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Isotopic investigations of cave drip waters and precipitation in central and northern Florida, USA

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Isotopic investigations of cave drip waters and precipitation in central and northern Florida, USA
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Pace-Graczyk, Kali J
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University of South Florida
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Karst
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Drip rate
Paleoclimate
Dissertations, Academic -- Geology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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ABSTRACT: A temperature, drip rate, and stable isotopic study (δ18O and δD) was undertaken in three caves in central and northern Florida. Both surface and cave temperatures were collected, as were precipitation, cave drip water and drip rates. All data were collected on a weekly basis to investigate the isotopic relationships between precipitation and cave drip waters. The objective of this study was to provide a calibration of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values in precipitation and cave drip water for future paleoclimate work in the Florida peninsula. Based on the steady annual cave temperature and high relative humidity (95% or above), all three caves are suitable locations for paleoclimate work. A spike in the cave drip rate is seen following precipitation events at both Legend and Jennings Caves. A lagtime of 52 days between the date of the storm event and the increase in drip rate was found at Legend Cave.Legend and Jennings Caves in central Florida show a relationship between the amount of precipitation and the δ18O values. The isotopic values in precipitation were more depleted after a large precipitation event, suggesting the amount effect is influential in this location. At Florida Caverns State Park tourist cave in northern Florida, the association between 18O and precipitation was weak while a relationship between 18O and temperature may be present; here the seasonal effect or latitude effect may be significant. The monthly mean isotopic values of the drip waters were found to approximate those of the precipitation. The steady isotopic values of the drip water are due to a homogenization of water infiltrating into the epikarst and mixing with water already present in the karst storage. This finding is important for future paleoclimate research in the Florida peninsula.An important assumption in paleoclimate work is that the value of δ18O in calcite at the time of precipitation represents the mean annual δ18O of precipitation at the time of deposition. The ultimate objectives of this research were to assess the isotopic relationship between precipitation and cave drip waters in order to interpret paleoclimate data sets. Although the data were limited to a single year, it appears that a sufficient isotopic signal exists in central-north Florida precipitation and drip water to apply for paleoclimate studies.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Kali J. Pace-Graczyk.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 90 pages.

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Isotopic Investigations of Cave Drip Waters and Precipitation in Central and Northern Florida, USA by Kali J Pace-Graczyk A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Geology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Bogdan P. Onac, Ph.D. H. Leonard Vacher, Ph.D. Philip van Beynen, Ph.D. Date of Approval: July 11, 2007 Keywords: karst, oxygen, hydrogen, drip rate, paleoclimate Copyright 2007, Kali J Pace-Graczyk

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project was funded by the Geological Society of America, the National Speleological Society, and the Florida Studies Center in the University of South Florida library system. A large thanks to the Florida State Park and Forest System for letting me conduct my research on your property. I would like to extend my sincerest appreciation to Bogdan Onac, my adviser, for his support a nd guidance as well as to my committee, H. Leonard Vacher and Philip van Beynen. A larg e thanks to Lee Florea for assisting with the initial idea and set-up of this study. To Tom Tu rner, Robert Brooks, Joey Hagan, and Mike Gordon, thank you for continuously help ing to collect my water samples regardless of adverse weather, your busy schedules, or pe rsonal emergencies. This project could not have been done without each of you. My labmate, Limaris Soto, thank you for all of your help and for keeping me sane. Thank you to all of the members of the Karst Research Group for all of your help with editing, fieldw ork, and technical questi ons. Lastly, to my family and friends, thank you so much for all of the support and encouragement and laughs, it was greatly needed.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES iii LIST OF FIGURES iv ABSTRACT vi INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 4 Cave Temperature 4 Cave Drip Rates 5 Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes 6 STUDY AREA 10 Location, Physiography, and Climate 10 Geology 14 Cave and Sample Site Descriptions 17 METHODS 20 In-Cave Sample Collection 20 Surface Collection 24 Laboratory Analysis 26

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ii RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 27 Temperature 27 Relative Humidity 31 Drip Rates and Precipitation 32 Hydrogen Isotopes 37 Oxygen Isotopes 39 Local Meteoric Water Lines 44 Deuterium Excess 45 Latitude and Seasonal Effect in Precipitaiton 47 Amount Effect 49 CONCLUSIONS 52 REFERENCES 54 APPENDICES 61 Appendix A: Legend Cave Temperature, Precip itation, Drip Rate Data 62 Appendix B: Jennings Cave Temperature, Preci pitation, Drip Rate Data 72 Appendix C: Florida Caverns Temp erature, Precipitation, Drip Rate Data 78 Appendix D: Legend Cave Stable Isot ope Results 87 Appendix E: Jennings Cave Stable Isot ope Results 89 Appendix F: Florida Caverns Stable Isotope Results 90

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iii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Mean annual cave and external temperature. 27 Table 2. Mean monthly isotopic values of hydr ogen from precipitation and drip water. 37 Table 3. Mean monthly isotopic values of oxygen from precipitation and drip water. 40 Table 4. Mean annual isotopic value for de uterium and oxygen in precipitation and cave drip water for each of the three research sites. 47

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iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. The stable meroclimate zone. 5 Figure 2. The geomorphology of Florida 11 Figure 3. Research locations. 12 Figure 4. Average climate in northern and central Florida. 13 Figure 5. Stratigraphic section of southe rn, northern, and panhandle Florida. 16 Figure 6. Legend Cave. 18 Figure 7. Jennings Cave. 19 Figure 8. Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave. 19 Figure 9. Drip water collection in Legend Cave. 21 Figure 10. Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 dual channe l temperature and rela tive humidity data logger. 23 Figure 11. Stalagmate drip rate data logger. 23 Figure 12. Weather station at Fl orida Caverns State Park. 25 Figure 13. Fluctuation of temperature inside and outside Legend Cave. 29 Figure 14. A. Warm air trap. B. Cold air trap. 29 Figure 15. Fluctuation of temperature inside and outside Jennings Cave. 30 Figure 16. Fluctuation of temperature inside and outside Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave. 30 Figure 17. Time series analysis on surficial and cave temperature data from each cave. 32

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v Figure 18. Legend Cave precipitation and drip water rates. 34 Figure 19. Jennings Cave precipita tion and drip water rates. 36 Figure 20. Florida Caverns precipita tion and drip water rates. 36 Figure 21. Relationship between the mean monthly D and mean monthly temperature (A) and mean monthly precipitation (B). 38 Figure 22. Surface temperature (A), 18O values of precipitation and drip water vs. time (B), and monthly precipita tion (C) at Legend Cave. 41 Figure 23. Surface temperature (A), 18O values of precipitation and drip water vs. time (B), and monthly precipitati on (C) at Jennings Cave. 42 Figure 24. Surface temperature (A), 18O values of precipitation and drip water vs. time (B), and monthly precipitation (C) at Florida Caverns State Park. 43 Figure 25. Central and northern Florida 18O and D relationship in drip water (A) and precipitation (B). 46 Figure 26. Deuterium Excess. 47 Figure 27. The relationship between 18O of drip water and cave temperature at Legend Cave (A), Jennings Cave (C) and Florida Ca verns State Park (E). The relationship between 18O of precipitation and outside temper ature at Legend Cave (B), Jennings Cave (D), and Florida Caverns State Park (F). 49 Figure 28. The amount effect of 18 isotopic values of precipitation; exemplified at Legend Cave. 51

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vi Isotopic Investigations of Cave Drip Waters and Precipitation in Central and Northern Florida, USA Kali J Pace-Graczyk ABSTRACT A temperature, drip rate, and stable isotopic study ( 18O and D) was undertaken in three caves in central and northern Florid a. Both surface and cave temperatures were collected, as were prec ipitation, cave drip water and drip rates. All data were collected on a weekly basis to investig ate the isotopic rela tionships between precipitation and cave drip waters. The objective of this study wa s to provide a calibration of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values in precipitation and cave drip water for future paleoclimate work in the Florida peninsula. Based on the steady annual cave temperatur e and high relative humidity (95% or above), all three caves are suitable locations for paleoclimate work. A spike in the cave drip rate is seen following precipitation even ts at both Legend and Jennings Caves. A lag time of 52 days between the date of the stor m event and the increase in drip rate was found at Legend Cave. Legend and Jennings Caves in central Fl orida show a relati onship between the amount of precipitation and the 18O values. The isotopic values in precipitation were more depleted after a large pr ecipitation event, suggesting th e amount effect is influential in this location. At Florida Caverns State Park tourist cave in northern Florida, the

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vii association between 18O and precipitation was weak while a relationship between 18O and temperature may be present; here the seasonal eff ect or latitude effect may be significant. The monthly mean isotopic values of the drip waters were found to approximate those of the precipitation. The steady isotopi c values of the drip water are due to a homogenization of water infiltrating into th e epikarst and mixing with water already present in the karst storage. This finding is important for future pale oclimate research in the Florida peninsula. An important assumpti on in paleoclimate work is that the value of 18O in calcite at the time of preci pitation represents the mean annual 18O of precipitation at the time of deposition. The ultimate objectives of this research were to assess the isotopic relationship between precipitation and cave drip waters in order to interpret paleoclimate data se ts. Although the data were limited to a single year, it appears that a sufficient isotopic signal exists in central-north Florida precipitation and drip water to apply for paleoclimate studies.

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1 INTRODUCTION This study is the first of its type in Florida and will provide new information to the existing knowledge base of isotopic values for paleoclimatic work in this area. The idea for this study came about af ter looking at research from two other projects which focused on karst in west-central Florida. A paleoclimate study was completed by Limaris Soto which looked at speleothems from two caves in west-central Florida (Soto, 2005). Work on mapping and inventorying caves in th e area was done by Lee Florea. This drip rate and isotopic study provides much needed da ta to help in the interpretation of the speleothem isotopic data co llected by Soto (2005). Three main objectives of this project are: 1) Find the modern isotopic signal of precipitation on the central a nd northern Florida peninsula to provide a calibration for future paleoclimate studies in the area; 2) Verify each cave used in this study is a suitable location for future paleoclimate work; and 3) Estimate a lag time for water to travel from the ground surface into the cave at each research site. These objectives were met by monitoring the cave temperature, relative humidity, and drip rate as well as the surface temper ature, relative humidity and precipitation amount at three caves in Florida. Cave drip water and precipitation was also collected at each location to compare the 18O and D values of each. The Florida peninsula exhibits a karst la ndscape quite different from the majority of classical limestone karst areas in the Un ited States (Florea, 2006). The limestone in

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2 Florida is quite young (Eocene) and has retain ed much of its orig inal porosity (Budd and Vacher, 2004). The Ocala Limestone, the fo rmation in which all caves in this study occur, is a very clean limestone and one of the most permeable z ones within the Upper Floridan Aquifer system (UFA). This implie s fast (weeks to months) travel times from the surface into the caves and to the water tabl e. During this short travel time, meteoric waters mix with those present in the epikarst. For cave calcite deposited under isotopic equilibrium conditions, oxygen isotopic variations reflect changes in the isotopic composition of meteoric water and can be linked to climate through understanding of the hydrolog ic cycle (Yonge et al ., 1985; Dorale et al., 2002). Proper interpretation of 18O variations in cave calcite must consider (1) the relationship of precipitation 18O to the meteorological cycle, (2) oxygen isotopic fractionation during calcite deposition, and (3) the changing isotopic composition and temperature of the oceanic source (Gas coyne, 1992; Lauritzen and Lundberg, 1999; Williams et al., 1999). Because of their link to the hydrologic cycle, speleothems are capable of preserving meteoric water 18O variations analogous to the ice core records. When studying the formation of stalagm ites and stalactites in caves from carbonate-saturated HCO3 solutions, it is important to know the origin and composition of the water from which these carbonates preci pitate (Caballero et al., 1996; Andreo et al., 2004; Aquilina et al., 2005). Stable isotopes are used to trace groundwater provenance, recharge and subsurface processe s, geochemical reactions, and reaction rates (Clark and Fritz, 1997). Oxygen and hydrogen are highly effective natural tracers of mixing waters as they constitute and move w ith water molecules (Katz, 1997). They can provide quantitative information about rechar ge patterns, type of karst systems, and

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3 interactions between groundwater and surf ace water or rock (Muir and Coplen 1981; Gugleimi and Mudry, 1996; Scholl et al., 1996; Ingraham, 1998; Fairch ild et al., 2000). In addition, 18O and D ratios are important in pale oclimatic studies to provide a calibration for isotopic values obtained from such studies (Caballero et al., 1996; Jones and Banner, 2003). In order to determine the origin of the water en tering the cave, D/H and 18O/16O isotope studies of the water molecule must be done (Caballero et al., 1996; Ayalon et al., 1998; Cruz et al., 2005). The modern isotopic values of precipitation can be compared to those from paleoclimatic pr oxies such as speleothems, tree rings, and corals to serve as a point of refe rence for further paleoclimate studies.

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4 LITERATURE REVIEW Cave Temperature Temperatures recorded inside caves approximate the mean annual surface temperature; this is extremely important and useful information for paleoclimate work (Onac, 2000; White, 2004). Second-order effects on cave temperature such as geothermal flux, fluids of a different temper ature entering the cave (average temperature of precipitation tends to be s lightly lower than the local av erage temperature) must also be small if the cave is to be used for pa leoclimate studies (Badino, 2004). Temperature differences inside large caves must be insign ificant to be useful for paleoclimate work (Buecher, 1999; Badino, 2004). Two other physical parameters (i.e., relativ e humidity and ventilation) are equally important when considering a cave as a possi ble paleoclimate research site (Wigley and Brown, 1976; Ford and Williams, 1989). When caves maintain high values for the relative humidity (95% or above) and show litt le or no ventilation, it is acceptable to assume that no evaporation will occur. In order to fulfill these requirements and eliminate any microclimate eff ects or exterior influences, re search must be done as far from all cave entrances as possible, in the so-called stable meroclimate zone (Figure 1) (Racovita, 1975).

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5 Figure 1. The stable meroclimate zone (Racov ita, 1975). This stabl e zone is located away from all external influences and is where all paleoclimate work must occur. Cave Drip Rate The rate at which water infiltrates into the cave is related to effective rainfall (water excess), the lithology of the overlying rocks, structural and tectonic settings, and storage in the epikarst (Genty and Defl andre, 1998; Baker and Brunsdon, 2003; Sondag et al., 2003). A study by Beddows et al. (2006) found that drips sites within the same cave can have highly variable, independent drip rates, even if the drip sites are close (<30 m apart). The volume of individual drips can al so be quite variable (Genty and Deflandre, 1998). One study found that higher drip rates will show a larger variance in drip volume than slower drip rate s (Baker and Brunsdon, 2003).

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6 Studies by Labat et al. (2000a, b; 2002) have shown that karst systems are inherently non-linear due to a high degree of heteroge neity and can only be modeled by non-linear models. Cave drip water is com posed of both fast seepage water (several hours to days residence time) and reservoir water, which is a mix of both recent and water which is greater than one year old (Genty and Deflandre, 1998; Lee and Krothe, 2003). Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes The stable isotope ratios ( 18O and D) in present and past precipitation have become an important issue in the field of global climate chan ge science (AraguasAraguas et al., 2000). The relationship between D and 18O of precipitation was first observed by Friedman in 1953 when he compar ed his hydrogen isotope data with the oxygen data from Epstein and Mayede (1953). Friedman (1953) stated that the linear relationship seen between the isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen is controlled by the variations in relative va por pressure between HD18O and HD16O as well as between H2 18O and H2 16O. His relationship was fundament ally correct, although the isotopic fractionations that occur during the initial ev aporation and transport of seawater and the subsequent processes of evaporation, preci pitation and exchange of water from the continents are still not completely understood today (Sharp, 2007). After precisely analyzing the stable isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in freshwater, Craig (1961) introduced the Gl obal Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), which defines the relationship between 18O and D as D= 8 18O + 10. The GMWL represents

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7 an average of Local Meteoric Water Line s (LMWL) which normally have a slope less than 8; in areas where significant evaporation takes place, such as Florida, the slope is close to 5 (Kendall and Coplen, 2001). Over the last several decades, investiga tion of the stable isotope systematics of precipitation has added a great deal to our understanding of the source and transport of moisture in the atmosphere (Rozanski et al., 1992; Fricke and O’Neil, 1999). Many studies have looked at the e ffects of Rayleigh distillation; the process by which water becomes increasingly depleted in heavy is otopes. The general form of a Rayleigh distillation equation states that the isotope ratio (R) in a diminishing reservoir of the reactant is a function of its initial isotopic ratio (Ro), the remaining fraction of that reservoir (f) and the equilibrium fr actionation factor for the reaction ( products – reactants): R= Ro f ( -1) (Clark and Fritz, 1997). Five main effects of Rayleigh distillation can be seen on precipitation. Some of these effects w ill be much more influential than others on the isotopic values of precipitation in Florida, others will have no effect. The following explains each of these effects: Continentality Effect – The continentality effect influences the isotopic value of precipitation when 18O is preferentially lost as low pressure systems move across continents: isot opically depleted precipitation is produced (Craig, 1961). Altitude Effect In regions with even minor relief, orographic precipitation will occur as vapor masses rise over the landscape, cool by expansion, which drives rainout (C lark and Fritz, 1997). In higher altitudes, where temperatures are lower, precipitation will be isotopically

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8 depleted (Dansgaard, 1964). Variou s authors have found the isotopic values of precipitation are depleted between -0.15 to -0.5‰ per 100-m rise in altitude for oxygen and -1 to -4‰ for hydrogen (Bortolami et al., 1979; Clark and Fritz, 1997). Latitude Effect (Storm Track Effect) The 18O gradients are very shallow in the low latitudes and become increasingly steep towards polar regions (Clark and Fritz, 1997). Mo re negative values of 18O are expected at higher latitudes. Higher temp eratures correspond to higher 18O values. (Dansgaard, 1964; Yurtsever and Gat ., 1981; Rozanski et al., 1992). A change in the isotopic va lues of precipitation can be seen as if the storm track changes by 10 north or south (Dansgaard, 1964). Seasonal Effect Seasonal temperatur e variations generate rather strong fluctuations in isotopes of precipita tion (Clark and Fritz 1997; Ingraham, 1988; Dorale et al., 2002). In cont rast to high latitudes, there is no correlation between surface temperatures and 18O values in the tropics as fluctuations between summer and wint er temperatures vary irregularly (Dansgaard, 1964; Yurtsever et al., 1 981; Rozanski et al., 1992; Johnson and Ingram, 2004). Amount Effect In the tr opical/subtropical regions, the degree of isotope depletion of rainfall usually co rrelates well with the amount of precipitation (Gremillion and Wanielista, 2000; Kendall and Coplen, 2001). This was attributed to the di fferent origin of moisture-producing precipitation (Araguas-Araguas et al., 2000). Precipitation from large

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9 storms, like those common in Floridian summers, will produce a more depleted isotopic signal (Ingraham, 1998). Additional factors may influence the isot opic signal of water entering the cave on a more localized level. Evaporation of water pooling at the surface encourages fractionation of the residual water. Evaporat ion may also occur as the water drips into the cave if the relative humidity in the cave is less than about 90% or if significant air flow is present in the cave (Wigley and Br own, 1976). As water travels from the surface into the cave, it is likely to mix with water stored in the epikarst This homogenization process eliminates seasonal fluctuations in the isotopic signal (Y onge et al., 1985). In some areas with monsoonal rains, recharge may only occur in the wet season, eliminating any seasonal effects that may otherwise be s een (Jones et al., 2000) When calcite is precipitated in caves, the distribution of 18O between calcite and wa ter is dependent only on temperature if the system is in isotopi c equilibrium (Gascoyne, 1992; Lauritzen and Lundberg, 1999). The temperature depende nce of the fractionation has been experimentally determined as ~ -0.24 ‰ pe r 1C (Friedman and O’Neil, 1977; Schwarcz, 1986).

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10 STUDY AREA Location, Physiography, and Climate White (1970) describes Florida as having five distinct geomorphic regions: Western Highlands, Marianna Lowland, Talla hassee Hills, Coastal Lowlands, and the Central Highlands (Figure 2). Each of these may be broken down into numerous local physiographic regions. Cooke (1939, 1945) mapped each of these regions, which are used today for the basis of statewide divi sions (Schmidt, 1997). This study focuses on areas dominated by karst landscapes, includ ing sinkholes, caves, dry karst valleys, and interfluvial hills in the Central Highla nds and the Marianna Lowland (White, 1970; Schmidt, 1997). Few surface streams exist he re; recharge occurs primarily through sinkholes and highly permeable sa nds. These features encourage a rapid transfer of water into the Floridan Aquifer System, the main source of drinking water for Florida and South Georgia (Miller, 1986). Legend and Jennings caves lie within th e Central Highlands, more specifically referred to as the Brooksville Ridge and the Ocala Uplift (Figure 3). These areas are karst terrains with many solution basins where the bedrock is at or near the ground surface. The soils present in this area are a mixture of sand, clay, and organic deposits (Myers and Ewel, 1990). Mixed hardwood fore sts and pine flatwoods are the dominant tree species (Myers and Ewel, 1990).

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11 Figure 2. The geomorphology of Florida (M odified from White, 1970; Schmidt, 1997). Florida Caverns State Park is located on the Grand Ridge which is surrounded by the Chipola River Valley (Cooke, 1939). Comb ined, these are part of the Marianna Lowland, a province in the northwest centr al portion of the panhandle (Lane, 1986; Schmidt, 1997). Soils consist of clays and lo ams with a sandy cap; they can exceed two meters in thickness in the southern and easte rn parts of the district (Schmidt, 1997). The ecosystems associated with this district in clude pine and mixed hardwood forests (Myers and Ewel, 1990). Northern Florida, compared to central Florida, has a thicker layer of clayey sands derived from erosion of the A ppalachian Mountains. These sediments form the Bumpnose Formation (Schmidt, 1997). Th e higher clay content toward the north significantly affects the recharge rates of the area (Katz et al., 1997).

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12 Figure 3. Research locations. In west-centr al Florida the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) is unconfined; limestone outcrops at or near the surface with thin overburden. Welldeveloped karst is prevalent in this area. As you travel away form the unconfined area of the UFA, overburden thickness increases and the density of karst features decrease. Florida has three climate zones, all cla ssified as hot-humid regions. During six months of the year, temperatures can be a bove 32.2C (90F) and the relative humidity can be at or above 50% (NOAA, 2005). Northern Florida, some what cooler because of its higher latitude, can have a significant num ber of days between November and March when temperatures are below 18C (64F) (Winsberg, 2003). At the other extreme, May through September temperatures are above 26.6C (80F) (Figure 4). Central Florida has a longer period of high-temper ature, high-humidity days th an either north or south Florida as it does not receive th e cooler offshore breezes (NOAA, 2005).

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13 Florida can receive up to 140 cm of rain pe r year; central Florid a receives most of its rainfall during the summer while passing continental weather fronts bring northern Florida the majority of preci pitation during the winter (J ordan, 1984; Martin and Gordon, 2000). During the summer, intense sun and warm air moving landward from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico in the morning heats the ground and air close to the ground, causing vertical air movement. This air cools as it rises, condensing to form afternoon thunderheads and storms, the primary source of summer rainfall. The greatest incidence of thunderstorms is over central Florida, wh ere storms may occur on average more than 100 days per year (Aguado and Burt, 2004). According to a 30-year study by Jordan (1984), 1.2 to 1.5 thunderstorms occur per day and last 1.0 to 1.8 hours each during June through September. The majority of these storms occur in mid-afternoon, with 60-70% occurring between 2:00PM and 7:00PM (Jordan, 1984). Figure 4. Average climate in northern and cen tral Florida (NOAA, 2005). Relatively low temperatures in the panhandle will lower the 18O ratio in rainwater. This can be explained by Rayleigh distillation.

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14 Geology Florida is covered by sedimentary deposits of sand, clay, and limestone, which have been molded by running water, waves, o cean currents, changes in sea level, and the dissolution of limestone during karstification. All caves investigated in this study developed in the Ocala Limestone (Figure 5). The Ocala is dominated by multiple 12-35 meter thick, shallowing upward depositiona l sequences (Chen 1965; Copeland, 1991; Randazzo, 1997). The lower Ocala consists of grainstones to pack stones and may show localized dolomitization; the upper unit shows increased mud c ontent and is quite friable (Copeland, 1991; Loizeaux, 1995). The Ocala Limestone is one of the most permeable formations within the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) (Randazzo, 1997). The Ocala Limestone is unconfined in westcentral Florida, along the Ocala Uplift; the majo rity of caves in Flor ida are clustered here (Lane, 1986; Florea, 2006). The top of the Ocala can range from gr ound surface to 95 meters below sea level (Tihansky and Knochenmus, 2001). The Ocal a Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Suwannee Limestone, a bioturbated, crossbedded, subtidal grainstone to packstone (Figure 4) (Randazzo, 1997; Budd and Vacher, 2004). The Bumpnose Formation, a partially confining unit at Florida Caverns State Park is comparable to the Suwannee Limestone (Bryan, 1993; Huddlestun, 1992). The Suwannee Limestone is overlain by the Hawthorn Group, a clay-rich, highly variable package of interbedded and interm ixed siliciclastic, carbonate, and phosphatic

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15 sediments which are partially laminated (S cott, 1997). The Hawthorn is considered a confining unit for the UFA. The rocks which contain the UFA are eogenetic, meaning they are young (Eocene/Oligocene) and have retained mu ch of their depositio nal porosity (Budd and Vacher, 2004). The majority of storage in the UFA occurs within the matrix, which has permeability between 10-11 m2 to 10-13.8 m2; this high permeability allows an interaction between water in the matrix and that en tering the cave (Budd and Vacher, 2004; Florea and Vacher, 2006). The UFA can be characterized as having tr iple porosity flow. Groundwater flow occurs through primary interconnected pore spaces and secondary fractures as well as through karst conduits (White, 1988; Screaton, 2004). Because the UFA exhibits porosities between 30-40% and extremely high permeability, matrix flow has the ability to compete with fracture flow (Palmer, 1999). The UFA is in stark contrast to the Pa leozoic and Mesozoic limestone aquifers located within the continent’s interior. These older limestones have undergone significant burial and diagenesis, and have matrix permeabilities on the order of 10-15 m2 to 10-20 m2 (Worthington, 2000; Palmer, 2002). Therefor e, storage and flow in the matrix of the telogenetic karst is minimal as fractur es and karst conduits offer the primary means of water transporta tion (White, 1988).

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16 Figure 5. Stratigraphic sections of southern, northern and panhandl e Florida. Many formations present in the panhandle are absent in norther n and southern Florida. (Copeland, 1991).

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17 Cave and Sample Site Descriptions Legend Cave is located just north of Brooksville, in the Withlacoochee State Forest (Figure 6). The original entr ance to Legend Cave was buried during the construction of a local road. The cave was found after many exploratory trips and named Legend after the stories of a cave in this area. The current entrance was dug out and it is now a 40-cm diameter hole that leads to a 2m drop into the cave. Legend Cave is 56.6 meters long and ends at a breakdow n pile. The cave trends N/NE. Jennings Cave (Figure 7), a protected and gated cavity in the outskirts of Ocala, consists of 200 meters of narrow but high pa ssageways. The entrance is a 6 meter deep, 2 meter diameter shaft. The galleries in Jenni ngs Cave have two trends, the major is in a N-NW direction; the secondary trend runs E-W. Jennings Cave has one large room but is otherwise consists of passagew ays that vary in width from about 30-cm to 2-m. No speleothems are present in Jennings Cave. The tourist cave in Florida Caverns State Pa rk (Figure 8) is on e of the longest and most decorated caves in Florida (Lane, 1986). This is the only Florida State Park that has a dry cave which is open to the public. The cave has many speleothems including stalactites, stalagmites, soda straws, flowstones, draperies, and pools. The tourist cave in Florida Caverns State Park is about one kilo meter in length and has two natural and two artificial entrances. The morphology of the tourist cave is qu ite different than either Jennings or Legend caves, which have primarily linear passages. The show cave features a twodimensional spongework pattern with interc onnected, non-tubular pa ssages of varying

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18 size, which is the result of random solution of massive bedrock without either structural or hydraulic control (Palmer, 1999). Figure 6. Legend Cave.

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19 Figure 7. Jennings Cave. Figure 8. Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave.

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20 METHODS Three cave locations were studied for one year beginning in February of 2006. Legend and Jennings Caves are in west-central Florida; Florida Caverns State Park is in northern Florida (Figure 3). Cave locati ons were chosen based on the geology and climatic patterns of Florida, availability of dripping water at the time of exploratory visit, locality along the central regi on of the Florida peninsula, and landowner permission. Each cave was used to obtain the 18O and 2H isotopic values from precipitation and cave drip water as well as the annual cav e and surface temperatures and cave drip rate. Precipitation and drip water samples we re collected at each cave on a weekly basis to allow for the deciphering of any seasonal va riations in the isot ope signal and storm patterns. Weekly water sample s are needed to obtain a better resolution of the isotope variations; monthly sample co llection is not appropriate for this study as the small fluctuations of the isotopic values would be lost. In-Cave Sample Collection As cave drip water collection is not st andardized, nor are collection devices available to purchase, drip waters were co llected using a homemade funnel and hose setup (Figure 9). A funnel was zip-tied to th e chosen speleothem in Legend Cave and Florida Caverns State Park and to the sole dr ip site in Jennings Cave, off of a bedrock

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21 pendent. The zip-ties did not influence water running down th e sides of the speleothems. A 3-mm silicon hose was secured to the funnel and fed into a 1L Nalgene bottle. The bottle was capped with parafilm to prevent evaporation; the hosi ng ran into the bottle through a hole in the parafilm. It is impor tant to protect all water collected from evaporation in order to avoi d kinetic isotopic fractionation of oxygen due to evaporation (Craig, 1961). Figure 9. Cave drip water collection in Legend Cave. Collection in Jennings and Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Ca ve was conducted in the same manner. In Legend Cave, drip water was collected off of a drapery in the room furthest from the entrance to avoid any surficial infl uences and/or air move ment. Collection at Legend Cave occurred 6 meters below ground su rface. In Jennings Cave, the sole drip site (a bedrock pendant), where collection occurred, is located in the center of the largest room in the cave. This bedrock pendent is approximately 8 meters below the ground surface. Although Jennings Cave is gated, data collection had to be stopped on October 7, 2006 when all of the in-cave equipment and part of the external instruments were

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22 found vandalized and/or stolen. At the tourist cave in Flor ida Caverns State Park, drip water collection was set off the t ourist trail, in a room closed to the public and away from any entrance, about 11 meters below the ground surface. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) was collected in each cave by a Gemini TinyTag 2 Plus dual-channel temperature/ relative humidity TGP-4500 data logger (Figure 10). The TGP-4500 is a self-contained temperature and humidity recorder housed in a waterproof case designed for us e in the outdoors. Its working temperature range is between -25 C and 85 C (-13 F and 185 F) with an accuracy of 0.01 C (Tinytag, 2006). The RH sensor collects data between 0-100% and is accurate to 3.0% at 25 C (Tinytag, 2006). However, at high temp eratures and RH, the sensor may give faulty reading (i.e., a flat line at 0%). In fact, this flat line represents a RH between 95 and 100%. Temperature and rela tive humidity data were co llected every sixty seconds, and then averaged to give hourly read ings throughout the sampling period. Drip rates within the cave were collected using a Stalagmate integrated drip counter and logger produced by Driptych (Figure 11). The Stalagmate calculates drip frequency by counting the total number of drips landing on a microphone located on the top of the data logger (Stalagmate, 2007). The microphone sensor has an adjustable sensitivity which came preset to record dr ips falling from as low as 50 cm. The microphone is tuned to exclude extrane ous noise and spurious events. The Stalagmate data logger counts individual drips. Sensitiv ity of the microphone is based on the weight of a single drip.

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23 Figure 10. Gemini Tinytag Pl us 2 dual channel temperatur e and relative humidity data logger. One data logger was placed in each cave, close to the water collection site, but not in direct line of any active drip sites. The data logger was placed so that only the drips from a single stalactite, near where the drip water was collected, would land on the microphone. The number of drips was counted and summed each 15 minutes during the sample collection. Figure 11. Stalagmate drip rate data logger. Each stalagmate was placed on top of a sand filled sock which was placed in a plasti c bag to ensure a st able, flat base for the data logger, directly under an acti ve drip site. The small silver circle in the middle of the blue area on the tip of the data logger is the microphone which counts individual drips that land on it.

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24 Each of the in-cave data loggers was placed next to the drip water collection sites and downloaded monthly using TinyTag Explor er software. All downloaded data were converted to daily values to be used in the final data interp retations. After collection, all raw data were imported to Excel for interpretation. Surface Collection On the surface of each research site, a Campbell Scientific, Inc. CR10X data logger collected temperature, relative humidity, and precip itation amount every fifteen minutes and summed the data into hourly read ings (Figure 12). Precipitation collection was done with a Log Series Tipping Buck et Rain Gauge. This gauge collected precipitation in 0.0254-cm (0.01-inch) increments before automatically tipping collected water into a plastic bottle protected by evaporation by a parafilm cap. Surficial data and precipitation at Le gend Cave were collected 200 meters northwest of the cave entrance in a grassy fi eld. At Jennings Cave, surficial data were collected 50 meters north of th e cave in a sparsely wooded area Surficial data at Florida Caverns were collected 400 meters northeas t of the cave in a w ooded area away from where park visitors where allowed to travel. As this research was conducted on property owned by the Florida Forest Se rvice (Legend), the Florida Ca ve Conservancy (Jennings), and the State Park Service (Florida Caverns) no trees or vegetation were removed during the collection process. To ensure accuracy of the surficial data collected, all of the external data were compared to other weather stations in the near vicinity.

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25 Figure 12. Weather station at Florida Caverns State Park. Equivalent stations were placed at both other cave sites. The white cylinder on top of the station is the tipping bucket rain gauge. The beehive houses and protects the temperature and relative humidity sensor. The white box on the side of the station is the dat a logger which records all information captured by the above sens ors. The gallon Nalgene jug on the ground which caught the precipitation samples wa s capped by parafilm and partially buried during the study period. Precipitation and drip water samples were each collected every seven days. Both were stored together at 4C (40F) until analyzed. Data gathered from the exterior weather stations were also exported to Excel and converted to da ily values for final interpretation. Time series analysis was done to test for cycles in bot h the external and internal temperature at each cave site. Stochastos a software developed by Laboratoires Souterraines de Moulis, in France in the 1980s, was used to analyze surface and cave air temperature.

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26 Laboratory Analysis The D and 18O isotope signal of cave drip wate r and precipitation samples were measured at the Stable Isotope Laborator y (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM). A Finnigan-MAT Delta XP Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS), automated by the GasBench II and GC PAL wa s used for all analysis. Epstien and Mayeda’s (1953) method of CO2-water headspace equilibrat ion technique was used to analyze oxygen samples while hydrogen samples were reacted with high temperature chromium via an H-device. Results are reported in ‰ units versus the international standard, Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Wate r (V-SMOW) (Craig, 1961). The standard deviations of the measurements are approximately 1‰ for hydrogen and 0.1‰ for oxygen.

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27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature As surface temperature cools with an increa se in latitude and altitude, and cave temperatures mimic the mean annual surface temperature, it is expected that cave temperature will also follow that pattern. Indeed, the three caves used in this study conform to this model (Table 1). Table 1. Mean annual cave and external temperatur e. As expected, both internal and external mean temperatures decrease with an increase in latitude. Mean Annual Cave Temperature Mean Annual External Temperature Legend Cave23.18 C20.56 C Jennings Cave19.35 C20.35 C Florida Caverns Tourist Cave17.98 C18.16 C At Legend Cave, surface temperatures varied between 9.1 and 28.4 C; the average temperature during the collection period was 20.56 C. This is comparable with the annual temperature of 20.98 C, which was obtained from weather station KFLBROOK5 run by Hernando County (Weather Undergr ound, 2007). Cave temperatures were relatively constant (~23.18 C), varying less than one degree (Figure 13). Legend Cave is slightly warmer th an expected (23.18C vs. 20.56C above ground). This may be due to the morphology of the cave. Passages are quite small; most are less than ~ 45 cm in diameter, separated by larger breakdown rooms. Little to no air flow occurs in these passages. There is no continuous air circulation away from the

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28 entrance into the cave; the cave is a warm air trap (Figure 14A). During summer, the cave receives warm air that accumu lates in the last large room of the cave. This warm air rises toward the ceiling, like a balloon, and cannot exit the cav e through the low passages. The surface temperatures at Jennings Cave varied between 8.75 and 27.72 C during the eight months in which data we re collected. The mean annual external temperature obtained from weather st ation KFLOCALA12 in Ocala is 20.35 C (Weather Underground, 2007). Cave temperat ures varied between 18.16 and 19.80 C, with an annual average of 19.35 C (Figure 15). Jennings Cave is approximately one degr ee cooler than the mean annual surface temperature. The vertical shaft entrance acts as a cold air trap (Figure 14B). It allows cool winter air to sink into th e cave and collect at its lowest levels. This air cannot be replaced by warmer summer air beca use the latter has a lower density. The surface temperature at Florida Cave rns State Park reached a minimum of 0.92 C and a maximum of 28.22 C during the collection period. The mean annual temperature (18.16 C) is slightly lower than th e recorded temperature (19.91 C) at weather station KMAI, located at the Ma rianna Airport (Weather Underground, 2007). The cave temperature in the Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave varied between 17.55 C and 18.59 C (average 17.89 C) (Figure 16). Florida Caverns State Park is located in the west-central portion of the panhandle and therefore has a cooler climate than Lege nd and Jennings Caves. This difference in mean annual surface temperature is reflected in the cave temperature recorded during this study. The cave temperature at Florida Caverns is similar to the surface temperature; the mean annual temperature difference is 0.18C. As Florida Caverns State Park is a tourist

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29 cave, the cave must have a lig hting system. Neither the light ing system nor the visitors seem to have any influence on the cave temperature. Figure 13. Fluctuation of temperatur e inside and outside Legend Cave. Figure 14. A. Warm air trap. Air enters the ca ve and flows toward the back as it rises. The warm air cannot sink below the cooler ai r at the cave entrance to escape. B. Cold air trap. Cool air sinks and easily enters the cave, collecting in parts of the cave with lowest elevations. The cold air cannot push out the warm air in other parts of the cave.

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30 Figure 15. Fluctuation of temperatur e inside and outside Jennings Cave. Figure 16. Fluctuation of temperature in side and outside Flor ida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave.

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31 Time-series analysis shows strong periodi city in surface temperature at both 24and 12-hour intervals outsid e each cave site (Figure 17). The 24and 12-hour periodicities are normal for the external temp erature as they represent the diurnal and semidiurnal meteorological cycles; the later one reflects differences between the lowest and highest values of a day. Temperature within each cave varies less than 0.5 C (Figures 13, 15, 16), which means that external influences do not affect the inner part of the investigated caves. The fact that no periodicity is vi sible in cave temperature at any meteorological cycle (Figure 17) suggests that the location of the sampling site within each cave was in the stable meroclimate. Therefore, thes e sites are relevant and usef ul for further paleoclimate studies. Relative Humidity The relative humidity sensor on the Tinytag data loggers in a ll caves produced a flat line at 0%. This occurred because moistu re formed on the sensor when the relative humidity was at or above 95%. However, variat ions of the relative humidity within 95 to 100% do not affect the isotopic composition of the water. Relative humidity data were therefore not included in this study.

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32 Figure 17. Time series analysis on surficial and cave temperature dat a from each cave. Drip Rates and Precipitation A lag time between a storm event and the time when an increase in the drip rate in a cave occurs is quite important as it gives precipitation time to mix with water in the epikarst and gives the drip wa ter an isotopic signal that refl ects the mean annual isotopic

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33 signal of the precipitation. A short lag time will show drip water isotopic values which are very similar to the preci pitation values. Drip water with a long lag time may show isotopic values which have been altered by in teractions with the soil and bedrock. The drip water records from each cave in this study show unique drip rates which create difficulty in performing comparisons between sites. Legend Cave shows two distinct base-lev el drip rates: one during the summer months (April-September) at an average drip rate of 2443 drips per day and a winter (October-February) rate of 62.30 drips per day. No drip rate data were collected for February and March. Approximately two months after a large prec ipitation event, thos e with 6 or more cm of rain, a spike in the drip rate was s een in Legend Cave (Figure 18). Minor rain events had little to no effect on the drip rate; less than 2000 drips/day were recorded by the Stalagmate following small storms. The precipitation amount and drip rate at th is site have a correlation coefficient ( r ) of 0.024. The drip rate date was shifted until the best r value was found (0.409). This occurred at a shift of 52 days. The best matc h occurred when the rain event that occurred on June 28, 2007 was matched with the increas e in drip rate on August 19, the second large precipitation event. The smaller increases in drip rate seen later in the summer matched with the later small storm events when this shift was made. The first large storm event of the season did not match this shif t; that event took an additional 16 days (68 days in total) to affect the drip rate. The increased lag time after the first large storm of the summer may have filled any available pore spaces in the overlying rock. Once these

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34 pore spaces were full additional water entering the system forced a prompt increase in the drip rate seen in the cave. Figure 18. Legend Cave precipitation and drip water rates. Jennings Cave shows a steady decrease in drip rate from the initiation of data collection (Figure 19). The drip rate con tinues to decrease th rough the spring, until summer rain events begin. Drip rates in Je nnings Cave show a rapi d increase after storm events. The drip rate begins to increase be fore the first recorded precipitation event. Weather station KFLOCALA12 in Ocala recorded a higher nu mber of storms than the station in this study. The alternative w eather station (KFLOCALA12) was used for comparison because trees were present near the collection site and may have prevented some rainfall from being logged by the tipping-bucket rain gauge.

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35 The increasing trend seen in drip rates at Jennings Cave beginning in August is due to the high frequency of thunderstorms which occur during the summer. No clear lag time could be seen from the curren t data obtained at Jennings Cave. A steady decline in the number of drips o ccurring in the tourist cave at Florida Caverns State Park is seen during the first 1.5 months of collection (F igure 20). Note that the peaks in drip rates at Florida Caverns St ate Park Tourist Cave are several orders of magnitude lower than those at Legend or Je nnings Cave. Beginning in May, all pools in Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave bega n to dry and previous ly active drip sites stopped dripping. This continue d throughout the summer. By the end of the summer of 2006 no standing water was left in the cave. Presumably, this is because a drought occurred throughout the state at the time of this study. The water table was low; water from the pools in Florida Caverns leaked down w ith gravity. Few drip rate spikes may be seen following significant precipitation events. Formations in Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave began to drip and pools of water once present in the cave started to refill in February of 2007. The number of recorded drips was not suffici ent to be able to state anything about the correlation between drip ra tes and precipitation at Florida Caverns State Park. Janja Kogovsek (Pers. Comm., 2007) of the Karst Re search Institute in Postojna, Slovenia, stated in a personal interview that caves ha ve been known to completely dry and stop dripping for up to 18 months with no obvi ous reason or alteration to the cave environment. No changes were made to the cave tour schedule, to the tourist pathways, or to the cave entrances duri ng the time of this study. Th e cave environment therefore had no effect on the reason the water stopped dripping for the limited time.

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36 Figure 19. Jennings Cave precip itation and drip water rates. Figure 20. Florida Caverns precipitation and drip water rates.

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37 Hydrogen Isotopes Hydrogen isotope values varied betw een -32.3‰ and 5.3‰ in precipitation and 19.0‰ and -4.7‰ in drip water at Legend Ca ve. At Jennings Cave, the range of hydrogen isotopic values in drip water wa s -20.8‰ to -12.4‰ and -31.8‰ to 34.0‰ in precipitation. -27.9‰ to 3.8‰ was the range in precipitation isotopic values at Florida Caverns; the drip water isotopic values varied between -21.6‰ and -15.6‰. Monthly mean D isotopic values can be seen in table 2. No significant re lationship is seen between D, temperature, and precipitation at any of the caves (Figure 21). Table 2. Mean monthly isotopic values of hy drogen from precipitation and drip water from all cave locations. D PC ( ‰ ) D DW (‰) D PC (‰) D DW (‰) D PC (‰) D DW (‰) February-06-15.08-2.00-19.45 March-06-15.07-12.50-19.06-12.04-19.82 April-06-6.18-14.9910.83-17.70-7.63-19.10 May-06-11.72-14.6034.03-14.64-15.53-17.95 June-06-15.46-14.69-12.41-18.23-19.21 July-06-14.14-15.23-14.37-18.42-8.47 August-06-10.90-14.21-10.85-15.34-13.14 September-06-21.17-15.39-18.39-25.10 October-06-7.20-14.11-22.56-12.54-18.48 November-06-13.64-15.31-10.46 December-06-8.52-15.59-12.59 January-07-7.14-15.85-13.45-15.61 February-07-8.44-15.51-18.74 LEGEND CAVEJENNINGS CAVEFLORIDA CAVERNS The effects of Rayleigh distillation will cause the isotopes of both the precipitation and drip water samples to be depleted in heavy isotopes (18O and D). If the assumption that no evaporation occurred in th e samples is made, each should reveal an isotopic value less than zero. A number of precipitation samples at each cave display

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38 Figure 21. Relationship between mean monthly D and mean monthly temperature (A) and mean monthly precipitation (B). No relatio nship is seen between either of these parameters.

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39 positive isotopic values. This is evidence that some evaporation occurred in the precipitation samples at each cave. Some of the isotopic values of the precipitation samples collected at Jennings Cave are es pecially high. The bottle that collected precipitation was found uncapped when the gate had been broken into. If this occurred at other times, partial evap oration of the precipitation samples would have been probable. Oxygen Isotopes Variations in oxygen isotopic values in pr ecipitation and drip water at all three caves can be seen in table 3. The 18O values of precipitation at Legend Cave vary between -6.17‰ and 0.12‰; the drip wate r samples between -4.46‰ and -1.95‰. At Jennings Cave, the isotopic values of th e precipitation samples are between -5.38‰ and 7.60‰; the drip water samples vary between -4.17‰ and -2.70‰. Precipitation isotopic values at Florida Caverns State Park t ourist cave vary between -5.45‰ and 0.05‰ while the drip water samples are between -4.01‰ and -3.57‰. Precipitation isotopic values fluctuate more than drip water samples. The isotopic values of the precipitation at Je nnings Cave fluctuate more th an either of the other caves. However, it is important to note that 18O values of the drip water samples at all research locations vary less than 2.5‰. At Jennings Cave the drip water isotopic values vary less than 1.5‰ and at Florida Caverns State Pa rk less than 0.5‰. This is crucial for paleoclimate studies where a 1‰ shift in the 18O suggests a temperature change of approximately 4C (Bradley, 1999; Ruddiman, 2001).

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40 Table 3. Mean monthly isotopic values of o xygen from precipitati on and drip water from all cave locations. DATE18O PC( ‰ ) 18O DW (‰) 18O PC(‰) 18O DW(‰) 18O PC(‰) 18O DW(‰)February-06-3.10-1.20-3.90 March-06-3.11-2.70-3.93-2.62-3.93 April-06-1.81-3.101.45-3.57-2.02-3.87 May-06-2.66-3.027.60-3.18-3.39-3.78 June-06-3.01-3.24-1.71-3.77-4.19 July-06-3.22-3.11-1.20-3.59-2.01 August-06-2.38-3.00-1.62-3.31-3.02 September-06-4.34-3.23-3.75-4.86 October-06-2.15-3.08-4.58-2.70-3.91 November-06-2.84-3.10-2.41 December-06-1.96-3.25-2.93 January-07-1.41-3.20-2.98-3.57 LEGEND CAVEJENNINGS CAVEFLORIDA CAVERNS The 18O of the precipitation and drip wa ter at Legend Cave show similar variations in time; however, the drip water variations are subdued probably because of mixing with water stored in the epikarst (Figure 22). The 18O of drip water in rainy seasons (during high drip rates) shows a positive relationship with the 18O of precipitation from a piston-like movement of water through the epikarst. Little to no correlation can be seen during dry times as th e water is coming from soil moisture and vadose storage. An obvious attenuation of the isotopic signal occurs over the summer in the precipitation at Jennings Cave Although the isotopic record is incomplete, a positive relationship between 18O of precipitation and drip water is seen (Figure 23). This may occur because of a short-term transfer of water through the epikarst above the Jennings Cave. Recharge trends can be attributed to local heterogeneities in the Ocala Limestone. The data present show that isotopic values of precipitation are much higher during times

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41 Figure 22. Surface temperature (A), 18O values of precipitation and drip water vs. time (B), and monthly precipita tion (C) at Legend Cave.

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42 Figure 23. Surface temperature (A), 18O values of precipitation and drip water vs. time (B), and monthly precipitati on (C) at Jennings Cave.

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43 Figure 24. Surface temperature (A), 18O values of precipitation and drip water vs. time (B), and monthly precipitati on (C) at Florida Caverns State Park Tourist Cave.

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44 of little or no rainfall. The isotopic values of precipitation decrease during times of high rainfall. At Florida Caverns State Park, the drip water samples available show a very steady oxygen isotopic value in drip water pos sibly reflecting a slow transfer from the vadose storage/epikarst into the cave (Figure 24). This may be due to the increased clay content present at Florida Caverns from the erosion of the Appalachian Mountains. The increase in clay content would prevent a fast, direct transfer of wate r into the cave. The isotopic values of precipitation, unlike thos e at Legend and Jennings Caves, are more positive with an increase in rainfall and more negative during dry times. Local Meteoric Water Line Figure 25 shows the local meteoric wate r lines (LMWL) for this study for both precipitation and cave drip water. The D and 18O values from each research site plot close to the global meteoric water line (GMW L) (Craig, 1961). Th e isotopic values of the cave drip water plot on or slightly above the GMWL. According to Kendall and Coplen (2001), the average slope for D/ 18O in precipitation in Fl orida is 5.4. This is comparable to the slope of 5.82 found in th is study for precipita tion and 5.05 for drip water. Precipitation samples have a much higher variance in the isotopic values than the drip water samples. Drip water samples have mixed with water stored in the epikarst and display isotopic values representative of the mean annual isotopic value of the precipitation. The isotopic valu es of the cave drip water plot nearly on or slightly above

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45 the GMWL. Drip water isotopic values ofte n plot above the GMWL because the drip water displays highly localized values and may frequently show evaporative effects on the precipitation (Geode et al., 1982, I ngraham, 1998, van Beynen and Febbroriello, 2006). Deuterium Excess The deuterium excess parameter ( d = D 8 18O) is controlled primarily by kinetic effects associated with the evaporat ion of water at the surface of the oceans and inland water as well as increases in the mo isture deficit of the oceanic air masses (Merlivat and Jouzel, 1979; Clark and Fritz, 1997). Differences in D-excess arise from varying temperature, relative humidity and wind speed at the sea surf ace, the origin of global atmospheric moisture, as well as from recycled continental vapour (Merlivat and Jouzel, 1979). Increased evaporation will lead to a higher deuterium excess. The deuterium excess can be used to id entify vapor source regions. We found d values around 10‰ or less, similar to those reporte d by Welker (2000) and Kendall and Coplen (2001), suggesting secondary evaporative pro cesses, typical for a subtropical oceanic region characterized by high values of temper atures and relative humidity. Because the data set is limited, we cannot use the deuterium exce ss values to depict the interaction of different air masses and their temporal evolu tion. No strong varia tions in D-excess can be seen because no significant seasonal changes occur in Florida (Figure 26).

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46 Figure 25. Central and north Florida 18O and D relationship in drip water (A) and precipitation (B). GMWL is provided for reference in both graphs (Craig, 1961)

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47 Figure 26. Deuterium excess. Latitude and Seasonal Effect in Precipitation The mean annual isotopic values of both the drip water and precipitation samples from each cave show subtle differences. The isotopic values of water from each location become more negative as the latitude of the research site increases, with the exception of Jennings Cave (Table 4), where evaporative processes may have altered the isotopic signal. However, these changes are no t different enough to be significant. Table 4. Mean annual isotopic values for D and 18O precipitation and cave drip water for each of the three research sites. D PC 18O PC D DW 18O DW Legend Cave-11.92-2.65-14.86-3.08 Jennings Cave-1.85-0.26-17.12-3.53 Florida Caverns Tourist Cave-13.18-2.96-18.81-3.85

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48 As temperatures in central Florida fl uctuate somewhat independently of the season, no strong relationship between 18O and temperature is s een in this study from Legend and Jennings Caves (Figure 27). A w eak relationship between cave temperature and 18O may be seen for a limited time interval (beginning of investigated period) at Florida Caverns State Park tourist cave. Th e possible relationship at Florida Caverns exists because weather patterns in northern Florida are the result of continental fronts rather than summer convective cells. A negative relationship may be seen between external temperature and 18O at Legend Cave and Flor ida Caverns State Park (Figure 27B and F). Amount Effect The amount effect enriches 18O of precipitation in mont hs with little rain and depletes during the rainy season. During br ief showers, the water reaching the ground may become more enriched by evaporation dur ing its decent; this effect may also be observed in light rains or in the early part of a larger storm (Ingraham, 1998). This occurs because the surro unding air has a low relativ e humidity. During longer rainstorms, the air below the cloud base becomes more saturated which reduces the amount of evaporative loss of ‘light’ raindrops (Fricke and O’Neil, 1999). This results in less enrichment of the rain reaching the ground during later periods of the storm. Figure 28 exemplifies this effect at Legend Cave. The isotopically light precipitation is the result of rapidly ascending air masses, whic h cool quickly and have large rainouts during the summer thunderstorms (Sharp, 2007).

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49 Figure 27. The relationship between 18O of drip water and cave temperature in Legend Cave (A), Jennings Cave (C), and Florida Caverns (E). The relationship between 18O of precipitation and outside temper ature at Legend Cave (B), Jennings Cave (D), and Florida Caverns State Park (F).

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50 The oxygen isotopic values from the dataset collected at Jennings Cave shows the amount effect may be influential here as well as at Legend Cave; however a complete year of data is needed to make further co mparisons. The relation between the amount of precipitation and 18O is weak at Florida Caverns, so th e amount effect is not apparent at this location. The latitude effect may be more significant here as summer thunderstorms are not the primary source of rainfall. More da ta are needed from this site to extract other relationships between the isotopes of the dr ip water and precipitation as well as other isotopic influences. Jennings and Legend Caves were used to r ecover the specific stable isotope of precipitation in central Florida; the tourist cav e in Florida Caverns State Park represented the isotopic signal for precipitation to the nor th. This study attempts to explain the sources for isotopic signals. However, because Legend Cave was the only site to provide a complete year of data, additional monitoring needs to be accomplished. One year is not long enough to provide a competent modern isotopic signal for the study area; ongoing monitoring is necessary.

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51 Figure 28. The amount effect on 18O isotopic values of precipitation, exemplified at Legend Cave. The 18O values of the cave drip water ar e constant as the water entering the cave is mixed with water stored in the epikarst.

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52 CONCLUSIONS This is the first study which has looked at the relationship between the isotopic composition of the precipitation and drip water in Florida, cave temperature, precipitation, and cave drip rate s. The ultimate objectives of this research were to: 1) Assess the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic rela tionship between pr ecipitation and cave drip waters in order to interpret paleoclimate data sets. 2) Determine if the caves studied are suitable for paleoclimate studies. 3) Fi nd a lag time for water to travel from the ground surface through the epikarst and into the cave at each research site. The mean annual isotopic values of pr ecipitation and drip water show similar trends; the isotopic values obtained are close to the va lues found by other studies (Kendall and Coplen, 2001). Th e precipitation samples show a higher variance in the isotopic values than the drip water; the isotop ic values of the drip water samples reflect a mixing with water in the epikarst. Although th e data currently avai lable on spatial and temporal variability are limited to a single year, it appears that an adequate isotopic signal exists in central-north Florida's precipitati on and cave drip water to be considered for paleoclimate studies. Many influences on the isotopic compositi on are present. The amount effect seems to be most dominant in central Florid a while the latitude or seasonal effects may play a role in northern Florida. Central Florid a is in the sub-tropics and has little seasonal variability that eliminates the latitude and seasonal effects. As Florida has no point

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53 which is more than 100 km from marine wate rs or higher than 100 m, the altitude, and continental effects do not significantly affect the isotopic values of precipitation here. The cave temperature at all research locat ions remained steady, reflecting little to no external influences. Therefore, we conclude that the data collection sites are within the stable meroclimate of each cave, being we ll-qualified for further paleoclimate work. Based on the isotopic signal re covered at all three locations we assume the cave drip water is a well-mixed amalgamation of meteoric and epikarst-stored water. This implies the dripping water forming speleothems refl ects the mean annual isotope signal in precipitation and is therefore a possible choice for paleoclimatic reconstructions. The drip rates in each cave were high ly variable at each cave. Legend Cave showed a lag time of 52 days be tween the occurrence of a storm event and the increase in drip rate in the cave. No su ch lag time was found in Jenning s Cave or the tourist cave at Florida Caverns State Park. A multiple year record would be ideal as that would prevent drought and exceptionally wet years from providing the so le reference for the area. Additional monitoring of all data sets at each cave would aid in increas ing the accuracy of this study.

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61 APPENDICES

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62 Appendix A: Legend Cave Temperature, Precipitation, Drip Rate Data Date Internal Temperature (C) Surface Temperature (C) Drip Rate Precipitation (mm) 2/28/06 14.70 0.00 2/19/06 15.31 0.00 2/20/06 16.47 0.00 2/21/06 17.75 0.00 2/22/06 18.52 0.00 2/23/06 21.03 0.00 2/24/06 17.47 0.00 2/25/06 20.80 0.00 2/26/06 16.42 0.00 2/27/06 11.00 0.00 2/28/06 12.12 0.00 3/1/06 13.34 0.00 3/2/06 23.38 17.23 0.00 3/3/06 23.36 19.72 0.00 3/4/06 23.35 15.27 0.00 3/5/06 23.35 13.24 0.00 3/6/06 23.34 14.39 0.00 3/7/06 23.34 16.33 0.00 3/8/06 23.33 12.80 0.00 3/9/06 23.33 16.91 0.00 3/10/06 23.32 20.80 0.00 3/11/06 23.32 21.23 0.00 3/12/06 23.31 20.76 0.00 3/13/06 23.31 20.91 0.00 3/14/06 23.31 20.54 0.00 3/15/06 23.30 15.14 0.00 3/16/06 23.30 15.97 0.00 3/17/06 23.29 17.61 0.00 3/18/06 23.29 18.96 0.00 3/19/06 23.28 18.64 0.00 3/20/06 23.28 21.09 0.00 3/21/06 23.28 22.16 0.00 3/22/06 23.27 18.21 0.00 3/23/06 23.26 17.89 0.00 3/24/06 23.26 14.65 0.00 3/25/06 23.28 9.39 0.00

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63 3/26/06 23.26 9.10 0.00 3/27/06 23.25 10.88 0.00 3/28/06 23.23 14.27 0.00 3/29/06 23.23 16.66 0.00 3/30/06 23.23 19.00 1.47 3/31/06 23.22 19.39 0.18 4/1/06 23.22 18.97 0.00 4/2/06 23.21 18.87 0.00 4/3/06 23.21 20.24 0.00 4/4/06 23.21 21.85 0.00 4/5/06 23.20 16.62 0.00 4/6/06 23.19 18.07 0.00 4/7/06 23.18 20.60 0.00 4/8/06 23.17 23.76 0.00 4/9/06 23.16 19.70 0.00 4/10/06 23.16 19.06 0.00 4/11/06 23.15 19.08 0.00 4/12/06 23.14 19.67 0.81 4/13/06 23.14 19.48 0.00 4/14/06 23.14 19.61 0.00 4/15/06 23.14 19.84 0.00 4/16/06 23.13 19.67 0.00 4/17/06 23.13 22.97 0.00 4/18/06 23.12 23.10 0.00 4/19/06 23.12 22.82 0.00 4/20/06 23.11 23.79 0.00 4/21/06 23.10 23.57 3061 0.00 4/22/06 23.10 23.69 3059 0.00 4/23/06 23.09 23.13 3087 0.00 4/24/06 23.09 21.48 3040 0.00 4/25/06 23.08 23.02 3033 0.00 4/26/06 23.08 23.75 3003 0.00 4/27/06 23.08 22.74 2946 0.00 4/28/06 23.07 20.15 2948 0.00 4/29/06 23.06 20.67 2883 0.00 4/30/06 23.06 19.99 2867 2.13 5/1/06 23.06 20.19 2883 0.00 5/2/06 23.06 19.60 2796 1.32 5/3/06 23.05 20.46 2815 0.00 5/4/06 23.05 21.07 2828 0.00 5/5/06 23.05 21.38 2852 0.00

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64 5/6/06 23.04 22.93 2885 0.00 5/7/06 23.03 23.72 2872 0.03 5/8/06 23.03 23.82 2812 0.00 5/9/06 23.03 23.40 2861 0.03 5/10/06 23.03 24.79 2419 0.00 5/11/06 23.02 23.03 2361 0.00 5/12/06 23.03 20.08 2293 0.00 5/13/06 23.02 19.89 2262 0.03 5/14/06 23.01 20.88 2251 0.00 5/15/06 23.01 22.68 2268 0.00 5/16/06 23.02 18.86 2247 0.00 5/17/06 23.03 18.94 2174 0.00 5/18/06 23.01 20.77 2158 0.00 5/19/06 23.00 23.57 2181 0.00 5/20/06 23.00 23.36 2169 0.00 5/21/06 23.00 23.40 2148 0.00 5/22/06 23.00 23.99 2140 0.03 5/23/06 23.00 23.88 2136 3.43 5/24/06 23.00 24.89 2133 0.00 5/25/06 23.00 24.86 2479 0.18 5/26/06 22.99 24.94 2656 0.15 5/27/06 22.99 25.47 2671 0.00 5/28/06 22.99 25.38 2681 0.00 5/29/06 23.00 26.55 2377 0.00 5/30/06 23.00 26.55 2156 0.00 5/31/06 23.00 26.77 2103 0.00 6/1/06 23.00 23.63 2055 0.00 6/2/06 23.00 25.44 2100 1.45 6/3/06 22.99 23.91 2039 9.98 6/4/06 22.99 25.33 1981 1.02 6/5/06 22.99 25.20 2001 0.23 6/6/06 22.99 25.16 2011 0.03 6/7/06 22.99 25.51 1991 0.00 6/8/06 22.99 25.01 2011 0.00 6/9/06 22.99 25.34 2010 0.03 6/10/06 22.98 26.93 2033 1.19 6/11/06 22.98 24.89 2004 0.15 6/12/06 22.98 22.20 2057 0.00 6/13/06 22.98 25.15 2043 0.00 6/14/06 22.98 25.94 1965 0.00 6/15/06 22.98 26.25 1650 0.20

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65 6/16/06 22.98 26.96 1629 2.51 6/17/06 22.97 26.62 1604 1.37 6/18/06 22.98 22.67 1621 0.23 6/19/06 22.98 24.55 1627 0.00 6/20/06 22.97 25.88 1607 0.00 6/21/06 22.97 27.61 1596 0.00 6/22/06 22.97 27.48 1586 0.00 6/23/06 22.97 26.87 1610 0.00 6/24/06 23.00 24.85 1605 2.13 6/25/06 22.99 23.49 1586 0.05 6/26/06 22.97 24.21 1551 0.00 6/27/06 22.96 26.38 1584 0.00 6/28/06 22.96 26.67 1619 21.87 6/29/06 22.96 26.45 1626 0.94 6/30/06 22.96 27.57 1585 0.00 7/1/06 22.96 27.67 1571 0.00 7/2/06 22.96 26.75 1594 0.00 7/3/06 22.96 25.57 1582 0.05 7/4/06 22.96 26.44 1584 0.58 7/5/06 22.96 26.24 1237 0.38 7/6/06 22.96 27.01 602 0.00 7/7/06 22.97 24.12 1774 0.00 7/8/06 22.98 25.67 1785 0.15 7/9/06 22.98 25.32 1790 0.08 7/10/06 22.98 26.66 1772 0.00 7/11/06 22.98 26.09 1790 0.15 7/12/06 22.98 26.33 1785 0.00 7/13/06 22.98 26.57 1749 4.24 7/14/06 22.98 26.92 1727 0.05 7/15/06 22.98 27.48 1730 3.89 7/16/06 22.98 27.76 1728 0.00 7/17/06 22.98 26.02 1727 0.00 7/18/06 22.98 25.79 1725 0.00 7/19/06 22.98 27.44 1742 0.00 7/20/06 22.97 26.03 1747 0.00 7/21/06 22.98 26.25 1716 0.20 7/22/06 22.98 25.31 1653 0.00 7/23/06 22.98 26.85 1663 0.00 7/24/06 22.97 26.12 1659 0.00 7/25/06 22.97 27.12 1663 0.00 7/26/06 22.98 27.21 1648 0.00

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66 7/27/06 22.98 26.52 1647 2.87 7/28/06 22.98 26.07 2068 3.73 7/29/06 22.98 27.50 1641 0.03 7/30/06 22.98 26.82 1642 2.77 7/31/06 22.98 27.34 1650 0.05 8/1/06 22.98 27.60 1641 0.00 8/2/06 22.98 28.01 1616 0.00 8/3/06 22.98 27.98 1607 0.00 8/4/06 22.98 25.47 1615 0.00 8/5/06 22.98 25.73 1614 0.00 8/6/06 22.98 25.59 1625 0.00 8/7/06 22.99 27.04 1639 0.00 8/8/06 22.99 27.48 1649 0.61 8/9/06 22.99 26.69 1864 0.05 8/10/06 22.99 27.06 11932 0.84 8/11/06 22.99 26.65 10702 0.00 8/12/06 22.99 26.89 2683 0.66 8/13/06 22.99 26.73 1983 0.00 8/14/06 22.99 27.21 1839 1.98 8/15/06 23.00 26.84 1779 0.05 8/16/06 23.00 26.95 1828 2.79 8/17/06 23.00 25.88 5071 1.22 8/18/06 23.00 25.34 18269 0.03 8/19/06 23.00 24.69 23644 0.53 8/20/06 23.00 26.08 23377 0.00 8/21/06 23.00 25.99 4952 0.28 8/22/06 23.00 26.23 1516 0.00 8/23/06 23.01 25.77 1793 1.68 8/24/06 23.01 25.92 1620 0.00 8/25/06 23.01 24.20 1625 0.00 8/26/06 23.01 25.48 1657 5.74 8/27/06 23.01 27.02 1645 0.05 8/28/06 23.01 27.43 1633 0.00 8/29/06 23.02 28.04 1625 1.17 8/30/06 23.02 25.27 1646 0.66 8/31/06 23.02 26.53 1641 4.17 9/1/06 23.02 24.78 1632 0.08 9/2/06 23.03 26.35 1662 0.00 9/3/06 23.03 26.34 1708 0.69 9/4/06 23.03 25.99 1654 1.91 9/5/06 23.04 25.72 1633 0.30

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67 9/6/06 23.04 26.74 1669 0.00 9/7/06 23.04 23.76 1848 0.00 9/8/06 23.04 23.33 1849 0.00 9/9/06 23.05 25.11 1612 0.00 9/10/06 23.05 25.12 1583 6.68 9/11/06 23.05 26.33 1542 1.09 9/12/06 23.05 25.22 1532 0.00 9/13/06 23.06 23.87 1571 0.00 9/14/06 23.06 26.00 1597 0.00 9/15/06 23.06 26.48 1607 0.00 9/16/06 23.07 26.53 1653 0.00 9/17/06 23.07 26.01 1648 0.00 9/18/06 23.07 26.42 1645 0.00 9/19/06 23.07 24.37 1595 0.00 9/20/06 23.08 23.64 1610 0.00 9/21/06 23.09 22.06 1619 0.00 9/22/06 23.09 25.10 1608 0.15 9/23/06 23.10 24.97 1637 0.00 9/24/06 23.10 24.29 1657 0.00 9/25/06 23.10 24.72 1674 0.00 9/26/06 23.10 25.12 1673 0.00 9/27/06 23.11 22.06 1532 0.00 9/28/06 23.11 20.28 1507 0.00 9/29/06 23.11 21.71 1231 0.00 9/30/06 23.11 20.61 591 0.00 10/1/06 23.11 22.23 512 0.00 10/2/06 23.12 23.92 398 0.15 10/3/06 23.12 24.23 457 0.00 10/4/06 23.12 23.94 364 0.00 10/5/06 23.13 23.04 0 0.00 10/6/06 23.13 21.78 0 0.00 10/7/06 23.13 20.72 0 0.00 10/8/06 23.15 18.59 0 0.00 10/9/06 23.15 19.81 0 0.00 10/10/06 23.15 20.73 0 0.00 10/11/06 23.15 22.56 0 0.00 10/12/06 23.15 21.95 0 0.00 10/13/06 23.16 19.14 0 0.00 10/14/06 23.16 19.54 0 0.00 10/15/06 23.17 21.64 1 0.00 10/16/06 23.17 23.52 0 0.00

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68 10/17/06 23.17 25.51 0 2.36 10/18/06 23.18 26.41 0 0.94 10/19/06 23.18 25.68 0 0.00 10/20/06 23.18 26.11 0 0.00 10/21/06 23.18 25.38 0 0.00 10/22/06 23.19 19.64 0 0.00 10/23/06 23.19 12.02 0 0.00 10/24/06 23.20 14.22 0 0.00 10/25/06 23.20 18.70 0 0.00 10/26/06 23.21 23.26 1 0.00 10/27/06 23.21 18.03 0 0.00 10/28/06 23.21 15.07 0 4.39 10/29/06 23.22 18.84 0 0.08 10/30/06 23.22 20.83 0 0.00 10/31/06 23.23 22.45 0 0.00 11/1/06 23.23 20.87 3 0.00 11/2/06 23.23 17.43 0 0.00 11/3/06 23.23 18.90 0 0.00 11/4/06 23.24 19.71 0 0.00 11/5/06 23.24 21.05 0 0.71 11/6/06 23.25 19.76 0 0.91 11/7/06 23.25 16.56 0 0.00 11/8/06 23.26 16.06 0 0.00 11/9/06 23.25 17.69 373 0.00 11/10/06 23.26 17.93 675 0.00 11/11/06 23.26 16.72 596 0.00 11/12/06 23.27 14.05 665 0.00 11/13/06 23.28 15.26 37 0.00 11/14/06 23.28 20.81 23 0.00 11/15/06 23.28 18.34 5 0.00 11/16/06 23.28 10.83 3 0.18 11/17/06 23.29 10.10 114 0.00 11/18/06 23.30 10.82 1 0.23 11/19/06 23.36 7.86 0 0.08 11/20/06 23.30 9.03 1 0.00 11/21/06 23.31 10.01 1 0.00 11/22/06 23.30 11.69 0 0.46 11/23/06 23.31 14.03 0 0.00 11/24/06 23.31 17.39 0 0.00 11/25/06 23.31 18.37 0 0.00 11/26/06 23.32 19.98 0 0.00

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69 11/27/06 23.32 21.21 0 0.00 11/28/06 23.32 21.81 0 0.00 11/29/06 23.32 23.22 0 0.00 11/30/06 23.33 22.82 0 0.00 12/1/06 23.33 21.21 0 0.00 12/2/06 23.33 22.17 3 0.00 12/3/06 23.34 14.66 0 0.00 12/4/06 23.35 11.95 0 0.15 12/5/06 23.36 15.26 0 0.03 12/6/06 23.36 14.64 0 0.00 12/7/06 23.36 7.28 0 0.00 12/8/06 23.37 11.36 0 0.00 12/9/06 23.37 15.64 0 0.00 12/10/06 23.37 18.36 0 0.00 12/11/06 23.37 18.47 0 0.00 12/12/06 23.38 19.99 0 1.52 12/13/06 23.38 19.28 0 3.84 12/14/06 23.38 17.74 0 0.08 12/15/06 23.38 17.93 0 3.23 12/16/06 23.39 20.60 0 0.08 12/17/06 23.39 20.22 0 0.00 12/18/06 23.39 18.21 0 0.00 12/19/06 23.39 18.17 0 0.00 12/20/06 23.40 20.45 0 0.00 12/21/06 23.40 22.58 0 0.00 12/22/06 23.40 19.86 0 1.35 12/23/06 23.41 19.83 0 0.00 12/24/06 23.41 20.97 27 0.13 12/25/06 23.41 13.10 0 0.00 12/26/06 23.41 7.75 0 0.18 12/27/06 23.42 14.46 0 0.03 12/28/06 23.42 19.16 0 0.03 12/29/06 23.43 21.85 0 0.15 12/30/06 23.43 22.99 581 0.00 12/31/06 23.43 20.27 1340 0.00 1/1/07 23.43 16.25 1346 0.00 1/2/07 23.43 19.85 1005 0.00 1/3/07 23.44 21.29 0 0.00 1/4/07 23.44 22.32 0 0.00 1/5/07 23.44 22.21 0 0.00 1/6/07 23.44 22.67 0 0.00

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70 1/7/07 23.45 18.71 0 0.00 1/8/07 23.45 10.29 0 0.00 1/9/07 23.46 9.19 0 0.00 1/10/07 23.46 14.99 0 0.00 1/11/07 23.46 17.39 0 0.00 1/12/07 23.44 18.77 0 0.76 1/13/07 23.47 19.90 3 0.00 1/14/07 23.47 18.09 0 0.00 1/15/07 23.47 18.48 0 1.35 1/16/07 23.47 14.86 0 0.00 1/17/07 23.47 15.48 0 0.03 1/18/07 23.48 15.22 0 0.18 1/19/07 23.48 13.84 0 0.00 1/20/07 23.48 18.17 0 0.00 1/21/07 23.48 20.53 0 0.00 1/22/07 23.48 15.75 0 1.60 1/23/07 23.48 13.45 0 3.35 1/24/07 23.48 8.41 0 0.00 1/25/07 23.49 8.57 0 0.00 1/26/07 23.49 14.20 0 0.08 1/27/07 23.48 14.11 0 0.00 1/28/07 23.48 5.01 0 0.00 1/29/07 23.49 6.92 0 0.00 1/30/07 23.49 12.46 0 0.00 1/31/07 23.49 19.04 0 0.00 2/1/07 23.48 18.08 0 0.00 2/2/07 23.48 12.83 0 0.00 2/3/07 23.48 11.32 0 1.09 2/4/07 23.48 9.62 0 0.03 2/5/07 23.49 9.74 0 0.03 2/6/07 23.49 10.72 0 0.03 2/7/07 23.49 12.42 0 0.00 2/8/07 23.49 13.53 0 0.30 2/9/07 23.49 12.94 0 0.00 2/10/07 23.49 12.20 0 0.00 2/11/07 23.50 17.17 0 0.00 2/12/07 23.50 18.50 0 0.00 2/13/07 23.50 15.59 0 0.00 2/14/07 23.50 8.22 0 0.00 2/15/07 23.49 6.03 0 0.00 2/16/07 23.50 6.13 0 0.00

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71 2/17/07 23.50 7.38 0 0.00 2/18/07 23.50 7.14 0 0.00 2/19/07 23.50 12.15 0 0.00 2/20/07 23.51 16.95 0 0.00 2/21/07 23.51 15.31 0 0.00 2/22/07 23.50 15.16 0 0.00 2/23/07 23.51 16.83 0 0.00

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72 Appendix B: Jennings Cave Temperature, Precipitation, Drip Rate Data Date Internal Temperature (C) Surface Temperature (C) Drip Rate Precipitation (mm) 02/27/06 18.35 02/28/06 18.21 03/01/06 18.16 03/02/06 18.23 03/03/06 18.38 03/04/06 18.49 0.05 03/05/06 18.57 12.06 0.00 03/06/06 18.54 13.99 0.00 03/07/06 18.57 14.44 0.00 03/08/06 18.52 11.58 0.00 03/09/06 18.51 16.24 0.00 03/10/06 18.56 19.44 0.00 03/11/06 18.60 20.57 0.00 03/12/06 18.65 20.88 0.00 03/13/06 18.70 20.70 0.00 03/14/06 18.73 20.58 0.00 03/15/06 18.72 13.43 0.00 03/16/06 18.68 15.23 0.00 03/17/06 18.68 17.78 0.00 03/18/06 18.73 18.84 0.00 03/19/06 18.73 16.68 0.05 03/20/06 18.75 20.08 0.00 03/21/06 18.79 21.15 0.05 03/22/06 18.80 16.13 0.00 03/23/06 18.81 16.75 0.00 03/24/06 18.82 14.14 0.00 03/25/06 18.74 8.87 0.00 03/26/06 18.64 8.76 0.00 03/27/06 18.55 10.46 0.00 03/28/06 18.53 13.83 0.00 03/29/06 18.54 16.48 0.00 03/30/06 18.56 19.20 0.00 03/31/06 18.60 19.85 0.00 04/01/06 18.64 19.38 0.00 04/02/06 18.68 20.34 0.00 04/03/06 18.73 21.51 0.00

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73 04/04/06 18.77 21.71 0.00 04/05/06 18.76 16.28 0.00 04/06/06 18.74 17.76 0.00 04/07/06 18.75 20.02 0.00 04/08/06 18.79 22.85 0.69 04/09/06 18.83 18.10 0.23 04/10/06 18.83 17.67 0.05 04/11/06 18.84 18.23 0.03 04/12/06 18.85 19.03 0.03 04/13/06 18.86 18.23 0.03 04/14/06 18.87 18.98 0.03 04/15/06 18.89 19.83 0.00 04/16/06 18.90 19.40 0.00 04/17/06 18.92 22.89 0.03 04/18/06 18.95 23.00 0.00 04/19/06 18.98 22.79 0.03 04/20/06 19.00 24.11 0.03 04/21/06 19.02 23.07 0.00 04/22/06 19.04 22.85 0.03 04/23/06 19.06 22.50 0.00 04/24/06 19.07 21.55 0.03 04/25/06 19.08 23.09 0.00 04/26/06 19.10 23.73 0.00 04/27/06 19.11 21.99 0.03 04/28/06 19.11 18.57 0.00 04/29/06 19.10 19.17 0.00 04/30/06 19.11 18.81 0.03 05/01/06 19.11 18.73 8321 0.00 05/02/06 19.09 18.13 8268 0.00 05/03/06 19.08 20.02 8261 0.00 05/04/06 19.09 21.60 8252 0.03 05/05/06 19.10 21.72 8196 0.00 05/06/06 19.12 23.31 8104 0.00 05/07/06 19.15 23.43 8084 0.00 05/08/06 19.16 24.24 8077 0.03 05/09/06 19.17 23.79 8050 0.00 05/10/06 19.18 24.85 8028 0.00 05/11/06 19.19 22.56 8031 0.03 05/12/06 19.20 19.31 7927 0.00 05/13/06 19.19 19.40 7919 0.00 05/14/06 19.19 20.80 7907 0.00

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74 05/15/06 19.20 22.76 7937 0.00 05/16/06 19.20 17.48 7909 0.03 05/17/06 19.19 18.03 7839 0.00 05/18/06 19.19 20.07 7766 0.00 05/19/06 19.19 22.50 7638 0.00 05/20/06 19.21 23.92 7609 0.03 05/21/06 19.22 24.63 7655 0.00 05/22/06 19.23 24.19 7462 0.00 05/23/06 19.24 24.74 7345 0.00 05/24/06 19.25 24.90 7308 0.00 05/25/06 19.26 25.31 7348 0.03 05/26/06 19.27 25.49 7189 0.00 05/27/06 19.28 25.82 6933 0.00 05/28/06 19.29 24.34 6721 0.00 05/29/06 19.30 24.98 6769 0.00 05/30/06 19.31 24.62 6696 0.03 05/31/06 19.31 25.67 6530 0.00 06/01/06 19.32 22.91 6417 0.00 06/02/06 19.33 25.23 6411 0.03 06/03/06 19.34 22.61 6348 0.00 06/04/06 19.34 24.44 6169 0.03 06/05/06 19.35 24.53 5949 0.00 06/06/06 19.36 23.62 5551 0.00 06/07/06 19.36 23.40 5464 0.00 06/08/06 19.36 24.43 5629 0.03 06/09/06 19.37 25.16 5489 0.00 06/10/06 19.40 27.52 5231 0.00 06/11/06 19.40 24.41 4984 0.03 06/12/06 19.40 21.67 5302 0.00 06/13/06 19.41 23.30 4984 0.03 06/14/06 19.41 25.59 4363 0.00 06/15/06 19.41 26.66 4427 0.03 06/16/06 19.42 26.05 4360 0.00 06/17/06 19.43 25.42 4213 0.00 06/18/06 19.43 21.97 4283 0.03 06/19/06 19.44 25.85 4184 0.00 06/20/06 19.44 25.81 4015 0.00 06/21/06 19.45 26.61 3741 0.03 06/22/06 19.45 26.02 3730 0.00 06/23/06 19.45 25.94 3907 0.00 06/24/06 19.50 24.54 3744 0.03

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75 06/25/06 19.47 23.51 3639 0.00 06/26/06 19.47 24.11 3229 0.03 06/27/06 19.48 26.34 2590 0.00 06/28/06 19.48 26.04 2720 0.03 06/29/06 19.48 24.82 2980 0.00 06/30/06 19.49 25.97 2783 0.00 07/01/06 19.49 26.06 2424 0.03 07/02/06 19.50 26.11 2423 0.00 07/03/06 19.50 26.84 2606 0.00 07/04/06 19.51 26.21 2679 0.03 07/05/06 19.51 25.97 2503 0.00 07/06/06 19.51 25.32 2029 0.00 07/07/06 19.52 23.50 1782 0.03 07/08/06 19.52 24.79 1946 0.00 07/09/06 19.52 24.18 1910 0.03 07/10/06 19.53 26.23 1638 0.00 07/11/06 19.53 25.15 1362 0.03 07/12/06 19.53 25.31 1445 0.00 07/13/06 19.54 26.59 1490 0.00 07/14/06 19.54 27.35 1244 0.03 07/15/06 19.54 27.70 1204 0.00 07/16/06 19.55 27.72 1312 0.00 07/17/06 19.55 25.34 983 0.03 07/18/06 19.56 25.27 869 0.00 07/19/06 19.56 26.74 703 0.00 07/20/06 19.56 26.10 661 0.00 07/21/06 19.56 25.85 1211 0.03 07/22/06 19.57 25.56 706 0.00 07/23/06 19.58 25.15 242 0.00 07/24/06 19.58 24.94 149 0.03 07/25/06 19.58 26.24 137 0.00 07/26/06 19.58 26.30 130 0.03 07/27/06 19.59 26.26 49 0.00 07/28/06 19.59 25.66 4 0.03 07/29/06 19.59 27.05 158 0.03 07/30/06 19.60 25.73 164 0.00 07/31/06 19.60 25.78 5 0.03 08/01/06 19.60 26.96 322 0.03 08/02/06 19.60 27.17 1114 0.00 08/03/06 19.61 27.02 1226 0.03 08/04/06 19.61 25.67 72 0.03

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76 08/05/06 19.61 26.14 35 0.00 08/06/06 19.62 26.32 0 0.03 08/07/06 19.63 26.84 43 0.03 08/08/06 19.63 26.55 162 0.00 08/09/06 19.63 26.39 268 0.03 08/10/06 19.64 26.82 422 0.03 08/11/06 19.64 26.61 586 0.79 08/12/06 19.65 27.32 425 0.00 08/13/06 19.64 26.37 271 0.05 08/14/06 19.65 26.74 552 0.00 08/15/06 19.65 26.72 780 0.00 08/16/06 19.66 26.32 780 3.28 08/17/06 19.66 25.32 855 0.33 08/18/06 19.66 25.50 1125 0.03 08/19/06 19.66 25.46 1278 0.00 08/20/06 19.68 26.71 1161 0.00 08/21/06 19.65 25.75 1172 1.73 08/22/06 19.65 25.99 1446 0.03 08/23/06 19.65 25.54 2060 0.99 08/24/06 19.65 24.93 1900 2.36 08/25/06 19.65 24.07 1714 1.42 08/26/06 19.65 24.69 1848 1.83 08/27/06 19.65 25.64 2002 1.07 08/28/06 19.66 26.72 2095 0.00 08/29/06 19.66 26.59 2282 0.08 08/30/06 19.66 24.76 2612 0.10 08/31/06 19.67 26.62 2164 0.00 09/01/06 19.67 25.45 2046 0.00 09/02/06 19.70 26.14 2109 0.00 09/03/06 19.68 26.13 2248 0.00 09/04/06 19.68 25.33 2217 0.30 09/05/06 19.68 25.20 2558 0.03 09/06/06 19.68 25.34 2549 0.03 09/07/06 19.69 23.40 2701 6.53 09/08/06 19.69 22.86 2873 0.08 09/09/06 19.69 25.06 3477 0.03 09/10/06 19.70 24.36 2439 2.16 09/11/06 19.71 25.25 2297 0.00 09/12/06 19.72 25.15 2499 0.00 09/13/06 19.72 23.63 2920 0.43 09/14/06 19.72 25.71 2417 0.00

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77 09/15/06 19.72 25.52 2090 0.00 09/16/06 19.72 25.64 2265 0.00 09/17/06 19.73 25.39 2528 0.00 09/18/06 19.73 25.60 2481 0.23 09/19/06 19.74 24.43 2586 2.18 09/20/06 19.74 23.24 2499 0.51 09/21/06 19.76 21.73 2261 0.00 09/22/06 19.76 24.17 2238 0.00 09/23/06 19.77 24.18 2603 0.00 09/24/06 19.77 23.75 2756 0.00 09/25/06 19.77 24.46 2753 0.00 09/26/06 19.77 24.28 2741 0.00 09/27/06 19.78 21.58 2931 0.00 09/28/06 19.79 19.51 3119 0.00 09/29/06 19.79 21.01 2908 0.00 09/30/06 19.80 19.66 3021 0.00 10/01/06 19.79 21.43 3040 0.00 10/02/06 19.79 23.11 3077 0.00 10/03/06 19.78 23.72 3521 0.00 10/04/06 19.79 23.04 3992 0.00 10/05/06 19.79 22.43 4088 0.00 10/06/06 19.80 22.26 4140 0.00 10/07/06 19.80 C 22.55 3337 0.00

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78 Appendix C: Florida Caverns Temperatu re, Precipitation, Drip Rate Data Date Internal Temperature (C) Surface Temperature (C) Drip Rate Precipitation (mm) 2/19/2006 8.04 0.03 2/20/2006 12.05 0.00 2/21/2006 14.12 0.30 2/22/2006 18.76 0.00 2/23/2006 17.53 0.15 2/24/2006 13.11 0.00 2/25/2006 13.70 1.57 2/26/2006 11.98 0.05 2/27/2006 8.18 0.00 2/28/2006 12.03 0.00 3/1/2006 15.62 0.00 3/2/2006 19.79 0.00 3/3/2006 17.45 0.00 3/4/2006 17.79 11.42 0.00 3/5/2006 17.76 13.38 0.00 3/6/2006 17.75 16.72 0.00 3/7/2006 17.73 13.65 0.00 3/8/2006 17.72 13.44 0.00 3/9/2006 17.72 16.11 0.00 3/10/2006 17.72 21.41 0.10 3/11/2006 17.73 21.69 0.00 3/12/2006 17.74 21.82 0.13 3/13/2006 17.73 21.74 0.00 3/14/2006 17.72 19.32 0.03 3/15/2006 17.71 11.49 0.00 3/16/2006 17.70 13.24 0.00 3/17/2006 17.69 18.33 0.00 3/18/2006 17.69 14.30 0.00 3/19/2006 17.68 15.48 0.00 3/20/2006 17.67 19.16 0.00 3/21/2006 17.67 22.26 0.76 3/22/2006 17.66 13.05 0.00 3/23/2006 17.66 10.50 0.33 3/24/2006 17.63 8.93 0.00 3/25/2006 17.60 9.19 0.00 3/26/2006 17.59 8.09 0.00 3/27/2006 17.58 10.72 0.00

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79 3/28/2006 17.58 14.18 0.00 3/29/2006 17.58 16.27 0.00 3/30/2006 17.58 18.78 0.00 3/31/2006 17.58 19.35 0.00 4/1/2006 17.58 20.79 0.00 4/2/2006 17.58 22.77 0.00 4/3/2006 17.58 22.91 0.00 4/4/2006 17.58 16.95 0.00 4/5/2006 17.58 16.17 0.00 4/6/2006 17.60 18.76 0.00 4/7/2006 17.58 19.80 0.00 4/8/2006 17.58 21.39 0.08 4/9/2006 17.58 15.10 0.00 4/10/2006 17.58 16.31 0.00 4/11/2006 17.57 17.42 0.00 4/12/2006 17.57 18.04 0.00 4/13/2006 17.56 19.13 0.00 4/14/2006 17.56 21.50 0.05 4/15/2006 17.56 21.69 0.00 4/16/2006 17.56 21.55 0.00 4/17/2006 17.56 24.19 0.00 4/18/2006 17.56 25.28 0.00 4/19/2006 17.56 24.32 0.00 4/20/2006 17.56 24.47 0.00 4/21/2006 17.56 23.85 0.00 4/22/2006 17.56 21.04 2.29 4/23/2006 17.57 20.94 0.00 4/24/2006 17.57 21.70 0.00 4/25/2006 17.57 22.77 0.00 4/26/2006 17.57 19.77 0.51 4/27/2006 17.57 18.12 0.00 4/28/2006 17.58 18.06 0.00 4/29/2006 17.58 19.35 0.00 4/30/2006 17.57 19.51 0.00 5/1/2006 17.58 19.02 0.00 5/2/2006 17.57 19.74 0.00 5/3/2006 17.58 21.58 16 0.00 5/4/2006 17.57 22.70 33 0.00 5/5/2006 17.57 22.59 32 0.03 5/6/2006 17.57 22.27 29 0.00 5/7/2006 17.57 21.61 26 1.98 5/8/2006 17.57 22.66 25 1.04

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80 5/9/2006 17.58 21.50 23 1.04 5/10/2006 17.58 22.21 23 3.33 5/11/2006 17.58 19.03 21 0.56 5/12/2006 17.59 17.34 20 0.00 5/13/2006 17.59 19.02 19 0.00 5/14/2006 17.59 21.20 16 0.00 5/15/2006 17.59 18.86 16 2.34 5/16/2006 17.60 15.97 15 0.00 5/17/2006 17.60 17.63 15 0.00 5/18/2006 17.59 20.26 13 0.00 5/19/2006 17.59 23.16 12 0.00 5/20/2006 17.59 24.75 11 0.00 5/21/2006 17.59 24.05 9 0.00 5/22/2006 17.60 22.74 9 0.00 5/23/2006 17.59 24.55 9 0.00 5/24/2006 17.59 25.69 7 0.00 5/25/2006 17.59 24.22 7 0.20 5/26/2006 17.60 24.73 6 0.00 5/27/2006 17.60 25.63 7 0.00 5/28/2006 17.61 26.19 5 1.22 5/29/2006 17.62 24.13 6 0.00 5/30/2006 17.62 24.39 5 0.03 5/31/2006 17.62 24.76 4 0.00 6/1/2006 17.63 24.82 4 0.00 6/2/2006 17.63 24.92 3 0.00 6/3/2006 17.64 23.24 4 0.00 6/4/2006 17.64 22.81 4 0.00 6/5/2006 17.64 23.06 3 0.00 6/6/2006 17.65 22.49 2 0.00 6/7/2006 17.65 22.28 2 0.00 6/8/2006 17.65 25.09 2 0.00 6/9/2006 17.65 26.50 1 0.00 6/10/2006 17.65 26.12 1 0.00 6/11/2006 17.65 26.20 0 0.00 6/12/2006 17.65 23.46 1 0.13 6/13/2006 17.66 22.42 0 0.20 6/14/2006 17.66 24.83 0 0.00 6/15/2006 17.66 27.14 0 0.00 6/16/2006 17.66 25.53 0 0.15 6/17/2006 17.67 24.56 0 0.00 6/18/2006 17.68 24.49 0 0.00 6/19/2006 17.68 25.15 0 0.00

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81 6/20/2006 17.68 26.98 0 0.00 6/21/2006 17.68 28.06 0 0.00 6/22/2006 17.68 26.78 0 0.03 6/23/2006 17.69 26.88 0 0.00 6/24/2006 17.84 26.48 1 0.00 6/25/2006 17.72 25.27 0 0.18 6/26/2006 17.71 24.96 0 0.03 6/27/2006 17.70 25.85 0 1.04 6/28/2006 17.71 24.05 0 0.00 6/29/2006 17.71 25.81 0 0.03 6/30/2006 17.71 26.21 0 0.00 7/1/2006 17.72 26.83 0 0.00 7/2/2006 17.73 27.34 0 0.00 7/3/2006 17.74 27.76 0 0.00 7/4/2006 17.74 28.05 0 0.00 7/5/2006 17.73 27.41 0 0.00 7/6/2006 17.74 26.29 0 0.00 7/7/2006 17.74 26.21 0 0.00 7/8/2006 17.75 25.72 0 0.00 7/9/2006 17.76 24.60 0 0.00 7/10/2006 17.76 26.08 0 0.00 7/11/2006 17.76 26.65 0 0.00 7/12/2006 17.76 27.33 0 0.00 7/13/2006 17.76 26.53 0 0.00 7/14/2006 17.76 27.69 0 0.00 7/15/2006 17.77 28.23 0 0.00 7/16/2006 17.78 27.03 0 0.00 7/17/2006 17.78 25.02 1 0.20 7/18/2006 17.79 26.35 0 0.03 7/19/2006 17.79 25.91 0 0.00 7/20/2006 17.80 27.07 0 0.00 7/21/2006 17.80 27.50 1 0.00 7/22/2006 17.81 25.76 0 4.67 7/23/2006 17.82 23.72 0 2.62 7/24/2006 17.82 23.30 0 1.24 7/25/2006 17.82 25.85 0 0.00 7/26/2006 17.82 27.09 0 0.00 7/27/2006 17.83 27.27 0 0.00 7/28/2006 17.83 26.16 0 2.84 7/29/2006 17.84 25.05 0 0.05 7/30/2006 17.85 23.84 0 0.94 7/31/2006 17.86 25.01 0 0.25

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82 8/1/2006 17.86 26.05 0 0.03 8/2/2006 17.86 27.05 0 0.00 8/3/2006 17.87 26.53 0 2.21 8/4/2006 17.87 24.81 0 4.11 8/5/2006 17.88 24.93 0 0.05 8/6/2006 17.89 26.32 0 0.00 8/7/2006 17.89 26.90 0 0.00 8/8/2006 17.88 26.31 0 1.96 8/9/2006 17.89 25.54 0 0.00 8/10/2006 17.90 26.82 0 0.00 8/11/2006 17.90 27.34 0 0.00 8/12/2006 17.90 27.73 0 0.00 8/13/2006 17.91 25.90 0 0.00 8/14/2006 17.91 25.98 0 0.23 8/15/2006 17.91 26.50 0 0.00 8/16/2006 17.91 26.22 0 0.00 8/17/2006 17.92 26.46 0 0.00 8/18/2006 17.92 27.04 0 0.00 8/19/2006 17.93 26.37 0 0.00 8/20/2006 17.93 26.53 0 0.03 8/21/2006 17.93 25.39 0 1.24 8/22/2006 17.93 25.02 0 0.13 8/23/2006 17.94 24.43 0 1.55 8/24/2006 17.94 24.32 0 0.05 8/25/2006 17.94 24.44 0 0.18 8/26/2006 17.95 25.34 0 0.00 8/27/2006 17.96 26.74 0 0.00 8/28/2006 17.96 27.01 0 0.00 8/29/2006 17.96 27.29 0 0.00 8/30/2006 17.97 26.58 0 0.00 8/31/2006 17.97 25.86 0 0.00 9/1/2006 17.98 25.24 0 0.00 9/2/2006 18.00 25.86 0 0.00 9/3/2006 18.01 25.56 0 0.00 9/4/2006 18.02 25.34 0 0.00 9/5/2006 18.02 24.82 0 0.00 9/6/2006 18.02 24.35 0 0.00 9/7/2006 18.03 22.46 0 0.00 9/8/2006 18.04 22.98 0 0.00 9/9/2006 18.05 22.48 0 0.64 9/10/2006 18.05 23.41 0 0.03 9/11/2006 18.06 23.80 0 0.00

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83 9/12/2006 18.06 23.90 0 0.00 9/13/2006 18.06 24.80 0 0.10 9/14/2006 18.07 23.89 0 0.00 9/15/2006 18.08 23.65 0 0.00 9/16/2006 18.09 23.73 0 0.00 9/17/2006 18.09 24.32 0 0.00 9/18/2006 18.09 24.02 0 0.53 9/19/2006 18.10 22.97 0 0.97 9/20/2006 18.12 19.73 0 0.00 9/21/2006 18.13 20.18 0 0.00 9/22/2006 18.13 23.76 0 0.00 9/23/2006 18.13 25.90 0 0.00 9/24/2006 18.13 26.26 0 0.00 9/25/2006 18.15 22.98 0 0.00 9/26/2006 18.17 19.62 0 0.00 9/27/2006 18.18 18.91 0 0.00 9/28/2006 18.17 21.62 0 0.00 9/29/2006 18.20 18.52 0 0.00 9/30/2006 18.22 17.67 0 0.00 10/1/2006 18.22 21.72 0 0.00 10/2/2006 18.21 24.74 0 0.00 10/3/2006 18.21 24.47 0 0.00 10/4/2006 18.23 22.41 0 0.00 10/5/2006 18.23 21.53 0 0.00 10/6/2006 18.23 23.08 0 0.00 10/7/2006 18.28 19.47 0 0.18 10/8/2006 18.28 17.49 0 0.00 10/9/2006 18.28 16.64 1 0.00 10/10/2006 18.27 20.08 0 0.00 10/11/2006 18.25 22.17 0 0.00 10/12/2006 18.27 21.44 0 0.00 10/13/2006 18.30 15.73 0 0.00 10/14/2006 18.32 14.49 0 0.00 10/15/2006 18.32 16.36 0 0.00 10/16/2006 18.32 19.99 0 0.00 10/17/2006 18.30 23.39 0 1.14 10/18/2006 18.30 24.01 0 0.00 10/19/2006 18.30 23.86 0 0.00 10/20/2006 18.32 20.51 0 0.00 10/21/2006 18.35 17.65 0 0.00 10/22/2006 18.34 20.13 0 1.40 10/23/2006 18.39 11.43 0 0.00

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84 10/24/2006 18.40 11.06 0 0.00 10/25/2006 18.41 11.64 0 0.00 10/26/2006 18.40 13.43 0 0.15 10/27/2006 18.38 18.99 0 3.45 10/28/2006 18.41 13.85 0 0.00 10/29/2006 18.43 12.84 0 0.00 10/30/2006 18.43 13.84 0 0.00 10/31/2006 18.42 15.89 0 0.00 11/1/2006 18.42 17.29 0 0.00 11/2/2006 18.44 14.47 0 0.00 11/3/2006 18.47 9.35 0 0.00 11/4/2006 18.48 9.92 0 0.00 11/5/2006 18.48 13.44 0 0.00 11/6/2006 18.47 16.81 0 0.00 11/7/2006 18.46 17.95 0 3.05 11/8/2006 18.49 14.04 0 0.00 11/9/2006 18.50 15.64 0 0.00 11/10/2006 18.49 16.82 0 0.00 11/11/2006 18.49 17.54 0 1.65 11/12/2006 18.52 10.44 0 0.00 11/13/2006 18.52 10.37 0 0.00 11/14/2006 18.52 12.90 0 0.00 11/15/2006 18.51 18.52 0 4.29 11/16/2006 18.53 11.49 0 0.00 11/17/2006 18.55 8.42 0 0.00 11/18/2006 18.55 8.94 0 0.00 11/19/2006 18.58 8.30 0 0.00 11/20/2006 18.58 6.28 1 0.00 11/21/2006 18.58 6.82 0 0.00 11/22/2006 18.59 8.53 0 0.00 11/23/2006 18.58 10.76 0 0.00 11/24/2006 18.58 11.26 1 0.00 11/25/2006 18.59 12.04 0 0.00 11/26/2006 18.59 11.67 0 0.00 11/27/2006 18.59 14.44 0 0.00 11/28/2006 18.58 19.12 0 0.00 11/29/2006 18.57 20.61 0 0.00 11/30/2006 18.55 22.28 0 0.13 12/1/2006 18.56 17.30 0 1.09 12/2/2006 18.58 8.41 0 0.00 12/3/2006 18.59 10.84 0 0.00 12/4/2006 18.57 7.02 0 0.00

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85 12/5/2006 18.56 3.79 0 0.00 12/6/2006 18.55 9.17 0 0.00 12/7/2006 18.55 11.49 0 0.00 12/8/2006 18.52 0.93 0 0.00 12/9/2006 18.51 2.09 0 0.00 12/10/2006 18.50 7.90 0 0.00 12/11/2006 18.50 14.16 0 0.00 12/12/2006 18.50 16.05 0 0.00 12/13/2006 18.50 17.15 0 0.00 12/14/2006 18.50 15.76 0 0.00 12/15/2006 18.51 13.43 0 0.00 12/16/2006 18.50 11.08 0 0.00 12/17/2006 18.49 12.95 0 0.00 12/18/2006 18.48 15.61 0 0.00 12/19/2006 18.47 15.43 0 0.00 12/20/2006 18.47 15.95 0 0.00 12/21/2006 18.47 18.68 0 0.00 12/22/2006 18.47 18.09 0 6.45 12/23/2006 18.47 16.59 0 0.00 12/24/2006 18.46 11.73 0 0.86 12/25/2006 18.45 16.36 0 1.32 12/26/2006 18.43 7.64 0 0.00 12/27/2006 18.41 5.68 0 0.00 12/28/2006 18.40 8.42 0 0.00 12/29/2006 18.39 14.63 0 0.00 12/30/2006 18.39 17.61 0 0.00 12/31/2006 18.40 19.68 0 4.22 1/1/2007 18.40 14.73 0 0.28 1/2/2007 18.37 6.12 0 0.00 1/3/2007 18.36 9.47 0 0.00 1/4/2007 18.36 16.82 0 0.00 1/5/2007 18.35 18.56 0 4.17 1/6/2007 18.35 16.08 0 0.05 1/7/2007 18.35 21.18 0 1.14 1/8/2007 18.33 12.43 0 0.76 1/9/2007 18.30 8.77 0 0.00 1/10/2007 18.27 5.96 0 0.00 1/11/2007 18.25 8.94 0 0.00 1/12/2007 18.25 14.59 0 0.00 1/13/2007 18.25 16.51 0 0.00 1/14/2007 18.25 17.06 0 0.00 1/15/2007 18.25 19.08 0 0.00

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86 1/16/2007 18.24 12.84 0 0.23 1/17/2007 18.21 8.53 0 0.00 1/18/2007 18.20 8.52 0 0.03 1/19/2007 18.20 10.29 0 0.05 1/20/2007 18.18 9.54 0 0.00 1/21/2007 18.17 14.31 0 3.28 1/22/2007 18.16 14.04 0 1.27 1/23/2007 18.11 8.42 0 0.00 1/24/2007 18.10 7.74 0 0.03 1/25/2007 18.07 8.94 0 0.03 1/26/2007 18.07 6.02 0 0.00 1/27/2007 18.06 6.49 0 1.83 1/28/2007 18.04 7.95 0 0.13 1/29/2007 18.02 1.44 0 0.00 1/30/2007 18.02 5.33 0 0.00 1/31/2007 18.01 8.08 0 0.00 2/1/2007 18.00 13.88 0 4.42 2/2/2007 17.97 10.12 0 0.03 2/3/2007 17.94 4.08 0 0.00 2/4/2007 17.96 6.85 0 0.00 2/5/2007 17.97 6.33 0 0.00 2/6/2007 17.95 6.70 0 0.00 2/7/2007 17.94 11.42 0 0.00 2/8/2007 17.93 14.12 0 0.00 2/9/2007 17.92 12.69 0 0.00 2/10/2007 17.90 8.38 0 0.00 2/11/2007 17.89 7.05 0 0.00 2/12/2007 17.89 12.76 1 0.00 2/13/2007 17.89 15.14 0 1.63 2/14/2007 17.85 7.51 0 0.03 2/15/2007 17.83 3.66 0 0.00 2/16/2007 17.80 1.92 0 0.00 2/17/2007 17.79 5.04 0 0.03 2/18/2007 17.73 5.36 0 0.00 2/19/2007 17.73 6.58 0 0.00 2/20/2007 17.74 13.84 0 0.00 2/21/2007 17.75 14.66 0 0.30 2/22/2007 17.74 15.63 0 0.03 2/23/2007 17.73 13.05 0 0.00 2/24/2007 17.72 8.94 0 0.00

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87 Appendix D: Legend Cave Isotopic Results Date 180 Precipitation 180 Drip Water D Precipitation D Drip Water 02/25/06 -3.10 -15.1 03/04/06 -3.01 -1.95 -14.3 -4.7 03/11/06 -3.20 -2.92 -15.8 -14.5 03/18/06 -2.89 -15.1 03/25/06 -3.06 -15.6 04/01/06 -3.12 -3.21 -13.8 -16.8 04/08/06 -2.43 -2.90 -10.0 -12.5 04/15/06 -3.13 -14.6 04/22/06 0.12 -3.21 5.3 -16.6 04/29/06 -3.06 -14.6 05/06/06 -3.42 -16.6 05/13/06 -2.66 -3.14 -11.7 -15.5 05/20/06 -2.97 -14.4 05/27/06 -2.55 -11.9 06/03/06 -2.62 -2.67 -12.9 -12.3 06/10/06 -3.03 -15.5 06/17/06 -3.58 -2.80 -20.5 -12.0 06/24/06 -2.83 -4.46 -13.0 -19.0 07/01/06 -4.70 -3.09 -23.9 -14.2 07/08/06 -6.17 -3.00 -32.3 -14.3 07/15/06 -0.75 -3.16 3.4 -17.6 07/22/06 -1.67 -3.16 -6.8 -14.7 07/29/06 -2.82 -3.14 -11.2 -15.3 08/05/06 -3.32 -3.24 -16.6 -14.8 08/12/06 -1.14 -3.32 -4.7 -15.7 08/19/06 -2.68 -2.64 -11.5 -12.9 08/26/06 -2.79 -13.5 09/02/06 -4.80 -3.28 -22.3 -14.6 09/10/06 -5.14 -3.06 -25.3 -15.7 09/16/06 -4.00 -3.27 -21.1 -15.8 09/30/06 -3.41 -3.31 -16.0 -15.5 10/07/06 -3.16 -14.4 10/14/06 -0.96 -3.13 2.3 -14.5 10/21/06 -2.88 -13.2 10/28/06 -3.34 -3.14 -16.7 -14.2 11/04/06 -2.78 -13.9 11/11/06 -3.88 -3.17 -19.7 -15.5 11/18/06 -1.81 -3.07 -7.6 -15.7 11/26/06 -3.39 -16.2 12/02/06 -0.86 -3.37 -2.9 -17.5 12/09/06 -3.21 -15.3 12/16/06 -0.83 -3.23 -2.7 -15.3

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88 12/23/06 -2.98 -3.28 -13.0 -15.3 12/30/06 -3.19 -3.16 -15.4 -14.6 01/06/07 -1.49 -3.35 -5.9 -15.9 01/13/07 -0.20 -3.25 -0.6 -17.0 01/20/07 -2.97 -15.4 01/27/07 -2.53 -3.22 -14.8 -15.2 02/03/07 -2.28 -3.02 -9.0 -15.5 02/10/07 -3.31 -2.89 -14.9 -16.4 02/17/07 -2.94 -14.4 02/23/07 -0.97 -2.83 -1.5 -15.7

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89 Appendix E: Jennings Cave Stable Isotopic Results Date 180 Precipitation 180 Drip Water D Precipitation D Drip Water 03/04/06 -3.47 -16.3 03/11/06 -4.17 -20.2 03/18/06 -4.08 -20.3 03/25/06 -4.00 -19.4 04/01/06 0.88 10.46 04/08/06 -1.70 -3.39 04/15/06 2.05 -3.91 -18.8 04/22/06 -2.92 -14.4 04/29/06 4.58 -3.89 25.42 -19.8 05/06/06 -2.75 -12.4 05/13/06 -2.97 -13.0 05/20/06 7.60 -3.81 34.03 -18.1 05/27/06 -3.17 -15.1 06/03/06 -3.04 -15.1 06/10/06 5.42 -3.98 23.69 -19.4 06/17/06 -5.38 -4.00 -31.83 -17.6 06/24/06 -5.17 -4.04 -29.09 -20.8 07/01/06 -3.77 -18.0 07/08/06 -3.84 -19.8 07/15/06 -2.31 -2.81 -14.37 -15.6 07/22/06 -0.09 -3.85 -19.1 07/29/06 -3.68 -19.6 08/05/06 -3.53 -17.3 08/12/06 0.54 -3.54 -16.9 08/19/06 -2.60 -3.12 -13.8 08/26/06 -2.80 -3.04 -10.85 -13.3 09/02/06 -3.75 -18.4 10/07/06 -4.58 -2.70 -22.56 -12.5

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90 Appendix F: Florida Caverns Stable Isotope Results Date 180 Precipitation 180 Drip Water D Precipitation D Drip Water 2/25/2006 -1.20 -3.90 -2.00 -19.4 3/4/2006 -3.91 -18.0 3/11/2006 -3.95 -20.98 3/18/2006 0.05 -3.95 3.75 -21.6 3/25/2006 -3.95 -18.90 4/1/2006 -2.17 -3.90 -9.95 -18.2 4/8/2006 -1.56 -3.87 -4.05 -20.9 4/15/2006 -3.69 -18.4 4/22/2006 -2.04 -3.87 -6.80 -18.6 4/29/2006 -2.33 -4.01 -9.74 -19.4 5/6/2006 -2.54 -3.78 -10.76 -17.9 5/27/2006 -4.23 -20.31 6/24/2006 -4.19 -19.21 7/29/2006 -2.01 -8.47 8/5/2006 -3.18 -14.87 8/12/2006 -4.00 -18.50 8/19/2006 -2.43 -8.64 8/26/2006 -2.48 -10.56 9/16/2006 -5.45 -27.93 9/30/2006 -4.27 -22.27 10/7/2006 -3.91 -18.48 11/25/2006 -2.41 -10.46 12/2/2006 -2.58 -10.40 12/23/2006 -3.18 -13.39 12/30/2006 -3.02 -13.99 1/6/2007 -2.47 -11.17 1/13/2007 -2.51 -3.57 -10.35 -15.6 1/27/2007 -3.95 -18.82 2/24/2007 -3.92 -18.74


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Pace-Graczyk, Kali J.
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Isotopic investigations of cave drip waters and precipitation in central and northern Florida, USA
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by Kali J. Pace-Graczyk.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
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2007.
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Advisor: Bogdan P. Onac, Ph.D.
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ABSTRACT: A temperature, drip rate, and stable isotopic study (18O and D) was undertaken in three caves in central and northern Florida. Both surface and cave temperatures were collected, as were precipitation, cave drip water and drip rates. All data were collected on a weekly basis to investigate the isotopic relationships between precipitation and cave drip waters. The objective of this study was to provide a calibration of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values in precipitation and cave drip water for future paleoclimate work in the Florida peninsula. Based on the steady annual cave temperature and high relative humidity (95% or above), all three caves are suitable locations for paleoclimate work. A spike in the cave drip rate is seen following precipitation events at both Legend and Jennings Caves. A lagtime of 52 days between the date of the storm event and the increase in drip rate was found at Legend Cave.Legend and Jennings Caves in central Florida show a relationship between the amount of precipitation and the 18O values. The isotopic values in precipitation were more depleted after a large precipitation event, suggesting the amount effect is influential in this location. At Florida Caverns State Park tourist cave in northern Florida, the association between 18O and precipitation was weak while a relationship between 18O and temperature may be present; here the seasonal effect or latitude effect may be significant. The monthly mean isotopic values of the drip waters were found to approximate those of the precipitation. The steady isotopic values of the drip water are due to a homogenization of water infiltrating into the epikarst and mixing with water already present in the karst storage. This finding is important for future paleoclimate research in the Florida peninsula.An important assumption in paleoclimate work is that the value of 18O in calcite at the time of precipitation represents the mean annual 18O of precipitation at the time of deposition. The ultimate objectives of this research were to assess the isotopic relationship between precipitation and cave drip waters in order to interpret paleoclimate data sets. Although the data were limited to a single year, it appears that a sufficient isotopic signal exists in central-north Florida precipitation and drip water to apply for paleoclimate studies.
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