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Title:
The baccalaureate community colleges in Florida a policy evaluation
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Manias, Nicholas
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Governance
Policy cycles
Accountability
Teacher shortages
Teacher education
Dissertations, Academic -- Higher Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine if community college baccalaureate programs in Florida were fulfilling the goals that were set forth in the legislation that created them. The study examined whether the baccalaureate level education programs at three community colleges in Florida were increasing access to baccalaureate education. The study investigated enrollment trends at all public institutions in Florida, reasons why students chose the community colleges for their upper division education, alternative plans students may have had if these programs did not exist, whether the limited number of baccalaureate programs at the community colleges impacted students' choice of major, and how the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate programs compared with their counterparts at other four-year institutions in the state.^ The data included enrollment data, responses from a survey instrument that i created, and data from the national survey of student engagement's (nsse) data warehouse. The enrollment data included the upper division enrollment in education programs at public institutions in florida. The survey instrument used open-ended questions and likert-scale items from the nsse. The survey's respondents were juniors and seniors (n=140) from baccalaureate education programs at the three community colleges. Most students chose the community colleges for their upper division education because of location and cost. Almost three-fourths of the students who participated in this study reported that they would have attended another institution for their baccalaureate studies if the upper divisions at the community colleges did not exist. One-fifth of the respondents said that they would not have been able to earn a baccalaureate degree without the community college baccalaureate programs.^ The overwhelming majority of participants chose to major in education for a traditional reason. Finally, the students from the community college baccalaureate programs seemed to have better schoolwork habits and were more engaged than their counterparts at other four-year institutions in the state. The results of this study suggest that the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at community colleges in Florida are increasing access to baccalaureate education.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ed.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Nicholas Manias.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 154 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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University of South Florida
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aleph - 001935423
oclc - 226045194
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002050
usfldc handle - e14.2050
System ID:
SFS0026368:00001


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ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine if community college baccalaureate programs in Florida were fulfilling the goals that were set forth in the legislation that created them. The study examined whether the baccalaureate level education programs at three community colleges in Florida were increasing access to baccalaureate education. The study investigated enrollment trends at all public institutions in Florida, reasons why students chose the community colleges for their upper division education, alternative plans students may have had if these programs did not exist, whether the limited number of baccalaureate programs at the community colleges impacted students' choice of major, and how the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate programs compared with their counterparts at other four-year institutions in the state.^ The data included enrollment data, responses from a survey instrument that i created, and data from the national survey of student engagement's (nsse) data warehouse. The enrollment data included the upper division enrollment in education programs at public institutions in florida. The survey instrument used open-ended questions and likert-scale items from the nsse. The survey's respondents were juniors and seniors (n=140) from baccalaureate education programs at the three community colleges. Most students chose the community colleges for their upper division education because of location and cost. Almost three-fourths of the students who participated in this study reported that they would have attended another institution for their baccalaureate studies if the upper divisions at the community colleges did not exist. One-fifth of the respondents said that they would not have been able to earn a baccalaureate degree without the community college baccalaureate programs.^ The overwhelming majority of participants chose to major in education for a traditional reason. Finally, the students from the community college baccalaureate programs seemed to have better schoolwork habits and were more engaged than their counterparts at other four-year institutions in the state. The results of this study suggest that the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at community colleges in Florida are increasing access to baccalaureate education.
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The Baccalaureate Community Colleges in Florida: A Policy Evaluation by Nicholas Manias A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Adult, Career, and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Jan Ignash, Ph.D. Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Ph.D. Michael Mills, Ph.D. Robert Sullins, Ed.D. Date of Approval: May 17, 2007 Keywords: governance, policy cycles, accountability, teacher shortages, teacher education Copyright 2007, Nicholas Manias

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Dedication I would like to dedicate this dissertati on to the many people that have loved me, supported me, encouraged me, and put up with me. To my Lord and savior, Jesus Christ, He has guided my life, shown mercy on me, a nd blessed me with abundance, as unworthy as I am. He has blessed me with family a nd friends unparalleled. I thank my parents, Susan Wischweh, my mother a nd best friend who has been there for me at every stop on lifes journey, without whom I would be lost. To my father Nikitas Manias whose loving heart and inability to hold grudge s have been examples of how to treat people with grace. I thank my grandparents, godparents and stepparents for the positive influence they have had on me. To the Manias and Saul families my sisters, aunts, uncles, and cousins it is hard to describe the foundation they offer. I cant imagine a family that is more unconditionally supportive. I would also like to dedicate this dissert ation to all of the teachers who made connections with me and inspired me. Namely, I would like to thank Joe Leopold whose gift for and love of t eaching led me to consider teaching as a profession. His impact has helped me become a better person through teaching.

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Acknowledgements This dissertation could not have been completed without th e help of several individuals. First and foremost is Dr. Jan I gnash who served as the Major Professor; she encouraged me to start the doctoral progr am and was there all through the process offering help and guidance. It is hard to begin to calculate the amount of time she invested in this study, revising chapters, on conference calls, and meeting on Saturday mornings. It has been an honor to study under he r and to learn from her. I offer my thanks to the members of my doctoral committee: Dr. Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Dr. Michael Mills, and Dr. Robert Sullins, who offered their tim e and talents to make this dissertation a reality. I must also thank those individuals at di fferent institutions who went out of their way for me: Todd Chamberlain, Jesse Corraggi o, Dr. Kathleen DeSousa, Danielle Eadens, Dr. Tom Furlong, William Haun, Joan Lasseter, Dr. Kitty Meyers, Dr. Cathy Morris, Dr. Sally Naylor, Dr. Gloria Pelaez, Ha Phan, and Shimon Sarraf. I could not have completed this dissertation without their help. This dissertation could not have been done without the support from my two supervisors, Dr. Emily Baker and Keith Goree, who arranged my schedules in ways to ma ximize dissertation time and did not object when I said no to many special projects. I cant imagine better superiors for whom to work. I must also thank my coworkers in the Ethics Institute for th eir support. Finally, I thank those individuals in Dr. Ignashs dissertation group who were willing to share their experiences to help me get through the disse rtation especially Dr. John Kurnik and Dr. Pat Gordin.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables................................................................................................................. ....iv Abstract....................................................................................................................... .......vi Chapter One Introduction and Background ......................................................................1 Statement of the problem.........................................................................................5 Theoretical Framework............................................................................................6 Purpose of the Study................................................................................................7 Significance of the Study.........................................................................................8 Research Questions................................................................................................10 Definition of Terms................................................................................................11 Delimitations..........................................................................................................11 Limitations.............................................................................................................12 Assumptions...........................................................................................................12 Organization of the Study......................................................................................12 Summary................................................................................................................13 Chapter Two Review of the Literature............................................................................15 Introduction............................................................................................................15 History of the Mission of Commun ity Colleges in the United States....................17 Baccalaureate Degrees Offered at Community Colleges through Partnerships......................................................................................................19 Theoretical Rationale Supporting Co mmunity College Baccalaureate Programs..........................................................................................................22 Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida.......................................25 Mixed Views on Community College Baccalaureate Programs............................29 Teacher Education at Community Colleges..........................................................32 Teacher Shortages in Florida.................................................................................34 Policy Cycles.........................................................................................................36 Policy Evaluation and Accountability...................................................................37 Initial Data Collections on the Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida................................................................................................38 Summary .......................................................................................................41 Chapter Three Methods....................................................................................................44 Introduction............................................................................................................44 Research Questions................................................................................................44 Research Design.....................................................................................................46

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ii Population and Sample..........................................................................................47 Data Collection......................................................................................................48 Piloting the Survey Instrument..............................................................................49 Data Analysis ........................................................................................................55 Summary................................................................................................................60 Chapter Four Results .......................................................................................................6 1 Upper Division Enrollment Trends for Education Programs at Baccalaureate Community Colleges and Four-Year Institutions.....................61 Respondents to the Survey Instrument..................................................................66 Where did the Students Comp lete their Lower Division Education?............................................................................................66 Results from Data for Open-Ended Questions.......................................................68 What Led Students to Enroll in these Programs?......................................68 What Would Students Have D one if these Programs Did Not Exist?.............................................................................................75 Why did the Students Major in Education?...............................................81 Would the Students Choose Another Major?............................................87 Statistical Analyses for the Li kert-Scale Items on the SSCCTEP.........................89 Conclusion.............................................................................................................97 Chapter Five Major Findings, Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations..............................................................................100 Method Summary.................................................................................................100 Summary of Findings...........................................................................................101 Conclusions..........................................................................................................109 Are the Community College Programs in Teacher Education Increasing Capacity for Upper Division Education in Florida?.........................................................................110 What were the Reasons Students Chose the Community College for their Upper Division Coursework?.................................110 Are these Programs Bringing Baccalaureate Access to New Students?...............................................................................111 Does the Limited Number of Baccalaureate Programs Have an Impact on Student Choice of Major?...................................113 How do Students at Community College Baccalaureate Programs Compare with St udents at Other Four-Year Institutions?........................................................................................114 Limitations...........................................................................................................117 Implications for Theory.......................................................................................118 Implications for Practice......................................................................................122 Implications for Research....................................................................................124 Issues for Future Researchers..................................................................127 Summary Statement.............................................................................................129

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iii References........................................................................................................................130 Appendices.......................................................................................................................139 Appendix A: Introduction Letter to College Administrators at Community Colleges.............................................................140 Appendix B: Community College Prospectus and Consent for Dissertation Research.............................................................141 Appendix C: Email Cover Letter to Students and Informed Consent to Participants..........................................................143 Appendix D: Survey of Stude nts from Community College Teacher Education Programs.................................................145 Appendix E: Email to Departme nts and Colleges of Education at State Colleges and Universities..........................................148 Appendix F: Request to Use NSSE Items.........................................................149 Appendix G: List of Data Analyses...................................................................153 Appendix H: 2006 NSSE Instituti onal Participants in Florida..........................154 About the Author ..................................................................................................End Page

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iv List of Tables Table 1 2002 2006 Fall Upper Divisi on Undergraduate Enrollment by Institution in Florida a nd Percentage Change by Year.........................24 Table 2 Community College Baccal aureate Programs in Florida...........................28 Table 3 Specializations in Teacher Education at Baccalaureate Community Colleges in Florida.................................................................29 Table 4 Annual Hires for Classroom Teachers in Public Schools in Florida .......................................................................................................35 Table 5 2004-05 Enrollment in Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida....................................................................................39 Table 6 2003-04 Expenditures Per Upper Division Credit Hour............................41 Table 7 2002-03 2005-06 Fall U nduplicated Upper Division Headcount for Baccalaureate Level Education Programs by Community College...................................................................................61 Table 8 2002-03 2005-06 Fall U nduplicated Upper Division Headcount for Baccalaureate Level Education Programs by Institution and Percentage of Change by Year..........................................64 Table 9 Type of Institution for Completion of the First Two Years of College of Respondents to the SSCCTEP.................................................67 Table 10 Frequency of Themes fo r Responses to, What led you to enroll in the baccalaureate le vel teacher education programs at the community college? ......................................................................69 Table 11 Frequency of Themes for Responses to, What would you have done educationally or professionally had the community college baccalaureate program not existed?.........................................................76 Table 12 Frequency of Themes for Re sponses to, What influenced your decision to major in education?................................................................82

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v Table 13 Frequency of Themes for Responses to, What other baccalaureate program or major (o ther than education), if any, would you have considered enrolling in had one existed at the time you enrolled in the commun ity college baccalaureate teacher education program?.....................................................................88 Table 14 Distribution of Participants Based on Age for Schoolwork Questions....................................................................................................91 Table 15 Comparison of the Mean Re sponses to Schoolwork Questions on the SSCCTEP........................................................................................92

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vi The Baccalaureate Community Colleges in Florida: A Policy Evaluation ABSTRACT This study sought to determine if comm unity college baccalaureate programs in Florida were fulfilling the goals that were set forth in the legislation that created them. The study examined whether the baccalaur eate level education programs at three community colleges in Florida were increasing access to baccalau reate education. The study investigated enrollment trends at all public institutions in Florida, reasons why students chose the community colleges for thei r upper division edu cation, alternative plans students may have had if these progr ams did not exist, wh ether the limited number of baccalaureate programs at the community co lleges impacted students choice of major, and how the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate programs compared with their counterparts at other four-year institutions in the state. The data included enrollment data, responses from a survey instrument that I created, and data from the National Survey of Student Engagements (NSSE) data warehouse. The enrollment data included th e upper division enrollment in education programs at public institutions in Florida. The survey instrument used open-ended questions and Likert-scale items from the NSSE. The surveys respondents were juniors and seniors ( n = 140) from baccalaureate educati on programs at thethree community colleges.

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vii Most students chose th e community colleges for th eir upper division education because of location and cost. Almost three-fourth s of the students who participated in this study reported that they would have attend ed another institution for their baccalaureate studies if the upper divisions at the community colleges did not exist. One-fifth of the respondents said that they would not have been able to earn a baccalaureate degree without the community college baccalaureate programs. Th e overwhelming majority of participants chose to major in education for a traditional reason. Finally, the students from the community college baccalaureate programs seemed to have better schoolwork habits and were more engaged than their counterparts at other four-year institutions in the state. The results of this study suggest that the baccalaure ate level teacher education programs at community colleges in Florid a are increasing access to baccalaureate education.

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1 Chapter One Introduction and Background Higher education in America has seen many changes in its four-hundred year history. Originally, colleges in America we re founded to educate clergy for the new world (Rudolph, 1990). Over time, colleges and universities grew to include students from diverse backgrounds and to offer varied curricula. Major forces such as wars, the industrial revolution, and the space race all helped shape todays system of higher education. Current forces acting on higher ed ucation are students, governments, and the private sector. These groups act on higher education in hopes of delivering maximum benefits to each set of stak eholders. Higher education in Am erica as a whole, as well as individual colleges and universities, are in a state of change. Because colleges and universities serve the public they must do what is in the interest of the public to maintain a place of relevance in American society. Perhaps one of the best historical exampl es of change and adaptation in American higher education is the growth and devel opment of the community college system. William Rainey Harper formed the original co mmunity (junior) college in Joliet, Illinois in 1901. Harper did this by adding two years to the high school education. Over the last one hundred years community colleges have experienced many changes. From their inception, community and junior colleges continued to grow across the country; however, it was in the 1960s when community colle ges experienced their fastest growth

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2 (Vaughan, 1982). Much of this growth was as a result of the report from a decade earlier titled, The Presidents Commission on Higher Education for Democracy (1947). It was part of the committees recommendations th at a national network of public community colleges should be established. The community college movement in the United States has enjoyed so much popularity that in the last fifty years community colleges have shown more growth than any other form of public education (Grubb and Lazerson, 2004). The ability for community colleges to grow in popularity and number has been attributed to a number of forces. Some of th ese forces impact higher education generally, but others are more specific to community co lleges. Cohen (2001) theorized that alliances between members of the working class, members of the upper class, and universities themselves came together to help community colleges grow. He be lieved, however, that it was the local actors who often had the gr eatest influence causing growth of the community colleges. One such example of this was school district officials and community leaders who helped create new co mmunity colleges in search of recognition and prestige associated with having a community college in the district as well as the esteem that came with running a community colle ge compared to that of a traditional K12 school system. The popularity of community colleges among the citizenry can be traced back to several factors. Generally, community colleges offer members of the local community the opportunity to gain a higher education in their own community without forcing students to move or make major life changes or sacrif ices to earn a college education. In addition, community colleges traditionally have offere d students lower tuition than four-year colleges and universities. Anot her benefit to students who attend community colleges is

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3 more individualized attention due to a tradition of smalle r classrooms and instructors whose focus is teaching. Finally, community colleges enjoy popularity because they serve many different roles, which allow them to offer benefits to a number of different groups of people. Systems of community colleges have become the jack of all trades in American higher education. Traditionally, they have served four major functions (transfer education, occupational education, remedia l/developmental education, and community service) (Cohen and Brawer, 1996). Among the four functions that community colleges serve, perhaps the most common and recognize d is the transfer f unction. The transfer function provides students with an opportunity to complete the first two years of their college education, the general education, at the community college. Upon completion of the general education requirement, many stude nts would then transf er to a baccalaureategranting institution to complete the upper di vision requirements of their baccalaureate degrees. To make the transition from the comm unity college to the four-year institution as seamless as possible for students most stat es worked to create articulation agreements between community colleges and four-year coll eges and universities. In the 1960s some community colleges attempted to improve th e transition for students by partnering with four-year institutions so that students could take upper division classes offered by the baccalaureate-granting institution at the co mmunity college campus (Lorenzo, 2005). This partnership model marked the first time students could earn a baccalaureate degree on location at comm unity college campuses. New hybrids and experiments under the partnership model between community colleges and four-year institutions are continua lly being introduced and altered. However,

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4 more recently a shift has occurred and some community colleges now grant their own baccalaureate degrees. A limited number of stat es have recently begun to experiment by allowing community colleges the authority to confer their own four-year degrees. In Florida, sweeping legislation was passed in 2001 to restructure state governance for higher education. Included in this legislation were a provision that created the first baccalaureate community college within the st ate, and also a provision that created a process to allow other community colleges within the state to apply to the state Board of Education to become baccalaureate degree granting community colleges. The goals behind this legislation were to increase baccalaureate graduates in low baccalaureate producing counties by providing increased access to higher education and also to increase the number of graduates in certain high demand employment fields. The debate and discussions surrounding the change allowing community colleges to award their own baccalaureate degrees centered on several topics. Those who supported the vertical extensi on of community colleges cite d Floridas relatively low national ranking in the number of baccal aureate degrees held among the population, 38 th among the 50 states, and 8 th among the top 10 largest states, a limited capacity for students wishing to earn baccalaureate degr ees, and a lack of baccalaureate holding employees in high need areas such as teach ing and the health professions (ECS, 2000). However, there were also those who were conc erned that vertical ex tension would not be positive for the institutions, the state, and stude nts. Some feared that allowing community colleges to grant their own baccalaureate degrees would cause mission drift at the community colleges within the state (Mills, 2003). Others also worried that funding the baccalaureate community colleges would waste limited financial resources reserved for

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5 higher education within the state and that the community college baccalaureate degree would ultimately be viewed by many employers and the general public as a second hand degree (Wattenbarger, 2000). Since the time when the first comm unity college in Florida was granted authority by the state to c onfer its own baccalaureate degrees, many other community colleges within the state have applied to the states Board of Education to also become baccalaureate-granting community colleges. Some institutions have been approved while others have been denied. Currently (2006), si x community colleges in the state have been elevated into the category of baccalau reate-granting community colleges. The baccalaureate degrees offered are all either B achelor of Science or Bachelor of Applied Science degrees. The majors for these bacca laureate degrees include: Education, Nursing, Technology Management, Dental Hygiene, Veterinary Technology, Public Safety Administration, Orthotics and Prosthetic s Technology, Project and Acquisitions Management, Supervision and Management, and Public Safety Management. Statement of the Problem The policy and subsequent practice allowing community colleges in Florida to confer baccalaureate degrees was a major cha nge for higher education within the state. The legislature allocated $7 million for these programs during the 2004 05 fiscal year alone (OPPAGA, 2005b). At the institutiona l level, the new baccalaureate-granting community colleges have expanded thei r mission. The rationale supporting the community college baccalaureate programs was explicitly stated in Florida Senate Bill 1190 (2001) that allowed the fi rst community college in th e state to confer its own baccalaureate degrees:

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6 despite these efforts, Florida continue s to rank among the lowest in the nation in the production of baccalaureate degrees especially in the fields experiencing the greatest workforce demand, and WHEREAS, these high-demand fields include teachers, health care professionals, and qualified managers for private and public service agencies (p. 1) However, to this date there have been no studies evaluating the outcomes of the policy allowing community colleges in the state to c onfer baccalaureate degrees. An evaluative policy study is required to shed light on th e outcomes of programs that allow state funded community colleges to confer their own f our-year degrees and determine whether the outcomes of community college baccalaureat e programs in Florida are addressing the stated goals of the policies. Theoretical Framework This study is based with in the theoretical confin es of applied research. Specifically, it can be categorized in the dom ain of theories relating to Administrative Evaluation, as developed by Howlett and Ramesh (2003). This study is situated within the areas of Performance Evaluation a nd Adequacy of Performance Evaluation. Regarding Performance Evaluation, outputs are quantified and studied to determine what the policy is producing and is a necessary step to proceed into deeper research. Next is the area of research known as Adequacy of Performance Evaluation. Within this theoretical framework, the performance of the programs is compared with the initial goals and purposes to determine if these ar e being met. The purpose of this type of research is to provide recommendations for modifying or altering policy (Howlett & Ramesh, 2003).

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7 Purpose of the Study This study evaluated whether statelevel goals for community college baccalaureate programs in Florida were being met. I examined whether the outcomes of selected community college baccalaureate programs matched the initial goals and purposes of the legislation that created them. The rationale behind allowing Floridas community colleges to develop upper divisi on coursework and c onfer baccalaureate degrees was twofold. First, the state wanted to expand access to baccalaureate degrees to its citizenry. Second, the state wanted to supply employers in certain high need professions with qualified employees. Th is study examined if the newly created baccalaureate community college programs fu lfilled the first goal of the legislation, increased access to higher education for citizens of Florida. The institutions that are part of this study are referred to through the use of pseudonyms. Grey College (GC) is a large urban/suburban community college with an unduplicated headcount of 130,919 students fo r the 2004-05 school year. Blue College (BC) is a large urban/suburban community co llege with an unduplicated headcount of 51,100 students for the 2004-05 school year. Red College (RC) is a small rural community college with an unduplicated headcount of 5,556 students for the 2004-05 school year (Florida Department of E ducation, n.d. p. 28). These three community colleges were among the first granted authority by the state to confer their own four-year degrees. Two of the institutions, GC and RC only offer four-year degrees in teacher education. The other community college, BC, offers multiple baccalaureate degrees. However, the only four-year program that all of these community colleges have in common is teacher education.

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8 I chose to limit this study to the baccalau reate level teacher education programs at the three community colleges for two reas ons. First, while the community college baccalaureate programs continue to grow in the state, the teacher education programs at GC, BC, and SC were the among the first community college baccalaureate programs to start and therefore have the largest enrollmen t numbers in their baccalaureate programs. Second, the major of education is the least scientific and technically based baccalaureate program at the community colleges in the state. To that end, more students are eligible to enroll in these programs than others because of the fewer number of prequisites required for admission when compared to baccal aureate programs in nursing and technology management. Since the time when the original three co mmunity colleges were granted authority to develop and institute their own baccalau reate programs, other community colleges within the state have gained approval to gr ant baccalaureate degrees. However, due to a lack of enrollment and/or extremely lo w enrollment, and lack of commonality in baccalaureate programs, they were purposely excluded from this study. Significance of the Study Nationally and internationally, systems of higher education have been forced to seek new and often cheaper ways to opera te. Higher education, along with many other government agencies, must operate in an age of accountability. Citizens and taxpayers expect government institutions to look for innovative ways to improve practice, increase efficiency, and become more responsive to community needs. The policy allowing community colleges to offer baccalaureate degr ees is one that seeks to produce graduates

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9 at a lower cost to the government wh ile providing well prepared employees for businesses, schools, and other sectors. The state of Florida has, to this date, allowed a limited number of community colleges within the state to conf er their own baccalaureate degrees. Other community colleges within the state have be gun the process of applying for this same opportunity (OPPAGA, 2005b). These programs have cost the state millions of dollars to initiate (Glennon, 2005). If they do not accomplish their goals, they will likely be viewed by the public as a waste of money. In the age of accountability, outcomes of new educational programs must be measured and compared with the in tended goals. This study provides those involved with the new programs, state policy makers, and others who may be interested in implementing sim ilar policies and programs with information needed to make future policy and practice decisions. This study evaluated whether the new co mmunity college baccalaureate programs in teacher education across Flor ida have met the original goa ls of those who constructed and subsequently passed legislation allowing community colleges within the state to confer baccalaureate degrees. Specifically, this study attempted to measure whether the teacher education programs at three baccal aureate-granting community colleges in Florida were increasing access to higher e ducation in the state. I used quantitative methods with a mix of sources to answer the research questions. These methods included examinations of enrollment data and survey data. The results of this study may provide insight into the effectiveness of community college baccalaureate programs in meeting the states goals.

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10 Research Questions This study investigated the following research questions: 1. Do community college teacher educati on programs contribute to increased access to higher education within the state by increasing capacity for enrollment in baccalaureate level teache r education programs? a. How many individuals have enrolled in the community college teacher education programs since their inception? b. What has happened to enrollment le vels at other public institutions offering similar teacher educati on programs since inception of the community college teacher education programs? 2. Why did students attend the commun ity college for their upper division education? 3. What might the students in these programs have done (educationally or professionally) if the community college t eacher education program did not exist? 4. Would education have been the stud ents first choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were offered at th e local community college where they attended? 5. How do the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate teacher education programs compare with st udents at other four-year colleges in Florida? a. How do responses on selected items from the National Survey of Student Engagement for students from the community college baccalaureate

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11 programs in teacher education programs compare with students in similar programs from other four-year institutions in Florida? Definition of Terms Some of the terms within this study may have various connotati ons and/or may be unfamiliar to the reader, thus they warrant definition. 1. Four-year degree: a baccalaureate degree. 2. Four-year community college: a community college that confers its own baccalaureate degrees. 3. Upper division: the last two years of a baccalaureate degree, this is typically primarily coursework in the ma jor and area of specialization. 4. Vertical extension: when an upper divi sion is added to community college making it a four-year community college (Burrows, 2002). 5. Policy evaluation: the stage of the policy process at which it is determined how a public policy has actually fared in action (Howlett & Ramesh, 2002, p. 207) 6. Unduplicated count (unduplicated headc ount): The sum of students enrolled for credit with each student counted only once during the reporting period, regardless of when the student enrolled. (National Ce nter for Education Statistics, 2006) Delimitations The findings of this study were based on se lected institutions within the state of Florida. There are threats to the external validity of this research. The study was limited in scope to the upper division education progr ams at community colleges in Florida and other majors at these and other four-year co mmunity colleges were not studied in this research. In addition, since the study only examined Florida, the findings may not have

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12 validity within other states or their programs. Because of the design of the research, the findings of this study should not be gene ralized beyond the settings of this study. Limitations It should be noted that I am employee of Blue College, one of the colleges that was part of the study. I am an Assistant Profe ssor of Ethics at the college. I do not work or teach within any of the four-year programs at the college that are part of this study. The survey instrument that was used to collect the data for this study was tested for content validity. This process was accomplis hed through the use of experts in the field and the resulting instrument was piloted. Much of the data collected as part of this study was self-reported. Self-reported data created a limitation for this study because selfreported data is generally less reli able than other types of data. Assumptions I assumed that participants of this st udy would want to sh are their personal experiences. Next, I assumed that the participan ts within this study we re truthful in their responses. The last assumption was that t hose interested in higher education and effectiveness of higher educati on policy would be eager to le arn more about the outcomes of these new programs in Florida. Organization of the Study This dissertation incl udes four additional chapters. The first is a review of the literature. Within that chapte r, I describe the bod y of knowledge with which I worked and to which I have built new research. That ch apter includes three sec tions: a statement of the purpose, a review of the re levant literature, and an atte mpt to place this study within the context of previous research. The third chapter describes the methods by which the

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13 data were collected. The chapter includes fi ve sections: the res earch questions, the research design, a description of the populations and samples, a description of the data collections, and an explanation of the data analyses. The fourth chapter presents the results from the data analyses in this study. Chapter four includes five sections: upper division enrollment trends for teacher educ ation programs at baccalaureate community colleges and four-year institutions in Florida, an explanation of the piloting process on the survey instrument, details on the data collection for the su rvey data and statistics on those who responded to the survey, results for the responses to open-ended questions, statistical analyses for the Likert-scale items on the survey instrument, and the conclusion. Finally, chapter five includes a summary of the findings, conclusions, implications and recommendations. Summary This study focused on the upper division education programs at three baccalaureate-granting community colleges in Florida. The purpose of this research was to determine whether these programs were fulfilling the goals of the policymakers who passed legislation to allow community colle ges in Florida to confer baccalaureate degrees. I compared the outcomes of these th ree institutions with the specific goal of increased access to higher education for student s. This research was based in the areas of community colleges, governance, and policy ev aluation all three of which are relevant and important areas of research on higher ed ucation in the United States. The hope was that this study would provide policy makers and practitioners with information that could provide insight into the effectiveness of community college baccalaureate programs. In addition, I hope that I was able to provi de a foothold and framework for future

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14 researchers interested in policy evalua tion and community co llege baccalaureate programs.

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15 Chapter Two Review of the Literature Introduction Higher education does not operate or exis t within a vacuum. To the contrary, Richardson, Bracco, Callan, and Finney ( 1999) theorized that systems of higher education are constantly pushed and pulled by stakeholders such as policy makers, the public, employers, and students. The forces that act on higher education in the United States are constantly changing regarding the amount of influe nce they are able to exert and the direction to which th ey attempt to move the syst em. Recent events regarding community colleges in Florida are prime exampl es of how these stak eholders can change the policy and practice of higher education. The first is the ne w policy that allows certain community colleges within the state to conf er their own baccalaureate degrees. The second has to do with the accountability movement. Accountability is where the public, via its elected officials, requires government agencies to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency in policies and programs where public funds are expended. This study examined the outcomes of th e baccalaureate level teacher education programs at three community colleges in Flor ida. These institutions are referred to through the use of pseudonyms. Grey College (GC) is a large urban/suburban community college with an unduplicated headcount of 130,919 students for the 2004-05 school year. Blue College (BC) is a large urban/suburban community college with an

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16 unduplicated headcount of 51,100 students fo r the 2004-05 school y ear. Red College (RC) is a small rural community colleg e with an unduplicated headcount of 5,556 students for the 2004-05 school ye ar (Florida Department of Education, n.d. b, p. 28). Within this chapter, I examine previ ous research and studies regarding many different issues related to community colleges in Florida awarding their own baccalaureate degrees and the subsequent ev aluation and measurement of the outcomes of such new policies and programs. This chapter includes a discussion of works documenting the history of the mission of co mmunity colleges and the external forces that came together in the past to mold the modern community college in the United States. Next, I investigated the history of and cases where baccalaureate degrees have been offered at community colleges through pa rtnerships. I then examined the theoretical rationale supporting the development and expa nsion of community college baccalaureate programs. Next, is an exploration of the community college baccalaureate programs in Florida. This section includes detail on the historical developments that led to community colleges in the state conferring their own four-year degrees. In addition, it presents the relevant legislation that allowed for this change. I then have provided the views and arguments from those who oppose the practice of allowing community colleges to confer four-year degrees as well as from t hose who believe that community college baccalaureate programs have a historical pl ace in the community college. Following this, I investigated the teacher shortage in Florida its severity, causes, and possible solutions. The next area of this review of literature looks into the study of policy cycles. This section provides the introduc tion into the theoretical framework for this study and demonstrates why the study of policy cycles is relevant and necessary. Next, I examined

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17 the work in the area of research known as policy evaluation and accountability. Then, the results of initial data coll ections on the community college baccalaureate programs within Florida are presented. Finally, the closing of th is chapter places this current study in the context of previous research that has b een done in all of the aforementioned areas. History of the Mission of the Commun ity College in the United States An important topic in this review of the literature is the history of the mission of community colleges in the United States. It serves to chronicle the role community colleges have played in higher education to provide a context for other issues and developments discussed later in this chapter. The community college in the United States has not been studied with a similar depth a nd breadth as the four-year sector of higher education. In the larger context of research on higher educat ion, little attention has been paid to the community college (Hutcheson, 1999) Hutcheson further contended that one reason community colleges have suffered fr om neglect among researchers and scholars was due to a lack of consistency among community colleges in how they arose or in what they specialized. In contrast, colleges and uni versities were more easily classified based on history or specialty. This made colleges a nd universities more r esearcher friendly. Since 1901, when the first community college ca me into existence, the institution known as the peoples college has grown to se rve many different roles. Cohen and Brawer (1996) categorized the traditiona l roles of the community college into four areas: transfer education, occupational education, remedia l/developmental education, and community service. More generally however the role of the community college in the United States has been to fill the gap that exists betw een secondary education and colleges and universities. Since consistent models of post secondary e ducation across the country do

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18 not exist and each states system of higher education was molded by local forces, community colleges were forced to adapt to serve many different roles in American higher education. A further examination of the literature on its history reveals more specific forces that have shaped the modern community college. The community college movement began to gain momentum in the mid 1900s. As part of the Presidents Commission on Higher Education for Democracy (1947) str ong recommendations were made favoring an expansion of a community college system acr oss the country. It was in the 1960s when community colleges began to see their enrollm ents grow substantially. From the late 1950s to the 1980s community colleges saw enrollment growth close to four hundred percent (Vaughan, 1982). The forces that shaped community colleges have been disputed, however it is understood that these forces are many and varied. Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, and Suppiger (1995) chronicled and classified the many external forces that shaped the modern day community coll ege by decade. Witt, et al. documented how major societal events such as the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War forced community colleges to change. A dditionally, those aut hors illustrated how American ideals and policies such as the GI Bill, social activism a nd state planning also contributed to changes in the functio n of American community colleges. There are others who have focused res earch on the more general forces that contributed to the growth of community coll eges. One such author is Cohen (2001) who proposed a somewhat complex explanation for the growth of community colleges. Cohen theorized that there were four general re asons why community colleges developed and grew. The first was that community college s were sponsored and supported by members

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19 of the upper class who wanted to maintain thei r social position by restricting admission to traditional colleges and universities. The s econd was that community colleges flourished due to an alliance of members from the wo rking class who were searching for upward mobility. The third was that universities helped community colleges succeed so that the universities could distance themselves from students who college and university officials did not want to admit or serve. The fourt h, and often believed to be one of the main reasons, was that since most community college s grew out of school di stricts, it was the superintendents and other local administrato rs desire for more recognition and prestige that came along with being an administrator at a college rather than at a school district that pushed the school districts to develop co mmunity colleges. Regardless of the reasons why community colleges grew and thrived, we have arrived at a point where they have a major part and play a major role in posts econdary education across the United States. Currently, there are over 1,100 community college s in the United States serving over 11.6 million students (American Association of Community Colleges, 2006). Baccalaureate Degrees Offered at Co mmunity Colleges through Partnerships The following discussion on the topic of partnerships between community colleges and four-year institutions is an im portant area for the review of literature because it describes the point in community college history where direct access to baccalaureate degrees came to community college campuses. One of the most traditional roles of the community college is to serve as the first two years of college education for students intending to transfer to another institution to finish baccalaureate degrees. This fits into Cohens category of the transfer function of co mmunity colleges. Allen (2003) explained that most states have established a 2 +2 model of articulation. The 2 + 2 model

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20 is one where students can attend community colleges for the first two years of their undergraduate education. Upon completion of the first two years (or the equivalent number of credit hours) the student can then transfer to another institution, usually a traditional four-year college or universit y, where the student would complete the baccalaureate degree. However, more recently an innovation that has grown in popularity is the partnership model. In the partnership model, community colleges team up with baccalaureate-granting in stitutions in an attempt to make the transition from the first two years to the upper divi sion more seamless for students. Research in the area of partnerships has yielded a number of examples where baccalaureate degrees have pr eviously made their way to community colleges through innovative means. Lorenzo (2005) contende d that the initial University Center experiments were conducted in the 1960s but became more common in the 1980s. Cook (2000) described examples of partnerships th at include four-year institutions offering upper division classes at community college f acilities, and four-year institutions using technology for distance education to connect with students at community college facilities. In each of these cases, the four-year institutions maintain control of the baccalaureate curricula, inst ruction, and administration. The community colleges merely house the baccalaureate programs and sometimes offer other types of non-academic support. There are many different models and hyb rids of collaboration that illustrate the malleability and workability that partnerships between four-year institutions and community colleges offer to serve the public. The most current classification model for partnerships is credited to Lorenzo (2005) who proposed six models for such classification. Within his taxonom y the partnerships are classi fied based on the role of

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21 the community college and its involvement with governance, financing, and operations; and its influence over academic programming (p. 78). An example of how partnerships can be used to benefit both students and the general public is detailed by Hagedorn, Newm an, and Duffy (2003). In 2000, California appropriated $10 million to facilitate partne rships between community colleges and the California State Universities. This was in res ponse to legislation that mandated smaller class sizes for public schools. The change in legislation necessita ted the hiring of 25,000 new teachers within the state. This forced California to search for innovative ways to educate future teachers faster. An example of innovation and part nerships between a community college and four-year institutions is the work done at Blue College (BC). Furlong (2005) detailed how Blue College partne red with fourteen in stitutions to bring sixty-two bachelors, masters, and doctoral programs to Blue College campuses through partnerships with public and private fou r-year institutions. Currently, 22 of the 28 community colleges in Florida partner with at least one public university and offer approximately 90 different baccalaureate de grees (OPPAGA, 2005b). These partnerships are not limited between public community coll eges and public four-year institutions. Rather, twelve of the baccalaureate-granti ng institutions that participate in these partnerships are private fou r-year institutions. When combining the partnerships that community colleges in Florida have with publ ic and private four-year institutions, every community college in Florida except one is engaged in a partners hip with a four-year institution. The lone exception is Florida Community College at Jacksonville. This institution instead maintains a strong 2 + 2 arrangement with the University of North Florida, which is in close physical pr oximity to Florida Community College.

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22 Theoretical Rationale Supporting Commun ity College Baccalaureate Programs While partnerships help to make the tr ansition from one institution to another more seamless for students it is still a s ituation in which there are two different institutions. This is why many institutions that have been involved in partnerships have expressed interest in becoming a community college that is allowed to offer its own baccalaureate degrees. Much of the literature in the area of the community college baccalaureate degrees functi ons to provide a theoretical rationale supporting the development and expansion of community college baccalaureate programs. The National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs (NACCTEP) (2005) created two general categories of rationa le supporting community colleges adding baccalaureate degrees. These tw o categories are classified ba sed on a societal perspective or an institutional perspective. Two arguments from the societal perspective are that the graduates from the baccalaureate programs will help alleviate workforce shortages and that society as a whole benefits by more of the population having a baccalaureate degree. The main argument from the institutional pe rspective is that the community college should adapt to serve the needs and desires of students to maintain relevance in the society and in higher education. To that end, if the community colleges are going to remain a relevant option for students, community colleges must offer baccalaureate degrees since an increasing number of employers want employees who possess a baccalaureate degree. Proponents of the community college baccalaureate movement, like Walker (2005), argue that these programs are neces sary because the baccalaureate degree is becoming an entry level degree. Community college baccalaureate programs offer

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23 increased flexibility to students and are theref ore better able to serv e an increased number of working adults returning to college. In addition, the community college baccalaureate programs can increase geographical access to upper division education and increase responsiveness to community needs for specialized program s (Walker, 2001). To that end, Walker (2000) reported results from a survey conducted at Edison Community College where 80% of the respondents said ideally they would want to complete a baccalaureate degree at their current instit ution, Edison Community College. The most popular reasons students gave supporting this response were accessibility, location, lower cost, and possible access to th e type of baccalaureate degr ee the respondents desired to earn. Furthermore, there are those who believ e that the community college can help deal with state level problems if granted th e authority to confer baccalaureate degrees. Furlong (2003) contended that since the state of Florida ranks in the bottom five in terms of baccalaureate degree production more drasti c steps needed to be taken to increase baccalaureate production. A belief held by many wa s that the public four-year institutions within the state had reached capacity. Below is Table 1 and it illustrates total enrollment in all upper division undergraduate programs at public four-institutions in the state for the years 2002 to 2006.

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24 Table 1. 2002 2006 Fall Upper Division Unde rgraduate Enrollment by Inst itution in Florida and Percentage Change by Year Institution Year 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 FAMU 4,748 4,818 2,286 1,843 3,055 NA 1.5% (52.6%) (19.4%) 65.8% FAU 10,540 12,825 13,365 13,787 13,695 NA 21.7% 4.2% 3.2% (1.3%) FGCU 2,099 2,329 2,642 3,078 3,396 NA 10.9% 13.4% 16.5% 10.3% FIU 12,387 13,055 15,532 16,610 16,925 NA 5.4% 18.9% 6.9% 1.9% FSU 15,868 16,304 16,811 17,258 17,883 NA 2.7% 3.1% 2.6% 3.6% NCF 274 295 302 337 347 NA 7.7% 2.4% 11.6% 2.9% UCF 19,096 20,310 21,139 22,600 23,540 NA 6.4% 4.1% 6.9% 4.2% UF 17,433 17,554 17,237 17,630 17,084 NA .6% (1.8%) 2.3% (3.1%) UNF 6,211 6,433 6,767 7,024 7,262 NA 3.6% 5.2% 3.8% 3.5% USF 18,059 19,272 20,518 21,621 22,364 NA 6.775 6.5% 5.4% 3.4% UWF 3,540 3,749 3,902 4,106 4,193 NA 5.9% 4.1% 5.2% 2.1% Total 110,255 116,944 120,501 125,894 129,744 NA 6.1% 3% 4.5% 3.1% Source: (Adapted from Florid a Board of Governors, 2006)

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25 Furlong also argued that a llowing community colleges in the state to confer baccalaureate degrees would help to elevate the states rank in regards to baccalaureate production as well as provide a larger pool of educated workers for employers to draw from. Furlong specifically cited an annual teacher shortage in Florida in the range of 15,500 19,000 for a state that only confers b accalaureate degrees upon 6,300 education majors annually (p. 59). It was his belief th at community college baccalaureate programs could produce graduates to fill the need for more teachers more effectively and efficiently than the existing or future partnership agr eements with four-year institutions could. Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida The community college baccalaureate move ment officially made its way to Florida in the late 1990s. Prior to the governance changes that allowed community colleges in the state to confer their own f our-year degrees the state commissioned a study for the need for increased b accalaureate opportunities. The report was prepared for the Florida Postsecondary Education Planning Commission (PEPC) by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) (2000). The purpose of the report was to study the need for baccalaureate opportunities in five counties. It was compiled through the use of mixed methods. The researchers examined employ ment and educational data, interviewed employers, academic leaders and political leader s, and also held public hearings (ECS, 2000). The report seemed to offer support for thos e on both sides of the issue of allowing community colleges in Florida to confer fou r-year degrees. Excerpts from this report are often used by both proponents and opponents of the community college baccalaureate in Florida. Proponents focus on two major findings in the report. The re searchers discovered

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26 that Florida lagged behind the rest of the nation regarding producti on of baccalaureate degrees and stated that there needed to be a statewide expansion of baccalaureate capacity, and not just in the five counties studi ed. In addition, the re port also concluded there was a specific, long-term, need for b accalaureate graduates in the areas of business management, computer science, teacher educ ation, engineering, and health professions. Opponents of the vertical expansion of co mmunity colleges in Florida focus on the finding in the ECS report where employers within the state were satisfied overall with the number of potential employees already possessing baccalaureate degrees. The report went on to say that Broward County, only one of the counties in the study, would experience population growth and would requ ire a moderate increase in baccalaureate opportunities (ECS, 2000). After much debate, both in the public arena and in the halls of the Legislature in 2001, Senate Bill 1190 was introduced into the Florida state Senate, passed, and was signed into law by the Governor. This bill included a number of governance changes for higher education, but specifically allowed Blue Junior College (BJC) to become Blue College (BC) and confer its own baccalaur eate degrees. The rationale behind allowing BJC to become BC and enter the world of baccalaureate degree granting institutions was explicitly stated within the bill, despite these efforts, Florida continue s to rank among the lowest in the nation in the production of baccalaureate degrees especially in the fields experiencing the greatest workforce demand, and WHEREAS, these high-demand fields include teachers, health care professionals, and qualified managers for privat e and public service agencies

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27 Currently, Florida Statues (1007.33) allow community colleges to pursue developing their own baccalaureate programs. To be granted this privilege a community college must demonstrate demand for student s, employment opportunities for graduates of the proposed baccalaureate program, and ade quate facilities and academic resources to deliver the baccalaureate program. Oversight and decision making authority for community college baccalaureate programs is re served for the State Board of Education. Finally, the state statute reminds community colleges that even if they are granted authority to award their own baccalaureate degrees, their pr imary mission is to confer associates degrees and they may not move to eliminate the responsibility of associate level education from the colleges mission. Currently, four community colleges in Fl orida offer baccalaureate degrees. Below is Table 2, which provides information on the first four community colleges in Florida that were granted authority to confer baccalaureate degrees. Specifically, Table 2 provides the order that the inst itutions were granted state approval as well a detailed list of the baccalaureate programs offered by each institution.

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28 Table 2. Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida Order of Approval Institution Degree 1 Blue College Education Nursing Technology Management Dental Hygiene Veterinary Technology Public Safety Administration Orthotics & Prosthetics Technology 2 Grey College Education 3 Red College Education 4 Okaloosa-Walton College Project and Acquisitions Mgt. Source: (Adapted from OPPAGA, 2005b, p. 6) Two additional institutions have been added to this list. The two newest institutions are Daytona Beach Community College and Edison Community College. These two institutions began their own baccalaureate programs in the Spring semester of 2006. Both of these institutions only offer baccalaureate degrees in applied sciences. Daytona Beach Community College offers baccalaureate degrees in Supervision and Management. Edison College has a baccalaureat e program in Public Safety Management (Florida Department of Education, 2006a).

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29 Grey College, Blue College, and Red College all offer baccalaureate degrees in teacher education. However, some of the areas of specialization are different. Below is Table 3, it provides details on the specializations offered by the three institutions. Table 3. Specializations in Teacher Education at B accalaureate Community Colleges in Florida Institution Specializations Blue College Elementary Education Exceptional Student Education Secondary Science Education Secondary Mathematics Education Technology Education Grey College Exceptional Student Education Secondary Science Education Secondary Mathematics Education Red College Middl e School Mathematics Middle School Science Secondary Science Education Secondary Mathematics Education Source: (Florida Departme nt of Education, n.d. a) Mixed Views on Community College Baccalaureate Programs The community college baccalaureate moveme nt has stirred debate on both sides of the topic. Many current publ ications have raised quest ions regarding the practice allowing community colleges in Florida to confer their own baccalaureate degrees. Some

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30 critics fear these changes will create a s lippery slope that would eventually draw resources away from universities. To that end, there are those who feel partnerships between community colleges and four-year inst itutions should be the extent to which community colleges role in four-year experiments should extend (Tampa Tribune, 2005). The editorial from the Tampa Tri bune admitted that the state faces higher education access and capacity issues, but c ontended that it was the duty of colleges and universities to deal with those problems and no place for community colleges to tread. Others like Mills (2003) have offered other concerns such as the cr eation of mission drift that could threaten the open door policy of the community colleges due to an increased focus on the four-year programs. Mills also chronicled the concerns of others who warn that the new community college baccalaureat e programs will waste financial resources in a time when education funds are at a premium. To that end, a shift in the allocation of financial resources could hinder access to higher education by crea ting tuition increases and causing a decline in financial support for the remedial and developmental programs. Those critics argue that two points, low tuition and remedi al/developmental support for students, are necessary to mainta in equal access for all students. Some authors have been suspicious of the motives of community college administrators who want their institution to offer baccalaureate degrees. There are those like Eaton (2005), who fear that administrators of community colleges may be tempted and seduced to offer baccalaureate degrees for the higher level of respect and esteem that comes with being associated with a colleg e rather than a com munity college. In addition, there are those within positions of influence in community colleges who hold cautious views of the motivations of some to make their institutions baccalaureate-

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31 granting community colleges like, Dr. Geor ge Boggs, president of the American Association of Community Colle ges as chronicled by Lum (2004). According to Boggs, Community colleges are nimble enough to respond to community needs he says, but we already have universities. What about community colleges? If the motivation of a two-year college getting i nvolved with four-year degrees is not of reluctance but of trying to improve its ow n status as an institution, then its wrong. Thats where community colleges can lose sight of their mission. (pp. 54 55.) One of the most outspoken critics of community colleges offering four-year programs was also the father of the community college system in Florida, James Wattenbarger. In 1953, Wattenbarger wrote one of the most im portant contributions to higher education in Florida, A State Plan for Public Junior Colleges with Special Reference to Florida This document became the master plan for community colleges within the state. Many of the accolades Florida community colleges receive are as a result of the planning done in the early years before the co mmunity college system in the state became fully functional. However, Wattenba rger (2000) warned that not only is the community college baccalaur eate a waste of financial resources but also that the baccalaureate degrees student s receive may be viewed as second hand degrees by employers and the public. There are those, however, like Townsend a nd Ignash (2003) who illustrated via an examination of history on community college s in the United States that point to a historical role in teacher education at the community college. The first place where teacher education was seen in the United Stat es was at two-year colleges, many of which

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32 went on to become four-year normal schools and then public state un iversities. To that end, Hutcheson (2002) chronicled the hist ory of the normal school as the primary institution for the education of teachers in the United States during the early 1900s. He explained that the normal schools were tw o year programs for high school graduates specifically designed to prepare students to t each in elementary schools and could be best classified as community colleges. Normal schools continued to be the central institution for teacher education until approximately the 1930s and 1940s when more states began to require a baccalaureate degree for teachers. Ch anges in states policies requiring teachers to have four-year degrees forced the community colleges role in te acher education also to change. Many community colleges changed th eir focus by helping students prepare to transfer to a four-year institution where they would complete baccalaureate level studies in teacher education. Much of this was done through articulation agreements and the creation of associate degr ees in teacher education (Townsend and Ignash, 2003). Teacher Education at the Community College Throughout this review of literature I ha ve provided historical examples of teacher education programs at community colleges in the United States. The present and future role of teacher education at community colleges in the United States is also an area that must be addressed in this review of lite rature. Different authors suggest varied ways that teacher education program s may surface at community colle ges. One such author is Gerdeman (2001), who explored future role s of the community college in teacher education and discussed a number of areas wh ere teacher education will be prominent at the community college. The areas mentioned by Gerdeman included teacher preparation programs, articulation agreements, and pa rtnerships with four-year institutions.

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33 Additionally, Floyd and Walker (2003) propos ed a clear typology to categorize the modern and future models where community colleges aid in teacher education. The four categories proposed by Floyd and Walker are the articulation model, the university center model, the certification model, and the comm unity college baccalaureate model. The first is the articulation model that requires comm unity colleges to negotiate and maintain articulation agreements with four-year institu tions specific to teaching. An example of the articulation model would be the creation of the Associate of Arts in Teaching degree at community colleges for the purpose of aiding st udent transfer to a four-year school. The second is the university center model, which is synonymous with partnerships. The third is the certification model, which describe s programs at the community college for individuals who are interested in teaching and who already possess baccalaureate degrees but must return to become certified by the stat e to teach in public schools. Certification programs, also known as alternative certificat ion programs, provide the teacher education component required for previous college gra duates to become certif ied by the state to teach in school systems. The fourth is th e community college baccalaureate model, which is the focus of the rese arch in this study. The community college baccalaureate moveme nt is one of the newest experiments in higher education and is taki ng place in several states ac ross the country. The National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs (NACCTEP) (2005) stated that eight states had already approved at least one community college baccalaureate program. States have taken di fferent approaches to creating community college baccalaureate programs. Becaus e of this, Shkodriani (2004) created a classification system for community college baccalaureate programs. Shkodrianis model

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34 classifies institutions based on the expansion of baccalaureate programs throughout the community college. The first category contains community colleges that continue to offer primarily associate of arts degrees, but offers a limited number of baccalaureate degrees. The second category contains community colleges that change into a four-year college, and is often renamed, but continues to offer associate in arts degrees. The third category is the partnership model. Additionally, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has recently modified its classification model to keep track of the community college baccalaureate movement (2006). Previousl y, the Carnegie Foundation had only one category titled Associates College to cover community colleges. However, two categories are now used to reflect the cha nges at the community colleges. The category Associates College is still us ed, but it has been clarified to include those institutions that offer associates degrees and some baccalaureate degrees, where the number of baccalaureate degrees conferred are less than ten percent of the to tal degrees awarded by that institution a year. The new category is Baccalaureate College. This grouping includes institutions that confer a number of baccalaureate degrees that make up more than ten percent of the degrees awarded by th e institution and also award less than fifty Masters degrees or twenty Doct oral degrees per year (2006). Teacher Shortages in Florida The rationale supporting the practice of community colleges in Florida conferring their own baccalaureate degrees was two-fold. It was intended to increase access to fouryear degrees for citizens of th e state and to increase the number of graduates in high need professions. An area where a national long term need is projected is teacher education

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35 (Townsend and Ignash, 2003). In Florida, it is estimated that 20,000 teaching positions will need to be filled annually within the state over the next 15 years. Below is Table 4, which illustrates the number of annual hires for classroom teachers in public schools in Florida. Table 4. Annual Hires for Classroom Teachers in Public Schools in Florida Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 New Hires 14,411 15,388 19,317 20,010 Source: (Adapted from Florida Department of Education, 2005) To demonstrate the gravity of the situation the Strategi c Plan lists increasing the supply of highly effective teachers as its firs t strategic imperative (2005a). The causes for teacher shortages in Florida are a quickly growing student population, a large number of teachers leaving and retiring, and a class si ze amendment that was passed into law in 2002 similar to the one passed in California th at limits the number of students per class and therefore requires more class sections a nd more teachers. The problem of a statewide teacher shortage requires new and innovative so lutions. Traditional recruitment practices and traditional sources of teachers will not provide nearly the necessary number of educators. Currently, only 19% of new teacher s in the state were recent graduates from teacher education institutions in the state (OPPAGA, 2005a). However there is hope. Additional research shows that 70% of those who graduate with a ba chelors degree in education will stay to work in the state and 93% will work somewhere in the public sector (OPPAGA, 2005c). These figures support the theory that sa ys an increase in

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36 teacher education programs will help Florida d eal with its teacher shortage. If 70% of graduates from baccalaureate education programs st ay to work in the state, an increase in teacher education programs will increase the number of graduates which will help to alleviate the teaching shortage. Policy Cycles Another topic important in this review of the literature is study of policy cycles because it relates to evaluati ng policies and practices of government and its agencies. Citizens and organizations have judged the policies and practices of governments since the earliest days of organized society. Ho wever, it was after World War II when these practices became more scientific (How lett and Ramesh, 2003). Prior to this, governmental agencies were evaluated on whethe r their intentions were in line with the publics agenda; after, specific attention was paid to the outcomes of the policy. Howlett and Ramesh developed a framework that descri bes five stages of policy cycles and how to evaluate each stage of the policy cycle (2003 ). The first four stages in this framework are agenda setting, policy formulation, deci sion making and policy implementation. The research done by Burrows (2002) on entreprene urial leadership describes many of the events in the early stages of the policy cycle relating to bac calaureate degrees at community colleges in Florida. Burrows detailed the conversion of BJC to BC. Specifically, Burrows research on the work done by the President of Blue College and a State Senator would fit into Howlett & Rame shs stages of agenda setting and policy formulation (2002). The President and the Stat e Senator were major figures in making a case for community college baccalaureate pr ograms as well constructing the initial legislation that converted BJC to BC. Indeed, much of the research done regarding the

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37 vertical expansion of Floridas community co lleges can be categorized into one of the first four stages of Howlett and Rameshs framework. However, regarding community college baccalaureate programs in Florida, an area of Howlett and Rameshs model where research is lacking is the final stage of the policy cycle which is policy evaluation. Policy evaluation is the point where the outcomes of the policy are measured and compared with intentions. For many, it is seen as the most important because it is where governmental programs are evaluated. Policy Evaluation and Accountability Policy evaluation and accountab ility are closely tied together. Historically, it was in the 1980s when Americans showed more concern with spending and performance of governmental programs than in the past. Burk e and Modarresi (2000) argued that in the mid 1980s the goals of accountability changed from accounting for expenditures to a concern for specific and measurable outcomes. In addition, Burke and Modaressi showed that public concern for expend itures continued to grow due to the financial recession of the 1990s when state revenues were declining. The public, at that time, demanded that government become more accountable and de monstrate effectiveness and efficiency. Dunn (2003) provided a basic de finition of accountability, as answerability for ones actions or behaviors. In the context of government it means that elected and appointed officials owe an explanation and justification for uses of power and finances to the general public. Burke and Minassians (2002) contended the accountability movement and the pressure from the public associated with it, forced govern mental organizations to try to improve quality, cut costs, and increas e productivity all at the same time. After concern had shifted from e xpenditures to outcomes of programs, institutions and

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38 organizations were forced to clearly demonstrate they were effective in achieving goals or suffer the consequences. The paradigm shift from expenditures to outcomes made higher education an easy target for critics and budget cu tters. Other authors such as Alexander (1999) agreed and warned that the because of a change in perception, the whole public sector was up for reevaluation. As the accountability moveme nt continued to grow in strength and popularity, the expectation for higher educati on was that it should be run more like a business. Dowd (2003) asserted that gove rnments became concerned with how state sponsored programs, such as education, could be more efficient. Additionally, the quest for efficiency threatened access to higher education because of the focus on producing graduates. The accountability movement has forced many changes in the last 10 15 years, such as the one requiring many states to adopt methods of performance reporting for institutions of higher edu cation. Currently, 44 states ha ve some form of performance reporting related to higher education (Burke, 2003). Some states, like South Carolina and Florida, even went as far as to try to link institutional f unding to outcomes measurements (Burke and Modaressi, 2000). The environm ent of accountability forced colleges and universities to demonstrate e ffectiveness. The accountabilit y movement required colleges and universities outcomes be measured and compared with goals to insure that all programs, especially newly developed and inst ituted ones, lived up to previously stated goals. Initial Data Collections on the Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida Little research has been done to this date to assess the community college baccalaureate programs in Florida. So far, the state of Floridas Department of Education

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39 has collected small amounts of data regard ing enrollment in the states community college baccalaureate programs. Specifically, th e state has only been able to collect data such as enrollment figures, graduation numbers and limited follow up data for students in, and graduates from the community college baccalaureate programs. Below is Table 5, it illustrates final enrollment figures for the 2004 05 school year for community college baccalaureate programs in Florida, by institution. Table 5. 2004 05 Enrollment in Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida Institution 2004 05 Enrollment (student headcount) Blue College 1,513 Grey College 477 Red College 43 Source: (Florida Departme nt of Education, 2006a) Regarding follow-up data, the state of Fl orida was able to track graduates by the use of the students social s ecurity numbers. The method fo r the data collection required the Department of Education to access the graduates social security numbers and compare these numbers with unemployment wa ge records. By cross-referencing these two databases the Department of Educati on was able to tell whether unemployment insurance was paid on graduates behalf by employers. This allowed the state to tell whether graduates were working and how mu ch they were making, based on the amount of money paid as unemployment insurance by the employer on behalf of the employee. The only graduates who were not located by this method were the unemployed, self

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40 employed, or those working for small em ployers who are not required to pay unemployment insurance for employees. The results of the first post graduati on follow-up data collection by the Florida Department of Education (2006b) were based on students who earned community college baccalaureate degrees in the 2003-04 school year In total, there were 123 graduates from community college baccalaureate programs in Florida. Of these 123 graduates, 86 were found to have unemployment insurance paid in the graduates name. This meant that at least 86 of the 123, or 70% of the graduate s, from community college baccalaureate programs were employed at the time of the da ta collection. In addi tion, it was reported that the average fourth quar ter earnings for each graduate of the community college baccalaureate programs was $10,440 (p. 1). Initial data has also been collected regarding the cost to the state for the community college baccalaureate programs. At this point the actual data is available for the 2003-04 school year and it is only based on the first three community colleges in the state to confer their own baccalaureate degree s. Below is Table 6, which illustrates final cost figures for the 2003 04 school year for community college baccalaureate programs in Florida, by institution.

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41 Table 6. 2003 04 Expenditures Per Upper Division Credit Hour Institution Cost to the Stat e of Florida Per Credit Hour Blue College $345 Grey College $317 Red College $2,706 State University Average $243 Source: (Adapted from OPPAGA, 2005b, p. 7) Proponents of the community college b accalaureate would argue that these numbers are skewed due to the high startup costs related to br inging baccalaureate programs to the community colleges. As these programs grow in size and enrollment and as start-up costs discontinue, the cost to th e state per credit hour should drop. However in the case of Red College, while the costs shoul d drop, they will also most likely level off at a much higher point than the other baccal aureate-granting community colleges due to an inability to enroll a large number of students caused by geographic isolation and a limited population from which to draw potential students. Expenditure figures like these will be subjected to cost-effectiveness studies to determine if the programs can become more efficient (Levin & McEwan, 2001). It is a certainty that the re sults from any costeffectiveness analysis will be examined by policymakers and administrators. However, this study will not include a cost-effectiveness analysis. Summary The examination of the literature in the fiel d illustrates that the research that will be done in this study is a natural extension of that which has been done in the past.

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42 Americans in particular are looking for more efficient and responsive government programs. The practice of policy evaluati on is done to measure outcomes from many different government programs. The publics expectations for government agencies are higher than ever. New programs and experime nts in government and the individuals who supported the new programs are easy targets for critics if these programs do not succeed. Community college baccalaureate programs ar e among the newest innovations in higher education. If they are judged to be successful in achieving stated goals they will not only be approved by the public, but the possibility of expanding these programs will be investigated by many different state governme nts. All of these f actors demonstrate a significant need for research examining the outcomes of these new community college baccalaureate programs. This study hopes to add to the body of literature on community colleges by comparing the outcomes of the teacher educ ation baccalaureate programs at community colleges in the state of Florida with the stated goals that put these programs in place. The spirit of this study is clearly in line with re search done in the past on community colleges and furthermore, flows directly from the theoretical framework provided by Howlett and Ramesh. This study was necessary so the stat e of Florida may judge whether it should continue to spend millions of dollars to support the development and expansion of the community college baccalaureate within the st ate and whether changes should be made to bring the outcomes closer to the intenti ons of those who developed the community college baccalaureate programs and cl oser to the desires of the public. This study focused on the Colleges of Edu cation at three bacc alaureate-granting community colleges in Florida. The purpose of this research was to determine whether

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43 the selected baccalaureate programs at these in stitutions have been fulfilling the goals of the policymakers who passed legislation to a llow community colleges in Florida to award baccalaureate degrees. This study attempted to ascertain whether the teacher education programs at three baccalaureate-granting comm unity colleges in Florida have contributed to increased access to higher education. The re sults of this study could provide insight into the effectiveness of the community college baccalaureate programs to help meet the states goal to increase a ccess to higher education.

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44 Chapter Three Methods Introduction This study evaluated whether the new community college baccalaureate programs in teacher education across Florida have met the original goa ls of those who constructed and subsequently passed the legislation allowing community colleges within the state to confer baccalaureate degrees. To that end, this study specifically measured whether the teacher education programs at three baccal aureate-granting community colleges in Florida have increased access to higher education. The results of this study will provide insight into the effectiveness of the commun ity college baccalaureate programs to help meet the states goals to increase access to hi gher education and provide quality teachers. This current chapter includes several sect ions. First, the research questions are reintroduced. Then the research design of th e current study is explained. This includes the theoretical framework as well as a more deta iled explanation of the structure of the current study. Next, I describe the populations and samples th at were used in the study. Following this, the methods for the data colle ction are detailed. Then, the data analyses for this current study are explai ned. Finally, this chapter conc ludes with a summary of the purpose as well as the major points to this chapter. Research Questions This study investigated the following research questions:

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45 1. Do community college teacher education programs contribute to increased access to higher education within the state by increasing capacity for enrollment in baccalaureate level teache r education programs? a. How many individuals have enrolled in the community college teacher education programs since their inception? b. What has happened to enrollment le vels at other public institutions offering similar teacher educati on programs since inception of the community college teacher education programs? 2. Why did students attend the commun ity college for their upper division education? 3. What might the students in these programs have done (educationally or professionally) if the community college t eacher education program did not exist? 4. Would education have been the stud ents first choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were offered at th e local community college where they attended? 5. How do the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate teacher education programs compare with st udents at other four-year colleges in Florida? a. How do responses on selected items from the National Survey of Student Engagement for students from the community college baccalaureate programs in teacher education programs compare with students in similar programs from other four-year institutions in Florida?

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46 Research Design The framing for this study came from the scientific research paradigm of Pragmatism. Pragmatism attempts to answer questions that are more concrete and practical than theoretical (Pa tton, 2002). More specifically, it belongs in the category of Pragmatic studies known as Applied Researc h. The purpose of Applied Research is to solve immediate practical prob lems or contribute to an im proved practice. Furthermore, the study was situated within the domain of Administrative Ev aluation Research. Administrative Evaluation Research attemp ts to determine the merit or worth of a program to make decisions about the effec tiveness of the program (Patton, 2002). This study was specifically conducted within the frameworks of Performance Evaluation and Adequacy of Performance Evaluation as related to policy cycles by Howlett and Ramesh (2003). Regarding Performance Evaluation, outputs from a policy are quantified and studied to determine what exactly the policy is producing. This is a necessary step to proceed into deeper research that is know n as Adequacy of Performance Evaluation. Within this model of evaluation the performa nce of a given program is compared to its initial goals to determine whether the pr ogram is meeting its goals (Howlett & Ramesh, 2003, p. 211). This type of research intends to provide recommendations for modifying or altering policy based on the findings of the study. The study used quantitative methods with a mix of sources. The majority of the study was quantitative in nature, but a portion used open-ended questions to gain a deeper understanding of the views and responses of the participants. The data came from three different collections. The first set of data was collected from institutions (community colleges and universities), the second set of da ta was collected via a survey questionnaire

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47 created by me, and the third set of data came from Indiana University. The data collected from the institutions and Indiana University were used for quantitative analyses, while data from the survey questionnaire were us ed for both quantitative analyses and the appropriate analyses of res ponses to open-ended questions. Population and Sample The population of interest for this stu dy was students who were enrolled in a teacher education program at the three newly created baccalaureate-granting community colleges in Florida. The three baccalaureate co mmunity colleges in this study are referred to by the use of pseudonyms. Grey College (G C) is a large urban/suburban community college with an unduplicated headcount of 130,919 students for the 2004-05 school year. Blue College (BC) is a la rge urban/suburban community college with an unduplicated headcount of 51,100 students for the 2004-05 school year. Red College (RC) is a small rural community college with an unduplicated headcount of 5,556 students for the 200405 school year (2006 Florida community college system fact book, p. 28). I collected enrollment figures and survey data The first data in this study were the Fall semesters upper division enrollment numbers for the three baccalaureate community colleges offering majors in teacher educa tion as well as the enrollment numbers for public universities in Florida that offe r baccalaureate degrees in education. The timeframe of these data sets was fr om the 2002-03 school year through the 2005-06 school year. The second type of data in th is study came from a survey of the population of students enrolled in the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at the community colleges in Florida during the 2006-07 school year. There were 140 students who responded to my survey instrument. The third group of data came from Indiana

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48 University. It was the frequencies of respons es for selected items on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) for seniors majo ring in education at four-year institutions in Florida for the 2005-06 school year. Data Collection The first set of data collected in th is study came from institutions to answer research question 1, Do community college teacher education pr ograms contribute to increased access to higher education with in the state by increasing capacity for enrollment in baccalaureate level teacher education programs? Th is data collection included the Fall semesters enrollment data for the teacher education programs at GC, BC, and RC as well as enrollment data for sim ilar programs at the public universities in Florida from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 school year. I contacted the Colleges/Departments of Education at BC, GC, and RC as well as the Colleges/Departments of Education at th e traditional four-year public colleges and universities in the state: Florida Agricu ltural and Mechanical University (FAMU), Florida Atlantic University (FAU), Florid a Gulf Coast University (FGCU), Florida International University (FIU), Florida Stat e University (FSU), University of Central Florida (UCF), University of Florida (UF), University of North Florida (UNF), and the University of South Florida (USF). All of the data collected were anonymous (See Appendices A, B, and E for these data request forms). The second data collection in this st udy used survey methods. The survey instrument was sent to all of the students in the teacher education programs at the community colleges in Florida during the 2006-07 school year. The survey data was used to answer research questions 2, 3, 4, and 5. The instrument was titled the Survey of

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49 Students from Community College Teacher Education Programs (SSCCTEP), and was developed by me (See Appendix D for a copy of the survey instrument). Piloting the Survey Instrument The survey instrument that I created to collect data for this study was titled the Survey of Students from Community College Teacher Education Programs (SSCCTEP). The survey was piloted to determine whether any of the items on the survey were unclear or confusing to respondents and to obtain an accurate estimate for the amount of time required by participants to complete the su rvey. The pilot group was students from a single class section in the Colle ge of Education at Blue College. This group of students was chosen because of convenience and becau se the instructor is a fellow doctoral candidate at the University of South Florida. This instructor sent the informed consent notice along with the link to the survey to al l of the members of her class. In total, 15 students responded to the pilo t survey. Based on the students comments that were transmitted to me electronically with their completed surveys, I changed the order of the responses of the Likert items and added the options of Freshman and Sophomore for the class rankings. I was also able to dete rmine that the survey should take respondents on the average less than 10 minutes to complete. The SSCCTEP was administered to student s enrolled in the baccalaureate teacher education programs at GC, BC, and RC. Th e SSCCTEP was housed online. I sent the internet hyperlink for the survey to designated contact persons at the three institutions. These contacts sent the hyperlink to the onlin e survey to the stude nts enrolled in these programs via email with a message encouragi ng the students to participate (See Appendix C for the email to students and the informed consent for participants). The participants

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50 were given explicit instructions as to how to access the survey as well as an estimate for the time requirements needed to complete the survey. The institutions resent the link with another note of encouragement of participation to the students via email three to four weeks after the initial email was sent. I do not feel that the online hosting of this instrument acted as a hindrance to potentia l participants. To the contrary, since these individuals were enrolled in co llege, it was assumed that they were computer literate and should have felt comfortable with computer s and the internet. The hope was that the students would view this met hod of data collection as user -friendly because completing surveys online is often faster, easier, and more convenient than filling out a survey questionnaire by hand and mailing it back. Th e SSCCTEP was emailed to 843 students at the three institutions. All of the data co llected via the SSCCTEP was anonymous The SSCCTEP included questi ons that yielded both qua ntitative data and data from open-ended questions. The item on the SSCC TEP that was used to answer research question 2, Why did the students attend the community college for their upper division education? came from an open-ended questi on. Previous research into the area of student choice of institution was often base d on the theoretical framework provided by Chapman (1981). He theorized that student characteri stics as well as external influences contributed to a students choice of college. Student characteristics included socioeconomic status, aptitude, level of educational aspiration, and high school performance. External influences included significant persons (family, friends, and high school personnel), fixed college characteristic s (cost, location, a nd availability of program), and college efforts to communicate with students (written information, campus visit, and recruitment).

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51 Walker (2001) posited that increasing community college baccalaureate programs would provide many benefits to students and the community and should be expanded. Many of the benefits Walker cited would fit into Chapmans framework within the category of external influences. Walker argued that benefits to stude nts such as increased geographical, financial, a nd academic access to upper division education, success among nontraditional or returning students through smaller classes, less rigid course sequencing, and greater scheduling options, ready matriculation and upward mobility for students with associate degrees, and stable family and employment relationships for students while they complete their degrees were reasons community college baccalaureate programs should be expanded. Walkers framew ork was another that could have been used to develop items on the SSCCTEP. Howe ver, there was a con cern that constructing a questionnaire that offered respondents multiple choice style items or Likert items, based on the work of these authors or others, might bias the responses fr om the participants. Due to the newness of the community colle ge baccalaureate programs and the lack of research into these programs, I felt most comfortable using open-ended questions to answer research question 2. The belief was that the use an open-ended question would provide the best opportunity to understand the views and pe rceptions of the respondents regarding the reasons why they attended th e community college for their upper division education. To answer research question 2, the SS CCTEP included an open-ended question asking the students, What led you to enroll in the baccalaureate level teacher education program at the community college? This que stion was designed using the framework for open-ended questions provided by Patton (2002). According to Patton, researchers should

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52 structure open-ended questions in a way that permits the respondents to take whatever direction and use whatever words they want to express what they have to say (p. 354). Keys to constructing good open-ended questi ons include avoiding questions that will yield dichotomous answers and avoiding asking why? The SSCCTEP was also used to collect data to answer research question 3, What might the students in these programs have done (educationally or pr ofessionally) if the community college teacher education program did not exist? Research question 3 directly flows from the previous research question, which attempted to uncover why the student chose the community college for his baccalaureate studies. I included this openended question, What would you have done ed ucationally or professionally had the community college baccalaureate program not existed? on the SSCCTEP to answer this research question. This open-ended question was also designed based on Pattons (2002) guidelines. I chose to use an open-ended que stion to address this research question because of the wide number and varying type of responses the students might provide. Some of the responses could include other educational di rections. Others could be professionally or occupationally focused. Research question 4, Would education have been the students first choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were of fered at the local community college where they attended? also relied upon the SSCCT EP. This research question sought to understand if there was a relationship between the limited number of choices of a major within the upper divisions at the community colleges and the students choice to pursue baccalaureate degrees in educat ion. Much of the literature regarding student choice of major comes from the field of labor studies. Specifically, a substantial portion of the

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53 research done on student choice of major ha s been tied to post graduation earnings (Montmarquette, Cannings, Mahseredjian, 1997) and student percepti ons of salaries (Betts, 1996). However, in the case of this current study, the interest was specifically if education would have been the students fi rst choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were offered at the local community college where they attended. Because the community college baccalaureate programs in Fl orida are relatively new and still in their development, there has been no research done as to the possible impact the limited choice of baccalaureate degrees at community colleges have on student choice of major at these institutions. Furthermore, the most appropriate type of data collec tion and analysis for this research question was through the use of open-ended questions. For this research question, two open-ended questions were developed as part of the SSCCTEP and were used to gain a bett er understanding of the students views and perceptions regarding the impact the limite d number of baccalaureate options at the community colleges had on their choice to pu rsue a baccalaureate degree in education. The first open-ended question asked, What influenced your decision to major in education? The second open-ended question asked, What other baccalaureate program or major (other than education), if any would you have considered enrolling in had one existed at the time you enrolled in the comm unity college baccalaureate teacher education program? Data collected from the SSCCTEP was us ed to answer resear ch question 5, How do the schoolwork habits of students in th e community college baccalaureate teacher education programs compare with students at other four-year colleges in Florida? This research question required the comparison of responses of seniors in the community

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54 college baccalaureate teacher e ducation programs to the responses of seniors majoring in education at other four-year institutions in Florida on se lected items taken from the National Survey of Student Engagement, 2006. The NSSE is a survey questionnaire that is used to asses students collegiate educational experience. It is administered at over 500 baccalaureategranting institutions across the country. The NSSEs response ra te averages between 32% and 49%. The NSSE has been tested for validity and reli ability. Testing for validity was done through the practice of factor analyses. The develope rs of the instrument contend that logical connections exist between the items and the objec tives that they are designed to measure. The developers of the survey have calculated a reliability coefficien t (Chronbachs alpha) of .82 for the first twenty items on the inst rument (Kuh, Hayek, Carini, Ouimet, Gonyea, and Kennedy, 2001, p. 11). I chose nine items from the first twenty on the NSSE to include on the SSCCTEP. Those items that were part of the first twenty on the NSSE but were not included on the SSCCTEP were related to issues such as students interactions with other students, service learning, and students communi cation with faculty members and other students. The items of the NSSE that were included in the SSCCTEP were designed by researchers at Indiana University us ing a four point Likert scale. I received permission from Indiana University to use the items from the NSSE prior to administering the SSCCTEP (See Appendix F for the request to use items from the NSSE). The third set of data that was collected was frequency distributions for responses to items on the 2005 NSSE which I included in the SSCCTEP. I asked Indiana University to provide the frequencies of responses for th e items on the NSSE for seniors majoring in

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55 education at other four-year institutions in Florida duri ng the Spring Semester of 2006. Indiana University provided me the data for a fee of $200. The data from the SSCCTEP was compared with the data sent by Indiana University (See Appendix G for the complete list of 2006 NSSE institutional participants in Florida). Data Analysis Prior to any analysis, the data was screened to determine if any data were missing, incomplete or incorrect (outside of the possible ranges). The screening of the data attempted to eliminate possible mistakes that could have been made during the collecting, reporting or coding of the data. I plotted the quantitative data in histograms and boxplots and subsequently examined these figures to ma ke sure that the responses were all within the possible range for results. The data collected in this study were subjected to a number of different analyses in an effort to answer the research questi ons. The enrollment data and the quantitative data collected via the SSCCTEP were subjecte d to a number of sta tistical analyses. In each case, descriptive statistics were examin ed to better understand the outcomes from the baccalaureate community college teacher ed ucation programs, as well as to determine if proceeding with inferential statistics was appropriate. The textual data collected from the SSCCTEP were subjected to data anal yses for open-ended questions based on the frameworks provided by Patton (200 2) (For a complete list of data analyses that are part of this study see Appendix G). The data analysis for research question 1 Do community college teacher education programs contribute to increased acces s to higher education within the state by increasing capacity for enrollment in baccalaureate level teacher education programs?

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56 yielded two tables that are included in chapte r 4. The first of these tables illustrates the Fall semesters upper division enrollment trends for the teacher education programs at GC, BC, and RC from their inception through 20 06. Within this table the raw numbers of enrollees in the community college teacher education programs are presented based on institution. The second compares the enrollment figures for the colleges of education at the selected baccalaureate co mmunity colleges with the enrollment figures for the colleges/departments of education at the publ ic colleges and univers ities in Florida from 2002 to 2006. A limitation on the results for this section of the analyses was that I did not collect enrollment data from private colleges and unive rsities in Florida. With this said, there was the possibility that enrollments in th ese programs were also influenced by the community college baccalaureate programs in teacher education. Additionally the private colleges and universities in the state could al so have impacted enrollments in teacher education programs at the trad itional four-year co lleges and universities in Florida. However, since the focus of this study was the state funded programs I felt satisfied in leaving the private colleges and universi ties out of this portion of the study. The data collection for research questions 2 through 4 came from two open-ended questions. The responses to the open-ended questions were subject ed to appropriate methods of analyses as outlined by Patt on (2002) to better understand the reasons students chose the community college for thei r upper division education. I used the reductionist technique of coding to examine the responses for themes and patterns to identify core consistencies and meanings and assign them into categories. While developing the coding system I looked for convergent themes that tied responses

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57 together. The data was grouped according to the codes based on prominent ideas and wording. Olivers criteria for selection of qualitative data were also utilized to help with the analysis of the open-ended questions (2004). Ol iver suggested that researchers determine what proportion of the respondents raised a par ticular issue when deciding to include the issue as a key response. He also stated that researchers should include responses that concur with findings from previous resear ch. Another piece of his framework that was used in this study was to look for a hierarchy in the responses. If I was able to determine that a pattern of hierarchical responses existed I included th ese data in the results and discussion sections. Research question 2 asked, Why did the students attend the community college for their upper division educa tion? The data from the openended question for research question 2 is presented in chapter 4 illustra ting the thoughts and idea s of the respondents. That portion of the results includes the cat egories developed during the reduction of the data and a frequency report of the number of responses placed into each category. Finally, I describe the coding process in chapter 4 as we ll as provide low inference descriptors to lend credibili ty to the coding process. Responses to open-ended questions were also collected for research question 3 What might the students in these programs have done (educationally or professionally) if the community college teacher education pr ogram did not exist? The data was used to determine what the participants would have done educationally or professionally if the upper divisions at the community colleges we re not an option for the students. The

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58 participants responses to the open-ende d question included in the SSCCTEP were subjected to the same analyses de tailed in the previous section. The data collected for research ques tion 4 Would education have been the students first choice of major if other bacc alaureate programs were offered at the local community college where they attended? also yielded data from open-ended questions. The data was used to determine what, if any, influence the limited choices of baccalaureate degree majors at the community college had on the students choices in major. The responses to the two open-ende d questions were subjected to the same analyses detailed previously in this chapter. To answer research question 5 How do th e schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate teacher e ducation programs compare with students at other four-year colleges in Florida? I compared the mean responses to nine survey items between the students at the baccalaureate community college teacher education programs and the students at four-year colleges and unive rsities in Florida. These nine items were chosen because they directly related to the schoolwork habits of students. The responses to these items were based on four-point Like rt-scale responses, as designed by the NSSE. The responses were converted to numbers ra nging from 1 to 4 (4 for very often, 3 for often, 2 for sometimes, and 1 for never). Ne xt, I used these numbers representing the responses and frequencies of each response to calculate the mean response and standard deviation for each of the nine items per gr oups (students from the community college baccalaureate teacher education programs and students from selected four-year institutions in Florida). The mean response for each item was used to set up comparisons between the two groups.

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59 The data collected from students via th e SSCCTEP was compared to the data provided by the Indiana University. T -tests were used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the mean s of the responses for the items from the NSSE among community college baccalaureat e teacher education students and seniors majoring in education at other four-year institutions in Florida. To subject the data to t tests I had to address certain assumptions associated with t -tests. The first was that the observations were independent. The second wa s that the observations were normally distributed within groups. The third was that the variances of the groups were equal. I am confident that the observati ons were independent. However, the assumption of normal distribution within groups was violated in most cases. But, I am confident that the sizes of the groups were large enough to make the t -tests robust to this violation. A total of 68 responses from seniors enrolled in the co mmunity college baccalaureate programs in teacher education in Florida were used in the t -tests. The data from the seniors who majored in education at a four-year college or university in the state, which were provided to me by Indiana University included responses from 228 students. For each of the nine t -tests the null hypothesis was that the means of the two groups were equal. I used the value of = .05 control for Type I error and to determine whether to reject each null hypothesis. If I was able to conclude that the groups differ in a statistically significant way the data were subjected to a te st for effect size. In those cases Cohens d was used to ascertain effect size. A limitation that exists regarding the comparison of the data obtained from the SSCCTEP and from Indi ana University was that all but one of the institutions in Florida that took part in the NSSE during 2005 were private institutions.

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60 Summary This study focused on the community college teacher education programs in the state of Florida and evaluated whether the new community college baccalaureate programs in teacher education across Florida were meeting the original goals of those who constructed and subsequently passed legi slation allowing community colleges within the state to confer b accalaureate degrees. This study attempted to ascertain whether the teacher education programs at three baccal aureate granting community colleges in Florida were increasing access to higher educ ation for citizens of the state. I utilized quantitative methods with a mix of sources to answer the resear ch questions. These methods included examinations of enrollment da ta and survey data. The results of this study could provide insight into the effectiven ess of the community college baccalaureate programs to help meet the states goal to increase access to higher education.

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61 Chapter Four Results The purpose of this study was to determ ine whether the outcomes of selected community college baccalaureate programs matc hed the initial goals and purposes of the policies that created them. Specifically, I wa s interested in whether community college baccalaureate programs were contributing to increased access to higher education in Florida. For reasons explained in Chap ter 1, I chose to limit my study to the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at three community colleges in the state. This study used quantitative methods with a mix of sources to answer the research questions. The data collected came from institutions, a survey instrument that I created, and the National Survey of Student Engagement s data warehouse. Th is chapter includes the following sections: upper division enroll ment trends for teacher education programs at baccalaureate community colleges and four-y ear institutions in Florida, details on the data collection for the survey data and statistics on those who responded to the survey, results for the responses to open-ended questions statistical analyses for the Likert-scale items on the survey instrument, and the conclusion. Upper Division Enrollment Trends for Educa tion Programs at Baccalaureate Community Colleges and Four-Year Institutions Data were collected in accordance with the protocol detailed in Chapter 3 to determine enrollment trends for education pr ograms at both the baccalaureate community

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62 colleges and public four-year institutions in Florida. These data were used to answer research question 1, Do community college teacher education programs contribute to increased access to higher education with in the state by increasing capacity for enrollment in baccalaureate level teacher educ ation programs? The first set of data was collected from three community colleges in Florida that confer b accalaureate degrees in education. The first of these programs was star ted at Blue College (BC) during the Spring semester of the 2002-03 school ye ar. Below is Table 7, it illu strates the enrollment in the upper division teacher education programs at these institutions. Table 7 contains the Fall semester enrollment figures representing th e unduplicated headcounts for juniors and seniors for the 2003-04 through 2005-06 school years. Table 7. 2002-03 through 2005-06 Fall Unduplicated Upper Division Headcount for Baccalaureate Level Education Programs by Community College Institution Year 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Blue College 229 394 492 Grey College 194 224 240 Red College 0 10 12 Total 423 628 744 The previous table illustrates that from the point of their in ception, the community college baccalaureate programs in education have enjoyed growth. Statewide enrollment in these programs for the 2003-04 school y ear was 423 students. Blue College has continued to grow and is the largest comm unity college baccalaureate level education

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63 program in the state, but the other two inst itutions, Grey College and Red College have also had increases in enrollmen t since their inception. Based on the latest data collected in this study, the Fall semester of the 200506 school year, 744 juniors and seniors were enrolled in baccalaureate level education programs at these three community colleges. The second set of data used to answer research question 1 was the upper division enrollment figures for the trad itional public four-year institu tions in Florida that offer baccalaureate degrees in education from the 2002-03 through 2005-06 school years. This data collection and research did not take into account or analyze enrollment data for private institutions in the state. The institutional enrollment data were used to calculate the total number of enrollees per year in teacher education programs for all public fouryear institutions. Below is Table 8, it di splays the unduplicated headcounts for juniors and seniors in education programs at each public four-year ins titution. Table 8 also provides the total for these institutions, th e total for the bacc alaureate community colleges during the same timeframe, and the co mbined total for all public institutions (community colleges and four-year colleges an d universities) that have upper division programs in education as well as the per centage change from year to year for enrollments.

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64 Table 8. 2002-03 through 2005-06 Fall Unduplicated Upper Division Headcounts for Baccalaureate Level Education Programs by Institution and Percentage of Change by Year Institution Year 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 FAMU 462 487 267 176 NA 5.4% (45.2%) (34.1%) FAU 1,783 1,795 1,819 1,949 NA .7% 1.3% 7.2% FGCU 224 209 210 227 NA (6.7%) .5% 8.1% FIU 881 965 1,157 1,223 NA 9.5% 19.9% 5.7% FSU 1,217 1,191 1,178 1,260 NA (2.1%) (1.1%) 6.9% UCF 1,876 2,091 2,310 2,549 NA 11.5% 10.5% 10.3% UF 464 459 502 543 NA (1.1%) 9.4% 8.2% UNF 783 770 754 892 NA (1.7%) (2.1%) 18.3% USF 1,558 1,520 1,554 1,384 NA (2.4%) 2.2% (10.9%) Four-Year Total 9,248 9,487 9,751 10,203 NA 2.6% 2.8% 4.6% Community College Total NA 423 628 744 NA NA 48.5% 18.5% Combined Total NA 9,910 10,379 10,947 NA NA 4.7% 5.5%

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65 Table 8 demonstrates that the upper divisions of baccalaureate education programs at four-year colleges and universities have continued to grow over the selected timeframe. In some individual institutional cases for certain years, the upper division enrollment in the baccalaureate level education programs dropped. However, upper division enrollment in the combined system of public four-year Colleges of Education grew from 9,248 students in 2002-03 to 10,203 students in 2005-06. The upper division enrollment for both the four-year and co mmunity college education programs was 10,947 junior and senior stude nts for the Fall semester of th e 2005-06 school year. Traditional four-year colleges and universities have dem onstrated growth in si ngle digit percentages from year to year during the timeframe of this study. An overall increase in enrollment for all upper division education programs (at traditional four-year institutions and community colleges) is present for every year in this study. There appears to be a net gain in upper division enrollment for education pr ograms statewide prior to, and after, the addition of the community college baccalaureate programs in education. The University of South Fl orida (USF) saw declines in enrollment in its junior and senior level education progr ams for two of the three year s in this study. This could possibly be explained by the growth in enrollment of one of th e community college baccalaureate teacher education programs in USFs geographical area. However, the same could not be said for Florida Interna tional University (FIU). FIU saw enrollment increases in its baccalaureate leve l education programs for every year that was part of this study. FIU also has a community college baccalaureate teacher education program close to its campus. These results are discu ssed further in the next chapter.

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66 Respondents to the Survey Instrument The SSCCTEP was sent to students in the teacher education programs at the baccalaureate community colleges according to protocol in Chapter 3. The data collected via this instrument was self-reported. As discu ssed in Chapters 1 and 3 of this dissertation there are limitations and weaknesses related to any self-reported data (See Appendix D for the survey instrument). The students were sent an internet hype rlink that took them to the SSCCTEP so their submission could be done electronicall y. The SSCCTEP was sent to 843 students at the three institutions. In total, 140 partic ipants completed the SSCCTEP yielding a response rate of 16.6%. The response rates from students at the inst itutions were uneven. Two institutions were more strongly represente d in the responses from the students than the other. Of those who completed the surv ey 122 were female and 18 were male. The participants had a mean age of 32.7 with a standard deviation of 9.8 years and a median age of 30. Juniors who participated in the survey numbered 72, while 68 of the respondents said they were seniors. The da ta from three individuals were discarded because these individuals reported a lower division class ranking. Where did the students complete their lower division education? It was important to understand more about the students who took part in this study. The students in the baccalaureate le vel teacher education programs at the community colleges could come from a divers e educational background. With that said, I included an item on the SSCCTEP that asked students where they completed their first two years of college. The item was multiple choice in design and included the options: current institution, another community college, a private four-year colle ge or university, a

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67 public four-year college or unive rsity and other. Table 9, which follows, presents the selfreported responses of students in the commun ity college baccalaur eate teacher education to the question, Where did you complete your first two years of college? Table 9. Type of Institution for Completion of First Tw o Years of College of Respondents to the SSCCTEP Response Frequency Percentage Current Institution 107 76.4% Another Community College 22 15.7% A Private Four-Year College or University 2 1.4% A Public Four-Year College or University 4 2.9% Other 5 3.6% N 140 Overall, 140 students from the three community college baccalaureate level education programs answered the question, Whe re did you complete your first two years of college? The previous table showed that the great majority (76.4%) of students who responded, said that they completed their firs t two years of college at their Current Institution. The next closes t category was Another Community College, which had 22 students that represented 15.7% of those w ho answered this question. The other three categories A Private Four-Year College or Un iversity, A Public Four-Year College or University, and Other only had a combined total of nine students. Most of the participants in this study attended the same institution for their lower division education.

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68 Results from Data for Open-Ended Questions The SSCCTEP contained four open-ended questions that were used to answer three of the research questions. These open-e nded questions were analyzed in the manner discussed in Chapter 3 and based on the fram eworks of Patton (2002) and Oliver (2004). The responses to the open-ended questions we re examined for recurring themes. After several reviews of the textua l data, I created ca tegories based on emergent themes. At first I had many different groups. But, after fu rther analyzing the data and examining the classifications I collapsed some of the categ ories and reduced the overall number of sets. When I had the final list of thematic groups, I went back to the orig inal data completed the final analysis and coded the data into the appropr iate headings. What led students to enroll in these programs? There has been some discussion and specula tion in previous literature (Walker, 2000, 2001, 2005) as to the reasons why student s would choose to attend a community college for their upper division educations. The second research question of this study asked, Why did students attend the comm unity college for their upper division education? The open ended question on the SSCCTEP that was used to elicit textual responses from students was, What led you to enroll in the baccalau reate level teacher education programs at the community college? The range of reasons students chose the community college for their upper division cour sework was wide. However, the foremost categories were location and cost Other participants mentione d things like the ability to have personal contact, prior positive experiences at the institution, the reputation of the institution and the program, and flexibility.

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69 A total of 137 students submitted answers to this question. Some of the recurring themes that emerged from the data were Lo cation, Cost, Smaller Classes, Prior Positive Experiences at the Institution, Flexibility, Reputation, a nd Ability to have Personal Contact. Table 10 below presents the freque ncy and percentage of responses of the categories of responses from the students. Most of the respondents listed multiple reasons as to why they enrolled at the community college. Because of this, in many cases multiple responses from the same participant were placed into different categories. There were 231 responses from 137 students included in Table 10 and this is also why the cumulative percentages in Table 10 exceed 100%. Table 10. Frequency of Themes for Responses to, What led you to enroll in the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at the community college? Theme Frequency Percentage Location 75 54.7% Cost 51 37.2% Ability to Have Personal Contact 35 25.4% Prior Positive Experiences at the Institution 27 19.7% Reputation of the Institution 27 19.7% Flexibility 16 11.7% N 231 To lend credibility to the coding proc ess I have included some low inference descriptors that provide actual responses so th at the reader may have a better idea of what

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70 kind of replies were included in the groups. The first category, and by far the largest, Location, included 75 (54.7%) responses from participants such as: I live around here. This college is closer to my home. The shorter distance, it was closest to my home. The school had many campuses n ear me, so it was convenient. I only have to drive ten minutes to school. Convenience of location, I live in another county and travel to any other college or university that had a four-year pr ogram for the education major was not convenient. If I had to travel any fu rther I probably wouldnt have made the decision to go back to school. Location, location, location. It was geographically convenient. Most of the students who responded to this question included a reference to geographic proximity to the institution as a re ason why they chose to enroll in the teacher education program at the community college. Other students said that they chose th e community college baccalaureate program because: It made the most sense financially. It was relatively inexpensive. It is more affordable than other education programs. I wanted to give it a try without having to spend too much money.

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71 Less prohibitive tuition cost. The tuition is about half of what they charge at the universities. The cost per credit hour is less expens ive than the local state university. In these cases, I felt most comfortable placing them in the categor y I created and called Cost. In addition to comments strictly related to the cost of tuition, I also included in the category of Cost responses from students w ho mentioned financial aid as a factor in their decision making process. These stude nts specifically answered the question by including the terms grants or scholarships. Two exampl es of remarks that were placed in this group are: I knew by staying at the community college, my education would be paid for through scholarships They offered me a transfer scholarship. It was clear that these stude nts believed there were more opportunities for financial aid for which they were eligible at the community colleges. The ability to obtain financial aid at the community college reduced their ou t-of-pocket expenses. Altogether, Cost included a total of 51 responses from stude nts (37.2%). Finances and the perceived monetary advantages of the community co llege baccalaureate programs obviously made an impact on these students choices to en roll in the upper divisi ons at the community colleges. Ability to Have Personal Contact was another theme th at appeared to impact the students choices to attend th e community college for their upper division education this

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72 category contained 35 answers from students (25.4%). Thos e that were included were such comments as: I chose to enroll in the teacher educ ation program at the community college because it had been a few years since I attended college. I felt like I needed smaller classes and more accessibility to my instructors through the process. I wanted more personal attention. Professors were readily available and the counseli ng center was a huge help. I wanted to go somewhere where you kne w the instructors and they were more accessible to you when you needed to speak with them. I was looking for a small program that w ould allow for a more personal learning experience with classmates and professors I didnt just want to be a number. I wanted to go somewher e the professors knew my name and didnt know me by a number. In addition to the replies provided above, students also responded that smaller class sizes contributed to their decision to enroll at the community colleges. These answers were also included in the cate gory, Ability to Have Personal Contact. Responses such as: Blue College had smaller class sizes. After checking into the program a nd learning about the small learning communities I decided to enroll. The student per teacher ratio is relati vely small compared to that of major universities.

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73 Whether it was the perception that the students could have closer rela tionships with their instructors, better opportunities to communicate with counsel ors, or smaller classes, students regarded personal contact as an im portant reason why they chose the community college teacher education programs. Another group of 27 students (19.7%) cite d Prior Positive Experiences at the Institution as a reason why they chose the Community Colleges for their baccalaureate educations. Answers from students that were included in this category were those like: The comfort of already knowing my surroundings. I went to Blue College for my first two years of college. It was easier to just continue on than change schools. I completed my first two years of colle ge at the same school and enjoyed the experience immensely. I also got my AA from there so I was inclined to continue on. I have had only positive experiences with Blue College. It seemed only natural for me to continue at this institution. I have always enjoyed my instructors and classes at this college so I never thought to look for another baccalaureate program. Almost one-fifth of the respondents in this study said that a prior positive experience with the institution impacted their decision to continue pursuit of their baccalaureate education at that same institut ion. However, it is also possible that the results for this particular question were skewe d. Over three-fourths of the participants in this study (76.4%) attended the same institut ion for their lower division education and this may have had an effect on the prevalen ce of responses that were in this group.

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74 When further analyzing the responses to the question, What led you to enroll in the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at the community college? there were other comments from students that seem ed to fit best in the group that I called Reputation. A number of students said they were drawn to these upper division programs at the community colleges because of what they had heard. Some of the 27 items (19.7%) included in this cat egory were such things as: Because of the programs great reputation. I had heard it was a great program. Through friends I was told that the co llege works closely with students. A person I worked with told me that he learned more during his two years in the College of Education at Blue College than he did when he was at a large university. Blue College has a more respected program. Positive feedback from currently enrolled students. I talked to the principal at my sons sc hool and he told me that the teachers he had seen from Blue College were dynamite. The final category was titled Flexibility. There were 16 participants in this study (11.7%) who believed the community college baccalaureate programs allowed them more freedoms than other baccalau reate programs may have. The potential flexibility of the community college baccal aureate programs attracted them to the program. Answers that were included in this gr oup were I could work on my degree as a part time student, and I wanted a flexible class schedule where I on ly have to come to campus two days a week to work on my baccalaureate degree. I also included such

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75 responses in this category as I could still live at home and keep the job I had, and I work full time and have children. For th ese individuals the ability to maintain relationships and obligations (employment and familial) influenced their decisions to pursue their baccalaureate degree s at the community college. What would students have done if these programs did not exist? There has been much debate and disc ussion surrounding the students who would enroll in community college baccalaureate pr ograms. One area of th is debate centers on whether the community college baccalaureate programs woul d increase opportunities for access to upper division educations for student s who otherwise would not have continued pursuit of baccalaureate degrees. Some fear th at students who enroll in upper division programs at the community college may be redi rected from other four-year institutions. Research question 3, What might the st udents in these programs have done (educationally or professionally) if the comm unity college teacher education program did not exist? sought to determine what the studen ts in the teacher education programs at the community colleges would have done if th e community college baccalaureate programs in teacher education were not options. An open-ended question was included on the SSCCTEP that asked the students What would you have done educationally or professionally had the community college baccalaureate program not existed? In tota l, 135 students provided answers to this question. Some of the groupings I created for responses to this question were: gone to another institution, sought em ployment, gone to another ins titution and changed major, and not pursued a baccalaureate degree. Table 11, which follows, presents the themes which emerged during the coding process fo r the responses of the students and the

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76 frequencies of responses which were placed into each category. In contrast to the previous open ended question, the responses to this item were placed into mutually exclusive categories. Table 11. Frequency of Themes for Responses to, W hat would you have done educationally or professionally had the community college baccalaureate program not existed? Theme Frequency Percentage Gone to Another Institution 82 60.7% Sought Employment 18 13.3% Gone to Another Instituti on and Changed Major 17 12.6% Not Pursued a Baccalaureate Degree` 9 6.6% Not Sure 5 3.7% Other 4 2.9% N 135 There was one theme that came to the forefront and was by far the most evident in the responses of the students. Most of th e students remarked that they would have continued to pursue their upper division edu cation somewhere else if the community college baccalaureate program did not exist. Examples from the 82 responses that were placed in this category (60.7%) included statements like: I would have commuted to the next closes t college in order to earn my degree. Traveled to a univers ity father away. Gone somewhere else.

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77 I would have traveled the inconvenient di stance to another college or university that did offer one. I would have looked to attend a colleg e/university in my local area because being close to home is an important factor in my education choice. I would have tried to find an online program. I would have probably gone to one of our big universities, although it would have been difficult due to the expenses. Moved or had to travel to a college to complete my education degree. I would have chosen another education program at a different college. Gone to the University of South Florida for education. Clearly, the majority of students who pa rticipated in this study believed they would have been motivated to enroll at another institution. However, the students who participated in the study and the methods of data collection for the study may have had an effect on the large number of respondents who were placed in this category. The final response rate for this survey was 16.6%. It is possible that the stude nts who took the time to participate in this study would also have been the type of students who would have more likely pursued a baccalaureat e degree at another institution. Eighteen other students (13.3%) responded in ways that I characterized as Sought Employment. These students would not have continued to pursue their upper division education, but would have instead gone into the working world. This category also includes those individuals who said that they would have stayed in the working world, rather than leaving it to pursue a b accalaureate degree. Some of the answers they provided that were put in this category were:

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78 Probably just gotten a full-time job. I would have tried to obtain a job as a director at a child care facility. Worked as a substitute teacher. Gotten a job that did not require a college degree. Attempted to pursue a teaching position in a non-traditional academic setting (state park system or a program like outward bound). Probably become a bartender. I would be working to put food on the table. I would have had to work two jobs a nd would probably not have graduated from college. My child would not have had his only parent around as often, or have had as many opportunities to participate in extra-curricular activities, I would have stayed with my previ ous employer. I gave up a job paying $14.75 an hour as an office manager to become a student. I would have stayed with my previous employer. The students responses that were placed in this group seemed to indicate that the respondents would have had no intention of c ontinuing their postsecondary education. A third theme that became apparent was Gone to Another Institution and Changed Major. Not only would these respondents have gone somewhere else for their upper division coursework, but th ey also indicated that they would have pursued a major other than education. I did not anticipate finding a group of students like this when I designed the study. Some of the 17 students (12.6%) mentioned alternative plans such as: Continued my education at another institution, but not in education. Pursued architecture at Florida Agricu ltural and Mechanical University.

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79 Enrolled in the University of Nort h Floridas social work program. Take online courses to get certifie d in a medical/office related field. Studied graphic design at another local university. Gone to trade school. I have an AS in computer programming. I would have continued on that track at the University of South Florida. The research question sought to gain insight into what students would have done in their educational or professional lives if the community college baccalaureate programs did not exist. These students reported that they not only would have sought an upper division education at other institution, but also would have pursued a major in a completely different field. There was, however, a group of students w ho said that they would have Not Pursued a Baccalaureate Degree if the community college did not offer upper division coursework. For most cases, the answers from students that were included in this thematic category did not offer alternatives as to what the students would have done. Instead, these students seemed less hopeful a nd generally negative wording was present in their responses, such as: nothing, stopped, and not continued. This group included nine respondents (6.7%). In general, the students whose textual answers were included in this category offered quotes such as: Nothing I am not sure if I would have been able to attend any more school I would not have been able to attend college to become a teacher I would not have gone to college

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80 Because attending a university is financia lly unrealistic for me, I would have not obtained a bachelors degree. I am not sure I would have been able to attend any more school. I would have settled for an Associ ates and never gone back to school. I would have not been able to continue in my career. I would have probably stopped after my education at a two year degree. These students represent those students who ha ve directly benefite d from the expansion of baccalaureate programs to the community colleges. The last group of students was included into the category of Not Sure. These five participants (3.7%) responded in ways that seemed as if they had never given thought to a situation where the community co llege baccalaureate programs did not exist. I specifically looked for responses like not su re or unsure to include them in this theme. These students did not seem to ha ve made alternative plans for their upper division education had the community coll ege baccalaureate programs not been in operation at the time they intended to pursue an upper division education. Overall, the majority of the respondents, three-fifths of the participants, said that they would have gone to another instituti on for their baccalaureate studies if the community college programs did not exist. Another group of student s, about one-eighth, said that they would have gone to another institution and majo red in something other than education. Additionally, one-fif th of the students said that they would have sought employment, continued in their previous pr ofession, or stopped th eir pursuit of a fouryear degree. It can be assumed that the students in the latter group benefited from the

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81 increased access to upper division educations that the community college baccalaureate programs can provide. Why did the students major in education? The research question 4 also used open-e nded questions for its data was research question 4 which asked, Would education have been the students first choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were offered at the local community college where they attended? This research ques tion sought to determine if th e limited number of choices in baccalaureate degrees at the community college s had any impact on students choices of major. Answering this research question required the administration of two separate open-ended questions. The first of these aske d, What influenced your decision to major in education? The second open-ended question asked, What other baccalaureate program or major (other than education), if any would you have considered enrolling in had one existed at the time you enrolled in the community college baccalaureate teacher education program? Students who responded to the open-ended question asking what influenced their decision to major in education provided answers that I categorized into six different groups. Overall, 138 students responded to this open-ended question. The purpose of including this open-ended question was to see how many students responded in a way that would lead me to believe that the lim ited number of upper division programs at the community colleges in the state had some eff ect on the students decision to major in education. Most of the respons es to this open-ended questio n could be classified as a traditional reasons people get in to teaching such as love of teaching, children, or learning; wanting to make difference; some previous experience working in education; someone in

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82 the past had a positive impact on them; or wa nting to take advantage of some of the employment advantages of teaching. There was only one small group of students who said that the limited baccalaureate availabil ity at the community college impacted their decisions to major in education. Below is Table 12; it displays the frequencies per category for responses to this open-ended question. Most of the respondents listed multiple reasons as to why they chose to pursue teaching. Because of this, different responses from the same participant were plac ed in multiple categories. There were 170 responses from 138 students included in Table 12 and this is also why the cumulative percentages in Table 12 exceed 100%. Table 12. Frequency of Themes for Responses to, Wha t influenced your decision to major in education? Theme Frequency Percentage Love of Teaching, Children, or Learning 69 50.0% Make a Difference 39 28.2% Previous Educational Employee/Volunteer 25 18.1% Influential People 22 15.9% Employment Advantages 12 8.7% Baccalaureate Availability at Community College 3 2.2% N 170 The foremost theme ( n = 69, 50%) that emerged during the coding process was the Love of Teaching, Children, or Learning. Some responses that were placed in this group were:

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83 A love for kids in general greatly infl uenced my decision to major in education. Working with children is my passion. My love for children and the belief that I have experienced a personal calling to the profession. I love working with children, watching them learn and grow. A lifelong interest in children and th e love of juvenile literature. I like working with kids. The pursuit of knowledge and sharing of knowledge. I love teaching others information and seeing the progress they make. I have wanted to be a teacher for a l ong time and felt that this was the right time for me to realize my dream. These participants clearly fe lt an emotional connection to youth, teaching, and learning. There was also a group of students who felt an obligation to be a positive force on society. The students wanted to contribute to the future in a meaningful way. Some respondents (n =39, 28.2%) who answered the question seemed to focus on wanting to Make a Difference as a reason for majoring in education. Replies that were placed in this category were statements like: Wanting to make a difference in the area of special education. I wanted to be a posi tive influence on children. Wanting to make a difference instead of complaining. I wanted to make an impact on soci ety by providing it with well-educated thinkers.

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84 Id always wanted to do something I felt was important and that could be a benefit to society. I wanted to give back to the community. Its satisfying to know that I make a difference even though it is usually not recognized. I always wanted to help people. These responses included words like help, inf luence, and change. In contrast to the previous group, where the attraction to t eaching was more emotional, this category included students who wanted to change something. Some of the students who answered the survey had previous ly served in an educational setting. The experien ce(s) with education impacted their choice to major in education. There were 25 other students ( 18.1%) who mentioned a Previous Educational Employee/Volunteer experience that impacted their decision to major in Education. Those students made remarks such as: I am employed as a paraprofe ssional in the scho ol district. I substitute taught full-time for five years. I had a really great mentoring experience in a fifth grade classroom when I was a senior in high school. Working as an assistan t in a private school. I have been substituting for many years and decided to major in education. Prior experience as a teacher assistant. I ran an after school pr ogram for eight years. I volunteered in my sons classroom.

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85 I had an opportunity to teach art to kids during two summers and enjoyed teaching. Some of the community college baccalaureate students majoring in education had clearly been motivated to teach based on past expe riences in the classroom and at schools. There was a group of students ( n = 22, 15.9%) that credit ed their decision to major in education to Influential People. This group cited examples such as, My teachers and family., My Earth Space Science teacher showed me that learning science can be fun an exciting., My teachers when I was going to school had such an effect on me and I wanted to be able to have that eff ect on other students., My entire family has a history of teachers. Everyone in my immediat e family is a teacher., and Positive role models during my K-12 educat ion. The individuals whose responses were included in this category had someone in their past who helped steer them to major in education. The work schedule of teachers is know n to have its advantages. Summers, weekends, and holidays off make teaching an attractive profession to some. Others find teaching attractive because it is a high demand work field and there are many job opportunities. Employment Advantages was another theme that developed during the coding process. It contained 12 answers ( 8.7%). The range included such remarks like Having the same schedule as my own childre n, and Teachers schedules will allow me to have hours suitable for raising children. But, I also chose to include such things as: I have taught in a pre-school and wanted to make more money, Teacher shortage publicity and loan repayment program, The need for teachers in Florida, and Job potential. It seemed that all of these an swers fit in the category of Employment Advantages which were unique to teachi ng. Whether it was the work schedule of

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86 teaching, monetary advantages of choosing to t each in Florida, or obtaining a degree in a high need area, the students replies that were included in this group were directly connected to employment. The final category I created was Baccal aureate Availability at Community College. These students responses seemed to make a connection between the limited availability of upper division coursework at the community college and the students decisions to major in education. Only thr ee respondents (2.2%) fit in this category. However, I feel that it is important to incl ude this group in the di scussion of replies from students. I thought that because education was the least scientific and technical of the community college baccalaureate programs there would be a group of students who attended the community college for thei r upper division education to simply earn a baccalaureate degree I had expected to find more st udents in this category. The low number could have been related to the participants and methods of data collection for this study. The three responses from students that were placed in this category were: My main goal was a baccalaureate degree. Second, I wanted to teach., Computer science is not offered locally, and I would like to try teaching mathematics., I started the degree and just wanted to finish it. The overwhelming majority of students gave traditional reasons as to why they chose to major in education. Some students c ited a love for children, others wanted to make a difference and there were some who wanted to be a teacher because of the employment advantages of it. There was a ve ry small group of students who said that the limited availability of upper division programs at the community colleges had an impact on their choice, but this group was minute co mpared to those who fell into a category

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87 associated with the traditi onal reasons that people ente r into education. The data collection for this study could have had an effect on the responses seen to this openended question because those who chose not to complete the survey may have changed the distribution across the groups or could have been motivated to major in education for reasons that did not emerge during th e analysis of the answers submitted. Would the students choose another major? To answer research question 4, Would education have been the students first choice of major if other b accalaureate programs were offe red at the local community college where they attended? a second open-en ded question was used to collect textual data from the students. The open-ended question asked, What other baccalaureate program or major (other than education), if any would you have considered enrolling in had one existed at the time you enrolled in the community college baccalaureate teacher education program? A total of 128 students answered this question. This open ended question was designed in a way to determine if students would have said something other than education. Some students listed a num ber of other majors. However, for this question I chose to only code th eir respondents first answers. This is why the cumulative total in the following table does not exceed 100%. The classifications for responses to this question include: none, science, psychology, helping pr ofessions and other majors. Table 13 provides the frequency for each th eme from the responses to this question.

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88 Table 13. Frequency of Themes for Responses to, Wha t other baccalaureate program or major (other than education), if any would you have considered enrolling in had one existed at the time you enrolled in the community college baccalaureate teacher education program? Theme Frequency Percentage None 54 42.1% Science 15 11.7% Helping Profession 13 10.2% Psychology 10 7.8% Other Majors 36 28.1% N 128 The largest group of responses ( n = 54, 42.1%) fit best under the heading of None. Some examples of the replies that were placed in this category were: simply None. and This is what is what I was looking for. These students indicated that education was their first choice of major a nd the limited availability of baccalaureate degrees at the community colleges did not lead them to major in education. There were other respondents who indicated they would have indeed majored in something other than education if it was available at the comm unity college. A total of 15 students (11.7%) suggested th at they would have enroll ed in other upper division programs that I have grouped under the general heading of Science. The range of individual answers that were fit into this area were things like: Electrical Engineer, Astronomy, Veterinarian Tech, Pharmacology, and Marine Biology.

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89 There was also a group ( n = 13, 10.2%) whose replies indicated that the students would have been interested in a baccalaureat e degree in another Helping Profession if it was available at the community college. A number of the answers mentioned, Social Work, while others contained text me ntioning Criminal Justice or Speech Pathology. A surprising number of students ( n = 10, 7.8%) said that they would have entered a baccalaureate level Psychology pr ogram if one existed at the community college. Textual responses that I placed in this category were those like Psychology, Child Psychology, and School Psychology. The final thematic group I created wa s called Other Majo rs. This group ( n = 36, 28.1%) included a wide range of majors that stud ents said they might have enrolled in if the baccalaureate program was offered at th e community college. This category included such majors as: Law, Political Scien ce, Business, Marketing, Architecture, English, and History. The largest group, by far, was the st udents who said that they would not have chosen to major in somethi ng else. The methods of data collection could have also affected the outcomes of this open-ended question. St udents who were not excited about their major in education might not have participated in the study. Statistical Analyses for Liker t-Scale Items on the SSCCTEP The fifth research question of this st udy asked, How do the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalau reate teacher education programs compare with students at other four-year colleges in Florida? To answer this question, the SSCCTEP included nine Likert-scale items that were used with permission of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE ). These items were selected from the 2005 version of the NSSE and were chosen ba sed on their ability to measure schoolwork

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90 habits of students. Each item had responses that corresponded to numerical values ranging from 1 4. These responses were: v ery often = 4, often = 3, sometimes = 2, and never = 1. (See Appendix D for the complete survey instrument) These questions asked students how often they had as ked a question in class or contributed to a class discussion; made a class presentation; prepared two or more drafts of a paper; worked on a paper or project that required the use of various sources; come to class without completing assignments or assigned re adings; worked with other students during class; worked with other students outside of class to prepare an assignment; put together ideas from different courses when completing assignments or a class discussion; and worked harder to meet an instructors expectations. There were 140 students at the baccala ureate community colleges who responded to these Likert items. The data from the NSSE included responses from 228 seniors. To keep consistency in the comparison of the tw o groups, only responses from seniors on the Likert items on the SSCCTEP were included in this analysis. The group of students from the baccalaureate community colleges (BACC) whose data were included in these analyses was 68 seniors. Below is Table 14; it displays the age distribution for the participants in this portion of the study.

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91 Table 14. Distribution of Participants Base d on Age for Schoolwork Questions Age BACC Four-Year Category Seniors Seniors N % N % 19 or younger 1 1.5% 0 0% 20 23 13 19.4% 145 63.9% 24 29 16 23.8% 33 14.5% 30 39 14 20.9% 22 9.7% 40 55 22 32.8% 26 11.5% Over 55 1 1.5% 1 .4% N 67 227 The age distribution of seniors from the community college baccalaureate programs was much more even across categorie s than the distribution for seniors from the four-year programs. The largest group of st udents who participated in this study from the community colleges was in the 40 to 55 year old age group. The biggest numbers of seniors in any category from the four-year inst itutions were in the 20 to 23 year old age category. The group of seniors from the fou r-year institutions app eared to be younger on the average than seniors from the community college programs. The data collected from the students at the community college baccalaureate programs were compared with data provided by the NSSE for other four-year institutions in Florida that offer baccalaureate degrees in teacher education. To determine if there was a significant difference in the mean response on each item, the data from the two groups were subjected to t -tests as described in Chapter 3. Below is Table 15; it provides

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92 descriptive statistics for the responses to these items as well as the results of the t -tests for responses to the items on the SSCCTEP that we re used to measure schoolwork habits for students majoring in education at the baccal aureate community colleges in Florida and students majoring in education at other four-year institutions in Florida. Table 15. Comparison of the Mean Responses to Schoolwork Questions on the SSCCTEP Survey BACC Other Four-Year Question Students Students N M SD N M SD t p Question in Class 67 3.75 .47 228 3.47 .72 -3.63 .000* Class Presentation 68 3.54 .61 228 3.39 .73 -1.79 .076 Two or More Drafts 68 2.79 1.1 228 2.57 .98 -1.58 .116 Various Sources 68 3.78 .48 228 3.53 .63 -3.39 .001* Came Unprepared 67 1.93 .77 227 2.05 .79 1.17 .244 Others in Class 68 3.25 .79 228 2.82 .90 -3.49 .001* Others Outside of Class 68 2.50 .76 228 3.04 .81 4.86 .000* Ideas from Other Courses 68 3.47 .59 227 3.19 .78 -3.20 .002* Worked Harder 67 3.42 .72 228 2.93 .87 -4.18 .000* = <.05. To conduct t -tests certain assumptions must be met. The first is whether the observations are independent. Based on the desi gn of this study there is no reason to believe that the observations were not independent. The second is whether the observations are normally distributed within the groups. Based on a visual inspection of the descriptive statistics and gr aphs created for each item, some of the groups appeared to

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93 be normally distributed but others did not. However, the sizes of the groups (67, 68; 227,228) were large enough to proceed with t -tests, even though the assumption may have been violated in some cases. The final assumption is that the variances of the groups are equal. To determine if the groups had equal variances I subjected th e data to a test for equal variance. The results of those tests are included belo w with the results of the t -tests. Each t -test used the null hypothesis that the mean for each group of students would be equal (H 0 : 1 = 2 ). I assigned the value of = <.05 to control for Type I error and to determine whether to reject each null hypothesis. Of nine items tested, six yielded statistically significant difference in the m eans between the two groups. A difference in group sizes sometimes creates a limitation on t -tests. Results from t -tests that have one group larger than another are considered conservative if the larger group also has a larger variance than the vari ance of the smaller group (Hatcher and Stepanski, 1999). The results of all of the t -tests in this study, with the exception of one, would fit into the category of conservative based on the guide lines from Hatcher and Stepanski. The following discussion looks deeper into some of the differences discovered through the t tests. For the first item, How ofte n have you asked a question in class or contributed to a class discussion?, the results from the t -test showed the students from the community college baccalaureate programs had a higher mean score ( M = 3.75, SD = .72) than those from the four-year institutions ( M = 3.47, SD = .72), t (293) = -3.63, p = .000. A t-test for unequal variance was used for in this case ( F = 28.46, p = .000). Because there was a statistically significant differe nce between the two groups, Cohens d was

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94 calculated to determine effect size. This test yielded an effect size of .46, which is small to medium (Cohen, 1988). Mean responses to the question, How ofte n have you made a class presentation? were compared. The variances for the two groups of students differed enough to use a t test for unequal variance ( F = 5.43, p = .02). The results from the t -test showed the participants from the community colle ge baccalaureate programs response ( M = 3.54, SD = .61) was higher than those fr om the four-year institutions ( M = 3.39, SD = .73), t (294) = -1.79, p = .076. The variance of the larger group (four-year students) was smaller when compared to the group with fe wer students (community college students). This is the lone t -test, of the nine conducted in th is study, that could be considered liberal (Hatcher and Stepanski). Ba sed on the set Type I error rate of = <.05 the results from this analysis di d not yield results that were statistically significant. The next comparison looked to see if th ere was difference in how the respondents answered the item, How often have you prepar ed two or more drafts of a paper or an assignment before turning it in? Based on the re sults from the test for equal variance ( F = 1.98, p = .16) it showed that the students from the community college baccalaureate programs ( M = 2.79, SD = 1.1) had a higher mean response than those from the fouryear institutions (M = 2.57, SD = .98), t (294) = -1.58, p = .116. The re sults of this ttest were not statistically significant based on the Type I error rate set at = <.05. The students were also asked, How often have you worked on a paper or project that required integrating ideas or in formation from various sources? A t -test for unequal variance was used in this case ( F = 25.6, p = .000) For this question, the t -test demonstrated that the students from the community college baccalaureate programs ( M

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95 = 3.78, SD = .48) mean response was higher than those from the fou r-year institutions ( M = 3.53, SD = .63), t (294) = -3.39, p = .001. Cohens d was calculated to determine effect size. The value of Cohens d was .45 which is a small to medium effect size. The next analysis required the comparis on of the responses to the question, How often have you come to cl ass without completing readings or assignments? A t -test for equal variances was conducted ( F = .187, p = .67). It is important to note the wording of this question. In this case, it is better to for the group to have a lower mean. The mean response for those enrolled in the comm unity college baccalaureate programs ( M = 1.93, SD = .77) was lower than the students from the four-year institutions ( M = 2.05, SD = .79), t (292) = 1.168, p = .24. The results of this t -test were not statistically significant. Another item on the SSCCTEP asked partic ipants to answer the question, How often have you worked with other students on projects during class? A t -test for equal variance was used in this case ( F = 1.62, p = .20). The group from the community college baccalaureate programs had a higher mean response ( M = 3.25, SD = .79) than those from the four-year institutions ( M = 2.82, SD = .90), t (294) = -3.49, p = .001. I calculated Cohens d and found the value to be .51, which is a medium effect size. The next comparison looked to see if ther e was a difference in the responses from the two groups of students to the item, How often have you worked with other students outside of class to prepare class assi gnments? The data was subjected to a t -test for equal variance ( F = .286, p = .593). The group that had the higher mean response was the students from the four year institutions (M = 3.47, SD = .76) than students from the college baccalaureate programs or other four-yea r institutions (M = 3.19, SD = .78),

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96 t (294) = 4.86, p = .000. Cohens d was found to be .69 which is a medium to large effect size. The respondents were asked to answer the question, How often have you put together ideas or concepts from differen t courses when completing assignments during class discussions? The answers were subjected to a t -test for unequal variance ( F = 3.86, p = .05) which showed that the students fr om the community college baccalaureate programs ( M = 3.47, SD = .59) had a higher mean response than those from the community college baccalaureate program s or other four-y ear institutions (M = 3.19, SD = .78), t (293) = -3.20, p = .002. The value of Cohens d was .40, which is a small to medium effect size. The final t -test compared the mean responses for the question, How often have you worked harder than you thought you could to meet an instructors standards or expectations? A t -test for equal variance was used for this analysis ( F =.931, p =.335). The group from the community college baccalaureate programs ( M = 3.42, SD = .72) mean was statistically significantly higher th an those from the four-year institutions ( M = 2.93, SD = .87), t (293) = -4.18, p = .000. Following the t -test Cohens d was determined to be .61 which is a medium to large effect size. Based on the t -tests, the students from the community college baccalaureate programs seemed to have better schoolwork ha bits than their counterparts at some fouryear institutions in Florida. On all of the items, with the exception of one, the students at the community college baccalaureate programs had better scores. Six of the nine t -tests demonstrated that the means differed in a statistically significant way. The only item where students from the four-year institutions had a higher self-reported mean was How

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97 often have you worked with other students outsi de of class to prepare class assignments? Because many of the t -tests showed a difference that was statistically significant, I attempted to determine if the difference between the two groups is practically significant. To do this I used the Cohens d values to determine if the differences between the two groups mean responses were meani ngful. A discussion regarding the practical differences between the two groups is included in the following chapter. The students from the community college baccalaureate programs seemed to have better schoolwork habits. One po ssible explanation could be th at the students from the community college were older than those at the four-year institutions Another possibility is because of the response rate to the SCCT EP. The response rate was 16.6% and it is possible that the group of students in this st udy may not have been an accurate reflection of the complete group of students from the community college baccalaureate programs. There is also the possibility that the comm unity college baccalaureate programs did a better job engaging their students and teach ing them better schoolwork habits. The community colleges focus on teaching rather th an research may have contributed to this difference. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to determine if the baccalaureate-granting community colleges in Florida are increasing acce ss to higher education in the state. This chapter presented the finding from different da ta collections and stat istical analyses as discussed in Chapter 3. The data examined in this chapter included enrollment information, survey data, and data from the NSSE data warehouse.

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98 Since the addition of co mmunity college baccalaureate teacher education programs there has been net gain in the num ber of students enrolled in upper division education programs across the state. Most of the students reported location and cost as the top two reasons they chose to enroll in the community college for their upper division education. Other students mentioned things lik e flexibility, familiarity and comfort with the institution, and personal contact as r easons why they chose the community college. Many of students would have attended another college or university to complete their baccalaureate studies if the option was not available at the comm unity college. There were also some who said that they would ha ve stopped their education or simply entered the workforce. For the almost 20% of the stude nts in this study who said that they would have stopped their education or sought employment, the community college baccalaureate programs have increas ed access to higher education. An extremely large number of students listed a traditiona l reason like making a difference, love of children, or the employme nt advantages of teaching as a reason why they chose to major in education. However, many of the participants in this study said that they would have had an interest in majoring in something other than education. These two findings seem to be in contradiction and will be discussed further in the following chapter. Finally, results also indicated that the students at the community colleges seem to have better schoolwork habits and are more engaged than stud ents in similar programs at other four-year institutions in Florida. In ei ght of the nine categor ies, the students from the community college baccalaureate programs had better mean scores. Additionally, six of the nine t -test analyses conducted for this por tion of this study were found to be

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99 statistically significant. The fi ndings from the data collection and analyses yielded results that merit further examination and discussion. These results will be further discussed in Chapter 5 and will include a discussion of th e implications for practice and theory, and recommendations for future research.

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100 Chapter Five Major Findings, Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations The purpose of this study was to examine whether the outcomes of selected community colleges baccalaureate programs in Florida match the stated goals of the legislation that allowed the community college s to confer their own four-year degrees. The rationale behind the policy allowing comm unity colleges to develop their own upper divisions was twofold. First, the state want ed to expand access to baccalaureate degrees to its citizens. Second, the st ate wanted to supply employers in high need professions such as teaching and nursing with more qua lified employees. This study investigated whether the newly created baccalaureate comm unity colleges were fulfilling the first of these goals increasing access to baccalaureat e opportunities. The un its of analysis for this study were three community colleges in the state that offered baccalaureate degrees in education. This chapter includes a summary of the findings, conclusions, implications and recommendations. Method Summary This study used quantitative methods with a mix of sources. Three data collections took place. The first set of data was enrollment numbers for baccalaureate level education programs in the state. The second set of data came from a survey I created that included Likert-scale items that were used with the permission of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) as well as open-ended questions. The

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101 survey instrument was sent to all students who were enrolled in the community college baccalaureate level education programs. Of the 843 who received the survey, 140 returned completed surveys, yielding an overall response rate of 16.6%. The third data collection was the responses to items from the NSSE for students at other four-year institutions in Florida who majored in educat ion. Indiana University provided these data to me; it included the responses of 228 students. The data were analyzed through the use of different processes. The enrollment data was used to develop tables that illu strated trends. The open-ended questions were subjected to the appropriate t echniques for analysis of textual responses. Responses from the two groups of students to the Likert-style items from the NSSE were subjected to t tests to determine if the mean responses of the groups differed in a statistically significant way. Summary of Findings This study used quantitative methods with a mix of sources to answer the five research questions. Each research questi on is presented below with a summary of findings for each question. The first research question sought to determine what impact the community college baccalaureate level e ducation programs were having on statewide enrollment in education programs at traditional colleges and universities. 1. Do community college teacher education programs contribute to increased access to higher education within the state by increasing capacity for enrollment in baccalaureate level teache r education programs? The results of this research question le nd credibility to the idea that current policies are expanding access to higher education by increasing capacity for

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102 enrollment in upper division education programs. The policy change allowing community colleges to confer their own baccalaureate degrees has helped more students to start on the path to becoming teachers. Since their inception, the total upper division enrollment in the community college baccalaureate education programs ha s grown from 423 students during the Fall semester of 2003 to 744 students during the Fa ll semester of 2005. Enrollment in similar programs at other institutions in the state ha s also continued to gr ow. During the Fall semester of 2002 there were 9,248 upper divi sion students enrolled in education programs at public four-year institutions in Florida. For the 2005 Fall semester there were 10,203 students enrolled in these progr ams. When combining the Fall 2005 upper division enrollment numbers for both community colleges and traditional public fouryear programs in education, the total was 10,947 students. Enrollments in both the public four-year programs at community colleges and th e traditional institut ions grew for every year that was part of this study. Net gains in enrollment in upper division education programs were present prior to, and after, the creation of the community college baccalaureate programs. As detailed in chapter 2 of this dissertation, the State of Florida is facing a long-term teacher shortage. While the enrollment in the community college baccalaureate programs in education wa s only 744 (2005-06), the ability of the community colleges to confer baccalaureate degrees in education could lead to changes in policy and practice that can help the state deal with the long-term teacher shortage if net increases in enrollment continue to be seen in upper division education programs. The second research question in this study examined why students chose the community college for their baccalaureate st udies. Research question 2 is below.

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103 2. Why did students attend the commun ity college for their upper division education? It seems that most students are atte nding the community college baccalaureate programs because of location, cost, flexib ility, ability to have personal contact with faculty, prior positive experience s with the institution, and the positive reputation of the institution or program. This research question used the responses to open-ended questions from students in the baccalaureate level education programs at the community colleges for its answer. The largest categories were Location (54.7 %) and Cost (37.2%). Location included responses that focused on the physical locati on of the college as well as its geographic proximity to the student. In the cost category, students said that the cost of tuition or the availability of grants and loan s impacted their choi ce of institution. Others answered that they attended the community college baccalaurea te program because of reasons related to flexibility such as flexibility in scheduling, and the ability to main tain occupational and familial relationships. There were some other students who replie d that it was the Ability to Have Personal Contact with faculty and staff. Thes e individuals liked the student teacher ratio and others talked about having relationships w ith counselors. Others had a Prior Positive Experience at the Institution. This group of students went to the community college for their lower division educati on and liked it so much they chose to finish their baccalaureate studies at that institution. Finally, some students were drawn to the community college for the baccalaureate degree because of the institutions or programs quality reputation. These participants cited other students an d members of the community

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104 as sources of positive information on the institution or program that impacted the students decisions to choos e the community college for the upper division education. The third research question th at was part of this study i nvestigated what direction the lives of the students enrolled in the co mmunity college baccalaureate level education programs would have taken if these programs were not an option. Research question 3 is below. 3. What might the students in these programs have done (educationally or professionally) if the community college teacher education program did not exist? Many of students who participated in this study reported that they would have attended another institution for their b accalaureate studies if the upper division did not exist at their community college. There were some who indicate that they would have not continued pursuit of a baccalaureate degree and/or sought employment. However, the self-selection of respondents may have skewed the results to this question and therefore th e results should be vi ewed with caution. This research question sought to investig ate what the students in the community college teacher education programs would ha ve done if they had not enrolled at the community college for their upper division education. This question also used openended questions that allowed students to sh are their own ideas and elaborate on what might have been. I expected to find some students who said that they would have simply gone to traditional four-year program, but I was surprised by the size of the group, threefifths of the participants, said they would have continued their uppe r division education at another institution.

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105 There were, however, two groups of students who were included into the thematic categories Sought Employment and Not Pursued a Baccalaureate Degree. The respondents from the two groups represen t students who were able to pursue a baccalaureate degree only because of the community college baccalaureate programs. These students, one-fifth of the respondents, believe they benefited from the increased access to upper division programs in Florida through the baccalaureate level education programs at the community colleges in the state. Another group of students (12.6%) surpri sed me with their comments that not only would they have gone to another institu tion, but also they would have majored in something other than education at that instit ution. This led me to believe that these students might have only been at the community college to earn a baccalaureate degree and did not care as to the major, as long as th ey were able to earn a baccalaureate degree, or they may have been torn between majori ng in education and something else and the perceived benefits of the community colle ge baccalaureate programs were attractive enough to sway their decisions. If I am to assume that the participants were truthful in the answers and their intentions are to be believed, it might lead to the conclusion that the community college baccalaureate programs may be redirecting some students from other traditional four-year institutions. This possibility should be tr eated with caution, however, because of the response rate (16.6%). The data collection su rveyed the population of students from the community colleges and a limited number of st udents chose to participate. Students at these institutions were emailed the survey and were asked to complete it on a voluntary basis. It is possible the students who co mpleted the survey were those who were

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106 generally more motivated students. To that end, they might also have been students who would have been more motivated to pursue a baccalaureate degree at another institution, than those who did not complete the survey. More research is needed in this area. The community college baccalaureate progr ams in Florida are limited in breadth and scope. Part of this study attempted to determine if the limited number of baccalaureate programs at the community colle ges had an effect on the choices of the students in these programs regarding their fina l decision to major in education. Research question 4 follows. 4. Would education have been the stud ents first choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were offered at th e local community college where they attended? It is unclear whether edu cation would have been the students first choice of major if other baccalaureate programs were available at the community colleges. The overwhelming majority of responde nts reported choosing to major in education for a traditional reason. However, the majority of part icipants also said they might have considered majoring in something other than education if it was offered at the community college. More research into this question is recommended. Research question 4 required the use of two open-ended questions for its answer. The first open-ended question asked student s why they majored in education. The second question asked participants what, if any, other major(s) they might have considered if other baccalaureate program s existed at the community college. The categories that respondents re ported concerning their reasons for majoring in education

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107 were Love Teaching, Children, or Learning, Make a Difference, Previous Educational Employee/Volunteer, Influential People, or ho ped to enjoy some of the Employment Advantages the teaching profe ssion offered. These themes represented the vast majority of responses. Furthermore, all of the aforemen tioned groups, and the responses they contained, could be placed in a larger category called Traditional Reasons for Teaching. By creating this s uper-category of Traditional Reasons for Teaching to the question What led you to majo r in education? almost all of replies to the open-ended question c ould be included therein. I was specifically interested in looking for those students who may have not fit into traditional reasons one might choose to become a teacher. Very few students (2.2%) said that they chose education because thats what was available. In these few cases it can be argued that the limited number of majors at the baccalaureate community colleges had an impact on their decision to major in educ ation. For the great majo rity of students who responded, however, the limited number of op tions of baccalaureate degrees at the community colleges did not play a ro le in their choice of major. The second open-ended question asked st udents if they would have chosen another major other than education if it were available at their community college. The results showed that the largest group of stude nts said they would not have chosen another major, but this group represented less than half of the respondents. Therefore, more than half of the participants said they would have considered a major other than education if it were available at the community college. Some of the majors that respondents expressed interest in were programs like Psychology, and Science, or the Helping Professions.

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108 Based on the thematic analyses of the textual responses from the two open-ended questions that were used to answer research question 4 there is a still a question whether the limited number of baccalaureate degrees at the community colleges had an impact on the students decisions to majo r in education. The vast majority of respondents reported a traditional reason as to why they chose to major in education. But, a large number of students said that they would have considered majoring in another field. Because there is not agreement between the results of both ope n-ended questions that were designed to answer research question 4, more research in this area is recommended. The final research question attempted to compare students from the community college baccalaureate programs in education w ith similar students majoring in education at other four-year institu tions in Florida. Research question 5 is below. 5. How do the schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate teacher education programs compare with students at other fouryear colleges in Florida? The schoolwork habits of students in the community college baccalaureate programs seem to be better than their count erparts at other four-year institutions in Florida. The responses to the nine Likert-scale items from the NSSE were compared for students in the community college teacher education programs and students majoring in education at other four-year in stitutions in Florida. The mean responses per group were compared through the use of t -tests. The students from the community colleges had better mean scores on the items used to measure schoolwork habits in eight of the nine comparisons. The t -tests results showed that th e means of the two groups were

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109 statistically significant on six of the nine items. The lone item on which the students at four-year institutions had better mean scores dealt with working with other students outside of class to complete assignments. The students from the community college baccalaureate programs had higher scores on the items that were used to measure schoolwork hab its than students from fouryear institutions in the state. This could be explained by the difference in age between the two groups. The students from the upper division s at the community colleges were older than those from the four-year programs. The differences between the two groups could also explain why the students from the four-year programs scored better on the item that measured working with other students outsi de of class. Students from four-year institutions have the ability to live near campuses and are often traditional students. Students at community colleges do not live on campus, and many have jobs, families, and other obligations that prevent them from working outside of class with other students. While most of the differences between the groups were considered to be statistically significant, it is important that they be examined to see if the differences were practically significant. For those items where the differences were statistically significant I calculated Cohens d to determine effect size. Cohens d is used to give an illustration as to how many standard deviations from th e means the two groups were apart. Most of these differences would be classified as small to medium based on Cohens guidelines (1988). Conclusions The community college baccalaureate progr ams in Florida are a new experiment for higher education in the state. They have been the center of much state and national

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110 discussion and debate. Policymakers and practi tioners are continually trying to find ways to make governmental programs and institutions more effective and efficient. Based on the results and findings of this current study, I have included the following five sections of conclusions, each addressing an importa nt question concerning the value of these programs. Are the community college baccalaureate programs in teacher education increasing capacity for upper divi sion enrollment in Florida? Yes, more students are enrolling in upper division teacher education programs in public institutions in Florida. The enrollmen t in both the traditional four-year programs and the community college baccalaureate progr ams have continued to grow since the inception of the community college baccalaureate programs. Overall, there has been a statewide net increase in enro llment in upper division educat ion programs. More students have started on the path to become teachers since the creation of the community college baccalaureate programs. This conclusion is ba sed on the evaluation of enrollment trends for Floridas community college baccalaureat e level teacher education programs as well as the enrollment trends for similar programs at public four-year institutions in the state (see Table 8 for details). What were the reasons students chose the community college for baccalaureate coursework? Students chose to attend community colle ges for their upper division coursework mostly because of the cost, geographic locatio ns of these programs, and the flexibility these programs offered. Most of the stude nts (76.4%) who res ponded to the survey attended the same institution for their lowe r division coursework. Some students cited

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111 prior positive experiences at the instituti on as a reason they chose to stay at the community college for their coursework and it appears that comfort with the institution also played a part in their d ecisions. Others students menti oned that the reputation of the institution and the ability to have personal co ntact with faculty and staff also impacted their choices to attend the community colle ge for their upper divi sion education. These last two items, reputation and ab ility to have personal contac t, are both often associated with community colleges in general and more pa rticularly community colleges in Florida. Community colleges in Florida enjoy a posit ive reputation with the public (Immerwahr, 2000) and are thought to have lower teacher to student ratios and have a more intimate feel than colleges and universities. There was a wide range of reas ons why students went to the community college for their upper divi sion education, as found in this study, but location and cost seemed to be th e two that were most prevalent. Are these programs bringing baccalaureate access to new students ? The baccalaureate level t eacher education programs at the community colleges in Florida may not be bringing as many new as it was once thought they would. Almost three-fifths of the students in this study sa id that they would have gone to another institution to complete their upper division, eith er to major in education or to major in something else. There were also about one-fifth of the students who sa id that they would have either have stopped their pursuit of a b accalaureate degree or sought employment at the end of their lower division educati on. For the second group of students, the community college baccalaureate program s opened the door to an upper division education. The students who would not have pursued a baccalaureate degree, however, were the minority.

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112 It should also be noted that because of the way that the methods of this study were constructed, more research into this area is needed. The data collec tion, which used self selection in this study, may have skewed results. The survey instrument was emailed to students to complete and participation was vol untary. It is possible that the students who were intrinsically motivated to complete and submit the survey were also the same students who would have been motivated to co ntinue their upper di vision education at another institution. Similarly, it is believable that those students who did not have the motivation to complete the survey might al so not have been motivated enough to attend another institution to complete their baccal aureate studies. Additionally, just because a student has said that she would have gone to another institution, it is hard to determine what impact that decision might have had on her professional or familial obligations. Finally, if a student reported that she would have gone to another institution to complete the baccalaureate degree, it does not mean th at she would complete the baccalaureate degree or, if she did, how long it would take her. For all of these reasons more research into this area is recommended before draw ing conclusions that may be too general. In addition to the majority of students responding that they would have gone to another institution to pursue a baccalaureate degree if the upper divi sion did not exist at the community college there is also some evid ence from the enrollment figures that might support the idea that there could be a shift in enrollment from fou r-year institutions to community colleges. Two of the three baccala ureate community colleges that have upper division education programs, which were included in this study, are located in close physical proximity to traditional four-year univ ersities that have upper division education programs. These institutions are the Univer sity of South Florida (USF) and Florida

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113 International University (FIU). For two of the three years that were part of this study USF saw enrollment declines in its upper division education programs. This happened in years when USF saw increases in it overall enrollment in all upper division programs. The largest drop in upper division education en rollment was from 2004-05 to 2005-06, when 170 fewer students (-10.9%) enrolled than in the previous year, during the same timeframe USFs total upper division enro llment increased by 5.4%. FIU, however, experienced increases in enrollment in its baccalaureate level e ducation programs for every year of this study and these increases seemed to be on par with the overall enrollment increases across all upper divi sion programs. Some of the decrease in enrollment that USFs upper division educat ion programs experienced may be explained by the expansion of the community college baccalaureate teacher education programs, but it is also possible that ac tions and choices at USF may ha ve also contributed to this drop. This is plausible given that FIUs enrollments in upper divi sion education did not seem to be impacted by the presence of th e community college baccalaureate program in teacher education in its geographic proximit y. More research is recommended in this area. Specifically, it would be worthy paying attention to enrollment trends at traditional colleges and universities that have baccalau reate community colleges in their areas. Does the limited number of baccalaur eate programs have an impact on student choice of major? Based on the results of this study, it is unclear whether the limited number of baccalaureate programs had an impact on student choice of major. The overwhelming number of students in this st udy said that they went into teaching for a traditional reason. Half of the students cited a love for children, a quarter of the respondents wanted to make

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114 a difference, and about one-fi fth had previously served as an employee or volunteer in education. A minute number of students ( 2.2%) reported the availability of a baccalaureate degree at the community coll ege as a reason as to why they chose education for a major. I expected this number to be much larger than it was. Because the major of education is not technical and requires fewer prerequisites to enter than computer or health science programs, I ha d assumed that more students might have entered these programs with the goal of just obtaining a baccalaureate degree However, more than half of the students who participat ed in this study said that they might have chosen another major if it were offered at their community college. Based on somewhat contradictory findings I would recommend more research in this area. The data collection methods could have also had an impact on the results this question. Students who did not respond to the survey could have majored in education at the community college because the choices of upper divisi on programs were limited. How do students at community college baccalaureate programs compare with students at other four-year institutions? A portion of this research study investigated whether differences existed among students from community college baccalau reate programs in education and their counterparts majoring in similar programs at f our-year institutions in Florida. Nine items from the NSSE were included on the survey in strument that was em ailed to students at the community college programs. These item s were used to measure the students perceptions of their own school work habits. The mean res ponses to these items were compared with the mean responses from student s at other, more tr aditional, four-year

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115 programs in the state. The data for the stude nts from the four-year schools was provided by the NSSE. Overall, the students from the commun ity colleges seemed to have better schoolwork habits than those from the four-year schools. The community college students had higher mean scores on eight of the nine items. Of these eight items where the community college students means were hi gher, five were found to be statistically significant. In most cases the differences on these items was considered to be small to medium, based on Cohens guidelines (1988). These items included issues related to asking questions and contribu ting to class discussions, making class presentations, preparing two or more drafts for an assi gnment, using various sources on assignments, coming to class prepared, working with othe r students during cla ss, using ideas or concepts from different courses when comp leting assignments, and working harder than the student thought she would have to. The st udents from the four-year schools scored better on only one item and it was statistically significant. That item addressed students working outside of class togeth er to complete assignments. There are many possible explanations as to why the groups differ and the community college students seemed to outperform the students at the four-year institutions. The data that we re used to compare the student s from the upper divisions at the community colleges with the students fr om the four-year institutions had some differences. The data for the community college students came from a survey instrument that I created with the item s from the NSSE. An internet hyperlink was sent to the students via email through thei r institutions. The email surv ey had an overall response rate of 16.6%. Those who participated in th e study may have not accurately represented

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116 all of the students in these programs. Th e data from the students at the four-year institutions came from the NSSE data warehous e. The institutions and the participants at those schools that took part in the NSSE for that year may also have not been a valid representation of the upper divisi on students at other colleges or even at the colleges that participated in the NSSE (For a complete listing of those in stitutions please see Appendix H). Additionally, the data that were compared came from two different years. The data collected from the community college stude nts were from Spring 2007, while the data from the four-year institutions were from Spring 2006. Differences existed between the two groups that could have contributed to the observed differences in the data. The student s from the upper divisions at the community colleges appeared to be older and more even ly distributed across age categories. Those from the four-year institutions seemed to be younger; the greatest number (63.9%) were represented in the younger age categories (20 23). It is possible the better schoolwork habits that the students from the community colleges reported were because of their age and maturity. For reasons of age and matur ity, students at the community colleges are often considered non-traditi onal. Along with the benefits that often come with age, such as maturity and wisdom, there are often drawbacks associated w ith earning a college degree. It is possible that the students from the community colleges also had familial and employment obligations that could have nega tively impacted their educational pursuits and made it harder to maintain good schoolwork habits. It should have been expect ed that the students from the four-year schools would score better on the item relating to worki ng outside of class w ith other students on assignments. Because many of the students at fou r-year institutions are able to live on or

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117 near campus, they have the opportunity to inte ract more outside of the classroom with classmates than students at community colleg es. At the time of this study, none of the community colleges that were part of th is study had residence halls, nor would one expect the students from community colleges to have similar living arrangements as those at a four-year institution. With the excepti on of that lone item, measuring working outside of the classroom with other students, the students from the community college baccalaureate programs had better scores on all of the items from the NSSE than the students from the four-year colleges and uni versities. There is also the possibility that the ob served differences between the two groups were because of differences in the institutions and programs the students attended. Community colleges have a reputation fo r being student-centered and focusing on teaching. It is plausible that the students from the community college baccalaureate programs in education were more engaged and had better schoolwork habits because community colleges specialize in teaching. Limitations This study had several limitations. The first was that the comparison of enrollment numbers did not incl ude enrollment figures for private institutions in the state. The next limitation was the data that were collected via the survey instrument were selfreported. As discussed earlier in this di ssertation, self-reported data have many weaknesses. Other limitations are present beca use of the data collection. The survey was emailed to the population of students enroll ed in the baccalaureate level community college programs in teacher education. Pa rticipation in this study was completely voluntary. The students who chose to respond may not have been an accurate cross-

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118 section of the students in these programs statewide. Another limitation was that the response rate for the survey was only 16.6 %. Th e response rate raises the issue regarding those who did not choose to complete the survey; this could have meant that the data collected was incomplete. The comparisons of respons es to the items from the NSSE also had limitations. The data collected from the students at the community colleges took place during the Spring semester of the 2006-07 school year. The data from the four-year students were collected during the Spring se mester of the 2005-06 school year. Furthermore, the data that came from the four-year schools in Florid a were from mostly private institutions (for a list of these institutions see Appendix H). It is possible that differen ces in the nature of community college students and students at private institutions had an effect on the results. It would have made for a better comparison if the portion of the survey that included the NSSE items were sent to students enrolled in public colleges and universities in Florida. Additionally, since the fo cus of this study was only the baccalaureate level education programs at the community college it did not include the other baccalaureate programs at the institutions from this st udy or other baccalaureate programs at other community colleges in the state. The choice to delimit the study to teacher education programs limits in Florida impacted the ge neralizability of the study. To that end, the study should not be generalized beyond the settings of this study. Implications for Theory Some of the results of this study support previously published literature regarding community college baccalaureate programs. One such author was Furlong (2003), who

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119 contended that the community colleges in Flor ida could be used to increase the number of baccalaureate graduates. Based on the results of this study it appears that the first steps have been taken for this to become realit y. The enrollments in the community college baccalaureate level teacher education program s have grown every year and there was a net increase in statewide enrollment in upper division education programs during every year of this study. Furthermore, the enroll ment in upper division education programs at Blue College is already larger than those of two public univer sities in the state. Because the long term teacher shortage in Florida, cited by Furlong and others, is so large, effectively addressing it will require even more creative thinking on the part of planners and policymakers. Proponents of the vertical extension of community colleges have presented reasons why students would go to the co mmunity college for their upper division education. One champion of the community college baccalaureate movement is Walker (2000, 2001, 2005) who argued that benefits to st udents such as increased geographical, financial, and academic access to upper division education, success among nontraditional or returning students through smaller classes, less rigid course sequencing, greater scheduling options, ready matriculation and upward mobility for students with associate degrees, and stable family and employmen t relationships for students while they complete their degrees were reasons comm unity college baccalaureate programs should be expanded. Walker (2000) conducted a survey of comm unity college students to find out why students would want to complete a baccalaure ate degree at the community college. Some of the reasons cited in his study as to why students would go to a community college for

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120 their upper division education were similar or the same as ones found in the current study. The findings of this research confirm many of his findings. Overall, the results of this study seem to support his theories a nd arguments regarding ways students could benefit from community college baccalaureate programs. Another author, Chapman (1981), provided a framework for reasons why students choose one institution over another. Chap man labeled what he called external influences on students choices of instituti on. These external influences included items that he called fixed college characteristics. This group included cost, location, and availability of the program. The results of this study seem to support both writers arguments concerning the reasons students would choose an institution and, more specifically, why students would choose to co mplete their baccalau reate degrees at a community college. Most respond ents in this study reporte d they chose the community college for their upper division education becaus e of location and/or cost, just as Walker and Chapman posit. Much of the work that has been done in th e past regarding stude nt choice of major surrounded post graduation earnings and student perception of sala ries in the field (Betts, 1996; Montmarquette, Cannings, Mahseredjian, 1997). The results of this study seem to contradict these assertions. The students who participated in this study seemed to be motivated to teach because of a love of children, teaching or learning, or wanting to make a difference. There were some who discusse d the employment and monetary advantages of the teaching profession, but this group was a minority and did not represent the attitudes of most of the respondents in this study.

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121 Changes in the postsecondary climate in Florida and the results of this study remind me of the earlier work done by Cohen (2001). He theorized th at there were four general historical reasons why community co lleges developed and grew. The first was that community colleges were sponsored a nd supported by members of the upper class who wanted to maintain their social position by restricting ad mission to traditional colleges and universities. The second was that community colleges flourished due to an alliance of members from the working class searching for upward mobility. The third was that universities helped community college s succeed so that the universities could distance themselves from students who college and university offici als did not want to admit or serve. The fourth was that since most community colleges grew out of school districts, it was the superintendents and other local admi nistrators search for more recognition and prestige that ca me along with being an admini strator at a college rather than at a school district that pushed the school districts to develop community colleges (pp. 4 5). Most of the students who participated in this study reported that they would have gone to another institution to complete th eir baccalaureate degr ee if the community college program was not an option. However, the perceptions of some students in this study seemed to question if traditio nal colleges and universities would want them. As discussed in Chapter 2 of this dissertation, Florida recently underwent a major governance change for education. The governan ce changes granted more autonomy to institutions and empowered local boards of trustees at the institutions. These changes have helped to create a more competit ive climate for colleges and universities. Universities in Florida that were once cons idered comprehensive and teaching colleges

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122 have become entrepreneurial. Ambition, coupl ed with growth mode thinking may be creating a vacuum. Many college s and universities in Florida have advertised a new focus on the research aspects of the institution rath er than that of undergraduate education. Cohens work on the historical reasons why community colleges in the United States grew could be used or modifi ed to provide a framework to examine current and future reasons as to how community colleges have become engaged in baccalaureate education. Implications for Practice The framework for this study was from the perspective of policy evaluation. Specifically, I used the guidelines provided by Howlett and Ramesh (2003). Those authors discussed policy evaluation and adequacy of policy evaluation. Within these areas, outputs are quantified and studied to determine what the policy is producing. The results of initial research are used to guide future research and to compare if the initial goals are being met. One of the goals of creating upper divi sions at community colleges in Florida was to increase access to higher education for citizens of the state. The community college baccalaureate programs in education are increasing access in the state. Additionally, some theo retical reasons as to how these programs could benefit students such as offering students a baccalaureat e alternative that is cheaper, closer, and more flexible than traditional baccalaur eate program, have gained support from this study. Furthermore, the students from these programs seem to have better schoolwork habits than students in similar programs at othe r four-year institution in the state. It does appear that a large number of these stude nts would have still pursued a baccalaureate degree from another four-year instituti on had the upper division program at the community college not existed. But, this study also reveals that for some students, the

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123 community college baccalaureate programs were the only pathway to an upper division education. The baccalaureate community college s in Florida appear to have increased statewide capacity for enrollm ent in upper division educatio n programs as well as access to baccalaureate opportunities, but the incr ease in access these programs have created seems to be less than the increase in capacity. In 2005, an editorial arti cle was published in the Tampa Tribune titled, The Best Place for Four Year Degrees. The article cont ended that community colleges should stay out of baccalaureate education and leave it to the traditional colleges and universities in the state. The results of this study contradict many of the points of the article. Much more research needs to be done. If future resear chers find results similar to those that I found, serious thought should be given to expanding the role of community college baccalaureate programs. Community college s enjoy a positive reputation among the citizenry of the state for many reasons (Immerwahr, 2000). Community colleges are located in almost all of the counties in Florida, are less expensive than traditional institutions, focus on teaching, provide more personalized attention to students, and are parts of the community. It appears that characteristics which were for a long time associated with the traditional function s of community colleges (Cohen and Brawer, 1996) may also be present in the baccalaureate function of the community college. Community college baccalaureate progr ams may seem like something new and risky for the state. However, Townsend and Ignash (2003) illustrated via an examination of history on community colleges in the Un ited States a historical role in teacher education at the community colleges. To that end, many teacher education programs started at normal schools which Hutcheson (2002) classified as the equivalent of

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124 community colleges. It was only after many stat es passed legislation requiring teachers to hold a four-year degree to possess a teaching certificate that most normal schools evolved into four-year institutions. It is possible th at some community colleges (and more in the future) may be undergoing metamorphoses simi lar to those that changed normal schools into colleges and universities. Based on the results of this study, the postsecondary educational climate, and the obvious ambitions of colleges and universiti es in the state, I would also strongly recommend that better statewid e planning take place. It appears that community colleges are literally stepping up to e ducate upper division student s. If serious forethought and planning does not take place, however, the pos tsecondary educational situation in Florida could become the equivalent of a land grab among colleges and universities, where competition, ambitions, and the quest for research dollars ends up costing the citizens of the state millions of dollars due to expensive and risky initiatives and unnecessary program duplication. Implications for Research This study has left as many, or more questions, than it provides answers. As discussed earlier, a purpose of policy evaluation is to pr ovide a foothold for future researchers. The results of this study suggest several areas of future research: 1. Most students in this study listed location as a reason that influenced their decision to attend the community college fo r their upper division education. This finding merits further investigation. A study of the students home zip codes could be done to understand the impact of location better.

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125 2. There is a need for follow-up research of graduates from the baccalaureate teacher education programs at the community co lleges to investigate post-graduation employment. Specifically, it would be helpfu l to know how many graduates work in the education field, what is the length of their tenu re in education, whether they stay in the county where they received their baccalaureat e degree, and if they work in high-need schools and areas, and how these data compare with data from to graduates from traditional four-year programs. 3. A comparison of the pass/fail rates on the Florida Teacher Certification Examinations for students/graduates from community college baccalaureate programs and students/graduates from trad itional colleges and univers ities would be helpful in understanding the level of preparation the st udents received at these institutions. 4. Follow-up studies of graduates from community college baccalaureate programs should be conducted to investigate whether graduates from these programs feel they were well prepared to succeed in the workplace. Similarly, research should be done to determine if employers are satisfied with gr aduates from the community college teacher education programs. 5. It might be helpful to better understa nd the perceptions of employers regarding graduates from community college baccalaure ate programs. Do employers view the community college baccalaureat e as a second hand degree? 6. A statewide cost-effectiveness anal ysis should be conducted on all community college baccalaureate programs.

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126 7. Public colleges and univers ities should be studied to determine what role, if any, their decisions and actions have played in the vertical extension of community colleges in the state. 8. A study should be conducted to determ ine what impact, if any, a perceived unwillingness of lawmakers to add more colleges and universities in Florida may have had on the ability of community colleges to expand vertically. 9. A comparison needs to be done for gr aduation rates and time-to-degrees for students in the upper divisions of commun ity colleges and four-year colleges and universities in the state. 10. A student profile comparison needs to be conducted between the students in the upper division at the community colleges and at the four-year colleges and universities. It will be important for future researchers to understand the differences that may exist between these two groups. 11. A study should be conducted to determine what effect, if any, the marketing strategies of the baccalau reate community colleges have had on student choices and perceptions. 12. A study should be done to determine what impact, if any, the community college baccalaureate programs have had on universit ies that are in their close physical proximity. A further qualitative study might investigate in greater detail the unique geographic, demographic, and institutiona l factors that may impact each of these institutions given the inconsistency in enrollment trends between the Colleges of Education at the University of South Florid a (USF) and Florida International University (FIU), and their overall upper division enrollments. Both USF and FIU have

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127 baccalaureate granting community colleges w ith teacher education programs in their geographic proximity. Issues for future researchers. When I started my research, I had ho ped to evaluate whether the community college baccalaureate programs were not only contributing to increased access to higher education, but also fulfilling the portion of th e legislation that stated that community colleges were supposed to produce well qualifie d employees in high-demand fields. I had hoped to include a survey of graduates from th ese programs as part of the research. None of the three institutions, however, would pr ovide me with contact information for graduates. In every case, representatives at the institution felt that providing me with contact information for graduates violated st udent privacy laws, specifically, the Federal Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). While I disagree with their assertion that releasing the mailing or email addresses of graduates for research purposes violates FERPA, this is something that future rese archers must consider while designing their studies. In fairness to the institutions, they all we re very helpful in transmitting my survey electronically to their students. In addition, th ey all seemed very eag er to see the results of this study. I do not believ e that they were hiding behind the FERPA law, but truly feared the consequences associated with brea ching the confidentiality of former students. There may be cases at other institutions in the future, however, where colleges and universities might use the broadest interpreta tion of federal and st ate privacy laws to shield their institutions from research that could yield unfavorable results.

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128 I also hoped to include in this study a comparison of the scores on the Florida Teachers Certification Exam (FTCE) fo r students from the community college baccalaureate programs with their counterparts at four-year colleges and universities in the state. These scores would have been used as an outcome measure to compare the level of preparation the students from these institu tions were receiving. Several issues came to the forefront that would not allow for such a comparison. The first issue was that even though the scores are scaled, the Florida Department of Education contended that th e scaled scores should not be used as dependent variables. After this, I planned to use the pass/fail rates on the Professional Education and Subject Area Exam portions of the FTCE to compare the results for students from the community college baccalaur eate programs with students from fouryear institutions. This was not possible either The data were to come from the State of Floridas Education Data Warehous e. The State of Florida is blessed to have an office that is dedicated to collecting and organizing large quantities of data Because they are so effective and the data are so useful, they receive many requests. They were very responsive to my initial requests. But, when I was about to make the formal request for the data I was informed that since my reque st was for a dissertation other requests took precedence. The Education Data Warehouse informed me that it would take approximately nine months for the data to be delivered. For these reasons the study was further limited in size and scope, but these are also issues that will impact future researchers who are interested in policy evaluation studies.

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129 Summary Statement The community college baccalaureate program s in Florida are on the cutting edge of postsecondary education in America. The purpose of this study was to examine some of the initial results that have been generated from the policy allowing community colleges to confer baccalaureate degrees. Addi tionally, this research was intended to provide a foothold for future researchers in terested in this topic. These community college baccalaureate programs appear to be expanding access for students to upper division education. However, there may be some unintended consequences from this policy that may be arising. Community colleges, their trustees, admi nistrators, and faculty have a unique opportunity to change the face of postseconda ry education in Florida and possibly the nation. This opportunity should not be taken lightly, because with it comes the great responsibility to act in the best interest of the state and its citizens. From their inception, community colleges have worked to fill th e gap that exists between high schools and colleges and universities. This should rema in the primary function of the community college. Prior to any expansion of community college baccalaureate program much more research and planning should be done.

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130 References Alexander, J. (1999). A new et hics of budgetary process. Administration and Society, 31 (4), 542 565. Allen, R. (2002). Teacher education at th e community college: partnership and collaboration. ERIC Digest (ERIC Document Repr oduction No. ED 467986). American Association of Community Colleges. Community College Fact Sheet (n.d.) Retrieved February, 25, 2006 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Content/ NavigationMenu/AboutCommunityCollege s/Fast_Facts1/Fast_Facts.htm Betts, J. (1996). What do students know about wages? Evidence from a survey of undergraduates. The Journal of Human Resources, 31 (1), 27 56. Burke, J. (2003). Trends in higher education performance. Spectrum: The Journal of State Government (1), 23 -24. Burke, J. & Minassians, H.P. (2002). The new accountability: from regulation to results. New Directions for Institutional Research, 116 (3), 519. Burke, J. & Modarresi, S. (2000). To keep or not to keep performance funding: Signals from stakeholders. Journal of Higher Education 71 (4), 432 453. Burrows, B.A. (2002). The Vertical extensi on of Floridas community college system: a case study of politics and en trepreneurial leadership. Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No. 3108475).

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131 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (2006). Basic Classification Description. Retrieved May 18, 2006, fr om http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/ classifications/index.asp?key=791 Chapman, C. (1981). A Model of student co llege choice. The Journal of Higher Education, 52 (5), 490 505. Cohen, A. (2001). Governmental policies affecting community colleges a historical perspective. In, Townsend, B. K. and Twom ble, S. B. (Eds.), Community college, policy in the future context. Albex. Cohen, A. & Brawer, F. (1996). The American community college San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Cook, A. (2000). Community college baccalaureate degrees: a delivery model for the future? Policy Paper. (Education Commission of the States, No. 2) Denver, CO: Center for Community College Policy. Dillman, D.A. (2000). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method (2 nd ed.). NewYork: Wiley & Sons. Dowd, A. (2003). From outcome to equity: re vitalizing the democratic mission of the community college. The Annals of the American Academy, 586, 92 111. Dunn, D. (2003). Accountability, democratic theory and higher education. Educational Policy 17 (1), 60 79. Eaton, J. (2005). Why community college shou ldnt offer baccalaureates. [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education 52, (10), B25.

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132 Education Commission of the States. (2000). Study for the need for baccalaureate degree opportunities in five Florida counties. Retrieved September 7, 2006, from http://www.cepri.state.fl .us/pdf/ecsrpt1.pdf#search =%22Study%20for%20the%20 need%20for%20baccalaureate%20degree%20opportunities%20in%20five%20Flo rida%20counties%22 Florida Agricultural and Mech anical University. (2006). Welcome to elementary education. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from http://www.famu.edu/ oldsite/education/education.php?lea rn=elementary&nav=educationnav Florida Board of Governors (2006). Fall student enrollment state university system institutions. Retrieved December 4, 2006 from http://www.flbog.org/factbook/ enrollment.asp Florida Department of Education. (n.d.) Community college bachelors degree programs. Retrieved July 28, 2006, from http://www.fl doe.org/cc/students/bach_degree.asp Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). 2005 Florida community college system fact book. Retrieved July 24, 2006, from http://www.firn.edu/doe/arm/cctcmis/pubs/ factbook/fb2005/factbk05.pdf Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). 2006 Florida community college system fact book. Retrieved July 24, 2006, from http://www.firn.edu/doe/arm/cctcmis/pubs/ factbook/fb2006/graphic.pdf Florida Department of Education. (2005). Critical teacher shortages 2006 07 Retrieved December 4, 2006, from http ://www.firn.edu/doe/evaluation/pdf/ crit1200.pdf

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133 Florida Department of Education. (2006). Florida community college system 2006 07 projected operating budget request bacca laureate degree grants: enrollment, performance and budget plan (Data file). Tallahassee FL: State of Florida Department of Education. Florida Department of Education. (2006). 2003 04 community college bachelors completers fall 2004 findings (Data file). Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida Department of Education. Florida Gulf Coast University. (2006). Prospective students Retrieved September 27, 2006, from http://www.fgcu.edu/ prospective/freshman.asp Florida Senate Staff. (2001). CS for SB1190 (First Engrossed). Tallahassee, Fl. Florida State University (2006). Office of admissions. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from http://www.fsu.edu/students/pros pective/admissions/requirements/ transreq.shtml Floyd, D. & Walker, D. (2003). Community college teacher education: a typology, challenging issues and state views. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 27, 643 663. Furlong, T. (2003). The Role of Community Co lleges in Offering Baccalaureates in Teacher Education: An Emerging Possibilit y. In, Townsend B. & Ignash, J. (Eds.) The role of the community college in teacher education. New directions for community colleges, 121. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Furlong, T. (2005). St. Petersburg College: In creasing baccalaureate access in critical program areas. In, Floyd D., Skol nik, M. and Walker, K. (Eds.) The community college baccalaureate Virgina: Stylus.

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134 Gerdeman, R. (2001) ERIC Review: The ro le of community colleges in training tomorrows school teachers. ERIC Digest (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED 626854). Glennon, K. (2005). Community college baccalaureate degrees: A review of issues, policies and other states programs Retrieved January 20, 2006, from: http://www4.nau.edu/insidenau/bumps /12_7_05/Four_year_degree_report.pdf Grubb, W. & Lazerson, M. (2004). Community colleges need to build on their strengths. Chronicle of Higher Education 51, 16. Hagerdorn, L., Newman, F. & Duffy, J. (2003). Taking the golden state path to teacher education: California partnerships am ong two-year colleges and university centers. In, Townsend B. & Ignash, J. (Eds.) The role of the community college in teacher education. New directions for community colleges 121. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Hatcher, L & Stepanski, E. (1999). A step-bystep approach to using the SAS system for univariate and multivariate statistics. SAS Institute: Cary. Howllet, M. & Ramesh M. (2003). Studying public policy: policy cycles and policy subsystems. New York: Oxford. Hutcheson, P. (1999). Reconsidering the community college. History of Education Quarterly 39 (3), 307 320. Hutcheson, P. (2002). The past as awkward pr ologue: Teacher education and the junior college Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 26, 645 658.

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135 Immerwahr, J. (2000). Great expectations : how Floridians view higher education. Retrieved April 2, 2007, from: h ttp://www.highereducation.org/reports/ expectations_fl/expectations.shtml Kuh, G., Hayek, J., Carini, R., Ouim et, J., Gonyea, R., & Kennedy, (2001). NSSE Technical and Norms Report. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning. Levin, H. & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis : methods and applications California: Sage. Lorenzo, A. (2005). The University Center: A collaborative approach to baccalaureate degrees. In, Floyd D., Skolnik, M. and Walker, K. (Eds.) The community college baccalaureate Virgina: Stylus. Lum, L. (2004). Not your fathers community co llege: new programs, increased visibility boost two-year institutions appeal. Black Issues in Higher Education 21 (9), 54 58. Mills, K. (2003, Winter). Community college baccalaureates: some critics decry the trend as mission creep. National CrossTalk, 11 1 10. Montmarquette, C., Cannings, K., Mahsered jian, S. (1997). How do young people choose college majors? CIRANO Retrieved June 22, 2006, from https://depot.erudit.org/ retrieve/412/97s-38.pdf National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs. (2005, July). Special edition policy brief: the community college baccalaureate Retrieved February 25, 2006, from the National Asso ciation of Community College Teacher Education Programs Web site: http ://www.nacctep.org/pdf/PB_Bac.pdf

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136 National Survey of Student Engagement (2006). Retrieved June 22, 2006, from http://nsse.iub.edu/pdf/NSSE2006_Sample.pdf National Center for Education Statistics. (2006). Retrieved November 30, 2006, from http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/glo ssary/index.asp?charindex=U Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability. (2005). Florida can use several strategies to en courage students to enroll in areas of critical need. OPPAGA 5 9. Retrieved December 20, 2005 from, http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/reports/pdf/0509rpt.pdf Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability. (2005). Authorizing community colleges to award b accalaureate degrees in one of several options to expand access to higher education. OPPAGA 5 20. Retrieved December 20, 2005 from, http://www.oppaga.s tate.fl.us/reports/pdf/0520rpt.pdf Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability. (2005). Floridas university graduates tend to stay in the state workforce after completing their degrees OPPAGA, 5 59. Retrieved December 20, 2005 from, http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/reports/pdf/0559rpt.pdf Oliver, P. (2004). Writing your thesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Presidents commission on higher education. (1947). Higher education for democracy. Washington, DC: United States Printing Office. Richardson, R., Bracco, K., Calla n, P. & Finney, J. (1999). Designing state higher education systems for a new century Phoenix: Oryx Press.

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137 Rudolph, F. (1990). The American college and university: a history Athens: University of Georgia. Self determined baccalaureate degree access. Fl. 1007.33 (2004). Shkodriani, G. (2004). Teacher education baccalaureate degrees at community colleges (Education Commission of the States PT 3 Policy Brief). Retrieved February 25, 2006, from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/49/56/4956.pdf The best place for four-year degrees. (2005). Tampa Tribune Retrieved December 20, 2005, from: http://tampatrib.c om/opinion/MGBXDX6WPGE.html Townsend, B. & Ignash, J. (2003). Community college roles in teacher education: current approaches and future possibilitie s. In, Townsend B. & Ignash, J. (Eds.) The role of the community college in teacher education. New directions for community colleges, 121. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. University of Florida. (2006). Minimum requirements for PROTEACH admissions Retrieved September 27, 2006, from http: //education.ufl.edu/we b/files/10/File/ Prerequisites.pdf University of North Florida. (2006). Requirements for undergraduate students. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from http://www.unf.edu/admissions/applying/ undergrad.html Vaughan, G.(1982). The community college in America Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges. Walker, K. (2000). The workforce bachelors degree. The Education Digest, 65 (6), 61 67.

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138 Walker, K. (2001). Opening the doo r to the baccalaureate degree. Community College Review 3, 18 31 Walker, K. (2005). Perspectives on the comm unity college baccalaureate. In, Floyd D., Skolnik, M. and Walker, K. (Eds.), The community college baccalaureate Virgina: Stylus. Wattenbarger, J.(1953). A state plan for public junior colleges with special reference to Florida Gainesville, FL: Univers ity of Florida. Wattenbarger, J. (2000). Colleges should stick to what they do best. Community College Week, 13, 18. Witt, A., Wattenbarger, J., Gollac ttscheck, J. & Suppiger, J. (1995). Americas community colleges. Washington, DC: Community College Press.

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139 Appendices

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140 Appendix A Introduction Letter to College Admini strators at Community Colleges Nicholas Manias 2377 Philippe Parkway Safety Harbor, Fl 34695 727 492 3716 nmanias@tampabay.rr.com Dear Dr. ________, Thank you for your interest in my doctoral research. My dissertation attempts to investigate some of the outcomes from th e Community College Baccalaureate Teacher Education programs. I am specifically interested in enrollment trends within these programs as well as information about the stude nts enrolled in these programs. I believe that this study will provide _______, as well as the other institutions involved, with valuable information on these programs. The in formation which I plan to collect from the students will address several issues: why the students chos e to major in education, why the students chose the community college fo r their Baccalaureate Degree, what the study habits and school work habits are of the st udents in these programs, as well as other questions. The data collections for the study have been designed in a way that will not tax the time and resources of _______, its faculty and staff, or its students. The data I will be requesting from ________ will be enrollment da ta. In addition, I will ask that _______ send an internet hyperlink for a survey to th e students enrolled in the Baccalaureate Teacher Education programs. The data from the students will be completely anonymous and the institutions which are part of this study will be referred to through the use of pseudonyms in the published dissertation. Within this package you will find a document titled College Prospectus and Consent for Participation. I would ask that you re view the document and sign it if you are comfortable in doing so. At that point, I would also ask that you return it to me by using the self addressed stamped envel ope included in this package. If you have any questions about the study or the data collections please do not hesitate to contact me. Thank you so much, Nicholas Manias Doctoral Candidate University of South Florida Cc: Dr. Jan Ignash, University of South Florida

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141 Appendix B Community College Prospectus and Consent for Dissertation Research The Baccalaureate Community Colleges in Florida: A Policy Evaluation Nature of the study. The study I am undertaking at your co llege involves inquiry to better understand some of the outcomes of the Community College Baccalaureate Teacher Education programs. Specifically, I am interest ed in enrollment trends for these programs and attitudes, perceptions, c hoices, and study habits of the students in these programs. The study will utilize both quantit ative and qualitative methods. Duration and logistics. This study is expected to last for two months. The researcher plans to request that each institution: (1) provide him with information regarding enrollment data for the Baccalaureate Teacher Education programs and (2) email an internet hyperlink to each stude nt currently enrolled in a ny of the Baccalaureate Teacher Education programs. The hyperlink will take the students to a survey instrument constructed by the researcher th at may be completed on the internet. Participation in the survey will be completely voluntary and shoul d not take the students more than 15 20 minutes. The data collections for this study have been designed in this fashion so that they will not require substantial investme nts of time for college personnel or, student participants, and will not require any class time. Confidentiality. Survey data and documents collected will be strictly maintained by me as the principal researcher during the proce sses of collection, analysis, and write-up. Further, I will use pseudonyms in referring to the institutions within the published dissertation. The data collected from stude nts will be completely anonymous. The researcher will not ask students for their na mes or any other identification information. The data collected from the Baccalaureate Co mmunity Colleges and their students will not be compared to each other. Each institution will rema in anonymous within the published research and the student participants will be anonymous throughout the course of the study and its publishing. Foreseeable risks. Based on the type of data collect ed and the methods of collection the researcher does not believe that any forese eable risks exist to th e institutions or the student participants. Benefits to the college. Participation in this study will provide the institutions with an opportunity to view statewide trends in the Community College Baccalaureate Teacher Education programs. In addition, it will also provide the institutions with insight into their students attitudes, pe rceptions, choices, and study ha bits. Important new findings from this study will be shared with college faculty and staff members. I will forward a copy of the final dissertation to the Commun ity College Baccalaureate Teacher Education program at your institution.

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142 Appendix B (Continued) Risks. Although there may be unforeseen ri sks in any research involving human participants, there is minimal risk involved to any participants of this particular study. Voluntary Participation. Participation in this study is entirely voluntary. The subsequent refusal of any institution or student to partic ipate will not result in any penalty or loss of benefits to the College or indi vidual. Participating institutio ns may withdraw at any time by contacting me by phone or email. Students may choose not to participate at the point in time when they receive the internet hyperlink to the survey instrument. Contact. For questions about this study, including the nature of the research, and your rights with regard to the study, please contact: Nicholas Manias Address: 2377 Philippe Park way, Safety Harbor, Fl 34695 Home Telephone: (727) 812-4043, email: nmanias@tampabay.rr.com Cellular Telephone: (727) 492-3716 Chairperson Contact. If you need to contact the chai rperson of my doctoral committee please contact: Dr. Jan Ignash, Associate Professor Department of Adult, Career, and Higher Education University of South Florida. Mail Drop EDU 162, 4202 E. Fowler Ave.,Tampa, FL 33620-5650 Phone: (813) 974-1575 email: ignash@tempest.coedu.usf.edu Schedule: A tentative schedule for the research is as follows: OctoberNovember, 2006 Apply for USF Internal Review Board approval. Defend research proposal. NovemberDecemberBegin data collections from institutions. Provide the institutions with the link to the online su rvey for students and request that they send it to their stude nts electronically. Consent for Dissertation Research: _____________________________________ (Signature) _____________________________________ _________________ (Title, Institution) (Date)

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143 Appendix C Email Cover Letter to Students and Informed Consent for Participants Dear Community College Baccalaureate Student, You are being asked to participate in a research study. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understandi ng of the academic background, motivations, and school work and study habits of students in enrolled in the community college baccalaureate level teacher education program s. You will be asked, with your informed consent, to provide limited demographic inform ation and complete a survey regarding the pursuit of your baccalaureate degree in educat ion at the community college. The survey can be completed in 15 minutes or less. Payment/Cost for Participation You will not receive compensation for partic ipation in this survey and it will not cost you anything to participate in this survey. Risks of Being a Part of This Research Study The research does not anticipate any physic al, psychological, and/or social risk for participation in this study. Precautions to minimize these risks include informed consent, voluntary particip ation, and confidentiality en sured through anonymity the survey will not ask you for your name or other information which will connect you to your answers. Confidentiality of Your Records Your privacy and research records will be kept confidential to the extent of the law. Authorized personnel, employees of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and the University of South Florid a (USF) Institutional Board, its staff and other individuals acting on beha lf of USF may inspect the r ecords from this research project. The results of this study may be published. However, the data obtained from you will be combined with data collected fr om all respondents in the publication. The published results will not include your name or any information that would in any way personally identify you. Responses to the surv ey will be written to a database and maintained by the principal investigator. Only authorized persons will be granted access to the files. Because this study is being conducted over the internet, it is possible; however unlikely, unauthorized individuals could gain access to your responses. Volunteering to be Part of this Research Study Your decision to participate in this re search study is completely voluntary. Choosing to participate or not in this study will in no way a ffect your student status. You are free to participate in this research study or not and/or to withdraw at any time. If you choose not to participate, or if you withdraw, there will be no penalty.

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144 Appendix C (Continued) Benefits of this Survey Although you will not receive direct benef it by participating in this study others will benefit. College officials, state policy ma kers, and other colleges/universities will be interested in the result s of this study. In addition, some or all of these groups may choose to use information from this study to make decisions regarding baccalaureate programs at community colleges and students in these programs. Questions and Contacts If you have any questions about this rese arch study, contact Nicholas Manias 727791-2730 (work) or nmanias@tampabay.rr.com. If you have any questions about your rights as a person who is taking part in a research study, you may contact a member of the Division of Research Inte grity and Compliance of the Univ ersity of South Florida at 813-974-5638. I agree to the following: I have fully read this informed consent form describing a research project. I have had the opportunity to question one of the persons in charge of this research and have received satisfactory answers (if asked). I understand that I am being asked to partic ipate in research. I unde rstand the risks and benefits, and I freely give my consent to participate in the research project outlined in this form, under the conditions indicated in it. I understand that proceeding to the survey will serve in lieu of signing a copy of this informed consent form. I understand that I can print out a copy of this consent form for my safekeeping. To access the survey, click on the following link: ________________________ Thank you for participating in this study. Nicholas Manias Doctoral Candidate College of Education University of South Florida

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145 Appendix D SSCCTEP Survey of Students from Community College Teacher Education Programs Dear Student, You are being asked to participate in a research study. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understandi ng of the academic background, motivations, and school work and study habits of students in enrolled in the community college baccalaureate level teacher education program s. You will be asked, with your informed consent, to provide limited demographic inform ation and complete a survey regarding the pursuit of your baccalaureate degree in educat ion at the community college. The survey can be completed in 15 minutes or less. Section 1 General Questions 1. In which institution are you currently enrolled? Grey College Blue College Red College 2. What is your gender? Male Female 3. What is your current classifi cation? Junior Senior 4. What is your age? ________ 5. Where did you complete your firs t two years of college? A. Your Current Institution B. Another Community College C. A Private Four-Year College or University D. A Public Four-Year College or University E. Other ___________ Section 2 Open-ended Questions I 6. What influenced your decision to major in education? 7. What led you to enroll in teacher education program at the community college?

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146 Appendix D (Continued) Section 3 Schoolwork Information 8. In your experience at yo ur institution during the current school year, about how often have you done each of the following?* A. Asked questions in class or contributed to class discussions?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never B. Made a class presentation?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never C. Prepared two or more drafts of a pa per or an assignment before turning it in?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never D. Worked on a paper or project that required integrating ideas or information from various sources?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never E. Come to class without comple ting readings or assignments?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never F. Worked with other students on projects during class ?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never G. Worked with classmates outside of class to prepare class assignments?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never H. Put together ideas or concepts fr om different courses when completing assignments or during class discussions?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never I. Worked harder than you thought you could to meet an instructors standards or expectations?* Very Often Often Sometimes Never Section 4 Open-ended Questions II 9. What other baccalaureate program or major (other than education), if any would you have considered enrolling in had one existed at the time you enrolled in the community college baccalaureat e teacher education program?

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147 Appendix D (Continued) 10. What would you have done educationally or professionally had the community college baccalaureate program not existed? Item 8 and all of its sub-items were used with the permission from The College Student Report, National Survey of St udent Engagement, Copyright 2001-06 The Trustees of Indiana University.

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148 Appendix E Email to Departments/Colleges of Educa tion at State Colleges and Universities Nicholas Manias 2377 Philippe Parkway Safety Harbor, Fl 34695 727 492 3716 nmanias@tampabay.rr.com Dear Dr. ________, I am a doctoral candidate at the University of South Florida. My di ssertation attempts to investigate enrollment trends for the Depart ments and Colleges of Education at State Colleges and Universities. In order to answer some of my research questions I am hoping that you would be able to provide me with enrollment data regard ing students in the Department/College of Education at ___________ College/University. Specifically, I would like to know the fall semesters unduplic ated headcounts for juniors and seniors majoring in education at your institution from 2002 2005. Thank you so for your assistance, Nicholas Manias Doctoral Candidate University of South Florida Cc: Dr. Jan Ignash, University of South Florida

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149 Appendix F Request to use NSSE Survey Items The National Survey of Student Engagements (NSSE) survey instrument, The College Student Report, is copyrighted and the copyright is owned by The Trustees of Indiana University. Any use of survey items contained within The College Student Report is prohibited without prior written pe rmission from Indiana University. In addition, as a non-subsidized, cost-reco very project, the NSSE program may ask researchers who wish to borrow from, adapt, or translate the NSSE instrument to pay a fair price for the time and effort the NSSE st aff put into forming such Agreements, and as reasonable estimate of the value of NSSEs inte llectual property. In addition, such Agreements typically en tail the following terms briefly described below, but to appear in formal le gal detail in the actual Agreement: 1. That all details of the license be nego tiated in advance and in writing, which is incorporated by reference into the Agreement; 2. The Agreement does not include any right to sublicen se others. Any different or repeated use of the item(s) require an additional license; 3. The researcher agrees: a. To provide to NSSE frequency dist ributions and means on the licensed item(s); b. On the survey form iteself, and in all publications or presentations of data obtained through the licensed item(s), to note that the items were used with permission from Indiana University; c. To provide to NSSE a copy of all surveys that include NSSE items or modified items; and d. To provide to NSSE a copy of all reports, presentations, analyses, or other materials in which the borrowed it em(s) are presented, discussed, or analyzed. 4. The Agreement will include an expiration date. 5. Other terms as deemed necessary to govern the Agreement as determined by either party.

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150 Appendix F (Continued) Proposal to Use Items from The College Student Report Contact information: Manias, Nicholas Mr. Last Name, First Name Title Doctoral Candidate Universi ty of South Florida Office Institution 2377 Philippe Parkway Address Safety Harbor Florida 34695 USA City State/Province Zip or Postal Code Country (727) 492 3716 nmanias@tampabay.rr.com Phone Fax Email October 20, 2006 Date Please answer the following qu estions in as much detail as possible. Feel free to attach additional documents in support of the proposal. 1. State the objective of your survey: 2. Identify the specific item(s) to be used: 3. To whom will the survey be administered? 4. How will the survey be administere dthrough oral interviews, on paper, electronically, a combination of methods, other? 5. Describe your sampling methodology. 6. State your maximum number of survey recipients. 7. List your expected start and end dates for survey admini stration. Please indicate if you intend to use these items on a continui ng basis (e.g., each semester or year). 8. Append a copy of the proposed survey instru ment to be used, noting where the NSSE items are located. 9. Please list all sponsoring organizations and funding sources for this study. 10. Provide the name, title, and organization of your principal investigator, if different from the contact person described above.

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151 Appendix F (Continued) Attachment to: Proposal to Use Items from The College Student Report 1. Objective of the survey: The objective of th is survey is to gain a better understanding of the students enrolled in the baccalaureate level teacher education programs at the community colleges in Florida. The survey includes items created by the researcher as well as items from the NSSE. The items take n from the NSSE will be used to gather information on the schoolwork and study habits of these students. The responses from the participants will be compared to responses obtained by the NSSE. 2. Specific items to be used: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1f, 1g, 1h, 1i, and 1r. (9 items total) 3. The survey will be administered to: Th e survey will be administered to students enrolled in the baccalaureate level teacher education program s at the community college in Florida. These institutions are: St. Petersburg College, Miami-Dade College and Chipola College. The survey will be administered to current students during the 2006-07 school year. 4. The survey will be administered through: The survey will be housed on the internet. The researcher will send an internet hyperlink for the survey to the Colleges of Education at the three institutions. These institutions wi ll then email the link to all of the students who are currently enrolled in these programs. 5. Sampling methodology: The community college baccalaureate programs are a new innovation in Florida. Currently, only three comm unity colleges in Florida (listed above) confer baccalaureate degrees in education. Furthermore, the enrollment in these programs is limited in number. Statewide enrollment in these programs is estimated between 1500 2000 students. Therefore, the researcher has chosen to include all three institutions in the study and plans to include all of their students. 6. Maximum number of survey recipients: Based on statewide estimates the researcher considers the maximum number of surv ey recipients to be 2000 students. 7. Expected start and end dates: The resear cher hopes to receive final Institutional Review Board approval in November, 2006. The researcher plans to use the survey to collect data from November, 2006 March, 2007. 8. Please see the attached survey instrument with the items from the NSSE. 9. Sponsor/Funding: This research is not s ponsored or funded. The researcher will use the data collected from the survey to an swer research questio ns in his doctoral dissertation.

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152 Appendix F (Continued) 10. Principal Investigator: Ni cholas Manias, Doct oral Candidate, University of South Florida.

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153 Appendix G List of Data Analyses 1. RQ 1 Enrollment Trends A) Table of enrollment numbers at baccalaureate community colleges from inception to end Fall, 2005 B) Table of enrollment numbers compar ing baccalaureate co mmunity colleges to other 4yr institutions 2002-2005 Sample = Population of enrollees 2. RQ 2 Why did student attend community college for baccalaureate in education A) Open-ended question Analysis Sample = 16.6% of 843 students = 140 respondents 3. RQ 3 Educational or Professional c hoices instead of baccalaureate community college A) Open-ended question Analysis Sample = 16.6% of 843 students = 140 respondents 4. RQ 4 Education as first choice of major A) Open-ended question Analysis B) Open-ended question Analysis Sample = 16.6% of 843 students = 140 respondents 5. Descriptors for sample of seniors who responded to survey Sample = 68 seniors from community co llege and 228 from four-year colleges 6. RQ5 Answers to NSSE items T -test between groups per item (9 items) Sample 1 = 68 seniors from community colleges Sample 2 = NSSE respondents, seniors in education at four-yea r institutions in Florida = 228

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154 Appendix H 2006 NSSE Institutional Pa rticipants in Florida Barry University Lynn University Eckerd College Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Flagler College Florida Southern College Jacksonville University University of Miami University of North Florida Northwood University Palm Beach Atlantic University Ringling School of Art and Design Rollins College Saint John Vainney College Seminary Stetson University The University of Tampa Warner Southern College

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About the Author Nicholas Manias received a B.A. in Criminology from the University of Florida in 1997 and an M.A. from the Un iversity of South Florida in Community College Teaching in 2000, with a concen tration in Sociology. He has taught within the Applied Ethics Institute at a community college in Florida since 2001. During his tenure in the Applied Ethics In stitute, Mr. Manias developed the award winning course Ethics in Popular Culture and Entertainment and started the Ethics in the Community program, in which students volunteer for non-profit organizations. He has presented at many collegewide, statewide, and national conferences. Prior to joining the Applied Ethics Institute, Mr. Manias served as Director of Agency Development and late r Director of Operations for a regional heath care delivery corporation.