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Development of a scale to measure parenting in Hispanic adolescents' families

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Title:
Development of a scale to measure parenting in Hispanic adolescents' families
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English
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Alvarez, Evelyn Marie
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla.
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Subjects / Keywords:
Familismo
Respeto
Proper demeanor
Youth
Latino
Culturally sensitive
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of this research was to provide a tool to adequately examine the relationship that parenting style has with Hispanic youths' academic and behavioral outcomes. A review of the literature reveals that the field is lacking an appropriate, culturally sensitive, paper-and-pencil measure of parenting of Hispanic adolescents with adolescents reporting on their parents' behavior. Current measures were not developed with Hispanic families in mind, but rather were evaluated for use with Hispanic populations after the development phase. Therefore, the current study sought to fill this gap in the research on parenting by constructing a measure of parenting that was not only culturally sensitive in its use, but also culturally sensitive in its development. This study consisted of three phases, each using a Hispanic-only sample. First, 4 group interviews informed the item content and development of this new scale.^ ^Four focus groups consisted of 4-7 parents each, and 6 focus groups consisted of 6-8 middle school adolescents each. The information collected in the focus groups was used to develop 60 items intended to measure parenting behaviors in Hispanic families.In the second phase, 314 Hispanic students completed the new 60-item scale. Reliability estimates, item analyses and factor analyses were conducted to reduce the items to a total of 32 items and to determine emerging factors. In the final phase, 131 Hispanic students completed the revised 32-item scale and 105 of these students were retained for the analyses. Regression equations were used to predict academic and behavioral outcomes, and the new reduced-item parenting scale was compared to an established parenting scale originally developed for majority non-Hispanic American culture. Analyses also explored the new measure's relationship with acculturation, ethnic identity, SES, and generational status.^ The new 32-item measure provided unique information above and beyond the established parenting measure when predicting Global Self-Worth, suggesting that the new measure may better capture the relationship between parenting and student outcomes. On the other hand, future studies need to address methodological limitations of this study by using a larger sample size and increasing sample heterogeneity while maintaining consistency in demographic variables across within-study samples.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Evelyn Marie Alvarez.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 138 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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aleph - 001966427
oclc - 263023189
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002230
usfldc handle - e14.2230
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Development of a scale to measure parenting in Hispanic adolescents' families
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ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of this research was to provide a tool to adequately examine the relationship that parenting style has with Hispanic youths' academic and behavioral outcomes. A review of the literature reveals that the field is lacking an appropriate, culturally sensitive, paper-and-pencil measure of parenting of Hispanic adolescents with adolescents reporting on their parents' behavior. Current measures were not developed with Hispanic families in mind, but rather were evaluated for use with Hispanic populations after the development phase. Therefore, the current study sought to fill this gap in the research on parenting by constructing a measure of parenting that was not only culturally sensitive in its use, but also culturally sensitive in its development. This study consisted of three phases, each using a Hispanic-only sample. First, 4 group interviews informed the item content and development of this new scale.^ ^Four focus groups consisted of 4-7 parents each, and 6 focus groups consisted of 6-8 middle school adolescents each. The information collected in the focus groups was used to develop 60 items intended to measure parenting behaviors in Hispanic families.In the second phase, 314 Hispanic students completed the new 60-item scale. Reliability estimates, item analyses and factor analyses were conducted to reduce the items to a total of 32 items and to determine emerging factors. In the final phase, 131 Hispanic students completed the revised 32-item scale and 105 of these students were retained for the analyses. Regression equations were used to predict academic and behavioral outcomes, and the new reduced-item parenting scale was compared to an established parenting scale originally developed for majority non-Hispanic American culture. Analyses also explored the new measure's relationship with acculturation, ethnic identity, SES, and generational status.^ The new 32-item measure provided unique information above and beyond the established parenting measure when predicting Global Self-Worth, suggesting that the new measure may better capture the relationship between parenting and student outcomes. On the other hand, future studies need to address methodological limitations of this study by using a larger sample size and increasing sample heterogeneity while maintaining consistency in demographic variables across within-study samples.
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
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Culturally sensitive.
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DevelopmentofaScaletoMeasureParentinginHispanicAdolescentsFamilies by EvelynMarieAlvarez Adissertationsubmittedinpartialfulfillment oftherequirementsforthedegreeof DoctorofPhilosophy Departmentof P sychology CollegeofArtsandSciences UniversityofSouthFlorida Co MajorProfessor: JudithBeckerBryant Ph.D. Co MajorProfessor: EllisGesten Ph.D. MarioHernandez,Ph.D. VickyPhare s,Ph.D. StephenStark,Ph.D. DateofApproval: November2,2007 Keywords: familismo,respeto,properdemeanor,youth,latino,culturallysensitive Copyright 2007 EvelynMarieAlvarez

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Dedic ation IdedicatethisworktomyGod,myhusband, Jose, myparents, MirtaandPedro, mybrother ,Peter, andsisters, LannieandAshley, mygrandmother s MirtaandEstrella, andallthemanyfriendsthathavecrossedmypathalongtheway.Ihavecometh isfar becauseoftheirlove,support,andmuchpatience. A.M.D.G.

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Acknowledgements Iwouldliketoacknowledgethe many schools, churches, principals,teachers, pastors,youthgroupleaders,parents, researchassistants andstaff that sharedmyvis ion andinvestedinthefutureofHispanicchildren,includingmyownfuture.

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i TableofContents ListofTables iii ListofFigures iv Abstract v Introduction 1 ParentingintheMainstreamUnitedStatesCulture 3 ParentinginHispanicHousehold s 4 ContextandLatino/HispanicParenting 8 WhatMayBeMissinginCurrentMeasuresofParenting 9 Respeto 10 Familismo 11 HeterogeneityofLatinos 13 TheCurrentStudy 17 Phase1 21 Method 21 Participants 21 Parents 21 Adolescent s 23 Procedure 23 Results 29 Discussion 35 Phase2 40 Method 40 Participants 40 RationaleforChoosingThisPopulation 4 2 Measures 44 DemographicInformation 44 SocioeconomicStatus(SES) 44 Procedure 46 Results 47 Explorat oryFactorAnalysis 47 PrincipalAxisFactoring 50 PrincipalComponentAnalysis 5 0 ComparisonofPCAandPAF 52 ItemAnalysis 53

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ii FactorLabelsintheContextofHypothesizedCat egoriesof ParentingBehavior 53 Factor1 56 Factor2 56 Fact or3 5 7 Factor4 5 7 Factor5 57 Factor6 57 Factor7 5 8 Discussion 58 Phase3 61 Method 61 Participants 61 PredictorMeasures 62 SocioeconomicStatus(SES) 62 GenerationalStatus 62 EthnicIdentity 64 Acculturation 64 P ar entingPracticesSurvey(PPS) 65 YouthOutcomeMeasures 67 AcademicAchievement 67 BehavioralAdjustment 67 Self RatingsofCompetence 69 Procedure 69 Results 71 HIRReliability 71 HIRsRelationshiptoAcculturati onandSES 72 Crite rion RelatedValidity 75 GenderDifferences 78 CorrelationalRelationship sAmongIndependentVariables 79 CorrelationalRelationsh ipsAmongDependentVariables 79 RegressionAnalyses 80 ConstructValidity 84 Discussion 90 GenderConsidera tions 92 General Discussion 9 5 References 107 Appendices 117 AppendixA : ParentingPracticesSurvey 118 AppendixB: M ultiEthnicIdentityMeasure 119 AppendixC : BehaviorAcculturationScale 120 AppendixD : Demographics 121

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iii AppendixE : HowIA mRaised 32items 122 AppendixF : WhatIamLike 123 AppendixG : PrincipalComponentsAnalysisandPrincipalAxis FactoringComparisonsofParentingStructures 128 AppendixH : VarianceandItemResponseFrequenciesforthe32 Item HIRmeasure 13 7

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iv ListofTables Table1 ThemesThatEmergedfrom GroupInterview DiscussionswithParents 29 Table2 ThemesThatEmergedfrom GroupInterview Discussionswith Adolescents 29 Table3 EmergentFactors/CategoriesandCorrespondingItemsDeveloped Utilizin gFocusGroup andLiteratureReviewContent 31 Table4 TheorizedScalesandCorresponding60ItemsUtiliz edinPhase2Data Collection 35 Table5 Samp leCharacteristicsinPhase2 42 Table6 Original60ItemswiththeirCorrespondingItemNumberCatego r ized byTheorizedConstructs 49 Table7 ReliabilityAnalysisoftheFactorsfrom thePCAPromax& Factor Model 54 Table8 ContentandReliabilityofEachFactorfromthePCAPromax7 Factor ModelAfterItem DeletionfromItemAnalysis 55 Table9 Sampl e CharacteristicsforPhase3 63 Table10 ListofOffensesthatL eadtoaDisciplineReferral 68 Table11 CorrelationsbetweenHIR ScaleScores andAcculturation,SES, Generationa lStatus,andEthnicIdentity 73 Table12 CorrelationsbetweenPPS ScaleSc ores andAcculturation,SES, GenerationalStatus,andEthn icIdentity 75 Table13 Correlationsbe tweentheHIRandPPS ScaleScores 76 Table14 OrderofControlandPredictorVariablesEnteredIntoRegression EquationsEvaluatingCriterion RelatedValidi tyo ftheHowIam RaisedMeasure 77

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v Table15 DependentVariablesUtilizedwiththeRegressionEquationAssessing Criterion RelatedValidityfo rtheHowIAmRaisedMeasure 7 8 Table16 DescriptiveStatisticsandGenderDifferencesfortheIndependentand D ependentVariablesinPhase3 7 9 Table17 Correlational RelationshipsAmongtheDemographicandCultural IndependentVariablesU tilizedwiththePhase3 S ample 79 Table18 CorrelationsAmongDependentVariables 80 Table19 ControlandParentingPredic torsofGlobalSelf worthfortheEntire Phase3Sample 81 Table20 ControlandParentingPredictorsofGlobalSelf worthfor theFemale S ampleofPhase3 82 Table21 ControlandParentingPredictorsofGlobalSelf worthf ortheMale S ampleofPhase3 8 3 Table22 PatternMatrixoftheFactorAnalysisofHIR(32 Items)UtilizingPCA withaPromaxRotationAlongwithComparisontoPh ase1and2 FactorStructures 85 Table23 ComponentCorrelationMatrixUtilizingtheComponentsfromthe PCA7 FactorPromax Rotat ionsforthePhase3Sample 86 Table24 FactorAnalysisofthePPSUtilizin gPCAwithaVarimaxRotation 87 Table25 FactorAnalysisofthePPSforBoysUtilizin gPCAwithaVarimax Rotation 88 Table26 FactorAnalysisofthePPSforGirlsUtili zin gPCAwithaVarimax Rotation 89

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vi ListofFigures Figure1. Stem and leafplotoftheagesofthep arent p articipantsinPhase1 39 Figure2. Plotofeigenvaluesfromthefactoranalysisofthenewparenting measureutilizingPAF extractionmetho d,norotation 50 Figure3. Plotofeigenvaluesfromthefactoranalysisofthenewparenting measureutilizingPCAextractionm ethod,norotation 51

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vii DevelopmentofaScaletoMeasureParentinginHispanicAdolescentsFamilies EvelynMarieAlvarez ABSTRACT Theultimategoalofthisresearchwastoprovideatooltoadequatelyexaminethe relationshipthatparentingstylehaswithHispanicyouthsacademicandbehavioral outcomes.Areviewoftheliteraturerevealsthatthefieldislackinganappr opriate, culturallysensitive,paper and pencilmeasureofparentingofHispanicadolescentswith adolescentsreportingontheirparentsbehavior.Currentmeasureswerenotdeveloped withHispanicfamiliesinmind,butratherwereevaluatedforusewith Hispanic populationsafterthedevelopmentphase.Therefore,thecurrentstudysoughttofillthis gapintheresearchonparentingbyconstructingameasureofparentingthatwasnotonly culturallysensitiveinitsuse,butalsoculturallysensitivein itsdevelopment. Thisstudyconsistedofthreephases eachusingaHispanic onlysample.First, 4 groupinterviews informedtheitemcontentanddevelopmentofthisnewscale. Four focusgroupsconsistedof 4 7 parentseach,and6focusgroupsconsist edof6 8middle schooladolescentseach.Theinformationcollectedinthefocusgroupswasusedto develop60itemsintendedtomeasureparentingbehaviorsinHispanicfamilies. Inthesecondphase,314 Hispanicstudentscompletedthenew60 itemscale Reliabilityestimates,itemanalysesandfactoranalyseswereconductedtoreducethe itemstoatotalof32itemsandtodetermineemergingfactors.

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viii Inthefinalphase,131 Hispanicstudentscompletedtherevised32 itemscale and 105ofthesestuden tswereretainedfortheanalyses .Regressionequationswereusedto predictacademicandbehavioraloutcomes andthenewreduced itemparentingscalewas comparedtoanestablishedparentingscaleoriginallydevelopedformajoritynon HispanicAmerican culture.Analysesalsoexploredthenewmeasuresrelationshipwith acculturation,ethnicidentity,SES,andgenerationalstatus. Thenew32 itemmeasureprovideduniqueinformationaboveandbeyondthe establishedparen tingmeasurewhenpredicting Glo balSelf Worth,suggestingthatthe newmeasuremaybettercapturetherelationshipbetweenparentingandstudent outcomes.Ontheotherhand,futurestudiesneedtoaddressmethodologicallimitations ofthisstudybyusingalargersamplesizeandincrea singsampleheterogeneitywhile maintainingconsistencyindemographicvariablesacrosswithin studysamples.

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1 Introduction Themotherscollectivelyexpressafeelingofbetrayalbytheveryprofessionalsfrom whomtheyseekhelpThesewomenaresee minglyunawarethatprofessionals, evenwhensharingthesameculturalbackground,holdthecultureviewsofthenew environment,oftenbyvirtueoftheirprofessionaleducation(Quiones Mayo& Dempsey,2005,pp.651 652). TheLatino 1 populationisthef astestgrowingminoritypopulationwithintheUnited States(Carlson,Uppal&Prosser,2000;GarcaColl&Prachter,2002;Harwood, Leyendecker,Carlson,Asencio,&Miller,2002).Inaddition,thelastcensusindicatedthat LatinosarenowthelargestU.S .minoritypopulation(14.5%)(U.S.CensusBureau,2005), 1 Forpurposesof thispaper,thetermsHispanicandLatinowillbeusedinterchangeablyfora varietyofreasons.Primarily,researchersinthefieldeitheruseonetermortheother;some alsousethetermsinterchangeably.Itseemsthateachtermisdifferentiallypref erred dependingonanindividualsnationalbackground.ManyMexicansandMexicanAmericans preferthetermLatino/asincetheyconsiderthetermHispanictodenysomeoftheir indigenousbackground,especiallywhensomedonotspeakSpanishandmaye venbe offendedbybeingassociatedwithapeoplethatabusedandexploitedthem.Otherscounter thatthetermLatinoistoobroadsince,operationally,itcouldbeinclusiveofanyculture withLatinroots,includingItaliansandtheFrench.Ultimatel y,researcherstendtousethe termthattheirsubjectsprefer.AresearcherwhoprimarilyworkswithMexicansand ChicanosismostlikelytousethetermLatino/a,andaresearcherwhoworkswithother groups,primarilyintheEastcoastoftheUS(mos tlyofCaribbeanorigin),willmostlikely usethetermHispanic.Ofnote,theU.S.BureauoftheCensususesthetermsHispanic andLatinointerchangeably(Ramirez&delaCruz,2003).

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2 andbytheyear2050willmakeup25%oftheU.S.population(Harwoodetal.,2002)and 28%oftheU.S.childpopulation.Still,relativelyfewresearchershaveexaminedthe relationshipsbetweenp arentingandchildoutcomesforLatinoyouth(Carlson,Uppal,& Prosser,2000).Researchisevensparserwhenwithin groupdifferences(e.g.,gender)are examinedwithintheHispanicpopulation,eventhoughresearcherslikeTuckerandHerman (2002)callf orculturallysensitiveresearchtoexaminesuchsubsamples. AsMcLoydandcolleagues(2000)contend,ifpeoplefromadistantcountryor planethadtodeducethecurrentracialandethniccompositionoftheUnitedStatesbasedon readingourfamilystu diesandchilddevelopmentjournals,theyprobablywouldconclude thatitis85to90%Whiteandabout10%Black,withaminisculepercentageofLatinosand AsianAmericans(p.1087).Inreality,theUnitedStatesis67%White(notofHispanic descent), 12%Black(notofHispanicdescent),14%Hispanic/Latino,4%Asian,1% AmericanIndian/AlaskaNativeorNativeHawaiian/otherPacificIslander,and1%twoor moreraces(UnitedStatesBureauoftheCensus,2004).Tohelpclosethegapbetweenthe populati onmake upofcurrentpsychologicalliteratureandtheactualU.S.population,the goalofthecurrentstudywastodevelopaculturallyappropriateparentingsurveyforuse withHispanicyouth. Thefirstsectionofthereviewexamineshowparenting,asc urrentlymeasured,is relatedtoHispanicyouthsoutcomes,includingbehavioraladjustmentandacademic achievement.FewparentingscaleshavebeendevelopedfortheLatino/Hispanicculture. Instead,measuresusedforLatinos/Hispanicsweredevelopedfo randbyindividuals representingmainstreamUnitedStatesculture.Thesemeasureswerethentranslatedinto

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3 Spanishandreceivedacceptablevaluesinconfirmatoryfactoranalyses(e.g.,Steinberg, Dornbusch,&Brown,1992;Steinberg,Mounts,Lamborn,&D ornbusch,1991).However,it isnotclearwhetherthescalesfullycapturetheconstructofparentingfromaLatino/Hispanic perspective.AlthoughthesemeasurescouldpotentiallybeunsuitableforusewithHispanic youth,theyhavebeenusedtomakeav arietyofconclusionsaboutLatino/Hispanicparenting asitrelatestoadolescentadjustment. ThepresentstudyestablishesafoundationforfutureresearchwiththeHispanic populationbydevelopingaparentingpracticesscalethatisculturallysensiti ve,notjustinthe endstage,butalsofromitsveryinception.ItsgoalwastodevelopameasureforHispanics byHispanicresearchers,utilizingHispanicjudgesandparticipantsintheHispanic community.Whilethismethodologymaynothaveeliminated allpotentialbias,theintent wastoprovideatoolforresearchthatwas,asmuchaspossible,culturallysensitive.Sucha measurewarrantsdevelopmentsincecurrentmeasuresmaycapturesome,butnottheentire pictureofparentinganditsultimater elationshipwithHispanicyouthoutcomes. ParentingintheMainstreamUnitedStatesCulture Mostofwhatweknowaboutparentinganditsrelationtoyouthoutcomesisbasedon studiesofEuropeanAmerican,middleclassfamilies.Insummary,thesestudie sconclude thatparentingpracticesfallprimarilyunderoneoffourcategories:Authoritative, Authoritarian,Permissive,andNeglectful(Baumrind,1968,1971;Lamborn,Mounts, Steinberg,&Dornbusch,1991;Steinberg,Brown,&Dornbusch,1996). Authorit ativeparentsexhibithighlevelsofcontrolovertheirchildandhighlevelsof warmthandinvolvement.Authoritarianparentsalsoexhibithighlevelsofcontrol,butlack

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4 warmth.Permissiveparentsarecharacterizedbyhighlevelsofwarmth,butlack c ontrol/discipliningbehaviors.Neglectfulparentsexhibitneithercontrolnorwarmthwith theirchild(Lambornetal.,1991).Steinbergandcolleaguesdescribethefourcategoriesas havingdifferinglevelsofintensityalongthreedimensions:Warmth/Acc eptance Involvement,PsychologicalAutonomy,andStrictness/Supervision.Warmth/Acceptance Involvementistheextenttowhichaparentisloving,responsive,andinvolved,while Stricteness/Supervisionreflectsparentalmonitoringandsupervisionofthey ouths whereabouts,activities,andfriends(Lambornetal.,1991).PsychologicalAutonomy measurestheextenttowhichachildisencouragedtoindividuatepsychologicallyfromhisor herfamily(Steinberg,Elmen,&Mounts,1989).Intheirstudyonadole scentoutcomes,using thetypologyestablishedbyBaumrind,Dornbuschetal.(1987)reportedunexpectedfindings relatedtoHispanicmalesandfemales.Specifically,theyfoundthat,althoughauthoritarian parentingwasrelatedtolowergradesforwhitey outh,itwasnotrelatedatalltoHispanic malesgrades,whilebeingsignificantlyrelatedtolowergradesforHispanicfemales.These researchersfoundtheresultssoinexplicable,thattheysuggestedsuchresultswereclear evidence).Formainstrea mcultureWhiteadolescents,authoritativeparentingwasrelated tohighergradesinschool,whileauthoritarianandpermissiveparentingwasrelatedtolower grades. ParentinginHispanicHouseholds Obedienceandconformityareculturallyappropriateexpe ctationsforyouthwithinthe Latino/Hispanicculture.Theseexpectationshavepresumablyfosteredadjustmentwithinthe Hispaniccountriesoforigin.Ontheotherhand,thevaluesofobedienceandconformity

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5 conflictwithmainstreamAmericanexpectation sofindependence,self direction,and creativity(Laosa,1982,andMoreno,1991,ascitedinContreras,Narang,Ikhlas,& Teichman,2002).Intheirpaperonethnicdifferencesinacademicachievement,Steinberg, Dornbusch,andBrown(1992)notedthatH ispanicparentstendtobeauthoritarianwithan emphasisonobedienceandconformityandconsequentlyhaveadverseeffectsontheir adolescentsself relianceandself confidence.IllustrativeoftheculturallensoftheUnited Statesmainstreamcultu re,Steinbergandcolleaguesincorrectlyassumethatself direction andautonomyleadtoself relianceandself confidenceintheHispanicculture.Incontrast, RudyandGrusec(2006)foundthat,althoughmothersfromacollectivistculturetendedto endo rseanauthoritarianstyleofparentingmorefrequentlythanmothersfroman individualistculture,thisdidnotleadthemotherstoviewtheirchildreninamorenegative light,nordidtheirchildrenhavelowerself esteem.Theyconcludedthatmaternal negative thoughtsandfeelings,associatedwithauthoritarianisminindividualistbutnotcollectivist groups,maybemoredetrimentaltochildrensself esteemthanisauthoritarianisminandof itself(Rudy&Grusec,2006,p.68). Forexample,Chao( 1994)illustratedhowBaumrindsoriginalconceptualizationof authoritarianparentingwasinvalidindescribingChinese(acollectivistculture)parenting practices,whichtendtobecharacterizedintheliteratureasauthoritarian.Thesepractices were moreaccuratelycharacterizedastrainingandencompassedadifferent conceptualizationofparentingaltogether,whichBaumrindstypologycouldnotfullycapture oradequatelydescribe.Similarly,Iproposethatcurrentparentingconstructsdonot accu ratelyencapsulatetheconstructsinvolvedinparentingHispanicyouth.

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6 LindahlandMalik(1999)offeranexplanationforwhyHispanicparentsareoften mistakenlydescribedasauthoritarian.Theseresearchersdifferentiatebetween authoritarianparen tingandhierarchicalparenting.Authoritarianparentingimpliesacold andunresponsiveemotionalstylewhereashierarchicalparentingdoesnotincludean emotionalcomponentbutratherislimitedtodecision making,rules,andpunishment. Wherea democraticparentincorporatestheopinionsofallfamilymembers,including children,ahierarchicalparentdoesnotorminimallyconsiderachildsopinion. Interestingly,LindahlandMalikfoundthathierarchicalparentinganddemocraticparenting wererelatedtolowlevelsofexternalizingbehaviorsforschool ageHispanicboys.In contrast,hierarchicalparentingwasrelatedtothehighestlevelofexternalizingbehaviorsfor EuropeanAmericanboys(morethanlaxparenting,and,inturn,moreth andemocratic parenting).Inotherwords,hierarchicalparenting,conceptuallydifferentfromauthoritarian parenting,wasrelatedtoadaptivebehaviorsforHispanicAmericanboysbutnotfor EuropeanAmericanboys. Alongthesameline,researchershavef oundthatHispanicparentsuseof psychologicalcontrolismultidimensional.Hispanicparentsdemandinstrumental independence(e.g.,completingchores)muchearlierthanEuropeanAmericanparents,but grantadolescentsdecision makingoverpersonalc areandafter schoolactivitiesatalater agethanisthecaseforEuropeanAmericanyouths(Savage&Gauvain,1998;Schulze, Harwood,Schmerich,&Leyendecker,2002). TherearealsosignificantgenderdifferencesintheparentingofHispanicadolescent s. Forexample,Bmacaandcolleagues(2005)foundthathigherparentalmonitoringwas

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7 significantlyrelatedtoboyshavingahigherself esteem.Ontheotherhandtherewaslittle tonorelationshipbetweenparentalmonitoringandgirlsself esteem.A dditionally,these researchersfoundthatalthoughgreaterparentalsupportwasrelatedtohigherself esteemin bothboysandgirls,thisrelationshipwasmoderatedbytheboysperceptionofneighborhood risk.Girlsperceptionofparentalsupportwast hesameregardlessoftheirperceptionof neighborhoodrisk.Inanotherstudy,PlunkettandBmaca Gomez(2003)foundthat Mexicangirlsreportedhigherlevelsofmotivationandeducationalaspirationsthanboys;the researchersspeculatedthatMexicanpa rentsmayraisegirlsdifferentlyinrelationto academicoutcomes. PreviousgenerationsofHispanicmalesandfemaleslivedundermorestereotypical rolescommonlyreferredtoasmarianismoandmachismo.Marianismoreferstothe womansrole,likened tothatoftheVirginMary,beingself sacrificialanddevotedtoher family.Machismoreferstothemalesroleofprovider,protector,butalsomalechauvinist. Inpaststudies,itwasfoundthattheHispanicfamily,specificallytheMexicanfamily,w as mostlypatriarchal.Ontheotherhand,currentstudiesreportthatthesestereotypesareless trueforHispanicmenandwomenastheirrolesbecomemoreegalitarian(Cauce& Domenech Rodrguez,2000).Eveniftheconceptsofmarianismoandmachismoar eslowly diminishing,theystillremainastheframeworkinwhichpastgenerationswereraisedand maystillinfluencethedifferentialparentingofadolescentboysandgirls. Insummary,HispanicparentsintheU.S.arecurrentlyviewedasusingan author itarianparentingstylethatiscontributorytoHispanicyouthspooroutcomes(e.g., pooracademicachievementandbehavioralproblems).Ontheotherhand,someresearchers

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8 believethecurrentviewofHispanicparentingtobeculturallybiased(e.g.,Lin dahl&Malik, 1999).Forexample,whenSteinbergandcolleaguesconcludedthattheirmeasureof parentingbehaviorswasadequateforallethnicgroups,theybasedtheirconclusionon reliabilityestimatesandconfirmatoryfactoranalyses,whichultimate lycannottruly determinewhetherthemeasurehasadequatecontentandconstructvalidity,especiallyif theorysuggeststhattherearemoreconstructsrelatedtoparentingthanthemeasureis including(Knight,Tein,Prost,&Gonzales,2002).Forexample ,countryoforiginhadan effectonwhetheraparentinginterventionprogramwithculturaladaptationsforHispanics improvedyouthoutcomes.IfachildwasnotU.S. born,theinterventiondidnotworkas wellandyouthhadworseoutcomesthanforU.S. b ornHispanicyouth(Martinez&Eddy, 2005).Thisillustrateshowevenculturaladaptationsnomatterhowcarefullyderived,may stillbeinappropriatebythesourceofdevelopment inthiscaseaU.S. culturallyderived interventionwithadaptationsfo rHispanicyouth. ContextandLatino/HispanicParenting Parenting,especiallywithLatinos,isnotanisolatedinteractionbetweenparentand childbutoccurswithinvariouscontexts.Thesecontextscanincludeacculturation,SES, countryoforigin,ande ducationpriortocomingtoU.S.aswellasthestressofbeingina newcountryandtheinteractionsamongallofthesevariables.Itwouldbeappropriate,then, thatparentingbeliefs,attitudesandbehaviorsbestudiedwithinthesecontexts.This cont extualapproachtothestudyofparentingisimportantandevennecessarywhenLatino familiesarethegroupofinterestpreciselybecause,incontrasttoEuropeanAmericans, Latinostendtoadheretochildrearingbeliefsandvalueswhichareconsonantwi thamore

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9 sociocentric[versusindividualistic]perspective(Harwoodetal.,2002,p.24).Duetotheir sociocentricfocus,contextmayplayanevengreaterroleintheparentingofLatinochildren thanintheparentingofEuropeanAmericanchildren.F orexample,inastudyofMexican Americanmothers,greateracculturationandhigherSESwererelatedtomothersviewinga childsdevelopmentalcontextasmoredynamicthanwasthecaseforlessacculturated mothersofhighSES.Incontrast,thechildde velopmentviewsofmotherswithlowlevelsof SESwerenotrelatedtoacculturation(Gutierrez,Sameroff,&Karrer,1988,ascitedin GarcaColl&Pachter,2002).Inanotherstudy(Carlson,Uppal&Prosser,2000),SESdid notrelatetoLatinoauthoritati veparentingstyle,buttherelationshipbetweenparenting practicesandstudentself esteemwasmoderatedbyadolescentgirlsdegreeofethnic identity.ThisstudyandthepriorstudyaboveillustratethepotentialforSES,acculturation andethnicityt ohaveinteractiveeffectsonLatinosparentingbeliefsandpractices, ultimatelyaffectingtheirrelationshipwithyouthoutcomes. WhatMayBeMissinginCurrentMeasuresofParenting IntermsofparticularparentingpracticesandbeliefsuniquetotheL atinopopulation, twomainconstructsarecitedintheliteratureasuniquetoLatinofamiliesandinfluentialin theirparentingpracticesandbeliefs.Thesetwovaluesarelabeledrespeto(proper demeanor)andfamilismo(abeliefsystem[that]refe rstofeelingsofloyalty,reciprocity, andsolidaritytowardsmembersofthefamily,aswellastothenotionofthefamilyasan extensionofself(Corts,1995,ascitedinHarwoodetal.,2002,p.27).Researchershave approachedthesetwoconstructs avarietyofways,buthaveyettodescribehowthesevalues

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10 aresocializedinadolescence.Thefollowingdiscussionconnectsparentingpracticesto adolescentsocializationinthesecrucialLatinovalues. Respeto Havingproperdemeanormeetsthegoalo fpleasingothersandbeingsocially acceptableandincludesbeingquiet,obedient,bieneducado(well mannered),andun niomodelo(amodelchild).Achildiswellmanneredandobedientinpartbydeferring decision makingandcontroltowhomever istheauthority.Therefore,parentalcontrolof authorityoverbehavioranddecision makingispartoftheconstructofrespeto.Latino familiesexercisegreaterdirectcontroloveradolescentsbehavior,bothwithinthefamilyand outsideofit,tha ndoEuropeanAmericans(Bulcroft,Carmody,&Bulcroft,1996),butthisis moderatedbylevelofacculturation(Fuligni,1998). Thevalueofrespetoanditsaccompanyinghigherlevelsofcontrolmayhave implicationsforacademicachievementandbehavi oraloutcomesforLatinochildrenand adolescents(hereafterreferredtoaschildrenoryouth).Thequestionthenfollows:does greatercontrolthanthatofEuropeanAmericansresultinoptimaloutcomesforthechildren? AssuggestedbyFulignis(1998) researchandthatofSzapocznikandcolleagues(1980),the differenceinthelevelofacculturationbetweengenerations(fromparenttochild)may moderatetherelationshipbetweenparentalcontrolandchildrensoutcomes.Onemaydraw comparisonsfromth einfantliterature.UnlikeinEuropeanandAfricanAmericanfamilies, therewasnosignificantpositiverelationshipbetweenMexicanAmericansmaternal intrusivenesswithinfantsat14monthsofageandinfantnegativityat24 monthsofage (Harper,Hal gunseth,Ispa,&Fine,2003).Theseresultssuggestthateithertheconstructof

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11 psychologicalcontrol/intrusivenessisnotrelatedtochildnegativityforMexicanAmericans orthatthebehaviorisadaptiveandprotectivewithinMexicanAmericancultureo reventhat thereisathirdvariablemoderatingtherelationship.Onestudyprovidesapotential explanationofthislackofrelationship.ResearchersfoundthatPuertoRicanmothers placedmoreemphasisoninstrumentalindependence,ortheabilityto performtaskswithout anadultshelp,andlessemphasisonaspectsofautonomyrelatedtoself esteemthandid Anglomothers(Schulze,Harwood,Schmerich,&Leyendecker,2001,ascitedinHarwood etal.,2002).Thesefindingssuggestthatautonomy,at leastwithintheLatinoculture,is multidimensionalandisconceptualizeddifferentlyfromcurrentmeasuresofparental autonomygranting. Familismo Theconstructoffamilismohasalsobeenwidelyidentifiedandagreeduponinthe studyofHispanicfam ilies(GarcaColl,2003;Harwoodetal.,2002;Kuperminc,Jerkovic,& Lapidus,2003).IncontrasttoEuropeanAmericans,U.S.Latinoshavelargerandmore cohesivesocialnetworks(withagreaterproportionofthenetworkconsistingofextended family members)(Harwoodetal.,2002,p.27).Thesesocialnetworksaremoresalientfor LatinochildrenthanEuropeanAmericanchildrenandaremorelikelytobethesourceof adviceforLatinos.Inaddition,Latinoyouthfeelagreaterdutytorespectandas sisttheir parentsaswellasfeelagreaterobligationtothefamily(Harwoodetal.,2002).Thisaspect offamilismmaypersistthroughoutthegenerationswhilelivingintheUnitedStates, suggestingmaintenanceofthisvalueevenastheprocessofacc ulturationprogresses (Harwoodetal.,2002).Adolescentfeelingsofgreaterobligationtothefamilymayfindtheir

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12 sourceinparentalbehaviorsandexpectationsoftheadolescent.Forexample,Quinones MayoandDempsey(2005)assertthatparentalover protectionhighlightsthebeliefthatthe degreesofsocialsuccessforLatinoadolescentsinthiscriticalphaseofdevelopmentwill ultimatelydeterminethetotalfamily'ssuccessinthenewsociety(p.58). Familismo,throughsocialsupport,isrelated toanumberofpositiveoutcomes includingmothersacceptance(versusrejection)oftheirchildren(deLeonSiantz,1990;de LeonSiantz&Smith,1994)andhighertestscoresforHispanicchildren(Levitt,Guacci Franco,&Levitt,1994).Still,manyof thepositiveoutcomesdifferbycontext,suchaslevel ofacculturation.Forexample,onestudyfoundthatwhenPuertoRicanmothersreceived higherlevelsofsupportfromtheirchildsgrandmother,highlyacculturatedmotherstended tohavehigherstres sandsymptomatologythanlessacculturatedmothers(Contreras,Narang, Ikhlas,&Teichman,2002). Intermsofgenderdifferences,Kupermincandcolleagues(2003)foundthat immigrantMexicanboysreportedhigherfamilismoattitudesthangirls.Whengen derwas notconsideredintheanalysis,familismo attitudes werenotrelatedtobehavioralcompetence oradjustmentproblemsforeitherhighschoolormiddleschoolstudents.Nevertheless, instrumentalcaregiving(acomponentoffilialresponsibilityand familismthatinvolves activitiessuchastakingcareofsiblingsorcookingandcleaning)waspositivelyrelatedto behavioralcompetenceandnegativelyrelatedtoadjustmentproblemsforthehighschool students.Insummary,Latinohouseholdsaremored irectiveandlessindividualistic,andthis approachtoparentingmayhaveprotectiveaswellasnegativerelationshipswithpositive

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13 childoutcomesdependingontheoutcomestudied,levelofacculturationand/orethnic identity,andlevelofSES. Heteroge neityofLatinos Asevidencedbythestudiesjustmentionedabove,onecannotstudyHispanic/Latino parentingwithoutaddressingissuesofwithingroupdifferencesandpotentialconfoundsin thecurrentLatinoparentingliterature.ThepopulationofLati noscanbedefinedavariety ofways,andgenerallyreferstopeoplewhohavetheiroriginsinMexico,CentralorSouth America,andtheSpanish speakingCaribbean(Harwoodetal.,2002).Thisgeneralterm impliesahomogeneousgroupwithahomogeneous approachtoparenting.However,Latinos areadiversegroupwithimportantdifferencesinacculturation,countryoforigin,reasonfor beingintheUnitedStates,socioeconomicstatus(SES),andlevelofeducation(GarcaColl &Prachter,2002;Harwood, Leyendecker,Carlson,Asencio,&Miller,2002).Latinosmay havetheSpanishconquestaswellasotheraspectsoffamilylifeastheircommon denominator,buttheydifferinavarietyofimportantwaysthathaveramificationsforthe studyofparentingst ylesandpractices.Researchersconsistentlycitethefollowingareasas beingsourcesofwithin groupvariabilityamongLatinos:countryoforigin,SES,levelof acculturation,levelofethnicidentity,andlevelofeducation(GarcaColl&Prachter,200 2; Harwood,Leyendecker,Carlson,Asencio,&Miller,2002). Intermsofcountryoforigin,66.9%ofLatinosintheUnitedStatesareMexican, 8.6%arePuertoRican,and3.7%areofCubandescent(Ramirez&delaCruz,2003). Differencesinthecountryof originnotonlyleadtodifferencesinculturalnuances(e.g.,in languageorregionalmusic),butnationalityalsodictatesthereasonsforimmigratingtothe

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14 UnitedStates.Forexample,mostMexicanandPuertoRicanfamilieshavepeakedwavesof immigr ationparalleltothelowvalleysoftheeconomyofthehomecountryorincreasedjob opportunitiesintheU.S.Ontheotherhand,mostCubanfamiliesthatcameintotheUnited Statesinthe1960sthroughthe1980sfledtheirhomelandinordertoavoid thepolitical unrestandrevolution(Harwoodetal.,2002;Lee,2000).ComingtotheU.S.foreconomic opportunityversuscomingtotheU.S.toescapepersecutioninyourhomelandisassociated withdifferinglevelsofstress.Althoughstressispartof bothsituations,stressisarguably greaterforthelatter,andtheparentingliteratureshowsthathighstresslevelsarerelatedto poorerparentalandadolescentmentalhealth(Jack,2000). Latinosheterogeneityalsostemsfromtheirlevelsofaccultur ation.Theconceptof acculturationisoftenconfusedwiththetermethnicidentity,butthesearetwoseparate constructs(Zepeda,2003).Ethnicidentityisconsideredakeycomponentofsocialidentity (Phinney,1990)forminorityyouth,wheresocial identityistheindividualsperceptionsof hisorhersocialworldandhisorherplaceinit(Carlsonetal.,2000,p.47).Ethnicidentity canthusbeconsideredanaspectofacculturation,whereacculturationisamultidimensional processthroughw hichculturaladaptationandchangeoccurbetweentheminoritycultureand thehostculture(Harwood,2003;Harwoodetal.,2002).Acculturation,then,isadynamic processthatiscontinuous(notallornone)andvariablefromindividualtoindividual (Z epeda,2003).Infact,throughtheprocessofacculturation,familiesbecomebicultural bymaintainingsomeaspectsofthetraditionalcultureandadoptingnewvaluesandbehaviors fromthehostculture(GarcaColl&Prachter,2002).

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15 Anothersource ofheterogeneitywithintheLatinocultureisthatofSESandlevelof educationbothpre immigrationandpost immigrationbecausethesemaychangedrastically andmaybeasourceofstressforsomefamilies(Chavajay,2003;Zepeda,2003).SESalso differ samongnationalitieswith27%ofLatinosintheUnitedStateslivingbelowthepoverty line.Cubanshavethelowestpovertyrate(15.8%)andPuertoRicanshavethehighest povertyrate(25.3%).LevelofeducationalsodiffersforLatinoseducatedinthe United States,withCubansovertheageof25havingthehighestgraduationratesforhighschoolor higher(73.0%)andMexicanshavingthelowest(52.8%)(U.S.CensusBureau,2005b). Finally,Latinofamiliesvaryintheirlevelofsocialsupport.Where assome immigrantscometothiscountrytobegreetedbyfamilymembersandfellow country memberswhomanytimeshelpthemtoachieveeconomicstability,otherimmigrantsmove intoareasthathavelittletonoHispaniccommunityand,byvirtueofjoboccu pationsand subsequentSES,endupinlessadvantageouscircumstancessuchasresidinginadangerous neighborhood.Thisvariabilitymayimpacttheirparentingpractices(Chavajay,2003)and thequalityofparenting(Cochran&Niego,2002).Forexample, Latinoparentsina dangerousneighborhoodmayattempttoprotecttheirchildrenfromthedangerinavariety of,andsometimescontrasting,ways.Specifically,someparentsseverelylimitthechildrens participationinneighborhoodandschoolactivities. Otherparentslimitchildrens socializationtothosefamiliesthatareknownbytheparents.Yetothersincreasetheirlevel ofmonitoringandsupervisionbyencouragingtheirchildrentojoinactivitiesinwhichthe parentcanalsoparticipate(e.g., thechildplaysinasoccerteamwhichtheparentcoaches) (Reese,2002).

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16 Allthesesourcesofheterogeneityillustratetheneedforwithin groupcomparisons amongspecificnationalitieswithintheLatinogroup(Tucker&Herman,2002).For example,Buriel (2003)madesurehisstudyincludedonlyMexicanAmericans.Incontrast, otherresearcherscombineddifferentLatinonationalitiesaswellasdifferentlevelsofSES intoonecategorylabeledLatinosandthenderivedconclusionsfortheentireLatino p opulation.Thismethodologypotentiallyexcludesand/orbypassesimportantdifferences amongHispanics/LatinosandmayconfoundlowSESwithculture.Inaddition,most researchersfocusonlyonlowSESLatinos(Harwood,2003;Harwoodetal.,2002). Oner esearchgroupsuggestsanadditionalconsiderationinstudyingtheLatino populationintheU.S.,i.e.minoritystatus.Intheirstudy,Varelaetal.(2004)foundthat parentsofMexicandescentlivingintheU.S.weremoreauthoritarianintheirparentin gstyle thanMexicanfamilieslivinginMexicoorCaucasian Non Hispanicfamilieslivinginthe U.S.Theresearchteamconcludedthatdifferencesinauthoritarianvs.authoritative parentingbetweenHispanicandWhitefamiliesintheU.S.arenotrelated toculture,levelof assimilation,immigrationstatus,SES,oreducationlevel,butinsteadasaresultoftheir minoritystatuswithintheU.S. IdiscusstheabovesourcesofheterogeneitywithintheHispanicpopulationbecause ofthepotentialrolethese differencesmayplayinhowHispanicparentsbehavetowardstheir children.Thepresentstudyaddressedtheseissuesinordertoprovidethebestdescriptionof Hispanicparenting.

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17 TheCurrentStudy Theultimategoalofmyworkistoexaminetherela tionshipthatparentingstylehas withHispanicyouthsacademicandbehavioraloutcomesandtodeterminewhetherthereare substantialgenderdifferences.However,areviewoftheliteraturerevealedthatthefield lacksanappropriate,culturallysensit ive,paper and pencil,self reportmeasureofparenting ofHispanicadolescentswithadolescentsreportingtheirparentsbehavior.Muchofthe culturallysensitiveliteratureonparentinghasbeenconductedbyHarwoodandcolleagues andhasmostlyfocuse dontheinfantandpreschoolpopulation.ThemeasuresHarwoodand hercolleagues,usedwereappropriatelydeveloped,butconsistlargelyofopen ended interviewsandobservationsofthemotherandchilddyad.WhileHarwoodandcolleagues havefocusedon theinfantliteratureandtheHispanicliteratureingeneral,thepresentstudy focusedonadolescents.Someoftheresearchpresentedintheliteraturereviewhasalready usedadolescentandparentself report;however,inmostifnotallthestudiesre ported, researchersusedmeasuresoriginallydevelopedformajoritynon Hispanicyouthlivinginthe UnitedStates(e.g.,ParentingStressIndex,ParentingPracticesSuvey).Althoughmany researchersreportedwhethertheirmeasureshadbeenusedforHispa nicpopulationsbefore andwhetherthemeasureshadadequatepsychometricpropertiesforaHispanicpopulation, thesereportswereusuallylimitedtoreliabilityestimates.Virtuallyallpriorresearchers failedtorecognize(andmodifytheirmeasuresto fit)theuniquecharacteristicsofthe Hispanicculture. SomepencilandpaperquestionnairesformeasuringparentingwithLatinosalready exist.Infact,somehavebeentranslatedintoSpanishandback translatedaswellas

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18 undergoneconfirmatoryfactor analysesusingaHispanicpopulation.Nevertheless,these currentmeasureswerenotdevelopedwithHispanicfamiliesinmind,butratherwere evaluatedforusewithHispanicpopulationsafterthemeasurewasinitiallydevelopedforand bypersonsofmains treamUnitedStatesculture. Inconclusion,someofthecurrentresearchsuggeststhattheremaybemoreto parentinginHispanicfamiliesthanexistingmeasuresassess(e.g.,theinfluenceoffamilismo andrespeto).Therefore,inthecurrentstudyIso ughttofillthisgapintheresearchon parentingbyconstructingameasureofparentingthatisnotonlyculturallysensitiveinits use,butalsoculturallysensitiveinitsdevelopment.Hopefully,thismeasuremayeventually beusedtoanswerimportan tquestionsinthestudyofHispanicparentingthatarecurrently unanswerablebecauseofthelackofadequateinstruments. Toaddressvalidityissues,Ievaluatedthenewlydevelopedparentingscaleandits relationshipwithHispanicyouthoutcomes,such asacademicachievementandbehavioral adjustment.Thenewparentingscalewasalsocomparedtoanestablishedparentingscale originallydevelopedforthemajoritynon HispanicUnitedStatesculture(Lambornetal., 1991)toexaminewhetheranyuniquein formationisavailableinthenewparentingscale apartfromthatprovidedbyalreadyestablishedparentingconstructs.Also,thedevelopment ofthismeasureincludedinformationastoitsrelationshipwithacculturation,ethnicidentity, SES,andgenerat ionalstatus. Insummary,thereareavarietyofself reportinstrumentsdevelopedtomeasurethe parentingofadolescents.Thesemeasureshaveservedwellinadolescentresearch. However,thefaceoftheUnitedStatesischangingasthepopulationof thosewithaHispanic

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19 ethnicbackground(andsoaHispanicculture)isincreasing.Therefore,asthecultureofthe populationchanges,soresearchersapproachtoresearchingtheseindividualsneedsto change.Althoughresearchsuggeststhatthereares omeparentingbehaviorscommontoall cultures,thereseemtobesomecharacteristicsuniquetoparentingintheHispanicculture. Forthatreason,thestate of the artinresearchingHispanicparentingcallsforameasure developedfromaHispaniccultur alperspectiveinordertoincludesuchaspectsofthe culture.Unlikeanyprioradolescentself reportoftheirparentspractices,thisscale developmentusedHispanicsamplestodevelopitemcontentinthehopesofcapturingsuch characteristicsofHis paniccultureasfamilismoandrespeto. Tomeetthesegoals,Idevelopedascaleinthreephases.Inthefirstphase,I conductedgroupinterviewstoinformitemdevelopmentforthenewmeasure.Onehundred thirtyofthedevelopeditemsunderwentreview byapanelofjudgesandwerereducedto60 items. Inthesecondphase,Iadministeredthe60itemsto300Hispanicmiddleschool students.Usingtheirresponses,Iconductedfactoranalysesanditem analysis.Thirty two itemswereretainedinthefina lmeasure,andsevenfactorsemergedfromtheanalyses. InPhase3,the32 itemmeasurewasadministeredto100Hispanicmiddleschool studentsalongwithmeasuresofselfcompetence,acculturation,ethnicidentity,generational status,andSES.Thetea chersofthestudentswereaskedtocompletemeasuresofmental health/behavioraladjustmentforeachstudent.Theschooladministrationwasaskedto providegradesandthenumberofdisciplinereferralsforeachstudent.Thenewmeasure thenunderwentr eliabilityanalysesandfactoranalyses.Thenewmeasurewasenteredintoa

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20 regressionequationaftercontrollingforethnicidentity,acculturation,SES,andgenerational statustopredictself reportedcompetence,teacherreportedmentalhealthvariable s,academic achievement,andbehavioraladjustmentintheschool.

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21 Phase1 Phase1involvedthedevelopmentofthescalethemesanditemcontent.Group interviewswereconductedtocollectinformationaboutparentinginHispanichouseholds. Theyalsop rovidedinsightastohowtheparticularsofHispaniccultureinfluencethe parentingofadolescents. Method Participants Parents .Fortheparentgroupinterviews,atotalof22parentsparticipated.There wasatotalof4groupswith4,5,6and7part icipantseach.Therewasnolimitastothe parentsage,buttheymusthaveparentedorbeencurrentlyparentinganadolescent.Ageof parentsrangedfrom34to76( M =51.27yearsold, SD =11.95).Fifteenparentshad parentedanadolescentaged11 14 inthepast,and7werecurrentlyparentinganadolescent ofthatage.Averagecurrentageofthechildrenofpastparentswas28(range=5 56years old).Theaverageageofthechildrenofcurrentparentswas15(range=2 26yearsold). Particip antscamefromavarietyofprofessionsfromhomemakersandtruckdriversto teachersanduniversityprofessors.ParentsnationsoforiginincludedPuertoRico(8 participants),Cuba(4),DominicanRepublic(4),Columbia(1),CostaRica(1),ElSalvador (1),Spain(1),Nicaragua(1),andVenezuela(1).Onlytwoparticipantsreportedbeingborn intheUnitedStates;participantsborninPuertoRicodidnotconsiderthemselvesasbeing

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22 bornintheUnitedStates.Theforeign bornparticipantsreportedliv ingintheU.S.an averageof25years(range=0.66to57years).Fifteenmothersand6fathersparticipated. Notallparticipantswerebiologicalparentssinceoneparticipantwasasingleauntwho helpedraiseherniecesandnephews. Toobtainparti cipantswhocamefromawiderangeofsocioeconomicbackgrounds andcountriesoforigin,parentswererecruitedavarietyofwaysincludingpassingoutfliers, speakingatcommunity/churchgatherings,andthroughword of mouth.Inaddition,I becameactiv elyinvolvedinseveralcommunityactivitiesbeforeapproachingpotential participants.Thisfacilitatedrecruitmentinseveralways.Forexample,Irecruitedfroma churchinwhichIparticipatedinnon studyrelatedactivities.Oncethepastorfromth eone churchknewmeandallowedrecruitmentofparticipants,pastorsfromotherchurchesmore readilyallowedmetorecruitfromtheirchurches.Inaddition,asparticipantsregularlysaw meinotheractivities,theywerecomfortableinhelpingmecomple temystudies.Theyfelt theywereactivelyinvestingintheircommunitythroughhelpingme. Thetwomostsuccessfulrecruitmentmethodswere:(1)relyingonword of mouth fromoneortwoparentsinterestedinputtingagrouptogether,and(2)makinga specific announcementattheendofachurchserviceorcommunitymeetingandhavingparticipants signupimmediatelyaftertheservice/meeting.Simplypassingoutfliersormakinggeneral announcements(eitherinpersonorinanewsletterorchurchbulle tin)didnotyieldany responses. Participantswereoffered$15giftcertificatestoTargetorWal Mart.Interestingly, somefeltuncomfortablereceivinganincentive,againreflectingthesentimentthatthiswas

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23 aninvestmentinthefutureoftheHispa niccommunitynotsimplyawaytoobtain$15gift certificates.Itseemsthegiftcertificateswerenotatrueincentiveforparticipationas intended,butsimplyabonusforparticipation. Adolescents. Twenty onestudentsparticipatedintheadolescen tgroupinterviews. Studentsrangedfromage11to14( M =12.48yearsold).Onewasin4 th grade(onefemale), 5in6 th grade(threefemales,twomales),4in7 th grade(2females,2males),and9in8 th grade(6females,3males).Participantslivedin eithertheTampaorMiamiareaandallwere U.S.bornexceptforoneparticipantwhohadlivedintheU.S.fortwoyears.Countriesof originincludedCuba(8participants),Bolivia(1),Columbia(1),CostaRica(1),Dominican Republic(1),Nicaragua(1), PuertoRico(1),Spain(1),twoormorenationalitiesmixed(3), andHispanicnationalitymixedwithothernon Hispanicethnicbackground(3).Four participantsonlylivedwiththeirmothers.Allotherparticipantslivedwiththeirbiological parents. Participantsreceived$20giftcertificatesinreturnforparticipation. Adolescentparticipantswererecruitedbyaddressingtheirparentsinthesamevenue andformataswhentheparentparticipantswererecruited.Additionally,parentsweresent lette rhomesviatheirchildrenattendingsummercamp.Adolescentsweregiventheoptionto participateordeclineoncetheirparentgaveapprovalfortheirparticipation. Procedure Activeconsentwassoughtfromparentparticipantsincludingconsenttobe a udiotapedduringthediscussion.ConsentswereprovidedinbothEnglishandSpanishand wereorallypresentedtoeachindividualbeforethegroupinterviewsconvened.Parent groupswereconductedinavarietyofsettingsthatweremostconvenientforthe participants.

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24 Thesettingsincludedlocalcommunitycenters,thechurchgroupfacilityfromwhichthey wererecruited,orparticipantshomes. ActiveconsentfortheadolescentparticipantswassoughtbysendingEnglishand Spanishlettershometothepa rentsofthetargetedchildrenandalsobyhavingparentssign uptheirchildrenafterageneralannouncementduringameeting.Whenlettersweresent homewiththestudents,theywereaskedtobringbacktheconsentformstotheschool, church,orother placethroughwhichtheywererecruited.Studentswerenotinvitedifthey wereinaspecialeducationprogram.Beforeeachgroupinterviewbegan,thestudywas describedtothestudents.Ifthestudentagreedtoparticipate,heorshewouldsignanass ent formaswellasco signtheformtheparentssignedconsentingforaudiotapingofthegroup interview.Groupsfortheadolescentslastedapproximately90to120minutesduringatime andaplacethatwasconvenientforallparticipants(e.g.,anafte rnoonsetapartforleisureat schoolorduringlunchtimeinanavailableclassroomorintheschoollibrary,orafterSunday churchservice). Theformatofthegroupsfollowedguidelinesestablishedbyavarietyofresearchers whohavedoneorencoura gedqualitativeworkwithHispanicpopulationsinconducting culturallysensitivescaledevelopment(Cauce,Coronado&Watson,1998;Dumka, Gonzales,Wood,&Formoso,1998;Knight,Tein,Prost,&Gonzales,2000;Steidel,Ikhlas, Lopez,Rahman,&Teichman, 2000).Allgroupsbeganwithanicebreaker.Forexample, parentswereaskedtosaytheirnameandwhytheydecidedtobepartofthegroupinterview. Adolescentswereaskedtosaytheirnameandtheirfavoritefoodand/ormovie.Snacks wereprovided andtheformatwasthatofasemi structuredinterview,withmostquestions

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25 beingopen ended.GroupswereconductedinEnglish,Spanish,orbothaspreferredbythe groupmembers. Bothparentsandstudentswereaskedtocompleteabriefsurveyontheir demographiccharacteristics(seeAppendixD).Verbalinstructionsandguidanceincludedan explanationofthequestioninquiringaboutcountryoforigin.Althoughthequestionis writtenasYouareandthechoicesareMexican,Cuban,etc.participan tswere instructedthateveniftheywerebornintheU.S.toplaceachecknexttothechoicethatbest reflectedwhatbackgroundtheywerefrom. Questionsaskedfellunderoneofseveralcategories:parentingbehaviors(goodand bad),goalsofparenting, whatisexpectedofadolescents,whoparentstheyouth,discipline strategies,familyinvolvementactivities,decision making,chores,social/emotionalsupport asitrelatestoparenting,anddirectquestionsabouttheconceptsoffamilismoandrespeto. Specificquestionsforparentsincludedthequestionslistedbelow,looselyfollowingthe specifiedorder(dependingontheflowofdiscussion).Forthetopicof whatisexpectedof adolescents: Howwouldyoudescribeagoodadolescent?Howdoesagooda dolescent behave?Howwouldyoudescribeabadadolescent?Howdoesabadadolescentbehave? Whatshouldparentsexpectationsbefortheirchildren?Whatareyourexpectationsforyou child?For goalsofparenting :Whydoparentsdothethingsthey dowiththeirchildren? Whatareyourgoalsinparentingyourchild?Whatdoyouhopetoachieveasaparent?For parentingbehaviors :Whatdogoodparentsdowhenparentingtheirchild?Whatdobad parentsdowhenparentingtheirchild?Whatarethe thingsthateffectiveparentsdo?For disciplinestrategies: Whatkindsofdisciplinestrategiesdoyouusewithyouradolescent?

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26 Dotheyworkforyou?HoworWhydoyouthinktheywork?Isthereanythingthatyou wishyoudiddifferently?Whatdiscip linestrategiesareokaytouse?Whatstrategiesarenot okaytouse?For familyinvolvementactivities :Shouldafamilydothingstogether?Are familiestodayabletodothingstogether?Doesyourfamilydothingstogether?Whatkindof thingsdoesyo urfamilydotogether?For decision making :Whatsortsofdecisionsare appropriateforamiddleschooladolescenttomake(promptforchoiceofclothes,activities, TVshows,games,friends,etc)?Whatsortsofdecisionsarenotappropriateforyour ado lescenttomakeatthistime?Whatsortsofdecisionsdoyouallowyourchildtomakefor himorherself?For chores :Whatchoresdoyouexpectyourchildtocomplete(e.g.,taking outthegarbage,takingcareofsiblings,completinghomeworkontheirow n)?Whatkindof choresdoesyourchildcomplete?For social/emotionalsupport :Shouldparentsshow adolescentshowtheyfeelaboutcertainthings?Howdoparentsshowtheirchildrenthatthey lovethem?Howdoparentsshowtheirchildrenandtheyare upsetwithsomethingtheydid? Howdoyoushowyouradolescentthatyoulovehim/her?Howdoyoushowyouradolescent thatyouareupsetwithsomethinghe/shedid?Ifyouradolescentishappy,doyouencourage themtosharethatwithyou?Ifyouradol escentissad,doyouencouragethemtosharethat withyou?Thenparentswillbeaskedquestionsdirectlyrelatedtofamilismoandrespeto: Whatisfamilismotoyouandhowdoyouteachyourchildrenthatvalue,ifatall?Whatdoes respetomeantoyou andhowdoyouteachthisconcepttoyourchildren,ifatall? Specificquestionsforadolescentsincludedthefollowinginthespecifiedorder (althoughtheorderwassubjecttochangeifthediscussionwaspertinentandleading elsewhere).For whati sexpectedofadolescents :Ifyourfriendbehavedlikeanormal

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27 middle schooler,whatsortsofthingswouldtheythinkanddo?Letssayyourmom/dad thinksyourfriendisaperfectkid,whatsortsofthingswouldthatfrienddoorthink?What wouldth eylooklike?Howaboutifyourmomordadthoughtthatkidwasbadnews,what wouldthatkidlooklike?Whatkindsofthingswouldthatkidthinkordo?Howaboutyou, whatkindsofthingsdoesyourmom(dad,grandma,aunt)expectfromyou?Whatkind of dreamsdoesyourmom(dad,grandma,auntaskseparatelyforeach)haveforyou?What doYOUthinkagoodkidshouldbehavelike?For goalsofparenting :Whydoparentsdo thethingstheydowiththeirkids?Whatdoyouthinkyourmom(dad,abuela, tia)wantsto achievewhentheyactlikeaparent?For parentingbehaviors :Whatdoesagoodparentlook like?Whatsortsofthingsdotheydothatmakethemagoodparent?Whydogoodparents dothethingstheydo?Whatdobadparentslooklike?What sortsofthingsdobadparents do?Whatsortsofthingsdoyourparentsdothatyoulike?Dontlike?For discipline strategies:W henyougetintrouble,howdoyouknow?Doyourparentstellyou?Ignore you?Yellatyou?Sendyoutoyourroom?Pic turethis:youareabouttogetintroublebut thenstopbecauseyouthinkaboutwhatyourparentsmightdoiftheyfoundout.Whatsorts ofthingswouldstopyou?For familyinvolvementactivities: Shouldafamilydothings together?Arefamiliestoday abletodothingstogether?Doesyourfamilydothings together?Whatkindofthingsdoesyourfamilydotogether?Whatdoyouliketodowith yourfamily?Whatdoyounotliketodowithyourfamily?Doesyourmom(dad,abuela, tia)expectyoutodo thingswithyourfamily?For decision making :Whatsortsofdecisions doyourparentsthinkareokforyoutomake(promptforchoiceofclothes,activities,TV shows,games,friends,etc)?Whatsortsofdecisionsdoyourparentssayarenotokayfor you tomakeatthistime?Whatsortsofthingsareyouinchargeofdecidingforyourselfthat

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28 isokaywithyourmom(dad,abuela,tia)?For chores :Whatchoresdoyourparentsexpector askofyoutodo(e.g.,takingoutthegarbage,takingcareofsibling s,completinghomework ontheirown)?Whatkindofchoresdoyouactuallydo?For social/emotionalsupport : Shouldyourparentsshowyouhowtheyfeelaboutcertainthings?Howdoyouknowyour parentsloveyou?Inwhatwaysdotheyshowthat?Howdo youknowyourparentsare upsetwithsomethingyoudid?Howdotheyshowthat?Ifyouarereallyhappyabout something,doesyourmom(dad,abuela,tia)wantyoutosharethatwithyou?Ifyouaresad, doesyourmom(dad,tia,abuela)saythatitisok tosharethatwithher/him?Doyoufeel comfortablesharingthatwithher/him?Ifyouneededhelpwithsomething(school,achore, afavor),whomwouldyouaskforhelp?Toaddressrespetoandfamilismodirectly:Doyou valueyourfamilyalot?Howdo yourparentsteachyouthis?Whatkindsofthingsareyou expectedtodowith/foryourfamily?Whenyourparentstalkaboutrespect,whatdothey mean?Inwhatwaysdotheyaskyoutoshowrespecttothemandothers?Whoareyou supposedtoshowres pectandobedienceto?Howdotheyteachyoutodothat? Theinformationcollectedfromthegroupinterviewswastranscribedbytwo bilingualnotetakersduringthemeeting.Attheendofthegroupinterview,thenotetakers reviewedwiththepa rticipantsthecontentoftheirnotestoensureaccuracy.Notetakersalso revealedtheirlabelingofthemesthroughoutthegroupinterviewdiscussion,andparticipants weregivenanopportunitytocorrectoraddtothethemesaspresentedbythenoteta kersand thefacilitator.Tables1and2includealistingofthethemesthatemergedfromthegroup interviews.

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29 Table1. ThemesThatEmergedfromGroupI nterviewDiscussionswithParents ProperDemeanor Agoodadolescentisonethathasgoodintenti ons,iswell mannered,andrespectsthosethat surroundhim/her.Apleasantindividualthatishappyandhasnocomplaints. Parentsexpecttheirchildtobesuccessfulinlife,notjustintermsofacareer,buttobeagood personwithvalues,respecta ndgoodbehavior. InstrumentalIndependence Theadolescentisexpectedtotakecareoftheirhomeworkandtheirhygiene,andtheyare expectedtocollaborateinthehousehold. Obedience Ontheotherhand,adolescentsareexpectedtoallowthemselves tobemoldableandobedient. Familismo Theyarenotexpectedtobeundertheirmothersskirt,nevertheless,theyshouldpreferthe familyandtheimportanceoffamilyunity. Emotional Support/Independence Providingthechildwithtrustandsuppor tareimportantastheyhelpthechildinfuturesituations whentheparentisnotpresent.Theyhopefortheadolescenttolearntobecomeindependent. Respect(ChildtoElders, ParenttoChild) Parentsexpecttheirchildtorespecttheireldersbutthe parentsnotethattheyshowrespectas well,forexample,theyaskthechildforforgivenessiftheymakeamistake. ParentalUnity Parentsstresstheneedforparentalunitysothattheyareaunitedfront.Theystresstheneedfor parentsnottodis agreeinfrontofthechildintermsofdecisionsregardingthechild. ParentalExample Parentsalsostressthatthebestwaytheyteachtheirchildvalues,respect,andgoodbehavioris throughtheirownexample. Discipline Disciplineincludedfirstdia logingwiththechild,ifnot,othermethodsareemployedsuchas withdrawingofprivilegesorfirmspanking.Theynotethatthereisadistinctionbetween spankingandabeating/physicalabuse.Parentsnotethattheirstrategiesfordisciplinewere cons ciouslydifferentfromtheirparentsandfromwhattheyareaccustomedtouseintheircountry oforigin(lessuseofspankingorconfrontingtheirchildforfearofgovernmentofficialtaking awaytheirchildren). Parentsarethemainenforcersofdiscip linebutitisalsoexpectedthatcloserelativesdisciplinea childifnecessary. Table2. ThemesThatEmergedfromGroupI nterviewDiscussionswithAdolescents ProperDemeanor Anadolescentisexpectedtobehappyandwell rounded.Theyarealsoexp ectedtobepoliteanddress nicely.Theyareexpectedtobekind,andcareforotherpeoplesopinionsandwhattheythink. Theperfectkidisexpectedtobepoliteandrespectolderpeople.Dontwanttodisappointtheirparents. Respect Beingresp ectfulincludesrespectingadults,notcuttinganyoneoff,listeningandnottalkingback,waitingfor yourturntospeak,watchingthelanguagethatyouuse,havingmanners,andnotdisagreeinginpublic. Instrumental Independence Kidsdonthavechore s,buttheyareexpectedtocleantheirroom,wateringtheplants,feedingthepets,etc. Theyarealsocareabouttheirgrades. Thereisadouble standardintheexpectationofboysinvolvementinchoresversusgirls,wheregirlsmostly dothechoresin sidethehouse. Familismo Peoplecomeandgo,butfamilywillalwaysbethere. EmotionalSupport Parentsteach,motivate,andguideinordertoensureoursuccess.Adolescentsreportthataparentsgoalisto havegoodcommunicationandtobeavaila bletotheirkids. Support&Supervision Theparentspresenceandavailabilitywasimportanttotheadolescent.Parentsshowusthattheyloveusby theirpresence.Theygetintoyourbusiness. ParentalInvolvement Parentsliketotalktotheirkids. Theyaskaboutthelifeofthekidsandtheirfriendships.Theyliketotake thekidsouttoplayandalsoprovidehomeworkassistance. Discipline Naggingisthefirstlineofdiscipline.Ifnaggingdoesnotwork,thenkidsaresenttotheirroomort heyhave theirprivilegestakenaway. Allfamilymembersareinvolvedinparentinganadolescentincludingthemother,father,siblings,aunts, uncles,andcousins. Supervision Adolescentsfeelparentsandchildshouldspendtimetogetherbutparentssho uldnotbearoundifkidswantto bealonewiththeirfriendsatthemall,andtheyshouldntchaperoneonfieldtrips. Decision making Adolescentsareallowedtodecideuponwhattowear,friends,andwhentodohomework,butparentshold thepowertove toanydecisions.ParentsdecidewhatadolescentscannotwatchonTV,purchasesforthe home,properattireforniceoutings,andthelevel/amountoftimeinvolvedinextracurricularactivities.

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30 Results Basedonthethemescollectedfromthegroupinter viewsandliteraturereview,items werethendevelopedthatreflectedeachofthethemes.SixresearchassistantsandI independentlyproduceditems.AllresearchassistantswereofHispanicdescentandall assistantsexceptonewereforeignborn.Allt heseitemswerethencombined,and overlappingitemswerereducedtooneitem.AsseeninTable3,atotalof7categories emergedwith,onaverage,15itemspercategoryproducedforatotalof128initialitems. Twoofthesecategoriesrepresentedthe expectedfactorsofRespetoandFamilismoasthey relatetoparenting.

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31 Table3.EmergentFactors/CategoriesandCorrespondingItemsDevelopedUtilizing GroupinterviewandLiteratureReviewContent 1. Iaminvolvedinfamilydecisions 2. Isp endalotoftimewithmyfamily 3. Familycomesbeforefriends 4. MyparentsandIgotoeventsasafamily 5. Myparentstellmethatwe(myfamily)lookbadtootherswhenIbehavebadly. 6. Iaminvolvedinmyparentsdailyactivities 7. IfIhaveapa rtywithfriendsatthesametimethatIhaveapartwithfamily,my parentssayIhavetochoosethefamilyparty. 8. Myparentsusethephrasefamilyfirst(lafamiliaprimero) 9. Thereisadayintheweekthatmyfamilyconsidersafamilyday. 10. Myfamilyisexpectedtoeattogether. 11. Idofunthingswithmyfamily. 12. Ifmyfamilyishavingproblems,myparentstellmeaboutit. 13. Iknowaboutallthefamilysproblems 14. Whenmyfamilymakesadecision,wetalktoothersinthefamilyabout itfirst. 15. WhenIammakinganimportantdecision,myparentsexpectmetocometalktothe familyaboutitfirst. 16. Myparentsexpectmetohelptakecareofotherfamilymembers. 17. MyimmediatefamilyandIdomanyactivitiestogether 18. Myfamily(b esidesmymotherandfather)andinvolvedindiscipliningme. 19. Iamexpectedtohelpmyfamilywithworkorchoresinthehouse. 20. MyparentstellmetoconsiderthefamilysreputationwhenIbehaveacertainway. 21. Myparentsshouldmakeallthefami lydecisionswithoutconsultingme. 22. Myparentsshouldinvolvemeinfamilymatters 23. Ifwehaveaproblemmyparentssaythatwecannottrustotherpeopletohelpus exceptiftheyarefamily. 24. Myparentssaythatweshouldonlycountonourfamilyi fwehaveproblems 25. MyparentssaythatIshould not talkaboutmyproblemstopeoplewhoare not part ofmyfamily 26. Myparentssayfriendscomeandgo,butfamilyisalwaysthereforyou. 27. MyfamilysaysIshouldtrynottoconfrontothersiftheyb otherme. Familismo 28. MyfamilysaysIshouldtrytobebetterthanothers. 29. Ihaveassignedchorestocompleteathome 30. Myresponsibilitiesathomeonlyincludedoingwellinschoolandkeepingmyroom clean 31. Iamexpectedtoperform choresaroundthehouse 32. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofyoungerbrothersorsisters 33. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofotherfamilymembersthatneedhelp 34. Iamexpectedtocleanmyownclothes 35. Myparentsgivealotofchorestodoaroundth ehouse 36. Iamexpectedtodomyhomeworkbymyself Instrumental Independence 37. Myparentshelpmewithmyhomework

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32 Table3.Continued 38. Myparentsconsultmyacademicfuturewithmyteachers 39. WhenIhaveaproblematschoolIcangotellmyparents. 40. W henIhavetroublewithanothergirlorboy,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparents aboutit. 41. WhenIamproudofsomething,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparentsaboutit. 42. WhenIdontdowellinschool,Icantalktomyparentsaboutit. 43. WhenIdo ntdowellinschool,myparentswantmetotalktothemaboutit. 44. Myparentshavehighexpectationsforme 45. Myparentswantmetobehappy 46. Ifeelthatmyparentsencouragemeoften 47. Myparentsareproudofme 48. Myparentswantthebestforme 49. Myparentsprovidethebestforme 50. Myparentsareinvolvedinmyschoolactivities[alsoFamilismo?] 51. Myparentsareinvolvedwithmyschoolteachers 52. Myparentsareinvolvedinmydailyactivities[alsoFamilismo?] 53. Igetencouragementfrommy parents 54. Myparentsencouragemeinmyschoolwork 55. Myparentshugmeandkissme 56. MyparentsarethereforwhenIneedtotalktothem Emotional Support 57. Icantellmyparentsanything 58. MyparentsexpecttoconsidertheirfeelingswhenIbehavewell 59. My parentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly 60. MyparentsareembarrassedwhenIbehavebadly. 61. MyparentsexpectmetoconsidertheirfeelingswhenIbehavebadly 62. Myparentsexpectmetoconsidertheirfeelings 63. MyparentssaythatIshouldrespectmygr andparents[alsoFamilismo?] 64. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles[alsoFamilismo?] 65. Ifeelthatmyparentsrespectme 66. Myparentssupportmydecisions 67. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyteacherslikeIobeythem. 68. Myparent steachmetotreatkidsyoungerthanmewithrespect. 69. MyparentstellmetobedirectinsayingwhatImean. 70. Myparentsdonotallowmetotalkbacktothemwhentheyareupsetwithme. 71. Myparentstellmebepolitetootherseveniftheydonttr eatmewell. 72. MyparentsteachmethatothersintheworldwilltreatmewellifItreatthemwith respect. 73. IfIamupsetaboutsomething,myparentstellmeIshouldkeepittomyself. 74. Myparentstellmethatyoushouldnotquestionthedecisiono rrequestofa teacher/adult/authority. 75. Myparentsareconsiderateofmyfeelings 76. Myparentsareconsiderateofmyfutureplans 77. Myparentsareconsiderateofmydecisions 78. Myparentslikemyfriends 79. Ilistentowhatmyparentshavetosay[al soFamilismoandDecision Making?]. 80. Iapplytheadvicethatmyparentsgivetome[alsoFamilismoandDecision Making?] Respeto 81. Myparentsexpectmetobeconsiderateoftheirfeelings

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33 Table3.Continued. 82. MyparentstakepartinhowIch oosemyfriends 83. IfIhaveafriendthatbehavesbad,Imnotallowedtobewiththem 84. Myparentsletmepickmyclothes,buttheyhavethefinalsay. 85. Myparentsexpectmetoachieveahighereducation 86. Myparentsletmechoosemyfriends[alsoRe speto?] 87. Myparentsexpectmetomakeallmydecisionsonmyown 88. IamallowedtodowhateverIwant,whenIwantto. 89. Myparentsshouldnottellmewhattodo. 90. Myparentsshouldletmemakemyowndecisions 91. Myparentshavetherighttotellme whattodo 92. Myparentsshouldhelpmemakemydecisions[alsoFamilismo?] 93. Myparentshelpmewithdailydecisions 94. MyparentsexpectmetoconsultthemwhenImakemydailydecisions 95. Myparentsexpectmetobeanindependentperson 96. Myparents letmedecidewhereIwouldliketogoout 97. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainpeople 98. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainplaces Decision Making 99. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivities 100. Myparentsknowmyfriendsparents 101. Myparentsknoww hereIammostofthetimethatIamnotwiththem 102. Myparentsknowmyfriends 103. MyparentsknowwhereIamatalltimes 104. MyparentsknowwhereIamwhenIgooutwithoutthem 105. Igooutwithoutmyparents 106. Idoactivitiesoutsideofschoolthatmy parentsdontknowabout. 107. Idothingsoutsideofschoolwithoutmyparents 108. Ihaveacurfewduringtheschoolweek 109. Ihaveacurfewduringtheweekends 110. IfIgooutduringthe schoolweek ,myparentsexpectmetobebackbyacertain time. 111. If Igooutduringthe weekend ,myparentsexpectmetobebackbyacertaintime. 112. Igooutwithfriendswithoutanyparentsaround 113. Igooutwithoutmyparents,butstillhavemyfriendsparentswithme. 114. IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwitha nadultfrommyfamily. Supervision 115. Myparentshelpmewithmyhomework 116. MyparentsgroundmeifIamintrouble 117. MyparentstalktomeifIamintrouble 118. MyparentsyellatmeifIamintrouble 119. MyparentspunishmeifIgetbadgrades 120. Mypa rentspunishmeifIdisobeyhimorher 121. MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble 122. MyparentstakeawaymyprivilegesifIamintrouble 123. MyparentsignoremewhenIdosomethingIshouldntdo 124. Myparentsfollowthroughwithconsequencesw henIdontdomychores 125. Igetpunishedifmychoresarenotdone 126. MyparentsletmeknowwhenIdosomethingwrong Discipline 127. MyparentsletmeknowiftheydontlikewhatIamdoing Open Ended 128. ComparedtoparentsthatareNOTHispanic/Latino,howareyou rparentsdifferent inthewaytheytreatyouandraiseyou?

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34 Oncetheseitemsweredeveloped,theyweregivento6judgesfromdiffering nationalities,including1Cuban,1Mexican,2Venezuelan,and2WhiteAmericans.All judgeswereprofessionalswithi ntheacademiccommunityincludingoneteacher,3school psychologists,1clinicalpsychologist,and1developmentalpsychologist.Thepanelof judgeswasaskedtorateanitemsrelevancytothepredeterminedunderlyingfactorsona scaleof1(veryirre levant)to5(veryrelevant).Judgeswerealsoaskedtorateeachitemfor clarity(1 veryunclearto5 veryclear)andtooffersuggestionsastohowtoclarifyanitem ifitwasunclear.Ifanyitemswerejudgednottoberelevanttothefactor,thej udgeswere askedtosuggestwhichfactortheywouldbestrepresent(evenifitwasnotoneofthe identifiedfactors).Ifanyitemobtainedascoreof1or2ontherelevancyand/orclarity scales,itwasdroppedfromthefirstdraftofthetotalscaleit ems. Ultimately,thisprocessresultedinaninitialdraftoftheparentingscalewithatotalof 60items,with10orfeweritemsforeachof7categories(seeTable4foralistingofitemsby category).Thecategoriesthatemergedduringitemdevelopm entwereasfollows: Familismo,InstrumentalIndependence,EmotionalSupport,Respeto,Decision Making, Supervision,andDiscipline. Aruleofthumbinscaledevelopmentistocreateaboutthreetimesasmanyitemsas soughtinthefinalscale(inthisca se,20items)(MacCallum,2001).Itemswerewordedso thathigherscoresmeantadolescentsperceivedthatparentsexhibitedagreaterfrequencyof behaviorsineachparticularfactor.

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35 Table4.TheorizedScalesandCorresponding60ItemsUtilizedinP hase2DataCollection Familismo Myparentssayfamilycomesbeforefriends. MyparentstellmethatIgivemyfamilyabadreputationwhenIdontbehavewell. IfIhaveapartywithfriendsatthesametimethatIhaveapartywithfamily,myparentssa yIhavetochoosethefamilyparty. Myparentsusethephrasefamilyfirst(lafamiliaprimero). Thereisadayintheweekthatmyfamilyconsidersafamilyday. Myfamilyeatstogetheratleastonceaday. Iknowaboutmostofmyfamilysproblems WhenIammakinganimportantdecision,myparentsexpectmetotalktothefamilyaboutitfirst. MyfamilyandIdomanyactivitiestogether. MyparentssaythatIshould not talkaboutmyproblemstopeoplewhoare not partofmyfamily. Instrumental Independence Idonothavechores,butIamexpectedtohelparoundthehousewithoutbeingaskedtodoso. Myresponsibilityistokeepmyroomclean. Itismyresponsibilitytodowellinschool. Myparentsgivemechorestodoaroundthehouse. Iamexp ectedtohelptakecareofyoungerbrothersorsisters. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofotherfamilymemberswhoneedhelp. Iamexpectedtowashmyownclothes. Iamexpectedtotakeoutthegarbage. EmotionalSupport WhenIhaveaproblematschool,I feelcomfortabletalkingaboutitwithmyparents. WhenIhavetroublewithanothergirlorboy,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparentsaboutit. WhenIdontdowellinschool,myparentswantmetotalktothemaboutit. Myparentsareproudofme. My parentsencourageme. Myparentsareaffectionatewithme. MyparentsarethereformewhenIneedtotalktothem. Icantellmyparentsalmostanything. Respeto MyparentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly. MyparentsareembarrassedwhenIbehavebadly. Myp arentssaythatIshouldrespectmyelders. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyteacherslikeIobeythem. Myparentsdonotallowmetotalkbacktothem. Myparentstellmetobepolitetoothersev eniftheydonttreatmewell. MyparentssaythatothersintheworldwilltreatmewellifItreatthemwithrespect. IfIamupsetaboutsomething,myparentstellmeIshouldkeepittomyself. DecisionMaking Iaminvolvedinfamilydecisions. IfIh aveafriendwhomyparentsdontlike,Imnotallowedtobewiththem. Myparentsletmepickmyclothes,buttherearesomeclothesthattheywontletmebuy. Myparentsletmemakemyowndecisions. Myparentshavetherighttotellmewhattodo. My parentshelpmemakemydecisions. MyparentsletmedecidewhereIgooutforfunontheweekends,butthereareplacesImnotallowedtogoto. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainpeople. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivities. Supervision Mypa rentsknowwhomyfriendsparentsare. Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsare. MyparentsknowwhereIamatalltimes. Idoactivitiesoutsideofschoolthatmyparentsdontknowabout. Idoactivitiesoutsideofschoolwithoutmyparents. Myparentsletme gooutduringthe schoolweek. IfIgooutona weekend ,myparentsexpectmetobebackbyacertaintime. Icangooutwithoutmyparents,butIstillhavemyfriendsparentswithme. IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwithanadultfrommyfamily. Discipline MyparentsgroundmeifIamintrouble. MyparentstalktomeifIamintrouble. MyparentsyellatmeifIamintrouble. MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble. MyparentstakeawaymyprivilegesifIamintrouble. Myparentsign oremewhenIdosomethingIshouldntdo. MyparentsletmeknowwhenIdosomethingwrong.

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36 Discussion The128itemsthatemergedfromthegroupinterviews,itemcreation,and judgespanelprovideagoodrepresentationoftheareasthatappearto bemissingfrom currentparentingmeasures.Forexample,undertheFamilismocategory,theitemscapture notonlythecharacteristiclargerfamilialsocialnetwork(e.g.,MyparentsandIgotoevents asafamily)buthowthatsocialnetworkmaybeforme d(e.g.,Whenmyfamilymakesa decision,wetalktoothersinthefamilyaboutitfirst)potentiallythroughasenseof obligation(e.g.,Myparentssayfriendscomeandgo,butfamilyisalwaysthereforyou). FortheconstructofRespeto,itemscover multipleaspectsofRespeto:respect ofchildforparent(e.g.,Ilistentowhatmyparentshavetosay),respectofthechildfor adults(e.g.,MyparentssaythatIshouldobeyteacherslikeIobeythem),respectofthe parentforthechild(e.g.,Ifee lthatmyparentsrespectme),andrespectofthechildforothers (e.g.,Myparentstellmetobepolitetootherseveniftheydonttreatmewell.).Theitems alsocoverthesubtletiesofrespectsuchastheconsiderationofothersfeelingsand bounda ries(e.g.,MyparentsexpecttoconsidertheirfeelingswhenIbehavewell)andhow respetotranslatestoobedienceaswellasmaintainingandfosteringfamilismo(e.g.,My parentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles).Neitherfamilismonorrespet oare includedincurrentparentingmeasures. Interestingly,thecategoryofInstrumentalIndependencealsoemergedinthe itemconstructionphase.Previousresearcherspositthatautonomyismultidimensional (Norimatsu,1993)andmakeadistinctionbetw eeninstrumentalindependenceanddecision makingindependence(Savage&Gauvain,1998;Schulze,Harwood,Schmerich,& Leyendecker,2002),whereinstrumentalindependence(e.g.,chores)isexpectedof

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37 Hispanicadolescentswithoutitbeingmadeaspecifi cresponsibility;itisexpectedof everyone,notjustadults.Ontheotherhand,decision makingisleftinthehandsofadults. Schulzeetal.(2002)define instrumentalindependence asimplyingthatthechildisableto beself relianttosomedegree ,while emotionalindependence referstothechildsabilityto bealone,toasserthimorherselfwithoutexcessiveemotionalsupport(p.153).Inother words,Hispanicadolescentsareexpectedtobeindependentwhenitcomestosuchtasksas self car eandschoolwork,butinterdependentwhenmakingdecisionsbeyondtheirdaily activities.Theinitialitem productionforthenewmeasurefollowsthisdistinctionand attemptstoseparateinstrumentalindependencefromdecision making. Themeasurewouldn otbecompletewithoutincludingtheconstructsof emotionalsupport,supervision,anddecision making.Thesecategoriesalsooverlapwith whatisalreadyfoundincurrentmainstreamUnitedStatesparentingmeasures.Asapoint ofcomparison,considert heParentingPracticesSurvey(PPS;seeAppendixA;Lambornet al.,1991;Steinberg,Elmen,&Mounts,1989).Thismeasurecapturesthreeareasof parentingbehaviorsthatincludeparentalwarmthandinvolvement,supervisionand monitoring,andthedispens ingofpsychologicalautonomy.Thewarmthandinvolvement factorcanbelikenedtotheEmotionalSupportcategoryfromthenewparentingmeasure. ThesupervisionandmonitoringfactorfromthePPSisanalogoustotheSupervisioncategory ofthenewparen tingmeasure,andthepsychologicalautonomyfactorfromthePPSissimilar totheDecision Makingcategoryofthenewparentingmeasure.UnlikethePPS,though, thesesimilarcategoriescarrydifferentimplications.Forexample,theSupervisioncategory fromthenewmeasuretapsintotheconstructsofsocialnetworks,familialorotherwise(e.g., Igooutwithoutmyparents,butstillhavemyfriendsparentswithme).

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38 Themethodemployedforgeneratingandreducingitemswassomewhatsuccessful. Incon ductingstudieswithaminorityculture,thestandardforresearchpracticeincludesa varietyofstrategiestoensurethattheconstructsbeingstudiedandtheinstrumentsbeing usedareculturallyvalid.Inthecurrentstudy,thesestrategiesincludede stablishinga relationshipwiththecommunitylongbeforeobtainingconsentandemployingthestudys procedure.ItalsoincludedgoingintotheHispaniccommunityandconsultingwithboth adolescentsandparentsaboutparentingconstructs.Additionally, Hispanicundergraduate studentswithadequatetrainingwereemployedasresearchassistants.Adequatetraining includedareviewoftheliteraturesincebeingHispanicdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatthese studentswereawareoftheconstructsbeingstudi ed.Infact,receivinganeducationinthis countrymeansthattheymayalsobemoreacculturatedtothemajorityculture(American PsychologicalAssociation,2003;Brown,Martinez,&Radke Yarrow,1992;Fisheretal., 2002). Onelimitationofthecurren tphasewastheaverageageoftheparentgroup interviews(51.27years).Incontrasttothenationalmedianage(36.40)andthestatemedian age(39.6)(U.S.CensusBureau,2006),theparentparticipantsofthestudyareconsiderably older.Thismayhav einfluenceditemdevelopmentinthattheyhadbeenintheUnitedStates alongperiodoftimeandsowereacculturatedtothemainstreamcultureor,sincetheyraised theirchildreninthepast,theirviewsonparentingmaybeoutdatedandnotrepresentat iveof currentHispanicparentsintheU.S.Ontheotherhand,theolderparentsmayalsohave traditionalviewsofparentingandthismayhaveallowedforacleareremergenceofthemes notmodifiedthroughacculturation.Theconcernabouttheparents beingolderthanaverage

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39 ispartiallyoffsetbytherangeofparentparticipantsages(34to76),themodeofparents age(ages40 49;Figure1),andthefactthatresponsesfromtheadolescentgroupinterviews alsocontributedsignificantlytoitemdeve lopment. Figure1.Stem and l eaf p lotofthe agesoftheparentp articipantsinPhase1 Overall,anadequatesampleofitemswasobtained.Theitemsappeartocapturethe culturalunderpinningsofparentingHispanicadolescents.Phase2ofthestu dyassessed whetherthenewitemsfulfilledtheirpromise. Age NumberofParents 20 29 30 39 111 40 49 111111111 50 59 111111 60 69 1 70 79 111

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40 Phase2 ThepurposesofPhase2weretwo fold:(1)itemreduction,and(2)tostatistically identifyanunderlyingfactorstructurebasedonaprioritheory.Theforemostpurposewas itemre duction.ThemeasureusedforPhase2had60itemsandtookabout30 40minutesfor eachchildtocomplete.Oneofthegoalsofdevelopingthismeasurewastoprovidean instrumentforresearchpurposes,andameasurethattakes30minutestocompleteis notas attractiveasameasurethatmaytake15to20minutestocomplete.Therefore,onegoalwas toreducethenewparentingmeasuretoapproximately20itemstomakeitamoreefficient researchtool.ThesecondpurposeofPhase2wastoseewhether anunderlyingfactor structurewouldemergesupportingtheconstructsdiscussedearlier,particularlythe constructsofrespeto,familismo,properdemeanor,anddecision making.Additionally,ifa factorstructureemerged,thenitemscouldbereduced,not onlythroughreliabilityanalyses, butviaitemloadingsoneachfactor. Method Participants ThreehundredandfourteenstudentsparticipatedinPhase2ofthisstudy.Table5 illustratesthesamplecharacteristicsbygender.Thesampleincluded186stu dentsfrom HillsboroughCountyand128studentsfromMiami DadeCounty.Thecountieswere disparateenoughintheirdemographicinformationtowarrantaseparatedescriptionforeach 2 (14, N =308)=108.00,p=.000,an dfordifferencesin 2 (35, N =283)=142.93,p=.000.Table5providessamplecharacteristicsbycounty,

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41 wherestudentsinMiami DadeCountywereprimarilyofCubandescentorofmixed Hispanicdescent(2ormoreHispanicnationalities),whilestudents recruitedinHillsborough CountywereprimarilyofMexicanorPuertoRicandescent. OfthestudentsinMiami DadeCounty,109werebornintheU.S.and19werenot bornintheUnitedStates.OfthestudentsfromHillsboroughCounty,93wereborninthe U. S.and89werenotbornintheU.S.Fromthestudentswhowerenotborninthiscountry, thoseinMiami DadeCountyhadlivedintheU.S.longer( M =7.18years)thanthestudents fromHillsboroughCounty( M 2 (30, N =314)=86.12,p=.000.Additionally,all studentsfromHillsboroughCountywererecruitedfromthepublicschoolswhereasall studentsfromMiami DadeCountywererecruitedfromtwoprivateCatholicsummercamps withover1,000childre nenrolledinoneofthecamps.Thesedifferencesinrecruitmentin thetwocountiesresultedinadifferentsocio economicmake upforthesamplesfromeach county,whereMiami Dadecountystudentsreportedamostlyhighlevelofsocio economic status,w hileHillsboroughCountystudentsbetterrepresentedstudentsfromallsocio economicstrataswithatrendtowardsthelowerendofthesocio economicscale. InHillsboroughCounty,aspecificsetof10schoolswastargetedforrecruitmentdue totheirhig hconcentrationofHispanicoriginstudents. Inthepublicschools,Hispanic studentswereidentifiedbyeithertheirschoolrecordsorbytheirteachers.Teacherswere thenaskedtosendconsentformshomeonlywiththesestudents.Therewasnolimitas tothe generationalstatusofthestudents;thereforeastudentsparentsorgrandparentsmayhave beenbornintheUnitedStates,butstillidentifiedtheirchildrenasHispanic.

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42 Table5.SampleCharacteristicsinPhase2 Gender County Boys Girls Hi llsboroughCounty Miami Dade County N 145 169 186 128 MeanAge 12.63 12.50 PercentinEachGrade 5 th 00.69 00.59 6 th 39.31 37.87 7 th 28.28 30.77 8 th 31.72 30.77 PercentofEachNationality Cuban 26.2 24.9 13.4 43.0 Mexican 20.7 1 8.9 33.3 0.0 PuertoRican 14.5 14.8 22.6 3.1 Dominican 7.6 4.7 6.5 5.5 Columbian 4.1 3.6 4.3 3.1 Peruvian 1.4 2.4 3.1 Venezuelan 2.8 2.4 Nicaraguan 1.4 1.2 OtherHispanic 0.7 0.6 5.3 7.8 2orMoreHispanicNationalities 11.0 16.6 9.7 20.3 His panicMixedwithNon Hispanic 4.8 8.3 4.3 10.2 PercentinEachQuartileoftheHollingsheadIndexofSocialPosition 1 st HighestSES 26.9 25.9 8.6 52.4 2 nd 21.5 23.7 16.6 31.3 3 rd 18.0 14.4 23.1 5.6 4 th LowestSES 24.1 26.2 37.7 7.1 PercentofGe nerationalStatus FirstGeneration 34.0 35.3 48.6 14.8 SecondGeneration 28.5 34.1 21.9 45.3 ThirdGeneration 19.4 18.0 13.1 26.6 FourthGeneration 18.1 12.6 16.4 13.3 InthesummercampinMiami DadeCounty,approximately95%ofthepopulation w asofHispanicdescent,thereforeallcampersweregivenaconsentformtotakehome withoutattemptstoidentifyandtargetHispanicchildren.Ireliedonthedemographics portionofthesurveytoidentifyanychildrenwhowerenon Hispanic. Rationale forchoosingthispopulation. Aruleofthumbtoconductfactoranalyses ontheitemsistohaveapproximately5 10participantsperitem.Therefore,aminimumof 300students(5participantsX60items)wereneededtocompletetheinitialdraftofthe p arentingscale(Gorsuch,1983).Onlystudentscompletedthequestionnairebecause adolescentstudentsareapopulationthatismoreoftenaskedbyresearcherstoreportontheir

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43 parentsbehavior(i.e.,insteadofhavingparentsreportontheirownbehavi or).Thisisduein parttotheeaseofsamplingstudents(andobtainingamorevariedsample)versussampling theirparents. ThisagegroupwaschosenbecauseSavageandGauvain(1998)foundthat,when comparedtoEuropeanAmericans,MexicanAmeric anmothersexpectedchildrentobeolder (usuallyofhighschoolage)whentheywouldbeabletobepartofdecision makingin personalcareandafter schoolactivities.Hispanicparentsmaybeviewedasauthoritarian duringtheirchildrensearlyadole scencebecausetheyarenotgrantingpsychologicaland behavioralautonomyasearlyasEuropeanAmericanparents.Psychologicalandbehavioral autonomyarethetypesofindependencecommonlymeasuredbycurrentparentingscales (e.g.,Dornbuschetal.,19 87).Middleschoolchildrenhaveamoderatelydevelopedsenseof ethnicidentity(Rotheram&Phinney,1987),butarestillunderthegeneralinfluenceoftheir parents.Thisisalsoaperiod,atleastwithinmainstreamEuropeanAmericanculture,when ch ildrenundergoatransitioninwhichautonomybeginstobemoreactivelynegotiatedwith parents. Additionally,samplingfromonlyoneethnicgroupandrefrainingfromconductinga cross culturalcomparisonisanapproachsuggestedbymanyresearchersfo ravarietyof reasons(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation,2002;Fisheretal.,2002;Fisher,Jackson,& Villaruel,1998;Schweder,Goodnow,Hatano,LeVine,Markus,&Miller,1998;Tucker& Herman,2002;Zepeda,2003).First,itshiftsperspectivesfrom oneofcomparisontoonein whichthegoalistounderstandwhatpeoplesayanddofromtheperspectiveofinsidersto theculture,torenderthemintelligiblewithintheirowncollectivelysharedinterpretive

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44 frameworks(Schwederetal.,1994,p.869). Additionally,focusingonHispanicsalonehelps addressdifferencesduetowithin groupvariabilityinareassuchasgender,SES, acculturationandethnicidentity(Zepeda,2003),particularlybecausethesevariableshave ramificationsforhowparentingis carriedout.Also,focusingjustonHispanicsincreasesthe poweroftheanalyses,allowingforwithin groupanalyses.Ifthemeasuredevelopedis psychometricallysound,otherresearcherswillbeencouragedtousetheparentingscalein otherpopulatio ns,butwiththestipulationthatitviewsparentingthewayLatinosview parentingandmaynotcaptureallthatiscapturablewithinadifferentculturalpopulation. Nevertheless,asAzmitiaandBrown(2000)suggest,oncein depthanalysesoftheHispa nic populationareconducted,thenitismorefeasibleandappropriatetocompareandcontrast Hispanicswithotherethnicgroups. Measures Demographicinformation. Thiswascollectedduringadministrationofthemeasure usingtheforminAppendixD.It wasthesamedemographicsurveyadministeredduring Phase1datacollection.Questionsrequestedinformationongrade,age,gender,nationality, parentseducationandoccupations,andgenerationalstatus.AsinPhase1,studentswere givenaverbalins tructionabouthowtocompletetheitemstatingYouare. Socioeconomicstatus(SES). SES wasmeasuredbycomparingstudentsreportof parentoccupationstoHollingsheads(1957)7 pointoccupationalscale.Studentswerealso askedabouttheirparen tseducationalattainment(Steinberg,Mounts,Lamborn,& Dornbusch,1991)basedonsixeducationallevels:lessthangradenineeducation,atleast somehighschool,atradecertificateorotherdiploma,othernon universityeducation,some

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45 universityor thecompletionofauniversitydegree(SeeAppendixD).Amodified HollingsheadsIndexofSocialPositionwasutilizedasthemeasureofSES.Therankingof educationalattainmentwasbasedonthatofSteinbergetal.(1991)(i.e.,insteadofarangeof 1 7,theeducationalrankinghadarangeof1 6).Scoreswerecalculatedindividuallyfor eachbiologicalparentasfollows:(1)theparentsoccupationwasassignedavaluefrom1 7 andthisvaluewasthenmultipliedby7,(2)theparentseducationala ttainmentwasassigned avalueof1 6andthisnumberwasthenmultipliedby4,(3)thevaluesobtainedatsteps1 and2weresummedtoobtainatotalscore.Mothersandfatherstotalscoreswere compared,andthelowestofthetwoscoreswasretaineda sthemeasureofSESforthat childshousehold.AlowHollingsheadsIndexscoreindicateshighersocialposition whereasahighHollingsheadsIndexScoreindicateslowersocialpositioning. ThenewHispanicparentingmeasure, HowIAmRaised(HIR) ,in cludedatotalof62 items(SeeAppendixF).SixtyoftheitemsweredevelopedduringPhase1ofthisstudy,and 2oftheitemsattemptedtoscreeninvalidmeasures(e.g.,IbreatheeverydayandMy parentsexpectmetoreadfivenewspapersaday.).U nfortunately,theseitemsdidnotwork welltoscreenparticipantresponsesbecausestudentsrevealedindiscussionsthattheyoften misinterpretedthequestions.Forexample,theymightanswernottrueorsomewhattrue toitemIbreatheeverydayan dexplaintheywerenotbreathingallthetimesince sometimestheyheldtheirbreath. Procedure ActiveconsentforstudentsparticipatinginPhase2wassoughtbysendingletters(in SpanishandEnglish)hometotheparentsofthetargetedchildren.Le ttersweresenthome

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46 withthestudents,whowereaskedtoreturntheformstotheschool.Ifstudentsbroughtback theconsentform(eithersignedornotsigned)theyreceivedadecoratedpencilasan incentive.Approximately5%ofthestudentsbroughtb acktheconsentformsignedwhen thismethodofrecruitmentwasemployed.Anothermoresuccessfulmethodwas approachingparentsdirectlyviaparentingmeetings,schoolopenhouses,andduringafter schoolpick uptime.Directparentaccessallowedfora lmosta100%returnresponserate sinceallparents,exceptfor2,agreedtohavetheirchildparticipate.Thestudywas describedtothem,theypreviewedthesurvey,andtheywereabletoaskanyquestionsthey hadaboutthestudy.Studentsinaspec ialeducationprogramwereincludedonlyifthat programwasabletoprovideameasureofacademicachievementasneededbythisstudy (e.g.,studentswhowereonthespecialdiplomatrackduetoamentalhandicapwerenot included;thisrequirementexclud edstudentswhowereinanyprogramsforthementally handicapped).Immediatelybeforeadministrationofthemeasure,studentsweregivenan oralandwrittendescriptionofthestudy.Theywerethenaskedtosignanassentform (AppendixH)iftheywere willingtoparticipate.Asanincentiveforparticipation,students completingthemeasureswereenteredinadrawingwithineachschoolfora$100gift certificate. Thenew60 itemparentingmeasurewasadministeredtostudentsduringtheschool dayfor approximately30 45minutes.Duringthetimesagreeduponwiththeschoolstaff, studentswerepulledoutoftheirclassroomsingroupsandaskedtocometothelibraryoran availableopenclassroom.

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47 Results ExploratoryFactorAnalysis Withthepurpose ofitemreductionandidentificationoffactorstructureinmind,I chosetwoextractionmethodsforthisstageoftheanalysis:PrincipalComponentsAnalysis (PCA)andPrincipalAxisFactoring(PAF).Ingeneral,PCAispreferredfordatareduction andP AFispreferredtodetectstructure.BothPCAandPAFprovidemethodswithwhichto achievetheinitialpurposesofthePhase2analyses,albeitindependently.Inaddition,PCA andPAarethetwomostcommonextractionmethodsutilizedbyresearcherscon ducting factoranalyses(StatSoft,Inc.,2006). PCAutilizesallthevarianceofthedata(commonandunique).Thereforethereare twocaveatstothismethodinthecontextofmydataset:(1)itmaximizesthevariance accountedforbythefirstfactorex tracted,and(2)itassumesorthogonal(uncorrelated) components.IdidnotexpectaninitialprincipalcomponentnordidIassumethatthe theorizedfactorsareorthogonal.Nevertheless,onecanstillutilizeobliquerotationmethods (mathematicallyall owingfactorstocorrelatewitheachotherwiththePCAextraction method).ThePAFmethodallowsforfactorstocorrelatewitheachotherand mathematicallyonlyutilizesthevariancethatallfactorshaveincommonandexcludes uniquevariance. Ianalyz edthedatausingmultipleobliquerotationsinSPSSwiththePAFextraction methodandallpossibleobliquerotationsinSPSSwiththePCAextractionmethod.The obliquerotationsconsistedofthePromaxandtheDirectObliminrotations.Ichosetolimi t theexploratoryfactoranalysistotheobliquerotationsbecausethefactorswereexpectedto

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48 correlatewitheachother.Orthogonalrotationsassumethefactorsareuncorrelated,therefore theywerenotincludedintheanalyses. Forallanalyses,Ispec ifiedthatthemissingitemresponsesbereplacedwiththemean ofthesampleforthatitem.Missingvaluepercentageswerelowbecausestudentswere askedduringadministrationtofillinanyskippedanswers.FortheMEIM,PPS,HIR,and BAS,only0.2%of responsesweremissing.FortheHarter,0.3%weremissing,andforSES 1.9%ofresponsesweremissing.Ialsospecifiedthatanyloadingsbelow.40notbe displayedintheoutput.Ispecifiedthateigenvaluesabove1beextracted.Iallowed100 maxi mumiterationsforconvergenceforbothextractionmethodsandrotations.AllPromax rotationsweremaintainedataKappalevelof4.ForalldirectObliminrotations,deltawas setatzero.Kappaanddeltavalueswereleftasthedefaultvaluessuggest edbythestatistical programused. Theresultsareorganizedasfollows:first,non rotatedsolutionsutilizingthetwo extractionmethodsofPrincipalComponentsAnalyses(PCA)andPrincipalAxisFactoring (PAF)arepresentedasarescreeplotsanalyzed toguidetheanalyses.Theanalyseswererun utilizingonlytheobliquerotationmethodsundereachextractionmethodallowingforonly5, 6,or7factorsduetotheresultsofthescreeplotandinkeepingwiththeapriorihypothesis of7factors.Bas edontheresults,IchosethePromaxrotationunderthePCAextraction method,conducteditemanalysisbasedonthese7factors.Finally,itemswerechosenforthe Phase3measurebasedonthefactorstructureanditemanalysis.Tofacilitatereviewof the material,Table6liststheitemsusedinPhase2alongwitheachitemnumberandthe constructitcorrespondsto.

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49 Table6.Original60itemswiththeirCorrespondingItemNumberCategorizedbyTheorized Constructs Theorized Construct Item# ItemCon tent Familismo 1 8 15 23 30 37 44 51 57 62 Myparentssayfamilycomesbeforefriends. MyparentstellmethatIgivemyfamilyabadreputationwhenIdontbehavewell. IfIhaveapartywithfriendsatthesametimethatIhaveapartywithfamily,m yparentssayIhavetochoose thefamilyparty. Myparentsusethephrasefamilyfirst(lafamiliaprimero). Thereisadayintheweekthatmyfamilyconsidersafamilyday. Myfamilyeatstogetheratleastonceaday. Iknowaboutmostofmyfamil ysproblems. WhenIammakinganimportantdecision,myparentsexpectmetotalktothefamilyaboutitfirst. MyfamilyandIdomanyactivitiestogether. MyparentssaythatIshould not talkaboutmyproblemstopeoplewhoare not partofmyfamily. Instrumental Independence 2 9 16 24 31 38 45 52 Idonothavechores,butIamexpectedtohelparoundthehousewithoutbeingaskedtodoso. Myresponsibilityistokeepmyroomclean. Itismyresponsibilitytodowellinschool. Myparentsgivemecho restodoaroundthehouse. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofyoungerbrothersorsisters. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofotherfamilymemberswhoneedhelp. Iamexpectedtowashmyownclothes. Iamexpectedtotakeoutthegarbage. Emotional Suppo rt 3 10 18 25 32 39 46 53 WhenIhaveaproblematschool,Ifeelcomfortabletalkingaboutitwithmyparents. WhenIhavetroublewithanothergirlorboy,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparentsaboutit. WhenIdontdowellinschool,myparentswant metotalktothemaboutit. Myparentsareproudofme. Myparentsencourageme. Myparentsareaffectionatewithme. MyparentsarethereformewhenIneedtotalktothem. Icantellmyparentsalmostanything. Respeto 4 11 19 26 33 40 47 54 58 Mypa rentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly. MyparentsareembarrassedwhenIbehavebadly. MyparentssaythatIshouldrespectmyelders. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyteacherslikeIobeythem. Mypa rentsdonotallowmetotalkbacktothem. Myparentstellmetobepolitetootherseveniftheydonttreatmewell. MyparentssaythatothersintheworldwilltreatmewellifItreatthemwithrespect. IfIamupsetaboutsomething,myparentstell meIshouldkeepittomyself. DecisionMaking 5 12 20 27 34 41 48 55 59 Iaminvolvedinfamilydecisions. IfIhaveafriendwhomyparentsdontlike,Imnotallowedtobewiththem. Myparentsletmepickmyclothes,buttherearesomeclothesthat theywontletmebuy. Myparentsletmemakemyowndecisions. Myparentshavetherighttotellmewhattodo. Myparentshelpmemakemydecisions. MyparentsletmedecidewhereIgooutforfunontheweekends,butthereareplacesImnotallowedto goto. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainpeople. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivities. Supervision 6 13 21 28 35 42 49 56 61 Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsparentsare. Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsare. MyparentsknowwhereIamatall times. Idoactivitiesoutsideofschoolthatmyparentsdontknowabout. Idoactivitiesoutsideofschoolwithoutmyparents. Myparentsletmegooutduringthe schoolweek. IfIgooutona weekend ,myparentsexpectmetobebackbyacertaintime. Icangooutwithoutmyparents,butIstillhavemyfriendsparentswithme. IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwithanadultfrommyfamily. Discipline 7 14 22 29 36 43 50 MyparentsgroundmeifIamintrouble. MyparentstalktomeifIamint rouble. MyparentsyellatmeifIamintrouble. MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble. MyparentstakeawaymyprivilegesifIamintrouble. MyparentsignoremewhenIdosomethingIshouldntdo. MyparentsletmeknowwhenIdosomethingw rong.

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50 Principalaxisfactoring. Firstthedatawereanalyzedutilizingnorotationandno limitoffactorsextractedunderthePAFextraction.Atotalof19factorswasextracted.The eigenvalueofthefirstfactor(9.004)wasthreetimesasmucha stheeigenvalueforthe secondfactor(3.007),andthevarianceaccountedforbythefirstfactor(15.007)was approximatelythreetimesasmuchasthevarianceaccountedforthesecondfactor(5.012) thereforeindicatingastronginitialfactorandmakin gthecaseforaunitaryfactorof parenting(Hattie,1985;Lord,1980;Riese&Waller,1990).Thescreeplotindicateda4 or 5 factorsolution(SeeFigure2).Outof60items,25oftheitemshadaloadinghigherthan .40onthefirstfactor.Onlyth reeitemshadanabsolutevaluehigherthan.40onanyother factor,andoneofthoseitemscross loadedontofactors3and5. Figure2.Plotofeigenvaluesfromthefactoranalysisofthenewparentingmeasure utilizingPAFextractionmethod,norotation 6 0 5 9 5 8 5 7 5 6 5 5 5 4 5 3 5 2 5 1 5 0 4 9 4 8 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 5 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 0 2 9 2 8 2 7 2 6 2 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 1 9 1 8 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FactorNumber 10 8 6 4 2 0 E i g e n v a l u e ScreePlot

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51 Principalcomponentsanalysis. FactoranalyseswerealsorunutilizingthePCA extractionmethodwithnorotationandnolimittothenumberoffactorsextracted.Justlike thePAFmethod,19factorswereextracted.Theeigenvaluesandpercentofvari ance accountedforbythefirstandsecondfactorsoftheunrotatedsolutionwereidenticaltothose ofthesolutionextractedusingthePAFmethod.Therefore,thesame3:1ratioprincipal appliedinthiscasewhendecipheringdimensionality.Theresults suggestastronggeneral factorofparenting.ThescreeplotwasalsosimilartothatoftheunrotatedPAFsolution(see Figure3),butsuggesteda4 or5 factorsolution.Atotalof26itemshadfactorloadings higherthan0.40onthefirstfactor(in steadof25likethesolutionextractedusingthePAF method).TheseitemswereidenticaltothosethatloadedontothefirstfactorofthePAF unrotatedsolutionwiththeadditionofitem26.Theonlyitemthatcross loadedhigherthan .40wasitem48( ontofactors1and18). Figure3.Plotofeigenvaluesfromthefactoranalysisofthenewparenti ngmeasure utilizingPCAextractionmethod,norotation

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52 ComparisonofPCAandPAF Theone factorstructuremethodimpliedbytheeigenvaluesfromtheunrotat ed solutionsdidnotallowforfurtherreliabilityandconfirmatoryfactoranalyses,nordidit allowfortestingofthecategoriesdeterminedaprioritoPhase2.Therefore,itwasdecided toexplorethedatabylimitingthenumberoffactorsthatcould beextractedtofour,five,six, orseven.Thisrangewaschosenbecausethescreeplotssuggestthefactorstructurecould includefourorfivefactors(insteadofjustone).Additionally,theitemschosenforthePhase 2measurewerebasedonseventhe orizedcategoriesdeterminedapriori.Consequently, analyseswereconductedthatallowedforasetnumberoffactors(4 7)utilizingboththePCA andPAFextractionmethodswithobliquerotations.Overall,PCAproducedmoreitemsper factorthandidthe PAFextractionmethodand,therefore,producedallviablefactorsunder allsolutions(i.e.,therewerenoone itemortwo itemfactors)evenintheseven factor solution.Onlyloadingsabove.40wereconsideredforinterpretation. InAppendixG,Ihav esetthesolutionssidebysidetoillustratethebenefitof utilizingthePCAmethodoverthePAFmethod.Thebenefitliesinmoreitemsperfactor loadinggreaterthan.40.Asdiscussedearlier,havingmoreitemsallowsforabetteralpha perscalean dmoreflexibilityinchoosingitemstobedeleted. Fortheitemanalysis,Ichosetoworkwiththeseven factorsolutionutilizingthePCA extractionmethodwithaPromaxrotationbecauseitallowedforthegreatestnumberofitems toloadgreaterthan.4 0ontothe7 factorstructure.Additionally,contentanalysisrevealed thatitwasthemostcongruentwiththetheorizedconstructsfromPhase1.Thefinaltablein AppendixGprovidesthecorrelationsamongfactors.Themosthighlycorrelatedfactors w erefactors1and3( r =.45)andthelowestcorrelationwasbetweenfactors1and7( r =.00).

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53 ItemAnalysis IconductedreliabilityanalysesforeachfactorofthePCAPromaxseven factor modelasascale.Ideleteditemswithpooritem totalstatisticsev enthoughsomescaleswere reducedtothreeitems.Table7providestheresultsfromthereliabilityanalyses.Deleted itemsarehighlighted.Table8providestheitemcontentalongwiththerecalculatedalpha statisticsforeachsubscaleaswellasite mloadingsfromthePCAPromaxseven factor solution.Itshouldbenotedthatthreeofthesesubscales(EmotionalAttachment,Decision Making,andProperDemeanor)hadlessthanacceptablereliability(<.60). FactorLabelsintheContextofHypothesized CategoriesofParentingBehavior Initialhypothesizedcategorieswerebasedontheresultsofthegroupinterviews conductedduringPhase1.Sevenareasofbehavioremerged:Familismo(emphasisonthe familynetwork),Respeto(includesdeferencetoautho rityandpolitetreatmentofothers), InstrumentalIndependence(beingabletocarefortheselfintermsofgrooming,toileting, homework,etc.),Discipline(methodsutilizedbytheparenttoincreaseobedience), Supervision(theparentsknowledgeofthe childsactivitiesandwhereabouts),Decision Making(differingscenariosinwhichachildisallowedtomakechoicesforhimorherself), andEmotionalSupport(parentalaidinachildsemotionalworld).

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54 Table7.ReliabilityAnalysisoftheFac torsfromthePCAPromax7 FactorModel Factor Cronbachs Cronbachs Basedon Standardized Items Nof Items ItemNo. Scale Meanif Item Deleted Scale Varianceif ItemDeleted CorrectedItem Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbachsif ItemDeleted Factor1 .691 .711 10 HIR16 23.78 7.176 .391 .226 .670 HIR32 23.98 6.465 .442 .243 .652 HIR26 23.96 6.647 .390 .179 .661 HIR2* 24.33 6.807 .174 .052 .711 HIR33 24.00 6.391 .454 .250 .649 HIR38 24.16 6.225 .430 .231 .652 HIR 9* 23.99 6.902 .284 .124 .679 HIR34 23.90 6.785 .402 .183 .661 HIR54 24.04 6.546 .387 .209 .661 HIR40* 24.06 6.645 .288 .096 .681 Factor1 .717 .725 7 HIR16 16.06 4.248 .431 .240 .693 withpoor HIR32 16.25 3.738 .445 .247 .681 items HIR26 16.25 3.813 .417 .183 .688 deleted HIR33 16.28 3.610 .484 .256 .670 HIR38 16.43 3.569 .428 .197 .688 HIR34 16.18 4.004 .409 .179 .690 HIR54 16.32 3.726 .426 .213 .686 Factor2 .648 .649 7 HIR61 12.04 6.940 .340 .142 .617 HIR12 12.03 6. 963 .323 .111 .622 HIR15 11.84 6.789 .361 .175 .611 HIR59 11.84 6.992 .375 .188 .607 HIR23 11.64 6.854 .372 .182 .607 HIR30 11.97 6.782 .342 .149 .617 HIR55 11.78 6.827 .390 .202 .602 Factor3 .465 .472 4 HIR43r 7.4013 1.825 .289 .112 .373 HIR58r 7.5016 1.790 .226 .066 .439 aHIR53 7.5178 1.887 .240 .090 .419 aHIR39 7.3657 1.869 .319 .137 .350 Factor4 .643 .651 4 HIR35r* 7.2283 2.499 .298 .090 .672 HIR3 6.9293 2.247 .527 .327 .498 HIR10 6.9293 2.234 .498 .311 .518 HIR21 6.6174 2.766 .401 .166 .594 Factor4 .672 .669 3 HIR3 4.92 1.155 .551 .316 .484 withpoor HIR10 4.92 1.123 .535 .306 .510 itemdeleted HIR21 4.61 1.600 .387 .151 .694 Factor5 .633 .634 4 HIR7 6.51 2.368 .475 .264 .518 HIR29 6.65 2.255 .498 .271 .498 HIR36 6.39 2.511 .475 .248 .524 HIR22* 6.56 2.890 .227 .053 .689 Factor5 .689 .690 3 HIR7 4.37 1.454 .512 .262 .586 withpoor HIR29 4.51 1.394 .511 .262 .589 itemdeleted HIR36 4.25 1.603 .493 .243 .613 Factor6 .508 .509 4 HIR44 6.53 1.634 .353 .127 .386 HIR27 6.81 1.937 .262 .082 .469 HIR48 6.50 1.667 .278 .087 .460 HIR5 6.64 1.699 .311 .097 .426 Factor7 .445 .448 5 HIR8 8.05 2.773 .364 .201 .285 HIR11 7.65 3.006 .327 .201 .323 HIR52* 7.77 3.401 .102 .021 .488 HIR45 8.08 3.249 .193 .055 .419 HIR4 7.23 3.432 .200 .073 .412 Factor7 .488 .488 4 HIR8 6.12 1.960 .370 .196 .328 withpoor HIR11 5.72 2.137 .349 .200 .356 itemdeleted HIR45 6.15 2.404 .179 .049 .51 4 HIR4 5.30 2.455 .249 .070 .447 highlighteditemsweredeletedduetopooritem totalstatisticsandreliabilitywasrecalculatedwithouttheseitems r =reverse scored

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55 Table8.ContentandReliabilityofEachFactorfromthePCAPromax7 FactorM odelAfter Item DeletionfromItemAnalysis* Factor Loading Item# Itemsloading.40orgreaterontothefactor 1 Respeto =.717 687 .593 .582 .482 .465 .424 .417 16 32 26 33 38 34 54 Itismyresponsibilitytodowellinschool. Myparentsencourage me. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyteacherslikeIobeythem. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofotherfamilymemberswhoneedhelp. Myparentshavetherighttotellmewhattodo. Myparentssa ythatothersintheworldwilltreatmewellifItreatthemwithrespect. 2 Familismo =.648 .597 .538 .516 .514 .512 .476 .453 61 12 15 59 23 30 55 IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwithanadultfrommyfamily. IfIhaveafriendwhomyparentsdontlike,Imnotallowedtobewiththem. IfIhaveapartywithfriendsatthesame timethatIhaveapartywithfamily,myparentssayI havetochoosethefamilyparty. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivities. Myparentsusethephrasefamilyfirst(lafamiliaprimero). Thereisadayintheweekthatmyfamilyconsidersa familyday. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainpeople. 3 EmotionalAttachment =.465 .597 .543 .538 .506 43 58 53 39 MyparentsignoremewhenIdosomethingIshouldntdo.* IfIamupsetaboutsomething,myparentstellmeIshouldkeepittomyself.* Icantellmyparentsalmostanything. Myparentsareaffectionatewithme 4 Parent K nowledge/ Supervision = .672 .599 .538 .477 3 10 21 WhenIhaveaproblematschool,Ifeelcomfortabletalkingaboutitwithmyparents. WhenIhavetroublewithanothergirlorboy,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparentsaboutit. Myparents knowwhereIamatalltimes. 5 Discipline =.689 .697 .697 .696 7 29 36 MyparentsgroundmeifIamintrouble. MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble. MyparentstakeawaymyprivilegesifIamintrouble 6 Decision Making =.508 .757 .5 53 .487 .402 44 27 48 5 Iknowaboutmostofmyfamilysproblems. Myparentsletmemakemyowndecisions. MyparentsletmedecidewhereIgooutforfunontheweekends,butthereareplacesImnot allowedtogoto. Iaminvolvedinfamilydecisions 7 ProperDemeanor =.488 .547 .480 .429 .401 8 11 45 4 MyparentstellmethatIgivemyfamilyabadreputationwhenIdontbehavewell. MyparentsareembarrassedwhenIbehavebadly. Iamexpectedtowashmyownclothes. MyparentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly. *Pleas eseeAppendixG,TableG8foralistingofallloadings,includingthosebelow.40.**Itemsarereverse scored Manyofthese(e.g.,Respeto,IntrumentalIndependence,Familismo,Decision Making)lieunderthegeneralheadingofProperDemeanor(acting insociallyagreeable ways),whichisamajorsocializationgoalofHispanicmothers.AspectsofInstrumental IndependencefallunderProperDemeanorsinceitimpliesthatthechildwilltakecareof him orherselftotheextentthatotherpeoplewillbe impressedandrelievedthattheydonot havetotakecareofthechild.Forexample,Schulzeetal.(2002)foundthatPuertoRican mothersbelievethatachildshouldbetoilet trainedsothatthechildwillnotberejectedbut

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56 rathersociallyacceptedb yothers(inthiscase,allowedtoenrollinschoolandbeacceptedby theteacher).Aspectsofdecision makingalsofallunderProperDemeanor,where,ifachild takesituponhim orherselftomakedecisionsthatshouldbemadebyanadult,thenheor shewillbeconsidereddisobedient/brashbyoversteppingtheadultsauthority. Consequently,achildwhomakesdecisionsonlyininstancesinwhichitisappropriatetodo sowillbemoresociallyacceptablethanachildwhodoesnot. Factor1. Ichose tolabelthefirstfactorRespetobecauseallitemsdealwithan aspectofRespeto(literallytranslatedintorespect)(e.g.Itismyresponsibilitytodowell inschool;Myparentsencourageme).Item#16maybeinterpretedasrespectforselfa nd parentswishesforthechild.Item#32isaformofparentsrespectingthechild.Items#26 and#33arefacevalidintheirrelationshiptorespectanddeferencetoauthority.Item38is relatedtorespectingotherfamilymembersdignitybyhelping themwhenneededwithout beingaskedtodoso.Item#34inherentlyrecognizesthatthechildrespectstheparents authorityoverhim/her.Item#54isfacevalidinitsrelationshiptorespect. Factor2. IchosetolabelthesecondfactorFamilismob ecauseallitemsinsome wayrelatetotheboundariessetbyparentsbetweenfamilymembersandthoseoutsidethe familynetwork(e.g.IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwithanadultfrommyfamily; IfIhaveafriendwhomyparentsdontlike,Im notallowedtobewiththem).Items#61, #15,#23,and#30allhaveafacevalidrelationshipwiththeconceptthatfamilynetworksare apriorityintheHispanichousehold.Items#12,#59,and#55measuretheimplicit boundariesplacedonthechilds relationshipsandactivitiesoutsideofthefamilycircle. Factor3. IchosetolabelthethirdfactorEmotionalSupportsincealltheitems relatetoparentalemotionalsupportofthechildeitherwhentheymisbehave(item#43),feel

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57 upset(item#58), needsomeonetotalkto(item#53),orsimplyneedaffection(item#39) (e.g.MyparentsignoremewhenIdosomethingthatIshouldntdo;IfIamupsetabout something,myparentstellmeIshouldkeepittomyself). Factor4. Ichosetolabelthef ourthfactorParentKnowledge/Supervisionsincethe itemsconjointlyreflectdifferentareasofparentknowledgeorsupervisionoverthechilds world,includingthechildsdifficultiesatschool,relationships,orwhereabouts(e.g.WhenI haveaprobl ematschool,Ifeelcomfortabletalkingaboutitwithmyparents;WhenIhave troublewithanothergirlorboy,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparentsaboutit).Thisfactor iscloselyrelatedtothetheorizedfactorofSupervisionalbeitinabroader context.Inother words,thefactortapsnotonlyintoknowledgeofthechildsphysicalwhereabouts(i.e., whomtheyarewithandwheretheyare)butalsotapsintoknowledgeofthechildsworldof relationshipsanddifficulties. Factor5. Ichoseto labelthefifthfactorDisciplineasitincludesthesameitems theorizedtobeunderthecategoryofDisciplineapriori(e.g.MyparentsgroundmeifI amintrouble;MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble).Allitemsareface validin theirmeasurementofstrategiesparentsutilizetodisciplinetheirchildren. Factor6. IchosetolabelthesixthfactorDecision Makingastheorizedsinceall itemsmeasurethedifferentboundariesintheareasthechildisallowedtobeapartof dec ision makingeitherjointlywithothersorindependently(e.g.Iknowaboutmostofmy familysproblems;Myparentsletmemakemyowndecisions).Inaddition,thefactor tapsintothefactthatdecision makingmaynotonlyincludedecision makingre latedtoself butalsorelatedtodecisionstobemadeforotherindividualsorentities(items#44and#5).

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58 Factor7. IchosetolabeltheseventhfactorProperDemeanorbecausethisfactor measureshowthechildistaughttobetheleastdisruptive/di sagreeabletoothers,especially inthehousehold(e.g.MyparentstellmethatIgivemyfamilyabadreputationwhenI dontbehavewell;MyparentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly).IchoseProper DemeanorinsteadofInstumentalIndependencebecau seitappearsthefactorismeasuring morethansimplyself careexpectationsbutratherthedegreetowhichthechildissensitive totheconsequencesofonesactionsonothers.Therefore,ProperDemeanor,which,as mentionedearlierintheintroduction tothissection,isrelatedtoseveraloftheabovefactors, isanappropriatelabelforthisfactorbecausetheitemssimultaneouslymeasureintertwined aspectsofemotionalsupport(fromthechildtothefamily),familismo(asanemotional boundary),di scipline(thechildwillnotmisbehaveifotherswillbehurt),decision making (thechildhasachoiceastowhetherhewillbeagreeableornot),instrumentalindependence (takingcareofoneselfinpublicandathomesoastobeaspleasant/agreeableas possible, caerbien),andrespeto(thechildrepectsfamilymembersbynotembarrassing/hurting them). Discussion ThenewHispanicparentingmeasureholdspromiseasaresearchtool.Despiteitem reduction,themeasurestillcoversawidevarietyof relevantdomainswithintheHispanic parentingliterature.Thenumberofitemswasincreasedfromtheproposed20to32itemsto ensuresufficientempiricalstrengthaswellascontentcoverageoftheseventheorized categories.Itwasexpectedthatthe newmeasurewillhaveuniquepredictivevalueforthe researcherstudyingHispanicparentingbecausethefactorsthatemergedseemtobe

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59 measuringthetheorizedcategoriesoffamilismo,respeto,andproperdemeanor allofwhich arereportedlyuniquecha racteristicsoftheHispanicculture. Thestrengthofthenewparentingmeasureliesinitstestconstruction.Nunnallyand Bernstein(1994)warnoftheinadequacyofusingeitherapurelyrationalapproachtotest constructionorapurelyempiricalap proachtotestconstruction.InPhase2,Iattemptedto incorporatebothrationalandempiricalmethodologytoselectthebestitemsforthisnew parentingmeasure. However,apotentialweaknessofthenewparentingmeasureisthefactorstructure prior torotation.Exploratoryfactoranalysesoriginallyindicatedaunitaryfactorstructure. Nevertheless,Iimposedaseven factorstructurebaseduponthesevencategoriesthat emergedduringPhase1inordertocreatemeaningfulsubscalesforpredictive research. Additionally,thescreeplotindicatedtheexistenceofmultiplefactors(seeFigures2and3). Aunitaryparentingfactorwouldbedifficulttointerpretwhenitcametimetodescribe relationshipsbetweenLatinoparentingandadolescentoutco mes.Inthesevenfactorsolution chosen,theitemsloadingontoeachfactorhadsufficientlyrecognizablerelationshipstoeach otherwithineachfactor.Thesolutionwasthebestfitincomparisontotheotherfactor restrictedsolutionsintermsof statisticalandconstructvalidity.Ontheotherhand,these relationshipswerenotasIwouldhavelikedwhenconsideringtheirfacevalidity.For example,MyparentsencouragemedoesnothavefacevalidityasrelatedtotheRespeto factorthatit loadsonto.Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivitiesisanotheritemthat haslittlefacevaliditywhencomparedtothefactoritloadsonto(Familismo).Additionally, thereliabilityforthreeofthesubscales(factors3,6,and7)wasbelowthe acceptable levelsaccordingtoGeorgeandMallery(2003).Despitetheseconcerns,Idecidedtomove

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60 forwardwiththe32itemslistedinTable8becausetheseitemswerechosenusingbotha rationalandempiricalapproachtotestconstruction,withthe intentofproducingthebest item selectionpossible(Nunnally&Bernstein,1994).

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61 Phase3 Thefinalstageofthisstudyexaminedthereliabilityofthenewmeasures itemschoseninPhase2aswellasitsvalidity.Theoverallpurposewastoaddress thelackof constructvalidityincurrentmeasuresofparentingforHispanicfamilies.Therefore,this finalstageexaminedthevalidityofthenewmeasurewhilestatisticallycontrollingfor acculturation,ethnicidentity,SES,andgenerationalstatus. Itwasexpectedthat,basedon Phase2results,thenewmeasuressubscaleswouldhaveatleastacceptablereliability,and wouldaccountforasignificantamountofuniquevarianceaboveandbeyondmainstream measuresofparentingasrepresentedbytheP arentingPracticesSurvey(PPS)(Lambornet al.,1991).Itwasalsoexpectedthatthenewmeasuressubscaleswouldbemoderately correlatedwiththePPSfactorsbecauseofforeseeableoverlapbetweenparentingconstructs intheU.S.cultureandintheHi spanicculture. Method Participants ParticipantsinPhase3wereallrecruitedinMiamifrombothpublicandprivate Catholicschools.ThemajoritywererecruitedfromtheCatholicschoolsbecauseofthe accessibilitytothestudentsthatwasprovidedto theauthor;incontrast,recruitmentand accessibilitytothestudentsinthepublicschoolswasverylimited.Atotalof131students participatedinthestudy,althoughonly105ofthemwereincludedinthefinalanalysisdueto eitheramissingdepende ntvariablemeasure( n =25)orastudentnotcompletingthemeasure

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62 appropriately( n =1).The25participantsmissingadependentvariablewererecruitedfrom thepublicschools,whichturnedouttohaveadifferentgradingsystemfromthatofthe privates choolstudents.Ofthese25students,only14wouldhavebeenincludedinthe analysesifthegradingsystemwascomparable,becausetheother11studentsdidnothavea TRFcompletedbytheirteacher.These25studentsweremostlyofCubandescent(61%) mostlyin7 th grade(52%),halfmale(57%),andmostly12yearsold(57%).Theremaining 105studentswereallfromparochialschools. Table9providesasummaryofthesamplecharacteristicsofPhase3.Comparedto thePhase2participants,Phase3ha dahigherpercentageofHispanicsfromtheCaribbean andalowerpercentageofHispanicsfromCentralAmerica.Onaverage,Phase2participants wereoflowerSES 2 (40, N =388)=97.56, p 2 (1, N =415)=20.91, p 2 (15, N =413)=87.84, p =.000].ParticipantsinPhases2and3didnotsignificantlydifferinthe nu 2 (31, N =419)=39.06, p =.152. PredictorMeasures Socioeconomicstatus(SES). SES wasmeasuredasitwasinPhase2. Generationalstatus. Generationalstatus was measured byaskingstudentstoreportthe numbero fyearstheyhadlivedintheUnitedStatesandwhichrelativewasthefirstintheir familytocometotheUnitedStatesfromtheircountryoforigin(SeeAppendixD).Achild wasassignedaratingof1 st generation(Score=1)ifheorshewasbornina nothercountry. Ifthechildwasbornherebutneitherparentwas,thenheorshewasallottedascoreof2for 2 nd generation.

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63 Table9.SampleCharacteristicsforPhase3. Gender Boys Girls N 49 56 MeanAge 12.45 12.30 PercentinEachGrade 6 t h 32.7 33.9 7 th 28.6 16.1 8 th 38.8 50.0 PercentofEachNationality Cuban 69.4 55.4 Mexican 0 0 PuertoRican 0 0 Dominican 2.0 0 Columbian 0 3.6 Peruvian 0 1.8 Venezuelan 0 0 Nicaraguan 6.1 3.6 OtherHispanic 2.0 1.8 2orMoreHispanicNatio nalities 14.3 21.4 HispanicMixedwithNon Hispanic 6.1 12.5 PercentofEachQuartileofHollingsheadIndexofSocialPosition 1 st HighestSES 42.9 35.7 2 nd 28.6 41.1 3 rd 20.4 19.6 4 th LowestSES 8.2 3.6 PercentofGenerationalStatus FirstG eneration 12.2 12.5 SecondGeneration 49.0 53.6 ThirdGeneration 34.7 32.1 FourthGeneration 4.1 1.8 IfthechildwasbornhereandatleastoneparentwasalsobornintheUnitedStates,thenhe orshewasconsidereda3 rd generationAmerican(Score= 3).Ifachildwasbornhereandat leastoneparentandonegrandparentwasbornintheUnitedStates,thenthechildwas considereda4 th generationAmerican(Score=4). Informationon Race/Ethnicity wasobtainedbyaskingstudentstoidentifytheir pe rceivedrace/ethnicityfromalistofnationsoforigins.Theyincluded:(1)Mexican,(2) Cuban,(3)PuertoRican,(4)Dominican,(5)Other,PleaseSpecify ,(6)Mixed,2ormore HispanicNationalities,PleaseSpecify ,(7)MixedHispanicwithOtherEth nic Background(White,AfricanAmerican,etc.).ThesameverbalinstructionsfromPhase1 and2weregiventoclarifyforparticipantshowtocompletethisitem.

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64 Ethnicidentity. EthnicIdentity wasmeasuredusinga24 itemscaledevelopedby Phinney(1 992)calledtheMultigroupEthnicIdentityMeasure(MEIM).Fiveoftheitems assessadolescentsaffirmationandsenseofbelongingtotheirethnicgroupinasubscale calledAffirmationandBelonging(e.g.,IamhappythatIamamemberoftheethnic groupIbelongto.).Sevenitemsassesstheextenttowhichadolescentshaveexploredthe meaningoftheirethnicityinthesubscaleEthnicIdentityAchievement(e.g.,Ihavespent timetryingtolearnaboutmyethnicgroup,suchasitshistory,tradi tions,andcustoms). TwooftheitemsmeasureEthnicBehaviors(e.g.,Iparticipateinculturalpracticesofmy owngroup,suchasspecialfood,music,orcustoms).Forallregressionanalyses,aMEIM TotalScorewasused.TheTotalScoreonlyinco rporatesitemsfromthethreescaleslisted above.AnadditionalsixitemsoftheMEIMformtheOther GroupOrientationsubscale. OtheritemsintheMEIMscaleasktheadolescentstoidentifytheirethnicity(open ended) andparentsethnicbackground .Alphaforthisscalewasreportedtobeequalto.84 (Phinneyetal.,2001).Forthecurrentsample,alphaforthetotalscalescorewas.78. Acculturation. Acculturation tomainstreamAmericanculture wasmeasuredusingan instrumentofacculturation developedbySzapocznik,Scopetta,Kurtines,andAranalde (1978)(seeAppendixC).ThisBehavioralAcculturationScale(BAS)measuresbehaviors (andnotvalues)thatcanchangeasacculturationoccurs(e.g.,Whatsortofmusicdoyou listento?(1)Hisp anicallofthetime,(2)Hispanicmostofthetime,(3)Hispanicsomeofthe timeandAmericanothertimes,(4)Americanmostofthetime,(5)Americanallofthe time).Althoughthemostcurrentviewofacculturationisadynamicprocessthatincludes anincorporationofbothcultures(inwhichanindividualcanbehighlyinvolvedinboththeir originalcultureandtheirhostculture),forthepurposesofthisstudy,acculturationwas

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65 consideredonaspectrumwiththetwocultures(originalandnew)at oppositepolesofthe spectrum.Themeasurehasscoresthatareunitweighted.Therefore,thetotalscoreconsists ofthesumofapersonsresponseweightstoeachitem.Scorescanrangefrom24to120, withascoreof24indicatingminimumacculturati on.Twooftheitems(Whatlanguagedo youspeakatwork?andMywayofrelatingtomyfiancis)werechangedtobemore appropriateforadolescentsstageoflife(Whatlanguagedoyouspeakwithyour neighbors?andMywayofrelatingtomybest friendis:).Additionally,sincetheBAS allowsanchorstobechangedtocorrespondwiththerespectivehostandimmigrantcultures, theywerechangedfromCubantoHispanic.Thecoefficientalphaforthisscalewas reportedat.97(Szapoczniketal .,1978).Forthecurrentsample,reliabilitywas.92. Parentingpracticessurvey(PPS). ThePPS isa22 itemmeasure assessingthree areasofparentingpractices:PsychologicalAutonomy,Strictness/Supervision,and Warmth/Acceptance Involvement(Lamborn etal.,1991;seeSteinberg,Elmen,&Mounts, 1989,regardingdevelopmentofthescale) .Forthestudentssurvey,itemsweredescribedas Asetofquestionsabouttheparent(s)orguardianyoulivewith.Totalscoresforeachof thethreefactorsw erecalculatedasthetotalsumoftheitemresponses.Itemresponseswere standardizedinordertogiveequalweighttoallitems,particularlyforthe Stricntess/SupervisionScaleinwhichitemshaddifferentscaling. ItemsmeasuringPsychologicalAuton omy(9itemstotal)andWarmth/Acceptance Involvement(9itemstotal)werepresentedasbehaviorsaparentmightexhibit(e.g.,for PsychologicalAutonomy:Myparentssayyoushouldntarguewithadults;for Warmth/Acceptance/Involvement:Icancounton myparentstohelpmeout,ifIhavesome

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66 kindofproblem).Studentswereaskedtoratehowstronglytheyagreewiththeitemsona four pointlikertscalefromStronglyagreetoStronglydisagree.Forthe Strictness/Supervisionscale,twoofthei temswerepresentedasmultiplechoicequestions (e.g.,Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton SchoolNights (Monday Thursday) ?),andparticipantswereaskedtochoosetheirresponsesfromthefollowing:(1)I amnotallowedout,(2)B efore8:00,(3)8:00to8:59,(4)9:00to9:59,(5)10:00to10:59,(6) 11:00orlater,(7)AslateasIwant.ForthetwootheritemsassessingStrictness/Supervision, studentsindicatehowmuchtheirparentsknowortrytoknowabouttheiractivitiesin three areas:whereIgoatnight,whatIdowithmyfreetime,andwhereIammostafternoons afterschool( Lamborn,etal.,1991 ).Participantsselecttheirresponsefromtwothree point scales(DontTry,TryaLittle,TryaLot,orDontKnow,Know aLittle,KnowaLot). TheStrictness/Supervisionfactorhasareportedalphaof.76andthe Warmth/Acceptance Involvementfactorhasareportedalphaof.72(Lamborn, etal., 1991). ForthePsychologicalAutonomyfactor,thealphahasbeenreportedas beinginexcessof .80,butnoexactnumberhasbeengiveninpaststudies(basedontheCRPBIsubscalesof acceptanceandpsychologicalcontrol;Schwartz,Barton Henry,&Pruzinsky,1985,ascited inSteinberg,Elmen,&Mounts,1989).ForHispanics,Stei nbergandcolleagues(1991) reportalphasbetween.63 .68fortheWarmth/Acceptance Involvementscale,.73 .82forthe Strictness/Supervisionscale,andbetween.62 .72forthePsychologicalAutonomyscale. Factoranalysesindicatedthatthebasicstructu reforHispanicswasidenticaltothatof Caucasians,AfricanAmericansandAsianAmericans.Theaboveinformationwastaken fromthepsychometricevaluationofthePPSduringitsscaledevelopment;Hispanicswere included,buttheywerenotconsultedfo ritemcontentdevelopment.Forthecurrentsample,

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67 alphasfortheStrictness/Supervision,Warmth/Acceptance Involvement,andPsychological Autonomyfactorswere.76,.62,and.64,respectively. YouthOutcome Measures Academicachievement. Academicach ievement wasmeasuredusingstudentsfinal English,Math,andReadinggradesforthetrimesterinwhichtheycompletedthesurvey. Gradeswerebasedonarangeof1 100with100beingthebestpossiblescore. Behavioraladjustment .Behavioraladjustmen twasmeasuredintwoways.Oneway wasbycomputingthetotalnumberofdisciplinereferralsastudentreceivedoverthe trimesterperiodduringwhichthestudentcompletedthemeasure.Table10detailsthe offensesthatmeritadisciplinereferralfor studentsfromtheprivateschools.This informationwasobtainedfromschoolrecords.Thesearelabeledminorandmajor,but forthepurposesoftheanalysesthesedistinctionswerenotmadesincedoingsowould considerablyreducevariability.Very fewstudentsreceivedreferralsoverall( N =23),andout ofthesestudents,onlyafewreceivedmorethanonereferral(1referral: N =11;2referrals: N =7;3 5referrals: N =5).Additionally,becauseoftheabovereasoning,onlythetotal numberofrefer ralswasrecordedwhenthedatawerecollected.Foreachstudent,thetotal numberofminorandmajordemeritscomprisedthebehavioraladjustmentscore.

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68 Table10.ListofOffensesthatLeadtoaDisciplineReferral. Demeritsaregiventothe studentdependingontheinfractionandattheteachersdiscretion: MINOROFFENSES 1. Gumchewingatanytime 2. Eatingordrinkingoutsideofthelunchareaatanytime 3. Interruptingordisturbingaclass,thechangingofclasses,achurchfunction,any speci alprogramand/orassembly 4. Visitingorloiteringinclassrooms,restrooms,thechurch,oranyothernon designatedareawithoutpermissionand/orapass 5. Neglectingtowearthecompleteuniformproperly thisincludes,butisnotexclusivetoneglige nceor inappropriatenessinpersonalappearanceandgroomingsuchasthewearingofcolornailpolishand/ormakeup, excessiveorinappropriatejewelry,nottuckedorunbuttonedshirts/blousesorlackofbeltonuniformorjeanson specialoccasionssucha sDressDownDays 6. Inappropriatehairstyle Hairstyleswhicharenotappropriateforschoolincludedyedhair,highlightsorstreaks, shavedorcloselycroppedhair(lessthana#2blade)orfadcuts.Thehairstylemustbeimmediatelyrectifiedbefore the studentisallowedtoreturntoschool.Ifthehairiscuttooshortoristoolong,thestudentwillbesuspended untilthehairreachestheappropriatelength.Noexcuseswillbeaccepted. 7. Unexcusedtardinesstoclass 8. Willfulviolationofthesafetyrule sand/orignoringinstructionsofthesafetypatrol 9. Usingtherestroomstochangeclothesfornon schoolactivities 10. Lackofcooperationtowardsateacherincludingrefusingtocompleteanassignedpunishmentorsubmittingparents signatureasrequestedon tests,demerits,etc. MAJOROFFENSES: 1. Disrespect,lying,cheating,and/ordisobediencetoauthority 2. Causinganunrulyand/orseriousdisruptionduringschool;atanafterschoolmeeting,activity,orgame/sport;orat anyschool/schoolrelatedfunction 3. P ushing,bullying,hitting,and/orintimidatingand/ordisrespectingotherstudents 4. Destroyingordefacingschool,church,facultyorotherstudentsproperty 5. Forgingofsignatures 6. Theuseofoffensive,vulgarlanguageand/orprofanity,usingimpropergestu res,or havinginyourpossessionpicturesand/ormaterialsofsuchanature 7. Notreportingforadetentionorincomplianceofanydisciplinaryconsequence 8. Useorabuseofanotherstudentspropertyincludingbutnotexclusivetobooks,supplies,andphysic aleducation equipment. Thesecondwaybehavioraladjustmentwasmeasured intheclassroomwasbythe AchenbachTeacherReportForm(TRF)forAges6 18(Achenbach,1991).Thisisa118 itempaperandpencilmeasurecompletedbyeachchildsteacher.Th emeasureprovidesraw scores,T scores,andpercentilesbasedonteachersratingsofthechildforhowtrueeach itemisnoworwaswithinthepasttwomonths.Theratingsaremadeusinga3 pointscale: (1)NotTrue(asfarasyouknow),(2)Somewhato rSometimesTrue,(3)VeryTrueorOften True.Themeasurebreaksdownproblembehaviorintothreemaincategoriesofsubscales: (1)SyndromeScales,(2)ADHDScales,and(3)DSM OrientedScales.Forthepurposesof

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69 thisstudy,onlytheInternalizingand ExternalizingProblemBehaviorScales(Syndrome Scales)wereutilized. Self ratingsofcompetence. SelfcompetencewasmeasuredbytheSelf Perception ProfileforChildren(Harter,1985),alsoknownastheWhatIAmLikemeasure(WIAL). Thisisa36 i temmeasureassessingtheadolescentsperceptionabouttheircompetencein fivedomains:scholastic,athletic,behavioralconduct,physicalappearance,andsocial acceptance.Themeasurealsoprovidesameasureofglobalself worth.Themeasureasks stu dentstoratetheircompetenceona4 pointscaleinauniqueformatwherechildrenfirst choosebetweentwostatementsonoppositeendsofapole;thentheyareaskedtoratehow trueforthemisthestatementtheychose(SeeAppendixF).Reliabilitycoe fficientsforthese scalesrangedfrom.71 .86(Harter,1985).ForthePhase3sample,reliabilityrangedfrom .62to.75.Forthisstudy,onlytheGlobalSelf Competencedomainwasutilizedtoassess validityoftheHIR. Procedure Activeconsentforthe adolescentparticipantsinPhase3wassoughtthreedifferent ways.Initially,parentsheardapresentationaboutthestudyduringParentsNightintheir respectiveschools.Duringthistime,parentsweregivenconsentformsiftheyindicatedthey wi shedfortheirchildtoparticipate.ConsentformswereinbothEnglishandSpanish. Parentswerealsoapproachedduringthefirstweekofschoolastheydroppedtheirchildren off.Finally,studentsweregiventheseconsentformstotakehomeandwere askedtoreturn theconsentformstotheschool.Ifstudentsbroughttheconsentform(eithersignedornot

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70 signed)theyreceivedacolorfullydecoratedpencilasanincentive.Studentswerenot solicitediftheywereinaspecialeducationprogram. Al mostallconsentstoparticipatewereobtainedutilizingtherecruitmentmethods withdirectparentaccess.Noaccurateresponserateisavailable,sinceduringparentnight therewasnogeneralcountofmiddleschoolparents.Hundredsofparentsattende d,butnot allwereparentsofchildreninmiddleschoolsincetheschoolstargetedincludedgradespre k througheighthgrade.Duringparentnightageneralannouncementwasmadeforparentsto completetheform.Thenthoseparentsthatraisedtheirhan dweregivenaformtoreadand sign.Additionally,exceptforoneparent,allthatwereapproachedastheirchildrenwere droppedoffconsentedfortheirchildtoparticipate.Finally,afterexhaustingthemethodof directparentaccess,Igavethecons entformstoanychildrenthatIdidnothaveconsentsfor already.Ofthesechildren,(approximately100)approximately2returnedtheconsentform viatheirteacher. Immediatelybeforeadministrationofthemeasure,studentswereprovideda description ofthestudyandwereaskedtosignanassentformiftheywerewillingto participate.TheparentingmeasuresweregivenasdescribedinPhase2ofthisstudy,except studentscompletedthereducedversionofthemeasure(32items)alongwithavarietyo f othermeasuresthatwereusedtoassessconstructvalidity.Theorderinwhichthemeasures weregivenwas:Demographics,thenewparentingmeasure,PPS,MEIM,BAS,andWIAL. TheTRFmeasurewasgiventoteachersattheendofthetrimestertoprovide adequatetimetobecomeacquaintedwithanynewstudents.Allstudentandteachersurveys werecompletedwithinapproximately1monthofeachother.

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71 Results Atthisfinalstageofscaledevelopment,thenewparentingmeasure(HIR)was analyzedtoconfir mreliabilityaswellastoestablishconstructvalidity.Itwasexpectedthat theHIRwouldprovideuniquepredictivevaluebeyondthatoftheestablishedparenting measure(PPS)whenpredictingtodisciplinereferrals,academicachievement,andbehavior al adjustment.ItwasalsoexpectedthattheHIRwouldhaveadequatereliabilitysubscale scoresandtotalscore. TheregressionanalysesrevealedthattheHIRaccountedforuniquevarianceabove andbeyondthePPSwhenpredictingadolescentsperceptio nsofglobalself worth(R 2 .08).Ontheotherhand,themeasuredidnotprovideuniquepredictivevalueforanyofthe other6dependentvariables.Additionally,themeasuressubscaleshadpoorreliability(low CronbachsAlpha). HIRReliability ForthePhase3sample,rel iabilityfortheHIRmeasureasawholewas=.75. Reliabilityvaluesforthesubscaleswereasfollows:HIRRespetoscale=.60,Familismo scale=.44,EmotionalAttachment=.16,Knowledge/Supervisionscale=.53,Discipline scale=.61,Decision Maki ngscale=.17,andProperDemeanorscale=.34. AlloftheHIRsubscaleshadlessthanacceptablereliabilitylevels.Acceptablevalues ofreliabilityintheearlystagesofpredictiveandconstructvalidityareabove.7 .8(Nunnally &Bernstein,1994) .Additionally,whenvariableswithpoorreliabilityareenteredas independentvariables(IVs)intoaregressionequation,thismayleadtounderestimationof

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72 thepredictivevalueoftheIVwithpoorreliability(TypeIIerror)andoverestimationofthe varianceaccountedforbytheotherIVsinthesameequation(TypeI)(Osborne&Waters, 2002).Inlightoftheseconcernsregardingpoorreliability,thesubscaleswithreliability valuesoflessthan.5(the4subscalesofFamilismo,EmotionalSupport, Decision Making, andProperDemeanor)werenotexaminedasseparateIVs.Neitherwereregressionanalyses utilizedtoexaminetheHIRmeasureasawholebecauseconceptuallytheresultswouldnot beinterpretable.Whileacceptablelevelsofreliabilitya reabove.7 .8,HIRsubscales between.50and.61wereincludedintheregressionanalysestoallowforexplorationofthe measurewhilekeepinginmindthelimitationsofanyresultsobtained. HIRsRelationshiptoAcculturationandSES Todeterminewheth erresponsestothenewparentingmeasuredifferedbylevelof acculturationandSES,eachscaleofthenewparentingmeasurewascorrelatedwithscores ontheacculturationscale(BAS),scoresontheoccupationalscale(HollingsheadsIndex), generational status,totalscoresfromtheethnicidentitymeasure(MEIM),andthetotal numberofyearstheadolescenthadlivedintheUnitedStateswhethertheywereborninthe U.S.ornot.Theseanalyseswerealsorunseparatelyforboysandforgirls.Pleases eeTable 11fortheseresults. Forthesampleasawhole,asexpected,Familismowasnegativelyrelatedto acculturation.Thatis,higherlevelsofFamilismoreportedbytheadolescentwererelatedto theadolescentreportingbeinglessacculturatedtoth eAmericancultureandmore acculturatedtotheHispanicculture.Othersignificantcorrelationsindicatedthat,asethnic

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73 identityincreased,sodidtheperceivedlevelofRespeto,EmotionalAttachment,Parental Knowledge/Supervision,parentalDiscipline, andadolescentDecision Making. Table11.CorrelationsbetweenHIRScaleScoresandAcculturation,SES,GenerationalStatus,and EthnicIdentity SES Generational Status Acculturation Ethnic Identity TotalYears intheU.S. Respeto Total Girls B oys .035 .028 .031 .028 .064 .030 .026 .302* .266 .347** .618** .023 .109 .074 .342* Familismo Total Girls Boys .018 .011 .037 .067 .028 .121 .200* .195 .165 .096 .185 .036 .070 .160 .043 EmotionalAttachment Total Girls Boys .110 .332* .115 .012 .060 .065 .169 .183 .095 .329** .476** .120 .023 .093 .185 Knowledge/Supervision Total Girls Boys .023 .106 .071 .004 .105 .103 053 .130 .081 .298** .356** .190 .190 .123 .298* Discipline Total Girls Boys .094 .082 .224 .152 .009 .287* .176 .203 .125 .243* .318* .165 .045 .123 .206 Decision Making Total Girls Boys .073 .098 .039 .015 .008 .011 .130 .162 .157 .296** .373** .232 .104 .140 .058 ProperDemeanor Total Girls Boys .134 .078 .333* .143 .117 .177 .077 .001 .169 .035 .020 .075 .149 164 .139 p <.05 2 tailed ** p <.01 2 tailed N =105forallcorrelations Forgirls,therelationshipbetweentheirethnicidentityandtheHIRscalescores mirroredthatofthewholesample.Inaddition,astheirlevelofacculturationincreased,their pe rceivedlevelofRespetodecreased.Also,asSESincreasedsodidtheirlevelofEmotional Attachmenttotheirparents.Forboys,themoreyearstheyreportedlivingintheU.S.,the morelikelytheyweretoreportthattheirparentsencouragedRespeto. Also,boysfrom

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74 lowersocio economiclevelsweremorelikelytoreportthattheirparentsbehavior encouragedProperDemeanor. Thegirlsresponsesseemtobedrivingtheentiresamplescorrelationsbetweenthe HIRfactors,acculturationandSES.Asr eferencedearlier,themoretraditionalviewsof Hispanic orientedvaluesinvolveseparatesocializationgoalsforgirlsandboys(Cauce& Domenech Rodrguez,2000).Inmoretraditionalhomes,girlsaremoreinsulatedandboys areallowedmorefreedomout sidethehome.Itmaybethatinspendingmoretimeathome, girlsaremoresensitivetoparentalbehaviors(Peters,1994). Forcomparativepurposes,thescalescoresofthePPSwerealsocorrelatedwiththe measuresofSES,acculturation,andethnicid entity(seeTable12).Forthetotalsample, significantrelationshipsindicatedthatasSESincreased,perceivedparental acceptance/warmth involvementandparentalstrictness/supervisionincreased.Theonly othersignificantrelationshipforthetotal sampleindicatedthatthemorestudentsidentify withtheirethnicidentitythemoretheyfeelparentalacceptance/warmth involvement. Measuresofculture,numberofyearsintheU.S.andgenerationalstatuswerenot significantlyrelatedtothePPS. GirlsresultsforthePPSweresimilartothetotalsampleintherelationshipbetween ethnicidentityandParentalAcceptance/Warmth Involvementandtherelationshipbetween SESandStrictness/Supervision.Unlikethetotalsample,increasedperceivedle velsof parentalStrictness/Supervisionwasassociatedwithgreateracculturationtothemainstream Americanculture.

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75 Table12.CorrelationsbetweenPPSScaleScoresandAcculturation,SES, GenerationalStatus,andEthnicIdentity SES Generational Stat us Acculturation Ethnic Identity TotalYears intheU.S. PsychologicalAutonomy Total Girls Boys .15 .18 .12 .04 .08 .13 .04 .04 .06 .14 .09 .20 .00 .03 .02 Warmth/Acceptance Involvement Total Girls Boys .20* .18 21 .15 .02 .32* .01 .06 .11 .37** .40** .32* .09 .01 .20 Strictness/Supervision Total Girls Boys .26** .31* .22 .03 .15 .07 .17 .27* .19 .05 .12 .05 .03 .12 .17 p <.05 2 tailed ** p <.01 2 tailed N =10 5forallcorrelations Boysalsoreflectthetotalsampleinthepositiverelationshipbetweenethnicidentity andParentalAcceptance/Warmth Involvement.Unlikethetotalsample,theyperceiveless parentalAcceptance/Warmth Involvementthelongertheir familyhasresidedintheUnited States(i.e.,generationalstatus). Criterion RelatedValidity ThenewLatino centricparentingmeasurewascorrelatedwiththePPStodetermine criterion relatedvalidity.Itwasproposedthatthesubscalesofeachmeasur ewouldbe correlatedwitheachotheriftheywerecomparableincontentsince,infact,someofthe dimensionsfromtheHIRmeasurearesimilartothedimensionsofthePPS(e.g.,HIR EmotionalAttachmenttoPPSAcceptance/Warmth Involvement;HIR Knowledg e/SupervisiontoPPSStrictness/Supervision;HIRDecision MakingtoPPS PsychologicalAutonomy).Ideally,correlationsamongsimilardimensionsshouldliewithin the.30 .40range(Nunnally&Bernstein,1994).AsseeninTable13,allsignificant

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76 correla tionsbetweenthetwomeasuresindeedfallwithinthe.30 .46range.Asmightbe expected,significantlycorrelatedscalesincludeHIREmotionalAttachmenttoPPS Acceptance/Warmth InvolvementandHIRKnowledge/SupervisiontoPPS Strictness/Supervision. Whatwasnotexpectedwasthelackofsignificantrelationship betweenHIRDecision MakingandPPSPsychologicalAutonomy. Table13.CorrelationsbetweentheHIRandPPSScaleScores PPS Psychological Autonomy PPS Acceptance/ Warmth Involvement PPS S trictness/ Supervision HIRRespeto .12 .30** .13 HIRFamilismo .17 .10 .18 HIREmotionalAttachment .21* .40** .09 HIRKnowledge/Supervision .12 .46** .28** HIRDiscipline .18 .12 .03 HIRDecision Making .0 8 .30** .04 HIRProperDemeanor .36** .07 .01 *p <.05 2 tailed ** p <.01 2 tailed N =105forallcorrelations Additionally,PPSPsychologicalAutonomyispositivelyrelatedtoHIREmotional AttachmentandnegativelyrelatedtoHIRProperDemeanor; andPPSAcceptance/Warmth InvolvementissignificantlypositivelyrelatedtothethreeHIRscalesofRespeto, Knowledge/Supervision,andDecision Making.Asstudentsreportedhigherlevelsof Acceptance/Warmth InvolvementonthePPS,theyalsoperceivedh igherlevelsofRespeto, EmotionalAttachmentfromtheirparents,increasedparentalKnowledge/Supervisionoftheir whereabouts,andincreasedindependentDecision Making.Theserelationshipssuggestthat thenewHIRmeasureisvalidascomparedtothePP Sconstructs,andthatitisalso accountingforvariancethatisnotsharedwiththePPS. Severalhierarchicalregressionswerealsoruntoexaminethenewmeasures predictivevalidityaboveandbeyondthatofanestablishedmeasure.Thecontrolvariabl es

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77 wereinsertedasthefirstblocks(seeTable14),thePPSscaleswereinsertedasthefollowing block,andthenewparentingmeasurewasenteredintotheequationasthefinalblockto determinewhethertheHIRaccountsforasignificantamountofthev arianceaboveand beyondthePPSmeasureofparentinginpredictinglevelofacademicachievementaswellas behavioraladjustment. Table14.OrderofControlandPredictorVariablesEnteredIntoRegressionEquationsEvaluating Criterion RelatedValidit yoftheHowIamRaisedMeasure Variable Measure Gender WhethertheStudentisFemaleorMale Block1 SES Hollin g shead s IndexofSocialPosition TotalYearsinU.S. TotalYearsStudenthaslivedintheU.S. Accu lturation TotalScoreforBehavioralAcculturationScale EthnicIdentity TotalScoreforMulitgroupEthnicIdentityMeasure Control Variables Block2 GenerationalStatus StudentsGenerationalStatus ParentingPra cticesSurvey(PPS)3Factors: PsychologicalAutonomy Strictness/Supervision Block3 EstablishedParenting Measure Warmth/Acceptance Involvement HowIAmRaised(HIR) Factors: Respeto ParentalKnowledge/Supervision Independent Variables Block4 New Hispanic Parenting Measure Discipl ine AsseeninTable15,thereareatotalof7dependentvariables.Therefore,7regression equationswererunutilizingthethreeHIRsubscales(whosereliabilitywasabove.50)asthe finalblock.Family wiseerrorrateswerenotcontrolledforsinc ethealphalevelneededfor significancewouldneedtobelessthan.007(0.05/7).

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78 Table15.DependentVariablesUtilizedwiththeRegressionEquationAssessing Criterion RelatedValidityfortheHowIAmRaisedMeasure *Atotalof7regressionequationswererun(7dependentvariables). Thefollowingsectionsdescribetheresultsofdescriptiveanalyse softhevariables usedintheregressions.Then,theregressionsarepresented.Table16providesasummary ofthedescriptivestatisticsforthePhase3variables.NotethatthemeansforthePPSscales are0.00becausetheitemscoreswerestandardiz edtoprovideequalweighttotheitemsthat werescaleddifferently. Genderdifferences. AsseeninTable16,boysinPhase3weremoreacculturated thangirls.Ontheotherhand,boyshadslightlypoorergradesintheacademicsubjectof Englishandre ceivedahighernumberofdisciplinereferrals.Otherwise,therewereno significantdifferencesbetweenboysandgirlsontheindependentanddependentvariables. Althoughteachersreportedthatboysexhibitedfewerexternalizingproblemsandmore int ernalizingproblemsthangirls,thesedifferenceswerenotsignificant.Visualinspectionof thestandarddeviationsdoesnotrevealalackofvarianceinresponses. Correlationalrelationshipsamongindependentvariables. AsseeninTable17,the longer studentshavelivedintheU.S.,themoreacculturatedtheybecometotheU.S.culture, asmightbeexpected.AsstudentsbecomemoreacculturatedtotheU.S.culture,theless Construct MeasuresUs ed* EnglishGradefortheTrimester ReadingGradefortheTrimester AcademicAchievement MathGradefortheTrimester BehavioralAdjustment NumberofDisciplineReferralsDuringtheTrimester TeacherReportForm Intern alizingProblems PsychologicalAdjustment ExternalizingProblems Harter WhatIAmLikeSubscales Self Competence GlobalSelf Worth

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79 theyhaveasenseoftheirethnicidentity.Noothersignificantrelationsh ipsexistedamong theindependentvariables. Table16.DescriptiveStatisticsandGenderDifferencesfortheIndependentand DependentVariablesinPhase3 TotalSample N=105 Girls N=56 Boys N=49 M SD Range M SD Range M SD Range IndependentVariable s Gender 1.47 0.50 1.00 SES 31.38 14.43 64.00 31.13 13.50 64.00 31.66 15.57 58.00 TotalYearsinU.S. 11.58 2.57 14.00 11.46 2.71 12.00 11.71 2.43 14.00 Acculturation* 85.67 13.05 71.00 83.10 10.85 47.00 88.61 14.75 71.00 EthnicI dentity 3.00 0.42 2.07 3.05 0.42 2.07 2.93 0.41 1.64 GenerationalStatus 2.27 0.71 3.00 2.23 0.69 3.00 2.31 0.74 3.00 PPSPsychologicalAutonomy 0.00 0.51 2.56 0.03 0.44 1.86 0.03 0.58 2.56 PPSStrictness/Supervision 0.00 0.61 3.31 0.09 0.49 2.07 0.11 0.71 3.31 PPSWarmth/Acceptance Involvement 0.00 0.50 3.00 0.05 0.50 3.00 0.01 0.50 1.86 HIRRespeto 18.78 2.08 8.00 19.15 1.92 8.00 18.37 2.21 8.00 HIRParental Knowledge/Supervision 7.12 1.43 5.00 7.32 1.43 5.00 6.90 1.40 5.00 HIRDiscipline 6.31 1 .67 6.00 6.50 1.35 6.00 6.09 1.96 6.00 DependentVariables AAEnglishGrade* 88.54 8.64 30.00 90.09 8.17 28.00 86.78 8.90 30.00 AAReadingGrade 90.80 6.20 28.00 91.16 6.30 28.00 90.39 6.12 23.00 AAMathGrade 87.00 6.62 27.00 87.66 6.52 27.00 86.24 6.72 27.00 BEHDisciplineReferrals** 0.41 0.93 5.00 0.11 0.45 3.00 0.76 1.18 5.00 TRF InternalizingProblems 43.30 6.59 30.00 43.50 6.80 30.00 43.80 6.41 22.00 TRF ExternalizingProblems 47.02 6.66 25.00 47.30 7.10 23.00 46.69 6.19 20.00 WI ALGlobalSelf Worth 3.15 0.61 2.17 3.21 0.62 2.17 3.07 0.59 2.17 t testbetweengirlsandboysissignificantatthe0.05level(2 tailed). **t testbetweengirlsandboysissignificantatthe0.01level(2 tailed). Table17.Correlationalrelationship samongthedemographicandcultural independentvariablesutilizedwiththePhase3sample 1. 2. 3. 4. 1.SocioeconomicStatus 1 2.GenerationalStatus TotalSample .03 1 Girls Boys .05 .01 3.Acculturation TotalSample .0 6 .05 1 Girls Boys .04 .14 .15 .20 4.EthnicIdentity TotalSample .01 .02 .27** 1 Girls Boys .10 .09 .07 .51 .27* .24 ** 5.YearsintheU.S. TotalSample .02 .51** .26** .08 (BothU.S.born&NotU.S.born) Girls Boys .15 .13 .52** .51** .20 ** .32* .10 .04 **Correlationissignificantatthe0.01level(2 tailed). N =105forallcorrelations

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80 Correlationalrelationshipsamongdependentvariables. AsseeninTable18, studentswhodowellinoneareaofacademicsdowelli nallotherareas.Ontheotherhand, asstudentsreceivemoredisciplinereferralstheyarelikelytohavepoorergrades,morelikely tobeidentifiedbytheTRFashavingexternalizingbehaviorproblems,andmorelikelyto haveapoorersenseofself co mpetenceoverall.Additionally,studentswhoareidentifiedas havingexternalizingbehaviorproblemsaremorelikelytoalsohaveinternalizingbehavior problems. Table18.CorrelationsAmongDependentVariables **Correlationissignificantatthe0.01level(2 tailed). *C orrelationissignificantatthe0.05level(2 tailed). N =105forallcorrelations Regressionanalyses. TheHIRmeasure,asrepresentedbythethreefactorswith alphalevelsabove.50,didnotexplainasignificantamountofthevarianceaboveand beyond thePPSwhenpredictingyouthpsychologicalhealthindicatorswiththeexceptionof ayouthsGlobalSelf worth(seeTable19).Whenexaminedseparatelyforboysandgirls,the patternoftheresultsforgirlsmirroredthepatternseenforthewholesampl einthattheHIR wasonlypredictivelyvalidforGlobalSelf Worth(seeTable20).Ontheotherhand,for boys,theHIRdidnotaccountforsignificantvariancebeyondthatofthePPSonany outcomevariablesand,infact,thePPSdidabetterjobofpre dictingtoboysGlobalSelf 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. EnglishGrade Pears onCorrelation 1 Sig.(2 tailed) 2. ReadingGrade PearsonCorrelation .54 (**) 1 Sig.(2 tailed) .000 3. MathGrade PearsonCorrelation .66 (**) .70 (**) 1 Sig.(2 tailed) .000 .000 PearsonCorrelation .27 (**) .21(*) .30 (**) 1 4. NumberofDiscipline Refe rrals Sig.(2 tailed) .006 .032 .002 5. InternalizingProblems PearsonCorrelation .05 .0 3 .04 .08 1 Sig.(2 tailed) .581 .789 .688 .424 6. ExternalizingProblems PearsonCorrelation .05 .10 .09 .20 (*) .36 (**) 1 Sig.(2 tailed) .617 .303 .360 .034 .000 7. Global Competence PearsonCorrelation .04 .13 .09 .21 (*) .11 .09 Sig.(2 tailed) .696 .201 .381 .031 .280 .357

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81 Worththantogirls(seeTable21).Additionally,byitself,thePPSdidnotprovide significantpredictivevalueforanyofthemodelsforthewholesampleorthegirlssample, andonlyfortheboysGlobalSelf Worth.Of thebetacoefficients,onlytheRespetofactor forgirlswasasignificantpredictorofGlobalSelf Worth. Table19.ControlandParentingPredictorsofGlobalSelf worthfortheEntirePhase 3Sample ModelSummary ChangeStatistics Model R R Squa re AdjustedR Square Std.Error ofthe Estimate R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig.F Change 1 .160 .026 .007 .60730 .026 1.344 2 102 .265 2 .254 .064 .007 .60710 .039 1.017 4 98 .403 3 .395 .156 .076 .58578 .091 3.421 3 95 .020 4 .481 .231 .131 .567 96 .076 3.019 3 92 .034 Coefficients Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients FinalModel B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) .937 .871 1.076 .285 Block1 Student'sGender .030 .118 .025 .258 .797 Socio economicStatus .002 .004 .058 s.590 .556 Block2 YearsinU.S.(U.S. born&NotU.S. born) .004 .028 .017 .146 .884 GenerationalStatus .071 .095 .083 .750 .455 Acculturation .003 .005 .060 .563 .575 EthnicIdentity .042 .160 .029 .262 .794 Block3 PPS Psychologic alAutonomy .281 .122 .233 2.291 .024 PPSStrictness/Supervision .082 .105 .082 .783 .436 PPSWarmth/Involvement .027 .144 .022 .188 .852 Block4 HIRRespeto .046 .033 .159 1.409 .162 HIRKnowledge/Supervision .095 .050 .221 1.899 .061 HIRDiscip line .034 .038 .092 .876 .383

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82 Table20.ControlandParentingPredictorsofGlobalSelf worthforthefemale sampleofPhase3 ModelSummary ChangeStatistics Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Errorof the Estimate R Square Change FChange df1 df2 Sig.F Change 1 .188 .035 .018 .61833 .035 1.980 1 54 .165 2 .297 .088 .003 .62471 .0 53 .726 4 50 579 3 .409 .167 .025 .61590 .079 1.480 3 47 .232 4 .598 .358 .197 .55903 .191 4.350 3 44 .009 Coefficients Unstandardized Co efficients Standardized Coefficients FinalModel B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) .314 1.409 .223 .825 Block1 Socio economicStatus .005 .006 .103 .758 .453 Block2 YearsinU S (U S born&N otU S born) .047 .037 .205 1.262 .214 Generationa lStatus .002 .140 .002 .013 .990 Acculturation .002 .009 .027 .182 .856 EthnicIdentity .271 .240 .184 1.133 .263 Block3 PPSPsychologicalAutonomy .124 .194 .087 .637 .527 PPSStrictness/Supervision .253 .205 .197 1.230 .225 PPSWarmth/In volvement .184 .210 .144 .876 .386 Block4 HIRRespeto .170 .059 .521 2.857 .007 HIRKnowledge/Supervision .087 .071 .198 1.218 .230 HIRDiscipline .012 .066 .026 .184 .855

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83 Table21.ControlandParentingPredictorsofGlobalSelf worthfor themalesample ofPhase3 ModelSummary ChangeStatistics Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Errorof the Estimate R Square Change FChange df1 df2 Sig.F Change 1 .043 .002 .019 .59616 .002 .086 1 47 .770 2 .217 .047 .064 .60896 .045 .5 11 4 43 .728 3 .505 .255 .106 .55837 .208 3.715 3 40 .019 4 .561 .315 .111 .55665 .060 1.082 3 37 .369 Coefficients Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients FinalModel B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Constant .794 1.191 .667 .509 Block 1 Socio economicStatus .001 .006 .021 .139 .890 Block2 YearsinU S (U S born&N otU S born) .063 .050 .259 1.244 .221 GenerationalStatus .227 .146 .286 1.562 .127 Acculturation .006 .007 .147 .903 .372 EthnicIdentity .208 .231 .145 .903 .373 Block3 PPSPsychologicalAutonomy .453 .161 .442 2.809 .008 PPSStrictness/Supervision .058 .124 .069 .464 .646 PPSWarmth/Involvement .009 .212 .007 .041 .967 Block4 HIRRespeto .026 .046 .097 .563 .577 HIRKnowledge/Supervision .082 .073 196 1.125 .268 HIRDiscipline .051 .050 .168 1.017 .316

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84 ConstructValidity ThenewHIRmeasureunderwentfactoranalysisutilizingthesameextractionand rotationmethodsemployedinPhase2 PCAwithPromaxrotationlimitedto7fac tors.This wasdonetoallowacomparisonofthestatisticallyemergingfactorswiththosetheme based factorspredictedbythePhase1analysesandthestructurethatemergedfromthePhase2 factoranalysis.AsseeninTable22,thefactorstructureth atemergedwiththePhase3 sampleisdifferentfromthosethatemergedinPhases1and2.Thesecondandthirdfactors thatemergedhavesomeconsistencyamongtheitems.Forexample,theitemsinFactor2are allrelatedtotheconstructofdiscipline andalltheitemsinFactor3havesomecontentthat reflectsemotionalsupport/attachment.Ontheotherhand,theitemcontentforeachofthe remainingfactorsdoesnotseemtorepresentaknownorproposedconstruct.Table23 illustratesthattherewe relittletonorelationshipsamongthefactorsexceptformoderate correlationsbetweenfactor1withfactors4and5,andfactor4withfactor6. ThePPSalsounderwentfactoranalysistocomparethefactorstructuretothat obtainedbySteinbergandcol leaguesandtoensurethatthePPSwasinfactavalidmeasure touseforthesampleinthisstudy.Lambornetal.(1991)usedasimilarversionofthePPS andreportedutilizinganobliqueextractionmethodfortheirexploratoryfactoranalysisof thesc ale.Theydidnotreporttheresultofthefactoranalysis,butreferredtoSteinbergetal. (1989)forthescalesdevelopment.Steinbergetal.(1989)didnotprovidequantitative factoranalysisresultseither.Therefore,Ichosetheextractionmetho dutilizedforaprevious studyfromtheHealthyChildrenslab(Houser,2001).Houserfoundasimilar,butnot identical,factorstructuretothatofSteinbergandcolleaguesutilizingthePrincipal

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85 Table22.PatternMatrixoftheFactorAnalysisofHI R(32 Items)UtilizingPCA withaPromaxRotationAlongwithComparisontoPhase1and2FactorStructures Phase1 Theorized Loadingfor eachitem Phase2 FactorStructure 1234567 Phase3 Emergent Factor Structure ItemContentwithCorresp ondingFactorLoading forPhase3FactorAnalysis Di R R E F De Di R R E R De Factor1 .744 MyparentsgroundmeifIamintrouble. .638 MyparentssaythatothersintheworldwilltreatmewellifItreat them withrespect. .592 MyparentssaythatIshouldobey myteacherslikeIobey them. .564 Myparentsareaffectionatewithme. .532 Iamexpectedtohelptakecareofotherfamilymemberswhoneedhelp. .517 Myparentsletmedecidewh ereIgooutforfunontheweekends,but therear eplacesIm notallowedtogoto. Di R De F De Di P F P F Factor2 .704 MyparentstakeawaymyprivilegesifIamintrouble .622 MyparentsareembarrassedwhenIbehavebadly. .594 Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainpeople. .551 MyparentstellmethatIgivemyfamilyabadreputationwhenIdont behavewell. .407 Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivi ties. E E F De R K K F F P Factor3 .581 WhenIhavet roublewithanothergirlorboy ,Ifeelcomfortabletelling myparentsaboutit. .580 WhenIhaveaproblematschool,Ifeelcomforta bletalkingaboutitwith myparents. .551 Thereisadayintheweekthatmyfamilyconsidersafamilyday. .514 IfIhaveafriendwhomyparentsdontlike,Imnotallowedtobewith them. .402 MyparentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly. F De Di F F R E F Factor4 .692 Myparentsusethephrasefamilyfirst(lafamiliaprimero). .592 Myparentshavetherighttotellmewhattodo. .559 Myparentsignorem ewhenId osomethingIshouldntdo. .468 IfIhav eapartywithfriendsatthesametimethatIhaveapartywith family,myparent s sayIhavetochoosethefamilyparty. De Di R I De Di R P Factor5 .640 Myparentsletmemakemyowndecisio ns .616 MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble. .579 MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles. .413 Iamexpectedtowashmyownclothes.** F E I De R P Factor6 .776 Ikn owaboutmostofmyfamilysproblems. .602 Myparentsencourageme. .468 Iamexpectedtowashmyownclothes.** F R De E Factor7 .731 Iaminvolvedinfamilydecisions. .676 IfIamupsetaboutsomething,my parentstellmeIshouldkeepitto myself (reversescoreditem) I K E K R F E K Items thatdid notload higher than.40 onany factor. Itismyresponsibilitytodowellinschool. IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwithana dultfrommyfamily. Icantellmyparentsalmostanything. MyparentsknowwhereIamatalltimes. **Itemloadsontotwofactors,factors5and6. R=Respeto K =Knowledge/Supervision P=ProperDemeanor F=Familismo Di=Discipline I=InstrumentalIndep endence E=EmotionalAttachment De=Decision Making

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86 Table23.ComponentCorrelationMatrixUtilizingtheComponentsfromthePCA7 FactorPromaxRotationsforthePhase3Sample Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1.000 2 .158 1.000 3 .167 .003 1.000 4 .328 .137 .132 1.000 5 .236 .011 .121 .047 1.000 6 .107 .121 .110 .216 .141 1.000 7 .036 .099 .040 .067 .025 .197 ExtractionMethod:PrincipalComponentAnalysis. RotationMethod:PromaxwithKaiserNormalization. ComponentsAnalysis withaVarimaxrotationwithKaisernormalization.Houserssample consistedofmostlyWhiteAmericanmiddleschoolstudentswithasmallpercentageofBlack andLatinochildren.Myresultsyieldedasimilar,butagain,notidenticalfactorstructureto thatofSteinbergandhiscolleagues(seeTable24).ThePPSfactorstructurewiththis sampleissufficientlysimilartothatofpriorresearchtowarranthavinguseditinthevalidity analyses.FactoranalyseswerealsoconductedonthePPSseparatel yformalesandfemales. AsseeninTable25,thefactorstructurereplicatedforboys,butforgirls(seeTable26)the factorstructurewaslargelydifferent.

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87 Table24.FactorAnalysisofthePPSUtilizingPCAwithaVarimaxRotation Com ponent Item Number Psychological Autonomy Strictness/ Supervision Acceptance/ Warmth Involvement 5* WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakemylife miserable. .735 17* MyparentswontletmedoItem17.Myparentswontlet medothin gswiththemwhenIdosomethingtheydontlike. .629 15* WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakemefeel guilty. .607 9* WheneverIarguewithmyparents,theysaythingslike, Youllknowbetterwhenyougrowup. .590 13* M yparentsactcoldlyandunfriendlyifIdosomethingthey dontlike. .529 7* MyparentstellmethattheirideasarecorrectandthatI shouldnotquestionthem. .486 3* Myparentssaythatyoushouldgiveinonargumentsrather thanmakepeop leangry. .461 19* Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton SCHOOLNIGHTS(Monday Thursday)? .382 20* Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton FIRDAYORSATURDAYNIGHT? .350 22b HowmuchdoyourparentsR EALLYknowwhatyoudo withyourfreetime? .800 21b HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhatyoudowith yourfreetime? .733 22c HowmuchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhereyouare mostafternoonsafterschool? .696 21c Howmuchdoyourpa rentsTRYtoknowwhereyouare mostafternoonsafterschool? .666 22a HowmuchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhereyougoat night? .320 .593 21a HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhereyougoat night? .577 2 Icancountonmyparentstoh elpmeoutifIhavesomekind ofproblem. .630 8 Myparentshelpmewithmyschoolworkifthereis somethingIdontunderstand. .518 4 MyparentskeeppushingmetodomybestinwhateverIdo. .513 14 Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsare. .495 1* Myparentssaythatyoushouldntarguewithadults. .442 16 Myparentssendtimejusttalkingwithme. .327 .407 10 Whenmyparentswantmetodosomething,theyexplain why. .404 18 Myfamilydoesfunthingstogether. .396 12 WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsencourageme totryharder. .380 11 MyparentsletmakemyownplansforthingsIwanttodo. .308 6 Myparentskeeppushingmetothinkindependently. *It emisreversescored. Allloadin gsbelow.30arenotshown. N =105 Note :Forhighlighteditems,items19and20aretheorizedtoloadontotheStrictness/Supervisionfactor,anditem6is theorizedtoloadontothePsychologicalAutonomyfactor.

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88 Table25.FactorAnalysisofthePPS forBoysUtilizingPCAwithaVarimax Rotation ComponentsandFactorLoadings Item Number ItemContent 1 2 3 22b HowmuchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhatyoudo withyourfreetime? S.819 21b HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhatyou do withyourfreetime? S.748 22a HowmuchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhereyou goatnight? S.702 22c HowmuchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhereyou aremostafternoonsafterschool? S.700 21c HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknow whereyouare mostafternoonsafterschool? S.630 21a HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhereyougo atnight? S.542 19* Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton SCHOOLNIGHTS(Monday Thursday)? S.449 20* Inat ypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton FIRDAYORSATURDAYNIGHT? S.427 .332 7* MyparentstellmethattheirideasarecorrectandthatI shouldnotquestionthem. .400 P.379 5* WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmake my lifemiserable. P.714 17* MyparentswontletmedoItem17.Myparentswont letmedothingswiththemwhenIdosomethingthey dontlike. .348 P.710 15* WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakeme feelguilty. P.684 9* WheneverIarguewithmyparents,theysaythingslike, Youllknowbetterwhenyougrowup. P.649 3* Myparentssaythatyoushouldgiveinonarguments ratherthanmakepeopleangry. P.609 13* Myparentsactcoldlyandunfriendlyi fIdosomething theydontlike. P.498 .364 1* Myparentssaythatyoushouldntarguewithadults. P.465 .301 12 WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsencourage metotryharder. .368 A 6 Myparentskeeppushingmetothinkindepe ndently. A 4 MyparentskeeppushingmetodomybestinwhateverI do. A.728 8 Myparentshelpmewithmyschoolworkifthereis somethingIdontunderstand. A.649 14 Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsare. A.592 16 Myparentss endtimejusttalkingwithme. A.592 2 IcancountonmyparentstohelpmeoutifIhavesome kindofproblem. A.482 11 MyparentsletmakemyownplansforthingsIwantto do. P 10 Whenmyparentswantmetodosomething, theyexplain why. A 18 Myfamilydoesfunthingstogether. A Itemisreversescored. ** N =49 Allloadingsbelow.30arenotshown. A=TheorizedtoloadontoAcceptance/Warmth InvolvementFactor P=TheorizedtoloadontoPsychologicalAutonomyFa ctor S=TheorizedtoloadontoStrictness/SupervisionFactor

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89 Table26.FactorAnalysisofthePPSforGirlsUtilizingPCAwithaVarimax Rotation ComponentsandFactorLoadings Item Number ItemContent 1 2 3 2 Icancountonmyparentstohelpme outifIhavesome kindofproblem. A.826 5* WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakemy lifemiserable. .715 P.307 15* WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakeme feelguilty. .647 P 10 Whenmypare ntswantmetodosomething,theyexplain why. A.512 14 Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsare. A.505 13* MyparentsactcoldlyandunfriendlyifIdosomething theydontlike. .484 P 7* Myparentstellmethattheirideasarecorr ectandthatI shouldnotquestionthem. .356 P.319 8 Myparentshelpmewithmyschoolworkifthereis somethingIdontunderstand. A.334 .313 4 MyparentskeeppushingmetodomybestinwhateverI do. A.330 22b Howmuc hdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhatyoudo withyourfreetime? S.770 21b HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhatyoudo withyourfreetime? S.676 22c HowmuchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhereyou aremostafternoonsafterschool? S.67 2 21c HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhereyouare mostafternoonsafterschool? S.664 16 Myparentssendtimejusttalkingwithme. A.332 .545 21a HowmuchdoyourparentsTRYtoknowwhereyougo atnight? S.490 .306 22a Howm uchdoyourparentsREALLYknowwhereyou goatnight? .327 S.464 12 WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsencourage metotryharder. A 3* Myparentssaythatyoushouldgiveinonarguments ratherthanmakepeopleangry. P.573 18 Myfamilydoesfunthingstogether. A.327 .358 .562 20* Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton FIRDAYORSATURDAYNIGHT? S .555 6 Myparentskeeppushingmetothinkindependently. A .531 1* Myparentssaythatyoushouldntarguewithadults. .426 P.525 11 MyparentsletmakemyownplansforthingsIwantto do. P .517 19* Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayouton SCHOOLNIGHTS(Monday Thursday)? S .514 9* WheneverIarguewithmyparents,theysaythingslike, Youllknowbetterwhenyougrowup. P.504 17* MyparentswontletmedothingswiththemwhenIdo somethingtheydontlike. P Itemisreversescored. ** N =56 Allloadingsbelow.30arenotshown. A=TheorizedtoloadontoAcceptance/Warmth InvolvementFactor P=TheorizedtoloadontoPsychologicalAutonomyFactor S=TheorizedtoloadontoStrictness/SupervisionFactor

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90 Finally,therewassomeconcernthat ,duetothesignificantcorrelationsfound betweenEthnicIdentityandalmostalloftheHIRscalescores,placingEthnicIdentityinto theregressionanalysesasacontrollingvariablemayhavereducedtheamountofvariance rightfullyaccountedforbyt heHIR.Inotherwords,theHIRisdevelopedsothatit inherentlyincorporatesconstructsthatareuniquetotheHispanicculture,andifthese constructsarealsoaccountedforbyEthnicIdentity,thenregressionresultswould underestimatetheHIRsre lationshipwiththeoutcomevariables.Consequently,posthoc regressionanalyseswereconductedasaboveexceptthatEthnicIdentitywasnotcontrolled forstatistically.Resultsdidnotchange:theHIRonlyaccountedforasignificantamountof varianc eaboveandbeyondthePPSwhenpredictingtoGlobalSelf Worthfortheentire Phase3sampleandforthefemalesample. Discussion TheprimarypurposeofPhase3wastoexaminetheculture specificity,reliability, andvalidityofthenewHIRmeasure.Wh ilePhase3ofthedevelopmentoftheHIRserves asafoundationforfurtherresearch,resultsindicatethatthemeasurerequiresmorestudyand developmentbeforeanypracticalapplication.Positivecorrelationsbetweenethnicidentity andfiveoftheHI RfactorssuggestthattheHIRmeasureistappingintoculture specific constructs,whereasthePPSfactorshadeitheranegativeornosignificantrelationshipwith ethnicidentity.Additionally,thecorrelationsbetweentheHIRfactorsandPPSfactors i ndicatesomeoverlapbetweenthemeasures,butalsoshowthattheHIRisnotaduplication ofthePPS.Infact,severalfactorsoftheHIRdemonstratedpredictivevalueaboveand beyondthePPSinpredictingadolescentsself reportofGlobalSelf Worth.

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91 Ontheotherhand,theHIRsubscalesneedfurthermodificationstoimprove reliabilityandvalidity.Phase3revealedthattheresultsofPhase2mayhavebeensample specific.ThePhase3sampleyieldedadissimilarfactorstructuretothestructuret hat emergedinPhase2.Additionally,thereliabilityofalloftheHIRsubscalesusingthePhase 3samplewasunacceptable;onlytheDisciplinesubscalehadareliabilityscoreabove.6,and RespetoandKnowledge/Supervisionhadreliabilityscoresabove .5.Bycontrast,thePhase2 sampleyieldedonesubscalereliabilityscoreabove.7(Respeto)and3subscalereliabilities above.6(Discipline,Knowledge/Supervision,andFamilismo). Thepoorreliabilityofthesubscalesmaybetheresultofavarietyof factors.The numberofitemsadministeredtothestudentsinPhase2(60)wastwiceasgreatasthe numberofitemsadministeredtothestudentsinPhase3(32).Thismayhavegiventhe studentsinPhase2anadvantagebyplacingtheitemsincontextan dprovidingabetter understandingoftheitems.Also,therewerethreetimesasmanyparticipantsinPhase2as therewereinPhase3.Reliabilityscoresaresensitivetosamplesize;therefore,thedropin n fromPhase2toPhase3mayhaveadverselya ffectedthereliabilityscoresforthePhase3 subscales. Intermsofvalidity,differencesinthedegreeofacculturation,levelofSES,and countryoforiginmayhavecontributedtothedifferenceinfactorstructurefoundinPhase2 andthatinPhase 3.Specifically,halfofthePhase2populationwasfromHillsborough County,wherestudentsweremuchmorelikelytobefirstgenerationimmigrants,oflower SES,andofadifferentnationalitymake upthaninMiami DadeCounty.Researchon immigrants valuesandtheiracculturation,whichoftenincreaseswithgenerationalstatus, showsthatparentingvalueschangewithincreasingacculturation.Forexample,Zayasand

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92 Solari(1994)foundthatlessacculturatedparentsengagedinparentingbehaviorsthat value humilityandrespectfulness,whereasmoreacculturatedparentsengagedinparenting behaviorsrelatedtothevaluedofindependenceandcreativity.Intermsofthedifferencesin SESbetweenPhase2and3,researchhasclearlyestablishedthatlowe rSESisrelatedto moreauthoritarian likeparentingstyles(e.g.,Chuang,Ennett,Bauman,&Foshee,2005).In termsofcountryoforigin,HillsboroughstudentswereprimarilyofMexicandescent,and Miami DadestudentswereprimarilyofCubandescent. Sometheoristssuggestthat differencesinpoliticalhistoriesandreasonsforimmigratingtotheUnitedStatescontribute tovaluedifferencesamongHispanicsfromdifferingnationalities(Roosaetal.,2002). GenderConsiderations Asecondarypurposeo fPhase3wastheexaminationoftherolegenderplayedin responsesontheHIRsincethereexistedthepossibilityofdifferentialparentingofgirlsand boysduetothetraditionalLatinovaluesofMarianismoandMachismo.Infact,therewere significan tdifferenceswithrespecttogender.Correlationsrevealedthatgirlswerenotably similartothelargersampleinthatalmostallHIRfactorsforgirlsweresignificantly positivelycorrelatedwithethnicidentity,whereasforboystherewaslittleton orelationship withethnicidentity.Oneplausibleexplanationforthisfindingisthatethnicidentity formation,muchlikeegoidentityformation,occursduringadolescence(Phinney,1990)and girlsbeginthisdevelopmentpriortoboys. Ontheotherh and,meandifferencesbetweengendersrevealanotherpicture.Results indicatedthattheboysinthissampleweremoreacculturatedthangirls.Sincetheboyswere moreacculturatedtothemainstreamculture,andtheHIRmeasureismeantforapopulation thatretainssometraditionalLatinovalues,theHIRmaynotaccuratelymeasureHispanic

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93 boysperceptionofparentingpractices.Infact,theHIR,inwhichRespetoisnegatively relatedtoincreasedacculturation,providedvalidityaboveandbeyondtheP PSwhen predictingtogirlssenseofself competencebutnotboys.Interestingly,forboys,butnot forgirls,thePPS(whichappearstobeabetterinstrumentforthepopulationofthe mainstreamculture)accountedforasignificantamountofthevaria tioninlevelsofself competence. Additionally,forgirls,astheirlevelofacculturationincreased,theirperceivedlevel ofRespetodecreased.Forboys,thelengthoftimespentintheU.S.(whichispositively correlatedwithacculturation)waspos itivelycorrelatedwithRespeto.Theseseemingly contrastingfindingsmayreflecttheinfluenceofathirdvariable.Asparentsbecomemore acculturatedtotheU.S.cultureandacquiremoreegalitarianviewsofgendersocialization (Leaper&Valin,1996) ,theywouldpotentiallyexpectlessRespetofromgirlsandmore Respetofromboys.Inmoretraditionalgendersocializationgoals(relatedtoMarianismo andMachismo),girlslevelofexpectedRespetoismuchhigherthanboys(Guilamo Ramos etal.,2007 ). Althoughtheseresultspointtosomesignificantdifferencesbetweenboysandgirls,a caveattotheresultsisthefactthatsamplesizeinPhase3wastrulytoosmalltoaccurately examinegenderdifferences.Infact,importantgenderdifferencesm ayhavebeenmisseddue tothesmallsamplesize Insummary,Phase3resultsindicatethatthenewHIRmeasureisculture specificand significantlypredictsGlobalSelf Worth,butislackingadequatereliability.Additionally, significantgenderdifferen cessuggestthattheHIRismorevalidforgirlsthanforboysinthe

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94 Phase3sample,possiblyduetoboysgreateracculturationtomainstreamU.S.cultural values.

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95 GeneralDiscussion Thegoalofthisstudywastodevelopapaper and pencilmeasureof parentingfor Hispanicadolescentstoreporttheirperceptionsoftheirparentsbehavior.Sincemany measuresofthiskindexistbutwerenotdevelopedwithHispanicsinmind(e.g.,Lambornet al.,1991),theforemostgoalofthisstudywastodevelopa newmeasurethatwasculturally sensitivetothecharacteristicsoftheHispanicpopulation.Thisgoalwasmetinseveral ways.Thenewparentingmeasure,HowIamRaised(HIR),showsevidenceofcapturing parentingbehaviorsuniquetotheHispaniccultu re.Forexample,inPhase3,twoofthePPS factors(PsychologicalAutonomyandStrictness/Supervision)hadnosignificantcorrelation withethnicidentity;incontrast,thereweresignificantpositivecorrelationsbetweenethnic identityandfiveofthe HIRfactors,suggestingthattheHIRmeasureistappingintoculture specificconstructs.Additionally,correlationsbetweentheHIRfactorsandPPSfactors indicatedsomeoverlapbetweenthemeasures,whilerevealingthattheHIRisnota duplicationof thePPS.Thenewmeasure,whenexaminedbysubscales,hadpredictivevalue aboveandbeyondthePPSwithrespecttoadolescentsself reportofglobalself worth, althoughtheseresultsarequalifiedbythenumberofanalysesconducted. Theforemoststr engthofthisstudyliesinitsmethodology.Theoriginalgoalofthe studywastoemployatrulyculturallysensitiveapproachtoresearch.Researcherstendto assumethattheinstrumentsandmethodologytheyutilizeincross culturalstudiesare cultur allyappropriateforthatpopulation.Forexample,theinstrumentstheyutilizemay havebeenlooselyexaminedforvalidity(e.g.,simplyestablishingnormativedata)or

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96 inaccuratelytranslated.Compoundedwiththeuseofpoorinstrumentsistheresearch methodologyitself,whichisalsosteeped,developed,andutilizedwithinthemainstream culture.Inthisstudy,IdidnotassumethatmyinstrumentswereappropriatefortheHispanic population.Iemployedgroupinterviews,whicharenotacommonmetho dofdatacollection withinthefieldofpsychology.IutilizedaLatino onlysample.Ididnottranslatethenew HIRmeasureintoSpanish,knowingthatsuchatranslationshouldonlycomefromrigorous developmentitself,andonlyafterrigorousdevelop mentofthemeasureinEnglish.I consultedthetargetpopulationinmeasurementdevelopment,andIemployedestablished statisticalmethodsaswell.Themethodologywascarefullythoughtoutandinkeepingwith currentstandardsofethicalandculturall ycompetentresearch(AmericanPsychological Association,2002;Fisheretal.,2002).Beingculturallycompetent,andnotjustculturally sensitive,isaparadigmshiftthathaslongbeenintheworksincross culturalresearch (Cauce,Coronado,&Watson, 2000). InPhase1,theconstructsdiscussedintheliteraturereviewwereechoedinthegroup interviewsofadolescentsandparentswhodescribedthecharacteristicsoftheirfamily.In fact,someresearchershaveshownthepresenceoftheseconstructs intheinteractions betweenmothersandtheirinfantsorsmallchildren(Harwood,2003;Harwoodet.al.,2002). ThepresentstudyandHarwoodandcolleaguesworkillustratethattheseconstructsare subtle,complicated,anddelicatelywovenintoeveryda ylife. Despiteitsstrengths,thisstudyslimitationsqualifytheutilityoftheHIRatthisstage ofdevelopment.Forexample,inavarietyofdomains,Phase1andPhase2weremore congruentwitheachotherthanPhase3waswitheitheroftheprevi ousphases.Most notably,thesubscalereliabilityscoreswerenotashighinPhase3astheywereinPhase2.

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97 Additionally,thefactorstructureinPhase2wasnotreplicatedinPhase3.Oneexplanation fortheinconsistencyinfactorstructurebetween Phase2and3isthatmorethanhalfofthe sampleforPhase2wascomprisedofstudentsfromtheTampaarea(thereforeagreater percentageofindividualsofMexicandescentandPuertoRicandescent)whereasallofthe sampleforPhase3wasfromMiami( wherethemajoritywereofCubandescentandnone wereofMexicandescent).Also,onaverage,studentsinTampaweremorelikelytobe foreignborncomparedtostudentsfromMiami,wheremostwereU.S.born.Consequently, thedifferencesinfactorstruct urebetweenPhase3andPhase2mayhavebeendueto acculturationordifferingcountriesoforigin.Thepotentiallylessacculturatedadolescentsin Phase2mayhavehadastrongeridentificationwiththeHispaniccultureandtherefore answeredtheparen tingquestionnaireinamannermoreconsistentwiththetheorizedfactor structurebasedontheHispanicculture(Zayas&Solari,1994). Additionally,theparentsofMexicandescentmayhaveraisedtheirchildren differentlyfromtheparentsofCubandes cent.Asdiscussedinprevioussections,nationality influencesindividualspoliticalhistory,reasonforemigrating,andultimatelySES(Roosaet al.,2002),andinturntheselifecircumstancesinfluencevaluesheldandhowthosevalues guideparenting AnothernotabledifferencebetweenthePhase2and3sampleswasthathalfofPhase 2andalmostallofPhase3studentswererecruitedfromCatholiccampsandschools. Althoughneitheraskforreligiousaffiliationwhenstudentsapply,theassumption isthatthey aremorelikelytoattractchildrenoftheCatholicfaith.AstohowCatholicaffiliationrelates toparenting,thecurrentliteraturesuggeststhat,althoughparentsascribingtotheProtestant andCatholicfaithsvalueobediencemorethan thegeneralpopulationdoes,Catholicparents

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98 alsovalueintellectualautonomymorethanthegeneralpopulationdoes(Ellison&Sherkat, 1993)andCatholicandJewishparentsdonotdifferonavarietyofparentingpractices (Levine,2004).Therefore,th eliterature(forWhiteAmericans)suggeststhatadherenceto theCatholicfaithresultsinparentingvaluesthatcloselyresemblethoseoftheauthoritative parentstyleinmainstreamU.S.culture.Sinceitisassumedthatmostoftheadolescentsin Phas e3wereoftheCatholicfaith,thentheirparentschildrearingpracticesmoreclosely resembledthatofthemainstreamU.S.parent.ConsequentlythiswouldrendertheHIR measurelessabletodetectethniceffectswiththePhase3population.Keepinm ind,though, thattheseassumptionsandconclusionsarebasedonaliteraturelimitedtoWhiteAmericans andmaynotaccuratelyreflecttherelationshipparentingandreligiousaffiliationhavewithin theHispanicpopulation. Addedtotheconfoundsbetwee nPhase2and3isthatPhase2participantswereof lowersocio economicstatusthanPhase3participants.Ashasbeenestablishedinthe literature,SESimpactsparenting,atleastintheU.S.,indistinctwaysthatmanytimesare erroneouslyexplained asethnic/culturaldifferences.Acrossallethnicities,parentsfrom lowersocio economicmeanstendtobemoreauthoritarian,tousemoreharshand inconsistentparenting,andtouselesssupervisionandmonitoring(Conger&Donnellan, 2007;Hoffmaneta l.,2002;McLloyd,1998;Maccoby&Martin,1983)whichareall, ironically,parentingbehaviorsusedtodescribeLatinoparentingwithintheUnitedStates culture.ThisdifferenceinSESmayhavefurthercontributedtothefactthatthefactorsthat emerg edinPhase2didnotfitwiththePhase3data. ItshouldbenotedthattheHIRwasnottheonlymeasurewithinadequatereliability. Whencomparedtoestablishedreliabilityscores,themeasuresofacculturation(BAS)andof

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99 Global SelfWorth(WIAL)for thePhase3samplehadsignificantlylowerreliabilityscores (z= 3.68and 4.08,respectively).Nevertheless,theMEIMandthesubscalesofthePPSdid notdiffersignificantlyinreliabilitybetweenPhase3participantsandthoseofpriorstudies(z = 1.41,0.00, 0.06, 0.48,respectively).Thisevidencefurthersuggeststhatthelackof reliabilityoftheHIRinPhase3maybeduetothemeasurecontentortheparticularsofthe Phase3sample. Samplehomogeneitymayalsohavecontributedto lowerreliabilityscoresinPhase3 (Helms,Henze,Sass,&Misfud,2006).Aheterogeneoussampleismorelikelytoprovide greaterscorevariance,andgreaterscorevarianceresultsinahigherCronbachsalpha (Helmsetal.,2006).Phase2hadamorehe terogeneoussamplethanPhase3.Therefore, lowerreliabilityscoresfromPhase3maynotbeareflectionofapoorHIRmeasurebut ratheramorehomogeneoussample.Infact,ifthemeasureisintendedforaspecific populationanditisgivenonlytoth ispopulation,thenlowerreliabilityscores(thaninthe generalpopulation)maysimplyindicatethatthemeasureisfunctioningasitshould(Helms etal.,2006). Theitemsthemselvescouldhavebeenwordedinawaytocreategreatervariancein itemr esponses.AsseeninAppendixH,itemvarianceforbothPhases2and3wasrelatively low.Furtherscaledevelopmentshouldinvolvemodifyingthewordingofthecurrentitems toincludemoreextremebehaviors.Forexample,insteadofstatingMyfamily eats togethertheitemcouldbemodifiedtosayMyfamilyeatstogetheratleastonemealofthe dayinordertoincreaseresponsevariability.Responsevariabilityshouldalsobeaddressed byaddingmoreitemsthatcoverawiderrangeoftheconstruct behaviors and attitudes.For example,tocomplementtheitemaboutfamilymeals,futureresearcherscouldadditemslike

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100 Myfamilyeatstogetheratleastonetimea week toaddressawiderrangeofthebehavior, andMyparents expect formyfamilyto eattogetheratleastonetimeadayorIam expectedtoeatwithmyfamilyatleastonetimeadaytoaddressbeliefs/attitudesapartfrom actualbehavior,fromthemultipleperspectivesofIorMyParents. Itemvariancecanalsobeaddressedbyin creasingthenumberofitemsutilizedinthe measure.Inordertomakethemeasuremoreusableandappealingtoresearchers,theinitial 128itemswerereducedto60itemsandthento32items.Inreducingthenumberofitems perconstruct,thenewmeasu remaylacktheabilitytocapturesubtletiesoftheconstructsand consequentlyaffecttherepresentativenessorcohesivenessofthetheorizedcategory.Thisis oneoftheinevitablelimitationsofbriefself reportmeasuresincontrasttostudiesthatu tilize directobservationandextensiveinterviewingsuchasinHarwoodswork(Harwood,2003; Harwoodetal.,2002).Afuturestudycouldaddressthisissueinoneoftwoways:(1) includemoreitemspertheorizedconstructinthefinalself reportmeasu reand(2)follow Harwoodsexampleandemploymorein depthmethodssuchasdirectobservationsand interviewing.Observationsofandinterviewsaboutadolescentandparentinteractionscould leadtoabetterunderstandingoftheinteractionandultimate lythedevelopmentofmorevalid itemcontent. Relatedtovarianceandreliabilityisthevalidityofthefactorandregressionanalyses. Toacertainextent,bothfactoranalysisandregressionanalysisdependuponthemagnitude ofcorrelationsamongit emsandcomponentstoformulateresults.Similarly,reliabilityis basedontheconsistencywithwhichrespondentsgiveanswersacrosstheitemsand components.Itfollowsthattheresultsfromthefactoranalysesandregressionanalysesin

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101 thisstudyar enegativelyinfluencedbythelowreliabilitylevels.Inmostcases,thelow reliabilitywillsimplyresultinTypeIIerrorsforthevariableofinterest(Osborne&Waters, 2002),whichmaybethecaseforPhase3resultsinwhichfewsignificantrelati onships emerged. Anotherpossibleexplanation forthedifferingfactorstructuresbetweenthetwo phasesisthatthesamplesizeinPhase2wastwiceaslargeasthatinPhase3.Statistically speaking,becauseofthegreaterN,thereisgreaterprobabili tythatthefactorstructurein Phase2ismoreaccurateandstablethanthatinPhase3.Ontheotherhand,Guadagnoliand Velicers(1988)simulationstudydiscountsmostrulesofthumbthatrecommendsamplesize shouldbebasedonthenumberofitemsi nameasure.Theyarguedthatsaturationlevel(i.e., magnitudeofthefactorloadings)iswhatdictateswhetheroneshouldbeconcernedabout samplesizeand/ortheratioofitemstocomponents.Forthepresentstudy,basedon GuadagnoliandVelicersf indings,bothPhase2andPhase3hadadequatesamplesizes sincefactorloadingsbetween.40and.60(withanitemtocomponentratioof4to6)anda samplesizeof100yieldedaKappaof.61(fairtogoodagreement)to1.00(excellent agreement)between thesampleandpopulationcomponentpatterns.Nevertheless,atthe conclusionoftheirpaper,theresearchersrecommendasamplesizeof150forapatternwith loadingmagnitudesintherangefoundinthecurrentstudy.Consequently,futureeffortsin H IRmeasuredevelopmentshouldincludetherecruitmentofalargersamplesize. ThereisanotherpotentiallimitationofPhase3.Theregressionanalysesthatserved toexaminevalidityoftheHIRrequiredtheuseofdependentvariablesdevelopedwithin the mainstreamAmericanculturalsystem.Thereforetheyareladenwiththeculturalvaluesof mainstreamAmerica.Schoolgrades,behaviorproblems,andbehavioralhealthmayhave

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102 culturallyinsensitiveaspectsthatrendertheminappropriatefortheHis panicpopulation. Additionally,somedependentmeasurescouldbemoreculturallyladenthanothers.For example,forthePhase3population,allchildrenwereHispanic,inamostlyHispanicschool withmostly,ifnotall,Hispanicteachers.Consequently ,thechildrenwerenotbeing comparedtoothernon Hispanicchildrenwhenitcametogradesordisciplinereferrals; therefore,thesedependentvariableswerenotasculturallyinsensitiveastheycould potentiallybe.Ontheotherhand,althoughcomplet edbytheteachers,thestudentsfinal behavioraladjustmentscoresarebasedonnationalnorms,anarenawhereithasbeen establishedthatminoritiestendtobeover pathologized(LaRoche,2002).Ideally,there wouldbeculturallyappropriateadjustme ntmeasuresavailableforuseintheassessmentof thevalidityoftheHIR,buttherearenomeasuresknowntothisauthorthatareaswidely utilizedandestablishedastheonesusedinthecurrentstudywhichweredeveloped specificallyforHispanicsand sensitivetoculturalissues.Itisrecommendedthatsuch measuresofbehavioraladjustmentandacademicachievementalsobedevelopedtobe utilizedinresearchwithHispanicchildren. Mostofthediscussionoflimitationshasfocusedonmethodological issues,butthere isthepossibilitythattheanalysescannotfullyspeaktowhetherthetheorizedconstructseven existor,ontheotherhand,iftheyaremultidimensional.Analysescouldnotdetermine whethertheitemsthatwerechosenfromPhase2for Phase3disseminationwerethebest representativesofthetheorizedconstructs.Areviewofthecontentoftheitemsperfactor suggeststhatinitialfactoranalysisresultsmayhavebeensampledependentandmaynot haveaccuratelyreflectedtheLatino culturalvaluesthatthemeasurewasintendedtocapture. Futureworkmayincludethedevelopmentofmorerelevantitemsperfactorthatcovermore

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103 ofthenuancesoftheconstructs.Forexample,ifRespetoispotentiallyamultidimensional construct(e.g .,respecttowardsparents,respecttowardsotherelders,respecttowardspeers) thenamuchgreaternumberofitemswouldneedtobedevelopedaddressingeachofthese sub dimensions.Still,suchitemmodificationwouldnotbeeffectiveiftheinitialc onstructs thatemergedfromthegroupinterviewsinPhase1arenotaccuratereflectionsoftrue constructsintheLatinoculture. Itmaybethattheformatofthegroupinterviewswastoostructuredandthatmore relevantthemescouldhaveemergedfrom conductingfocusgroups.Afocusgroup,as opposedtoagroupinterview,isaformatinwhichparticipantsarenotaskedsuchdirect questionsasinagroupinterview,butratheraregiventwoorthreeopen endedquestionsfor discussion.Additionally,g roupdiscussionswouldhaveproducedmorecontent(andgroup effectsmoreeasilyexamined)ifeachgroupwasmatchedonspecificcommoncharacteristics (forexample,onegroupcouldbelimitedto current parentswhohademigratedwithinthe last 1 5 years from CentralAmerica ).Notonlydotheseparticularspecificationsprovidea commongroundforgroupparticipants,buttheyareallcharacteristicsthathaveramifications foritemcontent.Forexample, current parentsmayusedifferentstrategiestocop ewith raisinganadolescentintheU.S.today(e.g.,todayintheU.S.thereismoredruguseand moreinvolvementinsexuallyriskybehaviorthaninpastgenerations).Additionally,parents whohaverecentlyemigratedmaycomefromaculturalbackground inwhichraisingachild ismoreofacommunaldutyamongfamilymembers(e.g.,includinggrandmothers,aunts) thanoneinwhichthebiologicalparentsarethesoleand/orprimarydecision makersraising thechild.Focusgroupswiththeseparticipantsma ybemorefruitfulandaccurateifthey includemorethanonefamilymemberfromeachfamilywheretheyoungermembermaybe

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104 abletoconsulttheoldermemberduringthesession(potentiallymirroringtheprocessofhow thechildisraised).Onceitemcont entisaddressed,researchersneedtoaddressthe methodologicalconcernsrelatedtoPhases2and3ofthisstudy. FurtherexaminationoftheHIRshouldfollowthreestrategiestoaddressthese methodologicalconcerns.Initially,futureresearchshould involvealargersamplesize limitedtoonegeographicalareawithconsistentlevelsofSESandpercentagesofnational backgroundsbetweensamples(ifmultiplesamplesareused).Alargersamplesizecould improvereliabilityaswellasprovideaforumt oconductconfirmatoryfactoranalyses. Limitingthesampletoonegeographicalareacouldpotentiallyalsocontrolforthe demographicalandculturalmake upofthesample(i.e.,SES,nationality,yearsintheU.S.), becausethesevariablestendtochang ewithgeographicalarea.Alargersamplesizewould alsoallowforamorereliableexaminationofgenderdifferences.Ontheotherhand,future workonthemeasurecouldalsoincludeasamplelimitedtoonlyonenationalbackground. Althoughitwouldb eparsimoniousandidealtohaveonemeasurethatisvalidforall Hispanicnationalities,theremaybesufficientculturaldifferencesamongthesenationalities thatwouldwarrantaseparatemeasureforeachregion.Nevertheless,itisunknownwhether th ereneedstobeonemeasureormultiplemeasuresuntilfurtherresearchisabletoestablish ifthereindeedexistsignificantculturaldifferencesamongHispanicnationalities.Therefore, itissuggestedthatthismeasureinitiallyshouldbedevelopedfo rHispanicpopulationasa whole.Ifunfavorablepsychometricpropertiespersist,thenthemeasureshouldbeevaluated betweenindividualHispanicnationalitiesandregions. Oncetheaboveconcernsareaddressed,asecondstrategyforexaminingtheH IRs reliabilityandvaliditywouldbetocompareresponsesfromHispanicadolescentswith

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105 responsesfromadolescentsofotherethnicbackgrounds.Althoughthemeasureisintended fortheHispanicpopulationwithintheUnitedStates,acomparisontorespo nsesfrom studentsfromotherethnicbackgroundsmayincreasethevarianceneededforregression analysestoestablishthemeasuresvaliditywithintheHispanicpopulation(Helmset.al., 2006). Finally,iftheabovestrategiesresultinaviableHIRmea sure,theHIRshouldthenbe examinedusingasamplefromagreatervarietyorrangeofSESlevels,geographical locations,andyearsintheU.S.Thiswouldprovidetheopportunitytoexamine generalizabilityandtheinteractionsandinfluencesofaccultu rationandSESonparenting, youthsperceptionofparenting,andyouthsbehavioralandacademicsuccesses. Additionally,withagreaterrangeofthesevariablesandalargersamplesize,theseanalyses couldbeusedtoaddressmethodologicalconcernsre latedtothenestingofparticipants(e.g., nestingofstudentswithinclassrooms,classroomswithinschools,andschoolswithin geographicalareas). Insummary,theHIRmeasurestillneedsattention,butitisasufficientfoundation fromwhichtowork. Nowthatthecurrentstudyhaslaidthebuildingblock,thenextstepis toimprovethestrategiesutilizedindevelopingthenewmeasuretobettercapturethese constructs.Recentliterature,togetherwiththisstudy,suggeststhattheparentingstyles t ypologysetforthbyBaumrind,MaccobyandMartin,andSteinberg,amongothers, appropriatelyaccountsfordifferencesinoutcomesamongmainstream,white,American youthbutthatthistypologyisnotgeneralizabletootherpopulations,particularlythe Hi spanicpopulationwithintheUnitedStates. Over 20yearsofliteraturehavedescribedthe constructsofFamilismo,Respeto,InstrumentalIndependence,andProperDemeanor.The

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106 criticalbyproductofthecurrentstudywastorevealtheneedtoaddressthes econstructs withinaculturallysensitiveapproachtomethodologyandresearchintegrity.

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117 Appendices

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118 AppendixA : ParentingPracticesSurvey PPS Pleaseanswerthenextsetofquestionsabouttheparent(s)(orguardians )youlivewith.Ifyouspendtimeinmorethanonehome,answerthequestionsabouttheparents(orguardians)whohavethemostsayoveryourdailylife. Pleasedarkentheappropriatecircletotherightofeachquestion. StronglyAgree Agree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Strongly Disagree 1. Myparentssaythatyoushouldntarguewithadults. 2. Icancountonmyparentstohelpmeout,ifIhavesomekindofproblem. 3. Myparentssaythatyoushouldgiveinonargumentsratherthanmakepeop leangry. 4. MyparentskeeppushingmetodomybestinwhateverIdo. 5. WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakemylifemiserable. 6. Myparentskeeppushingmetothinkindependently 7. Myparentstellmethattheiri deasarecorrectandthatIshouldnotquestionthem.. 8. MyparentshelpmewithmyschoolworkifthereissomethingIdontunderstand. 9. WheneverIarguewithmyparents,theysaythingslike,Youllknowbetterwhenyougrowup. 10. Whenmyparentswantmetodosomething,theyexplainwhy. 11. MyparentsletmemakemyownplansforthingsIwanttodo. 12. WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsencouragemetotryharder. 13. Myparentsactcoldlyandunfriend lyifIdosomethingtheydontlike. 14. Myparentsknowwhomyfriendsare. 15. WhenIgetapoorgradeinschool,myparentsmakemefeelguilty. 16. Myparentsspendtimejusttalkingwithme. 17. Myparentswontletmedothingsw iththemwhenIdosomethingtheydontlike. 18. Myfamilydoesfunthingstogether. MYFREETIME 19. Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayoutonSCHOOLNIGHTS(Monday Thursday)? Iamnotallowedout Before8:00 8:00to8: 59 9:00to9:59 10:00to10:59 11:00orlater AslateasIwant 20. Inatypicalweek,whatisthelatestyoucanstayoutonFRIDAYORSATURDAYNIGHT? Iamnotallowedout Before8:00 8:00to8:59 9:00to9:59 10:00to10:59 11:00orlater AslateasIwant 21. HowmuchdoyouparentsTRYtoknow DontTry TryaLittle TryaLot Whereyougoatnight? Whatyoudowithyourfreetime? Whereyouaremostafternoonsafterschool? 22. Howmuchdoyou parentsREALLYknow DontKnow KnowaLittle KnowaLot Whereyougoatnight? Whatyoudowithyourfreetime? Whereyouaremostafternoonsafterschool?

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119 AppendixB : TheMultigroupEthnicIdentityMeasure(MEIM) In thiscountry,peoplecomefromalotofdifferentculturesandtherearemanydifferentwordstodescribethedifferentbackgroundsor ethnicgroups thatpeoplecomefrom. SomeexamplesofthenamesofethnicgroupsareMexican American,Hispanic,Black ,Asian American,AmericanIndian,Anglo American,andWhite.Everypersonisborn intoanethnicgroup,orsometimestwogroups,butpeopledifferonhowimportanttheir ethnicity istothem,howtheyfeelaboutit,andhowmuchtheirbehaviorisaffect edbyit. Thesequestionsareaboutyourethnicityoryourethnicgroupandhowyoufeelaboutitorreacttoit. Pleasefillin: Intermsofethnicgroup,Iconsidermyselftobe Usetheresponsesgivenbelowtoindicatehowmuchyouagreeord isagreewitheachstatement. PleaseCircleYourAnswers. 1. Ihavespenttimetryingtofindoutmoreaboutmyownethnicgroup,such asitshistory,traditions,andcustoms. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 2. Iamactiveino rganizationsorsocialgroupsthatincludemostlymembersof myownethnicgroup. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 3. Ihaveaclearsenseofmyethnicbackgroundandwhatitmeansforme. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewh at Disagree Strongly Disagree 4. Ilikemeetingandgettingtoknowpeoplefromethnicgroupsotherthanmy own. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 5. Ithinkalotabouthowmylifewillbeaffectedbymyethnicgroup membership Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 6. IamhappythatIamamemberofthegroupIbelongto. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 7. Isometimesfeelitwouldbebetterifdifferentethnicgroupsd idnttryto mixtogether. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 8. Iamnotveryclearabouttheroleofmyethnicityinmylife. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 9. Ioftenspendtimewithpeoplef romethnicgroupsotherthanmyown. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 10. Ireallyhavenotspentmuchtimetryingtolearnmoreaboutthecultureand historyofmyethnicgroup. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 11. Ihaveastrongsenseofbelongingtomyownethnicgroup. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 12. Iunderstandprettywellwhatmyethnicgroupmembershipmeanstome,in termsofhowtorelatetomyowngrou pandothergroups. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 13. Inordertolearnmoreaboutmyethnicbackground,Ihaveoftentalkedto otherpeopleaboutmyethnicgroup. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Di sagree 14. Ihavealotofprideinmyethnicgroupanditsaccomplishments. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 15. Idonttrytobecomefriendswithpeoplefromotherethnicgroups. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 16. Iparticipateinculturalpracticesofmyowngroup,suchasspecialfood, music,orcustoms. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 17. Iaminvolvedinactivitieswithpeoplefromotherethnicgroups. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 18. Ifeelastrongattachmenttowardsmyownethnicgroup. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 19. Ienjoybeingaroundpeoplefromethnicgroupsotherthanmyown. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree 20. Ifeelgoodaboutmyculturalorethnicbackground. Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree Pleasefillinthecirclenexttothebestanswertoeachquestion. 21. Myeth nicityis 22. My fathers ethnicityis 23. My mothers ethnicityis Asian,AsianAmerican,orOriental Asian,AsianAmerican,orOriental Asian,AsianAmerican,orOriental BlackorAfricanAmerican BlackorAfricanAmerican BlackorAfricanAm erican HispanicorLatino HispanicorLatino HispanicorLatino White,Caucasian,European,not Hispanic White,Caucasian,European,not Hispanic White,Caucasian,European,not Hispanic AmericanIndian AmericanIndi an AmericanIndian Mixed;parentsarefromtwo differentgroups Mixed;parentsarefromtwo differentgroups Mixed;parentsarefromtwo differentgroups Other(writein): Other(writein): Other(write in):

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120 AppendixC : BehavioralAcculturationScale(BAS) PleaseCircleYourAnswer. Spanishall ofthetime Spanish mostofthe time Spanishand English equally English mostof thetime Englishall ofthetime 1. Whichlanguagedoyoupreferto speak? 1 2 3 4 5 2. Whatlanguagedoyouspeakathome? 1 2 3 4 5 3. Whatlanguagedoyouspeakinschool? 1 2 3 4 5 4. Whatlanguagedoyouspeakatwork? 1 2 3 4 5 5. Whatlanguagedoyouspeakwithfriends? 1 2 3 4 5 6. InwhatlanguagearetheT.V.programs you watch? 1 2 3 4 5 7. Inwhatlanguagearetheradiostationsyou listento? 1 2 3 4 5 8. Inwhatlanguagearethebooksand magazinesyouread? 1 2 3 4 5 Hispanicall ofthetime Hispanic mostofthe time Hispanicat timesand Americanat othertimes America n mostof thetime American allofthe time 9. Whatsortofmusicdoyoulistento? 1 2 3 4 5 10. Whatsortofdancesdoyoudance? 1 2 3 4 5 11. Whatsortofplacesdoyougooutto? 1 2 3 4 5 12. Whatsortofrecreationdoyouengagein? 1 2 3 4 5 Completely Hisp anic Mostly Hispanic Mixed: Sometimes Hispanic andothers American Mostly American Completely American 13. Mywayofcelebratingbirthdaysis: 1 2 3 4 5 14. Mywayofrelatingtobyfianceis: 1 2 3 4 5 15. ThegesturesIuseintalkingare: 1 2 3 4 5 Instructio ns:Sometimeslifeisnotaswereallywantit.Ifyoucouldhaveyourway,howwouldyoulikethefollowingaspectsofyourlifetobelike? Iwishthisto be completely Hispanic Iwishthisto bemostly Hispanic Iwouldwish thistobe both Hispanica nd American Iwouldwish thistobe mostly American Iwouldwish thistobe completely American 16. Food: 1 2 3 4 5 17. Language: 1 2 3 4 5 18. Music: 1 2 3 4 5 19. T.V.programs: 1 2 3 4 5 20. Books/Magazines: 1 2 3 4 5 21. Dances: 1 2 3 4 5 22. Radioprograms: 1 2 3 4 5 23. Way ofcelebratingbirthdays: 1 2 3 4 5 24. Wayofcelebratingweddings: 1 2 3 4 5

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121 AppendixD:Demographics HispanicParentingProject AdolescentBackgroundInformation Youarea girl boy TodaysDate Howoldareyou? 10yearsold 11yearsold 12yearsold 13yearso ld 14yearsold 15yearsold 16yearsold Other Whatgradeareyouin?(Che ck One). 6 th 7 th 8 th Whodoyoulivewith?(Checkallthatapply) Mother Father BrothersandSisters Step mother Step father Grandmother Grandfather Aunt Uncle Cousins Other Youare. Mexican Cuba n PuertoRican Dominican Other, PleaseSpecify 2ormoreHispanicNationalities: PleaseSpecify Hispanicmixedwithotherethnicbackground(Caucasian, AfricanAmerican,etc). Pleasewritethecombination Wasyour mom bornintheU.S.? yes no Wasyour dad bornintheU.S.? yes no Wasyourgrandpa(onyour mom s side)born intheU.S.? Yes No Wasyourgrandpa(onyour dad s side)borninthe U.S.? yes no Whatjobdoesyour mom have?Whatdoesshedo? Whatjobdoesyour dad have?Whatdoeshedo? Ifyouhavea step mom ,whatjobdoesshehave?Whatdoesshedo? Ifyouhavea step dad ,whatjobdoeshehave?What doeshedo? Wasyourgrandma(on your mom s side)born intheU.S.? Yes No Wasyourgrandma(onyour dad s side)borninthe U.S.? yes no Whatgradedidyour mom finishinschool?(CheckOne) Mymomhaslessthana9 th gradeeducation Mymomhadatleastsomehighschool Mymomhas atradecertificateorotherdiplomaprogram Mymomhassomeothernon universityeducation(e.g.,beautyschool,mechanic school) Mymomhassomeuniversityclassesorfinishedauniversitydegree Mymomfinishedgraduateorprofessionalschool Whatgrade didyour dad finishinschool?(CheckOne) Mydadhaslessthana9 th gradeeducation Mydadhadatleastsomehighschool Mydadhasatradecertificateorotherdiplomaprogram Mydadhassomeothernon universityeducation(e.g.,beautyschool,mecha nicschool) Mydadhassomeuniversityclassesorfinishedauniversitydegree Mydadfinishedgraduateorprofessionalschool WereyoubornintheU.S.? yes no,howmanyyearshaveyoulivedintheU.S.?

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122 AppendixE: HowIamRaised Instru ctions: Howtruearethefollowingstatementsforyou? Please puta inthe by youranswer. 1. Itismyresponsibilitytodowellinschool. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 2. IamnotallowedtogooutunlessIamwithanadultfr ommyfamily. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 3. MyparentsignoremewhenIdosomethingIshouldntdo. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 4. Myparentsencourageme. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 5. IfIhaveafriendwhomyparentsdontlike,Imnotallowedtobewiththem. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 6. WhenIhaveaproblematschool,Ifeelcomfortabletalkingaboutitwithmyparents. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 7. MyparentsgroundmeifIamintrouble. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 8. Iknowaboutmostofmyfamilysproblems. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 9. Myparentstellmet hatIgivemyfamilyabadreputationwhenIdontbehavewell. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 10. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyauntsanduncles. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 11. IfIhaveapartywith friendsatthesametimethatIhaveapartywithfamily,myparentssayIhavetochoosethefamily party. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 12. IfIamupsetaboutsomething,myparentstellmeIshouldkeepittomyself. NotTrue AtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 13. MyparentssaythatIshouldobeymyteacherslikeIobeythem. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 14. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainactivities. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 15. WhenIhavetroublewithanothergirlorboy,Ifeelcomfortabletellingmyparentsaboutit. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 16. MyparentssendmetomyroomifIamintrouble. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 17. Myparentsletmemakemyowndecisions. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 18. MyparentsareembarrassedwhenIbehavebadly. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 19. Iamexpectedtohelptakecareof otherfamilymemberswhoneedhelp. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 20. Myparentsusethephrasefamilyfirst(lafamiliaprimero). NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 21. Icantellmyparentsalmostanything. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 22. Myparentshavetherighttotellmewhattodo. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 23. Thereisadayintheweekthatmyfamilyconsidersafamilyday. NotTrueAtAll So mewhatTrue VeryTrue 24. MyparentsknowwhereIamatalltimes. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 25. MyparentstakeawaymyprivilegesifIamintrouble. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 26. Myparentsletm edecidewhereIgooutforfunontheweekends,butthereareplacesImnotallowedtogoto. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 27. Iamexpectedtowashmyownclothes. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 28. Myparent ssaythatothersintheworldwilltreatmewellifItreatthemwithrespect. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 29. Myparentsrestrictmefromcertainpeople. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 30. Myparentsareaff ectionatewithme. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 31. Iaminvolvedinfamilydecisions. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue VeryTrue 32. MyparentsfeelsadwhenIbehavebadly. NotTrueAtAll SomewhatTrue Ve ryTrue Whodoyouconsidertobeyourparent(s)? Ifmorethanone,circleallthatapply Mother Father Stepmother Stepfather Grandmother Grandfather Aunt Uncle Sister Brother Other

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123 AppendixF:WhatIAmLike SampleItem Somekidswouldrather BUT Otherkidswouldrather playoutdoorsintheir watchT.V. sparetime 1. Somekidsfeelthatthey BUT Oth erkids worry about areverygoodattheir whethertheycandothe schoolwork schoolworkassignedto them. 2. Somekidsfindithardto BUT Otherkidsfinditspretty makefriends easytomakefriends. 3. Somekidsdovery well BUT Otherkids dont feelthat atallkindsofsports theyareverygoodwhen itcomestosports. 4. Somekidsare happy BUT Otherkidsare not happy withthewaytheylook withthewaytheylook. 5. Somekidsoftendo not BUT Otherkidsusually like likethewaythey behave thewaytheybehave. 6. Somekidsareoften BUT Otherkidsarepretty unhappy withthemsel ves pleased withthemselves. 7. Somekidsfeellikethey BUT Otherkidsarentsosure are justassmart asother and wonder iftheyare kidstheirage assmart. 8. Somekidshavealotof BUT Otherkids dont have friends verymanyfriends. Really True forme Sortof True forme Sortof True forme Really True forme

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124 9. Somekidswishthey BUTOtherkidsfeeltheyare couldbealotbetterat goodenoughatsports. Sports 10.. Somekidsare happy BUT Otherkidswishtheir withtheirheightand heightandweightwere weight different. 11. Somekidsusuallydo BUT Otherkidsoften dont the right thing dotherightthing. 12. Som ekids dont likethe BUT Otherkids do likethe waytheyareleading waytheyareleading theirlife theirlife. 13.. Somekidsarepretty slow BUT Otherkidscandotheir infinishingtheirschool scho olwork quickly. Work 14.. Somekidswouldliketo BUT Otherkidshaveasmany havealotmorefriends friendsastheywant. 15.. Somekidsthinktheycould BUT Otherkidsareafraidthey dowellatjustaboutany might not dowellat sportsactivitytheyhavent sportstheyhaventevertried. Triedbefore 16. Somekidswishtheirbody BUT Otherkidsliketheirbody was different thewa yitis. 17.. Somekidsusuallyact BUT Otherkidsoften dont thewaytheyknowthey actthewaytheyare are supposed to supposedto. 18.. Somekidsare happy with BUT Otherkidsareoften not themselvesasaperson happywiththemselves. R eally True forme Sortof True forme Sortof True forme Really True forme

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125 19.. Somekidsoften forget BUT Otherkidscanremember whattheylearn thingseasily. 20.. Somekidsarealways BUT Otherkidsusuallydo doingthingswithalot thingsby themselves. Ofkids 21.. Somekidsfeelthatthey BUT Otherkids dont feelthey are better thanotherstheir canplayaswell. Ageatsports 22.. So mekidswishtheir BUT Otherkids like their physicalappearance(how physicalappearancethe theylook)wasdifferent wayitis. 23.. Somekidsusuallygetin BUT Otherkidsusually dont trouble becauseofth ings dothingsthatgetthem theydo introuble. 24.. Somekids like thekindof BUT Otherkidsoftenwish persontheyare theyweresomeoneelse. 25. Somekidsdo verywell at BUT Otherkids dont dovery t heirschoolwork wellattheirschoolwork. 26. Somekidswishthat BUT Otherkidsfeelthat morepeopletheirage mostpeopletheir likedthem age do likethem. 27. Ingamesandsportssome BUT Otherkidsusually kidsusually wat ch play ratherthanjust insteadofplay watch. 28. Somekidswishsomething BUT Otherkids like their abouttheirfaceorhair faceandhairtheway lookeddifferent itis. Really True forme Sortof True forme Sortof True forme Really True forme

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126 29. Somekidsdothingsthey BUT Other kids hardly knowthey shouldnt do ever dothingsthey knowtheyshouldntdo. 30. Somekidsareveryhappy BUT Otherkidswishthey beingthewaytheyare weredifferent. 31. Somekidshave trouble BUT Otherkidsalmos t figuringouttheanswersin alwayscanfigureout school theanswers 32. Somekidsarepopularwith BUT Otherkidsare not otherstheirage verypopular. 33. Somekids dont dowellat BUT Otherkid sare good newoutdoorgames atnewgamesright away. 34. Somekidsthinkthat BUT Otherkidsthinkthat theyaregoodlooking theyarenotvery goodlooking. 35. Somekidsbehave BUT Otherkidsoftenfind themselvesvery ithardtobehave well themselves. 36. Somekidsarenotvery BUT Otherkidsthinkthe happywiththewaythey waytheydothings doalotofthings is fine. 37. SomekidsthinkitisimportantBUT Otherkidsdontthinkhow todowellatschoolworkin welltheydoatschoolwork ordertofeelgoodasaperson isallthatimportant. 38. Somekidsdontthinkthat BUT Otherkidsthinkthathaving havingalotoffriendsis alotoffri endsisimportant allthatimportant tohowtheyfeelasaperson. Sortof True forme Really True forme Really True forme Sortof True forme

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127 39. Somekidsthinkitsimportant BUT Otherkidsdontthinkthat tobegoodatsports howgoodyouareatspor ts isimportant. 40. Somekidsthinkitsimportant BUT Otherkidsdontthinkthats tobegoodlookinginorderto veryimportantatall. Feelgoodaboutthemselves 41. Somekidsthinkthatits BUT Oth erkidsdontthinkthat importanttobehavethe howtheybehaveisthat waytheyshould important. 42. Somekidsdontthinkthat BUT Otherkidsthinkthatgetting gettinggoodgradesisallthat goodgradesisimp ortant. Importanttohowtheyfeelabout themselves 43. Somekidsthinkitsimportant BUT Otherkidsdontthinkthat tobepopular beingpopularisallthat importanttohowtheyfeel aboutthems elves. 44. Somekidsdontthinkthat BUT Otherkidsfeelthatdoing doingwellatathleticsis wellatathleticsisimportant. Thatimportanttohowthey feelaboutthemselves 45. Somekidsdontthinkthat BUT Otherkidsthinkthathow howtheylookisimportantto theylookisimportant. Howtheyfeelaboutthemselves asaperson 46.. Somekidsdontthinkthat BUT Otherkidsthinkits howtheyactisallth at importanttoacttheway important youaresupposedto. Really True forme Sortof True forme Sortof True forme Really True forme

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128 A ppendixG :PrincipalComponentsAnalysisand PrincipalAxisFactoring ComparisonsofParentingStructures TableG1.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa4 factormodelutilizingtheDirectObliminrotation PCA PAF Component Item 1 2 3 4 HIR32 .672 HIR25 .585 HIR39 .574 HIR46 .573 HIR38 .557 HIR33 .510 HIR34 .505 HIR26 .496 HIR16 .489 HIR19 .463 HIR54 .448 HIR14 .417 HIR41 .416 HIR18 .411 HI R50 .405 HIR13 HIR4 HIR37 HIR1 HIR5 HIR31 HIR47 HIR20 HIR9 HIR2 HIR62 .505 HIR55 .484 HIR8 .480 HIR59 .472 HIR61 .444 HIR12 .413 HIR51 .412 HIR23 .403 HIR11 HIR58 HIR30 HIR15 HIR48 HIR49 HIR52 HIR7 .585 HIR36 .578 HIR27 .558 HIR29 .473 HIR22 .437 .416 HIR44 HIR40 HIR42 HIR24 HIR10 .585 HIR3 .536 HIR35 .500 HIR21 .473 HIR28 .423 HIR6 .413 HIR53 HIR45 HIR57 HIR56 HIR43 Factor Item 1 2 3 4 HIR32 .659 HIR25 .555 HIR46 .550 HIR39 .532 HIR38 .513 HIR33 .472 HIR34 .465 HIR16 .460 HIR26 .448 HIR54 .422 HIR19 .420 HIR14 HIR18 HIR50 HIR41 HIR13 HIR4 HIR37 HIR53 HIR1 HIR47 HIR31 HIR49 HIR5 HIR20 HIR9 HIR2 HIR55 .422 HIR62 .421 HIR8 .412 HIR59 .401 HIR61 HIR51 HIR23 HIR12 HIR30 HIR11 HIR15 HIR58 HIR48 HIR52 HIR7 .529 HIR36 .516 HIR27 .466 HIR29 .414 HIR22 HIR44 HIR40 HIR42 HIR24 HIR10 .557 HIR3 .499 HIR21 .424 HIR35 .401 HIR6 HIR28 HIR57 HIR45 HIR56 HIR43

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129 TableG2.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa5 factormodelutilizingtheDirectObliminrotation PCA PAF Component Item 1 2 3 4 5 HIR32 .564 HIR26 .555 HIR33 .538 HIR38 .478 HIR16 .478 HIR19 .470 HIR31 .468 HIR54 428 HIR34 .422 HIR1 HIR4 HIR40 HIR2 HIR20 HIR47 HIR9 HIR61 .583 HIR62 .511 HIR23 .453 HIR59 .441 HIR12 .434 HIR55 .432 HIR30 .419 HIR58 HIR15 HIR51 HIR44 .566 HIR28 .487 HIR42 .442 HIR27 .413 HIR35 .410 HIR8 HIR11 HIR56 HIR10 .676 HI R3 .648 HIR46 .552 HIR21 .533 HIR13 .519 HIR53 .514 HIR50 .499 HIR48 .479 HIR14 .450 HIR41 .436 HIR25 .420 HIR6 .419 HIR57 HIR18 HIR39 HIR43 HIR49 HIR37 HIR45 HIR5 HIR7 .714 HIR29 .679 HIR36 .665 HIR22 .497 HIR24 HIR52 Factor Item 1 2 3 4 5 HIR32 .611 HIR33 .506 HIR26 .499 HIR16 .473 HIR38 .448 HIR19 .426 HIR54 .416 HIR25 .406 HIR34 .404 HIR31 HIR39 HIR4 HIR4 6 HIR1 HIR40 H IR47 HIR18 HIR20 HIR9 HIR2 HIR37 HIR61 .524 HIR62 .435 HIR23 HIR30 HIR55 HIR59 HI R12 HIR51 HIR57 HIR8 HIR15 HIR58 HIR49 HIR11 HIR7 .651 HIR36 .628 HIR29 .628 HIR22 HIR24 HIR14 HIR10 .564 HIR3 .494 HIR21 .445 HIR35 .412 HIR28 .404 HIR6 HIR13 HIR53 HIR45 HIR43 HIR41 HIR56 HIR52 HIR44 .556 HIR27 .400 HIR48 HIR50 HIR42 HIR5

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130 TableG3.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa6 factormodelutilizingtheDirectObliminrotation PCA PAF Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 HIR32 .622 HIR26 .574 HIR33 .557 HIR16 .535 HIR19 .472 HIR38 .469 HIR31 .438 HIR34 .432 HIR54 .431 HIR4 .411 HIR25 .406 HIR40 HIR1 HIR9 HIR2 HI R47 HIR20 HIR61 .603 HIR59 .489 HIR12 .466 HIR23 .451 HIR30 .444 HIR62 .423 HIR55 .413 HIR15 HIR49 HIR57 HIR58 HIR51 HIR56 HIR44 .692 HIR27 .504 HIR48 .471 HIR39 .403 HIR5 HIR37 HIR3 .667 HIR10 .559 HIR35 .500 HIR53 .47 3 HIR46 .458 HIR21 .403 HIR50 .401 HIR43 HIR41 HIR14 HIR36 .704 HIR7 .701 HIR29 .699 HIR22 .469 HIR24 HIR18 HIR8 .530 HIR11 .464 HIR45 .438 HIR52 .424 HIR6 .407 HIR13 HIR28 HIR42 Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 H IR32 .608 HIR33 .488 HIR26 .487 HIR16 .476 HIR38 .423 HIR19 .407 HIR25 HIR54 HIR34 HIR4 HIR31 HIR1 HIR40 HIR47 HIR9 HIR20 HIR2 HIR37 HIR61 .514 HIR59 .421 HIR30 HIR23 HIR12 HIR55 HIR15 HIR49 HIR57 HIR62 HIR51 HIR18 HIR58 HIR56 HIR36 .652 HIR7 .634 HIR29 .607 HIR22 HIR24 HIR3 .627 HIR10 .529 HIR35 .428 HIR46 .422 HIR53 HIR21 HIR50 HIR41 HIR14 HIR28 HIR43 HIR44 .582 HIR48 .404 HIR27 HIR39 HIR5 HIR8 .441 HIR11 HIR6 HIR45 HIR13 HIR52 HIR42

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131 TableG4.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa7 factormodelutili zingtheDirectObliminrotation PCA PAF Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HIR16 .659 HIR32 .579 HIR26 .547 HIR33 .467 HIR38 .454 HIR2 .452 HIR9 .435 HIR54 .417 HIR34 .415 HIR40 HIR25 HIR46 HIR47 HI R19 HIR31 HIR41 HIR61 .586 HIR12 .481 HIR23 .472 HIR59 .465 HIR30 .463 HIR15 .446 HIR55 .416 HIR57 .409 HIR 62 HIR49 HIR56 HIR51 HIR42 HIR18 HIR20 HIR44 .704 HIR27 .509 HIR48 .496 HIR5 HIR3 .552 HIR35 .534 HIR10 .485 HIR21 .425 HIR28 HIR1 HIR29 .703 HIR7 .698 HIR36 .696 HIR22 .453 HIR24 HIR14 HIR8 .535 HIR11 .469 HIR45 .435 HIR52 .429 HIR4 .410 HIR6 HIR43 .529 HIR53 .518 HIR39 .481 HIR58 .469 HIR37 HIR50 HIR13 Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HIR16 .564 HIR32 .554 HIR26 .453 h IR33 .405 HIR38 HIR54 HIR34 H IR25 HIR19 HIR2 HIR31 H IR40 HIR9 HIR47 HIR61 .483 H IR59 HIR30 HIR12 HIR23 HIR15 HIR 57 HIR55 HIR49 HIR51 HIR56 HIR18 HIR42 HIR20 HIR36 .641 HIR7 .633 HIR29 .613 HIR22 HIR24 HIR14 HIR3 .475 HIR35 .455 HIR10 .417 HIR21 .404 HIR46 HIR28 HIR41 HIR44 .620 HIR48 .441 H IR27 .408 HIR5 HIR8 .438 HIR11 HIR4 HIR45 HIR62 HIR52 HIR1 HIR53 .489 HIR6 .426 HIR39 .424 HIR13 .405 HIR43 HIR50 HIR58 HIR37

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132 TableG5.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa4 factormodelutilizingthePromaxrotation PCA PAF Component Item 1 2 3 4 HIR32 .706 HIR25 .606 HIR39 .597 HIR38 .583 HIR46 .562 HIR26 .52 6 HIR34 .522 HIR33 .521 HIR16 .504 HIR19 .480 HIR54 .435 HIR4 .404 HIR1 .401 HIR41 HIR37 HIR14 HIR18 HIR50 HIR31 HIR5 HIR2 HIR47 HIR20 HIR9 HIR10 .622 HIR3 .561 HIR35 .558 HIR21 .500 HIR28 .486 HIR6 .440 HIR22 .433 .430 HIR45 HIR13 HIR53 HIR57 HIR43 HIR56 HIR8 .522 HIR62 .516 HIR55 .500 HIR59 .474 HIR11 .434 HIR12 .427 HIR58 .425 HIR61 .423 HIR23 .414 HIR51 .401 HIR15 HIR30 HIR48 HIR49 HIR52 HIR7 .590 HIR36 .579 HIR27 .562 HIR29 .479 HIR44 HIR40 HIR42 HIR24 Factor Item 1 2 3 4 HIR32 .714 HIR25 .590 HIR39 .566 HIR38 .550 HIR46 .545 HIR33 490 HIR34 .488 HIR26 .485 HIR16 .481 HIR19 .444 HIR54 .412 HIR4 HIR1 HIR41 HIR14 HIR37 HIR50 HIR18 HIR31 HIR5 HIR47 HIR2 HIR20 HIR9 HIR10 .625 HIR3 .547 HIR35 .478 HIR21 .470 HIR28 .430 HIR6 HIR22 HIR13 HIR53 HIR45 HIR57 HIR42 HIR43 HIR56 HIR8 .465 HIR55 .444 HIR62 .441 HIR59 .406 HIR11 HIR51 HIR12 HIR23 HIR61 HIR15 HIR58 HIR30 HIR48 HIR49 HIR52 HIR7 .531 HIR36 .516 HIR27 .473 HIR29 .416 HIR44 HIR40 HIR24

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133 TableG6.Factor analysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa5 factormodelutilizingthePromaxrotation PCA PAF Component Item 1 2 3 4 5 HIR10 .686 HIR3 .665 HIR46 .612 HIR50 .544 HIR13 .541 HIR53 .539 HIR21 .533 HIR48 .522 HIR14 .482 HIR25 .473 HIR41 .466 HIR39 .435 HIR6 .408 HIR18 HIR57 HIR51 HIR43 HIR37 HIR49 HIR5 HIR26 .561 HIR32 .538 HIR33 .530 HIR31 .493 HIR16 .473 HIR19 .461 HIR38 .451 HIR54 .403 HIR34 HIR1 HIR40 HIR2 HIR4 HIR20 HIR9 HIR47 HIR61 .600 HIR62 .517 HIR23 .489 HIR12 .458 HIR55 .449 HIR59 .443 HIR30 .431 HIR58 HIR15 HIR7 .721 HIR29 .692 H IR36 .671 HIR22 .519 HIR24 HIR27 HIR52 HIR28 .526 HIR44 .461 .517 HIR35 .455 HIR8 .437 HIR42 .424 HIR11 HIR45 aHIR56 Fact or Item 1 2 3 4 5 HIR10 .754 HIR3 .670 HIR21 .549 HIR13 .511 HIR46 .493 HIR48 .476 HIR53 .473 HIR50 .455 HIR14 .423 HIR6 .419 HIR41 .402 HIR18 HIR57 HIR49 HIR43 HIR45 HIR37 HIR5 HIR56 HIR32 .605 HIR26 .522 HIR33 .508 HIR16 .477 HIR38 .432 HIR19 .426 HIR31 HIR54 HIR34 HIR25 HIR4 HIR1 HIR40 HIR39 HIR2 HIR20 HIR47 HIR9 HIR61 .464 HIR62 .445 HIR23 .426 HIR55 .419 HIR8 HIR12 HIR59 HIR30 HIR15 HIR58 HIR51 HIR11 HIR52 HIR7 .620 HIR36 .609 HIR29 .591 HIR22 .430 HIR24 HIR44 .488 HIR28 HIR27 HIR35 HIR42

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134 TableG7.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa6 factormodelutilizingthePromaxrotation PCA PAF Component Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 HIR3 .778 HIR10 .698 HIR46 .593 HIR53 .581 HIR50 .539 HIR21 .506 H IR35 .460 .450 HIR14 .448 HIR41 .447 HIR25 .404 HIR43 HIR13 HIR37 HIR18 HIR32 .593 HIR26 .589 HIR33 .554 HIR16 .522 H IR31 .496 HIR19 .478 HIR38 .467 HIR34 .421 HIR54 .416 HIR40 HIR1 HIR2 HIR20 HIR9 HIR47 HIR61 .601 HIR59 .524 HIR12 .512 HIR23 .482 HIR15 .449 HIR30 .444 HIR55 .440 HIR62 .411 HIR49 HIR58 HIR57 HIR51 HIR56 HIR36 .687 HIR7 .682 HIR29 .676 HIR22 .519 HIR24 HIR8 .539 HIR11 .474 HIR52 .433 HIR45 .431 HIR4 .408 HIR6 HIR44 .679 HIR27 .498 H IR28 HIR48 HIR39 HIR5 HIR42 Factor Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 HIR32 .641 HIR26 .535 HIR33 .522 HIR16 .502 HIR38 .453 HIR19 .442 H IR31 .417 HIR34 .410 HIR54 .407 HIR25 HIR4 HIR1 HIR39 HIR40 HIR2 HIR20 HIR47 HIR9 HIR37 HIR3 .779 HIR10 .689 HIR46 .514 HIR53 .480 HIR21 .472 HIR35 .471 HIR50 .443 HIR41 HIR14 HIR43 HIR61 .545 HIR59 .459 HIR23 .428 HIR12 .423 HIR30 .418 HIR15 .400 HIR55 HIR49 HIR62 HIR57 HIR51 HIR58 HIR56 HIR18 HIR36 .637 HIR7 .620 HIR29 .590 HIR22 .423 HIR24 HIR8 .447 HIR11 HIR6 HIR45 HIR52 HIR13 HIR44 .590 HIR27 .415 HIR28 HIR48 HIR42 HIR5

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135 TableG8.Factoranalysisof60 itemparentingmeasurelimitedtoa7 factormodelutilizingthePromaxrotation PCA PAF Component Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HIR16 .687 .179 .163 .209 .146 .097 .040 HIR32 .593 .189 .259 .064 .001 .029 .034 H IR26 .582 .051 .012 .020 .043 .102 .063 HIR2 .488 .06 0 .474 .074 .200 .314 .119 HIR33 .482 .155 .168 .006 .101 .107 .057 HIR38 .465 .090 .023 .056 .046 .200 .023 HIR9 .442 .024 .254 .277 .036 .019 .042 HIR34 .424 .015 .073 .015 .080 .086 .018 HIR54 .417 .229 .000 .072 .002 .020 .048 HIR40 .403 .087 .085 .023 .176 .173 .157 HIR25 .355 .215 .326 .138 .131 .184 .024 HIR47 .346 .106 .141 .210 .041 .047 .152 HIR31 .346 .267 .088 .267 .022 .123 .085 HIR19 .343 .163 .261 .128 .060 .064 .023 HIR61 .002 .597 .157 .327 .206 185 .025 HIR12 .006 .538 .139 .114 .005 .028 .026 HIR15 .120 .516 .004 .310 .069 .055 .039 HIR59 .194 .514 .222 .047 .208 .142 .038 HIR23 .208 .512 .101 .008 .078 .142 .163 HIR30 .007 .476 .069 .195 .059 .157 .052 HIR55 .020 .453 .057 .017 .152 .017 .217 HIR57 .042 .394 .307 .122 .101 .035 .030 HIR49 .149 .393 .064 .075 .039 .234 .078 HIR62 .058 .379 .093 .192 .165 .044 .362 HIR42 .021 .348 .022 .060 .087 .332 .303 HIR56 .009 .347 .179 .053 .026 .127 .176 HIR20 167 .310 .049 .214 .128 .059 .103 HIR18 .132 .299 .179 .054 .189 .137 .026 HIR51 .006 .298 .086 .110 .051 .257 .188 HIR43 .101 .170 .597 .125 .138 .126 .104 HIR58 .051 .288 .543 .039 .033 .202 .165 HIR53 .026 .008 .538 .258 .061 .060 .050 HIR39 .133 .004 .506 .155 .011 .249 .035 HIR6 .104 .221 .397 .056 .038 .029 .384 HIR37 .057 .019 .393 .011 .027 .112 .088 HIR50 .033 .043 .365 .222 .184 .095 .167 HIR13 .046 .148 .331 .083 .016 .229 .300 HIR35 .070 .060 .003 .609 .134 .34 1 .058 HIR3 .062 .049 .260 .599 .050 .012 .073 HIR10 .044 .006 .169 .538 .183 .097 .142 HIR21 .214 .001 .072 .477 .103 .141 .200 HIR28 .235 .021 .048 .396 .041 .331 .308 HIR46 .314 .176 .249 .328 .035 .221 .122 HIR1 .160 .232 .288 .325 .078 .016 .280 HIR41 .258 .030 .097 .295 .065 .142 .044 HIR14 .199 .064 .100 .263 .219 .146 .086 HIR7 .013 .022 .017 .069 .697 .172 .172 HIR29 .065 .001 .067 .096 .697 .042 .094 HIR36 .092 .058 .005 .140 .696 .024 .091 HIR22 .140 .216 .093 .362 .514 .069 .091 HIR24 .020 .064 .004 .134 .372 .044 .061 HIR44 .122 .065 .036 .110 .068 .757 .090 HIR27 .016 .267 .077 .081 .311 .553 .019 HIR48 .072 .289 .016 .127 .089 .487 .074 HIR5 .191 .046 .097 .050 .007 .402 .103 HIR8 .092 .147 .021 .077 .085 .138 .547 HIR11 .070 .100 .026 .047 .118 .086 .480 HIR52 .049 .047 .007 .062 .197 .174 .434 HIR45 .128 .023 .100 .123 .024 .028 .429 HIR4 .272 .049 .322 .031 .051 .217 .401 Factor Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HIR16 .635 HIR32 .612 HIR26 .506 HIR33 .441 HIR38 .434 H IR54 HIR34 HIR2 H IR25 HIR19 HIR31 HIR40 HIR9 HIR46 HIR47 HIR61 .534 HIR59 .446 HIR23 .431 H IR12 .423 HIR30 .412 HIR15 .410 HIR55 HIR49 HIR5 7 HIR62 H IR51 HIR56 HIR18 HIR20 HIR53 .560 HIR6 .543 H IR13 .482 HIR39 .464 HIR43 .433 HIR58 HIR50 HIR37 HIR35 .529 HIR3 .494 HIR10 .437 HIR21 .418 HIR28 HIR1 HIR41 HIR14 HIR36 .646 HIR7 .639 HIR29 .613 HIR22 .423 HIR24 HIR44 .701 HIR27 .467 HIR48 .436 HIR5 HIR42 HIR8 .448 HIR11 HIR4 HIR45 HIR52

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136 TableG9.ComponentCorrelationMatrixUtilizingthe ComponentsfromthePCA7 FactorPromaxRotations forthePhase2Sample ExtractionMethod:PrincipalComponentAnalysis. RotationMethod:PromaxwithKaiserNormalization. Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1.000 .343 .448 .265 .273 .320 .002 2 .343 1.000 .371 .293 .300 .302 .112 3 .448 .371 1.000 .287 .226 .356 .023 4 .265 .293 .287 1.000 176 .302 .013 5 .273 .300 .226 .176 1.000 .136 .028 6 .320 .302 .356 .302 .136 1.000 .054 7 .002 .112 .023 .013 .028 .054 1.000

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137 AppendixH :Varia nceandItemResponseFrequenciesforthe32 ItemHIRmeasure TableH1.VarianceandItemResponseFrequenciesforthe32 ItemHIR measure Phase2 HIRVariance N=314 Phase3 HIRVariance N=105 Factor Item# Variance Frequency % Item# Variance Frequ ency 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 Respeto =.717 TotalScale 16 32 26 33 38 34 54 4.960 .124 .291 .280 .314 .384 .209 .321 1.6 4.1 3.8 4.8 6.7 1.9 4.5 7.0 21.0 20.7 22.4 34.1 17.9 27.1 91.1 7 4.8 75.5 72.8 59.2 80.2 68.5 =.589 TotalScale 1 4 10 13 19 22 28 4.338 .071 .265 .403 .336 .360 .349 .370 0.0 3.8 7.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 6.7 7.6 17.1 27.9 21.0 29.5 24.8 23.1 92.4 79.0 64.4 73.3 64.8 69.5 70.2 2 Familismo =.648 TotalScale 61 12 15 59 23 30 55 8.843 .556 .579 .597 .479 .544 .638 .528 38.9 39.2 29.3 22.9 1 8.5 38.0 22.8 41.1 39.2 40.4 52.2 40.9 35.1 46.8 20.1 21.7 30.3 24.8 40.6 26.8 30.4 TotalScale 2 5 11 14 20 23 29 6.343 .633 .573 .544 .473 .563 .586 .596 29.5 43.8 23.8 35.6 18.1 46.7 28.6 37.1 37.1 45.7 49.0 37.1 34.3 41.0 33.3 19.0 30.5 15.4 44.8 19.0 30.5 3 Emotional Attachment =.465 TotalScale 43 58 53 39 2.781 .436 .540 .453 .376 62.5 57.6 10.5 6.4 28.2 27.7 38.2 31.2 9.3 14.6 51.3 62.4 =.156 TotalScale 3 12 21 30 2.071 .402 .499 .514 .419 80.0 68.6 15 .4 8.6 10.5 19.0 41.3 24.8 9.5 12.4 43.3 66.7 4 ParentKnowledge/ Supervision =.672 TotalScale 3 10 21 2.499 .502 .546 .341 14.4 16.7 5.1 40.6 36.5 29.0 45.0 46.8 65.9 =.526 TotalScale 6 15 24 2.033 .480 .513 .327 12.4 20.0 4. 8 40.0 47.6 25.7 47.6 32.4 69.5 5 Discipline =.689 TotalScale 7 29 36 .2.890 .538 .579 .457 19.2 26.3 12.2 42.9 42.0 45.2 37.8 31.7 42.6 =.606 TotalScale 7 16 25 2.771 .568 .586 .514 25.0 30.5 15.5 43.3 41.9 41.7 31.7 27 .6 42.7 6 Decision Making =.508 TotalScale 44 27 48 5 2.650 .425 .307 .483 .423 10.8 14.4 13.1 13.4 49.0 69.3 41.1 54.3 40.1 16.3 45.9 32.3 =.171 TotalScale 8 17 26 31 2.041 .366 .445 .582 .387 8.6 18.1 19.0 15.2 57.1 55.2 35.2 6 1.0 34.3 26.7 45.7 23.8 7 ProperDemeanor =.488 TotalScale 8 11 45 4 3.401 .609 .540 .584 .435 54.6 25.6 55.2 9.2 26.5 46.2 27.4 34.7 18.8 28.2 17.4 56.1 =.335 TotalScale 9 18 27 32 2.763 .540 .595 .463 .470 61.9 31.4 63.8 16.2 23.8 41.0 25.7 50.5 14.3 27.6 10.5 33.3

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138 AbouttheAuthor EvelynMarieAlvarezreceivedaBachelorofArtsDegreeinPsychologyfromthe Unive rsityofMiamiin1999andaMasterofArts inClinicalPsychologyfromtheUniversity ofSouthFloridai n2003.ShecompletedherinternshiptrainingattheUniversityof Miami/JacksonMemorialHospitalintheBehavioral Medicine Track in2006 HertraininginClinicalPsychologyhasalwaysemphasizedchildren,particularly thoseofminoritystatus.Alth oughshewasborninMiami,FL,herparentsarebothCuban immigrants.Sheisproudofherbilingualandbicu lturalheritage,andthroughit,she hopes tob etterthepracticeofclinicalp sychologyinbothprivateandacademicsettings.