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Elements of Narrative Discourse in Selected Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway by Gueorgui V. Manolov A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of English College of A rts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Phillip Sipiora, Ph.D. Lawrence Broer, Ph.D. Victor Peppard, Ph.D. Linda Miller, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 9, 2007 Keywords: omission, temporality, focalization, narrative leve ls, anachrony, embedded narratives Copyright 2007, Gueorgui V. Manolov
i Table of Contents Abstract ii Concept of the Short Story and Narrative Discourse 1 Chapter Two: Temporal Order and the Story Left Out 2 5 Chapter Thre e: Temporal Variations and the Loaded Story 7 5 Chapter Four: Temporal Variations and Memories as Embedded Narratives 99 13 6 Works Cited 14 4 About the Author End Page
ii Elements of Narrativ e Discourse in Selected Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Gueorgui V. Manolov ABSTRACT omission as it relates not only to prose writing, but to the special case of writing short stori es. Hemingway develops two models to describe his short stories: on omission and exclusion, in terms of leaving the story out of the short story, and on the other, he refers metapho airplane loaded with story material which would be enough for four novels. Both models suggest a doubling of the concept of story in the case of the story left out of the story, Hemingway makes a distinction betw een the text of the published short story and the underlying events and facts (the story), and in the vehicle part and the cargo part. This doubling of the story in Hemingway method of study of narrative discourse. First and secondary narratives emerge as a result of temporal discordances between the order of the event s narrated in
iii the text of the short story and the chronological order of the events in the story. Thus the effect of the doubling of the story can be mapped onto the dynamic interplay of surface first narratives and submerged, fragmentary secondary narrati ves in the case of the stories characterized by omission, and in the case of the short stories with loaded narratives, onto the interplay between temporally differentiated first and secondary narratives. Hemingway slides the temporal plane of his first nar ratives into the future and outside the temporal plane of important events which are then evoked by the characters as secondary narratives capable of affecting the surface dynamics of the first narrative. Instead of presenting the information about these t emporally omitted or differentiated discourse to evoke and thus recreate in a subjective, fragmentary way the story left out.
1 Chapter One ort Story and Narrative Discourse According to Joseph Flora, the essay was written in 1959 as a preface to a an extemporaneous lecture to college students and shows Hemingway ( Ernest 129). The proposed short story collection was never produced, and the essay remained unpublished durin published in 1981 in the Paris Review and later reprinted in New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway edited by Jackson J. Benson. h illuminates 8 9). While he generally avoids explaining the meaning of his short stories, Hemingway provides quite detailed accounts of the genesis of some of them, and of his creative process. He points out that in many stories he starts out with
2 experien ces and people he is familiar with, and then transforms the the other hand, was based on the case of Andre Anderson in Summit, Illinois, but ime before [he] invented it, and stories he had to separate himself in space and time from his lived experiences to make them fiction an d not autobiography. To this purpose, he changed names, locations and incidents, and he also left out y While the name changes and the omissions play an important part in transforming the familiar, the autobiographical into fiction, into something for leaving things out of his stories as an important technique in his writing. In th e
3 that it be presented to the audience. Anything that the character cannot bear to think of is suppressed and omitted from t he story, yet paradoxically, it is still there. To Hemingway the omission is a matter of appearance (3). In other words, they were in the story indir ectly, exerting their subtle but If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip somethi ng because you do not know it, the story will be worthless. The test of any story is how very good the stuff is that you, not your editors, omit. (3) ut is a telling one here. The suggestion is that the narrator of a story who chooses to omit important information would leave traces of the omitted material in the story and thus make it stronger. The logic behind the reasoning for using omission as story technique is similar to the one
4 expressed in the frequently quoted passage from Death in the Afternoon published more than 25 years earlier: If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one eighth of it being above water. (192) Both of these passages emphasize th e importance of knowledge about the subject matter of the short story and of restraint and moderation in how this knowledge is used. This knowledge and the sense that it is there, within the story, informing its shape and content, but not explicitly stated is what makes the story strong and powerful, what gives it the quality and worth needed to remain viable as a work of art to which readers can come back over and over again. ability to remain somewhat of a mystery to the reader, to retain some of its important secrets and invite additional re readings and new discoveries. It has to go beyond being a simple riddle, which once solved, becomes worthless to the reader.
5 The technique of om ission thus brings to the short stories a philosophical dimension, making them expressions of the wisdom and knowledge of their author, but also of something essentially unknowable directly, metaphysical in a does not explain what the line means, but he states that this is the kind of omert is part of some arcane knowledge shared by a select group of associates sworn to secrecy. The code of silence, omert depends to some degree on a sense of honor, and to break it, Hemingway would have to dish onor himself as a writer.
6 is in essence to bring it out into the physical world of language, t o give it verbal form and thus destroy its metaphysical nature. the way he conceptualized the short story. As we saw, he associates its worth with its omission of important information that the auth or possesses, but chooses to leave out. With his discussion of background information about personal experiences that formed the kernel of many of his stories, Hemingway opens up the possibility to examine omission in terms of biographical and historical c ontext. With his discussion of cuts in his manuscripts (5), he suggests that what he omitted can sometimes be found in the texts he produced, but chose to exclude from the final versions of the stories. There have been numerous studies of the technique of The Apprenticeship of Ernest Hemingway to biographical studies such as Carlos Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story to studies of hidden, suppressed, psychological and thematic omissions Concealments in
7 Manuscript Examples al Ernest Hemingway and the Arts The technique of omission can also be examined in terms of narrative structure, especially in light of how Hemingway conceptualizes the short story in Death in the Afternoon quoted above is about omission as it applies to prose writing, including novels, in apply it to the special case of short story writing. In a telling remark about whether Margot Macomber shot her husband deliberately, Hemingway writes: you [the readers] do. I could find out if I asked myself because I invented it and I could go right on inventing. But you have to know where to stop. That is what makes a short story. Makes it short at least. (7) but it is still shor t because it is limited in scope, and once the main action of its relatively simple plot is resolved with the death of its protagonist, it ends. focus on the internal thoughts of Macomber and Wilson, and any revelation
8 boundaries of the story, and shifted the focus to Mar got and what happens to her next. The the couple in the Bar Basque in St. Jean de Luz and I knew the story too too well, w hich is the squared root of well, and use any well you like except mine. So I left the story out. But it is still there. It is not visible but it is there. (3) short story in its published form, and in the second and third sentences its meaning is closer to an account of events and facts relevant to a specific situation regarding the couple (the two main characters in the story). In the fourth quite like that, but the implication that he distinguishes between the text of the short story and the story (the detailed chronological sequence of events) behind it allows us to examine the short stories in the conte xt of this duality of the left in left out story, the paradoxical doubling of story into two stories, with one
9 occupying a foreground position, and the other staying in the background, but still there, still exerting its influence. This doubling of story i nto two stories is easier to conceptualize in the case of the short story than in the case of the novel. It would be much harder to re The Hemingway left the story out of the The Sea it consists of one scene lasting several minutes, and it is fairly unified in its effect upon readers, unlike a n ovel which can have distinctly different sections, producing very different emotional effects on its audience over a longer period of time. The relative simplicity and limited scope of plots in short stories as opposed to the narrative complexity of novels makes it easier to leave a (simple) story (or event) out of the (simple) plot of a short story. The event or sequence of events which are left out might be very important and revealing about the motivation of the characters precisely because of the limit ed scope of what is shown, what is included in the short story. To use the metaphor of the iceberg if the greater part of the story is submerged or excluded from the surface narrative, if the surface narrative is a novel, the excluded part would have to be monstrously big in proportion. limited scope and focus allows us to examine the phenomenon of the doubling of
10 lement in the of the two parts, the one left out and the one left in is that they are differentiated, that they do not take the same form in this way we can see the doubling of the story not only in terms of omission and exclusion, but also of differentiation and inclusion. It is exactly through differentiation and inclusion that the story doubles descr So I invent how someone I know who cannot sue me that is me careful and not a spender. I throw everything I had been saving into the story and spend it all. . So I make up the man and the woman as well as I can and I put all the true stuff in and with all the load, the most load any short story ever carried, it still takes off and it flies This makes me very happy. (8) from the short story itself it is loaded upon it, but it is not the same. The and his concept of loading is, from a structural perspective, dependent on the concept of doubling of
11 the story, on the differentiation of two narratives the one on the surface or the vehicle narrative and the one which is submerged, hidden, or loaded. which he developed in his Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method and Narrative Discourse Revisited s methodology is an appropriate tool to approach the effect of doubling of the story because his study of narrative narrative and narrating, and (to the extent that they are inscri bed in the narrative Narrative 29). The doubling of the story in Hemingway can be located in the relationship of narrative text and story on the one hand, and in the relationship between narrating instance and narra tive on the other. In order to study these relationships which define narrative discourse, monstrous, if you will giv en to a verbal form, in the grammatical sense of the term: the expansion and study a verb are thus appropriated with certain modifications into the study of narrative discourse. 1):
12 [T]hose [determinations] dealing with temporal relations between narrative and story . I will arrange under the heading of tense ; those dealing with modalities (forms and degrees) of narrative mood of the narrative; and finally those dealing with the way in which the narrating itself is implicated in the narra tive, narrating in the sense [of] . the narrative situation or its instance, and along with that its two protagonists: the narrator and his audience, real or implied [under the heading of voice]. (31) All three categories of tense, mood and voice are i mportant to a study of the because it focuses on discordances between the order, duratio n (speed) and frequency of two different temporal progressions: that of the story, and that of the about the narrative is delivered by or is a feature of the narrative text itself. The story of a narrative emerges from our ability to identify events in the narrative, to find their logical connections, and to create chronological progression and arrange the events in them. Genette does not look outside the narrative text for sources of information regarding the story presented in a narrative. Thus a temporal
13 analysis of a narrative text necessitates that narrated events be identified and organized in a c hronological temporal progression such as readers experience in real life, and then be compared to the arrangement of these same events in the text of the narrative. In this comparison between the two, the story and the narrative, Genette finds three diffe rent types of discordances according to the three different types of temporal determination: in terms of temporal order any mismatch between the events as they are presented in the narrative and as they occur in the story progression is an anachrony ; in te rms of temporal rhythm or (35)) of the corresponding sections in the narrative any relative discrepancy is an anisochrony ; and in terms of narrative frequency or the numb er of times events are narrated in the narrative text vs. the number of times they occur in the story any discordance is either iterative discourse or repeating discourse. Analysis of necessary in order to illustrate the importance of narrative temporality to the effect of the doubling of the story. Specifically, discrepancies in terms of temporal narra 9), upon whose structural relationship of opposition and differentiation we can map the duality of the story left out and the story left in, the
14 Genette defines first narratives in temporal ter (48). First narratives (also called main narratives), or the temporal levels that represent them, are established at the narrative starting poin of the narrated events represents an anachrony with respect to the temporal plane or level of the first narrative. The anachrony might be retrospective (analep sis) narrating or evoking events that have already occurred, either within the temporal plane of the narrative or outside it, before the narrative starting point; anachronies might also be anticipatory (prolepsis) narrating or evoking events yet to occur w ithin the narrative timeframe of the first narrative or outside it. Both proleptic and analeptic secondary narratives create temporal progressions in opposition of the one in the first narrative and as such represent a temporary disruption of the main narr ative. Hemingway utilizes this dynamic opposition between first and secondary in secondary narratives which are either fragmentary and only evoked, or well developed, but differentiated from the first narrative in terms of duration and frequency. In a way, the doubling of the story is an effect of sliding the temporal plane of the first narrative in such a way as to exclude the temporal plane of the story left out (or the
15 begin after an important event, an event which is then evoked retrospectively in the main narrative. Placing the starting point of the first narrative after (or outside the temporal plane of) this ev ent is in essence a process of moving the temporal boundaries of the first narrative into the future in respect to the omitted event. effect which includes the technique of omission and of the load ing of a story as one loads cargo on a vehicle can be viewed thus as a shifting of the focus from one temporal plane to another, or of trying to tell a story from outside of its own temporal plane. In addition to temporal order, temporal duration and frequ ency also provide important markers of differentiation which Hemingway uses to separate the left in story (vehicle narrative) from the left out (loaded) story. Genette defines his category of temporal duration in terms of variation in narrative speed. A na it is the perfect 8). Real narratives show quite a lot of diversity in terms of accelerations and sl owdowns and as such they are anisochronous. Genette identifies four major movements in terms of their relative speed: at the two extremes are the ellipsis in which the narrative space dedicated to narrating an event is zero (or virtually zero) (and thus th e speed of narration is infinitely
16 4). In between these two extremes are the scene which w Hemingway uses quite a diverse mix of these narrative movements in his stories with scenes dominating the first narratives of many stories characterized The Sea these stories the secondary narratives whether evoked or well developed take the form of summaries and occasionally of descriptiv e pauses recording states rather than events. Scenes have an internal logic of progression dependent upon the dynamic interaction of the participants in the dialogue they represent. In summaries, the speed and logic of movement is controlled more directly and explicitly by the narrator. In stories which are extended memories of a first person movement, the one which can be described as the vehicle narrative is a summary as oppos ed to a scene, while scenes and summaries take the role of the loaded story. In such stories, in order to differentiate between the first (or vehicle) narrative and the secondary (or loaded) narratives, in addition to temporal order and duration, Hemingway uses temporal frequency.
17 him to gain one of his most original insights into the nature of the narrative of A la recherche du temps perdu theoretical explorations of narrative is the subject of Narrative Discourse Genette notices that the dominant, the prevalent discourse in Recherche is the scene, and more specifically, the iterative scene. Iterative discourse is defined as narrating once iterative statement which indicates many similar actions performed at a specific time over a period of time. Iterative discourse is similar to summary in the sense that it is faster than s cene, but slower than ellipsis. If summary speeds narration by acceleration, iterative discourse speeds it up by assimilating many individual actions into one which is narrated once (143). This type of temporal variation based on frequency is important fo r which the vehicle narratives are iterative in nature, and the loaded stories are singulative (the t erm Genette uses to define events which occur once and are narrated once). The iterative discourse suggest s habitual action, the regular progression of a set of events, and when in Hemingway such iterative discourse is loaded with singulative sections, the y usually indicate events that are out of the
18 ordinary and that have the potential to disrupt and change the circumstances which make the progression of the events in the iterative sections possible. The importance of these temporal devices which allow Hem ingway to create the effect of the doubling of the story in some of his short stories is to some degree a result of the reticence of the modern narrator, of his unwillingness to comment on the action or provide guidance to the reader about the meaning of h is work. In The Rhetoric of Fiction Wayne Booth, discussing the subject of authorial silence, notes that in the works of many modernist writers, including th writes, With [authorial] commentary ruled out . [there are] hundreds of devices . [for] revealing judgment and molding responses . [including] all the old fashioned dramatic devices of pace and timing . [which] can be refurbished for the purposes of a dramatic, impersonal narration. (272) lot of their power from the dynamic inter action of first and secondary narratives, the the way modernist authors tell their stories, Hemingway knew the story of the The
19 may be an but which he left out, cannot be shared directly, cannot be expressed in authorial commentary or summary, but can only be evoked or indicated. We are reminded o f joke about being held back by omert and of his unwillingness to reveal the meaning of the frozen leopard on Mount Kilimanjaro because its the story out, or of loading it onto a narrative as one loads cargo on a plane of the doubling of the story into two stories, one which contains the truth, but which the narrator is unwilling to share directly, and one which is accessible to the reader, but which only hints or provides an incomplete, partial view of the story left out creating his version of the modernist narrative. Barbara Olson sees the reticence of the narrator (especially the omniscient nar God: So Hemingway was in fact practicing omniscience early in his career, but his narrator God at that point was a less ac ceptable,
20 less tolerable, less orthodox God . . The early Hemingway mimed the God he hated, feared, and wanted to ignore, the God in whom he had lost confidence during World War I. It is a God who dooms his creatures to disillusionment, pain and inevit able death. It is a God who hides himself, who withholds the meaning we long for. (39) important in the context of the doubling of the story, of the dual nature of a story left out and a story left in. Is Hemingway playing with his readers by creating the temporal structures which produce the effects of omission, denying them the pain and [the knowledge] the story a device of the narrator God to torment his readers? I do not believe so. The models of the short story which Hemingway develops in terms of omission and inclusion, in terms of the doubli ng of the story, it to them in a different way. Olsen sees the reticence of the omniscient narrator as the message itself s in a passage from a Moveable Feast that the reticence of the narrator, the omission of the things that he knows well, but chooses to leave out of the story, is a way to
21 strengthen the story, to endow it with a deeper, metaphysical meaning, a meaning which, although it might not be readily accessible, can nevertheless be sought time after time, yielding its insights in repeated readings: ad omitted the real end . [in] which . the old man hanged himself. This was omitted on my new theory that you could omit anything if you knew that you omitted and the omitted part would strengthen the story and make people feel something more than they understood. (75) short story. The strength of the short story is also a function of its ability to deliver the m main character is a writer who has been saving his impressions and experiences as raw story material t feels that it is his duty to write about the events and social and cultural changes he has witnessed in a truthful, knowledgeable way (Complete Stories 49). The reticence of the narrator in Hemingwa important features of his narratives the use of focalization and narrative distance (which in combination form what Genette calls narrative mood) as a
22 Genette points out in Narrative Discourse Revisited that the two main modes of rhesis and diegesis quotation and pure narrative) ( Revisited 43). An analysis of the way in which Hemingway uses focalization is a study of the way in which he restricts the flow of narrative information. For Genette focalization is point of view in the identifies three major types of focalization: zero focalization which means no restriction of the narrative flow of information and which coincides with the traditional point of view of the omniscient narrator; internal focalization which restricts the narrative information to the vis ion of one (in fixed internal focalization) or a few characters (in variable internal focalization); and external focalization which limits the flow of narrative information only to what is observable from an outside viewer of the action, without any privi leged information about the internal thoughts and feeling of any of the characters. Hemingway uses both external and internal focalizations as a way to limit undue exposure of the temporal planes which are omitted, or to provide a privileged view of the t emporal planes which are included (loaded onto the vehicle narrative) but temporally differentiated. In narratives characterized by the narrative information about the temp oral planes outside the temporal level of the first narrative comes strictly from the dialogue of the characters. This
23 restriction on the flow of narrative information is essential since the temporal planes containing the important past events for the char acters in these stories remain essentially beyond the reach of the readers, emerging only as evoked, fragmentary, subjective visions of the past provided by the main characters. Frequently different characters create different alternative secondary narrati ves which, in the absence of an objective authorial account of events, create the possibility of alternative interpretations of the meaning of the first, surface narrative as well. In stories with narrative loading, such as Kilimanjaro internal focalization and the unrestricted flow of narrative information regarding thoughts and feelings allows Hemingway to create alternative temporal planes ( spaces ) embedded in the first narrative of the story. Instead of havi ng different characters create different secondary narratives, in stories of narrative loading, the alternative secondary narrative s and the first narrative are created by the focalized character Since a n objective authorial account of events is still mis sing, the tension between secondary narratives and secondary and first narratives emerges as a function of the different ways in which a character perceives and creates the temporal planes of important past events. Often this tension points to unresolved i ssues which haunt the focalized character. Thus, in both cases of omission and inclusion of leaving the story out and of narrative loading, focalization is an
24 element of the narrative structure which works well with temporal strategies employed by the nar rator in order to tell his stories his own way. includes the story which is left in the narrative text and the story which is left out of it (either through omission or through differ entiation from the first narrative), is and an analysis of the short stories as narrative discourse is a good way to seek such understanding.
25 Chapter Two Temporal Order and the S tory Left Out The One way to approach this duality, this paradoxical model of the included/left out sto Narrative Discourse 48). The first narrative is established as a chronological progression which begins with the first narrated event and any deviation from that chronological progression, either retrospective (analepsis) or anticipatory (prolepsis) creates a secondary narrative embedded in the first. Secondary narratives, whether they are exte rnal (taking place outside the temporal boundaries of the first narrative) or internal, usually play a subordinate role, supporting the first narrative. They either fill in narrative gaps created by the main narrative, or modify the meaning or the nature o f already narrated events. subordinate role and rise in importance to such a degree that they acquire the potential to dominate the first narrative. These secondary narratives ca n be
26 traces, or figuratively by being transformed into autonomous units differing in ter ms of narrative duration and narrative frequency from the main narrative. From a temporal perspective, the short stories with the most pronounced effect of omission are the ones where important secondary narratives are being suppressed or carefully avoided and their existence and influence on the first In Our Time is one such narrative which, although it lacks any explicit narration of past or future events, has nevertheless the power t o evoke such secondary narratives: They whack whacked the white horse on the legs and he kneed himself up. The picador twisted the stirrups straight and pulled and bunch and swung backward and forward as he began to canter, the monos whacking him on the back of his legs with the rods. He cantered jerkily along the barrera He stopped stiff and one of the monos held his bridle and walked him forward. The picador kicked in his spurs, leaned f orward and shook his lance at the bull. Blood nervously wobbly. The bull could not make up his mind to charge. ( Complete Stories 126)
27 ack charge. There are plenty of indicators of the context of the narrat ive: the picador, the lance, the bull, the monos the barrera suggest a bullfight, and also a specific phase in the bullfight. The information from the first sentence (the horse was an event which occurred prior to the beginning of the narrative. At the end of the horse and the picador. One reason the goring of the horse was omitted from the main narrative is that it could easily be guessed by most readers. Another reason might be that placing the dramatic charge of the bull in the beginning could blunt the effect of the les s dramatic aftermath. In terms of temporal structure, however, the omission of the goring of the horse, and then the gradual revelation of the details of the aftermath and the likely events preceding it, allow the narrative to create evocatively a secondar y analeptic narrative which acquires its meaning through the unfolding of the events in the main narrative. The goring of the horse is one of many dramatic events which can occur as part of the normal progression of events in a bullfight, but the main narr
28 event out, evokes it by showing its results, and then at the end introduces an here, (as is the horse the narrator uses the perso narrator might be projecting onto the bull his own hesitation to treat the goring of the horse as another normal event in a bullfight. In any case, the first narrative rather than establishing a dominant position over what precedes it and forging ahead toward a resolution, seems designed to look back (as the bull looks at the the narrative present to its immediate past, and to create indirectly a secondary narrative about the goring itself, a narrative which acquires new meaning (and new importance) because of this look back. This secondary narrative is left out of the story i Hemingway could put it. much larger whole, it has the power to evoke it, especially when the whole is as formally organized as a bullfight. Both the beginning and the ending of the fragment appear to be framed by dramatic action: the first charge of the bull and the charges after that until the bull is killed. Thus the temporal extensions both in the past an d in the future that the fragment evokes are analogous to the spatial extensions that the visible part of an iceberg evokes in observers.
29 The evocation of the whole does not mean, however, that it has been medias res and t o some extent provides an indication of what happened in the immediate past, but not much more in terms of specific developments. A full narrative would cover the whole bullfight (as does ified form ( Complete Stories 195)). The beginning in the middle of a larger temporal progression here then does not have the function to create a dynamic entry point into a larger narrative and then return to the events that led to it, before proceeding to a resolution of the main action, as is the case in epic narratives. standoff between the bull and the picador on the horse. This temporal position between one dramatic eve nt and another one to come is important in that the narrative presents William Campbell in his hotel room as somebody who becomes thus a study in the art of waiting, the choreography of holding steady. . which the principal action is the activity of waiting as we see it in
30 difficult to hold ste ady (the goring of the horse, for example), or to move forward suspended in a state of waiting, its function is also to evoke hidden, suppressed, often much more dra matic and momentous events, temporally differentiated from the principal action, and yet exerting their influence upon it. Such an influence is e Three dramatic scene, and thus it follows the strict chronological progression of the dialogue of the two main characters. Yet, while the immediacy of the reported dialogue creates the sense that the action is taking place in the main temporal level, the characters repeatedly refer to past and future events and to the way their relationship used to be or could be in the future (as opposed to the way i t is at the time of the first narrative). While none of the characters has a sustained monologue creating a developed analeptic or proleptic secondary narrative, their dialogue is full of scattered references to past or future events and states. Putting th ese references together should not be limited to figuring out what has
31 happened to Jig and what the American is asking her to do. G erry Brenner points [R]eaders so stew over the missing or ambiguous term [abortion] that once they discover it or its meaning, they will feel they have solved the story and can mosey on along to the next one. But we s a red herring; it distracts us from the significant decisions of whether to sympathize with Jig and scorn her insistent American man or to sympathize with him and feel disgust for her While solving the riddle is important to figuring out the subject of their discussion and to establishing objectively some of the facts of their past (prior to the beginning of the main narrative), it is only the first step in recognizing that both characters are trying to come up with their own version of how things were, how things are at the time of their conversation, and how things should be in the future. Both of them are trying to create their own secondary narratives, and impose them on the main narrative. For the Am between them until Jig became pregnant and reluctant to get an abortion; her Complete Stori es 212).
32 which has began prior to the opening of the main narrative and still continues while they wai before the crisis, to a moment in the past that in the temporal plane of the main narrative seems like a corrective step backward, even though it is an evocation of how things would be if she proceeded with the operation. comes to details. Besides the evaluative statement that th ey had a fine time together, there are almost no indications in his references to the past about the ey had Complete Stories 214). These details suggest that this earlier stage was characterized by freedom of movement and some degree of intimate interaction. He also tells the girl that he does not need anybody else, which might refer to the potential of their having a baby, but also to other people as intimate partners. The pre pregnancy stage then emerges as a vague, but idealized, period when he enjoyed the freedom to indulge his senses, both as a traveler and as a lover, without having to share his intimate relationship with Jig with anybody else.
33 This evoked, idealized secondary narrative dominates the thoughts of the American man at the time of the main narrative. When Jig attempts to interact with him the way she did before her pregnan cy by pointing out interesting sights and creating amusing and clever similes and metaphors (hills like white positively because this kind of interaction belongs to a past t ime frame, outside the temporal frame of their current situation. To respond to her the way he used to in the past, he would have to deny that a change has occurred (the pregnancy which threatens his freedom and exclusive access to Jig), and that this chan ge has created a barrier between the earlier period and the present time of the main narrative. In order for him to return to that early period, he would have to eliminate that change, or more accurately reverse it. His dialogue is dominated by this object ive to establish that the present time of the main narrative is different from the time when they were fine, and that this difference was It is interesting that as the American man recognizes that a change has o ccurred, he has also not given up on developing his secondary narrative as a ( Complete Stories 213). These assertions represent an extension of his
34 secondary narrative, bypassing the pregnancy, and projecting it into the present and the future they are proleptic in nature sinc e they predict or envision how which is marked by the change of the pregnancy, and the one th at is imaginatively projected from an idealized past without the pregnancy, suggests the predicament the American man is facing. He cannot simply move from one narrative into the other in the present time frame, as Jig invites him to do by trying to resume their usual interactions. He has to go back to the moment when the two narratives split, as a fork in the road (to use a spatial analogy), and resume his narrative from there. He believes that what he is asking Jig to do is the right thing because he has The girl challenges directly the idealized secondary narrative of the (213). This response suggests a marked difference in the way she constructs her secondary narrative of the events preceding the beginning of the main narrative. Terminating the pregnancy, rather than a means of going back and re establishing the situation in the past when they were happy, would, on the contrary, make the return to a starting point into two stages. The first is characterized by traveling with the
35 American man frame, the American man was a like minded companion, who encouraged her the world. Without him, as an audience and a participant in the creative process, her inventiveness loses its meaning. They possess the hills only as long as they both can participate in the imaginative recreation of these hills as white elephants. It is then this shared creative freedom (as oppose d simply to the freedom of movement and the absence of competition in matters of intimacy important to narrative of the time before the beginning of the main action in the sto ry. The pregnancy itself might be a threat to the man and his way of enjoying their relationship, but it does not affect her ability to relate imaginatively to (and thus on with of her secondary narrative in the future if they decide to proceed with the abortion suggests that a s the abortion is irreversible, so would be the loss of their ability to
36 be a creative team together, to be happy sharing imaginatively their lives. The girl is drawing a parallel between their mental creativity and their physical ability to create life by insisting on killing one, the man inevitably will kill the other as well. reluctant to have an abortion (or having become pregnant in the first place), but suddenly having the partner intellectually and emotionally unavaila ble to interact with her the way he used to: white el This exchange is about the nature of their past relationship. To him her similes are just word games, idiosyncratic quirks t hat make her adorable. To her they are her way of connecting with him, of being together emotionally and intellectually when facing the challenges of the world. And if her questions about what is most important about their relationship, her sarcastic retor
37 examine his secondary narrative, his vision of the past, they are also a sign, that she, too, doubts whether her narrative is correct. Maybe she mistook his willingness to indulge her for an intellectual and emotional compatibility that was never there. Her objective is thus either to win him over by making him see things with the intellectual and emotional acumen she thought he possessed in the past, or to revise her idea of him as a man who can share the world with her. Pamela Smiley attributes the linked language gender linked miscommunications whi ch exist between men and women in the real world. As a result of these differences, there are two Jigs: the nurturing, creative, and affectionate Jig of female language, and the manipulative, shallow, and hysterical Jig of male language. There are also two Americans: in the female language he is a cold, hypocritical, and powerful oppressor; in the male language he is a stoic, sensitive, and intelligent victim. (298) While the main narrative with its reliance on dialogue allows the characters to develop thei events preceding the beginning of the story allows them to create evocatively
38 secondary narratives and thus create visions that fit either the male or female language. The main narrative two different secondary narratives which are only evoked subjectively by the two main characters. This is possible because of the lack of any sustained, objective narrative regarding their past which would have settled clearly who is correct and who is incorrect. The power of the short story lies in part in the temporal placement of the main narrative after the events that have had such a dramatic effect on the relationship and then looking back at th em from the limited and biased perspectives of the main characters. At the end of the story, the American leptic narrative the girl will choose to do next. If we adopt her secondary narrative, her last words most likely mean that she has given up on him, reasserted her philosophy of life, and decided to look elsewhere for happiness. On the other hand, she might have one of the se condary narratives over the other, made it subordinate to the main narrative, and robbed it of its ability to exert its submerged influence on the story.
39 narratives, which have the potential to unsettle the main narrative on the surface. Robert Fleming argues that the thing Hemingway left out was the male embrace of vice at the end is not necessarily an embrace of sexual perversion, but the perversion of a writer who would use what he learns from his lesbian The Tempest An Essay on Man in the mangled quote Phil use Complete Stories 304) as evidence that Phil is a writer. The story thus acquires a Faustian theme, with Phi l selling his soul (by doing something he knows is perverse) in his quest to acquire knowledge and use it in his work. While Fleming makes a compelling case about what might be left out of the story, from a temporal perspective, there are quite a few evoc ations of important past events, a full narrative treatment of which is omitted, but which In Our Time event The very first sentence, which is a line of dialogue, introduces an element corresponding noun, and the short exchange that follows the first sentence
40 suggests that th e man has just made some sort of proposal that the girl cannot accept: Complete Stories 302) The man and the girl disagree on the nature of the proposal: to him it is something that she wills not to do; to the girl it is somethi ng she does not have control over, and her refusal is not a matter of choice, but of capability. The This deliberate construction of the opening emphasizes eve nts in the past, events that are referred to, evoked, but never explicitly explained. And it is the characters in their dialogue, not the narrator, who will be providing the little bits and pieces of information about their past. In the context of the stor y, this first proposal that we encounter in the beginning appears to be a suggestion that the girl leave her lesbian lover. Phil wants the girl back and wants her to himself. He ). In the
41 eyes of others they are still a couple: the waiter knows them as a handsome couple, an unusual handsome couple because they have stayed together much longer than other handsome couples (303). The girl and Phil have not broken up (at least not pub licly) after she has told him of her lesbian relationship and the main narrative of the story is about them discussing what to do. Both of them create evoked secondary narratives of what has happened and of what kind of couple they have been, are, and co uld be, and the course of the main narrative, their quarrel, is influenced by the gradual emergence of these incomplete, subjectively evoked visions of the past. For Phil, their relationship has been broken by what he considers to be a perversion, vice the lesbian encounter of his lover, which he considers as a betrayal of his trust, but also of his love for her. He is not quite sure how to respond; it would have been easier if she had been unfaithful to him with another man. In that case he could have simp ly left her. However her having an affair with another woman places her in a the lesbian lover from the picture by asking the girl to abandon the relationship. His wish to go back to a time before the lesbian affair comes out in the frustration of moral high ground, looking down upon the morally corrupt girl.
42 omits several crucial details. Before Phil learned of her relation with another she uses it again when he tells her that her actions are perverse. In this context, acquires the meaning of tolerant, kind, non judgmental. In the past he was not prove her feelings. In matters of intimacy, she reminds him, he was a different man as comparing their intimate moments with those between her and her lesbian lover as analogous acts of shari ng love, and she believes that he is still capable of obviously left the impression in her that he is capable of such understanding. He e girl that he was an open minded, Phil acquiesces with the image of himself painted by the girl, and thus to some
43 that people are made moralistic interpretation of events characteristi She is there to ask for forgiveness and understanding but for having a female lover who gives her the love that she needs, and she points to the events of an earlier time frame as evidence that Ph il is a man who can understand and forgive. The girl goes out of her way to point out that she has not replaced Phil with a male lover: 3) This exchange is indicative that she, too, makes a distinction between the effects on their relationship of her having a female lover as opposed to a male one. In her mind she has not cheated on him, as she would have had had her lover been a man. She p erceives what has happened not as a morally corrupt act, but as an identifies the cr isis in their relationship as his failure to understand, or see her
44 actions as a natural extension of what their relationship used to be. Like Jig she is trying to bring up the past in order to show her lover that what she has done is not inconsistent with who she is, who he is, and what their relationship is. The events that reveal the nature of their relationship before her lesbian encounter, a relationship that is only evoked subjectively and differently by the two characters (and to some extent by the waiter as well) is thus the story left out there because we lack a thorough, objective narrative treatment of it. The two versions of what that relationship was, the two secondary narratives that evoke it, receive added emphasis at the end of the story when Phil has undergone his sea change. Does his change involve a rejection of the vision of lesbian love as something natural and a reaffirmation of his moralistic vision of himself and his relationship with the girl (and thus a capitulation to and an embrace of vice at the end and a retreat from the moral high ground), or is his moralistic vision simply a mask, a pose, an easy defense mechanism against the uncomfortable kn reminds him he possesses? Warren Bennett argues for the latter when he asserts that mate conviction that the nature and
45 meaning of his relationship with the girl have been unmanly, a conviction that marks the death of his masculine identity. (226) The temporal structure of the story, however, puts a lot of the information relevant to answ narrative present, deep into the evoked fragmentary analeptic narratives of the main characters. breaking up with Marjorie lie hidden in events that are not narrated and that precede the main action of the characters fishing on the lake. The appearance of Bill at the end of the story and his questions indicate that Nick (possibly together with Bill) had planned the break up in Complete Stories 82). This reaction to the break up suggests that the reason he gav his pain might be a sign that he would miss the time they could have been together. The main narrative consistently points to the fac t that a change has occurred prior the time we first see Nick and Marjorie in a boat on the lake. Nick ry explicitly
46 each other for a while at this point, and she would not be making this kind of observation if in the past Nick has shown such complete indifference to it. Marjori imaginative, creative approach to the world, and maybe to some extent their most intimate desires Jig wa nts to have a baby and she describes the hills in terms of images reminiscent of pregnancy, while Marjorie sees an old ruin as a to respond suggests that he, like the Ameri imaginatively, he is also very reticent in his interactions with her. Marjorie notices temporal structure of the story. It points to the fact that the main narrative, th e come in the form of a completing analeptic narrative, filling in the missing details. As Genet te points out, these types of completing analeptic narratives perform an explanatory function, creating a chain of causality that leads to the present
47 moment, and that allows the main narrative to resume its progression toward a resolution ( Narrative Disco urse 63 ). By denying a direct, and even a delayed ision to end his relationship with Marjorie. Nick lies to her consistently about what is wrong with him. First he say s he Complete Stories 80), even though he has already spoken with Bill that he was going to break up the relationship. Later in the story he provides he has is not fun anymore (81) If Marjorie believed this statement on its face value, as a sincere statement that there is something in their relationship that they need to ore, whether the reason is in something in her behavior or a change in their circumstances or something else. Instead of pressing this issue further she he is looking for a pret ext to break up the relationship, and he is not interested in working out any difficulties they may have. His message to her is essentially
48 responsibility for it. Before he delive rs that message, Marjorie has not given up on trying to work out whatever problem was bothering Nick. She urges him to The juxtaposition of the her sense that he is treating her unfairly, and that at some point she would have to stop row to indicate her frustration with the manipulative and abusive behavior of the American man (214). information about what happened to Nick before he and Marjorie went fishing on the lake. However, the rich narrative surface of the story has prompted many inte history. Horst Kruse notices that the story is full of sexual puns which create a hidden narrative about their sexual relations: rolled, even when
49 This hidden narrative evokes a frustrated experience of sexual love, with Marjorie intent on it, trying to make it work and Nick putting it down. Kruse reads this he explain why Nick feels the way he does at the end of the story. If he had really lost any feelings for or any sexual attraction to Marjorie, why does he need to hide hi s face and spend time alone? After all he has just gotten rid of what has become a nuisance, an unwanted lover. Marjorie (and the events that triggered them) outside the temporal plane of the main narrative, hidden in the ten year ellipsis that separates the narrative about the mill and its going out of business and the time Nick and Marjorie are fishing on the lake ina bility or unwillingness to state these reasons directly and truthfully to Marjorie, suggests that the progression of the main narrative is really an attempt by Nick to understand, to figure out and to come to terms with the change that has come
50 over him. T he tension between the stated reasons and the real reasons for the break aware of this discrepancy, although we are not told what the real reasons are. Bringing those reasons to the surf ace is a painful process for Nick, and the narrative amplifies their effect by focusing on their influence on Nick and the actions of the story. The reasons Nick broke up with Marjorie also play an important part in where he lives with his father. The two are alone and use th e time to drink rye whiskey, talk about baseball, books, and their fathers, before, under the influence of alcohol, in the second half of the story they look back on the event that is up with Marj orie and its implications. Bill creates a retrospective narrative by starting with a point before the break up and then looking forward hypothetically into the future. Nick w ( Complete Stories 90). For Bill marriage is loss of freedom for a man. Once a man is married , would not only have married Marjorie, but her family as well, Bill reminds him,
51 this, and that he is glad that Nic company. t contradict or challenge Bill directly, but remains silent, refusing to participate in the dialogue, letting it develop as a ded to provide a visual representation (what Linda Wagner calls juxtaposition of images (120) (Bill making a statement and Nick not speaking)) of this discrepancy between what While Nick is mostly silent when Bill develops his secondary narrative of what has happened to him, he is not silent on the inside. The narrator makes his thoughts available to the readers through represented speech and free indirect discourse, and in his though ts Nick is not contemplating what a bullet he had dodged, but instead how empty his life is now that he has lost Marjorie: It was all gone. All he knew was that he had once had Marjorie and that he had lost her. She was gone and he had sent her away. That
52 was all that mattered. He might never see her again. Probably he never would. It was all gone, finished. (91) Nick does not see himself as being better off. His thoughts sugges t a loss, an somebod have happened: he has acted in a way to get rid of her, as one gets rid of lost. He has also lost some o has not lost anything but gained back his freedom (or avoided losing it). Because about baseball and books, and to go fi reveal that he is not as excited about the prospect of all these planned activities as Bill is. To Nick, his newly gained freedom is really an emptiness which has opened up where once he had placed his plans to spen d time with Marjorie,
53 responses to Bill maintain the impression that he had no other choice, that he up bec ause she had told many people they were engaged. This information, whether it is true or not, has it was the (92) Nick here is co nveniently using information that he has just learned (the mother telling a lot of people that they were engaged) to explain actions which he acquires the meaning of a verbal command: he has established how it was, and why he left Marjorie If Bill helps Nick very directly and deliberately with the guilt problem, he also helps him unintentionally with the pain Nick feels about losing Marjorie. Bill
54 agrees with Nick that he should not think anymore about the break up because seizes that possibility and e business was no town (and presumably reconnect with Marjorie). The secondary narratives which Nick and Bill create in the latter part of to the story left out: the nature of the relationship between Nick and Marjorie and the real reasons he left her. The n narrative, it nevertheless remains an unresolved issue for both of them and bubbles up to the surface to dominate the end of the story. Nick has found a way to deal with it by adopting a version of the past that alleviates his pain: he assigns his guilt to the mother, and makes himself believe that it was he who left Marjorie and not the other way around ava ilable for him when and if he needs her. His secondary narrative is a rationalization of his actions, and in it he appears to have done the right thing in breaking up with Marjorie, and to be in control of his life provides just enough i nformation to call into question his account, while omitting a developed objective narrative of that earlier period.
55 narratives evoked by the main characters in the first narrative. Th e first narrative have participated earlier in the day in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. They visit a Hebrew wine events, In Our Time being a fragment of a bullfight, evokes the whole bullfight, so does the Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Within this context the main action takes place in the aftermath of a dramatic event, the crucifixion, and anticipates another dramatic event, the resurrection. The main characters are aware that they have been part of an important event, but their fragmentary secondary narratives about this event differ markedly. In a short exchange their different attitudes come to light: 3 d Roman Soldier Jesus Christ. [He makes a face.] 2 d Soldier That false alarm! 1 st Soldier Oh, I don 2 d Soldier 1 st Soldier his play. (272)
56 The third soldier has an upset stomach and he exclaims somewhat anachronisticall ). For him the crucifixion was a test of whether Jesus Christ was the Son of God, a test which plan) which includes death on the cross, and tha t he anticipates other events to follow. which in a biblical context signifies the blood of Jesus Christ and is part of the ritual of the Eucharist. The Eucharist is intended to c ommemorate the Passion of Jesus Christ, and specifically his sacrifice. The three soldiers have been involved directly in the event commemorated in the Eucharist, with the first soldier knowledgeable of as a sacrament. While the second and third soldiers appear to be unaware of the ritualisti c nature of their drinking in the wine shop, the first soldier is very excited about the red wine, and he offers it to the Hebrew wine seller as well. His attitude suggests that he perceives the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ as an
57 occasion to be ce It is a celebration because the first soldier is aware that there is more to come as ds. The title of the play also points to the Within this context of commemoration, the secondary narrative of the first in the way those to be crucified react to pain when they are being nailed on the (272). Jesus being the opposite, suggests integrity and hope. The first the first soldier, then, the crucifixion of Jesus Christ is an event of hope that there
58 facing pain, suffering and death. The second soldier on the other hand constructs a different secondary narrative of wh at happened. To him, it is irrelevant whether Jesus Christ was him, there is nothing beyond life, and the most important imperative in human life is self of no great consequence to the second soldier. To him the possibility of Jesus Christ coming down from the cross is alarming beca use it would undermine his view of the world, and also because it would jeopardize his very existence as part of the oppressive Roman army in Israel. The second soldier is a part of the power structure in his time, and the crucifixion of Jesus Christ is a routine exercise of control over the masses. In the secondary narrative of the second a banal statement about the day being no different than any other on which the soldier get s to do his job and maintain his position of power. precedes the main narrative the nature of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Was it an event of hope, of transcendent life, or just a death with dignity and an example
59 unresolved neither the first soldier changes his mind, nor does the second one. Such a resolution would depend on the nature of the evoked past event. temporally omitted event is described in an external source (in both canonical and apocryphal texts) and it itself has been the source of various disagreements lasting for c enturies. Rather than trying to determine the true nature of this event, narrative that exerts great influence on the progression of the main narrative and its meaning and resolutio n. Complete Stories 261). This is the first t ime the first person narrator in the short story has provided any direct information about any troubling events concerning his relationship with his wife which have occurred prior to the opening of the narrative. His wife, speaking to the American lady, re veals that she and the narrator are both Americans and that last line of the story, howeve r, there is no indication of the failure of their marriage, and the relative lack of information about the American couple seems unproblematic since the narrative appears to focus on their companion, the
60 American lady and her story of taking her daughter a way from the man she loved interest in the American lady alone to interest in the American lady and the interest from the explicit secondary narrative of the American lady and her daughter to the missing, but evoked secondary narrative of the American couple and their failing marriage indicates that the first narrative the train ride is designed to lead to the discovery of this hidden, left out story, and to the fact that [Hemingway] ended his story at the right time and in the right way. To reveal the separation earlier would have deprived the reader of the retroactive enjoyment that derives from the sense of discovery his surroundin questions. (237)
61 The discoveries Donaldson points to are present in the first, surface narrative, but they only acquire their meaning in light of the revelation made at the end, a revelation which suggests th at prior to the beginning of the main narrative on the train, the couple had made a decision that their marriage would n with his wife and the American lady, an interaction which consist s of making a joke the American lady on to separate has had on them, and of the unwillingness of the husband (who is also the narrator of the story) to let the memory and thoughts of the end of their marriage enter his surface narrative. Both the husband and the wife have the opportunity to a t least acknowledge the failure of their marriage to the American Complete Stories 260) but choose not to. The wife deliberately tries to steer the conversation away from a discussion of thei r marriage or of American men as husbands and to ward Vevey. The husband, too, consistently chooses to occupy his mind and his narrative with what he observes from the train window and with what he h ears from the talkative American lady, as if deliberately trying to leave no place for any thoughts of his relationship with his wife until the very end of the story.
62 The secondary narrative of the American lady, however, contains itself a story that is l eft out the story her daughter might tell of her experience with the rtually every character experiencing some form of constraint, symbolically represented by the trapped canary. If we extend this metaphor to narrative discourse, we see that the American lady is not only constraining her daughter by making her decisions for her, but also by not listening to her, and thus suppressing her vision of how things stand. at lea st Complete Stories 260). She is also aware that her decision to remove her daughter form Vevey and thus break the relationship has aff ected her daughter negatively, but she never makes an effort to listen to her forget her lover: eat
63 The daughter does care about one thing (the Swiss ma n) but the American lady right for herself, and she has done so since her daughter was a chil d. In a way, the American lady has never stopped treating her daughter as a child, and this treatment produces a physical and emotional suppression, but also a own story of he r life. If the American lady were to let her daughter have her own way, her own voice, the American lady would lose her sense of control, of being the adult who makes the right decisions for her daughter a potentially painful loss. Her suppression of her d aughter might be her attempt to keep away the pain such loss of control would produce. Similarly, the husband who is the narrator of the main narrative in the short story has pushed back his knowledge of the separation as one pushes away things that produ ce pain. Unlike the American lady, however, the narrator of the story is aware that his suppression of the secondary narrative of their failed marriage is not a sign of strength and control, but weakness and escape. The revelation in the last line is almos t like a confession of the narrator that he understands the irony of their situation (being praised as a model couple, when in
64 The suppression and the avoidance of the topic on ly make it more potent, especially in contrast to the unrealistically upbeat vision of American marriages presented by the American lady, and seemingly exemplified in her eyes by the American couple itself. The suppressed, but evoked secondary narratives t hus as Julian Smith puts it, a (234) in order to re examine the surface in terms of what is being left out. Such suppres sion of important information regarding past events which has the potential to change the meaning of the surface narrative is also a factor [These stories] focus upon a foreground semantic riddle that simultaneously obscures and illumines the background network of signs that require discerning reading in order to resolve the textual 198) features of the surface narrative, but this dichotomy can be examined in terms of narr
65 important event which is evoked but not narrated the realization by the major only a riddle about major regarding his orderly, Pinin, but also a riddle about what specific event or Complete Stories 252). dditional information about Pinin that noticed that Pinin does not write any letters addressed specifically to a girl (251). However, the way the major thinks of Pinin as makes him believe that Pinin is capable of deception and of being corrupt. s inquiry about response is insincere he does not believe that Pinin, who acknowledges that he
6 6 pose, a feigned ignorance which seemingly places him above not only corruption, but even kn owledge of it. Gerry Brenner suggest s another possibility why the major might doubt to make sure that Pinin is not corrupt and as such a problem for the army. Complete Stories 251) as an indication about it: [When] the major admonishes or cautions Pinin to guard against such was his intent. The reference to someone else, then, may specific evidence against Pinin he might have confronted him with it immediately. Yet, it is possible that if the major has no conclusive eviden ce, but only second
67 hand information, his phrasing might be intended as a way to elicit an involuntary confirmation from Pinin. Pinin, however, does not reveal anything and the homosexual experience. The narrative itself does not provide any definitive and objective s behavior makes it possible for the short story to evade easy interpretation and to story al so posits the question about the corruption or lack of corruption of the inquiry, not only regarding Pinin, but the major as well. The surface narrative thus points to the mis about important past events involving the main characters. Hemingway singles more left out of it than anything and what is left out of the story from a temporal perspective gradual realization of the importance of a past sequen ces of events to which he
68 has no access, a realization which occurs in his quest to help Ole Andreson, the Swede prizefighter, do something about his imminent murder. Complete Stories 220), Nick agrees without hesitation, even though the way the killers are, and the experience of being tied and gagged is a new one reluctant to admit that he was scared and helpless when the killers were in control of the diner. After George unties him, he tries to brush the whole Nick is not only not a tough guy, but he cannot even create a credible imitation of one. In is a way for him to regain a sense of himself as a courageous person who is not helpless when facing people like the killers. When he gets to talk to Ole Andreson, his first sentence makes him realize how inexperienced he is in the world of tough guys inha bited t o him because he realizes that in his report he makes himself a helpless victim
69 of action in his sentences are the killers. Similarly when he describes his coming to warn Ole, his sentences, suggests that Nick is viewing himself not as an agent of action, but as a follower, the w ay a child will follow the guidance of adults. In Ole Andreson, Nick encounters an adult, a prizefighter, a real tough guy, who refuses to act decisively as an adult. Nick is unwilling to concede to this idea and offers Ole suggestion after suggestion, cha nce after chance for Ole to take control of the situation and do something about the danger facing him the way an adult would. Time after time he is rebuffed by OIe Andreson: . . . . . .
70 . . r a positive response to solving his problem is unsettling for Nick after all if Ole Andreson, the prizefighter, cannot come up with the will to mount a decisive response to the danger posed by the killers, what is Nick to do? He turns away and back to an other figure of authority to him, George, who was the one who George is of little help to Nick as he simply echoes what Nick has already found out the killers will kill Ole. George, like Nick, had h oped that when Nick tells Ole about the killers, he would do something about it When Nick reports to real izing that This echoing effect of repeating information is also present in the repeti ti on of the statement that Ole to leave his room (221), then Nick tells it to Mrs. Bell whom h e meets
71 (221) etition is to sug gest that Nick is stuck on this troubling thought: Ole does not have the will to fight back. And here have led to this point where a man like Ole Andreson can simply give up and be a helpless victim, the way Nick was when he was tied up and gagged. George the reasons why the killers might be after him. This is not good enough to knowing brings us back to the idea of omission and of the story left out of story. There are two secondary narratives that are evoked here : first there are the events that the criminal world, which pays back its debtors or enemies by sending them people like the killers. In his brief conversation with Nick, O le evokes a time in his past when he was willing to fight, or at least run away from danger. He also suggests that over time he has grown tired of this kind of life. Yet there is a huge gap between the first state of defiance and the second state of surren der, a gap
72 mysterious and puzzling. world he is obvious ly unfamiliar with. The lack of details regarding who did what to whom and who hired the killers, only makes this world more ominous and to him, suggests that there is a hidden, evoked secondary narrative about his upbringing, possibly about a domineering father or mother figure in his life, who controlled him very strictly. these two submerged, evoked secondary narra tives, with Nick trying to do what he was taught to do follow and trust the lead of adults and emerge as a decisive, independent person on his own, only to discover that in the world of adults, of role models like Ole Andreson, man is alone facing a hostil e world, which sooner or later catches up with him. Robert Fleming sees a parallel s is that life does not operate as Nick. . has been taught. Life sets traps for honest, straightforward peop le who believe what they hear and what they read. For a time the individual may survive even though he follows the false map, as Ole has survived by running or as Nick has survived by following
73 false and artificial codes of behavior, but in the end, realit y must be as a rejection of his past, of the codes that he has learned and used, but which are no longer useful. It is also a reje As Joseph Flora evil in human nature, the potential for imperso Adams extent on the fact that the hidden mechanism, the details of the secondary narrative which make the situation with Ole possible is beyo nd hi s (and the The interaction of submerged, evoked, but not narrated secondary narratives of past events and a surface first narrative designed as if specifically to draw attention from the narrative present to what is only evoked is one wa y to the idea of the story left out can be examined not only in terms of omission, but in terms of inclusion and isolation from the main narrative the way cargo is loaded on a plane, but it is not the plane itself. In this case secondary narratives become explicit and extended, sometimes greater in size than the main narrative. Temporally such narrative variation requires not only the reshuffling of narrative
74 and story orders, but also the flexibility of narrative rhythm and narrative frequency, a flexibility which allows a character (and sometimes, a character who is also a narrator) to create a dynamic tension between alternative secondary narratives of past events
75 Chapt er Three Temporal Variations and t he Loaded Story The Hemingway uses evocation to indicate the hidden presence and the influence of explicit secondary narratives, which open up a temporal space within the main narrative, isolated, both visually (through the use of italics) and structurally from the chronological progression of the dominant temporal movement in the story. In refers to So I invent how someone I know who cannot sue me that is me would turn out, and put into one sho careful and not a spender. I throw everything I had been saving into the story and spend it all. . So I make up the man and the woman as well as I can and I put a ll the true stuff in and with all the load, the most load any short story ever carried, it still takes off and it flies. This makes me very happy. (8)
76 he says he has done in other stories (3), has paid off. The concept of the short story is thus expanded to include not only the model of a narrative from which a story has been left out, but also the idea of a container, a (or loaded) stories as well. This new idea of inclusion, rather than omission, of a vehicle container carrying a load rather than a story left out of a story is a way to address the problem Gennaro Santangelo f out. The distinction for the ride, but which is incapable of movement on its own, suggests two important functions of the story it has to be able to fly or move forward tow ard a destination or resolution, but it also has to be able to carry content, or loads. The two functions differ somewhat in terms of their temporal dimensions: a vehicle moves in space, but also in time it covers a specific space over a period of time and thus is guided by the logic of chronological temporal progression. Loads, on the other hand, are far less dependent upon movement and thus on time, because their essential characteristic is to contain something, not move it or change it. The temporal stru
77 informative illustration of this notion of the short story as a vehicle carrying a load. and the imbedded (or load) narratives is not only visually indicated by the narrator by the use of italics, but also in terms of temporal order and by a difference in what Genette calls temporal rhythm and frequency. Temporal rhythm is created through al ternating different temporal movements in the narrative ( Narrative Discourse 94 5). In the first line of the story, a line of dialogue, is a dramatic scene, which develops ch ronologically, and in which the reading time is roughly equal to the story time. medias res with Harry the main character realizing that the pain in his infected leg has subsided and gangrene has set in. The first narr ative thus progresses from this point on through several scenes interrupted by secondary narratives until at the end of the story (and a time period of less than 24 hours) it is resolved when Harry dies. Harry is aware of this resolution, or more precisely of the inevitability of this resolution, almost from the Complete Stories leg would stop the spread of the gangrene, but that option is more hypothetical
78 because they are in a remote and isolated location in Africa with no surgical instruments and no medical supplies which might make an amputation possible and successful. Thus the outcome of this first narrative is predetermined from its starting point, at least in the mind of the main character, and he is able to contemplate it as a completed story, looking back to its beginning during the time when he toward its end which he knows is near because of the spread of the gangrene. He traces the events before the beginning of the main narrative in analeptic second ary narratives which differ in terms of narrative speed and frequency from the first narrative. While the first narrative is in the form of a scene, his memory of the events that led to his trip to Africa and the infection of his leg are in the form of a s ummary which condenses long, extended events in the past of the lives of the characters to short passages in the text of the narrative: young woman and for a while she had devoted herself to he r two just grown children, who did not need her and were embarrassed at having her about, to her stable of horses, to books, and to bottles. ( Complete Stories 45) The reading time of this passage is much less than the time it took for the events to unfold. Also, the events mentioned constitute series of events which are only
79 narrated once horse, to reading books, to drinking, and to raising her children. Genette calls this Narrative Discourse 116 7) as opposed to singulative discourse which is a narrative that covers events once that only happened once. Thus the secondary narrative which fills in the details about the events that led to the time of the m ain narrative is both a summary, and to a creation he is the one who remembers what happened, or what he was told by Helen about her life, and his ability to condense the past, both by omitting what he believes is of little relevance and what is redundant repetition, suggests that he is capable of understanding the importance of these past events in relation to Study 82). In a way Harry, in his thoughts and memories, is creating a coherent, logically connected sequence of events (a story) which represents his life as it began when he ceased to be a writer and which will end with his inevitable death from present time, singulative scene of the first narrative, a closed, complete narrative, which only needs time to r each its end. Harry is helpless in trying to change its resolution he can only control how he responds to it. He tries to rebel against its inevitability by being rude to
80 Helen, whom he blames, at least for a time, for his present condition. Harry describ es this rudeness as a psychological mechanism to keep himself from manipulative in the way he uses language, and almost immediately after he tells Study 84). Another way for Harry to control the way he responds to the inevitability of his death is to turn on himself. After re examining his life after he stopped being a writer, he ( Complete Stories support. He reali that Helen was simply one of the many women with money who had bought it. Both responses, turning on Helen and turning on himself are a reaction to the realization that the narrative o f his present life has reached its end, its this narrative would develop he was aware of the fact that he was not being truthful to himself by abandoning writing, but he view
81 world of the rich as research into the lives of people he found boring and contemptible: You were equipped with good insides so that you did not go to pieces that way. . But, in yourself, you said that you would write about these people; about the very rich; that you were really not of them but a spy in their country; that you would leave it and write of it and for once it would be written by some one who knew what he was writing of. (44) Before his life ending injury, he vie wed his present life as an investment in and research for a future narrative text about the rich, a narrative the writing of which would allow him to re enter the life he led before he ceased to be a writer. Thus he imagined his life with Helen ending wit h his embrace of his true self, but also them. After the infection, his initial reaction of being rude to Helen can be seen in this light, as an attempt to blame the rich fo r his failure to continue to be an active writer. Toward the end of the story, however he realizes that he would never jects are dull and uninspiring, and he is only writing about them to hurt them, he would really be hurting himself as a writer, Harry realizes. Harry might be a bit better than Julian (a veiled reference to F. Scott Fitzgerald) iscovered
82 that his perceptions of the rich were illusory, but Harry is not much better off having discovered that he has nothing but contempt for them, and as such they are not of any particular use as story material. What is of use to Harry as story mate rial comes to him from his life before Study 84). From a temporal perspect things he had saved for later to develop into stories represent an excluded temporal space within the main narrative. The main narrative is closed by the anticipated resolution; it is chronologically driven, and it is singu lative, happening and narrated only once. As such it has lost its attraction for Harry. In the past he Complete Stories 41). He was curious about it when it was not inevitable, when it was possible, but avoidable as is the case of his bombing officer bowels spilled out into the wire Shoot me, Harry. For Christ sake shoot me unbearable pain before death. In the case of Williamson only the morphine Harry gave him worked, and not ev right away not the one dying, but the one learning about death, curious about death,
83 shocked about death. In the present time of the first narrative of the story Harry is the one dying, painlessly but certainly. Th e memory about Williamson, while a secondary analeptic narrative, is rich. His memories of his life with Helen prior to the Africa trip form chain of chronologically and causall y connected events that lead to his present situation. The Williamson memory is rather an attempt to understand his present attitude towards death by comparing it to a somewhat analogous situation from his past. Similarly, the other italicized passages lie outside the boundaries of his present life, having occurred before his first life as a writer ended. This idea of two lives story ends and another one begins. When he describe s this transition, he uses language that suggests a resolution of one narrative, and a beginning of another one: It was not so much that he lied as that there was no truth to tell. He had had his life and it was over and then he went on living it again wi th different people and more money, with the best of the same places, and some new ones. (44) Before the injury Harry had hoped that he could end this new life with Helen and start yet another one where he is again a writer writing about the very rich. In other words, as a writer he perceived his life as a story that was unfolding and
84 that he had some control over. With his injury the ability to control the narrative of his life disappears, and the only thing left for him is to wait for the inevitable resol ution. Harry, however, discovers another possibility, and that is to tap into the from the memories of his life with Helen before the opening of the first narrative. For one thing, they do not create a chronological chain (or a causal one for that matter) as do the memories of his gradual loss of his talent. The first italicized section con tains six parts which are put together because of a similarity in context (they all have something to do with various places and various ways in which Harry spent winters, with the repeating image of snow in all of them). They are not developed into storie s, but they suggest that for Harry these were the Vorarlberg and the Arlberg he remembered the man who had the fox to sell w hen they had walked into Bludenz, that time to buy presents, and the cherry pit taste of good kirsch, the fast slipping rush of running powder snow stretch to the steep drop, taking it straig ht, then running the orchard in three turns and out across the ditch and onto the icy road behind
85 the inn. Knocking your bindings loose, kicking the skis free and leaning them up against the wooden wall of the inn, the lamplight coming from the window, whe re inside, in the smoky, new wine smelling warmth, they were playing the accordion ( Complete Stories 43) The main action in this passage is performed by Harry who remembers things and experiences he had in one specific place. In this way a memory of a man of skiing. The order and arrangement of these images and actions is not rigidly controlled by chronology or causality, but by the associative mind that conjures them up. As such these actions can be recalled over and over again in an almost unlimited number of combinations and arrangements. Moreover, the actions mentioned are not expressed by verbs, but by gerunds, which function as nouns, as direct objects of the act of action, rather than its completion expressed by verbs in the past tense such as also suggest repetition or iteration of the experiences, as Harry has tasted the kirsch many times and he has skied down the slope many times. This temporal liberation from the constraints of chronology and causality, this opening up of the possibility of
86 contrast to the reality of the narrative present of the short story when Harry is waiting for death in Africa. had seen the world change alicized sections are his personal account of this change. He had not only observed he had seen the subtler change and he could remember how the people were at different times his ability to re through the act of remembering or through the act of writing, he can restore imaginatively what the passage of time has transformed or obliterated. Sometimes this restoration brings back painful ex periences, such as the time when he covered a war as a correspondent in Turkey. The italicized section dealing w ith these experiences is a mini narrative itself, a narrative nestled inside a quarrel with his wife in Paris. The quarrel starts before he leav es for Turkey and is resolved after he comes back to Paris. While his experiences in Turkey are presented in chronological order, they are linked together by the fact that they are painful and traumatic to Harry. He witnesses scenes of destruction and himself Harry, since they taught him about love, kindness and the absurdity of war and
87 violence. Back in Paris he is able to re establish his relationship with his wife, ended. This embedded narrative thus offers a positive outcome, the restoration with his wife a nd a newly acquired perspective on war and change in the world, a change what he learns from his examination of his later life and the events that led to his trip to Africa is that his knowledge of the life of the rich is far less worthy of being written about. This urge to write about what is worthy of being written about, the while Harry himself is driven irreversibly toward death. The section dealing with his experiences fishing in the Black Forest in Germany and living as a poor man among poor men in Paris contains less of a narrative and more of a list of images, of witn essed things and events, a collection of raw material of true experiences: And in that poverty, and in that quarter across the street from Boucherie Chevaline and a wine cooperative he had written the start of all he was to do. There never was another part of Paris that he loved like that, the sprawling trees, the old white plastered
88 houses painted brown below, the long green of the autobus in that round square, the purple flower dye upon the paving (51) This is a part of his life where he still has the ab ility to arrange and rearrange his memories as they come to him in free associations, unencumbered by a fixed chronology, put together only through their power to evoke true feelings in Harry. ting the italicized passages in his head. In this way he substitutes his present time of the singulative main narrative leading inevitably to death, with a narrative where time does not flow towards a resolution, but back and forth, free from a need to end in a specific point. In the parts of the italicized passages where verbs disappear suspended. Genette calls such temporal groupings in which events are put together by a kins hip of some kind rather than temporal progression syllepsis ( Narrative Discourse 85), and while the main narrative is moving forward toward its resolution, in the italicized secondary narratives that temporal progression is pushed back in the background, a t least temporary, until Harry comes back into the present time of the main narrative. The first narrative, by moving to its resolution, carries Harry to his death, but Harry, being a writer, is able to counteract the inevitability of this movement, by cr eating temporal spaces outside the main narrative, spaces filled with images and memories of his truest experiences. It is exactly this juxtaposition between
89 the present which carries Harry to his death and the past which gives him his sense of himself whe n he felt truly alive that suggests the metaphor of the vehicle and the load, the load which is in the vehicle, but not the same thing. the imaginary rescue which takes him in a plane to Mount Kilimanjaro is clearl y different from the italicized sections because it is a continuation of the first narrative, not a return to the temporal spaces of the time before he stopped being an active writer. The rescue is narrated in chronological order, much like the first narra tive, and it takes the and desires. He is clearly afraid of death, which in his delirio us mind just before he loses consciousness, takes the form of some kind of monstrous being: It moved up closer to him still and now he could not speak to it, and when it saw he could not speak it came a little closer, and now he tried to send it away witho ut speaking, but it moved in on him so its weight was all upon his chest, and . it crouched there and he could not move, or speak . . He could not speak to tell her to make it go away and it crouched now heavier, so he could not breathe. (54) The h elplessness which Harry feels to do anything about the approaching menacing creature speaks of the terror he must be experiencing at this time.
90 alright and the weight went from hi when he realizes what the true destination is, is a wish fulfillment about a different ending of the narrative of his present life, an ending which was not possible while he was still conscious and while h is thinking was guided by his rational mind. Yet, even the final realization that he is not going to be returned back to his present life, that he is going to Mount Kilimanjaro, is a psychological projection itself, a vision of death as a journey which lea ds to a special place of mythical significance. It is an attempt to negate and transform the finality of death, both as it relates to physical life, but also as it relates to the ending of a narrative, into a passage to another place, another form of being by freezing the flow of time, not ending it. The narrative ends before Harry reaches his destination, as if knowledge of that other form of being is impossible to experience (and narrate) in this world. This final narrative then, although it is unlike the italicized passages, and although it links to the first narrative of the story, can be considered as another the narrative of his life, an ending which is only possible outs ide the temporal plane of the here and the now of the present narrative. In the first narrative the progression of time is measured by the gradual spread of the gan grene which is change over time until Harry dies. In the imaginary narrative the progression
91 of time and the gangrene become meaningless once the final destination is d body, a somber reaffirmation by the narrator of the present time of the story, of chronology, and of the inevitability of its resolution. Earl Rovit and Gerry Brenner notice a similar pattern of temporal In Our Time Th describes the last moments of the bullfighter, Maera: There was a great shouting going on in the grandstand overhead. Maera felt everything getting larger and larger and then smaller and smaller. Then everything commenced to run f aster and faster as when they speed up a cinematograph film. Then he was dead. ( Complete Stories 161) Rovit and Brenner discuss this ending in terms of a temporal opposition of what until at the end the last sentence bullet and shifts the narrative point of view outside of the human context to something almost like the long impersonal view of the ever
92 The distinction thus is one of tempor al speed the acceleration and distortion of chronological, geological time which resumes its flow in the narrative after his death. contains another the last moments of Meara as a cinematograph film. The accelerated pace of early silent films suggests a distorted sense of time and space, a representat ion of reality quite different from the real life experience s of film audiences. The narrative of the plane trip to Kilimanjaro shows similar acceleration by presenting sequences of selected actions and omitting others which normally come in between: [H]e heard the plane. It showed very tiny and then made a wide circle and the boys ran out and lit the fires, using kerosene, and piled on grass so there were two big smudges at each end of the level place and the morning breeze blew them toward the camp and t he plane circled twice more, low this time, and then glided down and leveled off and landed smoothly and, coming walking toward him, was old Compie in slacks, a tweed jacket and a brown felt hat. ( Complete Stories 55)
93 This passage is a summary and as such represents a change in temporal speed from the first narrative which is a scene (with its relative equality of narrative and performs landing maneuvers, lands, and at the en d, the pilot, Compie, is walking actions stopping the engine and getting out of the plane. The close proximity of the two actions which frame the sentence the appearance of the tiny p lane and front of Harry, represents a shortening of narrative time, and as such, a desire to escape the normal (and much slower) progression of real time (or the quasi real time represented in the first narrative) where there are no shortcuts in the form of elliptical omissions of unimportant actions and events. In this way the plane trip narrative is like a fast paced sequence of movie images which represent s in a shortened time period various stages of a longer story action. The end of a cinematograph film creates a sharp contrast between the temporal progression in the film and that in the real lives of the film viewers, and, similarly, the ending of the plane trip narrative, wi th its slightly accelerated passage of time, is as abrupt in its transition back to the temporal plane of the first narrative as is the case in [T]here, ahead, all [Harry] could see, as wide as all the world great high, and unbelievably white in the sun, was the square top
94 of Kilimanjaro. And then he knew that t here was where he was going. Just then the hyena stopped whimpering in the night and started to make a strange, human, almost crying sound. (56) Th passeth away, and another gene (qtd. In Rovit and Brenner 111). In terms of first and secondary narratives, the juxtaposition is between the relentless flow of chronological, geological time in the first narrative a flow which includes Har variations of the secondary narratives, which allow imaginative freedom, if only temporarily. narratives and without the reported thoughts and dreams (ha llucinations) of Harry. In this version the narrative would follow the model of the story left out of the story, with the surface narrative reporting objectively the lines of dialogue and the actions of the characters, with the important secondary narrativ es about their past lives only evoked through bits and pieces of information scattered in their speech. Yet, since Harry is a writer, and since his concept of his life is linked to
95 his concept of a story, of a narrative, the embedding of the italicized pas sages allows Hemingway to create an alternative narrative space within the mind of Harry, a narrative space which has at times, both temporally and thematically, little to do with the events in the first narrative. Harry is creating his own stories and wit hout a privileged view of his mind, his reservoir of memories, they would never reach the narrative surface. While this privileged view is achieved through internal focalization and extensively reported internal speech, it is also important in terms of na rrative temporality since it brings new temporal planes into a dynamic relationship with the first, surface narrative, thus going beyond what is possible through omission alone. extent of embedded material, and Hemingway is aware that he is risking a lot by doing something he would not do in the past: wh at I mean. I am not gambling with it. Or maybe I am. Who h something is that when you gamble, you expect a return of some kind. Hemingway is willing
96 e sense that he will not be able to use it later on. In a way, he is like Harry, who is aware that he will never write the stories he thought he would write one day, but who nevertheless conjures up his material one last time, bringing it up and throwing i t away, but also betting that the process would create an alternative way to spend bringing everythi time, of course, although it seemed as though it telescoped so that you might put essence a collapse of re gular time duration and chronology, a simultaneous presence of memories of experiences separated in time and space, yet containing The objective of creating such a narrative becomes a priority for Harry, but also, at the level of the short story, for Hemingway as well. Thus he lends Harry the death of a writer truthfully, he would have to show in great detail the writer saying a painful last goodbye to the most important thing in his life, his writing. Hemingway puts in the story the more it counterbalances the vehicle narrative
97 which moves toward its final resolution. The tension and power of the story thus depends on the heaviness of the load (the copious detail of the italicized sections, but also the pain from the realization that it would have to be thrown away) pulling in one direction (and toward one temporal plane) and the forceful drive of the first narrative pulling toward death (and toward maintain ing the temporal plane of the narrative present). weight it carries, its structural model of a vehicle carrying a load of a first narrative with embedded secondary narratives, achieved through temporal variation and a privileged inside view into the mind of the main characters this structural model In these three stories, however, the main narrative is iterative in nature (unlike the singulative scene of are singulative. Another important distinction is the function of the embedded which provides a temporal (and temporary) shelter to the main character from the and of narrative frequency from the first narrative because they represent unresolved issues, and as such they are like temporal stumbling blocks which have not been
98 ( and probably cannot be ) assimilated in the temporal progression of the main narrative. These stories can t hus be examined as collections (and thus containers) of memories, both iterative (and positive) and singulative (and negative) which are carried and brought back to the surface to be examined over and over again by a reminiscing main character.
99 Chapte r Four Temporal Variations and Memories as Embedded Narratives helpful in approaching short stories with extens ive narrative treatments of fact which immediately qualifies them as secondary narratives, creating a break (and a breach) in the temporal progression of the first narrative wh ich is established in the beginning of the short story. By the very act of remembering something, a character establishes two temporal planes, and in the special case when the narrator is the main character of the narrative as well, there is always either implied or explicit a temporal plane which coincides with the time of narration and everything else in the story becomes a memory, a secondary tories, the narrator establishes the temporal
100 However, if eve rything in the story (with the exception of the actions occurring at the time of narration) is embedded as a secondary narrative, it is necessary to expand our analysis of memories by examining other temporal determinants like temporal speed and frequency in order to detect any further A la recherche du temps perdu, which itself is a first person narrative, led him to discover something unusual : the narrator in the novel had dispensed with a traditional form of narration alternating between summary and scene and substituted in its place a pattern of alternation between iterative and singulative scenes: It is as though Proustian narrative substit uted for summary, which is the synthetic form of narration in the classical novel and which, as we saw, is absent from the Recherche a different synthetic form, the iterative: a synthesis not by acceleration, but by assimilation and abstraction. Thus the rhythm of the narrative in the Recherche is essentially based not, like that of the classical novel, on the alternation of summary and scene, but on another alternation, that of iterative and singulative. ( Narrative Discourse 143) Such preference for the i
101 examine the stories as essentially i terative discourse breached by embedded singulative scenes. Thus the vehicle narrative the singulative scenes are the loaded story. This temporal differentiatio n has a very important function in the three short stories it separates the memories which the reminiscing character associate s with being in control and having a sense of confidence from those characterized by tension, insecurity, pain and trauma. In the iterative sections, the narrator includes events which have been assimilated and grouped together by way of resemblance. The singulative sections contain events and experiences which are inassimilable in iterative series because the tensions which charact erize them remain unresolved. Thus the singulative secondary narratives are not only not subordinate, but in essence emerge as potent influences on the first narratives in which they are embedded. Their influence, or their weight, to use the metaphor of th e cargo and the plane, creates a dangerous pull that threatens to disturb the forward movement and relative stability of the first narrative. Such dynamic tension between the iterative first narrative and the story quickly establishes the two temporal planes which are juxtaposed throughout the narrative:
102 That night we lay on the floor in the room and I listened to the silk worms eating. The silk worms fed in racks of mulberry leave s and all night you could hear them eating and a dropping sound in the leaves. I myself did not want to sleep because I had been living for a long time with the knowledge that if I ever shut my eyes in the dark and let myself go, my soul would go out of my body. ( Complete Stories 276) The first temporal plane is that of the night when Nick and his orderly are having trouble sleeping and start a conversation which lasts for a few minutes. It is singulative (occurring once) and for the most part it is a sce ne. The second various ways of avoiding falling asleep in the dark, actions Nick has performed t as night , and praying in the dark are secondary narratives, embedded in the first narrative of th embedded within yet another one. The real first narrative takes place at the time of narration, as the narrator indicates at the end of the story when he uses the ow he [John] would feel very badly if he knew that, so far, I
103 first sentence of the story, as well as the period of imaginary fishing and praying in the dark, are a look bac k and as such are analeptic secondary narratives. tonight, or this night. In addition to th ese three different temporal planes, there are others as well, including the time when the narrator was a boy and used to belongings while cleaning their house and the time when h e was wounded and felt his soul depart and return to him. This abundance of temporal planes is a of narrative frequency, we notice that they all fall into two distinct categories according to the way Nick remembers them: they are either remembered as a series of similar events (and thus through iterative discourse), or as singulative narratives. When ever Nick Complete Stories ld not fish, and on those nights I was cold awake and said my
104 boy and fish its whole length In contrast, when narrating actions which only took place once, Nick is Once I used a salamander [as bait] f rom under an old log. The salamander was very small and neat and agile and a lovely color. He had tiny feet that tried to hold on to the hook, and after that one time I never used a salamander, although I found them very often. Nor did I use crickets, beca use of the way they acted about the hook. (277) The narrator distinguishes very carefully between the one time he used a salamander as bait (singulative discourse) and the many times after that when he ted in the quoted passage is also one of negative and positive emotions associated with using the salamander as bait once, and then not using it on all the other occasions Nick found them. from the hook was not something Nick wanted to see again. This distinction between singulative narration of painful, traumatic events and iterative narration of events associated with positive emotions is established in the first paragraph of the story. Nick recounts that his fear of falling asleep in
105 experience in which he had no control to brin g back his soul it came back on its own. When, however, sometime after his war injury he starts to have the same ). The initial traumatic experience has been transformed into a pattern of repeating experiences in ] while repeating action narrated through iterative discourse: Nick remembers various trout streams he has fished as a boy, and he recreates in his mind his fishing trips, both remembering and imagining places and events. Joseph Flora points out that the remembered and imaginary fishing trips create a sense of order and control in Nick which helps him keep away the chaos of having his soul leave his body ( Hem territory of his home (and the familiar time of his youth) is a way to combat the sense of dislocation and disorientation he feels in a foreign country (in the
106 this otherwise iterative discourse is the narrative of the use of the salamander as bait, which, however, is qui ckly isolated temporally and rejected by Nick in his assertion that he never did it again. In the event that Nick cannot summon his fishing trips from his past, he has in store another repeating action which he uses to occupy his mind in the dark, and it is remembering his life from his first memories all the way up to the war, and praying for all the people who come to his mind. In essence this is another positive experience because it provides an alternative way to keep awake and keep his soul from leavi ng him. There are, however, two singulative narratives embedded in this narrative series of remembering his early life as a skinning knives and tools for making arrow heads and pieces of pottery and many arrow it was his burnings and narrate them once through iterative discourse (he could have remem bered them in this way: My events, even though he might remember them many times. Unlike the fishing he
107 does in his memory of the stream s of his youth, the memories of these burnings remain essentially unchanged. He can improvise his fishing, and sometimes invent new streams and confuse them with actual streams he has fished in (277), but he never confuses or improvises his memories of the se burnings. Psychological readings of the story, such as the one offered by Richard Hovey, have emphasized the traumatic nature of these narratives of burning, with burning th Similarly, James Phelan sees the narratives of burning as traumatic and related to t he experience Nick had with his war injury: I also favor the view that Nick is a witness rather than a participant in the scene between his parents because that role fits the logic of analogy on which the story is built. Just as the mortar shell hits Nick From the point of view of temporal frequency it is important to note that the narrator chooses singulative discourse to narrate both of these events (the injury from the shell and t he burning), and as such to keep them unassimilated into the positive flow of events contained in the iterative sections of the story. James
108 Phelan makes a similar observation but in terms of temporal order. While Nick starts to narrate his memories about Complete Stories 56). This direct recall suggests that the memory of these burnings ha s not changed, has not been modified with time. As such it remains essentially singulative in nature, fixed in his mind, as he is fixated upon it. singulative narrative of the burni other ways of keeping sleep away, both in iterative discourse: he remembers the names of animals and places, and when there is nothing left to remember, he icular night he is listening to noises silk worms produce while eating mulberry leaves. Yet, what makes the night memorable to Nick is the singulative scene that follows. Nick and his orderly discuss their difficulties falling asleep, with the orderly wond ering whether Nick aling:
109 who is married and misses his family in Chicago get along problem marriage. This is where the scene becomes uncomfortable for Nick since he does not want to agree with John, who becomes more and more insistent that Nick marry: it. he topic: them [the other men sleepin forceful way in which John tries to impose marriage as a solution on Nick and the
110 imposition of order and control over his father by cleaning (and thus running) After his deflection of the question of marriage, Nick returns to the much more comfortable activity of remembering, with John having given him an idea for a n ew repeating activity he tries to remember all the girls he knew and imagine all became rat her the same and [he] gave up thinking about them almost same, suggests the difficulty Nick has of seeing women as anything but a copy of his mother. This unsuccessful att empt to incorporate women into a repeating, self sustaining creative activity similar to the ones which involve his memories of fishing in streams demonstrates the essential difference between on the one hand fishing, praying and naming things and places and on the other imagining women as wives. The first three activities provide Nick with a sense of control he is patient and knowledgeable enough to experience imaginatively the triumphs of catching fish, of remembering people and praying for them, or m astering terrain through learning names of places and things. In a way his snakes and hunting artifacts made of stone. Like his father, Nick is a hunter (fisherman) and collect or of specimen (streams, people from his past, and names
111 of places, things and animals) and he is afraid that a wife, like his mother, would clean his collections up (and thus destroy them) if he ever got married. is forced to consider marriage in relation to his fear of the dark and of death. At the end of the first paragraph of the story, Nick tells his readers that he is not afraid of the eally (276). Thus, while Nick has realized that the fear he had of sleeping in the dark falling a sleep in the dark has been linked also to marriage as well. In the last paragraph of the story, Nick states that he prays for John and that he is glad that ( 282). While Nick might be genuinely concerned ies the same disregard for Nick carries for his father. When John visits Nick several months after their
112 ied yet. John is pressuring Nick to get married because he is not aware that Nick is trying to heal himself not by surrendering his soul to darkness and death or to a woman in marriage, but by taking control of his own life and engaging in repeating activi t ies (like fishing and praying), activities which i nvolv e creativity, skill, patience and perseverance and which he hopes, would gradually restore his confidence in himself. an indication, then of what he still fears and it is similar to the singulative scenes of the two burnings, of the placing of the salamander on the hook, and of being blown up. All these singulative scenes of trauma are embedded in repeating activities which give Nick a sense of control and comfo rt, and which are narrated through iterative discourse. At the end of the story Nick has not found a way to overcome his new fear (of getting married) which still exert their influen ce on his life. main character, Joe, who is also the first person narrator of the story, has unresolved issues. Joe is a boy, and has just lost his jockey father, who was thrown off his horse and killed while competing in the Prix du Marat
113 Complete Stori es 160). Joe, however, is not so sure, words in the story might be interpreted in various ways in terms of what they greater detail, it is important to note that they represent a marked difference from the way the story begins in the opening paragraph Joe is much more direct and explicit in making a generalization about his father: I guess looking at it, now, my old man was cut out for a fat guy, one of those regular roly fat guys you see around, but he sure never got that way, except a little toward the last, and then it wasn he was riding over the jumps only and he could afford to carry plenty of weight then. (151) In this opening Joe establishes the temporal plane of the first narrative which secondary narrative. Before he begins with a narrative representing a sequence of events, Joe, however, seems intent on providing a generalization about his atural propensity to be obese (and thus unfit for a jockey), and his
114 this later development as a flaw in his father opening of the story, remarks which occur at the time of narration and thus follow temporally the events of the last scene in the image of his father before Joe tells his story by providing a general impression of anticipates a later period in the narrative in which th character would be questioned. The narrator appears in the beginning of the narrative (almost like a prologue in a play) in order to set the terms by which his father may be evaluated or understood. The opening of the story als o establishes the temporal framework of the success in keeping off his weight. The opening is also repeating pattern to be counteracted continuously and repeatedly throughout his life. Joseph DeFalco
115 character who is an advance man for a burlesque show ) : The jockey the subsequent loss of his means of existence. As he slowly loses ground, he cannot simply accept his fate . he seeks to postpone the inevitable by involving himself in fixed races. (58 9) As DeFalco suggests t maintaining his low weight, but the opening creates a background (narrated once, but containing a repeating patt ern of actions, and thus iterative in nature) to the foreground of the singulative secondary narratives in the story. There are other repeating actions in the story which are narrated through iterative off gaining weight, they represent the vehicle narrative in which Joe is confident and relatively happy. The singulative summaries and scenes introduce the times and moments in and trauma. These singulative narratives remain unassimilated in the series of actions represented through iterative discourse and thus introduce an element of instability. In the opening of the story, Joe attempts to create a pattern of stability in the n arrative the danger his father faces of becoming obese is
116 counterbalanced by his actions. In the events narrated in the singulative sections in the story, however, the balance suggested by the opening is challenged directly to such an extent that Joe is le ft at the end of the story without the certainty and confidence he demonstrates in the beginning. Even though Joe, the s a degree of uncertainty, he is able to move from the specific experiences of hi s life to a generalized such generalizations. The opening sentence of the story also sugge sts another pattern of temporal differentiation which is important in the story after the period in which nevertheless gives in toward the end. Thus the relative success of the first period is followed by a phase of retreat, of giving ground and then of adaptation to the had he remained the kind of jockey he is in the beginning of the story. This patt ern of alternation of repeating action narrated through iterative discourse and characterized by relative stability and a singulative narrative of transition which ends the stable period and creates new conditions for another iterative section this pattern informs the temporal structure of the whole story.
117 The first repeating action narrated by iterative discourse is the section in pull on a rubber shirt over a couple of jersey s and a big sweat shirt over that, and going for a run together with Joe. Butler would get his son involved as much as possible, and in the process he makes him feel as a partner and friend. Joe would help his father change from his riding clothes into his runni ng clothes, and then he would run with him. Joe would run, and he would look back at his father, Butler is an inspiration for young Joe because even in the midst of this strenuo us exercise, he would have a positive disposition and a sense of humor. When he [s] ure is he ll
118 father would work even harder than the other jockeys in order to overcome any disadvantages he might have. The energetic training described by Joe is thus not only a means to an end, but also a lifestyle and a philosophy of life which Butler teaches to his son. skips strenuous exercise. In this respect the iterative discourse which is used to narrate this section of the story is appropriate because it suggests a mode of ife and not a onetime event, the rule and not the exception. Paradoxically, it is exactly this philosophy of life, of working hard and being the best jockey he can be that gets Butler in trouble. His vigorous training makes sense only if he rides to win, only if he measures his success with the effort he puts on the track to help the horse he rides finish first. When he wins the jockey and his belief in competing fairly. However, si nce it appears that he has agreed (or has been ordered by his employer) to throw the race, he gets fired, and he leaves Italy for France where he finds himself blacklisted and never gets a regular job as a jockey. lative in nature, marking the end of the period of training with his father. Joe is not quite aware of the real reasons his father loses his job, but he is aware that the events of the day his father wins the
119 Premio Commercio cannot be assimilated into the events of the iterative discourse which precede them. There is a sharp break between the section he his father faced and tired and too big for much to Joe beyond the observation that something is wrong, and that his father has made up his mind about something. Another unexplained observation Joe makes is that his father is having rse he was riding after he wins the Premio Commercio. Joe does not get to hear what they are arguing about, but at the end, just before the two men leave, he hears one of that something is wrong: My old man sat there and sort of smiled at me, but his face was white and he looked sick as hell and I was scared and felt sick
120 how anybody could call my old man a son of a bitch, and get away with it. (153). he simply suggests that he might be unwilling to part with his percept ion of his father as his hero. He has observed his hard work and his dedication to being the best he which makes it impossible for him to respond to such verbal abuse as being c Butler tries to shield his son from the unpleasantness of the argument and the truth about his predicament by sending Joe to buy a newspape r and then avoiding the topic altogether. The issue at the they come. The singulative na completes a pattern of iterative discourse narrating events which the narrator understands and feels confident about, and events narrated through singulative
121 discourse, which the narrator is reluctant to exa mine in depth and integrate in a repeating pattern because they are painful and because the truth about them has the potential to disrupt some of his most important beliefs about his father. Joe tries to emulate his father by acknowledging that something h as gone wrong, but refusing to dwell on the incident and moving on. establishes its iterative nature. Joe and his father settle in Maisons outside Paris and while his father is waiting for his racing addition to having some time to play, Joe also observes his father as he develops good relations with the other jockeys wh o are out of work. They all sit at a caf because he would buy them drinks (154). Another repeating activity involves their elatively stable and positive, and the activities he narrates are assimilated in repeating series of events. For Butler, it is a much less positive experience: he gets his license, and any stable work as a jockey.
122 The pattern of alternation of iterative and singulative discourse applies to this second period of relative happiness for Joe as well. Again Joe introduces a out at St. Cloud. It was a big two hundred thousand franc race with seven entries but this race is different from the others in his memory it is differentiate d from because like the Premio Commercio race it challenges his sense of what is right jockey, tips his fr and at the end of the race with the surprise Kircubbin win, he collects a large sum. Joe is torn between hi s admiration for Kzar, which is clearly the superior horse, and his realization that the fixed race and the inside information has made wanted Kzar to win so damned bad. But now it was all over it was swell to know when Joe
123 Commercio Butler does not explain to Joe why the two men are angry with him, but in this race he has no problem pointing out that the system is corrupt and that he, and his friend, George Gardner are benefitting from it. While Joe can forget about the betting, and buy into the illusion that he is watching a race, Bu interest in the race is strictly financial. What makes the whole experience unsettling for Joe is that he realizes that he, too, is aware of the corruption in the system, but has chosen to suppress that knowledge, or the knowledge that his father might be involved in it as well: Of course I knew it [the Kzar race] was funny all the time. But my old man saying that right out like that sure took the kick all out of it they posted the nu mbers upon the board and the bell rang to pay off . And I thought, I wish I were a jockey and could have rode him [Kzar] instead of that son a bitch. And that was funny, thinking and be all right. (157) but until his father states explicitly that this is the case, he can make himself believe that he can be wrong, or he can conveniently forget about the corruption
124 indicative of how he feels after his father indicates explicitly that he is not above participating in the co rrupt system. In the Premio Commercio it is Butler who is reneging on his word to the corrupt owners or for disobeying their orders). e argument and answer the insult is an indication to Joe that Butler might have played a part in fixing races in the past as well. At the time of the Premio race, this thought is too painful for Joe to oyalty of a jockey should lie with the horse he is riding. Gardner violates his commitment as a jockey to applying the same term to his father for being part of the system, and for f ailing to deny explicitly during the Premio race that he had not done it (thrown races) in the past. The second singulative section in the short story thus deepens the tension introduced by the first the ideals of fair horse racing and of hard work assoc iated with being a good jockey, ideals which Butler exemplifies for Joe while he is exercising to lose weight and while he is teaching Joe about horses and races in the iterative sections of the story these ideals are challenged directly in the Premio and St. Cloud races. In the first, Joe suppresses the challenge by refusing to consider the possibility that his father might have thrown
125 realizing that in these races where betti ng is involved, corruption is part of the game. descriptions of the way Butler and Joe spent their time when (157), taking Joe with him, betting on races, losing money, and then drinking whisky and whiling away the hours at the Caf de la Paix in Paris. For Joe it is again a time of positive experiences, observing interesting peopl e while at the After gambling and (158). Joe enjoys the time when his father has had someth ing to drink because he shares his experiences of being a jockey and riding in fair races: Egypt, or at St. Moritz on the ice before my mother died, and about during the war when they had regular races down in the south of France without any purses, or betting or crowd or anything just to keep the breed up. Regular races with the jocks riding hell out of the horses. Gee, I could listen to my old man talk by the hour, ad a couple or so of drinks. (158)
126 talks about are regular because they are not i nterrupted by the war, but also because they are not fixed. Since there is no betting and no cash prizes for the jockeys and horse owners the race s are fair, and not holding them back as George Gardner holds Kzar. In his stories Butler reveals that he values real, in which the best horse and the best jockey win. It is indicative th at Joe enjoys listening to exactly these kinds of stories and not stories about betting and fixed races. Joe and his father never lose sight of what they value in racing, even if in their every day experiences they encounter mostly corruption and disillusio nment. Joe notices that his father is betting regularly and losing having given up any attempt to get a job as a jockey. Butler also is drinking and, as a result, gaining weight. Thus Joe witnesses the gradual decline of his father as a jockey. In the f irst iterative section his father is putting a lot of effort in his exercises in order to stay competitive. In the second iterative section, Butler rides only occasionally spending most of his time at Cafs and watching races. In the last iterative section However, in all these three iterative sections, Butler never changes his idea of what a regular race is and what a good jockey is. Joe is aware of this constancy otices that in his life his father come short of many of these ideals.
127 has found a way to make money in horse racing, while at the same time recommitting to his ideal of fair raci ng. As an owner and a rider of his horse, his interests ar is still a good jockey himself, he [Gilford] was a good inve and in terms of regaining his sense of being a jockey While Joe describes the purchase of steeplechase, my old man bought in the winner for 30,000 fran (158) ), he reverts back to iterative discourse when he describes how proud he was of his father and of Gilford, how he cared for the horse. Yet this iterative section ends again with a singulative narrative of Gilford the Pr ix du Marat. For a while Butler is in t he lead, but then he is killed after an unsuccessful jump in which Gilford injures one of its legs, and is shot and killed soon thereafter. The third singulative narrative section thus presents another transitional pe riod for Butler in which he is diminished as a man and jockey. His death at the end is not his fault, but neither is the corrupt system which he tries to fight unsuccessfully in the first singulative narrative by refusing to throw the race, nor the fact th at he is blacklisted and has to resort to using the corrupt system to make money to provide for his son (Butler tells Joe that when
128 Butler t r ies to earn his living and his reputation as an honest and a good jockey, but he is thwarted by the corrupt system of horse racing, and at the end by the accident which brings about his death. reflects in its temporal s tructure his ability to function as a jockey and to fight the system. The iterative sections are periods where he tries to push back against the challenges presented by natur e (his tendency to gain weight and his growing old) and by the corrupt system of horse racing. The iterative narratives provide an affirmation of hand, represent crisis perio ds in wh ich Butler attempts to break free and assert his values, only to be pushed even lower from where he started. This temporal organization which allows for the embedding (loading) of singulative sections int o a n iterative ( vehicle ) narrative suggest s that Joe is not as nave a narrator as he has traditionally been considered. James Phelan traces the creation and development of tensions in the story, which he defines as a discrepancy between the values of the narrator and the values of the authorial a udience of the story in essence he makes the case for considering Joe as incapable of seeing what the authorial audience sees and understands about the action and inter nal logic of the story, and specifically about the character of his father. Phelan write s:
129 the end of the story] is still limited. The nuanced evaluation of Butler that we have developed through the course of the progression now functions as the standard against which we meas conclusions. In that measuring, we see that the tension is altered but not resolved. Joe rightly understands that there was more to his father than he knew, but the only alternative he can now imagine is 10) Joe knew even before he heard the bettors disparaging remarks that h is father had used the information George Gardner provided to make a lot of money. It is c throughout the change even afte r he wins a lot of money in the Kzar race, he still elevates the ch he participated during the war, and in which the jockeys In addition to that, as Phillip Sipiora notes, a rejection of the evaluation that Bu tler was a swell guy be a loving good father, in spite of his story in which Joe states that
130 Complete Stories 160) have things take n away from him. What the bettors say about his father is in essence a n act of taking away from his reputation in the same way as his ability to compete in Italy and then in France was taken away from him when he refused to throw the race at San Siro, and as his life and his horse were taken away in the last sing another attack in a series of attacks on his father, but this time it is even more painful because it is an attack after his death, after he is no longer able to fight back. Thus we com e back to the beginning of the story and the introductory remarks by Joe and we see that he is a skillful narrator who creates a pattern of temporal differentiation, of a background and foreground, of a vehicle narrative and a loaded narrative, which allo ws the readers to experienc e pain of losing his father, but it also shows his ability to assess him correctly and to create a narrative which captures the essential truth about his father, and the immediacy in the story. A capture the responses of its narrator to his observations of the dead. The story is an interesting case of narrative loading through temporal differentiation. It contains two seemingly incompatible parts a section in the form of an essay
131 and a narrative in the form of a dramatic scene The story has been examined as being ahead of its time as metafiction by Stetler and Locklin who argue that It could be argued, however, that the opposite is true, that the short narrative in the form of a dramatic scene is attached to the longer essay. Susan Beegel has pointed out that in an intermediate state as demonstrated by an examination of which followed the short dramatic narrative an d re est ablished the essay form Beegel sees the coda as a narratorial expla nation of the History being omi ssion: ending, yet it has its own poetic quality, and it does nudge the reader to an interpretation of the story he is left to infer with more difficulty Hemingway omitted the coda is doubtless a tribute to his literary judgment and self
132 revealing the backstage machinery of personal experi ence that generated the fiction. ( 92 3) of narrative loading, but also as a story of omission. The dramatic narrative which ends the story is temporally se condary to the narrative starting point established in the beginning of the story. In the beginning of the story the narrator announces increase[e] that faith, love and hope we also, every one of us need in our journey through the ) searches his memory for the experience s which he has had in a war with the war dead. While there are passages which contain short descrip tions and short characterized by a movement from general statements to specific instances of either actions or observations which provide illustration and support for the gen eral parts. Thus, for example, when the narrator makes the point that the memory of an incident, which he witnessed, and which he describes in vivid, graphic detail. The pattern of making general statements and of providing support for them is a pattern of repetition and induction of making inferences
133 about the general, common way things were, from the observation of specific incidents. It is the pattern of scien tific inquiry the po sitive experience of making sense of spe cific incidents by discovery of general truths that govern and determine how things work. The first temporal plane of such a text is the present time, the time frame within which new knowledge is being created. The r etrospective looks into the past serve simply to establish patterns of action which can be used to create rules and laws with predictive function the finality of the past events is thus transformed into the timelessness of the general statements designed t o have a predictive function and thus apply to all time frames. The positive experience in the process comes from the ability of the scientific inquiry to account and explain all specific incidents, all available data. anomalous it does not lead to a generalization, and moreover, the narrator who is the producer of knowledge, the explainer of specific events in terms of general rules, disappears in his function as a commentator of th e action In the narrative section that ends the story, the narrator has lost his ability to explain, or to manipulate and direct the action he has become an observer, an observer without a privileged view of the minds of his characters. The characters th emselves represent two alternative viewpoints on the dead the artillery officer wants to cling to any possibility of survival, any spark of
134 life, no matter how desperate or hopeless the situation. The army doctor on the other hand has learned to let go of cases where he knows he can do little to save lives. The first viewpoint is the one the narrator sets out to test in the beginning of the story; the second is what he appears to have learned about the dead. The first is rejected, the second tacitly accepte d. Yet, the disappearance of the narrator as a scientific voice at the end suggests that he is not quite happy with his findings he lets the army doctor speak the last words ( ( Complete Stories 341)) of the story words which express h is attitude toward the lessons he has learned from observing the dead rather than strengthen his faith his findings are a source of a profound sense of loss and emptiness in the The effect of the doubling of the st thus achieved in terms of temporal differentiation on the one hand there is the temporal frame of the present time with all the events used as examples and illustrations neatly organized in terms of categories and groups and on the other there is the unassimilated, uncategorized, unexplained (and thus left in the past, in its own temporal plane) narrative scene about the conflict bet ween the army doctor and the artillery officer about what to do with the soldier who was still alive, but was left for dead in a cave which served as a temporary cemetery. discourse, specifically focalization and narrative distance as making important
135 contribut ions to the success of the creation of loaded secondary narratives into the main (vehicle) narrative through temporal variations.
136 Chapter Five The creation of first and secondary narratives which can be u se d to a function also of the act of narration and of the presence of a narrator who produces them. In fact, it is exactly the presence of a narrator who p r oduces a narrative text that makes our analysis of narrative discourse possible. like any other, a complex whole within which analysis, or simply description, cannot differentiate except by ripping apart a tight web of connections among the narrating act, its protagonists, its spatio temporal determinations, its relationship to the other narrating situations involved in the same narrative, etc. The demands of exposition constrain us to this unavoidable violence simpl y by the fact that critical discourse, like any other discourse, cannot say everything at once. ( Narrative Discourse 215) While it is important to isolate certain aspects of the narrative, such as its temporal structure, and examine it in detail, it is als o important to get a sense of the big picture within which the temporal structure functions as one of the
137 elements of narrative discourse Specifically we can examine the function and y doubling of the story as well as the mode o f presentation of narrative information So I left the story The not only about the doubling of the story in his short stories, but also about his role as a narrator. This role is not easy to define on the one hand he knows the story, and on the other he does not share it with his readers. He is omniscient in the sense that he knows more than the characters (he knows their story and its background), but his silence makes him the equivalent of a narrator who is an external observer. Yet, as an omniscient narrator he knows where to stand and observe where to place the b eginning of the narrative, whom and what to listen to and where to end his narrative In other words, while the omniscient narrator may choose to avoid providing any information about the past and the internal thoughts of the characters directly to the rea ders, he can also regulate the narrative information which is contained within the narrative text by selecting the temporal dimensions of the first narrative and letting the characters produce in a fragmented way what he has omitted. Such narrative positio contributions to describing simple actions and very rarely to providing a glimpse
138 or two into the mind s of the characters. Genette considers the narrato rs in both stories to be using external focalizati on ( Narra tive Discourse 190). In fact Yet, in both stories the narrator provides glimpse s of the internal thoughts after Nick is unt ied the narrator states in a matter of Complete Stories 220). This is information which only Nick and a n omniscient narrator can possess. On the other hand if we assume that the story is focalized through Nick, we notice that the re is a part of the story when Nick is not present and that is when Max tells George that they have come to kill Ole. In this part of the story the narration is not focalized through Nick (because he is not present) Thus the narra tor demonstrates that he possesses knowledge which is beyond mere observation, and also that h e is not focalizing his narrative exclusively through Nick. the narrator who objectively reports the observable actions of the characters on occasion allows us some looked at the bags against the wall of the station. There were labels on them
139 14). In the first sentence, the narrator objectively reports the actions of the American, attention to the fact that the character is observing an object (their bags). In the second sentence, the narrator provides information which i s not available to an external observer the labels on the bags remind the American of all the hotels American looked at the bags which had hotel labels on them. However, the choice to reveal how the American man sees them specifically the reminder of the nights and of the way their relationship used to be is important in terms of This variation in point of view wi thin the same story is not unusual. Genette acknowledges that his categories of zero focalization (or non focalization ), internal focalization, and external focalization, are almost never used in a pure form, but he sugg ests that, while it is not a rule, m any authors choose a dominant mode of focalization and for the most part stick with it ( Narrative 194 5). In the rare occasions when they decide to break the adopted important since t hey stand out as breaking the code guiding the dominant exception to the rule.
140 Similar The s external focalization for the most part until he enters the mind of a minor character (the waiter) and then the mind of Phil. In both cases the narrative information provided from the privileged view is limited the narrator never really stays within the m ind of any of these characters to alter dramatically the dominant mode of external focalization is the story. Thus in most cases where Hemingway uses a narrator whose dominant mode of focalization is external, we c an view the rare glimpse of the minds of the characters as supplementary complimentary, and occasionally contradictory information to what we learn from their reported speech their dialogue. In the ch narrator provides undermine what he says explicitly to Bill. It is thus essential to provide this in terms of the dynamic interplay between what he tells Bill and what he thinks privately. And it is through the reported speech of the characters that the secondary narratives, the usually partial and fragmentary secondary narrative s which point to the story left out are created. Thus the external narrator functions to provide the n arrative starting point, the temporal plane of the first narrative from which the characters through their dialogue will probe the narrative planes of the omitted events.
141 Barbara Olsen does not see the narrators in such White Elephan The as us ing external focalization. She points to the instances of privileged view mentioned above to suggest that the stories have an omniscient narrator who, however, is flawed because of his reticence, his unwillingne ss to provide a context and directions for sees the relative success of this form of focalization in relation to the extent to which Hemingway accepts his role as a narrator God. To the e xtent that the narrator is unwilling to assume a dominant position Hemingway is not willing to assume the role of a narrator God. Indeed the doubling of the story is in essence an attempt to escape an objective narrative or to deny it access to the surface. It is thus in this context that most of the stories discussed so far avoid presenting the narrative information without some sort of restriction. Whether it is the restrictio n of external focalization of stories like Day creation of secondary narratives appear to be desi gned as a direct challenge to the possibility of a comprehensive first narrative. Even such a loaded story as we never get an objective ns to him
142 in the final hours of his life is meaningful in terms of what happened to him in the past, and a good deal of the story is dedicated to his trying to figure this out. As a narrator, however, he does not have all the answers, which the author of t he story has. Even in autodiegetic narratives in which the narrator is the main character is conscious of the different ways in which his story can be told, and that the truth in his narrative is to be located in the dynamic opposition of the vehicle narrative and the loaded narrative Thus the effect of the doubling of the story in of the omitted story which present parts of it, or evoke it but never match it completely. The nature of the short stories as narratives which are limited in scope, and the reticence of the narrator to assume the traditional, God like role of explainer, of commentator and of a depository of truth, allows Hemingway to create the effect of the doubling of the story, of the duality in which the story is both in and out. In the cases where the narrator does stand in front of the s also a character and the discourse that is being created is not the same as the discourse that a non ch
143 Hemingway the author appears to have in mind when he says that he know s the story well, but he has chosen to leave it out. narratives created by the characters to attempt to tell the story left out This is
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145 Hemingway 's Neglected Short Fiction: New Perspectives Ed. Susan F. Beegel. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989. 195 207. . Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1983. Hemingway's Three New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. 156 71. DeFalco, Joseph. Pitt sburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963. New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Durham: Duke University Press, 19 90. 229 37. Fenton, Charles A. The Apprenticeship of Ernest Hemingway: The Early Years New York: Viking Press, 1958. The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: Critical Essays Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Du rham: Duke University Press, 1975. 93 112.
146 New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. 309 13. New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. 347 52. Flora, Joseph M. Ernest Hemingway: A Study of the Short Fiction Boston: Tw ayne Publishers, 1989. . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982. Genette, Grard. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980. Narrative Discourse Revisited Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988. Grebstein, Sheldon Norman. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973. Hemingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964. Death in t he Afternoon New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932.
147 New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. 1 13. The Complete Short Stories of Ern est Hemingway Finca Viga edn. New The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway 1938. The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: Critical Essays Ed. Jackson J. Benson. Durham: Duke University Press, 1975. 180 7. Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway's In Our Time. Ed. Michael S. Reynolds. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983. 159 71. Johnston, Kenneth G. The Tip of the Iceberg: Hemingway and the Short Story. Greewood, Florida: The Penkville Publishing Company, 1987. Richard Astro and Jackson J. Benson. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1974. 113 43.
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About the Author Gueorgui V. Manolov received a Bac American University in Bulgaria in 1996 and a M.A. in Literature from the University of South Florida in 2000. He started teaching English Composition Associate when he entered the Ph.D. program in Literature at the University of American Literature, and theories of narrative.
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Manolov, Gueorgui V.
Elements of narrative discourse in selected short stories of Ernest Hemingway
h [electronic resource] /
by Gueorgui V. Manolov.
[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
ABSTRACT: In the "Art of the Short Story" Hemingway elaborates on his concept of omission as it relates not only to prose writing, but to the special case of writing short stories. Hemingway develops two models to describe his short stories: on the one hand, he describes short stories like "The Sea Change" in terms of omission and exclusion, in terms of leaving the story out of the short story, and on the other, he refers metaphorically to "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" as an airplane loaded with story material which would be enough for four novels. Both models suggest a doubling of the concept of story---in the case of the story left out of the story, Hemingway makes a distinction between the text of the published short story and the underlying events and facts (the story), and in the case of the "loading" of "The Snows in Kilimanjaro" he distinguishes between the vehicle part and the cargo part.^ This doubling of the story in Hemingway's short stories can be examined in terms of first and secondary narratives using Grard Genette's analytical method of study of narrative discourse. First and secondary narratives emerge as a result of temporal discordances between the order of the events narrated in the text of the short story and the chronological order of the events in the story. Thus the effect of the doubling of the story can be mapped onto the dynamic interplay of surface first narratives and submerged, fragmentary secondary narratives in the case of the stories characterized by omission, and in the case of the short stories with loaded narratives, onto the interplay between temporally differentiated first and secondary narratives.^ Hemingway slides the temporal plane of his first narratives into the future and outside the temporal plane of important events which are then evoked by the characters as secondary narratives capable of affecting the surface dynamics of the first narrative. Instead of presenting the information about these temporally omitted or differentiated events in the discourse of an objective narrator, Hemingway relies on characters' discourse to evoke and thus recreate in a subjective, fragmentary way the story left out.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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Adviser: Phillip Sipiora, Ph.D.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.