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Ultra-wideband electronics, design methods, algorithms, and systems for dielectric spectroscopy of isolated B16 tumor ce...

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Material Information

Title:
Ultra-wideband electronics, design methods, algorithms, and systems for dielectric spectroscopy of isolated B16 tumor cells in liquid medium
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Maxwell, Erick N
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
UWB
ITC
Pulse generator
Genetic algorithm
Time-domain reflectometry
Dissertations, Academic -- Electrical Engineering -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Quantifying and characterizing isolated tumor cells (ITCs) is of interest in surgical pathology and cytology for its potential to provide data for cancer staging, classification, and treatment. Although the independent prognostic significance of circulating ITCs has not been proven, their presence is gaining clinical relevance as an indicator. However, researchers have not established an optimal method for detecting ITCs. Consequently, this Ph.D. dissertation is concerned with the development and evaluation of dielectric spectroscopy as a low-cost method for cell characterization and quantification. In support of this goal, ultra-wideband (UWB), microwave pulse generator circuits, coaxial transmission line fixtures, permittivity extraction algorithms, and dielectric spectroscopy measurement systems were developed for evaluating the capacity to quantify B16-F10 tumor cells in suspension.^ First, this research addressed challenges in developing tunable UWB circuits for pulse generation. In time-domain dielectric spectroscopy, a tunable UWB pulse generator facilitates exploration of microscopic dielectric mechanisms, which contribute to dispersion characteristics. Conventional approaches to tunable pulse generator design have resulted in complex circuit topologies and unsymmetrical waveform morphologies. In this research, a new design approach for low-complexity, tunable, sub-nanosecond and UWB pulse generator was developed. This approach was applied to the development of a novel generator that produces symmetrical waveforms (patent pending 60/597,746). Next, this research addressed problems with transmission-reflection (T/R) measurement of cell suspensions. In T/R measurement, coaxial transmission line fixtures have historically required an elaborate sample holder for containing liquids, resulting in high cost and complexity.^ ^Furthermore, the algorithms used to extract T/R dielectric properties have suffered from myriad problems including local minima and half-wavelength resonance. In this dissertation, a simple coaxial transmission line fixture for holding liquids by dispensing with the air-core assumption inherent in previous designs was developed (patent pending 60/916,042). In addition, a genetic algorithm was applied towards extracting dielectric properties from measurement data to circumvent problems of local minima and half wavelength resonance. Finally, in this research the capacity for using dielectric properties to quantify isolated B16-F10 tumor cells in McCoy's liquid medium was investigated. In so doing, the utility of the Maxwell-Wagner mixture formula for cell quantification was demonstrated by measuring distinct dielectric properties for differing volumes of cell suspensions using frequency- and time-domain dielectric spectroscopy.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Erick N. Maxwell.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 239 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001935462
oclc - 226067513
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002172
usfldc handle - e14.2172
System ID:
SFS0026490:00001


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Full Text

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5C r,rr=!>nrr r))"(" -"rnn)rnnr n"rr *r"nr,r=!> r,=!>rn r,r=!>nr"r(#r %"rrnr n)nrn,rr nr(8,8r,;nn rn*n!"r" n"nr "rr!*,rn rr"r ,rrr)rrr( "n )nrr= >**r%"r/ =?(2>=?(@>=?(?> *$2rrrnr:nnr rrn,#rrrrn-rnrrn\rn\ rrrrnrrn,NO( #r%"rrrr) "rr"r"r ,rrnr"rr %"r)r (> > = > > = K= = K n n " ## 5 ,rr 2 = 2 K n, !r = 2>> = > = >> = K n n & ### 5 ,rr = 2 K = rnr => > = > > K n n & n # 5

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53 ?(@7r"r'r;n n)nrr rr"rrn%" rrrrr%"n( *r"r "rnnrr*n ,rr "rn(rrr"rn rnr",r )rn(!*n rn'r;n ,n"r)r) ,,= >rn = >"n( rr))" "rr,,"*r"n% "r/ =?(A>=?( > r rrrn )r rrN2O(r%"r "n "r*r)r =?(5> *&rn2&rrnrrr n* "rn(!r&rn2&"n rrr=J &rnJ 2&>"n") rn > = K2 2 4 4 > = K4 2 2 > = 2 > = K2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 & & & & & &

PAGE 101

C4 rrrrrrD'rn)"= -"?(>(!r n"r*,r%"r =?(C> rrrnr)n" *r)r / =?(3>=?(24> -"?(/#rrrrn r))"*, ) ,=2 >rn=2 >rJJ J K2 2 2 rnJJ J K2 2 2 ( K@ @ > @ = 2 J 2 2 n & & rn K@ @ 2 J n & & K n rr"

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C? r""nr4(Cnrr"+!-rr n" ,.&n )(!nr =4(>nrrrn n%"r/ =?(2@> *rn"rnrrrn"n =-"?(,>* n"n?3(2 nr!r= K2(45>n(! nr,"*"nr rn)rrr =+(>(='/)r"rn" nrr n"nnr=+(>A (5 !rn(> *nr=>"nn)r rn")n =?(2?> > = > = rn rn n))" N@O(!%"rr*"* )rn" r"rr) ,,( 2 > < = K4 ( ?( C(4 4 (? ? r 2 r ( 44 > =A @ 2 2 2 4 @ 1 1 #$ % &' ( 1 7

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PAGE 112

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PAGE 114

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PAGE 115

3? **"r)n rr,%"r*r nnr%"r=! ?(2*>(!nr %"rnn =?(2 > ),=n4 >+ ) ,=n n >rn )r(! )rnn*r %"r/ =?(25> rn"*,rrn%"r ,(! nrn,nnr ),, *';r%""n" *,rrr ("r, ""r* n';"(!n';" rnr rrnnr:n**n '!,(!?(2/'!)rn rrrnnr:n *25G#(a'/*,r n*r*"n( L L j=> r 2?(4 ?(22 22(3?a r @2(2A A(A C( 55( 5 A(2 (?3 > = K J J K + 8 2 K 2 K

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PAGE 118

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PAGE 119

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PAGE 122

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42 rnrn(-*r rnr* rr"n*rnn" n,r* *rr"n(! nr"n rnn"nn ,nnr" r=-"A(>(!.,r "rrr7r N2 O(A(@7rn)r!*,rrr n*';r%" rnr"n*, r%"*",rn "rn, *rn(+rn rnrrnn,nn )rn nrnrrrn) rrr%"r =A(> -"A(/,"rr ( > = + 2?5?CAA2 @25A2? 2??A2? @2A?@2@ @25A2? 2?5?CAA2 @25A2? 2??A2? @25 2?5 @25A2 2??A @25?C3A2 2?5A2? @2CA22? 2??A? ?CAA A2? 2? ? 2?2@ 24 @E23E 2 E ?E r +"r -r r #, "r

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4? nn"nn rrrr(! rnnn *nrnr"nr n*n"rn* n'r"" rnn=r*'!>NAO( rn*"n rrn7 r"r*rr "rrnn*r r,r(!, 7*r"n"r@44 rr(*r"n ?"rrrrA44n r(A 4E*n"rrn34E ,=!A(2>(!A(/7rrrrr "rr,)r7( ,;r L;,#)+, oLo=';)p(42A> 2 L;,#)1+, oLo@ @ `L;)r! 4 o`Lo45 ? ^nI##rn", =';)p4(>o^no=';)p4(A> A i;,#)+ oio2 i;,#)1+ oio2 5 `ir;)r! 4 o`io45 C Z##+ 4oZo 3 [9,&'nr+ 4o[o

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4 -"A(2/-*7*nr rr.,"rr( 7r !D" q@

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45 !r)r* rnr"r nrn"rnn rnrn)rnr rr(r*nrn,n r)"r ';),**"n r ,*(r*r *n")r rnrr* n(!r* rr""rnrrnrnr"r 7(r"r7*"n rnrn*)r r( ')r*nrnr *n(r ##Z*, rr:r($& )r* ,*"n,nn rnr*n,"%"r7 "r(! r*n,rrr2(AE *,"(r" [**n,rr :r9,&' (rnnrr *"nr n*",r rE=-"A(@>(r rZrn[*rn" nrn" "r7(*,n7* "nrn," rn"nr*(rn n"rnrrnr ,"","r 7*nnr "rnr# #rn9,&' n("Zrn[ *"nr7(

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4C -"A(@/-*r ,nrr( 'r; ## 9,&'

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43 A(?#"nrr7. ,"rr !"n"nr* "n* D'*nrn"r nr=/(>rn*, rrr= >7*r"n = >,=+ >)r= >nrn",= r > nr= >nr= >= >rn =+ >(!r*r %"r "r),,rn =A(@>=A(?> !%"rnrnr," rn *"n""n rn"nrrr* r"n =A(A>=A( > =A(5> rn > = 4 > = r + ( > = + =-<> > ;= 24 + n =<> > = 24 + 1 n rn =9<> 24 + n

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4 =A(C> rnrrrn"rn"n n 9 "r, 44 ( A3 2 1 1 9rn 9 r 44 ( @ 2 1 1 9(!n"n *"n"nr rrn*,r rrrn*r%"r/ =A(3> =A(4> -r%"rr=A(3>rn=A(4>*" n"!n&X rn!n&X 2)n*/ =A(>=A(2> !"n,"*"nr* "nr .,"rr7( <> = 2 + 8 n9 9 rn + + + + n n n n / 1 8 ( (+ + + +n n n n 1 8 1 rn > r= 2 > r=2 2 2 2 2 2 X ( ( ( ( ( ( &n / n / n / !n1 1 1 1 ( > r= 2 22 2 2 2 X 2 n / / n / n !n( ( ( ( ( ( & 1 1 1

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A(A+r"rrr7r*nr n"r%"rnr "rrrrrnnr: n*"r,r*& r:=D'>(!nr*,"n r*r rnn($ *nrn" ,"r7nrn"rrr rrnrn ,r,r(1"* "nr( A(A("rn"!n*"n&n"r rn*r/ ))"=#?-"?(2>9 +C5A@D'r+#r#FF n7rn2r(!* "n ))"D'(+n" r"2=1$!>r *nrD',@4 $ (4 1 r(,rrn "*rnr )"rr** n*nr($D '"rn*"n "r ,r)nD'rn n*7( A(A(2r,r"rrnn !rrr=2>rnrnnrr #=-"A(?>(!rnrr"n )rr*r rr%"r("r"n rr=>

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2 nrnnnr#* r"n)"* r#(!n*r ,* nrr,A44 r (r2rn7"nrn "nnnr,* (@7"n r,rrnr (rr *r"nrn"n,nr* r2,nr%"r*"(4 1 ( -"A(?/"n,""n rr=>rrn=> rrr2rn7rn=#>rrn=>rr r@n 25G#( => =#> => =>

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@ =>=> =#>=> =>=-> =7>=9>-"A(A/"n,""n @n7"r2r =>=#>r=->rrn=79> nr:n*25G#(

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? -r"*rn nrr r7(!,nn n*r"nrn "n"rn2rnr"nn""r (4 1 rn*n=-"A(A7>(rr *,n *%"r(!n*2r*n r (4 1 rr"r(#r, n *r*n(" 7nrn r,"r*,nn n"rr rnr:n*rn(A( rn"rr!rn"rrr"r rrrnnr:n **,"n)rnr *r'!)r ),,rn** "n "rn"r7(!rr rnr ,rn)r ,nnrnr=-" A( >*rrnnr:n*="A(5>(; )r,nrnr "nr)nr =#2"2(2>(!rn ,*)r*" n7'!n( !'!)rn rrrnn r:n*nn,2?(4 @2(2Arn55( 5,

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A => => -"A( /!),rnr r?"rrr =>rn=>r25G#(

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=> => -"A(5/!),rnr r?"rrr =>rrn=>nr:n*25G#(

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5 =!?(2r#?>(!7"n, ,"2?( @@@(@2rn 55(3@rrrnnr:n* ,"n (rr" rrnnr:n*( n*r"nrn'!", %"r*,n(! "r*&r"* *nn25s#"r "(*"n "n )""rn" rnrrn"rr( !rnn"rrn* n* nrn"rrr7rrr n(nr34E rnr,*nrnr nnr*r rEr()r rnrnn,* "rr,rn) r(9*,"rr n*,nr :n**(r := >%"n,n"r"r nr:n** nrn4A2=!A(@>(! :rr" 7""r,r"rr= >,34Ernrr,r n,4(53?E(!%"r"n ":)n =A(@> (4453?2 2< (

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C 2 < (:rrnnrn"r= d>(#r%"rn" ,r7"n nnr:n*r r*%"n7n"r n"nn( *nrn"rr* ,rn r:n*"," ,,(r rrr), ,= >n"n ,=+ >*rr)r*/ =A(?> !,nr*r rn,"r "rr, r7("., "rr*nnn", ,(r ,nrnr rr),!A(@/7"rr= >rn:= >%"n"rr rrnnr:n*34Ernr ,( L L j=> 3 3 3 (4Ar5(? (44r(?5 2( 3r(@@ r 2?( @r4(4 2 ?( r4(42C 2 @?(?Ar4(23 @ r @@(@2r4(435 A(CCr4(4?? @ 4(Cr4(4A@ 2 55(3@r4(4@ @(5r4(?3C 4A2 (A?r4(44 2 ( > = > = +

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3 =%"r=A(@>>rn"r=7+%"r=A( >> r",rr ,=rn)#>( #r%"r,*n"nnnr r*r'; nrn"rrr7rn "nrn"rr"%"r =-"A(C>(""rrn *nrn r:n**n"n(#r%"r :%"nr n"r*nn,r=!A(? >( -"A(C/!"rr,"n rrn* *r "nrn"n(

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24 A(5"!r,nnrrrr1 *nM "rnr" r9,&' n)rnrrrn nnrnnrn r"nrr(9*, nrrnn" 7r,"r"rrnr n,(!r *n"nrnn r.,"rr( ",nnrrrr, rrr ,r,r, r( !A(?/r7"rrr" rnr:n*"r*n rnrr"nrn" n,"( L L j=> 1., r 3 3 3 tr"n 55(3@r(@2 @(5r?(3C 4A2 (A?r(4 2 2 tr"nF7+ 55(3Ar(22 (5@r( (ACr(5@

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2 # nrn<;-*,"r "))!nnn!!)n!)n+20)!n!n0n nn!+nn0 !+n!)++ nrn =+n!7 /n87+/,n>nnn!2!nn!+ )!nn!)nnn! +n!n+!n-")n+2++,n!*!)n 2!n?!n7+/,n+!+&7 n!n!+nn!+A-;0++/* n$*++6 nnn!-n!0!)n6nnn!2!n) !n!nnn+*/!) *+!)+!n7++,n+-#n!+ A-C0!)n&7n!nn!* +!)+,n+/nnn!+!* ,!*!)nnnn!2!n *!nn!-!20!))!n+ n/!)++ nnn!n!!2n+(&"rn !nrn="*n rn>"r ,,nrrrrrrn $rr$" "rnrn*nrnrr rrr;n=;>N@O( *nr1,rn"nr", )r" )r*n,rr 9*+&nr3 2

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PAGE 144

2@ (2!nr!nr=!;>"r r%"r"n ,"rr r(!nr"n rrn, rrr* nrn"r(r => = >n*r rrrr"rrrn r,nr,n= -" (>(!r"n rnn*r -" (/=>nr r"rrn=>"n r%",rnrrr( #=>DE# E8 'n E 'n E 'n E1 'n _: r=> ;KA4Q d + +2 r1 ` `@ `2 => 2=> => =>=> =>DE E# #=>

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2? %"r/ r"r"rr=r<> rn "rr=nr<>(*r r-" (r"rn "rr=n8+>rnrn"r=n1+>"rr rrr(!n "rrn"r=n+> rnr=n+>"rr(+rrr) nr "nr,","r "rrrr r-" ((r#A%"r=A(>rn=A(2>nr nrn rrrrr=2 >"r& rn2& r*&(!nrn r-"r nrr,nrn2 -" (rnn,nr rnr*,/ rn > = > = > =r ! & : : = (> > = > = > =r 2 2! & : : = (2> *> =! rn> =2! rnrrn rn 2,(r)r> =! 'rn> =2! 'rrnr*, "nrnr*,r" r"rn=-" (2>(rrrrrnr nn=( ( 4>

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2A rnrr*rr""r*r "rr"n(r ""rn nr nrr"rrrr *r,rnrn ( rr*nrn r "rnr-" (2rnr r*;rrn@ r"rn""rrr "rn=;r2>rn 2,("*,> =4! n rnrrrrrrn -" (2/"rnnr*, rnrrr)"(

PAGE 147

2 r"rnr, *,*nrn *rnr;r@(!r =2>rr rrrr r2 r2 r*r" rn@ r 22@r(#r %"rr"n )n/= (@> *a 2 r,"rrr ;r2r2" rn2"rrrrn rrr"N4AO( !rrnrn *r%"r/ = (?> %"r= (@>rn= (?>r"nrrrr" rrnrr ,(-*rr-" r= (@>rn= (?> = (>rn= (2>&/ = (A> ((( 2 4 2 n 2 24 2 4 2 2 a 2 25n " n " (((2 @ 2 4 2 2 " n ( 2 @4 @ 2 4 2 > =2 a 2 25n " n " ((( > =2 n & rn > = > =4 2 > =2 2 2 22 5n " n "

PAGE 148

25 = ( > !,%"rrr" nrnrn r*)"(0r ,nnr)r rr%"rr= (>rn= (2>r *r*&r*rr/ = (5> *)r,(r r:nrnr *,= (5>nr r= (A>rn= ( > )n%"r/ 2 2 2 2 2 > = 2 2 2 2 2 > = > = > = > = > = n n " n & " " rn= (C> > = > = > = > = > = > =2 @ 2 @ 2 2 2 2 > @ = 2 2 2 2 > = 2 2 2 n n " n " & " " " = (3> *%"nrrr=2 >rnrrr=2" rn2" >*rr= 2 rn@ >( (2(;,rrrnr%"r= (@>rn= (?>,n"r )r nrn(9*,%" "rr ((( > = > => = 2 2 2@ 2 " n " & ( > = > =4 2 @ > =2 2 2 2@ 2 5n " n " 4 5n

PAGE 149

2C rrrnrr"n/r rr 2 rn@ b rrr2"rn2"brnrr2 rn2 ("rrrr rnnr, )n=2 2" " >rnrrr"nr n** r%"rr=2 K2 >(!rr nrn &r*r*,r nrr;rrn r(!rr2 nrn&r*r r 2rn2@r($rr@ nrn)r/ = (4> *rrnrrnrn r( !rr"nrr."rr* r=> =! >rn rr=> =2! >rr"rn, rrn rrr*n *r)r/ = (> *> =! *,n2r rn"n"r r(!rn rr> =2! ,n2 rn)n/ = (2> (@ 2 4 2 2 2 " n " > =2 @ 2 4 2 n

PAGE 150

23 %"r= (>rn= (2>,n*%"r rn*"r&r*r"* rrr> = > =2 2 " rnrr> =2 "n ,nr" r(9*,r rrr;r2rr" r"n%"r*r r2rn2@r(r n%"r"rr rr(!*r rnnrrn rrrr( (2(2rrnrnr!r%"n*rrr rrrn "rrnnnrr nrn( !r%"n2rn2@r rn,nn%" rrnnr r=$2>,r "*n= >*/ ( 22 4 2 / 0= (@> rr%"n"*n rnrrr( rrr,r ,r*"rn r,",rr ()nr?A(52 n"rr", ,2(5"r234 n r(%"r= (@>,nr," rrrr

PAGE 151

@4 *rrnr2(! %"nr"r *rrnr"rnr% "rrr A(C2 (!rr;r@" *r ;rrnr"rn rrrrr nn"rr,r rnrr,r 2"n( (@,""r !"rrn7" r"r2 r *,rr)r) r)"24 1 r+#r!$n rn@rn2 r (!*"nr) r)r)" "7"r"r( )n *n"r!$n r,rn (')'r; *"n" n=" (@>( r"r2 r 4 r"n*,*n r"7"r"r"r r9+@@24*, r(!9+@@24,nn""r "rr"n "r"r,nnrn" "*n"n234 n r,n7"r"(!r"rn rrnr*,n*r$ rrrrnr (+*,r*n

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PAGE 153

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PAGE 154

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@? (!"rn2rn2@r *r( rrn*rrr $rn$@n )r/$@K2$rr2@r, n= -" (?>"2 rr=-" (?>(! *,rnrn"%"n( !nrr *,n*,* n"r( => => -" (?/#r)",*"n*, =>rn=>2(

PAGE 156

@A !*,r-" (?*nr "rr" "r(!rrr"nnr rnr=4>rn=r> r;r2r=> =! >rnr;r2@r => =2! >("2A n .*,nr"r(* nrn .rn*, r=-" (A>(! r;r2r=-" (A >nrn"nr =>=> =#>=> -" (A/r*,=>rn r=>r2n=#>r2@ n rn=>rnr"rn%" rrnr(

PAGE 157

@ rn"nnr:n*( &rr,r," rnn"%"n ",**r +!-!r)nr n(!r => => -" ( /#"n=>rn=>2nr*,(

PAGE 158

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PAGE 160

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?4 #5 rr,rn -4!"#r $%"nn" "))!nnn!!2+:A7:F+!n !+nnn r+2?3n-#!)!20n3n27 !n7+nnn!2!n nn!+)!nn!)nnn+-#! )n!n!+0$*+++n nn!+!!++*nn !nn-")nn!n!+ nn!!nn!)+!+!n0+!0 +!+!)nnn+!n/0n!2nnn!n+ n,n,+n+nn:An!!!2+++/nn !!++n!+!)nn3n27 !n7+nnn!2!n-")nnn!+ !!n!++nnn)2 n+!!*!)n!2+nn!n!++ 2!+)!nn3!2 +!n:A!+n-5(&"rnrrrnr" "M=>r =>"nnrn n"n N@5O(rnn" ,n) r,rr*r)n "rr(9*, r,r%"rr*r nnr"r%"r

PAGE 162

? r"rr#rn# =##>r, "-nN@C@3O("rrr n*"nr"n" ,nnrn" rr,r( r,rrrnr, r"nr,r rr,rrn""r (r,r%" rr:n,rrnr rr N?4O(!r%"nrr,,n" ,r"r"n r"rn""(#"" ,n"nr nn(!"rn rr"n "9rnr"rN??2O(!9 rnr"r"" "n"%"nn"r** n(! ,rn -4"r %"nn"( 5(2rnn! -4"r*n,nr.r "rrr #A5$< rn,rrn* 2@*&(!"* rnr""rnr.nrr*r r(!*n rrn,rnrr-4(! rn"* ,rr" """N?@O(r! #""#r=!##>"n -4""" ,r"*"rr(

PAGE 163

?2 9*,*rr""*rn "r%"n)rr(#Mn" rrr rrrn,r"rn *,n ""rr,rr*r," rn rn"(("N??O( """" -rn#M%"nn" =#'(4A4#DA*& rn7nr>""r r(!r%"nACnr "",nn"r(-"5(/-*r ""n -4""rrrn "r( #r"A4A r" nn424E #rnrnn -n" !&44244"$ #"rr #"= n > ;nnr ;rnnr nn!r" ="r-e2> +n 9 -#* #"rr #"r#

PAGE 164

?@ *,n""* nrnr* *r-"5((#"r*, n"r='( 42 54b-r>(! "rr*"n r"rr""& r""(') "rr*nrr"Ar" rnrr r"4A n %"n"r"r n( *n*"rnnr ,",r) n"rnr*424Ernrnn "(44244 "rr*nrnnr "(!r"*nnnrn *"nr24 nn (!n*r n"rn "rr"rn""rn r""N?AO( !"r*"nnr"r "rrrnn" *rnn,nn," "r**n *r"/42rn@ n #MAn"( r%"*"nrrnr"r rr"nr" rn)""=-" 5(2>(rr**"n :)"(-*rr* )"*"n*#M n",rn"($ "rr*&r ""&r "rr(! *n*rrrnn& r",& "rrrrr(

PAGE 165

?? -"5(2/+*rrn" r -4""rr( + !<-%"r! !#"rFF ##"rK4 !#"rK 4 ##"rFF -)"*< r=2)> -)"*< n=2e> #"rK?W rn # #"rK?W u u --)" * --)" * --)" * # #"rKW # #"rK2W ' u u

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PAGE 167

? "("n"" r"r" "rr*""rr r"r"rn( !"rrn* r,rr *nrn"rrr7r rr rnnr"r( ,"rrnn"rr = ; >*nrrn=& e>nrrr =>nnr*r%"r/ =5(> *$rnrnr,r, r(!r*"n "rnn"rr*) n =5(2> !rnn"rrn nrnnn,rr = > =9 >("nrn &rr7r,r r),,( !"rrn*r" r"rn* ,"nrn r(r*n ",r"/r nr*rr" rrr*r"nr *r"/@rn2 e r r & & 5 9 ( e > r=r r & 2 & 5 9 9 ;

PAGE 168

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?C "rr(!*nrn %"rnr"r n"rrnnr# (9*,n"r rn"rrrn"n7 r,,nn ';*"n,"r "r(-nr "rrnrnn*, *"n"rr 9+A?5A4rnn*!$ nr,r (')r* ';*"n" n -4"rr( r*n" "r( !-)" r r=!r+" +> r 7rr +" r + !" # ,r = + nnr nr -"5(@/-*rn%"rnr r:r "rr(

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?3 5(A;"rnr%"rnr" r !%"rnr"rn r"rr9+C5A@D' "*%"n** nn"(n D'r:"r"rrn" rrnrr rrr )"("r" rr42rn@ n *rrn"rC "*n"r%"rnr "r(!n* n*rrn';rnr r:n"rr(r rnrr rr42rn@ n r#M%"nn"*n( 9r%"rnr nH@(#r rr"n n"r*r(5(A(-%"rnrnr"r7 !r-"5(?"**7 9,& 'n"rH@n(+" n,r"n rn,*) r(n*,n" "(4 1 rnr"n=-"5(?#rn7>( 9*,2n*rn=-"5(?-rn9 >(!7 ,nn2*244 r (

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A4 =>=> =#>=> =>=-> =7>=9> -"5(?/ rD'"nrn7"n "rn2@n %"rnr=>=>@=#>=>2 rn=>=-> n =7>=9>#Mn"(

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A !),"nr 9,&'n*nnr r,%"r@44 r =-"5(A>(!r,n" ,*"n *r@2(3@5(AH@(9*, n ,) ,r,n"2 1 r"rrA(5C(?( r:r "%"rrrn ,r* rrr"r,"(' ,)rr r,*n"rn=! 5(>(9*, ,*nnrr( -"5(A/7n"n), "rr%"rnr "rn=H@>(

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A2 5(A(2rrr7r !,H@ 7nrnnr," nr," -4"(9* ,7n"nnr ,",* )"nr"r n(,"rrnn"r rn*rr 7rH@n"n"rn*"rn rnr* ,n(!*nr "rCE"n ,(!n"34Ernr r,*nr nrr,n4@ n (#r%"r7n"n" **n,=! 5(2>(r'; rnrr,rrn,n r"rr)" !5(/)n7%"rn r"rn=H@>( L L `) i i @ n @2(3@ A(55 (55?4 (4A (4? 2 n @@( C(@C 5(434 4(33 4(33 n @ (5A C(?4 2(@254 (43 (4 4 n =#Jn"> @5(?? 5(2A (2234 ( (4?

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A@ "r,* nr:r"r "rn(n"n,"n* rnr'; r%"*,rrr *,rr )rr( !5(2/!,"rr34Ernr r,%"rnr7H@( 7r=& @e> #rnr$ @ > 2< = @ ; 3 7" '; @ @ ; r $* "rn "rn L @@(55 @( ? ?(?2 3 C(E 23(4C @?(24 L C(2C 4(42 3 4(2E C(2 C(23 @ n `) 4(52 4(4 3 4( E 4(52 4(52 L @?(A2 @2(@ ?(A2 3 C(E 23(5? @?(33 L C(?4 4(42 3 4(2E C(@3 C(? 2 n `) 4(5@ 4(4 3 4(CE 4(5@ 4(5? L @ (2C @@(CC ?(5@ 3 C(E @(? @ ( 2 L 5(@5 4(4A 3 4(?E 5(@A 5(?4 n `) 4(32 4(4@ 3 ( E 4(3 4(3? L @ (CC @?(A5 ?(C@ 3 C(E @(55 @5(@5 L 5(A? 4(4 3 4(?E 5(A4 5(A5 #JA n" `) 4(32 4(4A 3 4(3E 4(3 4(32

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A? 5(A(@-%"rnrnr"r'r; !rr,';"n, ), nrnnrrr7M =-"5( >(" ,nn*rrr ,""rn(r ';r%""r"r r"nr ,()r*" r"r#M n", "rr*nr r"rrn" *n,r*r"v -"5( /!';) ,%"rnrH@(

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AA ) n =-"5(5>(!,r)nrn r *rr*nr(5(A(?rrr';r r,"rrnn"rr34E rnr,*n r"r'; ""rr rnr42rn@ n rr(#Mn" *2rn@ n *nrnrnrnr *n ,=!5(@*>(9*,r n (""r nr( -"5(5/!';, "r "rrr%"rnr(

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A n*rn"nnr rrnr( !r"/rnrr ,*.n r""rn rn"r*r rr,=(4 >=!5(?>(" "r %"rnr"r*nnr nrrnn ,r n ( !5(@/!,"r34Ernr ,%"rnr';n"r( #rnr$ ; > 2< = 3 ; r $* "rn "rn @ n @?(33 4(@AA 3 4( 4E @@(33@ @?(?4A 2 n @?(343 4( @@ 3 (CE @?(A? @A(255 n @2(5?? 2(C?A 3 C( 3E @(434 @?(@3C 4 n @ ( @ (25C 3 @(A@E @A(?24 @ (34 !5(?/1rn34Ern r,%"rnr';n"r( #r $&n =wK> Dn ='"9> @rn2 n A(3? A(@ (A@ 4(455 ;. 2rn n A(?2 @(23 2(33 4(44 ;. @rn n (@5 2(@ @(2 4(44? ;. rn4 n 2(@4 4(A? @(? 4(44A ;.

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A5 5(A(A"r%"rnr"r "rrnrnr%"r nr*rn* n"r7r,r,r "rrn"r ,"r n "r"(!7nn"n n, 1 (r9,&'n*., nrrn r !#%"r( 9*,r"r rr( r)"nrr*r"n rrrr rrr<"rn"nrn, +!-* nr"r"n r"(rnnr n"rr"* rn"rn "rr(")"r* n"rrn *rrnnrn"( rn"r "r*nr ,n( rn7 "rr,"r"r( "rrr rnr* ,(rrn "rrrn"n( ';,r"r*n n *rrn,"(!" ,"nr" r"nrrrr" rrrnrn r"rnrn"(9*,& *n"

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AC rrrrr rnr)" "rr%"*r,n( "r ,*nnrr* r:r "rr(!n*nrn *nr %"r*n "r( 5( ;"rnrnr"r !%"rnr"r",nn rnrnr rrr rnr" n(,nn r,"r,rn r"r(r "r7"r"*"rnn *rrrr*n r(!"rn"rn r*"n"r 9+A?5A424 1 "2C,r(rn nr rr"r*"n= -"5(C,>(') r*n,n rr(!" "rrn**r"n r"rrrn'; (!rr"n*n" r"( 5( (!nrnr"r7r%"rrr42rn@ n r#Mn"* n"r r"r7(r)",**,"r *nr"r

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A3 => =>-"5(C/r)",**n r"r=>*, rnrnnrr "rrH2*=>:r" rr(

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4 rrrnrr)" *nnrr= -"5(C>(""nrnr" nn* n rn #Mn"**,r nnr," rrr "rr(!r "nrr *@ n r "rr H2( -"@ n *nr "r r( =>=> =#>=> -"5(3/+rr,rn rnr H2* => *,"rnn*r)"=>n rn=#>2rnrrn=>rn "( rn rn

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rnr*,"r %"n nnrrr"rn*rn *rrr= -"5(3>(rnrrr rnr" "r*n*r"rn n*,n" "rn*r(! r"rnrn *rnrr+!-r r(#"rrn*nr %"n"rrrN4 AO(9*,)"n #"r*nr%"nA4Qrn &"rn rnn*,("*rr nn*rn r(')n*,* nr,r r-"rr *,r& rr=-"5(3>rnn,n rr "rn"=-"5(3>r"r (2*r"n n,nr-"r*, rn2rnr *,=-"5(3>( !5(A/#"nr,H2 "rr( `=r> `2=r> `@=r> `?=r> @ n ( 5AC 4( @A5 @(@ 4? A( 53 2 n ( C? 4( 44ACA3A @(A25@ A(C2A n ( 5C5 4( 44ACA34 @( 535 A(3A34 4 n =#n> ( C5A 4( 4@A @( 535 A(3545

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2 => => -"5(4/#"n=>rn=> 2n*r,rnr "rnH2 "r r(

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@ !nr!5(?*"nr ,%"nr r,rnr*, H2(,n *r"rn7" rrrn,n 2=`?>rnrn"r*nr"r (!"nA( 5 n @ n rnA(35 n n"(rr r,rnr"rn=# ?>"nr *nnrrr2rn"n=-"5(4>(! nrr*,nrrr"n rn2"%"r 44 r rn 1 ,(r#Mn"rn n *nrnrr 2"rnr"n *n,rn"" nnrr rrr(!r"n" n*n#M n",r*rrrn* @ n (" rrrrnr *rrr rrr(rr rrrnr rrrrr( !*n7 ,)r(7r -"5("**7* 9,&'n nH2(n*,n rnr"n" "244 r =-"5(#P7>(!"n rn"nn 2*nr%"rn r(

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? =>=> =#>=> =>=-> =7>=9> -"5(/ r"nrn"n"rn2@n=>@ n =#>2 n =-> n =79>#MAn"(

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A =-"5(-rn9>(" rn*nnr "rrn"nnnrrrr rnnrrnn nrrr" ),," *%"r*r"nrn"nn *r( -"rnrrr ), n**n r=-"5(2>("7 nn,nr,") ,,rnr n* n*nr* *r"n"rD'n=! 5( >( -"5(2/#), rr"r7rH2(

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5( (2rrr7r,"rrnn"rr* nr "rr"r 7(rn"r* n34Ernr,(!""rr, r r7H2n*n ,rn =!5(5>(!rnn r"rr*r"@(C5 ,(r&r%"r nrrnrnnr ,"(" 7n* nrn(9*,rr'; r%"*"n nrnrn" r( 5( (@!nrnr"r';r%"r';r%"nrnn rrrrn r)," "244 r =-"5(2>( !5( /)n7nr "rn=H2>( L L `) @ n @( 4 (3 2(@C345 4(332 4(3C3 4(@? 2 n @2(@5 ?(3 A(@A 4(3C4 4(3C4 4(2 n @3(@5 A(A @(43? (42 (42 4(44 4 n =n"> ??(3 (2 @(C5? 4(3C3 4(3C3 4(A

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5 ,244 r nrr" "rrn*rr rrrnr "rn("r r"r';r%" *,rrr"rn ,nnrrr !5(5/!,"rr34Ernr r,nrH2( 7r=& 2e> #rnr$ 2 > 2< = 2 ; 3 7" '; 2 2 ; r $* "r "rn L 23(35 25(5A @(C5 3 C(E 2A(A 23(33 L ( C 4(23 3 (4E (A (C? @ n `) 4(3 4(4 3 @(E 4(C 4(24 L @A(?5 @2(?4 ?(A 3 C(E 23(53 @A(4 L 3(A2 4(2 3 4(CE 3(@5 3( 5 2 n `) 4(45 4(44@ 3 2(?E 4(45 4(45 L ?2(C? @3(?? A(?3 3 C(E @ (2 ?2( @ L A(3? A(?3 3 24(4E 2(5A 3(2 n `) 4(4@ 4(44 3 (CE 4(4@ 4(4@ L ? (2@ ?(C3 A(C2 3 C(E @C(A ?A(2A L C(4@ 4(?A 3 (?E 5(55 C(2C 4 n =n"> `) 4(4? 4(44 3 (5E 4(4@ 4(4?

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C "rr(r%"rnr ,H2 *n,"#Mn"rn *@ n (,r"r rrnnnr" ""rr(!n rnrnnrr r"rrr"nr n =-"5(?>(9*,r "*nrn*,nr'; "rr( !rnr"rn@ n =n"rn>( -"5(@/!';) ,rnr(

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3 5( (?rrr';r ,"rrnn"rr r"r nrnnrr"nn* r#Mn"rn2 n =!5(3>("* ,*rrnr -"5(?/!';, "r "rrr nr( !5(C/!,"r34Ernr ,nr';n"r( #rnr$ 7" ; r $* "rn "rn @ n @2(2?5 C(A3 3 5(3E 2 (?5C @C(4A 2 n @C(CC ?(24 3 5(2?E @A(?22 ?4(3AA n ?@( 2 ( 3 2(A E ?2(?3@ ??(5@4 4 n ?A(35 4( C 3 (4E ?A(? 4 ? (@5?

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54 r,n*2rn@ n 34Ernr,r nnr"r( nrnr" r.nr "r%"rnr n=!5(3>(9*, "r&%"rnr *rrrnrrr@ rn n ( 5( (A"rnr"r "rrnrnrn r*nrr ,rr7rn%" rnrn(! rn"nr ,nrn(rC(E r*rn7rr rn%"r nr"r(rCEnr*r rn%"rnrn *,n"r4 n (!nr"r !5(3/1rn34Ern r,nr';n"r( #r7" $&n =wK> Dn ='"9> @rn2 n 4(5 4(4C 2(A2 4(4A ;. 2rn n 2(5 (C3 (AC 4(452 ;. @rn n (? (C? (45 4(AA rn4 n @(?2 2( 2(@@ 4(42 ;.

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5 *nrr**n, r#Mn"(" r2rnrr=-"5(3>#M n"* nr,rr=-" (?>( !"rn"r &r ,=@ >"n"2 (#Mn"*nn rrnrn" "r"nr"r( ,rnrr* r"rn"" r*#Mn" r* "rn="5(3#rn-" (?#>( ""rnrn* (9*,& r"nrnrn *,r7 r( !nr"*nr nrr*rrn@ n (!"*nrnrn"rr-" 5(?" "r(1r*" rn*n"n" "r"rrrn "r(!"* nnrnrn"rr rrr,rn"n"r "r"rr(,n "rrrn rrr*n "(!*rn*n "*rn*r "r(" **n*r"r* (

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52 5(5" #:rrn%"rr!#rn"n "" %"rr,rn"n"r (n*rnn *"r"""rr,r n"n"rrr ,rnrrrr r"r!#(r *n"r,n S*U%"nr r(;n"nnrn !#r:n"r n*n %"r(!"rn* %"r"n"rr"rr r"r(! r""rrn r,rr *""rr(! n,r*n"r rn*n,rnr"r rrn*" ""r(

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5@ #C "rn-"";rnr !,nnr,rn rnrrn ';rn%"rrnnr "r(! *nrr,rr"n :rn %"rn "r#M%"n n"(rn,r "rrr*r" rn*r"nnnrr rr"rrrn" rrrr )"r"rrn)r"n "r( rrrr"rr rn"*r "n,rr r( n%","r "*%"rn (-"-##nr nrnrr r("n,r r%"n"rnr& *r"nn/nrnn"r rr rnrrn)r," *,rr(!& "nrn,r*r*"r "nr/#@+"rrn "r%"&nrn"nrnr rn"n"r"r rnr,D;#(

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5? rnrrrr )"r"r* r(!)"*nrn* "*r rn*""(!* ,nn,r)r )"*nrr"* n';r(9*,)" r"rnnrr* rrnr( +n*r*r "nn"r,rn"nr "rrrnr"rnr r"(! nrnr,* *n"nr "r**n*r(r"" nr"rr ,rn"rrrr "nn",rr "r"(rnnrr %"n"r *)*r"(! ,n"r&r !<;"rr)"*r"nnr rrn,r *rr)"(" "rr,r r("rn rn*"n*rn rnn"9(r" nnrn*n r""r*r (4 n (9*,,r n"nrr rnr"r "(-r)r"n "r';rnr *rrn,r "r( n,r*r"rn )"(#r

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5A rn"nr)"nr r*r"nnnrr rrrrrnnrn rr"rr( !rrrr*"rnr "rr"r r"r(-"" rnn7*r"r rrnn*r rnnn&r*r(! n*nrr"* ,nrnr ';rnn,r7",r r( 9*,7*"r* *r"nn*& r,r"r"r(#r,r"n ,n*"., "rr*r,r7$ *(!"rr r7&"" .,r rnn("r*rr r*r,n "r%"rrnnr* n"r" (r* nn :rrn%"rr!#r n"""r ),(nr nnr,"r *nr,r%"rrn nr"r r,"r", ""rr(! nrn,nnnr "rnr%"r nrn"r n*nrr "rrnrrrr"n" rnnrn*rr

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5 rr"r(#r%"r rnn,"r n"*"nr"nrr"r ""rr ,"rnnrrrnrr n"r"r n"(#r%"rn"r" "rr"rr "rrrr"n" r"rr "rrrnn"r)" r"r rnn""(rr"rr*r n*"n rnrr(" nnr rrnrnrrn r** "("#r" *n",,*rr ,n*rrrrr*r ,rnnr r".nrr*r nr,r rnN?5O(9*,rnr nnr"r r" nr(r:rrn %"rr!#,nrr*n (9*, %"nrn")rrnn rrr( r,n nrrrn r,rrn(rn *rrr nrnr,"(

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55 ;r ('"(r(0,7(0xr;( B,9("!(0" !(rn'rn8(( n!n!++#+!n"+n+nr+/ 27&!*nn!+'!n!G++/ !)'n+n!,n 'n!n'2"+)!n!#r#r;244( 5/(?22?23( 2(r((7r-($(rnr$(9( !++#+!n"+ nG!++!)nA!) !++!)nn %+!+!!nn+n &!**r#r244@(3C=2>/(25?425?( @(#r7( !)n2rn!!n+!n!)#+!n "+n &n!n2)+n+n!n'!n!rr"244 ( 2?@=2>/(2C5( ?(n*r7(r(0xr;(B,9 (8r"8(0,7( 'rn8((rn'"( #+!n"+n+nr+/")nn Hn!n*+nn7nnn!n '!n!'n! 6,+n.!+n#r#r;244?(4= >/(A@?2 A@?C( A(n*r7(r(0xr;(B,9 (8r"8(0,7( 'rn8((rn'"( n!n!++#+!n"+n+n r+/##nnn!'+*+!!+n !n#r#r ;244@(2=C>/(@? 3@?5C( (&"0(!&('&.(:r('&(!&"n0( "(r9('"(rn&" !( #!+n!,n r+nn!n!++!*"+n28 n,nn"!+7 '+2nn)8n!+'!n!!)27 'n!n# +!n!)n!+*n+rn!!rr"1r2442( 3=?>/(@ ?@54( 5(9r&+(9";(D(r$(9(rn &rn#( !++ #+!n"+nr+n!!#r333(C =2>/(2 C2 5@(

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5C C(r$(9( "r0&!) !+Gn/n,n+n!1nn+ n! 8nrr"1r244@(2=>/(3 22( 3(#r7(r(&(&!( $n(;r&-(rn #(( #+,*!)n8n+!2+*+*r+n !!n #+!n"+n#r244?(4@=2>/(@AC@ 5( 4(+",r( ")n8n!2G6n!*!)n!n+n (Nn244?Ob ,//<<***(r,r(</(@( @(97(rD(rn*r!( ")n!+++!n!+n+ ,,+n!n!n!!r8"r"2445( 3@=A>/(A5A5?( ?(,($(0('(rr((& !(rn9*(+(rn "0(( +++'!)++*!7n!n!n!+!n+ !n7 !n#*n2n!n!n&n!n2)+ nr+n!!n n!nnr+244@( =>/(A3 @( A(&((!r9((#(D. &9(!r;((n"r +(#(,r+(8(rn!r&9(8( &n,n!+!n++2nn n!,!2nn2+n!n!++n!n +n+n!!n!n! /!)n!n8"r#r+244?(A5/(3 43 ?( ((;(rn'( !+!++!)n!++*2+!+2$ nr2445(@C=5>/(?4A?4( 5($u(8(r9(7(+&(!(#(7( 9r(#(8"r(8(8u(!( 8r#(u(rn9(( ")n,n+!+n!,n!2!++*2!)n nn!+2)+n!!*!n *n27#r244A( C/(2?A2?C( C(&9(+((d*:-(rn8"r9 ( ")n!+++/ 2!+n!2+!)n5!!++!)n8n+n+ nn!"+!+ #!+#3C(2=>/(??? (

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53 3(;rr8(+( +/2!+n!2 r 2+n++!n+n *nn* (244?&&r(/'*u&(( @4 @3( 24( +/2!+n!2Gn!"n!n.!++$ r ++n&,n2 8n+! (244 ((2?( 2(+&,#((D"+(rn,#(! ( "nn!nnnn! nn!&n!++2n3n27++*) 7+!*n"+n. +n!+')2+)n8n! (r # #!n!++nnn+ nn!3 (244A/( 22(0(7"(rnur:*!( 8n7!n+!+*+2n!n ,+2nn!n!++28"r333(5 = >/(@@?A @@?C( 2@(7"( )!n*n2!n2n+nn! n!++2r33C(5= >/(?5A?C2( 2?(+nr#(-(#8(;(rn 8(9( +/7n3n20+/7n nn!n!++2+,*nn+8"rn+ 244?(3A=5>/(@5A?@5A ( 2A(;"D n!)n+n!!+)!+n nn!+n!n/!)+n7nn+ +n"rr rn!r33A( =?>/(?4??( 2 (0::y&(n&(0:"&8( rn0z&{( "+ nn!)++3+++n!n*+ (r :;!)#!n!+ +nnn+r+/,n8 (33C(0&*+rn( 25(7r($(ur8(#r'(08($ r0(#(*rr;(8(( 8;(+(rnr0(9( n!+nn!n+!)nnn! +n!n+++*n (r ;FFI8n+!+nnn+ n! #!+nn!')n+n (244@("%"%"'*)/ rnr"r( 2C($"8(#("#(u($"(#(rn$"#(u( '+n+n)*! /!),nn1++2n/,n+8r#(#((!244A(@?=>/(3( 23(7"!(;(r(0(!+(9"n #(7r&(,8( +(#9($($(*rr8(;(#" ((n#((rn $rn(( r+n!++nG+,n2 'n!+21nn n+r+!+*r333(2C =A?@3>/(A@ A@5(

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34 rn

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rn)/=#rr"n> 3@ rn%"r7"r+r"r"" ,n"rr( $nr rnnn,r*r "n"*"n rnrnnn,rrnr 434E"nr (!rnrnrnr *r)/434E =`434>(4 n n""n^)r=(>r)n `434*"n"r"r*,(9* ,`434"( C n rnb-"(*( #r%"rn""r`434^)"r*,* CE r)(rr"nnn ""r434E rnnn,rnrn" rn`434r%",r^)( -"(4 n n%"r2r)n&r %"r4(A 1 "(9*,r"-0rn)4(@ 1 "*r-"rr"(2*(r" rn)n&r%"rrrr %"rnrr ((%"rnr"" 4 rn*nn )4(@A 1 rn)n4(AA 1 (#r%"r*rr rrnrnnn, r%"rnrn r"rn+-M"nrn rnr)",(

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rn)/=#rr"n> 3? => =>-"(/=>7"r r:n(4 n "rn=>r:n "*rr nn"r(4 n 7"r"(

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rn)/=#rr"n> 3A (@-"r7"r"nr434E "r"nrr" 7"r"rr rnr(rn rn""r rrrnnn,r rnr 7"r"rrrnr rrrnn n,r*rn" r)*r434E "n(!"r%"n r7"r"r 434Enrnr" rr *r434E=`434>rnrnnn,r=`^>(!r rn,n""r`^^)rn)EZr=(>*n/ (2> *)r"nrn=)E`^>,,(r`434" ,n%"n,, 4E34E)" *r%"r/ =(@> r%"rr`434rn`^n,n*r4Ern34E ""n)Er=(2>(rrrr"," =(@>n" *rr/ E 34 E 4 34 4! r r r 2E 2 E 9 9! "

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rn)/=#rr"n> 3 =(?>,nr)r%"r rnnn,r4E34E (,r, *r)r/ =(A>=( > *#rrnn" r"n(!r *r,r))"rrrn nn,r"rr( )*, rnnn,r"rr **"nn"*" n*%"r(! nr"rr"r r#,n rr"rn""rrn %"rnr"r ,nnr-&r(-"r=( >nrn 434E (4 n nrnr-"(@" (7r nr"&r%"r* )n,"4(A 1 = -"(2>(!,n"" rnrnr( (?nrrr) r !)r,,nr rnr"" "r*,r) ()rr 2 34 4 22 34 4 34 42 " " !n A32C (4 (4 r 3(4 r 2 7 r r C5 ( (4 r >3(4 r= 234 47

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rn)/=#rr"n> 3C => =>-"(2/':n"* nn=>(4 n 434Ern=>r:n "* nn(4 n "*n"r434Err(

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rn)/=#rr"n> 33 r*r434Ernnn,r( !rr "rrrnnn,r rr"r# rnr=( >(!rn 7"r"r ,)r:r ,"" rnnn,r"rrrn) rrrnnr* r,n/ =(C> *34 4 ?? " r "rnnn,r(! )r ,nnr4(2 n =(C>*rnr )n-&r2(@5 1 (-*rrrrn" r=(C> r"-&r,n-"(?*(#r%"r ,nrrr) r,,n" nr*,r,) *nrn" rn%"rnr*,( (Arrnr,"r!nr"rr=( >) rrnr ,"r"r) *r434Ernrnnn,r( nr=(C>"rnnn,r %",rrn 7"r""*nnn *?^(!n 2 34 4 2 ?2 34 4 34 42 " " r !n

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rn)/=#rr"n> 242 => => -"(@/':nn=>(4 n "rn=>r:n""r *(4 n "*n(

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rn)/=#rr"n> 24@ '*rnr*"r =(C>rn=(4>/n "rrnr(!n n*r 7"rn"rrnr ,)rn"r n(!"r,n"r nrn*r ,r%"rrn*,bn r%"r 7"r*r( rnnr" r"7"r r"r"n *,(rnrnn*, r,r:"n r"*n"r(1r rnrn *"rnr7" r"rrnnn,r 434Er(!** r)nrn"" ""( "n."n, rr #rrrnnn,rr 7"rn"rn ""r *r434Ernrnn n,r*&r"rnr" rr,nrr" rn""rrn%"rn r"(!" rr""nr"r r)rnnrn rrn" "rn)n"r r("nr"rr* "r"*n rn"n" r,n*r

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Maxwell, Erick N.
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Ultra-wideband electronics, design methods, algorithms, and systems for dielectric spectroscopy of isolated B16 tumor cells in liquid medium
h [electronic resource] /
by Erick N. Maxwell.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2007.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Quantifying and characterizing isolated tumor cells (ITCs) is of interest in surgical pathology and cytology for its potential to provide data for cancer staging, classification, and treatment. Although the independent prognostic significance of circulating ITCs has not been proven, their presence is gaining clinical relevance as an indicator. However, researchers have not established an optimal method for detecting ITCs. Consequently, this Ph.D. dissertation is concerned with the development and evaluation of dielectric spectroscopy as a low-cost method for cell characterization and quantification. In support of this goal, ultra-wideband (UWB), microwave pulse generator circuits, coaxial transmission line fixtures, permittivity extraction algorithms, and dielectric spectroscopy measurement systems were developed for evaluating the capacity to quantify B16-F10 tumor cells in suspension.^ First, this research addressed challenges in developing tunable UWB circuits for pulse generation. In time-domain dielectric spectroscopy, a tunable UWB pulse generator facilitates exploration of microscopic dielectric mechanisms, which contribute to dispersion characteristics. Conventional approaches to tunable pulse generator design have resulted in complex circuit topologies and unsymmetrical waveform morphologies. In this research, a new design approach for low-complexity, tunable, sub-nanosecond and UWB pulse generator was developed. This approach was applied to the development of a novel generator that produces symmetrical waveforms (patent pending 60/597,746). Next, this research addressed problems with transmission-reflection (T/R) measurement of cell suspensions. In T/R measurement, coaxial transmission line fixtures have historically required an elaborate sample holder for containing liquids, resulting in high cost and complexity.^ ^Furthermore, the algorithms used to extract T/R dielectric properties have suffered from myriad problems including local minima and half-wavelength resonance. In this dissertation, a simple coaxial transmission line fixture for holding liquids by dispensing with the air-core assumption inherent in previous designs was developed (patent pending 60/916,042). In addition, a genetic algorithm was applied towards extracting dielectric properties from measurement data to circumvent problems of local minima and half wavelength resonance. Finally, in this research the capacity for using dielectric properties to quantify isolated B16-F10 tumor cells in McCoy's liquid medium was investigated. In so doing, the utility of the Maxwell-Wagner mixture formula for cell quantification was demonstrated by measuring distinct dielectric properties for differing volumes of cell suspensions using frequency- and time-domain dielectric spectroscopy.
502
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 239 pages.
Includes vita.
590
Adviser: Thomas M. Weller, Ph.D.
653
UWB.
ITC.
Pulse generator.
Genetic algorithm.
Time-domain reflectometry.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Electrical Engineering
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2172