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Jagusztyn, Nicole Ellis.
Internalized racism as a moderator for stereotype threat :
b effects on self-handicapping, performance, and cardiovascular responses in Black individuals
h [electronic resource] /
by Nicole Ellis Jagusztyn.
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between internalized racism, stereotype threat, self-handicapping, test performance, and cardiovascular responses in Black individuals. Stereotype threat, or apprehension about confirming a negative stereotype, has been shown to lead to self-handicapping, poor academic performance, as well as increased cardiovascular reactivity. Internalized racism, or the acceptance of negative stereotypes about one's group, is a factor that may moderate these relationships. One-hundred nine (84% female, 16% male) Black undergraduates participated in a laboratory study. Half of the participants were put in a stereotype-threatened condition and the other half were in a neutral condition. The participants were permitted unlimited time in which to practice for a verbal test and then were tested on their verbal ability while their blood pressure was monitored. Results indicated that internalized racism moderates the relationship between stereotype threat and systolic blood pressure, but not diastolic blood pressure or heart rate. However, the moderating effect of internalized racism in the relationship between stereotype threat and self-handicapping or test performance was not significant. It seems that individuals who do not accept the negative stereotypes about Blacks as a group experienced increased systolic blood pressure responses in stereotype-threatened situations compared to Black individuals who do accept the negative stereotypes. The implication is that Black individuals who challenge negative stereotypes will feel more stress when placed in situations where they are at risk of confirming those negative stereotypes. This study provides insight into reasons for the variability of cardiovascular disease among Black Americans, who typically experience a higher incidence overall compared to other ethnic groups.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 89 pages.
Advisor: Kristen Salomon, Ph.D.
Systolic blood pressure.
Diastolic blood pressure.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Internalized Racism as a Moderator for Stereotype Threat: Effects on Self Handicapping, Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses in Black Individuals by Nicole Ellis Jagusztyn A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for th e degree of Master of Arts Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Kristen Salomon, Ph.D. Walter Borman, Ph.D. Joseph Vandello, PhD. Date of Approval: March 28, 2007 Keywords: systolic b lood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, race, discrimination Copyright 2007, Nicole Ellis Jagusztyn
Acknowledgements This work could not have been completed without the assistance of a host of individuals. First, I would like to thank my major professor, Kristen Salomon, Ph.D., for guiding me in the formation and implementation of this project, and for permitting me full use of lab space and equipment. I would like to thank my research assistants: Sarah Brown, Brandice Corriveau, Krist en Tremmel, and Stephanie Turner for the long hours they spent running many of the experiments and entering data. I would also like to thank Neil Magida, for his love, support, and continued interest in my work during this long process. Finally, I would like to thank Camara Phyllis Jones, M.D., MPH, Ph.D., for providing the original inspiration for this project during a speech given at the 2005 annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine.
Internalized Racism i Table of Contents List of Tables iii Abstract iv Chapter One Introduction 1 Overview 1 An Aside: Perceived Racism and Perceived Discrimination Defined 3 Economic and Health Differences Between Black and White Individuals 3 Possible Explanations for Ethnic Disparities 5 Discrimination as a Stressor 6 Perceived Discrimination and W ork Outcomes 8 Perceived Discrimination and Cardiovascular Outcomes 10 Stereotype Threat 12 Reactions to Stereotype Threat 15 Self Handicapping as a Response to Stereotype Threat 16 Performance Decrement as an Outcome of Stereotype Threat 18 Cardiovascular Reactivity as an Outcome of Stereotype Threat 19 Possible Mediators and Moderators for Stereotype Threat 20 Internal ized Racism 21 Internalized Racism as an Individual Difference 23 Internalized Racism as a Moderator for Stereot ype Threat 24 Summary 26 Purpose and Hypotheses 26 Hypothesis 1 28 Hypothesis 2 28 Hypothesi s 3 28 Hypothesis 4 28 Hypothesis 5 29 Chapter Two Method 30 Participants 30 Measures 30
Internalized Racism ii Demographic data 30 Internalized Racism 31 Practice Items 31 Verbal Test 32 Cardiovascular Reactivity 32 Procedure 33 Data Analysis 35 Chapter Three Results 36 Chapter Four Discussion 49 Limitations and Future Directions 58 Co nclusions 59 References 60 Appendix A: Questionnaires 73 Appendix B: Practice Items 75 Appendix C : Verbal Test 77 Appendix D: Experimental Manipulation Instructions 87
Internalized Racism iii List of Tables Table 1 Co rrelations among variables and Descriptive Statistics 37 Table 2 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = Self handicapping) 39 Table 3 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = Test Performance) 41 Table 4 Results of Mod erated Regression (Dependent Variable = SBP Reactivity) 43 Table 5 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = DBP Reactivity) 45 Table 6 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = HR Reactivity) 47
Internalized Racism iv Internalized Racism as a Moderator for Stereotype Threat: Effects on Self handicapping, Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses in Black Individuals Nicole Jagusztyn Abstract The purpose of the present study was to exp lore the relationship between internalized racism, stereotype threat, self handicapping, test performance, and cardiovascular responses in Black individuals. Stereotype threat, or apprehension about confirming a negative stereotype, has been shown to lead to self handicapping, poor academic performance, as well as increased cardiovascular reactivity. Internalized racism, or the acceptance of negative stereotypes about ones group, is a factor that may moderate these relationships. One hundred nine (84% f emale, 16% male) Black undergraduates participated in a laboratory study. Half of the participants were put in a stereotype threatened condition and the other half were in a neutral condition. The participants were permitted unlimited time in which to pr actice for a verbal test and then were tested on their verbal ability while their blood pressure was monitored. Results indicated that internalized racism moderates the relationship between stereotype threat and systolic blood pressure, but not diastolic blood pressure or heart rate. However, the
Internalized Racism v moderating effect of internalized racism in the relationship between stereotype threat and self handicapping or test performance was not significant. It seems that individuals who do not accept the negative ster eotypes about Blacks as a group experienced increased systolic blood pressure responses in stereotype threatened situations compared to Black individuals who do accept the negative stereotypes. The implication is that Black individuals who challenge negat ive stereotypes will feel more stress when placed in situations where they are at risk of confirming those negative stereotypes. This study provides insight into reasons for the variability of cardiovascular disease among Black Americans, who typically ex perience a higher incidence overall compared to other ethnic groups.
Internalized Racism 1 Chapter One Introduction Overview There are ethnic differences in economic factors and health between Black Americans and White Americans. One of the economic differences is in employment. Black employees, on average, are paid lower wages, promoted less often, and hold lower status positions relative to comparable White employees (Beggs, 1995; Bridges & Villemez, 1994; DeNavas Walt, Cleveland & Webster, 2003; Elvira & Zatz ick, 2002; Greenhaus, Parasuraman & Wormley, 1990; Kaufman, 1986; Mueller, Parcel & Tanaka, 1989; Nkomo & Cox, 1990). With regards to ethnic differences in health, Black individuals generally have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Nation al Center for Health Statistics, 2004). As later sections of this paper will illustrate, the perception of racism and discrimination may account for some of these differences. One mechanism that may help explain the relationship between the perception of discrimination and ethnic disparities is stereotype threat. Stereotype threat can be defined as an apprehension that ones behavior will verify a negative stereotype about ones group. Research has shown that this apprehension can interfere with performa nce,
Internalized Racism 2 leading to a devaluing of the performance domain, and can also be a form of stress. Some have argued that perceived discrimination and racism might also play a role by reducing activities toward advancement, skill development, and interracial social relationships by Black employees (Mays, Coleman, & Jackson, 1996). This reduction in activities can be conceptualized as self handicapping. Similarly, perceived racism or discrimination is a kind of stressor, which may impact the cardiovascular health of Black employees (Brondolo, Rieppi, Kelly & Gerin, 2003). However, if stereotype threat can explain some of the disparity in the economic factors and health of Black individuals compared to white individuals, it does not explain how some are affected whil e others are not. Clearly, other factors are moderating the relationship between stereotype threat, performance, and cardiovascular responses. Internalized racism is one such factor. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship betwee n internalized racism, stereotype threat, self handicapping, performance, and cardiovascular responses in Black individuals. I will begin this paper by focusing on ethnic differences in health and economic factors, including explanations for them. Then I will discuss perceived discrimination and work outcomes as well as ethnic differences in cardiovascular health. I will then discuss stereotype threat, its moderators, as well its outcomes including self handicapping, performance decrements, and cardiovasc ular reactivity. Finally, internalized racism will be discussed as a possible moderator.
Internalized Racism 3 An Aside: Perceived Racism and Perceived Discrimination Defined Throughout this paper, racism and discrimination are used somewhat interchangeably. There is a d ifference between racism and discrimination, however. Racism includes feelings, opinions, and ideas that a persons worth is based on race. Discrimination includes differential actions towards people based on their race as a result of the attitudes towar ds people belonging to that race (Stein, Hauck & Su, 1988). Throughout this paper, I may use the terms interchangeably. This is because, as subsequent sections will demonstrate, the perception and outcomes of these constructs are closely related. It is also crucial to note that there can be no discussion about the existence or perception of racism and/or discrimination without the assumption that stereotypes about a target group exist. A stereotype is a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people (Myers, 1999). When individuals in power hold negative beliefs or act differentially towards Black individuals, this is due to awareness of negative stereotypes about Blacks. Similarly, when Black individuals perceive discrimination or racism, the ir perceptions are based on the knowledge that decision makers are biased by the negative stereotypes about their group. Thus, racism and discrimination cannot exist without stereotypes. Economic and Health Differences Between Black and White Individuals One of the ethnic differences in the United States between Black and White individuals is socioeconomic status (SES). The median yearly household income for Black families is over $15,000 less than that of White families (DeNavas Walt, et al.,
Internalized Racism 4 2003). Similarly, while only 10% of White families fall below the poverty line, 24% of Black families are living in poverty (National Center for Health Statistics, 2004). A relationship exists between the employment characteristics of Black individuals and thei r SES. As a group, Blacks earn less than comparable Whites (Beggs, 1995; Bridges & Villemez, 1994). Black employees hold positions with less task complexity and authority (Kaufman, 1986; Mueller, et al., 1989). Further, studies have shown that Blacks te nd to be promoted at slower rates, and they are more likely to be laid off than comparable Whites (Elvira & Zatzick, 2002; Greenhaus, et al., 1990; Nkomo & Cox, 1990). In sum, Blacks are more likely to earn less, live in poverty, work in lower status jobs be passed over for promotion, and be laid off than comparable Whites. Another significant disparity between Black and White individuals in the United States is in health outcomes. On average, Black individuals have higher rates of hypertension, obesit y, cancer, and AIDS (National Center for Health Statistics, 2004). Moreover, Blacks are less likely to have a usual source of health care, which is related to the employment issues mentioned previously. Also, 14% of Black persons reported having fair to p oor health, compared to 8% of White individuals. Finally, the life expectancy for Blacks is over five years less than Whites. Despite the multitude of troubling ethnic differences in health, the main health outcome of concern in this paper is cardiovasc ular disease. It has been consistently shown that Black individuals have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to White individuals, as well as the population at large. While only 34% of White individuals have some form of cardiovas cular disease, 43% of Black individuals
Internalized Racism 5 are afflicted (American Heart Association, 2002). More troubling, CVD is the leading cause of death among Black individuals, even more so than cancer, accidents/assaults, and diabetes combined. Furthermore, inciden ce of hypertension, the leading risk factor for CVD, is higher for Black individuals over every other ethnic group as well as the population as a whole. While approximately 42% of individuals in the Black community exhibit hypertension, no other group exc eeds 30% (National Center for Health Statistics, 2004). Ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease are of great concern, and designing a study to address the causes of this difference can prove challenging. Cardiovascular reactivity, or changes in bloo d pressure in response to stimuli, is considered to be a possible indicator of future cardiovascular disease (Krantz & Manuck, 1984). As such, cardiovascular reactivity will be measured in this study. Possible Explanations for Ethnic Disparities One ex planation for ethnic differences in economic factors and health is the existence of racism or discrimination, which as previously mentioned, is based on the existence of negative stereotypes. It is possible that individuals in power hold negative beliefs about minority groups and consequently behave in a way that impedes the advancement of said groups. This racism manifests itself in ways such as wage disparities, where Blacks earn less than comparable Whites (Beggs, 1995; Bridges & Villemez, 1994). Simi larly, studies have shown hiring practices to be subject to discrimination. Faculty search committee procedures have been shown to include structural barriers for Black applicants (Mickelson, Smith & Oliver, 1993). King, Madera, Hebl, Knight & Mendoza (2 006) found that resumes with stereotypically
Internalized Racism 6 Black names were rated low, regardless of their quality. Additionally, Stewart and Perlow (2001) found that evaluators have more confidence when assigning Whites to higher status jobs and conversely assigning Blacks to lower status jobs, demonstrating another form of discrimination. It seems that actual racism and discrimination may be contributing to some of the differences by ethnicity. Another possible explanation for ethnic disparities is perceived raci sm or discrimination. Whether or not discriminatory practices are actually in place, the notion of their presence may influence behavior. The perception of discrimination can have negative effects on self esteem, health, and general well being (Pavalko, Mossakowski, & Hamilton, 2003; Jackson, Brown, Williams, Torres, Sellers & Brown, 1996). As long as a person feels they are subject to differential treatment based on group membership, this perception may have adverse effects. As several studies have dem onstrated, there is a relationship between perceived discrimination, stress, and poor health among ethnic minorities (Landrine & Klonoff, 1996; McNeilly et al., 1995). The implications of perceived discrimination are abundant, and it is often conceptualiz ed as a stressor. Discrimination as a Stressor Discrimination is a stressor for Black employees, inducing a host of responses. The outcomes of discrimination at work can range from negative perceptions of the job or organization, poor physical health, and poor psychological health. These negative outcomes can be included under the blanket term of reaction to stress since stress can be defined as a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxin g or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his
Internalized Racism 7 or her well being (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p.19). Several studies have named race based discrimination as a general stressor (Contrada et al., 2001; Clark, Anderson, Clark & Williams, 1999) and an occupational stressor for Black individuals (Hughes & Dodge, 1997). Landrine and Klonoff (1996) found that 99.4% of the subjects in their study found racial discrimination to be stressful. Thus it seems likely that the multitude of studies investigating the negative outcomes of workplace discrimination may be thought of as investigating the outcomes or reactions to a stressor. Discrimination has been well documented as a stressor for Black Americans, and the stress associated with it has been linked to n egative physical and psychological outcomes (Hunter & Lewis Coles, 2004). Further supporting the idea that perceived discrimination is stressful is the study of the relationship between job stress and discrimination for Black employees. If stereotypes are acting to promote actual or perceived discrimination, then job stress may be another consequence of those stereotypes. Stroman and Seltzer (1991) found that Black employees tended to view factors relating to an individual in their work environment, s uch as their supervisor, as their main source of job stress more so than White individuals. Discriminatory acts are likely to come from an individual, thus it is possible that sources of job stress for some Black employees are co workers or supervisors ho lding negative stereotypes. Similarly, Ford (1985) discovered that lack of emotional support from supervisors was the strongest predictor of negative work outcomes, such as job stress, for Black employees. If an individual is biased against a group based on race, they are less likely to positively interact with members of that racial group. If Black individuals do not receive positive interactions with their supervisor,
Internalized Racism 8 they may be lacking an important buffer to stress and strain. It has been shown that factors including lack of power and social undermining tend to increase symptoms of job stress such as irritability, depression, anxiety, and health strains for Black workers (Gant, Nagda, Brabson, & Jayaratne, 1993). Finally, Mays et al., (1996) demonstr ated that race based discrimination is directly linked to job stress for Black women. This research identifying discrimination as a source of job stress further supports the idea that discrimination and/or racism is a stressor for Black employees. Taken together, perceived discrimination can be characterized as a stressor for Black employees. When stressful discrimination is perceived in the workplace, it may impact both work outcomes and cardiovascular reactivity. Perceived Discrimination and Work Out comes Results from several studies indicate that Black individuals do perceive their work environments to be somehow discriminatory, while White individuals tend to believe there are equal opportunities for all people (Hite, 2004; Jeanquart Barone & Sekar an, 1996). Career development and advancement seem to be among the main concerns, especially for Black women in the workplace (Burlew & Johnson, 1992). One study sought the insight of Black female EAPs to identify the main concerns of their Black female clientele. Topics of importance included racial and sexual discrimination, career barriers, fewer job opportunities and issues with fairness and advancement (Jackson, 1994). One study investigated the effects of perceived race based discrimination on lab or force participation for Black women (Mays, et al., 1996). Perceived discrimination did not affect entry into the labor force as predicted, but rather affected level of participation.
Internalized Racism 9 In other words, Black women were actively seeking employment, but we re not subsequently developing skills and relationships within the organization that would eventually lead to advancement. This idea was demonstrated in another study where rate of promotion was predicted by participation in company training, with Black m anagers reporting a slower rate of promotion than White managers (James, 2000). The implication is that if Black employees view promotion as out of their control due to perceived discrimination, then they may chose not to participate in promotion relevant activities. The organization, in turn, could then use this as a reason for minorities stagnant career progress. The perception that a work environment is discriminatory is not only generated from suspicion, but from actual conditions in the organizat ion. Studies have demonstrated good reason for Black individuals to perceive a certain amount of racism in the workplace. As one study showed, White managers believed that the characteristics and behaviors of successful middle managers where inherently d isplayed by White individuals, and were less likely to be demonstrated by Black individuals (Tomkiewicz, Brenner & Adeyemi Bello, 1998). Landau (1995) found that Black managerial and professional employees were rated as having less promotion potential tha n White employees, even when controlling for age, education, tenure, and job type. Another study demonstrated that White managers tend to promote employees similar to themselves (i.e. White employees) (Mueller, et al., 1989). Black managers had to perfo rm at a much higher level in order to be considered for promotion since they tended to be judged on observable criteria, in comparison to their White counterparts. Finally,
Internalized Racism 10 there are a few studies dealing with discrimination and performance ratings, a main indicator of job performance. Greenhaus and Parasuraman (1993) investigated the attributions of performance ratings and found that the supervisors associated the success of Black managers to help from others more often than either ability or effort, comp ared to White managers. It has also been shown that Black managers are rated lower on both task and contextual job performance compared to White managers (Greenhaus, et al., 1990). A more recent study by Stauffer & Buckley (2005) demonstrated that both W hite and Black managers give lower job performance ratings to black employees. This evidence points to the conclusion that discrimination and racism (and the stereotypes that foster them) are real issues for minority employees in any organization. Take n together, it seems that the perception of discrimination at work, as well as the actual presence of inequity, negatively impacts activities towards promotion and job performance. Perceived Discrimination and Cardiovascular Outcomes The elevated incidence of obesity, physical inactivity, fat enriched diet, and smoking among Black individuals explains some, but not all, of the ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (National Center for Health Statistics, 2004). It has been suggested that perceived rac ism and discrimination may help further explain the ethnic differences in CVD, particularly for the Black community (Anderson, McNeilly, & Myers, 1993; Brondolo, et al., 2003; Clark, et al., 1999). Black employees with low levels of job control, social su pport, and job satisfaction had increased work related anger (Fitzgerald, Haythornthwaite, Suchday, & Ewart, 2003). Previous research has shown that anger is a
Internalized Racism 11 precursor to job stress, which is related to CVD ( Fitzgerald et al., 2003 ). As already demonst rated, job stress is related to perceived discrimination, suggesting this relationship as a mechanism for the increased incidence of CVD among Black employees. Furthermore, research indicates that chronic stressors in the workplace can raise blood pressur e for employees regardless of ethnicity (Sims, 1995; Theorell, de Faire, Johnson, & Hall, 1991; Chapman, Mandryk, Frommer, & Edye, 1990). If stressors were more prevalent for minorities, then the effect on the cardiovascular system would be greater. Howe ver, several studies have found that levels of job stress do not differ by race (Glymor, Saha, & Bigby, 2004; Auerbach, Quick, & Pegg, 2003; Liou, 1995). These studies looked exclusively at self report measures of job stress. Perhaps if blood pressure we re monitored as a measure of job stress, ethnic differences would be found. Lab studies have shown a more direct relationship between race related stressors and cardiovascular reactivity. Black women have been shown to exhibit greater cardiovascular rea ctivity in response to a hypothetical racial stressor over a non racial stressor, while White women showed no difference by type of stressor (Lepore, Revenson & Weinberger., 2006). Guyll, Matthews, and Bromberger (2001) showed that Black women who reporte d experiencing discrimination in the past exhibited greater systolic blood pressure reactivity to a shoplifting speech task (which could be interpreted as race related) than Black women who did not report discrimination. Also, Gentry (1972) found Black pa rticipants demonstrated elevated cardiovascular reactivity when mistreated by a White experimenter. However, not all studies have shown a relationship between perceived discrimination and cardiovascular responses. Matthews, Salomon, Kenyon and
Internalized Racism 12 Zhou (2005 ) found no relationship between adolescents self report of prior exposure to discrimination and ambulatory BP levels throughout the day. While the existence of perceived racism and ethnic differences in CVD are well documented, the process explaining how perception translates to disease is not well understood. The same is true for the relationship between discrimination and activities towards promotion or job performance. One mechanism which may help explain the link between stressful discrimination and these outcomes is stereotype threat. A Black employee, realizing the negative stereotypes held by individuals in power, may feel apprehension towards confirming them, which leads to negative outcomes. Stereotype Threat Stereotype threat can be defined as apprehension towards confirming a negative stereotype in any relevant achievement setting. It applies to any group described as low ability in any domain. An individual experiences stereotype threat when placed in an achievement situation after the ne gative stereotype about their group has been activated. If the individual fails, their failure reflects on the group as a whole, thus confirming the stereotype (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998). Spencer, Steele, and Quinn (1999) propose that stereotype t hreat is most likely to occur when a task is high in difficulty, when ability is subjected to evaluative scrutiny, and when a negative stereotype applies to task performance. Further, it is not necessary that individuals see the stereotype as valid to exp erience stereotype threat; they merely need to be aware of the stereotype and its relationship to their performance in a relevant situation. However, the perceived validity of these stereotypes may play an important role in reactions to stereotype threat, as will
Internalized Racism 13 be discussed in subsequent sections regarding moderators of stereotype threat. The relationship between negative stereotypes and stereotype threat has already been established, but an often overlooked assumption of stereotype threat is that indiv iduals are aware of these negative stereotypes and feel this apprehension due to actual experiences of racism and discrimination in their own lives (Steele, 1998). It is also important to note that the main manipulation in stereotype threat research is the diagnosticity of the task. During a typical experiment, the experimenters mention to some of the participants that the test yields differences among groups. For example, half of the subjects would be told that this test typically shows ethnic difference s (diagnostic condition), while the other half of the subjects would be told that the test typically does not yield ethnic differences, or no mention of differences would be made (non diagnostic condition). To illustrate, in one experiment manipulating st ereotype threat in White males, half of the subjects were told they were taking a test of math ability designed to determine why there is a growing academic achievement gap between Asian students and White students (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele & Brown, 1999). This was the diagnostic condition. The other half of the students were told that they were taking a test of math ability, but no mention of ethnic differences was made. This was the non diagnostic condition. During these types of experim ents, a performance decrement is only observed in the diagnostic condition. In other words, stereotype threat can explain why one group performs more poorly to another when the test is described as diagnostic, even though there is no actual difference in ability. The
Internalized Racism 14 implication is that the awareness of negative stereotypes about ones group can negatively impact performance. Stereotype threat often leads to diminished performance across groups (Croizet & Claire, 1998; Gonzales, Blanton & Williams, 2002 ; Leyens, Desert, Croizet & Darcis, 2000; Steele & Aronson, 1995; Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling & Darley, 1999). For example, one study demonstrated that womens scores on a simulated math section of the Graduate Record Examination were lower compared to men de spite having equal math ability, but only when the test was described as diagnostic (Spencer, et al., 1999). The mechanism by which stereotype threat works, however, is not completely understood. One explanation put forth in a set of studies by Schmader and Johns (2003) suggests that stereotype threat may reduce working memory capacity, thus impairing the ability to focus on the performance task. Stereotype threat also seems to have an effect on blood pressure responses to the performance situation. Bl ascovich et al., (2001) demonstrated that blood pressure reliably increases for Blacks under stereotype threat, compared to Whites in the same condition. This suggests that if stereotype threat is a chronic stressor for Black individuals, it may help expl ain the increased prevalence of CVD. Additionally, stereotype threat may explain some of the disparities in work outcomes among Black employees. Black employees are aware of the negative stereotypes about their group, which has already been mentioned as a n important condition for arousing apprehension. This apprehension may lead to impaired performance on the job or failing to perform activities to improve promotion potential.
Internalized Racism 15 Reactions to Stereotype Threat Stereotype threat can have a profound effect o n an individuals behavior. Depending on the frequency of encounters in stereotype threatened situations, a person may develop both long term defense adaptations and acute reactions. Long term defense adaptations include disidentification, identity bifur cation, and schematicity in a counter stereotypic domain (Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2002). Each is a result of repeated usage of acute strategies. These short term reactions include domain avoidance, counter stereotypic behavior, disengagement, and spe cifically, self handicapping, of which this paper is primarily concerned. First, domain avoidance occurs when one avoids areas where relevant stereotypes apply. For example, one study demonstrated that Black individuals about to take a diagnostic test i dentified less with stereotypically Black activities, such as listening to rap music or enjoying basketball (Steele & Aronson, 1995). A second acute strategy is counter stereotypic behavior where one engages in activities that disprove the negative ster eotype. In other words, one might provide evidence that negative stereotypes do not apply to them before entering a stereotype threatened situation. For example, a Black student may boast about a high verbal test score in an English class. Disengagement is a third acute reaction to stereotype threat where the connection between how one views oneself performing in a domain and how one performs in a domain is weakened. Thus, ones self concept is not affected by performance in a relevant domain. Lastly, self handicapping is an acute reaction to stereotype threat. Here, one either reports or actually performs behaviors that may impede performance on an up
Internalized Racism 16 coming task. There are two types of self handicapping: behavioral/acquired and verbal/reported (Rho dewalt, 1990). Behavioral/acquired self handicapping occurs when an individual deliberately engages in activities (or fails to engage in activities) in an attempt to attribute future failure to this lack of preparation. An example would be publicly faili ng to study before an important exam. Verbal/reported self handicapping occurs when an individual provides reasons for possible future failure. An example of this would be stating that one has not studied prior to an important exam. The purpose of this is to provide oneself with an external attribution for performance when future outcomes are uncertain. The idea is that if one were to perform poorly, this performance could be attributed to these external factors, and not to internal factors such as abil ity or competence. Typically, self handicapping occurs when there is some sort of public presentation of ability. One operationalization of self handicapping used in several studies is reduced or minimal preparation/practice before a test (Rhodewalt, Salt zman, & Wittmer, 1984; Harris & Snyder, 1986). Thus, self handicapping saves the individual from confirming a negative stereotype because it is publicly known that they have not adequately prepared. Self Handicapping as a Response to Stereotype Threat T he results regarding the relationship between stereotype threat and self handicapping have been mixed. A few studies have found no effect of stereotype threat on self handicapping (Keller & Dauenheimer, 2003; Stone, et al., 1999; Croizet & Claire, 1998). Other studies have shown support for self handicapping as a response to stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995). For example, Keller (2002) demonstrated
Internalized Racism 17 that women exhibited increased amounts of reported self handicapping when exposed to blatant stere otype threat during a math task. In this case, reported self handicapping was measured with endorsement of two items: How much stress have you been under lately? and How tricky/unfair did you find the test. Another study by Stone (2002) found that Wh ite participants acquired more behavioral handicaps compared to Hispanic participants (i.e. by practicing less) when subject to a test of natural athletic ability. In general, men use behavioral self handicaps more than women, and women use more self rep orted handicaps. However, people in general are more willing to use self reported more than behavioral handicaps (Higgins, Snyder & Berglas, 1990). Some have suggested that certain factors influence the relationship between stereotype threat and self ha ndicapping. Most notably, self esteem and the impact of performance on self worth have been implicated. With regards to self esteem, it has been found that those with high self esteem reported more self handicapping compared to those with low self esteem (Tice & Baumeister, 1990). A related study found that both high and low self esteem individuals reported self handicapping, albeit for different reasons (Tice, 1991). Those with high self esteem were motivated to self handicap in order to enhance succes s, while those with low self esteem were motivated to protect their esteem following failure. With regards to the impact of performance on self worth, it has been shown that when performance on a stereotype threatened task is closely tied to self worth, i ndividuals tend to self handicap more than persons whose self worth is not affected by performance (Stone, 2002). In the aforementioned study, subjects practiced the least when the task was framed as a test of natural athletic ability and when their
Internalized Racism 18 se lf worth would be threatened by failure on the task. Thus, individuals who are highly identified with the tested domain may self handicap more. Taken together, self handicapping is a response to stereotype threat that can be either be reported or acquir ed prior to a task. This may be a strategy most utilized by persons who have high self esteem and whose self worth is affected by performance on a task. Although there is a general paucity of research regarding self handicapping as a response to stereoty pe threat, studies investigating behavioral handicaps, rather than claimed or reported handicaps, are few. Thus, the current study will offer subjects a chance to engage in behavioral self handicapping prior to a diagnostic test. Performance Decrement as an Outcome of Stereotype Threat One of the main findings of stereotype threat research is that the apprehension of confirming a negative stereotype will lead to poorer performance on the stereotyped domain (Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995; Steele, et al., 2002). This outcome has been demonstrated in a host of studies including some that have investigated math performance in women (Brown & Josephs, 1999; Spencer, et al., 1999), math performance in White men when compared to Asian men (Aronson et al., 1999), math and spatial performance in Latino men and women (Gonzales, Blanton & Williams, 2002), verbal performance in low vs. high SES individuals (Croizet & Claire, 1998), athletic ability in White and Black individuals (Stone, et al., 1999), and Blacks in reading and verbal reasoning (Steele & Aronson, 1995; Blascovich et al., 2001). While the majority of these studies have been conducted using undergraduates in an academic setting, the stereotype threat effect on performance has been demonstrated on Bl ack
Internalized Racism 19 applicants in an employee selection scenario. Black applicants were shown to perform more poorly on a general cognitive ability test under stereotype threatened conditions (Ployhart, Ziegert & McFarland, 2003). Taken together, stereotype threat seems to consistently inhibit performance across a variety of domains. Cardiovascular Reactivity as an Outcome of Stereotype Threat Increased cardiovascular reactivity may be another outcome of stereotype threat. An individual perceives discrimination and it s accompanying stereotypes as stressful, thus experiencing stereotype threat during a relevant task, and exhibiting heightened cardiovascular reactivity as a response. While there is a paucity of research on cardiovascular reactivity to stereotype threat s pecifically, the results of one study indicated that Blacks exhibited increased blood pressure on a test when under conditions of stereotype threat compared to Blacks under non diagnostic conditions (Blascovich et al., 2001). Therefore, reactions to negat ive stereotypes by Black individuals may be acting to increase blood pressure. This idea is supported by studies looking at perceived discrimination or interpersonal mistreatment, and elevated cardiovascular reactivity (Lepore et al., 2006; Guyll et al., 2001; Gentry, 1972). The reasoning here is that both perceived discrimination and stereotype threat are based on the existence of negative stereotypes, thus increased cardiovascular reactivity may result from both. Repeated subjection to stereotype threa t may partly explain the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease among Blacks.
Internalized Racism 20 Possible Mediators and Moderators for Stereotype Threat Given that the phenomenon of stereotype threat and its outcomes have not been completely explained, a multitud e of moderators have been proposed. For example, some proposed situational moderators include task difficulty, frustration, test diagnosticity, and stereotype relevance. Generally, the more difficult and frustrating a task, the more likely it is to produ ce stereotype threat (Steele, et al., 2002). Also, stereotype threat effects emerge more often when a test is characterized as diagnostic rather than non diagnostic (Salinas, 1998; Steele & Aronson, 1995). Moreover, when a negative stereotype about a gro up is made relevant prior to performance, it is more likely to induce stereotype threat effects (Aronson, et al., 1998; Steele, et al., 2002). Thus in the current study, the task will be announced as being difficult, diagnostic, and relevant to a negative stereotype prior to its administration in the stereotype threatened condition. Some individual difference moderators have also been suggested, including domain identification, identification with the stereotyped group, and stigma consciousness. Domain i dentification refers to how identified an individual is with a certain area of intellectual ability, such as mathematics or verbal skills. Generally, stereotype threat effects will emerge when an individual is highly identified with the tested domain (Bro wn, 2001) because they will be the most apprehensive about performing poorly and thus supporting negative stereotypes. The role of identification with the stereotyped group as a moderator has demonstrated equivocal results thus far. One study found that women performed more poorly on a math test when gender was an important part of their identity compared to other women for whom gender was not as
Internalized Racism 21 important (Schmader, 2002). In contrast, a study by Oyserman, Harrison & Bybee (2001) found that, among Afric an American girls most identified with being black, racial identity in the fall predicted academic efficacy in the spring. Thus, it may depend on to which group you are identified and to what degree. Stigma consciousness is a third proposed individual di fference moderator. Here, those highly conscious of stigmas attached to their group may be more subject to stereotype threat effects, as one study demonstrated (Brown & Pinel, 2003). If one is more conscious of stigmas, they will more readily come to min d during a stereotype threatened task and thus one may be more apprehensive about confirming them. Finally, one mediator that has been studied is stereotype avoidance. This concept refers to one denying that certain negative stereotypes about their group are self descriptive. As one study demonstrated, Black participants were less likely to positively rate stereotypically Black items before taking a diagnostic test, thus lending support for stereotype avoidance as a mediator for stereotype threat (Steel e & Aronson, 1995). Taken together, it seems there are a multitude of suggested moderators for stereotype threat. Each may play some role in explaining the relationship between stereotype threat and outcomes (e.g. self handicapping, performance, cardiova scular reactivity) on certain tasks. However, there may be additional unexplored moderators. Internalized Racism Internalized racism is the acceptance of negative stereotypes about ethnic groups by members of ethnic groups (Jones, 2000). In other word s, a member of a group believes the unfavorable messages regarding the abilities and worth of their group are
Internalized Racism 22 true. For Blacks, this might include believing that blacks are lazy and less valuable as human beings. It might also include believing that othe r races are better, and the positive stereotypes about them are true as well. Members of stigmatized groups with internalized racism will accept the stereotyped limitations about their group, and may consequently never extend enough effort to exceed those expectations. Internalized racism often manifests itself as self devaluation, resignation, hopelessness, and helplessness. It is important to note a related concept: internalized racialism. Internalized racialism is identifying with both positive and negative stereotypes about ones group whereas, according to Cokley (2002), internalized racism is the acceptance of negative stereotypes only about ones marginalized group. Given the exploratory nature of the literature in both of these areas and the cl ose relatedness of the two concepts, internalized racism and internalized racialism have often been used interchangeably. Most of the studies currently in the literature investigate internalized racism. However, the only scale available to measure either of the two concepts is the Nadanolitization Scale (NAD: Taylor & Grundy, 1996; Taylor, Wilson & Dobbins, 1972), which was intended to measure internalized racialism. The majority of the studies on internalized racism have used the NAD, most likely becaus e of its close relationship to the internalized racialism and because there exists no scale for internalized racism alone. It is also likely that future research will conclude that there is no meaningful difference between the two topics. Because of the nature of internalized racism, it is the type of racism most likely to relate to stereotype threat and outcomes. This is because stereotype threat is a reaction demonstrated by an individual subject to stereotypes, and internalized racism is a set of
Internalized Racism 23 bel iefs about stereotypes of ones group. Thus the effect stereotype threat has on outcomes is likely to be affected by internalized racism, as this paper will later explain in more detail. Internalized Racism as an Individual Difference While some amount of internalized racism most likely exists for all people, it varies across individuals, and Black individuals are no exception. While the concept of internalized racism surfaced several decades ago, it has not been extensively studied. There is a paucit y of data on how internalized racism emerges, related moderators and mediators, and how it acts as an individual difference. To date, research has centered on correlates of internalized racism, such as marital distress and marital dissatisfaction (Taylor, 1992; Taylor, 1990). One study investigated the relationship between internalized racism, locus of control, and marital satisfaction in Black individuals (Washington, 1997). Internalized racism was inversely related to belief in chance (one aspect of lo cus of control), suggesting that those high in internalized racism tend to think that they do not have much control over the happenings in their life. A second study indicated a negative relationship between marital satisfaction and internalized racism (T aylor, 1990). Another study on domestic violence in Black families found that among those Black women who accepted abuse, internalized racism tended to be high (Brice Baker, 1994). The researchers reasoned that internalized racism acted by lowering self esteem in the Black women; making it less likely they would retaliate against an abusive spouse. Thus it seems that high internalized racism may be associated with an external
Internalized Racism 24 locus of control, low self esteem and negative life outcomes such as marital di ssatisfaction. Internalized Racism as a Moderator for Stereotype Threat Although it has not yet been investigated, internalized racism is a plausible moderator for stereotype threat, based on aforementioned moderators of stereotype threat. Identificati on with the stereotyped group, stigma consciousness, and stereotype avoidance are all closely related to internalized racism. First, internalized racism may itself be related to identification with the stereotyped group, such that those who are not strong ly identified with the group may not internalize negative stereotypes about it. Conversely, it is also possible that those who are weakly identified with the group have internalized negative stereotypes, thus explaining their psychological distance. It i s also possible certain individuals have a strong sense of ethnic pride and therefore do not accredit negative stereotypes about their group. Thus it seems possible that internalized racism may also be acting on stereotype threat through identification wit h the stereotype group. Second, stigma consciousness is closely tied to internalized racism because an individuals awareness of their stigmas is likely related to the level of internalization of attitudes about those stigmas. It seems likely that those that are constantly attending to their stigmas are more receptive to others negative attitudes about them, or perhaps they are more resistant. Regardless of the exact mechanism, it remains likely that based on the possible relationship between internaliz ed racism and stigma consciousness, there is a similar relationship between internalized racism and stereotype threat. Finally, stereotype avoidance is a concept that is certainly tied to internalized racism. Recall, that this
Internalized Racism 25 concept refers to one denyi ng that certain negative stereotypes about their group are self descriptive. This seems to capture the ideology of those with low internalized racism; they do not believe that negative attitudes about their group are relevant to themselves. Based on the f act that stereotype avoidance has already been established as a possible mediator to stereotype threat, it is also possible that a relationship exists between internalized racism and stereotype threat. Speculation is abundant on the precise relationship be tween identification with the stereotyped group, stigma consciousness, stereotype avoidance, stereotype threat, and internalized racism, but it remains plausible that there it a relationship, which lays the groundwork for a moderating role of internalized racism for stereotype threat. Finally, some of the main researchers in the area of stereotype threat have suggested a relationship between internalizing negative group stereotypes and stereotype threat. Steele, Spencer and Aronson (2002) suggest, the mo re a person has internalized the negative group stereotype, the less stereotype threat he or she may experience. They explain that this is likely because accepting negative stereotypes about ones group is likely coupled with disidentification with the d omains of the stereotype (Steele, 1997). Based on this, it is plausible that internalized racism will moderate the relationship between stereotype threat and performance. Taken together, evidence regarding the relationship among self esteem, identificat ion with the stereotyped group, stigma consciousness, stereotype avoidance, internalized racism and stereotype threat, as well as the endorsement of a relationship
Internalized Racism 26 between internalized racism and stereotype threat, make the suggestion of internalized racis m as a moderator for stereotype threat founded. Summary In conclusion, disparities by ethnicity exist in the United States in work outcomes and cardiovascular disease. Reactions to stereotype threat, in the form of self handicapping, performance dec rements, and increased blood pressure may help explain those disparities. However, differences among Black individuals are also prevalent. Internalized racism may be moderating stereotype threat. Purpose and Hypotheses It is important to note that the p opulation of interest in this study is Black employees, and the outcomes of interest are behavioral self handicapping (failing to participate in activities to improve promotion potential), objective job performance, and cardiovascular reactivity. However, the current study is being conducted on Black undergraduates in a laboratory setting. The idea is that if support for the hypothesis can be demonstrated in a laboratory setting, there will be greater support for attempting this research in an applied set ting. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the moderating effect of internalized racism on self handicapping, performance, and cardiovascular responses for Black individuals during a stereotype threat task. In the current study, participant s were given a chance to practice for a task prior to being administered a diagnostic test. The practice gave participants the opportunity to engage in behavioral self handicapping. Participants then completed a test and their blood pressure and performa nce were
Internalized Racism 27 monitored. Level of internalized racism was considered as a possible moderator for the relationship between stereotype threat and duration of practice (self handicapping), performance, and cardiovascular responses. Individuals with higher inter nalized racism have internalized many of the negative stereotypes about their group, such that they believe and accept these stereotypes, and may limit themselves based on them. These individuals are most likely not identified with domains in which negati ve stereotypes are prevalent because they accept those negative stereotypes. In contrast, individuals with lower internalized racism do not believe the negative stereotypes about their group. They are more likely to be identified with domains in which ne gative stereotypes are prevalent because they believe themselves to be capable of achieving in those domains. In the case of Blacks, those with high internalized racism are most likely not identified with academic or intellectual domains because negative stereotypes about Blacks permeate these areas. Thus, these individuals are least likely to experience stereotype threat because they do not identify with threatened domains, and identification with relevant domains is an important prerequisite for stereot ype threat. However, Blacks with lower internalized racism are more likely to experience stereotype threat because they are identified with academic or intellectual domains and are apprehensive about confirming the negative stereotypes about their group t hrough poor performance. Furthermore, because Blacks with higher internalized racism are less likely to experience stereotype threat, they may also be less likely to self handicap and will likely experience smaller changes in blood pressure and poorer tas k performance compared to those with lower internalized racism, as they are
Internalized Racism 28 unconcerned with their performance. In contrast, Blacks with lower internalized racism may self handicap more (to provide an alternate explanation for poor performance), experienc e higher changes in blood pressure (as they are more apprehensive about confirming the stereotypes), and perform better on the task (because they are concerned with their performance and will try harder). Hypothesis 1. Black individuals with higher inte rnalized racism will engage in more practice prior to a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism. There will be no differences based on internalized racism in duration of practice on the non diagnostic test. Hypothesis 2 Black individuals with higher internalized racism will perform similarly to individuals with lower internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. However, on the diagnostic test, individuals with higher internalized racism will perform more poorly th an individuals with lower internalized racism. Hypotheses 3 Black individuals with higher internalized racism will exhibit smaller changes in systolic blood pressure responses during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalize d racism. Cardiovascular reactivity will be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. Hypotheses 4 Black individuals with higher internalized racism will exhibit smaller changes in diastolic blood pressure responses during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism. Cardiovascular reactivity will be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test.
Internalized Racism 29 Hypotheses 5 Black individuals with higher internalized racism will exhibit smaller changes in heart rate responses during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism. Cardiovascular reactivity will be similar for individuals with high and low interna lized racism on the non diagnostic test.
Internalized Racism 30 Chapter Two Method Participants A total of 377 individuals participated in at least one part of the study. However, given there were several phases of the study, only 109 (84% female; 16% male) successfully completed all parts of the study and were included in the analyses. All participants were Black undergraduates recruited from the University of South Florida Psychology departments human participant pool. All participants were recruited on web based soft ware, Experimentrak. Mean age was 20.87 ( SD = 3.69). Of the 39 people who reported employment information, 15% were employed 20 or more hours per week. Potential participants were excluded from participation if they had a history of cardiovascular dise ase or if they were taking any medications that may affect the cardiovascular system. Individuals received course credit or extra credit for their participation in designated psychology courses. Measures Demographic data. Prior to arrival on the day o f the experiment, demographic data was collected online via Experimentrak. This information included: sex, age, ethnicity, employment information, and cardiovascular history.
Internalized Racism 31 Internalized racism Prior to arrival on the day of the experiment, particip ants completed the internalized racism questionnaire online using Experimentrak. Internalized racism was assessed using the Nadanolitization Scale (NAD) developed by Taylor, Wilson & Dobbins (1996). The NAD includes 49 items designed to measure the exten t to which Blacks identify with White stereotypes about Blacks. Subjects rate each item from a 0 8 scale (Not at all agree to Entirely agree). Fifteen items are reversed scored (2, 3, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 24, 34, 40, and 48), and the overall score range is 0 194. A total score is calculated by adding the responses to all 49 items. The measure has exhibited adequate reliability (a = 0.81). There are also two subscales that can be computed: the Racist subscale and the Social subscale. The R acist subscale (items 4, 5, 9, 13, 17, 20, 21, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49) measures attitudes and behaviors organized around the assumption that blacks are biologically or genetically inferior. The Social subscale ( items 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 33, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48) measures attitudes or behaviors that are organized around the idea that blacks are interpersonally different from other groups. Information about the NAD i s located in Appendix A. Practice i tems Included in the practice items are 100 roots of words and their meanings presented on Powerpoint slides. The practice items were presented on a computer monitor, and subjects navigated through the slides at thei r discretion using a keyboard. The content of the practice slides is independent of the content of the verbal test, such that amount of practice will not influence performance on the verbal test. The
Internalized Racism 32 duration of practice in total seconds was recorded as t he measure of self handicapping. A sample of the practice items is included in Appendix B. Verbal test. The verbal test included 30 questions adapted from the verbal section of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). All questions are designed to be diff icult, such that no more than 10% of the people taking test chose the right answer. The 30 questions of verbal ability are broken down into 10 sentence completion, 10 analogies, and 10 antonyms presented in that order on the test. The test format is desi gned to mimic real standardized testing formats. The test was presented as a computer response task, such that participants view each question on a computer monitor and mark their answer by using a keyboard. A digital clock was located next to the keyboar d so that the subjects could monitor their time. The number of correctly answered test items will serve as the measure of task performance. A copy of the verbal test is included in Appendix C. Cardiovascular reactivity. Three measures of cardiovascula r reactivity were taken: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). These were recorded using an Accutorr Plus non invasive blood pressure monitor (Datascope Corp., Mahwah, NJ) while the participant was in a seated position. Readings were taken from a blood pressure cuff applied to the non dominant arm. Three readings were taken at minutes 6, 8, and 10 during a 10 minute resting baseline period. Seventeen readings, in 2 minute intervals beginning at minute 0, were taken during the verbal test. Cardiovascular reactivity for all three indicators was calculated as the difference between the average of the first three verbal test readings and the average of the three baseline readings. The guidelines for recording the blood pressure were followed as documented
Internalized Racism 33 in a committee report by Shapiro, Jamner, Lane, Light, Myrtek, Sawada & Steptoe (1996). Procedure All questionnaires were completed prior to arrival on the day of the study using Experimentrak. For consistenc y, a White, female experimenter conducted all studies. It has been proposed that mistrust of whites may help explain disparities in test performance, when Blacks take tests of intellectual ability administered by Whites (Terrell, Terrell, & Taylor, 1981). Thus the presence of a White experimenter was employed to help precipitate stereotype threat. When the participants arrived, they were briefed on the procedure and asked to review an informed consent form. Their height and weight, as well as waist and hip circumference was then recorded. The participants were then moved to a small, private room where they performed the remainder to the tasks on a computer. Prior to the start of the tasks, a blood pressure cuff appropriate to the size of the participan ts arm was applied, and they were informed that the cuff will monitor their heart rate and blood pressure for the duration of the study. The participants watched ten minutes of a video about Hawaii during which three baseline blood pressures were taken. This step is taken to ensure that the subjects blood pressure falls to a resting level before the start of the tasks, and to establish a baseline blood pressure for each participant. During baseline each participant was assigned randomly to one of the t wo experimental groups: diagnostic or non diagnostic. Then all participants, regardless of experimental condition, were told that they will be given the chance to practice for a verbal test prior to its administration. They were told that they must practi ce for at least
Internalized Racism 34 one minute, and may view the slides for as long as they want after that. The total seconds that the participants spend practicing was recorded with a stopwatch. Their blood pressure was taken at the start of practice, and every five minut es thereafter. The non diagnostic group was told they will be taking a verbal test that is currently being developed for psychology students, and their responses will help in the refinement of the test. The diagnostic group was told that they will be taki ng a difficult test of verbal ability that has shown ethnic differences in verbal aptitude. The script for delivering the experimental manipulation is included in Appendix D. When the participant had completed the practice, they were instructed to begin t he test of verbal ability on the computer. Before the start of the test, participants were reminded of the purpose of this test. The non diagnostic group was told they are taking a developmental test for psychology students, and that their answers would help with the refinement of that test. They were assured that the researchers were mainly concerned with how they answered, and not if their answers were correct. The diagnostic group was told they are about to take a difficult test of verbal ability tha t has shown ethnic differences in the past, and that the purpose of the experiment is to investigate why Black students typically perform more poorly than White students on tests of verbal ability. All participants were told they have 30 minutes to comple te the test. They were allowed to spend as much time as needed on any individual item, but they were instructed to spend no more than one minute on any question to be able to complete all 30 questions within thirty minutes. Participants were able to moni tor their time using a digital clock. The participants blood pressures were was recorded at the start of the test and every two
Internalized Racism 35 minutes thereafter. The computer program recorded the number of correctly answered responses. At the conclusion of the study, the blood pressure cuff was removed and the participants completed a questionnaire asking their perceived purpose of the experiment. After all tasks have been completed, the subject was debriefed and credit was assigned on Experimentrak. Data Analyses Hypothesis one was tested with moderated regression. Condition (Diagnostic vs. Non diagnostic test), Internalized Racism (continuous) and their interaction (multiplicative interaction term) were entered as predictors for practice time in seconds as an ind icator of self handicapping. Hypothesis two was similarly tested. Condition (Diagnostic vs. Non diagnostic), Internalized Racism (continuous), and their interaction (multiplicative interaction term) were entered as predictors for task performance as numb er of correctly answered items. Hypotheses 3 5 were also tested with moderated regression. Condition (Diagnostic vs. Non diagnostic test), Internalized Racism (continuous) and their interaction (multiplicative interaction term) were entered as predictors for systolic blood pressure reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and heart rate reactivity with the appropriate baseline value of each entered as a covariate. Baseline values are often correlated with reactivity scores because change from a sta rting value is in part determined by the starting value when upper and lower limits of the degree of change are fixed (i.e., the law of initial values).
Internalized Racism 36 Chapter Three Results There were 55 participants in Diagnostic condition and 54 participants in the Non Diagnostic condition. There were an equal proportion of men and women within each group, but an unequal proportion of men to women in the study overall. Additionally, the average baseline systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly different between men and women. Males ( M = 121.41, SD = 8.39) exhibited a significantly higher SBP compared to females ( M = 108.75, SD = 10.19), ( t (113) = 4.84, p = .000). On the other hand, females ( M = 74.36, SD = 9.50) exhibited a significantly hi gher HR compared to males ( M = 65.96, SD = 10.58), ( t (113) = 3.31, p = .001). Given the unequal amounts of men and women in the experiment overall, as well as the baseline difference in cardiovascular measures, gender was also used as a covariate in anal yses involving SBP, DBP, and HR. There were no significant baseline differences between the diagnostic or non diagnostic group on any cardiovascular reactivity measure. The hypotheses were tested with the total score on the Nadanolitization scale (NAD) as an independent variable. However, exploratory analyses were also performed with the two subscales (Racist and Social) as independent variables in separate analyses. The NAD ( M = 102.88, SD = 38.61) exhibited alpha reliability similar to that reported in
Internalized Racism 37 previous studies (a = .89). The Racist subscale ( M = 49.26, SD = 24.61) and the Social subscale ( M = 53.63, SD = 19.08) both exhibited reliability similar to the NAD scale as a whole (a = .88 vs. a = .78). Each regression was tested for normality, hom ogeneity of variance, outliers, and multicollinearity. Overall, none of these issues posed a problem. Table 1 includes descriptive statistics, reliabilities, and correlations for all of the studied variables. Table 1 Correlations among variables and De scriptive Statistics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 NAD .89 2 Racist NAD .911* .88 3 Social NAD .847* .553* .78 4 Self handicapping .168 .172 .116 -5 Test Performance .195 .215 .121 .073 .73 6 SBP reactivity .007 011 .000 .159 .086 -7 DBP reactivity .026 .005 .057 .071 .084 .125 -8 HR reactivity .044 .070 .003 .043 .218* .143 .416* -9 Condition .000 .014 .018 .012 .119 .259* .066 .161 -10 Gender .159 .175 .096 .024 .051 .047 .033 .134 039 -Mean 102.8 49.2 53.6 769.5 11.8 1.2 1.1 2.6 SD 38.6 24.6 19.1 476.5 4.4 6.2 4.6 4.8 p < .05
Internalized Racism 38 Hypothesis 1 stated that Black individuals with higher internalized racism would engage in more practice prior to a diagnostic test compared to B lack individuals with lower internalized racism, and that duration of practice will be similar for both groups on the non diagnostic test. Duration of practice was the operationalization of self handicapping. The hypothesis was not supported. There was, however, a marginally significant main effect for internalized racism ( = .168, t (107) = 1.1765, p = .080). Participants practiced longer as level of internalized racism increased. When the Racist subscale was entered into the model instead of the total NAD, a similar marginal result is found ( = .173, t (107) = 1.811, p = .073). However, when the Social subscale was entered, no part of the model was supported. Results of the moderated regressions are shown in Table 2. Overall, participants practiced an average of 769.55 seconds ( SD = 476.59), or approximately 13 minutes.
Internalized Racism 39 Table 2 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = Self handicapping) Study Model Variable B SE t p R 2 1 1 NAD 2.146 1.215 1.765 .080 Condition 5.375 91.313 .059 .953 .028 2 NAD 2.012 1.727 1.165 .247 Condition 21.824 265.467 .082 .935 Interaction .267 2.442 .109 .913 .028 2 1 Racist NAD 3.428 1.894 1.811 .073 Condition 8.182 91.330 .090 .929 .030 2 Racist NAD 3.807 2.671 1.425 .157 Con dition 45.609 206.774 .221 .826 Interaction .768 3.805 .202 .840 .030 3 1 Social NAD 2.954 2.456 1.203 .232 Condition 1.015 91.906 1.203 .991 .013 2 Social NAD 1.682 3.467 .485 .629 Condition 137.895 278.241 .496 .621 Interaction 2. 570 4.928 .521 .603 .016 p < .05 Hypothesis 2 stated that Black individuals with higher internalized racism would perform similarly to individuals with lower internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. However, on the diagnostic test, individuals wi th higher internalized racism would
Internalized Racism 40 perform more poorly than individuals with lower internalized racism. It should be noted that data was collected for only 86 participants due to attrition and technical difficulties early in the study. This hypothesis wa s not supported. Again, however, there were marginally significant main effects for total internalized racism ( = .188, t (79) = 1.699, p = .093) as well as the Racist subscale ( = .208, t (79) = 1.884, p = .063), but no support for the model including the Social subscale as a predictor. There was a trend for test score to decrease as internalized racism incre ased. Results of the moderated regressions are shown in Table 3. Overall, participants received a score of 39% on the test, which exceeded expectations about the difficulty of the measure.
Internalized Racism 41 Table 3 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = Test Performance) Study Model Variable B SE t p R 2 1 1 NAD .020 .012 1.699 .093 Condition .646 .994 .650 .518 .043 2 NAD .012 .016 .741 .461 Condition 2.632 2.703 .974 .333 Interaction .019 .024 .790 .432 .051 2 1 Racist N AD .036 .019 1.884 .063 Condition .617 .991 .622 .536 .051 2 Racist NAD .023 .025 .911 .365 Condition 2.241 2.144 1.045 .299 Interaction .033 .039 .855 .395 .060 3 1 Social NAD .025 .025 1.037 .303 Condition .744 1.003 .742 .460 .021 2 Social NAD .011 .034 .312 .755 Condition 2.418 2.869 .843 .402 Interaction .031 .049 .623 .535 .026 Hypotheses 3 stated that Black individuals with higher internalized racism would exhibit smaller changes in SBP during a diagnostic t est compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism. Systolic blood pressure would be similar for individuals
Internalized Racism 42 with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. This hypothesis was partially supported. Results indicated a mai n effect for condition ( = .771, t (103) = 2.877, p = .005) such that participants in the diagnostic condition experienced greater SBP reactivity ( M = 2.15, SD = 4.22) compared participants in the non diagnostic condition ( M = .37, SD = 4.31). Results also indicate a marginally significant main effect for internalized racism ( = .240, t (103) = 1.848, p = .067). Similarly, there was a marginally significant interaction effect for internalized racism in the relationship between condition and SBP ( = .545, t (103) = 1.956, p = 053) in the hypothesized direction. In the diagnostic group, internalized racism was negatively related to systolic blood pressure reactivity such that those with higher internalized racism exhibited less SBP reactivity compared to those with lower in int ernalized racism. However, in the non diagnostic group, there was an opposite trend. Those higher in internalized exhibited greater SBP reactivity. Again, there were similar findings for the Racist subscale of the NAD. When this subscale is used as a p redictor, there was a significant main effect for condition ( = .677, t (103) = 3.260, p = .002), as well as a significant main effect for Racist internalized racism ( = .271, t (103) = 2.103, p = .038), and a significant interaction ( = .471, t (103) = 2.125, p = .036). When the Social subscale is used as a predictor, there was only a significant main effect for condition ( = .276, t (103) = 2.960 p = .004). Results of the moderated regression are located in Table 4.
Internalized Racism 43 Table 4 Results of Moderated Reg ression (Dependent Variable = SBP Reactivity) Study Model Variable B SE t p R 2 1 1 Gender 1.560 1.306 1.194 .235 Baseline systolic BP .085 .049 1.735 .086 .029 2 Gender 1.398 1.276 1.096 .276 Baseline systolic BP .075 .047 1.576 .118 NAD .007 .011 .668 .506 Condition 2.462 .822 2.995 .003 .108* 3 Gender 1.710 1.269 1.348 .181 Baseline systolic BP .090 .047 1.901 .060 NAD .028 .015 1.848 .067 Condition 6.811 2.367 2.877 .005 Interaction .043 .022 1.956 .053 .140 2 1 Gender 1.560 1.306 1.194 .235 Baseline systolic BP .085 .049 1.735 .086 .029 2 Gender 1.352 1.276 1.060 .292 Baseline systolic BP .075 .047 1.595 .114 Racist NAD .015 .017 .865 .389 Condition 2.481 .822 3.020 .003 .111* 3 Gende r 1.804 1.273 1.417 .160 Baseline systolic BP .093 .047 1.961 .053 Racist NAD .050 .024 2.103 .038 Condition 5.983 1.835 3.260 .002 Interaction .073 .034 2.125 .036 .148* 3 1 Gender 1.560 1.306 1.194 .235 Baseline systolic BP .085 .049 1.735 .086 .029 2 Gender 1.492 1.271 1.174 .243 Baseline systolic BP .073 .047 1.545 .125 Social NAD .005 .022 .226 .822 Condition 2.435 .823 2.960 .004 .105* 3 Gender 1.551 1.270 1.221 .225 Baseline systolic BP .079 .048 1.6 68 .098 Social NAD .030 .031 .970 .335 Condition 5.133 2.475 2.074 .041 Interaction .051 .044 1.155 .251 .117 p < .05 p < .10
Internalized Racism 44 Hypotheses 4 stated that Black individuals with higher internalized racism would exhibit less DBP rea ctivity during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism, and DBP reactivity will be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. Hypothesis 4 was not supported when the tot al score for the NAD was entered into the model, nor when either of the subscales were used. Results of the moderated regression are located in Table 5.
Internalized Racism 45 Table 5 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = DBP Reactivity) Study Mo del Variable B SE t p R 2 1 1 Gender .716 1.158 .619 .438 Baseline diastolic BP .286 .069 4.135 .000 .140 2 Gender .773 1.186 .652 .516 Baseline diastolic BP .284 .070 4.081 .000 NAD .002 .012 .154 .878 Condition .605 .847 .714 .477 .144 3 Gender .819 1.192 .687 .494 Baseline diastolic BP .291 .071 4.108 .000 NAD .005 .016 .290 .771 Condition 1.954 2.488 .786 .434 Interaction .013 .023 .577 .565 .147 2 1 Gender .716 1.158 .619 .538 Baseline diastolic BP .2 86 .069 4.135 .000 .140 2 Gender .709 1.189 .597 .552 Baseline diastolic BP .285 .070 4.091 .000 Racist NAD .002 .018 .131 .896 Condition .621 .847 .733 .465 .144 3 Gender .796 1.200 .663 .509 Baseline diastolic BP .291 .071 4.131 .000 Racist NAD .013 .025 .543 .588 Condition 1.756 1.933 .908 .366 Interaction .024 .036 .654 .515 .148 3 1 Gender .716 1.158 .619 .538 Baseline diastolic BP .286 .069 4.135 .000 .140 2 Gender .800 1.172 .683 .496 Baseline diast olic BP .283 .070 4.068 .000 Social NAD .011 .023 .471 .638 Condition .603 .844 .714 .477 .146 3 Gender .799 1.178 .678 .499 Baseline diastolic BP .286 .071 4.055 .000 Social NAD .004 .032 .121 .904 Condition 1.343 2.574 .522 .603 Interaction .014 .046 .305 .761 .147
Internalized Racism 46 Hypotheses 5 stated that Black individuals with higher internalized racism would exhibit less HR reactivity during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism, and HR re activity will be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. This hypothesis was partially supported. There was a marginally significant main effect for condition ( = .162, t (104) = 1.799, p = .075) when tot al NAD was entered as a predictor. Similarly, there is a marginally significant main effect for condition ( = .164, t (104) = 1.818, p = .072) when the Racist NAD is entered into the model, as well as when the Social NAD in entered into the model ( = .16 1, t (104) = 1.788, p = .077). The diagnostic group experienced a greater increase in heart rate ( M = 3.37, SD = 5.32) compared to the non diagnostic group ( M = 1.81, SD = 4.18). Results of the moderated regression are located in Table 6.
Internalized Racism 47 Tabl e 6 Results of Moderated Regression (Dependent Variable = HR Reactivity) Study Model Variable B SE t p R 2 1 1 Gender .301 1.232 .244 .808 Baseline heart rate .171 .045 3.814 .000 .136 2 Gender .299 1.241 .241 .810 Baseline heart rate .174 .04 5 3.904 .000 NAD .002 .012 .164 .870 Condition 1.531 .851 1.799 .075 .162 3 Gender .322 1.246 .259 .796 Baseline heart rate .176 .045 3.920 .000 NAD .008 .016 .496 .621 Condition 2.809 2.484 1.131 .261 Interaction .013 .023 548 .585 .164 2 1 Gender .301 1.232 .244 .808 Baseline heart rate .171 .045 3.814 .000 .136 2 Gender .247 1.242 .199 .842 Baseline heart rate .173 .045 3.886 .000 Racist NAD .007 .018 .398 .692 Condition 1.547 .851 1.818 .072 .163 3 Gender .278 1.251 .222 .825 Baseline heart rate .175 .045 3.884 .000 Racist NAD .013 .025 .521 .603 Condition 2.139 1.940 1.102 .192 Interaction .012 .036 .340 .735 .164 3 1 Gender .301 1.232 .244 .808 Baseline heart rate .171 045 3.814 .000 .136 2 Gender .355 1.231 .288 .774 Baseline heart rate .174 .045 3.915 .000 Social NAD .004 .023 .179 .859 Condition 1.518 .849 1.788 .077 .162 3 Gender .339 1.235 .275 .784 Baseline heart rate .175 .045 3.921 .000 Social NAD .010 .032 .321 .749 Condition 3.080 2.567 1.200 .233 Interaction .029 .046 .645 .520 .165
Internalized Racism 48 Taken together, there was limited support for the hypotheses presented in the study. The most significant finding was the moderation of i nternalized racism in the relationship between stereotype threat and SBP reactivity.
Internalized Racism 49 Chapter Four Discussion The purpose of the current study was to investigate the moderating effect of internalized racism in the relationship between stereotype thr eat and several outcomes including self handicapping, test performance, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Five hypotheses were tested with five moderated regressions. The first hypothesis stated that participants in the diagnostic condition with lower internalized racism would engage in less practice than participants with higher internalized racism, while there would be no differences in the non diagnostic condition The rationale for the diagnostic group was that indi viduals with lower internalized racism do not accept the negative stereotypes about their group, and thus they would be more worried about confirming those stereotypes by performing poorly on the verbal test. This worry would lead them to engage in more s elf handicapping (i.e. less practice). However, there should be no difference based on internalized racism in the non diagnostic condition because participants are not being exposed to stereotype threat. Regardless of what version of the NAD was used in the regression model, the hypothesis was not supported. There was, however, a marginal main effect for internalized racism when the total NAD or Racist NAD were used as predictors. In other words, there was a
Internalized Racism 50 trend for individuals high in internalized ra cism to spend more time practicing than those low in internalized racism regardless of condition. This suggests that internalized racism may impact self handicapping. Black individuals who do not accept the negative stereotypes about their group may enga ge in self handicapping prior to academic performance as a way to attribute possible poor performance to lack of practice or studying. Black individuals higher on internalized racism believe the negative stereotypes about their group, thus are not looking for an alternate attribution to poor academic performance. The lack of a main effect for condition could be attributed to a number of factors. One may be the way the protocol was delivered to participants. When participants in the diagnostic group wer e given instructions for the practice portion of the experiment, they were told Later you are going to take a difficult test of verbal ability. This test has been adapted from the SAT and has shown ethnic differences in performance. This statement was designed to be ambiguous, yet to elicit feelings of stereotype threat. Right before they completed the verbal test portion of the experiment, they were told Now you are going to take the difficult test of verbal ability. The test has been adapted from t he SAT and has shown ethnic differences in performance. Part of the purpose of this experiment is to investigate why Black students typically perform more poorly than White students on tests of verbal ability. These instructions were designed to elicit a much stronger stereotype threat. The practice instructions were intentionally weaker due to fears that participants might habituate to the stereotype threat and that cardiovascular reactivity may have been compromised. However, this may have had the un intended effect of
Internalized Racism 51 weakening the situation before practice. This may help explain why a main effect for condition as well as an interaction was not found: stereotype threat was not properly elicited before practice, and thus self handicapping was not soug ht by certain individuals in the diagnostic group. Another explanation for these findings is the type of self handicapping studied. In the current experiment, participants were given a chance to behaviorally self handicap by failing to engage in practic e prior to a verbal test. However, verbal self handicapping, or providing verbal reasons for future poor performance, was not studied. It is possible that internalized racism may impact verbal self handicapping more so than behavioral self handicapping. Individuals low on internalized racism are more apprehensive about confirming negative stereotypes, yet they still want to perform well to disprove them. Thus, they may avoid behavioral self handicapping as it could actually inhibit their performance. Ve rbal self handicapping, on the other hand, is less likely to inhibit performance, and thus may be a more attractive strategy for Black individuals with low internalized racism. Future studies may want to investigate this possibility. Third, the lack of a main effect in this analysis may be impacted by the nature of the stereotype elicited. Prior research supporting behavioral self handicapping in response to stereotype threat has been conducted on White participants in an athletic ability task (Stone, 2 002). These participants exhibited self handicapping (i.e. lack of practice) when put under stereotype threat for athletic ability. However, a second stereotype, laziness, could be associated with amount of practice. Laziness is not a stereotype attri buted to White individuals, thus the participants in Stones (2002) study
Internalized Racism 52 may not have been worried about confirming this second laziness stereotype. On the other hand, laziness is a stereotype attributed to Black individuals. If a second form of stereot ype threat was inadvertently elicited through the practice task, this may have confounded the results. It should be noted that while practice times were generally low (about 12 minutes, the standard deviation was large (SD 8 minutes) and practice times ranged from 97 seconds to 34 minutes. Perhaps another unstudied variable (e.g. prior experience with laziness related racism, hopelessness or disengagement when encountering the possibility of confirming two stereotypes, conscientiousness), combined with the weak stereotype threat condition prior to the practice task, could better explain the results. Finally, it is also important to note that this study was conducted in an artificial lab setting and participants had no incentive to practice or to do well on the verbal test, thus this may have impacted practice time as well. The second hypothesis stated that Black individuals higher in internalized racism would perform similarly to individuals lower in internalized racism on the non diagnostic test, whe reas on the diagnostic test, higher internalized racism would be related to poorer performance. This hypothesis was not supported. However, there was a marginally significant main effect for internalized racism when the NAD or Racist NAD was used as a pre dictor. The results suggested a trend such that Black individuals with lower internalized racism answered more items correctly than individuals with higher internalized racism. The lack of a main effect for condition is troubling, because a performance d ecrement under stereotype threat is a main finding in the literature. In the current study,
Internalized Racism 53 participants were alone in a room while taking the test. Previous stereotype threat studies have been conducted with participants in groups (e.g. Spencer et al., 1999) as well as with single participants (e.g. Steele & Aronson, 1995). Although, it is unclear from many of the single participant studies whether or not the participants shared a room with the experimenter while taking the test. Thus, it is possible t hat taking a test in complete isolation mitigates the typical impact of stereotype threat on performance. The significant main effect in the SBP and HR analyses seem to counter this argument, but it should be noted that these were calculated using only th e first three readings on the testing session. An item analysis was conducted to investigate whether the properties of the test could have been contributing to the results. The p values (item means) and standard deviations were typical of a difficult te st and were generally unrevealing. However, the participants performed better on the verbal test overall than anticipated (39% correct vs. 10 15% correct). It is possible that the version of the test proved too easy, and thus impacted the results. Alpha was sufficient (a = .73), and item results for alpha if item deleted failed to reveal troublesome items. Next, the moderated regression was re analyzed with test score calculated as the first ten items only, given that fatigue could have been a problem in this lengthy experiment. This was similarly unrevealing. Finally, several other stereotype threat studies utilizing ability tests have covaried SAT score in the analyses. This information was collected as part of another study, and the item was answe red on a Likert scale. However, when the moderated regression was reanalyzed with prior SAT score as a covariate, the results were unchanged.
Internalized Racism 54 The third hypothesis stated that black individuals with higher internalized racism would exhibit less SBP reac tivity during a diagnostic test compared to black individuals with lower internalized racism, while SBP reactivity should be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. There is partial support for this hypoth esis when total NAD was used as a predictor, and full support for the model when the Racist NAD was used. In other words, there was support for a moderating effect of internalized racism in the relationship between stereotype threat and SBP reactivity. In the diagnostic condition, individuals with lower internalized racism exhibited greater SBP reactivity than individuals with higher internalized racism. Thus, if one has lower internalized racism, there is a greater stress response to stereotype threat. This aligns with the reasoning that an individual with low internalized racism does not accept the negative stereotypes about their group and thus is more anxious about confirming those negative stereotypes when they are activated in a relevant performance domain. The fourth hypothesis stated that Black individuals with high internalized racism were hypothesized to exhibit less DBP reactivity during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with low internalized racism, and reactivity will be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. However, regardless of the form of the NAD entered into the model, this hypothesis was not supported. A significant finding for SBP but not DBP in studies involving Black p articipants and race related stress is not unprecedented (Clark, 2006), and may result from SBP indicating cardiac reactivity while DBP indicates vascular reactivity.
Internalized Racism 55 Finally, the fifth hypothesis stated that Black individuals with higher internalized r acism will exhibit less HR reactivity during a diagnostic test compared to Black individuals with lower internalized racism, and reactivity will be similar for individuals with high and low internalized racism on the non diagnostic test. This hypothesis w as partially supported. Here, there was a marginally significant main effect for condition when any of the three forms of the NAD were entered in the model; HR reactivity was greater in the diagnostic condition compared to the non diagnostic condition. It seems that the stress related to stereotype threat emerges regardless of level of internalized racism; just mentioning that Blacks typically perform more poorly than Whites on tests of verbal ability may have caused an increase in heart beats per minute. While there are a host of explanations for some of the findings in this study individually, there are two additional explanations for the pattern of results as a whole. The first regards domain identification. An important assumption in eliciting ster eotype threat is that the target is highly identified with the domain of interest (Steele & Aronson, 1995). Some previous studies have ensured this by screening out participants with low standardized test scores or low self reported domain identification. However, this was not done in the present investigation. It is possible that the present sample is not as identified with verbal ability as students at more prestigious four year universities. If this were the case, the participants would not be lookin g for alternate attributions for poor performance (i.e. would not self handicap) and would not try their best on the verbal test as they would be unconcerned with their performance. This would help explain the lack of group differences on these two outcom es.
Internalized Racism 56 A second explanation for the pattern of findings regards the instructions used to manipulate stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is typically manipulated in one of two ways. In the first, the diagnostic group is told they are going to be taking a diagnostic test of some ability while the non diagnostic group is told they are taking a test for developmental purposes and no mention of ability is made. In the second, the diagnostic group, in addition to being told that they are to take a difficult te st of some ability, is told that one group typically outperforms another group (e.g. Asians outperform Whites in math), and in the non diagnostic group there is no mention of ethnic differences or it is specifically said that there are no ethnic difference s on this ability. However, upon review of the literature, only one published study with Black participants in cognitive ability used the second type of manipulation (Blascovich, et al., 2001). Furthermore, this study used the Remote Associates Test whic h measures verbal ability in a different way than the current study. The remainder of the studies with Black participants always used the first type of stereotype threat manipulation (i.e. no specific mention of ethnic differences). It is possible that t he experience of stereotype threat by Black individuals is different when it is explicitly said that there are ethnic differences on verbal ability prior to taking a verbal test. The stereotypes regarding cognitive differences between Blacks and Whites ar e arguably more pervasive or more troubling than the stereotypes for differences between men and women, for example. Perhaps stating that Blacks typically perform more poorly than Whites on tests of verbal ability has a different effect than merely statin g that the test is designed to measure verbal ability. By framing the characteristics of the test as fact, participants viewed them as inevitability and withdrew
Internalized Racism 57 effort. This would explain why there were no group differences on self handicapping and test performance, yet significant cardiovascular reactivity. Rather than eliciting stereotype threat, the instructions may have been merely stressing the participants by reminding them of academic trends for their race. Interestingly, low domain identificati on and improper stereotype threat manipulation could have been working in concert to impact the findings. Future studies may want to compare types of instructions for different groups of individuals, as well as measure and compare domain identification. Overall, results were stronger when the Racist NAD was used over the total NAD, and no significant findings resulted from the use of the Social NAD. Recall that the Racist NAD measures feelings of internalized racism originating from the idea that Blacks are genetically inferior to Whites, and the Social NAD measures feelings of internalized racism originating from the idea that Blacks are socially different from Whites. It appears from the findings that accepting the negative stereotypes about Blacks as a group based on genetic inferiority has a much stronger impact on the relationship between stereotype threat and outcomes. Genetic inferiority is likely assumed to be unchangeable, and beliefs regarding this issue are probably deep seated and emotionall y driven. Thus, when put in a stereotype threatened situation, these genetic based negative stereotypes may arise more so than socially based stereotypes, especially since the comparatively poor performance of Black individuals on verbal tests is stereoty pically believed to be because Blacks arent as smart as Whites. From the findings in this
Internalized Racism 58 study, future researchers may want to include the Racist NAD over the total NAD, especially because half the items are needed. Limitations and Future Directions The sample characteristics were likely the biggest limitation in the current study. The restricted age range as well as educational background makes it difficult to generalize to other populations. Since the majority of participants were young, it is d ifficult to discuss cardiovascular reactivity in response to stereotype threat in older populations. Similarly, including participants with a more diverse educational background would also be beneficial, since internalized racism and stereotype threat is likely different among individuals who did not attend college, or perhaps attended a trade/vocational school instead of a 4 year university. The stereotype threat literature as a whole would benefit from these improvements, since most studies have been co nducted on undergraduates. Also, the operationalization of self handicapping may have problematic. While previous studies have used practice before a test as a form of self handicapping (Stone et al., 1999), there are many other forms of self handicapp ing which were not investigated (e.g. claiming lack of sleep). Future studies may want to investigate other types of self handicapping which are used by individuals with differing levels of internalized racism. Finally, motivation may have been an issu e for this study. Participants were guaranteed 3 points of extra credit towards a course regardless of their performance during the experiment. Thus, there was no incentive to practice for any length of time or to exhibit peak performance on the verbal t est. The artificial environment may not have
Internalized Racism 59 been eliciting true differences between individuals, which would impact the results. Future studies should provide incentives for good test performance. Conclusions The current study was successful is demon strating that Black individuals experience SBP and HR reactivity in response to stereotype threat, that internalized racism moderates the relationship with SBP, and that internalized racism may have an impact on self handicapping and test performance. Whi le the population of interest is employed Black individuals, and ideally results from this study would be used to make inferences about workplace phenomenon (e.g. Black employees failing to engage in activities designed to improve promotion potential), it is difficulty to do so with confidence at this time. There is a paucity of research on stereotype threat in the workplace, likely due to the difficulty in studying it outside of the laboratory. Future studies may want to utilize findings from this study and others when designing field studies in organizations.
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Internalized Racism 73 Appendix A Questionnaires
Internalized Racism 74 Obtaining a copy of the Internalized Racism Scale of the Nadanolitization Inventory and any correspondence concerning this measure should be address es to Dr. Jerome Taylor, Department of Africana Studies, University of Pittsburgh, 4140 Wesley W. Posvar Hall, 230 S Bouquet Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260.
Internalized Racism 75 Appendix B Practice Items (example)
Internalized Racism 76 ROOT: ac, acr Meaning: age, era Examples: Primeval = of the age Medieval = of the Middle
Internalized Racism 77 Appendix C Verbal Test
Internalized Racism 78 Directions: Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Question 1 Normally an individual thunderstorm lasts about 45 minutes, but under certain conditions the storm may ______________, becoming ever more severe, for as long as four hours. A. wane B. moderate C. persist D. vacillate E. disperse Qu estion 2 We lost confidence in him because he never __________ the grandiose promises he had made. A. forgot about B. reneged on C. tired of D. delivered on E. retreated from Question 3 No other artist rewards the viewer with more sheer pleasure than Miro; he is one of those blessed artists who combine profundity and __________. A. education B. wisdom C. faith D. fun E. depth
Internalized Racism 79 Appendix C (continued) Question 4 The child was so spoiled by her indulgent parents that she pouted and became __________ when she did not receive all of their attention. A. discreet B. suspicious C. elated D. sullen E. tranquil Question 5 The __________ of evidence was on the side of the plaintiff since all but one witness testified that his story was correct. A. paucity B. propensity C. accuracy D. brunt E. preponderance Question 6 Though he was theoretically a friend of labor, his voting record in Congress __________ that impression A. implied B. created C. confirmed D. belied E. maintained Question 7 Your __________ tactics may compel me to cancel the contract as the job must be finished on tim e. A. dilatory B. offensive C. repugnant D. infamous E. confiscatory
Internalized Racism 80 Appendix C (continued) Question 8 They fired upon the enemy from behind trees, walls, and any other __________ point they could find. A. conspicuous B. definitive C. vantage D. exposed E. indefensible Question 9 W e need more men of culture and enlightenment; we have too many __________ among us. A. visionaries B. students C. philistines D. pragmatists E. philosophers Question 10 Chaotic in conception but not in __________, Kellys canvases are as neat as the proverbial pin. A. conc eit B. theory C. execution D. origin E. intent
Internalized Racism 81 Appendix C (continued) Directions: In each of the following questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresse s a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair Question 11 mason : wall A. artist : easel B. fisherman : trout C. author : book D. congressman : senator E. sculptor : mallet Question 12 fire : ashes A. accident : delay B. wood : splinters C. water : waves D. regret : melancholy E. event : memories Question 13 goose : gander A. duck : drake B. hen : chicken C. sheep : flock D. dog : kennel E. horse : bridle Question 14 judge : courthouse A. carpenter : bench B. lawyer : brief C. architect : blueprint D. physician : neck E. landlord : studio
Internalized Racism 82 Appen dix C (continued) Question 15 pigheaded : yield A. lionhearted : retreat B. lily livered : flee C. dogged : pursue D. featherbrained : giggle E. eagle eyed : discern Question 16 fox : cunning A. dog : playful B. hyena : amusing C. beaver : industrious D. vixen : cute E. colt : sturdy Question 17 deadbeat : pay A. killjoy : lament B. spoilsport : refrain C. daredevil : risk D. diehard : quit E. turncoat : betray Question 18 ream : paper A. carton : milk B. statue : marble C. tablet : clay D. ink : pen E. card : wood
Internalized Racism 83 Appendix C (continued) Question 19 whisp er : speak A. brush : touch B. skip : walk C. listen : hear D. request : ask E. whimper : whine Question 20 buffoon : dignity A. braggart : modesty B. blackguard: strength C. laughingstock : ridicule D. imposter : identification E. gambler : risk Directions: In each of the followin g questions, a word is presented with five word choices following it. From the five answer choices, choose the best word that reflects the opposite of the word given. Question 21 Industry A. cleanliness B. pragmatism C. sloth D. promptness E. abasement Question 22 Fick le A. spotless B. industrious C. welcome D. urgent E. appreciate
Internalized Racism 84 Appendix C (continued) Question 23 Critical A. unimportant B. uncertain C. silent D. coherent E. destructive Question 24 Testy A. erroneous B. uncommunicative C. even tempered D. quick witted E. industrious Question 25 Compose A. disturb B. reveal C. strengthen D. isolate E. prevent Question 26 Skeptical A. theoretical B. indifferent C. ready to believe D. eager for change E. lost in thought
Internalized Racism 85 Appendix C (continued) Question 27 Conclusive A. difficult to express B. bringing bad luck C. easy to solve D. lacking merit E. open to qu estion Question 28 Adherent A. fugitive B. dissembler C. opponent D. educator E. witness Question 29 Slack A. rough B. active C. liberal D. dependent E. familiar Question 30 Irk A. pry B. tinge C. beguile D. convince E. soothe
Internalized Racism 86 Appendix C (continued) Correct Answers to Verbal Test: 1. C 2. D 3. D 4. D 5. E 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. C 11. C 12. E 13. A 14. D 15. A 16. C 17. D 18. E 19. A 20. A 21. C 22. E 23. A 24. C 25. A 26. C 27. E 28. C 29. B 30. E
Internalized Racism 87 Appendix D Experimental Manipulation Instructions
Internalized Racism 88 Practice Instructions for Diagnostic Condition: Later you are going to take a difficult test of verbal ability. This test has been adapted from the SAT a nd has shown ethnic differences in performance. In a moment, you will be given a chance to practice for that verbal test by viewing slides of roots of words, their meanings, and examples of complete words. You must practice for the test for at least a mi nute but you may go as long as you want. When I close the door and say begin over the speaker, start viewing the slides by pressing the arrow key. When you are done, simply speak out loud. Do you have any questions? Task Instructions for Diagnostic Condition: Now you are going to take the difficult test of verbal ability. The test has been adapted from the SAT and has shown ethnic differences in performance. Part of the purpose of this experiment is to investigate why black students typically per form more poorly than white students on tests of verbal ability. The test includes 30 questions and you will have 30 minutes to complete the test. It is recommended that you spend no more than 1 minute on any question in order to be able to complete the t est in time. You can monitor your time with the clock provided. The next question will appear on the screen automatically after you answer a question. You cannot go back to previous questions on the test, and you must answer each question in order to mov e on. Use the keyboard to enter the letter of your answer to each question. You can start the test by pressing the space bar, but please do not do so until I say begin over the speaker. Also, you must remain in the room for 30 minutes regardless of whet her or not you finish early, as we must get all of the blood pressures. Do you have any questions? Practice Instructions for Non Diagnostic Condition: Later you are going to take a test of verbal ability. Your responses on this test will help with th e development of a new version of the SAT for psychology students. We will mainly be looking at how you answer, not if your answers are correct. In a moment, you will be given a chance to practice for that verbal test by viewing slides of roots of words, their meanings, and examples of complete words. You must practice for the test for at least a minute but you may go as long as you want. When I close the door and say begin over the speaker, start viewing the slides by pressing the arrow key. When you are done, simply speak out loud. Do you have any questions?
Internalized Racism 89 Appendix D (continued) Task Instructions for Non Diagnostic Condition: Now you are going to take the test of verbal ability. Your answers will help with the refinement of a new versi on of the SAT for psychology students. We will mainly be looking at how you answer, not if your answers are correct. The test includes 30 questions and you will have 30 minutes to complete the test. It is recommended that you spend no more than 1 minute o n any question in order to be able to complete the test in time. You can monitor your time with the clock provided. The next question will appear on the screen automatically after you answer a question. You cannot go back to previous questions on the te st, and you must answer each question in order to move on. Use the keyboard to enter the letter of your answer to each question. You can start the test by pressing the space bar, but please do not do so until I say begin over the speaker. Also, you must remain in the room for 30 minutes regardless of whether or not you finish early, as we must get all of the blood pressures. Do you have any questions? *Note: the remainder of the script was identical for both conditions.