: ______________________________________________________ ___________________, FL ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Telephone: (___ ___ ___) ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Office, Home, Cell, Other Convenient Time: Day(s): Time(s): ___Monday ___Mornings ___Afternoons ___Night ___Tuesday ___Mornings ___Afternoons ___Night ___Wednesday ___Mornings ___Afternoons ___Night ___Thursday ___Mornings ___Afternoons ___Night ___Friday ___Morni ngs ___Afternoons ___Night ___Saturday ___Mornings ___Afternoons ___Night ___Sunday ___Mornings ___Afternoons ___Night
167 Appendix 6 Introduction to Experiment Welcome, and thank you for agreeing to participate in this study. My name is Cynthia Cano and I am the facilitator for this study. At this time I ask that you turn over the top page of the study booklet in front of you -the page that says do not turn the page until instructed to do so by the study facilitator. You should find two original USF Informed Consent of an Adult forms. The pur pose of the consent form is to assure that you are an informed participant in scient ific research and, by signing it, you are consenting to participate in the study. Please take a few minutes to read and sign both consent forms. When everyone has signed the forms, I will collect one signed consent form in compliance with USF research regul ations. The other signed copy is for your records. (Ask if everyone is finished). If for any reason, you choose not to participate in the study, please exit the room and give your test materials to me. There may be several subsequent study sessions. It is essential that you not discuss this study with others, as they may be in a subsequent study session. Discussing the study with individuals that subsequently participate in the st udy introduces bias and contaminates the studys results. Your coope ration is greatly appreciated. After all study sessions are completed, you will be mailed a debr iefing form explaining the details of this study.
168 Appendix 6 (Continued) When you finish the study, you will receive a coupon for a chance to win a television. You will receive a coupon outlining the rules for the television drawing, as well as contact information in the event you have questions. Once the study begins, I ask that you not ta lk or make any noise that may disturb other participants. You may choose to end your participation in the study at any time. If you choose to discontinue the study, please leav e the room bring your test materials to me. The integrity of this study lies in the anonymity of the i ndividuals participating in it. Therefore, please do not put your name or any other identifying marks on the study booklet. Your consent forms will be collected separately from your completed study booklets to assure that th e two are not associated. The idea of this study is to collect da ta about consumers attitudes toward promotional materials for a new product. Y ou will be shown three advertisements that are being considered to launch a new product. After being shown each advertisement, you will be asked to response to questions or st atements about that advertisement. Next, you will be asked to answer some general attitudinal, behavioral, and demographic questions. Specific instructions for comple ting each section of the study will appear throughout the study booklet. Completion of the study is expected to take no more than 45 minutes. Once the study begins, you cannot ask a que stion. So, before we begin the study, does anyone have a question? Again, thank you for participating in this study. Now, please turn the cover page of your test bookl et and read all inst ructions carefully.
Appendix 7 Informed Consent For An Adult Space below reserv ed for IRB Stamp Please leave blank INFORMED CONSENT FOR AN ADULT Social and Behavioral Sciences University of South Florida Information for People Who Take Part in Research Studies The following information is being presente d to help you decide whether or not you would like to take part in a minimal risk rese arch study. Please read this carefully. If you do not understand anything, ask the person in charge of the study. Title of Study: The Effectiveness of a New Product Promotional Campaign Principal Investigator: Cynthia Rodriguez Cano Study Location(s): University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 You are being asked to participate because you are an adult consumer of Hispanic heritage. General Information about the Research Study The purpose of this study is to test potentia l print advertisements for the launching of a new product. Plan of Study You will be shown potential adve rtisements and asked to answer questions about those ads. You also will be asked demographic quest ions. It is anticipated that the study will take approximately 45 minutes. Payment for Participation You will receive one chance to win a televi sion set for participating in this study. 169
170 Appendix 7 (Continued) Benefits of Being a Part of this Research Study You will experience participating in a scientif ic endeavor and the personal achievement of contributing to the understa nding of promotional campaigns. Risks of Being a Part of this Research Study There is no known risk related to participating in this study. Confidentiality of Your Records Your privacy and research records will be kept confidential to the extent of the law. Authorized research personnel, employees of the Department of Health and Human Services, and the USF Institutional Review Board may inspect the records from this research project. The results of this study may be published. However, in the publications, the data obtained from you will be combined with data from others. The published results will not include your name or any other informa tion that would personally identify you in any way. The test materials used in this study will be ke pt in a locked box or file cabinet. Except for Cynthia Cano and the Univer sity of South Florida facult y acting as her dissertation committee members, test materials will not be accessible or available to anyone. Volunteering to Be Part of This Research Study Your decision to participate in this research study is comple tely voluntary. You are free to participate in this research study or to withdraw at a ny time. If you stop taking part in the study, there will be no penalty or loss of the benefits th at you are entitle d to receive. Questions and Contacts If you have any questions about this resear ch study, contact Cynt hia Cano at (813) 877-7925 or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. If you have questions about your rights as a person who is taking part in a research study, you may contact the Division of Research Compliance of the University of South Florida at (813) 974-5638. Consent to Take Part in This Research Study By signing this form I agree that: I have fully read or have had read and e xplained to me this informed consent form describing this research project. I have had the opportunity to question one of the persons in charge of this research and have received satisfactory answers. I understand that I am being asked to pa rticipate in research. I understand the risks and benefits, and I freely give my consent to participate in the research project outlined in this form, unde r the conditions indicated in it.
171 Appendix 7 (Continued) I have been given a signed copy of this inform ed consent form, which is mine to keep. _________________________ _____________________________________ Signatur e of Participant Printed Name of Participant Date Investigator Statement I have carefully explained to the subject the nature of the above re search study. I hereby certify that to the best of m y knowledge the subject signing this consent form understands the nature, demands, risks, and benefits involved in participating in this study. _________________________ Cynthia Rodriguez Cano _______________ Signature of Investigator Printe d Name of Investigator Date or authorized research investigator designated by the Principal Investigator Investigator Statement: I certify that participants have been provided with an inform ed consent form that has been approved by the University of South Fl oridas Institutional Re view Board and that explains the nature, demands, risk s, and benefits involved in pa rticipating in this study. I further certify that a phone number has b een provided in the event of additional questions. _________________________ Cynthia Rodriguez Cano _______________ Signature of Investigator Printe d Name of Investigator Date
172 Appendix 8 Study Booklet A Study of Promotional Effectiveness Estudio sobre la efectividad de las promociones Instructions On the following page is a consent form regarding your participation in this study. Please read the consent form, sign, and return with your study packet. If you choose not to sign the consent fo rms, please leave the room and give your study materials to the study facilitator. Thank you for your time and participation. Instrucciones En la siguiente pgina encontrar un doc umento en el cual usted aprueba su participacin en este estudio. Po r favor lea este documento, f rmelo y entrguelo con el resto de documentos. Muchas gracia s por su tiempo y su participacin. NOW, TURN THE PAGE AND READ THE INSTRUCTIONS. Ahora, vire la pgina y lea las instrucciones.
173 Appendix 8 (Continued) INSTRUCTIONS The following are general instructions for part icipating in this study. Instructions for each section of the study will be provided throughout this booklet. Please read the following instructions completely and carefully. Instrucciones Este documento contiene instrucciones ge nerales respecto a su participacin. Usted encontrar instrucciones especficas para cada seccin. Por favor, lea cuidadosamente todo el contenido de las instrucciones. 1. Once you have moved to a page, do not turn back to a previous page. Una vez que usted haya empezado otra pgina, no regrese a las pginas anteriores. 2. Please respond to all ques tions and statements. Do not skip questions unless otherwise instructed. Por favor responda a todas las preguntas y come ntarios. No se salte preguntas a menos que se lo indiquen. THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING IN THIS STUDY. NOW, TURN THE PAGE AN D READ THE INTRODUCTION. Gracias por su participacin en este st udio. Por favor, vire la pgina y lea las instrucciones.
174 Appendix 8 (Continued) INTRODUCTION In the following pages, you w ill be asked to view potential advertisements for a new product and re spond to questions and/or statements about each advertisement. Imagine th at you are viewing the advertisement as you would see it featured in a magazine. Introduccin En las siguientes pginas se le pedir que observe anuncios sobre un nuevo producto. Luego, responda a algunas preguntas sobre el anuncio. Imagine que usted ve el anuncio en una revista.
Appendix 8 (Continued) Corbis Cola Potential Advertisement #1 Cola Cobris, Anuncio # 1 INTRODUCTION: The following is a potential advertisement for Cobis Cola. Review this advertisement carefully. Introduccin: El siguiente anuncio es de la Cola Cobris. Revise el anuncio cuidadosamente. SPURIOUS ADVERTISEMENT 1 TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Experience the Newness of Co r b i s Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones. 175
176 Appendix 8 (Continued) INSTRUCTIONS: Please circle the number that you feel best describes the advertisement you just saw. INSTRUCCIONES : Por favor encierre en un crculo nmero que mejor describa al anuncio que ustedes acaba de ver. The advertising I just saw Al anuncio ustedes acaba de ver 6 Does not affect my feelings No afecta mis sentimientos 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affects my feelings Afecta mis sentimientos 7 Does not touch me emotionally No me llega emocionalmente 1 2 3 4 5 6 Touches me emotionally Me llega emocionalmente 8 Is not stimulating No es estimulante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stimulating Es estimulante 9 Does not reach out to me No me llega 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reaches out to me Me llega 10 Is not stirring No me inspira 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stirring Me inspira 11 Is not moving No me afecta 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is moving Me afecta 12 Is not exciting No es excitante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is exciting Ex excitante TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones.
Appendix 8 (Continued) Corbis Cola Potential Advertisement #2 Cola Cobris, Anuncio # 2 INTRODUCTION: The following is a potential advertisement for Cobis Cola. Review this advertisement carefully. Introduccin: El siguiente anuncio es de la Cola Cobris. Revise el anuncio cuidadosamente. SPURIOUS ADVERTISEMENT 2 Experience the Newness of Corbis TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones. 177
178 Appendix 8 (Continued) INSTRUCTIONS: Please circl best describes the advertisement you just saw. r encierre en un crculo nmero que mejor describa al nuncio que ustedes acaba de ver. Al anuncio ustedes acaba de ver e the number that you feel INSTRUCCIONES : Por favo a The advertising I just saw 18 feelings Does not affect m y 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affects my feelings Afecta mis sentimientos No afecta mis sentimientos 19 Doe 1 2 3 4 5 6 nte s not touch me emotionally No me llega emocionalmente Touches me emotionally Me llega emocionalme 20 Is not N 1 2 3 4 5 6 ing stimulating o es estimulante Is stimulat Es estimulante 21 Do es not reach out to me No me llega 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reaches out to me Me llega 22 Is not stirr N ing o me inspira 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stirring Me inspira 23 Is not moving No me afecta 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is moving Me afecta 24 Is not exciting N e o es excitante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is exciting Ex excitant TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones.
Appendix 8 (Continued) Corbis Cola Potential Advertisement #3 179 Cola Cobris, Anuncio # 3 INTRODUCTION: The following is a potential advertisement for Cobis Cola. Review this advertisement carefully. GO TO THE NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones. Introduccin: El siguiente anuncio es de la Cola Cobris. Revise el anuncio cuidadosamente. TREATMENT CONDITION II Experience the Newness of Corbis
180 Appendix 8 (Continued) Corbis Cola Potential Advertisement #3 Cola Cobris, Anuncio # 3 INTRODUCTION: The following is a potential advertisement for Cobis Cola. Review this advertisement ca Introduccin: El siguiente obris. Revise el anuncio cuidadosamente. GO TO THE NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones. refully. anuncio es de la Cola C TREATMENT CONDITION OO Experience the Newness of Corbis
181 Appendix 8 (Continued) INTRODUCTION: Cobis Cola. Review this advertisem Introduccin: cuidadosamente. Corbis Cola Potential Advertisement #3 Cola Cobris, Anuncio # 3 The following is a potential advertisement for ent carefully. El siguiente anuncio es de la Cola Cobris. Revise el anuncio NEXT PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS Vire la pgina y lea todas las instrucciones. TREATMENT CONDITION IO Ex is perience the Newness of Corb GO TO THE
182 Appendix 8 INSTRUCTIONS: Please circle the number that you feel best describes the advertisement you just saw. INSTRUCCIONES : Por favor encierre en un crculo nmero que mejor describa al anuncio que ustedes acaba de ver. The advertising I just saw Al anuncio ustedes acaba de ver (Continued) 30 Does not affect my feelings No afecta mis sentimientos 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affects my feelings Afecta mis sentimientos 31 Does not touch me emotionally No me llega emocionalmente 1 2 3 4 5 6 Touches me emotionally Me llega emocionalmente 32 Is not stimulating No es estimulante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stimulating Es estimulante 33 Does not reach out to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reaches out to me No me llega Me llega 34 Is not stirring No me inspira 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stirring Me inspira 35 Is not moving No me afecta 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is moving Me afecta 36 Is not exciting No es excitante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is exciting Ex excitante PAGE AND READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS gi y letod lasstrccies TURN TO THE NEXT Vire la p na a as in u on
183 Appendix 8 (Continued) INSTRUCT cle the number that you feel best descri IONS: Please cir bes THE MODELS in the at y justw. Por favor encie o nmero que mejor describa a LOS M dvertisemen ou sa rre en un crcul ODELOS que uss acaba The models you just s Los modelos que uste er es tede de ver. aw are des acaba de v 37 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unbelievable Increble Believable Creble 38 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not credible No creble Credible Creble 39 No confiable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Confiable Not trustworthy Trustworthy 40 Unreliable No confiable,, No garantizado 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reliable Confiable Garantizado 41 Undependable No se puede fiar de l 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dependable Se puede fiar de l 42 Does not affect my feelings No afecta mis sentimientos 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affects my feelings Afecta mis sentimientos 43 Does not touch me emotionally No me llega emocionalmente 1 2 3 4 5 6 Touches me emotionally Me llega emocionalmente 44 Is not stimulating No es estimulante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is stimulating Es estimulante 45 Does not re aches out to me llega ach out to me No me llega 1 2 3 4 5 6 Re Me 46 Is not stirring No me inspira 5 6 Is stirring Me inspira 1 2 3 4 47 Is not moving No me afecta 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is moving Me afecta 48 Is not exciting No es excitante 1 2 3 4 5 6 Is exciting Ex excitante
184 Appendix 8 (Continued) DORNBAC TOREIOS PGege a lpgs ario. INSTRUCTIONS: semt you wed tureo mels. e a n your perception of how thos you. For each listed element, please circle the number in each row that best expresses y bout that element. You may choose which mo d to first. INSTRUCCIONES erior, usted vio dos modelos. Estamos interes cepcin acerca de cmo estos modelos ser relacionan con usted. ONE OF T ement is UNO DE LO nuncio es NOT TU res Kas Pina Vnte Ures A ES No r T he last adverti e models relate to en vie fea d tw od W re interested i our opinion a del to respon dos en su per : En el anuncio ant a HE MODELS in the advertis S MODELOS en el a 49 N No se pare1 2 ry uy p ot at all like me ce en nada a mi 3 4 5 6 Ve M much like me arecido a mi 50 Not at No e1 2 3 4 5 6 Defin ith me Es compatible conmigo all compatible with me s compatible conmigo itely compatible w 51 Not 1 2 3 4 5 6 mp e Comp at all sensible Para nada sensible Co letely sensibl letamente sensible TH UN E OTHER ment is O DE LOS nuo es MODELS in the advertise MODELOS en el a nci 52 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very m y p Not at all like me No se parece en nada a mi uch like me arecido a mi Mu 53 Not at all comp No es compatible conmigo1 2 3 4 5 6 fin le with me Es compatible conmigo atible with me De itely compatib 54 N Pa1 2 mp mp le o ra nada sensible t at all sensible 3 4 5 6 Co Co letely sensible letamente sensib INSTRUCTIONS: T tatements are about your purchase inten tions. Fement, please circle the num thbest eessesur oion sta STRUCCIONES: La siguiente seccin contiene enunciados relacionados con sus intenciones de mpra. Encierre en un crculo el nmero que me jor exprese su opinin respecto al enunciado. When it comes to Corbis Cola, I would Respecto a Cola Cobris, yo... he following s or each stat ber in each row at xpr yo pin about t hat tement. IN co 55 Definitely not buy this product Definitivamente no comprara este producto 1 2 3 4 5 6 Definitely buy this product Definitivamente comprara este producto 56 Absolutely not try this product Absolutamente no probara este producto 1 2 3 4 5 6 Absolutely try this product Absolutamente probara este producto 57 Never consider purchasing this product Nunca considerara comprar este producto 1 2 3 4 5 6 Positively consider purchasing this product Considerara comprar este producto
185 INSTRUCTIO and there are many different words to d hnic groups that people ome from. Some examples of the names of ethnic groups are Asian-Indians, Africans or he following statements are about your ethn icity or your ethnic group membership and h the one number corresponding to the d to that statement. INRUC stados Unidos, existen pe rsonas de distintas culturas y hay muchas palabras para describir las distintas etn. Anosem Indo-Asiticas, Africanos o Negros, e Hispanos o Latinos. Cada persona nace dentro de un grupo tnico eent de s os. diciolm encias en cuanto a la importancia que atribuyen a su pertenencia a las etnias, que sienten hacia el or estas. Liguie reren su sus sentimientos y reacciones hacia ella. Por fav enrre en un crculo al numero que corresponda al enunciado que me jor describa su respuesta. Strongly Disagree Disagree E Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree e o Appendix 8 (Continued) NS: In America today, people come from different cultures escribe the different backgrounds or et c Black, and Hispanics or Latinos. Every person is born into an ethnic group or sometimes two groups or more, and people differ on how important their ethnic embership is to them, how they feel about it, and how much their behavior is affected m by it. T ow you feel about it or react to it. Please circle escriptor that best describes your response ST CIONES: En los E ias lgu ej plos de etnias son las y algunas vec s d ro do m A na ente, hay difer las y cmo su comportamien to est afecta do p os s ntes enunciados se fie a et nia y a su pertenencia hacia ella; as como or cie Statement En total desacuerdo desacuerdo Parcialmente en desacuredo Parcialmente de acuerdo De acuerdo Muy d acuerd n 58 La gente di mi grupo gastado mucho tiempo People from my ethnic group spend time trying to find out more about their own ethnic group, such as its history, traditions, and customs. trata mayo sobre grupo tnico, sobre su historia, tradiciones y costu 1 2 3 4 5 6 ndo de encontrar r informacin de su propio mbres. 60 People fr group have a clear sens background and what it means La gente di mi grupo conozco claramente lo que etnia representa y lo que significa para m. 2 3 4 om my ethnic e of their ethnic for me. 1 5 6
186 Appendix 8 (Continued) Statement Strongly Disagree En total desacuerd o Disagree En desacuerdo Slightly Disagree Parcialmente en desacuredo Slightly Agree Parcialmente de acuerdo Agree De acuerdo Strongly Agree Muy de acuerdo 61 People from my ethnic group think a lot about how thier life will be affected to their ethnic group membership. La gente di mi grupo pienso 1 2 3 4 5 6 mucho sobre cmo vida estar de su propio grupo afectada por mi pertenencia a grupo tnico. 62 are happy to be a member the group they belong to. La gente di mi grupo soy feliz por ser un miembro de grupo. 1 2 3 4 5 6 People from my ethnic group of 63 La gente di mi grupo tengo un fuerte sentido de pertenencia hacia propio grupo tnico. 1 2 3 4 5 6 People from my ethnic group have a strong sense of belonging to their own ethnic group. 64 People from my ethnic group understand pretty well what their ethnic gr member o them, in terms of how to relate to m gr L e que significa mi grupo tnico, respecto a cmo r miembros de de su propio g miembros de otros grupos. 1 2 3 4 5 6 oup ship means t y own group and other oups. a gente di mi grupo ntiendo perfectamente lo elacionarme con los rupo grupo y con los 65 In ut th p oup have often talked to other p gr P to a propio g h s r po 1 2 3 4 5 6 order to learn more abo eir ethnic background, eople from my ethnic gr eople about my ethnic oup. ara aprender ms respec mi etnia, La gente de su rupo frecuentemente ablo con otras persona especto de su propio gru tnico.
187 S A M a Appendix 8 (Continued) Statement Strongly Disagree En total desacuerdo Disagree En desacuerdo Slightly Disagree Parcialmente en desacuredo Slightly Agree Parcialmente de acuerdo Agree De acuerdo trongly gree uy de cuerdo 66 e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 People from my ethnic group have a lot of pride in their ethnic group and its accomplishments. La gente di mi grupo siento mucho orgullo respecto d su propio grupo tnico y su logros. 67 People from my e thnic group rticipate in cultural rupo, por ejemplo en 6 pa practices of their own group, such as special food, music, or customs La gente di mi grupo en prcticas culturales de mi g comidas especiales, msica y sus costumbres. 1 2 3 4 5 69 People from my ethnic group feel goo d about their cultural d ethnic background. tnico tnico. 6 an La gente di mi grupo siento bien sobre su propio cultura y origen 1 2 3 4 5 70 eople from other ethnic rupos 1 2 3 4 5 6 P groups are not like me. La gente de otros g tnicos no son como yo. 71 People from my ethnic group sometimes feel it would be better if d ifferent ethnic roups didnt try to mix intos ezclen 6 g together. A veces siento que sera mejor que los dist grupos tnicos no se m entre s. 1 2 3 4 5 72 roup 1 2 3 4 5 6 My closest friends are members of my own ethnic g Mia amigos mas cercanos pertenecen a mi mismo grupo tnico. 73 t ethnic groups gether, it does not seem 1 2 3 4 5 6 When I see people from differen to right. Me disgustan los grupos compuestos por gente de distintos grupos tnicos.
188 Appendix 8 (Continued) Statement Strongly Disagree En total desacuerdo Disagree En desacuerdo Slightly Disagree Parcialmente en desacuredo Slightly Agree Parcialmente de acuerdo Agree De acuerdo Strongly Agree Muy de acuerdo 74 People from my ethnic group prefer people from their ow ethnic group to peopl other ethnic groups. n e from cn con gente de La gente di mi grupo tnico prefiere a la gente de su propio grupo tnico en compara otros grupos tnicos. 1 2 3 4 5 6 75. W do you belong? Please print clearly. A que grupo tnico pertenece? Por favor escriba claramente. _____________________________________________ 76. My identification with the ethnic group indica ted above is Mi identificacin con el grupo descrito anteriormente es: Vy omewhat SomStrong Very Weak Weak Strong Strong 1 Muy D Algo D Algoerte Muy Fuerte Fuerte INST ollowing table relates to demographic information about you and y u do not know the reque sted information or it does not apply to you (e.g., you are the only child and have no siblings), please leave the box blank. Siblings include full and half brothers and/or sisters. ease print clearly. INST iguiente tabla solicita info rmacin demogrfica sobre usted y su fa jemplo usted es hijo(a e hermanos, deje la pregunta en blanco. Hermanos(as) incluyen de padre y madre, solo padre, o solo madre or favor escriba clament hich ethnic group _____________ er Weak S ewhat 2 3 4 5 6 bil Dbil bil Fu RUCTIONS: The f our family. If yo Pl RUCCIONES : La s milia. S i usted considera que esta informacin no se aplica, por e ) nico(a) y no tien P ra e
189 Please indicate the birthplace and numb yehe U youa yur immmily me Por r de nacimiento y nmero de aos que usted y su familia cercana viven en los Estados Unidos. Appendix 8 (Continued) er of ars in t SA for rself nd o ediate fa mbers. favor indique el luga Birthplace Nacimiento It e Enun Person City/Town Ciudad/Pueblo (a) State/Provinc Estado/Provincia (b) Count Pas (c) Number of Years Living in the US Nmero total de aos viviendo en los Estados Unidos (d) m ciado Persona e ry A 77 Usted Yourself 78 Your spouse Su cnyuge 79 Father Padre 80 Madre Mother INSTRUCTIONS: Demographic information is used to desthe agg cribe regate group of nts wh par tic ber, re sponses are pooled together and answer elect the one best answer for each of the following questions by placing on the line stas no sern entificadas con el participante. Por favor, conteste honestamente. do 1. In which of the following age brackets do you belong? A qu edad pertenece? _____ (19) Less than 20 years old Menos de 20 aos de edad _____ (20) 20 29 years old Entre 20 y 29 aos de edad _____ (30) 30 39 years old Entre 30 y 39 aos de edad _____ (40) 40 49 years old Entre 40 y 49 aos de edad _____ (50) 50 59 years old Entre 50 y 59 aos de edad _____ (60) 60 years old and older 60 aos de edad o ms. participao ipate in a study. Remem there is no way to identify who submitte d which study booklet, so please honestly. S preceding your response. Please answer all questions. INSTRUCCIONES : La informacin demogrfica es usada para describir a los participantes de este estudio de manera agr egada. Recuerde que sus respue id Seleccione la mejor respuesta para cada una de las preguntas de esta seccin, marcan junto al texto correspondiente. Por favo r responda a todas las preguntas. 8
190 8 _____ (1) Single, never been married Soltero(a), nunca me he casado. _____ (4) Legally separated, but std Legalmente separad casado. _____ (5) Widowed ) ___ther: S____ __________ Otro, Describa ______________________________ 8 Includ mny people liv e in the home/apartment that you currently reside in ? Incluyndole a usted, cuntas personas viven en la casa/departamento en el que reside? _____ number of people including you Nmero de personas, incluyendo usted ____ 4. How many children, biological and adopted do you currently have? Check only __ child/children Nio(s) _____ I have no children No tengo nios pleted ? Check only one. Cul es el mayor grado de educacin que usted ha completado? Seleccione solo una _____ (3) Bachelor degree Licenciatura _____ (5) High school graduate Graduado de Colegio gio Specify: ______________________________ 6. Wh _____ (9) Other please specify _____________________________ Otro, especifque _____________________________________ Appendix 8 (Continued) 2. What is your current marital status? Cul es su estado civil? _____ (2) Single, divorced Soltero(a), divorciado(a) _____ (3) Married Casado(a) ill marrie o, pero an Viudo( a pec___ __ (6) O ify_ ________ __ __ __ 3. ing you, how a 8 one. Cuntos nios (propios o adoptados) tienen? Seleccione solo una respuesta. ___ 85. What is the highest le vel of education you have com respuesta. _____ (1) Ph.D. degree Doctorado _____ (2) Masters degree Maestra _____ (4) Some college beyond first two years of college Ms de dos aos de Universidad. _____ (6) Middle school graduate 9 Aos de Cole _____ (7) Other: Otro, 8at language do you ge nerally speak in your home ? Que idiomas habla generalmente en su casa? _____ (1) English Ingles, _____ (2) Spanish Espaol, __________________________________
191 A k at your job ? almente en su trabajo? _____________________________ 8. Wh ase print clearly. ______ attending services? 1. Ind t describes your friends? Selecci migos. group nas de mi grupo tnico, pero otros grupos tnicos. ple from my own ethnic group and 92. Why type( ar cuisines referencia por ningn tipo de es of food ppendix 8 (Continued) 87. What language do you ge nerally spea Que idiomas habla gener _____ (1) English Ingles, _____ (2) Spanish Espaol, _____ (9) Other please specify Otro, especifque _____________________________________ 8at is your religion affiliation? Ple Cul es su religin? Escriba claramente __________________________________________ 89. Are you currently an active member of a Church? Es un miembro activo de su iglesia? _____ (1) Yes Si _____ (0) No No 0. Are you currently active in church ac tivities other than 9 Participa en las actividades de su iglesia, excluyendo misa? _____ (1) Yes Si _____ (0) No No 9 icate which of the followi ng bes one el enunciado que mejor describa a sus a _____ (1) Only people from my ethnic Solo personas de mi grupo tnico _____ (2) Mostly people of my own ethnic group, but have some friends from members of other ethnic groups Mayoritariamente perso tengo algunos amigos de _____ (3) Equally divided between peo people from other ethnic groups riamente dividido entre personas de mi grupo tnico y Igualita personas de otros grupos tnicos. _____ (4) Mostly people from other ethnic groups Mayoritariamente personas de otros grupos tnicos s) of food do you like? Que tipo de comida le gusta? eference for any particul _____ (1) I like all food and have no pr a; tengo p Me gusta toda la comid comida _____ (2) I love Spanish food, and would pref er to eat it over other typ Me gusta la comida espaola; pre fiero comer este tipo de comid.
192 94. What brac es ? Cul es el ingreso total de su hogar antes de impuestos? 0,000 al ao ear Entre $10,000 y $29,999 al ao ao ao 70,000 y $89,999 al ao 0,000 o ms al ao 5. Wh tudy was about? Que p to en este estudio? _______________ Thnk y ortant research. Appendix 8 (Continued) 93. What is your gender? Sexo? _____ (1) Female Femenio _____ (0) Male Masculino ket represents your current annual household income before tax _____ (1) Less than $10,000 per year Menos de 1 _____ (2) $10,000 $29,999 per y _____ (3) $30,000 $49,999 per year Entre $30,000 y $49,999 al ____ (4) $50,000 $69,999 per year Entre $50,000 y $69,999 al _____ (5) $70,000 $89,999 per year Entre $ r year Entre $9 _____ (6) $90,000 or more pe 9at do you think this iensa usted que se tra s _____________________________ ________________ You have completed the study. dio. Usted ha completado este estu aou for participating in this imp Gracias por participar en es ta importante investigacin.
193 Appendix 9 ate ity, State Zip Code ear [Participant]: This letter is an explanat tudy you recently participated in. The study was an experi minorities, featured in the adver ent featured a b of no interest to the study. The last advertisement wa s one of three advertis ements of interest. You viewed either an advertisement feat uring two Hispanic models, two AfricanAmerican models, or one Hispanic and one African-American model. Thank you for your participation in the study. Very truly yours, Cynthia Rodriguez Cano, PhD Candidate Debriefing Letter D Participant Address C Re: Scientific Study D ion (e.g., debriefing) of the nature of the s ment that sought to understand how ethnic particularly Hispanics, evaluate advertising when ethnic models are tisement. The first two adve rtisements you viewed one advertisem aby and the other featured a young woman under a waterfall were
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Cynthia Rodriguez Cano obt of Science in Accountancy, asters of Accountancy, and Doctoral of Busi ness Administration from the University of outh Florida, Tampa, Florida. Dr. Cano is a member of Phi Kappa Phi, Beta Gamma icron Delta Epsilon, and the Gold Key Honor Society. She was a ow for the American Market ing Association Sheth Foundation Doctoral ty for Marketing Advan ces Doctoral Consortium. Dr. Cano is rsonal Selling & Sale s Management, International Journal eting, and the Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing. She is y for ained her B achelor M S Sigma, Beta Om selected fell Consortium and Socie published in the Journal of Pe of Research in Mark an accomplished law firm management consulta nt having worked in the legal industr over 25 years.