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Fort Walton ceramics in the Perry Collection, Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida

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Title:
Fort Walton ceramics in the Perry Collection, Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Yuellig, Amber J
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
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Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Prehistoric archaeology
Cultural resources
Apalachicola Valley
Artifact collections
Ceramic typology
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Fort Walton, the local variant of Mississippian culture in northwest Florida, has long been studied in the Apalachicola River Valley beginning in the early 1900s, most notably by Clarence B. Moore (though he did not call it Fort Walton), and has continued to intrigue archaeologists and collectors alike. Gordon Willey and Richard Woodbury were the first to create a ceramic chronology for the Florida Gulf Coast. Willey continued this work, resulting in the publication of Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast, an impressive compilation of information on prehistoric cultures, sites, and their ceramic technologies and typologies. This book has continued to be most widely accepted reference for Fort Walton ceramics. This thesis builds on knowledge of ceramic seriations for the Apalachicola River Valley, working toward a more accurate chronology. Two sources of data are utilized in this study. Each comes from the Curlee Site (8Ja7), in Jackson County, Florida, just south of theJim Woodruff Dam near the top of the Apalachicola River. The first, the Leon Perry Collection, is an unprovenienced collection donated to the University of South Florida. The second, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History Collection, consists of excavated data and materials collected in the late 1970s. Over 10,000 sherds were documented in the Leon Perry Collection. Type, weight, vessel shape, temper, and decorative attributes of each sherd were recorded. The type Fort Walton Incised in this collection revealed several variations of scroll designs increasingly varied through time. Commonalities were found between Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised types. These two should should be consolidated into one ceramic type. Ceramics from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History collection were reexamined by White and Yuellig in the spring of 2006 with consideration toward patterns found in Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson types in the Leon Perry Collection. Trends in thestratigraphic distribution of these patterns were documented in order to test whether they could result in better temporal control. This research serves as a case study in how knowledge gained from an unprovenienced collection can shed new light on archaeological data with temporal control.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Amber J. Yuellig.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 103 pages.

Record Information

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001914888
oclc - 179682915
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001997
usfldc handle - e14.1997
System ID:
SFS0026315:00001


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PAGE 1

Fort Walton Ceramics in the Perry Collection, Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida by Amber J. Yuellig A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement s for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Nancy Marie White, Ph.D. Brent R. Weisman, Ph.D. E. Christian Wells, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 13, 2007 Keywords: prehistoric archaeology, cultur al resources, Apalachicola Valley, artifact collections, ceramic typology Copyright 2007, Amber J. Yuellig

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Without the love and friendship of an i nnumerable amount of people I would have never had the direction and support to co mplete this thesis, which seemed too ambitious at times. I wish to thank everyone who both supported me through my thesis and made my experi ence at the University of South Florida most memorable. I would have never been able to complete this thesis without the help and support of my mentor, Nancy Marie Whit e. Thank you for seeing my potential, providing me with your wisdom and guida nce, and your constant words of support. I would have never been able to navigate through the constant mountains of artifacts that always rema ined out in the lab without your help and wonderful music on the weekends. Thank you Dr. Brent Weisman and Dr. E. Christian Wells for agreeing to take on the responsibility of committee member and providing me with your guidance throughout the thesis process. Many of my fellow students (Mike, Kelley, Elan, Sharon, Sarah) have contributed to my development as an archaeologist. Kelly Hockersmith helped me get my feet wet through getting me involved in my first contract reports and not letting me wander aimlessly through my first Southeastern Archaeological Conference.

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Anya Frashuer humored many of my wildest ideas and distracted me when necessary with sushi (never a difficult feat). You have my most sincere gratitude for making everything an adventure. My dreams would still just be my dreams without the s upport of my family and friends. My parents, Bob and Pat Yuelli g, grandparents, and family have been a constant source of encouragement through my life, pushing me to do my best and teaching me that anything is possible. Mom, dad, thanks for footing the bill for EKU, 3 cars, and the loan that got me through too! My life-long friends Isabella Oehlsc hlaeger, Janice Ostendorf, Sarah Brook Westheimer, and Melanie Purcell, have been my cheerleaders despite our distance. Lastly, to Lee. You have always believed in me even when I waver. Thank you for your encouragement. You have taught me more about life, love, being a graduate student and myself than I could ev er list in this acknowledgement.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ii LIST OF FIGURES iii ABSTRACT vi CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH GOALS 1 CHAPTER TWO: ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND 5 Description of the Valley and Environment 5 Culture History 9 The Woodland Period 9 Early Woodland an d the Deptford Culture 10 Middl e Woodland Culture 11 Late Woodland/ Late Weeden Island Period 13 Mississippian Fort Walton Cu lture and Ceramic Chronology 14 CHAPTER THREE: THE CURLEE SITE, CERAMICS, AND THE LEON PERRY COLLECTION 37 The Cla ssification and Description of Fort Walton Ceramics 37 The Curlee Site 39 T he Leon Perry Collection 42 Discussion of the Fo rt Walton Incised Type 66 Discussion of the Lake Jackson Types 73 CHAPTER FOUR: FORT WALTON CERAMIC TYPE FREQUENCIES AT THE CURLEE SI TE IN CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS 84 Fo rt Walton Ceramics 85 Lake Jackson Ceramics 90 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 94 REFERENCES 98

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ii LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Fort Walton sites in the Apalachicola River Valley by county and site number. 18 Table 2 Tabulations of generic and diagnostic ceramic types by surface treatment in the Leon Perry Collection. 45 Table 3 Tempers by ceramic type in the Leon Perry Collection. 63 Table 4 Fort Walton Incised cera mics by design attribute and temper in the Leon Perry Collection. 73 Table 5 Lake Jackson Plain and Incised rim attributes: plain and incised. 78 Table 6 Lake Jackson Plain and Incised ceramics comparing the instances of rim attributes with one another. 82 Table 7 Fort Walton Incised design attributes by stratigraphic sequence in CMNH collections from excavations. 89 Table 8 Lake Jackson type ceramics by attribute type in stratigraphic sequence. The lower section of the table combines data from three two-meter units. 91 Table 9 Summary of trends found in temporal data from the CMNH collections. 96

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iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Map of Florida show ing the six counties of the Apalachicola River Valley and the location of the Curlee Site (red dot). 2 Figure 2 Physiographic provinces of the Apalachicola River Valley. 7 Figure 3 The extent of Fort Walt on culture in t he Florida panhandle within the region of Mississippia n culture (shared) in the Southeast. 15 Figure 4 The distribution of Fort Walton sites in the Apalachicola River Valley. Mound centers are sh own in yellow. Sites away from the main river are mostly on smaller streams or bays. 17 Figure 5 Profile of the Curlee Si te (highly eroded) in 2004. 41 Figure 6 Grit-tempered plain cerami c vessel with flared rim from the Perry Collection. 46 Figure 7 Common ceramic tempers in the Leon Perry Collection, grit (top left), sand (top right), red gr og (bottom left), shell (bottom right), with holes where shell has leached away. Limestone is excluded because of poor samples. 47 Figure 8 Check-stamped rim sherd fr om the Perry Collection. 48 Figure 9 Indeterminate engraved ri m sherd (top), indeterminate incised body sherds (bottom left ), indeterminate punctate body sherds (bottom right). 50 Figure 10 Cob-marked rim sherds (left) cord-marked rim sherds (right). 51 Figure 11 Deptford Simple-Stam ped body sherd (left), St. Andrews Complicated-Stamped body and rim sherd (right). 53 Figure 12 Keith Incised rim sherds (left), Tucker Ridge-Pinched rim (right). 55

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iv Figure 13 Lake Jackson Incised rims with ticks (left), Lake Jackson Plain rim with ticks (right). 56 Figure 14 Cool Branch Incised rim sher ds; left, rim with incisions, ticks, lug with castellation, righ t, rim with loop handle. 57 Figure 15 Fort Walton Incised vesse l, almost complete (left), Fort Walton Incised Six-Pointed Bo wl rim sherds (right).with points at the top. 58 Figure 16 Point Washington Incised ri ms (left), Marsh Island Incised rims (right). 59 Figure 17 Pensacola Incised rim sher ds; note the shell-tempering. The sherd at the lower right has white shell still present. 60 Figure 18 Lamar Complicated-Stamped rims (top), Lamar Plain rims with appliqu strips (bottom left), Lamar Incised rim (bottom right). 61 Figure 19 Ocmulgee Fields Incised body sherd. 62 Figure 20 Fort Walton Incised s herds with curvilinear running scroll pattern (left), rectilinear runni ng scroll pattern (right). 67 Figure 21 Fort Walton Incised s herds with stylized curvilinear running scroll (top left), stylized rectilinea r running scroll (top right), unknown scroll type (center left) unidentifiable pattern type (center right), unusual square pattern (bottom). 69 Figure 22 Fort Walton Incised s herds with unusual unknown pattern type. 70 Figure 23 Fort Walton Incised Six-Po inted Bowl rim sherds (top left, top right), Fort Walton Incised rim effigies (bottom), bird heads, top, turkey tail, bottom. 72 Figure 24 Lake Jackson Plain rim sher ds with one incision (left), Lake Jackson Incised sherds with multiple incisions (right). 75

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v Figure 25 Lake Jackson Plain rims with ticks (top left), Lake Jackson Plain rims with strap and loop handles (top right), Lake Jackson Incised rims with incisions and ticks (center left), Lake Jackson Incised rims with “D” and “B” lugs, and ticks (center right), Lake Jackson Incised rim with node and castellation (bottom left), Lake Jackson Incised rim with multiple nodes and ticks (bottom right). 76 Figure 26 Line plot showing close relationship of attributes found in Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised ceramics. 79 Figure 27 Bar chart showing relationship between Lake Jackson attributes. Data taken from Table 6. 82 Figure 28 CMNH Curlee site exca vation profile in 1975 showing upper and lower midden. Note that the lower midden has been split into Upper III and Lower III in the analysis. 86 Figure 29 Bar chart showing increas ed temporal diversity in Fort Walton Incised design attribut es. These data are taken from Table 7 and are compiled from three excavation units (0-6 S). 89 Figure 30 Bar chart showing incr eased temporal variety in Lake Jackson. The vertical axis represents number of sherds. 92

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vi Fort Walton Ceramics in the Perry Collection, Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida Amber J. Yuellig ABSTRACT Fort Walton, the local variant of Missi ssippian culture in northwest Florida, has long been studied in the Apalachicola River Valley beginning in the early 1900s, most notably by Clarence B. Moore (though he did not call it Fort Walton), and has continued to intrigue archaeologist s and collectors alike. Gordon Willey and Richard Woodbury were the first to create a ceramic chronology for the Florida Gulf Coast. Willey continued this work, resulting in the publication of Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast an impressive compilation of information on prehistoric cultures, sites, and their ce ramic technologies and typologies. This book has continued to be most widely accepted reference for Fort Walton ceramics. This thesis builds on knowledge of cera mic seriations for the Apalachicola River Valley, working toward a more accu rate chronology. Two sources of data are utilized in this study. Each comes from the Curlee Site (8Ja7), in Jackson County, Florida, just south of the Jim Woodruff Dam near the top of the Apalachicola River. The first, the Leon Perry Collection, is an unprovenienced collection donated to the University of S outh Florida. The second, the Cleveland

PAGE 10

vii Museum of Natural History Collection, consists of excavated data and materials collected in the late 1970s. Over 10,000 sherds were documented in the Leon Perry Collection. Type, weight, vessel shape, temper, and decorat ive attributes of each sherd were recorded. The type Fort Walton Incis ed in this collection revealed several variations of scroll designs increasi ngly varied through time. Commonalities were found between Lake Jackson Plain an d Lake Jackson Incised types. These two should should be consolidated into one ceramic type. Ceramics from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History collection were reexamined by White and Yuellig in the spring of 2006 with consideration toward patterns found in Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson types in the Leon Perry Collection. Trends in the stratigraphic distribution of these patterns were documented in order to test whether they could result in bette r temporal control. This research serves as a case study in how know ledge gained from an unprovenienced collection can shed new light on archaeological data with temporal control.

PAGE 11

1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH GOALS The Apalachicola River Valley has l ong been intriguing to those curious about prehistory in northwest Florida (Fi gure 1). Clarence Bloomfield Moore was one of the earliest explorers to document the rich prehistoric cultural remains in the valley. Moore traveled throughout the Southeast documenting the many prehistoric mounds scattered along the river banks. He was attracted to the rich cultural remains that he f ound through excavation, often of funerary sites, that brought him back to the Apalachicola Vall ey several more ti mes after his first expedition (Moore 1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1918). Like Moore, other archaeologists have been drawn to the Apalac hicola River Valley to study these prehistoric remains. Follo wing in Moores footsteps, t hese sites were visited by Gordon Willey, Richard Woodbury, and many ot her archaeologists in order to try to tease out information about the developm ent of political complexity in the prehistoric cultures of northwest Florida (Willey 1949; Willey and Woodbury 1942; White 1982; Scarry 1984). The late prehistoric Mississippian Fo rt Walton culture (A.D. 10001500) found within the Apalachicola River Va lley and elsewhere in the Florida panhandle, southern Georgi a, and southern Alabama represent the most

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2 politically complex prehistor ic culture in Florida (Milanich 1994). As originally defined by Willey, Fort Walton is char acterized by a distinctive ceramic Figure 1: Map of Florida Showing the six counties of the Apalachicola River Valley and the location of the Curlee Site (red dot).

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3 assemblage and large villages with flat-topped earthen mounds (Willey 1949). It is a period in the Southeast United St ates in which cultures became more complex, as seen through various levels of increased social stratification, the creation of monumental architecture, and the in creasing importance of agriculture. It is no surprise that, as in other areas around the Southeast, ceramics are an important artifact in the panhandle used by archaeologists to identify culture areas, ex amine temporal change, and make inferences about social pattern. Clay is a plastic medium that records subtle variations in motor patterns of ceramic artists, thus also re cording variation in habit, aesthetic taste and conscious choices. Once fired, ce ramics become, in effect, artificial sedimentary rocks, which preserve the wa y past ceramic artisans processed and manipulated their medium (Neff 2005:1). Various ce ramic types, differing in design, paste, and temper have been used as material temporal markers for decades, though little research has been completed within the Apalachicola River Valley or elsewhere to determine if ther e are temporal variations within Fort Walton ceramic types that may be representat ive of early, middle, or late parts of the Mississippi period. This thesis identifies ceramic type frequencies and variations found in ceramics associated with the Curlee Site (8Ja7), a Fort Walton-period site located in the northern Apalachicola River Valley, northwest Florida. It will build upon previous work on Fort Walton ceramic types in the Apalachicola River Valley and throughout northwest Florida. My thesis records an immense collection of prehistoric ceramics donated by Leon Perry, a man who collected at

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4 the Curlee Site in the 1960s and 1970s. He donated these artifacts to the University of South Florida in hopes that they could be used for research. Like many other locals, he collected these cera mics as they were eroding out of the banks of the Apalachicola River in t he 1970s due to changes in hydrology from the construction of the Jim Woodruff Da m (White 1982:38-39). No stratigraphic data are associated with this collection. First, this thesis documents the 15 box es of materials from the Leon Perry collection to show the types of artifact s and the variety of ceramics found at the Curlee Site. Data for 10,303 ceramic sherds were collected during my internship and have been compiled and tabulated to show the ceramic types and frequencies. Second, I examine two diagno stics, Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson type ceramics, for the possibility of discrete variations within these types as seen through different surface desi gn attributes associated with rims. Last, I will discuss whether these attr ibutes may be used as temporal markers for early, middle, and late Fort Walton periods. I will do this through the examination of controlled dat a on ceramics excavated from the Curlee site by the Cleveland Museum of Natural Hi story. It is necessary to rely upon these data due to the lack of stratigraphic data from the Leon Perry collection. Radiocarbon dates that have been obtained in the past will be integrated into the interpretation of the ceramic assemblage. This thes is will serve as an example of how collections lacking stratigraphic data can be utilized to produce new knowledge about the past.

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5 CHAPTER TWO ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND Description of the Valley and Environment The Apalachicola River Valley is si tuated in northwest Florida, about 45 miles (72 kilometers) west of Tallahassee. It forms at the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers near the Florida-Georgia border and flows southward for 108 river miles (174 kilometers ) to the Gulf of Mexico. The natural confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers no longer exists due to the construction of the Jim Woodruff Dam and the creation of Lake Seminole. This thesis discusses only sites south of the modern confluence and the dam. The Apalachicola River and its tributar ies are bordered by Calhoun, Franklin Gadsden, Gulf, Liberty, and Jackson counties. The Apalachicola is the largest ri ver in Florida and drains about 2,600 square miles. Water originating from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Rivers drainage area accounts for 35 percent of freshwater flow in western Florida (Livingston 1992). This rich riverine environment is densely populated with reptiles, amphibians, fish, and shellf ish and is home to many unique species of flora and fauna (Livingston 1984). The Apalachicola River basin is loca ted within two principal physiographic categories: the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains and the Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Flats (Tonsmiere et al. 1996). These province s characterizes the dynamic low-lying

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6 environments that occur from below the fall line (point at which the upland region and coastal plain meet, defined by dramatic di fference in elevation) to the Gulf of Mexico. These units describe all of Flori da; therefore it is more appropriate to identify local features si nce coastal and riverine environments vary throughout Florida (Fenneman 1938; Moor e 1955). Within these provinces, three distinct physiographic provinces can be identif ied (Randazzo and Jones 1997). These physiographic provinces were formed due to the river cutting down through rock layers while depositing sediment and c oastal erosion, creating coastal and stream terraces formed during the Pleistocene (Vernon 1951). Figure 2 illustrates the major physiographic prov inces in the Apalachicola Valley. The Mariana Lowlands, in the northern portion of the Apalachicola River Valley are located to the west of the A palachicola River. They are bordered by steep bluffs to the east of the river that serve as a nat ural boundary with the Northern Highlands Province and by the Holmes Valley Scarp to the south which separates the Marianna Lowlands fr om the New Hope Ridge and the Grand Ridge. The Mariana Lowlands were formed by erosion and deposition of soils by the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers and other secondary streams resulting in the formation of floodplai ns and terraces (Moore 1955). These terraces or levees were found to be quite favorable for habitation by prehistoric peoples.

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7 Figure 2: Physiographic provinces of the Apalachicola River Valley.

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8 The Northern Highlands Province encompasses the several regions of higher elevation in the central valley. It is made up of the Tallahassee Hills, the New Hope Ridge, the Grand Ridge, and the bl uffs along the Apalachicola. Elevations can reach as high as 38 m (125 ft.) on the Grand Ridge and 99 m (325 ft.) in the Tallahassee Hil ls. The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are separated from the Tallahassee hills by the Cody Scarp. This region makes up the lower twothirds of the valley consisting of both the coast and the low-lying, inundated swamps farther inland (Cooke 1939). The Apalachicola River Valleys under lying geology consists of limestone, responsible for the kars tic nature of the geographic landscape. Freshwater springs, sinkholes, and caves are common land features that were important resources for prehistoric peoples. The Tampa formation is the youngest geologic unit and can be found at the higher elevatio ns, especially near the Apalachicola River in Jackson County. This formation dates to the Miocene epoch during the Tertiary period and consists mainly of cl ay and clayey marls. Stratigraphically, this formation is the same as the Tam pa limestone. The Suwannee Limestone and the Marianna limestone underlie the Ta mpa formation. These limestones date to the Oligocene epoc h during the Tertiary pe riod. These limestones contain beds of chert, which was a val uable resource to prehistoric people. Outcrops of these limestones c an be found in the upper valley.

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9 Culture History The people of the Apal achicola River basin have a long history of producing finely crafted pottery for both ev eryday uses and special occasions. The culture history of t he valley demonstrates how the development of pottery became important to the Mississippian-Fort Walton people in both everyday utilitarian ways and for more specializ ed purposes. This chapter briefly summarizes the development of pottery fr om the Deptford period, the Early Woodland, through the transition to Fort Walton culture. Ceramics are tangible evidence of societal change through their variations in their form reflecting various technical and social functions. The following chapter discusses Fort Walton culture during the Mississippi peri od, and introduces the Curlee Site and the Leon Perry collection. The Woodland Period The Woodland period, lasting from about 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000, signifies a change in prehistoric subsistence and cultur e from that of previous Archaic. People living in the dense forests of the Southeast were beginning to shift towards diets based on cultivated plants. Settlements became more permanent. Sometimes, fewer types and quantities of stone tools are found but pottery becomes a fundamental object necessary for daily life. Vessels vary in both form and size. Fiber-temper pottery is phased-out by the appearance of sandtempered pottery. Surface decoration range d from that of the plain, daily use vessels to ones with intricate designs, both stamped and incised. Interaction with

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10 native groups outside of Florida was prevalent, as seen in the ceramic assemblages that contain foreign types In addition, trade or exchange becomes prominent, with marine she ll from the Gulf Coast bei ng traded inland for copper and steatite in Georgia and beyond (Wille y 1949; White et al. 1992; Milanich 1994). Early Woodland and the Deptford Culture People of the Deptford culture, pres ent in the Apalachicola Valley during the Early Woodland period ( 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1), were descendants of late Archaic coastal people along the Gulf Coast and inland. Subsistence focused on the plentiful marine resources found in the rich estuarine envi ronments and probably freshwater and upland resources inland. Plain, check-stamped, simple-stamped, and fabric-marked pottery dominate the arc haeological record during this period. Tools, such as paddles made of wood and clay were used to stamp designs upon pottery. The impressions of paddles cordage, netting, and basketry are often the only evidence of these ar tifacts since organic remains decompose easily in Floridas sub-tropical climate. Unlike earlier Late Archaic (30001000 B.C) pottery that was tem pered with organic fibers, Deptford pottery is no longer tempered with the fibers of Spanish moss and palmetto. Instead, crushed quartzite grit, sand, and grog (crushed cl ay) were used as tempering agents. The pottery was also constructed different ly from earlier fiber-tempered vessels. Late Archaic pottery was crudely hand-mold ed in order to achieve the vessel shape. Deptford pottery construction c hanged through innovations in coiling the clay into the shape of the vessel and t hen finishing it through thinning with a

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11 paddle. This new technique made it po ssible to make vessels larger while maintaining strength. Deptford pots are commonly cylindrical with rounded bottoms or bottoms with podal supports (Willey 1949; Ward 1989; White et al. 1992; Milanich 1994). Projectile points range from small arrow tips to larger spear points produced for more specialized tools and ta sks. These and other artifacts made from shell and bone are not commonly f ound, unlike pottery. The lack of documented shell artifacts may be due, in par t, to difficulty in identifying them as tools. Other stone tools include hammersto nes and grinding stones. Deptford or earlier people may have begun to experim ent with cultigens, though no evidence has yet been found in the Apalachicola Valley (Willey 1949; White et al. 1992; Milanich 1994). Middle Woodland Culture Change began to occur around A.D. 1. Though subsistence changed little, remaining centered upon aquatic res ources along the river and coast, social organization became more complex as population increased. People became more stationary, possibly to look after their cultigens, but still moved seasonally for hunting. Middle Woodland period cult ures (about A.D. 1-500) began to focus community efforts on the construction of burial mounds and the execution of elaborate mortuary ritual. Settlement s can be found both on the coast, where there are middens from shell-fishing, and in the interior along the river, where there are the remains from hunting, fishi ng, and freshwater shellfish collecting.

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12 The location of the Apalachicola River made it possible for Middle Woodland ceremonialism to expand widely within the valley. The first mounds constructed, believed to be linked to li neages or specific social groups, were used for burying important people and thei r grave goods including plain and decorated pottery and highly valued trade goods such as copper, shell, galena, mica, and soapstone (White et al. 1992). Trade networks in which copper, galena, mica, and soapstone were obtai ned extended farther than those of previous periods, from the Midwest and the Gulf coastal plains through south Florida. These goods were an outw ard expression of ones importance and status within the community. Trade items and ideas becam e important in religious ceremonies. Villages with m ounds probably became important ritual centers (Willey 1949; White et al. 1992; Milanich 1994). Middle Woodland is known for its tw o distinctive diagnostic types of pottery. The Swift Creek ceramic types are stamped with impressions believed to have originated in southern and cent ral Georgia, making their way down waterways into the Apalachicola Valley. Paddles used for decoratively stamping of the pottery before firing were elaborately carved out of wood, stone, or clay often featuring complicated, curvilinear, rectilinear, or checker-board designs. It is unknown whether these designs have embedded meanings or are purely decorative. Weeden Island pottery, unlike Swift Creek pottery, featured incised and punctated designs, and animal and human effigies. Weeden Island appears a little later than Swift Creek pottery in the middle Woodland and some types continue into the Late Woodland as S wift Creek Complicated-Stamped pottery

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13 drop off. Whether these two series repres ent two cultures or two distinct peoples, as opposed to two ceramic traditions, is still debated. Other artifacts such as clay pipes, figurines, and rubbing tools were also made out of clay (Willey 1949; Milanich 1994; White et al. 1992; Frashuer 2006; Harper, n.d.). Late Woodland/ Late Weeden Island Period The Late Woodland period, dating fr om about A.D. 500-1000, shows many changes from the time of the ceremonially active people of the Middle Woodland. Food production with domestic crops devel ops with the importa tion of non-native cultigens, such as maize. People cease building burial mounds, for unknown reasons. Likewise, the elaborate pottery of the Middle Woodland is no longer being produced. Instead, late Weeden Island pottery becomes dominated by more plain and check-stamped varieties, with a few types of punctated and incised wares remaining as well (Willey 1949:396-397). Percy and Brose (1974) believed that this may have been a period of socioeconomic instability due to changing populations and an increasing dependence on agriculture. People were living in smaller groups, carrying out everyday activities and ceremonialism on a smaller, more local scale. During the Lake Seminole project (W hite 1981), Late Weeden Island sites were found to be in a greater range of environments than those of earlier times, possibly to take advantage of experiment ation with horticulture (White 1982). Freshwater molluscs are a very important resource during this period. Sites

PAGE 24

14 located even at great distances from water frequently have freshwater mollusc shell refuse. People probably collected mo lluscs while visiting agricultural fields located along the river, for a convenient food easily collect that supplemented their diet (White 1982). Mississippian Fort Walton Culture and Ceramic Chronology The Mississippi period is characterized by complex related systems that developed in the Mississippi Valley and throughout the Southeast following the Woodland. Though there were many social groups, loosely defined as chiefdoms, they shared many common beliefs and subsistence strategies. Mississippian groups are commonly identif ied by the construction of flat-topped mounds, distinctive ceramic assemblages that are usually shell-tempered, and an increasing dependence upon intensive maize agriculture. One common aspect of Mississippian across the regi on has been the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, a group of welldefined design motifs that apparently represent ceremonial beliefs, but many archaeolog ist since have come to recognize the amount in which these cultures vary regionally (Galloway 1989). The Mississippi period begins in the A palachicola Valley around A.D. 1000 as Late Woodland culture slo wly develops into Fort Walt on culture, lasting until A.D. 1500 or after, when European explorer s arrived in other parts of Florida, though the effects were felt everywhere (White et al. 1992; White 2000). Fort Walton culture, a varian t of the more widespread Mississippian culture found

PAGE 25

15 throughout the southeastern United States, is found throughout northwest Florida from the Aucilla River, west to Mobile Bay in Alabama, and in the Chattahoochee River drainage extending northward into southeastern Alabama and southwestern Georgia (Figur e 3). Variants of Fort Wa lton culture within Florida can be found within the Tallahassee Hil ls, the Marianna Lowlands, the Figure 3. The extent of Fort Walt on culture in the Fl orida panhandle within the region of Mississippian culture (s hared) in the Southeast (adapted from Marrinan and White 1998).

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16 Apalachicola River drainage, and along the Gulf Coast (M ilanich 1994; Blitz and Lorenz 2006). In t he Apalachicola River Valley, Fort Walton settlement is almost exclusively riverine, as opposed to that of the late Weeden Island time period (White 1982:3). Fort Walton was believed to be a break with the older Gulf Coast traditions in that new influences of a Middle Mississippian origin have been strong factors in the formation of the st yle [ceramics] (Wille y 1949:458). Many moved into northwest Florida, repl acing the prior populations and producing abrupt changes in ceramic style. Whit es 1982 dissertation and the work of others have put these theories to rest, prov ing that Fort Walton culture developed in place out of Woodland cultures in the Apalachicola Valley (Kelley 1960; Brose 1974; Percy and Brose 1974; Brose and Percy 1974; Brose and Percy 1978). Fort Walton culture is the local mani festation of Mississippian culture in the Apalachicola River Valley. Fort Walton people, like many other Mississippian groups throughout the Southeast, were developing into socially complex chiefdoms with ruling classes overseeing large villages and interacting with other villages and groups. Similarly, agricultu re and ideology were also important aspects of Fort Walton cult ure. These are reflected in pottery surface treatments such as cob-markings (agriculture) and Fort Walton Incised six-pointed bowls (feasting). Population in the Apalachicola River Valley was probably denser during this late prehistoric time than anywh ere else in Florida. Because of the location of this valley on a major waterway (Figure 4, Table 1), Fort Walton social complexity may have surpassed that of other groups throughout Florida due to

PAGE 27

17 Figure 4. The distribution of Fort Wa lton sites in the Apalachicola River Valley. Mound centers are shown in yellow. Sites away from the main river are mostly on smaller streams or bays.

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18 Table 1. Fort Walton sites in the Apalachicola River Valley by county and site number. Site IDs with (*) denote site s from which the University of South Florida has excavated mate rials. GV denotes estimated site location (General Vicinity.) Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics 8Ca3 Cayson Mound and Village* Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, cobmarked, cord-marked possible Lamar possible Lamar, brushed, checkstamped, cob-marked, cord-marked 8Ca5 Atkins Landing Fort Walton Incised possible Lamar possible Chattahoochee Brushed possible Lamar possible Lamar, checkstamped, indeterminate-stamped 8Ca11 Ammonia Lake Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, indeterminate-stamped possible Lower Creek possible Chattahoochee Brushed, checkstamped, indeterminate-stamped 8Ca12 Graves Creek Landing/ Ridge Landing Fort Walton Incised 8Ca43 Cypress Stump Fort Walton Incised, possible shell-tempered plain Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, possible shelltempered plain 8Ca45 Athena possible Lake Jackson possible Lamar possible Lamar 8Ca46 Caraway Creek Mouth Lake Jackson 8Ca47 Fallen Oak possible Lake Jackson, check-stamped possible Lamar check-stamped, complicated-stamped, indeterminate punctate 8Ca48 Termite Veranda Cool Branch Incised, Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, indeterminate punctate possible Swift Creek check-stamped, complicated-stamped, indeterminate punctate 8Ca50 Muddy Boot Lake Jackson 8Ca51 Splashing Turtle Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, Pensacola Incised, shell-tempered plain 8Ca56 Leaning Oak Marsh Island Incised 8Ca62 Turning Point Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped 8Ca63 Ratzer Lake Jackson

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19 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics 8Ca66 Holliman Sink Hole Fort Walton Incised 8Ca68 Muscogee Reach Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, cob-marked, shelltempered plain 8Ca85 Ocheesee South possible Lake Jackson 8Ca88 Graves Junction possible Lake Jackson 8Ca89 Parish Lake North possible Lake Jackson, check-stamped early Archaic 8Ca99 J. B. Young Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, fabricimpressed Swift Creek fabric-impressed 8Ca142 CorbinTucker* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped 8Ca888 Cape St. George East Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, indeterminate incised late Weeden Island Keith Incised, checkstamped, indeterminate incised possible late Archaic clay balls possible Deptford check-stamped, complicated-stamped, cord-marked, simplestamped 8Fr1 Porters Bar Fort Walton Incised, possible shell-tempered plain, check-stamped, cord-marked Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island check-stamped, complicated-stamped, cord-marked, redpainted, simplestamped possible Deptford check-stamped, complicated-stamped, simple-stamped 8Fr10 Eleven Mile Point check-stamped, shelltempered plain Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Weeden Island, checkstamped, complicatedstamped, simplestamped 8Fr13 Five Mile Point Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, possible Pensacola Incised, check-stamped, shelltempered plain

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20 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics possible Deptford complicated-stamped, cord-marked, simplestamped 8Fr14 Pierce Mounds (See also Fr19 & Fr21) Lake Jackson, cordmarked, shell-tempered plain Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, Weeden Island Incised, complicated-stamped, cord-marked, redpainted, simplestamped 8Fr24 St. George West (Little St. G.I. #2) Fort Walton Incised 8Fr27 New Pass, St. George Island Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, Lamar, Ocmulgee Fields Incised, check-stamped, cobmarked Lamar 8Fr60 Sportmans Hotel Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped possible Lamar Lamar possible late Archaic check-stamped, fibertempered plain 8Fr71 Paradise Point Fort Walton Incised, cordmarked, check-stamped, shell-tempered plain Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, Weeden Island Punctated, check-stamped, complicated-stamped, cord-marked, possible simple-stamped 8Fr79 St. George PlantationLeisure Properties possible Lamar possible Lamar 8Fr352 St. Vincent Ferry Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, shell-tempered plain 8Fr357 Big Bayou 2 Fort Walton Incised

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21 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics possible late Archaic fiber-tempered plain possible Deptford check-stamped, complicated-stamped, simple-stamped 8Fr360 St. Vincent 1 Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, shell-tempered plain Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Santa Rosa Stamped, check-stamped, complicated-stamped, simple-stamped possible late Archaic fiber-tempered plain possible Deptford check-stamped 8Fr365 St. Vincent 6 Fort Walton Incised, Pensacola Incised, check-stamped, cobmarked, red-painted, shell-tempered plain possible Lamar possible Lamar, brushed, checkstamped, cob-marked, red-painted 8Fr368 St. Vincent 9 Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped 8Fr369 St. Vincent 10 Lake Jackson possible Lower Creek Brushed 8Fr373 Linton Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, possible fabricimpressed, shelltempered plain, limestone-tempered plain late Archaic fiber-tempered plain 8Fr744 Van Horn Creek Shell Mound* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped possible Deptford check-stamped 8Fr757 Carmichael Fort Walton Incised, Marsh Island Incised, Pensacola Incised, check-stamped 8Fr804 Cape St. George/ Hendrix 1 Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped possible late Archaic fiber-tempered plain 8Fr806 Gardner Landing Shell Mound check-stamped, indeterminate-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, checkstamped, complicatedstamped, indeterminate-stamped, possible red-painted

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22 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics possible early Archaic Archaic possible Deptford check-stamped 8Fr825 St. Vincent Island West Side Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, possible shell-tempered plain Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Weeden Island Incised, check-stamped, complicated-stamped 8Fr855 Ten-and-aHalf-Mile check-stamped, shelltempered plain 8Gd3 Lookout Point Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped possible Lamar Lamar Plain, checkstamped possible Archaic 8Gd4 Chattahoochee Landing (G4 & Gd2) Lake Jackson, checkstamped, cob-marked possible Deptford check-stamped, cobmarked 8Gd23 Flat Creek North Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, indeterminate punctate 8Gd270 Picnic Fort Walton Incised possible Deptford check-stamped Swift Creek Keith Incised, cobmarked, checkstamped, complicatedstamped, simplestamped possible Lamar check-stamped, cobmarked, complicatedstamped, simplestamped 8Gd280 Sore Eye Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, cob-marked, shelltempered plain possible Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, cob-marked, check-stamped, complicated-stamped, simple-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Complicated-stamped 8Gu5 Chipola Cutoff Fort Walton Incised, possible shell-tempered plain Protohistoric Protohistoric

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23 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Tucker Ridge Pinched, check-stamped, cobmarked, complicatedstamped, indeterminate incised, indeterminatepunctate 8Gu10 Richardson Hammock* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, cob-marked, indeterminate incised, indeterminate punctate, shell-tempered plain Lamar Lamar, cob-marked, complicated-stamped, indeterminate incised, indeterminate punctate 8Gu27 Douglas Landing Fort Walton Incised early Archaic possible Deptford 8Gu55 Yellow Houseboat Shell Mound* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, cord-marked, shell-tempered plain Swift Creek cord-marked, simplestamped possible Deptford check-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island possible Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, possible Weeden Island Punctated, checkstamped complicatedstamped, simplestamped 8Ja5 Jim Woodruff (J-2) possible Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, shelltempered Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, checkstamped, complicatedstamped, simplestamped 8Ja7 Curlee* Cool Branch Incised, Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, shell-tempered plain, possible Lamar, brushed late Weeden Island, possible Lamar check-stamped possible Archaic possible late Archaic 8Ja8 Chattahoochee River 1 (J-5) (GV)* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, cob-marked, limestonetempered plain, possible shell-tempered plain Deptford check-stamped 8Ja10 Chattahoochee River 2 (J-7) Fort Walton Incised, shell-tempered plain possible Lamar possible Lamar, checkstamped 8Ja12 Chattahoochee River 3 (J-9) Lake Jackson, checkstamped, indeterminate incised

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24 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics 8Ja25 Chattahoochee River 4 (J-23) Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, cob-marked, indeterminate incised, shell-tempered plain Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, cob-marked 8Ja34 Bellamy (J32) Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, shell-tempered plain possible Paleoindian possible early Archaic possible Archaic fiber-tempered plain 8Ja39 Harrell/3 Rivers St.Pk.B/Lit. Isl. (J-37) Lake Jackson plain Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Tucker Ridge Pinched, complicated-stamped possible late Archaic fiber-tempered plain Deptford check-stamped, simplestamped Swift Creek 8Ja44 Neal (J-42) Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, cordmarked possible Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed possible Lamar possible Lamar 8Ja45 Neals Landing (J43) possible Lake Jackson possible Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, Kasita Redfilmed, Ocmulgee Fields Incised 8Ja53 Kemp's Landing (2) (J-10) Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped 8Ja54 Parking Area (GV) Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, indeterminate incised, indeterminate punctate, limestonetempered plain possible Archaic 8Ja55 Cave 10 (GV) Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, limestonetempered plain 8Ja58 Cave Near Caverns Park (GV) possible Fort Walton Incised, limestonetempered plain

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25 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics possible Deptford check-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island check-stamped, cobmarked, complicatedstamped, simplestamped, red-painted possible Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, Ocmulgee Fields Incised 8Ja60 State Hospital Farm (J-3) Lake Jackson, checkstamped, cob-marked, complicated-stamped, shell-tempered plain possible Leon Jefferson Chattahoochee Brushed, Ocmulgee Fields Incised possible late Archaic fiber-tempered plain possible Deptford 8Ja62 J.-X. Field Lake Jackson Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Keith Incised, simplestamped, red-painted possible late Archaic fiber-tempered plain possible Deptford possible Deptford, check-stamped 8Ja65 Waddell's Mill Pond Site* check-stamped, limestone-tempered plain possible Swift Creek possible Swift Creek, check-stamped 8Ja97 Roulhac Pond 1 Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped 8Ja99 Sam Smith Fort Walton Incised, Pensacola Incised, shelltempered plain possible early Archaic possible Deptford check-stamped 8Ja111 Double Pond (GV) Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped Weeden Island Weeden Island Incised, check-stamped, simplestamped 8Ja120 Rockwell Cave possible Lake Jackson 8Ja121 Smiths Cave (GV) possible Fort Walton Incised 8Ja122 Edenfield Farm possible Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, complicated-stamped possible Swift Creek check-stamped, complicated-stamped

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26 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics 8Ja137 Coes Landing* Cool Branch, Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, redpainted, cob-marked 8Ja201 Scholz Parking Lot Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, possible brushed, check-stamped, indeterminate punctate sand-tempered plain, 8Ja202 Pope Lake Mounds (J4) Fort Walton Incised, indeterminate punctate 8Ja212 Cox Plantation 1 Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped possible Archaic possible Archaic 8Ja218 Dairy Road possible Swift Creek 8Ja268 Big Island Lake Jackson, checkstamped, complicatedstamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Keith Incised, checkstamped, complicatedstamped 8Ja286 Tube shell-tempered plain 8Ja287 Mossy Bank Lake Jackson, shelltempered plain 8Ja299 Bomb Lake Jackson 8Ja390 Pope Bus Point Washington Incised, shell-tempered plain possible Deptford check-stamped Swift Creek check-stamped, complicated-stamped, cord-marked, indeterminate incised 8Ja391 Pope;s Cabin Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson check-stamped, cord-marked, indeterminate incised, shell-tempered plain Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, possible Lamar, check-stamped, complicated-stamped, indeterminate-incised possible Lamar sand-tempered plain, grit-tempered plain, grog-tempered plain 8Ja409 Sneads Port sand-tempered plain, grittempered plain, grogtempered plain possible Lower Creek Ocmulgee Fields Incised

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27 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics 8Ja413 Castle Root Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, shelltempered plain 8Ja414 July Lake Creek grit-tempered plain, grogtempered plain, sandtempered plain, shelltempered plain 8Ja415 Medusa Cool Branch Incised, Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, shell-tempered plain early Weeden Island Weeden Island Punctated, checkstamped 8Ja417 Thick Greenbriar* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, Pensacola Incised, Point Washington Incised, check-stamped Lower Creek Chattahoochee Brushed, checkstamped 8Ja421 Roy Casey Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, indeterminate incised possible Deptford check-stamped 8Ja427 Three Guys Lake Jackson, checkstamped, cord-marked Weeden Island Keith Incised, checkstamped, simplestamped 8Li2 Yon Mound and Village* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, cob-marked, brushed, Lamar Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island, possible Lamar possible Keith Incised, check-stamped, cobmarked, complicatedstamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Punctated, check-stamped, complicated-stamped 8Li8 Torreya Ranger Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, complicated-stamped possible late Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Punctated, check-stamped, complicated-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island check-stamped, redpainted 8Li41 Golden Bluff possible Marsh Island Incised, check-stamped, shell-tempered plain possible late Weeden Island check-stamped

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28 Table 1. Continued. Site ID Site Name Diagnostic Fort Walton Ceramics Other Components Other Ceramics 8Li96 USFS 7912,13 check-stamped, complicated-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Carrabelle Incised, check-stamped 8Li159 Torreya Point possible Lake Jackson 8Li160 Rock Bluff Landing cob-marked, sandtempered plain, grittempered plain, grogtempered plain possible late Weeden Island cob-marked, sandtempered plain, grittempered plain, grogtempered plain Swift Creek check-stamped, complicated-stamped Swift Creek/ early Weeden Island Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Punctated, checkstamped, complicatedstamped, net-marked 8Li172 Otis Hare possible Fort Walton Incised, check-stamped, complicated-stamped, net-marked possible late Weeden Island Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Punctated, checkstamped, complicatedstamped, net-marked 8Li192 Wild Grape possible Lake Jackson, check-stamped 8Li193 Flags Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped 8Li214 Green Chameleon possible Lake Jackson possible late Weeden Island check-stamped, complicated-stamped 8Li217 Sunstroke* Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, check-stamped, complicated-stamped, shell-tempered plain possible Lamar check-stamped, complicated-stamped 8Li323 USFS 8911 / Cypress Spring Fort Walton Incised interaction with the many other Mississipp ian groups up the tributary rivers and other streams. Evidence for this soci al complexity can be found in the large settlements with flat-topped earthen mounds and also in the written accounts of

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29 Spanish and French explorers coming in contact with native Floridians in the Tallahassee area in the A palachee Provience (Covey 1961; Clayton 1993). Temple mound building, intensive agr iculture, hierarchical settlement arrangements and an increase in populat ion are consid ered important differences between the Woodland period and the development of Mississippian culture in the Apalachicola River Valley (Milanich 1994). Pl atform mounds were the focal point for community life within the Fort Walton village. Evidence for buildings shows that these mounds were used ceremonially, with chiefs probably serving a spiritual role. Important ch iefs connected to the mounds during life were also interred in them after death, oft en in the floors of th e buildings built on top of them. B. Calvin Jones ( 1982; 1994) of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research documented thr ough excavation many examples of ornate copper and shell artifacts are that likely high status paraphernalia belonging to highly-ranked individuals bur ied at the Lake Jackson site near Tallahassee, in Leon County, Florida. These objects and others such as ceramics, rare minerals including copper lead, mica, anth racite, graphite, steatite, greenstone, lithi cs, and perishable materials such as woven fabrics and mats were apparently symbols of ones power and wealth during life and were buried with them after death. These objects and their associated symbolism were part of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (Jones 1982; Milanich 1994). The location of Fort Walton sites along rivers is believed to have allowed for goods and ideas to be imported and expo rted, and perhaps a similarity in ceremonialism with other Mississippian grou ps outside of the Florida panhandle.

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30 Interestingly, Fort Walton sites in the Tallahassee area are located on many lakes, as fewer rivers are found in that area. Though these Fort Walton temple mounds were not built for the sole purpose of burying the deceased, as mounds were during the middle Woodland, important figures from the community who were probably associated with the ceremonial use of the mound would sometimes be buried within them, with the burned remains of the building covering t he interment. The burial would then be covered by another layer of soil in order for another structure to be erected and a new phase of ceremonialism to be gin (Willey 1949; Griffin 1950). A few attempts at creating a chronology of Fort Walton in the Apalachicola River Valley have been made. White ( 1982:239) states that Many of these problems of nomenclature and interpretation arise from the exam ination of just a few sites that are points on a spatial and temporal continuum. Much of the disagreement concerns the use of constructs such as Fort Walton or Lamar over areas considered too wide an d too distant from the type sites or heartlands. Brose and Percy (1978) formed the firs t Fort Walton model since Willeys work along the Florida Gulf Coast (1949), setting the future direction of Fort Walton research. They said that Fort Walton developed out of earlier Weeden Island culture, characterized by popul ation growth, an increased dependence upon horticulture, and a decrease in ava ilable land. Brose and Percy (1978) presented Fort Walton culture as a r ealignment of Weeden Island culture with Mississippian ideas caused by the breakdown of a long-standing adaptive system under the stress of population in crease (Brose and Percy 1978:189).

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31 Prior to this model, it was believed that the development of Fort Walton culture was possibly a result of Mississippian invaders (Willey 1949:580-581; Caldwell 1958). Brose and Percy proposed that early Fort Walton major ceremonial sites served as long-term population aggregates surrounded by farming hamlets and sites occupied on a short-te rm basis for resource proc urement, such as hunting camps. There should thus be for early Fo rt Walton sites clear evidence for site location, relative spatial and demographic parameters, and function reflecting late Weeden Island patterns and strongly differi ng from the traditional models of Mississippian settlement (Brose and Percy 1978:107). White (1982) built upon this model, making generalizations about trends in ceramic patterns through time. Plain sherds showed a departure from Weeden Island to Lake Jackson pastes, distinctiv ely tempered with red quartzite (White 1982:241). Check-stamped sherds decreas ed in numbers through time. Lamar complicated-stamped and plain sherds, introduced from the north, appeared later. Small numbers of cob-marked ce ramics persisted through Fort Walton and Protohistoric times. Fort Walton In cised and Lake Jackson Plain and Incised ceramics were present through the Fort Walton period (White 1982:251). Scarrys chronology (1984) and reorgani zation of ceramic types (1985) have problems due to limited and, at times, poor data. Some ceramics for his chronology were obtained through surfac e collecting along the river from deposits that were later learned to be dredged from the rive r bottom. Other ceramics and accompanying radiocarbon date s used in the development of the

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32 chronology are never elaborated upon as to how and where they were obtained (Marrinan and White, 1998). Blitz and Lorenz (2006) have completed similar research in the lower Chattahoochee River Valley upriver from the Apalachicola. First, ceramic attributes were analyzed to compose a bas ic ceramic chronology. Their ceramic sequences show similar patterns at the em ergence of Mississippian culture. Like the Apalachicola River Valley, checkstamped pottery is predominant in the Chattahoochee River Valley. By AD 1100, ceramics in the Chattahoochee Valley become more shell-tempered, unlike t he grit-tempered cera mics to the south (Blitz and Lorenz 2006:68). They selected diagnostic Mississippi-age ceramic types for further analysis of because they reflect both temporal and spatial change (Blitz and Lorenz 2006:61). Seven types, Moundville Incised, Cool Branch Incised, Columbia Incised, Lamar Plain, Fort Walton Incised, Lamar Complicated-Stamped, and Rood Incised, made up seven percent of the total ceramic assemblage of their study. T hese types were found in both household midden and platform mound contexts, therefor e believed to be utilitarian. This thorough study, although examining some ceramic types not present at the Curlee site, complements chronology res earch being completed downriver in the Apalachicola Valley. Twenty-eight radioc arbon dates provide accurate calendar dates for ceramics in their assemblage. Additional radiocarbon dates from the Apalachicola Valley would help create an a ccurate depiction of how Fort Walton and Lamar culture variants developed.

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33 One hundred six Fort Walton site s have been identified within the Apalachicola River Valley and its tributarie s according to the Florida Master Site File and the University of South Florid as Apalachicola Valley database. These sites are found almost exclusively along t he Apalachicola River. Sites range in size from short-term activity and habita tion sites to large villages, several with platform mounds. Four sites, Cayson (8Ca3), Chattahoochee Landing (8Gd4), Pierce (8Fr14), and Yon (8Li2), contai n platform mounds of varying numbers demonstrating their political importance within the valle y (Figure 2; Figure 3; Figure 4; Table 1). Fort Walton sites and settlement patte rns themselves may also reflect a hierarchy. Sites with mounds are thought to have been major centers, while sites with one or no mound may have been concerned less with ceremonial practices, focusing on everyday domestic activi ties (Milanich 1994; Marrinan and White 1998). Unlike earlier Woodland mounds, Fort Walton mounds were used for more than burials. C.B. Moore (1902, 1903) first documented many mound sites in northwest Florida, including the four temple mound sites found in the Apalachicola Valley (1902, 1903). Pierce Mounds (Moore 1902; Willey 1949:278-282; Carr 1975; Wh ite 1996a:38-39), Yon Mo und and village (Moore 1903; Willey 1949:262; Brose et al. n. d.; White 1996b), Cayson mound (Moore 1903; Brose et al. 1976, n.d.; Wh ite 1982:153-154), and Chattahoochee Landing (Moore 1903; Bullen 1958: 350-352; White 1982:137142, 1996a) are multicomponent mounds dating from the Woodla nd through Mississippian Fort Walton times (Like the Lake Jackson site near Tallahassee, these sites, especially

PAGE 44

34 Pierce mounds, functioned as a major relig ious and governmental center for the valley, where chiefs and other prominent members of society likely resided (Griffin 1950). Social hierarchy cannot exist without its acceptance by common people who served as labor in agricultural fields, providing food for the dense populations and participating in erecting t he earthen mounds at important centers which became the focal point for ceremony (Milanich 1994). Elite members of society post-mortem were interred in temple mounds, burial mounds and individual graves in cemeteries, all di stinctively possessing high status burial goods (White 1982). Common people, unlike the elite, were often buried in cemeteries individually or in mass graves. Willey found both massed and scattered secondary burials in northwes t Florida outside of the Apalachicola River Valley at Hogtown Bayou (8Wi9) and Point Washington (8Wi16) (Willey 1949:456). Wildlife Refuge (8Wa15), another site examined by Willey, contained extended and flexed primary burials. Ceramics produced during the Fort Walton period were used for both domestic and ceremonial purposes. Fort Walton ceramics, unlike other ceramics produced throughout the Sout heast during the Mississippian period, are tempered most commonly with gr it (crushed quartzite rock, often clear, white, or red) rather than shell. This is a very important and distinguish ing characteristic, as the vessel forms are clearly typical Mississippian. Ceramics are found in all forms of Fort Walton interm ents, from the elite burials in the temple mounds and burial mounds to the more common individual and mass burials found in

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35 cemeteries. Unlike earlier Swift Creek early Weeden Island burials during the Middle Woodland, ceramics are often asso ciated with individuals, as opposed to a mass deposit in the mound (Willey 1949: 457). Grave goods with decorative symbols are found in both elite and common burials. Fort Walton people were increasingly more sedentary than previous populations in the Apalachicola River Va lley, relying more upon agriculture as well as marine and freshwater resources for their subsistence (Milanich 1994). Farming focused on the growing of maiz e, beans, sunflower and squash. Diet was still supplemented by deer, turkey, fish turtle, birds, and other animals for protein and wild plants such as acorn, hickory nut, cabbage palm seed, saw palmetto, persimmon, maypop, wild cherry, and chinquapin for variety. As during the Woodland period, people st ill relied upon the rich estuarine resources such as whelk, oyster, and clam that were easily collected along the coast and fish and freshwater shellfish inland from the rivers (White 1981; White et al. 1992, White 2000). Fort Walton was not a new culture in troduced to the Apalachicola Valley and other parts of the Flor ida Panhandle by Mississippi an invaders. Rather it developed in place out of the earlier Weeden Island cultural adaptation due to changes in subsistence, increasing populat ion, decreasing av ailable land, and the introduction of Mississippian ideas Mound centers were important population focal points where ceremonialism occurred. These centers and the development of maize agriculture serve as indicators of a more sedentary society. Ceramic chronology of the region demonstrates these in-place cultural

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36 changes. Many of the ceramics pres ent during middle and late Weeden Island are still present in Fort Walton (White 1982). Variety in vessel design and shape suggest that pottery was used for both everyday purposes and special purposes such as ceremonialism and feasting. These chiefdoms remained the dominant social structure until contact with European explorers, responsible for the sharp decreases in native populations due to t he introduction of foreign disease.

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37 CHAPTER THREE THE CURLEE SITE, CERAMICS, AND THE LEON PERRY COLLECTION The Classification and Descrip tion of Fort Walton Ceramics Fort Walton ceramics were known by many of the early antiquarians documenting the prehistory of the Apalachicola Riv er Valley and the wider southeastern United States. Clarence Bl oomfield Moore conducted some of the earliest archaeological inquiries in t he valley and elsewhere throughout the Southeast. Though his excavations ar e unsystematic, often compared to trenches made by looters, he published fairly accurate descriptions of the sites, the artifacts he encountered, and the loca tion of the site. Moore (1903, 1907, 1918) was infatuated by the beautiful non-uti litarian artifacts mo stly found in Swift Creek and early Weeden Island (Middle Wo odland) mounds. He documented fewer Fort Walton sites since these m ounds often did not contain the elaborate goods found at the Middle Woodland mounds since thei r primary purpose was to support a structure, not cover burials. Private collecting at sites in the va lley continued after Moore, though no formal archaeological investigation was made again till Gordon Willey and Richard Woodburys investigations in 1940, which aimed to create a chronology along Floridas Gulf Coast using ceramic types. Willey and Woodbury were the first archaeologists to take a real interest in Fort Walton. They were able to use

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38 the ceramic assemblage to define the extent of Fort Walton culture in northwest Florida (Willey and Woodbury 1942; Willey 1949). In the northwest each of the cultur e periods in that region was first established upon the presence of ce rtain pottery types and upon the percentage configur ation of these types in a particular stratigraphic depth context. By this it is meant that the simple presence of a pottery type is not always enough to denote a specific period; its association wi th other types and its percentage relationships with these types in context were more often the significant factors. It will be seen from this that t he culture periods, as they were first defined, were essentia l ceramic periods. The general availability and stratigraphic occu rrence of pottery made it the handiest media for our purpose. Fu rthermore, the assumption that pottery is one of the most sensitiv e reflectors of culture change seems substantiated in the Gulf Coast area where its observable changes progressed at a much more rapid rate than did those of other prehistoric manufacturers or mortuary customs. The period constructs at first outlined by ce ramic stratigraphy were tested and expanded by projecti ng them against the broader archaeological background of the area (Willey 1949:4-5). The early summary publication by Willey and Woodbury (1942) was followed up by Willeys Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast (1949). This book built upon the initial findings of Willey and Woodburys research in the Gulf Coast region. It was an attempt at unravelin g the complex archaeology of the greater Gulf Coast area, including the Apalac hicola River basin, and creating a more fine-tuned chronology for the r egion. Willeys pottery cla ssifications of Gulf Coast ceramics were based on the concept of type series and complex Type, the smallest unit of classification in this system, refers to a group of ceramics that share the same characteristi cs. Series refers to the grouping of types which may share similar characteristics that are rela ted spatially and temporally. A complex

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39 refers to the ceramics that are representative of a cu lture period (Willey 1949:56). Willey refers to his research bas ed on his ceramic classifications as typespace-time systematics (Willey 1998:XXVI ). Though one other classification system has been developed for Fort Walt on ceramics (Scarry 1985), Willeys basic pottery types are still the most commonly accepted and used system in northwest Florida. With this thesis I build upon Willeys type-space-time systematics through refining the chronol ogy of characteristics found within diagnostic Fort Walton ceramics, such as the combinations of attributes or variation in the patterns of incisions and punctations. The Curlee Site Nancy Marie Whites (1982) dissertation, The Curlee Site and Fort Walton Development in the Upper Apalac hicolaLower Chattahoochee Valley discusses the cultural development of Fort Walton out of late Weeden Island cultures during the late Woodland period. The goals of her dissertation were to present her findings on the Curlee Site, an early Fo rt Walton mound and village complex, to provide information on the location and char acter of the Fort Walton sites in the upper Apalachicolalower Chattahoochee (and lower Flint) River Valleys, and to synthesize a concept of Fort Walton variant of the Mississippian cultural adaptation within this geographic region (White 1982:23). These data were used to evaluate the model proposing in-place evolution, combining mechanisms of tremendous population growth and changing subsistence practices among previously existing la te Weeden Island cultural groups, and

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40 sociocultural interaction and exchange of ideas with more distant Mississippian groups (White 1982:4). Cera mic continuity from Weed en Island to Fort Walton demonstrated in place social evoluti on. Shifts in settlement patterns and density support the t heory that Fort Walton populations were increasing, resulting in internal sociopolitical reorganiza tion, and also increasing their dependence upon floodplain agriculture. White began fieldwork for her disserta tion on the Curlee Site beginning in the summer of 1974 with the Case Western Reserve University Field School and again in the January of 1975 with the CWRU intersession field school under the direction of David Brose. The site is an early to middle Fort Walton village site with a possible mound or cemetery, loca ted in Jackson County, right on the riverbank of the Apalachicola River in northwest Florida. One radiocarbon date taken from upper part of t he Fort Walton period deposits (level IIId in unit 4-6 south) yields a raw date of 760 (Whi te 1982:63). Calibration of this date using CalPal Online (Institut fr Urund Frhgeschichte R adiocarbon Laboratory 2005) yields a date of AD 1216-1272 at tw o sigma, or 95 percent probability. Though more dates are necessary to docum ent the full occupation of the site chronologically, this date suggests that the lower Fort Walton deposits may date earlier within Fort Walton period. The fo rmerly elevated portion of the site, which may have been a mound, contained several Fort Walton burials that were washing away by the time White completed her research at the site. Since then, more of the site has continued to er ode away due to hydrologic changes caused by the Jim Woodruff Dam built a few hundred meters to the north. I visited the

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41 site in 2004 as a part of my thesis wo rk (Figure 5). Since the 1975 excavations, more than 10 meters (33 feet) of the original riverbank has eroded away. Figure 5. Profile of the Curl ee Site (highly eroded) in 2004.

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42 Data from the Curlee site came in the form of excavated features, evidence of structures, ceramics, lith ics, floral and faunal remains and human interments and burial goods which were o ften fragmentary due to the impacts of water and human action. In addition to obt aining data through excavation, White also examined the collections of many lo cal collectors. She hypothesized that environmental and sociocultural factors were responsible for the development of Fort Walton culture out of earlier Weeden Island culture. Increasing populations and shifting settlement patterns placed increased stress upon the subsistence system, creating competiti on between groups, resulting in reorganization of sociopolitical and religious systems. The Leon Perry Collection The Leon Perry Collection is an assemb lage of mostly Fort Walton ceramics and other artifacts donated to the University of Sout h Florida by Leon Perry, a gentleman who grew up in Chatt ahoochee, Florida, across the river from the Curlee Site. He hoped that it w ould help expand k nowledge about Fort Walton culture. He collected at the Curlee Site as a young man through the 1960s and 1970s, as the course of the Apal achicola River changed and resulted in the erosion of the riverbank and exposure of the site. Perry has long ago moved away from C hattahoochee to Tennille, Georgia. After years of storing this collection, Perry believed it would be of better use if he donated it to a university at which it c ould be studied. He contacted Georgia archaeologist Frankie Snow in November of 2002 at South Georgia College in

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43 Douglas, Georgia. Snow immediately c ontacted Nancy White, believing that she would be highly interested in acquiring and maintaining this collection. She immediately jumped on the opportunity, rea lizing that this collection could offer an opportunity to expand the research at the site and on Fort Walton in general. Snow delivered the collection to White in the spring of 2003, when they met at a local famous catfish restaurant and fi shing lodge in southwest Georgia Jack Wingates Lunker Lodge. I began to analyze this large collection in the summer of 2004 in order to fulfill my graduate internship requirement. The donation of this collection created a motive for the reexam ination of the Curlee site. I vi sited the site during the field season in the Florida Panhandle in or der to understand the site layout and environment. In addition, my research was able to be expanded because the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Cleveland, Ohio, agreed to return Curlee artifacts to the Florida D epartment of Historic Resources (DHR). Nancy White, Rae Harper, April Buffington, and I made t he trip to Cleveland to retrieve these artifacts. White and I toget her reexamined every artifa ct from this collection before they were returned to the DHR. New data from the examination of the Leon Perry collection were compared wit h excavated data from Whites dissertation research to provide addition al knowledge about t he Curlee site and Fort Walton culture. The Leon Perry collection consists of over 10,303 sherds and other artifacts that I individually examined dur ing my research. The collection was given to us in a variety of old par affin-impregnated boxes and wooden citrus

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44 crates. There was little order as to how the artifacts were st ored. Many of the decorated ceramics and larger pieces were stored together. The majority of plain and check-stamped ceramics had never been was hed. Over the course of four months, I cleaned, classified and organiz ed them in curation-quality four millimeter plastic bags, new boxes, and waterproof containers. This collection takes up more than 10 large boxes that are curated within the University of South Florida Archaeology Laboratory facilities. I then created a deta iled tabulation of all of the ceramic artifacts in the colle ction based on Willeys ceramic typology (1949) and the later additions to it (Sear s 1967) used in Whites (1982) research and in the USF prehistoric artifact sort ing guide in use for two decades in the USF lab and elsewhere in Northwest Flor ida (White n.d.). This sorting guide does not change Willey and Sears types; however it does give criteria for sorting them in the lab. My detailed tabulation includes data on vessel shape, rim radius (when possible), surface treatments, attr ibutes, temper, and weight to name a few attributes. A summary of this t abulation can be found in Table 2. Descriptions and illustrations of types fo llow. Illustrations lack catalogue numbers because all ceramics were collected from the surface. The Curlee Site was occupied from the Late Woodland period transitioning through the Fort Walton peri od. Since the site has yielded only one diagnostic ceramics from the Deptford period, there must have been a small early Woodland occupation too. More generic wares were al so identified that may span larger periods of time.

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45 Table 2 Tabulations of generic and diagnostic ceramic types by surface treatment in the Leon Perry Collection. DATA FROM THE LEON PERRY COLLECTION n % of Collection Rims % of Rims Weight (g) % Weight check-stamped 1,89418%22712%31,274.4 22% cob-marked 8225%126.6 Cool Branch Incised 191368%823.4 1% cord-marked 11100%12.3 Deptford Simple-St 143.3 Ft Walton Incised 5265%23645%8,964.6 6% Ft Walton Incised six-pointed 383182%477.8 rim effigies 380.2 indeterminate engraved 1144.8 indeterminate incised 2663%2,604.6 2% indeterminate punctate 29310%237.4 indeterminate stamped 329.8 Keith Incised 5360%65.8 Lake Jackson 6316%33353%12,450.1 9% Lamar Complicated-St 231.2 Lamar Incised 11100%24.3 Lamar Plain 33100%85.9 Marsh Island Incised 352777%815.8 1% Ocmulgee Fields Incised 110.8 plain 6,78766%3926%85,845.9 59% Pensacola Incised 151280%254 Point Washington Incised 282486%516.6 St. Andrews Complicated St 371.9 Tucker Ridge Pinched 115.6 Weeden Island Plain 22100%27.2 Totals 10,3031,31013%145,034.3 The majority of the ceramic s herds documented from the Leon Perry collection are generic ceramic types that do not fit descriptions of named types established for this region. Generic wares include cob-marked, cord-marked, indeterminate engraved, indeterminat e incised, indeterminate punctate, indeterminate stamped, and plain. Plai n (n=6787) and check-stamped (n=1892) varieties together make up 84 per cent of the co llection.

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46 Plain ceramics (Figure 6) are ceramics that lack any form of surface treatment except smoothing. These ce ramics are classified based on the type of temper (Figure 7) mixed in the clay. Grit (crushed quartzite), grog (crushed fired clay), sand, shell, fiber, limestone, and combinations of different tempers are found in plain ceramics in the valley. Plain ceramics may be from plain vessels or undecorated parts of vessels in whic h only a portion has been decorated. Figure 6. Grit-tempered plain ceramic vessel with flared rim from the Perry Collection.

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47 Figure 7. Common ceramic tempers in the Leon Perry Collect ion, grit (top left), sand (top right), red grog (bottom left ), shell (bottom right), with holes where shell has leached away. Limestone is excluded because of poor samples. Check-stamped ceramics (Figure 8) were made for 3000 years from Deptford through early historic times, but are most common throughout both Late Woodland and early Fort Wa lton periods. A paddle-impressed checkerboard pattern is characteristic of this type. There are several types of check-stamped

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48 Figure 8. Check-stamped rim sher d from the Perry Collection. ceramics based on the size of the checks, however they are often difficult to identify due to vague, and overlapping definitions (White 1982). Though the type Wakulla Check-Stamped is defined for late Weeden Island and Fort Walton, no differentiation between types has been made in this research due to the lack of distinctive attributes. During the analys is of the Leon Perry Collection, I was under the impression that check-stam ped ceramics could only have grittempering; therefore, no additional data were recorded beyond counts and weights for check-stamped ceramics. I hav e since learned t hat check-stamped vessels occasionally may have other te mpers. The exam ination of checkstamped pottery from the Cleveland Mu seum of Natural History (CMNH)

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49 collection identified some sand-tempered check-stamped ceramics. Fabricimpressed ceramics were not identified in the Perry collection, however, some were found in the CMNH collection. If there were any fabric-impressed ceramics in the Perry collection, they were pr obably included in with the check-stamped ceramics. Indeterminate ceramics (Figure 9) have designs or stamping but the surfaces are often too eroded or there is not enough of the st amping present to assign the sherd to a type. Often these are body sherds. Indeterminate incised ceramics have one to several incisions unable to be associated with any ceramic type, due to the lack of a rim or small size. Indeterminate punctate ceramics have punctations, but are also unable to be associated with any ceramic type, due to the absence of a rim or small sherd size. Indeterminate stamped ceramics are known to have stamped patterns but unknown what type they fit into. The stamping may have been too shallow or may have been smoothed or otherwise modified prior to firing. Modifi cation may include impressions left by the grass the vessel was sitting on, or the design may have been stretched in the wet clay. Sherds may also be too eroded for the stamp to be identifiable. Indeterminate engraved have designs cut or scratched in the ceramic surface after it is fired or dried l eather-hard prior to firing.

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50 Figure 9. Indeterminate engraved rim s herd (top), indeterminate incised body sherds (bottom left), indeterminate punctate body sherds (bottom right). Cord-marked ceramics (Figure 10) show the impressions of twisted cord. Cord was likely wrapped around a paddle and then paddle-stamped into the wet

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51 clay. These differ from fabric-impress ed in that they are not stamped with a pattern that shows woven cords or threads. Cob-marked ceramics (Figure 10) are impr essed with corncobs. They often may be confused with cord-marking or fingernail punctations. Often, modeling clay must be used to produce a positive impression of a sherds surface for an accurate identification. These ceramics give more temporal information because they could only be pr oduced after corn was introduced to the area. Cob-marked ceramics may hav e significance to the people producing the ceramics due to the growing import ance of maize both socially and in subsistence. Maize was introduced in northwest Florida at least by Late Woodland times (Milanich 1974). The presence of such generic ceramic types is not enough for a site to be classified as Fort Walton or any other spec ific time period. It is the presence of diagnostic types (Table 2) and the presence of grit temper as seen in the plain Figure 10. Cob-marked rim sherds (left) cord-marked rim sherds (right).

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52 ceramics that is diagnostic of Fort Walton type ceramics as defined by Willey (1949:457). Seventeen diagnostic ceramic types were identified in the Leon Perry Collection. USFs archaeological sorting guide was utilized in identifying the type (White n.d.). One type, D eptford Simple-Stamped, dates to the Deptford period. Four types of Woodland ceramics were identified: St. Andrews Complicated Stamped, Keith Incised, Tucker Ridge -Pinched and Weeden Island Plain. The majority of diagnostic ceramics date to the Fort Walton period. Lake Jackson, Cool Branch Incised, Fort Walton Incised, Fort Walton Incised six-pointed bowls, Point Washington Incised, Pensacola Incised, Lamar Complicated-Stamped, Lamar Incised, Lamar Plain, and Marsh Is land Incised, were identified from the Fort Walton period (Willey 1949; Sears 1967) Three ceramic rim effigies were identified as being associated with the Fo rt Walton assemblage, though they can be found during other periods. One Ocmulgee Fields Incised is the only ceramic identified as dating to the Protohistoric or Early Histori c Aboriginal period. It is not odd to have ceramics dating to other periods when one considers the Curlee Sites strategic location along the Apalac hicola Rivers banks, just south of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers confluenc e. It was probably an important stopping place where groups living along the Apalachicola, Flint, and Chattahoochee rivers were able to gather, visiting friends from afar and trading prized goods. The majority of goods f ound at the site, how ever, demonstrate mainly a Fort Walton occupation.

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53 One Deptford Simple-Stamped sherd (Figure 11) was identified in the Leon Perry Collection. The stamp is made up of parallel lines, though overlapping lines may give it a cro ss-stamped appearance. These vessels are typically pots or bowls. Rims can be eit her outflaring or straight. Notching may occur on the lip. Some vessels may be tetrapod or have tetrapodal bases (Willey 1949:357-358). This type is characteristic of Early Woodland times, from about 1000 BCAD 100. Eleven sherds were identified as dating to the Woodland period. Saint Andrews Complicated-Stamped (Figure 11) (n=3) has a rectilinear complicated pattern applied with a carved paddle with groups of parallel lines that are perpendicular to each other (Willey 1949:436); it is characteristic of Middle Woodland times, from perhaps AD 300-600. Weeden Island Plain (n=2) vessels have very smooth, sometimes burnished surfaces. The shape of these vessels may vary The rim is commonly Figure 11. Deptford Simple-Stam ped body sherd (left), St. Andrews Complicated-Stamped body and rim sherd (right).

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54 folded and smooth and frequently has an in cision below the lip. Rims and excised or cutout pieces are the most eas ily identifiable characteristic of this vessel; however, the folded rim occurs during the Fort Walt on period too (Willey 1949:409-411). This type is also s een during Middle Woodland times, but disappears by Late Woodland. Keith Incised (n=5) (Figure 12) is characte rized by criss-crossed or xshaped parallel incisions below the rim, gi ving it a diamond pattern. Rarely, this type has a single dot punctation in the center of the di amond or at the intersections of the lines. This desi gn normally occurs as a wide band between the rim and another incision that runs par allel to the rim below the lip (Willey 1949:427-428). Tucker Ridge-Pinched (n=1) (Figure 12) has raised ridges achieved by pinching. These pinches often show punctations made by fingernails. This surface treatment is usually found below the rim, often also in a band (Willey 1949:428-429). Tucker Ridge-Pinched and Ke ith Incised are two types that extend from Middle Woodland through Late Woodland in temporal occurrence; possibly they continue into early Fort Walton (White 1982). The majority of diagnostic ceramics associated with the Leon Perry Collection date to the Fort Walton period. Eleven types were identified from this period. Most diagnostic ceramics were classified as either Lake Jackson (n=631), 49 percent, or Fort Walton In cised (n=526), 41 percent, making up the majority of the diagnostic Fort Walton period ceramics.

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55 Figure 12. Keith Incised rim sherds (left), Tucker Ridge-Pi nched rim (right). The Lake Jackson type (Figure 13), as I will call it in this thesis, traditionally has been separated into two types, Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised. These vessels come in a vari ety of shapes but often take the form of jars or casuela bowls. The vessel is plain except for its rim, which may or may not have one to several types of attr ibutes and/or lip or exterior surface treatments. Surface treat ments include incisions, ticks (small incisions made across the rim), castellations (rim points often associated with other attributes), notches (pinches or large punctations), vertical wide incisions (deep and short vertical parallel incisions below th e rim) and scalloped rims (big and defined curvy rim). Attributes found on Lake Jackson vessels may include lugs (protrusions at the rim that are either B-shaped or D-shaped), nodes (small rounded protrusions below ri m), and handles (flat crosssection strap handles or

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56 round cross-section loop handl es). Lake Jackson Plain was defined as having a plain-surfaced neck or having one horizont al incision below the rim, whereas Figure 13. Lake Jackson Incised rims wit h ticks (left), Lake Jackson Plain rim with ticks (right). Lake Jackson Incised was the same, but with two or more incisions below the lip. This is considered an artificial distinct ion and often impossible to make if the sherd broke on the first incision below the lip of the rim. More on the attributes of these two types is presented late r (Willey 1949:458-460; Sears 1967:37). Cool Branch Incised (n=19) (Figure 14) vessels are known for the characteristic incised arches encircling t he shoulder of the vessel in the form of collared jars. These arches are frequently accompanied by punctations or ticks that are perpendicular above the arches, gi ving the impression of eyelashes. The neck of the vessel may also have incision s that run parallel to the rim as with Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised. It is the grit-t empered version of a typical shell-tempered Mississippian type, Moundville Incised (Sears 1967:3233).

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57 Figure 14. Cool Branch Incised rim s herds, left, with incisions, ticks, lug with castellation, right, with loop handle. Fort Walton Incised (n=526) (Figure 15) vessels come in a variety of shapes but most frequently resemble ca suela bowls. They are known by the combination of incisions and punctations that form interlocking scrolls or guilloches around the vessel, though many other patterns exist. These vessels often have rim ticks and incisions that r un parallel to the ri m, as with the Lake Jackson types. In the laboratory, t he diagnostics that permit sorting are punctations and incisions (Willey 1949:460-463). It is unnecessary for the rim to be present for the sherd to be ident ified as Fort Walton Incised. Fort Walton Incised six-pointed bowls (n=38) (Figure 15) are one of the many vessel shapes that Fort Walton Inci sed ceramics come in but are certainly less common than the casuela bowl. They ar e very shallow bowls, almost plates.

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58 Decoration can be found on the interior su rface of the vessels wide, outflaring rim. Rims are almost always necessary fo r this type of vessel to be identified. Ticks may often be found on the exterior surface or on the underside of the rim (Willey 1949:460-463). I separated this variet y of Fort Walton Incised because it is not common, and also the patterns on these vessels do not resemble those found on casuela bowls though this is a par t of the Fort Walton Incised type. This may be one distinctive type setting Fort Walton culture apart from the rest of the Mississippian world in the Southeast, as most of the other types are grittempered versions of shelltempered Mississippian pots. Figure 15. Fort Walton Incised vessel, almost complete (left), Fort Walton Incised Six-Pointed Bowl rim sherds (right) with point s at the top. Point Washington Incised (n=28) (Figure 16) vessels normally come in the form of bowls and feature curvilinear and rectilinear incised patterns either under the rim or encompassing the entire vessel. Incisions are normally two, three, or four parallel lines. Occasionally, the ri m may have effigies. Unlike Fort Walton

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59 Incised, Point Washington Incised has no punctations, a useful characteristic for sorting in the lab (Willey 1949:463). Marsh Island Incised (n=35) (Figure 16) vessels frequently take the form of bowls. Groups of diagonal or vertical parallel incisions which may alternate direction are located below the rim (Willey 1949:466). Figure 16. Point Washington Incised ri ms (left), Marsh Island Incised rims (right). Pensacola Incised (n=15) (Figure 17) sherds ar e most easily identified by the shell in the temper. In most Mi ssissippian cultures throughout the Southeast, shell is the most common type of cerami c temper, unlike northwest Florida where grit dominates. The shell makes this ty pe unique from other ceramic types that it may resemble in northwest Florida, such as Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson, and Point Washington Incised (Willey 1949:464-465). Pensacola Incised is more characteristic of what is labeled the P ensacola culture, the Mississippian variant bordering the Fort Walton regi on to the west, in the far western part of northwest Florida and southern Alabama (Willey 1949; Brown 2003).

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60 Figure 17. Pensacola Incised rim sherds ; note the shell-tempering. The sherd at the lower right has white shell still present. Lamar Complicated-Stamped (n=2) (Figure 18) are characterized by their complicated stamping. The design of the stamp is most often curvilinear but may also be rectilinear. The designs ar e bigger and stamping tends to be much sloppier than that of Swift Creek Comp licated-Stamped vessels from the Middle Woodland, about 1200 years ear lier. Lamar vessels tend to be jars with plain, folded, or outflaring rims. A characteri stic line of notches or angular punctations normally occurs below the rim (Willey 1949:485).

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61 Lamar Plain (n=3) (Figure 18) are plain vess els with the addition of a collar treatment. They usually have a fillet or appliqu strip that may be pinched, notched, or folded (Wauchope 1966). Lamar Incised (n=1) (Figure 18) resemble Fort Walton Incised or Point Washington Incised types but occur later wit hin the Fort Walton period. They can be distinguished by the bolder, deeper incisi ons. It is unknown whether these Lamar types from South Georgia came to northwest Florida during the late prehistoric Fort Walton period or in the Protohistoric per iod (Willey 1949: 493). Figure 18. Lamar Complicated-Stamped rims (top), Lamar Plain rims with appliqu strips (bottom left), Lamar Incised rim (bottom right).

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62 Ocmulgee Fields Incised (n=1) (Figure 19) is the only ceramic type known to exclusively date to the Historic Aboriginal period. It is the incised and/or punctated wares that are known to be associ ated with the protohistoric or historic Creek in the area (Willey 1949:494). One way it is distinguishable in the lab is by the row of punctations, often annular (ring shaped) along the shoulder curve of the body of carinated bowls. Figure 19. Ocmulgee Fields Incised body sherd.

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63 Diagnostic ceramic types are not the onl y temporal markers that place the Curlee site in the Fort Walton period. Ceramic temper can also be used as a characteristic of the Fort Walton period (Table 3). The Fort Walton culture area is distinguishable from other Mississipp ian cultures by the grit used for tempering. Grit is overwhelmingly the most co mmon temper in the Perry collection. Temper type was identified in all cerami c types (n=8422) except check-stamped; 79 percent of the documented ceramics in t he collection are grit-tempered. Fort Table 3. Tempers by ceramic type in the Leon Perry collection. Total Grit Grit, Limestone Grit, Grog Grit, Grog, Sand Grit, Sand Grog Grog, Sand Sand Shell Shell, Grit Shell, Grog Shell, Limestone Shell, Sand cob-marked 8 6/ 75% 2/ 25% Cool Branch Inc 19 12/ 63% 1/ 5% 1/ 5% 2/ 11% 1/5% 1/ 5% 1/ 5% cord-marked 1 1/ 100% Deptford Simple-St 1 1/ 100% effigys 3 3/ 100% engraved 1 1/ 100% Fort Walton Inc 530 399/ 75% 36/ 7% 12/ 2% 56/ 11% 5/ 0.9% 19/ 4% 3/ 1% Fort Walton Inc 6-Pt 38 24/ 63% 2/ 5% 3/ 8% 3/ 8% 1/ 3% 4/ 11% 1/ 3% indeterminate incised 267 196/ 73% 18/ 7% 2/ 0.7% 20/ 8% 25/ 9% 4/ 2% 1/ 0.4% 1/ 0.4% indeterminate punctate 29 21/ 72% 1/ 3% 1/ 3% 3/ 10% 3/ 10% inteterminate stamped 3 3/ 100% Keith Inc 5 2/ 40% 1/ 20% 1/ 20% 1/ 20% Lake Jackson 631 453/ 72% 1/ 100% 61/ 10% 20/ 3% 60/ 10% 6/ 1% 28/ 4% 2/ 0.3% Lamar Comp-St 2 2/ 1% Lamar Incised 1 1/ 1% Lamar Plain 3 1/ 33% 2/ 67% Marsh Island Inc 35 29/ 83% 4/ 11% 1/ 3% 1/ 3% Ocmulgee Fields Inc 1 1/ 1% Pensacola Inc 0 11/ 73% 4/ 27% Plain 6790 5478/ 81% 225/ 3% 14/ 0.2% 124/ 2% 227/ 3% 37/ 0.5% 440/ 7% 149/ 2% 68/ 1% 13/ 0.2% 4/ >0.1% 11/ 0.2% Point Washington Inc 28 19/ 68% 1/ 4% 5/ 18% 3/ 11% St. Andrews Comp-St 8 5/ 63% 3/ 38% Tuker Ridge Pinched 1 1/ 100% Weedon Island Plain 2 1/ 50% 1/ 50% Total 8407 6654 1/ >1% 350/ 4% 15/ 0/2% 172/ 2% 369/ 4% 51/ 1% 535/ 6% 162/ 2% 83/ 1% 14/ 0.2% 4/ >1% 12/ 0.1%

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64 Walton-period diagnostic type ceramics in the Leon Perry Collection are at least 63 percent grit-tempered; only 15 sherds ar e Pensacola Incised, which is shelltempered. An additional six percent of the diagnos tic ceramics are tempered with grit and limestone, grog, grog and sand, and sand. Check-stamped ceramics are excluded from this table since their te mper was not examined. Fifty-six percent of ceramics from the Woodland period (n=16) are tempered with grit. Due to sample size, these data may not be very accurate. A much larger sample size is necessary to make better comparisons to Fort Walton ceramic type tempers. Likewise, the sa mple size was also too small for the Deptford period and Historic period to dem onstrate temper differences between these periods and the Fort Walton period. Through the process of examining th is collection, I became aware of common designs in Fort Walton Inci sed ceramics and incision-attribute combinations in the Lake Jackson types. These observations led me to classify sherds according to these attributes and see whether or not t hey follow any sort of pattern. Other archaeologists have made attempts at classifying different patterns found within Fort Walton Incised cerami cs. John Scarry (1985) tested these waters in his attempt to create a new system of typology based on the typevariety system that has been implemented elsewhere in the Southeast, because he felt that it better addressed the pr oblem of space-time systematics, had the ability to be expanded, can include types fr om Willeys type-series classification system, and facilitated comparison with other Mississippian culture areas.

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65 Problems have been noted with this system. Griffin (1985) thought Willeys types are able to be expanded upon. He hesitated to believe that Scarrys system improved upon Willeys cla ssification. Scarrys new system of classification also contained weaknesses. Luer (1985) took issue with Scarrys system, stating that it ob scured relationships and created too many varieties that were types in Willeys classifica tion system. Mitchem believed that this system will not work for northwest Flor ida or even in the greater Southeast (1985:240). Knight (1985) war ned that classifying sherds is always less effective than classifying vessels. White and Marrinan (1998) noted that Scarry is not clear with radiocarbon dates and that many of the ceramic type data are not based on carefully excavated data but on surface collections. Furthermore, varieties named after locations contribute to conf usion and obscuring relationships. For this thesis, Scarrys newer types and vari eties are not used; only those original type definitions in Willey (1949), supplemented by Sears (1967) and others (White n.d.). W. M. Flinders Petrie (1899) recogniz ed that ceramic characteristics such as rim treatments, and other formal attributes change th rough time. It is my goal to identify attributes in Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson Plain and Incised ceramics that may aid in creating a more accurate ceramic chronology in the Apalachicola River Valley.

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66 Discussion of the Fort Walton Incised Type Fort Walton Incised ceramics are characterized by the combination of incisions and punctations that most commo nly form a guilloche or running scroll pattern. Through the examination of t hese ceramics, I found that there are several ways in which the running scroll pattern is executed on vessels. I have documented these patterns using my own arbitrary names based solely on the shape of the pattern, as follows. I hope that these pattern categories will be useful to future researchers and that they might be revised to provide for a better understanding of Fort Walton In cised ceramic seriation. The Curvilinear Running Scroll pattern (Figure 20) consists of paired lines running parallel to each other making up t he scroll along the shoulder of the vessel. Negative space on and above the shoulder of the vessel is filled with punctations. One to several incisions may run parallel to the rim of the vessel. Ticks are common along the rim. This design is most commonly found on casuela bowls. The Rectilinear Running Scroll (Figure 20), like the Curvilinear Running Scroll is found along the shoulder or neck of the vessel. Though it is not a true scroll, with interlinked curling or angled incisions, patterns are repetitive. The shape of the rim and neck of the vessel sugg ests that these vessels may take the shape of both casuela bowls and wide mouthed jars, similar to other Fort Walton Incised vessels with differing patterns. This motif creates rectilinear shapes along the neck or shoulder and is broken up by hourglass or triangular shapes in which the negative space is filled with punctations.

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67 Figure 20. Fort Walton Incised sherds with curvilinear running scroll pattern (left), rectilinear running scroll pattern (right). The stylized curvilinear running scroll (Figure 21) is formed by S shaped horizontal lines. Unlike the curvilinear running scroll, these lines never link together and they are never paired with a second parallel line. Punctations above and below the line add reli ef to the design. The stylized rectilinear running scroll pattern (Figure 7) resembles the design attributes of the stylized curvilinear running scroll, but the incised curves are squared off. The unknown scroll category (Figure 21) represents Fort Walton Incised sherds in which the design is clearly a scro ll but too little of t he pattern is present to determine which scroll category. This is usually due to the small size of the sherd and/ or how much of the design appea rs on the sherd. Both rim and body sherds may fall into this category. The unidentifiable pattern (Figure 21) category is fo r all other Fort Walton Incised sherds in which the design cat egory is indeterminable. Quite often, a large amount of body sherds fall into this category but rims may also be in this

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68 category. Many of these s herds would be classified as indeterminate punctate if it was not for the one incision that makes them Fort Walton Incised. Several sherds in the Leon Perry Co llection had a squared pattern that little resembled other sherds in the collectio n; therefore, they were separated into their own category, Unusual Square Pattern (Figure 21). These sherds are recognizable by their two to several incisions running parallel to each other at right angles. Many of these squared patte rns were much larger and showier than the stylized rectilinear running scroll patte rn which some of these sherds may resemble. Very few sherds (n=5) fit into this category. They may or may not be unique to other patterns in this collection. Larger pieces of the vessel or more data are needed to judge whether or not this is a unique design. Their classification may be recons idered with additi onal data.

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69 Figure 21. Fort Walton Incised sherds with stylized curvilinear running scroll (top left), stylized rectilinear running scro ll (top right), unknown scroll type (center left), unidentifiable pattern type (center right), unusual square pattern (bottom).

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70 The Unusual Unknown (Figure 22) fragments (n=10) are classified in this manner because of their unique patterns th at are unquestionably different from other groups in the collection. Sherds that resemble eac h other are grouped together. Figure 22. Fort Walton Incised sher ds with unusual unknown pattern type.

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71 Fort Walton Incised six-pointed bowls (Figure 23) are open-faced, shallow soup-bowl or plate-like vessels with designs on the interior wide rim surface. These may vary from being plain to hav ing decoration along the rim of the shallow dish. Most decorated vessels s hare the same characteristic of having hexagonal shapes that stretch betw een points of the vessel with zoned punctations. Patterns around the points of the vessel vary. Ticks are often found along the rim or under the ri m on the exterior surface of the vessel. One to several incisions may also run parallel to the rim. Willey (1949:461) illustrates an example of a complete vessel. Occasi onally, these vessels may have only five points (Moore 1903:460). Several rim effigies (Figure 23) (n=3) are associated with the Leon Perry Collection. These effigies all represent birds. Two of the effigies are of bird heads and one of the effigies is of a turkey tail. The larger of the two bird heads has incised eyes, a raised ridge on the top of the head with ticks (head feathers), and punctations on the neck. This effigy likely represents a turkey head and may have been on the same vessel as the turkey tail. The smaller of the two heads has nodal eyes, a raised ridge on the head (head feathers), and an incised line around the neck. It is unc lear what species this effigy may represent.

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72 Figure 23. Fort Walton Incised Six-Point ed Bowl rim sherds (top left, top right) Fort Walton Incised rim effigies (botto m), bird heads, top, tu rkey tail, bottom. In Table 4 we see the quantities of each of these design varieties, percentage of rims, and t he tempers associated with t hem. Fort Walton Incised sherds were identified according to the Northwest Florida Ar chaeology: Artifact

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73 Typology and Sorting Guide (White n.d.). Almost half (47 percent) of the sample are rim sherds. Ticks are present on most rims (78 percent). Overwhelmingly, this ceramics type is tempered with most commonly with grit (n=423/ 80 percent), however, other combinations of grit and other tempers are us ed (n=57). Interestingly, four sherds were tempered primarily with grit and a small amount of shell. Shell is common throughout the Mississippian culture area but not in the Apalachicola River Valley. Pensacola Incised ceramics are conventionally the only Mississippian ceramics found occasionally in the valley with shell used as a tempering agent. Due to the greater amount of grit in these sherds, they were still categorized as Fort Walton Incised. Other tempers f ound in Fort Walton Table 4. Fort Walton Incised cerami cs by design attribute and temper in the Leon Perry Collection. Design n Rims Ticks Grit Grit, Grog Grit, Sand Grog Grog, Sand Sand Grit Shell Six-Pointed bowl 38 31/ 82% 20/ 65% 24 2 3 3 1 4 1 Curvilinear Running Scroll 25 10/ 40% 6/ 60% 19 1 4 1 Rectilinear Running Scroll 33 25/ 76% 19/ 76% 30 1 1 1 Stylized Curvilinear Running Scroll 52 28/ 54% 25/ 89% 35 8 4 3 2 Stylized Rectilinear Running Scroll 41 24/ 59% 20/ 83% 25 3 2 6 2 2 1 Probably part of six-pointed bowl 4 1/ 25% 3 1 Running Scroll, Variation Unknown 52 19/ 37% 11/ 58% 39 2 9 1 1 Unusual Square Pattern 5 1/ 20% 4 1 Unusual Unknown 10 2/ 20% 7 2 1 Unknown Pattern Fragment 308 128/ 42% 109/ 85% 237 20 6 30 1 13 1 Total 568 269/ 47% 210/ 78% 423 38 15 59 6 23 4

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74 Incised include grog and sand. Thes e are found both combined with other tempers and alone. Discussion of the Lake Jackson Types As the type is thought of as representing a number of combinations of techniques in m anufacture, materials, form, and decorative features it is obvious that not all of these features or modes will appear on any one specim en but will tend to fall into a normal frequency of occurrence curve for the type. The degree of allowable variation within a type follows no set rules. It has, however, been a principle to est ablish a new type when any material, form, or style variations found to have temporal, spatial, or associative significance (Willey 1949:5). Gordon Willey made this statement introducing his research in Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast (1949), since he was revolutionizing the way in which ceramics were classified in Florida. Willey classified two types of Lake Jackson ceramics, Lake Jackson Incised and Lake Jackson Plain (Figure 24) based on the presence or lack of incisions. Lake Jackson Plain ceramics are defined as having plain smoothed surfaces with rims that commonly are unmodified, folded, pinched, or fluted. Lak e Jackson Plain may have loop or strap handles, nodes, ticks or lugs (Willey 1949:458-460; Sears 1967:37). One incision below the lip has also been accepted as an attribut e of Lake Jackson Plain while Lake Jackson Incised has two or more. These two types of ceramics in the Leon Perry Collection have much overlap between surf ace treatment (incised not incised) and their rim attributes.

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75 Figure 24. Lake Jackson Plain rim s herds with one incision (left), Lake Jackson Incised sherds with multiple incisions (right). A great deal of variety exists in the surface treatment/ attributes of Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised ceramics. I have documented 10 different categories of surfac e treatment/ attributes in the Leon Perry Collection. These include incisions (Figure 25), ti cks, B-shaped lugs, D-shaped lugs (lugs are protrusions attached to the lip), cast ellations (rim points), scalloped rims, loop and strap handles (Figure 25), nodes (small protrusions or bumps below the lip), and vertical wide incisions. Lake Jackson Incised vessels, like the Lake Jackson Plain may have a variety of attributes and other rim attributes including loop or strap handles, nodes, ticks or lugs. The late B. Calvin Jones (n.d.), respected archaeologi st at the DHR, noticed that certain attributes of Lake Jackson ceramics followed patterns. He saw that overlap exists between the Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised types. In addition to recognizing the previous attributes noted by Willey

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76 and Sears, he found that Lake Jackson cerami cs may also have notches, vertical wide incisions, and scalloped rims. He ur ged White to document attributes that Figure 25. Lake Jackson Plain rims wit h ticks (top left), Lake Jackson Plain rims with strap and loop handles (top right), Lake Jackson Incised rims with incisions and ticks (center left), Lake Ja ckson Incised rims with D and B lugs, and ticks (center right), Lake Jackson In cised rim with node and castellation (bottom left), Lake Jackson Incised ri m with multiple nodes and ticks (bottom right).

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77 she found in Lake Jackson ceramics of the Apalachicola area, but unfortunately, he was never able to complete this research, nor was White! The USF Archaeology Lab has copies of his handw ritten notes and sketches of these different attributes of Lake Jackson cera mics. White and I have tried to utilize his categories and refine them. Lake Jackson ceramics have a large array of attributes but the core defining characteristic by definition for Lake Ja ckson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised is the presence or absence of horiz ontal parallel incisions below the lip. Through analyzing the Perry collection, I have been able to show that there is much overlap with the attributes associ ated with plain and incised pottery. I created a database of all design attributes for ceramics that fit into the Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised ty pes. I then rela ted the number of incisions (zero to six) to the types of attributes that they may be paired with (Table 5). Nex t, attributes were compared against each other in order to see which combinations of attributes may appear on the same vessel together (Table 5). From these data, I hoped to be able to see if there is a real differentiation between Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised or if these ceramics should be classified as one all-encompassing type. Table 5 compares incisions against other attributes. The table is split into two parts. The top part of the table gives to tal counts for sherds with zero to six incisions and the bottom part collapses all sherds with incisions into one group and compares them to sherds with no incision.

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78 Ticks are by far the most common a ttribute found on Lake Jackson Plain and Incised ceramics though they are more common in Lake Jackson Incised (Figure 26). Thirty-seven percent of ce ramics with no incisions possess ticks. These instances increase to 67 percent for ceramics with one to four incisions. Ticks or tiny notches were found to occur only on rims with zero to four incisions. No ticks or any other attri butes are found on rims with five to six incisions (in reality, this may be another typePoint Washington Incised, however it must be classified with the type it fits into for now, not what it potentially could be). Sherds with five to six incisi ons are not very common (n= 4). Table 5. Lake Jackson Plain and Incis ed rim attributes: plain and incised. LAKE JACKSON PLAIN/INCISED Design n Ticks % B Lug D Lug Lug Total C aste l lations Castellati ons with Lugs Node Multiple Nodes N o d es Total L oop Handle St rap Handle Notches Wid e Incis. Scallop Rim 0 inc 198 73 37 91221171013112412 3 4715 1 inc 153 77 50 37108611 1 31 2 inc 130 89 68 171128272422 2 3 inc 115 81 70 17926252144 4 inc 31 13 42 2243311 5 inc 1 6 inc 3 Total 631 333 53 484189806420123212 4 5216 0 inc 198 73 37 91221171013112412 3 4715 Inc 433 260 60 3929686354718 1 51 Total 631 333 53 484189806420123212 4 5216

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79 0 50 100 150 200 250 300Ticks B Lug Lug Total Castellations with Lugs Multiple Nodes Loop Handle Notches Scallop Rim 0 inc Inc Figure 26. Line plot showing close re lationship of attributes found in Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised ceramics. Lugs and castellations are also common attributes found on Lake Jackson Plain and Incised sherds. Lugs are cl assified according to their shape, resembling Bs and Ds. Eighty-nine o ccurrences of lugs are found in the collection; B-shaped (n=48) and D-shaped (n=41) lugs occur almost equally often. Castellations, or rim points, ar e almost always associated with lugs. A total of 80 castellations were documented in the collections; 80 percent of these are associated with lugs. These attributes are found on vessels with zero to four incisions; however, they are more common on vessels with incisions Nodes are a less common attribute; I have documented nodes according to whether they are found as a single occurrence or multiple occurrences on sherds, though it is likely that they occu r in number on whole vessels. A total of

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80 32 sherds with node(s) were documented. Like other a ttributes, nodes are found on vessels with zero to four incisions, though they are more common on vessels with no incisions. Strap handles and loop handles are less common attributes. Strap handles (n=4) are less common than t he loop handle (n=12) and are found to occur on vessels with zero or one inci sion. Loop handles are associated with vessels with no incisions. It is possi ble that loop handles may be found with incisions since there is one occurr ence of a strap handle possessing one incision, however, the presence of an inci sion on either type of may be rare since I have documented only one occurrence. Notches are small indentations in t he rim. This attribute has been documented in 52 sherds. It is mostly found on plain rims (n=47), though it may be found on rims with one or two incisions (n =5). Vertical wide incisions (n=1) and scalloped rims (n=6) are the least common attributes documented in this collection. The one occurrence of vertic al wide incisions is not associated with any number of incisions since the incision vertically extends from the lip two to three cm. Scalloped rims are arching ra ther than being straight and horizontal. They are most commonly found on vessels with no incision, though only one occurrence was documented. Figure 26 further demonstrates that there is much overlap between attributes found in Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised ceramics. Ticks are the only attribute that demonstr ate any strong differences between the two types. Most attributes for both types o ccur in relatively the same amounts.

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81 Table 6 and Figure 27 compare rim tr eatments against each other. Plain and incised attributes are excluded from this comparison in order to identify patterns among the other attributes found on Lake Jackson vessels. Ticks, of course, always occur on the rim of the vessel. B and D lugs are found on vessels with ticked rims and castellations. One B lug was found to be associated with a loop handle, occurring towards the top of the handle near the ri m of the vessel. In one case, notches were associated with a D lug. Castellations, single nodes, multiple nodes and loop handles were also found to be associated with ticks along the rim. Castellations on the ri m may be found alone or with single nodes, B lugs, and D lugs. Rims with mult iple nodes are not associated with castellations. Vertical wide incision s and scalloped rims are never associated with any other attributes. These tables show that Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised ceramic types share many of the same attr ibutes and rim treatme nts. It has also been demonstrated that many of these attributes occur together with other specific attributes. The only distinct ion between these two types has been the presence or lack of incisions, even though the presence of zero or one incision has been considered to define Lake Jacks on Plain. These shared attributes, characteristic of both Lake Jackson Incised and Lake Jackson Plain pottery types, argue for the collapse of both ty pes into one single Lake Jackson type due to the overwhelming overlap in characte ristics between the two types (Table 5, Figure 27).

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82 Table 6. Lake Jackson Plain and Inci sed ceramics comparing the instances of rim attributes with one another. LAKE JACKSON PLAIN/ INCISED Design Element n Rims Ticks B Lug D Lug Castellations Ticks 333333 B Lug 484625 D Lug 413811 Castellations 8080403627 1 Node 20147 5 Multiple Nodes 1299 Loop Handle 12311 2 Strap Handle 44 3 Notches 52491 Vertical Wide Inc 11 Scallop Rim 66 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 TicksB LugD LugCastellations Notches Strap Handle Loop Handle Multiple Nodes 1 Node Castellations D Lug B Lug Ticks Figure 27. Bar chart showing relati onship between Lake Jackson attributes. Data taken from Table 6.

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83 Vertical wide incisions and scall oped rims appear to be independent of any other shared attributes found in Lake Ja ckson Plain and Incised pottery. It is difficult to form any theories about thes e differences because so few examples exist in the collection. These sherds share no shared attributes with other Lake Jackson type ceramics. Further data ar e needed from other sites in order to replicate these. It would be interesting to see if these trends may be found at other sites both within and outside of the Apalachicola Valley. Design attributes of Fort Walton Incised type ceramics and Lake Jackson type ceramics may prove to be a useful t ool in creating a more defined ceramic chronology for Fort Walton cu lture in the upper Apalachicola River Valley. In order for this assessment to be execut ed, stratigraphic data are needed to understand temporal relationships.

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84 CHAPTER FOUR FORT WALTON CERAMIC TYPE FREQUENCIES AT THE CURLEE SITE IN CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS Data from unprovenienced collections are able to show the variety in different ceramic types and the variation wit hin these types, but not distributions of this variation stratigraphically. Whites 1982 dissertation documented the range of ceramic types at the Curlee Site from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History collections. This chapter will focus on how Fort Walton Incised ceramics and Lake Jackson type ceramics may show variation within their design attributes. The attributes discussed fo r these two ceramic types in Chapter Three will be used in order to determine whet her there is any temporal variation. My intention is for this study to lead to a more accurate ce ramic chronology for the northern Apalachicola River Valley. In the summer of 2006, White and I began the task of reexamining all ceramics from the Curlee Site excavat ed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. This extensive task was unexpected, because White had classified all artifacts and curated them at the conclusi on of her dissertation. Over the years, these identifications had been lost through the restoring of artifacts in new bags, often not based on provenience. Luckily all sherds were numbered by provenience. Ceramics were used for teaching and retyped by volunteers untrained in northwest Florida archaeology. We had expected to take a few days

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85 to examine Fort Walton Incised and Lak e Jackson type ceramics. Instead, the reidentification took 10 eight-hour days. Beside this process being necessary for the reaccession of the collection by the DHR, it satisfied my curiosity about the original excavation and Whites eagerness to reexamine a collection that she had worked so hard on decades earlier. This analysis focuses on the ceramic dat a from the riverbank profile from the north portion of the Curlee Site, wher e the excavation was well controlled. A total of nine 1m x 1m test units were excavated along the eroding river bank. The total length of the profile was 18 m. Some data from several test units were not used in this analysis due to poor contro l, such as from lack of appropriate ceramic types, poor excavation methods by the CMNH field school, or missing information. Data from test units 0-2 south, 2-4 south, and 4-6 south were found to have the most complete documentation, therefore, they were used in this analysis. The information from these uni ts (0-6 south) were both examined individually and compiled in order to create a more robust data se t. Fort Walton Incised (n=64) and Lake Jackson type (n=7 7) ceramics from each unit have been examined both for design attributes and temper. Fort Walton Ceramics The stratigraphic divisions for this analysis are the same as in Whites 1982 dissertation. Stratum V (latest), stratum III (upper Fort Walton midden), stratum III (lower Fort Walton midden), and stratum II (earliest) are the only layers from the Curlee site that contained ceramic artifacts (Figure 28). Stratum

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86 Figure 28. CMNH Curlee site excavati on profile in 1975 showing upper and lower midden. Note that the lower midden has been split into Upper III and Lower III in the analysis (compare with pres ent day riverbank as shown in Figure 5). The site identification in the pictur e is designated incorrectly due to duplicate numbers assigned by the Flori da Master Site File. Photograph by Nancy White. II, the earliest cultural com ponent of the site, consists of very dark grayish-brown (2.5YR3/2) clayey-silt or silty-sand. The upper culturally sterile parts of this layer separate it from the overlying midden, suggesting that it is a discrete component. This layer has been interpreted as a very late Weeden Island-age or very early Fort Walton-age layer due to the high quantity of Wakulla Check-Stamped ceramics, plain ceramics, and small number of shell-tempered ceramics (White 1982:62). Strata III upper and lower are a very thick Fort Walton period midden layer ranging in color from very dark grayish-brown (10YR3/2) sand to lighter color sands). Four layers (sub-strata a-d) make up stratum III, but due to complex

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87 relationship of these layers stratum III was split into upper and lower for both analysis and interpretation purposes (Whi te 1982:62). Stratum V is a thin midden of dark grayish brown (10YR4/2) sand containing few artifacts and may date to later, protohi storic times. Table 7 and Figure 29 doc ument the variation in Fort Walton Incised ceramics by test unit and stratum in units 0-6 S. All Fort Walton Incised ceramics from these units are found onl y in upper and lower stratum III (n=64). Stratum III upper has an overwhelmingly higher densit y and variety of Fort Walton Incised than stratum III lower. At initial re view, it appears as though this may be due to stratum III upper being associated with the height of occupation at the Curlee Site, since 86 percent of t he Fort Walton type ceramics co me from this layer. This is improbable because the overall cera mic totals for these two strata from the entire eighteen meter profile show that there is little difference in the amount of ceramics recovered (W hite 1981:99). A total of 1,932 (47 percent) ceramics were recovered from upper stratum III whereas 1,677 (41 percent) were recovered from lower stratum III. The difference between the totals for ceramics assignable to type is even more contrast ing since more ceramics occur in lower stratum III that are assignable to a ty pe (n=563, 55 percent), rather than in stratum III upper (n= 343, 33 percent). A greater variety of Fort Walton Incised designs ar e found in stratum III upper. Seven out of nine design groups were found in stratum III upper whereas stratum III lower only has four represented. Stratum III upper is the only stratum

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88 to have six-pointed bowls, curvilinear r unning scroll, and stylized rectilinear running scroll designs. Both strata contai n ceramics from stylized curvilinear. running scroll, unknown scroll, unusual unknown, and unknown. Rectilinear running scroll and unusual square pattern ar e not represented in either stratum These data may illustrate the aesthetic changes in artifact design through time, though sample size is small and mo re data are needed to verify results. Fort Walton Incised pottery is drastically increasing in number from lower stratum III (n=9) to upper stratum II I (n=55) in units 0-6S. These trends may suggest that more special-use pottery is being produced because there is an increase in special activities. Though the main focus of this thesis is not on vessel use (storage versus serving), the presence of six-pointed bowls supports this trend. Ceramic types that appear in upper stra tum III and not lower stratum III (sixpointed bowls, curvilinear running scroll, and stylized rectilinear running scroll) may be able to serve as temporal marker s for later Fort Walton culture, though these data are too preliminar y to be certain. Data fr om other sites known to contain Fort Walton components are needed.

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89 Table 7. Fort Walton Incised design attributes by stratigraphic sequence in CMNH collections from excavations. Stratum SixPointed Bowl Curvilinea r Running Scroll Rectilinea r Running Scroll Stylized Curvilinea r Running Scroll Stylized Rectilinea r Running Scroll Unknown Scroll Unusual Square Pattern Unusual Unknown Unknown n 0-2 S III Upper 1 2 1 3 1 11 19 III Lower 1 1 1 1 4 2-4 S III Upper 4 2 3 3 12 24 III Lower 1 4 5 4-6 S III Upper 2 1 1 1 7 12 III Lower 0-6 S III Upper 6 1 5 4 7 2 30 55 III Lower 1 2 1 5 9 Totals 6 1 0 6 4 9 0 3 35 64 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0-6 SIII Upper III Lower Six-Pointed Bowl Curvilinear Running Scroll Stylized Curvilinear Running Scroll Stylized Rectilinear Running Scroll Unknown Scroll Unusual Unknown Unknown Figure 29. Bar chart showing increased temporal diversity in Fort Walton Incised design attributes. These data ar e taken from Table 7 and are compiled from three excavati on units (0-6 S).

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90 Lake Jackson Ceramics Lake Jackson type ceramics were also examined for temporal variation in attributes. The examinat ion of the Leon Perry collection determined that type cannot be assigned by the presence or lack of incisions in Lake Jackson type ceramics because of the overlapping use of rim attributes between the traditional Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised types. Table 8 and Figure 30 compile data from Curlee site test units 0-6 south by stratum and attribute combination. Data are presented both by individual unit and compiled. Twentyseven combinations of attributes were documented from these test units. Lake Jackson type ceramics are represented throughout all strata, though strata II and V only have one Lake Jackson type sherd in eac h. Similar to Fort Walton Incised ceramics, there are more Lake Jackson type ceramics in stratum III upper (n=55) than in stratum III lower (n=20). Compiled data from test units 06 south show that there are more combinations of attributes in stratum II I upper than in stratum III lower. Lake Jackson type ceramics in each level were not proportionate to th e total amount of ceramics. This is similar to results for Fort Walton In cised type ceramics in these units. Strata II, lower III and upper II I all have ceramics with zero to three incisions. Strata lower III, upper III and V all have vessels with ticks. Strap handles, D lugs with castellations, one beaker with three incisions, and two plain jar sherds are unique to level III lower. B and D lugs (only), nodes, castellations with nodes and two incisions, loop handles with nodes, D lugs with one incision, D lug with castellation and one incision, and vessels with three

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91 Table 8. Lake Jackson type ceramics by attribute type in stratigraphic sequence. The lower section of the tabl e combines data fr om three two-meter units. ticks B-lug D-lug nodes strap handle scallop rim 1 inc 2 inc 3 inc 4 inc ticks + 1 inc ticks + 2 inc ticks + 3 inc D-lug + castellation + 1 inc D-lug + castellation plain jar loop handle + node D-lug + 1 inc broken appendage castellation + node + 2 inc beaker + 3 inc Totals 0-2 S V 0 III U 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 12 III L 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 II 1 1 2-4 S V 0 III U 4 1 1 3 1 1 5 2 2 1 1 1 23 III L 1 1 1 3 II 0 4-6 S V 1 1 III U 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 2 1 20 III L 1 1 2 II 0 0-6 S V 1 1 III U 9 2 2 2 1 5 2 3 3 11 5 3 1 1 1 3 1 55 III L 3 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 19 II 1 1 2 Totals 13 2 2 2 1 5 8 4 3 3 12 7 4 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 77 and four incisions are unique to stratum I II upper. Castellations and castellations with lugs were not found in any strata but it can be assumed that these could be associated with both stratum III upper and lower since they are found combined with other attributes in these levels. Likewise, vessels with loop handles are probably associated with stra tum III upper. Notches, ve rtical wide incisions, and rims with ticks and four incisions are not s een in any level. Stratum III upper and

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92 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0-6 SVIII UIII LII beaker + 3 inc castellation + node + 2 inc broken appendage D-lug + 1 inc loop handle + node plain jar D-lug + castellation D-lug + castellation + 1 inc ticks + 3 inc ticks + 2 inc ticks + 1 inc 4 inc 3 inc 2 inc 1 inc scallop rim strap handle nodes D-lug B-lug ticks Figure 33. Bar chart showing increas ed temporal variety in Lake Jackson. The vertical axis represents number of sherds.

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93 lower both have scalloped rims, rims with tw o incisions only, and rims with ticks and one, two, and three incisions. Variati ons in attributes clearly change through time. As with the Fort Walton ceramics, more stratigraphic data are needed from other sites in the valle y to create an accurate depiction of the characteristics that serve as temporal markers in Lake Jackson ceramics. The use of data from additional test units from the Curlee Si te would have been useful, however White and I felt that these units were not excava ted as accurately as those incorporated in this study. Likewise, data from stratu m V did not consist of enough sherds for incorporation into the characteriza tion of Lake Jackson trends. Additional comparative data from other sites will cont ribute to archaeologists understanding of the ceramic record. The preliminary results, however, suggest that far greater variation in design attributes is seen later in time in Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson type ceramics.

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94 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Avocational archaeologists can offer professionals a wealth of knowledge about local environments, history, and archaeology. The Leon Perry artifacts serve as an example of how a collect ion consisting of unprovenienced data collected from the surface of the banks of the Apalachi cola River can be utilized in understanding ceramic variation thr ough Gordon Willeys classification system based on the type concept. The colle ction was all from the surface and uncontrolled, but because it is so large, it contains a great deal of ceramic variation that could be quantified and then compared with similar ceramic variability in a more tempora lly controlled assemblage. Examination of characteristics fo und within Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson type ceramics have produced data on how these types vary. Fort Walton Incised ceramics are most comm only tempered with grit. They show variation in distinguishabl e scroll patterns and the presence or lack of ticks on the lips. Lake Jackson type ceramic data demonstrate that much overlap exists between attributes found on the traditional Lake Jackson Plain and Incised types. Patterns have been identified in attributes that appear together and in quantity of incisions found with them, as summarized in Table 9. The addition of data from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History excavations in 1978 contribute to the

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95 understanding of these characteristics chronologically through the use of stratigraphy. These design attributes identified in the Leon Perry collection show distinctive changes in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History collection from earlier to later horizons, creating a clearer depiction of Fort Walton chronology through this ceramic assemblage. Quant ities of Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson type ceramics increase from lower st ratum III through up per stratu m III. Both strata share some design variations of Fort Walton Incised ceramics and attributes of Lake Jackson type ceramics, ho wever, the first major finding is that more variation in design and attributes is found in the later upper strata. Though the scope of this thesis only c onsiders the culture history of the Curlee Site through an examination of Fort Walton Incised and Lake Jackson type ceramics, we are still abl e to observe an increase in artifact variability that may signal more cultural diversity thr ough time (Table 9). Six-pointed bowls, not found in other Mississippian cultures, ar e open and probably made for serving. They may represent special ceremonial activities important to Fort Walton people. Future research with these colle ctions should incorporate rim profile studies in order to examine the presenc e of serving versus storage vessels, which would likely support these findings. This analysis has shown that there is a shift through time in certain attributes/ design features, while other attributes can be found throughout the Fort Walton period at the Curlee site. Th is study also yielded evidence that the types Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised should be

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96 Table 9. Summary of trends f ound in temporal data from the CMNH collections. Lower Stratum III (earlier) Upper Stratum III (later) Fewer Fort Walton Incised ceramics (n=1,677) More Fort Walton Incised ceramics (n=1,932) Contains four out of nine Fort Walton Incised design types: stylized curvilinear running scroll, unknown scroll, unusual unknown, and unknown patterns Contains seven out of nine Fort Walton Incised design types: six-pointed bowls, curvilinear running scroll, stylized rectilinear running scroll, stylized curvilinear running scroll, unknown scroll, unusual unknown, and unknown patterns Fewer Lake Jackson type ceramics (n=20) More Lake Jackson type ceramics (n=55) Attributes of Lake Jackson type ceramics include zero to three incisions, ticks, strap handles, D-lugs with castellations, beaker with three incisions Attributes of Lake Jackson type ceramics include B and D lugs (only), nodes, castellations with nodes and two incisions, loop handles with nodes, D lugs with one incision, D lug with castellation and one incision, and vessels with zero to four incisions merged, as the number of horizontal inci sions below the rim alone should not be considered in the dete rmination of a type. Though this study does not examine social issues associated with ceramic variation, it creates a solid foundation for these issues to be explored in other areas of Fort Walton research. Additi onal data from other sites in the Apalachicola River Valley would contribute to the examination of temporal trends in a spatial context. It is also important to see if there are different trends in ceramic chronology in the southern part of the valley compared to the north, and further into Georgia along the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers and elsewhere in the Fort Walton area. For example, sites in the Chattahoochee Valley at the

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97 emergence of the Mississippi cultures have large amounts of check-stamped pottery, similar to the Apalachicola Ba sin. By AD 1100, these areas do not resemble each other. Fort Walton people in the Apalachicola Va lley temper their pottery mostly with grit, while people to the north use more shell (White 1982; Blitz and Lorenz 2006). Differences in the appearance of design attributes and temper may be able to be teased apart to yield new information on interaction between groups/polities. The addition of radiocarbon dates documenting these changes would be of great value to re searchers, since few exist in the Apalachicola River Valley. These addi tional data, compared with radiocarbon data from down-river and to the north in the Flint and Chattahoochee River basins would help researchers underst and the development of Fort Walton culture in a spatial context. This thesis shows a more finel y-tuned temporal sequence of change through time in artifact attributes. It is only from a strong foundation that archaeology can begin to make inferences about the composition of prehistoric Mississippian Fort Walton culture in the A palachicola River Valley. It is my hope that this thesis contributes to this necessary foundation in which archaeology is built through readdressing the debate on ty pology of Fort Walton-period ceramics in northwest Florida.

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REFERENCES Blitz, John H. and Karl G. Lorenz 2006 The Chattahoochee Chiefdoms The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Brose, David S. 1974 Systematic Relationships of Diffusion, Demography, and Cultural Ecology in Prehistory: Archaeolog ical Analysis of Mississippian Origins in Northwest Florida as a Test of Alternative Models. Proposal to National Science Foundation. Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. Brose, David S. Patricia S. Essenpreis, John F. Scarry, Helga M. Bluestone, and Anne E. Forsythe 1976 Case Western Reserve University Contributions to the Archaeology of Northwest Florida: Investigation of Two Early Fort Walton Sties in the Middle Apalachicola River Valle y: 1973. Ms. On file, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cle veland, and Florida Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Brose, David S. and George W. Percy 1974 An Outline of Weeden Island Cere monial Activity in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39 th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C. 1978 Fort Walton Settlement Patterns. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by B. D. Sm ith. Academic Pre ss, New York, pp. 81-108. Brose, David S., George W. Percy, Patr icia S. Essenpreis, and Frances Clark n.d. Field notes, photographs, laborat ory analyses, and correspondence concerning archaeological excavati ons at the Cayson Site, Calhoun County, Florida, 1972-76. On file Department of Archaeology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Brown, Ian W. 2003 Bottle Creek: A Pensacola Cult ure Site in South Alabama. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 98

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Bullen, Ripley P. 1958 Six Sites Near the Chattahooc hee River in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida, River Basin Survey Papers No. 14. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 169:315-358. Caldwell, Joseph R. 1958 Trend and Tradition in the Prehistory of the Ea stern United States. American Anthropological Association Memoir 88. Carr, Robert S. 1975 An Archaeological Survey of the City of Apalachicola Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records Management (now Division of Historical Resources), Tallahassee. Clayton, Lawrence A. 1993 The De Soto Chronicles. The Expedition of Hernando De Soto to North America in 1539-1543 (2 volume s). University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa Cooke, C. Wythe 1939 Scenery of Florida In terpreted by a Geologist. Geological Bulletin No 17. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. Covey, Cyclone (translator) 1961 Cabeza de Vacas Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America. Collier Books, New York (translation of the 1537 work by Alvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca). Fenneman, Nevin M. 1938 Physiography of the eastern United States McGraw-Hill, New York. Frashuer, Anya C. 2006 Middle Woodland M ound Distribution and Ceremonialism in the Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Flori da. M.A. thesis, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa. Galloway, Patricia 1989 The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis The Cottonlandia Conference. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. Griffin, John W. 1950 Test Excavations at the Lake Jackson Site. American Antiquity 16:99-112. 1985 Comments. Florida Anthropologist 38:234-235. 99

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Harper, Cassandra Rae n.d. Swift CreekEarly Weeden Island Sites in the Apalachicola Valley. M.A. thesis, in progress, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa. Institut fr Urund Frhgesch ichte Radiocarbon Laboratory 2005 CalPal Online. Universitt zu Kln. http://www.calpal-online.de/ Accessed on March 31, 2007. Jones, Calvin B. 1994 The Lake Jackson Mound Complex: Stability and Change in Fort Walton Culture. The Flori da Anthropologist 47(2):120-146. 1982 Southern Cult Manifestations at the Lake Jackson site, Leon County, Florida: Salvage Excavation of Mound 3. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 7(1):3-44. n.d. Manuscript on File, Division of Historical Resources. Tallahassee, Florida Kelley, A. R. 1960 A Weeden Island Burial Mound in Decatur County, Georgia; the Lake Douglas mound, 9Dr21. Universi ty of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series, Report No. 1. Knight Jr., Vernon James 1985 Additional Remarks on Fort Walt on Ceramic Typology: A View from Alabama. Florida Anthropologist 38:242-243. Luer, George M. 1985 Some comments on Englewood Incis ed, Safety Harbor Incised, and Scarrys Proposed Ceramic Changes. Florida Anthropologist 38:236-239. Livingston, Robert J. 1992 Medium sized rivers of the Gulf Coastal Plain in Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States, in Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States, Aquatic Communities, edited by C.T. Hackney, S.M. Adams, and W.H. Martin, p. 351-385. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1984 The Ecology of the Apalachicola Bay System: An Estuarine Profile Prepared for the National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Division of Biological Services Research an d Development, Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 100

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Marrinan, Rochelle A., and Nancy Marie White 1998 Smoke and Mirrors in Modeling Fort Walton Culture, Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the annual Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Greenville, SC, November. Milanich, Jerald T. 1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Mitchem, Jeffrey M. 1985 Comments on John Scarrys Fo rt Walton Type-Variety Paper. Florida Anthropologist 38:240-241. Moore, Clarence Bloomfield 1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of th e Northwest Florida Coast. Part I. Journal of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia 11:421-497. 1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of th e Northwest Florida Coast. Part II. Journal of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia 12:127-358. 1903 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Apalachicola River. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences 12:440-490. 1907 Mounds of the Lower Chatt ahoochee and Lower Flint Rivers. Journal of the Academy of Natu ral Sciences of Philadelphia 13: 427-456. 1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16:514-580. Moore, Wayne E. 1955 Geology of Ja ckson County Florida. Geological Bulletin No. 3. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. Neff, Hector 2005 Introduction. In Ceramics in Archaeology: Readings from American Antiquity, 1936-2002 by Hector Neff. Society for American Archaeology, Washington. Percy, Gorge W. and David S. Brose 1974 Weeden Island Ecology, Subsistence and Village Life in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39 th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C. Petrie, W. M. Flinders 1899 Sequences in Pr ehistoric Remains. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 29(3/4):295301. 101

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Randazzo, Anthony F. and Douglas S. Jones 1997 The Geology of Florida University Press of Florida, Gainsville. Scarry, John F. 1984 Fort Walton Development: Mi ssissippian Chiefdoms in the Lower Southeast. Ph.D. dissertation, Depar tment of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. University microfilms International, Ann Arbor. 1985 A Proposed Revision of the Fo rt Walton Ceramic Typology: A TypeVariety System. Florida Anthropologist 38: 199-233. Sears, William H. 1967 The Tierra Verde burial mound. Florida Anthropologist 20:25-73. Tonsmiere, D., D. J. Cairns, E. Hemmert, and P. L. Ryan. 1996 Apalachicola River and Bay Management Plan (Surface Water Improvement and Management [SWIM] Plan). Northwest Florida Water Management District, 96-1. Vernon, Robert O. 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida Geological Bulletin No. 33. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. Wauchope, Robert W. 1966 Archaeological Survey of Northern Georgia with a Test of some Cultural Hypotheses Memoirs No. 21. Society for American Archaeology, Salt Lake City. Ward, Dorothy J. 1989 An Investigation of Inland Deptford Culture in the Upper Apalachicola Area of Northwest Flori da. M.A. yhesis, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa. 102

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White, Nancy Marie 1981 Archaeological Survey at Lake Seminole Cleveland Museum of Natural History Archaeological Re search Project Report No. 29. 1982 The Curlee Site (8Ja7) and Fort Walton Development in the Upper Apalachicola-Lower Chattahoochee Valley Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. University Microf ilms International, Ann Arbor. 1996a Archaeological Investigations of the 1994 Record Flood Impacts in the Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida. Report to the Florida Division of Historical Resources, Ta llahassee, Universi ty of South Florida, Tampa. 1996b Test Excavations at the Yon Mound and Village Site (8Li2) Middle Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida Report to the Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa. 2000 Prehistoric and Prot ohistoric Fort Walton at the Thick Greenbriar Site (8Ja417), Northwest Florida. Florida Anthropologist 52(2-3). n.d. Northwest Florida Archaeology: Ar tifact Typology and Sorting Criteria. Unpublished manuscript on file, Univ ersity of South Florida Archaeological Lab, Tampa. White, Nancy Marie, Terry Simpson, and Suella McMillan 1992 Apalachicola Valley Archaeology W. T. Neal Civic Center Blountstown, FL and Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve, Apalachicola, FL. Willey, Gordon R. 1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Vol. 113. Washington, D.C. 1998 Preface. In Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast by Gordon R. Willey, University of Florida Press, Gainsville. Willey, Gordon R. and Richard B. Woodbury 1942 A Chronological Outline fo r the Northwest Florida Coast. American Antiquity 7:232-254. 103