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Assessing the reproducibility of skeletal geochemistry records in Atlantic corals using Montastraea annularis coral head...

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Title:
Assessing the reproducibility of skeletal geochemistry records in Atlantic corals using Montastraea annularis coral heads from the Dry Tortugas, Florida
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English
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Stair, Kristine L
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Coral geochemistry
Oxygen isotopes
Sr/Ca ratios
Replication
Bird Key
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Core samples were collected in September 1995 from live coral heads of Montastraea annularis at Bird Key reef in the Dry Tortugas, Florida (24 degrees 55 minutes N, 82 degrees 92 minutes W). Four 4 mm-thick coral slabs from two cores were continuously sampled at 12 samples per year (0.025 cm per sample for Core 31, 0.023 cm per sample for Core 35). Visual inspection of X-radiographs indicates an average skeletal extension rate of about 3 mm per year in Bird Key corals. The goal of this study was to perform a replication test in Montastraea annularis by using elemental and stable isotopes from four coral slabs from two different coral heads to address the following questions: 1) how well do geochemical signals replicate within a single coral head, 2) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two different cores from the same coral head, 3) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two coral heads from the same general area, and 4) do growth effects influence the geochemistry of slow-growing corals at the Dry Tortugas? Geochemical variations versus depth and time of all coral records show strong seasonal cyclicity. Variations in d18O in the suite of Bird Key coral records replicate the best; d13C and Sr/Ca variations replicate less well. For example, differences in the mean Sr/Ca record from two different coral heads are large (0.179 mmol/mol for BK31B-BK35CC; 0.196 mmol/mol for BK31C-BK35CC; ~4 degrees C) and nearly 4 times greater than analytical precision. Therefore, caution must be exercised in interpreting Sr/Ca-SST records in Montastraea annularis. Mean differences in coral d18O for all records, on the other hand, are within analytical precision and translate to temperature differences of less than 0.5 degrees C. Robust d18O values among cores that co-vary with a significant level of agreement further point to this proxy being more reliable than Sr/Ca. Because of its skeletal complexity, drilling difficulty, and large bio-geological error for Sr/Ca, Montastraea annularis seems poorly suited for coral-based Sr/Ca-SST studies. However, the species must be studied to understand tropical Atlantic interannual-decadal scale variability, so further assessment is warranted.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Kristine L. Stair.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 155 pages.

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usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001966
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Assessing the Reproducibility of Skeletal Geoche mistry Records in Atlantic Corals using Montastraea annularis Coral Heads from the Dry Tortugas, Florida by Kristine L. Stair A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science College of Marine Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Terrence M. Quinn, Ph.D. Benjamin P. Flower, Ph.D. Pamela Hallock Muller, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 19, 2007 Keywords: coral geochemistry, oxygen isotop es, Sr/Ca ratios, repl ication, Bird Key Copyright 2007, Kristine L. Stair

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To God for blessings that include a support network of family and friends my parents, Bob, Paul, Greg, Randin, and Nadina

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thank you to the faculty who accepted me to the College of Marine Science and made my dream of pursuing a graduate degree possible. Much gratitude goes to Dr. Ted Van Vleet who helped with financial and acad emic concerns and to Nadina Piehl for her unwaivering encouragement. This project w ould not have been possible without the idea and financial support from my esteemed advi sor, Dr. Terry Quinn. I appreciate the collaborative environment he relentlessly fostered in the laboratory among the paleoclimate group, and I feel pr ivileged to have worked am ong this outstanding team of scientists. Thanks to Drs. Pam Hallock Mu ller and Ben Flower for being on my thesis committee. Ethan Goddard dese rves credit for his technica l wizardry in providing handson training and for maintain ing the MS and ICP, all of which facilitated obtaining analytical results needed for this study. I am forever in awe of Hali Kilbourne who mentored me, and I would not have survived without her advice, pe rceptive critiques of reports and graphs, and willingness to help fix lab equipment at odd hours. In addition to being a great dive buddy and supportive cl assmate, Kristine DeLong lent me her computer for AnalySeries work, provided t echnical support for software issues, and answered numerous questions regarding fi gures, statistics, and writing hang-ups. Jennifer Smith checked the veracity of the ICP analyses. Walter Jaap formally identified the coral species. Christie Stephans genero usly allowed the use of her thesis as a template. Heartfelt appreciation goes to Jenna LoDico, Ana Hoare, Sue Murasko, and others in the paleolab group for being insp irational colleagues and friends.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................viii 1. INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1 1.1 A View of Global Climate Connections............................................................1 1.2 A View of Regional Climate Connections.........................................................2 1.3 Previous Studies.................................................................................................5 1.4 This Study..........................................................................................................9 2. METHODS ..................................................................................................................11 2.1 Climate Setting A View of Local Climate Connections...............................11 2.2 Coral Sampling................................................................................................12 2.3 Chronology......................................................................................................13 2.4 Geochemical Analysis.....................................................................................14 2.5 Data Analysis...................................................................................................16 3. RESULTS ....................................................................................................................17 3.1 Comparison of Geochemical Variati ons in the Depth and Time Domains.....17 3.1.1 Coral 18O...............................................................................................18 3.1.2 Coral 13C...............................................................................................21 3.1.3 Coral Sr/Ca..............................................................................................23 3.2 Growth Rate.....................................................................................................26 4. DISCUSSION ..............................................................................................................28 4.1 Reproducibility of Geochemical Variations....................................................28 4.2 Goodness of Fit Between and Amongst Coral Records...................................29 4.3 Multiple Records and Improvement of Monthly Climate Reconstruction......30 4.4 Reasons for Geochemical Variations...............................................................31 4.5 The 18O-SST Relationship.............................................................................42 4.6 The Sr/Ca-SST Relationship............................................................................44

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ii 5. CONCLUSIONS .........................................................................................................45 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................47 APPENDICES ................................................................................................................105

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iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of Bird Key........................................................................................55 Figure 2. X-radiograph (applying cons trained proportions) of the Montastraea annularis coral slab BK31B from Bird Key core 31 used in this study.......................56 Figure 3. X-radiograph (applying cons trained proportions) of the Montastraea annularis coral slab BK31C from Bird Key core 31 used in this study......................57 Figure 4. X-radiograph (applying cons trained proportions) of the Montastraea annularis coral slab BK35C from Bird Key Co re 35 Top used in this study..............58 Figure 5. Age versus sampling depth plot for coral core BK31B (blue line; n = 387) and a linear best fit between the two variables....................................................59 Figure 6. Age versus sampling depth plot for parallel path BK31BB (blue line; n = 390) on coral core BK31B and a linear best fit between th e two variables...........59 Figure 7. Age versus sampling depth plot for coral core BK31C (blue line; n = 326) and a linear best fit between the two variables....................................................60 Figure 8. Age versus sampling depth plot for coral core BK35CC (blue line; n = 499) and a linear best fit between the two variables....................................................60 Figure 9. BK31B isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core.......................................................................................61 Figure 10. BK31BB isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core.......................................................................................62

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iv Figure 11. BK31C isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core.......................................................................................63 Figure 12. BK35CC isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core.......................................................................................64 Figure 13. Drill path name versus 18O mean..................................................................65 Figure 14. Drill path name versus 13C mean..................................................................66 Figure 15. Drill path name versus Sr/Ca ratio mean........................................................67 Figure 16. BK31B and BK31BB 18O graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time.68 Figure 17. BK31B and BK31C 18O graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time...69 Figure 18. BK31B and BK35CC 18O graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time.70 Figure 19. Post-1970 18O (A) depth and (B) time domains show reproducibility among four coral records.............................................................................................71 Figure 20. Post-1970 depth domain for 18O of coral slabs a nd coral composites..........72 Figure 21. Post-1970 time domain for 18O of coral slabs and coral composites............73 Figure 22. Bivariate plots of (A) SST versus 18O for four coral records from Bird Key and (B) SST versus 18O for Bird Key and Core 31 Composites................74 Figure 23. BK31B and BK31BB 13C graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time.75 Figure 24. BK31B and BK31C 13C graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time....76 Figure 25. BK31B and BK35CC 13C graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time.77 Figure 26. Post-1970 13C (A) depth and (B) time domains show reproducibility among four coral records.............................................................................................78

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v Figure 27. Post-1970 depth domain for 13C of coral slabs and composites...................79 Figure 28. Post-1970 time domain for 13C of coral slabs and composites.....................80 Figure 29. BK31B and BK31BB Sr/Ca graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time81 Figure 30. BK31B and BK31C Sr/Ca graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time..82 Figure 31. BK31B and BK35CC Sr/Ca graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time83 Figure 32. Post-1970 Sr/Ca (A) depth and (B) time domains show poor reproducibility among coral records............................................................................84 Figure 33. Post-1970 depth domain for Sr/Ca of coral slabs and composites.................85 Figure 34. Post-1970 time domain for Sr/Ca of coral slabs and composites...................86 Figure 35. Bivariate plots of (A) SST versus Sr/Ca for four coral records and (B) SST versus Sr/Ca for Bird Key and Core 31 Composites...........................................87 Figure 36. Panels (A and C) 18O-SST and (B and D) Sr/Ca-SST are based on the Core 31 Composite regression equation................................................................88 Figure 37. Panels (A and C) 18O-SST and (B and D) Sr/Ca-SST are based on the Bird Key Composite regression equation..............................................................89 Figure 38. Scatter plot of 18O versus 13C for four coral records from Bird Key..........90 Figure 39. Graph of DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record for SST plotted with 18OSST for Bird Key Composite.......................................................................................91

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vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Summary statistics of geochemical data for (A) depth and (B) time.................92 Table 2. Summary statistics of 18O for the (A) depth and (B) time domain..................93 Table 3. Regression relationships for 18O-SST and Sr/Ca-SST in Montastraea species from 1961-2007...............................................................................................94 Table 4. Summary statistics of 13C for the (A) depth and (B) time domain...................95 Table 5. Summary statistics of Sr/Ca for the (A) depth and (B) time domain.................96 Table 6. Linear extension rates with standard deviations (1 ) for coral records.............97 Table 7. Correlations relating BK31B annual and monthly linear extension to SST and coral proxies..................................................................................................98 Table 8. Correlations relating BK31BB annual and monthly linear extension to SST and coral proxies..................................................................................................99 Table 9. Correlations relating BK31C annual and monthly linear extension to SST and coral proxies................................................................................................100 Table 10. Correlations relating BK35CC annual and monthly linear extension to SST and coral proxies................................................................................................101 Table 11. Correlation coefficients (significant values at 95% confidence level in bold print) for post-1970 coral proxy records............................................................102 Table 12. Pearson Product-Moment co rrelation coefficients for 18O and Sr/Ca of annually averaged monthly records.......................................................................103

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vii Table 13. Pearson Product-Moment co rrelation coefficients for 18O-SST and Sr/Ca-SST of annually averaged monthly records.....................................................104

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viii Assessing the Reproducibility of Skeletal Geoche mistry Records in Atlantic Corals using Montastraea annularis Coral Heads from the Dry Tortugas, Florida Kristine L. Stair ABSTRACT Core samples were collected in September 1995 from live coral heads of Montastraea annularis at Bird Key reef in the Dr y Tortugas, Florida (2455’N, 8292’W). Four 4 mm-thick coral slabs from two cores were continuously sampled at 12 samples per year (0.025 cm per sample for Core 31, 0.023 cm per sample for Core 35). Visual inspection of X-radiogra phs indicates an average skelet al extension rate of about 3 mm per year in Bird Key corals. The goal of this study was to pe rform a replication test in Montastraea annularis by using elemental and stable isotopes from four coral slabs from two different coral heads to address the following questions: 1) how well do geochemical signals replicate within a single coral head, 2) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two different cores from the same coral head, 3) how well do geochemi cal signals replicate from two coral heads from the same general area, and 4) do growth effects influence the geochemistry of slow-growing corals at the Dry Tortugas?

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ix Geochemical variations versus depth and time of all coral records show strong seasonal cyclicity. Variations in 18O in the suite of Bird Key coral records replicate the best; 13C and Sr/Ca variations replicate less well. For example, differences in the mean Sr/Ca record from two different coral heads are large (0.179 mmol/mol for BK31BBK35CC; 0.196 mmol/mol for BK31C -BK35CC; ~4 C) and nearly 4 times greater than analytical precision. Therefore, caution mu st be exercised in interpreting Sr/Ca-SST records in Montastraea annularis Mean differences in coral 18O for all records, on the other hand, are within analytical precision and translate to temperature differences of less than 0.5 C. Robust 18O values among cores that co-var y with a significant level of agreement further point to this proxy being mo re reliable than Sr/C a. Because of its skeletal complexity, drilling difficulty, an d large bio-geological error for Sr/Ca, Montastraea annularis seems poorly suited for coral-based Sr/Ca-SST studies. However, the species must be studied to understand tr opical Atlantic interannual-decadal scale variability, so further assessment is warranted.

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1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 A View of Global Climate Connections Climatologists primarily focus on unde rstanding how physical processes operating in the atmosphere, oceans, and on c ontinents drive global climate. One such extremely important topic is to determine how anthropogenic input (e.g., carbon dioxide) introduced to continents, oceans, and the atmosphere impacts Earth’s global heat engine. Understanding the present atmospheric-oceanic global response to climatic forcing in terms of changing oceanic sea surface temperature (SST), sa linity (SSS) and atmospheric circulation patterns, is essential for pred icting future behavior patterns as well as reconstructing paleoclimatic conditions. Jouzel et al [2000] indicated that isotopic gl obal circulation models have the capacity to reproduce at least part of the s hort-term variability observed in the isotopic composition of seawater and to relate it to climate parameters (e.g., temperature and precipitation amount). This is demonstrat ed with long simulations performed using observed SSTs. They determined that short-te rm variability differs markedly from that associated, for example, with the cooling during the last ice age. The explanation suggests that smaller advective temperature cha nges tend to correlate w eakly or not at all with the isotopic signal, wher eas periods of global temperature change are likely to generate an isotopic signal more consiste nt with the standard paleotemperature relationship.

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2 In interpreting 18O data from fossil carbonates, such as foraminifera and corals, changes in the 18O of seawater can be inferred fr om independent estimations of temperature, provided that sp ecies-dependent effects are taken into account. The 18O of surface seawater is, in additi on, affected by evaporation a nd precipitation fluxes at the air-sea interface, as well by continental runoff in coastal areas and by sea ice formation and iceberg discharge in polar regions. All of these proces ses also affect SSS, and there is, as a result, a strong relationship between SSS and 18O, which can be used to reconstruct “paleosalinities” [ Jouzel et al. 2000]. 1.2 A View of Regional Climate Connections The assumption for interpreting pale o-oceanic data is that modern 18O/SSS relationships hold in time throughout regi ons. A thorough interpretation of water isotopes in regions strongly affected by atmo spheric circulation changes should take into account local circulation changes as well. Although, for modern c onditions, the isotopes are influenced by the temperature effect, thes e circulation changes lead to a high noise level in the relation between the isotopes and local temperatures [ Jouzel et al ., 2000]. One long-term objective of modeling efforts is a full coupling of the atmospheric and oceanic isotopic models. Because of scientific con cerns related to global warm ing, increasingly important studies pertain to air-sea in teractions of the tropical A tlantic, which includes the Caribbean and is influenced by, and may influence, at least four major phenomena: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific El Nio-So uthern Oscillation (ENSO) which imprints a strong signal on water isotopes [ Jouzel et al. 2000], the Atlantic

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3 Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), a nd the Atlantic cross-equatorial sea surface temperature gradient [e.g., Marshall et al., 2001]. Models for oceanic circulation in the Caribbean were presented by Johns et al. [2002]. Both are very similar in their distribution of inflow to this region. The first is a wind-driven model. The second also uses a wind-driven forcing mechanism, but a dds the effect of a Meridional Overturning Cell (MOC). Although its pathways are poorly understood, the MOC, as the Atlantic branch of the subtropical gyre, transports cold, deep water southward across the equator and is balanced by a northward return flow of upper ocean South Atlantic waters. Ultimately, these surface wate rs are transported northward and westward through the Yucatan Channel and into the Gulf Stream system where the Florida Current drives return flow northward. Each model diffe rs in transport amounts through Caribbean passages, but both agree that source waters are from surface flow through nine passages along the Antilles Arc between Cuba and South Am erica. It would be logical to consider that North Atlantic Deep Water, as it head s southward, would contri bute greatly to the source waters for this region. However, th e actual transport is about 0.2 Sverdrup (Sv), which is a negligible amount in the total transport budge t for the Caribbean and the reason why circulation models focus only on surface flow. The Dry Tortugas form the western extent of the Florida Keys island chain and are located at the transition between the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Atlantic within a region that is impacted by tw o major current systems, th e Loop Current (LC) in the Eastern GOM and the Florida Current (FC) in the Straits of Florida. As the Yucatan Current leaves the Yucatan Channel and emer ges into the LC system, strong surface current steers northward into the eastern GOM and hugs the broad shallow, shelves of

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4 Campeche Bank and the steep escarpment of the west Florida Shelf before turning southward and entering the southe rn Straits of Florida near th e Tortugas. The Straits of Florida form a conduit for the FC, connecting the flow out of the eastern GOM with the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and ma king it an important li nk in both the North Atlantic circulation [ Leetmaa et al. 1977] and the global th ermohaline circulation [ Gordon 1986]. Average annual FC flow of 31 Sv (30.5 x 106 m3 s-1 + 3.0 x 106 m3 s-1; 1 ; [ Maul and Vukovich 1993]) reflects two components; one from the wind-driven subtropical gyre (~17 Sv) and the other from su rface flow of the tropical South Atlantic (~14 Sv), which compensates North Atlantic Deep Water formation [e.g., Schmitz and Richardson, 1991; Schmitz and McCartney 1993]. The connective flow of these major current systems subjects the Tortugas’ mari ne ecosystems to inputs of natural and anthropogenic origins from remote sources 100’s to 1000’s km distant [ Lee et al. 1999]. Other significant regional impacts incl ude: large eddies, or cold cyclonic perturbations, that form al ong the inshore boundaries of the current systems and generally dissipate at the Straits of Flor ida just off the Dry Tortugas [ Vukovich 1986, 1988; Muller-Karger et al. 1991], the formation of an epis odic counterclockwise recirculation known as the “Tortugas gyre” that forms just south of the Tortugas where the LC turns abruptly into the Straits of Florida and which can persist for 100 days [ Lee et al. 1995; Lund and Curry 2004], the occurrence of strong transient events due to the occasional passage of storms, cold-air outbreaks in winter [ Nowlin and Parker 1974; Lee et al. 1999; Smith 2001], and intrusions of Mississippi River water [ Lee et al. 1999]. Decadal to centennial scale processes in the Caribbean are poorly known, due to temporal and spatial limitations of instrumental data and a lack of paleoclimate data. The

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5 primary way to increase understand ing of the role that the trop ical Atlantic plays in longterm climate processes is to generate more paleoclimatic data designed to fill in knowledge gaps [ Kilbourne 2006]. Coral-based work is important in this endeavor. Hermatypic corals, found world-wide in subtropical to tropical environments and spanning a latitudinal range from about 30 N to 30 S, are ideally suited for geochemical studies in reproducing seawater composition vari ability. They are an important source of information on interannual-de cadal climate change [e.g., Cole et al. 1993; Quinn et al. 1993; Dunbar et al. 1994; Crowley et al. 1997] because chemical tracers, showing seasonally resolved records, are incorporat ed into coral aragonitic skeletons, thereby reflecting the environmental conditions in wh ich the corals grew. Corals live for centuries and their skeletal growth bands, alternating light and dark bands which are analogous to tree rings, provide a base for determining absolute chronology [ Knutson et al. 1972]. As a result, corals provide a unique oppor tunity to obtain re cords of various environmental variables at seasonal/annual re solution beyond the limit of instrumental data in the tropics that are crucial for a better understanding of decadal/centennial climate variability and its unde rlying mechanisms [ Nyberg 2002]. 1.3 Previous Studies Previous geochemical studies of proxies for climate-related variables include: Sr/Ca (SST) – Previous studi es have attempted to correlate temperatures to the Sr/Ca ratio in coral skeletons [e.g., Beck et al. 1992; McCulloch et al ., 1994; de Villiers et al. 1994, 1995; Mitsuguchi et al. 1996; Gagan et al ., 1998; Swart et al. 2002; Smith et al. 2006; and see other citations from Correge 2006]. Of these, only two Sr/Ca-SST

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6 studies involved the massive Atlantic coral Montastraea [ Swart et al ., 2002; Smith et al. 2006]. Swart et al. [2002] discovered that the slope of the Sr/Ca-SST relationship for Montastraea annularis is less than that previously reported except for two recent studies by Shen et al. [1996] and Alibert and McCulloch [ 1997]. Correlative differences were attributed together to probl ems of sampling the complex skeleton and the wide range in local temperatures. Smith et al. ’s [2006] study of Montastraea faveolata yielded Sr/Ca-SST and 18O-SST regression equations which are si gnificantly different from previously published equations for Montastraea species. Variations in gr owth parameters or kinetic impacts do not sufficiently expl ain this difference in calibra tions, which is most likely due to water chemistry variations [ Smith et al., 2006]. To date, th ere is no single accepted Sr/Ca and temperature relationship for this species because no inter-laboratory Sr/Ca standard exists. As a result, the prec ision of paleotemperature estimates is much worse than the precision of Sr/Ca measurements, and the differences between various calibrations have been previous ly attributed to growth-rate and calcification-rate effects [e.g., de Villiers et al ., 1995; Swart et al ., 2002]. 18O (SST, SSS, precipitation and ot her hydrologic fact ors) – Leder et al .’s [1996] and Swart et al .’s [1996] isotopic cali bration studies of Montastraea are the standard for studies of this species. Leder et al .’s [1996] coral-based study suggests that the relationship between temperature and the 18O of the coral M. annularis and seawater could be expressed by the equation: T(C) = 5.33 – 4.519(+ 0.19) x ( 18Ocoral 18Oseawater) (1)

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7 Using this equation for stab le isotopic analysis of Montastraea faveolata from Puerto Rico, Watanabe et al. [2002] found significa nt differences in 18O and 13C when samples are taken: 1) from various coral skeletal elements; 2) at different sampling resolutions; 3) between adjacent corallites; and 4) from separate colonies. In another coral-based study, Shen et al. [2005] correlated between present precipitation and seawater 18O in Porites from Nanwan Bay, Ta iwan. His study determined that shifts of 18Osw toward lighter values in the wet season are caused by the rain which is depleted in 18O relative to seawater. Guilder son and Schrag [1999] verified the proxy as a robust recorder of environmental variables in the wester n tropical Pacific. Their results showed coral 18O faithfully records interannual variability even when strongly influenced by kinetic effects, and it ha s a great similarity to global instrumental temperature records in climate va riations. Paired analyses of 18O and Sr/Ca can also result in a unique rela tion between SST and SSS [ McCulloch et al. 1996; Gagan et al. 1998; Kilbourne 2006]. 13C (productivity, growth rate, upwelling, cloud cover) – Fairbanks and Dodge [1979] found that skeletal carbon isotopic composition of Montastraea annularis is strongly depth-dependent on light intens ity through the activity of the coral’s endosymbiotic algae, Gymnodinium microadriaticum. radiocarbon (ocean circulati on) – Based on a 250-year long 14C record of Montastraea faveolata Kilbourne [2006] determined that the radiocarbon content of waters bathing southwestern Puerto Rico changes on interannua l to multidecadal time scales in response to ocean dynamics, and propos ed that observed cha nges in the northern

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8 extent of equatorial water are caused by increasing trade winds and accompanying northward Eckman transport of surface waters. luminescence (incorporation of humic acids as controlled by wind-speed, precipitation, and runoff) – Nybe rg [2002] paired analyses of 18O and luminescence intensity in Montastraea faveolata skeletons from Mona Island and the 18O records of another Montastraea faveolata core retrieved from Puerto Rico. The significantly positive relationship with the 18O record from Puerto Rico reflected SST/SSS changes in the northeastern Caribbean. In addition, Nyberg [2002] also noted that growth rates of Montastraea corals have been correlated to light availability or turbidity [ Aller and Dodge 1974; Cortes and Risk 1985; Foster 1980; Hudson 1981], water temperature [ Hudson 1981], nutrient supply [ Foster 1980], and terrigenous sediment discharge [ Miller and Cruise 1995]. The majority of studies have connected proxy SST/SSS records to climate based on geochemical variations studied from a singl e coral head from a single locality. In contrast, Stephans et al [2004] sampled three cores of Porites lutea from New Caledonia and demonstrated that stacking did not signi ficantly improve the goodne ss of fit between proxy and SST records because of the high qual ity of each individual record. Stephans’ replication study verified the fidelity of using one coral record to reflect climate conditions within a single reef. Reproducibility is one of the key criteria for a good proxy. The need for replication studies to document the fidelity of coral-climate signals from multiple corals from the same reef has been expressed for some time [e.g., Cook 1995; Barnes and Lough 1996; Crowley et al. 1997; Stephans 2003]. However, the difficulty of manually

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9 sampling a complex skeleton added to factors of time and cost in performing replicate analyses yields an elaborate, time consuming, and expensive process. 1.4 This Study Numerous Porites studies exist whereas very fe w replication studies using Montastraea sp. have been conducted. The goal of this replication study is to further contribute toward a working knowledge of Montastraea annularis by assessing similarities and differences in sub-annually resolved, skeletal 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca records derived from four coral slabs of two coral heads collect ed from a reef at Bird Key in the Dry Tortugas, Florida. Paired stable isotope and elemental ratio determinations were made on samples to address the follo wing questions: 1) how well do geochemical signals replicate within a single coral head, 2) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two different cores from the same co ral head, 3) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two coral heads from the sa me general area, and 4) do growth effects influence the geochemistry of slow-growing corals at the Dry Tortugas? Dry Tortugas reefs are suited for this replication study because daily SST measurements have been made there si nce 1992. NOAA’s Nationa l Data Buoy Center Coastal Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) station, DRYF1, monitored this area for air and sea temperatures, among other parameters, from 1992 until station failure in 2005 ( http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/station page.php?station=dryf1 ). Since 1997, the Florida Institute of Oceanography’s Sustained Ecologi cal Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape (SEAKEYS) con tinues to make measurements of SST and SSS at the Dry Tortugas C-MAN station loca ted at 24.38 N, 82.52 W. Accessing in situ

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10 data allowed for comparison of coral reco rds to SST. The DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record developed in this study was generated, in part, from combining in situ data from the DRYF1 station with a New Hadley Cent er SST (HadlSST) gridded product that was retrieved from a 1 x 1 box centered on 24.5 N, 82.5 W [ Rayner et al. 2003]. Sampling resolution for this replicati on study was 12 samples per year and was obtained by drilling increments of 0.025 cm /sample for Core 31 and 0.023 cm/sample for Core 35. Paired stable isotope ( 18O, 13C) and elemental ratios (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) were determined for all samples, then resulting is otopic and Sr/Ca data were quantitatively assessed for goodness of fit. Buildin g on Stephans’ [2003] work with Porites the comparisons in this study were made to t ackle a fundamental, but still poorly addressed, issue in coral-based climate studies – determ ination of whether proxy climate time series produced from a single coral head are an accurate record of true environmental variability or whether multiple records from a single reef site are required to generate high-fidelity climate records.

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11 2. METHODS 2.1 Climate Setting – A View of Local Climate Connections The Dry Tortugas are a small group of seve n barrier islands, located at the end of the Florida Keys about 113 km west of Key West. Ponce de Leon discovered the islands in 1513 and named them “Las Tortugas” due to the abundance of sea turtles. The word “Dry” was added later because none of the islands have fresh water. Hurricane impacts have caused smaller islands to disappear and reappear multiple times. Composed of sand and coral reefs, Bird Key’s small land mass and low elevation results in a climate similar to that of the surrounding ocean. Changes in the annual cycle of Straits of Florida volume transport, as observed from twelve years of NOAA satellite/hydrographic data and sea level diffe rence, determined that minimum transport occurs, on average, in the autumn; the maximum transport occurs during summer [ Maul and Vukovich 1993]. Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean surface salinity is controlled largely by excess rainfall relative to evapora tion associated with annual migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation; Dry Tortugas salinity reflects tropical Atlantic salinity with an annual average of 36.1 + 0.2 p.s.u. [ Lund and Curry 2006]. The seasonal precipitation pattern for s outh Florida typically consists of a dry season during winter and spri ng (windy with rough seas De cember-March) followed by a wet season during summer and fall (tropical storms occur June-November). Annual SST

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12 fluctuations in this region typically range fr om a summer maximum of 31 C to a winter minimum of 21 C. Montastraea annularis corals from Bird Key form high-density (HD) bands principally in the summer months (May -September) when SST are at peak values in the same fashion as Montastraea faveolata from Florida’s Looe Key reef [ Smith 2006], Barbados, and Jamaica [ Fairbanks and Dodge 1979]. Extension rates generally range between 5-10 mm per year for Montastraea sp. in the Caribbean and tropical western Atlantic [ Moses et al. 2006], which means Bird Key cora ls with rates at less than 5 mm per year are considered as slow-growing. 2.2 Coral Sampling Samples of Montastraea annularis (Bird Key Cores 31 and 35) were collected in September 1995 from a colony situated at a 42-foot (~14 m) depth along Bird Key (Figure 1) in the Dry Tortuga s, FL (2455’N, 8292’W). Co res were sliced into 4 mmthick slabs and X-radiographed to observe hi ghand low-density banding. To clean the coral before drilling, coral slab s were individually immersed in a clean plastic container with deionized water, ultrasonicated for 10 minutes, turned over, and sonicated for another 10 minutes. After the wa shing process, they were rins ed with deionized water to remove organic material and adherent contam inants, and then dried overnight in an oven at 70 C. The visually straightest corallites, oriented parallel to the core’s growth axis, were selected for manual sample collection. Drilling was performed using a computercontrolled triaxial stage and a Dremmel drill equipped with a 0.7 mm bit. Corals were continuously sampled along the thecal walls of individual corallites where previous

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13 studies [ Leder et al ., 1996; Swart et al. 2002] indicated that the best chronology could be obtained (Figures 2-4). Drill ing paths followed a box pattern with step-wise increments of 0.25 mm length along the top and botto m for BK31B, BK31BB, and BK31C, 0.23 mm along top and bottom for BK35CC, approximate ly 1 mm width along each side of the box, and to an approximate depth of 1 mm. The goal of this sampling resolution was to obtain a sampling frequency of 12 samples per year. 2.3 Chronology Chronology can be constructed assuming that each highand low-density band pair represents one year of growth [ Knutson et al ., 1972]. This common practice of assigning a calendar year to ea ch density-band couplet allo ws for conversion from the depth domain to the time domain in coral-based climate studies [ Quinn et al. 1998]. Prior to drilling, extension rates of coral were determined by using a ruler to measure the distance between banded couplets on scanned im ages of X-radiographs. An estimate of age (time domain) was achieved by correlating Sr/Ca and 18O records to density banding and periods of maximum and minimum temperat ures, with the correlation being achieved by relating samples with maximum Sr/Ca ratios to period of lowest temperature and vice versa. Calculations of data results by de pth and the use of image analysis software confirmed coral growth extensi on rates of ~3.0 mm per year (+ 0.8 mm) for Core 31 and ~3.4 mm per year (+ 0.9 mm) for Core 35 (Figures 5-8) The drilled segments of the cores used in this study correlate to a ma ximum time spanning about 33 years from 1962 to 1995. However, due to inconsistencies in skeletal growth obser ved in X-radiographs and scanned images, discussion will addr ess only post-1970 data intervals.

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14 2.4 Geochemical Analysis Stable isotopic and elemental ratio determinations were made on splits of the same powder using instrumentation at the Un iversity of South Florida Stable Isotopes Laboratory. Samples for elemental analysis were weighed out in portions of ~100-165 g. Depending upon individual sample weight, each aliquot was treated with 2-4 mL of 2% trace-metal grade HNO3 solution to ensure complete dissolution of the carbonate and to obtain a target concentration of 20 + 2 ppm Ca prior to analyt ical testing. Analyses were conducted with a Perkin-Elmer 4300 dual view, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Samples lacking the minimum weight required (~100 g) were generally not analyzed for the Sr/Ca signal. In a few inst ances where low weight samples were needed, they were treated with carefully adjusted volumes of nitric acid to maintain the 20 ppm Ca concentration requirement. Data points wi th highly suspect values were not included in graphs. For those falling outside of the plausible range, samples would typically be prepared for a subsequent rerun on the ICP. Due to small initial mass quantities of powdered coral samples, however, analysis was usually a one shot chance as liquid aliquots remaining after initial testing were typically insufficient for reruns. Following Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratio determinations, low-frequency drift in the data, caused by factors such as temperature change s in the room, drift in the plasma or electronics, and pressure differe nces in gas tanks/gas flow were corrected by applying the Schrag [1999] method. Internal gravimetric re ferences were run betw een every sample to correct for drift and bring values into cl oser agreement with gravimetric standard solutions. Analytical precision of the internal gravimetric standard was + 0.4 % (2 ;

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15 0.039 mmol/mol; ~0.8 C; n = 2979) for Sr/Ca and + 0.7 % (2 ; 0.007 mmol/mol; n = 2981) for Mg/Ca. The accuracy of the Sr/Ca value in this standard solution has previously been confirmed using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) at the University of Minnesota Isotope Labora tory. A coral reference standard of Porites lutea was measured for every fifth sample (Appendi x A). Analytical precision for the coral reference standard solution was + 0.6 % (2 ; 0.051 mmol/mol; ~1 C; n = 481) for Sr/Ca and + 1.8 % (2 ; 0.019 mmol/mol; n = 480) for Mg/Ca. Samples, for those with sufficient am ounts of coral powder remaining after ICPOES analysis, were weighed in ~35-80 g aliquots and placed into individual glass reaction vials for conducting isotopic analys es using a ThermoFinnigan DeltaPlus XL dual inlet mass spectrometer (MS). Each sa mple was reacted with phosphoric acid in a CarboKiel oven at 70 C before being cha nneled through the MS. Isotopic values are expressed in conventional delt a notation relative to the isot opic ratio of carbon dioxide gas derived from Vienna Pee Dee Belemite (VPDB) through the National Bureau of Standards. The following two equations express 13C and 18O in per mil (‰) notation: 18O = [(18O/16O)sample/(18O/16O)standard -1] x 1000 (2) 13C = [(13C/12C)sample/(13C/12C)standard -1] x 1000 (3) Data offsets were typically corrected by comparing six NBS-19 standards per a fortysample MS run to the standardized values of +1.95 ‰ for carbon and -2.20 ‰ for oxygen. Deviations of standards were adjust ed using Isodat computer software which allowed for analytical precision of + 0.06 ‰ (2 ; n = 266) for carbon and + 0.10 ‰ (2 ; n = 264) for oxygen in this study (Appendix B).

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16 2.5 Data Analysis Isotopic data were used to predict the 18Ocoral variation in the sample due to temperature using the relation derived for Montastraea faveolata by Fairbanks and Dodge [1979]: 0.22 TC = 18Ocoral (4) The resulting database of stable and elem ental isotopic variations versus time had unequal increments. The AnalySeries program [ Paillard et al ., 1996] was used to recast original data into depth and time series having equal steps, with 18O from coral record BK31B serving as the reference for rescali ng of all proxies. Calibration between the DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record and proxy record s was evaluated using standard ordinary least squares regression (OLS). Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients, significant at the 95% confidence interval or greater, were calc ulated for depth and time of post-1970 coral record data. Given the serial order correlation that exists in a time series because of the annual cycle, a critical value of rcritical = 0.23 was calculated by a runs test which identified the degrees of freedom as 70 for n = 264 samples from the depth domain. For 297 samples from monthly data series, the resulting degrees of freedom would have allowed for a slightly sma ller critical number. To make comparisons easier among tables, the more conservative value was re tained. For annually averaged monthly records, the degrees of freedom for n = 24 (the number of pairs of data for correlations of annual averages between and amongst coral records) was applied, and rcritical = 0.40 for significance of correlations at the 95% confidence level.

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17 3. RESULTS Variations in 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca exhibit well-defin ed annual cycles in both the depth and time domains (Figures 9-12). As with other studies conducted in the USF laboratory [e.g., Smith et al. 2006; Kilbourne 2006], Mg/Ca ratios wi ll not be discussed due to irregular patterns that possibly resu lted from organic materials and inorganic detritus [ Watanabe et al. 2001a] or small contribu tions of brucite (Mg(OH2)) [ Buster and Holmes 2006]. One interesting note, however, is that parallel paths BK31B and BK31BB share maximum values at the same sampling depth (~ 1 cm) from core top and mirror other lesser peaks near 1.25, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 cm depths. These peaks correlate with denser, yellowish-white color bands that are visible on the core slabs. 3.1 Comparison of Geochemical Variati ons in the Depth and Time Domains The depth domain spans 0-6.575 cm, which equates to 1995-1971 (aka post-1970) in the time domain. For this paper, the inte rval of interest cont ains 24 annual cycles. Pre-1971 data is archived in the appendices, but is not discussed in the thesis because of non-optimal corallite growth patterns observed in several coral slab s and X-ray images that translated shifting annual cycle trends and amplitudes (Figures 9-12). Comparison among coral slabs reveals that 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca cycles generally replicate with respect to both depth and time. Plots of coral slabs and composites versus means with

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18 standard error bars show that, except for BK35CC 13C and Sr/Ca, averages are not significantly different between coral records or composites (Figures 13-15). Mean values for 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca for the four co ral slabs from two cores, associated composites, a nd standard deviations (1 ) are shown in Table 1. Because the resulting database of stable and elemental isotopic variations versus time had unequal increments, the AnalySeries program [ Paillard et al. 1996] was used to recast original data into depth and time series having equal steps, in this case increments of 0.025 cm for the depth domain and 12 samples per year for the time domain. The 18O data from coral record BK31B were used as the reference for proxy rescaling which improved coherence among data sets. Comparing mean values and differences between means of original, rescaled, and linear interpolated data series confirmed that analytical results were not significantly altered by Anal ySeries software. 3.1.1 Coral 18O Within each coral the 18O of the skeleton varies between approximately -2.7 and -5.0 ‰; the annual range (i.e., maximum seasona l amplitude calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum climatol ogical values) varies between 1.6 and 1.8 ‰ for Core 31 records and is 2.4 ‰ for the Co re 35 record; the mean monthly difference for the annual range varies between 0.08 and 0.11 ‰. All differences in means (absolute value of mean minus reference BK31B mean) for depth and time series are well within the + 0.10 ‰ VPDB (2 ) analytical precision determined for instrumental error. Comparison of mean differences for different slab, same coral head as well as different

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19 slab, different coral head show closer agr eement than between parallel paths from the same coral slab (Table 1). The 18O for the graphed pair BK31B-BK31BB, parallel paths drilled from the same coral slab, same coral head (Figure 16) was assessed. The 18O of BK31B has a mean value of -3.76 ‰ with an annual average variation of 0.53 ‰. BK31BB has a mean value of -3.85 ‰ with an annual average variation of 0.50 ‰. The 0.09 ‰ difference in means is significant ( t -test, 95% confidence level) and fits within the range for analytical precision. Th is value is also the maximu m difference in means among the four coral records and it transl ates to 0.4 C temperature diffe rence, which is better than the 1-2 C temperature difference from abso lute isotopic differences of 0.2 ‰ – 0.3 ‰ noted in previous Montastraea sp. studies [ Kilbourne 2006; Smith et al. 2006 ; Leder et al ., 1996] as well as 0.2 ‰ – 0.4 ‰ differences established by Porites coral replication studies [e.g., Tudhope et al. 1996; Linsley et al. 1999; Guilderson and Schrag 1999; Cardinal et al. 2001]. Seasonal cycles replicate fairly well ( r = 0.52, p < 0.05, Table 2B), and demonstrate equivalent annual ranges of 1.8 ‰. Visi ble offsets in data and/or annual ranges that apparently differ between the two records occu r over the following depth (time) intervals: 6.6-6.2 cm (1971-1972), 3.4-2.8 cm (1981-1984), 1.5-0.0 cm (1989-1995). Decadal-scale oscill ation patterns may be eviden t but coral records are not long enough to validate these signals. The 18O for the graphed pair BK31B-BK31C, paths drilled from different coral slabs, same coral head (Figure 17) was assessed. The 18O of BK31C has a mean value of -3.80 ‰ with an annual average variati on of 0.45 ‰. Difference in means of 0.04 ‰ translates to 0.2 C temperature differe nce. Seasonal cycles replicate well ( r = 0.63, p <

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20 0.05, Table 2), and annual ranges of 1.8 ‰ for BK31B and 1.6 ‰ for BK31C indicate coherence between the records. Annual range s with apparent offsets between seasonal cycles occur over the following depth (time) intervals: BK31C shows greater ranges from 6.6-6.2 cm (1971-1972) and from 0.6-0.0 cm ( 1994-1995); BK31B has a slightly greater range from 3.6-1.6 cm (1981-1989). Decadal-scale oscillation patterns may be evident. The 18O for the graphed pair BK 31B-BK35CC, paths drille d from different coral slabs, different coral heads (Figure 18) was assessed. BK35CC has a mean value of -3.77 ‰ with an annual average variation of 0.65 ‰. Difference in means of 0.01 ‰ translates to a 0.05 C temperature difference. Among the four coral records, this duo has the highest correlation ( r = 0.70, p < 0.05, depth, Table 2A; r = 0.67, p < 0.05, time, Table 2B). The differing annual ranges of 1.8 ‰ and 2.4 ‰ for BK31B and BK35CC, respectively, do not negate the coherence betw een coral records. Except for an excursion in the BK35CC signal to more positive values at 6.6-6.2 cm (1971-1972), peaks and troughs of both curves are well matched overa ll and similar in size and shape. BK35CC decadal-scale oscillation patterns are not clear. The 18O of coral records plotted with BK31B Composite, Core 31 Composite, and Bird Key Composite (Figures 19-21) was assessed. Statistical analysis demonstrates that all 18O records for coral slabs and composites have equivalent means ( t -test, 95% confidence level) and are signifi cantly well correlated overall ( r > 0.40, p < 0.05, depth domain, Table 2A; r > 0.37, p < 0.05, time domain, Table 2B). Composite data series are correlated to each other with a high level of statistical agreement ( r > 0.95, p < 0.05, Table 2). The 0.03-0.04 ‰ difference of mean s amongst the composites when compared to BK31B for depth and tim e plus ranging within 1 of analytical erro r confirm that the

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21 composite means are equivalent to the re ference mean. This difference in means translates to a 0.1-0.2 C temperature difference. The empirical re lationship between 18O and SST variations (Figure 22) was determined by linear regression for each coral slab (Table 3). Two summary calibration equations were determined by averaging post-1970 monthly 18O values into Core 31 Composite (BK31B, BK31BB, and BK31C from Core 31; equation 5) and Bird Key Composite (Core 31 records and BK35CC; e quation 6) and plottin g data against the DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record (Figur e 22B) which yielded the following: 18Ocoral18Owater = -2.20 (+ 0.21; 2 ) – 0.06 (+ 0.01; 2 ) SST ( r = 0.67); (5) 18Ocoral18Owater = -2.10 (+ 0.20; 2 ) – 0.06 (+ 0.01; 2 ) SST ( r = 0.69). (6) The 18O-SST equations (Table 3) are reasonably similar to Montastraea faveolata calibration equations by Smith [200 6]. Slope values are within 2 standard error of those from that study; intercept values for BK31B, BK31BB, and BK35CC are also within 2 standard error. Both 18O-SST calibrations, however, show slopes that are a factor of ~3.5 times less than Leder et al. ’s [1996] slope for Montastraea annularis 3.1.2 Coral 13C Noisy annual cycles appear in the carbon isotope data with the values being similar, although sometimes slightly offset al ong x-axes, from each other. Within each coral the 13C of the skeleton varies between appr oximately 0.4 and -3.9 ‰; the annual range varies between 3.7 and 3.8 ‰ for Core 31 records and is 4.5 ‰ for the Core 35 record; the mean monthly difference for th e annual range varies between 0.11 and 0.16 ‰. Among the four coral r ecords, the 0.46 ‰ maximum difference in means between

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22 BK31BB and BK35CC is significant ( t -test, 95% confidence leve l), yet it falls outside analytical precision of + 0.06 ‰ VPDB (2 ). The 13C for the graphed pair BK31B-BK31BB, parallel paths drilled from the same coral slab, same coral head (Figure 23) was assessed. The 13C of BK31B has a mean value of -1.64 ‰ with an annual av erage variation of 0.88 ‰. BK31BB has a mean value of -1.71 ‰ with an annual averag e variation of 0.95 ‰. Difference in means 0.07 ‰ is close enough to analytical precision of + 0.06 ‰, 2 for averages to still be considered as essentially the same. A fair level of statistical agreement ( r = 0.46, p < 0.05, Table 4B) and equivalent annual ranges of 3.7 ‰ indicate the records are coherent. The 13C for the graphed pair BK31B-BK31C, paths drilled from different coral slabs, same coral head (Figure 24) was asse ssed. BK31C has a me an value of -1.59 ‰ with an annual average variation of 0.91 ‰. Difference in means 0.05 ‰ is within analytical precision, which verifi es statistical equivalence of the means. Similar annual ranges of 3.7 ‰ for BK31B and 3.8 ‰ for BK31 C point to the coherence between coral records. Records replicate with a fa ir level of statistical agreement ( r = 0.36, p < 0.05, Table 4B). BK31C exhibits a double-peaked cy cle at ~5 cm (1976) that is confirmed by the 18O record. The 13C for the graphed pair BK31B-BK35CC, paths drilled from different coral slabs, different coral heads (Figure 25) was assessed. BK35CC has a mean value of -1.25 ‰ with an annual average variation of 0.75 ‰. Difference in means 0.39 ‰ is 6.5 times greater than analytical precision of + 0.06 ‰, 2 BK35CC exhibits a maximum annual range of 4.5 ‰ which appears to indicate a lack of coherence be tween coral records, although seasonal cycles replic ate with similar patterns ( r = 0.36, p < 0.05, Table 4B).

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23 BK35CC is shifted upwards along y-axis (inc reasing positive concen trations equate to isotopic enrichment) from BK 31B. BK35CC also exhibits a double-peaked cycle at ~5 cm (1976) that is confirmed by the 18O record. The 13C for coral records plotted with com posites for BK31B, Core 31, and Bird Key (Figures 26-28) was assessed. Except for BK35CC which has a statistically different mean and shows little relation to BK31BB, BK31C or Core 31 Composite records, statistical analysis demonstrates that the 13C records for coral slabs and composites have equivalent means ( t -test, p < 0.05) and are co rrelated to each other ( r > 0.31 depth domain, Table 4A; r > 0.34 time domain, Table 4B). Di fference of means being within 2 of analytical error for BK 31B Composite and Core 31 Composite in both depth and time space, confirm that composite means ar e equivalent to the reference mean. Although the means between Bird Key Co mposite and BK31B are equivalent ( t -test, p < 0.05), the difference in means exceeds the 2 for analytical precisi on due to contributions from BK35CC. 3.1.3 Coral Sr/Ca Annual signals in graphs appear noisy, likely due to monthly sampling frequency. Decadal trends seen in 18O are not evident for Sr/Ca. Within each coral the Sr/Ca of the skeleton varies between approximately 9.5 a nd 8.6 mmol/mol; the annual range varies between 0.58 and 0.75 mmol/mol; the mean mo nthly difference for the annual range varies between 0.02 and 0.04 mmol/mol. Th e 0.196 mmol/mol maximum difference in means of the four records, occurring be tween BK31C and BK35CC, is significant ( t -test, 95% confidence level), and it falls ou tside analytical precision of + 0.051 mmol/mol (2 )

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24 for the coral reference standard. This differe nce in means between coral heads equates to a bio-geological error fo r SST of about 4 C. Sr/Ca ratios for the graphe d pair BK31B-BK31BB, parallel paths drilled from the same coral slab, same coral head (Figure 29) were assessed. The Sr/Ca of BK31B has a mean value of 9.030 mmol/mol with an annual average variation of 0.23 mmol/mol. BK31BB has a mean value of 9.047 mmol/mol w ith an annual average variation of 0.19 mmol/mol. Difference in means 0.017 mmol/m ol is within the range for error and translates to a 0.4 C temperature differe nce. Annual ranges of 0.75 mmol/mol for BK31B and 0.73 mmol/mol for BK31BB, similar patterns to seasonal cycles, and a fair level of correlation between records ( r = 0.46, p < 0.05, Table 5B) indicate coherence. Signals co-vary closely from 2.7-0.0 cm (19851995), diverge with a large offset from 3.7-2.7 cm (1981-1984), and agree again at 6.0 -4.5 cm (1972-1978). A possible cooling trend exists from 6.6-3.8 cm (1971-1980); warming trend from 2.1-0.0 cm (1987-1995). Sr/Ca ratios for the graphed pair BK31B -BK31C, paths drilled from different coral slabs, same coral head (Figure 30) were assessed. BK31C has a mean value of 9.013 mmol/mol with an annual average variat ion of 0.19 mmol/mol. Difference in means of 0.017 mmol/mol is within analytical error and translates to a 0.4 C temperature difference. BK31C with its annual range of 0.58 mmol/mol seems less comparable to the range for BK31B but they share the same seasonal amplitudes from 6.6-4.7 cm (19711977). Records are significantly correlated ( r = 0.30, p < 0.05, Table 5). Offsets in data between the two records occur over the followi ng depth (time) intervals: BK31C shows greater annual ranges from 4.7-3.8 cm ( 1977-1980); BK31B has greater ranges from 0.50.0 cm (1994-1995). At ~5 cm (1976) BK31B appears to have 2 years to 1 when

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25 compared with BK31C, but 18O analyses indicate both have a double-peaked annual cycle. Sr/Ca for the graphed pair BK31B-BK35C C, paths drilled from different coral slabs, different coral heads (Figure 31) we re assessed. BK35CC has a mean value of 9.209 mmol/mol with an annual average variat ion of 0.14 mmol/mol. Difference in means 0.179 mmol/mol greatly exceeds error a nd translates to a 3.8 C temperature difference. In addition to similar looki ng signals, annual ranges of 0.75 mmol/mol and 0.70 mmol/mol for BK31B and BK35CC, respec tively, demonstrate coherence between coral records. BK35CC signal is consistently offset with more positive concentrations than BK31B. However, records replicat e with a fair level of agreement ( r = 0.42, p < 0.05, Table 5B). Sr/Ca ratios for coral records pl otted with BK31B Composite, Core 31 Composite, and Bird Key Composite (Figures 32 -34) were assessed. Overall, Sr/Ca ratio correlations indicate significant and co-var ying relationships betw een coral records and composites ( r > 0.26, p < 0.05, Table 5). BK35CC shows no significant relationship to BK31C in either the depth or time domai n. The BK35CC and Bird Key Composite means are different from the BK31B referen ce mean and that of other coral slabs ( t -test, p < 0.05). The average for Bird Key Composite is not significantly different because it falls within 2 of the BK31B reference mean. Difference of means between composites and BK31B for depth and time are within 2 of analytical precisi on, confirming that other composite average values are also esse ntially the same as the reference mean. BK31B Composite and Core 31 Composite show a combined depth/time difference in

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26 means equating to less than a 0.2 C temperat ure difference. Bird Key Composite is about 1 C off from BK31B, due to contributing eff ects from BK35CC. Similar to the process defined previously for the 18O-SST relationship, linear regressions (Table 3) of Sr/C a-SST variations for Core 31 Composite (three coral records from Core 31; equation 7) and Bird Key Compos ite (all four coral records; equation 8) resulted in the following summary calibration equations (Figure 35): Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 9.626 (+ 0.072; 2 ) – 0.023 (+ 0.003; 2 ) SST ( r =0.70). (7) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 9.626 (+ 0.063; 2 ) – 0.021 (+ 0.002; 2 ) SST ( r =0.72). (8) Sr/Ca-SST equations (Table 3) are similar to Montastraea faveolata calibration equations developed by Smith [2006]. Slope values and intercepts of Bird Key coral records and composites, except for BK35CC, are within 2 standard error of valu es established by the Looe Key study. None of the Bird Key regr ession slopes for Sr/C a-SST relationships, however, agree with Swart et al. ’s [2002] slope of -0.0471, wh ich was identified as the average slope for Montastraea annularis 3.2 Growth Rate Three sets of calculations were made for each of the four cora l records to analyze differences in extension rates (Table 6) as follows: 1) annual differences in extension were determined between Sr/Ca and 18O minima (warmest SST values) for the entire coral record, and post-1970 data; 2) annual di fferences in extension were determined between isotopic maxima (coldest SST values ) for the entire coral record and post-1970 data; and 3) monthly extension differen ces were calculated using post-1970 linearinterpolated time domain data.

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27 The term “entire” refers to the total number of samples that were analyzed pertaining to the coral records used in this study. Th is study found little relationship between linear extension rates and isotopic re sults for either annual or m onthly correlations of entire coral records as well as post1970 data (Tables 7-10). The 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca are, therefore, essentially independe nt of extension rates. BK31B shows an average ex tension rate of 2.93 mm/yr over the entire 33 yearlong record, an annual averag e extension rate of 2.95 + 0.98 mm/yr (+ 1 standard deviation) over the entire record, an annual average rate of 2.62 + 0.73 mm/yr for the post-1970 interval, which covers 24 years in each coral record, and an average monthly extension difference of 0.22 + 0.09 mm. BK31BB has an averag e extension rate of 2.93 mm/yr over the 33 year-long record, an annua l average extension rate of 2.93 + 0.79 mm/yr over 32 years of the entire recor d, an annual averag e rate of 2.62 + 0.54 mm/yr for the post-1970 interval, and an average monthly extension difference of 0.21 + 0.11 mm. BK31C exhibits an average extension rate of 2.96 mm/yr over the entire 27 year-long record, an annual average extension rate of 2.96 + 0.73 mm/yr over the entire record, an annual average rate of 2.98 + 0.60 mm/yr for the post-1970 in terval, and an average monthly extension difference of 0.24 + 0.18 mm. BK35CC has an av erage extension rate of 3.42 mm/yr over the 33 year-long record, an annua l average extension rate of 3.44 + 0.88 mm/yr over the entire record, an annual average rate of 3.38 + 0.96 mm/yr for the post-1970 interval, and an average monthly extension difference of 0.24 + 0.16 mm. Note that BK31B and BK31BB (paralle l paths on the same coral sl ab) appear to indicate a decrease in extension rate, changing from 2.9 mm/yr determ ined for entire records to 2.6 mm/yr for post-1970. Rates remain constant with time fo r the other two coral reco rds.

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28 4. DISCUSSION Assessment of the reproducibility of the coral 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca signals will include determination of the following: 1) reproducibility of geochemical variations; 2) goodness of fit between and amongst coral reco rds; 3) whether generation of multiple records significantly improves the accuracy of monthly climate reconstructions; 4) reasons for geochemical variations; and 5) comments regarding the predicted 18O-SST and Sr/Ca-SST relationships and the observed monthly SST of the instrumental record. 4.1 Reproducibility of Geochemical Variations Statistical analyses ( t -test, p < 0.05) have shown that mean coral 18O values (Figure 13) and differences in these mean va lues are not substantially different between coral slabs, coral composites, or coral heads. Statistical analyses ( t -test, p < 0.05) for 13C and Sr/Ca, also demonstrat e equivalence of means (Figur es 14-15) and differences in means among coral slabs and between core s for records from the same coral head (Core 31). On the other hand, comparison of the coral records from Core 31 with the records from BK35CC, wh ich was taken from Core 35, indicates that the 13C and Sr/Ca signals for BK35CC differ signi ficantly from the other records in both the depth and time domains. Correlation coefficients for post-1970 proxy records are provided in Table 11. Note fair to good correlation among 18O and Sr/Ca data with little significant

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29 relationship to the 13C data. Correlations between 18O and Sr/Ca of annually averaged monthly records (Table 12) are significant when comparisons are made within individual coral records ( r > 0.49, p < 0.05). Not seeing significan t correlations in comparisons between other records implies that inter-c oral geochemical vari ations do not show reproducibility on an annual level. Correlations for monthly co ral records are, therefore, due to the presence of the annual cycle. Using annually averaged Bird Key Composite 18O-SST and Bird Key Composite Sr/Ca-SST in relation to the DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record (Table 13) also failed to incr ease significance beyond the 95% confidence interval. Assuming a relationship to SST exis ts, correlations for a nnually averaged data may have achieved significance with a l onger time frame of observations (i.e., n > 24). Because of noise in geochemical signals and the small n the significance is simply not there for annual averages. However, a strong correlation exists between the 18O-SST and Sr/Ca-SST for Bird Key Composite ( r = 0.80, n = 24, p < 0.05). 4.2 Goodness of Fit Between and Amongst Coral Records Refer to the Results section for proxy correlations and tables as previously discussed. Average values for the abso lute difference between paired monthly 18O records with 2 standard error and temperatur e (C) are as follows: 0.26 + 0.02 ‰ (1.2 C) for BK31B-BK31BB, 0.21 + 0.02 ‰ (1.0 C) for BK31B-BK31C, 0.25 + 0.02 ‰ (1.1 C) for BK31B-BK35CC, 0.23 + 0.02 ‰ (1.0 C) for BK31BB-BK31C, 0.30 + 0.03 ‰ (1.4 C) for BK31BB-BK35CC, and 0.34 + 0.03 ‰ (1.6 C) for BK31C-BK35CC. The overall average for monthly comparisons among paired records is 0.26 + 0.02 ‰ (1.2 C).

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30 Average values for the absolute difference between paired monthly Sr/Ca records with associated 2 standard error and temperature (C) are as follows: 0.113 + 0.010 mmol/mol (2.4 C) for BK31B-BK31BB, 0.126 + 0.010 mmol/mol (2.7 C) for BK31BBK31C, 0.201 + 0.014 mmol/mol (4.3 C) for BK31B-BK35CC, 0.137 + 0.011 mmol/mol (2.9 C) for BK31BB-BK31C, 0.182 + 0.015 mmol/mol (3.9 C) for BK31BB-BK35CC, and 0.205 + 0.017 mmol/mol (4.3 C) for BK31C-BK35C C. The overall average for monthly comparisons among pa ired records is 0.161 + 0.013 mmol/mol (3.4 C). 4.3 Multiple Records and Improvement of Monthly Climate Reconstruction Generation of Bird Key Composite th rough compilation of multiple records greatly improved the accuracy of the monthl y reconstruction. Averaging smoothed the monthly data, reduced standard error, and mi nimized the effects of non-climatic factors (i.e., noise). Adding more coral records serves to cancel out noise introduced by sampling and, as a result, more of the geoche mical signal can be recovered as the noise gets filtered out. Th is is similar to the dendrochronol ogy process where combining treering records with large differen ces in annual cycles can potenti ally be used for removal of undesirable trends. It is graphically evident (see Figures 20-21, 27-28, 33-34, 36C-D, and 37C-D) that generating composite record s resulted in smoothed seasonal cycles and improved monthly and seas onal reconstruction. The regression relationships (Figures 22B, 35B, and 36C-D) resulted in good correlations ( p < 0.05) for Core 31 Composite 18O-SST ( r = 0.67), Bird Key Composite 18O-SST ( r = 0.69), Core 31 Composite Sr/Ca-SST ( r = 0.70), and Bird Key Composite Sr/Ca-SST ( r = 0.72). With r2 values of 0.45 and 0.48, composite records share 45-48%

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31 of the 18O variance with SST. Likewise, Sr/Ca-SST r2 values of 0.49 and 0.52 mean ~50% of the variance is shared between co mposites and SST provided that the corals are recording a climatic SST signal. The 18O is robust enough that a single coral record from either Core 31 or Core 35 could ha ve been used to determine a general 18O-SST relationship although BK31BB would have yielded a slightly more amplified SST record. Without a composite being used for regres sions, though, the Sr/Ca-SST relationship would contain unrealistically la rge error due to differences in means between predicted and observed SST. If climate reconstructi on was compiled using a monthly calibration from a single coral record, it would likely significantly overesti mate or underestimate SST changes through time. 4.4 Reasons for Geochemical Variations With no fresh water sources for Dry To rtugas barrier islands, differences in seawater 18O values are largely controlled by pr ecipitation/evaporation processes and by water-mass changes. Bird Key cores were coll ected from the same reef, yet lacking field observations, other than a tag stating Core 31 was collected in 42 feet (i.e., ~14 m) of water, makes it difficult to determine how r eef location and coral topography specifically influenced isotopic signals. It is highly unlikely, however, that oceanic conditions on the stable Florida platform at Bird Key reef w ould vary that much to account for the Sr/Ca temperature difference between cores. The 18O coherence previously demonstrated among coral records, and especia lly between different coral h eads, supports data as being representative of a true climatic signal.

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32 Robust oxygen isotopes indicating that Bird Key corals are recording environmental forcing leaves the discussion open to identifying plausible causes for the geochemical variations between coral heads for 13C and Sr/Ca. Metabolic vital effects often receive the blame if other processes cannot account for isotopic disequilibrium. Biological activity complicat es the oceanographic inte rpretation of the coral 13C record [ Quinn et al ., 1998]. As a result, the carbon record is not as commonly published or used in interpreting time series or discussing changes in climate. The climatological signal of BK35CC is episodically offset from the signal of BK31B (Figure 25) implying that some factor whether biological or environmental, influenced the slightly more isotopically carbon-enriched condition of the BK35CC (or more depleted state of the BK31B) coral reco rd. Differences in carbon isotope values may also be indicative of proximity to nutrient supply, light availability, and quantity/quality of zooxanthallate productiv ity based on the coral’s position along the reef tract. The fractionation or metabolic effect identified by McConnaughey [1989a, b] results in an observed 13C depth distribution of Montastraea annularis where individuals from shallower depths have higher 13C, from more light and increased photosynthesis, and those from deeper depths have lower 13C as a consequence of the exponential reduction of light with de pth (as summarized by Fairbanks and Dodge [1979] and restated by Guilderson and Schrag [1999]). Fairbanks and Dodge [1979] did not attempt to identify the metabolic processes responsible, but they believed Montastraea’s lightdependent 13C-depth profile to be related to rate s of algal symbiont photosynthesis. Whereas no evidence exists to explain differen ces in range and mean values in skeletal

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33 13C, Watanabe et al [2002] surmised that different coral depths and physiology were responsible for the 13C of coral skeletons. Based on the discussion above, the coral head for Core 35 may have been located in somewhat shallower water than the Core 31 coral head. Shallower water would mean higher light levels with more algal produc tivity. Photosyntheti c activity of algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) in co rals incorporates lighter isotopes in biomass, which leaves the internal DIC pool enriched in 13C and leads to coral skeletal enrichment [ Guilderson and Schrag 1999]. While differences in productivity may explain 13C offsets and noisy variations in Bird Key cora ls, it does not sufficiently explain variations in Sr/Ca. Coral carbonate precipit ation is a function of CO2 hydration and hydroxylation processes mixed in various rates [ McConnaughey 1989a, 1989b, 2003]. In making an isotopic comparison between a photosyntheti c coral and a non-photosynthetic coral, McConnaughey [1989a] developed a model in which non-photosynthetic corals show a definite linear relationship between 18O and 13C. Values fall outside a predicted range for equilibrium due to kinetic isotope effects that are constrained by temperature and quantum mechanics and which cause simultaneous depletions in 18O (4-6 ‰) and 13C (10-15 ‰). Photosynthetic corals are even more offset from the equilibrium line, pointing to metabolic effects that result from changes in the 13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) caused primarily by photos ynthesis and respiration [ McConnaughey 1989a,b]. If coral growth is rapid (>5 cm per year) then isotopic offset stays constant for all genera, but if carbonate precipitation occurs slow ly over longer time periods then isotopic

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34 signatures more closely approach equilibrium [ McConnaughey 1989a]. Bird Key coral records fit reasonably into the 18O offset range, but the 13C ranging from about +0.5 ‰ to -4.0 ‰ indicates that coral records are clos er to equilibrium than offset predicted by the model. This is an indication that growth effects may be at play in Montastraea annularis from Bird Key. If slower growing corals are more impact ed by growth effects than faster growing ones, then BK35CC presents an interesti ng contradiction. BK35CC has the fastest extension rate of all the cora l records sampled in this study (3.4 mm per year as opposed to ~3 mm per year for BK31B, BK31BB, a nd BK31C from Core 31) and yet it more closely approaches equilibrium both in its isot opic values and linear trend than any of the other records (Figure 38). Po sitive trends in co ral data are observed in species where kinetic effects have a large impact on the geochemical signal [ Smith et al., 2006]. The scatter plot shows 13C18O data for the four coral slab s along with abiotic, aragonite cement that precipitates under equilibrium cond itions. Isotopic offset from equilibrium conditions for secondary aragonite makes it a pparent that somethin g else other than diagenesis influences the geochemistry of slow growing corals at Bird Key. The expected outcome, if McConnaughey’s model is correctly interpreted, would be for BK35CC to demonstrate more offset from equilibrium than that shown by the Core 31 coral records. By showing enrichment instead, the isotopic plot for BK35CC opposes assumptions based on that model. However, the coral record agrees with Goreau’s [1977] study of Montastraea annularis from Jamaica, which showed that seasonal bulk 13C data confirmed a prediction by Weber and Woodhead [1970] that fast growing corals

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35 should be isotopically h eavier than slow grow ing corals. In anot her study, Barnes and Taylor [1973] discovered that growth rates of Montastraea annularis were higher at 9 m and 33.5 m depths than they were at interm ediate depths of 15 and 24.5 m, which led them to suggest the existence of shallow and deep adapted races. These findings relate back to the importance of know ing specifics about the Bird Key core sample collection site. Although water depths would not have been greatly different along the same reef tract, differences of several meters in depth may have possibly played a part in setting the slightly different rates at which the corals grew. Extension, along the growth axis as we ll as calcification ra tes for skeletal deposits, is known to vary throughout the year along with other physio logical aspects of coral life. How such variations (e.g., linea r extension slows during dense band formation in summer) influence intra-annual chronol ogy was not quantified, nor needed, by this study. Supporting evidence comes from Kil bourne [2006] who pointed out that the continued success of studies showing prim ary Sr/Ca dependence on temperature [e.g., Houck et al ., 1977; Smith et al ., 1979; Beck et al ., 1992, 1997; Eisenhauer et al ., 1999; Hughen et al ., 1999; Gagan et al. 2000; Marshall and McColluch 2002; Quinn and Sampson 2002; Ourbak et al. 2006] has diminished earlier co ncerns over the growth rate dependence of Sr/Ca in coral skeletons [ Weber 1973; de Villiers et al ., 1995]. Sr/Ca in theory, as discussed by Correge [2006], is considered a “cleaner” tracer than 18O because variability in seawater Sr/Ca is less than seawater 18O, which is strongly influenced by precipita tion/evaporation processes. It has been well established that Sr2+ is strongly bound in coralline aragoni te (and probably substitutes for Ca2+) but the mode of incorporation is controversial [ Correge 2006]. Scientific debate centers on

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36 whether passive Sr2+ transport dominates at night (calci fication fluid resembles seawater) versus active transport during da ylight (calcification deposits are strongly affected by kinetic processes). Historically, Sr/Ca has been accepted as a stable proxy for SST calibration under the assumption that the elements of Sr and Ca in seawater remain constant over space and time on the order of 106 years [ Broecker and Peng 1982]. Sr/Ca ratios can vary slightly in the modern ocean [ de Villiers et al. 1994; Shen et al. 1996, 2005]. In a water depth profile study of Nanwan Bay, Taiwan, Shen et al [2005] demonstrated that the Sr/Casalinity relationship may serve as a tool for distinguishi ng different water masses and assessing the upwelling st rength influenced by tidal forcing in a coastal environment. Recent results also show that Sr2+ uptake varies strongly as a function of light level, temperature, and growth rates [ Reynaud 2004]. With the disc overy of biologically driven processes, the strength of Sr/Ca as a stable coral proxy is questionable and much more work is needed to understa nd the role of calcification on Sr/Ca ratios. If either Srbased vital effects or changing Sr2+ concentrations in seawater are sources of geochemical variability, then one should expect to see differences in the Sr/Ca signal among the majority, if not all, of the Bird Key corals. This is not the case as Core 31 coral records, and all composite records, reflect similarly related geochemical signals. BK35CC, being fairly well correlated to BK31B ( r = 0.42, p < 0.05) with similar-looking cycles, show s a consistent offset trend towards more positive Sr/Ca values. The implication of cooler/drier conditions for the Core 35 site is unlikely given that environmental condi tions along the same reef would not be that climatologically different. Signal offsets are probably linked to coral physiological

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37 responses related to light avai lability. Photosynthetic respon se to light could account for strongly opposing trends in BK35CC 13C and Sr/Ca and some of the geochemical variability between BK35CC and BK31B records. It still does not, however, sufficiently explain what caused such a large difference in temp erature (4 C) between Sr/Ca records. Marshall and McCulloch [2002] analy zed cores of a massive hermatypic scleractinian coral Porites from the central Great Barrier Reef and determined that thermal stress, resulting from either extrem ely warm or cool temperatures, can produce anomalously low Sr/Ca derived SSTs as a result of the breakdown of the biological control on Sr/Ca fractiona tion. Their study also considered that other stresses, such as increased nutrients and change s in light intensity (as a re sult of macroalgal production) can also lead to a breakdown in the Sr/Ca-SST relationship. The st ress by either could have been enough to affect the transport behavior of Sr and Ca, resulting in an upward shift in the Sr/Ca ratio and hence lower apparent SSTs. It is generally known that reefs in the Florida Keys ha ve been stressed for some time (e.g., caused by increased sedimentation/ turbidity, nutrients, pollution, and coral bleaching events). Signals related to coral stress provide a more reasonable explanation of what may have caused the higher Sr/Ca level, and thus lower SST, seen in the BK35CC record. Marshall and McCulloch [2002] st ated that it is quite clear that corals under stress do not obey the rule s. Based on the above asser tion, connection to stress or differences in Sr/Ca transport may be why the 18O13C scatter-plot (Figure 38) shows BK35CC slightly closer in range to equilibrium than Core 31 coral records. Scientists tend to select healthy-looking coral specimens, so Dry Tortugas corals probably did not appear stressed when core samples were coll ected. Furthermore, because of the greater

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38 linear extension rate for Core 35 than for Core 31 it is not likely that stress, if actually a factor, influenced the entire length of the BK35CC Sr/Ca record. Applying Swart et al. ’s [2002] Montastraea annularis relationship equation, Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 10.165 – 0.0471 x SST (C), (9) to the mean annual Sr/Ca value for each coral record yielded approximate mean annual temperatures of 24 C for BK31B, BK31BB, BK31C, and Core 31 Composite, 23 C for Bird Key Composite, and 20 C for BK35CC. The 4 C maximum difference between Core 31 and Core 35 is larger than oceanogr aphically reasonable; the estimated SST is not within reasonable range of the observe d SST, which seasonally does not extend below 21 C. The explanation for large bio-geological error indicated by the difference in mean values of select geochemical variables be tween coral heads may have been partially provided by several prev ious studies. Shen et al. ’s [2005] research involving Porites corals collected from inshore, mid-shelf and outer reef localit ies with different environmental stresses found a temperature va riation of ~2 C w ithin the analytical uncertainty between three Sr/Ca-SST calibrations The findings suggest the influence of coral physiology may cause a possible temper ature bias of 2 C or less. Poor reproducibility of the Sr/Ca temperature reco rds (equivalent to 2-3 C) was also found by de Villiers et al [1995] for three Porites corals growing at similar rates around Oahu, Hawaii [ Alibert and McCulloch 1997]. Watanabe et al .’s [2002] study on Montastraea faveolata assessed the fidelity of coral geochemical records as environmental pr oxies and determined that coral skeletal records from the same coral colony, and ev en the same corallite, may show large

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39 variation due to differing extension rates, formational timing of the skeletal elements, colony topography, and sampling resolution. The study showed that various skeletal elements produce different isotopic records. Although technical advances have enabled high-precision and high-resolution analyses recent understanding of coral skeletal formation suggests the possibility of errors in coral records as a result of the complex architecture of coral skeletons [ Barnes and Lough 1990, 1993; Taylor et al ., 1993, 1995; Barnes et al ., 1995; Watanabe et al ., 2002]. For these reasons, Watanabe et al. [2002] stressed the importance of determining the robustness of coral pr oxy records prior to paleoclimate reconstructions. High precision measurement of the Sr/Ca ra tio allows for very high accuracy in reconstructing paleotemperatures, but the vera city of the technique has been questioned on the basis that there are spatial and temporal variations in the Sr/Ca ratio of seawater, and that kinetic effects, such as the calcificat ion rate, can affect the Sr/Ca ratio of corals, and produce inaccuracies on the order of 2-4 C [ Marshall and McCulloch 2002]. Additional issues casting doubt on the robustness of the Sr/C a paleothermometer include discrepancies caused by selection of the SST da ta set used in calibration, the choice of regression method (reduced major axis versus the more traditionally accepted ordinary least squares), and f undamental differences between labor atories regarding standards and analytical methods. The choice of SST data set also strongly influences the range of regression slopes. In situ SST information agrees more closely with local sites than a satellite-based 1x1 pr oduct, which has been considerably smoothed given its wider spatial coverage. Even diffe rences in settings within a region can yield different calibrations (e.g., inside versus outside lagoon locations as discussed by Correge [2006]).

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40 In addition to coral sampling issues, Swart et al. [2002] mentioned how difficult it is to precisely correlate the material drilled from a complex skelet on with instrumental records. During drilling, human mistakes pot entially introduce the largest source of sampling error, especially when manual re-adjustment of coral slabs is necessary. The Dremmel drill bit can loosen and cause deeper divits to occur. Sampling may be a large contributor to geochemical differences obs erved in BK35CC. The coral slab was denser/harder to drill than th e other coral slabs; slight adjustments of 0.1-0.2 mm were made to the sides (y-axis) of the sampling box to compensate for obtaining insufficient amounts of powdered coral sample. In a ddition, horizontal increments of 0.023 cm/sample across the top and bottom (x-a xis) of the BK35CC sampling box differed from the Core 31 coral slabs which were dr illed using 0.025 cm/sample increments. The reason for adjustment was to keep the sampling frequency of 12 samples per year in proportion with the larger extension rate for BK35CC. However, robust 18O results do not appear to indicate faulty drilling methods. Coral polyps often weave in and out of the plane of the coral slab in Montastraea and trying to follow a straight path along curving thecal wall s may result in intersection with adjacent corallites. The bricking in of the epitheca as the polyp grows upward occurs after the coral build s its skeletal structure [ Druffel 1997]. A related disadvantage with using a somewhat large drill bit may result in collecting portions of younger, endoskeletal material especially when thecal walls are partic ularly narrow or difficult to trace. Incorporation of “ time-transgressive” material [ Moses et al ., 2006] may account for a large portion of the geochemical vari ability in Bird Key corals, although it was minimized by carefully selecting a 0.7 mm dr ill bit and sampling in small increments.

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41 Moses et al. [2006] asserted that the time-tran sgressive nature of sampling, as a function of drill bit size and shape and th e growth rate (especi ally for slow-growing corals), needs to be recognized as a limiting constraint on the minimal resolution of the paleo-proxy derived. The reco mmendation was for taking more than 12 samples per year to properly record approximatel y monthly values and to insure that at least one relatively discrete sample is taken for each monthly period of time. Leder et al. [1996] achieved the best representation of full amplitude for the 18O-SST signal by drilling 50 samples per year. With such low powder masses, achieving this particular Nyquest frequency for a sampling resolution was not possible for Bird Key corals. Other effects on isotope geochemistry include water level variations from tidal forcing, which also may be a potential source of Sr/Ca variability in coral skeletons [ Cohen and Sohn 2004]. Corals also incorporate meta ls into their skeletons in several ways: by adsorption of ions from seawater onto coral walls, by organic material in coral tissue complexing metals, and by precipitatio n of cements in microborings (m-scale holes caused by algae and fungi) and along cen ters of calcification. Geochemical signatures of cement may reflect changes in local seawater chemistry between its deposition and that of the surrounding coral ma terial or differences in the trace-metal distribution coefficients between the two precipitates [ Allison 1996]. In order to conclusively eliminate secondary calcificat ion as an influence on Bird Key corals, samples were taken from the BK31B and BK35C coral slabs for scanning electron microscope (SEM) work, but the results were no t available at the time of this writing.

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42 4.5 The 18O-SST Relationship The best estimate of the relationship between 18Ocoral and the DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record was determined by averaging m onthly data from all four coral slabs into Bird Key Composite for the 18O-SST calibration. The resulting mean predicted 18OSST for each post-1970 tim e series of 25.6 C (+ 0.6 C, 2 ) for BK31B, 26.9 C (+ 0.6 C, 2 ) for BK31BB, 26.1 C (+ 0.5 C, 2 ) for BK31C, 25.8 C (+ 0.7 C, 2 ) for BK35CC, and 26.1 C (+ 0.5 C, 2 ) for Bird Key Composite, agrees with the mean of 26.1 C (+ 0.3 C, 2 ) for DRY-HadlSST over the same time interval. The maximum difference of 0.4 C occurring between BK35 CC and the observed SST is the same as analytical precision, demonstrating that 18O signals in corals are recording the same environmental forcing. The comparison of post-1970 annually av eraged monthly values between the coral and DRY-HadlSST records indicates that the annual cycle is fully captured by the 18O-SST calibration (Figures 36C and 37C). When the Core 31 Composite regression equation is applied to coral records, the ab solute differences between annually averaged means of the instrumental record for SST and predicted SST values are 0.7 C for BK31B, 0.6 C for BK31BB, 0.3 C for BK31C, 0.2 C for BK35CC, and 0.1 C for Core 31 Composite, and 0.2 C for Bird Key Co mposite. When the best-fit Bird Key Composite regression equation is utilized, a nnually averaged mean values between the DRYF1-HadlSST and coral record SSTs differ by 0.5 C for BK31B, 0.7 C for BK31BB, 0.2 C for BK31C, 0.1 C for BK 35CC, 0.02 C for Core 31 Composite, and 0.05 C for Bird Key Composite.

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43 Previous 18O investigations of Montastraea annularis from Florida failed to produce the full temperature range suggested by calibration studies of other corals [ Leder et al. 1996]. Leder et al. ’s [1996] explanation for this phenomena includes different relationships between temperature and the 18O of skeletons of Flor idian corals, changing 18O of the water, physiological variables (“vi tal effects”) and an insufficient number of samples taken per year with consequent superposition of calcium carbonate precipitated at different times within an individual sample. For exam ple, slight variations in correspondence of high density and low 18O are believed to result from sampling unequal intervals and sampling across growth zones in the fine skeletal structure [ Risk and Pearce 1992; Halley et al. 1994]. With removal of the w signal by using an application of the Leder equati on to Bird Key Composite data this study has shown it is possible for Montastraea to produce a co-varying signal which encompasses the full range of the DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record (Fig ure 39) with a highly significant level of statistical correlation ( r = 0.97, p < 0.05). In addition to calibrating geochemical data against the seasonal cycle of temperatures, usually at a near by station or in situ thermo meter, two important additional steps must be taken to validate the coral calibration [ Crowley et al. 1999]. Making largescale inferences about a coral site necessitate s a demonstration that the coral correlates well against larger-scale SST fields such as the local gridded SST data set, and the gridded calibrations must be also be validated against an independent data set. Validation with an independent data se t was not conducted but, if perf ormed, would prove or refute the veracity of the 18O-SST calibration equation deve loped by this study.

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44 4.6 The Sr/Ca-SST Relationship Poor Sr/Ca reproducibility between the two different coral heads skews the interpretation of climate variability based on a Sr/Ca-SST relations hip, so it will not be thoroughly discussed. Due to the Sr/Ca exhi biting a temperature difference similar to those of coral-based work prev iously mentioned in discussi on, this study does not support the validity of using a single coral record for determination of Sr/Ca-SST variability. Variations in water chemistry, growth rate effects, physiological effects, and sampling problems may influence the relationship between 18O, Sr/Ca, and temperature [ Swart et al. 2002]. Because linear extension rates and di agenesis have been largely ruled out as controlling factors, the main impacts to geoc hemical variations in Bird Key corals are attributed primarily as a function of sampli ng method associated w ith drilling the very complex skeletal structure of Montastraea annularis Furthermore, whereas oxygen is a primary constituent of coralline aragonite (CaCO3) and Sr is a trace element that may be replacing Ca in the aragonite st ructure, it appears that Sr/Ca may be more sensitive to the effects of sampling. Ultimately, the reliability of Montastraea annularis as a Sr/Ca-SST paleothermometer is suspect, and the depe ndence on environmental factors and coral physiology remains poorly understood.

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45 5. CONCLUSIONS Geochemical analysis of the four coral slabs from two coral heads from Bird Key reef, Dry Tortugas has helped with understa nding the four questions posed at the beginning of this study. Comparisons am ong coral records and empirically derived relationships led to the following interpretati ons regarding coral geochemical records: 1) How well do geochemical signals replicate within a single coral head? Geochemical variations are within analytical error for 18O and Sr/Ca, and near analytical error for 13C. Difference in means for both 18O and Sr/Ca translates to < 0.5 C in terms of SST. 2) How well do geochemical signals replicate from two different cores from the same coral head? Geochemical variations are within analytical error for 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca. Difference in means for both 18O and Sr/Ca translates to < 0.5 C in terms of SST. 3) How well do geochemical signals replicat e from two coral heads from the same general area? Geochemical variations determ ined from different coral heads from the same reef are reproducible within analytical error for 18O; variations are not reproducible for 13C and Sr/Ca. The 18O-SST difference is signi ficantly < 0.5 C, while the Sr/Ca-SST shows a maximum difference of 4 C. This temperature difference between Core 31 and 35 records likely reflec ts sampling sources of error added to analytical sources of error, which equals less than perfect Sr/Ca data. As Watanabe et al. [2002], Swart et al. [2002], and Moses et al. [2006] pointed out, minute differences in sampling methods result in huge diffe rences in geochemistry.

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46 4) Do growth effects influence the geoche mistry of slow-growing corals at the Dry Tortugas? Linear extensio n rates statistically show almost no relation to the geochemistry of Dry Tortugas corals (T ables 7-10). Instead, a more significant relationship is evident for the skeletal geochemistry proxies. Fairly well-correlated to strongly co-varying cycl es between Sr/Ca and 18O among coral record s and composite series (Tables 11-12) suggest that corals are recording th e same environmental forcing simultaneously. In answering the above que stions, this study has shown that replication improved temperature reconstruction by sm oothing noise in geochemical signals and resulted in closer agreement between estimated and observed SSTs when composite regression equations were applied to averaged coral record data. On the other hand, generating multiple records also demonstrated the criti cal importance in selecting an appropriate regression equation for use in temperature de terminations. Differe nt slopes for Core 31 Composite and Bird Key Compos ite regression equations yiel ded varying predictions of Sr/Ca-SST. Overall, due to its structural complexity, drilling difficulty, and large biogeological error of 4 C for Sr/Ca, Montastraea annularis is not the best choice for coral replication studies. Continue d research with th is species is ne cessary, though, for understanding the role of tr opical climate (i.e., interannual-decadal scale SST/SSS variability) in the Atlantic.

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47 REFERENCES Alibert, C., and M. T. McCulloch, Strontium/calcium ratios in modern Porites corals from the Great Barrier Reef as a proxy for sea surface temperature: Calibration of the thermometer and monitoring of ENSO, Paleoceanography 12, 345-363, 1997. Aller, R. C., and R. E. Dodge, Animal-sed iment relations in a tropical lagoon, Discovery Bay, Jamaica, Journal of Marine Research 32, 209-232, 1974. Allison, N., Geochemical anomalies in coral sk eletons and their possible implications for paleoenvironmental analyses, Marine Chemistry 55, 367-379, 1996. Barnes, D. J., and J. M. Lough, Computer simu lations showing the likely effects of calix architecture and other factor s on retrieval of density info rmation from coral skeletons, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 137, 141-164, 1990. Barnes, D. J., and J. M. Lough, On the nature and causes of density banding in massive coral skeletons, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 167, 91-108, 1993. Barnes, D. J., and J. M. Lough, Coral skeletons: storage and recovery of environmental information, Global Change Biology 2, 569-582, 1996. Barnes, D. J., and D. L. Taylor, In situ studies of calcificatio n and photosynthetic carbon fixation in the coral Montastrea annularis Helgolander Wiss. Meeresunters 24, 284291, 1973. Barnes, D. J., R. B. Taylor, and J. M. L ough, On the inclusion of trace materials into massive coral skeletons. Part II: Distortions in skeletal records of annual climate cycles due to growth processes, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 194, 251-275, 1995. Beck, J. W., R. L. Edwards, E. Ito, F. W. Ta ylor, J. Recy, F. Rougeri e, P. Joannot, and C. Henin, Sea-surface temperature from cora l skeletal strontium/calcium ratios, Science 257, 644-647, 1992. Beck, J. W., J. Recy, F. W. Taylor, R. L. Edwards, and G. Cabioch, Abrupt changes in early Holocene tropical sea surface temperature derived from coral records, Nature 385, 705-707, 1997.

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51 Lough, J. M., A strategy to improve the cont ribution of coral data to high-resolution paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 204, 115-143, 2003. Lund, D. C., and W. B. Curry, Late Holocene variability in Florida Current surface density: Patterns and possible causes, Paleoceanography 19, PA4001, 2004. Lund, D. C., and W. B. Curry, Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium, Paleoceanography 21, PA2009, 2006. Marshall, J., Y. Kushnir, D. S. Battisti, P. Chang, A. Czaja, R. Dickson, J. Hurrell, M. McCartney, R. Saravanan, and M. Visbec k, North Atlantic climate variability: phenomena impacts and mechanisms, International Jour nal of Climatology 21, 18631898, 2001. Marshall, J. F., and M. T. McCulloch, An a ssessment of the Sr/Ca ratio in shallow water hermatypic corals as a proxy for sea surface temperature, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66, 3263-3280, 2002. Maul, G. A., and F. M. Vukovi ch, The Relationship between Variations in the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current and Straits of Florida Volume Transport, Journal of Physical Oceanography 23, 785-796, 1993. McConnaughey, T., 13C and 18O isotopic disequilibrium in biological carbonates: I. Patterns, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53, 151-162, 1989a. McConnaughey, T., 13C and 18O isotopic disequilibrium in bi ological carbonates: II. In vitro simulation of kinetic isotope effects, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53, 163171, 1989b. McConnaughey, T. A., Sub-equilibrium oxygen18 and carbon-13 levels in biological carbonates: carbonate and kinetic models, Coral Reefs 22, 316-327, 2003. McCulloch, M. T., M. K. Gagan, G. E. Mortim er, A. R. Chivas, and P. J. Isdale, A highresolution Sr/Ca and 18O coral record from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and the 1982-1983 El Nio, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 2747-2754, 1994. McCulloch, M. T., G. Mortimer, T. Esat, L. Xianhua, B. Pillans, and J. Chappell, High resolution windows into early Holocene climate: Sr/Ca coral records from the Huon Peninsula, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 138, 169-178, 1996. Miller, R. L., and J. F. Cruise, Effects of suspended sediments on co ral growth: evidence from remote sensing and hydrologic modeling, Remote Sensing Environ. 53, 177-187, 1995.

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53 Reynaud, S., C. Ferrier-Pages, F. Boisson, D. Allemand, and R. G. Fairbanks, Effect of light and temperature on calcification and st rontium uptake in the scleractinian coral Acropora verweyi Marine Ecology Prog. Ser. 279, 105-112, 2004. Risk, M. J., and T. H. Pearce, Interference imaging of daily growth bands in massive corals, Nature 358, 572-573, 1992. Schmitz, W. J., and P. L. Richardson, On the sources of the Florida Current, Deep-Sea Research 38, s379-s409, 1991. Schmitz, W. J., and M. S. McCartney, On the North Atlantic Circulation, Reviews of Geophysics 31, 29-49, 1993. Schrag, D. P., Rapid analysis of high-precision Sr/Ca ratios in corals and other marine carbonates, Paleoceanography 14, 97-102, 1999. Shen, C.-C., T. Lee, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-F. Dai, and L.-A. Li, The calibration of D[Sr/Ca] versus sea surface temperature relationship for Porites corals, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 3849-3858, 1996. Shen, C.-C., T. Lee, K.-K. Liu, H.-H. Hsu, R. L. Edwards, C.-H. Wang, M.-Y. Lee, Y.-G. Chen, H.-J. Lee, and H.-T. Sun, An evalua tion of quantitative reco nstruction of past precipitation records using coral skeletal Sr/Ca and 18O data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237, 370-386, 2005. Shen, C.-C., K.-K. Liu, M.-Y. Lee, T. Lee, C.-H. Wang, and H.-J Lee, A novel method for tracing coastal water masses using Sr/Ca ra tios and salinity in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 65, 135-142, 2005. Smith, J. M., Temperature Calibration of Gulf of Mexico Corals, Master of Science, Texas A&M University, 2001. Smith, J. M., Geochemical Signatures in the Coral Montastraea : Modern and MidHolocene Perspectives, Doctor of Philo sophy, University of South Florida, 2006. Smith, J. M., T. M. Quinn, K. P. Helmle and R. B. Halley, Reproducibility of geochemical and climatic signals in the Atlantic coral Montastraea faveolata Paleoceanography 21, PA1010, 2006. Smith, S. V., R. W. Buddemeier, R. C. Re dalje, and J. E. Houck, Strontium-calcium thermometry in coral skeletons, Science 204, 404-407, 1979. Stephans, C. L., Assessing the Reproducibility of Coral-based Climate Records: A Multiproxy Replication Test using Three Porites lutea Coral Heads from New Caledonia, Master of Science, University of South Florida, 2003.

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54 Stephans, C. L., T. M. Quinn, F. W. Taylor and T. Correge, Asse ssing the repr oducibility of coral-based climate records, Geophysical Research Letters 31, L18210, 2004. Swart, P. K., H. Elderfield, and M. J. Greaves, A high-resolution calibration of Sr/Ca thermometry using the Caribbean coral Montastrea annularis Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 3(11), 8402, 2002. Swart, P. K., J. J. Leder, A. M. Szmant, and R. E. Dodge, The origin of variations in the isotopic record of sclerac tinian corals: II. Carbon, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 2871-2885, 1996. Taylor, R. B., D. J. Barnes, and J. M. Lough, Simple models of density band formation in massive corals, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 167, 109-125, 1993. Taylor, R. B., D. J. Barnes, and J. M. Lough, On the inclusion of trace materials in massive coral skeletons. I. Materials occurri ng in the environment in the short pulses, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 185, 255-278, 1995. Tudhope, A. W., D. W. Lea, G. B. Shimmiel d, C. P. Chilcott, and S. Head, Monsoon climate and Arabian sea coastal upwelling reco rded in massive corals from southern Oman, Palaios 11, 347-361, 1996. Vukovich, F. M., Aspects of the behavior of cold perturbations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico: A case study, Journal of Physical Oceanography 16(1), 175-188, 1986. Vukovich, F. M., Loop Current Boundary Variations, Journal of Geophysical Research 93, 15585-15591, 1988. Watanabe, T., M. Minagawa, T. Oba, and A. Winter, Pretreatment of coral aragonite for Mg and Sr analysis: Implications for coral thermometers, Geochemical Journal 35, 265269, 2001a. Watanabe, T., A. Winter, T. Ob a, R. Anzai, and H. Ishioroshi Evaluation of the fidelity of isotope records as an environmental proxy in the coral Montastraea Coral Reefs 21, 169-178, 2002. Weber, J. N., Incorporation of stront ium into reef cora l skeletal carbonate, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37, 2173-2190, 1973. Weber, J. N., and P. M. J. Woodhead, Car bon and isotope fractiona tion in the skeletal carbonate of reef-building corals, Chemical Geology 6, 93-117, 1970.

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55 Figure 1. Location of Bird Key. Dry Tortugas Na tional Park is known for its coral reefs, colonial seabirds, and Spanish-American er a fort, Fort Jefferson. Image was obtained from the April 2002 USGS Fact Sheet FS-047-02.

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56 Figure 2. X-radiograph (applying cons trained proportions) of the Montastraea annularis coral slab BK31B from Bird Key co re 31 used in this study. Size is approximately 13 cm long x 4 cm wide x 0.4 cm thick. Red lines show entire sampling lengths for BK31B (original path ) and BK31BB (paralle l path). Bars represent Sr/Ca maxima (coldest SST); bar placement was compared to sample depths associated with annual peak values.

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57 Figure 3. X-radiograph (applying cons trained proportions) of the Montastraea annularis coral slab BK31C from Bird Key co re 31 used in this study. Size is approximately 13.5 cm long x 4 cm wide x 0.4 cm thick. Red line shows entire length of sampling path. Bars represent Sr/Ca maxima (coldest SST); bar placement was compared to sample depths associ ated with annual peak values.

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58 Figure 4. X-radiograph (applying constr ained proportions) of the Montastraea annularis coral slab BK35C from Bird Key Core 35 T op used in this study. Core top measures approximately 28 cm long x 3.8 cm wide x 0.4 cm thick. Red lines show drilling paths BK35C (original path that was abandoned) an d BK35CC. Bars next to lighter bands represent Sr/Ca maxima (coldest SST) and mark annual cycles between band couplets. Pre-1950 core age is difficult to determine due a shift in corallites growth (direction outward from page). A calculated growth extension rate of 0.34 cm/year yields an estimated age of 82 years, dating this segment back to 1913.

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59 Figure 5. Age versus sampling depth plot for coral core BK31B (blue line; n = 387) and a linear best fit between the two variables. The linear relationship (dashed line; r2 = 0.991) indicates an average skeletal extensi on rate of 0.29 cm per year over the entire length of the coral record. Figure 6. Age versus sampling depth plot fo r parallel path BK31BB (blue line; n = 390) on coral core BK31B and a lin ear best fit between the tw o variables. The linear relationship (dashed line; r2 = 0.992) indicates an average sk eletal extension rate of 0.28 cm per year over the entire length of the coral record. y = -0.2829x + 564.25 R2 = 0.9924 0 2 4 6 8 10 196019651970197519801985199019952000 Time (years)Depth (cm) y = -0.2861x + 570.66 R2 = 0.9913 0 2 4 6 8 10 196019651970197519801985199019952000 Time (years)Depth (cm)

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60 Figure 7. Age versus sampling depth plot for coral core BK31C (blue line; n = 326) and a linear best fit between the two variables. The linear relationship (dashed line; r2 = 0.999) indicates an average skeletal extensi on rate of 0.29 cm per year over the entire length of the coral record. Figure 8. Age versus sampling depth plot for coral core BK35CC (blue line; n = 499) and a linear best fit between the two variables. The lin ear relationship (dashed line; r2 = 0.996) indicates an average skeletal extensi on rate of 0.34 cm per year over the entire length of the coral record. y = -0.2934x + 585.58 R2 = 0.9989 0 2 4 6 8 10 19651970197519801985199019952000 Time (years)Depth (cm) y = -0.3416x + 681.72 R2 = 0.9962 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 196019651970197519801985199019952000 Time (years)Depth (cm)

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61 Figure 9. BK31B isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core. Sr/Ca and 18O annual cycles in sets of 3-3.5 occurring between dashed lines at 1 cm intervals confirm th e average extension rate of 0.3 cm/year.

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62 Figure 10. BK31BB isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core. Sr/Ca and 18O annual cycles in sets of 3-3.5 occurring between dashed lines at 1 cm intervals confirm th e average extension rate of 0.3 cm/year.

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63 Figure 11. BK31C isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core. Sr/Ca and 18O annual cycles in sets of 3-3.5 occurring between dashed lines at 1 cm intervals confirm th e average extension rate of 0.3 cm/year.

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64 Figure 12. BK35CC isotopic (A, B) and elemental (C, D) data plotted with respect to sampling depth down core. Sr/Ca and 18O annual cycles in sets of 3 occurring between dashed lines at 1 cm intervals confirm the av erage extension rate of 0.3 cm/year. Core was sampled to 11.5 cm, however analyses of 13C and 18O were discontinued at 8.9 cm.

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65 Figure 13. Drill path name versus 18O mean. Black dots representing isotopic averages are shown with red standard error bars (+ 2 ) for the (A) depth and (B) time domain of coral slab records and composites. Composites were calculated from averaging linearinterpolated data. Statistical analysis ( t -test, p < 0.05) indicates that means are not significantly different between path s, cores, or coral heads.

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66 Figure 14. Drill path name versus 13C mean. Black dots repres enting isotopic averages are shown with red standard error bars (+ 2 ) for the (A) depth and (B) time domain of coral slab records and composites. Composites were calculated from averaging linearinterpolated data. Statistical analysis ( t -test, p < 0.05) demonstrates equivalence of means among all paths, cores, and cora l heads except for BK35CC, which differs significantly from the other coral records in bot h the depth and time domains.

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67 Figure 15. Drill path name versus Sr/Ca ratio mean. Black dots representing isotopic averages are shown with red standard error bars (+ 2 ) for the (A) depth and (B) time domains of coral slab records and composites. Composites were calculated from averaging linear-interpolated data. The BK35CC and Bird Key Composite means are different ( t -test, p < 0.05) from other coral records in the depth and time domains. Bird Key Composite mean value is within 2 for analytical precision. Analytical precision for this study is + 0.051 mmol/mol (+ 0.6%; 2 ) for the Porites lutea coral standard and + 0.039 mmol/mol (+ 0.4%; 2 ) for the internal gravimetric standard solution.

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68 Figure 16. BK31B and BK31BB 18O graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the referenc e in AnalySeries for rescaling BK31BB depth and time series.

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69 Figure 17. BK31B and BK31C 18O graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the reference in AnalySeries for rescaling BK31C depth and time series.

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70 Figure 18. BK31B and BK35CC 18O graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the referenc e in AnalySeries for rescaling BK35CC depth and time series.

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71 Figure 19. Post-1970 18O (A) depth and (B) time domain s show reproducibility among four coral records. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySeries rescaling of proxies. Coral records have strongly co-var ying geochemical cycles. BK35CC exhibits a change in trend occurring at 6.1-6.575 cm (1972-1971).

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72 Figure 20. Post-1970 depth domain for 18O of coral slabs and coral composites. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySer ies rescaling of proxies. Solid lines show rescaled data for cores BK31B (blue; n = 251) BK31BB (red; n = 243), BK31C (dark green; n = 243), and BK35CC (light purple; n = 277). Composites ( n = 264) for BK31B (pink), Core 31 (light green), and Bird Key (black) were generated from averages of linear-interpolated data. Line smoothing and amplitudinal compression increase with more data being incorporated into each subsequent composite.

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73 Figure 21. Post-1970 time domain for 18O of coral slabs and co ral composites. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySerie s rescaling of proxies Solid lines show rescaled data for cores BK31B (blue; n = 251), BK31BB (red; n = 242), BK31C (dark green; n = 243), and BK35CC (light purple; n = 278). Composites ( n = 297) for BK31B (pink), Core 31 (light green), and Bird Key (black) were generated from averages of linear-interpolated data. Line smoothi ng and amplitudinal compression increase with more data being incorporated into each subsequent composite.

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74 Figure 22. Bivariate plots of (A) SST versus 18O for four coral records from Bird Key and (B) SST versus 18O for Bird Key and Core 31 Com posites. Calibration equations are as follows: y = -2.13 (+ 0.26; 2 ) – 0.063x (+ 0.010; 2 ) for BK31B; y = -2.22 (+ 0.28; 2 ) – 0.062x (+ 0.010; 2 ) for BK31BB; y = -2.26 (+ 0.26; 2 ) – 0.059x (+ 0.010; 2 ) for BK31C; y = -1.80 (+ 0.36; 2 ) – 0.076x (+ 0.014; 2 ) for BK35CC; y = -2.20 (+ 0.21; 2 ) – 0.061 (+ 0.008; 2 ) for Core 31 Composite; y = -2.10 (+ 0.20; 2 ) – 0.065 (+ 0.008; 2 ) for Bird Key Composite. Calibrations were derived from OLS regression using all monthly 18O coral record values and corres ponding monthly SST from the DRYF1HadlSST Final Record. Compos ite regressions shown with 95% confidence intervals.

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75 Figure 23. BK31B and BK31BB 13C graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the referenc e in AnalySeries for rescaling BK31BB depth and time series.

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76 Figure 24. BK31B and BK31C 13C graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the reference in AnalySeries for rescaling BK31C depth and time series.

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77 Figure 25. BK31B and BK35CC 13C graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the referenc e in AnalySeries for rescaling BK35CC depth and time series.

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78 Figure 26. Post-1970 13C (A) depth and (B) time domain s show reproducibility among four coral records. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySeries rescaling of proxies. Note noisy, similar trends with offse t/carbon enrichment shown by BK35CC.

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79 Figure 27. Post-1970 depth domain for 13C of coral slabs and composites. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySerie s rescaling of proxies Solid lines show rescaled data for cores BK31B (blue; n = 251) BK31BB (red; n =243), BK31C (dark green; n = 245), and BK35CC (light purple; n = 280). Composites ( n = 264) for BK31B (pink), Core 31 (light green), and Bird Key (black) were generated from averages of linear-interpolated data. Line smoothi ng and amplitudinal compression increase with more data being incorporated into each subsequent composite.

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80 Figure 28. Post-1970 time domain for 13C of coral slabs and composites. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySeries res caling of proxies. Solid lines show rescaled data for cores BK31B (blue; n = 251), BK31BB (red; n = 242), BK31C (dark green; n = 245), and BK35CC (light purple; n = 281). Composites ( n = 297) for BK31B (pink), Core 31 (light green), and Bird Key (black ) were generated from averages of linearinterpolated data. Line smoothing and amplit udinal compression increase with more data being incorporated into each subsequent composite.

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81 Figure 29. BK31B and BK31BB Sr/Ca graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the referenc e in AnalySeries for rescaling BK31BB depth and time series.

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82 Figure 30. BK31B and BK31C Sr/Ca graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the reference in AnalySeries for rescaling BK31C depth and time series.

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83 Figure 31. BK31B and BK35CC Sr/Ca graphed with respect to (A) depth and (B) time. Original BK31B 18O data was used as the referenc e in AnalySeries for rescaling BK35CC depth and time series.

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84 Figure 32. Post-1970 Sr/Ca (A) depth and (B) time domains show poor reproducibility among coral records. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySeries rescaling. Geochemical trends are similar but a BK35CC of fset implies cooler/drier SST conditions.

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85 Figure 33. Post-1970 depth domain for Sr/Ca of coral slabs and composites. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySerie s rescaling of proxies Solid lines show rescaled data for cores BK31B (blue; n = 262) BK31BB (red; n = 247), BK31C (dark green; n = 258), and BK35CC (light purple; n = 288). Composites ( n = 264) for BK31B (pink), Core 31 (light green), and Bird Key (black) were generated from averages of linear-interpolated data. Line smoothi ng and amplitudinal compression increase with more data being incorporated into each subsequent composite.

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86 Figure 34. Post-1970 time domain for Sr/Ca of coral slabs and composites. BK31B 18O was used as the reference for AnalySerie s rescaling of proxies Solid lines show rescaled data for cores BK31B (blue; n = 262), BK31BB (red; n = 246), BK31C (dark green; n = 258), and BK35CC (li ght purple; n = 289). Composites (n = 297) for BK31B (pink), Core 31 (light green), and Bird Key (black) were generated from averages of linear-interpolated data. Line smoothi ng and amplitudinal compression increase with more data being incorporated into each subsequent composite.

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87 Figure 35. Bivariate plots of (A) SST versus Sr /Ca for four coral records and (B) SST versus Sr/Ca for Bird Key and Core 31 Composites. Calibration equations are as follows: y = 9.678 (+ 0.122; 2 ) – 0.0252x (+ 0.005; 2 ) for BK31B; y = 9.621 (+ 0.123; 2 ) – 0.0221x (+ 0.005; 2 ) for BK31BB; y = 9.578 (+ 0.105; 2 ) – 0.0215x (+ 0.004; 2 ) for BK31C; y = 9.625 (+ 0.112; 2 ) – 0.0161x (+ 0.004; 2 ) for BK35CC; y = 9.626 (+ 0.072; 2 ) – 0.0229 (+ 0.003; 2 ) for Core 31 Composite; y = 9.626 (+ 0.063; 2 ) – 0.0212 (+ 0.002; 2 ) for Bird Key Composite. Calibrati ons were derived fr om OLS regression using monthly Sr/Ca coral records a nd corresponding monthly SST from DRYF1HadlSST. Composite regressions are shown with re spective 95% confidence intervals.

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88 Figure 36. Panels (A and C) 18O-SST and (B and D) Sr/CaSST are based on the Core 31 Composite regression equation. Plots (A a nd B) show means with standard error for the instrumental DRYF1-HadlSST record and th e predicted SST of coral records and Core 31 Composite. Panels (C and D) show aver age seasonal cycles, which were generated from post-1970 data averaged by month and plotted agains t mean monthly SST. Close agreement is indicated by 18O-SST records. A large Sr/CaSST difference is apparent for BK35CC, which co-varies with the other reco rds. There is good agreement for Core 31 Composite 18O-SST ( r = 0.67, p < 0.05) and Sr/Ca-SST ( r = 0.70, p < 0.05) records. The Core 31 Composite equation [Sr/Ca (mmo l/mol) = 9.626 – 0.0229*SST] was used here as BK35CC contributions in the Bird Key Composite regressi on caused Core 31 records to overestimate Sr/Ca-SST (see Figure 37). Coral records range above/with SST during spring-summer (Mar.-Aug.) and fall below SST during fall-winter (Sept.-Feb.) likely due to seasonal chan g es in the 18O and Sr/Ca of seawater.

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89 Figure 37. Panels (A and C) 18O-SST and (B and D) Sr/Ca-SST are based on the Bird Key Composite regression equation. Pl ots (A and B) show means with 2 standard error for the instrumental DRYF1-HadlSST record and the predicted SST of coral recordsand Bird Key Composite. Panel (C) the average monthly series for 18O-SST shows close agreement between temperatures and (D) th e average monthly series for Sr/Ca-SST indicates a large difference for BK35CC. E ach seasonal cycle was generated from post1970 data averaged by month a nd plotted against mean monthly SST. BK35CC co-varies with the other records, suggesting some other f actor influenced this coral. There is a high level of agreement for Bird Key Composite 18O-SST ( r = 0.69, p < 0.05) and Bird Key Composite Sr/Ca-SST ( r = 0.72, p < 0.05) records. Using the Bird Key Composite regression equation [Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 9.62 6 – 0.212*SST], however, resulted in Core 31 coral records overestimating Sr/Ca-SST va lues due to offsetting influence by BK35CC.

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90 Figure 38. Scatter plot of 18O versus 13C for four coral records from Bird Key. The cross-plot indicates a positive relati onship between coral isotopic values ( r = 0.33 for BK31B; r = 0.22 for BK31BB; r = 0.24 for BK31C; r = 0.49 for BK35CC). According to conservatively estimated degrees of freedom for Pearson Product Moment Correlations, only coefficients above 0.23 ar e considered significant. Arguably, the relationship for BK31BB is close enough to the limit to also be deemed as significant. Equilibrium values (gray shaded box) were obtained from Smith et al. [2006] based on calculations that were determin ed using temperature range at the Looe Key, Florida reef site and mean w and DIC 13C values from Leder et al. [1996] and Swart et al. [1996c].

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91 Figure 39. Graph of DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record for SST plotted with 18O-SST for Bird Key Composite. The Final Record (light blue curve) was compiled from Dry Tortugas station (DRYF1) in-situ dataand an altered Hadley SST (HadlSST) gridded product. The 18O-SST Bird Key Composite ( b lack curve) was based on the relationship between temperature and 18O of the coral ex pressed by Leder et al. [1996] as: T ( C ) = 5.33 – 4.519(+ 0.19) x ( c – w) where c is the 18O value of the coral skeleton and w is the 18O of the seawater. The w has been removed from the composite data, resulting in greatly improved signals that testify to the temperaturedependent state of 18O in Bird Key corals. Annual averages are 26 (+ 3) C for both 18O-SST records. The correlation ( r = 0.97) is significant ( t -test, p < 0.05).

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92 Table 1. Summary statistics of geochemical data for (A) depth and (B) timea A (Depth: 0-6.575 cm) Mean Plus/Minus Standard Deviation (1 ) Absolute Value Mean Minus Reference BK31B Mean 18O (‰ VPDB) N SE (1 ) 13C (‰ VPDB) N SE (1 ) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) N SE (1 ) 18O (‰ VPDB) 13C (‰ VPDB) Sr/Ca (mmol/ mol) BK31B -3.76 + 0.35 251 0.02 -1.64 + 0.80 251 0.05 9.030 + 0.148 262 0.009 0.00 0.00 0.000 BK31BB -3.85 + 0.35 243 0.02 -1.71 + 0.79 243 0.05 9.046 + 0.144 247 0.009 0.09 0.07 0.016 BK31C -3.80 + 0.35 243 0.02 -1.59 + 0.83 245 0.05 9.013 + 0.129 258 0.008 0.04 0.05 0.017 BK35CC -3.77 + 0.46 277 0.03 -1.25 + 0.84 280 0.05 9.209 + 0.127 288 0.007 0.01 0.39 0.179 BK31B Composite -3.80 + 0.29 264 0.02 -1.67 + 0.67 264 0.04 9.038 + 0.118 264 0.007 0.04 0.03 0.008 Core 31 Composite -3.80 + 0.27 264 0.02 -1.63 + 0.62 264 0.04 9.031 + 0.098 264 0.006 0.04 0.01 0.001 Bird Key Composite -3.79 + 0.29 264 0.02 -1.50 + 0.55 264 0.03 9.076 + 0.087 264 0.005 0.03 0.14 0.046 Maximum Difference in Means 0.09 + 0.04 0.46 + 0.10 0.196 + 0.015 B (Time: 1995-1971) Mean Plus/Minus Standard Deviation (1 ) Absolute Value Mean Minus Reference BK31B Mean 18O (‰ VPDB) N SE (1 ) 13C (‰ VPDB) N SE (1 ) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) N SE (1 ) 18O (‰ VPDB) 13C (‰ VPDB) Sr/Ca (mmol/ mol) BK31B -3.76 + 0.35 251 0.02 -1.64 + 0.80 251 0.05 9.030 + 0.148 262 0.009 0.00 0.00 0.000 BK31BB -3.85 + 0.35 242 0.02 -1.71 + 0.79 242 0.05 9.047 + 0.143 246 0.009 0.09 0.07 0.017 BK31C -3.80 + 0.35 243 0.02 -1.59 + 0.83 245 0.05 9.013 + 0.129 258 0.008 0.04 0.05 0.017 BK35CC -3.77 + 0.46 278 0.03 -1.25 + 0.84 281 0.05 9.209 + 0.127 289 0.007 0.01 0.39 0.179 BK31B Composite -3.80 + 0.28 297 0.02 -1.62 + 0.60 297 0.03 9.033 + 0.117 297 0.007 0.04 0.02 0.003 Core 31 Composite -3.80 + 0.27 297 0.02 -1.58 + 0.56 297 0.03 9.028 + 0.096 297 0.006 0.04 0.06 0.002 Bird Key Composite -3.79 + 0.28 297 0.02 -1.48 + 0.50 297 0.03 9.073 + 0.087 297 0.005 0.03 0.16 0.043 Maximum Difference in Means 0.09 + 0.04 0.46 + 0.10 0.196 + 0.015 aCoral slabs BK31B, BK31BB, BK31C, and BK35CC were taken from corals Bird Key cores 31 and 35. Composite means were generated from linear-interpolated data (r escaled data that had been resampled to equal depth and time st eps using AnalySerie s). Error values reported as one standard error: SE = /sqrt(N).

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93A: 18O (Depth: 0-6.575 cm)BK31BBK31BB BK31B Composite BK31C Core 31 Composite BK35CC Bird Key Composite BK31B1 BK31BB0.551 BK31B Composite0.880.881 BK31C0.630.600.701 Core 31 Composite0.860.850.970.861 BK35CC0.700.480.670.400.621 Bird Key Composite0.880.790.950.770.950.831B: 18O (Time: 1995-1971)BK31BBK31BB BK31B Composite BK31C Core 31 Composite BK35CC Bird Key Composite BK31B1 BK31BB0.521 BK31B Composite0.870.871 BK31C0.630.580.701 Core 31 Composite0.840.830.960.871 BK35CC0.670.520.690.370.621 Bird Key Composite0.860.800.950.770.960.821 Table 2. Summary statistics of 18O for the (A) depth and (B) time domaina aAll correlations are significant at mo re than 95%. Correlation coefficients are from linear-interpolated data; data was resampled to equal depth steps ( n = 264) and monthly records ( n = 297) using AnalySeries. BK31B Composite refers to the average of coral slabs BK31B a nd BK31BB; Core 31 Composite re fers to the average of BK31B, BK31BB, and BK31C; Bird Key Composite refers to the average of BK31B, BK31BB, BK31C, and BK35CC.

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94 Table 3. Regression relationships for 18O-SST and Sr/Ca-SST in Montastraea species from 1961-2007a, b Source Study Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = N r 18Ocoral 18Owater (‰ VPDB) = N r (1989)c, d 10.165 0.0471 SST 12 -0.88 (1989-1991)c 9.994 (+ 0.042) 0.0377 (+ 0.0029) SST 98 -0.94 (1989)c 10.110 (+ 0.042) 0.0449 (+ 0.0028) SST 60 -0.91 Swart et al. [1996; 2002] (1990)c 10.089 (+ 0.039) 0.0406 (+ 0.0027) SST 27 -0.82 Leder et al. [1996] Alina’s Reef, Biscayne National Park 1.18 (+ 0.10) – 0.22 (+ 0.02) SST Kilbourne [2006] Puerto Rican coral 9.177 – 0.007 (+ 0.002)*(extension in mm) 253 0.20 Leder et al [1996] equation applied LK1 9.812 (+ 0.054) 0.0233 (+ 0.002) SST 494 -0.72 -1.79 (+ 0.18) 0.079 (+ 0.007) SST 494 -0.73 LK23 9.900 (+ 0.048) 0.0252 (+ 0.002) SST 494 -0.79 -1.56 (+ 0.19) 0.090 (+ 0.008) SST 494 -0.75 Smith et al. [2006] Looe Key Stack 9.856 (+ 0.035) 0.0243 (+ 0.002) SST 494 -0.86 -1.67 (+ 0.13) 0.085 (+ 0.005) SST 494 -0.84 BK31B 9.678 (+ 0.061) 0.0252 (+ 0.002) SST 297 0.53 -2.13 (+ 0.13) 0.063 (+ 0.005) SST 297 0.58 BK31BB 9.621 (+ 0.061) 0.0221 (+ 0.002) SST 297 0.48 -2.22 (+ 0.14) 0.062 (+ 0.005) SST 297 0.57 BK31C 9.578 (+ 0.053) 0.0215 (+ 0.002) SST 297 0.53 -2.26 (+ 0.13) 0.059 (+ 0.005) SST 297 0.56 BK35CC 9.625 (+ 0.056) 0.0161 (+ 0.002) SST 297 0.40 -1.80 (+ 0.18) 0.076 (+ 0.007) SST 297 0.54 Core 31 Composite 9.626 (+ 0.036) 0.0229 (+ 0.001) SST 297 0.70 -2.20 (+ 0.10) 0.061 (+ 0.004) SST 297 0.67 This Study Bird Key Composite 9.626 (+ 0.031) 0.0212 (+ 0.001) SST 297 0.72 -2.10 (+ 0.10) 0.065 (+ 0.004) SST 297 0.69 aOrdinary least squares (OLS) calibrati on equations relate SST to Sr/Ca and 18O for coral records used or referenced in this study; standard error valu es are reported as 1 bEquations (with the associated standard error) are in the form Sr/Ca = b + m*SST(C) and ( 18Ocoral 18Owater) = b + m*SST(C). cStudies published in Swart et al. [2002]; the number (N) of samples refers to number of samples taken per calendar year. dAveraged to monthly values.

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95A: 13C (Depth: 0-6.575 cm)BK31BBK31BB BK31B Com p osite BK31C Core 31 Com p osite BK35CC Bird Key Com p osite BK31B 1 BK31BB 0.561 BK31B Composite 0.880.891 BK31C 0.460.510.551 Core 31 Composite 0.810.840.940.801 BK35CC 0.32 0.22 0.31 0.010.23 1 Bird Key Composite 0.810.800.910.690.930.561B: 13C (Time: 1995-1971)BK31BBK31BB BK31B Com p osite BK31C Core 31 Com p osite BK35CC Bird Key Com p osite BK31B 1 BK31BB 0.461 BK31B Composite 0.860.851 BK31C 0.360.430.461 Core 31 Composite 0.770.800.920.771 BK35CC 0.36 0.21 0.34 -0.070.21 1 Bird Key Composite 0.790.760.900.620.920.581 Table 4. Summary statistics of 13C for the (A) depth and (B) time domaina aBold print correlations are significant at more than 95%. Co rrelation coefficients are from linear-interpolated data; data was resampled to equal depth steps ( n = 264) and monthly records ( n = 297) using AnalySeries. BK31B Composite refers to the average of coral slabs BK31B a nd BK31BB; Core 31 Composite re fers to the average of BK31B, BK31BB, and BK31C; Bird Key Composite refers to the average of BK31B, BK31BB, BK31C, and BK35CC.

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96A: Sr/Ca (Depth: 0-6.575 cm)BK31BBK31BB BK31B Com p osite BK31C Core 31 Com p osite BK35CC Bird Key Com p osite BK31B 1 BK31BB 0.481 BK31B Composite 0.870.851 BK31C 0.300.260.331 Core 31 Composite 0.810.790.930.651 BK35CC 0.41 0.18 0.35 0.08 0.311 Bird Key Composite 0.820.720.900.580.950.601B: Sr/Ca (Time: 1995-1971)BK31BBK31BB BK31B Com p osite BK31C Core 31 Com p osite BK35CC Bird Key Com p osite BK31B 1 BK31BB 0.461 BK31B Composite 0.860.851 BK31C 0.30 0.15 0.261 Core 31 Composite 0.820.750.920.631 BK35CC 0.420.260.40 0.05 0.341 Bird Key Composite 0.820.710.900.540.950.621 Table 5. Summary statistics of Sr/Ca for the (A) depth and (B) time domaina aBold print correlations are significant at more than 95%. Correlation coefficients are from linear-interpolated data; data had been resampled to equal depth steps ( n = 264) and monthly records ( n = 297) using AnalySeries. BK31B Composite refers to the average of coral slabs BK31B a nd BK31BB; Core 31 Composite re fers to the average of BK31B, BK31BB, and BK31C; Bird Key Composite refers to the average of BK31B, BK31BB, BK31C, and BK35CC.

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97 Table 6. Linear extension rates with standard deviations (1 ) for coral recordsa Coral Record Average annual extension (cm) between warm SST peaks for entire record N Average annual extension (cm) between cold SST peaks for entire record N Post-1970 average annual extension (cm) between warm SST peaks N Post-1970 average annual extension (cm) between cold SST peaks N Post-1970 average monthly extension (cm) N BK31B 0.296 (+ 0.098) 33 0.294 (+ 0.099) 32 0.260 (+ 0.072) 24 0.264 (+ 0.074) 24 0.022 (+ 0.009) 297 BK31BB 0.298 (+ 0.082) 32 0.288 (+ 0.076) 32 0.265 (+ 0.049) 23 0.258 (+ 0.059) 24 0.021 (+ 0.011) 297 BK31C 0.296 (+ 0.068) 27 0.295 (+ 0.078) 27 0.299 (+ 0.055) 24 0.297 (+ 0.064) 24 0.024 (+ 0.018) 297 BK35CC 0.344 (+ 0.091) 33 0.345 (+ 0.085) 33 0.336 (+ 0.103) 24 0.339 (+ 0.090) 24 0.024 (+ 0.016) 297 aPost-1970 average monthly extension rates were determined usi ng linear-interpolated values from rescaled data which had been resampled to monthly increments. All othe r extension rates were calculated using the initially estimated agemodels that were developed prio r to AnalySeries rescaling of proxy reco rds in the depth and time domains.

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98 Table 7. Correlations relating BK31B annual and monthly linear extension to SST and coral proxiesa aItalicized (non-italicized) print indicate s relationships for the entire (post-1970) co ral record. Bold pr int correlations are significant at more than 95%. Warm (cold) annual extension was determined as the difference in extension betwee n seasonal peaks in SST where the warmest (coldest ) SSTs typically occur during July-A ugust (February-March). A: Entire Record; df=31; 0.05sig=0.344 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual warm extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 -0.03-0.04-0.070.07 13C annual 0.141 0.770.68 0.21 18O annual -0.05 0.58 1 0.86 0.34 Sr/Ca annual -0.15 0.560.67 1 0.59 warm extension annual0.020.020.05 0.42 1B: Entire Record; df=30; 0.05sig=0.349 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual cold extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 0.06-0.010.03-0.07 13C annual 0.081 0.770.73 -0.11 18O annual -0.02 0.59 1 0.86 0.25 Sr/Ca annual 0.04 0.540.65 1 0.42 cold extension annual-0.16-0.270.070.281C: Entire Record; n=398; 0.05sig=? Post-1970, df=70, 0.05sig=0.232DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record 13C monthly 18O monthly Sr/Ca monthly extension monthly DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record1 -0.08-0.51-0.380.07 13C monthly -0.081 0.500.480.05 18O monthly -0.58 0.32 1 0.80 0.15 Sr/Ca monthly-0.53 0.330.73 1 0.28 extension monthly 0.03-0.110.080.201

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99 Table 8. Correlations relating BK31BB a nnual and monthly linear extens ion to SST and coral proxiesa aItalicized (non-italicized) print indicate s relationships for the entire (post-1970) co ral record. Bold pr int correlations are significant at more than 95%. Warm (cold) annual extension was determined as the difference in extension betwee n seasonal peaks in SST where the warmest (coldest ) SSTs typically occur during July-A ugust (February-March). A: Entire Record; df=31; 0.05sig=0.344 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual warm extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 -0.42-0.22-0.200.07 13C annual -0.351 0.710.54 -0.38 18O annual -0.21 0.73 1 0.82 -0.04 Sr/Ca annual -0.16 0.540.82 1 0.14 warm extension annual0.04-0.41-0.27-0.071B: Entire Record; df=30; 0.05sig=0.349 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual cold extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 -0.12-0.09-0.220.03 13C annual -0.051 0.680.55 -0.30 18O annual -0.07 0.71 1 0.84 0.10 Sr/Ca annual -0.21 0.590.83 1 0.18 cold extension annual-0.11-0.320.050.051C: Entire Record; n=398; 0.05sig=? Post-1970, df=70, 0.05sig=0.232DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record 13C monthly 18O monthly Sr/Ca monthly extension monthly DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record1 -0.13-0.60-0.500.01 13C monthly -0.031 0.260.31 -0.14 18O monthly -0.570.201 0.83 -0.01 Sr/Ca monthly-0.48 0.250.81 1 0.06 extension monthly 0.09-0.220.020.081

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100 Table 9. Correlations relating BK31C annual and monthly linear extension to SST and coral proxiesa aItalicized (non-italicized) print indicate s relationships for the entire (post-1970) co ral record. Bold pr int correlations are significant at more than 95%. Warm (cold) annual extension was determined as the difference in extension betwee n seasonal peaks in SST where the warmest (coldest ) SSTs typically occur during July-A ugust (February-March). A: Entire Record; df=25; 0.05sig=0.331 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual warm extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 -0.09-0.16-0.060.31 13C annual -0.151 0.510.46 -0.11 18O annual -0.25 0.67 1 0.67 -0.33 Sr/Ca annual -0.13 0.580.66 1 -0.32 warm extension annual0.39-0.56-0.35-0.351B: Entire Record; df=25; 0.05sig=0.331 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual cold extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 -0.32-0.29-0.30-0.15 13C annual -0.211 0.390.46 -0.16 18O annual -0.32 0.45 1 0.67 -0.19 Sr/Ca annual -0.33 0.540.63 1 -0.16 cold extension annual-0.06-0.49-0.13-0.091C: Entire Record; n=329; 0.05sig=? Post-1970, df=70, 0.05sig=0.232DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record 13C monthly 18O monthly Sr/Ca monthly extension monthly DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record1 -0.13-0.53-0.490.12 13C monthly -0.131 0.240.29 -0.10 18O monthly -0.56 0.26 1 0.73 -0.07 Sr/Ca monthly-0.53 0.310.70 1 -0.12 extension monthly 0.11-0.190.01-0.061

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101 Table 10. Correlations relating BK35CC annual and monthl y linear extension to SST and coral proxiesa aItalicized (non-italicized) print indicate s relationships for the entire (post-1970) co ral record. Bold pr int correlations are significant at more than 95%. Warm (cold) annual extension was determined as the difference in extension betwee n seasonal peaks in SST where the warmest (col dest) SSTs typically occur during July-August (February-March). A: Entire Record; df=31; 0.05sig=0.344 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual warm extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 0.24 0.36 -0.070.25 13C annual -0.131 0.87 -0.430.12 18O annual 0.24 0.44 1 -0.170.16 Sr/Ca annual 0.24 0.420.89 1 -0.30 warm extension annual0.25-0.280.140.081B: Entire record; df=31; 0.05sig=0.344 Post-1970; df=23; 0.05sig=0.396DRYF1-HadlSST annual 13C annual 18O annual Sr/Ca annual cold extension annual DRYF1-HadlSST annual1 0.510.52 -0.28-0.17 13C annual 0.311 0.97 -0.760.11 18O annual 0.35 0.58 1 -0.660.12 Sr/Ca annual 0.400.560.84 1 -0.28 cold extension annual-0.34-0.260.06-0.071C: Entire Record; n=401; 0.05sig=? Post-1970, df=70, 0.05sig=0.232DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record 13C monthly 18O monthly Sr/Ca monthly extension monthly DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record1 -0.02-0.17-0.250.03 13C monthly -0.211 0.92 -0.640.08 18O monthly -0.54 0.47 1 -0.450.12 Sr/Ca monthly-0.40 0.370.81 1 -0.18 extension monthly 0.05-0.190.060.041

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102 Table 11. Correlation coefficients (significant va lues at 95% confidence level in bold pr int) for post-1970 coral proxy records. A: Depth: 0-6.575 cm18O BK31B 18O BK31BB 18O BK31C 18O BK35CC Sr/Ca BK31B Sr/Ca BK31BB Sr/Ca BK31C Sr/Ca BK35CC 13C BK31B 13C BK31BB 13C BK31C 13C BK35CC 18O BK31B 1 18O BK31BB 0.551 18O BK31C 0.630.601 18O BK35CC 0.700.480.401 Sr/Ca BK31B 0.740.480.420.541 Sr/Ca BK31BB 0.400.810.470.270.481 Sr/Ca BK31C 0.490.360.70 0.23 0.300.261 Sr/Ca BK35CC 0.540.320.270.830.41 0.180.08 1 13C BK31B 0.33 0.120.10 0.320.36 0.100.13 0.251 13C BK31BB -0.030.220.010.030.16 0.28 0.010.03 0.561 13C BK31C 0.030.18 0.24 0.030.070.18 0.26 0.00 0.460.511 13C BK35CC 0.30 0.220.14 0.490.33 0.190.00 0.400.32 0.220.01 1B: Time: 1995-197118O BK31B 18O BK31BB 18O BK31C 18O BK35CC Sr/Ca BK31B Sr/Ca BK31BB Sr/Ca BK31C Sr/Ca BK35CC 13C BK31B 13C BK31BB 13C BK31C 13C BK35CC 18O BK31B 1 18O BK31BB 0.521 18O BK31C 0.630.581 18O BK35CC 0.670.520.371 Sr/Ca BK31B 0.730.490.430.511 Sr/Ca BK31BB 0.330.810.410.360.461 Sr/Ca BK31C 0.490.300.70 0.20 0.30 0.15 1 Sr/Ca BK35CC 0.540.360.260.810.420.26 0.05 1 13C BK31B 0.32 0.120.05 0.300.33 0.110.070.23 1 13C BK31BB -0.110.20-0.01-0.020.07 0.25 0.03-0.03 0.461 13C BK31C 0.040.17 0.26 0.030.040.11 0.31 0.00 0.360.431 13C BK35CC 0.28 0.200.05 0.470.33 0.22-0.08 0.370.36 0.21-0.07 1

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103 Table 12. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients for 18O and Sr/Ca of annually av eraged monthly recordsa aCorrelations in bold print are si gnificant at more than 95%; n = 24; data were averaged annually over October-September intervals. BK31B 18OBK31BB 18OBK31C 18OBK35CC 18O BK31B Sr/CaBK31BB Sr/CaBK31C Sr/CaBK35CC Sr/Ca BK31B 18O 1 BK31BB 18O -0.101 BK31C 18O 0.340.261 BK35CC 18O 0.360.23-0.121 BK31B Sr/Ca 0.67 0.300.260.221 BK31BB Sr/Ca-0.21 0.78 0.060.080.311 BK31C Sr/Ca0.33-0.33 0.49 -0.29-0.11-0.521 BK35CC Sr/Ca 0.42 0.15-0.02 0.85 0.270.10-0.321

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104 Table 13. Pearson Product-Moment co rrelation coefficients for 18O-SST and Sr/Ca-SST of annually averaged monthly recordsa BK31B 18OSST BK31BB 18OSST BK31C 18OSST BK35CC 18OSST Core 31 Composite 18O-SST Bird Key Composite 18O-SST BK31B Sr/CaSST BK31BB Sr/CaSST BK31C Sr/CaSST BK35CC Sr/CaSST Core 31 Composite Sr/Ca-SST Bird Key Composite Sr/Ca-SST DRYF1HadlSST Final Record BK31B 18O-SST 1 BK31BB 18O-SST -0.101 BK31C 18O-SST 0.340.261 BK35CC 18O-SST 0.360.23-0.121 Core 31 Composite 18O-SST 0.600.620.78 0.251 Bird Key Composite 18O-SST 0.630.580.520.690.87 1 BK31B Sr/Ca-SST 0.67 0.300.260.22 0.610.57 1 BK31BB Sr/Ca-SST-0.21 0.78 0.060.080.350.300.311 BK31C Sr/Ca-SST0.33-0.33 0.49 -0.290.210.01-0.11-0.521 BK35CC Sr/Ca-SST 0.42 0.15-0.02 0.85 0.28 0.64 0.270.10-0.321 Core 31Composite Sr/Ca-SST 0.460.560.44 0.07 0.740.590.830.63 0.050.111 Bird Key Composite Sr/Ca-SST 0.590.54 0.35 0.470.750.800.820.57 -0.11 0.570.88 1 DRYF1-HadlSST Final Record -0.090.230.31-0.370.23-0.02-0.030.190.18-0.370.19-0.021 aCorrelations in bold print are significant at more than 95%; n = 24; data were averaged annually over October-September intervals.

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105 APPENDICES

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Appendix A: Record of 481 measurements of a coral standard solution from Porites lutea diluted in 2% (v/v) trace metal grade HNO3, yielding an average value of 8.898 + 0.026 (1 ; 0.29%; mmol/mol) for Sr/Ca and 1.075 + 0.010 (1 ; 0.89%; mmol/mol) for Mg/Ca. Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) 2/11/20050.01948.8810.00241.0762/25/20050.01948.8710.00241.077 2/11/20050.01948.8680.00241.0802/25/20050.01948.8800.00241.077 2/11/20050.01948.8790.00241.0762/25/20050.01948.8690.00241.078 2/11/20050.01948.8720.00241.0772/25/20050.01948.8770.00241.076 2/11/20050.01958.8990.00231.0702/25/20050.01958.9320.00241.076 2/11/20050.01948.8660.00241.0792/25/20050.01948.8730.00241.077 2/11/20050.01948.8800.00241.0812/25/20050.01958.9010.00241.078 2/11/20050.01948.8950.00241.0763/12/20050.01938.8470.00231.068 2/11/20050.01958.9010.00241.0813/12/20050.01948.8770.00231.071 2/11/20050.01948.8800.00241.0763/12/20050.01938.8480.00231.071 2/11/20050.01948.8960.00241.0793/12/20050.01948.8720.00231.074 2/11/20050.01958.9120.00241.0843/12/20050.01948.8950.00231.072 2/11/20050.01968.9740.00241.0763/12/20050.01948.8680.00231.069 2/11/20050.01948.8670.00241.0803/12/20050.01948.8880.00231.075 2/11/20050.01948.8920.00241.0763/12/20050.01948.8960.00231.071 2/11/20050.01958.9070.00241.0803/12/20050.01958.9170.00231.072 2/11/20050.01938.8330.00241.0793/12/20050.01948.8850.00231.073 2/11/20050.01948.8890.00241.0783/12/20050.01958.9240.00231.070 2/11/20050.01948.8960.00241.0783/12/20050.01938.8430.00231.073 2/11/20050.01948.8940.00241.0773/12/20050.01948.8710.00231.072 2/11/20050.01948.8710.00231.0753/12/20050.01958.9190.00231.072 2/11/20050.01948.8870.00241.0793/12/20050.01948.8920.00231.072 2/11/20050.01948.8620.00241.0793/12/20050.01958.9370.00231.073 2/11/20050.01958.9300.00241.0783/12/20050.01938.8080.00231.073 2/11/20050.01948.8600.00241.0793/12/20050.01958.9140.00231.070 2/11/20050.01948.8660.00241.0783/12/20050.01958.9220.00231.069 2/11/20050.01958.9130.00241.0793/12/20050.01958.9110.00231.068 2/11/20050.01948.8630.00241.0783/12/20050.01968.9620.00231.069 2/25/20050.01958.9110.00241.0774/8/20050.01948.8710.00231.066 2/25/20050.01948.8890.00241.0764/8/20050.01948.8570.00231.071 2/25/20050.01958.8990.00241.0764/8/20050.01958.9280.00231.074 2/25/20050.01948.8910.00241.0774/8/20050.01948.8680.00231.066 2/25/20050.01948.8860.00241.0764/8/20050.01948.8680.00231.074 2/25/20050.01948.8790.00241.0764/8/20050.01938.8190.00231.070 2/25/20050.01948.8970.00241.0754/8/20050.01948.8800.00231.069 2/25/20050.01958.9080.00241.0784/8/20050.01958.9060.00231.067 2/25/20050.01948.8620.00241.0774/8/20050.01948.8860.00231.070 2/25/20050.01948.8890.00241.0764/8/20050.01958.9320.00231.075 2/25/20050.01948.8810.00241.0804/8/20050.01948.8550.00231.071 2/25/20050.01948.8720.00241.0784/8/20050.01958.9170.00231.066 2/25/20050.01958.9110.00241.0774/8/20050.01968.9520.00231.072 2/25/20050.01948.8810.00231.0754/8/20050.01958.9410.00231.069

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Appendix A (Continued): Porites lutea coral standard solution; Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) 4/8/20050.01938.82060.00231.06945/24/20050.01948.88930.00231.0706 4/8/20050.01958.90530.00241.07735/24/20050.01948.88430.00231.0607 4/15/20050.01948.87070.00241.07875/24/20050.01948.86710.00241.0788 4/15/20050.01948.87650.00241.08055/24/20050.01958.90100.00241.0806 4/15/20050.01958.89810.00241.08545/24/20050.01948.89190.00241.0750 4/15/20050.01948.88780.00241.08605/24/20050.01958.90020.00231.0690 4/15/20050.01948.86400.00241.07865/25/20050.01948.88690.00231.0720 4/15/20050.01958.91470.00241.08305/25/20050.01948.87630.00241.0914 4/15/20050.01948.87400.00241.08505/25/20050.01948.85630.00241.0808 4/15/20050.01958.90960.00241.08335/25/20050.01948.86210.00241.0783 4/15/20050.01958.92060.00241.08435/25/20050.01938.82780.00241.0850 4/15/20050.01958.92190.00241.08105/25/20050.01948.88640.00241.0761 4/15/20050.01948.87850.00241.08165/25/20050.01948.86760.00241.0845 4/15/20050.01948.88600.00241.08155/25/20050.01938.83440.00241.0896 4/15/20050.01958.90520.00231.07365/25/20050.01948.86540.00241.0864 4/15/20050.01958.91240.00241.08555/25/20050.01948.89610.00241.0806 4/15/20050.01948.86590.00241.08135/25/20050.01958.91130.00241.0893 4/15/20050.01948.85820.00241.08755/25/20050.01948.85170.00241.0931 5/23/20050.01948.89320.00231.07355/25/20050.01948.87740.00241.0823 5/23/20050.01958.89960.00241.07755/25/20050.01958.91180.00241.0845 5/23/20050.01948.88960.00241.09055/25/20050.01928.78780.00241.0776 5/23/20050.01948.88580.00231.06895/25/20050.01958.90030.00241.0796 5/23/20050.01948.87690.00231.06785/26/20050.01948.87800.00231.0657 5/23/20050.01958.90410.00231.06935/26/20050.01958.93530.00231.0696 5/23/20050.01948.89020.00231.07095/26/20050.01958.90580.00231.0603 5/23/20050.01958.92410.00231.07315/26/20050.01958.93730.00231.0695 5/23/20050.01948.89460.00231.07405/26/20050.01958.90180.00231.0715 5/23/20050.01948.89380.00241.07815/26/20050.01958.92200.00231.0749 5/23/20050.01958.89810.00241.07695/26/20050.01938.82060.00231.0679 5/23/20050.01948.87190.00241.07605/26/20050.01948.86290.00231.0639 5/23/20050.01948.88960.00231.06775/26/20050.01958.91000.00231.0727 5/23/20050.01948.89530.00231.06555/26/20050.01948.88410.00231.0689 5/23/20050.01958.91140.00231.07065/26/20050.01948.85140.00241.0777 5/23/20050.01948.88210.00241.08085/26/20050.01948.87050.00241.0781 5/24/20050.01958.90160.00241.08795/26/20050.01948.86790.00231.0709 5/24/20050.01948.88440.00241.07855/26/20050.01948.89350.00231.0690 5/24/20050.01958.90590.00241.08265/26/20050.01948.88860.00231.0600 5/24/20050.01948.88120.00241.08455/26/20050.01928.78810.00231.0711 5/24/20050.01948.88340.00241.07605/27/20050.01948.85220.00231.0740 5/24/20050.01958.89790.00241.08685/27/20050.01938.81840.00241.0763 5/24/20050.01958.91120.00241.08445/27/20050.01948.85810.00231.0581 5/24/20050.01948.88470.00241.08205/27/20050.01948.88140.00231.0714 5/24/20050.01948.86010.00241.09235/27/20050.01948.89550.00241.0757 5/24/20050.01968.96440.00231.07105/27/20050.01958.92760.00231.0700

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Appendix A (Continued): Porites lutea coral standard solution; Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) 5/27/20050.01948.88290.00231.06516/17/20050.01958.91380.00241.0804 5/27/20050.01968.95050.00241.08356/17/20050.01958.91530.00241.0785 5/27/20050.01948.87350.00231.07096/17/20050.01958.91700.00241.0809 5/27/20050.01948.88710.00231.07006/17/20050.01958.90540.00241.0893 5/27/20050.01948.86490.00231.06526/17/20050.01958.91390.00241.0850 5/27/20050.01938.82880.00231.07126/17/20050.01958.91300.00241.0847 5/27/20050.01938.82630.00241.07966/17/20050.01958.91560.00241.0848 5/27/20050.01948.87860.00241.07626/17/20050.01958.92020.00241.0882 5/27/20050.01948.87120.00231.07406/17/20050.01958.92660.00241.0894 5/27/20050.01948.88390.00231.07466/17/20050.01958.91160.00241.0883 6/15/20050.01948.87270.00231.05356/17/20050.01958.92050.00241.0855 6/15/20050.01968.94450.00231.04366/17/20050.01958.91940.00241.0894 6/15/20050.01938.83240.00231.04186/17/20050.01958.91520.00241.0789 6/15/20050.01938.84770.00231.03686/17/20050.01948.89190.00241.0851 6/15/20050.01948.85630.00231.04566/29/20050.01958.90670.00241.0816 6/15/20050.01968.97990.00231.03846/29/20050.01958.91250.00241.0775 6/15/20050.01958.89850.00231.04676/29/20050.01968.97020.00241.0885 6/15/20050.01968.94980.00231.04126/29/20050.01958.90900.00241.0801 6/15/20050.01948.85510.00231.04586/29/20050.01958.90540.00241.0790 6/15/20050.01948.88760.00231.04046/29/20050.01948.88610.00241.0856 6/15/20050.01938.82220.00231.04246/29/20050.01958.92070.00241.0802 6/15/20050.01948.88840.00231.05296/29/20050.01948.88440.00241.0845 6/15/20050.01958.92280.00231.04396/29/20050.01958.90470.00241.0810 6/15/20050.01948.88050.00231.04356/29/20050.01958.89970.00241.0881 6/15/20050.01948.85290.00231.04126/29/20050.01958.90070.00241.0856 6/15/20050.01958.93500.00231.04916/29/20050.01948.88330.00241.0833 6/16/20050.01948.89700.00231.04416/29/20050.01948.89480.00241.0819 6/16/20050.01948.87530.00231.05386/29/20050.01948.86910.00241.0819 6/16/20050.01948.86490.00231.05436/29/20050.01958.93970.00241.0911 6/16/20050.01948.89240.00231.05576/29/20050.01968.95040.00241.0835 6/16/20050.01948.88860.00231.05926/29/20050.01958.92520.00241.0811 6/16/20050.01948.86960.00231.05666/29/20050.01958.91910.00241.0804 6/16/20050.01948.87650.00231.05846/29/20050.01948.89700.00241.0791 6/16/20050.01948.88380.00231.05416/29/20050.01958.91320.00241.0817 6/16/20050.01948.85590.00231.05876/29/20050.01958.92110.00241.0837 6/16/20050.01948.86840.00231.05586/29/20050.01958.93170.00241.0801 6/16/20050.01948.87890.00231.05646/29/20050.01958.90740.00241.0806 6/16/20050.01948.88420.00231.06006/29/20050.01958.92250.00241.0757 6/16/20050.01948.87700.00231.06536/29/20050.01958.94000.00231.0733 6/16/20050.01948.87810.00231.06276/29/20050.01958.91590.00241.0882 6/16/20050.01948.86580.00231.05956/29/20050.01958.91550.00241.0802 6/16/20050.01948.87730.00231.05746/29/20050.01958.91650.00241.0775 6/17/20050.01958.90970.00241.07886/29/20050.01948.89510.00241.0764 6/17/20050.01958.91620.00241.08376/29/20050.01958.92010.00241.0830

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Appendix A (Continued): Porites lutea coral standard solution; Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) 6/29/20050.01958.92260.00241.07807/1/20050.01958.89980.00241.0775 6/29/20050.01958.93030.00241.07587/1/20050.01958.93760.00231.0748 6/29/20050.01958.94150.00241.08197/1/20050.01958.90890.00231.0732 6/29/20050.01958.92280.00241.08707/1/20050.01958.90530.00241.0759 6/29/20050.01958.93090.00241.08017/1/20050.01958.93510.00231.0723 6/30/20050.01948.87640.00241.08487/1/20050.01958.91200.00241.0800 6/30/20050.01958.93030.00241.08017/1/20050.01948.85680.00241.0777 6/30/20050.01958.92570.00231.07467/1/20050.01958.91120.00241.0756 6/30/20050.01948.89290.00241.08507/1/20050.01958.89800.00241.0830 6/30/20050.01958.90130.00241.08557/1/20050.01958.90250.00241.0761 6/30/20050.01948.89630.00241.07717/1/20050.01968.94310.00241.0777 6/30/20050.01958.90440.00241.08378/6/20050.01958.90730.00231.0726 6/30/20050.01958.90480.00241.07728/6/20050.01958.91340.00231.0655 6/30/20050.01948.89130.00241.08808/6/20050.01958.90470.00231.0688 6/30/20050.01958.91370.00241.08228/6/20050.01958.90130.00231.0630 6/30/20050.01958.89910.00241.08008/6/20050.01958.90520.00231.0645 6/30/20050.01948.89590.00241.07868/6/20050.01958.91210.00231.0673 6/30/20050.01948.88340.00241.07868/6/20050.01958.90950.00231.0670 6/30/20050.01958.93620.00241.08158/6/20050.01958.91050.00231.0674 6/30/20050.01958.91970.00241.08218/6/20050.01958.90250.00231.0658 6/30/20050.01948.88830.00241.07788/6/20050.01948.89330.00231.0705 6/30/20050.01948.87710.00241.08348/6/20050.01958.90090.00231.0697 6/30/20050.01948.89290.00241.08268/6/20050.01958.90450.00231.0683 6/30/20050.01948.87360.00231.07448/6/20050.01958.89880.00231.0664 6/30/20050.01958.89850.00241.08698/6/20050.01958.90410.00231.0644 6/30/20050.01948.88900.00241.07628/6/20050.01958.90220.00231.0628 6/30/20050.01958.90000.00231.07278/6/20050.01948.89520.00231.0643 6/30/20050.01958.92220.00241.07888/7/20050.01958.90140.00231.0691 6/30/20050.01958.90780.00241.07858/7/20050.01958.90430.00231.0671 6/30/20050.01958.93190.00241.08288/7/20050.01958.90740.00231.0678 6/30/20050.01968.96390.00241.07578/7/20050.01958.92260.00231.0710 6/30/20050.01958.92890.00241.07808/7/20050.01968.95360.00231.0704 6/30/20050.01948.89190.00241.08388/13/20050.01958.90150.00231.0709 6/30/20050.01948.88380.00241.07978/13/20050.01948.89620.00231.0698 6/30/20050.01958.93460.00241.08248/13/20050.01958.9106 6/30/20050.01948.88240.00241.08318/13/20050.01958.89810.00231.0682 6/30/20050.01958.90920.00241.08108/13/20050.01948.88870.00231.0681 6/30/20050.01958.93200.00241.07808/13/20050.01958.92000.00231.0682 6/30/20050.01968.94680.00241.07798/13/20050.01948.88760.00231.0668 7/1/20050.01958.92670.00241.08738/13/20050.01958.89750.00231.0682 7/1/20050.01958.92040.00231.07048/13/20050.01948.89350.00231.0673 7/1/20050.01958.89720.00241.07828/13/20050.01958.90480.00231.0722 7/1/20050.01958.92650.00231.07438/13/20050.01958.89770.00231.0710 7/1/20050.01958.93700.00231.07248/13/20050.01948.89330.00231.0714

PAGE 122

Appendix A (Continued): Porites lutea coral standard solution; Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) 8/13/20050.01948.89010.00231.07178/20/20050.01948.89460.00231.0729 8/13/20050.01958.90150.00231.07138/20/20050.01958.91220.00241.0789 8/13/20050.01958.89870.00231.06148/20/20050.01958.91060.00231.0700 8/13/20050.01958.91470.00231.07088/20/20050.01958.92640.00231.0750 8/13/20050.01958.91100.00231.07268/20/20050.01958.90340.00241.0784 8/13/20050.01958.90740.00231.07088/20/20050.01958.90590.00241.0750 8/13/20050.01958.90300.00231.07228/20/20050.01958.91050.00231.0731 8/13/20050.01958.92290.00231.07138/20/20050.01958.91120.00241.0816 8/13/20050.01958.90670.00231.07198/21/20050.01958.91200.00241.0753 8/13/20050.01958.91890.00231.07108/21/20050.01958.90020.00231.0735 8/13/20050.01958.91270.00231.06088/21/20050.01958.90350.00241.0770 8/13/20050.01958.92420.00231.06358/21/20050.01958.89910.00231.0740 8/13/20050.01958.90670.00231.07138/21/20050.01958.89880.00231.0743 8/13/20050.01958.91330.00231.07348/21/20050.01958.90910.00231.0718 8/13/20050.01958.91070.00231.07098/21/20050.01958.90010.00241.0793 8/13/20050.01958.90800.00231.06508/21/20050.01958.90030.00241.0797 8/13/20050.01958.90820.00231.06268/27/20050.01948.87640.00241.0810 8/13/20050.01958.90900.00231.06008/27/20050.01958.91940.00241.0779 8/20/20050.01958.90930.00241.07938/27/20050.01958.93680.00241.0789 8/20/20050.01958.89720.00231.07238/27/20050.01958.91960.00241.0786 8/20/20050.01958.90850.00241.07688/27/20050.01958.90970.00241.0796 8/20/20050.01958.91560.00241.07858/27/20050.01948.88980.00231.0730 8/20/20050.01958.90490.00241.07598/27/20050.01948.89600.00241.0808 8/20/20050.01958.90660.00241.07518/27/20050.01958.91330.00241.0797 8/20/20050.01958.90070.00241.07788/27/20050.01958.90720.00241.0849 8/20/20050.01958.90530.00241.07608/27/20050.01958.90930.00241.0774 8/20/20050.01958.90590.00241.07538/27/20050.01958.91680.00231.0697 8/20/20050.01958.90320.00241.07668/27/20050.01948.87730.00231.0734 8/20/20050.01958.92940.00241.07618/27/20050.01958.90490.00231.0699 8/20/20050.01948.89220.00241.08048/27/20050.01948.88960.00231.0728 8/20/20050.01958.90530.00231.07328/27/20050.01958.90710.00231.0691 8/20/20050.01958.89880.00241.07868/27/20050.01958.91970.00231.0743 8/20/20050.01958.89740.00231.07098/27/20050.01958.90300.00241.0951 8/20/20050.01958.90100.00241.07958/27/20050.01958.90930.00241.0809 8/20/20050.01948.89180.00231.07448/27/20050.01958.92660.00241.0844 8/20/20050.01958.90020.00241.07618/27/20050.01958.91510.00241.0849 8/20/20050.01958.90430.00241.07748/27/20050.01958.91150.00241.0845 8/20/20050.01958.90470.00241.07968/27/20050.01958.90370.00241.0872 8/20/20050.01958.91910.00241.07678/27/20050.01958.90250.00241.0809 8/20/20050.01948.89330.00241.07608/27/20050.01958.89930.00241.0851 8/20/20050.01958.91060.00241.07568/27/20050.01948.88910.00241.0875 8/20/20050.01958.90280.00231.07448/27/20050.01958.92550.00241.0868 8/20/20050.01958.90380.00241.07888/27/20050.01958.90580.00241.0907 8/20/20050.01948.89450.00241.09958/28/20050.01948.89700.00241.0902

PAGE 123

Appendix A (Continued): Porites lutea coral standard solution; Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Date Analyzed Sr/Ca (ppb) Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) Mg/Ca (ppb) Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) 8/28/20050.01958.90710.00241.09458/28/20050.01958.91090.00241.0839 8/28/20050.01958.90560.00241.08158/28/20050.01958.91030.00241.0938 8/28/20050.01958.91330.00241.08378/28/20050.01958.90990.00241.0831 8/28/20050.01958.92510.00241.08458/28/20050.01958.92430.00241.0862 8/28/20050.01958.91020.00241.08358/28/20050.01958.90630.00241.0847 8/28/20050.01958.90750.00241.08758/28/20050.01958.92350.00241.0850 8/28/20050.01958.90740.00241.08548/28/20050.01958.90560.00241.0794 8/28/20050.01948.89530.00241.08288/28/20050.01958.90750.00241.0868 8/28/20050.01958.92670.00241.08768/28/20050.01958.89890.00241.0806 8/28/20050.01958.91210.00241.07978/28/20050.01958.91100.00241.0952 8/28/20050.01958.90540.00241.07668/28/20050.01958.90580.00241.0792 8/28/20050.01958.92090.00241.08308/28/20050.01958.90480.00241.0833 8/28/20050.01958.91540.00241.07858/28/20050.01958.91640.00241.0765 8/28/20050.01958.90580.00241.09008/28/20050.01958.90670.00231.0721 8/28/20050.01958.90430.00241.08858/28/20050.01958.91850.00241.0813 8/28/20050.01958.90570.00241.08538/28/20050.01958.90730.00241.0937 8/28/20050.01958.90830.00241.08068/28/20050.01958.90380.00241.0823 8/28/20050.01958.90520.00241.08078/28/20050.01958.90500.00241.0783 8/28/20050.01958.90730.00231.07218/28/20050.01948.89630.00241.0825 8/28/20050.01958.90530.00241.08108/28/20050.01958.90610.00241.0804 8/28/20050.01958.91890.00241.08308/28/20050.01958.91370.00241.0921 8/28/20050.01958.90980.00241.08308/28/20050.01958.92200.00241.0877 8/28/20050.01958.91070.00241.0758

PAGE 124

Appendix B: Record of NBS-19 carbonate standard Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) measurements yielding mean values of 1.95 (+ 0.03, 1 n = 266) for carbon and -2.20 (+ 0.05, 1 n = 264) for oxygen. Date, Time Analyzed 13C (VPDB) 13C error (1 ) 18O (VPDB) 18O error (1 ) 2005/02/19 14:19:311.950.02-2.230.02 2005/02/19 14:51:021.930.01-2.190.01 2005/02/20 03:42:052.030.01-2.050.01 2005/02/20 04:18:391.960.01-2.200.02 2005/02/20 15:26:571.930.02-2.230.02 2005/02/20 15:56:591.900.01-2.290.01 2005/03/04 18:45:561.960.01-2.220.02 2005/03/04 19:14:071.970.01-2.210.02 2005/03/05 05:59:481.950.01-2.180.01 2005/03/05 06:36:421.970.02-2.190.01 2005/03/05 17:19:031.880.01-2.250.02 2005/03/05 17:50:231.950.01-2.160.02 2005/03/08 12:32:071.950.01-2.210.01 2005/03/08 13:04:101.940.02-2.200.02 2005/03/11 17:32:581.930.02-2.250.01 2005/03/11 18:03:141.920.02-2.240.02 2005/03/12 05:20:052.010.02-2.090.02 2005/03/12 05:58:171.910.02-2.330.01 2005/03/12 17:01:371.980.02-2.110.02 2005/03/12 17:30:501.930.02-2.200.04 2005/03/12 19:21:311.960.01-2.180.01 2005/03/12 19:46:581.950.01-2.220.02 2005/03/13 06:32:321.940.01-2.220.02 2005/03/13 07:09:041.930.01-2.200.02 2005/03/13 22:09:261.940.02-2.220.01 2005/03/13 22:44:071.960.03-2.170.01 2005/03/14 00:42:551.960.02-2.220.02 2005/03/14 01:12:271.960.02-2.210.02 2005/03/14 12:41:281.960.01-2.170.01 2005/03/14 13:22:301.930.01-2.240.02 2005/03/15 00:57:271.930.00-2.180.01 2005/03/15 02:50:171.990.01-2.160.02 2005/03/15 03:21:121.960.00-2.170.03 2005/03/15 11:12:591.970.02-2.140.02 2005/03/15 11:44:171.880.01-2.310.02 2005/03/31 17:25:332.010.01 2005/04/01 03:48:531.890.02-2.200.02 2005/05/23 19:47:261.950.01-2.200.02 2005/05/23 20:12:211.930.02-2.230.01 2005/05/24 07:58:021.970.01-2.200.03 2005/05/24 08:29:161.960.01-2.180.02 2005/05/24 19:44:461.940.01-2.220.01 2005/05/24 20:39:501.970.01-2.180.01 2005/05/24 22:15:131.970.01-2.180.01 2005/05/24 22:45:292.000.01-2.180.02

PAGE 125

Appendix B (Continued): Record of NBS-19 carbonate standard Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite Date, Time Analyzed 13C (VPDB) 13C error (1 ) 18O (VPDB) 18O error (1 ) 2005/05/25 06:25:201.940.00-2.190.02 2005/05/25 06:59:481.860.01-2.330.03 2005/05/25 14:55:431.930.00-2.230.01 2005/05/25 15:38:082.000.00-2.100.02 2005/05/25 18:25:201.930.02-2.190.01 2005/05/25 18:53:431.910.00-2.190.01 2005/05/26 06:43:351.980.01-2.220.02 2005/05/26 07:11:561.980.01-2.210.01 2005/05/26 17:44:031.940.01-2.230.01 2005/05/26 18:16:361.930.01-2.180.01 2005/05/27 17:00:091.990.01-2.180.02 2005/05/27 17:28:531.960.01-2.200.01 2005/05/28 01:21:581.960.01-2.190.02 2005/05/28 01:46:131.950.01-2.220.01 2005/05/28 09:37:551.930.01-2.230.02 2005/05/28 10:15:261.950.00-2.190.01 2005/05/28 13:00:581.940.01-2.180.01 2005/05/28 13:26:411.950.00-2.270.00 2005/05/29 01:17:131.950.01-2.170.02 2005/05/29 01:47:311.960.01-2.220.01 2005/05/29 13:01:581.970.01-2.200.01 2005/05/29 13:38:371.960.02-2.200.01 2005/06/01 11:40:341.980.01-2.170.02 2005/06/01 12:11:091.940.02-2.200.02 2005/06/01 17:15:371.950.01-2.190.02 2005/06/01 17:45:531.950.01-2.140.03 2005/06/01 22:28:201.920.02-2.220.01 2005/06/01 22:57:361.920.02-2.290.02 2005/06/02 00:37:191.990.00-2.200.02 2005/06/02 01:07:031.970.01-2.240.01 2005/06/02 07:16:451.970.00-2.140.01 2005/06/02 07:45:341.930.01-2.180.01 2005/06/02 12:38:061.920.02-2.210.03 2005/06/02 13:29:421.950.01-2.250.03 2005/06/02 16:23:561.980.01-2.110.00 2005/06/02 16:50:161.910.01-2.350.01 2005/06/03 03:49:141.950.01-2.120.02 2005/06/03 12:03:451.960.01-2.210.01 2005/06/03 12:35:241.950.02-2.200.02 2005/06/06 12:50:141.940.01-2.180.01 2005/06/06 13:17:111.950.01-2.240.01 2005/06/07 00:40:261.920.01-2.250.02 2005/06/07 01:12:541.980.01-2.160.01 2005/06/07 12:02:281.910.02-2.220.02 2005/06/07 12:59:331.980.01-2.160.02

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Appendix B (Continued): Record of NBS-19 carbonate standard Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite Date, Time Analyzed 13C (VPDB) 13C error (1 ) 18O (VPDB) 18O error (1 ) 2005/06/07 14:51:511.940.01-2.160.02 2005/06/07 15:18:221.960.00-2.250.02 2005/06/07 20:15:081.940.02-2.230.02 2005/06/07 20:42:481.940.01-2.200.03 2005/06/08 08:14:361.960.01-2.180.02 2005/06/08 08:45:181.970.00-2.180.01 2005/06/08 16:33:361.940.01-2.210.02 2005/06/08 17:03:041.960.01-2.230.03 2005/06/09 04:19:241.960.01-2.170.02 2005/06/09 04:49:111.950.02-2.240.02 2005/06/09 16:46:421.930.02-2.170.02 2005/06/09 18:44:331.930.01-2.180.01 2005/06/09 19:12:321.930.01-2.320.01 2005/06/10 07:27:261.930.01-2.250.02 2005/06/10 07:59:441.950.02-2.160.02 2005/06/10 19:56:501.970.01-2.160.01 2005/06/10 20:55:121.990.02-2.160.01 2005/06/10 22:44:521.950.01-2.230.01 2005/06/10 23:14:091.950.01-2.170.01 2005/06/11 10:18:121.920.01-2.240.02 2005/06/11 10:45:481.970.01-2.140.01 2005/06/13 11:27:501.960.01-2.190.01 2005/06/13 11:56:371.970.01-2.160.02 2005/06/13 22:30:421.920.01-2.200.02 2005/06/13 23:06:451.990.00-2.190.02 2005/06/14 09:45:111.920.01-2.240.02 2005/06/22 11:13:071.840.01 2005/06/22 11:43:591.980.01-2.210.01 2005/06/22 22:18:181.920.01-2.200.01 2005/06/22 22:51:591.980.01-2.210.01 2005/06/23 09:46:351.980.01-2.200.01 2005/06/23 10:19:532.010.00-2.160.02 2005/06/25 13:02:441.960.01-2.190.01 2005/06/25 13:30:111.980.00-2.180.02 2005/06/26 00:05:141.930.01-2.170.03 2005/06/26 00:41:451.960.00-2.250.01 2005/06/26 11:21:521.930.01-2.240.01 2005/06/26 11:49:171.970.01-2.160.02 2005/07/02 14:22:551.940.01-2.230.01 2005/07/02 14:49:141.950.02-2.190.02 2005/07/03 01:00:091.920.01-2.190.02 2005/07/03 01:34:081.970.01-2.140.01 2005/07/03 12:03:151.950.02-2.250.01 2005/07/04 14:37:161.990.01-2.120.01 2005/07/04 15:06:021.970.00-2.180.02

PAGE 127

Appendix B (Continued): Record of NBS-19 carbonate standard Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite Date, Time Analyzed 13C (VPDB) 13C error (1 ) 18O (VPDB) 18O error (1 ) 2005/07/05 01:08:471.960.01-2.170.00 2005/07/05 01:43:031.840.01-2.390.01 2005/07/05 12:16:471.980.01-2.150.01 2005/07/12 15:17:081.960.01-2.210.03 2005/07/12 15:46:451.950.01-2.180.01 2005/07/13 02:05:521.930.02-2.250.02 2005/07/13 02:38:121.950.01-2.180.02 2005/07/13 12:48:451.920.01-2.210.02 2005/07/13 13:20:271.960.00-2.180.01 2005/07/13 14:58:551.970.01-2.230.01 2005/07/13 15:27:171.960.02-2.110.02 2005/07/14 02:24:431.940.01-2.260.02 2005/07/14 02:55:581.930.01-2.220.01 2005/07/14 13:46:341.950.01-2.250.02 2005/07/14 14:15:091.950.01-2.150.02 2005/07/15 12:14:251.960.01-2.100.01 2005/07/15 23:55:221.940.01-2.250.01 2005/07/16 00:28:321.970.02-2.150.01 2005/07/16 10:44:391.920.01-2.270.03 2005/07/16 11:12:191.950.01-2.220.01 2005/07/16 13:06:231.930.00-2.260.01 2005/07/16 13:32:191.960.01-2.150.03 2005/07/16 23:35:471.940.01-2.190.02 2005/07/17 00:08:011.950.01-2.200.02 2005/07/17 10:16:381.960.01-2.170.01 2005/07/17 10:46:061.940.01-2.250.01 2005/07/17 14:45:291.950.01-2.240.02 2005/07/17 15:14:401.960.01-2.180.02 2005/07/18 01:22:061.970.01-2.220.01 2005/07/18 01:56:091.950.00-2.180.01 2005/07/18 11:52:221.950.01-2.200.02 2005/07/18 12:22:071.940.00-2.170.01 2005/08/06 12:49:191.960.00-2.160.02 2005/08/06 13:17:241.940.01-2.240.01 2005/08/06 23:19:541.910.01-2.240.01 2005/08/06 23:53:291.980.01-2.160.01 2005/08/07 10:11:051.930.02-2.190.02 2005/08/07 10:39:501.970.01-2.210.01 2005/08/07 12:47:441.950.02-2.210.01 2005/08/07 13:16:041.940.01-2.210.02 2005/08/07 23:35:261.950.01-2.170.02 2005/08/08 00:09:111.960.01-2.220.02 2005/08/13 11:17:561.990.00-2.160.01 2005/08/13 11:45:091.910.02-2.230.03 2005/08/13 23:15:531.940.01-2.200.01

PAGE 128

Appendix B (Continued): Record of NBS-19 carbonate standard Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite Date, Time Analyzed 13C (VPDB) 13C error (1 ) 18O (VPDB) 18O error (1 ) 2005/08/14 11:07:531.970.01-2.170.01 2005/08/14 11:37:291.980.01-2.190.01 2005/08/14 22:04:491.940.01-2.190.01 2005/08/14 22:39:181.970.01-2.250.01 2005/08/15 10:45:271.940.02-2.210.03 2005/08/15 11:13:361.890.02-2.180.02 2005/08/27 11:47:161.950.01-2.150.02 2005/08/27 12:13:441.950.01-2.250.03 2005/08/28 12:09:151.940.02-2.240.02 2005/08/28 12:35:531.950.01-2.170.02 2005/08/28 23:02:221.950.02-2.240.04 2005/08/28 23:37:091.940.01-2.150.01 2005/08/29 10:07:501.960.00-2.200.02 2005/08/29 10:38:421.960.01-2.190.01 2005/08/29 12:00:371.910.01-2.310.01 2005/08/29 12:28:361.950.01-2.170.03 2005/08/29 13:02:371.900.01-2.250.04 2005/08/29 13:30:191.950.01-2.150.02 2005/08/29 14:01:291.970.02-2.150.02 2005/08/29 14:32:261.990.01-2.200.03 2005/08/29 15:05:111.980.02-2.210.04 2005/08/29 15:35:301.960.01-2.340.02 2005/08/29 16:03:391.940.01-2.230.03 2005/08/30 00:25:141.940.01-2.230.03 2005/08/30 01:02:452.000.00-2.090.02 2005/08/30 12:07:461.950.01-2.150.01 2005/08/30 12:46:251.940.01-2.180.01 2005/08/31 15:38:511.980.01-2.160.02 2005/08/31 16:09:421.950.00-2.210.01 2005/09/01 02:41:251.950.01-2.300.04 2005/09/01 03:17:381.940.02-2.150.03 2005/09/01 14:46:101.940.02-2.200.04 2005/09/01 15:20:321.960.00-2.160.01 2005/10/07 22:39:491.910.01-2.240.01 2005/10/07 23:07:591.980.02-2.190.02 2005/10/08 10:03:201.840.02-2.360.03 2005/10/08 10:41:172.030.02-2.070.03 2005/10/08 21:31:351.920.02-2.240.04 2005/10/08 22:02:592.000.01-2.090.02 2005/10/08 23:25:371.920.02-2.300.04 2005/10/09 00:00:161.980.01-2.140.03 2005/10/09 11:03:071.950.01-2.170.01 2005/10/09 11:39:041.960.01-2.220.02 2005/10/09 22:52:551.940.01-2.190.03 2005/10/10 00:32:041.960.02-2.170.04

PAGE 129

Appendix B (Continued): Record of NBS-19 carbonate standard Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite Date, Time Analyzed 13C (VPDB) 13C error (1 ) 18O (VPDB) 18O error (1 ) 2005/10/10 01:00:281.960.02-2.190.02 2005/10/10 08:08:201.920.01-2.240.01 2005/10/15 12:48:262.000.01-2.120.01 2005/10/15 13:19:372.000.00-2.200.01 2005/10/16 00:19:131.840.01-2.320.02 2005/10/16 00:51:431.950.02-2.170.03 2005/10/16 12:21:491.960.01-2.230.01 2005/10/16 12:52:231.950.01-2.190.02 2005/10/16 22:46:361.950.01-2.190.01 2005/10/23 10:55:101.990.01-2.130.01 2005/10/23 11:26:011.980.01-2.150.01 2005/10/23 11:55:461.920.00-2.260.01 2005/10/23 12:26:311.990.00-2.090.01 2005/10/24 23:54:341.900.02-2.290.01 2005/10/25 00:26:121.910.00-2.250.02 2005/10/29 10:24:181.930.01-2.210.01 2005/10/29 10:53:061.960.01-2.190.01 2005/10/30 00:34:111.970.02-2.190.02 2005/10/30 09:49:032.030.01-2.180.01 2005/10/30 10:20:122.020.01-2.210.04 2005/10/31 02:06:161.860.02-2.230.02 2005/10/31 02:52:261.880.01-2.190.01 2005/12/10 11:00:071.930.01-2.300.02 2005/12/10 11:31:401.980.00-2.140.01 2005/12/10 22:48:401.930.00-2.210.02 2005/12/10 23:34:331.970.02-2.170.02 2005/12/11 14:21:301.970.01-2.150.01 2005/12/11 14:51:481.950.01-2.220.02 2005/12/12 04:40:381.960.02-2.110.04 2005/12/12 05:12:071.930.09-2.230.18 2005/12/12 08:44:271.940.02-2.300.04 2005/12/12 09:24:221.950.01-2.190.02 2006/05/20 13:28:431.950.02-2.200.03 2006/05/20 13:58:321.940.02-2.180.03 2006/05/21 11:36:501.950.01-2.210.02 2006/05/21 13:34:141.970.01-2.170.02 2006/05/21 14:03:451.890.01-2.320.01 2006/05/22 00:34:351.950.01-2.180.02 2006/05/22 01:13:141.960.02-2.160.05 2006/05/22 11:50:541.960.01-2.180.02 2006/05/22 12:21:201.970.01-2.170.01

PAGE 130

Appendix C: Geochemical data for coral slab BK31B from Core 31 and initial age modeling prior to Analyseries recasting of data; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1995.710.000-0.84-3.819.2785.3901991.421.075-0.85-3.488.9524.693 1995.630.025-0.41-3.458.8924.9911991.321.100-0.96-3.629.0285.000 1995.550.0508.8975.1811991.211.125-2.14-3.489.0417.110 1995.460.075-1.75-3.811991.021.150-2.03-3.549.02317.527 1995.380.100-1.59-3.829.1395.2701990.821.175-2.24-3.688.9248.916 1995.300.125-1.15-3.369.1344.7601990.631.200-1.78-3.908.8127.514 1995.210.150-0.81-3.269.1065.1511990.561.225-0.56-3.408.91210.266 1995.130.175-2.23-3.279.1455.4031990.481.250-1.61-4.068.8337.029 1995.070.200-2.52-3.379.0695.3731990.411.275-1.69-4.009.0616.563 1995.010.225-2.11-3.359.1277.1521990.341.300-1.97-3.749.01215.148 1994.940.250-1.83-3.348.8765.7381990.261.325-2.68-3.909.02710.961 1994.880.275-3.29-4.358.7746.7141990.191.350-2.87-3.619.02615.976 1994.820.300-1.61-3.648.9354.6221990.111.375-3.29-3.759.0127.433 1994.760.325-2.61-4.328.6926.2301990.041.400-3.34-3.719.09711.110 1994.690.350-1.80-4.128.7315.0581989.961.425-3.19-3.868.99612.939 1994.630.375-1.43-4.028.6254.8801989.881.450-2.48-3.919.04916.728 1994.480.400-2.11-4.238.7396.4361989.791.475-2.36-3.799.0547.909 1994.340.425-1.52-4.068.8706.6431989.711.500-1.65-3.518.9285.846 1994.190.450-1.68-3.878.9895.0951989.631.525-2.28-3.988.8285.763 1994.040.475-1.75-3.279.2576.9451989.421.550-1.33-3.818.8774.907 1993.980.5009.1189.1351989.211.575-0.57-3.279.2785.787 1993.920.525-1.89-3.169.1628.7811989.071.600-0.34-2.969.1775.680 1993.860.550-3.41-3.109.0756.4591988.921.625-0.68-3.139.1174.299 1993.810.5759.1365.8701988.781.650-0.81-3.418.9934.320 1993.750.6008.9876.8081988.631.675-0.93-3.798.8805.858 1993.690.6259.0027.2861988.491.700-0.84-4.128.9106.980 1993.630.650-1.67-3.848.9454.5171988.351.725-0.88-4.029.0347.962 1993.490.675-0.20-3.708.8854.2211988.211.750-1.84-3.629.07910.530 1993.350.700-0.31-3.468.8914.0361988.091.775-2.52-3.689.05712.682 1993.210.725-1.00-3.139.1424.6291987.981.800-2.87-3.849.01113.451 1993.140.750-0.61-3.278.9745.8251987.861.825-2.92-3.938.90913.212 1993.070.775-0.57-3.578.9934.0581987.751.850-2.40-3.988.8687.418 1992.990.800-1.54-3.858.8984.6861987.631.875-2.99-4.178.8046.390 1992.920.825-2.44-4.218.8354.7881987.571.900-2.60-4.138.8725.995 1992.850.850-2.61-4.168.8444.8521987.511.925-1.53-4.058.8765.404 1992.780.875-2.75-3.848.8804.9491987.441.950-1.62-4.088.9235.244 1992.700.900-2.66-4.008.9165.4481987.381.975-1.70-4.188.8645.501 1992.630.925-2.95-4.188.81622.1471987.322.000-1.02-3.639.0514.716 1992.420.950-2.95-4.008.98111.3151987.262.025-0.10-3.489.1024.880 1992.210.975-2.32-3.649.05316.8711987.192.050-1.13-3.529.1864.400 1991.921.000-1.96-3.558.8785.6161987.132.075-1.26-3.349.3194.803 1991.631.025-1.26-3.818.8085.3761987.012.100-1.97-3.469.1784.413 1991.531.050-1.11-3.848.8444.7501986.882.125-1.54-3.429.1944.662

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Appendix C (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1986.762.150-0.60-3.309.0924.6301981.843.250-3.43-4.288.8734.750 1986.632.175-2.47-3.958.9914.5631981.743.275-2.64-4.398.8384.775 1986.532.2009.0614.3291981.643.300-2.05-4.448.8055.112 1986.422.225-1.36-3.959.1007.3491981.543.325-1.64-4.548.7385.101 1986.322.250-0.89-3.928.9754.2821981.423.350-1.67-4.518.8244.677 1986.212.2759.1314.0161981.293.375-1.57-4.088.9764.563 1986.142.3009.0724.0871981.173.400-1.04-3.469.0704.487 1986.072.325-1.50-3.479.0594.1481981.043.425-2.08-3.429.1394.527 1985.992.350-1.76-3.559.0444.8471980.983.450-2.75-3.779.0625.013 1985.922.375-1.98-3.539.0305.7421980.933.475-3.30-3.878.9896.124 1985.852.400-1.88-3.638.9766.1771980.873.500-3.77-4.148.9907.940 1985.782.425-1.41-3.668.9305.0481980.823.525-2.75-4.138.8776.590 1985.702.450-1.43-3.958.9594.6741980.763.550-3.44-4.568.8307.504 1985.632.475-1.00-3.988.9124.6071980.713.575-3.47-4.748.8578.539 1985.512.500-0.87-3.789.0284.4651980.653.600-3.59-4.598.8128.596 1985.382.525-1.14-3.769.0224.3881980.603.625-3.33-4.558.7676.086 1985.262.550-1.13-3.689.0734.5531980.543.650-3.03-4.398.7545.678 1985.132.575-1.27-3.679.0924.0831980.463.675-3.11-4.468.8565.551 1985.032.600-1.63-3.539.0254.3781980.383.700-1.81-4.338.9848.216 1984.932.625-1.47-3.819.0044.5201980.293.725-0.99-3.719.1294.513 1984.832.650-1.27-3.788.9974.9201980.213.750-1.06-3.729.2455.416 1984.732.675-1.18-3.998.9705.1681980.133.775-1.18-3.369.2776.832 1984.632.700-1.15-4.028.9144.4551980.033.800-1.88-3.269.2535.186 1984.532.725-1.03-3.958.9314.4981979.933.825-2.29-3.359.1855.596 1984.422.750-1.16-3.898.9554.1461979.843.850-2.85-3.789.0707.101 1984.322.775-1.71-3.468.9234.0171979.743.875-2.32-3.809.04610.473 1984.212.800-2.83-3.759.0616.0101979.643.900-2.53-4.039.0099.775 1984.072.825-2.46-4.048.94910.8121979.543.925-2.52-4.049.0067.538 1983.922.850-2.43-4.158.8639.5481979.493.950-1.59-3.929.0817.044 1983.782.875-2.24-4.208.7967.7931979.443.975-0.93-3.839.1427.664 1983.632.900-1.64-4.268.78913.0501979.394.000-0.03-3.57 1983.532.925-1.63-4.268.7935.6221979.344.0259.3466.438 1983.432.950-1.36-4.248.8224.6081979.284.050-0.20-3.589.2426.855 1983.332.975-1.24-4.258.8704.4281979.234.075-0.42-3.169.3066.265 1983.233.000-1.20-3.809.0104.3691979.184.100-1.27-3.179.3335.429 1983.133.025-1.37-3.459.0518.1911979.134.125-0.86-2.969.3727.278 1983.013.050-1.73-3.809.0175.6071979.054.150-1.64-3.329.2914.552 1982.883.075-2.25-3.959.0105.0981978.964.1759.2724.697 1982.763.100-1.60-4.108.82011.0761978.884.200-1.55-3.649.2814.700 1982.633.125-1.38-4.368.8054.3351978.794.225-0.84-3.359.2794.185 1982.433.150-1.05-4.178.8404.4171978.714.250-0.78-3.809.3304.354 1982.243.175-0.73-3.708.9554.9101978.624.2759.2134.140 1982.043.200-1.45-3.569.0624.3541978.544.300-1.06-4.159.1064.209 1981.943.225-2.33-3.589.0504.3581978.404.325-0.60-3.849.3283.971

PAGE 132

Appendix C (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1978.274.350-0.91-3.549.1833.9461974.635.450-1.92-4.068.9385.173 1978.134.375-1.06-3.179.3473.9741974.565.475-0.83-3.859.0454.875 1978.034.400-1.53-3.019.3223.9941974.495.500-1.17-3.979.0055.706 1977.934.425-1.52-3.049.3244.1191974.425.525-1.04-4.018.8955.218 1977.844.450-1.24-3.229.3284.2671974.355.550-1.44-3.978.9375.561 1977.744.475-1.38-3.139.2974.3101974.285.575-0.80-3.968.9905.082 1977.644.5009.1934.1101974.215.600-0.55-3.459.2156.155 1977.544.5259.0634.3021974.135.625-1.46-3.679.0824.933 1977.464.550-0.95-3.799.2184.0451974.045.650-1.46-3.659.1716.002 1977.384.575-0.29-3.359.2264.0611973.965.675-2.05-3.578.9606.751 1977.294.600-1.44-3.919.1964.0861973.885.700-2.71-3.728.9926.195 1977.214.625-0.11-3.329.2733.9341973.805.725-2.58-3.789.0767.942 1977.134.650-0.48-3.249.3634.0061973.715.750-2.45-3.969.0446.817 1977.084.675-0.86-3.289.2945.2841973.635.775-2.23-4.118.9196.057 1977.044.700-0.97-3.299.2365.6921973.535.800-1.60-4.249.0268.290 1976.994.725-1.59-2.919.3415.7581973.435.825-0.72-3.838.9306.117 1976.954.750-2.31-3.069.1015.2531973.335.850-0.60-3.758.9964.834 1976.904.775-2.14-3.209.1456.6091973.235.875-0.62-3.609.1165.015 1976.864.800-2.79-3.609.08610.0931973.135.900-0.52-3.549.2368.546 1976.814.825-1.87-3.299.1136.3501973.015.925-1.23-3.729.0725.762 1976.774.850-2.80-3.688.9565.0621972.885.950-1.07-3.678.9976.026 1976.724.875-2.31-4.148.9036.4251972.765.975-1.79-3.829.0375.702 1976.684.900-1.93-4.228.9286.1811972.636.000-1.73-3.988.9094.852 1976.634.925-0.71-3.998.8354.4971972.576.025-1.55-4.018.9936.823 1976.574.950-1.18-4.278.8384.4461972.516.050-1.36-3.978.9565.302 1976.514.975-0.87-4.168.8824.5641972.456.075-0.97-3.888.9684.616 1976.445.000-1.35-4.078.9694.0081972.396.100-0.79-3.859.0534.391 1976.385.025-2.28-3.609.1084.3661972.336.125-0.55-3.559.1383.851 1976.325.050-1.94-3.509.0704.2761972.276.150-0.92-3.619.0793.826 1976.265.075-2.34-3.538.8854.8561972.216.175-0.66-3.379.1833.976 1976.195.100-0.40-3.109.0634.4961972.076.200-1.20-3.599.1394.078 1976.135.125-1.80-3.579.1824.2531971.926.225-1.42-3.829.1664.015 1975.845.150-1.41-3.858.9674.5051971.786.250-1.46-3.798.9754.182 1975.545.175-1.25-4.218.8634.2881971.636.275-1.25-3.868.9484.044 1975.425.200-0.89-4.149.0444.1841971.586.300-1.04-4.138.9634.029 1975.315.225-0.78-4.019.0734.0811971.546.325-1.02-4.099.0224.048 1975.195.250-1.10-3.859.0264.1231971.496.350-0.95-4.078.9704.740 1975.085.275-0.46-3.559.1184.0101971.446.375-0.95-3.819.1055.202 1974.965.300-0.83-3.429.1904.0501971.406.400-1.18-3.599.1264.844 1974.915.325-1.42-3.479.1884.3601971.356.425-2.09-3.579.0444.416 1974.855.350-1.78-3.659.1896.2841971.306.450-2.18-3.609.1264.696 1974.805.375-1.94-3.679.1605.3851971.266.475-2.20-3.549.1205.053 1974.745.400-2.28-3.709.1006.8181971.216.500-2.10-3.679.1725.552 1974.695.425-2.27-4.069.0275.1671971.146.525-2.24-3.759.1005.461

PAGE 133

Appendix C (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1971.076.550-2.01-3.669.1284.8251968.027.650-0.42-3.149.4223.869 1971.006.575-2.54-4.129.0414.2541967.927.675-1.22-2.879.4163.856 1970.926.600-2.30-4.209.0684.0871967.827.700-0.26-3.21 1970.856.625-2.14-4.109.0414.1191967.737.7259.4363.809 1970.786.650-1.54-4.079.0804.2101967.637.750-0.66-3.509.4063.793 1970.716.675-1.37-3.779.0144.7991967.567.775-0.10-3.449.4413.653 1970.636.700-1.08-3.829.0924.6971967.497.8000.23-3.279.4733.441 1970.546.725-1.10-3.589.1134.8071967.427.8250.22-3.219.4863.608 1970.466.750-1.11-3.499.1644.3221967.347.8500.30-3.049.4853.537 1970.386.775-1.39-3.279.3084.2441967.277.875-0.11-3.119.4783.649 1970.306.800-1.12-3.209.3084.2491967.207.900-0.38-2.949.4344.126 1970.216.825-1.13-3.019.1874.3251967.137.925-0.81-2.969.4854.466 1970.136.850-1.11-3.229.3524.1821967.067.9509.4324.932 1969.936.875-1.38-3.241966.997.9759.3854.926 1969.746.900-0.97-3.209.2534.1361966.928.000-1.62-3.069.3564.181 1969.546.925-0.29-3.319.2453.8001966.848.025-1.36-3.189.3804.219 1969.506.9509.2715.9491966.778.050-0.45-3.21 1969.466.975-0.04-3.489.3624.0861966.708.0759.3944.508 1969.427.0000.45-3.239.3683.8721966.638.100-0.68-3.299.2544.251 1969.387.025-0.44-3.759.3244.7601966.568.125-0.96-3.639.3374.462 1969.337.050-0.28-3.781966.498.1500.13-3.269.3984.179 1969.297.075-0.44-3.539.2915.4671966.428.175 1969.257.100-2.04-3.459.2984.4681966.348.200-0.15-3.349.2914.334 1969.217.125-0.83-3.079.4825.6841966.278.2250.00-3.029.333 1969.077.150-1.02-3.239.4397.1091966.208.250-0.79-3.099.3623.938 1968.927.175-2.00-3.339.3075.6421966.138.2759.5513.694 1968.787.2009.1855.5811966.078.300-0.62-2.94 1968.637.225-3.67-3.949.1065.5421966.028.325-0.66-2.869.4643.794 1968.607.2501965.968.3509.4403.752 1968.577.275-1.78-3.431965.918.375-1.09-3.059.4093.599 1968.557.300-1.28-3.431965.858.400-0.41-3.239.3534.266 1968.527.325-1.57-3.861965.808.4259.4243.799 1968.497.350-1.14-3.401965.748.450-0.23-3.309.3563.786 1968.467.3750.11-3.411965.698.4759.3603.746 1968.437.4009.3013.7391965.638.500-0.36-3.349.1933.787 1968.417.4250.68-3.211965.558.5250.29-3.449.3843.628 1968.387.4509.2643.6591965.468.5500.11-3.30 1968.357.475-0.19-3.619.2403.5301965.388.575-0.09-3.12 1968.327.5009.3203.5441965.298.600-0.33-3.189.3873.994 1968.297.525-0.01-3.179.3603.5851965.218.625-0.08-2.959.5163.728 1968.277.5500.17-3.059.3793.6281965.158.650-0.32-2.949.4723.716 1968.247.575-0.34-2.929.4743.6701965.088.675-1.34-2.689.4793.697 1968.217.600-0.56-2.909.4843.7611965.028.700-1.26-2.799.4763.836 1968.117.625-0.64-3.009.4523.7561964.958.725-1.14-2.949.3873.964

PAGE 134

Appendix C (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1964.898.750-1.54-3.159.2654.2361963.719.200-2.06-4.059.0494.576 1964.828.775-1.32-3.339.2624.1961963.679.225-1.70-3.929.0864.557 1964.768.800-1.03-3.519.2484.0221963.639.250-2.17-4.268.9234.906 1964.698.825-1.34-3.769.2243.9941963.599.275-2.47-4.369.0684.755 1964.638.850-1.14-3.709.0784.1811963.559.300-1.81-3.989.0154.552 1964.518.875-1.40-3.849.2603.9531963.519.325-1.15-3.749.0354.520 1964.388.900-1.05-3.659.2084.1421963.489.350-1.63-3.749.1444.561 1964.268.925-0.43-3.489.2624.0071963.449.375-2.00-3.749.2034.376 1964.138.950-0.48-3.259.4043.8361963.409.400-2.13-3.669.2074.489 1964.098.975-0.79-3.009.4033.8641963.369.425-2.39-3.759.1604.620 1964.059.000-1.01-3.009.3944.0351963.329.450-2.59-3.819.2294.268 1964.019.025-1.42-3.179.3623.8651963.289.475-2.64-3.659.0834.521 1963.969.050-1.50-3.179.2334.0741963.259.500-2.81-3.639.2214.518 1963.929.075-1.59-3.279.2004.2721963.219.525-2.87-3.629.1304.679 1963.889.100-1.96-3.539.1224.1781963.179.550-3.01-3.659.1794.758 1963.849.125-2.12-3.679.0933.9421963.139.575-3.06-3.759.2884.233 1963.809.150-2.86-4.119.0824.3711963.019.600-3.17-3.929.0564.936 1963.769.175-2.43-4.119.1474.1731962.889.625-2.90-3.878.9665.166 1962.769.650-3.32-4.139.0104.983

PAGE 135

Appendix D: Geochemical data for coral record BK31BB from Core 31 and initial age modeling prior to Analyseries recasting of data; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1995.710.0009.1515.7971991.461.075-1.08-3.898.8214.406 1995.690.025-1.57-4.419.0635.3411991.381.100-0.95-4.088.8744.407 1995.670.050-1.27-4.378.9985.5221991.291.125-0.97-3.859.0134.236 1995.650.075-1.57-4.408.7964.6201991.211.150-1.40-3.669.0955.253 1995.630.100-2.15-4.568.7514.6281991.021.175-2.22-3.679.0708.895 1995.510.125-1.71-4.488.9344.6301990.821.200-2.96-3.738.9417.153 1995.380.150-1.23-3.999.0224.5801990.631.225-2.90-4.208.8126.018 1995.260.175-1.62-3.918.9034.5651990.531.250-2.36-4.388.8494.664 1995.130.200-2.33-3.609.1995.6771990.431.275-2.29-4.518.8874.860 1995.070.225-2.61-3.499.1436.3521990.341.300-1.96-4.478.8505.742 1995.010.250-3.34-3.839.1476.8591990.241.325-1.63-4.179.04612.382 1994.940.275-3.67-4.198.9517.3791990.141.350-1.88-4.069.05714.545 1994.880.300-3.56-4.438.87311.3021990.041.375-2.33-3.799.0776.419 1994.820.325-1.19-3.988.9607.9981989.971.400-3.12-3.889.02811.876 1994.760.350-3.41-4.708.9528.1121989.901.425-3.04-3.849.00111.900 1994.690.375-2.88-4.808.7857.2091989.841.450-3.03-4.028.9968.010 1994.630.400-2.53-4.708.7156.5261989.771.475-3.42-4.338.8877.327 1994.510.425-2.36-4.578.7085.7911989.701.500-2.65-4.498.9195.080 1994.390.450-2.00-4.648.8207.5441989.631.525-2.64-4.478.8205.095 1994.280.475-1.45-4.358.9547.4031989.531.550-2.16-4.278.9574.678 1994.160.500-1.62-4.159.0727.0011989.421.575-1.47-4.088.8464.530 1994.040.525-2.30-3.949.1497.1741989.321.600-0.91-3.738.9874.487 1993.990.550-3.28-3.629.0956.7691989.211.625-0.34-3.159.2805.597 1993.940.575-3.07-3.471989.071.650-1.40-3.349.2574.885 1993.890.6009.0996.9821988.921.675-1.67-3.499.2185.215 1993.840.625-3.93-3.588.9898.9681988.781.700-1.45-3.519.0064.620 1993.780.6508.9307.7111988.631.725-0.74-4.238.9568.776 1993.730.6758.90911.4431988.421.750-0.94-4.089.0695.220 1993.680.700-3.89-4.558.7967.3141988.211.775-1.32-3.699.2206.611 1993.630.725-2.77-4.638.7135.5251988.151.800-1.99-3.609.1485.738 1993.490.750-1.62-4.538.7224.3761988.081.825-2.96-3.469.1536.373 1993.350.775-1.34-4.318.8864.1901988.021.8509.1235.942 1993.210.800-1.35-3.679.0814.0791987.951.875-2.35-3.479.0587.217 1993.110.825-1.51-3.539.0754.1571987.891.900-3.21-3.938.9105.708 1993.020.850-1.34-3.729.0424.1671987.821.925-2.58-3.689.0266.588 1992.920.875-1.17-3.869.0123.9791987.761.950-3.01-4.148.9955.769 1992.820.900-1.07-3.898.9644.1371987.691.975-2.34-4.298.9046.931 1992.730.925-0.74-4.008.9495.9171987.632.000-1.70-4.238.8096.096 1992.630.950-1.18-4.158.8547.7311987.532.025-1.86-4.258.9365.140 1992.210.975-1.58-3.959.0306.2331987.432.050-0.81-3.919.0525.951 1991.921.000-2.57-4.048.87222.0111987.332.075-0.61-3.559.1245.199 1991.631.025-2.03-4.078.74219.3131987.232.100-1.31-3.539.2406.938 1991.551.050-1.49-3.918.9145.7351987.132.125-1.55-3.379.30910.508

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Appendix D (Continued): BK31BB ; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1987.032.150-2.57-3.489.1785.3781982.733.250-2.02-4.139.0944.606 1986.932.175-2.53-3.359.2085.1621982.633.275-1.94-4.198.9784.409 1986.832.200-3.06-3.929.0665.1541982.513.300-1.16-3.979.0474.192 1986.732.225-2.92-3.878.9945.1371982.393.325-1.15-4.069.0084.143 1986.632.250-2.11-4.238.9454.2451982.283.350-0.93-3.909.1534.811 1986.552.275-1.47-4.028.9694.3551982.163.375-0.78-3.609.1904.344 1986.462.300-1.20-3.958.9734.2181982.043.4009.2534.977 1986.382.325-1.05-3.749.0314.2411981.923.425-2.40-3.249.2044.112 1986.292.350-1.46-3.429.1074.1871981.793.450-2.01-3.609.0874.512 1986.212.375-1.86-3.449.3684.3831981.673.475-3.03-4.489.1126.029 1986.112.400-2.56-3.609.0234.9651981.543.500-1.24-3.899.0164.828 1986.022.425-2.33-3.639.0355.2351981.443.525-1.04-3.959.1024.496 1985.922.450-2.36-3.768.9525.3681981.343.550-0.90-3.849.1684.244 1985.822.475-2.16-3.878.9304.9581981.243.575-0.86-3.679.1084.131 1985.732.500-1.56-3.948.8334.4021981.143.600-0.88-3.539.3083.982 1985.632.525-1.26-4.178.8214.3491981.043.625-0.95-3.079.4344.946 1985.462.550-0.96-4.098.9784.1661980.973.650-1.23-3.149.3425.012 1985.302.575-1.14-3.949.0304.2581980.903.675-1.53-3.199.2484.794 1985.132.600-1.33-3.589.1444.0391980.833.700-2.04-3.659.0885.374 1985.012.625-1.97-3.769.0664.4761980.753.725-1.67-3.909.17410.137 1984.882.650-2.26-3.978.9889.5661980.683.750-1.46-3.45 1984.762.675-2.39-4.188.9268.7901980.613.775-1.42-4.099.2436.571 1984.632.700-1.53-4.178.9134.7041980.543.800-0.54-3.779.0895.628 1984.532.725-1.59-4.348.9235.5701980.443.825-0.21-3.729.1355.403 1984.422.750-0.67-3.679.3075.3691980.343.850-0.34-3.859.1277.226 1984.322.775-1.19-3.739.1599.5821980.233.875-0.65-3.789.1688.211 1984.212.800-2.39-3.289.3606.5781980.133.900-0.53-3.649.3606.820 1984.132.825-2.39-3.479.1428.1781980.063.925-0.64-3.349.3148.309 1984.042.850-2.24-3.759.1097.9561979.983.950-1.83-3.409.2795.982 1983.962.875-2.47-3.889.05115.6381979.913.975-2.47-3.659.1308.145 1983.882.900-1.76-3.609.28510.6451979.844.000-2.37-3.869.1036.507 1983.802.925-1.34-3.709.11712.5721979.764.025-2.35-4.079.0286.156 1983.712.950-1.66-3.819.2325.9731979.694.050-2.23-4.219.0405.965 1983.632.975-1.45-3.989.0626.5051979.614.075-1.18-4.169.0224.385 1983.563.0009.2456.2221979.544.100-0.97-4.248.9414.182 1983.493.025-0.66-3.789.1829.0011979.404.125-0.47-3.878.9864.108 1983.423.050-0.73-3.539.1377.0701979.274.150-0.39-3.609.1243.969 1983.343.075-1.02-3.859.0366.8081979.134.175-0.77-3.469.2933.846 1983.273.100-1.07-3.829.1627.2031979.034.200-1.62-3.219.2834.106 1983.203.125-1.23-3.709.1306.1411978.934.225-2.12-3.349.1704.626 1983.133.150-1.04-3.689.2096.6081978.844.250-2.67-3.569.1066.091 1983.033.175-1.74-3.629.17310.2941978.744.275-2.45-3.709.0805.074 1982.933.200-2.45-3.619.1337.1611978.644.300-2.12-3.878.9994.700 1982.833.225-2.43-3.799.1168.4031978.544.325-1.37-4.009.0024.429

PAGE 137

Appendix D (Continued): BK31BB ; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1978.444.350-1.19-4.119.0754.0771974.635.450-1.31-4.218.9254.809 1978.344.375-0.65-3.909.1014.0931974.535.475-0.78-3.879.0804.654 1978.234.400-0.71-3.999.0034.1841974.425.500-1.12-3.928.9844.676 1978.134.425-0.59-3.619.2764.5291974.325.525-1.05-3.779.0645.185 1978.054.450-1.00-3.389.2425.1711974.215.550-1.44-3.529.1204.762 1977.964.475-1.50-3.059.2444.6341974.145.575-2.26-3.619.0245.013 1977.884.500-1.39-2.959.2815.0451974.075.600-1.95-3.639.0195.370 1977.794.525-1.85-3.219.2664.8501973.995.625-1.97-3.838.9605.220 1977.714.550-1.98-3.509.1084.7291973.925.650-2.22-3.909.0205.707 1977.624.575-1.25-3.609.0754.2731973.855.675-1.58-3.978.8975.074 1977.544.600-1.29-3.998.8536.7121973.785.700-1.46-4.088.8954.875 1977.464.625-0.50-3.649.0984.0571973.705.725-1.00-3.918.9074.570 1977.384.650-0.89-4.009.0044.2051973.635.750-1.08-4.008.8776.165 1977.294.675-0.89-3.829.0864.2251973.515.775-0.62-3.738.9394.400 1977.214.700-0.97-3.579.1524.4201973.385.800-0.98-3.768.9865.540 1977.134.725-1.27-3.449.2324.2681973.265.825-1.22-3.689.0145.444 1977.074.750-1.87-3.269.1664.6471973.135.850-1.95-3.609.0184.917 1977.024.775-1.69-3.179.2194.7591973.015.875-2.55-3.988.9909.026 1976.964.800-2.19-3.229.1688.1261972.885.900-2.59-4.008.9157.552 1976.914.825-2.29-3.389.1526.9481972.765.925-2.89-4.178.8046.012 1976.854.850-2.08-3.689.0395.2631972.635.950-2.98-4.348.7595.455 1976.804.875-2.04-3.948.9674.9121972.555.975-2.08-4.498.7724.584 1976.744.900-1.74-3.999.0054.6141972.466.000-1.69-4.418.8314.635 1976.694.925-1.07-3.939.0044.9071972.386.025-1.47-4.358.8204.814 1976.634.950-0.80-4.058.9704.1451972.296.050-0.75-3.858.9785.282 1976.554.975-0.62-3.829.0644.0731972.216.075-1.48-3.979.0634.932 1976.465.000-0.96-3.799.0414.0281972.146.100-2.09-3.799.0545.169 1976.385.025-1.53-3.729.1034.7701972.076.125-2.55-3.779.0376.117 1976.305.050-1.90-3.609.2324.1211971.996.150-2.87-3.728.9465.945 1976.215.075-2.08-3.489.2115.6861971.926.175-3.24-4.118.8967.397 1976.135.100-1.92-3.369.2456.1691971.856.200-3.23-4.498.7726.196 1976.035.125-2.12-3.539.0835.3961971.786.225-2.78-4.168.7567.258 1975.935.150-1.69-3.689.0605.1151971.706.250-2.44-4.738.7756.004 1975.845.175-1.26-3.809.0884.4541971.636.275-2.22-4.668.7195.031 1975.745.200-0.82-3.939.1444.0641971.556.300-1.31-4.288.7554.859 1975.645.225-0.26-3.659.1783.9761971.466.325-1.87-4.558.8205.239 1975.545.250-0.51-3.669.0284.0441971.386.350-1.67-4.388.8915.394 1975.405.275-0.75-3.479.1663.9311971.296.375-1.22-4.028.9266.514 1975.255.300-0.91-3.309.1408.2611971.216.400-1.64-3.519.16012.669 1975.115.325-1.26-3.429.1496.6461971.146.425-2.31-3.539.11216.790 1974.965.350-1.92-3.809.2464.9941971.076.450-2.61-3.659.0499.191 1974.885.375-1.00-3.739.1475.0591971.006.475-2.64-3.978.89611.459 1974.805.400-1.21-3.819.0565.0361970.926.500-2.82-4.468.8095.285 1974.715.425-0.79-3.879.0485.1961970.856.525-2.43-4.498.8715.363

PAGE 138

Appendix D (Continued): BK31BB ; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1970.786.550-1.88-4.218.8654.8081967.557.650-2.59-4.629.0344.529 1970.716.575-1.33-4.228.8095.3881967.467.675-1.75-4.668.8334.705 1970.616.600-1.44-4.228.9307.5601967.387.700-1.41-4.418.8485.337 1970.526.625-1.24-4.148.96910.8411967.307.725-1.25-4.289.0316.820 1970.426.650-1.42-4.009.0099.2171967.217.750-1.06-4.029.0167.082 1970.326.675-1.55-3.659.0537.6111967.137.775-1.20-3.599.2566.301 1970.236.700-1.67-3.289.1555.4811967.097.800-1.46-3.689.2108.270 1970.136.725-2.00-3.309.1465.3041967.057.825-1.86-3.609.1698.111 1970.016.750-2.41-3.539.1495.3061967.017.850-2.49-3.689.16510.734 1969.896.775-2.39-3.689.1074.7751966.987.875-2.78-3.619.0479.471 1969.786.800-2.31-3.799.1104.6331966.947.900-2.75-3.679.0909.440 1969.666.825-2.22-4.139.0314.7251966.907.925-2.78-3.979.0388.609 1969.546.850-1.41-4.198.8865.1131966.867.950-2.66-4.279.03912.733 1969.516.875-1.14-3.788.9115.2641966.827.975-1.43-3.629.0348.443 1969.476.900-1.14-4.378.9905.2731966.788.000-2.52-4.20 1969.446.925-1.16-4.299.0325.3941966.758.025-2.40-4.288.9406.134 1969.416.950-1.41-4.099.0896.9271966.718.050-1.95-3.948.9276.430 1969.386.975-1.35-4.019.1307.4531966.678.075-1.53-4.278.8965.260 1969.347.000-1.06-3.709.2246.4521966.638.100-1.57-4.268.8445.341 1969.317.025-0.87-3.369.2298.4411966.558.125-1.51-4.168.9447.086 1969.287.050-1.34-3.589.2297.8631966.468.150-1.18-4.289.0166.580 1969.247.075-1.49-3.489.2487.1001966.388.175-1.29-4.039.0146.199 1969.217.100-1.85-3.579.2706.5901966.308.200-1.48-3.819.1487.505 1969.157.125-2.01-3.459.2116.5561966.218.225-1.93-3.559.1635.721 1969.097.150-2.92-3.669.1186.7141966.138.250-2.32-3.609.1995.157 1969.047.175-2.56-3.819.1415.3411966.078.2759.1585.232 1968.987.200-2.48-3.759.0255.8441966.018.300-2.54-3.579.0805.437 1968.927.225-2.60-4.009.0355.7551965.948.325-2.83-3.499.0935.156 1968.867.250-2.24-4.218.9355.4671965.888.350-2.81-3.799.0145.314 1968.807.275-2.22-4.378.8896.0761965.828.375-2.68-3.829.2136.029 1968.757.300-1.86-4.348.8945.3161965.768.4008.9095.396 1968.697.325-1.05-4.208.8834.6851965.698.425-0.85-3.648.9154.593 1968.637.350-1.27-4.318.8124.6681965.638.450-1.28-4.318.8964.377 1968.557.375-1.42-4.318.8595.0451965.578.475-0.16-3.719.1895.873 1968.467.400-0.67-3.758.9654.6381965.518.500-0.94-4.029.1655.934 1968.387.425-0.59-3.669.0124.5101965.458.525-0.34-3.859.0945.939 1968.297.4509.0364.5051965.398.550-0.93-3.779.2805.056 1968.217.475-1.33-3.389.1954.5891965.338.575-0.51-3.189.2126.107 1968.117.500-1.75-3.329.1107.5411965.278.600-0.52-3.159.2846.144 1968.027.525-2.05-3.521965.218.625-1.51-2.829.3165.347 1967.927.550-2.57-3.988.9666.0671965.138.650-1.49-3.269.3365.192 1967.827.575-2.48-3.979.0387.0531965.048.675-1.82-3.08 1967.737.600-3.04-4.448.9236.0691964.968.700-2.61-3.379.1465.171 1967.637.625-3.16-4.498.7876.3911964.888.725-2.19-3.569.3874.000

PAGE 139

Appendix D (Continued): BK31BB ; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1964.808.750-2.80-3.931963.519.250-2.06-4.419.1064.479 1964.718.775-1.53-3.929.1154.1541963.449.275-2.36-4.368.9805.210 1964.638.800-2.03-3.249.1004.2021963.389.300-2.03-4.118.9315.351 1964.578.825-0.44-3.579.3343.9581963.329.325-1.98-3.998.9885.162 1964.518.8509.3474.2621963.269.350-2.30-3.649.0765.092 1964.448.8759.4833.7491963.199.375-2.41-3.709.0565.382 1964.388.900-0.09-3.379.4763.9531963.139.400-2.34-3.669.0994.851 1964.328.925-0.02-3.011963.099.425-2.41-3.839.0835.007 1964.268.9509.3504.4371963.059.450-2.36-3.639.0755.181 1964.198.975-1.37-3.569.3534.1971963.019.475-2.53-3.499.0605.384 1964.139.000-1.14-3.149.4484.0051962.969.500-2.85-3.92 1964.079.0259.4133.9621962.929.525-2.79-3.87 1964.019.050-1.82-3.659.2894.2621962.889.550-3.06-3.998.9215.576 1963.949.075-1.68-3.489.2304.3641962.849.5758.8735.632 1963.889.100-2.07-3.809.0964.5721962.809.600-3.20-4.01 1963.829.125-2.12-3.979.0844.5611962.769.625-3.00-4.09 1963.769.150-2.41-4.328.8944.7381962.719.650-3.46-4.468.8435.940 1963.699.175-2.26-4.368.8624.9011962.679.675-3.36-4.458.8395.743 1963.639.200-2.53-4.708.7525.2761962.639.700-3.30-4.558.7935.926 1963.579.225-2.44-4.898.8045.2841962.559.725-3.15-4.618.8265.826

PAGE 140

Appendix E: Geochemical data for coral slab BK31C from Core 31 and initial age modeling prior to Analyseries recasting of data; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1995.710.000-3.39-4.621992.751.075-0.50-3.739.1324.244 1995.610.0259.0525.5331992.631.100-0.68-4.119.1024.458 1995.520.0500.14-3.301992.531.125-0.48-3.869.1975.676 1995.420.075-2.21-4.311992.421.1509.2024.139 1995.320.100-1.26-3.641992.321.175-0.65-3.579.2554.957 1995.230.125-2.07-4.301992.211.2009.2774.699 1995.130.1509.1535.1261992.071.225-0.87-3.289.1946.280 1995.060.175-3.00-3.401991.921.250-1.87-3.719.01612.007 1994.990.200-3.33-3.709.0416.1191991.781.275-1.79-3.879.02614.579 1994.920.225-3.32-4.128.94610.1581991.631.3009.0059.485 1994.840.2501991.491.325-0.42-3.699.16610.121 1994.770.275-2.64-4.301991.351.350-0.39-3.359.1818.448 1994.700.300-2.79-4.311991.211.375-0.20-3.229.28112.349 1994.630.325-2.76-4.621991.111.400-0.299.1437.301 1994.570.350-2.15-4.481991.021.425-2.02-3.45 1994.510.375-2.17-4.601990.921.450-1.12-3.37 1994.450.4008.7786.9501990.821.475-2.27-3.379.16211.629 1994.390.4258.8576.7421990.731.5009.17816.241 1994.340.450-2.07-4.548.8207.8771990.631.525-1.30-3.788.8999.193 1994.280.475-2.12-4.189.00615.4981990.341.5509.0068.888 1994.220.500-1.98-4.241990.041.5759.27413.933 1994.160.525-2.35-4.071990.001.600-0.86-3.239.02810.409 1994.100.550-2.47-3.961989.971.6259.1665.954 1994.040.5759.13910.9891989.931.6509.0525.829 1993.990.6009.07212.6941989.891.675-2.22-3.18 1993.940.625-3.70-3.401989.851.700 1993.890.6501989.821.725-1.14-3.189.0814.917 1993.840.6751989.781.7509.2379.564 1993.780.7001989.741.7759.2756.614 1993.730.725-3.07-4.011989.701.8009.2554.662 1993.680.7501989.671.8259.1544.833 1993.630.775-2.92-4.431989.631.8508.9727.274 1993.580.8008.8686.8101989.421.875-1.72-3.229.1235.042 1993.530.8258.9148.0891989.211.900-0.60-3.779.2394.567 1993.470.8508.9494.4531989.141.925-1.54-3.569.2267.884 1993.420.8759.0434.4951989.071.950-2.29-3.389.1957.229 1993.370.900-0.32-3.519.0244.1421988.991.975-2.69-3.5012.659 1993.320.925-0.74-3.529.1384.1731988.922.000-3.07-3.868.95910.881 1993.260.950-1.11-3.369.1474.2151988.852.025-3.31-3.898.93915.662 1993.210.975-0.99-3.909.2294.0161988.782.050-2.65-3.858.87112.468 1993.091.0009.1864.1261988.702.075-2.14-3.808.7896.957 1992.981.025-0.85-3.679.0894.2901988.632.1008.7455.774 1992.861.050-0.64-3.729.1744.2981988.552.125-1.49-4.028.7614.989

PAGE 141

Appendix E (Continued): BK31C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1988.462.1509.0007.2021984.463.250-0.77-3.878.9076.746 1988.382.175-0.44-3.509.1235.7781984.383.275-1.44-3.888.96625.525 1988.292.200-0.96-3.454.9961984.293.300-1.22-3.469.0859.693 1988.212.225-1.34-3.169.2356.2881984.213.325-1.89-3.549.10615.145 1988.112.250-2.43-3.449.0975.5841984.133.350-1.45-3.578.9447.370 1988.022.2759.0956.3701984.043.375-1.03-3.689.0238.683 1987.922.3009.1495.3241983.963.400-0.67-3.668.9626.366 1987.822.3258.9325.1711983.883.425-0.84-3.769.0096.979 1987.732.3508.9544.8941983.793.450-0.50-3.519.1025.030 1987.632.3758.8384.6911983.713.475-0.81-3.489.0789.207 1987.512.400-1.00-3.858.8764.6101983.633.500-0.90-3.658.9554.638 1987.382.425-1.24-3.828.8504.9311983.553.525-0.83-3.709.0114.199 1987.262.4508.9664.8361983.463.550-0.98-3.568.9494.247 1987.132.475-1.87-3.459.1985.1961983.383.575-0.77-3.609.0254.923 1987.032.500-2.33-3.399.0075.7931983.303.600-0.60-3.738.9974.603 1986.932.525-2.19-3.539.0596.5481983.213.625-0.81-3.649.0764.811 1986.832.550-1.89-3.698.9145.9701983.133.650-1.08-3.569.0954.880 1986.732.575-1.38-3.469.0745.8531983.033.675-1.04-3.589.0825.341 1986.632.600-2.13-3.898.8805.3281982.933.700-1.36-3.719.0684.651 1986.532.625-0.74-3.798.8945.2531982.833.725-1.63-4.069.0495.043 1986.422.650-0.70-3.899.0835.4251982.733.750-2.18-4.108.9949.074 1986.322.675-0.58-3.509.1574.7691982.633.775-1.53-4.468.8346.210 1986.212.700-0.45-3.479.2074.9791982.533.800-1.15-4.478.8505.505 1986.132.725-1.40-3.639.1384.9751982.433.825-0.44-4.098.9309.768 1986.042.750-1.91-3.429.0476.8511982.343.850-0.85-4.399.0297.846 1985.962.775-2.21-3.499.0918.3121982.243.875-0.84-4.108.9496.703 1985.882.800-1.63-3.519.13113.5241982.143.900-1.09-3.899.0926.682 1985.802.825-1.01-3.499.1428.9341982.043.925-1.11-3.589.1728.691 1985.712.850-1.65-3.968.9877.6171981.993.950-2.11-3.509.1558.814 1985.632.875-1.71-4.188.8985.6941981.943.975-2.48-3.519.12910.581 1985.552.900-0.98-4.089.1296.0191981.894.000-2.67-3.659.02022.114 1985.462.925-0.11-3.459.1075.5021981.844.025-3.23-4.068.98015.265 1985.382.950-0.53-3.559.0925.2961981.794.050-2.97-4.028.90515.093 1985.302.975-1.81-3.299.1214.9951981.744.075-3.22-4.278.92812.140 1985.213.000-3.05-3.489.0948.6891981.694.100-2.69-3.998.99914.050 1985.133.025-2.70-3.619.12915.9691981.644.125-2.85-4.338.99315.090 1985.063.050-2.71-3.799.11311.2511981.594.150-2.15-4.348.86323.208 1984.993.075-2.25-3.699.0977.9611981.544.175-1.10-4.058.84114.143 1984.923.100-1.26-3.619.0088.5721981.444.200-0.86-4.198.96310.089 1984.843.125-2.23-4.039.0279.4041981.344.225-1.05-4.228.8847.004 1984.773.150-1.58-4.038.9066.5391981.244.250-0.54-3.719.07511.563 1984.703.175-1.22-4.109.0148.2571981.144.275-0.37-3.549.1796.188 1984.633.200-1.80-4.238.6986.8621981.044.300-1.74-3.189.2506.923 1984.553.225-1.16-4.078.76114.4231980.974.325-2.66-3.369.16111.572

PAGE 142

Appendix E (Continued): BK31C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1980.904.3509.18210.5291977.205.450-0.89-3.579.0934.712 1980.834.375-3.30-4.109.07912.3321977.135.475-1.18-3.399.1145.355 1980.754.400-1.73-3.799.0189.1301977.065.500-2.01-3.539.0425.438 1980.684.425-1.73-4.248.8857.5151976.995.525-1.62-3.609.0354.656 1980.614.450-1.60-4.218.8287.0651976.925.550-2.19-3.749.0065.137 1980.544.475-1.34-4.248.8095.4471976.845.575-2.37-3.958.9564.831 1980.444.500-0.97-4.038.89812.2561976.775.600-2.18-4.058.8944.964 1980.344.525-0.63-3.758.97616.9771976.705.625-1.96-4.098.8695.737 1980.234.550-1.63-3.579.04312.7201976.635.650-1.62-4.138.8375.006 1980.134.575-2.37-3.079.1229.2911976.515.675-2.08-4.318.8486.758 1980.034.600-2.32-3.299.07717.1801976.385.700-2.10-4.298.8387.847 1979.934.625-2.78-3.499.02510.9151976.265.725-1.31-3.928.9247.410 1979.844.650-2.49-3.559.0277.4241976.135.750-0.69-3.729.1135.378 1979.744.675-2.05-3.738.8238.2691976.065.775-1.43-3.489.0874.826 1979.644.700-2.45-3.888.8168.6431976.005.800-2.30-3.569.0504.773 1979.544.725-1.90-4.048.8065.6631975.935.825-2.56-3.659.0155.474 1979.474.750-1.02-3.998.8195.3731975.875.850-3.04-3.778.9547.048 1979.404.775-0.77-3.988.8905.9381975.805.875-2.86-3.768.9287.154 1979.344.800-0.75-3.808.9607.8521975.745.900-2.60-3.799.0107.064 1979.274.825-0.58-3.739.0597.7501975.675.925-2.39-3.928.9347.676 1979.204.850-0.77-3.459.1078.0561975.615.950-2.11-4.198.8715.105 1979.134.875-1.41-3.209.19412.8651975.545.975-1.93-4.138.8595.606 1978.984.900-1.45-3.069.1629.0951975.356.000-2.24-4.198.8914.993 1978.844.925-2.09-3.359.1088.4681975.156.025-1.93-4.138.8654.564 1978.694.950-2.30-3.459.0566.8721974.966.050-0.29-3.339.1125.165 1978.544.975-2.13-3.838.9329.0321974.926.075-1.15-3.828.9284.659 1978.495.000-1.21-3.781974.886.100-0.76-3.669.0174.403 1978.445.025-0.97-3.709.0668.7201974.846.125-0.55-3.469.0314.326 1978.395.050-0.58-3.918.9615.9201974.806.150-1.22-3.599.0624.841 1978.345.075-0.51-3.799.0165.5761974.756.175-1.93-3.649.0655.151 1978.285.100-0.62-3.339.0144.4121974.716.200-1.72-3.809.0425.278 1978.235.125-1.09-4.089.0654.5241974.676.225-1.72-3.469.0354.968 1978.185.150-0.72-3.789.0905.4341974.636.250-2.21-4.078.7904.606 1978.135.175-0.84-3.659.1947.2841974.586.275-1.88-4.248.8405.277 1978.035.200-1.21-3.539.1489.2311974.536.300-1.44-4.038.8194.575 1977.935.225-1.71-3.459.08014.4031974.476.325-0.79-4.008.9714.551 1977.845.250-2.23-3.489.02014.5411974.426.350-0.64-4.008.8884.579 1977.745.275-1.91-3.628.99812.6531974.376.375-0.29-4.039.0504.193 1977.645.300-1.39-3.698.9889.3291974.326.400-0.51-3.679.0244.447 1977.545.325-1.49-4.048.9175.6331974.266.4259.1314.766 1977.475.350-0.70-3.958.9566.0761974.216.450-0.619.2384.701 1977.405.375-0.85-4.029.0125.1201974.096.475-0.40-3.369.0405.122 1977.345.400-0.69-3.879.0597.0761973.986.5009.0875.382 1977.275.425-0.39-3.639.0615.0311973.866.5259.1525.575

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Appendix E (Continued): BK31C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1973.756.550-1.70-3.908.8784.7121970.717.350-1.80-3.728.9607.460 1973.636.575-1.09-4.078.8614.4081970.427.375-2.37-3.659.0196.468 1973.576.600-0.74-4.238.8694.4401970.137.400-1.81-3.329.1335.737 1973.516.625-0.77-4.148.9294.3231970.057.425-2.98-3.769.0967.590 1973.446.650-0.45-4.268.9264.5701969.967.450-3.13-3.628.9386.448 1973.386.675-0.46-3.829.0224.4681969.887.475-3.12-3.788.9475.659 1973.326.700-0.88-3.649.0514.2671969.797.500-4.30-4.748.8606.523 1973.266.725-0.89-3.429.0995.1001969.717.525-3.55-3.998.9225.963 1973.196.750-2.05-3.659.0454.9361969.627.550-3.19-4.048.8385.466 1973.136.775-1.77-3.619.1434.8291969.547.575-2.54-4.248.7385.298 1973.036.800-2.51-4.168.8655.3991969.517.600-2.46-4.478.7405.009 1972.936.825-2.53-4.318.7615.2411969.497.625-1.29-4.298.7984.467 1972.836.850-1.20-3.828.7155.0141969.467.650-1.06-4.238.8164.526 1972.736.875-2.40-4.518.7505.3441969.437.675-1.47-4.358.8094.508 1972.636.900-2.55-4.728.6695.1681969.407.700-1.08-4.208.9254.594 1972.576.925-2.53-4.568.7566.7561969.387.725-0.82-3.948.9684.494 1972.516.950-2.33-4.408.8678.0511969.357.7508.9784.615 1972.456.975-2.14-4.038.95110.9291969.327.775-1.08-3.619.0144.333 1972.397.000-2.13-3.928.8546.6581969.297.800-1.37-3.238.9724.503 1972.337.025-2.23-3.718.9146.2031969.277.825-1.85-3.299.0674.651 1972.277.050-2.25-3.548.9595.4241969.247.850-2.18-3.43 1972.217.075-2.68-3.589.0035.1371969.217.875-0.26-2.98 1972.097.100-3.23-4.128.8335.2591969.117.9008.9235.164 1971.987.125-3.10-4.508.7575.0931969.027.925-2.32-3.73 1971.867.150-2.29-4.658.7404.8221968.927.950-1.91-3.919.0284.528 1971.757.175-1.62-4.688.7224.3501968.827.9750.47-3.418.9764.600 1971.637.200-1.92-4.648.7115.2641968.738.000-1.79-4.179.3393.493 1971.497.225-1.77-4.638.8197.0241968.638.025-1.57-3.558.7884.496 1971.357.250-1.93-4.418.9008.4451968.558.050-0.67-3.72 1971.217.275-0.56-3.479.1098.4031968.468.0758.8524.419 1971.047.300-1.61-4.158.9686.7421968.388.100-1.19-4.028.9364.901 1970.887.325-1.51-3.869.0356.8321968.308.125-1.22-3.819.0745.077

PAGE 144

Appendix F: Geochemical data for coral record BK35CC from Core 35 and initial age modeling prior to Analyseries recasting of data; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1995.710.000-1.36-4.169.1557.8691992.160.989-1.79-3.329.2624.584 1995.520.023-1.07-4.199.1215.3571992.111.012-1.95-3.429.2594.405 1995.320.046-1.03-4.289.2415.4101992.071.035-2.28-3.529.3134.529 1995.130.069-1.03-4.189.2575.5071992.021.058-2.42-3.709.2294.642 1994.630.092-1.25-4.119.0867.6801991.971.081-2.81-3.929.1895.159 1994.530.115-1.06-3.989.2347.9371991.921.1049.1955.485 1994.430.138-1.08-3.409.1337.7191991.871.127-2.97-4.099.1535.826 1994.340.161-1.70-3.299.2106.1921991.821.150-2.50-3.979.0564.430 1994.240.1840.32-3.219.2906.8001991.781.1739.1624.804 1994.140.207-1.17-3.199.2756.7701991.731.1969.1204.521 1994.040.230-1.92-3.449.3078.8831991.681.219-1.77-4.219.0764.628 1993.940.253-2.51-3.539.2495.4631991.631.242-0.93-4.179.0394.453 1993.840.276-2.50-4.079.1486.0711991.581.265-1.63-4.389.0534.556 1993.730.299-2.55-4.169.1765.9841991.541.288-0.20-3.839.1564.498 1993.630.322-2.94-4.419.0375.5161991.491.3119.2164.530 1993.590.345-1.43-4.079.2996.1211991.441.3349.1324.533 1993.550.368-1.25-4.251991.401.357-0.02-3.499.1784.390 1993.520.391-1.00-4.009.1135.4861991.351.380-0.64-3.66 1993.480.4140.54-3.139.1654.7891991.301.403-0.75-3.609.3514.211 1993.440.437-0.69-3.619.3136.3191991.261.426-0.57-3.849.4044.102 1993.400.460-1.40-4.119.2145.3191991.211.449-0.71-3.149.5374.088 1993.360.483-0.63-3.679.2337.9761991.161.472-0.49-3.689.3344.741 1993.320.506-0.56-3.379.3217.9541991.101.4959.5093.984 1993.290.529-0.61-3.029.3226.6091991.051.518-0.85-3.259.4234.124 1993.250.552-1.02-3.449.28511.2351991.001.541-1.37-3.309.4024.180 1993.210.575-2.28-3.389.3397.3611990.951.564-1.54-3.449.2254.300 1993.150.598-2.83-3.429.2136.1611990.891.587-0.80-3.509.2734.365 1993.090.621-2.15-3.539.2605.3941990.841.610-1.78-3.929.1504.477 1993.040.644-3.18-3.829.1754.9991990.791.633-1.56-4.009.1304.608 1992.980.6679.2134.7901990.741.656-1.90-4.289.0984.548 1992.920.690-3.90-4.389.1044.7951990.681.679-0.96-3.889.1284.507 1992.860.7139.0994.9241990.631.702-1.69-4.279.0434.700 1992.800.736-2.97-4.319.0334.9291990.551.725-1.94-4.459.1264.812 1992.750.759-2.71-4.429.0305.0401990.461.748-1.03-4.079.1424.734 1992.690.782-1.93-4.109.1196.4421990.381.771-1.16-4.049.2294.721 1992.630.805-1.01-4.019.0155.0261990.291.794-0.95-3.889.2304.736 1992.570.828-0.81-4.049.0814.9781990.211.817-0.51-3.409.2784.466 1992.510.851-1.46-4.069.0684.6591990.121.840-1.53-3.619.2754.533 1992.450.874-1.63-4.029.1334.7081990.041.863-0.89-3.409.3334.150 1992.390.897-1.00-3.319.2444.7011990.001.886-0.41-3.319.2774.288 1992.330.920-1.93-3.739.1414.9531989.961.909-1.05-3.539.2584.478 1992.270.943-1.63-3.729.2414.6381989.921.932-1.43-3.529.2885.388 1992.210.966-1.75-3.419.3104.4921989.881.955-1.68-3.809.2894.457

PAGE 145

Appendix F (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1989.841.978-0.55-3.369.2035.8371987.482.990-1.47-4.109.0874.986 1989.792.001-0.67-4.029.1047.6691987.433.013-1.47-3.609.1225.070 1989.752.0240.18-3.709.1078.1771987.383.036-0.43-3.279.1894.667 1989.712.047-0.40-3.929.1725.7051987.333.059-0.64-3.079.2064.973 1989.672.0700.02-4.149.0955.0181987.283.082-0.62-3.049.2484.799 1989.632.093-0.30-3.999.0535.2511987.233.105-0.94-3.029.2874.904 1989.572.116-0.04-3.629.2844.4791987.183.128-1.40-3.199.2815.606 1989.512.139-1.24-4.129.1864.9481987.133.151-1.76-3.309.2925.468 1989.452.162-0.94-3.979.2224.9681987.033.174-2.13-3.279.2195.973 1989.392.185-0.48-3.619.2524.8241986.933.197-2.09-3.829.1226.726 1989.332.208-0.33-3.309.3024.6421986.833.2209.0786.266 1989.272.231-0.48-3.319.3754.4271986.733.243-2.20-4.229.0405.779 1989.212.254-0.74-3.269.3904.2121986.633.266-2.22-4.528.94418.762 1989.152.277-1.05-3.419.3284.3281986.583.289-2.04-4.668.99413.572 1989.082.300-1.57-3.559.2694.3761986.533.312-1.63-4.518.95417.928 1989.022.323-2.10-3.509.2594.3861986.483.335-1.69-4.748.98623.024 1988.952.346-2.10-3.659.2394.4551986.433.358-2.29-4.78 1988.892.369-2.47-4.019.1544.6161986.383.381-1.44-4.779.07120.008 1988.822.392-2.24-4.019.0934.5121986.333.404-1.16-4.479.07517.003 1988.762.415-2.01-4.089.0685.0671986.283.427-0.65-3.969.18022.095 1988.692.438-1.98-4.279.0924.6051986.233.450-1.24-3.869.24612.091 1988.632.461-1.58-4.278.9944.5491986.183.473-1.51-3.609.23710.192 1988.592.484-2.77-4.409.0974.3841986.133.496-2.14-3.479.26310.424 1988.552.507-1.70-4.459.0914.4401986.063.519-2.97-3.629.20115.114 1988.502.530-1.93-4.519.0274.6241985.993.542-2.58-4.019.20718.963 1988.462.553-1.85-4.099.0634.8081985.923.565-2.64-4.179.13222.258 1988.422.576-1.64-4.209.1414.5101985.843.588-2.99-4.339.06723.247 1988.382.599-1.27-4.229.1204.5261985.773.611-2.43-4.589.05921.596 1988.342.6229.1474.5211985.703.634-2.14-4.459.01914.598 1988.292.6450.23-3.149.2004.4361985.633.657-2.09-4.548.9125.874 1988.252.668-1.18-3.471985.573.680-2.27-4.788.9696.518 1988.212.691-1.41-3.059.3094.1471985.523.703-2.76-4.948.96914.941 1988.152.714-1.66-3.159.2694.3751985.463.726-2.27-5.089.02415.998 1988.092.737-1.59-3.259.2754.4791985.413.749-1.82-4.699.04815.623 1988.042.760-2.24-3.389.2134.4201985.353.772-1.36-4.509.08112.971 1987.982.783-2.27-3.459.2214.3101985.303.7950.08-3.70 1987.922.806-3.06-3.899.1434.6791985.243.818-0.64-3.879.17312.834 1987.862.829-2.26-4.011985.193.841-0.52-3.589.21310.562 1987.802.852-1.52-3.871985.133.864-1.17-3.549.2897.581 1987.752.875-1.93-4.259.0154.6861985.073.887-2.02-3.489.2909.512 1987.692.898-0.93-4.148.9964.5441985.023.910-2.59-3.569.2628.842 1987.632.921-1.60-4.298.9904.7311984.963.933-2.93-3.859.24313.691 1987.582.944-2.05-4.349.0164.7251984.913.956-3.20-4.559.14619.771 1987.532.967-1.68-4.069.0364.7041984.853.979-3.40-4.619.08919.163

PAGE 146

Appendix F (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1984.804.002-1.86-4.499.10317.4191981.995.014-0.50-3.52 1984.744.025-1.76-4.369.03612.2541981.955.037-0.62-3.169.3583.946 1984.694.048-1.57-4.269.0047.8331981.905.0609.3333.931 1984.634.071-2.34-4.758.9886.2281981.865.083-1.72-3.329.3714.077 1984.584.094-2.41-4.658.9926.2581981.815.106-1.05-3.039.2754.150 1984.544.1178.9988.5711981.775.129-1.38-3.669.2924.203 1984.494.140-1.87-4.329.0266.0691981.725.152-1.26-3.809.3004.050 1984.444.163-1.38-4.051981.685.175-1.51-3.979.1334.278 1984.404.186-1.30-3.839.1106.2051981.635.198-0.89-4.039.2394.120 1984.354.209-0.79-3.779.2165.9951981.595.221-1.23-4.209.1004.309 1984.304.232-0.41-3.121981.545.244-0.54-4.079.0874.288 1984.264.255-0.67-3.369.3115.0101981.485.267-0.15-4.109.1844.258 1984.214.278-0.84-3.209.3435.2181981.435.290-0.60-4.069.2754.165 1984.114.301-0.88-3.579.2679.0971981.375.313-0.50-3.949.1774.140 1984.024.324-1.17-3.779.22111.2391981.325.336-0.47-3.779.2694.094 1983.924.347-1.51-4.099.1225.5901981.265.359-0.20-3.479.3073.962 1983.824.370-0.88-4.029.0945.6361981.215.382-0.27-3.739.2664.026 1983.734.393-1.15-4.219.1724.8441981.155.405-0.18-3.359.2913.988 1983.634.416-0.72-4.119.0665.4241981.105.428-0.31-3.419.3033.985 1983.574.439-0.96-4.059.1055.5861981.045.451-0.41-3.379.3393.933 1983.514.462-0.66-3.579.1215.6741980.965.474-0.62-3.349.3044.018 1983.444.485-1.29-4.129.1688.0661980.875.497-0.49-3.329.3403.956 1983.384.508-1.55-4.399.0987.2391980.795.520-0.95-3.529.2054.109 1983.324.531-0.94-4.069.0708.3551980.715.543-1.04-3.749.2074.051 1983.264.554-0.42-3.699.2876.3221980.625.566-0.82-3.809.1704.050 1983.194.577-0.94-3.869.2498.9891980.545.589-0.81-4.169.1004.049 1983.134.600-0.57-3.699.4784.4311980.495.612-0.62-4.109.1523.984 1983.094.623-0.47-3.469.4084.8721980.455.635-0.43-4.139.1054.082 1983.064.646-0.48-3.219.2994.7301980.405.658-0.35-4.129.1644.010 1983.024.669-0.33-2.999.4064.3881980.365.681-0.39-4.019.1144.035 1982.994.692-1.65-3.549.2864.9551980.315.704-0.16-3.519.1874.055 1982.954.715-1.77-3.429.2254.3711980.275.7270.01-3.409.3573.855 1982.924.738-1.80-3.639.1635.2081980.225.7509.2963.869 1982.884.761-1.91-4.119.1706.5721980.185.7730.21-2.859.3543.883 1982.844.7849.2615.8521980.135.796-0.45-3.419.4303.929 1982.814.807-1.05-3.919.1806.0421979.985.819-0.47-3.509.3024.091 1982.774.8309.1804.7021979.845.842-0.72-3.629.2244.197 1982.744.8539.1324.6301979.695.865-0.30-3.709.4143.962 1982.704.876-0.05-3.871979.545.888-0.03-3.729.1764.314 1982.674.8990.28-3.451979.465.9110.17-3.349.3804.069 1982.634.922-0.79-3.929.0084.5311979.385.934-0.07-3.599.3214.077 1982.434.945-0.77-4.139.1744.3271979.295.957-0.09-3.479.3403.936 1982.244.9680.53-2.809.3484.4281979.215.9800.63-3.039.4983.921 1982.044.991-0.16-3.159.4494.1791979.136.0030.12-3.049.6153.692

PAGE 147

Appendix F (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1979.016.0269.4973.8971975.427.038-0.95-3.839.19613.666 1978.896.049-0.59-3.429.3014.0571975.317.061-0.45-3.059.3039.257 1978.786.072-0.68-3.259.5653.9721975.197.084-0.86-3.429.5566.739 1978.666.095-0.37-3.509.3264.3631975.087.107-0.17-2.979.3867.188 1978.546.118-0.58-3.569.1874.3811974.967.130-0.67-2.899.6424.964 1978.506.141-0.68-3.839.2064.6271974.917.153-0.78-3.179.4627.881 1978.466.1640.02-3.549.1914.5721974.857.176-0.46-2.729.4288.937 1978.426.1870.25-3.589.2444.6591974.807.199-0.96-3.359.5235.405 1978.386.210-0.87-3.951974.747.222-0.769.2805.768 1978.346.2339.2314.2951974.697.245-0.79-3.419.4235.863 1978.296.2569.4064.2701974.637.268-0.82-3.769.2335.271 1978.256.279-0.88-3.209.3404.5161974.577.291-0.83-3.829.3245.868 1978.216.302-1.19-3.099.4344.5951974.517.314-0.40-3.669.2265.208 1978.176.325-1.28-3.039.4295.3121974.457.337-0.68-3.729.2885.169 1978.136.348-1.15-3.049.5104.3991974.397.3600.44-3.03 1977.986.371-1.46-3.129.2274.8801974.337.383-0.21-3.419.3844.743 1977.846.394-1.32-3.259.3575.1201974.277.4060.06-3.209.3644.504 1977.696.417-0.82-3.709.2354.8771974.217.429-0.17-3.109.5024.485 1977.546.440-2.749.0584.4921974.157.452-0.37-3.299.3884.454 1977.486.463-1.47-3.789.4733.9081974.087.475-1.10-3.059.3984.426 1977.426.486-2.06-4.049.1104.6261974.027.498-0.51-3.099.3974.224 1977.366.509-1.64-3.669.2064.3761973.957.521-0.56-3.489.4064.246 1977.316.5329.2124.4781973.897.544-0.15-3.529.3644.575 1977.256.555-1.47-3.079.3364.1541973.827.567-0.29-3.449.1964.548 1977.196.5789.4754.3401973.767.590-0.68-3.949.1644.671 1977.136.601-0.68-2.649.5133.8671973.697.613-0.37-3.719.2444.360 1977.076.624-1.54-2.969.4263.8501973.637.636-0.73-3.649.1484.328 1977.016.647-2.29-3.249.3434.2811973.467.659-0.41-3.479.3494.254 1976.946.670-0.909.4694.1991973.307.682-0.14-3.259.2824.230 1976.886.693-1.78-3.539.1974.4671973.137.705-0.07-3.069.5114.128 1976.826.716-1.95-3.769.1264.6321973.077.7280.07-2.949.4254.202 1976.766.7399.2284.5121973.027.751-0.30-3.189.5094.124 1976.696.762-1.42-3.989.1684.4121972.967.774-0.40-3.329.4704.267 1976.636.785-1.79-4.029.0994.3791972.917.797-0.53-3.099.3044.170 1976.466.808-1.98-4.009.1454.9741972.857.8209.3624.342 1976.306.831-0.61-3.359.3185.5951972.807.843-0.56-3.399.3534.319 1976.136.8540.344.2921972.747.866-0.71-3.479.3684.602 1976.056.8770.04-2.499.3875.8171972.697.8899.3644.565 1975.966.9009.4395.9091972.637.9129.2514.612 1975.886.923-0.88-3.309.4296.3011972.567.9359.4184.909 1975.796.946-1.07-3.279.2725.3861972.497.9580.43-3.21 1975.716.969-1.56-3.949.2276.3971972.427.9810.13-2.599.4895.017 1975.626.992-0.88-3.599.2786.5421972.358.0049.4544.616 1975.547.015-1.23-3.839.1295.7481972.288.0270.47-3.019.6114.319

PAGE 148

Appendix F (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1972.218.0500.17-3.179.6354.3961968.929.062 1971.638.073-1.79-3.429.3705.2571968.859.0859.15311.005 1971.568.096-0.02-2.699.4645.3201968.789.1089.08914.037 1971.498.119-0.47-2.939.4684.8061968.709.1319.2306.485 1971.428.142-0.799.4104.6361968.639.1549.0319.818 1971.358.165-2.84-3.799.4075.8041968.589.1779.1256.000 1971.288.188-1.21-3.229.3774.9621968.549.2009.0656.526 1971.218.211-0.64-3.179.5704.3471968.499.2239.2506.915 1971.138.234-0.97-3.879.2835.2051968.449.2469.1636.797 1971.048.257-1.21-3.789.3834.3841968.409.2699.3416.854 1970.968.2809.3134.9761968.359.2929.3125.325 1970.888.303-0.25-3.921968.309.315 1970.798.326-0.40-3.939.1964.7091968.269.3389.3445.284 1970.718.349-0.58-3.909.1975.3591968.219.3619.3714.712 1970.668.372-0.45-3.469.2675.3271968.149.3849.2804.648 1970.608.395-0.24-3.469.3944.6341968.079.4079.2404.885 1970.558.418-0.55-3.349.3864.5981967.999.430 1970.508.441-0.57-3.389.3025.2251967.929.4539.1864.455 1970.458.464-0.18-3.079.4355.1011967.859.4769.1064.720 1970.398.4879.3214.9401967.789.4999.1074.723 1970.348.510-1.02-3.449.2444.9941967.709.5229.0914.574 1970.298.533-0.13-2.829.3234.6451967.639.5459.0614.569 1970.248.5560.30-2.899.3874.7871967.579.5689.0914.644 1970.188.579-0.73-3.169.2915.4821967.529.5919.1744.894 1970.138.602-0.67-3.229.4354.5181967.469.6149.1154.878 1970.068.625-1.12-3.259.2814.8231967.419.6379.2974.705 1970.008.648-1.39-3.549.1096.7641967.359.6609.2195.069 1969.938.671-1.14-3.599.1845.9021967.309.6839.2474.784 1969.878.694-0.65-3.549.1984.8041967.249.7069.2874.507 1969.808.717-1.49-3.881967.199.7299.3204.514 1969.748.740-1.69-4.099.0375.0731967.139.7529.3224.563 1969.678.7639.0515.0271967.069.7759.3154.388 1969.618.786-1.22-4.169.0795.5381966.999.7989.3144.321 1969.548.809-1.38-4.209.0005.4951966.929.8219.2294.716 1969.498.8329.1976.3671966.849.8449.1614.617 1969.458.8559.1536.7121966.779.8679.1564.436 1969.408.878-1.55-3.711966.709.8909.1184.332 1969.358.901-0.68-3.381966.639.9139.0894.543 1969.308.9241966.539.9369.1044.649 1969.268.9471966.439.9599.1004.689 1969.218.9709.32611.3301966.339.9829.1834.486 1969.148.9931966.2310.0059.1854.834 1969.079.0161966.1310.0289.3334.562 1968.999.0399.25214.9421966.0810.0519.2764.378

PAGE 149

Appendix F (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1966.0410.0749.2554.5271964.0510.7649.26115.897 1965.9910.0979.2864.5221964.0110.787-1.42-3.60 1965.9510.1209.3054.4231963.9610.8109.27314.584 1965.9010.1439.3024.5181963.9210.8339.2339.183 1965.8610.1669.2804.6141963.8810.8569.20312.721 1965.8110.1899.2254.5671963.8410.8799.2209.283 1965.7710.2129.1694.6441963.8010.9029.1329.225 1965.7210.2359.1824.7531963.7610.9259.11511.636 1965.6810.2589.0904.8161963.7110.9489.0759.105 1965.6310.2819.0834.7761963.6710.9719.0898.472 1965.5610.3049.0834.8441963.6310.9949.03811.888 1965.4910.3271963.5711.0179.1369.725 1965.4210.3509.1255.2261963.5211.0409.07311.050 1965.3510.3739.3096.3981963.4611.0639.09211.573 1965.2810.3969.2746.5271963.4111.0869.23011.380 1965.2110.4199.3397.3521963.3511.1099.2259.325 1965.1510.4429.3059.4281963.3011.1329.22511.905 1965.0810.465-0.74-3.831963.2411.1559.23410.789 1965.0210.4889.2456.5371963.1911.178-2.24-3.54 1964.9510.5119.2494.8411963.1311.2019.2669.933 1964.8910.5349.1555.7531963.0511.2249.23111.130 1964.8210.5579.1167.5501962.9611.247-2.71-3.84 1964.7610.5809.1865.4051962.8811.2709.1887.569 1964.6910.6039.1377.4091962.8011.2939.1408.315 1964.6310.6269.08512.8431962.7111.316-2.15-4.13 1964.5110.6499.15311.2291962.6311.3399.0656.596 1964.3810.6729.17316.3911962.5511.362-1.04-4.54 1964.2610.6959.22515.9591962.4611.3859.0325.954 1964.1310.7189.4888.6811962.3811.4089.0356.478 1964.0910.7419.29711.7501962.3011.4319.0086.133 1962.2111.4549.1866.109

PAGE 150

Appendix G: Geochemical data for coral slab BK35C from Core 35 and initial age modeling prior to Analyseries recasting of data; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1995.710.000-0.77-4.029.2486.6391992.210.9899.4258.817 1995.130.023-2.35-4.189.4189.0721992.171.0129.3946.402 1995.030.046-1.43-3.969.2825.4031992.121.0359.3175.124 1994.930.069-0.63-3.559.0935.4351992.081.058-1.07-2.919.3114.768 1994.830.092-1.64-4.259.1126.3621992.031.081-1.84-3.269.2665.132 1994.730.115-1.13-3.579.1225.3611991.991.104-1.66-3.399.2685.136 1994.630.138-1.44-3.999.0384.8311991.941.127-1.76-3.349.2375.471 1994.510.161-1.49-3.989.1325.4351991.901.1509.1684.820 1994.390.184-2.07-3.979.1605.7511991.851.173-1.80-3.729.1485.199 1994.280.2079.2255.5461991.811.196-2.51-4.019.1834.632 1994.160.2309.2645.4421991.761.219-1.69-3.969.1764.474 1994.040.253-1.90-3.059.2805.9481991.721.242-1.84-3.679.1504.649 1993.980.2769.2526.6531991.671.265-1.61-3.839.1224.890 1993.920.2999.2506.9901991.631.288-0.25-3.849.0844.888 1993.860.3229.1945.9861991.601.311-0.49-3.819.2504.961 1993.810.345-2.83-4.119.1127.4481991.571.334-1.02-3.649.2424.776 1993.750.3689.2645.1411991.541.357-0.86-3.829.2804.790 1993.690.391-2.77-4.279.0846.4691991.511.380-0.24-3.469.2014.789 1993.630.414-4.05-4.559.0107.3841991.481.403-0.92-3.369.3574.496 1993.590.437-1.71-4.209.0406.2331991.451.4260.16-3.299.3524.373 1993.550.460-1.92-4.129.1366.7891991.421.4499.4244.290 1993.500.483-1.89-4.479.0918.0021991.391.472-0.69-3.539.2594.476 1993.460.506-1.92-4.269.0889.0181991.361.4959.3734.408 1993.420.529-0.75-3.559.2661991.331.518-1.24-3.109.4084.355 1993.380.552-0.02-3.519.1919.8711991.301.541-0.42-2.899.3784.423 1993.340.575-0.76-3.719.24710.2781991.271.564-0.79-3.079.3354.166 1993.290.598-1.18-3.859.2429.8831991.241.587-0.60-3.239.3254.448 1993.250.621-1.35-3.159.2547.2171991.211.610-0.41-3.489.5354.208 1993.210.644-1.58-3.039.3085.9471991.111.633-0.69-3.579.3354.139 1993.140.667-1.91-3.169.2686.7601991.021.656-0.83-3.469.2824.358 1993.070.690-4.01-3.129.2705.0201990.921.679-0.48-3.829.2924.303 1992.990.713-2.70-3.659.2544.7891990.821.702-0.26-3.779.2514.211 1992.920.7369.1635.0271990.731.725-0.10-3.709.2954.200 1992.850.759-2.39-3.699.1164.9821990.631.748-0.45-3.779.2184.368 1992.780.782-3.23-4.099.0585.0601990.511.7719.3524.332 1992.700.805-1.39-3.689.0724.8021990.391.794-0.61-3.559.3144.362 1992.630.828-1.53-4.179.0004.8211990.281.817-0.51-3.449.3694.146 1992.570.851-0.63-4.089.0315.1581990.161.840-0.56-3.199.3544.170 1992.510.874-0.93-3.919.0794.8721990.041.863-0.91-2.829.4074.163 1992.450.897-1.33-3.949.2014.7211990.001.886-1.38-3.379.2664.424 1992.390.9209.2035.4601989.961.909-0.83-3.309.3294.177 1992.330.943-1.74-3.199.2356.2271989.921.932-1.56-3.279.2594.428 1992.270.966-2.42-3.239.3315.2721989.881.955-1.14-3.289.2724.407

PAGE 151

Appendix G (Continued): BK35C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Estimated Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1989.841.978-1.90-3.619.2524.5871988.092.714-0.52-3.229.3374.610 1989.792.001-1.35-3.509.2494.5181988.042.737-0.62-2.969.3934.507 1989.752.024-1.95-3.999.2614.2871987.982.7609.3374.358 1989.712.047-0.46-3.909.1764.5181987.922.7839.3834.145 1989.672.070-1.65-4.139.2844.5651987.862.806-2.31-3.569.2924.516 1989.632.093-0.14-3.699.1174.6121987.802.8299.3204.296 1989.572.1160.38-3.679.1684.4611987.752.8529.3114.416 1989.512.139-1.05-4.079.2374.4451987.692.875-0.54-3.899.1964.688 1989.452.162-0.24-3.339.2244.5991987.632.898-0.19-3.699.1634.715 1989.392.1850.01-3.569.3574.3681987.592.921-1.11-3.919.2354.524 1989.332.2080.20-3.259.3744.2741987.552.944-0.03-3.539.1624.642 1989.272.231-0.03-3.059.3824.2941987.512.967-0.66-3.789.2144.793 1989.212.2540.19-2.899.4384.3021987.462.9909.3563.961 1989.162.277-0.28-3.309.4084.3621987.423.0139.2854.834 1989.102.300-0.80-2.689.3194.3841987.383.036-0.76-3.419.2924.629 1989.052.323-1.23-3.159.3154.3031987.343.059-0.69-3.319.3494.556 1989.002.346-1.28-3.879.3664.2131987.303.0829.3804.385 1988.952.369-0.32-3.049.3464.5521987.263.105-0.55-2.679.4474.475 1988.892.392-1.58-3.489.2644.4521987.213.128-0.30-2.719.4374.647 1988.842.415-0.54-3.229.2084.4021987.173.151-0.95-2.959.4224.963 1988.792.438-0.36-3.859.1764.6631987.133.174-0.49-2.599.4934.394 1988.742.461-0.57-3.749.1544.7541987.073.197-0.37-2.939.4924.532 1988.682.484-0.94-3.879.1484.8011987.013.220-0.399.4804.439 1988.632.507-1.21-3.949.0924.7171986.943.2439.4135.625 1988.572.5309.1775.1201986.883.2660.13-3.339.2914.644 1988.512.553-1.15-3.709.1455.5151986.823.2890.20-3.509.3684.802 1988.452.576-0.32-3.509.2495.2831986.763.3120.26-3.549.3214.838 1988.392.5990.01-3.159.3134.7651986.693.3350.66-3.019.3385.107 1988.332.622-0.11-3.289.3315.2111986.633.358-0.52-3.739.2475.172 1988.272.645-0.13-3.119.3384.7121986.463.3810.75-2.979.4006.286 1988.212.668-0.33-2.979.4434.6941986.303.4040.61-3.089.4475.184 1988.152.691-0.13-2.849.3824.5241986.133.427-0.42-3.489.5127.455

PAGE 152

Appendix H: Age modeled geochemical data based on the resampling of coral record BK31B for the time period 1971-1995; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1971.046.559-2.22-3.849.0944.6231974.635.451-1.77-4.028.9715.117 1971.136.530-2.17-3.729.1125.3041974.715.414-2.26-3.909.0575.894 1971.216.499-2.14-3.669.1505.4351974.795.377-1.99-3.679.1515.845 1971.296.456-2.18-3.589.1144.7951974.885.339-1.61-3.579.1885.348 1971.386.412-1.61-3.599.0884.6671974.965.303-0.92-3.449.1834.110 1971.466.367-0.97-3.899.0544.9751975.045.282-0.57-3.529.1394.022 1971.546.322-1.01-4.108.9974.1621975.135.264-0.73-3.689.0794.058 1971.636.281-1.20-3.938.9544.0471975.215.246-1.02-3.879.0374.112 1971.716.261-1.36-3.828.9634.1191975.295.229-0.84-3.999.0644.092 1971.796.247-1.45-3.799.0024.1551975.385.211-0.84-4.099.0564.141 1971.886.233-1.43-3.819.1074.0671975.465.193-1.00-4.168.9904.215 1971.966.218-1.36-3.769.1594.0321975.545.176-1.23-4.198.8824.288 1972.046.204-1.23-3.629.1444.0661975.635.168-1.30-4.118.8934.351 1972.136.190-0.98-3.509.1574.0361975.715.161-1.34-4.008.9224.412 1972.216.173-0.74-3.439.1633.9601975.795.154-1.39-3.908.9514.473 1972.296.141-0.76-3.589.1073.8421975.885.147-1.47-3.818.9964.471 1972.386.106-0.72-3.759.0744.2331975.965.140-1.58-3.739.0574.400 1972.466.072-1.05-3.908.9744.7621976.045.132-1.69-3.659.1184.328 1972.546.037-1.46-3.998.9746.0511976.135.123-1.60-3.529.1574.295 1972.636.004-1.69-3.978.9355.3361976.215.094-1.10-3.269.0144.595 1972.715.984-1.77-3.888.9895.3851976.295.060-2.12-3.528.9914.530 1972.795.968-1.58-3.779.0255.7961976.385.027-2.09-3.649.0824.301 1972.885.951-1.16-3.699.0065.9751976.464.994-1.26-4.078.9504.207 1972.965.934-1.17-3.709.0445.8601976.544.960-1.04-4.228.8584.497 1973.045.918-1.02-3.679.1206.5821976.634.926-1.03-4.098.8524.785 1973.135.901-0.61-3.569.2097.9701976.714.882-2.21-4.128.9176.163 1973.215.880-0.60-3.599.1425.8601976.794.836-2.34-3.519.0366.023 1973.295.860-0.61-3.699.0424.9051976.884.790-2.44-3.399.1138.242 1973.385.839-0.66-3.788.9675.4111976.964.744-2.03-3.039.1905.606 1973.465.818-0.98-3.958.9596.7421977.044.699-1.07-3.219.2725.600 1973.545.797-1.66-4.209.0027.7921977.134.655-0.55-3.269.3344.366 1973.635.776-2.17-4.118.9456.4231977.214.626-0.30-3.379.2783.961 1973.715.751-2.43-3.969.0286.8121977.294.601-1.12-3.769.2104.062 1973.795.726-2.58-3.809.0637.5931977.384.575-0.52-3.489.2214.062 1973.885.701-2.62-3.719.0016.5121977.464.550-0.88-3.719.1994.080 1973.965.676-2.08-3.608.9876.5891977.544.525-1.08-3.609.0964.250 1974.045.651-1.54-3.649.1315.9901977.634.503-1.20-3.409.1744.155 1974.135.626-1.36-3.649.1095.2201977.714.482-1.33-3.219.2664.250 1974.215.600-0.71-3.559.1665.8421977.794.461-1.30-3.189.3154.286 1974.295.571-0.94-3.928.9945.2821977.884.440-1.35-3.159.3274.207 1974.385.541-1.27-3.988.9235.4191977.964.419-1.51-3.039.3244.088 1974.465.511-1.11-3.998.9555.4751978.044.397-1.45-3.049.3263.999 1974.545.482-0.99-3.909.0285.1461978.134.377-1.11-3.179.3343.975

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Appendix H (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1978.214.361-0.97-3.399.2533.9581981.883.241-3.04-4.048.9364.612 1978.294.345-0.85-3.609.2133.9511981.963.220-2.18-3.609.0474.370 1978.384.330-0.67-3.789.2953.9681982.043.201-1.49-3.579.0554.386 1978.464.315-0.79-3.969.2394.0671982.133.189-1.14-3.629.0164.594 1978.544.298-1.01-4.119.1364.1831982.213.179-0.84-3.688.9704.824 1978.634.275-0.92-3.989.2154.1761982.293.168-0.82-3.838.9234.772 1978.714.250-0.81-3.779.3094.3071982.383.157-0.96-4.038.8744.563 1978.794.225-0.92-3.459.2864.2671982.463.147-1.09-4.198.8364.410 1978.884.201-1.46-3.599.2804.6291982.543.136-1.23-4.288.8214.372 1978.964.176-1.59-3.499.2764.6821982.633.125-1.38-4.338.8084.775 1979.044.151-1.56-3.319.2974.8481982.713.109-1.52-4.208.8158.559 1979.134.125-1.05-3.059.3536.5641982.793.093-1.79-4.058.8769.307 1979.214.087-0.81-3.179.3185.9291982.883.076-2.15-3.968.9915.756 1979.294.046-0.21-3.529.2806.6571982.963.059-1.93-3.869.0155.417 1979.384.005-0.16-3.609.2666.9171983.043.043-1.63-3.699.0276.368 1979.463.965-1.19-3.869.1197.3661983.133.026-1.40-3.519.0457.613 1979.543.927-2.34-4.019.0207.7021983.213.005-1.24-3.739.0175.290 1979.633.903-2.52-4.029.0119.3961983.292.985-1.22-4.088.9244.405 1979.713.882-2.39-3.869.03510.2271983.382.964-1.30-4.258.8484.509 1979.793.861-2.61-3.799.0608.5871983.462.943-1.44-4.258.8144.904 1979.883.840-2.62-3.619.1176.4891983.542.922-1.62-4.268.7946.835 1979.963.819-2.19-3.349.2025.5101983.632.902-1.68-4.268.79011.787 1980.043.797-1.79-3.289.2535.4791983.712.886-1.97-4.238.79310.210 1980.133.776-1.26-3.389.2716.4741983.792.872-2.25-4.208.8058.176 1980.213.751-1.07-3.669.2375.5341983.882.858-2.37-4.178.8429.003 1980.293.726-1.09-3.789.1295.0601983.962.843-2.44-4.128.8869.882 1980.383.700-1.86-4.268.9887.4001984.042.829-2.46-4.068.93510.524 1980.463.675-2.94-4.448.8595.9011984.132.815-2.61-3.928.9958.825 1980.543.648-3.10-4.438.7685.7461984.212.800-2.70-3.749.0406.201 1980.633.612-3.46-4.578.7917.3831984.292.781-1.97-3.548.9574.501 1980.713.574-3.48-4.688.8448.3391984.382.761-1.40-3.718.9414.090 1980.793.537-3.11-4.348.8587.0811984.462.741-1.11-3.918.9464.274 1980.883.499-3.50-4.088.9707.3381984.542.721-1.06-3.968.9284.477 1980.963.462-3.00-3.819.0295.5631984.632.701-1.14-4.018.9214.518 1981.043.427-2.10-3.489.1194.6081984.712.680-1.18-3.998.9574.991 1981.133.408-1.37-3.459.0924.5001984.792.660-1.23-3.868.9875.015 1981.213.391-1.22-3.689.0374.5131984.882.639-1.36-3.809.0004.740 1981.293.375-1.54-4.078.9694.5681984.962.618-1.51-3.739.0104.482 1981.383.358-1.64-4.378.8724.6401985.042.597-1.56-3.579.0364.335 1981.463.341-1.66-4.528.7944.8241985.132.577-1.30-3.659.0824.152 1981.543.324-1.69-4.538.7525.0701985.212.559-1.18-3.689.0804.378 1981.633.304-1.99-4.468.7945.0961985.292.543-1.14-3.709.0584.504 1981.713.283-2.45-4.408.8274.8841985.382.526-1.12-3.759.0274.410 1981.793.262-3.05-4.338.8564.7621985.462.509-0.97-3.779.0264.436

PAGE 154

Appendix H (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1985.542.493-0.91-3.848.9944.5071989.211.576-0.58-3.279.2525.739 1985.632.475-1.03-3.958.9294.5991989.291.565-0.86-3.489.1225.445 1985.712.448-1.38-3.908.9484.7371989.381.555-1.16-3.698.9635.096 1985.792.419-1.54-3.678.9445.3461989.461.545-1.50-3.848.8685.064 1985.882.391-1.91-3.598.9965.9861989.541.536-1.88-3.918.8485.403 1985.962.362-1.86-3.549.0375.2691989.631.524-2.16-3.928.8415.718 1986.042.333-1.59-3.509.0544.3911989.711.501-1.82-3.618.9266.051 1986.132.304-1.35-3.589.0734.0971989.791.476-2.28-3.769.0368.615 1986.212.277-1.15-3.739.1084.0521989.881.450-2.55-3.889.04315.095 1986.292.256-0.96-3.879.0154.2771989.961.425-3.12-3.859.01613.177 1986.382.236-1.16-3.949.0476.0341990.041.399-3.31-3.739.07210.763 1986.462.216-1.56-3.959.0866.2431990.131.371-3.20-3.719.0229.656 1986.542.196-2.00-3.959.0494.4821990.211.343-2.82-3.719.02614.080 1986.632.176-2.28-3.919.0064.5381990.291.315-2.38-3.839.02112.783 1986.712.159-1.30-3.549.0544.6051990.381.286-1.82-3.889.03710.535 1986.792.143-0.88-3.349.1224.6391990.461.258-1.61-4.028.9166.945 1986.882.126-1.47-3.419.1824.6431990.541.230-0.90-3.608.8869.268 1986.962.109-1.81-3.459.1844.5061990.631.203-1.58-3.808.8348.060 1987.042.093-1.76-3.439.2194.5281990.711.190-1.97-3.818.8578.082 1987.132.074-1.32-3.389.2874.7101990.791.179-2.17-3.728.9058.708 1987.212.044-0.81-3.509.1684.5781990.881.168-2.19-3.648.95011.217 1987.292.010-0.64-3.589.0694.8051990.961.158-2.09-3.588.99314.929 1987.381.977-1.55-4.068.9115.3041991.041.147-2.04-3.539.02516.016 1987.461.944-1.59-4.088.9045.3111991.131.136-2.09-3.509.03311.690 1987.541.910-2.15-4.108.8725.7471991.211.124-2.02-3.509.0397.524 1987.631.878-2.87-4.158.8236.3791991.291.106-1.24-3.599.0305.503 1987.711.858-2.59-4.048.8487.0881991.381.086-0.90-3.548.9854.824 1987.791.840-2.60-3.968.8849.6991991.461.066-0.95-3.618.9134.714 1987.881.822-2.89-3.928.92313.0021991.541.046-1.13-3.828.8414.870 1987.961.804-2.87-3.868.99213.3851991.631.027-1.26-3.818.8145.305 1988.041.786-2.68-3.769.03613.0291991.711.018-1.45-3.748.8275.441 1988.131.768-2.34-3.679.06212.0991991.791.011-1.65-3.668.8475.510 1988.211.751-1.84-3.669.07410.5631991.881.004-1.85-3.598.8675.578 1988.291.735-1.28-3.869.0539.0321991.960.997-2.01-3.568.9017.106 1988.381.721-0.89-4.049.0117.8061992.040.990-2.11-3.598.95210.338 1988.461.706-0.85-4.108.9387.2021992.130.982-2.22-3.619.00213.572 1988.541.691-0.87-4.008.8996.5661992.210.975-2.34-3.659.04316.180 1988.631.676-0.91-3.808.8895.8771992.290.965-2.57-3.789.02514.711 1988.711.661-0.86-3.588.9415.0271992.380.955-2.82-3.938.99712.506 1988.791.647-0.79-3.389.0084.3571992.460.945-2.95-4.048.95113.297 1988.881.633-0.72-3.229.0794.3061992.540.936-2.95-4.108.88617.591 1988.961.618-0.59-3.089.1334.6651992.630.924-2.92-4.158.83819.615 1989.041.604-0.41-2.999.1685.4401992.710.898-2.71-3.998.8987.129 1989.131.590-0.44-3.099.2195.7241992.790.869-2.71-3.948.8724.948

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Appendix H (Continued): BK31B; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1992.880.841-2.55-4.188.8414.8281994.290.432-1.57-4.008.9056.189 1992.960.812-1.96-4.028.8684.7311994.380.418-1.68-4.118.8346.587 1993.040.783-0.91-3.668.9604.3261994.460.404-1.99-4.208.7616.453 1993.130.754-0.63-3.338.9915.3121994.540.390-1.84-4.148.6935.812 1993.210.727-0.89-3.189.0994.7741994.630.374-1.54-4.058.6495.041 1993.290.710-0.60-3.328.9964.2831994.710.344-2.04-4.188.7125.418 1993.380.696-0.30-3.508.8934.0781994.790.310-2.08-3.968.8265.369 1993.460.681-0.23-3.648.8874.1791994.880.277-2.75-4.078.8216.151 1993.540.666-0.74-3.758.9074.3301994.960.244-2.01-3.418.9496.249 1993.630.649-1.59-3.808.9474.8711995.040.210-2.33-3.369.0966.144 1993.710.617-2.25-3.598.9946.9651995.130.178-2.16-3.299.1265.373 1993.790.581-2.87-3.339.0846.2141995.210.152-1.07-3.279.1155.153 1993.880.545-2.94-3.149.1067.0541995.290.127-1.14-3.399.1304.871 1993.960.510-1.86-3.199.1428.8981995.380.102-1.54-3.759.1265.186 1994.040.477-1.76-3.309.2147.1631995.460.077-1.66-3.809.0255.228 1994.130.461-1.71-3.619.1035.8791995.540.052-1.12-3.648.9165.170 1994.210.446-1.66-3.898.9755.3741995.630.026-0.56-3.528.9325.061 1995.710.001-0.83-3.819.2695.382

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Appendix I: Age modeled geochemical data from resampling of coral record BK31BB for the time period 1971-1995; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1971.046.206-3.09-4.378.7756.5841974.635.216-0.47-3.759.1654.010 1971.136.175-3.18-4.108.8866.9791974.715.191-0.97-3.889.1244.206 1971.216.143-2.79-3.768.9736.0731974.795.161-1.50-3.749.0734.815 1971.296.107-2.20-3.809.0485.5031974.885.131-1.99-3.579.0855.357 1971.386.066-1.23-3.919.0295.0831974.965.102-1.97-3.409.2155.994 1971.466.030-1.29-4.218.8674.9321975.045.079-2.04-3.469.2195.713 1971.545.993-1.81-4.438.8104.6301975.135.057-1.95-3.569.2244.604 1971.635.958-2.65-4.398.7665.1501975.215.036-1.69-3.679.1594.490 1971.715.933-2.92-4.228.7915.8511975.295.014-1.28-3.759.0764.450 1971.795.910-2.71-4.078.8716.9361975.384.993-0.86-3.809.0484.050 1971.885.887-2.57-3.998.9538.3031975.464.971-0.67-3.879.0444.086 1971.965.872-2.47-3.938.9948.4811975.544.949-0.81-4.018.9844.230 1972.045.865-2.30-3.829.0027.3021975.634.927-1.08-3.958.9984.764 1972.135.857-2.13-3.719.0106.1211975.714.905-1.60-3.989.0034.692 1972.215.848-1.88-3.629.0175.1491975.794.883-1.95-3.958.9804.823 1972.295.821-1.22-3.709.0075.4281975.884.860-2.07-3.789.0105.122 1972.385.791-0.84-3.758.9685.0961975.964.838-2.19-3.539.0946.085 1972.465.761-0.87-3.888.9065.3431976.044.815-2.25-3.329.1587.396 1972.545.718-1.20-3.998.8984.9021976.134.793-2.05-3.219.1827.123 1972.635.685-1.53-4.018.8964.9931976.214.768-1.77-3.209.1994.866 1972.715.663-1.89-3.938.9565.3791976.294.733-1.48-3.389.2054.411 1972.795.641-2.12-3.878.9975.5211976.384.706-1.05-3.559.1714.373 1972.885.618-1.97-3.778.9785.2711976.464.682-0.91-3.759.1034.281 1972.965.596-2.02-3.639.0175.2901976.544.657-0.88-3.939.0334.207 1973.045.574-2.12-3.609.0375.0091976.634.623-0.74-3.789.0274.684 1973.135.551-1.53-3.559.1024.8311976.714.590-1.27-3.838.9485.667 1973.215.530-1.15-3.719.0765.0711976.794.563-1.59-3.569.0904.488 1973.295.510-1.09-3.869.0154.8721976.884.537-1.91-3.369.1884.790 1973.385.489-0.96-3.909.0274.6661976.964.511-1.59-3.079.2744.956 1973.465.468-0.94-3.979.0334.7001977.044.483-1.44-3.039.2574.795 1973.545.447-1.19-4.138.9574.8741977.134.454-1.09-3.329.2454.995 1973.635.424-0.90-3.899.0385.1381977.214.425-0.66-3.629.2374.575 1973.715.401-1.13-3.819.0645.0591977.294.401-0.69-3.939.0514.220 1973.795.378-1.10-3.759.1375.0511977.384.375-0.72-3.949.0854.103 1973.885.355-1.70-3.789.2215.0471977.464.350-1.14-4.079.0704.117 1973.965.340-1.65-3.649.2065.6841977.544.329-1.37-4.019.0164.371 1974.045.326-1.31-3.459.1586.5481977.634.307-1.90-3.919.0014.624 1974.135.313-1.10-3.369.1457.3981977.714.285-2.31-3.779.0474.922 1974.215.300-0.92-3.329.1437.8521977.794.263-2.55-3.639.0925.554 1974.295.286-0.81-3.409.1555.7621977.884.241-2.47-3.489.1295.567 1974.385.271-0.71-3.509.1414.0121977.964.219-2.01-3.319.1974.532 1974.465.256-0.57-3.619.0634.0161978.044.198-1.52-3.269.2774.097 1974.545.237-0.38-3.659.1044.0091978.134.177-0.86-3.439.2823.888

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Appendix I (Continued): BK31BB; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1978.214.161-0.55-3.549.1963.9171981.883.212-2.44-3.709.1257.767 1978.294.145-0.41-3.659.0993.9951981.963.197-2.36-3.629.1387.598 1978.384.130-0.46-3.819.0154.0781982.043.185-2.02-3.629.1589.074 1978.464.115-0.67-4.028.9674.1371982.133.172-1.66-3.639.1779.754 1978.544.099-0.96-4.218.9534.2001982.213.160-1.31-3.669.1958.042 1978.634.078-1.19-4.189.0084.4251982.293.146-1.09-3.699.1946.594 1978.714.057-1.92-4.209.0345.4941982.383.129-1.19-3.709.1456.255 1978.794.036-2.30-4.139.0336.0721982.463.111-1.14-3.779.1486.733 1978.884.015-2.36-3.989.0596.2991982.543.094-1.06-3.839.1287.092 1978.963.994-2.40-3.819.1096.9451982.633.077-1.02-3.849.0516.855 1979.043.972-2.36-3.629.1527.6921982.713.071-0.97-3.809.0516.849 1979.133.950-1.76-3.429.2646.5841982.793.067-0.92-3.749.0686.892 1979.213.917-0.66-3.459.3297.6401982.883.063-0.87-3.699.0856.936 1979.293.887-0.59-3.719.2617.5331982.963.059-0.83-3.649.1026.980 1979.383.862-0.49-3.829.1467.7001983.043.054-0.78-3.589.1197.023 1979.463.837-0.27-3.789.1316.2711983.133.049-0.73-3.559.1377.180 1979.543.812-0.39-3.749.1115.5231983.213.035-0.69-3.689.1648.204 1979.633.781-1.15-3.959.1936.3841983.293.020-0.75-3.809.1968.373 1979.713.753-1.47-3.619.2128.1571983.383.004-0.99-3.869.2316.729 1979.793.726-1.68-3.809.1709.3381983.462.988-1.24-3.939.1606.353 1979.883.700-1.92-3.629.1215.9061983.542.972-1.46-3.959.0956.412 1979.963.673-1.53-3.239.2474.8891983.632.954-1.61-3.849.1976.284 1980.043.646-1.19-3.139.3564.9801983.712.935-1.47-3.749.1649.868 1980.133.619-0.94-3.199.3984.6891983.792.917-1.48-3.679.17311.921 1980.213.597-0.88-3.529.2824.0651983.882.898-1.83-3.659.24411.432 1980.293.576-0.87-3.679.1384.1231983.962.880-2.32-3.829.10014.426 1980.383.554-0.90-3.819.1534.2301984.042.861-2.34-3.819.08411.316 1980.463.533-1.00-3.919.1234.4181984.132.842-2.29-3.669.1198.047 1980.543.511-1.15-3.919.0554.6781984.212.824-2.38-3.479.1667.972 1980.633.492-1.82-4.089.0485.2201984.292.805-2.37-3.339.3076.998 1980.713.475-2.82-4.379.1035.8311984.382.786-1.71-3.549.2458.294 1980.793.462-2.51-4.039.0995.2551984.462.766-1.00-3.709.2138.039 1980.883.450-2.09-3.639.0964.5721984.542.746-0.87-3.809.2275.558 1980.963.437-2.20-3.429.1464.3081984.632.725-1.47-4.238.9705.444 1981.043.423-2.27-3.289.2034.2471984.712.698-1.70-4.198.9175.543 1981.133.401-1.59-3.429.2394.7911984.792.672-2.30-4.148.9378.633 1981.213.375-0.90-3.619.1944.4851984.882.647-2.21-3.958.9998.513 1981.293.350-0.94-3.889.1404.6691984.962.622-1.86-3.749.0774.736 1981.383.325-1.13-4.039.0314.2341985.042.600-1.36-3.629.1294.086 1981.463.300-1.26-4.019.0334.2151985.132.588-1.24-3.759.0894.143 1981.543.276-1.86-4.168.9964.4011985.212.578-1.16-3.909.0434.231 1981.633.259-1.99-4.169.0524.5351985.292.567-1.09-3.999.0144.230 1981.713.243-2.13-4.049.1005.6101985.382.557-1.01-4.058.9924.192 1981.793.228-2.37-3.849.1137.8151985.462.546-1.01-4.108.9554.194

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Appendix I (Continued): BK31BB; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1985.542.536-1.13-4.138.8904.2681989.211.600-0.92-3.728.9954.565 1985.632.523-1.28-4.138.8334.3441989.291.585-1.25-3.948.9024.513 1985.712.494-1.72-3.948.8624.5681989.381.570-1.60-4.128.8704.560 1985.792.461-2.26-3.818.9435.1751989.461.555-2.01-4.238.9324.647 1985.882.428-2.36-3.669.0145.2381989.541.541-2.34-4.358.9054.834 1985.962.395-2.35-3.569.1174.8311989.631.513-2.74-4.428.8665.513 1986.042.361-1.64-3.439.2204.2811989.711.396-2.66-3.869.0448.786 1986.132.339-1.28-3.559.0754.2101989.791.365-2.15-3.909.0699.780 1986.212.325-1.09-3.749.0314.2361989.881.354-1.95-4.029.06013.249 1986.292.310-1.14-3.868.9964.2271989.961.343-1.81-4.099.05413.942 1986.382.295-1.25-3.968.9724.2461990.041.332-1.71-4.149.04913.006 1986.462.280-1.42-4.008.9694.3241990.131.321-1.69-4.229.01711.399 1986.542.266-1.71-4.108.9604.3141990.211.311-1.82-4.348.9338.553 1986.632.247-2.21-4.148.9574.4281990.291.300-1.97-4.468.8626.019 1986.712.203-2.91-3.799.0715.1471990.381.289-2.11-4.498.8665.352 1986.792.170-2.54-3.379.2025.2041990.461.278-2.24-4.508.8814.975 1986.882.159-2.56-3.439.1895.3001990.541.259-2.34-4.438.8624.742 1986.962.148-2.46-3.469.1935.9161990.631.236-2.66-4.288.8295.405 1987.042.137-2.03-3.429.2488.0911990.711.219-2.91-4.098.8426.279 1987.132.124-1.59-3.409.2919.6891990.791.208-2.94-3.878.9016.801 1987.212.094-1.10-3.539.2086.6151990.881.196-2.84-3.728.9617.419 1987.292.060-0.75-3.769.0815.6091990.961.185-2.50-3.699.0208.216 1987.382.029-1.63-4.188.9545.3611991.041.173-2.16-3.679.0698.489 1987.462.012-1.78-4.248.8705.6331991.131.162-1.78-3.669.0836.962 1987.541.997-1.81-4.248.8296.1921991.211.150-1.42-3.679.0895.417 1987.631.976-2.31-4.278.8996.7231991.291.137-1.17-3.759.0534.725 1987.711.955-2.85-4.158.9756.0571991.381.124-0.98-3.869.0044.297 1987.791.933-2.73-3.839.0156.3091991.461.111-0.96-3.988.9334.335 1987.881.912-2.91-3.818.9646.1181991.541.099-0.96-4.078.8744.403 1987.961.890-2.87-3.748.9696.3081991.631.094-0.98-4.038.8604.407 1988.041.869-2.45-3.479.0736.8391991.711.088-1.01-3.998.8494.407 1988.131.847-2.70-3.469.1256.0891991.791.083-1.04-3.958.8384.406 1988.211.821-2.65-3.509.1496.1511991.881.078-1.06-3.918.8274.406 1988.291.773-1.33-3.759.1836.2471991.961.072-1.12-3.898.8314.549 1988.381.752-0.98-4.049.0835.6391992.041.066-1.22-3.908.8534.861 1988.461.732-0.80-4.188.9907.6871992.131.061-1.31-3.908.8755.173 1988.541.716-1.00-3.978.9747.2821992.211.055-1.41-3.918.8975.485 1988.631.702-1.38-3.599.0105.0881992.291.049-1.52-3.928.9036.502 1988.711.687-1.57-3.509.1164.9291992.381.043-1.64-3.958.8669.560 1988.791.673-1.63-3.479.2175.1531992.461.037-1.77-3.998.82512.747 1988.881.658-1.49-3.399.2454.9911992.541.031-1.90-4.038.78515.934 1988.961.644-1.13-3.299.2635.0691992.631.024-2.07-4.068.76119.072 1989.041.629-0.53-3.199.2725.4561992.711.002-2.39-4.048.86620.127 1989.131.614-0.58-3.409.1565.1261992.790.978-1.72-3.988.9938.939

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Appendix I (Continued): BK31BB; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1992.880.959-1.32-4.088.9197.1771994.290.480-1.49-4.318.9777.324 1992.960.933-0.92-4.058.9136.5311994.380.467-1.63-4.458.9107.449 1993.040.898-1.05-3.908.9734.3391994.460.454-1.92-4.598.8407.491 1993.130.862-1.26-3.789.0284.0791994.540.436-2.20-4.608.7596.581 1993.210.827-1.46-3.589.0694.1491994.630.417-2.42-4.618.7116.035 1993.290.800-1.36-3.729.0604.1001994.710.394-2.62-4.728.7346.680 1993.380.781-1.35-4.158.9334.1641994.790.363-3.13-4.758.8657.642 1993.460.763-1.48-4.428.8054.2811994.880.336-2.17-4.298.9568.068 1993.540.744-1.89-4.558.7224.6461994.960.308-2.71-4.278.90610.042 1993.630.723-2.87-4.608.7315.7621995.040.281-3.63-4.258.9368.488 1993.710.675-3.91-4.228.8859.3561995.130.254-3.36-3.899.1026.941 1993.790.621-3.78-3.639.0148.0561995.210.220-2.61-3.609.1466.158 1993.880.573-3.18-3.519.0976.8841995.290.160-1.50-4.008.9754.644 1993.960.541-2.90-3.749.1166.9261995.380.108-1.97-4.528.8164.627 1994.040.519-2.13-3.999.1317.1321995.460.092-1.97-4.518.7654.625 1994.130.506-1.78-4.109.0917.0431995.540.084-1.77-4.468.7804.622 1994.210.493-1.57-4.219.0397.1151995.630.071-1.54-4.408.8354.802 1995.710.026-1.56-4.419.0655.499

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Appendix J: Age modeled geochemical data from resampling of coral record BK31C for the time period 1971-1995; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1971.047.135-2.77-4.568.7514.9821974.635.971-1.98-4.148.8635.477 1971.137.107-3.17-4.228.8165.2021974.715.935-2.28-4.038.9136.457 1971.217.077-2.73-3.708.9595.2081974.795.882-2.78-3.788.9627.120 1971.297.034-2.24-3.658.9305.9091974.885.829-2.67-3.679.0005.880 1971.386.996-2.15-3.938.8897.8361974.965.779-1.59-3.539.0794.874 1971.466.957-2.28-4.278.8909.0081975.045.752-0.83-3.709.0995.397 1971.546.919-2.52-4.608.7386.3571975.135.738-0.98-3.829.0226.350 1971.636.890-2.49-4.638.7035.2411975.215.725-1.31-3.928.9327.290 1971.716.869-2.08-4.338.7395.2541975.295.713-1.70-4.108.8827.625 1971.796.848-1.48-3.948.7245.0701975.385.700-2.05-4.278.8447.752 1971.886.827-2.32-4.228.7615.2161975.465.687-2.09-4.308.8437.299 1971.966.806-2.51-4.208.8405.3481975.545.674-2.05-4.308.8476.671 1972.046.786-2.09-3.849.0235.0741975.635.659-1.78-4.198.8415.617 1972.136.759-1.90-3.639.0854.9001975.715.637-1.79-4.118.8535.376 1972.216.726-1.10-3.499.0834.9591975.795.609-2.10-4.068.8855.263 1972.296.697-0.79-3.669.0484.3821975.885.581-2.31-3.978.9404.883 1972.386.668-0.47-3.968.9924.4941975.965.554-2.18-3.788.9975.032 1972.466.639-0.60-4.208.9284.4571976.045.526-1.75-3.619.0314.830 1972.546.610-0.76-4.198.8944.3921976.135.498-1.81-3.519.0555.347 1972.636.580-1.03-4.108.8644.4291976.215.471-1.16-3.449.1065.224 1972.716.560-1.45-3.978.8714.5851976.295.449-0.85-3.579.0904.811 1972.796.544-1.58-3.868.9504.9371976.385.426-0.48-3.649.0665.163 1972.886.527-1.30-3.739.1155.4601976.465.404-0.64-3.839.0586.563 1972.966.510-1.00-3.619.1135.4581976.545.382-0.80-3.989.0245.717 1973.046.493-0.71-3.499.0745.3081976.635.349-0.89-3.988.9575.822 1973.136.476-0.46-3.409.0625.1141976.715.315-1.44-3.908.9467.118 1973.216.454-0.56-3.499.1864.7991976.795.289-1.62-3.668.99210.808 1973.296.412-0.52-3.659.0844.5861976.885.263-2.07-3.559.00913.595 1973.386.364-0.47-3.998.9774.3901976.965.236-1.94-3.479.05314.457 1973.466.316-1.06-4.028.8994.5811977.045.217-1.55-3.489.10212.776 1973.546.276-1.85-4.208.8345.1431977.135.203-1.28-3.529.13810.004 1973.636.265-2.01-4.178.8205.0141977.215.190-1.06-3.589.1678.439 1973.716.257-2.13-4.128.8034.7821977.295.175-0.86-3.659.1817.302 1973.796.247-2.15-4.008.8204.6581977.385.151-0.78-3.799.1045.618 1973.886.236-1.94-3.748.9234.8031977.465.128-1.04-4.039.0674.639 1973.966.225-1.75-3.529.0204.9611977.545.121-1.02-3.979.0584.508 1974.046.213-1.72-3.629.0385.1181977.635.118-0.95-3.869.0504.492 1974.136.189-1.70-3.719.0495.1691977.715.114-0.89-3.759.0434.475 1974.216.094-0.75-3.589.0244.6491977.795.110-0.82-3.649.0354.459 1974.296.036-1.21-3.788.9734.8281977.885.107-0.75-3.549.0284.442 1974.386.013-2.08-4.168.8784.7771977.965.103-0.68-3.439.0214.426 1974.465.995-2.18-4.188.8855.1121978.045.099-0.62-3.379.0154.486 1974.545.985-2.05-4.168.8715.3701978.135.091-0.58-3.509.0154.839

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Appendix J (Continued): BK31C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1978.215.083-0.55-3.659.0155.2211981.884.005-2.82-3.769.01819.015 1978.295.074-0.52-3.799.0135.5591981.963.969-2.38-3.529.12810.998 1978.385.066-0.54-3.848.9975.6971982.043.934-1.49-3.569.1638.687 1978.465.058-0.56-3.888.9795.8091982.133.911-1.10-3.759.1277.559 1978.545.048-0.62-3.898.9746.1881982.213.893-1.02-3.959.0506.695 1978.635.031-0.87-3.759.0388.0091982.293.874-0.86-4.128.9696.822 1978.715.013-1.09-3.749.0328.7981982.383.856-0.84-4.329.0087.580 1978.794.994-1.44-3.798.9838.9131982.463.838-0.65-4.248.9808.791 1978.884.975-2.05-3.798.9528.7761982.543.819-0.61-4.188.9128.728 1978.964.951-2.25-3.509.0437.3491982.633.801-1.10-4.428.8586.057 1979.044.926-2.06-3.349.1068.2941982.713.778-1.50-4.448.8466.245 1979.134.902-1.55-3.119.1569.2241982.793.755-2.00-4.198.9568.237 1979.214.885-1.43-3.149.18111.2911982.883.733-1.80-4.079.0316.326 1979.294.864-1.12-3.319.15410.6531982.963.710-1.47-3.859.0604.809 1979.384.831-0.65-3.659.0667.8491983.043.687-1.20-3.649.0755.004 1979.464.797-0.74-3.838.9567.4051983.133.664-1.06-3.579.0885.145 1979.544.764-0.89-3.988.8585.7131983.213.640-0.97-3.599.0874.855 1979.634.730-1.68-4.018.8105.7971983.293.613-0.70-3.689.0374.708 1979.714.698-2.30-3.878.8168.1921983.383.586-0.69-3.669.0124.777 1979.794.667-2.23-3.668.8997.9661983.463.561-0.89-3.588.9824.543 1979.884.635-2.65-3.519.0279.6211983.543.535-0.89-3.648.9844.221 1979.964.603-2.43-3.329.07014.9491983.633.510-0.87-3.678.9784.484 1980.044.574-2.27-3.169.10810.4541983.713.485-0.84-3.559.0307.377 1980.134.556-1.82-3.449.06311.8521983.793.459-0.62-3.509.0926.634 1980.214.540-1.22-3.649.01514.4731983.883.434-0.71-3.679.0426.259 1980.294.523-0.72-3.778.97016.1711983.963.408-0.74-3.698.9806.615 1980.384.506-0.88-3.958.91813.4581984.043.383-0.92-3.679.0017.876 1980.464.490-1.12-4.118.8619.4691984.133.358-1.32-3.618.9737.955 1980.544.472-1.37-4.228.8176.0771984.213.332-1.73-3.559.05512.585 1980.634.448-1.59-4.218.8356.9891984.293.307-1.43-3.499.08811.765 1980.714.424-1.71-4.168.9017.7391984.383.281-1.36-3.768.99720.371 1980.794.393-2.24-3.919.03110.0891984.463.254-0.95-3.888.91211.649 1980.884.362-3.12-3.909.13211.3911984.543.228-1.13-4.048.78512.294 1980.964.331-2.70-3.459.17310.9731984.633.202-1.65-4.198.7348.229 1981.044.301-1.70-3.259.2287.5011984.713.180-1.37-4.138.9357.880 1981.134.277-0.59-3.509.1816.7511984.793.160-1.44-4.068.9487.200 1981.214.254-0.54-3.709.08610.2451984.883.139-1.87-4.038.9617.828 1981.294.231-0.92-4.098.9368.2741984.963.118-1.94-3.919.0209.129 1981.384.208-0.92-4.208.9369.1281985.043.100-1.37-3.649.0148.583 1981.464.185-1.01-4.118.89012.5561985.133.092-1.58-3.649.0368.379 1981.544.150-2.06-4.288.88319.7131985.213.085-1.85-3.669.0618.209 1981.634.113-2.77-4.178.99214.7471985.293.078-2.12-3.689.0868.040 1981.714.077-3.06-4.178.94112.9821985.383.071-2.32-3.719.1008.454 1981.794.041-3.08-4.058.93615.0311985.463.064-2.44-3.749.1049.368

PAGE 162

Appendix J (Continued): BK31C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1985.543.057-2.57-3.769.10910.2821989.212.200-0.94-3.439.1785.145 1985.633.048-2.69-3.779.11411.6031989.292.185-0.65-3.489.1455.469 1985.713.025-2.74-3.629.12314.4641989.382.170-0.55-3.559.0986.061 1985.793.001-2.89-3.489.1029.3971989.462.155-0.85-3.709.0266.876 1985.882.978-1.96-3.349.1155.6971989.542.141-1.16-3.868.9106.373 1985.962.955-0.81-3.499.0995.2341989.632.125-1.47-3.988.7815.264 1986.042.932-0.24-3.499.1035.4481989.712.103-1.79-3.928.7515.705 1986.132.919-0.32-3.609.1125.6261989.792.077-2.13-3.838.7897.273 1986.212.911-0.61-3.819.1205.7991989.882.050-2.66-3.858.86912.103 1986.292.902-0.89-4.029.1255.9651989.962.024-3.20-3.888.93514.538 1986.382.895-1.12-4.109.0855.9571990.041.997-3.01-3.798.98111.617 1986.462.889-1.31-4.129.0245.8711990.131.970-2.61-3.499.10011.203 1986.542.882-1.51-4.158.9635.7851990.211.947-2.18-3.419.1967.514 1986.632.873-1.67-4.158.9195.9561990.291.932-1.76-3.519.2177.691 1986.712.844-1.45-3.839.0307.9121990.381.918-1.29-3.629.2296.984 1986.792.810-1.37-3.509.13411.3991990.461.902-0.86-3.699.2275.192 1986.882.777-2.05-3.489.0949.2131990.541.735-1.36-3.239.1267.548 1986.962.744-1.77-3.499.0786.3491990.631.534-1.26-3.668.9769.920 1987.042.716-1.07-3.579.1614.9801990.711.505-1.70-3.619.11514.510 1987.132.698-0.51-3.489.1974.9501990.791.483-2.10-3.449.16713.160 1987.212.682-0.55-3.499.1714.8281990.881.462-1.65-3.379.15910.858 1987.292.666-0.62-3.639.1324.9941990.961.440-1.47-3.409.1539.614 1987.382.651-0.69-3.859.0795.3521991.041.419-1.53-3.429.1488.370 1987.462.636-0.72-3.848.9795.3311991.131.397-0.37-3.329.1688.273 1987.542.622-0.95-3.818.8965.2681991.211.375-0.23-3.259.25211.281 1987.632.607-1.74-3.868.8845.3071991.291.349-0.37-3.399.1909.146 1987.712.592-1.90-3.768.9415.4921991.381.322-0.55-3.689.1369.858 1987.792.577-1.49-3.529.0445.7961991.461.296-1.21-3.809.01910.701 1987.882.562-1.65-3.588.9885.9161991.541.274-1.76-3.859.02414.077 1987.962.546-1.93-3.668.9426.0661991.631.262-1.83-3.799.02113.277 1988.042.531-2.12-3.579.0246.4061991.711.252-1.84-3.729.02112.119 1988.132.516-2.25-3.489.0396.2651991.791.241-1.52-3.569.07810.002 1988.212.498-2.25-3.429.0425.7581991.881.231-1.10-3.389.1547.585 1988.292.467-1.78-3.519.1135.0961991.961.220-0.85-3.319.2125.949 1988.382.439-1.42-3.718.9164.8811992.041.208-0.79-3.399.2495.224 1988.462.411-1.11-3.838.8644.7511992.131.196-0.73-3.479.2724.766 1988.542.387-1.15-3.818.8564.6511992.211.180-0.67-3.559.2594.894 1988.632.364-1.39-3.748.8874.7771992.291.164-0.61-3.649.2324.601 1988.712.338-1.63-3.678.9445.0261992.381.148-0.56-3.739.2044.358 1988.792.312-1.87-3.609.0475.2541992.461.133-0.51-3.829.1995.213 1988.882.285-2.11-3.539.1175.9291992.541.117-0.55-3.949.1665.274 1988.962.259-2.33-3.469.0985.8831992.631.098-0.63-4.029.1174.543 1989.042.233-1.68-3.259.1906.0431992.711.059-0.59-3.739.1504.278 1989.132.214-1.18-3.289.2115.7391992.791.020-0.85-3.709.1234.245

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Appendix J (Continued): BK31C; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1992.880.991-0.94-3.839.2014.0851994.290.450-2.08-4.488.8578.967 1992.960.972-1.00-3.839.2184.0421994.380.417-2.11-4.568.8286.868 1993.040.965-1.04-3.689.1944.0991994.460.385-2.15-4.598.7967.285 1993.130.957-1.07-3.529.1714.1571994.540.365-2.16-4.558.8337.992 1993.210.947-1.05-3.419.1494.2011994.630.351-2.19-4.508.8708.700 1993.290.916-0.59-3.519.0934.1631994.710.334-2.53-4.578.9079.408 1993.380.881-0.71-3.659.0304.3781994.790.239-2.95-4.038.9898.411 1993.460.847-1.43-3.918.9515.3671994.880.134-2.25-4.099.1475.161 1993.540.812-2.15-4.168.8917.4061994.960.119-1.88-4.149.1395.183 1993.630.775-2.82-4.358.9007.7361995.040.113-1.68-3.989.1295.224 1993.710.725-3.09-4.028.9499.1391995.130.107-1.48-3.829.1195.265 1993.790.671-3.41-3.688.99810.5421995.210.100-1.33-3.699.1095.306 1993.880.621-3.56-3.489.04611.9451995.290.092-1.56-3.859.0995.347 1993.960.583-3.04-3.719.11311.6781995.380.084-1.88-4.089.0885.388 1994.040.549-2.51-3.969.10412.1801995.460.075-2.05-4.239.0785.429 1994.130.516-2.21-4.139.06013.6601995.540.063-1.11-3.849.0685.470 1994.210.483-2.07-4.219.01014.7581995.630.047-0.40-3.529.0585.511 1995.710.001-3.32-4.599.0485.552

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Appendix K: Age modeled geochemical data from resampling of coral record BK35CC for the time period 1971-1995; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1971.046.966-1.34-3.729.2456.1451974.635.866-0.30-3.709.3694.026 1971.136.931-0.94-3.279.3675.9191974.715.847-0.61-3.649.2734.137 1971.216.896-0.36-2.859.4245.9281974.795.827-0.56-3.559.2754.129 1971.296.8650.19-2.659.3755.0071974.885.808-0.46-3.469.3654.011 1971.386.845-0.05-3.009.3464.8171974.965.778-0.01-3.059.3713.897 1971.466.830-0.67-3.379.3055.4491975.045.7520.12-3.089.3093.870 1971.546.816-1.53-3.789.2025.1771975.135.7330.04-3.319.3383.861 1971.636.802-1.93-4.009.1334.8181975.215.712-0.10-3.479.2493.982 1971.716.790-1.83-4.019.1094.5081975.295.693-0.27-3.769.1514.045 1971.796.765-1.55-3.979.1574.4151975.385.673-0.37-4.059.1314.027 1971.886.734-1.76-3.849.1924.5391975.465.653-0.37-4.129.1484.029 1971.966.700-1.79-3.619.1874.5131975.545.633-0.45-4.129.1194.058 1972.046.667-1.33-3.379.4084.2491975.635.605-0.68-4.129.1334.008 1972.136.636-1.88-3.109.3884.0681975.715.584-0.81-4.089.1174.048 1972.216.603-0.91-2.749.4903.9241975.795.568-0.83-3.859.1614.050 1972.296.576-1.12-2.889.4524.2591975.885.554-0.93-3.779.1894.051 1972.386.550-1.48-3.159.3104.2511975.965.540-1.02-3.719.2054.060 1972.466.523-1.59-3.509.2124.4281976.045.525-0.97-3.579.2074.094 1972.546.495-1.88-3.889.1564.5111976.135.509-0.74-3.439.2674.039 1972.636.459-1.95-3.829.2924.1931976.215.488-0.55-3.349.3223.985 1972.716.432-2.03-3.749.1244.6341976.295.442-0.38-3.389.3173.968 1972.796.415-0.99-3.659.2414.8871976.385.376-0.24-3.569.2864.002 1972.886.399-1.21-3.359.3275.0601976.465.310-0.50-3.939.2354.139 1972.966.382-1.39-3.189.2904.9961976.545.243-0.65-4.129.1314.274 1973.046.365-1.38-3.109.3024.7571976.635.179-1.23-3.969.2074.173 1973.136.346-1.21-3.059.4644.6231976.715.120-1.27-3.429.2944.148 1973.216.306-1.17-3.099.4184.8201976.795.062-1.21-3.249.3503.986 1973.296.263-0.89-3.379.3654.3661976.885.003-0.29-3.259.4184.128 1973.386.223-0.83-3.799.2454.3831976.964.9750.31-2.919.3804.347 1973.466.1790.02-3.619.2224.6051977.044.9640.32-3.019.3204.412 1973.546.137-0.56-3.729.1994.5521977.134.958-0.04-3.389.2714.384 1973.636.114-0.54-3.559.2134.3791977.214.952-0.40-3.759.2234.356 1973.716.103-0.44-3.529.2764.3691977.294.943-0.72-4.059.1584.359 1973.796.093-0.41-3.479.3504.3201977.384.893-0.43-3.859.0754.564 1973.886.082-0.54-3.379.4564.1501977.464.776-1.59-4.019.1876.122 1973.966.072-0.66-3.289.5353.9991977.544.747-1.84-3.829.1665.740 1974.046.061-0.64-3.339.4354.0141977.634.731-1.79-3.579.1824.966 1974.136.044-0.49-3.359.3774.0021977.714.714-1.76-3.459.2294.488 1974.215.9890.32-3.099.5173.8521977.794.699-1.69-3.509.2674.770 1974.295.9610.06-3.389.3723.9381977.884.687-1.38-3.439.3104.840 1974.385.943-0.08-3.549.3294.0201977.964.678-0.82-3.209.3614.599 1974.465.9180.07-3.469.3434.0901978.044.663-0.41-3.079.3724.502 1974.545.886-0.06-3.689.2364.2291978.134.627-0.49-3.419.3844.766

PAGE 165

Appendix K (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1978.214.595-0.67-3.739.4105.7321981.883.193-2.11-3.689.1466.466 1978.294.572-0.81-3.829.2658.2221981.963.159-1.89-3.289.2605.693 1978.384.552-0.54-3.769.2516.8521982.043.109-1.04-3.089.2805.100 1978.464.530-0.97-4.079.0977.9821982.133.082-0.66-3.049.2474.833 1978.544.505-1.41-4.289.1137.5841982.213.059-0.61-3.099.2094.914 1978.634.465-0.90-3.819.1326.3551982.293.036-0.58-3.289.1834.754 1978.714.422-0.84-4.099.0905.4321982.383.014-1.33-3.619.1275.006 1978.794.392-1.04-4.169.1445.0651982.462.991-1.49-4.029.0864.968 1978.884.363-1.11-4.059.1065.5921982.542.968-1.68-4.099.0414.748 1978.964.336-1.34-3.939.1708.3371982.632.943-1.90-4.299.0134.723 1979.044.307-0.97-3.619.2569.5991982.712.902-1.28-4.218.9964.623 1979.134.278-0.82-3.299.3245.8971982.792.860-1.74-4.049.0414.680 1979.214.238-0.56-3.299.2795.3551982.882.818-2.59-3.939.1214.667 1979.294.197-1.04-3.799.1626.0801982.962.778-2.35-3.489.2094.392 1979.384.154-1.60-4.169.0546.1691983.042.734-1.73-3.249.2624.437 1979.464.113-2.21-4.529.0007.3971983.132.694-1.45-3.149.2904.231 1979.544.072-2.22-4.658.9926.5031983.212.658-0.56-3.319.2324.351 1979.634.040-1.68-4.339.0159.4401983.292.628-0.39-3.589.1614.495 1979.714.009-1.89-4.459.07815.6431983.382.595-1.31-4.169.1294.520 1979.793.978-3.15-4.589.10319.0451983.462.560-1.78-4.169.0894.686 1979.883.947-3.09-4.259.18617.1071983.542.525-1.85-4.459.0504.585 1979.963.916-2.66-3.659.25810.4011983.632.486-2.24-4.399.0764.431 1980.043.884-1.86-3.519.2868.9541983.712.449-1.80-4.279.0454.581 1980.133.853-0.88-3.569.2529.0361983.792.423-2.00-4.159.0774.891 1980.213.822-0.56-3.799.17912.3111983.882.395-2.21-4.039.0924.649 1980.293.804-0.21-3.779.14412.8781983.962.369-2.39-3.969.1564.578 1980.383.789-0.30-3.919.11212.9241984.042.342-2.13-3.649.2384.449 1980.463.773-1.25-4.449.08313.1601984.132.316-1.92-3.529.2624.385 1980.543.758-1.64-4.629.06114.5891984.212.289-1.32-3.489.2984.353 1980.633.743-1.95-4.809.04215.7141984.292.262-0.85-3.329.3664.263 1980.713.719-2.38-4.999.00715.2361984.382.232-0.51-3.309.3674.416 1980.793.658-2.18-4.608.9628.9881984.462.202-0.39-3.409.2894.690 1980.883.602-2.62-4.449.06221.3751984.542.171-0.75-3.829.2344.906 1980.963.550-2.69-4.039.17019.8671984.632.143-1.15-4.089.1954.943 1981.043.500-2.29-3.539.24311.6871984.712.134-1.00-4.029.2054.856 1981.133.476-1.62-3.599.24210.3181984.792.130-0.75-3.929.2264.759 1981.213.457-1.32-3.789.24311.5391984.882.125-0.50-3.819.2464.661 1981.293.438-0.94-3.919.21217.2601984.962.120-0.25-3.719.2674.563 1981.383.419-0.83-4.149.14320.2731985.042.115-0.07-3.649.2724.522 1981.463.400-1.20-4.529.07717.8191985.132.110-0.11-3.729.2234.683 1981.543.374-1.68-4.749.05520.2971985.212.105-0.17-3.809.1704.862 1981.633.315-1.80-4.648.97818.5471985.292.099-0.23-3.899.1165.040 1981.713.259-2.19-4.418.98713.0991985.382.094-0.28-3.979.0665.206 1981.793.225-2.16-4.069.0706.1561985.462.086-0.20-4.039.0655.185

PAGE 166

Appendix K (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1985.542.078-0.09-4.089.0805.1041989.211.505-0.76-3.369.4714.046 1985.632.070-0.01-4.129.0965.0561989.291.498-0.71-3.429.4984.002 1985.712.062-0.13-4.069.1235.2661989.381.491-0.66-3.499.4794.114 1985.792.053-0.29-3.979.1525.5291989.461.485-0.60-3.559.4324.319 1985.882.044-0.32-3.899.1636.0281989.541.479-0.55-3.619.3844.524 1985.962.035-0.10-3.819.1396.9651989.631.471-0.52-3.639.3554.666 1986.042.0270.11-3.739.1157.8861989.711.457-0.63-3.339.4634.325 1986.132.0200.04-3.759.1078.0911989.791.442-0.67-3.369.4954.093 1986.212.015-0.16-3.839.1067.9721989.881.425-0.60-3.759.4104.113 1986.292.009-0.36-3.919.1057.8531989.961.405-0.72-3.649.3534.200 1986.382.004-0.56-3.989.1057.7331990.041.387-0.68-3.649.2914.273 1986.461.998-0.65-3.959.1157.4591990.131.370-0.37-3.589.2274.340 1986.541.993-0.62-3.789.1407.0041990.211.349-0.05-3.539.1644.439 1986.631.987-0.59-3.629.1656.5481990.291.323-0.10-3.649.1714.531 1986.711.981-0.56-3.469.1896.0921990.381.300-0.17-3.779.1864.514 1986.791.954-1.29-3.609.2655.1081990.461.272-1.01-4.159.0934.525 1986.881.900-0.84-3.449.2754.4961990.541.211-1.72-4.169.0934.579 1986.961.854-1.13-3.489.3084.3101990.631.138-2.74-4.049.1315.279 1987.041.828-1.01-3.509.2764.4991990.711.109-2.90-4.029.1855.559 1987.131.803-0.78-3.699.2484.6301990.791.090-2.84-3.959.1915.283 1987.211.777-1.09-3.999.2274.7261990.881.071-2.63-3.829.2074.926 1987.291.751-1.13-4.109.1604.7371990.961.051-2.39-3.659.2534.614 1987.381.728-1.78-4.399.1274.7971991.041.031-2.22-3.519.2974.509 1987.461.721-1.90-4.439.1134.7951991.131.009-1.93-3.419.2624.446 1987.541.718-1.86-4.409.1004.7761991.210.987-1.80-3.359.2714.545 1987.631.714-1.82-4.369.0864.7581991.290.952-1.69-3.599.2674.587 1987.711.710-1.78-4.339.0724.7401991.380.917-1.63-3.619.1834.841 1987.791.706-1.74-4.309.0594.7211991.460.880-1.39-3.779.1674.702 1987.881.703-1.69-4.279.0474.7011991.540.850-1.41-4.069.0744.695 1987.961.697-1.53-4.199.0614.6591991.630.839-1.13-4.059.0744.820 1988.041.691-1.34-4.099.0834.6081991.710.830-0.87-4.049.0784.949 1988.131.685-1.15-3.999.1054.5581991.790.820-0.88-4.039.0584.995 1988.211.679-1.02-3.919.1244.5151991.880.810-0.96-4.029.0305.015 1988.291.672-1.24-4.009.1194.5191991.960.803-1.11-4.029.0265.179 1988.381.665-1.52-4.129.1104.5311992.040.797-1.33-4.049.0515.512 1988.461.659-1.79-4.239.1024.5441992.130.792-1.54-4.069.0755.844 1988.541.643-1.71-4.129.1164.5821992.210.786-1.76-4.089.1006.176 1988.631.623-1.66-3.969.1394.5481992.290.781-1.97-4.119.1136.347 1988.711.602-1.43-3.779.1944.4371992.380.776-2.15-4.199.0946.047 1988.791.582-0.99-3.499.2594.3521992.460.770-2.34-4.269.0735.718 1988.881.565-1.44-3.449.2464.2961992.540.765-2.52-4.349.0525.389 1988.961.544-1.38-3.339.3674.2011992.630.758-2.71-4.409.0345.081 1989.041.524-0.99-3.279.4184.1381992.710.738-2.96-4.339.0374.947 1989.131.513-0.82-3.309.4434.0911992.790.719-3.32-4.349.0814.923

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Appendix K (Continued): BK35CC; 13C and 18O ( VPDB); Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca (mmol/mol). Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca Time (yr) Depth (cm) 13C 18O Sr/CaMg/Ca 1992.880.700-3.70-4.379.1024.8511994.290.385-1.07-4.079.1485.603 1992.960.671-3.61-4.159.1734.8201994.380.377-1.15-4.159.1865.735 1993.040.628-2.65-3.649.2215.3181994.460.370-1.23-4.229.2255.867 1993.130.585-2.43-3.419.2767.0291994.540.358-1.33-4.179.2635.999 1993.210.535-0.78-3.189.3118.1511994.630.344-1.57-4.119.2696.048 1993.290.513-0.58-3.279.3227.5631994.710.330-2.42-4.299.1275.723 1993.380.498-0.59-3.479.2927.9611994.790.311-2.75-4.299.1055.746 1993.460.486-0.64-3.639.2457.9191994.880.287-2.52-4.119.1616.031 1993.540.473-0.95-3.859.2256.8561994.960.262-2.50-3.759.2095.749 1993.630.460-1.28-4.049.2225.6151995.040.237-2.08-3.469.2887.728 1993.710.445-0.92-3.779.2805.9871995.130.211-1.25-3.259.2847.280 1993.790.428-0.22-3.429.2575.7381995.210.176-0.54-3.269.2486.850 1993.880.4140.41-3.199.1704.8971995.290.091-1.15-4.099.1597.119 1993.960.4080.13-3.369.1514.9751995.380.054-1.04-4.249.2375.496 1994.040.402-0.23-3.569.1395.1391995.460.035-1.05-4.249.1855.385 1994.130.397-0.60-3.779.1275.3031995.540.024-1.08-4.199.1335.470 1994.210.391-0.94-3.969.1195.4651995.630.012-1.21-4.179.1376.541 1995.710.000-1.36-4.169.1547.843


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Stair, Kristine L.
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Assessing the reproducibility of skeletal geochemistry records in Atlantic corals using Montastraea annularis coral heads from the Dry Tortugas, Florida
h [electronic resource] /
by Kristine L. Stair.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
2007.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Core samples were collected in September 1995 from live coral heads of Montastraea annularis at Bird Key reef in the Dry Tortugas, Florida (24 degrees 55 minutes N, 82 degrees 92 minutes W). Four 4 mm-thick coral slabs from two cores were continuously sampled at 12 samples per year (0.025 cm per sample for Core 31, 0.023 cm per sample for Core 35). Visual inspection of X-radiographs indicates an average skeletal extension rate of about 3 mm per year in Bird Key corals. The goal of this study was to perform a replication test in Montastraea annularis by using elemental and stable isotopes from four coral slabs from two different coral heads to address the following questions: 1) how well do geochemical signals replicate within a single coral head, 2) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two different cores from the same coral head, 3) how well do geochemical signals replicate from two coral heads from the same general area, and 4) do growth effects influence the geochemistry of slow-growing corals at the Dry Tortugas? Geochemical variations versus depth and time of all coral records show strong seasonal cyclicity. Variations in d18O in the suite of Bird Key coral records replicate the best; d13C and Sr/Ca variations replicate less well. For example, differences in the mean Sr/Ca record from two different coral heads are large (0.179 mmol/mol for BK31B-BK35CC; 0.196 mmol/mol for BK31C-BK35CC; ~4 degrees C) and nearly 4 times greater than analytical precision. Therefore, caution must be exercised in interpreting Sr/Ca-SST records in Montastraea annularis. Mean differences in coral d18O for all records, on the other hand, are within analytical precision and translate to temperature differences of less than 0.5 degrees C. Robust d18O values among cores that co-vary with a significant level of agreement further point to this proxy being more reliable than Sr/Ca. Because of its skeletal complexity, drilling difficulty, and large bio-geological error for Sr/Ca, Montastraea annularis seems poorly suited for coral-based Sr/Ca-SST studies. However, the species must be studied to understand tropical Atlantic interannual-decadal scale variability, so further assessment is warranted.
502
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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Advisor: Terrence M. Quinn, Ph.D.
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Coral geochemistry.
Oxygen isotopes.
Sr/Ca ratios.
Replication.
Bird Key.
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Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Marine Science
Masters.
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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