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Interagency collaboration and communication

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Title:
Interagency collaboration and communication funders and service providers working together to create a management service organization
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Eschenfelder, Beth E
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Organizational communication
Nonprofit merger
Funder mandates
Group communication
Nonprofit partnership
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Charitable nonprofit organizations are growing in number and scope, but the body of literature and knowledge about communication within these organizations is limited. Today, charitable organizations face a flurry of economic and environmental factors that challenge their continued survival: growing community needs, mounting funding cuts from all segments of government, increased competition for funding, a limited pool of dedicated community leaders to serve on boards, decreased charitable giving for some causes, and persistent calls for greater accountability. As nonprofits explore new ways of coping with these socioeconomic pressures---such as reorganization, consolidation, mergers, and management service organizations---there is a clear need for applied communication research on organizational change in nonprofit settings.^ This research explores the unique issues nonprofit organizations face when considering a specific form of consolidation---a management service organization---focusing on interorganizational communication among nonprofits and funders and the challenges faced during reorganization planning and implementation. In particular, this research explores communication processes both within and among the Neighborhood Family Center Coalition (NFCC) (a collaborative of nonprofit organizations), and the Juvenile Welfare Board of Pinellas County (JWB), a funder of these same organizations, as the members planned and developed a management service organization. Action research was the chosen methodology for this study due to the strong desire of the research participants to engage fully in planning, executing and analyzing this research. Working together, we co-generated the research questions for this study.^ Agreed upon areas for research included considerations and challenges in implementing the management service organization, the funder's role in guiding and assisting in the integration process, management and communication strategies implemented to mitigate the negative effects of this type of organizational change and/or to contribute to successful implementation of this type of integration model, and lessons learned that may benefit future JWB efforts, as well as funders and service providers in communities throughout the United States. The research team worked together to identify and develop appropriate research methods and protocols that included interactive interviews and ethnographic observation. Interviews were conducted with all members of the NFCC and key management staff from the JWB.^ The applicability of this research is of great importance to funding institutions, many which are taking on a more active role to stabilize or strengthen their funded programs, and more often today, through encouragement to consolidate. Results of this study also may lay the groundwork to support and engage nonprofit leaders considering consolidation as an option for their organizations.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Beth E. Eschenfelder.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 293 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001937891
oclc - 227003212
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002174
usfldc handle - e14.2174
System ID:
SFS0026492:00001


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ABSTRACT: Charitable nonprofit organizations are growing in number and scope, but the body of literature and knowledge about communication within these organizations is limited. Today, charitable organizations face a flurry of economic and environmental factors that challenge their continued survival: growing community needs, mounting funding cuts from all segments of government, increased competition for funding, a limited pool of dedicated community leaders to serve on boards, decreased charitable giving for some causes, and persistent calls for greater accountability. As nonprofits explore new ways of coping with these socioeconomic pressures---such as reorganization, consolidation, mergers, and management service organizations---there is a clear need for applied communication research on organizational change in nonprofit settings.^ This research explores the unique issues nonprofit organizations face when considering a specific form of consolidation---a management service organization---focusing on interorganizational communication among nonprofits and funders and the challenges faced during reorganization planning and implementation. In particular, this research explores communication processes both within and among the Neighborhood Family Center Coalition (NFCC) (a collaborative of nonprofit organizations), and the Juvenile Welfare Board of Pinellas County (JWB), a funder of these same organizations, as the members planned and developed a management service organization. Action research was the chosen methodology for this study due to the strong desire of the research participants to engage fully in planning, executing and analyzing this research. Working together, we co-generated the research questions for this study.^ Agreed upon areas for research included considerations and challenges in implementing the management service organization, the funder's role in guiding and assisting in the integration process, management and communication strategies implemented to mitigate the negative effects of this type of organizational change and/or to contribute to successful implementation of this type of integration model, and lessons learned that may benefit future JWB efforts, as well as funders and service providers in communities throughout the United States. The research team worked together to identify and develop appropriate research methods and protocols that included interactive interviews and ethnographic observation. Interviews were conducted with all members of the NFCC and key management staff from the JWB.^ The applicability of this research is of great importance to funding institutions, many which are taking on a more active role to stabilize or strengthen their funded programs, and more often today, through encouragement to consolidate. Results of this study also may lay the groundwork to support and engage nonprofit leaders considering consolidation as an option for their organizations.
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PAGE 1

I nt e r a ge nc y C ol l a bor a t i on a nd C om m uni c a t i on: F unde r s a nd S e r vi c e P r ovi de r s W or ki ng T oge t he r t o C r e a t e a M a na ge m e nt S e r vi c e O r ga ni z a t i on by B e t h E E s c he nf e l de r A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of C om m uni c a t i on C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : E r i c E i s e nbe r g, P h. D A r t hur B oc hne r P h D J a ne J or ge ns e n, P h. D F r e d S t e i e r P h D J oa n P yne s P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : A u gus t 29, 2007 K e yw or ds : or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on, nonpr o f i t m e r ge r f unde r m a nda t e s gr oup c om m uni c a t i on, nonpr o f i t pa r t ne r s hi p C opyr i ght 2007 B e t h E E s c he nf e l de r

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A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I d l i ke t o gi ve s pe c i a l a c know l e dge m e nt t o t he m a ny pa r t ne r s i n m y r e s e a r c h s t udy w ho s ha r e d t he i r t hought s i de a s a nd dr e a m s : t he s t a f f a nd m e m be r s o f t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s C oa l i t i on a nd t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d o f P i ne l l a s C ount y. T he w or k t he y do i m pa c t s t he l i ve s of t ho us a nds of c hi l dr e n a nd f a m i l i e s i n ne e d e ve r y ye a r a nd t he y a r e e xt r a or di na r y f o r t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he y c a r r y out t ha t w or k w i t h t he pe r f e c t bl e nd o f pr o f e s s i ona l i s m de t e r m i n a t i on a nd l ove T ha nks e s pe c i a l l y t o P a ul L a c ke y, K e i t h K now l e s a nd L oune l l B r i t w h o he l pe d m e m a ne uve r m y w a y t hr ough t he c ha nge s t a ki ng pl a c e w i t hi n t he s e or ga ni z a t i on s a nd w ho t a ught m e m or e t ha n I c a n c onve y. T he y r e pr e s e nt a l l t ha t i s good i n t he w o r l d of s oc i a l s e r vi c e s M a ny t ha nks t o D r E r i c E i s e nbe r g, c om m i t t e e c ha i r e xt r a or d i na i r e w ho r e a l l y unde r s t ood m e a nd w ha t s i m por t a nt i n m y l i f e T h a nk you f o r he l pi ng m e f i nd w a ys t o i nc or por a t e m y pe r s ona l i nt e r e s t s pr o f e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e a nd s c hol a r s hi p. T ha nks t o m y c om m i t t e e m e m be r s w ho e a c h br ough t a n a r e a of e xpe r t i s e t ha t i m pa c t e d m y l i f e a nd m y s c hol a r s hi p: D r A r t B oc hne r w ho i nt r oduc e d m e t o na r r a t i ve i nqu i r y a s a w a y I c oul d s ha r e m y s c hol a r s hi p w i t h m y pr of e s s i ona l c om m u ni t y i n w a ys t ha t a l s o he l p m e g r ow ; D r J a ne J or ge ns on, w ho r a i s e d m y a w a r e ne s s a nd e nt hus i a s m a bout ge nde r a nd e m ot i on i n t he w or k pl a c e ; D r J oa n P yne s w ho gui de d m e t hr ough m y s e c ond m a s t e r s de gr e e i n P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd w ho he l pe d m e f i nd w a ys t o bl e nd m y a c a de m i c di s c i pl i ne s ;

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a nd D r F r e d S t e i e r w ho i ns pi r e d m e t o e m br a c e t he c om pl e xi t y a nd c ol l a bor a t i ve na t ur e o f a c t i on r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy. I d l i ke t o e xp r e s s s om e f i na l w or ds of t ha nks t o m y pr of e s s i ona l a nd a c a de m i c c ol l e a gue s w ho s uppor t e d m e gr e a t l y a nd w ho ke p t m e m ovi ng a l ong m y pa t h: t ha nk you K e nda l l a nd P a t f or you r f r i e nds hi p, m a r a t hon c ha t s e s s i ons a nd f a nt a s t i c pr oof r e a di ng s ki l l s F i na l l y, no w or ds of t ha nks c oul d e ve r c om e c l os e t o e xpr e s s m y a ppr e c i a t i on t o t he m os t i m por t a nt pe r s on i n m y l i f e m y hus ba nd, R obe r t H e ha s be e n e ve r y doc t or a l s t ude nt s dr e a m of t he pe r f e c t s uppor t i ve s pous e a nd pa r t ne r : pr ovi di ng e nc our a ge m e nt w he n I w a s t i r e d a nd f r us t r a t e d, o f f e r i ng gui da nc e w he n I t e m por a r i l y de t ou r e d f r om m y pa t h, s how i ng pa t i e nc e w he n I ne e de d s om e t i m e gi vi ng m e V I S A w he n a not he r pa i r of s hoe s w oul d m a ke m e ha ppy, a nd de l i ve r i ng S t a r b uc ks w he n I ne e de d a n e xt r a j ol t f or m y e ve ni ng w or k

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i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S L i s t of T a bl e s v L i s t of F i gur e s vi A bs t r a c t vi i C ha pt e r 1: I nt r oduc t i on t o t he D i s s e r t a t i on S t udy 1 I nt r oduc t i on 1 M y I nt r oduc t i on t o N onpr o f i t A dm i n i s t r a t i on a n d S t r e s s 3 I n t r oduc t i on t o N onpr o f i t C ons ol i da t i on 5 L ooki ng f o r L e s s ons on N onpr of i t C ons ol i da t i on 6 E m pl oye e E m o t i ons i n t he N onpr of i t S e c t or 7 B l e ndi ng O r ga ni z a t i ona l C ul t ur e s 14 I nt r oduc t i on t o M y R e s e a r c h 15 C ha pt e r 2: T he N onpr of i t E nv i r onm e nt 18 I nt r oduc t i on 18 D e f i ni t i on a nd S c ope of N onp r of i t s 19 C om m uni t y N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps 27 G ove r nm e nt N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps 2 8 G ove r nm e nt N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps a nd C ont r a c t i ng P r obl e m s 3 2 B us i ne s s N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps 3 4 N onpr of i t N onpr o f i t P a r t ne r s h i ps 3 5 I nt e gr a t i on a nd O t he r C ol l a bor a t i on M ode l s 39 F unde r I ni t i a t e d N onpr of i t I nt e g r a t i on 4 6 P a r t ne r s hi p a nd I n t e gr a t i on C ha l l e nge s 49 S um m a r y 5 3 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on #1 54 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on #2 5 4 C ha pt e r 3: I nt e r or ga ni z a t i ona l C om m uni c a t i on a nd P a r t ne r s hi p 55 I nt r oduc t i on 55 O r ga ni z a t i ona l M i s s i on a nd I de nt i t y 56 I m pa c t on S e r vi c e s 58 I m pa c t on A dvoc a c y 59 I m pa c t on P e r s onne l 6 0 S t a ke hol de r R e l a t i ons 62 G r oups C onf l i c t a nd R e s i s t a nc e 66

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i i T he C h a l l e nge s of C ha nge M a na ge m e nt 70 I m pr ovi ng G r oup C om m uni c a t i on 71 C ha nge a s S e e n F r om L e a de r a nd M e m be r S t a ndpoi nt s 72 S um m a r y 8 2 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on #3 82 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on #4 82 C ha pt e r 4: A C oge ne r a t e d R e s e a r c h M e t hodol ogy 83 I nt r oduc t i on 83 D e f i ni ng C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of A c t i on R e s e a r c h 84 P a r t i c i pa t i on 8 6 Q ua l i t a t i ve M e t hod 86 R e f l e c t i on a nd C yc l i c a l P r oc e s s 88 R e s e a r c h E nvi r onm e nt a nd C ont e xt 89 R e s e a r c h E nvi r onm e nt P i ne l l a s C ount y, F l o r i da 89 R e f l e c t i on on M y R e s e a r c h I nt e r e s t s 92 W he r e D oe s A c t i on R e s e a r c h B e gi n? 94 I nt r oduc t i on t o t he S i t e O r ga ni z a t i ons 96 A bout t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d ( J W B ) a nd t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s ( N F C s ) 96 A bout t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) 98 A S hi f t i n F und i ng P hi l os ophy 98 T he C o R e s e a r c he r R e l a t i ons hi p 102 C oge ne r a t i ve R e s e a r c h P r oc e s s 104 D e ve l opi ng t he R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons 104 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 1 4 105 Q ua l i t a t i ve M e t hods 106 D e ve l opi ng t he R e s e a r c h P r ot oc ol 1 06 I nt e r vi e w i ng a nd N a r r a t i ve F o r m 109 E t hnogr a ph y 11 1 D oc um e nt A na l ys i s 11 3 S t a ge s of C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i on 114 C ons i de r a t i ons 115 S um m a r y 116 C ha pt e r 5: D a t a A na l ys i s a nd E xpl o r a t i on o f t he I n t e gr a t i on P r oc e s s P a r t 1 116 I nt r oduc t i on 117 O r ga ni z i ng t he D a t a 118 I nt r oduc t or y a n d C ont e xt S e t t i ng I nt e r v i e w s 119 N F C C B oa r d M e m be r I nt e r vi e w s 120 J W B S t a f f I nt e r v i e w s 120 C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i on P r oc e s s S e s s i ons 120 I nt r oduc t i on t o K e y P a r t i c i pa nt s 121 D a t a A na l ys i s P r oc e s s 123 T he S t or y of D e ve l opi ng t he N F C C 127 B a c kgr ound of t he N F C C 127

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i i i S hi f t i n F undi ng S t r a t e gy 128 N F C C s R e s pon s e a nd N e w R ol e 133 S um m a r y 140 C ha pt e r 6: E xpl o r a t i on o f t he I nt e gr a t i on P r oc e s s P a r t 2 141 I nt r oduc t i on 14 1 D e ve l opi ng t he A S E 141 B us i ne s s S ys t e m s 14 2 O r ga ni z a t i ona l S t r uc t ur e 143 S i ng l e C ont r a c t a nd C ha ngi ng N or m s 146 E f f i c i e nc i e s a nd C os t s 149 T he T a x 150 D e c i s i on M a ki ng P r a c t i c e s 15 3 C ont r a c t ua l I nt e r de pe nde nc e 155 P e opl e S ys t e m s 157 R e s i s t a n c e t o t he N e w M ode l 158 T i m e t o C ha nge 161 L e a de r s hi p a nd T r us t 16 4 D e m ons t r a t i ons of t he S ys t e m s a t W o r k 167 S e l f C om pl i a nc e 168 B ui l di ng O r ga ni z a t i ona l C a pa c i t y 173 L e s s ons t o be S ha r e d 176 S um m a r y 179 I nt r oduc t i on t o C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i on 179 C ha pt e r 7: C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i on a nd F i ndi ngs 181 I nt r oduc t i on 18 1 C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i on P r oc e s s 181 P r e pa r i ng f o r G r oup R e vi e w of t he S t udy R e s ul t s 182 R e s pons e t o t he D a t a by R e s e a r c h P a r t i c i pa nt s 18 4 C ol l a bor a t i ve R e f l e c t i on w i t h t he N F C C B oa r d of D i r e c t or s 18 4 I ndi vi dua l R e f l e c t i on w i t h S t a f f L i a i s ons 189 I de nt i f i c a t i on o f T he m e s 190 F i ndi ngs P e r t a i ni ng t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on # 1: C on s i de r a t i ons a nd C ha l l e nge s 191 I nduc e m e nt t o I nt e gr a t e 192 P r ot e c t i ng t he N F C s 192 T he B ot t om L i ne 19 3 R e s i s t a n c e t o C ha nge 195 R e a s on s f o r R e s i s t a nc e 195 M a ni f e s t a t i ons of R e s i s t a nc e 197 P e r s ona l R e s pons e s t o R e s i s t a nc e 198 F i ndi ngs P e r t a i ni ng t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on # 2: F un de r s R ol e 199 F unde r P r e s s ur e 200 A P us h V e r s us a G ui di ng H a nd 200 F os t e r i ng A ut onom y a nd M a ki ng A c c om m oda t i o ns 201

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i v H a vi ng a n A dvoc a t e 203 B ui l di ng T r us t 203 F i ndi ngs P e r t a i ni ng t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on # 3: M a na ge m e nt a nd C om m uni c a t i on S t r a t e gi e s 20 5 T i m e t o C ha nge 206 L e a de r s hi p 207 P a r t i c i pa t i on a nd R e l a t i ons hi ps 209 F i ndi ngs P e r t a i ni ng t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on #4: L e s s ons L e a r ne d 212 I m pa c t of t he A S E M ode l I nc r e a s e d C a pa c i t y 212 F i s c a l C a pa c i t y 213 P e e r S uppor t 215 L e a r ni ng a nd S ha r i ng t he L e s s ons 216 J W B s T e c hni c a l A s s i s t a nc e 216 L e s s ons F r om M e m be r s 217 S um m a r y 217 C ha pt e r 8: I m pl i c a t i ons a nd L i m i t a t i ons 219 I nt r oduc t i on 219 I m pl i c a t i ons f or F unde r s 221 I m pl i c a t i ons f or N onpr of i t s a nd N onpr o f i t P a r t ne r s hi ps 223 N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps 225 I m pl i c a t i ons f or S c hol a r s 227 L i m i t a t i ons 23 1 S um m a r y 232 R e f e r e nc e s 23 4 A ppe ndi c e s 252 A ppe ndi x A : M a p of t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s 253 A ppe ndi x B : Q ua l i t a t i ve I nt e r vi e w G ui de 254 A ppe ndi x C : L i s t o f I nt e r vi e w s a nd K e y M e e t i ngs w i t h T i m e l i ne 264 A ppe ndi x D : N F C C O r ga ni z a t i ona l C ha r t s 267 A ppe ndi x E : P r e s e nt a t i on of I nt e r vi e w R e s e a r c h D a t a t o t he N F C C B oa r d of D i r e c t or s J une 2005 269 A ppe ndi x F : O ut l i ne o f P r e s e nt a t i on t o t he J W B B oa r d of D i r e c t or s J ul y 2005 275 A ppe ndi x G : T he m a t i c C a t e gor i z a t i on of S i gni f i c a nt I nt e r vi e w R e s p ons e s 276 A ppe ndi x H : J W B B oa r d of D i r e c t or s 293 A bout t he A ut hor E nd P a ge

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v L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e 2. 1 I m pa c t of t he nonpr o f i t s e c t or i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd F l or i da 21 T a bl e 2. 2 D i s t i ngui s hi ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a m ong c or por a t i ons gove r nm e nt a nd nonp r o f i t s 23 T a bl e 4. 1 D a t a on publ i c c ha r i t i e s i n F l o r i da c ount i e s 90 T a bl e E 1 O ve r vi e w of N F C C boa r d m e m be r i nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s 270 T a bl e G 1 T a bl e of s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s 276

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vi L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i gur e 4. 1 D i a gr a m r e f l e c t i ng t he J W B N F C N F C C r e l a t i ons hi p c om pl e xi t y 102 F i gur e A 1 M a p of t he ne i ghbor hood f a m i l y c e nt e r s 253 F i gur e D 1 T r a di t i ona l N F C C o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha r t a s p r e pa r e d a nd a dopt e d by t he N F C C s t a f f a nd boa r d of di r e c t or s 267 F i gur e D 2 R e s e a r c he r dr a f t of a n or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha r t s how i ng t he c om pl e x ove r s i ght s t r uc t u r e of t he N F C C 268

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vi i I nt e r a ge nc y C ol l a bor a t i on a nd C om m uni c a t i on: F unde r s a nd S e r vi c e P r ovi de r s W or ki ng T oge t he r t o C r e a t e a M a na ge m e nt S e r vi c e O r ga ni z a t i on B e t h E E s c he nf e l de r A B S T R A C T C ha r i t a bl e nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a r e g r ow i ng i n num be r a nd s c ope but t he body of l i t e r a t u r e a nd know l e dge a bout c om m uni c a t i on w i t hi n t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons i s l i m i t e d T oda y, c ha r i t a bl e or ga ni z a t i ons f a c e a f l ur r y of e c onom i c a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t or s t ha t c ha l l e nge t he i r c ont i nue d s ur vi va l : gr ow i ng c om m uni t y ne e ds m ount i ng f undi ng c ut s f r om a l l s e gm e nt s of gove r nm e nt i nc r e a s e d c om pe t i t i on f o r f und i ng, a l i m i t e d pool o f de di c a t e d c om m uni t y l e a de r s t o s e r ve on boa r ds d e c r e a s e d c ha r i t a bl e gi vi ng f or s om e c a us e s a nd pe r s i s t e nt c a l l s f or gr e a t e r a c c ount a bi l i t y. A s nonpr o f i t s e xpl or e ne w w a ys of c opi ng w i t h t he s e s oc i oe c onom i c pr e s s ur e s s uc h a s r e or ga ni z a t i on, c ons ol i da t i on, m e r ge r s a nd m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e o r ga ni z a t i ons t he r e i s a c l e a r ne e d f or a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h on or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge i n nonpr of i t s e t t i ngs T hi s r e s e a r c h e xpl or e s t he uni que i s s ue s nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons f a c e w he n c ons i de r i ng a s pe c i f i c f or m of c ons ol i da t i on a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on f oc us i ng on i nt e r o r ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on a m ong nonpr of i t s a nd f und e r s a nd t he c ha l l e nge s f a c e d dur i ng r e or ga ni z a t i on pl a nni ng a n d i m pl e m e nt a t i on. I n pa r t i c ul a r t hi s r e s e a r c h e xpl or e s c om m uni c a t i on pr oc e s s e s bot h w i t hi n a nd a m ong t he N e i ghbor hood

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vi i i F a m i l y C e nt e r C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) ( a c ol l a bor a t i ve of nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons ) a nd t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d of P i ne l l a s C ount y ( J W B ) a f unde r of t he s e s a m e or ga ni z a t i ons a s t he m e m be r s pl a nne d a nd de ve l ope d a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on. A c t i on r e s e a r c h w a s t he c hos e n m e t hodol ogy f o r t hi s s t udy due t o t he s t r ong de s i r e of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o e nga ge f ul l y i n pl a nni ng, e xe c ut i ng a nd a na l yz i ng t hi s r e s e a r c h. W or ki ng t oge t he r w e c o ge ne r a t e d t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons f or t hi s s t udy A gr e e d upon a r e a s f or r e s e a r c h i nc l ude d c ons i de r at i ons and c hal l e nge s i n i m pl e m e nt i ng t he m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on, t he f unde r s r ol e i n gui di ng a nd a s s i s t i ng i n t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i ga t e t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of t hi s t ype o f o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a nd/ or t o c ont r i but e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s t ype o f i nt e g r a t i on m ode l a nd l e s s ons l e ar ne d t ha t m a y be ne f i t f ut ur e J W B e f f or t s a s w e l l a s f unde r s a nd s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s i n c om m uni t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he r e s e a r c h t e a m w or ke d t oge t he r t o i de nt i f y a nd de ve l op a ppr opr i a t e r e s e a r c h m e t hods a nd p r ot oc ol s t ha t i n c l ude d i nt e r a c t i ve i nt e r vi e w s a nd e t hnogr a phi c obs e r va t i on. I nt e r vi e w s w e r e c onduc t e d w i t h a l l m e m be r s of t he N F C C a nd ke y m a na ge m e nt s t a f f f r om t he J W B T he a ppl i c a bi l i t y o f t hi s r e s e a r c h i s of g r e a t i m po r t a nc e t o f undi ng i ns t i t ut i ons m a ny w hi c h a r e t a ki ng on a m or e a c t i ve r ol e t o s t a bi l i z e or s t r e ngt he n t he i r f unde d pr ogr a m s a nd m or e o f t e n t oda y, t hr ough e nc our a g e m e nt t o c ons ol i da t e R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a l s o m a y l a y t he g r oundw or k t o s uppor t a nd e nga g e nonpr of i t l e a de r s c ons i de r i ng c ons ol i da t i on a s a n opt i on f o r t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons

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1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E D I S S E R T A T I O N S T U D Y I nt r oduc t i on L i ke m os t s c hol a r s m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s a r e s pa w ne d f r om m y pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s I t i s r a r e t o f i nd a pr oduc t i ve s c hol a r w hos e w or k i s unc onne c t e d t o hi s or he r pe r s ona l hi s t or y ( B oc hne r 1997 p 433 ) I be c a m e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he t opi c of nonpr of i t m e r ge r s c ons ol i da t i ons a nd i nt e gr a t i ons w he n I w a s l e a di ng m y ow n s t r uggl i ng nonpr of i t T hi s i nt e r e s t w a s he i ght e ne d w he n I w or ke d a s a gove r nm e nt f unde r w a t c hi ng c ha r i t a bl e nonpr of i t s c l os e t he i r door s r a t he r t ha n e xpl or e pa r t ne r s hi p a l t e r na t i ve s t ha t c oul d ha ve c ont i nue d t he i r s e r vi c e s t o pe opl e i n ne e d. A s a f o r m e r nonpr of i t a dm i ni s t r a t or a nd gove r n m e nt f u nde r I a m ke e nl y a w a r e of t he e c onom i c a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l pr e s s ur e s f a c i ng nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons t oda y. I n m y d i s c us s i ons w i t h ot he r nonpr of i t l e a de r s a nd f unde r s a nd a s r e f l e c t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d, i t be c a m e e vi de nt t ha t w e a r e a bout t o s e e a w a ve of m e r ge r a nd c ons ol i da t i on di s c us s i on s a m ong nonpr of i t s o r a t l e a s t w e s houl d. A s w i l l be de m ons t r a t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i n c ha pt e r 2, r e ve nue s our c e s a r e goi ng t o c ont i nue t o de c r e a s e a nd c om pe t i t i on f or f unds w i l l c ont i nu e t o i nc r e a s e T he a l t e r na t i ve t o c ons ol i da t i ons i s m or e nonpr of i t s c l os i ng t he i r doo r s M os t vul ne r a bl e a r e t he s m a l l c om m uni t y l e ve l or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t s t r uggl e f o r m e a ge r dona t i ons ( S om a s unda r a m 1999) T he or ga ni z a t i on I m a na ge d w a s one s uc h o r ga ni z a t i on, a nd I be c a m e c onvi nc e d

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2 t ha t our p r ogr a m s w oul d be m or e s t a bl e i f t he y w e r e unde r t he a e gi s of a l a r ge r a ge nc y. I s t a r t e d t hi nki ng a bout m e r ge r a s a pos s i bl e s t r a t e gy t o he l p e ns ur e t he l ong t e r m s t a bi l i t y of our pr ogr a m s B e c a us e of m y pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s m y i ni t i a l r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s w e r e on nonpr of i t m e r ge r s a nd c ons ol i da t i ons a nd t he i r i m pa c t on t he nonp r of i t w or kf o r c e I w a s i nt e r e s t e d e s pe c i a l l y i n t hi s t opi c be c a us e of t he un i que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he nonp r of i t w or kf or c e a s i t pe r t a i ne d t o e m ot i ons i n t he w or kp l a c e a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e a nd t he i m pa c t of m e r ge r a nd c ons ol i da t i on on t he s e a s pe c t s of w or ke r s l i ve s M y r e s e a r c h f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on c ha nge d s l i ght l y t o f oc us m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y on nonp r of i t i nt e gr a t i on a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y on a n e f f o r t by a f unde r a nd s e ve r a l no npr of i t s t o f or m a ne w e nt i t y t o he l p t he m c ope w i t h l oo m i ng t h r e a t s T he f oc us of m y r e s e a r c h, t he r e f or e be c a m e i nt e r or ga ni z a t i ona l pa r t ne r s hi ps a nd c om m un i c a t i on dur i ng t he i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t a m ong t he m a na ge r s i nvol ve d. A l t hough e m ot i ons i n t he w or kpl a c e a nd w o r kf or c e c ul t ur e a r e n ot a c e nt r a l f oc us of t hi s r e s e a r c h, t he s e c onc e r ns a r e s t i l l r e l e va nt a n d w i l l be t ouc he d on b r i e f l y i n t hi s i nt r oduc t or y c ha pt e r E ve r y m e m be r of a n o r ga ni z a t i on e xpe r i e nc e s a nd i s i m pa c t e d by a s pe c t s of e m ot i ons a nd c ul t ur e S om e r e s e a r c h i n t he s e a r e a s t he r e f or e i s be i ng s ha r e d t o he l p be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he phe nom e na be i ng s t udi e d. I a l s o w i l l pr ovi de a n ove r vi e w of m y e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t l e d t o m y i nt e r e s t i n nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i ons a nd m y s ubs e que nt r e s e a r c h t o l e a r n m or e a bout v a r i ous c ons ol i da t i on m ode l s T h i s r e s e a r c h l e d m e t o d i s c ove r m y di s s e r t a t i on t opi c a nd I w i l l e nd t hi s c ha pt e r by i nt r oduc i ng m y r e s e a r c h s i t e a nd pr e vi e w i ng t he s t r uc t ur e of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on.

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3 M y I nt r oduc t i on t o N onpr o f i t A dm i n i s t r a t i on a n d S t r e s s I be ga n m y w or k a s a nonpr of i t e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or i n a n or ga ni z a t i on t ha t pr ovi de d s he l t e r a nd s e r vi c e s t o ho m e l e s s m e n a nd w om e n l i vi ng w i t h c hr on i c a l c ohol i s m a ddi t i on. I w a s f a c e d w i t h a n or ga ni z a t i on t ha t w a s ne a r c l os i ng, de e pl y i n de bt a nd ha d no s uppor t ba s e of vol unt e e r s or donor s A s a uni f i e d a nd c om m i t t e d s t a f f t hr ough a l ot of c a r e f ul pl a nni ng, ha r d w o r k, a nd s a c r i f i c e s m a d e on t he pa r t of m a ny pe opl e w e w e r e a bl e t o pul l t he a ge nc y out of a de e p hol e I t w a s a n e duc a t i on i n nonp r of i t m a na ge m e nt or t he m a na ge m e nt o f a ny bus i ne s s t ha t I w i l l ne ve r f o r ge t D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t w e w e r e f i na l l y ope r a t i ng i n t he b l a c k, t he r e w a s a l w a ys t he know l e dge t ha t w e w e r e a t r i s k. A l ong w i t h t ha t know l e dge w a s t he p i t i n m y s t om a c h t ha t g r e w e ve r l a r ge r r e f l e c t i ng our or ga ni z a t i on s he a vy de pe nde nc e on gove r nm e nt g r a nt s T he ne xt e l e c t i on t he ne xt budge t c yc l e t he ne xt e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or w ho dr a w s c om m uni t y a t t e nt i on t he ne xt bi g c om m uni t y c r i s i s or c a us e t he ne xt w hi m of a g r a nt c om m i t t e e o r gove r n m e nt de c i s i on m a ke r t he ne xt w hat e v e r c oul d c ha nge t h e f ut ur e o f ou r or ga ni z a t i on or l e a d us t o c l os e our doo r s D e s pi t e t he s t r ong r e put a t i on w e ha d bui l t i n t he c om m uni t y, e s pe c i a l l y a m ong t hos e w ho m a de t he f und i ng de c i s i ons w e kne w i t w a s onl y a m a t t e r of t i m e be f or e a n e ve nt ua l dow nt ur n A n or ga ni z a t i on our s i z e c oul d be c r i ppl e d by l os i ng one l a r ge gr a nt W e ha d no c us hi on t o f a l l ba c k on a nd ha dn t be e n a bl e t o bui l d a s a f e t y ne t of p r i va t e f undi ng R a i s i ng m on e y f or hom e l e s s a l c ohol i c s w a s not e a s y. A s our or ga ni z a t i on de a l t w i t h i t s f i na nc i a l ba t t l e s I be ga n t o s e e ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons be gi nni ng t o s t r uggl e a nd c l os e I c r i nge d e ve r y t i m e I he a r d a bout a ne w or ga ni z a t i on s t a r t i ng up T he y l l ne v e r m ak e i t I w oul d t hi nk t o m ys e l f W he n I ha d t he oppor t uni t y, I t ol d t he s e buddi ng nonpr of i t l e a de r s t he s a m e t hi ng: T he e nvi r onm e nt

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4 c a n t be a r m o r e or ga ni z a t i ons r i ght now a nd t h i s i s a ba d t i m e t o s t a r t a ne w nonpr o f i t P l e a s e pl e a s e pa r t ne r w i t h a not he r or ga ni z a t i on t h a t s ha r e s your pa s s i on. B ut pe opl e dr a w n t o nonp r of i t w or k ha ve bi g he a r t s a nd s t r on g w i l l a nd t he s e a s pi r i ng l e a de r s pr oc e e de d t o ope n ne w o r ga ni z a t i on s m a ny w hi c h f l ounde r e d a nd c l os e d i n t he i r f i r s t ye a r s of ope r a t i on I n m y f r us t r a t i on a nd di s a ppoi n t m e nt I w onde r e d, H ow m any publ i c and pr i v at e r e s our c e s w e r e pour e d i nt o s t ar t i ng t h os e ne w or gani z at i ons t hat l at e r c l os e d? W hat a w as t e W hy do f unde r s c ont i nue t o s uppor t and e v e n e nc our age ne w or gani z at i ons ? I w a s a l s o f r us t r a t e d by f unde r s w hos e gr a nt a ppl i c a t i ons s a i d, T e l l us how you w i l l de c r e a s e your de pe nde nc y on t he s e gr a nt f und s W e l l y ou k now w hat ? I c an t A nd y ou be t t e r t hi nk t w i c e be f or e y ou s c al e bac k s uppor t f r om age nc i e s t hat ar e ope r at i ng w e l l and s uppor t ne w l i t t l e v e nt ur e s j us t s o y ou c an put a f e at he r i n y our c ap, onl y t o be abl e s ay dur i ng y our ne x t e l e c t i on, Se e w hat I he l pe d c r e at e G e t ov e r i t A t l e a s t t hos e w e r e t he i nt e r na l c onve r s a t i ons I ha d e ve r y t i m e I c om p l e t e d one of t he s e gr a nt s a nd s pe w e d w ha t t he y w a nt t o he a r a bout di ve r s i f yi ng our boa r d o f di r e c t or s pl a nni ng m or e f undr a i s e r s e xpl or i ng e nt r e p r e ne ur i a l ve nt ur e s a nd c ut t i ng c os t s W e s e r v e hom e l e s s al c ohol i c s G e t w i t h t he pr ogr a m T hi s i s y our j ob gov e r nm e nt f unde r : t o he l p c ar e f or t he pe opl e w h om t h e r e s t of s oc i e t y w on t T he s e t hought s of t e n c a m e t o m i nd, a nd I s ha r e d t he m of t e n w i t h e l e c t e d of f i c i a l s a nd ot he r s w i t hi n f undi ng or ga ni z a t i ons B ut w ho w a s I t o t he m ? J us t a not he r s m a l l a ge nc y e xe c ut i ve t r yi ng t o ke e p m y o r ga ni z a t i on a f l oa t

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5 I nt r oduc t i on t o N onpr o f i t C ons ol i da t i on M y or ga ni z a t i on s l e a de r s hi p de c i de d t o pu r s ue m e r ge r a nd c ons ol i da t i on t o pr e pa r e f or i m m i ne nt c ha nge s i n t he f undi ng e nvi r onm e nt s t r e ngt he n ou r o r ga ni z a t i ona l c a pa c i t y, a nd pr ot e c t our p r ogr a m s a nd s e r vi c e s I t be c a m e m y pr i m a r y r e s pons i bi l i t y t o r e s e a r c h a nd l e a r n a l l t ha t I c oul d a bout nonpr of i t m e r ge r s t o he l p m ove t hi s e f f or t f or w a r d. B y t ha t t i m e I ha d r e t ur ne d t o s c hool t o p ur s ue m y P h D w i t h a f oc us i n or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on, a l ong w i t h a s e c ond m a s t e r s i n pu bl i c a dm i ni s t r a t i on E ve r y c l a s s r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t be c a m e a que s t t o f i nd t he pe r f e c t di s s e r t a t i on t opi c a nd de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t I w a nt e d t o f i nd s om e s e xy t op i c m os t o f m y r e s e a r c h f oc us e d on nonpr of i t m e r ge r s T hi s be c a m e a w a y t o ki l l t w o bi r ds w i t h one s t one a nd i t be c a m e a n i nc r e a s i ng f oc us of m y a c a de m i c r e s e a r c h, i n a ddi t i on t o m y j ob. I f ound i t d i f f i c ul t t o f i nd r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e s pe c i f i c a l l y on nonpr of i t m e r ge r s T he r e w a s a m pl e l i t e r a t u r e on f or pr o f i t m e r ge r s but t hi s w a s m os t l y f oc us e d o n t he nut s a nd bol t s o f due di l i ge nc e T he r e a l s o w a s r e s e a r c h on c or po r a t e c ul t ur e i n bu s i ne s s m e r ge r s w i t h c ul t ur a l i nc om pa t i bi l i t i e s c i t e d a s t he m a i n r e a s on w hy c or por a t e m e r ge r s f a i l ( s e e B r a m s on, 2000; D e V oge 1999; F e l dm a n & S pr a t t 1999; M a r ks & M i r vi s 1998 ) M e r ge r s c ons ol i da t i ons a nd i nt e gr a t i ons a m ong n onpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons how e ve r a r e di f f e r e nt f r o m t hos e i n t he f o r pr o f i t s e c t or f or m a ny r e a s ons F or e xa m pl e t he t e r m i nol ogy of m e r ge r s i s pr ob l e m a t i c f or non pr of i t s A s M c L a ughl i n ( 1998) q ue s t i ons E xa c t l y how doe s one go a bout a c qui r i ng a nonpr o f i t e nt i t y w hi c h, by de f i ni t i on, no one ow ns ? ( p 53 ) T r a ns l a t i ng m e r ge r t e c hni que s a nd s t r a t e gi e s f r om t he f or pr o f i t w o r l d t o t he nonp r of i t s e c t or c a n be f r us t r a t i ng. N onp r of i t m e r ge r s c a l l f or di f f e r e nt e xpe c t a t i ons pr oc e s s e s a nd t e c hni que s ( M c L a ughl i n, 1998)

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6 O pe r a t i ona l l y, nonp r of i t s m a y be m or e di f f i c ul t t o m e r ge be c a us e of t he m ul t i pl e s ys t e m s i nvol ve d. M os t nonpr of i t s e xpl a i ns A r s e na ul t ( 1998, p. 148) ope r a t e t w o s e pa r a t e s ys t e m s s i m ul t a ne ous l y: t he s ys t e m t o obt a i n r e s our c e s a nd t he s ys t e m t o s e r ve c ons um e r s F or pr o f i t s ope r a t e unde r one s ys t e m w he r e by t he c ons um e r pur c ha s e s pr oduc t s a nd s e r vi c e s a nd r e ve nue ge ne r a t i on a nd s e r vi c e de l i ve r y a r e s i m ul t a ne ous N onpr of i t s t ha t us e vol unt e e r s a r e a l s o m a na gi ng t w o s e pa r a t e hum a n r e s our c e s ys t e m s : one f or pa i d s t a f f a nd a not he r f or vol unt e e r s P l a nn i ng a nonpr o f i t m e r ge r t he r e f o r e i s m or e c om pl e x f o r nonp r of i t s be c a us e a l l t he s e c om pone nt s m us t be a ddr e s s e d a nd pl a nne d f or a t t he s a m e t i m e R e s e a r c h a nd l i t e r a t ur e on nonp r of i t m e r ge r s ha s s t a r t e d t o i nc r e a s e bu t c ons i s t e nt w i t h f or pr of i t m e r ge r s m os t o f t he a t t e nt i on ha s b e e n gi ve n t o t he pr a gm a t i c s of how t o m a ke a m e r ge r ha ppe n. A n a r e a t ha t r e c e i ve s l e s s a t t e nt i on i n t he l i t e r a t u r e i s t he i m pa c t t ha t nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i ons ha ve on e m pl oye e s e s pe c i a l l y on e m pl oye e e m ot i ons a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e L ooki ng f o r L e s s ons on N onpr of i t C ons ol i da t i on B e c a us e l i t e r a t ur e on nonpr of i t m e r ge r s a nd c ons ol i da t i ons w a s l i m i t e d, I be ga n t o c ondu c t m y ow n r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a T he i s s ue of e m ot i ons i n t he nonpr of i t w or k f or c e w i l l be e xpl or e d t hr ough a br i e f r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd a l ook a t one or ga ni z a t i ona l m e r ge r a nd t he e m ot i ona l t o l l i t t ook on one o f t he l e a de r s I a l s o w i l l pr ovi de a n i nt r oduc t i on t o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t u r e t hr ough a r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd a n ove r v i e w of m y r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d w i t h one nonp r of i t c ons ol i da t i on t ha t s ought t o bl e nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e s

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7 W hi l e e xpl or i ng m e r ge r a s a n opt i on f o r m y ow n o r ga ni z a t i on, I i nt e r vi e w e d e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or s w ho ha d r e c e nt l y unde r gone o r w ho w e r e a bout t o unde r go a m e r ge r I a l s o a s s i s t e d boa r ds of di r e c t or s t ha t w e r e e xpl o r i ng f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi p oppo r t uni t i e s T hi s r e s e a r c h he l pe d m e s ha r e i n t he e xpe r i e nc e s o f t he s e or ga ni z a t i ona l l e a de r s a nd t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he i s s ue s t he y f a c e d dur i ng t he i r c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s : t he i nt e ns i t y o f nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e t he i m pa c t on or g a ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on a nd i de nt i t y, pe opl e s r e s i s t a nc e t o c ha nge a nd t he s t r a t e gi e s e f f e c t i ve m a na ge r s us e t o he l p t he i r a ge nc i e s m ove t hr ough di f f i c ul t s t a ge s of c ha nge I a l s o s a w t he de va s t a t i ng e m ot i ona l i m pa c t s uc h c ha nge c a n ha ve on t he pe opl e i nvol v e d. E m pl oy e e E m ot i ons i n t he N onpr of i t Se c t or I be c a m e i nt e r e s t e d i n w or kpl a c e e m ot i ons a n d e m ot i ona l l a bor be c a us e I c oul d s e e t he t ol l t ha t d i r e c t s e r vi c e w or k t ook on w or ke r s a t m y a ge nc y a nd i n ot he r s oc i a l s e r vi c e pr ogr a m s T he i r w o r k i s di f f i c ul t a nd e m ot i ona l W or ke r s de a l w i t h pe opl e w ho a r e s i c k, a bus i ve or a bus e d, dow n on t he i r l uc k, w i t hout hom e s a nd or de a l i ng w i t h l i f e hi s t or i e s be yond m os t pe opl e s i m a gi na t i on B e c a us e of t he i r t ough s i t ua t i ons t he y m a y not be pl e a s a nt t o w o r k w i t h c a n be ove r l y de m a n di ng, a nd s om e t i m e s l i e a nd di s obe y r ul e s S t a f f m e m be r s o f t e n ha ve t o c hoke ba c k t he i r ow n f e e l i ngs i n or de r t o de a l w i t h di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons a nd t o he l p t he i r c l i e nt s a s be s t t he y c a n. T h i s e xpe c t a t i on or s e l f i m pos e d s uppr e s s i on of t he i r f e e l i ngs i s c a l l e d f e e l i ng r ul e s ( H oc hs c hi l d, 1983) gove r ni ng t he e xpr e s s i on of e m ot i ons e s pe c i a l l y i n s e r vi c e ba s e d oc c upa t i ons W or k t ha t r e qui r e s t he pr oduc t i on of c e r t a i n f e e l i n gs i n t he w or ke r a nd w o r k t ha t e nt a i l s t he pr oduc t i on o f f e e l i ngs i n ot he r s i s w ha t H oc hs c hi l d de s c r i be s a s e m ot i ona l l a bor S uc h e m ot i ona l l a bo r how e ve r m us t not s h ow I t i s w ha t w o r ke r s do w i t h t he i r

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8 f e e l i ngs t o c om pl y w i t h or ga ni z a t i ona l r ol e r e qui r e m e nt s ( Y a na y & S ha ha r 1998) E m ot i ona l l a bo r r e f e r s t o t he e f f o r t pl a nni ng a nd c ont r ol r e qui r e d t o e xpr e s s a n or ga ni z a t i on s de s i r e d e m ot i ons ( K a r a ba now 1999 ) P u t a not he r w a y, e m o t i ona l l a bor i nvol ve s t he e f f or t s m a de t o unde r s t a nd ot he r s ha v e e m pa t hy w i t h t he i r s i t ua t i on a nd i nt e r na l i z e t he i r f e e l i ngs ( E ng l a nd & F a r ka s 1986, i n S t e i nbe r g & F i ga r t 1999) E m ot i ona l l a bo r i s not uni que t o t he hum a n s e r vi c e i ndus t r y, but i t c a n be f ound i n a ny i ndus t r y t ha t i nvol ve s pr ovi di ng s e r vi c e t o ot h e r s E m ot i ona l l a bor w i t hi n c a r i ng a nd s e r vi c e pr of e s s i ons ha s c a pt ur e d a t t e nt i on of r e s e a r c he r s w ho ha ve s t udi e d t he i m pa c t of e m ot i ona l l a bor on f l i gh t a t t e nda nt s ( H oc hs c hi l d, 1 983) 911 di s pa t c h w or ke r s ( S hul e r & S yphe r 2000 ) e m pl oye e s of T he B ody S hop ( M a r t i n, K noppof f & B e c km a n, 1998) a nd va r i ous f r ont l i ne c us t om e r s e r vi c e a ge nt s ( A s hf or t h & T om u i k, 2000) W or ke r s i n t he nonpr of i t s e c t or ha ve a l s o be e n f e a t ur e d i n t hi s a r e a of r e s e a r c h, i nc l udi ng s oc i a l w or ke r s ( F i ne m a n, 1985 ; M e ye r s on, 2000) you t h s he l t e r w or ke r s ( K a r a ba now 1 999) a nd r e t i r e m e nt c e nt e r w o r ke r s ( M i l l e r Z ook & E l l i s 1 989) S om e r e s e a r c he r s how e ve r ha ve s how n t ha t t he r e a r e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s uni que t o he a l t h c a r e s oc i a l s e r vi c e w or k t e a c hi ng a nd ot he r c a r i ng pr o f e s s i ons t ha t m a ke w or ke r s m or e l i ke l y t o pe r f or m e m ot i ona l l a bor a nd t o e xp e r i e nc e bur nout A r e s e a r c h s t udy c onduc t e d by B r ot he r i dge a nd G r a nde y ( 2002 ) de m ons t r a t e d t ha t a m ong va r i ous pr of e s s i ons hum a n s e r vi c e pr of e s s i ona l s r e por t e d t he hi ghe s t l e ve l of i nt e r pe r s ona l de m a nds s uc h a s t he f r e que nc y, va r i e t y, i nt e ns i t y, dur a t i on of e m ot i ona l di s pl a y a nd e xpe c t a t i ons f or c ont r ol ove r e m ot i ona l e xpr e s s i ons ( p. 31 ) H um a n s e r vi c e w or ke r s a r e uni que i n t ha t t he i r c a r e e r c hoi c e s a r e m ot i va t e d b y c onc e r ns s uc h a s w or ki ng w i t h pe opl e he l pi ng t o m e e t pe opl e s ne e ds a nd m a ki n g t he w or l d a be t t e r pl a c e i n w hi c h t o

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9 l i ve S t a f f w ho w or k i n nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons a r e of t e n va l ue d r i ve n i ndi vi dua l s w ho ha ve m a de t he c hoi c e t o w o r k i n t hi s s e c t or be c a us e of t he i r s e r i ous c om m i t m e nt t o a c a us e T he y of t e n ha ve s t r ong p r of e s s i ona l s t a nda r ds a nd l oya l t i e s a nd w e l l a r t i c ul a t e d opi ni ons a bout t he r i ght w a y t o s e r ve c ons um e r s T he s e a r e w or ke r s w ho l i ke l y s e l f s e l e c t oc c upa t i ons t ha t r e qui r e pa r t i c ul a r t ype s of e m ot i ona l l a bor ( S hul e r a nd S yphe r 2000, p 75) S om e t i m e s s uc h w or ke r s go a bove a nd be yond t he c a l l of dut y, e ve n i f i t m e a ns i nc r e a s i ng t he i r ow n e m ot i ona l l a bor A s a r e s ul t o f pe r f o r m i ng e m ot i ona l l a b or t he s e e m pl oye e s gi ve s om e t hi ng of t he m s e l ve s t o t he i r c l i e nt s w i t h w hom t he y ha ve no ongoi ng pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi p ( S t e i nbe r g, 1999) T he y w or k ha r d t o unde r s t a nd t he i r c l i e nt s a nd t o ha ve e m pa t hy w i t h t he i r s i t ua t i on t o f e e l t he i r f e e l i ngs a s a pa r t o f t he i r ow n ( S t e i nbe r g & F i ga r t 1999) I t i s t he i r t e nde nc y t ow a r d e m ot i ona l l a bor t ha t m a ke s t he m pa s s i ona t e a bout t he i r w or k B r o t he r i dge a nd G r a nde y ( 2002 p 31 ) s ugge s t t ha t e m pl oye e s c a r i ng f or ot he r s m a y be i nt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t e d t o c a r e a bout t he i r pa t i e nt s / c l i e nt s I t a l s o c a us e s c onc e r n, be c a us e i t i m pa c t s t he i r ow n m e nt a l he a l t h a nd w e l l be i ng, a s t he y c a r e f o r t he m e nt a l he a l t h a nd w e l l be i ng of ot he r s D ue t o t he s e a dm i r a bl e qua l i t i e s i s s ue s of m e r ge r a nd c ons ol i da t i ons be c om e m or e r e l e va nt a nd m or e p r obl e m a t i c E m pl oye e s e m ot i ona l r e s pons e a nd e m ot i ona l l a bor c a n be c om pl i c a t e d by or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge s br ought a bout by nonpr o f i t c ons ol i da t i ons but of t e n l i t t l e a t t e nt i o n i s pa i d t o e m ot i ona l i s s ue s i n t he nonpr o f i t w or kpl a c e B e c a us e t he a ve r a ge nonpr of i t budge t i s 60 t o 80% pe r s onne l r e l a t e d e xpe ns e s r e s ol vi ng pe r s onne l i s s ue s dur i ng a nonp r of i t m e r ge r i s c r i t i c a l t o i t s s uc c e s s ( M c L a ughl i n, 1998 p 210 ) I t i s a l w a ys a c ha l l e nge s a ys A r s e na ul t ( 1998, p. 134) t o

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10 l e a d a gr oup o f nonp r of i t s t a f f m e m be r s t hr ough a pr oc e s s of r e c ons i de r a t i on a nd c ha nge pa r t i c ul a r l y i f t he p l a nne d c ha nge i m pl i e s t he ne e d t o r e c ons i de r c u r r e nt p r a c t i c e s I n a ddi t i on t o obs e r vi ng t he s e be ha vi or s i n m y ow n w or kpl a c e a nd l e a r ni ng t hr ough m y r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e I ha d a n oppo r t uni t y t o e xpl o r e e m pl oye e e m ot i ons a nd e m ot i ona l l a bor dur i ng a nonpr o f i t m e r ge r I i n t e r vi e w e d t he out goi ng e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of a l oc a l A I D S s e r vi c e o r ga ni z a t i on t ha t w a s pr e pa r i ng t o m e r ge w i t h a l a r ge m ul t i s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on. T he s e a r e t w o or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t pr e vi ous l y c om pe t e d f or gr a nt s c l i e nt s a nd dona t i ons but t he i r m e r ge r w a s a m i c a bl e a nd w e l l s t r uc t ur e d. T he e m ot i ona l t ol l t he m e r ge r t ook on t he s t a f f of t he s m a l l e r or ga ni z a t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt but not c ons i de r e d a s pa r t o f t he due di l i ge nc e T he e m ot i ona l t ol l i t t ook on t he de pa r t i ng e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or w a s i nt e ns e T he e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or de s c r i be d t he m e r ge r e xpe r i e nc e a s t he m os t di f f i c ul t pr of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s he e ve r ha d. T he w or k r e qui r e d t o e xe c ut e t he m e r ge r f e l t ve r y unr e a l a nd r e s ul t e d i n phys i c a l e xha us t i on f or t ho s e w or ke r s m os t c e nt r a l t o t he p r oc e s s A t t he s a m e t i m e t ha t s he w a s de vot i ng 60 t o 80 ho ur s a w e e k t o p r e pa r e f o r t he m e r ge r s he w a s r e s i gne d t o t he f a c t t ha t s he l i ke l y w oul d n ot ha ve a j ob w he n i t w a s c om pl e t e d. S he w a s gr i e f s t r i c ke n t ha t s he m a y no l onge r be w i t h t he or ga ni z a t i on, but a l s o be c a us e s he l i ke l y w oul dn t be w or ki ng i n t he f i e l d of H I V / A I D S s e r vi c e s a c a us e c l os e t o he r he a r t T he m e r ge r w a s a l s o di f f i c ul t f o r he r be c a us e s he t ook i t pe r s ona l l y a nd s t r uggl e d w i t h f e e l i ngs of f a i l ur e S he c a r e d a bout a nd f e l t r e s pons i bl e f or t he pe opl e w o r ki ng f or he r a nd f o r t he pr ogr a m s t ha t s e r ve d t he c om m uni t y. I n e ve r y s e ns e s he pe r f o r m e d e m ot i ona l l a bor c ont r ol l i ng he r ow n e m ot i ons w hi l e c a r i ng f o r t he w e l l be i ng a nd

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11 e m ot i ons of ot he r s O ne of he r f i na l t a s ks w a s he l pi ng t o p r e pa r e he r e m pl oye e s t o be i m m e r s e d i nt o a ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t u r e w hi c h c ont r i but e d g r e a t l y t o t he l e ve l o f f e a r a nd unc e r t a i nt y a m ong e m pl oye e s of t he m e r g i ng or ga ni z a t i on. T he y s i gne d on f or one j ob, a nd t he y pour e d t he i r e m ot i ons i nt o t he i r or g a ni z a t i on a nd t he i r w o r k. T he n t he y w e r e a s ke d t o t r a ns i t i on t ha t c om m i t m e nt t o a ne w c om pa ny, a t a s k t ha t w a s e xt r e m e l y di f f i c ul t e s pe c i a l l y w i t h di s pa r a t e o r ga n i z a t i ona l c ul t ur e s I n a ddi t i on t o de a l i ng w i t h t he e m ot i ona l l a bor t he s e w or ke r s e nga ge d i n e ve r y da y a s pa r t of t he i r w or k w i t h pe opl e l i vi ng w i t h A I D S t he y ha d t o de a l w i t h a ne w r a ng e of f e e l i ngs a nd e m ot i ons t ha t r e s ul t e d f r om t he m e r ge r T he e m pl oye e s f e e l i ngs r a nge d f r om s or t of a w a i t a nd s e e a t t i t ude t o s or t o f a n ope n hos t i l i t y. A ddr e s s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a r e s t r a t e gi e s t ha t w o r k e r s us e t o m i t i ga t e t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of e m ot i ona l l a bor i nc l udi ng j ob i nvol ve m e nt a nd c ont r ol ove r one s w or k ( s e e A s hf or t h & H um phr e y 1993; B ul a n, 1997 ; E r i c ks on & W ha r t on, 1997; H oc hs c hi l d, 1983) ; s ol i da r i t y a nd c ohe s i on a m ong w or ke r s a nd f e e l i ng t ha t one i s doi ng s om e t hi ng good ( K a r a ba now 1999 ; S hul e r & S yphe r 2000) ; t he i nhe r e nt na t ur e of e m ot i ona l l a bo r i t s e l f f o r c e r t a i n t ype s of w or ke r s ( S hul e r & S yph e r 2000 ) ; a nd e nj oy i ng t he a c t of pe r f or m a nc e ( M a r t i n K noppof f & B e c km a n 1998 ) S e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s ha ve a l s o f oc us e d on c e r t a i n f o r m s of c om m un i c a t i on t ha t m a na ge r s c a n f os t e r t o o f f s e t t he s t r e s s a n d bur nou t c a us e d by e m ot i ona l l a bor ( F i ne m a n, 1985 & 2000; M a t t s on, C l a i r S a nge r & K unke l 2 000; P ut na m & M um by, 1993 ; R a f a e l i & W or l i ne 2001) A l t hough m i t i ga t i ng s t r a t e gi e s a r e not s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h, s uc h s t r a t e gi e s m a y be obs e r ve d i n t he be ha vi or s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w he n de a l i ng w i t h t he i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t S om e m a na ge m e nt a nd

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12 c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s w i l l be e xpl o r e d f u r t he r i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a nd t hr ough t he a c t i ons of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a s t h e y i m pl e m e nt e d t he r e qui r e d c ha nge s f or t he i r ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l E m pl oye e e m ot i ons a nd w o r kpl a c e c ul t ur e a r e i nt e r t w i ne d. E m ot i ons i n t he nonpr of i t w o r kf or c e s t r o ngl y c ont r i but e t o t he de v e l opm e nt of a n or ga ni z a t i on s c ul t u r e C a r e a nd a t t e nt i on t o t he w or k f or c e c ul t u r e dur i ng a m e r ge r o r c ons ol i da t i on i s c r i t i c a l l y i m por t a nt be c a us e i t i s t he e m pl oye e s t he i r f e e l i ng s e m ot i ons va l ue s a nd i n t e r a c t i ons t ha t c om pr i s e a n or ga ni z a t i on s c ul t ur e a nd i de nt i t y ( D om a ga l s ki 1999; R a f a e l i & W or l i ne 2001; S hul e r & S yphe r 2000) T he i r f e e l i ngs a r e de t e r m i ne d not onl y by t he i nt e r na l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t m a ke t he m w ho t he y a r e but by t hi ngs s uc h a s or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e hi e r a r c hy a nd s t a t us or ga ni z a t i ona l de s i gn, or ga ni z a t i ona l l e a de r s hi p, a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t u r e ( R a f a e l i a n d W or l i ne 2001, p. 105) O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e ha s be e n e xpl or e d e xt e ns i ve l y i n t he l i t e r a t ur e but vi e w s on w ha t c ul t ur e i s how i t f or m s a nd t he f unc t i ons i t s e r ve s va r y f r om m e c ha ni s t i c a nd r a t i ona l a ppr oa c he s t o hum a ni s t i c a nd e m ot i ona l p e r s pe c t i ve s A gr e a t de a l of t he l i t e r a t ur e on c or por a t e c ul t u r e a ddr e s s e s r a t i ona l p e r s pe c t i ve s t ha t s t r e s s t he i m por t a nc e of r e c ogni z i ng c ul t u r e a nd a dd r e s s i ng i nt e gr a t i on i s s ue s f or t he pur pos e of c or por a t e ga i n E ve n w i t hi n m a ny ba s i c d e f i ni t i ons o f c ul t u r e t hi s r a t i ona l a ppr oa c h c a n be i de nt i f i e d. F e l dm a n a nd S pr a t t ( 1999 ) de f i ne c or por a t e c ul t ur e a s t he s e t of e nt r e nc he d be ha vi or s t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z e how a c om pa ny ge t s t hi ngs done ( p. 141) C ul t ur e i s t he c om pr om i s e t ha t e xi s t s be t w e e n t he c om pe t i ng a i m s a nd s t yl e s i n a n o r ga ni z a t i on. I t i s a pr oduc t of c onf l i c t ( M c C a nn & G i l ke y, 1 988, p. 165) C ul t u r e i s a n o r ga ni z a t i ona l i de ol ogy t ha t pr ov i de s a n i m por t a nt or ga ni z i ng t he m e f or be ha vi or ( B e e r 1980 p 96

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13 97) C ul t ur e t e l l s pe opl e w ha t i s s a c r e d, w ha t i s s a nc t i one d, a nd w ha t i s t a boo ( D e a l & K e nne dy, 1999, p. 192) O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e i n pa r t i c ul a r m a t t e r s be c a u s e c ul t ur a l e l e m e nt s de t e r m i ne s t r a t e gy, goa l s a nd m ode s of ope r a t i ng C ul t ur e m a t t e r s be c a us e i t i s a pow e r f ul l a t e nt a nd of t e n unc ons c i ous s e t of f or c e s t ha t de t e r m i ne bot h our i ndi vi dua l a nd c ol l e c t i ve be ha vi or w a ys of pe r c e i vi ng, t hought pa t t e r ns a nd va l ue s ( S c he i n, 1999 p 14 ) O t he r pe r s pe c t i ve s of or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e a r e m or e hum a ni s t i c a nd e m ot i ona l i n na t ur e R a t he r t ha n f oc us i ng on how m a na ge m e nt c a n ut i l i z e a w a r e ne s s of c ul t ur e a s a m e a ns t o c or por a t e e nds e m ot i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve s f o c us on how c ul t ur e f or m s a s a na t ur a l r e s ul t of e m pl oye e i nt e r a c t i on a nd i nf or m a l a s pe c t s of or ga ni z a t i ona l h i s t or y. C u l t ur e i s not s om e t hi ng t ha t c a n be i m pos e d on a s oc i a l s e t t i ng. R a t he r i t de ve l ops du r i ng t he c our s e of s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on, s a ys M or ga n ( 1998, p 130) I n a ny o r ga ni z a t i on t he r e m a y be di f f e r e nt a nd c om pe t i ng va l ue s ys t e m s t ha t c r e a t e a m os a i c of o r ga ni z a t i ona l r e a l i t i e s r a t he r t ha n a uni f or m c or po r a t e c ul t ur e C ul t ur e i s i m por t a nt t o a ny r e s e a r c h on o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge be c a us e c ul t ur e w i t hi n t he nonp r of i t w or k e nvi r onm e nt s upe r s e de s t r a di t i ona l hi e r a r c hi c a l s t r uc t ur e a s a pr i m a r y m e a ns of or ga ni z i n g m ot i va t i ng a nd m on i t or i ng w or ke r s a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s ( K a r a ba now 1999) R a t he r t ha n c r e a t i n g a m e c ha ni s t i c r u l e or i e nt e d a nd bur e a uc r a t i c e nvi r onm e nt f or c ont r ol pu r pos e s c ul t ur e pl a ys t he s a m e r ol e w i t hi n a m or e or ga ni c s t r uc t ur e ( pp 351 35 2) O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e i s a l s o i m por t a nt be c a us e i t i s c om m onl y c i t e d a s t he r e a s on w hy m e r ge r s f a i l i n pa r t i c ul a r be c a us e of c l a s hi ng or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e s a nd t he

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14 l a c k of a t t e nt i on pa i d t o t hi s i s s ue w he n pl a nni ng a nd e xe c ut i ng a m e r ge r ( s e e B r a m s on, 2000; D e V oge 1999; F e l dm a n & S pr a t t 1999; M a r ks & M i r vi s 1998 ) B l e ndi ng O r gani z at i onal C ul t ur e s I ha d a n op por t uni t y t o f ur t he r e xpl or e i s s ue s of o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e dur i ng a nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i on w he n I vi s i t e d a f o r m e r bo s s a nd m e nt or i n S e a t t l e w hos e or ga ni z a t i on w a s unde r goi ng a c ons ol i da t i on. A c ons ol i da t i on di f f e r s f r om a m e r ge r be c a us e i n a c ons ol i da t i on, t he c om pa ni e s j oi n t o f or m a n e nt i r e l y ne w e nt i t y t he c om bi ni ng c om pa ni e s a r e di s s ol ve d, a nd onl y t he ne w e nt i t y c ont i nue s t o ope r a t e I n a m e r ge r one c or por a t i on s ur vi ve s a nd t he m e r ge d c or por a t i on goe s out of e xi s t e nc e T he a c qui r i ng c om pa ny a s s um e s t he a s s e t s a nd l i a bi l i t i e s of t he m e r ge d c om pa ny ( G a ugha n, 1996) I n t he S e a t t l e c ons ol i da t i on, bl e ndi ng t he t w o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e s w a s a c e nt r a l c onc e r n be c a us e of obvi ous di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o or ga ni z a t i ons : t he w a y e m pl oye e s dr e s s e d, t he i r m e e t i ng r i t ua l s a nd t he w a y t he y s poke t o c l i e nt s a nd t r e a t e d donor s C ul t ur e i s de f i ne d a nd s t r e ngt he ne d t hr oug h s uc h r i t ua l s c e r e m on i e s t he us e of j a r gon, a s w e l l a s t he c om m uni c a t i on o f o r ga ni z a t i ona l m yt hs a nd s t or i e s ( G r e gor y, 1983) C ul t u r e i s r e p r oduc e d a nd s t r e ngt he ne d t h r o ugh f or m a l r i t ua l s a nd c e r e m oni e s ( t e a m m e e t i ngs ) T he m a na ge m e nt of t he t w o S e a t t l e A I D S s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons s pe nt e xt e ns i ve t i m e a nd e f f o r t c ons i de r i ng how t he t w o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e s w oul d f i t t oge t he r a nd t he y f ol l ow e d s ugge s t i ons pr ovi de d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e on c or por a t e m e r ge r s T he y e s t a bl i s he d t a s k f or c e s t o c om bi ne t he be s t pr a c t i c e s of bot h c om p a ni e s ( G r e e nga r d, 2001) a nd he l d m a ny j oi nt pl a nni ng r e t r e a t s w he r e t he s t a f f of bot h or ga ni z a t i ons got t o m e e t a nd l e a r n a bout e a c h ot he r D e a l a nd K e nne d y ( 1999) c a l l t he s e gl ove s of f e ve nt s

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15 a nd t he y r e c om m e nd hol d i ng a s e r i e s of s uc h m e e t i ngs t ha t s h oul d be a t t e nde d by a va r i e t y of s ubc ul t ur a l voi c e s a nd pr e f e r a bl y l e d by a n e xpe r i e nc e d f a c i l i t a t o r ( p 224 ) S uc h c ul t ur e bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s c a n he l p e m pl oye e s l e a r n a nd unde r s t a nd e a c h ot he r s c ul t ur e s ( M a r ks & M i r vi s 1998 ) F or t he m e r gi ng A I D S s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s de ve l opi ng ne w pol i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s a n d s e l e c t i ng a na m e f o r t he ne w or ga ni z a t i on w e r e m e a ni ngf ul oppor t uni t i e s f or t he t w o s t a f f s t o ge t t o know e a c h ot he r a nd t o f i nd a ha ppy m e di um t o f or m t he i r ne w o r g a ni z a t i on a l c ul t ur e T he m or e be l i e f s a nd va l ue s a r e s ha r e d a bout how t o do t hi ngs t he s t r onge r t he c ul t ur e o f t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd t he m or e i nf l ue nc e i t e xe r t s on i ndi vi dua l s a nd gr oup be ha vi or ( B e e r 1980, pp. 96 97) A l t hough t he r e ha s be e n a m pl e r e s e a r c h on or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e ove r t he pa s t t w o de c a de s t he m a j or i t y of s t udi e s ha s f oc us e d on or ga ni z a t i ons i n t he pr i va t e s e c t or B e i ng a bl e t o l e a r n a bout t he b l e ndi ng of or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e s by t he A I D S s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons he l pe d m e m a ke c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd t he l i t e r a t ur e on c or por a t e o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e B e c a us e of t he uni que ne s s a nd de pt h of or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e i n t he nonp r of i t w or kf o r c e t hi s i s a n i m por t a nt a r e a f o r f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. I nt r oduc t i on t o M y R e s e a r c h M y r e s e a r c h e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t he m e r gi ng a nd c on s ol i da t i ng A I D S s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons a nd ot he r nonp r of i t s he l pe d m e be t t e r unde r s t a nd nonpr o f i t m e r ge r s a nd c ons ol i da t i ons a nd t o pr e pa r e m y ow n o r ga ni z a t i on f or a m e r ge r I be c a m e c onvi nc e d o f t he i m por t a nc e of t hi s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h a nd de c i de d t o m a ke t h i s m y r e s e a r c h f oc us A s nonpr of i t s e xpl or e ne w w a ys of c opi ng w i t h s oc i oe c onom i c pr e s s ur e s t hr ough

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16 r e or ga ni z a t i on, m e r ge r s c ons ol i da t i on, a nd i nt e g r a t i ons t he r e i s a p r onounc e d ne e d f o r a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h on o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge i n nonpr of i t s e t t i ngs t o he l p us be t t e r unde r s t a nd a nd a s s i s t or ga ni z a t i ons i n t r a ns i t i on. A s I w a s pr e pa r i ng t o be gi n m y di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h, I he a r d a bout one f unde r a nd t he w or k i t w a s doi ng t o he l p i t s a ge nc i e s e xpl or e ne w m ode l s of c ons ol i da t i on a nd i nt e gr a t i on. T hi s s e e m e d l i ke a pe r f e c t s i t e f or m y r e s e a r c h w or k. W i t hi n t he or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on l i t e r a t ur e nonpr of i t i nt e gr a t i ons ha ve not be e n a ddr e s s e d, nor ha ve f unde r i ni t i a t e d i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t s T h r ou gh t hi s i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t I c oul d e xpl or e t he r e a s ons w hy nonpr o f i t s e nt e r i nt o i n t e gr a t i on m ode l s t he c ha l l e nge s t he y e xpe r i e nc e dur i ng t hi s p r oc e s s a nd t he c om m uni c a t i on a nd m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s us e d t o a c hi e ve s uc c e s s f ul i nt e gr a t i on. M y r e s e a r c h s i t e w a s t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) a c ol l a bor a t i ve o f nonp r of i t or g a ni a t i ons a nd t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d of P i ne l l a s C ount y ( J W B ) a f unde r of t he s e s a m e or ga ni z a t i ons a s t he m e m be r s pl a nne d a nd de ve l ope d a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on ( M S O ) T hi s r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on i nt e r or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on a m ong m a na ge r s of t he s e pa r t ne r or ga ni z a t i ons a nd t he c ha l l e nge s t he y f a c e d dur i ng pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s M S O H ow t hi s r e s e a r c h r e l a t i ons hi p w a s e s t a bl i s he d a nd how t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s w a s ne got i a t e d w i l l be e xpl a i ne d i n de t a i l i n c ha pt e r 4 T hi s c ha pt e r ha s pr ovi de d a br i e f l ook i ns i de nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd e xpl or e d t he i m pa c t of c ons ol i da t i on on e m pl oye e e m ot i ons a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e A l t hough m y di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h w i l l not f oc us on e m pl oye e s pe r s e t he s e c onc e r ns a r e e ve r pr e s e nt w i t hi n a nd a m ong t he or ga ni z a t i ona l pa r t n e r s i nvol ve d i n t h i s e f f or t C onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h on nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i ons a nd i nt e gr a t i o ns a l s o r e qui r e s a n unde r s t a ndi ng of

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17 pa r t ne r s hi p s t ha t a r e be c om i ng m or e p r om i ne nt i n t he nonpr of i t s e c t or B e f o r e e xpl or i ng t he c ha l l e nge s a nd s t r a t e gi e s pe r t a i ni ng t o t he s pe c i f i c i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t i nc l ude d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h, i t i s he l p f ul t o f i r s t unde r s t a nd m or e a bou t t he e nvi r onm e nt i m pa c t i ng nonpr of i t s a nd t he f or m s be ne f i t s a nd c ha l l e nge s of pa r t ne r s hi ps a m ong nonp r of i t s a nd w i t h f unde r s T he s e a r e a s w i l l be e xpl or e d i n c ha pt e r 2 t h r ough a c om p r e he ns i ve r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e t ha t a l s o w i l l pr ovi de a n ove r vi e w of va r i ous c ol l a bor a t i on a nd i nt e gr a t i on m ode l s T he t h i r d c ha pt e r of m y di s s e r t a t i on w i l l p r ovi de a r e vi e w of l i t e r a t ur e t ha t a ddr e s s e s t he m or e s pe c i f i c or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s t ha t t he s e pa r t ne r s hi ps c a us e a nd t he m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s us e d t o m i t i ga t e t he m A f t e r m y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a r e i nt r oduc e d i n t he ne xt t w o c ha pt e r s I w i l l i nt r oduc e m y r e s e a r c h r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he pa r t ne r or ga ni z a t i ons a nd pr ovi de a n ove r vi e w of m y c o ge ne r a t e d r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy. D a t a w i l l be s ha r e d t h r ough t he w or ds a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I w i l l e xpl or e t he f i ndi ngs t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t hi s r e s e a r c h a nd p r ovi de a r e vi e w o f ke y i ns i ght s f o r p r a c t i t i one r s a nd s c hol a r s T he i m m e di a t e a ppl i c a bi l i t y of t hi s r e s e a r c h i s of g r e a t i m por t a nc e t o f undi ng i ns t i t ut i ons m a ny o f w hi c h a r e t a ki ng on m or e a c t i ve r ol e s t o s t a bi l i z e o r s t r e ngt he n t he pr ogr a m s t he y f und a nd m or e of t e n t oda y by e nc our a gi ng c ons ol i da t i on. F r om a pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve m y hope i s t ha t nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons w i l l be ope n t o c ons i de r i ng c ons ol i da t i on a nd ot he r s t r a t e g i c r e s t r uc t ur i ng a s opt i ons t ha t c a n pr e ve nt ne e de d pr ogr a m s f r om c l os i ng, a s w e l l a s t o m a xi m i z e t he dw i ndl i ng ba s e of f i na nc i a l s uppor t a va i l a bl e t o nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons t oda y.

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18 C H A P T E R 2 T H E N O N P R O F I T E N V I R O N M E N T I nt r oduc t i on T hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps a m ong nonpr of i t s a nd be t w e e n nonpr of i t s a nd f unde r s S pe c i f i c a l l y, i t i s a bout f unde r i ni t i a t e d nonpr o f i t i nt e gr a t i on a nd a bout how t he e nt i t i e s i nvol ve d m a na ge t hi s t ype of a r r a nge m e nt S t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi p i s not ne w t o nonpr o f i t s I n f a c t i t i s pa r t of t he ve r y na t ur e of w hy a nd how nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons a r e f or m e d: t h r ou gh c i t i z e ns c om i ng t oge t he r t o a ddr e s s a pr e s s i ng s oc i a l ne e d. T he t ype s of pa r t ne r s hi ps i n w hi c h nonpr o f i t s ha ve be e n i nvol ve d how e ve r ha s c ha nge d t hr oughout t he hi s t or y of t h e s e or ga ni z a t i ons A l ong w i t h t he s e de ve l opi ng r e l a t i ons hi ps ha ve c om e a hos t o f m a na ge m e nt a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s T hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w w i l l e xpl o r e t he va r i e d s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps t ha t nonpr o f i t s e nga ge i n, i nc l udi ng c om m uni t y ba s e d pa r t ne r s hi p s t ha t r e s ul t i n t he f o r m a t i on o f nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons t he e vol ut i on o f gove r nm e nt nonpr of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h f or pr of i t e nt i t i e s f or t he de ve l op m e nt of c om m e r c i a l ve nt ur e s s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h ot he r nonpr of i t s t o m a xi m i z e r e s our c e s a nd c om pe t e nc i e s a nd f unde r i ni t i a t e d nonpr of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps i nt e nde d t o s t r e a m l i ne t he pr ovi s i on o f s e r vi c e s a nd m a xi m i z e f undi ng r e s our c e s W hi l e a l l o f t he s e w i l l be e xpl or e d i n t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w t o s om e de gr e e t he f oc us w i l l be on gove r nm e nt n onpr of i t r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd nonpr of i t

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19 c ons ol i da t i ons i nc l udi ng f unde r i ni t i a t e d i n t e gr a t i ons R e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h a l l s t a ke hol de r s a r e i m por t a nt f or t he s ur vi va l of no npr of i t s a nd t h e c ha l l e nge s i nvol ve d i n m a na gi ng t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e c om pl e x a nd pe r va s i ve bu t c om m uni t y a nd bus i ne s s r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e not t he f oc us of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h. T he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e i nc l ude d f or t he pur po s e of pr ov i di ng c ont e xt t o unde r s t a nd t he e vo l ut i on of nonpr of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps a nd t he c ha l l e nge s be i ng f a c e d t oda y a s nonpr o f i t s a nd f unde r s t r y t o m a ne uve r a n e ve r c ha ngi ng s ys t e m of s e r vi c e de l i ve r y. T he ne xt c ha pt e r w i l l r e vi e w l i t e r a t u r e t ha t a ddr e s s e s t he m or e s pe c i f i c o r ga ni z a t i ona l c om m u ni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s t ha t t he s e pa r t ne r s hi ps c a us e a nd t he m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s us e d t o m i t i ga t e t he m D e f i ni t i on a nd S c ope of N onp r of i t s B e f or e e xpl or i ng t he l i t e r a t u r e on nonp r of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps i t i s i m po r t a nt t o unde r s t a nd t he s c ope of nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons a n d t o unde r s t a nd s om e t e r m i nol ogy. N onpr of i t s go by m a ny di f f e r e nt na m e s i nc l udi ng not f or p r of i t s a s s oc i a t i ons f ounda t i ons t a x e xe m pt s c om m uni t y s e r vi c e ( or c om m uni t y ba s e d) or ga ni z a t i ons c ha r i t a bl e or ga ni z a t i ons t hi r d s e c t or o r i nde pe nde nt s e c t or nongove r n m e nt a l or ga ni z a t i ons a nd ot he r na m e s s pe c i f i c t o m o r e de f i ne d s e r vi c e a r e na s F o r t he pur pos e of t hi s r e s e a r c h, t he t e r m nonpr of i t or nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i on w i l l be us e d w he n r e vi e w i ng t he l i t e r a t ur e i n or de r t o m a i n t a i n a c ons i s t e nt us e of t e r m i no l ogy. T he s e t e r m s w i l l a l s o be us e d t o r e f e r t o t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i ons p a r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. I t s i m por t a nt t o c l a r i f y t ha t t he s c ope of t he nonpr of i t s e c t or i s br oa d, bu t t he s c ope of t hi s r e s e a r c h i s m or e na r r ow l y f oc us e d on publ i c c ha r i t i e s ( of one s pe c i f i c t ype ) a s w i l l be i de nt i f i e d i n t he m e t hodol ogy c ha pt e r

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20 N onpr of i t i s a l e ga l t e r m us e d by t he I nt e r na l R e ve nue S e r vi c e ( I R S ) t o r e f e r t o or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t m a y onl y us e r e ve nue s t o f u r t he r t he i r c ha r i t a bl e o r e duc a t i ona l m i s s i on, r a t he r t ha n di s t r i but e p r of i t s t o ow ne r s o r s ha r e hol de r s T he y a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s t a x e xe m pt m e a ni ng s houl d t he y m a ke a p r of i t t he y do not ha ve t o pa y t a xe s O nl y one t ype of nonp r of i t publ i c c ha r i t i e s t ha t a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s 501( c ) ( 3) i s t a x de duc t i bl e m e a ni ng t hos e w ho dona t e t o t he publ i c c ha r i t y c a n c l a i m a t a x de duc t i on ( B e r r y, 2005) U nl i ke gove r nm e nt s t he s e a ge nc i e s ha ve no t a xi n g a ut hor i t y a nd, he nc e r e l y he a vi l y on c ha r i t a bl e do na t i ons vol unt e e r i s m a nd g r a nt s f r o m pr i va t e f ounda t i ons a nd gove r nm e nt T he r e a r e 27 t ype s of nonpr of i t s de f i ne d i n t he I nt e r na l R e ve nue C ode ( B e r r y, 2005) a nd t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons f ul f i l l m a ny di f f e r e nt r ol e s i n s oc i e t y. S a l a m on ( 2002) i de nt i f i e d f i ve r ol e s t ha t nonpr of i t s p l a y i n A m e r i c a n s oc i e t y: a ) di r e c t s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s ( e g. of he a l t h c a r e e duc a t i on) ; b) i s s ue a dvoc a c y ( e g. c i vi l r i ght s t he e nvi r onm e nt ) ; c ) e xpr e s s i on ( e g. a r t w or s hi p r e c r e a t i on ) ; d ) c om m uni t y bui l di ng ( e g c r e a t i ng n e t w or ks of l i ke m i nde d c i t i z e ns ) ; a nd e ) gua r di a n of va l ue s ( e g. i ndi vi d ua l i s m a nd s ol i da r i t y ) W hi l e a l l nonpr o f i t s pl a y e a c h o f t he s e r ol e s t o s om e de gr e e t he y va r y i n e m pha s i s F or e xa m pl e s om e a ge nc i e s s e e t he i r pr i m a r y m i s s i on a s di r e c t s e r vi c e t o c l i e nt s w hi l e ot he r s ha ve m or e t o do w i t h a dvoc a c y t o pol i t i c i a n s a nd t he publ i c T he i m pa c t a s w e l l a s t he s c ope o f t he nonpr of i t s e c t or i s gr e a t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd i n F l o r i da w he r e t hi s r e s e a r c h t a ke s pl a c e T he t a bl e t ha t f ol l ow s ( T a bl e 2. 1 ) pr ovi de s a s na ps hot of t he s i z e o f t he nonp r of i t s e c t or i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd F l o r i da a s w e l l a s s om e r e l e va nt s t a t i s t i c s t ha t r e pr e s e nt t he i m pa c t of t he s e c t or

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21 T a bl e 2. 1 I m pa c t of t he N onpr o f i t S e c t o r i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd F l or i da N o n pro fi t Se cto r i n th e U ni ted Sta t es N o n pro fi t Se cto r i n F l o ri da In 2 0 0 5 t h er e w ere 8 4 5 2 3 3 p u b l i c ch ari t i es i n t h e U n i t ed St at es A l mo s t 6 % o f al l o rg an i z at i o n s i n t h e U n i t ed St at es a re i n t h e n o n p ro fi t s e ct o r. 4 2 % o f r ep o rt i n g p u b l i c ch ari t i es are l o cat ed i n s ev en s t at es C al i fo rn i a, Fl o ri d a, Il l i n o i s N e w Y o rk O h i o Pen n s y l v an i a, an d T ex as In 2 0 0 6 t h er e w ere 6 7 9 3 5 n o n p ro fi t s l o cat ed i n t h e s t at e o f Fl o ri d a, 6 7 % o f w h i ch w ere p u b l i c ch ari t i es T h e n u mb e r o f p u b l i c ch a ri t i es i n t h e U n i t ed St at es g r e w 6 4 7 % f ro m 1 9 9 4 t o 2 0 0 4 T h e n u mb e r o f Fl o ri d a p u b l i c ch a ri t i es g re w 1 1 5 % fro m 1 9 9 6 t o 2 0 0 6 In 2 0 0 4 p u b l i c ch ari t i es rep o rt ed an n u al rev en u es o f mo re t h an $ 1 8 t ri l l i o n Fl o ri d a p u b l i c ch a ri t i es rep o rt ed $ 6 5 b i l l i o n i n as s et s i n 2 0 0 6 T h ey re cei v ed mo re t h an $ 4 5 b i l l i o n i n an n u al rev en u e. N o n p ro fi t emp l o y m en t rep res en t s 9 5 % o f t o t al e mp l o y men t i n t h e U n i t ed St at es an d 8 3 % o f w ag es an d s al ari es p ai d i n t h e U n i t ed St at es In 2 0 0 0 Fl o ri d a n o n p ro fi t s d i rect l y emp l o y ed mo re t h an 4 3 0 0 0 0 p eo p l e. N o n p ro fi t s r ep res en t t h e s t at es s i x t h l arg es t s o u rce o f emp l o y m en t a mo n g al l i n d u s t ri es In 2 0 0 5 ap p ro x i mat el y 2 9 % o f A meri c an s v o l u n t eered t h ro u g h a n o n p ro fi t o rg an i zat i o n In Fl o ri d a, n o n p ro fi t ch ari t i es at t ract ed 8 8 mi l l i o n h o u rs o f v o l u n t eer t i m e i n 2 0 0 1 eq u al t o a w o rk o f mo re t h an 4 2 0 0 0 fu l l t i me e mp l o y ees S our c e s : ( T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e 2007; P hi l a nt hr opy & N onpr of i t L e a de r s hi p C e nt e r 2002)

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22 M a ny of t he de f i ni ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of nonp r of i t s c a n a l s o be a ppl i e d t o pub l i c a nd pr i va t e s e c t or o r ga ni z a t i ons T he r e a r e f or e xa m pl e publ i c l y r un a nd pr i va t e l y r un hos pi t a l s c ouns e l i ng c e nt e r s m e m be r s hi p or ga ni z a t i ons s oc i a l a nd r e c r e a t i ona l c l ubs a nd t he l i ke I n m y i nt r oduc t or y c ha pt e r I r e f e r e nc e d t he uni que na t ur e of t he nonpr o f i t w or kf or c e a nd o r ga ni z a t i ona l c u l t ur e C e r t a i nl y or ga ni z a t i ons i n t he publ i c a nd pr i va t e s e c t or s ha r e s om e of t he s a m e qua l i t i e s i n a ddi t i on t o ha vi ng t he i r ow n uni que qua l i t i e s i n t hi s r e ga r d T he r e a r e i n f a c t m a ny w a ys i n w hi c h nonpr of i t s a r e bot h s i m i l a r t o a nd di f f e r e nt f r om t he i r f or pr of i t a nd gove r n m e nt c ou nt e r pa r t s a nd m a ny s uc h c om pa r i s ons of t he s e s e c t or s i n w hol e o r pa r t ha ve be e n m a de s uc h a s c om pa r i s ons of m a na ge r i a l s t yl e r e s our c e s or e m pl oye e s ( c f B r i nke r hof f & B r i nke r hof f 2002; L yons D uxbur y & H i ggi ns 2006; M o or e 2000; R ot hs c hi l d & M i l of s ky, 2006; S a xon H a r r ol d & H e f f r on 2000; S t e i ne r & S t e i ne r 2000; S t e ue r l e & H odgki n s on, 1999; T ow ns e nd, 2000; V a n D e r W a l H ube r t s V a n D e n H e uve l & K ol t hof f 2006 ) S om e r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y c l e a r de s t i nc t i ons a m ong t he s e c t or s w hi l e ot he r s de no unc e t he s e a s c r ude s t e r ot ype s ( R a i ne y & B oz e m a n, pp. 448 449) S om e r e s e a r c h e r s s a y t he s e c t or s a r e i de nt i f i c a l i n va r i ous di m e ns i ons w hi l e ot he r s s a y t he y a r e di s s i m i l a r B e c a us e of t he e xt e ns i ve de ba t e a m ong t he s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he t hr e e s e c t or s t he s e w i l l not be pr e s e nt e d he r e U nde r s t a ndi ng t he ke y di s t i ngui s i n g f e a t u r e s how e ve r m a y be he l pf ul a nd t he s e a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 2. 2 [ S e e T a bl e 2 2 on t he ne xt pa ge ]

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23 T a bl e 2. 2 D i s t i ngui s hi ng C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a m ong t he C or por a t i ons G ove r nm e nt a nd N onpr of i t s C o r po ra ti o n Go v er n m e nt N o n pro fi t P u rpo s e Cre at ed fo r t h e p u rp o s e o f p ro d u ci n g g o o d s o r s erv i ces fo r t h e ma rk et t h at may b e a s o u rce o f p ro fi t o r o t h er fi n an ci al g ai n t o i t s o w n e r(s ) A s s u m es res p o n s i b i l i t y fo r t h e p ro v i s i o n o f g o o d s an d s erv i ces t o t h e co m mu n i t y o r t o i n d i v i d u al h o u s eh o l d s fo r fr ee o r at p ri ces t h a t are n o t eco n o mi cal l y s i g n i fi can t Pri n ci p al l y en g ag ed i n t h e p ro d u ct i o n o f n o n m ark et g o o d s an d s erv i c es fo r h o u s eh o l d s Mo s t ar e n o n mark et p ro d u ce rs t h at p ro v i d e mo s t o f t h ei r o u t p u t t o o t h ers free o r at p ri ces w h i ch are n o t eco n o mi cal l y s i g n i fi can t A l t h o u g h t h ey may earn p ro fi t s n o n p ro fi t s are n o t o rg an i zed fo r p ro fi t an d c an n o t d i s t ri b u t e an y p ro fi t s earn ed t o t h ei r d i re ct o rs o r man ag e rs ; s u ch p ro fi t s are ret ai n ed w i t h i n t h e n o n p ro fi t May b e creat ed : t o p ro v i d e s erv i ces fo r t h e b en e fi t o f t h e p e rs o n s o r co rp o rat i o n s w h o co n t ro l o r fi n an c e t h e m t o p ro v i d e g o o d s o r s e rv i ces t o o t h er p ers o n s i n n e ed t o p ro v i d e h eal t h o r ed u cat i o n s erv i ces fo r a fe e, b u t n o t fo r p ro fi t t o p ro mo t e t h e i n t eres t s o f p res s u re g ro u p s i n b u s i n es s o r p o l i t i cs

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24 Ov ers i g ht Co l l e ct i v el y o w n ed b y s h areh o l d ers w h o h av e t h e au t h o ri t y t o ap p o i n t d i rect o rs res p o n s i b l e fo r i t s g en eral man ag em en t E s t ab l i s h ed b y p o l i t i cal p ro ces s es t h at h av e l eg i s l at i v e, j u d i ci al o r ex ecu t i v e au t h o ri t y o v er o t h er i n s t i t u t i o n al u n i t s w i t h i n a g i v en ar ea. G o v e rn ed b y a s el f p erp et u at i n g b o ard o f d i r ect o rs w h o ar e n o t p u b l i cl y el ect ed an d are ra rel y p ai d F u ndi ng Pro v i d e p ro d u ct s an d s erv i ces t o i n d i v i d u al s b as ed o n t h ei r n eed s o r w an t s i n ex ch an g e fo r a d i rect p ay men t Co l l ect t ax es o r co mp u l s o ry t ran s f e rs fro m o t h er i n s t i t u t i o n al u n i t s May o w n an d o p erat e u n i n co rp o rat ed en t erp ri s es en g ag ed i n t h e p ro d u ct i o n o f g o o d s o r s erv i ces Mai n r es o u rces m ay i n cl u d e fees p ai d b y t h e me mb ers o r v o l u n t ary d o n at i o n s o f t i me an d mo n ey b y h o u s eh o l d s Rel y p ri n ci p al l y o n fu n d s o t h er t h an recei p t s fro m s al es S our c e : ( U ni t e d N a t i ons 2001 2 20, 4. 23 4 24, 4. 47 4 54 & 4 104) T he pr i m a r y c ha l l e nge f a c i ng nonpr of i t s t oda y i s n ot t ha t di f f e r e nt f r om t hos e f a c i ng a l l or ga ni z a t i ons t o s e c ur e s uf f i c i e nt r e s our c e s t o c ove r ( a nd i de a l l y e xc e e d) t he c os t of pur s ui ng t he i r m i s s i on. T he ba s i c r e c i pe f or s uc c e s s i n t oda y s e nvi r onm e nt i s s i m i l a r f or a l l o r ga ni z a t i ons c om pe t e nt l e a de r s hi p, c ol l a bor a t i ve pa r t ne r s hi ps a nd t he f l e xi bi l i t y t o c ope w i t h e nvi r onm e nt a l s hi f t s S om e of t he s e a r e m or e di f f i c ul t t o a c hi e ve i n t he nonpr o f i t e nvi r onm e nt I n a ddi t i on t o pr od uc i ng ne w r e ve nue s our c e s non pr of i t m a na ge r s m us t a l s o de m ons t r a t e c om pe t e nt l e a de r s hi p, i nc l udi ng be i ng m or e s t r a t e gi c a nd s ki l l e d a t m a xi m i z i ng e xi s t i ng r e s our c e s a nd be i ng s ki l l e d a t l ong t e r m s t r a t e gi c pl a nni ng t o a nt i c i pa t e a nd pl a n f o r l a r ge or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge s B r ys on s a ys t ha t nonpr of i t

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25 or ga ni z a t i ons m us t be e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gi s t s i f t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons a r e t o f ul f i l l t he i r m i s s i ons m e e t t he i r m a nda t e s a nd s a t i s f y t he i r c ons t i t ue nt s i n ye a r s a he a d ( 1995, p. i x) T he y ne e d t o de ve l op e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gi e s t o c ope w i t h c ha ngi ng c i r c um s t a nc e s T hi s s e nt i m e nt i s e m pha s i z e d t hr oughout t he l i t e r a t ur e O r ga ni z a t i ons t ha t w a nt t o s ur vi ve a nd pr os pe r m us t e m br a c e c ha nge T hi s c a n be done by c ont i nui ng t o pr ovi de t he s a m e s e r vi c e s but i n a m a nne r t ha t i s be t t e r a nd m o r e c o m pe t i t i ve o r i t m a y i nvol ve pl a nni ng f or i m po r t a nt s hi f t s i n t he or ga ni z a t i ona l f oc us a nd s t r uc t ur e A c c or di ng t o M c L a ughl i n ( 1998) t he bul k of i nn ova t i on i n nonpr o f i t s t oda y w i l l t a ke pl a c e not i n s e r vi c e s but i n m a na ge m e nt T hi s i nc l ude s ke e pi ng a n ope n m i nd t o t he pos s i bi l i t y o f c ons ol i da t i ons a nd ot he r f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h ot he r e nt i t i e s M uc h of t he l i t e r a t ur e f oc us e d on e xt e r na l c om m u ni c a t i on a ddr e s s e s t hi s a s pe c t t he or ga ni z a t i on s dr i ve t o s ur vi ve t ha t r e qui r e s va r i ous e xt e r na l r e l a t i ons hi ps w hi c h a r e ne c e s s a r y f or nonp r of i t s t o f i na nc i a l l y a nd s t r a t e gi c a l l y t hr i ve 1 N onpr of i t l e a de r s a nd boa r d m e m be r s ha ve al w ay s know n t ha t t he y c a nn ot f u l f i l l t he i r m i s s i on by goi ng i t a l one ; t o s uc c e e d, t he y m us t bui l d a l l i a nc e s ne t w or ks pa r t ne r s hi ps a nd ot he r t ype s of c ol l a bor a t i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps ( W a i de 1999 p 244 ) P a r t ne r i ng e f f e c t i ve l y w i t h s t a ke hol de r s i s t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt c om m uni c a t i o n c ha l l e nge f a c i ng l e a de r s of nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons I de nt i f y i ng s t a ke hol de r s a nd bui l di n g r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t he m i s a p r i m a r y r ol e of nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ona l l e a de r s hi p a nd i s a s t r a t e gy s t udi e d by s e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s ( s e e E a di e 1997; G a r ne r 1989; M S ha w 2003 ) E a di e ( 1997) r e c om m e nds t ha t nonpr of i t l e a de r s pe r f or m a n e nvi r on m e nt a l s c a n t o i de nt i f y e xt e r na l c ondi t i ons a nd 1 So me o f t h e i n fo r mat i o n o n n o n p ro fi t p art n ers h i p s co n t ai n ed h ere an d t h ro u g h o u t t h e l i t er at u re rev i e w ch ap t ers al s o h as b e en i n cl u d ed i n a b o o k ch ap t er ( E i s en b e rg & E s ch en fel d er i n p res s ) t h at w i l l ap p e ar i n t h e H a n d b o o k o f A p p l i ed Co m m u n i c a t i o n (Frey & Ci s s n a, E d s i n p res s

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26 t r e nds t ha t a r e pe r t i ne nt t o a nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i on s vi s i on a nd m i s s i on, f ol l ow e d by a n a na l ys i s t ha t i de nt i f i e s pot e nt i a l s t a ke hol de r s w i t h r e l a t e d i nt e r e s t s ( p. 154) T hi s i s a c ha l l e nge f or nonp r of i t l e a de r s how e ve r be c a us e of t he l a r ge num be r a nd va r i e d t ype s of s t a ke hol de r s i nvol ve d. H i s t or i c a l l y, t he nu m be r a nd i m por t a nc e of s t a ke hol de r r e l a t i ons ha s be e n t he ke y qua l i t a t i ve di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd f or p r of i t bus i ne s s e s ( D r uc ke r 1990) W i t hi n f o r p r of i t e nt i t i e s l i ne s c a n us ua l l y be dr a w n be t w e e n c ons um e r s ( e xt e r na l publ i c s ) a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s ( i nt e r na l publ i c s ) a l t hough t he pr i va t e s e c t or ha s e xpa nde d i t s vi e w t o l ook be yond s t oc khol de r s t o ot he r publ i c s ( D e e t z 1992) W hi l e nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons s ha r e s om e of t he s e t ype s of r e l a t i ons hi ps t he l i ne s bl ur w he n a t t e m pt i ng t o i de nt i f y e xt e r na l a nd i nt e r na l publ i c s N onpr o f i t s a r e c r e a t e d by a b r oa de r s e c t i on of c om m uni t y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s w ho s t r i ve t o m e e t s om e f o r m of c om m uni t y ne e d. I n or de r t o a c c om pl i s h t h i s r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h va r i ous publ i c s be c om e c r i t i c a l f o r t he c ul t i va t i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e of br oa d c om m un i t y s uppor t T hi s bl u r r i ng of bounda r i e s i s r e l e va nt t o t he r ol e o f nonp r of i t s i n f or m i ng s oc i a l c a pi t a l T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t he c ons i de r a bl e num be r a n d t ype s of s t a ke hol de r s w ho a r e c om m i t t e d t o a nd i nvol ve d i n t he or ga ni z a t i ons publ i c pu r pos e a nd nonp r of i t s e xpl i c i t s oc i a l a ge nda a nd t he i r c om m i t m e nt t o t he s oc i a l good a r e p r e c i s e l y t he e l e m e nt s t ha t s ym bol i z e nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a n d m a ke t he m uni que T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e l e va nt t o t hi s r e s e a r c h a nd a r e e xa m i ne d f ur t he r i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t ha t f ol l ow s s t a r t i ng w i t h t he f oundi ng of nonp r of i t s a nd t he f o r m a t i on o f s oc i a l c a pi t a l

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27 C om m uni t y N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps M a ny w r i t e r s ha ve a ddr e s s e d t he uni que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons by e xpl or i ng t he or i gi ns a nd ope r a t i ons of nonpr o f i t s a s t he y a r e a l i gne d w i t h t he c or e di m e ns i ons of s oc i a l c a pi t a l s uc h a s e s t a bl i s hi ng n e t w or ks r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd t r us t a nd c r e a t i ng s ha r e d vi s i on a nd no r m s ( s e e B e l l a h, M a d s e n, S ul l i va n, S w i dl e r & T i pt on, 1996; C ha s ki n, B r ow n, V e nka t e s h & V i da l 2001; K i ng 2004; S m i t h & L i ps ky, 1993 ) S oc i a l c a pi t a l i s c r e a t e d w he n nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons a r e f or m e d by m e m be r s of a c om m uni t y w ho c om e t oge t he r t o f oc us on a s oc i a l ne e d not a ddr e s s e d by e xi s t i ng or ga ni z a t i ons ( C ha m br e & F a t t 2002 ) T hus nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons e xi s t bot h t o s e r v e a nd c r e a t e c ha nge i n s oc i e t y, a nd t he y e xi s t be c a us e of t he c o m m uni t y a nd be c om e e xt e ns i ons of t he c om m uni t y. A c c or di ng t o B e l l a h e t a l ( i n S m i t h & L i ps ky, 199 3, p 22) a c om m uni t y i s a gr oup of pe opl e w ho a r e s oc i a l l y i nt e r de pe nde nt w ho pa r t i c i pa t e t oge t he r i n di s c us s i on a nd de c i s i on m a ki ng, a nd w ho s ha r e c e r t a i n pr a c t i c e s t ha t bot h de f i ne t he c om m uni t y a nd a r e nur t ur e d by i t I n t hi s de f i ni t i on, nonpr o f i t s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons a r e t a ngi bl e s i gni f i c a nt m a ni f e s t a t i ons of c om m uni t y ( S m i t h & L i ps ky 1993 p. 22) T hi s i s e vi de nt w he n e xa m i ni ng t he m a ny r ol e s i ndi vi dua l s pl a y i n t he or ga ni z a t i ons T he boa r d of di r e c t or s i s dr a w n f r om pr om i ne nt pe opl e i n t he c o m m uni t y w ho s uppor t t he or ga ni z a t i on s obj e c t i ve s a nd w ho pr ov i de l e a de r s hi p. N onpr o f i t s m a k e e xt e ns i ve us e of vol unt e e r s t o he l p c a r r y out t he o r ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on a nd r a i s e a s i gni f i c a nt po r t i on o f t he i r f undi ng f r om i ndi vi d ua l s N onpr o f i t s a l s o de a l w i t h num e r ous i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l ne t w or ks a nd t h r ough t he s e de ve l op r e l a t i ons hi ps bui l d t r us t a nd he l p de ve l op c om m uni t y c a pa c i t y. W i t hout t he s e c or e c om pone nt s of s oc i a l c a pi t a l nonpr of i t s c a nnot

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28 a c hi e ve t he i r m i s s i ons ( K i ng, 2004) A c c or di ng t o C ha s ki n, B r ow n, V e nka t e s h a nd V i da l ( 2001) or ga ni z a t i ons a r e t he ke y ve hi c l e s t hr ough w hi c h c o m m uni t y c a pa c i t y i s bui l t N onpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons of t e n w o r k be s t by pr om ot i ng s ys t e m a t i c c ha nge i n t he i r ow n c om m uni t y, a nd c ol l a bor a t i on i s ke y t o t hi s e f f o r t B y s ha r i ng i nf or m a t i on e ns ur i ng t ha t t he ne c e s s a r y pr oc e s s e s a r e a va i l a bl e f or c om m uni t y c h a nge a nd m a ki ng good de c i s i ons nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons a dva nc e t he w e l f a r e of t he a r e a s t he y s e r ve ( V a n T i l & R os s 2001, p 70) G ove r nm e nt N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps A s s how n i n T a bl e 2 2, nonpr of i t s pe r f o r m t he ki n ds of f unc t i ons t yp i c a l l y i de nt i f i e d w i t h gove r nm e nt s uc h a s he l pi ng t he d i s a dva nt a ge d, pr ovi di ng s oc i a l s e r vi c e s s uppor t i ng c ol l e c t i ve s e r vi c e s s uc h a s m us e um s a nd s c hool s pr e s e r vi ng t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd f undi ng m e di c a l r e s e a r c h. W he n gove r nm e nt d i r e c t l y pr ovi de s t he s e s e r vi c e s i n f or m s a nd a m ount s t ha t vot e r s w a nt t he r ol e of no npr of i t s i s l i m i t e d. H ow e ve r w he n popul a t i ons a r e ve r y di ve r s e s e r vi c e s t ha t s a t i s f y t he m a j or i t y m a y l e a ve m a ny pe opl e s e ve r e l y unde r s a t i s f i e d; nonpr of i t s a r e t hus unde r s t a nda bl e a s a n a l t e r na t i ve m e c ha ni s m f or p r ovi di ng c ol l e c t i ve s e r vi c e s ( W e i s br od, 1997 p 542) G ove r nm e nt nonpr of i t r e l a t i ons a nd g ove r nm e nt s gr ow i ng r e l i a nc e on nonpr of i t s c a n be be t t e r unde r s t ood by l ooki ng a t t he hi s t or y of nonpr o f i t s t ha t i s i nt e r t w i ne d w i t h gove r nm e nt r e l a t i ons hi ps F o l l o w i ng i s a br i e f ove r vi e w of t hi s gove r nm e nt nonp r of i t r e l a t i ons hi p, a s s ha r e d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e F or a t hor o ugh hi s t or y of nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f r om t he 1600 s t o 2000 s e e H a l l ( 2006) T hi s r e vi e w f oc us e s on t he 20 t h c e nt ur y.

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29 T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n gove r nm e nt a nd nonp r of i t s c a n be t r a c e d ba c k t o t he f oundi ng of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a l t hough nonpr of i t s ha d not be e n de f i ne d a s s uc h a t t ha t t i m e G ove r nm e nt c ont r a c t i ng w a s a l s o i n pr a c t i c e a t t ha t t i m e a s de s c r i be d by H a l l ( 2006) : A l t hough c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt s a nd m uni c i pa l i t i e s c ol l e c t e d t a xe s a nd e na c t e d l a w s t he y us ua l l y e nt r us t e d t he a c t ua l t a s ks of c a r i ng f or t he poor he a l i ng t he s i c k, a nd e duc a t i ng t he i gnor a nt t o f a m i l i e s w ho c o ul d pr ovi de t he s e s e r vi c e s a t t he l ow e s t c os t I n N e w E ngl a nd vi l l a ge s f or e xa m pl e t he poo r a nd de pe nde nt w e r e of t e n a uc t i one d o f f t o t he l ow e s t bi dde r ( pp 33 34) T he l ow e s t bi dde r s i nc l ude d c hu r c he s pr i va t e m a na ge r s or i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t w e w oul d be r e c ogni z e d t oda y a s c ha r i t a bl e nonpr of i t s T he c om m on t e r m i nol ogy w e us e t oda y nonpr of i t publ i c c har i t i e s a nd t ax de duc t i bl e di d not be c a m e f or m a l i z e d un t i l t he de ve l opm e nt of s e c t i on 501( c ) o f t he 1954 I nt e r na l R e ve nue C ode F r o m t ha t t i m e f or w a r d, r e s e a r c h on t he hi s t or y o f nonp r of i t gove r nm e nt a c t i vi t y be c a m e m or e pl e nt i f ul a nd t he r e l a t i ons be t w e e n nonpr o f i t s a nd gove r nm e nt be c a m e m or e vi b r a nt G ove r nm e nt s r e l i a nc e on nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons gr e w s ubs t a nt i a l l y a f t e r W or l d W a r I I a nd i nt o t he 1960s G ove r nm e nt de pe nde d he a vi l y on nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons t o s t i m ul a t e s c i e nt i f i c a dva nc e s a nd ove r c om e pove r t y a nd i l l he a l t h ( S a l a m on 2002 p 12) A s gove r n m e nt gr e w i n t he 1960s a nd 1970s i t t ur ne d e xt e ns i ve l y t o nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons f or he l p A s a r e s ul t e l a bo r a t e pa r t ne r s hi ps c a m e i nt o e xi s t e nc e be t w e e n t he s e t w o s e t s of i ns t i t ut i ons B i g i nf us i ons of c a s h w e r e pour e d i n t o s oc i a l s e r vi c e s a nd, a s a r e s ul t m a ny ne w a ge nc i e s w e r e c r e a t e d t o r e c e i ve a nd a dm i ni s t e r t he s pe ndi ng of t he s e f unds ( B e r ns t e i n, 1991, p. vi i ) A c c or di ng t o S a l a m on ( 2 002) by t he l a t e 1970s

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30 nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons w e r e r e c e i vi ng t w i c e a s m uc h of t he i r s uppor t f r om gove r nm e nt a s t he y w e r e f r om pr i va t e c ha r i t a bl e c ont r i but i ons a nd nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons w e r e de l i ve r i ng a l a r ge r s ha r e of gove r nm e nt f unde d s e r vi c e s t ha n gove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s t he m s e l ve s ( D r uc ke r F ounda t i on, 1996) T hi s r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n gove r nm e nt a nd nonpr o f i t s f or t he de l i ve r y of c ont r a c t e d s e r vi c e s c ont i nue d t o gr ow i n t he 1970s a nd 80s G ove r n m e nt c ont r a c t i ng i nc r e a s e d dr a m a t i c a l l y dur i ng t he R e a ga n e r a due t o budge t c ut ba c ks t ha t w e r e de s i gne d t o di s m a nt l e i ne f f i c i e nt a nd i ne f f e c t i ve gove r nm e n t s oc i a l pr ogr a m s C ha r i t i e s w e r e pr om ot e d a s t he nongove r nm e nt a l s a vi or s of t he p oor t he c hi l dr e n t he e l de r l y, a nd t he di s a bl e d, s a ys B or i s ( 1998) T he R e pu bl i c a n C on gr e s s C ont r a c t w i t h A m e r i c a a l s o a t t e m pt e d t o s c a l e ba c k t he s i z e of t he f e de r a l gov e r nm e nt a nd i t s i nvo l ve m e nt i n t he l i ve s of A m e r i c a ns ( P yne s 1997, p. 6 7) T hi s r e s ul t e d i n t he di s t r i but i on of f unds t o s t a t e gove r nm e nt s w hi c h i n t ur n d i s s e m i na t e i t t o l oc a l gove r nm e nt s a nd nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons ba s e d on e a c h s t a t e s a s s e s s m e nt of ne e d. T hi s de vol ut i on of f e de r a l gove r nm e nt r e s pons i bi l i t i e s t o t he s t a t e a nd l oc a l l e ve l c r e a t e d s i gni f i c a nt oppor t uni t i e s f or nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons t o p l a y l a r ge r r ol e s i n c om m uni t y pl a nni ng a nd de c i s i on m a ki ng N onpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons w e r e a w a r de d go ve r nm e nt c ont r a c t s be c a us e t he y w e r e s e e n a s r e put a bl e c om m i t t e d, l i ke m i nde d c om m uni t y i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t c oul d he l p gove r nm e nt s c om e c l os e r t o a c hi e vi ng t he i r m a nda t e s ( R ya n 1999, pp 128 29) N onpr of i t s a l s o of f e r e d gove r nm e nt c os t e f f e c t i ve a nd i nnova t i ve w a ys of i m pl e m e nt i ng publ i c pr ogr a m s t h r ough c ol l a bor a t i ve a r r a nge m e n t s i nvol vi ng c ont r a c t s ( W e r t he r & B e r m a n, 2001) P ubl i c f undi ng he l ps nonpr of i t s a d va nc e t he i r m i s s i ons a nd i nc r e a s e i nnova t i on i n s e r vi c e de l i ve r y t hr ough f undi ng t ha t s uppor t s e m e r gi ng be s t p r a c t i c e s

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31 T he not i on o f a n i nde pe nde nt c ha r i t a bl e s oc i a l s a f e t y ne t t ha t c oul d of f s e t de c r e a s i ng gove r nm e nt s uppor t f o r s oc i a l s e r vi c e s pe r s i s t e d t hr ough t he 1990 s but t he i na de qua c y of t hi s a r r a nge m e nt s oon be c a m e c l e a r A n e s t i m a t e d t w o f i f t hs of publ i c c ha r i t i e s s uf f e r e d a de c l i ne i n i nf l a t i on a dj us t e d do l l a r s be t w e e n 1989 a nd 1995 a nd a s i m i l a r num be r ope r a t e d on a ve r y s l i m m a r gi n w i t h c a s h on ha nd l e s s t ha n or e qua l t o 3 m ont hs of e xpe ns e s ( B or i s 1998 ) T hi s s i t ua t i on h a s not i m pr ove d ove r t he pa s t de c a de E f f e c t i ve de vol ut i on of s oc i a l s e r vi c e s i s e a s i e r s a i d t ha n done A s t he de m a nd f or c om m uni t y ba s e d pl a nni ng ha s pr ol i f e r a t e d, t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n nonpr of i t s a nd gove r nm e nt ha ve be c om e m or e va r i e d a nd c om pl e x ( W e r t he r & B e r m a n, 2001) T he ne e d f or s e r vi c e s ha s c ont i nue d t o gr ow a c c ount a bi l i t y r e qui r e m e nt s ha ve t i ght e ne d, e xpe ns e s ha ve i nc r e a s e d, a nd t he c ont r a c t i ng r e l a t i ons hi p h a s be c om e m or e c um be r s om e A s m a l l e r f e de r a l gove r nm e nt i s a ppe a l i ng i n pr i nc i pl e but nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons r a r e l y a r e pr e pa r e d t o a c c e pt t he a dd e d r e s pons i bi l i t y. T he nonpr o f i t s e c t or i s c om pos e d ove r w he l m i ngl y of s m a l l c om m uni t y ba s e d e nt i t i e s w i t h m e a ge r r e s our c e s A s r e por t e d t o t he I R S i n 2004 ( T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e 2007) f e w e r t ha n 42 % of publ i c c ha r i t i e s ha d r e ve nue s of l e s s t ha n $100 000, a nd t he s e a c c ount e d f or l e s s t ha n 2% o f t he s e c t or s t ot a l a s s e t s a nd l e s s t ha n 1% ( 6 % ) of i t s t ot a l r e ve nu e F e w e r t ha n 4 % ha d e xpe ns e s gr e a t e r t ha n $10 m i l l i on but w e r e r e s pons i bl e f or 79 % of t he s e c t or s a s s e t s F e w e r t ha n 1% ha d r e ve nue s gr e a t e r t ha n $100 00 0 m i l l i on a nd t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons a c c ount e d f or m o r e t ha n 56 % of t he s e c t or s a s s e t s a nd r e ve nue F ol l ow i ng t he r e t r e nc hm e nt o f gove r nm e nt f undi n g i n t he 1980s m a ny gove r nm e nt a nd pr i va t e s e c t or f unde r s be ga n t o t hi nk t ha t t he nonp r of i t s e c t or ha d be c om e t oo l a r ge a nd i ne f f e c t i ve P ubl i c t r us t i n t he nonpr of i t s e c t or w a s s ha ke n i n t he

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32 1990s by s e ve r a l w e l l publ i c i z e d s c a nda l s t ha t r a i s e d que s t i ons a bout pe r f or m a nc e a nd e t hi c a l c onduc t ( B or i s 2001 p 86 ) I nc r e a s e d c o m pe t i t i on w i t h f or p r of i t bus i ne s s e s a l s o c ont r i but e d t o a gr ow i ng pr e s s ur e f or nonpr of i t s t o de m ons t r a t e t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s G ove r nm e nt a nd pr i va t e f unde r s be ga n de m a ndi ng i m pr ove d e f f i c i e nc y a nd a c c ount a bi l i t y t hr ough p r ove n a nd m e a s ur a bl e out c om e s ( B or i s 2001; S a l a m on, 2003 ) T he c ont r a c t i ng p r oc e s s i s w he r e t hi s i m pa c t on t h e gove r nm e nt nonpr o f i t r e l a t i ons hi p ha s be e n f e l t m os t he a v i l y by nonpr o f i t s G ov e r nm e nt N onp r of i t P ar t ne r s hi ps and C ont r ac t i ng P r obl e m s S t a t e s a nd l oc a l c om m uni t i e s m us t s t i l l a dhe r e t o s t r i nge nt pa r a m e t e r s f r om t he f e de r a l gove r nm e nt de s pi t e de c r e a s e d f undi ng a l l o c a t i ons ( D e V i t a 1999 ) T hi s ha s r e s ul t e d i n go ve r nm e nt c ont r a c t s be i ng a w a r de d be l ow r e a s ona bl e c os t s f or qua l i t y s e r vi c e s a nd pa ym e nt s c he m e s t ha t put pr ovi de r s a nd c l i e nt s a t a di s a dva nt a ge ( S m i t h & L i ps ky, 2001 ) I t i s c om m on f or gove r nm e nt f unde r s t o i nc r e a s e de m a nds f or s e r vi c e s or a c c ount a bi l i t y w i t hout i nc r e a s i ng f und i ng t o s uppor t t he s e e f f o r t s I n s om e c a s e s no f undi ng i s pr ov i de d, bu t t he r e a r e s t i l l r e qui r e m e nt s t o m a i nt a i n a l i c e ns e t o ope r a t e w i t hi n m a ny s t a t e s a nd s om e l oc a l i t i e s a s w e l l a s e xt e ns i ve da t a t r a c ki ng r e qui r e m e nt s O t he r pa r t ne r s hi p c ha l l e nge s be t w e e n gove r nm e nt a nd nonpr of i t s a r e i nhe r e nt i n t he gove r nm e nt c ont r a c t i ng pr oc e s s s uc h a s s hor t s ubm i s s i on t i m e s f or pr opos a l s i na de qua t e l y t r a i ne d gove r nm e nt s t a f f a nd t he i r f r e que nt t ur nove r t i m e l a gs be t w e e n c ont r a c t r e ne w a l s a w a r d a ppr ova l de l a ys a nd l on g t ur na r ound f or c ont r a c t pa ym e nt s ( B e r ns t e i n, 1991) A l l of t he s e pr e s e nt m a j or di f f i c ul t i e s f or bot h nonpr o f i t s a nd gove r nm e nt f undi ng or ga ni z a t i ons O t he r de m a nds t ha t gove r nm e nt pl a c e s on nonpr o f i t s i nc l ude a hos t of r u l e s a nd pol i c i e s t ha t m a y f r us t r a t e a nd e ve n i m pa i r a nonp r of i t s

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33 a bi l i t y t o f unc t i on e f f e c t i ve l y. T he m a gni t ude a nd c om pl e x t i m i ng o f t a s ks i nvol ve d i n m a na gi ng r e s t r i c t e d f undi ng s our c e s c r e a t e s pr obl e m s of t a s k c oor di na t i on T he r e s t r i c t e d gr a nt s a nd c o nt r a c t s s ys t e m c ont r i but e s t o c a s h f l ow pr obl e m s pe r s onne l t ur nove r a nd m a na ge m e nt unc e r t a i nt y, e xpl a i ne d G r nbj e r g ( 1 993, p 236) S t r i c t l i m i t a t i ons on l i ne i t e m e xpe ndi t ur e s a nd pr og r a m r e qui r e m e nt s a bout s t a f f qua l i f i c a t i ons or e l i g i bl e c l i e nt s i m pos e a ddi t i ona l m a na ge m e nt c ha l l e nge s ( p. 23 3) A s w i l l be e xpl or e d i n c ha pt e r 3, t he de m a nds of g ove r nm e nt c a n a l s o i m pa c t t he c or e of a nonpr of i t s r e a s on f o r e xi s t i ng. D e c r e a s e d f undi ng, i nc r e a s e d e xpe c t a t i ons a nd i m pos s i bl e c ont r a c t f undi ng p r a c t i c e s l e a ve nonpr o f i t s vul ne r a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m a nd a que s t i oni ng publ i c I n or de r t o m e e t gove r nm e nt c ont r a c t de m a nds nonpr o f i t s m a y m a ke s ubs t a nt i ve s hi f t s i n s e r vi c e de l i ve r y, a dvoc a c y e f f or t s a nd e ve n s t a f f i ng, a nd a s a r e s ul t a l t e r t he i r or ga ni z a t i ona l i d e nt i t y i n w a ys t ha t ha ve de t r i m e nt a l i m pa c t s on t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd t he c l i e nt s w hom t he y e xi s t t o s e r ve D e s pi t e t he s e c ha l l e nge s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n gove r nm e nt a nd t he nonp r of i t s e c t or ha s be e n c ha r a c t e r i z e d m or e by c oope r a t i on t ha n c onf l i c t a s gove r nm e nt ha s i nc r e a s i ngl y de pe nde d upon t he nonpr o f i t s e c t or t o a s s i s t i n m e e t i ng hum a n ne e ds A t t he s a m e t i m e s c hol a r s a nd pr a c t i t i one r s a r e m i xe d a bout t he i m pa c t of gove r nm e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n nonp r of i t gove r na nc e a nd m a na ge m e nt A s w i l l be e xpl or e d i n upc om i ng s e c t i ons f unde r s a r e t a ki ng on m or e a c t i ve r ol e s i n di c t a t i ng t he ope r a t i ng s t r uc t u r e of t he a ge nc i e s t he y f und, i nc l udi ng e xpl i c i t l y r e c om m e n di ng c ons ol i da t i on e f f o r t s

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34 B us i ne s s N onpr of i t P a r t ne r s hi ps I n a ddi t i on t o de c r e a s e d gove r nm e nt f undi n g, pr i v a t e c ha r i t a bl e s uppor t o f nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons i s w i t he r i ng 2 N onpr o f i t s a r e f a c e d w i t h t he c hoi c e of e i t he r r e duc i ng t he i r a c t i vi t i e s ( a t t he ve r y t i m e t ha t s oc i a l ne e d i s gr ow i ng be c a us e of gove r nm e nt r e t r e nc hm e nt ) or f i ndi ng w a ys t o i nc r e a s e r e ve nue s f r om nongove r nm e nt a l s our c e s i nc l udi ng f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h f or p r o f i t bus i ne s s e s T o s ur vi ve i n t hi s c l i m a t e nonpr o f i t s a r e i nc r e a s i ngl y t ur ni ng t o ne w s t r a t e gi e s f or l ong t e r m f i na nc i a l s uppor t s uc h a s e ndow m e nt s c l i e nt f e e s a nd c om m e r c i a l a ppr oa c he s S e l f f undi ng i s t he ne w m a nt r a s a ys D e e s ( 1999, p. 140) N e w c om m e r c i a l a c t i vi t i e s a r e one m a j or pa t h ope n t o nonpr o f i t s t o ge ne r a t e a ddi t i ona l r e ve nue C om m e r c i a l a c t i vi t y by nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons ha s e vol ve d ove r t i m e t o be c om e a c c e pt e d a s a vi a bl e s t r a t e gy ( S a xon H a r r ol d & H e f f r on 2000) A s nonp r of i t s ha ve i nc r e a s e d t he i r i nt e r a c t i on w i t h f or pr of i t bus i ne s s e s nonpr of i t s a r e p r of e s s i ona l i z i ng a nd be c om i ng m or e bus i ne s s l i ke t o e m ul a t e pr i va t e s e c t or or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t u r e s a nd pr a c t i c e s ( S m i t h & L i ps ky, 1993; A l e xa nde r 1999) A s a n a dde d be ne f i t c r e a t i ng c om m e r c i a l ve nt ur e s he l ps s of t e n ol d s us pi c i ons be t w e e n nonpr of i t s a nd bus i ne s s e s a nd ope ns t he w a y f or nonp r of i t a c c e pt a nc e of t he bus i ne s s c om m uni t y not s i m pl y a s a s our c e of c h a r i t a bl e s uppor t but a s a l e gi t i m a t e pa r t ne r f o r a w i de r a nge o f nonpr o f i t e nde a vor s s a ys S a l a m on ( 2003, pp. 64 65) S a l a m on poi nt s t o a not a bl e ups ur ge i n t he s e s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps i nc l udi ng c a us e 2 O v e r a l l c h a r i t a b l e g i v i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e p a s t 5 y e a r s b u t s o m e r e p o r t s a t t r i b u t e i n c r e a s e s t o e x t r a o r d i n a r y l e v e l s o f g i v i n g f o r d i s a s t e r r e l i e f i n 2 0 0 5 ( G i v i n g 2 0 0 7 ) R e g a r d l e s s o f t h i s f l u c t u a t i o n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f g i v i n g h a v e d e c r e a s e d s u c h a s c o r p o r a t e d o n a t i o n s ( 7 6 % d e c r e a s e i n 2 0 0 6 ) a n d g i v i n g t o c e r t a i n n o n p r o f i t i n d u s t r i e s h a s d e c r e a s e d D o n a t i o n s t o h u m a n s e r v i c e s d e c r e a s e d 9 2 % i n 2 0 0 6

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35 r e l a t e d m a r ke t i ng, j oi nt e f f o r t s be t w e e n f or pr of i t a nd nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i on w i t h m ut ua l be ne f i t E xa m pl e s of c a us e r e l a t e d m a r ke t i ng i nc l u de nonpr of i t s l e ndi ng t he i r na m e t o A m e r i c a n E xpr e s s i n e xc ha nge f o r a s ha r e of p r oc e e ds a nd M ot he r s A ga i ns t D r unk D r i vi ng be ne f i t i ng f r o m t he s a l e of c a s e s of C oc a C ol a ( S a l a m on, 2003 p 6 5) F or nonpr of i t s c a us e r e l a t e d m a r ke t i ng r e l a t i ons hi ps c a n f os t e r gr e a t e r i nvol ve m e nt f r om c or por a t e pe r s onne l a nd i nc r e a s e f i na nc i a l s uppor t F or bus i ne s s e s t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps c a n ge ne r a t e va l ua bl e r e put a t i ona l c a pi t a l ( p 6 5 ) I n a ddi t i on t o bus i ne s s pa r t ne r s hi ps t ha t ge ne r a t e n e w r e ve nue s our c e s nonpr of i t s a r e be i ng f o r c e d t o be c om e m or e s t r a t e gi c i n m a xi m i z i ng e xi s t i ng r e s our c e s i nc l udi ng c ons i de r a t i on of m e r ge r s a nd c ons ol i da t i ons T he c ur r e nt t h r us t of i nnova t i on i s t ow a r d gr e a t e r c ol l a bor a t i on be t w e e n nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd a l l ot he r s c a r r yi ng out s i m i l a r m i s s i ons s a ys M c L a ughl i n ( 1998, p. xxi i ) M or e nonpr of i t s a r e be gi nni ng t o l ook t ow a r d pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h o t he r nonp r of i t s t o m a xi m i z e s e r vi c e s a nd r e s our c e s N onpr of i t N onpr o f i t P a r t ne r s hi ps W i t hi n t he nonpr o f i t s e c t or oppor t uni t i e s f or nonp r of i t s t o pa r t ne r w i t h one a not he r a r e a bunda nt N onpr of i t nonpr o f i t pa r t ne r s hi ps c a n t a ke on m a ny f or m s f a l l i ng a nyw he r e a l ong a c ont i nuum f r om j oi nt pl a nni ng a nd f undr a i s i ng t o c om pl e t e c ons ol i da t i on a nd m e r ge r s I n t h i s s e c t i on, t he f oc u s i s on nonpr of i t nonpr o f i t r e l a t i ons hi ps ; t he ne xt s e c t i on w i l l a ddr e s s t he pr e s s ur e s f r om e xt e r na l pa r t ne r s f o r nonpr of i t s t o e nt e r i nt o t he s e f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps ; a nd t he f i na l s e c t i on of t h i s c ha pt e r w i l l a ddr e s s c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s i n m o r e de t a i l G i ve n t he pot e nt i a l f or ove r l a ppi ng m i s s i ons i t i s c om m on f or nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons t o pa r t ne r w i t h e a c h ot he r W hi l e no npr of i t nonp r of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps ha ve

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36 m a ny be ne f i t s t he s e pa r t n e r s hi ps a r e not a l w a ys c ons i de r e d or w e l c om e d be c a us e of t he l ong hi s t or y o f c om pe t i t i on t ha t ha s e xi s t e d be t w e e n or ga ni z a t i ons H i s t or i e s o f c om pe t i t i on f or r e s our c e s pol i t i c a l m a ne uve r i ng a nd s us pi c i on of one a not he r s pa s t m ot i ve s do not e nge nde r t he t ype o f ope n c om m un i c a t i on r e qui r e d f or s t r ong c ol l a bor a t i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps ( G r a y, 1989) O ne r e a s on f or i nc r e a s e d c om pe t i t i ve be ha vi or a m ong nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons i s t ha t t he y m us t ba t t l e f or t he i r s ha r e of l i m i t e d r e s our c e s w hi c h i nc l ude s c l i e nt s boa r d m e m be r s vol unt e e r s e m pl oye e s dona t i ons c ont r a c t s gr a nt s a nd pol i t i c a l pow e r ( B r ody, a s c i t e d i n T uc km a n, 1998; G a r ne r 1989) N onpr o f i t s m a y a l s o c om pe t e f or pl um a l l i a nc e s w i t h f or pr of i t a nd gove r nm e nt e nt i t i e s ( T uc km a n, 1998; W e i s br od, 1997 ) O t h e r o b s t a c l e s t o c ol l a bo r a t i on unc ove r e d i n t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e i nc l ude be ha vi o r s s uc h a s t ur f pr ot e c t i on, hoggi ng t he gl o r y w he n c ol l a bor a t i on s uc c e e ds vi ol a t i ng t r us t a dopt i ng a n I i ns t e a d of a w e a t t i t ude a nd not l i vi ng up t o t he i r c om m uni c a t i ve obl i ga t i ons ( S na v e l y & T r a c y, 2000 p 161 ) F or m os t nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons c oope r a t i on a nd c om pe t i t i on c oe xi s t O s t e r ( 1995) c i t e d G r e e npe a c e a nd T he N a t ur e C ons e r va nc y a s e xa m pl e s of or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t a c t a s pa r t ne r s i n p r ogr a m a nd a dvoc a c y e f f or t s a n d c om pe t e f or dona t i ons O s t e r de s c r i be d t he c om pe t i t i ve / c oope r a t i ve pos i t i on o f nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons a s be i ng s i m i l a r t o t ha t of a t e nni s p l a ye r e nga ge d i n a s om e w ha t qui r ky t our na m e nt s t a t i ng: A t t i m e s i n t hi s t our na m e nt i ndi v i dua l s f a c e e a c h ot he r a s s i ngl e oppone nt s A t ot he r t i m e s t he y a r e doubl e s pa r t ne r s a nd a t s t i l l ot he r t i m e s t he y s w i t c h pa r t ne r s a nd be c om e doubl e s oppone nt s ( p. 48) F ur t he r m o r e j us t a s i n t he t e n ni s ga m e a nt i c i pa t i ng w ha t t he ot he r pl a ye r s a r e l i ke l y t o do i s i m por t a nt w he t he r t he y a r e your pa r t ne r s or your r i va l s ( p 48 )

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37 R e s e a r c he r s ha ve i de nt i f i e d s e ve r a l r e a s ons f or t he pr e va l e nc e of t he s e pa r t ne r s hi ps ( s e e A l e xa nde r 2000; R e i n, 1983; S n a ve l y & T r a c y 2000; W e r t he r & B e r m a n, 2001) S om e a l l i a nc e s gr ow out of c onc e r n f or a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc y a nd t he a voi da nc e of r e dunda nt e f f or t O t he r s a r e f o r m e d t o pr e ve nt c os t l y c om pe t i t i on f o r r e s our c e s or c l i e nt s or t he y m a y be us e d t o pur s ue c ol l a bor a t i ve f undi ng a ppl i c a t i ons j oi nt f und r a i s e r s or t he s ha r i ng o f hum a n a nd f i na nc i a l r e s our c e s w i t h ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons A r e l a t e d t r e nd i s t ow a r d m o r e j oi nt pl a nni ng a m ong pa r t ne r s t o de ve l op a ppr oa c he s t o f i l l s e r vi c e ga ps be t t e r m e e t c l i e nt n e e ds a nd pr ovi de a f ul l e r r a nge o f s e r vi c e s C ol l a bor a t i ons m a y a l s o be e nt e r e d i nt o t o i nc r e a s e t he i m pa c t of a dvoc a c y e f f or t s t o be m or e l i ke l y t o br i ng a bout pol i t i c a l r e f or m C oor di na t i on i s a n u r ge nt ne e d, s a y W e r t he r a nd B e r m a n ( 2 001, p. 169) e s pe c i a l l y t he ne e d t o a voi d ove r l a p a nd dupl i c a t i on of s e r vi c e s t ha t c a us e s r ui nous c om pe t i t i on. W e r t he r a nd B e r m a n p r ovi de e xa m pl e s of or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t s uf f e r e d due t o l a c k of c oo r di na t i on, a s w e l l a s ot he r s t ha t pr os pe r e d a s a r e s ul t of c oope r a t i ve e f f or t s t o e nha nc e s e r vi c e de l i ve r y. C ol l a bor a t i on ha s l ong be e n a bu z z w or d w i t hi n gove r nm e nt a nd f undi ng or ga ni z a t i ons a s a m or e e f f i c i e nt a nd e f f e c t i ve w a y t o pr ov i de s e r vi c e s but e xa c t l y w ha t c ol l a bor a t i on m e a ns i s di f f i c ul t t o s a y. A s pr e vi o us l y m e nt i one d, t he pa r t ne r s hi p c ont i nuum i s va s t T he t e r m c ol l a bor a t i on i s o f t e n us e d a s t he ove r a r c hi ng c a t e gor y unde r w hi c h m a ny o t he r m ode l s f a l l C ol l a bor a t i on c a n be s e e n a s oc c upyi ng a c ont i nuu m f r om l oos e l y f or m e d pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h a na r r ow f oc us a nd gr e a t i nde pe n de nc e ( s uc h a s a c ont r a c t ua l r e l a t i ons hi p or a t a s k f or c e ) t o m or e s t r uc t ur e d a nd i nt e r de pe nde nt c ol l a bor a t i on

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38 e nc om pa s s i ng br oa d s ys t e m s c ha nge t o a c c om pl i s h a c om m on pol i c y goa l ( a s w i t h a ne t w or k s t r uc t ur e ) ( M a nde l l 2001, p. 280) S om e a ut hor s di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n i nf o r m a l a nd f o r m a l t ype s of c ol l a bor a t i on. G uo a nd A c a r ( 2005 ) r e vi e w e i ght t ype s o f c ol l a bo r a t i on a nd c l a s s i f y t he m i nt o t w o m a j or c a t e gor i e s : i nf o r m a l c ol l a bor a t i on w hi c h i n c l ude s i nf or m a t i on s ha r i ng r e f e r r a l of c l i e nt s s ha r i ng of of f i c e s pa c e a nd m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons ( M S O s ) ; a nd f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i on s uc h a s j oi n t pr og r a m s pa r e n t s ubs i di a r i e s j oi nt ve nt u r e s a nd m e r ge r s A s w i l l be s how n l a t e r t he de f i ni t i on of t he s e va r i ous f or m s a r e a l s o va r i e d i n t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e K ohm L a P i a na a nd G ow dy ( 2000) a l s o us e t e r m i nol ogy o f i nf or m a l a nd f o r m a l c ol l a bor a t i on I n i n f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i ons o r ga ni z a t i ons do not m a ke a n ongoi ng c om m i t m e nt t o t he pa r t ne r s hi p a nd de c i s i on m a ki ng pow e r r e m a i ns w i t h t he i ndi vi dua l or ga ni z a t i ons B y c ont r a s t i n f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i ons o r ga ni z a t i o ns e s t a bl i s h ongoi ng r e l a t i ons hi p t hr ough s ha r e d, t r a ns f e r r e d, o r c om bi ne d s e r vi c e s r e s our c e s or pr og r a m s K ohm a nd L a P i a na ( 2003 ) c a t e gor i z e d t he s e pa r t ne r s hi ps i nt o t w o m a i n t ype s : ( a ) a l l i a nc e s w hi c h i nvol ve t he s ha r i ng of pr ogr a m s s t a f f f a c i l i t i e s a nd/ or e qui pm e nt bu t r e qui r e no c ha nge i n or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e ; a nd ( b) i nt e gr a t i ons w hi c h i nvol ve s om e c ha nge i n c o r por a t e s t r uc t ur e B e c a us e t he f oc us of t hi s r e s e a r c h i s on M S O s i t s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t i n K ohm a nd L a P i a na s ( 2003) c a t e gor i z a t i on, M S O s a r e i d e nt i f i e d a s a ki nd of i nt e gr a t i on, i e a f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i on I n c ont r a s t G uo a nd A c a r ( 2 005) i de nt i f y M S O s a s a t ype of i nf or m a l c ol l a bo r a t i on. T he c ol l a bo r a t i ve m ode l i n c l ude d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h r e s e m bl e s t he M S O a s a t ype of f or m a l i nt e gr a t i on i de nt i f i e d by K ohm a nd L a P i a na ( 2003 ) T he s e c onf l i c t i ng c a t e gor i z a t i ons w i l l be e xpl or e d f ur t he r i n t he ne xt s e c t i on.

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39 I nt e gr at i on and O t he r C ol l abor at i v e M ode l s U p unt i l now I ha ve r e vi e w e d l i t e r a t ur e f oc us i ng b r oa dl y on pa r t ne r s hi ps be t w e e n a nd a m ong gove r nm e nt bus i ne s s a nd ot he r nonp r o f i t s H e r e I w i l l r e vi e w t he l i t e r a t u r e f oc us i ng m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y on t he f o r m a l t ype s o f pa r t ne r s hi ps de f i ne d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on. T he t ype of f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps m os t of t e n r e f e r r e d t o i n t he l i t e r a t u r e a r e c ons ol i da t i ons a nd m e r ge r s a l t hough a s pr e vi ous l y e xpl a i ne d, f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps c a n t a ke on a num be r of f or m s I n pa r t i c ul a r t he M S O w i l l be e xpl or e d be c a us e i t m os t c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s t he or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l i nc l ude d i n t he s t udy. O t he r f o r m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps t ha t c l os e l y r e s e m bl e t he s i t e o r ga ni z a t i on c ol l a bor a t i on m ode l a r e publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks a nd l e a d e nt i t i e s H e r e I w i l l r e vi e w t he l i t e r a t ur e t ha t de f i ne s t he va r i ous f or m s o f pa r t ne r s hi ps i nc l udi ng i n t e gr a t i o ns M S O s a nd ne t w or ks T he n I w i l l e xpl or e t he s e va r i ous r e a s ons c i t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f or w hy nonpr o f i t s e nt e r i nt o t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps i nc l udi ng p r e s s ur e f r om f unde r s w hi c h w i l l be e xpl o r e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. T he or ga ni z a t i ons i nvol ve d i n a n i nt e gr a t i on w o r k t oge t he r t o f or m a ne w s t r uc t ur e s uc h a s a m a na ge m e nt o r a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e e nt i t y, a nd t he or i gi na l or ga ni z a t i ons r e m a i n i n e xi s t e nc e F ol l ow i ng i s a m or e de t a i l e d ove r vi e w of nonp r of i t M S O s B e c a us e t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e on nonp r of i t M S O s i s l i m i t e d, i t i s he l pf ul t o r e vi e w r e s e a r c h on publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks w hi c h i s a l s o di s c us s e d be l ow M S O s ha ve be e n de f i ne d di f f e r e nt l y by r e s e a r c he r s K ohm a nd L a P i a na ( 1998, 2003, 2006) de f i ne a n M S O a s a n i nt e gr a t i on t ha t i nc l ude s t he c r e a t i on of a ne w or ga ni z a t i on i n o r de r t o i nt e gr a t e a dm i ni s t r a t i ve f u nc t i ons a nd, t hus t o i nc r e a s e t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc y of pa r t i c i pa t i ng or ga ni z a t i ons A r s e na ul t ( 1998) s a ys t ha t M S O s c a n t a ke t w o f o r m s A s i n t he de f i n i t i on by K ohm a nd L a P i a na one m ode l i nvol ve s t he

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40 c r e a t i on of a f r e e s t a ndi ng e nt i t y by t w o or m or e no npr of i t s t o pr ovi de s pe c i f i c a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e s on a c ont r a c t ua l ba s i s T he ot he r m ode l i s e s t a bl i s he d w i t hi n a s i ngl e nonpr of i t t ha t ha s a l a r ge e nough a dm i ni s t r a t i ve c a pa c i t y t o s ha r e w i t h ot he r s O t he r r e s e a r c he r s de f i ne M S O s a s s om e t hi ng qui t e di f f e r e nt m or e l i ke a nonpr of i t r e s our c e c e nt e r C onnor K a de l T a r a s a n d V i nokur K a pl a n ( 1999) de s c r i be M S O s a s l oc a l nonpr of i t s t ha t p r ovi de s uppor t t o ot he r nonpr of i t s t hr ough t r a i ni ng a nd c ons ul t i ng on s uc h i s s ue s a s l e a de r s hi p, pl a nni ng, f undr a i s i ng, m a r ke t i ng a nd hum a n r e s our c e de ve l opm e nt ( p. 128) C onnor e t a l r e f e r t o M S O s a s s om e t hi ng e xt e r na l t o i t s m e m be r or ga ni z a t i ons F or e xa m pl e t he y s t a t e t ha t M S O s w or k w i t h gove r nm e nt a l a ge nc i e s i n e i t he r a m a na g e m e nt s uppor t c a pa c i t y or a pa r t ne r s hi p, t o he l p ot he r nonpr of i t s T he y f ur t he r de s c r i be M S O s a s e nt i t i e s t ha t c a n he l p nonpr of i t s a dopt be s t bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e s a nd m a i nt a i n good r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t he bus i ne s s c om m uni t y ( p. 128) G uo a nd A c a r ( 2005) s ha r e a s i m i l a r a ppr oa c h t o de f i ni ng a n M S O a nd f ur t he r i de nt i f y i t a s a f o r m o f i nf o r m a l c ol l a bor a t i on I n a s e ns e t he s e de f i ni t i ons s ound l i ke a nonpr of i t r e s our c e s c e nt e r w hi c h i s m uc h di f f e r e nt f r om t he t ype of o r ga ni z a t i on c r e a t e d i n t hi s s t udy. I s e t t a nd P r ova n ( 2005) s ugge s t c ha ngi ng t he t e r m i nol ogy t o ne t w or k a dm i ni s t r a t i ve or ga ni z a t i on ( N A O ) T he y c l a i m t ha t i n s uc h ne t w or ks N A O s pe r f or m f a c i l i t a t i ve a nd i nt e r m e di a r y r ol e s t o or ga ni z e s e r vi c e s i n a w a y t ha t c ont r i but e s t o t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he s ys t e m a s a w hol e ( p. 161 ) T he y de s c r i be N A O s a s e xi s t i ng i n or de r t o f a c i l i t a t e r e l a t i ons hi ps a m on g a ge nc i e s T hi s m os t c l os e l y m a t c he s t he i nt e gr a t i on m ode l s f e a t ur e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h.

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41 I n t he publ i c a dm i ni s t r a t i on l i t e r a t ur e t he r e i s a n i n c r e a s i ng a m ount of r e s e a r c h on publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks A publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or k i s a di ve r s e gr oup of s t a ke hol de r s f oc us e d on a pa r t i c ul a r pub l i c pol i c y i s s ue us ua l l y r e f e r r e d t o i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a s c om pl e x o r w i c ke d s oc i a l pr obl e m s T he pa r t i c i pa t i ng e nt i t i e s a r e i m pa c t e d by a s ha r e d pr obl e m t ha t t he y a r e una bl e t o s ol ve a l one a nd, t he r e f or e t he y e nga ge i n s om e c ol l e c t i ve e f f or t s uc h a s a ne t w or k L i t e r a t ur e by H e a t h a nd F r e y ( 2004 ) on c om m uni t y c ol l a bor a t i on a nd B e nni s s ( 1999) w or k on e f f e c t i ve gr oups c a n a l s o be a ppl i e d he r e H e a t h a nd F r e y ( 2004) a gr e e t ha t i n m os t c om m uni t i e s t oda y, i t i s a ne c e s s i t y f or gr oups o r ga ni z a t i ons a nd i ns t i t ut i on s t o w or k t oge t he r c ol l a bor a t i ve l y t o c onf r ont c om pl e x i s s ue s ( p. 189) C om pl e x s oc i a l pr obl e m s c a nnot be s ol ve d by a ny one pe r s on or a ny one di s c i pl i ne O ur onl y c ha nc e s a ys B e nni s ( 1999, 3 ) i s t o br i ng pe opl e t oge t he r f r om a va r i e t y o f ba c kgr ounds a nd di s c i pl i ne s w ho c a n r e f r a c t a pr ob l e m t hr ough t he p r i s m of c om pl e m e nt a r y m i nds a l l i e d i n c om m on pur pos e B e nni s c a l l s s uc h c ol l e c t i ons of t a l e nt G r e at G r oups T he y ge t r e m a r ka bl e pe opl e s t r ong i nd i vi dua l a c hi e ve r s t o w or k t oge t he r t o ge t r e s ul t s ( 3 ) I n publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks t he m e m be r s a r e i nde pe nde nt but c hoos e t o w or k t oge t h e r f or a s ha r e d pu r pos e A ne t w or k s t r uc t ur e f or m s w he n t he s e pe opl e r e a l i z e t he y ( a nd t he or ga ni z a t i ons t he y r e pr e s e nt ) a r e onl y one s m a l l pi e c e of t he t ot a l pi c t ur e I t i s a r e c ogni t i on t ha t onl y by c om i ng t oge t he r t o a c t i ve l y w or k on a c c om pl i s hi ng a br oa d c om m on m i s s i on w i l l goa l s be a c c om pl i s he d ( K e a s t M a nde l l B r ow n & W ool c oc k, 2004, p 364) N e t w or ks br i ng t oge t he r nonpr o f i t f or pr of i t a nd gove r nm e nt s e c t or s t o a ddr e s s s oc i a l pr obl e m s i n a num be r of pol i c y a r e na s i nc l u di ng e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt he a l t h

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42 c a r e c r i m i na l j us t i c e hum a n s e r vi c e s i nf or m a t i on s ys t e m s r ur a l de ve l opm e nt e nvi r onm e nt a l pr ot e c t i on bi ot e c hnol ogy t r a ns por t a t i on, a nd e duc a t i on ( A gr a nof f 2003) T he y br i ng m a ny o r ga ni z a t i ons t o t he t a bl e f or r e s our c e pool i ng, m ut ua l e xpl o r a t i on, a nd know l e dge c r e a t i on. A nd m os t i m po r t a nt l y, ne t w or ks ope n up ne w pos s i bi l i t i e s t ha t w oul d be ha r d f or one t w o, or e ve n t hr e e or ga ni z a t i ons w or ki ng t oge t he r t o a c hi e ve ( A gr a nof f 2006 p 57) I n f a c t ne t w or k s t r uc t ur e s a r e e s t a bl i s he d w he n a l l ot he r opt i ons ha ve f a i l e d ( K e a s t M a nde l l B r ow n & W ool c oc k 2004, p. 365) M e m be r s r e c ogni z e t he ne e d t o w o r k t oge t he r be c a us e t r a di t i ona l m e t hods ha ve not be e n s uc c e s s f ul A s m e m be r s t a ke on b r oa d t a s ks t ha t r e a c h be yond t he a c t i ons of i nde pe nde nt l y o pe r a t i ng or ga ni z a t i ons t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e t r a ns f or m e d i nt o a ne w w hol e ( p. 364 ) T he s e ne t w or ks c oul d be c l a s s i f i e d a s i nf or m a l or f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i on a l t hough m os t r e f e r e nc e s i n t he pub l i c a dm i ni s t r a t i on l i t e r a t ur e r e pr e s e nt f o r m a l i nt e g r a t i on m ode l s N e t w or ks c a n be o r ga ni z e d by s om e f o r m a l m e c ha ni s m s uc h a s a n i nt e r gove r nm e nt a l a gr e e m e nt o r by s t a t ut or y a c t i o n, or t he y c a n be i nf o r m a l i n l e ga l s t a t us but e qua l l y pe r m a ne nt or ga ni z e d, a nd m i s s i on or i e nt e d ( A gr a nof f 2006 ) S om e r e s e a r c he r s c l a i m t ha t f e w ne t w or ks ha ve a pr e e xi s t i ng m a nda t e t o ope r a t e ; how e ve r by e xa m i ni ng ne t w or ks de ve l opi ng t oda y m a nda t e s o f t e n a ppe a r t o be pa r t of t he r e a s on f o r f or m a t i on. R e ga r dl e s s of t he m ot i va t i on, t he i r f or m a t i on a nd c ont i nua t i on de pe nds on s e l f ge ne r a t e d a c t i ons T he y ha ve t o be he l d t oge t h e r e xpl a i ns A gr a nof f ( 2003) T hi s r e qui r e s a he a vy dos e of de ve l opm e nt a l a c t i vi t y on t he pa r t of s om e pa r t ne r s w ho a r e c ha m pi ons a nd pr om ot e r s a s w e l l a s pa r t ne r s ( p. 1 8) A l t hough a ne t w or k s t r uc t ur e i s di s t i ngui s he d f r om t r a di t i ona l o r ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e s be c a us e t he r e i s no one i n

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43 c ha r ge s om e t i m e s t he pr om ot e r i s a gove r nm e nt a ge nc y or de s i gna t e d publ i c m a na ge r a s s i gne d t o pr ovi de t he ne e de d s uppor t G ove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s a r e a l m os t a l w a ys a m ong t he ke y pa r t ne r s i n t he s e ne t w or ks T he r e a r e m a ny be ne f i t s t o ne t w or ks i nc l udi ng po ol i ng t a l e nt s e xpa ndi ng t he r e s our c e ba s e f os t e r i ng s yne r gy, a nd m o r e r a t i ona l a ppr oa c he s t o de c i s i on m a ki ng. M i l w a r d a nd P r ova n ( 2006) s a y t ha t ne t w or ks a r e a va l ua bl e publ i c m a na ge m e nt t ool be c a us e t he y a r e t he onl y or ga ni z a t i ona l f or m s t h a t c a n ope r a t e hor i z ont a l l y a c r os s a r a nge of o r ga ni z a t i ons a nd i n t e gr a t e t he s t r e ngt hs a nd t a l e nt s of a va r i e t y o f or ga ni z a t i ons i n t he publ i c nonp r of i t a nd f or p r of i t s e c t or s t o e f f e c t i ve l y a ddr e s s c r i t i c a l publ i c pr obl e m s ( p 7) B e c a us e of t he i nt e r de pe n de nt r e l a t i ons hi ps i n ne t w or ks a c c om pl i s hi ng s ys t e m s c ha nge i s c om pl e x. F r om t hi s pe r s pe c t i ve r e a l i s t i c c ha nge of t e n m e a ns t r a ns f or m a t i on w hi c h r e s t r uc t ur e s i nt e r gr ou p r e l a t i ons a nd t ot a l s ys t e m s i nt o ne w a nd ba l a nc e d c onf i gur a t i ons ( F e l ki ns 1995, p. 26 1) C ha ngi ng a s ys t e m c a n be c os t l y a nd di s r upt i ve T he f oc us i s no t on i ndi vi dua l a t t r i but e s of t he o r ga ni z a t i on, but on a hol i s t i c a ppr oa c h t ha t i nt e g r a t e s bot h s oc i a l a nd t e c hni c a l c om pone nt s D e s pi t e t he i r s t r e ngt hs ne t w or ks a r e not t he be a l l a nd e nd a l l of c ol l a bo r a t i ve m a na ge m e nt s a ys A gr a nof f ( 2006 p 57 ) T he y s ha r e a pl a c e a l ongs i de m a ny ot he r f or m s of i nt e r a ge nc y c ol l a bor a t i on s uc h a s a gr e e m e nt s c ont r a c t s a nd i n f or m a l r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t i nvol ve j oi nt e f f o r t s t o s e e k i nf or m a t i on, i m p r ove s e r vi c e s or c r e a t e ne w pol i c y. P ubl i c a dm i ni s t r a t i on ne t w o r ks c a n f ur t he r be c om pa r e d t o t he r e s e a r c h done by H e a t h a nd F r e y ( 2004) on c om m uni t y c ol l a bor a t i o ns A s i n ne t w or ks i ndi vi dua l

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44 pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y pa r t i c i pa t e i n a c om m uni t y c ol l a b or a t i on a s a c ol l a t e r a l du t y t o t he i r j ob i n t he s t a ke hol de r or ga ni z a t i on t he y a r e r e pr e s e nt i ng ( p. 200) : T he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i nvol ve s a c om m i t m e nt t o a t t e n d m e e t i ngs pa r t i c i pa t e on c om m i t t e e s a nd a s s i s t on pr oj e c t s t ha t w i l l f u r t he r t he goa l s of t he c ol l a bor a t i ve gr oup, a s w e l l a s t o a c t a s t he pr i m a r i l y l i a i s on f or t he i r s t a ke hol de r or ga ni z a t i on T he y a r e t hus r e s pons i bl e f or bo t h f u r t he r i ng t he g oa l s of t he i r s t a ke hol de r or ga ni z a t i on a nd t he goa l s o f t he c ol l a bor a t i ve g r o up. ( p 200 ) A not he r f or m of i nt e gr a t i on s i m i l a r t o ne t w or ks i s t ha t of a l e a d e nt i t y or l e a d a ge nc y. L e a d e nt i t i e s c a n be f or m e d di r e c t l y by a p ubl i c a ge nc y or t h r ough a c ont r a c t w i t h a l e a d o r ga ni z a t i on t ha t c r e a t e s a vol unt a r y, c om m uni t y ba s e d ne t w or k ( G r a ddy & C he n, 2006, p. 534) T he s e l e a d a ge nc y ne t w or ks a r e of t e n a hybr i d of m a nda t e d ne t w or k a r r a nge m e nt s a nd s e l f or ga ni z i ng ne t w o r ks O ne b e ne f i t of a l e a d a ge nc y a ppr oa c h i s l ow e r t r a ns a c t i on c os t s f or t he publ i c a ge nc y t ha t w oul d ot he r w i s e be r e s pons i bl e f or i de nt i f yi ng, ne got i a t i ng, m oni t or i ng, a nd m a na gi ng t he m ul t i pl e pa r t ne r s hi ps i nvol ve d i n a ne t w or k. M a ny publ i c or ga ni z a t i ons t he r e f or e h a ve t ur ne d t o a l e a d a ge nc y a ppr oa c h. T he pr i m a r y s i t e or ga ni z a t i on i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t ud y r e pr e s e nt s m a ny of t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of M S O s ne t w or ks c om m un i t y c ol l a bor a t i ons a nd l e a d e nt i t i e s O ne o r m or e m ot i va t i ons m a y dr i ve nonp r of i t s t o pur s ue t he s e t ype s of i nt e gr a t i ve pa r t ne r s hi p. W hi l e t he a dva nt a ge s of i nt e gr a t i ons a r e num e r ou s ul t i m a t e l y t he i nt e g r a t i on p r ovi de s a m e a ns f or a n o r ga ni z a t i on t o a c hi e ve a num be r of s t r a t e gi c obj e c t i ve s T he l i s t s va r y by r e s e a r c he r but t he y a l l s ha r e s om e e l e m e nt s r e l a t e d t o s e c ur e c ont i nue d f undi ng, pr ot e c t i ng t he m i s s i on, a nd t a ppi ng i nt o c om pl e m e nt a r y s t r e ngt hs J e nki ns ( 2001) i de nt i f i e s t hr e e s t r a t e gi c obj e c t i ve s i nc l udi ng m i s s i on s ur vi va l t he de s i r e f o r g r ow t h, or

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45 i m pr ove m e nt i n s e r vi c e de l i ve r y o r ope r a t i ons ( p. 1105) I n a s t udy c onduc t e d by K ohm a nd L a P i a na ( 2003) s t a f f m e m be r s boa r d m e m be r s a nd f unde r s i de nt i f i e d f our pr i m a r y m ot i va t i ons f or f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i on: ( a ) m a i nt a i ni ng f undi ng s uppor t ( b) s a vi ng m one y, ( c ) c a pi t a l i z i ng on a pa r t ne r or ga ni z a t i on s l e a de r s hi p, a nd ( d) pr e s e r vi ng or e nha nc i ng t he i r or ga ni z a t i on s r e put a t i on M c L a ughl i n ( 1998) i de nt i f i e s t he s i ngl e m os t c om pe l l i ng r e a s on t o m e r ge nonpr of i t s a s t he a bi l i t y t o t a p i nt o c om pl e m e nt a r y s t r e ngt hs S i m i l a r l y, A r s e na ul t ( 1998 ) i de nt i f i e s t hr e e s c e na r i os t ha t s e e m t o be t he m os t c om m on t o i ns pi r e or ga ni z a t i ons t o c ons i de r s om e f or m o f c ons ol i da t i on: a ) S u r vi va l a s a n a ut onom ous uni t i s i n doubt a nd a n or ga ni z a t i on s l e a de r s hi p de s i r e s t o e ns ur e s ur vi va l of a l l or pa r t o f i t s a c t i vi t i e s ; b) T he or ga ni z a t i on s l e a de r s hi p s e e s a n oppor t uni t y t o bui l d dom i na nc e o r l e a de r s hi p i n a pa r t i c ul a r s e r vi c e a r e na o r m a r ke t ; a nd c ) T he or ga ni z a t i on ne e ds a ddi t i ona l r e s our c e s t o pur s e a n oppor t uni t y o r t o m a i nt a i n o r i nc r e a s e a c om m i t m e nt t o m i s s i on dr i ve n pr ogr a m m i ng ( pp. 3 4) C om m onl y c i t e d r e a s ons f or nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i o n a nd i nt e gr a t i on a r e out of c onc e r n f or a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc y a nd t he a voi d a nc e of r e dunda nt e f f or t a nd t o de ve l op a ppr oa c he s t o f i l l s e r vi c e ga ps be t t e r m e e t c l i e nt ne e ds a nd pr ovi de a f ul l e r r a nge of s e r vi c e s ( A l e xa nde r 2000; M c L a ughl i n, 1998; R e i n, 1983; S na ve l y & T r a c y 2000; W e r t he r & B e r m a n, 2001 ) S om e m ot i va t i on s m a y be m or e pe r s ona l i n na t u r e T he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps s om e t i m e s a r e s ought pr i m a r i l y f or i ndi vi dua l ga i n t ha t i ne vi t a bl y c a us e s c onf l i c t i n t he c ol l a bor a t i on pr oc e s s ( R e i n, 1983; S na ve l y & T r a c y, 2000) I de a l l y, nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons pa r t ne r w i t h one a not he r not be c a us e c ol l e c t i ve e f f or t

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46 ne c e s s a r i l y he l ps e a c h i ndi vi dua l ope r a t i on but be c a us e c ol l e c t i ve a c t i on s e r ve s a gr e a t e r good ( O s t e r 1995 p 57 ) M or e of t e n t oda y, how e ve r non pr o f i t l e a de r s c i t e e xt e r na l pr e s s ur e s t o m e r ge a nd i nt e gr a t e a nd s uc h p r e s s ur e s a r e of t e n c r e a t e d by f unde r s T he s i t e f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h i s a n e xa m pl e of a f unde r i ni t i a t e d i nt e g r a t i on. A s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n t hi s r e vi e w of l i t e r a t u r e t hi s t ype of r e l a t i ons hi p i s be c om i ng m or e c om m on. F unde r I ni t i a t e d N onpr of i t I nt e g r a t i on T he r e a r e i nc r e a s i ng pr e s s ur e s put on nonpr o f i t s b y f unde r s t ha t a r e pus hi ng t he i r gr a nt e e s t o c ons ol i da t e t o be m o r e e f f i c i e nt i n s e r vi c e de l i ve r y e f f o r t s a nd t o be c os t e f f e c t i ve ( K ohm & L a P i a na 2003) I n t he i r r e s e a r c h w i t h nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons e nga ge d i n r e s t r uc t ur i ng a nd c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s L a P i a na a nd K ohm ( 2003 ) f ound t ha t i nt e r e s t i n m a i nt a i ni ng f unde r s s uppor t i s a pr i m a r y r e a s on or ga ni z a t i ons pur s ue s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng, s uc h a s m e r ge r s c ons ol i da t i on, i nt e g r a t i ons a nd ne t w or ks F unde r s i nt e r vi e w e d a s pa r t of t he s a m e s t udy a g r e e d t ha t f unde r pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e a t t he r oot of s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng p r e va l e nc e ( p. 65 ) T he r e a r e s e ve r a l m o t i va t i ons c i t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f or w hy t hi s i s be c om i ng a gr ow i ng t r e nd T he e xpr e s s i on of p r o c oor di na t i o n s e nt i m e nt by pol i t i c a l of f i c i a l s m a y be m ot i va t e d by no m or e t ha n a p l a y f o r pol i t i c a l a dva nt a ge ( R e i n, 1983, p. 67) P r om ot i ng c oo r di na t i on o f t e n ha s s ym bol i c pol i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons t ha t a r e a s i m por t a nt a s i f not m or e i m por t a nt t ha n, t he c ont e nt o f t he c oo r di na t i on i ni t i a t i ve C ol l a bor a t i on a l s o c a n be c om e a t ool i n pow e r s t r ugg l e s ove r c ont r ol pr i or i t i e s or r e s our c e s w i t hi n t he s oc i a l s e r vi c e s ys t e m ( R e i n, 1983, p 66 ) C oor di n a t i on i s of t e n c a l l e d f or t o r e duc e dupl i c a t i on a nd ove r l a p:

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47 T he s t a gge r i ng num be r of a ge nc i e s t he m ul t i p l e s our c e s of f undi ng t he e l a bor a t e di vi s i on of l a bo r a m ong a ge nc i e s a nd a m ong pr of e s s i ons t he ove r l a ppi ng l i ne s of a ut hor i t y de r i vi ng f o r m l oc a l r e gi ona l a nd na t i on a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on of pol i c y a l l c ont r i but e t o a f e l t ne e d f or or de r a nd r a t i ona l i t y. ( p. 60) P r i va t e f ounda t i ons e ve n s uppor t nonpr o f i t s t ha t h a ve a m i s s i on of he l pi ng t o f os t e r a l l i a nc e s w i t h ot he r nonpr of i t s ( W e r t he r & B e r m a n, 2001) T hi s m a y be done by s pons or i ng i nnova t i ve de m ons t r a t i on pr og r a m s or t hr ough m or e f or c e f ul m e a ns t ha t r e qui r e c ol l a bor a t i on i n o r de r t o be e l i gi b l e f o r f un di ng. C onc e r n f or a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc y a l s o i s a gr o w i ng c onc e r n f o r f unde r s f or t he i r ow n ope r a t i ons a s w e l l a s f or t he i r c ont r a c t e d a ge nc i e s P ubl i c a ge nc i e s a r e l ooki ng f or w a ys t o r e duc e t he c os t o f c ont r a c t i ng by r e duc i ng t he num be r of c ont r a c t s t he y m a na ge I t s o f t e n i n t he be s t i nt e r e s t of f unde r s f o r s m a l l nonpr o f i t s t o c ons ol i da t e i n or de r t o r e duc e t he w o r kl oa d of m a na gi ng f undi ng c ont r a c t s a nd t o m a xi m i z e t he i m pa c t of l i m i t e d r e s our c e s B ut gove r nm e nt s a r e doi ng m or e t ha n e nc our a gi ng ot he r s t o c ol l a bo r a t e ; t he y a r e be c om i ng a c t i ve l e a de r s a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s i n s uc h pr oc e s s e s T hr oughout r e c e nt de c a de s a n e nga ge m e nt phi l os ophy f or gove r nm e nt ha s u nf ol de d, gi vi ng t he i de a t ha t gove r nm e nt s houl d not onl y ope r a t e p r ogr a m s but a l s o, s houl d t a ke on m or e o f a de ve l opm e nt a l or s t e e r i ng r ol e pr om ot i ng r e gul a t i ng, a nd e nc our a gi ng va r i ous t ype s of nongove r nm e nt a l a c t i vi t y a nd ope r a t i ons ( A gr a no f f 2003, p. 8) S om e of t he w a ys gove r nm e nt i s be c om i ng m o r e e nga ge d i n t hi s m a n ne r i s by m a nda t i ng pa r t ne r nonpr of i t s t o c ons ol i da t e t o f or m M S O s a nd t h r ough t he f or m a t i o n of pu bl i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks

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48 D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t m a i nt a i n i ng f unde r s s uppor t i s a pr i m a r y r e a s on or ga ni z a t i ons pur s ue s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng f e w f u nde r s of f e r he l p i n pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng f or m a l i nt e gr a t i ons P e r s pe c t i ve s of f unde r s i nt e r vi e w e d i n r e s e a r c h by L a P i a na a nd K ohm ( 2003) r a nge d f r om a be l i e f t ha t f unde r s c oul d e nc our a ge w i t h r e s our c e s a nd i nf or m a t i on w hi l e not f or c i ng c ons ol i da t i on, t o a be l i e f t ha t onl y a c om pl e t e l y ha nds of f s t a nc e i s a ppr opr i a t e ( p. 21) H a l f s a i d f unde r s s h oul d be c a r e f ul not t o p r e s s ur e nonpr of i t s t o t r y s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng. B e c a us e of t he p r e s s ur e f e l t by nonpr of i t s i t m a y no t be r e a l i s t i c f or f unde r s t o b e l i e ve t he y c a n s ugge s t a nd e duc a t e w i t hout t he i r gr a nt e e s f e e l i ng s om e p r e s s ur e ( L a P i a na & K o hm 2003, p. 21) A s f unde r s e nc our a ge or m a nda t e s uc h f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps t he y m a y be s e e n a s bot h c ont r i but i ng t o t he c ha l l e nge s nonpr of i t s f a c e a s w e l l a s be i ng e s s e nt i a l s uppor t e r s a nd a dvi s or s t o or ga ni z a t i ons de a l i ng w i t h t he s e c h a nge s I n L a P i a na s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h ( 1998) f i ndi ngs e nc our a ge d f unde r s t o t a ke a b r oa d vi e w of w ha t nonpr o f i t s ne e d a nd t o l ook a t s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng a m ong a r a nge of op t i ons T he y r e c om m e nd t ha t f unde r s c ons i de r s uppor t i ng r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h, pr ovi de di r e c t a s s i s t a nc e i n t he a r e a of s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng, a nd t a ke a n a c t i ve r ol e i n he l pi ng or g a ni z a t i ons i m pr ove t he i r c a pa c i t i e s ( 1998) L a P i a na a nd K ohm s m or e r e c e nt r e s e a r c h ( 2003) ha s c onf i r m e d t he i m po r t a nc e of t he s e s ugge s t i ons a nd a dde d s e ve r a l m or e t o t he l i s t : e nc our a ge gr a nt e e s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he pot e nt i a l f o r c os t s a vi ngs or ot he r be ne f i t s be f o r e e m ba r ki ng on s uc h a pa r t ne r s hi p, f und l ong t e r m e va l ua t i ons t ha t f oc us on c os t s a nd be ne f i t s a nd s uppor t r e s e a r c h a nd e duc a t i on f oc us e d on pos t r e s t r uc t ur i ng c ha l l e nge s ( p. 25) F unde r s c a n pl a y a n i ns t r um e nt a l r ol e i n he l pi ng nonpr of i t s e xpl or e r e s t r uc t ur i ng opt i ons a s w e l l a s p r ovi di ng a s s i s t a nc e i n r e or ga ni z a t i on.

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49 A s ha s be e n de m ons t r a t e d, nonpr of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps a r e c om pl e x a nd p r e s e nt da unt i ng c ha l l e nge s C ons o l i da t i ons i nt e gr a t i ons a nd f or m a l ne t w or ks a r e e ve n m or e c om pl e x, a nd t he ba r r i e r s f or t he i r s uc c e s s f ul e xe c ut i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e c a n j e opa r di z e t he pa r t ne r s hi p, a s w e l l a s t he de l i ve r y of ne e de d s e r vi c e s S om e of t he s e c ha l l e nge s w i l l be e xpl or e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. P a r t ne r s hi p a nd I n t e gr a t i on C ha l l e nge s M uc h of t he l i t e r a t ur e c i t e d i n t hi s s e c t i on us e s t he t e r m ne t w or ks s t a yi ng t r ue t o t he or i gi na l s our c e s but t he pa r t ne r s hi ps c ha l l e nge s c ove r e d he r e a r e uni ve r s a l a m ong a va r i e t y of c ol l a bor a t i on e f f or t s i nc l udi ng i nt e gr a t i ons B e c a us e of t he i r c om pl e xi t y a nd t he s ha r e d ove r s i ght by m ul t i pl e pa r t i e s i nt e gr a t i o ns a nd ne t w or ks a r e di f f i c ul t t o e s t a bl i s h a nd s us t a i n. A l t hough t he y a r e l a r ge l y s e l f or ga ni z i ng, t he y r e qui r e s t r uc t ur e a nd ne e d t o be m a na ge d but i n c ol l a bor a t i ve non hi e r a r c hi c a l w a ys M a ny of t he s e m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s w i l l be a ddr e s s e d i n c ha pt e r 3. E ve n w he n t he r e i s a s pi r i t of c oope r a t i on a nd a c c o m m oda t i on i n c ol l a bo r a t i ve e f f or t s ba r r i e r s a r e c r e a t e d due t o c onf l i c t s a m ong pa r t ne r s a nd ot he r pow e r i s s ue s M uc h of t he di f f i c ul t y c a n be a t t r i but e d t o i nt e r na l c a us e s t ha t a r e r e l a t e d t o t he ne t w or k m e m be r s t he m s e l ve s ( P r ova n, V e a z i e S t a t e n & T e uf e l S hone 2005) E xa m pl e s o f s uc h i nt e r na l s t r i f e i nc l ude m e m be r s be i ng m or e c onc e r ne d a bout t he i r ow n or ga ni z a t i on t ha n t he ne t w or k s goa l s f e a r o r unw i l l i ngne s s t o s ha r e a l r e a dy s c a r c e r e s our c e s c onc e r n a bout di m i ni s he d m a na ge r i a l a ut onom y pow e r ba t t l e s a nd c onf l i c t a m ong m e m be r s C onf l i c t s a l s o c a n oc c ur t hr oughout t he n e t w or k pr oc e s s r e ga r di ng t he c ont r i but i on of r e s our c e s s t a f f t i m e de vot e d t o ne t w o r k f unc t i on i n g, t he l oc a t i on of m e e t i ngs a nd t hr e a t s

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50 of w i t hdr a w a l be c a us e of f r us t r a t i on ove r t he t i m e a nd e f f or t e xpe nde d t o a c hi e ve r e s ul t ( A gr a nof f 2006) S om e c ha l l e nge s a r e due t o t he l a c k o f a de qua t e f u ndi ng t o p r ovi de a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t f or t he ne t w or k A not he r f a c t or i nvol ve s i s s ue s of a c c ount a bi l i t y w i t hi n t he ne t w or ks I s s ue s of pow e r a l s o ne e d t o be c on f r ont e d a s r e a l pr obl e m s i n ne t w or k m a na ge m e nt T ypi c a l f or m s of a ut hor i t y a nd pow e r ge ne r a l l y do not w o r k i n a ne t w or k s t r uc t ur e s a ys M a nde l l ( 2001 p. 281 ) A l t hough s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y ha ve m or e f or m a l pow e r t ha n ot he r s i n t e r m s of r e s our c e s or pol i t i c a l c l out t hi s pow e r c a nnot be us e d t o be ne f i t a s i ngl e e nt i t y be c a us e m e m be r s ha ve e qua l a ut hor i t y H ow e ve r a s A gr a nof f ( 2003) po i nt s out B e yond t he f a a de of c ons e ns us a nd c ol l a bor a t i ve m a na ge m e nt s t r onge r pa r t ne r s m a y be a bl e t o t a ke a dva nt a ge of w e a ke r pa r t ne r s ( p 22) I nf or m a l pow e r ba s e d on i n t e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons c a n be a n i m po r t a nt f a c t or i n e f f e c t i ve ne t w or k f unc t i on a nd m a y be m or e i m por t a nt t ha n f or m a l pow e r R e l a t e d t o t he i s s ue of pow e r O T ool e a nd M e i e r ( 2004) a ddr e s s a not he r da r k s i de of publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks T he i r r e s e a r c h on s c hool s ys t e m ne t w or ks f ound t ha t n e t w or ki ng a c t i ons ge ne r a t e d g r e a t e r i ne qua l i t i e s t ha n w oul d ha ve r e s ul t e d w i t hou t ne t w or k a c t i vi t y. O T oo l e a nd M e i e r c ont e nd t ha t m a na ge r s w ho e xpe nd gr e a t e r e f f or t i n w or ki ng t he ne t w or k w i l l i m pr ove e duc a t i ona l p e r f o r m a nc e m or e f or goa l s t ha t be ne f i t t he i r r e l a t i ve l y a dva nt a ge d c l i e nt e l e t ha n f o r goa l s t ha t be ne f i t t he i r di s a dva nt a ge d c l i e nt e l e ( p. 685 ) A not he r c ha l l e nge i s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nd t o vi e w ne t w or ks f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he i r ow n or ga ni z a t i on a nd ho w i t a f f e c t s or i s a f f e c t e d by t he ne t w or k. T he p r obl e m i s t ha t e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w i l l ha ve hi s o r he r ow n vi e w of w ha t t he ne t w or k l ooks l i ke a nd

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51 how i t ope r a t e s l i m i t i ng a n obj e c t i ve unde r s t a ndi ng of t he ne t w or k a s a w hol e ( P r ova n e t a l 2005, p. 604) B e c a us e m e m be r s of i nd i vi du a l or ga ni z a t i ons f e a r t he i r m a na ge r i a l a ut onom y m a y be di m i ni s he d a nd s c a r c e r e s our c e s m us t be s ha r e d, t he y m a y no t be l i e ve t ha t c oope r a t i on i s i n t he i r or ga ni z a t i on s be s t i nt e r e s t T hus de s pi t e good i nt e nt i ons c om m uni t y ne t w or ks of t e n s t r uggl e t o s ur vi ve a nd gr ow ( P r ova n e t a l 2005, p. 604) T he e ve r yone f o r t he m s e l ve s m e nt a l i t y c om poun ds t he a l r e a dy di f f i c ul t t a s k o f de t e r m i ni ng a c c ount a bi l i t y w i t hi n f o r m a l ne t w or ks A c c ount a bi l i t y w i t hi n ne t w or k s e t t i ngs i s a c ha l l e n ge be c a us e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o i de nt i f y w ho i s ul t i m a t e l y r e s pons i bl e A gr a nof f a nd M c G ui r e ( 2001) e xpl a i n t ha t i n ne t w or ks t he r e i s no obvi ous pr i nc i pa l or a ge nt t he r e f o r e t he i s s ue of a c c ount a bi l i t y c a n be m i s c a s t W i t h no s i ngl e a ut hor i t y e ve r yone i s s om e w ha t i n c ha r ge t hus e ve r yone i s s om e w ha t r e s pons i bl e ; a l l ne t w or k pa r t i c i pa nt s a ppe a r t o be a c c ount a bl e but none i s a bs ol ut e l y a c c ount a bl e ( p. 309 ) T he s e a nd ot he r c ha l l e nge s r e s ul t i n r e a l c os t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ne t w or k pa r t i c i pa t i on. I n A gr a no f f s ( 2006) r e s e a r c h, he i de nt i f i e s s i x ge ne r a l c os t c a t e gor i e s i nc l udi ng: a ) t i m e a nd oppor t uni t y c os t s l os t t o t he hom e a ge n c y a s a r e s ul t of ne t w or k i nvol ve m e nt ; b) t i m e a nd e ne r gy c os t s r e s ul t i ng f r o m t he pr o t r a c t e d de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s ba s e d on n onhi e r a r c hi c a l m ul t i o r ga ni z a t i ona l m ul t i c ul t u r a l hum a n r e l a t i ons pr oc e s s e s ; c ) a gr e e m e nt s not r e a c he d be c a us e of t he e xe r t i on of or ga ni z a t i ona l pow e r or t he w i t hhol di ng o f pow e r ; d) ne t w or k gr a vi t a t i on t ow a r d c ons e ns u s ba s e d, r i s k a ve r s i ve de c i s i on a ge nd a s ; e ) r e s our c e hoa r di ng or a ge nc i e s f a i l ur e or unw i l l i ngne s s t o c ont r i bu t e ne e de d r e s our c e s ; a nd f ) pub l i c pol i c y ba r r i e r s e m be dde d i n l e gi s l a t i on, c oupl e d w i t h l e gi s l a t or s or ot he r pol i c y

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52 m a ke r s unw i l l i ngne s s t o m a ke ne e de d c ha nge s w hi c h, i n t ur n f r us t r a t e d c ol l a bor a t i ve de c i s i ons ( p. 62) O f c our s e t he gr e a t e s t c os t i s w he n ne e de d s e r vi c e s a r e l os t a s a r e s ul t o f c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s O ne c onc e r n e xpr e s s e d by nonpr of i t l e a de r s ( K oh m & L a P i a na 2003) w a s t ha t t he t r e nd t ow a r d s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t u r i ng m i ght r e du c e t he num be r o f o r ga ni z a t i ons t ha t f oc us on unde r s e r ve d c om m uni t i e s F or e xa m pl e c ons ol i da t i on c a n l e a d t o c e nt r a l i z i ng ope r a t i ons a nd c l os i ng c om m uni t y ba s e d f a c i l i t i e s I n pa r t i c ul a r s om e l e a de r s w or r i e d t ha t s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng w o ul d r e duc e t he num b e r of m i nor i t y f oc us e d or ga ni z a t i ons W he n s m a l l c om m uni t y gr oups pa r t ne r w i t h l a r ge r or ga ni z a t i ons t he y m a y l os e t he i r i ndi vi dua l c ha r a c t e r a nd m i s s i on f oc us ( pp. 66 67 ) F ur t he r m o r e m a ny or ga ni z a t i ons m os t i n ne e d of r e s t r uc t ur i ng o r c ons ol i da t i on a r e s m a l l or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t don t ha ve t he r e s our c e s ne e de d t o c a r r y out s uc h a c t i vi t i e s but w hi c h pr ovi de m uc h ne e de d s e r vi c e s not of f e r e d by l a r ge r o r ga ni z a t i ons A l l of t he s e c ha l l e nge s c a n unde r m i ne t he t r ue va l ue a nd i m por t a nc e o f f o r m a l c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t s D e a l i ng w i t h a nd ove r c om i n g t he s e c ha l l e nge s t o he l p ne t w or ks r e a p t he pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s of t he i r c ol l a bo r a t i ve e f f or t s r e qui r e s e xpe r t i s e l e a de r s hi p, a nd de di c a t i on a m ong t he m e m be r s i nvol ve d, e s pe c i a l l y t he m a na ge r s c ha r ge d w i t h ul t i m a t e ove r s i ght of t he c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t T hi s i s one r e a s on w hy f unde r s ne e d t o he l p s uc h or ga ni z a t i ons c ol l a bor a t e G r a ddy a nd C he n ( 2006 ) s ugge s t t ha t t he c r e a t i on of e f f e c t i ve s e r vi c e de l i ve r y ne t w or ks m a y r e qui r e m o r e not l e s s i nvol ve m e n t by t he f undi ng publ i c a ge nc y. A ge nc i e s m a y ne e d t o t a ke a m or e a c t i ve r ol e i n t he i r f or m a t i on a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i on ( p. 549)

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53 S um m a r y N onpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons bot h de pe nd on a nd a t t i m e s c om pe t e w i t h t he ot he r s e c t or s ( publ i c a nd pr i va t e ) T he pot e nt i a l pa yof f i s a m or e s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on t he qua l i t y of pu bl i c l i f e T he r e i s l i t t l e i nd i c a t i on t ha t t he pa c e a nd c om pl e xi t y o f c ha nge i n t he hum a n s e r vi c e f i e l d w i l l d i m i ni s h i n t he ne a r f u t ur e S u r vi vi ng i n t oda y s unc e r t a i n e c onom y w i l l de pe nd on t he nonpr o f i t s e c t or s a bi l i t y t o a da pt A s nonpr o f i t s c ont i nue t o f a c e gove r nm e nt f undi ng c ut ba c ks a nd i nc r e a s e d c om pe t i t i on, ne w m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s a r e e m e r gi ng t ha t w a r r a nt f ur t he r s t udy, i nc l udi ng t he i nc r e a s e d us e of f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps s uc h a s c ons ol i da t i on s a nd i nt e gr a t i ons W i t hout a doubt i t s e e m s t ha t t he pr a c t i c e of e s t a bl i s hi ng f o r m a l c ol l a bor a t i ve s a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng M S O s ne t w or ks l e a d e nt i t i e s a nd t he l i ke w i l l c ont i nue I m por t a nt t o c ons i de r i n a ny i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t i s t h e s pe c i f i c r ol e r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong nonpr of i t s a nd t he i r f unde r s w he n e xpl o r i n g s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng a nd c ons ol i da t i on. T he a c t i ve r ol e o f f u nde r s i n o r ga ni z a t i ona l r e s t r uc t ur i ng a nd i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t s i s be c om i ng a m or e c om m on a r e a o f s t udy be c a us e m or e f unde r s a r e m ovi ng i n t he di r e c t i on o f e nc our a gi ng gr a nt e e s t o e xpl or e t h e s e s t r a t e gi e s W ha t r ol e t he f unde r s houl d pl a y, a nd w ha t l e ve l of i nvol ve m e nt t he y s h oul d ha ve how e ve r i s de ba t a bl e T hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w de m ons t r a t e s t he i nc r e a s i ng pr e va l e nc e of nonpr o f i t r e s t r uc t ur i ng due t o f unde r m a nda t e s a nd s t r a t e gi c i ni t i a t i ve s f or l ong t e r m s ur vi va l I t a l s o i de nt i f i e s va r i ous s ubt ype s of f o r m a l i n t e gr a t i on t ha t a r e l e s s c om m on i n t he l i t e r a t ur e na m e l y M S O s a nd i de nt i f i e s t he uni que c ha l l e nge s t ha t s uc h i nt e gr a t i ons p os e f or nonp r of i t l e a de r s a nd f o r f unde r s L i m i t e d i n f or m a t i on i s a va i l a bl e how e ve r r e ga r di ng how c om m un i c a t i on i s i m pa c t e d w i t h i n t he s e or ga ni z a t i ona l s e t t i ngs a nd how

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54 or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s m a y be u s e d t o m i t i ga t e p r obl e m s a nd t o f a c i l i t a t e t he c ha nge pr oc e s s T he l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w i n t hi s c ha pt e r l a ys t he f ound a t i on f or f ur t he r i nqui r y t ha t s uppor t s t w o of m y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons 3 R Q #1. W ha t c ons i de r a t i ons do nonpr of i t s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s a nd f unde r s c onf r on t w he n be gi nni ng t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of a ne w c ol l a bor a t i ve m ode l ? ( i e W i t hi n t he s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h s i t e s w ha t w e r e t he c onc e r ns i s s ue s c ha l l e nge s a nd pr obl e m s f a c e d be f or e a nd dur i ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on? A nd how w e r e t he s e c ha l l e nge s a ddr e s s e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s ? ) R Q #2. W ha t r ol e do f unde r s pl a y t o gui de a nd a s s i s t nonpr of i t s e r vi c e p r ovi de r s i n t hi s pr oc e s s bot h dur i ng t he r e s e a r c h, c ons i de r a t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on s t a ge s ? I n c ha pt e r 3 I w i l l r e vi e w l i t e r a t ur e t ha t i de nt i f i e s s om e of t he a r e a s t ha t a r e l a c ki ng i n l i t e r a t u r e s uc h a s t he c r i t i c a l oc c ur r e nc e s or s i t ua t i ons t ha t a f f e c t nonpr o f i t pa r t ne r s hi ps e s pe c i a l l y M S O s a nd t he m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni t y s t r a t e gi e s ut i l i z e d t o m i t i ga t e t he s e ba r r i e r s a nd t o f os t e r s t r onge r c ol l a bor a t i on e f f o r t s T hi s w i l l l a y t he f ounda t i on f o r m y r e m a i ni ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd s uppor t t he i m por t a nc e a nd c ont r i but i on of t hi s r e s e a r c h. 3 T h e r es ea rch q u es t i o n s i n cl u d ed h e re an d at t h e en d o f ch ap t er 3 ar e i n t h ei r fi n al fo rm H o w ev er, t h es e q u es t i o n s w e re d ev el o p ed co l l ab o rat i v e l y w i t h t h e res e arch p art i ci p an t s as p art o f t h e act i o n res ear ch p ro c es s t h at w i l l b e d es cri b ed i n ch a p t er 4

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55 C H A P T E R 3 I N T E R O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D P A R T N E R S H I P I nt r oduc t i on I n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r I a dd r e s s e d t he va r i e d f or m s of pa r t ne r s hi ps t ha t nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons e nt e r i nt o s e e ki ng t o e ns ur e t he i r s ur vi va l I a l s o t ouc he d on s om e of t he c ha l l e nge s i nhe r e nt i n t he s e pa r t ne r s hi ps e s pe c i a l l y f or m a l i z e d pa r t ne r s hi ps s uc h a s nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i on s M S O s a nd ot he r m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks I e nde d by i nt r oduc i ng t w o of m y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : one pe r t a i ni ng t o c o ns i de r a t i ons w he n be gi nni ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a ne w i nt e gr a t i on m ode l a nd t he c ha l l e nge s f a c e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s ; a nd a s e c ond a ddr e s s i ng t he r ol e of f unde r s i n gui di ng nonpr of i t s t o e nt e r f or m a l c ol l a bor a t i ons I n t h i s c ha pt e r I w i l l r e vi e w s t r a t e gi e s i de nt i f i e d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e on how t o ove r c om e t he c ha l l e nge s i nhe r e nt i n nonpr of i t pa r t ne r s hi p. B e f or e doi ng t hi s how e ve r t he r e a r e ot he r i m pa c t s on t he i nt e r na l f unc t i oni ng of or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t r e s ul t f r om f or m a l pa r t ne r s hi ps t ha t ne e d t o be e xpl or e d S om e of t he s e ha ve be e n a l l ude d t o i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r but w a r r a nt c l os e r e xa m i na t i on T he s e i nc l ude t he i m pa c t on or ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on a nd i de nt i t y a nd t he i m pa c t on or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s a nd t he i r l e ve l of r e s i s t a nc e or c om m i t m e nt t o c ha nge e f f o r t s A f t e r e xpl or i ng t he s e or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha l l e nge s I w i l l r e vi e w t he l i t e r a t ur e t ha t i de nt i f i e s m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on

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56 s t r a t e gi e s t h a t c a n m i t i ga t e t he s e ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s i nc l udi ng c ha nge l e a de r s hi p a nd s uppor t i ve c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s T he l i t e r a t u r e w i t hi n t hi s c ha pt e r w a s dr a w n f r om a va r i e t y of di s c i pl i ne s t o be c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he w i de bounda r i e s s pa nne d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h. I nc l ude d a r e l i t e r a t ur e f r om t he di s c i pl i ne s of o r ga ni z a t i ona l c o m m uni c a t i on, s m a l l g r oup c om m uni c a t i on, m a na ge m e nt l e a de r s hi p, a nd publ i c a dm i ni s t r a t i on. B e c a us e of t hi s di ve r s i t y, t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e d c ove r s or ga ni z a t i ona l s e t t i ngs a nd c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s w i t hi n a l l t hr e e s e c t or s : f or pr of i t c or po r a t i ons gove r nm e nt a nd non pr of i t s A s de m ons t r a t e d i n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r t he s e t hr e e s e c t or s s ha r e s i m i l a r or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd r e s e a r c h on c e r t a i n o r ga ni z a t i o na l or c om m uni c a t i on phe nom e non w i t hi n nonpr of i t s e t t i ngs i s l i m i t e d. T hus w he r e a p pl i c a bl e c r os s ove r s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a r e be i ng m a de f r om f or p r of i t or gove r nm e nt s e t t i ngs t o nonpr of i t s e t t i ngs I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t w hi l e t he l i t e r a t ur e i s w r i t t e n f r om a s c hol a r l y pe r s pe c t i ve i n s om e c a s e s t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e d w a s w r i t t e n b y pr a c t i t i one r s f or pr a c t i t i one r s T hi s t ype of w or k ha s be e n s e l e c t e d a nd i nc l ude d w he n i t a ddr e s s e s i s s ue s not t hor oughl y c ove r e d i n t he a c a de m i c l i t e r a t ur e a nd of t e n t hi s i s t he on l y l i t e r a t ur e t ha t r e a c he s nonpr of i t m a na ge r s a nd l e a de r s O r ga ni z a t i ona l M i s s i on a nd I de nt i t y A s di s c us s e d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r f und i ng r e s t r i c t i ons a nd ot he r gove r n m e nt r e qui r e m e nt s c a n s i gni f i c a nt l y r e duc e t he a c t i vi t i e s of nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e qui r e ot he r a c t i vi t i e s t ha t m a y no t be pa r t of t he or ga ni z a t i on s m i s s i on. F or e xa m pl e t he f i na nc i a l r e qui r e m e nt s f or ope r a t i ng i n a c ont r a c t e nvi r onm e nt of t e n di s c our a ge nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons f r om s e r vi ng p opul a t i ons w i t h t he g r e a t e s t ne e ds or

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57 f r om p r ovi di ng s e r vi c e s t o t he s e c om m uni t i e s w he n out c om e s a r e of t e n di f f i c ul t t o m e a s ur e T hi s c a n c a us e bot h g r e a t e r unc e r t a i nt y a nd l os s of t he gu i di ng vi s i on. R ya n ( 1999) s a ys t ha t nonpr o f i t s c a n w i n a nd l os e s i m u l t a ne ous l y ( p. 136 ) i n t hi s r e ga r d. B e c a u s e t he i r gove r nm e nt pa r t ne r s ha ve c ha nge d t he r ul e s of t he ga m e s o d r a m a t i c a l l y, nonpr of i t s m a y be r e t r e a t i ng f r om t he i r m i s s i ons i n or de r t o ga i n m a r ke t s ha r e ( p 136 ) T he y m a y w i n f undi ng c ont r a c t s but be una bl e t o f ul f i l l t he i r m i s s i on or m e e t c om m uni t y ne e ds F r om a c om m uni c a t i on pe r s pe c t i ve t he s e pr e s s ur e s c a n r e s ul t i n a n e ve n gr e a t e r pr obl e m t ha t i s t he s t e a dy pr e s s ur e on a ge nc i e s t o di l ut e or a ba ndon t he i r f oundi ng m i s s i ons a c r i t i c a l a r e a f or f u r t he r r e s e a r c h a nd u nde r s t a ndi ng. A s t ouc he d on i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r t he p r ol i f e r a t i on of gove r nm e nt nonpr o f i t pa r t ne r s hi ps s e e m s i ne vi t a bl e a nd t he r e a r e r e a s ons t o be c onc e r ne d a bout t he pot e nt i a l l y ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of t hi s s hi f t on t he a bi l i t y of nonpr of i t s t o f oc us on t he i r c or e m i s s i on. T he s our c e of t hi s c onc e r n i s t he obs e r va t i on t ha t a s nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons e nt e r i nt o r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h gove r nm e nt i t be c om e s i nc r e a s i ngl y di f f i c ul t f o r t he m t o r e m a i n pr ogr a m m a t i c a l l y i nde pe nde nt ( O t t 2001) a nd t he y i nc r e a s i ngl y or ga ni z e t he m s e l ve s t o m i r r or a nd i m i t a t e t he i r publ i c s e c t or c ount e r pa r t s ( B r i nke r hof f & B r i nke r ho f f 2002) A s A l e xa nde r ( 1999) e xpl a i ns G ove r nm e nt c ont r a c t i ng m a y unde r m i ne a nonpr o f i t s f i na nc i a l s t a bi l i t y, w hi l e a t t he s a m e t i m e e nc our a g i ng nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons t o m ove a w a y f r om t he i r ow n di s t i nc t i ve m i s s i on a nd r e f l e c t m or e c l os e l y t he pr i o r i t i e s of gove r nm e nt a dm i ni s t r a t or s ( p 328 ) T he s e pr e s s ur e s pos e t hr e a t s t o t he c ont i nue d pur s ui t of t he m i s s i on of nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons l e a vi ng m a ny nonpr of i t s t o c onf r ont a n i de nt i t y c r i s i s ( S a l a m on, 2003, pp. 76 77)

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58 S c ot t a nd L a ne ( 2000) a r gue t ha t or ga ni z a t i ona l i d e nt i t y i s be s t unde r s t ood a s c ont e s t e d a nd ne got i a t e d t hr ough i nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n m a na ge r s a nd s t a ke hol de r s a nd t he y i nc l ude pow e r i n t hi s c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on o f or g a ni z a t i ona l i de nt i t y ( p 44 ) A n unc l e a r i de nt i t y l e a ds t o unc e r t a i nt y ove r s t r a t e gy a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e ; a s a r e s ul t de c i s i ons on s t a f f i ng, gove r na nc e a nd gr a nt m a ki n g pol i c i e s m a y be m a de w i t hout a c l e a r r a t i ona l e or dr i ve n by e xt e r na l f a c t or s s uc h a s e nvi r onm e nt a l pr e s s ur e s ( Y oung, 2001) O ve r a l l t he s e pr e s s ur e s i m pa c t or ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on a nd i de nt i t y i n a nu m be r o f c r i t i c a l a r e a s : s e r vi c e de l i ve r y, a dvoc a c y a nd pe r s o nne l T he s e t h r e e a r e a s e s pe c i a l l y, a r e f e a t ur e d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e a nd a r e r e vi e w e d he r e I m pac t on Se r v i c e s F undi ng c ut s a nd s i gni f i c a nt f i na nc i a l p r e s s ur e s l e a ve a ge nc i e s s t r uggl i ng t o s us t a i n s ur vi va l of t he i r pr og r a m s a nd s e r vi c e s A s gove r nm e nt f undi ng i s r e duc e d, s e r vi c e s a r e of t e n c ut f r om t hos e m os t i n ne e d due t o t he e xt e ns i ve na t ur e o f t he s e r vi c e s r e qui r e d t o a s s i s t t he m os t t r oubl e d c l i e nt s C ont r a c t i ng r e s ul t s i n t he poo r e s t be i ng t he l e a s t s e r ve d, s a ys B e r ns t e i n ( 1991, p. 4) T he s e e xc e s s i ve c ont r a c t r e qui r e m e nt s of t e n r e s ul t i n di s t r e s s i ng out c om e s f or t hos e w ho t he s ys t e m i s i nt e nde d t o he l p us ua l l y i ndi ge nt c l i e nt s ne e di ng ba s i c s om e t i m e s l i f e s uppor t i ng s e r vi c e s I n a ddi t i on m a ny gove r nm e nt f unde r s do not pa y f or out r e a c h, s c r e e ni ng or a dvoc a c y, a l t hough c l i e nt c a s e w or k r e qui r e s t he s e t ype s of e f f o r t s om e t i m e s t o a s i gni f i c a nt de gr e e I f a c ont r a c t onl y pa ys f or c e r t a i n s e r vi c e s t ha t i s a l l t he c l i e nt w i l l l i ke l y r e c e i ve e ve n i f i t s not w ha t t he y r e a l l y ne e d, e xpl a i ns B e r ns t e i n ( 1991) I n r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d by A l e xa nde r ( 1999 200 0) on nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons s e r vi ng c hi l dr e n a nd yout h i n C uya hoga C ount y, O hi o, nonpr o f i t r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s

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59 i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he i r a bi l i t y t o f u l f i l l t r a di t i ona l publ i c s e r vi c e r e s pons i bi l i t i e s s uc h a s s e r vi ng t he m os t ne e dy, r e s e a r c h, t e a c hi ng, a nd a d voc a c y, w a s ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t e d due t o di f f i c ul t y i n a da pt i ng t o f i na nc i a l c ha l l e nge s s uc h a s r e duc e d r e i m bur s e m e nt r a t e s a nd a l i m i t e d c a pa c i t y t o ge ne r a t e r e ve nue S om e or ga ni z a t i ons how e ve r hol d c om m i t m e nt t o t he i r m i s s i on i n t he hi ghe s t r e ga r d, t o t he po i nt w he r e s om e a c t ua l l y t ur n dow n f undi ng a w a r ds due t o un r e a l i s t i c r e qui r e m e nt s e ve n t o t he poi nt of c l os i ng pr og r a m s be c a us e t he y pe r c e i ve d t he pr i c e of doi ng bus i ne s s t o be t oo hi gh ( B e r ns t e i n, 1991) T he one s w ho l os e i n t hi s e ve nt a r e t he c l i e nt s w ho no l onge r ha ve a c c e s s t o t hos e s e r vi c e s a nd t he b r oa de r c om m uni t y w ho m us t now be a r t he b r unt o f t hi s ga p i n s e r vi c e de l i ve r y I m pac t on A dv oc ac y O ve r t i m e e f f e c t i ve a dvoc a c y c a n be e qua l l y i m po r t a nt t o t he pr ovi s i on of ne e de d s e r vi c e s N onpr of i t s hi s t or i c a l l y ha ve pr ovi de d a n i nde pe nde nt voi c e a nd a n i m po r t a nt l i nka ge be t w e e n gove r nm e nt s c om m uni t i e s a nd c i t i z e ns i n ne e d, not onl y t hr ough t he pr ovi s i on of s e r vi c e s but a l s o t hr ough t he i r po l i t i c a l c a pa c i t y a s a dvoc a t e s f or ( s om e t i m e s unpopul a r ) s oc i a l c a us e s ( A l e xa nde r 1999 ) A m on g ot he r t h i ngs nonpr o f i t s or ga ni z e c om m uni t i e s r e s pond t o c om m uni t y ne e ds a nd a r t i c ul a t e t he s e ne e ds t hr ough a dvoc a c y ( e g. vi a publ i c s e r vi c e a nnounc e m e nt s pr e s s r e l e a s e s a nd c om m uni t y de m ons t r a t i ons ) A s nonpr of i t s a r e pus he d t o be c om e m or e bus i ne s s or i e nt e d a nd t o a l t e r t he i r s t r uc t ur e t o m i r r or gove r nm e nt a nd ot he r f unde r s t he i r pol i t i c a l c ha r a c t e r a nd e f f i c a c y i s of t e n i m pe r i l e d. T he i m pa c t o f gove r nm e nt f undi ng on t he a dvoc a c y f unc t i on pe r f or m e d by m a ny nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons i s one pr i m a r y w a y t he i r a bi l i t y t o f ul f i l l t he i r s e r vi c e m i s s i on

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60 m a y be j e opa r di z e d. O ne e xa m pl e of t he l os s of po l i t i c a l a ge nc y by nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons i s c a pt ur e d i n r e s e a r c h by L une ( 200 2) on s yr i nge e xc ha nge pr ogr a m s ( S E P s ) i n N e w Y o r k C i t y, w he r e nonp r of i t s f ound t he m s e l ve s ope r a t i ng i n a pol i t i c a l e nvi r onm e nt t ha t i nc r e a s i ngl y r a n c ont r a r y t o t he i r m i s s i ons L i ke m os t nonp r of i t s t oda y S E P s de pe nd on ongoi ng gove r nm e nt s uppor t f or t he i r s ur vi va l but t he c ont r ove r s i a l na t ur e of t he i r s e r vi c e s c a n c a us e t he m t o be i s ol a t e d f r om m uc h of t he publ i c he a l t h s e r vi c e s a nd t he dr ug t r e a t m e nt f i e l d T o be c om e a n a ut hor i z e d pa r t o f t he he a l t hc a r e de l i ve r y s ys t e m t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n S E P s a nd gove r nm e nt s e e m i ngl y ha d t o s hi f t I nc r e a s e d a c c e s s t o gove r nm e nt s uppor t c a m e a t t h e c os t of a ba ndoni ng di r e c t pol i t i c a l c ha l l e nge s t o gove r nm e nt pol i c i e s i n t hi s a r e na I m pac t on P e r s onne l I n a ddi t i on t o i n f l ue nc i ng t he t ype s o f s e r vi c e s de l i ve r e d by nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd c ur bi ng a dvoc a c y e f f or t s gove r nm e nt a l s o i m pa c t s or ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on by r e gul a t i ng t he s t r uc t ur e a nd qua l i f i c a t i o ns of nonpr o f i t pe r s onne l N e w f o r m s of gove r nm e nt f undi ng ha ve s i gni f i c a nt l y a f f e c t e d t he s t a f f i ng p r a c t i c e s of nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons m a i nl y by e nc our a gi ng t he pr of e s s i ona l de l i ve r y of t he s e r vi c e s t he a ge nc y pr ovi de s ( A ki ngbol a 2004; S a l a m on 1995 ) T hi s i nc l ude s i m pl e m e nt i ng m i ni m um s t a nda r ds of c a r e t o e ns ur e qua l i t y s e r vi c e de l i ve r y ( e g. a c c e pt a bl e c l i e nt pr ovi de r r a t i os ) t ha t c ont r i but e t o e xi s t i ng t e nde nc i e s a m ong nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons t ow a r d pr of e s s i ona l i z a t i on a nd s pe c i a l i z a t i on ( S m i t h & L i ps ky, 1993) C he ne y a nd A s hc r a f t ( 2007) t ook a c r i t i c a l l ook a t t he t e r m pr o f e s s i ona l w hi c h i s us e d bot h t o s uppr e s s i ndi vi dua l s a nd gr oups ( e g. Y ou r e not pr o f e s s i ona l e nough ) a nd t o e l e va t e t he m ( W e a r e now a m ong t he pr o f e s s i ona l s of our f i e l d ) ( p. 158) T he

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61 t e r m pr o f e s s i ona l i s m ha s be e n a l m os t uni ve r s a l l y va l e nc e d a s pos i t i ve w i t hout r e c ogni t i on of i t s bl i nd s pot s a nd a s s oc i a t e d f or m s of s uppr e s s i on ( p. 169 ) A c c or di ng t o S a l a m on ( 1995) P ove r t y a nd di s t r e s s ha ve c om e t o be s e e n a s r e qui r i ng m or e t ha n a m a t e ur a ppr oa c he s a nd vol unt e e r a c t i vi t y ( p. 138 ) A l t hough vol unt e e r s r e m a i n a n i nt e gr a l pa r t of s e r vi c e de l i ve r y, a ge nc i e s i nc r e a s i ngl y a r e r e pl a c i ng vol unt e e r s w i t h pr of e s s i ona l s t a f f e s pe c i a l l y i n f r ont l i ne s e r vi c e d e l i ve r y ( A ki ngbol a 2004 ) T hi s m ove m e nt t ow a r d pr of e s s i ona l i z a t i on of s t a f f pr e s e nt s uni que c ha l l e nge s f or nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons I n L une s ( 2002) r e s e a r c h, s yr i nge e xc ha nge pr ogr a m s t ha t onc e w e r e m a na ge d by r e c ove r i ng a ddi c t s a r e now o f t e n r un by pr o f e s s i ona l m a na ge r s w i t h no pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w o r ki ng i n dr ug i s s ue s A s L une e xpl a i ns T he c ondi t i ons f or a bove gr ound w or k r e qui r e a de gr e e of pr of e s s i ona l i s m a nd a c c ount a bi l i t y i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he i nt e r e s t s of t hos e out s i de of t he a f f e c t e d c om m uni t i e s r a t he r t ha n t hos e w i t hi n ( p. 470 ) S e r vi c e s f unde d t hr ough gove r nm e nt c ont r a c t s a l s o m a y r e qui r e nonpr o f i t s t o h i r e f ul l t i m e p r of e s s i ona l s t a f f a s a m e a ns of c om pl yi n g w i t h s t r i nge nt r e por t i ng a nd a c c ount a bi l i t y r e qui r e m e nt s O t he r f unde r i m pos e d s hi f t s i n pe r s onne l r e s t r i c t i ons m a y r e s ul t i n ha vi ng l e s s pr of e s s i ona l s t a f f S uc h a t r e nd i s vi s i bl e i n r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d w i t hi n t he C a na di a n R e d C r os s T or ont o R e gi on ( C R C T R ) ( A ki ngbol a 2004) I nt e r vi e w e e s a gr e e d t ha t gove r nm e nt f undi ng a f f e c t s s t a f f i ng, e xpl a i ni ng t ha t ( c ont r a r y t o t he a ge nc y s pr e vi ous pr a c t i c e s ) e xt e r na l f i na nc i a l pr e s s ur e s l e d t he C R C T R t o hi r e m or e s t a f f on c ont r a c t ( on a t e m por a r y ba s i s w i t hout be n e f i t s ) f o r t he de l i ve r y of s e r vi c e s T he i nc r e a s e d us e of t e m por a r y s t a f f i ng w a s a di r e c t r e s ul t of t he unc e r t a i nt y s ur r ound i ng c ont i nue d gove r nm e nt f und i ng. T he i m pa c t of gov e r nm e nt f undi ng on s t a f f i ng ha d

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62 m ul t i pl e r a m i f i c a t i ons f or t he qua l i t y of s e r vi c e s t he a ge nc y pr ovi de s i nc l udi ng s t a gna t e d or di m i ni s he d qua l i t y of s e r vi c e s t he i na bi l i t y t o r e t a i n a c qui r e d pr og r a m c om pe t e nc i e s pr ogr a m i ns t a bi l i t y i ne vi t a bl e e m pl oye e t ur nove r e m pl oye e di s t r a c t i on, a nd l ow e m pl oye e m or a l e A s nonpr of i t e xe c ut i ve s r e s pond t o c ha l l e nge s of l e a di ng nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons i n c ha ngi ng t i m e s t he y m us t m a na ge t he c or e t e ns i on t ha t e xi s t s be t w e e n one s s oc i a l m i s s i on, on t he one ha nd, a nd f i na nc i a l a nd gove r n m e nt a l pr e s s ur e s on t he ot he r E f f e c t i ve na vi ga t i on of t hi s t e ns i on r e qu i r e s a t a l e n t i n f or gi ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps A ge nc y l e a de r s ha ve l i t t l e c hoi c e but t o a dj us t t he i r vi s i on t o m a i nt a i n t he i r f undi ng, bu t i n s o doi ng, t he y r i s k l os i ng t he he a r t of t he o r ga ni z a t i on t he i r f oundi ng m i s s i on. S t r a t e gi c m a na g e m e nt i n t he nonp r of i t a r e na i nvol ve s m a i nt a i ni ng a di s t i nc t i ve s e ns e of or ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on t ha t bi nds di ve r s e s t a ke hol de r s t oge t he r ( A us t i n, 2003, p. 107) I nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l t e ns i ons m us t be s u c c e s s f ul l y m a na ge d t o e ns ur e t ha t ne w gove r nm e nt r e s our c e s a nd c ont r a c t s do not di s t or t t he hi s t or i c a l va l ue s a nd pr i o r i t i e s of t he or ga ni z a t i on ( p 107 ) P a r t ne r s hi ps w i l l not a t t a i n t he i r de s i r e d e f f i c i e nc y a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s i f t he i de nt i t i e s of a l l of t he pa r t ne r s a r e not m a i nt a i ne d ( B r i nke r hof f & B r i nke r hof f 2002) S t a ke hol de r R e l a t i ons I n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r i t w a s de m ons t r a t e d t ha t nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons a r e c r e a t e d by c om m uni t y m e m be r s c om i ng t oge t he r t o a ddr e s s s om e unm e t s oc i a l ne e d. A s l ong a s t hi s r e m a i ns t h e f oc u s nonpr o f i t s ha ve r e l a t i ve l y s t r a i ght f or w a r d a c c ount a bi l i t y a nd r e s pons i ve ne s s r e qui r e m e nt s c e nt e r i ng pr i m a r i l y on be ne f i c i a r i e s m e m be r s a nd i ndi vi dua l dono r s T h e s e s t a ke hol de r s s e e k not onl y t a ngi bl e

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63 be ne f i t s s uc h a s pa r t i c ul a r s e r vi c e s bu t va l ue s ba s e d one s a s w e l l F or i ndi vi dua l donor s f o r e xa m pl e s uppor t i ng a nonpr of i t r e pr e s e nt s a n e xpr e s s i on of t he i r va l ue s a nd pr i or i t i e s w he t he r t he s e be of a r e l i gi ous hum a ni t a r i a n or po l i t i c a l na t ur e ( B r i nke r hof f & B r i nke r hof f 2002 p 8 ) A c c ount a bi l i t y r e qui r e m e nt s now c om pe t e w i t h s e ve r a l ot he r s a s t he r a nge of nonpr of i t s t a ke hol de r s ha s s i gni f i c a nt l y e xpa nde d, e s pe c i a l l y i n l i ght of c ha ngi ng gove r nm e nt nonpr of i t r e l a t i ons T he va l ue a nd c o nt r i but i on o f nonp r of i t s a r e now a s s e s s e d not onl y by be ne f i c i a r i e s m e m be r s a nd i n di vi dua l donor s but by gove r nm e nt t he m e di a a nd t he ge ne r a l publ i c a s w e l l I n f a c t pub l i c s t ha t w oul d nor m a l l y be c ons i de r e d e xt e r na l s uc h a s ot he r nonpr of i t s ( i nc l udi ng c om pe t i t or s ) gove r n m e nt a n d ot he r f unde r s bus i ne s s e s a n d t he ge ne r a l c om m uni t y of t e n be c om e pa r t of t he i nt e r na l nonpr of i t f a m i l y he l pi ng t o di r e c t s t r a t e gi c pl a nni ng, s us t a i n ope r a t i ons a nd t h e l i ke A nonpr of i t be c om e s r e s pons i bl e t o a l l of i t s i nvol ve d publ i c s ; l i ke w i s e t he s e publ i c s be c om e r e s pons i bl e t o t he nonpr of i t t o e ns ur e i t s c ont i nue d a bi l i t y t o a c hi e ve s om e s pe c i f i c m i s s i on. W he n w e t a l k a bout e xt e r na l s t a ke hol de r s i t e ve n m a y be c o ns i de r e d t ha t t he bounda r i e s o f t he or ga ni z a t i on a r e f l ui d, r e a c hi ng out t o a nd a m ong t he s e ot he r e nt i t i e s t o e n s ur e t he i r c ont i nue d e xi s t e nc e a nd t o he l p f ul f i l l t he i r m i s s i on. I n s om e c a s e s t he bounda r i e s a r e bl ur r e d f o r t he s t a ke hol de r s w ho m a y pe r c e i ve a n ove r l a p be t w e e n t he i r s e l f i de nt i t y a nd t he c ogni t i ve i m a ge t he y c ons t r uc t of a n or ga ni z a t i on ( S c ot t & L a ne 2000, p. 48) T he y i de nt i f y w i t h t he or ga ni z a t i on t o va r y i ng de gr e e s a nd a m ong va r i ous di m e ns i ons I nc r e a s e d i nt e r a c t i on a m ong s t a ke hol de r s a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on s e r ve s t o i nc r e a s e t he a c c e s s i bi l i t y a nd s a l i e nc e of s t a ke hol de r s or ga ni z a t i ona l s oc i a l i de nt i t y ( p 52 )

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64 I n m os t c a s e s s e c ur i ng buy i n f r o m a l l t he s e s t a ke hol de r s c a n be di f f i c ul t w he n nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons a r e de a l i ng w i t h c ont i nuou s c ha nge R e s pons i ve ne s s t o t he ne e ds of t he i r s t a ke hol de r s pe r ha ps i s t he m os t i m po r t a nt i ndi c a t or o f s uc c e s s ( L e w i s H a m e l & R i c ha r ds on 2001) T o s om e e xt e nt s a ys L e w i s ( 2005) nonp r of i t s ha ve a n e xpe c t a t i on of be i ng good a t c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h m ul t i pl e c ons t i t ue nc i e s i nc or por a t i ng m ul t i pl e vi e w poi nt s i nt o de c i s i on m a ki ng, a nd pr o vi di ng voi c e f r om m a ny pe r s pe c t i ve s ( p. 258 ) S uc c e s s i n nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons i s m e a s ur e d l a r ge l y i n r e l a t i on t o t he a c hi e ve m e nt of t he i r m i s s i on or t he e f f e c t i ve p r ovi s i on of s e r vi c e s but c ons e ns us a bout t he qua l i t y of nonpr o f i t s e r vi c e s i s m or e di f f i c ul t t o obt a i n. H e r m a n a nd R e nz ( 1999) c l a r i f i e d t he r ol e of s t a ke hol de r s i n m e a s ur i ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons I n t he i r vi e w e va l ua t i ons of e f f e c t i v e ne s s m os t of t e n c om e dow n t o s t a ke hol de r j udgm e nt s w hi c h a r e f or m e d a nd c ha nge d i n a n ongoi ng pr oc e s s of s e ns e m a ki ng a nd ne got i a t i on. P e r c e pt i o ns of nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ona l e f f e c t i ve ne s s a r e ne i t he r s t a bl e nor f i xe d; i ns t e a d, e f f e c t i ve ne s s i s s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d t hr ough s t a ke hol de r i nt e r a c t i on A s H e r m a n a nd R e nz ( 1999) e xpl a i ne d, i n nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons : T he r e a r e a c t i vi t i e s but t he r e i s no e f f e c t i ve ne s s unt i l s om e one c a l l s i t . . A l l s t a ke hol de r s a r e pe r m i t t e d t o de t e r m i ne e f f e c t i ve ne s s a l t h ough s om e s t a ke hol de r s m a y be c ons i de r e d m or e c r e di bl e t ha n o t he r s a nd t he r e i s no r e gul a r pr oc e dur e f or de t e r m i ni ng e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( p. 1 18) T he pr i o r i t i e s of c ons t i t ue nt gr oups t hus a f f e c t go a l s e t t i ng a nd a t t a i nm e nt i n nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons ( D i M a ggi o, c i t e d i n L e w i s H a m e l & R i c ha r ds on 2001 ) E f f e c t i ve l e a de r s hi p i nvo l ve s unde r s t a ndi ng t he c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i ve ne s s t ha t va r i ous

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65 s t a ke hol de r s a p pl y a nd m a na gi ng t hos e e xpe c t a t i ons B ut not a l l s t a ke hol de r s hol d t he s a m e l e ve l of i m po r t a nc e a nd, t he r e f or e m a y no t r e c e i ve t he s a m e l e ve l of c om m uni c a t i ve a t t e nt i on f r om o r ga ni z a t i ons S c ot t a nd L a ne s ( 2000) r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t m a na ge r s m a y be m o r e a t t e nt i ve t o s t a ke hol de r s w hom t he y pe r c e i ve t o be pow e r f ul a nd ha ve l e gi t i m a t e a nd u r ge nt c l a i m s ( p 55 ) R e s e a r c h by L e w i s R i c ha r ds on a nd H a m e l ( 2003) obs e r ve d a s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e w he r e b y t hos e i ni t i a t i ng s om e c ha nge i ni t i a t i ve ge ne r a l l y f ol l ow e d a qu i d pr o quo m a t c hi ng r ul e ( p. 422) w he r e i n t he l e ve l of s t a ke hol de r r e s our c e s s e r ve d a s t he ba s i s f or de t e r m i ni ng t he l e ve l of de di c a t e d c om m uni c a t i ve a t t e nt i on. T he s e t ype s of p r a c t i c e s m a y r e s ul t i n l e s s a t t e nt i on t o ot he r s t a ke hol de r s w ho a r e not p e r c e i ve d t o w i e l d pow e r ove r t he or ga ni z a t i on. I n a s e ns e t he or ga ni z a t i on m a y s a c r i f i c e t he c ons e ns us bui l di n g r e qui r e d f or s uc c e s s ( p. 422) S t a ke hol de r s c a n a l s o pr ovi de a n i m pe t us f or c ha nge a nd s e r ve a n i m po r t a nt r o l e i n i m pl e m e nt i ng m a na ge m e nt or c ha nge s t r a t e gi e s ( E a di e 1997) t hus nonpr o f i t s t a ke hol de r a l l i a nc e s a r e a n i m por t a nt r e s our c e w h e n pl a nni ng a ge nc y s t r a t e gy. A s G a r ne r ( 1989) e xpl a i ne d, A w i s e l e a de r w i l l r e c o gni z e s uc h a l l i a nc e s a t t he out s e t of pl a nni ng, c ons i de r how t o us e t he m f or f ut u r e a dva nt a ge a nd a voi d da m a gi ng t he m ( p. 119) S ha w s ( 2003) r e s e a r c h hi ghl i ght e d t he i m por t a nc e of l e a de r s de ve l opi ng pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h s t a ke hol de r s S ha w s r e s e a r c h i n c l ude d a c a s e s t udy of r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n l a nd t r us t s ( nonpr o f i t o r g a ni z a t i ons t ha t p r ot e c t a na t ur a l r e s our c e or pr e s e r ve hi s t or i c a l l y or a r c he ol ogi c a l l y i m por t a nt s i t e s ) a nd l oc a l gove r nm e nt s t o i de nt i f y c ondi t i ons t ha t f os t e r s uc c e s s f ul c ol l a bor a t i on. T he s uc c e s s f ul pa r t ne r s hi ps t ha t S ha w s t udi e d w e r e not bui l t on ne got i a t e d a gr e e m e nt s bu t on ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e w i t h pa r t ne r

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66 a ge nc i e s on t he pa r t of t he i ndi vi dua l s w ho w or ke d t oge t he r a nd ha d de ve l ope d ge nui ne a f f e c t i on f o r one a not he r I n f a c t pa r t ne r a ge nc i e s of t e n i m pl e m e nt e d l a r ge s c a l e c ol l a bor a t i ve pr oj e c t s w i t h no m e m or a ndum of un de r s t a ndi ng or c ont r a c t onl y a ha nds ha ke a nd t r us t S ha w c onc l ude d t ha t s oc i a l f a c t or s s uc h a s e xpe r i e nc e on t he pa r t o f ke y pe r s onne l i n w or ki ng w i t h t he oppos i t e e nt i t y a nd s i nc e r e a f f e c t i on f o r e a c h ot he r w e r e m or e f unda m e nt a l t o s uc c e s s f ul c ol l a bor a t i on t ha n pe r c e i ve d e c onom i c be ne f i t s W i t h s uc h a he a vy f oc us on s t a ke hol de r r e l a t i ons a nd t he ne e d f o r e qua l pa r t ne r s hi p i n m a ki ng c ol l a bor a t i ons w or k i t i s he l pf ul t o f oc us on c om m uni c a t i on dyna m i c s w i t hi n gr oup s e t t i ngs t ha t c a n m a ke o r b r e a k a s uc c e s s f ul c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t G r oups C onf l i c t and R e s i s t anc e R e vi e w e d he r e i s r e s e a r c h t ha t a ddr e s s e s r e s i s t a nc e a nd c onf l i c t i n va r i ous g r oup a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on c ont e xt s i nc l ud i ng s m a l l gr oups ( s uc h a s e m pl oye e gr oups or w o r k t e a m s ) a s w e l l a s publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks a nd i nt e r o r ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s B ot h of t he s e c ont e xt s f i t t he c om m uni c a t i on s e t t i ng a nd c ha l l e nge s w i t hi n t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) i n t e gr a t i on m ode l t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i on f or t hi s r e s e a r c h. T he or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t u r e of t h e N F C C i t s e l f f i t s t he c ol l a bor a t i ve m ode l of a ne t w or k ( i e m ul t i pl e or ga ni z a t i ons c o m i ng t oge t he r t o a ddr e s s a c om pl e x s oc i a l i s s ue ) W he n r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s f r om t he i nvol ve d or ga ni z a t i ons c om e t oge t he r t o c a r r y ou t t he ne c e s s a r y pl a nni ng a nd w or k e f f o r t t he y r e pr e s e nt a nd f unc t i on a s a s m a l l gr oup of c l os e l y t i e d c ol l e a gue s de a l i ng w i t h t he c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s s i m i l a r t o t hos e f a c e d by e m pl oye e w or kg r oups F o r t he s e r e a s ons t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e d he r e c ove r s t he ga m ut of t he s e gr oup a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on c ont e xt s w he r e r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h c a n be a ppl i e d t o s e t t i ngs s i m i l a r t o t he N F C C

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67 G r oup s t r uc t ur e r e f e r s t o t he pa t t e r ns o f i nt e r a c t i on t ha t oc c ur ove r t i m e a nd a r e t ha t e xpe c t e d by gr oup m e m be r s ( C r os bi e 1975) F r e y ( 1995 ) s a ys E ve r y s e gm e nt of s oc i e t y r e l i e s on gr oups t o m a ke i m po r t a nt de c i s i ons t o s oc i a l i z e m e m be r s t o s a t i s f y e m ot i ona l ne e ds a nd t he l i ke ( p. 3) O ve r a l l s uc c e s s f ul gr oup pr oc e s s c a n r e s ul t i n be t t e r de c i s i on m a ki ng. A s F r e y ( 1995) e xpl a i ns g r oup d e c i s i on m a ki ng c a n r e s ul t i n 40 t o 50% i nc r e a s e s i n pr oduc t i vi t y ove r i ndi vi dua l de c i s i on m a ki ng, f o r a num be r o f r e a s ons : G r oups ge ne r a l l y ha ve gr e a t e r know l e dge t ha n a ny i ndi vi dua l ; t he y ha ve a di ve r s i t y of pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t r e s ul t s i n be t t e r t hi nk i ng; gr oup m e m be r s c a n c he c k e a c h ot he r s i de a s ; m e m be r s a r e ps yc hol ogi c a l l y a r ous e d be i ng i n t he p r e s e nc e of ot he r s ; a nd pa r t i c i pa t i on i n g r oup di s c us s i ons of t e n i nc r e a s e s m e m be r s c om m i t m e nt t o t he de c i s i on. ( p. 4) T he a s s e t s of gr ou p f unc t i oni ng m a y not a l w a ys be r e a l i z e d, how e ve r K a ys e r ( 1990) e xpl a i ns t ha t a gr oup m a y r e a l i z e i t s f ul l p ot e nt i a l a nd pr oduc e s upe r i o r out put w hi c h pr ope l s e ve r yone s c om m i t m e nt a nd f e e l i ng s of s a t i s f a c t i on t o t he i r z e ni t h ( p. 4) or t he g r oup m a y f a l l i nt o s o m uc h dys f unc t i ona l c onf l i c t t ha t i t c a nnot ope r a t e S i m i l a r l y H i r oka w a a nd P ool e ( 1986) e xpl a i n: T he uni que c he m i s t r y of s oc i a l i n t e r a c t i on c a n di s t i l l t he be s t t ha t e a c h m e m be r ha s t o of f e r c r e a t i ng a r e s ona nc e of i de a s a nd a s y nt he s i s of vi e w poi nt s A di f f e r e nt c he m i s t r y c a n s t op t he r e a c t i on a nd c ont a m i na t e t he pr oduc t w i t h e r r a t i c r e a s oni ng or l ow c om m i t m e nt ( p 15 ) T he r e a r e m a ny r e a s ons w hy gr oups f a i l t o m a ke d e c i s i ons or t o a c hi e ve t he i r u l t i m a t e pur pos e f o r e xi s t i ng. W i t hout c l e a r di r e c t i on or l e a de r s hi p, gr oups l e f t on t he i r ow n of t e n f l ounde r a nd pe r f or m l e s s e f f e c t i ve l y. S uc h i ne f f e c t i ve ne s s c a n ha ve

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68 de va s t a t i ng c ons e que nc e s G r oup dyna m i c pr ob l e m s i nc l ude i s s ue s pe r t a i ni ng t o c om m uni c a t i on, c onf l i c t g r oup s i z e a nd gr oup c ohe s i ve n e s s I n a ddi t i on g r oups m us t c ons i de r i s s ue s of gr oupt hi nk ( J a ni s 1983) F i ndi ng w a ys t o b r i ng a l l pa r t i e s t o t he t a bl e s o e ve r yone buys i nt o a c om m on vi s i on i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t or f or s uc c e s s of a ny i ni t i a t i v e D i ve r s e or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t u r e s m us t f i n d w a ys t o c om m uni c a t e de s pi t e va s t di f f e r e nc e s i n a s s um pt i ons a bout ba s i c va l ue s m or a l s a nd be l i e f s a bout pe opl e or ga ni z a t i ons a nd c om m uni t y s a ys L e w i s ( 2005, p 248 ) W i t hi n he t e r oge ne ous gr oups t he l e ve l of c onf l i c t i s l i ke l y t o be hi gh, a c c or di ng t o B r i ght m a n ( 1988 p 14) B r i ngi ng pe opl e w i t h di f f e r e nt po i nt s of vi e w i nt o c ont a c t w i l l of t e n s ur f a c e c onf l i c t s t ha t m us t be r e s ol ve d f or a n e f f e c t i ve a nd pr a c t i c a l de c i s i ons t o e m e r ge ( F r e y 1995 ) G r oups m a y e x pe r i e nc e one of t w o e xt r e m e s w i t h r e ga r d t o c on f l i c t e xpl a i ns F r e y ( 1995, p. 75) : a voi di ng c onf l i c t a l t oge t he r or e nga gi ng i n f a r t oo m uc h c onf l i c t B ot h r e s ul t i n t he i na bi l i t y t o r e a c h a c ol l e c t i ve de c i s i on ( p. 75) C om pe t i t i on a nd a voi da nc e a r e t w o ot he r f a c t or s t ha t c ont r i but e t o gr oup c onf l i c t i s s ue s S e a m a n ( 1981) f ur t he r i de nt i f i e s f our pr i m a r y r e a s ons f or c onf l i c t i nc l udi ng: a ) T he g r oups ha s be e n gi ve n a t a s k w hi c h s e e m s i m pos s i bl e a nd m e m be r s a r e f r us t r a t e d, be c a us e t he y f e e l una bl e t o m e e t t he de m a nds m a de of t he m ; b) T he m a i n c onc e r n of m e m be r s i s t o a t t a i n s t a t us i n t he gr oup; c ) M e m be r s a r e l oya l t o out s i de gr oups of c onf l i c t i ng i nt e r e s t s ; a nd d) M e m be r s f e e l i nvol ve d a nd a r e w or ki ng t oo ha r d on a pr obl e m ( pp. 55 56) W hi l e c onf l i c t i s not i nhe r e nt l y ba d, w he n not m a n a ge d i t c a n be de s t r uc t i ve t o t he gr oup p r oc e s s G r oups ne e d t o de a l c ons t r uc t i v e l y w i t h c onf l i c t P ut na m ( 1986 ) c onc ur s : T o a voi d s t r a i ne d i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi p, m e m be r s o f t e n f os t e r ha r m ony by

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69 t a ki ng f l i ght f r o m c ont r ove r s i a l t opi c s pl a c a t i ng o r s m oot hi ng ove r di f f i c ul t i s s ue s or c om pr om i s i ng t o ge t di s put e s s e t t l e d i n a hu r r y ( p 175) T he gr e a t e s t t hr e a t t o ge nui ne pa r t i c i pa t i on, s a y E i s e nbe r g, A ndr e w s M ur phy a nd L a i ne T i m m e r m a n ( 1999) c om e s i n s ubt l e c ont r ol or c ons e nt r a t he r t ha n i n l a c k of o ppor t uni t y f or i nvol ve m e nt w hi c h w oul d m os t l i ke l y be r e s i s t e d. T o c ount e r a c t t he f o r c e s of c ons e nt o r ga ni z a t i ons m us t be ope n t o a di s c our s e of r e s i s t a nc e ( p. 146 ) S om e i ndi vi dua l s or gr oups w i l l ove r t l y or c ove r t l y oppos e a t r a ns i t i on w he n a s ol ut i on pr oduc e s m a j or c ha nge s i n a n or ga ni z a t i o n. S om e r e a s ons f or r e s i s t a nc e t o c ha nge m a y be m or e pe r s ona l i n na t u r e T he di s l o c a t i ons c a us e d by or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a r e pa i nf ul s a ys P i e t e r s e n ( 2002, p. 32) H e de s c r i be s a r e s pons e t o c ha nge c a l l e d t he F U D F a c t or w hi c h i nc l ude s f e a r unc e r t a i nt y a nd doubt ( pp 33 34 ) M e m be r s m a y be une a s y a bout t he c ha nge o r t he y m a y be l i e ve t ha t t he y w i l l l os e pow e r or r e s our c e s ( B r i ght m a n 1988) T he f a i l ur e o f t he gr oup t o m a ke a de c i s i on c a n of t e n be t r a c e d t o f e a r of t he c ons e que nc e s of t ha t a c t i on ( S e a m a n, 1981) D e c i s i ons of t e n t hr e a t e n a gr oup a nd i t s m e m be r s D e c i s i ons i nvol ve t a ki ng r e s pons i bi l i t y a nd r i s ki ng e r r or T he y m a y di s r upt c he r i s he d pr ogr a m s o r c r e a t e pr obl e m s w i t h out s i de f or c e s or ot he r gr oups ( S e a m a n, 1981 p. 80) C ohe s i ve ne s s i s a not he r f a c t or t ha t i m pa c t s gr oup e f f e c t i ve ne s s C ohe s i ve ne s s r e f e r s t o t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h m e m be r s a r e a t t r a c t e d t o one a not he r i n t he gr oup T hi s m a y not ne c e s s a r i l y i nc l ude l i ki ng i ndi v i dua l m e m be r s but m e m be r s de s i r e s t o r e m a i n m e m be r s f or w ha t e ve r t he r e a s on. C ohe s i ve ne s s i nc r e a s e s a s m e m be r s be c om e a t t r a c t e d t o t he g r oup, vi e w t he g r oups a s w e a nd be gi n t o t a ke a m o r e a c t i ve r o l e i n t he pr oc e s s ( B r i ght m a n, 1988 p 46 ) C onve r s e l y, gr oups t ha t a r e t oo c oh e s i ve m a y

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70 s uf f e r f r om t he pr obl e m of g r oupt hi nk t ha t pr oduc e s a c ons e ns u s a t a ny c os t m e nt a l i t y r e s ul t i ng i n a de t e r i or a t i on of a t e a m s pr obl e m s ol vi ng c a pa bi l i t i e s T he l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w e d t hus f a r ha s a ddr e s s e d t he or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha l l e nge s r e s ul t i ng f r om f o r m a l c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t s s uc h a s t he i r i m pa c t on o r ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on a nd i de nt i t y, a nd i s s ue s of gr oup c om m uni c a t i on, c onf l i c t a nd r e s i s t a nc e t o c ha nge e f f or t s S t r a t e gi e s t o m i t i ga t e t he s e c ha l l e nge s a r e a l s o c ove r e d i n t he c om m uni c a t i on l i t e r a t ur e a nd a r e r e vi e w e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. T he C ha l l e nge s of C ha nge M a na ge m e nt D ur i ng a n o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ons ol i da t i on, c om m un i c a t i on i s s ue s a r e of t e n i gnor e d i n t he pr e c ons ol i da t i on pha s e a nd t he n unde r m a na ge d dur i ng t he c ons ol i da t i on pr oc e s s M a r ks a nd M i r vi s ( 1998) s t r e s s t ha t i t i s i m por t a nt t o hone s t l y a s s e s s pr obl e m s t ha t m a y c onf r ont a n i m pe ndi ng c ons ol i da t i on. T he y pr ovi d e a l i s t of s how s t oppe r s f or m e r ge r s a nd c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s i nc l udi ng: a ) di s t r us t a nd i nc om pa t i bi l i t y be t w e e n m a na ge m e nt gr oups b) di f f i c ul t i e s w or ki ng out gove r na nc e a r r a nge m e nt s c ) l a c k o f t a l e nt t o m a na ge bot h t he t r a ns i t i on a nd ongoi ng ope r a t i ons d ) s i gni f i c a nt c oor di na t i on c os t s r e qui r e d t o obt a i n s yne r gi e s e ) d i s r upt i on a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he c ons ol i da t i on, f ) t hr e a t s t o c us t om e r r e l a t i ons hi ps a s a r e s ul t of t he c om bi na t i on, g) i nc o m pa t i bl e va l ue s a nd c ul t ur e h) ne ga t i ve i m pa c t on t he w or kf o r c e a nd c om m uni t i e s a nd i ) pos t de a l ha ngove r R a r e l y doe s a pe r f e c t s c e na r i o e xi s t f or a l l m e m be r s dur i ng a c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t T he be s t c our s e of a c t i on, s ugge s t s M c L a ughl i n ( 1998) i s t o r e c ogni z e t he unc om f or t a bl e a s pe c t s of c ons ol i da t i on a nd t o s e t up a pr oc e s s t ha t w i l l a c hi e ve t he m os t r e a s ona bl e out c om e pos s i bl e T he r e a r e m a ny s t r a t e gi e s r e vi e w e d i n t he c om m uni c a t i o n l i t e r a t ur e t ha t m a na ge r s c a n i nc or por a t e t o s uppor t t he i r e m pl oye e s a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l

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71 m e m be r s t hr ough t hi s c ha nge pr oc e s s S om e s uc c e s s f ul l e a de r s hi p s t r a t e gi e s f a c i l i t a t e or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge by de ve l opi ng a c om m on c u l t ur e t hr ough t he us e of s uppor t i v e c om m uni c a t i on. I m pr ov i ng G r oup C om m uni c at i on I n or de r f o r a c ol l a bo r a t i ve gr oup t o f unc t i on s uc c e s s f ul l y, s a y H e a t h a nd F r e y ( 2004) i t s houl d ha ve t he f o l l ow i ng: a f l a t hi e r a r c hy, a nonhi e r a r c hi c a l c onve ne r o r f a c i l i t a t or t he a bi l i t y t o m e e t f a c e t o f a c e phys i c a l s t r uc t ur e s t ha t r e f l e c t a n e ga l i t a r i a n e nvi r onm e nt a nd a ppr opr i a t e t i m e f or c om m un i c a t i on pr oc e s s e s t o e m e r ge a s c e nt r a l f e a t ur e s t ha t pr e pa r e a gr oup f or c ol l a bor a t i on ( p. 207) T he s e f e a t ur e s do not be l ong t o a ny one i ndi vi dua l o f t he c ol l a bor a t i on, but i ns t e a d a r e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he gr oup a s a c ol l e c t i ve ( p. 207 ) A n e qua l l y i m por t a nt f unc t i on of gr oups s a ys B e nni s ( 1999) i s t ha t t he y pr ovi de ps yc hi c s uppor t a nd pe r s ona l f e l l ow s hi p. T he y he l p ge ne r a t e c our a ge W i t hout a s oundi ng boa r d f o r out r a ge ous i de a s w i t hout pe r s ona l e nc our a ge m e nt a nd pe r s pe c t i ve w he n w e hi t a r oa dbl oc k, w e d a l l l os e our w a y ( 3) H e a t h a nd F r e y ( 2004) c onc ur t ha t t he i nf or m a l ne t w or k o f c om m uni c a t i on out s i de t he f or m a l m e e t i ng c ont e xt c a nnot be unde r e s t i m a t e d ( p. 208 ) G r e a t gr oups a l s o r e qui r e s t r ong l e a de r s s a ys B e nni s ( 1999) Y ou c a nnot ha ve a gr e a t l e a de r w i t hou t a g r e a t gr oup a nd vi c e ve r s a ( 13) L e a de r s s t udi e d by B e nni s w e r e s e l dom t he br i ght e s t o r be s t i n t he gr oup bu t ne i t he r w e r e t he y pa s s i ve pl a ye r s T he y w e r e c onnoi s s e ur s of t a l e nt m o r e l i ke c u r a t o r s t ha n c r e a t or s ( 13) B e nni s i de nt i f i e s f our be ha vi or a l t r a i t s s ha r e d by l e a de r s o f gr e a t g r oups i nc l udi ng : pr ov i di ng

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72 di r e c t i on a nd m e a ni ng; ge ne r a t i ng a nd s us t a i ni ng t r us t ; di s pl a yi ng a bi a s t ow a r d a c t i on, r i s k t a ki ng a nd c u r i os i t y; a nd s e r vi ng a s pur ve yor s of hope C hange as Se e n F r om L e ade r and M e m be r St andp oi nt s E f f e c t i ve c ha nge l e a de r s hi p du r i ng o r ga ni z a t i ona l t r a ns i t i on e nt a i l s f a c i ng m a ny c om m uni c a t i on i s s ue s s uc h a s t r us t or g a ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e a nd de a l i ng w i t h m e m be r c onc e r ns N onpr of i t s c om e t oge t he r a nd a r e he l d t oge t he r by a s ha r e d pu r pos e s oc i a l c a pi t a l m ut ua l r e s pe c t a nd t r us t ( A gr a nof f 2003; A gr a nof f & M c G ui r e 2001) R a t he r t ha n r e l yi ng on c ont r a c t ua l a r r a nge m e nt s ( a l t hough c ont r a c t s m a y be a pa r t o f t he c ol l a bor a t i on) ne t w or k s t r uc t u r e s r e l y on e xc ha nge s ba s e d on i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons T o be e f f e c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s m us t be a bl e t o t r us t e a c h ot he r t o w or k t o t he i r m ut ua l be ne f i t ( K e a s t e t a l 2004, p. 365) E s t a bl i s hi ng t r us t a nd de ve l opi ng a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng o f how ot he r a ge nc i e s ope r a t e t a ke s t i m e W he n t he r e i s a pr e e xi s t i ng hi s t or y o f t r us t a nd unde r s t a ndi ng, t he c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f o r t c a n f oc us o n a c hi e vi ng pr oj e c t goa l s I n a ddi t i on t o pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps t he i m por t a nc e o f e s t a bl i s hi ng ope n c om m uni c a t i on a nd di a l ogue i n nonpr o f i t pa r t ne r s hi ps ha s be e n s t udi e d. D i a l ogi c i nqui r y c a n l e a d t o t r a ns f or m a t i on, e xpl a i n E i s e nbe r g e t a l ( 1999 p 143) G e ne r a l l y s pe a ki ng, t he p r oc e s s l e a ds f r om i m pe r s on a l f e l l ow s hi p t o f r i e nds hi p. O u r e m ot i ons a r e i nt e gr a l W e c ha nge t he na t ur e of c ons c i ous ne s s a s w e s ha r e c ont e nt a nd t h i nk t oge t he r ( p 143 ) L e a de r s hi p a bi l i t y i s a l s o i m por t a nt t o a c hi e ve ne t w or k c ohe s i on. A gr a nof f a nd M c G ui r e ( 2001) de s c r i be t he r ol e o f t he l e a de r a s c r a f t s m a n w ho e l i c i t s c om m on goa l s c r e a t e s a n a t m os phe r e of t r us t br oke r s o r ga ni z a t i ona l a nd i ndi vi dua l c ont r i but i ons a nd de pl oys e ne r gi e s i n a c c or d w i t h s om e s t r a t e gi c pl a n ( p 314) A s s e m bl i ng a nd l e a di ng a he t e r oge ne ous gr oup o f pe opl e w ho t ypi c a l l y do not w or k t oge t he r c a n be

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73 da unt i ng. D i ve r s e gr oups how e ve r c r e a t e pot e nt i a l f or s ha r i ng i m po r t a nt i n f or m a t i on a nd he l pi ng t o a c hi e ve m u t ua l goa l s E i s e nbe r g e t a l ( 1999 ) s ugge s t B e c a us e c om pl e x i s s ue s r e qui r e t he c om bi ne d i nt e l l i ge nc e of m ul t i p l e i ndi vi dua l s di a l ogue i s e s s e nt i a l t o t he s ur vi va l of t oda y s or ga ni z a t i ons ( p 143 ) T h e c om m uni c a t i on pr oc e s s e s pr a c t i c e d by c ol l a bor a t i ve gr oups s uc h a s t hr ough di a l ogue a nd c ons e ns us de c i s i on m a ki ng, a t t e m pt t o honor t he vi e w poi n t s o f t he i r m e m be r s va r i ous c ons t i t ue nc i e s ( H e a t h & F r e y, 2004 p 208 ) L e a de r s a nd g r oup f a c i l i t a t or s w ho s t r e s s i nc l us i on i n di a l ogue c a n he i ght e n t he odds of c r e a t i ve pr obl e m s ol vi ng a nd s ys t e m c ha nge ( M e dve d e t a l 2001 ) A s di s c us s e d i n t he i nt r o duc t o r y c ha pt e r c ul t u r e w i t hi n nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons i s i m por t a nt be c a us e i t s e r ve s a s a pr i m a r y m e a ns of or ga ni z i ng, m ot i va t i ng a nd m oni t or i ng m e m be r s a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s O r ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e de t e r m i ne s s t r a t e gy, goa l s a nd m ode s of ope r a t i ng C ul t ur e i s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a n t i n c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s be c a us e c ul t ur e i s t he bi gge s t s t um bl i ng bl oc k o r ga ni z a t i ons f a c e w he n t he y de c i de t o j oi n f or c e s I t s i m por t a nt t o i de nt i f y c ul t u r a l a r e a s of di s s ona nc e s o t ha t pe opl e c a n di s pe l m i s c onc e pt i ons a nd be gi n c r e a t i ng a c ul t ur e t ha t s r i ght f o r t he ne w or ga ni z a t i on s a ys B r a m s on ( 2000, p 62 ) C ha ngi ng a c ul t u r e i s a n e n or m ous t a s k be c a us e i t i nvol ve s t he c r e a t i on of s ha r e d s ys t e m s of m e a ni ng t ha t a r e a c c e pt e d, i nt e r na l i z e d a nd a c t e d on a t e ve r y l e ve l of t he or ga ni z a t i on ( M or ga n, 1998, p. 136) M uc h ha s be e n w r i t t e n a bout m a na gi ng e m pl oye e s dur i ng a m e r ge r A l t hough e m pl oye e s a r e not a f oc us of t hi s s t udy, t he r e s e a r c h on t hi s i s s ue c a n be a ppl i e d t o t hi s s t udy a s i t pe r t a i ns t o i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n t he f und e r a nd t he pa r t ne r a ge nc i e s F o r t h i s r e a s on, r e s e a r c h on m a na gi ng e m pl oye e s dur i ng a m e r ge r i s i nc l ude d a nd a da pt e d. W he r e a ppr opr i a t e i n r e vi e w i ng t he l i t e r a t u r e w i t h out c ha ngi ng t he m e a ni ng or i nt e nt t he

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74 w or d m e m be r m a y be us e d i n pl a c e o f t he w or d e m pl oye e t o c om m uni c a t i on t he br oa de r r e pr e s e nt a t i on o f s t a ke hol de r s i nvol ve d i n nonpr of i t s i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t s A ddi t i ona l l y, f o r m a l c ol l a bo r a t i on a nd c ons ol i d a t i on m a y be us e d i n pl a c e of m e r ge r t o c om m uni c a t e t he pot e nt i a l b r oa de r a p p l i c a bi l i t y of t hi s l i t e r a t u r e t o m ul t i pl e r e s t r uc t ur i ng f o r m s M e m be r s a t t i t ude s t ow a r d c ons ol i da t i ons a r e of t e n a f unc t i on of t he i r pe r c e pt i on of how t he c ons ol i da t i on w i l l i m pa c t or be ne f i t t he m pe r s ona l l y. C ha nge ha s di f f e r e nt i m pl i c a t i ons f or di f f e r e n t pa r t i e s i nvol ve d R e s e a r c h by W a nbe r g a nd B a na s ( 2000; i n A xt e l e t a l 2002 ) r e ve a l e d t ha t m a na ge r s m a y ha v e m or e pos i t i ve a t t i t ude s t ow a r ds c ha nge t ha n ope r a t i ona l e m pl oye e s due t o ha vi ng m or e a c c e s s t o i nf or m a t i on a nd gr e a t e r oppor t uni t y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n de c i s i ons r e ga r di ng t h e c ha nge B e f or e m e m be r s e f f e c t i ve l y e nga ge i n t he m e r ge d c om pa ny, t he y w a nt t o know t he i r r ol e s i n i t T he y ne e d t o know W ha t s i n i t f or m e ? T r oi a no ( 1999) e xpl a i ns t ha t unt i l t he y ha ve t ha t i nf or m a t i on a nd a r e s e c ur e i n t he i r ne w r o l e s t he r e w i l l be a r e l uc t a nc e t o w or k t oge t he r O r ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s a r e a l s o c onc e r ne d f or t he w e l l be i ng o f t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons M e m be r s w i l l not m a ke s a c r i f i c e s e ve n i f t he y a r e unha ppy w i t h t he s t a t us quo, unl e s s t he y be l i e ve t ha t us e f ul c ha nge i s pos s i bl e T ypi c a l l y one of t he de e pe s t c onc e r ns a m ong or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s i s w he t he r a c ha nge i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he or ga ni z a t i on s va l ue s T he one c ons t a nt i n c ha nge s houl d be s us t a i ni ng a n or ga ni z a t i on s va l ue s ys t e m ( K r a m l i nge r 1998) S u ppo r t f or c ha nge ne e ds t o be c ul t i va t e d be f o r e dur i ng a nd a f t e r a c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t t a ke s pl a c e F or c ha nge t o oc c ur i n a n or ga ni z a t i on, e ve r y m e m be r m us t t hi nk, f e e l o r do s om e t hi ng di f f e r e nt l y ( D uc k, 1998, p.

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75 56) B e ha vi or a l c ha nge c a nnot oc c ur w i t hout a n e xpl i c i t e f f o r t t o r e e duc a t e pe opl e w ho a dopt ne w va l ue s a nd nor m s e xpl a i ns B e e r ( 1980 p 99) S pe c i f i c a l l y pe r t a i ni ng t o e m pl oye e s r e s e a r c he r s s ugge s t t w o i m por t a nt a ppr oa c he s t o e nc our a ge e m pl oye e s uppor t of a c o ns ol i da t i on e f f or t : e xpos ur e t o i nf or m a t i on a nd f r e que nt a nd ope n c om m un i c a t i on. T h i s w oul d s e e m t o be good a dvi c e a nd good pr a c t i c e i n a ny or ga ni z a t i ona l c ont e xt b ut dur i ng m e r ge r a nd c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s s e c r e c y i s o f t e n t he no r m e s pe c i a l l y i n f or pr of i t m e r ge r s w he r e m e r ge r a n nounc e m e nt s c a n s w a y t he s t oc k m a r ke t a nd s e nd e m pl oye e s i nt o a f r e nz y, due t o f e a r of l os i ng t he i r j obs S om e r e a s ons f or c ons ol i da t i o n i n bot h f or pr of i t a nd nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a l i ke pe r t a i n t o c os t s a vi ngs a nd s t a f f r e duc t i ons T hus s ha r i ng i nf or m a t i on t oo e a r l y i n c ons ol i da t i on pl a nni ng i s a voi de d i n or de r t o p r e ve nt ne ga t i ve r e a c t i ons f r om e m pl oye e s a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l pa r t ne r s t ha t c oul d t hr e a t e n t he s uc c e s s of t he ve nt ur e F r om a m e m be r s pe r s pe c t i ve c ons ol i da t i ons a r e s t r e s s f ul f or o t he r obvi ous r e a s ons ( M a r ks & M i r vi s 1998) : T he r e s m or e w o r k t o do a nd l e s s t i m e t o do i t ; t he f ut ur e i s hi gh l y unc e r t a i n; i t i s a t i m e o f i ns e c ur i t y; a nd pe opl e f e e l t he y ve l os t c ont r ol o f t he i r s i t ua t i on a nd f a t e ( pp. 92 94 ) W or ke r s a r e o f t e n t e r r i f i e d of l o s i ng t he i r j obs a nd be i ng l e f t una bl e t o s uppor t t he i r f a m i l i e s E m pl oy m e nt c onc e r ns a r e c om pounde d by t he pe r s ona l c onc e r ns a t hom e s uc h a s t e l l i ng a s pous e a bout a l a yof f pa yi ng a m or t ga ge or t a ki ng c hi l dr e n out of pr i va t e s c hool ( D e a l & K e nn e dy, 1999 p. 197) P e r s ona l s t r e s s a nd s e l f doubt r e s ul t e ve n f o r e m pl oye e s w hos e j obs a r e not on t he c ut t i ng bl oc k W or ki ng t hr ough a c ons ol i da t i on pr oc e s s m a y be l i ke w o r ki ng t h r ough a ny ot he r l os s E m pl oye e s w i l l e xhi bi t f e e l i ngs o f de ni a l a nge r a nd e ve nt ua l l y a c c e pt a nc e ( B uono & B ow di t c h, 1998 ) A s pa r t of t h i s r e a c t i o n, e m pl oye e s m a y di s pl a y s i gns of

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76 de pr e s s i on a nd e xpr e s s bot h di r e c t a nd di s pl a c e d a nge r M a na ge m e nt of t e n w a nt s t o a voi d br i ngi ng on t he s e s t r e s s e s e a r l y i n c ons ol i da t i on pl a nni ng; t hus ope n c om m uni c a t i on i s a l s o a voi de d. S om e t i m e s c om m uni c a t i on c om e s a f t e r t he c ons ol i da t i on a nnounc e m e nt but t oo of t e n c om m uni c a t i on a bout a c ons ol i da t i on doe s n t f oc us on e m pl oye e s i s s ue s a nd f a i l s t o e nl i s t t he i r s uppor t D e a l m a ke r s s pe nd f a r m or e e ne r gy h ypi ng t he i r b r a i nc hi l d t o t he out s i de w or l d t ha n p r ovi di ng r a t i ona l e t o t he pe opl e c ha r ge d w i t h c a r r yi ng i t out s a y F e l dm a n a nd S pr a t t ( 1999 p 25 ) T hi s l e a ve s e m p l oye e s w i t h m or e que s t i ons t ha n a ns w e r s C onf us e d a bout t oda y s pr i or i t i e s a nd t o m or r ow s di r e c t i on, a nxi ous e m pl oye e s s pe nd i nor di na t e a m ount s of t i m e s pe c ul a t i ng w i t h pe e r s a bout t he m u r ky f ut ur e ( F e l dm a n & S p r a t t 1999, p. 25) R e duc i ng unc e r t a i nt y i s e s s e nt i a l f or o r ga ni z a t i ons t o ke e p good pe opl e T he l onge r i t t a ke s t o r e duc e a m bi gui t y a nd pos i t i on t h e c om pa ny f or gr ow t h t he gr e a t e r t he l i ke l i hood of di m i ni s he d e m pl oye e s uppor t i nc r e a s e d c onf us i on, e xt e ns i ve a l i e na t i on, a nd w i de s pr e a d r e s i s t a nc e ( F e l dm a n & S pr a t t 19 99, p 33) W he n t he r e i s c om m uni c a t i on, t he f l ow o f t e n i s one w a y a nd c a n be c om e i nf or m a t i on ove r l oa d I t i nvol ve s m a na ge m e nt s e ndi ng out i nf o r m a t i on a nd m e m os ba s e d on w ha t i t t hi nks i s i m por t a nt U nf or t una t e l y t he s t a nda r d t op dow n m ode of c om m uni c a t i on doe s n t w or k D ur i ng a m e r ge r a bot t om up c om m uni c a t i on s ys t e m i s e s s e nt i a l s a ys G r e e nga r d ( 1997, p. 53) T he be s t c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s i nvol ve a c ons t a nt l y w i de ni ng a r r a y of pe opl e s a ys M c L a ughl i n ( 1998) be c a us e nonpr of i t c ons ol i da t i ons a r e be s t pl a nne d f r o m t he t op dow n a nd i m pl e m e nt e d f r om t he bot t om up ( p 20 7)

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77 W i t hout c r e di bl e c om m uni c a t i on, a nd l ot s of i t t he he a r t s a nd m i nds of t he t r oops a r e ne ve r c a pt u r e d, s a ys K ot t e r ( 1998, p. 1 2) C om pa ni e s f a i l t o i nt e gr a t e t he i r w or k f or c e s or ha ve a d i f f i c ul t t i m e do i ng s o be c a u s e t he y don t ha ve a s t r ong c om m uni c a t i on pr ogr a m i n pl a c e ( T r o i a no, 1999 ) S ha r i ng i nf o r m a t i on w i t h e m pl oye e s e a r l y i n t he c ons ol i da t i on pr oc e s s c a n s t a bi l i z e l e ve l s of j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd r e duc e unc e r t a i nt y e xpe r i e nc e d by e m pl oye e s I t a l s o, c a n ha ve a num be r of pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s f or t he or ga ni z a t i on, a c c or di ng t o S c hr a e de r ( 2001 ) i nc l ud i ng i nc r e a s i ng e m pl oye e c om m i t m e nt t o t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd a s a r e s ul t r e duc i ng t he i r r e s i s t a nc e t o t he m e r ge r A good r ul e o f t hu m b, r e c om m e nds A r s e na ul t ( 1 998, p 134) i s t o i nc l ude a l l i n di vi dua l s w ho w i l l be a f f e c t e d i n pl a nni ng p r oc e s s a nd t he t r a ns i t i on. T hi s w i l l t a ke m or e t i m e bu t w i l l pr e ve nt p r obl e m s i n t he t r a ns i t i on a nd s a ve t i m e a nd e ne r gy l a t e r A s t he i r know l e dge of w ha t w i l l oc c ur i nc r e a s e s a nd t he i r s e ns e of be i ng l i s t e ne d t o i nc r e a s e s a nxi e t y a nd s t r e s s w i l l de c r e a s e s a ys A r s e na ul t ( p. 136) A r s e na ul t a nd M c L a ughl i n a l s o s t r e s s c om m uni c a t i on t hr oughout t he c our s e of a m e r ge r t o e a s e f e a r s t o m a ke t hi ngs go m or e s m oot hl y a nd t o i nc r e a s e t he c ha nc e of l a s t i ng s uc c e s s C l e a r a nd c ons i s t e nt c om m uni c a t i on w a s f ound t o be a n i nt e gr a l pa r t of s uc c e s s f ul c ha nge e f f or t s a l ong w i t h c om m uni c a t i ng e a r l y f r e que nt l y a nd hone s t l y. T he goa l of c om m uni c a t i on s houl d be not onl y t o i nf o r m but a l s o t o e nga ge m e m be r s i n t he vi s i on a nd pr oc e s s B y pr e s e nt i ng a c l e a r vi s i on of t he f u t ur e a nd ga i ni ng c om m i t m e nt t o i t t he ne w c om pa ny be gi ns t o bui l d t he l oya l t y t ha t s c r u c i a l t o s ur vi va l s a ys B r a m s on ( 2000, p. 64) I n a ddi t i on t o c om m uni c a t i on dur i ng t he c ons ol i da t i on e f f o r t a bout t he pr oc e s s i t s a l s o i m por t a nt t o t e nd t o e m pl oye e s f e e l i ngs a nd e m ot i ons P a t t e r ns of e m p l oye e

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78 s t r e s s a nd di m i ni s he d c om m i t m e nt a r e i ne vi t a bl e d ur i ng a t r a ns i t i on. S t r a t e gi e s c a n be i m pl e m e nt e d t o r e duc e r e s i s t a nc e t o c ons ol i da t i on a nd, m or e i m por t a nt t o di m i n i s h t he de t r i m e nt a l i m pa c t on e m pl oye e s a nd ot he r or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s ( S c hr a e de r 2001) T hr ough ope n a nd hone s t c om m uni c a t i on, i t s pos s i bl e t o i nc r e a s e c om m i t m e nt a nd de c r e a s e s t r e s s r e s ul t i ng i n i m pr ove d p r oduc t i vi t y qua l i t y a nd e m p l oye e w e l l be i ng M a r ks a nd M i r vi s ( 1998) i de nt i f y t w o ba s i c r e a s ons t o m a na ge e m pl oye e unc e r t a i nt y a nd i ns e c ur i t y dur i ng a c ons ol i da t i on. O ne a i m i s t o m i ni m i z e t he s t r e s s e xpe r i e nc e d by e m pl oye e s a nd t o he l p t he m c ope w i t h i t s e f f e c t s T he s e c ond i s t o m a xi m i z e t he ups i de by bui l di ng unde r s t a ndi ng of a nd c om m i t m e nt t o t he c ons ol i da t i on a nd t he oppo r t uni t i e s i t of f e r s T hr ough s uppor t i ve c om m uni c a t i on, m a n a ge r s c a n he l p r e duc e unc e r t a i nt y a nd he l p de ve l op a s e ns e of pe r c e i ve d c ont r ol ove r s t r e s s f ul s i t ua t i ons ( c f E i s e nbe r g & G ooda l l 2001) I n a ddi t i on t o s uppor t i ve c om m uni c a t i on w i t h m e m be r s r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y s e ve r a l ot he r a c t i ons t ha t a r e be ne f i c i a l dur i ng a c o ns ol i da t i on e f f or t s uc h a s ha vi ng ope n c onve r s a t i ons w he r e e m pl oye e s c a n ha ve oppor t uni t y t o ve nt t he i r c o nc e r ns a nd f e a r s ; gi vi ng pr a i s e a nd f e e dba c k t o he l p e m pl oye e s f e e l m or e c onf i de nt i n t he w or k t he y a r e pe r f or m i ng; a nd pr ovi d i ng i nc e nt i ve s a nd r e w a r ds t ha t w i l l i ndi c a t e t o e m pl oye e s t ha t t he y a r e doi ng a good j ob a nd a r e va l ue d. N e w s t r om a nd D a vi s ( 1993 ) s ugge s t t he f ol l ow i ng a c t i vi t i e s t o bui l d s uppor t f o r ne e de d c ha nge : us i ng gr oup f or c e s ( pe e r pr e s s ur e ) pr ovi di ng r a t i ona l e f or c ha nge e nc our a g i ng e m pl oye e pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he c ha nge pr oc e s s s ha r i ng r e w a r ds ( bot h e c onom i c a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l ) e ns ur i ng e m pl oye e s e c ur i t y, c om m uni c a t i ng ope nl y a nd of t e n a nd w or ki ng w i t h t he t ot a l s ys t e m ( pp. 283 286)

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79 S t r e be l ( 1998 ) s ugge s t s t ha t s e ni or m a na ge r s put t h e m s e l ve s i n t he i r e m pl oye e s s hoe s t o unde r s t a nd how c ha nge l ooks f r o m t ha t p e r s pe c t i ve a nd t o e xa m i ne t he r e c i pr oc a l obl i ga t i ons a nd r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t e xi s t b e t w e e n e m pl oye e s a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on. T hi s i nc l ude s l ooki ng a t t he f or m a l b us i ne s s c om pone nt s of e m pl oye e c onc e r ns s uc h a s r a i s e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e e xpe c t a t i ons ; ps yc hol ogi c a l c onc e r ns s uc h a s r e c o gni t i on a nd pe r s ona l r e w a r ds t ha t e m pl oye e s r e c e i ve f r om t he w or k; a nd s oc i a l di m e ns i ons t ha t pe r t a i n t o t he e m pl oye e s r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h ot he r s i n t he o r ga ni z a t i on. U nde r s t a ndi ng a l l di m e ns i ons of e m pl oye e c onc e r n a nd a ddr e s s i ng a l l t he s e f a c t or s i n t he o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge pr oc e s s w i l l he l p c r e a t e a n e nvi r onm e nt t ha t f os t e r s e m pl oye e c om m i t m e nt t o t he t r a ns f or m a t i on. O t he r r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c t o pa r t ne r s hi p s t r a t e gi e s du r i ng a c ons ol i da t i on c a n be dr a w n f r om t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e on publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks w he r e by m ul t i pl e pa r t i e s f r om publ i c pr i va t e a nd nonpr of i t s e c t or s c om e t oge t he r t o a ddr e s s c om pl e x s oc i a l i s s ue s T he p r oc e s s e s e xpe r i e nc e d w i t hi n t he s e c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t s a r e uni que be c a us e n e t w or k m a na ge m e nt i s c ons i de r e d t o be a di f f e r e nt t ype o f nonhi e r a r c hi c a l m a na ge m e nt N e t w or ks a r e o f t e n f o r m e d t h r ough s e l f or ga ni z i ng p r oc e s s bl e ndi ng know l e dge ba s e s f r om di f f e r e nt or ga ni z a t i ona l a r e na s ( A gr a nof f 2003) T he y a r e he l d t oge t he r by m ut ua l obl i ga t i on t ha t de ve l ops ove r t i m e a nd i n f or m a t i on a nd e xpe r t i s e i s s ubs t i t ut e d f or a ut hor i t y s t r uc t ur e I n a ne t w or k t he goa l s a nd s uc c e s s of or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s be c om e s e c onda r y t o t he ne t w or k a s a w hol e ( M i l w a r d & P r ova n, 2006 p 18 ) I t i s s t i l l i m por t a nt a nd ne c e s s a r y, how e ve r t o s a t i s f y t he ne e ds a nd i nt e r e s t s of t he i nd i vi dua l ne t w or k m e m be r s w hi l e a t t he s a m e t i m e bui l di n g a c oope r a t i ve ne t w or k of

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80 i nt e r or ga ni z a t i ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t c ol l e c t i ve l y p r ovi de s s e r vi c e s m or e e f f e c t i ve l y a nd e f f i c i e nt l y t ha n a s ys t e m ba s e d on f r a gm e nt e d f u nd i ng a nd s e r vi c e s ( P r ova n & M i l w a r d, 2001, p 422) I t i s not e nough t o ge t t hos e a r ound a t a bl e t o a gr e e a nd t a ke a c t i on, s a ys L e w i s ( 2005) or ga ni z a t i ons m us t t he n be c om e e n ga ge d a t a br oa de r l e ve l C ol l a bor a t i ve s t r uc t ur e s ne e d t o be c r e a t e d a nd m a i nt a i ne d ( p 2 48) I n a ddi t i on t o s t r ong l e a de r s s e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s s ugge s t t ha t ne t w or ks s houl d ha ve a ne t w or k m a na ge r or s om e c oo r di na t i ng e nt i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e t he w o r k of t he ne t w or k T he s e c oor di na t i ng e nt i t i e s m a y be c a l l e d ope r a t i o ns ne t w or ks ( M a r l ow e 2005b ) l e a d e nt i t i e s ( G r a ddy & C he n, 2006) or M S O s ( K ohm & L a P i a na 2003) T he s e f or m a l m ode l s f or ne t w or k c oor di na t i on a r e f e a t ur e d l e s s i n t he l i t e r a t u r e a nd w i t h l e s s c l a r i t y. T he c ol l a bor a t i ve o r ga ni z a t i on i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t u dy i s a ne t w or k b ut i t a l s o i s a n M S O I t i s i n t hi s a r e na w he r e t he r e i s a gr e a t ne e d f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h t o c l a r i f y t he s t r uc t ur e o f t he s e m ode l s a nd t o e xa m i ne t he i r r e a s ons f or f or m i ng a nd t he i r m e t hods of ope r a t i ng A l s o, due t o t he c r i t i c a l i m por t a nc e o f s uc c e s s f ul ne t w or k m a na ge m e nt f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s w a r r a nt e d t ha t e xpl o r e s how ne t w or k m e m be r s a nd m a na ge r s de a l w i t h i s s ue s s uc h a s de c i s i on m a ki ng, a l a c k of t r us t a m ong m e m be r s c onf l i c t i ng goa l s t he ne e d t o i nc r e a s e pr oduc t i vi t y a nd o t he r c ha l l e nge s A s A gr a no f f a n d M c G ui r e ( 2001) que s t i on, W ha t a r e t he c r i t i c a l oc c ur r e nc e s or s i t ua t i ons t ha t a f f e c t ne t w or k ope r a t i ons a nd w ha t a r e t he pr e f e r r e d r e s pons e s t o t he s e s i t ua t i ons ? ( p. 300) T he y s ugge s t t ha t e xt e ns i ve obs e r va t i on a nd i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w i ng a r e r e qui r e d t o a ns w e r t he s e c r i t i c a l que s t i ons ( p. 300) T he y a l s o s ugge s t t ha t w e ne e d t o know m or e a bout how c r i t i c a l pr oc e s s e s w i t hi n ne t w or ks unf ol d, s uc h a s c om m on ne t w or k m a na ge m e nt s e que nc e s l i ke a c t i va t i on, f r a m i ng, m obi l i z i ng a nd s ynt he s i z i ng.

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81 A not he r c ons i de r a t i on f o r f ut u r e r e s e a r c h i s t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of ne t w or ks i nc l udi ng e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s e r vi c e de l i ve r y a s w e l l a s c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd t he ne ga t i ve c ons e que nc e s of ne t w or ks W e t e nd t o s e e t he pos i t i ve s i de of ne t w o r k s t r uc t ur e s w i t hout e xa m i ni ng t he pos s i bl e ne ga t i ve s i de s a y B e r r y e t a l ( 2004, p. 550) E xa m pl e s of t he ne ga t i ve s i de i nc l ude c onve r ge nc e t ow a r d gr oupt hi nk, de pe nde nc e on e f f e c t i ve l e a de r s a nd c ol l a bor a t i on s ki l l s a nd pos s i bl e i ne f f i c i e nc i e s due t o pa r t i c i pa nt t u r nove r a nd c om m uni c a t i on a nd m e e t i ng c os t s ( 550) A not he r que s t i on t ha t r e m a i ns l a r ge l y una ns w e r e d pe r t a i ns t o how ne t w or k r e l a t i ons hi ps c ha nge ove r t i m e I s e t t a nd P r ova n ( 2 005) s ugge s t s t ha t a s pol i c y m a ke r s c ont i nue t o e nc our a ge t he f or m a t i on of s e r vi c e pr o vi s i o n ne t w or ks a m ong pr i va t e a nd nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons i t i s i m po r t a nt t o unde r s t a nd how ne t w or ks w or k ( p 149) I s e t t a nd P r ova n a l s o s ugge s t t he ne e d f or e m pi r i c a l w o r k t ha t s ys t e m a t i c a l l y t r a c ks pa r t ne r s hi p e vol ut i on B e r r y e t a l ( 2004) s ugge s t t ha t f u t ur e qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h a ddr e s s t he c om pl e xi t i e s of ne t w or ks a nd t he m e m be r s c i r c um s t a nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons T hr ough t hi c k, r i c h de s c r i pt i ve a c c ount s w e c a n m or e f ul l y i l l um i na t e t he c ont e xt ua l s i de of t he di l e m m a ( p. 549) R e s e a r c h s houl d l ook i nt o t he p r a gm a t i c s of m ov i n g nonpr of i t s t o e nga ge i n a w i de r va r i e t y o f s t r a t e gi c pa r t ne r s hi ps a s a m e a ns of r e s pondi ng t o e nvi r onm e nt a l c ha nge I n t hi s r e ga r d r e s e a r c h i nt o o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a nd c ons ol i da t i ons w i t hi n hum a n s e r vi c e nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons i s l i m i t e d A s nonp r of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons e xpl or e ne w c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s r e or ga ni z a t i on, c ons ol i da t i on, m e r ge r s a nd i nt e gr a t i on t he r e i s a n i nc r e a s e d ne e d f or a ppl i e d c om m un i c a t i on r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e T he s e t r e nds c r e a t e t he ne e d t o e xpa nd r e s e a r c he r a nd p r a c t i t i one r know l e dge of o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge i n

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82 nonpr of i t s e t t i ngs t hus s e t t i ng t he s t a ge f or i m por t a nt a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h a ge nda s w i t hi n t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons S um m a r y T hi s r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e on s t a ke hol de r r e l a t i o ns or ga ni z a t i ona l m i s s i on a nd i de nt i t y, a nd c ha nge l e a de r s hi p s t r a t e gi e s pr ovi de s a good oppo r t uni t y t o i nt r oduc e m y t w o r e m a i ni ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons 4 R Q #3. W ha t m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i ga t e t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of t h i s t ype o f or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a nd/ or t o c ont r i bu t e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s t ype o f i nt e g r a t i on m ode l ? R Q #4. W ha t l e s s ons c a n be l e a r ne d f r om t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d a nd t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s C oa l i t i on e xpe r i e nc e t ha t m a y be ne f i t f ut u r e J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d e f f o r t s a s w e l l a s f unde r s a nd s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s i n c om m un i t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ? W i t h t he s e f i na l t w o r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i nt r oduc e d w ha t f ol l ow s i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r i s a de t a i l e d de s c r i pt i on of m y r e s e a r c h m e t hodol og y a nd a n ove r vi e w of a l l t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o be a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. 4 T h e r es ear ch q u es t i o n s i n cl u d ed h e re an d at t h e en d o f ch ap t er 2 ar e i n t h ei r fi n al fo rm H o w ev er, t h es e q u es t i o n s w e re d ev el o p ed co l l ab o rat i v e l y w i t h t h e res e arch p art i ci p an t s as p art o f t h e act i o n res ear ch p ro c es s t h at w i l l b e d es c ri b ed i n ch a p t er 4

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83 C H A P T E R 4 A C O G E N E R A T E D R E S E A R C H M E T H O D O L O G Y I nt r oduc t i on I di dn t pl a n t o c onduc t a n a c t i on r e s e a r c h ( A R ) di s s e r t a t i on, but m y i ni t i a l c ont a c t s w i t h a pot e nt i a l s i t e o r ga ni z a t i on l e d m e i n t ha t di r e c t i on. D ue t o ha vi ng s om e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h A R I w a s ope n t o t hi s a pp r oa c h. I a l s o s a w t hi s m e t hodol ogy a s l e s s t hr e a t e ni ng w he n a ppr oa c hi ng t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i on s E nga gi ng i n A R how e ve r t ook m e a w a y f r om t he l i ne a r a pp r oa c h of m or e t r a di t i ona l m e t hods of r e s e a r c h. T hus t o be t r ue t o t he A R m e t hodol ogy t hi s c ha pt e r w i l l not f ol l o w a l i ne a r de s c r i pt i on of m y r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy, but r a t he r i t w i l l c hr oni c l e t he A R p r oc e s s a s i t w a s c o ge ne r a t e d by m e a nd t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i p a nt s F or e xa m pl e t hi s c ha pt e r w oul d nor m a l l y s t a r t w i t h a r e vi e w of m y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons but t he s e que s t i ons w e r e s ha pe d a s pa r t of t he A R pr oc e s s a nd i n f a c t de ve l ope d c ol l a bor a t i ve l y w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s T he s e que s t i ons w i l l be pr e s e nt e d a f t e r de s c r i bi ng t he A R pr oc e s s us e d t o c ul t i va t e t he m B e f or e be gi nni ng m y de s c r i pt i on of m y A R m e t ho dol ogy, i t i s he l pf ul t o ha ve a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of A R be f or e pr oc e e di ng. B e c a us e t he va l i di t y of A R i s s t i l l que s t i one d i n s om e a r e na s a nd of t e n m i s u nde r s t ood, A R m e t hodol ogy w a r r a nt s a ddi t i ona l j us t i f i c a t i on t o s uppor t a nd c l a r i f y i t s us e I w i l l s t a r t t hi s c ha pt e r by pr ovi d i ng a n ove r vi e w of t he ba s i c a ppr oa c he s a nd pha s e s m os t c om m onl y i de nt i f i e d a s pa r t o f A R T o he l p p r ovi de c ont e xt f or t hi s r e s e a r c h, I w i l l r e f l e c t on m y ow n r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s a nd

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84 pr ovi de a br i e f ove r vi e w of t he r e s e a r c h e nvi r onm e nt W i t h t ha t gr oundw o r k l a i d I w i l l t he n s ha r e m y A R j ou r ne y, be gi nni ng a t t he poi nt of m y i nt r oduc t i on t o t he r e s e a r c h s i t e I w i l l de s c r i be t he pr oc e s s of e nt r y i nt o t he o r ga ni z a t i on t ha t s e t t he s t a ge f or t he c ol l a bor a t i ve r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s I w i l l de s c r i be how t he r e s e a r c h r e l a t i ons hi p t ook s ha pe a l ong w i t h t he p r oc e s s of c oge ne r a t i ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd pr ot oc ol s w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I w i l l s t a t e t he f i na l r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd de s c r i be t he r e s e a r c h a ppr oa c h a dopt e d by t he r e s e a r c h t e a m ( m e a nd t h e r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s ) D e f i ni ng C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of A c t i on R e s e a r c h T he di s t i ngui s hi ng di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n A R a nd ot h e r f or m s of a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h i s t he l e ve l o f i nvo l ve m e nt of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I n A R t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e c o c r e a t o r s of t he r e s e a r c h. G r e e nw ood a nd L e vi n ( 2006) de s c r i be a c t i on r e s e a r c h a s a c oge ne r a t i ve pr oc e s s t hr ough w hi c h pr of e s s i ona l r e s e a r c he r s a nd i nt e r e s t e d m e m be r s of a l oc a l or ga ni z a t i on c om m uni t y, o r a s pe c i a l l y c r e a t e d or ga ni z a t i on c ol l a bor a t e t o r e s e a r c h, unde r s t a nd, a nd r e s ol ve pr obl e m s of m ut ua l i nt e r e s t ( p. 115 ) T he r e s e a r c h i s c a r r i e d out by a t e a m t ha t e nc om pa s s e s a pr of e s s i ona l a c t i on r e s e a r c he r a nd t he m e m be r s of t he o r ga ni z a t i on. A R i nvol ve s gr oups i n ga t he r i ng a nd a na l yz i ng da t a pr ovi di ng f e e dba c k, pl a nni ng f or a c t i on, a nd c ol l e c t i ng m o r e da t a t o m oni t or t he r e s ul t s of c ha nge I n a ny or ga ni z a t i ona l c ont e xt A R a t t e m p t s t o unde r s t a nd a nd c ha nge or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e by l ooki ng a t p r obl e m s a nd c ha l l e nge s a s t he y a r e de f i ne d by or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s e nc our a gi ng t hos e m e m be r s t o t a ke a n a c t i ve r ol e i n c ol l e c t i ng a nd a na l yz i ng da t a a nd pl a nni ng f or a c t i on t o s ol ve t he pr ob l e m s t o m e e t t he c ha l l e nge s t he y ha ve i de nt i f i e d ( F e l ki ns 1995) T he p r oc e s s of a n A R i nqui r y a i m s t o be c ons t r uc t i ve r a t he r t ha n

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85 i nvi s i bl e e xpl a i n W i nt e r a nd M unn G i ddi ngs ( 200 1) I n m a ny w a ys t hi s i s a m or e pl a us i bl e a m bi t i on, ( be c a us e ) no s oc i a l r e s e a r c h p r oc e s s c a n a c t ua l l y a voi d c ha ngi ng t he s i t ua t i on i t i nve s t i ga t e s : hum a n be i ngs w i l l a l w a ys r e s pond ( i n one w a y or a not he r ) w he n r e s e a r c h i n a ny f o r m a ppe a r s on t he i r s c e ne ( W i nt e r & M unn G i ddi ngs 2001, pp. 18 19) I n a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h, t he r e s e a r c he r be gi ns by i de nt i f y i ng s om e c om m uni c a t i on phe nom e non t ha t oc c ur s i n na t ur a l i s t i c e nvi r onm e nt s ( F r e y 1990 ) T hi s i nc l ude s t he i de nt i f i c a t i on o f a r e a l s oc i a l pr obl e m C i s s na ( i n F r e y, B ot a n & K r e ps 2000) e l a bor a t e s on t hi s f oc us of a ppl i e d c om m un i c a t i on r e s e a r c h: A ppl i e d r e s e a r c h s e t s out t o c ont r i but e t o know l e dge by a ns w e r i ng a r e a l pr a gm a t i c s oc i a l que s t i on or by s ol vi ng a r e a l pr a g m a t i c s oc i a l pr obl e m A ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h i nvol ve s s uc h a que s t i on or pr obl e m of hum a n c om m uni c a t i on or e xa m i ne s hum a n c om m uni c a t i o n i n or de r t o pr ovi de a n a ns w e r or s ol ut i on t o t he que s t i on o r p r obl e m ( p. 33) I n t he ne xt s e c t i on, I pr ovi de a m o r e de t a i l e d de s c r i pt i on of t he A R pha s e s a nd how t hi s m e t hodol ogy w a s i nc or po r a t e d f o r t hi s s t udy. V a r i ous r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y di f f e r e nt pha s e s a nd pr oc e s s e s of A R I n a b r oa d vi e w of A R G r e e nw ood a nd L e vi n ( 2006) de s c r i be A R a s a p r oc e s s c ons i s t i ng of a t l e a s t t w o di s t i nc t pha s e s : T he f i r s t i nvol ve s t he c l a r i f i c a t i on of t he i ni t i a l r e s e a r c h que s t i on; t he s e c ond i nvol ve s t he i ni t i a t i on a nd c ont i nua t i on of s oc i a l c ha nge a nd m e a ni ng c ons t r uc t i on pr oc e s s ( p. 93 ) T he c om pone nt s of A R m os t of t e n i de nt i f i e d i n t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e i nc l ude pa r t i c i pa t i on, qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods r e f l e c t i on, a nd c yc l i c a l pr oc e s s ( D i c k, 2000) F ol l ow i ng a r e m or e de t a i l e d e xpl a na t i ons o f t he s e pha s e s D e s c r i pt i ons of how t he s e

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86 pha s e s w e r e a ppl i e d i n m y r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy w i l l be pr ov i de d l a t e r i n t he c ha pt e r a s t he a c t i on r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s unf ol ds P ar t i c i pat i on P ar t i c i pat i on r e f e r s t o c l i e nt s a nd i nf or m a nt s be i n g i nvol ve d a s pa r t ne r s i n t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s I n A R t hos e w ho a r e a f f e c t e d m os t by t he r e s e a r c h out c om e s j oi n t hos e w ho c a r r y out r e s e a r c h. T oge t he r t he pr o f e s s i ona l r e s e a r c he r a nd t he s t a ke hol de r s de f i ne t he pr obl e m s t o be e xa m i ne d c oge ne r a t e r e l e va nt know l e dge a bout t he m l e a r n a nd e xe c ut e s oc i a l r e s e a r c h t e c hni que s t a ke a c t i ons a nd i nt e r p r e t t he r e s ul t s of a c t i ons ba s e d on w ha t t he y ha ve l e a r ne d ( G r e e nw ood & L e vi n, 2006 p 3 ) T hi s pa r t i c i pa t i on ge ne r a t e s c om m i t m e nt ( D i c k, 2002) A c t i on out c om e s c a n us ua l l y be a c hi e ve d onl y w i t h s om e c om m i t m e nt f r om t hos e m os t a f f e c t e d, a nd one of t he m os t i m po r t a nt w a ys of s e c ur i ng t ha t c om m i t m e nt i s by i nvol v i ng t hos e a f f e c t e d ( 33) A not he r r e a s on c i t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f or i nc l ud i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s i s t ha t i t i s m or e e t hi c a l t o us e pa r t i c i pa t i ve m e t hods G r e e nw ood a nd L e vi n ( 1998 ) a r gue t ha t t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s m us t be de m oc r a t i c i n t he s e ns e t ha t i t i s ope n, pa r t i c i pa t o r y a nd f a i r t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ( p. 113) T he e xt e nt of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n A R m a y va r y I n s om e i ns t a nc e s t he r e m a y be a ge nui ne pa r t ne r s hi p be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s T he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r a nd ot he r s m a y di s a ppe a r ( D i c k, 2000, 20) Q ual i t at i v e M e t hod Q ual i t at i v e m e t hod pe r t a i ns t o t he f a c t t ha t A R m e t hods f oc us m or e of t e n on l a ngua ge a nd i nt e r a c t i on r a t he r t ha n qua nt i f i a bl e m e t r i c s a nd t he s e a r e be s t s t udi e d t hr ough qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods t ha t r e a c h t he m or e pe r s ona l l e ve l s of e xpe r i e nc e t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs M os t a c c ount s of A R a r e r e nde r e d i n na r r a t i ve f o r m A R ne e ds a ge nr e f o r

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87 w r i t i ng t ha t f a i t hf ul l y r e f l e c t s t he dyna m i c a nd de ve l opm e nt a l na t ur e of A R t ha t r e c r e a t e s f or t he r e a de r ke y e l e m e nt s i n t he e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng c yc l e s ( G r e e nw ood & L e vi n 1998, p 109) T he c ha l l e nge i n pr e s e n t i ng a c c ount s of A R e xpl a i n G r e e nw ood a nd L e vi n, ( 1998) i s t o c r e a t e a pe r s ua s i ve c onne c t e dne s s be t w e e n t he or y a nd pr a c t i c e ( p. 110) N a r r a t i ve s pr ovi de a s ol ut i on t o t hi s c ha l l e ng e by c r e a t i ng t e xt t ha t ha s m e a ni ng bot h f or pr a c t i t i one r s a nd f or s c i e n t i s t s ( p. 110 ) s uc h a s c a s e s t udi e s t ha t i nc l ude de t a i l e d di s c us s i ons of t he pr oc e s s e s a gr oup w e nt t hr ough i n ge ne r a t i ng t he know l e dge t ha t i s be i ng c om m uni c a t e d a nd a c t e d upon. T he na r r a t i ve t ur n ( B oc hne r 2001) i n c om bi na t i on w i t h A R ha s t w o i m por t a n t e f f e c t s e xpl a i ns R e a s on a nd B r a dbur y ( 2001 ) F i r s t i t he l ps t o l e gi t i m a t e pr a c t i t i one r s a s pr oduc e r s of va l i d know l e dge a nd s e c ond, i t he l ps t o ope n a t w o w a y s t r e e t s o t ha t bot h pr a c t i t i one r s a nd r e s e a r c he r s ha ve t he i r i n t e r e s t s a ddr e s s e d t hr ough s c hol a r s hi p ( p. 152) I t i s a pr oc e s s of i nt e r p r e t a t i on i n w hi c h t he t e l l e r a nd l i s t e ne r c ol l a bor a t e i n s e ns e m a ki ng ( B oc hne r 2002 p 81) T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s he l p t o br i ng pr a c t i t i one r s a nd a c a de m i c i a ns c l os e r t oge t he r A s B oc hne r e xpl a i ns N a r r a t i ve i nqui r y di s s ol ve s t r a di t i ona l bounda r i e s be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r a nd s ubj e c t s be t w e e n t he or i e s a nd s t or i e s a nd be t w e e n a ut hor a nd r e a de r ( p. 77) I t c a n e l i c i t i nf or m a t i on t ha t r i ngs t r ue t o pr a c t i t i one r s e xpe r i e nc e s m a ki ng t he m m o r e l i ke l y t o c ons um e i t A l ong t he s a m e l i ne s G r e e nw ood a nd L e vi n ( 2006) s a y t ha t w r i t i ng up A R i n na r r a t i ve f or m c a n be a pr oc e s s t hr ough w hi c h bot h i ns i de r s a nd out s i de r s c oge ne r a t e know l e dge t ha t l e a ds t o a c t i ons ( p 111) T hi s oc c ur s by w r i t i ng up A R t ha t c a pt ur e s t he s e qu e nc e s of l e a r ni ng, s uc h a s c onduc t i ng t he r e s e a r c h, l e a r ni ng f r om out c om e s a nd c r e a t i ng ne w i ns i ght s t ha t l e a d t o ne w a c t i ons

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88 R e f l e c t i on and C y c l i c al P r oc e s s R e f l e c t i on pe r t a i ns t o pr a c t i c e s dur i ng da t a a na l ys i s t ha t i nc l ude c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on by t he p a r t i c i pa nt s C y c l i c al i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s doe s not e nd w i t h t he f i ndi ngs a nd t ha t s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h a c t i vi t i e s r e c ur A c t i on r e s e a r c h i s c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i ve T he r e s e a r c he r s ( a nd pr oba bl y c l i e nt s a c t i ng a s c o r e s e a r c he r s ) r e gul a r l y a nd s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c r i t i que w ha t t he y a r e doi ng. T he y r e f i ne t he que s t i ons t he y a r e a s ki ng a nd t he m e t hods t he y a r e us i ng a nd t he unde r s t a ndi ng a nd s ubs e que nt a c t i on pl a ns t he y a r e de ve l opi ng ( D i c k & S w e ps on, 1997, 6) A c t i on r e s e a r c h s houl d i nvol ve a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n s e l f que s t i oni ng a nd s e l f e va l ua t i on ( W i nt e r & M unn G i ddi ngs 2001, pp. 18 19) T hi s pa r t of t he pr oc e s s e xe m pl i f i e s t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s t e p i nvol ve d i n a c t i on r e s e a r c h. A n ove r a l l goa l of t hi s a na l ys i s w i l l be t o p r ovi de a ho l i s t i c a na l ys i s of t he da t a a nd t o pr ovi de a r i c h de s c r i pt i on o f t he e xpe r i e nc e s e nc ount e r e d dur i ng t he c r e a t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s pa r t i c ul a r or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l D a t a a na l ys i s i s us ua l l y t he e nd r e s ul t of t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s but s t a yi ng t r ue t o a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h, i t i s i m po r t a nt t o pr ovi de s ugge s t e d s t r a t e gi e s t o he l p s ol ve t he pr a c t i c a l s oc i a l pr obl e m be i ng s t udi e d. A c t i on r e s e a r c h c l os e l y a dhe r e s t o t hi s a ppr oa c h, be c a us e t he pur pos e i s t o w or k t ow a r ds c ha nge not m e r e l y t o de s c r i be a c ur r e n t s i t ua t i on a s i t i s ( W i nt e r & M unn G i ddi ngs 2001, pp. 18 19) G ood a c t i on r e s e a r c h i s e m pi r i c a l : r e s pons i ve t o t he e vi de nc e s a ys D i c k ( 2000, 35) I t i s i m por t a nt t ha t t he e vi de nc e i s us e d c r i t i c a l l y r a t he r t ha n unc r i t i c a l l y. T o a c hi e ve bot h r e s e a r c h out c om e s a nd a c t i on t he r e s e a r c he r ne e ds t o be r e s pons i ve t o t he s i t ua t i on, t he pe opl e a nd t o f os t e r i ng unde r s t a ndi ng on t he pa r t of t hos e i nvol ve d. U s i ng a c yc l i c pr oc e s s e nha nc e s r e s pons i v e ne s s e xpl a i ns D i c k ( 2000) I t m a ke s s e ns e t o de s i gn t he l a t e r s t a ge s

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89 of a n a c t i on r e s e a r c h a c t i vi t y i n s uc h a w a y t ha t yo u c a pi t a l i z e on t he unde r s t a ndi ng de ve l ope d i n t he e a r l y s t a ge s ( 28) A c t i on i s f ol l ow e d by c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on: W ha t w or ke d? W ha t di dn t ? W ha t ha ve w e l e a r ne d? H o w m i ght w e do i t di f f e r e nt l y ne xt t i m e ? ( 15 ) R e s e a r c h E nvi r onm e nt a nd C ont e xt T he l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w c ont a i ne d i n t he pr e vi ous t w o c ha pt e r s de m ons t r a t e s t he i nc r e a s i ng pr e va l e nc e of nonpr o f i t r e s t r uc t ur i ng a n d t he uni que c ha l l e nge s t ha t c ons ol i da t i ons pos e f or nonpr of i t l e a de r s a s w e l l a s f or f unde r s L i m i t e d i nf or m a t i on i s a va i l a bl e how e ve r r e ga r di ng t he c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s a nd s t r a t e gi e s ut i l i z e d by e nt i t i e s e nga gi ng i n t he de ve l opm e nt of ne w i nt e gr a t i ve or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s s uc h a s m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e s or ga ni z a t i ons T hi s s t udy e x pl or e s t he uni que i s s ue s t ha t one gr oup of nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons f a c e d w he n c ons i de r i ng i nt e gr a t i on, e s pe c i a l l y pe r t a i ni ng t o t he i nt e r or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m un i c a t i on a m ong t he nonpr of i t s a nd t he i r f unde r a nd t he c ha l l e nge s t he y f a c e d dur i ng r e o r ga ni z a t i on pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on B e f or e I be gi n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o m y r e s e a r c h s i t e I a m pr ovi di ng s om e c ont e xt a bout t he e nvi r onm e nt of t he r e s e a r c h s e t t i ng. S om e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he e nvi r on m e nt m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he phe nom e non be i ng s t udi e d I w i l l a l s o di s c us s m y s i t ua t i on w i t hi n t hi s s e t t i ng, m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s a nd m y s e a r c h f or a nd di s c ove r y o f m y r e s e a r c h s i t e R e s e ar c h E nv i r onm e nt P i ne l l as C ount y F l or i da M y s t udy i s s e t i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, F l o r i da a s m a l l c ount y l oc a t e d i n w e s t c e nt r a l F l or i da a l ong t he G ul f of M e xi c o. O ut o f 67 c ount i e s i n F l or i da P i ne l l a s ha s t he f i f t h hi ghe s t popul a t i on w i t h 921 482 pe opl e ( U S C e ns us 2006) a nd t he f i f t h hi ghe s t l e ve l o f pe r c a pi t a pe r s ona l i nc om e ( B ur e a u of E c onom i c A na l ys i s 2005) M or e r e l e va nt t o t hi s

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90 r e s e a r c h i s da t a pe r t a i ni ng t o publ i c c ha r i t i e s w i t hi n t he c ount y. T hi s i nf or m a t i on i s r e f l e c t e d i n T a bl e 4. 1 t ha t c ont a i ns da t a on F l o r i da c ount i e s w i t h t he gr e a t e s t num be r of r e gi s t e r e d publ i c c ha r i t i e s W i t hi n t he s t a t e of F l or i da P i n e l l a s C ount y r a nks s e ve nt h, w i t h m or e t ha n 2, 400 publ i c c ha r i t i e s e qua l t o m o r e t ha n 5% of t he s t a t e s t ot a l T a bl e 4. 1 D a t a on P ubl i c C ha r i t i e s i n F l o r i da C ount i e s D a t a i s s how n f or F l or i da c ount i e s w i t h t he g r e a t e s t num be r o f r e gi s t e r e d publ i c c ha r i t i e s D a t a i nc l ude d i s f r om 2007 a nd 2006 e x c e pt f or pove r t y r a t e w hi c h i s ba s e d on da t a a va i l a bl e f or 2003. T a bl e 4. 1 Fl o ri d a Co u n t i es # o f r e g i s t e r e d p u b l i c c h a r i t i e s ( P C s ) % o f F l o r i d a P C s c o u n t y p o p u l a t i o n ( i n t h o u s a n d s ) # o f P C s p e r p e r s o n % o f p o p u l a t i o n a t p o v e r t y # P C s p e r p e r s o n a t p o v e r t y c o u n t y l a n d a r e a ( i n m i l e s ) # P C s p e r s q m i l e M i a m i / D a d e 5 8 1 7 1 2 9 % 2 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 1 8 9 % 0 0 1 3 1 9 4 6 3 0 Bro w a r d 4 1 4 5 9 0 % 1 2 7 4 0 0 0 3 3 1 2 5 % 0 0 1 9 1 2 0 5 3 4 P a l m Bea c h 3 6 2 7 9 3 % 1 7 8 8 0 0 0 2 1 0 9 % 0 0 2 7 1 9 7 4 1 8 Ora ng e 3 1 4 8 7 1 % 1 1 5 8 0 0 0 2 7 1 3 2 % 0 0 2 5 9 0 7 3 5 Hi l l s bo ro ug h 2 9 7 5 6 2 % 1 0 4 4 0 0 0 2 9 1 3 0 % 0 0 2 1 1 0 5 1 2 8 D uv a l 2 4 6 2 5 5 % 8 3 8 0 0 0 2 9 1 2 8 % 0 0 2 4 7 7 4 3 2 P i n el l a s 2 4 3 9 5 2 % 9 2 4 0 0 0 2 6 1 2 0 % 0 0 2 2 2 8 0 8 7 T h er e w ere 4 5 6 9 8 p u b l i c ch ari t i es reg i s t er ed i n Fl o ri d a, as o f J an u ary 2 0 0 7 So u rces : U S Cen s u s (2 0 0 7 2 0 0 6 & 2 0 0 3 ) an d T h e U rb an In s t i t u t e (2 0 0 7 & 2 0 0 6 )

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91 W he r e P i ne l l a s C ount y c l e a r l y s t a nds out a nd dr a w s a t t e nt i on i n m a ny r e ga r ds i s i t s de ns i t y. P i ne l l a s C ount y i s t he m os t de ns e l y po pul a t e d c ount y i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da w i t h 3, 291 pe opl e pe r s qua r e m i l e c om pa r e d t o a n a ve r a ge 296 a c r os s t he s t a t e of F l o r i da ( T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e 2000) W he n f a c t or i ng i n t he s m a l l ge ogr a phi c s i z e of t he c ount y t he num be r o f r e gi s t e r e d pub l i c c ha r i t i e s s t a nds out s t r ongl y, w i t h 8 7 pubi c c ha r i t i e s pe r s qua r e m i l e c om pa r e d t o a n a ve r a ge of l e s s 3 f or t he ot he r t op c ount i e s C e r t a i nl y t he r e s no w a y t o d r a w c l e a r c onc l us i ons a bout t he a de qua c y, i na de qua c y or e xc e s s of t he s e c ha r i t i e s w i t hout k now i ng m or e a bout t he s i z e a nd s c ope of e a c h or ga ni z a t i on S t i l l t hi s s m a l l pi e c e of da t a i s s i gni f i c a nt be c a us e i t c r e a t e s a pe r c e pt i on a m ong P i ne l l a s C ount y r e s i de nt s pol i c y m a ke r s a nd f unde r s t ha t t he r e a r e t oo m a ny publ i c c ha r i t i e s i n t he c ount y a nd t ha t c ons ol i da t i on i s i n o r de r O ne of m y j ob dut i e s w hi l e w o r ki ng a t one of t he l oc a l gove r nm e nt s i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, w a s de a l i ng w i t h r e s i de nt c om pl a i nt s a bou t s oc i a l s e r vi c e a ge nc i e s T he s e c om pl a i nt s of t e n a r os e w he n a c ha r i t y w a s r e l oc a t i ng t o or s t a r t i ng a ne w of f i c e or s e r vi c e l oc a t i on w i t hi n a ne i ghbor hood o r bus i ne s s di s t r i c t W e a l r e a dy ha ve ou r f a i r s ha r e o f s oc i a l s e r vi c e s w a s of t e n t he c om pl a i nt I r e c e i ve d. W e don t ne e d a nym or e I w oul d l ove t o ha ve s a i d, I m s or r y but you ha ve n t ye t m e t your quo t a of 8. 7 I n f a c t e ve r l ook a t t he s e num be r s but t he be l i e f t ha t w e ha ve t oo m a ny s oc i a l s e r vi c e a ge nc i e s i s e ve r on pe opl e s m i nds F or ye a r s f unde r s a nd po l i c y m a ke r s ha ve di r e c t e d t he unde r t a ki ng of nu m e r ous r e s e a r c h s t udi e s t o e xpl or e t he pos s i bl e dupl i c a t i on of s oc i a l s e r vi c e s i n P i ne l l a s C ount y ( s e e G i a r d & G a m a c he 2005; I nt e r a ge nc y C om m i t t e e 1992; M a r l ow e 2005a ; S t i l e s & H a yne s 2002) T hi s pa r t i c ul a r c onc e r n i s us ua l l y l um pe d unde r a b r oa de r r ubr i c o f

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92 hum a n s e r vi c e ne e ds a s s e s s m e nt but dupl i c a t i on o f s e r vi c e s i s of t e n a ke y f oc us a r e a R e pe a t e dl y, t he s e s t udi e s ha ve f ound no e vi de nc e of dupl i c a t i on: T he r e i s ve r y l i t t l e ove r l a p i n us e r s be t w e e n t he s ys t e m s t ha t w e r e l oo ke d a t ( S t i l e s & H a yne s 2002, 14) D upl i c a t i on of s e r vi c e s i s r e por t e d a s f a r l e s s of a n i s s ue I ns t e a d, s i m i l a r s e r vi c e s a r e s a i d t o be s uppl e m e nt a l w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he ne e ds t ha t e xi s t ( G i a r d & G a m a c he 2005, p. 42) T hi s l a s t s t udy, how e ve r a l s o r e por t s t he f ol l o w i ng: F r a gm e nt a t i on a nd unc oor di na t e d s e r vi c e s r e m a i n a s c ons t a nt s a nd t h e r e s pons i bi l i t y f or c ha ngi ng t he m i s r e por t e d a s be l ongi ng t o t he f undi ng s our c e s i n l a r ge pa r t ( p 42 ) T hi s t ype of c onc e r n, c om bi ne d w i t h t he pe r c e pt i o n t ha t t he r e m a y be t o o m a ny publ i c c ha r i t i e s i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, ha s l e d t o p r a c t i c e s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t r e nds i de nt i f i e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w w he r e by pol i c y m a ke r s a nd f unde r s s t e p i n t o e nc our a ge publ i c c ha r i t i e s t o c ons ol i da t e or t o e xpl or e ne w w a ys of ope r a t i ng, s uc h a s t hr ough c ol l a bor a t i ve ne t w or ks R e c ogni z i n g t he s e c onc e r n s he l ps i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he e nvi r onm e nt w i t hi n w hi c h t he s i t e o r ga ni z a t i ons a r e pl a c e d. B e f or e e xpl o r i ng t he di s c ove r y of m y r e s e a r c h s i t e I w i l l f ur t he r e xpl a i n m y s i t ua t i on w i t hi n t hi s r e s e a r c h e nvi r onm e nt a nd m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s R e f l e c t i on on M y R e s e ar c h I nt e r e s t s T o a s s i s t a gr oup of c ol l a bor a t or s i n r e s ol vi ng s om e ki nd of i m por t a nt s oc i a l pr obl e m t he a c t i on r e s e a r c he r m us t ha ve s om e ki n d of s ubs t a nt i ve a ppr e c i a t i on o f t he pa r t i c ul a r i s s ue s i nvol ve d ( G r e e nw ood & L e vi n, 2006, p 11 9) A s de s c r i be d i n c ha pt e r 1, m y s i t ua t i on w i t hi n t he r e s e a r c h e nvi r on m e nt w a s m ul t i f a c e t e d, ha vi ng w o r ke d bot h i n nonpr of i t m a na ge m e nt a nd i n t he r ol e of be i ng a g ove r nm e nt f unde r W he n I be ga n m y doc t or a l s t udi e s I w a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of one of t he 2 439 pub l i c c ha r i t i e s i n P i ne l l a s

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93 C ount y, a nd I a l w a ys f e l t t he pr e s s ur e s of m a i nt a i n i ng f undi ng s uppor t f o r ou r p r ogr a m s W he n I be ga n s e a r c hi ng f o r a r e s e a r c h s i t e I w a s w or ki ng a s a gove r nm e nt f unde r he l pi ng t o s uppor t a nd c oor di na t e s oc i a l s e r vi c e s t hr oughout t he l a r ge s t m uni c i pa l i t y i n t he c ount y. I n c ha pt e r 1 I de s c r i be d m y i nt e r e s t s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a nonp r of i t e xe c ut i ve na m e l y ha vi ng t o de a l w i t h t he s t r e s s a nd f r us t r a t i on of gr ow i ng ne e ds l i m i t e d f undi ng, a nd i nc r e a s i ng c om pe t i t i on f r o m ne w non pr of i t s A s a gove r nm e nt f unde r m y f r us t r a t i ons w e r e m uc h t he s a m e : t oo m uc h ne e d a nd t oo m uc h c om pe t i t i on, a nd not e nough f undi ng a nd not e nough t r ue c ol l a bo r a t i on. T hi s c oul d be s a i d bot h a bout t he publ i c c ha r i t i e s I w or ke d w i t h a s w e l l a s t he ot he r f unde r s i n t he c ount y t ha t w or k unde r f i s c a l c ons t r a i nt s a nd pol i t i c a l pr e s s ur e s F r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of bot h pos i t i ons I he l d I s t a r t e d t o s e e w he r e f unde r s w e r e put t i ng m or e r e s pons i bi l i t y on t he i r c ont r a c t e d s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s t o m a na ge c om m un i t y pl a nni ng c ont r a c t s a nd e ve r yt hi ng t ha t goe s w i t h c ont r a c t m a na ge m e nt s uc h a s pr oc e s s i ng r e i m bur s e m e nt s da t a r e por t i ng a na l yz i ng out c om e m e a s ur e s a nd pr ogr a m m oni t o r i ng. M y d e s i r e t o pur s ue t hi s r e s e a r c h i nc r e a s e d. T hr ough m y c ont a c t s i n t he c om m uni t y, I w a s a bl e t o i de nt i f y nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons be gi nni ng t he r e s e a r c h s t a ge s of a m e r ge r or c ons ol i da t i on, a nd I w a s gr a nt e d pe r m i s s i on t o c onduc t r e s e a r c h w i t h t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons S om e o f t he s e r e s e a r c h s t udi e s w e r e r e f e r e nc e d i n m y i nt r oduc t o r y c ha pt e r F o r a num be r of r e a s ons 5 t he s e i ni t i a l r e s e a r c h s i t e s f e l l s hor t a s a pr os pe c t i ve s i t e f or m y di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h, a l t hough 5 S e v e r a l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h I c o n d u c t e d r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d w o r t h y s i t e s f o r c o n t i n u e d s t u d y b u t f i n d i n g o n e i n t h e m i d s t o f a n i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s d i f f i c u l t t o d o I w o r k e d w i t h o n e o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g i t s s t a g e s o f r e s e a r c h i n g a n d c o n s i d e r i n g m e r g e r o p t i o n s b u t i t u l t i m a t e l y d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c o n s o l i d a t i o n A n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n e n g a g e d i n a m e r g e r p r o c e s s t h a t w a s c o m p l e t e d i n l e s s t h a n a m o n t h W h i l e t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d t h e i r o w n i n t r i g u i n g i s s u e s t o s t u d y t h e f o c u s o f m y r e s e a r c h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s d u r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n a n d t h e s e s i t e s d i d n o t m e e t t h e s c o p e o f m y r e s e a r c h n e e d s

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94 I w a s a bl e t o e nga ge i n A R t ha t be ne f i t e d t he i r or g a ni z a t i ons a s w e l l a s m e a s a r e s e a r c he r A s w or d a bout m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s s pr e a d a m ong nonpr o f i t s a nd f unde r s i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, pe opl e s t a r t e d t o s t r i ke up c onve r s a t i ons w i t h m e O t he r s s t a r t e d t o c a l l m e f or he l p w i t h t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons E ve nt ua l l y, I c a m a c r os s t he i de a l r e s e a r c h s i t e f or m y r e s e a r c h. W he r e D oe s A c t i on R e s e a r c h B e gi n? I m e t P a ul L a c ke y w he n I w a s a nonpr of i t e xe c ut i v e di r e c t or s e r vi ng on a l oc a l boa r d of di r e c t or s f o r a ne w A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n hi s t or y m us e um P a ul i s a P r ogr a m P l a nne r f or t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d of P i ne l l a s C ount y ( J W B ) t he l a r ge s t c ou nt yw i de f unde r of s oc i a l s e r vi c e s s pe c i a l i z i ng i n c hi l dr e n a nd f a m i l y s e r vi c e s O u r p r of e s s i ona l r e l a t i ons hi p s t r e ngt he ne d w he n I m ove d i nt o m y g ove r nm e nt f undi ng r ol e 6 P a ul s pl a nni ng a r e a i nc l ude d t he j ur i s di c t i on t ha t I w a s t he n r e s pons i bl e f or a nd o ur i nt e r a c t i ons a r ound s oc i a l s e r vi c e s ne e ds i s s ue s a n d pl a nni ng i nc r e a s e d. D u r i ng one of our hi s t or y m us e um boa r d m e e t i ngs P a ul t a l ke d a bout w or k he w a s doi ng w i t h s e ve r a l a ge nc i e s t o f or m a ne w m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga n i z a t i on. T h i s i m m e di a t e l y c a ught m y a t t e nt i on. I t ol d P a ul a bout m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s a nd a s ke d t o l e a r n m or e W e s c he dul e d t o m e e t ove r c of f e e t o t a l k a bout t he p r os pe c t of m e c onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h on t hi s c ol l a bor a t i ve pr oj e c t I l e a r ne d e a r l y on t ha t P a ul m ove s qui c kl y. W i t h o nl y a va gue s e ns e of m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s P a ul ha d a l r e a dy s t a r t e d t o l a y s om e gr oundw or k t o pa ve m y w a y i nt o t he r e s e a r c h s i t e s B y t he t i m e w e ha d c of f e e P a ul ha d a l r e a dy s ha r e d m y r e s e a r c h 6 W h e n I f o u n d m y r e s e a r c h s i t e I h a d j u s t b e g u n w o r k i n g a t t h e C i t y o f S t P e t e r s b u r g F l o r i d a a s t h e m a n a g e r o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s O n e o f m y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d m a n a g i n g c i t y f u n d i n g c o n t r a c t s a w a r d e d t o p u b l i c c h a r i t i e s t h a t p r o v i d e d h u m a n s e r v i c e s t o c i t y r e s i d e n t s T h i s i n v o l v e d f o r g i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s w i t h o t h e r l o c a l f u n d e r s g o v e r n m e n t g r o u p s n o n p r o f i t s a n d c o m m u n i t y a n d b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s

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95 i nt e r e s t s w i t h hi s s upe r i or s a t J W B W he n w e m e t he c onve ye d t ha t not o n l y w a s J W B w i l l i ng t o a l l ow m e t o c onduc t t hi s r e s e a r c h, but t h e y w a nt e d t o be a c t i ve l y i nvol ve d i n c r e a t i ng a nd pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t h i s r e s e a r c h. T he J W B w a s c ur i ous a bout m a ny a s pe c t s of t he m ode l t he y he l pe d t o c r e a t e a nd w a nt e d t o kno w m or e a bout t he s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s of t he a ppr oa c h t a ke n, i n or de r t o gui de t he i r pl a nni ng f or f ut ur e e f f or t s a nd t o e duc a t e ot he r f unde r s a nd nonpr of i t s a r ound t he s t a t e a nd c ount r y. P a ul ha d a l s o t a l ke d w i t h l e a de r s of t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) t he g r oup of pr ovi de r s w ho w e r e w o r ki ng t oge t he r a nd w i t h J W B t o f or m t he ne w m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on. T he N F C C l e a de r s w hom P a ul t a l ke d t o t hought m y p r opos e d r e s e a r c h w oul d f i t ni c e l y w i t h t he i r p l a ns t o l e a r n m or e a bout t he c ons ol i da t i on pr oc e s s a nd s t r a t e gi e s i n o r de r t o i m pr ove t he i r pr a c t i c e s a nd t o s ha r e t he e xpe r i e nc e w i t h ot he r s T he m e m be r s of bot h o r ga ni z a t i ons e xpr e s s e d gr e a t i nt e r e s t i n m y w or k no t onl y i n a l l ow i ng m e t o c onduc t r e s e a r c h but i n w a nt i ng t o be a c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t h e r e s e a r c h. T he y w a nt e d t o be a c t i ve l y i nvol ve d i n s t r uc t u r i ng, r e vi e w i ng a nd r e s pondi ng t o t he r e s e a r c h, i n a ddi t i on t o s ha r i ng t he i r l e s s ons l e a r ne d. T he s e m ot i va t i ons of t he J W B a nd N F C C a r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he c e nt r a l f oc us of A R w hi c h i s t o i m pr ove p r a c t i c e ( M c B r i de & S c hos t a k, 1995 ) T he pa r t i c i pa t i ve p r oc e s s of A R i s i nt e nde d t o i nc r e a s e i ndi vi dua l a nd gr oup l e a r ni ng, bui l d c om m i t m e nt t o a c t i on a nd he l p or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s m a ke i nf o r m e d c ons c i ous de c i s i on s T he out c om e of A R s houl d s uppor t t he p a r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r e s t s s o t ha t t he know l e dge p r oduc e d i nc r e a s e s t he i r a bi l i t y t o c ont r ol t he i r ow n s i t ua t i on i n a ddi t i on t o ge ne r a t i ng va l i d know l e dge a nd e f f e c t i ve s oc i a l a c t i on.

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96 I nt r oduc t i on t o t he Si t e O r gani z at i ons B e f or e c ont i nui ng m y i ndoc t r i na t i on i nt o t hi s A R pr oc e s s a l i t t l e m o r e c ont e xt i s ne e de d t o ga i n a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he s e t w o or ga ni z a t i ons L e a r ni ng a bout t he t w o or ga ni z a t i ons t ook up t he bul k o f m y t i m e w i t h P a ul dur i ng our f i r s t m e e t i ng. H e pr ovi de d a n ove r vi e w of t he t w o o r ga ni z a t i ons a nd of w ha t ha d t r a ns pi r e d i n r e c e nt m ont hs a nd ye a r s t ha t l e d t o t he c ur r e nt i nt e nt t o f o r m a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on. E ve n t hough m y r e s e a r c h s i t e s ha dn t of f i c i a l l y s i gne d on t o pa r t i c i pa t e t hi s f i r s t m e e t i ng w i t h P a ul a nd m y i ni t i a l l e a r ni ng a bo ut t he hi s t or y of t he or ga ni z a t i ons w a s pa r t of our A R pr oc e s s T he o r ga ni z a t i ona l ove r vi e w s pr ovi de d he r e a r e ge ne r a l i nt r oduc t i ons M or e c ont e xt w i l l be pr ovi de d i n c h a pt e r 5. W he r e he l pf ul how e ve r I ha ve i nc l ude d a f e w i n t e r vi e w quot e s f r om pa r t i c i p a nt i nt e r vi e w s t o de s c r i be t he or ga ni z a t i ons a nd t he c ont e xt A bout t he J uv e ni l e W e l f ar e B oar d and t he N e i ghbo r hood F am i l y C e nt e r s E s t a bl i s he d i n 1946, t he J W B w a s t he f i r s t c ount y w i de a ge nc y i n t he na t i on us i ng de di c a t e d pr ope r t y t a xe s t o be t t e r t he l i ve s of c hi l d r e n a nd f a m i l i e s J W B i s one of t he l a r ge s t f undi ng s our c e s f or hum a n s e r vi c e s i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, F l or i da I n 2007 J W B a w a r d a bout $53 m i l l i on t o a ppr oxi m a t e l y 45 l oc a l a ge nc i e s a nd m or e t ha n 100 pr og r a m s s e r vi ng c hi l dr e n ( J W B w e bs i t e 2 007 ) T he J W B i s ove r s e e n by a boa r d of di r e c t or s c om pos e d of de s i gna t e d e l e c t e d of f i c i a l s a nd gove r nor a ppoi nt e e s T he a ge nc y ha s a s t r ong r e s e a r c h a nd c om m uni t y pl a nni ng di vi s i on a nd i t i s know n a s be i ng c ut t i ng e dge i n i t s r e s e a r c h a nd p r a c t i c e s I nc l u de d w i t hi n t he J W B f unde d or ga ni z a t i ons a r e t he ne i ghbor hood f a m i l y c e nt e r s ( N F C s ) T he s e a r e gr a s s r oot s c om m uni t y dr i ve n gr oups t ha t s pe c i a l i z e i n

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97 m e e t i ng t he uni que ne e ds of t he i r s ur r oundi ng ne i g hbor hoods T he boa r d o f di r e c t or s f or t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons us ua l l y c om pr i s e s m a ny m e m be r s f r om t he i m m e di a t e ne i ghbo r hood t ha t t he or ga ni z a t i ons e xi s t t o s e r ve L oune l l B r i t t pr e s i de nt of t he N F C C a nd e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of t he J a m e s B S a nde r l i n N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r de s c r i be s he r N F C a nd t he N F C m ode l a s be i ng l i ke t he o l d s e t t l e m e nt ho us e c onc e pt S e t t l e m e nt hous e s w e r e a m ove m e nt s t a r t e d i n 19 t h c e nt ur y L ondon w he r e un i ve r s i t i e s s e t t l e d s t ude nt s i n i m pove r s he d a r e a s t o l i ve a nd w or k a l ongs i de l oc a l pe opl e M or e br oa dl y, s e t t l e m e nt hous e s a r e c ha r a c t e r i z e d not by a s e t o f s e r vi c e s b ut by a n a pp r oa c h: t ha t i ni t i a t i ve s t o c or r e c t s oc i a l i l l s s houl d c om e f r om i ndi ge nous ne i ghbor hood l e a de r s or or ga ni z a t i ons ( B l a nk, 1998, 7 ) A s L oune l l de s c r i be d he r c e nt e r : W e r e a bout f a m i l y. E ve r ybody i s ki n t o e ve r ybod y I t s a m a z i ng t o w a t c h e ve r yone c om e i n he r e a nd be a pa r t of w ha t goe s on he r e be c a us e t he y w a nt t o be he r e T he J W B de f i ne d pur pos e of N F C s i s t o p r ovi de a ne t w or k of s uppor t f o r young f a m i l i e s a nd f a m i l i e s w i t h young c hi l d r e n, e s pe c i a l l y c hi l dr e n a ge s 0 t o 6 w ho ha ve l i t t l e or no l oc a l s uppor t s ys t e m s ( R ow l e t t e 2001 ) J W B s N F C pr ogr a m m ode l r e s ul t e d f r om a c ha nge i n f undi ng phi l os ophy, t o s hi f t f r om f und i ng s e r vi c e s ba s e d on c a t e gor i c a l ne e ds of c hi l dr e n a nd f a m i l i e s t o a c om p r e he ns i ve s t r e ngt h ba s e d a ppr oa c h w i t h e m pha s i s on ne i ghbor hood s e l f de ve l opm e nt T he N F C s r e s ul t e d a s pa r t of J W B i ni t i a t i ve s t o e s t a bl i s h or ga ni z a t i ons w i t h s t r ong ne i ghbor hood c onne c t i ons a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l c a pa c i t y ( R ow l e t t e 2001, p. 33) T he f i r s t e i ght N F C s w e r e e s t a bl i s he d i n r e s pons e t o r e que s t s f or f undi ng pr opos a l s r e l e a s e d by J W B b e t w e e n 1993 a nd 1995. B e c a us e of t hi s s om e r e f e r t o t he N F C s a s ha vi ng be e n bi r t h e d by t he J W B

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98 A bout t he N F C C S oon a f t e r t he c r e a t i on of t he N F C s t he l e a de r s hi p of t he i ndi vi dua l c e nt e r s f or m e d a ne t w o r ki ng c ol l a bor a t i ve t o s ha r e e xpe r i e nc e s i de a s a nd r e s our c e s ; t hi s w a s a l s o a r e c om m e nda t i on f r om t he J W B T he N F C m e m be r s c a l l e d t hi s i nf or m a l c ol l a bor a t i ve t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l i e s C e nt e r s C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) a nd t hi s or ga ni z a t i on r e p r e s e nt e d t he o r i gi na l N F C s l oc a t e d t hr oughout t he c ount y. T he m i s s i on of t he N F C C i s t o s t r e ngt he n a nd e nha nc e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e m be r c e nt e r s by a dvoc a t i ng f or c om m on c onc e r ns p r ovi di ng m u t u a l s uppor t de ve l opi ng s ha r e d r e s our c e s a nd c ol l e c t i ve l y p r om ot i ng t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r c onc e pt ( N F C C w e bs i t e 2004) T he N F C C e ve nt ua l l y s e c ur e d a 50 1( C ) ( 3) nonpr of i t s t a t us f or t he pur pos e of e xpl or i ng j oi nt f undr a i s i ng e f f or t s gr ou p pur c ha s i ng, a nd t he l i ke A Shi f t i n F undi ng P hi l os ophy T he i ndi vi dua l N F C s l i ke m a ny ot he r s m a l l or ga ni z a t i ons i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, e xpe r i e nc e d br oa d s uppor t du r i ng t he i r f i r s t ye a r s of ope r a t i on B y 2003 how e ve r t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons ha d c om e unde r s c r ut i ny by t he publ i c l y a ppoi nt e d boa r d of d i r e c t or s of t he J W B t ha t q ue s t i one d t he pos s i bl e dupl i c a t i on of e f f or t a nd pot e nt i a l w a s t e of t a xpa ye r dol l a r s C ont r i but i ng t o t hi s s e nt i m e nt w e r e p r obl e m s t ha t oc c ur r e d w i t h i n t w o N F C s t ha t e ve nt ua l l y c l os e d. A not he r c l os e d w he n i t s ne i ghbor hood w a s di s pe r s e d a s a r e s ul t of c l o s i ng one of t he c ount y s publ i c hous i ng c om pl e xe s B y 2003, t he r e w e r e ni ne N F C s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he c oa l i t i on, r e pr e s e nt i ng a br oa d s pe c t r um of c om m uni t i e s l oc a t e d t hr oughout P i ne l l a s C ount y F o r a m a p of t he N F C s i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, s e e F i gur e A 1 l oc a t e d i n A ppe ndi x A

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99 A s hi f t i n J W B ope r a t i ng pr oc e dur e s oc c ur r e d i n A pr i l 2003 w he n t he J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s s e t f or t h a di r e c t i ve t o r e duc e i t s ove r a l l num be r o f f undi ng c ont r a c t s a nd t o c ons ol i da t e f undi ng a w a r ds t ow a r d l a r ge r a ge nc i e s F o r t he N F C s t h i s w oul d ha ve m e a nt a l os s of f undi ng f or s i x of t he N F C s t ha t w e r e l oc a t e d i n s om e of t he m os t c ha l l e nge d ge ogr a phi c a r e a s of t he c ount y. T he s e s i x a ge nc i e s de pe nde d m os t l y on J W B f undi ng a nd t he s hi f t w oul d l i ke l y ha ve r e s ul t e d i n t he c l os ur e of t he s e o r ga ni z a t i ons T he s t a f f o f t he J W B a s w e l l a s t he l e a de r s hi p o f t he N F C C w a s c om m i t t e d t o f i ndi ng s om e w a y t o ge t a r ound t he boa r d s di r e c t i ve t o a l l ow t he m t o c ont i nue s e r vi ng t he c om m uni t i e s w i t h t he gr e a t e s t ne e ds A f t e r a l o t of qu i c k r e s e a r c h a nd pl a nni ng on t he pa r t of t he J W B s t a f f a pr opos a l w a s put f or t h t o c ons ol i da t e t he ni ne N F C f und i ng c ont r a c t s i nt o one a pr opos a l t ha t w oul d ha ve t o b e a gr e e d t o by t he J W B boa r d a nd a c c e pt e d by t he N F C C boa r d. T he pr oc e s s ut i l i z e d t o c ons ol i da t e t he s e c ont r a c t s w a s t hr ough t he de ve l opm e nt of a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e o r ga ni z a t i on. T hi s pr oc e s s i s t he pr i m a r y f oc us of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h, a s i t pe r t a i ns t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p a nd i nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n t he J W B a nd t he N F C s T he f ol l ow i ng por t r a ya l i s a s i m pl i s t i c r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he r e s ul t i ng pr oc e s s pr ovi de d onl y f or t he pur pos e o f ba c kgr ou nd a nd i nt r oduc t i on T hi s de s c r i pt i on, i t s e l f r a i s e s s e ve r a l que s t i ons t ha t w i l l be e xpl or e d a s pa r t of t hi s r e s e a r c h. R i c he r de s c r i pt i ons of t hi s pr oc e s s w i l l be pr ovi de d i n c ha pt e r 5, i n m y r e vi e w a nd a na l ys i s of t he i nt e r vi e w da t a I t i s i m po r t a nt a t t hi s po i nt t o c l a r i f y a t e r m t ha t w i l l be r e pe a t e dl y us e d t hough t he r e m a i nde r o f t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on: a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e e nt i t y ( A S E ) T he f o r m a l i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t i n c l ude d i n t h i s s t udy m os t c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e

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100 or ga ni z a t i on ( M S O ) de f i ne d a s a n i nt e gr a t i on t ha t i nc l ude s t he c r e a t i on o f a ne w or ga ni z a t i on i n o r de r t o i nt e gr a t e a dm i ni s t r a t i ve f u nc t i ons a nd t hus t o i nc r e a s e t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc y of pa r t i c i pa t i ng or ga ni z a t i ons ( L a P i a na A s s oc i a t e s 2006) T hi s t e r m how e ve r w a s r e j e c t e d by t he m e m be r s of t he N F C C T he y c hos e i ns t e a d, t o c a l l t he i r ne t w or k a n adm i ni s t r at i v e s e r v i c e e nt i t y A l t hough no c l e a r e xpl a na t i on w a s pr ovi de d by t he N F C C m e m be r s r e ga r di ng t hi s t e r m i nol ogy, t h r ough m y i nt e r vi e w s i t be c a m e c l e a r t ha t t he m e m be r s ob j e c t e d t o t he t e r m s m a na ge m e nt a nd or ga ni z a t i on, i n m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on. M os t N F C C m e m be r s w e r e s t r ong a nd a c c om pl i s he d e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or s of t h e i r ow n o r g a ni z a t i ons a nd a t t he s t a r t t he y r e j e c t e d t he pe r c e pt i on o f a ne w l e ve l of m a na ge m e nt a nd a ne w o r ga ni z a t i on a bove t he m a nd be t w e e n t he m a nd t he i r f unde r M e m be r s s e e m e d t o vi e w a dm i ni s t r a t i ve a s r e pr e s e nt i ng c l e r i c a l a nd bus i ne s s f unc t i ons ( s uc h a s da t a r e por t i ng a nd bi l l i ng) r a t he r t ha n m a na ge r i a l f unc t i ons a nd a n e nt i t y s e e m e d l e s s t hr e a t e ni ng t ha n a n or ga ni z a t i on. A S E t he r e f o r e be c a m e t he t e r m of c hoi c e a nd t hi s t e r m s ha l l be t he ongoi ng r e f e r e nc e f r om he r e f o r w a r d, a s i t pe r t a i ns t o t he s pe c i f i c f or m of a nonpr o f i t i nt e gr a t i on f oc us e d on f or t hi s r e s e a r c h. T he J W B s t a f f pr opos e d t he c ons ol i da t e d c ont r a c t i ng m ode l t o t he J W B boa r d, de s c r i bi ng t he i nt e nt o f t hi s c ons ol i da t i on a s a w a y t o i nc r e a s e t he e f f i c i e nc y of c ont r a c t a dm i ni s t r a t i on f or t he J W B a s w e l l a s t o r e duc e a d m i ni s t r a t i ve c os t s f or t he N F C s a nd i nc r e a s e t he qua l i t y s e r vi c e s T he c r e a t i on of t hi s n e w m ode l w a s a s t r a t e gy f o r t he J W B a nd t he N F C s t o de a l w i t h t hi s m a nda t e d f undi ng s hi f t T he di r e c t or s of t he J W B vot e d t o a ppr ove c ons ol i da t i on of t he ni ne f undi ng c ont r a c t s pr e vi ous l y a l l oc a t e d t o i ndi v i dua l N F C s i nt o one c ont r a c t T o a s s i s t i n t hi s t r a ns i t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt of t he ne w e nt i t y t he

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101 boa r d a l s o a ppr ove d 14 m ont hs of f undi ng s uppor t t ha t w oul d pa y a n e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or s s a l a r y a nd ope r a t i ng c os t s A f t e r t he de c i s i on o f t he J W B boa r d, t he di r e c t or s of t he N F C s a c c e pt e d t he r e c om m e nda t i on a nd vot e d t o t ur n t he i r i nf o r m a l n e t w or ki ng c ol l a bor a t i ve i n t o a n A S E c ha r ge d w i t h m a na gi ng t he s i ngl e c ont r a c t A s a r e s ul t of t hi s a c t i on t he pr e vi ous l y i nf or m a l N F C C ne t w or k be c a m e t he nonp r of i t or g a ni z a t i on t ha t w oul d r e pr e s e nt a l l t he c e nt e r s l oc a t e d t hr oughout t he c ount y. T hi s a c t i on ne c e s s i t a t e d t he c r e a t i on of s ys t e m s s uppor t s a nd pr oc e dur e s t o m a na ge a ppr oxi m a t e l y $2. 7 m i l l i on i n J W B f unds T he pl a nni ng of t hi s pr oc e s s be ga n i n A ugus t 2003 O n O c t obe r 1, 2003 t he N F C C be ga n a one ye a r pr a c t i c e r un a t m a na gi ng t he c ons ol i da t e d J W B c ont r a c t a nd t he boa r d c ont i nue d t o de ve l op a nd i m pl e m e nt ot he r ope r a t i o na l a s pe c t s o f t he ne w A S E T he J W B s t a f f s ha dow m a na ge d t he f undi ng c ont r a c t a nd s u bc ont r a c t i ng pr oc e s s t o e ns ur e t ha t a l l c ont r a c t i ng pr oc e dur e s a nd qua l i t y c ont r ol s w e r e a dhe r e d t o. A f t e r t he 1 ye a r t r i a l s ys t e m a nd c ont i nue d i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f t he i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t N F C C be ga n s e r vi ng a s t he f i s c a l a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i ve a ge nt f o r t he c e nt e r s c oor di na t i ng t he di s t r i but i on of f unds pr ov i de d by t he J W B U ni que t o t hi s o r ga ni z a t i on i s t he dua l r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t e xi s t s be t w e e n t he N F C C a nd i t s m e m be r o r ga ni z a t i ons t he ne i ghbo r hood f a m i l y c e nt e r s I nc l ude d i n F i gur e 4 1 i s a di a gr a m t ha t a t t e m pt s t o s how t he c om pl e xi t i e s o f t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p T he ne i ghbor hood f a m i l y c e nt e r s a r e now f unde d by t he N F C C a nd t he e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or o f t he N F C C s e r ve s a s t he i r c ont r a c t m a na ge r T he di r e c t or s of t he ne i ghbor hood f a m i l y c e nt e r s s e r ve a s t he N F C C s boa r d of di r e c t or s a nd t hus s e r ve a s t he s upe r vi s or of t he N F C C s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or T hi s m ode l w oul d no r m a l l y be pr ohi bi t e d i n m os t nonpr o f i t f undi ng

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102 s t r uc t ur e s due t o c onf l i c t o f i n t e r e s t but t hi s be c a m e t he s t r uc t ur e t ha t t he N F C C de t e r m i ne d ne c e s s a r y f or t hi s i n t e gr a t i on e f f or t F i gur e 4. 1 D i a gr a m r e f l e c t i ng J W B N F C N F C C r e l a t i ons hi p c om pl e xi t y. A l s o uni que t o t hi s o r ga ni z a t i on i s t he i nt e r or ga ni z a t i ona l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he N F C C a nd i t s m e m be r s a nd t he J W B w he r e b y J W B be c a m e a n a c t i ve pa r t ne r i n i ni t i a t i ng a nd s uppor t i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of t he A S E I t i s be c a us e of t he s e uni que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd t he c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s i nvol ve d t ha t t hi s pa r t i c ul a r or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l c a ught m y a t t e nt i on A f t e r l e a r ni ng a bout t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons I de c i de d t o m a ke t he s e m y s i t e o r ga ni z a t i ons f or m y di s s e r t a t i on s t udy. T he C o r e s e a r c h R e l a t i ons hi p T he s t r ong i n t e r e s t s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o be i nvol ve d i n c oge ne r a t i ng a nd a na l yz i ng t he r e s e a r c h a l t e r e d m y r e s e a r c h pl a n. T h i s t ype of r e s e a r c h w a s not w ha t I

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103 ha d or i gi na l l y p l a nne d, but I w a s e nt hus e d t o t r y i t O ve r t i m e t he A R t ook on a l i f e of i t s ow n, w i t h s om e or c he s t r a t i ng f r om m e a s t he pr i nc i pa l r e s e a r c he r T he f i r s t s t e ps of m y ne w m e t hodol ogy w e r e t o ga i n e nt r y i n t o t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i ons t o obt a i n pe r m i s s i on a nd s om e ki n d of f or m a l a ppr ova l f r om t he or ga ni z a t i ons t o c onduc t m y r e s e a r c h w i t h t he m A s i s c us t om a r y w i t h m a ny r e s e a r c he r s t r yi ng t o s e c ur e s i t e a c c e s s I ha d t o m e e t w i t h r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s f r om t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i ons a nd pr opos e m y r e s e a r c h t o t he m E ve n t hi s be c a m e a c ol l a bor a t i ve p r oc e s s A f t e r a l l how c oul d I pr opos e r e s e a r c h t ha t w a s ye t t o be de s i gne d? I m e t w i t h t he J W B m a na ge m e nt s t a f f t o p r opos e m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s a nd s om e r ough r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T hi s m e e t i ng be c a m e a b r a i ns t or m i ng s e s s i on, w i t h ba c k a nd f o r t h di s c us s i on a bout t he i r de s i r e s a nd ne e ds a nd a n e xpl or a t i on of how t he s e f i t w i t h m y i nt e r e s t s T oge t he r w e s t a r t e d t o de ve l op a r ough l i s t of r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t i m e l i ne s a nd out put s s uc h a s a pr e l i m i na r y r e por t t ha t t he y w a nt e d t o s ha r e w i t h t he i r boa r d o f di r e c t or s T hi s m a de m y vi s i t w i t h t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s a l i t t l e e a s i e r F r om m y not e s w i t h J W B s t a f f I ha d a s t a r t i ng po i nt I s ha r e d s om e o f t he s e i de a s w i t h t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s a nd e xpl or e d w ha t t he i r ne e ds a nd de s i r e s w e r e A l t ho ugh a m a i n e l e m e nt of t he A R pr oc e s s i s t he c oge ne r a t i on of i de a s a nd r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s e s I r e c ogni z e d t ha t l e ngt hy g r oup s e s s i ons w he r e w e c oul d c o ge ne r a t e t he ke y e l e m e nt s of t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s w oul d not be pos s i bl e due t o t he t i m e c ons t r a i nt s o f t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s T he f l ow of c ol l a bor a t i ve pr oc e s s f or t h i s r e s e a r c h w oul d a l s o i nc l ude r e pe a t e d ba c k a nd f o r t h a m ong r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a w a y t ha t w oul d be a s s e a m l e s s a s pos s i bl e T hi s i ni t i a l c ol l a bor a t i on, t hr ough gr oup di s c us s i o n a nd vi r t ua l f e e dba c k, w a s c ons i s t e nt w i t h ot he r de f i ni ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of A R G r e e nw ood a nd L e vi n ( 20 06)

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104 e xpl a i n t ha t c om m uni c a t i on p r oc e du r e s m us t pe r m i t t he de ve l opm e nt of a m ut ua l l y a gr e e d on pr obl e m f oc us T he s e pr oc e dur e s i nc l ud e r ul e s of de m oc r a t i c di a l ogue w hi c h i nvol ve ope nne s s m ut ua l s uppor t a nd s ha r e d a i r t i m e ( p. 94) T hr ough our d i s c our s e a w or ki ng de f i ni t i on of t he p r obl e m w a s de ve l ope d, a nd t hr ough ou r c om m uni c a t i on w e be ga n t o de ve l op a m ut ua l unde r s t a ndi ng ( p 94 ) C oge ne r at i v e R e s e a r c h P r oc e s s A s pr e vi ous l y e xpl a i ne d, t he d i s t i ngui s hi ng di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n A R a nd ot he r f or m s of a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on i s t he l e ve l o f a c t i ve i nvol ve m e nt by t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I n A R t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o be c om e c o c r e a t or s of t he r e s e a r c h. T he m e m be r s of t he N F C C a nd J W B w e r e a c t i ve l y i nv ol ve d i n a l l s t e ps of t hi s r e s e a r c h. I n t hi s s e c t i on I w i l l de s c r i be how t he J W B a nd N F C C m e m be r s s e r ve d a s c o r e s e a r c he r s t o he l p pl a n w ha t i n f or m a t i on w e ne e de d, w ha t out c o m e s t o pur s ue a nd w ha t r e s e a r c h m e t hods t o us e T hi s w a s f ol l ow e d by m or e de t a i l e d pl a nni ng a bout t he t opi c s a nd t ype s of que s t i ons t o be a s ke d i n t he f i r s t i nt e r v i e w s A f t e r pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s m e m be r s w e r e i nvol ve d i n c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on of t he out c om e da t a a nd i nvol ve d i n i de nt i f yi ng c om m on t he m e s a nd f i nd i n gs T he c ol l a bo r a t i ve pr oc e s s e s w i l l be de s c r i be d i n m or e de t a i l he r e D e v e l opi ng t he R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons A m a j or c ha l l e nge i n A R i s t o f i nd a good f i r s t qu e s t i on t ha t i s a t l e a s t pa r t l y s ha r e d a m ong t he i nvol ve d pa r t i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y a t t he out s e t ( G r e e nw ood & L e vi n, 2006, p. 97) T hi s be c a m e t he f i r s t o f f i c i a l c ol l a bo r a t i ve pr oc e s s of t he r e s e a r c h t e a m E ve n a s N F C C a nd J W B m e m be r s w e r e be i ng i nt r oduc e d t o m y r e s e a r c h s t udy, t he y w e r e a c t i ve l y i nvol ve d i n t he c o ge ne r a t i on o f t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T hi s i nvol ve d s om e

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105 gr oup di s c us s i ons a s w e l l a s s om e c onve r s a t i ons b e t w e e n m e a nd t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s unt i l c ons e ns us w a s a c hi e ve d. T he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o r e vi e w e d t he s e que s t i ons a nd pr ovi de d f i na l a ppr ova l be f o r e t he r e s e a r c h s t udy be ga n. B a s e d on a gr e e m e nt f r om a l l of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s pr opos e d t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons : R Q #1. W ha t c ons i de r a t i ons do nonpr of i t s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s a nd f unde r s c onf r on t w he n be gi nni ng t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of a ne w c ol l a bor a t i ve m ode l ? ( i e W i t hi n t he s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h s i t e s w ha t w e r e t he c onc e r ns i s s ue s c ha l l e nge s a nd pr obl e m s f a c e d be f or e a nd dur i ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f a m a na ge m e nt s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on? A nd how w e r e t he s e c ha l l e nge s a ddr e s s e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s ? ) R Q #2. W ha t r ol e do f unde r s pl a y t o gui de a nd a s s i s t nonpr of i t s e r vi c e p r ovi de r s i n t hi s pr oc e s s bot h d ur i ng t he r e s e a r c h, c ons i de r a t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on s t a ge s ? R Q #3. W ha t m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i ga t e t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of t h i s t ype of or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a nd/ or t o c ont r i bu t e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s t ype o f i nt e g r a t i on m ode l ? R Q #4. W ha t l e s s ons c a n be l e a r ne d f r om t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d a nd t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s C oa l i t i on e xpe r i e nc e t ha t m a y be ne f i t f ut u r e J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d e f f o r t s a s w e l l a s f unde r s a nd s e r vi c e pr ovi de r s i n c om m un i t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ? C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he de f i ni t i on of a ppl i e d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h, t he p r i m a r y c om m uni c a t i on c onc e pt s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h i nc l ude t he qua l i t y a nd f or m s of gr oup pl a nni ng p r oc e s s e s a nd a l l t he c ha l l e nge s a nd s t r a t e gi e s i nvol ve d i n t ha t pr oc e s s a nd t he a bi l i t y of t he gr oup t o a c hi e ve i t s i de nt i f i e d out c om e s na m e l y t he de ve l opm e nt of

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106 a n A S E F a c t or s t ha t a f f e c t e d t he s e gr oup c om m un i c a t i on pr oc e s s e s i nc l ude d r e s i s t a nc e t o c ha nge or ga ni z a t i ona l i de nt i t y, gr oup c onf l i c t gr oup f a c i l i t a t i on a nd c om m uni t y pl a nni ng i s s ue s s uc h a s f unde r i ni t i a t e d i nt e gr a t i on T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l t he r e f o r e be ne f i t c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h gr e a t l y by s t udyi ng t hi s c om m uni c a t i on phe nom e non. T hi s r e s e a r c h w i l l a l s o i de nt i f y s ol ut i ons t o t he pr obl e m s t ha t m a y be f a c e d by ot he r gr oups o f or ga ni z a t i ons f a c i ng a s i m i l a r s i t ua t i on. T he ne xt t a s k of t he r e s e a r c h t e a m w a s t o i de nt i f y r e s e a r c h m e t hods t ha t w oul d he l p us unc ove r t he s e c ha l l e nge s s t r a t e gi e s a nd out c om e s Q ual i t at i v e M e t hods W i t hi n t h e ove r a r c hi ng A R m e t hodol ogy i t w a s a gr e e d by t he r e s e a r c h t e a m t ha t qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods us e d t o e xpl or e t he s e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w oul d i nc l ude i nt e r vi e w i ng, e t hnogr a phy a nd doc um e nt a na l ys i s B e c a us e t he p r i m a r y f oc us of t hi s r e s e a r c h pe r t a i ns t o r e l a t i o ns hi ps m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s a nd c om m uni c a t i on be t w e e n a nd a m ong t he pa r t i c i pa nt or ga ni z a t i ons i t w a s a gr e e d t ha t qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods w oul d be us e d. T hi s i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h gui de l i ne s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d a b out t he be s t w a y t o s t udy c om m uni c a t i on i n or g a ni z a t i ona l s e t t i ngs w hi c h i s t hr ough qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods t ha t c a n be t t e r c a pt ur e t he pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd f e e l i ng s of pa r t i c i pa nt s a s w e l l a s e l i c i t pe r s ona l na r r a t i ve s t ha t c oul d be w ove n i nt o t he r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t a nd di s s e r t a t i on. F ol l ow i ng i s a d e s c r i pt i on of t he pr oc e s s us e d t o d e ve l op t he i nt e r vi e w p r ot oc ol a n ove r vi e w of t he s t yl e of i nt e r vi e w u t i l i z e d, a nd a d e s c r i pt i on of r e s e a r c h m e t hods us e d, i nc l udi ng e t hnogr a phy a nd doc um e nt a na l ys i s D e v e l opi ng t he R e s e ar c h P r ot oc ol A f t e r t he r e s e a r c h q ue s t i ons w e r e f i na l i z e d, a l i s t o f ke y t opi c a r e a s t o be e xpl o r e d dur i ng i nt e r vi e w s w a s de ve l ope d i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he N F C C m e m be r s a nd J W B s t a f f

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107 T hi s w a s done bot h i n m e e t i ngs a nd t h r ough e l e c t r oni c c om m uni c a t i on. S om e of t he t opi c s t he y e xpr e s s e d i nt e r e s t i n i nc l ude d t he pr oc e s s of pl a nni ng a nd de ve l opi ng t he A S E a nd i de nt i f yi ng l e s s ons l e a r ne d f r om t he p r o c e s s t ha t c oul d be s ha r e d w i t h ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons a nd f unde r s I nqui r y i nt o t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E w oul d a ddr e s s i s s ue s s u c h a s de c i s i on m a ki ng, c onf l i c t s uc c e s s e s a nd r e a c t i ons I t w oul d a l s o a dd r e s s t he r ol e o f t he J W B a s i t pe r t a i ns t o w a ys o f c om m uni c a t i ng, pl a nni ng a nd a s s i s t i ng; t he r e s ul t i ng c ha l l e nge s ; a nd pos s i bl e a l t e r na t i ve out c o m e s ( i e w i t hout J W B s uppor t ) T he t opi c of i de nt i f yi ng l e s s ons l e a r ne d i nvol ve d l ooki ng ba c k, a s w e l l a s l ook i ng f o r w a r d t o unc ove r m e m be r s ove r a l l t hought s a bout t he pr oc e s s c ha nge s t ha t c oul d ha ve be e n m a de r e s pons e s t o de c i s i ons m a de pr oj e c t i ons a n d hope s f or t he f ut u r e a nd l e s s ons l e a r ne d. F or t he m os t pa r t t he m e m be r s i de a s a nd r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s m i r r o r e d m i ne I a dde d a f e w ot he r t opi c s ne c e s s a r y t o r ound out m y s t udy t o p r ovi de hi s t or y a nd c ont e xt a bout t he phe nom e na be i ng s t udi e d. F r om t hi s c ol l a bor a t i ve l y de ve l ope d l i s t of i nt e r vi e w t opi c s I p r opos e d a f i na l i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol w i t h s a m pl e que s t i ons T he l i s t of i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons w a s pr e s e nt e d t o t he N F C C a nd J W B r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s f or f e e dba c k a nd a ppr ova l T he a ppr ove d l i s t of que s t i ons be c a m e t he r e s e a r c h pr ot oc ol f or t hi s s t ud y ( s e e A ppe ndi x B ) T he i ni t i a l l i s t of t opi c s a nd i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons w hi l e c a r e f ul l y t h ought out w e r e not i nt e nde d t o be f i xe d A s e xpl a i ne d by G r e e nw o od a nd L e vi n ( 1998) t he pr obl e m de f i ni t i on pr oc e s s i s ne ve r f i na l ; i n f a c t a good s i gn of t he l e a r ni ng t a ki ng pl a c e i n a n A R pr oj e c t i s w he n t he i ni t i a l que s t i ons a r e r e s ha pe d t o i nc l ude ne w l y di s c ove r e d di m e ns i ons ( p. 115) A n A R s t udy c a n be gi n w i t h qui t e i m p r e c i s e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons

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108 s a ys D i c k ( 2002) I m pr e c i s e que s t i ons a nd m e t ho ds c a n be e xpe c t e d t o yi e l d i m pr e c i s e a ns w e r s i ni t i a l l y. T hos e i m p r e c i s e a ns w e r s c a n he l p t o r e f i ne que s t i ons a nd m e t hods E a c h c yc l e c a n be a s t e p i n t he d i r e c t i on o f be t t e r a c t i on a nd be t t e r r e s e a r c h ( 21) R e s e a r c h c onduc t e d w i t h t he N F C C a nd t he J W B f ol l ow e d a s i m i l a r c yc l e o f p r ogr e s s i ve s t e ps : i ni t i a l i nt e r vi e w s r e vi e w a nd r e f l e c t i on, a nd f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s a s ne e de d. T he a ppr ove d l i s t of i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons w a s i nt e nde d t o be a f i r s t s t e p i n t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s I c a r r i e d out t he r e s e a r c h a c t i vi t y a s a gr e e d u pon D e s i gna t e d m e m be r s of N F C C boa r d m e t on oc c a s i on t o r e vi e w a nd c r i t i que t he r e s e a r c h. T he ne e d f o r f ol l ow up r e s e a r c h w a s c ons i de r e d upon r e vi e w of f i ndi ngs f r om t he f i r s t s e t of i nt e r vi e w s but a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h w a s not de t e r m i ne d t o be ne c e s s a r y a t t he t i m e I f a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h w a s ne e de d, I w oul d ha ve f ol l ow e d up w i t h a ddi t i o na l r e s e a r c h a nd r e f l e c t i on t hus de m ons t r a t i ng t he c yc l i c a l na t ur e of A R ( D i c k & S w e ps on, 1997) A l i s t of a l l r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s c onduc t e d a nd m e e t i ngs a t t e nde d i s pr ov i de d i n A ppe ndi x C T he s e i nt e r v i e w s a nd m e e t i ngs c a n b e c a t e gor i z e d a s : m e e t i ngs t o ga i n a c c e s s t o t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i ons a nd t o de f i ne t he s c ope of t he r e s e a r c h ( F a l l 2004) r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s w i t h N F C C boa r d m e m be r s a n d s t a f f ( D e c e m be r t hr ough A pr i l 20 05) r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s w i t h J W B s t a f f ( D e c e m be r t hr ough A pr i l 2005) c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on m e e t i ngs t o r e vi e w pr e l i m i na r y t he m e s a nd f i ndi ngs ( J une 2005 ) a nd a r e s e a r c h pr e s e nt a t i on t o t he J W B boa r d o f di r e c t or s ( J ul y 2005) F i ve J W B s t a f f w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d t o p r ovi de ba c kg r ound a bout t he N F C C pr oc e s s a s w e l l a s t o unc ove r t he e xpe r i e nc e s e nc ount e r e d be f or e a nd dur i ng i t s i m pl e m e nt a t i on. T he s e s t a f f i nc l ude d s e ni or m a na ge m e nt a nd t he s t a f f di r e c t l y i nvol ve d w i t h t he N F C C

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109 ( f or a c om pl e t e l i s t s e e A ppe ndi x C ) O ne m e m be r of t he J W B s t a f f P r og r a m P l a nne r P a ul L a c ke y, s e r ve d a s m y pr i m a r y c ont a c t t hr oug hout t hi s s t udy. H e a s s i s t e d i n ga i ni ng s i t e a c c e s s a nd a ppr ova l a nd he s e r ve d a s a s oundi ng boa r d w he n I ha d que s t i ons or w a nt e d t o di s c us s m y f i ndi ngs I nt e r vi e w s w e r e c o nduc t e d w i t h a l l N F C C m e m be r s w ho w e r e w i l l i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e ( a l l 11 pa r t i c i pa t e d) i nc l udi ng t he N F C C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or a l l of t he boa r d m e m be r s ( N F C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or s ) a nd one a s s oc i a t e m e m be r w ho w a s a f or m e r N F C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t o r T w o m e m be r s a s s i s t e d gr e a t l y a nd s e r ve d a s m y pr i m a r y c ont a c t s : L oune l l B r i t t p r e s i de nt of t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s a nd e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of t he J a m e s B S a nde r l i n N F C ; a nd K e i t h K now l e s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of t he N F C C I nt e r v i e w i ng and nar r at i v e f or m A s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d, m os t a c c ount s of A R a r e r e nde r e d i n na r r a t i ve f o r m ( G r e e nw ood & L e vi n 1998 ) t ha t i nc l ude s de t a i l e d di s c us s i on s of gr oup p r oc e s s e s T he goa l s of na r r a t i ve a r e t o e voke e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he r e a de r ; t o gi ve voi c e t o s t or i e s a nd gr oups of pe opl e t r a di t i ona l l y l e f t out o f s oc i a l s c i e nt i f i c i nqui r y; t o pr oduc e hi gh l i t e r a r y / a r t i s t i c qua l i t y; a nd t o i m pr ove t he l i v e s of r e a de r s pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd a ut hor s ( E l l i s & E l l i ngs on, 2000) O t he r r e s e a r c he r s a l s o r e c om m e nd t he us e of s t or i e s a s a us e f ul m e t hod f or c a pt ur i ng t he voi c e s of m a na ge r s a nd o t he r s w i t hi n nonpr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i ons ( W i l e ns ky & H a ns e n, 2001) T he r e ha s be e n s om e r e c e nt r e c ogni t i on o f t he va l ue of s t or i e s i n ot he r di s c i pl i ne s s uc h a s publ i c a dm i ni s t r a t i on. O s pi na a nd D odge ( 2005 ) di s c us s t he na r r a t i ve t ur n i n publ i c a dm i ni s t r a t i o n, a nd how t he f u r t he r de ve l opm e nt a nd pr ol i f e r a t i on of na r r a t i ve hol ds pr om i s e f or s t r e ngt he ni ng t he f i e l d ( p. 144) T hi s i s a s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge w i t hi n a n i ndus t r y t ha t ha s be e n he a vi l y f oc us e d on qua nt i t a t i ve

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110 r e s e a r c h. O s pi na a nd D odge r e c ogni z e t he s pe c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd va l ue of s t or i e s : S t or i e s c ont a i n w i t hi n t he m know l e dge t ha t i s di f f e r e nt f r om w ha t w e m i ght t a p i nt o w he n w e do s ur ve ys c ol l e c t a nd a na l yz e s t a t i s t i c s or e ve n d r a w on i nt e r vi e w da t a t ha t do not e xpl i c i t l y e l i c i t s t or i e s w i t h c ha r a c t e r s a pl ot a nd de ve l opm e nt t ow a r d a r e s ol ut i on ( p. 143 ) M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, S a nde l a nds a nd B oude ns ( 2000) i de nt i f y t w o i m po r t a nt f unc t i ons t ha t s t or i e s ha ve i n t he w or kpl a c e : 1) T h e y c ol l e c t a nd c om m uni c a t e t he l i f e a nd f e e l i ngs of w o r k. W i t h s t or i e s pe opl e c a n gr a b hol d of f e e l i ngs t ha t w oul d be ot he r w i s e i ne xpr e s s i bl e a nd unm e m or a bl e ( p. 58) T he s e s t or i e s r e i nf o r c e a nd a m pl i f y w or k f e e l i ngs 2 ) S t or i e s de f i ne t he gr oup f or t ho s e w i t hi n a nd out s i de t he g r oup. S a nde l a nds a nd B oude ns e xpl a i n t ha t s t or i e s a r e us ua l l y a bout us a nd t he m by vi r t ue of w ho i s a nd w ho i s not i nc l ude d i n t he g r oup. S t or i e s a r e t hus a pow e r f ul w a y t ha t pe opl e l e a r n a bout w ho t he y a r e a nd w ho t he y l i ke a nd di s l i ke ( p. 58) S i m i l a r l y, F i ne m a n ( 2000) r e c om m e nds s t or i e s a s a r e s e a r c h m e t hod t ha t c a pt ur e s f e e l i ngs a nd e m ot i on i n t he w or kpl a c e T he s e qua l i t i e s m a ke s t or i e s e s pe c i a l l y r e l e va nt i n t he nonpr of i t s e c t or C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he l i t e r a t ur e on na r r a t i ve a nd s t or i e s m y r e s e a r c h w or k i nc l ude d qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods t ha t c a n be r e f l e c t e d i n na r r a t i ve f or m T ha t a ppr ove d i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol i nc or po r a t e d c om pone nt s s i m i l a r t o m a ny ot he r e s t a bl i s he d m e t hods f or qua l i t a t i ve i nt e r vi e w i ng, i nc l udi ng a c t i ve i nt e r v i e w i ng ( H ol s t e i n & G ub r i um 1995) o r a l hi s t or y i nt e r vi e w i ng ( M c M a ha n, 1989) s e que nt i a l i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w i ng ( O r t i z 2001 ) i nt e r a c t i ve r e l a t i ona l i nt e r v i e w i ng ( C hi r ba n 1996 ) i nt e r ve nt i on c ouns e l i ng i nt e r vi e w i ng ( F i ne m a n, 1985 ) a nd i nt e r a c t i ve i nt e r vi e w i ng ( E l l i s K i e s i nge r & T i l l m a nn H e a l y, 1997)

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111 E l e m e nt s of va r i ous s t yl e s w e r e i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t he pr i m a r y s i t e o r ga ni z a t i ons I nt e r vi e w i ng i nc or po r a t e d, t o t he gr e a t e s t e xt e nt pos s i bl e a c t i ve e nga ge m e nt of t he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s t o de t e r m i ne r e s ponde nt s be l i e f s a t t i t ude s va l ue s a nd f e e l i ngs a bout t he c onc e pt s unde r s t udy T he m ode l t ha t m os t c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s t he t ype o f i nt e r vi e w i ng I s ought t o e nga ge i n w a s a c t i ve i nt e r vi e w i ng. I n a c t i ve i nt e r vi e w s t he i nt e r vi e w e r s ob j e c t i ve i s not t o di c t a t e r e s e a r c h m e t hods t hr ough a p r e de t e r m i n e d a ge nda but t o pr ovi de a s uppor t i ve e nvi r onm e nt f o r t he p r oduc t i on o f m e a ni ng t ha t a d dr e s s e s ke y i s s u e s T hi s t ype of i nt e r vi e w i s m or e of a c onve r s a t i on w he r e t he m e t hod i s c oope r a t i ve l y de ve l ope d, a nd w he r e m e a ni ng i s be i ng m u t ua l l y de ve l ope d by t he i nt e r vi e w e e a nd i nt e r vi e w e r ( R i t c hi e 1997) H ow t he pr oc e s s unf ol ds i s a s i m po r t a nt a s w ha t i s be i ng a s ke d a nd a ns w e r e d. I nt e r vi e w s ( di s c us s i ons ) w e r e c onduc t e d w i t h e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt ut i l i z i ng t he l i s t of t opi c s a nd que s t i ons c o c r e a t e d w i t h t he pa r t i c i p a nt s T he s e i nt e r vi e w t op i c s s e r ve d a s a gui de f or t he i n t e r vi e w pr oc e s s C or r e s pondi ng q ue s t i ons w e r e w or ke d i nt o i n t e r vi e w di s c us s i on s i nf or m a l l y a s t he y f i t w i t hi n t he f l ow o f di s c us s i on s A s pa r t of m y r e s e a r c h w i t h t he N F C C m e m be r s I a s ke d a bout t he i ndi vi d ua l s ba c kgr ound w i t h t he i r ow n or ga ni z a t i ons ; t he i r ba c kgr ound a nd i nvol ve m e nt w i t h t he N F C C ; i ndi vi dua l e xpe r i e nc e s t hought s i de a s a nd c onc e r ns t hr oughout t he p r oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E ; obs e r va t i ons a bout t he gr oup i nt e r a c t i on; a nd e xpe r i e nc e s a nd o bs e r va t i ons a bout i nt e r a c t i on w i t h J W B a nd ot he r out s i de f unde r s E t hnogr aphy I n a ddi t i on t o i nt e r vi e w i ng, I i nc o r por a t e d e t hnogr a phi c m e t hods i nt o m y r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s E t hnogr a phy i s t he us e of d i r e c t obs e r va t i on a nd e xt e nde d f i e l d r e s e a r c h t o

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112 pr oduc e a t hi c k na t u r a l i s t i c de s c r i pt i on of pe opl e i n t he i r c ul t u r e ( G e pha r t c i t e d i n F r e y B ot a n & K r e ps 2000 p 259) T he e t hnogr a phi c r e s e a r c h m e t hods t ha t ha ve be e n i nc or por a t e d i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude d c om pl e t e obs e r ve r c om pl e t e pa r t i c i pa nt a nd pa r t i c i pa nt obs e r ve r / obs e r ve r pa r t i c i pa nt T he s e t t i ngs f or t hi s r e s e a r c h w e r e w i t h i n t he s i t e o r ga ni z a t i ons a t t he N F C C boa r d m e e t i ngs a s w e l l a s a t t he i ndi v i dua l N F C s M e t hods of na t ur a l i s t i c i nqui r y f oc us on how pe opl e be ha ve w he n t he y a r e a bs or be d i n g e nui ne l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he i r na t ur a l w or kpl a c e s e t t i ngs ( F r e y e t a l 2000) M os t o f t he r e s e a r c h done i n t he s e na t ur a l i s t i c s e t t i ngs w a s obs e r ve d di r e c t l y or r e c r e a t e d t hr ough t he us e of i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w i ng t e c hni que s w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o de s c r i be i n de t a i l w ha t t he y e xpe r i e nc e d o r w e r e c ont i nui ng t o e xpe r i e nc e O t he r m e t hods t ha t w e r e e m pl oye d i nc l ude doc um e nt i ng di r e c t e m ot i ona l a c c ount s a nd obs e r vi ng or ga ni z a t i ona l m e e t i ngs a c t i vi t i e s a nd t he m a t e r i a l s ym bol s w i t hi n t he or ga ni z a t i on. T he s e t y pe s of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h e f f or t s of f e r e d i ns i ght s i nt o t he p r i va t e e xpe r i e nc e s a nd f e e l i ngs of t he m e m be r s i nvol ve d. B e c a us e t he s i t e or ga ni z a t i ons r e que s t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd i nt e r a c t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h, I w a s a bl e t o e nga ge f ul l y w i t h t he m e m b e r s A t t i m e s how e ve r I w a nt e d t o c onduc t obs e r va t i on w i t hout pa r t i c i pa nt s f e e l i ng l i ke t he y w e r e be i ng obs e r ve d. T hi s t ype of obs e r va t i on oc c ur r e d a t N F C C boa r d a nd c om m i t t e e m e e t i ng s a nd a t va r i ous e ve nt s w he r e m e m be r s i nt e r a c t e d. T he y r e gul a r l y ha d a f e w obs e r ve r s pr e s e nt a t t he i r boa r d m e e t i ngs i nc l udi ng s t a f f f r o m J W B a c ons ul t a nt r e pr e s e nt i ng one of t he i r f unde r s a nd ot he r gue s t s ; t hi s m a de i t e a s i e r f or m e t o bl e nd i n W hi l e m y pr e s e nc e a t m e e t i ngs a nd f unc t i ons m os t l y w a s t o obs e r ve t he r e w e r e t i m e s w he n I w a s a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e m or e f ul l y a s a m e m be r a dvi s or or f a c i l i t a t or s uc h

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113 a s w or ki ng w i t h m e m be r s t o de ve l op r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd pr ovi di ng i nt e r i m r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t o t he m a na ge m e nt a nd boa r d T hi s l e ve l of i nt e r a c t i on a dde d t o m y a ut oe t hnogr a phi c e xpe r i e nc e ( E l l i s 2004 ) a nd pr o vi de d a n oppor t uni t y t o gi ve s om e t hi ng ba c k t o t he o r ga ni z a t i ons pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy. B e i ng a pa r t i c i pa nt obs e r ve r i n t hi s m a nne r a l l ow e d m e t o e xpe r i e nc e a c t i vi t i e s f i r s t ha nd, w hi l e s t i l l ha vi ng r e ve a l e d m y r e s e a r c h a ge nda A s s ugge s t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w he n t he a c t i on r e s e a r c he r f i l l s a r ol e o f f a c i l i t a t or t he i nqui r y s houl d a l w a ys i nc l ude a n e xpl i c i t e va l ua t i on of t he f a c i l i t a t i on pr oc e s s ( W i nt e r & M unn G i ddi ngs 2001, p. 18 19 ) W he n r e vi e w i ng m y pr oc e s s f or da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r I w i l l i n c l ude a r e f l e c t i on of m y i nvol ve m e nt A s a r e s e a r c he r w ho ha s pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he phe nom e non be i ng s t udi e d, m y r e s e a r c h i nc l ude d a n e l e m e nt of a ut oe t hnogr a phy t ha t r e qui r e d hone s t di s c l os ur e a nd r e f l e c t i on. M y hone s t di s c l os ur e t o t he m e m be r s f r om t he s t a r t o f t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s w a s he l pf ul i n t e r m s of e s t a bl i s hi ng a c om m on gr o und a nd t o bu i l di ng a l e ve l of t r us t K now i ng t ha t I ha d be e n a n e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or a s w e l l a s a f unde r pr ov i de d m e m be r s w i t h a l e ve l o f c om f o r t I w a s not j us t a n out s i de r c om i ng i n t o s t udy t he m ; I w oul d be a r e s e a r c h pa r t ne r w ho c oul d s ha r e i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s D oc um e nt anal y s i s W hi l e a c om pr e he ns i ve doc um e nt a na l ys i s w a s not done a s pa r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h, m a ny or ga ni z a t i ona l doc um e nt s w e r e r e vi e w e d t o pr ovi de ba c kgr ound a nd hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt f or t he t r a ns i t i on t ha t w a s t a ki ng p l a c e I a l s o r e vi e w e d va r i ous doc um e nt s r e l a t e d t o t he pl a nni ng i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd ope r a t i on of t he A S E D oc um e nt s r e vi e w e d i nc l ude d N F C C T r a ns i t i on T e a m R e por t s N F C C boa r d m e e t i ng m i nut e s a nd doc um e nt s N F C C

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114 gr a nt a ppl i c a t i ons a nd va r i ous J W B doc um e nt s r e l a t e d t o t he N F C C s uc h a s J W B boa r d m i nut e s s t r a t e gi c pl a n a nd r e s e a r c h s t udi e s R e vi e w i ng t he s e doc um e nt s he l pe d m e pr e pa r e f or t he r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s pr ovi de d ba c kgr ound on t he m e c ha ni c s of t he i nt e gr a t i on pa r t ne r s hi p a nd o f f e r e d a l e s s bi a s e d vi e w of t he i r s uc c e s s e s a nd c ha l l e nge s St age s of C r i t i c al R e f l e c t i on D ur i ng m y i nt e r vi e w s a nd obs e r va t i ons I w a s a bl e t o w i t ne s s gr oup a nd i ndi vi dua l be ha vi or s r e l a t e d t o t he p r opos e d c om m uni c a t i on phe nom e na be i ng s t udi e d a nd t o t r a c k obs e r va t i ons t hr ough de t a i l e d f i e l d no t e s T hi s i nc l ude d a c om bi na t i on o f w r i t t e n a nd a udi o r e c or de d not e s W he n i t w a s not pos s i bl e f or m e t o be p r e s e nt t o obs e r ve ot he r m e t hods w e r e us e d s uc h a s r e vi e w i ng m e e t i ng m i nut e s o r by doc um e nt i ng f r om pa r t i c i pa nt r e c a l l of t he m e e t i ngs T hi s pha s e of t he A R p r oc e s s w i l l be de s c r i be d t hor oughl y i n c ha pt e r 5 B e c a us e of t he na t ur e of A R t he r e w e r e m ul t i pl e s t a ge s of da t a a na l ys i s a nd ge ne r a t i on of f i ndi ngs A s de s c r i be d i n t he ne xt c h a pt e r s onc e a l l t he r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s w e r e c om pl e t e d, a s ys t e m a t i c p r e l i m i na r y da t a a n a l ys i s w a s done P r e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs w e r e s ha pe d a nd pr e s e nt e d t o t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i p a nt s t o r e c e i ve t he i r a s s i s t a nc e i n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he m e a ni ng of t he da t a a nd t o s ol i c i t t he i r f e e dba c k a nd r e s pons e t o t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s T hr oughout t hi s pr oc e s s t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d oppor t uni t i e s t o i de nt i f y a ny ne w or una ns w e r e d que s t i ons t ha t w a r r a nt e d a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h. I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e he r e t ha t a gr e a t de a l o f t he a c t i on a nd t he c yc l i c a l p r oc e s s of f ol l ow up r e s e a r c h w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt o r ga ni z a t i ons w i l l c ont i nue on a f t e r c om pl e t i on o f m y r e s e a r c h a nd di s s e r t a t i on. T o l i m i t t he s c ope of t he f i ndi ngs pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on, t hi s pa r t of t he A R p r oc e s s w i l l not be c ove r e d.

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115 C ons i de r a t i ons A m a i n goa l o f m y r e s e a r c h w a s t o e s t a bl i s h a hi gh l e v e l of c onf i de nc e a nd t r us t be t w e e n m e a nd t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s C onf i d e nt i a l i t y w a s not a c onc e r n t o a ny o f t he m e m be r s but be c a us e m e m be r s r e s pons e s w oul d be s ha r e d w i t h t he i r c ol l e a gue s a nd f undi ng a ge nc y, t he r e w a s a c onc e r n a bout t he m a nne r a n d t one i n w hi c h t he i r c om m e nt s w oul d be r e por t e d T hi s w a s i m por t a nt t o a dd r e s s up f r ont be c a us e i t w a s vi t a l f or r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o f e e l c om f or t a bl e t o s pe a k f r e e l y a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs T o a s s ua ge a ny c onc e r ns I a ddr e s s e d t hi s dur i ng e a c h of m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s A t t he be gi nni ng o f e ve r y i nt e r vi e w I l e t pa r t i c i pa nt s know t ha t I w a nt e d t he m t o f e e l c om f or t a bl e t o s a y a nyt hi ng w i t hout c onc e r n a bout i t be i ng us e d i n m y f i na l r e por t I t ol d t he m t ha t a t t he e nd o f t he i nt e r vi e w I w oul d a s k t he m i f t he r e w a s a nyt hi ng t he y s ha r e d dur i ng ou r s e s s i on t ha t t he y w oul d l i ke om i t t e d o r t one d dow n, a nd I s t r e s s e d t ha t I w oul d honor t he i r w i s he s i n t hi s r e ga r d T hi s s e e m e d t o w or k w e l l a nd t he r e w e r e no c onc e r ns e ve r e xpr e s s e d a bo ut m y b r e a ki ng t he t r us t w e ha d e s t a bl i s he d. O ne e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i on w a s m y dua l r ol e a s a U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da ( U S F ) r e s e a r c he r a nd a l oc a l gove r nm e nt f unde r T w o of t he N F C s r e c e i ve d f undi ng t hr ough m y of f i c e w hi c h w e r e c ont r a c t s t ha t I m a na ge d I n a ddi t i on, m y gove r n m e nt e m pl oye r r e c e i ve d f undi ng f r om J W B f or s om e of i t s yout h r e c r e a t i on pr og r a m s T hi s r e qui r e d m ul t i p l e l e ve l s of di s c l os ur e not on l y w i t h m y r e s e a r c h pa r t ne r s but w i t h m y e m pl oye r W or ki ng i n a ny l e ve l o f m a na ge m e nt w i t hi n a F l o r i da gove r nm e nt a l e nt i t y r e qui r e d s t r i c t a dhe r e nc e t o e t hi c a l c ode s of c ondu c t T hi s bl ur r i ng of bounda r i e s r e qui r e d m e t o c onf e r w i t h m y gove r nm e nt e m pl oye r s a t t o r ne ys t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e w oul d be a ny e t hi c a l vi ol a t i ons a nd t o d r a f t a s t a t e m e nt doc u m e nt i ng m y a c t i vi t i e s f or di s c l os ur e

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116 pur pos e s W ha t w a s m or e i m po r t a nt how e ve r w a s m a i nt a i ni ng a s e pa r a t i on be t w e e n t he s e t w o pe r s ona s w he n w or ki ng w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I w a s c a r e f ul t o a l w a ys i nt r oduc e m ys e l f a s B e t h E s c he nf e l de r f r om t he U S F D e pa r t m e nt o f C om m uni c a t i on a nd ne ve r a s m y gove r nm e nt r ol e a nd I a voi de d t a l ki n g a bout c i t y gove r nm e nt bus i ne s s w hi l e i n t he pr e s e nc e of m y r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I onl y di s t r i but e d m y U S F bus i ne s s c a r ds a nd onl y ga ve out m y pe r s ona l c e l l pho ne num be r a n d e m a i l a ddr e s s F or t he m os t pa r t I w a s a bl e t o ke e p m y i de nt i t i e s s e pa r a t e a nd t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a l w a ys a c know l e dge d m e a s t he U S F r e s e a r c he r S um m a r y I n t hi s c ha pt e r I pr ovi de d a n ove r vi e w of m y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy. I i nt r oduc e d t he m e t hodol ogy of A R a nd how i t w a s ut i l i z e d i n m y r e s e a r c h. I n t he ne xt c ha pt e r I w i l l pr ovi de a de t a i l e d ove r vi e w of m y p r oc e s s f or da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s a nd I w i l l c ont i nue m y de s c r i pt i on of t he A R p r oc e s s of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on. I w i l l de s c r i be how t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e i nvol ve d i n he l pi ng t o a na l yz e a nd i nt e r pr e t t he da t a I n c ha pt e r s 5 a nd 6 I a l s o w i l l pr ovi de a t hor ough de s c r i pt i on of t he e nt i r e p r oc e s s m os t l y t ol d t hr ou gh t he w or ds o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s I n c ha pt e r 7 I w i l l de s c r i be how ou r c oge ne r a t i ve pr oc e s s s ha pe d t he f i ndi ngs of t hi s r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s T he s e f i ndi ngs w i l l be e xpl o r e d f r om t w o pe r s pe c t i ve s : f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h r e ga r d t o how i t a ns w e r e d t he i r que s t i ons a nd c onc e r n s ; a nd f r om m y pe r s pe c t i ve a s a c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c he r t o de t e r m i ne how t hi s s t udy a ddr e s s e d t he br oa de r r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a ppl i c a bl e t o o r ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h.

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117 C H A P T E R 5 D A T A A N A L Y S I S A N D E X P L O R A T I O N O F T H E I N T E G R A T I O N P R O C E S S P A R T 1 I nt r oduc t i on T hr oughout m y r e s e a r c h, i nt e r vi e w s w e r e a udi ot a p e d w i t h a po r t a bl e t a pe r e c or de r a nd m y obs e r va t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s w e r e d oc um e nt e d i n f i e l d not e s T hi s i nc l ude d a c om bi na t i on of a udi o r e c or de d a nd w r i t t e n not e s T he ne xt s t e p i n m y r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s w a s t o a na l yz e t he da t a T hi s w a s done t h r ough s e ve r a l m e a ns : a ) by r e vi e w i ng i nt e r vi e w t a pe s a nd f i e l d not e s ; b) by e xt r a c t i ng c om m on r e s pons e s f r om t he i nt e r vi e w s t o r e c ons t r uc t t he s ha r e d e xpe r i e nc e s of pa r t i c i pa nt s i n de ve l opi ng t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e e nt i t y ( A S E ) ; c ) by a na l yz i ng r e s pons e s a nd t he r e c ons t r uc t e d A S E pr oc e s s t o i de nt i f y pr e va l e nt c om m uni c a t i on t he m e s ; d) t hr ough f ol l o w up di s c us s i on w i t h t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) b oa r d of di r e c t or s t o r e vi e w c l a r i f y a nd a m e nd t he s e t he m e s ; e ) t hr ough f ol l ow up w i t h t he pr i m a r y s i t e l i a i s ons t o c onf i r m f e e dba c k pr ovi de d by t he N F C C boa r d; a nd f ) by m a t c hi ng t he s e f i ndi ngs w i t h e xi s t i ng c om m uni c a t i on t he or y a nd pr a c t i c e s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t ur e B e c a us e of t he c om pl e x i t y of t he o r ga ni z a t i ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd t he i nt e gr a t i on m ode l be i ng s t udi e d I ha ve c hos e n t o f i r s t pr e s e nt m y da t a i n a c h r onol ogi c a l s e que nc e a s m e nt i one d a bove i n s t e ps a a nd b T hi s i s f ol l ow e d by a t he m a t i c a na l ys i s i n c ha pt e r s 5 a nd 6, i n w hi c h I w i l l t e l l t he s t or y of t he N F C C i nt e g r a t i on pr oc e s s a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I n

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118 c ha pt e r 7, I e xpl o r e r e l a t e d c om m un i c a t i on t he m e s t o de ve l op f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o t he or i gi na l r e s e a r c h que s t i ons B e f or e pr e s e nt i ng a nd di s c us s i ng m y r e s e a r c h da t a t he r e a r e a f e w a ppr oa c he s I ha ve t a ke n i n m y da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s t ha t a r e i m por t a nt t o not e i nc l udi ng a n i nt r oduc t i on t o a f e w ke y i nt e r vi e w pa r t i c i pa nt s a n d m y c a t e gor i z a t i on o f t he i nt e r vi e w s I w i l l a l s o de s c r i be t he m ul t i pl e pha s e s of da t a a na l y s i s ut i l i z e d t o c onf or m w i t h t he a c t i on r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy t o i nvo l ve t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a t va r i ous s t a ge s of a na l ys i s O r ga ni z i ng t he D a t a F or e a s e of c om m un i c a t i ng m y da t a a na l ys i s I ha ve c hos e n t o m i ni m i z e t he num be r of i ndi vi dua l s i de nt i f i e d by na m e t o f our k e y pa r t i c i pa nt s O t he r s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s c ol l e c t i ve bodi e s or a s m e m be r s of a c ol l e c t i v e body c ol l e c t i ve bodi e s be i ng t he N F C C boa r d of d i r e c t or s a nd t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d of P i ne l l a s C ount y ( J W B ) s t a f f w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. F or e xa m pl e I m i ght c onve y t he f ol l ow i ng: M os t m e m be r s of t he N F C C c oa l i t i on i ndi c a t e d or O ne m e m be r of J W B s t a f f s a i d T he f our r e s ponde nt s w hom I ha ve c hos e n t o i de nt i f y b y na m e a r e p r i nc i pa l t o t hi s r e s e a r c h, be c a us e t he y w e r e t he l e a de r s w i t hi n t he s i t e or ga n i z a t i ons a nd t he y w e r e i de nt i f i e d r e pe a t e dl y t hr oughout a l l t he i nt e r vi e w s T he s e f ou r r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude t he f ol l ow i ng pe opl e w ho w i l l be i nt r oduc e d m or e f ul l y i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on. P a ul L a c ke y, pr ogr a m pl a nne r f or t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d, w ho s e r ve d a s m y pr i m a r y c ont a c t t hr oughout t he s t udy; J i m M i l l s di r e c t or of t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d; L oune l l B r i t t p r e s i de nt of t he N F C C a nd e xe c ut i v e di r e c t or t he J a m e s B S a nde r l i n N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r ( N F C ) ; a n d

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119 K e i t h K now l e s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of t he N F C C F or t he pu r pos e of da t a a na l ys i s a nd r e f l e c t i on, I h a ve or ga ni z e d m y i nt e r vi e w s i nt o f our di f f e r e nt c a t e gor i e s t ha t i nc l ude : i nt r oduc t or y a nd c ont e xt s e t t i ng i nt e r vi e w s N F C C m e m be r i nt e r vi e w s J W B s t a f f i nt e r vi e w s a nd c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on p r oc e s s s e s s i ons F ol l ow i ng, I p r ovi de a b r i e f ove r vi e w of t he s e c a t e gor i e s a nd e xpl a i n t he ke y i nt e r vi e w s c ont a i ne d w i t hi n e a c h c a t e gor y a nd m y m e t hod f or a na l yz i ng t he i nt e r v i e w da t a A l l i nt e r vi e w s f ol l ow e d t he i nt e r vi e w p r ot oc ol de s c r i b e d i n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r a nd a l l w e r e a udi o r e c or de d. I nt r oduc t or y and C ont e x t Se t t i ng I nt e r v i e w s M y f i r s t i nt e r v i e w s pr ovi de d c ont e xt f or m y s t udy a nd he l pe d m e t o r e f i ne m y i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons a nd pr oc e s s I i nt e n t i ona l l y s c h e dul e d m y f i r s t i nt e r vi e w s w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho w e r e m os t know l e dge a bl e a bout t he hi s t or y of t he s ys t e m T he f ou r i ndi vi dua l s pr e vi ous l y i de nt i f i e d c om pr i s e t he onl y i nt e r vi e w s i nc l ude d i n t hi s c a t e gor y: P a ul L a c ke y, J i m M i l l s L oune l l B r i t t a nd K e i t h K now l e s T he s e i nt e r vi e w s w e r e l onge r a nd c ont a i ne d m or e que s t i ons r e l a t e d t o ba c kgr oun d a nd pl a nni ng. T he s e i nt e r vi e w s w e r e a l s o t r a ns c r i be d i n t he i r e nt i r e t y a nd s e r ve d a s a gu i de f or s e t t i ng up i n i t i a l c odi ng t he m e s w hi c h a i de d i n r e vi e w i ng t he r e m a i ni ng i nt e r v i e w t a pe s B e c a us e t he s e f our ke y pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e r e f e r r e d t o by na m e i n a l l t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd, t he r e f or e w i l l be r e f e r e nc e d c ons i de r a bl y i n t hi s da t a a na l ys i s i t s ne c e s s a r y f or m e t o pr ovi de a s hor t i nt r oduc t i on t o e a c h of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s t o he l p pl a c e i nt e r vi e w c om m e nt s i n c ont e xt T he s e i nt r oduc t i ons w i l l be pr ovi de d a f t e r r e vi e w i ng t he t hr e e ot he r i nt e r vi e w c a t e gor i e s

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120 N F C C B oar d M e m be r I nt e r v i e w s A l l m e m be r s of t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s a nd o ne a s s oc i a t e m e m be r ( a f or m e r N F C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or ) w e r e i nt e r v i e w e d. I n a ddi t i on t o B oa r d P r e s i de nt L oune l l B r i t t ni ne ot he r m e m be r s w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d. I nt e r vi e w s r a nge d f r om 1 t o 3 hour s i n l e ngt h, w i t h l onge r i nt e r vi e w s br oke n i n t o t w o s e s s i ons A l l i nt e r vi e w s w e r e c onduc t e d a t t he N F C s w he r e e a c h m e m be r w or ke d. T he boa r d o f t he N F C C w a s di ve r s e w i t h r e s pe c t t o a ge ge nde r r a c e a nd ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e w or ki ng i n t he f i e l d, a nd t he de m ogr a phi c s of m os t di r e c t or s w e r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve t o t he i r r e s pe c t i ve ne i ghbor hoods J W B St af f I nt e r v i e w s I n a ddi t i on t o J W B P r og r a m P l a nne r P a ul L a c ke y a nd D i r e c t or J i m M i l l s t hr e e ot he r J W B m a na ge m e nt s t a f f w e r e i n t e r vi e w e d. T h e s e i nc l ude d s e ni or m a n a ge r s r e s pons i bl e f or pl a nni ng a nd ke y de c i s i on m a ki ng a nd t he c ont r a c t m a na ge r r e s pons i bl e f or a l l N F C f undi ng c ont r a c t s a nd t he ne w N F C C c ont r a c t I nt e r vi e w s r a nge d f r om 1 t o 2 hour s i n l e ngt h a nd a l l t ook pl a c e a t t he J W B of f i c e C r i t i c al R e f l e c t i on P r oc e s s Se s s i ons A s pa r t of t he a c t i on r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy, t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a c t i ve l y i n vol ve d i n r e vi e w i ng m y da t a a na l ys i s a nd pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs t o pr ovi de f e e dba c k a nd t o he l p s ha pe a nd f or m a l i z e t he f i na l r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs T hi s c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on t ook pl a c e t hr ough a gr oup r e t r e a t l i ke s e s s i on; t hr ough i ndi vi dua l f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s w i t h ke y pa r t i c i pa nt s ; a nd t hr ough i ndi v i dua l f e e dba c k by phone i n pe r s on or vi a e m a i l T he g r oup r e t r e a t a nd t he i ndi vi dua l f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s w i l l be br i e f l y i nt r oduc e d a t t he e nd of t hi s c ha pt e r bu t w i l l be di s c us s e d m or e t hor oughl y i n c ha pt e r 7 a s pa r t of t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on a nd f i nd i ngs pr oc e s s

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121 I nt r oduc t i on t o K e y P a r t i c i pa nt s B e c a us e t he i nt r oduc t or y a nd c ont e xt s e t t i ng i nt e r v i e w s a r e c r i t i c a l f o r t hi s r e s e a r c h, I a m pr ovi di ng a b r i e f i n t r oduc t i on t o e a c h of t he ke y pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d i n t he i nt r oduc t or y c ont e xt s e t t i ng i nt e r vi e w s M y f i r s t i nt e r vi e w w a s w i t h P a ul L a c ke y, pr ogr a m pl a nne r f or t he J W B w ho s e r ve d a s m y p r i m a r y c ont a c t t hr oughout t he s t udy. P a ul or i gi na l l y m ove d t o P i ne l l a s C ount y i n 2000 f or a n e a r l y r e t i r e m e nt but i m m e di a t e l y r e a l i z e d t ha t he c oul dn t s i t dow n H e w a s i nvi t e d i nt o a nd a c c e pt e d a m a na ge m e nt pos i t i on a t t he P i ne l l a s C ount y H e a l t h D e pa r t m e nt B e f or e r e t i r i ng, P a ul w o r ke d f o r a l a r ge c om pa ny i n O kl a hom a w he r e he ha d t hous a nds of pe opl e unde r hi m ; he w a s not s e e ki ng a not he r s upe r vi s or y pos i t i on. T he j ob I w a nt e d w a s t o w or k w i t h pe opl e a nd not s upe r vi s e pe opl e he e xpl a i ne d. H e f ound t ha t opp or t uni t y a t t he J W B a s a pr ogr a m pl a nne r w hi c h i nvol ve d w or ki ng w i t h s oc i a l s e r vi c e a ge nc i e s a nd w or ki ng on s pe c i a l pr o j e c t s t hr oughout t he s out h pa r t of t he c ount y. F or hi s f i r s t 6 m ont hs he w or ke d on s m a l l pr oj e c t s a nd t he n w a s i nt r oduc e d t o w o r ki ng w i t h t he N F C s E ve nt ua l l y, he w a s a s ke d by J W B a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o t a ke on t he de ve l o pm e nt of t he N F C C a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e e nt i t y ( A S E ) P a ul s e r ve d a s t he pr i m a r y l i a i s on be t w e e n t he J W B a nd t he N F C C H e be c a m e a n a dvi s or a nd a dvoc a t e A l m os t a l l m e m be r s o f t h e N F C C t a l ke d a bout P a ul dur i ng t he i r i nt e r vi e w s M y f i r s t i nt e r vi e w w i t h P a ul w a s i nf or m a l a nd pr ovi de d ba c kgr ound a bout t he J W B s i nvol ve m e nt i n c onc e i vi ng t he A S E m ode l H e a l s o t ol d m e a l i t t l e a bout e a c h o f t he N F C s a nd t he m e m be r s o f t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s M y s e c ond c ont e xt ua l i nt e r vi e w w a s w i t h J W B D i r e c t or J i m M i l l s J i m w a s di r e c t l y r e s pons i bl e f or c a r r y i ng out t he di r e c t i ve s of t he publ i c l y a ppoi nt e d boa r d of

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122 di r e c t or s of t he J W B ; t he r e f or e he s e r ve d a s t he pr i m a r y dr i ve r of t he i n t e gr a t i on m ode l J i m ha d be e n w or ki ng a s di r e c t or of t he J W B f or m or e t ha n 20 ye a r s a nd by t he t i m e of our i nt e r vi e w ha d a l r e a dy e xpr e s s e d hi s pl a ns t o r e t i r e J i m w a s know n c ount yw i de a nd be yond a s a l e a de r i n t he s oc i a l s e r vi c e i ndus t r y. H e w a s of t e n i de nt i f i e d a s be i ng c ut t i ng e dge i n hi s us e a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of ne w s t r a t e gi e s f or s e r vi c e pl a nni ng m a na ge m e nt a nd t e c hnol ogy. M y f i r s t f o r m a l i nt e r vi e w w i t h a n N F C C m e m be r w a s w i t h L oune l l B r i t t pr e s i de nt of t he N F C C a nd e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or t he J a m e s B S a nde r l i n N F C L oune l l ha d de di c a t e d he r pr of e s s i ona l c a r e e r t o s oc i a l s e r vi c e s f o r m e r l y w or ki ng a s a n a r e a m a na ge r f or t h e F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f C hi l dr e n a nd F a m i l i e s a nd s he he l pe d f ound a nd s e r ve d on t he boa r d of di r e c t or s f or t he J a m e s B S a nde r l i n N F C S he w a s a bout t o r e t i r e w he n t he S a nde r l i n N F C boa r d of di r e c t or s a s ke d he r t o c on s i de r r unni ng t he s t r uggl i ng c e nt e r S he a gr e e d t o t a ke i t ove r a c c e pt i ng onl y a nom i na l s a l a r y. I c hos e t o s t a r t w i t h L oune l l be c a us e a m ong a l l N F C C m e m be r s s he w a s t he m os t i nvol ve d, know l e dge a bl e a nd pa t i e nt I t ol d he r t ha t m y t i m e w i t h he r w oul d he l p m e r e f i ne t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons ; f or e xa m pl e t ha t I w oul d a s k he r a l l t he que s t i ons t o t e s t out w hi c h w e r e e f f e c t i ve i n a ddr e s s i ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i de nt i f i e d by t he r e s e a r c h t e a m a nd t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h que s t i ons w e r e r e a l l y ne e de d. M y f i r s t i nt e r vi e w w i t h L oune l l w a s l e ngt hy, a nd w e e nde d up s c he dul i ng a s e c ond s e s s i on t o f ul l y c ove r t he i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol t opi c s a nd que s t i ons M y f i na l i nt r oduc t or y i n t e r vi e w w a s w i t h K e i t h K n ow l e s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or o f t he N F C C K e i t h f or m e r l y w or ke d a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of t he S a f e t y H a r bor N F C W he n t he oppor t uni t y pr e s e nt e d i t s e l f f o r hi m t o r un t he ne w l y f or m i ng N F C C of f i c e he

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123 e xpr e s s e d a n i nt e r e s t ; he s t a r t e d hi s pos i t i on a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or o f t he N F C C i n S e pt e m be r 2002. K e i t h w a s m y t hi r d N F C C i nt e r vi e w a f t e r L oune l l a nd one ot he r N F C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or B y t he t i m e I i nt e r vi e w e d K e i t h I ne e de d s om e c l a r i f i c a t i on on t he ba c kgr ound a nd t i m e l i ne a nd m y t i m e w i t h K e i t h w a s i m por t a nt f o r t ha t r e a s on. I c onduc t e d t he s a m e t ype of i nt e r vi e w w i t h hi m a s I di d f o r a l l t he N F C C boa r d m e m be r s but a dde d s om e ot he r que s t i ons t ha t w e r e r e l e va nt t o hi s pos i t i on. W he n t he r e w e r e oc c a s i ons f or t he N F C C t o w o r k c l os e l y w i t h t he J W B on a ny pl a nni ng i s s ue s or or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge s L ou ne l l a nd K e i t h w e r e t he t w o N F C C m e m be r s w ho r e pr e s e nt e d t he o r ga ni z a t i on. T he y, t he r e f or e ha d t he g r e a t e s t br e a dt h of know l e dge a bout t he pr oc e s s be i ng s t udi e d. I n a dd i t i on, w hi l e i t w a s he l pf ul t o ge t m ul t i pl e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons of t he ba c kgr ound o f t he N F C C a nd J W B t hi s be c a m e unne c e s s a r y t o a s k e ve r y pa r t i c i pa nt i n d e t a i l be c a us e m os t of t he ba c kgr ound w a s gl e a ne d f r om m y i nt r oduc t or y i n t e r vi e w s W i t h t he s e i nt e r vi e w c a t e gor i e s de f i ne d a nd ke y pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt r oduc e d, w ha t f ol l ow s i s c l a r i f i c a t i on a bout m y pr oc e s s f or da t a a na l ys i s D a t a A na l ys i s P r oc e s s I e nde d up w i t h 26 a udi ot a pe s t ha t c ont a i ne d a m a xi m um of 90 m i nut e s o f a udi o r e c or di ng. T he s e t a pe s c om pr i s e d 18 i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s a nd t w o gr oup s e s s i ons t ha t t ook pl a c e dur i ng a n 8 m ont h pe r i od M os t i nt e r vi e w s f i l l e d t he 90 m i nut e s w or t h of t a pe ; s i x i nt e r vi e w s r a n ove r t o s e c ond t a pe F i e l d not e s w e r e w r i t t e n i n t hr e e 70 s he e t s t e no pa ds w he r e I doc um e nt e d m y obs e r va t i ons f r om va r i ous m e e t i ngs t ha t t ook pl a c e ove r 1 ye a r s F i e l d not e s w e r e a l s o w r i t t e n on m e e t i ng doc um e nt s t ha t w e r e r e f e r e nc e d dur i ng gr oup di s c us s i ons T he i nt e r a c t i ve na t u r e of a c t i on r e s e a r c h l e d m e t o e xpl o r e

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124 di f f e r e nt l e ve l s o f a na l ys i s a t di f f e r e nt t i m e s t hr ou ghout t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s F o r e a s i e r r e f e r e nc e I w i l l i de nt i f y t he s e a s pha s e s 1 t hr ough 5: pha s e 1: r e f i ni ng t he i nt e r vi e w s ; ph a s e 2: pr a c t i t i one r a na l ys i s ; pha s e 3: s e l e c t i ve f ul l t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd c odi ng; pha s e 4: s uppl e m e nt a l t a pe r e vi e w a nd t r a ns c r i pt i o n; a nd pha s e 5: a na l ys i s of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i ons S om e of t he i nt e r vi e w t a pe s w e r e r e vi e w e d i n m ul t i pl e pha s e s F o r t he m os t pa r t t a pe s w e r e l i s t e ne d t o t w o t o t hr e e t i m e s ; s om e t i m e s pa i ns t a ki ngl y a nd m e t hodi c a l l y, a s dur i ng f ul l t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd s om e t i m e s i n a r e l a xe d m a nne r s uc h a s dur i ng l ong dr i ve s P ha s e 1 of m y da t a a na l ys i s w a s a l s o pa r t of m y r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s w he r e by I l i s t e ne d t o m y e a r l y i nt e r vi e w t a pe s t o e ns ur e t ha t t he t ype s of que s t i ons be i ng a s ke d w e r e be i ng c om f or t a bl y r e c e i ve d a nd r e s ponde d t o by pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t ha t t he a ns w e r s pr ovi de d w e r e us e f ul f or f ut ur e da t a a na l ys i s or ba c kgr ound. T hi s a l s o a l l ow e d m e t o c ons i de r a ny ne w i s s ue s t ha t m i ght ne e d t o be e xpl or e d f ur t he r i n f ut u r e i nt e r vi e w s T hi s w a s c om pl e t e d e a r l y i n m y r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s a nd i t i nvol ve d l i s t e ni ng t o t he a udi o t a pe s f r om m y i nt r oduc t or y a nd c ont e xt s e t t i ng i nt e r vi e w s W hi l e n o t r a ns c r i pt i on or a na l ys i s w a s done a t t hi s t i m e t hi s e a r l y r e vi e w o f ke y i nt e r vi e w s he l pe d w i t h t he p r e l i m i na r y i de nt i f i c a t i on of i s s ue s t ha t m i ght w a r r a nt a ddi t i on a l pr obi ng du r i ng t he f or t hc om i ng i nt e r vi e w s P ha s e 2 i nvol ve d s t e ps of da t a a na l ys i s t ha t w e r e m or e c ur s or y a nd pr a c t i c a l l y m ot i va t e d t ha n t he f ol l ow i ng pha s e s of a na l ys i s ne c e s s a r y f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. T he J W B ha d r e que s t e d m e t o m a ke a pr e l i m i na r y r e por t t he i r boa r d of di r e c t or s B e c a us e t he A S E

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125 c oa l i t i on w a s a ne w pr og r a m m a t i c m ode l t ha t w a s unde r t he m i c r os c ope o f t he J W B boa r d, pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e a ge r t o ga t he r p r e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs t o a s s i s t i n e va l ua t i ng t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E c oa l i t i on f o r pos s i bl e r e pl i c a t i on i n t he c om i ng ye a r D ue t o t he s hor t t ur na r ound t i m e t o pr e pa r e a r e por t f o r t hi s pr e s e nt a t i on, i t w a s ne c e s s a r y f or m e t o do a n a br i dge d a na l ys i s t o de ve l op pr e l i m i na r y r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t ha t w oul d be pr e s e nt e d t o t he J W B boa r d o f di r e c t o r s a s w e l l a s N F C C m e m be r s 7 M y a na l ys i s i n t hi s pha s e c oul d be de s c r i be d a s be i ng done f r om a pr a c t i t i one r pe r s pe c t i ve t o p r ovi de a qui c k ove r vi e w of ke y i s s ue s di s c e r ne d f r om t he r e s e a r c h. T h i s a na l ys i s i nvol ve d l i s t e ni ng t o a l l i nt e r vi e w t a pe s i n a m a nne r t ha t a l l ow e d t o m e t o s c a n f or c om m on r e s pons e s t o t he c e nt r a l i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons T o a s s i s t i n t hi s p r oc e s s I p r e pa r e d a t a bul a r w or ks he e t t ha t c or r e s ponde d t o t he l i s t of i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons f r o m t he r e s e a r c h pr o t oc ol A s I l i s t e ne d t o t he i nt e r vi e w t a pe s I t ype d s hor t r e s pons e s i nt o t he t a bl e t o i de nt i f y t hos e t ha t m a y ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d c ons e ns u s a m ong m e m be r s ge ne r a l c o ns i s t e nc y a m ong m e m be r s or di s pa r i t y a m ong m e m be r s T he m a i n pur pos e o f t h i s pr oc e s s w a s t o pr e s e nt da t a i n c ons ol i da t e d f or m a t t ha t m e m be r s c oul d qui c kl y r e vi e w a nd r e f e r e nc e du r i ng di s c us s i on, s uc h a s w he n t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s r e vi e w e d t hi s i nf o r m a t i on a nd pr ovi de d f e e dba c k a s pa r t of a c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on. A r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t hi s c ons ol i da t e d i nf or m a t i on t a bl e a nd i ns t r uc t i ons i s i nc l ude d i n T a bl e E 1 ( i n A ppe ndi x E ) T hi s c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on pr oc e s s w i l l be de s c r i be d m or e t ho r ough l y i n t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r A l t hough s i m pl i s t i c t hi s a na l ys i s pr ovi de d a n e xc e l l e nt b i r ds e ye vi e w of a l l t he da t a w hi c h m a de t he ne xt pha s e of m y da t a a na l ys i s e a s i e r a nd m or e f oc us e d. 7 T h i s i s a n e x a m p l e o f w h a t c a n h a p p e n i n A R : b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r d o e s n t o w n t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r m a y b e r e q u i r e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g s t h a t a r e u n u s u a l f o r a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h T h i s i s a n a t u r a l p a r t o f t h e g i v e a n d t a k e o f t h e c o g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s

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126 P ha s e 3 be ga n t he m or e de t a i l e d a nd f or m a l s t a ge of m y da t a a na l ys i s t ha t i nvol ve d f ul l t r a ns c r i pt i on o f a udi o t a pe s f r om t he f our i nt r oduc t or y a nd c ont e xt s e t t i ng i nt e r vi e w s a nd c odi ng of t he s e t r a ns c r i pt s a nd m y f i e l d not e s M y nor m a l pr oc e s s of c odi ng i nvol ve d c onduc t i ng a s ys t e m a t i c r e vi e w of m y r a w t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd f i e l d not e s a nd hi ghl i ght i ng o r m a ki ng not e s i n t he m a r gi ns t o i de nt i f y r e s pons e s a nd e xa m pl e s t ha t a r e i nt e r e s t i ng, r e dunda nt or s ur pr i s i ng. T h i s i nc l u de d t he i de nt i f i c a t i on of di l e m m a s t he us e of va r i ous r he t o r i c a l de vi c e s a nd t he de s c r i pt i on of p r a c t i c e s a nd e xa m pl e s T hi s be ga n m y pr oc e s s of c onne c t i ng a nd or ga ni z i ng ke y i nt e r vi e w da t a t o he l p i de nt i f y c om m uni c a t i on c onc e pt s t ha t w e r e pr o m i ne nt dur i ng t he pr oc e s s be i ng s t udi e d. D ue t o t i m e c ons t r a i nt s t hi s f ul l t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd c odi ng pr oc e s s t ook pl a c e a f t e r t he N F C C c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i ons B y t hi s t i m e s om e p r e l i m i na r y t he m e s ha d s t a r t e d t o e m e r ge s uc h a s r e s i s t anc e l os s of aut onom y l e ade r s hi p a nd e nhanc e d c apac i t y T he t he m e s i de nt i f i e d a r e l i s t e d a nd e xpl a i ne d i n c ha pt e r 7 T h e m e s i de nt i f i e d i n t he pr e vi ous pha s e of a na l ys i s be c a m e t he i ni t i a l t he m e s us e d w he n c odi ng t he t r a ns c r i be d i nt e r vi e w s a nd f i e l d not e s a nd a ddi t i ona l t he m e s w e r e a dde d a s t h e y w e r e i de nt i f i e d P ha s e 4 w a s a n e xt e ns i on of t he pr e vi ous pha s e t ha t i nvol ve d l i s t e ni ng, onc e a ga i n, t o a l l of t he i nt e r vi e w t a pe s a nd e xt r a c t i ng a nd t r a ns c r i bi ng po r t i ons t ha t s uppor t e d or c ont r a di c t e d t he da t a a l r e a dy d r a w n f r om t he i nt e r vi e w s or t ha t i de nt i f i e d ne w c om m uni c a t i on c onc e pt s t ha t s e e m e d w or t h e xpl or i ng. T he s e i nt e r vi e w t a pe s i nc l ude d t he N F C C boa r d m e m be r i nt e r vi e w s a nd J W B s t a f f i nt e r vi e w s T he f i na l pha s e of a na l ys i s ( pha s e 5) ove r l a ppe d w i t h m y p r oc e s s of de ve l opi ng r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs A s w i t h t he de ve l opm e nt o f t he i ni t i a l r e s e a r c h q ue s t i ons a nd t he de ve l opm e nt of t he r e s e a r c h pr ot oc ol f i na l i z i ng t h e r e s e a r c h da t a a nd f i ndi ngs w a s done

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127 j oi nt l y w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s A s t he pr i nc i pa l r e s e a r c he r t hi s i nvo l ve d c onduc t i ng pr e l i m i na r y a na l ys i s of t he da t a ( a s de s c r i be d i n pha s e 2) f or pr e s e nt a t i on t o t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o s ol i c i t t he i r f e e dba c k, s e e k t he i r a s s i s t a nc e i n i nt e r pr e t i ng m e a ni ng of i de nt i f i e d t he m e s a nd i de nt i f y a ny una ns w e r e d que s t i ons T he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i ons how e ve r be c a m e a not he r e l e m e nt of ne w da t a t ha t a l s o ne e de d t o be a na l yz e d f or m y f i na l r e s e a r c h out c om e s T h i s pha s e of a na l ys i s i nvol ve d t r a ns c r i bi ng t he a udi o t a pe s f r om c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on p r oc e s s s e s s i on s a nd c onduc t i ng a s i m i l a r c odi ng a nd c a t e gor i z i ng pr oc e s s a s de s c r i be d i n pha s e 4. H a vi ng de s c r i be d t he s e pha s e s of da t a a na l ys i s w ha t f ol l ow s i s a de s c r i pt i on of t he N F C C i nt e gr a t i on p r oc e s s f r om c onc e pt i on t h r ough e xe c ut i on. D a t a w i l l be w ove n t hr oughout t hi s de s c r i pt i on a nd t hi s da t a w i l l be c a t e gor i z e d i nt o t he m e s w he n r e vi e w i ng t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs i n c ha pt e r 7 T he S t or y of D e ve l opi ng t he N F C C F ol l ow i ng i s t he N F C C a nd J W B s t or y of de ve l opi ng t he A S E W hi l e I a t t e m pt t o s ha r e e xpe r i e nc e s f r om t he voi c e s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i t i s i m por t a nt t o no t e t ha t t he r e w i l l be di f f e r e nt poi nt s o f vi e w i n pa r t i c ul a r f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of N F C C m e m be r s ve r s us J W B s t a f f M uc h l i ke t he pa r a bl e of t he bl i nd m e n de s c r i bi ng t he e l e pha nt t he i ndi vi dua l pe r s pe c t i ve s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y ha ve l e d t he m t o de s c r i be a t us k, t a i l t r unk or l e g. E ve n w he n a l l m e m be r s w e r e i n a gr e e m e nt t ha t t he y w e r e de s c r i bi ng t he s a m e e l e pha nt t he i r t a ke on t he m a t t e r va r i e d s l i ght l y a t t i m e s w hi l e a t ot he r t i m e s t he r e w a s a gr e e m e nt a bout w ha t t hi s a ni m a l l ooks a nd f e e l s l i ke

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128 B ac k gr ound of t he N F C C A s i nt r oduc e d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r t he N F C C w a s f i r s t c r e a t e d t o s e r ve a s a n i nf or m a l ne t w o r ki ng gr o up f o r t he N F C s L oune l l de s c r i be d t he m a i n pur pos e of t he gr oup a s t he c om f o r t o f know i ng t ha t t oge t he r t he y w e r e a l l J W B f unde d S om e t i m e s t he y di dn t unde r s t a nd t he f und i ng, s o c om i ng t oge t he r t he y c oul d s ha r e t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd c om m i s e r a t e a l i t t l e bi t a bout t he f unde r K e i t h, w ho w a s a n N F C di r e c t or a t t he t i m e ha d a di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve a bo ut w ha t t he pu r pos e of t he N F C C w a s : I ha ve no i de a W e s a t a r ound a nd t a l ke d a bout t h i ngs but no one w oul d s ha r e i nf or m a t i on. H e r e c a l l s a num be r of oc c a s i ons w he n he w oul d s a y, I ne e d t h i s a nd t ha t a nd t he ot he r t hi ng, a nd hi s r e que s t s w e r e m e t w i t h s i l e nc e S o I ha ve no i de a w ha t i t di d. P a u l de s c r i be d i t a s be i ng m or e l i ke a c l ub. I t w a s j us t a w a y t he y c a m e t oge t he r onc e i n a w hi l e a nd t a l ke d a bout w ha t w a s goi ng o n i n t he c e nt e r s a nd di s c us s e d i s s ue s t he y ha d. T he c oa l i t i on s t a r t e d t o be c om e m o r e f o r m a l i z e d w i t h t he he l p of a c a pa c i t y bui l di ng gr a nt f r om t he A l l e ge ny F r a nc i s c a n F oun da t i on. A l l e ge ny w a nt e d t o he l p t he m de ve l op one e nt i t y t ha t c oul d r e pr e s e nt a l l t he N F C s t o he l p t he m de ve l op t he i r m i s s i on s t a t e m e nt a nd t o t r y t o b r i ng s om e c ohe s i on t o t he gr oup. B ut t he y w e r e s o di f f e r e nt s a i d P a ul T he c e nt e r i n T a r pon S pr i ngs w a s t ot a l l y di f f e r e nt f r om a c e nt e r i n S t P e t e r s bur g; s o, t o br i ng t he m a l l unde r one c oa l i t i o n w a s a r e a l e f f or t Shi f t i n F undi ng St r at e gy A r ound t he s a m e t i m e t he N F C s s t a r t e d t o d r a w s om e ne ga t i ve a t t e n t i on f r om t he J W B boa r d of di r e c t o r s T he r e w e r e t w o N F C s t ha t e xpe r i e nc e d a dm i ni s t r a t i ve pr ob l e m s a nd ha d s om e c onf l i c t w i t h J W B s t a f f a nd boa r d m e m be r s T he s e t w o c e nt e r s c l os e d, i n

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129 a ddi t i on t o one ot he r N F C t ha t w a s i ne f f e c t ua l w h e n i t s ne i ghbor hood w a s di s pe r s e d due t o t he c l os i ng o f a l a r ge hous i ng a ut ho r i t y. T he r e a l s o w e r e s om e c ha nge s a m ong t he J W B boa r d m e m be r s hi p, br i ngi ng on ne w m e m be r s w ho w e r e not f a m i l i a r w i t h t he N F C c onc e pt P e r c e pt i ons of t he J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s a r e i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e L oune l l de s c r i be d t he boa r d s hi f t i n t h i s w a y: I t w e nt f r om a bunc h of r e t i r e d s oc i a l w or ke r s t o t he bi g boys T he Say l or s of R a ym ond J a m e s [ r e f e r r i ng t o t he J W B boar d pr e s i de nt ] a nd t he good R e publ i c a ns a nd f ol ks l i ke t ha t T he w a y t he boa r d pe r c e i ve d t hi ngs a l s o c ha nge d. U p unt i l t ha t t i m e e xpl a i ne d P a ul t he N F C s ha d ki nd of a f r e e r i de : T he y ha d be e n de ve l ope d by J W B f or t he c om m un i t y, s o t he y w e r e pr e t t y m uc h i n pl a c e a nd nobody que s t i one d t he i r f undi ng. A nd w he n t hos e t w o o r t h r e e s t a r t e d f a i l i ng, i t b r ought t he m t o t he f o r e f r ont a nd t he r e w e r e a l ot of que s t i ons T he r e w a s a l ot of ne ga t i ve di s c us s i on goi ng on a t t he [ J W B ] boa r d a bout N F C s e xpl a i ne d P a ul a nd t he y w e r e ba s i ng i t o n hi s t or y, not c ur r e nt c ondi t i ons r e f e r r i ng t o t he c e nt e r s t ha t c l os e d or w e r e de f unde d. S o t ha t r e a l l y t a i nt e d t he i r vi e w of t he N F C s S e ve r a l N F C C m e m be r s r e gul a r l y a t t e nde d J W B boa r d m e e t i ngs t o ke e p t a bs on w ha t w a s goi ng on. T he r e w a s a nd I t hi nk c ont i n ue s t o be s om e c onc e r n by c e r t a i n boa r d m e m be r s a b out t he N F C s s a i d K e i t h. S o m e boa r d m e m be r s t h i nk i t s a w a s t e of t i m e m one y e f f or t I t hi nk pr i nc i pa l l y be c a us e t he y don t unde r s t a nd w ha t w e do. S o t he y w e r e a nxi ous t o s e e t he m one y t ha t w a s be i ng s pe nt on us go t o ot he r pr og r a m s

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130 A nd w e w e r e be g i nni ng t o f e e l l i ke uh oh, s a i d L oune l l t he t r a i n s c om i ng dow n t he pa t h goi ng 190 m ph, a nd t he l i ght w e s e e i s N O T t he e nd of t he t unne l ; i t i s t he t r a i n t ha t i s c om i ng a t us T hos e he a dl i ght s got c l os e r i n M a r c h 2003, w he n t he J W B boa r d unde r t ook a c om pr e he ns i ve s t r a t e gi c pl a nni ng s e s s i on t o upda t e t he i r 1996 s t r a t e gi c pl a n. T he y f oc us e d on f i ve goa l s t he bi gge s t be i ng i nc r e a s e d e f f i c i e nc y, a s s t a t e d be l ow : G oa l #3: I nc r e a s e t he e f f i c i e nc y of J W B s w or k by a c t i ons s uc h a s : a pr ogr a m c ons ol i da t i o n; b. e l i m i na t i on of c ont r a c t s w he r e e c onom i e s of s c a l e a r e not a c hi e ve d; c c ont i nue d e l i m i na t i on of poor pe r f o r m i ng p r ogr a m s ; d. i nt e r na l r e s t r uc t ur i ng t o s uppor t s t r a t e gi c di r e c t i on; e e xa m i na t i on of ne w bus i ne s s m ode l s s uc h a s L e a d A ge nc i e s ; A dm i n i s t r a t i ve S e r vi c e O r ga ni z a t i ons or ot he r m e a ns ( J uve ni l e W e l f a r e 2003 p 7 ) T he y w a nt e d t o l ook a t ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s a nd t he y w a nt e d t o l ook a t f undi ng l a r ge or ga ni z a t i ons r a t he r t ha n s o m a ny s m a l l one s e xpl a i ne d P a ul O ne of t he de c i s i ons m a d e by t he boa r d du r i ng t h i s pr oc e s s w a s t o not f und a ny c ont r a c t s unde r $250, 000 ( w hi c h l a t e r s hi f t e d t o $500 000) L oune l l e xpl a i ne d w ha t s he pe r c e i ve d t he de c i s i on t o be ba s e d on, a s i t pe r t a i ns t o t he s i z e o f pr ogr a m budge t s : A t t he t i m e t he y w e r e s a yi n g $250, 000 a nd a bove w a s c ons i de r e d a n oka y a m ount t o ha ve a nd t he n t he y w e nt t o ha l f a m i l l i o n dol l a r s I don t know how t he y w e nt t o t ha t bu t t he y d i dA nd i t w a s n t r e a l l y goi ng t o be ba s e d on how w e l l t he y [ t he a ge nc i e s ] di d or not but t ha t t he y w e r e s m a l l a ge nc i e s T he y w e r e ge t t i ng out o f t he bus i ne s s of f undi ng s m a l l a ge nc i e s

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131 P a ul a l s o pr ov i de d a n e xpl a na t i on: T he r e a s on f o r t ha t w a s t he y f e l t l i ke t he i m pa c t w oul d be g r e a t e r f o r t he c om m uni t y. . T he y t hought i t w oul d a l s o be m o r e e f f i c i e nt t o do i t t ha t w a y P a ul poi nt e d out t ha t t he r e a r e a l ot of e xpe c t a t i ons f r om t he J W B boa r d a bout m a ki ng s ur e w e ge t e ve r y t a x dol l a r ba c k t o t he c om m uni t y N F C C m e m be r s s a w i t di f f e r e nt l y. T o t he m not w a nt i ng t o f un d s m a l l a ge nc i e s di dn t m a ke s e ns e I t w a s n t a f a i r ba r om e t e r of s u c c e s s f ul or e f f i c i e nt ope r a t i on N F C C m e m be r s poi nt e d out t ha t s om e of t he bi g boys ge t i n t r oubl e f i s c a l l y, s o t ha t w a s n t a va l i d r e a s on. T he e xpr e s s e d s e nt i m e nt w a s W ha t do you m e a n, I m s m a l l a nd I don t ha ve m one y t o s u s t a i n m ys e l f ? A s L oune l l a nd ot he r N F C C m e m be r s poi nt e d out t he y w e r e ope r a t i ng j us t f i ne on t he i r ow n. R e ga r dl e s s t he J W B boa r d ha d m a de t he i r de c i s i on, a nd pl a ns m ove d f o r w a r d. J W B s t a f f w e r e r e s pons i bl e f or c a r r yi ng ou t t hi s J W B boa r d di r e c t i ve but t he y a l s o w e r e c om m i t t e d t o pr ot e c t i ng t he N F C s J i m d e s c r i be d w ha t he w a s t hi nki ng a t t he t i m e : I know I f e l t ve r y s t r ongl y f r om t he ge t go t ha t w e ne e de d s om e s or t of a c ol l a bor a t i ve a r r a nge m e nt i f t he w hol e ne t w or k w a s goi ng t o s ur vi ve I pus he d t ha t ve r y ha r d t he c oope r a t i ve A l ot o f pe opl e s t a r t e d t a l ki ng a bout : H ow do w e do t hi s ? W ha t a r e t he pr obl e m s ? W ha t a r e t he i s s ue s ? W ha t a r e w e t r yi ng t o f or m ? J W B s t a f f m e m be r s w e r e c om m i t t e d t o ke e pi ng t h e N F C s i nt a c t be c a us e t he y kne w t he va l ue of w ha t t h e y d i d. T he bot t om l i ne w a s a s e xpl a i ne d by J i m I f t he boa r d doe s n t l i ke l i t t l e a ge nc i e s t he n w e got t a m a ke t he s e guys a bi g a ge nc y. J W B s t a f f ha d t o w or k qui c kl y t o de ve l op pr opos a l s t o b r i ng ba c k t o t he J W B boa r d. P a ul w a s a s ke d by

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132 J W B m a na ge m e nt w ha t he t hought w oul d be t he b e s t w a y t o c om bi ne t he N F C c ont r a c t s P a ul s a i d t he N F C s w oul d ne e d a s e pa r a t e boa r d i n or de r t o a l l ow t he m t o m a i nt a i n t he i r i nde pe nde nc e a nd t he y w oul d ne e d s t a f f t o s uppor t t he pr oc e s s T he y a l s o w oul d ne e d t i m e P a ul w a s a s ke d t o t a ke c ha r ge o f t he pr oj e c t a nd he a nd ot he r s t a f f s t a r t e d l ooki ng f or a l t e r na t i ve m ode l s f o r i nt e gr a t i ng a ge nc i e s a nd c ons ol i da t i ng c ont r a c t s I w a s a s ke d t o t a ke ove r t hi s pr o j e c t pul l i ng t oge t he r 11 t ot a l l y di f f e r e nt N F C s t o put t he m unde r one u m br e l l a a nd not s pe nd a ny m or e m one y; f i ndi ng a w a y t o do i t a nd f i ndi ng a w a y t o ge t t he m t o a g r e e t o i t a n d gove r n i t A nd I s a i d, W e l l you know w hi l e I m a t i t I c a n a l s o do s om e m i r a c l e s B ut you know I m one of t hos e pe opl e I j us t l ove c ha l l e nge T he c ha l l e nge w a s a huge one P a ul f or e s a w t he i m pa c t t hi s w oul d ha ve on t he m e m be r s i nvol ve d. H e de s c r i be s hi s t hought s w he n he f i r s t s t a r t e d w or k on t he pr oj e c t : F i r s t i t w a s l i ke I onl y ha ve a f e w m on t hs t o do t h i s a nd I s a i d, I c a n t do i t I t s j us t t oo m onum e nt a l t o do be c a us e t he r e s t oo m a ny t hi ngs t o ge t done A nd f i r s t of a l l e ve r y one of t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons i s goi n g t o go t hr ough t he pr oc e s s l i ke a pe r s on dyi ng. T he y r e goi ng t o go t hr ough de ni a l r e g r e t a nd a l l t ha t S o w e ve got t o g i ve t he m b r e a t hi ng t i m e f i r s t of a l l a nd t he n w e r e goi ng t o ha ve t o gi ve t he m t i m e t o r e gr oup A f t e r t ha t I c a n s a y, O ka y, s o he r e s w ha t w e r e go i ng t o do. T he n t he y ha ve t o de a l w i t h t hos e i s s ue s I n A pr i l 2003, onl y a m ont h a f t e r t he i r s t r a t e gi c p l a nni ng r e t r e a t t he J W B boa r d a ppr ove d c ons ol i da t i ng t he 11 N F C s i nt o a s i ngl e c ont r a c t J i m a s ke d t he J W B boa r d f or e xt r a t i m e a nd f undi ng t o s uppor t t he pr oc e s s T hi s c onc e pt t he J W B boa r d unde r s t ood A c c or di ng t o J i m t he boa r d pr e s i de nt s poke up a nd s a i d, W e l l w he n you s t a r t up a ne w

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133 bus i ne s s i t t a ke s s om e c a pi t a l T he boa r d a gr e e d t o t he r e que s t s but w i t h s om e c ondi t i ons e xpl a i ne d P a ul : W e r e goi ng t o e xpe c t s om e t hi ngs f r o m you O ne o f t he t hi ngs w e r e goi ng t o e xpe c t i s a be t t e r f unc t i oni ng b ody; a body t ha t c a n ge t m o r e done t ha n t he y c a n i ndi vi dua l l y T he y a l s o e xpe c t e d s a vi ngs s pe ndi ng l e s s t o do t he s a m e w or k or be t t e r P a ul w a s ve r y ope n w i t h hi s s upe r vi s or s a bout t he r ol e he pl a nne d t o pl a y w i t h t he N F C C I t ol d t he m i n a m e e t i ng Y o u know I w o n t l i e t o a nybody f or m one y. I w on t do i t I w on t c ha nge t he c ol or of t hi s pi c t ur e P a ul w a s f ul l y s uppor t e d by hi s s upe r vi s or s J i m s r e s pons e w a s T ha t s w onde r f u l Y ou t e l l t he m t ha t e xa c t l y l i ke you t ol d m e T ha t s uppor t w a s i m por t a nt t o P a ul i n a ddi t i on t o t he l e s s ons he l e a r ne d w or ki ng w i t h J i m : I j us t l ove w or ki ng w i t h J i m H e t e l l s you e xa c t l y w ha t he w a nt s a nd he put s t r us t i n you t o do i t a nd he l l s t a y t ha t w a y un l e s s you pr ove t ha t you c a n t be t r us t e d. A nd he s uppor t e d m e t hr oughout t ha t e nt i r e t i m e J i m w a s c om m i t t e d t o t he N F C s t he e xe c ut i ve d i r e c t or s a nd t o t he ne w l y f o r m i ng A S E J i m t ol d P a ul T he y a r e your num be r one pr i or i t y, ove r a nyt hi ng e l s e t ha t a nyone gi ve s you. T ha t he l pe d P a ul ba l a nc e hi s w or kl oa d a nd s t r e s s H i s ot he r di r e c t s upe r vi s or s a i d t he s a m e t hi ng. K now i ng t he N F C C c oul d be hi s num be r one p r i or i t y a l w a ys a l l ow e d P a ul put t o t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd i t s m e m b e r s f i r s t N F C C s R e s pons e and N e w R ol e E ve n t hough t he w r i t i ng w a s on t he w a l l a s s om e N F C C m e m be r s put i t a nd t he y c oul d s e e t he t r a i n c om i ng, t he r e w a s di s be l i e f a bout t he i m m i ne nt t hr e a t unt i l t he y he a r d i t f r om t he ho r s e s m out h t he hor s e be i ng J i m M i l l s P a ul a nd J W B s t a f f

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134 kne w t he m e s s a ge w oul d be di f f i c ul t f o r N F C C m e m be r s t o r e c e i ve s o P a ul t r i e d t o pr e pa r e t he m i n a dva nc e H e w e nt out t o i ndi vi dua l N F C s t o t a l k t o di r e c t or s t o l e t t he m know t hi s w a s c om i ng, a nd t ha t J i m w a s goi ng t o t a l k w i t h t he m t o e xpl a i n w ha t t he y ha d t o do. J W B s t a f f c a r e d a bout t he N F C C m e m be r s a nd a bout w ha t ne e de d t o be done T he y w a nt e d t o be s e ns i t i ve t o t he i r f e e l i ngs ye t t h e y ha d t o c onve y a c l e a r m e s s a ge W e s or t of l a i d i t on t he l i ne s a i d J i m J i m t ol d N F C C m e m be r s T hi s w a s n t w ha t t he s t a f f de c i de d; i t s w ha t t he boa r d de c i de d. J i m e xpl a i ne d t ha t a s a ge nc y di r e c t or s t he m s e l ve s t he N F C C m e m be r s a l l unde r s t ood t he c ha l l e nge of w or ki ng w i t h a boa r d. A nd I t hi nk t he [ J W B boa r d i s ] w i l l i ng t o g i ve you a c ha nc e t o put s om e t hi ng t oge t he r N ow i t s up t o you t o do i t P a ul ga ve e xa m pl e s of s pe c i f i c N F C C m e m be r s w ho s a i d, N o, I w on t p l a y. J i m kne w e xa c t l y w ho w oul d s a y t ha t be c a us e he kne w t he m e m be r s H e kne w a l l a bout t he s e c e nt e r s H e kne w a l l t he i r ol d pr obl e m s a l l t he i r ne w pr obl e m s H e kne w t he pe r s ona l i t i e s P a ul de s c r i be d t he m e e t i ng be t w e e n t he J W B a nd t he N F C C w he r e t he m e s s a ge w a s de l i ve r e d: J i m got i n t he r e a nd s e ns e d i n t he r oom t ha t [ t he m e s s a ge ] w a s goi ng t o be i nt e r pr e t e d a s s om e ki nd o f di r e c t i ve f r om J W B t o t a ke i t o r l e a ve i t H e di dn t w a nt t ha t be c a us e t ha t s not how w e w o r k A nd t h a nk goodne s s he w a s s e ns i ng c or r e c t l y. P a ul ha d pr e pa r e d w e l l f o r t he m e e t i ng. F r om hi s e a r l y r e s e a r c h, he ha d dr a f t e d up s om e e xa m pl e s of ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s t ha t he pl a nne d t o s ha r e w i t h t he N F C C boa r d:

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135 I ha d i t a l l on pa pe r a nd e ve r yt hi ng a nd I ha d i t t h e r e f or J i m H e de c i de d not t o us e i t w hi c h w a s a w i s e de c i s i on. T ha t s w hy I s a y he s a w i s e pe r s on. H e s a i d [ t o N F C C m e m be r s ] W e r e go i ng t o w or k w i t h you t o l e t you de ve l op t he m ode l A nd I t hought w he w B oy! A nd I s l i d t hos e [ doc u m e nt s ] r i ght of f t he t a bl e N F C C m e m be r s c oul d s e e t he di a gr a m s a nd m a t e r i a l s P a ul ha d i n f r ont of hi m a nd t he y be ga n a s ki ng, I s t he r e a ha ndout ? I s t he r e a ha ndout ? A f t e r t a ki ng hi s l e a d f r om J i m P a ul qui c kl y r e s ponde d, N o, t he r e s no ha ndout P a ul f ur t he r de s c r i be d t he di s c us s i on a nd J W B s a ppr oa c h: J i m t r i e d t o gi ve t he m a s m uc h a ut onom y a s he c o ul d i n t hi s pr oc e s s w hi c h w a s he l pf ul [ l a ughi ng ] or a hi nd r a nc e a t t ha t t he s a m e t i m e be c a us e gi vi ng t he m a ut onom y a l l ow e d t he m t o s t i l l t r y t o w or k i nde pe nde nt l y. R e ga r dl e s s of e f f or t s t o de l i ve r t he m e s s a ge be ne v ol e nt l y, i t w a s s t i l l t a ke n a s a t hr e a t by N F C C m e m be r s K e i t h de s c r i be d hi s t a ke on t he m e s s a ge : J i m c a l l e d us i nt o a m e e t i ng. H e s a i d, O ka y, t hi s i s w ha t w e r e goi ng t o do a nd i f w e don t do i t t he n s om e o f you s i t t i ng a r ound t hi s t a bl e w i l l no l onge r be i n e xi s t e nc e A l l N F C C m e m be r s i ni t i a l l y t ook t he m e s s a ge a s a t a ke i t or l e a ve i t di r e c t i ve f r om J W B A s L oune l l put i t T he m e s s a ge w a s t o ge t on boa r d or ge t r un ove r T ha t s ba s i c a l l y w ha t t he m e s s a ge w a s A s w i l l be e xpl a i ne d i n f o r t hc om i ng s e c t i ons s e nt i m e nt s t ow a r d t he J W B di r e c t i ve bor de r e d on hos t i l e a nd r e s i s t a nc e t o t he r e c om m e nde d m ode l w a s gr e a t B ut t he r e w a s no t i m e f or r e s i s t a nc e T he N F C C ha d t o m ove qui c kl y t o a gr e e t o a c c e pt t he J W B s pr opos a l t o go unde r t he s i ngl e c ont r a c t T he N F C C boa r d a l r e a dy ha d a t r a ns i t i on t e a m c om m i t t e e i n pl a c e a s pa r t o f t he i r c a pa c i t y

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136 bui l di ng gr a nt w i t h t he A l l e ga ny F r a nc i s c a n F ound a t i on. T he s i ngl e J W B c ont r a c t a nd t he ne w A S E m ode l be c a m e t he ne w s ol e f oc us of t he t r a ns i t i on t e a m A t t he i r f i r s t m e e t i ng de vot e d t o t h i s pr oc e s s t he i r pr i m a r y f oc u s w a s s i m pl y c om i ng t o a g r e e m e nt on t he ke y i s s ue s be f or e t he m i n a s e ns e c om i ng t o a n a gr e e m e nt a bout w ha t t he e l e pha nt l ooke d l i ke ve r i f yi ng t ha t t he y a l l unde r s t ood t he J W B boa r d di r e c t i ve t ha t t he y a l l r e c e i ve d a nd unde r s t ood r e l a t e d c o r r e s ponde nc e f r om t he J W B a nd t ha t t he y a l l unde r s t ood J W B s s t a t e d pur pos e f or t he A S E w hi c h w a s t o r e duc e c os t s f or bot h t he J W B a nd t he N F C s T he y a l s o a gr e e d t ha t i t w a s t o t he be ne f i t of t he N F C C t o c ont r ol t he A S E ( N F C C M a y 2003) B e c a us e of t he w e i ght a nd pot e nt i a l i m pa c t of t he de c i s i on be i ng m a de t he N F C C boa r d m e m be r s w e r e c om m i t t e d t o c ons e ns us T he y a l s o a c know l e dge d t ha t c ons e ns us w oul d not b e pos s i bl e i n t hi s s i t ua t i on, due t o t he d i s pa r a t e i m pa c t of t he m ode l on i ndi vi dua l N F C s a nd t he di v i s i ve ne s s be i ng c a us e d by t he s i t ua t i on T he y e l e c t e d t o de ve l op a de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s t ha t w oul d a l l o w t he m t o m ove f o r w a r d w hi l e s t i l l r e c ogni z i ng t h e oppos i t i on o f m e m be r s T he gr oup de ve l ope d t he i r ow n c ons e ns us pr oc e s s w hi c h L oune l l c a l l e d T he R ul e s of t he G am e ( N F C C M a y 2003) T he r ul e s of t he gam e w e r e a gr e e d t o a s f ol l ow s : E a c h de c i s i on or a g r e e m e nt w i l l be br ought t o a gr oup vot e r e qui r i ng t he a gr e e m e nt of a l l m e m be r s A c ons e ns us vot e w i l l b e i ndi c a t e d a s f ol l ow s : H ol di ng up one f i nge r ( t he i nde x ) I A G R E E H ol di ng up t w o f i nge r s ( your c hoi c e ) I D I S A G R E E B U T W I L L S U P P O R T T H E G R O U P D E C I S I O N

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137 H ol di ng up t h r e e f i nge r s I D I S A G R E E A N D W I L L N O T S U P P O R T T H E G R O U P D E C I S I O N ( I f m e m be r s [ s i c ] t a ke t hi s p os i t i on, t he y m us t a l s o pr e s e nt a s pe c i f i c a l t e r na t i ve f o r g r oup di s c us s i on a nd a c t i on. I f s uc h a n a l t e r na t i ve i s not p r e s e nt e d, t he n t he m a j or i t y opi ni on w i l l p r e va i l A w r i t t e n di s s e nt i ng opi n i on m a y be s ubm i t t e d a l ong w i t h t h e T e a m s r e c om m e nda t i on. ) ( p. 1 ) T he t r a ns i t i ona l t e a m r e c or d ( N F C C M a y 2003) f ur t he r not e s t he f ol l ow i ng: O nc e c ons e ns u s ha s be e n r e a c he d by t he t r a ns i t i o n t e a m a n i s s ue i s r e s ol ve d a nd w i l l not be r e vi s i t e d. T he r e s ol ve d i s s ue a nd/ or t he di s s e nt i ng opi ni on w i l l be p r e s e nt e d a t t he ne xt f ul l N F C C boa r d m e e t i ng f or di s c us s i on a nd a ppr ova l ( p. 1) W i t h t hi s de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s c l e a r l y de l i ne a t e d, t he t r a ns i t i on t e a m m e m be r s w e r e r e a dy t o be gi n t he w or k of de t e r m i ni ng t he i r ow n f a t e a nd be gi nni ng t he pl a nni ng pr oc e s s T he y ha d a de c i s i on t o m a ke s a i d L oune l l : D o w e w a nt t o pl a y by J W B s r ul e s ? I f w e d i dn t t he n w e ne e d t o t h i nk a bout how w e a r e goi ng t o f und w ha t w e do. A nd unl e s s w e c a n f i nd a m i l l i ona i r e or s om e ki nd of w a y t o f und w ha t w e do a nd t e l l J W B t o t a ke a f l yi ng l e a p i nt o t he m i ddl e of ne xt w e e k, t he n w e ha ve t o m a ke a de c i s i on a bout how w e w e r e goi ng t o do t hi s L oune l l poi nt e d out t ha t you don t f i nd m a ny f un de r s out t he r e t ha t w i l l f und s t a f f a nd bui l di ngs A not he r c onc e r n s ha r e d by m e m be r s w a s t ha t w he n J W B s t a r t e d t he i r s t r a t e gi c pl a n, s om e of t he s m a l l e r c e nt e r s ha d a l r e a dy be e n w r i t t e n of f a nd l i ke l y w oul dn t s ur vi ve w i t hou t t hi s i n t e gr a t i on.

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138 P a ul s r ol e i n t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s of t e n i n vol ve d r e m i ndi ng m e m be r s of t he i m pe ndi ng r e a l i t y t he y f a c e d w i t h t he J W B boa r d. H e w a s s t r a i ght f or w a r d a nd hone s t w i t h t he m w hi l e a l w a ys t r yi ng t o a voi d t he i m pr e s s i on t ha t a nyt hi ng w a s be i ng s hove d dow n t he i r t h r oa t s H e w oul d t a l k t o t he g r oup a s i f he w e r e one of t he m : L ook, you know guys w e r e ki nd o f i n a pr ob l e m he r e W e r e i n a s i t ua t i on. I f w e don t pul l t hi s of f w i t hi n t he 14 m ont hs i f w e ge t t hr ough t he e nd o f t he 1 4 m ont hs a nd not hi ng s ha ppe ne d t he n t he y [ t he J W B boa r d] a r e go i ng t o s t a r t s a yi ng, O ka y, t he y r e not w i l l i ng t o w or k t oge t he r W e r e goi ng t o l ook a t t he m i ndi vi dua l l y a nd f i gur e out w hi c h one s w e ne e d a nd w hi c h one s w e don t T he gr oup di a l ogue d a bout i t T he r e a r e s om e ve r y pr a c t i c a l pe opl e on our boa r d, s a i d L oune l l T he bo t t om l i ne w a s w e w a nt t o do w ha t w e r e doi ng. S o w e f i gur e d out a w a y t o ge t i t done W e c hos e t o m a k e i t w or k W e de c i de d t ha t i t w a s i ne vi t a bl e s a i d K e i t h. T he r e w a s not hi ng w e c oul d do a bout t he s i ngl e c ont r a c t T ha t w a s a done de a l T he que s t i on f or t he gr oup t he n be c a m e de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r t he y w a nt e d t he c oa l i t i on t o f i l l t ha t r ol e o r t o t hr ow ou r s e l ve s a t t he m e r c y of f a t e s a i d K e i t h. T he N F C C boa r d c h os e t o l e t t he c oa l i t i on f i l l t ha t r ol e be c a us e a t l e a s t a t t ha t poi nt t he y w oul d ha ve s o m e c ont r ol ove r t he i r de s t i ny. D e s pi t e t he unw e l c om e pr e s s ur e f r om t he J W B a nd t he i r r e s e nt m e nt of t he di r e c t i ve N F C C m e m be r s kne w t ha t J W B s t a f f w e r e t r yi ng t o do w ha t t he y c oul d t o s a ve t he N F C s w hi l e a dhe r i ng t o t he J W B boa r d s di r e c t i ve A s L oune l l e xpl a i ne d, I t h i nk t he y di d not w a nt t o s e e us go dow n t he t ube s I t hi nk i t w oul d ha ve be e n a publ i c r e l a t i ons di s a s t e r be c a us e w e w e r e f unc t i oni ng F unc t i oni ng m e a ni ng t ha t m os t o f t he

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139 N F C s w e r e be i ng r un qu i t e w e l l T he pe r c e pt i on o f t he publ i c r e l a t i ons c onc e r n w a s a l s o t ouc he d on by K e i t h: E ve r yone i nvol ve d i n t hi s i s i nt e r e s t e d i n i t s uc c e e di ng. I t s ve r y i m por t a nt t ha t i t s uc c e e d. F r om t he J W B s s t a ndpoi nt i t s ve r y i m p or t a nt t ha t i t s uc c e e d f or a num be r of r e a s ons ; c e r t a i nl y, po l i t i c s i s one T he o t he r i s t ha t t he N F C s f i l l a s i gni f i c a nt ne e d i n t hi s c om m uni t y, a nd w i t hout t h e m t hos e ne e ds w oul d go unf i l l e d, a nd t ha t w oul d c r e a t e e num e r a bl e p r obl e m s a t t he ne i ghbor hood l e ve l A l l m e m be r s of t he N F C C a gr e e d t ha t m one y i s a l w a ys a pr i m a r y c onc e r n i n t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons B e c a us e of t hi s f undi ng c onc e r ns w e r e a t t he f or e f r ont of t he i r or ga ni z a t i ona l pl a nni ng a nd a c t i on W he n you ha ve one f unde r w ho i s your m a j or f unde r w he t he r or not you a r e on t he good s i de of t ha t f unde r or no t s o good s i de of t ha t f unde r c a n m a ke a di f f e r e nc e i n you r l i f e s a i d L o une l l S he us e d t o t e l l t he ot he r N F C C m e m be r s a nd ot he r a ge nc y di r e c t or s Y ou a r e e i t h e r on t he poo poo l i s t or not on t he poo poo l i s t I t de pe nds L oune l l pr e vi ous l y w o r ke d a s a f unde r w i t h t he s t a t e of F l or i da a nd s he unde r s t ood t he pr e s s ur e s a l l f unde r s f a c e : Y ou ha ve t o r e c ogni z e t ha t f unde r s ha ve t he i r r ul e s t he y ha ve t o f ol l ow t oo S o s om e t i m e s w he n i t doe s n t f e e l t oo good i t i s not ne c e s s a r i l y t ha t t he y a r e t r yi ng t o be m e a n a nd na s t y t o you but t he y ha ve t o pl a y by t he i r r ul e s t oo. P a ul unde r s t ood t he c ha l l e nge s he f a c e d w or ki ng w i t h N F C C m e m be r s T he r e w a s s t i l l s om e s ke pt i c i s m ; s om e f e e l i ngs of not t r u s t i ng, s a i d P a ul H e e xpl a i ne d t ha t s om e of t he m e m be r s ha d be e n t r e a t e d poo r l y i n t h e pa s t not by J W B but by ot he r c om m uni t y or ga ni z a t i ons s o t he y w e r e not r e a l t r us t i ng of l a r ge or ga ni z a t i ons l i ke J W B

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140 T he y t hought w e w e r e pr oba bl y out f or s om e t hi ng ot he r t ha n w ha t w e w e r e s a yi ng w e w e r e out f o r S um m a r y T hi s c ha pt e r be ga n w i t h a n ove r vi e w of m y da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e s s i nc l udi ng t he f i r s t s t e p of or ga ni z i ng da t a i nt o t he s t or y o f de ve l opi ng t he A S E S ha r e d he r e ha s be e n t he s t a r t i ng poi nt of t ha t s t or y i nc l udi ng t he ba c kg r ound of t he N F C C a n ove r vi e w o f t he m e m be r s hi p a nd t he phi l os ophi c a l s hi f t s a m ong t h e J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s t ha t l e d t o i m pe ndi ng c ha nge s f or t he N F C C a nd t he N F C C s e f f or t t o f a c e up t o t he c ha l l e nge of de ve l opi ng t he A S E w i t h a l i t t l e he l p f r om t he i r J W B l i a i s on. T he ne xt c ha pt e r w i l l de l ve m or e de e pl y i nt o t he i r pr oc e s s of i m pl e m e nt i ng t he A S E i nc l udi ng de ve l opi ng ne e de d bus i ne s s s y s t e m s a nd de a l i ng w i t h a nd r e s pondi ng t o m e m be r s c ont i nue d r e s i s t a nc e

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141 C H A P T E R 6 E X P L O R A T I O N O F T H E I N T E G R A T I O N P R O C E S S P A R T 2 I nt r oduc t i on T hi s c ha pt e r c ont i nue s m y pr e s e nt a t i on of r e s e a r c h da t a by s ha r i ng t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e e nt i t y ( A S E ) i nt e gr a t i on p r oc e s s t hr ough t he voi c e s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s c ha pt e r f u r t he r e xpl or e s t he pr oc e s s of i m pl e m e nt i ng t he A S E i nc l udi ng de ve l opi n g ne e de d bus i ne s s s y s t e m s a nd r e s pondi ng t o m e m be r s c ont i nue d r e s i s t a nc e T ow a r d t he e nd of t he c ha pt e r m e m be r s r e f l e c t on t he l e s s ons t he y ve l e a r ne d t ha t t he y w a nt t o s ha r e w i t h ot he r s f a c i ng s i m i l a r c ha l l e nge s D e ve l opi ng t he A S E T he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r C oa l i t i on ( N F C C ) t r a ns i t i on t e a m a nd boa r d of di r e c t or s be ga n w or ki ng on e s t a bl i s hi ng t he A S E i n M a y, 2003. T he t a s k a he a d of t he m w a s e nor m ous T he y ha d t o c ons i de r t he bus i ne s s a s pe c t s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E a nd t he y ha d t o de a l w i t h c ont i nue d r e s i s t a nc e f r om m e m be r s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s T he y ne e de d a c oor di na t e d bus i ne s s s ys t e m a nd a c ohe s i ve t e a m t o m a ke i t c om e t oge t he r a nd t o ke e p i t go i ng. T he y ha d t o de a l w i t h c ha l l e nge s w i t hi n bot h t he bus i ne s s a nd pe opl e s ys t e m s A s t he i r w or k p r ogr e s s e d, t he y a l s o a c hi e ve d s uc c e s s e s i n bot h s ys t e m s F or c l a r i t y, t he s e t w o s ys t e m s bus i ne s s a nd pe opl e w i l l f i r s t be de s c r i be d s e pa r a t e l y, s t a r t i ng w i t h t he bus i ne s s s ys t e m s A f t e r e xpl o r i ng c ha l l e nge s a nd a c c om pl i s hm e nt s i n bot h s ys t e m s I w i l l s ha r e s om e of t he i r e xa m pl e s of how t he s e s ys t e m s c a m e t oge t he r t o

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142 bui l d t he o r ga ni z a t i on s c a pa c i t y a nd t o i de nt i f y s om e l e s s ons t he y w a nt e d t o s ha r e w i t h ot he r s B us i ne s s Sy s t e m s N F C C m e m be r s w or ke d c l os e l y w i t h J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d ( J W B ) s t a f f t o de ve l op t he ne w A S E m ode l T h i s i nvol ve d s t r e ngt he ni ng t he i r o r ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e de t e r m i ni ng how t o m a na ge a nd a dm i ni s t e r t he s i n gl e c ont r a c t a nd i nt e r f a c i ng w i t h J W B e xpl or i ng opt i ons f or a dm i n i s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc i e s f o r m e m be r s r e s ol vi ng how t o pa y f or t he ne w m ode l a nd a ddr e s s i ng ot he r i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o gr oup pr oc e s s F r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of J W B s t a f f m os t i m por t a nt w a s a l l o w i ng N F C C m e m be r s t o de ve l op t he A S E s t r uc t ur e t he m s e l v e s A s a not he r e xa m pl e of de s c r i bi ng t he e l e pha nt how e ve r pe r c e pt i ons of t hi s c on c e pt o f a ut onom y va r i e d. A s pr e vi ous l y r e f e r e nc e d, J W B r e s e a r c he d c ol l a bo r a t i ve or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s be f or e t he y a ppr oa c he d t he N F C C but t he y put t h os e a s i de t o a l l ow t he N F C C t o de ve l op t he i r ow n m ode l T he r e w a s s t i l l t he f e e l i ng by N F C C m e m be r s t ha t be c a us e J W B s t a f f ha d a m ode l i n m i nd t he N F C C ha d t o w o r k t ow a r d t ha t : S o w e ha d t of i gu r e out w ha t i t i s t he y [ J W B ] t hought w a s goi ng t o be c r e a t e d, a nd t he n be gi n t o s ha r e t hi ngs ba c k a nd f or t h T he r e w e r e s om e e l e m e nt s of t he m ode l t ha t J W B s t a f f f e l t w e r e i m por t a nt t o e nc our a ge T he y w a nt e d t o e ns ur e t ha t a l l m e m be r s ha d a n e qua l l e ve l o f a ut hor i t y, r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r a ge nc y s i z e T he y a l s o f e l t i t w a s i m por t a nt t o a l l ow a l e ve l of c ont r ol a nd a ut onom y f o r t he m e m be r s W e di dn t pus h f or t he w ho l l y ow ne d ope r a t i on s a i d J i m H e e xpl a i ne d t ha t i t w a s i m po r t a nt a nd he l pf u l t o t hi s pr oc e s s t ha t t he m e m be r a ge nc i e s a l l r e m a i ne d a ut onom ous : t ha t e ve r ybod y ke pt t he i r boa r d; e ve r ybody ke pt

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143 t he i r c or por a t i on T ha t r e a l l y he l pe d, s a i d J i m T he y c oul d l ook a t t ha t a nd t he y c oul d ha ng on t o t ha t : I t s s t i l l m y boa r d; i t s s t i l l m y c o r por a t i on; I c a n s t i l l do t he s e ot he r t hi ngs I t hi nk t ha t w a s ve r y he l pf ul i n t he pr oc e s s O ve r a l l t he y w a nt e d N F C C m e m be r s t o be i n c ont r ol of t he i r ow n de s t i ny. A s P a ul e xpl a i ne d: I t hi nk t he bi gge s t t hi ng w e di d w a s t o t e l l t he m t h a t t he y r e s t i l l t he bos s T he y s t i l l r un t he i r p r ogr a m s t he w a y t he y ve a l w a ys r un t he m T he y c a n c ol l a bo r a t e on c ont r a c t s ; t he y c a n c ol l a bor a t e f or f undi ng; t he y c a n c ol l a bor a t e f o r a l l ki nds of m one y s a vi ng de a l s ; or t he y c a nnot W e l e f t i t c om pl e t e l y ope n. D e ve l opi ng a n or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l t ha t m e t t he c ont r a c t i ng a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i ve ne e ds w hi l e s t i l l f os t e r i ng a l e ve l of a ut onom y f or a l l m e m be r s w a s a c ha l l e nge a nd i t r e qui r e d a l l i nvol ve d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t hi nk out s i de t he box. T he or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l w oul d not be e a s y t o e na c t a nd t he r e w e r e m a ny p r obl e m s t o ove r c om e O r gani z at i onal St r uc t ur e B e f or e t he i nt e gr a t i on m ode l J W B c om m uni c a t e d a nd c ont r a c t e d di r e c t l y w i t h t he i ndi vi dua l ne i ghbor h ood f a m i l y c e nt e r s ( N F C s ) W i t h t he i n t e gr a t i on m ode l t he r e w oul d be a ne w r e por t i ng l e ve l be t w e e n t he N F C s a nd t he J W B t he ne w l e ve l be i ng t he N F C C T hi s w a s a pr obl e m f or t he m e m be r s e xpl a i ne d P a ul T he f a c t t ha t w e w e r e go i ng t o f und K e i t h a nd t he c oa l i t i on, a nd he i n t ur n w oul d f und t he a ppl i c a t i on [ f o r t he i ndi vi dua l N F C s ] t ha t w a s a r e a l p r obl e m be c a us e t ha t w a s l i ke a s t e p dow n f or s om e of t he m e m be r s I t s l i ke s a yi ng t o t he m W e r e de f undi ng you T he y l os t f a c e ove r i t a l i t t l e b i t T he y s a w us f undi ng K e i t h a nd t hi s bi g m a c hi ne a nd t ha t t he y w e r e s ub s e r vi e nt t o K e i t h.

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144 L oune l l s um m a r i z e d t he c onc e r n: I t s one t hi ng t o ha ve a f unde r c ont r ol your m one y, but t he n t o ha ve a not he r l a ye r i n be t w e e n t he r e W ha t doe s t ha t m e a n? T he r e a l s o w e r e s om e i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o w ho s r e a l l y i n c h a r ge of t he c ont r a c t t he f undi ng, t he r e por t s t he m oni t or i ng a nd ot he r r e qui r e m e nt s T he y r e a l l y ha dn t f i gu r e d t ha t ou t s a i d L oune l l W e s or t of w r ot e t he book a s w e w e nt a l ong. T he c onc e pt J W B ha d i n m i nd w a s c ont r ove r s i a l a s e xpl a i ne d by P a ul t o t he m e m be r s : T he w a y w e r e goi ng t o do i t i s goi ng t o be a l i t t l e odd t o s om e pe opl e but t he w a y w e r e goi ng t o do i t i s goi ng t o ke e p you i n c o nt r ol of your ow n de s t i ni e s T he or ga ni z a t i on t ha t w i l l s a y ye s or no w i l l be di r e c t or s of e a c h one of t he a ge nc i e s on t hi s boa r d [ a l l t he N F C s ] E a c h o r ga ni z a t i on ha s one vot e a nd you a l l w i l l m a ke your ow n de c i s i ons K e i t h w i l l w o r k f o r you. P a ul f ur t he r e xpl a i ne d t he ne w dyna m i c t ha t w oul d e xi s t be t w e e n t h e boa r d a nd t he N F C C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or : H e i s r e s pons i bl e t o t he m T he r e s no kow t ow i ng t o hi m f or he l p or be ggi ng f or he l p or a nyt hi ng. T he y a r e hi s bos s W i t hout a doubt t hi s pu t gr e a t pr e s s ur e on K e i t h, but t hi s w a s s om e t hi ng f o r w hi c h he ha d ongo i ng s uppor t f r om L oune l l a nd P a ul T hi s m ode l a l s o r a i s e d i s s ue s of c onf l i c t of i nt e r e s t L oune l l e xpl a i ne d s om e of t he c om pl e xi t i e s i nvol ve d i n t hi s p r oc e s s : T he y [ J W B ] ke e p s a yi ng t o us t he y r e goi ng t o m oni t or t he c oa l i t i on, a nd t ha t t he c oa l i t i on w i l l ha ve t o m oni t o r t he N F C s A nd I ke e p s a yi ng t o t he m B ut t ha t s i nc e s t uous be c a us e I m m oni t or i ng m ys e l f I f t he c oa l i t i on i s r e s pons i bl e f or s a yi ng t ha t I ge t a n A + a nd I a m t he c oa l i t i on

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145 S he e nde d t ha t s t a t e m e nt by s hr uggi ng he r s houl de r s a nd s ha ki ng he r he a d T he c onc e r n a bout c onf l i c t of i n t e r e s t w a s di s c us s e d by t he N F C C t r a ns i t i on t e a m a nd t he boa r d of di r e c t or s a s e xpl a i ne d i n t he i r m e e t i ng r e c or ds ( N F C C D e c 2003 ) : I t w a s de c i de d t ha t w hi l e t he r e m a y be a c on f l i c t o f i nt e r e s t be t w e e n t he a c t i vi t i e s of N F C C boa r d m e m be r s a nd t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t i e s a s C e nt e r D i r e c t or s t ha t c onf l i c t w a s ve r y di f f i c ul t t o r e s ol ve a nd t he r e f or e w a s a c c e pt a bl e I t w a s a gr e e d t ha t a pol i c y w oul d be c r e a t e d s t a t i ng t ha t i n t he e v e nt t ha t a n N F C C boa r d m e m be r f e l t t h e y w e r e i n c onf l i c t t he y w oul d de c l a r e t ha t c onf l i c t a nd i t w oul d be di s c us s e d by t he boa r d m e m be r s ( p. 1) U l t i m a t e l y, m e m be r s ha d s om e c ont r ol a nd t he op por t uni t y t he y w e r e be i ng gi ve n w a s uni que A s L oune l l s a i d: W e got a n oppor t uni t y t o bui l d t hi s t h i ng t ha t W E w a nt e d t o bui l d. T he r e i s n t a nybody e l s e w ho c a n be i n c ha r ge of t he e xe c ut i v e di r e c t or w ho i s i n c ha r ge of t he i r m one y. W e a r e t he boa r d s o w e c a n bu i l d i t t o m e e t our ne e ds T ha t i s how w e be ga n t o do t ha t F i ndi ng j us t t he r i ght m i x o f e nc our a gi ng a ut onom y a nd pr ovi di ng he l p a nd s t r uc t ur e w a s di f f i c ul t f or J W B s t a f f A s L oune l l e xpl a i ne d: T he y t r i e d r e a l ha r d not t o ge t i n t he w a y I t w a s i n t ha t s e ns e t he y t r i e d r e a l ha r d not t o dr i ve t he t r a i n, not t o ge t i n t he w a y, not a nyt hi ng. A nd s o, i t w o r ke d. A not he r i s s ue t he N F C C boa r d f e l t ne c e s s a r y t o a d dr e s s w a s t o de f i ne s om e of t he t e r m s t ha t w e r e be i ng t hr ow n a r ound w he n t a l ki ng a bout t he ne w A S E m ode l A t one m e e t i ng ( D e c 2003 ) t he y di s c us s e d de f i ni t i ons of t e r m s s uc h a s aut onom y gov e r nanc e a nd pol i c y a s t he y r e l a t e d t o N F C C a c t i vi t i e s T he y f e l t i t e s pe c i a l l y ne c e s s a r y, a s t he y

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146 m ove d f or w a r d t o de ve l op a de f i ni t i on o f aut ono m y t ha t w a s pr e pa r e d a nd p r e s e nt e d f or a ppr ova l a t t he f ol l ow i ng N F C C boa r d m e e t i ng: A ut onom y : E a c h N F C i s a n i nde pe nde nt e nt i t y a nd i s or ga ni z e d a nd i nc or por a t e d a s s uc h. A s a 501( c ) ( 3 ) c or po r a t i on, e a c h N F C ha s i t s ow n boa r d o f di r e c t or s t ha t i s r e s pons i bl e f or a l l t he a c t i vi t i e s t ha t a c c r ue t o a non pr of i t boa r d. E a c h N F C ha s a ut onom y r e ga r di ng pr ogr a m s s t a f f i n g, a nd ope r a t i ons A N F C m a y s e l e c t c e r t a i n f i na nc i a l a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c a n be c onduc t e d by t he C oa l i t i on f or a f e e ( N F C C D e f i ni t i ons 2004 p 1) O ne i s s ue a l l ude d t o i n t h i s de f i ni t i on i s e f f i c i e nc i e s w hi c h a r e di s c us s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i on. O ne hope J W B ha d f or t he A S E w a s t ha t m e m be r s w oul d pu r c ha s e a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e s t hr ough t he N F C C but t hi s w a s not w e l c om e d by m e m be r s T hi s i s s ue w i l l a l s o be a ddr e s s e d. Si ngl e C ont r ac t and C hangi ng N or m s B e c a us e e ve r yone w a s c om m i t t e d t o m a ki ng t hi s w or k, J W B s t a f f w e nt out o f t he i r w a y t o be f l e xi b l e a nd t o a l t e r t he i r i n t e r na l p r oc e dur e s a nd pr a c t i c e s f or c ont r a c t m a na ge m e nt T o m a ke t hi s pr oc e s s w or k, J W B ha d t o be f l e xi bl e a nd a c c om m oda t i ng l i ke ne ve r be f o r e a nd J W B s t a f f ha d t o go t o ba t f or t he N F C C T he J W B [ s t a f f ] ha s be e n a n i nt e gr a l pa r t of t hi s p r oc e s s s a i d K e i t h, a nd a n i m por t a nt pa r t ; not j us t be c a us e of t he [ f undi ng] bu t be c a us e w ha t t he y ve b r ought t o t he pr oc e s s H e r e f e r e nc e d t he r ol e of P a ul a s a l i a i s on a nd a dvoc a t e B e c a us e t he N F C C w a s a ne w s t r uc t ur e a nd di f f e r e nt t ha n a nyt hi ng e l s e t he J W B e ve r de a l t w i t h, t he y h a d t o be a c c om m oda t i ng t o c ha nge t he r ul e s a nd t r y ne w pr a c t i c e s A s K e i t h e xpl a i ne d:

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147 I t hi nk t he J W B [ s t a f f ] ha s be e n ve r y c oope r a t i ve t hr oughout t he p r oc e s s T he i r r ol e ha s b e e n t o a dvi s e a nd t o s uppor t T he y ve be e n ve r y s uppor t i ve a nd t he y ve be e n ve r y a c c om m oda t i ng. T he y ve c ha nge d po l i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s t ha t w e r e l i t e r a l l y c a s t i n c onc r e t e t o a c c om m oda t e t he di f f e r e nc e s w i t h t he c oa l i t i on. W he n I us e t he w or d a c c om m oda t i ng, I w a s unde r s t a t i ng i t K e i t h c ont i nue d. T he y ve be e n ve r y ve r y i nt e r e s t e d i n w or ki ng w i t h us a nd t he y ha ve m a de s om e c ha nge s t ha t f r a nkl y I w oul d not ha ve a nt i c i pa t e d t he m be i ng w i l l i ng t o m a ke T he J W B kne w t he y w e r e c ha r t i ng ne w t e r r i t o r y. K e i t h e xpl a i ne d t ha t one r e a s on f or t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o c ha nge pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s w a s be c a us e t he y hope d t hi s w oul d be c om e a m ode l t he y c oul d a ppl y t o o t he r s i m i l a r s i t ua t i ons T he w or k w e r e doi ng now a nd t he s ys t e m m odi f i c a t i ons t ha t t he y r e m a ki ng, i n a l l l i k e l i hood, w i l l be a ppl i e d t o ot he r s K e i t h c ons i de r s hi m s e l f a J W B be l i e ve r H e a c k now l e dge s t ha t t he r e w e r e t i m e s w he n he obvi ous l y w a s f r us t r a t e d by t he J W B I t hi nk a nybody w ho i s n t i s c r a z y. B ut I t hi nk t ha t t he y ha ve done a n e xc e pt i ona l j ob i n w o r ki ng w i t h t hi s e nt i t y a nd t hi s pr oc e s s A n e xc e pt i ona l j ob! O ne of t he s t r a t e gi e s J W B put i n pl a c e w a s t o ope r a t e dua l s ys t e m s f or a l l c ont r a c t i ng f unc t i ons f o r 6 m ont hs A pr i l t hr ough S e pt e m be r 2004, be f or e t he N F C C ha d t o be s uc c e s s f ul l y ope r a t i ng on t he i r ow n c om e O c t obe r 1. T he N F C C a nd t he J W B i m pl e m e nt e d a nd t e s t e d ne w f i na nc i a l pol i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s pr ogr a m m a t i c da t a r e por t i ng, a nd ot he r c ont r a c t p r a c t i c e s f or a 6 m ont h t e s t pha s e T hi s p r ove d i n r e t r os pe c t t o be a c r i t i c a l s t r a t e gy, e xpl a i ne d P a ul T he r e w e r e que s t i ons t ha t c a m e up t ha t you di dn t t hi nk a bout w he n you r e bui l di ng t hi s t hi ng be c a us e s om e t i m e s you c a n t t hi nk of e ve r y pos s i bi l i t y. T ha nk

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148 goodne s s w e ha d t ha t 6 m ont h t e s t i ng pe r i od f or e ve r y pos s i bl e t hi ng t ha t c oul d ha ve gone w r ong. S om e o f t hos e t hi ngs w e di d ha v e t o go ba c k a nd r e ne got i a t e A s K e i t h e xpl a i ne d: P a ul L a c ke y, i ndi vi dua l l y ha s done a s i gni f i c a nt j ob i n ne got i a t i ng t he ne e ds t ha t w e ha ve w i t h t he J W B a nd he l pi ng t he m t o unde r s t a nd t he a c c om m oda t i ons t ha t t he y r e m a ki ng N F C C m e m be r s unde r s t ood t ha t i t be c a m e P a ul s m i s s i on t o ge t t he c oa l i t i on of f t he gr ound a nd ope r a t i ng s m oot hl y. P a ul a dm i t s t ha t s om e ot he r pr oj e c t s s uf f e r e d T he r e w a s a t i m e t he r e pr oba bl y 6 m ont hs t ha t I [ w o r ke d on] s om e t hi ng E V E R Y D A Y : i ns ur a nc e s ys t e m s c om put e r s pol i c i e s D ur i ng a vi t a l 6 m ont h pe r i od he e s t i m a t e d s pe ndi ng 25 hour s a w e e k on t he N F C C A S E pr oj e c t O c t obe r 1 t he y ha d t o f l y a l l on t he i r ow n, s a i d J i m J W B s t a f f m e m be r s w e r e hol di ng t he i r br e a t h, s a i d P a ul E ve r yone w a nt e d a nd ne e de d t hi s t o go w e l l I t hi nk t ha t I ha d a c a r d i a c ge t t i ng t he i r f i r s t r e i m bur s e m e nt i n, s a i d J i m W oul d i t be r i ght ? W oul d i t go t h r ough? T he t e s t pha s e pr ove d s uc c e s s f ul B y O c t obe r 1 w he n t he N F C C w a s s c he dul e d t o be f ul l y ope r a t i ona l a nd i nde pe nde nt I t t ook o ve r l i ke t ha t [ s na p! ] P a ul s a i d. E ve r yt hi ng w e nt pe r f e c t l y. I t w a s i nc r e di bl e I m e a n nobody e ve n not i c e d t ha t i t ha ppe ne d; i t w a s s o s m oot h. I m e a n, i t w a s s c a r y; i t r e a l l y w a s W he n O c t obe r 1 c a m e t he pr e vi ous l y pe r c e i ve d t h r e a t s di m i ni s he d, s a i d K e i t h. T he m e m be r s s a w t ha t t hi s w a s not goi ng t o de s t r oy us ; t ha t i t w a s n t goi ng t o i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he i r ope r a t i ons ; t ha t t he r e r e a l l y w a s ve r y l i t t l e c ha nge s ubt l e c ha nge s onl y, i n how t he f unds w e r e f l ow i ng.

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149 E f f i c i e n c i e s and C os t s I n a ddi t i on t o m a na gi ng a l l c om pone nt s of t he c ont r a c t t he r e a l s o w a s t he hope t ha t t he N F C C c oul d s e r ve a s a t r ue A S E t o s ha r e a nd r e duc e a dm i ni s t r a t i ve c os t s O ne i de a w a s t ha t s m a l l e r c e nt e r s w oul d be a bl e t o i ne xpe ns i ve l y pur c ha s e va r i o us a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e s f r om t he N F C C s uc h a s bookke e pi ng, hum a n r e s our c e s w or k, da t a r e por t i ng, a nd t he l i ke S om e c e nt e r s onl y ha d f our s t a f f m e m be r s s o t hi s t ype of a r r a nge m e nt c oul d be e xt r e m e l y be ne f i c i a l t o t he m T h i s i s s ue w a s t a ke n i nt o a c c ount i n t he e a r l y pl a nni ng of t he A S E m ode l e xpl a i ne d J i m : C om m uni t y gr oups t e nd t o be ve r y, ve r y m i s s i on d r i ve nI f one of t he ongoi ng pr obl e m s i s t r yi ng t o do pr og r a m s a nd t r yi ng t o m a na ge a nd m os t of t he pr obl e m s c om e out i n t he m a na ge m e nt s i de w e l l l e t s f i gu r e out a w a y t o e a s e up t he m a na ge m e nt de m a nds a nd l e t f ol ks c onc e nt r a t e on w ha t t he y r e a l l y l ove w hi c h i s pr ogr a m s P a ul pe r c e i ve d t hi s t ype of m ode l a s a gr e a t be ne f i t f or t he s m a l l a ge nc i e s a nd he t a l ke d a bout how s om e o f t he m e m be r s s t a r t e d t o g e t e xc i t e d a bout i t : A s t he m ont hs w e nt by, s om e of t he m w e r e s a yi ng, Y ou know t hi s i s gr e a t I m ge t t i ng t o f a r m out a l l of m y bookke e pi ng, m y m o nt h t o m ont h a nd I ge t a s t a t e m e nt a nd I don t ha ve t o w r i t e a ny c he c ks ; a l l I ha ve t o do i s r un m y pr ogr a m s T hi s i s w onde r f ul J i m de s c r i be d i t s i m i l a r l y: W e ha d pe opl e t ha t w a nt e d t o t u r n i t ove r t he s e c ond m e e t i ng. H e e xpl a i ne d t ha t m e m be r s w oul d s a y, W e don t w a nt t ha t pi e c e of i t A t t he t i m e of t he i nt e r vi e w s m os t m e m be r s c ont i nue d t o do t he i r ow n a dm i ni s t r a t i ve w or k but P a ul f or e s ha dow e d w ha t he t hough t w oul d ha ppe n:

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150 T he y ve [ t he N F C s ] l e t go of m or e t ha n I e ve r t ho ught t he y w oul d l e t go of a nd I t hi nk a s t i m e goe s by t he y l l l e t go of a l l of i t B e c a us e how c oul d you not w a nt t ha t de a l ; I m e a n no t t o ha ve t o de a l w i t h a dm i ni s t r a t i ve pr obl e m s I t w oul d be one of t he gr e a t e s t t hi ngs a n a dm i ni s t r a t o r c oul d e ve r ge t j us t t o ge t t o r un t he i r pr ogr a m s a nd ne ve r ha ve t o w or r y a bout s t a yi ng i n your budge t P a ul e xpl a i ne d t ha t a s m e m be r s s t a r t e d t o e xpl o r e t he s e s e r vi c e s a nd t a l k a bout t he opt i ons a t m e e t i ngs t he s e nt i m e nt e ve nt ua l l y c a ught on a m ong t he s m a l l e r c e nt e r s T he y w oul d s a y t o P a ul : W e c a n t w a i t f or t hi s b e c a us e i t s goi ng t o s a ve us s o m uc h m one y. A s t hos e ki nds of c onve r s a t i ons c ont i nue d t o oc c ur a t m e e t i ngs a l l of a s udde n, P a ul s a i d, t hi ngs got a l i t t l e be t t e r M e nt i one d a t t he be gi nni ng o f t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r w a s t he pa r a bl e of t he bl i nd m e n de s c r i bi ng t he e l e pha nt t hi s w a s a not he r e xa m pl e of s uc h di s pa r i t y O ne N F C C m e m be r s a i d, I t hi nk t he [ J W B ] boa r d t hought i t w a s goi ng t o s a ve m one y, but i t doe s n t N ot on our s i de of t he f e nc e i t doe s n t s a ve a ny m one y. N F C C m e m be r s f e l t l i ke t he y w e r e p r om i s e d l e s s pa pe r w or k a nd l e s s a dm i ni s t r a t i ve w or k, but t ha t di dn t ha ppe n a nd t h e r e w e r e no c os t s a vi ngs T he y pe r c e i ve d t ha t t he on l y e f f i c i e nc i e s w e r e goi ng t o be f or J W B I t r e duc e d t he num be r of c o nt r a c t s t he y ha ve t o m a na ge by a g r e a t de a l a nd t he y r e pr oud of t ha t T he T ax T he r e w a s one a s pe c t of t he bus i ne s s s ys t e m t ha t e s pe c i a l l y hi t s om e ne r ve s w hi c h w a s t he r e qui r e m e nt f or m e m be r s t o pa y f o r t hi s ne w m ode l w hi c h t he y di dn t w a nt i n t he f i r s t pl a c e a nd t o de c i de on a pr oc e s s f or di vi di ng up t he c os t s T he J W B boa r d onl y a gr e e d t o p r ovi de 14 m ont hs of f undi ng a f t e r w h i c h t i m e t he N F C C ha d t o

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151 be c om e s e l f s uf f i c i e nt J W B w a s n t goi ng t o gi ve us a ny m or e m one y, e xpl a i ne d K e i t h. N F C C m e m be r s ha d t a l ke d m a ny t i m e s be f or e a bo ut f i ndi ng m one y t o pa y f o r s t a f f t o he l p t he m do t he t hi ngs T H E Y w a nt e d t o do but t he y ne ve r be f or e t hought a bout l ooki ng a t t he m s e l ve s a s t he s our c e of t ha t f undi ng. L oune l l s a i d, I don t t hi nk t he y [ N F C C m e m be r s ] w oul d ha ve e ve r s t e ppe d up t o t he pl a t e a nd s a i d, I l l gi ve 2% of m y budge t t o do t hi s ( T w o pe r c e nt be i ng t he f i na l f i na nc i a l c o m m i t m e nt a gr e e d upon by m e m be r s ) T hi s be c a m e one of t he m os t ve r ba l i z e d poi nt s of c ont e nt i on a m ong m e m be r s a bout t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s M e m be r s w e nt c r a z y! S om e o f t he m di dn t w a nt a ny J W B m one y i nvol ve d i n f und i ng t he i r c oa l i t i on M e m be r s r e f e r r e d t o g i vi ng up t he i r f undi ng t o J W B a s ha vi ng t o gi ve t he m bl ood. S om e m e m be r s t hr e a t e ne d t o w a l k out or l e a ve I t r e a l l y got ha i r y, s a i d L oune l l but h e y, 2% i s 2% M a ny va r i a t i ons of how t o f und t he c oa l i t i on w e r e di s c us s e d. A f t e r m a ny a r gum e nt s a nd de b a t e s a bout t he i s s ue i t w a s de c i de d t o t a ke a por t i on of e ve r yone s J W B f undi ng t o pa y f or t he of f i c e a nd s t a f f i ng of t he N F C C T he f i na l f i gur e w a s 2% f or e ve r y m e m be r r e ga r dl e s s of t he s i z e of t he m e m be r a ge nc y, t he i r l e ve l o f f undi ng, or t he i r l e ve l o f a nt i c i pa t e d de pe nde nc e on t he ne w N F C C W e s e t t l e d on 2% a nd t ha t s w ha t i t w a s s a i d L oune l l I t s a w a y o f f und i ng t he c oa l i t i on, a nd t ha t s ba s i c a l l y how w e c om e up w i t h t ha t s e t a m ount o f m one y. S o i t i s J W B s m one y, but i t s J W B s m one y w e ga ve u p. E ve n a f t e r t he de c i s i ons ha d be e n m a de how e ve r m e m be r s w oul d c om e ba c k t o t h e ne xt m e e t i ng a nd s om e of t he a r gum e nt s w oul d s t a r t ove r a ga i n.

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152 Y ou m e a n, w a s t he r e O N E T I M E w he n t ha t ha pp e ne d? K e i t h s a i d, l a ughi ng i n r e s pons e t o m y que s t i on a b out oppos i t i on a nd c onf l i c t a m ong m e m be r s W e r e t he r e a n E N D L E S S num be r of t i m e s w he n t ha t ha ppe ne d? A n U N C O U N T A B L E num be r of t i m e s ? Y e s t he r e w e r e unc ount a bl e t i m e s A t i t s w or s t e ve r y boa r d m e e t i ng w a s a n e xe r c i s e i n c ont e nt i on. O ne w a y t he y m ove d pa s t t hi s w a s be c a us e of s e nt i m e nt s e xpr e s s e d by t he i r boa r d pr e s i de nt L oune l l a s de s c r i be d by P a ul : L oune l l bl e s s he r he a r t t he s a i nt s he i s s a i d I m pa yi ng m or e t ha n a nybody i n t hi s r oom a nd I a gr e e w i t h t hi s a nd I t hi nk t hi s i s t he w a y w e s houl d go. I m w i l l i ng t o pa y m y 2 % a nd i t s m uc h gr e a t e r t ha n a nybody e l s e T ha t r e a l l y di f f us e d a l o t of t hi ngs e xpl a i ne d P a ul H e s ha r e d m o r e of L oune l l s w or ds t o he r c ol l e a gue s t ha t he l pe d t ur n t he t i de : I w oul d s ur vi ve p r oba bl y, ove r e ve r yone [ A nd s h e w oul d ha ve ] but I c hoos e t o be pa r t of t hi s gr oup I c hoos e t o s a ve e ve r yone not j us t t w o o r t h r e e of you. I c hoos e t o s a ve e ve r yone t ha t s w i l l i ng t o be s a ve d. W ow s a i d P a ul Y ou know how do you f i ght t ha t ? D e s pi t e he r s t r ong s e nt i m e nt s L ou ne l l a nd m os t of t he m e m be r s f e l t t ha t t he 2% w a s not doi ng a nyt hi ng f or t he m I t i s m y c ont r i b ut i on t o r unni ng t he c oa l i t i on a nd t o t ha t of f i c e T ha t s a l l s a i d one m e m be r B ut i t d oe s n t br i ng m e a nyt hi ng i n t ha t s e ns e N F C C m e m be r s s oon be ga n t o c a l l t he 2% s ha r e T he T ax w hi c h s e e m e d t o pr ovi de a n oppor t uni t y f or j oki ng a nd m oc ki ng J W B T he y got t o c a l l i ng i t t he t ax s a i d P a ul l ovi ngl y W he n P a ul w a s a t m e e t i ngs w he r e m e m be r s s t a r t e d ba nt e r i ng a bout

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153 t he t ax he s a i d, I ns t e a d of ge t t i ng ups e t w i t h t he m be i ng s i l l y, I j us t s t a r t e d l a ughi ng a nd I d c a l l i t t he t ax t oo A nd, w e ki nd of got t h r o ugh t ha t pe r i od of t i m e W he n pus h c a m e t o s hove m e m be r s ha d t o f i nd w a ys t o c ont r i but e t he i r 2% J W B di d s om e t hi ngs t o he l p e a s e t he 2 % t a x bur d e n, e xpl a i ne d P a ul J W B w a s a bl e t o gi ve t he N F C s a c os t of l i vi ng i nc r e a s e t ha t w a s a bout t he s a m e a s t he 2% t a x. P a ul e xpl a i ne d t he 2% i nc r e a s e a nd J W B s pe r s pe c t i ve : I t s t he 2 % t he y no r m a l l y ge t f o r t he i r e m pl oye e r a i s e s S o, t he y ha d t o gi ve up t he i r 2% t o pa y t he t a x. B ut t he n t he y s t a r t e d t o r e a l i z e t ha t t he y w e r e goi ng t o s a ve m or e S o t he y ki nd o f s t a r t e d hus hi ng up a bo ut i t A s pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d, how e ve r m os t m e m be r s di dn t s e e a ny i m m e di a t e c os t s a vi ngs nor a ny i n t he i r ne a r f ut ur e D e c i s i on M ak i ng P r ac t i c e s I n a ddi t i on t o de ve l opi ng ne w w a ys of t a l ki ng a bo ut t he s hi f t s a nd c ha nge s oc c ur r i ng a r ound t he m m e m be r s a l s o ha d t o de ve l op ne w w a ys of m a ki ng de c i s i ons O ne a r e a w he r e pr obl e m s r e s ul t e d w a s w i t hi n t he N F C C boa r d s c om m i t t e e p r oc e dur e s e s pe c i a l l y w i t h t he i nt e gr a t i on t r a ns i t i on t e a m L i k e m os t boa r ds of di r e c t or s t he N F C C boa r d ha d a num be r of c om m i t t e e s s uc h a s f i na nc e s t r a t e gi c pl a nni ng a nd e va l ua t i on. B e c a us e t he boa r d w a s s m a l l e a c h c om m i t t e e c om pr i s e d onl y t hr e e t o f ou r boa r d m e m be r s I n s om e i ns t a nc e s out s i de vol unt e e r s w oul d be a s ke d t o s e r ve on c om m i t t e e s or t o p r ovi de c ouns e l a s w a s t he c a s e w i t h t r a ns i t i on t e a m c om m i t t e e w hi c h P a ul us ua l l y s a t i n on. A s pr e vi ous l y e xpl a i ne d, a n a d hoc c om m i t t e e c a l l e d t he T r a ns i t i on T e a m w a s f or m e d t o de ve l op pl a ns f or i nt e gr a t i on T he t r a ns i t i on t e a m m e m be r s l i ke a l l o f t he boa r d c om m i t t e e s w or ke d on t he de t a i l s of t he i nt e gr a t i on pl a n a nd b r ought

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154 r e c om m e nda t i ons t o t he f u l l boa r d f o r r e vi e w a nd a dopt i on. W he n t he s e r e c om m e nda t i ons w e r e m a de by t he t r a ns i t i on t e a m t o t he f ul l boa r d, c ont r ove r s y e r upt e d, be c a us e m e m be r s f e l t t he y w e r e be i ng l e f t out of ke y de c i s i ons I t hi nk w e ki nd o f ha d a s how dow n m e e t i ng, e xp l a i ne d P a ul W e r e a l l y ha d a r e a l i z a t i on m e e t i ng f o r e ve r yone o f w he r e w e r e a t a nd w ha t w e r e doi ng A s i t pe r t a i ne d t o r e c e i vi ng c om m i t t e e r e c om m e nda t i ons a c oupl e N F C C m e m be r s s a i d, A l l w e w a nt i s t o be pa r t o f t he pr oc e s s I t w a s t he n t h a t P a ul r e a l i z e d s om e t hi ng ve r y ba s i c a nd i m por t a nt a bout w or ki ng w i t h N F C C m e m be r s : I t w a s l i ke gol l y a nd oh m y G od! S om e t i m e s you t hi nk t ha t you r e he l pi ng s om e body by doi ng s om e t hi ng f or t he m A nd t o t h e m you r e doi ng s om e t hi ng w i t hout t he m A nd w e di d n t e ve n t hi nkW e t hou ght w e w e r e t r yi ng t o be he l pf ul F or t he t i m e be i ng t he b oa r d c ha nge d i t s p r oc e s s t o ha ve m or e d i s c u s s i ons a t t he boa r d l e ve l T he boa r d de ve l ope d a ne w pol i c y a nd pr oc e dur e ( N F C C J a n. 2004 ) f o r how t hi s w oul d be ha ndl e d: I t w a s de c i de d t ha t a l l m a t e r i a l s w oul d be s e nt t o e a c h di r e c t or r a t he r t ha n t he T r a ns i t i on T e a m onl y, s o t ha t e ve r yone i s i nc l ude d i n t he pr oc e s s a nd c a n pa r t i c i pa t e I t w a s a l s o de c i de d t ha t di r e c t or s w oul d be a s ke d t o r e s pond t o m a t e r i a l s s ubm i t t e d f or r e vi e w a nd c om m e nt no l a t e r t ha n 10 da ys pr i or t o t he ne xt boa r d m e e t i ng ( p 1 ) O nc e m e m be r s got i nc l ude d i n t he di s c us s i ons a nd s t a r t e d ge t t i ng e ve r y pi e c e of pa pe r t he c on f l i c t s ubs i de d a nd t hi ngs s t a r t e d m ov i ng m or e s m oot hl y A s P a ul de s c r i be d:

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155 I t w a s j us t a m a z i ng t he c ha nge t ha t ha ppe ne d. I t hought m y G od, i f I ha d know n t ha t 10 m ont hs a go, I w oul d ha ve ha ndl e d t hi s s o di f f e r e nt l y B e c a us e s om e t i m e s you j us t t r y t o do s o m uc h f o r pe opl e a nd you don t r e a l i z e t ha t you r e t a ki ng a w a y f r om t he m t hi ngs t he y r e a l l y w a nt t o d o f or t he m s e l ve s I t m e a ns s om e t hi ng t o t he m a s f a r a s be i ng a l e a d e r of t he o r ga ni z a t i on. F r om t ha t poi nt on s a i d P a ul T he y r e be i ng i nc l u de dt he y r e not be i ng t ol d w ha t t o do. A s a r e s ul t m e m be r s m o r e e a s i l y s uppor t e d c ha nge s i n pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s be c a us e t he y w e r e i nvol ve d i n he l pi ng t o c r e a t e t he m C ont r ac t u al I nt e r de pe nde nc e R e s t or i ng t he i r s e ns e of a ut onom y a nd ha vi ng a ne w l e ve l of a ut hor i t y br ought ne w c ha l l e nge s t o t he N F C C boa r d o f di r e c t or s U nde r t he ne w A S E m ode l a l l t he a ge nc i e s be c a m e r e s pons i bl e t o a nd f or one a not he r T hi s i nc l ude d hol d i ng one a not he r a c c ount a bl e a s w e l l a s hol di ng e a c h ot he r up w he n t he y ne e de d he l p. T hi s f e a t ur e of t he ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l a l s o p r ovi de d oppor t uni t i e s f or b r e a kt hr oughs a nd f u r t he r de ve l opm e nt of t he c oa l i t i on, i t s m e m be r s a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps B e i ng i nt e r de pe nde nt m e a ns t ha t i f one of t he c e nt e r s ge t s i n t r oubl e s om e how t h e N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s c a n m a ke de c i s i ons a bout how t o ha ndl e t ha t T he y be c om e r e s pons i bl e f or t he l e ve l a nd f o r m s of c ont r a c t c om pl i a nc e t ha t J W B s t a f f a nd boa r d pr e vi ous l y ha d T hi s t a ke s s om e of t he pr e s s ur e of f t he N F C C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or e xpl a i ne d P a ul T ha t s w hy w e c r e a t e d t hi s boa r d W hoe ve r i s t he c ha i r w i l l be on t he a ge nda t o di s c us s or s a y, S o m e body s out o f c om pl i a nc e T h i s t a ke s s om e of t he s t r e s s of f of K e i t h.

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156 B e i ng i n or out o f c om pl i a nc e m e a ns t ha t one of t h e c e nt e r s i s not m e e t i ng i t s c ont r a c t ua l r e qui r e m e nt s D ue t o t he ne w i nt e r de pe nde nc e m ode l i t a l s o m e a ns t he e nt i r e c oa l i t i on i s out o f c om pl i a nc e ; t hus w ha t ha ppe ns t o one c e nt e r i m pa c t s a l l of t he m I f n onc om pl i a nc e i s s ue s go unc or r e c t e d i t c oul d l e a d t o f undi ng pr obl e m s f o r t he e nt i r e N F C C W ha t t ha t w oul d m e a n, e xpl a i ne d P a ul t he y d c om e t o t he t a bl e j us t l i ke t he y do up t he r e [ poi nt i ng up t o J W B a dm i ni s t r a t i on] a nd s a y, O ka y, t e l l us w he r e you r e ha vi ng pr obl e m s T hi s w a s a s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge be c a us e i n t he pa s t P a ul e xpl a i ne d m e m be r s ha d a n a t t i t ude o f T hi s i s m y bus i ne s s I l l t a ke c a r e of t ha t N ow s a i d P a ul i t s m or e l i ke I f you c a n t t a ke c a r e of your bus i ne s s you r e goi ng t o h a ve t o ope n up a nd t e l l us w ha t s goi ng on. T hi s ha s r e a l l y l e d pe opl e now t o ope n up m o r e e xpl a i ne d P a ul K e i t h f ur t he r de s c r i be d t he p r oc e s s a nd how t he r o l e of t he N F C C boa r d o f di r e c t or s w i l l di f f e r f r o m J W B s t a f f : F i r s t of a l l w e c a n i nt e r ve ne i n f a r m o r e pr oduc t i v e w a ys t ha n t he J W B c oul d i nt e r ve ne W e c a n i nt e r ve ne c ons t r uc t i ve l y. T he J W B of t e n ha s t o i nt e r ve ne puni t i ve l y. T ha t s t he i r r ol e I m not s a yi ng t ha t s a ba d t hi ng; t ha t s j us t t he i r r ol e Y ou know w he n you do s om e t hi ng w r ong y ou ge t p ut on c or r e c t i ve a c t i on. T ha t s pun i t i ve W e i nt e r ve ne a t t he l e ve l w he r e you don t ha ve t o be on c or r e c t i ve a c t i on. W e gui de you t h r ough. W e ha ve n t ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o do t ha t ye t bu t t he da y w i l l c om e P a ul f ur t he r de s c r i be d t he r ol e t he N F C C w o ul d pl a y:

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157 I t m a ke s i t a c t ua l l y e a s i e r f or t hi s g r oup t o go out a nd s a y, H e r e s t he s i t ua t i ona nd w e l l he l p you do w ha t e ve r you ne e d t o do t o ge t t hr ougha nd ge t your a c t t oge t he r W e l l he l p you ge t your pr ob l e m s s ol ve d, but i f t he y pe r s i s t i t s goi ng t o a f f e c t t he ove r a l l f undi ng of t he or ga n i z a t i on. T he n t he y c a n br i ng t he ha m m e r dow n a nd s a y, L ook, you know w e r e goi ng t o i ns i s t on t hi s be c a us e i t c a nnot a f f e c t t he ove r a l l f und i ng of t hi s or ga ni z a t i on. I n s um m a r y, P a ul e xpl a i ne d T he y c a n he l p e a c h ot he r w he n t he y s t a r t ha vi ng pr obl e m s T he y c a n s t e p i n, he l p o r ga ni z a t i ons t ha t a r e f a i l i ng a ndbr i ng t he m out of i t be f or e t he [ J W B ] boa r d ha s t o ge t i nvol ve d T hi s l e ve l of i nt e r de pe nde nc e r e qui r e d a s t r ong l e ve l of t r us t a m ong m e m be r s t ha t ne e de d t o be f os t e r e d t h r oughout t he pr oc e s s T he y ne e de d t o ha ve a c ohe s i ve t e a m t ha t w a s w i l l i ng t o a c t i n e ve r yone s be s t i nt e r e s t P e opl e s ys t e m s t he r e f or e be c a m e e qua l l y i m po r t a nt t o t he s uc c e s s of t he i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t P e opl e Sy s t e m s I n a ddi t i on t o de a l i ng w i t h t he bus i ne s s a s pe c t s of t he ne w m ode l be i ng de ve l ope d, pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o ha d t o de a l w i t h t he pe opl e i nvol ve d: t he i r f e a r s r e s i s t a nc e a nd c onf l i c t T hr oughou t t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f t h e m ode l t he y ha d t o f i nd w a ys t o ove r c om e t he c ha l l e nge s t ha t i m pa c t e d t he i r gr oup c ohe s i ve ne s s a nd c om m uni c a t i on, a nd t he y ha d t o f i nd w a ys t o s t r e ngt he n t o t he t e a m t o be c om e e ve n s t r onge r t o de a l w i t h t he ne w m ode l put i n pl a c e M a i nt a i ni ng a s t r ong a nd pos i t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he e nt i t i e s t he N F C s t he N F C C a nd t he J W B w a s a l s o e s s e nt i a l

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158 R e s i s t anc e t o t he N e w M ode l I s s ue s of r e s i s t a nc e f r om N F C C m e m be r s t ow a r d t he s ugge s t e d i nt e gr a t i on m a ni f e s t e d t he m s e l ve s i n a num be r o f di f f e r e nt f or m s a nd f or a num be r of di f f e r e nt r e a s ons T he y r e s i s t e d be c a us e t he y f a i l e d t o s e e t he l ogi c i n t he ne w m ode l F o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s ons t he y r e s i s t e d be c a us e t he y w e r e goi ng t o h a ve t o pa y ( a t ax ) f or t he ne w m ode l t he y w e r e be i ng f or c e d t o c r e a t e T he i r out w a r d m a ni f e s t a t i ons of t hi s r e s i s t a nc e t ook t he f or m o f c onf l i c t t hr oug h a r gum e nt s t hr e a t s a nd de l a ys M e m be r s a l s o r e s i s t e d f or m or e pe r s ona l r e a s ons be c a us e t he y f e l t t he y w e r e l os i ng t he i r i nde pe nde nc e or w e r e be i ng de ni gr a t e d, a s i f t he y w e r e i nc a pa bl e t o r unni ng t h e i r ow n a ge nc i e s A s de m ons t r a t e d i n a pr e vi ous s e c t i on N F C C m e m be r s t hought t he ne w m ode l di dn t m a ke s e ns e w hi c h be c a m e one r e a s on f or t h e i r r e s i s t a nc e A l l i t doe s e xpl a i ns L oune l l i s t a ke our m one y f r om J W B s e nd i t t o a not he r e nt i t y, w ho t he n s e nds i t t o us M e m be r s c oul d not s e e a r a t i ona l e xpl a n a t i on f o r t he c r e a t i on of t he A S E T he r e w e r e no c os t s a vi ngs M a ybe t he r e w i l l be s om e e f f i c i e nc i e s l a t e r on, but a t t he t i m e t he r e w e r e no i de nt i f i a bl e qua nt i t a t i ve r e a s ons t o m a ke t hi s e nt i t y, s a i d K e i t h F r om K e i t h s pe r s pe c t i ve a nd ot he r s T he r e w a s no va l i d r e a s on t o c r e a t e a s i ngl e c ont r a c t W he n t he m e m be r s f or m e d t he c oa l i t i on t he y ne v e r r e a l i z e d t ha t one da y t he i r f undi ng w oul d be c ha l l e nge d. T he r e w a s a l ot of r e s e nt m e nt a t f i r s t s a i d L oune l l S om e m e m be r s of t he c oa l i t i on ha d a f i t T h e y di d no t w a nt t o s e e J W B s ha nds i n O U R c oa l i t i on, w a s how one m e m be r de s c r i be d i t Y o u know i t w a s l i ke w a i t a m i nut e T hi s i s our s J W B s got not hi ng t o do w i t h i t I t hought t he y ve got a l ot o f ne r ve t e l l i ng m e how I w i l l do bus i ne s s s a i d L oune l l ; a nd, w ha t do you m e a n, I ha ve t o do i t t hi s w a y?

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159 T hi s w a s not s om e t hi ng t ha t a nybody s ought out or w i s he d t o ha ve ha ppe n s a i d K e i t h. N or di d a nyone f e e l i t w a s t he r i ght t hi ng t o do T h i s w a s s om e t hi ng t ha t w a s f or c e d upon pe opl e w ho ha d be e n f unc t i oni ng qu i t e w e l l a nd qui t e i nde pe nde nt l y f o r qui t e s om e t i m e M os t N F C C m e m be r s f e l t l i ke t he y w e r e l os i ng t he i r i nde pe nde nc e T he r e s i s t a nc e s a i d K e i t h, w a s : I ve got t hi s a ge n c y t ha t I ve be e n r unni ng ve r y s uc c e s s f ul l y, a nd I don t w a nt a nybod y t o s c r e w a r ound w i t h i t O ne t hi ng L oune l l s a i d a bout t he pr oc e s s s t uc k i n m y m i nd: I m t he one w ho us e d t o ha ve t he pa pe r s a yi ng, Y ou ga ve m e f or t y a c r e s a nd a m ul e a nd now yo u w a nt t o t a ke m y m u l e a nd t he f or t y a c r e s a w a y? L os i ng t he i r i nde pe nde nc e a nd c ont r ol c om pl yi ng w i t h a s e ns e l e s s m a nda t e a nd gi vi ng up a pe r c e nt a ge of t he i r budge t pus he d m e m be r s t ow a r d va r yi ng l e ve l s of r e s i s t a nc e a nd c onf l i c t D e gr e e s of r e s i s t a nc e va r i e d, e xpl a i ne d K e i t h f r om : W e l l i f w e ve got t a do i t l e t s do i t t o T h i s i s a t e r r i bl e t hi ng, a nd I m gonna m a ke i t a s di f f i c ul t a s I c a n f or t hi s pr oc e s s t o unf ol d S om e of t he m e m be r s hope d, s a i d K e i t h t ha t s om e w he r e a l ong t he l i ne t ha t i t w oul d s i m pl y d i s i nt e gr a t e I t w a s N O T a ha ppy, e a s y, pe r i od or pr oc e s s O ne m e m be r w oul d r e pe a t e dl y s a y, W e l l m y boa r d s not gonna go f or i t A c oupl e m e m be r s f e l t t he y c oul d f i ght t hi s unt i l t he bi t t e r e nd a nd pr e va i l a nd not do i t not j oi n t he c oa l i t i on, r e t a i n t he i r m one y r e t a i n t he i r a ge nc i e s a nd c a r r y on. T he y w e r e t ol d f l a t out by J i m M i l l s t ha t w a s n t g oi ng t o ha ppe n, e xpl a i ne d K e i t h. L oune l l ha d a w a y of r e m i ndi ng pe opl e a bout t he b ot t om l i ne : I j us t f r a nkl y ha d t o t e l l t he m w e l l you ha ve t w o c hoi c e s : J W B ha s s a i dt he y r e goi ng t o gi ve our m one y t o t he c oa l i t i on s o you c a n e i t he r be a pa r t of t hi s o r you

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160 c a n c hoos e not t o be a pa r t o f t h i s T ha t de pe nds o n w he t he r you w a nt t he m one y or not I w oul d p r e f e r t o ha ve t he m one y. S om e of t he r e s i s t a nc e w a s m a ni f e s t e d t hr oughout out r i ght c onf l i c t a m ong i ndi vi dua l m e m be r s S om e t i m e s s a yi ng J W B s na m e a r ound t ha t t a bl e w a s l i ke w a vi ng a r e d f l a g you know a l l ove r t he pl a c e s a i d L ou ne l l P a ul de s c r i be d i t a s t hi s : T he y w e r e i n a r oom he r e s c r e a m i ng a nd s t om pi ng a nd t hr e a t e ni ng t o w a l k a nd do s i t i ns I m e a n, you na m e i t ; t he y w e r e t h r e a t e ni ng e ve r yt hi ng i m a gi na bl e K e i t h poi nt e d out how e ve r t ha t i n m a ny c a s e s t he r e s i s t a nc e w e nt be yond pr of e s s i ona l c r i t i c i s m t o be i ng a ggr e s s i ve a nd pe r s ona l a nd t hi s i s w ha t he di s a gr e e d w i t h t he w a y t hi s c r i t i c i s m or r e s i s t a n c e w a s de m ons t r a t e d, pr i nc i pa l l y w i t h t he boa r d. I n s om e c a s e s c onf l i c t r e s ul t e d i n hur t f e e l i ngs s uc h a s m e m be r s s a yi ng t he y di dn t c a r e w he t he r t he s m a l l one s m a ke i t or not M e m be r s a l s o m a de pe r s ona l a t t a c ks or w oul d s a y t hi ngs l i ke W e l l I don t ne e d you. Y ou kn ow t hos e ki nds of t hi ngs w e r e hur t f ul a nd pe opl e don t f or ge t t ha t s a i d P a ul E ve n w h e n t hi ngs ge t good t he y s t i l l don t f or ge t t ha t O ne m e m be r w oul d r e m i nd ot he r s t ha t t he y c oul dn t t a ke t hi ngs pe r s ona l l y: W e got t a ke e p i t a t w h a t i t i s w hi c h i s s om e t hi ng t ha t w e r e w or k i ng t hough S o l e t s not pe r s ona l i z e B e c a us e i f w e r e pe r s ona l i z i n g, t he n w e r e not goi ng t o ge t a l ong; w e r e not goi ng t o l i ke e a c h ot he r A nd w e a l l ha ve t o w o r k t oge t he r S o l e t s not m a ke i t pe r s ona l A nd i t di d ge t pe r s ona l s he s a i d. T he r e w e r e pe r s ona l a t t a c ks on one a not he r K e i t h, i n pa r t i c ul a r ha d s om e c ha l l e nge s w i t h c e r t a i n m e m be r s ; or a s L oune l l put i t T he y w e r e r e a dy t o ki l l e a c h ot he r I n he r t ypi c a l L oune l l w a y, s he a dvi s e d K e i t h,

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161 Y ou c a n ge t m or e f l i e s w i t h s uga r t ha n you c a n w i t h s a l t S he s a i d t he y f i na l l y f i gu r e d out a w a y t o w or k t oge t he r a nd not c l a s h. E ve r ybody s i nput i s va l i d, s a i d one N F C C m e m be r S om e m e m be r s e xpr e s s e d t ha t i t w a s i m po r t a nt t o a l l ow e ve r ybody t o ve nt t o s a y w ha t t he y t hi nk I t w a s a l s o i m por t a nt t o be a bl e t o e xpr e s s t he m s e l ve s ope nl y: T he r e w a s no ot he r pl a c e w he r e t he y c oul d do i t a nd ge t a w a y w i t h i t I f you r e m a j or l y f r us t r a t e d, a nd you r e not a bl e t o [ ha ve a ] pl a c e t o ve nt t ha t m a j o r f r us t r a t i on, w ha t do you do w i t h i t ? K e i t h t a l ke d a bout t he i m por t a nt r o l e pl a ye d by t he m e m be r s w ho w e r e i n c ont i nua l di s a gr e e m e nt : T he i r pe r s pe c t i ve w a s j us t a s i m po r t a nt a s t he pe op l e w ho w a nt e d t o m ove t hi s f or w a r d. I don t be l i e ve t ha t c r i t i c i s m i s a ne ga t i ve t hi ng. I t c ha l l e nge s us I t m a ke s us t hi nk. I t m a ke s us c ons i de r Y ou know s om e t i m e s w e c ha nge pos i t i ons be c a us e s om e one ha s que s t i one d t ha t pos i t i on. E ve n t hough t he c onf l i c t w a s t ough t o ge t t h r ough, m a ny m e m be r s a gr e e d t ha t i t w a s a ne e de d a nd i m por t a nt pa r t o f t he pr oc e s s W e ne e de d t o go t h r ough e ve r yt hi ng t ha t w e w e nt t h r ough, s a i d one m e m be r T i m e t o C hange M os t pa r t i c i pa nt s unde r s t ood t he i m por t a nc e o f a l l ow i ng t i m e f or m e m be r s t o go t hr ough t he p r oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E bot h t i m e t o w or k out t he l ogi s t i c a l de t a i l s of ope r a t i ng t he ne w e nt i t y a nd t i m e t o de a l w i t h t he pe r s ona l c ha l l e nge s a nd e m ot i ona l i m pa c t of t he c ha nge I t s a l s o ha r d f or pe opl e not t o do w ha t t he y ve a l w a ys done s a i d L oune l l I t s r e a l l y ha r d f or pe opl e A s pr e vi ous l y i nd i c a t e d, P a ul f e l t s t r ongl y a bout h a vi ng a t l e a s t 14 m ont hs f or N F C C m e m be r s t o de ve l op t he ne w m ode l A c ou pl e of N F C C m e m be r s d i dn t t hi nk t he

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162 e xt r a t i m e w a s ne c e s s a r y or de s i r a bl e a nd f e l t t ha t t he pr oc e s s c oul d ha ve gone m uc h m or e qui c kl y i f J W B j us t c o m m uni c a t e d f r om t he s t a r t w ha t t he y w a nt e d. T he y ha d a l r e a dy done r e s e a r c h a nd ha d a m ode l i n m i nd s a i d one N F C C m e m be r T he y c oul d ha ve j us t s ha r e d t ha t w i t h us f r om t he be gi nni ng a n d s a ve d us a l ot o f t i m e M os t m e m be r s how e ve r f e l t s t r ongl y t ha t t he e xt r a t i m e w a s e s s e nt i a l or e ve n t ha t m or e t i m e w a s ne e de d. L oune l l t hought t ha t t h e di r e c t i ve f r om J W B c oul d ha ve be e n gr a dua l l y i nt r oduc e d. I t ki nd o f f e l t l i ke i t w a s s t u f f e d dow n ou r t h r oa t I t hi nk, gr a dua l l y, f ol ks m i ght ha ve s e e n t he pi c t ur e but i t w a s a l l of a s udde n. K e i t h r e c om m e nde d m or e t i m e : Y ou ha ve t o c om m i t 18 m ont hs f r o m t he t i m e you s t a r t t he pr oc e s s unt i l t he t i m e you t ur n t he ke y t ha t s t a r t s t he w hol e t hi ng goi ng I f you don t ha ve t ha t pe r i od of t i m e you w i l l no t be a bl e t o go t hr ough t he e s s e nt i a l pa r t o f t he p r oc e s s w hi c h w a s t he a nge r t he a c c e pt a nc e t he de ni a l t he r e s i g na t i on. T he f e e l i ngs t hought s a nd e m ot i ons o f a l l m e m be r s ne e d t o be a c c e pt e d a s a na t ur a l pa r t o f t he pr oc e s s K e i t h p r ovi de d t he f ol l ow i ng w a r ni ng: P e opl e l ook a t t hi s a s W e l l w e r e j us t gonna do i t W e l l no you r e not goi ng t o j us t do i t T he r e s s om e t hi ngs you r e a l l y, r e a l l y r e a l l y ha ve t o be ve r y m i n df ul of pe r s ona l i nt e r a c t i ons H e r e i t e r a t e d t he s t a ge s of g r i e f t ha t m e m be r s go t hr ou gh a s pa r t of t he p r oc e s s A s de m ons t r a t e d i n t he p r e vi ous s e c t i on, i n a ddi t i o n t o t he e m ot i ona l c ha nge s t he r e w e r e t he l ogi s t i c a l c ha l l e nge s of pul l i ng a l l t he r e s pe c t i ve pa r t i e s t oge t he r t o w or k on t he pl a nni ng a nd c ha nge pr oc e s s K e i t h qui c kl y di d t he m a t h out l oud t o m a ke hi s poi nt :

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163 W he n I t a l k a bout 18 m ont hs w ha t a m I t a l ki ng a b out ? T hi r t y s i x hou r s i s w ha t I m t a l ki ng a bout T hi nk a bout i t T ha t gr oup m e e t s onc e a m ont h f or 2 hour s 36 hour s O ka y, s o t he r e w e r e ot he r m e e t i ngs i n be t w e e n 50 hour s F i f t y hou r s of e f f or t t o c r e a t e s om e t hi ng o f t h i s m a gni t ude i s no t i m e N O T I M E S o w ha t i f you w a nt e d t o do i t i n 6 m ont hs ? W e l l 6 m ont hs t i m e s 2 i s 12; s o, m a ybe you ve got 15 hour s t o do i t H i s poi nt be i ng: I t c a n t be done i n a s hor t e r pe r i o d of t i m e Y ou n e e d t he t i m e W he n w e w e r e di s c us s i ng t hi s poi nt I r e f e r r e d t o a c om m e nt m a de by m e m be r s t ha t t he y w i s he d i t w a s done m or e qu i c kl y. I a s ke d a bout t he pos s i bi l i t y of c onde ns i ng t hos e 50 pl a nni ng hour s i nt o a 2 w e e k r e t r e a t ; c oul dn t t ha t be done ? I t w oul d be ve r y e xc i t i ng! w a s K e i t h s r e s pons e w i t h l a ught e r W ha t you w oul d do i s you w oul d go t hr ough t he f i r s t i t s y, bi t s y, t i ny pa r t o f t he pr oc e s s B ut he r e i t e r a t e d t he poi nt t ha t t he r e s m or e t o i t t ha n t he p l a nni ng. I t s a bout t he pe opl e i nvol ve d: Y o u know w e r e hum a n be i ngs W e e vol ve O ur e m ot i ons e vol ve W e don t go f r om one e m ot i on t o t he ot he r l i ke t ha t [ s na ppi ng f i nge r s ] ; pa r t i c ul a r l y s om e t hi ng of t hi s c om pl e xi t y Y ou know w e ve got t o go t hr ough t he w hol e g r i e vi ng pr oc e s s i f you w i l l S e ve r a l m e m be r s of bot h t he N F C C a nd J W B s t a f f t a l ke d a bout t h i s e m ot i ona l a s pe c t of t he pr oc e s s s i m i l a r t o t he s t a ge s of gr i e f a nd l os s M e nt i one d dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w s w e r e e m ot i ons of de ni a l a nge r r e gr e t r e s i gna t i on a nd a c c e pt a nc e R e s i gna t i on w a s i de nt i f i e d a s be i ng a di f f e r e nt s t a g e t ha n a c c e pt a nc e : W e f ought t he f i ght W e r e not goi ng t o w i n t he f i gh t G i ve i t up.

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164 J i m s a i d t ha t t he y c oul d ha ve done i t m or e qui c kl y, but t ha t t he y w e r e f or t una t e t o ha ve t he t i m e t o l e t t he r e l a t i ons hi ps de ve l op. I t h i n k ha vi ng a s a l ong a t i m e t o do i t a s w e ha d w a s pos i t i ve I t w a s not one of t hos e t hi ngs w he r e you c a n j us t t hr ow t he s w i t c h. B e c a us e ye s t he y kne w one a not he r s om e o f t he m m or e t ha n ot he r s but t he y r e a l l y ne e de d t i m e t o ge t t hr ough t he e m ot i ona l s t uf f D e a l i ng w i t h t he e m ot i ona l s t uf f i n a w a y t ha t i s c a r i ng a nd r e s pe c t f ul ye t s t i l l e f f e c t i ve i n m ovi ng t h r ough t he c ha nge pr oc e s s r e qui r e d s t r ong l e a de r s hi p a nd t r us t a m ong m e m be r s L e ade r s hi p and T r us t M a ny m e m be r s of t he N F C C de m ons t r a t e d l e a de r s hi p a t va r i ous t i m e s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E a s w e l l a s s om e of t he J W B s t a f f T he l e a de r s hi p a nd t he c om m i t m e nt by J W B s t a f f be c a m e e s s e nt i a l t o t he s uc c e s s of t he p r oc e s s A s P a ul s um m a r i z e d: I t hi nk pa r t o f i t i s you ha ve t o r e a l l y be c om m i t t e d t o s om e t hi ng l i ke t hi s t o m a ke i t ha ppe n. B e c a us e i f you j us t s a y, Y ou a l l got t o do t hi s t he c ha nc e s of t he m r e a l l y doi ng i t a nd ge t t i ng i t t he w a y i t s s uppos e t o be i s goi ng t o be ha r d t o do. Y ou r e goi ng t o ha ve t o ha ve s om e body t ha t s goi ng t o be t he l e a de r o f t he pr oj e c t M a ny N F C C m e m be r s r e c ogni z e d t he s t r ong r ol e J W B s t a f f pl a ye d i n t he pr oc e s s but a s pr e vi ous l y r e f l e c t e d i n m e m be r i nt e r vi e w qu ot e s t he J W B w a s a l s o s e e n a s t he e nf or c e r a nd t he i ns t i ga t or o f a ne w m ode l t ha t no one w a nt e d. B a l a nc i ng t he s e i m pr e s s i ons w a s a c ha l l e nge f or J W B s t a f f K e i t h a nd t he N F C C boa r d m e m be r s w e r e a s s i s t e d t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s by P a ul P a ul s s uppor t w a s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt f or K e i t h, be c a us e N F C C m e m be r s w e r e

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165 us e d t o t ur ni ng t o P a ul f or he l p. P a ul s uppor t e d K e i t h i n hi s ne w r ol e a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or t e l l i ng N F C C m e m be r s not c a l l hi m [ P a ul ] but t o c a l l K e i t h w he ne ve r t he y ha d i s s ue s or c onc e r ns I s uppor t h i m e xpl a i ne d P a ul : I s t i l l m e e t w i t h hi m w e e kl y. W e t a l k a bout a l l t he i s s ue s e ve r yt hi n g. A nd i f t he r e s a nyt hi ng I c a n do t o he l p hi m t h r ough t he m I do. I f I c a n do a nyt hi ng, or t a l k t o s om e body, or c om e ba c k he r e a nd t a l k t o s om e body, or he l p ge t s om e t hi ng done I do i t T hi s t ype of s uppor t a nd l i a i s on r ol e w a s t a l ke d a b out by a l l N F C C m e m be r s e s pe c i a l l y t he r ol e P a ul p l a ye d i n t he A S E de ve l op m e nt pr oc e s s M os t m e m be r s s a i d t he r e w a s a l ot o f t r us t i n P a ul a nd i n P a m ( t he J W B c ont r a c t m a na ge r ) N F C C m e m be r s a c know l e dge d t he i m por t a nc e of P a ul s r ol e i n t he i r i nt e r vi e w s : P a ul i s r e t i r e d a nd he s m a de h i s m one y. T he y e xpr e s s e d t ha t P a ul s goi ng t o s a y w ha t he s got t o s a y. H e l l s a y i t t o J i m or [ ot he r J W B m a na ge m e nt ] H e doe s n t r e a l l y c a r e I t w a s i m por t a nt t o N F C C m e m be r s t o ha ve t ha t ki nd of a dvoc a t e t o s pe a k on t he i r be ha l f t o ge t c e r t a i n t hi ngs done a nd t o be t he i r l i a i s on t o t he J W B P a ul t ook t hi s l e ve l of t r us t s e r i ous l y, a nd he w or ke d ha r d t o ke e p i t a s he w or ke d w i t h t he m t o de ve l op t he A S E m ode l W i t hi n t he N F C C m e m be r s hi p, t he m os t t a l ke d a b out m e m be r w a s L oune l l w hos e r ol e a s a s t r ong l e a de r w a s r e c ogni z e d by e v e r yone S he de s c r i be s he r r ol e s i m pl y: I ke pt t he m a dvi s e d a l l a l ong t he w a y a bout t he s t r a t e gi c pl a n t he J W B ha d a nd t he i r pl a ns f or t he c oa l i t i on, t he di r e c t i on w e w e r e goi ng i n, a nd t ha t i t w a s goi ng t o c os t u s B ut s he a l s o r e a l i z e d t ha t s he w a s of t e n t he one t o put f or t h a c ha l l e nge t o i ndi vi dua l

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166 m e m be r s w he n ne e de d: S om e t i m e s I j us t ha d t o s a y, W e l l l ook guys T hi s i s t he w a y i t i s Y ou c a n e i t he r r i de on t he t r a i n or ge t r un ove r by t he t r a i n M a ny m e m be r s c om m e nt e d on t hi s t r a i t o f L oune l l s a yi ng t ha t s he w a s t he onl y pe r s on w ho c oul d ha ve c ha l l e nge d c e r t a i n m e m be r s a nd got t e n a w a y w i t h i t M e m be r s ha d va r i ous e xpl a na t i ons f or t hi s l e a de r s hi p t r a i t : h e r a ge he r r a c e he r ge nde r he r e xpe r i e nc e he r w i s dom he r m ot he r l y pe r s ona a nd he r e l oque nt us e of c ol l oqui a l s a yi ngs J i m de s c r i be d he r a s ha vi ng j us t t he r i gh t m i x of I ve be e n t he r e I know w hy w e ha ve t o do t hi s W e ve got t o do i t W ha t e ve r t he e xpl a na t i on, e ve r yone a gr e e d t ha t s he w a s w e l l r e s pe c t e d. L oune l l of c our s e c ha l ks i t up a l i t t l e m or e l i ght he a r t e dl y: T ha t s one t hi ng a bout ge t t i ng ol d; you c a n s a y t hi ngs t ha t you ne e d t o s a y or t ha t s houl d be s a i d. S he s a ys s he doe s n t c a r e w ha t pe opl e t hi nk, but obs e r vi ng he r i t s e vi de nt t ha t s he i s a l w a ys s e ns i t i ve t o pe opl e f e e l i ngs L oune l l pr ovi de d t r e m e ndous l e a de r s hi p t o t hi s s a i d J i m S he s r e a l l y f or m e d a c om m uni t y, a nd t he r e s no que s t i on a bout he r c o m m i t m e nt t o t ha t c om m uni t y I t h i nk t ha t m a de a bi g bi g di f f e r e nc e A f e w ot he r pe opl e w e r e r e f e r e nc e d dur i ng i nt e r vi e w s f or t he i r l e a de r s hi p r ol e O ne N F C C boa r d m e m be r B i l a l be c a m e i de nt i f i e d a s s om e one w ho r e a l l y c ha nge d t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s f r om a n unc oope r a t i ve i nd e pe nde nt w ho f ought t he A S E m ode l a t f i r s t t o one w ho s uppo r t e d i t H e w a s a l s o r e c ogni z e d f or hi s a bi l i t y t o m a ke w e l l t i m e d a nd pow e r f ul l y s t a t e d c ha l l e nge s t o o t he r m e m be r s K e i t h, i n hi s r ol e a s N F C C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or w a s a l s o di s c us s e d s e ve r a l t i m e s M os t i nt e r vi e w pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ogni z e d t ha t i t t ook a w hi l e f or hi m t o m ove i nt o h i s ne w

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167 l e a de r s hi p r ol e but onc e he d i d, t hought he di d a g r e a t j ob. A s P a ul de s c r i be d i t : I t t ook hi m a w hi l e t o bui l d up t o t he po i nt of s a yi ng, O k a y, now you r e goi ng t o ha ve t o r e s pe c t m e i n t hi s pos i t i on B ut he w a s a c c e pt e d i nt o t he pr og r a m I t hi nk he f e e l s pr e t t y c om f or t a bl e now K e i t h s a w hi s r ol e a s be i ng a m ode r a t or a nd ne got i a t or a nd de s c r i be d t he un i que c ha l l e nge he f a c e d i n t hi s r ol e : M ol l i f yi ng J W B on one ha nd a nd t he di r e c t or s on a not he r a nd ve r y of t e n c ont r a d i c t i ng i n t ha t m ol l i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s one w i t h t he o t he r but ul t i m a t e l y r e s ol vi ng a l l of i t a l l t he di f f e r e nc e s H e s a w t he i m por t a nc e of hi s r ol e t o a ddr e s s va r i ous c onc e r ns a s t he y c a m e up t o he l p m a ke t he pr oc e s s e a s i e r B ut t ha t s a l l I t a ke c r e di t f or s a i d K e i t h H e f ul l y a t t r i but e s t he s uc c e s s of t he pr oc e s s t o t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s : T he y ve gone t h r ough a n i nc r e di bl y di f f i c ul t pr oc e s s I t w a s di f f i c ul t pr of e s s i ona l l y, a nd i t w a s di f f i c ul t pe r s ona l l y. I t w a s di f f i c ul t i n t e r m s o f t he i nt e r a c t i on t ha t t he y e xpe r i e nc e d, a nd t he y w e r e no t da unt e d by t ha t pr oc e s s T he y w e r e of t e n f r us t r a t e d, but t he y w e r e ne ve r da unt e d I n t hi s r e ga r d e ve r y m e m be r r os e t o ne w l e ve l s of l e a de r s hi p t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s D e m ons t r at i on of Sy s t e m s at W or k T he m os t s i gni f i c a nt b r e a kt hr oughs i n t he A S E de ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s oc c ur r e d w he n bus i ne s s s y s t e m s a nd pe opl e s ys t e m s i nt e r s e c t e d m os t s t r ongl y w he n m e m be r s de m ons t r a t e d t he i r a bi l i t y t o c ha l l e nge one a not he r ye t w o r k t oge t he r t ow a r d c om m on goa l s

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168 Se l f c om pl i anc e A t t he t i m e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt i nt e r vi e w s t he N F C C boa r d ha d not ye t ha d oc c a s i on t o de a l w i t h c om pl i a nc e i s s ue s but i t di d f a c e a c oupl e of s i t ua t i ons w he r e t he i r ne w i nt e r de pe nde nt s t r uc t ur e w a s put t o t he t e s t w he r e t he y ne e de d t o gove r n t he m s e l ve s a n d m a ke s om e di f f i c ul t de c i s i ons T he m os t s i gni f i c a nt c ha l l e nge t ha t a l l m e m be r s di s c us s e d i n t he i r i nt e r vi e w s w a s de a l i ng w i t h one of t he N F C s ( G a r de n V i l l a s ) t ha t w a s l oc a t e d i n a publ i c hous i ng c om pl e x be i ng va c a t e d t o m a ke r oom f or pr i va t e de ve l opm e nt T he G a r de n V i l l a s i s s ue c a m e t o t he N F C C boa r d of d i r e c t or s e a r l y i n t he A S E de ve l opm e nt p r oc e s s w he n e ve r yt hi ng w a s s t i l l ne w I t be c a m e i de nt i f i e d a s a ke y t ur ni ng poi nt i n t he or ga ni z a t i on s de ve l opm e nt a n d c ohe s i ve ne s s T he boa r d of t he N F C C w a s gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y a nd r e s pons i bi l i t y of de t e r m i ni ng w ha t t o do w i t h t he G a r de n V i l l a s N F C i t s c l i e nt s a nd i t s f undi ng T h i s w a s de s c r i be d by a l l m e m be r s a s a t ough s i t ua t i on t o de a l w i t h. O ne r e a s on w a s be c a us e t he G a r de n V i l l a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or w a s a m e m be r of t he N F C C boa r d a nd w a s i nvol ve d i n t he de c i s i on m a ki ng. T he l e a s t di f f i c ul t de c i s i on m a de by t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s w a s t o c l os e t he G a r de n V i l l a s N F C I t di dn t m a ke s e ns e t o ke e p i t ope n, w he n a l l of i t s c l i e nt s w e r e be i ng di s pe r s e d t hr oug hout t he c ount y. T he di f f i c u l t y w a s t ha t i t w oul d m e a n a l os s of j obs f or t he G a r de n V i l l a s s t a f f i nc l ud i ng t he e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or w ho w a s a n N F C C boa r d m e m be r T hi s w a s a not he r a r e a w e r e J W B s t a f f ( P a ul i n pa r t i c ul a r ) w a s a bl e t o a s s i s t by he l pi ng t o f i n d j obs f or t he G a r de n V i l l a s s t a f f O n a n i nt e r pe r s ona l l e ve l t hi s p r oc e s s i m pa c t e d t he m e m be r s be c a us e i n s om e w a ys t he N F C C boa r d i s l i ke a f a m i l y A s P a ul e xpl a i ne d:

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169 T he y w e r e a bl e t o ha ndl e t he s t r e s s of l os i ng a m e m be r be c a us e t he y r e ki nd of l i ke a f a m i l y S om e t i m e t he y r e dys f unc t i ona l l i ke m os t f a m i l i e s but t he y r e s t i l l a f a m i l y. I t s t ha t f e e l i ng of you ve got t o s a ve t h e f a m i l y a s a w hol e B ut i t s ve r y ha r d t o c ut s om e body ou t I t h i nk i t m a de i t e a s i e r w he n w e f ound a not he r j ob f or T r a c y a nd he r s t a f f T he ne xt s t e p i n de a l i ng w i t h t he c l os i ng o f G a r de n V i l l a s be c a m e m or e c ont r ove r s i a l : w ha t t o do w i t h t he c l i e nt s a nd t he J W B f undi ng t i e d t o t hos e c l i e nt s A t f i r s t t he r e w a s a r e c om m e nda t i on f r om J W B s t a f f t o t r a c k t hos e c l i e nt s t o t he ot he r c e nt e r s a nd ha ve t he f undi ng f l ow t o t he va r i ous c e nt e r s a c c or di ngl y. T he N F C C di r e c t o r s poi nt e d out t he i m pr a c t i c a l i t y o f f ol l ow i ng c l i e nt s w ho a r e of t e n t r a ns i e nt a nd t he y r e c om m e nde d j us t s pl i t t i ng t he m one y up a m ong a l l t he c e nt e r s T he n w e ha d t o m a ke a de c i s i on a bout w ha t t o do w i t h t ha t m one y, s a i d L oune l l N ow t ha t w a s a he a t e d di s c us s i on! E ve r yone di s c us s e d t hi s i s s u e i n t he i r i nt e r vi e w s a nd a l l s e e m e d t o a gr e e t ha t ha vi ng t hi s m one y t o di v i de up t e s t e d t he a bi l i t i e s of t he g r oup t o w or k t oge t he r T he y t a l ke d, t he y a r gue d t he y r e a s one d, a nd i n t he e nd de c i de d t o a l l oc a t e l a r ge r por t i ons of t he f undi ng t o a f e w of t he c e nt e r s t ha t w e r e m o vi ng i nt o ne w f a c i l i t i e s be c a us e t he y w oul d ha ve e xt r a a nd unf or e s e e n e xpe ns e s a nd t o s pl i t up t he r e m a i ni ng f unds e qua l l y a m ong t he r e m a i ni ng c e nt e r s O ve r a l l t he y t r a ns i t i one d t he m one y t h r ough a p l a n w he r e by a l l t he c e nt e r s be ne f i t e d M a ny of t he m e m be r s a nd e s pe c i a l l y J W B s t a f f t hought t hi s de c i s i on m a ki ng p r oc e s s w a s j us t s h or t of a m i r a c l e S om e of t he gr e a t e s t c ha nge i n i nt e r pe r s ona l c om m uni c a t i on a nd l e a de r s hi p w a s de m ons t r a t e d a f t e r t hi s de c i s i on w a s m a de w he n o ne of t he N F C C boa r d m e m be r s c om pl a i ne d a bout t he w a y t he m one y w a s di s pe r s e d. A not he r m e m be r w ho r a r e l y e ve r

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170 t a ke s on t he f i r s t s poke up a nd t ol d hi m he w a s out of l i ne a nd w a s not a dhe r i ng t o t he i r pr e vi ous l y a dopt e d pol i c y on boa r d vot e s a nd de c i s i on m a ki ng. Y ou w e r e not he r e t o vot e Y ou w e r e gi ve n t he oppo r t uni t y t o vot e T he vot e s w e r e t a l l i e d, a nd w e r e done T he boa r d w a s not goi ng t o r e ope n t he i s s ue be c a us e one m e m be r f a i l e d t o f ol l ow t hr ough on h i s r e s pons i bi l i t i e s T h i s w a s a huge br e a kt hr ough, a c c or di ng t o P a ul W he n t a l ki ng a bout t hi s P a ul w a s e xc i t e d: I t hought w e ha ve c om e s o f a r [ c l a ppi ng hi s ha nds i n t e m po f or e m pha s i s ] I t hought m y G od! I w a s s o p r oud; I di dn t know w ha t t o do B e c a us e you know f or t he m t o ge t t o t ha t poi nt f r om t he po i nt w he r e t he y w e r e s c r e a m i ng 12 m on t hs e a r l i e r T he r e w a s one ot he r s i gni f i c a nt i ns t a nc e of s e l f go ve r na nc e t ha t I w a s a b l e t o w i t ne s s dur i ng one of t he i r boa r d m e e t i ngs I t w a s i n t he m i ds t o f t he J W B budge t c yc l e a nd J W B s t a f f r e a l i z e d t ha t due t o r i s i ng t a x r e ve nue s t he y w oul d ha ve e xt r a f undi ng t o r e c om m e nd f or gr a nt a l l oc a t i ons T he y w a nt e d t o r e c om m e nd s om e a ddi t i ona l f undi ng t o s hor e up t he N F C s P a m t he J W B c ont r a c t m a n a ge r f or t he N F C C w a s s e nt by J i m a nd ot he r J W B s e ni or s t a f f t o de l i ve r t hi s m e s s a ge t o t he N F C C boa r d a nd t o a s k f or t he i r i nput T i m e w a s of t he e s s e nc e e xpl a i ne d P a m du e t o t he J W B budge t a pp r ova l t i m e l i ne P a m de l i ve r e d t he m e s s a ge t o t he boa r d p r opos i ng t hr e e s ugge s t i ons f r om J i m f or how t he f undi ng c oul d be us e d. T he t h r e e s ugge s t i ons f e l l f l a t a nd t he r e w a s l i t t l e r e s pons e a t f i r s t P a m r e que s t e d t ha t t he m e m be r s e m a i l he r w i t h t he i r f e e db a c k. A s a n obs e r ve r i n t he r oom I w oul dn t de s c r i be w ha t ha ppe ne d ne xt a s a n i ns t a nt e r upt i on, bu t i t s i m m e r e d, i t s t e a m e d, i t bubbl e d a nd boi l e d, a nd t he n e r up t e d.

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171 Si m m e r i ng: N F C C m e m be r s s t a r t e d t hr ow i ng out i de a s a nd s ugge s t i ons of w ha t t he y r e a l l y n e e de d a t t he i r c e nt e r s i ns t e a d of t he s ugge s t i ons of f e r e d by P a m F or t he m os t pa r t t he r e w a s a gr e e m e nt a m ong t he m e m be r s T he y ne e de d f l e x f undi ng ki ns hi p c a r e s uppor t pa i d t ut or s s t a f f t o he l p w i t h yout h i s s ue s a nd ot he r di r e c t c a r e s e r vi c e s T he s e di dn t f a l l w i t hi n t he s c ope of t he t h r e e s ugge s t i ons of f e r e d by t he J W B a nd P a m a ga i n t r i e d t o c l a r i f y t he pa r a m e t e r s o f t he r e que s t St e am i ng: N F C C m e m be r s f e l t t he i r s ugge s t i ons w e r e be i ng i gnor e d a nd t he y di dn t l i ke be i ng pr e s s ur e d t o m a ke t hi s d e c i s i on s o qui c kl y. T e ns i ons s t a r t e d t o r i s e a nd N F C C m e m be r s s t a r t e d t o m a ke de m a nds : T h i s i s t he t i m e w e ne e d t o t a l k w i t h J i m M i l l s T he s e a r e hi s i de a s ; he ne e ds t o c om e out a nd pr e s e nt t he m W e ne e d t o he a r f r om hi m P a m e m pha s i z e d t he t i m e f a c t or a nd e xpl a i ne d t ha t s he w a s a t t he m e e t i ng t o r e pr e s e nt J i m B ubbl i ng: M e m be r s c ont i nue d t o be une a s y, a nd t h e y r e i t e r a t e d t hi s di s c om f o r t a nd t he i r de s i r e t o he a r i t f r om J i m : T hi s i s a s e r i o us i s s ue ve r y s e r i ous W e ne e d t o t a l k t o hi m T hi s i s f o r c i ng us t o r us h t o j udgm e nt W e d be i r r e s pons i bl e di r e c t or s i f w e di d t ha t A not he r m e m be r s a i d: I f i t s J i m s c onc e pt J i m s houl d be t e l l i ng us P a m a ga i n e xpl a i ne d t he t i m e c ons t r a i nt s a nd s a i d s he ne e de d f e e dba c k by M onda y. B oi l i ng: T hi s p r om pt e d N F C C m e m be r s t o r e i t e r a t e t he i r poi nt s i n a l onge r out bur s t : Y ou don t a s k pe opl e i n r e s pons i bl e pos i t i ons t o r us h t o j udgm e nt l i ke t ha t t ha t s i r r a t i ona l T he m e m be r poi nt e d out t h a t t hi s w a s t he ki nd of t h i ng t he y e duc a t e t he i r f a m i l i e s a bout e ve r y da y. S o, w hy w oul d w e do t ha t a s di r e c t or s ? I t s i r r a t i ona l T he y w a nt e d P a m t o c om m uni c a t e ba c k t o J i m :

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172 I t s not f a i r t o a s k us t o m a ke t hos e ki nd of de c i s i o ns w i t h t ha t s hor t of a t i m e f r a m e be c a us e you w oul d not a s k a ny r a t i ona l pe r s on t o do t ha t a nd I kn ow i f t he [ J W B ] boa r d a s ke d [ J i m ] t o do s om e t hi ng l i ke t ha t he w oul dn t j us t j um p a nd do t ha t ; he w oul d s a y, W e l l c a n I c om e ba c k t o y ou? P a m s e e m e d t o be ge t t i ng a l i t t l e f r us t r a t e d, bu t s h e pa t i e nt l y r e pe a t e d i t a l l a ga i n S he r e m i nde d t he m a bout t he J W B budge t c yc l e a nd t he t i m e pr e s s ur e s S he a l s o e nc our a ge d t he m t o a c t on t hi s p r om pt l y t o e ns ur e t he y w oul dn t l os e t hi s oppor t uni t y t o ge t e xt r a f undi ng I ne e d f e e dba c k; I ne e d e m a i l s s o I c a n put t oge t he r a ge ne r a l pr opos a l E m a i l m e pl e a s e i f yo u c a n no l a t e r t ha n t om or r ow B y t h i s a t t e m pt he r voi c e be ga n t o e s c a l a t e s e e m i ngl y i n de s pe r a t i on f or c om pl i a nc e E r upt i on: O ne m e m be r s e e m e d t o hi t t he na i l on t h e he a d w he n he hone d i n on P a m s r e pe a t e d r e que s t f o r m e m be r s t o i ndi vi dua l l y e m a i l he r : I m ve r y unc om f o r t a bl e w i t h a l l of us s e ndi ng i ndi vi dua l e m a i l s i n t e r m s of w ha t w e w a nt t o do c ol l e c t i ve l y. I w oul d s ugge s t I kno w w e a l r e a dy t r y t o w or k ou r e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or t o de a t h but I t h i nk w e s houl d s e nd our s t uf f t o K e i t hT he r e s a ge ne r a l c on s e ns us a bout w ha t W E a r e t a l ki ng a bout W ha t K e i t h s gonna c om pi l e i s w ha t he t hi nks i s t he ge n e r a l c ons e ns us H e c a n s e nd i t t o us a nd w e c a n s a y, Y e a h, w e t hi nk t ha t s a go or N o. B e c a us e w ha t you l l ge t i f w e do i t i nd i vi dua l l y a nd one of us doe s n t l i ke i t H e di dn t ne e d t o f i n i s h t hi s s e nt e nc e be c a us e a l l he a ds w e r e s ha ki ng i n a gr e e m e nt t o a f f i r m t ha t t he y kne w w ha t w oul d ha ppe n. A nd you don t ne e d t ha t he c onc l ude d.

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173 T he boa r d w a s i n a gr e e m e nt T he y t a l ke d t hr ough t he de t a i l s of how K e i t h w oul d ha ndl e t he pr oc e s s i n a w a y t o m e e t P a m s de a dl i n e w hi l e s t i l l c om m uni c a t i ng t he i r c onc e r ns a nd i de a s ( a s w e l l a s t he i r a ppr e c i a t i on ) r e ga r di ng t he pot e nt i a l f or a ddi t i ona l f undi ng. T hi s one s c e na r i o w a s i m po r t a nt t o t he N F C C be c a us e t he r e w a s a s t r ong s e ns e of a c c om pl i s hm e nt a m ong t he boa r d not be c a us e t he y ha d s t ood up t o J W B but be c a us e t he y w e r e uni f i e d i n t he i r c om m uni c a t i on a nd r e s pons e T he r e w e r e a f e w ot he r s m a l l e r i ns t a nc e s w he r e t h e N F C C boa r d gove r ne d t he m s e l ve s by m a ki ng t ough de c i s i ons t ha t i m pa c t e d t he i r m e m be r s e s pe c i a l l y s m a l l c e nt e r s t ha t f a c e d oc c a s i ona l s t r uggl e s : one c oul dn t m a ke pa yr ol l a not he r ha d f i na nc i a l c ha l l e nge s w he n t he y m ove d i nt o a ne w bui l di ng a nd a not he r ne e de d a va n t o t r a ns por t c l i e nt s I n e ve r y c a s e t he boa r d m e m be r s pul l e d t o ge t he r t o r e s ol ve t he i s s ue a nd a ut hor i z e d t he N F C C t o l e nd or gi ve t he s m a l l c e nt e r s t he f undi ng t he y ne e de d t o ge t t hr ough t he d i f f i c ul t t i m e T he s e t ype s of s i t ua t i ons be c a m e de m ons t r a t i ons o f t he t r us t a nd c ohe s i ve ne s s t ha t ha d be e n e s t a bl i s he d a m ong t he m e m be r s W e r e l e a r ni ng t o not j us t c a r e a bout our s e l ve s but t o c a r e a bout e a c h ot he r s a i d L oune l l T he r e s a l ot of s ha r i ng goi ng on. I t hi nk i t s a pos i t i ve pl a c e f o r a l l of us t o be I n a ddi t i on t o t he c ohe s i ve ne s s of t he gr oup t ha t de ve l ope d f r om t he s e s i t ua t i ons t he s t r e ngt h o f t he i ndi v i dua l m e m be r s a l s o g r e w a s w e l l a s t he c a pa c i t y of t he e nt i r e c oa l i t i on. B ui l di ng O r gani z at i onal C apac i t y T he gr e a t e s t e nha nc e m e nt f or t he N F C C w a s ye t t o c om e I t w a s a n unknow n va l ue a t t he t i m e of t he i nt e r vi e w s but i t w a s t he hope a nd a nt i c i pa t i on a m ong N F C C m e m be r s a nd t he J W B t ha t t he N F C C w oul d be a b l e t o a t t r a c t ne w f undi ng ne w

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174 f undi ng t ha t t he y w oul d no t ha ve a c c e s s t o a s i ndi v i dua l m e m be r s K e i t h e xpl a i ne d t he i de a : T he unknow n va l ue i s t he r e s our c e de ve l opm e nt a dva nt a ge of a c om bi ne d e nt i t y, a s oppos e d t o a n i ndi vi dua l e nt i t y. I be l i e ve t ha t t h e r e i s a s i gni f i c a nt r e s our c e de ve l opm e nt a dva nt a ge t o a c om bi ne d e nt i t y. I m e a n, I know t he r e i s be c a us e pe opl e l i ke E c ke r d [ r e f e r r i ng t o t he E c ke r d F a m i l y F ounda t i on] s a y t ha t t he r e i s W he n you l ook a t s om e of t he f undi ng oppor t uni t i e s i t s c l e a r t o s e e t ha t pe opl e w oul d be f a r m or e i nt e r e s t e d i n f undi ng a c ount yw i de $3 m i l l i o n dol l a r e nt i t y t ha n a c i t yw i de $200, 000 dol l a r e nt i t y. A nd t h e pe r c e pt i on of s t a bi l i t y T ha t s w he r e t he a dva nt a ge i s goi ng t o c om e P e opl e s t a r t e d t o s e e w ha t w a s pos s i bl e e xpl a i ne d L oune l l a nd s om e of t he f ol ks a r e gl a d t o be s i t t i ng w he r e t he y r e s i t t i ng b e c a us e t he r e a r e opt i ons a nd oppor t uni t i e s A not he r w a y m e m be r s t hought t he N F C C c oul d i n c r e a s e i t s or ga ni z a t i ona l c a pa c i t y, a s w e l l a s be ne f i t ot he r a ge nc i e s w a s by a ddi ng ot he r s m a l l a ge nc i e s t o t he i r m e m be r s hi p. A s t he N F C C m a t u r e s e xpl a i ne d L o une l l I t hi nk, ul t i m a t e l y s m a l l a ge nc i e s i n t hi s c om m uni t y m a y w a nt t o be c om e a pa r t of w ha t w e a r e S he po i nt e d out t ha t m or e que s t i ons w oul d a r i s e t o de t e r m i ne w ha t t ha t w oul d m e a n; w he t he r t he ne w m e m be r s w oul d ha ve vot i ng r i ght s pa y t he t ax a nd s ha r e ot he r r e s pons i bi l i t i e s f or A S E ove r s i ght I f ot he r a ge nc i e s w a nt e d t he N F C C s e r v i c e s T ha t w oul d c om e w i t h a pr i c e t a g on i t s a i d L oune l l I f t he y w a nt us t o do t he i r a dm i ni s t r a t i ve w or k t he n w e w oul d c ha r ge f or t ha t T hi s w a s one of t he s t r a t e gi e s t a l k e d a bout by m e m be r s a s bot h a w a y t o

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175 ge ne r a t e f undi ng, i n a ddi t i on t o he l pi ng ot he r s m a l l a ge nc i e s K e i t h s ha r e d a s i m i l a r a s pi r a t i on: M y hope w oul d be t ha t i t f i r s t of a l l w oul d be a r e s our c e f or ot he r ne i ghbor hood ba s e d a ge nc i e s t o be c om e a pa r t of a nd t o be ne f i t M y hope w oul d be t ha t i t w oul d be a m e a ns of e xpa ndi ng t he N F C s w e l l be y ond t he i r c u r r e nt l e ve l of f undi ng a nd p r ogr a m s T he onl y w a y t he y r e goi ng t o e xpa nd i s w i t h a ddi t i ona l r e s our c e s T he r e s our c e s a r e gonna c om e f r o m pl a c e s ot he r t ha n t he J W B A t t he t i m e of t he i nt e r vi e w s t he s e goa l s s e e m e d a c hi e va bl e t o t he m e m be r s L oune l l de s c r i be d t he N F C C a s be i ng f a i r l y s t r ong I t hi nk w e s t i l l ha ve s om e c oa l e s c i ng t o do a nd t o ge t a l i t t l e bi t m or e s ophi s t i c a t e d, but ove r a l l s he a nd ot he r m e m be r s f e l t c om f or t a bl e w i t h w he r e t he N F C C w a s a nd w a s he a de d. T he J W B e s pe c i a l l y, c oul dn t be ha ppi e r w i t h t he pr og r e s s a s e xpl a i ne d by P a ul : I m p r oud, i n a w a y. I t hi nk t ha t t he y ve r e a l l y c o m e t o a poi n t w he r e t he y c a n gove r n t he m s e l ve s a nd t he y ve p r ove n t ha t A nd J i m s j us t s o pr oud of t hi s he di dn t k now w ha t t o do B e c a us e t he y ha ve j us t t r a ns i t i one d s o s m oot hl y; a nd no ki nks no p r obl e m s no bi nds not h i ng. E ve r yt hi ng w e nt a s i t w a s s uppos e t o go. A nd e ve n f a c i ng a n o r ga ni z a t i on c r a s hi ng a nd bur n i ng [ G a r de n V i l l a s ] t he y w e r e a bl e t o ha ndl e i t a nd s m oot hl y T he y ve c om e a l ong w a y s a i d J i m H e t hi nks t he J W B boa r d ha s s e e n t hi s gr ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt I t hi nk t he y s a w t ha t w e l a i d out a c ha l l e nge a nd t hi s gr oup r os e t o i t T he J W B boa r d a l s o r e c ogni z e d t he va l ue of t he N F C s a nd t he i r s t r e ngt he ne d c a pa c i t y a s a c oa l i t i on, e xpl a i ne d J i m :

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176 T he i r oni c t hi ng t ha t ha s c om e out of t hi s i s t ha t n ow t he r e a r e boa r d m e m be r s w ho t a l k a bout W e l l c oul dn t w e do t hi s t hr ough t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s ? A nd I don t s i t t he r e a nd poi nt a nd l a ugh a nd s a y S e e s i l l y boa r d! Y ou w a nt e d t o ge t r i d of t he s e a nd now you w a nt t o g i ve t he m m or e r e s pons i bi l i t y. L e s s ons t o be Shar e d B e c a us e of t he uni que m ode l a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o m a ke i t w or k t he N F C C s t a r t e d t o a t t r a c t e ve n m o r e a t t e nt i on M a ny N F C C m e m b e r s t a l ke d a bout how i nt e r e s t e d ot he r pe opl e w e r e i n w ha t t he y w e r e doi ng be c a us e i t ha d ne ve r be e n done be f or e J W B s t a f f be ga n doi ng pr e s e nt a t i ons a bout t he N F C C i nt e g r a t i on e f f o r t L oune l l s a i d t ha t ot he r s t a f f m e m be r s a t J W B be ga n t o s a y t hi ngs l i ke W e r e w a t c hi ng w ha t you a l l a r e doi ng I t s ve r y i nt e r e s t i ng. L oune l l s a i d s he di dn t know w h y i t w a s s uc h a s pe c t a c l e I t s not l i ke a n a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on i s s om e t hi ng ne w I m e a n t he r e a r e a c t ua l l y gr oups out t he r e t ha t do t hi s f or a l i vi n g; s o, I r e a l l y don t know E ve n w i t hi n J W B w he n P a ul f i r s t s t a r t e d c onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h, t he y r e a l i z e d t he y w e r e a l r e a dy e xpe r i m e nt i ng w i t h a nd w o r ki ng w i t h s i m i l a r m ode l s P a ul s a i d, I t w a s ki nd of f unny t ha t pe opl e di dn t e ve n r e a l i z e t ha t t he y ha d us e d t hos e m ode l s a nd t he y di dn t know t ha t unt i l t he y s a w t hi s r e por t I di d B ut t he y s t i l l got a l ot of c a l l s f r om di f f e r e nt pl a c e s a bout i t di f f e r e nt c hi l d r e n s s e r vi c e s gr oups a c r os s t he s t a t e w a nt i ng m or e i nf o r m a t i on. P a ul t a l ke d t o t he m by phone qu i t e a bi t of f a nd on. S om e pl a c e s ha ve t r i e d i t a nd f a i l e d f or d i f f e r e nt r e a s ons W ha t s e e m e d t o m a ke t hi s m ode l uni que w a s t he c ol l a bor a t i ve pr oc e s s put i n pl a c e by t he J W B a nd t he N F C C e s pe c i a l l y t he s t r ong l e ve l of t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e t he f undi ng a n d t he t i m e pr ovi de d by t he J W B t o he l p

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177 m a ke t hi s ha ppe n. T ha t w a s one uni que a s pe c t t ha t ot he r c om m uni t y or ga ni z a t i ons w a nt e d t o l e a r n a bout or t o de m ons t r a t e t o t he i r f u ndi ng boa r ds T ha t s w he n J i m s a i d, Y ou know w e ve got t o s om e how c a pt ur e t hi s w ho l e t hi ng a bout t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e H e e xpl a i ne d t ha t t hi s i s s om e t hi ng t ha t t he J W B boa r d a nd ot he r s don t unde r s t a nd t he va l ue o f T he y t hi n k you c a n j us t t hr ow out di r e c t i ve s a n d pe opl e s houl d be a bl e t o do t he m A s P a ul e xpl a i n e d: T he y don t unde r s t a nd t ha t e s pe c i a l l y i n t he be gi n ni ng, a n o r ga ni z a t i on ne e ds a l ot of T L C t o ge t goi ng a nd be s uc c e s s f ul S ur e yo u c a n ba c k of f a f t e r a f e w ye a r s but you ha ve t o gi ve t he m t ha t t i m e t o m a ke t he i r m i s t a ke s he l p t he m t hr o ugh t he m a nd t hos e ki nds of t h i ngs P a ul r e f e r e nc e d t ha t J W B s t a f f ha d s e e n t he i r s ha r e of di s a s t e r s w he r e di r e c t i ve s or f undi ng w a s j us t t hr ow n out t he r e a nd s om e one s a i d, H e r e G o! T he y di dn t know w ha t t o do, s a i d P a ul J i m pr op os e d t ha t t he y c a pt ur e t hi s i nf o r m a t i on, a s a n e xa m pl e o f w he r e s om e body w a s a s s i gne d t o w or k on t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e w i t h t he or ga ni z a t i on ove r a l ong pe r i od of t i m e t o do r e s e a r c h, t o he l p t he m t o l ook f or t he t h i ngs t ha t c oul d c a us e s om e pr obl e m s a nd t o he l p t he m t hr ough a l l o f t he s e t hi ngs J i m e xpr e s s e d hi s r e a s on f or w a nt i ng r e s e a r c h on t he p r oc e s s : I t hi nk t he r e a r e s om e l e s s ons l e a r ne d he r e a nd t r a ns f e r a bi l i t y t o o t he r c om m uni t i e s T oo of t e n w e l e a r n by t he m i s t a ke s ; w e don t l e a r n by how t hi ngs w e nt A nd not e ve r yt hi ng w e nt s w i m m i ngl y. T he r e w e r e t ough t i m e s i n t he r e B ut t he y got t he r e T he y got t he r e T he J W B l e a r ne d w ha t t o do a nd no t t o do w i t h s uc h a pr oc e s s a nd t he y hope d t o s ha r e t hi s w i t h ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons a nd t o us e t he l e s s on s l e a r ne d f or t he i r ow n f ut u r e

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178 pl a nni ng. C a pt ur i ng a nd s ha r i ng l e s s ons l e a r ne d f r om t he pr oc e s s a l s o w a s i m por t a nt t o t he N F C C boa r d. I t w a s one of t he t hi ngs t he y e xpr e s s e d a de s i r e t o a c c om pl i s h w he n he l pi ng t o de ve l op t hi s r e s e a r c h pr ot oc ol T hi s w a s r e i nf or c e d by m os t m e m be r s dur i ng i nt e r vi e w s a nd i n pl a nni ng m e e t i ngs T hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w s N F C C m e m be r s i de nt i f i e d t he l e s s ons t he y t hought w oul d be m os t i m por t a nt t o s ha r e w i t h ot he r s I n s om e c a s e s t he l e s s ons l e a r ne d by t he J W B a nd t he N F C C w e r e s ha r e d. I n pa r t i c ul a r l e s s ons pe r t a i ni ng t o a l l ow i ng a de qua t e t i m e be i ng f l e xi bl e a nd c a r i ng f or t he pe opl e i nvol ve d. O ne ke y l e s s on N F C C m e m be r s r e pe a t e dl y s a i d t h e y w oul d s ha r e w i t h o t he r or ga ni z a t i ons w a s : T a ke your t i m e K e i t h e l a bor a t e d s l i ght l y: T a ke t he t i m e w i t h t he pr oc e s s B e ve r y pa t i e nt w i t h t he pe op l e i n t he pr o c e s s I nvol vi ng t he pe opl e w ho w i l l be m os t i m pa c t e d w a s a not he r ke y l e s s on N F C C m e m be r s w a nt e d t o s ha r e L oune l l pr ovi de d t h i s a dvi c e : B e f or e t he y be gi n t he pr oc e s s t he pe opl e w ho a r e i nvol ve d ne e d t o be a pa r t o f t h e pr oc e s s I t ne e ds t o be a p r oc e s s t ha t s t a r t s a t t he bot t om a nd w or ks i t s w a y up. I don t t hi nk a l ot of t ha t ha ppe ns O nc e you ge t pe opl e t o t he t a bl e a not he r m e m be r a dvi s e d i n vol vi ng e ve r yone a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e : D on t ha ve one pe r s on s i t t i ng i n t he c or ne r a nd j us t l ooki ng be c a us e e ve r yone ha s t o buy i nt o i t A t s om e poi nt w e a l l bought i nt o i t Y ou ha ve t o. I f you don t i t j us t c r e a t e s pr obl e m s S o e ve r yone w i l l ha ve t o bu y i nt o i t F or t he m os t pa r t t he s e l e s s ons f r om t he N F C C m i r r or e d t hos e s ha r e d by t he J W B m e m be r s but one l e s s on f r o m N F C C m e m be r s w a s di s t i nc t : D on t f i ght i t L oune l l s t a t e d i t t hi s w a y: W he n t he ha ndw r i t i ng i s on t he w a l l don t w a s t e your e ne r gy f i ght i ng f or a l os t c a us e be c a us e you c a n t i l t a t w i ndm i l l s a l l you w a nt a nd you w i l l w a s t e your e ne r gy.

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179 S um m a r y T hr ough t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s s t or y of d e ve l opi ng t he A S E I ha ve e xpl or e d t he ba c kgr ound of t he i r or ga ni z a t i on a nd w ha t l e d t o t he de ve l opm e nt o f t he A S E e xa m i ne d t he i r pr oc e s s e s f or de ve l opi ng bus i ne s s s ys t e m s f or t hi s ne w e nt i t y r e vi e w e d t he pe r s ona l a nd gr oup c om m uni c a t i on c ha l l e nge s t he y f a c e d a nd ove r c a m e t h r oughout t he pr oc e s s l ooke d a t s om e o f t he m i l e s t one oc c ur r e nc e s t ha t de m ons t r a t e d t he i r pr ogr e s s a nd c ons i de r e d t he i m pa c t on o r ga ni z a t i ona l c a pa c i t y a nd t he l e s s ons m e m b e r l e a r ne d t hr ough t hi s pr oc e s s t ha t t he y w a nt t o s ha r e w i t h ot he r s T h r oughout t he de s c r i pt i on of t hi s p r oc e s s t he m e s ha ve e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a S om e of t he s e w e r e a nt i c i pa t e d, ot he r s w e r e no t S om e a r e r e l e va nt a nd i m por t a nt t o t hi s r e s e a r c h, s om e a r e l e s s s o. T he m e s t ha t r e l a t e t o t he c om m un i c a t i on a nd m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s w i l l be e xt r a c t e d a nd de l i ne a t e d i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r s a s t h e y r e l a t e d t o t he f ou r r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T he pr oc e s s f or i de nt i f yi ng t he s e t he m e s w a s done c ol l a bor a t i ve l y w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a s pa r t of t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on pha s e of a c t i on r e s e a r c h. T hi s i s i nt r oduc e d be l ow a nd i s de s c r i be d i n de t a i l i n t he b e gi nni ng of c ha pt e r 7. I nt r oduc t i on t o C r i t i c al R e f l e c t i on A s pa r t of m y a c t i on r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy, I a ppr oa c he d t he b r oa de r r e s e a r c h t e a m t o be gi n t o i de nt i f y a nd r e f i ne t he ke y t he m e s T he ne xt s t e p of t hi s a c t i on r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s f or m e a s t he pr i nc i pa l r e s e a r c he r w a s t o s ynt he s i z e t hi s s t i l l l a r ge m a s s of da t a i nt o pr e l i m i na r y f i nd i ngs t ha t f oc us on t he o r ga ni z a t i on a l a nd c om m uni c a t i on i s s ue s t ha t t he N F C C t he J W B a nd I w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r ni ng a bout T he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on pr oc e s s us e d t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s i s de s c r i be d m or e f ul l y i n t he f o l l ow i ng c ha pt e r i nc l udi ng i de nt i f yi ng t he p r i m a r y f i ndi ngs f o r di s c us s i on; s ha r i ng t he s e w i t h N F C C

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180 m e m be r s a nd m y J W B l i a i s on f o r va l i da t i on c ha n ge s a nd a ddi t i ons ; a nd w or ki ng c ol l e c t i ve l y w i t h t he s e s a m e r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o de t e r m i ne a nd a pp r ove t he f i na l r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs T he s e f i ndi ngs w i l l be f u r t he r e x pl or e d, a s t he y pe r t a i n t o t he r e s e a r c h ne e ds of t he N F C C a nd t he J W B a nd t o m y r e s e a r c h ne e ds f or t h i s di s s e r t a t i on. I n t he f i na l c ha pt e r I w i l l e xpl o r e t he i r pos s i bl e a ppl i c a t i on be yond t he s c ope of t hi s w or k i n a ddi t i on t o di s c us s i ng t he c a ut i ons a nd l i m i t a t i ons of t he s e f i ndi ngs a nd a r e a s f or c ont i nue d r e s e a r c h.

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181 C H A P T E R 7 C R I T I C A L R E F L E C T I O N A N D F I N D I N G S I nt r oduc t i on S t a yi ng t r ue t o t he a c t i on r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on pr oc e s s t o he l p i n t e r pr e t r e s ul t s of m y da t a a na l ys i s a nd t o f or m a l i z e t he r e s e a r c h f i nd i ngs T hi s i nc l ude d s e ve r a l m e a ns of c ol l a bor a t i ve r e f l e c t i on: a ) t hr ough i ndi vi dua l r e vi e w a nd f e e dba c k by r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s b) t hr ough a gr oup s e s s i on w i t h t he N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s a nd c ) i n i ndi vi dua l m e e t i ngs w i t h t he N F C C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or ( K e i t h ) a nd t he de s i gna t e d s t a f f l i a i s on f r om t he J W B ( P a ul ) I n t hi s c ha pt e r I w i l l r e vi e w t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on p r o c e s s a nd pr e s e nt t he f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o t he or i gi na l r e s e a r c h que s t i ons C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i on P r oc e s s T he pr oc e s s of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i nc l ude d s e ve r a l s t e ps t ha t w i l l be r e vi e w e d he r e B e f or e a ny r e vi e w o r a na l ys i s c oul d be done by t h e r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s da t a a na l ys i s r e s ul t s a nd pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ng ne e de d t o be s um m a r i z e d i n a f o r m a t t ha t w a s c om pr e he ns i bl e f or t he i r r e vi e w T he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on pr oc e s s e nt a i l e d pr ovi di ng oppor t uni t i e s f or r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r e vi e w a n d r e s pond t o t h i s da t a a nd t o he l p de ve l op t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs M e m be r s pr ovi de d i nput bot h i ndi v i dua l l y a nd a s a c ol l e c t i ve body. L a s t l y, t he pr oc e s s r e qui r e d m y s ynt he s i s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s f e e dba c k.

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182 O ne i m m e di a t e out c om e of t hi s p r oc e s s f or t he N F C C a nd J W B w a s t o de ve l op f i ndi ngs f or t he r e por t t ha t w oul d be pr e s e nt e d t o t he J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s T h e J W B r e por t i s not i nc l ude d i n i t s e nt i r e t y i n t hi s c ha pt e r nor a s a n a ppe ndi x, but t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs s ha r e d w i t h t he J W B boa r d a r e i nc l ude d i n t hi s c ha pt e r A br i e f out l i ne of ke y e l e m e nt s pr e s e nt e d t o t he J W B boa r d i s i nc l ude d i n A ppe ndi x F T he J W B r e por t w i l l be r e f e r e nc e d s e ve r a l t i m e s i n t h i s c ha pt e r w he n de s c r i bi ng t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i nvol ve m e nt i n t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on p r oc e s s a nd a s one t a r ge t e d out c om e o f t he i r e f f o r t P r e par i ng f or G r oup R e v i e w of t he St udy R e s ul t s I nvol vi ng t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t a ge of a na l ys i s w a s i m por t a nt t o he l p di s t i l l a nd f i na l i z e t he r e s e a r c h f i nd i ngs T he i r t i m e w a s l i m i t e d 8 s o m a ki ng t he m os t of t he t i m e w e ha d t oge t he r f or c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on o f t he da t a a na l ys i s r e s ul t s w a s e s s e nt i a l T o do t hi s I t r i e d t o m a ke i t e a s y f or t he m t o r e vi e w m a t e r i a l a nd r e s pond i ndi vi dua l l y a nd c ol l e c t i ve l y. I n c ha pt e r 5 t hi s i s r e f e r r e d t o a s pha s e 2 of m y da t a a na l ys i s w hi c h I de s c r i be d a s be i ng done f r om a p r a c t i t i one r pe r s pe c t i ve t o pr ovi de a qui c k ove r vi e w of ke y i s s ue s di s c e r ne d f r om t he r e s e a r c h da t a T o pr e pa r e da t a a na l ys i s r e s ul t s f or pr e s e nt a t i on t o t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s I or ga ni z e d i t i nt o t w o f or m a t s : one f or t he da t a a na l ys i s r e s ul t s ( s um m a r y of c om m e nt s f r om i n t e r vi e w s a nd obs e r va t i ons ) a nd a s hor t na r r a t i ve t ha t p r ovi de d e xa m pl e s of pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs T he f i r s t f or m a t i nvol ve d s ha r i ng t he ke y r e s e a r c h da t a i n a c ons ol i da t e d t a bl e f or m a t ( s e e T a bl e E 1 i n A ppe ndi x E ) t ha t m e m be r s c oul d r e vi e w a nd r e f e r e nc e dur i ng di s c us s i on s e s s i on s T hi s da t a t a bl e c o r r e s ponde d t o t he l i s t o f que s t i ons f r o m t he 8 A n o t h e r c o m m o n i s s u e t h a t n e e d s t o b e m a n a g e d i n A R i s d i f f e r i n g t i m e l i n e s a n d p r e s s u r e s b e t w e e n a c a d e m i c s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s A c t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s n e e d t o b e a m e n a b l e t o w o r k a r o u n d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s n e e d s a n d t o b a l a n c e t h o s e w i t h t h e i r o w n r e s e a r c h p a r a m e t e r s

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183 i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol s um m a r i z i ng t he a ns w e r s pr ovi de d by m e m be r s T hi s w a s c ha l l e ngi ng t o do, be c a us e i t r e f l e c t e d a bout 50 hou r s of i nt e r vi e w t a pe s T he s e c ond f or m a t w a s a s hor t na r r a t i ve i de n t i f yi n g w ha t I di s c e r ne d t o be s om e of t he p r e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs f o r t he i r r e vi e w a nd c o ns i de r a t i on. T hi s w a s de ve l ope d by e xt r a c t i ng w ha t a ppe a r e d t o be ke y t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d dur i ng m y pr e l i m i na r y r e vi e w of t he da t a S om e of t he t he m e s i nc l ude d c ha nge r e s i s t a nc e J W B s r ol e i n t he pr oc e s s i m pa c t on m e m be r s l e s s ons l e a r ne d, a nd t he N F C C t oda y a nd i n t he f ut u r e T he s e a r e i nc l ude d i n t hi s c ha pt e r a s pr e s e nt e d t o a nd a m e nd e d by N F C C m e m be r s a l t hough s om e c a t e gor i e s ha ve be e n r e na m e d or b l e nde d. P r ovi di n g a dr a f t of pr e l i m i na r y r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs w a s ne c e s s a r y due t o our t i m e c ons t r a i nt s f or c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on. I n a n i de a l s e t t i ng, w e w oul d ha ve ha d a n e nt i r e da y t o r e vi e w di a l ogue a nd de ve l op f i ndi n gs c ol l e c t i ve l y. B e c a us e t he s e di r e c t or s w e r e s o bus y, ho w e ve r t he y w e r e ha ppy t o ha ve a dr a f t t o r e vi e w a nd e l i c i t t he i r r e s pons e C om m uni c a t i ng t he s e pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs r e qui r e d m e t o ba l a nc e m y va r i e d r ol e s a s a n a c t i on r e s e a r c he r a s f a c i l i t a t or e nga g e d pa r t i c i pa nt a nd obj e c t i ve r e s e a r c he r pr ovi di ng onl y s ubt l e gui da nc e t o t he m e m be r s r e ga r di ng ke y f i ndi ngs t ha t I t hought ne e de d t o be e m pha s i z e d. B y t hi s t i m e I f e l t c om f or t a bl e e nough w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t o know t ha t t he y w oul d f e e l f r e e t o e xp r e s s di s a gr e e m e nt or di s c ont e nt M y or i gi na l i nt e n t i n t h i s c ha pt e r w a s t o p r e s e nt t h e pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs a s t he y w e r e or ga ni z e d f or pr e s e nt a t i on t o t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s or ga ni z e d i nt o pr om i ne nt t he m e s r e l a t e d t o t he o r i gi na l r e s e a r c h que s t i ons I n t he ne xt s e c t i on ( R e s pons e t o t he D at a by R e s e ar c h P ar t i c i pant s ) I pl a nne d t o s ha r e t he de t a i l e d f e e dba c k pr ovi de d a nd

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184 t he c ha nge s m a de by pa r t i c i pa nt s I n t he f i na l s e c t i on of t h i s c ha pt e r I pl a nne d t o r e pr e s e nt t he f i na l f i ndi ngs a s t he y w e r e s ha pe d a nd a c c e pt e d by t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s T he c ha nge s m a de by t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s ho w e ve r w e r e m i no r ; pa r t i c i pa nt s c onc ur r e d w i t h m y pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs a s pr e s e nt e d, be c a us e t he f i ndi ngs a c c ur a t e l y c onve ye d t he s e nt i m e nt s e xpr e s s e d i n i nt e r vi e w s a nd m e e t i ngs A f ul l p r e s e nt a t i on of bot h pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs a nd f i na l f i ndi ngs t he r e f or e w oul d be r e dunda nt T he r e f or e f i ndi ngs w i l l be pr e s e nt e d i n t he i r f i na l f o r m a nd w he r e a ppl i c a bl e c om m e nt s a nd c ha nge s m a de by r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l be not e d. R e s pons e t o t he D at a by R e s e ar c h P ar t i c i pant s A s pr e vi ous l y i de nt i f i e d, da t a a na l ys i s r e s ul t s a nd pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs w e r e r e vi e w e d w i t h t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t h r e e di f f e r e nt w a ys : a ) t hr ough i ndi vi dua l r e vi e w a nd f e e dba c k by r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s b ) t h r ough a g r oup s e s s i on w i t h t he N F C C bo a r d of di r e c t or s a nd c ) i n i ndi v i dua l m e e t i ngs ( h e l d s e pa r a t e l y) w i t h t he K e i t h t he N F C C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or a nd P a ul t he de s i gna t e d s t a f f l i a i s on f r om t he J W B T he r e w a s no s ubs t a nt i ve i ndi vi dua l f e e dba c k pr ovi de d by N F C C m e m be r s R e vi e w e d he r e a r e t he c ol l a bor a t i ve c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on p r oc e s s e s w i t h t he f ul l N F C C boa r d a nd t he i ndi vi dua l r e f l e c t i ons w i t h K e i t h a nd P a ul C ol l abor at i v e R e f l e c t i on w i t h t he N F C C B oar d of D i r e c t or s D a t a w a s pr e s e nt e d t o t he N F C C boa r d o f di r e c t or s a t t he i r J une m e e t i ng T he or i gi na l pl a n w a s f or m e t o r e vi e w a nd di s c us s t he s e pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs w i t h t he m a nd s ol i c i t t he i r f e e dba c k a t t hi s m e e t i ng, how e ve r ot h e r boa r d bus i ne s s r e s ul t e d i n t he i r m e e t i ng r unni ng l a t e r t ha n us ua l I t w a s a gr e e d t ha t I w oul d pr ovi de a qui c k i n t r oduc t i on a nd di s t r i but e t he da t a t a bl e a nd na r r a t i ve ove r vi e w of p r e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs a nd t ha t w e

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185 w oul d e nga ge i n ope n d i s c us s i on a nd r e f l e c t i on a t t he i r upc om i ng t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e t r a i ni ng t he f ol l ow i ng M onda y. T o he l p s t r uc t u r e t he i r r e vi e w i nt e r p r e t a t i on, a nd r e s pons e t o t he da t a r e s ul t s a nd t he pr e l i m i na r y f i n di ngs I pos e d s e ve r a l que s t i ons t o t he m bot h i n w r i t t e n f or m i n t he doc um e nt s pr ovi de d a nd ve r ba l l y du r i ng ou r g r oup r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on t he f ol l ow i ng w e e k. N F C C m e m be r s w e r e a s ke d t o c ons i de r s e ve r a l que s t i ons t ha t a r e l i s t e d be l ow e xa c t l y a s t he y w e r e pos e d t o t he m e m be r s : a ) I n r e v i e w i ng t he s um m ar y of c om m e nt s s har e d on t he f ol l ow i ng page s ( r e f e r e nc i ng t he da t a t a bl e i nc l ude d i n T a bl e E 1 i n A ppe ndi x E ) : W hat i s m os t di r e c t l y on t ar ge t ? W hat i s m os t s i gni f i c ant t o be s har e d w i t h ot he r s ? W hat i s i r r e l e v ant i f any t hi ng? W ha t s m i s s i ng? W hat e l s e i s i m por t ant t hat has n t be e n c ov e r e d? b) W hat i s m os t i m por t ant t o be s har e d w i t h t he J W B B oar d about t hi s pr oc e s s ? I de nt i f y t hr e e k e y poi nt s t ha t y ou t hi nk ar e i m por t a nt t o c ov e y ? c ) H ow w i l l t hi s r e s e ar c h and r e por t he l p t he N F C C i f at al l ? d) H ow w i l l i t he l p J W B and t he J W B B oar d? T he s e que s t i ons w e r e a s ke d t o c onf i r m a nd/ or c or r e c t t he da t a pr e s e nt e d a nd t o s e e k a ddi t i ona l f e e dba c k i n ke y a r e a s w he r e e xi s t i ng da t a w a s w e a k, l i m i t e d or c onf l i c t i ng. I t a l s o s e r ve d a s a m e a ns t o ge t N F C C m e m be r s t o i de nt i f y t he p r e l i m i na r y r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t ha t w e r e m os t i m por t a nt t o t he m a nd t o he l p pr i o r i t i z e t he ke y f i ndi ngs t ha t s houl d be s ha r e d w i t h t he J W B boa r d o f di r e c t or s D ur i ng t he g r oup r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on, I a dde d ot he r que s t i ons t o ge t c l a r i t y on s o m e r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs a nd t o ge t m e m be r s t o e l a bor a t e on a r e a s t ha t ne e de d f u r t he r pr obi ng. I n pa r t i c ul a r t he r e w e r e a f e w que s t i ons i n t he r e s e a r c h p r ot oc ol t ha t e l i c i t e d w i d e r a ngi ng r e s pons e s f r om m e m be r s

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186 dur i ng i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s I w a nt e d t o e xpl or e t he s e f ur t he r a s a g r oup. T he a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons I a s ke d a t t he gr oup s e s s i on w e r e a s f ol l o w s : a ) T hi nk about w he r e y ou s t ar t e d f r om 2 y e ar s ago, i n J une 2003: W hat w oul d y ou r e c ogni z e as y our gr e at e s t ac c om pl i s hm e nt t oday ? b) P i c t ur e m e as y our l e as t f av or i t e J W B boar d m e m be r W hy i s t hi s ( t he A S E ) w or t h i t t o us ? c ) W oul d y ou hav e de v e l ope d an A S E w i t hout J W B i n v ol v e m e nt ? ( t o c l a r i f y c onf l i c t i ng i ndi vi dua l a ns w e r s ) d) Y ou pe r c e i v e t he A SE t o be a be ne f i t t o J W B on l y a nd t o hav e ne gat i v e l y i m pac t e d t he c oal i t i on. I s t h i s ac c ur at e ? ( m y s um m a r y of t he i r c om m e nt s a s ki ng f or va l i da t i on ) e ) T hi nk 5 y e ar s ahe ad: W hat ar e s om e w ay s y ou c an ge t y our 2 % w or t h? ( r e f e r r i ng t o t he t a x ) A nd w hat c an t he c oal i t i on gr ow i nt o? f ) Shoul d f unde r s t ak e t he k i nd of r ol e t hat J W B di d, t o s ay W e w ant y ou t o do t hi s ( de ve l op a n A S E ) ? g) I m a de a ge ne r a l r e que s t f o r ope n c om m e nt s h) W hat t hr e e f i ndi ngs do y ou t hi nk ar e m os t i m por t ant t o s har e w i t h t he J W B boar d of di r e c t or s ? R e l e va nt r e s pons e s t o t he s e que s t i ons a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons t o s uppor t va r i ous f i ndi ngs A f e w of t he i r c om m e nt s don t f i t w i t hi n a ny pa r t i c ul a r f i ndi ng but a r e w or t h not i ng he r e R e ga r di ng t he t a bl e of boa r d m e m be r i nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s ( s e e a ppe ndi c e s T a bl e E 1) N F C C m e m be r s di d not pe r c e i ve a ny i nc ons i s t e nc i e s be t w e e n m y pe r c e i ve d r e s ul t s

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187 a nd t he pe r c e pt i ons of N F C C m e m be r s T he r e w e r e no obj e c t i ons by a ny m e m be r s a bout t he s um m a r i z e d i nt e r vi e w c om m e nt s i n t he s um m a r y t a bl e a nd onl y m i nor c ha nge s w e r e m a de i n t he w o r di ng o r t he o r de r o f c a t e gor i e s W he n t he N F C C boa r d o f di r e c t or s w a s c ol l e c t i ve l y r e vi e w i ng t hi s t a bl e dur i ng t he r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on, t he r e w a s s om e j oki ng a bout s om e of t he i nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s s um m a r i z e d i n t he t a bl e I n pa r t i c ul a r a t t e nt i on w a s dr a w n t o c om m e nt s a bout t he t w o m e m be r s w ho c ont i nue d t o r e s i s t t hr oughout t he i ni t i a l pl a nni ng a nd t he t w o m e m be r s w ho r e pe a t e dl y di s r upt e d t he pr oc e s s T he m e m be r s w ho j oke d a nd l a ughe d a bout t he s e c om m e nt s w e r e t he t w o m e m be r s f e a t ur e d i n t he c om m e nt s I don t know w ho t hi s c oul d be r e f e r r i ng t o l a ughe d one o f t he m e m be r s I t c oul dn t be m e t ha t s f or s ur e s a i d t he ot he r S he m us t be r e f e r r i ng t o you. T hi s l i ght he a r t e d ba nt e r br ought l a ught e r t o t he e nt i r e gr oup T hi s ba nt e r a nd gr oup l a ught e r i n i t s e l f w a s a i ndi c a t i on of t he t r e m e ndo us c ha nge t he gr oup w e nt t hr ough dur i ng t he c ou r s e of t he ye a r I f t he s e i nt e r vi e w r e s ul t s w e r e s ha r e d a ye a r o r e ve n 6 m ont hs e a r l i e r t he r e s pons e by m e m be r s c oul d ha ve c a us e d hur t f e e l i ngs a nd r e s ul t e d i n c onf l i c t A not he r l i ght he a r t e d c om m e nt t ha t r e a l l y ki c ke d o f f t he gr oup d i s c us s i on w a s a r e s pons e t o m y f i r s t que s t i on r e ga r di ng t he i r gr e a t e s t a c c om pl i s hm e nt A n i m m e di a t e r e s pons e w a s t hr ow n out by one m e m be r : W e d i d n t ki l l e a c h ot he r T hi s w a s f ol l ow e d by a n ove r w he l m i ng e xpr e s s i on of a gr e e m e nt l a ug ht e r a nd j oki ng J oki ng a s i de m e m be r s e l a bor a t e d on t he i r gr e a t e s t a c c om pl i s hm e nt w hi c h w a s ni c e l y s um m a r i z e d by K e i t h: I t hi nk m or e i m por t a nt l y w ha t ha s ha ppe ne d i s t ha t t hi s gr oup ha s c om e t oge t he r a s a w or ki ng gr oup I t hi nk t ha t i s t he s i ngl e bi gge s t a c c om pl i s hm e nt : t ha t t hi s

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1 88 ve r y di ve r s e gr oup of f ol ks a l l w i t h ve r y di ve r s e pe r s pe c t i ve s i s now w or ki ng t oge t he r A nd i t ha s be e n a ve r y di f f i c ul t pr oc e s s a nd one t ha t I t hi nk t he y s houl d be pa r t i c ul a r l y p r oud o f H e a r he a r M os t of t he di s c us s i on dur i ng our r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on pe r t a i ne d t o t he s um m a r y of pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs O ve r a l l m e m be r s w e r e i n a g r e e m e nt w i t h t he na r r a t i ve o f pr e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs a s pr e s e nt e d t he y pr ov i de d s om e m i nor e l a bor a t i on t hr ough c om m e nt s s ha r e d dur i ng t he r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on. T h e s e r e s pons e s a r e i nc l ude d i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on t o s uppor t t he r e l a t e d f i n di ngs F i na l l y, I w a nt e d t o ge t N F C C m e m be r s t o he l p pr i or i t i z e t he f i ndi ngs f o r pr e s e nt a t i on t o t he J W B boa r d o f di r e c t or s A l t hou gh t hi s w a s t he f r a m e w or k I c om m uni c a t e d f or t hi s di s c us s i on, i t w a s a l s o a w a y t o ge t t he m t a l ki ng a bout t he ove r a l l c ol l e c t i on of p r e l i m i na r y f i ndi ngs W he n a s ke d t o i de nt i f y t he t h r e e m os t i m po r t a nt t hi ngs t o be s ha r e d w i t h t he J W B boa r d, t he i m m e di a t e ove r w he l m i ng r e s pons e w a s : K e e p t he m one y c om i ng! A l t hough t hi s ke y i s s ue w a s not pa r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h f oc us i t r e i t e r a t e s a nd e m pha s i z e s t he i m por t a nc e of a nd c o nt i nui ng c onc e r n a bout f undi ng by t he m e m be r s of t he N F C C T hi s c om m e nt w a s l a t e r s h a r e d ve r ba l l y, i n j e s t w i t h t he J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s a s pa r t of t he i nt r oduc t i on t o t he r e s e a r c h pr e s e nt a t i on. N F C C m e m be r s i de nt i f i e d t he m os t i m por t a nt f i nd i ngs t o be pr e s e nt e d t o t he J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s a nd t he s e w e r e r e f i ne d a nd t i t l e d a s f ol l ow s : a ) i m pa c t of t he A S E m ode l i nc r e a s e d c a pa c i t y; b) t he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d s r ol e i n t he o r ga ni z a t i on s t r a ns i t i on; c ) ou t l ook f or t he f ut u r e a nd d) c a ut i ons a nd l i m i t a t i ons A s pr e vi ous l y

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189 i ndi c a t e d, t he s e f i ndi ngs a r e i nc l ude d i n t hi s c ha pt e r a l t hough i n s om e c a s e s t he y ha ve be e n r e or ga ni z e d or r e na m e d. I de nt i f yi ng t he s e f ou r f i ndi ngs i s not t o s a y t ha t ot he r f i ndi ngs a r e i r r e l e va nt or i nc o ns i s t e nt w i t h t he obs e r ve d phe nom e non, but r a t he r s om e f i ndi ngs w e r e m or e di r e c t l y a ppl i c a bl e onl y t o N F C C m e m be r s t o J W B s t a f f o r t o t hi s ove r a l l body of r e s e a r c h i n or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on. F i ndi ngs m a y ha ve be e n us e f ul t o pa r t i c i pa nt s f o r f ut u r e p l a nni ng a nd f ol l ow up a c t i on o r j us t f or l e a r ni ng a nd be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s I n s om e c a s e s f i ndi ngs a ddr e s s ba c ks t a ge i s s ue s t ha t w e r e c ons i de r e d t o be m o r e pr i va t e a m ong t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd p r e f e r e nc e w a s e xpr e s s e d not t o s ha r e t he s e w i t h t he J W B boa r d o f di r e c t or s A l l r e l e va nt f i ndi ngs a r e s ha r e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r I ndi v i dual R e f l e c t i on w i t h St af f L i a i s ons P r i or t o f i na l i z i ng t he r e por t f or t he J W B boa r d, on e on one r e f l e c t i on m e e t i ngs w e r e he l d w i t h K e i t h e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or o f t he N F C C a nd w i t h P a ul m y J W B s t a f f l i a i s on. T he i nt e nt of t he s e m e e t i ngs w a s t o r e vi e w t he f i ni ngs m or e t ho r oughl y a nd t o ge t t he i r c onf i r m a t i on of t he f e e dba c k pr ovi de d by t he N F C C boa r d of d i r e c t or s A s w i t h t he r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on w i t h t he N F C C boa r d t he i r r e l e v a nt c om m e nt s a r e i nc l ude d i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons w i t hi n t he r e l a t e d f i ndi ngs A s a gr e e d a t t he s t a r t of ou r a c t i on r e s e a r c h r e l a t i o ns hi p, a br i e f r e po r t w a s pr e s e nt e d t o t he J W B boa r d o f di r e c t o r s i nc or por a t i ng f e e dba c k a nd i nput pr o vi de d by t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s c onc l ude d w ha t I pr e vi o us l y i de nt i f i e d a s t he p r a c t i t i one r pha s e of a na l ys i s W ha t f ol l ow s i s t he m or e de t a i l e d pha s e of a na l ys i s t ha t i nc or po r a t e d r e s ul t s f r om t he pr a c t i t i one r a na l ys i s a s w e l l a s f r o m m y r e vi e w of i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons a nd f i e l d not e s T h r ough m y pr oc e s s of c odi ng a nd a na l ys i s ( de s c r i be d a t

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190 t he be gi nni ng of c ha pt e r 5 ) pr om i ne nt t he m e s be ga n t o e m e r ge t ha t c onne c t e d da t a a nd f i ndi ngs t o t he or i gi na l r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T he s e t he m e s a nd f i ndi n gs a r e s ha r e d i n t hi s ne xt s e c t i on. I de nt i f i c a t i on o f T he m e s T he i de nt i f i c a t i on of ke y t he m e s w a s s t r a i ght f or w a r d a nd m os t l y f e l l w i t hi n t he ove r a r c hi ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons H a vi ng p r ovi de d a de t a i l e d de s c r i pt i on of how m y da t a a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d, w ha t f ol l ow s i s a n ove r vi e w of s om e o f t he da t a t ha t w a s e xt r a c t e d f r om m y f ul l body of r e s e a r c h. B e c a us e i t w oul d be t oo vol um i nous t o s ha r e a l l t he r e l e va nt da t a a t a bl e ha s be e n i nc l ude d i n t he a ppe ndi c e s ( s e e T a bl e G 1 i n A ppe ndi x G ) t ha t s ha r e s a l a r ge r c o l l e c t i on of r e l e va nt i nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s a nd obs e r va t i ons T hi s t a bl e f or m a t w a s m ode l e d a f t e r one us e d by H a r t e r a nd K r one ( 2001) i n t he i r r e s e a r c h on a c oope r a t i ve s uppor t o r ga ni z a t i on t o c a t e gor i z e da t a f r om t he i r qua l i t a t i ve i nt e r vi e w s i nt o de ve l opi ng t he m e s t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d r e c ur r i n g pa t t e r ns of be ha vi or s a nd m e a ni ngs ( p. 254 ) I f ound t hi s t o be he l pf ul i n or ga ni z i ng m y da t a i nt o p r e l i m i na r y t he m e s f or f ur t he r a na l ys i s T he m e s i nc l ude ke y o r ga ni z a t i ona l a nd c om m uni c a t i on c onc e pt s t ha t c ont r i but e d t o o r r e s ul t e d f r om t he i n t e gr a t i on p r oc e s s be i ng s t udi e d. F or e a s e of r e vi e w i ng t he s e t he m e s i nf o r m a t i on i s be i ng gr ou pe d w i t hi n t he r e s pe c t i ve r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : R e s e a r c h que s t i on #1: c ons i de r at i ons and c hal l e nge s i n i m pl e m e nt i ng t he ne w i nt e gr a t i on m ode l ; R e s e a r c h que s t i on #2: t he f unde r s r ol e i n gui di ng a nd a s s i s t i ng i n t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s ;

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191 R e s e a r c h que s t i on #3: m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i ga t e t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of t hi s t ype of o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a nd/ or t o c ont r i but e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s t ype o f i nt e gr a t i on m ode l ; a nd R e s e a r c h que s t i on #4: l e s s ons l e ar n e d t ha t m a y be ne f i t f ut u r e J W B e f f or t s a s w e l l a s f unde r s a nd s e r vi c e pr ov i de r s i n c om m un i t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s A l t hough t he s e a r e or ga ni z e d t o c or r e s pond t o t he f our r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t he r e i s m uc h ove r l a p a m ong t he m T he f unde r s r ol e f or e xa m pl e w i l l be r e f e r e nc e d t o s om e de gr e e w i t hi n e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on, be c a us e t he f unde r w a s a c t i ve l y i nvol ve d t hr oughout a l l s t a ge s of t h e p r oc e s s F ol l ow i ng i s a n ove r vi e w of t he ke y r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t ha t w e r e i de nt i f i e d by m e a nd a c c e pt e d a nd a ppr ove d by t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s F i ndi ngs P e r t ai ni ng t o R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on #1: C on s i de r at i ons and C hal l e nge s R e s e a r c h que s t i on #1 pos e d t he f ol l ow i ng: W hat c ons i de r at i ons do nonpr of i t s e r v i c e pr ov i de r s and f unde r s c onf r ont w he n be gi nni ng t he i m pl e m e nt at i on of a ne w c ol l abor at i v e m ode l ? ( i e W i t hi n t he s e l e c t e d r e s e ar c h s i t e s w hat w e r e t he c onc e r ns i s s ue s c hal l e nge s and pr obl e m s f ac e d be f or e and dur i ng t he i m pl e m e nt at i on of a m anage m e nt s e r v i c e or gani z at i on? A nd how w e r e t he s e c hal l e nge s addr e s s e d by par t i c i pant s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s ?) F ol l ow i ng a r e t w o f i ndi ngs e xt r a c t e d f r om t he da t a a na l ys i s t ha t a ddr e s s t hi s r e s e a r c h que s t i on, i nc l udi ng i nduc e m e nt t o i nt e gr at e a nd r e s i s t an c e t o c hange

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192 I nduc e m e nt t o I nt e gr at e A s a ddr e s s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w t he r e a s ons w hy nonpr of i t s c hoos e t o m e r ge c ons ol i da t e or i nt e gr a t e a r e w i de r a ngi ng C om m o nl y c i t e d r e a s ons i nc l ude c onc e r n f or a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e f f i c i e nc y, a voi da nc e of r e dunda nt e f f or t t o f i l l s e r vi c e ga ps t o be t t e r m e e t c l i e nt ne e ds a nd t o pr ovi de a f ul l e r r a nge of s e r vi c e s ( s e e A l e xa nde r 2000; M c L a ughl i n, 1998; R e i n, 1983; S na ve l y & T r a c y, 2000; W e r t he r & B e r m a n, 2001 ) A s s how n i n t hi s r e s e a r c h a nd a s s uppor t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w how e ve r one pr om i ne nt r e a s on i s t ha t or ga ni z a t i ons a r e be i ng e nc our a ge d ( f or c e d ) by f unde r s t o de ve l op ne w c ol l a bor a t i ve m ode l s T w o t he m e s w e r e unc ove r e d i n t he da t a a na l ys i s r e l a t e d t o t h i s f i ndi ng: pr ot e c t i ng t he N F C s a nd t he bot t om l i ne T he s e t w o t he m e s r e l a t e t o di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve s of t he s a m e que s t i on w hy i n t e gr a t i o n? T he f i r s t t he m e ve r y m uc h r e pr e s e nt s t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he f unde r ( J W B ) ; t he s e c ond t he m e r e pr e s e nt s t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he N F C s A s r e f l e c t e d i n t he s e t he m e s one gr oup s gui di ng ha nd c a n be a not he r gr oup s f or c e f ul pus h. R e vi e w e d he r e i s a s um m a r y of t he s e t he m e s r e l a t e d t o t hi s f i ndi ng. P r ot e c t i ng t he N F C s O ve r w he l m i ngl y r e f l e c t e d i n t he r e s e a r c h da t a J W B s t a f f f e l t s t r o ngl y t ha t t he de ve l opm e nt of t he A S E w a s a w a y t o s a ve a nd s t r e ngt he n t he N F C s A l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t he da t a i t w a s c l e a r t ha t t he N F C C m e m be r s unde r s t ood t he J W B s m ot i va t i on a nd t he i r c om m i t m e nt t o ke e pi ng t he N F C s i nt a c t J W B s t a f f a l s o kne w t he y ne e de d t o e xpl or e ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s t o he l p t he N F C s s ur vi ve t he J W B s boa r d di r e c t i ve t o e l i m i na t e f undi ng t he l i t t l e a ge nc i e s

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193 T he J W B l i ke m a ny f unde r s c a r e s a bout a nd w a t c he s ove r t he a ge nc i e s t he y f und. P a r t o f t hi s i nvol ve s m oni t or i ng a nd pl a nni n g f or e m e r gi ng ne e ds a nd t r e nds S om e t i m e s t he s e ne e ds a nd t r e nds c l a s h w i t h t he f unde r s de s i r e t o s uppor t c e r t a i n gr a nt e e s A s w i l l be d i s c us s e d i n t he f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o t he ne xt r e s e a r c h que s t i on, f unde r s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o s c a n t he e nvi r onm e nt a n d he a d of f pol i t i c a l t hr e a t s t ha t m a y ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t t he i r gr a nt e e s B y be i ng on t he f or e f r ont o f ne w or ga ni z a t i ona l m ode l s t he J W B s t a f f w a s a bl e t o do t hi s f o r t he N F C s t o r e a c t t o t he l oom i ng t hr e a t be f or e t he m I n one o f t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i ons a n N F C C m e m be r i de nt i f i e d t he A S E a s a m e a ns f or t he N F C s t o c ont i nue t o f unc t i on c a l l i ng i t a l i f e boa t T hi s w a s a m e a ns by w hi c h t he N F C s c oul d c ont i nue t o f unc t i on, de s pi t e t he c ha nge i n t he J W B s t r a t e gi c pl a n. I t w a s i n f a c t a l i f e boa t A l t hough t he N F C C m e m be r s unde r s t ood t hi s m ot i va t i on, i t w a s not T H E I R m ot i va t i on T he not i on of s uc h f or c e d i nt e gr a t i on w a s ve he m e nt l y oppos e d by t he N F C C m e m be r s T he bot t om l i ne F r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he N F C C m e m be r s t he r e a s on f or t he i n t e gr a t i on m o de l w a s s ol e l y due t o t he bot t o m l i ne t he f i na nc i a l bo t t om l i ne A l l N F C C m e m be r s a gr e e d t ha t t he y w oul d no t ha ve f or m e d a n A S E i n t he i m m e di a t e f ut ur e i f t he y w e r e n t f or c e d t o do s o, a s a r e s ul t of t he J W B boa r d di r e c t i ve M e m be r s a c know l e dge d t ha t t he y di d ha ve a c hoi c e but t he c hoi c e w a s t o c om pl y or l os e t he i r f undi ng C ont i nue d f undi ng f or t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons w a s c ont i nge nt upon de ve l opi ng a nd pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he A S E F undi ng i s a l w a ys a c r i t i c a l i s s ue f or t he N F C s a n d t he i nt e gr a t i on w a s t a ke n a s a t hr e a t by m a ny m e m be r s T he m e s s a ge t he y he a r d w a s T a ke i t o r l e a ve i t ( l e a vi ng i t be i ng t he i r f undi ng) I t w a s t hi s or not hi ng Y o u w i l l be on t hi s t r a i n, or you w on t be

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194 a nyw he r e F ur t he r e xa m pl e s of t he s e r e a c t i ons w i l l be pr ov i de d unde r t he ne xt t he m e r e l a t e d t o r e s i s t anc e T hi s i s a n e xa m pl e o f w ha t O t t ( 2001 ) de s c r i be d r e ga r di ng t he c ha l l e nge f or nonpr of i t s t o m a i nt a i n i nde pe nde nc e f r om t he i r f u nde r s N F C C m e m be r s f e l t obl i ga t e d t o r e s pond t o t he i r f unde r s r e que s t s be c a us e of t he i r de pe nde nc e on t he f undi ng. B e c a us e a m a j or i t y o f f undi ng f or t he N F C s c om e s f r om J W B i t be c a m e di f f i c ul t f or t he m t o r e m a i n i nde pe nde nt T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he N F C s a nd t he J W B i s a de m ons t r a t i on of how nonp r of i t s o r ga ni z e t he m s e l ve s t o m i r r or a nd i m i t a t e t he i r publ i c s e c t or c ount e r pa r t s ( B r i nke r hof f & B r i nke r hof f 2002) T hi s i nc l ude s a dhe r i ng t o w ha t e ve r m a nda t e c om e s t he i r w a y t ha t m a y t hr e a t e n t he i r f ut ur e e xi s t e nc e U nde r s t a nda bl y t he r e w a s gr e a t r e s i s t a nc e t o t he J W B s di r e c t i ve t o f o r m t he A S E a nd t hi s w i l l be e xpl or e d i n t he ne xt f i ndi ng, but t he N F C C m e m be r s e ve nt ua l l y r e a l i z e d t ha t I t w a s i ne vi t a bl e W ha t t he y c oul d c ont r ol w a s t he i r r e s pons e t o t he di r e c t i ve A s e xpr e s s e d pr e vi ous l y, t he N F C C m e m be r s unde r s t ood t ha t t he J W B s t a f f w e r e j us t doi ng t he i r j ob: F unde r s ha ve t he i r r ul e s t he y ha ve t o f ol l ow t oo T he y ha ve t o a dhe r e t o t he i r bot t om l i ne a nd t he bo t t om l i ne ge t s pus he d dow n t o t he g r a nt e e s T hr oughout t he A S E i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s di s c us s i ons a l w a ys c a m e ba c k t o t he f undi ng T he N F C C m e m be r s s uc c um be d t o t he pr e s s ur e of t he bot t om l i ne M a ki ng t he de c i s i on t o m a ke i t w o r k, how e ve r c a m e on l y a f t e r m ont hs of r e s i s t a nc e by m e m be r s w hi c h i s t he ne xt f i ndi ng t o be r e vi e w e d.

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195 R e s i s t anc e t o C hange T he s e c ond f i ndi ng r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on #1 pe r t a i ns t o t he N F C C m e m be r s r e s i s t a nc e t o t he i m pos i t i on of t he ne w m ode l A s e xpl or e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w r e s i s t a nc e c a n be c a us e d by f e a r unc e r t a i n t y a nd doubt ( P i e t e r s e n, 2002) a l l a r e c om m on r e s pons e s t o or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge W he n t r yi ng t o i m p l e m e nt c ha nge w i t hi n a ny he t e r oge ne ous gr oup, t he l e ve l o f c onf l i c t i s l i ke l y t o be hi gh ( B r i gh t m a n, 198 8) I n or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge e f f or t s pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nd t o vi e w c ha nge f r om t he i r ow n pe r s pe c t i ve w i t h r e ga r d t o how i t w i l l a f f e c t t he i r ow n or ga ni z a t i on ( P r ova n e t a l 2005) T hi s c a n c ont r i but e t o r e s i s t a nc e F or e xa m pl e m e m be r s m a y be l i e ve t ha t t he y w i l l l os e pow e r or r e s our c e s ( B r i ght m a n, 1988) I s s ue s of r e s i s t a nc e r e c e i ve d a gr e a t de a l of a t t e nt i on dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd w e r e e vi de nt d ur i ng m e e t i ngs a nd t he s e c onc e r ns w e r e e vi de nt i n t he r e s e a r c h da t a T hr e e t he m e s e m e r ge d r e l a t e d t o r e s i s t a nc e : t he m e m be r s r e a s ons f or r e s i s t a nc e t he w a y t hi s r e s i s t a nc e w a s m a ni f e s t e d, a nd t he i r pe r s ona l r e a c t i ons t o t hi s r e s i s t a nc e T he s e t h r e e t h e m e s a r e pr e s e nt e d be l ow R e as ons f or r e s i s t anc e A pr i m a r y r e a s on f or r e s i s t a nc e by t he N F C C m e m be r s w a s t he i r c onc e r n a bout l os i ng t he i r i nde pe nde nc e C om m onl y e xpr e s s e d f e e l i ngs i nc l ude d r e s e nt m e nt t ha t r e s pons i bi l i t i e s w e r e be i ng t a ke n a w a y f r om t he m I t s a bout i nde pe nde nc e s e ve r a l m e m be r s e xpr e s s e d. T he r e w e r e a l s o f e e l i ngs of be i ng di s c r e di t e d: T he y w e r e not be i ng r e s pe c t e d a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or s of t he i r ow n o r ga n i z a t i ons N F C C m e m be r s w e r e a l s o r e s i s t a nt be c a us e t he y di dn t t hi nk t h a t de f undi ng t he N F C s a nd e xe c ut i ng a s i ngl e c ont r a c t t h r ough t he N F C C m a de s e ns e N F C C m e m be r s pe r c e i ve d t he di r e c t i ve f r om t he J W B boa r d t o be due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he y r e s m a l l a nd

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196 t he y di dn t ha ve m one y t o s us t a i n [ t he i r o r ga ni z a t i ons ] T ha t di dn t m a ke s e ns e t o t he m be c a us e t he y ha d be e n f unc t i on i ng qui t e w e l l a nd qui t e i nde pe nde nt l y f o r qui t e s om e t i m e T o m a nda t e t ha t f undi ng go t o onl y l a r ge or ga ni z a t i ons w a s n t a l ogi c a l a r gum e nt N F C C m e m be r s a l s o f e l t t ha t t he A S E w a s n t ne c e s s a r y, be c a u s e t he y c oul d m a na ge t he i r ow n c ont r a c t s a nd t he y c oul d r e p r e s e nt t he m s e l ve s be t t e r t ha n goi ng t hr ough a c oa l i t i on T he y a l s o s a w t he A S E a s e xt r a c os t a nd e f f or t w i t h no r e t ur n. A s r e vi e w e d i n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r N F C C m e m be r s di dn t not i c e a ny of t he i ni t i a l l y pr om i s e d c os t s a vi ngs T he f a c t t ha t t he N F C C m e m be r s ha d t o pa y t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve c os t s t o do t he w or k t ha t J W B s t a f f us e d t o pe r f o r m a dde d f ue l t o t he i r f i r e A s e xpl a i ne d i n pr e vi ous c ha pt e r s t hi s w a s a c hi e ve d by e a c h m e m be r f or f e i t i ng 2 % o f t he i r J W B f undi ng t o pa y f o r t he N F C C s t a f f a nd o f f i c e A l l m e m be r s i de nt i f i e d t he 2% a dm i ni s t r a t i ve f e e a s a hi nd r a nc e t o t he i r or ga ni z a t i on w i t h no r e t ur n I n a s e ns e t he y s a w t he i r c oa l i t i on e xe c ut i ve d i r e c t or a s be c om i ng a v e r y e xpe ns i ve c ont r a c t m a n a ge r T hi s be c a m e one of t he s i ngl e m os t c ont e nt i ous t opi c s t ha t m e m be r s a r gue d a bout M e m be r s e ve nt ua l l y s t a r t e d c a l l i ng t hi s t he t ax a nd t he y w oul d m a ke a poi nt of s a yi ng t ha t a nd j oki ng a bout i t w he ne ve r J W B s t a f f w e r e a t t he i r m e e t i ngs T he i r s ubt l e pr ot e s t o f j oki ng a bout t he t ax de m ons t r a t e s one s ubt l e f or m of r e s i s t a nc e T hi s r e s i s t a nc e a l s o c a us e d c onf l i c t w i t hi n t he N F C C c i r c l e W he n t he y b r ought t he m one y i nt o i t i t c a us e d a l ot of di vi s i on, e xpl a i ne d one m e m be r T hi s m e m be r de s c r i be d t he g r oup a s pr e vi ous l y be i ng a f un, he l p f ul gr oup W he n t he m one y c a m e i n how e ve r t ha t r e a l l y s hi f t e d. T ha t s w he n s om e of t he c om pe t i t i ve e dge c a m e i n t he

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197 r e s e nt m e nt s a nd t he a r gum e nt s T he m one y j us t c h a nge d t he ge ne r a l good w i l l a nd good na t ur e of t he e n t i t y t ha t I s e ns e d a t t he be gi nni ng I n a ddi t i on t o r e s i s t a nc e a nd a r gum e nt s a bout t he t a x, m e m be r s a l s o que s t i one d t he ve r y m ode l de s i gne d t o gi ve t he m a ut onom y ( s e e F unde r s R ol e ) ; a m ode l w he r e by t he N F C e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or s gove r n t he ve r y or ga n i z a t i on t ha t w i l l be f undi ng t he m a nd m oni t or i ng t he m ( A l s o s e e F i gur e 4 1, i n c ha pt e r 4, f o r a de pi c t i on of t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p ) T he pot e nt i a l f or c onf l i c t w a s e vi de nt t o t he m but t he i r de s i r e t o m a i nt a i n c ont r ol w a s gr e a t e r M ani f e s t at i ons of r e s i s t anc e T he N F C C e xpe r i e nc e d t he f u l l r a nge of r e s i s t a nc e i nc l udi ng m ode r a t e l e ve l s f r om m os t m e m be r s a nd s t r ong r e s i s t a nc e f r om a c oupl e m e m be r s M e m be r s r e s i s t e d t hr oughout t he pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s i n va r i ous w a ys s om e t i m e s s ubt l e t y, s uc h a s j oki ng a bout t he t a x, a nd s om e t i m e s t hr ough ope n c on f l i c t A s m a y of t e n be t he c a s e r e s i s t a nc e a nd c onf l i c t a r e i nt e r c onne c t e d, w i t h c onf l i c t be i ng one of t he m a i n m a ni f e s t a t i ons of r e s i s t a nc e obs e r ve d w i t hi n t he r e s e a r c h s i t e S om e c ove r t r e s i s t a nc e a l s o w a s i de nt i f i e d by s om e N F C C m e m be r s s uc h a s m e m be r s w i t hdr a w i ng t he i r pr e s e nc e f r om m e e t i ngs t o s l ow dow n de ba t e on i m por t a nt t opi c s ; a not he r m e m be r w oul d not g i ve hi s e m a i l a ddr e s s ; ot he r s r e f us e d t o c om pl y w i t h ne w pr oc e dur e s or dr a gge d t he i r f e e t M or e o bvi ous f or m s o f r e s i s t a nc e be c a m e a f oc a l p oi nt a t m e e t i ngs : w he n t e m pe r s w e r e f l a r i ng a nd w he n m e m be r s a c t e d l i ke r oos t e r s i n t he ba r nya r d r uf f l i ng e a c h ot he r s f e a t he r s I n s om e c a s e s m e m be r s m a de pe r s ona l a t t a c ks a nd c onf l i c t r e s ul t e d i n hur t f e e l i ngs O ne m e m be r r e f e r e nc e d t hi s a s be i ng a n unde r s t a nda bl e f i ght

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198 or f l i gh t be ha vi or : I t hi nk t ha t j us t ha ppe ns w he n pe opl e f e e l l i ke t he i r ba c ks a r e up a ga i ns t t he w a l l T hi s t ype of di s c or d m a y ha ve s l ow e d dow n pr ogr e s s a nd da m a ge d r e l a t i ons hi ps a m o ng m e m be r s T hi s c or r e s ponds t o i nf or m a t i on c i t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w by P ut na m ( 1986) w ho de s c r i be d s om e of t he s e l f c opi ng t e c hni que s m e m be r s us e t o a voi d s t r a i ne d i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi p, i nc l udi ng f os t e r i ng ha r m ony by t a ki ng f l i ght f r om c ont r ove r s i a l t opi c s p l a c a t i ng or s m oot hi ng ove r d i f f i c ul t i s s ue s or c om pr om i s i ng t o ge t di s put e s s e t t l e d i n a hu r r y ( p 175) M or e of t e n, how e ve r t he c onf l i c t w a s f oc us e d t ow a r d t he c om m on e ne m y: t he J W B H a vi ng a c om m on e ne m y c a n t ur n c onf l i c t i nt o a pos i t i ve f o r t he gr oup H av i ng a r e al or i nv e nt e d e ne m y i s one c ha r a c t e r i s t i c t ha t B e nni s ( 1999) i de nt i f i e s a s c om m on a m ong gr e a t gr oups E ve n t he m os t nobl e m i s s i on c a n be he l pe d by a n one r ous oppone nt ( 11 ) T he m e m be r s j oki ng a bout t he t a x w a s one w a y t he y c a m e t oge t he r i n t he i r di a l og a bout t he i r e ne m y P e r s onal r e s pon s e s t o r e s i s t anc e A l t hough m a ny m e m be r s w e r e f r us t r a t e d by t he r e s i s t a nc e m os t f e l t i t w a s ne c e s s a r y. O ne m e m be r e xpr e s s e d t ha t he t hought t he gr oup w a s t e d a l ot of t i m e on t he r e s i s t a nc e a nd a r gum e nt s M os t m e m be r s how e ve r f e l t t ha t e ve n t hough t he c onf l i c t s t ook up a l ot o f t i m e i t w a s i m por t a nt t o gi ve pe op l e a c ha nc e t o be he a r d M e m be r s a l s o a c know l e dge d i m por t a nc e a nd va l ue i n a l l ow i ng t he c onf l i c t t o oc c ur a t m e e t i ngs t o h a ve a s a f e pl a c e w he r e m e m be r s c oul d ve nt t he i r f r us t r a t i ons W hi l e m e m be r s w e r e t ol e r a nt of t he c onf l i c t t he y a l s o e m pl oye d pr oa c t i ve m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s t o m i t i ga t e t he r e s i s t a nc e T he s e s t r a t e gi e s w i l l be e xpl or e d w he n di s c us s i ng f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on #3. M uc h of t he

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199 c onf l i c t how e ve r r e s ol ve d i t s e l f s i m pl y ove r t i m e a s t he pr oc e s s unf ol de d. I nc l ude d a m ong t he s e r e s e a r c h t he m e s ha ve be e n r e f e r e nc e s t o t he r ol e o f t he f unde r a s i t pe r t a i ne d t o be i ng a c a us e of r e s i s t a nc e a nd f or c i n g t he bot t om l i ne T he ne xt s e c t i on a ddr e s s e s t he r ol e of t he f unde r m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, i nc l udi ng t he i r r ol e i n bot h pus hi ng a nd gui di ng t he p r oc e s s F i ndi ngs P e r t ai ni ng t o R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on #2: F un de r s R ol e R Q #2. W hat r ol e do f unde r s pl ay t o gui de and as s i s t nonpr of i t s e r v i c e pr ov i de r s i n t hi s pr oc e s s bot h dur i ng t he r e s e ar c h, c ons i de r at i on and i m pl e m e nt at i on s t age s ? A s e vi de nc e d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on, t he r ol e of t h e J W B w a s s i gni f i c a nt ; t he y w e r e t he pr i m a r y m ot i va t or f or t he i m pl e m e n t a t i on of t he A S E m ode l A ddr e s s e d he r e i s t he r ol e of t he f unde r i n gui di ng t hi s pr oc e s s I n t hi s f i ndi n g, t he r e a r e t h r e e t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a a na l ys i s t ha t a ddr e s s t hi s r e s e a r c h qu e s t i on, i nc l udi ng f unde r pr e s s ur e f os t e r i ng aut onom y and m a k i ng ac c om m odat i ons a nd hav i ng an adv oc at e A ddi t i ona l r e f e r e nc e s w i l l be m a de t o t he J W B i n t he ne xt s e c t i on, a s i t pe r t a i ns t o t he m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s t he y us e d t o f os t e r a s uc c e s s f ul c ha nge e f f or t B e yond t he i ni t i a l ne ga t i ve r e a c t i ons t ow a r d t he i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t t he r e w a s ge ne r a l a gr e e m e nt a bout t he r ol e of t he J W B i n t he t r a ns i t i on pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on, a nd t he r e w a s c ons e ns us a bout t he r ol e of va r i ous s t a f f m e m be r s e s pe c i a l l y P a ul L a c ke y, w ho s e r ve d a s a pr i m a r y l i a i s o n be t w e e n t he N F C C boa r d a nd J W B W he n di s c us s i ng J W B s r ol e i n t he p r oc e s s of c r e a t i ng t he A S E m e m be r s r e a c t i ons w e r e i ni t i a l l y ne ga t i ve due t o t he pe r c e pt i on t ha t t he c e nt e r s w e r e f or c e d t o m ove i n t hi s di r e c t i on. D a t a r e l a t e d t o t hi s t he m e a r e t he f i r s t e xpl or e d r e l a t e d t o t hi s f i ndi ng.

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200 F unde r P r e s s ur e s D i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs on r e s i s t a nc e i s t he r ol e o f t he f unde r i n e nc our a gi ng i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t s A s a ddr e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w t he r e a r e i nc r e a s i ng pr e s s ur e s put on nonpr of i t s by f unde r s t ha t a r e pus hi ng t he i r gr a nt e e s t o c ons ol i da t e t o be m or e e f f i c i e nt i n s e r vi c e de l i ve r y e f f o r t s a nd t o be c os t e f f e c t i ve ( K ohm & L a P i a na 2003) M a ny o f t he r e a s ons c i t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f or nonpr o f i t c ons ol i da t i on ha ve be e n a dopt e d by f unde r s a s r e a s ons t o e nc our a ge c ons ol i da t i on. M a ny of t he s e w e r e r e a s ons c onve ye d by t he J W B f or t he boa r d s di r e c t i ve t o i nt e gr a t e : t o be a gr e a t e r i m pa c t f o r t he c om m uni t y ; t o be m or e e f f i c i e nt ; a nd t o m a ke s ur e w e ge t e ve r y t a x dol l a r ba c k t o t he c om m u ni t y. B e c a us e t he J W B w a s t he pr i m a r y f unde r o f t he N F C s t he N F C s f e l t ob l i ga t e d t o c om pl y w i t h t he di r e c t i ve P l a yi ng by J W B s r ul e s be c a m e e s s e nt i a l t o t he N F C s s ur vi va l a s a l l ude d t o i n t he pr e vi ous c a t e gor y of f i ndi ngs pe r t a i ni ng t o t he bot t om l i ne T hi s c o r r e s ponds t o t he qui d pr o quo or m a t c hi ng r ul e i de nt i f i e d by L e w i s e t a l ( 2003 p 422 ) w he r e i n t he l e ve l of s t a ke hol de r r e s our c e s s e r ve a s t he ba s i s f or de t e r m i ni ng t he l e ve l of de di c a t e d c om m uni c a t i ve a t t e nt i on. A pus h v e r s us a gui di ng hand R e f e r e nc e d s e ve r a l t i m e s pr e vi ous l y ha s be e n t he p a r a bl e of t he bl i nd m e n de s c r i bi ng t he e l e pha nt a nd t hi s i s ye t a not he r a r e a w he r e pe r c e pt i ons of t he J W B a nd t he N F C C di f f e r e d how t he N F C s w e r e e nc our a ge d t o i nt e gr a t e P e r c e pt i ons by t he N F C C m e m be r s w he r e t ha t t hi s w a s f o r c e d upon t he m W he n N F C C m e m be r s di d us e t he w or d e nc our a ge i t w a s a l w a ys s a i d w i t h e xt r a e m pha s i s a s i f t he y w e r e m oc ki ng t he us e of t hi s w o r d t o de s c r i be w ha t w a s ha ppe ni n g: T he y e nc our a ge dE N C O U R

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201 A G E D s om e pe opl e t o m e r ge T he y ke pt pus hi n g a nd E N C O U R A G I N G a nd pus hi ng T he y w oul d s uga r c oa t i t ni c e l y s a i d one N F C C m e m be r but i t w a s n t r e a l l y e nc our a gi ng. M e m be r s f e l t i t w a s f or c e d; i t w a s a n ul t i m a t um ; i t w a s not a c hoi c e A pr e vi ous f i ndi ng how e ve r de m o ns t r a t e d t ha t J W B s t a f f s a w t hi s a s a w a y t o s a ve t he N F C s A s w i l l be di s c us s e d i n f ut u r e s ubs e c t i on, t he J W B s t a f f t hought t he i r a c t i ons a nd m e s s a ge s w e r e be ne vol e nt a nd t he y t r i e d ha r d not t o c om e o f f a s f or c i ng t he i nt e gr a t i on: T he y t r ul y be l i e ve d t hi s : W e w e r e not t r yi ng t o s t i c k t h i s dow n t he i r t hr oa t O ne w a y t he y t r i e d t o b r e a k dow n t he i m a ge of e nf or c e r w a s by a l l ow i ng a ut onom y f or N F C C m e m be r s t o de ve l op t he m ode l t he m s e l ve s T hi s w i l l be a ddr e s s e d f ur t he r i n t he ne xt t he m e T he N F C C m e m be r s w h o w o r ke d m os t c l os e l y t o J W B s t a f f ha d s om e ha r s h opi ni ons of t he pr oc e s s but t he y c oul d a l s o unde r s t a nd t he di f f i c ul t pos i t i on t he J W B s t a f f w e r e i n ha vi ng t o qui c kl y i ni t i a t e t he J W B boa r d s di r e c t i ve T he y w e r e n t be i ng gi ve n c r e di t f o r w ha t t he y w e r e do i ng, e xp r e s s e d one N F C C m e m be r F os t e r i ng A ut onom y and M ak i ng A c c om m odat i ons O ne of t he m os t i m por t a nt a s pe c t s a bout t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s f r om t he J W B s t a f f s pe r s pe c t i ve w a s t ha t t he y t r i e d t o f os t e r a ut onom y a m ong t he N F C C m e m be r s T he y di d no t w a nt t he pr oc e s s t o be pe r c e i ve d a s t a ki ng a w a y t he m e m be r s c ont r ol or di s e m pow e r i ng t he m i n t he i r c ont r a c t r e l a t i ons hi ps J W B s t a f f f e l t t he y ga ve t he N F C C a s m uc h a ut onom y a s t he y c oul d, a nd N F C C m e m be r s e ve nt ua l l y r e a l i z e d t he a ut onom y t he y w e r e gi ve n: J W B c oul d ha ve s t r uc t ur e d i t i n s uc h a w a y t ha t w e ha d no c ont r ol ove r our f unds W e w e r e a l l ow e d t o de c i de how w e w a nt e d t o pl a y t ha t ga m e

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202 J W B s pe r c e i ve d ne e d t o f os t e r a ut onom y a m ong t he N F C C m e m be r s w a s pe r c e i ve d. T he s t r uggl e t o m a i nt a i n a ut onom y w a s a pr om i ne nt c onc e r n of N F C C m e m be r s T hi s i s t ouc he d i n ot he r t he m e s i n f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on #4. T he y a l s o r e c ogni z e d t he f l e xi bi l i t y a nd s uppor t of t he J W B s t a f f T hi s a ddr e s s e s a not he r a r e a w he r e e ve r yone w a s i n a gr e e m e nt a bo ut t he r o l e a nd c ha r a c t e r of J W B s t a f f w hi c h w a s de m ons t r a t e d t hr ough t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o be a c c om m oda t i ng t o m e e t t he unus ua l ne e ds of t he i nt e gr a t i on m ode l s uc h a s t hr ough t he a dopt i on of ne w pol i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s M os t m e m be r s e xpr e s s e d t ha t t he r e w e r e m a ny que s t i ons a bout pol i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s t ha t ha d no a ns w e r s a nd P a ul w o r ke d w i t h ot he r J W B s t a f f t o f i nd or de ve l op t he a ns w e r s t o s e e w ha t w oul d w or k. T he r e w a s di s c us s i on a bout t he J W B ha vi ng t o c ha nge pol i c i e s a nd t o r e ne got i a t e de t a i l s o f t he s i ngl e c ont r a c t J W B s t a f f w e r e a l s o r e c ogni z e d f or t he i r s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he ne e ds of N F C C m e m be r s dur i ng t he c ha nge pr oc e s s a nd f or t he gr e a t l e ve l of s uppor t t he y pr o vi de d. M e m be r s c om m e nt e d t ha t t he y di dn t f e e l l i ke a nyt hi ng w a s be i ng he l d ba c k f r om t he m by J W B s t a f f S om e N F C C m e m be r s de s c r i be d J W B s t a f f a s ope n a nd hone s t a bout t he s i t ua t i on a nd f or t hc om i ng w i t h i nf or m a t i on. A f e w m e m be r s e xpr e s s e d t ha t J W B s t a f f w e nt out of t he i r w a y t o l ook out f or t he N F C s a nd s uppor t e d t he pr oc e s s i n e ve r y w a y. S o m e of t he s uppor t i ve m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d by J W B s t a f f w i l l be e l a bor a t e d on i n f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o t he t h i r d r e s e a r c h que s t i on. O ve r a l l m a ny N F C C m e m be r s a c know l e dge d t ha t J W B s t a f f di d a n e xc e pt i ona l j ob i n w or k i ng w i t h t he N F C C J W B w a s a l s o a c k now l e dge d a s be i ng w i s e f or s om e o f t he i r de c i s i ons a nd s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s a l l ow i ng t he e xt r a t i m e t o de ve l op t he s ys t e m a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng a nd t e s t i ng t he s ys t e m f or 6 m ont hs I n ge ne r a l m os t m e m be r s f e l t t ha t t he

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203 l e ve l of J W B i nvol ve m e nt w a s he l pf ul J W B s e r ve d a s a good r e s our c e w i t hout t oo m uc h i nt e r f e r e nc e i n t he pr oc e s s M os t m e m be r s a ppr e c i a t e d t ha t J W B di dn t di c t a t e w ha t t he A S E m ode l s houl d be a nd t he y r e c ogni z e d t ha t J W B w a nt e d t he c oa l i t i on t o de ve l op i t on t he i r ow n E s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt t o a l l of t hi s w a s t he r ol e pl a ye d by one J W B s t a f f m e m be r : P a ul L a c ke y. H av i ng an A dv oc at e P a ul s e r ve d a s t he pr i m a r y l i a i s on t o t he N F C C m e m be r s T he i m por t a nc e o f t hi s r ol e w a s e vi de nc e d i n t he da t a f r om P a ul s pe r s pe c t i ve a s w e l l a s f r om t he N F C C m e m be r s P a r t i c i pa nt s a ddr e s s e d i s s ue s of m ut ua l t r us t P a ul s l e ve l of c om m i t m e nt a nd t he r ol e he pl a ye d i n ne got i a t i ng a nd a dvoc a t i ng. B ui l di ng t r us t P a ul w or ke d ha r d t o bu i l d t r us t by c om m un i c a t i ng ope nl y a nd hone s t l y a nd by de m on s t r a t i ng hi s c om m i t m e nt t hr ough s uppor t i ve a c t i ons : I m not goi ng t o l i e t o you. I f I t e l l t he m I d do s om e t hi ng, t he y kne w I d do i t P a ul f e l t l i ke hi s e f f or t s pa i d of f : T he y got t o w he r e t he y w oul d t r us t m e O ne de m ons t r a t i on of t r us t t he N F C C m e m be r s ha d f or P a ul w a s t he i r be l i e f t ha t he w oul d s pe a k h i s m i nd a nd s pe a k up f or t he N F C s F or a l ong pe r i od of t i m e a t l e a s t t h r ough t he f ul l t r a ns i t i on, t he N F C C w a s P a ul s num be r one pr i or i t y H e t a l ke d a bout how m uc h w or k he di d f or t he N F C C m e m be r s a nd a bout hi s ge nui ne c om m i t m e nt t o t he N F C s H e p r ovi de d s uppor t t hr ough a b r oa d num be r of w a ys a nd t hr ough a l l s t a ge s of t he pr oc e s s H e w a s c ha r ge d w i t h ge t t i ng t he m r e a dy f or t he pr oc e s s T he r ol e he pl a ye d a s l i a i s on i n c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h t he J W B a nd i n a dvoc a t i ng on be ha l f of t he N F C C w a s c r i t i c a l l y i m por t a nt t o bot h or ga ni z a t i ons H e w a s t he pe r s on w ho c a r r i e d a nd c or r e c t l y i nt e r pr e t e d m e s s a ge s be t w e e n t he t w o e nt i t i e s

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204 H e w a s ki nd of gi ve n t he l e a d a nd ki nd o f nur s i ng us a l ong a nd be i ng t he go be t w e e n t he t w o e nt i t i e s N F C C m e m be r s c oul d bounc e of f w ha t [ t he y] w e r e doi ng w i t h P a ul N F C C m e m be r s e xpl a i ne d t ha t P a ul w ou l d s e nd i t ba c k [ t o J W B ] a nd m a ke s ur e t ha t w ha t w e w e r e doi ng w a s n t goi ng t o ge t t hr ow n ba c k i n our f a c e s P r ovi di ng s uppor t t o m e m be r s s om e t i m e s r e qui r e d a l ot o f ha ndhol di ng a nd s m oot hi ng a nd f i ne s s i ng, e xpl a i ne d P a ul H e pr ov i de d e xt e ns i ve a s s i s t a n c e t o t he ne w N F C C di r e c t or a nd on oc c a s i on, he pl a ye d a r ol e t o he l p ke e p m e m be r s c a l m a nd t o m a i nt a i n ha r m oni ous r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n t he m e m be r s a nd t he e nt i t i e s : I t r i e d ve r y ha r d t o m a ke s ur e t ha t pe opl e w e r e t r yi ng t o c ool t he i r he e l s I t a l s o w a s i m por t a nt f or P a ul t o know w he n t o s t e p i n a nd ou t of c onve r s a t i ons : I di dn t ge t i nvol ve d I w a s t r yi ng t o s i t ba c k a nd be q ui e t unl e s s I w a s a s ke d f or m y i nput N F C C m e m be r s a l s o r e c ogni z e d t hi s t r a i t i n P a ul : H e di dn t but t i nt o t he pr oc e s s unl e s s t he gr oup w a s goi ng i n a di r e c t i on t ha t w oul d c a us e a pr obl e m P a ul s c om m i t m e nt t o t he N F C C w a s s o s t r ong t ha t i n s om e c a s e s w he n P a ul t a l ke d a bout t he N F C C he w oul d t a l k a s i f he w a s one of t he m H e w oul d c ha nge be t w e e n t hi r d pe r s on a nd f i r s t pe r s on s pe e c h w he n t a l ki ng a bout t he N F C C : W e r e i n a s i t ua t i on. I f w e don t pul l t hi s o f f W e ne e d t o be uni f i e d. W e w e nt out a nd bought f ur ni t ur e t oge t he r W e w e nt out a nd hi r e d pe opl e t oge t he r W e ha ve c om e s o f a r T he t ype of c onne c t i on t ha t P a ul ha d t o t he N F C C m i r r or e d w ha t S c ot t a nd L a ne ( 2000) r e f e r r e d t o a s a bl u r r i ng of bounda r i e s w he r e s t a ke hol de r s m a y pe r c e i ve a n o ve r l a p be t w e e n t he i r s e l f i de nt i t y a nd t he c ogni t i ve i m a ge t he y c ons t r uc t o f a n o r ga ni z a t i on ( p 48) T he y i de nt i f y w i t h t he o r ga ni z a t i on t o va r yi ng de gr e e s a nd a m ong va r i ous di m e ns i ons P a ul i de nt i f i e d s t r ongl y w i t h t he N F C C I got t o be i nvol ve d i n a l l of t he i r

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205 pr obl e m s I go t ve r y ve r y i nve s t e d, i n t hi s B e c a us e of P a ul s s t r ong a s s oc i a t i on w i t h t he N F C s J W B s t a f f w oul d oc c a s i ona l l y t e a s e hi m : T he y w oul d c a l l m e t he di r e c t or of t hi s [ or t ha t or ga ni z a t i on] T hi s bot he r e d P a ul be c a us e he w a s c onc e r ne d t ha t i f i t w a s ove r he a r d i t m i ght s e e m di s r e s pe c t f ul t o t he N F C di r e c t or s w hom he r e s pe c t e d gr e a t l y. P a ul s r ol e i n t hi s p r oc e s s w i l l be a ddr e s s e d f ur t he r i n t he ne xt f i nd i ng pe r t a i ni ng t o t he m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s us e by r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t f os t e r e d s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s i n t e gr a t i on m ode l B e c a us e J W B s t a f f e s pe c i a l l y P a ul w or ke d ha nd i n ha nd w i t h N F C C m e m be r s t o i m pl e m e nt t he ne w m ode l t he i r r ol e a l s o w i l l be a ddr e s s e d. F i ndi ngs P e r t ai ni ng t o R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on #3: M a nage m e nt and C om m uni c at i on St r at e gi e s R e s e a r c h que s t i on #3 pos e d t he f ol l ow i ng: W hat m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s ar e i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i gat e t he ne gat i v e e f f e c t s of t hi s t y pe of or gani z at i onal c hange and/ or t o c ont r i but e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt at i on of t hi s t y pe of i nt e gr at i on m ode l ? T he r e w e r e s e ve r a l ke y m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s e m pl oye d by m e m be r s of t he N F C C a nd J W B s t a f f t ha t he l pe d m i t i ga t e s om e of t he c ha l l e nge s pr e vi ous l y de m ons t r a t e d. S om e of t he s e w e r e pr a c t i c a l s t r a t e gi e s t ha t de a l t w i t h t he pr oc e s s of f or m i ng t he A S E O t he r s w e r e m or e p r e s s i ng s t r a t e gi e s f or t a ki ng c a r e o f t he pe opl e i nvol ve d. R e vi e w e d i n t hi s s e c t i on a r e i nt e r vi e w c om m e nt s a nd obs e r va t i ons t ha t poi nt t o s om e o f t he e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gi e s e m pl oy e d by m e m be r s W i t hi n t hi s s e c t i on, s om e of t he c om m on t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a i nc l ude d a l l ow i ng t i m e t o c hange l e ade r s hi p a nd par t i c i pat i on and r e l at i ons hi ps

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206 T i m e t o C hange M os t r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s unde r s t ood t he i m por t a nc e of a l l ow i ng t i m e f o r m e m be r s t o go t h r ough t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E t o bo t h w or k out t he l ogi s t i c a l de t a i l s of ope r a t i ng t he ne w e nt i t y a nd t o de a l w i t h t he e m ot i ona l i m pa c t of t he c ha nge A s de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r P a ul f e l t s t r o ngl y a bout ha vi ng a t l e a s t 14 m on t hs f or N F C C m e m be r s t o de ve l op t he ne w m ode l l a r ge l y due t o t he w or kl oa d i nvol ve d. T he r e w e r e m a ny t i m e c ons um i ng s t e ps i nvol ve d i n s e t t i ng up a nd m a na gi ng t he bus i ne s s s y s t e m s : I t w a s j us t s t e p by s t e p, i nc h by i nc h, a l l t he w a y t h r ough. B ut m or e i m po r t a nt t i m e w a s ne e de d t o he l p N F C C m e m be r s m a ke t he t r a ns i t i on, i n pa r t i c ul a r t o ge t t hr ough t he e m ot i ona l s t uf f S e ve r a l m e m be r s of bot h t he N F C C a nd J W B s t a f f t a l ke d a bout t he e m ot i ona l a s pe c t of t he pr oc e s s a nd t he y c om pa r e d i t t o goi ng t hr ough t he s t a ge s of g r i e f a nd l os s M os t N F C C a nd J W B m e m be r s f e l t t he y w e r e f or t una t e t o ha ve t i m e t o l e t t he r e l a t i ons hi ps de ve l op. A c oupl e of N F C C m e m be r s di dn t t hi nk t he e xt r a t i m e w a s ne c e s s a r y or e ve n de s i r a bl e a nd t ha t t he pr oc e s s c oul d ha ve g one m uc h m or e qui c kl y i f J W B j us t c om m uni c a t e d f r om t he s t a r t of t he pr oc e s s w ha t t he y w a nt e d. M os t m e m be r s how e ve r f e l t s t r ongl y t ha t t he e xt r a t i m e w a s e s s e nt i a l S om e t hought e ve n m or e t i m e w a s ne e de d. A s m e nt i one d i n a p r e vi ous t he m e r e l a t e d t o r e s i s t a nc e a not he r r e a s on f o r ne e di ng e xt r a t i m e w a s t o a l l ow m e m be r s t o w or k t hr ough t he i r c onf l i c t s W hi l e s om e of t hi s w a s na t ur a l l y r e s ol ve d t r ough t he pa s s a ge of t i m e i n ot he r c a s e s s t r ong l e a de r s hi p w a s ne e de d t o gui de m e m be r s

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207 L e ade r s hi p R e s i s t a n c e a nd c onf l i c t a r e c om m on oc c ur r e nc e s w i t hi n a ny or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge e f f or t R e s pons e s t o t he s e c ha l l e nge s c a n b e a ddr e s s e d t hr ough s uppor t i ve c om m uni c a t i on t e c hni que s ut i l i z e d by qua l i f i e d s t a f f a nd e m pa t he t i c l e a de r s L e a de r s hi p w a s one s t r ong t he m e t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a e s pe c i a l l y a s i t pe r t a i ne d t o m e m be r s w ho w e r e c r e di t e d f or t he i r s t r ong r ol e s i n a dva nc i ng t he pr oc e s s a nd e m pow e r i ng t e a m m e m be r s A s di s c us s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e f f e c t i ve c ha nge l e a de r s hi p dur i ng or ga ni z a t i ona l t r a ns i t i on de a l s w i t h m a ny c om m un i c a t i on i s s ue s s uc h a s t r us t or ga ni z a t i ona l c ul t ur e de a l i ng w i t h m e m be r c onc e r ns a nd t he us e of s uppor t i ve c om m uni c a t i on. I t a l s o i nvol ve s unde r s t a ndi ng t he e xpe c t a t i ons of va r i ous s t a ke hol de r s a nd m a na gi ng t hos e S e ve r a l J W B a nd N F C C m e m be r s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s l e a de r s a m ong t he gr oup O ne pe r s on i de nt i f i e d by a l l r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a s a s t r ong l e a de r w a s L oune l l M e m be r s t a l ke d a bout a m yr i a d of c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t m a de he r a s t r ong l e a de r : T he y de s c r i be d he r a s a ve r y c a l m i n g l e a de r a nd a s ha vi ng a l ot o f e xpe r i e nc e M os t of t e n, how e ve r pe opl e t a l ke d a bout he r a bi l i t y t o s a y w h a t ne e ds t o be s a i d a nd he r a bi l i t y t o be c onvi nc i ng be c a us e of he r e xpe r i e nc e a nd w i s dom O ne m e m be r s a i d t he f ol l ow i ng a bout L oune l l : Y ou c a n l e a d a hor s e t o w a t e r bu t you c a n t m a ke hi m dr i nk W e l l s he c oul d m a ke hi m dr i nk M e m be r s i ndi c a t e d t ha t L oune l l ha d a s ki l l f ul a bi l i t y t o s m oot h ove r t ough s i t ua t i ons a nd he a t e d di s c us s i ons a nd ove r a l l s he c oul d ke e p t hi ngs m ovi ng a l ong. S om e t i m e s he r w e l l pl a c e d a nd e l oque nt c om m e nt s w e r e e nough t o m ove m e m be r s t o a c t i on. H e r w o r ds a nd a c t i ons w e r e o f t e n f i l l e d w i t h c om m i t m e nt s uc h a s be i ng t he f i r s t m e m be r t o vol unt e e r t o pa y t he t ax a nd voi c i ng he r a s s ur a nc e t o pr ot e c t a l l

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208 t he N F C s I t w a s t ha t ki n d o f t hi ng t ha t r e a l l y he l pe d us t hr ough t he ha r d t i m e s s a i d one m e m be r L oune l l c l os e l y m a t c he s t he de s c r i pt i on o f t he l e a de r a s c r a f t s m a n, de s c r i be d by A gr a nof f a nd M c G ui r e ( 2001) w ho e l i c i t s c om m on goa l s c r e a t e s a n a t m os phe r e of t r us t br oke r s or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd i ndi vi dua l c ont r i b ut i ons a nd de pl oys e ne r gi e s i n a c c or d w i t h s om e s t r a t e gi c pl a n ( p 314 ) L oune l l s pe r c e pt i on of he r s e l f w a s m or e l i ght he a r t e d. S he de s c r i be d he r opt i m i s t i c out l ook w he n f a c i ng a c ha l l e nge : T he gl a s s i s a l w a ys ha l f f ul l t o m e a nd t he r e s a l w a ys a w a y t o ge t t h i ngs done E ve n i f I ha ve t o t a ke of f m y gl a s s e s a nd put on m y r ubbe r pa ds a nd do i t m ys e l f B ut t he r e i s a l w a ys a w a y t o ge t i t done A l s o c i t e d by m e m be r s a s a uni que t r a i t w a s he r a b i l i t y t o c i t e f un c ol l oqui a l i s m s a t j us t t he r i ght t i m e : I f s om e one gi ve s m e c hi c ke n poop, I know how t o m a ke c hi c ke n s a l a d. E ve r yone w ho s goi ng t o s i t a t t he t a bl e o ught t o do s om e of t he c ooki ng. P a ul w a s i de nt i f i e d a s a l e a de r f o r t he m a ny r e a s ons de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous t he m e r e l a t e d t o t he f unde r s r ol e K e i t h a l s o w a s i de nt i f i e d, a l t hough m e m be r s a c know l e dge d t ha t hi s l e a de r s hi p w a s de ve l ope d a nd gr ow n i nt o t hr oughou t t he pr oc e s s M e m be r s e xpl a i ne d t ha t K e i t h di dn t w a nt t o be t h e l e a de r be c a us e he w a s ne w A t f i r s t h e w a s r e a l l y pa r a noi d a bout us s a yi ng, W e r e goi ng t o f und you. H e d s a y, N o, your not Y ou r e goi ng t o f und t he c oa l i t i on, not m e [ T he y j oke d a nd t e a s e d hi m a bout i t ] K e i t h e ve nt ua l l y a c c e pt e d hi s ne w r ol e a nd be c a m e r e c ogni z e d a s a s t r ong l e a de r K e i t h r e c ogni z e d c e r t a i n s ki l l s t ha t he br ought t o t he pr o c e s s pr i nc i pa l l y pol i t i c a l s ki l l s a nd t he r ol e he pl a ye d of ke e pi ng t he ba l l r ol l i ng ke e pi ng t hi ngs on t r a c k a nd unde r s t a ndi ng t he na t ur e o f t he r e s i s t a nc e

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209 J i m w a s c i t e d a s a l e a de r m os t of t e n by t he o t he r J W B s t a f f f o r hi s w i s dom hi s c om m i t m e nt t o t he N F C s hi s s uppor t a nd t he t r us t he put s i n pe opl e t o do t he r i ght t hi ng. H i s f or e s i ght a nd s e ns i t i vi t y w e r e a l s o d i s c us s e d: H e ki nd of s a w s om e of t he t hi ngs c om i ng dow n t he r oa d t ha t he kne w m i ght ha ppe n. T he l e a de r s c i t e d w i t hi n t hi s t e a m m a t c h t he f our b e ha vi or a l t r a i t s i de nt i f i e d by B e nni s ( 1999 ) t ha t a r e s ha r e d by l e a de r s o f g r e a t g r oups : pr ovi di ng di r e c t i on a nd m e a ni ng; ge ne r a t i ng a nd s us t a i ni ng t r us t ; di s pl a yi n g a bi a s t ow a r d a c t i on r i s k t a ki ng a nd c ur i os i t y; a nd s e r vi ng a s pu r ve yor s of hope T o s o m e de gr e e a l l J W B a nd N F C C m e m be r s e xe m pl i f i e d t he s e t r a i t s T he s t r ong w i l l a nd e f f or t of m e m be r s w a s i de nt i f i e d a s a not he r f a c t or c ont r i but i ng t o t he s uc c e s s f ul i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t S om e s a i d t ha t m e m be r s c oope r a t e d a nd w or ke d t oge t he r t o ge t t he j ob don e T hi s c ol l a bo r a t i ve e f f o r t by m e m be r s a nd t he a bi l i t y t o m a i nt a i n r e l a t i ons hi ps de s pi t e s i gni f i c a nt s t r a i n, w e r e e s s e nt i a l t o t he t r a ns i t i on pr oc e s s T he s e e m e r ge d a s i m po r t a nt t he m e s r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on #3 r e ga r di ng m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s P ar t i c i pat i on and R e l at i ons hi ps T he r e w e r e s e ve r a l i ns t a nc e s w he r e t ur ni ng poi nt s oc c ur r e d i n t he gr oup s i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s a nd i n t he l e ve l o f t r us t a m ong m e m be r s T h e s e l a r ge l y i nvol ve d s i t ua t i ons w he r e gr oup m e m be r s c a m e t oge t he r t o m a ke i m por t a nt de c i s i ons t ha t i m pa c t e d i ndi vi dua l c e nt e r s or t he f ul l g r oup. O t he r e xa m pl e s r e vol ve d a r ound s i t ua t i ons of di a l ogue a nd de ba t e w he r e m e m be r s w e r e e nc o ur a ge d t o pa r t i c i pa t e e xpr e s s t he i r vi e w s a nd t he i r c onf l i c t s a nd w he r e t he y w e r e s up por t e d by t he i r pe e r s f or do i ng s o. A s di s c us s e d i n a n e a r l i e r f i ndi ng m e m be r s e ve n e m b r a c e d c onf l i c t a nd pe opl e s ne e d t o voi c e t he i r oppos i t i on T h i s i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h w ha t H e a t h a nd F r e y ( 2004 ) e xpl a i ne d

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210 r e ga r di ng c om m uni c a t i on p r oc e s s e s pr a c t i c e d by c ol l a bor a t i ve gr oups s uc h a s t hr ough di a l ogue a nd c ons e ns us de c i s i on m a ki ng t ha t a t t e m pt s t o honor t he vi e w poi nt s of t he i r m e m be r s va r i ous c ons t i t ue nc i e s ( p. 208 ) I n t he N F C C s de c i s i on m a ki ng p r oc e s s f ul l i nvol ve m e nt by a l l m e m be r s be c a m e a c r i t i c a l t u r ni ng poi nt T he or i gi na l de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s i nvol ve d a s s i gni ng c om m i t t e e s t o do t he r e qui r e d w or k a nd r e por t i ng ba c k. F or t he i nt e g r a t i on e f f or t how e ve r t hi s t u r ne d out t o be pr ob l e m a t i c m e m b e r s f e l t l i ke t he y w e r e be i ng l e f t out a nd t he y e xpr e s s e d t he i r de s i r e t o be i nvol ve d A l t hough di s c us s i ons m a y ha ve be e n l onge r a nd m o r e di f f i c ul t w i t h f ul l i nc l us i on o f m e m be r s i t i s e s s e nt i a l f or c r e a t i ve pr obl e m s ol vi ng a nd s ys t e m c ha nge ( M e dve d e t a l 2001) T hi s i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he s ugge s t i on by E i s e nbe r g e t a l ( 1999 ) t ha t be c a us e c om pl e x i s s ue s r e qui r e t he c om bi ne d i nt e l l i ge nc e of m ul t i pl e i ndi vi dua l s di a l ogue i s e s s e nt i a l t o t he s ur vi va l of t oda y s or ga ni z a t i ons ( 143) T he N F C C m e m be r s ha d a l ot of s e r i ous bus i ne s s t o de a l w i t h T he y ha d t o do t he w o r k, a nd t he y ha d t o ne got i a t e w i t h e a c h ot he r a r ound t ha t t a bl e T hi s t ype of gr oup di a l og a nd c ons e ns us ba s e d de c i s i on m a ki ng i s not e a s y t o e na c t T he N F C C m e m be r s w e nt t o g r e a t l e ngt hs t o c r e a t e ne w s ys t e m s f or de c i s i on m a ki ng, s uc h a s t he r ul e s of t he gam e de s c r i be d i n c ha pt e r 5, t ha t i nvol ve d a one t w o or t hr e e f i nge r vo t e t o e xpr e s s va r i ous l e ve l s of a gr e e m e nt or d i s c ont e nt w i t h de c i s i ons be i ng m a de L e s s s e r i ous f or m s a nd oc c a s i ons of c om m uni c a t i o n a l s o be c a m e oppor t uni t i e s f o r f ur t he r bond i ng, f or e xa m pl e l a ught e r A s t he i nt e gr a t i on pr og r e s s e d, t he N F C C s l ow l y s t a r t e d t o ha ve s m a l l oc c a s i ons f or l a ught e r W he n a gol de n nugge t o f l a ught e r w a s f ound, i t w a s he l d ont o a nd g l o r i f i e d a s a uni f yi ng a ge nt t ha t he l pe d br i n g m e m be r s

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211 t oge t he r T he s e a l s o uni f i e d t he t w o or ga ni z a t i ons t he J W B a nd t he N F C C O ne s uc h nugge t w a s t he r e pe a t e d j oki ng a nd l a ught e r a bout t he 2% t a x M e m be r s a l s o e nga ge d i n l i ght he a r t e d l a ught e r w i t h t he J W B s t a f f a bout t he r ol e s pl a ye d by P a ul a nd J i m T he y j oke d a bout t he m be i ng good c op, ba d c op T h i s e ve nt ua l l y s hi f t e d, w he n one m e m be r s a i d: I don t know S e e m s t o m e i t s ba d c op a nd w or s e c op. E ve r yone l a ughe d a bout t hi s i nc l udi ng J W B s t a f f a nd t h i s m a de J W B s t a f f f e e l good t ha t t he N F C C m e m be r s w e r e c om f or t a bl e e nough t o l a ugh a nd j oke i n t ha t m a nne r M e m be r s w e r e a l s o a bl e t o l a ugh a t t he m s e l ve s a s de m ons t r a t e d a t t he i r c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i on w he n t w o m e m be r s j oke d a nd l a ughe d a bout f e a t ur e d i nt e r vi e w c om m e nt s t ha t w e r e s l i ght l y ne ga t i ve a nd c l e a r l y a bout t he m D i f f i c ul t c onve r s a t i ons a nd l i gh t he a r t e d c om m uni c a t i on he l pe d t he g r oup gr ow c l os e r O ne m e m be r e xpr e s s e d t ha t i f i t ha dn t be e n f or t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he A S E r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong t he g r oup m e m be r s w oul d not ha ve i m pr ove d. T he N F C C w a s de s c r i b e d a s a f a m i l y t ha t of t e n ha s t o de a l w i t h di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons T hi s t ype o f c l os e ne s s a m ong t he N F C s i s a n e qua l l y i m por t a nt f unc t i on of gr oups e xpl a i ne d by B e nni s ( 1999 ) : T he y pr ovi d e ps yc hi c s uppor t a nd pe r s ona l f e l l o w s hi p. T he y he l p ge ne r a t e c our a ge O ve r a l l m e m be r s f e l t t he r e w a s m or e c oope r a t i on s ha r i ng a nd s uppor t a m ong m e m be r s a nd t he y be l i e ve d t he boa r d w or ke d w e l l t oge t he r S om e m e m be r s e xpr e s s e d t ha t t he N F C C w a s be ne f i c i a l be c a us e m e m be r s w e r e a bl e t o l e a r n f r om one a not he r a nd bui l d of f of one a not he r s s t r e ngt hs S om e of t he s e m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s c a r r y ove r t o t he ne xt c a t e gor y o f r e s e a r c h t he m e s r e ga r di ng l e s s ons l e ar ne d I n pa r t i c ul a r t he c a t e gor y w i l l a ddr e s s t he i m pac t o f t he A SE m ode l t hr ough i nc r e as e d

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212 c apac i t y of t he N F C C a nd i t s m e m be r s a nd t he l e s s ons l e ar ne d by m e m be r s t ha t t he y w i s h t o s ha r e w i t h ot he r s f a c i ng s i m i l a r s i t ua t i ons a nd c ha l l e nge s F i ndi ngs P e r t ai ni ng t o R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on #4: L e s s ons L e ar ne d R e s e a r c h que s t i on #4 pos e s t he f ol l ow i ng: W hat l e s s ons c an be l e ar ne d f r om t he J uv e ni l e W e l f ar e B oar d and t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s C oal i t i on e x pe r i e nc e t hat m ay be ne f i t f ut ur e J uv e ni l e W e l f ar e B oar d e f f or t s as w e l l as f unde r s and s e r v i c e pr ov i de r s i n c om m uni t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t at e s ? A s pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d, t he J W B a nd N F C C w e r e l ooki ng f o r l e s s ons l e a r ne d f r om t he i r e xpe r i e nc e J W B s t a f f ha d s e ve r a l i nt e r e s t s : t he y w a nt e d t o de m ons t r a t e out c o m e s t o t he J W B boa r d; t he y w a nt e d t o i de nt i f y l e s s ons f r om w hi c h t he y c oul d l e a r n, be c a us e t he y a nt i c i pa t e d s i m i l a r ve nt ur e s i n t he f ut ur e ; a nd t he y w a nt e d t o s ha r e l e s s ons l e a r ne d w i t h ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons a nd c om m uni t i e s T he N F C C s ha r e d t hi s l a s t i nt e r e s t a de s i r e t o s ha r e t he i r s t or y w i t h ot he r s w ho m a y be ne f i t a nd l e a r n f r om t he i r e xpe r i e nc e T he y a l l w a nt e d t o l e a r n w ha t w or ke d i n t he pr oc e s s a nd w ha t t he i m pa c t w a s on t he m e m be r a ge nc i e s I n t hi s f i ndi ng t he r e a r e t w o t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a a na l ys i s t h a t a ddr e s s t hi s r e s e a r c h que s t i on: i m pac t of t he A SE m ode l t hr ough i nc r e as e d c apac i t y a nd l e ar ni ng and s har i ng t he l e s s ons I m pac t of t he A S E M ode l I nc r e as e d C apac i t y A m ong t he N F C C m e m be r s no i m m e di a t e i m pa c t of t he A S E w a s r e c ogni z a bl e a nd i t w a s di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne i f e ve nt ua l c ha nge s a nd a c c om pl i s hm e nt s w e r e due t o t he de ve l opm e nt a nd e f f or t s of t he C oa l i t i on ( t he c ol l e c t i ve gr oup a s i de f r om t he A S E ) ; i f t he y w e r e due t o t he ne w A S E m ode l ; or i f t he y w e r e due t o t he i nc r e a s e d c a pa c i t y of m e m be r s a nd t he i r s t r e n gt he ne d r e l a t i ons hi p, a s a r e s ul t of de ve l opi ng ( or s ur vi v i ng t he

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213 de ve l opm e nt of ) t he A S E T hr oughout t hi s r e s e a r c h, m e m be r s p r e f e r r e d t o t a l k a bout t he C oa l i t i on a s t he pr e e xi s t i ng, vol unt a r y or ga ni z a t i on t ha t w a s s e pa r a t e f r om t he c onc e pt of t he A S E E ve r y t hi ng t ha t w a s good a bout t he N F C C a nd t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s w a s a t t r i but e d t o t he C oa l i t i on. M e m be r s r e f e r r e d t o t he A S E w he n t a l ki ng a bout t he ne ga t i ve a s pe c t s of t he pr oc e s s s uc h a s de a l i ng w i t h i s s ue s of c ont r a c t c om pl i a nc e f undi ng f l ow a nd t he e xt r a w or kl oa d. F r o m a n out s i de r s pe r s pe c t i ve i t w a s of t e n di f f i c ul t t o s e e w he r e t he C oa l i t i on e nds a nd t he A S E be ga n, a nd i t a ppe a r e d t ha t t he out c om e s a nd s uc c e s s e s w e r e a r e s ul t of t he bl e ndi ng of t he t w o. T he r e w e r e t w o a r e a s of i nc r e a s e d c a pa c i t y t ha t i nt e r t w i ne d t he s e s e pa r a t e i de nt i t i e s of t he A S E a nd t he C oa l i t i on: f i s c a l c a pa c i t y a nd pe e r s uppor t F i s c al c apac i t y W he n f i r s t l ooki ng a t i nc r e a s e d c a pa c i t y, pa r t i c i pa nt s f i r s t i nt e r e s t w a s c os t e f f i c i e nc i e s T he A S E m ode l w a s or i gi na l l y de e m e d t o be w a y t o r e duc e c os t s a nd t o s a ve t a xpa ye r dol l a r s A s e f f i c i e nc i e s be c a m e m or e di f f i c ul t f or m e m be r s t o i de nt i f y a nd m e a s ur e a nd a s i t be c om e e vi de nt t ha t t he s e m a y not be a c hi e ve d, t he f oc us s hi f t e d t o t he ove r a l l c a pa c i t y of t he N F C C m e m be r s hi p t he i r a bi l i t y t o do m or e w i t h l e s s a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o f unc t i on a s a s t r ong c ol l e c t i ve body A s i t pe r t a i ne d t o f i na nc i a l i m pa c t on t he N F C s t h e pe r c e pt i ons va r i e d de pe ndi ng on t he s i z e of t he a ge nc y. T he l a r ge r c e nt e r s f e l t t h a t t he i m pa c t i f a ny, w a s ne ga t i ve due t o t he t ax A s pr e vi ous l y s t a t e d, t he y s a w i t a s a s i m pl e f undi ng pa s s t hr ough, f or w hi c h t he y ha d t o pa y t he t ax t o m a ke ha ppe n R e pr e s e nt a t i ve s f r om l a r ge r c e nt e r s di dn t s e e a ny i m m e di a t e pos i t i ve out c om e s f o r t he i r N F C s a nd de s pi t e t he i r e a r l y c om pl a i nt s t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t w a s ne gl i gi bl e

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214 W he r e t he r e w a s a gr e a t e r i m pa c t o r pot e nt i a l i m p a c t w a s w i t h t he s m a l l e r N F C s T he pl a n w a s t ha t t he y w oul d be a bl e t o i ne xpe ns i ve l y pur c ha s e va r i ous a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e s f r om t he N F C C A s de m on s t r a t e d i n p r e vi ous c ha pt e r s how e ve r N F C C m e m be r s f e l t t ha t t hi s di dn t ha ppe n. S om e s t i l l ho pe d t ha t s uc h s a vi ngs w oul d be r e a l i z e d i n t he f ut ur e T o a l i m i t e d e xt e nt s om e o f t he s e s a vi ngs di d s t a r t t o oc c ur t hr oughout t he c ont i nue d c our s e of t hi s r e s e a r c h. O ne a r e a w he r e t he r e w a s a n i m m e di a t e i m pa c t w a s i n t he i r a bi l i t y t o a t t r a c t ne w f undi ng. A s a c ol l e c t i ve t he N F C C e nha nc e d t he g r oup s a bi l i t y t o br i ng i n c ol l a bor a t i ve gr a nt s T he y w e r e a bl e t o a t t r a c t g r a nt s f r o m f unde r s t ha t t ol d t he m t he y w oul d not f und i ndi vi dua l m e m be r a ge nc i e s bu t t ha t t he y w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s uppor t i ng t he c ol l e c t i ve body. O ve r t he c our s e of 2 ye a r s t he N F C C w a s a bl e t o i nc r e a s e i t s t ot a l budge t f r om $2. 3 m i l l i on t o m or e t ha n $4 m i l l i on, l a r ge l y t hr ou gh ne w gr a nt r e ve nue M e m be r s a l s o f e l t t ha t t he e nt i t y i m pr ove d t he r e put a t i on of t he N F C s a nd N F C C T he N F C C be c a m e s e e n a s a vi a bl e e nt i t y f or t he pr ov i s i on of c ount yw i de s e r vi c e s ne w pr ogr a m de ve l opm e nt a nd s e c ur i ng c om pe t i t i ve gr a nt s T he N F C C m e m be r s i de nt i f i e d t hr e e ove r a l l a r e a s w he r e t he N F C C i nc r e a s e d i t s c a pa c i t y a s a r e s ul t of t he i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t : i nc r e a s e d s uppor t i nc r e a s e d s t a bi l i t y a nd i m pr ove d s e r vi c e Suppor t : T he A S E m a y pr ov i de a ddi t i ona l a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t / s e r vi c e s a s ne e ds c ha nge a nd t he A S E c a n pr ovi de t r a i ni ng f or ne w s t a f f a nd m a na ge m e nt a t t he N F C s I nc r e as e d s t abi l i t y : T he y a nt i c i pa t e d t ha t t he N F C C w oul d gr ow a nd di ve r s i f y i t s f und i ng t o be ne f i t bot h t he N F C C a nd i t s m e m be r o r ga ni z a t i ons I m pr ov e d s e r v i c e : T hr ough c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t s t he N F C s bui l t g r e a t e r c ons i s t e nc y of t he i r s e r vi c e de l i ve r y e f f or t s ope r a t i ons a nd s ys t e m s w i t hout a f f e c t i ng t he a ut onom y of

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215 e a c h c e nt e r T he N F C C w a s a bl e t o f unc t i on a s a s i ngl e e nt i t y t o vi e w a nd r e s pond t o s e r vi c e de l i ve r y ne e ds t hr oughout P i ne l l a s C ou nt y, a s de m ons t r a t e d by s e c ur i ng ne w f undi ng f o r t he pr ovi s i on o f ne w s e r vi c e s c ount yw i de S om e o f t he s e a r e a s r e l a t e t o t he ne xt t he m e on pe e r s uppor t P e e r s uppor t S om e m e m be r s s a i d t ha t t he A S E he l pe d t he i r i ndi vi dua l or ga ni z a t i ons be c a us e i t pr ovi de d s pe c i f i c a s s i s t a nc e i n c e r t a i n a r e a s s uc h a s e m e r ge nc y f undi ng a nd pe e r s uppor t A f e w m e m be r s e xpr e s s e d t ha t t he A S E w a s a be ne f i t t o t he i r i nd i vi dua l or ga ni z a t i on t hr ough he l p pr ov i de d by N F C C s t a f f N F C C s t a f f a nd m e m be r s w e r e r e a di l y a bl e a nd w i l l i ng t o pr ovi de t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e t o one a not he r T he pr ovi s i on o f s uppor t he l pe d e ns ur e pr og r a m s us t a i na bi l i t y a m on g m e m be r c e nt e r s A s e xpl a i ne d i n e a r l i e r c ha pt e r s t he N F C C m e m be r s be c a m e a c c ount a bl e t o one a not he r i n a c ont r a c t ua l m a nne r T hi s i nc l ude s w he n m e m be r s f a i l t o m e e t a s s i gne d pe r f or m a nc e out c om e s a nd t he y a r e r e s pons i bl e t o he l p one a not he r i n s uc h s i t ua t i ons O ne s i gni f i c a nt c a pa c i t y bui l di ng o ppor t uni t y t ha t m e m be r s ha dn t r e a l i z e d by t he t i m e of t he i r i n t e r vi e w s w a s t he a bi l i t y t o s uppor t n e w di r e c t or s c om i ng i n t o t he s ys t e m A f t e r t he r e s e a r c h i nt e r vi e w s w e r e c om pl e t e d, one N F C di r e c t or l e f t he r pos i t i on a nd a ne w di r e c t or w a s hi r e d T hr ough he r m e m be r s hi p i n t he N F C C s he w a s a bl e t o ge t t r a i ni ng a nd a s s i s t a nc e f r om t he N F C C of f i c e T h i s w a s one c a pa c i t y bui l di ng be ne f i t m e m be r s ha d not i ni t i a l l y a c know l e dge d, bu t t he y l a t e r r e c ogni z e d t hi s a s be i ng v i t a l a s t he y c ont i nue t o g r ow a nd a dd ne w c e nt e r s O ve r a l l t he c a pa c i t y of t he N F C C di d g r ow e s pe c i a l l y i n t he a bi l i t y o f i t s m e m be r s t o w or k t oge t he r L oune l l pr ovi de d one d e m ons t r a t i on of t h i s : T w o ye a r s a go

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216 J W B w oul dn t ha ve ha d a n i nkl i ng or a t w i nk l i ng i n t he i r e ye a bout c om i ng t o t he N F C C a nd s a yi ng, W e ha ve $600 t hous a nd. H ow c a n w e s pe nd i t ? A not he r m e m be r s a i d, W e w e nt f r om b e i ng s t e p c hi l dr e n t o be i ng s om e t hi ng t ha t [ t he J W B ] t a ke s a l ot of pr i de i n. T he J W B s t a f f a r e e s pe c i a l l y pl e a s e d a nd pr oud o f t he de ve l ope d c a pa c i t y a nd c ohe s i ve ne s s of t he gr oup A s P a ul e xpr e s s e d, I s e e t he m s o s t r ong now I j us t c a n t i m a gi ne t he m f a i l i ng L e ar ni ng and Shar i ng t he L e s s ons T he pe r c e i ve d s uc c e s s of t hi s i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t i s w ha t m a de i t de s i r a bl e f or m e m be r s t o w a nt t o s t udy, t o l e a r n f r om a nd t o s h a r e t he i r s t or y w i t h ot he r s R e l a t e d s ubt he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a a nd w hi c h a r e s ha r e d he r e i nc l ude J W B s t e c hni c al as s i s t anc e a nd l e s s ons f r om m e m be r s J W B s t e c hni c al as s i s t anc e B e c a us e of t he uni que m ode l a nd t he m e m be r s a bi l i t y t o m a ke i t w or k, t he N F C C s t a r t e d t o a t t r a c t e ve n m or e a t t e nt i on A not he r t hi n g t ha t m a de t h i s m ode l uni que w a s t he s t r ong l e ve l of s uppor t p r ovi de d by t he J W B e s pe c i a l l y t he t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e f r om s t a f f t he f undi ng s uppor t a nd t he t i m e pr ovi de d b y t he J W B t o m a ke t h i s ha ppe n. T he s e w e r e uni que a s pe c t s t ha t ot he r c om m uni t y or ga ni z a t i ons w a nt e d t o l e a r n a bout or t o de m ons t r a t e t o t he i r f undi ng boa r ds J i m pr opos e d t ha t t he y c a pt ur e t h i s i nf or m a t i on a s a n e xa m pl e of w he r e s om e body w a s a s s i gne d t o w or k on t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e w i t h t he or ga ni z a t i on ove r a l ong pe r i od of t i m e t o do r e s e a r c h, t o he l p t he m t o l ook f o r t he t hi ngs t ha t c oul d c a us e s om e pr obl e m s a nd t o he l p t he m t h r ough a l l of t he s e t hi ngs T e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e pr ovi de d by f unde r s c a n t a ke m a ny f or m s a nd m a y i nc l ude he l pi ng t o bui l d p r obl e m s ol vi ng s ki l l s t r a i ni ng i n s pe c i a l s ki l l s or f or s pe c i f i c i ni t i a t i ve s a nd

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217 m or e ge ne r a l o r ga ni z a t i ona l de ve l opm e nt A n e nd goa l of t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e i s of t e n t o w or k t ow a r d i m pr ovi ng s e r vi c e s t ha t c a n be s us t a i ne d ove r t i m e A s a ddr e s s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w pr ov i di ng t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e a nd m a ki ng e f f or t s t o e va l ua t e t hi s t ype of c ol l a bor a t i ve e f f or t i s one t h i ng t ha t i s s t r ongl y r e c om m e nde d but r a r e l y done by f unde r s L e s s ons f r om m e m be r s I n s om e c a s e s t he l e s s ons l e a r ne d by t he J W B a nd t he N F C C w e r e s ha r e d; i n pa r t i c ul a r l e s s ons pe r t a i ni ng t o a l l ow i ng a de qua t e t i m e be i ng f l e xi bl e a nd c a r i ng f or t he pe opl e i nvol ve d. K e y l e s s ons N F C C m e m be r s s a i d t he y w oul d s ha r e w i t h ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons w e r e t o t a ke t he t i m e ne e de d t o pl a n a nd de ve l op t he pr oc e s s ; t o be pa t i e nt w i t h t he pe opl e i nvo l ve d; a nd t o be f l e xi bl e O ne l e s s on t ha t N F C C m e m be r s w a nt e d t o s ha r e t ha t w a s di s t i nc t w a s : D on t f i ght i t A nd i f i t i s a n opt i on, a f e w m e m be r s r e c om m e nde d not t o de ve l op a n A S E a t a l l I nvol vi ng pe opl e i n t he p l a nni ng pr oc e s s w ho w i l l be m os t i m pa c t e d w a s a not he r ke y l e s s on s ha r e d by m e m be r s I t ne e ds t o be a pr oc e s s t ha t s t a r t s a t t he bot t om a nd w or ks i t s w a y up, s a i d L oune l l O ne m o r e t hi ng w a s of f e r e d, a s a w or d t o t he w i s e m o r e t ha n a l e s s on t o be s ha r e d: a s nonp r of i t s e r vi c e pr o vi de r s s e e t he i r f un de r s c onduc t i ng s t r a t e gi c pl a nni ng a nd e ve r yone be gi ns t o pa t t he m s e l ve s on t he ba c k, be w a r e t ha t t he y m a y be c om i ng f o r you ne xt S um m a r y T hi s c ha pt e r s t a r t e d w i t h a n ove r vi e w of t he c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on pr oc e s s t ha t i nvol ve d t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i n i de nt i f yi ng e m e r ge nt t he m e s r e l a t e d t o or ga ni z a t i ona l a nd c om m uni c a t i on c onc e pt s t ha t c ont r i but e d t o or r e s ul t e d f r o m t he

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218 i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s be i ng s t udi e d. T he s e t he m a t i c f i ndi ngs w e r e gr oupe d w i t h i n t he r e s pe c t i ve r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : R e s e a r c h que s t i on #1: c ons i de r at i ons and c hal l e nge s i n i m pl e m e nt i ng t he ne w i nt e gr a t i on m ode l ; R e s e a r c h que s t i on #2: t he f unde r s r ol e i n gui di ng a nd a s s i s t i ng i n t he i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s ; R e s e a r c h que s t i on #3: m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i ga t e t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of t hi s t ype of o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge a nd/ or t o c ont r i but e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s t ype o f i nt e gr a t i on m ode l ; a nd R e s e a r c h que s t i on #4: l e s s ons l e ar n e d t ha t m a y be ne f i t f ut u r e J W B e f f or t s a s w e l l a s f unde r s a nd s e r vi c e pr ov i de r s i n c om m un i t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s I n r e vi e w i ng t he s e t he m e s c onne c t i ons w e r e m a de be t w e e n t he i nt e r vi e w s obs e r va t i ona l da t a t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a nd m y o w n ke y l e a r ni ngs t o e xpl or e a ns w e r s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons I n t he f i na l c ha pt e r I w i l l d i s c us s s om e a ddi t i ona l ke y l e a r ni ngs e xpl or e t he i m pl i c a t i on of t hi s r e s e a r c h f o r nonpr o f i t s f unde r s c ol l a bor a t i ve pa r t ne r s hi ps a nd s c hol a r s I w i l l a l s o di s c us s t he l i m i t a t i ons o f t he s e f i ndi ngs a nd pr opos e a r e a s f o r c ont i nue d r e s e a r c h.

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219 C H A P T E R 8 I M P L I C A T I O N S A N D L I M I T A T I O N S I nt r oduc t i on T hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h pr ovi de d a uni que oppo r t uni t y t o e xpl o r e a nonp r of i t i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t w hi l e i t w a s unf ol di ng. I t a l s o a l l ow e d m e t o l ook a t t he pr oc e s s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he no npr of i t s i nvol ve d a s w e l l a s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he f unde r r e s pons i bl e f or i ni t i a t i ng t he ne w m ode l T hr ough qua l i t a t i ve i nt e r vi e w s a nd e t hnogr a phi c s t udy I w a s a bl e t o de ve l op a de e pe r u nde r s t a ndi ng of t he c ha l l e nge s f a c i ng t he or ga ni z a t i ons a nd i ndi vi dua l s i nvol ve d a nd t o e xa m i ne c om m uni c a t i on a nd m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s t he y us e d t o m ove t he t r a ns i t i on p r oc e s s f or w a r d. I n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r s I s ha r e d t he N F C C i nt e gr a t i on pr oc e s s t hr ough t he w or ds of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t hr ough m y ow n o bs e r va t i ons T he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t hi s c ons t r uc t i on w e r e e xpl or e d i n r e l a t i on t o f our r e s e a r c h que s t i ons R e s e a r c h que s t i on #1. W hat c ons i de r at i ons do non pr of i t s e r v i c e pr ov i de r s and f unde r s c ons i de r w he n be gi nni ng t he i m pl e m e nt at i on of a ne w c ol l abor at i v e m ode l ? ( i e W i t hi n t he s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h s i t e s w hat w e r e t he c onc e r ns i s s ue s c hal l e nge s and pr obl e m s f ac e d be f or e and dur i ng t he i m pl e m e nt at i on of a m anage m e nt s e r v i c e or gani z at i on? A nd how w e r e t he s e c hal l e nge s addr e s s e d by par t i c i pant s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s ?)

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220 R e s e a r c h que s t i on #2. W hat r ol e do f unde r s pl ay t o gui de and as s i s t nonpr of i t s e r v i c e pr ov i de r s i n t hi s pr oc e s s bot h dur i ng t he r e s e ar c h, c ons i de r at i on and i m pl e m e nt at i on s t age s ? R e s e a r c h que s t i on #3. W hat m anage m e nt and c om m uni c at i on s t r at e gi e s ar e i m pl e m e nt e d t o m i t i gat e t he ne gat i v e e f f e c t s of t h i s t y pe of or gani z at i onal c hange and/ or t o c ont r i but e t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt at i on of t hi s t y pe of i nt e gr at i on m ode l ? R e s e a r c h que s t i on #4. W hat l e s s ons c an be l e ar ne d f r om t he J uv e ni l e W e l f ar e B o ar d and t he N e i ghbor hood F am i l y C e nt e r s C oal i t i on e x pe r i e nc e t hat m ay be ne f i t f ut ur e J uv e ni l e W e l f ar e B oar d e f f or t s as w e l l as f u nde r s and s e r v i c e pr ov i de r s i n c om m uni t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d St at e s ? S om e of t he t he m e s r e l e va nt t o t he s e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w i l l be r e vi s i t e d i n t h i s c l os i ng c ha pt e r A c ha l l e ngi ng a nd r e w a r di ng pa r t of t hi s r e s e a r c h w a r r a nt i ng s pe c i a l a t t e nt i on i s t he f a c t t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s w a nt e d t o be a c t i ve l y e ng a ge d i n t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s c a m e w i t h t he i r ow n r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd de s i r e s a nd w a nt e d t o be i nvol ve d i n de s i gni ng t he r e s e a r c h a nd i n i de nt i f y i ng f i nd i ngs T hi s a l l ow e d m e t o l e a r n m or e a bout a c t i on r e s e a r c h a nd t o pr a c t i c e t he pr i nc i pl e s of t hi s m e t hodol ogy T he c oge ne r a t i ve na t ur e of t h i s r e s e a r c h r e s ul t e d i n l e a r ni ng t h a t w a s m e a ni ngf ul t o a l l t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nvol ve d: t he f unde r ( J W B ) t he nonpr o f i t s i nvol ve d i n t he pa r t n e r s hi p ( t he N F C C m e m be r s ) a nd t he s c hol a r ( m e t he a s pi r i ng P h D ) I n t hi s f i na l c ha pt e r I w i l l di s c us s t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t hi s r e s e a r c h w i t hi n t h e s e t hr e e c a t e gor i e s : i m pl i c at i ons f or f unde r s nonpr of i t s and nonpr of i t par t ne r s hi ps and s c hol ar s R e c om m e nd a t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h w i l l be

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221 s ha r e d unde r i m pl i c at i ons f or s c hol ar s A f t e r di s c us s i ng t he s e i m pl i c a t i ons I a l s o w i l l i de nt i f y l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy a nd m a ke s om e c l os i ng r e m a r ks I m pl i c a t i ons f or F unde r s T he a c t i ve r ol e of f unde r s i n or ga ni z a t i ona l r e s t r uc t ur i ng a nd c ons ol i da t i on i s be c om i ng a m or e c om m on a r e a o f s t udy, be c a us e m or e f unde r s a r e m ovi ng i n t he di r e c t i on of e nc our a gi ng f und e d a ge nc i e s t o e xpl or e t he s e s t r a t e gi e s T hi s w a s r e f e r r e d t o by A gr a nof f ( 2003) a s a n e nga ge m e nt phi l os ophy t ha t ha s unf ol de d f or gove r nm e nt : G ove r nm e nt s houl d t a ke on m o r e of a de ve l opm e nt a l or s t e e r i ng r ol e pr om o t i ng, r e gul a t i ng, a nd e nc our a gi ng va r i ous t ype s of nong ove r nm e nt a l a c t i vi t y a nd ope r a t i ons ( p. 8 ) A n e xa m pl e o f t hi s i s m a nda t i ng pa r t ne r no npr of i t s t o c ons ol i da t e or f or m ne w i nt e gr a t i on m ode l s I n m a ny c a s e s f unde r s ha ve a n e nha nc e d a bi l i t y t o s e e f ut ur e t r e nds t ha t m a y ha ve a de t r i m e nt a l i m pa c t on t he i r g r a nt e e s a nd t h e y c a n he a d t he s e of f by e nc our a gi ng c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s I n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h, t he J W B ha d t he f or e s i ght t o s e e t he c ha l l e nge s t he N F C s a nd ot he r f unde d or ga ni z a t i o ns m a y f a c e i n t he f ut u r e a nd p r ovi de d t he gui da nc e ne e de d t o he l p a ge nc i e s pr e pa r e f or t he c om i ng c ha nge W ha t r ol e a f unde r s houl d pl a y i n e nc our a gi ng or s uppor t i ng c ons ol i d a t i on e f f or t s how e ve r i s c ont r ove r s i a l : S houl d f unde r s f or c e c ons ol i da t i on i f t he y t hi nk i t s i n t he be s t i nt e r e s t o f t he non pr of i t i t s c l i e nt s t he c om m uni t y o r t he t a x pa ye r ? O r i s t hi s be yond t he s c ope of t he f unde r s r ol e ? A r e l a t e d i m pl i c a t i on f or f unde r s i s t ha t t he y s houl d be m or e a w a r e of a nd r e s pons i ve t o t he pe r c e i ve d pow e r t ha t t he i r gr a nt e e s t hi nk f unde r s w i e l d ove r t he m T hi s i s s ue w a s bot h a ddr e s s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd r e ve a l e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h t h r ough t he

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222 c onf l i c t i ng pe r c e pt i ons of t he J W B a nd t he N F C C m e m be r s W he r e J W B s t a f f t hought t he y w e r e be i ng he l pf ul a nd p r ovi di ng ge nt l e gui da nc e t he N F C C m e m be r s f e l t t he y w e r e be i ng f or c e d t o do s om e t hi ng t ha t w ou l d w e a ke n t he i r o r ga ni z a t i ons A s poi nt e d out by L a P i a na a nd K ohm ( 2003) be c a us e of t he pr e s s ur e f e l t by nonpr of i t s i t m a y not be r e a l i s t i c f or f unde r s t o be l i e ve t he y c a n s ugge s t a n d e duc a t e w i t hout t he i r gr a nt e e s f e e l i ng s om e pr e s s ur e ( p. 21) A s f unde r s e nc our a ge or m a nda t e f or m a l pa r t ne r s h i ps t he y m a y be s e e n a s c ont r i but i ng t o t he c ha l l e nge s nonpr of i t s f a c e bu t t he y c a n a l s o be vi e w e d a s e s s e nt i a l s uppor t e r s a nd a dvi s or s t o or ga ni z a t i ons F unde r s c a n pl a y a n i ns t r um e nt a l r ol e i n he l pi ng nonpr of i t s e xpl or e r e s t r uc t ur i ng opt i ons a nd t he y c a n pl a y a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n he l pi ng nonpr of i t s i m pl e m e nt ne w m a na ge m e nt or c ha nge s t r a t e gi e s D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t m a i nt a i ni ng f unde r s s uppor t i s a pr i m a r y r e a s on w hy or ga ni z a t i ons pur s ue c ons ol i da t i ons f e w f unde r s o f f e r he l p i n pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng f o r m a l i n t e gr a t i ons S t r ongl y r e c om m e nde d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd de m on s t r a t e d i n t he N F C C i nt e g r a t i on w a s t he ne e d f or f unde r s t o pr ovi de s uppor t t o non pr of i t s s h oul d t he ne e d f or c ons ol i da t i on be c om e ne c e s s a r y. E s pe c i a l l y w he n f unde r s i m pos e a c ons ol i da t i on or i nt e gr a t i on, t he f unde r s houl d t a ke i n t o a c c ount t he t i m e ne e de d f o r pa r t i c i pa nt s t o pl a n a nd go t hr ough t he s t a ge s of c ha nge F unde r s s hou l d a l s o pr ovi de n e e de d f undi ng a nd t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o e ns ur e t ha t ne w c ol l a bor a t i v e s a r e s uc c e s s f ul i n a c hi e vi ng t he de s i r e d e nds W he n m e a s ur i ng t hos e de s i r e d e nds f unde r s s houl d a voi d f oc us i ng s ol e l y on t he c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he ne w m ode l be c a us e c os t s s a vi ngs a nd e f f i c i e nc i e s m a y not be r e a l i z e d o r m a y t a ke t i m e t o a c hi e ve F unde r s a l s o ne e d t o c ons i de r s uppor t i ng

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223 r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h. T he s e i m pl i c a t i ons a r e a ddr e s s e d f ur t he r unde r i m pl i c at i ons f or s c hol ar s L a s t l y, f unde r s ne e d t o be c a ut i ous not t o pr e s s ur e or p e r s ua de a ge nc i e s t o m ove a w a y f r om t he i r gui di ng m i s s i on. A s c ove r e d t hor o ughl y i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w pr e s s ur e t o a l t e r o r m ove a w a y f r om a gui di ng m i s s i on c a n r e s ul t i n i de nt i t y c onf us i on ( Y oung 2001) t ha t c a n i m pa c t a n o r ga ni z a t i on i n a num be r of ke y a r e a s i nc l udi ng s e r vi c e de l i ve r y, a dvoc a c y e f f o r t s a nd pe r s onne l s hi f t s T h i s r e l a t e s t o s om e of t he i m pl i c a t i ons f or nonp r of i t s a nd nonp r of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps a ddr e s s e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on N onp r of i t pa r t ne r s hi ps m a y i nc l ude r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h ot he r nonpr o f i t s f unde r s a nd ot he r pr i va t e o r gove r nm e nt e nt i t i e s I m pl i c a t i ons f or N onpr of i t s a nd N onpr o f i t P a r t ne r s hi ps A not he r i m pl i c a t i on o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t ha t nonp r o f i t m a na ge r s a nd l e a de r s s houl d i ni t i a t e pr oa c t i ve r e s pons e s t o pot e nt i a l s hi f t s a nd t r e nds t ha t m a y t h r e a t e n t he i r m i s s i on a nd e xi s t e nc e E ve n i f no s uc h t hr e a t s oc c ur a t pr e s e nt nonpr o f i t s s t i l l ha ve oppor t uni t i e s t o e xpl or e ne w c ol l a bo r a t i ve m ode l s t ha t c oul d r e d uc e c os t s pr ot e c t t he i r pr ogr a m s a nd s t r e ngt he n t he i r a ge nc i e s T o a c c om pl i s h t h i s non pr of i t s ne e d t o be ope n t o ne w c ol l a bor a t i ve m ode l s a nd t o pr oa c t i ve l y s e e k t he s e out M os t nonpr o f i t s pa r t i c i pa t e i n va r i ous c om m uni t y pl a nni ng c ol l a bor a t i ve s or ne t w or ks T he s e m a y i nc l ude ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t m a y be po t e nt i a l pa r t ne r s f or f ut ur e c ons ol i da t i on e f f o r t s a nd t he s e m a y be pe r f e c t s e t t i ngs t o i ni t i a t e s uc h di s c us s i ons e ve n i f onl y f or c ont i nge nc y pl a nni ng pur pos e s A not he r i m pl i c a t i on f or nonpr of i t s pe r t a i ns t o t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h f unde r s A ddr e s s e d w i t hi n t hi s r e s e a r c h w e r e i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o nonpr of i t f unde r r e l a t i ons hi ps A s

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224 de m ons t r a t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a nd i n t he r e s e a r c h w i t h t he N F C C a nd J W B t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e of t e n c om pl e x a nd c onf l i c t e d: w h i l e t he y a r e e s s e nt i a l f or t he s ur vi va l of ne e de d c om m uni t y s e r vi c e s t he y pos e c ha l l e nge s s uc h a s i nc r e a s i ng s e r vi c e de l i ve r y e xpe c t a t i ons a nd s t r i nge nt r e por t i ng a nd a c c ount a bi l i t y r e qui r e m e nt s T he r e a l s o i s a pe r c e i ve d i m ba l a nc e of pow e r f e l t by t he nonpr of i t t ha t r e s ul t s i n f unde r s ugge s t i ons a nd r e que s t s be i ng c on s t r ue d a s m a nda t e s a c onc e r n di s c us s e d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on. O f t e n t he pr e s s ur e s i m pos e d by f unde r s a r e c a ut i ona r y or m e a nt t o be pr ot e c t i ve o f t he i r nonpr of i t pa r t ne r s a s de m ons t r a t e d i n t he m ot i va t i ons of t he J W B s t a f f t o e ns ur e t he c ont i nua t i on of a l l t he N F C s L e a de r s hi p of nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ons m a y ne e d t o t r us t t ha t t he i r f undi ng pa r t ne r s a r e a c t i ng i n t he be s t i nt e r e s t o f t he i r nonpr o f i t pa r t ne r s a nd t ha t t he y a r e o f t e n a w a r e o f f or t hc om i ng t r e nds a nd pol i c y s hi f t s w hi c h m a y i m pa c t f unde d a ge nc i e s R e ga r dl e s s of w e l l m e a ni ng m ot i va t i ons how e ve r s om e t i m e s po l i t i c a l pr e s s ur e s or a ge nda s t a ke de c i s i on m a ki ng out of t he ha nds o f t he f undi ng r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s w ho w or k m os t c l os e l y w i t h gr a nt e e s B e c a us e pol i t i c a l s hi f t s m a y oc c ur w i t h e ve r y e l e c t i o n c yc l e c ha nge s i n f undi ng s our c e s a nd pr i o r i t i e s w i l l be e ve r p r e s e nt I n a ddi t i on t o be i ng pr oa c t i ve i n e xpl or i ng oppor t u ni t i e s f or m e r ge r s c ons ol i da t i on or i nt e gr a t i ons nonpr o f i t s a l s o ne e d t o e xpl or e ot he r s our c e s of r e ve nue t o s t r e ngt he n t he i r i nde pe nde nc e A s de s c r i be d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons m us t be e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gi s t s i f t he i r or ga ni z a t i ons a r e t o f ul f i l l t he i r m i s s i ons m e e t t he i r m a nda t e s a nd s a t i s f y t he i r c ons t i t ue nt s i n ye a r s a he a d ( B r ys on 1995, p i x) A l t hough di ve r s i f yi n g r e ve nue s our c e s w a s not a f oc us of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, t he pr e s s ur e s pr e s e nt e d he r e unde r s c or e t he i m po r t a nc e of t hi s s t r a t e gy, a nd t he r e a r e

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225 m a ny m e t hods t ha t nonpr o f i t s c a n e xpl or e i n t h i s r e ga r d, i nc l udi ng e ndow m e nt s c l i e nt f e e s a nd c om m e r c i a l a pp r oa c he s ( s e e A l e xa nde r 1999 & 2000; D e e s 1999; S a l a m on 2003; S a xon H a r r ol d & H e f f r on 2000; S m i t h & L i ps ky, 1993) N onpr of i t P ar t ne r s hi ps A s de m ons t r a t e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h, w he n pa r t i e s c o m bi ne f or c e s i n a c ol l a bor a t i ve or ne t w or k m ode l t he y s houl d a c t a s a s i ngl e e nt i t y. S uc c e s s i n s uc h a n e f f or t r e qui r e s s e ve r a l or ga ni z a t i ona l c om pe t e nc i e s a nd e l e m e nt s na m e l y a s t r ong l e a de r a c know l e dgi ng t he e m ot i ona l i m pa c t of t he c ha nge a l l ow i ng t i m e t o i m pl e m e nt t he c ha nge a nd de a l w i t h e m ot i ona l i m pa c t t he ne e d f or e xt r a s uppor t ( f undi ng, s t a f f a nd t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a n c e ) a nd s uppor t i ve c om m uni c a t i on pr a c t i c e s H a vi ng s t r ong l e a de r s hi p, i n a ddi t i on t o ha vi ng qu a l i f i e d s t a f f s uppor t w i l l he l p e ns ur e t ha t t he be ne f i t s o f a c ons ol i da t i on or i n t e gr a t i on a r e r e a l i z e d. L e a de r s hi p a nd s t a f f s uppor t w e r e i de nt i f i e d dur i ng t hi s r e s e a r c h a s f a c t or s c r i t i c a l t o t he s uc c e s s of t hi s pl a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on e f f or t T hi s i nc l ude d l e a de r s hi p of t he N F C C boa r d c ha i r a nd s uppor t f r om t he N F C C a nd J W B s t a f f E ns ur i ng a de qua t e s t a f f t o s uppor t a c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t i s a c r i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i on f or non pr of i t m a na ge r s a nd f unde r s M a ny nonpr of i t m a na ge r s ( a nd f unde r s ) a r e a l r e a dy ove r w he l m e d by t he i r da y t o da y w o r k. P l a nni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng a ne w c ons ol i da t i on or i nt e gr a t i on m ode l r e qui r e s e xt r a t i m e a nd e f f or t F o r nonp r of i t a nd publ i c m a na ge r s s t a f f i ng s houl d be a vi t a l c onc e r n i n t he f or m a t i on o f f ut ur e i n t e gr a t i on e f f or t s i nc l udi ng t h e ne e d f or de di c a t e d a nd qua l i f i e d pe r s onne l w ho c a n de a l w i t h t he m yr i a d of pr oc e s s a nd r e l a t i ona l i s s ue s t ha t w i l l c e r t a i nl y a r i s e A l t hough nonp r of i t m a na ge r s do not a l w a ys ha ve a s a y r e ga r di ng w ho t he e l e c t e d or e m e r ge nt l e a de r s w i l l be ( i n pa r t i c ul a r w i t h i n t h e boa r d of di r e c t or s ) m a na ge r s c a n

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226 i ni t i a t e r e l e va nt t r a i ni ng f or l e a de r s r e ga r di ng pa r t ne r s hi p m ode l s a nd e f f e c t i ve m a na ge m e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on pr a c t i c e s H a vi ng e nough t i m e t o r e s e a r c h a nd e xpl o r e a l t e r n a t i ve m ode l s a nd t o p r ogr e s s t hr ough t he s t a ge s of de c i s i on m a ki ng w a s i m por t a nt f or t he s uc c e s s of t hi s i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t I n t hi s s t udy, pa r t i c i pa nt s a c know l e dge d t ha t s l ow pa r t s of t he p r oc e s s ( i nc l udi ng pe r i ods of c onf l i c t ) w e r e ne c e s s a r y, be c a us e m e m be r s ne e de d t o ha ve t hos e di s a gr e e m e nt s a nd di s c us s i ons C onf l i c t w a s pa r t of t he p r oc e s s a nd t i m e w a s ne e de d t o a l l ow m e m be r s t o w o r k t h r ough di s a gr e e m e nt s a s w e l l a s t he e m ot i ona l f e e l i ngs e voke d by t he c ha nge e f f o r t T hi s s houl d be a n i m po r t a nt c ons i de r a t i on f or a ny c ol l a bor a t i ve pa r t ne r s w ho m a y be r e s pons i bl e f or i ni t i a t i ng f ut u r e c ons ol i da t i on e f f o r t s P ut t i ng s t a f f s uppor t i n pl a c e t o a s s i s t w i t h a c ons ol i da t i on e f f o r t a nd a l l ow i ng e xt r a t i m e t o a de qua t e l y pl a n a nd i m pl e m e nt a ne w c ol l a bor a t i ve m ode l r e qui r e s f i na nc i a l r e s our c e s T oo o f t e n, c ol l a bo r a t i ve pa r t ne r s don t a de qua t e l y pl a n f or t he c os t s of c ons ol i da t i on, o r t he y don t e nt e r t a i n t he i de a o f c o ns ol i da t i on be c a us e of t he c os t s i nvol ve d. A ddi t i ona l l y f unde r s of t e n do not s e e t hi s a s a w or t hy e xpe ns e I n m a ny s i t ua t i ons t he s e t ype s of a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e xpe ns e s a r e not a l l ow a bl e unde r f und i ng gui de l i ne s A n i m pl i c a t i on r e l a t e d t o t hi s i s s ue i s t ha t f unde r s a nd t he i r r e s pe c t i ve pol i c y m a ke r s ne e d t o l ook be yond t he s hor t t e r m e xpe ns e s a nd out c om e s t o f i nd w a ys t o s uppor t t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s A l l c ol l a bor a t i ve pa r t ne r s ne e d t o e xpl or e a br oa d r a nge of oppor t uni t i e s t o f und c ons ol i da t i on c os t s s uc h a s t hr ough pr i va t e f ounda t i ons a nd dono r s C ons i s t e nt s uppor t i ve a nd e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i o n a l s o i s c r i t i c a l l y i m por t a nt f or t he s uc c e s s of a ny c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t a s de m ons t r a t e d by t hi s r e s e a r c h. T he l i t e r a t ur e i s f ul l of e xa m pl e s w he r e poor c om m uni c a t i on o r l a c k of c om m un i c a t i on hi nde r e d

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227 or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge e f f or t s C l e a r a nd c ons i s t e nt c om m uni c a t i on w a s i nt e gr a l t o t he s uc c e s s of t he N F C C i nt e gr a t i on e f f or t i nc l udi ng c om m uni c a t i ng e a r l y, f r e que nt l y a nd hone s t l y. T h e goa l of c om m uni c a t i on s houl d be no t j us t t o i nf or m but a l s o t o e nga ge m e m be r s i n t he vi s i on a nd pr oc e s s B y a c t i ve l y e n ga gi ng a nd s uppor t i ng m e m be r s t he y w i l l be m o r e l i ke l y t o s ha r e i n t he vi s i on o f t he m o de l a nd s uppor t i t s s uc c e s s I m pl i c a t i ons f or S c hol a r s M a ny of t he i m pl i c a t i ons f or s c hol a r s c a n be i de nt i f i e d by l ooki ng a t t he f ul l body of r e s e a r c h pr e s e nt e d he r e a nd i de nt i f yi ng a ny que s t i ons not f ul l y a ns w e r e d or i de nt i f yi ng a ny ne w que s t i ons t ha t m a y ha ve a r i s e n a s a r e s ul t of t hi s r e s e a r c h. T hi s i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he c yc l i c a l na t ur e of a c t i on r e s e a r c h ( D i c k & S w e ps on, 1997; G r e e nw ood & L e vi n 1998 & 2006) A c t i on r e s e a r c h, i nc l udi ng t he r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, i nc l ude s m ul t i pl e c yc l e s of a c t i on a nd c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on D u r i ng c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on t he r e s e a r c h t e a m e xa m i ne s w ha t ha ppe ne d pr e vi ous l y, t he n de c i de s w ha t t o do ne xt ( D i c k, 2002) R e s e a r c h t e a m s s houl d c ons i de r : W ha t w or ke d? W ha t di dn t ? W ha t ha ve w e l e a r ne d? H ow m i ght w e do i t di f f e r e nt l y ne xt t i m e ? T h i s m i r r or s t he l e s s ons t o be l e ar ne d t ha t w a s e xpr e s s e d a s a m a i n r e a s on f or w hy t he J W B a nd N F C C de s i r e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. I m pl i c a t i ons f or s c hol a r s a l s o c a n be dr a w n f r om s om e of t he r e s e a r c h t he m e s r e l a t e d t o que s t i on #4 t ha t a ddr e s s e d t he s e l e s s ons l e ar ne d A l t hough t hi s r e s e a r c h que s t i on a nd r e l a t e d t he m e s poi nt e d t o s om e l e s s ons a l r e a dy l e a r ne d f r om t hi s r e s e a r c h, f r om t he s e l e s s ons m or e que s t i ons c a n be r a i s e d a n d f ur t he r a r e a s f or r e s e a r c h c a n be i de nt i f i e d.

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228 T hi s r e s e a r c h pr ovi de d a s na ps hot of t hi s i n t e gr a t i o n pr oc e s s I nt e r vi e w s a nd c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i on s e s s i ons w e r e c onduc t e d dur i ng a n 8 m ont h pe r i od of t i m e a nd e t hnogr a phi c obs e r va t i on c ont i nue d f o r a n a ddi t i on a l ye a r A l t hough t hi s i s a c ons i de r a bl e a m ount of t i m e i t doe s n t p r ovi de t he be ne f i t s of a l onge r t e r m s t udy t ha t m i ght s how how i nt e g r a t i on m ode l s l i ke t he N F C C or ot he r publ i c m a na ge m e nt ne t w or ks f a r e ove r t he l ong t e r m B e c a us e of t he s i gni f i c a nt r e s our c e s put i nt o s om e of t he s e ve nt ur e s r e s our c e s be i ng bot h f i na nc i a l a nd pe r s ona l / e m ot i ona l a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h t ha t e xpl or e s t he l ong t e r m ou t c om e s of t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps w oul d be be ne f i c i a l A c t i on r e s e a r c h w oul d be e s pe c i a l l y a ppr opr i a t e f or t hi s t y pe of l ongi t u di na l s t udy, w he r e by t he pr i m a r y r e s e a r c he r a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l m e m be r s c a n e s t a bl i s h a r e l a t i ons hi p a nd m ut ua l c om m i t m e nt t ha t w oul d w i t hs t a nd ove r t i m e I n a ddi t i on t o s t udyi ng ne t w o r k r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd h ow t he y c ha nge ove r t i m e r e s e a r c h s houl d e xpl or e t he e m ot i ona l i m pa c t o f t h e s e t ype s of c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s T hi s w a s not a f oc us of t hi s r e s e a r c h, bu t e m ot i ona l i s s ue s a nd c onc e r ns w e r e a ddr e s s e d t hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w s A s di s c us s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w c a r e a nd a t t e nt i on t o t he nonpr of i t w o r kf or c e i s i m por t a nt be c a us e e m pl oye e s c ons t i t ut e a n or ga ni z a t i on s c ul t ur e a nd i de nt i t y ( s e e D om a ga l s ki 1999; F i ne m a n 200 0; R a f a e l i & W or l i ne 2001; S hul e r & S yphe r 2000 ) U ni que t o nonpr of i t hum a n s e r vi c e w or k, m a j o r t r a ns f or m a t i on c a us e d by a c ons ol i da t i on c a n pr e s e nt s i gni f i c a nt c ha l l e nge s r e l a t e d t o m e m be r s e m ot i ons a nd t he n e e d t o s uppor t e nga ge a nd a s s i s t t he m i n m ovi ng t hr ough s uc h a t r a ns i t i on. E xp r e s s i ng c a r e f or pe opl e s e m ot i on s dur i ng a m a j o r c ha nge w i l l not onl y he l p t o m a i nt a i n c ont e nt m e nt a m ong m e m be r s but a l s o c a n c ont r i bu t e t o t he s uc c e s s of t he c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t

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229 A not he r i s s ue t ha t i s be yond t he s c ope of t hi s r e s e a r c h, but w hi c h w a s r e pe a t e dl y di s c us s e d dur i ng i nt e r vi e w s a nd i n m e e t i ngs w a s m e a s ur i ng t he c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he ne w i nt e gr a t i on m ode l C os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s i s i m por t a nt t o publ i c s e r va nt s w ho a r e e nt r us t e d w i t h m a ki ng s ound f i na nc i a l de c i s i ons w i t h t a xpa ye r dol l a r s T he c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s of f unde r i ni t i a t e d c ons ol i da t i ons s houl d be s t udi e d, but r e s e a r c he r s ne e d t o be f l e xi bl e a bout how t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s A s de m o ns t r a t e d by t hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h, c os t s a vi ngs di d not oc c ur w i t hi n a s hor t pe r i od of t i m e I n f a c t de pe ndi ng on t he t ype of c ons ol i da t i on or i nt e gr a t i on m ode l c os t e f f e c t i ve n e s s a s r e f l e c t e d i n f i na nc i a l s t a t e m e nt s m a y ne ve r be r e a l i z e d. R e s e a r c he r s ne e d t o br oa de n t he i r de f i n i t i on o f c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd e f f i c i e nc i e s T he y c a nnot s ol e l y l ook a t budge t l i ne i t e m s s uc h a s r e duc t i ons i n a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s t a f f o r r e duc e d c os t s f or i ns ur a nc e or of f i c e s uppl i e s due t o j oi nt pu r c ha s i ng a gr e e m e nt s I f a ne w c ol l a bor a t i ve e nt i t y p r ov i de s a s a f e t y ne t f or s m a l l or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t m i ght ot he r w i s e c l os e w i t hout oc c a s i ona l i nt e r ve nt i on, t h e r e a r e c os t s a vi ngs f r om not c l os i ng ne e de d pr ogr a m s a nd by a voi d i ng c os t l y s t a r t up o f ne w or ga ni z a t i ons t o f i l l a s e r vi c e ga p. I f a ne w nonpr of i t di r e c t o r be ne f i t s f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd c a pa c i t i e s of t he ne t w or k a nd i s a bl e t o hi t t he g r ound r unn i ng, t he r e a r e c os t s a vi ngs i n r e duc e d t r a i ni ng t i m e a nd t he r e m a y be i m m e di a t e f i na nc i a l r e t u r ns f r om t he ne w d i r e c t or s e nha nc e d pr oduc t i vi t y. I f t he s yne r gy o f a c ol l e c t i ve gr oup i n s pi r e s a nd pr ovi de s e m ot i ona l s uppor t t o i t s m e m be r s w hi c h i n t ur n e nha nc e s t he i r j ob s a t i s f a c t i on a nd pr oduc t i vi t y t he r e a r e s om e c os t s a vi ngs or f i na nc i a l r e t u r ns t ha t w i l l l i ke l y be gl e a ne d. T he s e t ype s of c os t s a vi ngs a nd f i na nc i a l r e t ur ns a r e not e a s i l y qua nt i f i e d, a nd t he r e f or e not of t e n s t udi e d.

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230 S ound r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a m a y be ne f i t m a ny o r ga ni z a t i ons t ha t a r e pr e s s ur e d t o pr ove t he i r ( c os t ) e f f e c t i ve ne s s I n a ddi t i on t o ne w o r b r oa de ne d a r e a s f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h a r e oppor t uni t i e s t o i nc or por a t e di f f e r e nt r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogi e s a nd m e t hods T hi s r e s e a r c h i nc or por a t e d s t r ong c om pone nt s of a c t i on r e s e a r c h t ha t I w oul d ha ve l i ke d t o e xt e nd t hr ough f ur t he r c yc l e s of a c t i on a nd r e f l e c t i on. D e m ons t r a t i ng t hi s t ype of e xt e nde d r e s e a r c h r e l a t i ons hi p m a y pr ovi de e xe m pl a r s f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h a nd pr o duc e ne w w a ys of l e a r ni ng w i t hi n t hi s de ve l opi ng r e s e a r c h pa r a di gm T he r e s e a r c h m e t hods us e d c oul d a l s o be va r i e d. I w i s h I w a s a bl e t o f ul l y s ha r e t he s t or i e s of t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s O ne of t he de s i r e s c onve ye d by pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s t o s ha r e t he i r s t or y. W hi l e t he c a s e e xa m pl e pr ovi de d w i t hi n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on s ha r e s m a ny l e s s ons f r om w hi c h ot he r s m a ny be ne f i t i t l os e s t he r i c h de s c r i pt i ons t ha t c oul d be t t e r s ha r e p e opl e s e x pe r i e nc e s a nd e m ot i ons w i t hi n a n or ga ni z a t i ona l c ont e xt N a r r a t i ve i nqui r y c a n be a us e f ul r e s e a r c h m e t hod f o r e xpl or i ng or ga ni z a t i ona l i s s ue s s uc h a s e m ot i on i n t he w or kpl a c e a nd i t i s e s pe c i a l l y r e l e va nt i n t he nonpr of i t s e c t or F i ne m a n ( 2000) a n d S a nde l a nds a nd B oude ns ( 2000) r e c om m e nde d s t or i e s a s a r e s e a r c h m e t hod t ha t c a pt ur e s f e e l i ngs a nd e m ot i on i n t he w or kpl a c e c l a i m i ng t ha t na r r a t i ve s c a n be us e d t o di s c ove r uni ve r s a l hum a n t r ut hs a bout f e e l i ngs a nd f o r m s of l i f e ( S a nde l a nds & B oude ns 2000, p 56 ) I hope t o c ont i nue m y pr e s e nt a t i on of t hi s r e s e a r c h i n a f or m t ha t j us t l y r e f l e c t s t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t he N F C C a nd J W B m e m be r s t hr ough t he i r s t or i e s O ve r a l l i t s a l s o i m po r t a nt f or s c hol a r s t o c ons i de r t he i m por t a nc e a nd r i c hne s s of t he s e t ype s o f s e t t i ngs f or f ur t he r or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h. A s t he t r e nd

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231 of nonpr o f i t c ons ol i da t i ons c ont i nue s t he r e w i l l be oppor t uni t y f or f u r t he r r e s e a r c h i n t he s e s e t t i ngs L i m i t a t i ons I ha ve e xpr e s s e d s e ve r a l t i m e s t ha t t he s i t e s i nc l ud e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h w e r e uni que f or m ul t i pl e r e a s ons I n c ha pt e r 4 I s ha r e d s om e d a t a t ha t r e f l e c t e d t he s e t t i ng of t hi s r e s e a r c h i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, F l or i da a nd hi ghl i ght e d s om e of t he f a c t or s t ha t m a de t hi s r e s e a r c h s e t t i ng uni que a nd f a c t or s t ha t m a y ha ve c ont r i but e d t o t he phe nom e non be i ng s t udi e d, s uc h a s t he l a r ge num be r of nonpr o f i t s l oc a t e d i n a s m a l l ge og r a phi c a r e a T he s e f a c t or s a l one a r e r e a s ons w hy t hi s r e s e a r c h i s not g e ne r a l i z a bl e t o ot he r c om m uni t i e s or ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons T hi s di s s e r t a t i on, how e ve r m a y s e r ve a s a us e f ul gui de t o f unde r s a nd nonpr of i t s i n ot he r c om m uni t i e s t ha t m a y be f a c i ng s i m i l a r f undi ng c ons t r a i nt s a nd c ons ol i da t i on pr e s s ur e s T he r e w e r e s om e l e s s ons s ha r e d by t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om w hi c h ot he r s m a y be a bl e t o l e a r n; t hus t he l e s s ons m a y be t r a ns f e r a bl e e ve n t hough t he y a r e not ge ne r a l i z a bl e T he na t ur e o f t he a c t i on r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy e m pl oye d a l s o m a ke s i t di f f i c ul t t o ge ne r a l i z e t he s e r e s e a r c h r e s ul t s C l a i m s c a n onl y be m a de a bout t he pe opl e a nd t he s ys t e m s s t udi e d ( D i c k & S w e ps on, 1997) A s D i c k a nd S w e ps on e xpl a i n: I t m a y no t be s a f e t o a s s um e t ha t ot he r pe opl e or ot he r s ys t e m s a r e t he s a m e F o r t ha t m a t t e r i t m a y be ha z a r dous t o a s s um e t ha t w h a t i s t r ue o f t hi s pe r s on ( or or ga ni z a t i on or c om m uni t y) t oda y w i l l be t r ue ne xt ye a r ( 39) W ha t w oul d be us e f ul w oul d be t o ha ve m or e r e s e a r c h s e t t i ngs w he r e s i t ua t i ons a nd out c om e s c oul d be c om pa r e d. T hi s c oul d l e a d t o i m pl yi ng s om e l e ve l of ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y i f s i m i l a r s i t ua t i ons a nd a c t i ons p r o duc e d s i m i l a r out c om e s A l t hough

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232 s uc h s t udi e s m a y not be c onduc t e d t oge t he r i f s uf f i c i e nt l y e xpl a i ne d i n a doc um e nt e d r e s e a r c h s t udy, c om pa r i s ons c oul d be m a de t o t e s t t he br oa d a ppl i c a bi l i t y of f i n d i ngs ( D i c k & S w e ps on, 1997 ) S um m a r y T hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h pr ovi de d a c om pr e he ns i ve e xa m i na t i on of t he N F C C s de ve l opm e nt of t hi s A S E I t pr ovi de d a s na ps hot o f t hi s uni que e f f or t a t a n i m por t a nt t i m e of c ha l l e nge a nd c ha nge w i t hi n t he nonp r of i t s e c t or w he n m or e nonp r of i t s a nd f unde r s a r e e xpl or i ng a l t e r na t i ve w a ys of r e s pondi ng t o t he c ha ngi ng c l i m a t e T hi s r e s e a r c h i s not i nt e nde d t o pr ovi de a ny de f i ni t i ve f i nd i ngs f r om w hi c h f ut ur e de c i s i on s houl d be m a de but r a t he r t o p r ovi de a n e xa m pl e o f how one c ol l a b or a t i ve pr oc e s s m ove d t hr ough t he s t e ps t o de ve l op a ne w m ode l f or a dm i ni s t r a t i v e s e r vi c e s a nd ove r s i ght T hi s r e s e a r c h ha s be e n s ha r e d w i t h t he N F C C t o a s s i s t t he m i n t he i r de c i s i on m a ki ng a nd pl a nni ng r e l a t e d t o i m pr ove m e nt s t o t he i r A S E a nd t o a s s i s t t he m i n he l pi ng ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons t ha t a r e c ons i de r i ng s i m i l a r c ons ol i da t i on e f f or t s T hi s r e s e a r c h ha s be e n s ha r e d w i t h t he J W B t o he l p t he m m a ke i n f or m e d de c i s i ons a bout e nc our a gi ng f ut ur e c ons ol i da t i on a nd i nt e gr a t i on e f f o r t s a nd t o gui de t he m i n t he i r r ol e w i t hi n s uc h e f f or t s F r om a pe r s ona l a nd pr o f e s s i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve m y hope i s t ha t nonpr o f i t or ga ni z a t i ons w i l l be ope n t o c ons i de r i ng c ons ol i d a t i on or o t he r s t r a t e gi c r e s t r uc t ur i ng a s opt i ons t ha t c a n pr e ve nt ne e de d pr ogr a m s f r om c l o s i ng, a s w e l l a s t o m a xi m i z e t he dw i ndl i ng ba s e of f i na nc i a l s uppor t a va i l a bl e t o or ga ni z a t i ons t oda y. I n a ddi t i on, m y hope i s t ha t f unde r s w i l l i de nt i f y w a ys i n w hi c h t he y c a n a s s i s t t he i r f unde d o r ga ni z a t i ons a nd t he c om m uni t i e s t ha t de pe nd on t he m

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233 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S A gr a nof f R ( 2003, M a r c h) L e v e r agi ng ne t w or k s : A gu i de f or publ i c m anage r s w or k i ng ac r os s or gani z at i ons W a s hi ngt on, D C : I B M C e nt e r f or t he B us i ne s s of G ove r nm e nt R e t r i e ve d D e c 2006 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w bus i ne s s of gove r nm e nt or g / pdf s / A gr a n of f R e por t pdf A gr a nof f R ( 2006, N ov. ) I ns i de c ol l a bor a t i ve ne t w or ks : T e n l e s s ons f or pub l i c m a na ge r s P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r at i on R e v i e w 66, 56 6 5. A gr a nof f R & M c G ui r e M ( 2001 J ul y) B i g que s t i ons i n publ i c ne t w or k m a na ge m e nt r e s e a r c h. J our nal of P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r at i on R e s e ar c h and T he or y 11 295 326. A ki ngbol a K ( 2004 ) S t a f f i ng r e t e nt i on, a nd gov e r nm e nt f undi ng: A c a s e s t udy. N onpr of i t M anage m e nt & L e ade r s hi p 14 453 465 A l e xa nde r J ( 1999) T he i m pa c t o f de vol ut i on on nonpr of i t s : A m ul t i pha s e s t udy of s oc i a l s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i ons N onpr of i t M anage m e nt & L e ade r s hi p 10 57 70. A l e xa nde r J ( 2000) A da pt i ve s t r a t e gi e s of nonpr of i t hum a n s e r vi c e o r ga ni z a t i ons i n a n e r a of de vol ut i on a nd ne w publ i c m a na ge m e nt N onpr of i t M anage m e nt & L e ade r s hi p 10 287 303 A r s e na ul t J ( 1998) F or gi ng nonpr of i t al l i anc e s : A c om pr e he ns i v e gui de t o e nhanc i n g y our m i s s i on t hr ough j oi nt v e nt ur e s and par t ne r s hi ps m anage m e nt s e r v i c e or gani z at i ons par e nt c or por at i ons m e r ge r s S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s A s hf or t h, B E & T om ui k M A ( 2000 ) E m ot i on a l l a bor a nd a ut he nt i c i t y: V i e w s f r om s e r vi c e a ge nt s I n S F i ne m a n ( E d. ) E m ot i ons i n o r gani z at i ons ( pp. 184 203) N e w bur y P a r k, C A : S a ge

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234 A us t i n, M J ( 2003) T he c ha ngi ng r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd publ i c s oc i a l s e r vi c e a ge nc i e s i n t he e r a o f w e l f a r e r e f or m N onpr of i t and V ol unt ar y Se c t or Q uar t e r l y 32, 97 114 A xt e l l C W a l l T S t r i de C P e ppe r K C l e gg, C G a r dne r P & B ol de n, R ( 2002, J une ) F a m i l i a r i t y br e e ds c ont e nt : t he i m pa c t o f e x pos ur e t o c ha nge on e m pl oye e ope nne s s a nd w e l l be i ng. J our nal of O c c upat i onal and O r gani z at i on al P s y c hol ogy 75 217 32. B e e r M ( 1980) A s oc i a l s ys t e m s m ode l f o r or ga n i z a t i ona l de ve l opm e nt I n T J C um m i ngs ( E d. ) Sy s t e m s t he or y f or or gani z at i ona l de v e l opm e nt ( pp. 73 114) C hi c he s t e r N Y : J W i l e y B e l l a h, R M a ds e n, R S ul l i va n, W M S w i dl e r A & T i pt on, S M ( 1996) H abi t s of t he he ar t : I ndi v i dual i s m and c om m i t m e nt i n A m e r i c an l i f e ( U pda t e d e d ) B e r ke l e y: U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f o r ni a P r e s s B e nni s W ( 1999 ) T he s e c r e t s of gr e a t g r oups I n F H e s s e l be i n & M C ohe n ( E ds ) L e ade r t o l e ade r : E ndur i ng i ns i ght s on l e ade r s hi p f r om t he D r uc k e r F oundat i on s aw ar d w i nni ng j our nal ( pp. 315 322) B os t on: J os s e y B a s s R e t r i e ve d J une 2004 f r om t he L e a de r t o L e a de r w e bs i t e : ht t p: / / w w w l e a de r t ol e a de r or g/ know l e dge c e nt e r / L 2L / w i nt e r 97/ be nni s h t m l B e r ns t e i n, S R ( 1991) M anagi ng c ont r ac t e d s e r v i c e s i n t he nonpr of i t age nc y : A dm i ni s t r at i v e e t hi c al and pol i t i c al i s s ue s P hi l a d e l phi a : T e m pl e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s B e r r y, F S B r ow e r R S C hoi S O G oa W X J a ng, H S K w on M & W or d J ( 2004, S e pt ) T hr e e t r a di t i ons of ne t w or k r e s e a r c h: W ha t t he publ i c m a na ge m e nt r e s e a r c h a ge nda c a n l e a r n f r om ot he r r e s e a r c h c om m uni t i e s P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r at i on R e v i e w 64 539 5 52. B e r r y, J M ( 2005, S e pt ) N onpr of i t s a nd c i vi c e n ga ge m e nt P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r at i on R e v i e w 65, 568 577.

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235 B l a nk, B T ( 1998 S um m e r ) S e t t l e m e nt hous e s : O l d i de a i n ne w f or m bui l ds c om m uni t i e s T he N e w Soc i al W or k e r 5 ( 3) 7. R e t r i e ve d M a y 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / w w w s oc i a l w or ke r c om / s e t t l e m e ht m B oc hne r A ( 2002) P e r s pe c t i ve s on i nqui r y I I I : T he m or a l o f s t or i e s I n M K na pp a nd J D a l y ( E ds ) T he H andbook of I nt e r pe r s onal C om m uni c at i on ( 3 r d e d. pp 73 102) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge B oc hne r A ( 2001) N a r r a t i ve s vi r t ue s Q ual i t at i v e I nqui r y 7 131 157 B oc hne r A ( 1997) I t s a bout t i m e : N a r r a t i ve a nd t he di vi de d s e l f Q ual i t at i v e I nqui r y 3 418 438. B or i s E T ( 1998, J ul y 1) M y t hs about t he nonpr of i t s e c t or W a s hi ngt on, D C : T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e R e t r i e ve d J une 5, 2002, f r o m ht t p: / / w w w u r ba n. or g / publ i c a t i ons / 307554. ht m l B or i s E T ( 20 01, A ug. ) N e xt s t e ps f or bui l di ng c a pa c i t y i n nonpr of i t o r ga ni z a t i ons I n C J D e V i t a & C F l e m i ng B ui l di ng C apac i t y i n N onpr of i t O r gani z at i ons ( pp. 85 91) W a s hi ngt on, D C : T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e B r a m s on, R N ( 2000 ) H R s r ol e i n m e r ge r s a nd a c qui s i t i ons T r ai ni ng & D e v e l opm e nt 54 ( 10) 59 66. B r i ght m a n, H ( 1988 ) G r oup pr obl e m s ol v i ng: A n i m pr ov e d m anage r i al appr oac h A t l a nt a : G e or gi a S t a t e B r i nke r hof f J M & B r i nke r hof f D W ( 2002 ) G ove r nm e nt nonpr of i t r e l a t i ons i n c om pa r a t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve : E vol ut i on t he m e s a nd n e w di r e c t i ons P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r at i on and D e v e l opm e nt 22 3 18. B r ot he r i dge C M & G r a nde y, A A ( 2002) E m o t i ona l l a bor a nd bur nout : C om pa r i ng t w o pe r s pe c t i ve s of pe opl e w or k J our nal of V oc at i onal B e hav i or 60, 17 39. B uono, A F & B ow di t c h, J L ( 1989) E t hi c s a nd t r a ns f or m a t i on t a c t i c s : H um a n r e s our c e c ons i de r a t i ons i n m e r ge r s a nd a c qui s i t i on s I n W M H of f m a n, R

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247 R ya n, W ( 1999) T he ne w l a nds c a pe f or nonpr of i t s H ar v ar d B us i ne s s R e v i e w 77 ( 1) 127 136. S a l a m on, L M ( 1995 ) P ar t ne r s i n publ i c s e r v i c e : G ov e r nm e nt nonpr of i t r e l at i ons i n t he m ode r n w e l f ar e s t at e B a l t i m or e : J ohns H opki ns U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s S a l a m on, L M ( 2002 ) T he s t at e of nonpr of i t A m e r i c a W a s hi ngt on, D C : B r ooki ngs I ns t i t ut i on P r e s s S a l a m on, L M ( 2003 ) T he r e s i l i e nt s e c t or : T he s t at e of nonpr of i t A m e r i c a. W a s hi ngt on, D C : B r ooki ngs I ns t i t ut i on P r e s s S a nde l a nds L E & B oude ns C J ( 2000 ) F e e l i n gs a t w or k. I n S F i ne m a n ( E d ) E m ot i on i n or gani z at i ons ( 2nd e d. pp 46 63) T h ous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge S a xon H a r r ol d, S K E & H e f f r on A J ( 2000 ) C r os s i ng t he bor de r s : C om pe t i t i on a nd c ol l a bor a t i on a m ong nonp r of i t s bus i ne s s a nd gove r nm e nt F ac t s & F i ndi ngs 1 ( 1) R e t r i e ve d S e pt 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w i nde pe nde nt s e c t or o r g / pr ogr a m s / r e s e a r c h/ f a c t f i nd. pdf S c he i n, E H ( 1999) T he c or por at e c ul t ur e s ur v i v al gui de : Se ns e and nons e ns e about c ul t ur al c hange S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s S c hr a e de r M ( 2001 D e c ) I de nt i f yi ng e m pl oye e r e s i s t a nc e dur i ng t he t hr e a t of a m e r ge r : A n a na l ys i s of e m pl oye e pe r c e pt i ons a nd c om m i t m e nt t o a n or ga ni z a t i on i n a pr e m e r ge r c ont e xt M i d A t l ant i c J our nal of B us i ne s s 37( 4) 191 205. S c ot t S G & L a ne V R ( 2000, J a n. ) A s t a ke hol de r a ppr oa c h t o or ga ni z a t i ona l i de nt i t y. T he A c ade m y of M anag e m e nt R e v i e w 25, 43 62. S e a m a n, D ( 1981) W or k i ng e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t as k o r i e nt e d gr oups N e w Y or k: M c G r a w H i l l S ha w M ( 2003) S uc c e s s f ul c ol l a bor a t i on be t w e e n t he nonpr o f i t a nd publ i c s e c t or s N onpr of i t M anage m e nt & L e ade r s hi p 14 107 120

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248 S hul e r S & S yphe r B D ( 2000 ) S e e ki ng e m ot i o na l l a bor : W he n m a na gi ng t he he a r t e nha nc e s t he w or k e xpe r i e nc e M anage m e nt C om m uni c at i on Q uar t e r l y 14 50 89. S m i t h, S R & L i ps ky, M ( 1993) N onpr of i t s f or h i r e : T he w e l f ar e s t at e i n t he age of c ont r ac t i ng C a m br i dge M A : H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s S m i t h, S R & L i ps ky, M ( 2001) D i l e m nas of m a nage m e nt i n nonpr of i t or gani z at i ons I n J S O t t ( E d ) U nde r s t andi ng nonpr of i t or gani z at i ons ( pp. 359 365) B oul de r : W e s t vi e w P r e s s S na ve l y, K & T r a c y, M B ( 2000 ) C o l l a bor a t i on a m ong r ur a l nonpr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons N onpr of i t M anage m e nt & L e ade r s hi p 11 145 165 S om a s unda r a m M ( 1999, S e pt 6) S om e t h i ng s g ot t o gi ve : T he c ons ol i da t i on t ha t s s w e pt c or por a t e C hi c a go i s e xpe c t e d t o t r i gge r a n ot f or p r of i t s ha ke out a s or ga ni z a t i ons e s pe c i a l l y t he s m a l l e s t one s s c r a m bl e t o r e pl a c e dol l a r s t he y onc e dr e w f r om c or po r a t e donor s C r ai n s C hi c ago B us i ne s s 22( 36) 1. S t e i nbe r g, R J ( 1999, J a n. ) E m ot i ona l l a bor i n j ob e va l ua t i on: R e de s i gni ng c om pe ns a t i on pr a c t i c e s T he A nna l s of t he A m e r i c an A c ade m y of P ol i t i c al and Soc i al Sc i e nc e 561 143 157 S t e i nbe r g, R J & F i ga r t D M ( 1999 J a n. ) E m ot i ona l de m a nds a t w or k: A j ob c ont e nt a na l ys i s T he A nnal s of t he A m e r i c an A c ade m y of P ol i t i c al and Soc i al Sc i e nc e 561 177 191 S t e i ne r G A & S t e i ne r J F ( 2000) B us i ne s s gov e r nm e nt and s oc i e t y : A m anage r i al pe r s pe c t i v e B os t on: I r w i n M c G r a w H i l l S t e ue r l e C E & H odgki ns on, V A ( 1999 ) M e e t i ng s oc i a l ne e ds : C om pa r i ng t he r e s our c e s of t he i nde pe nde nt s e c t or a nd gove r nm e nt I n E T B or i s & C E S t e ue r l e ( E ds ) N onpr of i t and gov e r nm e nt c ol l abo r at i on and c onf l i c t ( pp. 71 98) W a s hi ngt on, D C : T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e S t i l e s P & H a yne s D ( 2002, A pr i l ) P i ne l l as dat a c ol l abor at i v e c r os s s y s t e m ut i l i z at i on us i ng t hr e e y e ar s of dat a ( pr e s e nt a t i on a t P i ne l l a s D a t a C ol l a bor a t i ve ) P i ne l l a s

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249 P a r k, F L R e t r i e ve d J une 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / ps r dc f m hi us f e du/ pi ne l l a s _pr e s e nt a t i ons ht m S t r e be l ( 1998) W hy do e m pl oy e e s r e s i s t c hange ? I n J P K ot t e r J C ol l i ns R P a s c a l e & J D D uc k ( E ds ) H ar v ar d B us i ne s s R e v i e w on C h ange ( pp. 1 20) B os t on: H a r va r d B us i ne s s S c hool P r e s s T he P e t e r F D r uc ke r F ounda t i on f or N onp r of i t M a na ge m e nt ( 1996 D e c ) E m e r gi ng par t ne r s hi p s : N e w w ay s i n a ne w w or l d ( s ym pos i um ) N e w Y or k: D r uc ke r F ounda t i on. R e t r i e ve d J une 2004 f r o m t he L e a de r T o L e a de r w e bs i t e : ht t p: / / l e a de r t ol e a de r o r g/ f o r m s / pa r t ne r s pd f T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e ( 2007) T he nonpr of i t s e c t or i n br i e f : F ac t s and f i gur e s f r om t he N onpr of i t A l m anac 2007 R e t r i e ve d M a y 2007 f r o m : ht t p: / / w w w u r ba n. or g / publ i c a t i ons / 311373. ht m l T he U r ba n I ns t i t ut e N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r C ha r i t a bl e S t a t i s t i c s ( 2006) F l or i da S t a t e P r of i l e R e t r e i ve d J une 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / nc c s da t a w e b. ur ba n. or g/ P ubA pps / pr of i l e 1 ph p? s t a t e = F L T ow ns e nd, A M ( 2000 F a l l ) A n e xpl o r a t or y s t udy of a dm i ni s t r a t i ve w or ke r s i n t he a r t s : A r e t he y r e a l l y di f f e r e nt f r om f or p r of i t w or ke r s P ubl i c P e r s onne l M anage m e nt 29, 423 434 T r oi a no, P ( 1999 J a n. ) P os t m e r ge r c hal l e nge s M anage m e nt R e v i e w 88 ( 1) 6. T uc km a n, H ( 1998 ) C om pe t i t i on, c om m e r c i a l i z a t i on, a nd t he e vol ut i on of nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e s J our nal of P ol i c y A nal y s i s and M anage m e nt 17 175 194. U ni t e d N a t i ons S t a t i s t i c a l D i vi s i on. ( 2001, upda t e d ) 1993 Sy s t e m of N at i onal A c c ount s R e t r i e ve d J une 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / uns t a t s un. or g / u n s d/ s na 1993/ t oc t op. a s p? L 1= 4 U S C e ns us B ur e a u. ( m ul t i pl e ye a r s ) F l or i da Q ui c kF a c t s R e t r i e ve d J une 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / qui c kf a c t s c e ns us gov/ qf d/ s t a t e s / 12000l k. ht m l

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250 V a n D e r W a l Z H ube r t s L V a n D e n H e uve l H & K ol t hof f E ( 2006 ) C e nt r a l va l ue s of gove r nm e nt a nd bus i ne s s : D i f f e r e nc e s s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd c onf l i c t s P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r at i on Q uar t e r l y 30, 314 365. V a n T i l J & R os s S W ( 2001, M a r c h) L ooki ng ba c kw a r d: T w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y t he m e s i n c ha r i t y, vol unt a r i s m a nd t he t hi r d s e c t or N onpr of i t and V ol unt ar y Se c t or Q uar t e r l y 30, 112 129 W a i de J J r ( 1999) P r i nc i pl e s of e f f e c t i ve c ol l a b or a t i on. I n F H e s s e l be i n, M G ol ds m i t h & I S om e r vi l l e ( E ds ) L e adi ng be y ond t he w al l s ( pp 243 250 ) S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s W e i s br od, B A ( 19 97) T he f ut ur e of t he nonpr o f i t s e c t or : I t s e nt w i ni ng w i t h pr i va t e e nt e r pr i s e a nd gove r nm e nt J our nal of P ol i c y A nal y s i s and M anage m e nt 16 541 555. W e r t he r W B J r & B e r m a n E M ( 2001) T hi r d s e c t or m anage m e nt : T he ar t of m anagi ng nonpr of i t or gani z at i ons W a s hi ngt on, D C : G e or ge t ow n U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s W i l e ns ky, A S & H a ns e n, C D ( 2001) U nde r s t a ndi ng t he w or k be l i e f s of nonpr o f i t e xe c ut i ve s t hr ough or ga ni z a t i ona l s t or i e s H um an R e s our c e D e v e l opm e nt Q uar t e r l y 12 223 239 W i nt e r R & M unn G i ddi ngs C ( 20 01) A handb ook f or ac t i on r e s e ar c h i n he al t h and s oc i al c ar e N e w Y or k: R out l e dge Y a na y, N & S ha ha r G ( 1998 O c t ) P r o f e s s i ona l f e e l i ngs a s e m ot i ona l l a bor J our nal of C ont e m por ar y E t hnogr aphy 27 ( 3 ) 346 74. Y oung, D R ( 2001) O r ga ni z a t i ona l i de nt i t y a nd t he s t r uc t ur e of nonpr of i t um b r e l l a a s s oc i a t i on s N onpr of i t M anage m e nt and L e ade r s h i p 11 289 304

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252 A ppe ndi x A M a p of t he N e i ghbor hood F a m i l y C e nt e r s F i gur e A 1. L oc a t i ons o f t he ne i ghbo r hood f a m i l y c e nt e r s t hr oughout P i ne l l a s C ount y.

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253 A ppe ndi x B Q ua l i t a t i ve I nt e r vi e w G ui de T h e i n t erv i e w s t ru ct u r e, t o p i cs an d q u es t i o n s l i s t ed h ere h av e b een j o i n t l y i d en t i fi ed b y me, me mb ers o f t h e N F CC an d J W B s t aff Re mai n i n g co n s i s t en t w i t h act i o n r es ear ch p r act i ces t h e p ro ces s h as b een p art i ci p at i v e, re fl ex i v e, an d cy cl i c al i n n at u re Res ea rch p art i ci p an t s w er e act i v el y i n v o l v ed i n d ev el o p i n g t h e r es ear ch q u es t i o n s an d p art i ci p at ed i n a cri t i cal r ev i e w o f t h e fi n d i n g s at w h i ch t i m e, fo l l o w u p s t ep s w e re d et er mi n ed s u ch as t h e n eed fo r ch an g e i n o rg an i zat i o n al p ract i c es o r t h e n e ed fo r ad d i t i o n al s t u d y T h e i n t erv i e w q u es t i o n s l i s t ed h ere t h erefo re w ere i n t en d ed t o b e a fi rs t s t ep i n t h e res earc h p ro ces s T h e n eed fo r an d t y p e o f fo l l o w u p res ea rch w as d et e rmi n ed u p o n rev i e w o f t h e fi n d i n g s fro m t h e fi rs t s et o f i n t erv i e w s My s t y l e fo r co n d u ct i n g t h es e res earch i n t erv i e w s w as t o h av e a fo rm al s ch ed u l e o f t o p i cs t o b e co v e red an d / o r q u es t i o n s t o b e as k ed b u t t o al l o w t h e co n v ers at i o n t o fl o w n at u ral l y t h u s en co u rag i n g n ar rat i v e an d p e rs o n al s t o ri es W h en co n d u ct i n g res ear ch co n v ers at i o n s an d i n t erv i ew s fo r t h i s s t u d y I s t art ed l earn i n g ab o u t t h e i n d i v i d u al p art i ci p an t s an d me mb e r o rg an i zat i o n s b y as k i n g b ro ad l y w o rd ed q u es t i o n s s u ch as : Q T el l me ab o u t y o u r o w n n ei g h b o rh o o d fa mi l y c e n t er H o w an d w h en d i d y o u g et i n v o l v ed ? H o w d o es y o u r cen t er d i ff er fro m o t h ers aro u n d t h e co u n t y ? W h at ar e t h e g reat es t ch al l en g es y o u an d y o u r o rg an i zat i o n ar e f aci n g t o d ay ? In mo s t cas es t h i s el i ci t ed v ery o p en en d ed r es p o n s es t h at p ro v i d ed g re at o p p o rt u n i t i es fo r p ro b i n g an d fo l l o w u p I al s o at t emp t ed t o cap t u re s t o ri es t h at refl e ct t h e cu l t u re o f t h ei r o rg an i zat i o n (s ). A ft er as k i n g a res p o n d en t ab o u t t h e g e n eral b a ck g ro u n d o f t h ei r o rg an i z at i o n I may h av e as k ed s o met h i n g l i k e t h e fo l l o w i n g :

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254 A ppe nd i x B ( C ont i nue d) Q T el l me ab o u t o n e o f y o u r mo s t me mo rab l e ex p e ri en ces h er e. ( T h i s h as b een fo l l o w ed u p o n t o o b t ai n d es c ri p t i v e reco l l e ct i o n s ) Q u es t i o n fo r mat s w ere s t ru ct u red i n s u ch a w ay t o d ra w o u t n arr at i v e res p o n s es t h at co u l d b e s h ap ed i n t o s t o r i es s u ch as : Q W al k m e t h ro u g h w h at t h i s ex p eri en c e h as b een l i k e fo r y o u s t art i n g fro m t h e fi rs t t i me y o u h e ard t h e i d ea o f a man ag e men t s erv i ce o rg an i zat i o n b ei n g p ro p o s ed H o w d i d y o u fi n d o u t ? W h at w er e y o u t h i n k i n g an d f eel i n g at t h e t i me ? W h at w er e t h e fo l l o w i n g d ay s w e ek s an d mo n t h s l i k e? W h i l e t h e t en o r o f my d i s cu s s i o n s w i t h i n t erv i ew res p o n d en t s fo l l o w ed t h i s t y p e o f u n s t ru ct u red fo r mat a l i s t o f k ey t o p i c are as w as d ev el o p ed i n co n j u n ct i o n w i t h t h e N F C C an d J W B, fro m w h i ch I p ro p o s ed an i n t e rv i e w s t ru ct u re an d s amp l e q u es t i o n s T h es e t o p i cs w er e ad d res s ed d u ri n g each i n t erv i e w d i s cu s s i o n t o t h e g reat es t ex t en t p o s s i b l e. In t erv i e w St ru ct u re [N o t e t h at an y d o cu m en t s s h ared w i t h t h e N FC C u s e t h e t er m A S E (ad mi n i s t rat i v e s erv i ce en t i t y ), i n s t ead o f M S O ] In t e rv i e w q u es t i o n s n o rmal l y p ro g r es s ed i n t h e fo l l o w i n g o rd er an d s t ru ct u re. Back g ro u n d / Pas t In d i v i d u al N F Cs A T h e i n d i v i d u al N FCs h i s t o ry u n i q u en es s ch al l en g es s t ab i l i t y et c. B. T h e i n d i v i d u al s i n v o l v emen t / ro l e w i t h i n t h ei r N F C C. T h e N F CC (t h e i n fo rm al co l l ab o rat i v e) D T h e o v erv i e w p u rp o s e s t ru ct u re me mb e rs i n d i v i d u al i n v o l v emen t et c

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255 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) In t ro d u ct i o n o f T h e A S E T h e N F CC E In t ro d u ct i o n o f t h e A S E co n cep t ; m emb ers p ers o n al e x p eri en ce t h o u g h t s an d co n cern s F. Rec al l i n g t h e t i mel i n e o f ev en t s an d r eact i o n s fo r s el f a n d o t h ers In d i v i d u al N F Cs G St at e o f t h e i n d i v i d u al N F Cs at t h e t i me o f t h e A S E an n o u n cemen t : co n d i t i o n react i o n s d eci s i o n mak i n g et c D ev el o p i n g T h e A S E Co al i t i o n H T i m el i n e o f act i v i t y co n v e rs at i o n s d eci s i o n mak i n g c o n fl i ct mi l es t o n es rea ct i o n s et c. I. T h e r o l e o f J W B an d o t h er o u t s i d e p art i es : co mmu n i cat i o n p l an n i n g as s i s t an ce, ch al l en g es p o s s i b l e al t ern at i v e o u t co m es (i e. w i t h o u t J W B & o t h ers ), et c J T o b reak u p t h e t en o r o f t h e i n t erv i e w an d t o p ro v i d e a d i fferen t fra me w o rk fo r recal l i n g an d ex p res s i n g v i e w s an d fe el i n g s Iv e ad d ed a fe w an al o g i es fo r m emb ers t o d es cri b e v a ri o u s as p ect s o f t h e p ro ces s Pro ces s A n al o g i es K W h at an al o g y w o u l d y o u u s e t o d es cri b e t h i s p ro c es s a n d w h y ? ( ex D ev el o p i n g T h e A S E Co al i t i o n h as b e en l i k e g et t i n g a w i s d o m t o o t h p u l l ed b ecau s e _ _ _ _ ) E x p l ai n L W h at an al o g y w o u l d y o u u s e t o d es cri b e t h e J W B an d t h ei r i n v o l v emen t ? (ex J W B i s l i k e _ _ _ b ecau s e _ _ _ _ ) E x p l ai n M. St i ck i n g w i t h an al o g i es : H o w w o u l d y o u r a t e t h e o v er al l p ro ces s ? ex s mo o t h as s i l k ro u g h er t h an a ro ad w i t h 3 ft w i d e p o t h o l es l i k e cl i mb i n g a mo u n t ai n et c E x p l ai n

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256 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) T o d ay T h e N F CC N D es cri p t i o n o f t h e o rg an i zat i o n t h e b o ard me mb ers cu l t u re, et c O G i v e m e an o t h er an al o g y : T h e N FC C t o d ay i s l i k e _ _ _ _ ? W h y ? In d i v i d u al N F Cs P. T h e i mp a ct o f t h e N FC C o n i n d i v i d u al cen t e rs t h e b en efi t s ch al l en g es et c. Q Ch an g e i n i n d i v i d u al ro l es L o o k i n g B ack an d L o o k i n g Fo r w ard R. L o o k i n g b ack : o v eral l t h o u g h t s ch an g es t h at co u l d b e mad e r es p o n s e t o d e ci s i o n S. Pro j ect i o n s an d h o p es fo r t h e fu t u re T L es s o n s l e arn ed an d t o b e s h ar ed w i t h o t h er o rg an i zat i o n s & fu n d ers U A t t h e co n cl u s i o n o f my i n t erv i e w s I as k ed t h e p a rt i ci p an t s o me w rap u p q u es t i o n s t o s o l i ci t o p en res p o n s es an d t o cl ari fy an y q u es t i o n s t h e p art i ci p an t may h av e ab o u t t h e p ro ces s W rap U p Q u es t i o n s V W h at q u es t i o n (s ) w o u l d y o u l i k e t o s ee t h i s r es ear ch an s w e r? Fo r y o u ? Fo r t h e N FC C? Fo r J W B ? W Is t h ere an y t h i n g y o u d es p e ci al l y l i k e t o l earn fro m t h e o t h er me mb ers t h at y o u h av en t al r ead y ? (i e t h ei r t h o u g h t s ab o u t t h e p ro ces s ) X Is t h ere an y t h i n g y o u d es p e ci al l y l i k e t o l earn fro m J W B t h at y o u h av en t al re ad y ? Y A r e t h er e an y q u es t i o n s I h av en t as k ed t h at y o u w i s h e d I h ad ? O r t h at y o u w o u l d l i k e t o ad d t o my mi x o f q u es t i o n s ?

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257 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) Z A r e t h er e an y t h i n g s w ev e d i s cu s s ed t o d ay t h at y o u mi g h t b e u n co m fo rt ab l e h av i n g s h ared i n t h e res e arch res u l t s ? E i t h er w i t h y o u r n a me i d en t i fi ed t o i t ? O r s h ared at al l ? W h at ad j u s t men t s c an w e mak e t o g i v e y o u a l ev el o f c o mfo rt i n t h i s r eg ard ? A A If I co n d u ct fo l l o w u p i n t erv i e w s t o l e arn mo r e ab o u t me mb ers i n d i v i d u al ex p eri en ces w o u l d y o u b e i n t eres t ed an d w i l l i n g t o p ar t i ci p at e i n s u ch an i n t erv i e w ? E x a mp l e Q u es t i o n s (n u mb er ed fo r d i s cu s s i o n p u rp o s es w i t h t h e N F CC) T h es e i n t erv i e w q u es t i o n s w e re n o t as k ed as s h o w n h e r e, n ei t h er i n o rd e r n o r fo r m. T h i s fu l l l i s t o f q u es t i o n s w as p ro v i d ed t o N FC C me mb ers ( E v al u at i o n Co m mi t t ee) t o g i v e t h em an i d ea o f t h e t y p e o f q u es t i o n s t h at co u l d b e as k ed T h i s l i s t o f q u es t i o n s w as d ev el o p ed co l l ab o ra t i v el y w i t h t h e E v al u at i o n Co mmi t t ee o f t h e N FC C an d re cei v ed ap p ro v al b y t h e g ro u p G en eral In fo r mat i o n ab o u t t h e In d i v i d u al N F Cs 1 T el l me ab o u t y o u r o w n n ei g h b o rh o o d fa mi l y c en t er. O rg an i zat i o n al p u rp o s e an d h i s t o ry 2 H o w d o es y o u r cen t er d i ffe r f ro m o t h ers a ro u n d t h e co u n t y ? In d i v i d u al s Back g ro u n d w i t h T h ei r O w n O rg an i zat i o n 3 H o w an d w h en d i d y o u g et i n v o l v ed i n y o u r o rg an i z at i o n ? Pers o n al reas o n s fo r i n v o l v em en t i n t h e o rg an i zat i o n N FC O rg an i z at i o n al Ch al l en g es 4 W h at ar e t h e g reat es t ch al l en g es y o u an d y o u r o rg an i za t i o n are f aci n g t o d ay ? 5 W h at ch al l en g es h av e y o u ex p eri en ced i n t h e p as t ? 6 H o w w o u l d y o u i d en t i fy t h e s t ab i l i t y o f y o u r o rg an i zat i o n t o d ay ? (ex : s t ab l e, s t ab l e b u t co n cern ed fo r o u r fu t u r e ex i s t en c e, cu rr en t l y g o i n g t h ro u g h s o me d i ffi cu l t t i m es u n s t ab l e)

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258 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) In t ro d u ct i o n o f t h e N FC C (Befo re en t eri n g t h i s s et o f i n t erv i e w q u es t i o n s I w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h b et w een t er ms fo r e as e o f d i s cu s s i o n : T h e Co al i t i o n w i l l ref er t h e o ri g i n al l y fo r med co l l ab o rat i v e, an d t h e A S O Co al i t i o n w i l l mean t h e cu rren t ad mi n i s t rat i v e man ag e men t s t ru ct u re ) Th e Co a l i t i o n 7 W h en d i d y o u fi rs t g et i n v o l v ed i n T h e Co al i t i o n ? Id en t i fy p art i ci p an t s ro l e w i t h i n T h e Co al i t i o n 8 W h at p u rp o s e d i d T h e Co al i t i o n s erv e at t h at t i me an d t h ro u g h o u t y o u r i n v o l v emen t ? Id en t i fy s t ru ct u re, p u rp o s e, b en e fi t s et c Th e A S E Co a l i t i o n 9 W h en d o y o u fi rs t re me mb er h ea ri n g ab o u t t h e i d e a o f an ad mi n i s t rat i v e s erv i ce o rg an i zat i o n ? D et ai l s ab o u t t h e i n s t an ce o f fi rs t l earn i n g ab o u t t h e A S E In i t i al E x p eri en ces T h o u g h t s Id e as an d Co n c ern s ab o u t T h e A S E Co al i t i o n 1 0 W al k m e t h ro u g h w h at t h i s ex p eri en c e h as b een l i k e fo r y o u s t a rt i n g fro m t h e fi rs t t i me y o u h e ard t h e i d ea o f a man ag e men t s erv i ce o rg an i zat i o n b ei n g p ro p o s ed 1 1 W h at w er e y o u t h i n k i n g an d feel i n g at t h e t i me ? W h at w e re t h e fo l l o w i n g d ay s w e ek s an d mo n t h s l i k e? 1 2 H o w d i d y o u fi rs t r eact t o t h e i d ea ? ( ex fav o r ed h i g h l y fav o r ed s o m e w h at n o t s u re, n o t i n t eres t ed o p p o s ed s t ro n g l y o p p o s ed ) 1 3 W h y d i d y o u fe el t h at w ay at t h at t i m e? 1 4 W h at w er e t h e fo l l o w i n g d ay s w eek s an d mo n t h s l i k e? In d i v i d u al ex p eri en ces

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259 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) 1 5 W h at ab o u t t h e o t h e r me mb ers ? In d i v i d u al o b s erv at i o n s ab o u t t h e g ro u p r eact i o n s In d i v i d u al O rg an i z at i o n s Si t u at i o n W h e n L earn i n g ab o u t T h e A S E Co al i t i o n 1 6 Back t o t h e q u es t i o n ab o u t t h e ch al l en g es faci n g y o u r o rg an i zat i o n w h at w as y o u r o rg an i zat i o n l i k e w h en y o u fi rs t h ea rd ab o u t T h e A S E Co al i t i o n ? D et ai l s ab o u t t h e o rg an i z at i o n s s i t u at i o n at t h e t i me o f A S E p l an n i n g s u ch as fi n an ci al co n s t rai n t s s t af fi n g l e ad ers h i p et c. 1 7 W h at o ccu r red w i t h i n y o u r o rg an i zat i o n a ft er fi rs t l earn i n g ab o u t t h e T h e A S E Co al i t i o n ? D i s cu s s i o n s amo n g s t aff b o ard et c. T y p e o f d eci s i o n mak i n g 1 8 H o w an d w h en d i d y o u / y o u r o rg an i zat i o n mak e t h e d ec i s i o n t o b eco me p art o f T h e A S E Co al i t i o n ? Fact o rs t h at l ead t o co n s i d erat i o n o f t h e ad mi n i s t rat i v e s erv i ce o rg an i zat i o n T h e Pro ces s o f D ev el o p i n g T h e A S E Co al i t i o n 1 9 Fo l l o w i n g t h e fi rs t an n o u n ce men t s o r d i s cu s s i o n s a b o u t T h e A S E Co al i t i o n w h at h ap p en ed w i t h i n t h e N FC C? 2 0 O v e ral l h o w w as T h e A S E Co al i t i o n fo r med ? ( E xt r a t i m e h a s b e en s p en t o n t h i s q u es t i o n t o en s u r e a l l t h e f o l l o wi n g i s s u es a r e a d d r es s e d ) H o w t h e g ro u p p ro ceed ed t h ro u g h t h e p ro ces s D e ci s i o n mak i n g p ro ces s es H o w t h e o rg an i z at i o n al s t ru ct u re w as d et e rmi n ed an d e s t ab l i s h ed L e ad ers h i p f ro m/ a mo n g b o ard ad mi n i s t rat i o n an d o t h e r en t i t i es Co m mu n i cat i o n a mo n g me mb ers Co n fl i ct ; d eal i n g w i t h co n fl i ct

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260 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) 2 1 W h at ro l e d i d J W B p l ay i n t h i s p ro ces s ? In v o l v emen t o f t h e J u v en i l e W el fa re Bo ard i n t h e p l an n i n g an d i mp l e men t at i o n p ro ces s Co m mu n i cat i o n an d rel at i o n s h i p s b et w e en t h e J W B t h e N F C C an d i n d i v i d u al cen t ers In d i v i d u al ex p eri en ces an d o b s erv at i o n s ab o u t i n t e ract i o n w i t h J W B 2 2 W h at d i d t h e J W B s t af f d o t o as s i s t i n t h i s p ro ces s ? 2 3 D i d t h ey d o an y t h i n g t o h i n d er t h e p ro ces s ? 2 4 H o w d o y o u t h i n k t h e p ro ces s w o u l d h av e d ev el o p ed / u n fo l d ed w i t h o u t J W Bs i n v o l v emen t ? 2 5 W h o el s e (fro m o u t s i d e) w as i n v o l v ed i n t h i s p ro ces s ? W h at ro l e d i d t h ey p l ay ? O t h er o u t s i d e p ro v i d ers (s u ch as A l l eg an y ) In d i v i d u al an d G ro u p Rea ct i o n s 2 6 W h at w er e y o u r o v eral l t h o u g h t s an d rea ct i o n s t h ro u g h o u t t h e p ro ces s ? 2 7 W h at ab o u t t h e o t h e r me mb ers ? 2 8 W h at an al o g y w o u l d y o u u s e t o d es cri b e t h i s p ro c es s a n d w h y ? ( ex D ev el o p i n g T h e A S E Co al i t i o n h as b e en l i k e g et t i n g a w i s d o m t o o t h p u l l ed b ecau s e _ _ _ _ ) E x p l ai n 2 9 W h at an al o g y w o u l d y o u u s e t o d es cri b e t h e J W B an d t h ei r i n v o l v emen t ? (ex J W B i s l i k e _ _ _ b ecau s e _ _ _ _ ) E x p l ai n 3 0 H o w w o u l d y o u rat e t h e o v eral l p ro c es s ? L et s s t i ck w i t h an al o g i es ? ex s mo o t h as s i l k ro u g h er t h an a ro ad w i t h 3 ft w i d e p o t h o l es l i k e c l i mb i n g a mo u n t ai n et c E x p l ai n 3 1 W i t h w h at y o u k n o w t o d ay w h at w o u l d y o u h av e ch an g ed ab o u t t h e p ro ces s an d w h y ? Mo re s u p p o rt ? L es s i n t er fer en ce ? N o t t o h av e d o n e i t at al l ? 3 2 O v e ral l w as t h i s a g o o d d eci s i o n fo r y o u r o rg an i zat i o n ? Fo r T h e Co al i t i o n ?

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261 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) T h e N F CC T o d ay 3 3 H o w w o u l d y o u d es cri b e t h e N FC C t o d ay ? T h e o rg an i zat i o n T h e b o ard T h e m emb ers 3 4 G i v e m e an o t h er an al o g y : T h e N FC C t o d ay i s l i k e _ _ _ _ ? W h y ? 3 5 O v e ral l h o w w o u l d d es cri b e t h e o rg an i zat i o n s cu l t u re an d o rg an i zat i o n al cl i mat e? Y o u r O rg an i z at i o n T o d ay 3 6 H o w h as t h e N F CC ch an g ed y o u r o rg an i zat i o n s p ra ct i ces ? T h e b en e fi t s T h e ch al l en g es o r d r a w b ack s 3 7 H o w h as t h e N F CC ch an g ed y o u r i n d i v i d u al ro l e an d f u n ct i o n w i t h i n y o u r o w n o rg an i zat i o n ? 3 8 Back t o t h e ch al l en g es y o u i n i t i al l y l i s t ed t h at y o u r o rg an i zat i o n i s faci n g t o d ay d o es / w i l l t h e N F CC p l ay an y p art i n t h o s e ch al l en g es ? A d d i n g t o . ? H el p i n g w i t h . ? A l l ev i at i n g ? T h e Fu t u re o f t h e N FC C 3 9 W h ere d o y o u s e e t h e N F CC g o i n g i n t h e fu t u re ? 4 0 W h at w o u l d y o u l i k e t o t h e s ee t h e o rg an i z at i o n ac co m p l i s h i n t h e n ex t y ear ? T h e n ex t fi v e y e ars ? T en y e ars ? L es s o n s L e arn ed an d t o b e Sh ared 4 1 G i v e m e y o u r t o p t h r ee l es s o n s l earn ed fro m t h i s p ro c e s s ? 4 2 H o w can y o u r ex p eri en ce ( an d t h e N FC Cs ex p eri en ce) h el p o t h er o rg an i zat i o n s ?

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262 A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) 4 3 If t h e N F CC s en t y o u o u t o n a s p e ak i n g t o u r, w h at m es s ag e w o u l d y o u g i v e t o o t h er o rg an i zat i o n s ab o u t t h i s p ro ces s ? A b o u t y o u r o w n o rg a n i zat i o n s ex p eri en c es ? A b o u t t h e N FC Cs ex p eri en c es ? 4 4 W h at ad v i ce w o u l d y o u g i v e t o a fu n d er l i k e J W B t h at i s ex p l o ri n g t h i s mo d el ? W rap U p / O p en Res e arch Q u es t i o n s 4 5 W h at q u es t i o n (s ) w o u l d y o u l i k e t o s ee t h i s r es ear ch an s w e r? Fo r y o u ? Fo r t h e N FC C? Fo r J W B ? 4 6 Is t h ere an y t h i n g y o u d es p e ci al l y l i k e t o l earn fro m t h e o t h er me mb ers t h at y o u h av en t al r ead y ? (i e t h ei r t h o u g h t s ab o u t t h e p ro ces s ) 4 7 Is t h ere an y t h i n g y o u d es p e ci al l y l i k e t o l earn fro m J W B t h at y o u h av en t al re ad y ? 4 8 A r e t h er e an y q u es t i o n s I h av en t as k ed t h at y o u w i s h e d I h ad ? O r t h at y o u w o u l d l i k e t o ad d t o my mi x o f q u es t i o n s ? 4 9 A r e t h er e an y t h i n g s w ev e d i s cu s s ed t o d ay t h at y o u mi g h t b e u n co m fo rt ab l e h av i n g s h ared i n t h e res e arch res u l t s ? E i t h er w i t h y o u r n a me i d en t i fi ed t o i t ? O r s h ared at al l ? W h at ad j u s t men t s c an w e mak e t o g i v e y o u a l ev el o f c o mfo rt i n t h i s r eg ard ? 5 0 If I co n d u ct fo l l o w u p i n t erv i e w s t o l e arn mo r e ab o u t me mb ers i n d i v i d u al ex p eri en ces w o u l d y o u b e i n t eres t ed an d w i l l i n g t o p ar t i ci p at e i n s u ch an i n t erv i e w ?

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263 A ppe ndi x C L i s t of I nt e r vi e w s a nd K e y M e e t i ngs w i t h T i m e l i n e R e s e a r c h P r oc e s s a nd T i m e l i ne F a l l 2004 I ni t i a t e d c ont a c t w i t h s i t e or ga ni z a t i ons W i nt e r 2005 S e c ur e d a ppr ova l of m y r e s e a r c h pr opos a l B e ga n r e s e a r c h D e c A pr i l 2005 C onduc t e d i nt e r vi e w s a nd a t t e nde d a l l N F C C boa r d m e e t i ngs ( s e e be l ow ) J une 2005 P r e s e nt e d pr e l i m i na r y t he m e s t o t he N F C C s t a f f a n d boa r d, a nd t o J W B s t a f f f or f e e dba c k a nd r e vi s i on; M e t w i t h m a i n s i t e c ont a c t s t o r e vi e w pr e l i m i na r y t he m e s a nd N F C C r e c om m e nda t i ons J ul y 2005 P r e s e nt e d r e s e a r c h r e por t t o J W B boa r d of di r e c t or s I nt e r vi e w s a nd M e e t i ngs M e e t i ngs t o gai n ac c e s s t o t he s i t e or gani z at i ons P a ul L a c ke y, pr ogr a m pl a nne r J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d; s um m e r t h r ough f a l l 2004, s e ve r a l m e e t i ngs t o pr opos e r e s e a r c h a nd ga i n a c c e s s J W B m a na ge m e nt ; f a l l 2004, m e e t i ng t o pr opos e r e s e a r c h N F C C boa r d of d i r e c t or s ; f a l l 2004 m e e t i ng t o pr o pos e r e s e a r c h

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264 A ppe ndi x C ( C ont i nue d) I nt r oduc t or y and c ont e x t s e t t i ng i nt e r v i e w s P a ul L a c ke y; N ove m be r 17, 2004, f i r s t i nt e r vi e w s e s s i on J i m M i l l s di r e c t or J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d; D e c e m be r 7, 2004 ( r e t i r e d ) L oune l l B r i t t e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or J a m e s B S a nde r l i n N F C a nd pr e s i de nt N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s ; D e c e m be r 22 2004 f i r s t i n t e r vi e w s e s s i on L oune l l B r i t t ; D e c e m be r 29 2004 s e c ond s e s s i on K e i t h K now l e s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or N F C C ; J a nua r y 12, 2005, f i r s t i nt e r vi e w s e s s i on N F C C m e m be r i nt e r v i e w s M a r go A da m s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or H i gh P oi nt N F C a nd vi c e p r e s i de nt N F C C boa r d of di r e c t or s ; D e c e m be r 28 2004 f i r s t i n t e r vi e w s e s s i on M a r go A da m s ; J a nua r y 25, 2005 s e c ond s e s s i on M i ke Q ui nl i va n, e xe c ut i ve di r e c t o r L e a l m a n N F C ; J a nua r y 17, 2005 V i c t or i a S c ha us e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or S a f e t y H a r bo r N F C ; J a nua r y 28, 2005 ( r e s i gne d i n 2005) B i l a l H a be e b ul l a h, e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or N or t h G r e e nw ood N F C ; F e br ua r y 2, 2005 T r a c y H i l l e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or C hi l ds P a r k F a m i l y C e nt e r a nd f o r m e r e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or G a r de n V i l l a N F C ; F e br ua r y 7, 200 5 J udy W a l ke r e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or F ounda t i on V i l l a ge N F C ; F e br ua r y 8, 2005 C a r ol i ne L e e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or A s i a n N F C ; F e br u a r y 14, 2005 D a vi d A r c hi e e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or U ni on A c a de m y; F e br ua r y 21, 2005 L or i na P a dge t e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or C a m pbe l l P a r k N F C ; F e br ua r y 23 2005

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265 A ppe ndi x C ( C ont i nue d) J W B s t af f i nt e r v i e w s B r ow ni ng S pe nc e r e s e a r c h a na l ys t J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d; J a nua r y 14, 2005 P a m N e e dha m c ont r a c t m a na ge r J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d; M a r c h 2, 2005 L i s a S a hul ka c hi e f f i na nc i a l of f i c e r J u ve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d; M a y 25, 2005 C r i t i c al r e f l e c t i on pr oc e s s s e s s i ons N F C C boa r d m e e t i ng; J une 2 2005 N F C C boa r d t e c hni c a l a s s i s t a nc e r e t r e a t ; J une 6, 2 005 P a ul L a c ke y; J une 7 2005 s e c ond s e s s i on K e i t h K now l e s ; J une 13, 2005 s e c ond s e s s i on Si t e or gan i z at i on r e s e ar c h pr e s e nt at i on P r e s e nt a t i on t o t he J W B B oa r d o f D i r e c t o r s ; J ul y 1 4, 2005

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266 A ppe ndi x D N F C C O r ga ni z a t i ona l C ha r t s F i gur e D 1. T r a di t i ona l N F C C o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha r t a s pr e pa r e d a nd a dopt e d by t he N F C C s t a f f a nd boa r d of d i r e c t or s

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267 A ppe ndi x D ( C ont i nue d) F i gur e D 2. R e s e a r c he r dr a f t o f a n or ga ni z a t i ona l c ha r t s how i ng t he c om pl e x ove r s i ght s t r uc t ur e of t he N F C C

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268 A ppe ndi x E P r e s e nt a t i on of I nt e r vi e w R e s e a r c h D a t a t o t he N F C C B oa r d of D i r e c t or s J une 2005 O v e ral l Q u es t i o n s fo r t h e N FC C Bo ard (J u n e 2 2 0 0 5 a n d J u n e 6 2 0 0 5 ) 1 In rev i e w i n g t h e s u m mary o f co m men t s s h a red o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p ag es . W h at i s mo s t d i r ect l y o n t arg et ? W h at i s mo s t s i g n i fi can t t o b e s h ar ed w i t h o t h ers ? W h at i s i rrel ev an t i f an y t h i n g ? W h at s m i s s i n g ? W h at el s e i s i mp o rt an t t h at h as n t b een co v er ed ? 2 W h at i s mo s t i mp o rt an t t o b e s h ared w i t h t h e J W B Bo a rd ab o u t t h i s p ro ces s ? Id en t i fy t h ree k ey p o i n t s t h at y o u t h i n k ar e i mp o rt an t t o co v ey ? 3 H o w w i l l t h i s res ear ch / rep o rt h el p t h e N F C C, i f at al l ? 4 H o w w i l l i t h el p J W B an d t h e J W B Bo ard ? In t h e t ab l e t h at fo l l o w s ( T ab l e E 1 ), s h ad ed ro w s w i t h b o l d o u t l i n es i n d i cat e s ect i o n s t o w h i ch s p eci al at t en t i o n w as d ra w n d u ri n g t h e b o a rd me et i n g an d ret r eat U n d erl i n ed i t e ms an d s t ri ck en i t ems ( s t ri ck en ) i n d i cat e ar eas w h ere s l i g h t ch a n g es w ere r eco m men d ed b y t h e N F CC b o ard o f d i r ect o rs Ch an g es a re n o t ed : u n d e rl i n ed t ex t r ep res en t s ad d i t i o n s reco m men d b y t h e N FC C b o a rd an d s t ri ck en ( s t ri ck en ) i t ems rep res en t d e l et i o n s T h es e ch an g es w e re m ad e b e fo re p res en t at i o n o f t h e res e arch fi n d i n g s t o t h e J W B b o ard o f d i rect o rs

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269 A p p en d i x E ( Co n t i n u ed ) T ab l e E 1 O ve r vi e w of N F C C B oa r d M e m be r I nt e r vi e w R e s pons e s T h i s t ab l e p ro v i d es a s u m mary o f h o w N F CC m emb ers res p o n d ed t o i n t erv i e w q u es t i o n s w i t h s a mp l e c o m men t s s h ar ed b y me mb ers I n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s & d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s C o n s e n s u s M a j o r i t y S o m e m e m b e r s O n e o r t w o m e m b e r s A b o u t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e E n t i t y ( A S E ) 1 M o v e m e n t t o t h e c u r r e n t A S E m o d e l I t w a s f o r c e d ( B e t h s t e r m ) o n t o t h e g r o u p b y J W B T h e w r i t i n g w a s o n t h e w a l l ( T h e r e w e r e i n d i c a t o r s f r o m J W B B o a r d m e e t i n g s ) 2 I n i t i a l r e a c t i o n f r o m m e m b e r s T h e r e w a s s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e f r o m a c o u p l e m e m b e r s T h e r e w a s s o m e l e v e l o f r e s i s t a n c e f r o m m o s t m e m b e r s o f t h e g r o u p I t w a s n t n e c e s s a r y ; m e m b e r s c o u l d m a n a g e t h e i r o w n c o n t r a c t s A f e w w e l c o m e d t h e i d e a ( m o s t l y s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) 3 M o r e a b o u t r e a c t i o n s ( c o n t i n u i n g i n t o e a r l y p l a n n i n g ) T w o m e m b e r s c o n t i n u e d t o r e s i s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n M e m b e r s a c c e p t e d i t b e c a u s e t h e f u n d e r r e q u i r e d i t M e m b e r s w h o r e s i s t e d t h o u g h t J W B w o u l d c h a n g e t h e i r m i n d t h a t t h e y c o u l d o p t o u t a n d s t i l l g e t f u n d e d I n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e J W B f u n d i n g m e m b e r s a g r e e d t o g o a l o n g

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270 A p p en d i x E ( Co n t i n u ed ) D u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e A S E 4 M e m b e r c o o p e r a t i o n a n d a c t i v i t y d u r i n g p l a n n i n g T w o m e m b e r s A f e w m e m b e r s r e p e a t e d l y d i s r u p t e d t h e p r o c e s s b y r e p e a t i n g o b j e c t i o n s T h e r e w e r e s o m e s t r o n g a r g u m e n t s a m o n g a c o u p l e m e m b e r s M o s t m e m b e r s c a m e a r o u n d a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s 5 W h a t h e l p e d m o v e t h e p r o c e s s a l o n g L e a d e r s h i p o f t h e b o a r d c h a i r : T h e b o a r d c h a i r k e p t t h i n g s m o v i n g a l o n g T h e b o a r d c h a i r w a s a b l e t o s m o o t h o u t t o u g h s i t u a t i o n s a n d h e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s M e m b e r s c o o p e r a t e d ; w o r k e d t o g e t h e r t o g e t t h e j o b d o n e T h e b o a r d w o r k e d h a r d a n d w o r k e d w e l l t o g e t h e r T h e e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r w a s a g r e a t r e s o u r c e ; s e r v e d a s a n i n f o r m a t i o n l i a i s o n b e t w e e n J W B a n d t h e N F C C b o a r d J W B s r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s 6 J W B s p l a n J W B h a d a p l a n o f w h a t t h e A S E m o d e l s h o u l d l o o k l i k e b u t t h e y d i d n t s h a r e i t w i t h t h e N F C C b o a r d J W B d i d n t d i c t a t e w h a t t h e m o d e l s h o u l d b e T h e y w a n t e d u s t o d e v e l o p i t o u r s e l v e s J W B s h o u l d h a v e s h a r e d t h e p l a n I t c o u l d h a v e s a v e d t h e N F C C b o a r d s o m e t i m e a n d e f f o r t

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271 A p p en d i x E ( Co n t i n u ed ) 7 A s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e p r o c e s s T h e y p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s a s n e e d e d N o o n e h a s e v e r d o n e t h i s b e f o r e s o t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f q u e s t i o n s t o b e a n s w e r e d T h i s i s w h e r e J W B s t a f f h e l p e d i n t h e p r o c e s s J W B ( P a u l ) p r o v i d e d l o t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t A S O s / M S O s ; H e s h a r e d i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h u s 8 J W B s t a f f r o l e s P a u l s e r v e d a s a l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e N F C C b o a r d a n d J W B H e w o u l d t a k e i n f o r m a t i o n b a c k t o J W B t o s e e w h a t w o u l d w o r k b e a c c e p t e d n o t w o r k e t c P a u l r e a l l y a d v o c a t e d o n b e h a l f o f t h e N F C F T h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s t h e r e w e r e q u e s t i o n s w i t h n o a n s w e r s P a u l w o r k e d w i t h J W B t o f i n d o r d e v e l o p t h e a n s w e r s P a u l w a s a t a l l o u r m e e t i n g s a s a r e s o u r c e H e d i d n t b u t t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s u n l e s s w e w e r e g o i n g i n d i r e c t i o n t h a t w o u l d c a u s e a p r o b l e m M e m b e r s d i d n t f e e l l i k e a n y t h i n g w a s b e i n g h e l d b a c k f r o m t h e m J W B w a s o p e n a n d h o n e s t a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r t h c o m i n g w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n e t c J W B s t a f f w e n t o u t o f t h e i r w a y t o l o o k o u t f o r t h e N F C s E n s u r i n g s u c c e s s o f t h i s e f f o r t w a s c r u c i a l

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272 A p p en d i x E ( Co n t i n u ed ) 9 J W B B o a r d T h e N F C C a n d i n d i v i d u a l N F C s h a d t o w o r k t o e d u c a t e b o a r d m e m b e r s t h i s h e l p e d i m p r o v e p e r c e p t i o n a n d c r e d i b i l i t y M e m b e r s f e l t / h e a r d n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s f r o m t h e B o a r d a b o u t N F C s T h e B o a r d s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e N F C s a n d N F C C i s p o s i t i v e t o d a y J W B h a d p r o b l e m s w i t h s o m e p r e v i o u s N F C s w h i c h S o m e p r e v i o u s N F C s h a d p r o b l e m s w i t h J W B a n d c a s t a n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o n a l l t h e N F C s 1 0 W o u l d t h e A S E h a v e d e v e l o p e d w i t h o u t J W B s i n v o l v e m e n t ? N o T h e r e w a s n o r e a l n e e d f o r i t E v e n t u a l l y m a y b e B u t f a r d o w n t h e r o a d Y e s b u t i t w o u l d b e d i f f e r e n t W e w e r e a l r e a d y s t a r t i n g t o h e a d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n o n o u r o w n K n o w i n g w h a t y o u k n o w t o d a y . 1 1 W o u l d y o u h a v e c h a n g e d t h e l e v e l o f J W B i n v o l v e m e n t ? T h e l e v e l o f J W B i n v o l v e m e n t w a s g o o d : T h e y w e r e a g o o d r e s o u r c e b u t t h e r e w a s n o t t o o m u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e T h e y c o u l d h a v e j u s t t o l d u s w h a t t h e y w a n t e d 1 2 W o u l d y o u h a v e c h a n g e d t h e p r o c e s s ? N o T h e p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d w e l l A n y c o n t r o v e r s y o r s l o w p a r t s o f t h e p r o c e s s w e r e n e c e s s a r y W e n e e d e d t o h a v e t h o s e d i s a g r e e m e n t s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s I t c o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e m o r e q u i c k l y ; i e i f J W B s h a r e d a m o d e l a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s

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273 A p p en d i x E ( Co n t i n u ed ) 1 3 W a s t h i s a g o o d d e c i s i o n f o r y o u r i n d i v i d u a l N F C ? T h e r e w i l l b e / m a y b e s o m e b e n e f i t s i n t h e f u t u r e t h r o u g h o u r a b i l i t y t o a p p l y f o r c o n s o l i d a t e d f u n d i n g N o I t h a s n t m a d e a d i f f e r e n c e a t a l l a n d w e r e p a y i n g 2 % W e a r e a b l e t o l e a r n f r o m e a c h o t h e r a n d b u i l d o f f o f e a c h o t h e r s s t r e n g t h s Y e s I t h a s p r o v i d e d b e n e f i t ; i e t h r o u g h h e l p f r o m t h e N F C C s t a f f 1 4 I m p a c t o n i n d i v i d u a l N F C s . I t s h e l p e d ; i t p r o v i d e s s o m e s t a b i l i t y o r h a s p r o v i d e d s p e c i f i c a s s i s t a n c e i n c e r t a i n a r e a s N o n e E v e r y t h i n g i s t h e s a m e I t r e q u i r e s m o r e w o r k a n d t i m e a s i t p e r t a i n s t o i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e b o a r d c o m m i t t e e s e t c T h e N F C C t o d a y & f u t u r e 1 5 O v e r a l l . W e r e s t i l l f i g u r i n g e v e r y t h i n g o u t I t w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g i n m o r e / n e w g r a n t r e v e n u e I t s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y b u t s t r o n g T h e r e s m o r e c o o p e r a t i o n a n d s h a r i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s I t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e n h a n c e o u r r e p u t a t i o n a n d i m a g e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y T h e r e s m o r e s u p p o r t a m o n g m e m b e r s T h e B o a r d w o r k s w e l l t o g e t h e r L e s s o n s l e a r n e d . 1 6 O v e r a l l . D o n t f i g h t i t T a k e y o u r t i m e D o n t d o i t

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274 A ppe ndi x F O ut l i ne of P r e s e nt a t i on t o t he J W B B oa r d of D i r e c t or s J ul y 2005 Q ui c k O ve r vi e w of P r e s e nt a t i on T he m e s I m pa c t of t he A S E m ode l i nc r e a s e d c a pa c i t y C ohe s i ve ne s s C oor di na t i on C a pa c i t y T he J uve ni l e W e l f a r e B oa r d s r ol e i n t he o r ga ni z a t i on s t r a ns i t i on A l l ow e d a ut onom y A dvoc a t e A c c om m oda t i ng O ut l ook f or t he f ut ur e S uppor t S t a bi l i t y S e r vi c e C a ut i ons a nd l i m i t a t i ons M e a s ur i ng c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s : S e r vi c e D e l i ve r y S t r e s s S us t a i na bi l i t y F unde r s r ol e

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276 A ppe ndi x G T he m a t i c C a t e gor i z a t i on of S i gni f i c a nt I nt e r v i e w R e s pons e s T a bl e G 1. T a bl e o f S i gn i f i c a nt I nt e r vi e w R e s pons e s T h e m a t i c C a t e g o r i e s a n d S u b t h e m e s S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r v i e w R e s p o n s e s Co n s i d erat i o n s an d Ch al l en g es D e v e l o p i n g t h e A S E h a s b e e n l i k e a n e l e p h a n t g i v i n g b i r t h b e c a u s e t h e g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d i s l o n g T h e b i r t h e x p e r i e n c e i s d i f f i c u l t a n d t h i n g s g r o w o v e r t i m e I t w a s i n f a c t a l i f e b o a t I n d u c e m e n t t o I n t e g r a t e P r o t e c t i n g t h e N F C s I k n o w I f e l t v e r y s t r o n g l y f r o m t h e g e t g o t h a t w e n e e d e d s o m e s o r t o f a c o l l a b o r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t i f t h e w h o l e n e t w o r k w a s g o i n g t o s u r v i v e I p u s h e d t h a t v e r y h a r d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e I t h i n k t h e y d i d n o t w a n t t o s e e u s g o d o w n t h e t u b e s I t h i n k i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s d i s a s t e r b e c a u s e w e w e r e f u n c t i o n i n g F r o m t h e J W B s s t a n d p o i n t i t s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t s u c c e e d f o r a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s ; c e r t a i n l y p o l i t i c s i s o n e T h e o t h e r i s t h a t t h e N F C s f i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t n e e d i n t h i s c o m m u n i t y a n d w i t h o u t t h e m t h o s e n e e d s w o u l d g o u n f i l l e d a n d t h a t w o u l d c r e a t e e n u m e r a b l e p r o b l e m s a t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d l e v e l T h i s w a s a m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e N F C s c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o f u n c t i o n d e s p i t e t h e c h a n g e i n t h e J W B s t r a t e g i c p l a n I t w a s i n f a c t a l i f e b o a t T h e b o t t o m l i n e J i m M i l l s m e t w i t h u s a n d t a l k e d a b o u t t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e o f u s w o u l d s u r v i v e u n d e r t h e i r s t r a t e g i c p l a n a n d s o m e o f u s w o u l d n o t Y e s y o u h a v e a c h o i c e B u t t h a t m i g h t b e t o n o t h a v e a n y f u n d i n g ( l a u g h t e r ) W e h a v e t w o c h o i c e s : J W B h a s s a i d t h e y r e g o i n g t o g i v e o u r m o n e y t o t h e c o a l i t i o n s o y o u c a n e i t h e r b e a p a r t o f t h i s o r y o u c a n c h o o s e n o t t o b e a p a r t o f t h i s T h a t d e p e n d s o n w h e t h e r y o u w a n t t h e m o n e y o r n o t I w o u l d p r e f e r t o h a v e t h e m o n e y Y o u a l s o c o m e t o g r i p s w i t h r e a l i t y ; i f I w a n t a n y m o n e y t h e n I h a v e t o f i g u r e o u t a w a y t o p l a y o n y o u r f i e l d S o y o u l e a r n t o d o t h a t Y o u d o n t f i n d m a n y f u n d e r s o u t t h e r e t h a t w i l l f u n d s t a f f a n d b u i l d i n g s W h e n y o u h a v e o n e f u n d e r w h o i s y o u r m a j o r f u n d e r w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u a r e o n t h e g o o d s i d e o f t h a t f u n d e r o r n o t s o g o o d s i d e o f t h a t f u n d e r c a n m a k e a d i f f e r e n c e i n y o u r l i f e Y o u a r e e i t h e r o n t h e p o o p o o l i s t o r n o t o n t h e p o o p o o l i s t I t d e p e n d s D o t h e y w a n t t o p l a y b y J W B s r u l e s ? I f t h e y d i d n t t h e n w e n e e d t o t h i n k a b o u t h o w w e a r e g o i n g t o f u n d w h a t w e d o A n d u n l e s s w e c a n f i n d a m i l l i o n a i r e o r s o m e k i n d o f w a y t o f u n d w h a t w e d o a n d t e l l J W B t o t a k e a f l y i n g l e a p i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f n e x t w e e k t h e n w e h a v e t o m a k e a d e c i s i o n a b o u t h o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o d o t h i s T h e b o t t o m l i n e w a s w e w a n t t o d o w h a t w e r e d o i n g S o w e f i g u r e d o u t a w a y t o g e t i t

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 277 d o n e T h e y c h o s e t o m a k e i t w o r k W e l l w e d e c i d e d t h a t i t w a s i n e v i t a b l e T h e r e w a s n o t h i n g w e c o u l d d o a b o u t t h e s i n g l e c o n t r a c t T h a t w a s a d o n e d e a l W e f o u g h t t h e f i g h t W e r e n o t g o i n g t o w i n t h e f i g h t G i v e i t u p I t w a s t h i s o r n o t h i n g I m n o t s u r e t h a t ( o n e m e m b e r s ) o n b o a r d b u t t h e t r a i n l e f t a n d h e h a s t o g e t o n i t D o w h a t e v e r y o u w a n t t o d o T h e m e s s a g e i s v e r y c l e a r Y o u w i l l b e o n t h i s t r a i n o r y o u w o n t b e a n y w h e r e R e s i s t a n c e t o C h a n g e L o s i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e T a k i n g m y m u l e a w a y T h i s w a s n o t s o m e t h i n g t h a t a n y b o d y s o u g h t o u t o r w i s h e d t o h a v e h a p p e n T h i s w a s s o m e t h i n g t h a t w a s f o r c e d u p o n p e o p l e w h o h a d b e e n f u n c t i o n i n g q u i t e w e l l a n d q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r q u i t e s o m e t i m e I m t h e o n e w h o u s e d t o h a v e t h e p a p e r s a y i n g Y o u g a v e m e f o r t y a c r e s a n d a m u l e a n d n o w y o u w a n t t o t a k e t h e m u l e a n d t h e f o r t y a c r e s a w a y ? ( I t ) w a s l i k e a s t e p d o w n f o r s o m e o f t h e m e m b e r s I t s l i k e s a y i n g t o t h e m W e r e d e f u n d i n g y o u T h e y l o s t f a c e o v e r i t a l i t t l e b i t I t s a b o u t i n d e p e n d e n c e I t h o u g h t t h e y v e g o t a l o t o f n e r v e t e l l i n g m e h o w I w i l l d o b u s i n e s s A n d w h a t d o y o u m e a n I h a v e t o d o i t t h i s w a y ? T h e r e s i s t a n c e w a s n t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e T h e r e s i s t a n c e w a s I v e g o t t h i s a g e n c y t h a t I v e b e e n r u n n i n g v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y a n d I d o n t w a n t a n y b o d y t o s c r e w a r o u n d w i t h I t h i n k i t w a s j u s t t h e y f e l t t h e y w e r e n o t b e i n g r e s p e c t e d a s e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r s o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s I t s o n e t h i n g t o h a v e a f u n d e r c o n t r o l y o u r m o n e y b u t t h e n t o h a v e a n o t h e r l a y e r i n b e t w e e n t h e r e W h a t d o e s t h a t m e a n ? T h e r e w a s a l o t o f r e s e n t m e n t a t f i r s t ( S o m e m e m b e r s ) h a d a f i t ( T h e y ) d i d n o t w a n t t o s e e J W B s h a n d s o n O U R c o a l i t i o n Y o u k n o w i t w a s l i k e w a i t a m i n u t e T h i s i s o u r s J W B s g o t n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h i t I t d o e s n t m a k e s e n s e A l l i t d o e s i s t a k e o u r m o n e y f r o m J W B s e n d i t t o a n o t h e r e n t i t y w h o t h e n s e n d s i t t o u s I t h i n k t h e b o a r d t h o u g h t i t w a s g o i n g t o s a v e m o n e y A n d b u t i t d o e s n t N o t o n o u r s i d e o f t h e f e n c e i t d o e s n t s a v e a n y m o n e y K e i t h K n o w l e s h a s b e c o m e a v e r y e x p e n s i v e c o n t r a c t m a n a g e r I w a s h o p e f u l t h a t w e w o u l d b e r e l i e v e d o f s o m e o f t h e p a p e r w o r k a s p e c t s T h a t h a s n t c o m e a b o u t t o b e h o n e s t T h e r e w a s n o v a l i d r e a s o n t o c r e a t e a s i n g l e c o n t r a c t T h e r e w e r e n o c o s t s a v i n g s M a y b e t h e r e w i l l b e s o m e e f f i c i e n c i e s l a t e r o n b u t a t t h e t i m e t h e r e w e r e n o i d e n t i f i a b l e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e a s o n s t o m a k e t h i s e n t i t y W h a t d o y o u m e a n I m s m a l l a n d I d o n t h a v e m o n e y t o s u s t a i n m y s e l f ? S o m e o f t h e b i g b o y s g e t i n t r o u b l e f i s c a l l y s o t h a t s n o t a l o g i c a l a r g u m e n t I t w a s n t r e a l l y g o i n g t o b e b a s e d o n h o w w e l l t h e y ( t h e a g e n c i e s ) d i d o r n o t d i d b u t t h a t

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 278 t h e y w e r e s m a l l a g e n c i e s T h e y k e e p s a y i n g t o u s t h e y r e g o i n g t o m o n i t o r t h e c o a l i t i o n a n d t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n w i l l h a v e t o m o n i t o r t h e N F C s A n d I k e e p s a y i n g t o t h e m B u t t h a t s i n c e s t u o u s b e c a u s e I m m o n i t o r i n g m y s e l f I f t h e c o a l i t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s a y i n g t h a t I g e t a n A + a n d I a m t h e c o a l i t i o n T h e t a x I d o n t t h i n k t h e y ( N F C C m e m b e r s ) w o u l d h a v e e v e r s t e p p e d u p t o t h e p l a t e a n d s a i d I l l g i v e 2 % o f m y b u d g e t t o d o t h i s I t d o e s n t d o a n y t h i n g f o r m e e x c e p t t h a t i t i s m y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e r u n n i n g o f t h e c o a l i t i o n t o t h a t o f f i c e t h a t s a l l B u t i t d o e s n t b r i n g m e a n y t h i n g i n t h a t s e n s e Y o u v e g o t t o g i v e t h e m t h e b l o o d ( M e m b e r s ) w e n t c r a z y I t r e a l l y g o t h a i r y B u t h e y 2 % i s 2 % W e d c o m e b a c k t o t h e n e x t m e e t i n g a n d s o m e o f t h e a r g u m e n t s w o u l d s t a r t o v e r a g a i n ( a b o u t t h e t a x ) T h e y g o t t o c a l l i n g i t t h e t a x l o v i n g l y I m n o t p a y i n g t h e 2 % t a x Y o u k n o w t h e y l o v e t o s a y t h a t M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f r e s i s t a n c e E X A M P L E : S o m e m e m b e r s w o u l d n o t g i v e t h e i r e m a i l o r r e f u s e d t o h a v e d i r e c t d e p o s i t o f t h e i r p a y m e n t s E X A M P L E : S o m e m e m b e r s w i t h d r e w t h e i r p r e s e n c e f r o m m e e t i n g s t o s l o w d o w n d e b a t e W e l l m y b o a r d s n o t g o n n a g o f o r i t Y o u m e a n w a s t h e r e O N E T I M E w h e n t h a t h a p p e n e d ? ( r e f e r r i n g t o a r g u m e n t s a t m e e t i n g s ) W e r e t h e r e a n E N D L E S S n u m b e r o f t i m e s w h e n t h a t h a p p e n e d ? A n U N C O U N T A B L E n u m b e r o f t i m e s ? Y e s t h e r e w e r e u n c o u n t a b l e t i m e s E v e r y b o a r d m e e t i n g w a s a n e x e r c i s e i n c o n t e n t i o n T h e y w e r e i n a r o o m h e r e s c r e a m i n g a n d s t o m p i n g a n d t h r e a t e n i n g t o w a l k a n d s i t i n s ; I m e a n y o u n a m e i t T h e y w e r e t h r e a t e n i n g e v e r y t h i n g i m a g i n a b l e S o m e t i m e s s a y i n g J W B s n a m e a r o u n d t h a t t a b l e w a s l i k e w a v i n g a r e d f l a g y o u k n o w a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e S o n o w w e a r e w a t c h i n g i t g o a n d s e e i n g w h e r e i t i s l e a d i n g u s t o Y o u k n o w h a v i n g t e m p e r s f l a r i n g a n d a l l t h a t A n d s o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o u l d s a y W e l l w e d o n t c a r e w h e t h e r t h e s m a l l o n e s m a k e i t o r n o t Y o u k n o w t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s w e r e h u r t f u l a n d p e o p l e d o n t f o r g e t t h a t E v e n w h e n t h i n g s g e t g o o d t h e y s t i l l d o n t f o r g e t t h a t T h e n t h e r e w e r e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h v a r i e d f r o m W e l l i f w e v e g o t t a d o i t l e t s d o i t T o T h i s i s a t e r r i b l e t h i n g a n d I m g o n n a m a k e i t a s d i f f i c u l t a s I c a n f o r t h i s p r o c e s s t o u n f o l d h o p i n g t h a t s o m e w h e r e a l o n g t h e l i n e t h a t i t w o u l d s i m p l y d i s i n t e g r a t e I t w a s N O T a h a p p y e a s y p r o c e s s p e r i o d S o m e f e l t o n e i n p a r t i c u l a r f e l t t h a t h e c o u l d f i g h t t h i s u n t i l t h e b i t t e r e n d a n d p r e v a i l a n d n o t d o i t ; n o t j o i n t h e c o a l i t i o n a n d r e t a i n h i s m o n e y a n d r e t a i n h i s a g e n c y a n d c a r r y o n W e l l h e w a s d i s a b u s e d o f t h a t f a c t I t s a l s o h a r d f o r p e o p l e n o t t o d o w h a t t h e y v e a l w a y s d o n e I t s r e a l l y h a r d f o r p e o p l e F i r s t o f a l l e v e r y o n e o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s g o i n g t o t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s l i k e a p e r s o n

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 279 d y i n g T h e y r e g o i n g t o g o t h r o u g h d e n i a l r e g r e t a n d a l l t h a t Fu n d ers Ro l e T h e y v e b e e n l i k e t h e p a t i e n t p a r e n t T h e y h a v e w o r k e d w i t h u s t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s F u n d e r P r e s s u r e T h e r e w a s a l o t o f n e g a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n g o i n g o n a t t h e ( J W B ) b o a r d a b o u t N F C s a n d t h e y w e r e b a s i n g i t o n h i s t o r y n o t c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s S o t h a t k i n d o f r e a l l y t a i n t e d t h e i r v i e w o f t h e N F C s S o m e b o a r d m e m b e r s t h i n k i t s a w a s t e o f t i m e m o n e y e f f o r t I t h i n k p r i n c i p a l l y b e c a u s e t h e y d o n t u n d e r s t a n d w h a t w e d o S o t h e y w e r e a n x i o u s t o s e e t h a t m o n e y t h a t w a s b e i n g s p e n t o n u s g o t o o t h e r p r o g r a m s T h e y f e l t l i k e t h e i m p a c t w o u l d b e g r e a t e r f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e y t h o u g h t i t w o u l d a l s o b e m o r e e f f i c i e n t t o d o i t t h a t w a y T h e r e a r e a l o t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m t h e J W B b o a r d a b o u t m a k i n g s u r e w e g e t e v e r y t a x d o l l a r b a c k t o t h e c o m m u n i t y T h e y w e r e g e t t i n g o u t o f t h e b u s i n e s s o f f u n d i n g s m a l l a g e n c i e s I f t h e b o a r d d o e s n t l i k e l i t t l e a g e n c i e s t h e n w e g o t t a m a k e t h e s e g u y s a b i g a g e n c y J i m c a l l e d u s i n t o a m e e t i n g H e s a i d O k a y t h i s i s w h a t w e r e g o i n g t o d o a n d i f w e d o n t d o i t t h e n s o m e o f y o u t h a t a r e s i t t i n g a r o u n d t h i s t a b l e w i l l n o l o n g e r b e i n e x i s t e n c e W h e n J W B w e n t t h r o u g h t h e i r b i g s t r a t e g i c p l a n s t u f f t h e y s a i d l i t t l e a g e n c i e s w o u l d n o t b e f u n d e d a n d t h e y e n c o u r a g e d E N C O U R A G E D s o m e p e o p l e t o m e r g e T h e y k e p t p u s h i n g a n d e n c o u r a g i n g a n d p u s h i n g a n d s a y i n g W e w a n t y o u t o c r e a t e a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e a g e n c y W e w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l l i k e u h o h t h e t r a i n s c o m i n g d o w n t h e p a t h g o i n g 1 9 0 m p h a n d t h e l i g h t w e s e e i s n o t t h e e n d o f t h e t u n n e l i t i s t h e t r a i n t h a t i s c o m i n g a t u s T h e m e s s a g e w a s t o g e t o n b o a r d o r g e t r u n o v e r T h a t s b a s i c a l l y w h a t t h e m e s s a g e w a s I t k i n d o f f e l t l i k e i t w a s s t u f f e d d o w n o u r t h r o a t I t h i n k g r a d u a l l y f o l k s m i g h t h a v e s e e n t h e p i c t u r e b u t i t w a s a l l o f t h e s u d d e n W e s o r t o f l a i d i t o n t h e l i n e I t h i n k t h a t a t f i r s t t h e f e e l i n g w a s w h y d o w e h a v e t o d o i t t h i s w a y ? A n d I t h i n k t h e m e s s a g e w a s v e r y s t r o n g : I t s t h i s w a y o r n o w a y b e c a u s e o r i g i n a l l y w h e n J W B s t a r t e d t h e i r s t r a t e g i c p l a n s o m e o f t h e s m a l l e r c e n t e r s I t h i n k h a d a l r e a d y b e e n w r i t t e n o f f b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e s m a l l P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e F u n d e r I t w e n t f r o m a b u n c h o f r e t i r e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o t h e b i g b o y s T h e S a y l o r s o f R a y m o n d J a m e s ( r e f e r r i n g t o t h e n e w J W B b o a r d p r e s i d e n t ) a n d t h e g o o d r e p u b l i c a n s a n d f o l k s l i k e t h a t T h e r e w a s a n d I t h i n k c o n t i n u e s t o b e s o m e c o n c e r n b y c e r t a i n b o a r d m e m b e r s a b o u t t h e N F C s S o m e b o a r d m e m b e r s t h i n k i t s a w a s t e o f t i m e m o n e y e f f o r t ( J W B ) s t a f f h a s a l w a y s b e e n v e r y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e N F C s S o m e o f t h e m h a d o t h e r p e t p r o j e c t s ; o t h e r s h a d p e r s o n a l a x e s t o g r i n d ; y o u k n o w t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g T h i s w a s n t w h a t t h e s t a f f d e c i d e d ; i t s w h a t t h e b o a r d d e c i d e d A n d I t h i n k t h e y r e w i l l i n g t o g i v e y o u a c h a n c e t o p u t s o m e t h i n g t o g e t h e r N o w i t s u p t o y o u t o d o i t T h e J u v e n i l e W e l f a r e B o a r d i s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f b o a r d T h e y d o n t k n o w y o u s o t h e y d o n t h a v e t h e s a m e k i n d o f e m p a t h y o r p a s s i o n y o u h a v e A l t h o u g h s o m e o f t h e

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 280 d e c i s i o n s t h e y m a k e t h e r e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w r o n g d e c i s i o n s Y o u h a v e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t f u n d e r s h a v e t h e i r r u l e s t h e y h a v e t o f o l l o w t o o S o s o m e t i m e s w h e n i t d o e s n t f e e l t o o g o o d i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t t h e y a r e t r y i n g t o b e m e a n a n d n a s t y t o y o u b u t t h e y h a v e t o p l a y b y t h e i r r u l e s t o o I t h i n k t h a t i t w a s a w a y t o p r o t e c t t h e f a m i l y c e n t e r s a n d t o r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r o f c o n t r a c t s t h a t t h e J W B s t a f f h a d t o p r o c e s s S o i t r e d u c e d t h e n u m b e r o f c o n t r a c t s a n d t h e y r e p r o u d o f t h a t T h e y h a v e r e d u c e d t h e n u m b e r o f c o n t r a c t s t h e y h a v e t o m a n a g e b y a g r e a t d e a l I h a v e t o t e l l y o u t h a t I m a J W B b e l i e v e r Y o u k n o w I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n t i m e s w h e n I v e o b v i o u s l y b e e n f r u s t r a t e d b y t h e J W B I t h i n k a n y b o d y w h o i s n t i s c r a z y B u t I t h i n k t h a t t h e y h a v e d o n e a n e x c e p t i o n a l j o b i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s w i t h e n t i t y a n d t h i s p r o c e s s A n e x c e p t i o n a l j o b I t h i n k t h e r e w e r e t i m e s w h e n t h e J W B f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t b e i n g g i v e n c r e d i t f o r w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g w h i c h b y t h e w a y w a s t r u e ; t h e y w e r e n t b e i n g g i v e n c r e d i t f o r w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g ; b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e t a k i n g s t u f f a w a y f r o m p e o p l e F u n d e r S u p p o r t F l e x i b i l i t y & L o g i s t i c s W e s o r t o f w r o t e t h e b o o k a s w e w e n t a l o n g T h e y v e b e e n v e r y s u p p o r t i v e a n d t h e y v e b e e n v e r y a c c o m m o d a t i n g T h e y v e c h a n g e d p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t w e r e l i t e r a l l y c a s t i n c o n c r e t e t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e c o a l i t i o n W h e n I u s e t h e w o r d a c c o m m o d a t i n g I w a s u n d e r s t a t i n g i t Y o u k n o w t h e y v e b e e n v e r y v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n w o r k i n g w i t h u s a n d t h e y h a v e m a d e s o m e c h a n g e s t h a t f r a n k l y I w o u l d n o t h a v e a n t i c i p a t e d t h e m w i l l i n g t o H e r e a t J W B w e r e v e r y v e r y f l e x i b l e I m e a n w e c h a n g e d p o l i c i e s W e h a v e r u l e s i n p l a c e d t h a t w e r e c h a n g e d W e h a d t o b e c a u s e t h i s w a s s o m e t h i n g n e w T h a t s w h y w e i m p l e m e n t e d a n d t e s t e d f o r s i x m o n t h s ; w e a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d t h e p o l i c i e s i n a t e s t p h a s e f o r s i x m o n t h s ( f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s p r o g r a m m a t i c d a t a e t c ) B u t t h e r e w e r e q u e s t i o n s t h a t c a m e o u t t h a t y o u d i d n t t h i n k a b o u t w h e n y o u r b u i l d i n g t h i s t h i n g y o u k n o w B e c a u s e s o m e t i m e s y o u c a n t t h i n k o f e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y A n d t h a n k g o o d n e s s w e h a d t h a t s i x m o n t h t e s t i n g p e r i o d f o r e v e r p o s s i b l e t h i n g t h a t w o u l d h a v e ( h a p p e n e d ) S o m e o f t h o s e t h i n g s w e d o h a v e t o g o b a c k a n d r e n e g o t i a t e b e c a u s e w e h a d a s k e d f o r i t o n e w a y a n d w e g o t i t a p p r o v e d a n d t h e n w e g o t t h e r e i t w a s l i k e O h y o u k n o w w h a t ? T h i s r e a l l y w o r k s b e t t e r t h i s o t h e r w a y A n d t h a n k G o d t h e y w e r e f l e x i b l e W e l l w h e n y o u s t a r t u p a n e w b u s i n e s s i t t a k e s s o m e c a p i t a l J W B d i d s o m e t h i n g s t o o t o h e l p e a s e t h e b u r d e n W e w e r e a b l e t o g i v e t h e m a c o s t o f l i v i n g ( i n c r e a s e ) w h i c h r e a l l y w a s t h e s a m e a s w h a t t h e 2 % w a s S o i t s t h e 2 % t h e y n o r m a l l y g e t f o r t h e i r e m p l o y e e r a i s e s S o t h e y h a d t o g i v e u p t h e i r 2 % t o p a y t h e t a x B u t t h e n t h e y s t a r t e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o s a v e m o r e S o t h e y k i n d o f s t a r t e d h u s h i n g u p a b o u t i t T h a t s w h e n J i m s a i d Y o u k n o w w e v e g o t t o s o m e h o w c a p t u r e t h i s w h o l e t h i n g a b o u t t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e B e c a u s e t h e b o a r d d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d T h e y t h i n k y o u c a n j u s t t h r o w p e o p l e o u t t o d o t h i s s t u f f a n d t h e y s h o u l d b e a b l e t o d o i t T h e y

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 281 d o n t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n n e e d s a l o t o f T L C t o g e t g o i n g a n d b e s u c c e s s f u l S u r e y o u c a n b a c k o f f a f t e r a f e w y e a r s b u t y o u h a v e t o g i v e t h e m t h a t t i m e t o m a k e t h e i r m i s t a k e s a n d h e l p t h e m t h r o u g h t h e m a n d t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s B y t h e t i m e w e g o t t o O c t o b e r i t t o o k o v e r l i k e t h a t ( s n a p ? ) I t w a s i n c r e d i b l e I m e a n n o b o d y e v e n n o t i c e d t h a t i t h a p p e n e d i t w a s s o s m o o t h I m e a n i t w a s s c a r y i t r e a l l y w a s A n d w e w e r e h o l d i n g o u r b r e a t h b u t e v e r y t h i n g w e n t p e r f e c t l y ( M e m b e r s s a w ) t h a t t h i s w a s n o t g o i n g t o d e s t r o y u s ; t h a t i t w a s n t g o i n g t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s ; t h a t t h e r e r e a l l y w a s v e r y l i t t l e c h a n g e s u b t l e c h a n g e s o n l y i n h o w t h e f u n d s w e r e f l o w i n g O c t o b e r 1 t h e y h a d t o f l y a l l o n t h e i r o w n a n d t h e y d i d i t T h e y d i d I t h i n k t h a t I h a d a c a r d i a c g e t t i n g t h e f i r s t r e i m b u r s e m e n t i n : W o u l d i t b e r i g h t ? W o u l d i t g o t h r o u g h ? A u t o n o m y & I n d e p e n d e n c e C o m m u n i t y g r o u p s t e n d t o v e r y v e r y m i s s i o n d r i v e n I f o n e o f t h e o n g o i n g p r o b l e m s i s t r y i n g t o d o p r o g r a m s a n d t r y i n g t o m a n a g e a n d m o s t o f t h e p r o b l e m s c o m e o u t i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t s i d e w e l l l e t s f i g u r e o u t a w a y t o e a s e u p t h e m a n a g e m e n t d e m a n d s a n d l e t f o l k s c o n c e n t r a t e o n w h a t t h e y r e a l l y l o v e w h i c h i s p r o g r a m s H e s a i d ( t o t h e N F C C m e m b e r s ) W e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h y o u t o l e t y o u d e v e l o p t h e m o d e l A n d I t h o u g h t w h e w B o y A n d I s l i d t h o s e ( p l a n d o c u m e n t s ) r i g h t o f f t h e t a b l e # S o m e t i m e s y o u j u s t t r y t o d o s o m u c h f o r p e o p l e a n d y o u d o n t r e a l i z e t h a t y o u r e t a k i n g a w a y f r o m t h e m t h i n g s t h e y r e a l l y w a n t t o d o f o r t h e m s e l v e s B e c a u s e i t m e a n s s o m e t h i n g t o t h e m a s f a r a s b e i n g a l e a d e r o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n T h e y r e b e i n g i n c l u d e d t h e y r e n o t b e i n g t o l d w h a t t o d o J i m t r i e d t o g i v e t h e m a s m u c h a u t o n o m y a s h e c o u l d i n t h i s p r o c e s s w h i c h w a s h e l p f u l ( l a u g h i n g ) o r a h i n d r a n c e a t t h a t t h e s a m e t i m e B e c a u s e g i v i n g t h e m a u t o n o m y a l l o w e d t h e m t o s t i l l t r y t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y I t w a s a w i n w i n f o r t h e m a s w e l l a s f o r u s b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d e d t o m a k e t h i s w o r k S o t h e y t r i e d r e a l h a r d n o t t o g e t i n t h e w a y I t w a s i n t h a t s e n s e t h e y t r i e d r e a l h a r d n o t t o d r i v e t h e t r a i n n o t t o g e t i n t h e w a y n o t a n y t h i n g A n d s o i t w o r k e d I t h i n k a n o t h e r t h i n g t h a t r e a l l y h e l p e d i s t h a t e v e r y b o d y k e p t t h e i r b o a r d ; e v e r y b o d y k e p t t h e i r c o r p o r a t i o n A n d w e d i d n t p u s h f o r t h e w h o l l y o w n e d o p e r a t i o n T h e y c o u l d l o o k a t t h a t a n d t h e y c o u l d h a n g o n t o t h a t I t s s t i l l m y b o a r d ; i t s s t i l l m y c o r p o r a t i o n ; I c a n s t i l l d o t h e s e o t h e r t h i n g s I t h i n k t h a t w a s v e r y h e l p f u l i n t h e p r o c e s s I t h i n k t h e b i g g e s t t h i n g t h a t w e d i d w a s t o t e l l t h e m t h a t t h e y r e s t i l l t h e b o s s T h e y s t i l l r u n t h e i r p r o g r a m s t h e w a y t h e y v e a l w a y s r u n t h e m T h e y c a n c o l l a b o r a t e o n c o n t r a c t s ; t h e y c a n c o l l a b o r a t e f o r f u n d i n g ; t h e y c a n c o l l a b o r a t e f o r a l l k i n d s o f m o n e y s a v i n g d e a l s ; o r t h e y c a n n o t W e l e f t i t c o m p l e t e l y o p e n T h e w a y w e r e g o i n g t o d o i t i s g o i n g t o b e a l i t t l e o d d t o s o m e p e o p l e b u t t h e w a y w e r e g o i n g t o d o i t i s g o i n g t o k e e p y o u i n c o n t r o l o f y o u r o w n d e s t i n i e s T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w i l l s a y y e s o r n o w i l l b e d i r e c t o r s o f e a c h o n e o f t h e a g e n c i e s o n t h i s b o a r d ( a l l t h e N F C s ) E a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s o n e v o t e a n d y o u a l l w i l l m a k e y o u r o w n d e c i s i o n s K e i t h w i l l w o r k f o r y o u S o w e g o t a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b u i l d t h i s t h i n g t h a t W E w a n t e d t o b u i l d T h e r e i s n t

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 282 a n y b o d y e l s e w h o c a n b e i n c h a r g e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r w h o i s i n c h a r g e o f t h e i r m o n e y W e a r e t h e b o a r d S o w e c a n b u i l d i t t o m e e t o u r n e e d s T h a t i s h o w w e b e g a n t o d o t h a t T h e y h a d d e c i d e d t o l e t u s d o o u r o w n t h i n g a n d s o w e h a d t o k i n d o f s a y w e l l w e n e e d t o f i g u r e o u t w h a t i t i s t h e y t h o u g h t w a s g o i n g t o b e c r e a t e d O v e r a l l t h e y s a i d y o u r m o n e y s g o t t o g o t h i s w a y b u t w e w e r e a l l o w e d t o d e c i d e h o w w e w a n t e d t o p l a y t h a t g a m e b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d h a v e s t r u c t u r e d i t i n s u c h a w a y t h a t w e h a d n o c o n t r o l o v e r o u r f u n d s S o w e w e r e a l l o w e d t o d o t h a t I t h i n k t h a t r e a l l y h e l p e d t h e m f e e l b e t t e r a b o u t i t B e c a u s e t h e y r e a l i z e d w e w e r e n o t t r y i n g t o s t i c k t h i s d o w n t h e i r t h r o a t E v e n t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e p i e c e s o f i t t h a t w e s a i d L o o k y o u k n o w g u y s w e r e k i n d o f i n a p r o b l e m h e r e T h a t s w h y w e c r e a t e d t h i s b o a r d T h i s b o a r d w i l l b e w h o e v e r i s t h e l e a d e r w h o e v e r i s t h e c h a i r w i l l b e o n t h e a g e n d a t o d i s c u s s o r s a y S o m e b o d y s o u t o f c o m p l i a n c e T h e m b e i n g o u t o f c o m p l i a n c e c o u l d l e a d t o p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n b e i n g f u n d e d t h a t y e a r I t o l d t h e m I m t h e o n e w h o w r o t e t h e p l a n I b a s e d i t o n s o m e m o d e l s I h a d s e e n a n d b a s e d i t o n h o w I k n e w y o u a l l w e r e o p e r a t i n g a n d t r y i n g t o b l e n d t h o s e t h i n g s t o g e t h e r B u t J i m j u s t i s s o c o m m i t t e d t o y o u a s i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t h e c o u l d n o t d o t h a t t o y o u H e c o u l d n o t s a y H e r e s o u r e n d v i e w H e w a n t s y o u t o c o m e b a c k a n d w o r k w i t h P a u l o n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s p l a n a n d b e a p a r t o f i t A L i a i s o n o f T r u s t D e a l i n g w i t h t h e e n t i r e N F C C w a s a n i n t e r e s t i n g c h a l l e n g e b e c a u s e I g o t t o a l s o b e i n v o l v e d i n a l l o f t h e r e p r o b l e m s B e c a u s e e v e n t h o u g h t h e y h a d t h e i r o w n p l a n n e r s t h e y w o r k e d w i t h I w a s a t t h e C o a l i t i o n s o I w a s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m a n d t h e y w o u l d b r i n g a l o n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s t o m e t o w o r k w i t h S o I g o t t o k n o w a l l o f t h e m v e r y w e l l t h r o u g h t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e y h a d I s u d d e n l y b e c a m e t h e p e r s o n t o g o t o a n d a s k q u e s t i o n s y o u k n o w a n d f i n d a n s w e r s f o r t h o s e p r o b l e m s S o i t k i n d o f j u s t c a m e t o a n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n w h e n I s t a r t e d w o r k i n g w i t h t h e m a l l o f t h e m o n e w a y o r t h e o t h e r J i m t o l d m e T h e y a r e y o u r n u m b e r o n e p r i o r i t y o v e r a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t a n y o n e g i v e s y o u A n d t h a t h e l p e d A n d B r o w n i n g s a i d t h e s a m e t h i n g S o k n o w i n g t h e y c o u l d b e m y n u m b e r o n e p r i o r i t y r e g a r d l e s s a l w a y s a l l o w e d m e t o w o r k t h e m f i r s t T h e r e w a s a t i m e t h e r e p r o b a b l y 6 m o n t h s t h a t I ( w o r k e d o n ) s o m e t h i n g E V E R Y D A Y : i n s u r a n c e s y s t e m s c o m p u t e r s p o l i c i e s I t h i n k p a r t o f i t i s y o u h a v e t o r e a l l y b e c o m m i t t e d t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s t o m a k e i t h a p p e n B e c a u s e i f y o u j u s t s a y Y o u a l l g o t t o d o t h i s t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e m r e a l l y d o i n g i t a n d g e t t i n g i t t h e w a y i t s s u p p o s e t o b e i t s g o i n g t o b e h a r d t o d o B e c a u s e y o u r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o h a v e s o m e b o d y t h a t s g o i n g t o b e t h e l e a d e r o f t h e p r o j e c t I t t e m p e r s y o u s o m e h o w t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e I t h i n k y o u r e m o r e a v a i l a b l e a s a r e s o u r c e t o t h e m t h e n s o m e o n e t h a t s j u s t g o i n g t o c o m e i n a n d t a k e i t o n a s o n e m o r e p r o j e c t 8 t o 5 B u t I g o t v e r y v e r y i n v e s t e d i n t h i s T h e y w o u l d t e a s e m e T h e y w o u l d c a l l m e t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h i s o r t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n T h e r e w a s s t i l l s o m e s k e p t i c i s m ; s o m e f e e l i n g s o f n o t t r u s t i n g A n d I k n e w t h a t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g b e c a u s e s o m e o f t h e s e p e o p l e r e a l l y h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d p o o r l y i n t h e

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 283 p a s t n o t b y J W B b u t b y o t h e r c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s o t h e y w e r e n o t r e a l t r u s t i n g o f l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e J W B T h e y t h o u g h t w e w e r e p r o b a b l y o u t f o r s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n w h a t w e w e r e s a y i n g w e o u t f o r P a u l i s r e t i r e d a n d h e s m a d e h i s m o n e y P a u l s g o i n g t o s a y w h a t h e s g o t t o s a y H e l l s a y i t t o J i m o r ( o t h e r J W B m a n a g e m e n t ) H e d o e s n t r e a l l y c a r e A n d s o i t w o r k e d t o h a v e t h a t k i n d o f a d v o c a t e t o b e t h e r e a n d t o d o s o m e t h i n g s I k i n d o f m a d e i t r e a l c l e a r t h e m f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g L o o k I m w o r k i n g h e r e ; I c a n w o r k s o m e w h e r e e l s e t o m o r r o w I m n o t g o i n g t o l i e t o y o u I h a v e a n o t h e r i n c o m e S o I d o n t l i e t o p e o p l e f o r m o n e y I m n o t g o i n g t o d o i t A n d I t o l d J i m a n d t h e m i n m e e t i n g I s a i d Y o u k n o w I w o n t l i e t o a n y b o d y f o r m o n e y I w o n t d o i t I w o n t c h a n g e t h e c o l o r o f t h i s p i c t u r e A n d J i m s a i d T h a t s w o n d e r f u l Y o u t e l l t h e m ? ? ? e x a c t l y l i k e y o u t o l d m e A n d I d i d I t h i n k t h a t k i n d o f c h a n g e d s o m e t h i n g o v e r t i m e t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t m e a n d t r u s t i n g m e b e c a u s e t h e y g o t t o w h e r e t h e y w o u l d t r u s t m e I f I t e l l t h e m I d d o s o m e t h i n g t h e y k n e w I d d o i t I d i d n t s a y I d d o i t a n d w o n t d o i t I f o l l o w u p a n d m a k e s u r e i t h a p p e n e d A n d t h e n I w e n t w a y o u t o n a l i m b t r y i n g t o d o t h i n g s l i k e h e l p i n g t h e m g e t m o r e c o m p u t e r s h e l p i n g t h e m a p p l y f o r o t h e r g r a n t s d o i n g t h i n g s f o r t h e m t h a t w o u l d h e l p t h e m e n r i c h t h e p r o g r a m s t h e y h a d w h i c h w o u l d a l s o h e l p o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p I t r i e d v e r y h a r d t o m a k e s u r e t h a t p e o p l e w e r e t r y i n g t o c o o l t h e i r h e e l s o v e r t h a t a n d I t h i n k a l o t o f p e o p l e d i d G e t i t d o n e G e t t h e m r e a d y t o p l a y ( l a u g h ) G e t t h e m r e a d y B e c a u s e t h e y g o t t o g e t t h e r e H e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a n d h e b e l i e v e d i n t h a t b o t h i n t e r m s o f w h y h e w a n t e d t o d o i t a n d t h e r e a l i t y o f h a v i n g t o d o i t I t r i e d t o p r e p t h e m a l i t t l e b i t I w e n t o u t i n d i v i d u a l l y t o t a l k t o t h e m ( t o l e t t h e m k n o w t h i s w a s c o m i n g ) J i m s g o i n g t o t a l k t o y o u a n d e x p l a i n t o y o u w h a t w e v e g o t t o d o P a u l L a c k e y i n d i v i d u a l l y h a s d o n e a s i g n i f i c a n t j o b i n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e n e e d s t h a t w e h a v e w i t h t h e J W B a n d h e l p i n g t h e m t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s t h a t t h e y r e ( m a k i n g n o w ) H e s a l w a y s i f w e a s k e d h i m i n f o r m a t i o n o r a s k e d h i m t o c l a r i f y s o m e t h i n g s h e w o u l d d o t h a t H e l e a r n e d e a r l y t h a t w e n e e d a n d h e l e a r n e d f r o m h i s o w n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h i s o w n a g e n c y t h a t w e n e e d e d t o m a k e s u r e t h a t T H E h o r s e s p o k e t h e w o r d s A n d p r e f e r a b l y i n w r i t i n g I f w e r e h e a d e d o f f i n t h e w r o n g d i r e c t i o n y o u n e e d t o t e l l u s t h a t a n d w h a t s t h e b a s i s f o r t h a t S o w e d o n t g o o f f i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s n o t w h a t y o u a r e l o o k i n g f o r Y o u w o n t h u r t o u r f e e l i n g s W e j u s t d o n t l i k e t o d o w o r k f o r n o t h i n g s o h e w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h a t w a y A n d w o u l d t a k e i n f o r m a t i o n b a c k a n d g e t c l a r i f i c a t i o n o n t h i n g s f o r u s i n a k i n d o f w a y W e d e v e l o p e d d o c u m e n t s a n d t h i n g s o r a s w e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a n d n e e d e d i t b a c k i n b l a c k a n d w h i t e h e w a s t h e p e r s o n w h o c a r r i e d i t a n d b r o u g h t i t b a c k h e w a s k i n d o f g i v e n t h e l e a d a n d k i n d o f n u r s i n g u s a l o n g a n d b e i n g t h e g o b e t w e e n b e t w e e n t h e t w o e n t i t i e s I t w a s g o o d t o h a v e P a u l t h e r e b e c a u s e w e c o u l d t h e n b o u n c e o f f w h a t w e w e r e d o i n g a n d s e n d i t b a c k a n d m a k e s u r e t h a t w h a t w e w e r e d o i n g w a s n t g o i n g t o g e t

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 284 t h r o w n b a c k i n o u r f a c e s : O h n o y o u c a n t d o t h a t I t h i n k t h a t t h e y h a v e d o n e a n e x c e p t i o n a l j o b i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s w i t h e n t i t y a n d t h i s p r o c e s s A n e x c e p t i o n a l j o b T h e J W B h a s b e e n a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s a n d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t ; n o t j u s t b e c a u s e o f t h e ( f u n d i n g ) b u t b e c a u s e w h a t t h e y v e b r o u g h t t o t h e p r o c e s s I t h i n k t h e J W B h a s b e e n v e r y c o o p e r a t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s T h e i r r o l e h a s b e e n t o a d v i s e a n d t o s u p p o r t T h e y v e b e e n v e r y s u p p o r t i v e T h a t t o o k a l o t o f h a n d h o l d i n g a n d s m o o t h i n g a n d f i n e s s i n g a n d g e t t i n g p e o p l e j o b s a n d t h i n g s l i k e t h a t I s t i l l m e e t w i t h h i m w e e k l y W e t a l k a b o u t a l l t h e i s s u e s e v e r y t h i n g A n d i f t h e r e s a n y t h i n g I c a n d o t o h e l p h i m t h r o u g h t h e m I d o I f I c a n d o a n y t h i n g o r t a l k t o s o m e b o d y o r c o m e b a c k h e r e a n d t a l k t o s o m e b o d y o r h e l p g e t s o m e t h i n g d o n e I d o i t I d i d n t g e t i n v o l v e d I w a s t r y i n g t o s e t b a c k a n d b e q u i e t u n l e s s I w a s a s k e d f o r m y i n p u t I w o u l d l i k e e v e r y b o d y t o s e e h o w i m p o r t a n t i t i s t o w o r k t o g e t h e r t o g a i n t h e m o s t t h e y c a n g e t A n d I v e l e a r n e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e s i n m y s e l f t h a t i f y o u w o r k t o g e t h e r y o u g e t a w h o l e l o t m o r e t h a n w o r k i n g b y y o u r s e l f S o I w a n t e d t h e m t o r e a l i z e t h a t I p r o b a b l y p u t a l o t m o r e e n e r g y i n i t a n d I p r o b a b l y t o o k e v e r y s e t b a c k p e r s o n a l l y E v e r y t i m e t h a t t h e r e w a s a n y s e t b a c k I p r o b a b l y t o o k i t m o r e p e r s o n a l l y t h a n I s h o u l d h a v e I f e l t l i k e I w a s g o i n g t w o s t e p s f o r w a r d a n d o n e b a c k B u t I s t i l l w a s g o i n g f o r w a r d a t a s l o w p a c e Man ag em en t an d Co m mu n i cat i o n St rat eg i es L i k e c l i m b i n g a m o u n t a i n B e c a u s e y o u s t a r t a t t h e b o t t o m a n d i t s e a s y a n d y o u g o O h o k a y B u t a s y o u y o u g e t o u t o f b r e a t h a s y o u g o u p t h a t m o u n t a i n i t g e t s s t e e p e r a n d y o u h a v e t o h o l d o n t o t h i n g s a n d y o u h a v e t o f i n d c r e v i c e s a n d r o c k s a n d a w a y t o g e t t o t h e t o p S o i t s l i k e c l i m b i n g a m o u n t a i n I t s o n l y a l i f e b o a t i f e v e r y o n e s r o w i n g i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n I f s o m e o n e i s n o t p u l l i n g t h e i r o a r a s m u c h a s t h e o t h e r s e v e r y b o d y e l s e h a s t o w o r k h a r d e r a n d i t s u p t o e v e r y b o d y e l s e t o p r e s s u r e t h a t p e r s o n t o p u l l h a r d e r A l l o w i n g t h e t i m e t o c h a n g e W e l l y o u k n o w w h i l e I m a t i t I m e a n I c a n a l s o d o s o m e m i r a c l e s F i r s t i t w a s l i k e I o n l y h a v e a f e w m o n t h s t o d o t h i s a n d I s a i d I c a n t d o i t I t s j u s t t o o m o n u m e n t a l t o d o b e c a u s e t h e r e s t o o m a n y t h i n g s t o g e t d o n e I t k i n d o f f e l t l i k e i t w a s s t u f f e d d o w n o u r t h r o a t I t h i n k g r a d u a l l y f o l k s m i g h t h a v e s e e n t h e p i c t u r e b u t i t w a s a l l o f t h e s u d d e n W e v e g o t t o g i v e t h e m b r e a t h i n g t i m e f i r s t o f a l l a n d t h e n w e r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o g i v e t h e m t i m e t o r e g r o u p A f t e r t h a t I c a n s a y O k a y s o h e r e s w h a t w e r e g o i n g t o d o T h e n t h e y h a v e t o d e a l w i t h t h o s e i s s u e s F i r s t o f a l l e v e r y o n e o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s g o i n g t o t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s l i k e a p e r s o n d y i n g T h e y r e g o i n g t o g o t h r o u g h d e n i a l r e g r e t a n d a l l t h a t B u t y o u k n o w w e r e h u m a n b e i n g s W e e v o l v e O u r e m o t i o n s e v o l v e W e d o n t g o f r o m o n e e m o t i o n t o t h e o t h e r l i k e t h a t ( s n a p p i n g f i n g e r s ) ; p a r t i c u l a r l y s o m e t h i n g o f t h i s c o m p l e x i t y Y o u k n o w w e v e g o t t o g o t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s i f y o u

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 285 w i l l T h e y h a d a l r e a d y d o n e r e s e a r c h a n d h a d a m o d e l i n m i n d T h e y c o u l d h a v e j u s t s h a r e d t h a t w i t h u s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d s a v e d u s a l o t o f t i m e Y o u h a v e t o c o m m i t 1 8 m o n t h s f r o m t h e t i m e y o u s t a r t t h e p r o c e s s u n t i l t h e t i m e y o u t u r n t h e k e y t h a t s t a r t s t h e w h o l e t h i n g g o i n g I f y o u d o n t h a v e t h a t p e r i o d o f t i m e y o u w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o g o t h r o u g h t h e e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h w a s t h e a n g e r t h e a c c e p t a n c e t h e d e n i a l t h e r e s i g n a t i o n W h e n I t a l k a b o u t 1 8 m o n t h s w h a t a m I t a l k i n g a b o u t ? T h i r t y s i x h o u r s i s w h a t I m t a l k i n g a b o u t T h i n k a b o u t i t T h a t g r o u p m e e t s o n c e a m o n t h f o r 2 h o u r s 3 6 h o u r s O k a y s o t h e r e w e r e o t h e r m e e t i n g s i n b e t w e e n 5 0 h o u r s F i f t y h o u r s o f e f f o r t t o c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g o f t h i s m a g n i t u d e i s n o t i m e N O T I M E S o w h a t i f y o u w a n t e d t o d o i t i n 6 m o n t h s ? W e l l 6 m o n t h s t i m e s 2 i s 1 2 ; s o m a y b e y o u v e g o t 1 5 h o u r s t o d o i t I t h i n k h a v i n g a s a l o n g a t i m e t o d o i t a s w e h a d w a s p o s i t i v e I t w a s n o t o n e o f t h o s e t h i n g s w h e r e y o u c a n j u s t t h r o w t h e s w i t c h B e c a u s e y e s t h e y k n e w o n e a n o t h e r s o m e o f t h e m m o r e t h a n o t h e r s b u t t h e y r e a l l y n e e d t i m e t o g e t t h r o u g h t h e e m o t i o n a l s t u f f S u r e y o u c a n b a c k o f f a f t e r a f e w y e a r s b u t y o u h a v e t o g i v e t h e m t h a t t i m e t o m a k e t h e i r m i s t a k e s a n d h e l p t h e m t h r o u g h t h e m I t w a s j u s t s t e p b y s t e p i n c h b y i n c h a l l t h e w a y t h r o u g h u n t i l w e g o t t o t h e e n d w e r e s t i l l w o r k i n g o n i t L e a d e r s h i p M I X E D S T A T E M E N T S A B O U T L O U N E L L : S h e h a s a l o t o f e x p e r i e n c e S h e s b e e n t h e r e L o u n e l l p r o v i d e d t r e m e n d o u s l e a d e r s h i p t o t h i s ; j u s t r e a l l y h a d t h e r i g h t m i x o f I v e b e e n t h e r e I k n o w w h y w e h a v e t o d o t h i s W e v e g o t t o d o i t S h e s r e a l l y f o r m e d a c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e r e s n o q u e s t i o n a b o u t h e r c o m m i t m e n t t o h e r c o m m u n i t y I t h i n k t h a t m a d e a b i g b i g d i f f e r e n c e T h a t s o n e t h i n g a b o u t g e t t i n g o l d : y o u c a n s a y t h i n g s t h a t y o u n e e d t o s a y t h a t s h o u l d b e s a i d I d o n t r e a l l y s e e a n y m a j o r c h a l l e n g e T h e g l a s s i s a l w a y s h a l f f u l l t o m e a n d t h e r e s a l w a y s a w a y t o g e t t h i n g s d o n e E v e n i f I h a v e t o t a k e o f f m y g l a s s e s a n d p u t o n m y r u b b e r p a d s a n d d o i t m y s e l f B u t t h e r e i s a l w a y s a w a y t o g e t i t d o n e I k e p t t h e m a d v i s e d a l l a l o n g t h e w a y a b o u t t h e s t r a t e g i c p l a n t h e J W B h a d a n d t h e i r p l a n s f o r t h e c o a l i t i o n t h e d i r e c t i o n w e w e r e g o i n g i n w h a t i t w a s g o i n g t o c o s t u s L o u n e l l b l e s s h e r h e a r t t h e s a i n t s h e i s s a i d I m p a y i n g m o r e t h a n a n y b o d y i n t h i s r o o m a n d I a g r e e w i t h t h i s A n d I t h i n k t h i s i s t h e w a y w e s h o u l d g o A n d I m w i l l i n g t o p a y m y 2 % a n d i t s m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n a n y b o d y e l s e T h a t r e a l l y d i f f u s e d a l o t o f t h i n g s S o i t w a s t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g t h a t r e a l l y h e l p e d u s t h r o u g h t h e h a r d t i m e s I s a i d Y o u c a n g e t m o r e f l i e s w i t h s u g a r t h a n y o u c a n w i t h s a l t A n d t h e y f i n a l l y f i g u r e d o u t a w a y t o w o r k a n d n o t c l a s h S o m e t i m e s w e j u s t h a d t o s a y W e l l l o o k g u y s T h i s i s t h e w a y i t i s Y o u c a n e i t h e r r i d e

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 286 o n t h e t r a i n o r g e t r u n o v e r b y t h e t r a i n F o r a m i n u t e t h e r e t h e y w e r e l i k e t w o r o o s t e r s i n t h e b a r n y a r d r u f f l i n g e a c h o t h e r s f e a t h e r s S o I s a i d Y a l l c a n w o r k i t o u t J u s t g o w o r k i t o u t T o h a v e t h e s u p p o r t t h a t L o u n e l l w o u l d c o m e u p w i t h : I w o u l d s u r v i v e p r o b a b l y o v e r e v e r y o n e A n d s h e w o u l d h a v e B u t y e t I c h o o s e t o b e p a r t o f t h i s g r o u p I c h o o s e t o s a v e e v e r y o n e N o t j u s t t w o o r t h r e e o f y o u I c h o o s e t o s a v e e v e r y o n e t h a t s w i l l i n g t o b e s a v e d W o w Y o u k n o w h o w d o y o u f i g h t t h a t ? I j u s t l o v e w o r k i n g w i t h J i m H e t e l l s y o u e x a c t l y w h a t h e w a n t s a n d h e p u t s t r u s t i n y o u t o d o i t a n d h e l l s t a y t h a t w a y u n l e s s y o u p r o v e t h a t y o u c a n t b e t r u s t e d A n d h e s u p p o r t e d m e t h r o u g h o u t t h a t e n t i r e t i m e H e k n e w a l l a b o u t t h e s e c e n t e r s H e k n e w a l l t h e i r o l d p r o b l e m s a l l t h e i r n e w p r o b l e m s H e k n e w t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s A n d h e k i n d o f s a w s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s c o m i n g d o w n t h e r o a d t h a t h e k n e w m i g h t h a p p e n a n d s u r e e n o u g h t h e y d i d T h e y f i r s t s a i d K e i t h n e e d s t o b e t h e l e a d e r W e l l a t t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e K e i t h d i d n t w a n t t o b e t h e l e a d e r b e c a u s e h e w a s n e w I t w a s h a r d b e c a u s e s o m e o f t h e m d i d n t r e a l l y w a n t t o f o l l o w h i m a t t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e i n t h a t r o l e S o i t r e a l l y w a s h a r d f o r t h a t t r a n s i t i o n t o o c c u r I t t o o k a w h i l e f o r h i m t o t a k e o n t h a t l e a d e r s h i p r o l e O n c e h e d i d h e s d o n e g r e a t B u t i t t o o k h i m a w h i l e t o b u i l d u p t o t h e p o i n t o f s a y i n g O k a y n o w y o u r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o r e s p e c t m e i n t h i s p o s i t i o n H e w a s a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e p r o g r a m I t h i n k h e f e e l s p r e t t y c o m f o r t a b l e n o w M y r o l e w a s t h a t o f k e e p i n g t h e b a l l r o l l i n g L e t s k e e p t h i s o n t r a c k a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s i s t a n c e T h e r e w e r e c e r t a i n s k i l l s t h a t I b r o u g h t t h i s p r o c e s s p r i n c i p a l l y p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n r e a l l y r e a l l y r e a l l y r e a l l y r e q u i r e d P a t i e n c e H e s a g o o d b o a r d l e a d e r H e l l t u r n t h e t i d e w h e n p e o p l e w o u l d g e t a n g r y W e d i d a l o t o f a n g r y d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t d b e i r r e l e v a n t a l m o s t a n d h e w o u l d t u r n t h e t i d e a n d s a y L e t s m o v e t h i s o n t o s o m e t h i n g m o r e p e r t i n e n t o r s e r i o u s A n d y o u k n o w i t m a k e s y o u f e e l g o o d t o s e e p e o p l e d o t h a t A u t o n o m y & P a r t i c i p a t i o n I t h i n k w e k i n d o f h a d a s h o w d o w n m e e t i n g W e r e a l l y h a d a r e a l i z a t i o n m e e t i n g f o r e v e r y o n e o f w h e r e w e r e a t a n d w h a t w e r e d o i n g w h e n ( m e m b e r s ) s a i d A l l w e w a n t i s t o b e p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s I t w a s l i k e g o l l y a n d o h m y G o d S o m e t i m e s y o u t h i n k t h a t y o u r e h e l p i n g s o m e b o d y b y d o i n g s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e m A n d t o t h e m y o u r e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t t h e m A n d w e d i d n t e v e n t h i n k W e t h o u g h t w e w e r e t r y i n g t o b e h e l p f u l O n c e t h e y g o t i n c l u d e d i n t h a t d i s c u s s i o n a n d t h e y s t a r t e d g e t t i n g e v e r y p i e c e o f p a p e r t h a t e v e r y b o d y g o t i n t h e e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g a n d e v e r y t h i n g t h e n t h a t s t a r t s s u b s i d i n g a n d e v e r y t h i n g w a s h a p p y I t r e a l l y w a s I t w a s j u s t a m a z i n g T h e c h a n g e t h a t h a p p e n e d A n d I t h o u g h t m y G o d i f I h a d k n o w n t h a t 1 0 m o n t h s a g o I w o u l d h a v e h a n d l e d t h i s s o d i f f e r e n t l y # S o m e t i m e y o u j u s t t r y t o d o s o m u c h f o r p e o p l e a n d y o u d o n t r e a l i z e t h a t y o u r e t a k i n g a w a y f r o m t h e m t h i n g s t h e y r e a l l y w a n t t o d o f o r t h e m s e l v e s B e c a u s e i t m e a n s s o m e t h i n g t o t h e m a s f a r a s b e i n g a l e a d e r o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n T h e y r e b e i n g i n c l u d e d t h e y r e n o t b e i n g t o l d w h a t t o d o

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 287 R e l a t i o n s h i p s T h e m a i n p u r p o s e w i t h b e i n g t o g e t h e r w a s t h e c o m f o r t o f k n o w i n g t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y w e r e a l l J W B f u n d e d b u t s o m e t i m e s t h e y d i d n t u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u n d i n g S o c o m i n g t o g e t h e r w h e r e t h e y c o u l d s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a n d c o m m i s e r a t e a l i t t l e b i t a b o u t t h e f u n d e r s I t w a s b a s i c a l l y m o r e l i k e a c l u b a t t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e b e c a u s e t h e y r e a l l y d i d n t g e t f u n d i n g t h r o u g h i t I t w a s j u s t a w a y t h a t t h e y c a m e t o g e t h e r o n c e i n a w h i l e a n d t a l k e d a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n i n t h e c e n t e r s a n d d i s c u s s i s s u e s t h e y h a d w h i c h h e l p e d t h e m s t a r t t a l k i n g s t a r t b u i l d i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n T h e y w e r e a b l e t o h a n d l e t h e s t r e s s o f l o s i n g a m e m b e r B e c a u s e t h e y r e k i n d o f l i k e a f a m i l y y o u k n o w A n d s o m e t i m e t h e y r e d y s f u n c t i o n a l l i k e m o s t f a m i l i e s b u t t h e y r e s t i l l a f a m i l y I t s t h a t f e e l i n g o f Y o u v e g o t t o s a v e t h e f a m i l y a s a w h o l e b u t i t s v e r y h a r d t o c u t s o m e b o d y o u t I t h i n k i t m a d e i t e a s i e r w h e n w e f o u n d a n o t h e r j o b f o r T r a c y a n d h e r s t a f f W e r e l e a r n i n g t o n o t j u s t c a r e a b o u t o u r s e l v e s b u t t o c a r e a b o u t e a c h o t h e r T h e r e s a l o t o f s h a r i n g g o i n g o n I t h i n k i t s a p o s i t i v e p l a c e f o r a l l o f u s t o b e P e r s o n a l i t i e s & I n t e r a c t i o n s T h e y h a v e t h e i r t r o u b l e s I m e a n t h e y d o t h i n g s t o e a c h o t h e r s o m e t i m e s t h a t s p e t t y ( b a d ) b e c a u s e p e o p l e j u s t d o T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e w a s j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e p e o p l e w h o w a n t e d t o m o v e t h i s f o r w a r d I d o n t b e l i e v e t h a t c r i t i c i s m i s a n e g a t i v e t h i n g I t c h a l l e n g e s u s I t m a k e s u s t h i n k I t m a k e s u s c o n s i d e r Y o u k n o w s o m e t i m e s w e c h a n g e p o s i t i o n s b e c a u s e s o m e o n e h a s q u e s t i o n e d t h a t p o s i t i o n T h e r e w a s n o o t h e r p l a c e w h e r e t h e y c o u l d d o i t a n d g e t a w a y w i t h i t I f y o u r e m a j o r l y f r u s t r a t e d a n d y o u r e n o t a b l e t o ( h a v e a ) p l a c e t o v e n t t h a t m a j o r f r u s t r a t i o n w h a t d o y o u d o w i t h i t ? T h e r e a r e p e o p l e w h o w i l l r e s i s t i t u n t i l t h e i r d y i n g b r e a t h a n d t h e n t h e r e a r e p e o p l e w h o w i l l u l t i m a t e l y c o m e a r o u n d W e l l y o u g o t t a k n o w t h a t A n d w h e n y o u h a v e p e o p l e w h o a r e g o i n g t o r e s i s t i t u n t i l t h e i r d y i n g b r e a t h y o u s a y T h a t s t h a t p e r s o n I t o l d K e i t h I f y o u r e g o n n a f i g h t w i t h s o m e b o d y g i v e t h e m w h a t t h e y a s k f o r S o m e t i m e s y o u f i n d o u t w h a t y o u a s k f o r a i n t r e a l l y w h a t y o u w a n t e d I t s m o r e w o r k t h a n i t s w o r t h S o h e g o t o n b o a r d a n d d e c i d e d t o d o i t t h a t w a y K e i t h d i d a l o t H e h a d t o l e a r n s o m e f o l k s K E I T H A B O U T H I S R O L E : M o l l i f y i n g J W B o n o n e h a n d a n d t h e d i r e c t o r s o n a n o t h e r a n d v e r y o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t i n g i n t h a t m o l l i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s o n e w i t h t h e o t h e r b u t u l t i m a t e l y r e s o l v i n g a l l o f i t a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e s I t t o o k h i m a w h i l e t o b u i l d u p t o t h e p o i n t o f s a y i n g O k a y n o w y o u r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o r e s p e c t m e i n t h i s p o s i t i o n B u t h e w a s a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e p r o g r a m I t h i n k h e f e e l s p r e t t y c o m f o r t a b l e n o w T h e y v e g o n e t h r o u g h a n i n c r e d i b l y d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s I t w a s d i f f i c u l t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a n d i t w a s d i f f i c u l t p e r s o n a l l y I t w a s d i f f i c u l t i n t e r m s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d a n d t h e y w e r e n o t d a u n t e d b y t h a t p r o c e s s T h e y w e r e o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d b u t t h e y w e r e n e v e r d a u n t e d I g o t t o w h e r e I w a s i n s t e a d o f g e t t i n g u p s e t w i t h t h e m b e i n g s i l l y ( a b o u t t h e t a x ) I j u s t s t a r t e d l a u g h i n g a n d I d c a l l i t t h e t a x t o o A n d w e k i n d o f g o t t h r o u g h t h a t p e r i o d

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 288 o f t i m e W e s o r t o f l a u g h a b o u t t h a t ( O n e m e m b e r s a i d ) : I d o n t k n o w S e e m s t o m e i t s b a d c o p a n d w o r s e c o p b u t w i t h a l a u g h w h i c h r e a l l y m a d e m e f e e l g o o d ? ? ? J i m g o t i n t h e r e a n d s e n s e d i n t h e r o o m t h a t ( t h e m e s s a g e ) w a s g o i n g t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s s o m e k i n d o f d i r e c t i v e f r o m J W B t o t a k e i t o r l e a v e i t a n d h e d i d n t w a n t t h a t b e c a u s e t h a t s n o t h o w w e w o r k A n d t h a n k g o o d n e s s h e w a s s e n s i n g c o r r e c t l y I h a d i t a l l o n p a p e r a n d e v e r y t h i n g a n d I h a d i t t h e r e f o r J i m a n d h e d e c i d e d n o t t o u s e i t W h i c h w a s a w i s e d e c i s i o n T h a t s w h y I s a y h e s a w i s e p e r s o n A t f i r s t h e w a s j u s t r e a l l y p a r a n o i d a b o u t u s s a y i n g W e r e g o i n g t o f u n d y o u H e d s a y N o y o u r n o t Y o u r e g o i n g t o f u n d t h e c o a l i t i o n n o t m e ( T h e y j o k e d a n d t e a s e d h i m a b o u t i t ) H e s t i l l r e a l i z e s h e w o r k s f o r t h e b o a r d W h a t s i n t e r e s t i n g a b o u t i t i s h e s g o t t h a t d i v i d e d i n h i s h e a d w h e r e h e u n d e r s t a n d s h i s r o l e H i s r o l e i s t o f u n c t i o n a n d s u p p o r t t h e b o a r d a n d b e l i a i s o n t o u s L es s o n s L e arn ed L i k e t h a t b a b y e l e p h a n t W h i c h i s t o s a y t h a t r i g h t n o w i t i s s m a l l a n d g r o w i n g a n d s o m e d a y i t s g o i n g t o r e a c h t h e s t a t u r e o f d a d d y e l e p h a n t I h a t e t o k e e p g o i n g b a c k t o t h a t T h a t s k i n d o f a n i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e i s n t i t ? ( t a l k a b o u t e l e p h a n t s g r o w i n g s l o w l y ) T h i s i s g o i n g t o g r o w v e r y s l o w I t s l i k e a t o d d l e r I t s b e e n b o r n a n d n o w i t s g o t t a w a l k I n c r e a s e d C a p a c i t y I m p r o u d i n a w a y I t h i n k t h a t t h e y v e r e a l l y c o m e t o a p o i n t w h e r e t h e y c a n g o v e r n t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e y v e p r o v e n t h a t A n d J i m s j u s t s o p r o u d o f t h i s h e d i d n t k n o w w h a t t o d o B e c a u s e t h e y h a v e j u s t t r a n s i t i o n e d s o s m o o t h l y ; a n d n o k i n k s n o p r o b l e m s n o b i n d s n o t h i n g E v e r y t h i n g w e n t a s i t w a s s u p p o s e t o g o A n d e v e n f a c i n g a n o r g a n i z a t i o n c r a s h i n g a n d b u r n i n g ( G a r d e n V i l l a s ) t h e y w e r e a b l e t o h a n d l e i t a n d s m o o t h l y W h a t t h a t w o u l d m e a n t h e y d c o m e t o t h e t a b l e j u s t l i k e t h e y d o u p t h e r e ( p o i n t i n g u p t o J W B a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) a n d s a y O k a y t e l l u s w h e r e y o u r e h a v i n g p r o b l e m s F i r s t o f a l l w e c a n i n t e r v e n e i n a f a r m o r e p r o d u c t i v e w a y s t h a n t h e J W B c o u l d i n t e r v e n e W e c a n i n t e r v e n e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y T h e J W B o f t e n h a s t o i n t e r v e n e p u n i t i v e l y T h a t s t h e i r r o l e A n d I m n o t s a y i n g t h a t t h a t s a b a d t h i n g t h a t s j u s t t h e i r r o l e Y o u k n o w w h e n y o u d o s o m e t h i n g w r o n g y o u g e t p u t o n c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n T h a t s p u n i t i v e W e i n t e r v e n e a t t h e l e v e l w h e r e y o u d o n t h a v e t o b e o n c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n W e g u i d e y o u t h r o u g h W e h a v e n t h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o t h a t y e t b u t t h e d a y w i l l c o m e I t m a k e s i t a c t u a l l y e a s i e r f o r t h i s g r o u p t o g o o u t a n d s a y H e r e s t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d w e l l h e l p y o u d o w h a t e v e r y o u n e e d t o d o t o g e t t h r o u g h a n d g e t y o u r a c t t o g e t h e r W e l l h e l p y o u g e t y o u r p r o b l e m s s o l v e d B u t i f t h e y p e r s i s t i t s g o i n g t o a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l f u n d i n g o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n T h e n t h e y c a n b r i n g t h e h a m m e r d o w n a n d s a y L o o k y o u k n o w w e r e g o i n g t o i n s i s t o n t h i s b e c a u s e i t c a n n o t a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l f u n d i n g o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n T h e y c a n h e l p e a c h o t h e r w h e n t h e y s t a r t h a v i n g p r o b l e m s T h e y c a n s t e p i n h e l p o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e f a i l i n g a n d b r i n g t h e m o u t o f i t b e f o r e t h e ( J W B ) b o a r d h a s t o g e t i n v o l v e d E X A M P L E A n N F C n e e d s m o r e m o n e y : T h e y r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o d o i t t h r o u g h t h e

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 289 c o a l i t i o n T h a t s t h e d o w n s i d e o f i t E X A M P L E : G a r d e n V i l l a s N F C w h i c h i s n o m o r e W e t r a n s i t i o n e d t h e m o n e y t o a p l a n t h a t e v e r y b o d y b e n e f i t e d # C o m m u n i t y g r o u p s t e n d t o v e r y v e r y m i s s i o n d r i v e n I f o n e o f t h e o n g o i n g p r o b l e m s i s t r y i n g t o d o p r o g r a m s a n d t r y i n g t o m a n a g e a n d m o s t o f t h e p r o b l e m s c o m e o u t i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t s i d e w e l l l e t s f i g u r e o u t a w a y t o e a s e u p t h e m a n a g e m e n t d e m a n d s a n d l e t f o l k s c o n c e n t r a t e o n w h a t t h e y r e a l l y l o v e w h i c h i s p r o g r a m s A s t h e m o n t h s w e n t b y s o m e o f t h e m w e r e s a y i n g Y o u k n o w t h i s i s g r e a t I m g e t t i n g t o f a r m o u t a l l o f m y b o o k k e e p i n g m y m o n t h t o m o n t h a n d I g e t a s t a t e m e n t a n d I d o n t h a v e t o w r i t e a n y c h e c k s ; a l l I h a v e t o d o i s r u n m y p r o g r a m s T h i s i s w o n d e r f u l I m e a n w e h a d p e o p l e t h a t w a n t e d t o t u r n i t o v e r t h e s e c o n d m e e t i n g T h e y s a i d W e d o n t w a n t t h a t p i e c e o f i t T h e y v e l e t g o o f m o r e t h a n I e v e r t h o u g h t t h e y w o u l d l e t g o o f a n d I t h i n k a s t i m e g o e s b y t h e y l l l e t g o o f a l l o f i t B e c a u s e h o w c o u l d y o u n o t w a n t t h a t d e a l ; I m e a n n o t t o h a v e t o d e a l w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s I t w o u l d b e o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t t h i n g s a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r c o u l d e v e r g e t j u s t t o g e t t o r u n t h e i r p r o g r a m s a n d n e v e r h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t s t a y i n g i n y o u r b u d g e t T h e y w o u l d c o m e a n d t h e y d s a y W e c a n t w a i t f o r t h i s b e c a u s e i t s g o i n g t o s a v e u s s o m u c h m o n e y B e c a u s e w e d o n t h a v e d e d i c a t e d p e o p l e t o h a n d l e o u r b o o k s a n d i f w e h a v e t o d o t h a t w e c a n t b e w o r k i n g o n t h e p r o g r a m s S o b y t u r n i n g t h i s o v e r w e g o t t h e t i m e g i v e n b a c k t o u s I w a s h o p e f u l t h a t w e w o u l d b e r e l i e v e d o f s o m e o f t h e p a p e r w o r k a s p e c t s T h a t h a s n t c o m e a b o u t t o b e h o n e s t T h e u n k n o w n v a l u e i s t h e r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t a d v a n t a g e o f a c o m b i n e d e n t i t y a s o p p o s e d t o a n i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t a d v a n t a g e t o a c o m b i n e d e n t i t y I m e a n I k n o w t h e r e i s b e c a u s e p e o p l e l i k e E c k e r d ( r e f e r r i n g t o t h e E c k e r d F a m i l y F o u n d a t i o n ) s a y t h a t t h e r e i s W h e n y o u l o o k a t s o m e o f t h e f u n d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i t s c l e a r t o s e e t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d b e f a r m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n f u n d i n g a c o u n t y w i d e $ 3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r e n t i t y t h a n a c i t y w i d e $ 2 0 0 0 0 0 d o l l a r e n t i t y A n d t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y T h a t s w h e r e t h e a d v a n t a g e i s g o i n g t o c o m e I t h i n k p e o p l e a r e b e g i n n i n g t o g e t p o s s i b l e w i t h i t I t h i n k s o m e o f t h e f o l k s a r e g l a d t o b e s i t t i n g w h e r e t h e y r e s i t t i n g b e c a u s e t h e r e s s o m e b e n e f i t t o i t i n t e r m s o f t h a t I t h i n k p e o p l e a r e b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l r e a l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t T h e y v e c o m e a l o n g w a y I t h i n k ( t h e J W B b o a r d ) s a w : W e l a i d o u t a c h a l l e n g e a n d t h i s g r o u p r o s e t o i t I s e e t h e m s o s t r o n g n o w I j u s t c a n t i m a g i n e t h e m f a i l i n g B e c a u s e a c t u a l l y i n o u r b o a r d m e e t i n g T h e r e s b e e n a l o t o f p o s i t i v e c o m m e n t s a b o u t t h e b o a r d o f t h e N F C C a n d t h e s u p p o r t p a r t o f i t a n d s a y i n g t h i n g s l i k e W e l l w h y c a n t w e g i v e t h a t p r o g r a m t o t h e N F C C ? A n d t o s e e ( t h i s c h a n g e ) i s a h u g e h u g e t h i n g t o m e I m p r o u d o f t h a t N o w t h e y r e l o o k i n g a t u s a s l e s s o n s l e a r n e d W e w e n t f r o m b e i n g s t e p c h i l d r e n t o b e i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y t a k e a l o t o f p r i d e i n

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 290 T w o y e a r s a g o J W B w o u l d n t h a v e h a d a n i n k l i n g o r a t w i n k l i n g i n t h e i r e y e a b o u t c o m i n g t o t h e N F C C a n d s a y i n g w e h a v e $ 6 0 0 K H o w c a n w e s p e n d i t ? E X A M P L E : P a m a n d $ 6 0 0 K d i s c u s s i o n N F C C h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s a s a v i a b l e f o r c e t o b e r e c k o n e d w i t h C o m i n g T o g e t h e r I w a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s m a l l o n e s w e r e n o t g o i n g t o b e g i v e n l e s s b y t h e b o a r d t h a n t h e y n e e d e d t o h a v e T h a t e v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n h a d o n e v o i c e T h e y v e b e e n g o v e r n i n g t h e m s e l v e s v e r y w e l l I t e l l t h e m I t r y n o t t o p u m p t h e i r h e a d s u p t o o b i g b u t I t e l l h o w i m p r e s s e d I a m T h e y h a d t o t h e d o t h e w o r k T h e y h a d t o m a k e t h e d e c i s i o n s T h e y h a d t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r a r o u n d t h a t t a b l e B o y I w i s h y o u w o u l d v e b e e n h e r e a y e a r a g o y o u w o u l d v e s e e n a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t g r o u p t h a n t h e g r o u p y o u s e e k n o w W h a t y o u s e e n o w i s a g r o u p s t h a t i s t r u l y w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r W e d i d n t k i l l e a c h o t h e r I t h i n k i t s f a i r l y s t r o n g I t h i n k w e s t i l l h a v e s o m e c o a l e s c i n g t o d o a n d t o g e t a l i t t l e b i t m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d B u t I t h i n k p e o p l e a r e b e g i n n i n g t o g e t p o s s i b l e w i t h i t I t h i n k m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y w h a t h a s h a p p e n e d i s t h a t t h i s g r o u p h a s c o m e t o g e t h e r a s a w o r k i n g g r o u p I t h i n k t h a t i s t h e s i n g l e b i g g e s t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t : t h a t t h i s v e r y d i v e r s e g r o u p o f f o l k s a l l w i t h v e r y d i v e r s e p e r s p e c t i v e s i s n o w w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r A n d i t h a s b e e n a v e r y d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s a n d o n e t h a t I t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d b e p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o u d o f H e r e h e r e I t h i n k w h a t y o u v e h e a r d f r o m m e h o p e f u l l y i s t h e h i g h r e g a r d I h a v e f o r b o t h t h e J W B a n d t h e g r o u p o f d i r e c t o r s t h a t m a d e t h i s p o s s i b l e B e c a u s e w i t h o u t t h o s e t w o f u n c t i o n i n g e n t i t i e s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r w e w o u l d n t b e s i t t i n g h e r e h a v i n g t h e s e c o n v e r s a t i o n s O n e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t c a m e o u t o f t h a t a n d t h i s s e e m s k i n d o f m i n o r b u t w a s m a j o r w a s t h a t o n e o f t h e m e m b e r s t h e C o a l i t i o n c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t t h e w a y t h e m o n e y w a s d i s p e r s e d b u t a n o t h e r m e m b e r w h o r a r e l y e v e r t a k e s o n t h e f i r s t I f a n y t h i n g u s u a l l y t h e y a g r e e t h e s a m e w a y s a i d Y o u w e r e n o t h e r e t o v o t e Y o u w e r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o t e w e a l l h a d o n e v o t e T h e v o t e s w e r e t a l l i e d W e a p p r o v e d t h e d i s p e n s i n g o f t h i s I t h o u g h t ( e x c i t e d a n d c l a p p i n g h i s h a n d s ) w e h a v e c o m e s o f a r I t h o u g h t m y G o d I w a s s o p r o u d I d i d n t k n o w w h a t t o d o B e c a u s e y o u k n o w f o r t h e m t o g e t t o t h a t p o i n t f r o m t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e y w e r e s c r e a m i n g 1 2 m o n t h s e a r l i e r T h e y w e r e i n a r o o m h e r e s c r e a m i n g a n d s t o m p i n g a n d t h r e a t e n i n g t o w a l k t o d o s i t i n s ; I m e a n y o u n a m e i t T h e y w e r e t h r e a t e n i n g e v e r y t h i n g i m a g i n a b l e t o t h e p o i n t o f m a k i n g t h o s e k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n s I m v e r y u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a l l o f u s s e n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l e m a i l s i n t e r m s o f w h a t w e w a n t t o d o c o l l e c t i v e l y W e s t a r t e d h a v i n g t h o s e k i n d o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s g o i n g o n a t t h e t a b l e a n d a l l o f t h e s u d d e n t h i n g s g o t a l i t t l e b e t t e r T h e y g o t b e t t e r a n d b e t t e r a n d b e t t e r L e s s o n s t o S h a r e S o t h e w o r k t h a t w e r e d o i n g n o w a n d t h e s y s t e m m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e y r e m a k i n g i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d w i l l b e a p p l i e d t o o t h e r s

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 291 T h e s y s t e m s t h a t h a d t o b e b u i l t t o p r o c e s s f u n d s a n d t o p r o c e s s r e i m b u r s e m e n t s . . B e c a u s e t h a t s r o u t i n e s t u f f b u t t h a t s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s T h a t s s t u f f t h a t w e c a n s h a r e I t h i n k t h a t t h e e a r l y t r a n s i t i o n t e a m m e e t i n g s a r e t h i n g s t h a t w e c a n s h a r e T h o s e a r e t h i n g s w e c a n l e t p e o p l e k n o w H e r e s w h a t w e d i d H e r e s w h y w e d i d i t Y o u k n o w w e v e g o t t o s o m e h o w c a p t u r e t h i s w h o l e t h i n g a b o u t t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e I t h i n k t h e r e a r e s o m e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d h e r e a n d t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y t o o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s T o o o f t e n w e l e a r n b y t h e m i s t a k e s ; w e d o n t l e a r n b y h o w t h i n g s w e n t A n d n o t e v e r y t h i n g w e n t s w i m m i n g l y T h e r e w e r e t o u g h t i m e s i n t h e r e b u t t h e y g o t t h e r e P e o p l e b e g a n t o g e t i n t e r e s t e d i n w h a t w e w e r e d o i n g a n d t h a t i t h a d n e v e r b e e n d o n e b e f o r e O t h e r s t a f f m e m b e r s a t J W B b e g a n t o s a y t h i n g s l i k e W e r e w a t c h i n g w h a t y o u a l l a r e d o i n g I t s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g W e g o t a l o t o f c a l l s f r o m d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s a b o u t i t d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n s s e r v i c e s g r o u p s a c r o s s t h e s t a t e w a n t i n g m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n I t a l k e d t o t h e m o n t h e p h o n e q u i t e a b i t o f f a n d o n S o m e p l a c e s h a v e t r i e d i t a n d f a i l e d f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s B e c a u s e I t h i n k p a r t o f i t i s a n d I m n o t t r y i n g t o t o o t m y o w n h o r n h e r e y o u h a v e t o r e a l l y b e c o m m i t t e d t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s t o m a k e i t h a p p e n I r e m e m b e r J i m s a y i n g t o m e o n c e h e w a n t e d m e t o g o t o F t L a u d e r d a l e w i t h h i m t o s o m e m e e t i n g s a n d t a l k a b o u t w h a t w e d i d I t s n o t l i k e a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s o m e t h i n g n e w I m e a n t h e r e a r e a c t u a l l y g r o u p s o u t t h e r e t h a t d o t h i s f o r a l i v i n g ; s o I r e a l l y d o n t k n o w I t w a s k i n d o f f u n n y t h a t p e o p l e d i d n t e v e n r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y h a d u s e d t h o s e m o d e l s a n d t h e y d i d n t k n o w t h a t u n t i l t h e y s a w t h i s r e p o r t I d i d T h e i r o n i c t h i n g t h a t h a s c o m e o u t o f t h i s i s t h a t n o w t h e r e a r e b o a r d m e m b e r s w h o t a l k a b o u t : W e l l c o u l d n t w e d o t h i s t h r o u g h t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d F a m i l y C e n t e r s ? A n d I d o n t s i t t h e r e a n d p o i n t a n d l a u g h a n d s a y S e e s i l l y b o a r d Y o u w a n t e d t o g e t r i d o f t h e s e a n d n o w y o u w a n t t o g i v e t h e m m o r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I t h i n k u l t i m a t e l y s m a l l a g e n c i e s i n t h i s c o m m u n i t y m a y w a n t t o b e c o m e a p a r t o f w h a t w e a r e T h a t w o u l d c o m e w i t h a p r i c e t a g o n i t I f t h e y w a n t u s t o d o t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k t h e n w e w o u l d c h a r g e f o r t h a t M y h o p e s w o u l d b e t h a t i t f i r s t o f a l l w o u l d b e a r e s o u r c e f o r o t h e r n e i g h b o r h o o d b a s e d a g e n c i e s t o b e c o m e a p a r t o f a n d t o b e n e f i t M y h o p e w o u l d b e t h a t i t w o u l d b e a m e a n s o f e x p a n d i n g t h e N F C s w e l l b e y o n d t h e i r c u r r e n t l e v e l o f f u n d i n g a n d p r o g r a m s T h e o n l y w a y t h e y r e g o i n g t o e x p a n d i s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s T h e r e s o u r c e s a r e g o n n a c o m e f r o m p l a c e s o t h e r t h a n t h e J W B H a v e w h a t w e d o d o w n p a t a n d o p e n t h e d o o r s f o r s o m e o t h e r f o l k s w h o m i g h t b e l i t t l e a g e n c i e s I m e a n t h e r e s p o w e r i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e b o d y Y o u r e o n e p e r s o n a n d i n t h e f u t u r e J W B i s n o t g o i n g t o o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s m a l l p e o p l e t o g e t g r a n t s S o m e o f t h e s m a l l f o l k s c a n c o m e t o g e t h e r a n d g e t g r a n t s A n d h o w d o w e c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h o t h e r f o l k s o u t t h e r e i n t h e w o r l d ? T h o s e a r e s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s I t h i n k a b o u t a n d p l a n f o r T a k e t h e t i m e w i t h t h e p r o c e s s B e v e r y p a t i e n t w i t h t h e p e o p l e i n t h e p r o c e s s B e f l e x i b l e

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A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) 292 B e f o r e t h e y b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s t h e p e o p l e w h o a r e i n v o l v e d n e e d t o b e a p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s I t n e e d s t o b e a p r o c e s s t h a t s t a r t s a t t h e b o t t o m a n d w o r k s i t s w a y u p I d o n t t h i n k a l o t o f t h a t h a p p e n s P e o p l e l o o k a t t h i s a s W e l l w e r e j u s t g o n n a d o i t W e l l n o y o u r e n o t g o i n g t o j u s t d o i t T h e r e s s o m e t h i n g s y o u r e a l l y r e a l l y r e a l l y h a v e t o b e v e r y m i n d f u l o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s D o n t f i g h t i t W h e n t h e h a n d w r i t i n g i s o n t h e w a l l d o n t w a s t e y o u r e n e r g y f i g h t i n g f o r a l o s t c a u s e b e c a u s e y o u c a n t i l t a t w i n d m i l l s a l l y o u w a n t a n d y o u w i l l w a s t e y o u r e n e r g y I s i t t h e r e a l o t o f t i m e s t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e o t h e r a g e n c i e s o u t t h e r e a n d t h e y w e r e s o b u s y p r a i s i n g H e r b M a r l o w e a n d h i s g r e a t s t r a t e g i c p l a n ; a n d I m s t i l l i n g t h e r e t h i n k i n g H e y t h e y r e c o m i n g f o r y o u n e x t

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293 A ppe ndi x H J W B B oa r d of D i r e c t or s J W B i s gove r ne d by a boa r d c om pr i s e d of 11 m e m be r s : s upe r i nt e nde nt of s c hool s c ount y c om m i s s i one r publ i c de f e nde r s t a t e a t t or ne y, one j uve ni l e c ou r t j udge a nd s i x m e m be r s a ppoi nt e d by t he gove r no r G u b e rn at o ri al A p p o i n t ee V an S ay l er Ch ai r Pu b l i c D ef en d er H o n o rab l e Bo b D i l l i n g er G u b e rn at o ri al A p p o i n t ee J o s ep h A Sm i t h V i c e Ch ai r St at e A t t o rn ey H o n o rab l e B ern i e M cCab e G u b e rn at o ri al A p p o i n t ee J o h n Mi l fo rd Secr et ary J u v en i l e Co u rt J u d g e H o n o rab l e Ir en e Su l l i v an G u b e rn at o ri al A p p o i n t ee Ceci l i a Bu rk e Pi n el l as Co u n t y Co m mi s s i o n H o n o r ab l e K en n et h T W el ch G u b e rn at o ri al A p p o i n t ee J an et C ara mel l o Sch o o l Su p e ri n t en d en t D r Cl ay t o n W i l co x G u b e rn at o ri al A p p o i n t ee Bet h S W i l s o n

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A B O U T T H E A U T H O R B e t h E s c he nf e l de r be ga n he r P h. D pr og r a m w hi l e w or ki ng a s e xe c ut i ve di r e c t or of a nonp r of i t or ga ni z a t i on i n S t P e t e r s bur g F l or i da H a vi ng s pe nt he r pr of e s s i ona l c a r e e r i n nonpr o f i t m a na ge m e nt nonpr o f i t publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd gove r nm e nt c ont r a c t i ng, s he r e c ogni z e s t he e c onom i c a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l c h a l l e nge s f a c i ng nonpr of i t s t oda y a nd e m pa t hi z e s w i t h t he nonpr of i t a nd c om m un i t y l e a d e r s w ho a r e c onf r ont i ng t he s e c ha l l e nge s m ot i va t e d by t he i r pa s s i on f or t he pe op l e t he y s e r ve H e r s c hol a r s hi p a nd c om m uni t y s e r vi c e w or k a r e c om m i t t e d t o s uppor t i ng t hi s a r e a o f s oc i a l c ha nge S he r e c e i ve d he r M S i n P ub l i c R e l a t i ons f r om S y r a c us e U ni ve r s i t y, w he r e s he a l s o r e c e i ve d a B A i n P ubl i c R e l a t i ons a nd P s yc hol ogy. W hi l e pu r s i ng he r P h. D i n C om m uni c a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da ( U S F ) s he a l s o c om pl e t e d a M a s t e r of P ubl i c A dm i ni s t r a t i on W hi l e a t U S F s he t a ught a s a gr a dua t e a s s i s t a nt a nd a dj unc t i ns t r uc t or a t U S F U S F S t P e t e r s bur g, a nd F l o r i da S out he r n C ol l e ge A f t e r e a r ni ng he r P h. D s he be ga n he r f ul l t i m e a c a de m i c c a r e e r a t T he U ni ve r s i t y o f T a m pa w he r e s he c ur r e nt l y i s a n A s s i s t a nt P r of e s s or i n t he D e pa r t m e nt of C om m uni c a t i on