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What are the socio-emotional experiences and perceptions of third grade students with high-stakes testing?

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Title:
What are the socio-emotional experiences and perceptions of third grade students with high-stakes testing?
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Juola-Rushton, Anne Marie
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Qualitative
Portraiture
Fcat
Elementary
School
Dissertations, Academic -- Early Childhood Eduation -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of third grade students with high-stakes testing. The study was designed to address this issue from the perspective of the third grade student's experience and offer a venue for them to share their stories. The following research question guides this study: What are the socio-emotional experiences and perceptions of third grade students with high-stakes testing? Data analysis employed here falls under the rubric of qualitative approaches of symbolic interaction and phenomenology written in a narrative format with the provisions of portraiture. This study uses the analytical procedures set out by Marshall and Rossman (1989) to give meaning to the data. The analytical procedures include: organization, synthesis, analysis, and presentation of the data. To ensure that the data remained in purest form for the development of student portraitures, the resulting themes and patterns were then reviewed under five strategies proposed by Lawrence-Lightfoot and Davis (1997). These five strategies are: repetitive refrains, resonant metaphors, institutional and cultural rituals, triangulation and revealing patterns. There were 51 participants in this study. Twelve were primary participants and 39 were support participants. The 12 primary participants were students who voluntarily took part in in-depth interviews and focus groups and provided written reflections and drawings. The 39 support participants joined the 12 primary participants by providing written reflections and drawings. Themes that emerged are: (1) Self-Test, (2) Attribution, (3) Prevalent Influences, and (4) Emotions. These themes are analyzed and the results discussed. Then, the analysis turns to the development of portraitures. Three portraitures are revealed to provide the perceived experiences of the participants. A discussion of the findings, along with recommendations for practice and research conclude the study.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Anne Marie Juola-Rushton.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 236 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001944221
oclc - 231847340
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002193
usfldc handle - e14.2193
System ID:
SFS0026511:00001


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PAGE 1

W ha t a r e t he S oc i o E m ot i ona l E xpe r i e nc e s a nd P e r c e pt i ons of T hi r d G r a de S t ude nt s w i t h H i gh S t a ke s T e s t i ng? by A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of C hi l dhood E duc a t i on C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : S t e phe n G r a ve s P h. D D a r l e ne D e M a r i e P h. D J a m e s R K i ng, E d D E l i z a be t h L a r ki n E d. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : N ove m be r 13, 2007 K e yw or ds : qua l i t a t i ve por t r a i t ur e f c a t e l e m e nt a r y, s c hool C opyr i ght 2007 A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on

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A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S T he a dve nt ur e o f w r i t i ng a d i s s e r t a t i on w oul d not be t he j our ne y i t w a s w i t hout a c know l e dgi ng t he pe opl e w ho be l i e ve d i n m e a nd m y a bi l i t y t o c ont r i but e a t t hi s di m e ns i on t o t he f i e l d of e duc a t i on. I t ha nk e a c h a nd e ve r y one w ho ha s s u ppor t e d m e i n r e a c hi ng m y goa l P a r t i c i pa nt s I t ha nk e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt f o r t r us t i ng m e w i t h t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons B y s ha r i ng w i t h m e I w a s r e m i nde d o f t he ge nt l e na t u r e of c hi l dhood. I hono r e a c h o f you w i t h t he f ol l ow i ng pa ge s of t hi s doc um e nt D i s s e r t a t i on C om m i t t e e T o m y m a j or p r of e s s or D r S t e phe n G r a ve s I e xp r e s s m y ut m os t a ppr e c i a t i on f o r your s t r ong ha nd a nd s of t he a r t Y our gui da nc e s ound a dvi c e a nd de di c a t i on a r e a dm i r a bl e Y ou w i l l i ngl y ga ve of you r t i m e a nd t a l e nt t o e ns ur e t ha t t r ue l e a r ni ng w a s r e pr e s e nt e d i n a qua l i t y doc um e nt T ha nk you T o t he p r of e s s or s w ho s e r ve d on m y doc t or a l c om m i t t e e D r D a r l e ne D e M a r i e D r J i m K i ng, a nd D r L i z L a r ki n, I e xpr e s s m y e t e r na l gr a t i t ude f or your i nge ni ous a bi l i t y t o c ha l l e nge m e p a s t m y p r e c onc e i ve d not i o ns of t he di s s e r t a t i on p r oc e s s E a c h of you of f e r e d ge nui ne i ns pi r a t i on a nd i nput i nt o m y c r e a t i ve s pi r i t w hi c h b r e a t he d a l i f e of uni que ne s s t o m y s t udy.

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C ol l e a gue s a nd F r i e nds M a ny c ol l e a gue s a nd f r i e nds c om e t o m i nd w he n I t hi nk o f r o l e m ode l s t hr oughout t hi s e xpe r i e nc e I a ppr e c i a t e t he ne ve r e ndi ng s uppor t t i m e e ne r gy a nd t ol e r a nc e t ha t e a c h of you a f f or de d m e on a da i l y b a s i s M r s K a t hy M c G ui r e pr ove d t o be a l oya l l i f e l ong f r i e nd a nd c onf i de nt t ha nk you f or t he boos t s i n c on f i de nc e t o m a ke m e ke e p f or gi ng a he a d. T ha nk you M s N a nc y B e a l f o r pr ov i di ng p r of e s s i ona l oppor t uni t i e s a nd a l w a ys be i ng a s houl de r t o l e a n on. M s M a r y B i dw e l l I t ha nk you f o r your ope n e a r a nd r e f l e c t upon ou r l e ngt hy c onve r s a t i ons a bout e duc a t i ona l i s s ue s w i t h gr e a t f ondne s s D r P a t W i l s on, you w e r e a w i ndo w of p r of e s s i ona l i nf or m a t i on a nd know how w hi c h w a s m uc h a ppr e c i a t e d. M y s i nc e r e s t gr a t i t ude i s gi ve n t o t he M a na t e e M a f i a : K a t i e F r a dl e y M e l i nda L undy, B e t h S e ve r s on, a nd R uby Z i c ka f o os e E a c h of you e nt e r e d m y l i f e a s a s uppor t f or c e w i t h z e s t a nd de t e r m i na t i on. I a m t r ul y bl e s s e d t o ha ve s ha r e d t hi s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h a l l of you K a t i e your or ga ni z a t i on a nd c hut z pa i s a dm i r a bl e T ha nk you f or be i ng a c ons t a nt f or c e of s t a bi l i t y dur i ng m y t e m pt a t i on t o s w a y. Y ou a r e t r ul y c he r i s he d. M e l i nda you a r e a n a nge l s e nt f r om G od I a ppr e c i a t e your c onf i de nc e i n m e B e t h, t he pr oc e s s w oul d not ha ve be e n t he s a m e w i t hout you r f oc us a nd s uppor t T ha nk you R uby, your e ne r gy a nd pe r s e ve r a nc e i s c on t a gi ous I a m gr a t e f ul f o r you r ope nne s s a nd f e a r l e s s ne s s i n ke e pi ng e a c h of us t r ue t o our i ndi v i dua l pur pos e s I w oul d not ha ve w a nt e d t o go t h r ough t hi s pr oc e s s w i t h a nyone ot h e r t ha n t he f our of you. I t i s w i t h m y ut m os t gr a t i t ude t ha t I c a l l e a c h of y ou f r i e nd.

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F a m i l y F a m i l y i s t he g l ue t ha t he l d t he c om pl e xi t i e s o f m y l i f e t oge t he r w hi l e w r i t i ng t hi s doc um e nt T he m a ny l a ye r s o f s uppor t di d not go unnot i c e d. I a m e t e r na l l y gr a t e f ul f or t he unw a ve r i ng l ove a nd e t e r na l c e r t a i nt y e a c h of you de m ons t r a t e d i n m e I t ha nk you O l i v i a A i l i f o r be i ng t he br e a t h t ha t s us t a i ns m e A m ot he r c oul d not a s k f or a nyt hi ng m or e i n a da ught e r T o m y s on, R e e ga n M i ka l goe s m y de e pe s t gr a t i t ude f o r ha ngi ng i n t he r e w i t h m e t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s Y ou a r e bot h t he i n s pi r a t i on f or a l l t ha t I do. I e qua l l y t ha nk you m y be l ove d S t e phe n f or be i ng a pi l l a r on w hi c h I c a n l e a n I t ha nk you f o r honor i ng m y i nne r be i ng t h r oughout t he w r i t i ng pr oc e s s t hr ough pos i t i ve e xpe c t a t i ons pa t i e nc e a nd l ove T he j our ne y w a s m uc h m o r e pl e a s ur a bl e be c a us e I ha d e a c h of you a t m y s i de M y e ndur i ng l ove a nd a ppr e c i a t i on goe s t o m y pa r e nt s m y da d, D r D a r w i n R i s t ow a nd m y m om M r s S a ndr a R i s t ow w ho pr ovi de d m e w i t h a be a c on of l i ght i n s t or m y w e a t he r T he va l ue o f you r s t a bi l i z i ng p r e s e nc e i s i m m e a s ur a bl e I t ha nk you f or your w i l l i ngne s s t o a l l ow m e t o s oa r I a l s o t ha nk a l l of you, m y s i s t e r s a nd br o t he r S us a n, C a t hy, R ut h A nn a nd J ohn f or s ha r i ng a c hi l dhood t ha t f os t e r e d m y pa s s i on f or c hi l dr e n. A gr e a t a ppr e c i a t i on goe s t o m y gr a nd m o t he r M a r j or i e J a c obs w ho ha s a l w a ys s uppor t e d m e uns e l f i s hl y a nd p r ovi de d m e w i t h e n c our a ge m e nt i n t i m e s I ne e de d i t m os t I a m s o f or t una t e t o ha ve t hi s a bunda nc e of l ove f a i t h, a nd unde r s t a ndi ng f r om m y f a m i l y. I t ha nk you a l l f r om t he bot t om o f m y he a r t

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i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S L i s t of T a bl e s v L i s t of F i gur e s vi A bs t r a c t vi i C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m 1 N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd 1 N a t i ona l E duc a t i on A s s oc i a t i on 2 A m e r i c a n F e de r a t i on of T e a c he r s 2 F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t 3 S t a t e m e nt of P ur pos e 4 T he Q ua l i t a t i ve N a t ur e of t hi s S t udy 5 P ur pos e of t he S t udy 5 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 6 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy 7 T e r m s a nd D e f i ni t i ons 10 D e l i m i t a t i ons 13 L i m i t a t i ons 14 A s s um pt i ons 15 O r ga ni z a t i on of R e m a i ni ng C ha pt e r s 15 C ha pt e r T w o R e vi e w of L i t e r a t ur e 17 H i s t or y of C om m i s s i on R e por t s 18 S t a nda r di z a t i on of A m e r i c a n S c hool s 21 S oc i o e m ot i ona l E nvi r onm e nt 24 G e nde r D i f f e r e nc e s 26 T e a c hi ng t o t he T e s t 31 T e s t i ng A nxi e t y 33 S um m a r y 34 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hods a nd P r oc e dur e s 36 P ur pos e of t he S t udy 36 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 37

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i i T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k 37 S ym bol i c I nt e r a c t i on 38 P he nom e nol ogy 39 N a r r a t i ve 41 P or t r a i t ur e 43 D e s c r i pt i on of t he R e s e a r c h 46 P i l ot T e s t i ng 46 B i a s E xpl or a t i on a nd B r a c ke t i ng 47 I de nt i f i c a t i on a nd S e l e c t i on of P a r t i c i pa nt s 51 C ol l e c t i on of D a t a 56 I nt e r vi e w s 59 D r a w i ngs 59 P a r t i c i pa nt V a l i da t i on 62 D a t a A na l ys i s 63 V a l i da t i on of T he m a t i c S t r uc t ur e 68 C ha pt e r F our D a t a A na l ys i s a nd R e s ul t s 69 P r i m a r y P a r t i c i pa nt S ke t c he s 69 S a r a h 69 A be ga l 71 E t ha n 72 M a r i a 74 J os e phi na 76 D a ni e l 78 C hr i s t ophe r 79 C a yl a 81 A nna 83 J e s s i c a 84 L a nc e 85 A m e l i a 86 G r oup C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s 87 T he m a t i c A na l ys i s 90 S e l f T e s t 91 A t t r i but i ons 97 P r e va l e nt I nf l ue nc e s 104 E m ot i ons 108 D i s c us s i on of T he m e s : P a t t e r ns 119 R e vi e w of F i ndi ngs 123 I nt r oduc t i on o f P o r t r a i t u r e s 125

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i i i C ha pt e r F i ve P or t r a i t ur e s 127 C ons t r uc t i on of P o r t r a i t ur e s 127 R e pe t i t i ve R e f r a i ns 127 R e s ona nt M e t a phor s 128 I ns t i t ut i ona l a nd C ul t ur a l R i t ua l s 128 T r i a ngul a t i on 129 R e ve l i ng P a t t e r ns 13 0 A G l i m ps e of T hi r d G r a de w i t h H i gh S t a ke s 130 A nna 132 A D i f f e r e nt K i nd o f S c hool D a y 132 B r e a kf a s t a t S c hool 134 R e c e s s 137 H om e w or k 139 A not he r W e e k of T e s t i ng 141 F un D a y 142 D i s c us s i on of A nna s P o r t r a i t ur e 144 D a ni e l 146 S c hool E xpe r i e nc e 146 D a ni e l s D i l e m m a 147 T e s t i ng 148 A dvi c e t o O t he r s 151 M or e T ha n J us t a G a m e 154 D i s c us s i on of D a ni e l s P o r t r a i t ur e 157 J e s s i c a 160 T oda y 160 S c hool s B a c k i n S e s s i on 160 A s t he Y e a r P r og r e s s e d 164 W he n T e s t i ng T i m e A r r i ve d 166 W ha t S c hool s A l l A bout 168 A C ha nge i n P e r s pe c t i ve 171 T om or r ow s 173 D i s c us s i on of J e s s i c a s P or t r a i t ur e 173 S um m a r y 175 C ha pt e r S i x D i s c us s i on & R e c om m e nda t i ons 176 D i s c us s i on 176 S e l f T e s t 179 A t t r i but i ons 180 P r e va l e nt I nf l ue nc e s 182 E m ot i ons 183

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i v C onne c t i ons t o R e c om m e nda t i ons 184 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or R e s e a r c h 184 E xpa ns i on of t he S t udy 184 U t i l i z e D i f f e r e nt G e ogr a phi c a l S e t t i ngs 185 L ongi t udi na l F o l l ow U p 186 E xt e ns i on of P r e va l e nt I n f l ue nc e s 186 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or P ol i t i c a l F or c e s 187 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or S c hool D i s t r i c t s 187 C r e a t e a S t ude nt O r i e nt a t i on 188 E s t a bl i s h R i c h L i t e r a t ur e A bout T e s t i ng 189 B e C a ut i ous of T e s t i ng P ul l out s 189 A dm i ni s t r a t i ve P r e pa r a t i on a nd T r a i ni ng 190 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or T e a c he r P r e pa r a t i on 191 P r e pa r i ng N ovi c e T e a c he r s 191 D i s pos i t i o n of T e a c hi ng 192 G e nde r S e ns i t i vi t y 192 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or P a r e nt s 192 C l os i ng S t a t e m e nt 193 R e f e r e nc e s 195 A ppe ndi c e s 204 A ppe ndi x A : P e r m i s s i on f r om S c hool S i t e 205 A ppe ndi x B : V e r ba l C ons e nt 207 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w 209 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w 217 A ppe ndi x E : I nt e r vi e w Q ue s t i ons 224 A ppe ndi x F : D r a w i ng P r om pt s 225 A ppe ndi x G : J our na l P r om pt s 226 A ppe ndi x H : F i r s t I nt e r vi e w G r a ph w i t h Q ue s t i on H e a de r s 227 A ppe ndi x I : S e c ond I nt e r vi e w G r a ph w i t h Q ue s t i on H e a de r s 228 A ppe ndi x J : T hi r d I nt e r vi e w G r a ph w i t h Q ue s t i on H e a de r s 229 A ppe ndi x K : B oys ( B M E ) 230 A ppe ndi x L : G i r l s ( B M E ) 231 A ppe ndi x M : F i r s t R e f l e c t i ve W r i t i ng 232 A ppe ndi x N : S e c ond R e f l e c t i ve W r i t i ng 233 A ppe ndi x O : T hi r d R e f l e c t i ve W r i t i ng 234 A ppe ndi x P : L i t e r a t ur e R e s our c e L i s t 235 A bout t he A ut hor E n d P a ge

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v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 S t ude nt C a t e gor i e s 47 T a bl e 2 S uppor t P a r t i c i pa nt s 54 T a bl e 3 D r a w i ng M a t r i x 62 T a bl e 4 D a t a P a r t i c i pa nt s 64

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vi L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1 S t ude nt D r a w i ng D u r i ng T e s t i ng 94 F i gur e 2 S e l f T e s t 96 F i gur e 3 S t ude nt D r a w i ng, E xt e r na l S t a bl e 98 F i gur e 4 S t ude nt D r a w i ng, E xt e r na l C ha nge a bl e 100 F i gur e 5 S t ude nt D r a w i ng, I nt e r na l C ha nge a bl e 101 F i gur e 6 S t ude nt D r a w i ng, F a m i l i e s 105 F i gur e 7 E t hni c i t y F a c t o r w i t h E m ot i ons 107 F i gur e 8 S t ude nt D r a w i ng, E m o t i ons 112 F i gur e 9 E m ot i ons 114 F i gur e 10 S t ude nt D r a w i ng, S t r a t e gi e s 115

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vi i W ha t a r e t he S oc i o E m ot i ona l E xpe r i e nc e s a nd P e r c e pt i ons of T hi r d G r a de S t ude nt s w i t h H i gh S t a ke s T e s t i ng? A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on A B S T R A C T T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xpl or e t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s t hi s i s s ue f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e a nd of f e r a ve nue f or t he m t o s ha r e t he i r s t or i e s T he f o l l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i on gui de s t h i s s t udy: W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng? D a t a a na l ys i s e m pl oye d he r e f a l l s unde r t he r ub r i c of qua l i t a t i ve a pp r oa c he s of s ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i on a nd phe nom e nol ogy w r i t t e n i n a na r r a t i ve f or m a t w i t hi n t he pr ovi s i ons of por t r a i t ur e T hi s s t udy us e s t he a na l yt i c a l pr oc e dur e s s e t out by M a r s ha l l a nd R os s m a n ( 1989) t o gi ve m e a ni ng t o t he da t a T he a na l yt i c a l pr oc e dur e s i nc l ude : or ga ni z a t i on, s ynt he s i s a na l ys i s a nd pr e s e nt a t i on of t he da t a T o e ns ur e t ha t t he da t a r e m a i ne d i n t he pur e s t f o r m f or t he de ve l opm e nt o f s t ude nt por t r a i t ur e s t he r e s ul t i ng t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns w e r e t he n r e vi e w e d unde r f i ve s t r a t e gi e s pr opos e d by L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1997 ) T he s e f i ve s t r a t e gi e s a r e : r e pe t i t i ve r e f r a i ns r e s ona nt m e t a phor s i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s t r i a ng ul a t i on a nd r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns T he r e w e r e 51 pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. T w e l ve w e r e pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd 39 w e r e s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s T he 12 pr i m a r y pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e s t u de nt s w ho vol unt a r i l y

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vi i i t ook pa r t i n i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w s a nd f oc us gr oups a nd pr ovi de d w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs T he 39 s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s j oi ne d t he 1 2 pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s by pr ovi di ng w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs T he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d a r e : ( 1 ) S e l f T e s t ( 2) A t t r i but i on ( 3) P r e va l e nt I n f l ue nc e s a nd ( 4 ) E m ot i ons T he s e t he m e s a r e a na l yz e d a nd t he r e s ul t s di s c us s e d. T he n, t he a na l ys i s t ur ns t o t he de ve l op m e nt of po r t r a i t u r e s T h r e e por t r a i t ur e s a r e r e ve a l e d t o p r ovi de t he pe r c e i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s A d i s c us s i on of t he f i ndi ngs a l ong w i t h r e c om m e nda t i ons f or p r a c t i c e a nd r e s e a r c h c onc l ude t he s t udy.

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1 C H A P T E R 1 I nt r oduc t i on A ny one c an c onf i r m how l i t t l e t he gr adi ng t hat r e s ul t s f r om e x am i nat i ons c or r e s ponds t o t he f i nal us e f ul w or k of pe opl e i n l i f e J e a n P i a ge t ( 1973, p. 74) A s s e s s m e nt i s a n e s s e nt i a l pa r t of t he e duc a t i ona l pr oc e s s T e a c he r s s t ude nt s pa r e nt s i nde e d a l l s t a ke hol de r s i nc l udi ng f ut u r e e m pl oye r s no l e s s t ha n t he gove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s t ha t pr ovi de t he f u ndi ng f o r e duc a t i on, ne e d t o know t ha t t he r e l e va nt m a t e r i a l ha s be e n m a s t e r e d, w he t he r t he s pe c i f i c c ont e nt i s ba s i c l i t e r a c y a nd num e r a c y, or m or e a bs t r a c t know l e dge s uc h a s know i ng how t o p r e s e nt a l ogi c a l a r gum e nt N o one w a nt s t o go t o a de nt i s t ( or c a r m e c ha ni c ) w ho w a s ne ve r be e n t e s t e d t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t he y ha ve a c qui r e d t he ne c e s s a r y ba s i c s ki l l s of t he i r pr of e s s i on. T ha t s a i d, how e ve r t he que s t i on be c om e s how m uc h t e s t i ng, w he n, by w h om of w ha t c ont e nt m a t e r i a l a nd a t w ha t c os t ? T hi s t he s i s w i l l e xpl or e how t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e a nd pe r c e i ve w ha t ha s be e n t e r m e d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, s pe c i f i c t o t hos e c ur r e nt l y s t udyi ng i n t he s c hool di s t r i c t s of t he s t a t e o f F l o r i da S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m A U S f e de r a l l a w t ha t r e a ut hor i z e s a num be r of f e de r a l pr ogr a m s t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t of 2001 c om m onl y know n a s N C L B ha s a s i t s goa l t he i m p r ove m e nt of t he pe r f or m a nc e o f s t ude nt s i n A m e r i c a n s c hool s t hr ough i nc r e a s i ng t he s t a nda r ds of a c c ount a bi l i t y. N C L B i s t he l a t e s t f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on t o e na c t t he t he or i e s of s t a nda r ds

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2 ba s e d e duc a t i on r e f or m w hi c h a r e ba s e d on t he be l i e f t ha t hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons a nd s e t t i ng of goa l s w i l l r e s ul t i n s uc c e s s f or a l l s t ude nt s C ur r e nt l y, gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on f o r s t ude nt s a s e a r l y a s t hi r d gr a d e i s now de t e r m i ne d by r e a di ng s c or e s on a s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd de s i r a bi l i t y o f m e a s ur e s us e d by t he N C L B c ont i nue t o be a m a t t e r of c ont r ove r s y. T e a c he r s uni ons s uc h a s t he N a t i ona l E duc a t i on A s s oc i a t i on a nd t he A m e r i c a n F e de r a t i on of T e a c he r s ha ve oppos e d N C L B r e f o r m s a l m os t f r om t he i r i nc e pt i on. T he y que s t i on N C L B 's e f f e c t i ve ne s s a s pr e s e nt l y w r i t t e n a nd f unde d, a nd not e a num be r of di f f i c ul t i e s s c hool di s t r i c t s f a c e i n i m p l e m e nt i ng i t s pr ovi s i ons A m i ds t t he c ont r ove r s y, a G a l l up s ur ve y f ound a s m a ny a s s e ve n i n t e n A m e r i c a ns s a y t he y don't know e nough t o ha ve a n opi ni on a bout N C L B ( ht t p: / / w w w doe or g ) T he s a m e i s t r ue f o r pa r e nt s w he r e 55 pe r c e nt s a y t he y don't know e no ugh t o s a y w he t he r o r not t he l a w i s i m pr ovi ng l oc a l pub l i c e duc a t i on. B r oa dl y s pe a ki n g, opi ni on s ur ve ys ha ve s how n s t r ong publ i c s uppor t f o r t he c onc e pt of s e t t i ng a nd e nf o r c i ng s t a nda r ds i n publ i c s c hool s i nc l udi ng t he us e of t e s t i ng. W hi c h s houl d c om e f i r s t a c c ount a bi l i t y or i ns t r uc t i on? I n r e l a t i on t o f or m a l e xa m i na t i ons P i a ge t ( 1973) a r g ue d t ha t a c ont r a di c t i on e xi s t e d be c a us e w ha t l a be l e d a s t ude nt s uc c e s s f ul w a s a bi l i t y t o a da pt t o t he t ype of i ns t r uc t i on r a t he r t ha n m a s t e r y of p r obl e m s t he y a ppe a r no t t o unde r s t a nd ( p. 14) I n r e s pons e t o t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s m a ny s t a t e s a nd s c hool di s t r i c t s ha ve i nc r e a s e d t he t i m e t ha t t he s t ude nt s pe nds on r e a di ng, w r i t i ng a n d i n pr a c t i c i ng t a ki ng t e s t s T he a s s um pt i on i s t ha t s c or i ng w e l l on t he s t a t e s s t a nda r di z e d t e s t i s bot h a n i ndi c a t or o f

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3 qua l i t y t e a c hi ng a nd of qua l i t y l e a r ni ng. I n F l or i da t he S t a t e B oa r d of E duc a t i on de t e r m i ne s pr om ot i on c r i t e r i a t o t he f our t h gr a de b y t he pe r f o r m a nc e i n r e a di ng on t he t hi r d gr a de F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) F o r F l o r i da c ount i e s a n a ve r a ge of 12% of t h i r d gr a de r s pe r c ount y f a i l e d t o m e e t pr om ot i on c r i t e r i a i n t he i r f i r s t a t t e m pt i n 2006 ( I ns t i t ut e f or S c hool I nnova t i on, 2 006) D e s pi t e t he i nc r e a s e d num be r of hour s t ha t t e a c he r s a r e s pe ndi ng on s t ude nt pr e pa r a t i on f o r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e xi s t s t ha t de m ons t r a t e s t he s e t e s t s a r e i ndi c a t or s of ( a ) qua l i t y e duc a t i on a nd ( b) t ha t t he s t ude nt s e m ot i ona l a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l w e l l be i ng i s s uppor t e d. I nde e d, onl y m i ni m a l r e s e a r c h e xi s t s di r e c t l y s ol i c i t i ng t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s oc i o e m ot i ona l s t a t e s dur i ng t he s e hi gh s t a ke s s i t ua t i ons ( T r i pl e t t & B a r ks da l e 1995; T r i pl e t t B a r ks da l e & L e f t w i c h, 2003; W he e l oc k, B e be l l & H a ne y, 2002) T h i s i s r e gr e t t a bl e be c a us e t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons i de a s a nd f e e dba c k m a y pr ovi de us e f u l know l e dge a bout ho w t o t e a c h m o r e e f f e c t i ve l y how t o i m pr ove t he t e s t s a nd how t o pr ovi de i ns t r uc t i on a nd m e a s ur e s t ha t be s t s e r ve t he s t ude nt s a nd t he s oc i e t y s ne e ds T he vo i c e s of t h e c hi l dr e n ha ve be e n s i l e nt W e ne e d t o unde r s t a nd m or e a bout w ha t ha ppe ns t o t he m dur i ng t hi s pe r i od of t he i r e duc a t i on. M os t pe opl e w i l l a gr e e t ha t e a c h c hi l d s houl d be e duc a t e d t o t he be s t of hi s or he r a bi l i t y. T he pr ob l e m a r i s e s a s t o how be s t a c hi e ve t hi s O pi ni ons c l e a r l y d i f f e r I n t he s t a t e of F l or i da c hi l dr e n a r e ga uge d by t he i r pe r f or m a nc e on t he F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T ool ( F C A T ) i ni t i a t e d by t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds a nd a ppr ove d by t he S t a t e B oa r d of E duc a t i on i n 1996 C ont i nui ng f i na nc i a l s uppor t w a s m a de c ont i nge nt on

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4 s c hool pe r f or m a nc e a s m e a s ur e d by t he s t ude nt t e s t s c or e s T e a c he r s ha ve be e n r e por t e d a s be i ng i n t he f r ont l i ne of t he e duc a t i ona l pr oc e s s W he n t he r e i s c onf l i c t be t w e e n a c c ount a bi l i t y a nd i ns t r uc t i on, of t e n pol i t i c a l l y dr i ve n, i t i s t he c hi l dr e n t he m s e l ve s w ho a r e m os t a t r i s k ( B a r ks da l e L a dd & T hom a s 2000; G or don & R e e s e 1997; H of f m a n A s s a f & P a r i s 2001; T r i p l e t t & B a r ks da l e 2005) S t a t e m e nt of P ur pos e I n t he f ol l ow i ng s t udy I w i l l e xpl or e t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of f i ve c l a s s r oom s of 3 rd gr a de c hi l d r e n di vi de d i nt o t hr e e l e ve l s of a c a de m i c a bi l i t y: h i gh, m e di um a nd l ow a s a s s e s s e d by t he i r pr e vi ous ye a r s S t a nf or d 10 s c or e s a nd c ur r e nt ye a r s D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s o f B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s ( D I B E L S ) a s s e s s m e nt T he s t udy w i l l t a ke pl a c e ove r a t w o m ont h p e r i od a nd s e e ks t o di s c ove r a nd c ons t r uc t a na r r a t i ve a c c ount of t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a s t o l d f r om t he i r ow n pe r s pe c t i ve S om e of t he s pe c i f i c i s s ue s t o be i nve s t i ga t e d i nc l u de : T he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons 3 rd g r a de r s ha ve d ur i ng t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od; T he e m ot i ona l i m pa c t t he hi gh s t a ke s of t e s t i ng ha s on 3 rd g r a de r s ; T he que s t i ons s t ude nt s r a i s e dur i ng t hi s t i m e ; T he e xpe r i e nc e t he s t ude nt s de s c r i be ha vi ng w hi l e be i ng t e s t e d; T he na t ur e o f t he c hi l dr e n s e xpe r i e nc e s

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5 T he Q ua l i t a t i ve N a t ur e of t hi s S t udy Q ua l i t a t i ve i nve s t i ga t i ons t ypi c a l l y e nt a i l t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on of pe r c e i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t a r e ga t he r e d f r om w r i t t e n a nd or a l r e f l e c t i ons D e pe ndi ng upon t he s t udy, t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f e ve nt s f e e l i ngs e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons a dva nc e i nt o a m or e t a pe r e d a nd f oc us e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on. I t i s i m p or t a nt t o vi e w t hi s s t udy a s onl y one i n a s e r i e s of l i nks c onne c t i ng a l ong c ha i n o f know l e dge T hi s s t udy yi e l ds know l e dge of s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng by a l l o w i ng t he voi c e s of t he c hi l dr e n t o be he a r d. I t i s i m po r t a nt t o e m pha s i z e t ha t ge ne r a l i z i n g t he r e s ul t s t o ot he r s t udi e s or e ve n t o ot he r c hi l dr e n i s pr obl e m a t i c J us t a s no t w o c hi l dr e n a r e e xa c t l y t he s a m e one c a nnot e xpe c t t he i r pe r c e pt i ons t o be e xa c t l y t he s a m e e i t he r N one t he l e s s i t m a y be pos s i bl e t o de ve l op a pr e l i m i na r y m ode l f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e s r e por t e d he r e r e ga r di ng s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t he c ur r e nt s t a t e of ou r s c hool s ys t e m s t ha t w i l l be of s e r vi c e i n f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. P ur pos e of S t udy T hi s s t udy f oc us e s on t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s dur i ng F l o r i da S t a t e s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od a t a l ow s oc i o e c on om i c s c hool ( 52 % f r e e a nd r e duc e d l unc h) C hi l dr e n s i ndi v i dua l e xp e r i e nc e s w e r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t he m s e l ve s a nd t o t he i r gr a de l e ve l T hi s s t udy di d not f oc us on ot he r g r a de s e xpe r i e nc i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng or on s t ude nt s f r om va r i ous s t a t e s or s oc i o e c onom i c c l a s s I t a l s o di d no t f oc us on t he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s pe r c e pt i ons t ow a r d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T hus t he s e

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6 f i ndi ngs a r e hi ghl y s pe c i f i c t o t he pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s i s a s t udy of a s m a l l gr oup of i ndi vi dua l s M y i nt e nt i s t o p r e s e nt a s m uc h r i c h de s c r i pt i on, i n s i ght a nd de t a i l a bout t he s t ude nt s s ubj e c t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s a s I c a n. P i c t ur e s dr a w n a nd de s c r i be d by t he s t ude nt s w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t w o w e e ks pr i or t o t e s t i ng, m i d w a y t hr ough t he w e e k of t e s t i ng, a nd dur i ng t he t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he s t a t e e xa m i na t i on. I n a ddi t i on, w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons f r om t he s t ude nt s de s c r i bi ng t he i r e m ot i ons i nt e r vi e w s of s pe c i f i c c hi l dr e n a nd or a l f oc us gr oups t a pe d i nt e r vi e w s ( dur i ng t he c our s e o f t he t e s t i ng) w i l l t a ke pl a c e M y obj e c t i ve i n unde r t a ki ng t hi s qua l i t a t i ve s t udy i s t o a dd t o t he s t a t e of know l e dge a nd t he r e by a l l ow t he r e a de r t o c ons t r u c t a ppl i c a bi l i t y. A s a n i nt e r p r e t i ve s t udy, i t i s i m por t a nt t o p r ovi de t he r e a de r t he opp or t uni t y t o r e f l e c t upon t he uni que pe r c e pt i ons de s c r i be d by t he s t ude nt s a s t he y e nc o unt e r hi gh s t a ke s a c c ount a bi l i t y i n t he i r l i ve s R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on W hat M at t e r s M os t : T e ac hi ng f or A m e r i c a s F ut ur e ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996) c onve ye d t he m os t i nf l ue nt i a l c om pone nt o f s t ude nt l e a r ni ng a s de r i ve d f r o m t he t e a c he r s know l e d ge ba s e a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l de l i ve r y. H ow e ve r ne a r l y ha l f t he t e a c he r s s ur ve ye d by J one s a nd E gl y ( 2002) c ont e nde d t ha t t he di r e c t i ve t o m a ke s c hool s ys t e m s a c c ount a bl e f r om N C L B ( 2001) h i nde r e d t he c hi l d r e n s oppor t uni t y t o c ons t r uc t know l e dge t hr ough i nt e r a c t i ve c ur r i c ul um a nd t hus hi nde r e d r a t he r t ha n p r om ot e d t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he know l e dge ba s e a nd t he oppo r t uni t y f or qua l i t y i ns t r uc t i on

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7 M uc h of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e l a t e d t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ha s f oc us e d on t he i s s ue s of a c c ount a bi l i t y ( C a r ne gi e F o r um 1986 ; H ol m e s G r oup, 1995; N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996; N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on on E xc e l l e nc e 1983; N C L B 2001 P r oj e c t A l l i a nc e 30 1991) or on how e duc a t or s ha ve be e n i m pa c t e d by t he pol i t i c a l e xi ge nc y ( G or don & R e e s e 1997; J ohns t on, A f f l e r ba c h, & W e i s s 1993; J ohns t on, G ui c e B a ke r M a l one & M i c he l s on, 1995; S m i t h E de l s ky, D r a pe r R ot t e nb e r g, & C he r l a nd, 1991) L i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s e xa m i ne d s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons i n t hi s e r a o f h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng nor t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e of be i ng a t hi r d g r a de r c a ugh t i n t he c r os s f i r e be t w e e n pol i t i c s a nd pe da gogy. T he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i on i s t he f oc us f or t hi s s t udy: W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng? S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy A ne w c ont r i but i ng f a c t or t o t he s t udy of how s t ud e nt s pe r c e i ve hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s br a i n r e s e a r c h. A dva nc e s i n i m a gi ng ha v e a l l ow e d s c i e nt i s t s t o go de e pe r i nt o how pe opl e t hi nk, pe r c e i ve a nd l e a r n. T he s e ne w t e c hnol ogi e s s e e k t o l i nk how t he br a i n r e a c t s w hi l e l e a r ni ng how o ur c hi l d r e n a r e t a ught T he c onne c t i on be t w e e n c hi l dr e n s br a i n r e s pons e s a nd t he i r e m ot i ona l m a t ur i t y i s a f a s c i na t i ng, ne w r e s e a r c h a r e a S c i e nt i s t s f r om va r i ous d i s c i pl i ne s de f i ne e m ot i ons i n a va r i e t y of w a ys ( D a vi ds on, 1992; D odge & G a r be r 1991 ; H ol s t e g e 1994; K a ga n, 1994; S i e ge l 1999) F r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of phys i ol ogi c a l a nd c ogni t i v e ps yc hol ogi s t s ( L e D oux, 1996 ) e m ot i ons a r e f oc us e d on a s be i ng s om e t hi ng w i t hi n, w hi l e s oc i a l ps yc hol ogi s t s f oc us on t he e ve nt s a nd pe opl e t ha t a f f e c t e m ot i ons ( H a r r 1 986) A l m os t a l l t he or i s t s c ons i de r

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8 e m ot i ons t o be m ul t i f a c e t e d, t o i nvol ve i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t o r e s ul t i n c ogni t i ve a nd bi ol ogi c a l c ha nge S om e e duc a t or s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t e m ot i ona l g r o w t h i s t he e s s e nc e of m a t ur a t i on ( E l i ot 1999; G opni k, M e l t z of f & K uhl 1999; H e a l y, 2004; W ol f e 2001) T oo m uc h o f t he w r ong k i nd of e m ot i on i s c ons i de r e d ha r m f ul s uc h a s w he n s t r e s s i nt e r f e r e s w i t h b r a i n f unc t i oni ng ( G unna r 1998; G unna r & N e l s on, 1994; S a pol os ky, 1996) D i a m ond a nd H ops on ( 1999 ) f i nd t he s t i m u l a t i on of t he br a i n s c or t e x di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he gr ow t h a nd a bs or pt i on o f s e ns or y, m ot or a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e s T he s t i m ul a t i on br ought on by t he qua l i t y of t he s c hool i ng i s t hought t o f os t e r t he c hi l d s f u t ur e c ont r i but i ons t o s oc i e t y. A ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h ( E k m a n, L e ve ns on, & F r i e s e n, 1983; L e ve ns on, 1992) c onne c t s di f f e r e nt e m ot i ons t o bodi l y f e e dba c k w i t h di s gus t or s ur pr i s e be i ng di s t i ngui s he d on t he ba s i s of di f f e r e nt A N S ( a ut on om i c ne r vous s ys t e m ) r e s p ons e s s uc h a s s ki n t e m pe r a t ur e or he a r t r a t e T he pos s i bi l i t i e s f or t he ons e t of e m ot i ona l s pe c i f i c f e e dba c k a r e a s t oundi ng. I n l e s s t ha n one s e c ond t he s t r i a t e d m us c l e s r e s pond t o a s t i m ul us a nd t he n t ha t s e ns a t i on r e a c he s t he c or t e x ( D a m a s i o, 1994; I z a r d 1992; T om ki ns 1962 ) E xt e r na l l y t he r e s ul t i s de pi c t e d f or e xa m pl e t hr ough e xpr e s s i ons of j oy or s a dne s s T he know l e dge t ha t c a n be obt a i ne d by c om bi ni ng r e s e a r c h f r om t he ne ur os c i e nc e s ps yc hol ogy a nd e duc a t i on pr ovi de s gr e a t pot e nt i a l f or unde r s t a nd i ng t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng.

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9 T r i pl e t t B a r ks da l e a nd L e f t w i c h ( 2003 ) m a i nt a i n t ha t r e s e a r c h on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng f a i l s t o de s c r i be t he poi nt o f vi e w o f t he c hi l dr e n w i t hi n t he s c hool s ys t e m s ( e g. w ha t t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs t he c hi l dr e n e xpe r i e nc e dur i ng h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng) T he s e a ut hor s s t udi e d onl y c hi l dr e n w ho f e l t s t r e s s e d. A s a r e s ul t t he pe r c e pt i ons of t hos e c hi l dr e n w ho di d not f e e l c onc e r ne d or a nxi ous w e r e om i t t e d. W he n W he e l oc k, B e be l l a nd H a ne y ( 2002) s t ud i e d m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, dr a w i ngs w e r e c ol l e c t e d t ha t de pi c t e d a va r i e t y of e m ot i ons R e l i a nc e on t he r e s e a r c he r s i nf e r e nc e of s t ude nt r e pr e s e nt a t i on c onc l ude d t he r e w a s a c om bi na t i on o f pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve e m ot i ons i n r e l a t i on t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H ow e ve r t he s t ude nt s ow n e xpl i c i t s t a t e m e nt s w e r e m i s s i ng. T h r ough dr a w i ngs a nd w r i t t e n r e s pons e s f r om t hi r d t hr ough s i xt h gr a de r s T r i pl e t t a nd B a r ks da l e ( 2005) e xa m i ne d s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he y f oc us e d on 225 t h i r d t hr ough s i xt h g r a de s t ude nt s F i ndi ngs s uppor t e d c ha nge s be i ng m a de i n t he t e s t i ng c ul t ur e ut i l i z i ng a va r i e t y of a s s e s s m e nt opt i ons t o a l l e vi a t e s t ude nt a nxi e t y. G i ve n t he r e s our c e s be i ng s pe nt a nd t he pot e nt i a l i m por t a nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng upon t he c hi l dr e n s f ut ur e s i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a i t i s e s s e nt i a l t o e xpl or e t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t he s t ud e nt s e nga ge d i n t he t e s t i ng. T he r e s ul t s r e por t e d i n t h i s s t udy pr ovi de a n oppor t uni t y f o r r e a de r s t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e duc a t e d i n t he e r a o f hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s di s s e r t a t i on p r ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y f or t he c hi l dr e n t o e xpr e s s t he i r unde r s t a ndi ngs pe r c e pt i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of l i f e a s a t hi r d gr a de r t ha t i s t he i r

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10 ow n phe nom e nol ogy. T he voi c e s of t hi r d gr a de s t u de nt s ha ve not be e n he a r d i n t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e T he p r e s e nt s t udy pr ovi de s f u r t he r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n s t ude nt s a nd t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e s M uc h r e s pons i bi l i t y ha s be e n pl a c e d on our s c hool a ge c hi l dr e n. A t p r e s e nt t he r e i s a n i na de qua t e unde r s t a ndi ng of w ha t ha ppe ns du r i ng t hi s c r uc i a l t hi r d gr a de s c hool ye a r T he e xpe r i e nc e s gl e a ne d f r om t he s t ude nt s s t or i e s pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h m a y he l p f ut ur e s t ude nt s t e a c he r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t o r s u nde r s t a nd t he pr oc e s s t he y a r e goi ng t hr ough. I t m a y a l s o he l p p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt pr ogr a m s t o pl a n a nd or ga ni z e t he i r c ur r i c ul a t o m a xi m i z e c om m uni c a t i on, a c qui s i t i on of i nf o r m a t i on, a nd m a s t e r y o f know l e dge F i na l l y, t he pr oc e s s of t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on m a y pr ovi de t he s t ude nt s t he m s e l ve s w i t h i ns i ght s a s t he y s ha r e t he i r s t or i e s a nd c om e t o unde r s t a nd e a c h ot he r s e xpe r i e nc e s M os t ge ne r a l l y, t he e xpe r i e nc e s r e c ou nt e d i n t hi s s t udy m a y pr ovi de i ns i ght s i nt o how s c hool di s t r i c t s c a n m or e e f f e c t i ve l y a s s i s t t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s dur i ng t he c r i t i c a l ye a r i n w hi c h t he y e xpe r i e nc e hi gh s t a ke s a c c ount a bi l i t y i n t he s c hool s e t t i ng T e r m s a nd D e f i ni t i ons A t t r i but i ons B e c k de f i ne s a t t r i but i on a s t he c om m on, e ve r yda y e xpl a na t i ons f o r t he c a us e s of be ha vi or ou r a ns w e r s t o t he que s t i on, W hy di d I ( or a not he r pe r s on) do t ha t ( 2005, p. 474) C hange abl e W ha t ha ppe ns now doe s n t ha ve t o h a ppe n i n t he f ut ur e

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11 D I B E L S D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s o f B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s a r e a s e t of s t a nda r di z e d, i ndi vi dua l l y a dm i ni s t e r e d m e a s ur e s of e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt ( ht t p: / / di be l s uor e gon e du/ ) E m ot i on. M ul t i f a c e t e d, i nc or po r a t i ng i n t e r a c t i on w i t h t he e nvi r on m e nt c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s a nd phys i c a l c ha nge s E x pe r i e nc e I n t hi s s t udy, F l e xne r 's ( 1987) de f i ni t i on f or t he t e r m e xpe r i e nc e w a s us e d, i e a n i ns t a nc e or s e gm e nt i n one s l i f e of pe r s ona l l y e nc ount e r i ng s om e t hi ng a nd m a ki ng t hi s i ns t a nc e t he obj e c t of one s c ons c i ous ne s s ; t he t ot a l i t y o f c ogni t i on gi ve n by pe r c e pt i ons t ha t i s a l l t ha t i s pe r c e i ve d, unde r s t ood, a nd r e m e m be r e d ( p 2) E x t e r nal T hi ngs o ut s i de t he pe r s on. F l or i da C om pr e he ns i v e A s s e s s m e nt T ool ( F C A T ) S t a nda r d i z e d t e s t i ng i n t he pr i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y publ i c s c hool s of F l or i da t h a t de t e r m i ne pr o m ot i on f or g r a de l e ve l s t hi r d, e i gh t h, a nd t e nt h. H e r m e ne ut i c phe nom e nol ogy H i r c h ( 1967) de f i ne s he r m e ne ut i c s a s t he t e xt ua l i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd r e c ons t r uc t i on of t he a ut ho r s i nt e nde d m e a ni ng. M a r l e a u P ont y ( 1962) de s c r i be s phe nom e nol ogy a s t he s t udy of e s s e nc e s a nd t he r e f or e a s ks t he que s t i on o f W ha t i s t he na t ur e o r m e a ni ng o f s om e t hi ng? T h e c om bi na t i on of he r m e ne ut i c phe nom e nol ogy pr ovi de s bot h t he de s c r i pt i ve ( phe nom e nol ogy) a nd i nt e r pr e t i ve ( he r m e ne ut i c ) m e t hodol ogi e s o f unde r s t a ndi ng l i v e d e xpe r i e nc e s ( V a n M a ne n, 1990) I nt e r nal T he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he pe r s on o r t hi ngs t he pe r s on c a n do.

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12 L i m i nal i t y A nt h r opol ogi s t A va n G e nne p ( 1960) de f i ne d l i m i na l i t y a s r e f e r r i ng t o t he s pe c i f i c t i m e s i n a n i ndi v i dua l 's l i f e i n w hi c h t he y l e a ve one c l e a r l y i de nt i f i e d s oc i a l s t a t us a nd e nt e r e d a not he r T he s e a r e of t e n c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s s t a t e s of a m bi gui t y, c onf us i on a nd di s c om f or t F o r t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, l i m i na l i t y w i l l be de f i ne d a s t hi s s t a t e of t r a ns i t i on i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s f ound t he m s e l ve s be t w i xt a nd be t w e e n t he va r i ous poi nt s i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e P he nom e nol ogy V a n M a ne n de f i ne s t he t e r m phe nom e nol ogy a s t he s t udy of l i ve d or e xi s t e nt i a l m e a ni ngs ; i t a t t e m pt s t o de s c r i b e a nd i nt e r pr e t t he s e m e a ni ngs t o a c e r t a i n de gr e e of de pt h a nd r i c hne s s ( V a n M a ne n, 1990, p. 8) P or t r ai t ur e A qua l i t a t i ve p r oc e dur e br i dgi ng s c i e nc e a nd a r t P or t r a i t s a r e s ha pe d f r om t he da t a i n a na r r a t i ve f or m a t t ha t pe r m i t s t he r e a de r t o c onne c t w i t h t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs i n a s t or y f o r m a t f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r s pe c t i ve s P r e v al e nt I nf l ue nc e P ow e r t o e f f e c t be c a us e of po s i t i on or a bi l i t y i s ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d. P r i m ar y P ar t i c i pant s T hos e s t ude nt s w ho r e t u r ne d pe r m i s s i on f or t he i nt e r vi e w s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs R e f l e c t i ons Q ua l i t a t i ve m e t hods o f ga i ni ng de s c r i pt i ve a c c ount s of i ndi vi dua l l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s T he s e e xpe r i e nc e s a r e c a pt ur e d e i t he r t hr ough i nt e r vi e w s g r oup di s c us s i on s or w r i t t e n na r r a t i ve s St abl e I f i t s l i ke t ha t now [ ha r d] i t s not l i ke l y t o c ha nge [ w i l l a l w a ys be ha r d ]

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13 St anf or d 10. A s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt f or gr a de l e ve l t w o s t ude nt s t o de m ons t r a t e l e a r ni ng ga i ns Suppor t P ar t i c i pant s T hos e s t ude nt s w ho t u r ne d i n pe r m i s s i on s l i ps f or w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs but not i n t e r vi e w pa r t i c i p a t i on. Sy m bol i c I nt e r ac t i oni s m A t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t vi e w s how hum a n be i ngs m a ke s e ns e a nd m e a ni ng of t he i r i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h ot he r s on t he ba s i s of how t he y be l i e ve ot he r pe r s on be ha ve t ow a r d t he m ; a nd t he i r s e l f pe r c e pt i ons a nd f e e l i ngs t e nd t o be m e di a t e d by how t he y t hi nk ot he r s s e e a nd f e e l a bout t he m ( B l um e r 1969; V a n M a ne n, p. 186 1990 ) T e m por al v al i di t y T he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he s t udy r e s ul t s c a n be ge ne r a l i z e d ove r t i m e ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, p 245 2004 ) Se l f T e s t A be a r i ng e xi s t e nc e of t e s t i ng w i t hi n t he i m m e di a t e s ur r oundi ngs D e l i m i t a t i ons S pe c i f i c de l i m i t a t i ons i nc l ude d t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t t he s t ude nt s i nvol ve d i n t he r e s e a r c h a r e e nr ol l e d i n t he s a m e s c hool a t w hi c h I a m t he R e a di ng C oa c h. T hi s pa s t ye a r I r e t ur ne d t o t hi s s c hool a f t e r be i ng a w a y f or t w o ye a r s a nd w a s a ppoi nt e d a s R e a di ng C oa c h. I n t ha t r ol e I ha ve da y t o da y c ont a c t w i t h t he s t ude nt s O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2003) a s s e r t s t he r e i s r e s e a r c he r bi a s w he n o ne pe r s on a c t s i n t he r ol e of bot h r e s e a r c he r a nd da t a c ol l e c t or A c l e a r i ni t i a l s t a t e m e nt of i nt e nt i on s c a n de l i ne a t e a nd di m i ni s h t he e f f e c t of r e s e a r c he r bi a s

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14 T o a voi d a ny c onf ound w i t h m a t ur a t i on t he r e s e a r c he r w i l l l i m i t da t a c ol l e c t i on t o t he 30 da ys s ur r oundi ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. J ohns on a nd C hr i s t e ns e n ( 2004) de f i ne m a t ur a t i on a s t he phys i c a l or m e nt a l c ha nge s t ha t i ndi vi dua l s e nc ount e r ove r t i m e M i ndf ul of t he e f f e c t t he s e c ha nge s m i ght ha ve on t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons ; t hi s i nt e r na l t h r e a t t o va l i di t y i s c ont r o l l e d t hr ough t i m e l y da t a c ol l e c t i on. D r op out i s a n a ddi t i ona l pot e nt i a l pr obl e m i n r e ga r ds t o t he va l i d i t y o f t he s t udy I n t hi s s c hool t he r e i s a t r a ns i e nt popul a t i on c a us i ng a gr e a t e r pot e nt i a l p r obl e m ( O nw u e gbuz i e 2003) T o c ont r ol f o r t hi s t he r e s e a r c he r i nc r e a s e d t he s a m pl e s i z e t o a l l ow f or t he pos s i bi l i t y o f dr opou t s G e ne r a l i z i ng t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy a c r os s popul a t i ons s e t t i ngs a nd t i m e t hr e a t e ns t he e xt e r na l va l i di t y of t he s t udy ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) T he f i ndi ngs f r om t h i s s t udy r e pr e s e nt t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s he nc e di m i ni s hi ng t he a bi l i t y t o ge ne r a l i z e t he r e s ul t s t o di f f e r e nt popul a t i ons T o e nha nc e popul a t i on va l i di t y, t he r e s e a r c he r ha s s e l e c t e d s t ude nt s f r om hi gh m e di um a nd l ow a bi l i t y l e ve l s ba s e d on S t a nf o r d 10 a nd D I B E L S s c or e s f or t he i nt e r vi e w por t i on of t he s t udy. T e m por a l va l i di t y ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) i s a n i s s ue be c a us e t he da t a f o r t hi s s t udy w i l l be c ol l e c t e d dur i ng one s c hool s e m e s t e r T he r e f or e va l i di t y c a n onl y r e pr e s e nt t hi s t i m e pe r i od a nd c a nnot be a s s ur e d t o w i t hs t a nd va l i di t y a c r os s t i m e L i m i t a t i ons D ur i ng t hi s s t udy, I s e r ve a s R e a di ng C oa c h a nd f a c i l i t a t e t he r e a di ng r e m e di a t i on f or t he i r gr a de l e ve l T hi s r e l a t i o ns hi p e xi s t s w i t h a l l of t he s t ude nt s a nd not j us t t he 51

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15 s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s D u r i ng t he s pr i ng o f 2007 I c o nt i nue d t o s e r ve a s R e a di ng C oa c h e ve n a s t he s t ude nt s be ga n t o r e f l e c t on t he i r a s s e s s m e nt e xpe r i e nc e s T hi s r e l a t i ons hi p m i ght pos e a pr obl e m r e g a r d i ng m y s t a t us a s a f e m a l e e d uc a t or s upe r vi s or a nd r e s e a r c he r t o t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s T o c ont r ol f o r t hi s I us e t r i a ngul a t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w s dr a w i ngs a nd r e f l e c t i ons t o i nc r e a s e va l i di t y ( G r e e n, C a r a c e l l i & G r a ha m 1989) A s s um pt i ons T he f o l l ow i ng a s s um pt i ons a r e m a de i n r e f e r e nc e t o t hi s s t udy: T he pe r c e i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s t ude nt s a r e i m p or t a nt t o unde r s t a nd t he t hi r d gr a de ye a r f r om t he s t ude nt s pe r s pe c t i ve T he s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o a r t i c ul a t e t h e i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons T he i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s t a pe d gr oup d i s c us s i ons dr a w i ngs a nd w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a r e va l i d m e t hods of ga i ni ng i nf o r m a t i o n a bout t he s t ude nt s s ubj e c t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s P a r t i c i p a nt s t e l l t he i r s t or i e s a nd s ha r e t he i r t hough t s f e e l i ngs a nd pe r c e pt i ons c onc e r ni ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s ope nl y a nd hone s t l y, i n bot h t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd or a l l y i n t he i nt e r vi e w a nd gr oup di s c us s i ons O r ga ni z a t i on of R e m a i ni ng C ha p t e r s T he r e m a i ni ng c ha pt e r s w i l l p r e s e nt i nf or m a t i on o n t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t hi s s t udy. C ha pt e r 2 be gi ns w i t h a n e xa m i na t i on of t he l i t e r a t ur e on t he hi s t or y o f l e gi s l a t i on f oc us i ng on s c hol a s t i c pe r f or m a nc e N e xt t he c ha pt e r pr ovi de s a b r i e f r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e l a t e d t o s t ude nt de ve l opm e nt a nd l e a r ni ng w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng.

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16 C onc l udi ng c ha pt e r 2 w i l l be a n e xpl o r a t i on o f e xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h on m i ddl e s c hool s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a s no l i t e r a t ur e p r e s e nt l y e xi s t s f or t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s C ha pt e r 3 w i l l f oc us on m e t hodol ogy a nd c ove r s t he m e t hods di s c us s i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i ons p r oc e dur e s a nd s t udy de s i gn. C ha pt e r 4 w i l l pr ovi de t he r e s ul t s a nd s uppor t f or t he t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns o f t he s t udy. C ha pt e r 5 w i l l t he n t a ke t he r e s ul t s f r om C ha pt e r 4 a nd pr e s e nt por t r a i t ur e s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. I n c onc l us i on, C ha pt e r 6 i s de vot e d t o di s c us s i on of t he s t udy f i ndi ngs a nd r e c om m e nda t i o ns T he f o c us of t he di s c us s i on w i l l be t o c onne c t t he t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns f ound i n t he da t a t o l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d T he pur pos e f or r e c om m e nda t i ons w i l l be t o i m p r ove t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de r s

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17 C H A P T E R 2 R e vi e w of L i t e r a t u r e C hi l dr e n l e ar n f or t he s am e r e as on t hat bi r ds f l y T he y ar e l e ar ni ng m ac hi ne s I f y our c hi l d i s hav i ng pr obl e m s i n s c hool t he que s t i on y o u s houl d be as k i ng y our s e l f i s : W hat s t ur ni ng of f t hi s l e ar ni ng m ac hi ne ? E dw a r d Z i gl e r ( P r of e s s or of C hi l d P s yc hol ogy, Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y) T he pur pos e of t hi s qua l i t a t i ve s t udy w a s t o r e c or d t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of a g r oup of t hi r d gr a de c hi l dr e n i n a m ode r a t e l y l ow s oc i o e c onom i c s c hool i n s out hw e s t F l or i da a s t he y pr e pa r e d f or t he s t a t e of F l or i da s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. S i nc e t hi s pr oj e c t e m pl oye d a n i nt e gr a t i ve m ode l s e ve r a l r e s e a r c h dom a i ns w e r e e xpl or e d i nc l udi ng t he hi s t or y of t he pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e a nd na t i ona l c om m i s s i on r e por t s t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e nvi r onm e nt o f c hi l d r e n, ge nde r di f f e r e nc e s a s w e l l a s r e s e a r c h on t he i m pa c t of t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t I w i l l be gi n by di s c us s i ng a va r i e t y of C om m i s s i on R e por t s i s s ue d ove r t he pa s t s e ve r a l de c a de s a nd t he e vol ut i on of t he i r i m pa c t o n hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t he U S I w i l l t he n di s c us s t he l i t e r a t ur e r e l a t i ng t o t he c hi l d s s o c i o e m ot i ona l e nvi r onm e nt I n t hi s s e c t i on I w i l l a l s o s ur ve y t he l i t e r a t ur e on ge nde r d i f f e r e nc e s f r om a ne ur os c i e nc e pe r s pe c t i ve F i na l l y I w i l l r e vi e w t he l i t e r a t u r e on t he i m pa c t of t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t on t he s t ude nt s e m ot i ons by e xa m i ni ng s e ve r a l qua l i t a t i ve m e t hodol ogi c a l s t udi e s r e ga r di ng s e l f c onc e pt a t t i t ude c ha nge s t r e s s a nxi e t y, a nd t he r ol e of t e a c he r s

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18 H i s t or y of C om m i s s i on R e por t s L e e I a c oc c a t he pa s t pr e s i de nt of C hr ys l e r a ut om obi l e c or por a t i on w a s quot e d by t he N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on a s s a yi ng, I n a t r ul y r a t i ona l s oc i e t y, t he be s t o f us w oul d be t e a c he r s a nd t he r e s t o f us w oul d ha ve t o s e t t l e f or s om e t hi ng l e s s ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996) T he s e e l oque nt w or ds c a m e f r om a hi ghl y c r e a t i ve i ndi vi dua l w ho t ook t he he l m of a n a ut om obi l e c om pa ny on t he br i nk of f i na nc i a l ba nkr upt c y a nd br ought i t ba c k t o s ol ve nc y. H i s s t a t e m e nt a s s um e s w e l i ve i n a r a t i ona l s oc i e t y M a ny A m e r i c a ns how e ve r f i nd t he i r e duc a t i on s ys t e m a nd pr os pe c t of s e r i ous p r e di c a m e nt f r i ght e ni ng. L i ke t he C hr ys l e r C or por a t i on, s om e s pe c ul a t e t ha t A m e r i c a n e duc a t i on i s on t he br i nk o f ba nkr up t c y. M a ny of t he pr ob l e m s di f f i c ul t i e s a nd pos s i bl e s ol ut i ons f or r e vi vi ng A m e r i c a n e duc a t i on ha ve be e n e f f e c t i ve l y a nd f or c e f ul l y e xp r e s s e d ove r t he pa s t t hi r t y ye a r s A num be r of publ i c a t i ons c a l l e d f o r a va r i e t y of r e f o r m s ( C a r ne gi e F or um 1983 1986; H ol m e s G r oup, 1986 1995; N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996; P r oj e c t A l l i a nc e 30 1991 ) T he s e w a ke up c a l l s t o t he A m e r i c a n publ i c t he e duc a t i ona l pol i c y m a ke r s t e a c he r s pr i nc i pa l s a nd de a ns of e duc a t i on t o t he c r i t i c a l s t a t e of t he A m e r i c a n publ i c e duc a t i on s ys t e m a ppe a r t o ha ve ha d onl y l i m i t e d e f f e c t U nf or t una t e l y, t he ge ne r a l publ i c doe s not hol d t he t e a c hi ng p r of e s s i on i n hi gh e s t e e m a nd of t e n bl a m e t e a c he r s f or m a ny of t he pr obl e m s ( G ue s t 1993 H ol m e s 1986) T he 1986, publ i c a t i on A N at i on at R i s k : T he I m pe r at i v e of E duc at i ona l R e f or m s e r ve d not i c e on t he A m e r i c a n publ i c c l e a r t ha t t he i r e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m w a s i n s e r i ous

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19 t r oubl e I t s c a t c h phr a s e of a r i s i ng t i de of m e di oc r i t y ( pg. 5) qui c kl y a c hi e ve d t he s t a t us of a m a nt r a r e ga r di ng t he s t a t e of e duc a t i on i n our na t i on. T he r e por t s pons or e d by t he C a r ne gi e F or um ( 1986) c a l l e d f or s e r i ous l y t a ki ng s t oc k of t he i nc ons i s t e nc i e s i n t he publ i c s c hool s S i nc e onl y a m i ni m a l num be r of s t a t e s a ns w e r e d t he c a l l f or e s t a bl i s hi ng c om pr e he ns i ve r e f or m s t he E l e m e nt a r y S e c onda r y E duc a t i on A c t ( 1988) w a s s i m pl y r e a ut hor i z e d i n i t s or i gi na l f or m C a l l i ng f or pr o f e s s i ona l r a nki ng a nd t e a c he r a s s e s s m e nt r e duc i ng c l a s s r oom s i z e s a nd a ddi t i ona l t e a c he r s t ude nt t i m e t he A c t de m ons t r a t e d onl y m i ni m a l c ha nge f r om i t s t w e nt y pl us ye a r p r e de c e s s or I n 1989, P r e s i de nt G e or ge H W B us h a nd va r i ous gove r nor s f r om a r ound t he c ount r y r e s ponde d by a t t e ndi ng a n E duc a t i on S um m i t a t w hi c h t he y f o r m e d t he N a t i ona l E duc a t i ona l G oa l s P a ne l S e t up t o m on i t or t he pr o gr e s s of e duc a t i ona l c ha nge t he P a ne l f oc us e d on r a i s i ng a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds ( J e nni ngs 1 995a ) W i t h no c l e a r a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds de f i ne d, C ongr e s s ba l ke d a nd i n 1992 c r e a t e d t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l on E duc a t i on S t a nda r ds a nd T e s t i ng ( N C E S T ) T he c ounc i l a gr e e d t o t he vol unt a r y i m pl e m e nt a t i on of na t i ona l c ont e nt a nd pe r f o r m a nc e s t a nda r ds he e di ng t he r e c om m e nda t i on t ha t e qua t i ng s t a t e m e r i t e xa m i na t i ons w oul d pr ovi de a uni f o r m na t i ona l m e a s ur e m e nt of pr og r e s s W he n B i l l C l i nt on a s s um e d P r e s i de nc y i n 1993 hi s a dm i ni s t r a t i on r e va m pe d t he E l e m e nt a r y S e c onda r y E duc a t i on A c t ( 1994) a nd d e c i de d t ha t bot h i t a nd t he G oa l s 2000: E duc a t e A m e r i c a A c t w oul d be w r i t t e n i nt o l a w ( J e nni ngs 1995b) F i ve p r i nc i pl e s gui de d t he l e gi s l a t i on: 1) uphol di ng hi g h s t a nda r ds f or a l l c hi l dr e n; 2) f oc us i ng on t e a c hi ng a nd

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20 l e a r ni ng; 3) pr ovi di ng f l e xi bi l i t y i n or de r t o s t i m ul a t e s c hool ba s e d a nd di s t r i c t i ni t i a t i ve c oupl e d w i t h r e s pons i bi l i t y f or s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e ; 4) s t i m ul a t i ng l i nks a m ong s c hool s pa r e nt s a nd c om m uni t i e s ; a nd 5) t a r ge t i ng r e s our c e s t o w he r e ne e ds w e r e gr e a t e s t a nd i n a m ount s s uf f i c i e nt t o m a ke a di f f e r e nc e T he s e f i v e pr i nc i pl e s e nj o ye d w i de s pr e a d bi pa r t i s a n s uppor t T h i s w a s not t he f i r s t a t t e m pt t o br i ng t o l i gh t t he s e r i ous c ondi t i ons of t he A m e r i c a n s c hool s ys t e m A c oupl e o f de c a de s e a r l i e r t w o books w i t h s i m i l a r t i t l e s ha d i de nt i f i e d s e ve r a l pr obl e m s i n t he t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s i n A m e r i c a n uni ve r s i t i e s T he M i s e duc at i on of A m e r i c an T e ac he r s by J a m e s D K oe r ne r ( 1963) a nd T he E duc at i on of A m e r i c an T e ac he r s by J a m e s C ona nt ( 1963) bot h pr e s e nt e d c om pe l l i ng e vi de nc e f o r l ow s t a nda r ds poor a c a de m i c a nd qua l i f i e d t e a c he r s a nd w e a k c ont e nt a nd pe da gogy K oe r ne r s c a t hi ngl y p r oc l a i m e d: . i t i s t he t r ut h a nd i t s houl d be s a i d: t he i nf e r i o r i nt e l l e c t ua l qua l i t y of t he E duc a t i on f a c ul t y i s t he f unda m e nt a l l i m i t a t i on of t he f i e l d, a nd w i l l r e m a i n s o, i n m y j udgm e nt f or s om e t i m e t o c om e . . L i ke w i s e t he a c a de m i c c a l i be r of s t ude nt s i n E duc a t i on r e m a i ns a pr obl e m a s i t a l w a ys ha s . C our s e w or k i n E duc a t i on de s e r ve s i t s i l l r e put e I t i s m os t of t e n pue r i l e r e pe t i t i ous dul l a nd a m bi guous i nc ont e s t a bl y ( p. 17 18 ) S ubs e que nt publ i c a t i ons a l s o a t t e m pt e d t o s t e m t he de c l i ne of t he A m e r i c a n e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m R e f or m r e po r t s ( T he N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996; H ol m e s G r oup 1995; P r oj e c t 30 Y e a r T w o R e por t 1991; a nd, A N a t i on P r e pa r e d, 1986) a l l c a l l e d f or

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21 i m pr ove m e nt s i n how t he t e a c he r unde r s t a nds t he l e a r ne r t he de ve l opm e nt a l pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng, a nd t he i nf l ue nc e of c ul t u r e upon l e a r ne r s A m or e r e c e nt publ i c a t i on, W hat M at t e r s M os t : T e ac hi ng f or A m e r i c a s F ut ur e ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996) out l i ne s t hr e e m a j or p r e m i s e s t ha t ha ve be e n c l e a r l y i de nt i f i e d a s pos s i bl e s ol ut i ons t o t he pr obl e m : 1) W ha t t e a c he r s know a nd c a n do i s t he m os t i m p or t a nt i nf l ue nc e on w ha t s t ude nt s l e a r n; 2) R e c r ui t i ng p r e pa r i ng, a nd r e t a i ni ng good t e a c he r s i s t he c e nt r a l s t r a t e gy f or i m pr ovi ng our s c hool s ; a nd, 3) S c hool r e f or m c a nnot s uc c e e d unl e s s i t f oc us e s on c r e a t i ng t he c ondi t i ons i n w hi c h t e a c he r s c a n t e a c h, a nd t e a c h w e l l ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996) T he s e a r e e xc i t i ng, a l t hough not ne c e s s a r i l y ne w ( S e e C ona nt 1963; a nd K oe r ne r 1963) r e c om m e nda t i ons t o he l p gui de ou r e duc a t i o na l s ys t e m t hr ough i nc r e a s i ng t he oppor t uni t y f or a l l c hi l dr e n t o l e a r n U l t i m a t e l y, ho w e ve r t he bu r de n of A m e r i c a s e duc a t i ona l f ut ur e r e s t s s qua r e l y on t he s houl de r s of t om or r ow s t e a c he r s a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y on t od a y s s t ude nt s S t a nda r di z a t i on of A m e r i c a n S c hool s I n c onj unc t i on w i t h a n i nc r e a s e i n t e a c he r a nd s t ud e nt a c c ount a bi l i t y, ha s c om e a n e m pha s i s on t he qua l i t y a nd t ype of w or k t he s t ude nt i s e xpe c t e d t o p r oduc e T he 21 s t c e nt ur y e c onom y ha s de c r e a s e d i n bl u e c ol l a r w or ke r s t o onl y a bout 10% of t he w or kf or c e ( D r uc ke r 1994; H uds on I ns t i t ut e 1987 ) A c c ount a bi l i t y a nd e xpe c t a t i on a r e not m e s hi ng. G a r dne r ( 1993 ) pr opos e d a t he or y of w ha t he t e r m e d m ul t i pl e

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22 i nt e l l i ge nc e s A c c or di ng t o t h i s vi e w a s uc c e s s f ul w or kf or c e r e qui r e s a c om bi na t i on of or ga ni z a t i ona l s ki l l s a nd t e a m w or k a l ong w i t h g r e a t e r t e c hnol ogi c a l a bi l i t i e s T he e ve n f a s t e r pa c e of t e c hnol ogi c a l a dva nc e m e nt a nd c om pl e xi t y r e qui r e d i n t he m ode r n g l oba l e c onom y l i ke w i s e c a l l s f or a n e duc a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e t ha t a l l ow s s t ude nt s t hought s a nd dr i ve s t o i nt e r a c t w i t h t he i r c ur r i c ul um pe e r s a nd t e a c he r s ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996) W hi l e gr a dua t i on r a t e s a nd ba s i c l i t e r a c y s ki l l s of a now m uc h m o r e di ve r s e s t ude nt popul a t i on ha ve i nc r e a s e d ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E du c a t i on, 2004) t he p r obl e m r e m a i ns t ha t t he s ki l l s be i ng t a ught a nd a s s e s s e d do not c oor di n a t e w i t h s oc i a l l y vi br a nt a nd c i vi l pl ur a l i s m t he na t i on r e qui r e s ( D a r l i ng H a m m ond & W i s e 1985; H a ne y & M a da us 1986; K or e t z 1988) T he c ons t a nt w or kpl a c e di l e m m a s a r e m i r r or e d i n t he e duc a t i ona l do m a i n. C om pa r e d t o ot he r a dva nc e d s oc i e t i e s t oda y s A m e r i c a ns : l e a d i n r a t e s of c hi l dhood pove r t y, hom e l e s s ne s s a nd m or a l i t y r a t e s f or t hos e unde r t he a ge o f 25; l a g i n pr e s c hool e duc a t i on e n r ol l m e nt r a t e s ; ha ve m o s t c hi l dr e n l i vi ng i n a s i ngl e pa r e nt hous e h ol d dur i ng s om e poi nt o f t he i r c hi l dhood; ha ve m a ny c hi l dr e n a r r i vi ng t o s c hool hungr y unv a c c i na t e d, a nd f r i gh t e ne d be c a us e t he pl a gue s of m ode r n l i f e c r i m e a nd vi o l e nc e dr ug a nd a l c ohol a bus e l a c k of a de qua t e he a l t h c a r e r a ge on una ba t e d;

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23 I t i s pr e di c t e d t ha t by t he ye a r 2010, a t l e a s t a t hi r d of a l l c hi l dr e n i n t hi s c ount r y w i l l be m e m be r s of gr oups c ur r e nt l y c ons i de r e d m i nor i t i e s ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996, pgs 12 13) A gr e a t m a ny c r i t i c i s m s of e duc a t i on i n A m e r i c a h a ve be e n di r e c t e d t ow a r d t he r e s i l i e nc e of qua l i t y t e a c hi ng ( H a r gr e a ve s 2003 2 000, 1995; a nd M a r z a no, P i c ke r i ng & P ol l oc k, 2001 ) w hi l e t he m a nda t e s t ha t a r e not r e l e va nt t o l e a r ni ng t o f ut ur e s oc i e t a l c ont r i but i ons ge ne r a t e e m ot i ona l d i s s o na nc e f or pr a c t i t i one r s ( N i a s 1999; F a r be r 1991; a nd B l a s 1986) T he pa s t t h i r t y ye a r s ha ve s e e n bot h t he pr o l i f e r a t i on of p ubl i c a t i ons on e duc a t i ona l r e f or m i n r e s pons e t o t he s e c r i t i c i s m s a s w e l l a s i ndi vi dua l s t a t e s a nd c ount i e s c ha ngi ng t he i r m a nda t e s r e ga r di ng t he t e s t i ng, s c or i ng a nd a s s e s s m e nt of t he i r s t ude nt s R a t e d a s one of t he m os t s t r e s s f ul pr of e s s i ons ( N a s h, 2005; P r i c e w a t e r hous e & C oope r s 2001; a nd, K yr i a c ou, 2000) t e a c hi ng ha s be c om e a j uggl i ng a c t be t w e e n pol i c y a nd pr oduc t T he s e pr opos e d e duc a t i ona l r e f or m s a l l ha ve t he a i m of m a ki ng s t ude nt s c a pa bl e of m e e t i ng t he de m a nds of a c ha ngi ng s oc i e t y. N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( 2001) c ont i nue s t o i gni t e m a ny hi ghl y t he or e t i c a l a r gum e nt s a s t o t he be s t m e t hods of i ns t r uc t i on f or t he e duc a t i on o f t he na t i on s c hi l dr e n S ha r i ng t he goa l s of pr e vi ous r e f or m s N C L B he i ght e ns t he a c c ount a bi l i t y c om pone nt w i t h a s ys t e m i c m ode l a t t he i nhe r e nt r i s k of di l ut i ng c ha r a c t e r o f t e a c hi ng ( C a r l s on, 1992; C or b e t t & W i l s on, 1991; M a da us H a r m on L om a x, & V i a t o r 1992; S m i t h 1991 ; S yke s & P l a s t r i k, 1993) I n a ddi t i on t o t he c ha r a c t e r of t e a c hi ng, t he i m pos i t i on of hi gh s t a ke s a c c ount a bi l i t y ha s da m pe ne d s t ude nt

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24 m ot i va t i on t ow a r d l e a r ni ng ( G or don & R e e s e 199 7; C a r l s on, 1992; D w e c k, 1992; P a r i s L a w t on, T ur ne r & R ot h 1991; D e c i & R ya n, 1985 ; a nd L e ppe r 1983 ) T he s t a nda r di z a t i on of A m e r i c a n s c hool s c ont r a di c t s t h e pr e va l e nt a s pi r a t i on t o i nc r e a s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt T he s e f a c t or s a r e of po t e nt i a l l y gr e a t va l ue i n unde r s t a ndi ng c ha nge s i n t he e duc a t i ona l e nvi r o nm e nt o f s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. S oc i o e m ot i ona l E nvi r onm e nt T hi s s e c t i on de s c r i be s t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e t ha t a s s e s s e s t he i m pa c t of t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e nvi r onm e nt on s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H i gh s t a ke s pr e s s ur e c a n e i t he r i nc r e a s e s or de c r e a s e s de pe ndi ng on t he l e ve l of t he s t ude nt s s e l f e f f i c a c y. R e s e a r c he r s s t udyi ng s e l f e f f i c a c y ha ve f ound t ha t t hos e s t ude nt s w i t h i n t r i ns i c r a t he r t ha n e xt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on ha ve a l s o e xpe r i e nc e d e nc our a ge m e nt of s e l f r e gul a t i on a nd s e l f e va l ua t i on by a dul t s ( B r oa df oot M a c N e s s & O s bor n, 2000 ; G or don & R e e s e 1997; P e r r y 1998; P ol l a r d, T r i g gs R e a y & W i l l i a m 1999; R ode r i c k & E nge l 2001) T he s e s t udi e s f ound t ha t t he s t ude nt s s e l f e f f i c a c y w a s a f unc t i on o f t he i r a bi l i t y t o r e gul a t e a nd e va l ua t e t he m s e l ve s i nde pe nde nt l y. A ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h c or r obo r a t e s t he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s t ude nt s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd l e a r n i ng pr e s s ur e s P e a r s on s ( 1983) gr a dua l r e l e a s e of r e s pons i bi l i t y m ode l a l l ow s f o r s t ude nt e m pow e r m e nt t ha t pr ovi de s o ppor t uni t y f or pos i t i ve e m ot i ons t o be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi s / he r a c c om pl i s hm e nt F or e xa m pl e w he n l e a r ni ng t o r e a d, m ode l i ng of r i c h, e ye c a t c hi ng l i t e r a c y oc c ur s f i r s t N e xt t he s t ude nt pr ogr e s s e s i nt o t he r ol e of pa r t i c i pa nt w i t h a r e pe t i t i ve por t i on of t he s t or y t o

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25 s ha r e t he r e a di ng e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h bu i l ds t he i r i nd i vi dua l c onf i de nc e S i t t i ng s i de by s i de w i t h a s t ude nt gui di ng t he i r r e a di ng of s i m pl e t e xt s w i t h s t r ong pi c t or i a l s uppor t w hi l e of f e r i ng s t r a t e gi e s t o i nc r e a s e t he i r i nde pe nd e nc e w he n c onf r ont e d w i t h a book t he t e a c he r gr a dua l l y gui de s t he c hi l d i nt o t he i nde pe n de nt r e a di ng e xpe r i e nc e T he r e a r e i m por t a nt va r i a t i ons i n t he de ve l opm e nt of s t ude nt s e l f e f f i c a c y. O ne c ons t a nt how e ve r i s t ha t i nf o r m a t i on i s r e m e m be r e d m or e e a s i l y i f i t i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pos i t i ve e m ot i ons B r ookha r t a nd D e V oge ( 1999 ) B ut l e r ( 1988) a nd D uc kw or t h F i e l di ng, a nd S ha ughne s s y ( 1986) f ound f e e dba c k t o be a c om m on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c i n t he a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s e l f e f f i c a c y. W he n c om pa r e d a ga i ns t pe r f or m a nc e f r om a s i m i l a r pr e vi ous t a s k, t hos e s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d s uc c e s s i n e a r l i e r pe r f o r m a nc e s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o t r a ns f e r t ha t f e e l i ng o f s uc c e s s t o a ne w t a s k. F oc us i ng f e e dba c k on t he t a s k r a t he r t ha n e go i nvol ve m e nt w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r i nt e r e s t a nd e f f or t ( B r ookha r t & D e V oge 1999; B ut l e r 1988) A c c or di ng t o D uc kw or t h e t a l ( 1986 ) t he r e i s a c o nne c t i on be t w e e n s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t e a c he r s c om m uni c a t i on a bout t e s t e xpe c t a t i ons w i t h f e e l i ngs of s e l f e f f i c a c y. T he r e s e a r c he r s c ont i nue d t o c o r r e l a t e t he a s s e s s m e nt c ul t ur e w i t h s t ude nt s e f f or t s P os i t i ve c onve r s a t i ons w hi c h i nc or por a t e d c ol l e gi a l i t y i nc r e a s e d s t ude nt s e l f e f f i c a c y w hi l e ne ga t i ve r e s ul t s oc c ur r e d w he n t he f oc us w a s on t he pe r f or m a nc e out c om e L e ona r d a nd D a ve y ( 2001) a nd L i t t l e ( 19 9 4) f ound t ha t s t ude nt s de pi c t e d t he m s e l ve s a s ha vi ng no voi c e r e ga r di ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. A s t udy by P e r r y ( 1998 ) a s s oc i a t e d pr ovi di ng s t ude nt s w i t h a voi c e w i t h gr e a t e r c hoi c e t ha t i s s t ude nt s gi ve n

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26 s om e c ont r ol ove r t he i r l e a r ni ng a t t e nde d t o t he s i g ni f i c a nc e of t he c ont e nt r a t he r t ha n m e r e l y r e f e r r i ng t o t he i r pr oduc t a s be i ng c or r e c t o r not P ol l a r d e t a l ( 2000 ) c or r obor a t e d t hi s f i ndi ng. T he y s how e d t ha t s t ude nt s a l l ow e d t o s e l f r e gul a t e i nc r e a s e d t he c r i t e r i a l e ve l s t ude nt s us e d f or s e l f e va l ua t e P r ovi di ng oppo r t uni t i e s t o s uppor t s e l f r e gul a t i ve s ki l l s f or t he s e l f e va l ua t i ve de ve l opm e nt of c hi l d r e n t hr oughout t he i r da y c a n oc c ur i n a va r i e t y of f o r m s R ode r i c k a nd E nge l ( 2001) s t udi e d t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n l ow a c hi e ve m e nt a nd t he e xt e r na l s uppor t s t r uc t ur e T he s t udy s how e d t ha t w he n l ow a c hi e v e r s w e r e pr ovi de d a hi gh l e ve l of s uppor t f r om hom e a nd s c hool t he i r s e l f e s t e e m i m pr ove d. T he c r i t i c a l r e qui r e m e nt i s t ha t a dul t s m us t be s e ns i t i ve t o t he i ndi vi dua l ne e ds a nd s t r e s s l e ve l s of t he s t ude nt s F oc us i ng on t he s e l f e f f i c a c y, s e l f r e gul a t i on a nd s e l f e va l ua t i on of t he s t ude nt l e a r ne r br i ngs r e ne w e d i nt e r e s t t o t he s oc i o e m ot i o na l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. D e s pi t e t he s hi f t t o hi gh s t a ke s t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e nvi r onm e nt s t i l l r e qui r e s t he oppor t uni t y f or i nc r e a s e d s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng E duc a t or s m us t be ke e nl y a w a r e of t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n s t ude nt s e l f e f f i c a c y, s e l f r e gul a t i on, a nd s e l f e va l ua t i on a nd t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e nvi r onm e nt i n t he e r a of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he ne xt s e c t i on r e vi e w s t he l i t e r a t u r e on t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n di f f e r e nt i a l e f f e c t s of ge nde r a nd hi gh s t a ke s s c hool i ng. G e nde r D i f f e r e nc e s W hi l e i t i s be yond t he s c ope of t he pr opos e d r e s e a r c h t o e nga ge i n a c om pr e he ns i ve r e vi e w of b r a i n r e s e a r c h, a br i e f di s c us s i on of ge nd e r di f f e r e nc e s i s r e l e va nt G i ve n t he

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27 m i s m a t c h be t w e e n boys a nd gi r l s l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s i t s e e m s m or e t ha n a ppr op r i a t e t ha t ge nde r be c ons i de r e d by t he e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons w he r e s t ude nt s s pe nd o ne t hi r d or m or e of t he i r w a ki ng hour s A gr e a t e r s e ns i t i vi t y t o ge nde r i s s ue s i s l i ke l y t o m a ke e duc a t i ona l r e f or m s f a r m o r e pr oduc t i ve G ur i a n ( 2002) s t a t e s K now l e dge of t he e vol ut i on of br a i n di f f e r e nc e s t e a c he s us t ha t s oc i e t i e s a r e c a pa bl e of c r e a t i ng i nt i m a t e a nd f r ui t f ul hum a n r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t nu r t ur e bot h t he be s t of t he f e m a l e a nd be s t o f t he m a l e br a i ns ( p. 115) G i r l s a r e ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t e d w he n t e a c hi ng i s ge a r e d p r i m a r i l y t o t he boys l e a r ni ng s t yl e T ya c k a nd H a ns ot ( 1992 ) f ound t ha t w he t he r unc ons c i ous l y or de l i be r a t e l y, s c hool s pl a ye d a pa r t i n t he s ubor di na t i on of w om e n ( p 15) T he f e m i ni s t m ove m e nt ha s t r i e d t o gi ve gi r l s a l oude r voi c e t ha n t he y ha d p r e vi ous l y ha d. Y e t by hi gh s c hool ga i ns pr e vi ous l y m a de by gi r l s i n bot h a c a de m i c s a nd e m ot i ona l i t y be ga n t o l e ve l of f or e ve n a ba t e ( A A U W 1994 ; S a dke r & S a dke r 1995) I f on t he ot he r ha nd t he e duc a t i on i s t a i l or e d t o g i r l s l e a r ni ng s t yl e boys l e ve l of pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd l onge vi t y a r e r e duc e d. W hi l e g i r l s out pe r f or m boys bot h a c a de m i c a l l y a nd e m ot i ona l l y ( G u r i a n, 1996; K i ndl on & T hom p s on, 1999) boys unde r go a n e duc a t i ona l di s e qui l i br i um I f t hi s i s not a t t e nde d t o, t he y d r op out of s c hool m or e f r e que nt l y t ha n g i r l s a nd t he i r c ol l e ge a t t e nda nc e de c r e a s e s P l a c e d i n a s e t t i ng w he r e t he oppos i t e s e x a l r e a dy out pe r f or m s boys a r e pe r c e i ve d a s unm a na ge a bl e a nd t he r e f o r e e duc a t e d t hr ough t he l e ns o f a s t e r e ot ype K i ndl on a nd T hom ps on s r e c om m e nda t i on t o pa r e nt s a nd t e a c he r s i s :

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28 T he m os t i m po r t a nt t hi ng t o r e m e m be r t he gui d i n g pr i nc i pl e i s t o t r y t o ke e p your s on s s e l f e s t e e m i nt a c t w hi l e he i s i n s c hool T ha t i s t he r e a l r i s k t o hi s s uc c e s s a nd t o hi s m e nt a l he a l t h. O nc e he s out of s c hool t he w or l d w i l l be di f f e r e nt H e l l f i nd a ni c he w he r e t he f a c t t ha t he c a n t s pe l l w e l l or di dn t r e a d un t i l he w a s e i ght w on t m a t t e r B ut i f he s t a r t s t o ha t e hi m s e l f be c a us e he i s n t good a t s c hool w or k, he l l f a l l i nt o a hol e t ha t he l l be di ggi ng hi m s e l f out of f o r t he r e s t of hi s l i f e ( p. 166) E nvi r onm e nt ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o pe r m a ne nt l y a l t e r t he c hi l d s b r a i n. S t i l l c a pa bl e of f ur t he r a nd c om pl e x ne ur ol og i c a l gr ow t h t he br a i n of a t w o ye a r ol d ha s qua dr upl e d s i nc e bi r t h. P l a s t i c i t y ope ns di ve r s e a ve nue s f or c o gni t i ve a nd e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt P ol l a c k ( 1998) be l i e ve s t ha t i t i s t he e m ot i ona l e nv i r onm e nt t ha t s ha pe s a boy s e a r l y ne ur ol ogi c a l de ve l opm e nt H e s t a t e s t he e nvi r onm e nt a l t e r s boys ne ur a l c onne c t i ons br a i n c he m i s t r y, a nd bi ol ogi c a l f unc t i oni ng ( p. 93 ) dur i ng t he e a r l y ye a r s S t e r e ot ypi ng boys w i t h c a t e gor i e s of e i t he r w i l d o r r oya l t y n e ga t e s a l l t ha t ge nde r di ve r s i t y c a n br i ng t o t he c l a s s r oom I t i s t h r ough e m br a c i ng s om e of t he di f f e r e nt r e l a t i ve s t r e ngt hs ( a nd w e a kne s s e s ) of boys a nd gi r l s br a i ns t ha t e duc a t or s m a y be t t e r m e e t t he l e a r ni ng r e qui r e m e nt s a nd t hus t he a s s e s s m e nt of e a c h ge nde r O f c our s e s i nc e no t w o c hi l dr e n a r e e xa c t l y t he s a m e r i gi d ge nde r ge ne r a l i z a t i on m us t be a voi de d. I f t e a c he r s a r e a w a r e t ha t t he i r f e m a l e s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l ha ve gr e a t e r c om m uni c a t i on b e t w e e n br a i n he m i s phe r e s t he y c a n b e m or e s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he a dva nt a ge of a ut om a t i c i t y t he y pos s e s s ove r boys i n a ppr oa c hi ng

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29 m or e c om pl e x l e a r ni ng t a s ks T he s a m e a w a r e ne s s s houl d be e xt e nde d t o gi r l s w o r ki ng w i t h a bs t r a c t obj e c t i ve s s i nc e i t i s he r e t he boys ( a ga i n, on a ve r a ge ) ha ve m o r e b r a i n r e s our c e s de di c a t e d t o s pa t i a l m e c ha ni c a l f unc t i oni ng. M a gne t i c R e s ona nc e I m a gi ng ( M R I s ) ha ve pr ovi de d s om e ne ur ol ogi c a l ba s i s f or t he ge ne r a l i m pr e s s i on ga i ne d ove r t he ye a r s by m os t e duc a t or s t ha t a gr e a t num be r of boy s a r e i m pul s i ve a nd ha ve a t t e nt i on de f i c i t di s or de r w hi l e m or e gi r l s a r e c ons c i e nt i ous T he s e l e a r ni ng di f f e r e nc e s m a y be r e l e va nt t o t he e xpe r i e nc e of h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. I t s e e m s t ha t e a c h ge nde r ha s a n a ve r a ge a dva nt a ge a nd a n a ve r a ge di s a dva nt a ge ( w hi l e r e c ogni z i ng e nor m ous i ndi vi d ua l di f f e r e nc e s w i t hi n e a c h ge nde r ) t ha t c a n a f f e c t t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e G e nde r s e ns i t i vi t y c a n of f e r c l a r i t y f or t he pr e pa r a t i on pe r i od, dur i ng a nd f ol l ow i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e T hus a w a r e ne s s t o ge nde r di f f e r e nc e s m a y be he l p f ul r e a s s ur i ng a nd gui d i ng s t ude nt s t hr ough t he h i gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt s E m pi r i c a l s t u di e s c onduc t e d i n 1992 ( A A U W 1994; S a dke r & S a dke r 1995) s ugge s t e d t ha t ge nd e r i s s ue s i n e duc a t i on be br ought t o t he f or e f r ont w i t h f i ndi ngs of l e s s t e a c he r a t t e nt i on be i ng di r e c t e d a t g i r l s t ha n a t boys m a l e a ve r a ge dom i na t i on of a t hl e t i c s pr e va i l i ng, a nd o f gi r l s e xpe r i e nc i ng, on a ve r a ge l ow e r s e l f e s t e e m a nd gr e a t e r f e a r f ul ne s s A ddi t i ona l s t u di e s not e t he c ont i nue d unde r pe r f or m a nc e of boys i n e duc a t i on ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E d uc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s 2000) l a ggi ng ne a r l y e i ght e e n m on t hs be hi nd gi r l s i n r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng by t he e nd o f t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r o f s c hool

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30 I n 2003 O r ga ni z a t i on f o r E c onom i c C o ope r a t i on a nd D e ve l opm e nt r e l e a s e d a t hr e e ye a r s t udy t ha t s how e d t ha t p r i m a r y gr a de s c hool g i r l s ha d gr e a t e r know l e dge a nd s ki l l s t ha n boys i n 35 di f f e r e nt c ount r i e s P E T a nd M R I br a i n s c a nni ng r e s e a r c h by G ur i a n a nd S t e ve ns ( 1994) de m ons t r a t e d t ha t boys a nd gi r l s pr oc e s s e d i nf or m a t i on di f f e r e nt l y T hi s i m pl i e s t ha t i n l e a r ni ng a s i m i l a r l e s s on, di f f e r e nt t ool s f or s uc c e s s m a y be ne c e s s a r y. G ur i a n a nd S t e ve ns f u r t he r no t e d t ha t t r a i ni ng i n g e nde r s e ns i t i vi t y e nha nc e d out c om e s F or e xa m pl e one s c hool di s t r i c t t ha t ha d pl a c e d l a s t out of 18 be f o r e t r a i ni ng c l i m be d t o t he t op f i ve a f t e r t r a i ni ng T he s t a t e s of A l a ba m a a nd K e nt uc ky bot h i nc r e a s e d t he i r s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e a f t e r ge nde r a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni n g: a f t e r one ye a r of t hi s ge nde r s pe c i f i c e xpe r i m e nt gi r l s m a t h a nd s c i e nc e s c or e s a nd boys S c hol a s t i c R e a di ng I nve nt or y ( S R I ) s c or e s r os e s i gni f i c a nt l y ( p 23) I n s um m a r y, i nc r e a s e d a w a r e ne s s of di f f e r e nt i a l ge nde r s e ns i t i vi t y i nc r e a s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt F ur t he r i t a dds a not he r a s pe c t t o e a c h c hi l d s uni que ne s s I nc r e a s e d a c a de m i c a nd e m ot i ona l pe r f o r m a nc e c oul d s i gni f i c a nt l y e x pa nd a s t he ge nde r s e ns i t i ve c l a s s r oom e nga ge s s t ude nt s of bot h ge nde r s i n t he us e of s pe c i f i c s t r a t e gi e s ge a r e d t ow a r ds t he i r s pe c i f i c s t r e ngt hs B e c a us e t he goa l i n a dm i ni s t e r i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s t o a s s ur e t ha t no c hi l d be l e f t be hi nd a c a de m i c a l l y, he i ght e ne d ge nde r s e ns i t i vi t y m a y pl a y a vi t a l i m por t a nc e i n r e a c hi ng t ha t goa l G e nde r s e ns i t i vi t y c a n be a n e s s e nt i a l a i d t o t he e nha nc e m e nt of t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e nvi r onm e nt f or bot h t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he pe r c e pt i ons t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s de ve l op i n a h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e nvi r onm e nt

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31 T e a c hi ng t o t he T e s t B ot h L e ona r d a nd D a ve y ( 2001) a nd J ohns t on a nd M c L une ( 2000) r e s e a r c he d t he N or t he r n I r e l a nd e nd o f pr i m a r y s c hool s e l e c t i on e xa m F oc us i ng on t he i m pa c t of t e a c he r s s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s e s J ohns t on a nd M c L une c ol l e c t e d i nt e r vi e w s que s t i onna i r e s a nd c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons t o m e a s ur e s t ude nt l e a r ni ng di s pos i t i ons s e l f e s t e e m l oc us of c ont r ol a nd a t t i t ude t ow a r d t he t r a ns f e r g r a de s obt a i ne d. T he y i de nt i f i e d f ou r m a i n l e a r ni ng d i s pos i t i ons : ( 1) p r e c i s e pr oc e s s i ng, ( 2 ) s e que nt i a l pr oc e s s i ng, ( 3) t e c hni c a l p r oc e s s i ng, a nd ( 4) c onf l ue nt p r oc e s s i ng. T he c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons i n t hi s s t udy w e r e s uppor t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y by a pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n pr e c i s e / s e que nt i a l l e a r ni ng di s po s i t i ons a nd t he s t ude nt s s e l f e s t e e m T hr ough i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t he t e a c he r s a m i s m a t c h be t w e e n t e a c hi ng s t yl e a nd s t ude nt l e a r ni ng di s pos i t i on de m ons t r a t e d di s c r i m i na t i on a ga i ns t s t ude nt s w hos e l e a r ni ng s t yl e w a s di f f e r e nt f r om t ha t o f t he i r e duc a t or L e ona r d a nd D a ve y ( 2001) r e pr e s e nt e d t he s t ude nt pe r s pe c t i ve s f or t he pr e pa r a t i on pr oc e s s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n, a nd t he r e s ul t s of t he B r i t i s h e xa m i na t i on. T he i r s t udy us e d f oc us gr oup i nt e r v i e w s a l ong w i t h w r i t t e n s t or i e s a nd pi c t or i a l s of s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e s a nd f e e l i ngs D a t a c ol l e c t i on oc c ur r e d j us t a f t e r t a ki ng t he t e s t a s w e l l a s t he w e e k be f or e s t ude nt r e s ul t s c a m e i n f o l l ow e d by t he w e e k a f t e r s c or e s w e r e a nnounc e d. S t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons of t e s t a nxi e t y a nd t he i m pa c t on s e l f e s t e e m w e r e di s c ove r e d. G r a de s a c hi e ve d c l e a r l y de pi c t e d s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e of t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt a c c or di ng t o

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32 pr e c om pos e d e xpe c t a t i ons w i t h t he s e l f e s t e e m of t hos e s c or i ng l ow pl u m m e t i ng. R e a y a nd W i l l i a m ( 1999 ) f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s i n t he i r m uc h s m a l l e r s c a l e d s t udy i n a L ondon pr i m a r y s c hool T he da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d t h r ough i n di vi dua l a nd gr oup i nt e r vi e w s a l ong w i t h e xt e ns i ve c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons T e s t dr i ve n c ur r i c ul um pr ovi de d a c l i m a t e o f a bi l i t y l e ve l s j udge d by a c hi e ve m e nt e xpe c t a t i ons S e l f w or t h c oi nc i de d w i t h t he gr a de a c hi e ve d. T hos e s c or i ng hi gh l a be l e d by t he i r pe e r s w e r e de pi c t e d a s be i ng s m a r t a nd t hos e w ho r e c e i ve d l ow s c or e s a s s t upi d. O ve r a n e i ght ye a r pe r i od D a vi e s a nd B r e m be r ( 1 998, 1999) s t udi e d p r i m a r y s c hool c hi l dr e n i n E ngl a nd. C ha nge s i n s e l f e s t e e m of Y e a r 2 ( a ge 7) a nd Y e a r 6 ( a ge 11 ) c ohor t s w e r e m e a s ur e d us i ng t he L a w s e q que s t i onna i r e S t a r t i ng t w o ye a r s be f or e t he e xa m s w e r e i nt r oduc e d a t Y e a r 2, t he s t udy f ound a c l e a r dr op i n s e l f e s t e e m w i t h t he gr e a t e s t c ha nge oc c ur r i ng t he ye a r t he e xa m w a s i nt r oduc e d. T he r e s e a r c he r s not e d t ha t onc e a n a s s e s s m e nt c ul t ur e w a s e s t a bl i s he d, t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s a l i ke i nc or por a t e d t he pr e s e nc e of t he e xa m i nt o t he i r da i l y e xpe r i e nc e s e l f e s t e e m t he n r e c ove r e d f r om t he i ni t i a l dr op D a vi e s a nd B r e m be r ( 1998, 1999) c onc l ude d a n a n a l ys i s of na t i ona l t e s t i ng w i t h t he c onc l us i on t ha t ge ne r a l l y t he r e w a s l i t t l e or no c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s e l f e s t e e m a nd a c hi e ve m e nt H ow e ve r s t a nda r di z e d m a t he m a t i c s a nd r e a di ng t e s t s done pos t na t i ona l l y di d f i nd a s m a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s e l f e s t e e m a nd a c hi e ve m e nt W ha t t he y f ound w a s t ha t be f or e t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t e s t i ng l ow a nd hi gh a c hi e vi ng

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33 s t ude nt s ha d t he s a m e l e ve l s of s e l f e s t e e m A f t e r t e s t i ng, t he s e l f e s t e e m of l ow a c hi e ve r s dw i ndl e d c ons i de r a bl y c om pa r e d t o t he i r hi gh a c hi e vi ng pe e r s T he r e s e a r c he r s c a ut i on a ga i ns t pl a c i ng di r e c t r e s pons i bi l i t y f or t he c ha nge i n c or r e l a t i ons on t he a s s e s s m e nt a nd ur ge f ur t he r s t udi e s t ha t m e di a t e p e opl e a nd c i r c um s t a nc e s w hi c h i nf l ue nc e s t ude n t s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e s I n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s G o r don a nd R e e s e ( 1997) a nd P a r i s L a w t on, T u r ne r a nd R ot h ( 1991) s t udi e d t he i m pa c t o f hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng on s e l f e s t e e m f o r s t ude nt s of di f f e r e nt a c hi e ve m e nt / a bi l i t y l e ve l s T e a c he r s pe r c e pt i ons of t he T e xa s A s s e s s m e nt of A c a de m i c S ki l l s ( T A A S ) w e r e e xpl o r e d t h r ough i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w s T he i r r e s ul t s a s s i m i l a t e d t he f i ndi ngs of t he s t udy i n E ngl a nd by D a vi e s a nd B r e m be r ( 1998 1999 ) w i t h t he s e l f e s t e e m of l ow e r a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s di m i ni s hi ng. T he f i ndi ngs o f P a r i s L a w t on, T ur ne r a nd R ot h c o r r obor a t e d t he s e r e s ul t s G a t he r i ng i n f or m a t i on f r om t he M i c hi ga n S t a t e m a nda t e d a s s e s s m e nt s t he r e s e a r c he r s c onc l ude d t ha t hi gh a c hi e ve r s ha d m or e pos i t i ve s e l f pe r c e pt i ons t ha n t he i r l ow e r a c h i e vi ng pe e r s T e s t i ng A nxi e t y H i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s not t he onl y oppor t uni t y i n w hi c h s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e a uni f or m a s s e s s m e nt of t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng t o kno w l e dge t a ught I n t he da y t o da y c l a s s r oom t he r e i s a c ul t ur e of g r a di ng, be i t ba s e d on r e gul a r c l a s s r oom a s s i gnm e nt s or i nf or m a l a s s e s s m e nt s U s i ng a que s t i onna i r e f or m a t E va ns a nd E nge l be r g ( 1988 ) s t udi e d s t ude nt s a t t i t ude s t o, a nd c om pr e he ns i on of r e c e i vi ng gr a de s T he r e s e a r c he r s w e r e pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t e d i n how t he s e s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons c ha nge d f r om f our t h t o e l e ve nt h

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34 gr a de s T he r e s ul t s c onc l ude d t ha t younge r s t ude nt s a t t a c he d l e s s i m por t a nc e t o gr a de s t ha n t he i r ol de r pe e r s T he o l de r pe e r s a l s o f ound t he i r gr a de s t o be m or e c ohe s i ve t o t he i r pe r s ona l i nve s t m e nt T hos e s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng l ow e r gr a de s w e r e not e d t o ha ve a dw i ndl i ng s e ns e of pe r s ona l va l ue T he s e s t ude nt s w hos e s e ns e of pe r s ona l va l ue dw i ndl e d a l s o s ha r e d a l a c k of e xt e r na l s uppor t f o r t he i r p r ogr e s s A s e c ond por t i on o f t he s t udy r e vi e w e d a t t r i but i on I t c onc l ude d t ha t t he a t t i t ude s of bot h l ow e r a c hi e vi ng a nd younge r s t ude nt s r e l a t e d t he i r gr a de s t o m o r e e xt e r na l a t t r i but i ons I n c ont r a s t t he hi ghe r a c hi e vi ng, ol de r s t ude nt s a t t r i but e d m or e t o t he i r g r a de s T he a ut ho r s c onc l ude d t ha t l ow e r a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a t t r i but e d t he i r f a i l ur e t o e xt e r na l f a c t or s i n or de r t o p r ot e c t t he i r s e l f e s t e e m K e e pi ng i n m i nd t ha t t hi s w a s a s t udy w hi c h f oc us e d on s t ude nt s of t he s pa n f r om f our t h a nd e l e ve nt h gr a de t he i s s ue of t hi r d g r a de be i ng t he f i r s t g r a de l e ve l i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da t o r e c e i ve l e t t e r g r a de s w i l l a dd t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on t he t e s t i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd, s pe c i f i c a l l y, t o t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s S um m a r y I n 2002 du r i ng G e or ge W B us h s f i r s t t e r m C ongr e s s pa s s e d a n e duc a t i on a c t t o s uppor t t he l e a r ni ng a nd de ve l opm e nt o f a l l c hi l dr e n. T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( 2002 ) i ni t i a t i ve ha s ha d a m a r ke d i m pa c t on t e a c he r s i nt e r a c t i on w i t h c hi l d r e n, t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s a nd t o s om e e xt e nt pa r e nt s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s e xpe c t a t i ons f or bot h t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s A s e a r l y a s t he 1920s J ohn D e w e y ha d oppos e d t h e t r a di t i ona l 19 t h c e nt ur y m e t hod of l e a r n i ng by r ot e a s d r i l l e d by t e a c he r s H e be l i e ve d t ha t e duc a t i on s houl d s how

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35 gr e a t e r c onc e r n w i t h t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt a nd he e m pha s i z e d t ha t t he i r r e a l l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s s hou l d be t a ke n i nt o a c c ount S ubs e que nt l y num e r ous i nve s t i ga t or s ha ve de m ons t r a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s f i nd i t hi ghl y s t r e s s f ul t o be e xa m i ne d, a nd e s pe c i a l l y i n hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy a dd one f ur t he r pi e c e o f i nf o r m a t i on t ha t m a y e ve nt ua l l y be he l pf ul t o t hos e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he w a y s t o be s t e duc a t e c hi l dr e n a nd pr e pa r e t he m f or hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. A gr e a t de a l o f t he r e s e a r c h t o da t e on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ha s f oc us e d on t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve t ur m oi l be t w e e n m a nda t e s a nd pr a c t i c e I t ha s pr i m a r i l y e xa m i ne d t e a c he r pe r c e pt i ons ( G or don & R e e s e 1997; P a r i s L a w t on T u r ne r & R ot h, 1991 ) a nd s t ude nt a nxi e t y ( E va ns & E nge l be r g 1988 ) H ow e ve r t he r e ha s be e n onl y l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s onl y i n t hi r d gr a de w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T hi s c ha pt e r r e vi e w e d t he l i t e r a t u r e r e l e va nt t o t he s t udy t o be c a r r i e d out A s um m a r y of f i ndi ngs pe r t a i ni ng t o t he hi s t or y o f t h e pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e a nd na t i ona l r e por t s t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt of c hi l dr e n ge nd e r di f f e r e nc e s a nd t he i m pa c t o f t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t w e r e p r e s e nt e d. E a c h o f t he s e t opi c s w a s a ddr e s s e d i n a c c or da nc e t o t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. B a s e d on t he l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h a va i l a bl e on t he t h i r d g r a de l e ve l i n r e l a t i on t o hi gh s t a ke s t hi s s t udy s ought t o c ont r i but e kno w l e dge f or t h i s young a ge

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36 C H A P T E R 3 M e t hods a nd P r oc e dur e s C hi l dhood i s not onl y s om e t hi ng t o be s t udi e d, i t i s s om e t hi ng w e al l hol d w i t hi n us : a s e t of m e m or i e s a c ol l e c t i on of i de as . . I n s t udy i ng c hi l dr e n, t he r e f or e t he r e i s a s e ns e i n w hi c h w e ar e l i k e l y t o be s t udy i ng t he c hi l d w i t hi n our s e l v e s ( O a kl e y, 1994; p. 28) T hi s c ha pt e r de s c r i be s t he m e t hodol ogy t o be us e d i n t he s t udy. I t i s o r ga ni z e d unde r t he f o l l ow i ng he a di ngs : ( a ) t he pur pos e of t h e s t udy, ( b ) t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons ( c ) t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k gui di ng t he s t udy, ( d ) t h e de s c r i pt i on of r e s e a r c h, ( e ) t he p i l ot t e s t ( f ) t he r e s e a r c he r s bi a s ( g ) t he i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd s e l e c t i on of pa r t i c i p a nt s ( h) t he c ol l e c t i on of da t a ( i ) t he i nt e r vi e w s ( j ) da t a a na l ys i s a nd ( k ) t he va l i da t i on o f t he t he m a t i c s t r uc t ur e P ur pos e of t he S t udy T hi s s t udy w i l l e xpl or e d t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of c hi l d r e n a s t he y t a ke pa r t i n h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng o ve r a one m ont h pe r i od dur i ng t he i r t h i r d g r a de ye a r o f e l e m e nt a r y s c hool A qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h de s i gn e xa m i ne d f our s e pa r a t e s our c e s of t e xt ga t he r e d t o unde r s t a nd t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s I n t e r vi e w s f oc us gr oups dr a w i ngs a nd w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a l l pr ov i de d da t a t o he l p m e di s c ove r a nd i de nt i f y t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t he s t ude nt s T he s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o a l l ow t he s t ude nt s voi c e s t o be he a r d t hr ough t he s t or i e s t he y p r ovi de d dur i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s pe r i od.

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37 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T he r e s e a r c h que s t i on unde r i nve s t i ga t i on i s : W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s dur i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng? A n e xpl or a t i on of t he na t ur a l i s t i c a s pe c t of t he s t udy o c c ur r e d t hr ough t he i nt e gr a t i on of a l l i nf or m a t i on y i e l de d f r o m e a c h por t i on of da t a c ol l e c t e d. T hi s a l l ow e d f or a hol i s t i c r e s ul t of m y a na l ys i s of t he r e s ul t s T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k A s de f i ne d by S t r a us s a nd C or bi n ( 1998 ) qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h pr oduc e s f i ndi ngs not a r r i ve d a t by s t a t i s t i c a l pr oc e dur e s or ot he r m e a ns of qua nt i f i c a t i on I t c a n r e f e r t o r e s e a r c h a bout pe r s ons l i ve s l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s b e ha vi or s e m ot i ons a nd f e e l i ngs a s w e l l a s a bout or ga ni z a t i ona l f unc t i oni ng, s oc i a l m o ve m e nt s a nd c ul t ur a l phe nom e na ( pp. 10 11) W he n r e s e a r c hi ng t he de t a i l s of i ndi vi dua l s na r r a t i ve s a bout t he i r l i ve s t he s e a ut hor s r e c om m e nde d t hr e e us e f ul p r e c ur s or s f or i m p l e m e nt i ng qua l i t a t i ve s t udi e s T he y s ugge s t qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h s houl d be : ( 1) c om pl e m e nt a r y t o t he pr e f e r e nc e s a nd pe r s ona l e x pe r i e nc e s of t he r e s e a r c he r ; ( 2) c o ngr ue nt w i t h t he na t ur e o f t he r e s e a r c h pr obl e m ; a nd ( 3) e m pl oye d t o e xpl or e a r e a s a bout w hi c h l i t t l e i s kno w n. T he pr e s e nt s t udy ut i l i z e d phe nom e nol ogy w r i t t e n i n a na r r a t i ve f or m a t unde r t he pr ovi s i ons of por t r a i t ur e a n a pp r oa c h t ha t i nc or po r a t e s s ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i on. T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons pr ovi de a de s c r i pt i on of e a c h c o m pone nt of t he a ppr oa c h.

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38 Sy m bol i c I nt e r ac t i on S ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i on i s de r i ve d f r om M e a d s ( 193 4) t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve i n s oc i a l ps yc hol ogy, w hi c h i s t ha t t he m e a ni ng o f s y m bol s i s de t e r m i ne d t h r ough t he c ou r s e of hum a n i nt e r a c t i on. S ubs e que nt l y, m e t hodol ogi c a l i m pl i c a t i ons w e r e d r a w n by M e a d s s t ude nt s e s pe c i a l l y B l um e r ( 1969) a nd H ughe s ( 1 971) w ho a r gue d t ha t i t w a s e s s e nt i a l t o i nt e r pr e t hum a n e xpe r i e nc e t h r ough phe nom e no l ogi c a l a n a l ys i s T he s oc i a l r e a l i t y of how hum a ns i nt e r pr e t a c t i on a nd t he r e c i pr oc a t i on of ot he r s be ha vi or w e r e de f i ne d a s m e a ni ngf ul a nd de r i va t i ve of t he s e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of i nt e r a c t i ons ( B r une r 1969; S i t t e r 1982) S ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i oni s m s t a r t s w i t h t he a s s um pt i on t ha t hum a n a c t i ons t ow a r d t hi ngs a r e ba s e d upon t he m e a ni ngs t hos e t hi ngs h a ve f or t ha t pe r s on. I t r e s t s on t hr e e pr e m i s e s ( B l um e r 1969 ) T he f i r s t p r e m i s e r e l i e s o n t he r e gul a r i t y of t he a c t i on t o c r e a t e m e a ni ng. T he s e c ond pr e m i s e i s t ha t hum a n s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on i s t he s our c e o f m e a ni ng of s uc h t hi ngs a nd doe s not e xi s t out s i de of i ndi vi dua l i nt e r pr e t a t i on T he f i na l pr e m i s e i s t ha t i nt e r pr e t a t i on gi ve s m e a ni ng t o c ons t r uc t s T h us hum a n r e s pons e s a r e not di r e c t but r a t he r a r e m e di a t e d t hr ough s ym bol s m a ny o f w hi c h a r e a c qui r e d by s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on. S i nc e i t i s a n e xpl or a t i on o f t he f unc t i ona l r e l a t i on s be t w e e n s e l f pe r c e pt i ons pr oj e c t i ons of ot he r s a nd t he a c ui t y of e a c h ot he r s ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i oni s m e m e r ge s t hr ough s oc i a l a nd s ym bol i c a l c ons t r uc t i on ( B l um e r 1969; S he r m a n & W e bb 1988; V a n M a ne n, 1990) B l um e r ( 1969 p 12 ) de pi c t e d t he i nt e r a c t i ons of i ndi vi dua l s a s l i ne s o f a c t i ons or ve c t or s t ha t c ol l e c t i ve l y m us t be r e c ogni z e d a s t he i nt e r l i nka ge of s e pa r a t e

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39 a c t s by va r i ous pa r t i c i pa n t s F l i c k ( 1998) c onve ye d t he i m po r t a nc e of how m e a ni ng i s de r i ve d f r om t he s e ve c t or s ba s e d on t w o di s t i nc t a r e a s f or r e c ons t r uc t i on o f t he s ubj e c t s pe r s pe c t i ve H e s t a t e d: T he f i r s t i s t he f or m of s ubj e c t i ve t he or i e s us e d by pe opl e t o e xpl a i n t he w or l d f or t he m s e l ve s F l i c k t he n c ont i nue d, T he s e c ond i s i n t he f or m of a ut obi ogr a phi c a l na r r a t i ve s b i ogr a phi c a l t r a j e c t or i e s t ha t a r e r e c ons t r uc t e d f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he s ubj e c t s ( 1998, p. 18) H e nc e t he i ndi vi dua l de t e r m i ne s t he m e a ni ng of t he na t u r e of a n obj e c t ba s e d on i t s r e l e va nc e t o hi m or he r T hi s i n t e r pr e t i ve p r oc e s s i s f ol l ow e d by de c i s i ons a nd a c t i ons S ym bol i c i n t e r a c t i oni s t s s t r i ve t o di s t i ngui s h t he m e a ni ng t ha t obj e c t s ha ve by obs e r vi ng t he i nt e r pr e t i ve pr oc e s s i n w hi c h i ndi vi dua l s e nga ge w hi l e c ons t r uc t i ng m e a ni ng. T o s um m a r i z e s ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i oni s t s pr obe t he c yc l e of de c i s i on m a ki ng, a l ong w i t h t he a c t i ons t a ke n by i ndi vi dua l s i n c ont e xt T he r e f or e a n i m por t a nt pa r t of m a ki ng s e ns e of t he m e a ni ng of t he e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s dur i ng t hi r d gr a de hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng r e qui r e s a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he m e a ni ng i t ha d f o r t he m T hi s r e qui r e s a na l yz i ng a nd i nt e r pr e t i ng t he pr oc e s s e s by w hi c h t he y c ons t r uc t e d m e a ni ng w i t hi n t he i di os ync r a t i c s i t ua t i ons t he y f ound t he m s e l ve s P he nom e n ol ogy I nve s t i ga t i ng t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng r e qui r e d e xt r a c t i ng t he i r e s s e nt i a l s t r uc t ur e by phe nom e nol ogi c a l a na l ys i s of t he de s c r i pt i ons t he y pr ovi de d. T he r a t i ona l e s uppor t i n g a t t e m pt s t o unde r s t a nd i ndi vi dua l s t hr ough t he i r ow n l e ns e s e nc om pa s s e s t he i r f i e l d o f pe r c e pt i on ( B r uyn, 1966) T hus t he

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40 e s s e nt i a l s t r uc t ur e of a t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s a s c e r t a i ne d by l e a r ni ng w ha t e a c h s t ude nt s c ons c i ous a nd i m m e di a t e l y l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s ( H us s e r l 1970; V a n M a ne n, 1990 ) T hi s s t udy f oc us e d on e a c h of t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a s uni que i ndi vi dua l s P r obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h de s i gns t ha t s ol i c i t pr e c onc e i ve d f i ndi ngs w e r e a voi de d by ke e pi ng t h e pr oc e s s phe nom e nol ogi c a l l y ope n a nd i nduc t i ve D ur i ng t he e r os i on of F r e nc h l a t e s t r uc t ur a l i s m s g r i p on ph i l os ophy, T he G e r m a n s c hol a r s H us s e r l a nd H e i de gge r G e r m a n s c hol a r s pr ovi de d a br i dge t o t he phe nom e nol ogi c a l m ove m e nt of F r e nc h s c hol a r s M e r l e a u P ont y a nd S a r t r e ( L a ni ga n, 1979) M or e r e c e nt l y, V a n M a ne n ( 1990) a nd O r b e ( 1994, 1998) a ppl i e d phe nom e nol ogy i n t he U S t o i s s ue s r e l a t i ng t o e duc a t i on t hr ough a n i nt e r pr e t i ve de s c r i pt i ve a ppr oa c h t o qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne s t he l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t hr ough t he i r t e xt ua l e xpr e s s i on ( V a n M a ne n, 1990) T he pr oc e s s of r e f l e c t i on w hi c h pl a c e s t he r e a de r i nt o t he l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e of t he i ndi vi dua l unde r go i ng t he phe nom e non ha s be e n di v i de d i nt o t hr e e pha s e s ( O r be 1994, 1998; N e l s on, 19 89; L a ni ga n, 1979, 1988) H ow e ve r c a r e m us t be t a ke n t o no t gi ve m or e c r e de nc e t o t he r e s ul t i ng s ys t e m i z a t i on t ha n t o t he or i gi na l obs e r va t i ons ( I hde 1977 ) F i r s t w i t h de s c r i pt i on o f l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s i nt e r vi e w s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs w i t h s t ude nt e xpl a na t i ons w e r e c ol l e c t e d. T he a s s i gnm e nt of m e a ni ng t o t hi r d gr a de r s e xpe r i e nc i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s r e ve a l e d t hr ough c ol l e c t i ve l a ngua ge a nd

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41 di r e c t l y f r o m t he da t a D e s c r i pt i ons r a t he r t ha n e x pl a na t i ons of t he phe nom e na w e r e dr a w n out o f t he da t a by f oc us i ng on t he a c t i ve a nd de s c r i pt i ve l a ngua ge of e a c h s t ude nt T he r e l e va nc e of a l l i ni t i a l de s c r i pt i ons w e r e e va l u a t e d by r e t ur ni n g t o t he i ni t i a l da t a f or m s t o e ns ur e t ha t e a c h c hi l d s pu r i t y o f l a ngua g e w a s r e pr e s e nt e d by t he i r or i gi na l w or ds ( I hde 1977) N e xt t he da t a w e r e r e vi e w e d t hr ough t he m e t hod o f r e duc t i on R e duc t i on i s t he pr oc e s s by w hi c h r e s e a r c he r s e xa m i ne t he da t a f o r r e c ur r i ng pha s e s w hi c h r e ve a l t he m e s t ha t i n t ur n c a n di s c l os e e s s e nt i a l m e a ni ng ( V a n M a ne n, 1990) T he i n t e r r e l a t e dne s s of t he s e t he m e s a l ong w i t h t he i r r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he phe nom e non w a s r e ve a l e d by c ol or c odi ng r e l a t e d w or ds o r phr a s e s f r om w i t hi n t he da t a ( O r be 1994, 1998; L a ni ga n, 1988) I n t hi s s t udy, e a c h da t a s e t ( t ha t i s i nt e r vi e w s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs ) w e r e c ode d s e pa r a t e l y a nd gr a phe d be f or e t he ne xt s e gm e nt of da t a w a s s o a na l yz e d. T he n, t he pi e c e s w a r e c om bi ne d, f ol di ng one i n a f t e r t he ot h e r unt i l t he c ohe s i ve ne s s of a l l pi e c e s w a s c ode d. R a t he r t ha n be i ng t he f i na l c om pone nt s i nt e r p r e t a t i on c ons t i t ut e s t he t hi r d pha s e i n t he ongoi ng da t a r e vi e w c yc l e I n or de r t o e ns ur e t he i nt e gr i t y of t he s t ude nt s or i gi na l i nt e nt t he or i gi na l l a ngua ge a nd t he c ont e xt o f t he i nf or m a t i on t he s t ude nt s di vul ge d w e r e pr e s e r ve d i n t he i nt e r pr e t a t i o n. N ar r at i v e T hi s ongoi ng c yc l e o f da t a r e vi e w w a s t he n w r i t t e n i n a na r r a t i ve f or m a t a s s pe c i f i e d unde r t he f r a m e w or k o f po r t r a i t ur e A f r a m e w or k w a s pr ovi de d by L a w r e nc e

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42 L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1997 ) e m pl oye d a m e t hodol ogy t ha t br i dge d s c i e nc e a nd a r t i n r e c or di ng a nd a na l yz i ng t he voi c e s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t hi r d gr a de E duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c he r s s uc h a s C a r t e r ( 1993 ) N oddi ngs ( 1991) V a n M a ne n ( 1991) C onne l l y a nd C l a ndi ni n ( 1990 ) a l l f ound pow e r i n c ol l e c t i n g s t or i e s of pe opl e s l i ve s E nt r a ppi ng t he r i c hne s s a nd i nd e t e r m i na c y of ou r e xpe r i e nc e s ( C a r t e r 1993 p 5 ) s uc h s t or i e s be c a m e a n i m por t a nt w a y t o t r a ns l a t e l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s i nt o a n unde r s t a nda bl e r e pr e s e nt a t i on o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r s pe c t i ve I n t he pr e s e nt s t udy of t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i on s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, t he va l i di t y w a s c he c ke d by: 1. ha vi ng a n out s i de r e a de r c on f i r m t he r e l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n t he na r r a t i ve a nd t he da t a upon w hi c h i t w a s de s i gne d; 2. r e t ur ni ng t he na r r a t i ve s t o t he i n f or m a nt s f o r s e l f c he c ki ng; a nd 3. s ubm i t t i ng t he r e s ul t s t o a c know l e dge d e xpe r t s i n na r r a t i ve w r i t i ng. N a r r a t i ve a c c ount s r e pr e s e nt a s i gni f i c a nt w a y f o r s t ude nt s t o ponde r t he e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t s ur r ound t he m N a r r a t i ve r e s e a r c h pr ovi de s a n oppo r t uni t y f or t he s oc i a l s c i e nt i s t s t o he a r t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons o f t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t he r e f or e ga i ni ng gr e a t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng f r om t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s l e ns B a s e d on hi s e xt e ns i ve w o r k on c ogni t i ve ps yc hol ogy B r une r ( 1969) pos t ul a t e d t ha t t he r e w e r e pa r a di gm a t i c a nd na r r a t i ve i nt e r pr e t a t i ons pe opl e pr ovi de d o f t he e ve nt s i n t he i r l i ve s I n s e a r c hi ng f or uni ve r s a l t r ut h t he pa r a di gm a t i c s t yl e i s a l s o know n a s t he l ogi c a l a nd s c i e nt i f i c m oda l i t y o f r e f l e c t i on. M or e he a vi l y s t r uc t ur e d i nt o r e por t f o r m a t s a nd

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43 s ys t e m s t ha t i nf e r c onc l us i ons P ol ki ngho r ne ( 199 0) f ound r a t i ona l i t y t o be t he m a i n di s c our s e of pa r a di gm a t i c s t yl e B r une r t he n pr opos e d t ha t a s e c ond m ode o f t houg ht na r r a t i ve s t yl e w a s a f or m of r e a s one d know i ng. I n 1985 he a r gue d t ha t na r r a t i ve know l e dge s ur pa s s e d e m ot i ve e xpr e s s i on a nd s ugge s t e d t he s e t w o di s t i nc t f or m s of r e a s oni ng of f e r a l t e r na t e w a ys i n w hi c h t o unde r s t a nd t he w or l d: T he r e a r e t w o m ode s of c ogni t i ve f unc t i oni ng, t w o m ode s of t hough t e a c h pr ovi di ng di s t i nc t i ve w a ys of or de r i ng e xpe r i e nc e s of c ons t r uc t i ng r e a l i t y. T he t w o ( t hough c om pl e m e nt a r y ) a r e i r r e duc i bl e t o one a not he r E a c h of t he w a ys of know i ng m o r e ove r ha s ope r a t i ng pr i n c i pl e s of i t s ow n a nd i t s ow n c r i t e r i a o f w e l l f or m e dne s s T he y di f f e r r a di c a l l y i n t he i r pr oc e dur e s f or ve r i f i c a t i on ( p. 11) N a r r a t i ve a na l ys i s s ynt he s i z e s t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i nt o a n e xpl a na t i on of w ha t i t i s l i ke t o be i n t he i r s hoe s T he r e s e a r c he r s r ol e w a s t o t a ke t he e l e m e nt s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he da t a a nd uni t e t he m i n a c ohe s i ve s t or y t ha t pr ovi de s s ubs t a nc e t o t he da t a T he s i gni f i c a nc e of s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t hi n t hi s c ont e xt of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s t hus w r i t t e n i nt o a hi s t or y. P or t r ai t ur e T he w r i t t e n na r r a t i ve s w e r e c r e a t e d unde r t he f r a m e w or k of po r t r a i t u r e L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1 997) de f i ne por t r a i t ur e a s a n i nt e nt i ona l l y ge ne r ous a nd e c l e c t i c pr oc e s s t ha t be gi ns by s e a r c hi ng f o r w ha t i s good a nd he a l t hy a nd a s s um e s t ha t t he e xpr e s s i on of go odne s s w i l l a l w a ys be l a c e d w i t h i m pe r f e c t i ons ( p. 9) T hi s f or m o f i nve s t i ga t i on doe s not a t t e m pt t o i de a l i z e w ha t i t s t udi e s but r a t he r s e e s t he

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44 goodne s s l a c e d w i t h i m pe r f e c t i ons a s c ons t i t ut i ng a ne got i a t i on o f vul ne r a bi l i t i e s I f ound e vi de nc e of t he s e vul ne r a bi l i t i e s w i t hi n t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. I t w a s i n t he i r ne got i a t i on t h r ough t he s e vul ne r a bi l i t i e s t ha t t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w e r e r e ve a l e d. P or t r a i t ur e s o f t he t w e l ve pr i m a r y r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e de ve l ope d i n e f f o r t t o f or m u l a t e a n i m a ge o f t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w ho w e r e w i l l i ng t o a l l ow t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o be r e c r e a t e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he a f or e m e nt i one d w or k by L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1997) ha s s i gni f i c a nt l y c ont r i bu t e d t o t he de ve l opm e nt of pa r t i c i pa nt por t r a i t ur e s R e t r i e va l of t he da t a i s c om bi ne d by t he por t r a i t i s t or r e s e a r c he r a l l ow i ng t he r e a de r t o c o nne c t w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s voi c e by r e ve a l i ng t he da t a i n a na r r a t i ve de ve l ope d f r om w i t hi n t he r e a l m of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r s pe c t i ve I f o r m e d na r r a t i ve s a s vi vi d de s c r i pt i ons of s t ude nt s w ho w e r e ve r y r e a l t o m e a nd w ho w i l l i ngl y di vu l ge d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n a n e f f or t t o a i d m y s t udy. E a c h na r r a t i ve c ont a i ns quo t e d i nf or m a t i on di r e c t l y f r om t he s t ude nt s T he doc um e nt e d s t or i e s w e r e w r i t t e n i n a n e f f or t t o pr ovi de a vi e w of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons a s t he y g r a ppl e d w i t h t he t e s t i ng r e gi m e n T he f or m a t i on of t he po r t r a i t u r e s w a s w r i t t e n i n a c c or d w i t h t he da t a ga t he r e d f r om t he pr ot oc ol of i nt e r vi e w s r e f l e c t i ve w r i t i ngs a nd dr a w i ngs w i t h e xpl a na t i ons I c hos e t o de t a i l t h e po r t r a i t ur e s o f t he s t ude nt s by p r ovi di ng a c ha r a c t e r s ke t c h of e a c h o f t he 12 m a i n pa r t i c i pa nt s T he s ke t c he s a r e or de r e d t o pr ovi de a di s c us s i on of t he

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45 ba c kgr ound of e a c h o f t he s t ude nt s f ol l ow e d by a g l i m ps e of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r t he hi gh s t a ke s e xa m i na t i ons A s I c hos e t he da t a t o be i nc l ude d, I l ooke d f or t he m e s t ha t r e c ur r e d a m ong t he s e 12 pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he 39 s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s F r om t he r e be f o r e de ve l opi ng t he r e p r e s e nt a t i ve por t r a i t ur e s t he r e w a s a di s c us s i o n on t he ove r w he l m i ng t he m e o f ow ne r s h i p of l e a r ni ng t ha t pr e s e nt e d i t s e l f t hr ough ( 1 ) S e l f T e s t ( 2 ) a t t r i but i on, ( 3 ) pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s a nd ( 3 ) e m ot i ons T he n i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he m e t hodol ogi e s r e s e a r c he d by L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1 997) I a ns w e r e d t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons a s I c r e a t e d t he r e ve a l e d por t r a i t ur e s : H a s c ont e xt ua l i nf or m a t i on be e n i nc l ude d a s c l a r i f yi ng a n i nt r oduc t i on t o a nd a n e di f yi ng ba c kdr op t hr oughout t he po r t r a i t ? H a s e a c h i ndi vi dua l voi c e be e n s uf f i c i e nt l y r e ve a l e d a nd m od ul a t e d s o t ha t i t w i l l i nf o r m but not d i s t or t t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on pr e s e nt e d i n t he po r t r a i t ? H a ve r e l a t i ons hi ps be e n r e s pe c t e d a nd f a i t h f u l l y m a i nt a i ne d w i t h t he a c t o r s on t he s c e ne t hr oughout t he s ha pi ng of t he f i na l w hol e ? D o t he i de nt i f i e d e m e r ge nt t he m e s r e s ona t e t hr oug hout t he l a ngua ge a nd c ul t ur e of t he a c t or s on t he s i t e a nd do t he y a de qua t e l y s uppor t t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on p r e s e nt e d i n t he po r t r a i t ? I n ke e pi ng w i t h t he m e t hodol ogi c a l r e qui r e m e nt s ( L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot & D a vi s 1997) t he pur i t y of t he c o l l e c t e d da t a w e r e w r i t t e n i n na r r a t i ve f or m a nd s ubm i t t e d a s por t r a i t ur e s

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46 D e s c r i pt i on of t he R e s e a r c h T hi s r e s e a r c h e xa m i ne d t he phe nom e nol ogy of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a s t he y i nt e r a c t e d a nd de ve l ope d m e a ni ng o f t he i r pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t he i r s oc i a l c ont e xt by e l i c i t i ng t he i r de s c r i pt i ons a nd s t or i e s of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s T he s e de s c r i pt i ons a s s i s t e d i n t he unve i l i ng of t he pe r c e pt i ons a t t i t ude s a nd c ogni t i ve i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a s t he y m a de s e ns e of t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e nvi r onm e nt T he f ol l ow i ng s e que nc e w a s f ol l ow e d dur i ng t hi s r e s e a r c h. F i r s t I c onduc t e d a pi l ot s t udy. S e c ond, I e xpl or e d m y r e s e a r c h bi a s e s T hi r d I i de nt i f i e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s F our t h, I c onduc t e d t he i nt e r v i e w s a nd ga t he r e d t h e pa r t i c i pa nt d r a w i ngs a nd r e f l e c t i ve na r r a t i ve s F i f t h, I f or m e d f oc us gr oups a nd r e c or d e d di s c us s i ons bot h of w hi c h w e r e l a t e r t r a ns c r i be d. S i xt h I c ol l e c t e d s t ude nt r e f l e c t i ve na r r a t i ve s a nd dr a w i ngs o f t he hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e F i na l l y, I a na l yz e d a l l t he da t a E a c h pha s e of t he s e que nc e w i l l now be di s c us s e d i n gr e a t e r de t a i l P i l ot T e s t i ng A s pa r t of a gr a dua t e r e s e a r c h c our s e i n 2002, I a n a l yz e d da t a c ol l e c t e d on t he pe r c e pt i ons of t e a c he r s a nd t he i r t hi r d gr a de s t ude n t s a s t he y pa r t i c i pa t e d i n hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T h r oughout t he s i x m ont hs of t he r e s e a r c h, I pe r f or m e d pa r a di gm a t i c a na l ys e s of qua l i t a t i ve da t a T w e nt y f ou r t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s de s c r i be d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s t hr oughout t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t i m e f r a m e by m e a ns of w e e kl y w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd d r a w i ngs T he s e da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he c om pl e t i on of t he s t a t e s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t

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47 S i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s w e r e c or r e l a t e d by c ol or c odi ng o f t he t he m e s a nd r e pe t i t i ve phr a s e s w e r e gr a phe d. T he f i ndi ngs w e r e c a t e gor i z e d a nd pr e s e nt e d i n or de r t o i m pr ove f ut u r e hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t e a c hi ng p r a c t i c e s a nd e nvi r onm e nt s T hi s r e s e a r c h a l s o m a de m e a w a r e a nd a l l ow e d m e t o s ynt he s i z e t he l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s dur i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. S e ve r a l br oa d t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om t h e r e s e a r c h, i ns pi r i ng m e t o de l ve de e pe r i n t o t he pe r c e pt i ons o f t he c hi l d r e n. T he y e xpr e s s e d a di ve r s i t y of e m ot i ons w hi c h r e l a t e d t o t he i r t e a c he r s pe e r s a nd pa r e nt s a s w e l l a s t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he i r ow n s e ns e of s e l f B i a s E xpl or a t i on a nd B r a c ke t i ng A s a n i m pl i c i t e l e m e nt of r e s e a r c h, one s ow n b i a s i s t ypi c a l l y i gno r e d a s unne c e s s a r y i n t he us ua l c ont r ol pr oc e dur e s o f w e l l de s i gne d r e s e a r c h. H ow e ve r w i t h qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o i nc or po r a t e a w a r e ne s s of bi a s i nt o t he p r oc e s s I c onduc t e d r e pe a t e d s e l f e xa m i na t i on f o r bi a s t hr ou ghout da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s N e i t he r qua nt i t a t i ve nor qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h c a n c om pl e t e l y pr e c l ude bi a s e s T he s t a nc e of t he r e s e a r c he r t hr oughout t he p r oc e s s ne e ds t o be a r t i c ul a t e d by t he r e s e a r c he r pr i or t o t he ons e t o f t he s t udy ( V a n M a ne n, 1990) T o f u r t he r c l a r i f y p r e e xi s t i ng a s s um pt i ons ( S i de m a n, 1991) t he r e s e a r c he r s ubm i t s t o a br a c ke t i ng i nt e r vi e w A n e xpe r i e nc e d i nt e r vi e w e r e nga ge d m e i n a ns w e r i ng t he s a m e or qui t e s i m i l a r que s t i ons t o t hos e us e d i n t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s T he br a c ke t i ng i nt e r vi e w pr ove d ve r y va l ua bl e i n r e ve a l i ng s e ve r a l a r e a s of c onc e r n t o w hi c h I ne e de d t o s t a y a w a r e dur i ng m y da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s O f pa r t i c ul a r c onc e r n w e r e m y

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48 a t t i t ude s a nd phi l os ophy t ow a r d s t ude nt t e a c he r r a ppor t m y a t t i t ude t ow a r d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t hi n t he di s t r i c t a nd t he pow e r r e l a t i on b e t w e e n m ys e l f a nd t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e I w a s t he i r R e a di ng C oa c h. A n hour l ong qua l i t a t i ve i nt e r vi e w w a s c onduc t e d by a pr o f e s s or of e duc a t i on pr i or t o m e i n t e r vi e w i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. I w a s a s ke d t he que s t i ons t ha t I ha d pr e pa r e d t o a s k t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n m y s t udy. W i t hi n t he t e ne t s of a br a c ke t i ng i nt e r vi e w t he s e que s t i ons ge ne r a l l y f oc us e d on t he r e c ol l e c t i on of e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t hi r d gr a de a s bot h a s t ude nt a nd a t e a c he r m y phi l os ophy o f e du c a t i on, a nd how I f e l t a bout hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. S e ve r a l bi a s e s w e r e r e ve a l e d s om e of w hi c h c a n be gl e a ne d f r om t he f ol l ow i ng pe r s ona l na r r a t i ve M y pe r s ona l e duc a t i on, a s w e l l a s 14 ye a r s e xpe r i e nc e a s a n e l e m e nt a r y t e a c he r t ook pl a c e i n no r t he r n M i c hi ga n a nd i n F l or i da I w a s e xpos e d t o a m ul t i t ude o f e duc a t i ona l phi l os ophi e s a nd pr a c t i c e s f r om w hi c h I ha ve c ons t r uc t e d a pe r s ona l be l i e f t ha t e a c h c hi l d i s c om pl e t e l y uni que a nd m us t be r e s pe c t e d a s a n i ndi vi dua l I a m c om m i t t e d t o nu r t ur i ng a l l a s pe c t s ( e m ot i ona l s oc i a l i nt e l l e c t ua l c ul t ur a l a nd phys i c a l ) of e a c h c hi l d s de ve l opm e nt w hi c h I c ons i de r t o b e i nt e r r e l a t e d M y pe r s ona l a ppr oa c h t o e duc a t i on i s c hi l d c e nt e r e d. I l i ke t o be l i e ve e a c h s t ude nt e m ba r ks upon a n i nne r j our ne y dur i ng hi s or he r e duc a t i on a nd t ha t t hi s i s c ont i nua l l y e vol vi ng, e xpa ndi ng a nd unf ol di ng T he ul t i m a t e g oa l i s t o he l p t he s t ude nt c r e a t e he r s e l f a s a n a ut he nt i c l e a r ne r I a l s o s uppor t a n i n t e gr a t e d a nd e xpe r i e nt i a l c u r r i c ul um i n w hi c h

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49 e a c h c hi l d c a n w e a ve he r ow n t a pe s t r y a nd c r e a t e he r ow n c onne c t i ons c onve nt i ons a nd c om m uni t i e s M y vi e w s m a y bi a s t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy, a l l o f w hom I ha ve i nt e r a c t e d w i t h i n m y c a pa c i t y a s t he i r R e a di ng C o a c h. T he b i a s c oul d a l t e r t he r e s pons e s t he y ga ve dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s e s F or e xa m pl e i f t he s t ude nt s be l i e ve d t ha t I t hought t ha t t e s t i ng w a s s t r e s s f ul t he y m a y ha ve e xa gge r a t e d t he a m ount o f s t r e s s t he y r e por t e d. A not he r e xa m pl e i f t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s f e l t unc om f o r t a bl e i n m a ki ng c om m e nt s t ha t r e l a t e d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e t o t he i r c l a s s r oom t e a c he r pa r t i c ul a r l y i f t he y pe r c e i ve d t ha t I ha d a c ol l e gi a l r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t t e a c he r t he y m i ght ha ve be e n r e l uc t a nt t o r e ve a l a ny vul ne r a bi l i t i e s t he y f e l t T o m i ni m i z e bi a s i n m y da t a I t r a ns f e r r e d a s a R e a di ng C oa c h, t o t he s c hool w he r e I c onduc t e d t h e r e s e a r c h a t t he be gi nni ng of t he t e r m T he r e f o r e I ha d a m a r gi na l pr e s e nc e i n t he s c hool c ont e xt I a ppr oa c he d da t a a na l ys i s w i t h c a ut i on t o: ( a ) not i nt e r f e r e o r i m pos e m y ba c kgr ound e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he s t ude nt or t he t e a c he r of m e nt i on a s t o w ha t t he s t u de nt i s s a yi ng, ( b ) a voi d a s s um pt i ons r e ga r di ng t he s t ude nt s a c t i ons o r i nt e r pr e t a t i ons r e ga r di ng t he i r c l a s s r oo m t e a c he r T he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i n t he s c hool m i ght not ha ve r e c ogni z e d m y e duc a t i ona l phi l os ophy. I nde e d, a ny c onf l i c t be t w e e n m y ow n phi l os ophy a nd t ha t f ound i n t he s c hool m a y ha ve pl a c e d t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i n a n unc om f or t a bl e s t a t e a s t he y p r ogr e s s e d t hr ough t he i r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t i m e f r a m e C a r e f ul not t o pr oj e c t m y pe r s ona l phi l os ophy ont o t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s o r t he i r a ns w e r s I w a s pa r t i c ul a r l y c a ut i ous w he n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he i r r e s pons e s t o t opi c s I m a y ha ve i ni t i a t e d.

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50 T he pos i t i o n o f t he s c hool d i s t r i c t w a s t ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w a s r e qui r e d of a l l t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s f or g r a de l e ve l pr o m ot i on. I di d of t e n s e ns e d di s c om f or t f r om s om e of t he ot he r t e a c he r s ove r m y ow n di s c om f or t r e ga r di ng t he m a nda t e s f or s uc h t e s t i ng dur i ng m y 14 ye a r s i n e l e m e nt a r y e duc a t i on. T hi s w a s pe r ha ps unde r s t a nda bl e s i nc e t e a c he r s ha ve of t e n a s s um e d br oa d s t a nc e s on t he s pe c t r um of t he s ubj e c t M y t r a ns f e r t o t he r e s e a r c h s c hool a t t he be gi nni ng of t he t e r m w a s t he r e f or e be ne f i c i a l i n t ha t i t l i m i t e d t he t e a c he r s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m y s t r ong ne ga t i ve b e l i e f s a bout t e s t i ng. T he s e pa r t i c ul a r t hi r d gr a de t e a c he r s w e r e a s unf a m i l i a r w i t h m e a s I w a s t he m H ow e ve r t hi s p r e s e nt e d a not he r pot e nt i a l c ha l l e nge i n obt a i ni ng t he l e a s t bi a s e d r e f l e c t i ons pos s i bl e w he n e xpl or i ng t he pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s A s a R e a di ng C oa c h i n t he s c hool I m a y ha ve br o ught t o t he r e s e a r c h a n a dul t or i e nt a t i on t ha t d i f f e r e d f r o m t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy. A ny s uc h a dul t or i e nt e d t e nde nc y of dom i na t i on m a y ha ve be e n a u gm e nt e d by m y p r e vi ous f ou r t e e n ye a r s of c l a s s r oom e xpe r i e nc e M or e ove r a s a R e a di ng C oa c h t o t he s e t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a s ubs t a nt i a l t e a c he r s t ude nt r e l a t i ons hi p ha d be e n e s t a bl i s he d i n a ddi t i on t o t ha t of m y r ol e a s a s uppor t e r t o t he i r c l a s s r oom c ur r i c u l um A l t hough t he r e w a s a n e s t a bl i s he d r e l a t i ons hi p, t he pow e r s t r uc t ur e of c oa c h s t ude nt e xi s t i ng be t w e e n t he s t ude nt s a nd m ys e l f c oul d ha ve pr oduc e d f e e l i ngs of a ppr e he ns i on w i t hi n t he m I n a ddi t i on, t he g r a de l e ve l i nc or por a t e d a va r i e t y o f e t hni c i t i e s a nd bot h ge nde r s B e i ng a E u r o A m e r i c a n f e m a l e I m a y ha ve pr ovi de d a ddi t i ona l s our c e of a pp r e he ns i on f or s t ude nt s of d i f f e r e nt de m og r a phi c s A s r e ve a l e d i n

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51 t he br a c ke t i ng i nt e r vi e w m y e xpe r i e nc e a s a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt w a s qui t e di f f e r e nt t ha n t hos e of t oda y. H e nc e i f t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t h ought I m i ght be una bl e t o r e l a t e t o t he i r pe r s pe c t i ve of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, t he y m a y h a ve de c i de d t o w i t hhol d f r om m e A l t hough I ha ve t a ught a va r i e t y o f e a r l y gr a de l e v e l s m y e xpos ur e t o t he va r i e t y of e t hni c i t i e s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt po pul a t i on ha s be e n l i m i t e d t o t ha t of a n out s i de r not a pa r t i c i pa nt R e vi e w of t he s e bi a s e s a s w e l l a s r e c ogni t i on of t h e i r pot e nt i a l t o i nf l ue nc e m y i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t he t hi r d gr a de s t u de nt s pe r c e pt i o ns w a s c r i t i c a l dur i ng t he da t a a na l ys i s a nd w r i t e up o f t h i s s t udy. T o m a i nt a i n a w a r e ne s s of m y b i a s e s a nd t o pr ovi de va l i di t y t o t he i nf or m a t i on a nd a na l ys i s t w o s e pa r a t e a dvi s or y gr oups w e r e e m pl oye d T he f i r s t w a s c om pr i s e d of a s m a l l gr oup o f g r a dua t e s t ude nt s e nga ge d i n bot h qua l i t a t i ve a nd qua nt i t a t i ve s t udi e s T hi s g r oup ke pt f oc us e d on i s s ue s a nd que s t i ons dur i ng t he f or m a t i ve po r t i on o f t he s t udy T he s e c ond gr oup c om pr i s e d pr of e s s or s f r om t he f i e l d of e duc a t i on. I t r a i s e d on goi n g i s s ue s dur i ng t he va l i da t i on por t i on of t he s t udy. R e vi e w i ng t he br a c ke t i ng i nt e r vi e w pr i or t o t he i nt e r v i e w s of t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s t he s ubs e que nt da t a a na l ys i s a nd t he f o r m a t i on o f t he na r r a t i ve s k e pt m y bi a s e s a t t he f or e f r on t of c ons c i ous ne s s I de nt i f i c a t i on a nd S e l e c t i on of P a r t i c i pa nt s P a r t i c i pa nt s f or t hi s s t udy w e r e s t ude nt s a t a G ul f C oa s t s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da P e r m i s s i on t o c onduc t t he s t udy w a s f i r s t r e c e i ve d f r om t he s e l e c t e d s c hool ( A ppe ndi x A ) T he s t ude nt s w ho c ont r i but e d a s pr i m a r y a nd s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e

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52 f r om t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool w hi c h t he y w e r e z one d t o a t t e nd. T he c ount y ha d f or m a l l y r e di s t r i c t e d t he s c hool t w o ye a r s pr i or t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy. T he r e z oni ng w a s ba s e d on e t hni c i t y a nd s oc i oe c onom i c c o m pos i t i on. T he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool popul a t i on w a s di ve r s e I t i nc l ude d 52 pe r c e nt e t hni c i t i e s ( 45 pe r c e nt H i s pa ni c 7 pe r c e nt A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n) ot he r t ha n E ur o A m e r i c a n, w i t h 56 pe r c e nt of t he s t ude nt s qua l i f yi ng f o r f r e e a nd r e duc e d l unc he s T he s t ude nt s m e t t he s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a ba s e d on t he i r c ur r e nt a t t e nda nc e i n t he t hi r d gr a de A c c or di ng t o t he s c hool w i de r e a di ng a bi l i t y s c r e e ne r ( D I B E L S ) a nd s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt ( S t a nf or d 10) s c or e s t he 12 s t ude nt s w e r e gr oupe d by a bi l i t y. T hos e w ho t ur ne d i n t h e i r I nt e r na l R e vi e w B oa r d c ons e nt f or i nt e r vi e w pa r t i c i pa t i on r e pr e s e nt e d t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s of t he s t udy. T he s t ude nt s w e r e f r om a pool of f i ve t hi r d g r a de c l a s s r oom s T he s e 12 s t ude nt s w e r e di vi de d i nt o t h r e e c a t e gor i e s : ( 1) l ow e r a c a de m i c t e s t s c o r e s ( 2) a ve r a ge s c or e s a nd, ( 3) hi ghe r s c or e s ( T a bl e 1) T he s e l e ve l s w e r e de t e r m i ne d f r om t he D I B E L S s c or e s e qua t i ng t o t he f ol l ow i ng : ( 1) l ow e r a c a de m i c s c or e o f 65 w or ds pe r m i nut e a nd be l ow ( 2) a ve r a ge s c or e s of 66 w o r ds pe r m i nut e t o 95 a nd, ( 3) hi g he r s c or e s of 96 w or ds pe r m i nut e a nd a bove T he S t a nf or d 10 gr oup w e r e : ( 1 ) l ow e r s c or e s 34 pe r c e nt a nd be l ow ( 2 ) a ve r a ge 35 t o 79 pe r c e nt a nd ( 3) hi ghe r s c or e s w e r e 80 t o 100 pe r c e nt

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53 T a bl e 1. S t ude nt s a nd T e s t S c or e C a t e gor i e s S t ude nt D I B E L S S t a n f or d 10 A bi l i t y S a r a h 45 31 L ow M a r i a 29 31 L ow A nna 61 18 L ow J e s s i c a 82 75 A ve r a ge L a nc e 79 79 A ve r a ge C hr i s t ophe r 69 71 A ve r a ge J os e phi na 76 59 A ve r a ge E t ha n 105 77 A ve r a ge C a yl a 110 85 H i gh D a ni e l 115 83 H i gh A be ga l 115 87 H i gh A m e l i a 130 8 3 H i gh I m e t w i t h e a c h of t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s i n pe r s o n pr i or t o t he be gi nni ng o f t he s c hool s e m e s t e r i n w hi c h t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o ok pl a c e a nd ga ve t he m a ve r ba l a nd w r i t t e n e xpl a na t i on o f t he na t u r e a nd p r oc e s s of t h e s t udy ( A ppe ndi x B ) I e m pha s i z e d t he vol unt a r y na t u r e of c hoos i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s T he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w e r e gi ve n a w e e k t o de c i de on w he t he r t o pa r t i c i pa t e T he r e w e r e t w o I nf o r m e d C ons e nt S t a t e m e nt s O ne

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54 ( A ppe ndi x C ) g r a nt e d pe r m i s s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he i nt e r vi e w por t i o n of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on. T he s e c ond ( A ppe ndi x D ) gr a nt e d pe r m i s s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n onl y t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd t he d r a w i ngs por t i on of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on. O nc e a s t ude nt a g r e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e he / s he w a s a s ke d t o r e vi e w a n I nf o r m e d C ons e nt S t a t e m e nt w i t h t he i r pa r e nt s a nd r e t ur n i t w i t h bot h t he pa r e nt s a nd s t ude nt s i gn a t ur e I m a de t he vol unt a r y na t ur e of t he pr oj e c t a s c l e a r a s I c oul d a nd r e a s s ur e d t he s t u de nt s t ha t t he r e w oul d be no r e pe r c us s i ons i f t he y c hos e not t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy o r i f a t a ny t i m e du r i ng t he s t udy, t he y de c i de d not t o c ont i nue T he vol unt a r y na t ur e of pa r t i c i pa t i on w a s r e i t e r a t e d a nd r e e m pha s i z e d w i t h t he pa r e nt of t he c hi l d du r i ng a n i ndi vi dua l c onf e r e nc e or t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on. I ni t i a l l y 93 s t ude nt s w e r e i nvi t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he r e s e a r c h s t udy. T w e l ve s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pa r e nt s s i gne d t he I nf or m e d C on s e nt S t a t e m e nt s gr a nt i ng pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he i nt e r v i e w por t i on of t he s t udy. T he s a m e 12 s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pa r e nt s s i gne d I nf or m e d C ons e nt S t a t e m e nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs por t i on of t he s t udy a l ong w i t h 39 of t he i r t hi r d gr a de pe e r s t ot a l i ng 51 pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi r t y s e ve n pa r e nt s de c l i ne d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy r e por t e d f e a r of i nt e r f e r e nc e w i t h t he i r s t ude nt s r e s ul t s o n t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt a s t he i r de c i di ng f a c t or F i ve pa r e nt s di d not p r ovi de a ny s pe c i f i c r e a s on f or t he i r p r e f e r e nc e not t o pa r t i c i pa t e O f 93 t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s 51 s t ude nt s r e t ur ne d t he i r I nf o r m e d C ons e nt S t a t e m e nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. T he da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om 12 pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd 39 s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s ( T a bl e 2) w e r e de e m e d s uf f i c i e nt t o c a r r y ou t t hi s s t udy.

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55 T a bl e 2. S uppo r t P a r t i c i pa nt s N u mb er G en d er Rac e 1 F5 7 Fem al e A f ri can A me ri can 2 F5 9 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 3 F6 1 M al e E u ro A m eri can 4 F6 4 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 5 F6 5 Fem al e H i s p an i c 6 F6 6 Fem al e H i s p an i c 7 F6 7 Fem al e H i s p an i c 8 D 6 8 Fem al e H i s p an i c 9 F6 9 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 1 0 F7 1 Fem al e A f ri can A me ri can 1 1 F7 3 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 1 2 D 7 4 Fem al e E u ro A m eri c an 1 3 F7 5 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 1 4 F6 2 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 1 5 F6 0 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 1 6 F7 0 Fem al e A f ri can A me ri can 1 7 F7 9 Mal e H i s p an i c 1 8 D 8 0 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 1 9 F8 1 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 2 0 F8 2 Fem al e H i s p an i c 2 1 F8 4 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 2 2 F8 6 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 2 3 F8 7 Fem al e H i s p an i c 2 4 F8 8 Fem al e H i s p an i c 2 5 F8 9 Mal e H i s p an i c 2 6 F9 0 Fem al e H i s p an i c 2 7 F9 2 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 2 8 F9 3 Fem al e H i s p an i c 2 9 F4 8 Fem al e H i s p an i c 3 0 F3 5 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 3 1 F3 1 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 3 2 F2 5 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 3 3 F2 0 Mal e H i s p an i c 3 4 F3 4 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 3 5 F4 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 3 6 F5 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 3 7 F1 2 Fem al e E u ro A m eri can 3 8 F3 Mal e E u ro A m eri can 3 9 F3 8 Fem al e A f ri can A me ri can

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56 C ol l e c t i on of D a t a F our s our c e s pr ovi de d t he da t a T he p r i m a r y s our c e of i n f or m a t i on f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c ons i s t e d of t hr e e 30 m i nut e i nt e r vi e w s s pa c e d e ve nl y ove r t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od. T he f i r s t i nt e r vi e w s oc c ur r e d dur i ng t he w e e k pr i o r t o t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t ( m i ddl e of F e br ua r y ) T he ne xt s e t s of i n t e r vi e w s w e r e c onduc t e d dur i ng t he s e c ond ha l f of t he t w o w e e k t i m e s pa n of t he a s s e s s m e nt ( e nd of F e br ua r y ) T he c onc l udi ng i nt e r vi e w s t ook pl a c e dur i ng t he be gi nni ng of t he s e c ond w e e k a f t e r t he t e s t i ng e nde d ( be gi nni ng of M a r c h) A l l i nt e r vi e w s w e r e c onduc t e d e i t he r dur i ng t he s t ude nt s l unc h pe r i od or be f or e o r a f t e r s c hool D ur i ng t he i nt e r v i e w s t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s s ha r e d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t a ki ng a hi gh s t a ke s e xa m i na t i ons A f t e r w a r ds t he i nt e r vi e w s w e r e t r a ns c r i be d. I nt e r vi e w que s t i ons ( A ppe ndi x E ) f oc us e d on t he s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons G ui di ng que s t i ons f o r t he i n t e r vi e w i nc l ude d, W ha t doe s i t f e e l l i ke t o be a t h i r d g r a de r ? W ha t a r e your t ho ught s a bout F C A T ? [ F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ] W ha t i s i t l i ke ha vi ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng? a nd H ow w oul d you de s c r i be hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o s om e one w ho i s ne w t o t hi r d gr a de ? A s e c ond s our c e of da t a w a s t he bi w e e kl y dr a w i n gs ( be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r ) T he s t ude nt s dr e w t o a pr om p t ( A ppe ndi x F ) a nd t he n w r ot e a s um m a r y on t he ba c k of e a c h dr a w i ng r e ga r di ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s dur i ng t h e a s s e s s m e nt T he s e dr a w i ngs w e r e c ol l e c t e d on a bi w e e kl y ba s i s be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od. T he f i r s t s e t of dr a w i ngs w a s c ol l e c t e d t w o w e e ks pr i or t o t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt f r om 47 of t he 51 pa r t i c i pa nt s ( F our s t ude nt s w e r e a bs e nt ) D ur i ng t he e nd of t he f i r s t

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57 w e e k of t e s t i ng, t he s e c ond s e t of d r a w i ngs w a s c ol l e c t e d f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s T he t hi r d s e t of dr a w i ngs w a s c ol l e c t e d a t t he be gi nni ng o f t he f i r s t w e e k a f t e r t e s t i ng. F or t y s i x of t he 51 pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr e s e nt f or t he c ol l e c t i on of t he t hi r d s e t o f d r a w i ngs T o a voi d i nf r i ngi ng upon a c a de m i c t i m e t he d r a w i ngs w e r e done w i t h t he i r A r t t e a c he r i n A r t c l a s s dur i ng t he s t ude nt s s pe c i a l pe r i od A t hi r d s our c e of da t a w a s t he bi w e e kl y j ou r na l e nt r i e s ( be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r ) I n t he s e t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w r ot e t he i r r e s pons e t o a n ope n e nde d pr o m pt ( A ppe ndi x G ) r e ga r di ng t he i r pe r c e pt i ons r e ga r di ng t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od. T he s e w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons w e r e c ol l e c t e d onc e e a c h w e e k f o r t he w e e k pr i or dur i ng a nd f o l l ow i ng t he a s s e s s m e nt ( f our w e e ks t ot a l ) T he f i r s t j our na l e nt r i e s w e r e c ol l e c t e d a t t he e nd of t he l a s t w e e k be f or e t e s t i ng be ga n f r om 49 of t he 51 p a r t i c i pa nt s A l l 51 s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he j our na l e nt r y pr om pt f or t he s e c ond c ol l e c t i o n dur i ng t he be gi nni ng o f t he f i r s t w e e k dur i ng t e s t i ng. T he l a s t s e t of j ou r na l e nt r i e s t ook pl a c e dur i ng t he e nd o f t he f i r s t w e e k of t e s t i ng a nd 50 of t he 51 s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d. S o a s not t o c onf l i c t w i t h a c a de m i c t i m e r e qui r e d by t he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s t he s t ude nt s r e f l e c t e d upon t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e i n t he s c hool c om put e r l a b du r i ng t he i r s pe c i a l pe r i od w i t h t h e f a c i l i t a t i on o f t he i r c om put e r i ns t r uc t or T he s t ude nt s pr e vi ous l y ha d a c qui r e d i nde pe nde nt c om put e r pr oc e s s i ng s ki l l s a nd e a c h j our na l e nt r y w a s s a ve d t o t he s e r ve r f or l a t e r r e t r i e va l A f our t h s our c e of da t a c ons i s t e d of f oc us g r oup di s c us s i ons t he pa r t i c i pa nt s he l d w i t h e a c h ot he r r e ga r di ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons dur i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od. E s s e nt i a l l y, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s di s c us s e d w ha t t he y ha d w r i t t e n i n t he i r j our na l

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58 r e f l e c t i ons T he s e di s c us s i ons t ook pl a c e a f t e r t he c onc l us i on of a l l ot he r da t a c ol l e c t i on T he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o l i s t e n t o a nd r e f l e c t upon e a c h ot he r s e xpe r i e nc e s a s t he y s poke a bout t he pr e c e di ng a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od. T he s e or a l r e f l e c t i ons w e r e done i n g r oups of 6 w he n pos s i bl e O ne gr o u p w a s c om pos e d of a l l f e m a l e s t ude nt s ( l ow m e di u m hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y ) t he ne xt a l l m a l e s t ude nt s ( l ow m e di u m hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y) a nd t he r e m a i ni ng g r oup c ons i s t e d of a m i xe d ge nde r gr oup ( l ow m e di um a nd hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y) T he f oc us gr oup f or t he a l l f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s c om pos e d of s i x of t he e i ght gi r l s w ho ha d pe r m i s s i on a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s por t i on o f t he s t udy. S i nc e t he r e w e r e f our boys i n t he s t udy, a l l f ou r pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he m a l e f oc us gr oup. F or t he m i xe d ge nde r gr oup, t he a bi l i t y l e ve l s c om pos i t i on w a s : o ne l ow a bi l i t y s t ude nt f our a ve r a ge a bi l i t y s t ude nt s a nd, t w o hi gh a bi l i t y s t ude nt s T hr e e m a l e s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n bot h t he m a l e a nd m i xe d ge nde r f oc us gr oups T he c ont e xt of t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons de m ons t r a t e d va r i e d r e s pons e s f r om t he m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r e p r e s e nt a n a r r a y o f da t a T o a s s ur e t ha t a l l pa r t i c i pa t e d, t he g r oups w e r e o r ga ni z e d by be gi nni ng w i t h a ga m e w hi c h i nvol ve d pa r t i c i pa t i on f r om e ve r yone T h i s t r a ns i t i one d i nt o a m or e ope n ve nue a nd t he n r e t ur ne d t o t he ga m e f or m a t T he ga m e c ons i s t e d of a n ope n e nde d f oc us que s t i on, a ns w e r e d i n i nt e r va l s a c c or di ng t o r ound r ob i n o r popc or n f or m a t E a c h gr oup s di s c us s i on w a s r e c or de d a nd t r a ns c r i be d.

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59 I nt e r vi e w s A s e r i e s of uns t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s r e pr e s e nt i ng t h e na r r a t i ve a c c ount s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s c ol l e c t e d. I f ol l ow e d s t a nda r d p r o c e dur e s i n bui l di ng r a ppor t w i t h m y pa r t i c i pa nt s ( D e nz i n & L i nc ol n, 1994; M i s hl e r 19 86; S pr a dl e y, 1979) i n l i s t e ni ng, t o t he be s t of m y a bi l i t y w i t h a n unbi a s e d a nd s i nc e r e e a r t o t he vi e w s be i ng c onve ye d by m y pa r t i c i pa nt s I a l s o s uppor t e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s by o f f e r i ng a ddi t i ona l t opi c s f or c onve r s a t i on. I t r a ns c r i be d a l l i nt e r vi e w s w i t h a ps e udonym a nd us e d t he m t o ope n t he ne xt i nt e r vi e w T he pur pos e o f t he t r a ns c r i be d i nt e r vi e w s w a s t o ope n t he ne xt s e s s i on a nd t he r e by e na bl e t he s t ude nt s t o c onf i r m or c l a r i f y a n y por t i ons t o be t t e r r e pr e s e nt t he i r e xpe r i e nc e or pe r c e pt i on. I us e d a gui de ( A ppe ndi x A ) t o ke e p t he c onve r s a t i on r e l a t e d t o t he r e l e va nt i s s ue s N ot a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s r a i s e d t he s a m e i s s ue s C onve r s a t i ons w e r e a l l ow e d t o de ve l op w i t hi n t he r e a l m of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd be i ng a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt a s de e m e d i m por t a nt t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s D r a w i ngs A s e t of ope n f or m e d d r a w i ngs w e r e c ol l e c t e d f r o m e a c h of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s I r e vi e w e d t he pi c t or i a l s t o t he be s t of m y a bi l i t y w i t h a n unbi a s e d e ye f ol l ow e d D i L e o s ( 1983) c onvi c t i on t ha t e a c h d r a w i ng: 1. I s a r e f l e c t i on of t he pe r s ona l i t y o f i t s m a ke r ; 2. E xp r e s s e s a f f e c t i ve a s pe c t s of t he pe r s ona l i t y a s w e l l a s c ogni t i on; 3. I n t he c a s e of young c hi l d r e n t e l l s m or e a bout t h e a r t i s t t ha n a bout t he

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60 obj e c t po r t r a ye d; a nd 4. T ha t t he a ppr oa c h of t he e xa m i ne r m us t of ne c e s s i t y be i nt ui t i ve a s w e l l a s a na l yt i c a l ( p. 60) T o a s s i s t m e i n a na l ys i s of t he i r s t ud e nt d r a w i ngs t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w r ot e de s c r i pt i ons o f t he i r de pi c t i ons on t he ba c k of e a c h dr a w i ng. H a s e be L udt f ound a r t t o be a ve nue t ha t a l l ow s c hi l dr e n t o r e p r e s e nt w ho t he y a r e i n r e l a t i on t o w he r e t he y a r e ( 1999, p. 49) T hi s nonve r ba l r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s a na t ur a l m ode o f c om m uni c a t i on of f e r i ng e xt r a or d i na r y i nf or m a t i on a bout how t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e a nd pe r c e i ve hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he pur pos e of i nc or por a t i ng t he s t ude nt dr a w i ngs a s pa r t of t he s t udy s da t a c ol l e c t i on w a s t o pr ovi de a n a ddi t i ona l ve nue of e x pr e s s i on. C ons i s t e nt w i t h r e s e a r c h on e a r l y c hi l dhood a r t I s pe c i f i c a l l y f oc us e d on t he c ont e nt r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he s t ude nt s w or k ( G ol om b 1990; M a l c hi odi C 1998; S c h r oe de r 2006; S c hr oe de r A r gue l l e s & B oum a n, 2006; a nd K oppi t z i n V a n T i l bur g, 1987) S t ude nt dr a w i ngs w e r e r e vi e w e d us i ng a hol i s t i c a ppr oa c h w hi c h s e a r c he d f o r r e pe a t e d c ont e nt t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns T he t r us t w or t hi ne s s de pe nda bi l i t y, c ohe r e nc e a nd a ut he nt i c i t y of t he da t a c ol l e c t e d w e r e de t e r m i ne d by ut i l i z i ng t he S c hr oe de r S t ude nt D r a w i ng A s s e s s m e nt P r ot oc ol ( S c hr oe de r 2004) T hi s t w o pa r t pr o t oc ol s i m ul t a ne ous l y l ook s f or t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns a l ong w i t h t he w hol e de pi c t i on i n t he d r a w i ngs t he m s e l ve s E xa m pl e s of t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns i n t he dr a w i ngs i nc or por a t e t he f i gur e of t he s t ude nt w i t h i n t he dr a w i ng; t he l oc a t i on of t he s t ude nt w i t hi n t he d r a w i ng, o r t he va r i ous a r r a nge m e nt s of t he e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h t he

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61 s t ude nt i s pl a c e d i n t he d r a w i ng. A l s o i m por t a nt w a s di s c e r ni bl e c ont e nt s uc h a s f a c i a l e xpr e s s i ons or t h e pr e s e nc e of t hought bubbl e s A s e a c h dr a w i ng i s a s s e s s e d us i ng t he S t ude nt D r a w i ng A s s e s s m e nt P r ot oc ol ( S c hr oe de r 2004) t he s t a t e of t he obs e r ve r i s f oc us e d. T he bi a s e xpl or a t i on o f t he obs e r ve r ha d t o be r e vi e w e d t o a voi d t a i nt i ng t he v i e w i ng of t he dr a w i ngs w i t h pr e c onc e i ve d not i ons of t he r e s e a r c he r T he f i r s t o ve r a l l i m pr e s s i ons of t he dr a w i ngs w e r e r e c or de d i nc l udi ng a ny e m ot i ons e voke d, pe r c e i ve d m ood of t he dr a w i ng a nd r e a c t i ons or i m p r e s s i ons t he dr a w i ngs c a l l e d f or w a r d. N e xt a m a t r i x w a s d e s i gne d f or us e dur i ng c odi ng e a c h dr a w i ng. B a s e d on t he c odi ng s c he m e de ve l ope d by W he e l oc k, B e be l l a n d H a ne y ( 2000a 2000b) t he m a t r i x c ont a i ne d r ow s of f e a t ur e s s how n i n t he dr a w i ngs of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w ho ha d be e n gi ve n a pr om pt e l i c i t i ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he c ol u m n he a di ngs l i s t t he c ol l e c t i on pe r i od of t he dr a w i ngs ( be f or e dur i ng or a f t e r t e s t i ng) E a c h s t ude nt dr a w i ng c ol l e c t e d f or t he s t udy w a s c ode d i ndi vi dua l l y a nd t he n t r a ns f e r r e d t o t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s m a t r i x w hi c h m a ps t he f r e que nc y of va r i ous c ont e nt c a t e gor i e s c ont a i ne d i n t he s t ude nt d r a w i ngs ( T a bl e 3)

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62 T a bl e 3. D r a w i ng M a t r i x C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F S T U D E N T D R A W I N G S B e f or e D ur i ng A f t e r S t u d e n t C h ar ac t e r i s t i c s I n c l a s s r oom 42% 100% 34% T a ki ng t e s t 28% 96% 7% T hi nki ng / t hought bubbl e 78% 86% 94% T a l ki ng w i t h t e a c he r 65% 6% 23% T a l ki ng w i t h ot he r s t ude nt ( s ) 54% 3% 85% F C A T P r e s e n t Y e s 51% 100% 11% N o 49% 0% 89% O t h e r O t he r s t ude nt s pr e s e nt 78% 65% 92% T e a c he r pr e s e nt 72% 12% 34% F a m i l y m e m be r s pr e s e nt 49% 0% 13% M ul t i f r a m e dr a w i ng 13% 0% 92% O ut s i de 16% 0% 83% S t r a t e gi e s 12% 42% 7% S t u d e n t D e m e an or P os i t i ve 8% 25% 68% N e ga t i ve 89% 42% 12% N e ut r a l 3% 33% 20% P a r t i c i pa nt V a l i da t i on I nt e r vi e w s w e r e t r a ns c r i be d a nd us e d t o gui de t he ope ni ng of t he ne xt i nt e r vi e w s e s s i on. A s hor t s um m a r y w a s ve r ba l l y p r ovi de d w hi c h out l i ne d w ha t I c ons i de r t o be t he m a j or poi nt s m a de i n t he p r e vi ous i nt e r vi e w s T hi s a l l ow e d t he s t ude nt s t o r e f l e c t on w ha t t he y ha d s a i d a nd t o e xpa nd or c l a r i f y t he i r pr e vi ous e xpe r i e nc e s B e f or e c ont i nui ng w i t h t he ne xt i nt e r vi e w s t he s t ude nt s w e r e e nc our a ge d t o c l a r i f y m y ve r ba l s um m a r y o f

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63 t he i nt e r vi e w s T o e ns ur e m a xi m um a c c ur a c y of t h e i r s t a t e m e nt s I r e vi e w e d f i na l c opi e s of t he na r r a t i ve s w i t h t he s t ude nt s a nd a s ke d t he m t o c or r e c t a ny i na c c ur a c i e s t he y s a w D a t a A na l ys i s I n or de r t o r e ve a l t he t he m e s o f t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s I r e vi e w e d t he i nt e r vi e w s dr a w i ngs w e e kl y r e f l e c t i ons a nd t r a ns c r i be d f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons t hr ough i nduc t i ve pa r a di gm a t i c a na l ys i s H e r e I w a s a i de d i n t h i s by f ol l ow i ng t he s e que nc e of t he a na l yt i c a l pr oc e d ur e s s e t out by M a r s ha l l a nd R os s m a n ( 1989) : o r ga ni z a t i on, s ynt he s i s a na l ys i s a nd p r e s e nt a t i on of t he da t a I a dhe r e d t o t he f ol l ow i ng c a t e gor i e s : ( 1 ) o r ga ni z i ng t he da t a ; ( 2) g e ne r a t i ng t he c a t e gor i e s t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns ; ( 3 ) t e s t i ng e m e r ge nt hypot he s e s a ga i ns t t he da t a ; ( 4) s e a r c hi ng f o r a l t e r na t i ve e xpl a na t i ons of t he da t a ; a nd ( 5) w r i t i ng t he r e por t I n f ol l ow i ng t he s e r e c om m e nda t i ons I i nt e gr a t e d a l l t he s our c e s of da t a i nt o a uni f i e d a n d c ohe s i ve a c c ount t o or de r t o de p i c t t he pe r c e pt i ons of t he l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s t ud e nt s I c or r e l a t e d t he ope n e nde d, s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i n t e r v i e w s r e f l e c t i ons a nd d r a w i ngs a nd e nde d w i t h t he f oc us gr oups I a l s o o r ga ni z e d t he a bove s our c e s i nt o a m a t r i x t o f ur t he r doc um e nt t he pa t h of t he pr i m a r y r e s e a r c h f or m s P s e ud onym s w e r e a s s i gne d a l ong w i t h a num be r t o e a c h s t ude nt a nd pl a c e d ve r t i c a l l y i n t he f i r s t c ol um n f ol l ow e d by t he ge nde r r a c e a nd a bi l i t y l e ve l T he r e m a i ni ng c ol um ns w e r e t i t l e d by t he t ype of da t a c ol l e c t e d. A n X c ol l e c t e d a nd pl a c e d i n t he i nt e r s e c t i on of be t w e e n t he s t ude nt na m e a nd c ol um n he a di ng t o de s i gna t e s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t ha t f or m of da t a

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64 I n a ddi t i on t w o s uppor t i ng f or m s of t e xt w e r e c ol l e c t e d ove r t he t e s t i ng pe r i od f r om a n a ddi t i ona l 39 t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s F i r s t t h e s e s t ude nt s w r ot e bi w e e kl y r e f l e c t i ons a bout t he i r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e s e ve r y t w o w e e ks ( be f or e t e s t i ng, dur i ng t e s t i ng, a f t e r t e s t i ng) ove r t he s a m e t i m e f r a m e a s t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s N e xt a nd a l s o dur i ng t he s a m e t i m e f r a m e a s t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s ( b e f or e t e s t i ng, dur i ng t e s t i ng, a f t e r t e s t i ng) t he s e s t ude nt s dr e w pi c t ur e s w hi c h i l l us t r a t e d t he i r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e s a nd r e c or de d t he i r i nt e r pr e t a t i ve e xpl a na t i ons on t he ba c k of t he d r a w i ngs T he c om bi na t i o n o f s uppor t doc um e nt s i n t he f or m of w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd s t ude nt dr a w i ngs w i t h e xpl a na t i ons of i nt e r pr e t a t i o n on t he ba c k of t he dr a w i ngs pr ov i de d r i c h s our c e of doc um e nt a t i on f o r t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons I or ga ni z e d t he s e t w o s our c e s of s uppor t doc um e nt s i nt o a s e c ond m a t r i x T he na m e s of s t ude nt s w e r e r e pl a c e d w i t h num be r s a nd pl a c e d v e r t i c a l l y i n t he f i r s t c ol um n f ol l ow e d by t he i r ge nde r a nd r a c e T he t ype o f da t a c ol l e c t e d, w a s us e d t o l a be l t he r e m a i ni ng c ol um ns A n X w a s pl a c e d i n e a c h c e l l by s t ude nt na m e a nd c ol um n he a di ng t o de s i gna t e s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he f or m of da t a be i ng c ol l e c t e d ( T a bl e 4)

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65 Tab l e 4.Dat a Par t i ci pan t s P a r t i c i p a n t # N a m e 1 33 Sarah F W L X X X X X X X X X X X 2 49 Ab egal F W H X X X X X X X X X X X 3 45 Et h an M W M X X X X X X X X X X X 4 37 Mari a F H L X X X X X X X X X X 5 18 Jo seph i n a F H M X X X X X X X X X X X 6 19 Dan i el M B H X X X X X X X X X X X 7 17 Ch ri sto ph er M W M X X X X X X X X X X 8 48 Cayl a F W H X X X X X X X X X X 9 44 Ann a F H L X X X X X X X X X X X 10 51 Jes si ca F B M X X X X X X X X X 11 46 L an ce M W M X X X X X X X X X X 12 43 A m eli a F W H X X X X X X I be ga n t he a na l ys i s of t he pr i m a r y da t a by l i s t e ni n g t o t he f i r s t r e c or di ng s of e a c h of t he 12 i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt i nt e r vi e w s A f t e r t r a ns c r i pt i on of e a c h of t he 12 s t ude nt i nt e r vi e w s I t r a ns c r i be d t he s e c ond i nt e r vi e w r e c o r di ngs of e a c h o f t he 12 i nt e r v i e w s I

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66 f ol l ow e d t he s a m e pr oc e dur e f or t he t hi r d s e t o f i nt e r vi e w s a nd t he n t r a ns c r i be d t he f oc us gr oup r e c or di ngs ( i n t he f ol l ow i ng or de r : a l l gi r l s a l l boys ; m i xe d ge nde r ) A t t hi s poi n t I w e nt ba c k t o t he f i r s t s e t o f i nt e r vi e w r e c or di ngs a nd be ga n t o f i nd quot a t i ons f or e a c h s t ude nt r e s pons e t o t he i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons I c o nt i nue d t hi s pa t t e r n t h r ough t he s e c ond a nd t hi r d i nt e r vi e w s a s w e l l a s f or t he f oc us gr oup s e t s T hi s yi e l de d a t o t a l of f our t a bl e s one f or e a c h pha s e of t he i n t e r vi e w pr oc e s s ( A ppe ndi x H I J ) W hi l e l i s t e ni ng da i l y t o a l l o f t he s t ude nt i nt e r vi e w s I r e a d e a c h s t ude nt s r e c or de d e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons s e ve r a l m or e t i m e s A t t hi s poi nt I be ga n us i ng c ol or e d hi ghl i ght e r s t o m a r k t he pa s s a ge s of t e xt a m ongs t t he 12 s t ude nt s t ha t e vi de nc e d s i m i l a r t he m e s N ot a t i ons of ke y a c t i on a nd de s c r i pt i ve w o r ds f ol l ow e d by quot a t i ons w e r e m a de i nt o a t a bl e w i t h t he be f o r e du r i ng a nd a f t e r i nt e r vi e w a s t he c ol um n he a di ngs a nd t he r ow s l i s t i ng t he s t ude nt ps e udonym s a nd t h e i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons ove r t i m e ( A ppe ndi x K L ) C ons i s t e nt t he m e s e m e r ge d w hi c h c ove r e d a br oa d r a nge of a r e a s f or t he s t ude nt s a s i ndi vi dua l s i n ge nde r gr oup i ngs r a c e g r oupi ngs a nd a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oupi ngs F ol l ow i ng gr oupi ng of a l l f our o f t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r vi e w s a nd f oc us gr oups t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons of bot h t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s a s w e l l a s t he s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e c ons t r uc t e d i nt o t a bl e s i n t he s a m e s e que nc e of be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r t e s t i ng ( A ppe ndi x M N O ) D ur i ng t hi s t i m e I c o nt i nue d t o r e vi e w t he i nt e r v i e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons w hi l e i nc or por a t i ng t he c odi ng of a n y a ddi t i ona l di s t i nc t a nd ove r l a ppi ng t he m e s T hi s pr oc e s s r e pe a t e d i t s e l f w i t h t he i nc l us i on of t he s t ude nt dr a w i ngs A s I r e a d

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67 a nd r e r e a d t he hund r e ds of pa ge s of i nt e r vi e w t r a n s c r i pt s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd pi c t o r i a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons w i t h i nt e r pr e t a t i ve e xpl a na t i ons on t he ba c k of t he dr a w i ngs di s t i nc t ye t ove r l a ppi ng pa t t e r ns w e r e va l i da t e d f or i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s ge nde r gr oupi ngs gr oups of s i m i l a r e t hni c i t y a nd gr oups of s i m i l a r t e s t s c or e s E a c h pi e c e of da t a ha s e vol ve d i nt o a pa l l e t o f di s t i nc t i ons S om e o f t he s e di s t i nc t i ons a r e a c t ua l l y uni f yi ng c onve r gi ng t he s t ude nt s r e s pons e s i nt o a gr oup de pi c t i on w hi l e ot he r s po r t r a y o f i ndi v i dua l s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r s ona l i t i e s T he s ke t c he s i n C ha pt e r 4 i n t r oduc e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he t h i r d gr a de s t ude nt s f r om t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt por t i on of t he s t udy. F r om t he c ha r a c t e r s ke t c he s a t a bl e of gr oup c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c or di ng t o t he s t ude nt s pr oc e s s t e s t i ng w a s de ve l ope d. A n a ddi t i ona l r e t ur n t o t he o r i gi na l t r a ns c r i pt i ons w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd s t ude nt dr a w i ngs one s t ude nt a t a t i m e pr ovi de d a m e a ns of da t a r e duc t i on T he m e s e m e r ge d t ook pl a c e w i t hi n t he r e a di ng of e a c h t r a ns c r i pt t he n br i ng i ng i n e a c h of t he da t a s our c e s f r o m t he s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s A n um b r e l l a of c ont e xt f or m e d a nd f o ur m a j or t he m e s e m e r ge d. I n a ddi t i on t o t he s e t he m e s c om bi ng t h r ough t he t he m e s s ugge s t e d e xi s t i ng pa t t e r ns T he s e t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns w e r e t he n c ode d unde r t he di f f e r e nt c ont e xt s of a bi l i t y ge nde r a nd r a c e T he r e s ul t i ng t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns w e r e t he n r e vi e w e d unde r f i ve s t r a t e gi e s r e c om m e nde d by L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1997) R e pe t i t i ve r e f r a i ns r e s ona nt m e t a phor s i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s t r i a ng ul a t i on a nd r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns w e r e a l l i m por t a nt i n c ons t r uc t i ng t he s t r uc t ur e of t he po r t r a i t ur e s T a ki ng e a c h of t he f i ve a bove s t r a t e gi e s a bove a l ong w i t h t he f our m a j or t he m e s f ound, c ha r a c t e r s be ga n t o t a ke f or m

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68 T he c l e a r l y de f i ne d t he m e s w e r e now a bl e t o f ol l o w a s e que nc e of be gi nni ng, m i ddl e a nd e nd w i t h a n e m pha s i s on t he pr e va l e nt pa t t e r ns A n i nt r i gui ng c om pos i t e of t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t ook f or m V a l i da t i on of T he m a t i c S t r uc t ur e I e s t a bl i s he d t w o a dvi s or y gr oups t o he l p m a i nt a i n r e s e a r c h i nt e gr i t y t h r oughout t he s t udy. T he f i r s t c ons i s t e d of f i ve P h D c a ndi da t e s w ho m e t t o pr ovi de f e e dba c k a nd i ns i ght on e a c h ot he r s w or k. E a c h o f t he f i ve r e a d m y pr os pe c t us a nd m a de num e r ous s ugge s t i ons T he s e c ond gr oup c ons i s t e d of t h r e e p r of e s s or s of hi ghe r e duc a t i on. T h e y di s c us s e d t he t he m e s a nd f i ndi ngs of m y s t udy up t o t hi s poi nt I pr e s e nt e d t he m w i t h da t a i n t he f or m of d r a w i ngs g r a phs a nd t a bl e s w hi c h de pi c t e d t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s T he gr oup s ugge s t e d a r e a s t h a t I m i ght e xpa nd o r e xpl or e f ur t he r I n a ddi t i on, I m e t w i t h a s m a l l gr oup of t he s t ude nt s one a ddi t i ona l t i m e a nd ha d t he m r e vi e w m y r e ndi t i on of t he i r pe r c e pt i ons a nd t he c om m on t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d pr ovi de d ye t a t hi r d va l i di t y c he c k. S t ude nt s w e r e e nc our a ge d t o r e s pond t o m y de s c r i pt i on of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s

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69 C H A P T E R 4 D a t a A na l ys i s a nd R e s ul t s W e l l i f s om e body j us t di d r oc k pape r s c i s s or s t o s e e i f s om e body w e nt t o t hi r d or f our t h gr ade t hat w oul dn t do i t but a t e s t w oul d t o s e e i f t he y ar e s m ar t e nough or not N i ne ye a r ol d t hi r d gr a de r T hi s c ha pt e r e xa m i ne s t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons of t he da t a a nd a t t e m pt s t o unde r s t a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he c ha pt e r c ons i s t s of s e ve r a l s e c t i ons I n t he f i r s t s e c t i on I i nt r oduc e t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho s ha r e d t he i r vi e w s a nd a l s o s um m a r i z e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he s a m pl e ove r a l l I n t he s e c ond s e c t i on, I p r e s e nt t he m e s de r i ve d f r om a c r os s c a s e e xa m i na t i on of t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s w hi c h I t he n c om bi ne w i t h da t a f r o m t he w i de r s uppor t gr oup I n t he t h i r d s e c t i on, I t r a c e pa t t e r ns w i t h i n t he s e t h e m e s F i na l l y, i n a c c or d w i t h t he r e c om m e nda t i ons of L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd H of f m a nn D a vi s ( 1997) I pa i nt a n i nt i m a t e por t r a i t o f t h r e e of t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a s i ndi vi dua l s w i t h t he i r s oc i o e m ot i ona l pe r c e pt i on a nd e xpe r i e nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. P r i m a r y P a r t i c i pa nt S ke t c he s 1. S ar ah ( S ar ah or i gi n al l y i n d i c a t e d p r i or t o t h e i n t e r vi e w t h at s h e d i d n ot w an t t o p ar t i c i p at e i n t h e s t u d y b u t t h e n w i t h ou t an y e xp l an at i on w as on e of t h e f i r s t t o t u r n i n h e r I n t e r n al R e vi e w B oar d d oc u m e n t at i on ) S a r a h, a ge ni ne ye a r s ha s be e n a t t e ndi ng t he s a m e e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i nc e ki nde r ga r t e n. S he ha s no s i bl i ngs a t t he s c hool a nd a t t e nds t he a f t e r s c hool c a r e a l m os t

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70 e ve r y da y of t h e w e e k. S he ha s a qui e t m a nne r a nd s e e m s a l w a ys t o be w a t c hi ng w ha t i s goi ng on a r ound he r S he f i nds t he a c a de m i c pa r t o f s c hool di f f i c ul t a nd ha r d ye t l ooks f or t he f un i n e ve r yt hi ng S he r e a l l y t r a c ke d m e dow n. S a r a h w a s a s t ude nt I ha d not w or ke d w i t h m uc h i n m y c a pa c i t y a s a R e a di ng C oa c h. I w a s a w a r e t ha t s he w a s r e c e i vi ng a ddi t i ona l r e a di ng r e m e di a t i on t hough s he s pe a ks w i t h a n a ge a ppr op r i a t e voc a bul a r y a nd g r a m m a r s o a ny de f i c i t i s not a ppa r e nt dur i ng s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on I k ne w s he ha d be e n pr om ot e d e a c h a c a de m i c ye a r a nd t hough s he w a s a c a ndi da t e f o r c hi l d s t udy, s he di d not qua l i f y f or s e r vi c e s F r om t he f i r s t i nt e r vi e w w i t h S a r a h s he e a s e d i nt o c onve r s a t i ons a bout he r s e l f a nd he r e duc a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s S a r a h l ooke d f or t he be s t i n t hi ngs a c know l e dgi ng t ha t a c a de m i c a l l y s c hool w a s ha r d f or he r I t s a l i t t l e bi t di f f i c ul t A h, but i t s f un S a r a h de s c r i be s t hi r d gr a de a s ha r de r T he w or ds a nd s t uf f t he y gi ve us S he s a ys I j us t do m y be s t N ow a s a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt w ho i s f a c e d w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, s he f e e l s s c a r e d, I don t know i f I l l pa s s . I don t ge t m u c h, l i ke i t s ha r d a nd s t uf f H ow e ve r a t t he f i r s t da y of t e s t i ng S a r a h r e c a l l e d, W he n I o pe ne d t he t e s t bookl e t a nd I l ooke d a t t he pa ge s a nd s t uf f I r e a l i z e d t he y w e r e n t s o ha r d. B y t he e nd o f t he f i r s t w e e k o f t e s t i ng, s he pe r c e i ve d he r s e l f t o be pr e t t y good y e t w he n di s c us s i ng t he s e c ond w e e k of t e s t i ng s he r e f e r r e d t o a f r i e nd s p r e vi ous e xpe r i e n c e M y f r i e nd t ook t he F C A T be f o r e a nd t ol d m e t h e s e c ond pa r t w a s pr e t t y ha r d A s S a r a h de s c r i be d he r e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h

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71 hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, i t be c a m e a ppa r e nt t ha t s he w a s ve r y di s c onne c t e d f r om he r a c a de m i c j our ne y a s a t hi r d gr a de r a nd r e l i e d on t he voi c e of ot he r s t o gui de he r M y t e a c he r t ol d m e A t hi r d gr a de f r i e nd t ol d m e S a r a s um m e d up he r c om pl e t i on of t he t e s t i ng a s s he w r ot e he r l a s t r e f l e c t i on a bout t hi r d gr a de I t i s e x c i t i ng, i t i s c ool i t i s f un 2. A b e gal ( A b e gal w as ve r y i n q u i s i t i ve ab ou t t h e p u r p os e an d t h e s t e p s o f t h e r e s e ar c h p r oc e s s S h e w ou l d q u i t e of t e n t al k n o n s t op f r om t h e c l as s r oom t o t h e i n t e r vi e w r oom ) A be ga l a ge e i ght ye a r s ha s be e n a t t e ndi ng t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool w he r e t he r e s e a r c h i s be i ng c a r r i e d out s i nc e he r m i ddl e ye a r of s e c ond gr a de w he n s he m ove d t o F l or i da f r om N o r t h C a r ol i na S he ha s a br ot he r w h o a t t e nds f i r s t g r a de i n t he s a m e s c hool H e r m ot he r w a s hi r e d by t he s c hool m i d ye a r a s a n ove r f l ow ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r A be ga l i s t a l ka t i ve a nd c ur i ous w i t h a l a ug h t ha t i s c ont a gi ous a nd s he e xude s s e l f c o nf i de nc e S he t o l d m e W e ha ve our ow n r i ght s t o s t udy w ha t w e w a nt t o w he n w e ha ve f r e e t i m e i n t he c l a s s r oom W he n de s c r i b i ng he r s e l f a s a s t ude nt s he s a i d, I t s a bs ol ut e l y f un! Y ou ge t t o do m a t h f a c t s a nd pr a c t i c e t he m a l ot a nd nor m a l l y your hom e w or k i s e a s y. A be ga l ha d a r e m a r ka bl y s unny out l ook. I n m y r ol e a s a R e a di ng C oa c h on c a m pus I ha d no t pr e vi ous l y i nt e r a c t e d w i t h he r O ve r t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s I f ound t ha t A be ga l s ha ppy pe r c e pt i on a l s o di s gui s e d a n e goc e nt r i s m t ha t m a de he r s om e w ha t a c a de m i c a l l y una w a r e T he e vi de nc e f o r t h i s l a y i n he r r e s pons e t o m y que s t i on of how s he w oul d de s c r i be hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o s om e one w ho w a s ne w t o t hi r d gr a de S he s a i d,

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72 D o your be s t a nd i f you don t know i t you c oul d j us t c i r c l e a ny a ns w e r or gue s s t he one you t hi nk i t i s A be ga l r e m a i ne d a t e a s e dur i ng he r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he e xc e pt i on o f t he m or ni ng of t he t e s t w he n s he s a i d, I w a s a l i t t l e w or r i e d be c a us e i t w a s di f f e r e nt W i t h he r vi e w t ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng c oul d be a l i t t l e h a r d but m i ght be a l i t t l e f un t oo, A be ga l c ont i nue d t o de m ons t r a t e a n e a s y goi ng a t t i t ude S he e ve n s a i d, I f e e l l i ke I m goi ng t o pa s s W he n c onve r s i ng a bout a l l o f he r s t udyi ng, A be ga l s t a t e d s he w oul dn t ne e d t o be pr e pa r e d a nd w oul dn t be a l l ge t t i ng our e f f or t s [ ups e t ] t o w or r y a bout i t i f t he r e w e r e n t h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t hi r d gr a de U pon c om pl e t i on of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, A be ga l c ont i nue d t o l ook ove r he r e xpe r i e nc e i n a pos i t i ve l i gh t T hough s he pe r c e i ve d t he t e s t i ng t o be l e s s i nva s i ve t ha n s om e of he r pe e r s s he kne w he r s c or e on t he F C A T w oul d de t e r m i ne w he t he r s he w a s pr om ot e d. A be ga l a t t r i but e d he r pe r c e i ve d s uc c e s s on t he F C A T t o t he s t r a t e gi e s s he i m pl e m e nt e d bot h be f o r e a nd du r i ng t e s t i ng, c he w i ng bubbl e gum [ i t ] he l pe d m e no t ge t a he a da c he or be s t r e s s e d out doi ng i t A be ga l s ha r e d he r r e l i e f a t t he c onc l us i on of t he t e s t I f e e l good a bout i t I ve t a ke n t he t e s t a nd i t s ove r 3. E t h an ( F r om t h e m om e n t I m e t E t h an h e j u s t c ou l d n ot u n d e r s t an d w h y I w ou l d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n w h at t h i r d gr ad e r s h ad t o s ay a b ou t h i gh s t ak e s t e s t i n g H e w as c on s c i e n t i ou s ab ou t b e i n g r e ad y f or m e w h e n I c am e t o ge t h i m f or t h e i n t e r vi e w s an d n e r vou s l y c h at t e r e d e ac h t i m e w h i l e w al k i n g t o t h e i n t e r vi e w r oom )

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73 E t ha n, a ge ni ne ye a r s ha s be e n a s t ude nt a t t he s c hool s i nc e ki nde r ga r t e n. W i t h a s i s t e r i n f i r s t gr a de a t t he s a m e s c hool E t ha n pr e s e nt s hi m s e l f a s he r p r ot e c t or ; w a l ki ng w i t h he r t o he r c l a s s r oom e a c h m or ni ng a nd t he n p i c ki ng he r up a t t he e nd of t he s c hool da y. E t ha n i s a l w a ys a w a r e of w ha t s goi ng on be c a us e hi s m ot he r i s t he p r e s i de nt of t he P T O H e pr e s e nt s hi m s e l f a s pos s e s s i ng a s ophi s t i c a t e d a t t i t ude a l t hough he de m ons t r a t e s hi s f a i r s ha r e o f c l ow ni ng a r ound. A s a s t ude nt E t ha n r e f e r s t o t hi r d g r a de a s ha r d a nd r e qui r i ng a l ot of f oc us B e i ng r e di r e c t e d i s c om m on p r a c t i c e f or E t ha n a nd he a s s oc i a t e s t he s t r i c t ne s s of hi s t e a c he r i n t hi r d gr a de t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, I t hi n k t ha t M s J one s i s pus hi ng us be c a us e t oda y s t he F C A T a nd s he w a nt s us t o pa s s T he f i r s t ye a r of r e c e i vi ng l e t t e r g r a de s E t ha n c om m uni c a t e d hi s de s i r e t o a c hi e ve a l l A s but r e c ogni z e s i t w i l l r e qui r e pa yi ng c l os e r a t t e nt i on t o t he t e a c he r H e i s ke e nl y a w a r e of t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n h i s e f f or t s a nd hi s s uc c e s s [ I f ] I ge t a l l A s i t w i l l be pr e t t y c ool be c a us e you l l go t o f ou r t h g r a de a nd you l l ha ve l e a r ne d e ve r yt hi ng be c a us e you ve got i t a l l r i ght C onne c t i ng hi s de s i r e t o go t o 4 t h gr a de w i t h a n un c e r t a i nt y a bout t he F C A T E t ha n pe r c e i ve s t he F C A T a s a bi g t e s t H e unde r s t a nds t ha t t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi r d gr a de r e qui r e s how [ i ng] w ha t you l e a r ne d f r om t h e f i r s t pa r t of t he ye a r a nd i t ke e ps ge t t i ng ha r de r a nd ha r de r H e de s c r i be s hi s ne r vo us ne s s a s s t e m m i ng f r om t he unknow n, i t s a ha r d t e s t a nd you c oul d f a i l i t be c a us e you d on t ge t you r r e s ul t s ba c k unt i l M a y. Y ou t hi nk you m i ght pa s s i t e ve r y da y a s w e l l a s t he know n, i f you f a i l you d be goi ng

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74 t o s um m e r s c hool a nd you w oul dn t ge t t o go on v a c a t i on t o t he be a c h o r D i s ne y W or l d or a nyt hi ng a nd t ha t w oul dn t be ve r y f un. A s t he f i r s t t e s t i ng w e e k pr ogr e s s e d, E t ha n s ha r e d how ne r vous he w a s i n a nt i c i pa t i on of t he f i r s t da y. H e c om m uni c a t e d t he f e e l i ng of r e l i e f onc e t he t e s t i ng be ga n a nd s t a t e d hi s c onf i de nc e i n bot h hi m s e l f a n d hi s t e a c he r I know e ve r y t hi ng on i t a nd t he t e a c he r s ha d a ha r d t i m e w o r ki ng a nd t e a c hi ng us a l l t hi s s t uf f s o w e c a n pa s s i t a nd t he y di d do t he i r j obs T he e xpe r i e nc e of t a ki ng pa r t i n t he t e s t i ng w e e ks w a s e nough t o ke e p E t ha n s c onf i de nc e up you ve a l r e a dy done i t a nd you r e a d i t f i r s t you do n t ge t a l l t ha t ne r vous a f t e r you ve a l r e a dy don e i t E t ha n r e l a t e d h i s pe r c e i ve d s uc c e s s w i t h t he t e s t i ng t o s t r a t e gi e s us e d i n pr e pa r a t i on f o r t he t e s t H e s a i d you s houl dn t j us t s a y you c a n t do i t be c a us e i f you s a y you c a n t do i t you l l j us t n ot t r y a nd you l l f a i l a nd dur i ng t he t e s t i ng, I di d good a nd I c he c ke d m y a ns w e r s a nd I di dn t r e a l l y f i nd t ha t m a ny m i s t a ke s E t ha n a c c e pt s t he c ha l l e nge of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t hi r d gr a de a s a f a i r r e p r e s e nt a t i on of g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on but r e c o gni z e s t ha t not e ve r ybody ha s a s e a s y a j ob of i t H e t ol d m e t ha t s om e pe opl e i n E S O L o r l i ke i n s pe c i a l c l a s s e s m a ny br ow n pe opl e e xc e pt D a ni e l a nd s om e ot he r pe opl e s om e of t he m ha ve t r oub l e r e a d i ng s o i t m i ght be ha r de r f or t he m 4. M ar i a ( M ar i a h as a s m i l e t h at l i gh t s u p a r oom D u r i n g t h e c l as s r oom t i m e w h e n I w e n t i n t o r e q u e s t al l o f t h e s t u d e n t s p ar t i c i p at i on an d h an d ou t t h e p e r m i s s i on s l i p s M ar i a w as ve r y q u i e t an d r e s e r ve d b u t s at at t e n t i ve l y w i t h a s m i l e t h at f i l l e d h e r e n t i r e f ac e )

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75 M a r i a a ge ni ne ye a r s m ove d t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f r om M e xi c o w he n s he w a s t hr e e ye a r s ol d. S he l i ve s w i t h he r m ot he r a nd t hr e e ol de r br o t he r s w ho a t t e nd m i ddl e a nd hi gh s c hool H e r m ot he r s pe a ks br oke n c onve r s a t i ona l E ngl i s h a nd he r b r ot he r s t r a ns l a t e m os t a c a de m i c r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r c l a r i t y M a r i a l i ve s i n t he l ow i nc om e hous i ng t ha t i s w i t hi n w a l ki ng di s t a nc e of t he s c hool S he ha s nu m e r ous c ous i ns w ho a l s o a t t e nd t he r e s e a r c h s i t e s c hool i n gr a de l e ve l s a bove a nd be l ow he r s O n t he w a y t o t he f i r s t i nt e r v i e w s e s s i on w i t h M a r i a I r e a l i z e d f r om our c a s ua l c onve r s a t i on t ha t t he l a ngua ge ba r r i e r w oul d pr ove t o be a n obs t a c l e f or M a r i a dur i ng t he pr oc e s s W ha t I s oon f ound out w a s t ha t e ve n t hou gh m a ny of he r a ns w e r s w e r e s hor t i n r e s pons e our di a l ogue w a s m uc h l e ngt hi e r a s M a r i a di d not he s i t a t e t o a s k f o r c l a r i f i c a t i on or t o p r ovi de e xa m pl e s i n he r r e s pons e s I t w a s not a bl e t ha t t he e na m or i ng s m i l e t ha t I r e c a l l e d dur i ng m y c l a s s r oom vi s i t w a s a bs e nt w he n c onve r s i ng a bout he r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. A w a r e t ha t M a r i a r e c e i ve d e xt e nde d t e s t t a ki ng t i m e I w a s ot he r w i s e unf a m i l i a r w i t h he r r ol e a s a s t ude nt a t t he s c hool I n m y pos i t i on a s a R e a di ng C oa c h I ha d ne ve r ha d a f a c e t o m a t c h t o t he na m e t ha t I s a w on t he p a pe r w or k U nde r s t a ndi ng t ha t he r l e ve l of l a ngua ge a c qui s i t i on r e qui r e d a ddi t i ona l t h i nki ng t i m e I w a s e xc i t e d a bout w ha t M a r i a s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w oul d c ont r i b ut e t o t he s t udy A s a s t ude nt M a r i a r e c ogni z e d t he i m por t a nc e o f r e a di ng t o he r pot e nt i a l s uc c e s s w e r e a d um m m by pr a c t i c i ng r e a di ng l ong w or ds a nd de s c r i be d t hi r d gr a de a s a t i m e f or l e a r ni ng a nd l i s t e ni ng.

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76 M a r i a s pe r c e pt i on of h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s t ha t i t s l i ke r e a l l y ha r d a nd s he s e e s t he F C A T a s he l p[ i ng ] m e pa s s R e f l e c t i ng o n t h e f i r s t m o r ni ng o f t e s t i ng, M a r i a de s c r i be s he r s e l f a s s a d a nd w onde r [ i ng] i f I w a s goi ng t o pa s s or not T he de pt h of M a r i a s s a dne s s ove r w he l m e d he r s e ns e of pr e pa r e dne s s w hi l e s he r e pe a t e dl y e m pha s i z e d I w a s t he onl y one a t t he t e s t t ha t w a s s a d. B y t he e nd of t he t e s t i ng w e e k, M a r i a s ha r e d t ha t s he w a s ha ppy, I [ w a s ] f or got a bout i t t hough he r f a c e di d not gl ow w i t h t he s a m e ha ppi ne s s pr i or t o t he t e s t i ng. W he n t e s t i ng c onc l ude d, M a r i a be ga n t o r e t ur n t o he r t ypi c a l s m i l i ng s e l f H e r a dvi c e t o pe e r s oka y, l i ke j us t don t w or r y i t w i l l be e a s y, di d not c or r e l a t e w i t h t he de s c r i pt i on s he pr ovi de d o f t he e xpe r i e nc e T he l a s t s t a t e m e nt M a r i a m a de a bout t he F C A T w a s t ha t i f s he w e r e goi ng t o c ha nge a nyt hi ng a bout i t s he w oul d m a ke i t m or e f u n. [ I d ha ve i t be ] m o r e e a s y. 5. Jos e p h i n a ( Jos e p h i n a i s an o u t goi n g t h ou gh t f u l t h i r d gr ad e r w h o gr e e t s e ve r y ad u l t i n t h e b u i l d i n g w i t h a s m i l e an d a h e l l o at e ve r y op p or t u n i t y s h e ge t s S h e w as e xc i t e d ab ou t p ar t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y an d d e s c r i b e d t h e d e t ai l s h e h ad t o go i n t o w i t h h e r m ot h e r t o r e c e i ve p e r m i s s i on t o p ar t i c i p at e ) J os e phi na a ge ni ne ye a r s ha s a n ol de r s i s t e r w ho di d w e l l on t he F C A T t w o ye a r s e a r l i e r F a m i l y i s i m por t a nt t o J os e phi na a nd s he m e nt i one d i t t h r oughout he r i nt e r v i e w s T hough he r f a t he r l i ve s i n t he hom e J os e phi na s m ot he r a nd s i s t e r a ppe a r t o dom i na t e I m m i gr a nt s f r om M e xi c o, J os e phi na s pa r e nt s ke e p S pa ni s h a s t he pr i m a r y l a ngua ge i n t he hom e but s pe a k E ngl i s h f l ue nt l y T he y w or k ve r y ha r d t o ke e p bot h t he H i s pa ni c a nd A m e r i c a n c ul t ur e s i nt a c t J os e phi na i s a c t i ve l y i nv ol ve d i n he r a c a de m i c s a nd a w a r e of

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77 he r a c c om m oda t i ons a s a dua l l a ngua ge l e a r ne r S he s a i d, I go t o E S O L a nd I ge t e xt r a t i m e t ha n t he ot he r s I n m y r ol e a s a R e a di ng C oa c h on t he r e s e a r c h s i t e s c hool I ha ve ha d num e r ous e nc ount e r s w i t h J os e phi na i n a n i ndi vi dua l s m a l l a nd w hol e gr oup f or m a t S he a nd I ha ve a good r a ppor t a nd a ppe a r t o s ha r e m u t ua l r e s pe c t f or e a c h ot he r s r o l e s J os e phi na i s a pl e a s ur e t o w or k w i t h. O ne t r a i t t ha t J os e phi na br ought t o he r w or k gr oups w a s pe r s e ve r a nc e J os e phi na put s gr e a t e f f or t i nt o he r a c a de m i c w or k a nd e nc our a ge s a nd c e l e br a t e s not onl y he r s uc c e s s e s but t hos e of he r p e e r s a s w e l l J os e phi na r e c ogni z e s F C A T a s a c om pone nt of l i f e i n t he t hi r d gr a de t ha t g ui de s he r r e c a l l o f m a t e r i a l l e a r ne d. S he t ol d m e I f t he y di dn t ha ve t he t e s t i t w oul d t a ke a l ot of ha r d t i m e r e m e m be r i ng e ve r yt hi ng t ha t you l e a r ne d t he w hol e t i m e [ you ve be e n i n s c hool ] S he c ons i de r s he r t i m e p r a c t i c i ng a t hom e a nd l i s t e ni ng i n c l a s s a s e s s e nt i a l t o be i ng a good s t ude nt T hi r d gr a de i s ki nd of e a s y be c a us e m y s i s t e r he l ps m e S he t e l l s m e don t be s c a r e d [ be ] c a us e i t i s k i nd of e a s y, a nd m y m om ge t s m a t h c a r ds t o pr a c t i c e m a t h. J os e phi na s poke of be i ng s c a r e d t he m or n i ng of t e s t i ng. S he a t t r i but e d be i ng s c a r e d t o t he unc e r t a i nt y of w ha t w oul d be r e qui r e d a nd a l s o t o be i ng r e m ove d f r om t he c l a s s r oom f or t e s t i ng. H ow e ve r onc e J os e phi na r e c e i ve d he r t e s t bookl e t t o be gi n, he r pe r c e pt i on of t he t a s k be i ng e a s y r e t ur ne d. I t he l pe d f o r he r t o be a l l ow e d t o c he w bubbl e gum w hi l e be i ng t e s t e d. I t m a ke s m e c onc e nt r a t e on t he bubbl e gum a nd l i ke c he w on i t a nd i t l i ke m a ke s m e c onc e nt r a t e o n t he bubbl e gum I l l be l i ke I l l be t hi nki ng ha r d

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78 W he n J os e phi na a nd I m e t f or t he s e c ond i nt e r vi e w w hi c h t ook pl a c e m i d w a y t hr ough t he t e s t i ng, s he s ha r e d t ha t i t w a s goi ng good a nd i t r e a l l y w a s n t ha r d S he de s c r i be d he r e xpe r i e nc e by s t a t i ng, L i ke t he goo d t ha t I m s a yi ng i s t ha t you know w ha t i t w a s a nd I w a s f i ni s he d qui c ke r a nd qui c ke r be c a us e I kne w w ha t i t w a s I n di s c us s i on a bout t he r e m a i ni ng t e s t i ng t i m e J os e phi na voi c e d c onc e r n a bout be i ng unpr e pa r e d i f t he r e w e r e t o be a ny s c i e nc e on t he t e s t M r S m i t h doe s n t r e a l l y he f or ge t s a bout s c i e nc e a nd s o w e don t r e a l l y know a bout t ha t m u c h of s c i e nc e A f t e r t he t e s t i ng c onc l ude d J os e phi na s um m e d he r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e up by s a yi ng, I got s c a r e d a l i t t l e bi t of s c a r e d l i ke s hy a f r a i d l i ke t ha t [ w he n t e s t i ng w a s s t a r t i ng] a nd t he n, now [ t ha t t e s t i ng i s ove r ] I m n ot t ha t s c a r e d be c a us e I t h i nk I m gonna pa s s a nd now I m doi ng m or e good s t uf f l i ke t ha t be c a us e I ba r e l y l e a r ne d l i ke a f e w t h i ngs f r om [ be f o r e ] t he F C A T 6. D an i e l ( D an i e l i s l i k e an ad u l t i n a c h i l d s b od y. H i s m an n e r i s m s an d d e m e an or d e m on s t r at e a m at u r i t y b e yon d h i s age ) D a ni e l a ge ni ne ye a r s s e t a n a c a de m i c goa l f or hi m s e l f t o qua l i f y f o r t he gi f t e d pr ogr a m H ow e ve r h i s pa pe r w or k di d no t a gr e e a nd D a ni e l w a s t ur ne d dow n H i s a c a de m i c a m bi t i ons l e d hi m t o s t r i ve ha r de r H e w a s of t e n t he f i r s t t o r a i s e hi s ha nd t o be c a l l e d upon t o a ns w e r a que s t i on. D a ni e l i s di l i ge nt a nd pa ys a t t e nt i on i n t he c l a s s r oom I n m y r ol e a s a R e a di ng C oa c h a t t he r e s e a r c h s i t e c a m pus I ve c ol l a bo r a t e d w i t h D a ni e l s t e a c he r i n bot h a c o t e a c hi ng a nd obs e r va t i ona l f or m a t f o r a good pa r t of t he s c hool ye a r

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79 D a ni e l put s a l ot o f pr e s s ur e on hi m s e l f a c a de m i c a l l y ye t t r i e s t o ba l a nc e hi s l e a r ni ng di s c i pl i ne w i t h f un H e e xpl a i ns hi s l i f e t i m e goa l s I w a nt t o go t o c ol l e ge a nd I w a nt t o pl a y i n t he N F L D a ni e l s f a t he r i s a bs e nt f r om hi s l i f e s o hi s m ot he r a nd gr a ndf a t he r a r e r a i s i ng hi m w i t h hi s younge r s i s t e r S houl d D a ni e l a t t a i n hi s goa l of e nt e r i ng c ol l e ge he w i l l be t he f i r s t i n hi s f a m i l y t o do s o. B ot h D a ni e l a nd hi s m ot he r d i s a gr e e w i t h t he h i gh s t a k e s of t he F C A T be c a us e i t l e a ve s D a ni e l w i t h l ot s of que s t i ons a bout t he t e s t I don t know [ a nyt h i ng a bout t he t e s t ] c a us e t hi s i s t he f i r s t t i m e [ I ve be e n] i n t he t h i r d gr a de I f I s t a y ba c k t he n I w i l l know m or e a bout i t [ t hough I don t w a nt t o] D a ni e l c ont i nue d t he c onve r s a t i on a bout w ha t he w oul d do i f he ha d t o r e pe a t t hi r d g r a de be c a us e of t he F C A T s ha r i ng I f I ha ve t o s t a y ba c k, I l l ge t m a d but t he n I l l ha ve t o he l p t he ot he r l i t t l e ki ds w i t h t he i r w or k I f I pa s s I m goi ng t o be ha ppy a n d I m goi ng t o ha ve t o l i s t e n f or t he ha r d s t uf f D a ni e l pe r c e i ve d t he F C A T t o be ha r d ba s e d on s e c ond ha nd a c c ount s f r om s om e of hi s f r i e nds w ho ha ve t a ke n t he t e s t i n t he pa s t H i s ne r vous [ ne s s ] s ubs i de d onc e he s t a r t e d t e s t i ng, s t a t i ng I p r e t t y m uc h l i ke d i t I t hi nk t he pe opl e w ho a r e t e l l i ng us i t s ha r d t he y r e t r yi ng t o s c a r e you [ m e ] be c a us e i t s pr e t t y i t s r e a l l y e a s y. A f t e r t e s t i ng, D a ni e l r e t u r ne d t o w or ki ng on ge t t i ng o r g a ni z e d f or f ou r t h g r a de a nd c ont i nue d pr a c t i c i ng a t hom e 7. C h r i s t op h e r ( I t w as a c h al l e n ge c oor d i n a t i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r vi e w t i m e a t w h i c h t o m e e t w i t h C h r i s t op h e r b e c au s e h e w as c on t i n u o u s l y b e h i n d i n h i s c l as s w or k an d n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e as s i gn m e n t s t h at h e h ad n ot f i n i s h e d i n c l as s or a t h o m e )

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80 C hr i s t ophe r a g e ni ne ye a r s i s a t hi s f i f t h e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i nc e he be ga n ki nde r ga r t e n. H e doe s not s pe a k of hi s f a m i l y w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of a n ol de r br o t he r w ho i s i n hi gh s c hool a nd l e t s hi m w a t c h s c a r y m ovi e s w i t h hi m i f he doe s n t know I m i n t he r oom C hr i s t o phe r c a n r e c ount pl a y by pl a y, i n de t a i l s om e o f t he m os t t e c hni c a l vi de o ga m e s de s i gne d. I n m onot one C hr i s t ophe r i s not s hy a bout e xpr e s s i ng hi s di s gus t w i t h a c a de m i c s I ha t e s c hool W he n c onve r s i ng a bout t he di f f e r e nt s ubj e c t a r e a s he s a ys I l i k e a r t c l a s s s om e t i m e s m a t h, s oc i a l s t udi e s ha r dl y s c i e n c e R e a di ng i s ha r d. W hi l e c o t e a c hi ng a nd obs e r vi ng i n C hr i s t ophe r s c l a s s r oom dur i ng m y r ol e a s R e a di ng C oa c h a t t he s c hool I ve r e c ogni z e d C hr i s t ophe r s i nt e r e s t i n c ont e nt be i ng ove r r ul e d by h i s di f f i c ul t y i n de c odi ng t e xt C hr i s t ophe r e xpl a i ns hi s t hi r d gr a de e xpe r i e nc e a s be i ng ha r d ha r d t o do w or k a nd ha vi ng a l ot m or e t e s t s A w a r e t ha t r e a di ng i s a m a i n c om pone nt of t he F C A T C hr i s t ophe r voi c e s hi s pe r c e pt i ons of w ha t i t w i l l be l i ke T he r e a di ng a b out t he F C A T t ha t i t s s om e t i m e s m i ght be ha r d O nc e t e s t i ng be ga n he po r t r a ye d s om e buoya nc y t ha t ha d no t be e n pr e vi ous l y de m ons t r a t e d, I m f e e l i ng t ha t I ge t r i d of w ha t I s a i d t he l a s t t i m e a nd t ha t I m goi ng t o s a y w ha t I s a y t hi s t i m e T he F C A T s ounds pr e t t y e a s y f or t hi r d gr a de . S ha r i ng hi s pe r c e pt i ons o f t he ne xt por t i on of t he t e s t C hr i s t ophe r us e s l e t t e r gr a de s c or i ng. A f t e r t he f i r s t w e e k o f t e s t i ng, C hr i s t ophe r de s c r i be d hi m s e l f a s doi ng good I t hi nk I m goi ng t o g e t a n A W he n p r e pa r i ng t o g o ba c k i n f or t he s e c ond w e e k of

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81 t e s t i ng he s t a t e s t ha t he i s ha r dl y ha ppy a bout i t b e c a us e t hi s one m i ght m a ke m e ge t a B W he n C hr i s t ophe r a nd I m e t f or h i s l a s t i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w hi s de m e a nor ha d c ha nge d ba c k t o t he s l ow m ovi ng C hr i s t ophe r I ha d e xpe r i e nc e d be f or e t e s t i ng W he n I a s ke d C hr i s t ophe r w hy he w a s s o dow n, he e xpl a i n e d t ha t hi s t e a c he r ha d c ha nge d a l i t t l e [ i n a good w a y] s o hi s p r e s e nc e di d not m a t c h w ha t he w a s s a yi ng unt i l he s ha r e d, S a m e ol d, s a m e ol d hom e w or k. I l i ke d t e s t i ng w e e ks be t t e r s o I c a n ge t ba c k t o m y l i f e H e de s c r i be d hi m s e l f a s f e e l i ng bl ue a nd s l e e py t oda y. T hi r d gr a de t o hi m w a s now e a s i e r a nd he s t r uggl e d w i t h de s c r i bi ng i t I don t r e a l l y know a l i t t l e gl oom a c t ua l l y H e c ont i nue d, Y e a h, I don t f e e l l i ke I m r e a dy f o r f ou r t h g r a de ye t 8. C ayl a ( C ayl a i s a j oy f u l t h i r d gr ad e gi r l w h o i s al w ays b u b b l y. S h e e ve n b ou n c e s as s h e m ak e s h e r w ay t o t h e i n t e r vi e w r oom gr e e t i n g e ve r yon e w i t h a goo d m or n i n g on h e r w ay. ) C a yl a a ge ni ne ye a r s ha s be e n a s t ude nt a t t he r e s e a r c h s c hool s i nc e s he w a s i n pr e k. S he ha s a younge r s i s t e r i n f i r s t g r a de H e r m ot he r i s t he s c hool l i br a r i a n a nd ha s w or ke d a t t he s c hool s i nc e C a yl a s t a r t e d. C a yl a s g r a ndm ot he r vol unt e e r s a t t he s c hool on a r e gul a r ba s i s H e r f a t he r w ho i s s t i l l m a r r i e d t o h e r m ot he r ( s he r ol l s he r e ye s a s s he s ha r e s ) br i ngs he r M c D ona l d s f or l unc h e ve r y F r i da y. C a yl a i s ve r y i n t une t o he r f a m i l y s t hought s a bout F C A T M y m om s a ys t ha t I m gonna do good but I don t t hi nk s o a nd i n c om pa r i s on t o s e c ond gr a de s he s t a t e s t ha t t hi r d gr a de i s a bi t ha r de r a nd t e a c he s you m or e s t uf f

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82 A s R e a di ng C oa c h a t t he s c hool I ve w or ke d on p r oj e c t s w i t h C a yl a s m ot he r but ha d l i t t l e c ont a c t w i t h C a yl a s oc i a l l y or a c a de m i c a l l y. S e e i ng he r i n t he ha l l w a ys I r e c ogni z e d C a yl a a s t he l i br a r i a n s da ught e r but ne ve r ha d t he oppo r t uni t y t o w o r k w i t h or obs e r ve he r i n he r c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng. W a l ki ng t o t he i nt e r vi e w r oom t oge t he r C a yl a s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t he s c hool c a m pus w a s obvi ous a s s he l e d t he w a y. W he n de s c r i bi ng w ha t s he i s l i ke a s a s t ude nt C a y l a poi nt s out t ha t s he s l e a r ne d l ot s of s t uf f f r om t e a c he r s a nd s t uf f S he c ont i nue s on t o s ha r e he r pe r c e pt i on t ha t t he pur pos e of l e a r ni ng i s t o pr e pa r e f o r t he F C A T N ot s hy a bout how ne r vous s he i s f or t he F C A T s he a l l e vi a t e s bui l t up s t r e s s by t hi nki n g a bout a l l o f t he pr e pa r a t i on a nd s t udyi ng s he ha s done [ I ] p r a c t i c e f a c t a nd op i ni o n a nd m a i n i de a [ M y t e a c he r s a i d] t he r e i s a l ot of f a c t a nd opi ni on a nd m a i n i de a A t t he i nt e r vi e w t ha t t ook pl a c e be t w e e n t he t w o t e s t i ng w e e ks C a yl a s ne r vous ne s s he i ght e ne d t o t he l e ve l of f e a r S he de s c r i be d t he m or ni ng of t he f i r s t da y o f t e s t i ng a s s c a r y a nd e nga ge d i n s e l f t a l k t o e a s e he r f e a r I t w a s a l i t t l e s c a r y w he n I f i r s t s t a r t e d, a nd t he n w he n I a c t ua l l y l ooke d i n i t a nd s t a r t e d doi ng i t I w a s l i ke t hi s i s n t t ha t ha r d. I n p r e pa r a t i on f or t he s e c ond w e e k of t e s t i ng, C a yl a f ound he r s e l f not ne r vous a nym or e a nd c ont i nue s t o e xpl a i n be c a us e I m done [ w i t h t hi s pa r t ] a nd i t s l i ke a f t e r you ve done i t a l i t t l e bi t you don t f e e l a s s t r e s s e d out a s you di d be f or e O nc e t e s t i ng e nde d C a yl a r e m i ni s c e d, I t w a s n t t h a t ha r d but I t hought i t w oul d be a l i t t l e ha r de r on t he N R T but i t w a s a c t ua l l y e a s i e r t ha n t he s uns hi ne s t a t e s t a nda r ds H a ppy t ha t t he F C A T w a s ove r C a yl a i de nt i f i e d t w o i t e m s o f i m po r t a nc e f or

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83 pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he F C A T : l i s t e ni ng a nd not s t r e s s i ng. H ow doe s C a yl a e xpl a i n s c hool l i f e now t ha t F C A T i s ove r ? M y t e a c he r s a i d s he w on t be a s ha r d on us a ny m or e a nd s he w i l l l e t us l i ke w on t l e t us d o a s m uc h w or k. S he di d t ha t be f o r e s o w e c oul d ge t r e a dy f o r t he F C A T a nd now t ha t i t s ove r s he w on t [ ha ve us ] do a s m uc h w or k. S he l e t us w a t c h a l ot of m ovi e s 9. A n n a ( A n n a h as a ve r y q u i e t d e m u r e p e r s o n al i t y t h at gr ow s i n t o a s t r on g a n d t al k at i ve o n e as s h e ge t s t o k n ow you ) A nna a ge e i ght ye a r s s pe a ks E ngl i s h a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge S he ha s a younge r br ot he r i n ki nde r ga r t e n a t t he r e s e a r c h s c hool S he ha s c om pl e t e d a l l of he r e duc a t i on a t t hi s s c hool w i t h t he e xc e pt i on o f one ye a r D ue t o t he s e pa r a t i on of he r pa r e nt s w he n s he w a s i n f i r s t g r a de s he l e f t t he r e s e a r c h s c hool bu t t he n t r a ns f e r r e d ba c k du r i ng t he f i r s t m ont h of s e c ond gr a de H e r m ot he r w or ks a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge pa r a pr of e s s i ona l a t t he s c hool B or n i n A m e r i c a A nna s pe nds he r s um m e r s i n M e xi c o w i t h he r m ot he r b r ot he r a nd gr a ndm ot he r I ha d no pr i o r e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h A nna i n m y r ol e a s a R e a di ng C oa c h. I ve pr ovi de d s om e pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t r a i ni ng f or he r m ot he r s de pa r t m e nt but w a s not a w a r e t ha t s he ha d c hi l dr e n a t t he r e s e a r c h s c hool W a l ki ng ba c k t o t he i nt e r vi e w r oom A nna w a s ve r y qui e t a nd r e s e r ve d but di d e n ga ge i n l i ght s oc i a l c onve r s a t i on. A nna s ha r e d t ha t s he w a s ve r y s a d a bout ha vi ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t hi r d gr a de H e r pe r c e pt i on w a s t ha t t he r e w oul d be a l ot of que s t i ons I n he r w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on, s he not e d E ve r y da y I f e e l l i ke I a m go i ng t o e xpl ode T he F C A T i s goi ng t o

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84 be ha r d t hi s ye a r T he F C A T i s c l os e r a nd I a m w o r r i e d s o I ha ve [ t o] r e a l l y s t udy ha r d t h i s w e e k. S he s ha r e d he r t hought t ha t i t w oul d he l p i f [ t e a c he r s ] t e l l [ t he m ] m or e a bout t he F C A T I t w oul d he l p t he m not t o be s a d. I n t h e i nt e r vi e w w hi c h oc c ur r e d m i d w a y t hr ough t he t e s t i ng pr oc e s s A nna di d not w a nt t o t a l k a bout t he t e s t i ng t hough h e r w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on de m ons t r a t e d s om e a l l e vi a t i on of he r pr e vi ous s a dne s s t hr ough t e a c he r s uppor t i n a ddi t i ona l p r e pa r a t i on. W he n t e s t i ng c onc l ude d, A nna s a i d t ha t s he no l on ge r f e l t ba d [ or ] w or r i e d t ha t m uc h be c a us e i t s done S he t ol d m e t ha t c he w i n g bubbl e gum he l pe d e a s e he r s a dne s s N ot s o ha ppy a bout ha vi ng hom e w or k a ga i n, A nna w a s ha ppy t o r e l a x a nd w a t c h m ovi e s i n c l a s s now 10. Je s s i c a ( Je s s i c a l i gh t s u p a r oom w h e n s h e e n t e r s S h e i s al m os t a h e ad t al l e r t h an h e r p e e r s an d i s w e l l k n o w n b y h e r c l as s m at e s ) J e s s i c a a ge e i ght ye a r s a nd he r younge r br o t he r h a ve a t t e nde d t he r e s e a r c h s c hool s i nc e s he s t a r t e d s e c ond gr a de H e r m ot he r w or ks a s a t e a c he r s a s s i s t a nt i n a s e ve r e l y e m ot i ona l l y di s t ur be d c l a s s r oom a t t he s c hool S he ha s ne ve r know n he r bi ol ogi c a l f a t he r J e s s i c a f i nds s c hool t o be e a s y. T he f i r s t t i m e I m e t J e s s i c a w a s w he n s he c a m e t o m y of f i c e t o de l i ve r he r pe r m i s s i on s l i ps t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. S he w a s c om f or t a bl e i n m y p r e s e nc e a nd w a nt e d t o be gi n t he r e s e a r c h r i ght t he n. J e s s i c a s c onve r s a t i on w a s l oa de d w i t h i nf or m a t i on a bout how s he pe r c e i ve d t he w or l d a r o und he r S he de s c r i be d j us t a bout e ve r yt hi ng a s c ool a nd hi ghl i ght e d por t i ons o f h e r da y t ha t i nc or por a t e d oppo r t uni t y f or

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85 s oc i a l i z a t i on a nd i nde pe nde nc e S he s a i d, W e ge t t o go out f or r e c e s s W e ge t t o ha ve s na c k a f t e r s pe c i a l s W e ge t t o go t o t he l i b r a r y w h e n w e ne e d t o. W he n our i nt e r v i e w be ga n, J e s s i c a s pe r c e pt i on of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w a s t ha t i t w oul d be ha r d, but s he a l s o r e c ogni z e d t ha t i t w oul d be not s o ha r d onc e you ge t t o know t he t hi ngs on t he F C A T you ge t t o ge t r e a l l y be t t e r a t i t a nd s t uf f J e s s i c a a t t r i but e d he r s t udi ous a t t i t ude t o he r hi gh s e l f e s t e e m S he p r e pa r e d by goi ng t o t he l i br a r y a nd p r a c t i c i ng on F C A T e xpl or e r A t t h e i nt e r vi e w dur i ng t he t e s t i ng w e e ks he r s e l f e s t e e m ne ve r f a l t e r e d, [ I ] l i ke i t [ i t s ] c o ol a nd w he n I f i nd out i f I m goi ng t o t hi r d gr a de a nd i f I don t go t o f our t h gr a de I l l s t i l l be pr oud of m ys e l f t ha t I t r i e d a nd I l l s t i l l r e m e m be r t ha t F C A T i s F C A T a nd no m a t t e r how ha r d you t r y you r e s t i l l goi ng t o ke e p on goi ng S t r a t e gi e s w e r e i m por t a nt t o J e s s i c a S e l f t a l k gui d e d he r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e W he n I s t a r t e d [ t e s t i ng] I s a i d i n m y m i nd t ha t I m doi ng i t s o j us t c a l m dow n a nd you l l be a l r i ght A pr opone nt t o ha vi ng bubbl e g um dur i ng t e s t i ng, J e s s i c a di vul ge d w e e a t bubbl e gum du r i ng F C A T but s om e t i m e s w e c a n t c onc e nt r a t e s o I s pi t m y gum ba c k out L i ke ni ng he r s e l f w he n t e s t i ng t o a s m a r t c a r t ha t i s dr i vi ng ge t t i ng a l l t he m a t h pr ob l e m s a nd t h i ngs r i ght J e s s i c a a dvoc a t e s w e a r i ng w he e l s i n he r he a l i e s t o s c hool on F C A T da y be c a us e w he n I m on m y he a l i e s I t hi nk I m l i ke a c a r 11. L an c e ( L an c e w as on vac at i on f or t h e s e ve n s c h ool d ays p r i or t o t h e F C A T t e s t i n g an d s o w as u n ab l e t o p ar t i c i p a t e i n t h e f i r s t i n t e r vi e w )

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86 L a nc e a ge ni ne ye a r s i s a n on l y c hi l d H i s m ot he r i s t he vi c e p r e s i de nt of t he r e s e a r c h s c hool s P T O L a nc e s m ot he r a nd f a t he r t ook hi m on a n e xt e nde d c r u i s e j us t pr i or t o t he F C A T t o he l p hi m r e l a x. H e br ought hi s pe r m i s s i on s l i ps t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a t t he e nd of t he f i r s t t e s t i ng da y. I ha d not pr e vi ous l y ha d a ny i nt e r a c t i on w i t h L a nc e i n m y r ol e a s a R e a di ng C oa c h a t t he s c hool L a nc e be ga n hi s de s c r i pt i on of t e s t i ng da y by t e l l i n g m e a bout how he ha d br e a kf a s t a t hom e a nd a t s c hool but c oul dn t f i nd h i m s e l f up t o e a t i ng m uc h o f a nyt hi ng H e s a i d a l t hough hi s t e a c he r t ol d hi m you don t h a ve t o be ne r vous he s t i l l w a s H e por t r a ys t he t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e a s be i ng e a s y ye t he s ha r e s t ha t t hi s di dn t be c om e s o unt i l he ha d done t he f i r s t pa ge A f t e r t e s t i ng w a s c om pl e t e d, L a nc e t ol d m e t ha t he w a s t oo ne r vous t o r e m e m be r a ny s t r a t e gi e s t ha t he u s e d dur i ng t e s t i ng be c a us e he w a s a nt i c i pa t i ng t he r e s ul t s t hough he f e l t ve r y ha ppy t o ha ve i t ove r H i s i nt e r v i e w w a s c ut s hor t w he n t he of f i c e c a l l e d dow n f or hi m t o ge t hi s ba c k pa c k a nd go t o t he of f i c e H i s m ot he r w a s pi c ki ng hi m up f r om s c hool e a r l y. L a n c e w a s a bs e nt f or t he ne xt 4 da ys 12. A m e l i a ( A m e l i a t ol d m e s h e w as e xc i t e d a b o u t p ar t i c i p at i n g i n t h e r e s e ar c h w h e n s h e t u r n e d i n h e r p e r m i s s i on s l i p s S h e t h e n m i s s e d t h e f i r s t i n t e r vi e w d u e t o t h e d e at h of h e r gr e at gr an d m o t h e r an d al s o t h e l as t i n t e r vi e w d u e t o t h e d e at h of an au n t ) A m e l i a a ge ni ne ye a r s ha s a br o t he r w ho i s a t odd l e r S he a t t e nds t he r e s e a r c h s c hool by c hoi c e be c a us e he r gr a ndm ot he r i s a f ou r t h gr a de t e a c he r a t t he s i t e M y r ol e a s

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87 a r e s e a r c he r i s t he f i r s t i n w hi c h I ve ha d di r e c t c o nt a c t w i t h A m e l i a A s a R e a di ng C oa c h on t he s c hool c a m pus ou r pa t hs ha d ne ve r c r os s e d. E ve n t hough A m e l i a m i s s e d t he f i r s t i nt e r vi e w s h e e xpr e s s e d he r e m ot i ons a bout t he F C A T du r i ng he r f i r s t w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on I f e e l ne r vous a bout t he F C A T be c a us e t hi s i s t he f i r s t t i m e I ha ve t a ke n t he t e s t I t j us t f e e l s w e i r d. W he n I e ve n t hi nk a bout t he F C A T I g e t m or e ne r vous a nd w he n t he r e s a l o t o f s t uf f t o r e m e m be r a nd pa r t o f t he t i m e I f o r ge t s t uf f D ur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w be t w e e n t he t w o t e s t i ng w e e ks A m e l i a s ha r e d t ha t s he w a s r e a l l y, r e a l l y ne r vous S he s a i d t ha t s he got but t e r f l i e s i n he r t um m y t he f i r s t m or ni ng of t e s t i ng but t ha t a s t he f i r s t w e e k pr ogr e s s e d s he w a s not s o ne r vous a nym or e t ha t i t w a s ki nd of e a s y. G oi ng i n t o t he s e c ond w e e k of t e s t i ng, A m e l i a w a s ne r vous a ga i n. S he pe r c e i ve d t he upc om i ng w e e k t o be m or e di f f i c ul t [ I m ] a l i t t l e ne r vous be c a us e M s J one s [ m y t e a c he r ] s a i d i t s g oi ng t o be a l i t t l e ha r de r G e ne r a l l y a ve r y c ons c i e nt i ous s t ude nt A m e l i a voi c e d a c onc e r n a bout ne e di ng m or e t i m e t o r e a d a nd t he de s i r e t o pr a c t i c e m or e i n m a t h A s f a r a s t he F C A T de t e r m i ni ng A m e l i a s gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on, he r pe r c e pt i on w a s e qui voc a l I t hi nk I m i ght go t o f ou r t h g r a de a nd I t hi nk I m i ght not G r oup C har ac t e r i s t i c s T hi s por t i on of t he c ha pt e r p r e s e nt s s ke t c he s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s ke t c he s w e r e c r e a t e d a s a r e s ul t of i n de pt h, s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t hi r d gr a de hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t a ki ng s t ude nt s T he s ke t c he s w e r e pr e s e nt e d t o gui de t he a na l ys i s a nd

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88 r e s ul t s por t i on of t he s t udy A s um m a r y of t he gr o up c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s f r om t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s i s p r e s e nt e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng t a bl e ( T a bl e 4)

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89 T a bl e 4. G r oup C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s G R O U P C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S A N D T E S T I N G E V O L U T I O N P a r t i c i pa nt # N a m e A ge G e nde r R a c e A bi l i t y L e ve l B e f or e T e s t i ng D ur i ng T e s t i ng A f t e r T e s t i ng 1 33 S a r a h 9 F W L S c a r y S houl d do good, ne r vous G ood 2 49 A be ga l 8 F W H W or r i e d E a s y R e l i e f 3 45 E t ha n 9 M W M U nc e r t a i n G ood, not ne r vous a nym or e R e l i e f 4 37 M a r i a 9 F H L S a d U nc e r t a i n G ood, r e l i e f 5 18 J os e phi na 9 F H M G ood, s c a r e d, ne r vous N ot ne r vous a nym or e G ood, a nxi ous f or r e s u l t s 6 19 D a ni e l 9 M B H P r e s s ur e s c a r y, ne r vous N ot ne r vous a nym or e R e l i e f gl a d 7 17 C hr i s t ophe r 9 M W M H a r d, ups e t N ot H a ppy D oe s n t know how he f e e l s 8 48 C a yl a 9 F W H N e r vous s c a r y N ot ne r vous a nym or e G ood, r e l i e f i t w a s e a s y 9 44 A nna 8 F H L S a d N o c om m e nt G ood, i t w a s e a s y 10 51 J e s s i c a 8 F B M C ool e a s y, ha r d C onf i de nt pos i t i ve F a nt a s t i c r e l i e f 11 46 L a nc e 9 M W M N e r vous B e c a m e e a s y H a ppy, good, ne r vous 12 43 A m e l i a 9 F W H N e r vous w e i r d N ot ne r vous a nym or e N ot w or r i e d

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90 T he m a t i c A na l ys i s A f t e r r e a di ng a l l of t he c ha r a c t e r s ke t c he s I r e t ur n e d t o t he o r i gi na l i n t e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd s t ude nt d r a w i ngs T he n, one s t ude nt a t a t i m e r e a d t he m a l l s e ve r a l t i m e s m o r e I be ga n da t a r e duc t i on by r e a di ng a nd r e r e a di ng a l l t he s our c e s A s t he m e s be ga n t o e m e r ge on t he i ni t i a l r e a di ng of e a c h t r a ns c r i pt I br ough t i n t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd d r a w i ngs of t he s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s T he n t h r ough a n ope n c odi ng pr oc e dur e I i de nt i f i e d f our m a j or t he m e s unde r a n um br e l l a of ow ne r s hi p of l e a r ni ng. T he f our e m e r ge nt t he m e s de ve l ope d a s f ol l ow s : ( 1) s e l f t e s t ( 2) a t t r i but i on ( 3 ) pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s a nd ( 4) e m ot i ons I n a ddi t i on t o t he s e t he m e s t he da t a a l s o s ugge s t e d t he e xi s t e nc e of pa t t e r ns T he pa t t e r ns i n di c a t e d c onf l i c t of dua l s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons : t he pe r c e pt i on of t he m s e l ve s a s a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt a s w e l l a s t he pe r c e pt i on of t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e a s a m a ni f e s t a t i on of e a c h s t ude nt s gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on E a c h s t ude nt i n hi s or he r ow n w a y, s how e d c ha r a c t e r a nd pe r s ona l i t y. T hi s w a s m os t obvi ous i n t he i r de t e r m i na t i on t o pa s s a nd s o c ont i nue c l i m bi ng t he i r a c a de m i c l a dde r T he de ve l opm e nt of t he m e s a s por t r a ye d t hr ough t he voi c e s of t he s t ude nt s of f e r e d de e p de s c r i pt i ons o f t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he pa ge s t ha t f ol l ow a r e e xp r e s s i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons T he pur i t y of t he e ve r y da y ve r na c ul a r i s m a i nt a i ne d t o a l l ow t he r e a de r t o i de nt i f y w i t h t he t hought s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t a ki ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng.

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91 Se l f T e s t T he c ont e xt f o r l e a r n i ng, t ha t i s t he c om bi na t i on o f pe r s ona l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t c hi l dr e n e nc ount e r ( B e r k 2005 ) ha s a di s t i nc t a f f e c t on how a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt pe r c e i ve s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he l i t e r a t ur e on l e a r ni ng c ont e xt s f or c hi l dr e n i n W e s t e r n s oc i e t y ( R ubi n & C opl a n, 1998) f oc us e s on t he c i r c um s t a nc e s of c hi l dr e n s e xpe r i e nc e s T hi s s t ud y f oc us e d on t he e nvi r onm e nt a s w e l l a s c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t m ol d t he s t ude n t T he t he m e of s e l f t e s t r e f e r s t o t he s t ude nt s e nc ount e r s w i t h t he F C A T a s a n i nt e gr a t e d pa r t o f t he i r l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt S t ude nt s r e ve a l e d t ha t s t a nda r di z e d t e s t i ng w a s a c ons t a nt pr e s e nc e i n t he i r e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i ng. F o r s om e s t ude nt s hi gh s t a k e s m e a s ur e m e nt w a s a c c e pt e d w i t hout f or e t hought F or ot he r s t he hi gh s t a ke s m e a s ur e m e nt w a s c ons i de r e d m or e a s a c om pone nt of t hi r d g r a de I n e i t he r s c e na r i o, t he pr e s e nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng m onopol i z e d t i m e f r om t he i r s c hool s c he dul e j us t a s r e a di ng c l a s s or m a t he m a t i c s w oul d. U l t i m a t e l y, how e ve r e a c h of t he t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy w a s a bl e t o de f i ne hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a s w ha t de t e r m i ne s t h e i r pr om ot i on t o f our t h gr a de T he f ol l ow i ng e xc e r pt s r e ve a l how t he s t ude nt s i nc or po r a t e d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, r e f e r r e d t o a s t he F C A T i nt o t he i r e ve r y da y s c hool e xpe r i e nc e S a r a h, w ho w a s i de nt i f i e d a s one o f t he l ow e r a c a d e m i c a bi l i t y s t ude nt s r e c ogni z e d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a s he r t i c ke t out of t hi r d gr a de S he c om m e nt e d, I don t r e a l l y know a nyt hi ng a bout i t [ t he F C A T ] e xc e pt i t s gr a de d f o r i f you pa s s P a r a l l e l i n he r a bi l i t y l e ve l M a r i a m i r r o r e d S a r a h s c om m e nt by a l s o r e f e r r i ng t o he r e xpe r i e nc e

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92 w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a s he l p[ i ng] m e pa s s H ow e ve r M a r i a i s a s e c ond l a ngu a ge l e a r ne r a nd a s s oc i a t e s he r l a ngua ge a c qui s i t i on w i t h he r di f f i c ul t y of m e e t i ng t he g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on c r i t e r i a W he n a s ke d t o de s c r i be w ha t s he know s a bout hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, s he r e s ponde d by s a yi ng, Y ou know F C A T i s ha r d be c a us e i t ha s l ong w o r d s a nd you c a nnot do i t Y ou ha ve t o do i t r e a d l ong w or ds a nd you w i l l pa s s i t a nd you w i l l be i n f our t h gr a de A nna a l s o a s e c ond l a ngua ge l e a r ne r l i ke w i s e c ha r a c t e r i z e d a c a de m i c a l l y a s ha vi ng a l ow a bi l i t y l e ve l e c hoe d t he pr e s e nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t hi r d gr a de S he a s ke d t o be e duc a t e d on t he c om p one nt s of t he F C A T T e l l m e m or e a bout t he F C A T I t w oul d he l p m e no t be s a d. F or t he s e l ow e r a c a de m i c a bi l i t y s t ude nt s know i ng t he F C A T de t e r m i ne d t he i r g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on but be i ng una w a r e of t he c onne c t i on t o t he i r s t udi e s a s t hi r d g r a de r s pr ove d t o be a hu r dl e i n t he i r s c hool i ng e xpe r i e nc e A m ong t he s t ude nt s i nt e r vi e w e d w ho r e pr e s e nt e d t he m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup, c om m e nt s s ur r oundi ng t he hi gh s t a ke s c om pone nt of t e s t i ng i n t hi r d g r a de r e ve a l e d a s t r ong pr e s e nc e of t he i r l e a r ni ng t h r oug hout t he s c hool ye a r a s w e l l a s a n a w a r e ne s s of w ha t w oul d ha ppe n i f t he y di d not pa s s T he m os t a ni m a t e d r e s pons e c a m e f r om E t ha n w ho s a i d, T hi s i s a bi g t e s t a nd you g ot t a s how w ha t you l e a r ne d f r o m t he f i r s t pa r t of t he ye a r a nd i t ke e ps ge t t i ng ha r de r a nd ha r de r E t ha n a nd L a nc e w e r e bot h w e l l a w a r e t ha t i f you f a i l you go t o s um m e r s c hool C hr i s t ophe r r e l a t e d hi s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e n t s a dm i ni s t e r e d i n pr e vi ous ye a r s I t s

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93 t he bi gge s t t e s t of a l l A nd e ve r y g r a de i t ge t s ha r d e r P r e p t e s t s a r e a pa r t o f C hr i s t ophe r s r e gul a r s c hool r out i ne J e s s i c a j oi ne d C hr i s t ophe r i n not i ng t he p r e va l e nc e of t e s t p r e pa r a t i on m a t e r i a l s a nd a dde d pr a c t i c e t i m e o n t he c om put e r ba s e d pr e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m e a c h da y. S he us e d s e l f t a l k t o r e a s s ur e he r s e l f I j us t ha ve t o f i ni s h t he t e s t I d pr oba bl y ge t t o f ou r t h gr a de T he onl y s t ude nt i n t he m ode r a t e a bi l i t y gr oup w ho r e pr e s e nt e d t he F C A T a s a c om pone nt of t he gr a de l e ve l w a s J os e phi na w ho s a i d, I ne e d t o s t udy f or t hi r d gr a de w he n a s ke d i f s he pr a c t i c e s f or F C A T o r f or t hi r d gr a de S he de s c r i be d t he hi gh s t a ke s f a c t or a s pur pos e f ul I f t he y di dn t ha ve t he t e s t i t w oul d t a ke a l ot of ha r d t i m e r e m e m be r i ng e ve r y t hi ng t ha t you l e a r ne d t he w hol e t i m e T he s e m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y l e ve l s t ude nt s di f f e r e d f r o m t he i r pe e r s of l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y i n t w o w a ys F i r s t t hi s gr oup o f s t ude nt s w a s a bl e t o c onne c t t he i r s c hool l e a r ni ng t o t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t N e xt t h e s t ude nt s of m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y r e c ogni z e d t he c ons e que nc e of s um m e r s c hool a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t hough unde s i r a bl e t o gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on. I t w a s J os e phi na w ho r e pr e s e nt e d a s m a l l pe r c e nt a ge of t he s t ude nt s i n t he s t udy ( 7 % ) f r om t hi s a bi l i t y g r oup w ho e xt e nde d he r pe r c e pt i on of t he F C A T s i m i l a r l y t o t ha t of t he s t ude nt s of hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y. T he s t ude nt s i n t he h i gh a bi l i t y gr oup s ha r e d J os e phi na s vi e w poi nt of F C A T be i ng a c om pone nt of t hi r d gr a de A not he r c om m o na l i t y be t w e e n J os e phi na a n d t hi s gr oup w a s t he i m po r t a nc e of s t udy ha bi t s t ha t c ove r e d a br oa de r r a nge o f l e a r ni ng r a t he r t ha n f oc us i ng s ol e l y on p r e pa r a t i on f or t he F C A T A be ga l w a s t he onl y s t ude nt i n t hi s

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94 a bi l i t y gr oup w ho s a i d t ha t s he w oul dn t be pr a c t i c i ng i f t he r e w a s n t a n F C A T S he s a i d, N o, be c a us e w e w oul dn t ne e d t o be p r e pa r e d a nd w e d be a l l ge t t i ng our e f f or t s no t t o w or r y a bout i t T w o of t he t h r e e s t ude nt s f r om t he hi gh a bi l i t y g r o up w e r e a va i l a bl e f o r t he f i r s t s e t of i nde pe nde nt i nt e r vi e w s T he s e s t ude nt s s a w h i gh s t a ke s a s a c ha l l e nge a nd a c know l e dge d t he ne e di ng he l p f r om t he t e a c he r f or t he m t o s uc c e e d. W he n a s ke d how s he w oul d de s c r i be t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o s om e one ne w t o t hi r d g r a de C a yl a s ugge s t e d you go t o t he t e a c he r a nd a s k f or e xt r a w or k on t he F C A T S he e l a bor a t e d I ve l e a r ne d l ot s o f s t uf f f r om t e a c he r s a nd s t uf f D a ni e l f ound i t i m pe r a t i ve t ha t you l i s t e n t o your t e a c he r w he n he s w r i t i ng on t he boa r d. T he pr e s e nc e of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w a s s t i l l t he r e but l os t i t s p r e va l e nc e due t o a n e qua l w e i ght be i ng p l a c e d on l e a r ni ng a l ong w i t h t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he t e a c he r s r ol e i n gui di ng t ha t l e a r ni ng D a ni e l w a s t he onl y s t ude nt w ho di f f e r e d f r o m hi s pe e r s a s t o w he t he r he f e l t unw a r r a nt e d pr e s s ur e f r om t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H e s t a t e d, M y m om t hi nks t ha t i t s ki nd of no t f a i r a nd I t hi nk t ha t i t s ki nd o f not f a i r T he s t ude nt s of t he hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y di f f e r e d f r om t he i r m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pe e r s be c a us e t he y w e r e a bl e not onl y t o r e c ogni z e t he F C A T a s a c om pone nt of t hi r d gr a de t he y a l s o w e r e a bl e t o c onne c t t he i r s t udy ha bi t s t o a br oa de r r a nge of l e a r ni ng. L e a r ni ng t o i nc r e a s e know l e dge a s s t ude nt s a nd c a l l i ng upon t he i r t e a c he r f or c l a r i f i c a t i on i n t he i r l e a r ni ng a l l ow e d s t ude nt s f r o m t hi s a bi l i t y gr oup t o a s s oc i a t e t he i r l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s w i t h a n i nc r e a s e i n know l e dge

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95 A l ong w i t h t he s e c om m e nt s f r om t he i nt e r vi e w po r t i on of t he da t a s ur r ound i ng t he s e l f t e s t c onne c t i on of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons o f t he s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s de m ons t r a t e d a he a vy pr e s e nc e of t he F C A T i n t h i r d g r a de F or t y s e ve n s t ude nt s w e r e pr e s e nt f or t he f i r s t w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i o n. O f t he s e one w e nt of f t opi c by w r i t i ng m a t e r i a l t ha t di d not r e l a t e t o t he que s t i on. E a c h of t he r e m a i ni ng 46 s t ude nt s i n t he s t udy not e d t he p r e s e nc e of t he F C A T i n t he i r gr a de l e ve l dur i ng t he f i r s t w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on. F or t he s e c ond w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on t ha t t o ok pl a c e m i d w a y t h r ough t he F C A T 68% of s t ude nt s ha d t r a ns i t i one d t o a pos i t i ve o r n e ut r a l a t t i t ude t ow a r d t he p r e s e nc e of t he F C A T i n t he i r gr a de l e ve l w hi l e l e s s t ha n ha l f ( 32% ) r e m a i ne d unc e r t a i n A f t e r t he c onc l us i on of t e s t i ng, t he m a j or i t y of t he s t ude nt s ( 92% ) c ont i nue d t o di s c us s t he F C A T a s a pr e s e nc e i n t he i r g r a de l e ve l w i t hout a t t a c hi ng a ny c onnot a t i ons of f e a r o r a nxi e t y t ow a r d s t he t e s t i ng. T he F C A T w a s s ynonym ous w i t h t hi r d gr a de p r om ot i on. T he r e s ul t s of t he s t ude nt dr a w i ngs s how e d t ha t s t ude nt s r e ga r dl e s s of r a c e ge nde r or a c a de m i c a bi l i t y l e ve l a l l de pi c t e d a s e l f t e s t r e l a t i ons hi p c onve yi ng a n e ve r yda y c om m ona l i t y of t e s t i ng i n t he i r dr a w i ngs dur i ng t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. F ur t he r m a ny s t ude nt s de pi c t e d t he m s e l ve s i nt e r a c t i ng w i t hi n t he t e s t i ng e nvi r onm e nt T he dr a w i ng r e pr oduc e d be l ow i l l us t r a t e s s uc h a de pi c t i on ( F i gu r e 1)

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96 F i gur e 1. S t ude nt D r a w i ng D u r i ng T e s t i ng ( s t ude nt i nt e r ac t i ng w i t h t e s t i ng e nv i r onm e nt ) T he r e w a s a s t a bl e pr e s e nc e of t he F C A T i n t he t hi r d gr a de s c hool e nvi r onm e nt T he i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd s t ude nt dr a w i ngs de m ons t r a t e d t ha t t he hi gh s t a ke s c om pone nt of t he t e s t i ng ha d a s t r o ng s e l f t e s t pr e s e nc e i n t he g r a de l e ve l T he de gr e e of dom i na nc e of t he s e l f t e s t c onne c t i on va r i e d ba s e d on t he a bi l i t y l e ve l of e a c h s t ude nt F or t he s t ude nt s w i t h l ow e r a c a de m i c a bi l i t y, r e c ogni t i on of t he i m por t a nc e of t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt w a s pr e s e nt A m ong t he s t ude nt s w i t h m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y, t he s e l f t e s t c onne c t i on w a s i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he i r da i l y r out i ne s a s t hi r d gr a de r s S om e s t ude nt s f r om t he m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup a l s o i nc or por a t e d

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97 t he i m por t a nc e of s t udyi ng t o ga i n know l e dge r a t h e r t ha n f o r t e s t p r e pa r a t i on. T he s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y s ha r e d w i t h t h e ot he r s t he s e l f t e s t c onne c t i ons a s a c om pone nt of t hi r d g r a de a nd t he i m por t a nc e of s t udyi ng t o ga i n know l e dge w i t h t he i r m ode r a t e a c a d e m i c a bi l i t y pe e r s but a l s o r e c ogni z e d t he i r t e a c he r a s a va l ua bl e r e s our c e A l l s t ude nt s r e c ogni z e d t ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w a s pa r t of be i ng a t hi r d g r a de r t ha t w a s r e qui r e d f o r gr a de l e ve l pr om o t i on. H ow e ve r t he s e l f t e s t c onne c t i ons w e r e e va l ua t e d di f f e r e nt l y w i t hi n e a c h a bi l i t y l e ve l A t t r i but i on O ne pr om i ne nt t he m e t ha t e m e r ge d c onc e r ne d a t t r i but i on. B e r k ( 2005) de f i ne s a t t r i but i on a s t he c om m on e xpl a na t i ons f o r t he c a us e s of be ha vi or H e ym a n & D w e c k ( 1998) o r i gi na t e d t he de f i ni t i on i nc or por a t i ng s ubs e t s of i nt e r na l e xt e r na l a nd s t a bl e c ha nge a bl e T he i r r e s e a r c h de s c r i be s i nt e r na l a s s om e t hi ng t ha t c om e s f r om w i t h i n t he c hi l d, c onne c t i ng pe r s ona l c ont r i but i ons t o t he pot e nt i a l out c om e e xt e r na l t he n c om i ng f r om out s i de o f t he s t ude nt s c ont r o l A n a t t r i but i o n i s t he n s t a bl e i f t he r e i s no hope of a ny c ha nge ye t c ha nge a bl e i f s om e t hi ng c a n be d i r e c t l y i m pl e m e nt e d t o a l t e r t he pot e nt i a l out c om e D w e c k ( 2001) c ont i nue s w i t hi n a t t r i but i ons t o s i gni f y s t ude nt s a s ha vi ng m a s t e r y or i e nt e d a t t r i but i o ns w hi c h c r e di t s s uc c e s s e s t o a bi l i t y a nd l e a r ne d he l pl e s s ne s s w hi c h c r e di t s f a i l ur e t o a bi l i t y. I n r e l a t i on t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t hi n t hi s s t udy, t he a bove de f i n i t i ons a s r e s e a r c he d f r om B e r k a nd D w e c k a r e a ppl i c a bl e M os t of t he s t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t t he i r be l i e f i n t he m s e l ve s r e ga r di ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e dr e w f r om i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e f or c e s A m a j o r i t y p r ove d t o be

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98 r e s i l i e nt w he n c onf r ont e d w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he s e e xpl i c i t e xa m pl e s s poke vol um e s a bout t he s i gni f i c a nc e a t t r i bu t i on pl a ye d on t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s F i gur e 2. A t t r i but i ons A bi l i t y E xt e r na l C ha nge a bl e E xt e r na l S t a bl e I nt e r na l C ha nge a bl e E xt e r na l S t a bl e L ow A c a de m i c T he t e s t i s ha r d a nd t he r e i s n t a nyt hi ng I c a n do t o ge t pa s t t ha t hur dl e M ode r a t e A c a de m i c A t t r i but e s s uc c e s s t o s t r a t e gi e s I f f a i l ur e oc c ur s i t w i l l be a t t r i but e d t o s t r a t e gi e s not l e a r ne d or be i ng us e d t he w r ong w a y. N e xt t i m e t hi s s t ude nt w i l l w or k e ve n ha r de r a t hi s / he r s t r a t e gi e s H i gh A c a de m i c T hi s s t ude nt s pe a ks of s t r a t e gi e s w hi c h a r e unde r hi s / he r c ont r ol E m pha s i s i s on t he r e pe t i t i ve a t t e m pt s t o us e t he s t r a t e gi e s e ve n i f he / s he f a i l s S a r a h s w a ye d be t w e e n t he hope t ha t t he F C A T w o ul d be f un a nd t he r e a l i t y t ha t i t ha d i m por t a nt c ons e que nc e s S he l e f t he r pot e nt i a l f or g r a de l e ve l pr om o t i on t o t he t e s t i t s e l f I t l l be a l i t t l e ha r d I l l j us t t r y m y be s t W he n a s ke d w ha t he r be s t l ooke d l i ke

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99 S a r a h e vi de nc e d no r e c ogni t i on of a ny pe r s ona l be ha vi or t o i nc r e a s e he r odds t he r e by de m ons t r a t i ng a n e xt e r na l s t a bl e pe r c e pt i on o f t he t e s t M a r i a c ont i nue d a l ong t he e xt e r na l ve i n, I t [ t he F C A T ] w i l l he l p m e pa s s pe r c e i vi ng no c ha nge a bl e pe r s ona l i nput I w i l l pa s s . a nd t he n I l l go t o f ou r t h gr a de A nna m e r e l y r e c ogni z e d a dom i na t i ng a s pe c t t o t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t but m a de no c onne c t i on be t w e e n he r i npu t a nd pot e nt i a l r e s ul t s T hi s e xt e r na l s t a bl e pe r c e pt i on l e f t A nna e s s e nt i a l l y he l pl e s s T he s e s t ude nt s do not s e e a nyt hi ng t he y c a n do t o ge t pa s t t he t e s t be i ng ha r d. F i gur e 3 ba s e d on t he s t ude nt dr a w i ngs c ol l e c t e d be f o r e t he a s s e s s m e nt t ook pl a c e pr ovi de s a vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he i nt e r na l s t a bl e a t t r i but i on s t u de nt s e xpe r i e nc e d w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he s e s t ude nt s s a w t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t a s a c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he m s e l ve s T hi s c om bi na t i on c a us e s t he m t o f a i l be c a us e t he y a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o c ha nge t he i r e f f or t t o c onne c t t he i r c ont r i but i ons t o t he pot e nt i a l out c om e

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100 F i gur e 3. S t ude nt D r a w i ng, I nt e r na l S t a bl e ( I c an t do t hi s ! and U h, oh! ) L a nc e m a de hi s i na bi l i t y t o pa y a t t e nt i on i n c l a s s a r a t i ona l e f o r w hy he m i ght not pa s s T a ki ng pe r s ona l r e s pons i bi l i t y f or h i s out c om e he s ha r e d, I t m e a ns I di dn t pa y a t t e nt i on. I c oul dn t c ont r ol m ys e l f H i s i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e pe r c e pt i on of t he t e s t i ng he l pe d c onne c t hi s s e l f c ont r ol t o hi s pot e nt i a l i n p a s s i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s e xa m T hi s m a s t e r y or i e nt a t i on a l l ow s L a nc e t o r e c ogni z e he h a s c ont r ol of hi s e f f o r t a nd i f he f a i l s he l l bl a m e hi s e f f or t a nd be m or e l i ke l y t o t r y ha r de r i n t he f ut u r e E t ha n p r e s e nt e d a n i nc r e m e nt a l vi e w a s he t oo r e c ogni z e d hi s i nt e r na l f oc us a s c ont r i but i ng t o hi s pot e nt i a l s uc c e s s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s I t hi nk t ha t I l l pa s s be c a us e I ve be e n f oc us e d on w ha t I m s uppos e t o l e a r n a nd I ve got t e n a l l A s a nd B s H i s i nt e r na l c h a nge a bl e a t t r i but i ons he l p hi m a s s oc i a t e hi s e f f or t s w i t h hi s pe r c e i ve d p ot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s

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101 J e s s i c a a l s o m a s t e r or i e nt e d, pr e pa r e d he r s e l f f or t he t e s t pr a c t i c i ng on t he I nt e r ne t t e s t s i t e S he r e c a l l e d t he us e of s e l f t a l k a s a r e m i nde r o f he r a bi l i t y t o be s uc c e s s f ul on t he t e s t W he n I s t a r t e d I s a i d i n m y m i nd t ha t I m doi ng i t s o j us t c a l m dow n a nd you l l be a l r i ght J e s s i c a e nga ge d i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i but i ons t o t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t C hr i s t ophe r a l s o s pe a ks of t e s t i ng pr e p a r a t i on m a t e r i a l s but w he n a s ke d i f he know s how i t he l ps hi m he s t a t e s N o, i t j us t f e e l s l i ke i t doe s N ot be l i e vi ng he i s r e a dy f or t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t C hr i s t ophe r a t t r i bu t e s hi s e xpe r i e nc e t o e xt e r na l s t a bl e c ont r ol s T he t e s t w i l l de t e r m i ne g r a de l e ve l pr om o t i on a nd not hi ng I do o r don t do w i l l a l t e r t ha t F i gur e 4, f r o m t he s t ude nt dr a w i ng po r t i on of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on, de pi c t s C hr i s t ophe r s e xt e r na l s t a bl e a t t r i but i ons on w hi c h he ba s e d hi s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e

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102 F i gur e 4. S t ude nt D r a w i ng, E xt e r na l S t a bl e ( t o be or not t o [ t hank s but no t hank s ] ) T he hi gh a bi l i t y s t ude nt s s ha r e d a n a bunda nc e of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t he i r m o t i va t i on a s l e a r ne r s w i t h t he i r pe r c e i ve d t e s t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt I n t e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i but i ons w e r e r e ve a l e d t hr oughout t hi s a bi l i t y l e ve l A be ga l s ha r e d he r d r i ve t o s t udy a nd l ove of l e a r ni ng ( i nt e r na l ) a s a p r os pe c t i ve r e a s on w hy s he m i ght be s uc c e s s f ul on t he a s s e s s m e nt ( c ha nge a bl e ) W he n a s ke d w ha t i t s l i ke be i ng a t h i r d gr a de s t ude nt s he r e t o r t e d, Y ou ha ve t o do you r be s t a nd s t udy a l ot S i m i l a r t o A be ga l s pos i t i ve i nt e r na l d r i ve D a vi d de c l a r e d, I s t udy a l l t he s t uf f w e w r ot e f or m a t h s o I c a n m e m or i z e i t w he n t he F C A T c om e s C our t ne y a nd A m e l i a f oc us e d m or e on t h e i r a c a de m i c s t r e ngt h a r e a r e a di ng. C our t ne y s t a t e d, I go t f a c t a nd opi ni on dow n pr e t t y w e l l a nd m a i n i de a I a l m os t ha ve dow n but not r e a l l y ye t A m e l i a p r oc l a i m e d he r s e l f a s a good r e a de r I m a good r e a de r

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103 I l ook a t t he que s t i ons be f or e r e a di ng, unde r l i ne a nd l i s t e n t o t he t e a c he r T he i r a bi l i t y t o r e l a t e t he i r c ont r i bu t i on t o l e a r ni ng s us t a i ne d a n i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i but i on t o t he pot e nt i a l of s uc c e s s de pi c t e d i n F i gur e 5. F i gur e 5. S t ude nt D r a w i ng, I nt e r na l C ha nge a bl e ( A h ah I k now t hi s ans w e r t hi s i s e as y ) N i ne of e l e ve n s t ude nt s ( 82 % ) pe r c e i ve d t he out c o m e of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t a s be i ng c ha nge a bl e T hi s w a s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he r e s ul t s of t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd t he dr a w i ngs f r om t he r e m a i ni ng s uppor t s t ude nt s T he a t t r i but i ons de m ons t r a t e d by t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s ( 79 % ) w e r e e xpr e s s e d a s c ha n ge a bl e f a c t or s a s s oc i a t e d t o t he i r pot e nt i a l r e s ul t s on t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t M os t i nt e r e s t i ng w e r e t he r e s pons e s r e l a t i ng t o a t t r i but i ons a nd how or w hy t he s t ude nt s i nt e r pr e t e d t he c ont r ol f a c t or a s t he y di d O f t e n t he f a c t or s t ha t w e r e vo i c e d by

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104 s t ude nt s i nc l ude d t he a bi l i t y t o c onne c t l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s t o t he i r pot e nt i a l t e s t i ng s uc c e s s a nd t o r e l a t e t he i r e f f o r t a s a l e a r ne r ( i nt e r n a l c ha nge a bl e ) T he ne xt t he m e pr ovi de s e vi de nc e of t he p r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e d w he n t he i r ow ne r s hi p of l e a r ni ng i s c om pr om i s e d i n t he a r e na of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. P r e v al e nt I nf l ue nc e s I n t he l i t e r a t ur e c ogni t i ve de ve l opm e nt a l l ow s f or c hi l dr e n t o va r y a m ong s t r a t e gi e s t o c ope S oc i a l l y a c c e pt a bl e w a ys t o e xpr e s s t he m s e l ve s ve r ba l l y i nc r e a s e w i t h a ge S t ude nt a bi l i t y t o a ppr a i s e a s i t ua t i on a nd r e f l e c t on pe r s ona l a f f e c t i nc r e a s e s f or s c hool a ge c hi l dr e n ( B r e nne r & S a l ove y 1997) I n t hi s s t udy, t he s t ude nt s e nc ount e r e d i nf l ue nc e s t ha t w e r e pr e va l e nt i n c ha l l e ngi ng t he i r s e ns e of s e l f e f f i c a c y. F a m i l y m e m be r s t e a c he r s a nd pe e r s pr ovi de d oppor t uni t y t o i nf l ue nc e t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. P r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s f or t he pu r pos e of t hi s s t udy, a r e i n f l ue nc e s r e f e r r e d t o by t he s t ude nt s t ha t w e r e pr e va l e nt i n t he i r t e s t i ng be ha vi or s T hi s t he m e a ddr e s s e s t he que s t i on of w he r e t he s t u de nt s r e c e i ve d t he i r i nf or m a t i on a bout t he F C A T P r e va l e nt i n f l ue nc e s i nc l ude d t e a c he r s f a m i l y a nd pe e r s O n a ve r a ge ha l f of t he s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om e a c h m ode of da t a c ol l e c t i on ( i nt e r vi e w s 45% w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons 62 % a nd dr a w i ngs 49% ) pr ovi de d a r e f l e c t i on on t he i nf l ue nc e of ot he r pe opl e on t he i r pe r c e pt i on of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. F or t he f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s t he t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e s i nc r e a s e d t he i r ne r vous ne s s i n s om e c a s e s but t he s e s t ude nt s r e di r e c t e d t he i r t hou ght s t o ove r r i de t he t e a c he r i n f l ue nc e

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105 J e s s i c a of f e r e d a n a f f i r m a t i ve e xpe r i e nc e t o a t e a c he r s i nf l ue nc e by c onne c t i ng t ha t t e a c he r w i t h t ool s f o r t e s t p r e pa r a t i on: M s B r ow n s he ga ve us t he s e l i t t l e c ode s t o put i n our a ge nda s a nd w he n i t s c om put e r t i m e w e uhm c om e i n a nd w e t ype our c ode on t he c om put e r a nd w e go; t o ga l a c t i c l i br a r y t hi r d g r a de ga l a c t i c l i br a r y a nd w e do t hi s ga m e t ha t ge t s us ; r e a dy f or F C A T l i ke w or d s u m m l i ke s t or i e s t e s t s a f t e r t he s t or i e s S he s a ys w e r e r e a dy t o be a t t he F C A T W he n I a s ke d A m e l i a how s he w a s f e e l i ng a bout g e t t i ng r e a dy t o t a ke t he t e s t a ga i n t he ne xt da y, s he r e pl i e d, A l i t t l e ne r vous be c a us e M r s J one s s a i d i t s goi ng t o be a l i t t l e bi t ha r de r S he e l a bor a t e d, B e c a us e i t s f o r c om pa r i ng ot he r t h i r d g r a de r s ot he r s t a t e s t o us W he n I p r obe d f u r t he r i nt o he r pr e di c t i on of w ha t t he t e s t c ont e nt w oul d be l i ke ba s e d on he r c ur r e nt pe r c e pt i on, s he pr e di c t e d, a l i t t l e bi t ha r de r a nd a l i t t l e bi t l onge r A m e l i a r e c ogni z e d t he t e a c he r s i n f l ue nc e a s be i ng pot e nt i a l l y de va s t a t i ng. I nde e d, s he r e di r e c t e d he r t hough t s f r om t ha t i nf l ue nc e i n or de r t o i nc r e a s e he r pr oba bi l i t y of s uc c e s s D on t be ne r vous j us t t hi nk a bout t he t e s t a nd do n t t hi nk a bout be i ng ne r vous [ a bout M r s S m i t h s a yi ng i t w i l l be ha r d ] A be ga l di s c ount e d a t e a c he r s s om e w ha t a m bi guous s t a t e m e nt a bout t he t e s t S he s ha r e s T he t e a c he r s be e n t e l l i ng us s om e of t he a r e a s a r e di f f i c ul t a nd s om e a r e not I t hi nk a bo ut t ha t I m g oi ng t o m a ke i t I m not goi ng t o f a i l I m goi ng t o pa s s F or t he m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e s r e duc e d t he i r pe r c e pt i ons o f s uc c e s s w i t h t he t e s t E t ha n s ha r e d how he f i r s t l e a r ne d a bout t he F C A T w he n he s t a t e d, O ur

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106 t e a c he r t ol d u s t ha t i t s goi ng t o be a l ot of r e a di ng, m os t of t he t e s t H e c ont i nue d t o s ha r e how r e a di ng w a s not h i s f a vor i t e s ubj e c t a nd how i n c onne c t i ng t he s e t w o e l e m e nt s r e a di ng be i ng pr e va l e nt on t he t e s t a nd h i s di s t a s t e f or i t he l os t c onf i de nc e i n hi s a b i l i t y t o s uc c e e d on t he t e s t C hr i s t ophe r w a s a dve r s e l y a f f e c t e d by a t e a c he r s i nf l ue nc e a s w e l l T h i s s t ude nt w a s not a bl e t o ove r c om e hi s t e a c he r s w or ds A f t e r r e que s t i ng t ha t t he s t ude nt s ha r e s om e t hi ng he kne w a bout hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, he m a de t he f ol l ow i ng c om m e nt M y s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s a i d t ha t s om e of t he que s t i ons m i ght be ha r d i n t he F C A T I don t t hi nk I m r e a dy A f ur t he r m a j or i n f l ue nc e on C hr i s t ophe r i s t he pr e s s ur e t o pe r f or m w e l l on t he F C A T t o pl e a s e hi s f a t he r I t f e e l s l i ke t ha t I m i ght ge t a B M y da d s a ys t ha t a s l ong a s I ge t a good B he w on t be ups e t C a yl a di s r e ga r de d he r m ot he r s i nf l ue nc e w hi c h w a s a c t ua l l y of t he pos i t i ve na t ur e M y m om s a ys t ha t I m gonna do good but I don t t h i nk I a m F r om t he w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on por t i on of t he s t udy, 13% of t he ot he r f e m a l e s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng a l s o di s c ount e d t he i r f a m i l y s i nf l ue nc e T he r e m a i ni ng 87% w e r e i ns pi r e d by t he i r f a m i l y s i nf l ue nc e O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d, M y m om t o l d m e I w a s s m a r t a nd s he a l s o t ol d m e t o be l i e ve t ha t I c a n do i t s o I do. I n r e l a t i on t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s f e m a l e s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d c onc e r ns w i t hi n t he c ont e nt of t he i r dr a w i ng por t i on of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on r e l a t i ng t o t he i r f a t he r s F i gu r e 6 de pi c t s a f e m a l e s t ude nt s dr a w i ng of a di s c us s i on w i t h he r pa r e nt s r e ga r di ng t he F C A T S he s t a t e s D a d, m om I l l pa s s i n he r be f or e pi c t ur e w i t h he r m o m r e s pondi ng, O ka y but t he da d s a yi ng he s a ngr y. T he

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107 s t ude nt s a f t e r s i de of t he pi c t u r e s how s t he s t ude nt t e l l i ng he r pa r e nt s s he pa s s e d a nd t he i r r e s pons e s of pr a i s e F i gur e 6. S t ude nt D r a w i ng, F a m i l i e s ( B e f or e : M om D ad I l l pas s O k ay I m an gr y A f t e r : I pas s e d! I k ne w i t G r e at j ob. I k ne w i t t oo! ) J os e phi na f ound s e c ur i t y i n he r s i s t e r s pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h hi g h s t a ke s t e s t i ng, m y s i s t e r s or t of he l ps m e a nd s he s t i l l r e m e m be r s t hi r d gr a de s t uf f a nd t a ke s m e t o t he w e b s i t e a nd s t uf f S he a l s o f ound s e c ur i t y i n t he ve r ba l s uppor t s he r e c e i ve d f r om he r s i s t e r w ho r e m i nds he r don t be s c a r e d, i t i s ki nd of e a s y. T hi s a l l ow s J os e phi na t o be l i e ve t ha t [ s he ] w on t m e s s up f or i t A m ong t he H i s pa ni c f e m a l e r e s pons e s r e ga r di ng f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s J os e phi na w a s t he e xc e pt i on. T he m a j or i t y di d not r e c e i ve s uppor t i ve i nf l ue nc e s f r om hom e T he i r r e f l e c t i ons s poke of pot e nt i a l be a t i ngs f e e l i ngs of di s gr a c e a nd i na de qua c y. T he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt r e pr e s e nt a t i on of pr e va l e nt f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s of f e r e d by t he m a l e s t ude nt s of t he s t ud y.

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108 W i t hi n t he pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e of pe e r s a l l s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy w h o m e nt i one d t he i r pe e r s a s i n f l ue nt i a l ( 69% ) f oc us e d on di s c us s i ons of t he F C A T a nd r e m a i ne d c onf i de nt i n t he i r a bi l i t y t o s uc c e e d. D a n i e l s poke of c onve r s a t i ons he d ha d w i t h hi s pe e r s a bout w ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w oul d be l i ke H i s i ns i ght w a s I t hi n k t he pe opl e w ho a r e t e l l i ng us i t s ha r d, t he y r e t r yi ng t o s c a r e you . O r t he y r e j us t s a yi ng t ha t be c a us e t he y w e r e he l d ba c k. A not he r s t ude n t s ha r e d, I m os t l y t hi nk I m goi ng t o pa s s e ve n t hough a l ot o f ki ds s t a ye d ba c k be c a us e t he y got a l ot o f que s t i ons w r ong S a r a h de s c r i be d a bout t he f i r s t t i m e s he he a r d a bou t t he hi gh s t a ke s of t e s t i ng, I he a r d i t f r om m y c ous i n S a r a h c ont i nue d I w a s i n s e c ond gr a de S he w a s i n t h i r d. S he s a i d i t w a s a l i t t l e bi t ha r d. I l l do m y be s t A c r os s a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oups e t hni c i t i e s a nd ge nde r pe e r s p r ovi de d t he pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e on t he s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s T h e s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o r e s pond hope f ul l y, di s pl a yi ng a de s i r e t o ove r c om e a ny i nf l ue nt i a l ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s E m ot i ons S t ude nt s r e a l i z e t ha t e xpr e s s i ons of e m ot i ons m a y not r e f l e c t t r ue f e e l i ngs ( S a a r ni 1999) S c hool a ge c hi l dr e n a r e a bl e t o pe r f or m c om pl e x e m ot i ona l r e a s oni ng. T he y a r e a bl e t o c om bi ne pr i or e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t hos e i n t he pr e s e nt S c hul t z ( 2001) l i nks s t ude nt s a bi l i t i e s a t e a r l y a ge s t o unde r s t a nd e m pa t hy w i t h f a vor a bl e s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd pr os oc i a l be ha vi or s I n t hi s s t udy e m ot i ons a r e de f i ne d a s m ul t i f a c e t e d, i nc or por a t i ng i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he e nvi r onm e nt c o gni t i ve pr oc e s s e s a nd phys i c a l c ha nge

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109 S t ude nt s por t r a ye d t he e m ot i ons t he y e xpe r i e nc e d a s a r e s ul t of f e a r a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ove r t i m e w i t hi n a c om bi na t i on of da t a opt i ons D r a w i ngs w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a s w e l l a s i nt e r vi e w s i n s om e c a s e s ope ne d t he oppo r t uni t y f or s t ude nt e m ot i ons t o be r e p r e s e nt e d. T he s t ude nt r e s pons e s yi e l de d a va r i e t y of c om m e nt s a s t he t e s t i ng pe r i od pr og r e s s e d. E xc e r pt s f r om s e l e c t s t ude nt s r e ve a l e d i nt e r e s t i ng poi nt s r e ga r di ng t he di l e m m a of f e a r a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he r e w e r e 51 s t ude nt s a m ong t he pr i m a r y a nd s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. D ur i ng t he f i r s t r e f l e c t i on, i n w hi c h s t ude nt s w r ot e a bout how t he y w e r e f e e l i ng i n r e f e r e nc e t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n t hi r d gr a de f ou r s t ude nt s w e r e a bs e nt a nd one s t ude nt w r ot e of f t opi c O f t he 46 r e m a i ni ng s t ude nt r e f l e c t i ons 34 voi c e d a f e a r a bout t he i r upc om i ng a s s e s s m e nt T hi s 74% of t he s t udy pop ul a t i on i nc l ude d 11 of t he 12 pr i m a r y s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s E t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r w e r e m a j or f a c t or s w i t hi n t hi s t he m e ( F i gur e 7)

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110 F i gur e 7. E t hni c i t y F a c t o r w i t h E m ot i ons T he m a j or i t y of t he H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s w ho c onne c t e d t he i r f e e l i ng of s t r e s s a nd a pe r c e i ve d s t r e s s or of t he t e s t r e l a t e d t he i r s t r e s s pr i or t o t e s t i ng t o t he pot e nt i a l of t he i r r e s ul t s l e t t i ng dow n t he i r f a m i l y. O ne s t ude nt s h a r e d, A nd w he n I got hom e I di dn t e ve n t e l l m y m om [ t e s t i ng w a s be gi nni ng] I w e nt t o s l e e p but I c oul d not s l e e p a nd t he

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111 t e a c he r t ol d us t o ha ve a gr e a t s l e e p. S o i n t he m o r ni ng w he n I w e nt t o s c hool I c oul d not e a t br e a kf a s t T r e pi da t i on f i l l e d t he pa ge o f a not he r H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s t ude nt w ho w r ot e I t hi nk I m i ght f a i l t he gr a de a nd i f I f a i l m y m om w i l l b e a t m e a nd s he w i l l hi t m e a nd s he w i l l gr ound m e A not he r s t ude nt i nvoke d he r f a m i l y a s a gui di ng f or c e I [ a m ] goi ng t o do m y be s t on t he F C A T s o I c a n pa s s t o f our t h gr a de s o m y m om c a n be h a ppy a t m e a n d a l s o m y da d t oo s o t ha t m y w hol e f a m i l y c a n be s o pr oud a t m e t oo s o I m goi ng t o b e ve r y ne r vous a t m ys e l f w he n i t s t he F C A T T he H i s pa ni c m a l e s t ude nt r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s c or r e l a t e d t he i r e f f or t s t o t he i r pe r s ona l f e a r of s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e O ne boy s t a t e d, I f I w o r k a l i t t l e ha r d I m a y ha ve f or c e t o pa s s t he t e s t S i m i l a r e l e m e nt s voi c e d w e r e I ha ve b e e n s t udyi ng e ve r y da y a nd w he n I go t o s c hool I l e a r n m or e s t uf f a bout t he F C A T O ne young m a n s t i l l l e f t hi s r e s ul t s up t o f a t e B ut i f I s t udy ha r d t he r e w i l l be a 50% [ c ha nc e ] of pa s s i ng i t S o you s houl d ha v e a l m os t a l l t he a ns w e r s r e a dy i n your m i nd. T he E ur o A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s of f e r e d a va r i e t y of r e a s ons f or t he i r p r e t e s t f e a r S i m i l a r t o S a r a h s une a s e a bout t he up c om i ng t e s t i ng, I a m a l i t t l e s c a r e d but i n a not he r w a y I a m not I t s e e m s f r e a ke d out but I a m not he r pe e r s ha r e d, I a m t hi nki ng t ha t I m goi ng t o f a i l a nd ge t a F a nd I w a nt t o go t o f our t h gr a de B ut t he r e i s not hi ng t o w or r y a bout A n ot he r s t ude nt c ont e m pl a t e d he r p ot e nt i a l pe r c e i ve d f a i l u r e : I f e e l l i ke pa r t of m e i s goi ng t o f a i l T he ot he r pa r t of m e i s e xc i t e d a nd c onf i de nt I a m e xc i t e d be c a us e of F C A T F un D a y I a m a l s o c onf i de nt

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112 be c a us e m y m a t h t e a c he r i s gi vi ng us a l ot of t e s t s a nd F C A T pr e p t o he l p M r S m i t h i s gi vi ng r e a di ng F C A T p r e p a nd l ot s o f t e s t s t oo. I m ne r vous be c a us e I ve he a r d F C A T i s ha r d, be c a us e pe opl e ha ve f a i l e d be c a us e t he y don t pa s s t he F C A T F ol l ow i ng t he s a m e pr e m i s e a n a ddi t i ona l gi r l s t a t e d, I f e e l ne r vous be c a us e t he F C A T i s c om i ng. I f e e l e xc i t e d be c a us e I ha ve n e ve r do ne t he F C A T be f or e T o s um up, t he f ol l ow i ng s t ude nt pr ovi de d a n i m pr e s s i v e r e pr e s e nt a t i on of he r e xpe r i e nc e S he pr oc l a i m e d: W he n I he a r d t he F C A T w a s c om i ng I l e a pe d f o r j oy a n d f o r be i ng s c a r e d. I l e t t he j oy out o f m y body f or one m i nut e ne xt t hi ng I know j oy i s gone f or e ve r B ut j oy ga ve m e a c a l l he i s c om i ng ba c k! ! ! A l t hough t he E ur o A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d unc e r t a i nt y r e ga r di ng t he i r a bi l i t y, t he E ur o A m e r i c a n m a l e s pr ovi de d a m u c h m or e c ut a nd dr y r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he i r pe r c e i ve d pe r f or m a nc e A l l t hr e e of t he E ur o A m e r i c a n m a l e s f r om t h e pr i m a r y s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s r e f l e c t e d on t he hi gh s t a ke s c om pone nt of t he up c om i ng t e s t C hr i s t ophe r i de a l i z e d t he hi gh s t a ke s c om pone nt H e s t a t e d, I t s j us t s o bi g. I don t w a nt t o t hi nk a bout i t E t ha n a nd L a nc e m i r r or e d e a c h ot he r s r e s pons e s E t ha n de c l a r e d, I don t w a nt t o go t o s um m e r s c hool I w a nt t o go t o D i s ne y W or l d a nd s w i m a n d pl a y w i t h m y f r i e nds L a n c e e c hoe d E t ha n s a ppr e he ns i on, I f e e l ne r vous a bout t he F C A T be c a us e pe opl e s a i d i t s h a r d a nd

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1 13 i f you f a i l you go t o s um m e r s c hool a nd t a ke a h a r de r t e s t I w a nt t o pa s s s o I c a n go t o f our t h g r a de R e f l e c t i ons f r om t he s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s e t hni c i t y gr oup i nc or por a t e pr i o r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e s O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d, I m goi ng t o f a i l be c a us e l a s t ye a r s s t a nda r d pr e p t e s t w a s s o e a s y but t hi s ye a r s e e m s a l i t t l e bi t ha r de r H ow e ve r a not he r e xude d c onf i de nc e I ha ve pa s s e d t he S A T t w o t i m e s a l r e a dy, w hy w oul d I f a i l now ? S i m i l a r l y one c ont i nue s : I know I l l ge t a n A be c a us e I ve a l w a ys a c e d m y F C A T s [ s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt s ] be f or e s o t he r e s got t o be a t l e a s t got t o be a ni ne t y ni ne pe r c e nt i t s goi ng t o b e a n A one pe r c e nt I m goi ng t o ge t a n F T he l e ve l of c onf i de nc e t he E u r o A m e r i c a n m a l e s c onve ye d, w he t he r i n t he i r pot e nt i a l s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e di f f e r e nt i a t e d t he m f r om t he i r f e m a l e c ount e r pa r t s w ho di s c ount e d t he e f f i c a c y of t he i r pr e pa r a t i on f or t he a s s e s s m e nt t o t he hi gh s t a ke s f a c t or R e l a t i ve l y s pe a ki ng, t he E u r o A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s s how e d a nxi e t y w hi l e t he m a l e s w e r e s e l f a s s ur e d. T he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e pr e s e nt e d b y t w o f e m a l e s a nd one m a l e a l l r e l a t e d t he i r be ha vi or t o t he i r pot e nt i a l r e s ul t s on t he a s s e s s m e nt e ve n t hough a n unde r l yi ng f e a r w a s pr e va l e nt A l l t h r e e i nt e r l a c e d t he i r f e a r of t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt w i t h w ha t t he y ha d c ont r i but e d a s a t hi r d gr a de r D a ni e l a p r i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s t a t e d, I m os t l y a m goi ng t o pa s s t he F C A T be c a us e I a m l i s t e ni ng [ t o ] a l l t he t hi ngs I ne e d t o now [ be ] do i ng [ f or ] t he F C A T O ne of t he f e m a l e s t ude nt s s ha r e d i n

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114 hi s c onf i de nc e I know I c a n pa s s i t S he c ont i n ue d, B e c a us e I got a B on m y w r i t i ng t e s t s o I know I w i l l do good on t he F C A T T he t hi r d s t ude nt w a s l e s s c onf i de nt I a m ne r vous a bout s pe l l i ng be c a u s e I h a ve be e n ve r y ba d f or a t hi r d gr a de r a nd t ha t i s w hy I [ a m ] s c a r e d a bout t he F C A T T hi s g r oup of s t ud e nt s e m ul a t e d t he s a m e s e l f a s s ur a nc e de m ons t r a t e d f r om s om e o f t he E u r o A m e r i c a n m a l e s D ur i ng t he s e c ond r e f l e c t i on, 47 of t he 51 p r i m a r y a nd s uppor t s t ude nt s w e r e pr e s e nt T hi s r e f l e c t i on t ook pl a c e m i d w a y t hr o ugh t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd r e s pons e s e vol ve d w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of w ha t t he s t ude nt s w oul d w a nt a s t ude nt ne w t o t he s t a t e of F l or i da t o know a bout t hi r d gr a de T hi r t y one of t he f or t y s e ve n s t ude nt r e s pons e s ( 66% ) i nc or por a t e d t he F C A T a s a n i m por t a nt f a c t or i n gr a de t hr e e I nt r i gui ngl y of t hi s 66% onl y t hr e e s t ude nt s ( l e s s t ha n f i ve pe r c e nt ) r e m a i ne d i n f e a r a bout t he hi gh s t a ke s of t he t e s t i ng w he n t e s t i ng w a s not ye t c om pl e t e d. T he r e f l e c t i ons de m ons t r a t e d t ha t t he m a j o r i t y o f s t ude nt s r e ga r dl e s s of ge nde r e t hni c i t y, or a bi l i t y gr oup ha d ove r c om e t he i r f e a r of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng m i d w a y t hr ough t he e xa m O ne s t ude nt of l ow a bi l i t y e pi t om i z e d t hi s f i ndi ng w he n s h e s a i d, I w oul d w a nt t he m t o know t ha t you don t ne e d t o be s c a r e d or f r i ght e ne d. I t i s j us t t he F C A T T r e a t i t j us t l i ke a t e s t I e ve n ha ve n t t a ke n i t be f or e s o don t be s c a r e d. A c om pl e m e nt a r y c om m e nt f ol l ow e d I w oul d t e l l he r / hi m t ha t t he F C A T i s e a s y, a t l e a s t f or m e A nd t e l l t he m don t w or r y a nd don t be ne r vous t ha t you m i ght not pa s s A not he r s t ude nt f ol l ow e d up by s a yi ng, T he y w i l l t a ke t he F C A T a nd t ha t t he y w i l l do good on t he F C A T

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115 T he p r i m a r y s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt i nt e r vi e w s s ubs t a nt i a t e d t he a bove f i nd i ngs a nd pr ovi de d s om e a ddi t i ona l de t a i l s a bout w hy t he s t ude nt s r e ga i ne d s uc h c onf i de nc e w i t h t he t e s t M a r i a di s m i s s e d he r f e a r by s t a t i ng I m o s t l y f or got a bout i t S a r a h s a i d, M y B ut t e r f l i e s m os t l y w e nt a w a y. U nc om m on a m ong he r l ow a bi l i t y pe e r s A nna he l d t i ght t o he r f e a r s a nd a t t he s e c ond i nt e r vi e w w a s una bl e t o gi ve voi c e t o he r t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs S he c oul d not t e l l w he r e he r f e e l i ng of s a dne s s c a m e f r om a nd i ns t e a d be c a m e pa r a l yz e d by t he e xt e r na l c ont r ol of t he t e s t i t s e l f S he r e t or t e d T he F C A T I a m s o s a d. T he m i ddl e a bi l i t y gr oup una ni m ous l y f ound t he i r f e a r s t o s ubs i d e onc e t he y be ga n ope ni ng t he i r t e s t bookl e t s E t ha n e xpr e s s e d, s he e r r e l i e f J os e phi na s ha r e d a s i m i l a r e xpe r i e nc e A f t e r I l ooke d a t t he t e s t I w a s n t a f r a i d a nym or e T he hi gh a bi l i t y s t ude nt s a l s o e xpe r i e nc e d r e l i e f a t t ha t m om e nt A be ga l s a i d a f t e r r e a di ng t he t e s t s he f ound t ha t t hi s w a s pr e t t y e a s y. C a yl a l i ke w i s e not e d he r f e a r s ub s i de d a s s h e l ooke d t hr ough t he bookl e t I t w a s a l i t t l e s c a r y w he n I f i r s t s t a r t e d, a nd t he n w he n I a c t ua l l y l ooke d i n i t a nd s t a r t e d doi ng i t I w a s l i ke t hi s i s n t t ha t ha r d. O nc e t he a s s e s s m e nt s t a r t e d, f e a r di m i ni s he d f or t he m a j or i t y of bot h t he pr i m a r y a nd s uppor t pa r t i c i pa nt s F i gur e 8 de pi c t s t he e m ot i ons of a s t ude nt t hr ough t he us e of l a be l i ng be f or e ( s c a r e d) a nd a f t e r ( ha ppy) t he t e s t

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116 F i gur e 8. S t ude nt D r a w i ng, E m o t i ons ( B e f or e : Sc ar e d D F C A T N ow ; A f t e r : H app y N o M or e F C A T T he r e w e r e a l s o f or t y s i x s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s a t t he c onc l udi ng r e f l e c t i on. T hi s r e f l e c t i on f oc us e d on w o r ds of a dvi c e t o upc om i n g t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s O f t he f or t y s i x s t ude nt w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons f or t hi s por t i on o f t he s t udy, t hi r t y t hr e e ( 72 % ) s poke of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t a s non t hr e a t e ni ng, ni ne ( 20% ) m a de no m e nt i on of i t a t a l l w hi l e f our s t ude nt s ( 8% ) s t i l l e xpr e s s e d a n unde r l yi ng f e a r of t he hi gh s t a ke s c om pone nt t o t hi r d gr a de D a ni e l f ound t he F C A T t o be e a s i e r [ t ha n ot he r gr a de s ] S t ude nt s de s c r i be d t he m s e l ve s a s f e e l i ng good now t ha t F C A T w a s ove r O t he r s f ound t hi r d gr a de a f t e r t he F C A T t o be pr e t t y c ool T he i nt e r vi e w s a nd w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons f ol l ow e d t he pa t t e r ns of t he m i d t e s t i ng r e s ul t s w i t h t he a ddi t i on t ha t s om e of t he m i ddl e t o hi gh a bi l i t y s t ude nt s di s c us s e d s t r a t e gi e s t he y i m pl e m e nt e d dur i ng t e s t i ng w hi c h r e duc e d t he i r s t r e s s l e ve l

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117 J os e phi na r e f l e c t e d on ha vi ng bubbl e gum a s a s our c e of c om f or t Y ou w oul d be a t t r a c t e d t o t he c he w i ng gum a nd not l i ke t he t e s t [ a nd] i t i s f i ni s he d a nd you w i l l r e c ogni z e t ha t i t w e nt by f a s t e r t ha n you t hough t A be ga l a gr e e d, I t [ c he w i ng gum ] he l pe d m e not ge t a he a d a c he or be s t r e s s e d out d oi ng i t E t ha n w a s no l onge r w or r i e d, be c a us e I c he c ke d m y a ns w e r s a nd I di dn t r e a l l y f i nd m a ny m i s t a ke s T he pe r c e pt i ons of t he m a j or i t y of a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpr e s s e d t ha t t h e y e xpe r i e nc e d a r e l e a s e f r om t he f e a r of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng onc e t e s t i ng be g a n. R e ga r dl e s s of t he s t a t e d or i gi n of t he i r f e a r t he m a j or i t y of a l l pa r t i c i pa n t s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c om e i t F i gur e 9 de m ons t r a t e s t he r a nge of e m ot i ons e xpe r i e nc e d ove r t he t e s t i ng pe r i od. R e g a r dl e s s of ge nde r e t hni c i t y, or a bi l i t y l e ve l t he r e w a s a de c r e a s e i n ne ga t i ve e m ot i ons f r om be f or e t e s t i ng, ( 74% ) t o a f t e r t e s t i ng ( 8% ) A s t he F i gur e 9 s how s s om e s t ud e nt s i n t hi r d gr a de hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ha d t he a bi l i t y t o r e l e a s e t he m s e l ve s f r om t he f e a r of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t hr ough t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s

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118 F i gur e 9. E m ot i ons A c know l e dge m e nt of l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s w a s a n e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt of t he r e l e a s e of f e a r f r om hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. M os t i nt e r e s t i ng i n t he r e s pons e s r e l a t i ng t o f e a r a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w a s how or w hy t he r e l e a s e of f e a r t ook pl a c e T he m a j or f a c t or s F e a r of hi gh S t a ke s T e s t i ng 38/ 51 ( 74 % ) B e f or e D ur i ng A f t e r ( B ) ( D ) ( A ) F e a r S ubs i de d 17/ 51 ( 34% ) F e a r S ubs i de d 4/ 51 ( 8% ) S t r a t e gy U s e O pe ni ng t he T e s t B ookl e t L a ps e of T i m e S t r a t e gy U s e S e l f t a l k B ubbl e G um R e c he c ki ng A ns w e r s P r i or T e s t i ng E xpe r i e nc e H i gh L ow L e ve l of E m ot i on D ur a t i on of T i m e

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119 t ha t w e r e voi c e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d t he a bi l i t y of t he s t ude nt t o c onc e nt r a t e on t he c ont e nt a t t he f i r s t ons e t of t e s t i ng a nd t o r e l a t e t he i r l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s t o t he c ont e nt of t he t e s t F i gur e 10 de pi c t s a s t ud e nt c he w i ng bub bl e gum a nd t he e m ot i ona l r e l i e f s h e e xpe r i e n c e d i n doi ng s o. F i gur e 10. S t ude nt D r a w i ng, S t r a t e gi e s ( C he w c he w c he w c he w W ow ) D i s c us s i on of T he m e s : P a t t e r ns T he s t ude nt s w ho w e r e of t he pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy, i de nt i f i e d a s l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y, w e r e t hos e w ho ha d s t r uggl e d w i t h a c a de m i c s T he s e s t ude nt s s a w t he hi gh s t a ke s f a c t or a s a m e a s ur e of s uc c e s s ; a nd a ba r r i e r t o t he i r gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on S i nc e t he y de s i r e d t o pr ogr e s s t o t he ne xt g r a de l e v e l t he y w e r e a w a r e of t he ne e d t o pa s s

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120 t he F C A T ye t w e r e no t a bl e t o c o nne c t t he i r a c a de m i c be ha vi or s w i t h t he i r pot e nt i a l out c om e T he m i ddl e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup r e f e r s t o t ho s e pr i m a r y pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho a c know l e dge d t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt a s a c o m pone nt of a c hi e vi ng t he i r a c a de m i c goa l T he ke e n di f f e r e nt i a t i on i s r e l a t e d t o t he i r kn ow l e dge of t he i m por t a nc e t o f oc us on a c a de m i c s a nd a ppl y l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s t o a c c om p l i s h t he i r goa l W ha t di s t i ngui s he s t he hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr o up f r om t he i r pe e r s i n t he m i ddl e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup i s t he i r di r e c t de s i r e t o ga i n know l e dge be yond m e r e l y t he r e qui r e m e nt s of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t a nd t o s e e k out a s s i s t a nc e f r om t he i r t e a c he r s t o i nc r e a s e t he i r oppor t uni t y f o r s uc c e s s T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s i de nt i f y gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on a s a c om pone nt of t he i r g r e a t e r goa l a nd c om pa r t m e nt a l i z e t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt a s j us t a n e l e m e nt of t hi r d gr a de T hus t he s e pa r t i c i p a nt s a r e on a hol i s t i c l e a r ni ng que s t a nd s e e k out a s s i s t a nc e i n a c c om pl i s hi ng t he i r goa l A l l t hr e e a bi l i t y l e ve l g r oups de s i r e d gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on a nd w e r e e nt r a nc e d by t he pr e s e nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. I t w a s t he i r a t t r i but i ons be t he y s t a bl e or c ha nge a bl e i nt e r na l or e xt e r na l t ha t de t e r m i ne d t he ow ne r s hi p l e ve l of t he l e a r ni ng r e qui r e d f or t he pur s ui t of s uc c e s s I n a c c or d w i t h t he t he m e of S e l f T e s t t he f ol l ow i n g t w o di s t i nc t t ype s o f pa t t e r ns w e r e r e f e r e nc e d: e xt e r na l ve r s us i nt e r na l a nd s t a bl e ve r s us c ha nge a bl e T hos e w ho de m ons t r a t e d e xt e r na l a t t r i but i ons s e e m i ngl y ha d a r e l i a nc e on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t ha t w a s ba s e d on t he s ol e pr e s e nc e of t he e xa m T he r e w a s no s e pa r a t i on be t w e e n i t a nd t he i r

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121 e nd goa l a nd i n s om e c a s e s i t w a s t he i r e nd goa l T he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t be c a m e t he dr i vi ng f or c e f or a l l gr a de l e ve l l e a r n i ng ( s t a bl e ) F e a r of n ot ga i ni ng p r om ot i on t o f ou r t h g r a de i ni t i a t e d a r e c e pt i v e be ha vi or of t hos e s t ude nt s w ho de m ons t r a t e d e xt e r na l a t t r i but i ons w i t h t he a s s e s s m e nt O n t he ot he r s i de of t he c oi n, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho de m ons t r a t e d i nt e r na l a t t r i but i ons f or m e d a pe r c e pt i on of l e a r n i n g t ha t i nc l ude d bu t w a s not l i m i t e d by t he hi gh s t a ke s of t e s t i ng. T he s t ude nt s w i t h i nt e r n a l a t t r i but i ons w e r e t hos e w ho di s pl a ye d a dr i ve t o ga i n know l e dge a nd i n s om e i ns t a nc e s t he y s ought out a ddi t i ona l a s s i s t a nc e t o i nc r e a s e t he i r know l e dge ( c ha nge a bl e ) A r e l a t i on c oul d be d r a w n i n t e r m s of ow ne r s hi p of l e a r ni ng a nd a t t r i bu t i on. T he s pe c i f i e d e m ot i ons r e l a t e d t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w e r e t he a t t r i but i ons t ha t e m pow e r e d s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt F or t he i nv i gor a t i ng pa t t e r ns of t hi s t he m e I ha d t o go de e p i nt o e xa m pl e s of a t t r i but i on t o di s t i ngui s h: s t a bl e ve r s us c ha nge a bl e a nd i nt e r na l ve r s us e xt e r na l I nt e r na l w a s not a l w a ys pos i t i ve a nd e xt e r na l w a s not a l w a ys ne ga t i ve but t he s t ude nt s di d w a nt t o be i n c ont r o l of t he i r g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on. T he s t ude nt s w hos e de s c r i pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w e r e c ons i s t e nt t o t he i r pe r s ona l c ont r i but i ons w e r e r e f l e c t e d a s i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i but i ons T he i nt e r na l a t t r i but i ons a f f e c t e d t he i r e m ot i ons i f t he s t ude nt s pe r c e i ve d t he i r a bi l i t y a nd e f f or t t o i nc r e a s e t he i r c ha nc e s of pa s s i ng t he t e s t T he y w e r e t he de t e r m i ne r s of t he i r pe r f or m a nc e T he e xt e r na l a t t r i but i on w oul d i n s o m e i ns t a nc e s ove r pow e r t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of s uc c e s s i f t he y s a w t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t a s s t a bl e t hus de t e r m i ni ng t he i r gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r a t t e m pt s t o c o nt r i but e ( c ha nge a bl e ) T he pa t t e r n

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122 de m ons t r a t e d w a s t ha t t he hi ghe r t he a bi l i t y l e ve l o f t he s t ude nt t he l e s s l i ke l y he / s he w a s t o ha ve a t t r i but i ons ove r c om e t he i r pe r c e pt i ons T h i s a bi l i t y gr oup ge ne r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i but i ons a s s uppor t i ng t he i r pe r c e i ve d s uc c e s s P r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s s uc h a s t e a c he r s f a m i l y a nd pe e r s he l pe d f or m t he s e l f pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. F or a l l of t he m a l e s t ude nt s p r i m a r y a nd s uppor t t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e s yi e l de d t he h i ghe s t a f f e c t on t he i r pe r c e pt i on. F a m i l y w a s m os t pr e va l e nt i n t he f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i on of t he t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e I n r e l a t i on t o pe e r i n f l ue nc e s t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s t e nde d t o r e s pond w i t h hope f ul l y r e pr e s e nt i ng a de s i r e t o ove r c o m e a ny a dve r s e c om m e nt s T he e m ot i ons i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he f i na l t he m e r e l a t e d t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t hr ough t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he S e l f T e s t a t t r i but i on a nd pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s T hi s c a n be s e e n i n t he i r r e pr e s e nt a t i on o f f e a r ove r t he c our s e of t i m e i t t ook t o c om pl e t e t he t e s t i ng T he r e w e r e s t u de nt s w ho w e r e r e l e a s e d f r om t he i r f e a r e nt i r e l y s om e w ho e xpe r i e nc e d a pos i t i ve r e l e a s e f r om f e a r e ve n t hough t he r e s ul t s w e r e unknow n, a nd a f e w w ho w e r e s t i l l unde r t he t hr e s hol d of f e a r T he f i r s t t w o pa t t e r ns w e r e t he m os t dom i na nt pe r c e pt i ons of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e P a r t i c i pa nt s r e ve a l e d a r e l i e f f o r t he c onc l us i on of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng or a t a m i ni m um of f e r e d de s c r i pt i on of ha vi ng m ove d on A t hi r d pa t t e r n w a s r e ve a l e d by a m i nor i t y o f pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho r e ve a l e d t he i r c ont i nu ous f e a r of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t r e ga r dl e s s of t he t i m e e l a ps e d.

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123 R e v i e w of F i ndi ngs T he f i ndi ngs f or e a c h of t he f our m a i n t he m e s a r e de s c r i be d be l ow ba s e d on a l l 51 pa r t i c i pa nt s dr a w i ngs a nd w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd t he 12 pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r vi e w s a nd f oc us gr oups S e l f T e s t : T he pr e s e nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng m onopol i z e d t i m e i n t he s c hool r out i ne s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s j us t a s r e a di ng c l a s s or m a t h w oul d. S t ude nt s of l ow a c a d e m i c a bi l i t y r e l a t e d t he i r l e a r n i ng t o t he F C A T a nd be l i e ve d t he F C A T t o be t he e s s e nc e of l e a r ni ng. S t ude nt s of m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y r e l a t e d t he i r l e a r ni ng t o a de m ons t r a t i on on t he F C A T a s w e l l a s t h r oughout t he s c hool ye a r T hi s a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup a l s o r e c ogni z e d s um m e r s c hool a s a n a l t e r na t i ve ye t un de s i r a bl e r out e f or gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on. S t ude nt s f r om t he hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y g r oup r e c ogni z e d t he F C A T a s a c om pone nt of t hi r d g r a de a nd c onne c t e d t he i r s t ud y ha bi t s t o a br oa de r r a nge of l e a r ni ng r a t he r t ha n f oc us i ng s ol e l y on t he F C A T T he s e s t ude nt s a l s o a c know l e dge d t he ne e d of he l p f r om t he i r t e a c he r s i n or de r t o s uc c e e d. A t t r i but i on:

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124 S t ude nt s of l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pe r c e i ve d t he i r p ot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t o be o f e xt e r na l s t a bl e a t t r i but i ons F or e xa m pl e t he t e s t i s ha r d ( e xt e r na l ) a nd i t w i l l de c i de m y gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on ( s t a bl e ) S t ude nt s of m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pe r c e i ve d t he i r pot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t o be of i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i b ut i ons F or e xa m pl e how ha r d I s t udy ( i nt e r na l ) a nd w ha t s t r a t e gi e s I us e ( c ha nge a bl e ) r e l a t e t o m y out c om e A c c or di ng t o D w e c k ( 1992 ) t he f unc t i ona l i t y o f t h e s e s t ude nt s i s c ons i de r e d m a s t e r y or i e nt e d. S t ude nt s of hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pe r c e i ve d t he i r p ot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t o be of i nt e r na l c ha nge a bl e a t t r i b ut i ons W ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e d t hi s gr oup of s t ude nt s f r om t he i r pe e r s of m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y w a s t he i r c onne c t i on t o t he i r s t r e ngt hs a s l e a r ne r s P r e va l e nt I nf l ue nc e s : F e m a l e s t ude nt s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c om e a n a dve r s e t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e M a l e s t ude nt s s uc c um be d t o a dve r s e t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e F e m a l e s t ude nt s s uc c um be d t o a dve r s e f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s t ude nt s c onne c t e d t he i r f a m i l y i n f l ue nc e s w i t h f e a r M a l e s t ude nt s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c om e a dve r s e f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s B ot h m a l e a nd f e m a l e s t ude nt s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c o m e a dve r s e pe e r i nf l ue nc e s E m ot i ons : E t hni c i t y pl a ye d a m a j or f a c t or w i t hi n t h i s t he m e

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125 H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s t ude nt s r e l a t e d t he i r s t r e s s or f e a r w i t h t e s t i ng t o t he pot e nt i a l of l e t t i ng dow n t he i r f a m i l y. H i s pa ni c m a l e s t ude nt s r e l a t e d t he i r e f f or t s t o pe r s ona l f e a r o f s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e E ur o A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d di s e qui l i br i um a nd s how e d a nxi e t y. E ur o A m e r i c a n m a l e s t ude nt s pr e s e n t e d t he m s e l ve s w i t h m or e c e r t a i nt y a nd s how e d c onf i de nc e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s r e l a t e d t he i r f e a r t o be h a vi or a l c ont r i but i ons a s s t ude nt s T he s e f e m a l e s r e c ogni z e d, f o r e xa m pl e t he i r di s i nt e r e s t i n l e a r ni ng a s ha vi ng a n e f f e c t on t he i r r e s ul t s T he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n m a l e s i n t he s t udy r e l a t e d h i s f e a r t o a c a de m i c pr e pa r a t i on a s a s t ude nt A l l t hr e e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s s how e d t he s a m e c onf i de nc e a s t he E u r o A m e r i c a n m a l e s I nt r oduc t i on o f P o r t r a i t u r e s T he ne xt c ha pt e r w i l l r e pr e s e nt t he a bove t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns unde r t he c ont e xt of t he f i ve s t r a t e gi e s r e c om m e nde d by L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd H o f f m a nn D a vi s ( 1997) f or t he de ve l opm e nt of por t r a i t ur e s : ( 1 ) r e pe t i t i ve r e f r a i ns ; ( 2) r e s ona nt m e t a phor s ; ( 3) i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s ; ( 4) t r i a ngul a t i on; a nd ( 5) r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns T hi s a ddi t i ona l or ga ni z a t i on o f t he da t a c ode d t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons t o pr ovi de gl i m ps e s of w ha t l i f e a s a t hi r d gr a de r i s l i ke w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he r e s ul t i ng c ons t r uc t i on of t hr e e de s c r i pt i ve por t r a i t u r e s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a s

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126 i ndi vi dua l s w i t h t he i r s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i l l t he n be p r ovi de d.

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127 C H A P T E R 5 P or t r a i t ur e s N o s i ngl e t e s t s c or e c an be c ons i de r e d a de f i ni t i v e m e as ur e of a s t ude nt s k no w l e dge N a t i ona l R e s e a r c h C ounc i l R e por t H i gh s t a ke s C ons t r uc t i on of P o r t r a i t ur e s T hr e e por t r a i t ur e s w e r e c ons t r uc t e d ba s e d on t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he f i ve s t r a t e gi e s r e c om m e nde d by L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot a nd D a vi s ( 1997 ) unde r w hi c h t he a bove t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns w e r e di s s e c t e d a r e : r e pe t i t i ve r e f r a i ns r e s ona nt m e t a phor s i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s t r i a ngul a t i on a nd r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns T he s e s t r a t e gi e s w e r e i m po r t a nt i n c ons t r uc t i ng t he po r t r a i t u r e s T hi s w a s t he c a nva s f r om w hi c h t he t h r e e por t r a i t u r e s w e r e c r e a t e d. E xa m pl e s f r om t he s t ude nt da t a be l ow i l l us t r a t e e a c h o f t he f i ve s t r a t e gi e s R e pe t i t i v e R e f r ai ns R e pe t i t i ve r e f r a i ns w e r e a r t i c ul a t e d w i t hi n t he f ou r m a j or t he m e s : s e l f t e s t a t t r i but i on, pr e va l e nt i n f l ue nc e s a nd e m ot i ons T he s e t he m e s w e r e m e nt i one d r e pe a t e dl y by a di ve r s i t y o f s t ude nt s A n e xa m pl e of a n i m m e di a t e l y a ppa r e nt r e f r a i n w oul d be t he t e s t i ng r i t ua l s di s pl a ye d i n t he t hi r d gr a de t e a c he r pr a c t i c e s E t ha n s ha r e d, I t hi nk t ha t M r s J one s i s pus hi ng us be c a us e t oda y i s t he F C A T a nd s he w a nt s us t o pa s s C a yl a f ol l ow e d up by c om m e nt i ng t ha t t he s a m e t e a c he r a f t e r t e s t i ng c onc l ude d, M y t e a c he r s a i d s he w on t be a s ha r d on us a nym or e a nd s he w i l l l e t us l i ke w on t l e t us do a s m uc h w or k. W e s i t a r ound w a t c hi ng m ovi e s a nd s t uf f no w

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128 A m or e s ubt l y e xp r e s s e d r e f r a i n c onve r ge nt w i t h t he t e s t i ng r i t ua l of M r s J one s r e l a t e s t o hom e w or k. C hr i s t i a n e xpl a i ne d, S a m e o l d, s a m e ol d hom e w or k. I l i ke d t he t e s t i ng w e e ks be t t e r s o I c a n ge t ba c k t o m y l i f e B y di s c ont i nui ng hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s dur i ng t e s t i ng, t he s t ude nt s pr e f e r r e d t o s t a y i n t he t e s t i ng m ode t o a voi d t he r e t ur n of hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s P us hi ng c ur r i c ul um m a xi ng s t ude nt s t udi e s a nd a s s i gni ng hom e w or k a l l pr ovi d e e xa m pl e s of r e pe t i t i ve r e f r a i ns be c a us e t he y be c a m e t he nor m f o r t hi r d g r a de pr a c t i c e s R e s onant M e t aphor s T hr ough t he us e of i m pl i e d c om pa r i s ons s ym bol s a nd f i gu r a t i ve l a ngua ge ( L a kof f & J ohns on, 1980) a r e s ona nt m e t a phor c ha r a c t e r i z e s e m e r ge nt t he m e s E xa m pl e s of r e s ona nt m e t a phor s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he s t ude nt d a t a i nc l ude I f e l t l i ke I ha d but t e r f l i e s i n m y s t om a c h, I f s om e body j us t di d r oc k, pa pe r s c i s s or s t o s e e I m a s m a r t c a r ge t t i ng a l l t he m a t h p r obl e m s a s I d r i ve a l ong t he w a y, E ve r y da y I f e e l l i ke I m goi ng t o e xpl ode I t s l i ke t he c ha m pi ons hi p ga m e T h e s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy us e d m e t a phor s t o e xpl a i n s om e o f t he i r e m ot i ons a nd h ow t he y f ul f i l l e d t he i r r o l e a s t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he r e s ona nt m e t a pho r s e m bodi e d va l ue s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s w hi l e gi vi ng t he m s ha pe a nd m e a ni ng I ns t i t ut i onal and C ul t ur al R i t ual s A r e pr e s e nt a t i on of l i f e a s a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w a s a ppa r e nt t hr ough i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t u r a l r i t ua l s F ul l a n ( 1991) f ound i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s t o be vi s i bl e s i gns o f c om m uni t y l i f e S om e i ns t i t ut i ona l or c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s

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129 di d i nf l ue nc e t he i r s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. A n e xa m pl e of a n i ns t i t ut i ona l r i t ua l t he s t ude nt s e x pe r i e nc e d w a s t he s c he dul i ng of a F un D a y w he n t e s t i ng w a s c om pl e t e d. T he s t ude nt s e xpl a i ne d, W e a c t ua l l y ne e d a c ha nge t o ha ve f un a f t e r t he F C A T I t w a s a c e l e br a t i on t h a t you ha ve f o r t a ki ng t he F C A T a nd s t udyi ng a l l ye a r a nd w e di d a l l t ha t w or k. A n e xa m pl e of a c ul t ur a l r i t ua l w oul d be s t ude nt s e nga gi ng i n pr a ye r du r i ng t he i r t e s t i ng e x pe r i e nc e O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d, I f I a m t oo w or r i e d I w oul d j us t pr a y t o t he L or d I w oul d s a y, O h L or d, m i ght y L o r d, pl e a s e m a ke m e pa s s t he t e s t a nd go t o f ou r t h g r a de I n J e s us na m e I pr a y, a m e n, t ha t s w ha t I w oul d pr a y i f I got t oo w or r i e d a bout t he F C A T T he i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s of f e r not onl y a n a e s t he t i c e xpr e s s i on of va l ue s but a l s o vi s i bl e r e f l e c t i on of t he e xpr e s s i ons t he e nvi r onm e nt e voke s T r i angul at i on C ont i nui ng t he t r i a ngul a t i on pr oc e s s t hr oughout t h e a na l ys i s pha s e c onne c t e d t he t i e r e d i nt e r vi e w i ng f oc us g r oup da t a t i e r e d w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd t i e r e d s t ude nt i l l us t r a t i ons w i t hi n t he s a m e um br e l l a o f ow ne r s hi p of l e a r n i ng. T he s e di f f e r e nt l e ns e s f r a m e d t he s t ude nt s ow ne r s hi p of l e a r ni ng w i t hi n t he c ont e xt s of : ( 1) s e l f t e s t ( 2) a t t r i but i on, ( 3) pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s a nd ( 3 ) e m ot i o n. A w a r e ne s s of a c a de m i c e f f o r t a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng r e s ul t s w a s pr e va l e nt T he t he m e s de r i ve d f r om f a c t ua l e vi de nc e f r om t r i a ngul a t i on of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on.

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130 R e v e al i ng P at t e r ns T he pur pos e of r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns i s t o l oc a t e s t r uc t ur e i n t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t he t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s T he r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns c om pr i s e d s c a t t e r e d pi e c e s of i nf o r m a t i on t ha t di d no t i m m e di a t e l y of f e r r e l e v a nc e t o t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t he t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s T he s t r uc t u r e s f or m e d dua l c onf l i c t i ng pe r c e pt i ons f or t he t hi r d gr a de r s R e ve a l i ng pa t t e r n s pr e s e nt e d t he m s e l ve s i n t he s e l f pe r c e pt i on of t he t hi r d gr a de c hi l d r e n a s s t ude nt s a nd i n t he i r pe r c e pt i ons of t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d, I f I c oul d pa s s a not he r t e s t I c oul d pa s s t hi s t e s t w i t h a l l t he ha r d w or k I m goi ng t o w o r k m y br a i n s o I c ou l d do good i n t he F C A T t e s t A not he r s t ude nt voi c e d, I m ne r vous be c a us e m a ybe I don t know a que s t i on a nd boom I s t a y i n t hi r d g r a de a ga i n. I m t r yi ng t o s t op pl a yi ng t oo m uc h. A m o r e e xpl i c i t s t a t e m e nt w a s B ut i f I s t udy ha r d t he r e w i l l be a f i f t y p e r c e nt [ c ha nc e ] of pa s s i ng i t S o you s houl d ha ve a l m os t a l l t he a ns w e r s r e a dy i n your m i nd . t ha t w a y you c a n go t o f our t h gr a de T he t he m e e m e r ge s f r om t he r e ve a l i ng pa t t e r ns t hr ough dua l r e f l e c t i ons : T he s t ude nt s r e f l e c t i ng o n t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e ( m a ki ng c onne c t i ons a l ong t he w a y) a nd m y r e f l e c t i ng on t he s t ude nt s r e f l e c t i ons ( i de nt i f yi ng a nd na m i ng pa t t e r ns I s e e ) A G l i m ps e of T hi r d G r a de w i t h H i gh S t a ke s F ol l ow i ng t he f r a m e w or k of t he por t r a i t ur e s uppor t i s pr ovi de d t hr ough a f l ow i ng a nd f l ui d f or m w hi c h br e a t he d l i f e i n t o t he f ol l ow i ng na r r a t i ve s T he c l e a r l y de f i ne d t he m e s w i l l now f ol l ow s e que nc e of be gi nni ng m i ddl e a nd e nd e m pha s i z i ng t he

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131 pr e va l e nt pa t t e r ns f or t hr e e s t ude nt s of va r yi ng a bi l i t y. A s e ve nt s unf ol d t he ba l a nc e of i nf o r m a t i on a nd e m ot i on e s t a bl i s he s uni t y w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of a da y i n t he l i f e of a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. I n hope s of c a pt ur i ng bo t h t he he a d a nd t he he a r t of t he r e a de r t he f ol l ow i ng por t r a i t ur e s d e pi c t a c om pos i t e of t he p he nom e na of i nt r i gue i n t he s t udy o f e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i on s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ( L a w r e nc e L i ght f oot & D a vi s 1997)

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132 A nna A D i f f e r e nt K i nd o f S c hool D a y A nna C ue l l a r l ooke d up a t t he gl a s s of or a nge j ui c e a nd t he c i nna m on t oa s t i n f r ont o f he r F or s om e r e a s on, on t h i s pa r t i c ul a r m o r ni ng, s he c oul dn t b r i ng he r s e l f t o e a t H e r m ot he r s a i d, A nna c a r i o hur r y up. H e r br ot he r a dde d, Y ou don t w a nt t o be l a t e on y our bi g t e s t da y, do you? I ns t e a d of e a t i ng he r br e a kf a s t A nna j us t ke pt s t a r i ng a t t he c i nna m on s w i r l s a s t he y f or m e d s ha pe s i nt o t he t oa s t a nd a t t he pa r t i c l e s of pul p t ha t l a c e d t he c i r c um f e r e nc e of he r j ui c e gl a s s Y ou l l s e e you l l do your be s t a nd t he n you l l go t o f our t h gr a de he r m ot he r s a i d. B ut he r m ot he r s s of t r e a s s ur i ng voi c e di dn t s e e m t o c onvi nc e A nna A nna kne w i t w a s n t goi ng t o be e a s y a ns w e r i ng a l l t hos e que s t i ons e s pe c i a l l y w he n s he w a s n t c e r t a i n w ha t ki nds of que s t i ons t he r e w e r e goi ng t o be H e r t e a c he r ha d t a ugh t he r a bout f a c t a nd opi ni on but s he di dn t r e a l l y unde r s t a nd i t S he ke p t f e e l i ng m o r e a nd m or e s a d. S he ke pt t hi nki ng w ha t ba d l uc k i t w a s t ha t s he ha d t o ha ve t he F C A T i n t hi r d gr a de S he ha d ha d s o m a ny t hi ngs t o l e a r n I t l l be ove r be f o r e you know i t s a i d A nna s m o t he r a s i f s he c oul d r e a d he r m i nd. A nna ke pt s t a r i ng a t t he gl a s s H e r br ot he r i nt e r r up t e d he r da ydr e a m w he n he c hi m e d i n, C om e on B e l i t a hur r y up Y ou r e goi ng t o m a ke m e l a t e S he gul pe d dow n

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133 he r or a nge j ui c e e ve n t hough i t bou nc e d w i t hi n t h e but t e r f l i e s i n he r s t om a c h. A nna s hook he r he a d, t r yi ng t o s ha ke t he ne r vous t hough t s f r om he r m i nd S he got up a nd gr a bbe d he r pi nk ba c kpa c k. G ood bye M a m i A nna s a i d s of t l y t o he r m o t he r w ho ha d a l r e a dy s w i pe d a w a y t he m or ni ng di s he s f r om t he t a bl e S e e you a f t e r s c hool m y l ove M a y G od be w i t h you, he r m ot he r a ns w e r e d ba c k, ge nt l y ki s s i ng A nna s f o r e he a d. B e good a t s c hool a nd l i s t e n t o your t e a c he r Y e s M a m i G ood bye s a i d A nna a nd s he hugge d he r m ot he r t i ght e r t ha n e ve r T he n s he l e f t t he a pa r t m e nt A s t he doo r c l os e d be hi nd he r A nna w oul d ha ve l ove d t o ha ve s t a ye d i n t he i r w a r m ki t c he n f i l l e d w i t h t he s m e l l of t oa s t e d br e a d. I f onl y s he c oul d s i t t he r e a l l m or ni ng hug gi ng he r m ot he r w ho a l w a ys m a de he r f e e l s a f e a nd s e c ur e B ut he r br ot he r gr a s pe d he r ha nd a nd pul l e d he r t h r oug h t he c or r i dor o f t he a pa r t m e nt bui l di ng. B y t he t i m e A nna a nd he r b r ot he r got t o t he bus s t op, t he bus w a s a l r e a dy t he r e C om e on, B e l i t a R un he r br ot he r c a l l e d out A nna s f e e t f e l t a s i f t he y w e r e pl a nt e d i n t he c e m e nt A l l s he c oul d t hi nk a bout w a s t he bi g t e s t w a i t i ng f or he r w he n s he a r r i ve d a t t he s c hool S he gr a s pe d t he s t r a ps o f he r pi nk ba c kpa c k on e a c h of i t s s i de s a s s he j oi ne d t he e nd o f t he l i ne of c hi l dr e n C l i m bi ng ont o t he b us A nna s a nk i n t o t he f i r s t a va i l a bl e s e a t A l l o f t he c hi l dr e n a r o und he r w e r e c ha t t e r i ng a w a y on t he bus w hi l e a l l A nn a c oul d do w a s w onde r w hy t he y w e r e n t a l l s a d l i ke he r F r o m t hi s po i nt on not hi n g a bout t hi s da y w oul d be f a m i l i a r

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134 B r e a kf a s t a t S c hool T he ha l l w a ys of t he s c hool s e e m e d m uc h l a r ge r t hi s m or ni ng. T hough us ua l l y l i ne d w i t h c hi l d r e n, t he r e w e r e onl y a ha ndf u l of s t ude nt s s c ur r yi ng pa s t he r t oda y A nna w a s unc e r t a i n w he r e t o go T he w a l l w he r e he r c l a s s m a t e s us ua l l y s a t a nd w a i t e d f or t he be l l w a s e m pt y. S t a ndi ng out s i de he r c l a s s r oom do or A nna s t e a c he r gr e e t e d he r G ood m or ni ng. M a ny o f t he ot he r c hi l d r e n ha d a l r e a dy t a ke n t he i r s e a t s S om e w e r e t a l ki ng w i t h t he c hi l dr e n w ho w e r e s e a t e d c l os e t o t he m w hi l e ot he r s j us t s e e m e d t o be w a i t i ng f or c l a s s t o s t a r t A nna pl a c e d he r ba c kpa c k i n he r c ubby a nd s l i d qu i e t l y i nt o he r s e a t N ot i c i ng he r m i s s i ng na m e t a g f r om t he t op c e nt e r o f he r de s k, A nna s e ye s t r a ve l e d up t o t he de s k ne xt t o he r a nd t he n no t i c e d no one ha d t he i r na m e t a g o n t he i r de s ks S c a nni ng t he c l a s s r oom w a l l s t he r e w e r e l a r ge s he e t s of pa pe r c ove r i ng a l l t he c hi l dr e n s f a i r yt a l e s t or i e s a nd t he w a l l us ua l l y c ove r e d w i t h j ui c y $5 0 dol l a r w o r ds w a s ba r e A c hi l l r a n dow n A nna s s pi ne w he n J e s s i c a s a t dow n a t he r d e s k be s i de he r I t s be c a us e of t he bi g t e s t W e r e not a l l ow e d t o f i nd t he a ns w e r s a nyw he r e i n t he r oom j us t w ha t s i ns i de our he a ds I ve be e n p r a c t i c i ng a l l ye a r A nna dr oppe d he r he a d i n t o he r a r m s on he r de s k. H e r e s your br e a kf a s t A c l a s s m a t e dr oppe d a pa c ka ge d doughnut i n f r ont of A nna s he a d. A s s he l i f t e d he r f a c e t o s e e w ha t he w a s t a l ki ng a bout a not he r boy c a m e by w i t h a c a r t on of gr a pe j u i c e U nc e r t a i n of w hy t he y ha d f ood i n t he c l a s s r oom A nna he a r d he r t e a c he r r e a di ng t he na m e s o f e a c h s t ude nt w hi l e m a r ki ng i n a f ol de r N ow

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135 s t a ndi ng by t he c l a s s r oom door t he t e a c he r l ooke d up a nd r e m i nde d e ve r yone t o e a t t he i r br e a kf a s t Y ou c oul d he a r a p i n dr op a s t he t e s t i ng t i m e dr e w c l os e r I t s be c a us e of t he bi g t e s t t oo J e s s i c a w hi s pe r e d, e ve r yt hi ng i s a bout t he bi g t e s t t oda y. A nna pl a ye d w i t h t he w r a ppe r on he r d oughnut pa c ka ge unt i l s he s a w a n a dul t s t a ndi ng i n t he door w a y. S he r e c ogni z e d t hi s pe r s on f r om he r s c hool but di dn t know w ha t he r na m e w a s A nna J os J a vi e r a nd M a r i a he r t e a c he r c a l l e d ou t you ne e d t o go t o t he c a f e t e r i a A nna f e l t he r he a r t s ki p a be a t a s s he r os e f r om he r s e a t a nd f ol l ow e d t he w om a n w i t h he r ot he r t hr e e c l a s s m a t e s W i t h t he w om a n, A nna a nd he r t hr e e c l a s s m a t e s s t oppe d a t a not he r c l a s s r oom a nd A nna s f r i e nd J os e phi na a nd a not he r gi r l L uz j oi ne d t he m T he y a l l a r r i ve d i n t he c a f e t e r i a w he r e ot he r c hi l dr e n w e r e s i t t i ng f a r a pa r t f r om e a c h ot he r P l e a s e t a ke a s e a t a nd t he r e i s a bs ol ut e l y no t a l ki ng A nna s t hr oa t w a s dr y a s s he s a t on a be nc h w i t h a not he r c hi l d on e i t he r s i de of he r A not he r a dul t a t e a c he r A nna gue s s e d, c a m e a nd s l i d t he c hi l dr e n s bodi e s t o i m pa r t d i s t a nc e be t w e e n t he m H e l l o, s he s a i d, gi vi ng A nna a w a r m s m i l e B ut i t di dn t s e e m t o m a ke A nna f e e l m or e c om f or t a bl e S o you a r e . A nna C ue l l a r s he s hyl y r e pl i e d. I n S pa ni s h s he w oul d ha ve a dde d, pa r a s e vi r l e but s he di dn t know how t o s a y t ha t i n E n gl i s h. S o A nna ke pt qui e t a nd f ol de d he r ha nds i n he r l a p. T he w om a n m a r ke d a s he e t of pa pe r a nd ha nde d A nna a bookl e t a pe nc i l a nd a di c t i ona r y, H e r e you go now don t ope n i t un t i l I s a y t o. A nna l e f t t he i t e m s s e t i n f r ont

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136 of he r a nd w a t c he d a s t he w om a n ga ve t he s a m e i t e m s t o e a c h c hi l d i n he r r ow J os e phi na P e r e z l ooke d up f r om he r i t e m s a s A nna gl a nc e d o ve r f r om he r s S he ha d l ong w a vy ha i r a nd e a r r i ngs s o unl i ke A nna s l ong s t r a i ght ha i r a n d e a r s l ongi ng t o be pi e r c e d l i ke a l l t he ot he r gi r l s i n he r gr a de A nna l ow e r e d he r e ye s a n d ne i t he r gi r l s a i d a w or d. A f e w m om e nt s l a t e r t he w om a n s t ood i n f r ont o f e ve r yone h ol di ng a bookl e t t ha t l ooke d j us t l i ke t he one i n f r ont of A nna A t t he s a m e t i m e a not he r w om a n pl a c e d a s m a l l r ound w r a ppe d i t e m a bout t he s i z e of a pi e c e of bubbl e gum i n f r ont of e a c h c hi l d. A nna l ooke d up a nd s a w t he f i r s t w om a n ope n he r bookl e t by r unn i ng he r pe nc i l dow n t he s i de A nna w a t c he d a s m os t o f t he o t he r c hi l d r e n di d t he s a m e a nd s o s he pi c ke d up he r bookl e t a nd f ol l ow e d t he m A f t e r a l l of t he boo kl e t s w e r e ope n, t he w om a n i n t he f r ont r e m i nde d e ve r yone not t o t a l k, I f you s pe a k f r om t h i s poi nt on you w i l l be a s ke d t o l e a ve t he r oo m S he c ont i nue d t o r e a d di r e c t i on s f r om a di f f e r e nt bookl e t pr o m pt i ng t he c hi l dr e n t o f ol l ow a l ong. Y ou m a y be gi n A nna f e l t he r s a dne s s de e pe n a s s he vi e w e d t he t e s t bookl e t i n f r on t of he r S he gl a nc e d o ve r a nd s a w J os e phi na unw r a p t he s m a l l i t e m i n f r ont of he r a nd p l a c e d i t i n he r m out h. T oo ne r vous t o do s o A nna s t a r e d a t t he w o r ds i n t he book l e t A f t e r a w hi l e s he pi c ke d up he r pe nc i l a nd be ga n a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i ons i n t he t e s t book l e t T he bookl e t w a s t hi c k a nd t he m o r e A nna t hought a bout how t h i c k i t w a s t he m or e s a d s he be c a m e T he r e w e r e s o m a ny w or ds i ns i de i t t ha t s he di d no t r e c ogni z e O nc e f i ni s he d, A nna s t i l l f e l t t he s a dne s s w i t hi n he r C l os i ng he r bookl e t s he l a i d he r he a d dow n on he r t a bl e t op.

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137 A nna A nna C ue l l a r t he w om a n c a l l e d out he r voi c e r i s i ng hi ghe r a nd hi ghe r A nna a w oke f r om he r doz i ng a nd he r dr e a m s va ni s he d l i ke a pu f f o f s m oke B ut i t w a s n t t he s hr i l l of t he w om a n s voi c e t ha t s hook he r out of he r s l e e p but t he s i l e nc e t ha t ha d f ol l ow e d w i t h t he e ye s of f i ve ot he r s t ude nt s a nd h e r t e a c he r s qui nt i ng a t he r I m t a l ki ng t o you A nna T he w om a n w a s s t a ndi ng ove r t he t op o f A nna w i t h a l ook of i m pa t i e nc e A nna s l um pe d dow n i n he r s e a t a nd l ooke d a t t he r oom a r ound he r A l l of t he c hi l dr e n w e r e gone e xc e pt f or t he f i ve s t ude nt s w ho ha d w a l ke d t o t he c a f e t e r i a w i t h he r e a r l i e r S he di dn t know w ha t s he w a s s uppos e d t o do ne xt s o s he s t ood up a nd f ol l ow e d t he g r oup out of t he c a f e t e r i a R e c e s s W he n A nna r e t ur ne d t o he r c l a s s r oom a l l o f t he s t ude nt s w e r e s pr a w l e d a c r os s t he f l oor w a t c hi ng a m ov i e A nna w a s s t i l l f e e l i ng ne r vous S he di dn t know how t he ot he r ki ds c oul d c onc e nt r a t e on t he m ovi e J e s s i c a w a s w hi s pe r i ng w i t h a gr oup of g i r l s w ho w e r e s i t t i ng ne xt t o A nna I t hought i t w a s c ool I j us t ke pt t hi nki ng t ha t I ve g ot t he t e s t a nd I j us t ha ve t o f i ni s h t he t e s t a nd I l l pr oba bl y go t o 4 t h g r a de A not he r gi r l de s c r i be d how s he c l os e d he r e ye s a nd t ook a f e w b r e a t hs a nd t he n, s he e xpl a i ne d, I j us t s t a r t e d doi ng i t a nd I I pr o ba bl y pa s s e d. A nna c oul d f e e l knot s i n he r s t om a c h. T h e gi r l r i ght ne xt t o he r on t he f l oor t ol d how i t w a s a l i t t l e di f f e r e nt f or he r be c a us e s he w a s w or r i e d, I t hought i t w oul d be pr e t t y ha r d but i t w a s a c t ua l l y e a s y.

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138 S om e of t he c hi l dr e n f r om t he c l a s s r oom ne xt door c a m e i n t o w a t c h t he m ov i e A s t he s t ude nt s got s i t ua t e d on t he f l oor s om e boy s t a l ke d a bout how un f a i r i t w a s t o m i s s out on r e c e s s j us t be c a us e t he w hol e s c hool w a s t e s t i ng. A nna t hought a bout how t he y w e r e n t goi ng t o be a bl e t o go out t o t he pl a yg r ound f o r t w o w e e ks A s s he w a s da ydr e a m i ng a bout pl a yi ng on t he s w i ngs a nd how he r ha i r w oul d f l ow a c r os s he r f a c e a s s he pum pe d he r l e gs hi gh one of t he gi r l s w hi s pe r e d, I s a w you i n t he c a f e t e r i a I w a s s o s c a r e d. I t w a s J os e phi na br i ngi ng he r ba c k f r om he r da yd r e a m A nna di dn t s a y a nyt hi ng S he di dn t w a nt t he ot he r gi r l s t o know s he w a s a f r a i d s he w oul dn t pa s s J os e phi na c ont i nue d t o t e l l a l l o f t h e gi r l s W e go t o E S O L a nd ge t e xt r a t i m e T he y e ve n ga ve us bubbl e gum t o he l p us c o nc e nt r a t e a nd c he w on i t t o be t hi nki ng ha r d. I t m a de i t e a s y. I got but t e r f l i e s i n m y t u m m y. O ne gi r l c hi m e d i n. M e t oo, s a i d a not he r but I c oul dn t c onc e nt r a t e w i t h t he bubbl e gu m i n m y m out h s o I ha d t o s pi t i t out A nna di dn t kn ow t ha t a l l of t he ki ds i n t hi r d gr a de got t o ha ve bubbl e gum m a ybe s he w oul d t r y i t t om or r ow H e r he a d w oul dn t be s o a nxi ous a nd he r he a r t m i ght no t be a s s a d. J e s s i c a not i c e d how s a d A nna l ooke d. Y ou j us t ha ve t o do w ha t I di d. T e l l your s e l f i n your m i nd t ha t you r e goi ng t o do i t s o j us t c a l m d ow n a nd you l l be a l r i ght A nna c ont i nue d t o l i s t e n t o t he o t he r gi r l s t a l k a m o ng e a c h ot he r a bout how r e l i e ve d t he y w e r e E ve n J os e phi na f e l t be t t e r a bout goi ng i nt o t he t e s t i ng t om or r ow A s t he m ovi e c onc l ud e d, t he s t ude nt s f r om t he ot he r c l a s s l i ne d up t o l e a ve O ne l i t t l e gi r l w ho w a s s i t t i ng w i t h t he gr oup by A nna l e a ne d ov e r t o he r a nd s a i d, I m s a d t oo. I j us t

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139 ke e p w onde r i ng i f I m goi ng t o pa s s or not A nna s que e z e d he r f r i e nd s ha nd a s s he l e f t w i t h he r c l a s s m a t e s M a ybe he r M a m i w a s r i ght w he n s he t ol d he r be f or e s c hool t ha t a l l s he ha d t o do w a s he r be s t a nd t he n s he w oul d ge t t o go t o f our t h gr a de l i ke t he ot he r c hi l dr e n. H om e w or k O ve r t he ne xt f e w da ys A nna w e nt t o t he c a f e t e r i a w i t h s om e of t he ot he r c hi l dr e n a nd c ont i nue d t o t a ke m o r e t e s t s e c t i ons R e c e s s a nd t he r e m a i nde r o f t he s c hool da y t o t a ke pl a c e a s us ua l w a t c hi ng m ovi e s i ns i de be c a us e ot he r c hi l dr e n w e r e doi ng m a ke up t e s t s t hr oughout t he s c hool A nna be ga n t o e nj oy s oc i a l i z i ng w i t h t he ot he r gi r l s t hough s he w a s s t i l l unc e r t a i n w he t he r or not s he w oul d pa s s t he t e s t T he t e a c he r s t r e s s e d how i m por t a nt t he t e s t w a s a nd t hi s m a de A nna m o r e unc om f or t a bl e S he di dn t know i f s he w a s a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i ons c or r e c t l y W or s t o f a l l m os t o f t he ot he r gi r l s s e e m e d t o be ga i ni ng c o nf i de nc e a s t he w e e k pr ogr e s s e d. S he he a r d one gi r l s a y t o a not he r I m done a nd i t s l i ke a f t e r you ve done i t a l i t t l e bi t you don t f e e l a s s t r e s s e d out a s you di d be f o r e A nna ke pt t r yi ng t o f o r ge t a bout how ha r d i t w a s but ke pt r e m e m be r i ng he r b r ot he r t e l l i ng he r h ow ha r d i t w a s t o pa s s t hi r d gr a de Y ou ha ve t o r e a l l y be pr e pa r e d f or t he t e s t Y ou h a ve t o ge t a goo d ni ght s l e e p t he da y be f or e L i s t e n t o t he di r e c t i ons t he t e a c he r s a ys T he s c hool da y r ou t i ne w a s a l t e r e d a s t he da i l y r e a di ng a nd m a t h l e s s ons w e r e c a nc e l l e d. T he t e a c he r s t r e s s e d t he i m po r t a nc e of t a ki ng a br e a k f r om da i l y s t udi e s dur i ng

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140 t he t e s t i ng, a nd t ha t m e a nt no hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s dur i ng t e s t i ng w e e ks I t i s i m por t a nt t o go hom e ha ve di nne r a nd ge t a n e a r l y ni ght s s l e e p, s he w oul d s a y. A l l of t he ot he r s t ude nt s w e r e gl a d not t o ha ve ho m e w or k but A nna ne ve r s e e m e d t o m i nd w o r ki ng on s c hool w or k a t ho m e O n t he l a s t da y of t he f i r s t w e e k of t e s t i ng, A nna s t e a c he r a l l ow e d t he s t u de nt s t i m e t o r e a d s i l e nt l y i n t he c l a s s r oom A nna w a nde r e d be t w e e n t he s he l ve s of books i n t he c l a s s r oom S he di dn t ha ve m a ny books a t hom e a s he r m ot he r c oul d not r e a d E ngl i s h. S he m i s s e d he r da i l y r e a di ng hom e w o r k. W he n t he ot he r c hi l d r e n w oul d e xc l a i m i n de l i ght T he be s t t hi ng a bout F C A T i s no hom e w or k, A nna l onge d f or t hi ngs t o r e t ur n t o t h e r out i ne s o s he c oul d t a ke s t or i e s hom e t o r e a d T he r e w e r e s o m a ny books t o c hoos e f r om S he w oul d c r ouc h dow n t o l ook a t a l l t he t i t l e s c a r e f ul l y S om e t i m e s s he t ook a boo k of f t he s he l f t o l ook ove r t he c ove r S he w a s hol di ng t he book i n he r ha nd w onde r i ng h ow s he d e ve r be a bl e t o r e a d a book w i t h t ha t m a ny w or ds T he t e a c he r be nt dow n ne xt t o he r a nd s a i d qui e t l y pl a c i ng t he book ba c k on t he s he l f W e w on t be w o r ki ng on s uc h ha r d t hi ngs a nym or e W e ha ve a not he r w e e k of t e s t i ng t o do be gi nni ng M onda y. L e t s ge t ba c k t o our s e a t s a nd ge t r e a dy t o go hom e O n t he bus r i de hom e A nna s a t by t he w i ndow t r yi ng not t o t hi nk a bout t he t e s t a nd how i t w oul d de t e r m i ne w he t he r s he w oul d go t o f ou r t h g r a de S t a r i ng a t t he t r e e s a nd hous e s a s t he y pa s s e d by, A nna c oul d f e e l he r ne r vous ne s s r e t ur n. S he hung he r he a d l ow a nd w or r i e d t ha t a l l t he ot he r ki ds w oul d t hi nk s he w a s dum b i f s he di dn t pa s s t he bi g t e s t

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141 A not he r W e e k of T e s t i ng T ha t M onda y m or ni ng A nna ha d t r oubl e e a t i ng he r br e a kf a s t a ga i n, a nd he r br ot he r w a s a nnoye d w i t h he r I don t w a nt t o ha v e t o r un t o t he bus a ga i n t oda y B e l i t a he c om pl a i ne d. M a ke he r hur r y M a m a S he c a n t be l a t e f or s c hool W e a l l ha ve t e s t i ng t hi s w e e k. H e r m ot he r d i dn t pa y a t t e nt i on t o he r br ot he r but s he di d pl a c e A nna s pa c k on he r ba c k. W he n s he w a s he a de d out t he door A nn a s m ot he r s a i d s of t l y Y ou l l do you r be s t A nna S he f e l t t he but t e r f l i e s f l ut t e r i n he r s t om a c h. O nc e A nna a r r i ve d a t he r c l a s s r oom t he s t ude nt s w e r e a w a i t i ng br e a kf a s t j us t l i ke t he w e e k be f or e E ve r yone s e e m e d t o be m o r e t a l k a t i ve t oda y but A nna c oul d not s t op t hi nki ng a bout t he t e s t S he di dn t unde r s t a nd w hy t he y ha d t o t a ke t w o t e s t s a nd he a r d one of t he c hi l dr e n e xpl a i ni ng t o a not he r I f you g e t a ba d gr a de on t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds but you ge t a g r e a t gr a de on t he N R T y ou w i l l s t i l l go t o f ou r t h g r a de A nna di dn t unde r s t a nd w ha t t he di f f e r e nc e w a s w he n s he he a r d a not he r g i r l c ont i nu e I f you ge t a t w o on t he r e a di ng you f a i l but i f you ge t a o ne on t he N o r m R e f e r e nc e t e s t you c a n pa s s A nna j us t t hought t o he r s e l f how s a d s he w oul d be i f s he f a i l e d w oul d ha ve t o r e pe a t t he s a m e gr a de I w oul d c r y s o ha r d. A nn a di dn t r e a l i z e s h e ha d s poke n out l oud. I t doe s n t m a t t e r i f you pa s s t he F C A T J e s s i c a s a i d r e a s s ur i ngl y t o A nna M r s J one s s a i d t ha t i t onl y m a t t e r s on t he r e a di ng. I t s houl d m a t t e r on you r gr a de s a not he r c hi l d r e t or t s M y gr a de s w e r e good

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142 E a c h da y t hi s w e e k w he n i t w a s t i m e t o t e s t A nna w e nt t o t he c a f e t e r i a w i t h s om e of t he ot he r c hi l dr e n S he di dn t unde r s t a nd w hy s he ha d t o go e ve r y t i m e but de c i de d t o t r y t he bubb l e gum C he w i ng di d he l p t he t i m e go by m uc h f a s t e r O ne a f t e r noon a t hom e w hi l e ha vi ng a n a f t e r s c hool s na c k, A nna s m ot he r f i na l l y a s ke d, H ow w a s s c hool t oda y, A nna ? A nna r e pl i e d, F i ne S he di dn t know w ha t e l s e t o s a y. S he f e l t a s s he c oul dn t t e l l he r m o t he r t ha t he r t e s t i ng m a de he r ne r vous A l l of he r c l a s s m a t e s di dn t s e e m t o be ne r v ous a nym or e a nd s he di dn t know w hy. W hy s o s a d? H e r m ot he r a s ke d. A nna c oul dn t be a r t o t e l l he r m ot he r t ha t e ve n t ho ugh he r m ot he r be l i e ve s s he w i l l do w e l l i f s he onl y doe s he r be s t s he i s not c o nvi nc e d of i t he r s e l f A nna l i ke d t o pl e a s e he r m ot he r a nd s he di dn t know how s he w oul d s c or e on t he t e s t E a c h ni ght w he n s he w oul d go t o be d e a r l y t o be be t t e r pr e pa r e d f or t he t e s t t he s a m e t hought s ke pt r unni ng t hr ough he r he a d, ove r a nd ove r a ga i n: H o w c a n I f e e l pr oud of how I di d on m y t e s t w he n I d on t know i f w ha t I di d w a s r i ght or w r ong? F un D a y T he t w o da ys of t he w e e ke nd f l e w by. T he s t ude nt s w e r e gr e w t i r e d of w a t c hi ng m ovi e s a nd s a t i n s m a l l g r oups c onve r s i ng a bout l i f e a f t e r F C A T A nna w a s f i na l l y f e e l i ng s om e r e l i e f f r om he r ne r vous ne s s I l i ke d t he N or m R e f e r e nc e T e s t be t t e r t ha n t he F C A T O ne gi r l e xpl a i ne d, I t onl y ha d a pa ge o f que s t i ons a l t hough i t ha d a l ot m or e s t or i e s D i d I t e l l you a l l t ha t m y

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143 m om br i be d m e ? S he s a i d t ha t i f I ge t a f i ve on a nyt hi ng I l l ge t $100. 00 a nd i f I ge t a f our I ge t $50 00. B ut i t doe s n t m a t t e r on you r m a t h a not he r gi r l r e s ponde d, D i d you he a r M r s J one s s a y t ha t i f you c om e t o s c hool m o r e a nd you l i s t e n, you a r e goi ng t o go t o f our t h gr a de ? E ve r yone l ooke d a t J us t i n be c a us e he ha s n t be e n c o m i ng t o s c hool A buz z of r e s pons e s a r os e unt i l J e s s i c a c ha ng e d t he t opi c T he s t uf f on t he F C A T m a t c he d w ha t w e w e r e doi ng i n s c hool T he s e c ond t e s t w a s be t t e r I t ha d a pa ge o f que s t i ons A s one of t he gi r l s got up a nd c ha nge d he r s e a t s he e xc l a i m e d, I t hi nk ou r gr a de s s houl d de c i de i f w e go t o f our t h gr a de o r not T he gi r l now s e a t e d ne xt t o he r r e s ponde d, I got F s t he f i r s t qua r t e r m os t F s A nd now I got one A t w o B s one D a nd t hr e e C s I f i t w a s ba s e d on t ha t I w oul dn t be pa s s i ng. M a ybe you s t a r t e d ge t t i ng m or e be t t e r g r a de s be c a us e you w e r e pa yi ng a t t e nt i on f or F C A T s t uf f ? T he gi r l a s ke d i n c ons t e r na t i on. I t hi nk i t s houl d de pe nd on your r e por t c a r d. W h e n A nna s poke a l l o f t he gi r l s s i m ul t a ne ous l y l ooke d i n he r di r e c t i on. I don t f e e l ba d, not w or r i e d t ha t m uc h a nym or e but t ha t s be c a us e i t s done I t hi nk i t s houl d de pe n d on your r e por t c a r d. T he gi r l s una ni m ous l y a gr e e d t ha t t he r e por t c a r d gr a de s s houl d c ount a nd A nna be a m e d f r om e a r t o e a r f o r t he f i r s t t i m e i n m or e t h a n t w o w e e ks A l l t he s t ude nt s ha d c om pl e t e d t e s t i ng. E ve r yt hi ng a t s c hool now r e vol ve d a r ound t he F C A T F un D a y. T he c l a s s r oom s w e r e buz z i ng w i t h e xc i t e d c hi l dr e n. T he t e a c he r

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144 e xpl a i ne d t o t he c l a s s t ha t s t ude nt s c oul d pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he di f f e r e nt c a r ni va l r i de s t he y c hos e A c r os s t he c a m pus s pi r i t s l i f t e d T he t e a c h e r ha d t a ke n dow n t he pa pe r c ove r i ng t he c hi l dr e n s f a i r yt a l e s t or i e s a nd pl a c e d t he he a di ng, W ha t I P l a n t o D o on S um m e r V a c a t i on w he r e t he j ui c y de s c r i pt i ve w or ds us e t o be A s a r e w a r d f o r c om i ng t o s c hool on t i m e e a c h da y a nd c om pl e t i ng t he i r t e s t s t he s t ude nt s a r e r e w a r de d w i t h a F un D a y. I t s a c e l e br a t i on f o r f i ni s hi ng our F C A T o ne of t he m e xpl a i ne d. A s t ude nt ne w t o t he s c hool a s ke d t he gr oup o f gi r l s w ha t t he F C A T w a s A nna r e pl i e d I t i s a t e s t l i ke a n or di na r y t e s t D on t w or r y A nd A nna no l onge r d i d. D i s c us s i on of A nna s P o r t r a i t ur e T he i nt e nt i on of r e l a t i ng A nna s po r t r a i t u r e i n de t a i l i s t o pr ovi de a voi c e f o r H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. I t e xpr e s s e s t he vi e w s of f e m a l e H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d s t r e s s bot h i ndi r e c t l y a nd di r e c t l y f r om t he F C A T ( s e l f t e s t ) I ndi r e c t l y, s t r e s s a r os e f r om be i ng r e m ove d f r om t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt T hi s gr oup pe r c e i ve d t he m s e l ve s a s be i ng pe na l i z e d, t a ke n out of t he i r f a m i l i a r c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng a nd r e qui r e d t o t a ke a t e s t unde r a nxi e t y p r ovoki ng c ondi t i ons T hi s c a us e d, i n A nna s t e r m i nol ogy, de e p s a dne s s ( e m ot i ons ) s o m uc h t ha t s he di d not w a nt t o s pe a k a bout t he F C A T du r i ng t he s e c ond i nt e r vi e w A nna r e pr e s e nt s he r H i s pa ni c f e m a l e pe e r s i n he r de s i r e t o do w e l l i n e duc a t i on w i t hout a be i ng f a m i l i a r w i t h w ha t t ha t e nt a i l s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he F C A T d i r e c t l y p r e s e nt e d a n e xt e r na l s t a bl e s t r e s s f ul a t t r i but i on f or t he H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s I n t he i r vi e w t he t e s t de t e r m i ne d t he i r gr a de l e ve l p r om ot i on

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145 a nd not hi ng t he y d i d c oul d a l t e r t he r e s ul t s T he de s i r e t o do w e l l on t he a s s e s s m e nt t o e voke pr i de f r om A nna s f a m i l y ( pr e va l e nt i n f l ue n c e ) w a s a c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s i n t hi s s t udy. T he n e xt por t r a i t ur e w i l l i nt r oduc e you t o D a ni e l w ho e xe m pl i f i e s t he e a ge r t o pl e a s e de di c a t e d m a l e s t ude nt s w ho s t r i ve t o s uc c e e d.

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146 D a ni e l S c hool E xpe r i e nc e D a ni e l B ur ks hi r e e nj oye d be i ng w i t h a l l t he ot he r ki ds i n M r S m i t h s t hi r d gr a de c l a s s U nl i ke s om e of t he ot he r boys he r e c ogni z e d t he i m po r t a nc e of l i s t e ni ng t o hi s t e a c he r a nd pa yi ng a t t e nt i on w he n he w a s c a l l e d t o w r i t e on t he boa r d D a ni e l pr i de d hi m s e l f on hi s s t udy di s c i pl i ne a nd l ooke d f or w a r d t o e a c h ne w c ha l l e nge t hi r d g r a de pr ovi de d. W he n t he be l l w oul d r i ng a t t he e nd of t he s c hool da y, he w oul d doubl e c he c k t ha t he ha d hi s s t udy not e book a nd t he n r un f or t he door w i t h t he o t he r ki ds L i ke m os t of t he k i ds i n hi s c l a s s D a ni e l da yd r e a m e d a l ot a bout w ha t he w a nt e d t o be w h e n he d gr ow up. A f e w of t he ki ds i n hi s c l a s s w a nt e d t o be doc t or s or l a w ye r s S om e of t he ot he r ki ds w a nt e d t o dr i ve t r a ns por t e r s D a ni e l s c l os e s t f r i e nd, E t ha n w a nt e d t o be a s t a r a t hl e t e D a ni e l a nd E t ha n w e r e a l w a ys pl a yi ng s por t s t r a di ng s por t s c a r ds r e a di ng a bout s por t s a nd t a l ki ng a bout how t he y w e r e goi ng t o m a ke i t bi g s om e da y D a ni e l w oul d s pe nd e ve r y r e c e s s pl a yi ng f oot ba l l w i t h t he ot he r boys H i s d r e a m w a s s i m i l a r t o E t ha n s i n t ha t he w a nt e d t o pl a y f o ot ba l l i n t he N F L W ha t w a s di f f e r e nt f or D a ni e l w a s t ha t he unde r s t ood a l l t oo w e l l how i m por t a nt i t w oul d be f or hi m t o go t o c ol l e ge I f he c oul d c onque r c ol l e ge D a ni e l w oul d be t he f i r s t i n hi s f a m i l y t o do s o. S e r i ous a bout hi s f u t ur e D a ni e l w oul d s pe nd s pa r e t i m e r e vi e w i ng t he di c t i ona r y. W he n a pr oj e c t w a s a s s i gne d i n c l a s s he m a de i t f un f or hi m s e l f a nd f ound e ve r y oppor t uni t y t o c onne c t hi s l e a r ni ng t o p r e pa r a t i on f or t he F C A T R e f l e c t i ng on hi s m os t r e c e nt r e a di ng pr oj e c t a di or a m a D a ni e l r e m i ni s c e d, hm m i t he l pe d m e p r e pa r e t o r e a d

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147 t he book a nd s t a r t ge t t i ng m y s t uf f i n on t i m e t o g e t m or e c r e a t i ve t oo. H e s e t hi m s e l f a pa r t a c a de m i c a l l y, f i ndi ng i t m or e e xc i t i ng t o r e a d a l one t ha n w i t h t he ot he r c hi l dr e n dur i ng r e a di ng c hoi c e t i m e A w a r e of t he hi gh s t a ke s of t he F C A T D a ni e l f ound h i m s e l f i n unc ha r t e d t e r r i t or i e s T hi s i s t he f i r s t t i m e I ve be e n i n t he t hi r d g r a de s o i f I s t a y ba c k t he n I w i l l know m or e a bout i t t hough I don t w a n t t o [ s t a y ba c k] D a ni e l s D i l e m m a O ne s c hool m or ni ng D a ni e l w a s pa c ki ng hi s ba c kpa c k a nd r e a l i z e d t ha t t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w oul d be gi n on t hi s da y I f I f a i l I w i l l ha ve t o s t a y i n t hi r d gr a de a nd I f e e l l i ke I w i l l pa s s t he F C A T a nd m ove on t o f our t h gr a de he t ol d hi m s e l f D a ni e l s a t on t he e dge o f hi s be d H e ha d a pr obl e m O t he r pe opl e ha ve n t pa s s e d be f or e he t hought B ut t he n, you c a n pa s s a nd you c a n not D a ni e l s hook hi s he a d t o r e f oc us I l l be ok be c a us e I ve pa s s e d e ve r y ye a r he s a i d. D a ni e l D a ni e l H e he a r d h i s m ot he r s vo i c e c a l l i ng. W e ne e d t o ge t m ovi ng c o m e e a t your b r e a kf a s t W hy a r e you t a ki ng s o l o ng? s he s a i d. I m goi ng t o be l a t e f or w or k a nd you l l be l a t e f o r s c hool G e t t i ng up f r om t he e dge of t he be d D a ni e l g r a bbe d hi s ba c kpa c k a nd r a n ou t of t he r oom W he n D a ni e l e nt e r e d t he ha l l w a y hi s m o t he r gr e e t e d hi m w i t h a ba na na a nd s c oot e d hi m out t he door

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148 M om I ve go t a p r obl e m D a ni e l s a i d, a s he put hi s ba c kpa c k on t he c a r f l oor a nd s l i d i nt o t he pa s s e nge r s e a t ne xt t o hi s m ot he r S e a t be l t hi s m ot he r s a i d. C l i c ki ng hi s s e a t be l t i nt o pl a c e D a ni e l c ont i nue d, T oda y i s F C A T Y ou know I t hi nk t he F C A T i s k i nd of not f a i r D a ni e l D a ni e l a gr e e s w i t h hi s m ot he r Y e s m a a m I t hi nk i t s ki nd of not f a i r t o o but i t s he r e C a us e i f w e m ove t o f our t h g r a de I t hi nk I l l ge t t he que s t i ons t ha t I r e a l l y ha ve t o know a nd i f I don t ge t i t I ha ve t o s t a y ba c k. W he n he a r r i ve d a t t he s c hool D a ni e l s t e ppe d out of t he c a r a nd t r i e d t o r e a s s ur e hi m s e l f t ha t s c hool i s a bout ha vi ng f un H e r e m i nd e d hi m s e l f of a l l t he w or k h i s t e a c he r ha d gi ve n hi m s o t ha t he a nd hi s c l a s s m a t e s w oul d do be t t e r s o t he y c oul d do w ha t e ve r t he y ne e de d t o i n t he i r t e xt book a nd how he w oul d w r i t e i t a l l dow n i n hi s not e book s o he w oul d us e i t t o pr e pa r e f or t he F C A T A s he e nt e r e d t he c l a s s r oom door a nd s a w t he s t a c k of t e s t b ookl e t s on M r S m i t h s de s k D a ni e l s t hought s be c a m e i nt e r l a c e d w i t h a di s c om f or t ove r t he num be r of que s t i ons t ha t m i gh t be on t he t e s t M r S m i t h ha s done t he F C A T be f o r e a nd ha s t a ught us e ve r yt hi ng w e ne e d t o know t o ge t us i n t he g r oove D a ni e l s a i d unde r hi s br e a t h w hi l e t a ki ng hi s s e a t P a gi ng t hr ough t he di c t i ona r y D a ni e l l ooke d f or i nt e r e s t i ng w or ds a s he di d e ve r y m o r ni ng, unt i l t he f i r s t be l l r a ng. T e s t i ng T ha t da y, s t a r i ng a t t he t e s t bookl e t i n f r ont of hi m D a ni e l t hought a bout a l l o f t he pr e pa r a t i on he ha d done i n o r de r t o pa s s t he t e s t A l l m e nt a l not e s p r ovi de d r e f e r e nc e s poi nt e r s f or m uc h of t he m a t e r i a l i n f r ont of hi m H e di d not w a nt t o s t a y ba c k i n t hi r d

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149 gr a de A w a r e t ha t s t ude nt s w ho di d no t pa s s l a s t y e a r ha d t o go t o s um m e r s c hoo l D a ni e l t hought a bout how i t w oul d r ui n a l l o f hi s pl a ns he w oul dn t be a bl e t o p l a y f oot ba l l w i t h hi s f r i e nds or f i ni s h hi s 700 pa ge H ar r y P ot t e r book. I f he s t a ye d ba c k hi s pa pa w oul d gr ound h i m f o r a m ont h o r t w o W ha t r e a l l y s c a r e d D a ni e l w a s t he t hought t ha t hi s younge r s i s t e r m i ght ha ve t o s t a y ba c k w he n i t s h e r ye a r t o t a ke t he b i g t e s t R e t ur ni ng hi s c onc e nt r a t i on t o t he t e s t D a ni e l f ou nd hi m s e l f l i ki ng i t I t hi nk t he s e pe opl e w ho w e r e t e l l i ng us i t w oul d be ha r d w e r e t r yi ng t o s c a r e us be c a us e t hi s i s pr e t t y, t hi s i s r e a l l y e a s y. D a ni e l c ont i nue d t o r e a s s ur e hi m s e l f T h i s i s pr e t t y m uc h l i ke s e c ond gr a de w he n I t ook t he S A T m os t l y l i ke t he s a m e t hi ng. B ounc i ng be t w e e n c onf i de nc e a nd ne r vous ne s s D a ni e l c om pl e t e d hi s t e s t s e c t i on i n pl e nt y of t i m e f or M r S m i t h t o c ol l e c t t he bookl e t s T he t e s t i s ove r f or t oda y, M r S m i t h t ol d t he c l a s s A buz z of c onve r s a t i on a r os e a m ong t he s t ude nt s T he y be ga n t o m ove a r ound t he r oom s t r e t c h a nd ya w n. M r S m i t h di r e c t e d t he i r a t t e nt i on t o t he c l oc k a nd r e m i nde d t he m of t he ne e d t o r e m a i n qui e t due t o a l l o f t he o t he r r oom s pos s i bl y s t i l l t e s t i ng. E ve r yone l ounge d a r ound t he r oom e a t i ng s na c ks vi s i t i ng qui e t l y a nd us i ng t he r e s t r oom L ooki ng up f r om t he book he w a s r e a di ng, D a ni e l s a t t e nt i on w a s c a l l e d t o t he s t ude nt s r e t ur ni ng f r om ot he r t e s t i ng r oom s he w onde r e d how t he y ha d done N e xt e ve r yone w a s gi ve n t he opt i on t o s t a y w i t h M r S m i t h a nd r e vi e w s om e m a t h t o p r e pa r e f or t he m a t h por t i on of t he t e s t f or t he ne xt da y o r go ne xt door t o a not he r t hi r d gr a de c l a s s r oom t o vi e w a m ovi e G r e a t c onv e r s a t i on br oke out a s t he m a j or i t y of

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150 t he s t ude nt s qui c kl y f ound a pl a c e i n t he l i ne a t t he door a nd s c ur r i e d out of t he r oo m A s m a l l gr oup r e m a i ne d a l ong w i t h D a ni e l f o r t he m a t h r e vi e w W hi l e a c oupl e of c hi l dr e n f r om t he ot he r c l a s s r oom j oi ne d D a ni e l s g r oup, M r S m i t h pr ov i de d s om e e xa m pl e s f r om l a s t ye a r s F C A T t e s t s of w ha t t he upc om i ng m a t h por t i on of t he t e s t m i ght l ook l i ke D a ni e l f e l t hi s n e r vous ne s s s ub s i de a nd he j oyf ul l y t r a ns i t i one d t o a m a t h bi ngo ga m e T he m o r e ga m e s a nd a c t i vi t i e s D a ni e l pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he m or e c om f o r t a bl e he f e l t a bout t he r e m a i ni ng d a ys of t e s t i ng. D ur i ng t he l e a r n i ng ga m e s a f e w of t he boys w ho w e r e s i t t i ng w i t h D a ni e l be ga n c onve r s i ng a bout t he i r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e n c e I s t udi e d ha r d w hi c h m e a ns t he r e i s a f i f t y pe r c e nt c ha nc e I pa s s e d i t S o I ha d a l m os t a l l t he a ns w e r s r e a dy i n m y m i nd, one boy s ha r e d w i t h t he gr oup. B e f or e I ope ne d m y t e s t bookl e t I di dn t t hi nk I w a s goi ng t o pa s s E t ha n c hi m e d i n, I r e a l l y don t w a nt t o go t o s um m e r s c hool but I r e a l l y do w a nt t o go t o f our t h g r a de s o I w a s gl a d I kne w e ve r yt hi ng on i t M y t e a c he r r e a l l y ha d a ha r d t i m e w or ki ng a nd t e a c hi ng us a l l t hi s s t uf f s o w e c a n pa s s i t a nd t he y di d do t he i r j ob Y e a h, M r S m i t h t a ught m e t he s t uf f I ne e de d t o k now t oo, a not he r boy a g r e e d. I a m t hi nki ng t ha t I p r e t t y m uc h pa s s e d m y f i r s t F C A T a l t hough I w a s s c a r e d a t f i r s t I l i s t e d a l l t he t hi ngs I ne e de d t o k now doi ng t he F C A T D a ni e l s ha r e d, I m os t l y t hi nk I m go i ng t o pa s s I w a nt t o pa s s t he F C A T but i f I don t I go t o s um m e r s c hool I f I don t pa s s t he F C A T I ha ve t o s t a y i n t hi r d gr a de s o I hope I pa s s t hi s ye a r

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151 I f you go t o s um m e r s c hool you t a ke a ha r de r t e s t a boy r e m i nde d hi s pe e r s I w a nt t o pa s s s o I c a n go t o f our t h gr a de I m ne r vous be c a us e m a ybe I di dn t know a que s t i on a nd B O O M I s t a y i n t hi r d gr a de a ga i n. I ha d t o t r y ha r d t o s t op p l a yi ng t oo m uc h. A s one of t he boys i n hi s g r oup s ha r e d hi s c on f i de nc e I know I l l ge t a n A be c a us e I ve a l w a ys a c e d m y F C A T s be f o r e s o t h e r e s got t o be a t l e a s t a ni ne t y ni ne pe r c e nt c ha nc e i t s goi ng t o be a n A one pe r c e nt I m goi ng t o ge t a n F M r S m i t h c a l l e d t he boys a t t e nt i on t o e ve r yone e l s e c l e a ni ng up i n pr e pa r a t i on f o r l unc h. D a ni e l r e t ur ne d t o hi s s e a t w onde r i ng w hy he di dn t f e e l s o hungr y ye t T he doughnut w r a ppe r i ns i de hi s de s k r e m i nde d hi m o f t he m or ni ng br e a kf a s t a t s c h ool B r e a kf a s t i n t he m or ni ng i t ke pt m y br a i n go i ng. A f t e r l unc h t he da y w a s c om pr i s e d o f m o r e l e a r ni n g ga m e s a nd m ovi e s T he r e m a i nde r of t he t e s t i ng w e e ks de ve l ope d a r out i ne of t he i r ow n w i t h t e s t i ng i n t he m or ni ngs a nd t he op t i ons f or l e a r ni ng ga m e s or m ovi e s t hr oughout t he r e s t of t he da y. W he n t he be l l w oul d r i ng D a ni e l w oul d gr a b hi s b a c k pa c k a nd he a d f or t he doo r hi s s t udy not e book unt ouc he d f o r m a ny da ys now A dvi c e t o O t he r s A s D a ni e l w a s w a l ki ng t o t he c a r r i de r l i ne w i t h a gr oup of t hi r d gr a de boys c onve r s a t i on r e vol ve d a r ound ge t t i ng out s i de t o pl a y s por t s a f t e r s c hool now t ha t t he t e s t i ng w a s j us t a bout c om pl e t e S e a t e d be t w e e n hi s f r i e nds a nd s om e c hi l dr e n of

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152 di f f e r e nt a ge s a f e w o f t he s e c ond gr a de r s a l ong w i t h D a ni e l s c ous i n a s ke d w ha t F C A T w a s l i ke D a ni e l s ha r e d t he i m por t a nc e o f m ul t i pl i c a t i on, a d di t i on, s ubt r a c t i on g r a phs a nd a l l t he ot he r m a t e r i a l he l e a r ne d. I l l t e a c h you a b out t he c ont e xt c l ue s a nd e ve n t e a c h you a bout t he num be r o r de r he a s s ur e d hi s c ous i n. M y s i s t e r i s i n s e c ond gr a de I f s he pa s s e s I w i l l t e a c h he r a bunc h o f t he t i m e s pr obl e m s t oo. D a ni e l s f r i e nd a dde d. Y our t e a c he r w i l l t e a c h you e ve r yt hi ng you ne e d t o know now a bout t he F C A T I t i s j us t s om e s i m pl e que s t i ons t ha t t he t e a c he r t a u ght you t ha t ye a r B ut i t i s ha r de r que s t i ons t ha n t he t e s t you guys t a ke a nd i t i s m uc h m or e que s t i ons O h a nd t he t e a c he r w i l l a l w a ys go r e a l l y e a s y a nd do f un s t uf f w he n y ou f i ni s h pa r t of t he t e s t O ne 3 rd gr a de boy s ha r e d. I t i s t he ni c e s t t e s t o f a l l A not he r boy bl u r t e d ou t w hi l e s a r c a s t i c a l l y huggi ng hi s ba c k pa c k. B ut you ha ve t o w o r k ha r d i n t h i r d g r a de a nd you ha ve t o be f oc us e d, a boy a dde d. T he r e s t of t he boys a g r e e d a nd pr ov i de d t he s e c ond gr a de r s w i t h s om e a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on: Y ou know your t e a c he r ha s be e n w or k i ng ve r y h a r d w i t h you W he n i t c om e s t o F C A T you w i l l ne e d t o w or k a s ha r d a s you c a n i f you w a nt t o pa s s t hi r d gr a de

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153 T he F C A T i s no t ha r d i t s onl y a t e s t I f you r e a f r a i d, j us t t hi nk w ha t your t e a c he r s a i d, R e l a x, i t s onl y a t e s t Y ou m i ght be a l i t t l e s c a r e d w he n you ha ve t o t a k e t he F C A T I t hi nk you w i l l l i ke t hi r d gr a de I t w i l l be ha r d i n t he be gi nni ng bu t i t w i l l ge t e a s y l a t e r i n t he ye a r Y ou w i l l pa s s i t i n no t i m e S o don t be s c a r e d, be e xc i t e d l i ke m e T he l a s t boy r e m i nde d e ve r yone M os t que s t i ons a r e e a s y, s om e a r e not W e ha ve no hom e w or k. W e ha ve f r e e br e a kf a s t B e s t o f a l l w e ha ve f un da y w he n i t i s f i ni s he d. D a ni e l s na m e w a s c a l l e d f or h i s r i de C l i m bi ng i nt o t he c a r he t hought a bout how c onf us e d t he s e c ond gr a de r s m us t be I t r e m i n de d hi m of w he n he a nd hi s f r i e nds w oul d ge t t oge t he r t o pl a y f oot ba l l T he r e c e i ve r w oul d r un dow n t he f i e l d w i t h t he ba l l unt i l he w a s t a c kl e d. T he n t he t e a m s e f f or t s w e r e r e pe a t e dl y c ha l l e nge d by t he oppos i ng t e a m unt i l t he y f i na l l y t ook c ont r ol of t he ba l l a nd he a de d dow n t he f i e l d i n t he oppos i t e di r e c t i on. B a c k a nd f or t h t he ba l l w oul d go w i t h p l a ys a s va r i e d a s t he r e s pons e s D a ni e l a nd hi s f r i e nds pr o vi de d t o t he younge r c hi l dr e n. W ha t D a ni e l f ound s i m i l a r a bout pl a yi ng f oot ba l l a nd t e s t i ng w a s t he a dr e na l i n r us h of t he unknow n a nd t he i nc r e a s e f r om f e a r t o c on f i de nc e w he n he d b e gi n t o a ppl y w ha t he ha d l e a r ne d. Y ou r e i n de e p t hought D a ni e l s pa pa s a i d a s he s t udi e d hi s f a c e how ha s t e s t i ng be e n goi ng? D a ni e l w a s r e a dy f or t e s t i ng t o be gi n H e s ha r e d, w he n t e s t i ng i s ove r M r S m i t h l e t s us pl a y ga m e s l i ke m a t h b i ngo o r a r e a di ng bo a r d ga m e t o he l p us w i t h t he t e s t pa r t s

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154 I a m a c t ua l l y ki nd o f gl a d i t s a l m os t ove r be c a us e I ge t t o go ba c k t o a l l of t he s t or i e s a nd doi ngs l i ke m a t h N e xt w e e k i t s goi ng t o be e a r l y out a nd t om or r ow t he r e i s goi ng t o be a n a s s e m bl y. W h a t s t he s i gn I s a w a bout F un D a y f or ? H m m i t w a s pa r t o f a t h i ng f o r ge t t i ng pe r f e c t a t t e nda nc e f or F C A T i t w a s s uppos e d t o be l i ke a c e l e br a t i on f or t he w e e k o r t i m e w e t ook t e s t i ng, f o r l i ke us t o t a ke a br e a k. I t w a s l ot s of w or k a nd s o t he y ga ve u s a br e a k, I c a n t r e a l l y t e l l w ha t t he y di d but I know i t w a s be c a us e w e di d s o good i n t he t e s t i ng. L a s t ye a r I w a s s i c k. A s t he c a r pul l e d i n t he d r i ve w a y t he c onve r s a t i on t ur ne d t o t he r e no l onge r be i ng a ny a s s i gne d hom e w or k. D a ni e l unde r s t ood a l l t oo w e l l w ha t w a s a t s t a ke H e w oul d c ont i nue t o s t udy a t hom e a nd w o r k on F C A T p r e pa r a t i on i n hope s o f a t t e ndi ng f our t h gr a de ne xt ye a r A f t e r s t udy t i m e D a ni e l ha d a l ong a w a i t e d m e e t i n g t i m e w i t h hi s f r i e nds f or a ga m e of f oo t ba l l a t a ne a r by f i e l d. W he n hi s m ot he r w oul d r e t ur n f r om w or k he w oul d c om e hom e t o e a t di nne r ge t r e a dy f or be d a nd l oo k f or w a r d t o t he ne xt da y of s c hool M or e T ha n J us t a G a m e B y t he t i m e D a ni e l a r r i ve d t o t he p l a yi ng f i e l d t ha t a f t e r noon, a f r i e nd w a s a l r e a dy s i t t i ng i n t he bl e a c he r s H e y, w ha t s up? D a ni e l i nqui r e d. H i s f r i e nd s ha r e d h i s ha vi ng a ba d f e e l i ng i n t he pi t of hi s s t om a c h. T he F C A T t e s t i ng w a s ove r H e w a s a nxi ous a bout ha vi ng t o w a i t t o ge t hi s r e s ul t s ba c k. D a ni e l r e f l e c t e d on w ha t a s m oot h e xpe r i e nc e he

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155 ha d w i t h t he t e s t i ng F o r hi s f r i e nd, i t a l l be c a m e a j um bl e i n hi s m i nd. A nd hi s g r a nd pl a n f or be i ng a n N F L s t a r ? I n t he ha r s h r e a l i t y of pos s i bi l i t i e s i t s e e m e d l i ke a n i m pos s i bi l i t y. D a ni e l t r i e d t o c he e r hi m up, t hi nk on t he br i gh t s i de i f you don t go on t o f our t h g r a de you c a n be l i ke a s e c ond t e a c he r i n y our t hi r d gr a de c l a s s r oom be c a us e you a l r e a dy know a l l o f t he s t uf f H i s f r i e nd t ook no c om f or t i n D a ni e l s w or ds a s t he y be ga n t os s i ng t he f oot ba l l ba c k a nd f o r t h. H e a s ke d, W ha t i s i t w i t h t he c l oc ks i n s c hool ? U s ua l l y i t f e e l s l i ke t he c l oc ks pr a c t i c a l l y r un ba c k w a r d, a nd t he s c hool da y l a s t s f or e ve r B ut i f you r e doi ng t e s t i ng, i t s l i ke you j us t ge t t hr ough s om e of t he r e a di ng a nd don t ha ve t i m e t o a ns w e r a l l of t he que s t i ons T a ki ng a de e p b r e a t h, D a ni e l c ont i nue d t os s i ng t he f oot ba l l ba c k a nd f o r t h a nd r e pl i e d. I a c t ua l l y ha d m or e t r oubl e w i t h how qui e t t he r oom w a s I t w a s n t no r m a l H i s f r i e nd s m i l e d a s he t hought o f how odd i t w a s t ha t no one w a s a l l ow e d t o a s k que s t i ons or ge t out of t he i r s e a t W ha t s t he poi nt a nyw a y? I t r e a l l y w a s t he g r e a t e s t t i m e w a s t e r A t l e a s t w e don t ha ve t o w o r r y a bout w or ki ng i n s c hool a nym or e Y e a h, but you know I s t i l l ki nd of w i s h w e di d b e c a us e I t hi nk i t w i l l he l p m e do be t t e r ne xt ye a r D a ni e l r e s ponde d. N ot m e I don t e ve n w a nt t o t hi nk a bout ne xt ye a r a nd I don t w a nt t o t hi nk a bout goi ng t o s um m e r s c hool i f I di dn t pa s s T he r e s t of t he boys a r r i ve d a nd t he y be ga n t he i r f oot ba l l ga m e W he n hi s w a t c h a l a r m s ounde d, D a ni e l s que e z e d a f e w m or e m i nu t e s of pl a yt i m e i n be f or e he a di ng hom e T he r e w e r e t h r e e t hi ngs t ha t D a ni e l t hought of a s he w a s r unni ng hom e t o di nne r

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156 D a ni e l a nd hi s f r i e nds ha d a l l s pe nt t w o w e e ks t a ki ng a t e s t T he s c hool w a s de t e r m i ni ng w ho s houl d go t o f our t h gr a de o r not I t w a s ha r d t o i m a gi ne t ha t one t e s t c oul d t e l l you i f t ha t m a ny di f f e r e nt ki ds c oul d go t o f our t h gr a de T ha t w a s t he f i r s t t hi ng how di f f e r e nt e ve r ybody l e a r ns H e got t o t he f r ont s t e p of hi s hous e a nd be nt ove r t o c a t c h hi s br e a t h. A nd w hi l e he br e a t he d de e pe r D a ni e l t hought ba c k ove r t he p a s t c oupl e of w e e ks e s pe c i a l l y a bout hi s f i r s t da y o f t e s t i ng. T ha t w a s t he s e c ond t hi ng be i ng c a r e f ul i n w ha t he be l i e ve d w he n ki ds f r om ot he r g r a de s t a l ke d a bout w ha t t he t e s t w oul d be l i ke O ne pe e r ha d s a i d, I t i s s o ha r d. Y ou ve ne ve r do ne a nyt hi ng a s ha r d a s t ha t t e s t H a r d a s t ha t t e s t D a ni e l r e pe a t e d t o hi m s e l f I di d D a ni e l t hought a s he be ga n t o w a l k up t he f r ont w a l k. I di d do s om e t hi ng as har d as t he t e s t A nd t he n D a ni e l r e m e m be r e d s om e t hi ng W he n he w e nt t o k i nde r ga r t e n he di dn t know how t o r e a d a t a l l H e ha d l ove d t o l ook a t pi c t ur e s i n books but w oul d ha ve r a t he r be e n pl a yi ng c a t c h w i t h i t o r s e e i ng how f a r he c oul d t hr ow t he book H e w oul d t r a de ou t a book f or a ny t ype o f ba l l a t t he d r op of a ha t F or a l m os t t w o ye a r s w he ne ve r s om e one m e nt i on e d r e a di ng, he w oul d go a t i t w i t h a ge t i t ove r w i t h a t t i t ude T he n, i n t he m i ddl e of f i r s t g r a de D a ni e l ha d a ne w t e a c he r w ho i nt r oduc e d hi m t o books a bout s por t s H e l e a r ne d t ha t i f he w a nt e d t o be c om e a pl a ye r f o r t he N F L he ha d t o be c om e a be t t e r r e a de r T ha t s w he n D a ni e l

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157 t hought of t he t hi r d t hi ng t a ki ng t he t e s t j us t a not he r pa r t o f s c hool H e gr i nne d a nd r e m i nde d hi m s e l f I m goi ng t o be i n t he N F L s om e da y. I t w a s t he n a s D a ni e l e nt e r e d t he hous e f o r di nne r T ha t s w he n D a ni e l kne w he w oul d a c c om pl i s h hi s goa l no m a t t e r w ha t B y t he t i m e D a ni e l r e t ur ne d t o s c hool t he ne xt da y, t hought s a bout t he t e s t w e r e n t s uc h a bi g de a l a nym or e H e ha d a pl a n, a good pl a n, a nd he w a s n t goi ng t o l e t a t e s t ge t i n hi s w a y. D e e p dow n D a ni e l be l i e ve d he di d t he be s t he c oul d do. D a ni e l e nj oye d t a ki ng pa r t i n t he F un D a y w i t h a l l of hi s f r i e nds W he n ot he r s t ude nt s pr e m a t ur e l y c he c ke d out f or s um m e r va c a t i on, D a ni e l s e t t l e d ba c k i nt o h i s nor m a l r out i n e H e r e t ur ne d t o r e vi e w i ng w or ds i n t he di c t i ona r y a nd w r i t i ng t he m dow n i n hi s s t udy not e book t ha t c ont i nue d t o t r a ve l ba c k a nd f or t h f r om s c hool t o hom e w i t h hi m e a c h da y. D i s c us s i on of D a ni e l s P o r t r a i t ur e T he m ot i va t i on D a ni e l pr oj e c t s i s a dm i r a bl e I t i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy w ho r e c ogni z e d t he s e l f t e s t c one c t i on y e t m a i nt a i ne d a f oc us f or t he i r f ut ur e ( w a nt i ng t o be a n N F L pl a ye r ) F or t he m a ppl yi ng l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s c oul d c onque r obs t a c l e s s uc h a s t he F C A T a nd a s s i s t e d t he m i n s t a yi ng f oc us e d t o a c hi e ve t he i r t a s k. A ppl i c a t i on of l e a r n i ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd r e m a i ni ng f o c us e d on t he c ont e nt t o be t e s t e d by t he F C A T a l l ow e d D a ni e l a nd s t ude nt s f r om t he s t udy l i ke hi m t o ke e p t he pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t t he t e s t w a s a c om pone nt o f h i s a c a de m i c g r o w t h ( s e l f t e s t ) D a ni e l r e pr e s e nt e d t he s t ude nt s i n t he s t udy w ho uphe l d a n opt i m i s t i c vi e w of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H i s

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158 e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t de m ons t r a t e d t he a t t r i but i ons of i nt e r na l ( I s t udy e ve r y da y a f t e r s c hool ) a nd c h a nge a bl e ( B y s t ud yi ng, m a ybe I w i l l do [ pe r f or m ] be t t e r ) f o r t he m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup. D a ni e l s a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup vi e w e d c ont r i but i ons ( s t udy not e book l i s t e ni ng t o t he t e a c he r ) a s ha vi ng t he pot e nt i a l t o i m p r ove t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e on t he F C A T W he n f a c e d w i t h pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s s uc h a s a pe e r s ha r i ng how di f f i c ul t t he t e s t w a s ( I t i s s o ha r d. Y ou ve ne ve r done a nyt h i ng a s ha r d a s t ha t t e s t ) D a ni e l r e l i e d on hi s pe r s e ve r a nc e a nd r e m a i ne d f oc us e d. E m ot i ons de m ons t r a t e d f r om t he s t ude nt s D a ni e l s por t r a i t ur e r e pr e s e nt s a r e : pr i de ( I a m a good s t ude nt ) ; pe r s e ve r a nc e ( O ne t e s t i s n t goi ng t o g e t m e dow n. ) ; a nd hope f ul ne s s ( I l l us e e ve r yt hi ng I l e a r ne d f r om m y not e book a nd I s houl d do oka y. ) T he ne xt po r t r a i t ur e w i l l i nt r oduc e yo u t o J e s s i c a w hos e s t or y pl a c e s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i nt o t he e ve r y da y r out i ne of be i ng a t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt J e s s i c a s por t r a i t ur e a l s o r e pr e s e nt s he r pe e r s of m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y w i t h s om e di s t i ngui s hi ng e l e m e nt s f r om D a ni e l s po r t r a i t u r e J e s s i c a r e pr e s e nt s t he s t ude nt s w ho e m br a c e hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a s a c om pone nt of he r gr a de l e ve l w hi l e : ( 1) r e c og ni z i ng t he i m po r t a nc e of pe r f or m i ng w e l l ; ye t ( 2) i s a bl e t o ke e p t he t e s t i n pe r s pe c t i ve t o t he i r l i f e e ve nt s S he de m ons t r a t e s t he de t e r m i na t i on o f t hos e f r om a l ow s oc i o e c ono m i c s i ngl e pa r e nt hous e hol d. T hr oughout t he s t ude nt i nt e r vi e w s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs a p r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e i nc or por a t e d f a m i l y dyna m i c s s uc h a s J e s s i c a s younge r br ot he r w ho ha d a phys i c a l de f or m i t y. J e s s i c a br ou ght t o l i ght t he e xp e r i e nc e of s t ude nt s f r om t hi s s t udy

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159 w i t h c om pl i c a t e d hom e s i t ua t i ons w hi l e uphol di ng a pa s s i on a nd c om m i t m e nt t o t he i r a c a de m i c gr ow t h.

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160 J e s s i c a T oda y I al w ay s t hought t he bi gge s t pr obl e m I d e v e r hav e w as pas s i ng t hi r d gr ade but l i t t l e di d I k now t hat i t w as goi ng t o be a pi e c e of c ak e or t hat s om e day t he y e ar w oul d c om e w he n I w oul d s how e v e r y t hi ng I k now I t had be e n a doubl e s e as on of s um m e r s s i nc e I be c am e aw ar e of t hi s t hi ng c al l e d F C A T I c an pl ac e a f i nge r on t he v e r y m om e nt w he n I f i r s t he ar d t he w or d. I w as i n f i r s t gr ade I f e l t l i k e a Sat ur day m or ni ng c ar t oon c har ac t e r T he one w he r e t he r oad r unne r i s s pe e di l y r ac i ng dow n t he r oad and t he c oy ot e k e e ps s e t t i ng up obs t ac l e s T he n t he r oad r unne r r uns of f and t he c oy ot e i s l e f t i n t he m i ddl e of hi s ow n pr ank B oom P r e t t y s oon t he c oy ot e i s bl ow n t o s m i t he r e e ns or has f al l e n of f a c l i f f and al l t hat k e pt hi m go i ng w as hi s de t e r m i nat i on. T hat s m e t he c oy ot e de t e r m i ne d t o c onque r m y ow n obs t ac l e t he F C A T S c hool i s B a c k i n S e s s i on T he r e J e s s i c a w a s m i ndi ng he r ow n l i f e w he n t he s um m e r hol i da y w a s c om i ng t o a n e nd a nd s he w a s t hr ow n i nt o t he f r e nz y o f s hop pi ng f or s c hool s uppl i e s E ve r y ki d i n t he na t i on w a s on t he l ookout f or B r at z pr oduc t s : B r at z ba c kp a c k, B r at z not e books B r at z f ol de r s T he y e ve n m a de B r at z pe nc i l s J e s s i c a w a s not l i ke e ve r y ot he r ki d i n t he na t i on t hough. S he ha d m a de a pa c t w i t h he r f r i e nd L i bby w he n t he y w e r e f our ye a r s ol d. T he y de c i de d, L i bby a nd J e s s i c a t he y w oul d gr a dua t e f r om hi gh s c hool w i t h t he s a m e ba c kpa c ks t he y c hos e t oge t he r s t a ndi ng i n W a l M a r t w i t h t he i r m om s a s f our ye a r ol ds

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161 r e a dy t o e nt e r t he w or l d of s c hool B e s i de s J e s s i c a s m om w a s n t m a de of m one y. S he a l w a ys s a i d, J e s s i c a ( t ha t s m e ) c hoi c e s a r e w ha t m a ke a pe r s on a ppr e c i a t e w ha t t he y ha ve D e e p dow n, J e s s i c a w oul d ha ve l ove d t o ha ve j us t one pa c ka ge of B r at z pe nc i l s j us t s o t he ot he r ki ds w oul d know t ha t s he s not s o di f f e r e nt B ut c hoi c e s a r e c hoi c e s a nd t hi s w a s t he ye a r of t he F C A T s o, s he s ki ppe d pa s t t he a i s l e of pa r e nt s a nd c hi l d r e n s pe a ki ng nons e ns e a bout de a t h ove r c om i ng t he m i f t he y j us t di d not ha ve e ve r yt hi ng t he y a s ke d f or a nd m ove d on t o t he i s l e o f w or kbooks a nd a c t i vi t y s e t s t ha t gua r a nt e e a n i nc r e a s e of your c hi l d s t e s t i ng s c or e be c a us e t he y w oul dn t w a nt a ny c hi l d l e f t be hi nd. A s t he y dr ove i nt o S unny P a l m s J e s s i c a pa c ke d up he r t e s t p r e p w or kbooks a nd f l a s h c a r ds a l r e a dy a n a bs ol ut e e xpe r t a t f a c t a nd o pi ni on a s de m ons t r a t e d by he r ne a r l y pe r f e c t s c or e s of 8 out o f 9 S he onl y m i s s e d t he o ne be c a us e B r i a n, he r ki d br ot he r m i s pr onounc e d t he que s t i on w he n he r e a d i t of f t h e c a r d. B r i a n r a c e d out of t he c a r dow n t he dr y di r t r oa d t o s e e i f M r W i l s on w a s r e a dy f or hi s pe r s ona l a s s i s t a nt B r i a n us ua l l y di dn t f r e t a bout pr a c t i c e w or k f or s c hool be i ng he s s o s m a r t a nd a l l B e s i de s f i r s t gr a de doe s n t ha ve t he F C A T P e opl e w e r e us ua l l y f ool e d by hi s l ooks a nd t hought he di dn t know m uc h be c a us e he w a s bor n w i t h hi s s ki n s w i r l e d. I t w a s a s i f you d dr oppe d c hoc ol a t e puddi ng i nt o a bow l o f m i l k a nd e nde d u p w i t h l um ps o f c hoc ol a t e i s l a nds t hr oughout t he s e a of w hi t e D e s pi t e j udgm e nt s s om e pe opl e m a de he w a s s m a r t a s a w hi p a nd a n e xc e l l e nt a s s i s t a nt t o M r W i l s on i n hi s w oodw or ki ng s hop.

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162 J e s s i c a on t he ot he r ha nd, s t ood be s i de he r m o t he r s ol d be a t e n up T oyot a a nd w onde r e d a bout w hy t he y na m e d t he i r t r a i l e r pa r k S unny P a l m s T he P a l m s pa r t s he got be c a us e t he y w e r e s ur r ounde d by pa l m t r e e s but S unny, t hi s s he di d not ge t be c a us e t he pa l m t r e e s w e r e s o t a l l t he y s ha dow e d t he e nt i r e pa r k. I t r e a l l y s houl d be na m e d, S ha dow P a l m s G i ve i t up J e s s i c a m om c a l l e d ba c k t o he r a s s he e nt e r e d t he i r t r a i l e r t he y r e not goi ng t o r e na m e t he e nt i r e pa r k be c a us e t he na m e doe s n t m a ke s e ns e t o one l i t t l e gi r l C om e i n a nd ge t s how e r e d s o your br ot he r c a n ha ve s om e s e m bl a nc e of w a r m w a t e r w he n he ge t s ba c k. T om o r r ow i s you r f i r s t d a y of s c hool A f t e r he r s how e r B r i a n c a m e ba c k w hi s t l i ng hi s ha ppy t une H e a nd M r W i l s on a l w a ys ha d t he i r s e c r e t l i t t l e pr oj e c t s goi ng a nd t he n, one da y a w oode n s a i l boa t w oul d a ppe a r a nom a l ous l y a t t he doo r s t e ps of s om e one w ho be c a m e i l l or l os t t he i r j ob, or s om e nons e ns e l i ke t ha t A nyhow B r i a n a nd M r W i l s on w oul d a c t a l l s ur p r i s e d a nd i nnoc e nt i m a gi ne t ha t W ha t a ni c e t hought W e l l w ha t do you know ? A s i f t he e nt i r e pa r k di dn t know i t w a s c om i ng f r om t he m M e a nw hi l e J e s s i c a w a s hom e pr a c t i c i ng he r F C A T pr e p bookl e t s t r yi ng t o ke e p a pos i t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve J e s s i c a m ul l e d ove r he r s or r y s i t ua t i on of s t a r t i ng s c hool W ha t i f I don t pa s s t he F C A T ? W ha t i f I ne ve r pa s s t he F C A T ? W i l l I be i n t hi r d gr a de w he n I m a r r y? J e s s i c a w oul d ne ve r a ga i n ge t a n ounc e of pe a c e i n he r l i f e I t w oul d be F C A T F C A T F C A T S he w a s f e d up a nd ge t t i ng no s l e e p, s o s he s t a r t e d m a ki ng a l i s t of w ha t s he c oul d do t ha t w oul d he l p he r not w or r y s o m uc h a bout t he F C A T J e s s i c a w r ot e a c r os s t he t op o f a

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163 c l e a n pa ge i n he r no t e book, H ow t o G e t R e a dy f o r T he F C A T w i t hou t L oos i ng M y M i nd. J e s s i c a s m om c a m e i n a nd l a y a c r os s t he s i de of h e r be d. J e s s i c a s c oot e d he r not e book t ow a r ds he r t o s e e i f s he ha d a ny i de a s M om s a i d t ha t pos i t i ve t hi nki ng w a s w ha t s he ne e de d. H ow a bout w r i t i ng, I w i l l be a w e s om e on t he F C A T ? M om a l w a ys t hought pos i t i ve S he be l i e ve d you c oul d m a ke t hi ngs ha ppe n i f you j us t ke pt your m i nd f oc u s e d on t he good B e f or e J e s s i c a c oul d w r i t e dow n m om s s ugge s t i on, B r i a n c a m e i n a nd c l i m be d ove r t he t o p of m o m a nd J e s s i c a t o ge t i nt o hi s be d. B r i a n, you w r i nkl e d m y pa ge s J e s s i c a s hout e d s m oot hi ng he r not e book, w hi c h w a s c r i nkl e d a nd ha l f t or n out of t he s pi r a l S or r y, he s a i d, a s he ga t he r e d hi s bl a nke t s t uf f e d dog, a nd ol d r a gge dy t s hi r t H i s ni ght t i m e r out i ne w a s s o pr e di c t a bl e W e l l ? J e s s i c a qui z z e d. W e l l w ha t ? he r e pl i e d A r e n t you goi ng t o a s k m om t o l e a ve on t he l i ght ? J e s s i c a r e t or t e d ba c k w i t h a t one t o a c c e nt ua t e he r f r us t r a t i on N o, I a m s t a r t i ng f i r s t g r a de t om o r r ow I m not a ba by a nym or e a nd don t ne e d a l i ght on w he n I go t o be d. H e s t a t e d w i t h c onf i de nc e A l r i ght t he n, good ni gh t you t w o.

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164 A s m om l e f t t he r oom J e s s i c a t hought m a ybe i f B r i a n c a n be b r a ve s he c oul d t oo. M a ybe t hi r d gr a de w on t be s o ba d a f t e r a l l A s t he Y e a r P r og r e s s e d J e s s i c a c ont i nue d t o de ve l op l i s t s t hr oughout t he s c hool ye a r B y s pr i ng s he ha d l i s t s of s c or e s f r om he r F C A T pr e p t e s t s l i s t s of i n t e r e s t i ng w or ds s he d l e a r ne d t ha t ye a r a nd e ve n l i s t s of t hi ngs s he w a s good a t A s s he c he w e d on t he e nd o f he r pe nc i l s he w or ke d on he r l i s t of s t r e ngt hs I t i nc l ude d: ( 1 ) L o oki ng out f or B r i a n, ( 2) S pe l l i ng w o r ds ( 3) M a t h f a c t s a nd ( 4 ) P r a c t i c i ng f o r t he F C A T M r s B r ow n, t he t e c hnol ogy t e a c he r a nd t he a bs ol u t e l y m os t phe nom e na l pe r s on a t O c e a ns i de E l e m e nt a r y, ga ve J e s s i c a a us e r na m e a nd pa s s w or d w he n s he w a l ke d i nt o t he t e c h l a b a f t e r s c hool one da y S he s a i d, J ubi l a nt J e s s i c a ( s he a l w a y s c a l l e d c hi l dr e n w i t h a n a dj e c t i ve de s c r i bi ng t he m t ha t s t a r t e d w i t h t he f i r s t l e t t e r o f t he i r na m e ) t oda y i s a s pe c i a l da y. I ha ve s om e t hi ng f o r you a nd I ve a l r e a dy done a t r i a l r un t o be s ur e i t w or ks I gi ve t hi s t o you w i t h gr e a t e xpe c t a t i ons of w ha t s t o c om e T he n s he s c oope d m y ha nds i nt o he r s s que e z e d t i ght a nd r e l e a s e d m y ha nds w i t h a s l i p of pa pe r c uddl e d up i ns i de ( J e s s i c a w oul d de f i ni t e l y r e m e m be r j ubi l ant f r om he r e on out ) M r s B r ow n a l l ow e d J e s s i c a a nd t w o ot he r s t ude nt s t o pl a y on t he c om put e r s a f t e r s c hool w hi l e t he i r m o m s f i ni s he d w or ki ng I t w a s br e a ki ng t he s c hool r ul e s t o ha ve c hi l dr e n i n t he r e bu t M r s B r ow n di dn t m i nd S he j us t s m i l e d a t t he m s t a r t e d up t he c om put e r s a nd s a i d, W e l c om e t o t he w o r l d o f w i s dom J us t i n S m i t h w a s one o f t he a f t e r s c hool c om put e r k i ds H i s da d w a s a t e a c he r i n t hi r d gr a de H e w a s t he s hye s t boy a t

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165 O c e a ns i de E l e m e nt a r y, a nd a l s o one of t he s m a r t e s t T he ot he r w a s A m e l i a W a l l a c e A m e l i a di dn t ha ng out w i t h a l l t he ot he r gi r l s i n t h i r d gr a de e i t he r t he one s w ho w e r e a l w a ys t a l ki ng a bout w ha t t he ot he r w a s w e a r i ng a nd w he r e t he y w oul d go s hoppi ng on t he w e e ke nd. S he w a s a s oc i a l nobody a t s c hool j u s t l i ke J e s s i c a but s he be l i e ve d s he c oul d f i t i n w i t h t he ot he r gi r l s i f s he w a nt e d t o. S h e w a s c l e a r a bout J e s s i c a be i ng not hi ng s pe c i a l a nd onc e e ve n w hi s pe r e d, dum m y w he n J e s s i c a a n s w e r e d a que s t i on w r ong. S i nc e t he n, J e s s i c a ha d ne ve r s a i d a w or d t o he r a nd b ot h gi r l s w e r e f i ne a nd da ndy a bout t ha t A f t e r a l l J e s s i c a now ha d he r ow n pa s s w or d a nd us e r na m e t o a c c e s s F C A T E x pl or e r f r om hom e T ha t ni ght a nd e ve r y n i ght a f t e r w he n J e s s i c a got t he c ha nc e s he w e nt t o M r W i l s on s t r a i l e r w he n B r i a n w oul d go T he a gr e e m e nt w a s a s l ong a s J e s s i c a di dn t i nt e r r upt t he i r w o r k i n t he s he d, s he c oul d pr a c t i c e f or t he F C A T i ns i de on M r W i l s on s c om put e r D one w i t h t oda y s w or k s a i d B r i a n, c om i ng t h r ough t he door H e c a m e ove r a nd s t ood be s i de J e s s i c a w a t c hi ng. J e s s i c a how do you know w ha t a ns w e r t o c hoos e ? I r e a d t he que s t i on a nd di g de e p i ns i de m y b r a i n f or t he r i ght a ns w e r J e s s i c a s a i d, not l ooki ng up f r om t he c om put e r s c r e e n. S l o w l y, r e r e a di ng t he que s t i on w i t h e a c h pos s i bl e a ns w e r t o s e e i f i t m a de s e ns e s he c hos e t he one t ha t m a de t he m os t s e ns e a nd c l i c ke d on i t J e s s i c a l ove d pr a c t i c i ng f or t he F C A T I t ha d be c om e a pa r t o f he r e ve r y da y r out i ne s om e t hi ng t o l ook f or w a r d t o a t t he e n d of t he da y. S he w a s ge t t i ng r e a dy t o w r i t e he r s c or e dow n i n he r not e book w he n t he po w e r w e nt out

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166 L ooks l i ke I be t t e r w a l k you ki ds ho m e i t s goi ng t o r e a l l y c om e dow n ou t t he r e M r W i l s on s a i d. J e s s i c a j ot t e d t he num be r s ont o t he pa ge a nd t uc ke d t he not e book up i nt o he r s w e a t s hi r t s o t ha t i t w oul dn t ge t w e t i f t he r a i n s t a r t e d. T ha t ni ght J e s s i c a r e a l i z e d t ha t t he F C A T r e a l l y w a s n t s o s c a r y. T h i r d g r a de ha d e nough good t o m a ke up f or t he ba d. I n he r not e bo ok, a ne w pa ge w a s de di c a t e d t o T hi r d G r a de t he G ood a nd t he B a d. U nde r good J e s s i c a l i s t e d r e c e s s s na c k s s pe c i a l c l a s s e s ope n l i br a r y U nde r t he ba d J e s s i c a w r ot e ha r d, no t s o ha r d W he n T e s t i ng T i m e A r r i ve d P a r t of J e s s i c a c oul dn t w a i t f o r t e s t i ng t o be gi n. T he ot he r pa r t of he r w a s w r i ngi ng he r ha nds of t he s w e a t t ha t ke pt ooz i ng f r om he r po r e s S he w a s l i ke a f u r r y dog r i ght a f t e r ba t h t i m e s ha ki ng t he w a t e r a w a y f r om he r s ki n. A l l of a s udde n s he c ol l e c t e d a l l of t he m i l l i ons o f que s t i ons t ha t w e r e s w a r m i ng t o t he f or e f r ont o f he r t hought s a nd r e m i nde d he r s e l f onc e I got t o know t he t hi ngs on t he F C A T I got r e a l l y be t t e r a t i t I c a n do t hi s E a c h of J e s s i c a s c l a s s m a t e s s l i d i nt o t he i r s e a t s a f t e r e a t i ng t he s c hool b r e a kf a s t S he us ua l l y ha d br e a kf a s t a t s c hool e ve r y da y bu t not i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd not w i t h e ve r yone i n he r c l a s s T he r oom w a s pl a i n, t he c l a s s c ha r t s a nd pr oj e c t s no l onge r hung on t he w a l l s T he s t ude n t s de s ks w e r e a r r a nge d i n r ow s j us t a s t he y w oul d be f or a s pe l l i ng or m a t h t e s t

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167 T he t e a c he r s t ood i n f r on t of a l l t he s t ude nt s S he f ol de d he r a r m s a nd l ooke d a t a l l of t he m H e r f a c e s e e m e d t i r e d w or r y t i r e d. J e s s i c a s a w i t i n he r e ye s S he s t a r t e d t o f e e l une a s y. I know you a r e a l l a w a r e t ha t t oda y i s t he f i r s t da y of F C A T t e s t i ng, s a i d he r t e a c he r t a l k i ng r e a l l y f a s t a s i f t he c hi l d r e n w o ul dn t he a r t he c r a c kl i ng i n he r voi c e a s l ong a s s he di dn t s l ow dow n I ve t a ught you t he m a t e r i a l you r e a bout t o be t e s t e d on. T he pr oc e dur e s a r e a s f ol l ow s . A s s he c ont i nue d w i t h t he p r oc e dur e s f or t e s t i ng, J e s s i c a s m i nd w a nde r e d t o a l l of t he p r a c t i c e book pa ge s f l a s hc a r d a c t i vi t i e s a nd t i m e on t he w e bs i t e s he di d t o pr e pa r e f or t oda y E ve r y s t ude nt i n t he r oom w a s w e l l a w a r e of w ha t w a s a t s t a ke A f t e r a l l i f t he s c hool di dn t ha ve t he F C A T nobody w oul d pa y a t t e nt i on i n s c hool O pe n your t e s t bookl e t s a nd l i s t e n w hi l e I r e a d t h e di r e c t i ons t he t e a c he r i ns t r uc t e d. T he n s he nodde d a nd s a i d, Y ou m a y b e gi n. J e s s i c a l ooke d a t t he t e s t bookl e t : i t m a de he r t h i nk I m goi ng t o, I ve j us t got t he t e s t I j us t ha ve t o f i ni s h t he t e s t a nd I l l pr oba b l y ge t t o f our t h gr a de S he ope ne d t he t e s t bookl e t a nd t ha t w a s t he i ns t a nt s he kne w w i t h c onvi c t i on t ha t s he c oul d ha ndl e t hi s l i f e c ha ngi ng, s e r i ous l y i m por t a nt e ve nt T he hour s t ha t pa s s e d f e l t l i ke da ys a nd t he da ys t u r ne d i nt o w e e ks W he n t he c hi l dr e n w e r e n t t e s t i ng, t he i r s c hool da y w a s f i l l e d w i t h i ns i de r e c e s s t ha t m os t l y c ons i s t e d of w a t c h i ng m ovi e s a nd vi s i t i ng w i t h ot h e r ki ds T he y w e r e f i ni s he d w i t h t he F C A T a nd ge t t i ng r e a dy t o s t a r t t he N R T s upon r e t ur n f r om t he w e e ke nd. J e s s i c a c ont i nue d he r da i l y r out i ne s a s m uc h a s s he c oul d.

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168 A f t e r s c hool J e s s i c a s t i l l s t oppe d by t he t e c hnol ogy l a b t o s e e M r s B r ow n. S he w a s s ur pr i s e d t o s e e he r t he f i r s t da y a nd a s ke d a bout how t e s t i ng w e nt W he n I s t a r t e d, I s a i d i n m y m i nd t ha t I m doi ng i t s o j us t c a l m dow n a nd you l l be a l r i ght M r s B r ow n w a s a l w a ys a va i l a bl e a f t e r s c hool w i t h a n ope n e a r T he ot he r t w o s t ude nt s w ho us ua l l y c a m e i n w i t h J e s s i c a w e r e n t c om i ng t o t he t e c hnol ogy r oom a nym or e S o how w a s i t t oda y? M r s B r ow n w o ul d a s k e a c h da y. I t s c ool J e s s i c a w oul d r e s pond. I w a s r e a dy t o l e a r n. A f t e r J e s s i c a w a s i n be d t ha t ni g ht s he c l os e d he r e ye s but c oul dn t s l e e p. S he t r i e d a s ha r d a s s he c oul d t o r e m e m be r e ve r yt hi ng s he ha d l e a r ne d f or t he F C A T S he ke pt r e m i ndi ng he r s e l f t ha t t he F C A T t e l l s you w h i c h pl a c e t he y ne e d t o put you i n s o you c a n do be t t e r a t m a t h a nd r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng a nd s t uf f H e r m i nd s t r uggl e d t o s t a y c a l m a s pi c t ur e s of t he t e s t pr e p que s t i ons ke pt pop pi ng t o t he f r ont of he r b r a i n. A l l t ha t ha r d w or k ke pt s ur f a c i ng a nd J e s s i c a dr i f t e d of f i m a gi ni ng w ha t i t w oul d be l i ke w he n s he w oul d f i nd out i f s he w a s goi ng t o t hi r d gr a de a nd i f s he di dn t go t o t h i r d g r a de s he d s t i l l be pr oud of he r s e l f t ha t s he t r i e d. J e s s i c a r e m i nde d he r s e l f t o r e m e m be r t ha t t he F C A T i s F C A T a nd no m a t t e r how ha r d s he t r i e s s he s s t i l l goi ng t o ke e p goi ng W ha t S c hool s A l l A bo ut T he m i nut e J e s s i c a e nt e r e d t he c l a s s r oom he r t e a c he r c a l l e d f o r e ve r yone s a t t e nt i on, S t ude nt s you ve a l l w or ke d ve r y ha r d w i t h t he F C A T a nd N R T T hi s w e e k

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169 t he e nt i r e s c hool i s goi ng t o ha ve a F un F a i r t o c e l e br a t e a l l of t he ha r d w or k e ve r yone ha s done J e s s i c a s m i l e d a t he r t e a c he r a s s he pl oppe d dow n i n he r s e a t T he t e a c he r w a s t he one e ve r yone pr a ye d t o ge t a s s i gne d t o be c a us e e ve r y ye a r a f t e r t he F C A T s he s how e d t he w hol e c l a s s f our t h gr a de m a t e r i a l s I t w a s he r c l a i m t o f a m e F r om t hi s p oi nt on s he w oul d l e t t he s t ude nt s w r i t e s t or i e s a bout w ha t e ve r t he y w a nt e d. J e s s i c a pi c ke d a gr e a t w hi t e s ha r k. I n m a t h, t he c l a s s s t a r t e d on di vi s i on. T he s t ude nt s di dn t e ve n ha ve t o t a ke a ny m o r e s pe l l i n g t e s t s a f t e r t he F C A T be c a us e t he y ha d be e n w or ke d s o ha r d A nd now now t he s t ude nt s w e r e goi ng t o ha ve a F un F a i r O n t op of a l l t ha t J e s s i c a s t e a c he r w a s ni c e a nd di dn t a l l ow a ny put dow ns or s t ude nt s s a yi ng m e a n t hi ngs l i ke a bout B r i a n. J e s s i c a bus i e d he r s e l f i n he r de s k unt i l t he s t a r t i ng be l l r a ng. A n i nt e r r upt i on ove r t he c l a s s r oom i nt e r c om di s t r a c t e d he r a t t e nt i on f r o m or ga ni z i ng e r a s e r s i n l i ne by c ol or R oom 221? W e ha ve a ne w s t ude nt i n t he o f f i c e f or your c l a s s T ha nk you, I l l s e nd s om e one r i ght dow n t o ge t h e r J e s s i c a w a s c h os e n t o go w i t h J us t i n t o e s c or t t he n e w s t ude nt ba c k t o t he c l a s s r oom W he n t he y a r r i ve d a pl um p gi r l w i t h s hor t c ur l y ha i r e ve n c ur l i e r t ha n J e s s i c a s s t ood up f r o m t he w a i t i ng c ha i r s a nd q ui c kl y c a m e r i ght up t o t he m a nd s t a r t e d c ha t t i ng a w a y a s t he y w a l ke d ba c k t o t he c l a s s r oom W he n s he t ook a m om e nt t o c a t c h he r br e a t h be t w e e n t hought s J e s s i c a a s ke d he r i f s he w a nt e d t o know a nyt h i ng a bout t hi r d gr a de

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170 S he s a i d s he m ove d he r e f r om t hi r d gr a de a nd kne w e ve r yt hi ng a bout i t a l r e a dy. J us t i n c huc kl e d unde r hi s br e a t h i n a w a y t ha t m a d e t he ne w gi r l une a s y. N e ve r m i nd hi m J e s s i c a s a i d a s t he c hi l dr e n a ppr oa c he d t he c l a s s r oom door A l l you ne e d t o know i s t ha t he r e t hi r d gr a de i s a l i t t l e bi t ha r d a nd a l i t t l e bi t e a s y. J e s s i c a l e a r ne d t ha t t h e ne w gi r l 's na m e w a s A m a n da S he w a s br i l l i a nt a t m a t h. H e r da d di d not l i ve w i t h he r S he a nd he r m om w e r e l i vi ng w i t h he r gr a ndm ot he r J us t l i ke J e s s i c a he r f a vor i t e c ol o r w a s pur pl e A f t e r s c hool A m a nda f ol l ow e d J e s s i c a t o t he t e c h nol ogy l a b be c a us e A m a nda s m om ha d t o f i l l out m or e pa pe r w or k a t t he s c hool of f i c e M r s B r ow n hugge d A m a nda w he n s he c a m e t hr ough t he door A m a z i ng A m a n da I he a r d a bout t he ne w t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s t a r t i ng t oda y. W e l c om e t o ou r w or l d of w i s dom D o you a l r e a dy ha ve a l og i n a nd pa s s w or d f or F C A T E x pl or e r ? A m a nda l ow e r e d he r he a d a nd s poke s l ow e r t ha n J e s s i c a ha d he a r d a l l da y, W ha t s F C A T ? M r s B r ow n a nd J e s s i c a bot h gi ggl e d a s s he m ot i o ne d f or A m a nda a nd he r t o s i t i n f r ont of t w o c om put e r s t ha t w e r e a l r e a dy on. W o w A r e you s ur e you c a m e f r om t hi r d gr a de ? J e s s i c a a s ke d. A m a nda ha d a n une a s y l ook on he r f a c e J e s s i c a r e a l i z e d s he w a s s e r i ous a nd bl ur t e d out I t s s o c ool I t s a bi g pa r t o f t hi r d g r a de he r e D on t w or r y t hough I ha ve pr a c t i c e books a nd f l a s hc a r d s a nd I c a n he l p you I t s r e a l l y no bi g de a l

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171 W hi l e t he gi r l s l ogge d i nt o t he c om put e r s M r s B r ow n a r r a nge d a l og i n na m e a nd pa s s w or d f or A m a nda F i r s t s he s how e d he r a l l t he pa r t s of t he w e bs i t e T he n s he l e t he r t r y s om e of t he s c r e e ns N ow f or yo u J ubi l a nt J e s s i c a I ha ve a s ur pr i s e M r s B r ow n ha d a t ouc h of m ys t e r y i n he r voi c e C l os e your e ye s J e s s i c a c l os e d he r e ye s O ka y, l ook a t t hi s W ha t do you t hi nk? M r s B r o w n a s ke d. W he n J e s s i c a ope ne d he r e ye s M r s B r ow n ha d c h a nge d he r c om pu t e r s c r e e n t o a s i t e J e s s i c a ha d ne ve r s e e n. T he s i t e pr ovi de d t ons of voc a bul a r y w o r ds f or f our t h gr a de r s J e s s i c a nodde d he r he a d i n a ppr ova l T ha nk you f o r s ha r i ng w i t h m e M r s B r ow n. T hi s i s t he be s t gr a de i n s c hool ye t M r s B r ow n nodde d w i t h a s m i l e I hope you l l s a y t he s a m e a bout ne xt ye a r A C ha nge i n P e r s pe c t i ve s T ha t e ve ni ng B r i a n a nd J e s s i c a s a t a t t he di nne r t a bl e w i t h m om w a t c hi ng J e opar dy B r i a n w oul d r e pe a t t he a ns w e r s a f t e r t h e c ont e s t a nt s w oul d a ns w e r s ur e t ha t i t w a s he w ho ha d gi ve n t he m f i r s t H e l i c ke d hi s f i n ge r s c l e a n a nd t ook a not he r s l i c e of pi z z a J e s s i c a he s a i d. I l ove i t w he n i t s you r ni ght t o c ook di nne r W e ge t pi z z a e ve r y t i m e M om s m i l e d a nd J e s s i c a s a t up s t r a i ght e r a nd s m i l e d.

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172 O h, a nd I j us t r e m e m be r e d I ha ve a s ur pr i s e A nd s i nc e you w or ke d s o ha r d be i ng a t hi r d gr a de r I w e l l you l l s e e H e j um pe d dow n f r om hi s s e a t a nd w e nt out t he door a nd c a m e ba c k w i t h a box t ha t ha d a pi e c e of c l ot h ove r i t T he m i nut e J e s s i c a s a w i t s he s t oppe d e a t i ng a nd h e r e ye s br i ght e ne d. B r i a n s t r e t c he d hi s a r m s a c r os s t he t a bl e s l i di ng t h e box i n f r ont of J e s s i c a J e s s i c a t hi s i s f or you. J e s s i c a pr e t e nde d s he w a s n t s ur pr i s e d a nd r e a c he d f or t he box B r i a n w a t c he d w i t h pr i de a nd a nt i c i pa t i on M om l ooke d on w i t h a n e l e m e nt of s ur pr i s e he r s e l f w he n J e s s i c a r e a c he d i nt o t he box. I t s a s a i l boa t M r W i l s on a nd I m a de i t j us t f o r y ou. I n c e l e br a t i on o f pa s s i ng t hi r d gr a de B e f or e J e s s i c a c oul d s a y a nyt hi ng, M om r e m i nde d B r i a n t ha t s he w oul dn t ge t t he s c or e s b a c k unt i l M a y a t t he e a r l i e s t H i s e ye s gl i s t e ne d w i t h hope a nd p r i de T ha t s oka y m om T he F C A T t e l l s t he m w hi c h pl a c e t o put m e i n. I f I go t o f our t h g r a de t ha t w oul d be f a nt a s t i c I f I s t a y i n t hi r d gr a de I w i l l be t he s m a r t e s t t hi r d gr a de r t he r e a nd I c oul d he l p t he ne w t hi r d g r a de r s not be s o w o r r i e d a bout t he F C A T J e s s i c a he l d he r s a i l boa t t i ght a nd hugge d B r i a n e v e n t i ght e r J e s s i c a w a s de t e r m i ne d e ve r yt hi ng w oul d go a s pl a nne d a nd s he w oul d be i n f our t h gr a de ne xt ye a r w i t h a l l of t he r e s t of t he ki ds

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173 T om or r ow s O n t he out s i de of t hi ngs not m uc h had c hange d. M om s t i l l ne v e r bought m e t he B r at z bac k pac k B r at z not e book s B r at z f ol de r s or e v e n t he B r at z pe nc i l s K i ds at s c hool w oul d s t i l l s om e t i m e s m ak e f un of B r i an and I w oul d s t i l l al w ay s de f e nd hi m M y e v e ni ngs w e r e s t i l l s pe nt w r i t i ng i n m y not e book or pr ac t i c i ng on t he i nt e r ne t at M r W i l s on s hous e f or f our t h gr ade Som e day s I s w or e I c oul d pr e di c t w hat w as goi ng t o happe n ne x t O n t he i ns i de I w as di f f e r e nt I had e x pe r i e nc e d t hi r d gr ade I had pr ac t i c e d f or s pe l l i ng, m at h, and t he F C A T I had us e d m y l e ar ni ng s t r at e gi e s and done m y v e r y be s t M e F C A T had t aught m e t hat y ou m us t be abl e t o s ho w w hat y ou k now I n t he e nd, t he r e s ul t s w i l l r e v e al t he m s e l v e s f or w hat I r e al l y k now I t w as t r ue I n F l or i da, m y j ob w as t o l e ar n e v e r y t hi ng I c oul d and be t he be s t s t u de nt I c oul d be I t w or k e d f or m e I r e al l y am l i k e t he c oy ot e f r om t he Sat ur day m or ni ng c ar t oon, de t e r m i ne d e nough t o k e e p t r y i ng e v e n w he n obs t ac l e s ar e s t andi ng i n m y w a y Sc hool r e al l y w as c ool D i s c us s i on of J e s s i c a s P or t r a i t ur e T he por t r a i t ur e o f J e s s i c a de m ons t r a t e s how s om e s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o put hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i nt o pe r s pe c t i ve I n t he r e a l m of J e s s i c a s w or l d, t he F C A T be c a m e i nt e r t w i ne d w i t h he r de s i r e t o e xc e l a t a c a de m i c s H e r ha ppy go l uc ky pe r c e pt i on de m ons t r a t e d he r c om f or t i n he r pos i t i on a s a s t ud e nt H e r s t o r y w a s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t hos e s t ude nt s w ho w e r e a bl e t o ove r c om e a dve r s e pe e r i nf l ue nc e s J e s s i c a s por t r a ya l r e pr e s e nt s t hos e s t ude nt s w ho w a l k t o t he be a t o f t he i r ow n d r um br e a t hi ng i n t he w o r l d

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174 a r ound t he m C onc ur r e nt w i t h t he s t udy f i ndi ngs t he one s a bl e t o a l l e vi a t e f e a r w e r e t hos e w ho pe r c e i ve d t he m s e l ve s a s be i ng s uc c e s s f ul on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t due t o i nt e r na l ( I c a n do t hi s ) c ha n ge a bl e ( I t w on t be s o ha r d onc e you ge t t o know t he t hi ngs on t he F C A T ) a t t r i but i ons I n t he m i ds t of l i f e s ha r ds hi ps s t ude nt s l i ke J e s s i c a de m ons t r a t e d a de t e r m i na t i on a nd r e s i l i e nc e t ha t s hi ne d t hr ough. T he s c hool e nvi r onm e nt e m pha s i z e d t he r i gor a n d i nt e ns i t y of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. E ve n w i t hi n t he he a vy s e l f t e s t c onne c t i ons a l m os t e ve r y s t ude nt I t a l ke d w i t h i n J e s s i c a s a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup w a s not i n t i m i da t e d by t he e xpe c t a t i ons a nd p r e s s ur e s but ga i ne d or de m ons t r a t e d c onf i de nc e a nd s t a m i n a H e r po r t r a i t u r e r e pr e s e nt s t he s t ude nt s f r om t hi s s t udy t ha t r e c ogni z e d t he de m a nds of t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt a s a c om pone nt of t hi r d g r a de M a ny s poke of t he p r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s a s : f a m i l y ( B e c a us e I got a dvi c e f r om m y f a m i l y ) ; t e a c he r s ( I a m a l s o c onf i de nt be c a us e m y m a t h t e a c he r i s gi vi ng us a l ot of t e s t s a nd F C A T p r e p ) ; a nd pe e r s ( I k now s om e one w ho di dn t pa s s a nd ha d t o go t o s um m e r s c hool but t ha t s not go i n g t o ha ppe n t o m e ) W i t hi n t he t he m e of e m ot i ons t he s t ude nt s s ha r e d a bout t he i r pot e nt i a l r e s ul t s of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he voi c e s of t hi s pa r t i c ul a r a c a de m i c a bi l i t y g r ou p r e ve a l e d a ba r r a ge of e m ot i ons s uc h a s j oy, c on f i de nc e a nd hope f ul ne s s W i t hout t he e nd r e s ul t s know n, t he s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt e d w i t hi n t hi s a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup e xpr e s s e d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a s be i ng a pos i t i ve c om pone nt of t he i r t hi r d gr a de e xpe r i e nc e

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175 S um m a r y T hr ough di r e c t quot e s a nd w r i t t e n doc um e nt a t i on of t he e xpe r i e nc e s f r om t he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s t he a bove t hr e e por t r a i t ur e s de p i c t di f f e r i ng r e s pons e s t o t he F l or i da s s c hool di s t r i c t s c om pl i a nc e w i t h t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd pr ogr a m B y i nt e r w e a vi ng t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s t he l i f e of t he s e t hi r d gr a de r s e pi t om i z e d t he f ou r di s t i nc t pr e v a l e nt t he m e s f oun d i n t hi s s t udy T he ne xt c ha pt e r w i l l c onne c t t he s e f i ndi ngs t o e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d. T he n, r e c om m e nda t i ons ba s e d on t he s t udy r e s ul t s w i l l be of f e r e d f or i m p r ovi ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s

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176 C H A P T E R 6 D i s c us s i on & R e c om m e nda t i ons W hat w e w ant i s t o s e e t he c hi l d i n pur s ui t of k now l e dge and not k now l e dge i n pur s ui t of t he c hi l d. G e or ge B e r na r d S ha w T hi s c ha pt e r i s di vi de d i nt o t hr e e m a j or s e c t i ons T he f i r s t s e c t i on de s c r i be s t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy. T he f oc us of t he di s c us s i on c onne c t s t he t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns f ound i n t he da t a t o l i t e r a t u r e i n t he f i e l d T he s e c ond s e c t i on m a ke s r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. A ddi t i ona l i ns i ght s c oul d be ga i n e d i nt o t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng by i m pl e m e nt i ng f ur t he r s t udi e s t o c om pl e m e nt t he c ur r e nt s t udy. T he t hi r d s e c t i on c ons i de r s s om e pr a c t i c a l a ppl i c a t i ons T he s e r e c om m e nda t i ons f oc us on a c t i ons t ha t p ol i t i c a l l e a de r s s c hool pe r s onne l uni ve r s i t y p r of e s s or s a nd pa r e nt s c a n t a ke D i s c us s i on T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o e xa m i ne t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i n or de r t o of f e r t he i r pe r s p e c t i ve t o f e l l ow e duc a t i on r e s e a r c he r s T he r e ha s be e n onl y a l i m i t e d num be r of pr e vi ous s t udi e s of t hi s ki nd a nd ha ve be e n w i t h ol de r s t ude nt s w i t hi n t he r e a l m s of : a c c ount a bi l i t y ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on on E xc e l l e nc e 1983; C a r ne gi e F or um 1986; H ol m e s G r ou p, 1995; P r o j e c t A l l i a nc e 30, 1991; N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996; a nd N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd, 2001 ) ; t e s t i ng p r oc e s s ( B r oudy, 1972; C ol e 1991; C a l ki ns 1998 ) ;

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177 t e s t i ng a nxi e t y ( E va ns & E nge l be r g 1988 ; T r i pl e t t & B a r ks da l e 2005 ) ; t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t ( D a r l i ng H a m m ond & W i s e 1985 ; H a ne y & M a da us 1986; K or e t z 1988; R ya n & L a G ua r di a 1999; S a c ks 1999; a nd K ohn, 2000 ) ; t e a c he r s t r e s s ( G or don & R e e s e 1997; B a r ks da l e L a dd & T hom a s 2000; H o f f m a n, A s s a f & P a r i s 2001; a nd J one s & E ngl y 2002 ) ; a nd s t ude nt m ot i v a t i on f or l e a r ni ng ( C a r s l s on, 1992; D w e c k, 1992; P a r i s L a w t on T ur ne r & R ot h, 1991; D e c i & R ya n, 1985; a nd L e ppe r 1983 ) H ow e ve r t h i s body of r e s e a r c h doe s i m pl y t he ne e d f or a w i de r r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s t ude nt pe r s pe c t i ve i s w or t hw hi l e I t w i l l be va l ua bl e t o unde r s t a nd s t ude nt s s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons i f hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s t o c ont i nue be i ng a de t e r m i na nt of g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on. M uc h of t he e xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h on s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s l i m i t e d t o i nf or m a t i on r e po r t e d by s t ude nt s unde r s t r e s s ( T r i pl e t t B a r ks da l e & L e f t w i c h, 2003) I nc l ud i ng t hi s s pa r s e r e pr e s e nt a t i on of r e s e a r c h, a nd e xpl a i ni ng w hy a nd how s om e s t ude nt s ove r c om e t he i r s t r e s s i nc r e a s e d t he r e l e va nc e of t hi s s t udy. F our m a i n t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om t he pr e s e nt i nve s t i ga t i on unde r t he ove r a l l um br e l l a of ow ne r s hi p of l e a r ni ng. I w i l l di s c us s t he m i n or de r a l t hough t he y a r e i nt e r r e l a t e d:

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178 S e l f T e s t A t t r i but i on P r e va l e nt I nf l ue nc e s E m ot i ons E m be dde d w i t hi n e a c h o f t he a bove c a t e gor i e s t he r e w a s a c ons e ns us s i gni f yi ng di s t i nc t i ndi vi dua l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a s w e l l a s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t s uppor t e d t he pe r s ona o f t hi r d gr a de F o r e xa m pl e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c o f s e l f be l i e f w a s de pi c t e d t hr ough i nde pe nde nt i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons but a l s o w a s r e pr e s e nt e d w i t hi n t he s oc i a l c ont e xt o f t he f oc us gr oups T hi s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c t he n f e l l c ol l e c t i ve l y un de r t he t he m e o f a t t r i but i on N um e r ous pr oc l a m a t i ons ha ve i ndi c a t e d t he r e l e va nc e of m e a s ur i ng s t ude nt know l e dge ga i ns i n or de r t o a dd r e s s t he a c hi e ve m e nt ga p ( N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on on E xc e l l e nc e 1983; C a r ne gi e F or um 1986; H ol m e s G r oup, 1995; P r o j e c t A l l i a nc e 30, 1991; N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996; a nd N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd, 2001) S e ve r a l of t he s e pr oc l a m a t i ons s ugge s t e d t ha t t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w oul d i n t e gr a t e s t ude nt s i nt o a m or e ho m oge ne ous a c a de m i c pool i ng. F o r e xa m pl e N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( 2001) i s t he l a t e s t f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on t o e na c t s t a n da r ds ba s e d e duc a t i on r e f or m F or m e r l y know n a s out c om e ba s e d e duc a t i on, t h e be l i e f i s t ha t hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons a nd s e t t i ng of goa l s w i l l r e s ul t i n s uc c e s s f or a l l s t ude nt s a s f ut ur e m e m be r s o f t he na t i on s w or kf or c e O t he r l e gi s l a t i on r e a s s e r t s t he ne e d f or i m pr ove m e nt of how t he t e a c he r unde r s t a nds t he de ve l opm e nt a l a nd c ul t ur a l e l e m e nt s of t he l e a r ne r ( e g. N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on, 1996)

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179 I n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he s e pr oc l a m a t i ons i t m i ght b e e xpe c t e d t ha t t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy hol d t he ke y t o t he i r ow n s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e T he f i nd i ngs f r om t hi s s t udy r e ve a l e d t ha t hol di ng hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons a nd s e t t i ng goa l s w e r e i m pl i c i t l y i m pl i e d f r o m t he e m e r gi ng t he m e s of t he da t a a na l ys i s F o r t he s t ude nt s t o uphol d be l i e f i n t he i r a bi l i t y w he n c onf r ont e d w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, i t w a s n e c e s s a r y f or t he m t o know t he w hy a nd t he how of t he e xpe c t a t i ons a nd goa l s T hi s s t udy a l s o f ound t ha t t hos e s t ude nt s w ho s ought out a s s i s t a nc e f r om t he i r t e a c he r s w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o c onne c t t he i r e f f or t w i t h t he i r pot e nt i a l r e s ul t s T he hi ghe r a bi l i t y s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy s poke of t he i r t e a c he r s a s f a c i l i t a t or s of t he i r know l e dge a c qui s i t i on, i nc r e a s i ng t he ow ne r s hi p o f t he i r l e a r ni ng e nde a vor Se l f T e s t T he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy a r t i c ul a t e d a n a w a r e ne s s of w he r e hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng r e t a i ne d a c ons t a nt s e l f t e s t c onne c t i on, not m e nt i o ne d i n pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h. P r i o r s t udi e s ha ve a t t e s t e d t o t he i nc l us i on o f t e s t pr e pa r a t i on i n t he c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs f oc us e d on t he i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e of t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t ( D a r l i n g H a m m ond & W i s e 1985; H a ne y & M a da us 1986; K or e t z 1988; R ya n & L a G ua r d i a 1999; S a c ks 1999; a nd K ohn, 2000) S t ude nt s of a l l a bi l i t y l e ve l s i n t hi s s t udy voi c e d a n unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s pa r t of t hi r d gr a de S om e s poke o f i t i n c om pa r i s on t o a F r i da y s pe l l i ng t e s t a nd ot he r s t o a c om pone nt o f t he i r da i l y s c he dul e W h e n a s ke d w ha t t hi r d gr a de i s l i ke one s t ude nt r e pl i e s W e ha ve m a t h, s pe l l i ng, F C A T p r e p, a nd r e a di ng. A not he r s t a t e d, W e ha ve m a t h t e s t s s pe l l i ng t e s t s a nd t he F C A T t e s t s

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180 A t t r i but i on A not he r m a j or t he m e t o e m e r ge i n t he pr e s e nt s t ud y c onc e r ne d a t t r i but i on A s t he da t a a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d, t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e gul a t e d be t w e e n i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i nf l ue nc e s w i t h s t a bl e ve r s us c ha nge a bl e a t t r i but e s T h i s i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h w ha t H e ym a n a nd D w e c k ( 1998) f ound i n t he i r s t udy of t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n c hi l dr e n s i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f hum a n be ha vi or a nd t he i r be l i e f s a bout t he s t a bi l i t y f r om w hi c h t hos e hum a n t r a i t s de r i ve T he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy a l s o de m ons t r a t e d t he i r a bi l i t y t o hol d d i f f e r e nt be l i e f s a bout t he na t ur e o f t he i r i nt e l l i ge nc e T w o of t he e xt e r na l s t r e s s or s t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e d w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w e r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h f i ndi ngs i n e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t u r e a bout e duc a t or s a s pr a c t i t i one r s T he C e nt e r on E duc a t i on P ol i c y ( 2006) f ound t ha t t hr e e m a i n s t r e s s or s e xi s t f or e duc a t or s a nd i m pl i c i t l y a f f e c t s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e T he r e po r t d e s c r i be d t he l os s of i ns t r uc t i ona l t i m e on s ubj e c t a r e a s not be i ng t e s t e d a s one T hi s w oul d be c ons i de r e d a m a l l e a bl e qua l i t y of i nt e l l i ge nc e t ha t s ha pe s t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i on of t he m s e l ve s a s l e a r ne r s A n e xa m pl e of s uppor t f r om t hi s s t udy i s W e c ou l d us e m or e t i m e f o r m a t h l i ke s i xt y m i nut e s but M r S m i t h i s a l w a ys s a yi ng, oo ps put you r m a t h books a w a y w e ne e d t o pr a c t i c e f o r t he F C A T now A not he r s t ude nt no t e d, W e don t ha ve t i m e f or S c i e nc e but m y t e a c he r s a i d t ha t m a ybe a f t e r t he F C A T w e c a n l e a r n a bout i t T he C e nt e r on E duc a t i on P ol i c y a l s o c ha r a c t e r i z e d t he r e pl a c e m e nt of c r e a t i ve t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng w i t h r ot e t e s t pr e pa r a t i on a s a n a ddi t i ona l s t r e s s or S t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy f ound s u ppor t t hr ough r e s e a r c h f i nd i ngs of t he s oc i a l e nvi r onm e n t a l c ondi t i ons ha vi ng a n i nf l ue nc e

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181 t hr ough t he ps yc hol ogy o f t he c hi l d ( B l a c kw e l l T r z e ns ni e w s ki & D w e c k, 2007) T he s t ude nt s not e d ha vi ng t he oppor t un i t y t o pl a y l e a r n i ng ga m e s a f t e r t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd c onc l ude d t hi s w oul d m e a n a pos i t i ve c ha nge f r om t he i r t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e F or e xa m pl e I c a n t w a i t t i l l t e s t i ng i s ove r s o w e c a n s t op doi ng s o m a ny w or kbooks a nd pl a y m or e ga m e s t o l e a r n f r om l i ke i n s e c ond gr a d e O r O ur t e a c he r s a i d s h e w on t ha ve t o be s o ha r d on us [ w he n t e s t i ng i s ove r ] I t w i l l be m o r e f un l i ke s c hool i s s uppos e d t o be T he i m pl i c i t l y i m pl i e d e xt e r na l f a c t or i n t hi s s t udy w a s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he r e por t s f r om t he C e nt e r on E duc a t i on P ol i c y ( 2 006) a nd w i t h t he pe r c e p t i ons o f i nf l ue nc e of t he l e a r ne r f or a t t r i but i on f a c t or s a s s t udi e d by H e ym a n, a nd D w e c k ( 1998 ) T he f i ndi ngs f r om m y s t udy o f s t ude nt s w i t h l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pe r c e i vi ng t he i r pot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t o be o f e xt e r na l a t t r i but i on s s uppor t s pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs f r om E va ns a nd E nge l be r g ( 198 8) I n a s t udy on s t ude nt s a t t i t ude s t o a nd c om pr e he ns i on of r e c e i vi ng g r a de s E va ns a n d E nge l be r g f ound t ha t l ow e r a c hi e vi ng a nd younge r s t ude nt s r e l a t e d t he i r gr a de s t o m or e e xt e r na l a t t r i but i o ns T he i r f i ndi ngs c onc l ude d t ha t t he l ow e r a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a t t r i bu t e d t he i r f a i l ur e t o e xt e r na l f a c t or s i n or de r t o pr ot e c t t he i r s e l f e s t e e m S t ude nt s of l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y w i t hi n m y s t udy of s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a d e hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a l s o e xpr e s s e d m or e ne ga t i ve e m ot i on t ow a r d t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t ha n t he i r pe e r s of m ode r a t e or o f hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y.

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182 P r e v al e nt I nf l ue nc e T he pr e va l e nt i n f l ue nc e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ove r t he t i m e s pa n of t he s e t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s w a s not i n a c c or d w i t h f i ndi ngs f r om p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h on l ow t o hi gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s e l f e s t e e m out c om e s ( D a vi e s & B r e m be r 1998, 1999; G or don & R e e s e 1997; P a r i s L a w t on, T u r ne r & R ot h, 1991) T he y f ound t ha t r e l a t i ve t o m i d a nd h i gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d t he i r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e w i t h e ve n l e s s c onf i de nt i n t he i r a c a de m i c a bi l i t i e s T h i s w a s not f ound i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy. I n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he r e s ul t s f r om ye a r t w o of a s t udy by D a vi e s a nd B r e m be r ( 1998 1999 ) t he s t ude nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy e xpe r i e nc e d a n a s s e s s m e nt c ul t ur e t hus pe r ha ps r e c ove r i ng f r om s om e of t he o t he r w i s e e xpe c t e d dr op i n t he i r s e l f e s t e e m T he a s s e s s m e nt c ul t ur e t he s t ude nt s s poke of i nc or por a t e d t e s t pr e p a r a t i on m a t e r i a l s i nt e r a c t i ve w e b s i t e s f or t e s t p r e pa r a t i on, t e s t i ng a c c om m oda t i ons f or s e c ond l a ngua ge l e a r ne r s a nd a n a bs e nc e of hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s dur i ng t he w e e ks of t he t e s t i ng pe r i od. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy bui l t upon t he r e c om m e nd a t i ons f r o m D a vi e s a nd B r e m be r ( 1998) f o r de ve l opi ng a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of how pe opl e a nd c i r c um s t a nc e s i nf l ue nc e d t he s t ude nt s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e I n t hi s s t udy, t he s t ude nt s di d not voi c e a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n s e l f e s t e e m a t t he c onc l us i on of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he l ow e r a bi l i t y s t ude nt s di d de m ons t r a t e a l a c k of ow ne r s hi p t o t he i r l e a r ni ng r e s ul t i ng i n a n e nt i t y vi e w t hr ough t he i r a t t r i but i on f or s uc c e s s t ha n di d t he i r hi gh a bi l i t y pe e r s T hi s f i ndi ng w a s c ons i s t e nt w i t h pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h on a t t r i but i o n, w he r e l ow e r a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s

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183 r e l a t e d t he i r f a i l ur e t o m o r e e xt e r na l a t t r i but e s ( B l a c kw e l l T r z e s ni e w s ki & D w e c k, 2007; E va n & E nge l be r g, 1988) T he l ow e r a bi l i t y s t ude nt s of t hi s s t udy de m ons t r a t e d a pe r c e pt i on of t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t e s t t a ki ng t he c ont r ol ove r t he i r ow n c ont r i but i ons E m ot i ons T he e m ot i ons di s pl a ye d t hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons a nd dr a w i ngs r a nge d f r o m a nt i c i pa t i on t o he s i t a t i on, j o y t o f e a r d i s c our a ge m e nt t o hope f ul ne s s pr i de t o s or r ow a nd c onf i de nc e t o do ubt W e i ne r ( 1980) f ound e m ot i ons t o be r e s pons e s t o pa r t i c ul a r a t t r i but e s T he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy c or r e s ponde d t o W e i ne r s s t ude nt s of l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pe r c e i ve d t he i r po t e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t o be of e xt e r na l ( t e s t de c i di ng) s t a bl e ( r e ga r dl e s s of w ha t I c ont r i but e ) a t t r i but e s S i m i l a r t o a s t udy on s uc c e s s f ul L a t i no s t ude nt s i n c ol l e ge w ho voi c e d t he i r f a m i l i e s a s a n i m por t a nt i n f l ue nc e i n t he s t ude nt s s uc c e s s ( Z a l a que t t 2005) m y f i ndi ngs f o r t he H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s t ude nt s i n t hi s c ur r e nt s t udy de m ons t r a t e d f e a r s a nd he s i t a t i ons s ha r e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t he po t e nt i a l r i s k of l e t t i ng t he i r f a m i l i e s dow n. T he H i s pa ni c m a l e a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s t ude nt s i n m y s t udy e nga ge d i n P r e m a c k s P r i nc i pl e ( 1959 ) T he y voi c e d f e a r of n ot be i ng a bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he F un D a y t o t he i r pot e nt i a l c ont r i but i ons f o r s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t A s a r e s ul t t he H i s pa ni c m a l e a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s be ga n t o f i nd t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t r e i nf or c i ng. T he s e s t ude nt s w e r e t he n m or e m ot i va t e d t o pe r f or m t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t

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184 be c a us e t he y kne w t he y w oul d be a bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n F un D a y, a m or e de s i r a bl e a c t i vi t y, a s a r e s ul t C onne c t i on t o R e c om m e ndat i ons T he di s c us s i on of f e r s a r i c h unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he i m por t a nc e of how t he f i ndi ngs of m y s t udy c ont r i but e t o t he l i t e r a t ur e N e xt I pr e s e nt t he r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. I ns i ght s ga i ne d f r om t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t h i r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng c a n be f ur t he r e xpl or e d i n r e s e a r c h t ha t c om pl e m e nt s t he c ur r e nt s t udy. F ol l ow i ng t he r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h I pr e s e nt r e c om m e nda t i ons t ha t f oc us on a c t i ons w h i c h pol i t i c a l l e a de r s s c hool pe r s onne l uni ve r s i t y pr of e s s or s a nd pa r e nt s c a n t a ke R e c om m e nda t i ons f or R e s e a r c h S i nc e t he r e i s l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on t he s oc i o e m ot i o na l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, i t i s r e l e va nt t o c ont i nue f ut ur e s t udi e s i n t hi s f oc us a r e a T he r e c om m e nda t i ons f o r a ddi t i on a l r e s e a r c h of f e r e d he r e pr opos e e xt e ns i on of t he c ur r e nt s t udy. F i ve s pe c i f i c p r opo s a l s a r e m a de 1. E x pans i on o f t he St udy T he f i r s t s ugge s t i on f or e xpa ns i on of t he c ur r e nt s t udy w oul d e xa m i ne t he ki nde r ga r t e n e nt r y a ge of t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t o s e e i f t he i r s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons c om pa r e w i t h t hos e of s t ude nt s w ho e nt e r e d s c hool i n t he s a m e gr a de but a t a n ol de r a ge T he c ur r e nt s t udy i nc l ude d t hi r d g r a de r s w ho r a nge d f r om e i ght t o ni ne ye a r s of a ge T he a r gum e nt f or s t udyi ng s c hool e nt r y a ge i s t ha t t he r e i s a

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185 s t r ong c or r e s ponde nc e be t w e e n t he gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l s be i ng c a l l e d f o r t h by t e s t i ng pr e pa r a t i on w hi l e t he de ve l opm e nt a l c a pa c i t y of t h e s t ude nt i s be i ng pr e s s ur e d out s i de of t he i r a bi l i t y l e ve l N e xt i n o r de r t o e nha n c e t he p r e s e nt s t udy, a d i m e ns i on of obs e r va t i on c oul d be a dde d t o t he m e t hodol ogi e s na m e l y t o de c i phe r w ha t s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a c t ua l l y e xa gg e r a t e i f a ny, a nd s o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he pr e s e nt a t i on t he r e s e a r c he r m a ke s of t he c ont e nt m a t c he s t he i r pe r c e pt i on. T he obs e r va t i ons w oul d f oc us on s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he c l a s s r oom a s w e l l a s m or e s oc i a l s e t t i ngs s uc h a s w a i t i ng a r e a s t he c a f e t e r i a or i n s pe c i a l a r e a c l a s s e s A n a ddi t i ona l pur pos e f or i nc or por a t i ng obs e r va t i ons w oul d be t o obs e r ve s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h pe e r s a nd t e a c he r s M os t of t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e f e r r e d t o t hi ngs t he y ha d unde r t he i r c ont r ol t ha t w e r e c ha nge a bl e ( e f f or t us i ng s t r a t e gi e s e t c ) a t t r i but e s W he r e di d t he i r vi e w of t he t e s t o r i gi na t e ? O bs e r va t i on of s t ude nt t r a i t s i n r out i ne a nd s t r e s s f ul c i r c um s t a nc e s w oul d be o f va l ue a s w e l l W ha t do t e a c he r s pe e r s pa r e nt s e t c t e l l t he m t ha t w i l l he l p t he m be s uc c e s s f ul ? W hy do s t ude nt s l i s t e n t o s om e ( m a l e s t u de nt s s uc c um be d t o t he i r t e a c he r s i nf l ue nc e s ) w hi l e ot he r s di d no t ( f e m a l e s t ude nt s ove r c a m e t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e s ) ? 2. U t i l i z e D i f f e r e nt G e ogr aphi c al Se t t i ngs A s uppl e m e nt a r y s t udy w oul d i nc o r por a t e t he c ur r e nt s t udy w i t h t he r e s ul t s f r om di f f e r e nt s t a t e s t ha t a l s o i m pl e m e nt hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. A m ong t he s e di f f e r e nt ge ogr a phi c a l l oc i s t ude nt s m a y ha ve di f f e r e nt e xp e r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons ba s e d on a

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186 di f f e r e nt o r i e nt a t i on ope r a t i ng i n t he i r r e gi on. S i nc e t he f i ndi ng of t hi s s t udy pr e s e nt e d pr e va l e nt i nf l u e nc e s on t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, i t w oul d be i nt e r e s t i ng t o s e e f or e xa m pl e i f H i s pa ni c f e m a l e s i n ot he r ge ogr a phi c a l a r e a s a l s o pl a c e a s m uc h va l ue on pl e a s i ng t he i r f a m i l i e s T hi s s t udy f ound t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e d s om e t ype o f pr e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e dur i ng t he i r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e of t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t hi n ot he r ge ogr a phi c a l s e t t i ngs m i ght a f f e c t t he f i ndi ngs 3. L ongi t udi nal F ol l ow U p O ne i nt e r e s t i ng pos s i bi l i t y w oul d be t o f ol l ow up t he s a m e s t ude nt s w he n t he y r e a c h t he i r ne xt gr a de l e ve l a t w hi c h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s c onduc t e d. H ow s i m i l a r w i l l t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s be ? D oe s t e s t a nxi e t y r e t ur n s t r onge r c ont i nue a t t he s a m e l e ve l or di m i ni s h s om e w ha t w i t h a ge a nd/ or e xpe r i e nc e ? 4. E x t e ns i on of P r e v al e nt I nf l ue nc e s A s t udy of how pa r e nt s a nd t e a c he r s be l i e f s i nf l u e nc e c hi l dr e n s e xpe r i e nc e s i n t e s t i ng i s w a r r a nt e d. T he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy s ho w e d t ha t pr e va l e nt i n f l ue nc e s e voke d di f f e r e nt e m ot i ons i n di f f e r e nt s t ude nt s F e m a l e s t u de nt s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c om e t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e s but not t hos e of t he i r f a m i l i e s ; m a l e s t u de nt s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c om e f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s but not t hos e of t he i r t e a c he r s T o w ha t e xt e nt di d t he s t ude nt s r e s pons e s i n t hi s s t udy m i m i c t hos e t he y he a r d f r om o t he r s ?

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187 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or P ol i t i c a l L e a de r s T he e duc a t i on of pe opl e a l w a ys r e qui r e s m a ki ng c hoi c e s a nd t hi s i nc l ude s pol i t i c a l de c i s i ons O ne de c i s i on, obvi ous l y i nvol v e s t he a l l oc a t i on of s c a r c e r e s our c e s i nc l udi ng f undi ng T he a dve nt of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i nt e r a c t s w i t h a nd m a ke s m or e di f f i c ul t s om e o f t he s e pol i t i c a l c hoi c e s O ne unde r l yi ng a s s um pt i on of t e n s t a t e d i s t ha t t he t e s t i ng pr ovi de s a de gr e e of a c c ount a bi l i t y a nd t he r e by i m pr ove s t he qua l i t y of e duc a t i on. H ow e ve r i t m a y be que s t i one d w he t he r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng doe s de ve l op t he c ount r y t o a hi ghe r r a nk i n t he gl oba l a r e na N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd r e qui r e s t ha t e ve r y c hi l d de s e r ve s a hi ghl y qua l i f i e d t e a c he r a nd ye t m a ny t e a c he r s a r e c onc e r ne d a bou t m a i nt a i ni ng t he i r j obs a nd t hus r e s or t t o t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t i n or de r t o p r ot e c t t he i r j ob T he f i ndi ngs i n t hi s s t udy r e l a t e d t o t he s e l f t e s t c onne c t i on c oul d e nl i ght e n pol i t i c i a ns a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s t o t he r e a l i t y our young s t ude nt s a r e e xpe r i e nc i ng t hr oughout t he hi gh s t a k e s t e s t i ng pr oc e s s T he voi c e of s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy de s c r i be t he t e s t i ng p r e s e nc e a s m onopol i z i ng s c hool l e a r ni ng t i m e w i t h t he r e s ul t s t ha t c ur r i c ul a r a r e a s s uc h a s s c i e nc e a r e de l a ye d unt i l s pr i ng w he n h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ha s be e n c om pl e t e d. R e c om m e nda t i ons f or S c hool D i s t r i c t s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy por t r a ye d a r a nge of s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a t gr a de l e ve l t hr e e F r om l ow t o hi gh a bi l i t y, t he s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d t he i r c a pa c i t y t o a da pt t o t h e t e s t i ng e nvi r onm e nt O ne c oul d i nt e r pr e t t hi s t o m e a n t ha t t he r e i s no ne e d f or a ny c ha nge w i t hi n t he c ont e xt o f hi gh

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188 s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H ow e ve r I be l i e ve t he r e s ul t s s how t ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s s houl d m oni t o r t he qua nt i t y of t i m e s pe nt on di r e c t pr e pa r a t i on f or hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d t ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng m onopo l i z e d t i m e i n t he s c hool r out i ne s t he e xpe ns e of c ont e nt a r e a s O ne not i c e a bl e a nd unde s i r a bl e e xa m pl e w a s t ha t s c i e nc e i ns t r uc t i on w a s c ut out o f t he c l a s s r oo m i ns t r uc t i on e nt i r e l y. T he f i ndi ngs i n t hi s s t udy ge ne r a t e d i m pl i c a t i ons o f w ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s c oul d do t o i m pr ove t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s a s t he y unde r go hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T hr e e pr opos a l s a r e pr ovi d e d be l ow T he r e c om m e nda t i ons f or s c hool di s t r i c t pr a c t i c e s a r e c l os e l y i nt e r r e l a t e d t o t he f i nd i ngs of t he s t udy. 1. C r e at e a St ude nt O r i e nt at i on C r e a t e a n or i e nt a t i on p r ogr a m f or s t ude nt s a s t he y e nt e r t he t hi r d gr a de l e ve l T hi s or i e nt a t i on w oul d he l p t he m w i t h t he i r ne w r ol e s a s t hi r d gr a de r s t he p r e s e nc e of t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt t he c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he i r da i l y l e a r n i ng, t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt a nd t he l e a r ni ng obj e c t i ve s i n pr e pa r a t i on f or f our t h gr a de S t ude nt s o f l ow a c a de m i c s c or e s i n t hi s s t udy r e l a t e d t he i r l e a r ni ng t o t he F C A T a nd pe r c e i ve d t he i r pot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s on t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t o e xt e r na l s t a bl e a t t r i but i ons I nc or por a t i ng l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s i nt o a n o r i e nt a t i on, m uc h l i ke t h e ba c k t o s c hool ni ght s or ope n hous e s s o m e s c hool di s t r i c t s c ur r e nt l y p r ovi de w oul d he l p t he s t ude nt s f r om t he l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oup t o c onne c t t he i r ow n pr ogr e s s a nd i m pr e s s on t he m t ha t t he i r ow n e f f or t s c a n pa y of f

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189 T he f i ndi ngs f r om t he s t ude nt s of m ode r a t e a c a de m i c a nd hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y s how t he s e s t ude nt s w oul d a l s o be ne f i t f r om ha vi n g hi gh s t a ke s i nf or m a t i on i nc or por a t e d i nt o a n or i e nt a t i on. T hi s w oul d pr ovi de t he m w i t h a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he e xpe c t a t i ons a nd r e s our c e s s uppor t i ng t he i r ow n pe r c e pt i ons of ut i l i z i ng l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd know i ng how t he t e a c he r c a n a s s i s t t he m i n t hi s e n de a vor S om e e l e m e nt s t ha t t he s t ude nt s i n t he s e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y gr oups f ound t o c ont r i but e t o t he i r c om f or t w i t h t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t ha t m i ght be i nc l ude d i n t he or i e n t a t i on i nc l ude c onne c t i ng t he l e a r ni ng pr a c t i c e s t o t he a s s e s s m e nt but a l s o be yond, de s c r i bi ng t he or ga ni z a t i on of t he a s s e s s m e nt w e e ks f i ndi ng w a ys t o t a ke pe r s ona l c ont r ol f or t h e i r l e a r ni ng a nd r e s our c e s t he t e a c he r s ha ve t o of f e r 2. E s t abl i s h R i c h L i t e r at ur e A bout T e s t i ng E s t a bl i s h a r e s our c e l i br a r y of l i t e r a t u r e t ha t s uppo r t s e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt a nd m ode l s w a ys of de a l i ng w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t hi n t he s c hool c ul t u r e T he di s t r i c t c oul d do t hi s t h r ough s c hool l i b r a r i e s or of f e r i ng m i ni gr a nt s f o r de ve l opm e nt of r e a d i ng m a t e r i a l on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng f or c l a s s r oom l i b r a r i e s ( A ppe ndi x P ) T he s t udy f i ndi ngs r e s ul t e d i n a va r i e t y of s t ude nt e m ot i ons S t r e s s f e a r a nxi e t y or on t he f l i p s i de c onf i de nc e c oul d a l l be a dd r e s s e d i f t he s t ude nt s w e r e of f e r e d t he oppor t uni t y t o r e a d a bout c ha r a c t e r s w ho c a n r e l a t e t o t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e m ot i ons 3. B e C aut i ous of T e s t i ng P ul l O ut s H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s be i ng pul l e d out f o r t e s t i ng a c c o m m oda t i ons a c t ua l l y voi c e d m or e s t r e s s a nd di s c om f or t ove r goi ng t o a di f f e r e nt l oc a t i on f r om t he i r c l a s s r oom t ha n t o

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190 t he hi gh s t a ke s of t he t e s t i t s e l f A not he r i n t e r e s t i ng f i ndi ng f r om t hi s s t udy w a s t ha t t he s t ude nt s w ho w e r e a bl e t o s t a y i n t he i r c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt t he n r e c ogni z e d t he i r pe e r s w ho w e r e be i ng r e m ove d t o a l t e r na t e t e s t i ng l oc a t i ons a s be i ng di f f e r e nt a nd l e s s i nt e l l i ge nt T hi s s t udy of f e r s a p r e c a ut i on t o t e a c he r s t o pa y a t t e nt i on t o how c hi l dr e n vi e w di f f e r e nc e s i n how s om e gr oups a r e t r e a t e d d ue t o pr e de t e r m i ne d t e s t i ng a c c om m oda t i ons T he s t ude nt s i n t h i s s t udy de m on s t r a t e d a de f i ni t i ve unde r s t a ndi ng of be i ng i nc l ude d/ e xc l ude d f r om di f f e r e nt gr oups i n t hi r d gr a de I t bol s t e r e d t he i r c onf i de nc e i f t he y a l i gne d t he m s e l ve s t o t he pe r c e i ve d s uc c e s s f ul gr oup ( t ha t i s t he s t ude nt s w ho s t a ye d i n t he c l a s s r oom ve r s us t hos e w ho w e nt t o t he c a f e t e r i a f or t e s t i ng a c c om m oda t i ons ) 4. A dm i n i s t r at i v e P r e par at i on and T r ai ni ng T oda y s a dm i ni s t r a t or s a r e f a c e d w i t h a ba r r a ge of c onf l i c t i ng m a nda t e s I t i s i m por t a nt t ha t a dm i ni s t r a t or s be e duc a t e d i n t he r e a l i s t i c i m pl i c a t i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, t he i m pa c t t ha t t e s t i ng ha s on c hi l dr e n, a nd w ha t t o l ook f o r w i t hi n t he i r e duc a t i ona l s t a f f I t w oul d s e e m i m por t a nt t o t r a i n a dm i ni s t r a t or s i n t he a r t o f c ur r i c ul um de s i gn a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng s o t ha t a c l e a r r e pr e s e nt a t i on of c ont e nt a nd t e s t i ng i s r e l a ye d t o t he i r s t a f f I t w oul d be ne f i t a dm i ni s t r a t o r s t o he a r t he voi c e s of t he s t ude nt s f r om t h i s s t udy. I t w a s c l e a r by t he s t ude nt s pe r s p e c t i ve s t ha t t e a c hi ng t o t he t e s t w a s l i m i t i ng t he i r t i m e w i t h c ont e nt a r e a s out s i de of t h os e on t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt

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191 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or T e a c he r P r e pa r a t i on T oda y s t e a c he r s e s pe c i a l l y t hos e i n t he i r f i r s t ye a r a r e f a c e d w i t h a ba r r a ge of c onf l i c t i ng s t r e s s or s I t i s i m por t a nt t ha t t e a c h e r pr e pa r a t i on i ns t i t ut i ons be gi n e duc a t i ng t he i r s t ud e nt s a bout t he r e a l i s t i c i m pl i c a t i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd t he i m pa c t t ha t t e s t i ng ha s on c hi l dr e n. I t i s i m por t a nt t o pr ovi de p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt f or novi c e t e a c he r s i n t he a r t of c u r r i c ul um de s i gn a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng s o t ha t t he t w o c a n be bound t oge t he r 1. P r e par i ng N ov i c e T e ac he r s T e a c he r s s houl d not ha ve t o t e a c h t o t he t e s t bu t s houl d be s c hool e d i n c onne c t i ng t he s t a nda r ds f or s t ude nt know l e dge ga i ns t o m e e t t he de pt h of l e a r ni ng r e qui r e d f o r r e t e nt i on of m a t e r i a l B e i ng f a m i l i a r w i t h t he s t a nda r ds a l ong w i t h t he de ve l opm e nt a l a bi l i t y of t he c hi l d w oul d s uppor t i nt e gr a t i ng t e s t i ng c onc e pt s i nt o t he c ur r i c ul um T he s t ude nt s i n t he s t udy r e c ogni z e d t he i m ba l a nc e be t w e e n hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pr e pa r a t i on a nd t he m i s s i ng c ur r i c ul a r a r e a s U ni ve r s i t y pe r s onne l c a n he l p p r ovi de pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t o a s pi r i ng t e a c he r s on how t o i nc o r por a t e t he s t a nda r ds i n or d e r t o i n t e gr a t e t he c u r r i c ul um r a t he r t ha n s e pa r a t e i t f o r t he s ol e pur pos e of t e s t i ng. B y m ode l i ng a t t he uni ve r s i t y l e ve l t he i m por t a nc e of t he w hy a nd how of l e a r ni ng buddi ng t e a c he r s c a n e nt e r t he h i gh s t a ke s s c hool e nvi r onm e nt s e c ur e i n pu r pos e f ul l e a r ni ng goa l s T hi s w i l l he l p de ve l op a c onne c t i on f or s t ude nt s be t w e e n l e a r ni ng a nd f ut u r e a ppl i c a t i on t ha t t he s t ude nt s of

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192 m ode r a t e a nd hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y pos s e s s e d but t he l ow a c a de m i c a bi l i t y s t ude nt s w e r e l a c ki ng. 2. D i s pos i t i on of T e ac hi ng T he r e i s a r e a l a r t t o t he l a ngua ge a nd de m e a nor of t e a c hi ng. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy f ound t e a c he r s t o be one of t he p r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s on t he i r s t ude nt s hi gh s t a ke s pe r c e pt i on. I t i s i m po r t a nt w e m a ke t e a c he r s a w a r e of t he i m pa c t t he i r l a ngua ge a nd de m e a nor ha s on young c hi l d r e n. P r of e s s i ona l de v e l opm e nt on t he i m pa c t of l a ngua ge a nd de m e a nor of t e a c he r s i n t he s c hool s e t t i ng w ou l d de ve l op a n a w a r e ne s s of e duc a t or s w hi l e r e l i e vi ng s om e unne c e s s a r y s t r e s s on s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom 3. G e nde r Se ns i t i v i t y E duc a t e upc om i ng t e a c he r s on ge nde r s e ns i t i vi t y i s s ue s i n s c hool s T he f i ndi ngs w i t hi n t he t he m e of p r e va l e nt i nf l ue nc e s w e r e di f f e r e nt f or f e m a l e a nd m a l e r e s pons e s K now i ng t ha t f e m a l e s t ude nt s w e r e a bl e t o ove r c o m e t e a c he r i nf l ue nc e s w hi l e m a l e s t ude nt s s uc c um be d t o t he i r i nf l ue nc e s w a r r a nt s s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he r a ppor t bui l t be t w e e n s t ude nt a nd t e a c he r R e c om m e nda t i ons f or P a r e nt s P a r e nt s ne e d t o t a ke a pr oa c t i ve s t a nc e on t he e l e m e nt s of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. F e m a l e s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy a t t r i but e d f e a r dur i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o f a m i l y i nf l ue nc e s G oi ng t o t he i r c hi l d s s c hool a nd r e que s t i ng i nf or m a t i on a bout how t he y c a n of f e r pos i t i ve s uppor t a t ho m e w oul d he l p pa r e nt s s uppor t t he i r c hi l d A r e que s t f o r

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193 m a t e r i a l s t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on c r i t e r i a w oul d a l s o a l l ow pa r e nt s t o e nt e r t he hi gh s t a ke s gr a de l e ve l m o r e a w a r e T e s t pr oc t or s a r e r e qui r e d dur i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i ods P a r e nt s c a n f i nd out w ha t t e s t pr oc t o r i ng e nt a i l s a nd vol unt e e r t o a s s i s t t he i r c hi l d s s c hool a s a p r oc t or S t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng t e s t i ng a c c om m oda t i ons i n t h i s s t udy voi c e d di s c om f or t w i t h be i ng r e m ove d f r om t he i r c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng. H a vi ng pa r e nt s vol unt e e r t o p r oc t or w oul d gi ve t he pa r e nt a c l e a r e r p i c t ur e o f w ha t t he hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e i s l i ke f o r hi s / he r c hi l d w hi l e of f e r i ng a pot e nt i a l s ol ut i on t o t he ne e d of pul l i ng s t ude nt s out of t he i r c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng f or t e s t i ng a c c om m oda t i ons C l os i ng S t a t e m e nt H i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s be c om i ng m or e a nd m or e p r e va l e nt a t e a r l i e r g r a de l e ve l s T o s uppor t p os i t i ve s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, pol i t i c a l l e a de r s a nd s c hool boa r ds m us t r e s pe c t t he bo unda r i e s of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t hi n t he i r uni que qua l i t i e s a nd a bi l i t i e s T he y m us t a l s o unde r s t a nd t ha t t he i ndi vi dua l ne e ds of e a c h t h i r d gr a de s t ude nt m a y be di f f e r e nt w i t hi n t he r e a l m of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd s o m i ght t ha t s t ude nt s a t t r i but i ons t o s uc c e s s S c hool di s t r i c t s w oul d be ne f i t f r om i m pl e m e nt i ng s uppor t m e c ha ni s m s t o a s s i s t t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i n t he i r pur s ui t o f gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on. O f c our s e t he y a l s o ha ve a dut y t o e ns ur e t ha t s t ude nt s ha ve m a s t e r e d t he c u r r i c ul u m T he que s t i on i s how t o be s t t o a c hi e ve t he s e goa l s

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194 T he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy f ound hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t o be a nor m a l pa r t o f be i ng i n t hi r d gr a de T he y de vot e d a g r e a t de a l o f e ne r gy t o ga i ni ng gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on. T he y d e m ons t r a t e d no s i gns of r e s e nt m e nt nor di d t he y s hi r k r e s pons i bi l i t y i n a t t e m pt i ng t o a c hi e ve t he i r pr om ot i on T he i r e f f o r t s a nd c ont r i bu t i ons a r e w or t hy of r e c ogni t i on a nd a dm i r a t i on. R e ga r dl e s s of t he i r a c a de m i c a bi l i t y l e ve l e t hni c i t y or ge nde r t he s e c hi l d r e n s t a t e d t he i r w i s h t o be a bl e t o ga i n ow ne r s hi p o f t h e i r l e a r ni ng be yond t ha t o f hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T hi s i s a r e a s ona bl e r e que s t t ha t s houl d be honor e d. T he pur pos e o f t hi s di s s e r t a t i on w a s t o pr ovi de a voi c e t o t hos e w ho a t s uc h a young a ge e x pe r i e nc e hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he i r voi c e s ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o c ont r i but e a n i nc r e a s i ng a w a r e ne s s of w ha t t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a r e l i ke

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195 R e f e r e nc e s B a r ks da l e L a dd, M A & T hom a s K ( 2000) W h a t s a t s t a ke i n hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng: T e a c he r s a nd pa r e nt s s pe a k out J our nal of T e ac he r E duc at i on, 51 384 397. B e r k, L ( 2005) I n f a nt s c hi l d r e n, a nd a dol e s c e nt s ( 5 t h e d. ) B os t on, M A : P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc B l a c kw e l l L T r z e s ni e w s ki K & D w e c k, C ( 20 07) I m pl i c i t t he or i e s of i nt e l l i ge nc e pr e di c t a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s a n a dol e s c e nt t r a ns i t i on: A l ongi t udi na l s t udy a nd a n i nt e r ve nt i on. C hi l d D e v e l opm e nt 78 ( 1) 246 26 3. B r e nne r E & S a l ove y, P ( 1997) E m ot i ona l r e gul at i on dur i ng c hi l dhood: D e v e l opm e nt al i nt e r pe r s onal and i ndi v i dual c ons i de r at i ons I n P S a l ove y & D S l uyt e r ( E ds ) E m ot i ona l l i t e r ac y and e m ot i onal de v e l opm e nt ( pp. 168 192) N e w Y or k : B a s i c B ooks B r ookha r t S & D e V oge J ( 1999) T e s t i ng a t he o r y a bout t he r ol e of c l a s s r oom a s s e s s m e nt i n pupi l m ot i va t i on a nd a c hi e ve m e nt A ppl i e d M e as ur e m e nt i n E duc at i on, 12, pp. 409 425. B r une r J ( 1969) E t hnogr a phy a s na r r a t i ve I n V W T u r ne r & E M B r unde r ( E ds ) T he ant hr opol ogy of e x pe r i e n c e 139 155 U r ba na : U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i no i s P r e s s B ut l e r R ( 1988) E nha nc i ng a nd unde r m i ni ng i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on: t he e f f e c t s of t a s k i nvol vi ng a nd e go i nvol v i ng e va l ua t i on on i nt e r e s t a nd pe r f or m a nc e B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 58, pp. 1 14. B r uyn, S R ( 1966 ) T he hum an pe r s pe c t i v e i n s oc i ol ogy E ngl e w ood C l i f f s N J : P r e nt i c e H a l l C a l ki ns L M ont gom e r y, K & S a nt m a n, D ( 1998 ) A t e ac he r s gui de t o s t andar di z e d r e adi ng t e s t s : K now l e dge i s pow e r P or t s m out h, N H : H e i ne m a n n. C a r l s on, D ( 1992) T e ac he r s and c r i s i s U r ban s c hool r e f or m and t e ac he r s w or k c ul t ur e N e w Y or k: R out l e dge C ha pm a n & H a l l C a r ne gi e F or um on E duc a t i on a nd t he E c onom y ( 1 986) A nat i on pr e par e d: T e ac he r s f or t he 21 s t c e nt ur y N e w Y o r k: C a r ne gi e C or po r a t i on

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202 P r i c e w a t e r hous e C oope r s ( 2001) T e ac he r w or k l oad s t udy L ondon : D f E S R e a y, D & W i l l i a m D ( 1999 ) I l l be a not hi ng : s t r uc t ur e a ge nc y a nd c ons t r uc t i on of i de nt i t y t hr ough a s s e s s m e nt B r i t i s h E duc at i o nal R e s e ar c h J ou r nal 25, pp. 343 354 R ode r i c k, M & E nge l M ( 2001 ) T he g r a s s hoppe r a nd t he a nt : m ot i va t i ona l r e s pons e s of l ow a c hi e vi ng pupi l s of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. E du c at i onal E v al uat i on and P ol i c y A nal y s i s 23, pp. 197 228. R ubi n, K & C opl a n, R ( 1998) Soc i al and nons oc i al pl ay i n c hi l dhood: A n i ndi v i dual di f f e r e nc e s pe r s pe c t i v e I n O N S a r a c ho & B S po de k ( E ds ) M ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i v e s on pl ay i n e ar l y c hi l dhood e duc at i on ( pp. 144 170 ) A l ba ny, N Y : S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y of N e w Y or k P r e s s R ya n, R M & L a G ua r di a J G ( 1999 ) A c hi e v e m e nt m ot i v at i on w i t hi n a pr e s s ur e d s oc i e t y : I nt r i ns i c and e x t r i ns i c m ot i v at i ons t o l e ar n and t he po l i t i c s of s c hool r e f or m I n A dva nc e s i n m ot i va t i on a n d a c hi e ve m e nt vol 11 S t a ndf or d C onn. : J A I P r e s s S a c ks P ( 1999) S t a nda r di z e d m i nds : T he hi gh pr i c e of A m e r i c a s t e s t i ng c ul t ur e a nd w ha t w e c a n do t o c ha nge i t N e w Y or k: D a C a po P r e s s S a dke r M & S a dke r D ( 1994) F a i l i ng a t f a i r ne s s : H ow o ur s c hool s c he a t gi r l s I n T he J os s e y B as s R e ade r on G e nde r i n E duc at i o n f o r w a r d by S us a n B a i l e y. S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : J os s e y B a s s S a a r ni C ( 1999 ) T he de v e l opm e nt of e m ot i onal c om pe t e nc e N e w Y or k: G ui l f or d S c hr oe de r L ( 2004 ) St ude nt dr aw i ng as s e s s m e nt pr ot oc ol U npubl i s he d doc um e nt C l a r e m ont C A : C l a r e m ont G r a dua t e U ni ve r s i t y. S c hr oe de r L ( 2006 ) W ha t hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng m e a ns f or t he w e l l be i ng o f s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r s P h. D D i s s e r t a t i on, F a c ul t y of E duc a t i on, C l a r e m ont G r a dua t e U ni ve r s i t y. S c hr oe de r L A r gue l l e s L & B oum a n, S ( 2006) D r a w i ng t o s ur vi ve : A hol i s t i c a s s e s s m e nt of s t ude nt i m a ge s of t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e xpe r i e nc e P a pe r pr e s e nt e d a t t he A m e r i c a n E duc a t i ona l R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t i on 2006 A nnua l M e e t i ng, S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A A pr i l 8 12

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203 S i e ge l D ( 1999 ) T he de ve l opi ng m i nd: H ow r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd t he br a i n i n t e r a c t t o s ha pe w ho w e a r e N e w Y o r k: G ui l f or d P r e s s T he P r oj e c t A l l i a nc e 30 ( 1991) P r oj e c t 30 y e ar t w o r e por t : I ns t i t ut i onal ac c om pl i s hm e nt s N e w a r k D e l a w a r e : U ni ve r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e T om ki ns S S ( 1962) A f f e c t i m a ge r y, c ons c i ous ne s s N e w Y or k: S pr i nge r T r i pl e t t C F & B a r ks da l e M A ( 2005 ) T hi r d t h r ough s i xt h g r a de r s pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. J our nal of L i t e r ac y R e s e ar c h S um m e r 2005 237 260 T r i pl e t t C F B a r ks da l e M A & L e f t w i c h P ( 2 003) C hi l d r e n s pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n E duc at i on 1 3 ( 1) 15 21 T ya c k, D & H a ns ot E ( 1992 ) L e ar ni ng t oge t he r : A hi s t or y of c oe duc at i on i n A m e r i c an publ i c s c hool s N e w Y or k: R us s e l l S a ge F ounda t i on. U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( 2004 ) T he c ondi t i on of e duc at i on 2004. W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S G ove r nm e nt P r i n t i ng O f f i c e V a n M a ne n, M ( 1990 ) R e s e ar c h l i v e d e x pe r i e nc e : H um an s c i e nc e f or an ac t i on s e ns i t i v e pe dagogy O nt a r i o, C a na da : S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y of N e w Y or k P r e s s V a n T i l bur g E ( 1987) E va l ua t i on w i t h a ne w t w i s t U s i ng c hi l dr e n s d r a w i ngs t o ga t he r i nf or m a t i on. J our nal of E x t e ns i on 25( 4 ) 5 7 W e i ne r B ( 1980) T he r o l e of a f f e c t i n r a t i ona l ( a t t r i but i ona l ) a ppr oa c he s t o hum a n m ot i va t i on. E duc at i onal R e s e ar c he r 9( 7) 4 11. W he e l oc k, A B e be l l D & H a ne y, W ( 2002) W hat c an dr aw i ngs t e l l us about hi gh s t ak e s t e s t i ng i n M as s ac hus e t t s ? R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 23, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w t c r e c or d or g/ C ont e nt a s p? C ont e nt I D = 10634 W ol f e P ( 2001) B r a i n m a t t e r s : T r a ns l a t i ng r e s e a r c h i nt o c l a s s r oom pr a c t i c e V i r gi ni a : A s s oc i a t i on f or S upe r vi s i on a nd C ur r i c ul um D e ve l opm e nt Z a l a que t t C ( 2005 ) S t udy o f s uc c e s s f ul L a t i na / o s t ude nt s J our nal of H i s pani c H i ghe r E duc at i on, 5( 1) 35 47.

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205 A ppe ndi x A : P e r m i s s i on f r om S c hool S i t e E l e m e nt a ry S c ho ol P r i n c i p a l A s s i s t a n t P r i n c i p a l A d d r e s s T o: I n t e r na l R e vi e w B oa r d F r om : P r i nc i pa l E l e m e nt a r y S c hool D e a r I R B c om m i t t e e P l e a s e a c c e pt t hi s l e t t e r a s m y not i f i c a t i on t ha t A n ne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on ha s f ul l pe r m i s s i on t o c ol l e c t t he f ol l ow i ng da t a on ou r e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i t e : F our s our c e s w i l l p r ovi de t he da t a T he pr i m a r y s o ur c e of i n f or m a t i on f or pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l c om pr i s e t h r e e f o r t y m i nut e i nt e r vi e w s s pa c e d e ve nl y ove r t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od. T he f i r s t i nt e r vi e w w i l l oc c ur t w o w e e ks pr i or t o t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t ( be gi nni ng of F e br ua r y ) T he ne xt i nt e r va l of i nt e r vi e w s w i l l oc c ur du r i ng t he t w o w e e k t i m e s pa n of t he a s s e s s m e nt ( e nd of F e br ua r y ) T he c onc l udi ng i nt e r vi e w w i l l t a ke pl a c e t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng e nds ( be gi nn i ng of M a r c h) A l l i nt e r vi e w s w i l l t a ke pl a c e ove r t he s t ude nt s l unc h pe r i od o r b e f or e or a f t e r s c hool A s e c ond s our c e of da t a w i l l be t he bi w e e kl y d r a w i ngs ( be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r ) t ha t t he s t ude nt s w i l l d r a w a nd s um m a r i z e r e ga r di n g t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s dur i ng t he a s s e s s m e nt T he s e dr a w i ngs w i l l be c ol l e c t e d bi w e e kl y, be f or e dur i ng a nd a f t e r t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od. T o a voi d c onf l i c t w i t h a c a de m i c t i m e t he s e dr a w i ngs w e r e done i n A r t c l a s s dur i ng t he s t ude nt s s pe c i a l pe r i o d. A t hi r d s our c e of da t a w i l l be t he bi w e e kl y j our na l e nt r i e s ( be f o r e dur i ng a nd a f t e r ) t ha t t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w i l l w r i t e r e ga r d i ng t he i r pe r c e pt i ons ove r t he hi gh s t a ke s a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od. T he s e w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons w i l l be c ol l e c t e d bi w e e kl y f or t he w e e ks pr i or du r i ng a nd a f t e r t he a s s e s s m e nt ( f our w e e ks t ot a l ) D ue t o r e qui r e d a c a de m i c t i m e by t he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s t he s t ude nt s w i l l r e f l e c t upon t he i r hi gh s t a ke s e xpe r i e nc e i n t he s c hool c om put e r l a b du r i ng t he i r s pe c i a l pe r i od. A f our t h s our c e of da t a w i l l c ons i s t of f oc us g r oup di s c us s i on s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l ha ve w i t h e a c h o t he r r e ga r di ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons dur i ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng pe r i od. E s s e nt i a l l y, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l di s c us s w ha t t he y ha d w r i t t e n i n t he i r j our na l r e f l e c t i ons T he s e di s c us s i ons w i l l t a ke pl a c e a f t e r t he c onc l us i on of a l l ot he r da t a c ol l e c t i on. T he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i l l ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o l i s t e n t o a nd r e f l e c t upon e a c h ot he r s e xpe r i e nc e s a s t he y c onve r s e d a bout t he pr e c e di ng a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od. T he s e or a l r e f l e c t i ons w i l l be done i n g r oups of s i x. O ne g r oup w i l l be a l l gi r l s t ude nt s ( l ow m e di u m hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y ) t he ne xt a l l m a l e s t ude nt s ( l ow m e di u m hi gh

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206 A ppe ndi x A : P e r m i s s i on f r om S c hool S i t e a c a de m i c a bi l i t y) a nd t he r e m a i ni ng g r oup w i l l c on s i s t of a m i xe d ge nde r gr oup ( l ow m e di um a nd hi gh a c a de m i c a bi l i t y) E a c h gr oup s di s c us s i on w i l l be r e c or de d a nd t r a ns c r i be d w i t h t he i r ps e udo na m e s I unde r s t a nd a nd gi ve f ul l pe r m i s s i on f o r t he s e l e c t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t a ke pl a c e a s f ol l ow s : T he s t ude nt s f or pha s e 1 of t hi s s t udy w i l l be 100 t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s T he s t ude nt s f or pha s e 2 of t hi s s t udy w i l l be 18 s t ude nt s w ho w i l l m e e t t he s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a ba s e d on t he i r c ur r e nt a t t e nda nc e i n t he t hi r d gr a de l e ve l A c c or di ng t o t he s c hool w i de a s s e s s m e nt ( D I B E L ) a nd s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt ( S t a nf or d 10) s c or e s t hr e e m a l e a nd t hr e e f e m a l e s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt i ng t he l ow e r a c a de m i c qua r t i l e t hr e e m a l e a nd t h r e e f e m a l e s t ude nt s s c or i ng i n t he a ve r a ge r a nge a nd t hr e e m a l e a nd t h r e e f e m a l e s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt i ng t he hi ghe s t qua r t i l e w i l l be s e l e c t e d f r om f i ve t h i r d g r a de c l a s s r oom s N one of t he e i ght e e n s t ude nt s c hos e n w i l l r e c e i ve t e s t i ng a c c om m oda t i ons I w i l l a ppr oa c h e a c h of t he t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s i n pe r s on pr i or t o t he be gi nni ng of t he s c hool s e m e s t e r i n w hi c h t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t a ke s pl a c e I w i l l g i ve t he m a ve r ba l a nd w r i t t e n e xpl a na t i on of t he na t ur e a nd pr oc e s s of t he s t udy. T he vol unt a r y na t ur e o f c hoos i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e w i l l be e m pha s i z e d. T he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i l l be gi ve n a w e e k t o de c i de w he t he r t o pa r t i c i pa t e O nc e a s t ude nt de c i de s t o pa r t i c i pa t e he / s he w i l l be a s ke d t o r e vi e w a n I n f or m e d C ons e nt S t a t e m e nt w i t h t he i r pa r e nt a nd r e t ur n i t w i t h bot h t he pa r e nt a nd s t ude nt s i gna t ur e I m a de t he vol unt a r y na t ur e o f t he pr o j e c t a s c l e a r a s I c oul d a nd r e a s s ur e d t he s t ude nt s t ha t t he r e w oul d b e no r e pe r c us s i ons i f t he y c hoos e not t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy o r i f a t a ny t i m e dur i ng t he s t udy, t he y de c i de d no t t o c ont i nue T hi s vol unt a r y pa r t i c i pa t i on w i l l be r e i t e r a t e d w i t h t he pa r e nt of t he c hi l d vi a a n i ndi vi dua l c onf e r e nc e or t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on. A l l s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pa r e nt w i l l s i gn t he i nf or m e d c ons e nt s t a t e m e nt s be f or e pa r t i c i pa t i on of t he s t udy m a y be gi n P l e a s e a c c e pt t he a bove a s m y c om pl i a nc e t o ha ve r e vi e w e d t he r e s e a r c h a nd f i nd i t a ppr opr i a t e f or t he popul a t i on t a r ge t e d a t B l a c kbur n e l e m e nt a r y. B a s e d on t he r i s ks a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he r e s e a r c h, A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on ha s pr ovi de d a de qua t e pr ovi s i ons t o ha ndl e una nt i c i pa t e d/ a dve r s e e ve nt s I f I c a n be o f a ny a ddi t i ona l a s s i s t a nc e i n r e ga r ds t o t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c ont a c t m e a t t e l e phone num be r a nd e x t e ns i on num be r S i nc e r e l y, P r i nc i pa l

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207 A ppe ndi x B : V e r ba l C ons e nt V e r ba l S c r i pt f or obt a i ni ng a s s e nt A nne J uol a R us ht on J us t l i ke you c om e t o s c hool a nd ha ve a s s i gnm e nt s e a c h da y, I a t t e nd s c hool a t t he uni ve r s i t y a nd ha ve a s s i gnm e nt s t oo. A nd s om e t i m e s you ha ve a bi g a s s i gnm e nt t ha t you ne e d a l i t t l e he l p w i t h. O ne bi g a s s i gnm e nt I ha ve i s t o w r i t e a doc um e nt c a l l e d a di s s e r t a t i on. T he di s s e r t a t i on I a m w r i t i ng i s l i ke w he n you do a l a r ge w r i t i ng a c t i vi t y f or B l a c kbur n W r i t e s J us t l i ke you ha ve a f oc us t opi c f or w he n you w r i t e I ha ve a f oc us t opi c f or m y w r i t i ng. M y f oc us t opi c i s a bout t hi r d gr a de r s a nd w ha t i t s l i ke f or a l l o f you ha vi n g t he hi g h s t a ke s t e s t dur i ng you r gr a de l e ve l D o you know w ha t h i gh s t a ke s m e a ns ( I f r e pl y i s ye s ha ve t he m e xpl a i n i t t o m e I f r e pl y i s no I e xpl a i n t ha t i t m e a ns t ha t how t he y s c or e on t he i r t e s t de c i de s i f t he y go t o 4 t h g r a de ne xt ye a r or no t ) ? I n or de r f or m e t o w r i t e m y di s s e r t a t i on, m y w r i t i ng pr oj e c t a bout be i ng a t hi r d g r a de r w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng, I ha ve t o bui l d m y ba c kgr ound kn o w l e dge a bout i t H a ve you e ve r t r i e d t o w r i t e a pa pe r a bout s om e t hi ng you di dn t know ve r y m uc h a bout ? B ut t he n, t he m o r e you t a l k w i t h pe opl e a bout i t a nd r e a d a bout i t t he m or e de t a i l your w r i t i ng ha s I w a nt m y di s s e r t a t i on, m y w r i t i ng, t o ha ve a s m uc h de t a i l a s pos s i bl e a nd be c a us e I a m w r i t i ng i t a s a r e a l i s t i c s t or y, I w oul d l i ke your he l p s i nc e you a r e a t hi r d gr a de r w ho w i l l be t a ki ng a hi gh s t a ke s t e s t A r e you w i l l i ng t o he l p? A ns w e r Y e s : G r e a t f o r t he ne xt f e w w e e ks w hi l e you r e a t A r t a nd t he R e a di ng L a b, you w i l l be a s ke d t o c om e a bout 4 t i m e s dur i ng t he s t udy. E a c h of t he s e vi s i t s w i l l t a ke bout 30 t o 40 m i nut e s O ve r t he ne xt t w o m ont hs you w i l l be a s k e d t o vol unt e e r 2 hou r s Y ou r e goi ng t o ha ve t i m e t o dr a w a nd w r i t e a bout w ha t i t i s l i ke f or you t o be t a ki ng t he hi gh s t a ke s t e s t N obody i s goi ng t o t e l l you w ha t t o dr a w or w r i t e i t w i l l be yo u r ow n t hought s a nd i de a s a bout w ha t t he t e s t i ng i s l i ke f o r you I f i t s o k. w i t h you I w oul d l i ke t o m a ke c opi e s of t hos e pa pe r s I f i t i s o k. w i t h you f o r m e t o c opy your dr a w i ngs a nd w r i t i ngs I w i l l m a ke s ur e t ha t your na m e i s now he r e on t he p a pe r s o t ha t no one w i l l know e xc e pt f or you t ha t i t i s your dr a w i ng or your w r i t i ng. I f y ou de c i de a t a ny t i m e t ha t y ou do not w a nt m e t o c opy your dr a w i ngs or w r i t i ngs a l l yo u ha ve t o do i s t e l l m e o r you r pa r e nt s or your t e a c he r a nd I a bs ol ut e l y w i l l not c opy t he m a nym or e D o you ha ve a ny que s t i ons ? D o I ha ve you r pe r m i s s i on t o c opy you r d r a w i ngs a nd w r i t i ngs ? I f a ns w e r i s ye s a ga i n: T ha nk you. I a ppr e c i a t e you he l pi ng m e w i t h t hi s a s s i gnm e nt R e m e m be r dur i ng t hi s s a m e t i m e f r a m e i n t he R e a di ng L a b a nd A r t c l a s s you c a n

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208 A ppe ndi x B : V e r ba l C ons e nt vol unt e e r c opi e s of you r s t ude nt r e f l e c t i ons ( t hi s m e a ns w r i t i ng a bout how you r e f e e l i ng) a nd dr a w i ngs ( a bout how F C A T m a ke s you f e e l ) w i l l be c ol l e c t e d. T hi s i s a pa r t of t he c ur r i c ul um you r s pe c i a l a r e a t e a c he r w i l l be f ol l ow i ng ove r t ha t t i m e f r a m e I f a t a ny t i m e you do not w a nt m e t o c opy your dr a w i ngs or your w r i t i ngs a l l you ha ve t o do i s t e l l m e you r pa r e nt s or your t e a c he r a nd I w i l l not I f you t hi nk o f a que s t i on a f t e r I go, you c a n j us t w r i t e i t dow n a nd t he ne xt t i m e yo u s e e m e I l l a ns w e r i t r i ght a w a y. T ha nk you. 100 s t ude nt s w i l l hope f ul l y pa r t i c i pa t e a nd f r om t h e s e 100 s t ude nt s I w i l l be a s ki ng 18 s t ude nt s t o go on f or f ur t he r pa r t i c i pa t i on T hos e 1 8 s t ude nt s w i l l be c hos e n ba s e d on t he i r t e s t gr a de s I f you a r e one of t hos e 18 s t ude nt s you w i l l be a s ke d t o c om e t o t he R e a di ng L a b t o be i nt e r vi e w e d a bout w ha t i t s l i ke be i ng i n t hi r d gr a de w i t h hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. T he que s t i ons be i ng a s ke d a r e a s f ol l ow s : T e l l m e a bout your s e l f a s a s t ude nt T e l l m e w ha t i t s l i ke be i ng a t hi r d gr a de r W ha t i s i t l i ke ha vi ng hi gh s t a ke s ( t e s t i ng t ha t de t e r m i ne s your g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on) t e s t i ng? H ow do you p r e pa r e your s e l f f or t he t e s t i ng w e e ks ? W ha t a r e your t hought s a bout F C A T ? H ow w oul d you de s c r i be t e s t i ng t o s om e one w ho i s ne w t o t hi r d gr a de ? O ne of t he s e i nt e r vi e w s w i l l t a ke pl a c e t w o w e e ks pr i or t o t he F C A T a not he r w i l l t a ke pl a c e s om e t i m e dur i ng t he t w o w e e ks of t he F C A T a nd t he t hi r d w i t h i n t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he F C A T e nds T he r e w i l l a l s o be one gr oup i nt e r vi e w w he r e you a nd a ppr oxi m a t e l y s i x of your pe e r s w i l l m e e t w i t h m e M r s J uol a R us ht on, a f t e r t he F C A T i s ove r t o t a l k a bout w ha t i t w a s l i ke I f you a r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s e i nt e r vi e w s a ga i n, you a l w a ys ha ve t he r i ght t o c ha nge your m i nd a nd a l l you ha ve t o do i s t e l l m e your pa r e nt s or you r t e a c he r a nd w e w i l l s t op your i nt e r vi e w po r t i on of t he s t udy. I f yo u t hi nk o f a ny que s t i ons a f t e r I go, you c a n w r i t e i t dow n a nd t he ne xt t i m e you s e e m e I l l a ns w e r i t r i ght a w a y. T h a nks a ga i n. A ns w e r e d N o: A l r i ght T ha nk you f o r l e t t i ng m e e xpl a i n t he a s s i gnm e nt t o you I t a t a ny t i m e you c ha nge your m i nd j us t l e t m e your pa r e nt s o r you r t e a c he r know T ha nks a ga i n f or your t i m e

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209 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w P ar e n t al P e r m i s s i on t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n R e s e a r c h S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h I n f o r mati o n f o r p ar e n ts t o c o n si d er w h o ar e b e i n g as ke d t o al l o w t h ei r c h i l d t o tak e p ar t i n a r es ear c h st u d y T i t l e of S t udy: W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t h t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ? I R B # 1 0 53 8 9 T he f ol l ow i ng i nf o r m a t i on i s be i ng pr e s e nt e d t o he l p you/ your c hi l d de c i de w he t he r or not your c hi l d w a nt s t o be a pa r t of a r e s e a r c h s t ud y. P l e a s e r e a d c a r e f u l l y. A nyt hi ng you do not unde r s t a nd, a s k t he r e s e a r c he r W e a r e a s ki ng you t o a l l ow you r c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy t ha t i s c a l l e d: W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t h t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ? T he pe r s on w ho i s i n c ha r ge o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t udy i s A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on T hi s pe r s on i s c a l l e d t he P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i ga t or T he r e s e a r c h w i l l be done a t E l e m e nt a r y S c hool S h ou l d yo u r c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T hi s f or m t e l l s you a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. Y ou c a n de c i de i f you w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n i t T hi s f o r m e xpl a i ns : W hy t hi s s t udy i s be i ng done W ha t w i l l ha ppe n dur i ng t hi s s t udy a nd w ha t you r c hi l d w i l l ne e d t o do W he t he r t he r e i s a ny c ha nc e you r c hi l d m i ght e xpe r i e nc e pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s f r om be i ng i n t he s t udy T he r i s ks of ha vi ng pr ob l e m s be c a us e your c hi l d i s i n t hi s s t udy B e f or e you d e c i d e : R e a d t hi s f or m H a ve a f r i e nd o r f a m i l y m e m be r r e a d i t

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210 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w T a l k a bout t h i s s t udy w i t h t he pe r s on i n c ha r ge of t he s t udy o r t he pe r s on e xpl a i ni ng t he s t udy. Y ou c a n ha ve s om e one w i t h you w he n you t a l k a bout t he s t udy. T a l k i t ove r w i t h s om e one you t r us t Fi n d o u t w h at t h e s t u d y i s ab o u t Y ou m a y ha ve que s t i ons t hi s f o r m doe s not a ns w e r Y ou do no t ha ve t o gue s s a t t hi ngs yo u don t unde r s t a nd. I f you ha ve que s t i ons a s k t he pe r s on i n c ha r ge of t he s t udy or s t udy s t a f f a s you go a l ong A s k t he m t o e xpl a i n t hi ngs i n a w a y you c a n unde r s t a nd. T a ke your t i m e t o t hi nk a bout i t I t i s u p t o yo u I f yo u c h oos e t o l e t you r c h i l d b e i n t h e s t u d y t h e n yo u s h ou l d s i gn t h e f or m I f you d o n o t w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy, you s houl d n o t s i gn t he f or m Wh y i s t h i s r e s e ar c h b e i n g d on e ? T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o f i n d out m or e a bout how t he t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt pe r c e i ve s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s w he n gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on i s de t e r m i ne d ba s e d on t he s c or e r e c e i ve d on t he F C A T t e s t Wh y i s you r c h i l d b e i n g as k e d t o t ak e p a r t ? W e a r e a s ki ng your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy be c a us e t he y a r e a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he F C A T a s s e s s m e nt t hi s s pr i ng. Wh at w i l l h ap p e n d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y? D ur i ng pha s e t w o of t he s t udy, t w o w e e ks pr i or d ur i ng t he w e e ks of F C A T a nd t he t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he t e s t i ng e nds you r c hi l d w i l l go w i t h M r s J uol a R us ht on t o t he R e a di ng L a b f or a n i n f or m a l i nt e r vi e w a bout t he i r e xpe r i e n c e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t e s t i ng. Y our c hi l d ha s be e n c hos e n t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n pha s e t w o o f t he s t udy ba s e d on t he i r pr e vi ous S t a nf or d t e s t a nd D I B E L s c or e s A s t udy vi s i t i s one you r c hi l d w i l l ha ve w i t h t he p e r s on i n c ha r ge of t he s t udy M r s J uol a R us ht on, t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or Y ou r c hi l d w i l l ne e d t o c om e f or f our s t udy vi s i t s i n a l l M os t s t udy vi s i t s w i l l t a ke a bout 30 4 0 m i nut e s A t e a c h vi s i t you r c hi l d w i l l be a s ke d:

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211 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w T he i nt e r v i e w w i l l be gi n w i t h y our c hi l d t e l l i ng m e w hat i t s l i k e t o be i n t hi r d gr ade and c ont i nue i n a c onv e r s at i onal m anne r i nc or por at i ng but not l i m i t e d t o t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons : o T e l l m e a bout your s e l f a s a s t ude nt o T e l l m e w ha t i t s l i ke be i ng a t hi r d gr a de r o W ha t i s i t l i ke ha vi ng hi gh s t a ke s ( t e s t i ng t ha t de t e r m i ne s your g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on) t e s t i ng? o H ow do you p r e pa r e your s e l f f or t he t e s t i ng w e e ks ? o W ha t a r e your t hought s a bout F C A T ? o H ow w oul d you d e s c r i be t e s t i ng t o s om e one w ho i s ne w t o t hi r d gr a de ? A t t he s am e t i m e dur i ng phas e one of t he s t udy y o ur c hi l d w i l l hav e an oppor t uni t y t o w r i t e about how t he y r e f e e l i ng w he n t he y at t e n d t he w e e k l y c om put e r s e s s i on i n t he R e adi ng L ab as w e l l as dr aw ab out t he i r e x pe r i e nc e w he n i n A r t c l as s as par t of t he r e gul ar s c hool c ur r i c ul um T he l as t v i s i t w e w i l l hav e w i l l be w i t h a s m al l gr o up of s t ude nt s f r om y our gr ade l e v e l w he r e w e w i l l al l t al k t oge t he r about w hat i t w as l i k e t o t ak e t he F C A T T he pr oc e dur e s w i l l i nc l ude audi o r e c or di ng: a. T he t ape s w i l l be s t or e d f or appr ox i m at e l y t hr e e y e ar s b. T he y w i l l be us e d f or addi t i onal w r i t i ngs or s c hol ar l y ar t i c l e s about t he s ubj e c t ar e a. R e m e m be r at no t i m e w i l l y our c hi l d be i de nt i f i e d. c Y our c hi l d w i l l ne v e r be i de n t i f i ab l e T he i nt e r v i e w s w i l l be t r ans c r i be d w i t h a ps e udo nam e ( f al s e nam e ) t o as s ur e c onf i de nt i al i t y d. P r of e s s i onal s f r om M r s J uol a R us ht on s di s s e r t at i on c om m i t t e e m ay r e v i e w t he t r ans c r i pt s of t he i nt e r v i e w s w he n as s i s t i ng M r s J uol a R us ht on i n or gani z i ng he r s t udy H ow man y ot h e r p e op l e w i l l tak e p ar t? E i ght e e n s t ude nt s w i l l pa r t i c i pa t e i n t h i s pha s e t w o of t he s t udy, ba s e d on t he i r pr i or S t a nf or d T e s t s a nd D I B E L s c or e s T he s e e i ght e e n s t ude nt s w i l l be c hos e n f r om t he or i gi na l 100 t hi r d gr a de r s t a ki n g pa r t i n pha s e one of t hi s s t udy a t U S F P ha s e one o f t he s t udy i s w he r e 100 s t ude nt s w i l l w r i t e w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i ons i n t he R e a di ng L a b a nd dr a w pi c t ur e s i n A r t c l a s s a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t e s t i ng. I f your c hi l d i s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n ph a s e one o f t he s t udy, a s e pa r a t e c ons e nt f or m w a s pr ov i de d.

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212 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w Wh at o t h e r c h oi c e s d o you h ave i f yo u d e c i d e n ot t o l e t yo u r c h i l d t o t ak e p ar t ? I f you de c i de not t o l e t your c hi l d t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy, t ha t i s oka y I ns t e a d of be i ng i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy your c hi l d c a n c hoos e not t o pa r t i c i pa t e T he y w i l l s t i l l pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he c ur r i c ul um of t he s pe c i a l a r e a t e a c he r s but c opi e s w i l l not be pr ovi de d t o M r s J uol a R us ht on f or t hi s s t udy. Wi l l you r c h i l d b e p ai d f or t ak i n g p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? W e w i l l not pa y your c hi l d f or t he t i m e he / s he vol unt e e r s w hi l e be i ng i n t hi s s t udy Wh at w i l l i t c os t you t o l e t you r c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T he r e i s no c os t f or your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. Wh at ar e t h e p o t e n t i al b e n e f i t s t o yo u r c h i l d i f you l e t h i m / h e r t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T he pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s t o you r c hi l d a r e : T o p ro v i d e a p i ct u re o f w h at i s i t l i k e t o b e a t h i rd g r ad er w i t h h i g h s t ak es t es t i n g T o p ro v i d e an o u t l et fo r an y an x i et y o r j o y s ab o u t h i g h s t ak es t es t i n g Wh at ar e t h e r i s k s i f you r c h i l d t ak e s p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T he r e a r e no know n r i s ks t o t hos e w ho t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I f you r c h i l d i s h ar m e d w h i l e t ak i n g p ar t i n t h e s t u d y: I f you be l i e ve your c hi l d ha s be e n ha r m e d be c a us e of s om e t hi ng t ha t i s done dur i ng t he s t udy, you s houl d c a l l U ni ve r s i t y C ont a c t a t phone num be r i m m e di a t e l y. I t i s i m po r t a nt f or you t o unde r s t a nd t ha t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da w i l l not pa y f or t he c os t o f a ny

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213 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w c a r e o r t r e a t m e nt t ha t m i ght be ne c e s s a r y be c a us e your c hi l d ge t s hu r t o r s i c k w hi l e t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. T ha t c os t w i l l be you r r e s pons i bi l i t y. A l s o, t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da w i l l not pa y f or a ny w a ge s you m a y l os e i f your c hi l d i s ha r m e d by t hi s s t udy. T he U ni ve r s i t y o f S ou t h F l o r i da i s c ons i de r e d a s t a t e a ge nc y a nd t he r e f o r e c a nnot us ua l l y be s ue d. H ow e ve r i f i t c a n be s how n t ha t your c hi l d s s t udy doc t o r o r ot he r U S F e m pl oye e i s ne gl i ge nt i n doi ng hi s or he r j ob i n a w a y t ha t ha r m s your c hi l d du r i ng t he s t udy, you m a y be a bl e t o s ue T he m one y t ha t yo u m i ght r e c ove r f r om t he s t a t e of F l or i da i s l i m i t e d i n a m ount Wh at w i l l w e d o t o k e e p you r c h i l d s s t u d y r e c or d s p r i vat e ? T he r e a r e f e de r a l l a w s t ha t s a y w e m us t ke e p your c hi l d s s t udy r e c or ds pr i va t e W e w i l l ke e p t he r e c or ds of t hi s s t udy p r i va t e by f i l i ng t he m unde r a ps e udo na m e i n a l oc ke d f i l i ng c a bi ne t W e w i l l ke e p t he r e c or ds of t hi s s t udy c onf i de nt i a l by not ha vi ng a ny i de nt i f i e r s t o a s s oc i a t e your c hi l d w i t h t he da t a c ol l e c t e d. A ps e udo na m e w i l l be a s s i gne d t o e a c h i nt e r vi e w t a pe w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on a nd dr a w i ng. H ow e ve r c e r t a i n pe opl e m a y ne e d t o s e e your c hi l d s s t udy r e c or ds B y l a w a nyone w ho l ooks a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds m us t ke e p t he m c om pl e t e l y c onf i de nt i a l T he onl y pe opl e w ho w i l l be a l l ow e d t o s e e t he s e r e c or ds a r e : C e r t a i n gove r nm e nt a nd un i ve r s i t y pe opl e w ho ne e d t o know m or e a bout t he s t udy. F o r e xa m pl e i ndi vi dua l s w ho pr ovi de ove r s i ght on t hi s s t udy m a y ne e d t o l ook a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds T he s e i nc l ude t he U n i ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a nd t he s t a f f t ha t w or k f or t he I R B I nd i vi dua l s w ho w or k f o r U S F t ha t pr ovi de o t he r ki nds o f ove r s i ght t o r e s e a r c h s t udi e s m a y a l s o ne e d t o l ook a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds O t he r i ndi vi dua l s w ho m a y l ook a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds i nc l ude : t he F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h pe opl e f r om t he F ood a nd D r ug A dm i ni s t r a t i on ( F D A ) pe opl e f r om t he D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s ( D H H S ) a nd f r om t he

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214 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w O f f i c e f or H um a n R e s e a r c h P r ot e c t i ons ( O H R P ) T hi s i s done t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e doi ng t he s t udy i n t he r i gh t w a y. T he y a l s o ne e d t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e pr ot e c t i ng your c hi l d s r i ght s a nd s a f e t y. W e m a y publ i s h w ha t w e l e a r n f r om t hi s s t udy. I f w e do, w e w i l l not l e t a nyone know your c hi l d s na m e W e w i l l no t publ i s h a nyt hi ng e l s e t ha t w oul d l e t pe opl e know w ho your c hi l d i s Wh at h ap p e n s i f you d e c i d e n ot t o l e t yo u r c h i l d t a k e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y ? Y ou s houl d onl y l e t your c hi l d t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t u dy i f b o t h of you w a nt t o. Y ou or c hi l d s houl d not f e e l t ha t t he r e i s a ny pr e s s ur e t o t a ke pa r t i n t he s t udy t o pl e a s e t he s t udy doc t or or t he r e s e a r c h s t a f f I f you d e c i d e n ot t o l e t you r c h i l d t ak e p ar t : Y our c hi l d w i l l not be i n t r oubl e o r l os e a ny r i ght s he / s he w oul d nor m a l l y ha ve Y ou c hi l d w i l l s t i l l ge t t he s a m e s e r vi c e s he / s he w oul d nor m a l l y ha ve Y ou c an d e c i d e af t e r s i gn i n g t h i s i n f or m e d c on s e n t d oc u m e n t t h at you n o l on ge r w an t you r c h i l d t o t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y. I f yo u de c i de you w a nt you r c hi l d t o s t op t a ki ng pa r t i n t he s t udy t e l l t he s t udy s t a f f a s s oon a s you c a n. W e w i l l t e l l you how t o s t op s a f e l y. W e w i l l t e l l y ou i f t he r e a r e a ny da nge r s i f your c hi l d s t ops s udde nl y. I f you de c i de t o s t op your c hi l d c a n go on ge t t i ng hi s / he r r e gul a r e du c a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e T hi s i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s ha s no i m pa c t o n t he i r r e gul a r e duc a t i ona l s e r vi c e s E ve n i f you w an t you r c h i l d t o s t ay i n t h e s t u d y t h e r e m ay b e r e as on s w e w i l l n e e d t o t ak e h i m / h e r ou t of i t Y ou r c h i l d m ay b e t ak e n ou t of t h i s s t u d y i f : W e f i nd out i t i s not s a f e f or you r c hi l d t o s t a y i n t he s t udy. F or e xa m pl e you r c hi l d s he a l t h m a y ge t w or s e Y o u r ch i l d i s n o t co mi n g fo r t h e s t u d y v i s i t s w h en s ch e d u l ed Y o u r ch i l d mo v es fro m t h e s ch o o l d i s t ri ct i n w h i ch Bl a ck b u rn i s zo n ed Y ou c an ge t t h e an s w e r s t o you r q u e s t i on s c on c e r n s or c om p l ai n t s I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons c onc e r ns or c om pl a i nt s a bout t hi s s t udy, c a l l A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on a t p h on e n u m b e r or p h on e n u m b e r I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your c hi l d s r i ght s ge ne r a l que s t i ons c om pl a i nt s o r i s s ue s

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215 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w a s a pe r s on t a ki ng pa r t i n t h i s s t udy, c a l l t he D i vi s i on of R e s e a r c h I nt e gr i t y a nd C om pl i a nc e of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a t p hone num be r I f you r c hi l d e xpe r i e nc e s a n a dve r s e e ve nt or u na nt i c i pa t e d pr obl e m c a l l M r s J uol a R us ht on, t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a t phone num be r S i gn a t u r e O f P ar e n t ( s ) of H i s / H e r C on s e n t f or C h i l d t o P ar t i c i p at e i n t h i s R e s e ar c h S t u d y I t i s up t o you t o de c i de w he t he r you w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I f y ou w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t pl e a s e r e a d t he s t a t e m e nt s be l ow a nd s i gn t he f or m i f t he s t a t e m e nt s a r e t r ue I f r e e l y gi ve m y c on s e n t t o l e t m y c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y. I unde r s t a nd t ha t by s i gni ng t hi s f or m I a m a gr e e i ng t o l e t m y c hi l d t a k e pa r t i n r e s e a r c h. I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy of t hi s f or m t o t a ke w i t h m e Si g n at u re o f P aren t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Pa rt i n St u d y D at e Pri n t ed N a me o f Par en t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Part i n St u d y Si g n at u re o f 2 n d Par en t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Part i n St u d y D at e Pri n t ed N a me o f 2 n d P aren t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Pa rt i n St u d y St at e m e nt of P e r s on O bt ai n i ng I nf or m e d C ons e nt I h av e ca refu l l y ex p l ai n ed t o t h e p e rs o n t ak i n g p art i n t h e s t u d y w h at h e o r s h e c an ex p e ct I h er eb y c ert i fy t h at w h en t h i s p ers o n s i g n s t h i s fo r m, t o t h e b es t o f my k n o w l ed g e, h e o r s h e u n d ers t an d s : W h at t h e s t u d y i s ab o u t W h at p ro ced u res / i n t erv en t i o n s / i n v es t i g at i o n al d ru g s o r d ev i ces w i l l b e u s ed W h at t h e p o t en t i al b en e fi t s mi g h t b e W h at t h e k n o w n ri s k s mi g h t b e. I al s o c ert i fy t h at h e o r s h e d o es n o t h av e an y p ro b l e ms t h at co u l d mak e i t h a rd t o u n d ers t an d w h at i t me an s t o t ak e p art i n t h i s res ea rch T h i s p ers o n s p eak s t h e l an g u ag e t h at w as u s ed t o

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216 A ppe ndi x C : W r i t t e n C ons e nt I nt e r vi e w ex p l ai n t h i s res ear ch T h i s p ers o n read s w el l en o u g h t o u n d ers t an d t h i s fo r m o r, i f n o t t h i s p ers o n i s ab l e t o h e ar an d u n d ers t an d w h en t h e fo r m i s read t o h i m o r h e r. T h i s p ers o n d o es n o t h av e a m ed i cal / p s y ch o l o g i cal p ro b l em t h at w o u l d co mp ro mi s e co mp reh en s i o n an d t h er efo re mak es i t h ard t o u n d e rs t a n d w h at i s b ei n g ex p l ai n ed an d can t h erefo re g i v e i n fo rm ed co n s en t T h i s p ers o n i s n o t t ak i n g d ru g s t h at may cl o u d t h ei r j u d g men t o r m ak e i t h a rd t o u n d e rs t an d w h at i s b ei n g ex p l ai n ed an d can t h er efo re g i v e i n f o rm ed co n s en t Si g n at u re o f P ers o n O b t ai n i n g In fo r med Co n s en t D at e Pri n t ed N a me o f Pers o n O b t ai n i n g In fo r med Co n s en t

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217 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w P ar e n t al P e r m i s s i on t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n R e s e a r c h S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h I n f o r mati o n f o r p ar e n ts t o c o n si d er w h o ar e b e i n g as ke d t o al l o w t h ei r c h i l d t o tak e p ar t i n a r es ear c h st u d y T i t l e of S t udy: W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t h t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ? I R B # 1 0 53 8 9 T he f ol l ow i ng i nf o r m a t i on i s be i ng pr e s e nt e d t o he l p you/ your c hi l d de c i de w he t he r or not your c hi l d w a nt s t o be a pa r t of a r e s e a r c h s t ud y. P l e a s e r e a d c a r e f u l l y. A nyt hi ng you do not unde r s t a nd, a s k t he r e s e a r c he r W e a r e a s ki ng you t o a l l ow you r c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy t ha t i s c a l l e d: W ha t a r e t he s oc i o e m ot i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng w i t h t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ? T he pe r s on w ho i s i n c ha r ge o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t udy i s A nne M a r i e J uol a R us h t on T hi s pe r s on i s c a l l e d t he P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i ga t or T he r e s e a r c h w i l l be done a t E l e m e nt a r y S c hool S h ou l d yo u r c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T hi s f or m t e l l s you a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. Y ou c a n de c i de i f you w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n i t T hi s f o r m e xpl a i ns : W hy t hi s s t udy i s be i ng done W ha t w i l l ha ppe n dur i ng t hi s s t udy a nd w ha t you r c hi l d w i l l ne e d t o do W he t he r t he r e i s a ny c ha nc e you r c hi l d m i ght e xpe r i e nc e pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s f r om be i ng i n t he s t udy T he r i s ks of ha vi ng pr ob l e m s be c a us e your c hi l d i s i n t hi s s t udy B e f or e you d e c i d e : R e a d t hi s f or m H a ve a f r i e nd o r f a m i l y m e m be r r e a d i t

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218 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w T a l k a bout t h i s s t udy w i t h t he pe r s on i n c ha r ge of t he s t udy or t he pe r s on e xpl a i ni ng t he s t udy. Y ou c a n ha ve s om e one w i t h you w he n you t a l k a bout t he s t udy. T a l k i t ove r w i t h s om e one you t r us t F i nd out w ha t t he s t udy i s a bout Y ou m a y ha ve que s t i ons t hi s f o r m doe s not a ns w e r Y ou do no t ha ve t o gue s s a t t hi ngs you don t unde r s t a nd. I f you ha ve que s t i ons a s k t he pe r s on i n c ha r ge of t he s t udy or s t udy s t a f f a s you go a l ong A s k t he m t o e xpl a i n t hi ngs i n a w a y you c a n unde r s t a nd. T a ke your t i m e t o t hi nk a bout i t I t i s u p t o yo u I f yo u c h oos e t o l e t you r c h i l d b e i n t h e s t u d y t h e n yo u s h ou l d s i gn t h e f or m I f you d o n o t w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy, you s houl d n o t s i gn t he f or m Wh y i s t h i s r e s e ar c h b e i n g d on e ? T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o f i n d out m or e a bout how t he t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt pe r c e i ve s hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng i s w he n gr a de l e ve l pr om ot i on i s de t e r m i ne d ba s e d on t he s c or e r e c e i ve d on t he F C A T t e s t Wh y i s you r c h i l d b e i n g as k e d t o t ak e p a r t ? W e a r e a s ki ng your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy be c a us e t he y a r e a t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he F C A T a s s e s s m e nt t hi s s pr i ng. Wh at w i l l h ap p e n d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y? D ur i ng pha s e one of t he s t udy a t t he t w o w e e ks pr i or du r i ng t he w e e ks of F C A T a nd dur i ng t he t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he t e s t i ng e nds you r c hi l d w i l l d r a w pi c t ur e s i n A r t c l a s s a nd t ype a j our na l i n t he R e a di ng L a b a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t e s t i ng. A t e a c h vi s i t you r c hi l d w i l l be a s ke d t o f oc us on t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t e s t i ng t hr ough d r a w i ngs or a w r i t t e n j our na l

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219 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w H ow man y ot h e r p e op l e w i l l tak e p ar t? A bout 100 t hi r d gr a de r s w i l l t a ke pa r t i n pha s e one of t he s t udy a t U S F T he r e w i l l be a pha s e t w o of t he s t udy w he r e 18 s t ude nt s f r om t he or i gi na l 100 w i l l be c hos e n ba s e d on t he i r pr i o r S t a nf or d T e s t s a nd D I B E L s c or e s t o t a k e pl a c e i n i nf o r m a l i n t e r vi e w s I f you r c hi l d i s c hos e n f or pha s e t w o of t he s t udy, a s e pa r a t e c ons e nt f or m w i l l be pr ovi de d t o you. Wh at o t h e r c h oi c e s d o you h ave i f yo u d e c i d e n ot t o l e t yo u r c h i l d t o t ak e p ar t ? I f you de c i de not t o l e t your c hi l d t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy, t ha t i s oka y I ns t e a d of be i ng i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy your c hi l d c a n c hoos e not t o pa r t i c i pa t e T he y w i l l s t i l l pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he c ur r i c ul um of t he s pe c i a l a r e a t e a c he r s but c opi e s w i l l not be pr ovi de d t o M r s J uol a R us ht on f or t hi s s t udy. Wi l l you r c h i l d b e p ai d f or t ak i n g p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? W e w i l l not pa y your c hi l d f or t he t i m e he / s he vol unt e e r s w hi l e be i ng i n t hi s s t udy Wh at w i l l i t c os t you t o l e t you r c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T he r e i s no c os t f or your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. Wh at ar e t h e p o t e n t i al b e n e f i t s t o yo u r c h i l d i f you l e t h i m / h e r t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T he pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s t o you r c hi l d a r e : T o p ro v i d e a p i ct u re o f w h at i s i t l i k e t o b e a t h i rd g r ad er w i t h h i g h s t ak es t es t i n g T o p ro v i d e an o u t l et fo r an y an x i et y o r j o y s ab o u t h i g h s t ak es t es t i n g I f you be l i e ve your c hi l d ha s be e n ha r m e d be c a us e of s om e t hi ng t ha t i s done dur i ng t he s t udy, you s houl d c a l l U ni ve r s i t y C ont a c t a t ph one num be r i m m e di a t e l y I t i s

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220 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C o ns e nt N on i nt e r v i e w i m por t a nt f o r you t o unde r s t a nd t ha t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l o r i da w i l l not pa y f o r t he c os t of a ny c a r e o r t r e a t m e nt t ha t m i ght be ne c e s s a r y be c a us e your c hi l d ge t s hur t or s i c k w hi l e t a ki ng pa r t i n t h i s s t udy. T ha t c os t w i l l be y our r e s pons i bi l i t y. A l s o, t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da w i l l no t pa y f or a ny w a ge s you m a y l os e i f you r c hi l d i s ha r m e d by t hi s s t udy. T he U ni ve r s i t y o f S ou t h F l o r i da i s c ons i de r e d a s t a t e a ge nc y a nd t he r e f o r e c a nnot us ua l l y be s ue d. H ow e ve r i f i t c a n be s how n t ha t your c hi l d s s t udy doc t o r o r ot he r U S F e m pl oye e i s ne gl i ge nt i n doi ng hi s or he r j ob i n a w a y t ha t ha r m s your c hi l d du r i ng t he s t udy, you m a y be a bl e t o s ue T he m one y t ha t yo u m i ght r e c ove r f r om t he s t a t e of F l or i da i s l i m i t e d i n a m ount Wh at ar e t h e r i s k s i f you r c h i l d t ak e s p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y? T he r e a r e no know n r i s ks t o t hos e w ho t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I f you r c h i l d i s h ar m e d w h i l e t ak i n g p ar t i n t h e s t u d y: Wh at w i l l w e d o t o k e e p you r c h i l d s s t u d y r e c or d s p r i vat e ? T he r e a r e f e de r a l l a w s t ha t s a y w e m us t ke e p your c hi l d s s t udy r e c or ds pr i va t e W e w i l l ke e p t he r e c or ds of t hi s s t udy p r i va t e by f i l i ng t he m unde r a ps e udo na m e i n a l oc ke d f i l i ng c a bi ne t W e w i l l ke e p t he r e c or ds of t hi s s t udy c onf i de nt i a l by not ha vi ng a ny i de nt i f i e r s t o a s s oc i a t e your c hi l d w i t h t he da t a c ol l e c t e d. A ps e udo na m e w i l l be a s s i gne d t o e a c h i nt e r vi e w t a pe w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i on a nd dr a w i ng. H ow e ve r c e r t a i n pe opl e m a y ne e d t o s e e your c hi l d s s t udy r e c or ds B y l a w a nyone w ho l ooks a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds m us t ke e p t he m c om pl e t e l y c onf i de nt i a l T he onl y pe opl e w ho w i l l be a l l ow e d t o s e e t he s e r e c or ds a r e :

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221 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w C e r t a i n gove r nm e nt a nd un i ve r s i t y pe opl e w ho ne e d t o know m or e a bout t he s t udy. F o r e xa m pl e i ndi vi dua l s w ho pr ovi de ove r s i ght on t hi s s t udy m a y ne e d t o l ook a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds T he s e i nc l ude t he U n i ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a nd t he s t a f f t ha t w or k f or t he I R B I nd i vi dua l s w ho w or k f o r U S F t ha t pr ovi de o t he r ki nds o f ove r s i ght t o r e s e a r c h s t udi e s m a y a l s o ne e d t o l ook a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds O t he r i ndi vi dua l s w ho m a y l ook a t your c hi l d s r e c or ds i nc l ude : t he F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h pe opl e f r om t he F ood a nd D r ug A dm i ni s t r a t i on ( F D A ) pe opl e f r om t he D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s ( D H H S ) a nd f r om t he O f f i c e f or H um a n R e s e a r c h P r ot e c t i ons ( O H R P ) T hi s i s done t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e doi ng t he s t udy i n t he r i gh t w a y. T he y a l s o ne e d t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e pr ot e c t i ng your c hi l d s r i ght s a nd s a f e t y. W e m a y publ i s h w ha t w e l e a r n f r om t hi s s t udy. I f w e do, w e w i l l not l e t a nyone know your c hi l d s na m e W e w i l l no t publ i s h a nyt hi ng e l s e t ha t w oul d l e t pe opl e know w ho your c hi l d i s Wh at h ap p e n s i f you d e c i d e n ot t o l e t yo u r c h i l d t a k e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y ? Y ou s houl d onl y l e t your c hi l d t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t u dy i f bo t h of you w a nt t o. Y ou or c hi l d s houl d not f e e l t ha t t he r e i s a ny pr e s s ur e t o t a ke pa r t i n t he s t udy t o pl e a s e t he s t udy doc t or or t he r e s e a r c h s t a f f I f you d e c i d e n ot t o l e t you r c h i l d t ak e p ar t : Y our c hi l d w i l l not be i n t r oubl e o r l os e a ny r i ght s he / s he w oul d nor m a l l y ha ve Y ou c hi l d w i l l s t i l l ge t t he s a m e s e r vi c e s he / s he w oul d nor m a l l y ha ve Y ou c an d e c i d e af t e r s i gn i n g t h i s i n f or m e d c on s e n t d oc u m e n t t h at you n o l on ge r w an t you r c h i l d t o t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y. I f yo u de c i de you w a nt you r c hi l d t o s t op t a ki ng pa r t i n t he s t udy t e l l t he s t udy s t a f f a s s oon a s you c a n. W e w i l l t e l l you how t o s t op s a f e l y. W e w i l l t e l l y ou i f t he r e a r e a ny da nge r s i f your c hi l d s t ops s udde nl y. I f you de c i d e t o s t op your c hi l d c a n go on ge t t i ng hi s / he r r e gul a r e duc a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e T hi s i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s ha s no i m pa c t o n t he i r r e gul a r e duc a t i ona l s e r vi c e s E ve n i f you w an t you r c h i l d t o s t ay i n t h e s t u d y t h e r e m ay b e r e as on s w e w i l l n e e d t o t ak e h i m / h e r ou t of i t Y ou r c h i l d m ay b e t ak e n ou t of t h i s s t u d y i f :

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222 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w W e f i nd out i t i s not s a f e f or you r c hi l d t o s t a y i n t he s t udy. F or e xa m pl e you r c hi l d s he a l t h m a y ge t w or s e Y o u r ch i l d i s n o t co mi n g fo r t h e s t u d y v i s i t s w h en s ch e d u l ed Y o u r ch i l d mo v es fro m t h e s ch o o l d i s t ri ct i n w h i ch Bl a ck b u rn i s zo n ed Y ou c an ge t t h e an s w e r s t o you r q u e s t i on s c on c e r n s or c om p l ai n t s I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons c onc e r ns or c om pl a i nt s a bout t hi s s t udy, c a l l A nne M a r i e J uol a R us h t on a t p h on e n u m b e r or p h on e n u m b e r I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your c hi l d s r i ght s ge ne r a l que s t i ons c om pl a i nt s o r i s s ue s a s a pe r s on t a ki ng pa r t i n t h i s s t udy, c a l l t he D i vi s i on of R e s e a r c h I nt e gr i t y a nd C om pl i a nc e of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a t p hone num be r I f you r c hi l d e xpe r i e nc e s a n a dve r s e e ve nt or una nt i c i pa t e d pr obl e m c a l l M r s J uol a R us ht on, t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a t phone num be r S i gn a t u r e O f P ar e n t ( s ) of H i s / H e r C on s e n t f or C h i l d t o P ar t i c i p at e i n t h i s R e s e ar c h S t u d y I t i s up t o you t o de c i de w he t he r you w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I f y ou w a nt your c hi l d t o t a ke pa r t pl e a s e r e a d t he s t a t e m e nt s be l ow a nd s i gn t he f or m i f t he s t a t e m e nt s a r e t r ue I f r e e l y gi ve m y c on s e n t t o l e t m y c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y. I unde r s t a nd t ha t by s i gni ng t hi s f or m I a m a gr e e i ng t o l e t m y c hi l d t a k e pa r t i n r e s e a r c h. I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy of t hi s f or m t o t a ke w i t h m e Si g n at u re o f P aren t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Pa rt i n St u d y D at e Pri n t ed N a me o f Par en t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Part i n St u d y Si g n at u re o f 2 n d Par en t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Part i n St u d y D at e Pri n t ed N a me o f 2 n d P aren t o f Ch i l d T ak i n g Pa rt i n St u d y

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223 A ppe ndi x D : W r i t t e n C ons e nt N on i nt e r v i e w St at e m e nt of P e r s on O bt ai n i ng I nf or m e d C on s e nt I h av e ca refu l l y ex p l ai n ed t o t h e p e rs o n t ak i n g p art i n t h e s t u d y w h at h e o r s h e c an ex p e ct I h er eb y c ert i fy t h at w h en t h i s p ers o n s i g n s t h i s fo r m, t o t h e b es t o f my k n o w l ed g e, h e o r s h e u n d ers t an d s : W h at t h e s t u d y i s ab o u t W h at p ro ced u res / i n t erv e n t i o n s / i n v es t i g at i o n al d ru g s o r d ev i ces w i l l b e u s ed W h at t h e p o t en t i al b en e fi t s mi g h t b e W h at t h e k n o w n ri s k s mi g h t b e. I al s o c ert i fy t h at h e o r s h e d o es n o t h av e an y p ro b l e ms t h at co u l d mak e i t h a rd t o u n d ers t an d w h at i t me an s t o t ak e p art i n t h i s res ea rch T h i s p ers o n s p eak s t h e l an g u ag e t h at w as u s ed t o ex p l ai n t h i s res ear ch T h i s p ers o n read s w el l en o u g h t o u n d ers t an d t h i s fo r m o r, i f n o t t h i s p ers o n i s ab l e t o h e ar an d u n d ers t an d w h en t h e fo r m i s read t o h i m o r h e r. T h i s p ers o n d o es n o t h av e a m ed i cal / p s y ch o l o g i cal p ro b l em t h at w o u l d co mp ro mi s e co mp reh en s i o n an d t h er efo re mak es i t h ard t o u n d e rs t a n d w h at i s b ei n g ex p l ai n ed an d can t h erefo re g i v e i n fo rm ed co n s en t T h i s p ers o n i s n o t t ak i n g d ru g s t h at may cl o u d t h ei r j u d g men t o r m ak e i t h a rd t o u n d e rs t an d w h at i s b ei n g ex p l ai n ed an d can t h er efo re g i v e i n fo rm ed co n s en t Si g n at u re o f P ers o n O b t ai n i n g In fo r med Co n s en t D at e P r i nt e d N a m e o f P e r s on O bt a i n i ng I n f or m e d C ons e nt

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224 A ppe ndi x E : I nt e r vi e w Q ue s t i ons I nt e r vi e w N um be r 1 o T e l l m e a bout your s e l f a s a s t ude nt o T e l l m e w ha t i t s l i ke be i ng a t hi r d gr a de r o W ha t i s i t l i ke ha vi ng hi gh s t a ke s ( t e s t i ng t ha t de t e r m i ne s your g r a de l e ve l pr om ot i on) t e s t i ng? o H ow do you p r e pa r e your s e l f f or t he t e s t i ng w e e ks ? o W h a t a r e your f e e l i ngs a bout F C A T ? o H ow w oul d you de s c r i be t e s t i ng t o s om e one w ho i s ne w t o t hi r d gr a de ? o W ha t c onve r s a t i ons a bout t e s t i ng ha ve you ha d a b out t e s t i ng w i t h o t he r s ? I nt e r vi e w N um be r 2 o T e l l m e a s t or y a bout a n e xpe r i e nc e you ha ve ha d w hi l e t a ki n g your t e s t o H ow i s s c hool di f f e r e nt dur i ng t he w e e ks of t e s t i ng t ha n w he n you r e not ? o W ha t doe s t he t e s t m e a n t o you? o I s t he t e s t w ha t you e xpe c t e d i t t o be ? I nt e r vi e w N um be r 3 o T e l l m e a bout t he pa s t c oupl e of w e e ks w he n you w e r e t e s t i ng. o W ha t e xpe r i e nc e s s t a nd out f or you? o H ow i f a t a l l ha s t hi s e xpe r i e nc e a f f e c t e d you? o W ha t w a s t he e a s i e s t / ha r de s t e xpe r i e nc e f or you w i t h t he t e s t i ng? o W ha t c onve r s a t i ons ha ve you ha d a bout t e s t i ng w i t h ot he r s ?

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225 A ppe ndi x F : D r a w i ng P r om p t s 1. B e f or e : D r a w w ha t yo u t h i nk a bout F C A T 2. D ur i ng: D r a w how you r e f e e l i ng a bout F C A T 3. A f t e r : P r ovi de a dr a w i ng of you be f o r e a nd a f t e r F C A T E a c h dr a w i ng a l s o ha s t he f ol l ow i ng r e que s t f or a de s c r i pt i on: 1. O n t he ba c k of your pa pe r pl e a s e de s c r i be your dr a w i ng. 2. N e x t e xpl a i n how i t c onne c t s t o F C A T

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226 A ppe ndi x G : J our na l P r om pt s 1. B e f or e : F C A T i s go i ng t o be s oon. P l e a s e de s c r i be w ha t you r e f e e l i ng 2. D ur i ng: E ve r y t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt i n F l or i da ha s t o t a ke t he F C A T W ha t w oul d you w a nt a t hi r d g r a de r ne w t o F l o r i da t o know a b out t hi r d gr a de he r e ? 3. A f t e r : N ow t ha t you ve c om pl e t e d t he F C A T w ha t w oul d you l i ke t o s ha r e w i t h t he s e c ond gr a de r s w ho w i l l be i n t hi r d gr a de ne xt ye a r ?

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227 A ppe ndi x H : F i r s t I nt e r vi e w G r a ph w i t h Q ue s t i on H e a de r s S t u d e n t T e l l m e a b o u t y o u r s e l f a s a s t u d e n t ? T e l l m e w h a t i t s l i k e b e i n g a t h i r d g r a d e r ? W h a t i s i t l i k e h a v i n g h i g h s t a k e s t e s t i n g ? H o w d o y o u p r e p a r e y o u r s e l f f o r t h e t e s t i n g w e e k s ? W h a t a r e y o u r t h o u g h t s a b o u t F C A T ? H o w w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t e s t i n g t o s o m e o n e w h o i s n e w t o t h i r d g r a d e ? N a m e D i f f i c u l t F u n H a r d I t s a l i t t l e b i t d i f f i c u l t a h b u t i t s f u n W e g o t o m a t h I t s a l o t h a r d e r T h e w o r d s a n d s t u f f t h e y g i v e u s I j u s t d o m y b e s t S c a r y D o n t k n o w i f I l l p a s s . I d o n t g e t m u c h l i k e i t s h a r d a n d s t u f f p r a c t i c e a g a i n a n d a g a i n I d o n t r e a l l y k n o w a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t e x c e p t i t s g r a d e d f o r i f y o u p a s s T e a c h e r t o l d m e 3 rd g r a d e f r i e n d t o l d m e I m n o t r e a l l y s u r e D o y o u r b e s t

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228 A ppe ndi x I : S e c ond I nt e r vi e w w i t h Q ue s t i on H e a d e r s S t u d e n t H o w a r e t h i n g s g o i n g ? T e l l m e a b o u t t h e f i r s t m o r n i n g o f t e s t i n g ? T e l l m e h o w y o u f e l t a f t e r y o u g o t y o u r t e s t b o o k l e t ? T e l l m e h o w y o u f e l t b y t h e e n d o f t h e w e e k ? Y o u r e g o i n g t o t e s t s o m e m o r e H o w a r e y o u f e e l i n g a b o u t t h a t ? D i d a n y o f y o u r s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e s t t a k i n g c h a n g e ? I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g w e s h o u l d k n o w t o h e l p p r e p a r e y o u ? W h a t d o y o u t h i n k n o w a b o u t t h e F C A T d e t e r m i n i n g i f y o u g o t o 4 t h g r a d e o r n o t ? N a m e R e a d i n g l o n g M a t h e a s y P r e t t y g o o d I t w a s a l i t t l e b i t s c a r y A n t i c i p a t i o n T h e f i r s t t i m e I s a w i t I f e l t l i k e I h a d b u t t e r f l i e s i n m y s t o m a c h W h e n I o p e n e d t h e t e s t b o o k l e t a n d l o o k e d a t t h e p a g e s a n d s t u f f I r e a l i z e d t h e y w e r e n t s o h a r d I t h i n k I s h o u l d b e p r e t t y g o o d N e r v o u s M y f r i e n d t o o k t h e F C A T b e f o r e a n d t o l d m e t h e s e c o n d p a r t w a s p r e t t y h a r d S o u n d i n g o u t t h e w o r d s R e a d f a s t e r T e s t p r e p b o o k l e t s m o r e s i m i l a r

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229 A ppe ndi x J : T hi r d I nt e r vi e w w i t h Q ue s t i on H e a de r s S t u d e n t H o w a r e t h i n g s g o i n g ? H o w d o y o u f e e l n o w t h a t i t s o v e r ? W h a t i s t h i r d g r a d e l i k e n o w t h a t t h e t e s t i s d o n e ? W e r e t h e r e a n y s t r a t e g i e s d u r i n g t h e t e s t i n g t h a t h e l p e d y o u ? D o y o u k n o w w h y y o u h a d t h e F u n D a y ? D o y o u h a v e a n y a d v i c e f o r c h i l d r e n c o m i n g i n t o 3 rd g r a d e n e x t y e a r ? I f t h e r e w a s a n y t h i n g y o u c o u l d c h a n g e a b o u t t h e F C A T w h a t w o u l d i t b e ? D o y o u b e l i e v e i n h a v i n g F C A T d e t e r m i n e y o u r g r a d e l e v e l p r o m o t i o n ? N a m e G o o d I t h i n k I p a s s e d I t s e x c i t i n g E x c i t i n g t o h a v e i t a n d e x c i t i n g t o e n d i t P r e t t y c o o l I t s d i f f e r e n t . L i k e w e p l a y g a m e s n o w L o o k t h r o u g h i t N o h o m e w o r k s o I c o u l d g o t o s l e e p e a r l i e r U n d e r l i n i n g y o u r s t u f f l i k e f i n d t h e l i k e r e s e a r c h i n g t h a t s t o r y t h e n u n d e r l y i n g t h e a n s w e r a n d p u t t i n g t h e a n s w e r t h e r e L i k e a r e w a r d f o r d o i n g t h e F C A T I t s p r e t t y c o o l T r y y o u r b e s t

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230 A ppe ndi x K : B oys ( B M E ) S t u d e n t F i r s t I n t e r v i e w S e c o n d I n t e r v i e w T h i r d I n t e r v i e w N a m e H a r d F e e l s l i k e I m i g h t g e t a B D o e s n o t w a n t t o g o t o s u m m e r s c h o o l H a t e s s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f t h e l e a r n i n g L i k e s t o d o a r t c l a s s R e a d i n g c l a s s i s h a r d s o m e t i m e s I d o n t l i k e r e a d i n g S h o u l d s t u d y [ b u t i t s h a r d ] H a r d t o d o w o r k [ l e a r n i n g m a k e s i t h a r d ] M y s e c o n d g r a d e t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t s o m e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s m i g h t b e h a r d i n t h e F C A T D a d s a y s t h a t a s l o n g a s I g e t a B h e w o n t b e u p s e t S e e s p r a c t i c e a s h e l p i n g w i t h t h e F C A T T h i n k s s o m e o n e w o u l d b e w e i r d i f t h e y v e n e v e r h e a r d o f t h e F C A T W o u l d g o t o I t a l y t o g o t o s c h o o l i f i t m e a n t n o t h a v e n i n g t o t a k e t h e F C A T D o e s n o t w o n d e r a b o u t o t h e r s l e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s G o i n g g o o d I t h i n k I m g o i n g t o g e t a n A F e e l s e a s y n o w A l i t t l e n e r v o u s a b o u t t h e t e s t i n g c o n t i n u i n g P r a c t i c e r e a d i n g H a r d l y h a p p y F C A T w a s p r e t t y e a s y I f e e l i t [ s e c o n d w e e k o f t e s t i n g ] m i g h t b e a l i t t l e h a r d e r T h i s o n e [ N R T ] m i g h t m a k e m e g e t a B D a d w i l l y e l l a t m e h e u s u a l l y d o e s S t a r t i n g 4 t h g r a d e w o r k I m f e e l i n g t h a t I g e t r i d o f w h a t I s a i d t h e l a s t t i m e a n d t h a t I m g o i n g t o s a y w h a t I s a y t h i s t i m e T h a t t h e F C A T s o u n d s p r e t t y e a s y f o r t h i r d g r a d e t o f i f t h g r a d e T h e q u e s t i o n m i g h t l o o k h a r d b u t t h e y r e e a s y S l e e p y A l i t t l e e a s i e r A l i t t l e g l o o m B l u e H a r d e r F C A T w a s a l i t t l e e H a r d e r [ i n 4 t h g r a d e ] E a s y I w a s a w a k e p a s t m y b e d t i m e I d o n t r e a l l y k n o w h o w I f e e l n o w t h a t t h e t e s t i s o v e r I l i k e t e s t i n g w e e k b e t t e r s o I c a n g e t b a c k t o m y l i f e [ n o h o m e w o r k ] W e l l I t h o u g h t i t w a s a l i t t l e h a r d e r t h a n t h e S A T i n s e c o n d g r a d e B e c a u s e t h e F C A T b e c a u s e t h i r d g r a d e F C A T w a s p r e t t y e a s y a n d I p r o b a b l y w i l l g e t a n A I d o n t f e e l l i k e I m r e a d y f o r 4 t h g r a d e y e t . b e c a u s e s o m e p e o p l e .

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231 A ppe ndi x L : G i r l s ( B M E ) S t u d e n t F i r s t I n t e r v i e w S e c o n d I n t e r v i e w T h i r d I n t e r v i e w N a m e L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t F u n L i t t l e b i t h a r d A l i t t l e b i t s c a r y D o n t k n o w i f y o u l l p a s s L e a r n i n g i s h a r d D o e s n t g e t m u c h R e p e a t e d p a t t e r n o f p r a c t i c i n g t h e s a m e t h i n g s D o e s n t c h a n g e s t r a t e g i e s P l a n n i n g t o h a v e f u n T h i r d g r a d e i s h a r d e r t h a n s e c o n d w a s E n j o y s r e a d i n g C o m f o r t i s i m p o r t a n t I n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g a p l u s E x c i t e d a b o u t w h a t q u e s t i o n s m i g h t b e o n t h e F C A T D o e s n t k n o w a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e F C A T e x c e p t t h e h i g h s t a k e s T e a c h e r a n d c o u s i n s t e l l h e r h o w d i f f i c u l t i t w i l l b e D o y o u r b e s t I j u s t d o m y b e s t R e a d i n g w a s l o n g M a t h w a s e a s y F e e l i n g p r e t t y g o o d I t w a s a l i t t l e b i t s c a r y N e r v o u s a b o u t s e c o n d t e s t M i g h t b e p r e t t y e a s y R e a d f a s t e r A n x i o u s a b o u t t i m e B u t t e r f l i e s m o s t l y w e n t a w a y S o u n d e d w o r d s o u t a n d s t u f f O p e n i n g t h e t e s t b o o k l e t p r o v i d e d r e l i e f f r o m f e a r D i d n o t c o n n e c t p r a c t i c e b o o k l e t t o a c t u a l t e s t H a d a l o t o f a n t i c i p a t i o n P e e r s i n f l u e n c e c o n n e c t s t o f e a r A f t e r F C A T p a r t y G o o d E x c i t i n g P r e t t y c o o l [ t h i r d g r a d e n o w ] L o o k t h r o u g h S l e e p e a r l i e r U n d e r l i n e s t u f f I t s [ F C A T ] p r e t t y c o o l I t h i n k I p a s s e d E x c i t i n g t o h a v e a n d e x c i t i n g t o e n d W e p l a y g a m e s S e e s F u n D a y a s a r e w a r d f o r d o i n g F C A T [ A d v i c e ] T r y y o u r b e s t

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232 A ppe ndi x M : F i r s t R e f l e c t i ve W r i t i ng S t u d e n t G e n d e r D e s c r i p t i o n Q u o t e 1 B 5 7 B F S c a r e d I a m n e r v o u s a b o u t s p e l l i n g b e c a u s e I h a v e b e e n v e r y b a d f o r a t h i r d g r a d e r a n d t h a t i s w h y I s c a r e d a b o u t t h e F C A T 2 B 5 9 W F C o m p l e t e l y R e a d y W h e n I h e a r d T H E F C A T w a s c o m i n g I l e a p e d f o r J o y a n d f o r b e i n g s c a r e d I l e t t h e j o y o u t o f m y b o d y f o r o n e m i n u t e n e x t t h i n g I k n o w j o y i s g o n e f o r e v e r B u t j o y g a v e m e a c a l l h e i s c o m i n g b a c k ! ! 3 . B 6 1 W M C o n f i d e n t I h a v e p a s s e d t h e S A T 2 t i m e s a l r e a d y w h y w o u l d I f a i l n o w ? M r X s a i d t h a t I w o u l d p a s s t h e t e s t 4 B 6 4 W M S c a r e d I m g u n n a f a i l b e c a u s e l a s t y e a r s t a d e r d p r e p t e s t w a s s o e a s y b u t t h i s y e a r s e m s a l i t t l e b i t h a r d e r 5 B 6 5 H F S c a r e d W i l l d o g o o d I h a v e p a s t o n t h e r t e s t I f I c o u l d p a s s o n t h e r t e s t I c o u l d p a s s t h i s t e s t w i t h a l l t h e h a r d w o r k I m g o i n g t o w o r k m y b r a i n s o I c o u l d d o g o o d i n t h e F C A T T E S T I t s h o w s I a m c a p a b l e t o g o t o 4 t h g r a d e t h i s t e s t i s m y t u r n t o g o f o r a n e w g r a d e

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233 A ppe ndi x N : S e c ond R e f l e c t i ve W r i t i ngs S t u d e n t G e n d e r D e s c r i p t i o n Q u o t e s 1 D 5 7 B F T h i r d g r a d e c l a s s I f I w e r e n e w t o F l o r i d a I w o u l d w a n t t o k n o w w h a t a 3 rd g r a d e c l a s s w o u l d a n d s o m e t h i n g s t o 2 D 5 9 W F E a s y C h a l l e n g i n g F C A T I f t h e F C A T w a s c o m i n g u p I w o u l d l i s t e n t o e v e r y w o r d m y t e a c h e r t o l d m e ( e v e n i f i t w a s b o r i n g ) e n e y w a y s t h e F C A T i s a b r e e z e T r y t o b e c o n f i d e n t a n d y o u l l p a s s 3 D 6 1 W M F C A T F u n D a y T h a t e v e r y y e a r a f t e r F C A T t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l d a y c a l l e d F u n D a y T h e r e i s n o l e a r n i n g a n d a l l k i d s h a v e f u n e i t h e r d r i n k i n g G a t o r a d e e a t i n g p o p c o r n d a n c i n g j u m p i n g o n f l o a t s o r y o u c a n j u s t r e l a x 4 D 6 4 W M F C A T F u n D a y I t i s o k b u t f c a t i s l o n g e r c l o s e r t o t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r a n d t h i r d g r a d e i s g e t t i n g e a s y e r a n d c a n t w a t u n t e l l F U N D A Y

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234 A ppe ndi x O : T hi r d R e f l e c t i ve W r i t i ngs S t u d e n t G e n d e r D e s c r i p t i o n Q u o t e s 1 F 5 7 B F F C A T I w o u l d t e l l t h e m t h a t t h e f i r s t d a y i s h a r d e r w h e n y o u r t e a c h e r p a s s e s t h e t e s t o u t b u t w h e n y o u o p e n y o u r t e s t i t i s e a s y [ p s T h e m a t h i s s o h a r d ] 2 F 5 9 W F F C A T E a s y B e l i e f i n s e l f I t i s t h e e a s i e s t t e s t o f a l l Y o u w i l l z i p p a s t i t I a m s u r e I a c e d i t Y o u c a n d o t h e F C A T J u s t t h i n k y o u c a n d o i t a n d y o u w i l l ! 3 F 6 1 W M E a s y Y o u w i l l p a s s i t i n n o t i m e S o d o n t b e s c a r e d b e e x c i t e d l i k e m e 4 F 6 4 W M H a r d C o m p a r i s o n t o S A T F C A T i s h a r d e r t h e n S A T b u t s o m e p a r t s i n F C A T i s e a s y a n d i f y o u w o r k h a r d e n o u g h y o u w i l l p a s s

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235 A ppe ndi x P : L i t e r a t ur e R e s our c e L i s t A vi A ( 2003 ) T he s e c r e t s c hool N e w Y or k N Y : H a r c our t C l e m e nt s A ( 2004 ) T he r e por t c ar d. N e w Y o r k, N Y : S i m on & S c hus t e r C hi l dr e n s P ubl i s hi ng D i v i s i on. C ohe n, M ( 2006 ) F i r s t gr ade t ak e s a t e s t N e w Y or k, N Y : S t a r B r i ght B ooks F i nc hl e r J ( 2003 ) T e s t i ng m i s s m al ar k e y N e w Y or k, N Y : W a l ke r B ooks f or Y oung R e a de r s S e us s D & P r e l ut s ky, J ( 2001 ) H oor ay f or di f f i n doof e r day N e w Y or k, N Y : P i c t ur e L i ons

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236 A bout t he A ut hor A nne M a r i e J uol a R us ht on r e c e i ve d a n A s s oc i a t e s D e gr e e i n C hi l d D e ve l opm e nt f r om A l pe n a C om m uni t y C ol l e ge i n 1990, a B a c he l or s D e gr e e i n C hi l dhood E duc a t i on f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l or i da S a r a s ot a i n 2 000 a nd a M a s t e r s i n S c i e nc e de gr e e i n R e a di ng E duc a t i on f r om T he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da S a r a s ot a i n 2003 S he s t a r t e d t e a c hi ng pr e s c hool w hi l e w or ki ng on he r de gr e e i n C hi l d D e ve l opm e nt a nd c ont i nue d on a s a pr i m a r y t e a c he r gr a de s K 3 unt i l s he e nt e r e d t he P h. D pr og r a m a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l or i da T a m pa i n 2003 W hi l e i n t he P h. D pr og r a m a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S o ut h F l or i da T a m pa M r s J uol a R us ht on c ont i nue d t o w or k a s a R e a di ng C oa c h f or he r c ount y s c hool di s t r i c t S he c oor di na t e d t he l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s of t w o e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s a s a m e m be r of t he i r L e a de r s hi p T e a m s S he a l s o ha s a n a c t i ve r e s e a r c h a ge nda i n w hi c h s he p r e s e nt s na t i ona l l y a nd i nt e r na t i ona l l y ha s c oa ut hor e d t w o book c ha pt e r publ i c a t i ons a nd i s i nvol ve d w i t h s e r vi c e f o r t he I nt e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on, A m e r i c a n E duc a t i ona l R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t i on, a nd S out he r n E a r l y C hi l dho od A s s oc i a t i on of F l or i da