USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Meaning makers make it

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Meaning makers make it ambivalence about ambiguity in academic discourse
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Lee, David Haldane
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Communication
Epistemology
Ambiguity
Realism
Relativism
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This thesis is a broad survey of the uses of ambiguity in academic discourse. I note the uses of ambiguity in literary criticism, linking ambiguity with epistemic relativism. Then I pose the question, is the notion of "reframing" in psychotherapy analogous to the concept of "spin" in propaganda, advertising and public relations? In a consideration of theories that posit the social construction of reality, I examine articles by Judith Butler and Ian Hacking, noting the ambiguous reception of performativity and nominalism, respectively, within academia. In 1996 a physicist named Alan Sokal published an article which argued that reality is a social and linguistic construct. Sokal later revealed that his article was actually an elaborate spoof of postmodernist and social constructionist writing. According to Sokal, such relativistic discourse erodes the distinction between fact and fiction. I look at the implications of Sokal's hoax for the social sciences and humanities.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by David Haldane Lee.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 132 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001914454
oclc - 176631326
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001981
usfldc handle - e14.1981
System ID:
SFS0026299:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

M e a ni ng M a ke r s M a ke I t : A m bi va l e nc e A bout A m bi gui t y i n A c a de m i c D i s c our s e by D a vi d H a l da ne L e e A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of C om m uni c a t i on C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : S t a c y H ol m a n J one s P h. D E r i c E i s e nbe r g P h. D M a r i a C i z m i c P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : M a r c h 5, 2007 K e yw or ds : c om m uni c a t i on, e pi s t e m ol ogy, a m bi gu i t y, r e a l i s m r e l a t i v i s m C opyr i ght 2007 D a vi d H a l da ne L e e

PAGE 2

i T ab l e of C on t e n t s A bs t r a c t i i i P r e f a c e 1 A P r e vi e w 12 I nt r oduc t i on: T he T e r r i t o r y P r e c e de s t he M a p 15 T he M a p P r e c e de s t he T e r r i t or y 21 B a t e s on: P os i t i vi s t or P os t m ode r ni s t ? 29 E m br a c i ng A m bi gui t y 34 A pe r i on, o r I nde t e r m i na t e M ol t e nne s s 37 I s T ot a l i z a t i on N e c e s s a r i l y T ot a l i t a r i a n? 42 R e f r a m i ng: T he B r oa d D a yl i ght o f C ont e xt 48 F uz z i ne s s or W he n K e e pi ng i t R e a l G oe s W r ong 54 P r a gm a t i c s or S p i n? 60 C om m uni c a t i on a s R e l a t i ona l N ot R e pr e s e nt a t i ona l 63 S oc i a l C ons t r uc t i on of R e a l i t y V e r s us B r ut e F a c t s 68 C a s e S t udy #1: J udi t h B ut l e r on G e nde r 73 C a s e S t udy #2: I a n H a c ki ng on C hi l d A bus e 81 E nt e r A l a n S oka l 86 A na l ogi e s F r om T he o r e t i c a l P hys i c s 95 T hus I R e f ut e T he e S ol i ps i s m 99 S c i e nc e : F a c t s or N or m a t i ve F i c t i ons ? 103 S oc i ol ogy of K now l e dge a n d a S y l l ogi s m Q ua E pi m e ni de s 108 C onc l us i on: A M e a s ur e d A ppr oa c h 113 B i bl i ogr a phy 119

PAGE 3

i i M e a ni ng M a ke r s M a ke I t : A m bi va l e nc e A bout A m bi gui t y i n A c a de m i c D i s c our s e D a vi d H a l da ne L e e A B S T R A C T T hi s t he s i s i s a br oa d s ur ve y of t he us e s of a m bi gu i t y i n a c a de m i c di s c our s e I not e t he us e s of a m bi gui t y i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m l i nki ng a m b i gui t y w i t h e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m T he n I pos e t he que s t i on, i s t he not i on of r e f r a m i ng i n ps yc hot he r a py a na l ogous t o t he c onc e pt of s pi n i n p r opa ga nda a dve r t i s i ng a nd p ubl i c r e l a t i ons ? I n a c ons i de r a t i on of t he or i e s t ha t pos i t t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e a l i t y I e xa m i ne a r t i c l e s by J udi t h B ut l e r a nd I a n H a c ki ng, not i ng t he a m bi guous r e c e pt i on of pe r f o r m a t i vi t y a nd nom i na l i s m r e s pe c t i ve l y, w i t hi n a c a de m i a I n 1996 a phys i c i s t na m e d A l a n S oka l publ i s he d a n a r t i c l e w hi c h a r gue d t ha t r e a l i t y i s a s oc i a l a nd l i ngui s t i c c ons t r uc t S oka l l a t e r r e ve a l e d t ha t hi s a r t i c l e w a s a c t ua l l y a n e l a bor a t e s poof of pos t m ode r ni s t a nd s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t w r i t i ng. A c c or di ng t o S oka l s uc h r e l a t i vi s t i c di s c o ur s e e r ode s t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n f a c t a nd f i c t i on I l ook a t t he i m pl i c a t i ons of S oka l s hoa x f or t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd hum a ni t i e s

PAGE 4

1 P r e f ac e I t i s t he na t ur e of a n i n t e l l e c t ua l que s t t o be unde f i ne d. T o na m e i t a nd t o de f i ne i t i s t o w r a p i t up a nd t i e t he knot W ha t i s l e f t ? ( J e a n P a ul S a r t r e Se ar c h f or a M e t hod 1963 ) W ha t w e c a nnot s pe a k a bout w e m us t pa s s ove r i n s i l e nc e ( L udw i g W i t t ge ns t e i n, T r ac t at us L ogi c o P hi l os ophi c us p. 7 4) W he n I us e a w or d H um pt y D um pt y s a i d, i n a r a t he r s c or nf ul t one i t m e a ns j us t w ha t I c hoos e i t t o m e a n, ne i t he r m or e nor l e s s T he que s t i on i s s a i d A l i c e w he t he r you c an m a ke w or ds m e a n s o m a ny di f f e r e nt t h i ngs T he que s t i on i s s a i d H um pt y D um pt y, w hi c h i s t o be m a s t e r t ha t 's a l l ( L e w i s C a r ol l quot e d i n C a r m i c ha e l 1968 p 153 ) I n t h i s t he s i s I w oul d l i ke t o a ppl y t he c onc e pt o f s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y ( E i s e nbe r g, 1984, 2007) t o t he s ubj e c t of a c a de m i c di s c our s e i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd hum a ni t i e s I w i l l e nt e r t a i n t w o c ont r a di c t or y vi e w s of a m bi gui t y: T he f i r s t a s s e s s m e nt i s m os t l y pos i t i ve : a m bi gui t y i n a c a de m i c w r i t i ng ( a s f ound i n pos t m ode r ni s m c ul t u r a l s t udi e s a nd c om m uni c a t i on t he or y, e t c ) a l l ow s f o r a n i n t e r pr e t i ve r i c hne s s t ha t i ns pi r e s t he i m a gi na t i on l i ke t he be s t p oe t r y a nd l i t e r a t u r e T he he r m e ne ut i c i a n H a ns G e or g G a da m e r w r i t e s : T o l e a ve a n e nor m ous a m ount ope n s e e m s t o m e t he e s s e nc e of a f r ui t f ul f a bl e a nd m yt h ( 1975 p 498 ) T he l i t e r a r y t he or i s t P hi l i p W he e l w r i ght ( 1954) c oi ne d t he pr i nc i pl e of p l ur i s i gna t i on ( p 61 ) a nd t he pr i nc i pl e of s of t f oc us ( p 62) i n or de r t o de f e nd t he us e s of a m bi gui t y i n l i t e r a t ur e

PAGE 5

2 T he s e c ond a s s e s s m e nt of a m bi gui t y i s m o r e w a r y a nd c onf l i c t e d: t ha t w he n a ppl i e d t o a c a de m i c t he or y, a m bi gui t y m i ght r un t he r i s k of w ha t R D L a i ng ( 1965) t e r m s m ys t i f i c a t i on. B y m ys t i f i c a t i on L a i ng m e a ns a n a c t i vi t y of be f uddl i ng, c l oudi ng, obs c ur i ng or m a s ki ng t he i s s ue s ( 1965, p 200 ) I a m c onc e r ne d t ha t c e r t a i n t ype s of a c a de m i c di s c our s e s m a y s e r ve t hi s l a t t e r pur pos e I a m a w a r e t ha t obs c ur a nt i s m or obf us c a t i on i s a s e r i ous a c c us a t i on t o m a ke t he r e f or e I w a nt t o s t r e s s t he t e nt a t i ve s pe c ul a t i ve a nd pr ovi s i ona l pr e t e xt of t hi s t he s i s H e r e a r e a f e w of t he s i t e s of a m bi gu i t y t ha t I hope t o a dd r e s s : 1) E x c e s s i v e v e r bos i t y or j ar gon : E r i c E i s e nbe r g ( 198 4) not e s t ha t j a r gon c a n c ons t i t ut e a n e xc l us i ona r y c ode t ha t onl y s om e i nd i vi dua l s a r e pr i vy t o ( p. 233) I n a n a l l e ge d c r i t i c i s m of j a r gon P e t e r B e r ge r a nd H a ns f r i e d K e l l ne r w r i t e ( w i t hout a ny h i nt of i r ony ) t ha t t he y a r e not c onvi n c e d t ha t t he or e t i c a l l uc i di t y i s ne c e s s a r i l y e nha nc e d by t e r m i nol ogi c a l ponde r os i t y ( 1964, p. 219) I n t hi s t he s i s I w i l l c i t e s pe c i f i c e xa m pl e s w he r e r un on s e nt e nc e s a nd e s ot e r i c t e r m i nol ogy m i ght a m ount t o a n e xc l us i ona r y p r a c t i c e 2) E pi s t e m i c r e l at i v i s m : I n t hi s t he s i s I w i l l di s c us s r e l a t i vi s m i n t he c ont e xt of s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y. I t s e e m s t o m e t he s t a t e m e nt i t s a l l r e l a t i ve m e a ns ne ve r ha vi ng t o be pi nne d dow n. W hi l e pl a us i bl e de ni a bi l i t y ( E i s e nbe r g, 2007 ) m i ght be a dva nt a ge ous f or s om e s c hol a r s i t c oul d be pr o bl e m a t i c w he n c l e a r di s t i nc t i ons a r e r e qui r e d be t w e e n f a c t a nd f i c t i on. ( F or e xa m pl e i n i nve s t i ga t i ve j our na l i s m c r i m i na l j us t i c e e t c )

PAGE 6

3 3) Sc i e nt i s t i c or ps e udo s c i e nt i f i c anal ogi e s : S om e t i m e s s oc i a l s c i e nt i s t s w i l l i nvoke t he r he t or i c o f s c i e nc e t o i nc ul c a t e a n a ur a o f obj e c t i vi t y a nd unc ont e s t a bl e f a c t T hi s i s a c r i t i c i s m of t e n l e ve l e d a ga i ns t qua nt i t a t i v e a nd pos i t i vi s t s oc i a l s c i e nc e Y e t i t a l s o c a n be a ppl i e d t o t hos e t he or i s t s w ho ( f or e xa m pl e ) i nv oke H e i s e nbe r g s i nde t e r m i na c y pr i n c i pl e t o a r gue f or obs e r ve r de pe nda nt obs e r va t i ons i n s oc i a l s c i e nc e or t hos e w ho a ppl y E i ns t e i n s t he or y o f ge ne r a l r e l a t i vi t y t o a r gue f o r r e l a t i vi t y i n ge ne r a l A s I ho pe t o s how s om e t i m e s i t a ppe a r s t ha t t he or e t i c a l phys i c s i s i nvoke d t o i m pl y s om e s or t of s c i e nt i f i c m a nda t e f or c on f us i on a nd a m bi gui t y I n t he t r a di t i on o f pe r f or m a t i ve w r i t i ng ( P ol l oc k, 1998) t hi s t he s i s l a r ge l y e s c he w s t r a di t i ona l a c a de m i c w r i t i ng s t yl e ba s e d on a r gum e nt a t i ve m ode l s I w i l l not a t t e m pt t o pr ove a ny pe t hypot he s i s I ns t e a d, I ha ve j uxt a po s e d c i t a t i ons a nd l e t t he m i n t e r a c t on t he pa ge r e s ona t i ng i n a f r e e a s s oc i a t i on of m e a ni ngs I t r y t o dr a w t he r e a de r s a t t e nt i on t o r e s ona nc e s a nd di s s ona nc e s i n t e xt s a nd i n a n a t t e m pt a t S oc r a t i c i r ony I w i l l r a i s e que s t i ons a bout t he m i n a di pl om a t i c w a y. I l e a ve i t t o m y r e a de r t o a s t o w he t he r or not s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y i s be i ng e m pl oye d. T h i s t he s i s i s i nt e nde d l e s s a s a pol e m i c t ha n a s a s ur ve y of a va r i e t y of i nt e r c onne c t e d t opi c s I i nt e nd t o b r oa dl y s ur ve y a num be r o f di f f e r e nt t he or e t i c a l a nd e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd hum a ni t i e s T he s e i nt e l l e c t ua l pos t ur e s s uc h a s a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s m a nt i f oun da t i ona l i s m pos t pos i t i vi s m a nd pos t m ode r ni s m a r e not s ynonym ous but a r e i nt e r r e l a t e d a nd I i n t e nd t o di s c us s t he i r pl a c e s of ove r l a p. T o a t t e m pt a t a xonom y of t he s e pe r s pe c t i ve s a s s t a bl e di s c r e t e

PAGE 7

4 phi l os ophi c a l pos i t i ons w oul d be l i ke a f f i xi ng pos t i t s ont o t r a ns i t or y b r e e z e s T he y a r e by t he i r ow n w i l y de f i ni t i on ha r d t o pi n dow n. I w i l l f oc us on t he ove r a r c hi ng t he m e o f am bi g ui t y i n s oc i a l s c i e nc e a nd t he hum a ni t i e s B r oa dl y de f i ne d I t hi nk t ha t a m bi gui t y i s us e f ul i n c ha r a c t e r i z i ng pol ys e m i c m e a ni ng i n hum a n c om m un i c a t i on. W i l l i a m E m ps on ( 1947) de f i ne s a m bi gui t y a s a ny ve r ba l nua nc e how e ve r s l i ght w hi c h gi ve s r oom f or a l t e r na t i ve r e a c t i ons t o t he s a m e pi e c e of l a ngua ge ( p 1) W he r e E m ps on i s f a m ou s f or hi s s e ve n t ype s of a m bi gui t y I pr e f e r t o l e t a m bi gui t y r e t a i n a br oa d a m bi guous d e f i ni t i on. I us e s i m i l a r ( t hough no t i de nt i c a l ) s ynonym s f or a m bi gui t y i nt e r c ha nge a bl y, s uc h a s va gue ne s s i nde t e r m i na c y a nd doubt W ha t I w oul d l i ke t o poi nt out i n E m ps on s de f i ni t i on i s t he s pa t i a l a na l ogy. N a m e l y, a m bi gui t y gi ve s r oom s om e r a nge of m ove m e nt t o m e a ni ngs B e s i de s i t s a ppl i c a t i on i n l i t e r a r y t he or y, a m bi g ui t y c a n a l s o be ve r y us e f ul i n t he r a py a nd m e nt a l he a l t h. T e c hni que s l i ke r e f r a m i ng ( W a t z l a w i c k, 1974; B a ndl e r & G r i nde r 1982; B ur ns 1999 ) c a n be w onde r f u l f o r he l pi ng t o ove r c om e a de pr e s s e d m ood. R e f r a m i ng h e l ps a t he r a pe ut i c c l i e nt s e e t ha t m e a ni ngs a r e not s e t i n s t one a nd t he r e a r e a num be r of w a ys of l ooki ng a t t h i ngs F o r c ogni t i ve be ha vi or a l t he r a pi s t D a vi d B ur ns ( 1999) r e f r a m i ng i m pl i e s s e m a nt i c e l a s t i c i t y w he n c ons i de r i ng e ve nt s a nd m e nt a l s t a t e s U s i ng t he e xa m pl e of a nxi e t y a bout publ i c s pe a ki ng, B ur ns ( 1999 ) s ugge s t s t ha t t r a i t a ppr e he ns i on s houl d be vi e w e d a s a pos i t i v e f or c e of e ne r gy w hi c h c a n e nha nc e a s pe e c h ( p. 317 ) i ns t e a d of a ne gat i v e s our c e o f e m ba r r a s s m e nt R e f r a m i ng i s a c onc e pt t ha t d e a l s w i t h t he e l e m e nt o f vol i t i on i nvol ve d i n t he e ni gm a t i c i nt e r pl a y be t w e e n c ogni t i on a f f e c t a nd be ha vi or W i t h r e f r a m i ng, a dva nt a ge c a n be t a ke n of a m bi gui t i e s i n a s i t ua t i on t o s ugge s t di f f e r e nt i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a nd de m ons t r a t e t ha t m e a ni ng i s a f l e xi bl e t hi ng

PAGE 8

5 B ut w ha t a bout a s i t ua t i on w he r e m or e l i t e r a l m e a ni ngs a r e pr e f e r a bl e ? F o r e xa m pl e i n m a t t e r s of he a l t h a nd s a f e t y a c ons um e r m i ght w a nt a m i ni m um of e qui voc a t i on f r om t he m a nuf a c t ur e r a bout t he ut i l i t y o f t he i r pr oduc t W he n dr ug c om pa n y E l i L i l l y s pa t e nt on t he dr ug P r oz a c ( f l uoxe t i ne ) r a n ou t t he y r e f r a m e d or r e b r a nde d t he pr oduc t a s S a r a f e m f or t he t r e a t m e nt of pr e m e ns t r ua l dys phor i c di s or de r ( F D A a ppr ove s f l uoxe t i ne 2000) C r i t i c s ha ve a r gue d t ha t s uc h r e br a ndi ng of a pr odu c t c ons t i t ut e s a t r a ns pa r e nt pr of i t m ot i ve on t he pa r t o f t he m a nuf a c t ur e r a nd a m e di c a l i z a t i on of a s ym pt om t ha t i s not e s s e nt i a l l y pa t hol ogi c a l ( S pa r t os 2000; R ubi n, 2004) I n a r he t or i c a l a na l ys i s of t he m a r ke t i ng o f ps yc hot r opi c dr ugs L a w r e nc e R ubi n ( 2004) a r gue s t ha t dr ug c om pa ni e s us e br oa d, a m b i guous de f i ni t i ons of m e nt a l i l l ne s s t o be t t e r m a r ke t t he i r p r oduc t s R ubi n ( 2004) w r i t e s a bout : t he bl ur r i ng of bounda r i e s be t w e e n di s c om f or t s o f da i l y l i vi ng a nd ps yc hi a t r i c s ym pt om a t ol ogy t o t he po i nt t ha t bot h c a n be e qua l l y a nd e f f i c i e nt l y r e m e di e d t hr ough m a s s m a r ke t e d pr oduc t s ( p. 369) T he e xa m pl e of br a i n m e di c i ne s ha s be e n us e d t o s ugge s t how a m bi gui t y m i gh t be us e d i n a m a ni pul a t i ve w a y W ha t i s i t t ha t e s s e nt i a l l y c ons t i t ut e s a m e di c a l c on di t i on? W he r e a br oa d, a m b i guous de f i ni t i on pr e va i l s i n c ons um e r c ons c i ous ne s s uns c r upul ous m a r ke t i ng f i nds a n oppor t uni t y W hi l e i t i s a ppr e c i a t e d i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t he r a pe ut i c t e c hni que s a nd c om m uni c a t i on t he or y I w onde r i f a m bi gui t y c oul d a l s o b e us e d f o r di s i nf or m a t i on or m a s s de c e pt i on w he n i t e nt e r s t h e publ i c s phe r e of a dve r t i s i ng, publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd p r opa ga nda

PAGE 9

6 A de c l a s s i f i e d 1969 m e m o f r om a t oba c c o c om pa ny s ugge s t s how publ i c r e l a t i ons m i ght us e doubt c onf us i on, a nd a m bi gui t y t o d e c e i ve t he publ i c a bout t he da nge r s o f s m oki ng. I n pa r t t he m e m o r e a ds : D oubt i s our pr oduc t s i nc e i t i s t he be s t m e a ns of c om pe t i ng w i t h t he 'body o f f a c t t ha t e xi s t s i n t he m i nd o f t he ge ne r a l publ i c ( q uot e d i n M i c ha e l s 2005) T hi s quot e ha s be e n us e d t o s ugge s t how t he i nde t e r m i na c y of m e a ni ng m i ght s e r ve va r i ous e nds A m a r gi n of a m bi gui t y i n s om e c a s e s m i ght i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he e f f e c t i ve t r a ns m i s s i on of a m e s s a ge A dm i t t e dl y, t hi s goe s a ga i ns t t he pr e va i l i ng di s da i n f or t he t r a ns m i s s i on m ode l of c om m uni c a t i on ( C ondi t 20 06) I n a not he r s i m i l a r e xa m pl e a N e w Y or k T i m e s a r t i c l e r e por t s on a R e publ i c a n l obbyi s t w ho w a nt s t o a c c e nt ua t e a s m a l l m a r gi n of doubt a bout gl oba l w a r m i ng w i t hi n t he s c i e nt i f i c c ons e ns us I n a pr a c t i c a l l y pos t m ode r n f a s hi on, t hi s appar at c hi k of pol l ut i on w oul d l i ke t o c ul t i va t e a di s t r us t t ow a r ds s c i e nt i f i c t r ut h c l a i m s H e w a nt s t o s e i z e on w ha t e ve r a m bi gui t y s t i l l e xi s t s a bout t he c a us a l i t y of a nt hr opoge ni c c l i m a t e c ha nge : M os t s c i e nt i s t s be l i e ve t ha t [ gl oba l ] w a r m i ng i s c a us e d l a r ge l y by m a nm a de pol l ut a nt s t ha t r e qui r e s t r i c t r e gul a t i on. M r L unt z [ a l obbyi s t f or t he R e publ i c a ns ] s e e m s t o a c know l e dge a s m uc h w he n he s a ys t ha t t he s c i e nt i f i c de ba t e i s c l os i ng a ga i ns t us H i s a dvi c e how e ve r i s t o e m pha s i z e t ha t t he e vi de nc e i s not c om pl e t e S houl d t he publ i c c om e t o be l i e ve t ha t t he s c i e nt i f i c i s s ue s a r e s e t t l e d, he w r i t e s t he i r vi e w s a bout gl oba l w a r m i ng w i l l c ha nge a c c or di ngl y. T he r e f or e you ne e d t o c ont i nue t o m a ke t he l ac k of s c i e nt i f i c c e r t ai nt y a pr i m a r y i s s ue ( quot e d i n L a t our 2004) T hi s quot e s ugge s t s t o m e how doubt a nd unc e r t a i nt y m a y be us e d t o a dva nc e dubi ous pol i t i c a l a ge nda s A s pi n doc t o r w a nt s t o bl ur t he d i s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t r ut h a nd f a l s e hood, a nd a m bi gui t y, doubt a nd unc e r t a i nt y a r e i n hi s t oo l ki t F or a s pi n doc t or w ho i s obl i ge d

PAGE 10

7 t o doubt s c i e nt i f i c c ons e ns us a bout gl oba l w a r m i n g, t he e xi s t e nc e of a f e w a s s e r t i ons c ont r a r y t o s c i e nt i f i c he ge m ony c a n be nur s e d i nt o publ i c s ke pt i c i s m I r oni c a l l y, a s s c i e nt i f i c da t a m ount s a nd a c a de m i c pa pe r s g e t pu bl i s he d, t he r e m a y be m or e oppor t uni t i e s t o e xpl oi t s e m a nt i c a m bi gui t y i n t he publ i c m i nd. F or t he r e publ i c a n l obbyi s t L unt z t he s he e r vol um e of a c a de m i c e vi de nc e on c l i m a t e c ha nge i nc r e a s e s t he l i ke l i hood of a ny di s s e nt i ng opi ni ons T he r e i s now a da ys s uc h a s he e r vo l um e of kno w l e dge t ha t pe r ha ps t he i nc r e a s e d i nc i de nc e of a m bi gui t y i s l i ke l y. E r ne s t B e c ke r ( 19 73) w r ot e t ha t know l e dge i s i n a s t a t e of us e l e s s ove r pr oduc t i on. . i t i s s t r e w n a l l ove r t he pl a c e s poke n i n a t hous a nd c om pe t i t i ve v oi c e s ( p. xv i i i ) S i nc e B e c ke r s de a t hbe d l a m e nt a c a de m i c pr oduc t i on ha s onl y i nc r e a s e d e xpone nt i a l l y. W i t h t he a dve nt of m a s s l i t e r a c y i n t he r e i s a n i nc r e di bl e a m ount of know l e dge out t he r e i n t he f or m of c ou nt l e s s a c a de m i c pa pe r s a nd i t i s di f f i c ul t t o z oom ou t f o r m a c r o pe r s pe c t i ve s W i t h f r a c t ur i ng a nd s pe c i a l i z a t i on i n t he s o c a l l e d hum a n s c i e nc e s I w onde r i f t he r e m i ght be a c e r t a i n a m ount of r e i nve nt i ng t he w he e l a s t r ui s m s a bout t he r e l a t i vi t y of know l e dge c om e t o be c a l l e d by va r i ous nom e nc l a t ur e I be l i e ve t ha t i n m y ow n i ns t i t ut i on t he f a c t t ha t s pe e c h c om m uni c a t i on, m a s s c om m uni c a t i on, a nd hum a ni t i e s a r e t a ught i n di f f e r e nt de pa r t m e nt s c ons t i t ut e s a n unf or t una t e f r a c t ur i ng o f know l e dge M a ny i ns i ght s be t w e e n t he s e f i e l ds a r e c om pl e m e nt a r y ye t d i s c i pl i na r y s e c t a r i a ni s m s om e t i m e s i nhi bi t s t he s ha r i ng o f know l e dge M y goa l i s not t o c l i ng t oo t i ght l y t o a ny pa r t i c ul a r d i s c i pl i ne l a be l o r t he o r y. O f t e n, i ns i ght s a r e t r a ns l a t a bl e be t w e e n di s c i pl i ne s or di s c ur s i ve s c he m e s a nd t he j a r gon t ha t c o de s c r i be s phe nom e na s e r ve a s i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y s t e ppi ng s t one s

PAGE 11

8 O f t e n I w i l l e xa m i ne l i t e r a t ur e f r om out s i de of t he c om m uni c a t i on f i e l d s uc h a s phi l os ophy, hi s t or i ogr a phy l i ngu i s t i c s a nd ot he r s i n a n a t t e m pt a t pl ur a l i s m S t a nl e y D e e t z ( 1993) i s w a r y of s ha l l ow i nt e r di s c i pl i na r i t y ( p. 571) i n t he c om m uni c a t i on f i e l d. D e e t z c i t e s G e or ge K e l l y s not i on o f a c c um ul a t i v e f r a gm e nt a l i s m a nd a l s o C l i f f or d G e e r t z w ho c a l l s i nt e r d i s c i pl i na r y e c l e c t i c i s m a s t e r i l e e xot i c i s m . c os m opol i t a n w i t hout c ont e xt ( quot e d i n D e e t z 1993, p 570 ) F or D e e t z i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y a dve nt ur e s i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he de ve l opm e nt of c om m un i c a t i on a s a c ohe r e nt di s c i pl i ne O t he r c om m uni c a t i on t he or i s t s s uc h a s A r t B oc hne r a nd E r i c E i s e nbe r g ( 1985 ) a r gue t ha t t he de m a nd f or c ohe r e nc e m a y a c t ua l l y e nge nde r di v i s i on w i t hi n t he c om m uni c a t i on f i e l d. F or B oc hne r a nd E i s e nbe r g N o f i e l d o f know l e dg e ha s e ve r be e n a bl e t o s e t t l e on a f i na l s e t of t e r m s unde r w hi c h a l l i t s i nqui r y c oul d be s ubs um e d ( 1985, p 315 ) W hi l e I w oul d l i ke t o a voi d s ha l l ow i nt e r d i s c i pl i na r i t y a nd he e d t he c onc e r ns of D e e t z I a m m or e i nc l i ne d t o a gr e e w i t h B oc hne r a nd E i s e nbe r g, w ho a r gue t ha t a c a de m i c s pe c i a l i z a t i on i s a r e s ul t of c a r e e r i s m a nd s oc i a l c onf l i c t s not e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l m a nda t e s ( B oc hne r & E i s e nbe r g, 320) I t h i nk t ha t t he w i l l t o a di s c r e t e d i s c i pl i ne i s s ym pt om a t i c of a f r a c t ur i ng a nd s e c t a r i a ni s m i n a c a de m i a N o doubt t he phe nom e na of a c a de m i c s pe c i a l i z a t i on ha s m a ny pr a c t i c a l r e a s ons f or e xi s t i ng. A t op dow n a ggr e ga t i on o f t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd hum a ni t i e s i s a n unw i e l dy pr opos i t i on. T he r e a r e a l s o, s ur e l y, c a r e e r i s t c ons i d e r a t i ons he r e be c a us e a c a de m i a t e nds t o r e w a r d i n t e ns i ve know l e dge a nd di s c ount e xt e ns i ve know l e dge T he br a nc hi ng ou t of s ubdi s c i pl i ne s i s a pa t h of l e s s r e s i s t a nc e f or a c a de m i c know l e dge S ubj e c t m a t t e r s a r e a c c or de d c ongr ue nc e a c c or di ng t o t he i r t hi ngne s s or obj e c t of s t udy. T he r e f or e t he a c a de m y ha s f i e l ds w i t h i nt e ns i ve f oc us a nd c r os s c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n di s c i pl i ne s a r e

PAGE 12

9 l i a bl e t o be de e m e d c u r s or y a nd uni f or m e d I t i s un s e e m l y f or a l a y obs e r ve r t o c om m e nt on a f i e l d out s i de of he r o r hi s e xpe r t i s e W i t t ge ns t e i n s c l os i ng i nj unc t i on of t he T r ac t at us r i ngs i n our e a r s ; i f you a r e uni f o r m e d, p i pe dow n. K now l e dge f l ow i ng a nd a s s oc i a t i ve ba l l s up l i ke be a ds of m e r c ur y. I nt e r di s c i pl i na r y s t udi e s i s t o m e a w or t hy i de a l a l t hough i n t e r m s of a n a c a de m i c c a r e e r i t m a y be a r oa d s t r e w n w i t h obs t a c l e s P e r s ona l l y, I a m i n t e r e s t e d i n i de a s t ha t don t ne c e s s a r i l y f a l l i nt o a ny one di s c i pl i ne s uc h a s f e m i ni s t t he or y, hi s t or i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m pr a gm a t i s m c ybe r ne t i c s f a m i l y s ys t e m s c ogni t i ve t he or y i nt e l l e c t ua l hi s t or y, e t hnogr a phy e t c I a ppr e c i a t e t he f i e l d o f c om m uni c a t i on be c a us e m or e t ha n a ny ot he r di s c i pl i ne I know i t i s pl ur a l i s t i c W ool be r t s a i d i n 1923 t ha t he w a nt e d c om m uni c a t i on t o be t he w i de s t of a l l pos s i bl e a c a de m i c pr ogr a m s ( B oc hne r a nd E i s e nbe r g, p 305) T he pl u r a l i s m of m y di s c i pl i ne ha s a l l ow e d m e t he r a nge o f m ove m e nt ne e de d t o r e c om bi ne i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y i ns i ght s T he hi s t or i c a l ba c kgr ound o f t hi s t he s i s i s t he c r i s i s of r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n t he hum a n s c i e nc e s ( M a r c us & F i s c he r 1986 ) a nd t he c ha l l e nge s t o r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l e pi s t e m ol ogy r a i s e d by pos t m ode r ni s m A r e l a t e d c onc e pt i s t he l i ngui s t i c t ur n ( R or t y 1967 ; P a l m e r 1990; A nde r s on, 1995 ) t ha t c a n be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pos t m ode r ni s m T o s um m a r i z e pos t m ode r ni s m not e s t he c ons t i t ut i ve pow e r o f l a n gua ge a nd a s s uc h i t o f f e r s a di f f e r e nt vi e w of t r ut h a nd r e a l i t y t ha n di d m ode r n pe r s pe c t i ve s T o c r u de l y r e duc e t hi s i nf i ni t e l y c om p l e x i nt e l l e c t ua l i s s ue I w oul d s a y t ha t f or pos t m ode r ni s m a nd t he l i ngui s t i c t ur n l a ngua ge doe s n t j us t r e pr e s e nt r e a l i t y i t m a ke s i t I n t he w o r ds of one c om m e nt a t or w i t h t he l i ngui s t i c t ur n w e c om e t o s e e t ha t no t r ut hs a r e s o t o s pe a k, unt ouc he d by hum a n ha nds ( A nde r s on, 1995, p. 9)

PAGE 13

10 M y c onc e r n i s t ha t t he c onc e pt of t r ut h w hi l e i t m a y be e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l l y pr obl e m a t i c t o s om e s t i l l s e r ve s a us e f ul nor m a t i v e f unc t i on i n t he s t r uggl e a ga i ns t di s i nf or m a t i on, f a l s e f l a gs a nd va r i ous ot he r c ont e m por a r y i nc a r na t i ons o f bul l s hi t F r om t he out s e t I w oul d l i ke t o s t a t e t ha t m y s ym pa t hi e s a r e w i t h s ke pt i c i s m hypot he t i c i s m a nd t he i nt e r pr e t i ve l i c e ns e a l l ow e d by m y c hos e n di s c i pl i ne c om m uni c a t i on. Y e t I a m a l s o, i n pr i nc i pl e i f not i n pr a xi s a l a t e nt e m pi r i c i s t pr oba bl y ow i ng t o t he i n f l ue nc e of m y pa r e nt s w ho a r e s oc i a l s c i e nt i s t s W he n A l a n S oka l s ( 1996) hoa x on t he pos t m ode r n e s t a bl i s hm e nt be c a m e publ i c I r e m e m be r m y f a t he r pum pi ng hi s f i s t i n vi ndi c a t i on M y a c a de m i c m i s s i on i s di pl om a c y be t w e e n pos i t i vi s m a nd pos t m ode r n pos i t i ons I l oa t he t o s a va ge pos t m ode r ni s m w i t h t he s noot y i ndi gna nc e of s a y, R oge r K i m ba l l ( 1998) ye t I c onf e s s t o w i ns om e nos t a l gi a f or t he ol d r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l m ode l T he s c i e nc e w a r s ( K oe r t ge 1998; T he E di t o r s o f L i ngua F r a nc a 2000; H a c ki ng, 1999) r e f e r t o a r a t he r publ i c e r upt i on o f a ni m os i t y be t w e e n s o c a l l e d pos t m ode r ni s t s a nd t he i r f oe s A s pos t m ode r n t e ne t s be c a m e i nc r e a s i ngl y i ns t i t ut i ona l i z e d i n t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y, c e r t a i n s hr i l l voi c e s m a i nt a i ne d t ha t t he e m pe r or s l uxur i ous ne w f a br i c w a s not hi ng bu t a bi r t hda y s ui t T he s c i e nc e w a r s e vi nc e a r a t he r f l a gr a nt w a r dr obe m a l f unc t i on be t w e e n di s c ur s i ve r e gi m e s T he r e i s pl e nt y of s ur pl us ho t a i r i n t he s c i e nc e w a r s I t a ppe a r s t o be a dom a i n l oa d e d w i t h bl us t e r but s om e t i m e s l a c ki ng i n s i nc e r e di a l ogue T he bom ba r dm e nt o f hype r bo l e l e a ve s a ba t t l e f i e l d l i t t e r e d w i t h e vi s c e r a t e d s t r a w m e n. I ns t e a d of t a ki ng s i de s a nd hol di ng on f or de a r l i f e I ha ve be e n c a r r i e d t o a nd f r o on e a c h pol e m i c a l gus t w i t h be m us e d de t a c hm e nt ( E i s e nbe r g, 2007) M y goa l i s not t o de c i de be t w e e n r e a l i s m or r e l a t i vi s m i f t ha t dua l i s m i s e ve n va l i d. I ns t e a d, I a m i nt e r e s t e d i n t he r he t or i c a l s t r a t e gy o f c a s t i ng doub t on r e c e i ve d know l e dge T o be

PAGE 14

11 pur pos e f ul l y e ni gm a t i c i s t o l e a ve ope n t he pos s i bi l i t y of i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd di a l ogue W ho be ne f i t s w he n, i n t he i n t e r e s t s of f ul l di s c l os ur e a t he or y l a ys ba r e i t s pa r a m e t e r s ? T he r e i s a po l i t i c a l ut i l i t y i n be i ng a m bi guous a nd I w onde r i f s om e ki nds of a c a de m i c di s c our s e s r e s i s t c o he s i on by be i ng w i l l f ul l y va gue S om e t i m e s i n t hi s t he s i s I w i l l t r y on a pos i t i on f or s i z e a nd f or t he s a ke of a r gum e nt pl a y de vi l s a dvoc a t e a s i t w e r e F or m e t he r e i s v e r y l i t t l e t ha t i s hol y w r i t a bs ol ut e l y be yond r e pr oa c h. W hi l e t he c om m uni c a t i on di s c i pl i ne ha s nour i s he d m y i n t e l l e c t ua l gr ow t h, t o pa r a phr a s e N i e t z s c he one r e pa ys a t e a c he r poor l y by r e m a i ni ng a s t ude nt I n hi s P r ol e gom e na I m m a nue l K a nt ha s w r i t t e n H u m a n r e a s on s o de l i ght s i n bui l di ng t ha t i t ha s s e ve r a l t i m e s bui l t up a t ow e r a nd t he n r a z e d i t t o s e e how t he f ounda t i on w a s l a i d ( 1950, p 4 ) K a r l P oppe r s ( 1965) no t i on of hypot he t i c i s m s ugge s t s t ha t a di s c ur s i ve r e gi m e w i l l e ndu r e t he s om e t i m e s pr obi n g c r i t i c i s m t ha t t r i e s t o uns e a t i t A t ol e r a nc e f o r a m bi gui t y m i ght w a nt t o ha ve a t l e a s t a pa s s i ng i nt e r e s t i n t he hype r bol i c c l a i m s m a de by i t s w or s t c r i t i c s C om m uni c a t i on t he or y s houl d i nt e r r oga t e i t s ow n i m pl i c i t a s s um pt i ons a nd i t i s w i t h t ha t i n m i nd t ha t I of f e r t hi s s ur ve y.

PAGE 15

12 A P r e vi e w I n w ha t f ol l ow s I w i l l pr e vi e w t hi s doc um e nt T hi s t he s i s a i m s t o c ons i de r phi l os ophi c a l que s t i ons a bout e pi s t e m ol ogy. F i r s t I w i l l l ook a t a s s e r t i ons m a de by G r e gor y B a t e s on, K e nne t h B ur ke J a c que s D e r r i da a nd E r i c E i s e nbe r g a bout t he i m por t a nc e of c ont e xt a nd t he s t r a t e gi c u s e s of a m bi gui t y. I nc l ude d i n t hi s di s c us s i on a r e t he qua i nt c l a i m s of l ogi c a l pos i t i vi s m N e xt I w i l l e xa m i ne t he hi s t or y of i nde t e r m i na c y, pe r s pe c t i vi s m a nd a m bi gui t y, i n a di s c us s i on of A na xi m a nde r of M i l e t us F r e i dr i c h N i e t z s c he a nd ot he r s T hi s i s n ot m e a nt t o be a n e xha us t i ve hi s t or y, onl y a c ur s or y s a m pl i ng a s i t i s r e l e va nt t o m y br oa de r c onc e r ns T he n, I w i l l l ook a t t he s ugge s t i on, by N i e t z s c he T he odor A dor no M i c he l F ouc a ul t E i s e nbe r g a nd ot he r s t ha t t he w i l l t o c e r t a i nt y i s a ki n t o t ot a l i t a r i a ni s m S uc h a s ugge s t i on pos i t s a m bi gui t y a s a pol i t i c a l t ool i n r e s i s t i ng a ut hor i t a r i a n de m a nds A f t e r t ha t I i nt r oduc e t he not i on o f r e f r a m i ng w hi c h s ugge s t s a c e r t a i n m a l l e a bi l i t y of m e a ni ng. W hi l e I not e t he us e s of r e f r a m i ng i n a t h e r a pe ut i c s e t t i ng, I a l s o w onde r i f r e f r a m i ng c oul d be us e d f o r t he pur pos e of s pi n. T he n I w i l l quot e R i c ha r d R or t y D ona l d D a vi ds on a nd ot he r s i n t he i r phi l os ophi c a l de f e ns e of r e l a t i vi s m F ol l ow i ng t ha t I l ook a t t he r e l a t i ona l vi e w of c om m un i c a t i on a s a d va nc e d by C e l e s t e C ondi t N e xt I i nt r oduc e P e t e r B e r ge r a nd H a nf r i e d L uc km a nn, t w o t he or i s t s w ho a r gue d f or t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e a l i t y. I c ons i de r t he hypot he s i s t h a t w ha t pe opl e s om e t i m e s a s s um e t o

PAGE 16

13 be r e a l i s a c t ua l l y a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t a nd I poi n t o ut s om e of t he us e s of t hi s a pp r oa c h. H e r e I a m i nt e r e s t e d i n how doubt i s c a s t on c e r t a i nt y, a nd how une xa m i ne d a s s um pt i ons a r e c a l l e d i nt o que s t i on. I n a f ur t he r e xpl or a t i on of c ons t r uc t i oni s t a ppr o a c he s I l ook a t t w o t he or i s t s J udi t h B ut l e r a nd I a n H a c ki ng. T he s e t he or i s t s a r gue pe r s ua s i ve l y t ha t ge nde r a nd c hi l d a bus e r e s pe c t i ve l y, a r e s oc i a l c ons t r uc t s I t r y t o poi nt ou t t hos e pl a c e s i n t he t e xt s w he r e B ut l e r a nd H a c ki ng m a y m a y c ont r a di c t t he m s e l ve s H a vi ng s ugge s t e d t he pos s i bl e l i m i t s of t he c ons t r uc t i oni s t pos i t i on, I i nt r oduc e A l a n S oka l a phys i c i s t w i t h no t r a i ni ng i n s oc i a l s c i e nc e or t he hum a ni t i e s S oka l i s not o r i ous f or ha vi ng a w or dy s poof of pos t m ode r ni s m publ i s he d i n a l e a di ng c ul t u r a l s t udi e s j our na l Soc i al T e x t ba c k i n 19 96 A m ong ot he r t hi ngs S oka l a r gue d t ha t g r a vi t y w a s a l i ngui s t i c c ons t r uc t T he S oka l s c a nda l w hi c h s i gna l e d t he hi gh w a t e r m a r k i n t he s c i e nc e w a r s s e r ve s a s a w a y t o di s c us s e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i s s ue s r a i s e d t hus f a r S oka l t e a m e d up w i t h a B e l gi a n c ol l e a gue J e a n B r i c m ont t o publ i s h a book l e ngt h e xpl a na t i on of hi s hoa x, e nt i t l e d F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e ( 1998) T hi s book c l a i m s t o be a de f e ns e of s c i e nt i f i c r e a l i s m a nd a c r i t i que o f pos t m ode r ni s m W ha t t he book l a c ks i n s ubt l e t y i t m a ke s up f or i n vi t r i ol a nd bi t e s i z e d di da c t i c i s m W hi l e hi ghl y pr obl e m a t i c t hi s i s s t i l l a ve r y i m po r t a nt book f or m e be c a us e i t m a na ge s t o e xpl a i n c om pl i c a t e d i s s ue s of s c i e nc e c r i t i c i s m w i t hi n a n e a s i l y unde r s t ood he ur i s t i c of r e a l i s m ve r s us r e l a t i vi s m S oka l a nd B r i c m ont c l a i m t ha t a na l ogi e s f r om t he or e t i c a l phys i c s a r e s om e t i m e s e r r one ous l y e m p l oye d by s o c a l l e d pos t m ode r n t he or i s t s T hi s s e r ve s a s a n oppor t un i t y t o l ook a t a na l ogi e s f r om phys i c s i n t he w r i t i ngs of B a t e s on, F r i t of C a pr a a nd ot he r s S oka l a nd B r i c m ont s s ur ve y of r e l a t i vi s m i nt r oduc e s t he i de a s of K a r l P oppe r T hom a s K uhn a nd ot he r s w hi c h I us e a s a n

PAGE 17

14 oc c a s i on t o di s c ove r t he s e t hi nke r s a nd c ha r t t he i d e a s i n t he phi l os ophy of s c i e nc e F i na l l y I w i l l i nt r oduc e a s e l f r e f ut i ng a xi om t ha t e ve r yt hi ng i s r e l a t i ve i nc l udi ng r e l a t i vi s m I n c onc l us i on, I a r gue f or a m e a s ur e d a ppr oa c h w he n de c i di ng be t w e e n e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l bi na r i e s s uc h a s r e a l i s m ve r s us r e l a t i vi s m

PAGE 18

15 I n t r od u c t i on : T h e T e r r i t or y P r e c e d e s t h e M ap C r i t i c s o f phi l os ophy s om e t i m e s c om pl a i n t ha t i t i s ove r l y c ont e m pl a t i ve I n a book c a l l e d T he I l l us i ons of P os t m ode r ni s m t he M a r xi s t c r i t i c T e r r y E a gl e t on ( 1996) s e e s t he pr e oc c upa t i on w i t h e pi s t e m ol ogy a s s ym pt om a t i c of pol i t i c a l r e t r e a t A bout t he pol i t i c a l l e f t s i nt e r e s t i n e pi s t e m ol ogy, E a gl e t on ( 1996) w r i t e s : . i t w oul d t a ke r a t he r l e s s t ha n a c yni c t o s us pe c t t ha t s om e of t hi s m or bi d f a s c i na t i on m i ght w e l l be a f o r m o f pol i t i c a l di s pl a c e m e nt T a l k of w he t he r t he s i gni f i e r pr oduc e s t he s i gni f i e d or vi c e ve r s a va l ua bl e t hough i t doubt l e s s i s i s not qui t e w ha t s t or m e d t he W i nt e r P a l a c e or br oug ht dow n t he H e a t h gove r nm e nt ( p 13) F or E a gl e t on, e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l c onc e r ns a r e f a ul t e d f or r a r e l y t a c kl i ng c onc r e t e pol i t i c a l i s s ue s E ve r s i nc e M a r x a r gue d t ha t t he po i nt i s t o c ha nge t h e w or l d i ns t e a d of m e r e l y i nt e r pr e t i t ( R us s e l l 1959, p. 271) a n i nt e r e s t i n phi l os ophi c a l que s t i ons ha s be e n r e ga r de d a s a ki n t o qui e t i s m T hi s i s s om e t i m e s a c r i t i c i s m l e ve l e d a ga i ns t pos t m ode r ni s m ( E be r t 1996; N us s ba um 1999; S o ka l & B r i c m ont 1998 ) a nd i t i s a c ha r ge t ha t i s w or t hy of c ons i de r a t i on. I s s ue s of ph i l os ophy c a n be s e e n a s s om e how t r i vi a l e phe m e r a l or s upe r s t r uc t ur a l w he n c om pa r e d t o s uc h r e a l i t i e s a s s oc i a l i ne qua l i t y r a c i s m i m pe r i a l w a r f a r e e t c Y e t i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t M a r xi s t s ha ve hi s t or i c a l l y be e n i nve s t e d i n phi l os ophi c a l pr obl e m s F or e xa m pl e V I L e ni n ( 1970 [ 1927 ] ) w r ot e a pr odi gi ous de f e ns e of m a t e r i a l i s t phi l os ophy, a nd C ha i r m a n M a o s l e ga c y t oda y a ppe a r s

PAGE 19

16 t o be a s a n e xpos i t or of d i a l e c t i c s f or c om m uni c a t i on t he o r y ( B a xt e r & M ont gom e r y, 1996) T he f a c t t ha t t he s e M a r xi s t honc hos w e r e s o s i nc e r e l y c onc e r ne d w i t h phi l os ophi c a l m a t t e r s m i ght c ont r a di c t E a gl e t on s e qua t i on of e pi s t e m ol ogy w i t h pol i t i c a l r e t r e a t I c hos e t he d i s c i pl i ne of c om m un i c a t i on be c a us e i t s e e m e d t o m e t o o f f e r m or e c onc e r n f or l i ve d r e a l i t y t ha n di d t he m o r e f o r m a l di s c i pl i ne of phi l os ophy. I ha ve be e n i nt e r e s t e d i n phi l os ophy f o r a w hi l e M y c opy of K a nt s P r ol e gom e na t o any F ut ur e M e t aphy s i c s ha s D a vi d L e e 1987 w r i t t e n on t he i ns i de j a c ke t O f t e n, m y f a t he r a m a t e r i a l i s t a nt hr opol ogi s t c r i t i c i z e s m e f or w ha t h e f e e l s i s a n e f f e t e ove r l y c ont e m pl a t i ve i nt e r e s t i n phi l os ophy a nd a l a c k o f c onc e r n f or m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y. P hi l os ophy, m y da d poi nt s out i s a f i e l d bor n of s o c i oe c onom i c s ub j uga t i on. A nc i e nt G r e e c e a s l a ve s oc i e t y, c r e a t e d oppo r t uni t i e s f o r m e nt a l c ont e m pl a t i on pr e vi ous l y unr e a l i z e d i n m or e e ga l i t a r i a n m ode s o f pr oduc t i o n. P hi l os ophy i s a di s c our s e bor n of t he s ubj uga t i on of ot he r s I ha ve a l w a ys be e n t r oubl e d by m y f a t he r s c a t e gor i c a l obj e c t i ons t o phi l os ophy, a nd I don t w a nt t o di s m i s s t he m out r i ght T he a bs t r a c t i o n of phi l os ophy i s undoubt e dl y bo r n of pr i vi l e ge a p r i vi l e ge f or w hi c h I a m ve r y gr a t e f ul f or Y e t t he r e a r e m a ny not a bl e oc c a s i ons i n t he hum a n t a l e w he r e phi l os ophy de s c e nds f r om i t s i vor y t ow e r t o i nt e r a c t i n t he r ough a nd t um bl e w o r l d of ot he r s T he f i e l d o f c om m uni c a t i on i s i n a w a y, a f i e l d of a ppl i e d phi l os ophy. I t t a ke s i ns i ght s ga i ne d f r om p hi l os ophy a nd t r i e s t he m out i n t he pr a c t i c a l w or l d, br i n gi ng t oge t he r t he or y a nd pr a c t i c e ( e g. K na pp & D a l y, 2002 ; F r e y, B ot a n, F r i e dm a n & K r e ps 1991; S he ppa r d, S t J ohn & S t i pha s 2006; A nde r s on, B a xt e r & C i s s na 2004; G of f m a n, 1967 ) C om m uni c a t i on i s a f i e l d w he r e i de a s l e a ve t he r e a l m

PAGE 20

17 of pur e a bs t r a c t i on a nd i nt e r a c t i n t he i nt e r r e l a t i on a l i nt e r s ubj e c t i ve w or l d w he r e ot he r pe opl e r e s i de T he i nj unc t i on, c om m a nde d by c r i t i c s of c ont e m pl a t i on, t o j us t do i t s e e m s t o i nvi t e r a s hne s s a nd unr e f l e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i on. D on t t hi nk a bout t a ki ng a c t i on; j us t do s om e t hi ng, goe s t he a c t i vi s t r e f r a i n. W i t h r e s pe c t t o phi l os ophi c a l c ons i de r a t i on, w e c a n i nve r t t he s a yi ng t o r e a d, don t j us t do s om e t hi ng, s t a nd t he r e I gno r a nt o f pa s t i ns t a nc e s of t hought f u l c ons i de r a t i on, I m i ght w a nde r up a bl i nd a l l e y t ha t ha d a l r e a dy be e n m a ppe d. W hi l e t he or y i de a l l y s houl d i nc l ude e qua l pa r t s pr a c t i c e I t hi nk t ha t pr a c t i c e de voi d of t he o r y r i s ks bl unde r i ng i nt o t he w or l d of ot he r s w i t hout s uf f i c i e nt r e f l e xi ve m a nda t e T he m i s t a ke s of t he pa s t doom e d t o be r e pe a t e d. T he c r i ng i ng f a i l u r e s of M a r xi s t r e gi m e s i n t he 20 t h c e nt ur y s e r ve s a s a ba c kdr op. W hi l e I don t w a nt t o t ot a l l y r e t r e a t f r om t he m a t e r i a l w o r l d i nt o a r e a l m of pur e i de a s I be l i e ve t ha t a ny a c t i vi s m s houl d be r e f l e c t i ve a nd i nt e r r oga t e i t s ow n a s s um pt i ons oc c a s i on a l l y. T hi s he dge s a ga i ns t dogm a t i s m a nd f a na t i c i s m ( E i s e nbe r g, 200 7) I n w ha t f ol l ow s I w i l l s ugge s t t ha t i ns t e a d of be i ng t r i vi a l di s c us s i ons of know l e dge t r ut h, a nd e pi s t e m ol ogy ha ve va s t pol i t i c a l c ons e que nc e s E pi s t e m ol ogy i s a t l e a s t a s e ve r a l m i l l e nni a ol d c onve r s a t i on, a nd t he r e a r e a ny num be r of w a ys t o br e a k i nt o i t F r om t he poi nt of vi e w of t he c om m uni c a t i on di s c i pl i ne l e t us be gi n w i t h a c a noni c a l f i gu r e w ho p r ovoke d e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l que s t i ons w i t h e ve r yt hi ng he di d G r e go r y B a t e s on ha s a w onde r f ul l y r e c ur s i ve w r i t i ng s t yl e t ha t a l w a ys c ont a i n pl a yf ul e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i nve s t i ga t i ons w e a t he r hi s s t a t e d t opi c i s s c hi z ophr e ni a m e t a c om m uni c a t i on, or w ha l e l a ngua ge B a t e s on s unc a nny a bi l i t y t o f o r c e pe opl e t o t hi nk di f f e r e nt l y c a n ha ppe n t o a r e a de r w he r e ve r t he y m a y e nt e r t he c onve r s a t i on. O pe n

PAGE 21

18 t o a ny pa ge i n St e ps t o an E c ol ogy of M i nd ( 1972 ) a nd one c a n be i nt r oduc e d t o puz z l i ng e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l que s t i ons w he r e ve r B a t e s on ha ppe ns t o be I n 1969 B a t e s on ga ve a pa pe r i n H a w a i i e nt i t l e d P a t hol ogi e s of E pi s t e m ol ogy. S t a ndi ng a t t he podi um he a ddr e s s e d t hos e i n a t t e nda nc e w i t h t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i on: L e t m e a s k you f or a s how of ha nds H ow m a ny of you w i l l a gr e e t ha t y ou s e e m e ? I s e e a num be r of ha nds s o I gue s s i ns a ni t y l ove s c om pa n y. O f c ou r s e y ou don t r e a l l y s e e m e W ha t you s e e i s a bunc h o f pi e c e s of i n f or m a t i on a bout m e w hi c h you s ynt he s i z e i nt o a pi c t ur e of m e Y ou m a ke t ha t i m a ge I t s t ha t s i m pl e ( i n B a t e s on, 1972: p. 486) M os t pe opl e a s s um e t ha t t he i r s e ns e da t a pr ovi d e s a n a c c ur a t e r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he m a t e r i a l w or l d F o r B a t e s on, s uc h na i ve r e a l i s m i s a s or t of i ns a ni t y. W ha t pe opl e t a ke t o be a n una dul t e r a t e d a ppr e he ns i on of r e a l i t y i s r e a l l y a c om pl e x pe r c e pt ua l a nd bi ophys i c a l pr oc e s s R a ys of l i ght hi t a n obj e c t w hi c h m a ke s a n i m pr e s s i on on a r e t i na w hi c h i s c onve r t e d i nt o bi na r y ne u r ol ogi c a l pul s e s w hi c h i s c ont r a s t e d di f f e r e nt i a l l y w i t h ot he r s uc h c ode s i n m e m or y ba nks e t c B a t e s on s a ys Y ou m a ke t he i m a ge i t s t ha t s i m pl e ye t t he pr oc e s s he a l l ude s t o i s c om pl e x I n m os t of hi s w r i t i ngs B a t e s on w i l l go out of h i s w a y t o que s t i on c om m onl y he l d vi e w s a nd t r oubl e t he c om m onl y he l d r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l s t a ndpoi nt B a t e s on s e xa m pl e s w i l l be us e d t hr ough out t hi s t he s i s t o s ugge s t t he nor m a t i ve f i c t i ons i m pl i c i t w i t h i n di s t i nc t i ons ( s uc h a s r e a l i t y a nd i t s r e pr e s e nt a t i ons s i gni f i e r s a nd t he i r s i gni f i e ds f a c t a nd f i c t i on, e t c ) G oi ng ba c k ove r B a t e s on s w r i t i ngs ove r t he ye a r s I a m i m p r e s s e d by hi s s t oi c t ol e r a nc e f or a n a m bi guous w or l d w he r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ons don t r e pl i c a t e t he i r obj e c t s w i t h a ny pa r t i c ul a r f i de l i t y. W ha t i s c om m onl y r e ga r de d a s gi ve n f a c t s a r e t o B a t e s on l i ke a r e f l e xi ve ha l l o f f unhous e m i r r o r s F o r a n e a r l i e r e xa m pl e B a t e s on ha s a l l ude d t o

PAGE 22

19 e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i s s ue s be s e t t i ng t he hum a n s c i e nc e s i n hi s ( 1972 [ 1954] ) e s s a y A T he or y of P l a y a nd F a nt a s y. A c c or di ng t o B a t e s on, w e hum a ns o f t e n m i s t a ke our r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t hi ngs f o r t he obj e c t s t he m s e l ve s B a t e s on ( 1972 [ 1954 ] ) e xpl a i ns t h i s pr obl e m a t i c t hus l y: W e a l l t oo o f t e n r e s pond a ut om a t i c a l l y t o ne w s pa pe r he a dl i ne s a s t hough t he s e s t i m ul i w e r e di r e c t obj e c t i ndi c a t i ons of e ve nt s i n our e nvi r onm e nt i ns t e a d of s i gna l s c onc oc t e d a nd t r a ns m i t t e d by c r e a t ur e s a s c om pl e xl y m ot i va t e d a s our s e l ve s ( p. 178) I n t h i s vi e w s om e t hi ng l i ke a ne w s pa pe r a r t i c l e s houl d not be unc r i t i c a l l y r e c e i ve d a s a n unm e di a t e d r e pl i c a t i on o f r e a l i t y. T hi s i ns i ght i s c ongr ue nt w i t h t he G e ne r a l S e m a nt i c s m ove m e nt w hos e j our na l s B a t e s on of t e n publ i s he d i n ( M C B a t e s on, 1999: p xi ) C e nt e r e d a r ound phi l os oph e r o f s c i e nc e A l f r e d K o r z ybs ki G e ne r a l S e m a nt i c s i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he t r ui s m t ha t t he m a p s houl d be d i s t i ngui s he d f r om t he t e r r i t o r y ( B a t e s on, 1972, p 180 ) J us t a s a m a p i s not t he s a m e a s t he t e r r i t or y i t de not e s s o i s l a ngua ge t o be di s t i ngui s he d f r om t he phe nom e na i t r e pr e s e nt s T he m a p t e r r i t or y r e l a t i on i s e xpr e s s e d i n t he hum or ous i nj unc t i on don t e a t t he m e nu. R e pr e s e nt a t i ons a r e not m i r r or i m a ge s of r e a l i t y, but a r e a bs t r a c t i ons de pe nde nt on t he pos i t i on bi a s e s a nd s e l e c t i vi t y of t he obs e r ve r A s s uc h, t he t r ut h of a phe nom e non i s ha r d t o obt a i n W he n r e f e r r i ng t o t hi ngs w e s houl d oc c a s i ona l l y r e m i nd our s e l ve s t ha t w e a r e r e f e r r i ng t o our l i ngui s t i c c ons t r uc t s a nd not t he t hi ngs t he m s e l ve s K or z ybs ki ( 1973 [ 1933] ) c ont r a s t e d l i ne a r e i t he r / or A r i s t ot e l i a n l ogi c w i t h s o c a l l e d n on A r i s t ot e l i a n l ogi c w hi c h e m pha s i z e d r e l a t i ona l i t y a nd r e f l e xi vi t y K or z ybs ki i ns i s t s on d i s t i ngui s hi ng t he w or l d f r om our

PAGE 23

20 l i ngui s t i c c ons t r uc t s of i t A l t hough he i s pe r ha ps a n obs c ur e f i gur e K or z ybs ki i s pr ob a bl y a pr e de c e s s or of B a t e s on, a s w e l l a s pos t m ode r n pe r s pe c t i ve s

PAGE 24

21 T h e M ap P r e c e d e s t h e T e r r i t or y Y e t w ha t i f t he r e a r e onl y l i ngui s t i c c ons t r uc t s a nd no t hi ngs t he m s e l ve s ? T he r e c e nt l y de c e a s e d t he or i s t J e a n B a udr i l l a r d, r e ga r d e d a s a s a ge of pos t m ode r ni s m w i l l f ur t he r p r obl e m a t i z e t he m a p/ t e r r i t o r y a na l ogy. I n hi s or a c ul a r de s c r i pt i on o f hype r r e a l i t y B a udr i l l a r d ( 1988) w r i t e s : T he t e r r i t or y no l onge r pr e c e de s t he m a p, nor doe s i t s ur vi ve i t H e nc e f or t h, i t i s t he m a p t ha t p r e c e de s t he t e r r i t o r y. . t he a ge of s i m ul a t i on t hus be gi ns w i t h a l i qui da t i on of a l l r e f e r e nt i a l s ( p 167 ) F or B a udr i l l a r d, not onl y i s t he m a p t o be di s t i n gui s he d f r om t he t e r r i t or y, but t he or i gi na l r e f e r e nt upon w hi c h t he m a p w a s ba s e d i s a n a bs t r a c t i on, i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e f r om i t s s i m ul a t i ons T hi s quot e c a pt ur e s a t he m e i n pos t m ode r n di s c our s e W hi l e i n e m pi r i c i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy, a bs ol ut e or e s s e nt i a l know l e dge a bo ut t hi ngs w a s ha r d t o obt a i n, now i t s e e m s a l t oge t he r out of t he que s t i on. T hi s t ype o f phi l os o phi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve l e a ds t o a ha i r l i ne f r a c t u r e i n t he m onol i t h of e m pi r i c a l l ogi c a l a nd s c i e nt i f i c i nqui r y. S i gna t ur e E ve nt C ont e xt by J a c que s D e r r i da ( 1991) i s a de c ons t r uc t i ve r e a di ng of t i e nne B onnot de C ondi l l a c E dm und H us s e r l a n d, t o a gr e a t e r e xt e nt J L A us t i n. I n w ha t f ol l ow s I w i l l us e t hi s e s s a y t o di s c us s t he e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l pr obl e m a t i c s of pos t m ode r ni s m D e r r i da c om m e nt s on t he m a p t e r r i t or y r e l a t i on, us i ng di f f e r e nt t e r m i nol ogy. D e r r i da m e nt i ons t he pr obl e m of pol ys e m i a ( p. 83) w hi c h m e a ns t ha t a

PAGE 25

22 t e xt c a n ha ve m ul t i pl e m e a ni ngs P ol ys e m i a i s i m p l i c a t e d i n a p r oc e s s t ha t i t s e e m s t o m e i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a m bi gui t y F o r D e r r i da a s f or s t r uc t ur a l l i ngui s t i c s ( C ul l e r 1976) t he r e a r e no a bs ol ut e m e a ni ngs f or w or ds T he de f i ni t i ons of w or ds t he m s e l ve s de pe nd on ot he r de f i ni t i ons w hi c h de pe nd on ot he r s a d i nf i ni t um T he s un i s ve r y b r i ght onl y a c c or di ng t o t he c om pa r i s on w e c a n m a ke T o s om e one on P l ut o a ve r y br i ght s un m i gh t l ook l i ke a 40 w a t t bul b W o r ds c a n a l s o m e a n di f f e r e nt t hi ngs de pe ndi ng on how t he y a r e a r r a nge d i n a s e nt e nc e I t s e e m s t ha t f or D e r r i d a w r i t i ng i s s om e t hi ng e a s i l y t a ke n ou t of c ont e xt a s i t i s quot e d a nd c i t e d. I n t he pr oc e s s of s uc h t r a ns pos i t i on, t he or i gi na l m e a ni ng of a t e xt i s not pr e s e r ve d. W he r e na i ve m ode l s of c om m uni c a t i on pos i t a s i m pl e t r a ns m i s s i on of m e a ni ng, D e r r i da poi n t s out t ha t t h i s i s a c t ua l l y a ve r y m e di a t e d, ne got i a t e d pr oc e s s t i e nne B onnot de C ondi l l a c w a s a n 18 t h c e nt ur y e m pi r i c i s t phi l os ophe r w ho w r ot e E s s a y on t he O r i gi n of H um a n K now l e dge F o r C ondi l l a c l a ngua ge w a s a pr oc e s s of t r unc a t i on, w hi c h ne ve r t he l e s s pr e s e r ve d t he or i gi n a l m e a ni ng of t hi ngs F or C ondi l l a c l a ngua ge c oul d a bbr e vi a t e i de a s w i t hout undue a l t e r a t i on of t he i r m e a ni ngs I n s uc h a r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l vi e w of l a ngua ge w r i t i ng ha s t he a bi l i t y t o t r a ns m i t m e a ni ng una bbr e vi a t e d. S um m a r i z i ng t hi s vi e w D e r r i da ( 1 991) w r i t e s : T he hi s t or y o f w r i t i ng w i l l c onf o r m t o a l a w o f m e c ha ni c a l e c onom y: t o ga i n t he m os t s pa c e a nd t i m e by m e a ns of t he m os t c onve ni e nt a bbr e vi a t i on; i t w i l l ne ve r ha ve t he l e a s t e f f e c t on t he s t r uc t ur e a nd c ont e nt o f t he m e a ni ng ( of i de a s ) t ha t i t w i l l ha ve t o ve hi c ul a t e ( p. 86) F or C ondi l l a c l a ngua ge i s a one t o one r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t hi ngs D e r r i da ( 1991 ) i t a l i c i z e s w or ds i n C ondi l l a c s e s s a y t ha t r e ve a l hi s r he t or i c a l s t r a t e gy. W o r ds l i ke s i m pl e s i m pl y

PAGE 26

23 a nd s uc c i nc t s how how C ondi l l a c s a w r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s a s a na t ur a l pr og r e s s i on f r om pi c t og r a phs t o t he w r i t t e n w or d. B y hi ghl i ght i ng t he s e w or ds D e r r i da s ugge s t s t ha t C ondi l l a c s di s c our s e i s one of s i m pl i f i c a t i on om i s s i on, a nd a bs e nc e t hi s a bs e nc e i s ne ve r e xa m i ne d by C ondi l l a c ( 1991 p 88 ) F or D e r r i da t he r e i s no ne a t l i ne a r pr ogr e s s i on f r om i de a s t o w r i t i ng. L i ke B a t e s on, D e r r i da poi nt s out how t he r e i s no s i m pl e c or r e s ponde nc e be t w e e n i de a s a nd t he i r r e p r e s e nt a t i ons F or D e r r i da a bs e nc e i s a f e a t ur e of al l w r i t i ng ( 1991, p. 88) S i m i l a r l y f o r B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h ( 1951) c odi f i c a t i on i s a p r oc e s s of om i s s i on. I n t he i r di s c us s i on of t he f i gu r e / gr ound phe nom e non, B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h ( 1951) s how t h a t t he a bi l i t y t o pe r c e i ve r e l i e s on t he i nhi bi t i on of gr a t ui t ous s e ns e da t a P e r c e pt i on, or t he m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of s e ns or y i nf or m a t i on, r e l i e s on a bs e nc e C ondi l l a c w a nt s t o r e t r a c e t he p r ogr e s s of w r i t i ng ba c k t o s om e o r i gi na r y pr e s e nc e a c c or di ng t o D e r r i da ( 1991 ) I ns t e a d, f or D e r r i da e ve r y s i gn s uppos e s a c e r t a i n a bs e nc e ( 1991, p. 89 ) A w r i t t e n t e xt t a ke s on a l i f e of i t s ow n a nd t he or i gi na l c ont e xt be c om e s l os t A w r i t t e n s i gn i s pr of f e r e d i n t he a b s e n c e of a n a ddr e s s e e ( D e r r i da 1991 p. 90) I n w r i t i ng, t he a udi e nc e i s not know n, but s t i l l t he m e s s a ge m us t be l e gi bl e or i t e r a bl e A l l w r i t i ng t he r e f or e i n o r de r t o be w ha t i t i s m us t be a bl e t o f unc t i on i n t he r a di c a l a bs e nc e of e ve r y e m pi r i c a l l y de t e r m i ne d a ddr e s s e e i n ge ne r a l ( D e r r i da 1991, p. 91) I n t hi s v i e w r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s a br e a k; a de a t h of p r e s e nc e W r i t i ng c ont i nue s t o f unc t i on a s a c ode e ve n i n t he e ve nt t ha t no one i s l e f t w ho c a n r e a d i t T he t e xt i s l i ke a n a ut om a t on t ha t ke e ps s i gni f yi ng e ve n a f t e r t he a ut h or i s l ong gone U nl i ke m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons w r i t i ng c ont i nue s t o a c t e ve n a f t e r t he non pr e s e nc e of t he a ut hor T he i m por t a nc e of D e r r i da s e s s a y he r e i s t o s ugge s t t ha t i n t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n m a p a nd

PAGE 27

24 t e r r i t or y t he m a p m a y t a ke on a l i f e o f i t s ow n. T h e t e r r i t o r y, m e a nw hi l e i s now he r e t o be f ound. D e r r i da ( 1991) de s c r i be s w r i t i ng a s a n i t e r a t i v e s t r uc t ur e c ut o f f f r om a ny a bs ol ut e r e s pons i bi l i t y ( p. 92) I nt e r e s t i ng t ha t t he f ound e r of W e s t e r n ph i l os ophy, S oc r a t e s di s l i ke d w r i t i ng, be c a us e i t l a c ke d t he a c c ount a bi l i t y of o r a l di a l ogue T hi s i s w ha t D e r r i da i s r e f e r e nc i ng w he n he m e nt i ons t he P hae dr us di a l ogue of P l a t o ( 1991, p. 92) W i t h w r i t i ng m e a ni ngs a r e not t r a ns m i t t e d unm e di a t e d f r om c ons c i ous ne s s t o c ons c i ous ne s s D e r r i da w r i t e s : a w r i t t e n s i gn c a r r i e s w i t h i t a f or c e of br e a ki ng w i t h i t s c ont e xt t ha t i s t he s e t of pr e s e nc e s w hi c h or ga ni z e t he m om e nt of i t s i ns c r i pt i on. T hi s f or c e of br e a ki ng i s not a n a c c i de nt a l pr e di c a t e bu t t he ve r y s t r uc t ur e o f t he w r i t t e n ( 1991, pp 92 93) B a t e s on of t e n e m pha s i z e s t he i m por t a nc e of c ont e xt but a c c or di ng t o D e r r i da w r i t i ng, by de f i ni t i on br e ak s w i t h c ont e xt W r i t i ng c a n a l w a ys be c opi e d a nd pa s t e d i nt o ne w c ont e xt s N o c ont e xt c a n e nc l os e i t I n a di s c us s i on of H us s e r l D e r r i da no t e s t ha t a s t a t e m e nt c a n be pos s i bl e w i t hout i t s r e f e r e nt ( 199 1, p 94) T hi s c oul d be c om pa r e d t o B a udr i l l a r d s c l a i m t ha t t he m a p pr e c e de s t he t e r r i t or y. D e r r i da l ooks a t a m bi guous phr a s e s t ha t l a c k gr a m m a t i c a l m e a ni ng, s uc h a s gr e e n i s or a nd a br a c a da br a ( 1991, p. 97) T o D e r r i da s uc h s t a t e m e nt s a r e nons e ns i c a l be c a us e of i nt e nt i ona l i t y, or w i l l t o know ( 1991, p. 96) B ut D e r r i da s how s t ha t a s t a t e m e nt l i ke l e ve r t e s t ou c a n s t i l l be c onnot a t i ve de pe ndi ng on how t he w o r ds a r e s pe l l e d ( 1991, p. 97) D e r r i da i s t r yi ng t o s how t ha t a l l w r i t i ng i s s ubj e c t t o c i t a t i ona l gr a f t i ng ( p. 97) D e r r i da a nd t he

PAGE 28

25 de c ons t r uc t i ve e t hos he s pa w ne d, s e e ks t o t r oubl e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s i gni f i e r a nd s i gni f i e d; m a p a nd t e r r i t o r y. M a r t i n H e i de gge r a n i nt e l l e c t ua l p r e de c e s s or of D e r r i da a nd de c ons t r uc t i on, l i ke d t o c r e a t e e ni gm a t i c s e nt e nc e s H e i de gge r s ( 1977) s e nt e nc e s t a ke n out of c ont e xt s uc h a s B e i ng i s a l w a ys t he B e i ng of a be i ng ( p. 50) a nd T he B e i ng of be i ngs i s not a be i ng ( p. 46 ) a r e puz z l i ng a nd a ppe a r nons e ns i c a l S uc h a m bi guous s e nt e nc e s w e r e pr e s um a bl y i nt e nde d t o c onnot e how l a ngua ge f a i l s t o de s c r i be t he m ys t e r y o f e xi s t e nc e A r gua bl y s uc h c onvol ut e d s e nt e nc e s c oul d a l s o c ons t i t ut e a m a dde ni ng obs c ur a nt i s m F or H e i de gge r l a ngua ge w a s una bl e t o a c c e s s or i gi na r y pr e s e nc e J L A us t i n w a s a 20 t h c e nt ur y phi l os ophe r o f l a n gua ge A us t i n s ( 1962) not i on of i l l oc ut i ona r y a c t s i s s om e t i m e s c i t e d i n c ont e m p or a r y t he or y ( B ut l e r 1993 1997; S e a r l e 1995) t o de m ons t r a t e t ha t l a ngua ge doe s m or e t ha n j us t s t a t e t he f a c t s F o r A us t i n l a ngua ge doe s not m e r e l y r e pr e s e nt t he w or l d but i t pe r f o r m s a c e r t a i n ki nd o f a c t i on. D e r r i da ( 1991 ) i nt r oduc e s A us t i n i n or de r t o e xpl o r e t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n w r i t i ng a nd s pe e c h. I n a n a ppr e c i a t i ve a s s e s s m e nt of A us t i n, D e r r i da ( 1991 ) w r i t e s : i t c oul d a ppe a r t ha t A us t i n ha s e xpl ode d t he c on c e pt of c om m uni c a t i on a s a pur e l y s e m i ot i c l i ngui s t i c o r s ym bol i c c onc e pt T he pe r f or m a t i ve i s a c om m uni c a t i on w hi c h doe s not e s s e nt i a l l y l i m i t i t s e l f t o t r a ns por t i ng a n a l r e a dy c ons t i t ut e d s e m a nt i c c ont e nt gua r de d by i t s ow n a i m i ng a t t r ut h( p 98) A us t i n c a n be s e e n a s a n e a r l y c r i t i c o f t he t r a ns m i s s i on m ode l of c om m uni c a t i on A us t i n obj e c t e d t o t he c i t a t i on of pe r f o r m a t i ve u t t e r a nc e s w hi c h he f e l t de s t r oye d t he or i gi na l c ont e xt w i t h i n w hi c h a s t a t e m e nt w a s m a de A us t i n s a w c i t a t i on a s a n a bno r m a l pa r a s i t i c a l pr oc e s s be s t t o be a voi de d ( D e r r i da 19 91, p 103) Y e t i t s e e m s t ha t f or

PAGE 29

26 D e r r i da c i t a t i ona l i t y i s una voi da bl e P e r f or m a t i ve or i l l oc ut i ona r y a c t s a r e s ubj e c t t o t he s a m e c i t a bi l i t y a s t e xt s A s l ong a s s uc h s pe e c h a c t s a r e i t e r a bl e or r e pe a t a bl e t he n t he y a r e w or ks of i nde t e r m i na t e c ont e xt D e r r i da a s ks : C oul d a pe r f or m a t i ve s t a t e m e nt s uc c e e d i f i t s f or m ul a t i on di d not r e pe a t a c ode d or i t e r a bl e s t a t e m e nt i n ot he r w or ds i f t he e xpr e s s i ons I us e t o ope n a m e e t i ng, l a unc h a s hi p or m a r r i a ge w e r e not i de nt i f i a bl e a s c onf or m i ng t o a n i t e r a t i ve m ode l a nd t he r e f or e i f t he y w e r e not i de nt i f i a bl e i n a w a y a s c i t a t i on ? ( p. 104 ) F or D e r r i da s pe e c h a c t s be i ng i t e r a bl e s t a t e m e nt s a r e a l s o s ubj e c t t o c i t a t i ona l i t y, a s i s t he w r i t t e n w o r d. D e r r i da s e s s a y ha s be e n s um m a r i z e d he r e i n or de r t o gi ve a c e r t a i n f l a vor of t he pos t m ode r n z e i t ge i s t F or D e r r i da a s w e l l a s t he p os t m ode r n s e nt i m e nt t ha t e l e va t e s hi s i de a s t o or t hodoxy, t he s pa c e be t w e e n r e a l i t y/ r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd t e r r i t or y/ m a p i s t r oubl e d. R e a l i t y i s a t l e a s t a m bi guous be c a us e r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a r e l i a bl e t o ha ve be e n t a ke n out of c ont e xt i n t he pr oc e s s of i t e r a t i on. C i t a t i ona l i t y i s l i ke a ga m e of br oke n t e l e phone w he r e m e a ni ng i s t r a ns f or m e d a t e ve r y s t e p a l ong t he w a y F o r s om e one w ho m a i nt a i ns t ha t i nt e nde d m e a ni ng i s ha r d t o gr a s p, t he w r i t i ngs of D e r r i da a r e r e ga r de d a s not or i ous l y di f f i c ul t F or m e t he f a bl e d s l i di ng o f t he s i gni f i e r pa i nt s a m e nt a l i m a ge o f a s l i ppe r y e e l t ha t i s ha r d t o hol d S om e t i m e s I w o nde r i f D e r r i da e m pha s i s on abs e nc e m i ght be a t t he e xpe ns e of a nor m a t i ve m yt h t ha t c om m uni c a t i on c a n e ve n t a ke pl a c e F r a nkl y, I a l s o w i s h t ha t D e r r i da us e d pl a i ne r l a ngua ge I f hi s poi nt i s t ha t e ve r yt hi ng c a n be t a ke n out o f c ont e xt t h i s s t r i ke s m e a s a t r ui s m a nd I w onde r i f t he poi nt m i ght ha ve be e n be t t e r m a de he e di ng t he pr i nc i pl e of t ha t 14t h c e nt ur y F r a nc i s c a n f r i a r

PAGE 30

27 W i l l i a m of O c kha m w ho s t a t e d e nt i t i e s s houl d n ot be m ul t i pl i e d be y ond ne c e s s i t y ( B ur k e 1954 pp 80 81) I f D e r r i da s poi nt i s t ha t e ve r yt hi ng i s al w ay s al r e ady t a ke n out of c ont e xt t he n I w onde r how c a n w e e va l ua t e be t w e e n c i t a t i ons C a n s om e c i t a t i ons be m or e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a t h i nke r t ha n ot he r s or doe s c i t a t i ona l i t y, by de f i ni t i o n de s t r oy t he pos s i bi l i t y of a f a i t h f ul t r a ns m i s s i on of m e a ni ng? T he f a c t t ha t D e r r i da a r gue s hi s poi nt us i ng c i t a t i ons f r om o t he r t hi n ke r s i s a not he r puz z l i ng c ont r a di c t i on I he s i t a t e t o c r i t i c i z e D e r r i da w hos e phi l os ophy of de c ons t r uc t i on i nf or m s s o m uc h r e s e a r c h i n t he hum a ni t i e s a nd s oc i a l s c i e nc e s B y r a i s i ng que s t i ons a bout D e r r i da I r i s k be i ng l um pe d i n w i t h out s poke n r i ght w i ng c r i t i c s of pos t m ode r ni s m t he l i ke s of w hi c h I w oul d r a t he r d i s t a nc e m ys e l f f r om F or R oge r K i m ba l l ( 1998) D e r r i d a w a s e va s i ve w he n i t w a s r e ve a l e d t ha t P a ul de M a n ( a pr opone nt of d e c ons t r uc t i on) publ i s he d a nt i S e m i t i c a r t i c l e s i n t he e a r l y 1940s I n a book c a l l e d H i ghe r Supe r s t i t i on P a ul G r os s a nd N or m a n L e vi t t ( 1994 ) c l a i m t ha t de c ons t r uc t i on ha s a n a m bi guous r e put a t i on be c a us e of i t s e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l pe s s i m i s m ( p. 76 ) G r os s a nd L e vi t t ( 1994 ) a r e r a bi d i n t he i r bi d t o de s t r uc t de c ons t r uc t i on: D e c ons t r uc t i on hol ds t ha t t r ul y m e a ni ngf ul ut t e r a n c e i s i m pos s i bl e t ha t l a ngua ge i s ul t i m a t e l y i m pot e nt . . S t r i ngs of w or ds w he t he r on t he pa ge or i n our he a ds ha ve a t be s t a s ha dow y a nd uns t a bl e r e l a t i on t o r e a l i t y. I n f a c t r e a l i t y i s i t s e l f a m e r e c ons t r uc t t he pe r s i s t e nt b ut i l l us or y r e m na nt of t he W e s t e r n m e t a phys i c a l t r a di t i on. T he r e i s no r e a l i t y out s i de t he t e xt but t e xt s t he m s e l ve s a r e ve r t i gi nous l y uns t a bl e i nhe r e nt l y s e l f c ont r a di c t or y a nd s e l f c a nc e l i ng ( p. 76 I t a l i c s a dde d) G r os s a nd L e vi t t i l l us t r a t e t he pr oc e s s of c i t a t i o na l i t y be a ut i f ul l y D e r r i da s nua nc e d t he or i e s a r e c a r i c a t ur e d, t he n bu r n e d i n e f f i gy T he i r quot e i l l us t r a t e s t he f e r vo r o f ba c kl a s h a ga i ns t pos t m ode r ni s m ge ne r a l l y a nd de c ons t r uc t i on i n pa r t i c ul a r G r os s a nd

PAGE 31

28 L e vi t t t h r e w t he i r ha t s i nt o t he r i ng e a r l y on dur i ng t he s o c a l l e d s c i e nc e w a r s T he y r e pr e s e nt t he f i r s t w a ve of book s t ha t l oudl y pr oc l a i m t ha t a l l t hi s de c ons t r uc t i on bus i ne s s ha d gone f a r e nough. N ot i c e t he pha l l oc e nt r i c a nxi e t y i n t he i r quot e a bove w he n t he y e qua t e de c ons t r uc t i on w i t h e r e c t i l e dys f unc t i on

PAGE 32

29 B at e s on : P os i t i vi s t or P os t m od e r n i s t ? L i ke D e r r i da B a t e s on e m pha s i z e s di f f e r e nc e i n a w a y t ha t c oul d m a ke hi m he r a l d t he c om i ng of de c ons t r uc t i on B a t e s on de f i ne d i nf o r m a t i on a s a ny di f f e r e nc e w hi c h m a ke s a di f f e r e nc e ( 1972 pp 381 ) Y e t t he r e i s a not he r s e ns e i n w hi c h B a t e s on c oul d be s e e n a s be hol di ng t o pos t m ode r ni s m s pa s s a nt e c e de nt pos i t i vi s m S pe c i f i c a l l y B a t e s on i s f ond of B e r t r a nd R us s e l l s T he or y o f L ogi c a l T ype s a s a m e a ns of di s t i ngui s hi ng be t w e e n l e ve l s of a bs t r a c t i on i n s t a t e m e nt s ( 1972, p 180 ) R us s e l l i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a na l yt i c a l t hi nke r s i n t he t r a di t i on of B r i t i s h e m pi r i c i s m a s w e l l a s l ogi c a l pos i t i vi s m D oe s t hi s m a ke B a t e s on a pos i t i vi s t ? T o be s ur e pos i t i vi s m i s a n a m bi guous t e r m w h i c h ha s be c om e a s c a pe goa t f or e ve r yt hi ng t ha t pos t m ode r ni s t s w i s h t o di s t a nc e t h e m s e l ve s f r om B ut w ha t i s i t e xa c t l y t ha t pe opl e r e f e r e nc e w he n t he y i nvoke pos i t i vi s m i n t he ne ga t i ve ; a s t e r m of de r i s i on? A c c or di ng t o B e r t r a nd R us s e l l ( 1959) pos i t i vi s m i s a t e r m de r i ve d f r om t he A ugus t C om t e w ho c r e a t e d a pos i t i ve phi l os ophy gr oun d e d i n s e ns or y e xpe r i e nc e ( p 274 ) C om t e s a w phi l os ophy a s a hol dove r f r om m e t a phys i c s w hi c h he w oul d r e pl a c e w i t h a s c i e nc e of m a n he c hr i s t e ne d a s s oc i ol ogy ( R us s e l l 1959, p 275 ) L ogi c a l pos i t i vi s m a s pe c i a l i ns t a nc e of pos i t i vi s m w a s a pr oduc t of t he V i e nna C i r c l e t he or i s t s s uc h a s S c hl i c k, N e ur a t h, a nd C a r na p ( R us s e l l 1959, p 306) L i ke C om t e t he l ogi c a l pos i t i vi s t s r e j e c t e d m e t a phys i c s a nd he l d t ha t s c i e nc e pr ovi de s t he s um t ot a l of hum a n

PAGE 33

30 know l e dge ( R us s e l l 1959, p 306 ) W he n pe opl e i nvo ke pos i t i vi s m i n t he ne ga t i ve i t i s pr oba bl y m e a nt a s a n a ni m a dve r s i on of s c i e nt i s m A c c or di ng t o A J A ye r i n hi s e xpos i t i on of l ogi c a l pos i t i vi s m c a l l e d L anguage T r ut h, and L ogi c ( 1 946) a ny s t a t e m e nt t ha t i s not e m pi r i c a l l y ve r i f i a bl e c a n be c ons i gne d t o t he r e a l m of m e t a phys i c a l nons e ns e ( p. 31) Y e t A ye r s di s m i s s a l a l ong w i t h W i t t ge ns t e i n s ( 1961 [ 1921 ] ) k i l l j oy i n j unc t i on a t t he c l os i ng of hi s T r ac t at us W ha t w e c a nnot s pe a k a bout m us t be pa s s e d ove r i n s i l e nc e ( p. 74 ) ha s n ot de t e r r e d t he e xpone nt i a l pr oduc t i on of a c a de m i c di s c our s e F or pos i t i vi s m unl e s s m e a ni ng c a n be ve r i f i e d, one m us t c l a m up. F or de c ons t r uc t i on, m e a ni ng i s pol ys e m i c a nd c a n ne ve r be t r a ns m i t t e d e xa c t l y s o a vow of s i l e nc e i s be s i de s t he poi nt U nl i ke pos t m ode r n a nd r e l a t i ona l ( C ondi t 2006 ) a ppr oa c he s a n e m pi r i c i s t or pos i t i vi s t e pi s t e m ol og y pr e s um e s a s t a bl e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he m a p a nd t e r r i t or y o r be t w e e n w or ds a nd t he t hi ngs t he y r e pr e s e nt F or t he e a r l y W i t t ge ns t e i n, i f c e r t a i n w or ds i n a s e nt e nc e l a c ke d a uni ve r s a l l y a gr e e d upon de f i ni t i on, t he e nt i r e s e nt e nc e s houl d be s t r i c ke n f r om t he r e c or d I n t he c l os i ng s t a nz a s of t he T r ac t at us W i t t ge ns t e i n ( 1961 [ 1921] ) w r i t e s : T he c or r e c t m e t hod i n phi l os ophy w oul d r e a l l y be t he f ol l ow i ng: t o s a y not hi ng e xc e pt w h a t c a n be s a i d, i e pr opos i t i ons of na t ur a l s c i e nc e i e s om e t hi ng t ha t ha s not hi ng t o do w i t h phi l os ophy a nd t he n, w he ne ve r s om e one e l s e w a nt e d t o s a y s om e t hi ng m e t a phys i c a l t o de m ons t r a t e t o hi m t ha t he ha d f a i l e d t o gi ve a m e a ni ng t o c e r t a i n s i gns i n hi s p r opos i t i ons ( pp. 73 74, 6 44) F o r t he e a r l y W i t t ge ns t e i n, a ny s t a t e m e nt i n ph i l os ophy w hi c h l a c ke d t he de duc t i ve r i gor o f s c i e nt i f i c m e t hod c oul d be de e m e d nons e ns i c a l T hi s a r gum e nt w a s s e i z e d upon by t he V i e nna c i r c l e pos i t i vi s t s t o W i t t g e ns t e i n s l a t e r l a m e nt a t i on. W i t t ge ns t e i n w oul d, i n t he c our s e of t he s e c ond w i nd of hi s c a r e e r s e e k t o r e pudi a t e t he l ogi c a l a t om i s m of

PAGE 34

31 t he T r ac t at us ( R us s e l l 1959, p 309 ) T he l a t e r W i t t ge ns t e i n w oul d de ny t ha t l a ngua ge c a n e ve r be pur i f i e d o r br oke n dow n i nt o e l e m e nt a l c ons t i t ue nt s pr e f e r r i ng i ns t e a d t o f oc us on t he pr a c t i c a l us a ge of w or ds ( R us s e l l 195 9, p 309) T he de m a r c a t i on by pos i t i vi s m be t w e e n e m pi r i c a l f a c t s a nd m e t a phys i c a l nons e ns e ha s pr ove n t o be no t a l w a ys e a s i l y di s t i ngui s ha bl e ( D e r r i da 1991; R or t y 1991 ; H a c ki ng, 1999) T he de f i n i t i on o f w or ds i n a s e nt e nc e t he m s e l ve s de pe nd on ot he r w or ds w hi c h de pe nd on ot he r s a nd s o on. T hi s b r i ngs us ba c k t o l a ngua ge T he pos i t i on t ha t w or ds ha ve no t r a ns c ont e xt ua l m e a ni ng i s know n a s nom i na l i s m ( B ur ke 1945 p 248 ) T he nom i na l i s t I a n H a c ki ng que s t i ons t he a ppa r e nt l y f i xe d a nd gi ve n de f i ni t i on o f w or ds H a c ki ng ( 1999) w r i t e s : H i gh l e ve l s e m a nt i c a l w or ds l i ke f a c t r e a l t r ue a nd know l e dge a r e t r i c ky. T he i r de f i ni t i ons be i ng p r one t o vi c i ous c i r c l e s e m ba r r a s s t he m a ke r s of di c t i ona r i e s ( p. 80) L i ke H a c ki ng, a bove B a t e s on ( 1972) l i s t s a bunc h of w o r ds s uc h a s i ns t i nc t e go, m i nd, a nd s e l f a nd t he n he pr oc e e ds t o c a l l t he m a l l i nt o que s t i on: I c a l l t he s e he ur i s t i c c onc e pt s ; but i n t r ut h m os t of t he m a r e s o l oos e l y de r i ve d a nd s o m ut ua l l y i r r e l e va nt t ha t t he y m i x t o ge t he r t o m a ke a s or t o f c onc e pt ua l f og w hi c h doe s m uc h t o de l a y t he pr og r e s s of s c i e nc e ( p. xxvi ) A c c or di ng t o i t s c r i t i c s r e a l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy i s ba s e d on a l ogi c a l f l a w na m e l y, t ha t t he w or ds w e c hoos e c a n ne ve r ha ve a s i m pl e unm e di a t e d r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he t hi ngs t he y de s c r i be T he t opi c s o f t hi s t he s i s pos t m ode r ni s m pe r s pe c t i vi s m a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s m s ke pt i c i s m s ol i ps i s m r e l a t i vi s m e t c : a l l r us h i n l i ke a c ol d gus h of w i nd.

PAGE 35

32 P os t m ode r n pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e of t e n s ke pt i c a l of e m pi r i c a l da t a R a t he r t ha n s e e i ng da t a a s a n unm e di a t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on of r e a l i t y, a pos t m ode r ni s t m i ght que s t i on t he pol i t i c a l m ot i va t i ons a nd f r a m i ng t e c hni que s be hi nd a s s e r t i ons of f a c t I n a qua i nt pa s s a ge f r om hi s book Sc i e nc e and t he M ode r n W or l d A l f r e d N or t h W hi t e he a d ( 1925 ) de s c r i be s t he s c i e nt i f i c e t hos of e vi de nc e a nd ge ne r a l pr i nc i pl e s : T hi s ne w t i nge t o m ode r n m i nds i s a ve he m e nt a nd pa s s i ona t e i nt e r e s t i n t he r e l a t i on of ge ne r a l pr i nc i pl e s t o i r r e duc i bl e a nd s t u bbor n f a c t s ( p 3 ) T he pos t m ode r n z e i t ge i s t c oc ks a n e ye br ow i n s us pi c i on a t e ve r yt hi ng i n W hi t e he a d s s e nt e nc e a bove A s w e ha ve s e e n w i t h D e r r i da ge ne r a l pr i nc i pl e s a nd s t ubbor n f a c t s a r e s u bj e c t t o i t e r a bi l i t y a nd c a n be t a ke n out o f c ont e x t F o r pos t m ode r n pe r s pe c t i ve s w i t hi n w hi c h de c ons t r uc t i on i s of t e n i nc l ude d, ge ne r a l pr i nc i pl e s f a c t s a nd e s pe c i a l l y t he ve he m e nc e a nd pa s s i on t ha t f ue l s t he i r w i de e ye d s e a r c h a r e a l l s us pe c t F o r M i c he l F ouc a ul t t r ut h i s a n a m bi guous c onc e pt l i nke d t o pow e r a nd s ubj uga t i on R a t he r t ha n t r ut h be i ng s om e t hi ng gl oba l t i m e l e s s or e s s e nt i a l F ouc a ul t s poke a bout r e gi m e s of t r ut h: E a c h s oc i e t y ha s i t s r e gi m e o f t r ut h, i t s ge ne r a l po l i t i c s of t r ut h; t ha t i s t he t ype s of di s c our s e w hi c h i t a c c e pt s a nd m a ke s f unc t i on a s t r ue ; t he m e c ha ni s m s a nd i ns t a nc e s w hi c h e na bl e one t o di s t i ngui s h t r ue a nd f a l s e s t a t e m e nt s t he m e a ns by w hi c h e a c h i s s a nc t i one d; t he t e c hni que s a nd pr oc e dur e s a c c or de d va l ue i n t he a c qui s i t i on o f t r ut h; t he s t a t us of t hos e w ho c ha r ge d w i t h s a yi ng w ha t c ount s a s t r ue ( 1980 p 131 ) I n t he a bove r un on s e nt e nc e f r om F ouc a ul t I no t i c e a n e qui voc a l vi e w of t r ut h a nd know l e dge T r u t h i s not s om e t hi ng s i m pl e t ha t r e m a i ns a f t e r a l l va l ue j udge m e nt s ha ve

PAGE 36

33 be e n t r i m m e d a w a y. W he r e a s f or W hi t e he a d, f a c t s a r e r udi m e nt a l s t ubbor n i r r e duc i bl e e l e m e nt s f or F ouc a ul t f a c t s a r e pr oduc e d r e l a t i ve t o t he pol i t i c a l i m pe r i t i ve s o f a gi ve n s oc i e t y. C om pa r e W hi t e he a d s s e nt e nc e a bove w i t h t he f ol l ow i ng quot e f r om M i c he l F ouc a ul t : . a l l know l e dge r e s t s upon i nj us t i c e . t he r e i s no r i ght not e ve n i n t he a c t of know i ng, t o t r ut h or a f ounda t i on f or t r u t h. . t he i ns t i nc t f or know l e dge i s m a l i c i ous ( s om e t hi ng m ur de r ous oppos e d t o t he h a ppi ne s s of m a nki n d) ( quot e d i n W ol i n 2004 p 42 ) I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t pos t m ode r n pe r s pe c t i ve s w i t h t he i r i nc r e dul i t y t ow a r ds m e t a na r r a t i ve s ( L yot a r d 1984 ) a r e a c ont e m por a r y i nc a r na t i on of a phi l os ophi c a l l e ga c y t ha t i s s us pi c i ous of t r ut h c l a i m s a nd t he r e f e r e nt i a l i t y of l a ngua ge B a t e s on s e m pha s i s on di f f e r e nc e ( 1972, p. 490) c oul d be s a i d t o he r a l d D e r r i da s ( 1978) a nd a s s uc h, B a t e s on ha s m or e i n c om m on w i t h de c ons t r uc t i on t ha n t he pos i t i vi s t s w ho a r gue d f or a s t a bl e una m bi guous r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t h i ngs a nd t he i r r e pr e s e nt a t i ons T he r e s ul t of di f f e r e nt i a l a r gum e nt s i t s e e m s i s t ha t m e a ni ngs a r e ne ve r f i xe d w ha t w a s c r e dul ous l y a s s um e d t o be a di s c r e t e obj e c t of i nqui r y i s r e ve a l e d t o be a n a m bi guous c ont e xt de pe nde nt e ve r s hi f t i ng ne t w or k o f r e l at i ons hi ps

PAGE 37

34 E m b r ac i n g A m b i gu i t y S om e t hi nke r s r a t he r t ha n i ns i s t on f i xe d m e a ni ngs f or w or ds ha ve i ns t e a d e m br a c e d a m bi gui t y. B e s i de s B a t e s on, K e nne t h B ur ke i s a no t he r i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y t hi nke r w ho ha s be e n a dopt e d by t he f i e l d o f c om m uni c a t i on B ur k e ( 1945) ha s w r i t t e n s ugge s t i ve l y a bout t he s t r a t e gi c r e s our c e s of a m bi gui t y. B ur ke s e e s a m bi gui t y a s a n a s s e t i ns t e a d of a l i a bi l i t y. B ur ke a s oppos e d t o pos i t i vi s t s w ho s e e k t o gr ound know l e dge on r a t i ona l f ounda t i ons doe s not s e e a m bi gui t y a s a n a na t he m a I n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o hi s i nf l ue nt i a l A G r am m ar of M ot i v e s B ur ke w r i t e s : A c c or di ngl y, w ha t w e w a nt i s not t e r m s t hat av oi d am bi gui t y but t e r m s t hat c l e ar l y r e v e al t he s t r at e gi c s pot s at w hi c h am bi gui t i e s ne c e s s a r i l y ar i s e ( 1945, p. xi i x i i i I t a l i c s i n or i gi na l ) F or B ur ke a m bi gu i t i e s c a n be us e f ul a nd r e s our c e f ul I n hi s vi e w w he r e t he r e i s a m bi gui t y t he r e e xi s t s a s or t of pl a s t i c i t y of m e a ni ng w he r e t r a ns f or m a t i ons c a n t a ke pl a c e ( 1945, p x i i i ) W e r e t hi ngs de f i ne d di s t i nc t l y t he r e w oul d be s t a s i s L i ke t he quo t e f r om S a r t r e t ha t ope ns t hi s t he s i s w ha t i s s o gr e a t a bout ha vi ng e ve r yt hi ng w r a ppe d up i n a ne a t pa c ka ge ? W ho w a nt s t o be t ot a l i z e d de f i ni t i ve l y? T o be ne a t l y s um m a r i z e d i s t o be r e i f i e d. I t m i ght e ve n be a r gue d t ha t c l e a r l y di s t i ng ui s he d pa r a m e t e r s m a ke s a di s c our s e s us c e pt i bl e t o a t t a c k, l e a vi ng a f l a nk e xpos e d t o a c a r e e r i s t m e r c e na r y w ho w a nt s t o m a ke

PAGE 38

35 a na m e f or t he m s e l f a s s a s s i na t i ng t he l a t e s t t he or y du j our A br oa dne s s of de f i ni t i on i s a m ovi ng t a r ge t W i t h a be a ut i f ul a na l ogy, B ur ke d e f e nds a m bi gui t y a s a c onc e pt : D i s t i nc t i ons w e m i ght s a y, a r i s e out of a gr e a t c e n t r a l m ol t e nne s s w he r e a l l i s m e r ge d. T he y ha ve be e n t h r ow n f r om a l i qui d c e nt e r t o t he s ur f a c e w he r e t he y ha ve c onge a l e d. L e t one of t he s e c r u s t e d di s t i nc t i ons r e t ur n t o i t s s our c e a nd i n t hi s a l c he m i c c e nt e r i t m a y be r e m a de a ga i n be c o m i ng m ol t e n l i qui d, a nd m a y e nt e r i nt o ne w c om bi na t i ons w he r e a t i t m a y be a g a i n t hr ow n f or t h a s a ne w c r us t a di f f e r e nt di s t i nc t i on ( 1945 p xi i i ) T he c om m uni c a t i on t he or i s t E r i c E i s e nbe r g ( 19 84) c i t e s B ur ke w he n he a r gue s f or t he s t r a t e gi c us e of a m bi gui t y i n o r ga ni z a t i ons A c c or d i ng t o E i s e nbe r g, i n hi s i n f l ue nt i a l e s s a y A m bi gui t y a s S t r a t e gy i n O r ga ni z a t i ona l C om m uni c a t i on ( 1984) t he r e i s a n ove r e m pha s i s on c l a r i t y i n or ga ni z a t i ona l t e a c hi ng a nd r e s e a r c h ( p. 228) F o r E i s e nbe r g, s om e t i m e s i t i s us e f ul t o be pur pos e f ul l y va gue be c a us e i t a l l ow s f or a pl ur a l i s m o f vi e w poi nt s ( p. 231 ) W hi l e E i s e nbe r g doe s not s ug ge s t a r e t r e a t f r om c l a r i t y ( p. 228) he not e s t ha t a m bi gui t y c a n be a us e f ul s t r a t e gy i n o r g a ni z a t i ons be c a us e i t doe s n t l i m i t t he s c ope of i nt e r pr e t a t i ons I f a m e s s a ge i s a m bi guous e nough, pe opl e c a n pr oj e c t t he i r ow n m e a ni ng ont o i t T he s e m a nt i c i s t of poe t r y, P hi l l i p W he e l w r i ght ( 1954) di s t i ngui s he d be t w e e n e xpr e s s i ve a nd l i t e r a l s t a t e m e nt s F or W h e e l w r i ght e xpr e s s i ve s t a t e m e nt s c a r r i e d l e s s a s s e r t or i a l w e i ght t ha n di d l i t e r a l pr op os i t i ons ( 1954, p 281 ) E i s e nbe r g ( 1984) s ugge s t s t ha t t he e xpr e s s i ve s t a t e m e nt s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poe t r y m a y be us e f ul i n a n or ga ni z a t i ona l s e t t i ng. A s s e r t or i a l l i gh t ne s s ( W he e l r i ght quot e d i n E i s e nbe r g, 1984 p. 235) a l l ow s f o r pl a us i bl e de ni a bi l i t y I f a s t a t e m e nt i s a m bi guous e nough, i t be c om e s ha r de r t o ho l d i t a c c ount a bl e

PAGE 39

36 E i s e nbe r g ( 1984 ) not e s t ha t a m bi gui t y c a n be s t r a t e gi c a l l y us e f ul i n p r e s e r vi ng pr i vi l e ge d pos i t i ons ( p 234) w hi c h i n t r oduc e s a n e t hi c a l c onc e r n i nt o h i s a r gum e nt I n t he c onc l us i on, E i s e nbe r g ( 1984) t a ke s not e of t he e t hi c a l pr obl e m s t ha t c oul d r e s ul t f r om t he s t r a t e gi c us e of a m bi gui t y ( p 239 ) I n a r e c e nt l y publ i s he d c ol l e c t i on of E i s e nbe r g s e s s a y s t he a ut hor ( 2007) w r i t e s a ne w pr e f a c e t o h i s 1984 a r t i c l e t ha t br i e f l y r e vi s i t s s om e of i t s e t hi c a l di m e ns i ons E i s e nbe r g r e c ount s how t he not i on of pl a us i bl e de ni a bi l i t y w a s i nvoke d by C ol one l O l i ve r N or t h i n hi s t e s t i m ony t o t he I r a n C ont r a he a r i ngs t o r a t i ona l i z e t he i l l e ga l s a l e of w e a pons t o t he N i c a r a gua n C ont r a s ( 2007, p. 3) E i s e nbe r g w r i t e s t ha t i n hi s yout hf u l de s i r e t o e di f y a nd e xpl or e t he m or e m ys t e r i ous a nd l e s s r a t i ona l a s pe c t s of hum a n c onne c t i on he pa i d l i t t l e a t t e nt i on t o ot he r dyna m i c s s uc h a s how a m bi gui t y c a n m a s k a nd s us t a i n a bus e s of pow e r ( 2007, p. 3) T he i m pl i c a t i on of E i s e nbe r g s f r a nk r e f l e c t i on i s t ha t s om e t i m e s a m bi gui t y c a n be us e d t o c oyl y m a i nt a i n hi e r a r c hi e s a nd e va de c r i t i c i s m s of t he s t a t us quo. I t s e e m s t o m e t ha t pow e r r e l a t i ons a r e a ve c t or t o be c ont e nde d w i t h w he n i t c om e s t o s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y.

PAGE 40

37 A p e r i on or I n d e t e r m i n a t e M ol t e n n e s s I t s ha r d t o f i nd m a ny pe opl e w ho s e l f de f i ne t he m s e l ve s a s r e l a t i vi s t s R e l a t i vi s m i s of t e n a t e r m of de r oga t i on hur l e d a t a t hi nke r i n or de r t o di s c r e di t t he m I n t he bl us t e r i ng T e nur e d R adi c al s : H ow P ol i t i c s has C or r upt e d O ur H i ghe r E duc at i on un r e pe nt a nt bi got R oge r K i m ba l l ( 1990 ) r a i l s a ga i ns t t hos e a nt i f ou nda t i ona l i s t s w ho da r e t o que s t i on t he e s s e nt i a l gr e a t ne s s of t he w hi t e m a l e W e s t e r n c a non ( p. 182) W hi l e a nt i f ounda t i ona l i s m i s not a di r e c t t r a ns l a t i on o f r e l a t i v i s m t he y a r e t w o t e r m s pr e di c a t e d on a c om m on c om pl a i nt N a m e l y t ha t r e l a t i vi s t s l a c k a f i r m f oun da t i on upon w hi c h t o m a ke c l a i m s T o i t s c r i t i c s r e l a t i v i s m pul l s t he f ounda t i ona l r ug of be dr oc k pr i nc i pl e s out f r om unde r i t s e l f I n t he a bs e nc e of f i r m f ounda t i ons r e l a t i vi s t s a r e f r e e f a l l i ng i n t o a n e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l a bys s I t s a l l r e l a t i ve m e a ns t ha t not hi ng i s c e r t a i n. R e l a t i vi s m i s not hi ng ne w I t ha s ha unt e d phi l o s ophy a nd t he W e s t e r n t r a di t i on f r om i t s know n be gi nni ngs H e r a c l i t e s i s c r e di t e d w i t h t he s a yi ng Y ou c a nnot s t e p i n t he s a m e r i ve r t w i c e . ( qu ot e d i n R us s e l l 1959, p. 25) w hi c h i m pl i e s t ha t i t i s f ut i l e t o a s c r i be pr ope r t i e s t o s om e t hi ng w hi c h i s a l w a ys c ha ngi ng. P r ot a gor a s f a m ous l y s a i d t ha t m a n [ s i c ] i s t he m e a s ur e o f a l l t hi ngs ( quot e d i n R us s e l l 1959 p 25 ) w hi c h c oul d i m pl y t ha t t he w o r l d i s w i t hout f i xe d m e a ni ng unt i l pe opl e c o m e a l ong t o m e a s ur e i t T he i m pr e s s i on I ge t r e a di ng a bout t he e a r l i e s t s c i e nt i s t s a nd phi l os ophe r s on r e c or d i s t ha t

PAGE 41

38 t he y s a w t he uni ve r s e a s f l ui d a nd i n f l ux T ha l e s of M i l e t us t hought t ha t t he c os m os w a s de r i ve d f r om w a t e r ( G oodm a n, 1982, p. 22) T he c r i t i c a l t he or i s t T he odor A dor no ha s a boo k e nt i t l e d A gai ns t E pi s t e m ol ogy ( 1983) t ha t i s c onc e r ne d w i t h e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l p r obl e m s I n t hi s a r c a ne t r e a t i s e A dor no m ys t e r i ous l y m e nt i ons A na xi m a nde r s c ur s e a s t he t hw a r t i ng o f a ny e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l f i r s t pr i nc i pl e ( 1983: p. 25) A na xi m a de r w a s a pr e S oc r a t i c phi l os ophe r f r om t he 6t h c e nt ur y, B C W hi l e none of h i s w r i t i ngs s ur vi ve t o da y, i t i s f r o m A na xi m a nde r t ha t w e ha ve t he not i on o f ape r i on: a n i nf i ni t e i nde t e r m i na c y f r om w hi c h a l l de r i ve s L i ke B ur ke s a na l ogy of m o l t e n i nde t e r m i na c y t he na r r a t i ve of a pe r i on s t a nds c ount e r pos e d t o a ny e pi s t e m ol ogy w hi c h w oul d s e e k a s ol i d f ounda t i on upon w hi c h know l e dge c a n be bui l t P e r ha ps a s t he i n f i ni t e a ppe a r s i n A na xi m a n de r s o i s i t f u t i l e t o i m a gi ne a f i ni t e be gi nni ng or u l t i m a t e r e s t i ng pl a c e f or e pi s t e m ol ogy. I m a gi ne a s i f our t o t a l i z a t i ons of know l e dge w i l l a l w a ys gi ve w a y t o t he i r or i gi na l i ndi s t i nc t ne s s t o a pe r i on. P e r ha ps vi s vi s A na xi m a nde r obj e c t i f i c a t i o n i s a n i nj us t i c e t o i nde t e r m i na t e o r i gi ns F or A dor no, a ya w ni ng e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l a bys s i s c a us e d, not by r e l a t i vi s m but by t he f ut i l e de s i r e t o gr ound know l e dge on be dr oc k f i r s t pr i nc i pl e s I n A dor no s w o r ds T he s e a r c h f or t he u t t e r l y f i r s t . r e s ul t s i n i nf i ni t e r e gr e s s ( 1983: p. 28 ) T he r e gr e s s a r gum e nt i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he di al l e l us o f t he A t he ni a n phys i c i a n S e xt us E m pi r i c us i n t he s e c ond c e nt ur y, A D ( S os a 1980, p. 424) T o pa r a phr a s e t he di al l e l us s t a t e s t ha t a ny pos i t i ve s t a t e m e nt a bo ut know l e dge i s r e l i a nt upon ot he r s t a t e m e nt s a l s o r e qui r i ng j us t i f i c a t i on, ad i nf i ni t um F o r G r e go r y B a t e s on, i n f i ni t e r e gr e s s r e s ul t s f r om t he a l w a ys c ont e xt ua l bi a s of t he obs e r ve r B a t e s on e xpl a i ns :

PAGE 42

39 T he obs e r ve r m us t be i nc l ude d w i t hi n t he f oc us of o bs e r va t i on, a nd w ha t c a n be s t udi e d i s a l w a ys a r e l a t i ons hi p or a n i nf i n i t e r e g r e s s of r e l a t i ons hi ps N e ve r a t hi ng ( 1972: p 246 ) B a t e s on a nd t he s ys t e m s a nd c ybe r ne t i c s vi e w w he r e hi s i de a s hol d s o m uc h i nf l ue nc e ( c f C a pr a 1996; W a t z l a w i c k, e t al 1967; H of f m a n, 1981; K e e ne y, 1983) t r i e s t o t r a i n t he ga z e a w a y f r om t hi ngs a nd t ow a r ds t he c ont e xt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he m B e s i de s t he di s c our s e of i nf i ni t e r e gr e s s B a t e s on e m pl oys ot he r r he t or i c a l s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s e nt r opy t o s ugge s t t he c onc e pt ua l d e f i c i e nc i e s ge r m a ne t o t he c onc e pt of t hi ngs W i t h B a t e s on, i de a s of r e a l i t y c a n ne ve r r e f e r e xa c t l y t o t he i r obj e c t be c a us e r e a l i t y i s i n a s t a t e of f l ux E l s e w he r e I ha ve c a l l e d t hi s a t e l os of e nt r opy ( L e e 2006 p 4) be c a us e i t r a i s e s t he po e t i c t hi ngs f a l l a pa r t t o t he s t a t us of a de t e r m i ni s m A c c or di ng t o B a t e s on, one of t he pr obl e m s w i t h na m i ng t hi ngs a nd a f f i xi ng s e c ur e l a be l s t o t he m i s t ha t t he y a r e i n a c ons t a nt s t a t e of de c a y. T hi s i t s e e m s i s a pr obl e m e nde m i c t o c odi f i c a t i on. I n t he e s s a y I nf or m a t i on a nd C odi f i c a t i on: A P hi l os ophi c a l A pp r oa c h G r e gor y B a t e s on a nd hi s c o a ut hor J ur ge n R ue s c h e xpl a i n: . i n s e e ki ng i nf o r m a t i on a nd i n s e e ki ng va l ue s . m a n i s t r yi ng t o e s t a bl i s h a n ot he r w i s e i m pr oba bl e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n i de a s a n d e ve nt s ( 1951, p. 179) T he quot e f r om B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h be t r a ys a n e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l de f e a t i s m a s i t s ugge s t s t he i m pr oba bi l i t y of s t a bl e know l e dge a bout e ve nt s a nd va l ue s A c c or di ng t o e nt r opy t he s e c ond l a w of t he r m odyna m i c s di s c r e t e e nt i t i e s a r e i n c ons t a nt f l ux t ow a r ds i nde t e r m i na c y. E nt r opy i s a s c i e nt i f i c vi ndi c a t i on o f T ha l e s l i qui d m e t a phor a s w e l l a s A na xi m a nde r s a nd B ur ke s r ha ps odi e s t o i nde t e r m i na c y. B y a s c r i bi ng e s s e nt i a l s t a t i c qua l i t i e s t o a n obj e c t t ha t i s ot he r w i s e i n a s t a t e of c ha nge hum a n be i ngs m i s r e pr e s e nt t ha t obj e c t T ot a l i z a t i ons of t hi ngs a l w a ys l e a ve a r e m a i nde r be c a us e t he y t r e a t a phe nom e na a s s t a t i c i ns t e a d of dyna m i c B y t hi s a c c ount r e a l i t y i s pl uc ke d,

PAGE 43

40 undi f f e r e nt i a t e d f r om t he e t he r a nd f o r c e d i nt o t he s a us a ge c a s i ngs of l a ngua ge T he i m pl i c a t i on of B a t e s on s not i on of e nt r opy i s t ha t t he i m pul s e na m e t hi ngs i s pe r ha ps i m pe r i ous or a bs ol ut i s t S om e pe opl e w a nt t o pi n t hi ngs dow n, but a c c or di ng t o phys i c a l l a w t hos e t hi ngs a r e r o t t i ng a w a y w i t h a l l t he dr a m a of t i m e l a ps e phot ogr a phy. W ha t w e m i ght na m e a s a pum pki n, a gor i l l a o r a pe r s on, w i l l a l l t oo s oon go ba c k t o undi f f e r e nt i a t e d c a r bon pr ot opl a s m L a t e r I w i l l a r gue t ha t s om e t i m e s s ys t e m s t he or i s t s m a y e m pl oy m i xe d m e t a pho r s t o a dva nc e t he i r e m pha s i s on ove r a l l c ont e xt W he r e t he di s c our s e of e nt r opy ( i nvoke d by B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h i n t he i r e s s a y f r om t he 1950 s ) c om e s f r om t he r m odyna m i c s t he not i on of t he t h i ng w i l l l a t e r be c r i t i c i z e d us i ng t he di s c our s e of qua nt um t he or y. T he c ont e m por a r y s ys t e m s t h e or i s t F r i t o f C a pr a ( 1996) w i l l di s pa r a ge t hi ngs us i ng a di f f e r e nt s c i e nt i f i c m e t a phor t ha n B a t e s on s W he r e e nt r opy pos i t s a t hi ng a s a t e m po r a r y ve s s e l f or m a t t e r a nd e ne r gy, qua nt um t he or y s ho w s t ha t t he s ol i d m a t e r i a l obj e c t s of c l a s s i c a l phys i c s di s s ol ve a t t he s uba t om i c l e ve l i nt o w a ve l i ke pa t t e r ns of pr oba bi l i t i e s ( C a pr a 1996: p. 30) E i t he r e xpl a na t i on a l t hough pe r ha ps a t c r os s pur pos e s a s e xpl a na t or y hypot he s e s a r r i ve s a t a m a t e r i a l w o r l d s hi f t i ng, t r a ns i t or y a nd a m bi guous T he or e t i c a l phys i c s a r e s om e t i m e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h C a r t e s i a n a nxi e t y a bout l a c k o f e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l f ounda t i ons C a pr a ( 1996 ) po r t r a y s t he s c i e nt i f i c e pi s t e m ol ogy of D e s c a r t e s a nd N e w t on a s ha vi ng be e n r e nde r e d a r c ha i c by i ns i ght s f r om A l be r t E i ns t e i n, W e r ne r H e i s e nbe r g, a nd t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y t he or e t i c a l phys i c s ( pp. 38 39 ) I n C a pr a s ( 1996) T he W e b o f L i f e t he C a r t e s i a n w or l dvi e w s e e m s t o w a nt t o f i t a n i nf i n i t e r e g r e s s of r e l a t i ons hi ps i nt o s t a t i c c onf i ni ng boxe s C a pr a po r t r a ys N e w t oni a n phys i c s a nd C a r t e s i a n r a t i o na l i s m a s hi s t or i c a l l y pa s s e pa r a di gm t ha t w a s m e c ha ni s t i c r e duc t i oni s t a nd a t om i s t i c ( 1996, p. 17) S uc h t e r m s s ugge s t a t he or y t ha t w a s a t l e a s t ove r l y r i gi d a nd i m pe r i ous C ybe r ne t i c s a nd e c ol ogy, a s a r t i c ul a t e d by C a pr a ( 1996) i ns t e a d o f c l i ngi ng t o a bs ol ut i s t c onc e pt i ons of m e a ni ng, i s c ont e nt w i t h a ppr oxi m a t e know l e dge ( p 41 ) C a pr a

PAGE 44

41 not e s t ha t t he t r u t h c l a i m s a dva nc e d by s c i e nc e a r e t e nt a t i ve by de f i ni t i on: I n s c i e nc e w e a l w a ys de a l w i t h l i m i t e d a nd a ppr oxi m a t e de s c r i pt i ons of know l e dge ( p 43 ) I n o r de r t o he dge a ga i ns t f a na t i c i s m a nd a r r oga nc e s c i e nc e m us t c ont a i n i t s ur ge t o f o r m ul a t e e t e r na l i r on c l a d l a w s t ha t a r e s om e how be yond r e pr oa c h.

PAGE 45

42 I s T ot al i z at i on N e c e s s ar i l y T ot al i t ar i an ? A s pe c t e r ha unt s e pi s t e m ol ogy; t he s pe c t e r of t ot a l i t a r i a ni s m G e or ge O r w e l l s 1984 ( 1949) i m a gi ne s a t ot a l i t a r i a n l a ngua ge c a l l e d ne w s pe a k w he r e a ny m a r gi n of i nt e r pr e t a t i on i s t r unc a t e d. S ynonym s a nd a nt onym s a r e a bol i s he d f or t he s a ke of pa r s i m ony. I n ne w s pe a k, good, goode r goode s t a nd ungood r e pl a c e t he m yr i a d of w o r ds t ha t m a ke up va l ue j udgm e nt s F o r e ve r a f t e r t he l a ngua ge of s i ni s t e r c a r t ooni s h ut i l i t y w i l l be c a l l e d O r w e l l i a n E f f o r t s t o r e gul a t e m e a ni ng be c om e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he t ot a l i t a r i a n i m pul s e T he m e di a c r i t i c s S he l don R a m pt on a nd J ohn S t a ube r ( 2003) not e t ha t t he a xi s of e vi l c onc e pt us e d t o m e t onym i z e I r a n, I r a q, a nd N or t h K or e a ha s pa r t i c ul a r i l y O r w e l l i a n ove r t one s ( pp 113 115) B y l i nki ng t h r e e unr e l a t e d na t i ons t hr ough t he t e r m a xi s A m e r i c a n pr opa ga ndi s t s i nvoke t he a l l i a nc e of G e r m a ny I t a l y a nd J a pa n i n W or l d W a r T w o. F or R a m pt on a nd S t a ube r ( 2003) t hi s a na l ogy i s not a pt T he r e i s s om e t hi ng O r w e l l i a n a bout de m oni z i ng na t i ons w i t h t he r he t o r i c a l c ur r e nc y o f f a s c i s m I n 1941 C ount K or z ybs ki w r ot e a pr e f a c e t o hi s 1933 book Sc i e nc e and San i t y t ha t l i nke d e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i s s ue s w i t h f a s c i s m K or z y bs ki ( 1958 [ 1941 ] ) e qua t e s t he va nqui s hi ng of f a s c i s m w i t h t he c l os ur e of A r i s t ot e l i a n a bs ol ut i s m K or z ybs ki ( 195 8 [ 1941] ) w r i t e s : P r e s e nt da y s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a r c he s a nd hi s t or i c a l w or l d de ve l opm e nt s s how t he r e i s no doubt t ha t t he ol d a r i s t ot e l i a n e poc h o f hum a n e vol ut i on i s dyi ng T he t e r r or s a nd ho r r or s w e a r e w i t ne s s i ng i n t he E a s t a nd t he W e s t a r e t he de a t hbe d a goni e s of t ha t pa s s i ng e poc h. . ( p 1vi i )

PAGE 46

43 F or K or byz s ki A r i s t ot e l i a n l ogi c a nd f a s c i s m w e r e f l a w e d f o r t he i r na r r ow t w o va l ue d e i t he r / or t hi nki ng ( p. 1xi i ) K o r byz s ki i m pl i e s t ha t f a s c i s m w a s t he e xi t s t r a t e gy of s uc h a l ogi c a l f a l l a c y. F or K or byz s ki e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l c e r t a i nt y, f a r f r om be i ng a m a t t e r o f ge nt e e l c ont e m pl a t i on, de s c e nde d f r om i t s i vo r y t o w e r t o w r e a k ha voc i n t he m i d 20 t h c e nt ur y. T he s e a r c h f or f ounda t i on a nd e pi s t e m ol o gi c a l s t a bi l i t y i s t o T he odor A dor no a t a ut ol ogy he om i nous l y e qua t e s w i t h f a s c i s m I n hi s ne a r l y i m pe ne t r a bl e A gai ns t E pi s t e m ol ogy A dor no w r i t e s F a s c i s m s ought t o a c t ua l i z e phi l os ophy of o r i gi ns ( 1983 p. 20) W r i t t e n i n t he 1950s A dor no s ob l i que e qu a t i on of a xi om a t i c e pi s t e m ol ogy w i t h f a s c i s m i s i n ke e pi ng w i t h t he F r a nk f ur t S c hool s r om a nt i c i s t di s da i n f or r e a s on. I n T he D i al e c t i c of E nl i ght e nm e nt A do r no a nd H o r khe i m e r m a i nt a i n t ha t t he E nl i ght e nm e nt ha s r un i t s c our s e w i t h r e gr e t t a bl e r e s ul t s c ul m i na t i ng i n f a s c i s m a nd a dva nc e d c a pi t a l i s m T he f ul l y e nl i ght e ne d e a r t h r a di a t e s di s a s t e r t r i um pha nt ( 1999 [ 1944 ] p 3) I n c ont e m po r a r y c om m uni c a t i on t he or y e nde a vor s t o f i x m e a ni ng a r e s om e t i m e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t yr a nny. F o r one t he o r i s t of c om m uni c a t i on, t he w i l l t o c e r t a i nt y i s e qua t e d w i t h hi s t or y s w or s t bul l i e s I n a n a r t i c l e e nt i t l e d F l i r t i ng W i t h M e a n i ng, E r i c E i s e nbe r g w r i t e s : T he pos t m ode r n c r i t i que of f i xe d m e a ni ng of f e r s s om e c l e a r l e s s ons f or z e a l ot s of c e r t a i nt y, w he r e ve r t he y r e s i de B a t t l e s ove r w h o ha s a c c e s s t o t he t r ut h a r e bl oody m a r ke r s i n t he hi s t or y of t he w or l d e a c h hol oc a us t f i nds i t s r e a s ons i n c e r t a i nt y a nd s e pa r a t i on ( 1998 [ 2007 ] p. 212) E l s e w he r e i n t he a r t i c l e E i s e nbe r g us e s t he e xpr e s s i on f i na l s ol ut i on, a t e r m r e m i ni s c e nt of N a t i ona l S oc i a l i s m s de a t h c a m ps : D e s pi t e c e nt ur i e s of s c i e nt i f i c ph i l os ophi c a l a nd p ol i t i c a l e f f o r t s t o pu r i f y l a ngua ge a nd s a ve hum a n be i ngs f r om a m b i gui t y w e ha ve f ound t he w or l d pr of oundl y r e s i s t a nt t o a ny s uc h f i na l s ol ut i on ( 200 7 [ 1998] : p. 219)

PAGE 47

44 E i s e nbe r g ( 2007 [ 1998] ) c i t e s a n o r a c l e of p os t m ode r n t he or y, M i c he l F ouc a ul t w he n he a r gue s t ha t e f f or t s t o f i x m e a ni ng a r e m a ne uve r s of pow e r a nd c ont r ol ( p 212 ) F ouc a ul t s c l a i m t ha t know l e dge i s m a l i c i ous ha s a f f i ni t i e s w i t h F r i e dr i c h N i e t z s c he s not i on of w i l l t o pow e r ( E a gl e t on, 1990; W ol i n 2004; A ppl e by, H unt & J a c ob 1994, P a l m e r 1990 ) E a gl e t on ( 1990) of f e r s t he f o l l ow i n g de f i ni t i on of w i l l t o pow e r : W i l l t o pow e r i s j us t t he uni ve r s a l t r ut h t ha t t he r e i s no uni ve r s a l t r ut h t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on t ha t a l l i s i nt e r pr e t a t i on; a nd t hi s pa r a dox, not l e a s t i n t he ha nds o f N i e t z s c he s m ode r n i nhe r i t or s a l l ow s a n i c onoc l a s t i c r a di c a l i s m t o b l e nd w i t h a pr ude nt l y pr a gm a t i s t s us pi c i on of a l l gl oba l t he or i z i ng ( p. 248) F ouc a ul t i nhe r i t s t he N i e t z s c he a n s upi c i on of t ot a l i z i ng, gl oba l t he or i e s I n a n a r t i c l e l e ngt h a ppr e c i a t i on of N i e t z s c he s ge ne ol ogi c a l m e t hod, F ouc a ul t ( 1977) vi e w s know l e dge a s l e s s t ha n a t ot a l i z e d, uni f i e d w hol e a nd m or e a s a p r oc e s s of f r a c t ur i ng a nd di f f e r e nc e F ouc a ul t ( 1977 ) w r i t e s obl i que l y . kn ow l e dge i s not m a de f o r unde r s t a ndi ng; i t i s m a de f o r c ut t i ng ( p 154 ) I i n t e r pr e t t hi s s t a t e m e nt a s que s t i oni ng r e c e i ve d w i s dom a bout t he i nhe r e nt be ne vol e nc e of know l e dge T he us e of t he w or d c ut t i ng c onj ur e s a n i m a ge r y of but c he r y. T hi s s e nt i m e nt t ha t know l e d ge i s c ut t i ng, i s e c hoe d by B a t e s on ( 1972) w ho w r ot e t ha t t hought s l i c e s e ve r yt hi ng t o bi t s ( p. 49) W he r e pos t m ode r n t hi nke r s s uc h a s A dor no, F o uc a ul t a nd E i s e nbe r g m i ght l i nk t he w i l l t o c e r t a i nt y w i t h a t ot a l i t a r i a n i m pul s e t he r e a r e t hos e i nt e l l e c t ua l hi s t or i a ns w ho c l a i m t ha t i t i s i n f a c t t h e o t he r w a y a r ound: I t w a s t he r e l a t i vi s m a nd pe r s pe c t i vi s m of F r i e dr i c h N i e t z s c he t ha t p r e c i pi t a t e d f a s c i s t t ot a l i t a r i a ni s m N i e t z s c he i s a t r oub l i ng f i gur e w ho i s s om e t i m e s i nvoke d a s a pr e de c e s s or of bot h pos t m ode r n i s m a nd f a s c i s m T he hi s t or i a ns A ppl e b y, H unt a nd J a c ob ( 1994) c a l l N i e t z s c he m or a l l y r e pugna nt f or hi s oc c a s i ona l l y ge noc i da l pr onounc e m e nt s ( p. 20 9) F or s om e c ons e r va t i ve s oc i a l

PAGE 48

45 hi s t or i a ns N i e t z s c he i s a ba ne f ul pr e s e nc e i n pos t m ode r n di s c our s e ( e g W i nds c hut t l e 1996, S ha t t uc k 1996) F ouc a ul t s ge ne ol ogi c a l m e t hod i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h N i e t z s c he ( H a w e s 2004, p. 182; E be r t 1996; R or t y 1991) S om e t i m e s t he c om pa r i s on of N i e t z s c he a nd F ouc a ul t i s us e d t o di s c r e di t t he l a t t e r I n t he he a vy ha nde d T he Se d uc t i on O f U nr e as on: T he I nt e l l e c t ual R om anc e W i t h F as c i s m F r om N i e t z s c he t o P os t m ode r ni s m R i c ha r d W ol i n ( 2004) r e f e r s t o N i e t z s c he a s a pr ot of a s c i s t ( p. 62 ) a nd s c ol ds A m e r i c a n s c hol a r s f or t he i r a dopt i on of t he F ouc a ul di a n/ N i e t z s c he a n i de a t ha t t r ut h i s a ki n t o pow e r : T hi s c l a i m [ by F ouc a ul t t ha t know l e dge i s m a l i c i ous ] gl e e f ul l y pa r r ot e d by num e r ous A m e r i c a n a c ol yt e s ha s i n i t s va r i ous ve r s i ons a nd f or m s pr oba bl y w r e a ke d m or e i nt e l l e c t ua l ha voc ha s be e n r e s pons i bl e f or m or e ps e udo s c hol a r l y f e e bl e m i nde dne s s t ha n one c oul d pos s i bl y r e c ount ( p. 42) W ol i n a i m s t o i m p l i c a t e F ouc a ul t a nd F ouc a ul di a ns i n w ha t a ppe a r s t o be a t l e a s t i n pa r t a n ad hom i ne m a r gum e nt a bout N i e t z s c he a n t a i nt W ol i n ( 2004) f r a m e s hi s a t t a c k on N i e t z s c he a n pe r s pe c t i vi s m a s a de f e ns e of c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l i de a l s T he pr obl e m w i t h W ol i n s t a ki ng a n i de ol ogi c a l c l a i m j us t l e f t of c e nt e r i s t he r he t or i c a l a f f i ni t i e s hi s book s ha r e s w i t h one r ous r i ght w i ng a t t a c ks on a c a de m i a ( c f B l oom 1987; K i m ba l l 1998) I n t one a nd bl us t e r W ol i n s ( 2004) s t r i dul ous c r i t i c i s m s of pos t m ode r ni s m a r e a ki n t o c ons e r va t i ve t i r a de s l i k e B l oom s ( 1987) a nd K i m ba l l s ( 1998) a l t hough hi s s t a t e d pol i t i c a l a f f i ni t y i s l i be r a l i s m F r i e dr i c h N i e t z s c he s m i s t r us t of e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l c e r t a i nt i e s w a s di r e c t e d a ga i ns t s ys t e m a t i z e r s of know l e dge : I m i s t r us t a l l s ys t e m a t i z e r s a nd I a voi d t he m T he w i l l t o a s ys t e m i s l a c k of i nt e gr i t y ( quot e d i n A dor no 1983, p. 28) I nde e d, i n t he w r i t i ngs of N i e t z s c he w e c a n f i nd m a ny f or c e f ul d e c l a r a t i ons of a nt i f ounda t i ona l i s m pe r s pe c t i vi s m a nd r e l a t i vi s m F o r s oc i a l hi s t or i a n B r ya n D P a l m e r N i e t z s c he i s

PAGE 49

46 a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he que s t i oni ng of r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l c onc e pt i ons of l a ngua ge P a l m e r ( 1990) w r i t e s : E s s e nt i a l l y f i gur a t i ve a nd nonr e f e r e nt i a l f or N i e t z s c he l a ngua ge i s i nc a pa bl e of c onve yi n g obj e c t i ve hi s t or i c a l know l e dge w hi c h c a nnot pos s i bl y e xi s t ( p. 7) I n hi s book T he T w i l i ght of t he I dol s w r i t t e n i n 18 88, N i e t z s c he ( 1968) ha s a t hought pr ovoki ng s c e na r i o e nt i t l e d H ow t he R e a l W or l d a t L a s t B e c a m e a M yt h: T he H i s t or y of a n E r r or I n t hi s b r i e f s ynops i s of W e s t e r n i nt e l l e c t ua l hi s t or y N i e t z s c he de t a i l s t he f a t e of t he r e a l w or l d i n s i x e a s y s t e ps H e pr ogr e s s e s f r om P l a t oni c r e a l i s m t hr ough C a r t e s i a n s ke pt i c i s m r i ght up t o t he c oc kc r ow of pos i t i vi s m ( p. 40) I n t he m ode r n pe r i od ( w hi c h of c our s e i s c e nt e r e d a r ound N i e t z s c he s ow n s e l f a ggr a ndi z i ng, s yphi l i t i c ph i l os ophy) t he ont ol ogi c a l not i on of r e a l i t y i s a ba ndone d out r i ght N i e t z s c he r e j oi c e s gl i bl y: T he r e a l w or l d a n i de a no l onge r o f a ny us e no t e ve n a dut y a ny l ong e r a n i de a gr ow n us e l e s s s upe r f l uous c ons e que nt l y a r e f ut e d i de a : l e t us a bol i s h i t ( B r oa d da yl i ght ; b r e a kf a s t r e t ur n o f c he e r f ul ne s s a nd bon s e ns [ good s e ns e ] ; P l a t o bl us he s f or s ha m e ; a l l f r e e s pi r i t s r un r i ot ) ( 1 968: p. 41) N i e t z s c he i s of t e n c i t e d a s a f ounda t i ona l f i gur e i n a nt i f ounda t i ona l i s m a nd a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s m ( c f B l oom 1987; R or t y, 1 991; W ol i n, 2004; E a gl e t on, 2003; S w oye r 1982; P a l m e r 1990 ) a s w e l l a s a he r a l d o f pos t m ode r ni s m ( W e s t 1981 ) I n t he i r pa t r oni z i ng a t t a c k on pos t m o de r ni s m P a ul G r os s a nd N or m a n L e vi t t ( 1994) s t a t e : I f t he r e i s a p r ot ot ype of pos t m ode r ni s m a pr e vi ou s t hi nke r w hos e s w e e p a nd a m bi t i on a r e m i r r o r e d i n i t s s w a gge r a nd w hos e c o r r os i ve ne s s i s e c hoe d i n i t s s ke pt i c i s m i t i s pr oba bl y N i e t z s c he ( p. 74)

PAGE 50

47 N i e t z s c he a s a t r oubl i ng he r a l d of t he pos t m ode r n pe r i od, i s i nvoke d r e t r oa c t i ve l y t o c a s t a s ha dow on t he r e i gni ng i dol s o f F r e nc h pos t m ode r ni s m A c c or di ng t o W ol i n ( 2004) F r e nc h pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t s l i ke F ouc a ul t a nd D e r r i da by ge t t i ng c oz y w i t h N i e t z s c h e : . pr oudl y e m b r a c e d a n e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l ni hi l i s m i n w hi c h t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n f i c t i on a nd r e a l i t y, t r ut h a nd i l l us i on, w e r e de c ons t r uc t e d a nd t he n e f f a c e d out r i ght ( p. 35) D e pe ndi ng on w ho you a s k, t ot a l i t a r i a ni s m i s s ym pt om a t i c of e i t he r e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l f ounda t i on, o r t he l ac k of e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l f ounda t i on. T he i nvoc a t i on o f f a s c i s m s ugge s t s t he hi gh r he t o r i c a l s t a ke s t ha t pr e di c a t e e pi s t e m ol o gi c a l s t a nc e s T he t r a um a o f t he hol oc a us t hove r s ove r que s t i ons of t r ut h. T o c om p a r e s om e t hi ng w i t h f a s c i s m i s t he s t r onge s t c onde m na t i on a va i l a bl e t o c r i t i c s A s s ugge s t e d a bove r e l a t i vi s t s a nd f ounda t i ona l i s t s a l i ke a c c us e e a c hot he r of i nc i pi e nt t ot a l i t a r i a ni s m I n w ha t f ol l ow s I w i l l l ook a t e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m a nd i t s pr a c t i c a l us e s R e f r a m i ng a s w e w i l l s e e us e s e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l unc e r t a i nt y t o s ugge s t t ha t r e a l i t y c a n be vi e w e d i n a num be r of di f f e r e nt w a ys A s a r e s ul t t he ve r y c onc e pt of r e a l i t y be c om e s a n unt e na bl e a bs t r a c t i on. W hi l e r e f r a m i ng ha s he l pe d pe opl e i n ps yc hot he r a py, I w onde r i f t he s a m e e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l unc e r t a i nt y c oul d be us e d f or t he p ur pos e s of s pi n.

PAGE 51

48 R e f r am i n g: T h e B r oad D ayl i gh t of C on t e xt ? W hi l e s ys t e m s t he or i s t s l i ke B a t e s on don t c i t e N i e t z s c he one c a n s pe c ul a t e t ha t t he y ha ve bot h a r r i ve d a t s i m i l a r c onc l u s i ons i nde pe nde nt l y. A c om m on t he m e i s t ha t r e a l i t y or r e a l i s m i s p r obl e m a t i c T he ph i l os ophe r a nd c l i n i c a l ps yc hol ogi s t P a ul W a t z l a w i c k a c l os e c ol l e a gue of B a t e s on s ha s a book e nt i t l e d H ow R e al I s R e al ? C onf us i on D i s i nf or m at i on C om m uni c at i on ( 1976) t ha t c ont a i ns a pa s s a ge t ha t i s r e dol e nt of N i e t z s c he s a bove I n t h i s book, W a t z l a w i c k e xpounds on t he vi e w know n a s r a di c a l c ons t r uc t i vi s m W a t z l a w i c k ( 1976) be gi ns t he bo ok w i t h t he f ol l ow i ng s t a t e m e nt : T hi s book i s a bout t he w a y i n w hi c h c om m uni c a t i on c r e a t e s w ha t w e c a l l r e a l i t y A t f i r s t g l a nc e t hi s m a y s e e m a m os t pe c ul i a r s t a t e m e nt f o r s ur e l y r e a l i t y i s w ha t i s a nd c om m uni c a t i on i s m e r e l y a w a y o f e x pr e s s i ng or e xpl a i ni ng i t N ot a t a l l A s t he book w i l l s how our e ve r yda y t r a di t i ona l i de a s of r e a l i t y a r e de l us i ons w hi c h w e s pe nd s ubs t a nt i a l pa r t s of our da i l y l i ve s s hor i ng up e ve n a t c ons i de r a bl e r i s k of t r yi ng t o f a c e f a c t s t o f i t our d e f i ni t i on of r e a l i t y i ns t e a d of vi c e ve r s a A nd t he m os t da nge r ous de l us i on of a l l i s t ha t t he r e i s onl y on e r e a l i t y. W ha t t he r e a r e i n f a c t a r e m a ny di f f e r e nt ve r s i ons of r e a l i t y s om e of w hi c h a r e c ont r a di c t or y but a l l o f w hi c h a r e t he r e s ul t s of c om m uni c a t i on a nd not r e f l e c t i ons of e t e r na l obj e c t i ve t r ut hs ( p x ) A dm i t t e dl y, W a t z l a w i c k doe s not di s pe ns e w i t h t h e r e a l w or l d a l t oge t he r i n br a s h N i e t z s c he a n f a s hi on. I ns t e a d, he r e pl a c e s t he i de a of one s i ngl e r e a l i t y w i t h m ul t i pl e r e a l i t i e s pe r c e pt i ve l y c ons t i t ut e d, t ha t m a y s om e t i m e s c ont r a di c t one a not he r T he B a t e s oni a n s c i e nt i s t s M a t ur a na a nd V a r e l a ( 1992) i m a gi ne a m ul t i ve r s e c ons i s t i ng of m ul t i pl e r e a l i t i e s i ns t e a d of a uni ve r s e I t i s a s i f W he e l w r i ght s ( 1954) a s s e r t or i a l l i ght ne s s l e a ve s i t s s t a t e d dom a i n of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t o c r a s h t he pa r t y of s c i e nt i f i c

PAGE 52

49 obj e c t i vi t y. W hi l e t he r e m a y be pe r c e pt i ve l y c ons t i t ut e d, r e l a t i ve t r ut hs t he r e i s no one r e a l i t y. I n t hi s w or l dv i e w s ur e l y a m bi gui t y r e i gns be c a us e r e a l i t y i s not s om e t hi ng out t he r e t ha t w e c a n i nt e r c e pt S uc h a not i on, a c c or di ng t o W a t z l a w i c k, i s a da nge r ous de l us i on. B a t e s on ( 1972) a nd W a t z l a w i c k, B e a vi n a nd J a c ks on ( 1967) a r gue t ha t e ve nt s c a n m e a n di f f e r e nt t hi ngs a c c or di ng t o how t he s e que nc e of e ve nt s i s punc t ua t e d. W a t z l a w i c k, e t a l ( 1 967) de m ons t r a t e how e ve r y i t e m i n a c ha i n of e ve nt s c oul d be va r i ous l y r e ga r d e d a s s t i m ul us r e s pons e and r e i n f or c e m e nt ( p. 55) T he hypot he t i c a l e xa m pl e t he y gi ve i s o f a r a t t ha t c l a i m s I ha ve go t m y e xpe r i m e nt e r t r a i ne d E ve r y t i m e I pr e s s t he l e ve r he g i ve s m e f ood ( W a t z l a w i c k, B e a vi n & J a c ks on, 1967, p 55 ) I i nt e r pr e t W a t z l a w i c k, e t a l s ( 1967) no t i on o f punc t ua t i on a s c a s t i ng doubt on t he s c i e nt i f i c t r ut h c l a i m s o f be ha vi or a l s c i e nc e w i t h t he l a t t e r s s t i m ul us r e s pons e pr e oc c upa t i on. T he P r agm at i c s of H um an C om m uni c at i on i nt r oduc e s a dos e of r e l a t i vi s m i nt o t he be ha vi o r i s t pr e m i s e I n one e xa m pl e a hus ba nd w i t hd r a w s a nd a w i f e na gs O r doe s t he w i f e na g, a nd t he n t he hus ba nd w i t hdr a w s ? ( W a t z l a w i c k, e t a l 1967 pp. 56 59 ) I ns t e a d of t he pos s i bl e a s s i gna t i on of b l a m e t o one o r t he ot he r pa r t y, t he c oupl e i s l oc ke d i n a m ut ua l l y c a us a t i ve r e c ur s i ve l oop. T he r e f r a i n o f but he / s he s t ar t e d i t i s a t a ut ol ogy pot e nt i a l l y w i t hout e nd. T he not i o n of punc t ua t i on i m pl i e s t ha t a s i ngl e e ve nt c a n be de s c r i be d di f f e r e nt l y, de pe ndi ng on h ow one l ooks a t i t A s oppos e d t o t he c onu ndr um of e i t he r / or l ogi c a p r a gm a t i c a l l y i nc l i ne d c l i ni c i a n c a n t r ul y s a y you r e bot h r i ght ( s e e B a xt e r & M ont gom e r y 1996 on t he di a l e c t i c a l c onc e pt of bot h / and l ogi c ) I n a 1974 book e nt i t l e d C hange : P r i nc i pl e s of P r obl e m F or m at i on and P r obl e m R e s ol ut i on, W a t z l a w i c k a nd hi s c o a ut hor s J ohn W e a kl a nd a nd R i c ha r d F i s c h i nt r oduc e d a c onc e pt c a l l e d r e f r a m i ng t ha t e m pl oys a m bi gui t y, pa r a dox a nd c ont r a di c t i on a s s t r a t e gi c r e s our c e s f or s ol vi ng p r obl e m s R e f r a m i n g t a ke s up w he r e t he not i on o f

PAGE 53

50 punc t ua t i on l e a ve s of f R e f r a m i ng i s a m e a ns of pr obl e m s ol vi ng t ha t e m pha s i z e s t he s e m a nt i c pl a s t i c i t y of s o c a l l e d r e a l i t y. I f you f i n d your s e l f i n a hope l e s s s i t ua t i on, t r y punc t ua t i ng i t di f f e r e nt l y T he e xa m pl e t ha t W a t z l a w i c k a nd hi s c o a ut hor s gi ve i s f r o m M a r k T w a i n s T om Saw y e r w ho ge t s hi s f r i e nds t o pa i nt hi s f e nc e f or hi m I ns t e a d of be i ng s t uc k w i t h t he d r udge r ous j ob T om got hi s f r i e nds t o t hi nk i t w a s e nvi a bl e T om ha s s uc c e e de d i n r e f r a m i ng dr udge r y a s a pl e a s ur e f or w hi c h one ha s t o pa y, a nd hi s f r i e nds t o a m a n, ha ve f ol l ow e d t hi s c ha nge of hi s de f i ni t i on o f r e a l i t y ( W a t z l a w i c k, e t a l 1974, p. 93) W i t h r e f r a m i ng w oul d be l i a bi l i t i e s a r e t r a ns f or m e d i nt o a s s e t s w i t h s e m a nt i c f i ne s s e T he be a ut y of r e f r a m i ng i s t ha t i t us e s pol ys e m y i n t h e i nt e r p r e t a t i on of e ve r yda y pr obl e m s L e m ons c a n be t ur ne d i nt o l e m ona de T he l e ga c y of r e f r a m i ng c a n be s e e n i n ps yc hot he r a py t e c hni que s t ha t he l p pe opl e r e c ove r f r om de pr e s s i on a nd a nxi e t y. T he e f f i c a c y of c l i ni c a l t e c hni que s l i ke c ogni t i ve be ha v i or a l t he r a py ( C B T ) w i t h i t s e m pha s i s on r e f r a m i ng ha s be e n pe r s ua s i ve l y de m ons t r a t e d ( c f B ur ns 1999 ; D e V r i e s 1993; R ot he r a m B or us 1994 ) A ps yc hot he r a pe ut i c t e c hni que c a l l e d ne ur ol i ngui s t i c pr ogr a m m i ng a l s o us e s t he c onc e pt o f r e f r a m i ng ( B a ndl e r & G r i nde r 1982 ) I n a c e l e br a t i on of a m bi gui t y, E i s e nbe r g ( 2007) c i t e s t h e t he r a pi s t F r i e dm a n w ho he l ps c l i e nt s r e s t or y a nd r e f r a m e t he r e l i ve s ( p 217) B y f oc us i ng on e xc e pt i ons t o pr obl e m s F r i e dm a n he l ps c l i e nt s punc t ua t e t he s ynt a x o f t he i r l i f e s t or i e s di f f e r e nt l y. E i s e nbe r g s ugge s t s t he c r e a t i ve us e of pe r s pe c t i vi s m a nd r e l a t i vi s m f or c r e a t i ng a m e a ni ngf ul l i f e R e f r a m i ng s ugge s t s t ha t m e a ni ng i s not f i xe d a nd i s a l w a ys ope n t o i n t e r pr e t a t i on. A m bi gui t i e s i n a na r r a t i ve s ugge s t a l t e r na t e s t or yl i ne s R e f r a m i ng s ugge s t s a n e l e m e nt of vol i t i on w he n i t c om e s t o s om e one s uf f e r i ng f r om de pr e s s i on or ot he r m e nt a l pr obl e m s Y e t w hi l e r e f r a m i ng m a y be r e l a t i vi s m a t i t s be s t i t i s not w i t hout e t hi c a l p i t f a l l s I n t he pr e f a c e t o C hange W a t z l a w i c k a nd hi s c oa ut ho r s s t a t e :

PAGE 54

51 F r om pa s t e xpe r i e nc e w e f ul l y e xpe c t t o be a t t a c k e d by s om e f or t he m a ni pul a t i ve i ns i nc e r e na t u r e of our a ppr oa c h bot h pr a c t i c a l a nd c onc e pt ua l t o hum a n pr obl e m s ( W a t z l a w i c k, e t a l 1974 p xv ) T he t r oubl i ng pa r t a bout W a t z l a w i c k, e t a l s ( 1974 ) e xa m pl e of T om S a w ye r i s t ha t T om w a s be i ng m a ni pul a t i ve C onc e i va bl y, a r e a l i z a t i on t ha t m e a ni ng i s a m a l l e bl e p r ope r t y o f phe nom e na c oul d be e m pl oye d f or dubi o us e nds R e f r a m i ng, w i t h i t s e m pha s i s on t he c r e a t i ve e x pl oi t a t i on of a m bi gui t y i s not a l t oge t he r di f f e r e nt f r om t he not i on o f s pi n. S pi n i s a t e r m o f de r oga t i on s om e t i m e s a ppl i e d t o a dve r t i s i ng, publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd pol i t i c a l pr opa ga nda W i t h s pi n, r e a l i t i e s c a n be c r e a t i ve l y pr e s e nt e d t o a dva nc e a pa r t i c ul a r m o t i ve M e di a c r i t i c s ha ve a r gue d t ha t s pi n c a n be pe r ni c i ous be c a us e i t i s de s i gne d t o m i s r e p r e s e nt r e a l i t y a s i t r e al l y i s ( c f R a m pt on & S t a ube r 2001; 2003: E w e n, 1996) I n a 2005 N e w Y or k T i m e s M agaz i ne a r t i c l e e nt i t l e d T he F r a m i ng W a r s M a t t L a i not e s t ha t f r a m i ng a nd r e l a ngua gi ng i n pol i t i c s c a n be m a ni pul a t i ve a nd de c e pt i ve ( pp. 41, 43) T he l i ngui s t G e or ge L a kof f no t e s t ha t R e publ i c a ns ha ve a r he t or i c a l a dva nt a ge w he n, f or e xa m pl e t he y r e na m e t a x c ut s t a x r e l i e f T he phr a s e t a x r e l i e f i m pl i e s t ha t t a xe s a r e e s s e nt i a l l y bur de ns om e ( B a i 2005, p. 43) L a ko f f no t e s t ha t na m i ng a nd r e l a ngua gi ng c a n ha ve pow e r f ul pol i t i c a l e f f e c t s A c c or di ng t o L a kof f R e publ i c a n i de ol ogue s l i ke F r a nk L unz e xpl oi t t he a m bi gui t i e s of pol i t i c a l e ve nt s a nd l a ngua ge i n or de r t o a dva nc e a c ons e r va t i ve a ge nda N ot onl y doe s f r a m i ng t w i s t t he f a c t s but i t a l s o r e nde r s f a c t s m e a ni ngl e s s by a c t ua l l y r e pr og r a m m i ng, t hr ough l ong t e r m r e pe t i t i on, t he ne ur a l ne t w or ks i ns i de our br a i ns ( B a i 2005, p. 4 3)

PAGE 55

52 T he poi nt t ha t B a t e s oni a ns l i ke W a t z l a w i c k a nd c ogni t i ve t he or i s t s l i ke L a kof f m a y a gr e e on i s t hi s : c om m un i c a t i on doe s n t j us t t r a ns m i t or r e f l e c t r e a l i t y w i t h va r yi ng de gr e e s of ve r a c i t y. C om m uni c a t i on a c t ua l l y c r e at e s r e a l i t y, a nd t he r e i n l i e s i t s pow e r s T he t he or i s t o f m a s s c om m uni c a t i on, H e r be r t S c hi l l e r i n hi s C om m uni c at i on and C ul t ur al D om i nat i on ( 1976) w r i t e s : C om m uni c a t i on, i t ne e ds t o be s a i d, i nc l ude s m uc h m or e t ha n m e s s a ge s a nd t he r e c ogni z a bl e c i r c ui t s t hr ough w hi c h t he m e s s a ge s f l ow I t de f i ne s s oc i a l r e a l i t y a nd. . t he ba s i c a r r a nge m e nt s of l i vi ng ( p. 3) A c c or di ng t o t hi s a r gum e nt r e a l i t y i s c ons t i t ut e d not m e r e l y r e f l e c t e d t hr ough c om m uni c a t i on. A r e a l i s t c onc e pt i on of s pi n a nd p r opa ga nda m i ght a s s e r t t ha t c om m uni c a t i on t e nds t o m i s r e pr e s e nt m a s k a nd di s t or t r e a l i t y, not w hol l y c r e a t e i t B ut c a n s c hol a r s of c om m uni c a t i on ha ve r e c our s e t o a na r r a t i ve of t he r e al l y r e a l ha vi ng j e t t i s one d a r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy? L a n gua ge f r om t he poi n t of vi e w o f s om e t he or i e s of c om m uni c a t i on doe s not j us t e xpr e s s r e a l i t y, i t e f f e c t i ve l y m a ke s i t T he r e s ul t i s a ki nd of r e l a t i vi s m o r ne w p r i nc i pl e of r e l a t i vi t y, a s e l a bor a t e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e by t he l i ngui s t B e nj a m i n W hor f : W e a r e i nc l i ne d t o t hi nk o f l a ngua ge a s a t e c hni que of e xpr e s s i on, a nd not t o r e a l i z e t ha t l a ngua ge f i r s t of a l l i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i on a nd a r r a nge m e nt o f t he s t r e a m of s e ns or y e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h r e s ul t s i n a c e r t a i n w o r l d or de r . W e a r e t hus i nt r oduc e d t o a ne w pr i nc i pl e of r e l a t i vi t y w hi c h h ol ds t ha t a l l obs e r ve r s a r e not l e d by t he s a m e phys i c a l e vi de nc e t o t he s a m e pi c t ur e of t he uni ve r s e unl e s s t he i r l i ngui s t i c ba c kgr ounds a r e s i m i l a r o r c a n i n s om e w a y be c a l i br a t e d ( quot e d i n D a vi ds on, 1982 p 72) W hor f i s a r gui ng f o r t he pr i m a r y c ons t i t ut i ve na t ur e of l a ngua ge T he c l a s s i c e xa m pl e t ha t W hor f i a n a r gum e nt s us e i s t ha t t he E s ki m os h a ve m a ny w or ds f o r s now ( W oodw a r d

PAGE 56

53 & D e nt on, 1988 p 55 ) A c c or di ng t o t hi s p r e m i s e t he E s ki m os ha ve a l e s s s e m a nt i c a l l y a m bi guous w a y t o de s c r i be t he phe nom e na o f s no w D o s uc h e xt r a w or ds f o r a phe nom e na e f f e c t i ve l y c r e at e a pl e t hor a o f m o r e p he nom e na ? W hi c h de s c r i pt i on of t he m a t e r i a l w or l d i s m or e a c c ur a t e or m or e r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l : our s or t he pr ove r b i a l E s ki m o s ? T he p r obl e m w i t h t hi s e xa m pl e a s a c o r ne r s t one of l i ngui s t i c r e l a t i vi s m ( or t he S a pi r W hor f hypot he s i s ) i s t ha t i t i s n t t r ue W e a ngl o A m e r i c a ns ha ve m ul t i pl e w or ds f or s now ( s uc h a s bl i z z a r ds a nd f l ur r i e s ) w hi l e t he E s ki m o o f l or e m a y ha ve up t o s e ve n w or ds not f i f t y o r one hundr e d a s i s s om e t i m e s c l a i m e d ( P ul l a m 1991; M a r t i n, 1986) T he e s ki m o m e t a phor w hi l e of he u r i s t i c va l ue a ppe a r s t o be u nde r de t e r m i ne d by e vi de nc e I n t he ne xt s e c t i on, I w i l l f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t e r e l a t i vi s t a r g um e nt s a ga i ns t t r ut h, r e a l i t y a nd obj e c t i vi t y.

PAGE 57

54 F u z z i n e s s or Wh e n K e e p i n g i t R e al G oe s Wr o n g E i s e nbe r g ( 1984 ) not e s t ha t t he or i s t s of c om m u ni c a t i on ha ve f ound r e l a t i vi s t i de a s t o be a ppe a l i ng ( p. 229) I n t he i nt e r a c t i ona l vi e w o f B a t e s on, W a t z l a w i c k, a nd ot he r s e ve r yt hi ng de pe nds on c ont e xt ( E i s e nbe r g, 1984: p 229; W a t z l a w i c k, B e a vi n & J a c ks on, 1967) I n a 1985 book c ha pt e r A r t B oc hne r w r i t e s a bout a c r i s i s of c onf i de nc e i n t he e m pi r i c a l s oc i a l s c i e nc e s ( 1985, p. 28) A c c or di ng t o B oc hne r : L ogi c a l e m pi r i c i s t s a s s um e d t ha t s c i e nc e l e d t o t r ut h t hr ough m e t hod. T he y t hought t he r e w a s a w a y t o ge t i n t ouc h w i t h a bs ol ut e r e a l i t y a nd de s c r i be i t i n t e r m s t ha t w oul d be a bs ol ut e l y i nde pe nde nt of t he s ubj e c t i ve m e a ni ngs r e a l i t y c a n ha ve f or hu m a n pe r c e i ve r s ( 1985 p 33 ) T o c r i t i que l ogi c a l e m pi r i c i s m B oc hne r ( 1985) s ugge s t s pr a gm a t i s m a nd c i t e s t he phi l os ophe r R i c ha r d R or t y. E i s e nbe r g ( 1984) c i t e s R or t y w he n di s c us s i ng t he r e l a t i vi s t i de a t he r e i s no obj e c t i ve r e a l i t y t ha t w a i t s t o be di s c ove r e d ( p. 229 ) R or t y ( 1991) a r gue s t ha t by t r yi ng t o know t he r e a l w e a r e t r yi ng t o c l i m b o ut o f our ow n m i nds a nd obt a i n a G od s e ye vi e w ( p. 7) O ne i m pl i c a t i on of s uc h a n a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t vi e w i s t ha t t r yi ng t o obt a i n obj e c t i ve know l e dge o f r e a l i t y i s a a r r oga nt c onc e i t W e s houl d c ont e nt our s e l ve s w i t h our na r r ow e m be dde dne s s f o r t o ga i n c l a r i t y i nt o t he bi g p i c t ur e i s t o f a s hi on our s e l ve s a s godl i ke R or t y ( 1991) w r i t e s : . one c ons e que nc e of a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s m i s t h e r e c ogni t i on t ha t no de s c r i pt i on of how t hi ngs a r e f r om a G od s poi n t o f vi e w no s kyhook p r ovi de d

PAGE 58

55 f r om s om e c ont e m por a r y o r ye t t o be de ve l ope d s c i e nc e i s goi ng t o f r e e us f r om t he c ont i nge nc y of ha vi ng be e n a c c ul t ur a t e d a s w e w e r e ( p. 13 ) R or t y i s a s ubs c r i be r t o D ona l d D a vi ds on s a r c h a nt i r e a l i s t phi l os ophy t ha t p r opos e s t ha t w e dr op t he s c he m e c ont e nt di s t i nc t i on ( R or t y, 1991: p. 8, 9) D a vi ds on ( 1982 [ 1973] ) w r i t e s : R e a l i t y i t s e l f i s r e l a t i ve t o a s c he m e : w ha t c ount s a s r e a l i n one s ys t e m m a y not i n a not he r ( p 66 ) I n t he w or ds o f R or t y T he s e di s t i nc t i ons be t w e e n ha r d f a c t s a nd s of t v a l ue s t r ut h a nd pl e a s ur e a nd obj e c t i vi t y a nd s ubj e c t i vi t y a r e a w kw a r d a nd c l um s y i ns t r um e nt s ( 1991, p 36) T he i m pl i c a t i on i s t ha t w e s houl d t ol e r a t e a m bi gui t y a nd r e l a t i vi s m a s a ne c e s s a r y hum i l i t y. T he r e s ul t i s a c e r t a i n f uz z i ne s s a nd R or t y a dopt s t he de s c r i pt i on of hi m s e l f a s a f uz z y T he m e t a phor o f f uz z i ne s s c onj ur e s bl ur r i ne s s a s oppos e d t o N i e t z s c he s m e t a phor o f br oa d da yl i ght F or R o r t y, t he c l os e s t pe opl e c a n ge t t o ob j e c t i vi t y i s s ol i da r i t y t ha t i s t he c ons e ns ua l a gr e e m e nt be t w e e n m e m be r s i n a c om m uni t y A c c or di ng t o R or t y W e f uz z i e s w oul d l i ke t o s ubs t i t ut e t he i de a of un f or c e d a r gu m e nt f or t ha t of obj e c t i vi t y ( p. 38) F or i t s a dvoc a t e s w ho a r e s om e t i m e s de r i s i ve l y c a l l e d pos i t i vi s t s s c i e nc e i s he l d t o be m or e obj e c t i v e t ha n m e r e opi ni on F or a n a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t l i ke R or t y, s c i e nc e hol ds no pr i vi l e ge d pos i t i on i n t he e va l ua t i on be t w e e n c o m pe t i ng w or l d vi e w s . a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t s s e e no s e ns e i n w hi c h phys i c s i s m or e i nde pe nde nt of ou r hum a n pe c ul i a r i t i e s t ha n a s t r ol ogy or l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m ( 1991, p 8 ) I f t he t r ut h c l a i m s of s c i e nc e a r e t r e a t e d s o s ke pt i c a l l y, how do w e go a bout e va l ua t i ng c om pe t i ng w o r l d vi e w s s uc h a s c r e a t i oni s m vs na t ur a l s e l e c t i on? W e a r e l e f t w i t h f uz z y a m bi gui t y w hi c h c oul d c onc e i va bl y be di s or i e nt i ng. I t hi nk t ha t t he i de a of f a c t ve r s us f i c t i on i s a t l e a s t a us e f ul w a y of c odi f yi ng s e ns e da t a T he not i on o f t r ut h c a r r i e s r he t o r i c a l w e i ght a nd

PAGE 59

56 s e r ve s a nor m a t i ve f unc t i on T he pr obl e m w i t h r e l a t i vi z i ng t r ut h or dr oppi ng t he not i on of t r ut h a l t oge t he r i s t ha t i t m i ght be pol i t i c a l l y de bi l i t a t i ng i n s om e c i r c um s t a nc e s C r i m i na l j us t i c e f or e xa m pl e w oul d pr oba bl y be una bl e t o f unc t i on w e r e i t not f or a t l e a s t t he f i c t i on of t r ut h T he pur c ha s e r of pe t f ood a s s um e s t ha t t he pr oduc t i s t r ul y e di bl e a nd not poi s onous be f or e f e e di ng i t t o t he i r a ni m a l s A nor m a t i ve c onc e pt i on of t r ut h c a n be us e f ul f or out s poke n c r i t i c s o f s oc i e t y. I n a na t i ona l be s t s e l l e r e nt i t l e d L i e s M y T e ac he r T ol d M e hi s t or i a n J a m e s W L oe w e n ( 1995) l a m ba s t e s s c hool t e xt books f or w ha t he c l a i m s i s a n out r i ght m i s r e pr e s e nt a t i on of hi s t or i c a l f a c t s C i t i ng hi s t or i c a l r e c or ds L oe w e n ( 1995) pe r s ua s i ve l y m a i nt a i ns t ha t t he t r ut h of A m e r i c a n hi s t or y i s one o f r a c i s m a nd ge n oc i de E ve n i n t he t i t l e o f hi s boo k L oe w e n i nvoke s a t r ue / f a l s e di s t i nc t i on a nd t he r e p r e s e nt a t i ona l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy t ha t unde r w r i t e s i t I n a not he r e xa m pl e a c of f e e t a bl e b ook e nt i t l e d E v e r y t hi ng Y ou K now i s W r ong ( 2002) a ggr e ga t e s e m pi r i c a l l y ba s e d i nve s t i ga t i ve r e por t s f r om a ut ho r s s u c h a s A r i a na H uf f i ngt on T hom a s S z a s z H ow a r d Z i nn. U s i ng a r gum e nt s ba s e d on m a t e r i a l e vi de nc e t he a ut hor s a r gue va r i ous l y t ha t t he pha r m a c e ut i c a l i ndus t r y i s d r i ve n by p r of i t a nd not e t hi c s ; t ha t ps yc hi a t r y i s a pe r ni c i ous m e a ns of s oc i a l c ont r ol ; a nd t ha t t he l a bor m ove m e nt ha s be e n br ut a l l y r e pr e s s e d i n A m e r i c a n hi s t or y. I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t t he s e c l a i m s a r e pr e di c a t e d on a r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy de e m e d pr obl e m a t i c by r e l a t i vi s t s l i ke R or t y. T he r e l a t i vi s t m i ght r e s pond: but w ho s t o s a y t ha t t he s e a r gum e nt s ha ve uni ve r s a l m e r i t ? I t s a l l i n how you l ook a t t hi ngs F r om a not he r poi n t of vi e w a c om pl e t e l y di f f e r e nt t a ke on hi s t or y c oul d be pr o f f e r e d. D i f f e r e nt f a c t s c oul d be ut i l i z e d t o a r gue f o r a n oppos i ng i nt e r p r e t a t i on. N e i t he r de s c r i pt i on w oul d be r i ght o r w r ong;

PAGE 60

57 i ns t e a d, i t i s a l l i n how you f r a m e t he i s s ue s A t ol e r e nc e f or d i f f e r e nc e s i n opi ni on i s a ha l l m a r k of l i be r a l i s m R or t y i s a f a s c i na t i ng phi l os ophe r be c a us e he i s a bl e t o l i nk t he l i be r a l A m e r i c a n t r a di t i on of pr a gm a t i s m w i t h t he c ont i ne nt a l t r a di t i on of he r m e ne ut i c s a nd pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m T hi s w i de a ggr e ga t i on, c oupl e d w i t h R or t y s unus ua l l y r e a da bl e w r i t i ng s t yl e m a ke s hi m a s i gni f i c a nt phi l os ophe r a nd one of t he m os t f or t hr i gh t de f e nde r s of e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m L i k e t he c ont i ne nt a l t r a di t i on of he r m e ne ut i c s a nd pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m pr a gm a t i s m i s a n i nt e r pr e t i ve do c t r i ne t ha t que s t i ons s i m pl i s t i c not i ons of t r ut h. S t a nl e y A r onow i t z ( 2003) s um m a r i z e s t he pr a gm a t i c not i on of t r ut h : F or pr a gm a t i s m t he r e i s no que s t i on of i nt r i ns i c t r ut h i f by t ha t t e r m w e de s i gna t e t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t r ut h m a y be i nde pe nde nt of t he c ont e xt w i t hi n w hi c h a pr opos i t i on a bout t he s oc i a l w or l d i s ut t e r e d. T he t r ut h of a pr opos i t i on i s c l os e l y t i e d t o t he pr a c t i c a l c ons e que nc e s t ha t m i gh t unde r s pe c i f i c c ondi t i ons i s s ue f r om i t ( p. 15) L i ke ot he r t he or i s t s I ha ve m e nt i one d s o f a r f or pr a gm a t i s m c ont e xt i s i m po r t a nt T he pr a gm a t i s t J ohn D e w e y ( 1938) f e l t t ha t a t e r m l i ke know l e dge i s a m bi guous a s i s t he w or d e m pi r i c a l ( p 9 ) I n pl a c e of t he s e a m bi guous t e r m s D e w e y w oul d pu t w a r r a nt e d a s s e r t i bi l i t y w hi c h l e a ve s r oom f o r t he pos s i bi l i t y know l e dge c a n be m odi f i e d ( 1938, p. 9) W a r r a nt e d a s s e r t i bi l i t y i s a t e r m t ha t s ugge s t s t ha t f a c t s a r e not m i r r o r r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he w o r l d t ha t e xi s t a pa r t f r om h um a n i nt e nt i ona l i t y. I ns t e a d, t he y a r e c l a i m s m a de by pe opl e t ha t m a y w a r r a nt a s s e r t i on a c c or di ng t o t he i r u t i l i t y. B oc hne r ( 1985) de s c r i be s t he p r a gm a t i s t pos i t i on a s f ol l ow s : T he pr a gm a t i s t poi nt i s t ha t t he t e r m s t ha t w i l l p r o ve m os t us e f ul de pe nd upon t he pur pos e s t o w hi c h i nqui r y i s d i r e c t e d ( p 36 )

PAGE 61

58 T he i de a t ha t c ons c i ous ne s s i s s e l e c t i ve a nd di f f e r e nt i a l i s s om e t hi ng t ha t t he s oc i ol ogi s t G e or ge H e r be r t M e a d ( 1934) a s s oc i a t e s w i t h W i l l i a m J a m e s : W i l l i a m J a m e s poi nt s out t ha t t he a m ount o f di f f e r e nc e w hi c h you ha ve t o gi ve t o a c e r t a i n s t i m ul us t o m a ke i t dom i na nt i s ve r y s l i ght a nd he c oul d c onc e i ve o f a n a c t of vo l i t i on w hi c h hol ds on t o a c e r t a i n s t i m u l us a nd j us t gi ve s i t a l i t t l e m or e e m pha s i s t ha n i t ot he r w i s e w oul d ha ve ( p. 28 ) F or J a m e s t he r e i s a n e l e m e nt o f vol i t i on i n how r e a l i t y i s i nt e r c e pt e d. T he i m pl i c a t i on i s by va l ui ng one s t i m ul us ove r a not he r pe opl e c a n p e r c e i ve w ha t t he y w i s h t o pe r c e i ve T he hum a n a bi l i t y t o di f f e r e nt i a t e a nd di s c r i m i na t e i s s e e n a s not onl y s t r a t e gi c a l l y a dva nt a ge ous but a di s t i ngui s hi ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c o f hum a n i nt e l l i ge nc e : M a n [ s i c ] i s di s t i ngui s he d by t ha t pow e r o f a na l ys i s of t he f i e l d o f s t i m ul a t i on w hi c h e na bl e s hi m t o pi c k out one s t i m ul us r a t he r t ha n a not he r a nd s o t o hol d ont o t he r e s pons e t ha t be l ongs t o t ha t s t i m ul us pi c ki ng i t out f r om ot he r s a nd r e c om bi ni ng i t w i t h ot he r s ( M e a d, 1934 p 94) B y s uc h a pr a gm a t i c c onc e pt i on, know l e dge i s s e l e c t i ve P e opl e m us t c ons t a nt l y di s c r i m i na t e be t w e e n m a ni f ol d s e ns e d a t a a nd i de a s t he n c hoos e t he i r r e l e va nc e t o t he gi ve n c i r c um s t a nc e T r ut h, i n t h i s s e ns e i s obs e r ve r de pe nde nt p r ovi s i ona l a nd c ondi t i ona l pe ndi ng f u r t he r i nqui r y D e w e y ( 1938 ) w r i t e s s t a bi l i t y. . of m e a ni ngs i s a l i m i t i ng i de a l ( p. 345) R or t y ( 1991 ) e xpl a i ns F or t he p r a gm a t i s t . t r ut h ( i s ) s i m pl y a c om pl i m e nt pa i d t o t he be l i e f s w hi c h w e t hi nk a r e s o j us t i f i e d t ha t f or t he m o m e nt f ur t he r j us t i f i c a t i on i s not ne e de d ( p 24) H e e di n g N i e t z s c he s c l a r i on c a l l t he r e a l w or l d be c om e s a n i de a n o l onge r of a ny us e ; i t i s a n i de a gr ow n us e l e s s a nd s upe r f l uous

PAGE 62

59 T he p r e c e di ng di s c us s i on w a s m e a nt t o s ugge s t t he e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l r e l a t i vi s m of pr a gm a t i s m T he r e a r e m a ny s i t ua t i ons w he r e I c a n i m a gi ne t ha t a r oom y p r ovi s i ona l not i on of t r ut h c oul d be us e f ul F o r e xa m pl e i n a p s yc hot he r a pe ut i c s e t t i ng w he n a s i t ua t i on s e e m s ne ga t i ve a c l i ni c i a n or t he r a pi s t m i ght a s k i f t he r e a r e e xc e pt i ons t ha t a r e not be i ng t a ke n i n t o c ons i de r a t i on. R e f r a m i ng s e e m s t o m e t o be a n e f f e c t i ve us e of e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l l y f uz z y pe r s pe c t i ve s B ut w ha t i f f uz z y pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e us e d i n a dve r t i s i ng a nd publ i c r e l a t i ons f or ne f a r i ous pu r p os e s ?

PAGE 63

60 P r agm at i c s or S p i n ? I n a not he r di s c ur s i ve c ont e xt t he pr a gm a t i c c onc e pt i on of t r ut h ha s c om e unde r c r i t i c i s m T he m e di a c r i t i c S t ua r t E w e n, i n hi s c r i t i que of t he publ i c r e l a t i ons i ndus t r y e nt i t l e d P R A Soc i al H i s t or y of Spi n l i nks r e l a t i vi s m t o t he p r a gm a t i c phi l os ophy of W i l l i a m J a m e s f or w hom t he r e a r e no a bs ol ut e t r ut hs ( 1996, p 39 ) E w e n c a l l s t he pr a gm a t i c c onc e pt i on of t r ut h vol a t i l e be c a us e i t a l l ow s f or t r ut hs t o be w i l l f ul l y e ngi ne e r e d by t he publ i c i t y i ndus t r y J a m e s be l i e f t ha t t r ut h ha ppe ns t o i de a i s t o E w e n a t ot a l bl ur r i ng o f a l l di s t i nc t i ons be t w e e n s oc i a l f a c t a nd t he a t r i c a l f a nt a s y ( 1996 p 380) I n a r e c e nt i nt e r vi e w w i t h t he C a na di a n B r oa dc a s t i ng C om pa ny, E w e n r e i t e r a t e s t he l i nk be t w e e n t he pr a gm a t i s m of W i l l i a m J a m e s a nd t he pe r ni c i ous s pi n o f publ i c r e l a t i ons : a l ongs i de of t he p r ogr e s s i ve i de a t ha t t r u t h i s not s om e t hi ng w r i t t e n i n s t one t he r e i s a l s o t hi s pr obl e m w i t h t hi s ve r y m a l l e a bl e i de a of t r u t h w hi c h i s t ha t i t 's a n i nvi t a t i on f or c yni c i s m a nd f or i nve nt i ng t r ut hs t ha t s e r ve c e r t a i n i nt e r e s t s ( quot e d i n B a s e n, 2007 ) I t s e e m s t ha t a vi e w o f t r ut h a s a s e l e c t i ve pr oc e s s c oul d l e nd i t s e l f t o bot h t he r a pe ut i c br e a kt hr oughs a s w e l l a s t he s i ni s t e r e ngi ne e r i ng o f c om pl i a nc e I n a br i e f e xpos i t i on of pr a gm a t i c phi l os ophy, N e l N oddi ngs ( 2005 ) doe s not e a s i l y di s m i s s e t hi c a l c onc e r ns r a i s e d a bout pr a gm a t i c phi l os ophy. N oddi ngs s ugg e s t s t he us e of c a r e t he or y t o s uppl e m e nt t he e t hi c a l w e a kne s s e s of pr a gm a t i s m ( 2005, p 59 ) C a r e t he or y i s a

PAGE 64

61 c onc e r n f or a ny i nj ur i e s w hi c h m a y r e s ul t f r om a p hi l os ophy t ha t e m pha s i z e s e nds ove r m e a ns ( N oddi ngs 2005, p. 59) A p r obl e m a t i z i ng o f not i ons o f t r ut h c oul d s e r ve va r i ous pur pos e s I f a ps yc hi a t r i c pa t i e nt i s t or m e nt e d by t he pe r s i s t e nt pe r c e pt i on t h a t hi s l i f e i s a f a i l u r e a t he r a pi s t m i ght pr oduc t i ve l y r e f r a m e t he s a m e s e que nc e of l i f e e ve nt s t ow a r ds a m or e pos i t i ve i nt e r pr e t a t i on. T he t he r a pi s t m i ght a r gue t ha t t he p a t i e nt m e t s om e di f f i c ul t c i r c um s t a nc e s a nd m a na ge d t o ga i n p r e c i ous w i s dom i n t he pr oc e s s I n t hi s i ns t a nc e m e a ni ng s e e m s t o w a nt s om e e l a s t i c i t y. F or t he c om m uni c a t i on t he or i s t D a vi d P a yne ( 1989 ) f a i l ur e i s a r he t or i c a l de vi c e r a t he r t ha n a s t a t e m e nt of f a c t M e a nw hi l e i n a w hol e ot he r s phe r e of publ i c l i f e t he s pi n doc t or c oul d a r gue t ha t r a w s e w a ge w a s m e r e l y be ne f i c i a l bi os ol i ds or a w a r of a gg r e s s i on w a s onl y a pr e e m pt i ve qua s hi ng of i nc i pi e nt t e r r or i s m T he m a l l e a bi l i t y o f m e a ni ng w or ks b ot h w a ys I f a l l not i ons of r e a l i t y a nd t r ut h a r e r e l a t i vi z e d or di s pe ns e d w i t h e nt i r e l y, i t c oul d be pol i t i c a l l y de bi l i t a t i ng I n t he N i e t z s c he a n br oa d da yl i ght he r a l di ng p os i t i vi s m s de m i s e t he t he or i s t D C P hi l l i ps ( 2005) ha s s ugge s t e d a pe r s pe c t i ve c a l l e d pos t pos i t i vi s m ( p. 49) P os t pos i t i vi s m i s pos i t i vi s m c ut dow n t o s i z e s hor n of i t s s m ug c e r t a i nt y ye t s t i l l i ns i s t i ng on t he e vi de nt i a r y ba s i s f or a dva nc i ng c l a i m s I n t he pl a c e of t r ut h pos t pos i t i vi s t s i ns e r t J ohn D e w e y s not i on of w a r r a nt e d be l i e f s ( P hi l l i ps 2005 p 50 ) W i t h pos t pos i t i vi s m t he i ns i ght s o f t he p r a gm a t i c t r a di t i on a r e i nc or por a t e d. P os t pos i t i vi s m i s a pos i t i on t ha t a c know l e dge s t he pos t m ode r n c r i t i que o f r e p r e s e nt a t i on, ye t s t i l l hol ds t ha t e m pi r i c a l e vi de nc e ha s s om e r e l e va nc e

PAGE 65

62 P hi l l i ps e xpos i t i on o f pos t pos i t i vi s m i s i n a t e xt book e nt i t l e d I nt r oduc t i on t o P hi l os ophi e s of R e s e ar c h and C r i t i c i s m i n E duc at i on and t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s e di t e d by J a m e s L P a ul I n t he p r e f a c e t o t hi s book, P a ul ( 20 05) c i t e s N i e t z s c he a nd t he c onc e pt of pe r s pe c t i vi s m ( p. vi ) I n t hi s un i que book, pos t p os i t i vi s m ha s no pr i vi l e ge d pos i t i on a m ong m e t hodol ogi e s P os t pos i t i vi s m i s p r e s e nt e d by P hi l l i ps a s but one a ppr oa c h a m ong a hos t of ot he r s i nc l udi ng pr a gm a t i s m c ons t r uc t i v i s m pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m a nd ot he r s I n t hi s s e ns e P a ul s P hi l os ophi e s of R e s e ar c h and C r i t i c i s m i n E duc at i on and t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s i s i t s e l f a pos t pos i t i vi s t e f f or t w hi c h gr a nt s s c i e nt i s m no s pe c i a l pl a c e i n t he t ool ki t of m e t hodol ogi e s I ns t e a d, i n pe r s pe c t i vi s t f a s hi on, s oc i a l s c i e nt i f i c c onc e r n f o r e m pi r i c a l r e a l i t y i s j us t one o f a m a ny f a c e t e d m e a ns of i nqui r y P a ul s book s how s t he e f f e c t N i e t z s c he ha s ha d on s oc i a l s c i e nc e I n w ha t f ol l ow s I w i l l a t t e m pt t o s ugge s t t h a t w hi l e he i s not a l w a ys c i t e d e xpl i c i t l y, N i e t z s c he s e m pha s i s on pe r s pe c t i ve t a c i t l y i nf or m s r e s e a r c h i n t he c om m uni c a t i on di s c i pl i ne

PAGE 66

63 C om m u n i c at i o n as R e l at i o n al N ot R e p r e s e n t at i on al I n hi s e s s a y a bout s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y E i s e nbe r g ( 198 4 ) a r gue s t ha t a m bi gui t y i s a r e l a t i ona l pr ope r t y t ha t i s not i nhe r e nt i n a ny gi ve n m e s s a ge H e w r i t e s : C l a r i t y ( a nd c onve r s e l y, a m bi gui t y) i s not a n a t t r i but e of m e s s a ge s ; i t i s a r e l a t i ona l va r i a bl e w hi c h a r i s e s t hr ough a c om bi na t i on of s our c e m e s s a ge a nd r e c e i ve r f a c t or s ( 1984, p. 229) I n t hi s vi e w a m e s s a ge i s ne ve r i nhe r e nt l y a m bi guou s I ns t e a d, i t a l l de pe nds on t he r e c e pt i on of i t D e c a de s l a t e r i n hi s 2007 p r e f a c e t o A m bi gui t y a s S t r a t e gy i n O r ga ni z a t i ona l C om m uni c a t i on, E i s e nbe r g que s t i on s t hi s r e l a t i ona l de f i ni t i on of a m bi gui t y: L ooki ng ba c k, I a m a l s o uns ur e a bout m y r e l a t i ona l de f i ni t i on of s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y; i t s e e m e d t o m a ke s e ns e a t t he t i m e bu t ha s pr ove n di f f i c ul t t o s t udy ( 2007: p. 3) T he a dva nt a ge of a r e l a t i ona l a ppr o a c h t o c om m uni c a t i on i s t ha t i t a l l ow s f o r a m bi gui t y. S o m e w he r e i n t he r e l a t i ona l de f i ni t i on of a m bi gui t y a nd c l a r i t y t he r e i s a l ogi c a l a nt i nom y t ha t i s i t s e l f a m bi guous I n L angu age and M i nd t he l i ngui s t N oa m C hom s ky ( 2006) i s c onc e r ne d w i t h a m bi gui t y o nl y i ns of a r a s i t pos e s a pr obl e m f or s ynt a x, or t he a r r a nge m e nt o f w o r ds w i t hi n a s e nt e nc e ( p. 28 29) F o r C hom s ky ( 2006 ) s om e s e nt e nc e s a r e i nhe r e nt l y a m bi guous s uc h a s I don t l i ke J ohn s c ooki ng a ny m or e t ha n B i l l s ( p. 29) B y c ont r a s t a r e l a t i ona l de f i ni t i on of a m bi g ui t y hol ds t ha t t he r e i s

PAGE 67

64 not hi ng i nhe r e nt t o a n a s s e r t i on t o m a ke i t a m bi gu ous I ns t e a d, t he m e a ni ng of a n ut t e r a nc e i s de pe nde nt on c ont e xt ua l l y c ont i nge nt r e l a t i ona l f a c t or s s uc h a s t he va r i a bl e m e a ni ng di f f e r e nt r e c e i ve r s m i ght m a k e of a m e s s a ge I f a m bi gui t y i s i n t he e ye s of t he be hol de r t he n w ha t i s a m bi guous t o one r e c e i ve r m i ght be c l e a r t o a not he r T he m e s s a ge i n di s put e how e ve r by vi r t ue of ha vi ng a t l e a s t t w o s e pa r a t e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons i s pol ys e m i c by de f i ni t i on T he f a c t t ha t one m e s s a ge c a n be t a k e n a num be r o f w a ys i s a c t ua l l y a n ope r a t i ona l de f i ni t i on of a m bi gui t y. A r e l a t i ona l de f i ni t i on o f a m bi gui t y a t onc e s ugge s t s t he s t r a t e gi c r e s our c e s of a m bi guous de f i ni t i ons I n a n e s s a y e nt i t l e d C om m uni c a t i on a s R e l a t i ona l i t y, C e l e s t e M C ondi t ( 2006) pr opos e s a r e l a t i ona l a ppr oa c h t o c om m uni c a t i on s t udi e s a s oppos e d t o a r e f e r e nt i a l one M uc h l i ke t he a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t vi e w poi nt o f s a y, R or t y, a n a nt i r e f f e r e nt i a l phi l os ophy w oul d pos i t t ha t t he r e i s no s i m pl e o ne t o one r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t hought a nd i t s obj e c t C ondi t a s s e r t s t ha t c om m uni c a t i on i s not m e r e l y a pr oc e s s of t r a ns f e r r i ng i nf or m a t i on. A f t e r s t r uc t ur a l i s m a nd pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m C ondi t c l a i m s t ha t w e c a n no l onge r c l i ng t o t he i de a t ha t w or ds ha ve a s i m pl e r e f e r e nt i a l r e l a t i ons hi p t o t hi ngs ( 2006, p. 3) T hi s vi e w r e m i nds m e o f D e w e y ( 1938 ) w ho w r i t e s t he r e i s not pos s i bl e a ny s uc h t hi ng a s a di r e c t one t o one c or r e s ponde nc e of na m e s w i t h e xi s t e nt i a l obj e c t s ( p. 53) B e s i de s pr a gm a t i s m C ondi t a l s o r e f e r e nc e s s t r uc t ur a l l i ngui s t i c s a nd t he S w i s s l i ngui s t F e r di na nd de S a us s ur e f or w hom m e a ni ngs a r e no t f i xe d, but a l w a ys c ons t i t ut e d t h r ough di f f e r e nc e I n t hi s pe r s pe c t i ve l i ngui s t i c s i gns a c t r e l a t i ona l l y or di f f e r e nt i a l l y r a t he r t ha n r e f e r e nt i a l l y ( C ul l e r 1976) I ns t e a d of a w o r d r e f e r r i ng di r e c t l y t o i t s obj e c t our m e a ni ngs a r e i nt e r c onne c t e d a nd de pe nd on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s i gns D e pe ndi ng on t he s ynt a gm a t i c a r r a nge m e nt of w or ds a s e nt e nc e c a n t a ke on di ve r ge nt m e a ni ngs I n t hi s

PAGE 68

65 vi e w m e a ni ng i s ne ve r f i xe d or s t a t i c bu t i s a l w a y s c ont e xt ua l T he i m por t a nc e o f c ont e xt a nd di f f e r e nc e ha s a l r e a dy be e n not e d i n m y m e nt i on of D e r r i da a nd B a t e s on, e a r l i e r A c c or di ng t o a r e l a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve t he e s s e nt i a l na t ur e of t hi ngs i s a l w a ys c ont e s t a bl e a nd he nc e a m bi guous F or e xa m pl e t he s ky i s ve r y bl ue de pe ndi ng on i t s r e l a t i on t o o t he r bl ue t hi ngs f o r w hi c h w e ha ve a c om pa r i s on. O ur de f i ni t i on of bl ue ne s s i s di f f e r e nt i a l C ondi t ( 2006) o f f e r s a c r i t i c i s m of s t r uc t ur a l i s t a nd pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t t he or i e s a nd e ve n l um ps J a c que s D e r r i da i n w i t h P l a t o a nd t he w hol e m e t a phys i c a l l ogoc e nt r i c t r a di t i on ( p 3) A c c or di ng t o C ondi t e ve n a s t he dom i na nt s t r a i n of pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m t r i e s t o ne ga t e t he r e f e r e nt i a l c ha r a c t e r of s i gns i t s t i l l p r i v i l e ge s t he s i gn a s t he obj e c t of t he or e t i c a l f i xa t i on. F or C ondi t i t s a bout m or e t ha n j us t s i gni f i e r / s i gni f i e d. S i gns a nd s ym bol s how e ve r a r e m e r e l y c om pone nt s i n t he p r oc e s s of c om m uni c a t i on, w hi c h i s be t t e r unde r s t ood a s a pr oc e s s of r e l a t i ng ( C o ndi t 2006 p 4) R e l a t i ona l i t y t ur ns ou r undue a t t e nt i on a w a y f r om a f e t i s hi s m of t he s i gn W ha t C ondi t doe s r e t a i n f r o m a pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t pe r s pe c t i ve i s i t s none s s e nt i a l i s m S he c l a i m s t ha t a t hi ng ha s no qua l i t i e s i n t r i ns i c t o i t s e l f e xi s t i n g i n i s ol a t i on f r om ot he r t hi ngs A t hi ng i s m e r e l y t he a ggr e ga t e o f r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t c ons t i t ut e i t S he us e s t he t e r m pe r s pe c t i ve l y c ons t i t ut e d ( C ondi t 2006, p. 5) a s a w a y o f s ugge s t i ng t ha t s om e t hi ng i s c ons t i t ut e d e nt i r e l y by f r om w ha t a ng l e you l ook a t i t I t de pe nds on you r pa r t i c ul a r pl a c e t i m e a nd s oc i a l l y bounde d vi e w po i nt B e s i de s N i e t z s c he t hi s r a di c a l pe r s pe c t i vi s m r e m i nds m e of t he phi l os ophe r M a r t i n H e i de gge r w ho ha s t hi s i de a a bout t hr ow nne s s ( ge w or f e nhe i t ) W i t h t h r ow nne s s t he r e i s a f a t a l i s t i c e m pha s i s on pe r s pe c t i ve F or H e i de gge r be i ng t hr ow n m e a ns w e a r e a l w a ys pr e j udi c e d by ou r na r r ow vi e w poi nt ( H e i de gge r 1977) T o m e t hr ow nne s s c onnot e s di s c om bobul a t i on.

PAGE 69

66 C ondi t s e m pha s i s on pe r s pe c t i va l c ons t i t ut i on i l l us t r a t e s t he i m por t a nc e o f c ont e xt a nd pe r s pe c t i ve i n c om m uni c a t i on s t udi e s A f oc us on c ont e xt a nd pe r s pe c t i ve he dge s a ga i ns t t he a r r oga nc e of f a na t i c a l c e r t a i nt y Y e t I w onde r i f t hi s t ype o f r e l a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve m a y ha ve ot he r r i s ks I w onde r i f r e l a t i ona l i t y c a n a d e qua t e l y a c c ount f o r i s s ue s of pow e r C ondi t s ( 2006 ) hype r bol i c r e l a t i ona l i t y r a i s e d e ye br ow s f or m e w he n s he m a ke s a c l a i m a bout s l a ve r y. I m a f r a i d t ha t t he a s s e r t i on . t he s l a ve s c ont r ol you e ve n a s you c ont r ol t he m . ( C ondi t p. 6) r uns t he r i s k of m a ki ng s l a ve m a s t e r a nd s l a ve r e l a t i ona l l y e qui va l e nt T o s a y t ha t s l a ve r y i s f ound i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p s e e m s t o l e t t he s l a ve ow ne r of f t he hook, w hi l e gr a nt i ng a n i m a gi na r y a ge nc y t o t he pe r s on w ho i s e ns l a ve d. T hi s I f e a r i s a t ype o f obs c ur a nt i s m t ha t m i ght be us e d t o a pol ogi z e f or s l a ve r y. I t i m pl i e s t ha t s l a ve r y i s not t he de e d o f t he s l a ve ow ne r but t ha t s l a ve r y i nvol ve s s om e s or t of ps e udo c ons e nt I n he r c a m pa i gn a ga i ns t e s s e nt i a l i s m C ondi t t a ke s i s s ue w i t h t w o of t he bi g t hr e e ( r a c e c l a s s a nd ge nde r ) i n s oc i a l s c i e nc e C ondi t ( 2006) w r i t e s T he c onc e pt s of r a c e a nd c l a s s us e d i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha ve be e n f l a w e d b y t he a s s um pt i on t ha t r a c e or c l a s s m us t c ons t i t ut e a n e s s e nt i a l s i m i l a r i t y ( p 7) C on di t s ugge s t s t ha t t he c a t e gor i e s of r a c e a nd c l a s s a r e not e s s e nt i a l I ns t e a d, s he m e nt i ons t he i de a of s t r a t e gi c e s s e nt i a l i s m ( C ondi t 1996 p 5 ) w he r e by a n i ndi vi dua l m a y s e l f i de nt i f y w i t h a pa r t i c ul a r r a c e e t hni c gr oup or s oc i a l c l a s s be c a us e of a s t r a t e gi c i m pe r a t i ve or pol i t i c a l e xpe di e nc y. T he not i on of s t r a t e gi c e s s e nt i a l i s m m a ke s m e w onde r a bout t he s t r a t e gi c r e s our c e s of e s s e nt i a l de f i ni t i ons e ve n a f t e r a r e l a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve ha s r e nde r e d s uc h e s s e nt i a l i s m s u s pe c t

PAGE 70

67 I n t e s t y de ba t e w i t h C ondi t t ha t a ppe a r e d i n t h e pa ge s of C r i t i c al St udi e s i n M as s C om m uni c at i on t he una ba s he dl y M a r xi s t c om m un i c a t i on t he or i s t D a na C l oud a r t i c ul a t e s m y c onc e r ns a bout r e l a t i ona l i t y A c c or di ng t o C l o ud ( 1997) C ondi t ove r e m pha s i z e s i de a s a nd c ons c i ous ne s s ove r m a t e r i a l i t y ( p. 194) C o ndi t s ( 1994) r e de f i ni t i on of he ge m ony a s c onc or da nc e t a ke s t he c r i t i c a l t e e t h out o f G r a m s c i s c onc e pt a c c or di ng t o C l oud ( 1997) C ondi t s r e t r e a t f r om c l a s s a s a n a na l yt i c a l c a t e gor y a m ount s t o a n unf o r t una t e a c c om oda t i on of s oc i oe c onom i c di s pa r i t i e s ( C l oud 1997 p 194) F or C l oud c l a s s i s s om e t hi ng of a n e s s s e nt i a l i s m a s i t f o r m s a w i de a r c of s ol i da r i t y be t w e e n a va s t a r r a y o f s oc i a l gr oups T o C ondi t ( 1996) m e a nw hi l e C l oud i s ope r a t i ng unde r a n a nt i qua t e d 19 t h c e nt ur y r e duc t i oni s m t ha t i s no t r e l e va nt t o c ont e m por a r y s oc i e t y. I t w oul d s e e m t ha t f or C ondi t c l a s s i s a n out m ode d t he o r e t i c a l c ons t r uc t r a t he r t ha n a n e s s e nt i a l f a c t of s oc i e t y. I n t he ne xt s e c t i on, I w i l l s ugge s t how t he r e l a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve i s r e l a t e d t o t he or i e s t ha t pos i t t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e a l i t y

PAGE 71

68 S oc i al C on s t r u c t i on of R e al i t y V e r s u s B r u t e F ac t s ? A f o r e be a r e r of C ondi t s r e l a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve c a n be f ound i n G r e gor y B a t e s on. I n t he a f or e m e nt i one d a r t i c l e I nf o r m a t i on a nd C odi f i c a t i on: A P hi l os ophi c a l A ppr oa c h B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h ( 1951) e m pha s i z e t ha t s pe c i f i c a l l y hum an m e a ns of c l a s s i f i c a t i on, G e s t a l t ( p. 173 ) G e s t a l t t hi nks i n t e r m s not of r e l a t i ons hi ps but t hi ngs A c c or di ng t o B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h, G e s t a l t i s a pr oc e s s w he r e w e c onvi nc e our s e l ve s w e a r e t hi nki ng a bout t he t hi ng a nd not t he r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t c ons t i t ut e i t B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h a s s e r t t ha t va l ue a nd pe r c e pt i on a r e c ode t e r m i na t e ( 1951: p. 1 77) A s w e pe r c e i ve s o do w e va l ue A t hi ng a t t a i ns i t s t hi ngne s s by vi r t ue o f how i t i s p e r c e i ve d. T hi s i m pl i e s t ha t a t hi ng i s w i t hout f i xe d va l ue t ha t i s un t i l s om e one pe r c e i ve s i t L i ke C ondi t B a t e s on a nd R ue s c h s ugge s t t he pr i m a c y of s i t ua t i ona l bi a s e s w he n t he y m a i nt a i n t ha t i t i s di f f i c ul t t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o one s ow n c ul t ur e a nd t ha t t he c a pa c i t y f or c ul t ur a l c om pa r i s on ha s c om e t o pe opl e r e l a t i ve l y l a t e i n t he i r hi s t or y ( 1951, p. 199) B a t e s on s e m pha s i s on c ont e xt c or r e s ponds t o a not he r t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve na m e l y s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m I n t he book T he Soc i al C on s t r uc t i on of R e al i t y : A T r e at i s e i n t he Soc i ol ogy of K now l e dge P e t e r B e r ge r a nd T hom a s L uc km a nn ( 1966) r e c ount a f a m ous s t a t e m e nt by P a s c a l t ha t w ha t i s t r ut h on one s i de of t he P y r e ne e s i s e r r or on a not he r ( quot e d i n B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn, 1966 : p 5) B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn ( 1966) de t a i l t he i m por t a nc e of c ont e xt i n a w a y t ha t i s s i m i l a r t o B a t e s on, R ue s c h a nd C ondi t :

PAGE 72

69 W ha t i s r e a l t o a T i be t a n m onk m a y no t be r e a l t o t he A m e r i c a n bus i ne s s m a n. . I t f ol l ow s t ha t s pe c i f i c a ggl om e r a t i o ns of r e a l i t y a nd know l e dge pe r t a i n t o s pe c i f i c s oc i a l c ont e xt s . ( p 3) S oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t a ppr oa c he s a r e c onc e r ne d w i t h s oc i a l c ul t ur a l a nd hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn f r a m e t he i r a ppr oa c h w i t hi n a G e r m a ni c i nt e l l e c t ua l pe di gr e e t ha t i nc l ude s N i e t z s c he a n pe r s pe c t i vi s m M a r xi a n i de ol ogi c a l c r i t i que a nd D i l t he a n hi s t or i c i s m ( p 5) a s w e l l a s phe nom e nol o gy. S uc h a n i nt e l l e c t ua l ba c kgr ound i s m e nt i one d t o s ugge s t l ongs t a ndi ng hi s t or y o f i n t e r pr e t i vi s m t ha t i n f or m s B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn s s oc i ol ogy of know l e d ge K e nne t h G e r ge n ( 1998) a r gue s s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m i s a pl ur a l i s t i c vi e w poi nt t ha t i s c r i t i c a l of s c i e nt i f i c c l a i m s t o obj e c t i vi t y B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn s book a c c or di ng t o G e r ge n, ha d e f f e c t i ve l y r e pl a c e d s c i e nt i f i c obj e c t i vi t y w i t h a c onc e pt i on of s oc i a l l y i nf or m e d s ubj e c t i vi t y ( 1998, p 7 ) W hi l e B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn s book i s t he or e t i c a l l y de ns e a nd di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd, t he not i on of s oc i a l c ons t r uc t s ha s be e n w i de l y a da pt e d by t h os e w ho a r e c r i t i c a l o f s o c a l l e d f a c t s G e r ge n not e s t ha t s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on a ppr oa c he s w e r e pa r t l y de r i ve d f r om t he M a r xi s t pr a c t i c e of i de ol ogi c a l c r i t i que H ow e ve r w he r e i d e ol ogi c a l c r i t i que dr a w s a s t r ong di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n i de ol ogy a nd t he r e a l s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m goe s f ur t he r i n que s t i oni ng t he e pi s t e m i c f ounda t i on o f a ny t r ut h c l a i m I n t he de c a de s s i nc e B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn s bo ok, c r i t i c a l a ppr oa c he s t o s oc i a l pr obl e m s w i l l r e ve a l c e r t a i n r e a l i t i e s t o be m e r e c ul t ur a l l y a nd hi s t or i c a l l y bounde d c ont r i va nc e s S om e t i m e s c r i t i c s of s c i e nc e ha ve a r gue d t ha t w ha t s c i e nt i s t s m i ght a dva nc e a s f a c t s a r e i n hi nds i ght m or e a r e f l e c t i on of i de ol og i c a l bi a s e s a c c or di ng t o c l a s s r a c e a nd c ul t ur e S uc h c r i t i c i s m s a r e s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t i ns of a r a s t he y c om e

PAGE 73

70 f r om a t r a di t i on of i de ol ogi c a l c r i t i que w hi c h pos i t s a di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n f a c t s a nd s oc i a l c ons t r uc t s H e r e a r e s om e e xa m pl e s of put a t i ve f a c t s t ha t ha ve be e n r e ve a l e d t o be s oc i a l c ons t r uc t s I n Se x i ng t he B ody A nne F a us t o S t e r l i ng ( 2000) not e s t ha t t he di c hot om y o f f e m a l e a nd m a l e s e xua l i t y i s a s c i e nt i f i c r e duc t i oni s m t ha t i s c a l l e d i nt o que s t i on by or ga ni s m s bor n w i t h a m b i guous s e x c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s H i s t or i c a l l y, i nt e r s e xua l i t y o r he r m a phr odi s m a s i t ha s be e n l a be l e d, pr e s e nt s s uc h a pr obl e m f or t he m a l e / f e m a l e dua l i s m t ha t m e di c i ne s e e s f i t t o br ut a l l y m ut i l a t e i nt e r s e xe d bodi e s F a us t o S t e r l i ng a r gue s t ha t t he s uppos e dl y na t ur a l a nd e s s e nt i a l di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n m a l e a nd f e m a l e s e xe s a r e a c t ua l l y a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t ; a f i c t i ve s t r a t e gy a i m e d a t di s c i pl i ne a nd c ont r ol : C hoos i ng w hi c h c r i t e r i a t o us e i n de t e r m i ni ng s e x, a nd c hoos i ng t o m a ke t he de t e r m i na t i on a t a l l a r e s oc i a l de c i s i ons f or w hi c h s c i e nt i s t s c a n of f e r no a bs ol ut e gui de l i ne s ( 2000, p 5 ) I n a not he r e xa m pl e of f e m i ni s t s c i e nc e a nd t e c hnol ogy c r i t i c i s m D onna H a r a w a y ( 1991) not e s t ha t pr i m a t ol ogi s t s o f t he 1960s c r a f t e d c om pe t i ng f i c t i ons a bout m a l e dom i na nc e w he n c om pa r i ng ba boons a nd l a ngu r m onke ys H a r a w a y ( 1991) a r gue s t ha t pr i m a t e bi ol ogy s uppos e dl y a dom a i n o f va l ue f r e e s c i e nc e i s a c t ua l l y a n a r e na w he r e c onj e c t ur e s a bout hom i ni d na t ur e ( i nc l udi ng hum a n na t ur e ) a r e of t e n dr a w n f r om c a s e s t udi e s C l a i m s a bout m onke ys c a n s om e t i m e s be i m pl i c i t l y a bout m or e t ha n m onke ys H a r a w a y ( 1991) w r i t e s B i ol ogy ha s i nt r i ns i c a l l y be e n a br a nc h of pol i t i c a l d i s c our s e not a c om pe ndi um of obj e c t i ve t r ut h ( p 98) F or H a r a w a y, i t i s us e f ul t o c ons i de r t he hi s t or i c a l a nd c ul t ur a l c ont e xt s t ha t s ur r ound s c i e nt i f i c c l a i m s H a r a w a y i s m e nt i one d

PAGE 74

71 he r e t o s ugge s t a t l e a s t i ndi r e c t l y, t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t l e ga c y f or c r i t i c a l hi s t or i a ns of s c i e nc e T he r e a r e ot he r f or m s of c r i t i que w hi c h s ha r e s om e a f f i ni t i e s w i t h s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on t he or i e s T he s e c r i t i que s m a y not c l a i m t o be c ons t r uc t i oni s t pe r s e ye t t he y c a n be unde r s t ood i n t he s a m e s pi r i t of que s t i oni ng r e c e i v e d know l e dge C r i t i c i s m s of s c i e nc e not e t he r he t or i c a l c ur r e nc y o f na r r a t i ve s of obj e c t i ve t r ut h. I n a book e nt i t l e d R ac i al F or m at i ons i n t he U ni t e d St at e s : F r om t he 1960s t o t he 1980s M i c ha e l O m i a nd H ow a r d W i na nt ( 1998 [ 1986] ) s ugge s t how bi ol ogi s t i c t he o r i e s of r a c e a dva nc e d by s c i e nt i s t s i n t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w e r e a n e l a bor a t e a pol ogi a f or s l a ve r y. O m i a nd W i na nt ( 1998 [ 1986] ) m a i nt a i n t ha t r a c e i s not a bi ol ogi c a l f a c t : i ns t e a d, i t i s a s oc i ohi s t or i c a l c onc e pt ( p. 14) W hi l e not e xpl i c i t l y c ons t r uc t i oni s t t he a ut hor s r e ve a l t he c onc e pt o f r a c e t o be a s oc i a l a nd hi s t or i c a l c ons t r uc t r a t he r t ha n a s c i e nt i f i c a l l y s ubs t a nt i a t e d, bi ol ogi c a l f a c t T he a ppr oa c h t o r a c e a s a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t r a t he r t h a n a s a n e s s e nt i a l di f f e r e nc e i s a not he r w a y t ha t c r i t i c a l s c hol a r s hi p que s t i ons t he ve r a c i t y of put a t i ve f a c t s O t he r e xa m pl e s a bound i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd hum a ni t i e s w he r e t a ke n f or g r a nt e d a s s um pt i ons of f a c t a r e r e ve a l e d t o be s oc i a l c ul t u r a l a nd hi s t or i c a l c ons t r uc t s H e r e a r e s om e e xa m pl e s f r om t he d i s c i pl i ne of hi s t o r y: I n a c ol l e c t i on of e s s a ys e nt i t l e d T he I nv e nt i on of T r adi t i on t he hi s t or i a n E r i c H obs ba w m ( 1983) a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s de m ons t r a t e t ha t w ha t s om e t i m e s pa s s e s f or a l ong s t a ndi ng, nobl e t r a di t i on m a y onl y be a r e c e nt i nve nt i o n c r e a t e d t o be s t ow a n a ur a of l e gi t i m a c y on t he r ul i ng c l a s s I n a book c a l l e d I nv e nt i ng W e s t e r n C i v i l i z at i on T om P a t t e r s on ( 1997) t a ke s i s s ue w i t h t hos e r i ght w i ng i de ol ogue s s uc h a s N e w t G i ngr i c h, R oge r K i m ba l l a nd ot he r s w ho c l a i m t o de f e nd W e s t e r n c i vi l i z a t i on. P a t t e r s on s how s t ha t W e s t e r n c i vi l i z a t i on, i n i t s r a c i s m s e xi s m

PAGE 75

72 a nd ge noc i de c a n ba r e l y be de s c r i be d a s c i vi l i z e d. I n a book a bout t he m ode r n f a m i l y J ohn R G i l l i s ( 1996 ) po r t r a ys a nos t a l gi a f or s om e gol de n a ge t ha t i n f a c t ne ve r w a s G i l l i s r e ve a l s t ha t t he pa t r i a r c ha l f a m i l y, t hought b y s om e c ons e r va t i ve s t o be t he f ounda t i on of hum a n l i f e i s a c t ua l l y a n hi s t or i c a l c ons t r uc t of r e l a t i ve l y r e c e nt i nve nt i on. A l l of t he s e e xa m pl e s a r e w a ys i n w hi c h c ons t r uc t i oni s m or m ode s of i nqui r y r e l a t e d t o i t c a n be e m pl oye d t o c r i t i c i z e t he s t a t us quo a nd uns e a t une xa m i ne d a s s um pt i ons I n t he ne xt s e c t i on, I w oul d l i ke t o l ook a t a n a r t i c l e b y J udi t h B ut l e r a nd s e e i f i t r e s ona t e s w i t h t he e t hos of s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m

PAGE 76

73 C as e S t u d y #1 : Ju d i t h B u t l e r on G e n d e r F r om t he c r i t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve of c ons t r uc t i oni s m m a ny t hi ngs t ha t w e r e onc e r e ga r de d a s na t ur a l gi ve n or e s s e nt i a l c a n be c a l l e d i nt o qu e s t i on. F or t he f e m i n i s t t he or i s t J udi t h B ut l e r ge nde r r a t he r t ha n be i ng a na t ur a l o r e s s e nt i a l out gr ow t h of b i ol ogi c a l s e x, i s a c t ua l l y s om e t hi ng of a pe r f or m a nc e I n a n i n f l ue n t i a l e s s a y e nt i t l e d P e r f or m a t i ve A c t s a nd G e nde r C ons t i t ut i on: A n E s s a y i n P he nom e nol ogy a nd F e m i ni s t T he or y B ut l e r f a m ous l y w r ot e t ha t ge nde r i ns t e a d of be i ng s om e t hi ng w e ar e i s i ns t e a d s om e t hi ng t ha t w e do B ut l e r ( 1988) a r gue s t ha t ge nde r i de nt i t y i s i ns t i t ut e d t hr ough a s t yl i z e d r e pe t i t i on of a c t s ( p. 402) A r gua bl y, B ut l e r s t he or y of t he p e r f or m a t i vi t y of ge nde r c oul d be s e e n a s w i t hi n t he l e ga c y of s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m K e n ne t h G e r ge n ( 1998 ) a s s oc i a t e s t he pos t m ode r n f e m i ni s m of B ut l e r w i t h t he c onc e r ns of s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m W hi l e he r i de a s a r e f a r t oo c om pl e x a nd nua nc e d t o be l a be l e d, B ut l e r s i t ua t e s he r ow n r e s e a r c h i n a n i nt e l l e c t ua l t r a di t i on t ha t pos i t s t he s oc i a l c ons t i t ut i on of r e a l i t y. I n he r 1993 book B odi e s T hat M at t e r B ut l e r us e s t he c onc e pt s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on t o p r obl e m a t i z e t he bi ol ogi c a l f a c t s o f s e x: I f ge nde r i s t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of s e x, a nd i f t h e r e i s no a c c e s s t o t hi s s e x e xc e pt by m e a ns of i t s c ons t r uc t i on t he n i t a ppe a r s not onl y t ha t s e x i s a bs or be d by ge nde r but t ha t s e x be c om e s s om e t hi ng l i ke a f i c t i on, pe r ha ps a f a nt a s y, r e t r oa c t i ve l y i ns t a l l e d a t a pr e l i ngui s t i c s i t e t o w hi c h t he r e i s no di r e c t a c c e s s ( 1993: p. 5)

PAGE 77

74 T o a r gue t ha t ge nde r i s pe r f or m a t i ve B ut l e r ( 19 88) c i t e s phi l os ophe r J ohn S e a r l e s not i on of s pe e c h a c t s ( p. 401) S pe e c h a c t s a r e r e l a t e d t o J L A us t i n s ( 1962) not i ons of i l l oc ut i o na r y a c t s or pe r f or m a t i ve ut t e r a nc e s T he pr e m i s e of s pe e c h a c t s i s t ha t by ut t e r i ng s om e t hi ng, pe opl e a r e e f f e c t i ve l y m a ki ng i t a r e a l i t y. A t ypi c a l e xa m pl e of s uc h a s pe e c h a c t w oul d be I now p r onounc e you m a n a nd w i f e W ha t i f t hi s not i on o f s pe e c h a c t s w e r e a ppl i e d t o ge nde r ? W ha t i f i ns t e a d of a n a na t om i c a l m a l e s pr out i ng a c c or di ng t o s om e na t ur a l t e l e ol ogy i nt o m a nl i ne s s he i s onl y pa r r ot i ng a n i de a l t hr ough c ons t a nt r e i t e r a t i on? O r m a ybe pe r E l i z a be t h G r os z ( c i t e d i n F a us t o S t e r l i ng, 2000, p 24) t he r e i s s om e s or t of c i r c ul a r m ut ua l c a us a l i t y a t w or k. B ut l e r ( 1988 ) quot e s S i m one de B e a uvoi r w ho w r i t e s one i s not bor n but r a t he r be c om e s a w om a n ( p. 402 ) T hi s quo t e f r om B e a uvoi r i s r i c hl y e voc a t i ve f o r B ut l e r s e s s a y. T he i m pl i c a t i on i s t ha t be s i de s t he a na t om i c a l f a c t of s e x or ga ns ge nde r i s s om e t hi ng t ha t pe opl e a r e t a ught t o pe r f or m ove r t he c our s e of a l i f e t i m e W ha t a ppe a r s e s s e nt i a l i s t o B ut l e r m e r e l y t he a ppe a r a nc e of s u bs t a nc e I t s a c om pe l l i ng i l l us i on ( 1988, p 402 ) but a n i l l us i on none t he l e s s B ut l e r s a ppr oa c h i s p he nom e nol ogi c a l i ns of a r a s i t i s c onc e r ne d w i t h a ppe a r a nc e s a nd no t t he t hi ng i n i t s e l f w he r e t he e s s e nc e i s pr e s um a bl y l oc a t e d ( K a nt 1950, p. 60) B ut l e r c i t e s t he phe nom e nol ogi s t M e r l e a u P ont y, w ho c l a i m s t ha t t he body i s a n h i s t or i c a l i d e a r a t he r t ha n a na t ur a l s pe c i e s ( 1988, p 403 ) W hi l e t hi s i s a n i nt r i gui ng i de a t o m e I w onde r i f t he r e i s a c e r t a i n br ut e f a c t of a na t om y a nd hor m one s t ha t m a ke s i t d i f f i c u l t t o di s pe ns e w i t h na t u r a l f a c t i c i t y a l t oge t he r T he phi l os ophe r J ohn S e a r l e ( 1995 ) di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n i ns t i t ut i ona l f a c t s a nd br ut e f a c t s ( p 229 ) W he r e i ns t i t ut i ona l f a c t s a r e t hos e t hi ngs l i ke c a s h m one y, w hi c h ha ve va l ue a c c or di ng t o hum a n a gr e e m e nt br ut e f a c t s a r e t hos e f a c t s w hi c h

PAGE 78

75 a l l e ge dl y e xi s t out s i de of hum a n de t e r m i na t i on B u t l e r s e e m s t o w a nt t o que s t i on t hi s di s t i nc t i on. H ow e ve r m i ght a na t om y be one of t he de t e r m i ni ng va r i a bl e s i n ge nde r i de nt i t y? O ne i s not s i m pl y a body but i n s om e ve r y ke y s e ns e one doe s one s body c l a i m s B ut l e r ( 1988, p. 404) a nd t hi s a ppe a r s t o a r t i c ul a t e a c ons t r uc t i oni s t a ppr oa c h t o i de nt i t y. I nt e r e s t i ng t ha t B ut l e r s e s s a y w a s or i gi na l l y publ i s he d i n a j our na l of t he a t e r s t udi e s but ha s pr ove n t o be r e s ona nt i n a w i de r s e ns e f or a dr a m a t ur gi c a l s oc i ol ogy ( G of f m a n, 1 962) w he r e a l l t he w or l d s a s t a ge G e nde r i s not s om e t hi ng t ha t ha ppe ns t o pe opl e r a t he r i t i s s om e t hi ng t ha t pe opl e m a ke ha ppe n B ut l e r s a p pr oa c h i s opt i m i s t i c be c a us e i t s ugge s t s a pl a s t i c i t y of i de nt i t y. B ut l e r ( 1988) t e m pe r s he r e m pha s i s on s ubj e c t i vi t y a nd pe r s ona l a ge nc y by de s c r i bi ng ge nde r m o r e a s a s t r a t e gy, or a s i t ua t i on of dur e s s ( p. 405) S he not e s t ha t t hos e w ho f a i l t o do ge nde r w i t hi n pr e s c r i be d nor m s a r e r ou t i ne l y puni s he d. T he one e xa m pl e of t hi s t ha t c om e s t o m i nd f or m e i s t ha t of B r a ndon T e e na a n a na t om i c a l f e m a l e doi ng m a s c ul i ni t y w ho w a s br ut a l l y ki l l e d onc e he r f e m a l e s e x or ga ns w e r e di s c ove r e d ( S l oop 2000 ) R e t ur ni ng t o t he ove r a r c hi ng t he m e o f a m bi gui t y, i t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t t he a ppr oa c h of B ut l e r i n t r oduc e s f a r m or e a m bi gu i t y i nt o que s t i ons of i de nt i t y t ha n di d e a r l i e r e xpl a na t i ons of s e x s uc h a s bi ol ogi c a l de t e r m i ni s m B ut l e r s ugge s t s t ha t bi ol ogi s t i c di s c our s e s c ons t i t ut e a nor m a t i ve f i c t i on t ha t s e r ve s t o na t ur a l i z e ge nde r a nd m a ke i t s e e m gi ve n. I w onde r t hough i f i n he r z e a l t o d e e s s e nt i a l i z e ge nde r B ut l e r m a y a t t i m e s ove r s t a t e he r c a s e I t s e e m s t ha t not onl y i s g e nde r not na t u r a l t o B ut l e r i t i s de c i de dl y unna t ur a l A l t hough B ut l e r c l a i m s t o f or go t he r he t or i c o f na t ur a l f a c t s a t

PAGE 79

76 one poi nt i n he r e s s a y s he s e e m s r e l y on t ha t s a m e di s c r e di t e d r he t or i c F or e xa m pl e B ut l e r ( 1988) w r i t e s : A s F ouc a ul t a nd ot he r s ha ve poi n t e d out t he a s s oc i a t i on of a na t ur a l s e x w i t h a di s c r e t e ge nde r a nd w i t h a n os t e ns i bl y na t ur a l a t t r a c t i on t o t he oppos i ng s e x/ ge nde r i s a n unna t ur a l c onj unc t i on of c ul t u r a l c ons t r uc t s i n t he s e r vi c e of r e pr oduc t i ve i nt e r e s t s ( p 408 ) N ot i c e t he w or d unna t u r a l A c c or di ng t o t he s e nt e nc e i t c oul d be s ur m i s e d t ha t B ut l e r vi e w s t he he t e r os e xua l i m pul s e a s s om e t hi ng unna t ur a l N ot onl y i s he t e r os e xua l i t y a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i nde pe nde nt of na t ur e i t a c t ua l l y v i ol at e s t he l a w s of na t u r e I t s e e m s t o m e t ha t onc e w e a r gue t ha t ge nde r i s a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i ns t e a d of a na t ur a l f a c t t he n i t s pr obl e m a t i c t o t u r n a r ound a nd e m pl oy t he c onc e pt of na t u r e I a m c om f or t a bl e w i t h t he s ugge s t i on t ha t he t e r os e xua l i t y i s a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t but he r e B ut l e r i m pl i e s t ha t i t goe s a ga i ns t t he na t ur a l e s s e nc e of r e a l i t y I w onde r i f B ut l e r s e e ks r e c our s e i n t he ve r y t ype o f f or gone c onc l us i ons t ha t s he e l s e w he r e j e t t i s ons I n t he a bove quot e B ut l e r s e e m s t o i m pl y t ha t i t i s i n f a c t he t e r os e xua l i t y w hi c h goe s a ga i ns t na t ur e by r e duc i ng a t t r a c t i on t o t he c ul t ur a l ne c e s s i t y of p r oc r e a t i on. T hi s s t r i ke s m e a s pe r pl e xi ng, i f I ha ve i n f a c t c or r e c t l y unde r s t ood he r a r gum e nt B y t hi s l ogi c t w o bunni e s m a ki ng ba by bunni e s a r e not a c t i ng out of b i ol ogi c a l i m pe r a t i ve I ns t e a d, t he y a r e a t t he be he s t of s om e unna t u r a l c ul t ur a l br a i nw a s hi ng. B ut l e r ( 1993 ) a nt i c i pa t e s t hi s obj e c t i on, ye t c l a i m s t o us e t he t e r m s of t he de ba t e i n or de r t o a l t e r t he de ba t e I l e a ve op e n t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t I ha ve m i s unde r s t ood B ut l e r s nua nc e d a r gum e nt A t r a gi c s t or y f r om C a na di a n he a dl i ne s ( M a n R a i s e d a s G i r l D i e s 2004) i s e voc a t i ve f or B ut l e r s vi e w of ge nde r I n W i nne pe g, t w i n bo ys w e r e bor n i n 1966. D ur i ng

PAGE 80

77 a n a t t e m pt a t c i r c um c i s i on, one o f t he boy s ge ni t a l s w e r e bur ne d o f f T he m ut i l a t e d c hi l d w a s r a i s e d a s a gi r l ba s e d on t he hypot he s i s t ha t i t w a s nur t ur e a nd not na t ur e t ha t de t e r m i ne d ge nde r A s a n a dul t D a vi d R e i m e r r e v e r t e d t o a m a l e i de nt i t y a nd e ve nt ua l l y c om m i t t e d s ui c i de i n 2004 I t w oul d be r e m i s s t o d r a w a ny c onc l us i ons f r om t hi s s t or y a bout t he pe r f o r m a t i vi t y of ge nde r S ur e l y a s pe c i f i c i ns t a nc e i s not i n a ny w a y i ndi c a t i ve of a ge ne r a l r ul e I m e nt i on i t he r e onl y be c a us e i t i s t hought pr ovoki ng a bout ge nde r que s t i ons W hi l e bi ol ogy m a y not be de s t i n y, pe r ha ps i t i s one o f t he de t e r m i ni ng va r i a bl e s i n ge nde r i de nt i t y P ol i t i c a l l y m y s ym pa t hi e s a r e w i t h f e m i ni s m a nd t he c r i t i que of s e x a nd ge nde r I n t he b ook Se x i ng t he B ody t he bi o l ogi s t A nne F a us t o S t e r l i ng ( 2000) us e s a n e xa m pl e f r om m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y t o que s t i on r e duc t i ve bi na r i e s of m a l e / f e m a l e W ha t a bout i nt e r s e xe d or he r m a phr odi d i c i ndi vi dua l s t hos e bo r n w i t h a m b i guous ge ni t a l i a ? S uc h pe opl e r out i n e l y unde r go hor r i f i c m ul t i l a t i on by pa r e nt s a nd doc t or s w ho w a nt t o c l e a ve t he c hi l d i nt o one or a not he r b i ol ogi s t i c bi na r i s m W i t h t hi s c ons i de r a t i on, F a us t o S t e r l i ng ( 2000) m a ke s t he po i nt a bout t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i o n of s e xua l i t y m o r e pe r s ua s i ve l y f or m e t ha n doe s B ut l e r ( 1993) I t hi nk t hi s i s be c a us e F a us t o S t e r l i ng de a l s i n t he e vi de nt i a l f a c t i c i t y of a na t om y i ns t e a d of di s c ur s i ve or i l l oc ut i ona r y a c t s T he p r e c e di ng di s c us s i on of J udi t h B ut l e r w a s m e a nt t o s ugge s t how e ve r pr ovi s i ona l l y, t he p os s i bl e r he t or i c a l va gr a nc i e s of t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e a l i t y hypot he s i s W hi l e I t h i nk de m ons t r a t i ng how w ha t w e t a ke a s r e a l i t y i s on l y a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on, I w onde r i f t a ke n t o e xt r e m e s t hi s p e r s pe c t i ve c oul d unde r m i ne t he r he t or i c a l f oot i ng of c r i t i que G e r ge n ( 1998) not e s . c ons t r uc t i oni s t t hi nki ng t e nds t o r e m ove t he gr ounds f or a ny s t r ong c l a i m s t o t he r e a l a nd t he good ( p. 8) I f w e a r gue t ha t

PAGE 81

78 a l l e ge dl y na t ur a l di c hot om i e s s uc h a s ge nde r a r e h um a n de r i ve d c onve nt i ons i nde pe nde nt of n a t ur e c a n w e t he n i nvoke t he c on c e pt of na t ur e t o a r gue a ga i ns t he t e r os e xua l de s i r e ? B ut l e r s i de a s a r e i nc r e di bl y c om pl e x a nd i nvoke o r de r s of r e c ur s i on t ha t m a y be be yond m y c ogni t i ve c a pa c i t y. T o m e he r i de a s a r e p r ovoc a t i ve a nd c ount e r i nt ui t i ve goi ng a ga i ns t a ppa r e nt l y s e l f e vi de nt p r e c onc e pt i ons a bout ge nde r I f i nd t ha t he r i de a s t ouc h a ne r ve a nd t hi s ha s be e n c om m e n t e d upon by s om e o t he r s i n publ i c di s c our s e A n a r t i c l e by f e m i ni s t l e ga l t he or i s t M a r t ha N u s s ba um ( 1999) e nt i t l e d T he P r o f e s s or of P a r ody t a ke s B ut l e r t o t a s k i n a pa r t i c ul a r l y v i t r i ol i c f a s hi on. T o N us s ba um t he phi l os ophy of B ut l e r w hi c h ha s be c om e s om e t hi ng l i ke or t hodoxy i n A m e r i c a n uni ve r s i t i e s i s m a s oc hi s t i c r e t r e a t i s t a nd qui e t i s t ( 1999) N us s ba um a r gue s t ha t B ut l e r s pr os e i s ove r l y obs c ur e ( p. 3) S he no t e s t ha t B ut l e r r e c e i ve d f i r s t pr i z e i n a n a nnua l B a d W r i t i ng C ont e s t f r om t he j ou r na l P hi l os ophy and L i t e r at ur e f or t he f ol l ow i ng r un on s e nt e nc e : T he m ove f r om a s t r uc t ur a l i s t a c c ount i n w hi c h c a pi t a l i s unde r s t ood t o s t r uc t ur e s oc i a l r e l a t i ons i n r e l a t i ve l y hom ol ogous w a ys t o a vi e w of he ge m ony i n w hi c h pow e r r e l a t i ons a r e s ubj e c t t o r e pe t i t i on c onve r ge nc e a nd r e a r t i c ul a t i on br ought t he que s t i on of t e m po r a l i t y i nt o t he t hi nki ng o f s t r uc t ur e a nd m a r ke d a s h i f t f r om a f or m of A l t hus s e r i a n t he or y t ha t t a ke s s t r uc t ur a l t ot a l i t i e s a s t he or e t i c a l obj e c t s t o one i n w hi c h t he i ns i ght s i nt o t he c ont i n ge nt pos s i bi l i t y of s t r uc t u r e i na ugur a t e a r e ne w e d c onc e pt i on o f he ge m ony a s bound up w i t h t he c ont i nge nt s i t e s a nd s t r a t e gi e s of t he r e a r t i c ul a t i on of pow e r ( quot e d i n N us s ba um 1999 p 4) D oe s t he a c c us a t i on t ha t a t he or i s t s w r i t i ngs a r e t oo w or dy c ons t i t ut e a s ubs t a nt i ve c r i t i que ? C ol l e ge pr of e s s or s of t e n a dm oni s h s t ude nt s f or r un on s e nt e nc e s a nd va gue ne s s ye t pe r ha ps t hi s poi nt s t o a doubl e s t a nda r d S om e t he or i s t s e m pl oy t he s e s a m e

PAGE 82

79 de r e l i c t i ons w i t h i m puni t y a nd a r e e ve n c a noni z e d a s a r e s ul t A s a s e nt e nc e gr ow s l onge r a nd l onge r i t s m e a ni ng t e nds t o be c om e m or e a m b i guous a nd ope n t o i nt e r pr e t a t i on S ubj e c t a nd pr e di c a t e be c om e ha r de r t o i de nt i f y F or N us s ba um s uc h ve r bos i t y a s B ut l e r s a bove i s m a ni pul a t i ve ; a n obs c ur a nt i s t s l e i ght of ha nd ( 1999, p. 4) I n B ut l e r s de f e ns e i t c oul d be s a i d t ha t t hi s doe s not c ons t i t ut e a s ubs t a nt i ve c r i t i que of he r c onc e pt s N us s ba um s c om pl a i nt s o f a r doe s not e nga ge t he i de a t i ona l c ont e nt o f B ut l e r s w or ks A c r i t i c i s m t ha t s om e one s pr os e i s d i f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd, a nd t he a c c us a t i on of w i l l f ul obs c ur a nt i s m doe s not a ddr e s s t he c l a i m m a de by B ut l e r t ha t ge nde r i s a s t yl i z e d r e pe t i t i on of a c t s Y e t N us s ba um s t i r a de a l s o t a ke s i s s ue w i t h B ut l e r s c l a i m t ha t ge nde r i s a f f e c t e d or pe r f or m e d T o N us s ba um t hi s c l a i m i s s om e t hi ng of a t r ui s m a nd ha s be e n e m pi r i c a l l y s ubs t a nt i a t e d i n t he w o r k of A nne F a us t o S t e r l i ng a nd ot he r s ( 1999, p. 5) Y e t N us s ba um obj e c t s t o B ut l e r s e xa gge r a t e d de ni a l of pr e c ul t u r a l a ge nc y w hi c h de l i m i t s ge nde r a s a pr oduc t o f nu r t ur e a nd not na t u r e ( 199 9, p 6) N us s ba um s a r t i c l e i s not a bl e f o r t he out r a ge i t e xpr e s s e s W hi l e N us s ba um s s t a t e d pol i t i c s a r e f e m i ni s t he r a r t i c l e a t l e a s t i n t e nor r e a c he s t he s e l f r i ght e ous i ndi gna t i on o f c e r t a i n r i ght w i ng c r i t i c s of pos t m ode r n t he or y M y a i m i s t o be a s di pl om a t i c a s pos s i bl e but I c a n t he l p but w onde r i f N us s ba um s i r e m i g ht be be t t e r s pe nt on s w or n f oe s of w om e n s l i be r a t i on, i ns t e a d of B ut l e r T he s ugge s t i on t ha t B ut l e r s hi p qui e t i s m a c t ua l l y c ol l a bor a t e s w i t h e vi l ( N us s ba um 1999 p. 11) s how s j us t how m uc h c ons t r uc t i oni s t pos i t i ons pus h pe opl e s but t ons W h i l e I t hi nk t ha t he r a t t a c k on B ut l e r i s ove r l y m or da nt I a l s o w onde r i f i t s ugge s t s t he a m bi va l e nc e a bout c ons t r uc t i oni s m f r om a f e m i ni s t s t a ndpoi nt N us s ba um s r a nt a ga i ns t B ut l e r i s a c om pl a i nt a bout di s c ur s i ve f or m a s w e l l a s t he or e t i c a l c ont e nt N us s ba um i m p l i e s t h a t a t he or i s t m a y r e s or t t o

PAGE 83

80 e xc e s s i v e ve r bi a ge w he n t he i r po l i t i c a l pos i t i on be c om e s unt e na bl e Y e t a c om pl a i nt t ha t a t he or i s t i s ha r d t o unde r s t a nd doe s not i n i t s e l f c ons t i t ut e a s ubs t a nt i ve c r i t i c i s m H e r e a r e l a t i ona l de f i ni t i on of a m bi gui t y ( E i s e n be r g, 20 07) i s us e f ul F or e xa m pl e I m a y f i nd a l e ga l br i e f i ng or a t e c hni c a l pa pe r on t he or e t i c a l ph ys i c s i nc om pr e he ns i bl e D oe s t ha t m a ke t hos e doc um e nt s de f ac t o i r r e l e va nt ? J us t be c a us e a pa pe r i s t he or e t i c a l l y s ophi s t i c a t e d or us e s e s ot e r i c w or ds doe s not m e a n t ha t i t w on t m a ke s e ns e f or a n a udi e nc e f or w hom t he a r t i c l e w a s i nt e nde d f or F or t he f e m i ni s t t he or i s t T e r e s a E be r t ( 1996) B ut l e r s f e m i ni s m i s l udi c m e a ni ng pl a yf ul but n ot c onc e r ne d e nough w i t h e m a nc i pa t i on f r om s oc i oe c onom i c e xpl o i t a t i on ( p. 220 ) W hi l e s t a t e d i n a c a l m e r m or e c om pl i c a t e d l a ngua ge t ha n N us s ba um s ( 1999) E be r t s ugge s t s t ha t t he r e i s s om e t hi ng t o t he a c c us a t i on t ha t B ut l e r s t he or i e s a r e a qui e t i s t i c r e t r e a t f r om s oc i opol i t i c a l i s s ue s E be r t ( 1996) i nvoke s M a r xi s m but i s l a r ge l y c onc e r ne d w i t h a r a r e i f i e d pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t d i s c our s e of t he t ype t ha t I ha ve be e n puz z l e d by f or de c a de s E be r t s L udi c F e m i ni s m and A f t e r : P os t m ode r ni s m D e s i r e and L abor i n L at e C api t al i s m ( 1996) i t i s l a m e nt a bl y not f r e e f r om c om pl i c a t e d pr os e L i ke C l oud ( 1996) E be r t a i m s t o r e s us c i t a t e t he m a t e r i a l i s t c o nc e r ns of M a r xi s m ye t s he r e m a i ns l a r ge l y c onc e r ne d w i t h t he di s c ur s i ve r e a l m o f t he or e t i c a l m i nut a e i ns t e a d of p r a c t i c a l c onc e r ns f a c i ng w om e n. I n w ha t f ol l ow s I w i l l l ook a t a not he r a r t i c l e w he r e I f e e l t he c ons t r uc t i oni s t pos i t i on m i ght be p r obl e m a t i c

PAGE 84

81 C as e S t u d y #2 : I an H ac k i n g on C h i l d A b u s e A not he r t he or i s t w ho a ppr oa c he s s oc i a l i s s ue s f r om a c ons t r uc t i oni s t pe r s pe c t i ve i s I a n H a c ki ng. I n hi s a r t i c l e T he M a ki ng a nd M ol di ng of C hi l d A bus e ( 1991 ) H a c ki ng r e f us e s t o a bs t r a c t c hi l d a bus e s e pa r a t e f r om i t s s oc i a l hi s t or i c a l a nd pol i t i c a l c ons t i t ut i ons I n w ha t he t e r m s m a ki ng up pe opl e onc e l a be l s a r e a ppl i e d t he n pe opl e s t a r t t o be ha ve a c c or di ng t o t h e i r l a be l s ( H a c ki ng, 1991, p 255) I n a t he or e t i c a l a ppr oa c h t ha t i s a ki n t o H ow a r d B e c ke r s ( 1963 ) l a be l i ng t h e or y, H a c ki ng s ugge s t s how t he l a be l i ng of c e r t a i n be ha vi or a s a bus e m i ght be c om e a s e l f f ul f i l l i ng pr ophe c y. H a c ki ng s how s t ha t c hi l d a bus e i s a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t a n e nd e a vor t ha t m i ght m a ke m os t o t he r w i s e t hor oughgoi ng nom i na l i s t s of t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t s c hool que a s y ( 1991, p 257 ) I ns t e a d of a s s i gni ng t o c hi l d a bus e e s s e nt i a l qua l i t i e s H a c ki ng s e e m s t o s a y t ha t c hi l d a bus e i s a s or t of r he t or i c a l l y s t r a t e gi c e s s e nt i a l i s m e m pl oye d t o a dva nc e va r i ous pol i t i c a l a ge nda s H a c ki ng s e e s c hi l d a bus e not a s a n e t e r na l m or a l phe nom e na nor a s a c om m onl y a gr e e d upon i ns t i t ut i ona l f a c t but a s a pe r ha ps r e l a t i ve l y r e c e nt i nve nt i on t ha t i s s ubj e c t t o s ke pt i c i s m H e r e c ount s how H e nr y K e m pe s B a t t e r e d C hi l d S yndr om e pa pe r i na ugur a t e d t he m e di c a l i z a t i on of c hi l d a bus e C a r e e r i s t m ot i ve s a r e i m pl i e d, na m e l y, t ha t pe di a t r i c r a di ol ogy w a s a f i e l d i n de c l i ne a nd i t ne e de d a s e l f pe r pe t ua t i ng j us t i f i c a t i on ( H a c ki ng, 1991, p. 228) P r i or t o K e m pe c hi l d a bus e di d not e xi s t a s s uc h, a l t hough t he e xpe r i e nt i a l phe nom e na w a s de s c r i be d us i ng di f f e r e nt nom e nc l a t ur e

PAGE 85

82 H a c ki ng s pa pe r i s p r ovoc a t i ve i n t ha t i t r a di c a l l y r e l a t i ona l i z e s t he i s s ue of c hi l d a bus e H a c ki ng be gs t he que s t i on, w ha t s i n a na m e ? H a c ki ng di s t i ngui s he s c hi l d a bus e nom i nal l y f r om s i m i l a r phe nom e na t ha t m a y ha ve be e n r e f e r r e d t o w i t h a di f f e r e nt na m e A s a r e s ul t t he r e i s a c e r t a i n a m bi gui t y a bout w he t he r H a c ki ng i s de c ons t r uc t i ng t he na m e or t he phe nom e na i t s e l f H a c ki ng w i l l s w i t c h be t w e e n t a l ki ng a bout c hi l d a bus e a s a na m e a nd a s a s oc i a l r e a l i t y M y a ppr e he ns i on i s t ha t he i s s pl i t t i ng ha i r s a nd f l i r t i ng w i t h a pr obl e m a t i c ki nd o f r e l a t i v i s m I n hi s phi l os ophi c a l de t a c hm e nt I f e a r t ha t H a c ki ng m a y be i ns e ns i t i ve t o t hi s m or a l l y l oa de d i s s ue I w onde r i f H a c ki ng pr a c t i c e s a t ype of s ophi s t r y w hi c h gr a t ui t ous l y t r oubl e s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t e r m a nd i t s r e f e r e nt A t t i m e s he s ounds a bi t l i ke t he p r ove r bi a l s pi n doc t or w ho put s t r ut h i n quot e s T he r e i s not s i m pl y a t r ut h of t he m a t t e r t ha t onc e di s c ove r e d, w i l l r e m a i n t he t r ut h. . ( H a c ki ng, 1991 p 254 ) H a c ki ng w i l l s om e t i m e s m a ke c ont r a di c t or y c l a i m s a bout c hi l d a bus e w hi c h m i ght unde r m i ne hi s l ogi c a l c ohe r e nc y I n a l a t e r book c ha pt e r a bout c hi l d a bus e H a c ki ng ( 1999) r e i t e r a t e s hi s a r gum e nt f r om t he 1991 a r t i c l e : N o one i s a s t oni s he d t o r e a d t ha t c hi l d a bus e i s not a na t ur a l i s t i c c a t e gor y not hi ng i s na t u r a l l y c hi l d a bus e ( p 130) Y e t a f e w pa ge s l a t e r H a c ki ng ( 1999) c a l l s c hi l d a bus e not onl y a n ul t i m a t e e vi l but a l s o a n ul t i m a t e pol l ut i on of t he c hi l d o f t he f a m i l y, of t he s oc i e t y ( p 135 ) B ut i f not hi ng i s na t u r a l l y c hi l d a bus e t he n w ha t i s i t t h a t H a c ki ng a t t a c ks a s e vi l a nd pol l ut i ng? I f H a c ki ng doe s not de e m a ny pa r t i c ul a r a c t i on a s de f ac t o c hi l d a bus e t he n w ha t i s hi s ba s i s f or s a yi ng t ha t c hi l d a bus e i s apr i or i e vi l ? T ha t m a y be a de f e ns i bl e

PAGE 86

83 pos i t i on i n i t s e l f ye t i t s e e m s t o c ont r a di c t hi s s t a t e d pos i t i on a bove na m e l y t ha t t he r e i s no n a t ur a l e s s e nc e t o c hi l d a bus e S ur e l y t he r e a r e phi l os ophi c a l nua nc e s i n H a c ki ng s w r i t i ngs t ha t I a m m i s s i ng, ye t f or t he uni ni t i a t e d, hi s w r i t i ngs m a ke f or a m bi guous m e a ni ngs T he r e i s I t hi nk a nom i na l i s t i c a m bi gui t y i n t he w r i t i ngs of H a c ki ng t h a t i nduc e s e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l c onf us i on. F or e xa m pl e na pa l m i s a r gua bl y e vi l b e c a us e i t pa i nf ul l y s e a r s t he f l e s h o f hum a n bodi e s T o be s ur e na pa l m i s no t a na t u r a l i s t i c c a t e gor y. B ut w ha t i f a m i l i t a r y a pol ogi s t a r gue d t ha t t he r e w a s not hi ng e s s e nt i a l l y e vi l a bout na pa l m ? T hi s hypot he t i c a l a pol ogi s t w oul d a r gue t ha t na pa l m i s a c t ua l l y j us t be c a us e i t gi ve s us a s t r a t e gi c a dva nt a ge ove r our e ne m i e s N ow i m a gi ne a de f e ns e a t t or ne y a r gui ng t ha t t he vi s i bl e br ui s e s on a c hi l d w e r e not e vi de nc e of c hi l d a bus e T o t he a bus e r ba t t e r y of t he c hi l d w a s a n a c t of di s c i pl i ne a nd t ough l ove I f t he r e i s no be ha vi or w hi c h i s na t ur a l l y c hi l d a bus e doe s n t t hi s i nvi t e obs c ur a nt i s m ? I f H a c ki n g i s s a yi ng t ha t t he r e i s no e t e r na l l a w a ga i ns t c hi l d a bus e e xc e pt by hum a n c onve nt i on, t ha t w oul d be unde r s t a nda bl e t o m e B ut na t ur e a s e vi de nc e d by t he obs e r va bl e phys i c a l ha r m done t o t i ny bodi e s s e e m s t o m e t o of f e r a na t ur a l e vi de nt i a r y ba s i s f or t he de f i ni t i on of c hi l d a bus e H e r e m y l a t e nt m a t e r i a l i s m ha s be e n pr ovoke d a nd bl ur t s i t s p r ot e s t E s s e nt i a l i s m ( of t he s t r a t e gi c r a t he r t ha n m e t a phys i c a l va r i e t y) s e e m s t o o f f e r ut i l i t a r i a n l e ve r a ge i n a r gum e nt a t i ve c ont e xt s H a c ki ng t e s t s t he l i m i t s o f s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m e s pe c i a l l y w he r e e m ot i ons a nd kne e j e r k m or a l i t y ge t i nvo l ve d. I w onde r a t t i m e s i f H a c ki ng i s be i ng de l i be r a t e l y pr ovoc a t i ve ye t e qui voc a t i ng j us t e nough t o a l l ow f or pl a us i bl e de ni a bi l i t y. H e r e a r e s om e m or e c l a i m s t ha t H a c ki ng m a ke s i n hi s 1991 a r t i c l e w hi c h, f o r m e r a i s e t he s us pi c i on of m ys t i f i c a t i on or obs c ur a nt i s m :

PAGE 87

84 1. . nobody c oul d pos s i bl y ha ve f or e s e e n t ha t a na l d i l a t i on w oul d be a t t he c e nt e r of publ i c out c r y, nor ha ve f or e c a s t t he i n t e ns i t y of t he a nge r t ha t w a s e voke d ( H a c ki ng, 1991 p 256) A c c or di ng t o H a c ki ng ( 1 991) i n 1986 t he j ou r na l T he L anc e t r e c om m e nde d a pr oc e dur e c a l l e d a na l di a l a t i on i n o r de r t o de t e c t t he bugge r y of c hi l dr e n. T he us e of t hi s t e c hni que pr o voke d a nge r t ow a r ds t he pe di a t r i c s oc i a l w or ke r s w ho pe r f or m e d i t I t s e e m s t o s ur pr i s e H a c ki ng t ha t t hi s i nva s i ve pr oc e d ur e c oul d pos s i bl y be c om e a m a t t e r of publ i c out c r y. 2. A c c or di ng t o H a c ki ng ( 1991) i nc e s t i s not by de f i ni t i on, a f or m of c hi l d a bus e H a c ki ng c l a i m s t ha t i nc e s t a s a f or m of a bus e c a m e i nt o e xi s t e nc e onl y a f t e r a 1977 M s a r t i c l e ( 1991 p 275 ) A c c or di ng t o H a c ki ng, i nc e s t ha s onl y r e c e nt l y be e n t hought of a s a pr obl e m f or our s oc i e t y ( 1991 : p. 274) Y e t a r e t he r e not gr a ve i nt e r di c t i ons a ga i ns t i nc e s t i n m os t c ul t ur e s da t i ng ba c k t o t he c r e a t i on o f l a ngua ge ? E ve n i f nom i na l l y i t ha s not a l w a ys be e n t e r m e d a bus e c r os s c ul t ur a l s pe c i e s w i de t a boos i ndi c a t e a w i de l y he l d a ve r s i on t o i nc e s t 3. V a s t l y f e w e r c hi l dr e n a r e vi c t i m s of c onf i ne m e nt a bus e t ha n a r e k i l l e d i n or by a ut om obi l e s but a ut om obi l e a bus e i s not a ki nd of c hi l d a bus e C a r s a r e vi r t u e s not vi c e s ( H a c ki ng, 1991, p. 278) I n t hi s s e nt e nc e H a c ki ng s e e m s t o r e s or t t o t he ve r y t ype of e s s e nt i a l i s m he e l s e w he r e c r i t i c i z e s A s i f t o r e l a t i vi z e t he de f i ni t i on of a bus e H a c ki ng s t a t e s t ha t a ut om obi l e s ki l l m or e c hi l dr e n t ha n c onf i ne m e nt a b us e ye t c a r s a r e a pr i or i vi r t uous H a c ki ng s e e m s t o s a y, w ho w oul d e ve r dr e a m of m a ki ng a ut om obi l e s pr ob l e m a t i c ? I n ot he r w or ds w he r e c hi l d a bus e i s s a i d t o be a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t a ut om o bi l e s a r e e s s e nt i a l l y good a nd

PAGE 88

85 be ni gn. O nc e w e a dopt a r a di c a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t pe r s pe c t i ve c a n w e a f f or d t o be s o s e l e c t i ve w i t h i t s a ppl i c a t i on? H a c ki ng t a ke s e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l m a nda t e s a bout t he r e l a t i vi t y of t r ut h pos i t e d by s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m a nd pus he s t he m r i ght t o t he poi nt w he r e I go now w a i t a m i nut e B y s o doi ng, he f or c e s m e t o s pe c ul a t e of t he pol i t i c s of a m bi gui t y.

PAGE 89

86 E n t e r A l an S ok a l O ve r t e n ye a r s a go, a phys i c i s t na m e d A l a n S ok a l publ i s he d a n a r t i c l e t ha t c l a i m e d, a m ong ot he r t hi ngs t ha t t he f o r c e of gr a vi t y w a s a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t T r a ns gr e s s i ng t he B ounda r i e s : T ow a r ds a T r a ns f or m a t i ve H e r m e ne ut i c s of Q ua nt um G r a vi t y w a s publ i s he d i n t he j ou r na l Soc i al T e x t i n 1996. M e t i c ul ous l y c i t i ng t he t he o r e t i c a l phys i c i s t s B ohr H e i s e nbe r g, a nd a hos t o f pos t m ode r n i nt e l l e c t ua l s t he a r t i c l e a s s e r t e d t he t he s i s t ha t phys i c a l r e a l i t y w a s a hum a n i nve nt i on. I n a bur l e s que of pos t m ode r n a nd s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t t he or i e s S oka l m a de a num be r of b ol d c l a i m s i nc l udi ng t he f ol l ow i ng: . t he pos t m ode r n s c i e nc e s de c ons t r uc t a nd t r a ns c e nd t he C a r t e s i a n m e t a phys i c a l di s t i nc t i ons be t w e e n hum a nki nd a nd N a t ur e obs e r ve r a nd obs e r ve d, S ubj e c t a nd O bj e c t A l r e a dy qua nt um m e c ha ni c s e a r l i e r i n t hi s c e nt ur y, s ha t t e r e d t he i nge nuous N e w t oni a n f a i t h i n a n obj e c t i ve pr e l i n gui s t i c w or l d of m a t e r i a l obj e c t s out t he r e ; no l onge r c oul d w e a s k, a s H e i s e nbe r g put i t w he t he r pa r t i c l e s e xi s t i n s pa c e a nd t i m e obj e c t i ve l y ( S ok a l 1996) A s t he i s s ue of t he j our na l Soc i al T e x t w e nt t o n e w s s t a nd s t he a ut hor N Y U phys i c i s t A l a n S oka l r e ve a l e d i n a not he r j our na l L i ngua F r anc a t ha t hi s a r t i c l e w a s i n f a c t a n e l a bor a t e hoa x de s i gne d t o de f e nd a s c i e nt i f i c r e a l i s t c onc e pt i on of t he w or l d a nd e xpos e t he obs c ur a nt i s m of pos t m ode r n i n t e l l e c t ua l s S o ka l r e ve a l e d t ha t he di dn t a gr e e w i t h a ny of t he i de a s he a dva nc e d i n T r a ns gr e s s i ng t he B ounda r i e s H e w a s onl y o f f e r i ng a c a r i c a t ur e of a t ype of w r i t i ng s t yl e a nd e pi s t e m ol o gy t ha t he di s a gr e e d w i t h I n S oka l s a s s e s s m e nt pos t m ode r ni s m c a n be ne e dl e s s l y a m bi guous i n i t s us e of j a r gon a nd t oo

PAGE 90

87 pe s s i m i s t i c a bout e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l f ounda t i on. S ok a l i s l a r ge l y i gno r a nt o f t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd hum a ni t i e s ye t he doe s c l a i m t o kno w a t hi ng o r t w o a bout phys i c s a nd m a t he m a t i c s I n T r a ns gr e s s i ng t he B ounda r i e s S oka l ( 1996) i nvoke s t he or e t i c a l phys i c s t o a r gue not i ons o f o bj e c t i vi t y B ut w he n he r e ve a l s hi s hoa x, S oka l c l a i m s t ha t phys i c s a nd m a t he m a t i c s a r e s om e t i m e s e m pl oye d, i nc or r e c t l y, i n or de r t o da z z l e t he s c i e nt i f i c a l l y unt r a i ne d w i t h a n a ur a o f s c i e nt i f i c i t y I r oni c a l l y S oka l c l a i m s t ha t s c i e nc e i s i nvoke d b y pos t m ode r n t he or y not t o s uppor t e m pi r i c i s t or pos i t i vi s t a s s e r t i ons a bout ve r i f i a bi l i t y. I ns t e a d, c om pl i c a t e d i ns i ght s f r o m t he or e t i c a l phys i c s a r e us e d ( e r r one ous l y) t o s uppo r t r e l a t i vi s m a nd e pi s t e m i c c onf us i on. T he i m pl i c a t i on of S oka l s c r i t i c i s m i s t ha t by pr ob l e m a t i z i ng obj e c t i ve r e a l i t y c e r t a i n t ype s of a c a de m i c di s c our s e c a n m uddy t he w a t e r s of c l a r i t y. T o t hos e c r i t i c s of s c i e nc e w ho c ont e nd t ha t s c i e nt i f i c f a c t s a r e m e r e s oc i a l c onve nt i ons S oka l b r us que l y s t a t e d: F a i r e nough: a nyone w ho be l i e ve s t ha t t he l a w s of phys i c s a r e m e r e s oc i a l c onve nt i ons i s i nvi t e d t o t r y t r a ns gr e s s i ng t hos e c onve nt i ons f r om t he w i ndow s of m y a pa r t m e nt ( I l i ve on t he t w e nt y f i r s t f l oor ) ( S oka l A P hys i c i s t E xpe r i m e nt s w i t h C ul t u r a l S t ud i e s p. 50) A s f a r a s S oka l i s c onc e r ne d, a nybody w ho dou bt s t he l a w s of phys i c s c a n t a ke a l e i s ur e l y s t r ol l of f t he ba l c ony of hi s hi ghr i s e a pa r t m e nt Y e t g r a vi t y, a f t e r a l l i s j us t a na m e I t s a n e xpl a na t or y hypot he s i s t ha t i s a ppa r e n t l y not w i t hou t e xc e pt i on. O nc e a n a s t r ona ut l e a ve s t he t hi n m e m br a ne of t he e a r t h s a t m os phe r e t he l a w s of gr a vi t y c e a s e t o hol d. B ut S oka l i s not t a l ki ng a bout t he w o r d, he i s t a l ki ng a bout t he t hi ng by a ny na m e S oka l pr e s um e s a l i ne a r i t y be t w e e n w or d a nd r e f e r e nt ; m a p a nd t e r r i t or y

PAGE 91

88 S oka l s pa r ody w a s t i m e l y i n t ha t i t s poof e d t he a m bi guous m e l a nge of s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s m t he or e t i c a l phys i c s pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t t he or y, s ys t e m s a nd ne w a ge phi l os ophy, t ha t w a s s om e t i m e s a ggr e ga t e d unde r t he um br e l l a of pos t m ode r ni s m I t w a s w r i t t e n w i t h c unni ng a t t e nt i on t o t he r he t or i c a l de vi c e s of pos t m ode r n d i s c our s e W ha t w a s c a l l e d pos t m ode r ni s m w a s pe r ha ps a n e a s y t a r ge t B e c a us e i t i s a pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t s huns l a be l s no one w a s w i l l i ng t o r us h t o i t s de f e ns e a s a doc t r i ne S oka l s hoa x m a de f r ont pa ge he a dl i ne s i n ne w s pa pe r s l i ke T he N e w Y or k T i m e s U nf or t una t e l y, s om e pundi t s j um pe d a t t he oppor t uni t y t o ga ng up on l e f t w i ng s oc i a l c r i t i c s T he N at i onal R e v i e w us e d t he hoa x a s a n oppor t un i t y t o s a y how out of t ouc h w i t h r e a l i t y t he a c a d e m i c l e f t w a s ( K i m ba l l 1996; K ope l 2002) S oka l c l a i m e d t ha t t hi s pa r t i c ul a r f a l l out o f t he hoa x w a s unw e l c om e S oka l ( 1996) i de nt i f i e d h i m s e l f a s hol di ng l e f t w i ng be l i e f s a nd of f e r e d hi s vol un t e e r w or k f or t he S a ndi ni s t a r e vol ut i on i n N i c a r a gua a s a n e xa m pl e of hi s pr ogr e s s i ve c r e de nt i a l s N e ve r t he l e s s hi s s t a t e d pol i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i ons not w i t hs t a ndi ng, S oka l s huf f y hol i e r t ha n t hou pol e m i c s ha r e s m a ny r he t or i c a l a f f i ni t i e s w i t h B l oom ( 1987) K i m ba l l ( 1998) a nd ot he r c r i t i c s f r om t he r i ght S t a nl e y F i s h ( 1996) t he n a n e di t or of Soc i al T e x t w e nt t o pr i nt i n T he N e w Y or k T i m e s t o c ount e r t ha t j us t be c a us e w e s a y s om e t hi ng i s s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d doe s n t m e a n i t i s n t r e a l I n t hi s a r t i c l e F i s h c om pa r e d t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of qua r ks t o a ba s e ba l l ga m e F or I a n H a c ki ng ( 1999) t hi s c om pa r i s on w a s i l l c onc e i ve d. F or H a c ki ng qua r ks unl i ke ba l l s a nd s t r i ke s a r e not s e l f e vi de nt l y ont ol ogi c a l l y s ubj e c t i ve ( p 30 ) R e ga r di ng S oka l s pr a nk, F i s h ( 1996) poi nt e d out t ha t f r a ud i s a gr a ve t r a ns gr e s s i on i n a c a de m i c s a nd i t unde r m i ne s t he f ounda t i ons of s c i e nc e t ha t S oka l c l a i m e d t o de f e nd A nt i c i pa t i ng t hi s a c c us a t i on, S oka l ha d a l r e a dy w r i t t e n: I 'm not obl i vi ous t o t he e t hi c a l

PAGE 92

89 i s s ue s i nvol ve d i n m y r a t he r unor t hodox e xpe r i m e nt P r of e s s i ona l c o m m uni t i e s ope r a t e l a r ge l y on t r us t ; de c e pt i on unde r c ut s t ha t t r us t ( S oka l 1996, A P hys i c i s t E xpe r i m e nt s w i t h C ul t ur a l S t udi e s p. 52) Y e t f or S oka l t he b ur de n of a c a de m i c a c c ount a bi l i t y r e s t e d on t he e di t or s w ho w e r e t he m s e l ve s e r r a nt i n uphol di ng e di t o r i a l s t a nda r ds s uc h a s pe e r r e vi e w E vi de nt l y t he e di t or s o f Soc i al T e x t f e l t c om f or t a bl e publ i s hi ng a n a r t i c l e on qua nt um phys i c s w i t hout bot he r i ng t o c ons ul t a nyone know l e dge a bl e i n t he s ubj e c t ( S oka l 1996 A P hys i c i s t E xpe r i m e nt s w i t h C ul t u r a l S t udi e s ) I w on t di s put e t ha t S oka l s hoa x w a s e t hi c a l l y t r e a c he r ous I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t S oka l e xpe r i m e nt e d w i t h w ha t w e ha ve be e n c a l l i ng s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y. C oul d a n a r t i c l e be w or de d i n a w a y t ha t w a s s o va gue t ha t e r r one ous c l a i m s c oul d be m a de w hi l e r e t a i ni ng t he a ppe a r a nc e of s c hol a r l y w r i t i ng? W hi l e t he S oka l hoa x s e e m s l i ke a n oc c a s i on t o not e t he e t hi c s of s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y i t i s a l s o pr ovi de s a po i nt of e nt r y t o a ddr e s s t he e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i s s ue s w e ha ve di s c u s s e d s o f a r S oka l s h oa x m a na ge s t o a r t i c ul a t e s om e of m y c onc e r ns w i t h c ons t r uc t i oni s t a nd pos t m ode r n t he or y. W hi l e t he S oka l hoa x i s ove r t e n ye a r s ol d i t r e m a i ns a t r oub l i ng c ha l l e nge t o t he he ge m ony of pos t m ode r n phi l os ophy. H i s a r gu m e nt i s f l a t t e r i ng t o t he ne ophyt e : I f you c a n t unde r s t a nd t hi s s t uf f j oi n t he c l ub I t s be c a us e i t s not m e a nt t o be unde r s t ood, onl y t o m ys t i f y. S oka l ve nt ur e s t o pi n dow n unne c e s s a r y a m bi gui t y, i ns i s t i ng on O c c am s R az or t he pl a i ne s t e xpl a na t i on i s pr oba bl y t he be s t e xpl a na t i on. C om pl e x i d e a s a r e m or e i nt e l l i gi bl y e xpr e s s e d i n pl a i ne r l a ngua ge B e hi nd S oka l s hum o r ous hoa x t he r e i s a s e r i ous a l l e ga t i on of t r e a c he r y: a m bi gui t y i s us e d i n a c a de m i a t o de l i be r a t e l y de c e i ve ( S oka l & B r i c m ont 1998, p. 189)

PAGE 93

90 A s a f ol l ow up t o t he c ont r ove r s y, S oka l t e a m e d up w i t h B e l gi a n t he or e t i c a l phys i c i s t J e a n B r i c m ont a nd w r o t e I m pos t ur e s I nt e l l e c t ue l l e s ( publ i s he d i n t he S t a t e s a s F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e : P os t m ode r n I nt e l l e c t ual s A bus e of Sc i e nc e ) F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e ( 1998) hops ont o t he a nt i pos t m od e r n ba ndw a gon w hi c h ha d a l r e a dy be e n l a unc he d by G r os s a nd L e vi t t s H i ghe r Supe r s t i t i on ( 1994) L i ke H i ghe r Supe r s t i t i on S oka l a nd B r i c m ont s oc c a s i ona l l y t r e nc ha nt t om e onl y a dds i ns ul t t o e pi s t e m i c i nj ur y. L i ke ot he r a t t a c ks on pos t m ode r ni s m S oka l a nd B r i c m ont br i ng a r e m a r ka bl e a m ount of ve he m e nc e a nd t e m e r i t y. W hi l e I don t a gr e e w i t h t he i r s c i e nt i s t i c s e l f r i ght e ous ne s s t he book F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e f r a m e s c om pl e x e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i s s ue s w i t hi n a he ur i s t i c a l l y c ons pi c uous dua l i s m of r e al i s m v e r s u s r e l at i v i s m T he f a c t t ha t S oka l i de nt i f i e s hi m s e l f a s l e f t w i ng m a de h i s a t t a c k f a r m or e pa l a t a bl e t ha n t he vi t r i ol i c T e nur e d R adi c al s ( K i m ba l l 1998) F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e i s a s ur ve y of m a ny di ve r s e vi e w poi nt s i n t he phi l os ophy of s c i e nc e i nc l udi ng K uhn, P oppe r a n d pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s m F o r t he r e m a i nde r of t hi s t he s i s I w i l l do a c l os e r e a di ng of t h i s book a s i t r e l a t e s t o m y t he m e s of a m bi gui t y, obs c ur a nt i s m a nd m ys t i f i c a t i on. F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e a l t e r na t e s be t w e e n a c r i t i c a l pol e m i c a ga i ns t t he ha l l ow e d i dol s of F r e nc h phi l os ophy ( L a c a n, B a udr i l l a r d I r i ga r y e t c ) t he n r e t r e a t s i nt o i nt e r m e z z os ; e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l r e c onna i s s a nc e m i s s i on s t ha t di s c us s m a i nl y A ngl o s a xon a nd A m e r i c a n phi l os ophe r s of s c i e nc e ( P oppe r K uhn e t c ) I t s not i m m e di a t e l y e vi de nt how t he t w o i s s ue s a r e r e l a t e d. S oka l ( 1999 ) ha s s a i d: . t he r e a r e r e a l l y e s s e nt i a l l y t w o books unde r one c ove r w hi c h a r e onl y w e a kl y r e l a t e d. T he r e i s t he c r i t i que o f t he gr os s a bus e s of s c i e nt i f i c c onc e pt s by c e r t a i n F r e nc h phi l os ophi c a l l i t e r a r y i nt e l l e c t ua l s t he y r e not a l l phi l os ophe r s i n t he s t r i c t s e ns e T he n, on t he o t he r ha nd t he r e s va r i ou s ve r s i ons of e pi s t e m i c

PAGE 94

91 r e l a t i vi s m w hi c h w e c r i t i c i z e a nd i n t ha t c a s e t he t a r ge t s a r e m a i nl y B r i t i s h a nd A m e r i c a n, not F r e nc h, a nd t he t w o de ba t e s a r e on ve r y di f f e r e nt pl a ne s ( quot e d i n B a gga ni ) T he t e nor of F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e i s t e r s e a nd t h e a ut hor s s e e m t o e r upt w i t h i r r i t a bi l i t y a s i f t he y ha ve be e n h ol di ng ba c k f or t oo l ong T he i r c r i t i que i s a r gua bl y unf oc us e d, a s t he y a t t a c k a c e r t a i n t e nde nc y t ow a r ds a m bi gui t y a s i t i s m a ni f e s t i n va r i ous t hi nke r s a nd phi l os ophi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s F or S oka l a nd B r i c m on t i t s no t j us t a bout pos t m ode r ni s m i t s a bout r e l a t i vi s m a nd a m bi gui t y i n ge ne r a l T he y c l e a r l y s t a t e t ha t t hi ngs s houl d be s t a t e d c l e a r l y. T he y don t ha ve pa t i e nc e w i t h ve r bos i t y or va gue a r gum e nt s T he y e qua t e a m bi gui t y w i t h s ubt e r f uge t ha t i s t he y s e e i t a s a de c e pt i ve s t r a t a ge m ( S oka l & B r i c m ont 1998 p 189) T he i r ony i n t he a c c us a t i on of de c e pt i on i s pr e s um a bl y not l os t on S oka l t he m a s t e r o f di s gui s e H e w a s t he one w ho de c e i ve d t he e di t or s o f Soc i al T e x t i nt o publ i s hi ng hi s a r t i c l e T he a r gum e nt s e e m s t o be t ha t de c e pt i on i s r a m pa nt i n a c a de m i a i n t he f o r m of i nt e l l e c t ua l i m pos t or s I t s not c l e a r w hy t he s e i m pos t or s w oul d go a r ound de c e i vi ng pe opl e but c a r e e r i s m i s i m pl i e d. A c a de m i c c a r e e r s a r e m a de by be c om i ng e xpe r t m a ni pul a t or s o f e r udi t e j a r gon ( S oka l a nd B r i c m ont 1998 p 2 06) S oka l a nd B r i c m ont w oul d di s c our a ge t he s t r a t e gi c us e of a m bi gui t y i n a c a de m i a be c a us e s oc i a l pr o bl e m s de m a nd a m i ni m um of e qui voc a t i on. I n S oka l s ( 1996) a r t i c l e l e ngt h r e ve l a t i on of h i s hoa x, he e xpl i c i t l y s i ngl e s out c on s t r uc t i oni s t a ppr oa c he s : T he or i z i ng a bout t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e a l i t y w on t he l p us f i nd a n e f f e c t i ve t r e a t m e nt f or A I D S o r de vi s e s t r a t e gi e s f or pr e ve nt i ng gl oba l w a r m i ng N or c a n w e c om ba t f a l s e i de a s i n hi s t or y s oc i ol og y, e c onom i c s a nd pol i t i c s i f w e r e j e c t t he not i ons o f t r ut h a nd f a l s i t y ( p. 52)

PAGE 95

92 I n a pr e c e di ng di s c us s i on I t r i e d t o s ugge s t t he pol i t i c a l a nd r he t o r i c a l c ur r e nc y of s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i oni s t pr e m i s e s a s a f or m o f c r i t i qu e F or e xa m pl e i t c a n be pol i t i c a l l y e m pow e r i ng t o de m ons t r a t e t ha t a c onc e pt l i ke r a c e s uppos e dl y r oot e d i n f a c t i s a c t ua l l y a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t ; a f i c t i on i m pl i c a t e d i n a n opp r e s s i ve i de ol ogy. Y e t S oka l doe s not s e e a ny pol i t i c a l ut i l i t y i n s oc i a l c ons t r uc t a ppr oa c he s M y or i gi na l m o t i va t i on ha d t o do w i t h e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m S oka l s a i d i n a 1999 i nt e r vi e w a nd w ha t I s a w a s a r i s e i n s l oppi l y t ho ught out r e l a t i v i s m be i ng t he ki nd of une xa m i ne d z e i t ge i s t of l a r ge a r e a s of t he A m e r i c a n hum a ni t i e s a nd s om e pa r t s o f t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s I n pa r t i c ul a r I ha d pol i t i c a l m ot i va t i ons be c a us e I w a s w or r i e d a bout t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t ha t r e l a t i vi s m w a s i de nt i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n pa r t s of t he a c a de m i c l e f t a nd I a l s o c ons i de r m ys e l f on t he l e f t a nd c ons i de r t ha t t o be a s ui c i da l a t t i t ude f or t he A m e r i c a n l e f t ( S oka l quot e d i n B a gga ni 1999) A s a s e l f i de nt i f i e d l e f t i s t S oka l w oul d s a y t ha t a m bi gui t y i s de c e pt i ve be c a us e i t s i d e s t e p s t he i s s ue s i nduc e s c onf us i on, a nd l e a ds t o a s or t o f de f e a t i s m T hi s pl a ys i nt o t he ha nds of t he oppr e s s or s F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e a s ks t he que s t i on, w ha t a r e t he pot e nt i a l pol i t i c a l a nd m a t e r i a l i m pl i c a t i ons of e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l pos i t i ons ? A s not e d, t he book F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e t e nds t o z i g z a g f r om e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l pr obl e m s e nde m i c t o e a c h s i de of t he E ngl i s h c ha nne l or t he A t l a nt i c T he t a r ge t s of S oka l a nd B r i c m on t a r e not j us t a m bi gui t y a nd e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m but a l s o a put a t i ve s c i e nt i f i c i t y t ha t i s c ouc he d i n ps e udo s c i e nt i f i c pr e t e ns i on. P s e udo s c i e nc e i s w ha t S oka l a nd B r i c m ont c r i t i c i z e i n t he w r i t i ngs o f F r e nc h pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t s A s m uc h a s F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e i s i nt ol e r a nt of a m bi gui t y i t i s a l s o a t l e a s t i m pl i c i t l y a pr ot e s t a ga i ns t s c i e nt i s m or ps e udo s c i e nc e T he r e i s a t e nde nc y w i t h s om e s oc i a l s c i e nc e t o dr e s s up w ha t i s

PAGE 96

93 m e r e l y c onj e c t ur e or bi a s i n p r e t e ns i on of s c i e nt i f i c r i gor T he hi s t or y of s c i e nc e i s r e pl e t e w i t h s uc h e m ba r r a s s m e nt s f o r e xa m pl e t h e s c i e nt i s t i c qua c ke r y of W i l he l m R e i c h ( 1967) T hi s i s w ha t S oka l a nd B r i c m ont c l a i m t o poi n t out i n s o c a l l e d pos t s t r uc t ur a l i s t w r i t i ngs : N ot or gone ge ne r a t o r s pe r s e but va gue l y s c i e nt i s t i c s oundi ng j a r gon t ha t i n t i m i da t e s l a y pe opl e i n t o pr e s um i ng s om e t hi ng pr of ound m us t be go i ng on T o be gi n m y a na l ys i s of F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e I w i l l r e vi s i t t he t opi c of r e l a t i vi s m t ha t w a s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r i n t hi s t he s i s I w i l l f ur t h e r e xa m i ne how e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m c oul d pe r ha ps be us e d a s a s t r a t e gy of a m bi gui t y o bs c ur a nt i s m or m ys t i f i c a t i on. S oka l & B r i c m ont de f e nd t he not i on o f obj e c t i vi t y: W hi l e s c i e nt i s t s t r y, a s be s t a s t he y c a n, t o ob t a i n a n obj e c t i ve vi e w of c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of t he w or l d, r e l a t i vi s t t h i nke r s t e l l t he m t h a t t he y a r e w a s t i ng t he i r t i m e ( S oka l a nd B r i c m ont 1998 p 5 2) I t ha s be e n a r gue d t ha t t he p r obl e m w i t h t hi s t y pe of r e a l i s t pe r s pe c t i ve i s t ha t w e a l w a ys s t a nd i n s om e s or t of r e l a t i on t o t he ob j e c t s of ou r i nqui r y, m a ki ng a w hol l y unbi a s e d a s s e s s m e nt di f f i c ul t A c c or di ng t o R i c ha r d R or t y ( 1 99 1) . t he r e a l i s t t hi nks t ha t t he w hol e poi n t of phi l os ophi c a l t hought i s t o de t a c h one s e l f f r om a ny pa r t i c ul a r c om m uni t y a nd l ook dow n on i t f r om a m or e uni ve r s a l s t a ndpoi nt ( p. 30) S oc i a l s c i e nc e ha s hi s t or i c a l l y be e n r e l uc t a nt t o c l a i m s c i e nt i f i c obj e c t i vi t y. I n T he Soc i ol ogi c al I m agi nat i on C W r i ght M i l l s ( 1959) i s t e m pt e d t o us e t he ph r a s e t he s oc i a l s t udi e s i ns t e a d of t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s T hi s i s be c a us e : . t he w or d s c i e nc e ha s a c qui r e d gr e a t pr e s t i ge a n d r a t he r i m pr e c i s e m e a ni ng. I do not f e e l a ny ne e d t o ki dna p t he pr e s t i ge or t o m a ke t he m e a ni ng a ny l e s s pr e c i s e by us i ng i t a s a phi l os ophi c a l m e t a phor ( p. 18)

PAGE 97

94 F or M i l l s s c i e nc e i s a n a m bi guous m e t a phor t ha t i s i nvoke d by s oc i a l t he or i s t s i n a n a t t e m pt t o c om m a nde e r i t s c a c he t of o bj e c t i vi t y. S c i e nt i f i c m e t a phor s m a y be de f i c i e nt be c a us e i n s oc i a l s c i e nc e w e a r e t he ve r y t hi ng w e a t t e m pt t o s t udy. A c c or di ng t o t he phi l os ophe r J ohn S e a r l e ( 2004 ) I n ge ne r a l t he na t ur a l s c i e nc e s de a l w i t h obs e r ve r i nde pe nde nt phe nom e non a nd t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s w i t h t he obs e r ve r de pe nde nt ( p. 6) T he i s s ue of obs e r ve r de pe nde nc e i s s om e t hi ng t ha t s oc i a l s c i e nc e m us t r e c kon w i t h i n or de r t o a voi d a s s e r t i ng t he i r ow n c ul t u r a l bi a s e s a s s t a t e m e nt s of uni ve r s a l f a c t s A s D a vi d B r a ybr ooke ( 1965 ) a s ks i n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o P hi l os ophi c al P r obl e m s of t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s : H ow m uc h obj e c t i ve t r u t h c a n s oc i a l s c i e nt i s t s a t t a i n a bout t he i r ow n s oc i e t y a nd c ul t ur e s ha r i ng i t s dom i na nt p r e j udi c e s ? H ow f a i r a r e t he y l i ke l y t o be t o t he di f f e r e nt out l ooks of o t h e r s oc i e t i e s ? ( p. 16) S i m i l a r l y B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn, i n t he i r book T he Soc i al C ons t r uc t i on of R e al i t y e m pha s i z e t ha t a s oc i ol ogy of know l e dge ne e ds t o t a ke t he pa r t i c ul a r i t i e s o f obs e r ve r s i nt o a c c ount : H ow c a n I be s ur e s a y, of m y s oc i ol ogi c a l a n a l ys i s of A m e r i c a n m i ddl e c l a s s m or e s i n vi e w o f t he f a c t t ha t t he c a t e gor i e s I us e f or t hi s a na l ys i s a r e c ondi t i one d by hi s t or i c a l l y r e l a t i ve f or m s of t houg ht t ha t I m ys e l f a nd e ve r yt hi ng I t hi nk i s de t e r m i ne d by m y ge ne s a nd by m y i ng r ow n hos t i l i t y t o m y f e l l ow m e n, a nd t ha t t o c a p i t a l l I a m m ys e l f a m e m be r of t he A m e r i c a n m i ddl e c l a s s ? ( 1966, p 13 ) B y a c c ount i ng f or obs e r ve r bi a s e s r e f l e xi ve s oc i a l s c i e nc e m a i nt a i ns t ha t put a t i ve f a c t s l e a ve a l ot out of t he e qua t i on, s uc h a s t he r e p r e s e nt a t i on a l bi a s e s of t he obs e r ve r

PAGE 98

95 A n al ogi e s F r om T h e or e t i c al P h ys i c s T he p r obl e m o f obs e r ve r de pe nda nt phe nom e na a nd r e l a t i vi t y i s not l i m i t e d t o t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s S om e t i m e s r e l a t i vi s t s i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s ha ve t a ke n t he i r c ue f r om t he or e t i c a l phys i c s T he H e i s e nbe r g p r i nc i pl e E i ns t e i n's t he or y of r e l a t i vi t y a nd B ohr s not i on of c om pl e m e nt a r i t y a r e s om e t i m e s a ppr opr i a t e d by t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd t he hum a ni t i e s t o a r gue a ga i ns t obj e c t i vi t y or r e a l i s m S oka l a nd B r i c m ont ( 1998) ha ve c ha r ge d t ha t E i ns t e i n s t he or y o f r e l a t i vi t y ha s be e n e r r one ous l y a ppr op r i a t e d by pos t m ode r n s oc i ol ogi s t B r uno L a t ou r ( p 132 ) A f t e r a t e c hni c a l e xpos i t i on o f E i ns t e i n s t he or y of r e l a t i vi t y S oka l a nd B r i c m ont ( 1998) m a i nt a i n t ha t L a t ou r c onf us e s t he pe da gogy of r e l a t i vi t y w i t h t he t e c hni c a l c ont e nt of t he t he o r y i t s e l f ( p. 130) A c c or di ng t o S oka l a nd B r i c m ont r e l a t i vi t y t he o r y a c t ua l l y ha s no r e l e va nc e t o s oc i a l s c i e nc e a nd f ur t he r m o r e t he hum a n s c i e nc e s s houl d s t op a pi ng t he de ve l opm e nt s i n t he pr ope r s c i e nc e s T he or e t i c a l phys i c s de a l s w i t h t i n y, s ub m i c r os c opi c pa r t i c l e s a nd c a n t be e a s i l y t r a ns pos e d t o hum a n s oc i e t y. I n a n a r t i c l e i n P hy s i c s T oday M a r a B e l l e r ( 19 98) m a i nt a i ns t ha t a l ot of r e l a t i vi s t c onf us i on r e s ul t e d f r om t he e c c e nt r i c s pe c ul a t i ons of N e i l s B ohr W e r ne r H e i s e nbe r g a nd ot he r t he or e t i c a l phys i c i s t s B ohr c om pa r e d w a ve pa r t i c l e dua l i t y i n phys i c s w i t h t he c om pl e m e nt a r i t y of r e a s on a nd e m ot i on, or c om pl e m e nt a r i t y be t w e e n di f f e r e nt c ul t ur e s I n ot he r w o r ds he pe r f unc t or i l y s upe r i m p os e d hi s t he or e t i c a l gr i d f r om phys i c s

PAGE 99

96 ont o t he hum a n r e a l m R e l a t i vi s t s i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s ha ve s e i z e d upon t he s pe c ul a t i ons of B ohr t o bol s t e r t he i r a r gu m e nt s a ga i ns t c a us a l i t y a nd obj e c t i ve t r ut h ( B e l l e r 1998 ) S oka l a nd B r i c m ont a r gue t ha t t he a ppl i c a t i on o f t he or e t i c a l phys i c s t o t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s i s be t t e r l e f t t o t hos e w ho gr a s p t he or e t i c a l phys i c s T he f e m i ni s t t he or e t i c a l phys i c i s t K a r e n B a r a d a voi ds s upe r f i c i a l a na l ogi e s w i t h t he o r e t i c a l phys i c s I n t he a r t i c l e M e e t i ng t he U ni ve r s e H a l f w a y: R e a l i s m a nd S oc i a l C ons t r u c t i vi s m W i t hout C ont r a di c t i on ( 1996) B a r a d w r i t e s I w i l l not put f or w a r d a ny a r gum e nt t o t he e f f e c t t ha t qua nt um t he or y of t he m i c r ow o r l d i s a na l ogous t o s i t ua t i ons t ha t i nt e r e s t us i n t he m a c r ow or l d. . ( p. 168 ) W ha t B a r a d doe s f oc us on i s t he e pi s t e m o l ogi c a l i m pl i c a t i ons of obs e r ve r r e l a t i ve f a c t or s i n s c i e nt i f i c obs e r va t i on. T he phys i c i s t F r i t of C a pr a not e s t ha t t h i ngs w hi c h ha ppe n on t he s uba t om i c l e ve l a r e not e a s i l y t r a ns pos e d t o our e ve r yda y w or l d C a pr a ( 1996) gi ve s t he f o l l ow i ng e xa m pl e : A t e a c h l e ve l of c om pl e xi t y t he obs e r ve d phe nom e na e xhi bi t pr ope r t i e s t ha t do not e xi s t a t t he l ow e r l e ve l F o r e xa m pl e t he c onc e pt of t e m pe r a t ur e w hi c h i s c e nt r a l t o t he r m odyna m i c s i s m e a ni ngl e s s a t t he l e ve l of i ndi v i dua l a t om s w he r e t he l a w s of qua nt um t he or y ope r a t e ( p. 28) C a pr a not e s t ha t t he a na l ogy be t w e e n our e ve r y da y phys i c a l w or l d a nd t he w or l d of qua nt um m e c ha ni c s onl y goe s s o f a r N e w t oni a n l a w s w hi c h t r e a t s t he un i ve r s e l i ke a c a us e a nd e f f e c t m a c hi ne w e r e not obs e r ve d t o be l a w f ul i n t he qua nt um w o r l d o f s uba t om i c pa r t i c l e s ( C a pr a 1996 p 30 ) I f t he r e a r e e ve nt s t ha t ha ppe n i n s uba t om i c phys i c s t ha t ha ve no e qui va l e nt i n t he N e w t oni a n w or l d of obj e c t s i t f ol l ow s t ha t i ns i ght s f r om qua nt um t he or y m i ght no t t r a ns l a t e w e l l i nt o t he r e a l m of hum a n c om m un i c a t i on. Y e t i n a n a r t i c l e a bout s c hi z ophr e ni a G r e gor y B a t e s on c ont r a s t s t he w or l d of

PAGE 100

97 c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he N e w t oni a n w or l d o f phy s i c a l obj e c t s W he r e t he N e w t oni a n pa r a di gm i s c onc e r ne d w i t h di s c r e t e obj e c t s B a t e s on s w or l d of c om m uni c a t i on l ooks a t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t h i ngs : T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he N e w t oni a n w or l d a nd t he w or l d o f c om m uni c a t i on i s s i m pl y t hi s : t ha t t he N e w t oni a n w or l d a s c r i be s r e a l i t y t o obj e c t s a nd a c hi e ve s i t s s i m pl i c i t y by e xc l udi ng t he c ont e xt o f t he c ont e xt i nde e d e xc l udi ng a l l m e t a r e l a t i ons hi ps a f or t i o r i e xc l udi ng a n i nf i n i t e r e gr e s s of s uc h r e l a t i ons I n c ont r a s t t he t he or i s t of c om m uni c a t i on i ns i s t s upon e xa m i ni ng t he m e t a r e l a t i ons hi ps w hi l e a c hi e vi ng i t s s i m pl i c i t y by e xc l udi ng a l l obj e c t s ( B a t e s on, 1972, p 250 ) B a t e s on s quot e a bove c ont a i ns a t he m e c om m on t o s ys t e m s t he or y a s w e l l a s c om m uni c a t i on s t udi e s I ns t e a d of t hi nki ng i n t e r m s of obj e c t s B a t e s on w oul d c ons i de r t he c ont e xt s t ha t c r e a t e d t he m a nd t he c ont e xt s of t he c ont e xt s a nd s o on ad i nf i ni t um B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn ( 1966) de s c r i be t he ve r t i go of r e l a t i vi t y ( p. 5) a nd I c a n i m a gi ne t ha t s e ns a t i on a s I r e a d t he a bove quot e T he i ns i ght of B a t e s on a bout t he w or l d o f c om m uni c a t i on ha s be e n s t a t e d i n s i m i l a r t e r m s a bout qua nt um t he or y : E ve r s i nc e N e w t on, phys i c i s t s ha d be l i e ve d t ha t a l l phys i c a l phe nom e non c oul d be r e duc e d t o t he p r ope r t i e s of ha r d a nd s ol i d pa r t i c l e s I n t he 1920 s how e ve r qua nt um t he or y f or c e d t he m t o a c c e pt t he f a c t t ha t t he s ol i d m a t e r i a l ob j e c t s of c l a s s i c phys i c s di s s ol ve a t t he s uba t om i c l e ve l i nt o w a ve l i ke pa t t e r ns of pr oba bi l i t i e s T he s e pa t t e r ns m or e ove r do no t r e pr e s e nt pr oba bi l i t i e s of t hi ngs but r a t he r pr oba bi l i t i e s of i nt e r c onne c t i ons T he s u ba t om i c pa r t i c l e s ha ve no m e a ni ng a s i s ol a t e d e nt i t i e s but c a n be unde r s t ood onl y by i nt e r c onne c t i ons or c or r e l a t i ons a m ong va r i ous pr oc e s s e s of obs e r va t i on a nd m e a s ur e m e nt I n ot he r w or ds s uba t om i c pa r t i c l e s a r e no t t hi ngs but i nt e r c onne c t i ons a m ong t hi ngs a nd t he s e i n t u r n, a r e i nt e r c onne c t i ons a m ong ot he r t hi ngs a nd s o on I n qua nt um t he or y w e ne ve r e nd up w i t h t hi ngs onl y i nt e r c onne c t i ons ( C a pr a 1996: p. 31)

PAGE 101

98 I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t B a t e s on s de s c r i pt i on of t he w or l d of c om m uni c a t i on a r r i ve s a t a s i m i l a r c onc l us i on a s C a pr a s de s c r i pt i on of qua n t um m e c ha ni c s B ot h pe r s pe c t i ve s pr i or i t i z e c ont e xt ove r t hi ngs B a t e s on doe s n t e xpl i c i t l y a s s oc i a t e t he w or l d of c om m uni c a t i on w i t h i ns i ght s de r i vi ng f r o m qua nt um t he or y. S t i l l t he c om m uni c a t i o na l w or l d i s c ont r a s t e d w i t h t he N e w t oni a n w o r l d of p hys i c a l obj e c t s T he quot e f r o m B a t e s on ha s be e n j uxt a pos e d w i t h t he quot e f r om C a pr a a bove i n or de r t o m a ke t he f ol l ow i ng s ugge s t i on: B a t e s on s w or l d of c om m uni c a t i on a nd C a pr a s e xpl i c a t i on of qua nt um t he or y a r e c ont r a s t e d w i t h N e w t oni a n phys i c s i n a s i m i l a r w a y. I f i n ot he r w a ys a na l ogi e s be t w e e n t he N e w t oni a n w or l d a nd t he s uba t om i c w or l d a r e f ound t o be l a c ki ng ( f o r e xa m pl e t he l a w s of t he r m odyna m i c s w hi c h ha ve no be a r i ng on s uba t om i c pa r t i c l e s ) c oul d t he c l a i m t ha t phys i c a l l a w s don t a ppl y t o hum a n c om m uni c a t i on a l s o be t e nuous ? B a t e s on s m a y be a n e xa m pl e of t he s t r a i ne d a na l ogi e s be t w e e n hum a n a nd s uba t om i c w or l ds t ha t S oka l a nd B r i c m ont f i nd s o obj e c t i ona bl e I de t e c t i n B a t e s on s w or l d of c om m uni c a t i on a t ol e r a nc e f o r a m bi gui t y A r e a l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy ga i ns c ogni t i ve c l a r i t y by f oc us i ng o n t hi ngs na m i ng t he m a nd c l a s s i f yi ng t he m a nd e xc l udi ng t he m e t a r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i r t hi ngne s s A c om m uni c a t i ona l m ode l f oc u s e s on pr oc e s s i ns t e a d of c ont e nt s o t ha t t he t hi ng i s ha r d t o gr a s p. H ow do w e go a bout s t udyi ng t hi ngs t ha t a r e out t he r e s uc h a s s oc i a l c l a s s e s e t hni c gr oups a nd c ons um e r s i f w e e xc l ude al l o bj e c t s f or t he s a ke of r e l a t i ons hi ps ( B a t e s on, 1972, p 250 ) ?

PAGE 102

99 T h u s I R e f u t e T h e e S ol i p s i s m I n t he e i ght e e nt h c e nt ur y book A T r e at i s e C onc e r ni ng t he P r i nc i pl e s of H um an K now l e dge B r i t i s h phi l os ophe r G e or ge B e r ke l e y ( 1975) a r gue d t ha t t he r e w a s no m a t e r i a l w or l d A ny j us t i f i c a t i on f o r a m a t e r i a l w o r l d w a s c i r c ul a r a nd f or a l l w e know w e c oul d be a b r a i n i n a va t F or B e r ke l e y, no hyp ot he s i s of m a t t e r i s ne c e s s a r y t o a c c ount f or e xpe r i e nc e ( B ur ke 1954 p 178 ) A c ont e m por a r y of B e r ke l e y, S a m ue l J ohns on, i s f a m ous f or a n a ne c dot e w he r e he w a s c ha l l e nge d t o r e f ut e B e r ke l e y s s ubj e c t i ve i de a l i s m G r uf f l y J ohns on ki c ke d a r oc k a nd pr oc l a i m e d I r e f ut e i t t hus ( B os w e l l 2006) S t r i c t l y s pe a ki ng, D oc t or J ohns on s r e f ut a t i on p r ove s not hi ng, ye t t he m a t e r i a l w or l d ha s a s t r ong s e l f e vi de nt q ua l i t y A l t hough he m i g ht s hun t he l a be l o f s ubj e c t i ve i de a l i s t G r e gor y B a t e s on m i ght be c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s be i ng i n t he t r a di t i on of B e r ke l e y. B a t e s on ( 1972) w r i t e s T hi s w or l d o f c om m uni c a t i on i s a B e r ke l e ya n w or l d, but t he good bi s hop w a s gui l t y of und e r s t a t e m e nt ( p. 250) F o r B a t e s on, a t r e e t ha t f a l l s i n t he f o r e s t m a ke s no r e a l s ound, a nd a c ha i r i s onl y a n i de a t ha t w e p ut our t r us t i nt o a s w e s i t ( p. 250) F or R or t y, t he B e r ke l e ya n pos i t i on i s a l og i c a l r e f ut a t i on of r e a l i s m R or t y ( 1991 ) w r i t e s not hi ng c a n c or r e s pond t o a r e pr e s e nt a t i on e xc e pt a r e pr e s e nt a t i on ( p 131 ) A s s uc h, t he c i r c ul a r i t y of r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a r e he r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d a nd t he r e i s no r e c our s e t o r e a l i t y.

PAGE 103

100 E pi s t e m ol ogi c a l l y, t he a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t pos i t i on m a y be i n pr i nc i pl e i r r e f ut a bl e ye t i t s e e m s t o bor de r on t he r i di c ul ous I n t he i r br i e f hi s t or y o f e pi s t e m ol ogy, S oka l a nd B r i c m ont ( 1998) di s m i s s s ol i ps i s m a s a bs ur d, ye t i m pos s i bl e t o r e f ut e a bs ol ut e l y. I f a nyone i ns i s t s t ha t he i s a ha r ps i c hor d pl a yi ng s ol o ( D i de r ot ) t he r e i s no w a y t o c onvi nc e hi m of hi s e r r o r ( S oka l a nd B r i c m ont 1 996, p 53) S oka l a nd B r i c m ont c l a i m w e ha ve ne ve r m e t a s i nc e r e s ol i ps i s t a nd w e dou bt t ha t a ny e xi s t s ( p 54 ) I n t he c om m uni c a t i on f i e l d, s ol i ps i s m ha s no a dhe r e nt s a s s uc h, ye t i n t he m ove a w a y f r om r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t t he or i e s of l a ngua ge t he r e i s s om e t i m e s a pe s s i m i s m a bout obj e c t i ve know l e dge a s w e l l a s t he f a c i l e t r a ns m i s s i on of m e a ni ngs f r om one pe r s on t o a not he r I n A S hor t E s s a y on L a ngua gi ng, A L B e c ke r ( 199 1) w r i t e s : . w e know f r om e xpe r i e nc e t ha t w ha t w e m e a n w h e n w e s a y s om e t hi ng ne e d ha ve no r e l a t i on t o w ha t i s he a r d, e ve n by pe opl e w i t h w hom w e ha ve c onve r s e d f or a l i f e t i m e ( p. 229) F o r B e c ke r ( 1991 ) m e s s a ge s t r i gge r a n or i e nt a t i on but don t t r a ns f e r m e a ni ngs ( p 230) B e c ke r quot e s H e i de gge r f or w hom l a ngua ge m i ght c ons t a nt l y de s t r oy t he pos s i bi l i t y of s a yi ng t ha t of w hi c h w e a r e s pe a ki ng ( quot e d i n B e c ke r 1991: p. 231) T he e m pha s i s i t s e e m s t o m e i n B e c ke r s s hor t t r a c t i s on opa c i t y a nd t he i ne vi t a bi l i t y of a m bi gui t y I t s e e m s t o m e t ha t s uc h a n e m pha s i s on pr obl e m s i n t r a ns l a t i on m a y s t e m f r om a nos t a l gi a f or r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s t t he or i e s of l a ngua ge T he phi l os ophe r D ona l d D a vi ds on ( 1982 [ 1973] ) w r i t e s : . t he r e i s a n i de a t ha t a ny l a n gua ge di s t or t s r e a l i t y w hi c h i m pl i e s t ha t i t i s onl y w or dl e s s l y i f a t a l l t ha t t he m i nd c om e s t o gr i ps w i t h t hi ngs a s t he y r e a l l y a r e T hi s i s t o c onc e i ve o f l a ngua ge a s a n i ne r t ( t hough ne c e s s a r i l y di s t or t i ng)

PAGE 104

101 m e di um i nde pe nde nt of t he hum a n a ge nc i e s t ha t e m pl oy i t : a vi e w o f l a ngua ge t ha t s ur e l y c a nnot be m a i nt a i ne d ( p 67 ) I ha ve s ugge s t e d how hum a n c ons c i ous ne s s ne e ds t o be s e l e c t i ve i n t he s e ns e da t a i t va l ue s H ow do w e know i f l a ngua ge c or r e s ponds i n a ny w a y t o r e a l i t y? H ow do w e know t ha t ou r c l a i m s t o a c c ur a t e l y de s c r i be r e a l i t y t hr ough l a ngua ge a r e not a l w a ys a l r e a dy m i s c ons t r ue d i n a n ont o e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l ga m e of b r oke n t e l e phone ? T hi s t ype of e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l i nqui r y r e a c hi ng t he a bs ur di t i e s of t he f i r s t M e di t at i on o f R e ne D e s c a r t e s ( 1969) i s a s f a r ba c k S oka l a nd B r i c m o nt ( 1998) w i l l go i n a ddr e s s i ng e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l que s t i ons I n a pos t pos i t i vi s t ( P hi l l i ps 2005) a l l ow a nc e t o s ke pt i c i s m S oka l a nd B r i c m ont c onc e de t ha t t he r e i s not hi ng t o a bs ol ut e l y r e f ut e s ol i ps i s m T he r e i s not hi ng t o p r ove a bs ol ut e l y t ha t our s e ns or y a ppa r a t us a c c ur a t e l y r e f l e c t s r e a l i t y. S oka l a nd B r i c m ont r e a di l y a dm i t t ha t t he r e i s no una m bi guous a bs ol ut i s t c r i t e r i a f o r c e r t a i nt y ( p. 59) H ow e ve r w hi l e i t i s no t know n w i t h a bs ol ut e c e r t a i nt y, t he r e i s good r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t t he s un w i l l c om e up t o m or r ow a s i t ha s f or m i l l e nni a T he r e i s a l s o good pr e c e de nt t o ba c k up t he be l i e f t ha t a c h a i r w i l l c r a dl e us w he ne ve r w e t r us t i ngl y pl unk dow n ont o i t s m a t e r i a l i t y I n g r udgi ng de bt t o H um e a n s ke pt i c i s m S oka l a nd B r i c m ont a dm i t N o s t a t e m e nt a bout t he r e a l w o r l d c a n e ve r be l i t e r a l l y p r ove n ( 1998, p 60) T hi s a dm i s s i on i s not a n i ns i gni f i c a nt s i gn t ha t a s t a l e m a t e ha s be e n r e a c he d i n t he s c i e nc e w a r s T he a ut ho r s m a ke a n a na l ogy w i t h c r i m i na l j us t i c e na m e l y, t ha t w ha t w e c a l l pr oo f i s pr oof be yond a r e a s ona bl e doubt ( S oka l a nd B r i c m ont pp. 59, 82 ) T he c r i m i na l j us t i c e a na l ogy w i l l r e a ppe a r t hr oughout t he c our s e of t he i r a r gum e nt F or t he a ut ho r s t he pr obl e m of e pi s t e m i c r e l a t i vi s m i s t ha t i t i s be s e t w i t h unr e a s ona bl e doubt T he y s e e r e l a t i vi s m i n t he

PAGE 105

102 c ont e xt of a va i n e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l obs e s s i on t o gr o und m e t hod a bs ol ut e l y, t ha t i s be yond a r e a s ona bl e doubt

PAGE 106

103 S c i e n c e : F ac t s or N or m at i ve F i c t i on s ? T hi s s e c t i on i s a bout t he pr ob l e m of r e l a t i vi s m f or phi l os ophe r s of s c i e nc e W hi l e s om e f ounda t i ona l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy i ns i s t s on be dr oc k f ounda t i ons upon w hi c h know l e dge c a n be bui l t s c i e nc e a nd t e c hnol ogy pr oc e e d bl i t he l y. T o m e nt i on a n obvi ous e xa m pl e t he W r i ght br ot he r s w e r e t he y t o ha ve h e e de d s c i e nt i f i c pr i nc i pl e s of t he i r da y m i ght ha ve be e n di s c our a ge d f r om e ve r a t t e m pt i ng a i r t r a ve l T e c hnol ogi c a l i nnova t i on ha s i ndi f f e r e nt l y p r ogr e s s e d w i t hout t he c e r t a i nt y o f a xi om a t i c f ounda t i on. S c i e nc e a s e qua t e d w i t h i ns t r um e n t a l i s m a ppe a r s t o r e l y on u ne xa m i ne d a s s um pt i ons S c i e nc e ne e ds t o m a ke a s s um pt i ons a s i t goe s a l ong. I f s c i e nt i s t s ha d t o j us t i f y e a c h hypot he s i s t he y w e r e ope r a t i ng w i t h t he y c oul d ne ve r ge t a ny w o r k done Y e t e ve n i f t he a s s um pt i ons a r e unj us t i f i e d t h e y m a y ge t t he j ob done a nyw a y. A l b e r t E i ns t e i n w r ot e t ha t t o e pi s t e m ol ogi s t s s c i e nt i s t s m us t a ppe a r t o be uns c r upul ous oppor t uni s t s ( quot e d i n S oka l a nd B r i c m ont p 61) be c a us e of t he i r w i l l i n gne s s t o m a ke s t a t e m e nt s of f a c t de r i ve d f r om a n i n f i ni t e r e gr e s s of uns ubs t a nt i a t e d a s s um pt i ons I n hi s m e t a l ogue s ( c onve r s a t i ons he ha d w i t h hi s da ught e r ) G r e gor y B a t e s on ( 1972) c l a i m s t ha t N e w t on di dn t di s c ove r gr a vi t y he i nv e nt e d i t ( p 39 ) P r e s um a bl y, B a t e s on i s not a r gui ng t ha t p r i or t o t he a pp l e t ha t f e l l on N e w t on s he a d, t he r e w a s no f o r c e t o ke e p t hi ngs a nc hor e d on s ol i d g r ound. I ns t e a d, B a t e s on i s poi nt i ng out t o hi s da ught e r t ha t w ha t i s t a ke n a s r e a l i t y i s a c t ua l l y j us t a na m e S c i e nt i f i c t he or i e s a r e w a ys of f r a m i ng

PAGE 107

104 t he w or l d; i ns t r um e nt a l i s t na r r a t i ve s t ha t c a n m a ni pul a t e t hi ngs but ne ve r de f i ne t he m de f i ni t i ve l y. A s w i t h t he m a p a nd t e r r i t or y s c i e nt i f i c t he or i e s a r e not t o be c onf us e d w i t h r e a l i t y i t s e l f T he y a r e c onc e pt ua l a bs t r a c t i ons t ha t de s c r i be phe nom e na a nd he nc e a r e s ubj e c t t o r e vi s i on. O f t e n t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n c om m uni c a t i o n s t udi e s c a n na vi ga t e s i m i l a r pr obl e m a t i c s us i ng di f f e r e nt t he or e t i c a l nom e nc l a t ur e A t ol e r a nc e of a m bi gui t y r e qui r e s t he c ul t i va t i on of a be m us e d nona t t a c hm e nt t ow a r ds t he t e r m i nol ogi e s t ha t c a t he c t ont o va r i ous phe nom e na ( E i s e nbe r g, 2007) I n s oc i a l s c i e nt i f i c t he or y na m e s ha ve be e n c oi ne d t o de s c r i be va r i ous ove r l a ppi ng pe r s pe c t i ve s C ons t r uc t i oni s t ( B e r ge r a nd L uc km a nn, 1966 ) s ys t e m s ( B a t e s on, 1972) a nd r e l a t i ona l ( C ondi t 2006) r ubr i c s a l l s t r e s s t he i m por t a nc e of pe r s pe c t i ve a nd c ont e xt I nde pe nde nt l y, t he y a r r i ve a t t he c onc l us i on t ha t m e a ni ng va r i ous a c c or di ng t o t he o bs e r ve r T o t hi s bur ge oni ng t a xonom i c he a p w e c a n a dd s ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i oni s m ( B l um e r 1969) a nd phe nom e nol ogy ( S c h ut z 1965) t w o t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s I w i l l p r e s e nt l y c ons i de r S ym bo l i c i nt e r a c t i oni s m i s a pe r s pe c t i ve a t t r i but e d t o G e or ge H e r be r t M e a d, w h o w a s a c ont e m por a r y o f p r a gm a t i s t J ohn D e w e y ( B l um e r 1969 ) S ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i on i s m i n i t s e xpos i t i on by H e r be r t B l um e r ( 1969) s t r e s s e s t he i nde t e r m i na c y of a n ob j e c t a nd t he r e l a t i vi t y of a ny hypot he s i s a bout r e a l i t y: F i r s t t he na t ur e o f a n ob j e c t i s c ons t i t ut e d by t he m e a ni ng i t ha s f o r t he pe r s on or pe r s ons f or w hom i t i s a n obj e c t S e c ond, t hi s m e a ni ng i s not i nt r i ns i c t o t he obj e c t but a r i s e s f r om how t he pe r s on i s i ni t i a l l y pr e pa r e d t o a c t t ow a r d i t R e a di ne s s t o us e a c ha i r a s s om e t hi ng i n w hi c h t o s i t gi ve s i t t he m e a ni ng of a c ha i r ; t o one w i t h no e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he us e of c ha i r s t he obj e c t w oul d a p pe a r w i t h a di f f e r e nt m e a ni ng s uc h a s a s t r a nge w e a pon I t f ol l ow s t ha t obj e c t s va r y i n t he i r m e a ni ng ( p 68 69)

PAGE 108

105 T he a bove quot e f r om B l um e r ha s be e n o f f e r e d t o s ugge s t t he i m por t a nc e of i nt e nt i ona l i t y i n hum a n j udge m e nt F or B l um e r m e a ni ng i s a c c or de d f r om pur pos e S om e t hi ng t a ke s on m e a ni ng onl y a c c or di ng t o i t s us e s C ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng c onve r s a t i on be t w e e n G r e gor y B a t e s on a nd hi s yo ung da ught e r M a r y C a t he r i ne : D a ught e r : W ha t doe s obj e c t i ve m e a n? F a t he r : W e l l I t m e a ns t ha t you l ook ve r y ha r d a t t hos e t hi ngs w hi c h you c hoos e t o l ook a t D a ught e r : T ha t s ounds r i ght B ut how do t he obj e c t i ve pe opl e c hoos e w hi c h t hi ngs t he y w i l l be obj e c t i ve a bout ? ( B a t e s on, 197 2, p 47) G r e gor y a nd M a r y C a t he r i ne poi nt out t he e l e m e nt of c hoi c e of i nt e nt i ona l i t y i n t he c odi f i c a t i on of l i ve d r e a l i t y R e t ur ni ng t o t he quot e f r om B l um e r w hi l e t he f unc t i on of a c ha i r i s pr oba bl y w i de l y a gr e e d upon B l um e r hol d s t o t ha t hypot he t i c a l i ns t a nc e w hi c h m i ght pr ove e xc e pt i ona l I nt e nt i ona l i t y i s a l s o a c onc e r n o f phe nom e nol o gy, ye t a not he r t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t obj e c t s t o t he s c i e nt i f i c m e t hod w hi c h w oul d s ubs um e pa r t i c ul a r i ns t a nc e s unde r s om e ge ne r a l r ul e P he nom e nol ogy i s c onc e r ne d w i t h pe r c e pt i on a nd e xpe r i e nc e i ns t e a d of a s uppos e dl y obj e c t i ve s oc i a l s c i e nc e H e r e i s t h e pr obl e m w i t h a n i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s oc i a l s c i e nc e a c c or di ng t o A l f r e d S c hut z ( 1965) : . t hi s t ype o f s oc i a l s c i e nc e doe s not de a l di r e c t l y a nd i m m e di a t e l y w i t h t he s oc i a l l i f e w or l d c om m on t o us a l l but w i t h s ki l l f u l l y a nd e xpe di e nt l y c hos e n i de a l i z a t i ons a nd f or m a l i z a t i ons of t he s oc i a l w or l d w hi c h a r e not r e pugna nt t o i t s f a c t s ( p. 57) S c i e nc e t e nds t o obj e c t i f y, a nd t he t he or e t i c a l m od e l c a n r e s e m bl e t he l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e but l i t t l e R a w hum a n e xpe r i e nc e c a n be qua nt i f i e d i nt o nu m be r s but s uc h num be r s a r e

PAGE 109

106 a n a bs t r a c t i on t ha t i s di s t a nt f r om pe r c e pt i on. P he n om e nol ogi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s pr ot e s t t ha t w ha t pur por t s t o be s c i e nt i f i c r e a l i t y c a n i n f a c t be f a r r e m ove d f r om pe opl e s e ve r yda y e xpe r i e nc e I n T he C r i s i s of E ur ope an Sc i e nc e s a nd T r ans c e nde nt al P he nom e nol ogy E dm und H us s e r l w r ot e : B ut now w e m us t not e s om e t hi ng of t he hi ghe s t i m por t a nc e t ha t oc c ur r e d e ve n a s e a r l y a s G a l i l e o: t he s ur r e pt i t i ous s ubs t i t ut i on of t he m a t he m a t i c a l l y s ubs t r uc t e d w or l d of i de a l i t i e s f or t he onl y r e a l w o r l d, t he one t ha t i s a c t ua l l y gi ve n t hr ough pe r c e pt i on, t ha t i s e ve r e xpe r i e nc e d a nd e xpe r i e nc e a bl e our e ve r yda y l i f e w or l d ( quot e d i n P a c i 1964 ) H us s e r l i m pl i e s t ha t s c i e nt i f i c obj e c t i f i c a t i ons a r e s t r a i ne d a na l ogi e s be t w e e n m a t he m a t i c s a nd e ve r yda y r e a l i t y. N um be r s c onf e r a n a ur a o f ha r d da t a ye t t he y a l s o f unc t i on a s a r he t o r i c a l de vi c e t ha t s ubs t i t ut e f or e xpe r i e nt i a l pe r c e pt i on. C W r i ght M i l l s ( 1959) w r i t e s a bout a bs t r a c t e d e m pi r i c i s m t o de s c r i be s oc i a l s c i e nt i s t s w ho r e i f y num be r s a nd da t a E c hoi ng H us s e r l a bove M i l l s w r i t e s W ha t a bs t r a c t e d e m pi r i c i s t s c a l l e m pi r i c a l da t a r e p r e s e nt a ve r y a bs t r a c t e d vi e w of e ve r yda y s oc i a l w or l ds ( 1959 p. 124) I n t hi s vi e w num e r i c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he m a t e r i a l w or l d f or a l l t he i r c l a i m s t o s c i e nt i f i c i t y, a r e r e m ot e a nd l i f e l e s s T he phe no m e nol ogi c a l l y i nf or m e d ps yc hi a t r i s t R D L a i ng, c l a i m s t ha t G a l i l e o G a l i l e i of f e r s us a de a d w or l d ( quot e d i n C a pr a 1996: p. 19) w hi c h i s de voi d of e t hi c s s oul c ons c i ous ne s s a nd s pi r i t T he s oc i a l p s yc hol ogi s t F l oyd A l l po r t ( 1965) h a s s ugge s t e d t ha t t he s uppos e d r e a l i t y of di s c r e t e obj e c t s o f i nqui r y a r e i n f a c t a bs t r a c t i ons or ge ne r a l i z a t i ons t ha t s c i e nt i s t s t a ke f or gr a nt e d. A c c or di ng t o A l l por t : . a ny e nt i t y o r t hi ng a t w ha t e ve r l e ve l w e f i nd i t a l w a ys s e e m s t o br e a k dow n i nt o a c ol l e c t i vi t y a t a l ow e r or de r ( 1965: p. 30) T hi s quot e i s r e m i ni s c e nt of C e l e s t e C ondi t ( 2006) w ho m a i nt a i ns : E ve r y t h i ng

PAGE 110

107 t ha t e xi s t s i s i n i t s e l f no t hi ng m o r e t ha n a pa r t i c ul a r l y, a nd pe r s pe c t i ve l y, c ons t i t ut e d s e t of r e l a t i ons hi ps ( p 5) F or A l l por t a t hi ng i s on l y a f i c t i on T hi s pr e m i s e c a l l s i nt o que s t i on t he ve r a c i t y of s c i e nt i f i c c l a i m s T he i ns i nua t i on i s t ha t s c i e nt i f i c o bj e c t i vi t y i s but a t e e t e r i ng hous e of c a r ds : . w e now f i nd t ha t t he ve r y n ot i on o f a t hi ng i ns t e a d of be i ng di s t i nc t a nd a bs ol ut e i s s hi f t i ng, a m bi guous i n de not a t i on, m i s l e a di ng a s t o i t s s i ngul a r i t y ove r l a ppi ng, r e l a t i vi s t i c a nd bl u r r e d ( A l l por t 1965 : p. 31) T hi s i s t he i m po r t o f r e l a t i vi s m f o r A l l por t a nd he i s a dm i t t e dl y ba f f l e d a s t o w he r e t o t ur n ( 1965: p. 31) T he r e i s a poi nt a t w hi c h, f o r t he s a ke of s a ni t y, a phi l os ophe r m i g ht w a nt t o ha l t t hi s i nf i ni t e r e g r e s s of c ont e xt s I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t s uc h ba f f l e m e nt i s i n t he w or ds of R D L a i ng, a s t a t e o f m ys t i f i c a t i on ( 1965: p 200) A t s om e poi nt t he r e i s a no r m a t i ve ut i l i t y i n not i ons of t r ut h a nd f a l s i t y. F o r t he s a ke of l e s s a m bi gui t y, s om e one m i ght pr ovi s i ona l l y a s s um e t ha t t he pe nc i l t he y hol d i n t h e i r ha nd i s a t hi ng w i t h c e r t a i n pr ope r t i e s t ha t c a n be r e l i e d upon t o f ul f i l l a c e r t a i n f unc t i on, l i ke j ot t i ng dow n not e s

PAGE 111

108 S oc i ol ogy of K n ow l e d ge an d a S yl l ogi s m Q u a E p i m e n i d e s I t s e e m s t o m e t ha t i t i s i m po r t a nt t o que s t i on a s s e r t i ons of f a c t a nd t o i nqu i r e a s t o t he i r c ons t r uc t e dne s s Y e t r e l a t i vi s m c a n be c onf us i ng, be c a us e i t i nduc e s a n i n f i ni t e que s t i oni ng of know l e dge t ha t pot e nt i a l l y ne ve r e n ds G a da m e r ( 1975 ) not e s t ha t r e l a t i vi s m r e f ut e s i t s e l f t o t he e xt e nt t ha t i t c l a i m s t o be t r ue ( p 344 ) M a ybe e ve r yt hi ng i s r e l a t i ve i nc l udi ng r e l a t i vi t y F r om t he poi nt of vi e w of f o r m a l l og i c r e l a t i vi s m s e l f r e f ut i ng. C ons i de r t he f o l l ow i ng s yl l ogi s m : a ) A l l know l e dge i s r e l a t i ve b) a ) i s unc ondi t i ona l l y t r ue A va r i a nt of t hi s pa r a dox da t e s ba c k t o t he a nc i e nt phi l os ophe r E pi m e ni de s a C r e t a n w ho s t a t e d C r e t a ns a l w a ys l i e ( K or z ybs ki 1933, p. 435; W e i ns he i m e r 1985, p. 53; B a t e s on & R ue s c h, 1951, p. 194 ; W a t z l a w i c k, B e a vi n & J a c ks on, 1967, pp. 193 197 199) T he a bove s yl l ogi s m i s m e a nt t o i m pl y t ha t s om e t i m e s r e l a t i vi s m ge t s t r i ppe d up by i t s ow n pr e m i s e s I f e ve r yt hi ng i s r e l a t i ve t he n i s n t a l s o t he p r opos i t i on t ha t e ve r yt hi ng i s r e l a t i ve al s o r e l a t i ve ? I n t hi s s e c t i on, I w i l l s how t ha t t he r e f l e xi ve o r s e l f r e f ut i ng p r e m i s e of r e l a t i vi s m s om e t i m e s t r oubl e s t he di s c our s e of c e r t a i n phi l os o phe r s of s c i e nc e H a be r m a s ( 1990) r e f e r s t o t h i s a s a pe r f o r m a t i ve c ont r a di c t i on o f r e l a t i vi s m K a r l P oppe r ( 1965) a r gue s t ha t f a c t s a r e a l w a y s pr ovi s i ona l T he r e i s a l w a ys a d r i f t be t w e e n our t he or e t i c a l obj e c t i f i c a t i ons a nd t he ob j e c t of i nqui r y a s i t r e a l l y i s but

PAGE 112

109 P oppe r doe s n t t h r ow up hi s ha nds i n di s c our a ge m e nt F or hi m t he a ns w e r s e e m s t o be m or e r i go r m or e s ys t e m a t i c t e s t i ng of our t he or i e s T h r ough e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h, w e c a n a t l e a s t a t t a i n a be t t e r a ppr oxi m a t i on of r e a l i t y P o ppe r c ou l d be c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s m a ki ng a l l ow a nc e s t o a m bi gui t y w hi l e a i m i ng t ow a r ds a r e a l i s t c onc e pt i on of t r ut h. P oppe r pr opos e s a doc t r i ne of m e t hodol ogi c a l uni t y a uni t y t ha t a l l s c i e nc e m a ke s us e of w he t he r na t ur a l o r s oc i a l P oppe r t e r m s t hi s uni f i e d s c i e nt i f i c m e t hod hypot he t i c a l de duc t i ve ( 1965, p 33 ) w hi c h m e a ns i s t ha t s c i e nt i f i c hypot he s e s ne e d t o be r i gor ous l y t e s t e d a nd r e t e s t e d. I nde bt e d t o s ke pt i c i s m P oppe r w oul d m a i nt a i n t ha t hypot he s e s a r e not s om e s t e ppi ng s t one t o p r ove n f a c t s P oppe r s hyp ot he t i c i s m s t a t e s t ha t t he or i e s a l w a ys r e t a i n t he i r hypot he t i c a l c ha r a c t e r ( 1965 p. 33) T he hypot he s i s t ha t a c ha i r w i l l m e e t our be hi nds a s w e s i t dow n i s a p r ovi s i ona l o ne a nd one t ha t i s t e s t e d e ve r y t i m e w e m a ke t he l e a p of f a i t h t ha t w e w on t l a nd on t he f l oor T he P oppe r i a n de duc t i ve m e t hod ha s t o be t hor ough. I f w e a r e unc r i t i c a l w e s ha l l a l w a ys f i nd w ha t w e w a nt ( P oppe r 1965 p 35) P oppe r de t a i l s t he p r oc e s s w he r e by s c i e nc e s e l e c t i ve l y c hoos e s da t a t o va l i da t e i t s pe t hypot he s i s I n s c i e nc e t he r e i s pl e nt y of r oom f o r t he c he r r y p i c ki ng of s e ns e da t a w hi c h w oul d a ppa r e nt l y va l i da t e a t he s i s I t i s f a i r l y e a s y t o c onf i r m a t he or y: j us t s e l e c t i ve l y c ho os e da t a t o s uppor t i t a nd i gnor e da t a w hi c h m i ght c ha l l e nge i t ( P oppe r 1965, p. 35 ) F o r P oppe r a s c i e nt i f i c t he or y i s a n unpr i vi l e ge d l i f e f or m w hos e s ur vi va l i s ha r s hl y w on. I f t he f a c t s w e r e a n a c t ua l c r e a t ur e P E T A w oul d c ha r ge a ni m a l c r ue l t y: . t o e ns ur e t ha t onl y t he f i t t e s t t he or i e s s ur vi ve t he i r s t r uggl e f o r l i f e m us t be m a de s e ve r e f or t he m ( P oppe r 1965 p 35 ) T o a voi d t he e xc e s s e s of s c i e nt i s m s c i e nt i f i c t r ut hs s h oul d ne ve r a t t a i n t he s t a t us of dogm a t i c gos pe l F o r P oppe r t he e m pha s i s i s on f a l s i f i c a t i on, r a t he r t ha n ve r i f i c a t i on

PAGE 113

110 ( S oka l & B r i c m ont 1998, p. 63) F o r t he hypot he t i c i s t ve r i f i c a t i on i s unt e na bl e be c a us e i nf e r e nt i a l l e a ps oc c ur w he ne ve r pa r t i c ul a r i ns t a nc e s a r e m a de i nt o ge ne r a l pr i nc i pl e s ( B oc hne r 1985 p 29) F or a hypot he t i c i s t i f w e c a n t t a ke our c odi f i c a t i ons a s be i ng a bs ol ut e l y t r ue a t l e a s t t he y s houl d ha ve t he di gni t y of not y e t ha vi ng be e n pr ove n f a l s e P op pe r ( 1965) di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n i nduc t i ve a nd de duc t i ve r e a s oni ng. W i t h i nduc t i on, a pa r t i c ul a r phe nom e non i s i m a gi ne d t o be a n i ns t a nc e of a ge n e r a l r ul e D e duc t i on r e f e r s t o a c onc l us i on t ha t f ol l ow s f r om a de m ons t r a t e d pr e m i s e W hi l e i nduc t i on c a n c om e f r o m a hunc h, de duc t i on i m p l i e s t he r i go r ous pr ot oc ol s o f s c i e nt i f i c m e t hods T he que s t i on, f or P oppe r i s not how s om e one c a m e up w i t h a t he or y but r a t he r how t ha t t he or y w a s t e s t e d ( 1965, p 36 ) F o r W V Q ui ne ( 1981) hypot he t i c i s m i s unt e n a bl e be c a us e i t t a ke s us ba c k t o a s i t ua t i on of i n f i ni t e r e gr e s s S c i e nc e r e l i e s on p r e vi ous s uppos i t i ons a nd i f e a c h one ha d t o be t e s t e d r i go r ous l y, s c i e nc e w oul d ne ve r ge t a n yw he r e F or Q ui ne s c i e nt i f i c obj e c t i f i c a t i on i s a c onc e pt ua l t ool t ha t i s us e f ul i n pr e di c t i ng t he f ut ur e ba s e d on pa s t i ns t a nc e s Q ui ne w r i t e s : W e pe r s i s t i n br e a ki ng r e a l i t y dow n s om e how i nt o a m ul t i pl i c i t y of i de nt i f i a bl e a nd di s c r i m i na bl e obj e c t s . W e t a l k s o i nve t e r a t e l y of obj e c t s t ha t t o s a y w e do s o s e e m s a l m os t t o s a y not hi ng a t a l l ; f o r how e l s e i s t he r e t o t a l k? ( quot e d i n D a vi ds on, 1982, p 73 ) F or Q ui ne t hi nki ng of r e a l i t y i n t e r m s o f di s c r e t e obj e c t s i s a f unc t i on o f l a ngua ge E m pi r i c i s m i s a nor m a t i ve f i c t i on t ha t us e s f a c t s a s c onc e pt ua l m a r ke r s T r ut h m e a nw hi l e i s a s t i c ky c onc e pt ( Q ui ne 1981 p 38)

PAGE 114

111 O t he r e pi s t e m ol ogi s t s i n t he phi l os ophy of s c i e nc e f i e l d w i l l t r oubl e t he e qui va l e nc e of s c i e nc e a nd f a c t s F or T ho m a s K uhn ( 1962 ) s om e t i m e s ps e udo or e xt r a s c i e nt i f i c be l i e f s pr e c i pi t a t e pa r a di gm a t i c r e vol ut i ons i n s c i e nc e : A n a ppa r e nt l y a r bi t r a r y e l e m e nt c om pounde d o f p e r s ona l a nd hi s t or i c a l a c c i de nt i s a l w a ys a f or m a t i ve i ngr e di e nt of t he be l i e f s e s pous e d by a gi ve n s c i e nt i f i c c om m uni t y a t a gi ve n t i m e ( p 4) K uhn a r gue s t ha t t he r e i s a n e l e m e nt o f a c c i de nt w he n one pa r a di gm r e pl a c e s a not he r A s a n e xa m pl e K uhn c l a i m s t ha t t he m y t hi c a l m e t a phys i c a l ba gga ge of s un w or s hi p he l pe d m a ke K e pl e r be c om e a C ope r ni c a n ( 1962, p p. 152 153 ) F or K uhn, s c i e nc e i s not pr ogr e s s i ng t ow a r ds gr e a t e r a nd gr e a t e r t r ut h. R a t he r c ha nge s i n pa r a di gm c ont a i n a t l e a s t a n e l e m e nt of c ont i nge nc y a nd e xt r a s c i e nt i f i c s ubt e xt K uhn ( 1962) e xpl a i ns : W e m a y, t o be m or e pr e c i s e ha ve t o r e l i nqui s h t he not i on, e xpl i c i t o r i m p l i c i t t ha t c ha nge s i n pa r a di gm c a r r y s c i e nt i s t s a nd t hos e w ho l e a r n f r om t he m c l os e r a nd c l os e r t o t he t r ut h ( p. 170) T hom a s K uhn de e m pha s i z e s not i ons of ve r i f i c a t i o n, f a l s i f i c a t i on a nd s c i e nt i f i c pr ogr e s s ( W e i ns he i m e r 1985 p. 27; D oppe l t 1982 p 113 ) R or t y ( 1991) ha s a ppl a ude d K uhn f or ha vi ng s of t e ne d t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n s c i e nc e a nd non s c i e nc e ( p. 38 ) K uhn ( 1962) not e s t ha t s c i e nc e doe s n t i nc or po r a t e ol d pa r a di gm s w i t hi n ne w one s I ns t e a d, t he ol d pa r a di gm s a r e de e m e d uns c i e nt i f i c a nd a r e di s c a r de d ( p 103 ) A s s uc h, t he r e i s no r a t i ona l gr ound of di a l ogue be t w e e n out goi ng a nd i nc om i ng pa r a di gm s T hi s i de a ha s c om e t o be know n a s t he K uhni a n t he o r y of i nc om m e ns ur a bi l i t y. T he r e a l i s t phi l os ophe r H i l a r y P u t na m m a i nt a i ns t ha t t he t he s i s of i nc om m e ns ur a bi l i t y i s s e l f r e f ut i ng ( R or t y, 1991, p. 25) S oka l a nd B r i c m ont t r y t o t r i p up t he K uhn i a n pos i t i on on a

PAGE 115

112 f or m a l l e ve l T he i r s i s a l og i c a l a r gum e nt r e l a t e d t o t he va r i a nt of t he l i a r o r E pi m e ni de s pa r a dox m e nt i one d e a r l i e r T he a r gu m e nt goe s l i ke t hi s : I f i r r a t i ona l i t y gove r ns s c i e nt i f i c pa r a di gm s w oul dn t i t a l s o i nt e r f e r e w i t h a n os t e ns i bl y r a t i ona l phi l os ophy of s c i e nc e ? W hy s pe a k i n a r e a l i s t m ode a bout hi s t or i c a l c a t e gor i e s s uc h a s pa r a di gm s i f i t i s a n i l l us i on t o s pe a k i n a r e a l i s t m ode a bout s c i e nt i f i c c onc e pt s ? ( S oka l & B r i c m ont 1998, p. 77) I s t he K uhni a n pa r a di g m s om e how e xe m pt f r om t he s a m e c ont i nge nc i e s t ha t e c l i ps e ot he r s c i e nt i f i c pa r a di g m s ? P a ul F e ye r a be nd w a s a n a na r c hi s t phi l o s ophe r of s c i e nc e w hos e book t i t l e F ar e w e l l t o R e as on ( 1987 ) c onj ur e s up t he s pe c t e r o f unr e pe nt a nt i r r a t i ona l i t y. I n a book c a l l e d A gai ns t M e t hod F e ye r a be nd ( 1975) c l a i m s t ha t t h e onl y r ul e t ha t doe s n t i nhi bi t s c i e nt i f i c pr ogr e s s i s a nyt hi ng goe s ( p. 23) A s t he y di d w i t h K uhn, S oka l a nd B r i c m ont ( 1998) t r y t o di s pe ns e w i t h F e ye r a be nd by t r yi ng t o c a t c h hi m up i n h i s ow n i m pl i c i t l ogi c a l a nt i nom i e s T he y s ugge s t t ha t F e ye r a be nd r e s or t s t o c r ude di s t i nc t i ons be t w e e n f a c t s a nd t he or i e s i nvoki ng t he V i e nna C i r c l e e pi s t e m ol ogy he e l s e w he r e r e j e c t s : . he a ppe a r s t o us e i m pl i c i t l y i n t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a na i ve l y r e a l i s t e pi s t e m ol ogy t ha t he r e j e c t s i n t he na t u r a l s c i e nc e s ( S oka l & B r i c m ont p 83) I n ot he r w or ds how c om e t he hi s t or i a n of s c i e nc e i s s om e how e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l l y pr i vi l e ge d t o de ni gr a t e s c i e nc e f r om a r e a l i s t pe r s pe c t i ve ? S oka l a nd B r i c m ont c l a i m onc e a ga i n t ha t r e l a t i vi s m i s c i r c ul a r a nd s e l f r e f ut i ng B e hi nd t hi s r he t or i c a l ga m bi t i s a n a t t e m pt t o pr e s e r ve s om e not i on of t r ut h

PAGE 116

113 C on c l u s i on : A M e as u r e d A p p r oac h T he m ode r n e s t e e m f or s c i e nc e ha s l ong be e n ne a r l y a s s um e d, but now t he t e c hnol ogi c a l e t hos a nd t he ki nd of e ngi ne e r i ng i m a gi na t i on a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s c i e nc e a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be f r i ght e ni ng a nd a m bi guous t ha n hope f ul o r p r ogr e s s i ve ( M i l l s 1959, p. 16) . . i t i s a ha r d t a s k t o be good; i n e ve r y c a s e i t i s a t a s k t o f i nd t he m e di an ( A r i s t ot l e 1962 p 50 ) A s c i e nt i s t i c a t t i t ude a bhor s a m bi gui t y, a nd w a nt s t o na i l t h i ngs dow n. B ut r i gi d a s s e r t i ons of f a c t c a n m a s k t ot a l i t a r i a n a ge nda s D w i ght C onque r good ( 1991 ) l i nks s c i e nc e w i t h i m pe r i a l i s m a nd c r i t i c i z e s t he e m pi r i c a l a t t i t ude f o r i t s pu t a t i ve ne ut r a l i t y T o C onque r good, w he r e e m pi r i c i s t s s e e k t he e v i c t i on of pol i t i c s C r i t i c a l T he or i s t s s e e k t he e x c av at i on of pol i t i c a l vi e w s ( 1991 p 179 ) I t s i m por t a nt t o i nt e r r oga t e s c i e nc e f or i t s pol i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons T hi nk a bout t he t e r r i bl e t hi n gs t ha t ha ve ha ppe ne d i n t he na m e of s o c a l l e d va l ue ne ut r a l s c i e nc e H ow a bout C he r nobyl T us ke ge e B hopa l A ge nt O r a nge T ha l i do m i de D D T ? S c i e nt i f i c e xpe r t i s e a nd e t hi c a l e vi c t i on c a n m a ke f or F r a nke ns t e i ni a n hor r or s S c i e nt i f i c ob j e c t i vi t y, m a t e r i a l i s m a nd r e a l i s m i s i nhe r e nt l y pr obl e m a t i c t o s om e F or G r e gor y B a t e s on a nd J ur ge n R ue s c h ( 1951) t he c o di f i c a t i on of i nf o r m a t i on i s m ul t i pl i c a t i ve ( p. 175 ) A s one t r u t h i s a s s e r t e d, o t he r pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i ons a r e ne ga t e d. I n t hi s vi e w c ons c i ous ne s s i t s e l f i s by de f i ni t i on a r e duc t i on ( B a t e s on & R ue s c h, 1951,

PAGE 117

114 p. 183) H a ns G e or g G a da m e r obj e c t s t o t he w i l l f ul dom i na t i on o f e xi s t e nt s ( quot e d i n W e i ns he i m e r p. 8) F or T he odor A dor no ( 1983) s c i e nc e i s a r bi t r a r i l y de di c a t e d t o s e pa r a t e obj e c t s w hi c h s t a r kl y i s ol a t e m a t t e r a nd m e t hod ( p. 41) F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e a s w e ha ve s e e n, i s a ga i ns t obs c ur a nt i s m unne c e s s a r y a m bi gui t y a nd a l a c ka da i s i c a l a t t i t ude t ow a r ds s c i e nt i f i c r i go r ( S oka l & B r i c m ont 1998, p 207) I n t he i r r i gi d s c i e nt i f i c s e l f r i ght e ou s ne s s S oka l a nd B r i c m ont w e a r ou t t he i r w e l c om e a nd ove r s t a t e t he i r c a s e I w onde r i f t he i r e f f or t s a r e m i s di r e c t e d. R a t he r t ha n pr a nk pos t m ode r ni s t s w ho a r e c r i t i c a l o f s c i e n c e I t hi nk t he y s houl d us e t he i r s c i e nt i f i c e xpe r t i s e t o c r i t i c i z e t he s i ni s t e r w a ys t ha t s c i e nc e i s be i ng us e d i n t he w or l d t oda y. F or e xa m pl e w ha t a r e t he pot e nt i a l he a l t h r i s ks of e a t i n g ge ne t i c a l l y m odi f i e d f oods ? W hi l e t he F D A ha s a l l ow e d t he m a r ke t i ng of ge ne t i c a l l y m odi f i e d f oods t he U ni on of C onc e r ne d S c i e nt i s t s ha s r a i s e d c onc e r ns a bout t he i r s a f e t y ( M e l l on & R i s s l e r 2003) W ha t c ons t i t ut e s s ound, w e l l doc um e nt e d e m pi r i c a l e vi de n c e t ha t s uc h F r a nke nf oods a r e s a f e t o e a t ? W ha t e xa c t l y c ons t i t ut e s s c i e nt i f i c c ons e ns u s a bout a n i s s ue a nd w he n da t a m a y be a m bi guous i s n t i t m or e pr ude nt t o e r r on t he s i de of c a ut i on w he n i t c om e s t o he a l t h a nd s a f e t y? H ypot he t i c i s m ( P oppe r 1965) s u gge s t s t ha t s c i e nt i f i c c l a i m s s houl d be que s t i one d a nd not e l e va t e d t o t he s t a t us of dogm a M y goa l ha s be e n t o s e e k a m e a s ur e d a nd non d e vi s i ve a ppr oa c h t o t he he a t e d c onf l i c t s be t w e e n s c i e nc e a nd e m pi r i c i s m on t he one ha nd a nd a nt i r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l i s m or r e l a t i vi s m on t he ot he r T he t r ut h I s us pe c t i s s om e w he r e i n be t w e e n, a nd I don t w a nt t o c om e dow n ha r d on e i t he r s i de of t he de ba t e I a m not oppos e d t o r e l a t i v i s m but I ha ve t r i e d t o s ugge s t how t a ke n t o e xt r e m e s i t c a n be s e l f r e f ut i ng. J udi c i a l i t y a nd l i be r a l t ol e r a nc e i s s om e t hi ng t ha t i s s ugge s t e d t o m e by A r i s t ot e l i a n e t hi c s W hi l e A r i s t ot e l i a n

PAGE 118

115 l ogi c ha s be e n f a ul t e d f or i t s r i gi d e i t he r / or pr e o c c upa t i on ( K or z ybs ki 1933 ) t he N i c hom ac he an E t hi c s of A r i s t ot l e s ugge s t s t ha t t he vi r t ue i s a l w a ys s om e w he r e i n be t w e e n. T he doc t r i ne of t he m e a n, a s a ppl i e d t o t h e r e a l i s m / r e l a t i vi s m dua l i s m s ugge s t s t ha t a de c i s i on be t w e e n e i t he r po l a r i t y i s a n e r r o r B ur ke ( 1954) poi nt s out t ha t K or byz ki s r i gi d di c hot om y be t w e e n A r i s t ot e l i a n a nd N on A r i s t ot e l i a n l ogi c s i s a c t ua l l y pr e di c a t e d on t he ve r y t w o va l ue d d i s t i nc t i on i t c l a i m s t o ne ga t e ( p 239 ) I n pr i nc i pl e I ha ve not hi ng a ga i ns t pos i t i vi s m o r s oc i a l s c i e nc e a l t hough t he r e i s a r i s k of f e t i s hi z i ng s c i e nt i f i c i nqui r y. T hi s i s w ha t M i l l s ( 1 959) c a l l s a bs t r a c t e d e m pi r i c i s m W ha t I ha ve l e a r ne d f r om R or t y i s t h a t s om e t i m e s t he s c i e nt i f i c a t t i t ude i s f e t i s hi z e d a s be i ng a s or t o f god s e ye vi e w F o r R or t y . t he r e i s not hi ng w r ong w i t h s c i e nc e onl y t he a t t e m pt t o di vi ni z e i t t he a t t e m pt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of r e a l i s t i c phi l os ophy ( p. 34 ) A c c or di ng t o P oppe r w e ne e d t o t r e a t s c i e nt i f i c t he or i e s c r i t i c a l l y a nd r i gor ous l y t e s t t he i r t r u t h c l a i m s I n o r de r t o hol d s c i e nc e a c c ount a bl e w e s houl d e nga ge w i t h i t not put i t on a pe de s t a l I n a a c a de m i c uni ve r s e w he r e know l e dge i s i n a r e l e nt l e s s m ode of ove r pr oduc t i on ( B e c ke r 1973) l e a r ni ng t o l i ve w i t h unc e r t a i nt y i s a dvi s a bl e E i s e nbe r g ( 2007) a r gue s t ha t unc e r t a i nt y s houl d be r e f r a m e d a s m ys t e r y ( p 242) O f t e n, t he ha bi t o f c a t he c t i ng t oo s t r ongl y ont o m e a ni ngs m a ke s f o r z e a l ot s a nd f a na t i c s B ut w hi l e m e a ni ng i s va r i a bl e a nd m obi l e i t i s a l s o pr e c i ous a nd s houl d be ha ndl e d w i t h c a r e I w onde r i f s uc h unc ondi t i ona l a c c e pt a nc e of unc e r t a i nt y m i ght l e a v e vi t a l m e a ni ngs s ubj e c t t o pe r pe t ua l ne ga t i on. T he ps yc hot he r a pi s t V i kt or F r a nkl ( 1959 ) m a i nt a i ns t ha t he m a na ge d t o s ur vi ve A us c hw i t z be c a us e of t he m e a ni ng he ha d s t r ongl y a nc hor e d i n h i s c ons c i ous ne s s T he w i l l t o m e a ni ng i s t o F r a nkl of pr i m a r y c ons i de r a t i on f or hum a n e xi s t e nc e ( 1959 p

PAGE 119

116 154) E i s e nbe r g ( 2007 ) s ugge s t s a f l i r t i ng w i t h m e a ni ng, w hi c h s houl d be di s t i ngui s he d f r om a pr om i s c uous e xi s t e nt i a l voi d w he r e m e a ni ng i s pe r pe t ua l l y ne ga t e d. I a m a l s o of t he opi ni on t ha t i n o r de r t o pr e va i l a ga i ns t t he t r oubl i ng f or c e s t ha t a r e i n pow e r i n ou r s oc i e t y, s om e t i m e s w e ne e d a s t r onge r s e ns e of t r ut h a nd f a l s e hood. W a r s of a gr e s s i on a r e pr e m i s e d on out r i ght di s i nf o r m a t i on ( R a m pt on & S t a ube r 2003 ) a nd l e ni e nc y a bout t he r e l a t i vi t y of t r ut h c a n be d i s c our a gi ng. O ne bl ogge r a r gue s t ha t G e or ge B us h, J r us e s s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y f or t he pur pos e s of m a s s de c e pt i on ( s e e K e e f e r 2003) A n a r t i c l e c a l l e d S t r a t e gi c A m bi gui t y C om m uni c a t i on, a nd P ubl i c D i pl om a c y i n a n U nc e r t a i n W or l d s ugge s t s t he us e s of s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y f o r U ni t e d S t a t e s f or e i gn pol i c y ( G ooda l l T r e t he w e y & M c D ona l d, 2006 ) A c c or di ng t o B ud G ooda l l a nd hi s c o a ut hor s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s s houl d ut i l i z e s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y w he n i s s ui ng s t a t e m e nt s of pol i c y. G ooda l l e t a l ( 2006) m a i nt a i n t ha t t he m e a n i ngs of m e s s a ge s a r e i nt e r pr e t a t e d a c c or di ng t o c ont e xt a nd not a c c or di ng t he ol d m onol ogi c s e nde r r e c i e ve r m ode l of c om m uni c a t i on ( 2006, p. 10) A s a n e xa m pl e G ooda l l e t a l ( 2006) r e l a t e a n a ne c dot e f r om t he 1960s a bout E gypt i a n pr e s i de nt G a m a l A bde l N a s s e r w ho ha d ut t e r e d w h a t L yndon J ohns on i nt e r p r e t e d t o be be l l i c os e c om m e nt s a bout t he U S ( p 10 ) I n h i s de f e ns e N a s s e r e xpl a i ne d t ha t hi s c om m e nt s w e r e onl y i nt e nde d f or t he E gyp t i a ns b ut a c t ua l l y he w a nt e d t o w or k i n di pl om a t i c ba c kc ha nne l w i t h A m e r i c a ( G o oda l l e t a l 2006 p 10 ) T he i m pl i c a t i on i s t ha t N a s s e r pr a c t i s e d s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y, but t he e xa m pl e i m pl i e s dupl i c i t y. T he br i e f a r t i c l e by G ooda l l e t a l s t r i ke s m e a s M a c hi a ve l l i a n, be c a us e i t a ppe a r s t o w hi s pe r i n t he e a r of A m e r i c a n i m pe r i a l i s m a bout t he us e s of gui l e i n i nt e r na t i ona l r e l a t i ons I a m r e m i nde d of t he c ons e r va t i ve phi l os ophe r L e o S t r a us s ( 1952) a nd hi s di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n

PAGE 120

117 e x ot e r i c a nd e s ot e r i c m e a ni ng s of t e xt s F or S t r a us s a m e s s a ge c oul d ha ve a n os t e ns i bl e or m a ni f e s t m e a ni ng t ha t m a s ke d a l a t e nt one w i t h m or e di s t ur bi ng i m pl i c a t i ons ( D r u r y, 2004) S t r a us s c i t e s t he P l a t oni c r a t i ona l e of t he n obl e l i e ( 1952 p 35 ) C oul d s t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y be us e d a s a e uphe m i s m f o r t he nobl e l i e ? A m bi gui t y c a n be s e e n a s s t r a t e gi c a l l y be ni gn or a s a m ys t i f i c a t i on, de pe ndi n g on w hi c h s i de you a r e on S om e t i m e s pe r C onque r good s ( 1991) s ugge s t i on, pol i t i c s s houl d be e xc a va t e d, no t e vi c t e d, f r om s t a t e m e nt s T he r e i s a l s o t he i s s ue of a m bi gu i t y i n a c a de m i c w r i t i ng. I n m y e xpe r i e nc e B a t e s on s ( 1972) e m pha s i s on c ont e xt ove r obj e c t s c a n s om e t i m e s be c ogni t i ve l y c onf us i ng. F or t he s a ke of e l oque nc e s om e t i m e s i t i s us e f ul t o s pe a k i n t e r m s of obj e c t s A l s o, a s I go t hr ough m y a c a de m i c c a r e e r f r a nkl y, a t t i m e s I w i s h f or s hor t e r s e nt e nc e s l e s s j a r gon, a nd l e s s t he or e t i c a l a m bi gui t y. W hi l e O r w e l l ( 194 9) w a r ne d a bout a dum be d dow n E ngl i s h c a l l e d ne w s pe a k, he w a s a l s o a ga i ns t pr e t e nt i ous w or dy di c t i on ( 1950 [ 1947 ] ) T o l ook a t a c ont e m po r a r y e xa m pl e w ha t i s a nt i f e m i ni s t f e m i ni s t pos t f e m i ni s m ? ( P r oj a ns ky, 2001 ) T he t e r m a ppe a r s t o be t h r i c e s e l f r e f u t i ng a nd i nc om pr e he ns i bl e A s a not he r e xa m pl e of c onvol ut e d di s c our s e t a ke J e a n P a ul S a r t r e : A s e c ond r e a s on f or t he i l l us i on o f t he g r oup a s a n i ne r t t ot a l i t y ha s a l s o be e n a dum br a t e d, na m e l y, t ha t t he gr oup f or t he non g r oupe d, a nd t he ot he r g r oups a ppe a r s a s a l i vi ng obj e c t i ve t ot a l i t y a nd t he i nt e r i or i z a t i on by t he gr oup of i t s be i ng f or t he ot he r a nd e ve n of i t s be i ng f or ot he r f or ot he r l e a ds t o a s e m bl a nc e of t ot a l i z e d uni t y w hi c h i s r e a l l y t he i n f i ni t e c om pr e s s i on of t he i nt e r i or i z e d gr oup a s ot he r f or t he ot he r s w he r e by t he gr oup a s i t w e r e t r i e s t o m a ke i t s e l f a t ot a l i z e d un i t y f or i t s e l f ( quot e d i n L a i ng & C oope r 1964 p 159) A dm i t t e dl y, t h i s quot e i s t a ke n ou t of c ont e xt Y e t I w onde r i f i t i s i t e r a bl e or s e ns i bl e a t a l l A c c or di ng t o a f oot not e by R D L a i ng i n t hi s pa s s a ge S a r t r e a ppe a r s t o be de a l i ng

PAGE 121

118 w i t h a m e t a m e t a m e t a pe r s pe c t i ve ( L a i ng & C o ope r 1964 p 159 ) T hi s a ppe a r s t o be s o a bs t r a c t t ha t i t i s nonns e ns i c a l t o m e a l t hough j us t be c a us e s om e t hi ng i s not e a s i l y unde r s t ood doe s not i n i t s e l f m a ke i t nul l a nd voi d I t i s l i ke l y t ha t a m bi gui t y i n a c a de m i c w r i t i ng c oul d be ope r a t i ng a t a l e ve l of t he or e t i c a l s ophi s t i c a t i on t ha t i s be yond m y c ogni t i ve a bi l i t y. B ut i n t he f i r s t pl a c e I ha ve a l w a ys be e n a m bi va l e nt a bout a s c e ndi ng t o t he hi g he s t he i ght s of c onc e pt ua l a bs t r a c t i on. I a m i n t e r e s t e d i n t he pr a c t i c a l a nd pol i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons of di s c our s e C om m uni c a t i on i s a di s c i pl i ne t ha t a c know l e dge s va r i ous w a ys of kn ow i ng a nd ot he r m e a s ur e s of i nt e l l i ge nc e be s i de s t he or e t i c a l c om pl e xi t y. A phi l os ophe r or s c i e nt i s t m i ght be hi ghl y a dva nc e d, but a t t he e xpe ns e of c om m uni c a t i ona l s ki l l s va l ue d by m y di s c i pl i ne I hope t ha t w i t h t he he ge m ony o f de c ons t r uc t i ve ( D e r r i da 1978 1991) a nd r e l a t i ona l m ode l s ( C ondi t 2006 ) t he i de a l o f c om p r e he ns i on a nd l uc i d t r a ns m i s s i on of m e a ni ng i s not r e nde r e d unt e na bl e E pi s t e m ol ogy i s po t e nt i a l l y a ga m e w i t hout e n d ( W a t z l a w i c k, B e a vi n & J a c ks on, 1967) t ha t doe s not s ubm i t t o n e a t s um m a r i z a t i on I f t he w i l l t o s um m a r i z e i s i n f a c t t a nt a m ount t o t he t ot a l i t a r i a n ur ge t he n I c a n r e s i s t s uc h a t e m pt a t i on w i t h a c l e a n c ons c i e nc e

PAGE 122

119 B i b l i ogr ap h y A dor no, T he odor W ( 1983) A ga i ns t E pi s t e m ol og y : A M e t ac r i t i que C a m br i dge : M I T P r e s s A l l por t F l oyd H ( 1965) L ogi c a l C om pl e xi t i e s of G r oup A c t i vi t y. I n B r a ybr ooke D a vi d e d. P hi l os ophi c al P r obl e m s of t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n C om pa ny A l t hus s e r L oui s ( 1971 ) L e ni n and P hi l os ophy and O t he r E s s ay s N e w Y or k: M ont hl y R e vi e w P r e s s A nde r s e n, H a ns C hr i s t i a n ( 1996 [ 1875] ) T he e m p e r or s ne w c l ot he s I n H ans A nde r s e n' s F ai r y T al e s M r s H e nr y H B P a ul l t r a ns l a t or L o ndon: W a r ne & C om pa ny. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 17, 2007 f r o m : ht t p: / / w w w s ur l a l une f a i r yt a l e s c om / e m pe r or c l o t h e s / i nde x. ht m l A nde r s on, R ob; B a xt e r L e s l i e A & C i s s na K e nne t h N e di t or s ( 2004) D i al ogue : T he or i z i ng D i f f e r e nc e i n C om m uni c at i on St udi e s T hous a nd O a ks : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons A ppl e by, J oyc e ; H unt L ynn & J a c ob, M a r ga r e t ( 1 994) T e l l i ng t he T r ut h A bou t H i s t or y N e w Y or k: W W N or t on & C o. A r c ha m ba ul t P a ul J ( 2001) R e vi e w of I nt e l l e c t ua l I m pos t e r s Sy m pos i um V ol 55 I s s ue 1: pp. 43 48 A r i s t ot l e ( 1962) N i c hom ac he an E t h i c s O s t w a l d, M a r t i n, t r a ns l a t or I ndi a na pol i s : T he L i be r a l A r t s P r e s s A r onow i t z S t a nl e y ( 2003) A M i l l s R e vi va l ? I n L o gos 2. 3. E l e c t r oni c ve r s i on A us t i n, J L ( 1962) H ow t o do t hi ngs w i t h W or ds : T he W i l l i am J am e s L e c t ur e s de l i v e r e d at H ar v ar d U ni v e r s i t y i n 1955 U r m s on, J O e di t or O x f or d: C l a r e ndon A ye r A l f r e d J ul e s ( 1952) L anguage T r ut h and L ogi c N e w Y or k: D ove r P ubl i c a t i ons I nc

PAGE 123

120 B a ggi ni J ul i a n ( 1999 ) T he A bus e of S c i e nc e : A n I nt e r vi e w W i t h A l a n S oka l T M P O nl i ne 1999. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 17 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w phi l os ophe r s c o. uk/ no f r a m e s / a r t i c l e s / s oka l nf ht m B a i M a t t ( 2005) T he F r a m i ng W a r s T he N e w Y or k T i m e s M agaz i ne J ul y 17 pp 39 71 B a ndl e r R i c ha r d & G r i nde r J ohn ( 1982) R e f r am i ng: N e ur o L i ngui s t i c P r ogr am m i ng and t he T r ans f or m at i on of M e ani ng M oa b: R e a l P e opl e P r e s s B a r a d, K a r e n ( 1996 ) M e e t i ng t he U n i ve r s e H a l f w a y: R e a l i s m a nd S oc i a l C ons t r uc t i vi s m W i t hout C ont r a di c t i on. I n L H N e l s on a nd J N e l s on, E ds F e m i ni s m Sc i e nc e and t he P hi l os ophy of Sc i e nc e D or d r e c ht : K l uw e r A c a de m i c P ubl i s he r s pp 161 194 B a s e n, I r a ( 2007 ) S pi n C yc l e s : a C e nt ur y of S pi n. R e por t e r 's i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt : S t ua r t E w e n on E dw a r d B e r na ys C B C R adi o Sunday E di t i on F e b r ua r y 23 R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 25, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w c bc c a / ne w s / ba c kgr ound/ s pi nc yc l e s / t r a ns c r i pt e w e n be r na ys ht m l B a t e s on, G r e gor y ( 1972 ) St e ps t o an E c ol ogy o f M i nd C hi c a go: U n i ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s B a t e s on, G r e gor y a nd R ue s c h, J ur ge n ( 1951) I n f o r m a t i on a nd C odi f i c a t i on: A P hi l os ophi c a l A ppr oa c h I n C om m uni c at i on, t he S oc i al M at r i x of P s y c hi at r y N e w Y or k: N or t on B a xt e r L e s l i e A & M ont gom e r y B a r ba r a M ( 19 96) R e l at i ng: D i al ogue s and D i al e c t i c s N e w Y or k: T he G ui l f or d P r e s s B e a uvoi r S i m one de ( 1948 ) T he E t hi c s of A m bi gu i t y S e c a uc us : C i t a de l P r e s s B e c ke r A L ( 1991) A S hor t E s s a y on L a ngua gi n g. I n F r e d S t e i e r e d. R e s e ar c h and R e f l e x i v i t y L ondon: S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons pp 226 23 4 B e c ke r E r ne s t ( 1973) T he D e ni al O f D e at h N e w Y or k: F r e e P r e s s P a pe r ba c ks B e c ke r H ow a r d S ( 1963 ) O ut s i de r s : St udi e s i n t h e Soc i ol ogy of D e v i anc e N e w Y or k: F r e e P r e s s B e l l e r M a r a ( 1998 ) T he S oka l H oa x: A t w hom a r e w e l a ughi ng? P hy s i c s T oday V ol 51 I s s ue 9, p. 29 B e r ge r P e t e r L a nd L uc km a nn, T hom a s ( 1966) T he Soc i al C ons t r uc t i on of R e al i t y : A T r e at i s e i n t he Soc i ol ogy of K now l e dge G a r de n C i t y: A nc hor B ooks

PAGE 124

121 B e r ke l e y, G e or ge ( 1975 ) P hi l os ophi c al W or k s I n c l udi ng t he W or k s on V i s i on E d i t e d by M i c ha e l R A ye r s L ondon: J M D e nt B l oom A l a n ( 1987) T he C l os i ng o f t he A m e r i c an M i nd: H ow H i ghe r E duc at i on H as F ai l e d D e m oc r ac y and I m pov e r i s he d t he Soul s of T oday s St ude nt s N e w Y or k: T ouc hs t one B oo ks B l um e r H e r be r t ( 1969 ) Sy m bol i c I nt e r ac t i oni s m : P e r s pe c t i v e and M e t hod E ngl e w ood C l i f f s : P r e nt i c e H a l l I nc B oc hne r A r t hur P ( 1985 ) P e r s pe c t i ve s on I nqui r y : R e pr e s e nt a t i on, C onve r s a t i on, a nd R e f l e c t i on. I n K na pp, M a r k L & D a l y, J ohn A e ds H andbook of I nt e r pe r s onal C om m uni c at i on pp. 27 58 B e ve r l y H i l l s : S a ge P u bl i c a t i ons B oc hne r A r t hur P a nd E i s e nbe r g, E r i c M ( 1985 ) L e gi t i m i z i ng S pe e c h C om m uni c a t i on: A n E xa m i na t i on o f C ohe r e nc e a nd C ohe s i on i n t he D e ve l opm e nt of t he D i s c i pl i ne I n B e ns e n, T om e d i t or Spe e c h C om m uni c at i on i n t he 20t h C e nt ur y C a r bonda l e : S out he r n I l l i noi s U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s pp 299 321 B ok, S i s s e l a ( 1978) L y i ng : M or al C hoi c e i n P ubl i c and P r i v at e L i f e N e w Y or k: V i na t ge B ooks B os w e l l J a m e s ( 2006) L i f e of J ohn s on P r o j e c t G ut e nbe r g E book #1564. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 3/ 07 f r o m : ht t p: / / w w w gut e nbe r g. o r g/ c a t a l og/ w or l d/ r e a df i l e ? f k_f i l e s = 232933 B ot t om or e T om ( 1984) T he F r ank f ur t Sc hool S us s e x: E l l i s H or w ood L i m i t e d B r a ybr ooke D a vi d, E di t or ( 1965 ) P hi l os ophi c al P r obl e m s of t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n C om pa ny B ur ke K e nne t h ( 1945 ) A G r am m ar of M ot i v e s N e w Y or k: P r e nt i c e H a l l I nc B ur ns D a vi d D ( 1999 ) T he F e e l i ng G ood H andb ook N e w Y or k: P l um e B ooks B ut l e r J udi t h ( 1993) B odi e s T hat M at t e r : O n t he D i s c ur s i v e L i m i t s of Se x N e w Y or k: R out l e dge B ut l e r J udi t h ( 1988) P e r f or m a t i ve A c t s a nd G e nde r C ons t i t ut i on: A n E s s a y i n P he nom e nol ogy a nd F e m i ni s t T he or y T he at r e J ou r nal V ol 40, N o. 4. pp. 519 531. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 24 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w j s t or o r g/ vi e w / 01922882/ s p050164/ 05 x0489u/ 0 C a pr a F r i t j o f ( 1996) T he W e b of L i f e : A N e w Sc i e nt i f i c U nde r s t andi ng of L i v i ng Sy s t e m s N e w Y or k: A nc hor B ooks

PAGE 125

122 C a r m i c ha e l S t oke l y ( 1968) B l a c k P ow e r I n C opp e r D a vi d, e d. T o F r e e a G e ne r at i on: T he D i al e c t i c s of L i be r at i on P p 150 174 L ondon : C ol l i e r B ooks C hom s ky, N oa m ( 2006) L anguage and M i nd, T hi r d E di t i on C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C l oud, D a na L ( 1996) H e ge m ony o r C onc o r da nc e ? T he R he t or i c o f T oke ni s m i n 'O p r a h' W i nf r e y's R a gs t o R i c he s B i ogr a phy. C r i t i c al St ud i e s i n M as s C om m uni c at i on 13. pp 115 37 C l oud, D a na L ( 1997) C onc or da nc e C om pl e xi t y a nd C ons e r va t i s m : R e j oi nde r t o C ondi t C r i t i c al St udi e s i n M as s C om m u ni c at i on 1 4. P p 193 97. C onboy, K a t e ; M e di na N a di a & S t a nbur y S a r a h, e di t or s W r i t i ng O n t he B ody : F e m al e E m bodi m e nt and F e m i ni s t T he or y N e w Y o r k: C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C ondi t C e l e s t e M ( 1994 ) H e ge m ony i n a M a s s M e di a t e d S oc i e t y: C onc or da nc e a bout R e pr oduc t i ve T e c hnol ogi e s C r i t i c al St udi e s i n M a s s C om m uni c at i on 11. pp. 205 230. C ondi t C e l e s t e M ( 1996 ) H e ge m ony, C onc or da nc e a nd C a pi t a l i s m : R e pl y t o C l oud. C r i t i c al St udi e s i n M as s C om m uni c at i on 13. pp. 3 82 84. C ondi t C e l e s t e M ( 200 6 ) C om m uni c a t i on a s R e l a t i ona l i t y. I n G J S he phe r d, J S t J ohn & T S t r i pha s ( E ds ) C om m uni c at i on A s . P e r s pe c t i v e s on T he or y ( pp. 3 37 ) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons I nc C onque r good, D w i ght ( 1991) R e t hi nki ng E t hnogr a phy: T ow a r ds a C r i t i c a l C ul t ur a l P ol i t i c s C om m uni c at i on M onogr aphs 58 pp 179 194 D a vi ds on, D ona l d ( 1982 [ 1973] ) O n t he V e r y I de a of a C onc e pt ua l S c he m e I n M e i l a nd, J a c k W a nd K r a us z M i c ha e l e di t o r s R e l at i v i s m C ogni t i v e and M or al N ot r e D a m e : U ni ve r s i t y of N ot r e D a m e P r e s s D a w ki ns R i c ha r d ( 1998) P os t m ode r n i s m D i s r obe d. N at ur e vol 394 pp 141 143. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 02/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w phys i c s nyu. e du/ f a c ul t y/ s oka l / da w ki ns ht m l D e e t z S t a nl e y A ( 1993 ) F ut u r e of t he D i s c i pl i ne : T he C ha l l e nge s t he R e s e a r c h, a nd t he S oc i a l C ont r i but i on C om m uni c at i on Y e ar book 17 pp. 565 600 D e r r i da J a c que s ( 1978) W r i t i ng and D i f f e r e nc e C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s D e r r i da J a c que s ( 1991) S i gna t u r e E ve nt C ont e xt I n K a m uf P e ggy e di t or A D e r r i da R e ade r : B e t w e e n t he B l i nds pp 83 111. N e w Y or k: C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s

PAGE 126

123 D e s c a r t e s R e ne ( 1969) T he E s s e nt i al D e s c ar t e s N e w Y or k: M e nt or B ooks / N e w A m e r i c a n L i br a r y D e w e y, J ohn ( 1938) L og i c : T he T he or y of I nqui r y N e w Y or k: H ol t R i ne ha r t a nd W i ns t on D e V r i e s H e l e n M ( 1993) C ogni t i ve / be ha vi or a l t h e r a py a nd t he a ngr y c a r e gi ve r C l i ni c al G e r ont ol ogi s t V ol 13( 4) pp 53 57 E l e c t r oni c ve r s i on D r ur y, S ha di a B ( 2004) L e o St r aus s and t he A m e r i c an R i ght N e w Y or k: P a l gr a ve M a c m i l l a n E a gl e t on, T e r r y ( 1990 ) T he I de ol ogy of t he A e s t he t i c M a l de n: B l a c kw e l l P ubl i s hi ng E a gl e t on, T e r r y ( 1996 ) T he I l l us i ons of P os t m ode r ni s m M a l de n: B l a c kw e l l P ubl i s hi ng E a gl e t on, T e r r y ( 2003 ) A f t e r T he or y N e w Y or k: B a s i c B ooks E be r t T e r e s a L ( 1996) L ud i c F e m i ni s m and A f t e r : P os t m ode r ni s m D e s i r e and L abor i n L at e C api t al i s m A nn A r bo r : T he U ni ve r s i t y of M i c hi c a n P r e s s T he E di t o r s of L i ngua F r a nc a ( 2000 ) T he Sok al H oax : T he Sham T hat Shook t he A c ade m y L i nc ol n: U ni ve r s i t y o f N e br a s ka P r e s s E i s e nbe r g, E r i c M ( 1984 ) A m bi gui t y a s S t r a t e gy i n O r ga ni z a t i ona l C om m uni c a t i on. C om m uni c at i on M onogr aphs V ol um e 51 E i s e nbe r g, E r i c M ( 2007 ) St r at e gi c A m bi gui t i e s : E s s ay s on C om m uni c at i on, O r gani z at i on and I de nt i t y T hous a nd O a ks : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons E m ps on, W i l l i a m ( 1947 ) Se v e n T y pe s of A m bi gu i t y N e w Y or k: N e w D i r e c t i ons E w e n, S t ua r t ( 1996) P R A Soc i al H i s t or y of Sp i n N e w Y or k: B a s i c B ooks F a us t o S t e r l i ng, A nne ( 2000 ) Se x i ng t he B ody : G e nde r P ol i t i c s and t he C ons t r uc t i on of Se x ual i t y N e w Y or k: B a s i c B ooks F e ye r a be nd, P a ul ( 1988) A gai ns t M e t hod L ondon : V e r s o B ooks F i s h, S t a nl e y ( 1996) P r of e s s or S oka l 's B a d J oke T he N e w Y or k T i m e s M a y 21 R e t r i e ve d 12/ 02/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w phys i c s nyu. e du/ f a c ul t y/ s oka l / f i s h. ht m l F ouc a ul t M i c he l ( 1980 ) P ow e r / K now l e dge : Se l e c t e d I nt e r v i e w s and O t he r W r i t i ngs 1972 1977 G o r don, C ol i n, e d. N e w Y o r k: P a nt he on

PAGE 127

124 F r a nke l V i kt o r E ( 1959) M an s Se ar c h f or M e an i ng: A n I nt r oduc t i on t o L ogot he r apy N e w Y or k: P oc ke t B ooks F r e y, L a w r e nc e R B ot a n, C a r l H & K r e ps G a r y L ( 1991) I nv e s t i gat i ng C om m uni c at i on: A n I nt r oduc t i on t o R e s e ar c h M e t hods E ngl e w ood C l i f f s : P r e nt i c e H a l l G a da m e r H a ns G e or g ( 1975 ) T r ut h and M e t hod N e w Y or k: C ont i nuum P r e s s G e e r t z C l i f f o r d ( 1979) B l ur r e d G e nr e s : T he R e f i gur a t i on of S oc i a l T hought T he A m e r i c an Sc hol ar 49 : pp. 165 179 G e r ge n, K e nne t h ( 1998 ) C ons t r uc t i oni s t D i a l ogue s a nd t he V i c i s s i t ude s of t he P ol i t i c a l D r a f t c opy f or V e l ody, I e d T he P ol i t i c s of Soc i a l C ons t r uc t i on L ond on: S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 24 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w s w a r t hm or e e du/ S oc S c i / kge r ge n1/ w e b/ pr i nt e r f r i e ndl y. pht m l ? i d= m a nu7 G i l l i s J ohn R ( 1996) A W or l d of T he i r O w n M ak i ng: M y t h R i t ual and t he Q ue s t f or F am i l y V al ue s C a m br i dge : H a r va r d U ni v e r s i t y P r e s s G of f m a n, E r vi ng ( 1967 ) I nt e r ac t i on R i t ual : E s s ay s on F ac e t o F ac e B e hav i or N e w Y or k: P a nt he on B ooks G ogue n, J os e ph ( 2003) R e vi e w of I nt e l l e c t ual I m p os t ur e s L ondon T i m e s H i ghe r E duc at i on Suppl e m e nt R e t r i e ve d 12/ 02/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w c s uc s d. e du/ us e r s / gogue n/ pa pe r s / s oka l ht m l G ooda l l B ud; T r e t he w e y, A nge l a & M c D ona l d, K e l l y ( 2006) S t r a t e gi c A m bi gui t y C om m uni c a t i on, a nd P ubl i c D i pl om a c y i n a n U nc e r t a i n W or l d: P r i nc i pl e s a nd P r a c t i c e s C ons or t i um f o r S t r a t e gi c C om m uni c a t i o n, R e por t #0604 R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 11, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w a s u. e du/ c l a s / c om m uni c a t i on/ a bout / c s c / doc um e nt s / S t r a t e gi c A m bi gui t y C om m uni c a t i on. pdf G r e bow i c z M a r gr e t E ( 1998) P hi l os ophy a s M e a ni ngf ul S c i e nc e : T he S ubj e c t a nd O bj e c t i ve K now l e dge i n H us s e r l a nd P oppe r P ai d e i a A r c hi v e O nl i ne R e t r i e ve d 12/ 02/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w bu e du/ w c p/ P a pe r s / M e t h/ M e t hG r e b. ht m G r os s P a ul R & L e vi t t N or m a n ( 1994) H i ghe r S upe r s t i t i on: T he A c ade m i c L e f t and i t s Q ua r e l l s W i t h Sc i e nc e B a l t i m or e : J ohn H opki ns P r e s s

PAGE 128

125 G ut t i ng, G a r y ( 1979 ) C ont i ne nt a l P hi l os ophy o f S c i e nc e i n C ur r e nt R e s e ar c h i n P hi l os ophy of Sc i e nc e P e t e r A s qui t h a nd H e nr y K ybur g J r ( E di t or s ) E a s t L a ns i ng: P hi l os ophy of S c i e nc e A s s oc i a t i on H a be r m a s J r ge n ( 1990) D i s c our s e E t h i c s : N ot e s on a P r ogr a m of P hi l os ophi c a l J us t i f i c a t i on. i n M or al C ons c i ous ne s s and C om m uni c at i v e A c t i on C L e nha r dt a nd S W N i c hol s e n, t r a ns C a m br i dge : M I T P r e s s H a c ki ng, I a n ( 1991) T he M a ki ng a nd M ol di ng o f C hi l d A bu s e C r i t i c al I nqui r y 17 253 288 H a c ki ng, I a n ( 1999) T he Soc i al C ons t r uc t i on of W hat ? C a m br i dge : H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s H a r r a w a y, D onna ( 1991) T he C ont e s t F or P r i m a t e N a t ur e : D a ught e r s of M a n t he H unt e r i n t he F i e l d I n Si m i ans C y bor gs and W om e n : T h e R e i nv e nt i on of N at ur e N e w Y or k: R out l e dge H e i de gge r M a r t i n ( 1977) B as i c W r i t i ngs N e w Y or k: H a r pe r a nd R ow H obs ba w m E r i c & R a nge r T e r e nc e e ds ( 1983) T he I nv e nt i on of T r adi t i on C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s H of f m a n, L ynn ( 1981) F oundat i ons of F am i l y T h e r apy : A C onc e pt ual F r am e w or k f or Sy s t e m s C hange N e w Y or k: B a s i c B ooks I nc H or khe i m e r M a x & A dor no T he odor W ( 1999) T he D i al e c t i c O f E nl i ght e nm e nt N e w Y or k: C ont i nuum K a nt I m m a nue l ( 1950 [ 1783] ) P r ol e gom e na t o A ny F ut u r e M e t aphy s i c s I ndi a na pol i s : T he B obbs M e r r i l C o. I nc K e e f e r B r ya n ( 2003) T he s t r a t e gi c a l l y a m bi guous G e or ge W B us h. Spi ns ani t y J une 12. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 05/ 05 f r om ht t p : / / w w w s pi ns a ni t y. or g/ c ol um ns / 20030612. ht m l K e e ne y, B r a df or d P ( 1983) A e s t he t i c s of C hange N e w Y or k: G ui l f or d P r e s s K i c k, R us s e d. ( 2002) E v e r y t hi ng Y ou K now i s W r ong: T he D i s i nf or m at i on G ui de t o Se c r e t s and L i e s N e w Y or k: B a r ne s a nd N obl e B ooks K i m ba l l R oge r ( 1996) P r of e s s or S oka l 's T r a ns gr e s s i on. T he N e w C r i t e r i on V ol 14 R e t r i e ve d 11/ 27/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w ne w c r i t e r i on c om / a r c hi ve / 14/ j une 96/ j une nc ht m

PAGE 129

126 K i m ba l l R oge r ( 1998) T e nur e d R adi c al s : H ow P ol i t i c s H as C or r upt e d H i ghe r E duc at i on C hi c a go: E l e pha nt P a pe r ba c ks K na pp, M a r k L & D a l y, J ohn A e ds ( 1985) H a nd book of I nt e r pe r s onal C om m uni c at i on B e ve r l y H i l l s : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons K na pp, M a r k L & D a l y, J ohn A e ds ( 2002) H a ndbook of I nt e r pe r s onal C om m uni c at i on, 3 r d E di t i on T hous a nd O a ks : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons K oe r t ge N or e t t a ( 1998) A H ous e B ui l t on Sand: E x pos i ng P os t m ode r ni s t M y t hs A bout Sc i e nc e O xf or d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s K ope l D a ve U nc e r t a i n U nc e r t a i nt y: P os t m ode r ni s m U nr a ve l s N at i onal R e v i e w O nl i ne A pr i l 4, 2002 R e t r i e ve d 11/ 27/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w na t i ona l r e vi e w c om / kope l / kope l 04040 2. a s p K or z ybs ki A l f r e d ( 1933) Sc i e nc e and Sani t y : A n I nt r oduc t i on t o N on A r i s t ot e l i an Sy s t e m s and G e ne r al Se m ant i c s L a ke vi l l e : T he I nt e r na t i ona l N on A r i s t ot e l i a n L i br a r y P ubl i s hi ng C om pa ny K uhn, T hom a s ( 1962) T he St r uc t ur e of Sc i e nt i f i c R e v ol ut i ons C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y o f C hi c a go P r e s s K ukl a A ndr e ( 2000) Soc i al C ons t r uc t i v i s m and t he P hi l os ophy of Sc i e nc e L ondon: R out l e dge L a kof f G ( 2004 ) D on t t hi nk of an e l e phant K no w y our v al ue s and f r am e t he de bat e W hi t e R i ve r J unc t i on: C he l s e a G r e e n P ubl i s hi ng L a i ng, R D & C oope r D G ( 1964) R e as on and V i ol e nc e : A D e c ade of Sar t r e s P hi l os ophy N e w Y or k : P a nt he on B ooks L a i ng, R ona l d D ( 1965) M ys t i f i c a t i on, C onf us i on, a nd C onf l i c t I n I nt e ns i v e F am i l y T he r apy I va n B os z or m e nyi N a gy a nd J a m e s L F r a m o, E ds 342 363 C a m br i dge : H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s L a t our B r uno ( 2004) W hy H a s C r i t i que R un out of S t e a m ? F r om M a t t e r s o f F a c t t o M a t t e r s of C onc e r n. C r i t i c al I nqui r y V ol um e 30, N um be r 2. R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 22, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / c r i t i c a l i nqui r y uc hi c a go. e du/ i s s ue s / v30/ 30n2. L a t our h t m l L e e D a vi d H a l da ne ( 2005) A m bi gui t y a s S ubt e r f uge ? M ys t i f i c a t i on a nd C om m uni c a t i on M e t hodol ogy. U npubl i s he d m a nus c r i pt L e e D a vi d H a l da ne ( 2006) T he B ot h/ A nd : D i a l e c t i c s i n I nt e r pe r s ona l R e l a t i ons hi ps U n publ i s he d m a nus c r i pt

PAGE 130

127 L e n i n, V I ( 1970 [ 1927 ] ) M a t e r i a l i s m a nd E m pi r i o C r i t i c i s m : C r i t i c a l C o m m e n t s on a R e a c t i ona r y P hi l os o p h y N e w Y or k : I n t e r n a t i on a l P ubl i s he r s ( T he E di t or s o f ) L i ngua F r a nc a ( 2000 ) T he S o ka l H oa x: T he S ha m T ha t S hook t he A c a de m y. L i nc ol n: U ni ve r s i t y of N e br a s ka P r e s s L oe w e n, J a m e s W ( 1 995) L i e s M y T e a c he r T ol d M e : E ve r yt hi ng Y ou r A m e r i c a n H i s t or y T e xt book G ot W r ong N e w Y or k : T ouc hs t one B ooks L yot a r d, J e a n F r a nc oi s ( 1984) T he P os t m ode r n C ondi t i on: A R e por t on K now l e dge B e nni ngt on, G e of f & M a s s um i B r i a n, t r a n s M i nne a pol i s : U ni ve r s i t y of M i nne s ot a P r e s s M a n r a i s e d a s gi r l di e s ( 2004) C B C N e w s M onda y M a y 10, 2004 R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 21, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w c bc c a / c a na da / m a ni t oba / s t or y/ 2004/ 05/ 10/ m b_r e i m e r 20040507 M a r c us G e or ge E a nd F i s c he r M i c he a l M J ( 198 6) A nt hr opol ogy A s C ul t ur al C r i t i que C hi c a go : U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s M a r t i n, L a u r a ( 1986 ) E s ki m o W o r ds f or S now : A c a s e s t udy i n t he ge ne s i s a nd de c a y of a n a nt hr opol ogi c a l e xa m pl e A m e r i c an A nt hr opol o gi s t 88 ( 2) p p. 418 23. M a t ur a na H um be r t o a nd F r a nc i s c o V a r e l a ( 1992 ) T he T r e e of K now l e dge B os t on: S ha m bha l a P ubl i c a t i ons M e a d, G e or ge H ( 1962 [ 1934] ) M i nd Se l f and So c i e t y F r om t he St andpoi nt of a Soc i al B e hav i or i s t C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s M i c ha e l s D a vi d ( 2005) D O U B T I s T he i r P r oduc t Sc i e nt i f i c A m e r i c an J une V ol 292 I s s ue 6. R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 21, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w pow e r l i ne f a c t s c om / S c i a m _a r t i c l e _on_ l obbyi ng. ht m M i l l s C W r i ght ( 1959 ) T he Soc i ol og i c al I m agi na t i on N e w Y o r k: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N i e t z s c he F r i e dr i c h ( 1968 [ 1982 ] ) T w i l i ght of t he I dol s / T he A nt i c hr i s t t r a ns l a t e d by R J H ol l i ngda l e N e w Y or k: P e ngui n. pp. 40 41 N oddi ngs N e l ( 2005 ) P r a gm a t i s m I n P a ul J a m e s L E di t o r I n t r oduc t i on t o P hi l os ophi e s of R e s e ar c h and C r i t i c i s m i n E duc at i on and t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s pp. 57 60. U ppe r S a ddl e R i ve r : P e a r s on E duc a t i on

PAGE 131

128 N us s ba um M a r t ha ( 1999) T he P r of e s s or o f P a r od y. T he N e w R e publ i c O nl i ne R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 11, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w m d. uc l a c be / e bi m / s c i e nt i f / R e c he r c he / G e nr e B i oe t hi que / N us s b a um _N R O ht m O r w e l l G e or ge ( 1950 [ 1947] ) P ol i t i c s a nd t he E n gl i s h L a ngua ge I n Shoot i ng an E l e phant and O t he r E s s ay s L ondon: S e c ke r a nd W a r bur g O r w e l l G e or ge ( 1949) N i ne t e e n E i ght y F our L o ndon: S e c ke r & W a r bur g P a c i E nz o ( 1961) W hi t e he a d a nd H us s e r l R e v ue i nt e r nat i onal e de phi l os ophi e n 56 57. B i a nc hi L ui gi M t r a ns l a t or 1998 R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 4 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w yor ku c a / l bi a nc hi / pa c i / w hi t e he a d_a nd_hus s e r l ht m l P a l m e r B r ya n D ( 1990) D e s c e nt I nt o D i s c our s e : T he R e i f i c at i on of L angua ge and t he W r i t i ng of Soc i al H i s t or y P hi l a de l phi a : T e m pl e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s P a ul J a m e s L e d ( 2005) I nt r oduc t i on t o P hi l os ophi e s of R e s e ar c h and C r i t i c i s m i n E duc at i on and t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s U ppe r S a ddl e R i ve r : P e a r s on E duc a t i on P a t t e r s on, T ho m a s C ( 1997 ) I nv e nt i ng W e s t e r n C i v i l i z at i on N e w Y or k : M ont hl y R e vi e w P r e s s P a yne D a vi d ( 1989) C opi ng W i t h F ai l ur e : T he T he r ape ut i c U s e s of R he t or i c C ol um bi a : U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h C a r ol i na P r e s s P e c k, M S c ot t ( 1983 ) P e opl e of t he L i e : T he H op e F or H e al i ng H um an E v i l N e w Y or k : S i m on & S c hus t e r P e l i a s R ona l d J ( 2000) T he C r i t i c a l L i f e C om m uni c at i on E duc at i on V ol 40 N o 3 pp 220 228 P hi l l i ps D C ( 2005) A P os t pos i t i vi s t S c i e nt i f i c a l l y O r i e nt e d A ppr oa c h t o E duc a t i ona l I nqui r y. I n P a ul J a m e s L e di t o r I nt r oduc t i on t o P hi l os ophi e s of R e s e ar c h and C r i t i c i s m i n E duc at i on and t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s U ppe r S a ddl e R i ve r : P e a r s on E duc a t i on P ol l oc k, D e l l a ( 1998) P e r f or m a t i ve W r i t i ng I n P h e l a n, P e ggy & L a ne J i l l e ds T he E nds of P e r f or m anc e N e w Y or k: N e w Y or k U ni v e r s i t y P r e s s pp. 73 103 P oppe r K a r l ( 1965 ) U ni t y of M e t hod i n t he N a t ur a l a nd S oc i a l S c i e nc e s I n B r a yb r ooke D a vi d, e d. P hi l os ophi c al P r obl e m s of t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n C om pa ny

PAGE 132

129 P r oj a ns ky, S a r a h ( 2001) W at c hi ng R ape : F i l m an d T e l e v i s i on i n P os t f e m i ni s t C ul t ur e N e w Y or k: N e w Y or k U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s P ul l um G e of f r e y K ( 1991) T he G r e at E s k i m o V o c abul ar y H oax and ot he r I r r e v e r e nt E s s ay s on t he St udy of L anguage C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s Q ui ne W V ( 1951) T w o D ogm a s of E m pi r i c i s m T he P hi l os ophi c al R e v i e w 60: pp. 20 43. R a m pt on, S he l don & S t a ube r J ohn ( 2001) T r u s t U s W e r e E x pe r t s H ow I ndus t r y M ani pul at e s Sc i e nc e and G am bl e s W i t h Y our F ut u r e N e w Y or k: P e ngui n P ut na m I nc R a m pt on, S he l don & S t a ube r J ohn ( 2003) W e apo ns of M as s D e c e pt i on: T he U s e s of P r opaganda i n B us h s W ar on I r aq. N e w Y or k: P e ngui n R e i c h, W i l he l m ( 1967 ) T he F unc t i on of t he O r gas m : Se x E c onom i c P r obl e m s of B i ol ogi c al E ne r gy N e w Y or k: B a nt a m B ooks R obbi ns B r uc e A na t om y o f a H oa x. T i k k un S e pt e m be r / O c t obe r pp 58 59 R e t r i e ve d 11/ 27/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w phys i c s nyu. e du/ f a c ul t y/ s oka l / r obbi ns t i kkun. ht m l R or t y, R i c ha r d, e di t or ( 1967) T he L i ngui s t i c T ur n: R e c e nt E s s ay s i n P hi l os ophi c al M e t hod C hi c a go: T he U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s R or t y, R i c ha r d ( 1991) O bj e c t i v i t y R e l at i v i s m and T r ut h: P hi l os ophi c al P ape r s V ol um e O ne C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s R os e n, J a y ( 1996) S w a l l ow H a r d: W ha t Soc i al T e x t s houl d ha ve done T i k k un S e pt e m be r / O c t obe r pp 59 61. R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 7, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w phys i c s nyu. e du/ f a c ul t y/ s oka l / j a y_r os e n. ht m l R ot he r a m B or us M a r y J a ne ( 19 94) B r i e f c ogni t i v e be ha vi or a l t r e a t m e nt f or a dol e s c e nt s ui c i de a t t e m pt e r s a nd t he i r f a m i l i e s J our nal of t h e A m e r i c an A c ade m y of C hi l d & A dol e s c e nt P s y c hi at r y M a y 1994 V ol u m e 33( 4 ) pp. 508 517 ( e l e c t r oni c ve r s i on) R ubi n, L a w r e nc e C ( 2004 ) M e r c ha ndi s i ng M a dne s s : P i l l s P r om i s e s a nd B e t t e r L i vi ng T hr ough C he m i s t r y T he J our nal of P opul ar C ul t u r e 38 ( 2) 369 383 R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 27, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w bl a c kw e l l s yne r gy. c om / doi / f ul l / 10 1111/ j 0022 3840. 2004 0 011 7. x? c ooki e S e t = 1

PAGE 133

130 R us s e l l B e r t r a nd ( 1959) W i s dom of t he W e s t G a r de n C i t y: D oubl e da y a nd C om pa ny, I nc S a l i s bur y N e a l ( 2003) E m br a c i ng A m bi gui t y: N a t i ve P e opl e s a nd C hr i s t i a ni t y i n S e ve nt e e nt h C e nt ur y N or t h A m e r i c a E t hnohi s t or y 50: 2. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 20, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / m us e j hu. e du/ j our na l s / e t hnohi s t o r y/ v050/ 50. 2s a l i s bur y. pdf S a pi r E dw a r d ( 1960) C ul t ur e L anguage and P e r s onal i t y : Se l e c t e d E s s ay s B e r ke l e y: U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f o r ni a P r e s s S a r t r e J e a n P a ul ( 1963 ) Se ar c h f or a M e t hod N e w Y or k : V i nt a ge B ooks S e a r l e J ohn ( 1995) T he C ons t r uc t i on of Soc i al R e al i t y N e w Y o r k: F r e e P r e s s S e a r l e J ohn ( 2004) M i nd : A B r i e f I nt r oduc t i on N e w Y or k: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s S c hi l l e r H e r be r t I ( 1976) C om m uni c at i on and C u l t ur al D om i nat i on W hi t e P l a i ns : M E S ha r pe I nc A l f r e d S c hut z ( 1965) T he S oc i a l W o r l d a nd t he T he or y of S oc i a l A c t i on. I n B r a ybr ooke D a vi d, e d. P hi l os ophi c al P r obl e m s of t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n C om pa ny S e a r l e J ohn R ( 1995 ) T he C ons t r uc t i on of Soc i al R e a l i t y N e w Y or k: T he F r e e P r e s s S ha t t uc k, R oge r ( 1996) F or bi dde n K now l e dge f r om P r om e t he us t o P or nogr aphy N e w Y or k: S t M a r t i ns P r e s s S he phe r d, G r e go r y J S t J ohn J e f f r e y & S t r i pha s e di t or s ( 2006 ) C om m uni c at i on A s . P e r s pe c t i v e s on T he or y T hous a nd O a ks : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons S l oop, J ohn M ( 2000 ) D i s c i pl i ni ng t he T r a ns ge nde r e d: B r a ndon T e e na P ubl i c R e pr e s e nt a t i on, a nd N or m a t i vi t y W e s t e r n J our na l of C om m uni c a t i on, v. 64 n. 2 p. 165 89 S l ot e r di j k, P e t e r ( 1987) C r i t i que of C y ni c al R e as o n M i nne a pol i s : U ni ve r s i t y of M i nne s ot a P r e s s S oka l A l a n a nd B r i c m ont J e a n ( 1998) F as hi onabl e N ons e ns e : P os t m ode r n I nt e l l e c t ual s A bus e of Sc i e nc e N e w Y or k : P i c a do r P r e s s S oka l A l a n ( 1996) T r a ns gr e s s i ng t he B ounda r i e s : T ow a r ds a T r a ns f or m a t i ve H e r m e ne ut i c s of Q ua nt um G r a vi t y Soc i a l T e x t # 4 6/ 47, pp 217 252

PAGE 134

131 S oka l A l a n ( 1996) A P hys i c i s t E xpe r i m e nt s w i t h C ul t ur a l S t udi e s L i ngua F r anc a M a y/ J une pp. 62 64 R e t r i e ve d 12 / 02/ 05 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w phys i c s nyu. e du/ f a c ul t y/ s oka l / l i ngua _f r a nc a _v4/ l i ngua _f r a nc a _v4. ht m l S os a E r ne s t ( 1980) T he F ounda t i ons of F ounda t i oni s m N os V ol 14 N o. 4. pp. 547 564. R e t r i e ve d J a nua r y 29 2007 f r o m : ht t p: / / l i nks j s t or o r g/ s i c i ? s i c i = 00294624% 28198011% 2914% 3A 4% 3C 547% 3A T F O F % 3E 2. 0 C O % 3B 2 D S os a E r ne s t ( 1997) R e f l e c t i ve K now l e dge i n t he B e s t C i r c l e s T he J our nal of P hi l os ophy V ol 94 N o. 8 pp 410 430 R e t r i e ve d J a nua r y 29, 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / l i nks j s t or o r g/ s i c i ? s i c i = 0022362X % 28199708% 2994% 3A 8% 3C 410% 3A R K I T B C % 3E 2. 0 C O % 3B 2 7 S pa r t os C a r l a ( 2000) S a r a f e m N a t i on R e na m e d P r oz a c T a r ge t s H uge M a r ke t : P r e m e ns t r ua l W om e n. T he V i l l age V oi c e D e c e m b e r 6. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 27, 2007 f r om : h t t p: / / w w w vi l l a ge voi c e c om / ne w s / 0049, s pa r t os 20407, 1 ht m l S w oye r C hr i s ( 1982) T r ue F o r I n K a us z M i c ha e l & M e i l a nd, J a c k W e ds R e l at i v i s m : C ogni t i v e and M or al P p. 84 108 N ot r e D a m e : U n i ve r s i t y of N ot r e D a m e P r e s s T odr e s L A ( 2000 ) E m b r a c i ng A m bi gui t y: T r a ns pe r s ona l D e ve l opm e nt a nd t he P he nom e nol ogi c a l T r a di t i on J our nal of R e l i g i on a nd H e al t h V ol um e 39 N um be r 3, pp 227 238 ( 12) T oul m i n, S t e phe n ( 1953) T he P hi l os ophy of Sc i e nc e : A n I nt r oduc t i on L ondon: H ut c hi ns on U ni ve r s i t y L i br a r y U l m e r R obe r t R a nd S e l l now T i m ot hy L ( 1997) S t r a t e gi c a m bi gui t y a nd t he e t hi c o f s i gni f i c a nt c hoi c e i n t he t oba c c o i ndus t r y's c r i s i s c om m uni c a t i on. C om m uni c at i on St udi e s 48, 215 233. W a t z l a w i c k, P a ul B e a vi n, J a ne t H e m l i c k, & J a c ks on, D on D ( 1967) P r agm at i c s of H um an C om m uni c at i on: A St udy of I n t e r ac t i onal P at t e r ns P at hol ogi e s and P ar adox e s N e w Y or k: W W N o r t on a nd C o. W a t z l a w i c k, P a ul ; W e a kl a nd, J ohn; F i s c h, R i c ha r d ( 1974) C hange : P r i nc i pl e s of P r obl e m F or m at i on and P r obl e m R e s ol ut i on N e w Y or k: N o r t on & C o. W a t z l a w i c k, P a ul ( 1976 ) H o w R e al I s R e al ? C onf us i on D i s i nf or m at i on C om m uni c at i on N e w Y or k: R a ndom H ous e W a t z l a w i c k, P a ul ( 1978 ) T he L anguage of C hang e : E l e m e nt s of T he r ape ut i c C om m uni c at i on N e w Y or k: B a s i c B ooks

PAGE 135

132 W a t z l a w i c k, P a ul ( 1983 ) T he Si t uat i on i s H ope l e s s B u t N ot Se r i ous : T he P ur s ui t of U nhappi ne s s N e w Y or k: N or t on & C o W a t z l a w i c k P a ul ( 1990 ) M unc haus e n s P i gt ai l o r P s y c hot he r apy and R e al i t y N e w Y or k: N or t on & C o W e i ns he i m e r J oe l C ( 1985 ) G adam e r s H e r m e n ue t i c s : A R e adi ng of T r ut h and M e t hod. N e w H a v e n: Y a l e U ni i ve r s i t y P r e s s W e s t C or ne l l ( 1981 ) N i e t z s c he s P r e f i gur a t i on of P os t m ode r n A m e r i c a n P hi l os ophy. B oundar y 2. pp 241 269. E l e c t r on i c V e r s i on W he e l w r i ght P hi l i p ( 1954 ) T he B ur ni ng F oun t ai n : A St udy i n t he L a nguage of Sy m bol i s m B l oom i ngt o n: I nd i a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s W hi t e he a d, A N ( 1925 ) Sc i e nc e and t he M ode r n W or l d: L ow e l l L e c t ur e s 1925 N e w Y or k: M e nt or B ooks W i e ne r N or be r t ( 1948 ) C y be r ne t i c s or C ont r ol and C om m uni c at i on i n t he A ni m al and M ac hi ne N e w Y or k : J ohn W i l e y & S ons W i nds c hut t l e K e i t h ( 1996 ) T he K i l l i ng o f H i s t or y : H ow L i t e r ar y C r i t i c s and Soc i al T he or i s t s A r e M ur de r i ng O ur P as t N e w Y or k: T h e F r e e P r e s s W i t t ge ns t e i n, L udw i g ( 1961 [ 1921] ) T r ac t at us L o gi c o P hi l os ophi c us L ondon : R out l e dge H um a ni t i e s P r e s s I nt e r na t i ona l I nc W ol i n, R i c ha r d ( 2000) U nt r u t h a nd M e t hod: N a z i s m a nd t he c om pl i c i t i e s of H a ns G e or g G a da m e r N e w R e publ i c V ol 222, I s s ue 20 W ol i n, R i c ha r d ( 2004) T he Se duc t i on of U nr e as o n: T he I nt e l l e c t ual R om anc e W i t h F as c i s m F r om N i e t z s c he t o P os t m od e r ni s m P r i nc e t on: P r i nc e t on U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s W oodw a r d, G a r y C & D e nt on, R obe r t E ( 1988) P e r s uas i on and I nf l ue nc e i n A m e r i c an L i f e P r os pe c t H e i ght s : W a ve l a nd P r e s s I nc


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001914454
003 fts
005 20071024112104.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 071024s2007 flu sbm 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0001981
040
FHM
c FHM
035
(OCoLC)176631326
049
FHMM
090
PN4121 (ONLINE)
1 100
Lee, David Haldane.
0 245
Meaning makers make it :
b ambivalence about ambiguity in academic discourse
h [electronic resource] /
by David Haldane Lee.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2007.
3 520
ABSTRACT: This thesis is a broad survey of the uses of ambiguity in academic discourse. I note the uses of ambiguity in literary criticism, linking ambiguity with epistemic relativism. Then I pose the question, is the notion of "reframing" in psychotherapy analogous to the concept of "spin" in propaganda, advertising and public relations? In a consideration of theories that posit the social construction of reality, I examine articles by Judith Butler and Ian Hacking, noting the ambiguous reception of performativity and nominalism, respectively, within academia. In 1996 a physicist named Alan Sokal published an article which argued that reality is a social and linguistic construct. Sokal later revealed that his article was actually an elaborate spoof of postmodernist and social constructionist writing. According to Sokal, such relativistic discourse erodes the distinction between fact and fiction. I look at the implications of Sokal's hoax for the social sciences and humanities.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 132 pages.
590
Advisor: Stacy Holman Jones, Ph. D.
653
Communication.
Epistemology.
Ambiguity.
Realism.
Relativism.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Communication
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1981