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Land use policy and practice in karst terrains

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Material Information

Title:
Land use policy and practice in karst terrains
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Fleury, Erik Spencer
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Human-environment interaction
Environmental hazards
Protected area management
Planning
Groundwater
Dissertations, Academic -- Geography -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Karst topography is the result of a specific combination of geological conditions, precipitation, biota, and temperature, and is characterized by the gradual solution of the underlying bedrock and the development of underground drainage routes for surficial runoff. Many of these karst landscapes are found in urbanized areas, where the potential for anthropogenic impact is quite high. In many instances, municipalities on karst terrains choose to mitigate these impacts by implementing ordinances that place restrictions on permissible land uses near karst landforms. This dissertation asks the question: are the impacts of karst-related land use regulation on human / social systems significant enough to merit consideration during the regulation writing and implementation process? In the process of answering this question, it is hoped that a broader understanding will be developed of how land use regulations are used to control and regulate human activity on karst lands, particularly (but not exclusively) in the United States; and that the conclusions drawn from that overview might serve as the beginnings of a generally applicable framework for the development of karst regulation.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2007.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by E. Spencer Fleury.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 317 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001935412
oclc - 226040298
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002254
usfldc handle - e14.2254
System ID:
SFS0026572:00001


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Land use policy and practice in karst terrains
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ABSTRACT: Karst topography is the result of a specific combination of geological conditions, precipitation, biota, and temperature, and is characterized by the gradual solution of the underlying bedrock and the development of underground drainage routes for surficial runoff. Many of these karst landscapes are found in urbanized areas, where the potential for anthropogenic impact is quite high. In many instances, municipalities on karst terrains choose to mitigate these impacts by implementing ordinances that place restrictions on permissible land uses near karst landforms. This dissertation asks the question: are the impacts of karst-related land use regulation on human / social systems significant enough to merit consideration during the regulation writing and implementation process? In the process of answering this question, it is hoped that a broader understanding will be developed of how land use regulations are used to control and regulate human activity on karst lands, particularly (but not exclusively) in the United States; and that the conclusions drawn from that overview might serve as the beginnings of a generally applicable framework for the development of karst regulation.
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Groundwater.
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L a nd U s e P ol i c y a nd P r a c t i c e s i n K a r s t T e r r a i ns by E S pe nc e r F l e ur y A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of G e ogr a phy C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : R obe r t B r i nkm a nn, P h. D B ogda n O na c P h. D P hi l i p R e e de r P h. D E l i z a be t h S t r o m P h. D G r a ha m T obi n P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : N ove m be r 15, 2007 K e yw or ds : H um a n e nvi r onm e nt i nt e r a c t i on; e nvi r onm e nt a l ha z a r ds ; pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt ; pl a nni ng; gr oundw a t e r 2007, E S pe nc e r F l e ur y

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A c k n ow l e d ge m e n t s I w oul d l i ke t o t a ke t hi s oppor t uni t y t o t ha nk s e ve r a l i ndi vi dua l s w hos e he l p w a s i ns t r um e nt a l i n w r i t i ng t h i s di s s e r t a t i on. T he y a r e A l i n M os of t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k; J i m R e bm a nn, of L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y U r ba n G ove r nm e nt ; P e r c y D ought e r y f or m e r l y of K ut z t ow n U ni ve r s i t y; T odd C ha ve z o f t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S ou t h F l o r i da l i br a r y; t he K a r s t R e s e a r c h G r oup a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l o r i da ; D r B ogda n O na c ; D r P h i l i p R e e de r ; D r E l i z a be t h S t r om ; D r G r a ha m T obi n; a nd i n pa r t i c ul a r D r R obe r t B r i nkm a nn, m y a dvi s o r m e nt or a nd f r i e nd.

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i T A B LE O F C O N TE N TS A B S T R A C T v i i i 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 T h e s t u d y a r e a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 T h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 K A R S T P R O C E S S E S L A N D F O R M S A N D I S S U E S 8 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 K a r s t p r o c e s s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C o m m o n k a r s t l a n d f o r m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 S i n k h o l e s ( d o l i n e s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 C a v e s a n d c a v e r n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 S p r i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 O t h e r k a r s t l a n d f o r m t y p e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 P o l j e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 K a r s t v a l l e y s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 S w a l l o w h o l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 P i n n a c l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 R e s i d u a l h i l l s ( m o j o t e s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 C o c k p i t k a r s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 C o n e a n d t o w e r k a r s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 P a v e m e n t k a r s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 K a r s t d i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 I s s u e s o f h u m a n k a r s t i n t e r a c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 S u b s i d e n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 G r o u n d w a t e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 C a v e s a n d e c o s y s t e m / h a b i t a t d a m a g e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 3 P E R S P E C T I V E S O N P O L I C Y A N A L Y S I S 3 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 P o l i c y a n a l y s i s : W h a t i s i t ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 S o m e a p p r o a c h e s t o p o l i c y a n a l y s i s : a n o v e r v i e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6 S y s t e m a n a l y s i s i n p u b l i c p o l i c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 A p p l y i n g p o l i c y a n a l y s i s m e t h o d s t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 K A R S T L A N D U S E A N D G E O G R A P H Y : WH E R E T H I S R E S E A R C H F I T S I N T H E G E O G R A P H I C T R A D I T I O N 4 8 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 G e o r g e P e r k i n s M a r s h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 C a r l S a u e r a n d t h e B e r k e l e y s c h o o l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 G i l b e r t W h i t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 C o n n e c t i n g k a r s t s t u d i e s t o t h i s t r a d i t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7 5 R E G U L A T O R Y T E C H N I Q U E S U S E D I N M A N A G I N G D E V E L O P M E N T O N K A R S T : A N O V E R V I E W 6 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 C o m m o n l y u s e d r e g u l a t o r y t o o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1

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i i Z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 S u b d i v i s i o n o r d i n a n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 S t o r m w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t o r d i n a n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 S e t b a c k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 C o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 E x a m p l e s o f p o l i c y b a s e d a p p r o a c h e s t o k a r s t p r o t e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 M e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8 A p p a l a c h i a n b e l t ( V i r g i n i a P e n n s y l v a n i a M a r y l a n d N e w Y o r k N e w J e r s e y e a s t e r n T e n n e s s e e a n d e a s t e r n K e n t u c k y ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9 S o u t h e a s t ( F l o r i d a G e o r g i a S o u t h C a r o l i n a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 9 S o u t h c e n t r a l ( K e n t u c k y T e n n e s s e e n o r t h e r n A l a b a m a M i s s o u r i ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 G r e a t L a k e s ( I n d i a n a I l l i n o i s I o w a M i n n e s o t a W i s c o n s i n O h i o ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 T h e W e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 W h a t i t a l l m e a n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 0 6 H O W P L A N N E R S A N D L A N D U S E P R O F E S S I O N A L S U N D E R S T A N D K A R S T A N D K A R S T A WA R E L A N D U S E R E G U L A T I O N 9 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 M e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 S u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 S u r v e y R e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7 A m o r e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 T h e m e a n i n g o f r e s t r i c t i v e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 G o a l s e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i m p r o v e m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 H o w t h e e x t e n t o f t h e l o c a l k a r s t a f f e c t s c h o i c e o f r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 P r e v e n t a t i v e o r r e a c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d r e g u l a t o r y r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 7 I n i t i a t o r s v s r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 9 T h e i n f l u e n c e o f n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s v s r e g u l a t o r y r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 E x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s v s p r o p e n s i t y t o r e g u l a t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 0 7 S E T B A C K O R D I N A N C E S : A R E T H E Y E F F E C T I V E I N C O N T R O L L I N G D E N S I T Y I N K A R S T A R E A S ? A C A S E S T U D Y F R O M K E N T U C K Y A N D M I S S O U R I 1 3 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2 S e t b a c k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2 T h e s t u d y a r e a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 5 K a r s t r e g u l a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 6 D a t a a n d M e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 8 R e g r e s s i o n m o d e l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 4 R e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 6 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 9 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 5 8 S T R A T E G I C B E H A V I O R I N T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F K A R S T R E G U L A T I O N S : D O E S I T P A Y O F F ? A C A S E S T U D Y F R O M P E N N S Y L V A N I A 1 7 6 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 6 T h e s t u d y a r e a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 7 P e n n s y l v a n i a s k a r s t l a n d s c a p e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 9 L a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n i n P e n n s y l v a n i a a n d h o w k a r s t r e l a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 4 S t r a t e g i c b e h a v i o r a n d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 3 D a t a a n d m e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 5 R e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 3 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 2 9 T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F A P R O T E C T E D A R E A A P P R O A C H T O K A R S T P R O T E C T I O N A N D M A N A G E M E N T : A C A S E S T U D Y F R O M A P U S E N I N A T U R A L P A R K R O M A N I A 2 1 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 3

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i i i M e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 4 T h e s t u d y a r e a : R o m a n i a s A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 4 T h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a a p p r o a c h : a n o v e r v i e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 3 V i e w p o i n t s o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a a p p r o a c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 6 P r o t e c t e d a r e a r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e U K U S a n d A u s t r a l i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 8 M a m m o t h C a v e N a t i o n a l P a r k K e n t u c k y U S A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 9 M o l e C r e e k K a r s t N a t i o n a l P a r k a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n A r e a T a s m a n i a A u s t r a l i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 2 N a r a c o o r t e C a v e s N a t i o n a l P a r k A u s t r a l i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 5 Y o r k s h i r e D a l e s N a t i o n a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 6 T h e M a n a g e m e n t P l a n f o r A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 9 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 9 A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k s p l a n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 0 T h r e a t s a n d s o l u t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 3 G r o w i n g t o u r i s m a n d p r o t e c t i n g t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t : a r e t h e y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e g o a l s ? . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 A u t h o r i t y a n d a t t i t u d e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 4 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 9 1 0 C O N C L U S I O N : M O V I N G T O WA R D A F R A M E W O R K F O R K A R S T L A N D U S E R E G U L A T I O N S 2 6 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 3 A p p l i c a t i o n o f s y s t e m t h e o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 0 I n p u t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 3 O u t c o m e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 9 G e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 4 F u t u r e r e s e a r c h n e e d s a n d d i r e c t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 4 R E F E R E N C E S 2 8 6 A P P E N D I C E S 2 9 8 A P P E N D I X A : S U R V E Y O F L A N D U S E P R O F E S S I O N A L S I N K A R S T I C A R E A S I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S 2 9 9

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i v L I S T O F T A B LES T a b l e 5 1 E x a m p l e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e m p l o y i n g s e t b a c k b a s e d k a r s t l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 T a b l e 5 2 N e w J e r s e y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e l y i n g e x c l u s i v e l y o n t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t o r m w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e N J m o d e l k a r s t o r d i n a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 T a b l e 5 3 M o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s i n e a c h r e g i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 T a b l e 6 1 L o c a t i o n s o f s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 T a b l e 6 2 P e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 0 T a b l e 6 3 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e g u l a t o r y g o a l s a n d p e r c e i v e d r e g u l a t o r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 T a b l e 6 4 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c e i v e d r e g u l a t o r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d p e r c e p t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t i n l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 T a b l e 6 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e x t e n t o f l o c a l k a r s t s y s t e m s a n d t h e r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 T a b l e 6 6 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e l o c a l k a r s t s y s t e m a n d t h e p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f l o c a l k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 7 T a b l e 6 7 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 T a b l e 6 8 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 9 T a b l e 6 9 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n i t i a t o r s o f l o c a l k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s a n d p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 0 T a b l e 6 1 0 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d a n d i d e n t i t y o f r e g u l a t o r y i n i t i a t o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1 T a b l e 6 1 1 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f i n f l u e n c e o f n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d t h e p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r e s u l t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 T a b l e 6 1 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d a n d t h e l e v e l o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s d i s p l a y e d b y n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5 T a b l e 6 1 3 D i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s o f k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n b e t w e e n t o w n s t h a t d o r e g u l a t e a n d t o w n s t h a t d o n o t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 T a b l e 6 1 4 D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s a n d o b s e r v e d o u t c o m e s o f r e g u l a t i n g k a r s t ( m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t r e g u l a t e o n l y ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 T a b l e 7 1 S u m m a r y o f d a t a u s e d f o r r e g r e s s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 3 T a b l e 7 2 S i n k h o l e c o u n t s f o r e a c h c i t y i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 3 T a b l e 7 3 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 7

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v T a b l e 7 4 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 7 T a b l e 7 5 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 8 T a b l e 7 6 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 8 T a b l e 7 7 D i f f e r e n c e i n d i f f e r e n c e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 0 T a b l e 8 1 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n L e h i g h a n d N o r t h a m p t o n C o u n t i e s u n d e r l a i n b y k a r s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 8 T a b l e 8 2 Y e a r 2 0 0 0 d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a f o r t h e s i x P e n n s y l v a n i a c o u n t i e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 1 T a b l e 8 3 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e w h e r e l a n d u s e i n k a r s t t e r r a i n s f a c e s a d d i t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s o r m a n a g e m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 0 T a b l e 8 4 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 6 T a b l e 8 5 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 7 T a b l e 8 6 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 8 T a b l e 8 7 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 9 T a b l e 9 1 P a r k m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 2

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vi L I S T O F F I G U R ES F i g u r e 5 1 K a r s t r e g i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 F i g u r e 7 1 T h e s t u d y a r e a ( L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y ; L o u i s v i l l e K Y ; S p r i n g f i e l d M O ; S t L o u i s M O ) . . . 1 3 4 F i g u r e 7 2 P o t e n t i a l f o r k a r s t l a n d f o r m d e v e l o p m e n t i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y a n d v i c i n i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 6 F i g u r e 7 3 P o t e n t i a l f o r k a r s t l a n d f o r m d e v e l o p m e n t i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y a n d v i c i n i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 7 F i g u r e 7 4 B e d r o c k c o m p o s i t i o n i n S p r i n g f i e l d a n d G r e e n e C o u n t y M O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 8 F i g u r e 7 5 B e d r o c k c o m p o s i t i o n i n S t L o u i s M O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 9 F i g u r e 7 6 S i n k h o l e n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 2 F i g u r e 7 7 S i n k h o l e n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 2 F i g u r e 7 8 U n d e r g r o u n d p a s s a g e n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 3 F i g u r e 7 9 S i n k h o l e s n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 4 F i g u r e 7 1 0 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y i n 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 1 F i g u r e 7 1 1 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 2 F i g u r e 7 1 2 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 3 F i g u r e 7 1 3 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y i n 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 4 F i g u r e 7 1 4 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 5 F i g u r e 7 1 5 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 6 F i g u r e 7 1 6 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n S p r i n g f i e l d M O i n 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 7 F i g u r e 7 1 7 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n S p r i n g f i e l d M O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 8 F i g u r e 7 1 8 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n S p r i n g f i e l d M O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 9 F i g u r e 7 1 9 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n S t L o u i s M O i n 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 0 F i g u r e 7 2 0 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n S t L o u i s M O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 1 F i g u r e 7 2 1 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n S t L o u i s M O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 2 F i g u r e 7 2 2 L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y s u r b a n s e r v i c e a r e a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 2 F i g u r e 8 1 M a p p e d k a r s t p o i n t s i n t h e s i x c o u n t i e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 0 F i g u r e 8 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f k a r s t a n d r e g u l a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n s e l e c t e d P e n n s y l v a n i a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 8 F i g u r e 8 3 C h a n g e s i n m e d i a n h o m e v a l u e f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n s a m p l e 1 9 9 0 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 4 F i g u r e 8 4 T o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l p e r m i t s i s s u e d f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n s a m p l e 1 9 9 0 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 5 F i g u r e 9 1 A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k R o m a n i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 7

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vi i F i g u r e 9 2 L a n d u s e m a n a g e m e n t z o n e s i n A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 8 F i g u r e 9 3 A g r i c u l t u r e i n a d o l i n e n e a r S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 0 F i g u r e 9 4 A g r i c u l t u r e i n a d o l i n e a t S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 1 F i g u r e 9 5 N e w e r s t r u c t u r e s n e a r S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 1 F i g u r e 9 6 F a r m h o u s e a n d r o a d n e a r S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 2 F i g u r e 9 7 P a d i s k a r s t p l a t e a u A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 1 F i g u r e 9 8 C a b a n a P a d i s A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 6 F i g u r e 9 9 I l l e g a l c o n s t r u c t i o n n e a r C a b a n a P a d i s A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 6 F i g u r e 1 0 1 A k a r s t s y s t e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 2 F i g u r e 1 0 2 T h e k a r s t r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 4

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vi i i L a n d U s e P o l i c y a n d P r a c t i c e i n K a r s t T e r r a i n s E S pe nc e r F l e ur y A bs t r a c t K a r s t t opogr a phy i s t he r e s ul t of a s pe c i f i c c om b i n a t i on of ge ol ogi c a l c ondi t i ons pr e c i pi t a t i on, bi o t a a nd t e m pe r a t ur e a nd i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he g r a dua l s ol ut i on o f t he unde r l yi ng be dr oc k a nd t he de ve l opm e nt o f unde r gr ound dr a i na ge r out e s f or s ur f i c i a l r unof f M a ny of t he s e ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e f oun d i n ur ba ni z e d a r e a s w he r e t he pot e nt i a l f or a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t i s qui t e hi gh I n m a ny i n s t a nc e s m uni c i pa l i t i e s on ka r s t t e r r a i ns c hoos e t o m i t i ga t e t he s e i m pa c t s by i m pl e m e nt i ng or di na nc e s t ha t pl a c e r e s t r i c t i ons on pe r m i s s i bl e l a nd us e s ne a r ka r s t l a ndf or m s T h i s di s s e r t a t i on a s ks t he que s t i on: a r e t he i m pa c t s of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on on hu m a n / s oc i a l s ys t e m s s i gni f i c a nt e nough t o m e r i t c ons i de r a t i on dur i ng t he r e gul a t i on w r i t i n g a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s ? I n t he pr oc e s s of a ns w e r i ng t hi s que s t i on, i t i s hope d t ha t a br oa de r unde r s t a ndi ng w i l l be de ve l ope d of how l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e us e d t o c ont r ol a nd r e gul a t e hum a n a c t i vi t y on ka r s t l a nds pa r t i c ul a r l y ( but not e xc l us i ve l y) i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ; a nd t ha t t he c onc l us i ons dr a w n f r om t ha t ove r vi e w m i ght s e r ve a s t he be gi nni ngs of a ge ne r a l l y a ppl i c a bl e f r a m e w or k f or t he de ve l opm e nt o f ka r s t r e gul a t i on.

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1 1 I n tr o d u c ti o n K a r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e w i de s pr e a d t hr oughout t he w or l d. S pe c i f i c e s t i m a t e s of t he w or l dw i de e xt e nt of ka r s t va r y: W i l l i a m s ( 1993) p l a c e s t he f i gur e a t 25 % o f t he e a r t h s s ur f a c e w i t h 40 % of a l l hum a ns dr a w i ng d r i nki ng w a t e r f r om ka r s t a qui f e r s ; W hi t e e t a l ( 1995) put t he w o r l dw i de f i gu r e a t 20% o f t he e a r t h s dr y l a nd s ur f a c e i nc l ud i ng f ul l y 40% of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s e a s t of t he c i t y o f T ul s a O kl a hom a R e ga r dl e s s of t he a c t ua l pe r c e nt a ge i t i s c l e a r t ha t hund r e ds of m i l l i ons of pe opl e l i ve on ka r s t l a nds c a pe s D e s pi t e t hi s ka r s t a nd ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s a r e f r e q ue nt l y i gnor e d o r ove r l ooke d by t he ge ne r a l publ i c i nc l udi ng t hos e w ho l i ve i n he a vi l y ka r s t i f i e d a r e a s K a r s t t opogr a phy i s t he r e s ul t of a s pe c i f i c c om bi n a t i on of ge ol ogi c a l c ondi t i ons pr e c i pi t a t i on, bi o t a a nd t e m pe r a t u r e K a r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he g r a dua l s ol ut i on of t he unde r l yi ng be dr o c k a nd t he de ve l op m e nt of unde r gr ound d r a i na ge r out e s f or s ur f i c i a l r uno f f T he s e pr oc e s s e s of t e n pr oduc e l a ndf or m s t ha t a r e f a m i l i a r e ve n t o pe opl e w ho ha ve ne ve r he a r d t he w or d ka r s t i nc l udi ng s i nkhol e s s pr i ngs a nd c a ve s M a ny of t he s e ka r s t l a nds c a p e s a r e f ound i n ur ba ni z e d a r e a s w he r e t he pot e nt i a l f or a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t i s qui t e hi gh U nc ont r ol l e d i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n hum a n popul a t i ons a nd ka r s t l a nds c a pe s c a n r e s ul t i n s e r i o us e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s K a r s t a qui f e r s a r e c om m on s our c e s of dr i nki ng w a t e r no t onl y f or pe opl e w ho l i ve on t he ka r s t l a nds t he m s e l ve s but a l s o f or pe opl e w ho l i ve ne a r by a nd l a c k c onve ni e nt a c c e s s t o ot he r w a t e r s our c e s W a t e r f r om ka r s t a qui f e r s i s f r e que nt l y us e d f or i ndus t r i a l a nd a gr i c ul t ur a l

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2 pur pos e s a nd i s t hus a n i m po r t a nt i npu t i nt o m a ny l oc a l or r e gi ona l e c onom i e s B ut be c a us e of t he s pe c i f i c phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of k a r s t t he s e a qui f e r s a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y s us c e pt i bl e t o c ont a m i na t i on or ot he r a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t ; s uc h de gr a da t i on c a n ha ve s e ve r e e f f e c t s on d r i nki ng w a t e r s uppl i e s a nd c a n e ve n r e nde r w a t e r us e l e s s f or i ndus t r i a l a nd a gr i c ul t ur a l pu r pos e s O t he r ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s a r e not di r e c t l y t i e d t o g r oundw a t e r qua l i t y i s s ue s but a r e i m por t a nt none t he l e s s O ve r pum pi ng g r oundw a t e r f r om a ka r s t a qui f e r c a n l e a d t o l a nd s ubs i de nc e ; t he s e s ubs i de n c e e ve nt s c a n t he n t hr e a t e n publ i c a nd p r i va t e pr ope r t y, r oa ds s e w e r s a nd ot he r i n f r a s t r uc t ur e a nd oc c a s i ona l l y e ve n hum a n l i f e A nd ka r s t l a ndf or m s c a ve s i n pa r t i c ul a r of t e n of f e r a w e a l t h of i nf or m a t i on f o r a v a r i e t y of s c i e nt i f i c di s c i pl i ne s ( ge ol ogy, ge om o r phol ogy, bi ol ogy, c l i m a t ol ogy e t c ) D a m a ge t o ka r s t l a ndf or m s of t e n ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t s t he a bi l i t y of s c i e nt i s t s t o c onduc t ne w r e s e a r c h i n t he s e a nd ot he r f i e l ds U l t i m a t e l y, t he i s s ue r e duc e s t o t hi s : ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e s i m ul t a ne ous l y va l ua bl e a nd f r a gi l e a nd hum a ns ha ve a l ong hi s t or y of i na dve r t e nt l y da m a gi ng o r de s t r oyi ng ka r s t s ys t e m s t hr ough i na ppr opr i a t e us e o r i na dve r t e nt i m pa c t ( B a c k, 1983) K a r s t l a nds c a pe s c a n be c ons i de r e d s ys t e m s i n a nd of t he m s e l ve s w i t h a s pe c i f i c s e t of c ondi t i ons r e qui r e d t o m a i nt a i n e qui l i br i um ; r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t hi s e qui l i b r i um m e a ns s t a s i s or c ha nge a t a gi ve n r a t e t he ne c e s s a r y c ondi t i ons i nc l ude e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t or s s uc h a s t e m pe r a t ur e w a t e r a va i l a bi l i t y a nd t he pr e s e nc e of c a r bon di oxi de i n t he ove r bur de n. S i m i l a r l y hum a n s oc i e t i e s c a n a l s o be vi e w e d a s s ys t e m s w i t h a not he r s e t o f c ondi t i ons r e qui r e d f o r e qui l i br i um W i t hout i nt e r v e nt i on vi a t he r e gul a t or y p r oc e s s i t m a y be di f f i c ul t i f not i m pos s i bl e f or bot h s ys t e m s t o m a i nt a i n t he i r r e s pe c t i ve e qui l i br i a

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3 T he r e f or e i t m a y be ne c e s s a r y t o r e gul a t e a nd l i m i t c e r t a i n t ype s of hum a n a c t i vi t i e s i n s om e ka r s t t e r r a i ns A s i n t he r e s t o f t he w or l d, ka r s t i s o f t e n f ound w i t hi n de ns e l y popul a t e d ur ba n o r s ubur b a n a r e a s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ; i n t he s e l oc a t i ons one c a n a l w a ys f i nd e xa m pl e s of l a nd us e or ot he r hum a n a c t i vi t y t ha t pos e a pot e nt i a l da nge r t o ka r s t s ys t e m s M a ny j ur i s di c t i ons t he r e f or e f i nd i t w or t hw hi l e t o i m pos e s om e l i m i t a t i ons on how l a nd m a y be us e d i n t he vi c i ni t y of ka r s t l a ndf or m s S om e t i m e s t he s e r e s t r i c t i ons a r e s e r i ous ; m or e f r e que nt l y, t he y a r e no t e s pe c i a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a nd a s a r e s ul t a r e m uc h l e s s l i ke l y t o i m pa c t l a nd us e pa t t e r ns i n a ny not i c e a bl e or m e a n i ngf ul w a y. T hi s d i ve r ge nc e c a n be a t t r i but e d f a c t or s i nc l udi ng di f f e r e nc e s i n t he a va i l a bi l i t y of da t a or s pe c i a l i z e d t e c hni c a l know l e dge di f f e r e nc e s i n l oc a l pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e s a nd pr i or i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s i n t he e xt e nt of t he ka r s t s ys t e m s i n que s t i on. O t he r f a c t o r s m a y be t he a bs e nc e of a ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d a ppr oa c h t o de ve l opi ng ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on, or t he l a c k o f a c om pr e he ns i ve unde r s t a ndi ng of how ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on w or ks L oc a l gove r nm e nt s a nd ot he r r e gul a t i ng e nt i t i e s a r e us ua l l y l e f t t o t he i r ow n de v i c e s t o c r e a t e a n a ppr op r i a t e s c he m e f or r e gul a t i ng l a nd us e a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns T hi s s i t ua t i on c a n l e a d t o dupl i c a t e d e f f or t a c r os s j ur i s di c t i ons a s w e l l a s r e gul a t or y s c he m e s t ha t a r e i na ppr opr i a t e f o r t he ka r s t s ys t e m i n que s t i on. A s w i t h a ny f o r m o f l a nd us e r e gul a t i on, a t t e m pt s t o i m pl e m e nt de ve l opm e nt r e s t r i c t i ons ba s e d on t he pr oxi m i t y o f ka r s t c a n f a c e s e r i ous r e s i s t a nc e O ne of t he m os t l i ke l y s our c e s of s uc h r e s i s t a nc e i s t he c om m uni t y of l a nd s pe c ul a t or s a nd de ve l ope r s w ho f e a r t he i r pr o j e c t s w i l l be di r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t he r e gul a t i on. H e r e que s t i ons of l a nd e c onom i c s c a n a nd do dr i ve po l i c y, of t e n vi a pol i t i c a l pr e s s ur e e xe r t e d by gr oups t ha t

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4 f e a r l os i ng pot e nt i a l pr of i t s a s t he r e s ul t o f ne w r e g ul a t i on. U l t i m a t e l y, a ny r e g ul a t or y s c he m e t o be i m pl e m e nt e d m us t be a ) a ppr op r i a t e t o t he ka r s t s ys t e m a nd b) of m i ni m a l ( or a s m i ni m a l a s pos s i bl e ) i m pa c t t o t he s oc i a l s ys t e m s t ha t ope r a t e a bove t he ka r s t ; t hi s i s m or e t r ue of ur ba ni z e d ka r s t a r e a s t ha n i t i s o f p r ot e c t e d a r e a s l i ke na t i ona l pa r ks w hi c h ge ne r a l l y ha ve l ow p opul a t i on de ns i t i e s The purpose of this dissertatio n T he r e doe s e xi s t a body of l i t e r a t ur e r e l a t i ng t o r e g ul a t i ng l a nd us e i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns ( e g D oughe r t y, 1989; R ubi n, 1992 ; D ou ghe r t y, 1993; L a M or e a ux, e t a l 1997; U r i c h, 2002; R i c ha r ds on, 2003 ) ; t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng ka r s t p r ot e c t i on pol i c y w i t hi n pr ot e c t e d a r e a s i s pa r t i c ul a r l y r obus t H ow e ve r t he r e i s no s i ngl e c om pr e he ns i ve ove r vi e w of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on t e c hni que s f r om w hi c h t o dr a w i ns i ght r e ga r di ng how l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons gove r n t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n hum a n s ys t e m s a nd ka r s t s ys t e m s B e c a u s e of t he e xt e nt i m por t a nc e a nd f r a gi l i t y of ka r s t l a nds c a pe s s uc h a n ove r vi e w w oul d be qui t e va l ua bl e i n e f f or t s t o p r ot e c t ka r s t r e s our c e s l i ke a qu i f e r s s pr i ngs a nd c a ve s f r om t he e f f e c t s of unc he c ke d hum a n e nc r oa c hm e nt T he goa l s of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a r e t he r e f or e t w of ol d: f i r s t t o de ve l op a br oa d unde r s t a ndi ng o f how l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e us e d t o c ont r ol a nd r e gul a t e hum a n a c t i vi t y on ka r s t l a nds pa r t i c ul a r l y ( but not e xc l us i ve l y) i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ; a nd s e c ond, t o dr a w c onc l us i ons f r om t ha t ove r vi e w t ha t c a n s e r ve a s t he be gi nn i ngs of a ge n e r a l l y a ppl i c a bl e f r a m e w or k f o r t he de ve l opm e nt of ka r s t r e gul a t i on. I t i s ul t i m a t e l y t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd t he i r a c c om pa nyi ng l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons on t he one ha nd, a nd hum a n / s oc i a l s ys t e m s ( l i ke c i t i e s a nd e c onom i e s ) on t he ot he r t ha t i s unde r e xa m i na t i on he r e S om e t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or ks

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5 pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e us e d i n e c onom i c s w oul d s ugge s t t ha t ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e l i ke l y t o ha ve a n i m pa c t on c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of t he s e hum a n / s oc i a l s ys t e m s l i ke hous i ng de ns i t i e s or ove r a l l e c onom i c he a l t h. B ut doe s t ha t ha ppe n? C a n e xa m pl e s of t hi s i m pa c t be i de nt i f i e d a nd qua nt i f i e d? A r e t he s e i m pa c t s s i gni f i c a nt t o t he poi nt t ha t l a nd us e pl a nne r s a nd pol i c ym a ke r s s hou l d c ons i de r t he m du r i ng t he r e gul a t i on w r i t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on p r oc e s s ? T o a ns w e r t hi s ove r a r c hi ng que s t i on, I w i l l a ddr e s s i n t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on f i ve r e l a t e d, m or e f oc us e d r e s e a r c h que s t i ons e a c h of w hi c h e xa m i ne s a di s t i nc t a s pe c t of m y ove r a l l r e s e a r c h que s t i on a nd ha s gone l a r ge l y una ddr e s s e d i n t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t u r e T he s e a r e : H ow do l oc a l ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons di f f e r a c r o s s t he U S f r om s t a t e t o s t a t e or r e gi on t o r e gi on? W ha t c a n t he a t t i t ude s op i ni ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s o f pl a nne r s e xpl a i n a bout l oc a l ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on? D o s e t ba c k or di na nc e s ha ve a pe r c e pt i bl e e f f e c t on hous i ng de ns i t y? I s i t w or t hw h i l e f o r pl a nne r s t o e nga ge i n s t r a t e gi c be ha v i or i n t he r e gul a t i on de ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s ? H ow c a n s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c f a c t or s a f f e c t t he de ve l opm e nt of pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt pl a ns ? I n a ns w e r i ng t he s e f i ve que s t i ons m y c ont r i but i on t o t he f i e l d o f ka r s t ge ogr a phy w i l l be not onl y t o pr ovi de t he i l l u m i na t i on o f t he a ns w e r s t o t he s e s pe c i f i c que s t i ons but a l s o t o be gi n ge ne r a t i ng a bi g pi c t u r e unde r s t a ndi n g of how m yr i a d f a c t or s i n t he ka r s t

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6 a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i on p r oc e s s i m pa c t t he hum a n / s oc i a l s ys t e m s t ha t c hoos e t o i m pl e m e nt t he m The study areas T he s pe c i f i c s t udy a r e a s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on c ha nge w i t h e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on. I n que s t i on one I e xa m i ne ka r s t r e l a t e d c om pone nt s of l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s Q ue s t i on t w o i s s om e w ha t m or e l i m i t e d a s I s ur ve ye d l a nd us e pl a nne r s f r om s i x s t a t e s ( F l or i da K e nt uc ky, M i s s our i N e w J e r s e y, P e nns yl va ni a a nd T e nne s s e e ) I n que s t i on t h r e e I e xa m i ne s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons us i ng s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s i n f our A m e r i c a n c i t i e s : L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y, K e nt uc ky; L oui s vi l l e K e nt uc ky; S pr i ngf i e l d M i s s our i a nd S t L oui s M i s s our i F or que s t i on f our on s t r a t e gi c be ha vi o r i n t he r e gul a t o r y pr oc e s s I l ook f or a ns w e r s i n t h e c i t i e s t ow ns a nd bo r oughs of t he ka r s t i c r e gi ons of s out he a s t e r n P e nns yl va ni a F i na l l y, R om a ni a s A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k s e r ve s a s t he pr i m a r y s t udy a r e a f or que s t i on f i ve w i t h pa r ks i n A us t r a l i a t he U ni t e d K i ngdom a nd t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a l s o i nc l ude d a s c ont r ol s S pe c i f i c j us t i f i c a t i ons f o r t he s e c hoi c e s c a n be f ound i n t he r e s pe c t i ve c ha pt e r s a s t hos e j us t i f i c a t i ons a r e be s t unde r s t ood i n c ont e xt of t he s pe c i f i c s of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t he m s e l ve s ; how e ve r t he i s s ue of da t a a va i l a bi l i t y pl a ye d a m a j or r ol e i n t he s e l e c t i on of e a c h s t udy a r e a The structure of thi s dissertati on T he di s s e r t a t i on be gi ns w i t h t he l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w w hi c h i s br oke n i nt o t hr e e c ha pt e r s : f i r s t a s ur ve y of t he r e l e va nt ka r s t l i t e r a t ur e w i t h a n e m pha s i s on de ve l opi ng a n unde r s t a ndi ng of w ha t ka r s t i s how ka r s t s ys t e m s de ve l op a nd w or k, a nd t he s pe c i f i c na t ur e of t he a nt hr opoge ni c t hr e a t s t he y f a c e ; ne xt a r e vi e w o f t he pol i c y a na l ys i s

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7 l i t e r a t ur e w i t h s pe c i a l a t t e nt i on pa i d t o a na l yt i c a l t e c hni que s us e d i n t he di s s e r t a t i on; a nd f i na l l y, a di s c us s i on of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on s pl a c e w i t hi n t he di s c i pl i ne o f ge ogr a phy C ha pt e r F i ve c on s i s t s of a n ove r vi e w of r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s us e d i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f o l l ow e d by t he r e s ul t s of a n onl i ne s ur ve y o f l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s a nd pol i c ym a ke r s w or ki ng i n ka r s t a r e a s i n s i x s t a t e s ( C ha pt e r S i x) I n C ha pt e r s S e ve n a nd E i ght I e xpl or e t he l oc a l i z e d i m pa c t s on hum a n s ys t e m s t ha t c a n oc c ur a s t he r e s ul t o f t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. C ha pt e r N i ne de ve l ops t he t he m e of p r ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt a nd how i t a ppl i e s t o ka r s t l a nds bot h w i t hi n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd a br oa d F i na l l y i n C h a pt e r T e n, I a ppl y t he c onc l us i ons r e a c he d i n t he p r e c e di ng c ha pt e r s t o t he t a s k of de ve l opi ng a f r a m e w or k f o r ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. S om e of t he m e t hods us e d t o c onduc t t hi s r e s e a r c h i nc l ude : a r c hi va l / t e xt ua l a na l ys i s ; l i ne a r a nd m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on; a nd onl i ne s ur ve ys A w i de a r r a y o f ge ogr a phi c a nd s oc i oe c onom i c da t a w e r e us e d, i nc l udi ng s i nkhol e m a ps popul a t i on de ns i t y da t a popul a t i on c ha nge r a t e s a nd hom e va l ue s a m ong o t he r s D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t a l l t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons e xa m i ne d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a r e r e l a t e d, t he y a l l ha ve d i f f e r e nt da t a a nd a na l ys i s r e qui r e m e nt s F or t hi s r e a s on, a l l m e t hodol ogi c a l de s c r i pt i ons a r e c ont a i ne d w i t hi n t he a ppr op r i a t e r e s e a r c h c ha pt e r T he s e m e t hodol ogi c a l de s c r i pt i ons a r e m or e us e f ul w he n pr e s e nt e d w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of t he s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t he y a r e de s i gne d t o a ns w e r

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8 2 K a r s t p r o c e s s e s l a n d f o r m s a n d i s s u e s Introduction B e f or e a ny di s c us s i on c a n t a ke pl a c e on l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns a m or e t hor ough unde r s t a ndi ng of t he uni que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of ka r s t l a nds c a pe s i s ne c e s s a r y. T hi s c ha pt e r w i l l de s c r i be t he ba s i c pr o c e s s e s by w hi c h ka r s t l a nds c a pe s e vol ve t he l a ndf o r m s t ha t a r e c r e a t e d du r i ng t he s e pr oc e s s e s a nd t he e nvi r on m e nt a l i s s ue s t h a t m us t be c ons i de r e d w he ne ve r hum a ns oc c upy ka r s t l a nds Karst processes K a r s t i s a l a nds c a pe t ype c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he pr e s e nc e of c a r bona t e be dr oc k t ha t ha s be e n s ubj e c t e d t o s l ow di s s ol ut i on pr oc e s s e s c a us e d by a pa r t i c ul a r c om b i na t i on of t e m pe r a t ur e c he m i s t r y a nd s oi l a c i di t y K a r s t p r oc e s s e s t ypi c a l l y r e s ul t i n t he de ve l opm e nt of a ny nu m be r o f vi s i bl e s ur f a c e a nd s ubs ur f a c e f e a t ur e s i nc l udi ng l a ndf or m s l i ke s i nkhol e s c a ve s a nd s pr i ngs G e ne r a l l y s pe a ki ng, t he dom i na nt ge om or phol ogi c pr oc e s s i n ka r s t l a nds i s s ol ut i on l e a vi ng m e c ha ni c a l e r os i on pr oc e s s e s w i t h a l e s s s i gni f i c a nt r ol e t ha n i s c om m on e l s e w he r e ( W hi t e 1988; W hi t e e t a l 1995; P a l m e r 2007 ; F o r d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007 ) A c r i t i c a l c om pone nt of ka r s t f e a t ur e de ve l opm e nt i s t he a c i di t y of t he s ol ut i on c om i ng i nt o c ont a c t w i t h t he be dr oc k. K a r s t f or m s pr i m a r i l y ( but no t e xc l us i ve l y) i n l i m e s t one be dr oc k, w hi c h us ua l l y c ons i s t s m a i nl y of c a l c i t e ( ot he r c a r bona t e m i ne r a l s m a y a l s o be pr e s e nt ) T he a c i di t y c om e s f r o m c a r b on di oxi de l e f t by de c a yi ng b i ol ogi c a l

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9 m a t e r i a l i n t he ove r bur de n; s ur f a c e w a t e r s e e ps t hr ough t he ove r bur de n pi c ki ng up t he c a r bon di oxi de a nd be c om i ng s l i ght l y a c i di c W he n t hi s a c i di c w a t e r c om e s i nt o c ont a c t w i t h t he c a r bona t e be dr oc k i t s e e ks c r a c ks a nd f i s s ur e s i n t he r o c k, w hi c h a r e t he n gr a dua l l y w i de ne d a s t he c a l c i t e r e a c t s w i t h t he c a r boni c a c i d. T hi s w a t e r i s ge ne r a l l y a bl e t o di s s ol ve be t w e e n 0. 07 a nd 0. 17 c m 3 of c a l c i t e pe r l i t e r ( P a l m e r 2007 ) T hi s r e a c t i on c a n t a ke a s l ong a s s e ve r a l m i nu t e s t o be gi n, de pe ndi ng on s pe c i f i c s i t e c ondi t i ons l i ke t e m pe r a t ur e a nd a c i di t y ( D r e ybr odt 2004 ) H ow e ve r w he n t h i s r e a c t i on f i r s t oc c ur s m os t of t he w a t e r s d i s s ol ut i on pot e nt i a l i s s pe nt ove r t he s pa c e of j us t a f e w m e t e r s ( D r e ybr odt 1988 ) O nc e di s s ol ut i on of t he be dr oc k be gi ns a ne t w or k of gr oove s pi l l a r s a nd c l e f t s f o r m s on t he be dr oc k s s ur f a c e a n d pe r m i t s f a s t e r de s c e nt of s ur f a c e w a t e r i nt o t he s ubs ur f a c e w he r e i t e xpe nds t he r e m a i nde r of i t s di s s ol ut i on pot e nt i a l i n t he be dr oc k s j oi nt s a nd f r a c t ur e s D i s s ol ut i on c ondui t s t he n f or m a l ong t he s e f r a c t ur e s w hi c h gr ow l a r ge r a s s l i ght l y a c i di c w a t e r c ont i nue s t o dr a i n i nt o t he m ( W hi t e e t a l 1995) T hi s i s a l ong t e r m oc c ur r e nc e ; t he di s s ol ut i on pr oc e s s ge ne r a l l y m us t w or k f or t hous a nds of ye a r s t o pr oduc e a n ope ni n g i n t he be dr oc k e xt e ndi ng f o r 100 m e t e r s or m or e ( F o r d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007 ) T he s e ga ps i n t he be dr oc k c a n t he n s e r ve a s a c ol l e c t or f or i ns ol ubl e s ur f a c e m a t e r i a l w a s hi ng t h r ough t he dr a i n, l e a di ng t o t he f or m a t i on of a s i nkhol e ( W hi t e 1988 ) Common kar st lan dforms K a r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e c ha r a c t e r i z e d by a num be r o f di s t i nc t l a ndf or m s I n a r e a s w he r e ge ol ogi c a nd c l i m a t i c c ondi t i ons a r e i de a l f o r ka r s t de ve l opm e nt t he a c t ua l phys i c a l f or m t a ke n by ka r s t f e a t ur e s i s hi ghl y de p e nde nt on s pe c i f i c l oc a l c ondi t i ons W hi l e s om e ka r s t l a ndf or m s ( f or e xa m pl e c a nyons gor ge s a nd c l i f f s ) c a n be qui t e

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10 s pe c t a c ul a r a nd i m pos i ng, t he l a nd f or m s a t t he c e n t e r of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on ge ne r a l l y ha ve a l ow e r pr of i l e bot h phys i c a l l y a nd i n t he m i nds of m os t pe opl e t ha n l a ndf o r m s l i ke m ount a i ns f l ood pl a i ns a nd r i ve r s T he s e ka r s t l a n df or m s a l s o ge ne r a l l y l a c k t he vi e w s he d pr ovi de d by ot he r be t t e r know n l a nd f or m s w hi c h m a y be a f a c t or i n t he r e gul a t or y pr oc e s s : i e a l a c k o f w i de s pr e a d publ i c a w a r e ne s s of ka r s t l a ndf or m s m a y t r a ns l a t e i nt o a l a c k o f pol i t i c a l w i l l t o r e gul a t e ne a r by de ve l opm e nt a nd l a nd us e I n or de r t o di s c us s l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t ha t a r e t i e d t o t he pr e s e nc e of pa r t i c ul a r l a ndf or m s s om e know l e dge o f t he s e l a ndf o r m s i s r e qui r e d. I n pa r t i c ul a r unde r s t a ndi n g t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of ka r s t l a ndf o r m s i s a p r e r e qui s i t e t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he i s s ue s i nvol ve d i n hum a n ka r s t i nt e r a c t i on A ddi t i ona l l y de ve l opi ng t hi s ki nd o f unde r s t a ndi ng c a n he l p c l a r i f y w hy ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i o n t a ke s t he f or m t ha t i t doe s i n a gi ve n l oc a t i on, a nd w hy i t t a ke s a not he r f or m s om e w he r e e l s e T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on p r ovi de s de s c r i pt i ons of s e ve r a l t ype s of ka r s t l a ndf or m s f o c us i ng on t hos e m os t r e l e va nt t o t he di s s e r t a t i on: s i nkhol e s c a ve s a nd s pr i ngs A s um m a r y of s om e ot he r ka r s t l a ndf or m t ype s i s a l s o i nc l ude d. Sinkholes (dolines) S i nkhol e s a r e a n e xt r e m e l y c om m on t ype of ka r s t l a ndf or m c r e a t e d by t he s ubs i de nc e of s oi l s a nd r oc k a t o r ne a r t he l a nd s ur f a c e i nt o s ubs ur f a c e voi ds W he r e ve r s i nkhol e s a r e f ound, t he unde r l yi ng ka r s t s ys t e m c a n be a s s um e d t o be f ul l y de ve l ope d; how e ve r t he a bs e nc e of s i nkhol e s doe s not i m pl y a l a c k of de ve l ope d ka r s t be ne a t h t he s ur f a c e ( F or d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007) T he y a r e o f t e n l oc a t e d i n a r e a s w he r e s ol ubl e r oc k i s ne a r t he s ur f a c e e i t he r c om pl e t e l y e xpos e d or be n e a t h a l a ye r of t ops oi l T he r e s ul t i ng de pr e s s i ons t e nd t o ha ve t he s ha pe s of bow l s or f u nne l s T he r e i s no s t a nda r d s i nkhol e

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11 s i z e : di a m e t e r s c a n r a nge f r om one t o 1000 m e t e r s a nd de pt hs of s e ve r a l hundr e d m e t e r s ha ve be e n r e por t e d ; how e ve r de pt hs o f l e s s t ha n a m e t e r a r e f a r m o r e c om m on ( W hi t e 1988; U pc hur c h a nd R a nda z z o, 1997; B e r ndt O a k s f or d, a nd M a hon, 1998; F or d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007, P a l m e r 2007 ) T he f or m a t i on of a c l os e d s i nkhol e r e qui r e s t hr e e c om pone nt s : a dr a i n, t hr ough w hi c h i nt e r na l r unof f i s c a r r i e d a w a y f r om t he l a nd s ur f a c e a nd t hr ough t he be d r oc k be l ow ; a z one of be dr oc k m odi f i e d by s ol ut i on ( c a r r i e d dow nw a r d by t he dr a i n) l oc a t e d a t or ne a r t he s ur f a c e ; a nd a c ove r of s oi l o r s om e ot h e r m a t e r i a l m a ki ng up t he l a nd s ur f a c e t hough i n s om e a r e a s t hi s c ove r m a y be a bs e nt ( w h e n t ha t c ove r i s a bs e nt ope n s i nkhol e s c a n s t i l l f or m ) W he r e t he s e t hr e e c om pone nt s a r e pr e s e nt s i nkhol e s c a n f or m t hr ough a ny of t h r e e di s t i nc t pr oc e s s e s : a gr a dua l di s s ol ut i o n of t he c a r bona t e be dr oc k, us ua l l y oc c ur r i ng ve r y ne a r t he be dr oc k s ur f a c e but s om e t i m e s e xt e ndi ng l ow e r ; t he t r a ns por t o f i ns ol ubl e s i nt o voi ds i n t he s ubs ur f a c e vi a pi pi ng i n w a s hi ng a nd gr a vi t a t i ona l c ol l a ps e ; a nd be dr oc k t r a ns por t i ng i nt o unde r gr ound pa s s a g e s or c a vi t i e s w he n t he r oof a bove s uc h a voi d c ol l a ps e s ( W hi t e 1988 ) S i nkhol e de ve l opm e nt c a n t he n be t r i gge r e d by a ny m e c ha ni s m t ha t i nc r e a s e s t he he a d di f f e r e nt i a l be t w e e n t he a r t e s i a n w a t e r i n t he l i m e s t one a nd t he pe r c he d w a t e r i n t he s ur f a c e s a nds be c a us e t he dow nw a r d f l ow a nd dow nw a s hi ng of s e di m e nt a r e bot h i nc r e a s e d a s w e l l ( B e c k, 1986 p 12 ) D i f f e r e nt r e s our c e s w i l l of t e n p r ovi de c onf l i c t i ng n um be r s a nd de s c r i pt i ons of s i nkhol e t ype s T he s e de f i ni t i ons a r e ge ne r a l l y ba s e d on t he s pe c i f i c p r oc e s s e s by w hi c h a s i nkhol e w a s f or m e d; how e ve r F o r d a nd W i l l i a m s ( 2007) poi nt ou t t ha t i n f a c t m os t s i nkhol e s ha ve a pol yge ne t i c or i gi n. N e ve r t he l e s s f or s i m pl i c i t y s s a ke i t i s c om m on t o de f i ne s i nkhol e t ype s by t he ge ne t i c pr oc e s s t ha t pr e dom i na t e d dur i ng t he f or m a t i on

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12 s t a ge I n a w i de l y c i t e d pa pe r W a l t ha m a nd F ooke s ( 2003) i de nt i f i e d a nd de s c r i be d s i x s i nkhol e t ype s : di s s ol ut i on s i nkhol e s c ol l a ps e s i nkhol e s c a pr oc k s i nkhol e s dr opout s i nkhol e s s uf f os i on s i nkhol e s a nd bur i e d s i nkhol e s D i s s ol ut i on s i nkhol e s e vol ve ove r ge ol ogi c t i m e s c a l e s a nd oc c ur w he r e be dr oc k i s e x pos e d a t t he s ur f a c e ; t he f or m a t i on pr oc e s s be gi ns w i t h de pr e s s i ons i n t he e xpos e d be dr oc k. T he di s s ol ut i on pr oc e s s i s c ont i nuous oc c ur r i ng a s w a t e r m ove s dow n t he s i de s of t he de pr e s s i on a nd i nt o t he be dr oc k, t hr ough t he s i nk s d r a i n. D i s s ol ut i on s i nks a r e us ua l l y c i r c ul a r but t he y c a n e l onga t e i ns t e a d i f t he y a r e l oc a t e d a l ong m a j or f r a c t ur e s T he s e s i nks c a n ( a nd o f t e n do) c ont i nue t o e xpa nd unt i l t he e dge r e a c he s t he e dge of a not he r s i nk I n s om e c a s e s t he s i nk s dr a i n m a y be c om e pl ugge d by de br i s t ha t ha s w a s he d i nt o i t W he n t ha t ha ppe ns w a t e r f l ow i ng i nt o t he s i nk c a nnot e s c a pe i nt o t he s ubs ur f a c e a nd ponds or w e t l a nds c a n f or m ( W hi t e 1988; U S G S 1999; W a l t ha m a nd F o oke s 2003; F o r d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007 ) C ol l a ps e s i nks f or m vi a c ol l a ps e w i t hi n t he be dr oc k a bove a pr e e xi s t i ng c a ve pa s s a ge or s ol ut i on c a vi t y. C ol l a ps e s i nkhol e s a r e not c om m on, a nd a r e ge ne r a l l y s m a l l s c a l e e ve nt s T he r e a r e s om e e xc e pt i ons : X i a oz ha i t i na ke ng, i n s out hw e s t e r n C hi na i s a c ol l a ps e s i nkhol e t ha t i s ove r 500 m e t e r s de e p a nd 600 m e t e r s a c r os s O t he r i m pr e s s i ve e xa m pl e s of l a r ge s c a l e c ol l a ps e s i nkhol e s c a n be f ound i n P a pua N e w G ui ne a a nd C r oa t i a ( F or d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007) W he n t he y do de ve l op, c ol l a ps e s i nks c a n f or m ve r y qui c kl y s om e t i m e s i n a m a t t e r o f hou r s a nd us ua l l y oc c ur w he r e t he s ur f a c e s e di m e nt s c ont a i n a hi gh pe r c e nt a ge o f c l a y. T he s e c l a ye y s e di m e nt s s pa l l i nt o t he vo i d be l ow e ve nt ua l l y w e a ke ni ng t he c a vi t y s r oo f be a m s O n c e t he be a m s ha ve w e a ke ne d e nough, t he c a vi t y s be dr oc k r oof c ol l a ps e s i nt o i t T he p r e s e nc e of ve r t i c a l s ol ut i on pa s s a ge s a l ong j oi nt s or f r a c t ur e s c a n w o r k t o f a c i l i t a t e t hi s pr oc e s s a s c a n pr e s s ur e f r om

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13 s t r uc t ur e s on t he l a nd s ur f a c e i t s e l f ( W hi t e 1988 ; W hi t e e t a l 1995; U S G S 1999; W a l t ha m a nd F ooke s 2003 ) C a pr oc k s i nkhol e s a r e s i m i l a r t o c ol l a ps e s i nks e xc e pt f or t he pr e s e nc e of i ns ol ubl e c a pr oc k a bove t he l i m e s t one c a vi t y. T he s e s i nkhol e s a r e ge ne r a l l y l i m i t e d t o pa l e oka r s t t e r r a i ns ( W a l t ha m a nd F ooke s 2003) F or d a nd W i l l i a m s ( 2007) di s t i ngui s h c ol l a ps e s i nkhol e s f r om s ubs i de nc e s i nkhol e s on t he ba s i s t ha t t he l a t t e r r a r e l y i nc l ude dr a m a t i c br e a ks i n t he ove r bur de n D r opout s i nkhol e s a r e a t ype of s ubs i de nc e s i nkhol e t ha t f o r m w he n s ur f a c e w a t e r w a s he s s e di m e nt s dow nw a r ds t hr ough f i s s ur e s or pi pe s i n t he unde r l yi ng ka r s t be ne a t h a c ohe s i ve s oi l c ove r O nc e e nough s e di m e nt ha s be e n pi pe d a w a y, t he gr ound s ur f a c e c a n c ol l a ps e i nt o t he voi d ve r y qui c kl y T he s e s i nkhol e s do not i nvol ve a ny c ol l a ps e i n t he a c t ua l be dr oc k, a s i s s e e n i n t he f o r m a t i on o f c ol l a ps e s i nks ( W a l t ha m a nd F ooke s 2003; W i l l i a m s 2003 ) T he y c a n f o r m a s a r e s ul t of gr ou ndw a t e r ove r pum pi ng o r na t u r a l pr oc e s s e s l i ke f l oodi ng ( F or d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007) S uf f os i on s i nkhol e s ( a l s o know n a s c ove r s ubs i de nc e s i nkhol e s ) a r e s i m i l a r t o di s s ol ut i on s i nks i n t ha t t he y de ve l op gr a dua l l y ove r l ong pe r i ods of t i m e but a r e f or m e d vi a p r oc e s s e s s i m i l a r t o t hos e t ha t c a us e dr opout s i nkhol e s T he pr i m a r y di f f e r e nc e i s t ha t s uf f os i on s i nkhol e s a r e f o r m e d i n a r e a s of pe r m e a bl e s a ndy s e di m e nt w hi c h i s pr one t o pi pe i nt o c a vi t i e s i ns t e a d of t r a ns f or m i ng t he r e m a i ni ng c ove r i ng s e di m e nt i nt o a s t r uc t ur a l a r c h. A s a r e s ul t t he l a nd s ur f a c e s ubs i de s gr a dua l l y a s t he s a nd pi pe s i nt o t h e voi d be l ow ( W hi t e e t a l 1995; U S G S 1999; W a l t ha m a nd F ooke s 2003; W i l l i a m s 2003) B ur i e d s i nkhol e s a r e r e m na nt s of a nc i e nt s i nkhol e s t ha t ha ve s i nc e r e f i l l e d w i t h s e di m e nt I n s om e c a s e s s ur f a c e s ubs i de nc e m a y be e vi de nt a s t he s e di m e nt f i l l gr a dua l l y c om pa c t s or i s w a s he d out t hr ough t h e d r a i n. H ow e ve r i n m a ny c a s e s t he r e a r e no

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14 s ur f a c e i ndi c a t i ons t ha t t he s e s i nkhol e s a r e pr e s e nt ( W a l t ha m a nd F ooke s 2003; W i l l i a m s 2003) W i t h s om e e xc e pt i ons s i nkhol e s a r e ge ne r a l l y not l a r ge or s pe c t a c ul a r l a ndf o r m s ; how e ve r s i nkhol e s a r e i m po r t a nt t o unde r s t a nd i n t he c ont e xt of ka r s t s ys t e m s be c a us e t he y a c t a s r e c ha r ge r out e s f or t he a qui f e r be l ow T he f a c t t ha t s ur f a c e w a t e r r e c e i ve s no na t ur a l f i l t e r i ng w he n e nt e r i ng a ka r s t a qui f e r vi a a s i nkhol e m e a ns t ha t c ont a m i na nt s on t he s ur f a c e a r e e a s i l y c a r r i e d i nt o t he gr oundw a t e r ( W hi t e 1988; W hi t e e t a l 1995; U S G S 1999 ) T hi s i s s ue i s e xpl or e d i n gr e a t e r de t a i l l a t e r ; f or now s uf f i c e i t t o s a y t ha t i t of f e r s a c om pe l l i ng a r gum e nt f or m or e s t r i nge nt m a na ge m e nt of l a nd us e s i n t he vi c i ni t y of s i n khol e s Caves and caverns T he e xa c t de f i ni t i on of a c a ve i s a t opi c of s om e de ba t e a m ong ge ogr a phe r s ge om or phol ogi s t s a nd ge ol ogi s t s H ow e ve r W hi t e ( 1988) G i l l i e s on ( 1996) a nd P a l m e r ( 2007) de f i ne t he m a s a na t ur a l ope ni ng i n t he e a r t h t ha t i s l a r ge e no ugh t o be e nt e r e d by a hum a n. S o m e unde r gr ound c a ve s l i ke f o r e xa m pl e C a r l s ba d C a ve r ns i n C a r l s ba d, N e w M e xi c o f or m e d vi a a s ol ut i on pr oc e s s i nvol vi ng s ul phur i c a c i d. T he c a ve f or m a t i on p r oc e s s oc c ur s a t a bove a nd be l ow t he w a t e r t a bl e f r e que nt l y s i m ul t a ne ous l y, a nd i t be gi ns w i t h a s e r i e s of c ondui t s a nd ot he r s m a l l ope ni ngs i n t he be dr oc k. T he s e ope ni ngs a r e qui t e na r r ow i n t he e a r l i e s t s t a ge s of c a ve de ve l opm e nt w hi c h m e a ns t ha t w a t e r m ove s t hr ough t he m ve r y s l ow l y a nd be c om e s s a t ur a t e d ve r y qui c kl y ; f or t ha t r e a s on, t he c a ve f o r m a t i on p r oc e s s ge ne r a l l y be gi ns ve r y s l ow l y ( P a l m e r 2005 ) G r a dua l l y, s om e of t he s e c ondui t s e xpa nd, d r a i n, a nd a r e t he n f i l l e d w i t h a i r f or m i ng a n ope ni ng t ha t c oul d be l a r ge e nough t o be c l a s s i f i e d a s a c a ve T hi s of t e n o c c ur s i n t he

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15 na r r ow z one w he r e t he w a t e r t a bl e f l uc t ua t e s a s g r oundw a t e r s e e ks out t he s hor t e s t pa t h t o i t s ul t i m a t e de s t i na t i on ( a s pr i ng ) a nd e xpa nds f r a c t ur e s vi a t ur bul e nt f l ow o r a br a s i ve s e di m e nt t r a ns por t ( W hi t e 1988; P a l m e r 2007) N ot e t ha t t hi s p r oc e s s doe s not gua r a nt e e t ha t a ny s ur f a c e ope ni ng w i l l be c r e a t e d i n f a c t i t s s t a t i s t i c a l l y a nd l ogi c a l l y l i ke l y t ha t t he r e i s a l a r ge c l a s s of c a ve s t ha t ha ve no e nt r a nc e s a t a l l ( unde r t he de f i ni t i on pr ovi de d a t t he be gi nni ng o f t hi s s e c t i on, how e ve r t he s e w oul d not be c a ve s a t a l l be c a us e of t he i na bi l i t y o f hum a ns t o e nt e r t he m ) W he n t he y do a ppe a r c a ve e nt r a nc e s do not ha ve t o be r e l a t e d t o t he s ol ut i on p r oc e s s e s t ha t f or m e d t he c a ve i n t he f i r s t pl a c e S i nkhol e c ol l a ps e c onne c t i on t o w e l l de v e l ope d v e r t i c a l s ha f t s i n t he be dr oc k, hum a n e xc a va t i on, a nd t he r a ndom ge ne r a t i on of upw a r d s l opi ng c a ve pa s s a ge s a r e c om m on w a ys i n w hi c h a c a ve e nt r a nc e c a n f or m ; how e ve r t hi c k s oi l c ove r s c a n p r e ve nt e nt r a nc e s of t he s e t ype s f r om f o r m i ng ( W hi t e 1988; P a l m e r 2007) T he f or m a t i on pr oc e s s i s f ol l ow e d by t he de c or a t i on s t a ge of c a ve de ve l opm e nt T he s e de c or a t i ons t a ke t he f o r m o f s pe l e ot he m s a l s o know n a s dr i ps t one a nd f l ow s t one w hi c h f or m a l ong c a ve w a l l s c e i l i ngs a nd f l oor s S t a l a c t i t e s f or m f r om w a t e r dr a i ni ng i nt o t he c a ve r n a nd dr i ppi ng dow n f r om t he r oof l e a vi ng be hi nd c a l c i t e de pos i t s ; s t a l a gm i t e s a r e f or m e d t he s a m e w a y, but gr ow up w a r ds f r om t he f l oo r i ns t e a d. T he s e de pos i t s oc c ur w he n c a r bon di oxi de c ont a i ne d i n w a t e r di f f us e s i nt o t he c a ve a t m os phe r e t he c a l c i t e i s t he n l e f t be hi nd. I n s om e c a s e s s t a l a c t i t e s a nd s t a l a gm i t e s c a n c onne c t t o f or m a pi l l a r ( B l oom 1998; M c K ni ght a nd H e s s 2002; P a l m e r 2007 ) T he r e i s a w i de va r i a t i on i n t he s i z e a nd l e ngt h o f c a ve s H ow e ve r t he f a c t t ha t a c a ve r n na r r ow s t o t he poi nt w he r e hum a ns c a n no l onge r e xpl or e i t s houl d not s ugge s t t ha t t he ka r s t d r a i na ge s ys t e m e nds t he r e a s w e l l W a t e r dr a i ni ng t h r ough c a ve s w i l l

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16 c ont i nue t hr ough t he s e pa s s a ge t e r m i na t i ons s om e t i m e s t o a s pr i ng out l e t ( R i t t e r K oc he l a nd M i l l e r 1995; P a l m e r 2007 ) C a ve pr ot e c t i on i s i m por t a nt be c a us e of t he t w i n s c i e nt i f i c r ol e s pl a ye d by c a ve s : t he y a r e r e c or ds o f t he pa l e oc l i m a t e a nd t he y a r e e c os ys t e m s unt o t he m s e l ve s S pe l e ot he m s w i t hi n c a ve s of t e n c ont a i n e nough ur a ni um t o c a l c ul a t e t he i r a ge s a nd t he oxyge n i s ot ope s t he y c ont a i n e na bl e t he m t o be us e d a s ge ot he r m om e t e r s T hi s c l i m a t e i nf or m a t i on i s a l s o hi ghl y l oc a l i z e d, a nd c a n be da t e d f r om s pe l e ot he m s w i t h a good de a l of pr e c i s i on a nd a c c ur a c y ( P a l m e r 2007) E c os ys t e m s n ot f ound e l s e w he r e a r e a bl e t o de ve l op i n c a ve s be c a us e of t he i r e xt r e m e l y s t a bl e l ong t e r m e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd c l i m a t i c c ondi t i ons ; c a ve de gr a da t i on c a n oc c ur a s t he r e s ul t of c ont a c t w i t h poi nt s our c e or di s pe r s e d pol l ut i on s our c e s a nd of t e n m e a ns da m a ge t o or de s t r uc t i on of t he s e f r a gi l e e c os ys t e m s ( W hi t e e t a l 1995; G i l l i e s on, 1996) I nde e d, e ve n c ha nge s t o t he e nvi r onm e nt or l a nds c a pe out s i de a c a ve c a n ha ve s e ve r e c ons e que nc e s w i t hi n t he c a ve ; f or e xa m pl e pa ve m e nt f o r r oa ds or pa r k i ng l ot s a b ove a c a ve w i l l i n a l m os t a l l c a s e s r e duc e t he t ot a l a m ount of w a t e r pa s s i ng t hr ough t he ka r s t dr a i na ge s ys t e m or r e di r e c t i t t hr ough ne w d r a i na ge r out e s a nd t he i ns t a l l a t i on o f ne a r by t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s f or t our i s t s c a n r e s ul t i n ba c t e r i a l c ont a m i na t i on of t he w a t e r s t ha t s us t a i n t he c a ve s e c os ys t e m H ow e ve r c a r e f ul pl a nni ng a nd m ode r n c a ve m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c a n he l p m i t i ga t e t he da m a ge c a us e d t o c a ve s by a c t i vi t i e s l i ke t he s e ( G i l l i e s on, 1996) Springs S pr i ngs a r e f or m e d a t t he s pot s w he r e ka r s t w a t e r s e m e r ge f r om t he l oc a l unde r gr ound dr a i na ge s ys t e m T he y c a n be f ound on t he s ur f a c e or i n c a ve s a nd a r e o f t e n us e d a s s our c e s of dr i nki ng w a t e r a nd a s r e c r e a t i on a r e a s F or d a nd W i l l i a m s ( 2007) l i s t

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17 t hr e e t ype s of s pr i ngs : f r e e d r a i ni ng s pr i ngs w hi c h a r e f e d by gr a vi t y, a s t he ka r s t r oc ks a r e a t a hi ghe r e l e va t i on t ha n a nd s l ope dow n t ow a r ds t he s pr i ng i t s e l f ; da m m e d s pr i ngs w hi c h a r e f or m e d by s om e i m pe di m e nt t o dr a i na ge ; a nd c onf i ne d s pr i ngs w hi c h a r e a r t e s i a n s pr i ngs f or m e d a l ong f a ul t pl a ne s or a t br e a c h poi nt s of ot he r w i s e i m pe r vi ous c a pr oc k. S pr i ng f o r m a t i on i s a di r e c t r e s ul t of c a r b ona t e r oc k di s s ol ut i on, c r e a t i ng l a r ge c ondui t s a nd c a ve s t ha t c a n t he n c ha nne l gr oundw a t e r up t o t he l a nd s ur f a c e P r oc e s s e s of s pr i ng f or m a t i on a r e s i m i l a r t o t he pr oc e s s e s c a us i ng s i nkhol e s a nd i n F l or i da m a ny of t he s t a t e s 320 s pr i ngs i nc l udi ng m a j or s pr i ngs l i ke S i l ve r S pr i ngs a nd H om os a s s a S pr i ngs a r e a c t ua l l y s i nkhol e s t ha t be c a m e s pr i n gs a s s e a l e ve l r os e t hus f or c i ng t he z one of c oa s t a l a qui f e r di s c ha r ge f ur t he r i nl a nd a nd t he w a t e r t a bl e hi ghe r C l a s s i f i c a t i on of s pr i ngs c a n be done a c c or di ng t o t he out f l ow a c c or di ng t o ge ol ogi c a nd t e c t oni c c ondi t i ons or a c c or di ng t o or i gi n of t he w a t e r i t s e l f S pr i ngs c a n s e r ve a s hydr o l ogi c a l t r e nd i ndi c a t or s a nd a r e ve r y s t a bl e i n t e r m s of w a t e r qua l i t y, t e m pe r a t ur e a nd f l ow t hough e ve n s hor t t e r m va r i a t i on i n r a i nf a l l c a n be r e f l e c t e d by a s pr i ng s f l ow ( B gl i 1980 ; W hi t e 1988 ; U pc hur c h a nd R a nda z z o, 1997 ; F i e l d, 2002 ) H ow e ve r i n hi s s t udy of F l or i da s ka r s t F l or e a ( 2006) f ound t ha t i ndi vi d ua l r a i n e ve nt s a r e no t ge ne r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n s pr i ng l e ve l s of pe ni ns ul a r F l or i da ; i ns t e a d, r e c ha r ge t o t he ka r s t i c F l or i da n a qui f e r i s ge ne r a l l y dr i ve n by l a r ge s c a l e a nd w i de s pr e a d pr e c i pi t a t i on e ve nt s l i ke hur r i c a ne s L a r ge w i t hdr a w a l s of gr oundw a t e r ne a r by c a n ha ve s e r i ous i m pa c t on s pr i ng f l ow i nc l udi ng s t oppi ng i t c om pl e t e l y ( B e r ndt O a ks f or d, a nd M a hon, 1998) Other karst landfo rm types K a r s t l a ndf or m s go be yond s i nkhol e s s pr i ngs a nd c a ve s T hi s s e c t i on of f e r s a br i e f d e s c r i pt i on o f s e ve r a l ot he r ka r s t l a nd f or m s M a ny of t he s e l a ndf or m s c oul d be

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18 de s c r i be d i n m uc h gr e a t e r de t a i l t ha n t he y a r e he r e but s i nc e t he y do not p l a y a m a j o r r ol e i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, t he s e de s c r i pt i ons ha ve be e n ke pt br i e f Poljes P ol j e s t he l a r g e s t ka r s t hol l ow s a r e w i de c l os e d de pr e s s i ons w i t h f l a t f l oor s w hi c h a r e of t e n a dj a c e nt t o s t e e p e nc l os i ng w a l l s E xt r e m e l y t h i c k a nd ge ogr a phi c a l l y e xt e ns i ve c a r bona t e be dr oc k i s r e qui r e d f or pol j e f or m a t i on, due t o t he i r s i z e : t he L i ka pol j e i n C r oa t i a f or e xa m pl e m e a s ur e s 700 s q ua r e ki l om e t e r s i n a r e a ( B gl i 1980 ) D i na r i c pol j e l a nds c a pe s ( c ha r a c t e r i z e d by w i de s pr e a d ka r s t de pr e s s i ons of a l l t ype s ; K r a nj c 2006) a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r oughout t he w or l d but t he va s t m a j or i t y a r e f ound i n t he a r e a onc e oc c upi e d by Y ugos l a vi a P o l j e s ha ve t he i r ow n i n t e r na l d r a i na ge s ys t e m s a nd w i l l ge ne r a l l y f e a t ur e c om pl e x hyd r oge ol ogi c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i nc l udi ng s w a l l ow hol e s a nd di s a ppe a r i ng s t r e a m s H ow e ve r F or d a nd W i l l i a m s ( 2007) c a ut i on t ha t t he y s houl d be vi e w e d a s s ubs ys t e m s of t he ove r a r c hi ng ka r s t dr a i na ge s ys t e m r a t he r t ha n i nde pe nde nt s ys t e m s of t he i r ow n, due p r i m a r i l y t o t he i r hyd r ol ogi c a l l y i n t e r c onne c t e d na t ur e T he y a r e f r e que nt l y us e d f or f a r m l a nd, a nd t e nd t o f l ood a t l e a s t onc e a s e a s on, s om e t i m e s m o r e f r e que nt l y. T he s e f l oods c a n be s e ve r e t o t he poi nt w he r e t he e nt i r e pol j e f l oor be c om e s a l a ke F l oodi ng c a n s om e t i m e s be c ont r ol l e d a nd us e d f or pur pos e s of i r r i ga t i on o r hyd r oe l e c t r i c pow e r ( B gl i 1980; W hi t e 1988; B l oom 1998 ; F i e l d 2002; F or d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007 ) T he or i gi na t i ng pr oc e s s e s be hi nd pol j e s ha ve be e n t he s ubj e c t of de ba t e f or qui t e s om e t i m e I t ha s be e n s ugge s t e d t ha t pol j e s m a y h a ve a t e c t oni c or i gi n a s t he y of t e n oc c ur a l ong f a ul t s ; t he r e i s s om e e vi de nc e t o s ugge s t a m i xe d ka r s t i c t e c t oni c o r i gi n. S om e ge om or phol ogi s t s c ons i de r pol j e s t o be t he c onc l us i on of a ge ne t i c s e que nc e of

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19 ka r s t l a ndf or m de ve l opm e nt ( t ha t s e que nc e be i ng: dol i ne uva l a pol j e a s f i r s t pr opos e d by C vi j i c 1893 ) B gl i ( 1980) w r i t e s t ha t t hi s t he or y ha d be e n c om pl e t e l y di s c a r de d by t ha t poi nt ; he a r gue s i ns t e a d t ha t t he r e i s no c om m on f a c t or i n pol j e de ve l opm e nt A ga i n, t he r e i s di s a gr e e m e nt on t hi s poi nt ( W hi t e 1988; B l oom 1998 ) ; F or d a nd W i l l i a m s ( 2007) poi nt t o p r oxi m i t y t o t he l oc a l w a t e r t a bl e a s t he c om m on f a c t or i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f a l l pol j e s T he y a l s o a r gue t ha t m os t po l j e s s how e vi de nc e of bot h t e c t oni c a nd ka r s t di s s ol ut i on pr oc e s s e s i n t he i r f o r m a t i on, w i t h t he r e l a t i ve i m por t a nc e of e a c h va r yi ng on a c a s e by c a s e ba s i s Karst valleys K a r s t va l l e ys f or m w he n a de ve l opi ng unde r g r oun d dr a i na ge s ys t e m di ve r t s w a t e r a w a y f r om t he r i ve r s f e e di ng i nt o t he va l l e y A ka r s t va l l e y ha s a l l t he p r ope r t i e s of a s t r e a m va l l e y e xc e pt t he s t r e a m i t s e l f K a r s t va l l e ys a r e m or e c om m on i n a r e a s of f l a t i nt e r b e dde d l i m e s t one s a nds t one a nd s ha l e ( W hi t e 1988; B l oom 1998; F i e l d 2002 ) Swallow holes A l s o know n a s ponor s s w a l l ow hol e s a r e t he poi nt a t w hi c h a s i nki ng s t r e a m he a ds unde r gr ound. S w a l l ow hol e s a r e s ur f a c e d r a i na ge f e a t ur e s t ha t di r e c t r unof f i nt o a n unde r gr ound c ha nne l i n ot he r w or ds t he y a r e s i nkhol e s t ha t f or m i n a s t r e a m be d, of t e n w i t h a l a r ge ve r t i c a l s ha f t be ne a t h I n pol j e s t he or i gi na l ponor s a r e of t e n d r y, but s t i l l a c t a s a c ondui t t o t he ka r s t a qui f e r ( B gl i 1980; B l oo m 1998; M c K ni gh t a nd H e s s 2002; F or d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007)

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20 Pinnacles P i nna c l e s a r e i s ol a t e d l i m e s t one bl oc ks t ha t s t a nd s e ve r a l m e t e r s a bove t he s ur r oundi ng l a nd s ur f a c e T he y a r e t he r e s ul t of l o ng t e r m w e a t he r i ng a nd of s ol ut i on pr oc e s s e s a l ong j oi nt s a nd f r a c t ur e s T he i r s i de w a l l s a r e ge ne r a l l y g r i ke s T he y a r e not a l l t ha t c om m on but c a n be f ound a l ong c l i f f s i n m or e t e m pe r a t e a r e a s a nd a s t a l l e r s t a nda l one f e a t ur e s i n t r opi c a l c l i m a t e s ( B gl i 198 0 ; W hi t e 1988 ; F i e l d 2002 ) Residual hills ( mojotes ) T he s e c a n s om e t i m e s be f ound w he r e t hi c k l a ye r s of l i m e s t one a r e e xpos e d on hi l l s i de s R unof f m a y c a r ve dr a i na ge pa t hw a ys out of t he s i de of one of t he s e hi l l s a s i t i s a m or e e f f i c i e nt m e t hod of t r a ns por t i ng t he w a t e r t o t he hi l l s ba s e T he s e pa t hw a ys c a n t a ke t he f or m of ve r t i c a l s ha f t s s ol ut i on c hi m ne ys or e ve n ope n j o i nt s or f r a c t ur e s ( W hi t e 1988 ) Cockpit karst C oc kpi t ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e ge ne r a l l y f ound i n t hi c k l i m e s t one us ua l l y i n t r opi c a l c l i m e s t he m os t not a bl e c oc kpi t l a nds c a pe s a r e f ound i n J a m a i c a a nd on J a va T he y a r e ge ne t i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o s i nkhol e s bot h l a ndf or m s s ha r e a s ol ut i on d r i ve n ge ne t i c pr oc e s s but a r e m or phol ogi c a l l y s e pa r a t e f r om t e m pe r a t e c l i m a t e dol i ne s C oc kpi t l a nds c a pe s c a n a l s o be qui t e w i de w i t h di a m e t e r s of a ki l om e t e r or m or e a nd w i l l s om e t i m e s gr ow l a r ge e nough t o de ve l op s ubs i di a r y c ha nne l s ys t e m s ( W hi t e 1988, D a y a nd C he now e t h, 2004; F o r d a nd W i l l i a m s 2007 )

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21 Cone and tower karst C one a nd t ow e r ka r s t i s c l os e l y r e l a t e d t o c oc kpi t k a r s t T he s e l a nds c a pe s t ypi c a l l y e vol ve f r o m r e s i dua l hi l l s a nd ha ve a l m os t c om pl e t e l y ve r t i c a l s i de s a s w e l l a s a di s t i nc t uni f or m i t y o f s i z e : a t G unung S e w u i n J a va f o r e xa m pl e m os t hi l l s a r e c l os e t o 50 m e t e r s hi gh. D e e p pi t s c a n o f t e n be f ound a t t he t ops of t he s e hi l l s ; i n s om e c a s e s hi gh c onc e nt r a t i ons of c a ve s c a n a l s o be f ound T he y s e e m t o be f ound p r i m a r i l y i n t r opi c a l r e gi ons l i ke C uba P ue r t o R i c o, S out h C hi na V i e t na m a nd N e w G ui ne a ( W hi t e 1988; F i e l d, 2002 ) T he y a r e us ua l l y pr e s e nt i n a r e a s w he r e ka r s t pr oc e s s e s ha ve be e n unde r w a y f or a c ons i de r a bl e a m ount of t i m e ( M c K ni ght a nd H e s s 2002) Pavement karst P a ve m e nt ka r s t s oc c ur i n a l pi ne or ot he r no r t he r n r e gi ons w i t h t hi n o r none xi s t e nt s oi l s T hi s s oi l de f i c i e nc y i s of t e n t he r e s ul t o f gl a c i a t i on. H e r e t oo, dr a i na ge i s e xc l us i v e l y ka r s t i c vi a j oi nt s a nd f r a c t ur e s i n t he e xpos e d be dr oc k. S oi l s onc e s t r i ppe d, do not us ua l l y r e t ur n, a s t he y a r e f l us he d dow nw a r d by r a i ns t or m s be f or e t he y c a n r e e s t a bl i s h t he m s e l ve s ( W hi t e 1988; F i e l d, 2002) C e r t a i nl y, l oc a l c l i m a t i c a nd ge ogr a ph i c a l c ondi t i o ns a r e m a j or de t e r m i na nt s of w hi c h t ype s of ka r s t l a ndf or m s i f a ny, w i l l de ve l o p i n a g i ve n l oc a t i on. T he ne xt s e c t i on de s c r i be s t he gl oba l di s t r i but i on o f ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a s w e l l a s t he di f f i c ul t i e s i n pr e di c t i ng t he di s t r i bu t i on o f ka r s t l a nd f or m s on a m or e l oc a l i z e d s c a l e Karst distribution L i m e s t one r e gi ons a r e f ound t h r oughout t he w or l d a t a l l l a t i t ude s a nd i n e ve r y c l i m a t e H ow e ve r pr e s e nc e of l i m e s t one be dr oc k doe s not ne c e s s a r i l y m e a n t ha t a ka r s t l a nds c a pe ha s de ve l ope d, or w i l l e ve r de ve l op t he r e K a r s t r e gi ons a r e m uc h m o r e l i ke l y

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22 t o de ve l op i n t e m pe r a t e r e gi ons a s oppos e d t o a r e a s w i t h pol a r c l i m a t e s T he r e a r e a l s o s e ve r a l not a bl e ka r s t r e gi ons i n t r opi c a l z one s i nc l udi ng t he Y uc a t a n P e ni ns ul a a r e a o f M e xi c o a nd C e nt r a l A m e r i c a w e s t e r n C uba a nd p a r t s of s out he a s t A s i a a nd I ndone s i a ( M c K ni ght a nd H e s s 2002) T he r e a s ons ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o de ve l op i n t r opi c a l z one s t ha n pol a r z one s a r e w e l l unde r s t ood. T he f o r m a t i on o f ka r s t l a nds c a pe s r e qui r e s t he pr e s e nc e of w a t e r c ont a i ni ng di s s ol ve d c a r bon di oxi de A m bi e nt t e m pe r a t ur e ha s a s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on t he a bi l i t y o f w a t e r t o di s s ol ve c a r bon d i o xi de f r om t he a t m os phe r e w i t h c ol de r w a t e r ha vi ng a g r e a t e r pot e nt i a l t o c a r r y c a r bon di oxi de i n s ol ut i on. T h i s w oul d s ugge s t t ha t ka r s t l a nds c a pe s w oul d be m or e l i ke l y t o de ve l op i n pol a r z one s t ha n t r opi c a l z one s ; how e ve r s oi l s i n w a r m e r a r e a s c a n pr oduc e m or e c a r bon di oxi de t ha n c ol de r s oi l s a nd t he ove r a l l r a t e of s ol ut i on i s gr e a t e r i n w a r m e r a r e a s T he f a c t t ha t k a r s t a r e a s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be f ound i n t r opi c a l t ha n pol a r r e gi ons s u gge s t s t ha t hi ghe r c a r bon di ox i de pr oduc t i on a nd hi ghe r s ol ut i on r a t e s a r e m or e i m p or t a nt t o ka r s t l a ndf or m de ve l opm e nt t ha n i s t he a bi l i t y of w a t e r t o hol d hi ghe r qua nt i t i e s of c a r bon di oxi de A r e a s w i t hout a de qua t e gr oundw a t e r r e ga r dl e s s of c l i m a t e a r e n ot l i ke l y t o de ve l op ka r s t l a ndf or m s de s e r t s B l oom w r i t e s a r e not ka r s t p r one ( 199 8 p 153) H ow e ve r i na c t i ve ka r s t f or m a t i ons a r e o f t e n f ound i n a r i d a r e a s i ndi c a t i ng t he pr e s e nc e of w e t t e r c l i m a t e s i n t he pa s t T ha t s a i d, i t s houl d be ke pt i n m i nd t ha t c he m i c a l s ol ut i on of c a r bona t e r oc ks i s a c om pl e x pr oc e s s s o m uc h s o t ha t i t m a ke s c l i m a t e ba s e d pr e di c t i on of ka r s t out c r oppi ngs di f f i c ul t a nd unr e l i a bl e ( B l oom 1998; M c K ni ght a nd H e s s 2002) W hi l e gl oba l a nd r e gi ona l di s t r i but i ons o f ka r s t l a n df or m s c a n be e xpl a i ne d by t he pr e s e nc e of l i m e s t one a nd by t he va l ue s of c e r t a i n t e m pe r a t ur e r e l a t e d pa r a m e t e r s l oc a l

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23 di s t r i but i on of ka r s t l a ndf o r m s i s a bi t t r i c ki e r t o pi n dow n. S pa t i a l di s t r i but i on c a n be pl ot t e d by l ooki ng a t de p r e s s i on de ns i t y, dol i ne a r e a s r e l a t i ve s pa c i ng be t w e e n dol i ne s a nd t hr ough us e of ot he r s pa t i a l t e c hni que s H ow e ve r a n e xpl a na t i on of s pa t i a l di s t r i but i on ha s be e n e l us i ve L oc a l di s t r i but i on ha s b e e n s how n t o be i nde pe nde nt o f t he be dr oc k; f ur t he r a s t udy of t he ka r s t of no r t he r n I o w a s how e d t ha t de pr e s s i on de ns i t y ( m e a s ur i ng t he num be r of e nt r y po i nt s of i nt e r na l r unof f w a t e r i nt o t he s ubs ur f a c e ) i nc r e a s e s r a pi dl y w i t h t he a ge o f gl a c i a l d r i f t c o ve r i ng, but l e ve l s of f s oon t he r e a f t e r ( W hi t e 1988 c i t i ng M c C onne l l a nd H or n 1972 P a l m qui s t e t a l 1976 a nd K e m m e r l y, 1982) N e ve r t he l e s s t he r e a r e s om e gui de l i ne s f or de t e r m i ni ng w hi c h s i t e s i n a gi ve n ka r s t r e gi on a r e m or e p r one t o s i nkhol e de ve l o pm e nt F i r s t a r e a s w i t h s t e e p s l ope s t e nd t o pr oduc e f e w e r dol i ne s c ha nc e s of t he i r f or m a t i on a r e be t t e r on f l a t va l l e y f l oor s o r ope n pl a i ns w i t h l i t t l e r e l i e f S e c ond, a r e a s i n w hi c h de ns e r l e s s por ous l i m e s t one i s f ound a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o f e a t ur e s i nk hol e de ve l op m e nt w he r e j oi nt s i n t he de ns e l i m e s t one pr om ot e dr a i na ge a t s pe c i f i c l oc a t i ons A nd f i na l l y, a r e a s w i t h s oi l a nd ve ge t a t i on c ove r us ua l l y pr om ot e s ol ut i on p r oc e s s e s due t o t he pr e s e nc e of c a r bon di oxi de i n t he s oi l ( R i t t e r K oc he l a nd M i l l e r 1995 ) L oc a l i z e d c a ve di s t r i but i on i s a bi t e a s i e r t o e xa m i ne t hough i t i s not w i t hout i t s di f f i c ul t i e s M os t l a r ge gr oups of c a ve s l i ke t hos e f ound i n t he P o t om a c R i ve r B a s i n or i n A l a ba m a f or e xa m pl e pr oduc e s m oot h di s t r i b ut i on f unc t i ons w he n g r oupe d by l e ngt h. T he di s t r i but i on of c a ve s a c c or di ng t o l e ngt h c a n be a na l yz e d us i ng c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l pr oc e s s e s t ha t e ve nt ua l l y ge ne r a t e a ka r s t c ons t a nt w hi c h de s c r i be s t he c a ve l e ngt h di s t r i but i on f or a gi ve n a r e a or r e gi on. O ne s houl d be a r i n m i n d, how e ve r t ha t t he r e a r e s om e s hor t c om i ngs i n c a ve l e ngt h di s t r i b ut i on m e a s ur e m e nt a s w e l l : t he

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24 de f i ni t i on of a c a ve c a n va r y f r om s t a t e t o s t a t e a n d t he r e i s l i ke l y a l a r ge c l a s s of c a ve s w i t h no e nt r a nc e s a t a l l t ha t a r e not i nc l ude d ( W hi t e 1988) Issues of human k arst interac tion R a r e l y a r e hum a n s oc i e t i e s a bl e t o a voi d ha vi ng a n i m pa c t on t he l a nds c a pe t he y oc c upy; t hi s i s e ve n t r ue r f o r s oc i e t i e s i n f r a gi l e e n vi r onm e nt s l i ke ka r s t t e r r a i ns I n s t r i vi ng t o a c hi e ve t he i r ow n e qui l i br i a hum a n s ys t e m s l oc a t e d a bove or ne a r ka r s t s ys t e m s of t e n a l t e r t he c ondi t i ons ne c e s s a r y f or e qui l i br i um i n t hos e s ys t e m s ; i t t a ke s s ur pr i s i ngl y l i t t l e f or hum a n s oc i e t y t o not i c e a bl y a f f e c t c a ve s gr oundw a t e r a nd l a nd s ubs i de nc e i n ka r s t l a nds c a pe s I n t ur n, t he s e i m pa c t s of t e n de f i ne how a nd t o w ha t e xt e nt hum a ns c a n i nt e r a c t w i t h t he ka r s t l a nds c a pe s t he y oc c upy. T hi s s e c t i on w i l l a dd r e s s t hr e e s i gni f i c a nt i s s ue s i n hum a n ka r s t i n t e r a c t i on: l a nd s ubs i de nc e gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on, a nd da m a ge t o c a ve s a nd ka r s t e c os ys t e m s Subsidence I n ka r s t t e r r a i ns s ubs i de nc e i s ge ne r a l l y obs e r ve d i n t he f o r m o f ne w s i nkhol e s S ubs i de nc e i s a c om m on oc c ur r e nc e i n ka r s t a r e a s e xpe r i e nc i ng r a pi d ur ba ni z a t i on a nd ha s be e n obs e r ve d i n num e r ous ka r s t t e r r a i ns unde r goi ng ur ba ni z a t i on t hr oug hout t he w or l d I n t he 1970s S pa i n s C e nt r a l E br o B a s i n un de r w e nt t he be gi nni ng o f l a r ge s c a l e ur ba ni z a t i on a nd i ndus t r i a l de ve l opm e nt T he p r e s e nc e of ka r s t w a s ge ne r a l l y not t a ke n i nt o a c c ount dur i ng e i t he r t he pl a nni ng o r c ons t r uc t i on pha s e s of de ve l op m e nt a nd ove r t he ne xt s e ve r a l ye a r s a hi gh num be r of s i nkhol e s de ve l ope d i n t he a r e a I n t he e ns ui ng de c a de s t he s e dol i ne s ha ve c a us e d s i gni f i c a nt da m a ge t o bui l di ngs r oa ds a nd w a t e r s uppl y s ys t e m s a s w e l l a s t he l os s of a r a bl e f a r m l a nd ( S or i a no a nd S i m on, 2002) S ubs i de nc e i nc i de nt s i n t he C ha t t a nooga T e nne s s e e a r e a a l s o e xpe r i e nc e d a s i gni f i c a nt

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25 i nc r e a s e i n f r e que nc y dur i ng t he l a t e 1970s ; t hi s s p i ke w a s c oi nc i de nt w i t h i nc r e a s e d gr oundw a t e r pum pi ng f or i ndus t r i a l us e s i n t he a r e a ( W i l s on, 1984 ) T he s ubs i de nc e e ve nt s i n t he C e nt r a l E br o V a l l e y a nd i n t he C ha t t a nooga a r e a w e r e m os t l i ke l y a di r e c t r e s ul t of a qui f e r dr a w do w n t ha t a c c om pa ni e s t he ur ba ni z a t i on pr oc e s s i n ka r s t r e gi ons I n m a ny ka r s t a r e a s t he u nde r l yi ng a qui f e r c om e s unde r s e ve r e pr e s s ur e a s a r e s ul t of r a pi d u r ba ni z a t i on, w he n w a t e r r e qui r e m e nt s i nc r e a s e a t a s e e m i ngl y e xpone nt i a l r a t e T he m os t c om m on r e s pons e i s t o i nc r e a s e t he pum pi ng of gr oundw a t e r out o f t he a qui f e r t o w ha t of t e n t ur ns out t o be a n uns us t a i na bl e r a t e S uc h ove r e xt r a c t i on of gr oundw a t e r c a n c a us e t he f or m a t i on of voi ds i n t he a qui f e r a s s pa c e s t ha t onc e he l d w a t e r a r e e m pt i e d T h i s a qui f e r c om pa c t i on c a n t he n l e a d t o s ubs i de nc e a nd c ol l a ps e ( P a t t on a nd D e H a n, 1998) U r ba ni z a t i on c a n a l s o c a us e s ubs i de nc e i n ka r s t l a nds c a pe s i n w a ys unr e l a t e d t o a qui f e r dr a w dow n. F or e xa m pl e t he e xt r a w e i ght a nd pr e s s ur e a ppl i e d t o t he l a nd s ur f a c e vi a t he a ddi t i on of ne w s t r uc t ur e s a nd i nf r a s t r uc t ur e c a n c a us e c ol l a ps e s i nkhol e s t o de ve l op l ong be f or e t he y m a y ot he r w i s e ha ve f o r m e d. C ons t r uc t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt t ha t r e s ul t s i n t he s hi f t i ng of s ur f a c e w a t e r d r a i na ge pa t t e r ns c a n a l s o i nduc e ne w s i nkhol e s by i nc r e a s i ng f l ow ve l oc i t y i n t o t he be dr oc k vi a e xi s t i ng dr a i ns A n e xa m pl e of t hi s i s t he F e br ua r y 2002 D i s hm a n L a ne c ol l a ps e i n B ow l i ng G r e e n, K e nt uc ky w hi c h w a s c a us e d by t he c onc e nt r a t i on o f s t or m w a t e r r uno f f T he r e s ul t w a s a s i nkhol e t ha t m e a s ur e d 60 m e t e r s a c r os s a nd 7 m e t e r s de e p a t i t s de e pe s t poi nt ( K a m be s i s e t a l 2003) W a t e r a nd s e w e r pi pe l i ne s i n ka r s t a r e a s a r e a l s o m o r e s us c e pt i bl e t o da m a ge f r om c om pa c t i ng or pi pi ng of s oi l s W he n t he s e pi pe l i ne s do c r a c k or b r e a k, t he e r os i on pr oc e s s c a n be a c c e l e r a t e d by t he i nc r e a s e d a m ount of s ol ut i on c o m i ng f r o m t he l e a k, a nd ne w s i nks

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26 m a y a ppe a r ( U S G S 1999 ) A dr a m a t i c e xa m pl e of t hi s t ook p l a c e i n A l l e nt ow n P e nns yl va ni a i n 1994, be ne a t h t he C or por a t e P l a z a B ui l di ng, w hi c h w a s t he c i t y s ne w e s t dow nt ow n of f i c e bui l di ng. T he s i nkhol e ope ne d up ove r ni ght a nd c ons um e d por t i ons of t he of f i c e bui l di ng a s w e l l a s t he e nt i r e pa ve d s ur f a c e of N or t h 7 t h S t r e e t i m m e di a t e l y a dj a c e nt t o t he bui l di ng I n t hi s pa r t i c ul a r c a s e t he pr i nc i pa l c a us e w a s de t e r m i ne d t o be a na t ur a l s oi l s i nk t ha t ha d be e n s e t t l i ng f or a t l e a s t s e ve r a l da ys pr i or t o t he e ve nt ( oc c upa nt s of t he o f f i c e bui l di ng ha d r e por t e d e vi d e nc e of s ubs i de nc e dur i ng t he pr e c e di ng w e e k) ; a n ove r n i ght unde r g r ound w a t e r l e a k a c c e l e r a t e d t he pr oc e s s a nd e nl a r ge d t he s i nkhol e ( G i l l e s pi e 1999) M a ny of t he s e s a m e i s s ue s a r e f ound out s i de ur ba n i z i ng ka r s t a r e a s T he ne e d f o r va s t a m ount s of gr oundw a t e r c a n l e a d t o r a pi d a nd e xc e s s i v e a qui f e r dr a w dow n a nd t hus s ubs i de nc e i n a gr i c ul t ur a l a r e a s f a c i ng w a t e r pr e s s ur e s a s e a s i l y a s i n ur ba ni z i ng a r e a s F or s i x c ons e c ut i ve ni ght s i n J a nua r y 1977 s t r a w be r r y gr ow e r s i n t he D ove r F l or i da a r e a w o r ke d t o pr e ve nt t he i r c r ops f r om f r e e z i ng by c ont i nuous l y a ppl yi ng w a r m w a t e r t o t he i r pl a nt s ( t hi s f or m s a pr ot e c t i ve s he e t of i c e ove r t he pl a nt s a nd pr ot e c t s t he m f r om s ub f r e e z i ng t e m pe r a t ur e s ) T he w a t e r us e d w a s pum pe d di r e c t l y f r om t he F l or i da n a qui f e r a nd t he s udde n s pi ke i n pum pi ng a c t i vi t y r e s ul t e d i n a t ot a l a qui f e r d r a w dow n of 2. 9 m e t e r s A r e a r e s i de nt s i m m e di a t e l y be ga n r e po r t i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of ne w s i nkhol e s s om e of w hi c h w e r e l a r ge e nough t o c a u s e pr ope r t y a nd i n f r a s t r uc t ur e da m a ge A t ot a l of 22 ne w s i nkhol e s a t t r i but a bl e t o t he f r e e z e r e s pons e w e r e c a t a l ogue d; ot he r s m a y ha ve gone unr e por t e d ( H a l l a nd M e t c a l f 198 4 )

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27 Groundwater contaminatio n T he a bs e nc e of a n e f f e c t i ve be dr oc k f i l t e r i ng s ys t e m i n ka r s t a qui f e r s c oupl e d w i t h r a pi d t r a ns por t t i m e s a nd t he a bi l i t y t o s t or e p ol l ut a nt s f or l ong pe r i ods o f t i m e m e a ns t ha t ka r s t gr oundw a t e r i s hi ghl y vu l ne r a bl e t o c ont a m i na t i on ( F i e l d, 1992) W he n s ur f a c e w a t e r dr a i ns r a pi dl y t hr ough c r a c ks a nd f i s s ur e s i n t he be dr oc k, i t i s a bl e t o e n t e r t he a qui f e r w i t hou t s e e pi ng t hr ough t he be dr oc k i t s e l f w hi c h i s w ha t w oul d oc c ur i n a r e a s unde r l a i n by be dr oc k w i t h hi ghe r pe r m e a bi l i t y ( i n s oi l c ove r e d a r e a s t he ove r bur de n c a n a c t a s a r udi m e nt a r y f i l t e r bu t i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s i s l i m i t e d ( F i e l d 19 92 ) ) S e e pi ng t hr ough t he be dr oc k o r di na r i l y a c t s a s a f i l t r a t i on pr oc e s s f or t he s ur f a c e w a t e r a nd i s us ua l l y e f f e c t i ve a t ke e pi ng s ur f a c e l e ve l c o nt a m i na nt s out of t he a qui f e r B ut s uc h pr ot e c t i on i s not a va i l a bl e i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns l e a vi ng a qui f e r s a t t he m e r c y a nd w i s dom of t he pe opl e w ho l i ve a bove t he m U nf or t u na t e l y, w i s dom doe s n t a l w a ys w i n out B a c k ( 1983) de s c r i be s how ka r s t a qui f e r s w e r e i na dve r t e nt l y de s t r oye d by t hr e e e a r l i e r c i vi l i z a t i ons i n t he Y uc a t a n P e ni ns ul a w e s t e r n I r e l a nd, a nd s out he r n C hi na ; D r e w ( 19 84) a nd D r e w ( 1996 ) a dd m o r e de t a i l on oc c ur r e nc e s o f a qui f e r de gr a da t i on i n I r e l a nd s C ount y G a l w a y a nd C ount y C l a r e r e s pe c t i ve l y. C ont r i but i ng f a c t or s t o t he de s t r uc t i on o f a l l t he s e a qui f e r s w e r e a nt hr opoge ni c c a us e s l i ke ove r pum pi ng, de f or e s t a t i on, l a nd dr a i na ge a gr i c ul t u r a l pr a c t i c e s a nd a t m os phe r i c po l l ut i on. I n a c ount e r i nt ui t i ve m ove B e t s on ( 1977) c onc l ude d t ha t u r ba ni z a t i on pr oc e s s e s do not ge ne r a l l y ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on g r oundw a t e r qua l i t y i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns ; onl y t he y e a r be f or e T u r k ( 1976 ) ha d a r gue d pr e c i s e l y t he oppos i t e I n m a ny pl a c e s s i nkhol e s a nd c a ve s a r e o f t e n us e d a s ga r ba ge dum ps ; t hi s ha ppe ns a l l ove r t he w o r l d, f r om T u r ke y ( K a c a r ogl u, 1999) t o t he A m e r i c a n M i dw e s t ( L e gr a nd, 1984; M i t c he m e t a l 1988) W he n t h i s ha ppe ns c ont a m i na nt s a r e r a pi dl y

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28 t r a ns por t e d dow nw a r d i nt o t he a qui f e r da m a gi ng t he gr oundw a t e r r e s our c e s ( K a c a r ogl u, 1999; W hi t e 1988 ; D a y a nd R e e de r 1989 ) O nc e s ur f a c e l e ve l c ont a m i na nt s ha ve e nt e r e d a ka r s t a qui f e r t he y of t e n do not de c om po s e or be c om e a bs or be d i nt o t he a qui f e r O ne w i de l y he l d not i on i s t ha t c ont a m i na nt s w i l l b e m or e r a pi dl y f l us he d out of a ka r s t a qui f e r due t o t he i r f a s t e r t r a ns por t t i m e s ; t hi s i s n ot a l w a ys t he c a s e ( F i e l d, 1992) W hi t e ( 1988) l a m e nt s t ha t t oda y, a t t e m pt s t o e xpl a i n t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n s i nkhol e dum ps a nd w a t e r s uppl i e s s t i l l of t e n f a l l on de a f e a r s ( p 391 ) H e r e c om m e nds a s e r i e s of s t e ps t o m a na ge t he pr obl e m be gi nni ng w i t h t he c e s s a t i on of dum pi ng a nd f ol l ow e d by t r a c i ng a nd m oni t or i ng gr oundw a t e r a nd f i l l i ng t he s i nk w i t h c l a y r i c h s oi l ( W hi t e 1988) E ve n w he n s i nkhol e s a r e not us e d f or dum pi ng t h e i r pr e s e nc e c a n l e a d t o a qui f e r c ont a m i na t i on. A s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r s i nkhol e s s om e t i m e s pr ovi de s ur f a c e r uno f f w i t h di r e c t pa s s a ge f r om t he s ur f a c e t o t he a qui f e r ; a ny s ur f a c e l e ve l c ont a m i na nt s c ont a i ne d i n t he r uno f f c a n t he n m a ke t he i r w a y i nt o t he a qui f e r ( t h i s i s not a l w a ys t he c a s e how e ve r ; i m pe r vi ous l a ye r s be ne a t h t he s i nkhol e c a n pr e ve nt t hi s f r om oc c ur r i ng) A ddi t i ona l l y, s i nkhol e s di r e c t l y be ne a t h hol di ng p onds or r i ve r s c a n c ha nne l s ur f a c e w a t e r di r e c t l y i n t o t he a qui f e r be l ow a s ha ppe ne d i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, F l or i da i n 1988 ( U S G S 1999) a nd ne a r A l l e nt ow n P e nns yl va ni a i n 1979 ( M e m on a nd A z m e h, 2001 ) I n t he P i ne l l a s C ount y c a s e t he s i n khol e de ve l ope d u nde r a n a r e a c ont a i ni ng he a vy l oa ds of e f f l ue nt us e d f o r i r r i ga t i on a nd t he A l l e nt ow n s i nk w a s us e d a s a n i ndus t r i a l w a s t e w a t e r l a goon. I nc i de nt s o f t hi s t ype a r e e xt r e m e l y e xpe ns i ve t o c l e a n up a nd i n s om e c a s e s r e m e di a t i on i s s i m pl y no t pos s i bl e ( R ubi n, 1992; F i e l d, 1992) L a ndf i l l p l a c e m e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s w he r e ba c kgr oun d s t udi e s a r e not c onduc t e d c a n be pa r t i c ul a r l y p r obl e m a t i c e s pe c i a l l y i n a r e a s of a c t i ve ka r s t de ve l opm e nt T hi s i s

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29 be c a us e of t he pot e nt i a l f o r s ubs i de nc e t o oc c ur d i r e c t l y be ne a t h a l a ndf i l l B ut e ve n pr ope r l y s i t e d l a ndf i l l s a nd w a s t e s t or a ge a r e a s i n ka r s t a r e a s c a n pos e pot e nt i a l a qui f e r pol l ut i on pr obl e m s P r e c i pi t a t i on or gr oundw a t e r c a n m i x w i t h t he ga r ba ge i n a ny l a ndf i l l a nd t he n s e e p t hr oug h t he bo t t om i n t o t he a qui f e r c a r r yi ng w i t h i t ba c t e r i a l a nd c he m i c a l pol l ut a nt s t ha t w oul d qu i c kl y c ont a m i na t e t he a qui f e r ( D a vi s 1997 ) M a ny m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n ka r s t a r e a s a t t e m pt t o gua r d a ga i n s t w a s t e dr i ve n c ont a m i na t i on of t he a qui f e r by s t r e ngt he ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a l r e qui r e m e nt s f or l a nd f i l l s F a r m i ng a nd o t he r a gr i c ul t ur a l ope r a t i ons a r e of t e n i m pl i c a t e d i n ka r s t a qui f e r c ont a m i na t i on. T he m os t c om m on c ont a m i na t i on a ge nt i s f e r t i l i z e r w hi c h t ypi c a l l y m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f a s hi gh c onc e nt r a t i ons of ni t r a t e s i n t he gr oundw a t e r O ne s ym pt om of t hi s t ype of c ont a m i na t i on i s t ha t w a t e r f r om w e l l s t a ppi ng t he uppe r be dr oc k m a y ha ve s t r a nge s m e l l s a nd a c l oudy a ppe a r a nc e I n nor t he r n I ow a hi gh l e ve l s of ni t r a t e c ont a m i na t i on w e r e oc c ur r i ng i n a r e a s w i t h num e r ous s i nkhol e s s ugg e s t i ng t ha t f e r t i l i z e r s w e r e r unni ng o f f i nt o t he s i nks ( M i t c he m e t a l 1988 ) T hi s t ype of c ont a m i na t i on i s c om m on i n r u r a l a r e a s ot he r e x a m pl e s i nc l ude t he ni t r a t e c ont a m i na t i on of g r oundw a t e r i n F l or i da s W oodvi l l e K a r s t P l a i n ( K a t z C he l l e t e a nd P r a t t 2004) a nd i n R om a ni a ( G a t z w e i l e r a nd H a ge dor n, 2003 ) w he r e a de c r e a s e i n c he m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r us e s i nc e t he e a r l y 1990s ha s no t be e n f ol l ow e d by a c o r r e s pondi ng dr op i n n i t r a t e l e ve l s i n t he g r oundw a t e r I n f a c t i n s om e a r e a s w a t e r f r om w e l l s e xc e e ds m a xi m um a l l ow a bl e l i m i t s of po l l ut a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons m a ki ng t he w a t e r uns a f e f o r hum a n or a ni m a l c ons um pt i on. G a t z w e i l l e r a nd H a ge dor n ( 2003) not e d t ha t s om e of R om a ni a s ka r s t a qui f e r s ha d be e n s o da m a ge d by a gr i c ul t ur e a s t o r e nde r t he gr oundw a t e r undr i nka bl e f or hum a ns or a ni m a l s S i m i l a r c ont a m i na t i on ha s oc c ur r e d i n

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30 t he ka r s t i c l a nds of r ur a l A ppa l a c hi a w he r e t he pr e s e nc e of ni t r a t e s i n l oc a l w e l l w a t e r ha s be e n l i nke d t o t he s o c a l l e d bl ue ba by s yndr o m e a n a f f l i c t i on t ha t w a s pa r t i c ul a r l y c om m on i n t he m i d 20 t h c e nt ur y ( S m i t h 2000 ) A not he r s i gni f i c a nt t h r e a t t o ka r s t a qui f e r s i s t he pr e s e nc e of m i ni ng ope r a t i ons W he n e xpa ns i on of t he e xt r a c t i ve l i m e r oc k m i ne s i n M i a m i D a de C ount y, F l or i da w a s pr opos e d, t he r e w a s c onc e r n t ha t t he m ove w oul d he i ght e n t he r i s k o f pa t hoge n c ont a m i na t i on i n t he ka r s t i c B i s c a yne a qui f e r S t ud i e s of t he a r e a f ound t ha t hi gh t r a ns por t ve l oc i t i e s w e r e oc c ur r i ng a l ong p r e f e r e nt i a l f l ow pa t hs w i t h i n t he a qui f e r r e s ul t i ng i n a g r e a t e r e a s e of c ont a m i na nt m ove m e nt t ha n w a s pr e vi ous l y s uppos e d ( R e nke n e t a l 2005) E a s t e r n E u r ope ha s a l s o e xp e r i e nc e d ka r s t a qui f e r da m a ge f r om m i ni ng ope r a t i ons us ua l l y f r om c a r e l e s s di s pos a l of w a s t e m a t e r i a l s T hi s i s a pa r t i c ul a r c onc e r n i n R om a ni a s A pus e ni M ount a i ns w he r e m i ni ng ha s be e n a t r a di t i ona l e c onom i c a c t i vi t y f or c e nt ur i e s ( T ur noc k, 2000; F or r a y 2002 ) L a M or e a ux, e t a l ( 1997) c i t e t he c a s e of a P ol i s h z i nc l e a d o r e m i ne s uf f e r i ng c ont a m i na t i on f r o m pa pe r f a c t or y f l ui d w a s t e di s c ha r ge d ove r 5 km a w a y i n a ka r s t i c a r e a I n m a n y c a s e s pol l ut a nt s i n ka r s t a qui f e r s do not de c om pos e or be c om e a bs or be d i nt o t he a qui f e r Caves and ecosystem / habitat damage C a ve s a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y f r a gi l e ka r s t e nvi r onm e nt s t ha t a r e ve r y s us c e pt i bl e t o c ont a m i na t i on or da m a ge T h i s i s due i n l a r ge pa r t t o t he i r i nt e gr a t e d na t ur e t he he a l t h of t he ove r a l l s ys t e m de pe nds on t he m a i nt e na nc e of a pa r t i c ul a r ba l a nc e be t w e e n a t m os phe r e w a t e r ve ge t a t i on a nd s oi l f a c t or s O b vi ous l y, di r e c t hu m a n us e of c a ve s c a n r e s ul t i n a l t e r a t i on of t he phys i c a l s t r uc t ur e of t he c a ve s t he m s e l ve s c ha nge s i n t he w a t e r c he m i s t r y or hyd r ol ogy w i t hi n t he c a ve or de s t r uc t i on of c a ve de c or a t i ons a nd c a ve

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31 dw e l l i ng or ga ni s m s ( W a t s on e t a l 1997) B ut m a n y of t he hum a n a c t i vi t i e s a l r e a dy di s c us s e d i n t hi s ove r vi e w i e a c t i vi t i e s t ha t do not i nvol ve di r e c t us e of c a ve s ha ve a n i m pa c t on a t l e a s t one of t he s e f a c t or s i n ne a r by c a ve e nvi r onm e nt s ( G i l l i e s on, 1996; W a t s on, e t a l 1997 ) D r i pw a t e r f l ow s a r e c r i t i c a l bot h t o c a ve bi ot a a nd t o t he m i c r oc l i m a t e s of t he c a ve s t he m s e l ve s S i nc e c a ve s a r e pa r t o f a l a r ge r ka r s t dr a i na ge s ys t e m t he y r e c e i ve gr oundw a t e r f l ow a nd a l l t ha t i s c ont a i ne d w i t hi n t ha t gr oundw a t e r i nc l udi ng pol l ut a nt s A ny s ur f i c i a l hum a n a c t i vi t i e s t ha t pos e a pot e nt i a l t hr e a t t o t he a qui f e r l i ke f or e xa m pl e c a r e l e s s di s pos a l of w a s t e s or e xc e s s i ve f e r t i l i z a t i on i n a gr i c ul t u r a l a r e a s c a n ha ve de va s t a t i ng i m pa c t s on c a ve l i f e by a l t e r i ng t he w a t e r c he m i s t r y ( G i l l i e s on, 1996; W a t s on e t a l 1997) W hi t e ( 1988) poi nt s out t ha t a c e r t a i n l e ve l of di s s ol ve d oxyge n m us t be m a i nt a i n e d i n c a ve w a t e r s i n or de r f or a qua t i c or ga ni s m s t o s ur vi ve ; s houl d t hi s e qui l i br i um be di s r upt e d, i t c oul d ha ve di s a s t r ous e f f e c t s on t he s e c a ve e c os ys t e m s T hough i t r a r e l y ha ppe ns c a ve s c a n a l s o be de s t r oye d by a qui f e r d r a w dow n, a s s i nkh ol e s c a n t he n f or m o n t he s ur f a c e a nd f i l l t he m i n M i ni ng pos e s a t hr e a t t o c a ve s a s w e l l t hough t he na t u r e o f t ha t t h r e a t i s e ve n m o r e s e ve r e t ha n t ha t f a c e d by a qui f e r s : t he c om pl e t e de s t r uc t i on of c a ve s i n a qua r r y a r e a ( D a vi s 1997 ) R e s t or i ng da m a ge d c a ve s a f t e r t he y ha ve be e n de g r a de d by hum a n a c t i vi t y w i l l not ge ne r a l l y r e t ur n a c a ve t o i t s pr e vi ous e c ol ogi c a l s t a t e ; f or t ha t r e a s on, pr ot e c t i on i s a pr e f e r r e d s t r a t e gy ( E l l i ot t 2005 ) U l t i m a t e l y, a ny pr oc e s s e s t ha t c a n a l t e r s oi l c om po s i t i on, pl a n t popu l a t i on a nd w a t e r f l ow pa t t e r ns c oul d ha ve s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t s on c a ve s I nde e d, e ve n c l e a ni ng pr oc e s s e s us e d t o r e m ove t he e xc e s s dus t a nd l i nt t ha t i ne vi t a bl y a c c om pa ni e s hum a ns i nt o c a ve s c a n ha ve a de l e t e r i ous e f f e c t on s pe l e ot he m de ve l opm e nt ( G i l l i e s on, 1996)

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32 W hi l e t he e xc e s s i ve gr oundw a t e r pum pi ng a nd he a vy ni t r a t e us e c om m on t o m a j o r a gr i c ul t ur a l z one s c oul d e a s i l y ups e t t he de l i c a t e b a l a nc e of f a c t or s r e qui r e d f o r he a l t hy c a ve s ur ba ni z a t i on pr oc e s s e s a r e pe r ha ps e ve n m or e of a t hr e a t ; not onl y a r e ove r pum pi ng a nd g r oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on l i ke l y t o oc c ur but c ons t r uc t i on on t he s ur f a c e ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o r e di r e c t s ur f a c e r unof f f l ow s i n w a ys t ha t c a n ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t c a ve s a nd c a ve e c os ys t e m s B r uc ke r ( 2003) c ons i de r s t he t hr e a t pos e d by t he T r i m oda l T r a ns pa r k p r oj e c t t o M a m m ot h C a ve i n K e nt uc ky. P r oj e c t de ve l ope r s a nd gove r nm e nt s pons or s dow npl a y t he t hr e a t by e m ph a s i z i ng t he m ode r n c ons t r uc t i on t e c hni que s de s i gne d t o pr e ve nt c ont a m i na t i on o f t h e c a ve s he a dw a t e r s l oc a t e d a m e r e 13 ki l om e t e r s f r om t he pr oj e c t ; how e ve r c r i t i c s no t e t ha t t he p r oj e c t i s l oc a t e d i n a n a r e a i de nt i f i e d by t he C e nt e r f o r C a ve a nd K a r s t S t udi e s a s t he hi ghe s t r i s k a r e a f o r c ont a m i na t i on, f l ood i ng a nd c ol l a ps e i n t he e nt i r e s t a t e E ve n t he gove r nm e nt s pons or s of t he pr oj e c t t he I n t e r M oda l T r a ns por t a t i on A ut hor i t y c a nnot r ul e out c ont a m i na t i on t o t he c a ve A s of t hi s w r i t i ng, t he pr oj e c t i s s t i l l on t r a c k. Summary T he phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of ka r s t l a nds c a pe s r e nde r t he m e xt r e m e l y s us c e pt i bl e t o da m a ge a nd de gr a d a t i on T he de m a nds of s us t a i ni ng hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s on ka r s t a r e a l l but gua r a nt e e d t o ha ve s om e e f f e c t on t he s e f r a gi l e l a nds c a pe s ; how e ve r w he t he r out of c a r e l e s s ne s s or i gnor a nc e hum a ns ha ve be e n a bus i ng ka r s t l a nds c a pe s f or c e nt ur i e s I n m a ny c a s e s hu m a n s oc i e t i e s ha ve s uf f e r e d c ons e qu e nc e s a s a r e s ul t of a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t s on t he ka r s t be l ow t he m ; t he goa l of t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on i s t o pr ovi de a t ool t ha t c a n he l p m i t i ga t e bot h t he da m a ge c a us e d by hum a ns a nd t he e ns ui ng c ons e que nc e s

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33 3 Pe r s p e c ti v e s o n P o l i c y A n a l y s i s Introduction W hi l e i t m a y s e e m t ha t t he f oc us of t h i s di s s e r t a t i on i s on ka r s t t ha t a s pe c t i s r e a l l y onl y ha l f t he e qua t i on. U l t i m a t e l y, t hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s r e a l l y c onduc t i ng publ i c pol i c y a na l ys i s a s i t a ppl i e s t o hum a n i nt e r a c t i on w i t h ka r s t t e r r a i ns ; t he r e f o r e w e m us t f i r s t unde r s t a nd w ha t po l i c y a na l ys i s i s how i t i s g e ne r a l l y c onduc t e d, a nd how i t c a n he l p i nf or m t he r e s e a r c h c ont a i ne d he r e Policy analysis: What is it? D ye ( 1987) de f i ne s publ i c pol i c y a s w ha t e ve r gov e r nm e nt s c hoos e t o do or not t o do ( p 3) ; i t f ol l ow s t ha t pol i c y a na l ys i s i s t he r e f or e t he br e a ki ng dow n a nd e xa m i na t i on of t he i ns t i t ut i ons a nd p r oc e s s e s t ha t c r e a t e publ i c pol i c y. A s a n a c a de m i c di s c i pl i ne p ol i c y a na l ys i s i s s t i l l qui t e young. M os t s c hol a r s of pol i c y a na l ys i s w i l l l i ke l y poi nt L e r ne r a nd L a s s w e l l s w or k i n 1951 a s t he p oi nt w he r e pol i c y a na l ys i s be ga n t o s t a ke out i t s ow n di s c i pl i na r y t e r r i t o r y. I n t he s i x d e c a de s t ha t ha ve f ol l ow e d, t he f i e l d ha s not de ve l ope d a n e s pe c i a l l y c ohe s i ve t he or e t i c a l c or e ; how e ve r t ha t s houl dn t ne c e s s a r i l y be s ur pr i s i ng, gi ve n t he di s c i pl i ne s b r oa d r e a c h. I t i s a l s o a de f i c i e nc y t ha t ha s r e c e i ve d a good de a l of a t t e nt i on f r om po l i c y t he or i s t s s i nc e t he 1980s a nd a s a r e s ul t t he ol d de s c r i pt i ons of pol i c y a na l ys i s a s l a r ge l y a t he or e t i c a l a r e not a s poi nt e d a nd s t i ngi ng a s t he y onc e w e r e

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34 U l t i m a t e l y, t he r e i s no s i ngl e a gr e e d upon a ppr oa c h t o pol i c y a na l ys i s o r e ve n a uni f or m r e c ogni t i on o f w ha t t he di s c i pl i ne s goa l s s houl d be ( t hough d i f f e r e nc e s on t he s e que s t i ons a r e pe r ha ps not a s s i gni f i c a nt a s t he y a t f i r s t a ppe a r ) D e r y ( 1984) s e e s t he goa l of pol i c y a na l ys i s a s a c hi e vi ng a n unde r s t a ndi ng b ot h of w ha t i s a c hi e va bl e t hr ough pol i c y i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd of t he c ons t r a i nt s f a c e d i n t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on p r oc e s s W h i t e ( 1979) w r i t e s t ha t pol i c y a na l ys i s s houl d ha ve t w o obj e c t i ve s : f i r s t t o i de nt i f y a nd c om m uni c a t e t o pol i c ym a ke r s a nd t he publ i c t he l i ke l y c ons e que nc e s of m a ki ng a pa r t i c ul a r pol i c y de c i s i on; a nd s e c ond, t o i de nt i f y e va l ua t e a nd c om pa r e a l t e r na t i ve p ol i c y c hoi c e s I n or de r t o a c hi e ve t he s e obj e c t i ve s a t l e a s t t hr e e que s t i ons m us t be a ns w e r e d: A r e t he a nt i c i pa t e d c ons e que nc e s l i ke l y t o oc c ur ? A r e t he r e a l s o l i ke l y t o be c ons e que nc e s w hi c h ha ve not be e n a nt i c i pa t e d? I f e i t he r t he s e a nt i c i pa t e d a nd/ or una nt i c i pa t e d c ons e que nc e s oc c ur how s e r i ous w i l l t he y be ? ( p. 97) A s W hi t e s e e s i t t he f ou r m a j o r c om pone nt s or c o nc e pt ua l e l e m e nt s de ve l ope d t o a ns w e r t he s e que s t i ons a nd a c hi e ve t he s e obj e c t i ve s a r e : A ge ne r a l c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k; a n i nt e r di s c i pl i n a r y t e a m ; t he a c t i ve i n vol ve m e nt of num e r ous out s i de e xpe r t s a nd s t a ke hol de r s ; a nd a n i s s ue s ys t e m s pol i c y a na l ys i s f r a m e w or k. O nc e t he s e c om pone nt s a r e i n pl a c e t he r e a r e t hr e e s t e ps t o t h e a c t ua l pr oc e s s of pol i t i c a l a na l ys i s : i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd de f i ni t i on o f p r obl e m s a nd i s s ue s ; de s c r i pt i on of t he s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l c ont e xt ; a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on e va l ua t i on a nd c om pa r i s on of a l t e r na t i ve pol i c i e s a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on s t r a t e gi e s T he f i r s t s t e p i s r e a l l y a n ongoi ng pr oc e s s or a t l e a s t a s t e p t ha t i s r e vi s i t e d a t va r i ous s t a ge s i n t he pol i c ym a ki ng pr oc e s s T he s e c ond s t e p r e l a t e s pot e nt i a l pr obl e m s t o t he s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l c ont e xt i n w hi c h t he y a r e l i ke l y t o oc c ur I n s t e p t hr e e t he n um be r o f a l t e r na t i ve s m us t be r e du c e d t o a m a na ge a bl e num be r w hi c h i s

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35 a c c om pl i s he d by a ppl yi ng a num be r of f i l t e r s ba s e d on t he p r oba bl e di s t r i but i ve e f f e c t s ( w i t h r e ga r d t o c os t s r i s ks a nd be ne f i t s ) o f e a c h a l t e r na t i ve A ny a l t e r na t i ve s pa s s i ng t hr ough t he f i l t e r s a r e t he n e va l ua t e d a nd c om pa r e d, ba s e d on s pe c i f i e d c r i t e r i a ( W hi t e 1979) D e r y ( 1984 ) s ugge s t s a s i x s t e p pr oc e s s a s s or t of a l oos e s e t of gui de l i ne s : de f i ne t he pr obl e m c ol l e c t t he da t a i de nt i f y a ny a l t e r na t i ve pol i c y c hoi c e s de t e r m i ne t he c ons e que nc e s of a ny vi a bl e c our s e o f a c t i on, e xpl o r e t he t r a de of f s i nvol ve d, a nd f i na l l y, t e l l t he s t or y T hi s he w r i t e s i s a va r i a nt on a t he m e t ha t i s c om m on i n t he pol i c y a na l ys i s l i t e r a t ur e t hough t he num be r of s t e ps di f f e r s f r om a ut hor t o a ut hor : G upt a s ( 1994) de s c r i pt i on of t he pr oc e s s c ont a i ns f i ve s t e p s t ha t a r e ve r y s i m i l a r t o D e r y s w hi l e B obr ow a nd D r yz e k ( 1987 ) s e e t he po l i c y de s i gn p r oc e s s a s c ons i s t i ng of t hr e e c e nt r a l c om pone nt s t o be a na l yz e d: va l ue s c ont e xt a nd t h e c r e a t i on of a ppr opr i a t e a ppr oa c he s E f f e c t i ve pol i c y a na l ys i s w i l l a l s o t ypi c a l l y i n c l ud e i nput f r om s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt di s c i pl i ne s A s ol i d unde r s t a ndi ng of e c onom i c s s oc i ol ogy, or t he phys i c a l s c i e nc e s i s f r e que nt l y r e qui r e d t o m a ke e f f e c t i ve po l i c y. A s W hi t e ( 1979) put i t [ a ] ppl i e d pol i c y a na l ys i s i s i nhe r e nt l y i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y be c a us e s oc i e t a l pr obl e m s s e l dom i f e ve r f a l l w i t hi n t he bounda r i e s o f a ny s i ngl e di s c i pl i ne ( p. 96) I n t ha t W hi t e c onc ur s w i t h S a ba t i e r ( 1991a ) on t he i m por t a nc e o f s ubs t a nt i ve pol i c y i nf or m a t i on i n t he a na l ys i s pr oc e s s : S a ba t i e r a r gue s t ha t s uc h i nf o r m a t i on i s c r i t i c a l t o t he pr oc e s s be c a us e pol i c y a c t or s s pe nd a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount o f t i m e di s c us s i n g t he t e c hni c a l m i nut i a e of t he pol i c y c hoi c e s be f or e t he m W e i s s ( 2000 ) on t he o t he r ha nd, a r gue s t ha t t he i ns t i t ut i ona l s e t t i ng a nd va l ue s of i nt e r e s t e d pol i t i c a l a c t or s a r e be t t e r e xpl a na t i ons f or pol i c y out c om e s t ha n a r e t he s pe c i f i c f e a t ur e s o r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he po l i c i e s t he m s e l ve s

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36 Some approache s to policy a nalysis: a n overview A s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r t he r e i s no ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d r i ght w a y t o c ond uc t pol i c y a na l ys i s P e r ha ps s om e of t he d i f f e r i ng vi e w s on w ha t pol i c y a na l ys i s i s a nd how i t s houl d be c onduc t e d c a n be e xpl a i ne d by t he f i e l d s l ong r e l i a nc e on t he s t a ge he ur i s t i c t he f r a m e w or k i n w hi c h s o m uc h pol i c y a na l ys i s r e s e a r c h s e e m s t o be r oo t e d. I n t hi s c onc e pt i on, t he pol i c y pr oc e s s i s br oke n dow n i nt o f our di s c r e t e s t a ge s : a ge nda s e t t i ng, pol i c y f or m ul a t i on a nd a dopt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on, a nd e va l ua t i on. A n a na l ys t c a n f oc us on t he de f i ni t i on of t he p r obl e m t o be s ol ve d w i t h a pol i c y s ol ut i on t he i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd a na l ys i s of pot e nt i a l a l t e r na t i ve c ou r s e s of a c t i on a nd t he i r l i ke l y c ons e que nc e s t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a gi ve n pol i c y s ol ut i on, or t he e va l ua t i on of a pr ogr a m s e f f e c t i ve ne s s onc e i t s ha d t i m e t o w o r k. S a ba t i e r ( 1991a ) o f f e r s a de s c r i pt i on of t he f ou r t ype s of pol i c y r e s e a r c h t ha t be a r s t he unm i s t a ka bl e i m pr i nt of t he s t a ge he ur i s t i c : s ubs t a nt i ve a r e a r e s e a r c h, i n w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r a t t e m pt s t o unde r s t a nd t he pol i t i c s of a pa r t i c ul a r pol i c y t opi c ; e va l ua t i on a nd i m pa c t s t udi e s ; pol i c y pr oc e s s ; a nd pol i c y de s i gn ( o f t he f our S a ba t i e r s ugge s t s t ha t pol i c y pr oc e s s s t udi e s ha ve be e n t he m os t f r ui t f ul ) T he s e a r e a l l ve r y di f f e r e nt e nt e r pr i s e s r e qui r i ng ve r y d i f f e r e nt t ool s a nd m i nds e t s ye t t he y a l l f i nd r e f uge unde r t he pol i c y a n a l ys i s um br e l l a I t s no w onde r t ha t t he pol i c y a na l ys i s f i e l d c a n a t f i r s t a ppe a r m ur ky a nd c onf us i ng t o out s i de r s T he s t a ge he ur i s t i c ha s l ong be e n a f i xt u r e i n pol i c y a na l ys i s r e s e a r c h. W hi l e t hi s c ons t r uc t i on c a n c e r t a i nl y pr ov i de a us e f ul f or s t udyi n g pol i c y p r obl e m s i t s e xpl a na t or y pow e r s a r e l i m i t e d by t he f a c t t ha t t he s t a ge he ur i s t i c i s i n no w a y a c a us a l t he or y I t of f e r s no a s s um pt i ons or m e c ha ni s m s f or dr i vi ng t he pol i c y pr oc e s s f r om one s t a ge t o t he ne xt ( S a ba t i e r 1991a ) I ns t e a d, t he s t a ge he ur i s t i c l e nds i t s e l f t o a m or e s ol ut i on o r i e nt e d pr oc e s s w hi c h W e i s s ( 2000) s ugge s t s w a s a ne c e s s a r y a nd na t ur a l out g r ow t h o f t he l a c k

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37 of a s t r ong t he or e t i c a l ba s e W e i s s i s not a l one i n c ont i nui ng t o c r i t i c i z e t he de pt h ( o r l a c k t he r e of ) o f t he or y i n p ol i c y a na l ys i s ; e ve n s uc h a t he or i s t a s S a ba t i e r ( 1991a ) ha s a c know l e dge d t he va l i di t y of s om e of t he s e c r i t i qu e s a nd t ha t a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount of m ode r n pol i c y a na l ys i s r e s e a r c h s t i l l a m ount s t o l i t t l e m or e t ha n ove r dr e s s e d c a s e s t udi e s D ye ( 1987) i nc l u de s t he s t a ge s he ur i s t i c ( or a s he c a l l s i t t he pr oc e s s m ode l ) i n hi s l i s t of e i ght pr om i ne nt m ode l t ype s i n pol i c y a na l ys i s I t i s not t he onl y one w i t h l i m i t e d e xpl a na t or y po t e nt i a l ; t he i ns t i t ut i ona l m od e l w hi c h de s c r i be s s pe c i f i c gove r nm e nt a l i ns t i t ut i ons but doe s not t a ke a s ys t e m a t i c vi e w of t he i r r e s pe c t i ve r ol e s i n t he pol i c y pr oc e s s s e e m s be s e t w i t h a s i m i l a r pr ob l e m O t he r m ode l s de s c r i be d by D ye do i n f a c t e xpl or e c a us a l m e c ha ni s m s w i t hi n t he p ol i c y pr oc e s s : t he gr oup m ode l f or e xa m pl e pos i t s t ha t i t i s i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n i nt e r e s t gr oups i n t he f o r m o f s t r uggl e or c oope r a t i on, t ha t i s t he d r i vi ng f or c e of pol i t i c s a n d pol i c y; t he e l i t e m ode l de s c r i be s a pol i c y e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h pol i c y r e f l e c t s t he va l ue s a nd de s i r e s of a s oc i e t y s e l i t e s a nd not t hos e of t he pe opl e T he i nc r e m e nt a l i s t pe r s pe c t i ve a r gue s t ha t pol i c ym a ki ng i s ba s e d on t he gr a dua l m odi f i c a t i on o f e xi s t i ng p r og r a m s or pol i c i e s w hi l e t he r a t i ona l m ode l t a ke s a m or e no r m a t i ve a ppr oa c h: i t a r gue s t ha t gove r nm e nt s s houl d c hoos e pol i c i e s w he r e t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c os t s a nd ga i ns i s t he m os t f a vo r a bl e a nd l i ke w i s e s houl d not a dopt pol i c i e s w he r e t he c os t s a r e l a r ge r t ha n t he ga i ns t o s oc i e t y. A s s e ns i bl e a s t hi s a ppr oa c h s e e m s i t i s of t e n e a s i e r s a i d t ha n done due t o t he i m pos s i bi l i t y of a c t ua l l y i de nt i f yi ng c os t s a nd t he f a c t t ha t be ne f i t s us ua l l y a c c r ue t o one or m or e i nt e r e s t gr oups i ns t e a d of t o s oc i e t y a t l a r ge M os t of t he m ode l s de s c r i be d by D ye w e r e i n us e w he n t he f i r s t e di t i on o f hi s book w a s publ i s he d i n 1972 A m or e r e c e nt f r a m e w or k w i t h m uc h e xpl a na t or y pow e r i s

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38 t he pol i c y s t r e a m s a ppr oa c h, de ve l ope d by J ohn K i ngdon. T h i s f r a m e w or k ha s be c om e ve r y i nf l ue nt i a l i n pol i c y c i r c l e s s i nc e i t s i nt r oduc t i on i n 1984 I t i s how e ve r l i m i t e d t o a ddr e s s i ng t he a ge nda s e t t i ng s t a ge of t he pol i c y p r oc e s s a nd i s s i l e nt on t he ot he r s I n K i ngdon s f r a m e w or k pol i c y i s s ue s c a n m ove f r o m pur ga t or y t o t he t op o f t he pol i c y a ge nda by t he c onve r ge nc e of t hr e e s t r e a m s of p r oc e s s e s : t he pr obl e m s t r e a m t he pol i c y s t r e a m a nd t he po l i t i c a l s t r e a m W he n t he s e t hr e e s t r e a m s a l l ha ppe n t o de a l w i t h t he s a m e i s s ue a t t he s a m e t i m e pol i c y pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y s e e t he ope ni ng o f a pol i c y w i ndow K i ngdon de s c r i be s t hi s w i ndow i s a n op por t uni t y f or a dvoc a t e s t o pus h t he i r pe t s ol ut i ons or t o p us h a t t e nt i on t o t he i r s pe c i a l pr obl e m s ( K i ngdon, 1995 p 203 ) I f a pa r t i c ul a r pol i c y or s ol ut i on i s r e a dy a nd t i e d ( or c oupl e d, t o us e K i ngdon s t e r m i nol ogy) t o a p r obl e m o r pol i t i c a l e ve nt i t c a n r i de t h r ough t he pol i c y w i ndow w he n t he oppor t uni t y pr e s e nt s i t s e l f I t i s pos s i bl e f o r a n i s s ue t o a c hi e ve a ge nda s t a t us w i t hout t he c onve r ge nc e of a l l t hr e e s t r e a m s but i t s not e a s y or c om m on. O ne c r uc i a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he pol i c y s t r e a m s m ode l a nd t he c l a s s i c pr obl e m s ol ut i on a ppr oa c h i s t ha t i n t h i s m ode l s ol ut i ons a nd pol i c i e s e xi s t i nde pe nde nt of a c t ua l pr obl e m s ; a dvoc a t e s of t he s e va r i ous s ol ut i ons a r e a l w a ys l ooki ng f or pr obl e m s t o w hi c h t he y c a n be c oupl e d. T he c l a s s i c pr obl e m s ol ut i on a ppr oa c h hol ds t ha t pol i c y s ol ut i ons a r e de ve l ope d i n r e s pons e t o s pe c i f i c pol i c y pr obl e m s T he po l i c y s t r e a m s a ppr oa c h i s a n e xt r e m e l y f l e xi bl e m e t hod f o r a na l ys i s of t he a ge nda s e t t i ng pr oc e s s i n t ha t i t c a n a c c om m oda t e pa r t i c i pa nt s a t m ul t i pl e a ge nc i e s a nd a t m ul t i pl e l e ve l s of gove r nm e nt H ow e ve r i t s i na bi l i t y t o a na l yz e ot he r s t a ge s of t h e pol i c y pr oc e s s m e a ns t ha t ot he r t he or e t i c a l t ool s m us t be us e d i n s i t ua t i ons w he r e a na l ys i s i s r e qui r e d be yond t he a ge nda s e t t i ng s t a ge

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39 T he a dvoc a c y c oa l i t i on f r a m e w or k w a s de ve l ope d by P a ul S a ba t i e r i n t he l a t e 1980s A t i t s c o r e t he f r a m e w or k r e f l e c t s S a ba t i e r s ( 1991a ) be l i e f t ha t s ubs t a nt i ve pol i c y know l e dge i s a nd m us t be a ke y pa r t of t he pol i c y pr oc e s s H e w r i t e s t ha t i n o r de r t o de ve l op pol i c y t he or y a t he or i s t ne e ds a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he be ha vi or o f gove r n m e nt a l i ns t i t ut i ons i nt e r e s t gr oups t he m e di a a nd t he ge n e r a l publ i c H e c l a i m s t ha t e m pi r i c a l s t udy ha s s how n t ha t a w i de r a nge of a ge nc i e s a nd i nt e r e s t gr oups a r e i nvol ve d i n t he pol i c y de ve l opm e nt a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t ha t t hi s f a c t r e nde r s t he s t a nda r d i r on t r i a ngl e a pp r oa c h, a s w e l l a s i ns t i t ut i on s pe c i f i c r e s e a r c h, m os t l y s upe r f l uous I ns t e a d, t he a na l ys t m us t e xa m i ne a m uc h l a r ge r pol i c y c om m uni t y ( or s ubs ys t e m ) i n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he pol i c y pr oc e s s ( S a ba t i e r 1991b ) T he s e pol i c y s ubs ys t e m s a r e c om pos e d of a l l a c t or s w ho a r e c onc e r ne d w i t h a pa r t i c ul a r c a us e or pol i c y i s s ue T he s e a c t or s c a n c om e f r om a w i d e s pe c t r um of pub l i c or pr i va t e i ns t i t ut i ons a nd ne e d not a l l e xi s t on t he s a m e l e ve l of gove r nm e nt o r e ve n w i t hi n gove r nm e nt a t a l l T he r e c a n be m or e t ha n t w o pol i c y c oa l i t i ons a t w or k i n t he s ubs ys t e m w i t h e a c h t ypi c a l l y w or ki ng a ga i ns t t he ot he r s t o s om e de g r e e or a not he r E a c h c oa l i t i on ha s a c o r e s e t of be l i e f s w hi c h i nf o r m s i t s c hoi c e s of pol i c y s ol ut i ons ( S a ba t i e r 1988) T he i m por t a nc e o f pol i c y s ubs ys t e m s i s di r e c t l y t i e d t o t he i m por t a nc e o f s pe c i f i c t e c hni c a l i nf or m a t i on t o t he pol i c y pr oc e s s S pe c i a l i s t know l e dge a nd t he c om m i t m e nt t o t he i s s ue s t ha t us ua l l y c om e s w i t h s uc h know l e dge gi ve m e m be r s of t he s e s ubs ys t e m s t he a bi l i t y t o s ha pe pol i c y ove r l onge r pe r i ods of t i m e C e nt r a l t o t he pol i c y pr oc e s s i s t he i de a of pol i c y o r i e nt e d l e a r ni ng w hi c h i s ba s e d on i nc r e a s i ng one s l e ve l of s pe c i a l i s t know l e dge a nd i s s uppor t e d by f e e dba c k l oops w i t hi n t he m ode l ( S a ba t i e r 1988 )

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40 O ne m a j or s hor t c om i ng of t he a dvoc a c y c oa l i t i on f r a m e w or k i s t ha t i t ne gl e c t s a c t or i nt e r e s t s ; S a ba t i e r ( 1991b) r e c ogni z e s t hi s a nd ha s w or ke d t o a ddr e s s t he s i t ua t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he a dvoc a c y c oa l i t i on f r a m e w or k a s s um e s t ha t pol i c y de c i s i ons c a nnot be a de qua t e l y a na l yz e d ove r t i m e f r a m e s s hor t e r t ha n a de c a de T hi s s t i pul a t i on m a ke s t he a dvoc a c y c oa l i t i on m ode l s om e w ha t m or e d i f f i c ul t t o a ppl y t o s om e of t he c a s e s s t udi e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. P ubl i c c hoi c e t he or y i s a n a ppr oa c h t o pol i c y a na l ys i s w i t h r oot s i n bo t h pol i t i c a l s c i e nc e a nd e c onom i c s D e s pi t e i t s t i e s t o e c onom i c s publ i c c hoi c e i s not w e dde d t o t he s t a nda r d m a r ke t ba s e d a ppr oa c h s o pr e va l e nt i n t h a t di s c i pl i ne ( t hough t he i nf l ue nc e c e r t a i nl y doe s e xi s t ) I ns t e a d, i t e xpl or e s w ha t ha p pe ns w he n pe opl e l e a ve t he m a r ke t pl a c e i n or de r t o pur s ue t he m a xi m i z a t i on o f ut i l i t y t hr ough i nf l ue nc i ng publ i c de c i s i on s t r uc t ur e s O r a s B obr ow a nd D r yz e k ( 19 87) w r i t e i t a ppl i e s de duc t i ve r e a s oni ng ba s e d on i ndi vi dua l r a t i o na l m a xi m i z i ng be ha vi or i n or de r t o de t e r m i ne c ol l e c t i ve c ons e que nc e s unde r di f f e r e nt c i r c um s t a nc e s ( p. 49) P ubl i c c hoi c e t he or y t a ke s a n e nt i r e l y di f f e r e nt vi e w of gove r n m e nt t ha n i s pr e s e nt e d i n w e l f a r e e c onom i c s or i n t r a di t i ona l po l i t i c a l s c i e nc e t he or y. G ove r n m e nt i s not i nhe r e nt l y pub l i c s pi r i t e d o r be ne vol e nt ; i ns t e a d, be c a us e i t i s c om pos e d of r a t i ona l ut i l i t y m a xi m i z i ng hum a ns i t s pol i c i e s a nd pr ogr a m s r e f l e c t a c t s t a ke n by i ndi vi dua l gove r nm e nt a c t or s i n pu r s ui t of t he i r pe r s ona l pr o f e s s i on a l goa l s ( m or e pow e r bi gge r budge t s e t c ) A nd i ns t e a d of vi e w i ng pol i c y t hr ou gh t he l e ns of t he P a r e t o c ondi t i on publ i c c hoi c e a c know l e dge s t ha t c ol l e c t i ve c hoi c e m a ki ng e nde a vor s l i ke po l i c ym a ki ng, a r e of t e n but not a l w a ys z e r o s um ga m e s ( B uc ha na n a nd T ul l oc k, 1965; M ue l l e r 2003) I n t he l a t e 1980s a nd e a r l y 1990s E l i no r O s t r om s w or k f oc us e d on de ve l opi ng a

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41 t he or y of i ns t i t ut i ona l a na l ys i s w i t hi n t he f i e l d of p ubl i c c hoi c e S he w a s m ot i va t e d by t he i na bi l i t y of e xi s t i ng m ode l s ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he t r a ge dy of t he c om m ons t he pr i s one r s di l e m m a a nd c ol l e c t i ve a c t i on t he or y ) t o pr ovi de a s a t i s f a c t or y f r a m e w or k f or e xa m i ni ng pr obl e m s r e l a t e d t o t he m a na ge m e nt a nd p r ovi s i on of c om m on pool e d r e s our c e s w hi c h a r e s i m pl y r e s our c e s f r om w hi c h us e r s c a nnot be e xc l ude d ( O s t r om 1990, p. 29) O s t r om s w or k, l i ke m uc h of pu bl i c c hoi c e t he or y ha s de e p r oot s i n t he f i e l d of ga m e t he or y. G a m e t he or y p r ovi de s a w a y t o m ode l a nd pr e di c t r a t i ona l de c i s i ons m a de unde r i nt e r a c t i ve c ondi t i ons i e s i t ua t i ons i n w h i c h t w o or m or e pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e a t t e m pt i ng t o m a xi m i z e t he i r ow n ut i l i t y a nd m i ni m i z e r i s k ( D ye ( 1987) de s c r i be s i t a s r a t i ona l s t r a t e gi c de c i s i onm a ki ng) T he r e i s a s i gni f i c a nt body o f l i t e r a t ur e i n e c onom i c s t ha t de a l s w i t h ga m e t he or y a nd i t s a ppl i c a t i on t o t he pr obl e m s a nd s i t ua t i ons m os t c om m on t o t ha t di s c i pl i ne I t s houl d c om e a s no s u r pr i s e t ha t ga m e t he or y o f t e n c a r r i e s w i t h i t s om e o f t he i nhe r e nt l i m i t a t i ons i n e c onom i c t hought i e t he a s s um pt i on t ha t a l l a c t or s be ha ve i n a r a t i ona l m a nne r H ow e ve r r e l a x i ng t he s e r ul e s f or a na l yz i ng a ny pa r t i c ul a r ga m e i s a s i m pl e m a t t e r I n de m ons t r a t i n g how c oope r a t i ve be ha vi or m i ght e vol ve on i t s ow n i n a pu r e l y s e l f i n t e r e s t e d gr oup, A xe l r od ( 1984) c l e ve r l y de m ons t r a t e s how ga m e t he or y c a n be a ppl i e d i n a w a y t h a t a voi ds unr e a l i s t i c a s s um pt i ons l i ke uni ve r s a l r a t i ona l i t y. D ye ( 1987) no t e s t ha t w hi l e ga m e t he or y i s ge ne r a l l y us e f ul f o r a na l ys i s pur pos e s i t i s not ge ne r a l l y a n e f f e c t i ve t ool f or pol i c y f or m ul a t i on; t hi s m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he a s s um pt i on of r a t i ona l be ha vi o r i n pol i c y a c t or s L i ke w i s e c r i t i c s of pub l i c c hoi c e ha ve f ound e m pi r i c a l e vi de nc e t o s ugge s t t ha t bur e a uc r a t i c be ha vi or i s o f t e n m o r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he i de a o f publ i c s e r vi c e t ha n w i t h budge t m a xi m i z a t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y publ i c

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42 c hoi c e ha s a s t r ong i nc l i na t i on t ow a r d m a r ke t t ype m e c ha ni s m s ( i t i s a f t e r a l l a br a nc h of e c onom i c s ) A not he r c r i t i c i s m i s t ha t publ i c c ho i c e m a ke s unr e a l i s t i c a nd c ont r a di c t or y a s s um pt i ons a bout t he c a pa bi l i t i e s of t he pol i c y pr oc e s s ( B obr ow a nd D r yz e k, 1987 ) Syste m analysi s in public pol icy T he e i ght h pol i c y f r a m e w or k di s c us s e d by D ye i s t he s ys t e m s m ode l w hi c h i s t he f r a m e w or k t ha t pl a ys t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. H e a r gue s t ha t t he pol i c y s ys t e m c ons i s t s of i nf o r m a t i on f l ow s be t w e e n t hr e e bl a c k box c om pone nt s : t he s e a r e l a be l e d i ns t i t ut i ons pr oc e s s e s be ha vi or s s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c c ondi t i ons a nd publ i c pol i c i e s ( D ye 1987) W i t hi n t he s ys t e m s m ode l t he e nvi r onm e nt de t e r m i ne s ( a t l e a s t i n pa r t ) t he na t ur e of i nput s ( i e de m a nds a nd s uppor t ) t o t he box l a be l e d T he P ol i t i c a l S ys t e m w hi c h t he n us e s t hos e i nput s t o pr oduc e out put s ( de c i s i ons a nd a c t i ons ) a nd di s c ha r ge t he m ba c k i n t o t he e nvi r onm e nt ; t he s e out put s t he n pr ovi de f e e dba c k ont o t he e nvi r onm e nt i t s e l f a nd m a y i m pa c t t he na t u r e of f ut u r e i nput s ( E a s t on, 1951; H of f e r be r t 1974; D ye 1987 ) E a s t on ( 1951) a r gue d t ha t pol i t i c s a nd pol i c y c a n b e s t udi e d i n one o f t w o w a ys : i n a pi e c e m e a l f a s hi on, w he r e e ve r y c om pone nt i s e xa m i ne d i n i s ol a t i on f r om o t he r c om pone nt s w i t h w hi c h i t i nt e r a c t s o r a s a s ys t e m of i nt e r r e l a t e d c om pone nt s t ha t i nf l ue nc e a nd a f f e c t e a c h ot he r I t i s t hi s l a t t e r a ppr oa c h, he w r i t e s t ha t i s t he a ppr opr i a t e one : T he ope r a t i on of no one pa r t c a n be unde r s t ood w i t hout r e f e r e nc e t o t he w a y i n w hi c h t he w h ol e i t s e l f ope r a t e s ( p. 383) ; H of f e r be r t ( 1974 ) de s c r i be s t he pol i c y pr oc e s s a s dyna m i c i nt e r pl a y be t w e e n t he un i t s i t c ont a i ns T he f i r s t s t e p i n unde r s t a ndi ng a pol i c y s ys t e m i s t he r e f or e t o i de nt i f y t he un i t s t ha t c om pos e t he s ys t e m I n a pol i t i c a l s ys t e m t he s e uni t s a r e s i m pl y pol i t i c a l a c t i ons a nd a c t or s ; i nput un i t s a r e r e qui r e d f or t he

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43 s ys t e m t o c ont i nue w or ki ng, a nd out pu t uni t s a r e g e ne r a t e d by a ny s ys t e m t ha t i s a c t ua l l y f unc t i oni ng. A ny pol i t i c a l s ys t e m ha s a t l e a s t a m i ni m um a m ount o f di f f e r e n t i a t i on be t w e e n t he r ol e s a nd a c t i vi t i e s of i t s uni t s P ol i t i c a l s ys t e m s m us t a l s o be i nt e gr a t e d, a t l e a s t t o t he poi nt w he r e i ndi vi dua l uni t s a r e not w o r ki ng a t c r os s pur pos e s T he s e c ond s t e p i n de l i ne a t i ng a pol i c y s ys t e m i s i de nt i f yi ng t h e bounda r i e s o f t ha t s ys t e m H ow c a n t he bounda r i e s of a pol i t i c a l s ys t e m be de t e r m i ne d? I s i t e ve n pos s i bl e t o s e pa r a t e a pol i c y s ys t e m f r om t he r e s t o f t he s oc i e t y i n w hi c h i t ope r a t e s ? E a s t on a r gue s t ha t i t i s a nd t ha t t he a ppr op r i a t e w a y t o do t hi s i s t o e xc l ude a c t i vi t i e s a nd i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t a r e not i nvol ve d i n t he pr oc e s s of m a ki ng bi ndi ng de c i s i on s f or a s oc i e t y ( E a s t on, 1951) D ye ( 1987) s e e s t he s ys t e m s m ode l a s a us e f ul f r a m e w or k i n w hi c h t o a s k s e ve r a l pol i c y r e l a t e d que s t i ons : 1. W ha t a r e t he s i gni f i c a nt d i m e ns i ons of t he e nvi r onm e nt t ha t ge ne r a t e de m a nds on t he pol i t i c a l s ys t e m ? 2. H ow do e nvi r onm e nt a l i nput s a f f e c t t he c ha r a c t e r of t he pol i t i c a l s ys t e m ? 3. W ha t a r e t he s i gni f i c a nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he po l i t i c a l s ys t e m t ha t e na bl e i t t o t r a ns f or m de m a nd s i nt o publ i c pol i c y a nd t o pr e s e r ve i t s e l f ove r t i m e ? 4. H ow do c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pol i t i c a l s ys t e m a f f e c t t he c ont e nt o f publ i c pol i c y? 5. H ow do e nvi r onm e nt a l i nput s a f f e c t t he c ont e nt of publ i c pol i c y? 6. H ow doe s publ i c pol i c y a f f e c t t hr ough f e e d ba c k, t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he c ha r a c t e r of t he pol i t i c a l s ys t e m ? ( D ye 1987 p. 42) I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t m a ny, i f not m os t of t he ot he r a ppr oa c he s t o pol i c y a na l ys i s de s c r i be d i n t hi s c ha pt e r a r e f ol l ow i ng t he s ys t e m s t e m pl a t e t o s om e e xt e nt K i ngdon s pol i c y s t r e a m s a ppr oa c h, f or e xa m pl e de s c r i be s t he pr oc e s s e s by w hi c h pa r t i c ul a r i nput s c om bi ne t o p r oduc e a n out put I n t ha t he i s r e a l l y m a ki ng a n a r gum e nt i n f a vor of a s pe c i f i c t ype o f s ys t e m a nd not f o r a de pa r t ur e f r o m s ys t e m t he or y.

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44 Applying po licy a nalysis met hods to thi s dissertation U l t i m a t e l y, i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on I a m no t s e e ki ng t o unde r s t a nd t he pol i c y pr oc e s s pe r s e R a t he r I a m m o r e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he w a ys i n w hi c h c e r t a i n i nput s a nd c ondi t i ons a f f e c t t he out c om e o f t he de ve l opm e nt of a pa r t i c ul a r t ype o f pol i c y a nd t he out c om e s of t he s e pol i c i e s a s t he y r e l a t e t o t he hum a n s ys t e m s a bove t he ka r s t I n o r de r t o c onduc t t hi s s or t of a na l ys i s i t w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o dr a w f r om m ul t i pl e a na l yt i c a l f r a m e w or ks A s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r i n t he c ha pt e r W hi t e ( 1979 ) c onc e i ve d of t he pol i c y a na l ys i s pr oc e s s a s c ons i s t i ng of t hr e e s t a ge s : pr obl e m i de n t i f i c a t i on a nd de f i ni t i on; de s c r i pt i on of t he s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l c ont e xt ; a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd e va l ua t i on of pot e nt i a l pol i c y s ol ut i ons C e r t a i nl y, t he de ve l opm e nt of l oc a l l a nd us e pol i c y f or ka r s t t e r r a i ns c a n be f i t i nt o W hi t e s t hr e e s t e p f r a m e w or k: I de n t i f i c at i on an d de f i n i t i o n o f pr obl e m s an d i s s u e s : P e r ha ps t he m os t i m por t a nt s t e p i s a r t i c ul a t i ng a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s pe c i f i c pr obl e m t ha t m a y r e qui r e a pol i c y ba s e d s ol ut i on. I n w ha t w a y i s t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t a n i s s ue ? I s s ubs i de nc e t he pr i m a r y pr obl e m o r i s g r oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on? O r pe r ha ps t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue i s c a ve de gr a da t i on. R e ga r dl e s s a ns w e r i ng t he s e a nd s i m i l a r que s t i ons a s pr e c i s e l y a s pos s i bl e i s c r i t i c a l t o i de nt i f y i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng a ppr opr i a t e r e gul a t or y r e m e di e s D e s c r i pt i on of t h e s oc i al an d pol i t i c al c on t e xt : P o l i c y s ol ut i ons a r e ne ve r a t t e m pt e d or i m p l e m e nt e d i n a voi d. E ve r y pl a c e h a s a di f f e r e nt de m ogr a phi c a nd c ul t u r a l m a ke up t ha t a f f e c t s t he po l i c y de ve l opm e nt p r oc e s s t o s om e de gr e e ; i n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he i m pa c t on pol i c y, a t hor ough i nve s t i ga t i on i nt o t he m uni c i pa l i t y i n que s t i on i s r e qui r e d. I s i t ur ba n or r ur a l ? I s t he pol i t i c a l c ul t u r e s uc h t ha t r e s i de nt s a nd pol i c ym a ke r s a r e ope n t o t he i de a o f r e gul a t i on o r do t he y ge ne r a l l y t a ke a m or e l a i s s e z f a i r e t ow a r d l a nd us e i s s ue s ? W ha t ki nd of po l i t i c a l i nf l ue nc e i s e nj oye d by t he va r i ous

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45 i nt e r e s t bl oc ks i nvol ve d? W ha t c a t e gor i e s of s ol ut i ons i f a ny a r e t he m o r e i nf l ue nt i a l bl oc ks m os t l i ke l y t o a c c e pt ? I de n t i f i c at i on e v al u a t i on an d c om par i s on of al t e r n at i v e pol i c i e s an d i m pl e m e n t at i on s t r at e gi e s : O nc e pot e nt i a l pol i c y a l t e r na t i ve s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d, bot h t he na t ur e of t he p r obl e m t o be s ol ve d a nd t he s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l c ont e xt m us t be c ons i de r e d a s pa r t of t he de c i s i on m a ki ng p r oc e s s T he i nt e r pl a y be t w e e n i nput s a nd a c t or s c a n be c om pl e x t o w or k t h r ough. F or e xa m p l e w hi l e t he ur ba n c ha r a c t e r of a gi ve n m uni c i pa l i t y m a y m a ke a z oni ng ove r l a y s t r a t e gy a ppr opr i a t e t he pol i t i c a l s i t ua t i on m a y be one i n w hi c h t he bu i l di ng a nd c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y ha s a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount o f i nf l ue nc e a nd w i l l w or k t o bl oc k s uc h l e gi s l a t i on. L i ke l y c om pr om i s e s ol ut i ons c a n t he n be i de nt i f i e d a nd pl a nne d f or W hi t e s ( 1979) f r a m e w or k c a n be us e d t o unde r s t a nd how a nd w hy ka r s t l a nd us e pol i c y de ve l ope d t he w a y t ha t i t di d i n a gi ve n l oc a t i on; how e ve r i t i s not us e f ul f or a na l yz i ng out c om e s of pol i c y. F o r t ha t i t i s pr oba b l y m or e a pp r opr i a t e t o us e a s ys t e m s ba s e d a ppr oa c h. W he n s t udyi ng s ys t e m s of a ny t y pe one i s ul t i m a t e l y e xa m i ni ng t he i nt e r r e l a t i on be t w e e n c om pone nt s w i t hi n t he l a r ge r s ys t e m ( B oul di ng, 1956 ; von B e r t a l a nnf y, 1973) K a r s t t opogr a phy i s a s ys t e m ; t he c om pone nt s of t ha t s ys t e m w e r e de s c r i be d i n C ha pt e r 2 ( w a t e r t e m pe r a t ur e c a r bon di oxi de a nd l i m e s t one be dr oc k) T he pr oc e s s of c r e a t i ng ka r s t de pe nds on t he i nt e r a c t i o n of a l l t he s e c om pone nt s ; a l t e r a t i ons t o a ny one of t he m c a n r e s ul t i n l ong t e r m a l t e r a t i ons i n t he w a y t he s ys t e m f unc t i ons L i ke w i s e f r o m t i ny f a r m i ng vi l l a ge s a l l t he w a y t o l a r ge a nd c om pl e x c i t i e s hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s a r e a l s o s ys t e m s de pe nde nt on t he i nt e r a c t i on of a l l c om pone nt s t o f unc t i on. W he n a hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s ys t e m i s l oc a t e d a bove a ka r s t s ys t e m t he y f or m a l a r ge r

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46 s ys t e m t ha t i nc or por a t e s a l l t he c om pone nt s of e a c h. F o r e xa m pl e i ndus t r i a l a c t i vi t y pr oduc e s t oxi c w a s t e w hi c h l e a c he s i nt o t he ka r s t a qui f e r a nd c ont a m i na t e s t he gr oundw a t e r w hi c h i n t u r n w i l l ha ve ot he r e f f e c t s on t he ur ba n s ys t e m O r i nc r e a s e d a gr i c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i o n c r e a t e s a gr ow i ng de m a nd f or w a t e r w hi c h i s pum pe d di r e c t l y f r om t he a qui f e r a t a r a pi d r a t e w hi c h t he n l e a ds t o s ubs i de nc e pr obl e m s i n t he r e gi on T he hum a n s ys t e m a f f e c t s t he ka r s t s ys t e m w hi c h t he n a f f e c t s t he hum a n s ys t e m I t i s i n t hi s c ont e xt t ha t w e c a n be s t unde r s t a nd t he r ol e of l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n ge ne r a t i ng out c om e s L a nd us e r e gul a t i on i s r e a l l y j us t a not he r c om pone nt o f t he hu m a n s ys t e m on t he s ur f a c e ; e s s e nt i a l l y, e xa m i ni ng t he r ol e of l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n a hum a n ka r s t s ys t e m boi l s dow n t o e xa m i ni ng how c ha nge s t o a s i ngl e c om pone nt i n a s ys t e m a f f e c t t he w hol e A s ys t e m s a ppr oa c h t o po l i c y a na l ys i s t he r e f or e s e e m s a ppr opr i a t e t o a ny e xa m i na t i on of how l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons gove r n t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n hu m a n s ys t e m s a nd ka r s t s ys t e m s B e yond W hi t e s ( 1979) ba s i c f r a m e w or k a nd s ys t e m s t he or y m a ny of t he ot he r f r a m e w or ks a nd m ode l s de s c r i be d i n t hi s c ha pt e r h a ve c om pone nt s t ha t a r e w or t h bor r ow i ng f or t hi s r e s e a r c h. F o r e xa m pl e S a ba t i e r s A dvoc a c y C oa l i t i on F r a m e w or k pus he s t he i de a t ha t e xpe r t know l e dge i s a c r i t i c a l c om pone nt w i t hi n t he pol i c y pr oc e s s ; a s w e w i l l s e e i n C ha pt e r 6 e xpe r t know l e dge doe s pl a y s uc h a r ol e i n ka r s t l a nd us e pol i c y f or m a t i on A not he r i s t he i de a ( bo r r ow e d f r om K i ngdon ( 1984) ) t ha t c r e a t i ng pol i c y s om e t i m e s r e qui r e s a ne a r pe r f e c t c onve r ge nc e of pol i t i c a l a nd s oc i a l c ondi t i ons ( t hi s m a y he l p e xpl a i n w hy s om e l oc a l i t i e s c hoos e t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a nd ot he r s do not ) K i ngdon s ( 1984) i de a t ha t a dvoc a t e s of pol i c y s ol ut i o ns a r e c ons t a nt l y s e e ki ng out pr obl e m s t o w hi c h t he y m i gh t a t t a c h t he i r f a vor e d s ol ut i ons s ugge s t s a not he r

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47 pos s i bi l i t y: t ha t ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons m i ght s i m pl y be a c onve ni e nt w a y t o c ont r ol de ve l opm e nt i n c e r t a i n l oc a t i ons i r r e s pe c t i ve of t h e pr e s e nc e of ka r s t I nde e d, e ve n t he s hopw or n s t a ge s he ur i s t i c m a y s t i l l o f f e r a us e f ul pe r s pe c t i ve on t he po l i c y pr oc e s s ; f or e xa m pl e i t m a y s ugge s t t he m os t e f f e c t i ve poi nt s a t w hi c h c e r t a i n s t a ke hol de r s s houl d be c om e i nvol ve d i n t he p r oc e s s

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48 4 K a r s t, l a n d u s e a n d g e o g r a p h y : W h e r e t h i s r e s e a r c h fi ts i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c tr a d i t i o n Introduction I n t hi s c ha pt e r I w i l l a r gue t ha t t hi s di s s e r t a t i on c a n be pl a c e d w i t hi n t he m a n l a nd t r a di t i on o f ge ogr a phi c t hought popul a r i z e d by C a r l S a ue r i n t he 1920s but a c t ua l l y be gun by G e or ge P e r ki ns M a r s h ( 1864) H ow e ve r i t ha s l i t t l e r e l a t i on t o S a ue r s ( 1930 1936, 1962) l a t e r w or k i n c ul t ur a l ge ogr a phy; i ns t e a d, i t f ol l ow s m os t c l os e l y i n t he a ppl i e d t r a di t i on o f G i l be r t W hi t e T hi s j udgm e nt i s m a de ba s e d on t he t he m e o f t he di s s e r t a t i on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hum a nki nd a nd t he l a nds c a pe i t i nha bi t s a nd w a ys i n w hi c h t he i m pa c t s f l ow i n bot h d i r e c t i ons a nd on t he m or e e m pi r i c a l a pp r oa c h t a ke n t o e xpl or i ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T hi s di s s e r t a t i on c a r r i e s t ha t t r a di t i on f or w a r d by a ppl yi ng i t s a ppr oa c h a nd m e t hods t o t he s t udy of ka r s t l a nds c a pe s w hi c h ha ve be e n hi s t or i c a l l y unde r r e p r e s e nt e d i n t hi s t r a di t i on o f g e ogr a phi c a l s t udy. T h i s c ha pt e r e xa m i ne s t he w or k of M a r s h, S a ue r a nd W hi t e a s w e l l a s s om e m or e r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s i n ka r s t s t udi e s i n a n a t t e m pt t o de f i ne t he di s s e r t a t i on s pl a c e w i t hi n t he di s c i pl i ne of ge ogr a phy. George Perkins Marsh G e or ge P e r ki ns M a r s h s M an and N at ur e ( 1864) i s ge ne r a l l y c ons i de r e d t o be t he f i r s t c om pr e he ns i ve w or k f oc us i ng on t he w a ys i n w hi c h hum a nki nd s a c t i ons a f f e c t t he e a r t h; c e r t a i nl y i t w a s t he f i r s t by a n A m e r i c a n ge o gr a phe r I t s publ i c a t i on m a r ke d t he be gi nni ng of a n i nt e l l e c t ua l t r a di t i on w i t hi n t he d i s c i pl i ne t ha t ha s c ont i nue d, i n one f or m

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49 or a not he r t o t hi s da y. I n t he book, M a r s h a r gue d t ha t c ha nge s t o t he e a r t h a r e pr oduc t s of a c om pl i c a t i on of c on f l i c t i ng o r c oi nc i de nt f or c e s a c t i ng t hr ough a l ong s e r i e s of ge ne r a t i ons ; he r e i m p r ovi de nc e w a s t e f ul ne s s a nd w a nt on vi ol e nc e ; t he r e f or e s i ght a nd w i s e l y g ui de d pe r s e ve r i ng i ndus t r y ( M a r s h, 1864, p. 19) H i gh up on t he l i s t o f c onf l i c t i ng or c oi nc i de nt f o r c e s a r e t he a c t i ons o f h um a n be i ngs ; a s a n e xa m pl e M a r s h c i t e d t he l a nds of t he f o r m e r R om a n E m pi r e a nd h ow m uc h of t ha t t e r r i t or y ( w hi c h a t one t i m e i n c l ude d s om e o f t he m os t f e r t i l e a nd p r o duc t i ve a gr i c ul t ur a l l a nds on e a r t h) ha d f a l l e n i nt o a s t a t e of ne gl e c t a nd di s r e pa i r I n M a r s h s opi ni on, r e s pons i bi l i t y f o r t hi s t r a ve s t y r e s t e d s qua r e l y on t he s houl de r s o f hum a n ki nd; he c i t e d m a n s i gnor a nt di s r e ga r d of t he l a w s of na t u r e ( M a r s h, 1864 p. 1 1) w a r s a nd t he p r e s e nc e of oppr e s s i ve pol i t i c a l c ondi t i ons a s c a us e s of t he de c l i ne M a r s h a l s o he l d t ha t i t w a s c r i t i c a l l y i m por t a nt t o be a w a r e of t he uni n t e nde d a nd s om e t i m e s di f f i c ul t t o t r a c e i m pa c t s on t he e a r t h s s ys t e m s f r om hum a n a c t i vi t i e s l i ke dr a i ni ng l a ke s or c l e a r i ng f or e s t s w hi c h a l s o ha ve m o r e obvi ous di r e c t c ons e que nc e s ( t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n de f or e s t a t i on a nd de s e r t i f i c a t i on i s one of t he book s m a j or r e c ur r i ng t he m e s ) I t s houl d be no t e d t ha t M a r s h di d not be l i e ve t ha t h um a nki nd w a s c a pa bl e of onl y ne ga t i ve i m pa c t s on t he na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt ; i nde e d, he a l l ude d t o t he pos i t i ve pot e nt i a l f or hum a n a ge nc y on t he l a nd w he n he c i t e d f or e s i ght a nd w i s e l y gui de d pe r s e ve r i ng i ndus t r y ( M a r s h, 1 864 p 19) a s f or c e s t ha t e xe r t a n i nf l ue nc e on t he e a r t h a nd i t s f e a t ur e s S t i l l he di d s e e m t o be l i e ve t ha t hu m a ni t y w oul d not a c t i n a be ne vol e nt m a nne r t ow a r d t he e a r t h unl e s s a nd unt i l g r e a t a nd obvi ous da m a ge ha d a l r e a dy be e n done : [ T ] he de s t r uc t i ve a ge nc y o f m a n be c om e s m or e a nd m or e e ne r ge t i c a nd uns pa r i ng a s he

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50 a dva nc e s i n c i vi l i z a t i on, unt i l t he i m pove r i s hm e nt . a s l a s t a w a ke ns hi m t o t he ne c e s s i t y of pr e s e r vi ng w ha t i s l e f t ( M a r s h, 1864 p. 39 40) Carl Sauer and th e Berkeley school M a r s h s t he m e s w oul d be r e vi s i t e d a nd e xpa nde d upon by C a r l S a ue r s om e s i xt y ye a r s l a t e r T he or i g i ns of t he B e r ke l e y s c hool i n A m e r i c a n ge ogr a phy c a n be pl a c e d a t t he 1925 publ i c a t i on of S a ue r s T he M or phol ogy o f L ands c ape H e r e S a ue r c ont i nue d w i t h M a r s h s hum a n e nvi r onm e nt i nt e r a c t i on t he m e w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y a r gui ng f o r ge ogr a phe r s t o a dopt a di f f e r e nt m e t hodol ogi c a l a p pr oa c h. W he n he w r ot e M or phol ogy o f L ands c ape S a ue r s a w t he di s c i pl i ne o f ge ogr a phy a s r e s t i ng a t t he c r os s r oa ds of t hr e e ve r y di s t i nc t f i e l ds : t he s t udy of t he e a r t h i t s e l f a nd i t s phys i c a l pr oc e s s e s ; t he s t udy of l i f e f o r m s a nd t he i r i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h t he i r e nvi r on m e nt ; a nd c hor ol ogy o r t he s t udy of a r e a l or ha bi t a t di f f e r e nt i a t i on. S a ue r d i d not be l i e ve a l l t hr e e f i e l ds w e r e c om pa t i b l e e nough t o be c ons i de r e d b r a nc he s of a s i ngl e di s c i pl i ne m a i nl y be c a us e t he phe nom e na unde r e xa m i na t i on by e a c h f i e l d a r e s o di f f e r e nt O nl y c hor ol ogy c oul d be s t udi e d i nde pe nde nt l y a s a s e pa r a t e di s c i pl i ne ; S a ue r f e l t t he ot he r t w o f i e l ds w e r e t oo r e l i a nt on phe nom e na f r om ot he r di s c i pl i ne s t oo f a r r e m ove d f r om a r e a l s t udi e s a nd t ha t vi e w i ng c hor ol ogy a s a s e pa r a t e di s c i pl i ne i s a ppr op r i a t e b a s e d on t he f a c t t ha t t he phe nom e na t ha t m a ke up a n a r e a a r e i n t e r de pe nde nt a nd r e l a t e d: T he obj e c t s w hi c h e xi s t t oge t he r i n t he l a nds c a pe e xi s t i n i nt e r r e l a t i on W e a s s e r t t ha t t he y c ons t i t ut e a r e a l i t y a s a w hol e t ha t i s not e xpr e s s e d by a c ons i de r a t i on o f t he c ons t i t ue nt pa r t s s e pa r a t e l y . ( S a ue r 1925 p. 24) T he obj e c t i ve s e e m s t o be t o s t udy t he s e a s p a r t of a s ys t e m f o r i t i s t he i r i nt e r c onne c t e d na t ur e t ha t m a ke s ge ogr a phy di f f e r e nt f r om ot he r r e l a t e d di s c i pl i ne s l i ke ge ol ogy or bi o l ogy.

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51 T hi s w or k a l s o m a r ke d S a ue r s i nt r oduc t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt of t he c onc e pt of t he l a nds c a pe w hi c h i s de f i ne d by t he a s s oc i a t i on of va r i ous pl a c e f a c t s T he l a nds c a pe i t s e l f ha s a n or ga ni c qua l i t y ; t he l a nd a nd t he l i f e i t s us t a i ns s houl d be c ons i de r e d a nd unde r s t ood i n t e r m s o f e a c h ot he r S a ue r a r gue d t h a t l a nds c a pe s a l l ha ve t he i r ow n i ndi vi dua l i t y, a s w e l l a s a s e t of c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c om m on w i t h ot he r l a nds c a pe s ; t hi s l a s t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c i s w ha t m a ke s a s ys t e m a t i c s t udy of l a nds c a pe s pos s i bl e U l t i m a t e l y, t he i ndi vi dua l i de nt i t y of a ny l a nds c a pe i s de t e r m i ne d by w ha t f o r m i t t a ke s a nd t ha t f o r m i s de t e r m i ne d by not onl y t he phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he l a nds c a pe but a l s o by how hum a nki nd unde r s t a nds a nd us e s i t : G e ogr a phy i s ba s e d on t he r e a l i t y of t he uni on of phys i c a l a nd c ul t ur a l e l e m e nt s of t he l a nds c a pe T he c ont e nt of l a nds c a pe i s f ound t he r e f or e i n t he phys i c a l qua l i t i e s of a r e a t ha t a r e s i gni f i c a nt t o m a n a nd i n t he f or m s of hi s us e of t he a r e a ( S a ue r 1925, p. 29) C l e a r l y, S a ue r w a s a r gui ng f o r m o r e a t t e nt i on t o b e pa i d t o t he hum a n a s pe c t of ge ogr a phy, a nd hum a ni t y s r ol e i n s ha pi ng a nd c ha ngi ng l a nds c a pe s U p t o t ha t poi nt how e ve r t he ge om o r phol ogi s t ha d be e n c ons i de r e d t o be t he a r c he t ypa l ge ogr a phe r S a ue r di d not a gr e e I ns t e a d, he s a w ge om or phol og i s t s a s hi s t or i c a l ge ol ogi s t s w ho s t udy a l a t e ge ol ogi c pe r i od; a t m os t t he ge om or phol ogi s t c oul d be r e ga r de d a s a l i nk be t w e e n ge ogr a phy a nd ge ol ogy. S a ue r s us e o f t he w o r d m or phol ogy m a ke s c l e a r t ha t he doe s not c ons i de r i t t o be s ynonym ous w i t h ge om or phol ogy; t he l a t t e r t e r m ha d by 1925 c om e t o m e a n a s e pa r a t e br a nc h o f s c i e nc e a l m os t s ol e l y c onc e r ne d w i t h t he ge ne t i c p r oc e s s of l a ndf or m s O n t he ot he r ha nd, m or phol ogy a s S a ue r s a w i t w a s a m or e c om pl e x a nd e l e m e nt a l pr oc e s s e nc om pa s s i ng f a r m or e t ha n t he r e l i e f of phys i c a l l a nds c a pe s I n pa r t i c ul a r he a r gue d t ha t a l a ndf o r m s s i gni f i c a nc e i s not ne c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o t he

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52 pr oc e s s by w hi c h i t de ve l ope d, a nd i t i s t hi s s i gni f i c a nc e ( r a t he r t ha n ge ne s i s ) t ha t ge ogr a phy c onc e r ns i t s e l f w i t h ( i n f a c t he de s c r i be d t he t e nde nc y t o r e de f i ne m o r phol ogy i n t e r m s of t he c a us a l s t udy of r e l i e f f o r m s a s a pe r ve r s i on of ge ogr a phi c e nds ) ( S a ue r 1925 ) U l t i m a t e l y m o r phol ogy a s de f i ne d by S a u e r i nc l ude s hum a n a ge nc y; ge om or phol ogy doe s not T he c onc e pt of m or phol ogy c a n t he n be e xt e nde d i nt o t he c ul t ur a l l a nds c a pe a s w e l l a s hum a ni t y c ons t a nt l y w o r ks t o t r a ns f or m t h e l a nds c a pe i t f i nds i t s e l f i n. E c hoi ng M a r s h, S a ue r poi nt s out t ha t pe opl e ha ve a l w a ys a c t e d i n w a ys t ha t a l t e r t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe of t he e a r t h, s om e t i m e s t o hum a ni t y s b e ne f i t ot he r t i m e s t o i t s de t r i m e nt A s f a r ba c k a s t he P a l e ol i t hi c hum a ns w e r e a l r e a dy e nga gi ng i n e nvi r onm e nt a l a l t e r a t i on t hr ough t he us e o f f i r e not onl y t hr ough t he us e o f t he f i r e s t he m s e l ve s but a l s o t hr ough t he a c qui s i t i on of f ue l ( s t r i ppi ng t r e e s of ba r ks a nd l i m bs or s i m pl y us i ng w hol e t r e e s ) A n e xa m i n a t i on of hum a n hi s t or y r e ve a l s t ha t a ha ndf ul of ba s i c t he m e s m os t not a bl y, t e r r i t or i a l e xpa ns i on a nd m odi f i c a t i on of t he l a nds c a pe f or va r i ous a g r i c ul t ur a l pur pos e s a r e r e pe a t e d ove r a nd ove r t hr ough m o de r n t i m e s t hough t he e xa c t na t u r e of t he m odi f i c a t i on c ha nge s ( hi ghe r l e ve l s of ni t r a t e s i n t he s oi l s hi f t i ng a w a y f r om s ubs i s t e n c e c r ops a nd t ow a r d m one y c r ops ) S a ue r a r gue d t ha t i t i s i m por t a nt t o unde r s t a nd how hum a nki nd ha s di s t ur be d a nd di s pl a c e d s o m uc h of t he or ga ni c w o r l d, or how i t ha s be c om e t h e p r i m a r y e c ol ogi c a l f o r c e i n m or e a nd m o r e pl a c e s a c r os s t he gl obe or how i t ha s a c t ua l l y i m pa c t e d t he c our s e o f or ga ni c e vol ut i on ( S a ue r 1956) : W e a r e c onc e r ne d w i t h t he i m por t a nc e o f t he s i t e t o m a n, a nd a l s o w i t h hi s t r a ns f or m a t i on of t he s i t e ( S a u e r 1925, p. 53) W or t hw hi l e e xa m pl e s of S a ue r s a ppl i c a t i on of t hi s a ppr oa c h i nc l ude S a ue r ( 1930, 1936, 1962)

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53 B y 1941, S a ue r s pe r c e pt i on o f ge ogr a phy ha d be g un t o s how a d i s t i nc t i nf l ue nc e f r om a nt h r opol ogy; m uc h of hi s w or k a f t e r t hi s poi nt f a l l s i nt o t he r e a l m of c ul t ur a l ge ogr a phy, a nd i s no t pa r t i c ul a r l y a ppl i c a bl e t o t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. I ns t e a d, w e t ur n t o a n i nt e l l e c t ua l t r a di t i on t ha t r a n pa r a l l e l t o t he B e r ke l e y s c hool a nd e m pha s i z e d e m pi r i c i s m a nd hum a n i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe : t h e C hi c a go s c hool a nd t he w or k o f G i l be r t W hi t e Gilbert White W hi t e s w or k w a s c onc e r ne d w i t h hum a nki nd s r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he e a r t h a nd w i t h de c i s i on m a ki ng i s s ue s a s t he y r e l a t e t o e nvi r onm e nt a l de gr a da t i on a nd na t u r a l ha z a r ds L i ke S a ue r W hi t e us e d m e t h ods r oot e d i n s ys t e m a na l ys i s t o a ppr oa c h a nd unde r s t a nd i s s ue s of hum a n e nvi r onm e nt i nt e r a c t i on ( W hi t e 1 962) W hi t e j us t i f i e d t he us e of a s ys t e m s ba s e d a ppr oa c h i n t hi s c ont e xt by poi nt i ng out t ha t na t ur a l s ys t e m s a nd hum a n ba s e d s ys t e m s c a n i nt e r a c t i n w a ys t ha t i nc r e a s e t he r i s k pos e d by c e r t a i n na t ur a l e ve nt s ( B ur t on, K a t e s a nd W hi t e 1978 ) T hi s i n t e r a c t i on i s a t t he he a r t o f a ny na t ur a l o r e nvi r onm e nt a l ha z a r d, a l l of w hi c h i nvol ve a n i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n hum a ns a nd t he e a r t h I nde e d, t he r e c oul d be no ha z a r ds i f not f or hu m a ns t he w or d ha z a r d i m pl i e s a t h r e a t a nd w i t hout hum a ns w ho w oul d be t hr e a t e ne d? ( W hi t e 1993) I n t hi s vi e w poi nt W hi t e r e ve a l s a s ha r e d pe r s pe c t i ve w i t h S a ue r i n t ha t t he pr e s e nc e of hum a n be i ngs i s a pr e r e qui s i t e f or t he s t u dy o f ge ogr a phy W hi t e s pe r s pe c t i v e on e n v i r on m e n t a l pr ob l e m s w a s ba s e d on s i x t r e nds i n s c i e n t i f i c t h i nk i ng : l ook i ng a t e n v i r on m e n t s i n ho l i s t i c f r a m e w o r ks ; d e v o t i ng m o r e a t t e n t i on t o l i f e s uppor t s y s t e m s ; d e v e l op i ng a n a ppr e c i a t i on f or a w i d e r a r r a y o f r e s our c e m a n a g e m e n t c ho i c e s ; r e f i n i ng a nd i m pr o v i n g r i s k a s s e s s m e n t m e t hods ; s t r e a m l i n i ng w a ys of a s s e s s i ng e n v i r on m e n t a l c h a ng e ; a nd t h i nk i ng g l oba l l y H e t i e d t h i s a ppr o a c h t o t h a t

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54 pr a c t i c e d by M a r s h a nd o t h e r e n v i r on m e n t a l r e s e a r c he r s i n t h e 1880s ( t hou gh W hi t e a s s e r t e d h i s a ppr o a c h w a s m or e r e f i n e d t ha n t h a t o l d e r t r a d i t i on) W hi t e c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h a t e a r l i e r e r a a s a t i m e o f c r i t i c a l i nqu i r y i n t o c on s e que n c e s i n t e r m s of i n t e r r e l a t i ons hi ps of p e op l e a nd r e s our c e s w i t h i n a r e a s ( W hi t e 1980 p 183 ) w h i c h w a s t h e f i e l d a dd r e s s e d by m u c h of W hi t e s w o r k. B e gi nni ng w i t h hi s e a r l i e s t publ i s he d a r t i c l e s W hi t e t ook a n e m pi r i c a l a ppr oa c h t o s t udyi ng que s t i ons of hum a n na t ur e i nt e r a c t i on a nd na t ur a l ha z a r ds W hi t e ( 1936) a s ke d t he que s t i on: a r e t he c os t s of pr ot e c t i ng a r e a s f r om f l oods hi ghe r or l ow e r t ha n t he c os t s of a l l ow i ng f l oods t o oc c ur uni m pe de d? H e t he n out l i ne d a m e t hod f o r m e a s ur i ng t he c os t s a nd be ne f i t s of f l ood pr o t e c t i on pr oj e c t s i nvol vi ng c l a s s e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i z a t i ons of be ne f i t s a nd how t he y a r e m e a s ur e d. I n t he pr o c e s s he t i e d t oge t he r c os t be ne f i t a na l ys e s l a nd us e pl a nni ng i s s ue s a nd ha z a r ds s t udi e s us i ng a m ul t i d i s c i pl i na r y a ppr oa c h t ha t w oul d r e a ppe a r t hr oughout hi s c a r e e r ( f or o t he r e xa m pl e s of W hi t e s e m pi r i c a l a ppr oa c h, s e e W hi t e 1949 1960 1962) W hi t e s a ppr oa c h t o ha z a r ds a nd ge og r a phy s t r e s s e d t he r ol e of hum a ns i n ( us ua l l y i na dve r t e nt l y) ge ne r a t i ng or e xa c e r ba t i ng t hr e a t s ( W hi t e 1993 ) F or e xa m pl e l a nd us e pa t t e r ns ha ve be e n s i ngl e d out a s a c ul pr i t i n t he 1970 B a ngl a de s h c yc l one f l ood e ve nt f or t he i r r ol e i n pl a c i ng a n e xc e s s i ve num be r of pe opl e a t r i s k ( W hi t e 1987) I n a ddr e s s i ng i s s ue s a nd e ve nt s l i ke t hi s one W hi t e a l w a ys a s ke d w ha t a r e t he w a ys i n w hi c h s oc i e t y c a n a dj us t t o t he d i s t i nc t i ve c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of a ny na t u r a l s e t t i ng i n t e r m s o f pl a c e a nd l oc a t i on. T hi s r e qui r e s . l ooki ng a t w h a t w oul d be t he c ons t r a i nt s t ha t w oul d be s e t by t ha t na t u r a l or s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt t o a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c oul d be c a r r i e d on ( W hi t e 1993, p 67)

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55 T hi s pos i t i on c oul d be i nt e r p r e t e d a s pl a c i ng t he b l a m e f or d i s a s t r ous out c om e s on t he vi c t i m s t he m s e l ve s w ho m a y ha ve be e n t oo po or t o l i ve e l s e w he r e or t o ge t out o f t he w a y of t he d i s a s t e r or on s oc i e t y a t l a r ge f o r i t s i n he r e nt l a c k of e qui t a bi l i t y. W hi t e a r gue s t ha t s uc h a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on w oul d be m i s t a ke n; r a t he r i t s houl d be i nt e r p r e t e d a s he a l t hy s ke pt i c i s m of he a vy ha nde d hum a n i nt e r ve nt i ons i n na t ur a l s ys t e m s M a na ge m e nt i nt e r ve nt i ons . a r e l i ke l y t o pr ovo ke une xpe c t e d r e s ul t s a nd r e qui r e dyna m i c a l t e r a t i on ( W hi t e 1 980 p 188 ) s i nc e na t ur e i s a l a r ge a nd c om pl e x s ys t e m w e do not f u l l y unde r s t a nd; i t i s e a s y t o r e a l i z e t ha t c h a nge t o a n i nput c a n t he r e f o r e ha ve s i gni f i c a nt a nd unf or e s e e n e f f e c t s but qui t e di f f i c u l t t o a c c ur a t e l y p r e di c t w ha t t hos e e f f e c t s m i ght be I n a pa pe r w r i t t e n w i t h B ur t on a n d K a t e s ( 1987) W hi t e w r i t e s t ha t e ngi ne e r e d s t r uc t ur a l s ol ut i ons a nd ot he r t e c hnol og i c a l c ha nge s de s e r ve m uc h of t he bl a m e f or na t ur a l ha z a r ds a nd d i s a s t e r e ve nt s s i m pl y be c a us e t he i r pr e s e nc e of t e n l e a ds t o s oc i e t a l r e s pons e s t ha t pl a c e t oo m uc h s t r e s s on a gi ve n l oc a t i on. B ui l di ng s t r uc t u r a l pr ot e c t i ons a ga i ns t na t ur a l ha z a r ds c a n be m o r e c o s t l y t ha n a l l ow i ng t he da m a ge t o oc c ur be c a us e t hos e s t r uc t ur a l pr ot e c t i ons e nc our a ge m or e de ve l opm e nt i n ha z a r dous a r e a s by of f e r i ng a n i l l us i on o f pr o t e c t i on. W hi t e f e l t t ha t l o c a l l y f oc us e d ha z a r d m a na ge m e nt pr ogr a m s w oul d be m or e a ppr op r i a t e a nd e f f e c t i ve : T he ki nd of a ppr oa c h t ha t I w oul d hope w i l l be a dopt e d i n t i m e i s one i n w hi c h c om m uni t i e s de ve l op c om bi na t i ons of s ol ut i ons t ha t a r e s ui t e d t o t he i r pa r t i c ul a r c ondi t i o ns a nd hi s t or y a nd t ha t a f e de r a l pol i c y c oul d be one t ha t e nc our a ge d r a t he r t ha n di s c our a g e d i t ( W hi t e 1993 p 59) P r om i ne nt t he m e s r unn i ng t h r ough m uc h of W hi t e s w or k w e r e r e s our c e m a na ge m e nt r e s our c e d e pl e t i on, a nd t he i r e f f e c t s on s oc i e t y a nd hum a nki nd. H i s

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56 e m pi r i c a l a ppr oa c h t o t he s e que s t i ons c oul d l e a d a c a s ua l or c a r e l e s s r e a de r t o gl os s ove r t he c ul t ur a l ge ogr a phy c om pone nt s of h i s w or k; ho w e ve r t he l i nk i s pl a i nl y pr e s e nt : T he w a y i n w hi c h r e s o ur c e s a nd t e c hnol ogi e s a r e us e d w i l l be gui de d by t he c ul t ur a l pa t t e r n a nd t he i ns t i t ut i ona l s t r uc t u r e o f s oc i e t y. I n s m a l l s c a l e pr e l i t e r a t e s oc i e t i e s c onc e r n w i t h na t ur a l r e s our c e s t e nds t o be l oc a l ; c ont e m por a r y i ndus t r i a l c i vi l i z a t i on, how e ve r ha s f r e e d i t s e l f l a r ge l y f r om t he bonds of l oc a l e nvi r onm e nt a nd t e nds t o c onc e r n i t s e l f w i t h na t ur a l r e s our c e s i n t e r m s of r e gi ona l na t i ona l o r gl oba l l o c a t i on. M uc h de pe nds upon t he de c i s i on m a ki ng p r oc e s s of t he i ndi vi dua l a nd s oc i e t y. . a ppl i c a t i on of a va i l a bl e t e c hnol ogi e s t he n, i s de pe nde nt t o a l a r ge e xt e nt upon t he ba s i c m ot i va t i ons a nd va l ue s o f t he c ul t ur e . ( W hi t e 1962 p 12 ) W hi t e ( 1962) s a w pr oc e s s e s of e c onom i c gr ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt a s be i ng i ne xt r i c a bl y l i nke d t o s oc i a l t r a ns f or m a t i on i n l e s s de ve l ope d c ount r i e s F or one t hi ng e xpl oi t a t i on of a gi ve n r e s our c e c a n i t s e l f ha ve i m pa c t s on a c ul t ur e i n t e r m s of a ggr e ga t e c ha nge s i n s ki l l l e ve l s or e duc a t i on l e ve l s or i n t e r m s of ge nde r r e l a t e d l a bor f or c e pa r t i c i pa t i on i s s ue s C ha n ge s i n t he s e a r e a s c a n ge ne r a t e c r e a t i vi t y a nd i nnova t i on, w hi c h i n t ur n c a n l e a d t o m or e e f f e c t i ve r e s our c e e xpl oi t a t i on. C ul t ur e c e r t a i nl y p l a ys a r ol e i n t he w a ys hum a n s oc i e t i e s c hoos e t o a ddr e s s r e s our c e a nd ha z a r d i s s ue s : H um a n pr e f e r e nc e s a nd ha bi t m a y b l oc k c e r t a i n a c t i ons o r i ndi c a t e ne e d f or t e c hni c a l m odi f i c a t i ons . w hy i s i t t ha t s om e i n nova t i ons l i ke hybr i d c or n, s pr e a d r a pi dl y a nd w i de l y w hi l e s om e ot he r s a r e ve r y s l ow i n f i nd i ng a c c e pt a nc e ? ( p. 34 35) I n t hi s a t t e nt i on t o t he c ul t ur a l a s pe c t of r e s our c e s a nd ha z a r ds ge ogr a phy, W hi t e p r ovi de s a not he r l i nk t o S a ue r s w or k; how e ve r W hi t e s a ppr oa c h t o s t udyi ng que s t i ons of c ul t ur a l ge ogr a phy w a s qui t e e m pi r i c a l a nd di d no t r e s e m bl e S a ue r s s upe r or ga ni c i de a of c ul t ur e

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57 Connecting karst studies to thi s traditio n I n r e c e nt ye a r s ka r s t ha s e m e r ge d a s a gr ow i ng f o c us of s t udy f r om va r i ous di s c i pl i ne s i nc l udi ng ge ogr a phy, ge ol ogy, bi ol ogy c l i m a t ol ogy a nd publ i c pol i c y F r a t e s i e t a l ( 2006) f ound a c l e a r upw a r d t r e nd i n t he num be r o f ka r s t r e l a t e d s c i e nt i f i c publ i c a t i ons f r om 1960 t o 2005, w i t h t he l a r ge s t s ha r e c om i ng f r om t he s ubf i e l ds of ge om or phol ogy a nd ge ol ogy C l e a r e xa m pl e s of t h e i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y na t ur e of c ont e m por a r y ka r s t r e s e a r c h c a n be s e e n i n t he g r o w i ng l i t e r a t ur e on m a na ge m e nt o f ka r s t l a nds ( s e e D a y, 1996; U r i c h, D a y a nd L yna g h, 2001; J e ps on, e t a l 2002 ; K ue ny a nd D a y, 2002; D uva l 2 006; F i s t a ni c 2006; H a m i l t on S m i t h 2006 ) a nd i n t he e xpa ndi ng l i s t of ka r s t r e l a t e d c onf e r e nc e s ( C a ve a nd K a r s t S c i e nc e C onf e r e nc e ; G r ow i ng C om m uni t i e s on K a r s t ; C l i m a t e C ha n ge a nd t he K a r s t R e c or d; I nt e r na t i ona l T r a ns di s c i pl i na r y K a r s t C onf e r e nc e ) T he m a t i c a l l y, t h i s di s s e r t a t i on i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of l a r ge r t r e nds i n ka r s t r e s e a r c h a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da w he r e ka r s t ha s be c om e a r e s e a r c h pr i or i t y ove r t he l a s t t hr e e t o f i ve ye a r s R e c e nt w or k i n ka r s t s t udi e s a t U S F e xi s t s w i t hi n a t r a di t i ona l phys i c a l ge ogr a phy or ge ol ogy c ont e xt ( P ol k, va n B e yne n, a nd R e e de r 2007; F l or e a 2006; S ot o, 2005) H ow e ve r ka r s t i n ur ba n e nvi r o nm e nt s i s a m a j or de ve l opi ng f oc us of ka r s t s t udi e s a t U S F ( R a na l l i 2004; W i l s on, 2004; S e a l e 2005; va n B e yne n a nd T ow ns e nd, 2005; B r i nk m a nn e t a l 2007; F l e ur y, 2007; N or t h, 2007; S e a l e e t a l 2007; V a c he r e t a l 2007; F l e u r y e t a l i n pr e s s ; B r i nkm a nn e t a l i n r e vi e w ) ; by de f i ni t i on, r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a i s c onc e r ne d w i t h que s t i ons of hum a n e nvi r onm e nt i nt e r a c t i on. M uc h of t hi s w or k e xa m i ne s i m por t a nt a nd s pe c i f i c i s s ue s of ka r s t w i t hi n u r ba ni z e d e nvi r onm e nt s T hi s di s s e r t a t i on bui l ds upo n t h i s t r e nd by l ooki ng a t t he r e gul a t or y

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58 e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h t he s e i nt e r a c t i ons t a ke pl a c e a nd a t t e m pt i ng t o de ve l op a m o r e c om pl e t e unde r s t a ndi ng of t ha t e nvi r onm e nt T hi s t r e nd i n ka r s t r e s e a r c h c onne c t i ng t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe t o hum a n a c t i vi t i e s p a r t i c ul a r l y r e l a t i ng t o que s t i ons of pr ot e c t i ng ka r s t r e s our c e s f r om hum a n e nc r oa c hm e nt f i t s ne a t l y i nt o t he ge ogr a phi c t r a di t i on of M a r s h, S a ue r a nd W hi t e t ha t of t he s t udy o f i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n hum a ns a nd t he na t ur a l e nvi r on m e nt M a r s h s w or k a ddr e s s e d que s t i ons a bout w a ys i n w hi c h hum a nki nd s a c t i ons a f f e c t e d t he e a r t h a nd t he uni nt e nde d c ons e que nc e s of t hos e a c t i ons T hi s t he m e i s a l s o pr e va l e nt i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on: how c a n l a nd us e r e gul a t i on c ont r ol t h e i m pa c t of hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s o n ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd w ha t m i gh t s om e o f t he uni nt e nde d c ons e que nc e s of e i t he r a c t i on ( r e gul a t i ng o r opt i ng not t o r e gul a t e ) ? I n t ha t br oa d s e ns e i t s houl d be a ppa r e nt t ha t t hi s di s s e r t a t i on f i t s i nt o t he s a m e t r a di t i on; how e ve r t he r e a r e a l s o a num be r of f ur t he r l i nka ge s be yond t he t he m a t i c l e ve l T he e m pi r i c a l na t ur e of t he di s s e r t a t i on i nvoke s m uc h of W hi t e s w o r k; w hi l e t he s pe c i f i c l a nds c a pe s unde r s t udy di f f e r ( W hi t e f oc u s e d on f l oodpl a i ns w hi l e t hi s di s s e r t a t i on l ooks a t ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a nd e ve nt s t ha t l e a d t o g r oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on a nd l a nd s ubs i de nc e ) t he que s t i ons a s ke d i n t hi s d oc um e nt a r e not s o di f f e r e nt i n t he i r obj e c t i ve s t ha n t hos e W hi t e a s ke d t hr oughout hi s c a r e e r B ut go i ng f u r t he r t he di s s e r t a t i on s ha r e s w i t h t he w or k o f S a ue r a nd W hi t e c e r t a i n pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd unde r s t a ndi ngs of hum a nki nd s r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he na t ur a l l a nds c a pe S a ue r a r gue d t ha t obj e c t s e xi s t i ng t oge t he r i n t he l a nds c a pe e xi s t i n i nt e r r e l a t i on, a nd t ha t t he l a nd a nd t he l i f e i t s us t a i ns s houl d be unde r s t ood i n t e r m s of e a c h ot he r T hi s di s s e r t a t i on t a ke s t ha t pe r s pe c t i ve a s a s t a r t i ng poi nt unde r s t a ndi ng i t i n t e r m s of t he i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s of

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59 hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s a nd t he ka r s t s ys t e m s l oc a t e d be ne a t h t he m C e r t a i nl y i n pl a c e s w he r e bot h e xi s t e a c h s ys t e m ha s a n i m pa c t on t he ot he r t o t he poi nt w he r e i t doe s m or e good t o unde r s t a nd t he m a s a s i ngl e s ys t e m T he i de a of t hi s i nt e r r e l a t i ons hi p i s c e nt r a l t o t he e nt i r e di s s e r t a t i on. L i ke w i s e W hi t e unde r s t ood t ha t hum a n a nd na t ur a l s ys t e m s c a n i nt e r a c t i n w a ys t ha t i nc r e a s e t he da nge r s a nd r i s ks pos e d by c e r t a i n na t ur a l e ve nt s a nd t ha t hum a n a c t i ons of t e n pl a y a m a j or r ol e i n ge ne r a t i ng o r e xa c e r ba t i ng s t r e s s on t he e nvi r onm e nt F i na l l y, a r e c ur r i ng t he m e i n W hi t e w o r k w a s t he q ue s t i on of how s oc i e t y c a n a dj us t t o t he d i s t i nc t i ve na t ur e o f t he l a nds c a pe i t f i nds i t s e l f a pa r t of ; i n ot he r w or ds w ha t c ons t r a i nt s on hum a n be ha vi or c a n be i m pl e m e nt e d. H e a l s o a r gue d t ha t t he be s t a ppr oa c h i s one i n w hi c h l oc a l c om m uni t i e s de ve l op s ol ut i ons t ha t be s t f i t t he i r pa r t i c ul a r c i r c um s t a nc e s T he e nt i r e c onc e pt o f l a nd us e r e gu l a t i on i s r oot e d i n t he i de a t ha t hu m a n a c t i vi t i e s on t he l a nd m us t be c ont r ol l e d t o s om e e xt e nt i n a t l e a s t s om e c i r c um s t a nc e s I n a c c e pt i ng t hi s f r a m i ng o f t he pur pos e of l a nd us e r e gul a t i on, t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a l i gns i t s e l f w i t h W hi t e s a r gum e nt s F i na l l y, t he a ppr oa c h de s c r i be d i n t hi s c ha pt e r ha s be e n t a ke n by m a ny ge ogr a phe r s i n t he pa s t ; i n i t s e l f i t i s not hi ng ne w H ow e ve r t h i s a ppr oa c h ha s ne ve r be e n a ppl i e d t o a l a r ge s c a l e s t udy of ka r s t l a nds c a pe s I t i s t he a ppl i c a t i on o f t hi s a ppr oa c h t o a n e xa m i na t i on of hu m a n i nt e r a c t i on w i t h ka r s t l a nds c a pe s t ha t m a ke s t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a n or i gi na l c ont r i but i on t o t he f i e l d o f ge ogr a phy.

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60 5 R e g u l a to r y te c h n i q u e s u s e d i n m a n a g i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o n k a r s t: a n o v e r v i e w Introduction H um a n s oc i e t i e s c a n s i m ul t a ne ous l y t hr e a t e n a nd be t hr e a t e ne d by ka r s t l a nds c a pe s I n m a ny ka r s t i c a r e a s w i t h hu m a n pop ul a t i ons t he r e a r e no m un i c i pa l c ode s or or di na nc e s t ha t m a na ge how hum a ns a nd ka r s t s ys t e m s i nt e r a c t ( D a y a nd R e e de r 1989; R ubi n, 1992 ) ; how e ve r a n obvi ous w a y t o m a na ge t hi s i nt e r a c t i on a nd m i ni m i z e t he r i s ks of s ubs i de nc e gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i o n a nd c a ve de s t r uc t i on i s t o r e gul a t e how c ons t r uc t i on, de ve l opm e nt a nd s e t t l e m e nt c a n t a ke pl a c e on ka r s t t e r r a i ns W hi l e pol i c y ba s e d s ol ut i ons ha ve de m ons t r a t e d s uc c e s s i n s om e l oc a t i ons t he r e a r e a l s o m a ny e xa m pl e s of l a nd us e pol i c i e s t ha t a r e not e f f e c t i ve or not ve r y e f f e c t i ve i n pr ot e c t i ng ka r s t e nvi r onm e nt s A s w i t h ot he r t ype s of pol i c y e f f or t s i n m a ny c a s e s t hi s f a i l ur e i s a r e s ul t of l a c k of a pp r opr i a t e pol i c y t ool s w e a k or none xi s t e nt e nf or c e m e nt va gue l y de f i ne d goa l s poor c onc e pt i on or e xe c ut i on, or on e of t he ot he r s t a nda r d t r a ps t ha t be de vi l pol i c y ba s e d s ol ut i ons B y t he i r ve r y na t ur e s ol vi ng pr ob l e m s ge ne r a t e d by hum a n ka r s t i nt e r a c t i on o f t e n r e qui r e s i nput f r om m ul t i pl e di s c i pl i ne s I n m os t c a s e s r e gul a t or y a ge nc i e s ha ve m or e na r r ow l y f oc us e d a r e a s of r e s pons i bi l i t y t ha t m a ke t a ki ng a n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y a ppr oa c h d i f f i c ul t U nde r t hos e c i r c um s t a nc e s or ga ni z a t i ons w i t hout a ny a c t ua l r e gul a t or y pow e r ge ol ogi c a l s ur ve ys f or e xa m pl e or ka r s t r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h i ns t i t ut e s c a n a c t a s c a t a l ys t s f or pol i c y ba s e d s ol ut i ons a nd a s c l e a r i nghous e s f or t he da t a r e qui r e d t o s ha pe s uc h s ol ut i ons ; V i ne ya r d ( 1 976) c i t e s t he G e ol ogi c a l S ur ve y f or

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61 t he s t a t e of M i s s our i a s a n e xa m pl e o f a s uc c e s s f ul gove r nm e nt c a t a l ys t T he r e i s no r e a s on t o a s s um e t ha t ka r s t pr ot e c t i on i s i nhe r e nt l y t oo c om pl e x a n i s s ue t o be ne f i t f r om a pol i c y ba s e d a ppr oa c h. H ow e ve r a s de m ons t r a t e d by e xa m pl e s pr ovi de d i n t hi s c ha pt e r m uc h e xi s t i ng ka r s t pr ot e c t i on r e gul a t i on ha s i m po r t a nt f l a w s t ha t ha m pe r e f f e c t i ve ne s s T hi s c ha pt e r pr ov i de s a s ur ve y of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s I n s o doi ng, i t a l s o a ddr e s s e s t he q ue s t i on o f how a nd w hy t he s e r e gul a t i ons di f f e r be t w e e n m uni c i pa l i t i e s D o m uni c i pa l i t i e s ne a r e a c h ot he r w i t h p r e s um a bl y s i m i l a r ka r s t i s s ue s ge ne r a l l y c hoos e s i m i l a r a ppr oa c he s t o r e gul a t i ng ka r s t ? W ha t a bout m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he s a m e r e gi ons ? A nd i f t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s do e xi s t w ha t i s t he m os t l i ke l y r e a s on? Commonly used r egulatory too ls W he n pol i c y pr ot e c t i on f or ka r s t i s i m p l e m e nt e d i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i t i s of t e n done t hr ough t he z oni ng a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt a p pr ova l pr oc e s s e s B e c a us e of t he pot e nt i a l t o i m pa c t f l oodi ng s ur f a c e a nd gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on, a nd s i nkhol e f or m a t i on a nd c ol l a ps e m uni c i pa l i t i e s c e r t a i nl y ha ve a n i nt e r e s t i n e na c t i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i on. D i f f e r e nt l oc a l i t i e s us e di f f e r e nt r e gul a t or y t ool s t o m a na ge gr ow t h i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns ; t hi s i s e nt i r e l y a ppr opr i a t e due t o t he di f f e r e nc e s i n phys i c a l a nd s oc i a l l a nds c a pe s be t w e e n i ndi vi dua l c i t i e s a nd t ow ns H ow e ve r t he r e a r e s e ve r a l r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s t ha t a r e us e d w i t h m o r e f r e que nc y t ha n ot he r s T hi s s e c t i on w i l l br i e f l y di s c us s f our of t he m z oni ng c ode s s ubdi vi s i on o r di na nc e s s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt r ul e s a nd s e t ba c ks a s w e l l a s c om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns w hi c h a r e a s i gni f i c a nt i n f l ue nc e on l a nd us e de c i s i ons but c a nnot by t he m s e l ve s be c o ns i de r e d a n e f f e c t i ve t ool f o r m a na gi ng de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t l a nds c a pe s

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62 Zoning ordinances G e ne r a l l y, z one s t ha t i nc l ude a r e a s w he r e t hr e a t s t o l oc a l ka r s t f or m a t i ons a r e hi ghe r or w he r e t hr e a t s f r om t he l oc a l ka r s t f o r m a t i ons a r e hi ghe r m a y be s ubj e c t t o c e r t a i n a ddi t i ona l c ons t r uc t i on r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t c oul d pot e nt i a l l y w o r k t o m i t i ga t e t ha t t hr e a t T he s e a r e of t e n r e l a t e d t o s t or m w a t e r o r s ur f a c e w a t e r dr a i na ge a nd r unof f or t o i m pl e m e nt i ng m a nda t or y s e t ba c ks be t w e e n hum a n bui l t s t r uc t ur e s a nd ka r s t l a ndf o r m s us ua l l y s i nkhol e s I n s om e c a s e s z oni ng ove r l a ys a r e us e d. A n ove r l a y i s s i m pl y a s e t of z oni ng r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t i s a dde d t o t he z oni ng r ul e s of one or m or e e xi s t i ng z one s ; i n e s s e nc e t he y a r e a ppe nde d t o w ha t e ve r r e gul a t i ons c ur r e nt l y e xi s t U s i ng ove r l a ys m a ke s s e ns e i n c a s e s w he r e e xi s t i ng z oni ng l a w s w oul d b e di f f i c ul t t o c ha nge or w he r e t he ka r s t s ys t e m s pa ns m ul t i pl e z one s Subdivision ordinances S ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s c a n a ppe a r s i m i l a r t o z oni n g or di na nc e s a t f i r s t but t he y ha ve a di f f e r e nt f oc us Z oni ng i s a n e f f or t t o m a na ge l a nd us e by i de nt i f yi ng w hi c h l a nd us e s a r e pe r m i t t e d i n w ha t s pe c i f i c pl a c e s a nd i s u s ua l l y t i e d t o t he goa l s of t he l oc a l c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n; s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s on t h e ot he r ha nd, a ddr e s s t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve pr oc e s s of s ubdi vi di ng l a r ge t r a c t s o f l a nd i nt o s m a l l e r pl a t s a nd t he n bui l di ng on t he m ( o f c our s e t he e xa c t na t ur e of t h e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n z oni ng a nd s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s c a n va r y be t w e e n s t a t e s ) S ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s a r e of t e n w e a ke r t ha n z oni ng or d i na nc e s e ve n t hough bot h t ype s of r e gul a t i on f r e que nt l y us e s om e of t he s a m e t ool s a nd t e c hni que s t o a c c om pl i s h t he i r goa l s f or e xa m pl e m a ny s ubdi vi s i on a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt or di na nc e s i n P e nns yl va ni a i nc l ude s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt c om pone nt s w hi c h a r e a l s o c om m on l y f ound i n z oni ng c ode s I n s om e

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63 l oc a l i t i e s t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s a nd z oni ng or di na nc e s a r e not c l e a r ; f or e xa m pl e bot h m a y be i nc or por a t e d i nt o a l a r ge r L a nd D e ve l opm e nt C ode pa r t i c ul a r l y i n s m a l l e r m uni c i pa l i t i e s Stormwater management ordin ances S t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt i s a ve r y c om m onl y us e d t ool f or r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt a nd gr ow t h i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns E s s e nt i a l l y, s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt r e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s de s c r i be how s ur f a c e w a t e r dr a i na ge pa t t e r ns m a y or m a y not be a l t e r e d by hum a n bui l t s t r uc t u r e s or a nt h r opoge ni c c ha nge s t o t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe ; i n t he c ont e xt o f ka r s t t he s e of t e n f or bi d di r e c t i ng s ur f a c e r unof f di r e c t l y i nt o s i nkhol e s a nd i n s om e c a s e s r e qui r e s om e s or t o f pa s s i ve f i l t e r i ng s ys t e m ( gr a ve l w i l d g r a s s e s e t c ) be pl a c e d a r ound t he pe r i m e t e r o f a s i nkhol e ne a r ne w c ons t r uc t i on or de ve l opm e nt T he popul a r i t y of s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt a s a t ool f or m a na gi ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t l a nds c a pe s s e e m s t o be a n a ppr oa c h bor ne of p r a c t i c a l i t y: S ur f a c e w a t e r i s a s our c e o f c o nt a m i na nt s a nd i s s i m ul t a ne ous l y a c ont r i but i ng f a c t or i n s i nkhol e de ve l opm e nt ; f ur t he r t he c ons e que nc e s of poor or i ne f f e c t i ve s t o r m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s a r e of t e n hi ghl y vi s i bl e a nd t hus i t i s of t e n e a s i e r t o b ui l d a pol i t i c a l c ons e ns us t o do s om e t hi ng a bout i t t ha n i t i s w i t h ot he r ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t or y t ool s Setbacks S e t ba c ks a r e a not he r w i de l y us e d a ppr oa c h t o ka r s t pr ot e c t i on a nd l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt t hough not a s c om m on a s s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt S e t ba c ks a r e s i m pl y buf f e r z one s pl a c e d be t w e e n ka r s t l a nd f or m s us ua l l y s i nkhol e s a nd bui l d i ngs or o t he r hum a n bui l t s t r uc t ur e s ; c ons t r uc t i on m a y not oc c ur w i t hi n t he s e buf f e r s U s ua l l y t he i de a i s t o pr ot e c t t he s t r uc t ur e f r om t he ka r s t ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, f r om a ny t hr e a t o f s ubs i de nc e )

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64 r a t he r t ha n t h e ot he r w a y a r ound. O ne a dva nt a ge t o t he us e of s e t ba c ks i s t ha t t he y a r e e a s y t o unde r s t a nd c onc e pt ua l l y, a nd t he o r e t i c a l l y r e qui r e onl y a t a pe m e a s ur e t o e nf or c e H ow e ve r t he y a l s o t e nd t o m a ke i t m o r e di f f i c ul t f or l a ndow ne r s t o de ve l op pa r c e l s w i t h ka r s t f e a t ur e s ( w hi c h i s o f t e n t he i nt e nt o f t he r e gul a t i ons i n t he f i r s t pl a c e ) ; t hi s pl a c e s t he s e t ba c ks unde r he a vy pol i t i c a l pr e s s ur e f r om d e ve l ope r s or pr ope r t y ow ne r s w ho a r e s e e ki ng w a i ve r s or e xe m pt i ons f r o m s e t ba c k r e qui r e m e nt s R ubi n ( 1992) poi nt s out a not he r s e r i ous s hor t c om i ng of t he s e t ba c k t ool : be c a us e s i nkhol e s a r e onl y one pa r t o f a n unde r l yi ng ka r s t s ys t e m i t i s l i ke l y t ha t c ont a m i na nt s w i l l be a bl e t o f i nd t he i r w a y i nt o t he ka r s t s ys t e m by s e e pi ng t hr ough t he e pi ka r s t a n d a ny s ur r oundi ng pe r m e a bl e s oi l m a nt l e I n ot he r w or ds w hi l e s e t ba c ks m a y be a n e f f e c t i ve m e t hod o f p r ot e c t i ng hum a n bui l t s t r uc t ur e s f r om s ubs i de nc e da nge r s t he y a r e not a ppr opr i a t e f or pr ot e c t i ng e nt i r e ka r s t s ys t e m s f r om a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t s S om e e xa m pl e s of c om m uni t i e s us i ng s e t ba c k s t yl e r e gul a t i on c a n be f ound i n T a bl e 5 1 Comprehensive plans C om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns a r e s om e of t he m os t vi s i bl e hi gh pr o f i l e e xa m pl e s of l oc a l l a nd us e pl a nni ng. O f t e n, t he de ve l opm e nt o f a c o m pr e he ns i ve pl a n i s a pr oc e s s t ha t i nc or por a t e s s i gni f i c a nt c om m uni t y i nput ; t hi s pr o c e s s c a n e a s i l y t a ke s e ve r a l ye a r s t o c om pl e t e T he y a r e us ua l l y i nt e nde d t o l a y out pl a ns f or f ut ur e g r ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt ove r t he c our s e of f i f t e e n, t w e nt y, o r t w e nt y f i ve y e a r s T he r e a s on c om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns a r e not c ons i de r e d t o be l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s t ha t t he i r r e c om m e nda t i ons a nd goa l s a r e us ua l l y not bi ndi ng ; c om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns t ypi c a l l y do not ha ve t he po w e r of l a w B e c a us e t he r e i s no pow e r

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65 T a b l e 5 1 Ex a m p l e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e m p l o y i n g s e t b a c k b a s e d k a r s t l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s M uni ci pa l i ty Set ba ck s i ze Set ba ck s ti p ul a ti o ns Pas co Co u n t y F L 5 0 0 ft A p p l i es t o n e w co n s t ru ct i o n n e ar k a rs t fe at u res w i t h t h e p o t en t i al t o d rai n d i re ct l y i n t o aq u i fer D es Mo i n es I A 5 0 0 ft Co n t ami n at ed s o i l can n o t b e ap p l i ed w i t h i n 5 0 0 ft o f a s i n k h o l e A mh ers t Co u n t y V A 2 0 0 ft H o g s o r ch i ck en s m ay n o t b e k ep t w i t h i n 2 0 0 ft o f a s p ri n g H i g h Sp ri n g s F L 2 0 0 ft 5 0 ft n o b u i l d zo n e w i t h t h e b al an c e r eq u i ri n g g u aran t ees o f n o d am ag e t o t h e s i n k h o l e Cat as au q u a P A L o w e r Macu n g i e P A L o w e r Sau co n P A 1 0 0 ft A p p l i es t o co n s t ru ct i o n n e ar an y k a rs t fe at u res w i t h i n t o w n s h i p l i mi t s A l a ch u a Co u n t y F L 3 5 1 5 0 ft Set b ack s i ze d ep en d s o n s p e ci fi c n at u r e o f k ars t feat u re Farr ag u t T N 5 0 ft 5 0 ft b u ffe r ap p l i es t o s i n k h o l es o n l y ; aq u at i c b u ffe r (2 5 ft ) ap p l i es t o s p ri n g s H u n t s v i l l e, A L 2 5 ft A p p l i es t o k a rs t fe at u res t h ro u g h o u t ci t y l i mi t s G o d fr ey I L Mary v i l l e, I L 2 5 ft St o rm w at er mg t ru l es ap p l i ed t o an y l an d d i s t u rb an ce w i t h i n 2 5 ft o f a s i n k h o l e Ro me G A Sav an n ah G A 2 5 ft L an d d i s t u rb an ce b u f fer ap p l i es t o al l w at ers o f t h e s t at e; t h i s i n cl u d es s p ri n g s Pro t ect s k ars t b u t n o t k ars t s p eci fi c Mo n t g o mery Co u n t y V A 2 0 ft Ro u t e 1 7 7 Co rri d o r zo n e req u i res a 2 0 ft s et b ack fro m s i n k h o l e ed g es Sp ri n g fi el d M O O u t l i n e o f s i n k h o l e A p p l i es t o co n s t ru ct i o n n e ar an y s i n k h o l es w i t h i n ci t y l i mi t s L ex i n g t o n Fay et t e Co u n t y K Y O u t l i n e o f s i n k h o l e A p p l i es t o co n s t ru ct i o n n e ar an y s i n k h o l es w i t h i n t h e co u n t y J o h n s o n Ci t y T N V a ri es A p p l i es i n ci t y s Si n k h o l e O v erl a y Z o n e; each s i n k h o l e h as a u n i q u e n o b u i l d l i n e b as ed o n fl o o d i n g p o t en t i al

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66 ve s t e d i n c om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns t o c om pe l de ve l ope r s a nd l a ndow ne r s t o a c t i n a ny pa r t i c ul a r w a y, t he y c a nnot r e a l l y be c ons i de r e d a r e gul a t or y t ool i n t hi s c ont e xt Examples of polic y based ap proaches t o karst protection K a r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s a r e i n us e i n va r i ous l oc a t i ons t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd ha ve be e n s i nc e t he m i d 1980s ( R i c ha r ds on, 2003) O f t e n, t he s e or di na nc e s w i l l a ddr e s s a s i ngl e a s pe c t of hu m a n ka r s t i nt e r a c t i on l i ke i m pos i ng s t r i c t c ont r ol s on ne w c ons t r uc t i on o r m a na ge m e nt of gr oundw a t e r i nf l ow A t t he s a m e t i m e m ul t i c onc e r ne d" ka r s t or di na nc e s t ha t f oc us on ne w de ve l opm e nt i m pa c t s on gr oundw a t e r a nd t he s t r uc t ur a l i nt e gr i t y of ne w bui l di ngs a r e be c om i ng m or e c om m on ( N or t h J e r s e y R e s our c e C ons e r va t i on & D e ve l opm e nt C ounc i l 1993) ; e xa m pl e s of s uc h a n or di na nc e c a n be f ound i n J ohns on C i t y T e nne s s e e w he r e a n i nt e r i m m ul t i c onc e r ne d pol i c y s t a t e m e nt w a s a dopt e d i n 1994 i m m e d i a t e l y f ol l ow i ng a n e xt e nde d pe r i od of e xc e s s i ve r a i nf a l l a nd f l ood i ng ( R e e s e e t a l 1997 ) a nd i n A us t i n, T e xa s w he r e a c om bi na t i on of l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a nd e ngi ne e r i ng c ont r ol s a r e e m pl oye d t o pr ot e c t t he E dw a r ds A qui f e r f r om t he c ons e que n c e s of ur ba ni z a t i on ( B ut l e r 1987) K a r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e no t uni ve r s a l be c a us e gove r nm e nt s a r e of t e n not gi ve n a s uf f i c i e nt l y w i de r a nge of t ool s w i t h w hi c h t o m a n a ge ka r s t T he a va i l a bl e t ool s a r e t ypi c a l l y l i m i t e d t o t he c om p r e he ns i ve pl a n, t he z o ni ng o r di na nc e t he s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e a nd t he s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt o r di na nc e H ow e ve r s i nc e t he ge ne r a l publ i c i s l a r ge l y una w a r e of ka r s t a nd t he pl a nni ng i s s ue s t ha t go w i t h i t l oc a l gove r n m e nt s a r e t ypi c a l l y f or c e d t o ha ndl e ka r s t i s s ue s i n a r e a c t i ve r a t he r t ha n pr oa c t i ve m a nne r ( R i c ha r ds on, 2003)

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67 G r ow i ng hum a n popul a t i ons i ne vi t a bl y r a i s e t he i s s ue of w a s t e di s pos a l A s w e ha ve s e e n, t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t c a n m a ke di s pos a l ope r a t i ons m or e c ha l l e ngi ng, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t e r m s of m a i nt a i ni ng gr oundw a t e r q ua l i t y l e ve l s R e qui r e m e nt s a nd r e gul a t i ons f or ha ndl i ng t he pot e nt i a l c ont a m i na t i o n of a qui f e r s by l a nd f i l l s di f f e r f r om s t a t e t o s t a t e ; how e ve r a l l s uc h r e gul a t i ons m us t m e e t c e r t a i n m i ni m um s t a nda r ds i m pos e d by t he U S E nvi r onm e nt a l P r ot e c t i on A ge nc y ( E P A ) F or e xa m pl e s t a t e s t a ke di f f e r e nt a pp r oa c he s t o de f i ni ng ka r s t a r e a s w i t h o nl y a ha ndf ul s pe c i f i c a l l y m e nt i oni ng ka r s t t he r e s t us e va gue de f i ni t i ons o f uns t a bl e a r e a s L a ndf i l l de f i ni t i ons a l s o di f f e r a c r os s s t a t e s A l l l a ndf i l l s m us t ha ve a g r oundw a t e r m oni t o r i ng s ys t e m i n p l a c e i n t he i m m e di a t e vi c i ni t y o f l a ndf i l l s a s pe r t he E P A F l o r i da r e gul a t i ons s ugge s t a doubl e l i ne r f or l a ndf i l l s but do not r e qui r e one ; K e nt uc ky, on t he ot he r ha nd, doe s r e qui r e t he us e of s uc h a de s i gn. F l or i da l a w s pe c i f i e s m a xi m um d i s t a nc e s f or m oni t or i ng w e l l s on bo t h t he up a nd dow ngr a de s ( D a vi s 1 997) T he be ne f i t o f s uc h a n a ppr oa c h i s t ha t r e gul a t i ons c a n be t a i l or e d t o m e e t l oc a l ne e ds ; t he dr a w ba c k i s t ha t l oc a l pol i t i c a l c ul t ur e i s m or e l i ke l y t o i nf l ue nc e t he pr oc e s s a nd c a n pot e nt i a l l y do s o i n a w a y t ha t i s not c ons i s t e nt w i t h ka r s t pr ot e c t i on. P ol i c y ba s e d a ppr oa c he s f a c e e ve n gr e a t e r c ha l l e n ge s w he n t he y a r e de s i gne d f or i m pl e m e nt a t i on a c r os s m ul t i pl e j u r i s di c t i ons T he E ur ope a n W a t e r F r a m e w or k D i r e c t i ve publ i s he d i n 2000, s e r ve d a s t he c a t a l ys t f o r e f f or t s t o de ve l op a n e f f e c t i ve a nd c ons i s t e nt E ur ope a n a ppr oa c h t o gr oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on i n k a r s t a r e a s T he s c i e nt i s t s w or ki ng on t hi s ha d t he goa l o f i n t e gr a t i ng ka r s t gr oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on i nt o t he l a nd us e pl a nni ng pr oc e s s t hr oughout E ur o pe H ow e ve r s uc h i nt e gr a t i on ha d t o be a ppl i c a bl e t o a l l ka r s t i c a r e a s i n E ur ope w hi c h c a n va r y g r e a t l y i n t e r m s of ge ol ogi c a nd pol i t i c a l c ondi t i ons

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68 B e c a us e of t he di f f i c ul t i e s i n a c hi e vi ng t hi s t he y w e r e f or c e d t o a ba ndon t he c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k goa l a nd i ns t e a d a t t e m pt t o de ve l op a m or e ge ne r a l c om m on E ur ope a n a ppr oa c h t o ka r s t w a t e r s t ha t w a s l e s s c om pr e he ns i ve a nd l e s s bi ndi ng t ha n t he y ha d or i gi na l l y i nt e nde d ( Z w a hl e n, 2003) T he r e m a i nde r of t hi s c ha pt e r e xa m i ne s r e gi ona l di f f e r e nc e s i n ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he goa l i s t o i de nt i f y a ny r e gi ona l pa t t e r ns o r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t he t ype s of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e o r di na nc e s i n pl a c e i n va r i ous l oc a t i ons t hr oughout t he U S w i t h t he hope of unde r s t a ndi ng t he l oc a l a nd r e gi ona l f or c e s i f a ny, t ha t s ha pe t he de ve l opm e nt of t he s e r e gul a t i ons a n d or di na nc e s Methodology I n or de r t o i de nt i f y a ny pot e nt i a l l oc a t i on dr i ve n p a t t e r ns of s i m i l a r i t y i n ka r s t r e gul a t i on, I f i r s t ha d t o obt a i n t he c od e s of or di na nc e s f r om m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n ka r s t i c a r e a s P ubl i c l y a c c e s s i bl e da t a ba s e s of c ount y a nd m uni c i pa l c ode s ( i nc l udi ng, a m ong ot he r s A m e r i c a n L e ga l M uni C ode a nd L e xi s N e xi s ) w e r e que r i e d a nd e xa m i ne d f o r l oc a l l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons pe r t a i ni ng t o k a r s t a nd k a r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s T he que r y t e r m s e m pl oye d i n t he s e s e a r c he s w e r e k ar s t s i nk hol e s pr i ng c av e l i m e s t one a nd c ar bonat e F a l s e pos i t i ve r e s ul t s w e r e c om m on, e s pe c i a l l y r e l a t i ng t o t he s e a r c h t e r m s pr i ng; t hi s pa r t i c ul a r t e r m w oul d of t e n b r i ng up w e a pons r e l a t e d or di na nc e s t ha t m e nt i on s pr i ng l oa de d kni ve s or guns T he s e ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons w e r e t he n i nve nt or i e d a nd t he m uni c i pa l i t i e s t ha t e m pl oye d t he m w e r e br oke n dow n a l ong r e gi ona l l i ne s U s i ng t he N a t i ona l K a r s t M a p ( D a vi e s e t a l 1984) t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w a s di vi de d i nt o s e ve r a l r e gi ons a s a m e a ns of s i m pl i f yi ng a na l ys i s ( F i gur e 5 1 ) T he s e r e gi ons ge ne r a l l y c ons i s t of gr oups o f e nt i r e s t a t e s ; how e ve r t he e xt e nt a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he

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69 unde r l yi ng ka r s t w e r e a l s o t a ke n i nt o c ons i de r a t i on. A s a r e s ul t t he ka r s t r e gi ons o f e a s t e r n T e nne s s e e a r e i nc l ude d i n t he A ppa l a c hi a n B e l t r e gi on a s oppos e d t o t he S out h C e nt r a l r e gi on ( w h i c h i nc l ude s t he r e s t of t he s t a t e ) due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he ka r s t i n e a s t e r n T e nne s s e e ha s m or e i n c om m on w i t h t he k a r s t of w e s t e r n V i r gi ni a t ha n i t doe s w i t h t he ka r s t be ne a t h N a s hvi l l e O nc e t he s e r e gul a t i ons w e r e a l l a s s i gne d t o t he a pp r opr i a t e r e gi ons I c om pa r e d r e gul a t i ons ba s e d on c om pone nt s a nd s t r e ngt h. I t s houl d be not e d f r om t he out s e t t ha t t hi s s ur ve y of e xi s t i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s s houl d not be c ons i de r e d c om pr e he ns i ve a s t he s a m pl e w a s l i m i t e d t o m uni c i pa l i t i e s w hi c h ha ve t he i r m uni c i pa l c ode s a c c e s s i bl e onl i ne Appalachian belt (Virginia, Pennsylvania, M aryland, New York, New Jersey, eastern Tennessee and eastern Kentucky) K a r s t r e l a t e d or di na nc e s a r e c om m on i n c i t i e s a nd t ow ns hi ps i n P e nns yl va ni a a nd N e w J e r s e y. E xpa ns i on of r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt i n t he m e t r o N e w Y or k a nd N e w J e r s e y a r e a s i nc e t he 1970 s ha s he l pe d dr i ve t he pa s s a ge of t he s e or di na nc e s M ot i va t i ons f or e na c t i ng s uc h l a w s di f f e r f or s om e i t 's a de s i r e t o l i m i t ( o r c l os e ) popul a t i o n gr ow t h i n t he t ow n i t s e l f a nd t o f or c e ne w de ve l opm e nt t o s ur r oundi ng a r e a s ; f or ot he r s i t 's a de s i r e t o pr e ve nt g r oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on a nd t o e ns ur e s t r uc t ur a l i nt e g r i t y o f ne w bui l di ngs ; s t i l l ot he r s s pr i ng f r om a de s i r e t o e l i m i na t e t he m uni c i pa l i t y's l e ga l l i a bi l i t y f or ka r s t r e l a t e d da m a ge s O f t he va r i e t y of or di na nc e t ype s i n e f f e c t i n t hi s pa r t o f t he c ount r y, F i s c he r ( 1997) f e e l s t ha t t he N or t h N e w J e r s e y R e s our c e C ons e r va t i on a nd D e ve l opm e nt C ounc i l ( N N J R C D ) M ode l O r di na nc e w or ks be s t t o a c hi e ve t he of t e n oppos i ng goa l s of pr ot e c t i ng i t s w a t e r r e s our c e s a nd s t r uc t ur e s a nd s t i l l pe r m i t t i ng a c c e s s

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70 F i g u r e 5 1 K a r s t r e g i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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71 f or ne w r e s i de nt s t o t he m uni c i pa l i t y i n que s t i on I nde e d, ka r s t l a nd us e or di na nc e s ba s e d on t he N N J R C D s m ode l or di na nc e c a n be f ound i n s e ve r a l bor oughs a nd t ow ns hi ps i n nor t he r n N e w J e r s e y, i nc l udi ng F r a nkl i n T ow ns hi p ( W a r r e n C ount y) L e ba non, L opa t c ong, P oha t c ong, V e r non a nd W a s hi ngt on T ow ns hi p ( bot h M or r i s a nd W a r r e n c ount i e s ) T he or di na nc e i t s e l f de pe nds on t he us e of a C a r bona t e A r e a z oni ng di s t r i c t f o r a r e a s w he r e c a r bona t e r oc ks or c a r bona t e dr a i na ge c a n be f ound ( i n t he c a s e of F r a nkl i n T ow ns hi p, t h e ove r l a y di s t r i c t c ove r s t he e nt i r e t ow n) W i t h i n t he s e a r e a s a ddi t i ona l ka r s t r e l a t e d da t a ga t he r i ng a nd t e s t i ng i s r e qui r e d; t hi s da t a s ha l l be c ol l e c t e d by di r e c t m e a ns ( t o i nc l ude s i t e r e c on na i s s a nc e t e s t pr obe s t e s t pi t s a nd t e s t bo r i ngs ) a s w e l l a s i nd i r e c t m e a n s ( a e r i a l phot ogr a phy a nd va r i ous ge ophys i c a l m e t hods ) O nc e t he da t a ha ve be e n i n c or por a t e d i nt o t he de ve l opm e nt pl a n t he s e ge ot e c hni c a l a s pe c t s a r e t he n s ubj e c t t o a s e pa r a t e r e vi e w a nd, i f f ound l a c ki ng, c a n s e r ve a s t he ba s i s f or t he de ni a l of a pe r m i t F a i l ur e t o c om pl y w i t h t he r e qui r e m e nt s o f t he m ode l or di na nc e c a n r e s ul t i n a s t op w or k or de r a ne c e s s a r y c om pone nt i f t he or di na nc e i s t o ha ve m uc h e f f e c t on de ve l opm e nt a nd l a nd us e on ka r s t T he r e a r e a l s o m a ny t ow ns hi ps a nd bor oughs t ha t do not t a ke t he c om pr e he ns i ve a ppr oa c h t o ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on pr ovi de d by t he N N J R C D s m ode l or di na nc e M a ny of t he s e m uni c i pa l c ode s c ont a i n a vi r t ua l l y i de nt i c a l pa s s a ge t ha t s t i pu l a t e s s t r uc t ur a l s t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge m e a s ur e s m us t t a ke i nt o a c c ount t he p r e s e nc e of l i m e s t one or c a r bona t e r oc ks ( t hough how t hi s s houl d be done i s l e f t uns a i d) ; I c ount e d n o f e w e r t ha n 23 m uni c i pa l i t i e s ( T a bl e 5 2) t ha t r e l i e d e xc l us i ve l y on t hi s pa r t i c u l a r or d i n a nc e f or ka r s t l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt

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72 P e nns yl va ni a s ka r s t c ount r y e xt e nds a c r os s m uc h of t he s out he a s t e r n pa r t of t he s t a t e T he f r e que nc y w i t h w hi c h s i nkhol e s oc c ur i n t he r e gi on ha s s pur r e d s om e c i t i e s a nd t ow ns hi ps t o c r a f t l e gi s l a t i on r e gul a t i n g t he l a nd d e ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s i n ka r s t a r e a s T hi s be ga n i n t he l a t e 1980s w he n t he t ow ns hi p of L ow e r M a c ungi e ne a r A l l e nt ow n i nc or por a t e d a s e t of ka r s t r e l a t e d de ve l opm e nt r e g ul a t i ons i nt o t he t ow ns hi p s l a nd de ve l opm e nt c ode L ow e r M a c ungi e i s a s m a l l m u ni c i pa l i t y of a bout 24, 000 r e s i de nt s i n P e nns yl va ni a s L e hi gh C ount y ( popul a t i on 326 00 0) I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t i n P e nns yl va ni a pl a nni ng, z oni ng a nd s ubdi vi s i on r e s pons i bi l i t i e s f a l l t o l oc a l gove r nm e nt r a t he r t ha n t o c ount i e s or t o t he s t a t e T hi s m a ke s i t e a s i e r f or l oc a l i t i e s t o de a l w i t h a ny ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s t he y m a y f a c e w hi c h a r e a l m o s t ne ve r r e pl i c a t e d on a s t a t e w i de l e ve l ( a nd i nde e d, o f t e n not e ve n on a c ount y l e ve l ) T he or di na nc e r e l i e s he a vi l y on t he us e o f ove r l a y di s t r i c t s t o i m pos e e xt r a bur de ns on de ve l o pe r s hopi ng t o bu i l d i n s e ns i t i ve a r e a s I n dr a f t i ng t he L ow e r M a c ungi e or di na nc e e xi s t i n g or di na nc e s i n t he a r e a w e r e e xa m i ne d by l oc a l gove r nm e nt a nd out s i de c ons ul t a nt s i n or de r t o i de nt i f y p r ovi s i ons t ha t w e r e t ypi c a l l y ut i l i z e d by l oc a l i t i e s f a c i ng t he s a m e ka r s t i s s ue s O nl y t w o ot he r or di na nc e s w e r e f ound, a nd bot h w e r e s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s a s oppos e d t o z oni ng or di na nc e s B ot h or di na nc e s ha d s e r i ous s hor t c om i ngs : one w a s t oo r e s t r i c t i ve o n ne w de ve l opm e nt a nd t hought t o be une nf or c e a bl e ; t he ot he r w a s not pa r t i c ul a r l y de t a i l e d, a nd l i ke l y una bl e t o r e s t r i c t de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s A not he r p r obl e m c om m on t o bot h i s t ha t t he y a r e s ubdi vi s i on o r di na nc e s w hi c h a r e e a s i e r t o ove r r ul e o r w a i ve t ha n a r e z oni ng or d i na nc e s ( D oughe r t y 1993 ) K a r s t ha z a r ds a r e a ddr e s s e d i n S e c t i on 794 of L ow e r M a c ungi e T ow ns hi p s S ubdi vi s i on a nd L a nd D e ve l opm e nt O r di na nc e ( S A L D O ) I n a ddi t i on t o e s t a bl i s hi ng a

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73 T a b l e 5 2 N e w J e r s e y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e l y i n g e x c l u s i v e l y o n t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t o r m w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e N J m o d e l k a r s t o r d i n a n c e A l e xa ndr i a H ol l a nd A ndove r H opc a t ong B e r kl e y H e i ght s I nde pe nde nc e B oont on J e f f e r s on B r a nc hvi l l e L i t t l e F a l l s C ha t ha m M a di s on C l i f t on M or r i s F l or ha m P a r k N e w B r uns w i c k F r a nkl i n P a t e r s on G l e n R i dge R oc ka w a y H a m bur g S a ye r vi l l e H a m pt on

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74 l oc a l K a r s t H a z a r d M a p, t hi s s e c t i on de s c r i be s a dd i t i ona l pr oc e dur e s a nd r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t m us t be m e t a s pa r t o f t he P r e l i m i na r y P l a n pr oc e s s f or de ve l opm e nt s i n ka r s t a r e a s T he s e de ve l opm e nt s r e qui r e t he pa r t i c i pa t i on o f a l i c e ns e d ge ol ogi s t t o de t e r m i ne w ha t s t e ps t he de ve l ope r s houl d t a ke i n o r de r t o m i t i ga t e a ny t hr e a t t o t he l oc a l ka r s t ( or i n t he pa r l a nc e of t he o r di na nc e t o m e e t t he pe r f o r m a nc e s t a nda r ds ) ; t he ge ol ogi s t s r e c om m e nda t i ons a r e t h e n s ubj e c t t o r e vi e w by t he T ow n E ngi ne e r T he pe r f o r m a nc e s t a nda r ds ge ne r a l l y i nvol ve a 100 f oot s e t ba c k f r o m t he e dge o f a ny ka r s t f e a t ur e f or pr opos e d bui l di ngs s t or m w a t e r de t e nt i on f a c i l i t i e s s w a l e s or pi pe s s e pt i c s ys t e m s or t i l e f i e l ds s w i m m i ng pool s s ol i d w a s t e di s pos a l a r e a s t r a ns f e r a r e a s or f a c i l i t i e s oi l ga s ol i ne s a l t or c he m i c a l s t or a ge a r e a s a nd o r bl a s t i ng f or qua r r yi ng or w e l l e nha nc e m e nt a c t i vi t i e s ( L ow e r M a c ungi e T ow ns hi p, P A S A L D O 2004 ) B e yond L ow e r M a c ungi e t he r e a r e s e ve r a l ot he r c i t i e s a nd t ow ns hi ps i n P e nns yl va ni a s ka r s t a r e a s t ha t ha ve s om e ka r s t r e l a t e d or di na nc e s on t he i r books M a ny of t he s e a r e qui t e l i m i t e d: A l l e nt ow n s r e qui r e s t ha t t he pos s i bi l i t y o f s i nkhol e e xi s t e nc e be t a ke n i nt o a c c ount w he n c r e a t i ng a s t or m w a t e r de t e nt i on pl a n ( A l l e nt ow n P A C ode of O r di na nc e s 12779 1987) ; W i l l i a m s T ow ns hi p r e qui r e s t he di s c l os ur e of a ny ka r s t f e a t ur e s on pr ope r t y f o r w hi c h a gr a di ng pe r m i t i s s ought ( W i l l i a m s T ow ns hi p, P A G r a di ng O r di na nc e 2 005) ; a nd t he e xt e nt of t he c i t y of B e t hl e he m s ka r s t r e gul a t i on i s t o r e qui r e a bond f r o m t he de ve l ope r i nt e nde d t o c ov e r t he c os t of a ny s i nkhol e s t ha t f or m i n t he f i r s t ye a r ( B e t hl e he m P A S ubdi vi s i on a nd L a nd D e ve l opm e nt O r di na nc e s 1349 13) H a nove r T ow ns hi p s or di na nc e i s n o t m uc h s t r ong e r i t s t a t e s t ha t t he p r e s e nc e or f or m a t i on o f a s i nkhol e unde r o r ve r y ne a r a f ound a t i on or f oot i ng, t he B ui l di ng O f f i c i a l m a y w i t hhol d bui l d i ng or oc c upa nc y pe r m i t s ( i f he or s he f e e l s t he s i nkhol e pos e s a r i s k)

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75 unt i l t he de ve l ope r e xpl a i ns e xa c t l y how t ha t pr obl e m w i l l be r e c t i f i e d ( H a nove r T ow ns hi p, P A C ode of O r di na nc e s C ha pt e r 53) O t he r t ow ns hi ps l i ke C a t a s a uqua a nd L ow e r S a uc on ha ve t a ke n a m or e a gg r e s s i ve a ppr oa c h t o r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s C a t a s a uqua s C ode of O r di na nc e s pr oh i bi t w a s t e di s pos a l i n s i nkhol e s i f t he pr ope r t y i s a c c e s s i bl e t o t he s e w e r s ys t e m ( C a t a s a uqua T ow ns hi p, P A C ode o f O r di na nc e s C ha pt e r 210) a nd t he i r W e l l he a d P r ot e c t i on pl a n r e qui r e s ne w de ve l opm e nt t o m i ni m i z e t he r i s k o f s i nkhol e f or m a t i on t hr ough de s i gn t e c hni que s a nd a de qua t e s i t e pl a nni ng pr a c t i c e s A ddi t i ona l l y t he W e l l he a d P r o t e c t i on P l a n pr oh i bi t s t he r e di r e c t i on o f s t or m w a t e r i nt o a s i nkhol e p r ohi bi t s t he a l t e r a t i on of dr a i na ge pa t t e r ns t hr ough r e ga r di ng i f s uc h a l t e r a t i on w oul d i nc r e a s e s i nkhol e r i s k, a nd m a nda t e s 100 f oot s e t ba c ks f r om ka r s t f e a t ur e s ( C a t a s a uqua T ow ns hi p, P A C ode of O r di na nc e s C ha pt e r 275) L ow e r S a uc on ha s t a ke n t he ove r l a y a pp r oa c h i m pl e m e nt e d by L ow e r M a c ungi e L ow e r S a uc on s z oni ng or di na nc e de f i ne s a C a r bona t e G e ol ogy ove r l a y di s t r i c t w hi c h i nc l ude s t he f ol l ow i ng r e s t r i c t i ons : on l o t s e w e r s ys t e m dr a i nf i e l ds unde r gr ound pr opa ne t a nks or s t or m w a t e r c ont r ol ba s i ns a r e t o be ke pt a m i n i m u m of 100 f e e t f r om t he r i m o f a ny de pr e s s i ons s i nkhol e s a nd di s a ppe a r i ng s t r e a m s a nd 50 f e e t f r om l i ne a m e nt s f r a c t ur e t r a c e s a nd pi nna c l e s ; out f l ow ge ne r a t e d by t he r e s ul t of de ve l opm e nt c a nnot be d i r e c t e d i nt o ka r s t f e a t ur e s ; bu i l di ngs or a c c e s s or y s t r uc t ur e s m us t be 100 f e e t f r o m a ny s i nkhol e i n m os t c a s e s ( l i ke w i s e a ny t o xi c or ha z a r dous s ubs t a nc e s ) ; unde r gr ound w a t e r s e w e r a nd s t or m w a t e r l i ne s m us t ha ve a n i m pe r vi ous l i ne r ; m os t unde r g r ound s t or a ge t a nks a r e pr ohi bi t e d; a nd pub l i c s e w e r s s houl d be pr ovi de d w he ne ve r pos s i bl e a nd r e qui r e d w he n t he y a r e not a ppl i c a nt m us t pr ovi de a pr i m a r y on l ot s e w a ge s ys t e m dr a i nf i e l d. T he r e a r e

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76 a l s o pr oc e dur e s i n pl a c e f o r i ns t a nc e s w he n a s i nkhol e a ppe a r s a f t e r de ve l opm e nt a ppr ova l ha s be e n gr a nt e d ( L ow e r S a uc on T ow ns h i p, P A C ode o f O r di na nc e s 180 95 C ) O t he r ka r s t r e l a t e d p r ovi s i ons w i t hi n l a nd us e r e gu l a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s pr e da t e t he L ow e r M a c ungi e or d i na nc e D i s t r i c t T ow ns hi p ha s pe r ha ps t he ol de s t ve r i f i a bl e ka r s t r e l a t e d or di na nc e i n t he s a m pl e ( pa s s e d i n 1975) b ut i t i s a l s o one of t he w e a ke s t a nd m os t na r r ow l y f oc us e d: i t a d dr e s s e s pe r m i t s f or on s i t e s e w a ge s ys t e m s on pr ope r t y w he r e s i nkhol e r e l a t e d de pr e s s i ons e xi s t w i t hi n t he a bs or pt i on a r e a ( D i s t r i c t T ow ns hi p, P A C ode of O r di na nc e s 1975 ) W hi l e s om e r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s l i ke s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt a r e e m pl oye d by r ur a l a nd ur ba n c om m uni t i e s a l i ke s om e t ool s a r e s e e m i ngl y i nt e nde d t o a ddr e s s i s s ue s m or e c om m on t o one t ype of e nvi r onm e nt t ha n t he ot he r T hr ough a s ha r e d z oni ng or di na nc e t he r ur a l c om m uni t i e s of H e i de l s bur g, W om e l s dor f a nd R obe s oni a i m pos e s e t ba c ks on m a n ur e s t or a ge f a c i l i t i e s not ot he r w i s e c ove r e d by s t a t e r e gul a t i on. T hi s i s t he onl y ka r s t r e l a t e d pr ovi s i on f ound i n t hi s z oni n g c ode a nd i s one t ha t i s ve r y unl i ke l y t o a ppe a r i n t he c ode s of m or e u r ba ni z e d m uni c i pa l i t i e s A not he r r e gul a t or y t a c t i c s e e n i n r ur a l a r e a s i s r e qui r i ng s e t ba c ks f or m i ni ng ope r a t i ons f r om s i nkhol e s or ka r s t f e a t ur e s ; i n s om e c a s e s no ot he r ka r s t r e l a t e d p r ovi s i ons a r e i n c l ude d. S om e m un i c i pa l i t i e s t ow a r d t he c e nt e r of t he s t a t e i m pos e r i pa r i a n buf f e r s a r ou nd s i nkhol e s a nd r e qui r e f i l t e r i ng m e c ha ni s m s t o pr e ve nt unf i l t e r e d r unof f f r om r unn i ng di r e c t l y i nt o a s i nkhol e ( f o r e xa m pl e H a l f m oon T ow ns hi p) T hi s i s not ge ne r a l l y s e e n i n or di na nc e s pa s s e d i n t he L e hi gh V a l l e y r e gi on K a r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e a l s o p r e s e nt i n M a r yl a nd, but of t e n s e e m ope n e nde d a nd va gue ; t he r e a l s o s e e m t o be f e w e r of t he m t ha n i n P e nns yl va ni a

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77 O ve r l a y s t yl e ka r s t m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a r e us e d i n s m a l l e r t ow ns l i ke H a m ps t e a d a nd N e w W i nds or I n N e w W i nds or f o r e xa m pl e de ve l opm e nt s i n a r e a s of c a r bona t e r oc k a r e r e qui r e d t o i nc or por a t e de s i gn e l e m e nt s t h a t a r e i nt e nde d t o a c c om m oda t e t he ge ol ogi c a l c ondi t i ons T h i s i s ve r y s i m i l a r t o t he w a y T a ne yt ow n a ppr oa c he s t he i s s ue r e qui r i ng s ubdi vi s i ons be de s i gne d i n s uc h a w a y t ha t e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s our c e a r e a s ( i nc l udi ng a r e a s of ka r s t ge ol ogy) a r e p r ot e c t e d. T he pr e s e nc e of t he s e e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s our c e a r e a s m us t be i nc l ude d i n c e r t a i n pl a ns du r i ng t he p r e a ppr ova l pr oc e s s I n H a ge r s t ow n, t he c i t y c ode s t i pul a t e s t ha t t he p r e s e nc e of ka r s t ge ol ogy s ha l l gui de t he s e l e c t i on of be s t m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s f or s t or m w a t e r dr a i na ge t e c hni que s H ow e ve r s pe c i f i c m e t hods f or a c c om pl i s hi ng t hi s a r e not i de nt i f i e d, a nd a hi gh l e ve l of l e e w a y f o r de ve l ope r s a nd bui l de r s i s pr e s e nt B y c ont r a s t ka r s t r e gul a t i o ns i n V i r gi ni a a r e ve r y s t r ongl y t i l t e d t ow a r d i nf or m a t i ona l r e qui r e m e nt s a nd s e t ba c ks B y f a r t h e m os t c om m on ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e qui r e m e nt s i n V i r gi ni a a r e f or t he di s c l os ur e of s i nkhol e a nd s pr i ng l oc a t i ons a t va r i ous poi nt s dur i ng t he pe r m i t t i ng p r oc e s s : B l a c ks bur g r e qui r e s s uc h di s c l os ur e dur i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of t he s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt pl a n a nd bot h t he c i t y of R oa noke a nd F r a nkl i n C ount y s t i pul a t e t ha t t hi s i n f or m a t i on be i nc l ude d on t he c om pr e he ns i ve s i t e de ve l opm e nt pl a ns t he m s e l ve s I n m o s t c a s e s ka r s t r e l a t e d s e t ba c ks a r e r e l a t e d t o a gr i c ul t ur a l l a nd us e s l i ke t he l oc a t i on of s w i ne f a c i l i t i e s or c hi c ke n pl a nt s R a df or d, W a yne s bor o a nd M ont gom e r y C ount y a r e e xc e pt i ons t o t hi s w i t h m o r e br oa dl y a ppl i e d s e t ba c k / no bui l d r ul e s M ont gom e r y C ount y s R out e 177 C or r i do r O ve r l a y D i s t r i c t s t i pul a t e s a m i ni m um 20 f oot s e t ba c k f r om t he e dg e s of a ny s i nkhol e s t ha t oc c ur t he r e I n R a df or d, no l a nd w i t h s i nkhol e s or c a ve s c a n be pl a t t e d f or s ubdi vi di ng, due t o f l oodi ng

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78 c onc e r ns w hi l e t he s e s a m e l a n ds a r e s i m pl y de s c r i be d a s uns ui t a bl e f or c ons t r uc t i on i n W a yne s bor o. O ne i nt e r e s t i ng t hi ng a bout V i r gi ni a s ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i s t ha t m a ny pl a c e s out s i de t he s t a t e s w e s t e r n ka r s t b e l t a l s o s e e m t o ha ve t he m on t he books S pr i ngs a r e t he m os t c om m onl y m e nt i one d ka r s t f e a t ur e t o be pr ot e c t e d; t hi s c oul d be be c a us e t he r e gul a t i ons i n que s t i on a r e m e a nt t o a ppl y t o a l l w a t e r c our s e s r e ga r d l e s s of w he t he r o r not t he y a r e a c t ua l l y pr e s e nt i n t he a r e a ( he nc e s pr i ngs a r e m e nt i one d i n s om e a r e a s or di na nc e s a s f e a t ur e s m e r i t i ng p r ot e c t i on e ve n t hough t he y a r e no t a c t ua l l y f ound t he r e ) J ohns on C i t y, T e nne s s e e e m pl oys s e t ba c ks i n a n unus ua l w a y. T he s e t ba c ks onl y a ppl y w i t hi n t he c i t y s S i nkhol e O ve r l a y Z one w hi c h w a s i m pl e m e nt e d a s pa r t o f a l a r ge r s e t of f l oodpl a i n r e gul a t i ons a s a m e a ns of a ddr e s s i ng f l oodi ng a nd g r oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on c onc e r ns W i t hi n t he ove r l a y z one de ve l opm e nt ne a r s i nkhol e s i s c ons t r a i ne d by a 25 ye a r no bui l d l i ne w hi c h di f f e r s f or e ve r y s i nkhol e de pe ndi ng on i t s c a pa c i t y t o ha ndl e r uno f f f r om a s t or m e ve nt of a s pe c i f i c i nt e ns i t y. G e ne r a t i ng a uni que l i ne f o r e a c h s i nkhol e r e qui r e s a hi gh l e ve l of unde r s t a ndi ng of t he l oc a l dr a i na ge s ys t e m a nd c a n t hus be a n e xa c t i ng pr oc e s s T he c ode doe s c ont a i n pr ovi s i ons f or a l t e r i ng t he l oc a t i on of t he s e l i ne s s houl d s uc h a n a c t i on be de e m e d a ppr opr i a t e A ddi t i ona l l y, z oni ng a ppe a l s boa r d c a n c ons i de r r e que s t s f or va r i a nc e s w i t hi n bot h z one s F a r r a gut ( a s ubur b o f K noxvi l l e ) ha s a f a i r l y w e l l de ve l ope d s e t of s e t ba c k r ul e s w hi c h ge ne r a l l y m a nda t e a 50 f oot bu f f e r f r om t he e dge of a ny s i nkhol e ; a di f f e r e nt buf f e r ( 25 f e e t ) a ppl i e s t o s pr i ngs O ut s i de F a r r a gut K nox C o unt y i t s e l f e m pl oys s e t ba c ks i n a m uc h m or e l i m i t e d f a s hi ons a ppl yi ng t he m onl y t o l a nd f i l l s i t i ng. T he c i t y o f K noxvi l l e pe r m i t s l a nd c ont a i ni ng s i nkhol e s t o be pl a t t e d a nd de ve l ope d onl y i f t he de ve l ope r s ha ve

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79 t a ke n s t e ps t o e l i m i na t e t he pot e nt i a l f o r s i nkhol e r e l a t e d f l oodi ng da m a ge t o bui l di ngs a nd ot he r s t r uc t ur e s T he s pe c i f i c na t ur e a nd c ha r a c t e r of t he s e s t e ps i s ne ve r c l e a r l y s pe l l e d out Southeast (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina) K a r s t r e gul a t i ons i n F l or i da a r e e xt r e m e l y c om m o n i n l oc a l gove r nm e nt s of a l l s i z e s f r om l a r ge ur ba ni z e d c ount y gove r nm e nt s t o s m a l l e r r ur a l c om m uni t i e s T he r e i s no s i ngl e dom i na nt m e t hod of r e gul a t i on: ove r l a ys s e t ba c ks s t or m w a t e r r unof f a nd dr a i na ge a nd ba s i c i nf or m a t i ona l r e qui r e m e nt s a r e a l l e m pl oye d t hr oughout t he s t a t e T ha t s a i d, t he r e a r e s e ve r a l a r e a s i n w hi c h ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i s s t r onge r o r be t t e r de ve l ope d t ha n m os t o t he r c i t i e s o r c ount i e s A r e a s i n w hi c h t h i s i s pa r t i c ul a r l y t r ue i nc l ude A l a c hua C ount y, L e on C ount y, a nd M a r i o n C ount y. A l a c hua a nd L e on c ount i e s a r e ve r y s i m i l a r de m og r a phi c a l l y. B ot h c ont a i n m i d s i z e d c i t i e s ( G a i ne s vi l l e a nd T a l l a ha s s e e r e s pe c t i ve l y) a l ongs i de l a r ge s t r e t c he s of unde ve l ope d, r ur a l l a nd; i nde e d, i n 2000 A l a c hua a nd L e on c ount i e s ha d ne a r l y i de nt i c a l popul a t i ons ( 217, 000 a nd 239, 000 r e s pe c t i ve l y) ( U S C e ns us B ur e a u, 2000) T he s e s oc i a l a nd phys i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s s ugge s t t ha t bot h a r e a s m i ght t a ke s i m i l a r a pp r oa c he s t o ka r s t l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt I n bot h c ount i e s w e s e e c i t y a nd c ount y r e gul a t i ons w or ki ng i n t a nde m t o m a na ge di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of t he de ve l opm e nt of ka r s t l a nds A l a c hua C ount y s r e gul a t i ons e m pha s i z e t he c ont r ol o f s t or m w a t e r r unof f a s a n a ppr oa c h t o ka r s t t e r r a i ns de ve l opm e nt : s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt s ys t e m s m us t pr ovi de t r e a t m e nt t o s i nkhol e r unof f be f or e d i s c ha r gi ng i t i nt o a s i nkhol e a nd m us t be de s i gne d i n a w a y t ha t m i ni m i z e s t he r i s k o f ne w s i nkhol e de ve l opm e nt I n s om e c a s e s w a s t e w a t e r m a y not be di s c ha r ge d i nt o s i nkhol e s a t a l l A ddi t i ona l l y t he c ount y doe s i m pos e a s e t ba c k a r ound

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8 0 ka r s t f e a t ur e s c ove r i ng a nyw he r e be t w e e n 50 a nd 150 f e e t de pe ndi ng on t he s pe c i f i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he f e a t ur e i n que s t i on. W i t hi n t h e c i t y of G a i ne s vi l l e e nvi r onm e nt a l ove r l a y z one s a r e t he p r i m a r y t ool f o r m a na gi ng d e ve l opm e nt on ka r s t : t he c i t y s S i gni f i c a nt E c ol ogi c a l C om m uni t i e s e nvi r onm e nt a l ove r l a y z one i s us e d t o pr ot e c t s i nkhol e s W i t hi n t he s e ove r l a y z one s t he c i t y ha s t he r i ght t o s e t a s i de up t o 10 pe r c e nt of a l ot s a r e a i n or de r t o f a c i l i t a t e c l us t e r e d de ve l o pm e nt t ha t w oul d pr ot e c t t he e c ol ogi c a l l y s e ns i t i ve f e a t ur e s I n L e on C ount y, t he r e i s s om e w ha t m or e ove r l a p b e t w e e n c i t y a nd c ount y r e gul a t i ons B ot h t he c ount y a nd t he c i t y o f T a l l a ha s s e e a ppl y a n i de nt i c a l c ons e r va t i on a r e a r e gul a t or y ove r l a y t o l a nds w i t h a c t i ve ka r s t f e a t ur e s W i t hi n t hi s ove r l a y, a l l us e s pe r m i t t e d by t he unde r l yi ng z oni ng c l a s s i f i c a t i on a r e s t i l l pe r m i t t e d, w i t h t he a d di t i ona l s t i pul a t i on t ha t us e s m us t be c om pa t i bl e w i t h t he e nvi r onm e nt a l c ondi t i ons a nd t hus s ubj e c t t o a ddi t i ona l r e s t r i c t i ons i f ne c e s s a r y ( a ddi t i ona l l y, of f s i t e de ns i t y t r a ns f e r s a r e not pe r m i t t e d w i t hi n t he c ons e r va t i on a r e a ove r l a y ) T he c i t y a nd c ount y bo t h us e s e t ba c ks a s w e l l t hough t he y a r e a ppl i e d di f f e r e nt l y i n e a c h j u r i s di c t i on. T he c ount y s s e t ba c k r e gul a t i on ( w hi c h doe s not a c t ua l l y us e t he w or d s e t ba c k ) r e qui r e s a r ound a ny a c t i ve ka r s t f e a t ur e a 35 f oot buf f e r i ns i de w hi c h t he l a nd w i l l r e m a i n i n a na t ur a l s t a t e T a l l a ha s s e e s no bui l d r e qui r e m e nt i s ne a r l y i de nt i c a l t o G a i ne s vi l l e s i n t ha t i t m a nda t e s t ha t a ny l a nd w i t h ka r s t f e a t ur e s be gi ve n ove r t o t he c i t y i n t he f o r m o f a c ons e r va t i on e a s e m e nt T he c i t y a l s o ha s de t a i l e d r e gul a t i ons on how s t or m w a t e r r unof f m a y be ha ndl e d i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns H i s t or i c a l l y, M a r i on C ount y ha s m a i nt a i ne d a m o r e r ur a l c ha r a c t e r t ha n A l a c hua or L e on c ount i e s L oc a t e d j us t s out h of A l a c hua C ount y, i n r e c e nt ye a r s M a r i on C ount y

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81 ha s be e n unde r goi ng r a pi d u r ba ni z a t i on. M a r i on C ount y i s unus ua l a m ong F l or i da s r ur a l a r e a s i n t ha t i t e m pl oys ove r l a y z one s a s a m e a ns t o c ont r ol g r ow t h i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns T he c ount y s E nvi r onm e nt a l l y S e ns i t i ve O ve r l a y Z one ( E S O Z ) i s a ppl i e d t o m a ny of t he a r e a s s pr i ngs ; l i ke t he ove r l a ys us e d i n A l a c hua a nd L e on c ount i e s M a r i on C ount y s c ode s t a t e s t ha t w i t hi n t he E S O Z a l l r e qui r e m e nt s of t he unde r l yi ng z one a ppl y w i t h t he a dde d s t i pul a t i on t ha t de ve l opm e nt o r us a ge c a nno t i m pa i r or d i m i ni s h t he c ondi t i on of t he na t ur a l f e a t u r e s T he E S O Z a l s o r e qui r e s l a r ge r m i ni m um l ot s i z e s ( 1 a c r e ) f o r a ny ne w de ve l opm e nt s a s w e l l a s 75 f oo t s e t ba c ks f r o m w a t e r bodi e s i nc l udi ng s pr i ngs S e t ba c ks a r e a l s o a ppl i e d out s i de t he E S O Z : r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt s m us t be s e t ba c k 50 f e e t f r om a ny s i nkhol e e dge w hi l e non r e s i de nt i a l l a nd us e s c a nnot be c l os e r t o a s i nkhol e t ha n 200 f e e t I n t e r m s o f popul a t i on F l or i da i s one of t he l a r ge s t s t a t e s i n t he c ount r y a nd i s na t ur a l l y hom e t o s e ve r a l m a j or m e t r opol i t a n a r e a s O r l a ndo s a ppr oa c h t o ka r s t l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt s t a nds out a m ong t he s e l a r ge c i t i e s i n t ha t i t us e s a n e nvi r onm e nt a l ove r l a y t o pr ot e c t ka r s t f e a t ur e s T he ove r l a y m a nda t e s t he i nc l us i on of m o r e ope n s pa c e i n de ve l opm e nt s i n ka r s t i c t e r r a i ns i m pl e m e nt s a c a p on t he i m pe r vi ous s ur f a c e r a t i o, a nd r e qui r e s t he us e of be s t pr a c t i c e s i n m a na gi ng s t or m w a t e r a nd gol f c our s e r uno f f a s w e l l a s t he ge ne r a t i on of a n e nvi r onm e nt a l a s s e s s m e nt t ha t de t a i l s t he l oc a t i ons of a l l s i nkhol e s a nd s pr i ngs i n t he a r e a T hi s s t a nds i n c ont r a s t t o l a r ge c i t i e s l i ke T a m pa or S t P e t e r s bur g, w he r e no s i m i l a r r e gul a t i ons a r e f ound : i n P i ne l l a s C ount y, s i nkhol e s c a nnot be c ons i de r e d a s a de qua t e pos i t i ve out f a l l f or r uno f f f r om ne w s ubdi vi s i ons w hi l e H i l l s bor ough C ount y r e gul a t e s r uno f f i n w e l l he a d pr ot e c t i on a r e a s a nd f o r bi ds

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82 e xc a va t i ons a nd l a ndf i l l s f r om s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s ( t hough i t s houl d be not e d t ha t s i nkhol e s a r e hi s t or i c a l l y l e s s of a p r obl e m i n P i ne l l a s C ount y t ha n i n c e nt r a l F l or i da ) O n t he ot he r e nd of t he s pe c t r um m a ny o f F l or i da s r ur a l c ount i e s a nd t ow ns ha ve ba s i c ka r s t pr ot e c t i on on t he books ; how e ve r i t s of t e n not qui t e c om m e ns ur a t e w i t h t he a m ount of ka r s t t ha t unde r l i e s t he m un i c i pa l i t y i n que s t i on. C i t r us C ount y f or e xa m pl e s e e m s onl y t o r e qui r e a 300 f oot s e t ba c k be t w e e n s i nkhol e s a nd dom e s t i c s e pt i c s ys t e m s de s pi t e t he hi gh num be r o f c a ve s a nd s i nk hol e s f ound t he r e B r ooks vi l l e r e qui r e s onl y t he i nc l us i on of ka r s t l a ndf o r m i n f or m a t i on on va r i ous pl a ns a nd m a ps ; L a ke M a r y r e qui r e s s uc h i n f or m a t i on onl y on t he d r a i na ge pl a n. L e e s bur g s c ode f o r bi ds l a ndf i l l s f r om be i ng l oc a t e d i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s L e vy C ount y r e qui r e s a ge ol ogi c a na l ys i s f or a ny de ve l opm e nt ove r f i ve a c r e s i n s i z e or f or a ny de ve l opm e nt l oc a t e d i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s ; how e ve r t he r e a r e no ot he r r e s t r i c t i ons s pe l l e d out i n t he c ount y c ode A nd t he s m a l l t ow n o f C a s s e l be r r y e xpl i c i t l y r e s e r ve s t he r i ght t o a dd r e s s ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s on a c a s e by c a s e ba s i s H ow e ve r a ha nds of f a ppr oa c h t o r e gul a t i ng t he u s e of ka r s t l a nds i s not uni ve r s a l a m ong r ur a l c om m uni t i e s S om e r u r a l c om m uni t i e s a r e m or e a ggr e s s i ve i n c ont r ol l i ng t he i r ka r s t p r obl e m s I nve r ne s s r e s e r ve s t he r i ght t o de c l a r e a pl ot of l a nd uns ui t a bl e f o r de ve l opm e nt be c a us e of t he pr e s e nc e of s i nkhol e s P a s c o C ount y s c ode gr a nt s S pe c i a l P r ot e c t i on A r e a s t a t us t o ka r s t f e a t ur e s w i t h t he po t e nt i a l t o d r a i n di r e c t l y i nt o t he a qui f e r ; t ha t de s i gna t i on i nc l ude s a 500 f oo t s e t ba c k f r om t he e dge of t he f e a t ur e w hi c h w a s t he l a r ge s t s e t ba c k f ound i n t he s t a t e N e i ghbor i ng H e r na ndo C ount y t a ke s a s i m i l a r a pp r oa c h by gr a nt i ng p r ot e c t e d s t a t us t o s i nkhol e s a nd c a ve s f ound w i t h i n t he c ount y s de s i gna t e d w e l l he a d pr ot e c t i on a r e a s ; bot h P a s c o a nd H e r na n do C ount i e s r e gul a t e r unof f a nd

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83 di s c ha r ge i nt o s i nkhol e s a s w e l l H i gh S pr i ngs a r ur a l c om m uni t y i n A l a c hua C ount y, e m pl oys a s e t of w e l l de ve l ope d s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons L a nds w i t hi n 200 f e e t of a s i nkhol e e dge a r e c ons i de r e d t o be i n a de ve l opm e nt c ons t r a i nt a r e a T hi s i nc l ude s a 50 f oot no bui l d z one w i t h a ny de ve l opm e nt oc c ur r i ng w i t hi n t he r e m a i ni ng 150 f e e t r e qui r i ng pr of e s s i ona l c e r t i f i c a t i on t ha t no da m a ge w i l l oc c u r t o t he s i nkhol e a s a r e s ul t of de ve l opm e nt B e yond t ha t i t i s a l s o not pe r m i t t e d t o di r e c t s t or m w a t e r r uno f f s t r a i ght i nt o s i nkhol e s C om m uni t i e s i n ka r s t i c s out he r n G e or gi a t e nd t o r e l y on e i t he r ove r l a y di s t r i c t s o r s e t ba c k or di na nc e s f or ka r s t l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt A ubur n, B a i nbr i dge a nd N o r c r os s a r e a l l e xa m pl e s of t ow ns t ha t r e l y on gr oundw a t e r r e c ha r ge ove r l a y di s t r i c t s f or t hi s pur pos e ; t he s e di s t r i c t s a r e i nt e nde d t o pr ot e c t s i g ni f i c a nt r e c ha r ge a r e a s ( a de f i ni t i on t ha t i nc l ude s ka r s t l a ndf or m s ) f r om t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t s of hum a n a c t i vi t y i n t he r e c ha r ge z one O f t he s e t hr e e e xa m pl e s N o r c r os s or di na nc e i s t he m os t c om p r e he ns i ve : de ve l opm e nt de ns i t y i s l i m i t e d w i t hi n t he r e c ha r ge ove r l a y di s t r i c t a nd i s ge ne r a l l y c ont r ol l e d by t he i m pos i t i on o f l a r ge r m i ni m um l ot s i z e s F ur t he r da nge r ous l a nd us e s s uc h a s l a ndf i l l s or w a s t e dum ps a r e pr ohi bi t e d f r o m be i ng s i t e d w i t hi n t he ove r l a y; de s i gn s t a nda r ds a r e a l s o e m pl oye d t o m a na ge t he i m pa c t of t h e de ve l opm e nt t ha t doe s oc c ur t he r e B a i nbr i dge s or di na nc e i s s i m i l a r but i s s om e w ha t m or e l i m i t e d i n i t s a ppl i c a t i on: onl y r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt s w he r e s e pt i c s ys t e m s w i l l be us e d a r e s ubj e c t t o t he l a r ge r m i ni m u m l ot s i z e r e qui r e m e nt s B y c o nt r a s t A ubur n s ove r l a y doe s not r e s t r i c t de ve l opm e nt or de ns i t y a t a l l w i t hi n t he gr oundw a t e r r e c ha r ge z one but i s i ns t e a d s ol e l y c onc e r ne d w i t h t he dum pi ng of c ont a m i na nt s

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84 South central (Kentucky, Tennessee, northern Alabama, Missouri) T hr oughout t he s out h c e n t r a l r e gi on, s t or m w a t e r r unof f a nd i nf or m a t i ona l or di na nc e s a r e c om m onl y us e d a s m e a ns of c ont r ol l i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t S om e l oc a l i t i e s go a bi t f ur t he r a nd r e l y on s e t ba c ks ( e xa m pl e s i nc l ude F a r r a gut T N ; L e xi ngt on, K Y ; S pr i ngf i e l d, M O ; a nd H unt s vi l l e A L ) T he s e s e t ba c k or di na nc e s a r e not uni f or m w i t h t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be i ng t he m i ni m u m di s t a nc e be t w e e n l a nd di s t ur bi ng a c t i vi t i e s a nd t he s i nkhol e e dge ( L e xi ng t on r e qui r e s a 100 f oot buf f e r z one w hi l e S pr i ngf i e l d s no bui l d z one a ppl i e s onl y t o t he s i nkhol e i t s e l f a nd not t o t he s ur r oundi ng a r e a ) O ve r l a y di s t r i c t s a r e e m pl oye d i n s m a l l e r c i t i e s l i ke G e r m a nt ow n, T N a nd D a nvi l l e K Y ; D a nvi l l e s ove r l a y s pe c i f i c a l l y i nc l ude s s i nkhol e s a s pa r t of a n e c ol ogi c a l ha z a r d di s t r i c t w hi l e G e r m a n t ow n s w e l l he a d pr ot e c t i on ove r l a y a ppl i e s t o but ne ve r s pe c i f i c a l l y m e nt i ons ka r s t l a nds c a pe s R e ga r dl e s s on t he m e t hods us e d, t he goa l s a r e of t e n r e l a t e d t o f l ood p r e ve nt i on m or e t h a n a qui f e r p r ot e c t i on. T hr oughou t t he r e gi on, o r di na nc e s t e nd t o be i m pl e m e nt e d pr i m a r i l y a t t he c i t y l e ve l a s oppos e d t o t he c ount y l e ve l I n K e nt uc ky, s e di m e nt a t i on i s of t e n t he pr oc e s s t h a t ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a t t e m pt t o c ont r ol a s i n B ow l i ng G r e e n, M a di s onvi l l e M a yf i e l d a nd M ur r a y. T hi s s ugge s t s ve r y s t r ongl y t ha t f l ood c ont r ol i s us ua l l y t he pr i m a r y c onc e r n of t he s e s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt r e gul a t i ons I nde e d, s t or m w a t e r pr obl e m s w e r e t he i ni t i a l dr i vi ng f o r c e be hi nd L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y s s i nkhol e or di na nc e I n 1985 t he L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e gove r n m e nt pa s s e d a n or di na nc e t o r e gul a t e de ve l opm e nt w i t h r e s pe c t t o s i nkhol e s ka r s t f e a t ur e s a nd t he i r a s s oc i a t e d gr oundw a t e r f l ow s ys t e m s T h i s w a s i n r e s pons e t o t he r e ve l a t i on t ha t m a ny s t or m w a t e r pr obl e m s i n t he a r e a s w e r e c a us e d by de ve l opm e nt i n c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o s i nkhol e s T he 1980 c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n c ont a i ne d t he

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85 f i r s t s e r i ous a t t e m pt s a t r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt i n s i nkhol e a r e a s i n t he L e xi ngt on r e gi on but w a s e ve nt ua l l y f ound t o be t oo ge ne r a l t o e f f e c t i ve l y m a na ge de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s T he 1985 or di na nc e s i de s t e ppe d t hi s pr obl e m by pr ov i di ng a de f i ni t i on of s i nkhol e s i de nt i f yi ng s pe c i f i c m a ps f or us e i n t he f i e l d de t e r m i na t i on p r oc e s s i de nt i f yi ng s pe c i f i c t ype s of t e s t i ng a nd s t udi e s t ha t m us t be d one pr i or t o de ve l opm e nt ( a s w e l l a s w ho i s c a pa bl e t o pe r f or m t he m ) a nd l a yi ng out a c c e pt a bl e m ode s of de ve l opm e nt ne a r ka r s t f e a t ur e s T hi s a ppr oa c h f a c i l i t a t e s t he r e gul a t i on of s t or m w a t e r di s pos a l f r om a f f e c t e d pr ope r t i e s a nd t he m i ni m i z a t i on of pot e nt i a l s ubs i de nc e da m a ge s f r om s i nkhol e s vi a r e gul a t i on o f de ve l opm e nt i n t he i r vi c i ni t y ( D i nge r a nd R e bm a nn, 1986 ) O pi ni ons di f f e r on w he t he r o r not t he L e xi ngt on r e gul a t i ons ha ve be e n e f f e c t i ve ; R e bm a nn not e s t ha t r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt s t i l l oc c ur s on l ot s a dj a c e nt t o t hos e w hi c h a r e r e nde r e d uns ui t a bl e f or c ons t r uc t i on by t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t f e a t ur e s a nd be c a us e r e s i de nt i a l l ot s a r e on a ve r a ge s i gni f i c a nt l y s m a l l e r t ha n t he y w e r e w he n t he o r di na nc e w a s f i r s t pa s s e d, i m pa c t on t he ka r s t s ys t e m i s not e s pe c i a l l y unl i ke l y ( R e bm a nn, pe r s c om m . 2006) M o s t of A l a ba m a s ka r s t i s f ound i n t he nor t he r n p a r t of t he s t a t e w i t h a not he r be l t s t r e t c hi ng t hr ough t he m i ddl e a nd r unni ng t o t he nor t he a s t T he c i t y o f H unt s vi l l e i s l oc a t e d i n t hi s nor t he r n ka r s t be l t H unt s vi l l e s a ppr oa c h c om bi ne s s i m pl e i nf or m a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s w i t h a c t ua l s e t ba c ks : de s c r i pt i ons of a l l ka r s t l a ndf or m s a nd t he i r l oc a t i ons m us t be i nc l ude d i n va r i ous pl a nni ng doc um e nt s a nd t he c i t y c ode m a nda t e s a 25 f oot s e t ba c k f r om t he e dge o f a ny s i nkhol e f or a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on. T hi s r e s t r i c t i o n i s a ppl i c a bl e c i t yw i de but i s a l s o s pe c i f i e d i n t he de v e l opm e nt r e qui r e m e nt s of t he c i t y s s l ope de ve l opm e nt di s t r i c t N e a r by M us c l e S hoa l s or di na nc e i s c l e a r l y de s i gne d w i t h f l oodi ng i s s ue s i n m i nd, a nd t a ke s a n unus ua l a pp r oa c h i n a ddr e s s i ng t he m : t h e or di na nc e

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86 s t i pul a t e s t ha t no c ons t r uc t i on c a n oc c ur i n a s i nkhol e f l oodw a y, unl e s s t he de ve l ope r r e m ove s a vol um e of m a t e r i a l f r om t he f l oodw a y t ha t i s e qua l t o o r g r e a t e r t ha n t he vol um e of t he s t r uc t ur e e r e c t e d i n t he f l oodw a y i n ot he r w o r ds no ne t l o s s of vol um e c a n oc c ur a s a r e s ul t o f c ons t r uc t i on. I n c ont r a s t t o c om m uni t i e s i n t he e a s t e r n pa r t of t h e s t a t e ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e or di na nc e s i n c e nt r a l a nd w e s t e r n T e nne s s e e c om m onl y r e l a t e t o s t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge a nd r unof f i s s ue s t r yi ng t o pr e ve nt s e w a ge or s e di m e nt f r om dr a i ni ng di r e c t l y i nt o s i nkhol e s ( s e w a ge f or gr oundw a t e r qua l i t y pu r pos e s s e di m e nt f or pur pos e s of ke e pi ng s i nkhol e s unbl oc ke d a nd t he r e by p r e ve nt i ng f l oodi ng ) T ow n s l i ke B r e nt w ood, C l a r ks vi l l e a nd C ol l i e r s vi l l e do not go be yond t h i s ba s i c l e ve l of k a r s t pr ot e c t i on. G e r m a nt ow n w a s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r a s a n e xa m pl e of a t ow n us i ng o ve r l a y di s t r i c t s ; t he ne a r by c i t y o f N a s hvi l l e on t he ot he r ha nd, e m pl oys no ka r s t r e g ul a t i ons w ha t s oe ve r T he f a s t gr ow i ng c i t y o f S p r i ngf i e l d M i s s our i pa s s e d a n or di na nc e i n 1989 t o m or e e f f e c t i ve l y m a na ge t he i nc r e a s e d s t or m w a t e r r unof f t ha t w a s a c ons e que nc e of t he r a pi d ur ba ni z a t i on a nd popul a t i on g r ow t h i n s i nkh ol e dr a i na ge a r e a s P r i or t o t he or di na nc e one m e t hod c om m onl y us e d t o c ont r ol s t or m w a t e r r unof f i n ka r s t a r e a s w a s t o s i m pl y dr a i n di r e c t l y i nt o s i nkhol e s w hi c h c a r r i e d w i t h i t t he pos s i bi l i t y of i nt r oduc i ng c ont a m i na nt s i nt o t he a qui f e r T he o r di na nc e r e qui r e d t ha t de ve l ope r s obt a i n a n a ddi t i ona l pe r m i t f or pr oj e c t s pr opos e d w i t hi n s i nk ho l e dr a i na ge a r e a s ; t he pe r m i t a ppl i c a t i on m us t a ddr e s s va r i ous ge ol ogi c a nd s t r u c t ur a l i s s ue s t o t he s a t i s f a c t i on of t he pe r m i t t i ng a ut ho r i t y be f o r e c ons t r uc t i on m a y pr oc e e d ( B a r ne r 1999) O t he r pl a c e s i n M i s s our i i nc l udi ng r u r a l S t one C ount y, ha ve e m ba r ke d on s i m i l a r pr oj e c t s ( B a r ne r 1997) ; S p r i ngf i e l d s e xpe r i e nc e poi nt s t o pot e nt i a l s hor t c om i ngs i n t he i r ow n a ppr oa c h,

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87 i nc l udi ng t he de s c r i pt i on o f e nf o r c e m e nt pr oc e dur e s a nd a n ove r s i m pl i f i e d unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s pa t i a l pa t t e r ns of u r ba n gr ow t h i n t he S pr i n gf i e l d a r e a ( B a r ne r 1999) J a c ks on i s a not he r M i s s our i c i t y t ha t r e l i e s on s e t ba c ks or no bui l d a r e a s t o p r e ve nt da m a ge t o t he l oc a l ka r s t I n J a c ks on, a ny s i nkhol e s on l a nd unde r goi ng s ubdi vi s i on w i l l be gi ve n e a s e m e nt s a s a m e a ns t o pr ot e c t t he l a n df or m s f r o m hum a n e nc r oa c hm e nt T hr oughout M i s s our i i t i s not unc om m on t o f i nd s t or m w a t e r r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons t ha t a r e ve r y na r r ow l y f oc us e d. S t L oui s C ount y f or bi ds t he i ns t a l l a t i on o f s e w a ge t a nks or s oi l a bs or pt i on s ys t e m s i n t he dr a i na ge a r e a of a s i nkhol e w hi l e B a l l w i n s pe c i f i c a l l y pe r m i t s s i nkhol e s t o be us e d f o r d r a i na ge a s l ong a s t he r e s a n out f a l l pi pe i ns t a l l e d ( i n c a s e t he s i nkhol e c a nnot ha ndl e t he e xc e s s r unof f ) H a nni ba l e xe m pt s one a nd t w o f a m i l y r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt s f r om t he r e qui r e m e nt s of t he ons i t e s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt pl a n, unl e s s t he de ve l opm e nt a dve r s e l y i m pa c t s a s i nkhol e ; i n t ha t c a s e t he pl a n i s r e qui r e d I n m os t ot he r c a s e s t he onl y r e qui r e m e nt s r e l a t i ng t o ka r s t a r e f or i nf or m a t i on a bout l oc a t i on o f s i nkhol e s or s pr i ng s a nd i n s om e c a s e s e ve n t hos e r e qui r e m e nt s a r e l i m i t e d t o ve r y s pe c i f i c c i r c um s t a nc e s l i ke t he l oc a t i on of s a ni t a r y l a ndf i l l s Great Lakes (Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnes ota, Wisconsin, Ohio) I n t hi s r e gi on ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t e nd t o b e f oc us e d on e i t he r i nf or m a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s or s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt a nd dr a i na ge A qui f e r pr ot e c t i on s e e m s t o be a s t r onge r f oc us he r e t ha n i n s a y, t he s out h c e nt r a l r e gi on: t he r e a r e m or e r e gul a t i ons s pe c i f i c a l l y m e nt i oni ng s e w a ge di s c ha r ge s bi o s ol i d s or c ont a m i na nt s f r om c ons t r uc t i on s i t e s dr a i ni ng i nt o s i nkhol e s a s w e l l a s l i m i t a t i ons on t he us e of s e pt i c s ys t e m s i n a r e a s w i t h i na de qua t e de pt hs of ove r bu r de n c ove r i ng t he l i m e s t one be dr oc k.

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88 W he n s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons a r e f ound, t he y a r e of t e n qui t e s p e c i f i c a nd na r r ow l y f oc us e d, us ua l l y r e gul a t i ng t he pl a c e m e nt s of hum a n o r a ni m a l w a s t e f a c i l i t i e s R e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s s e e m t o e xi s t m os t l y a t t he c i t y o r t ow n l e ve l a nd a r e l e s s c om m on a t t he c ount y l e ve l I ndi a na s r e gul a t i ons a r e a l m os t e xc l us i ve l y i nf or m a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s o r r e l a t e d t o s t or m w a t e r r unof f a nd i nc l ude not hi ng not di s c us s e d e l s e w h e r e i n t hi s c ha pt e r O ne i nt e r e s t i ng a nd i m m e di a t e l y no t i c e a bl e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of I ndi a na s ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e or di na nc e s i s t ha t m a ny, i f not a l l o f t he ka r s t pr ov i s i ons a r e i de nt i c a l l y w or de d be t w e e n t ow ns s t r ongl y s ugge s t i ng t ha t m os t t ow ns a r e w o r ki ng f r om t he s a m e ba s i c s e t of t e m pl a t e s T hi s i s n t a l l t ha t s ur pr i s i ng, r e a l l y i t s ugge s t s t ha t t he s e pr ovi s i ons ha ve be e n f ound t o be l e ga l o r a r e t ho ught t o be m os t l i k e l y t o be a bl e t o w i t hs t a nd c our t c ha l l e nge s i n t he f ut ur e I n I l l i noi s t he m or e c om p r e he ns i ve ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e f ound i n t ow ns l oc a t e d i n t he s out hw e s t e r n pa r t of t he s t a t e ne a r S t L oui s M O T hi s i s t he l oc a t i on of one of t w o l a r ge ka r s t i c z one s ( t he ot he r i s i n t he nor t he a s t ne a r C hi c a go) H e r e a ga i n, one s e e s a gr e a t de a l of r e pe t i t i on i n ka r s t r e gul a t i ons be t w e e n t ow ns M a r yvi l l e a nd G odf r e y bot h ne a r S t L oui s ha ve s e ve r a l i de nt i c a l c om pone nt s t o t he i r ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ; t he s e i nc l ude t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t s t or m w a t e r not be r e di r e c t e d i nt o a s i nkhol e o r t ha t s t or m w a t e r d r a i n a ge ba s i ns be s e t a m i ni m um o f 100 f e e t f r om a s i nkhol e e dge B ot h t ow ns a l s o m a nda t e t ha t s pe c i a l pr e c a ut i ons be t a ke n t o pr e ve nt da m a ge t o s i nkhol e s a s t he r e s ul t of ne c e s s a r y de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t y A s i n m a ny ot he r l oc a t i ons ne i t he r s pe c i a l pr e c a ut i ons or n e c e s s a r y de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t y a r e s pe c i f i c a l l y de f i ne d.

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89 M uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he nor t he r n G r e a t L a ke s s e e m t o r e l y on s e t ba c ks m or e f r e que nt l y t ha n i n I nd i a na or I l l i noi s ; t he s e s e t ba c k s ge ne r a l l y r e l a t e t o f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t or i ng hum a n or a ni m a l w a s t e ( O t t um w a I A ; O c o nom ow oc W I ; P e pi n C ount y W I ; W a us ha r a C ount y, W I ) W or k i n s out hw e s t e r n W i s c ons i n c onduc t e d by D a y a nd R e e de r ( 1989) s ugge s t s t ha t e ve n i n t he a bs e nc e of l oc a l r e gul a t i ons or or d i na nc e s l a ndow ne r s w i l l a dj us t t he i r ow n l a nd us e s t r a t e gi e s t o c onf or m t o t he pr e s e nc e of s i nkhol e s G e ne r a l l y t he y a r e l e f t a l one t hough i n s om e c a s e s t he y a r e us e d f or w a s t e di s pos a l a s t he w a s t e of t e n f i l l s a s e c onda r y pur pos e of pr ovi d i ng i nf i l l m a t e r i a l f or t he s i nkhol e ( D a y a nd R e e de r 1989) The West K a r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a nd o r di na nc e s a r e l e s s c om m onl y f ound i n t he w e s t e r n U ni t e d S t a t e s T hi s i s l i ke l y d ue t o a ny nu m be r of f a c t or s i nc l udi ng t he l ow e r popul a t i on de ns i t i e s t he m o r e s c a t t e r e d di s t r i but i o n of ka r s t i c l a nds t he f a c t t ha t s o m uc h of i t i s pa l e oka r s t a nd t he s o c a l l e d w e s t e r n e t hi c of l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. H ow e ve r t he r e a r e s t i l l i s ol a t e d i ns t a nc e s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons M oa b, U t a h us e s dr i nki ng w a t e r pr ot e c t i on z one s t ha t m a nda t e t i ght e r r e s t r i c t i ons on de ve l opm e nt a s i t ge t s c l os e r t o t he w e l l he a d. H ow e ve r i n no c a s e i s bui l di ng a n d de ve l opm e nt c om pl e t e l y f or bi dde n w i t hi n a pr o t e c t i on z one ; i ns t e a d, di s c ha r ge s of pol l ut a nt s or c ont a m i na nt s a r e r e gul a t e d a nd c ont r ol l e d. I n S a nt a F e N e w M e xi c o, de ns i t y t r a ns f e r s a r e s ugge s t e d a s a m e t hod of pr ot e c t i ng s pr i ngs ( a de ns i t y t r a ns f e r oc c ur s w he n a de ve l ope r i s gi ve n pe r m i s s i on t o e xc e e d de ns i t y r e qui r e m e nt s on a not he r p r oj e c t e l s e w he r e i n e xc ha nge f o r not de ve l opi ng i n a s e ns i t i ve a r e a )

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90 A us t i n, T e xa s pr ovi de s a s t a r k c ont r a s t t o t he pr e v a i l i ng w e s t e r n a ppr oa c he s t o r e gul a t i ng ka r s t l a nd us e I n A us t i n, i nc r e a s i ng r a t e s of ur ba ni z a t i on ha d be gun t o s e r i ous l y t hr e a t e n t he ka r s t i c E dw a r ds A qui f e r by t he e a r l y 1980s I n r e s pons e t he c i t y e na c t e d a s e r i e s of or di na nc e s a nd r e gul a t i ons t ha t a ppr oa c he d t he i s s ue of a qui f e r c ont a m i na t i on f r om s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt a ngl e s T he s e i nc l ude d t he m a na ge m e nt o f s t or m w a t e r r unof f w i t h a ddi t i ona l e ngi ne e r e d s ol ut i ons ( i e s t or m w a t e r c ont r ol ba s i ns w i t h f i l t e r i ng m e c ha ni s m s ) t he de ve l opm e nt of a t hr e e t i e r e d w a t e r s he d z one s ys t e m de s i gne d t o m a na ge t he t ype s a nd i nt e ns i t i e s of l a n d us e t ha t a r e pe r m i t t e d a l ong w a t e r w a ys w i t hi n t he w a t e r s he d, a nd t he a bi l i t y t o t r a ns f e r de ve l opm e nt r i ght s ( a nd t he r e f or e s hi f t l a nd us e i nt e ns i t y) f r om t he B uf f e r w a t e r s he d z one t o t he U pl a nds z one w he r e de ve l opm e nt i s l e s s l i ke l y t o ne ga t i ve l y i m p a c t t he ka r s t a qui f e r ( no de ve l opm e nt i s pe r m i t t e d w i t hi n t he w a t e r s he d s de s i gna t e d C r i t i c a l z one s ) B ut l e r ( 1987) c i t e s t w o a dva nt a ge s t o r e l yi ng on s uc h a n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y a ppr oa c h: f i r s t unc e r t a i nt y a s t o t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of e i t he r t he l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt a p pr oa c h or t he e ngi ne e r e d c ont r ol s a ppr oa c h i s r e duc e d; a nd s e c ond, e a c h a ppr oa c h ha s a dva nt a ge s t he ot he r doe s not ( B ut l e r 1987 ) What it all means T a bl e 5 3 pr ovi de s a s um m a r y of t he m os t c om m o nl y us e d r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s i n e a c h r e gi on. A s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r t he r e a r e s om e i m por t a nt l i m i t a t i ons t o t he da t a pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r D e s pi t e t he s e l i m i t a t i ons how e ve r t he r e a r e s e ve r a l i m por t a nt c onc l us i ons w e c a n m a ke : 1. R e gul a t i ons s e e m t o di s pl a y m o r e w i t hi n s t a t e s i m i l a r i t y t ha n w i t hi n r e gi on s i m i l a r i t y. T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t m uni c i pa l i t i e s m a y b e m or e c onc e r ne d w i t h i m pl e m e nt i ng

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91 r e gul a t i ons t ha t w i l l w i t hs t a nd l e ga l c ha l l e nge s w i t hi n t he i r ow n s t a t e s t ha n t he y a r e w i t h t he s pe c i f i c phys i c a l na t ur e of t he ka r s t s ys t e m be l ow ( be c a us e t he s e s ys t e m s of t e n c r os s s t a t e l i ne s w e w oul d e xpe c t t o s e e s t r ong w i t hi n r e gi on, i nt e r s t a t e r e gul a t or y s i m i l a r i t i e s i f t he s t r onge s t d r i vi ng f a c t or w a s t he phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he ka r s t i t s e l f ) T he one e xc e pt i on t o t hi s i s t he c a s e of T e nne s s e e i n w hi c h c om m uni t i e s i n t he e a s t e r n pa r t of t he s t a t e t e nd t o t a ke a m or e p r oa c t i ve a ppr oa c h t o m a na gi ng ka r s t pr obl e m s t h r ough r e gul a t i on. 2. T he r e doe s not s e e m t o be a ny r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n l e ve l s of ur ba ni z a t i on a nd r e gul a t or y m e t hods us e d, or i nde e d be t w e e n ur ba ni z a t i on a nd t he e xi s t e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons or o r di na nc e s S e ve r a l l a r ge hi g hl y ur ba ni z e d a r e a s on ka r s t T a m pa F l or i da a nd N a s hvi l l e T e nne s s e e a r e good e xa m pl e s e i t he r ha ve r udi m e nt a r y ka r s t pr ot e c t i ons on t he books or none a t a l l w hi l e s om e r ur a l l oc a l e s ( f or e xa m pl e H i gh S pr i ngs F l or i da ) ha ve t a ke n a m uc h m or e pr oa c t i v e a ppr oa c h t o r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns H ow e ve r i t i s di f f i c ul t t o a r gue t ha t t he r e i s a n i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n gove r nm e nt s ophi s t i c a t i on a nd r e gul a t or y s ophi s t i c a t i on, s i nc e ur ba n a r e a s l i ke L e xi ngt on, K e nt uc ky a nd H unt s vi l l e A l a ba m a a l s o us e t he r e gul a t or y s ys t e m t o m a na ge de ve l opm e nt on or ne a r ka r s t l a nds c a pe s ; l i ke w i s e t he r e a r e m a ny e xa m pl e s of r ur a l c om m uni t i e s i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns w he r e no r e gul a t or y m e c ha ni s m s e xi s t 3. S t o r m w a t e r r unof f i s a ve r y c om m on w a y i nde e d, pe r ha ps t he m os t c om m on w a y t o r e gul a t e l a nd us e i n ka r s t a r e a s P os s i bl e r e a s ons f or t hi s a r e e xpl or e d i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r 4. O ve r l a y z one s w hi l e not i n e s pe c i a l l y w i de us e a r e a ppl i e d i n r u r a l s e t t i ngs a s w e l l a s ur ba n a r e a s T hi s i s s ur pr i s i ng a s i t s e e m s r e a s ona bl e t o a s s um e t ha t t he l ow e r

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92 de m a nds a nd pr e s s ur e s on r ur a l l a nds s houl d not r e qui r e a r e gul a t o r y t ool a s bl unt a s a n ove r l a y z one T a b l e 5 3 M o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s i n e a c h r e g i o n R e gi on D om i n an t r e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s A ppa l a c hi a n be l t S e t ba c ks ; s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt ; e xt e nde d pr e de ve l opm e nt r e vi e w r e qui r e m e nt s S out he a s t S t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt ; s e t ba c ks ; ove r l a y z one s S out h c e nt r a l S t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt ; i nf or m a t i ona l r e qui r e m e nt s G r e a t L a ke s S t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt ; i nf or m a t i ona l r e qui r e m e nt s W e s t e r n U S G r oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on

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93 6 H o w p l a n n e r s a n d l a n d u s e p r o fe s s i o n a l s u n d e r s ta n d k a r s t a n d k a r s t a w a r e l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n Introduction T he pr e c e di ng c ha pt e r pr e s e nt s a n ove r vi e w a nd e xa m i na t i on of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T h i s e xa m i na t i on w a s c onduc t e d i n t he hope s of i de nt i f yi ng a ny r e gi ona l f a c t o r s t ha t m i ght i nf l ue nc e t he f or m of t he s e r e gul a t i ons i n pl a c e s w he r e t he y a r e us e d. I d e a l l y, a ny unde r s t a ndi ng of t he l a r ge r ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t or y s i t ua t i on s houl d be i nf o r m e d by w r i t t e n l a w s a nd r e gul a t i ons a nd a n a w a r e ne s s of how t he s e r e gul a t i ons ha ve a c t ua l l y a f f e c t e d c ondi t i ons on t he gr ound I n or de r t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s I f e l t i t ne c e s s a r y t o s uppl e m e nt t he a na l ys i s c onduc t e d i n C ha pt e r 5 by d r a w i ng upon t he pr o f e s s i ona l e duc a t i ons a nd ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e o f l a nd us e pl a nni ng pr of e s s i ona l s i n ka r s t a r e a s t hr ougho ut t he U ni t e d S t a t e s C e r t a i nl y t he i r i ns i ght s i nt o t he r e g ul a t i ons t he y w or k a nd he l pe d de s i gn, w oul d be va l ua bl e W ha t c a n be l e a r ne d a bout ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i o n f r om l a nd us e pr o f e s s i ona l s ? T o f i nd out I de s i gne d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d a s ur ve y i nt e nde d t o e xpl or e t he opi ni ons a t t i t ude s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi s gr oup S pe c i f i c a l l y, I ha d i de nt i f i e d s e ve r a l ge ne r a l t he m e s t ha t I pl a nne d t o a ddr e s s i n t he s ur ve y: H ow w i de s pr e a d i s ka r s t know l e dge i n t he pl a nni n g c om m uni t y? H ow w i de s pr e a d w a s t he pr a c t i c e of r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s ?

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94 W ha t ki nds of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w e r e m os t c om m o n? W ha t m e c ha ni s m s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s e r e gul a t i ons ? A r e t he r e di f f e r e nc e s f r om r e gi on t o r e gi on? W ha t m ot i va t e d t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t he s e r e gul a t i ons ? W ha t pr obl e m s w e r e t he y i nt e nde d t o a ddr e s s ? W hi c h gr oups ha d t he m os t i nf l ue nc e on t he pr oc e s s of r e gul a t or y de ve l opm e nt ? W hi c h gr oups ha d t he l e a s t ? W ha t s t he a c t ua l e f f e c t o f t he s e r e gul a t i ons ? D o t he y w or k? W ha t do t he y a c t ua l l y a c c om pl i s h? T he s ur ve y i t s e l f w a s de s i gne d w i t h t he goa l of c a s t i ng a w i de ne t a nd c ol l e c t i ng a br oa d c r os s s e c t i on of da t a U l t i m a t e l y s om e s ur ve y que s t i ons pr ovi de d l i t t l e i n t e r m s of i l l um i na t i on, w hi l e ot he r s p r ove d t o be m or e r e ve a l i ng t ha n i ni t i a l l y e xpe c t e d. Methodology T he f i r s t s t e p i n c r e a t i ng a nd de pl oyi ng t hi s s ur ve y w a s t o i de nt i f y p ot e nt i a l r e s ponde nt s a nd ga t he r c ont a c t i nf o r m a t i on. I i de nt i f i e d s e ve n s t a t e s i n w hi c h ka r s t l a nds c a pe w a s pr e s e nt : F l or i da K e nt uc ky, M i s s our i N e w J e r s e y, P e nns yl va ni a T e nne s s e e a nd T e xa s U s i ng va r i ous ge ol ogi c a l m a ps I t he n i de nt i f i e d i n e a c h s t a t e t ow ns c i t i e s a nd c ount i e s w he r e ka r s t w a s l i ke l y t o be f ound F i na l l y, I vi s i t e d t he of f i c i a l w e bs i t e s f or a s m a ny of t he s e m uni c i pa l i t i e s a s pos s i bl e s e a r c hi ng f or c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on f or i ndi vi dua l s l i ke l y t o be i nvol ve d i n l a nd us e pl a nni ng o r i n f i e l ds t ha t m a y r e qui r e s om e know l e dge of ka r s t T hi s i nc l ude s pe opl e w or ki ng i n pl a nni ng, z oni ng a nd gr ow t h m a na ge m e nt de pa r t m e nt s w a t e r de pa r t m e nt s publ i c w or ks de pa r t m e nt s a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l s e r vi c e s de pa r t m e nt s I n s om e c a s e s pe opl e w o r ki ng i n r e l e va nt s t a t e r e gi ona l or f e de r a l a ge nc i e s ( f o r e xa m pl e t he S out hw e s t F l or i da W a t e r M a na ge m e nt D i s t r i c t t he P e nns yl va ni a D e pa r t m e nt of C ons e r va t i on a nd N a t ur a l R e s our c e s or t he

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95 U S G e ol ogi c S ur ve y ) w e r e a l s o i nc l ude d i n t hi s l i s t of pot e nt i a l r e s ponde nt s H o w e ve r t he num be r o f t he s e c ont a c t s w a s i nt e nt i ona l l y ke p t l ow ; I f e l t t he i r i nput c oul d be va l ua bl e but w a nt e d t o e ns ur e t ha t t he da t a a nd op i ni ons pr ovi de d by t hos e w or ki ng a t t he l oc a l l e ve l w e r e m or e dom i na nt i n t he r e s ul t s p r e s e nt e d he r e S i nc e I ha d de c i de d e a r l y on t ha t t he s ur ve y w oul d be a dm i ni s t e r e d ove r t he I nt e r ne t t he m os t l ogi c a l t ype of c ont a c t i n f or m a t i on t o c ol l e c t w a s e m a i l a ddr e s s e s I n s om e c a s e s e m a i l a ddr e s s e s f or a s pe c i f i c i ndi vi du a l w e r e not a va i l a bl e I n t hos e i ns t a nc e s c ont a c t w a s a t t e m pt e d vi a a de pa r t m e nt e m a i l a ddr e s s ( i e i nf o@ c i t ypl a nni ngde pt gov ) o r vi a a br ow s e r ba s e d c ont a c t f or m pr ovi de d on t he a ge nc y w e bs i t e T he s ur ve y i t s e l f w a s de ve l ope d i n O c t obe r 2006 a nd c ond uc t e d us i ng t he S ur ve yM onke y w e b ba s e d s ur ve y de s i gn a nd da t a c ol l e c t i on s e r vi c e T he s ur ve y w a s a c c e s s i bl e f r om N ove m be r 25, 2006, t o J a nua r y 2 2007. T he r e w e r e a t ot a l o f 35 que s t i ons i nc l ude d i n t he s ur ve y, m os t of w hi c h w e r e i n m ul t i pl e c hoi c e f o r m a t of t e n w i t h a f r e e r e s pons e c om pone nt i nc l ude d a s a n opt i on. S e ve r a l que s t i ons w e r e i n f r e e r e s pons e f or m a t onl y, w i t h no m ul t i pl e c hoi c e c om pone nt S ur ve y l ogi c w a s e m pl oye d i n t hi s s ur ve y, w hi c h m e a ns t ha t a r e s ponde nt s a ns w e r s t o c e r t a i n que s t i ons de t e r m i ne d w hi c h a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons he or s he w oul d ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o a ns w e r T he f i r s t que s t i on of t he s ur ve y a r e you f a m i l i a r w i t h ka r s t ? w a s i nc l ude d a s a w e e di ng out que s t i on: i f a r e s ponde nt i ndi c a t e d t ha t he or s he w a s not f a m i l i a r w i t h ka r s t t he s ur ve y e nde d i m m e di a t e l y ( P a t t on 1980; W e i s be r g, e t a l 1989) A ppr oxi m a t e l y 575 a t t e m pt s a t c ont a c t w e r e m a de 66 r e s pons e s w e r e r e c e i ve d f r om r e s ponde nt s i n s i x s t a t e s ( no r e s pons e s f r om T e xa s w e r e r e c e i ve d) ge ne r a t i ng a bout

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96 a r e s pons e r a t e of 11 5 pe r c e nt 16 of t he s e r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t he y w oul d be w i l l i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n f ol l ow up i nt e r v i e w s vi a e m a i l a f t e r t he s ur ve y w a s c onc l ude d; t he s e w e r e c onduc t e d be gi nni ng t he w e e k o f J a nua r y 15 2007. T he s ur ve y i t s e l f i s i nc l ude d a t t he e nd of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a s A ppe ndi x A Survey respond ents T a bl e 6 1 be l ow de s c r i be s t he m a ke up of t he s a m p l e a nd pr ovi de s a b r e a kdow n of t he l oc a t i on of r e s ponde nt s T he l a r ge s t num be r of r e s pons e s c a m e f r om F l or i da a l m os t c e r t a i nl y due t o t he f a c t t ha t ne a r l y ha l f t he t ot a l a t t e m pt s a t c ont a c t m a de w e r e d i r e c t e d t o l a nd us e pr o f e s s i ona l s i n t ha t s t a t e T e nne s s e e h a d t he hi ghe s t ove r a l l r e s pons e r a t e N i ne r e s ponde nt s de c l i ne d t o s t a t e a l oc a t i on. T a b l e 6 1 L o c a t i o n s o f s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s A t t e m p t s a t c on t ac t m a d e R e s p on s e s R e s p on s e r at e P c t of t ot al r e s p on s e s F l or i da 232 24 10. 3 36. 36 K e nt uc ky 41 6 14. 6 9. 09 M i s s our i 143 8 5. 6 12. 12 N e w J e r s e y 42 2 4. 8 3. 03 P e nns yl va ni a 74 13 17. 6 19. 69 T e nne s s e e 21 4 19. 0 6. 06 T e xa s 22 0 0 0 N o l oc a t i on s t a t e d 9 13. 63 T ot al 575 66 11. 5 100

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97 Survey Results I n t hi s s e c t i on, t he s ur ve y r e s pons e s a r e e xa m i ne d i n a ggr e ga t e b r oke n dow n a l ong s i x ge ne r a l t he m a t i c l i ne s : f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h k a r s t ; t he na t ur e o f ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s i n t he r e s ponde nt s a r e a s ; t he na t u r e of ka r s t l a nd u s e r e gul a t i ons ; ge ne r a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s ; e xpe c t e d a nd a c t ua l out c om e s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ; a nd t he a ppr op r i a t e ne s s a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t l a nds 1. L oc at i on of r e s ponde nt s and f am i l i ar i t y w i t h k ar s t T he s ur ve y be ga n w i t h a s e r i e s of que s t i ons de s i gne d t o of f e r a gl i m ps e i nt o e xa c t l y w ho ha d r e s ponde d t o t he s ur ve y, a nd w he t he r t he i r i ns i ght s w e r e l i ke l y t o be us e f ul i n de ve l opi ng t he f r a m e w or k 65 pe r c e nt o f r e s ponde nt s w e r e f r om e i t he r F l o r i da or P e nns yl va ni a T he ba l a nc e w a s s pl i t be t w e e n K e nt uc ky, M i s s our i N e w J e r s e y, a nd T e nne s s e e T he r e w e r e no r e s pons e s f r om a nyone w or ki ng i n T e xa s 82 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s w or k i n l oc a l gove r nm e nt E i ght y ni ne pe r c e nt of t he s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d ha vi ng s om e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h ka r s t T hi s i s not e s pe c i a l l y s ur pr i s i ng, s i nc e s om e e f f or t w a s m a de t o t a r ge t r e s ponde nt s f r om ka r s t i c a r e a s 56 pe r c e nt o f r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y a r e a w a r e of s om e f or m o f ka r s t r e gul a t i on o n t he books i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t i e s T he que s t i on w a s phr a s e d i n ve r y b r oa d l a ngua ge w hi c h m e a ns t ha t t he s e or di na nc e s l i ke l y e nc om pa s s a w i de va r i e t y of r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s a nd m a y d i f f e r s i gni f i c a nt l y i n t e r m s o f r e gul a t o r y s c ope a nd s t r e ngt h. R e s pond e nt s w ho i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y w e r e not a w a r e of a ny ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t he i r c om m uni t i e s w e r e a s ke d f o r t h e i r opi ni ons r e ga r d i ng t hi s l a c k of r e gul a t i on ( Q ue s t i on 7 ) T he a bs e nc e of ka r s t ge ol ogy w i t hi n m uni c i pa l bounda r i e s w a s

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98 c i t e d by 1 1 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s ; a ppr oxi m a t e l y 17 pe r c e nt c i t e d e i t he r phi l os ophi c a l oppos i t i on t o r e gul a t i on or pr e s s ur e f r om de ve l ope r s a s t he pr i m a r y r e a s ons f or t he l a c k of r e gul a t i on I n t he f r e e r e s pons e s e gm e nt of t hi s que s t i on, a l a c k of i nf o r m a t i on on or unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t w a s c i t e d a s a r e a s on; m a ny r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y d i d not f e e l t he i s s ue of ka r s t w a s s i gni f i c a nt e nough t o m e r i t s uc h a hi gh l e ve l of a t t e nt i on: T he l a c k of s uf f i c i e nt i n f or m a t i on r e ga r di ng a c t i v e s i nkhol e a r e a s i s t he b i gge s t r e a s on t ha t no s pe c i f i c r e gul a t i ons ha ve be e n de ve l ope d. A l t hough t hi s a r e a i s c ons i de r e d ka r s t t opogr a phy i t ha s not pr e s e nt e d a m a j or pr o bl e m w i t h de ve l opm e nt N ot a n i s s ue t ha t ha s be e n r a i s e d t o t he l e ve l o f ne e di ng t o be a dd r e s s e d. T he r e ha s be e n no d r i vi ng f or c e t o i m pl e m e nt s uc h r e gul a t i ons L a c k of know l e dge on t he s ubj e c t a nd n o di r e c t i v e f r om pol i c y m a ke r s t o m a ke i t a n i t e m of di s c us s i on. O ur S A L D O ( s ubdi vi s i on a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt or di na nc e ) i s ve r y ol d a nd ha s not be e n upda t e d f o r s om e t i m e T hi s ha s not b e e n a s i gni f i c a nt i s s ue f or our de ve l opm e nt A l l oc a t i on of t i m e a nd r e s our c e s t o o t he r p r e s s i ng i s s ue s 2. C har ac t e r i s t i c s of t he l oc al k ar s t and t he nat ur e o f k ar s t r e l at e d i s s ue s S e ve nt y f i ve pe r c e nt o f r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t ka r s t unde r l i e s m or e t ha n 30 pe r c e nt of t he i r m uni c i pa l i t y s l a nd a r e a w i t h 32 p e r c e nt i ndi c a t i ng t he p r e s e nc e of e xt e ns i ve ka r s t be ne a t h t he i r m uni c i pa l i t i e s ( e xt e ns i ve i s de f i ne d he r e a s e xi s t i ng be ne a t h a t l e a s t 51pe r c e nt of t he i r m uni c i pa l i t y s t e r r i t or y) T he obvi ous i m pl i c a t i on o f

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99 t hi s i s t ha t m a ny o f t he s e c i t i e s t ow ns a nd c ount i e s a r e pr i m e c a ndi da t e s f o r ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. D i f f e r e nt t ype s o f ka r s t l a nd f or m s s e e m t o be e ve n l y di s t r i but e d a m ong t he s a m pl e A l l r e s ponde nt s w o r ki ng i n m uni c i pa l i t i e s unde r l a i n by ka r s t s a y t ha t s i nkhol e s a r e pr e s e nt i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t i e s ; 94 pe r c e nt ha ve s pr i ngs i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t i e s w hi l e bot h c a ve s a nd s i nki ng s t r e a m s a r e pr e s e nt i n 74 p e r c e nt T hi s l e ve l of s i m i l a r i t y s ugge s t s t ha t a ny d i f f e r e nc e s i n r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s w i l l b e dr i ve n by f a c t or s ot he r t ha n t he na t ur e of ka r s t l a ndf or m s i n t he m uni c i pa l i t y. 48 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s poi nt t o gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on a s t he m os t s e r i ous ka r s t r e l a t e d pr obl e m i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t y ; 63 pe r c e nt s a y t ha t c a ve pr ot e c t i on i s t he l e a s t i m por t a nt ka r s t r e l a t e d pr obl e m T he s e r e s ul t s a r e m or e or l e s s m i r r or e d i n a not he r que s t i on t ha t a s ke d r e s ponde nt s t o r a t e t he s e ve r i t y of va r i ous ka r s t r e l a t e d p r obl e m s ; opt i ons w e r e ve r y s e r i ous s om e w ha t s e r i ous a nd not s e r i ous H e r e a ga i n gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on w a s s e e n t o be t he m os t s e r i ous ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue a nd c a ve pr ot e c t i on t he l e a s t 3. T he r e gul at i ons t he m s e l v e s : c om pone nt s r e s t r i c t i v e ne s s and goal s A m a j or i t y o f r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e t ha t k a r s t r e gul a t i ons i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i ons ha ve s om e t e e t h. F ul l y 54 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s pe r c e i ve t he ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t i e s a s a t l e a s t s om e w ha t r e s t r i c t i ve w i t h 11 pe r c e nt de s c r i bi ng t he m a s ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve N o de f i ni t i o n of r e s t r i c t i ve w a s of f e r e d; t hi s w a s i nt e nt i ona l a s I w a s m or e i nt e r e s t e d i n de t e r m i ni n g w ha t t he s ur ve y s ubj e c t s t he m s e l ve s c ons i de r t he w or d t o m e a n. T hi s poi n t i s e xpa nde d a nd a ddr e s s e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r

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100 G r oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on ge ne r a l e nvi r onm e nt a l p r ot e c t i on, a nd a de s i r e t o l i m i t s t r uc t ur a l da m a ge f r o m s i nkhol e s w e r e m os t c om m on r e a s ons f or i m pl e m e nt i ng s uc h r e gul a t i on i n t he f i r s t pl a c e ; f a r l e s s c om m onl y c i t e d r e a s ons i nc l ude d c a ve pr ot e c t i on a nd a voi di ng l i t i ga t i on ( on l y 7 pe r c e nt c i t e d c a ve pr ot e c t i on a s a m ot i va t i on f or pa s s i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ) S t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge r e gul a t i ons a r e by f a r t he m os t c om m on r e gul a t or y t e c hni que e m pl oye d t o a c c om pl i s h t he s e goa l s ( c i t e d by 90 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s ) f ol l ow e d by m a nda t or y s e t ba c ks ( 58 pe r c e nt ) dum pi ng a nd w a s t e di s pos a l r ul e s ( 55 pe r c e nt ) a nd a ddi t i ona l s t e ps i n t he pe r m i t t i ng pr o c e s s ( 52 pe r c e nt ) 67 pe r c e nt s a y t ha t ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t i e s a s a r e a c t i ve m e a s ur e t o a d dr e s s pr e e xi s t i ng pr obl e m s r a t he r t h a n a s a pr e ve nt a t i ve m e a s ur e t o f or e s t a l l pr obl e m s f r om de ve l opi ng R e s ponde nt s w ho a ns w e r e d t ha t t he i r r e gul a t i ons w e r e r e a c t i ve i n na t u r e w e r e a s ke d t o de s c r i be t he s pe c i f i c na t ur e of t he pr obl e m s t ha t l e d t o t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t he r e gul a t i ons C ont a m i n a t i on of g r oundw a t e r r e s our c e s a nd da m a ge t o pr ope r t y w e r e t he m os t c om m on t he m e s : S i nkhol e s ha ve c a us e d e xt e ns i ve da m a ge t o bui l di ngs hi ghw a ys ut i l i t i e s a nd publ i c f a c i l i t i e s S i nkhol e s ha ve e ve n l e d t o de a t h i n c onne c t i on w i t h na t u r a l ga s l i ne s C ount y gr ow t h m a de t he r e gul a t i ons ne c e s s a r y f o r gr ound w a t e r p r ot e c t i on, f l oodi ng, pr ope r t y da m a ge a nd ge ne r a l e nvi r onm e nt a l c ons e r va t i on. A ba c kya r d c ol l a ps e d due t o de ve l opm e nt ove r a ka r s t s ys t e m A t t he t i m e t he hous e w a s w or t h 62 t hous a nd a nd i t c os t a bout 175 t hous a nd t o f i x t he pr obl e m

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101 F l oodi ng of ne w l a ke s i de hom e s w he r e de ve l ope r i l l e ga l l y di ve r t e d s t or m w a t e r s i nt o a n i nj e c t i on w e l l / s i nkhol e w i t hou t a T D E C C l a s s V i nj e c t i on w e l l pe r m i t S i nkhol e ba c ke d u p a nd a l s o f l oode d dow ns t r e a m be f or e w a t e r s e nt e r e d l a ke M os t l y pr e ve nt a t i ve e xc e pt f or i s s ue of g r oundw a t e r / a qui f e r i m pa c t w hi c h ha d be e n ongoi ng. N o s t or m s e w e r s ys t e m ; s i nkhol e s us e d f or s t or m w a t e r di s pos a l E xc e s s i ve ni t r a t e s i n gr oundw a t e r a nd s t or m w a t e r a f f e c t i ng s ur f a c e w a t e r qua l i t y. O f t e n c om m uni t i e s t r y t o pa s s a c a r bona t e o r di na nc e w he n t he y a r e f a c e d w i t h a pot e nt i a l de ve l opm e nt c om i ng t o t ow n. S i nkhol e a c t i vi t y ha d c ont r i but e d t o de s t r uc t i on o f r oa dw a y s ur f a c e s de t e nt i on ponds a n d dr a i na ge c our s e s T he r e w a s a ddi t i ona l i m pa c t on pr i va t e w e l l s a nd a publ i c w a t e r s uppl y. 4. T he i m pl e m e nt at i on pr oc e s s : s t ak e hol de r s t i m e a nd ot he r f ac t or s I t i s di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd t he r e gul a t or y pr oc e s s w i t hout know i ng w ho dr i ve s i t A c c or di ng t o t he s ur ve y, 39 pe r c e nt o f t he t i m e pr opos a l s f or r e gul a t i ng l a nd us e i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns c a m e f r om a b r a nc h of l oc a l gove r nm e nt ; 21 pe r c e nt of t he t i m e i t c a m e f r om s t a t e or f e de r a l gove r nm e nt i ns t e a d. I n m os t c a s e s ( 62 pe r c e nt ) t he s e r e gul a t i ons w e r e ul t i m a t e l y a ppr ove d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d by a c om m i s s i on or ot he r e l e c t e d body w i t h a s i ngl e e l e c t e d of f i c i a l be i ng r e s pons i bl e f or ul t i m a t e i m pl e m e nt a t i on 21 pe r c e nt of t he t i m e

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102 W he n a s ke d a bout t he l e ngt h o f t i m e i t t ook f o r ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t o be i m pl e m e nt e d i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i ons ne a r l y 40 pe r c e nt s a y t ha t t hi s oc c ur r e d w i t hi n t w o ye a r s of t he i ni t i a l pr opos a l ( 33 pe r c e nt e i t he r don t know o r don t r e m e m be r how l ong i t t ook w hi c h w a s t he s e c ond m os t popul a r r e s pons e ) T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t c e r t a i n pol i c y a na l ys i s t ool s t ha t f oc us on t he l ong t e r m l i ke S a ba t i e r s A dvoc a c y C oa l i t i on F r a m e w or k ( S a ba t i e r 1988, 1991a ) m a y not be c o m pl e t e l y a ppr opr i a t e f or us e i n a na l yz i ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on p r oc e s s of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons I n m a ny c a s e s t he r e w a s a va r i e d m i x of pe opl e a n d e nt i t i e s t ha t c ont r i but e d s om e i nput i nt o t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he s e r e gul a t i o ns ; of t he op t i ons pr ovi de d t he t w o t ha t w e r e s e l e c t e d l e a s t f r e que nt l y a r e t he bui l d i ng a nd c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y ( 18 pe r c e nt ) a nd t he f e de r a l gove r nm e nt ( 15 pe r c e nt ) L oc a l go ve r nm e nt de pa r t m e nt s w e r e ge ne r a l l y r e c ogni z e d a s ha vi ng t he m os t i n f l ue nc e t he p r oc e s s ( 52 pe r c e nt ) ; t he f e de r a l gove r nm e nt w a s r e c ogni z e d a s t he l e a s t i nf l ue nt i a l ( 52 pe r c e nt ) N on e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s w e r e i nf l ue nt i a l : F or t y s e ve n pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s s a i d t he y ha d a s t r ong i nf l ue nc e on t he de ve l opm e nt of t he r e gul a t i ons t ha t w e r e ul t i m a t e l y i m pl e m e nt e d. S om e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve c om m e nt s f r om t hi s gr oup of r e s ponde nt s i nc l ude : G e ol ogi s t s oi l s c i e nt i s t h ydr o ge ol ogi s t b i ol ogi s t a nd o t he r s a l l ha ve ha d a s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n c onduc t i ng s ol i d s c i e nc e t o be u s e d i n de ve l opm e nt of t he r ul e ; R e gul a t i ons r e f l e c t e d c r e di bl e e ngi ne e r i ng a nd ge ol ogi c know l e dge a nd e xpe r i e nc e ;

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103 P r ovi s i on of t he s c i e nc e ba s e f or unde r s t a ndi ng g r oundw a t e r t he a qui f e r s i n t he s t a t e t he r a t e of r e c ha r ge e t c a f f e c t e d de c i s i o ns pr i or i t i z i ng a r e a s t ha t a r e ka r s t s e ns i t i ve a nd i n de ve l opi ng t he l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t o pr ot e c t t he m L oc a l r e s i de nt s on t he ot he r ha nd, di d not s e e m t o ha ve m uc h i nf l ue nc e on t he r e gul a t i ons : 33 pe r c e nt o f r e s ponde nt s de s c r i be d l oc a l r e s i de nt s i nf l ue nc e a s s l i ght w hi l e 18 pe r c e nt de s c r i be d i t a s none xi s t e nt I n c a s e s w he r e l oc a l r e s i de nt s ha d a gr e a t e r i nf l ue nc e on t he r e gul a t i on de ve l opm e nt pr o c e s s n o r e a l pa t t e r n e m e r ge s ; one r e s ponde nt s ugge s t s t ha t c i t i z e n pa r t i c i pa t i on i s t i e d t o t he l e ve l of da nge r pos e d t o r e s i de nc e s by ka r s t but t hi s t he m e i s not r e pe a t e d i n ot he r r e s pons e s : W he r e hous e s ha ve be e n s ubj e c t t o f l oodi ng, t he r e w a s m a j or c l a m or i ng t o s ol ve pr obl e m s . buy out s a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on o f f l o od l i m i t s a r ound s i nkhol e s L oc a l r e s i de nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he pr oc e s s ; w e r e g e ne r a l l y s uppor t i ve P ubl i c i nput w a s a c ont i nui ng pa r t of t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t hr ough t he c om p r e he ns i ve pl a nni ng r e vi e w pr oc e s s T he r e por t i ng of t he va r i ous i nc i de nt s pr ovi de d s u f f i c i e nt doc um e nt a t i on t o w a r r a nt i nve s t i ga t i on of a ppr opr i a t e r e gul a t i ons a n d s a f e gua r ds C l e a r l y, t he publ i c i s c onc e r ne d a bout t he oc c ur r e nc e of s i nkho l e s a s i t i s a r e gul a r 'phe nom e non' due t o s ubs ur f a c e c ondi t i ons l oc a t i on be t w e e n t hr e e bodi e s of w a t e r a nd t he e a r l y, de ns e ur ba n de ve l o pm e nt of t he C i t y p r e f e de r a l s t a t e or l oc a l l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. C i t y P l a nni ng, Z oni ng a nd E ngi ne e r i ng pe r s onne l t ook t he l e a d de ve l op a nd e nf or c e r e gul a t i ons i n t he i nt e r e s t of t he publ i c he a l t h s a f e t y a nd w e l f a r e

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104 R e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e t ha t ge ne r a l l y, t he s e r e gul a t i ons w e r e not a f f e c t e d by ot he r l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a l r e a dy i n pl a c e T hi r t y ni ne p e r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t pr e e xi s t i ng l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s h a d no i nf l ue nc e on t he de ve l opm e nt of t he ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons ; 24 pe r c e nt de s c r i be d t hi s i nf l ue nc e a s s l i ght S e ve r a l r e s ponde nt s of f e r e d m or e i nf or m a t i on i n t he f r e e r e s pons e s e c t i on; t hos e l i s t e d he r e a r e f r om r e s ponde nt s w ho f e l t t ha t e xi s t i ng l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ha d e i t he r no i m pa c t o r onl y a s l i ght i nf l ue nc e on t he de ve l opm e nt o f ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i ons : C i t y ha d pr e vi ous l y pa s s e d C r e e k r e gul a t i ons gov e r ni ng i nc r e a s e d s e t ba c ks K a r s t r e gul a t i ons r e pr e s e nt e d a ne w f i e l d of r e gul a t i on. [ R e gul a t i ons w e r e ] pa r t o f c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n. S t a t e a l r e a dy ha d r e gul a t i ons a bout s e t ba c k of s e p t i c s ys t e m s f r om ka r s t a r e a s ( s i nkhol e s e t c ) w hi c h w e r e i nc or por a t e d i n d e ve l opm e nt r e vi e w s K now l e dge of r e l a t e d s t a t e r e gul a t i ons w a s us e d i n pr e s s ur i ng t he l oc a l e l e c t e d of f i c i a l s t o pus h f or a dopt i ng s i m i l a r r e gul a t i on. 5. E x pe c t e d out c om e s and ac t ual out c om e s of k ar s t r e gul at i on S om e of t he m or e i nt e r e s t i ng f i ndi ngs of t hi s s ur ve y a r e t he d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n w ha t r e s ponde nt s s a y t he y w oul d e xpe c t t o c om e f r om i m pl e m e nt i ng a ddi t i ona l r e gul a t i on on de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns a nd w ha t a c t ua l l y ha ppe ne d. F o r e xa m pl e 34 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t he y w o ul d e xpe c t t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons t o l e a d t o a n i nc r e a s e i n hous i ng c os t s ; but onl y 11 pe r c e nt a c t ua l l y w i t ne s s e d t hi s L i ke w i s e 18 pe r c e nt s a y t he y w oul d a nt i c i pa t e t he num be r of ne w de ve l opm e nt pr oj e c t s i n a t ow n t ha t r e gul a t e s de ve l opm e nt on k a r s t t o de c l i ne H ow e ve r on l y s e ve n

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105 pe r c e nt c l a i m t o ha ve s e e n ne w pr oj e c t s l oc a t e e l s e w he r e a s a r e s ul t of t he p r e s e nc e of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons 14 pe r c e nt i ndi c a t e d t he y w oul d e xpe c t popul a t i on de ns i t y t o de c l i ne ; a ga i n, a m uc h s m a l l e r pe r c e nt a ge ( 2 pe r c e nt ) a c t ua l l y s a w t hi s ha ppe n a s a r e s ul t of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons P e r h a ps m os t s ur pr i s i ngl y, f ul l y 75 pe r c e nt or r e s ponde nt s s a i d t he y w oul d e xpe c t t o s e e a n i m pr ove m e nt i n g r oundw a t e r qua l i t y a s a r e s ul t of t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ; o nl y 19 pe r c e nt a c t ua l l y di d s e e s uc h a n i m pr ove m e nt T he f r e e r e s pons e s e gm e nt of Q ue s t i on 32 e l i c i t e d a w i de r a nge of e xpe c t e d out c om e s of a ddi ng a ddi t i ona l r e gul a t or y r e qui r e m e nt s t o de ve l opi ng i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns Q ua l i t a t i ve l y s pe a ki ng, e xpe c t a t i ons e xpr e s s e d he r e t e nde d t o be d i s t i nc t l y pos i t i ve or di s t i nc t l y ne ga t i ve ; ve r y f e w i nc or po r a t e d bot h t he pos i t i ve a nd t he ne ga t i ve T he l i s t be l ow i s a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl i ng of r e s pons e s : E f f e c t s on de ve l opm e nt c oul d va r y; c oul d r e duc e de ve l opm e nt & i nc r e a s e hous i ng c os t s but ka r s t f e a t u r e s c oul d a l s o be c om e a va l ue d a m e ni t y t o pr ope r t y. L ow e r pr ope r t y i ns ur a nc e r a t e s ; a de c l i ne i n s t r uc t ur e s c ol l a ps i ng or s ubs i di ng i nt o t he ka r s t f e a t ur e s A de c l i ne i n bui l d out popul a t i on a nd s t r uc t ur a l d e ns i t y due t o be t t e r t r e a t m e nt of s t or m w a t e r a nd t he ne e d f o r m o r e s pa c e f or s ur f a c e w a t e r t r e a t m e nt 2) M or e gr oundw a t e r r e c ha r ge a r e a s 3 ) O pe n s pa c e de di c a t i ons i n ve r y ka r s t a r e a s s pr i ng pr ot e c t i on z one s I m pr ove d publ i c s a f e t y pr e s e r va t i on of l a nd va l u e s l a nds c a pe a ppr opr i a t e de ve l opm e nt i nc r e a s e d e nvi r onm e nt a l qua l i t y

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106 N one K a r s t r e gul a t i ons c a r r y t he s a m e w e i ght a s ot he r de s i gn c r i t e r i a f ound i n l oc a l l a nd us e o r di na nc e s i e s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt t r a f f i c i m pr ove m e nt s l a you t f l oodpl a i ns w a t e r c our s e s e t c I t w oul d be ve r y di f f i c ul t t o i s ol a t e a r e a s t ha t t hi s t ype of r e gul a t i on w oul d a ppl y. D e ve l ope r s i n F l o r i da a r e r e qui r e d t o do hy dr oge ol ogi c a l t e s t s t o de t e r m i ne s ubs ur f a c e c ondi t i ons E ve n w i t h t he s e t e s t s s i nkhol e a c t i vi t y i n F l or i da i s ha r d t o pr e di c t I nc r e a s e i n de ve l opm e nt r e l a t e d l a w s ui t s A l s o, i nc r e a s e i n num be r of va r i a nc e s r e que s t e d ( t o de ve l op w he r e ka r s t e xi s t s ) I nc r e a s e i n de ve l opm e nt c os t s L e ve l or de c l i ni n g t a x ba s e I nt e r e s t i ngl y e nough, w he n s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d w ha t out c om e s of i m p l e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w e r e a c t ua l l y obs e r ve d ( Q ue s t i on 34) one not i c e s a s ha r p di f f e r e nc e i n t one a nd c ont e nt f r om t he e xpe c t a t i ons s e t f or t h a b ove R e gul a t i ons w e r e not s e e n t o ha ve s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on de v e l opm e nt c os t s a nd s om e r e s ponde nt s f e l t t he r e gul a t i ons i m pr ove d t he qua l i t y of de ve l opm e nt de c i s i ons : A s l i ght i nc r e a s e i n c os t of pe r m i t t i ng f o r a s m a l l num be r of de ve l opm e nt s H ous i ng c os t s ha ve i nc r e a s e d i n t he l a s t 15 or s o ye a r s s i nc e t he i ni t i a l r e gul a t i ons w e r e put i n pl a c e but I don't t hi nk t he r e i s a ny c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he s e c os t s a nd t he r e gul a t i ons B e t t e r de ve l opm e nt de c i s i ons c a n be m a de due t o t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t ka r s t f e a t ur e s be i de nt i f i e d on s ubdi vi s i on pl a t s M or e e nvi r onm e n t a l l y a ppr opr i a t e de ve l opm e nt

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107 A ddi t i ona l l y, 70 pe r c e nt o f r e s ponde nt s s a y t ha t t h e pr e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons i n ne i ghbor i ng t ow ns ha d no i m pa c t a t a l l on t he i r de c i s i ons r e ga r di ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of s uc h r e gul a t i ons i n t he i r ow n m uni c i p a l i t y. T hi s s or t o f s t r a t e gi c be ha vi or w i l l be e xa m i ne d i n m or e de t a i l l a t e r i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. 6. A ppr opr i at e ne s s and e f f e c t i v e ne s s of r e gul at i ng de v e l opm e nt on k ar s t S ur ve y r e s ponde nt s a r e ove r w he l m i ngl y f r i e ndl y t o t he c onc e pt of r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t : 97 pe r c e nt s a i d i t i s a ppr op r i a t e f or m uni c i pa l i t i e s t o do s o ( one r e s ponde nt e i t he r di dn t know o r ha d no opi ni on; n obody i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y f e l t s uc h r e gul a t i on i s i na ppr op r i a t e ) 68 pe r c e nt s a i d t he ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons i n f or c e i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i on a r e e f f e c t i ve ; 18 pe r c e nt s a y t he y a r e n ot w i t h t he ba l a nc e e xpr e s s i ng no opi ni on. E ve n s o, 70 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y f e e l t he r e i s r oom f or i m pr ove m e nt i n t he i r m uni c i pa l i t y s ka r s t r e gul a t i o n s t r a t e gy. I n t he f r e e r e s pons e s e gm e nt of t hi s que s t i on, r e c ur r i ng t he m e s i nc l ude d t i ght e ni ng r e s t r i c t i ons on de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s i m pr ovi ng i nf o r m a t i on f l ow ( bot h be t w e e n gove r n m e nt a nd t he publ i c a nd be t w e e n di f f e r e nt br a nc he s of gove r nm e nt ) a nd e nf o r c e m e nt a nd f ol l ow t hr ough by r e gul a t i ng a ge nc i e s : I 'm not s ur e t ha t bui l di ng s i t e s a r e a l w a ys w e l l s e l e c t e d i n r e l a t i on t o ka r s t . i m pl i c a t i on: pot e nt i a l r e vi e w w i t h bui l di ng pe r m i t e s pe c i a l l y on pr e e xi s t i ng s ubdi vi s i ons ( pr i or t o s e t ba c k pr ovi s i ons t ha t a r e c ur r e nt l y c a l l e d f or w i t h ne w e r s ubdi vi s i ons ) G e t m or e m uni c i pa l i t i e s t o a dopt [ ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ] P r ovi de m or e r e s t r i c t i ons a nd not a l l ow i ng t he f i l l i ng i n o f s i nkhol e s unl e s s a ppr ove d vi a a publ i c he a r i ng.

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108 W e c oul d r e qui r e f ur t he r s e t ba c k f r om i na c t i ve k a r s t f e a t ur e s ; w e c oul d r e qui r e 'hi gh pe r f or m a nc e s e pt i c t a nks or c e nt r a l s e w e r s ys t e m s a s a m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt f o r l ow de ns i t y r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt t o r e m ove ni t r a t e s a nd r e duc e t he i r i m pa c t t o g r oundw a t e r / a qui f e r W e ne e d t o a dd buf f e r i ng o r p r e s e r ve s a r ound kn ow n s i nks a nd ot he r ka r s t a r e a s R i ght now w e r e l y he a vi l y on t he F l ood D a m a ge P r e ve nt i on R e s ol ut i on t o pr ot e c t a l l w a t e r s of t he s t a t e t he I l l i c i t D i s c ha r ge D e t e c t i on a nd E l i m i na r y R e s ol ut i on t o r e gul a t e i l l e ga l dum pi ng, a nd m o r e s pe c i f i c a l l y hol di ng up a l l c ons t r uc t i on pl a n a ppr ova l un t i l t he S t a t e 's ge ol ogi s t c a n a ppr ove a ny ne w s ubdi vi s i ons w he r e s i nkhol e s a nd c a ve s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d, t hus r e qui r i ng i nj e c t i on w e l l pe r m i t s i f s t or m w a t e r di ve r t e d t o s i n k or a t l e a s t pr ot e c t i on a r ound t he c a ve / s i nk dur i ng c ons t r uc t i on. W e de f i ni t e l y c a n s t a nd t o i m pr ove our r e gs B e t t e r m a ppi ng of ka r s t a r e a s a nd s t r onge r f ol l ow up by t he r e gul a t i ng a ge nc i e s C oul d e xpa nd c ons i de r a t i on t o a l l de ve l opm e nt s i t ua t i ons pa r t i c ul a r l y c om m e r c i a l s i t e pl a ns M a ppi ng ka r s t a r e a a nd gr a di ng t he i r vu l ne r a bi l i t y t o s i nkhol e f or m a t i on a nd gr ound w a t e r c ont a m i na t i on a nd m a ki ng t he s e m a ps a va i l a bl e t o t he publ i c E duc a t i ng t he ge ne r a l pub l i c t o t he ne c e s s i t y of i t M or e c a n a l w a ys be done L a r ge r ka r s t f e a t ur e s e t ba c ks a nd l a r ge r s e t ba c ks i n ge ne r a l f o r e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s e ns i t i ve a r e a s i e r i ve r i ne c or r i d or s

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109 B e t t e r c oor di na t i on be t w e e n s e c t or s of gove r nm e nt a nd ot he r gove r nm e nt e nt i t i e s A more detailed a nalysis of th e results W hi l e t he s e r e s ul t s a r e c e r t a i nl y us e f ul i f w e w i s h t o ge ne r a l i z e a bout ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on, de ve l opi ng a de e p unde r s t a ndi ng o f ka r s t r e gul a t i on w i l l r e qui r e m o r e de t a i l e d i nf or m a t i on T he r e m a i nde r of t hi s c ha pt e r i s de di c a t e d t o s e e ki ng out pa t t e r ns a nd m e a ni ng w i t hi n t he s ur ve y r e s pons e s The meaning of restrictive I n Q ue s t i on 14, s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o pr ovi de t he i r opi ni ons on t he r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of t he ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n pl a c e i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i ons W hi l e i t i s c l e a r t ha t t he va s t m a j o r i t y o f r e s ponde nt s c ons i de r t he r e gul a t i ons t o be e i t he r not ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve or s om e w ha t r e s t r i c t i ve t hos e r e s ul t s a r e of l i m i t e d us e unl e s s t he t e r m s c a n be m or e pr e c i s e l y de f i ne d B y c r os s r e f e r e nc i ng r e s pons e s t o Q ue s t i on 14 w i t h r e s pons e s t o Q ue s t i on 16 ( T o t he be s t of you r know l e dge w hi c h of t he f ol l ow i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t or y c om pone nt s a r e p r e s e nt i n you r j u r i s di c t i on s l a nd us e a nd de ve l opm e nt r e gul a t i ons ? ) t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s a nd t he us e of s pe c i f i c r e gul a t or y t ool s a m ong t he s a m pl e c a n be de s c r i be d. T a bl e 6 2 s how s t ha t m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t h r e gul a t i ons pe r c e i ve d a s ve r y s t r ong a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e m pl oy ne a r l y e ve r y r e gul a t or y t ool l i s t e d I n pa r t i c ul a r m a nda t o r y s e t ba c ks a nd e xt r a a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s t e ps i n t he pe r m i t t i ng a nd bui l di ng pr oc e s s a r e m o r e c om m on i n j ur i s di c t i ons w i t h hi ghe r pe r c e i ve d r e gul a t o r y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t t he r e s ponde nt s vi e w s of w ha t c ons t i t ut e s r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s i s not c om pl e t e l y s ubj e c t i ve a nd doe s i n f a c t s e e m t o be t i e d t o t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of c e r t a i n r e gul a t o r y t e c hni que s

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110 T a b l e 6 2 P e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s N ot at al l r e s t r i c t i ve N ot ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve S om e w h at r e s t r i c t i ve V e r y r e s t r i c t i ve T ot al obs e r v at i ons i n e ac h c at e gor y 2 12 15 4 T e c h n i q u e s u s e d M a nda t or y s e t ba c ks 0 5 ( 41. 66 % ) 10 ( 66. 66 % ) 4 ( 100% ) S i ngl e e xt r a s t e p 0 3 ( 25% ) 9 ( 60% ) 4 ( 100% ) M ul t i pl e e xt r a s t e ps 0 2 ( 16. 66 % ) 4 ( 26. 66 % ) 2 ( 50% ) S t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge 2 ( 100% ) 10 ( 83. 33 % ) 14 ( 93. 33 % ) 4 ( 100% ) D um pi ng a nd w a s t e di s pos a l 1 ( 50% ) 5 ( 41. 66 % ) 9 ( 60% ) 3 ( 75% ) F e r t i l i z e r a nd c he m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on 0 0 4 ( 26. 66 % ) 2 ( 50% ) O t h e r op t i o n s ( t he f ol l ow i ng r e gul at or y t ool s w e r e m e nt i one d i n t he f r e e r e s pon s e s e gm e nt of t hi s que s t i on) Z oni ng ove r l a y 0 0 1 ( 6. 66 % ) 0 D e s i gna t i on of non bui l da bl e a r e a s 0 1 ( 8. 33 % ) 0 1 ( 25% ) S i nkhol e a r e a e xc l ude d f r om m i ni m um l o t s i z e r e qui r e m e nt s 0 1 ( 8. 33 % ) 0 0 N um be r s i n pa r e nt he s e s r e f l e c t t he pe r c e nt a ge s of c om m uni t i e s i n e a c h r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s c a t e gor y t ha t e m pl oy a gi ve n r e gul a t or y t e c hn i que

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111 O ne e xc e pt i on t o t hi s pa t t e r n i s s t or m w a t e r dr a i na g e r e gul a t i ons S t o r m w a t e r r e gul a t i ons a r e a l m os t uni ve r s a l l y a ppl i e d, r e ga r dl e s s of t he ov e r a l l r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of t he ka r s t r e gul a t i ons W i t hi n t he s a m pl e s t or m w a t e r r e gul a t i ons a r e us e d i n t he m a j or i t y of c om m uni t i e s w i t h r e gul a t i ons pe r c e i ve d a s not a t a l l r e s t r i c t i ve a nd not ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve ; no ot he r r e gul a t or y t ool i s us e d i n m o r e t ha n ha l f of t he s e c om m uni t i e s R e s pons e s f r om f ol l ow up i nt e r v i e w s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he popul a r i t y o f s t or m w a t e r r e gul a t i ons a s a de ve l opm e nt t ool i n ka r s t a r e a s s t e m s f r om t he r e l a t i ve l y hi gh vi s i bi l i t y of un a ddr e s s e d r unof f r e l a t e d p r obl e m s ( pol i t i c i a ns a r e m or e l i ke l y t o r e s pond t o i s s ue s t ha t a r e m or e vi s i bl e a nd i m m e di a t e ) a s w e l l a s t h e c om pa r a t i ve e a s e of ge t t i ng de ve l ope r s t o c om pl y w i t h s uc h r e gul a t i ons Goals, effectiveness and the potential for imp rovement I n a ny e nde a vor i t i s di f f i c ul t t o i de nt i f y s uc c e s s o r f a i l u r e w i t hout a c l e a r i de a of w ha t t he goa l s of t he e nde a vor a r e B y i de nt i f yi ng t he s pe c i f i c goa l s of r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns que s t i ons r e l a t i ng t o t he c om pa r a t i ve e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he s e r e gul a t i ons c a n be e xa m i ne d. F or one a r e t he s e r e gul a t i ons m or e e f f e c t i ve i n a c hi e vi ng s om e goa l s t ha n ot he r s ? A r e s om e of t he m os t f r e q ue nt l y c i t e d goa l s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on pe r ha ps t oo l a r ge t o r e s ol ve vi a t he r e gu l a t or y t ool s a va i l a bl e t o l oc a l gove r nm e nt s ? T a bl e 6 3 l i s t s f i ve c om m on goa l s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on, a l ongs i de t he num be r of r e s ponde nt s w ho i ndi c a t e d e a c h goa l a s one t ha t t he i r ow n ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w e r e i nt e nde d t o a dd r e s s ( que s t i on 17) M ul t i pl e a ns w e r s t o que s t i on 17 w e r e pe r m i t t e d, a nd s om e r e s ponde nt s s e l e c t e d a l l f i ve opt i ons T h e t w o r i ght ha nd c ol um ns b r e a k out t he r e s pons e s gi ve n f or que s t i on 31 ( I n you r opi ni on a r e t he ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e

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112 T a b l e 6 3 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e g u l a t o r y g o a l s a n d p e r c e i v e d r e g u l a t o r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s R e gu l at or y goal s E f f e c t i ve ? N u m b e r of r e s p on d e n t s c i t i n g e ac h goa l Y e s N o E nvi r onm e nt a l p r ot e c t i on 22 14 4 G r oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on 30 19 6 C a ve pr ot e c t i on 7 4 2 L i m i t s t r uc t u r a l da m a ge f r om s i nkhol e s 28 21 5 L i m i t gove r nm e nt a l l i a bi l i t y i n l a w s ui t s 11 9 2 T a b l e 6 4 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c e i v e d r e g u l a t o r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d p e r c e p t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t i n l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s A r e l oc al k ar s t l an d u s e r e gu l at i on s e f f e c t i ve ? I s t h e r e r oom f or i m p r ove m e n t i n l oc al k ar s t l an d u s e r e gu l at i on ? Y e s N o Y e s 13 5 N o 3 1 r e gul a t i ons i n your j ur i s di c t i on e f f e c t i ve ? ) ba s e d on how e a c h r e s ponde nt a ns w e r e d que s t i o n 17. F o r e xa m pl e : o f t he 30 s ubj e c t s w ho s a i d t ha t gr oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on w a s

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113 one of t he goa l s of t he i r j u r i s di c t i ons ka r s t r e gul a t i ons 19 f e l t t hos e r e gul a t i ons w e r e e f f e c t i ve w hi l e s i x f e l t t he y w e r e no t C a ve pr ot e c t i on i s not a c om m on goa l i n r e gu l a t i ng de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns vi a m uni c i pa l l a nd us e or di na nc e s : onl y s e ve n r e s ponde nt s c i t e d i t a s a goa l of t he i r j u r i s di c t i ons ka r s t r e gul a t i ons O f t hos e w ho e xpr e s s e d a n opi ni on on t he r e gul a t i ons e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n a c hi e vi ng t ha t goa l 66 pe r c e nt s a i d t he y w e r e e f f e c t i ve T hi s w a s t he l ow e s t r a t e of e f f e c t i ve ne s s f or a ny of t he f i ve goa l s pr ovi de d, but i t w a s onl y t e n pe r c e nt l ow e r t ha n t he ne xt l ow e s t r e s pons e ( gr oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on) R e s pons e s f or que s t i ons 17 a nd 31 pr ovi de no c l e a r r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he num be r of goa l s a nd t he pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he r e gul a t i ons A l m os t c e r t a i nl y pa r t of t he r e a s on f or t hi s i s t ha t t he r e s e e m s t o be a ge ne r a l c ons e ns us i n t he s a m pl e t ha t t he s e r e gul a t i ons a r e e f f e c t i ve : ove r 67 pe r c e nt o f r e s pon de nt s f e e l t ha t w a y, w i t h t he r e m a i nde r a l m os t e ve nl y s pl i t be t w e e n di s s e nt e r s ( 17. 65 pe r c e nt ) a nd t hos e w i t h no opi ni on ( 14 71 pe r c e nt ) I t i s c l e a r f r om t he s e r e s ul t s t ha t r e s pond e nt s ge ne r a l l y f e e l t ha t ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e e f f e c t i ve i n a c hi e vi ng c om m onl y e xpr e s s e d goa l s of s uc h r e gul a t i on. T hi s hi gh l e ve l of s a t i s f a c t i on pos e s a pr obl e m i n c om pa r i ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of va r i ous r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s s i nc e t he r e a r e s i m pl y not e nough i ne f f e c t i ve vot e s t o ge ne r a t e a r e s pons e pa t t e r n t ha t i ns t i l l s c onf i de nc e F or t hi s r e a s on, e xa m i na t i ons o f t he pe r c e pt i ons of r e gul a t or y e f f e c t i ve ne s s t hr oughout t hi s c ha pt e r w i l l be l i m i t e d T ha t s a i d, I w oul d l i ke t o l ook a t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s r e s pons e s a nd how t he y c or r e l a t e w i t h r e s pons e s f or que s t i o n 35 ( I n you r opi ni on, c a n a nyt hi ng be done t o i m pr ove t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n your j ur i s di c t i on? ) T a bl e 6 4 di s pl a ys r e s pons e s f or f ou r c om bi na t i ons o f r e s pon s e s t o que s t i ons 31 a nd 35: ye s t o bot h; no t o bot h; ye s t o 31 a nd n o t o 35; a nd no t o 31 a nd ye s t o 35 I t s houl d no t s ur pr i s e

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114 a nyone t ha t r e s ponde nt s w ho s e e t he i r j u r i s di c t i ons r e gul a t i ons a s i ne f f e c t i ve w oul d s a y t ha t t he s e r e gul a t i ons c oul d be i m pr ove d. H ow e ve r i t m a y be s ur p r i s i ng t o s e e t ha t r e s ponde nt s w ho c ons i d e r t he i r j u r i s di c t i ons ka r s t r e gul a t i ons t o be e f f e c t i ve al s o f e e l t ha t t he r e i s r oom f or i m pr ove m e nt i n t hos e r e gul a t i ons by a ne a r l y t h r e e t o one m a r gi n. A t f i r s t g l a nc e t hi s a ppe a r s t o be a t r i c ky c ont r a di c t i on t o r e c onc i l e : i f a r e gul a t i on or or di na nc e i s e f f e c t i ve t he n w hy w oul d i t r e qui r e i m p r ove m e nt ? C e r t a i nl y t he w or d e f f e c t i ve i n t hi s c ont e xt i m pl i e s t ha t t h e r e gul a t i on or or di na nc e ha s a c hi e ve d i t s goa l e i t he r i n f ul l or i n pa r t A nd pe r ha ps t hi s i s t he e xpl a na t i on: r e s ponde nt s m a y be i nt e r pr e t i ng t he w or d e f f e c t i ve a s m e a ni ng a t l e a s t pa r t i a l l y s uc c e s s f ul i n a c hi e vi ng i t s goa l s I f t ha t i s t he c a s e pe r ha ps t hi s r e f l e c t s t he pol i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s of i m pl e m e nt i ng l a w s a nd r e gul a t i ons t ha t us e t he pr e s e nc e of a n obs c ur e ( t o t he ge ne r a l publ i c a t l e a s t ) ge ol ogi c phe nom e non t o r e s t r i c t de ve l opm e nt a nd gr ow t h: i n ot he r w o r ds s om e t hi ng i s pr e f e r a bl e t o not hi ng, but m o r e w oul d ha ve be e n e ve n be t t e r How the extent of the local karst affects choic e of regulatory technique C e r t a i nl y, t he a m ount o f ka r s t f ound be ne a t h a gi v e n m uni c i pa l i t y s houl d f a c t or i nt o t he f i na l s ha pe t a ke n by a ny ka r s t r e gul a t i ons i m pl e m e nt e d t he r e F or e xa m pl e m o r e c om pr e he ns i ve r e gul a t or y a ppr oa c he s m a y not be a ppr opr i a t e f o r l oc a t i ons w he r e t he e xt e nt of ka r s t i s l i m i t e d; l i ke w i s e a r e a s w i t h s i gni f i c a nt ka r s t s houl d p r oba bl y c ons i de r pa s s i ng m or e t ha n a s i m pl e s t or m w a t e r r uno f f m a n a ge m e nt or di na nc e B y c om pa r i ng r e s pons e s t o que s t i on 16 w i t h r e s pons e s t o que s t i on 12 ( I n your opi ni on how e xt e ns i ve i s t he ka r s t s ys t e m i n you r a r e a ? ) w e c a n i de nt i f y t he r e gul a t or y c om pone nt s t ha t a r e m or e c om m onl y us e d i n a r e a s w i t h e xt e ns i ve ka r s t a s w e l l a s t hos e us e d i n l oc a t i ons w i t h l i m i t e d ka r s t ge ol ogy

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115 I t i s c l e a r f r om T a bl e 6 5 t ha t s t or m w a t e r dr a i na ge r ul e s a r e t he m os t pr e f e r r e d r e gul a t or y t e c hni que T he s e r ul e s a r e w i de l y a ppl i e d i n t he s a m pl e r e ga r dl e s s of t he a m ount of ka r s t pr e s e nt M a nda t or y s e t ba c ks be c o m e a m or e pr e f e r r e d r e gul a t or y t e c hni que a s t he a m ount of ka r s t p r e s e nt i nc r e a s e s I n f a c t s e t ba c ks w a s t e di s pos a l a n d dum pi ng, a nd c he m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on a r e us e d m os t f r e que nt l y by j u r i s di c t i ons w i t h t he m os t e xt e ns i ve ka r s t s ys t e m s w hi l e e xt r a s t e ps i n t he pe r m i t t i ng a nd bui l di ng pr oc e s s s e e m t o be pr e f e r r e d i n c om m uni t i e s w i t h m ode r a t e ( 31pe r c e nt 50pe r c e nt ) ka r s t T he onl y r e s ponde nt t o i ndi c a t e t ha t a z oni ng ove r l a y i s i n us e a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t l e s s t ha n 10 pe r c e nt of t he l a nd a r e a w i t hi n hi s or h e r j ur i s di c t i on i s unde r l a i n by ka r s t A z oni ng ove r l a y w oul d on t he s ur f a c e s e e m t o be o ne of t he m or e r e s t r i c t i ve a ppr oa c he s t o de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns ; t he f a c t t ha t i t i s e m pl oye d by a j u r i s di c t i on w i t h s uc h l ow l e ve l s of ka r s t i s i nt e r e s t i ng, a nd m a y i ndi c a t e t ha t t he s pe c i f i c r e qui r e m e nt s of t ha t pa r t i c ul a r z oni ng ove r l a y di s t r i c t a r e m ode s t I t w oul d a l s o be i nt e r e s t i ng t o c om pa r e t he s ubj e c t s pe r c e pt i on of r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s t o t he e xt e nt of ka r s t pr e s e nt i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i ons W e w oul d e xpe c t t he r e s ul t s s how n i n T a bl e 6 6 t o t r a c k c l os e l y w i t h t he r e s ul t s f r om t he pr e vi ous c om pa r i s on. V e r y ge ne r a l l y s pe a ki ng, one c oul d m a ke t he a r gum e nt t ha t t he pe r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of a j ur i s di c t i on s r e gul a t i ons i s l oo s e l y r e l a t e d t o t he e xt e nt of t he l oc a l ka r s t H ow e ve r t hi s ge ne r a l i z a t i on hol ds m or e c l e a r l y a t t he e xt r e m e s t ha n i n t he m i d r a nge s of r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s ; a nd e ve n on t he e xt r e m e s of pe r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s t he l ow num be r s of r e s ponde nt s m a ke s i t di f f i c ul t t o de f i ni t i ve l y c onc l ude a nyt hi ng.

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116 T a b l e 6 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e x t e n t o f l o c a l k a r s t s y s t e m s a n d t h e r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d E xt e n t of k ar s t < 10% 10% 30% 31% 50% > 50% T ot al obs e r v at i ons i n e ac h c at e gor y 2 6 15 11 R e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d M a nda t or y s e t ba c ks 0 3 ( 50% ) 9 ( 60% ) 7 ( 63. 63 % ) S i ngl e e xt r a s t e p 1 ( 50% ) 3 ( 50% ) 9 ( 60% ) 5 ( 45. 45 % ) M ul t i pl e e xt r a s t e ps 0 1 ( 16. 66 % ) 5 ( 33% ) 3 ( 27. 27 % ) S t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge 2 ( 100% ) 6 ( 100% ) 12 ( 80% ) 10 ( 90. 9 % ) D um pi ng a nd w a s t e di s pos a l 0 3 ( 50% ) 6 ( 40% ) 9 ( 81. 81 % ) F e r t i l i z e r a nd c he m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on 0 0 1 ( 6. 66 % ) 4 ( 36. 36 % ) O t h e r op t i o n s ( t he f ol l ow i ng r e gul at or y t ool s w e r e m e nt i one d i n t he f r e e r e s pon s e s e gm e nt of t hi s que s t i on) Z oni ng ove r l a y 1 0 0 0 D e s i gna t i on of non bui l da bl e a r e a s 0 0 2 0 S i nkhol e a r e a e xc l ude d f r om m i ni m um l ot s i z e r e qui r e m e nt s 0 0 1 0 N um be r s i n pa r e nt he s e s r e f l e c t t he pe r c e nt a ge s of c om m u ni t i e s i n e a c h r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s c a t e gor y t ha t e m pl oy a gi ve n r e gul a t or y t e c hni que

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117 T a b l e 6 6 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e l o c a l k a r s t s y s t e m a n d t h e p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f l o c a l k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s L oc al e xt e n t o f k ar s t < 10% 10% 30% 31% 50% > 50% T ot al obs e r v at i ons i n e ac h c at e gor y 2 6 15 11 P e r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s of l oc al k ar s t r e gu l at i on s N ot a t a l l r e s t r i c t i ve 1 1 0 0 N ot ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve 0 2 5 5 S om e w ha t r e s t r i c t i ve 1 3 7 4 V e r y r e s t r i c t i ve 0 0 2 2 Preventative or re active implementation and regulatory restrictiveness Q ue s t i on 18 of t he s ur ve y a s ke d i f ka r s t r e gul a t i on s w e r e e na c t e d i n t he s ubj e c t s c om m uni t i e s a s a pr e ve nt a t i ve m e a s ur e or i n r e s pons e t o a s pe c i f i c ongoi ng i s s ue T he m a j or i t y of r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d r e gul a t i ons ha d be e n i m pl e m e nt e d r e a c t i ve l y r a t he r t ha n pr e ve nt a t i ve l y. T hi s i s o f i nt e r e s t be c a us e of t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t he c i r c um s t a nc e s s ur r oundi ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he r e gul a t i ons m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d t he f or m t he r e gul a t i ons t ook: i f f or e xa m pl e a t ow n s ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w e r e hur r i e dl y pa s s e d i n r e s pons e t o a s e r i ous r e c e nt l y d i s c ove r e d pr obl e m w i t h gr oundw a t e r qua l i t y, t hos e r e gul a t i ons m a y be t oo r e s t r i c t i ve o r ot he r w i s e i na ppr opr i a t e a s a m e t hod of a ddr e s s i ng t he gr oundw a t e r p r obl e m B y c o m pa r i ng a ns w e r s f or que s t i on 18 w i t h t hos e f o r que s t i on

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118 14, w e c a n s e e i f t he r e a r e di f f e r e nc e s w i t hi n t he s a m pl e i n t he r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons be t w e e n t hos e t h a t w e r e e na c t e d a s a pr e ve nt a t i ve m e a s ur e a nd t hos e t ha t w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d r e a c t i ve l y. T he r e s ul t s a r e s how n i n T a bl e s 6 7 a nd 6 8 T a bl e 6 7 s ugge s t s t ha t r e gul a t i ons e na c t e d i n r e s p ons e t o a s pe c i f i c pr obl e m t ha t i s a l r e a dy oc c ur r i ng t e nd t o be m or e r e s t r i c t i ve t ha n t hos e i m pl e m e nt e d a s a p r e ve nt a t i ve m e a s ur e T hi s d oe s l e nd s om e w e i ght t o t he i de a t h a t r e a c t i ve l y pa s s e d r e gul a t i ons m a y be a bi t t oo r e s t r i c t i ve ; c onve r s e l y, i t c oul d a l s o be r e f l e c t i ve of t he f a c t t ha t m o r e r e s t r i c t i ve r e gul a t i ons a r e r e qui r e d t o r e pa i r a n e s t a bl i s he d, e nt r e nc he d pr obl e m t ha n t o he a d o f f a pot e nt i a l f ut ur e i s s ue E ve n m o r e s t r i ki n g t ha n t ha t i s t he e f f e c t i ve / not e f f e c t i ve s pl i t s how n i n T a bl e 6 8: r e s ponde nt s i n j ur i s di c t i ons w he r e ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d i n a r e a c t i ve m a nne r a r e f a r m o r e l i ke l y t o c ons i de r t hos e r e gul a t i on s t o be e f f e c t i ve t ha n a r e r e s ponde nt s f r om c om m uni t i e s t ha t e na c t e d pr e ve nt a t i ve ka r s t T a b l e 6 7 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s P e r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s We r e l oc al k ar s t r e gu l at i on s i m p l e m e n t e d t o b e p r e ve n t at i ve or r e ac t i ve ? P r e ve n t at i ve R e ac t i ve N ot a t a l l r e s t r i c t i ve 1 1 N ot ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve 3 7 S om e w ha t r e s t r i c t i ve 6 9 V e r y r e s t r i c t i ve 0 4

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119 T a b l e 6 8 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s P e r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve n e s s We r e l oc al k ar s t r e gu l at i on s i m p l e m e n t e d t o b e p r e ve n t at i ve or r e ac t i ve ? P r e ve n t at i ve R e ac t i ve E f f e c t i ve 6 17 N ot e f f e c t i ve 3 2 r e gul a t i ons i ns t e a d. A t f i r s t gl a nc e t hi s m a y a ppe a r t o bo l s t e r t he i de a t ha t r e a c t i ve r e gul a t i ons a r e m or e r e s t r i c t i ve be c a us e t he y ha ve t o be H ow e ve r i t m a y s i m pl y be a not he r i l l us t r a t i on o f t he ge ne r a l pe r c e pt i on t ha t m or e r e s t r i c t i ve r e gul a t i on t e nds t o be m or e e f f e c t i ve A not he r pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t c a s e s w he r e pr e ve nt a t i ve m e a s ur e s w e r e t a ke n, t he ka r s t r e l a t e d p r obl e m s t he y w e r e i nt e nde d t o pr e ve nt w e r e i n f a c t i ne vi t a bl e ; t he i r e ve nt ua l oc c ur r e nc e c oul d t he n be s e e n a s pr oof t ha t t he p r e ve nt a t i ve r e gul a t i ons w e r e i na de qua t e C e r t a i nl y t hi s i s a n a r e a w he r e m or e r e s e a r c h w oul d be w e l c om e a nd a ppr opr i a t e Initiators vs. restrictiveness D i f f e r e nt a c t or s m a y be gi n t he pr oc e s s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons f or di f f e r e nt r e a s ons a nd m a y ha ve di s t i nc t l y di f f e r e nt goa l s T hos e di f f e r e nc e s m a y m a ke t he m s e l ve s a ppa r e nt i n t he s pe c i f i c f o r m s t a k e n by t he r e s ul t i ng r e gul a t i ons I n or de r t o e xpl or e t ha t pos s i bi l i t y, I c om pa r e d r e s pons e s f or que s t i on 14 on r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s w i t h r e s pons e s f or que s t i on 19 ( W ho i ni t i a t e d t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng t he s e r e gul a t i ons ? ) T he r e s ul t s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 6 9, w hi c h s how s t ha t r e s pons e s

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120 a r e nor m a l l y d i s t r i but e d a r ound not ve r y r e s t r i c t i v e B r a nc he s of l oc a l gove r n m e nt w e r e by f a r t he m os t f r e que nt i ni t i a t or s o f r e gul a t i on; m os t of t he s e r e gul a t i ons c a m e dow n s qua r e l y i n t he m i ddl e m e a s ur e s of r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s C e r t a i nl y, one t hi ng t hi s t a bl e doe s t e l l us i s t ha t t he i n i t i a t or of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ha s l i t t l e i f a nyt hi ng, t o do w i t h t he ove r a l l l e ve l o f pe r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of t hos e r e gul a t i ons W e c a n pr obe t hi s que s t i on a bi t f ur t he r by c om pa r i ng i ni t i a t or s t o t he i ndi vi dua l c om pone nt s us e d i n t he s e r e gul a t i ons T he r e s ul t s a r e pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 6 10. F r om t he s e r e s ul t s i t i s di f f i c ul t t o ge ne r a l i z e a bout t he i nf l ue n c e s of t he di f f e r e nt r e gul a t or y T a b l e 6 9 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n i t i a t o r s o f l o c a l k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s a n d p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s I n i t i at or s of l oc al k ar s t r e gu l at i on s P e r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s N ot at al l r e s t r i c t i ve N ot ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve S om e w h at r e s t r i c t i ve V e r y r e s t r i c t i ve B r a nc h of l oc a l gove r nm e nt 2 6 5 1 B r a nc h of s t a t e or f e d gove r nm e nt 1 4 2 0 C ount y c om m i s s i on or e qui va l e nt 1 2 2 0 E nvi r onm e nt a l o r s c i e nc e gr oups 0 2 0 0 O t he r 0 1 0 1 N o t e : i n t w o c a s e s r e s p o n d e n t s c h o s e o t h e r a s t h e i r a n s w e r f o r q u e s t i o n 1 9 y e t i t w a s c l e a r f r o m t h e i r f r e e r e s p o n s e a n s w e r s t h a t o n e o f t h e p r o v i d e d r e s p o n s e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p e r f e c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e T h o s e t w o r e s p o n s e s w e r e c h a n g e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s

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121 T a b l e 6 1 0 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d a n d i d e n t i t y o f r e g u l a t o r y i n i t i a t o r s R e gu l at or y i n i t i at or s B r an c h or d e p ar t m e n t of l oc al gove r n m e n t B r an c h of s t at e or f e d e r al gove r n m e n t C ou n t y or c i t y c om m i s s i on E n vi r on m e n t al or s c i e n c e gr ou p s O t h e r T ot al obs e r v at i on s i n e ac h c at e gor y 15 7 6 2 2 R e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d M a nda t or y s e t ba c ks 10 2 4 1 1 S i ngl e e xt r a s t e p 7 6 2 1 1 M ul t i pl e e xt r a s t e ps 4 2 2 1 0 S t or m w a t e r dr a i na ge 13 7 5 2 2 D um pi ng a nd w a s t e di s pos a l 8 4 2 1 1 F e r t i l i z e r a nd c he m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on 2 3 0 1 0 O t he r 5 0 1 0 0

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122 i ni t i a t or s i n t he f i na l f or m of t he r e gul a t i ons t he m s e l ve s I t doe s s e e m c l e a r t ha t r e gul a t i ons i ni t i a t e d by s t a t e a nd f e de r a l l e ve l s of g ove r nm e nt a r e l e s s l i ke l y t ha n t hos e i ni t i a t e d by m o r e l oc a l e nt i t i e s t o i nc or po r a t e m a nd a t or y s e t ba c ks t ha n ot he r t e c h ni que s l i ke s t or m w a t e r r unof f a nd dr a i na ge m a na ge m e nt or a ddi t i ona l s t e ps i n t he pe r m i t t i ng a nd bui l di ng pr oc e s s The influence of non elected professionals vs. regulatory restrictiveness I t w oul d be unr e a l i s t i c t o e xpe c t e l e c t e d of f i c i a l s t o ha ve de t a i l e d know l e dge a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t a nd t he c ha l l e nge s i t pos e s t o hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s a bove i t T he r e f or e i nput f r om pe opl e w i t h s ubj e c t s pe c i f i c e xpe r t i s e c oul d e a s i l y be c om e a c r i t i c a l f a c t or bot h i n t he de ve l opm e nt of ka r s t r e g ul a t i ons a nd i n t he f o r m t he y ul t i m a t e l y t a ke I n pa r t i c ul a r i t w oul d be ve r y e a s y f or e l e c t e d of f i c i a l s t o e i t he r ove r e s t i m a t e or unde r e s t i m a t e t he s e ve r i t y of ka r s t r e l a t e d pr obl e m s w i t hou t i nput f r o m non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s l i ke e ngi ne e r s ge ol ogi s t s or hyd r ol ogi s t s a m ong ot he r s B y c om pa r i ng a ns w e r s f or que s t i on 14 ( I n your opi ni on, how r e s t r i c t i ve a r e t he ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e a nd de ve l opm e nt r e gul a t i ons i n your j ur i s di c t i on? ) t o que s t i on 23 ( T o w ha t de gr e e w e r e t he s e r e gul a t i ons i nf l ue nc e d by non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s ( i e s c i e nt i s t s or e ngi ne e r s f or e xa m pl e ) w or ki ng f or or i n c onj unc t i on w i t h l oc a l gove r nm e nt ? ) a r ough i de a of t he i m pa c t of pr of e s s i ona l i nput c a n be r e a c he d; t hi s i s di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 6 11 T he r e s e e m s t o be no r e l a t i ons hi p a t a l l be t w e e n t h e a m ount of i nf l ue nc e e xe r t e d by non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s a nd t he r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of t he r e s ul t i ng r e gul a t i on. A t a l l l e ve l s of pr of e s s i ona l i nf l ue nc e ( ot he r t ha n none w hi c h w a s not s e l e c t e d by e ve n one r e s ponde nt ) t he d i s t r i but i on o f r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s i s onc e a ga i n c e nt e r e d a r ound

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123 not ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t t he r e i s not a t r e nd t ow a r d e xc e s s i ve r e gul a t i on a s t he i n f l ue nc e of non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s i nc r e a s e s T a b l e 6 1 1 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f i n f l u e n c e o f n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d t h e p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r e s u l t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s L e ve l of i n f l u e n c e f r om n on e l e c t e d p r of e s s i on al s P e r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s of k ar s t r e gu l at i on s N ot at al l r e s t r i c t i ve N ot ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve S om e w h at r e s t r i c t i ve V e r y r e s t r i c t i ve N one 0 0 0 0 S l i ght 0 3 1 0 M ode r a t e 1 5 1 0 S t r ong 3 8 3 1 A s w he n e xa m i ni ng t he r o l e of r e gul a t or y i ni t i a t or s i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on, t hi s que s t i on c a n be e xa m i ne d i n m o r e de t a i l by i nc l udi ng a c om pa r i s on be t w e e n l e ve l s of non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l i nf l ue nc e w i t h t he a ppe a r a nc e of s pe c i f i c r e gul a t or y t ool s i n t he ka r s t l a nd us e or di na nc e s ; t hi s c om pa r i s on i s s how n i n T a bl e 6 12 A s t he i nf l ue nc e of non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s i nc r e a s e s s o t oo doe s t he l i ke l i hood t ha t e xt r a s t e ps a r e i nc l ude d i n t he pe r m i t t i ng a nd de ve l opm e nt p r oc e s s f or p r oj e c t s i n ka r s t a r e a s I n r e gul a t i ons t ha t ha d be e n s t r ongl y i nf l ue nc e d by n on e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s t he f r e que nc y w i t h w hi c h s e ve r a l ot he r l i s t e d c om pone nt s oc c ur i s e i t he r c om pa r a bl e or l ow e r t ha n i n r e gul a t i ons t ha t ha d onl y e nj oye d a m ode r a t e l e ve l of i nf l ue nc e f r om non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s T hi s doe s not e xt e nd t o dum pi ng a n d w a s t e di s pos a l or t o f e r t i l i z e r a nd

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124 c he m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on, a s t he y w e r e not i nc l ude d i n r e gul a t i ons t ha t w e r e onl y s l i gh t l y i nf l ue nc e d by non e l e c t e d p r of e s s i ona l s Expected outcomes vs. propensity to regulate A s w e ha ve s e e n e l s e w he r e i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, r e g ul a t i ng l a nd us e i s of t e n a pol i t i c a l l y c ha r ge d e nde a vor w i t h m a ny s t r ongl y he l d opi ni ons on bot h s i de s of t he i s s ue O ne m i ght w onde r how t he s e opi ni ons a f f e c t t he p r oc e s s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t l a nd us e or di na nc e s a nd r e gul a t i ons : i s i t pos s i bl e t ha t t ow n s i n w hi c h l a nd us e p r of e s s i ona l s a nd pol i c ym a ke r s ha ve ne ga t i ve e xpe c t a t i ons r e ga r di n g t he out c om e s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o i m pl e m e nt s uc h r e gul a t i ons ? I n T a bl e 6 13, I c om pa r e d r e s pons e s f or que s t i on s i x, on t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a nd que s t i on 32, on t he r e s ponde nt s e xpe c t e d r e s ul t s of t he i m pl e m e nt a t i o n of t he s e r e gul a t i ons I n t hi s t a bl e out c om e s t ha t c oul d s ubj e c t i ve l y be de s c r i be d a s pos i t i ve a r e c onnot a t e d by a ( + ) s ym bol ; s ubj e c t i ve l y ne ga t i ve out c om e s a r e c onnot a t e d by a ( ) s ym bol ( t he de c l i ne i n de ns i t y opt i on c oul d be ve r y e a s i l y s e e n a s e i t he r pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve a nd i s t hus not a s s i gne d a qua l i t a t i ve de s c r i pt or he r e ) N ot e t ha t t h e t w o ne ga t i ve r e s pons e s i nc r e a s i ng hous i ng c os t s a nd a de c l i ne i n ne w de ve l opm e nt pr oj e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d a s l i ke l y out c om e s s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e o f t e n by r e s ponde nt s f r om j u r i s di c t i ons w he r e ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e not i n pl a c e L i ke w i s e t w o of t he t hr e e pos i t i ve r e s pons e s ( a de c l i ne i n l i t i ga t i on f i l e d a ga i ns t t he c i t y a nd i m pr ove d g r ou ndw a t e r qua l i t y) w e r e m uc h m o r e l i ke l y t o be i de nt i f i e d a s e xpe c t e d out c om e s by r e s ponde nt s f r om j u r i s d i c t i ons i n w hi c h ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ha d be e n e na c t e d.

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125 T a b l e 6 1 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e g u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d a n d t h e l e v e l o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s d i s p l a y e d b y n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s L e ve l of i n f l u e n c e f r om n on e l e c t e d p r of e s s i on al s N on e S l i gh t M od e r at e S t r on g T ot al obs e r v at i ons i n e ac h c at e gor y 0 4 7 16 R e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d M a nda t or y s e t ba c ks 0 4 4 8 S i ngl e e xt r a s t e p 0 1 4 11 M ul t i pl e e xt r a s t e ps 0 1 0 8 S t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge 0 4 7 15 D um pi ng a nd w a s t e di s pos a l 0 0 6 9 F e r t i l i z e r a nd c he m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on 0 0 2 4 O t he r 0 1 1 ( ove r l a y) 3

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126 T a b l e 6 1 3 D i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s o f k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n b e t w e e n t o w n s t h a t d o r e g u l a t e a n d t o w n s t h a t d o n o t R e gu l at i n g N ot r e gu l at i n g T ot al obs e r v at i ons i n e ac h c at e gor y 32 21 E xp e c t e d ou t c om e T ot al P c t T ot al P c t I nc r e a s i ng r e s i de nt i a l l a nd va l ue s ( + ) 5 15. 6% 4 19% D e c l i ne i n l i t i ga t i on ( + ) 7 21. 9% 0 0% I m pr ove d g r oundw a t e r qua l i t y ( + ) 25 78. 12% 8 38. 1% D e c l i ne i n de ns i t y 3 9. 4 % 4 19% I nc r e a s i ng hous i ng c os t s ( ) 4 ( 2 ove r l a p) 12. 5% 11 ( 3 ove r l a p) 52. 38% D e c l i ne i n ne w de ve l opm e nt pr oj e c t s ( ) 2 6. 25% 7 33. 3% O t he r out c om e 11 34. 37% 3 14. 28% A ( + ) r e pr e s e nt s a pos i t i ve out c om e ; a ( ) r e p r e s e nt s a ne ga t i ve out c om e N o s i gn i ndi c a t e s a ne ut r a l out c om e or one t ha t c oul d w i de l y be pe r c e i ve d a s e i t he r pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve

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127 I ndi vi dua l s w ho s e l e c t e d t he s om e ot he r ou t c om e r e s pons e t he n w e r e r e que s t e d t o de s c r i be t he na t ur e of t he out c om e s t he y a nt i c i p a t e d. E xpe c t e d out c om e s i de nt i f i e d by r e s ponde nt s f r om c om m uni t i e s i n w hi c h ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons w e r e pr e s e nt e xpe c t e d t o s e e t he f ol l ow i ng out c om e s : L e s s s t r uc t ur a l da m a ge ; m or e gr oundw a t e r r e c ha r ge s pa c e ; m or e ope n s pa c e de di c a t i ons ; i m pr ove d publ i c s a f e t y; l a nds c a pe a ppr opr i a t e de ve l opm e nt ; l ow e r pr ope r t y i ns ur a nc e r a t e s ; be t t e r e duc a t i on a nd c om m uni c a t i on be t w e e n de ve l ope r s s t a t e a nd c ount y; r e duc e d i nc i de nt s of f l oodi ng a nd s ubs i de nc e ; i nc r e a s e d publ i c a w a r e ne s s ; a nd not hi ng a t a l l R e s ponde nt s f r om c om m uni t i e s w he r e de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t ha d no a ddi t i ona l r e s t r i c t i ons on t he ot he r ha nd, p r ovi de d t he f ol l ow i ng l i s t of e xpe c t e d out c om e s : I nc r e a s e i n de ve l opm e nt c os t s ; l e ve l or de c l i ni ng t a x ba s e ; i nc r e a s e i n de ve l opm e nt r e l a t e d l a w s ui t s ; a nd i nc r e a s e i n num be r of va r i a nc e s r e que s t e d. I n t e r m s o f a nt i c i pa t i ng pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve out c o m e s t he qua l i t a t i ve d i f f e r e nc e i n e xpe c t a t i ons be t w e e n r e s ponde nt s f r om r e gul a t i ng a r e a s a nd t hos e f r om non r e gul a t i ng a r e a s i s s t r i ki ng. T hi s di f f e r e nc e i s a ppa r e nt i n t he s e l e c t i on of pr ovi de d op t i ons but i s m os t obvi ous i n t he br e a kdow n of f r e e r e s pons e a ns w e r s W hi l e r e s ponde nt s f r om bot h gr oups s e l e c t e d bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve out c om e s f r om t he l i s t of s uppl i e d a ns w e r s t he r e w a s no c r os s ove r a t a l l i n t he f r e e r e s pons e a ns w e r s : of t he t e n f r e e r e s pons e

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128 a ns w e r s pr ovi de d by r e s ponde nt s f r om r e gul a t i ng c om m uni t i e s onl y one ( not hi ng a t a l l ) c a n be c ons t r ue d a s e ve n a ne ut r a l r e s pons e w i t h t he r e m a i ni ng ni ne be i ng pos i t i ve e xpe c t a t i ons S i m i l a r l y t h r e e of t he f ou r f r e e r e s po ns e a ns w e r s f r om r e s ponde nt s l i vi ng i n non r e gul a t i ng a r e a s a r e ne ga t i ve e xpe c t a t i ons w hi l e t he f ou r t h ( i nc r e a s e i n num be r of va r i a nc e s r e que s t e d ) c a n be s e e n a s a ne ut r a l r e s pons e T he r e a r e t w o pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i ons f or t he s e r e s ul t s t ha t s pr i ng i m m e di a t e l y t o m i nd: f i r s t t he y m a y be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a di ve r ge nc e of a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e gul a t i on i n ge ne r a l w hi c h i s a l r e a dy r e f l e c t e d i n t he d i f f e r e nc e i n pr a c t i c e o f ka r s t r e gul a t i on; s e c ond, w i t h r e ga r d t o r e s ponde nt s w i t h pos i t i ve e xpe c t a t i ons of t he r e s ul t s of ka r s t r e gul a t i on, t he s e r e s ul t s c oul d be a m a t t e r of r e s po nde nt s pr oj e c t i ng t he i r c ur r e nt unde r s t a ndi ng of a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d ka r s t r e gul a t i on ba c kw a r ds B y e xa m i ni ng r e s pons e s f r om i ndi vi dua l s w o r ki ng i n r e gul a t i ng m uni c i pa l i t i e s onl y, w e c a n now c om pa r e r e s ponde nt s e xpe c t e d out c om e s w i t h t he r e s ul t s t he y a c t ua l l y obs e r ve d. T a bl e 6 14 m a ke s c l e a r t ha t i n m os t c a s e s ne i t he r t he pos i t i ve nor t he ne ga t i ve e xpe c t e d out c om e s of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on c a m e t o pa s s onc e t he r e gul a t i on s w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d. A n i m pr ove m e nt i n g r oundw a t e r qua l i t y w a s obs e r ve d i n f i ve c om m uni t i e s w he r e ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d; a l l f i ve of t he s e r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y w oul d e xpe c t t o s e e s uc h a n i m pr ove m e nt ( ove r l a p ) I n no ot he r c a s e w a s t he ove r l a p qua nt i t y m o r e t ha n o ne I n onl y one i ns t a nc e di d m or e r e s ponde nt s obs e r ve a n out c om e ( a de c r e a s e i n s ub s i de nc e r e l a t e d da m a ge ) t ha n i ndi c a t e d t he y w oul d e xpe c t s uc h a n ou t c om e ; e ve n s o, onl y one r e s ponde nt ove r l a ppe d be t w e e n e xpe c t a t i on a nd obs e r va t i on. M os t of t he ne ga t i ve e xpe c t a t i ons of r e s ponde nt s f r om non r e gul a t i ng c om m uni t i e s a l s o di d not m a t e r i a l i z e i n t ow ns t ha t c hos e t o r e gul a t e

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129 T a b l e 6 1 4 D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s a n d o b s e r v e d o u t c o m e s o f r e g u l a t i n g k a r s t ( m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t r e g u l a t e o n l y ) P ot e n t i al ou t c o m e s E xp e c t e d O b s e r ve d O ve r l ap H i ghe r hous i ng c os t s 4 1 1 L os t de ve l opm e nt oppor t un i t i e s 2 1 1 I m pr ove d g r oundw a t e r qua l i t y 25 5 5 D e c r e a s e i n s ubs i de nc e r e l a t e d da m a ge 5 8 1 D e c r e a s e i n de ns i t y 3 1 1 e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f r e e r e s p o n s e s e c t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n E i ght r e s ponde nt s i ndi c a t e d t he y s a w no i m pa c t s o f t he ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i m pl e m e nt e d i n t he i r j ur i s di c t i ons ; f our ot he r s of f e r e d obs e r ve d out c om e s i n t he f r e e r e s pons e s e c t i on: A s m a l l i nc r e a s e i n pe r m i t t i ng c os t s f or s om e de ve l opm e nt s ; B e t t e r de ve l opm e nt de c i s i ons due t o i nc r e a s e d a m ount of i nf or m a t i on ; M or e e nvi r onm e nt a l l y a ppr op r i a t e de ve l opm e nt ; a nd S t r onge r t i e s be t w e e n s t a t e a nd l oc a l de ve l opm e nt r e gul a t i ons a nd pr oc e dur e s A f i f t h r e s ponde nt s a i d t ha t he or s he ha d obs e r ve d r i s i ng hous i ng c os t s ove r t he l a s t f i f t e e n ye a r s but t ha t t he r e i s pr oba bl y not a di r e c t c onne c t i on t o t he ka r s t r e gul a t i ons i n pl a c e t he r e I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he da t a s how n i n T a bl e 6 14 a bove a r e c ont r a di c t e d by T a bl e 6 3 I n t ha t t a bl e w e s e e t ha t ne a r l y t w o t hi r ds o f r e s po nde nt s w ho c i t e d gr oundw a t e r pr ot e c t i on a s a m ot i va t i ng f o r c e f or i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on f e l t t he

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130 r e gul a t i on ha d be e n e f f e c t i ve i n a c hi e vi ng t ha t goa l Y e t i n T a bl e 6 14 onl y 20 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s w ho e xpe c t e d t o s e e a n i m pr ove m e nt i n gr oundw a t e r qua l i t y c oul d s a y t ha t t he y ha d obs e r ve d s uc h a n i m p r ove m e nt W hy t he di s c r e pa nc y? T he m os t obvi ous e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t t he s e r e s ponde nt s s i m pl y a s s um e d t he r e gul a t i ons ha d be e n e f f e c t i ve de s pi t e not ha vi ng obs e r ve d a ny a c t ua l i m pr ove m e nt T he r e s pons e s di s pl a ye d on t a bl e s 6 13 a nd 6 14 h a ve pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t i ng i m pl i c a t i ons F i r s t t he r e i s a s t r ong s ugge s t i on t ha t a t t i t ude s of l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s c oul d be a m a j or f a c t or i n de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r or not ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e pa s s e d a t a l l S e c ond, t he e xpe c t e d r e s ul t s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve of t e n do not c om e t o pa s s O ne e xc e pt i on t o t hi s w a s a de c r e a s e i n s ubs i de nc e r e l a t e d da m a g e ; m or e r e s ponde nt s obs e r ve d t hi s r e s ul t t ha n a nt i c i pa t e d i t B ot h o f t he s e c onc l us i ons c oul d i n t ur n ha ve s i gni f i c a nt i m pl i c a t i ons i n t he p r oc e s s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons Summary T he s ur ve y r e s ul t s pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r p r ovi d e us e f ul da t a r e ga r di ng l a nd us e pl a nne r s opi ni ons a nd obs e r va t i ons r e ga r di ng ka r s t or i e nt e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons S om e of t he m o r e i nt e r e s t i ng r e s ul t s i nc l ude : S t or m w a t e r d r a i na ge a nd r uno f f r e gul a t i ons a r e t he m os t popul a r m e t hod of r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns ; E m pl oyi ng m a nda t o r y s e t ba c ks a s a r e gul a t or y t oo l i s m or e c om m on i n m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t h m or e e xt e ns i ve ka r s t f or m a t i on s ;

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131 A t t i t ude s he l d by pl a nne r s on t he l i ke l y out c om e s a nd i m pa c t s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on s e e m t o ha ve a n i nf l ue nc e on w he t he r or not s uc h r e gul a t i ons a r e i m pos e d; T he e xpe c t e d r e s ul t s of ka r s t r e gul a t i on pa r t i c ul a r l y s e c onda r y e f f e c t s l i ke c ha nge s i n popul a t i on de ns i t y or gr ow t h r a t e s o f t e n do not c om e t o pa s s ; S e e ki ng i nput f r om non e l e c t e d pr o f e s s i ona l s ( f or e xa m p l e ge ol ogi s t s e ngi ne e r s hydr ol ogi s t s ) doe s not l e a d t o i nhe r e nt l y m or e r e s t r i c t i ve r e gul a t i ons ; N o c l e a r r e l a t i ons hi p c a n be i de nt i f i e d be t w e e n t he r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of t he r e gul a t i ons a nd t he i de nt i t y of t he i ni t i a t or o f t he r e gul a t i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr o c e s s ; R e a c t i ve r e gul a t i ons t e nd t o be m or e r e s t r i c t i ve t ha n pr e ve nt a t i ve r e gul a t i ons ; O f t e n, r e s ponde nt s w i l l s a y t ha t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e e f f e c t i ve m e t hods o f a c hi e vi ng a pa r t i c ul a r goa l e ve n i f t he y ha ve n t a c t ua l l y w i t ne s s e d i t ; S t r a t e gi c be ha vi or doe s not s e e m t o be a n i s s ue i n t he pr oc e s s of de c i di ng w he t he r or not t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons T he s e r e s ul t s a r e i nt r i gui ng a nd s e e m w or t hy o f f u t ur e s t udy. P e r ha ps one di r e c t i on of f ut ur e r e s e a r c h c oul d be t o e xa m i ne s o m e of t he s e r e s ul t s i n gr e a t e r de t a i l us i ng l a r ge r s a m pl e s

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132 7 Se t b a c k o r d i n a n c e s : a r e t h e y e ffe c ti v e i n c o n tr o l l i n g d e n s i ty i n k a r s t a r e a s ? A c a s e s tu d y fr o m K e n t u c k y a n d Mi s s o u r i Introduction A s w e ha ve s e e n i n t he pr e c e di ng c ha pt e r s ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i s c om m on t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s W hi l e t he s e r e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s a r e us ua l l y a da pt e d t o m e e t l oc a l c ondi t i ons s om e r e gul a t o r y t e c hni qu e s a r e e m pl oye d i n m a r ke dl y di f f e r e nt ka r s t i c t e r r a i ns T hi s c ha pt e r e xa m i ne s one o f t he s e c om m on r e gul a t or y t e c h ni que s t he s e t ba c k a nd i t s i m pa c t s on pa t t e r ns of hum a n s e t t l e m e nt a nd de ns i t y. S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s c ha pt e r a s ks w he t he r or not s e t ba c k s t yl e r e gul a t i o ns a r e e f f e c t i ve a t c ont r ol l i ng de ve l opm e nt ne a r s i nkhol e s ; e vi de nc e of s uc h e f f e c t i ve ne s s c oul d be pr e s e n t i n hous i ng or s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t i e s ne a r s i nkhol e s i n c om m uni t i e s t ha t e m pl oy s e t ba c ks T he que s t i on i s a n i m por t a nt one t o a s k, c ons i de r i ng t he w i de s pr e a d us e of s e t ba c ks a nd no bui l d a r e a s t o c ont r ol de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s r e s e a r c h que s t i on f i t s i nt o t he l a r ge r na r r a t i ve of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on be c a us e i t c onc e r ns how hum a n popul a t i ons r e a c t ( i n t hi s c a s e t hr ough c hoi c e s on w hi c h a r e a s a r e or a r e not s ui t a bl e f o r de ns e hum a n s e t t l e m e nt ) t o c e r t a i n ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons Setbacks S e t ba c ks ( a l s o c a l l e d no bui l d a r e a s i n s om e m uni c i pa l c ode s ) a r e s i m pl y bu f f e r s pl a c e d i n c e r t a i n s pot s t o pr e ve nt unw a nt e d e nc r oa c hm e nt of hum a n s t r uc t ur e s ( bui l di ngs r oa ds e t c ) i nt o s e ns i t i ve a r e a s I n t he c a s e s s t udi e d he r e t he s e s e t ba c k s a r e a ppl i e d t o

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133 s i nkhol e s w hi c h m e a ns t ha t t he r e i s t he or e t i c a l l y a buf f e r be t w e e n t he e dge o f a s i nkhol e a nd t he poi nt a t w hi c h c ons t r uc t i on or l a nd di s t ur b i ng a c t i vi t i e s a r e pe r m i t t e d t o oc c ur T hi s buf f e r z one i s t he r e f or e i n t e nde d t o a c t a s a p a s s i ve m e a ns of pr ot e c t i ng t he ka r s t s ys t e m f r om t he i m pa c t s of hum a n s e t t l e m e nt a nd of pr ot e c t i ng hum a n bui l t s t r uc t ur e s f r om t he e xpa ns i on of ka r s t l a ndf or m s P ol l ut i ng a c t i vi t i e s a nd l a nd s t r e s s a r e ke pt a w a y f r om t he s i nkhol e s a nd ne w bu i l di ngs a r e not pe r m i t t e d s o ne a r a s i nkhol e e dge a s t o l e a ve t he s t r uc t ur e vul ne r a bl e t o s i nkhol e e xpa ns i o n. U s e of s e t ba c ks a s a t e c hni que f or c ont r ol l i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns i s not un us ua l : a s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r 5 o f t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, s e t ba c ks a r e f ound i n c o m m uni t i e s i n K e nt uc ky, T e nne s s e e M i s s our i F l or i da P e nns yl va ni a N e w J e r s e y, a nd V i r gi ni a a m ong ot he r l oc a t i ons ( s e e c ode s of or di na nc e s f or P a s c o C ount y, F L ; L ow e r S a uc on, P A ; L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y, K Y ; a nd S pr i ngf i e l d M O f or e xa m pl e s ) F r om t hi s b r i e f de s c r i pt i on of s e t ba c ks w e m i ght e xpe c t t he m t o ha ve a n i m pa c t on hous i ng de ns i t y be c a us e a s e t ba c k, by i t s ve r y d e s i gn, l i m i t s t he a m ount of de ve l opa bl e l a nd i n t he i m m e di a t e vi c i ni t y A ny l a nd e nc l os e d by a s e t ba c k i s r e m ove d f r om t ha t i nve nt or y w hi c h s houl d t he r e f o r e r e s ul t ( i n r e s i de nt i a l a r e a s ) i n l a r ge r pa r c e l s or m or e unde ve l opa bl e l ot s T hi s of c ou r s e r e l i e s on t w o a s s um pt i ons : f i r s t t ha t a l l s i nkhol e s a r e c or r e c t l y i de nt i f i e d a nd p r ope r l y c a t a l ogue d; a nd s e c ond, t ha t t he or di na nc e i s a c t u a l l y e nf or c e d by c i t y gove r nm e nt ( T hi s l a s t f a c t or i s c r i t i c a l a s c i t y gove r nm e nt m a y ha ve ne i t he r t he r e s our c e s nor t he i nc l i na t i on t o a de qua t e l y e nf or c e t he i r ow n s i nkhol e or di na nc e s )

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134 F i g u r e 7 1 T h e s t u d y a r e a ( L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y ; L o u i s v i l l e K Y ; S p r i n g f i e l d M O ; S t L o u i s M O ) S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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135 The study areas T hi s a na l ys i s e xpl or e s t he i m pa c t of s e t ba c ks on h ous i ng de ns i t y by e xa m i ni ng da t a dr a w n f r o m f ou r s t udy a r e a s : L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y, K e nt uc ky; L oui s vi l l e K e nt uc k y; S pr i ngf i e l d M i s s our i ; a nd S t L oui s M i s s our i ( F i gur e 7 1 ) L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e a nd S pr i ngf i e l d w e r e s e l e c t e d a s s t udy a r e a s be c a us e bot h m uni c i pa l i t i e s e m pl oy s e t ba c k s t yl e r e gul a t i ons t o l i m i t de ve l opm e nt ne a r s i nkhol e s a nd be c a us e da t a on s i nkhol e l o c a t i on w a s r e a di l y a va i l a bl e f o r e a c h l oc a t i on L oui s vi l l e a nd S t L ou i s w e r e c hos e n t o a c t a s c ont r ol s i t e s : bot h ha ve s i nkhol e s w i t hi n t he c i t y l i m i t s but ne i t he r us e s s e t ba c ks a s a m e a ns t o c ont r ol ne a r by de ve l opm e nt T hus i t m a y be pos s i bl e t o i de n t i f y t he i m pa c t of s e t ba c k or di na nc e s on hous i ng de ns i t y by c om p a r i ng de ns i t i e s be t w e e n t he s e t w o pa i r s of s t udy a r e a s A l l f our s t udy a r e a s a r e unde r l a i n by ge ol ogy f a vo r a bl e t o t he de ve l opm e nt of ka r s t l a ndf or m s ( F i gur e s 7 2 t hr ough 7 5 ) a nd a l l f our a r e u r ba n: t he s m a l l e s t ( S pr i ngf i e l d ) ha d a 2000 popu l a t i on of j us t ove r 15 0, 000, w hi l e t he l a r ge s t ( S t L oui s ) ha d a popul a t i on of j us t ove r 360, 000 t ha t s a m e ye a r ; L oui s vi l l e a nd L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e s popul a t i ons t ha t ye a r w e r e a ppr oxi m a t e l y 256 000 a nd 260, 000, r e s pe c t i ve l y ( U S C e ns us B ur e a u) T he s e f our s i t e s m e t m y c r i t e r i a f or da t a a va i l a bi l i t y u r ba ni z a t i on, a nd l oc a t i on ( i e a l l w i t h i n t he s a m e ge ne r a l r e gi on) I i nt e nt i ona l l y c hos e ur ba n a r e a s f or t hi s a na l ys i s be c a us e t he ge ne r a l l y hi ghe r popul a t i on a nd hous i ng de ns i t i e s m a y m a ke c om pl i a nc e w i t h s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons m or e c ha l l e n gi ng. I n r u r a l a r e a s w he r e de ve l opa bl e l a nd i s pl e nt i f ul s uc h r e s t r i c t i ons c oul d be m o r e e a s i l y c om pl i e d w i t h by r e l oc a t i ng de ve l opm e nt t o l e s s s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s a nd i m p a c t s of s e t ba c k or di na nc e s on hous i ng de ns i t y pa t t e r ns w oul d l i ke l y be m or e di f f i c ul t t o d e t e c t

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136 F i g u r e 7 2 P o t e n t i a l f o r k a r s t l a n d f o r m d e v e l o p m e n t i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y a n d v i c i n i t y S o u r c e : K e n t u c k y G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y

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137 F i g u r e 7 3 P o t e n t i a l f o r k a r s t l a n d f o r m d e v e l o p m e n t i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y a n d v i c i n i t y S o u r c e : K e n t u c k y G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y

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138 F i g u r e 7 4 B e d r o c k c o m p o s i t i o n i n S p r i n g f i e l d a n d G r e e n e C o u n t y M O S o u r c e : M i s s o u r i S p a t i a l D a t a I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e

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139 F i g u r e 7 5 B e d r o c k c o m p o s i t i o n i n S t L o u i s M O S o u r c e : M i s s o u r i S p a t i a l D a t a I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e

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140 L e xi ngt on a nd s ur r oundi ng F a ye t t e C ount y ha ve o pe r a t e d a s a c ons ol i da t e d c i t y c ount y gove r nm e nt s i nc e 1958. T he c ount y l i e s i n t he m i ddl e of nor t h c e nt r a l K e nt uc ky s B l ue G r a s s r e gi on, a t opog r a phi c a l r e gi on t ha t e nc om pa s s e s a bout 8, 000 s qua r e m i l e s G e nt l y r ol l i ng hi l l s dom i na t e t he l a nds c a pe he r e T he s out he r n bor de r of t hi s r e gi on i s w he r e t he K n obs a s e m i c i r c l e of hi ghe r hi l l s be gi n; t o t he w e s t t he di vi di ng l i ne be t w e e n t he r e gi ons i s t he S a l t R i ve r ; a nd t he no r t h e r n bor de r c om e s a t t he O hi o R i ve r T he r e gi on i s a n e xpos e d a r e a of t he C i nc i nna t i A r c h, r e s t i ng a t op s om e of t he ol de s t e xpos e d r oc k l a ye r s i n K e nt uc ky ( O r di vi c i a n) T he r e a r e t w o l a r ge r i ve r s ys t e m s he r e t he K e nt uc ky a nd t he L i c ki ng w i t h s m a l l e r w i ndi ng s t r e a m s f ound t h r oughout t he r e gi on. T he m e a nde r s i n t he s e s ur f a c e w a t e r s p r oba bl y de v e l ope d a s t he s t r e a m s c ut t he i r be ds ; gr a ve l f ound on t he s houl de r s o f gor ge s i n t he r e gi on s ugge s t s t ha t t hi s i s e xa c t l y w ha t ha ppe ne d ( D a vi s 1927; R a i t z 1973) F a ye t t e C ount y i s i n t he I nne r B l ue G r a s s r e gi ona l s ubdi vi s i on ( t he I nne r B l ue G r a s s c om pr i s e s 30pe r c e nt of t he t ot a l a r e a of t he B l ue G r a s s R e gi on) T he e nt i r e a r e a w a s onc e he a vi l y f or e s t e d, but e ve n a s e a r l y a s t he 1920s t he r e w a s l i t t l e o f t he or i gi na l f or e s t s t a nds l e f t T he s oi l s he r e a r e ve r y f e r t i l e t h a nks t o t he hi gh l e ve l s of phos phor ous i n t he l i m e s t one be ne a t h, a nd t he f a r m s t he r e w e r e qui t e l a r ge i n t he e a r l y 20 t h c e nt ur y T he s e pr oduc t i ve s oi l s ha ve gi ve n t he I nne r B l ue G r a s s r e gi on a r e put a t i on f or pr i m e a gr i c ul t ur a l l a nd; i n f a c t D a vi s ( 1927) s ugge s t s t h a t i t w a s onc e pe r ha ps t he m os t a t t r a c t i ve a gr i c ul t ur a l l a nd i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a s r e f l e c t e d by t he h i gh pr i c e s c om m a nde d by pa r c e l s t he r e ( R a i t z 1973) T he c i t y o f L oui s vi l l e a nd s ur r oundi ng J e f f e r s on C ount y w e r e t w o s e pa r a t e a dm i ni s t r a t i ve e nt i t i e s pr i or t o 2003; i n t ha t ye a r t he y m e r ge d t o f or m a c ons ol i da t e d

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141 c i t y c o unt y gove r nm e nt ( f o r t he pur pos e s of t hi s c ha pt e r L oui s vi l l e a nd J e f f e r s on C ount y a r e t r e a t e d a s s e pa r a t e e nt i t i e s ) J e f f e r s on C ount y i s s i t ua t e d a l ong t he bounda r y be t w e e n t he B l ue G r a s s r e gi on a nd T he K nobs r e gi on a t op ogr a phi c a l z one of a bout 2200 s qu a r e m i l e s T he K nobs a r e a s e r i e s of c oni c a l hi l l s a nd d e t a c he d r i dge s t ha t r un f or a bout 233 m i l e s f or m i ng a s or t of hor s e s hoe s ha pe a r ound t h e nor t he r n t i p o f t he s t a t e w i t h one e nd t ouc hi ng t he O hi o bor de r a nd t he ot he r t ouc hi ng t h e I ndi a na l i ne a bout a hund r e d m i l e s t o t he w e s t T he B l ue G r a s s r e gi on l i e s w i t hi n t he s e m i c i r c l e de l i ne a t e d by t he K nobs T he K nobs t he m s e l ve s a r e ge ne r a l l y c om pos e d of W a v e r l y s a nds t one ; s om e a r e c a ppe d by M i s s i s s i ppi a n l i m e s t one w he r e de c e nt f a r m l a nd c oul d be f ound S u r f a c e w a t e r s i n t he nor t he r n ha l f of t he r e gi on dr a i n i nt o t he O hi o R i v e r vi a S a l t L i c k a nd t he L i c ki ng R i ve r ; t he s out he r n pa r t of t he K nobs dr a i ns i nt o t he K e nt uc ky R i ve r s ys t e m S i nki ng s ur f a c e w a t e r s c a n be f ound t h r oughout t he r e gi on O ve r a l l ka r s t l a nds c a pe s s e e m t o be m or e c om m on i n t he B l ue G r a s s r e gi on t ha n i n t he K nob s ( B ur r oughs 1926 ) T he B l ue G r a s s R e gi on i s one of s e ve r a l K e nt uc ky r e gi ons t o f e a t ur e e xt e ns i ve ka r s t W hi t e e t a l ( 1970 ) de s c r i be t he ka r s t i n c e nt r a l K e nt uc ky a s be i ng t ypi c a l o f N or t h A m e r i c a but not e s pe c i a l l y c om m on t h r oughout t h e r e s t of t he w or l d t e m pe r a t e hum i d c l i m a t e ka r s t on f l a t l yi ng l i m e s t one ( p. 88 ) w i t h be d r oc k s ur f a c e f e a t ur e s c om m onl y f ound unde r t he s oi l m a nt l e T he l i m e s t one i s c a ppe d by i m pe r m e a bl e be ds o f c l a s t i c r oc k, w hi c h ha s l e d t o t he e nl a r ge m e nt of u nde r gr ound f e a t ur e s l i ke c a ve pa s s a ge s a nd ve r t i c a l s ha f t s L i m e s t one a r e a s w i t hi n t he B l u e gr a s s i nc l ude t he L e xi ngt on C ynt hi a na L i m e s t one A r e a a nd t he M a r ys vi l l e R i c hm ond L i m e s t one B e l t T he c om bi na t i on o f l i m e s t one a nd a bunda nt r a i n f a l l ( 4 4 i nc he s a nnua l l y) ha s r e s ul t e d i n a m i l dl y de ve l ope d ka r s t t opog r a phy ( R a i t z 1973, p. 55) W i t hi n t he I nne r B l ue G r a s s

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142 F i g u r e 7 6 S i n k h o l e n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y ( P hot o p r ovi de d by J i m R e bm a nn) F i g u r e 7 7 S i n k h o l e n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y ( P hot o p r ovi de d by J i m R e bm a nn)

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143 F i g u r e 7 8 U n d e r g r o u n d p a s s a g e n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y ( P hot o p r ovi de d by J i m R e bm a nn) r e gi on, t he l i m e s t one be dr oc k i s s ol ubl e a nd pr one t o f r a c t ur i n g, l e a di ng t o t he f o r m a t i on of s i nkhol e s a nd un de r gr ound dr a i na ge c ha nne l s ( f i gs 7 6 t hr ough 7 9) T he s e s ubs ur f a c e dr a i na ge c ha nne l s a r e be t t e r de ve l ope d t ha n t hos e f ound e l s e w he r e i n t he B l ue G r a s s

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144 F i g u r e 7 9 S i n k h o l e s n e a r L e x i n g t o n K Y ( P hot o p r ovi de d by J i m R e bm a nn) r e gi on, w hi c h he l ps e xpl a i n t he a bs e nc e of a r t i f i c i a l dr a i na ge s ys t e m s he r e S i nk hol e s he r e a l m os t ne ve r c ont a i n s t a ndi ng w a t e r ; s om e t i m e s t he y s w a l l ow e nt i r e s t r e a m s ( D a vi s 1927; R a i t z 1973) I n t he w e s t e r n ha l f of t hi s s t udy a r e a S p r i ngf i e l d a nd S t L oui s a r e bot h l oc a t e d on t he O z a r k H i ghl a nds w hi c h s pr e a ds a c r os s pa r t s of f i ve s t a t e s A ppr oxi m a t e l y 33 000 s qua r e m i l e s of t he H i gh l a nd a r e l oc a t e d i n s out he r n a nd c e nt r a l M i s s our i S om e pa r t s of t he H i ghl a nds a r e m or e m ount a i nous a nd r ugge d, l i ke i n nor t he r n A r ka ns a s on t h e s out he r n e dge of t he r e gi on H ow e ve r i n M i s s our i t opogr a phy i n t he H i ghl a nds i s l e s s m ount a i nous a nd m or e o f a p l a t e a u t ha t ha s de ve l o pe d on hi ghl y e r os i on r e s i s t a nt r oc ks M uc h of t he H i ghl a nds r e gi on i s m a de up of c he r t y dol om i t i c l i m e s t one ; dol om i t e a nd

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145 l i m e s t one l a ye r s a r e s om e t i m e s a s m uc h a s 1500 f e e t t hi c k, w hi l e i n ot he r a r e a s s ha l e s a nd s a nds t one s a r e m or e pr e va l e nt S ol ut i on pr oc e s s e s a r e ve r y a c t i ve he r e a nd ha ve r e s ul t e d i n t he f or m a t i on of c ount l e s s unde r gr ound pa s s a ge s a nd c a ve s T he s e p a s s a ge s w i l l of t e n c ol l a ps e a nd f or m s i nkhol e s ; t he f a c t t ha t t he y f o r m e d f r om unde r gr ound f l ow pa t t e r ns i s of t e n a ppa r e nt be c a us e s t r e a m s a r e f r e q ue nt l y vi s i bl e f l ow i ng be l ow t he s i nkhol e a phe nom e non know n a s a ka r s t w i ndow ( P a l m e r 2007) T he s e s i nkhol e s a r e m os t l i ke l y t o a ppe a r i n und i s s e c t e d l i m e s t one r e gi ons ( S a ue r 1968) A r ound S pr i ng f i e l d, c a ve r nous B ur l i ngt on / K e okuk l i m e s t one s a r e ve r y c om m on; by c ont r a s t t he S t L oui s a r e a ka r s t w a s a l m os t c om pl e t e l y de s t r oye d by t he pr e s s ur e s of ur ba ni z a t i o n ( E l l i ot t 2000) T hr oughout t he ka r s t i c r e gi ons o f K e nt uc ky, pa r t i c ul a r l y t he s out h c e nt r a l pa r t of t he s t a t e hum a n i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he ka r s t s ys t e m s ha s f r e que nt l y r e s ul t e d i n pr obl e m s A c om bi na t i on of ove r e nt hus i a s t i c l a nd c l e a r i ng a nd poor a gr i c ul t u r a l pr a c t i c e s i n t he S i nki ng V a l l e y i nc r e a s e d r uno f f qua nt i t i e s w hi l e d e c r e a s i ng dr a i na ge c a pa c i t y, r e s ul t i ng i n f l oods know n a s va l l e y t i de s ( D oughe r t y, 198 3 ) A s l a t e a s t he 1920s a nd 1930s t he c i t y of B ow l i ng G r e e n ( w hi c h a t t ha t t i m e ha d no m a nm a de s e w e r s ys t e m ) us e d t he c a ve s be ne a t h t he c i t y a s a de f a c t o w a s t e di s pos a l s ys t e m I nde e d e ve n t oda y t he c i t y ha s onl y i nc om pl e t e r e c or ds r e ga r di ng w hi c h hom e s a r e c onne c t e d t o t he s e w e r s ys t e m a nd w hi c h a r e not ; i t i s e nt i r e l y pos s i bl e t ha t s om e hom e ow n e r s w ho t hi nk t he i r ho m e s a r e c onne c t e d a r e a c t ua l l y us i ng ol d, m a l f unc t i oni ng s e pt i c t a nk s ys t e m s i ns t e a d, w hi c h pos e s e ve r e t hr e a t s t o t he c a ve s a nd ka r s t be l ow ( C r a w f or d, 2003 ) A l s o i n B ow l i ng G r e e n, a s e gm e nt of D i s hm a n R oa d di r e c t l y a bove t he M ud de r h or n R oom o f S t a t e T r oope r C a ve c ol l a ps e d i n 2002 be c a us e of t he c onc e nt r a t i on of s t or m w a t e r r uno f f a nd t he r a pi d

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146 r e m ova l of s e di m e nt s ; t he r e s ul t i ng s i nkhol e w a s 6 0 m e t e r s w i de a nd 7 m e t e r s de e p ( K a m be s i s e t a l 2003 ) Karst regulation in the study ar eas I n L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd t he i s s ue s i nhe r e nt t o hum a n i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he m i n f l ue nc e t he pl a nni ng pr oc e s s f r om s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt a ngl e s I n C ha pt e r 2 of t he c ount y s c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n, pr ot e c t i on o f s i n khol e s i s l i s t e d a s a n obj e c t i ve of t he c ount y s e nvi r onm e nt a l f r a m e w or k. T he c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n r e c ogni z e s t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t ge ol ogy, a nd t he i m po r t a nc e of ka r s t i s s ue s a nd s e ns i t i vi t y t o m a i nt a i ni ng gr oundw a t e r qua l i t y i n pa r t i c ul a r a s i t r e l a t e s t o m a nur e pi l e s C ha pt e r 3 of t he pl a n i nc l ude s c l us t e r s of s i nkhol e s i n i t s de f i ni t i ons of O t he r H a z a r dous A r e a s a nd ka r s t a r e a s a r e a l s o i nc l ude d i n t he de f i ni t i on of E nvi r onm e nt a l l y S e ns i t i ve L a nds a s w e l l a s t he a c c om pa nyi ng ove r l a y di s t r i c t ( L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n, 2 001 ) K a r s t a nd ka r s t l a ndf or m s a r e m e nt i one d f r e que nt l y i n t he S pr i ng f i e l d c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n. F or e xa m pl e t he pl a n no t e s t he t hr e a t pos e d by ka r s t t o g r oundw a t e r s uppl i e s i n t he F ul br i gh t S p r i ng a r e a a m a j o r s our c e of S p r i ngf i e l d s d r i nki ng w a t e r ; i t r e c om m e nds l i m i t i ng de ns i t i e s i n c e r t a i n w a t e r s he ds i n pa r t due t o t he p r e s e nc e of ka r s t t opogr a phy; i t a c know l e dge s t he pot e nt i a l e nvi r on m e nt a l pr obl e m s of l i vi ng on a f r a c t ur e d l i m e s t one t e r r a i n a nd r e c om m e nds s t e ps t o m i t i ga t e t he s e pr obl e m s ; a nd i t r e c om m e nds e na c t m e nt of s e t ba c ks f or i nd i vi dua l s i nkhol e s i n F ul br i ght S pr i ng B a s i n, a m ong ot he r pl a c e s I n s e ve r a l pl a c e s t he pl a n s a ut hor s ur ge t he c i t y t o r e vi e w a nd upda t e i t s s i nkhol e or di na nc e t o r e qui r e w a t e r qua l i t y c onc e r ns be t a ke n i nt o c ons i de r a t i on w he n pe r m i t t i ng c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s i n s i nkhol e f l oodpl a i ns ( S pr i ng f i e l d C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n, N ov. 2001 )

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147 L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e a t t e m pt s t o c ont r ol de ve l opm e n t i n ka r s t a r e a s t hr ough t he i r z oni ng a nd s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s T he s e c ont r ol s pe r t a i n m os t l y t o e s t a bl i s hi ng m or e e xt e ns i ve a ppr ova l r e qui r e m e nt s f o r l a ndf i l l s i n ka r s t t e r r a i n a nd f or c e r t a i n c ondi t i ona l us e s ( e g. c e m e t e r i e s m i ni ng ope r a t i ons m i ne r a l a nd ga s e xt r a c t i on) l oc a t e d i n ka r s t i c a gr i c ul t ur a l a r e a s ( Z oni ng o r di na nc e L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e U r ba n C ount y, 2005) O t he r c ont r ol s i nc l ude c ons i de r i ng t he p r e s e nc e of s i nkh ol e s i n i t s t r e e p r ot e c t i on s t a nda r ds ( f or e xa m pl e a c c or di ng t o t he z oni ng or di na nc e no t r e e m a y be r e m ove d f r om a s i nkhol e t ha t w i l l r e m a i n ope n s pa c e ) I n 1985, t he L e xi ngt o n F a ye t t e U r ba n C ount y G ove r nm e nt s t r e ngt he ne d i t s ka r s t pr ot e c t i ons by pa s s i ng or di n a nc e S R A 85 2, ot he r w i s e know n a s t he S i nkhol e O r d i na nc e W hi l e i t i s i n s om e w a ys r e dunda nt t o t he c ount y s z oni ng a nd s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s S R A 85 2 s t i l l of f e r s s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r l e ve l s of ka r s t pr ot e c t i on t ha n t he y do. F i r s t i t e s t a bl i s he s non bui l da bl e a r e a s a r ound s i nkhol e s T he s e non bui l da bl e a r e a s w i l l us ua l l y f ol l ow t he l i m i t s of t he s i nkhol e but c a n be e xpa nde d or c ont r a c t e d a s a ppr op r i a t e by t he P l a nn i ng C om m i s s i on. T he s i nkhol e or di na nc e r e s t r i c t s but s t i l l pe r m i t s unde r s pe c i f i e d c i r c um s t a nc e s de ve l opm e nt i n t he s i nkhol e dr a i na ge a r e a S i nkhol e s c a n, i n c e r t a i n c i r c um s t a nc e s a l s o be us e d f or dr a i na ge pur pos e s B ui l di ngs m a y not be c ons t r uc t e d on s i n khol e f i l l ( L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e o r di na nc e S R A 85 2, A r t i c l e s 6 7 ( 1) ) S pr i ngf i e l d s s i nkhol e or di na nc e w a s e na c t e d f our ye a r s l a t e r i n 1989, a s a r e s pons e t o r a pi d ur ba ni z a t i on a nd t he s t or m w a t e r r unof f pr obl e m s t ha t c a m e w i t h i t I t w a s hope d t ha t t hi s or d i na nc e w oul d pr e ve nt t he di s c ha r ge of pot e nt i a l l y c ont a m i na t e d s ur f a c e r unof f i nt o s i nkhol e s a nd t hus di r e c t l y i nt o t he a qui f e r be l ow W hi l e t he or di na nc e r e qui r e s a ddi t i ona l s t e ps i n t he pe r m i t t i n g pr oc e s s f or de ve l opm e nt s i n s i nkhol e

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148 dr a i na ge a r e a s i t i s t he s e t ba c k / no bui l d c om pon e nt t ha t m os t i nt e r e s t s us he r e ( B a r ne r 1999) L i ke L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e s s i nkhol e o r di na nc e t he non bui l da bl e a r e a s pe c i f i e d by t he S pr i ngf i e l d or di na nc e ge ne r a l l y doe s not e xt e n d be yond t he l i m i t s of t he s i nkhol e i t s e l f ; a ny de vi a t i ons f r om t hi s s t a nda r d c a n be i m pl e m e nt e d by l oc a l gove r nm e nt ( S pr i ngf i e l d M O C ode o f O r d i na nc e s s e c 96 6 ) W hi l e m a ny ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e e na c t e d w i t h t he goa l of p r ot e c t i ng a n a qui f e r o r a uni que a nd f r a gi l e c a ve s ys t e m ne i t he r w a s t he p r i m a r y goa l of t he L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e s i nkhol e or di na nc e I ns t e a d, one of t he m o r e i m po r t a nt m ot i va t i ons be hi nd t he pa s s a ge of t he S i nkhol e O r d i na nc e w a s t o pr e ve nt f ut ur e s i nkhol e r e l a t e d l e ga l a c t i ons a ga i ns t t he c ount y ( R e bm a nn, pe r s c om m 2006 ) B e c a us e of t hi s i t s e e m s pr oba bl e t ha t t he P l a nni ng C om m i s s i on w oul d be m o r e l i ke l y t o r e s i s t pr e s s ur e f r om l a ndow ne r s a nd de ve l ope r s t o s hr i nk non bu i l da bl e a r e a s on t he s i t e s of pr opos e d c ons t r uc t i on p r oj e c t s t ha n t he y w oul d be i f t he pr i m a r y m o t i va t i on be hi n d t he or di na nc e w e r e e c ol ogi c a l pr ot e c t i on. Data and Methodol ogy T he a na l ys i s c onduc t e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r f oc us e s on t he que s t i on of w ha t i m pa c t i f a ny, ka r s t r e l a t e d s e t ba c k s t yl e or di na nc e s ha ve on hous i ng de ns i t y i n a r e a s w he r e s i nkhol e s a r e pr e s e nt I c hos e t o e xa m i ne hous i ng de ns i t y r a t he r t ha n popu l a t i on de ns i t y be c a us e t he s e t ba c k or di na nc e s unde r e xa m i na t i on he r e r e s t r i c t c ons t r uc t i on a c t i vi t i e s W hi l e i t s unde ni a bl e t ha t hous i ng de ns i t y a nd pop ul a t i on de ns i t y a r e c l os e l y r e l a t e d f o r t hi s r e a s on ho us i ng de ns i t y s e e m s l i ke l y t o p r ovi de a m or e di r e c t i l l us t r a t i on o f t he i m pa c t s of t he s e t ba c k or di na nc e s t ha n popul a t i on de ns i t y w oul d.

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149 B e c a us e t he e f f e c t s I a m l ooki ng f or a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o be obs e r va bl e a t a s m a l l e r s c a l e I c hos e t o c onduc t t hi s a na l y s i s a t t he C e ns us bl oc k l e ve l t he s m a l l e s t ge ogr a phi c uni t us e d by t he C e ns us B ur e a u. E a r l i e r a na l ys e s s ugge s t t ha t t he s e e f f e c t s a r e l i ke l y t o be ove r l ooke d a t l a r ge r s c a l e s S ha pe f i l e s w e r e obt a i n e d f r om s e ve r a l s our c e s i nc l udi ng t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u, t he K e nt uc ky G I S of f i c e a nd t he M i s s our i S pa t i a l D a t a a nd I nf or m a t i on S e r vi c e B l oc k l e ve l hous i ng da t a w e r e obt a i ne d f r om t he C e ns us B ur e a u. S i nkhol e l oc a t i on da t a c a m e f r om t he K e nt uc ky G e ol ogi c S ur ve y a nd t he M i s s our i D e pa r t m e nt of N a t u r a l R e s our c e s F or t he C e ns us B ur e a u da t a I c hos e t o l i m i t da t a c ol l e c t i on t o obs e r va t i ons t a ke n i n 1990 a nd 2000 T hi s de c i s i on w a s t he r e s ul t of s e ve r a l f a c t or s F i r s t t he C e ns us bl oc k w a s not us e d a s a uni t of C e ns us ge ogr a phy pr i or t o 1990. H i gh l e ve l s of ge ogr a phi c pr e c i s i on i n t he da t a a r e r e qui r e d i n or de r t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on pos e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r a nd I s t r ongl y f e l t t ha t c ol l e c t i ng da t a on a l a r ge r s c a l e w oul d ha ve obs c ur e d t he r e s ul t s S e c ond, t he c i t y o f S p r i ngf i e l d s s i nkhol e o r di na nc e w a s or i gi na l l y i m pl e m e nt e d i n 1990, w hi c h pr ovi de d a good oppor t uni t y t o obs e r ve t he de ns i t y r e l a t e d e f f e c t s of s uc h a n or di na nc e ove r i t s f i r s t de c a de of e xi s t e nc e I f e l t t ha t e ve n i f t he da t a ha d be e n a va i l a bl e f or t he a ppr opr i a t e C e ns us ge ogr a phy pr i or t o 1990 r e a c hi ng f u r t he r i n t o t he pa s t f or obs e r va t i ons w oul d no t ha ve p r ovi de d m u c h m or e i n t he w a y o f i l l um i na t i on. B e f or e a ny r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s i nkhol e de ns i t y, hous i ng de ns i t y a nd s e t ba c k r e gul a t i on c oul d be unc ove r e d, t he da t a ha d t o be b r ought t oge t he r a nd r e p r e s e nt e d ge ogr a phi c a l l y. T he f i r s t s t e p w a s i m por t i ng bl oc k l e ve l s ha pe f i l e s of a l l f our c i t i e s f o r bot h 1990 a nd 2000 i nt o A r c G I S ; ne xt I a dde d t he s i nkhol e l oc a t i on s ha pe f i l e s U s i ng t he J oi n f e a t ur e o f A r c G I S I s pa t i a l l y j oi ne d t he bl oc ks t o t he s i nkhol e s s o t ha t e a c h

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150 bl oc k r e c or d c ont a i ne d a c ount o f t he s i nkhol e s c o nt a i ne d w i t hi n t ha t bl oc k. F r om t he r e I a dde d hous i ng da t a t a bl e s a nd j oi ne d t he m t o t he a ppr opr i a t e bl oc k l a ye r s ; t hi s a dde d t he t ot a l c ount of hous i ng uni t s c ont a i ne d w i t hi n e a c h bl oc k t o t he a pp r opr i a t e bl oc k r e c or d A t t hi s poi nt e a c h bl oc k r e c or d c ont a i ne d da t a on t he num be r of hous i ng uni t s a nd t he num be r of s i nkhol e s c ont a i ne d w i t hi n i t N e xt I us e d t he C a l c ul a t e A r e a s f unc t i on t o ge ne r a t e t he a r e a of e a c h bl oc k. A t t ha t poi n t I w a s a bl e t o c a l c ul a t e bot h hous i ng de n s i t y ( hde ns ) a nd s i nkhol e de ns i t y ( s i nk de ns ) a t t he bl oc k l e ve l a nd w a s t he r e f or e r e a dy t o be gi n m y a na l ys i s T he s e de ns i t i e s a l ong w i t h t he di s t r i but i ons of i ndi vi dua l s i nkhol e s a r e di s pl a ye d ge ogr a phi c a l l y i n F i gu r e s 7 10 t hr ough 7 21; T a bl e 7 1 s um m a r i z e s t he da t a us e d f or t hi s a na l ys i s I n t hi s a na l ys i s I i nc l ude d da t a onl y f o r bl oc ks i n e a c h c i t y t ha t c ont a i ne d s i nkhol e s T he r e a s on f o r t hi s i s t ha t s e t ba c k s t yl e or di na nc e s w oul d onl y be a n i s s ue i n bl oc ks t ha t a c t ua l l y c ont a i n s i nkhol e s ; f o r ot he r bl oc ks s uc h r e gul a t i on i s a m oot poi nt s i nc e t he r e a r e no s i nkhol e s t o be c onc e r ne d a bout A ddi t i ona l l y, i t m e a nt t ha t I w oul dn t ha ve t o w or r y a bout pot e nt i a l l y unm a ppe d s i nkhol e s t ha t m a y ha ve a de t e c t a bl e i m pa c t on de ns i t y, but w oul d t he m s e l ve s be i nvi s i bl e f or p ur pos e s of m y a na l ys i s A not he r r e a s on f or e xa m i ni ng onl y bl oc ks w i t h s i nkhol e s i s t ha t doi ng s o he l pe d e ns ur e t ha t I l ooke d a t r oughl y t he s a m e ge ogr a phi c a r e a s i n 19 90 a nd i n 2000 ; be c a us e C e ns us ge ogr a phi e s c ha nge w i t h e ve r y C e ns us bl oc k bou nda r i e s a r e not c ons t a nt a nd b l oc k l e ve l da t a c a nnot be di r e c t l y c om pa r e d be t w e e n C e ns us e s T a bl e 7 2 e num e r a t e s s i nkhol e s i n e a c h of t he f our m uni c i pa l i t i e s

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151 F i g u r e 7 1 0 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y i n 2 0 0 0 S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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152 F i g u r e 7 1 1 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u K e n t u c k y G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y

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153 F i g u r e 7 1 2 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y K Y S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u K e n t u c k y G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y

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154 F i g u r e 7 1 3 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y i n 2 0 0 0 S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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155 F i g u r e 7 1 4 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u K e n t u c k y G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y

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156 F i g u r e 7 1 5 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n L o u i s v i l l e K Y S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u K e n t u c k y G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y

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157 F i g u r e 7 1 6 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n S p r i n g f i e l d M O i n 2 0 0 0 S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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158 F i g u r e 7 1 7 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n S p r i n g f i e l d M O S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u M i s s o u r i S p a t i a l D a t a I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e

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159 F i g u r e 7 1 8 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n S p r i n g f i e l d M O S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u M i s s o u r i S p a t i a l D a t a I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e

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160 F i g u r e 7 1 9 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n S t L o u i s M O i n 2 0 0 0 S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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161 F i g u r e 7 2 0 S i n k h o l e l o c a t i o n s i n S t L o u i s M O S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u M i s s o u r i S p a t i a l D a t a I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e

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162 F i g u r e 7 2 1 C e n s u s b l o c k l e v e l s i n k h o l e d e n s i t y i n S t L o u i s M O S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u M i s s o u r i S p a t i a l D a t a I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e

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163 T a b l e 7 1 S u m m a r y o f d a t a u s e d f o r r e g r e s s i o n s V ar i ab l e D e s c r i p t i on M e an S t d D e v. M i n M ax S Q K M A r ea o f Cen s u s b l o ck i n s q u are k i l o met ers 7. 694 20. 662 0. 002 229. 568 S i nkD e ns N u mb er o f s i n k h o l es p er s q u ar e k i l o met e r 16. 765 34. 747 0. 008 472. 143 H ous D e ns N u mb er o f h o u s i n g u n i t s p er s q u are k i l o met er 389. 486 693. 758 0 4166. 088 S e t ba c ks Bi n ary v a ri ab l e i n d i cat i n g t h e u s e o f s et b ack reg u l at i o n s 0. 686 0. 464 0 1 yr _2K T e mp o ral b i n ary v ari ab l e 0. 565 0. 496 0 1 D I D va r D i ff eren ce i n d i fferen c es b i n ary v ari ab l e 0. 447 0. 497 0 1 n = 695 f or a l l va r i a bl e s T a b l e 7 2 S i n k h o l e c o u n t s f o r e a c h c i t y i n t h e s t u d y a r e a C i t y N u m b e r of s i n k h ol e s N u m b e r of C e n s u s b l oc k s ( ye ar 2000) t h a t c on t ai n s i n k h o l e s L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y K Y 1017 217 L oui s vi l l e K Y 39 17 S pr i ngf i e l d M O 181 95 S t L oui s M O 109 65

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164 M y a na l ys i s us e d t w o s t a t i s t i c a l m e t hods : a n or di n a r y l e a s t s qua r e s ( O L S ) r e gr e s s i on t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s i nkhol e de ns i t y, hous i ng de ns i t y a nd t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e l a t e d s e t ba c ks / no bui l d or d i na nc e s a t t he bl oc k l e ve l ; a nd a di f f e r e nc e i n di f f e r e nc e s r e gr e s s i on t o m e a s ur e t he c ha nge i f a ny i n t ha t r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 T he c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s a nd t he O L S r e gr e s s i ons w e r e r un s e pa r a t e l y f or obs e r va t i ons t a ke n i n 1990 a nd i n 2000 S e ve r a l 1990 obs e r va t i ons w e r e d r oppe d be c a us e hous i ng da t a w e r e not a va i l a bl e f or t hos e pa r t i c ul a r bl oc ks T hi s pa r t i a l l y a c c ount s f or t he di f f e r e nt num be r of obs e r va t i ons i n 1990 a nd 2000; c ha nge s t o C e ns us ge ogr a phi e s be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 a c c ount f or t he r e s t Regression models T w o s l i ght l y di f f e r e nt O L S r e gr e s s i ons w e r e r un d ur i ng t hi s a na l ys i s T he f i r s t r e gr e s s i on us e d hde ns a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e w i t h s i nk de ns a nd s e t bac k s ( a bi na r y va r i a bl e s e t t o 1 i n bl oc ks w he r e ka r s t r e l a t e d s e t b a c k s t yl e or di na nc e s w e r e i n f o r c e ) a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s T he s e c ond r e gr e s s i on i nc l u de d SQ K M ( bl oc k a r e a i n s qua r e ki l om e t e r s ) a s a n a ddi t i ona l e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e T he SQ K M va r i a bl e w a s a dde d t o a c c ount f or t he f a c t t ha t i n s om e a r e a s bl oc k s i z e va r i e d c ons i de r a bl y, w hi c h c oul d c onc e i va bl y i m pa r t bi a s ont o a ny a na l ys i s of de ns i t y; t hi s w a s of pa r t i c ul a r c onc e r n i n L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y w he r e m a ny of t he C e n s us bl oc ks out s i de t he c i t y s ur ba n g r ow t h bounda r y a r e qui t e l a r ge B e c a us e L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y s s i nkhol e o r di na nc e da t e s ba c k t o 1985, t he s e t bac k s va r i a bl e w a s s e t t o 1 f or a l l obs e r va t i ons t a ke n t he r e i n bot h 1990 a nd 2000; t hi s i s ba s e d on t he a s s um pt i on t ha t f i ve ye a r s w a s e nough t i m e f o r t he s e t ba c ks t o s how a t

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165 l e a s t s om e i ni t i a l i m pa c t s on de ns i t y. B y c ont r a s t S pr i ngf i e l d s o r di na nc e w a s pa s s e d i n 1989; i t s e e m s l i ke l y t ha t a ny de ns i t y r e l a t e d i m pa c t s w oul d not be s t r ong e nough t o be obs e r va bl e by t he f ol l ow i ng ye a r F o r t ha t r e a s on, S pr i ngf i e l d s 1990 obs e r va t i ons w e r e a s s i gne d a s e t bac k s va l ue of 0, w hi l e t he 2000 obs e r va t i ons w e r e a s s i gne d a va l ue of 1 A l l obs e r va t i ons f r om bot h S t L oui s a nd L oui s vi l l e w e r e a s s i gne d a s e t bac k s va l ue of 0. T he di f f e r e nc e i n di f f e r e nc e s ( D D ) r e gr e s s i on i s d e s i gne d t o m e a s ur e t he di f f e r e nc e i n t he r a t e of c ha nge o f a g i ve n s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t w o di s t i nc t gr oups of obs e r va t i ons I n t hi s c a s e t hos e gr oups a r e bl oc ks w i t h ka r s t r e l a t e d s e t ba c k s t yl e or di na nc e s i n pl a c e a nd t hos e w i t hout t he m D D m ode l s a r e of t e n us e d f or de t e c t i ng c ha nge s c a us e d by a s pe c i f i c e ve nt or pol i c y. E xa m pl e s a r e pl e nt i f ul t hr oughou t t he e c onom i c s l i t e r a t ur e : M e ye r V i s c us i a nd D ur bi n ( 1995 ) us e a D D m ode l t o m e a s ur e c ha nge s i n t he be ha vi or of i nj ur e d w o r ke r s a f t e r a n i nc r e a s e i n w or ke r s c om pe ns a t i on be ne f i t s ; s i m i l a r l y, K i e l a nd M c C l a i n ( 1995) us e a D D m ode l t o c a pt ur e c ha nge s ove r t i m e t o p r i c e s of hom e s s i t e d ne a r a n i nc i ne r a t or M y a na l ys i s us e s a D D m ode l t o c a pt ur e c ha nge s o ve r t i m e t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hous i ng de ns i t y a nd s i nkhol e de ns i t y i n C e ns us bl o c ks w he r e s e t ba c k s t yl e r e gul a t i on i s i n e f f e c t I n t he D D r e gr e s s i on us e d he r e hde ns i s onc e a ga i n t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e w i t h s i nk de ns s e t bac k s a nd SQ K M i nc l ude d a s e x pl a na t or y va r i a bl e s I n a ddi t i on t o t hos e t he D D r e gr e s s i on a l s o i nc l ude s t w o ot he r b i na r y va r i a bl e s : y r 2k f o r obs e r va t i ons t a ke n i n t he ye a r 2000; a nd C hange ov e r t i m e w hi c h w a s c r e a t e d by m ul t i pl yi ng s e t bac k s by y r 2k T hi s i n t e r a c t i on va r i a bl e t he r e f or e c a pt ur e s t he c ha nge i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hous i ng de ns i t y a nd s i nkhol e de ns i t y be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 f or bl oc ks i n

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166 w hi c h s i nkhol e s e t ba c ks w e r e a ppl i c a bl e I n o t he r w or ds i f s e t ba c k or di na nc e s ha d a ny i m pa c t on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hous i ng de ns i t y a nd s i nkhol e de n s i t y be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 f or e xa m pl e by s l ow i ng hous i ng de ns i t y gr ow t h du r i ng t ha t t i m e i n a r e a s w i t h hi ghe r s i nkhol e de ns i t i e s t hi s e f f e c t w i l l be c a pt ur e d by t hi s va r i a bl e Results O L S r e g r e s s i on r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e a pos i t i ve s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s i nkhol e de ns i t y a nd hous i ng de ns i t y ( T a bl e s 7 3 t hr ough 7 6 ) H ow e ve r t he s e t bac k s va r i a bl e i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i n a l l t h e O L S m ode l s ; a ddi t i ona l l y, t he va r i a bl e s c oe f f i c i e nt ha s t he e xpe c t e d ne ga t i ve s i g n i n a l l f our s e t s of r e s ul t s w hi c h m e a ns t ha t hous i ng de ns i t i e s a r e uni f or m l y l ow e r i n bl oc ks w he r e ka r s t s e t ba c ks a r e a ppl i e d. O ve r a l l t hi s ne ga t i ve i m pa c t of s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons on hous i ng de ns i t y ge ne r a l l y out w e i gh t he pos i t i ve i m pa c t of s i nkhol e de ns i t y; i n or de r f or s i nkhol e de ns i t y s pos i t i ve e f f e c t t o ove r t a ke t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t of s e t ba c ks i n a gi ve n C e ns us bl oc k, a s i nkhol e de ns i t y of a r ound 45 pe r s qua r e ki l om e t e r ( i n 1990 ) or a r ound 170 pe r s qua r e ki l om e t e r ( i n 2000) w oul d be r e qui r e d T he ge ogr a phi c s i z e of e a c h bl oc k w a s a l s o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 1pe r c e nt f or t he 1990 r e gr e s s i on, but a t onl y 5pe r c e nt f or t he 2000 r e gr e s s i on. H ow e ve r due t o t he pot e nt i a l c ol l i ne a r i t y be t w e e n t hi s va r i a bl e a nd t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e a nd be c a us e a ddi ng t he bl oc k a r e a va r i a bl e doe s not s i gni f i c a nt l y c ha nge t he r e s ul t s of t he r e gr e s s i ons i t i s pr e f e r a bl e t o r e m ove i t f r om t he m ode l

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167 T a b l e 7 3 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 1: r e gr e s s i on us i ng hous i ng de ns i t y a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e us i ng ye a r 2000 da t a E xp l an at or y var i ab l e C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e s i nkde ns 4. 473153 0. 8849802 5. 05 s e t ba c ks 696. 3605 68. 81667 10. 12 C ons t a nt 786. 5795 65. 94134 11. 93 = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 01 n = 393; A dj us t e d R 2 = 0 3597; F = 111 11 T a b l e 7 4 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 2: r e gr e s s i on us i ng hous i ng de ns i t y a s t he d e pe nde nt va r i a bl e a nd i nc l udi ng a r e a i n s qua r e ki l om e t e r s a s a n e xpl a na t o r y va r i a bl e us i ng ye a r 2000 da t a E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e s i nkde ns ** 4. 307066 0. 8878616 4. 85 S Q K M 1. 690906 0. 9733227 1. 74 s e t ba c ks ** 675. 7607 69. 65601 9. 70 C ons t a nt 793. 738 65. 90035 12. 04 ** = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 01 = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 05 n = 393; A dj us t e d R 2 = 0 3630; F = 75 46

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168 T a b l e 7 5 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 3: r e gr e s s i on us i ng hous i ng de ns i t y a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e us i ng ye a r 1990 da t a E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e s i nkde ns 9. 473081 0. 9976324 9. 50 s e t ba c ks 376. 6513 76. 36333 4. 93 C ons t a nt 521. 6412 63. 68262 8. 19 = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 01 n = 302; A dj us t e d R 2 = 0 3622; F = 84 89 T a b l e 7 6 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 4: r e gr e s s i on us i ng hous i ng de ns i t y a s t he d e pe nde nt va r i a bl e a nd i nc l udi ng a r e a i n s qua r e ki l om e t e r s a s a n e xpl a na t o r y va r i a bl e us i ng 1990 da t a E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e s i nkde ns 9. 130907 0. 9976601 9. 15 S Q K M 37. 2631 14. 61945 2. 55 s e t ba c ks 308. 9506 80 19713 3. 85 C ons t a nt 544. 533 63. 7411 8. 54 = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 01 n = 302; A dj us t e d R 2 = 0 3695; F = 59 80

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169 T he D D r e g r e s s i on pr ovi de s s om e w ha t l e s s s t r a i ght f or w a r d r e s ul t s ( T a bl e 7 7) H e r e t he s i nk de ns s e t bac k s a nd SQ K M va r i a bl e s r e t a i n t he i r ove r a l l s i gni f i c a nc e a s w e l l a s t he i r s i gns w hi l e y r 2k i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt T he a m bi gui t y i n t he s e r e s ul t s c om e s f r om t he C hange ov e r t i m e i nt e r a c t i on va r i a bl e : i t s c oe f f i c i e nt i s ne ga t i ve a s w e m i ght e xpe c t t hi s s ugge s t s t ha t hous i ng de ns i t y i n bl oc ks s ubj e c t t o s e t ba c k s t yl e or di na nc e s e i t he r f e l l or i nc r e a s e d m or e s l ow l y t ha n i t di d i n t he ot he r bl oc ks H ow e ve r t hi s va r i a bl e i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt onl y a t t he 1 0pe r c e nt l e ve l w i t h a t va l ue of 1 45. T hi s s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l i s not a bl y w e a ke r t ha n t ha t obs e r ve d f or t he s i nk de ns a nd s e t bac k s va r i a bl e s U l t i m a t e l y, t he D D m ode l c onf i r m s t he i nf l ue nc e of s i nkhol e de ns i t y a nd s e t ba c k r e gul a t i on on hous i ng de ns i t y. Discussion B e f or e be gi nni ng t he d i s c us s i on of t he s e r e s ul t s i t s e e m s a ppr opr i a t e t o m e nt i on t he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s a na l ys i s F i r s t t he r e i s s om e c onc e r n w i t h t he t i m i ng o f s i nkhol e f or m a t i on. T he s i nkhol e l oc a t i on da t a us e d he r e w e r e c ol l e c t e d a r ound t he ye a r 2000 a nd not a s t he y oc c ur r e d; a s a r e s ul t t he r e i s no w a y t o t e l l w he n a ny i ndi v i dua l s i nkhol e a c t ua l l y f or m e d. I t i s e nt i r e l y pos s i bl e t ha t s om e of t he s i nkhol e s r e f e r e nc e d i n t hi s a na l ys i s di d not e xi s t i n 1990 w hi c h m a y m a ke t h e s i nk de ns va r i a bl e f or 1990 obs e r va t i ons s om e w ha t l e s s r e l i a bl e S e c ond, t hi s s t udy l ooks onl y a t hous i ng de ns i t y: ot he r t ype s of c ons t r uc t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt ( c om m e r c i a l i n f r a s t r uc t ur e e t c ) a r e no t a ddr e s s e d by t hi s a na l ys i s T he s e t ype s of c ons t r uc t i on a r e s i gni f i c a nt c om pone nt s t o ur ba ni z a t i on, a nd a s i m i l a r a na l ys i s of t he i m p a c t o f s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons on non r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on w oul d be w o r t h c onduc t i n g. H ow e ve r s uc h a s t udy goe s be yond t he s c ope of t hi s c ha pt e r a nd i s l e f t t o f ut ur e w or k. F i na l l y, di f f e r e nt m e t hods of

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170 T a b l e 7 7 D i f f e r e n c e i n d i f f e r e n c e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s D e pe nde nt va r i a bl e : hous i ng de ns i t y E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e s i nkde ns ** 7. 156558 0. 668893 10. 70 S Q K M 1. 627839 1. 092564 1. 49 s e t ba c ks ** 436. 76 66. 65946 6. 55 yr 2k 68. 87032 77. 61555 0. 89 C ha nge ove r t i m e 137 9186 95. 30439 1. 45 C ons t a nt 604. 5628 53. 16731 11. 37 ** = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 01 = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 1 n = 695 A dj us t e d R 2 = 0. 3618 F = 79 68 di s pl a yi ng s i nkhol e l oc a t i on i n G I S a r e us e d f or t h e K e nt uc ky a nd M i s s our i da t a w hi c h m a y l i m i t t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he y a r e di r e c t l y c om pa r a bl e T he r e s ul t s of t he r e g r e s s i on a na l ys e s de s c r i be d i n t hi s c ha pt e r i ndi c a t e t ha t s e t ba c ks do i n f a c t a ppe a r t o be r e l a t e d t o hous i ng de ns i t y i n a r e a s w he r e s i nkhol e s a r e pr e s e nt T he f a c t t ha t t he i nt e r a c t i on va r i a bl e ( w hi c h m e a s ur e d t he c ha nge i n t he i m pa c t of s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons on hous i ng de ns i t i e s ove r t i m e ) w a s s i gni f i c a nt i n t he D D r e gr e s s i on i s i nt e r e s t i ng, e s pe c i a l l y w he n one c ons i de r s t he f a c t t ha t t he t i m e pe r i od s t udi e d he r e c oi nc i de d a l m os t e xa c t l y w i t h t he f i r s t de c a de a f t e r i m p l e m e nt a t i on of S pr i ngf i e l d s s i nkhol e or di na nc e O ne c a n t he r e f o r e a r gue t ha t t he s e r e s ul t s m e a n t ha t

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171 S pr i ngf i e l d s s i nkhol e or di na nc e ha s ha d a no t i c e a bl e i m pa c t on hous i ng de ns i t y i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s dur i ng t he 1990s : e ve n i f hou s i ng de ns i t i e s i n L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e s t a ye d t he s a m e a s t he i r or di na nc e ha d a l r e a dy b e e n i n pl a c e f or f ou r o r f i ve ye a r s one w oul d e xpe c t t ha t t he e f f e c t on hous i ng de ns i t i e s i n S pr i ng f i e l d w oul d ha ve be e n de t e c t e d by t ha t va r i a bl e A not he r f a c t or t ha t s houl d be a c know l e dge d i s t he ur ba n s e r vi c e a r e a ( U S A ) t ha t r i ngs t he ur ba ni z e d s e c t i on o f L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y ( F i gu r e 7 22 ) T he u r ba n s e r vi c e a r e a w a s f i r s t de f i ne d i n a n a m e ndm e nt t o t he 1958 c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n a s a m e t hod of c ont r ol l i ng ur ba n gr ow t h a nd pr ot e c t i ng t he r e gi on s f a m ous hor s e f a r m s f r om ur ba n e nc r oa c hm e nt ( F l e m i ng, 2001 ) T he de f i ni t i on of t hi s a r e a i s pr ovi de d by a m a p c ont a i ne d w i t hi n t he c om p r e he ns i ve pl a n. I t i s w o r t h not i ng t ha t a l t hough t he bor de r of t he ur ba n s e r vi c e a r e a doe s a c t a s a gr ow t h boun da r y by i m pos i ng a m i ni m um l ot s i z e out s i de t he a r e a t he c i t y c ount y gove r nm e nt i m pl i c i t l y de ni e s t ha t i t i s a ny s uc h t hi ng I n t he L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y C ode t he phr a s e u r ba n s e r vi c e a r e a i s us e d, w hi l e ur ba n gr ow t h bounda r y i s not f ound ( t he hyb r i d ur ba n s e r vi c e bounda r y i s us e d onc e ) O r i gi na l l y, t he ur ba n s e r vi c e a r e a ( U S A ) w a s s i m p l y a l i ne be yond w hi c h t he c i t y w oul d r e f us e t o p r ovi de s e r vi c e s s uc h a s w a t e r e l e c t r i c i t y, r oa ds s c hool s or s e w e r I n i t i a l l y, t he U S A di d not w or k pa r t i c ul a r l y w e l l p r i m a r i l y be c a us e of t he f r a gm e nt a t i on e f f e c t de s c r i be d by C a r r ut he r s ( 2002 ) : ne w de ve l o pm e nt s t ha t w e r e de pe nde nt on s e pt i c s ys t e m s ( a nd t hus a bl e t o go w i t hout a c c e s s t o t he c i t y s s e w e r s ys t e m ) c ont i nue d t o s pr i ng up i n r ur a l F a ye t t e C ount y. T hi s be ga n t o c h a nge onl y w i t h t he m e r ge r of t he

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1 72 F i g u r e 7 2 2 L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e C o u n t y s u r b a n s e r v i c e a r e a S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u L e x i n g t o n F a y e t t e U r b a n C o u n t y G o v e r n m e n t

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173 gove r nm e nt s of t he C i t y o f L e xi ngt on a nd F a ye t t e C ount y i n 1973 A t t ha t po i nt a m i ni m um l ot s i z e be yon d t he U S A of t e n a c r e s pe r l ot w a s i m pl e m e nt e d; t hi s w a s i nc r e a s e d r e c e nt l y t o 40 a c r e s pe r l ot i n a n e f f or t t o s t op t he phe nom e non o f e s t a t e s pr a w l ( F l e m i ng, 2001 ) I n ge ne r a l t he goa l of i m pl e m e nt i ng a n ur ba n s e r v i c e a r e a or u r ba n gr ow t h bounda r y ( t w o s i m i l a r but di s t i nc t r e gul a t o r y a ppr oa c he s ) i s t o ke e p de ve l opm e nt c ons t r a i ne d w i t hi n a l i m i t e d ge ogr a phi c a l a r e a H o w e ve r t ha t doe s n t s t op a n u r ba n a r e a f r om a ddi ng popul a t i on. A l l t hi ngs be i ng e qua l w he n t hi s gr ow t h i s c ont a i ne d w i t hi n a non e xpa nda b l e ge ogr a phi c a r e a i t e ve nt ua l l y l e a ds t o s m a l l e r r e s i de nt i a l l o t s a nd hi ghe r l a nd r e nt s ( A l ons o, 1964; M i l l s 1973) T hi s ge ne r a l i de a i s s om e w ha t c om pl i c a t e d i n t he c a s e of L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e A s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r i n a c i t y w i t h no ur ba n s e r vi c e a r e a bo unda r y, t he e f f e c t o f a s i nkhol e or di na nc e w oul d l i ke l y be m or e r a pi d out w a r d gr ow t h of t he u r ba n a r e a w i t h l a r ge r r e s i de nt i a l l ot s t o c o m pe ns a t e f or t he l os s of bui l da bl e s qua r e f oot a ge B ut t he ur ba n s e r vi c e a r e a bounda r y put s oppos i t e pr e s s ur e s on ur ba n gr ow t h, a c t i ng a s a m e t hod o f c onf i ne m e nt a nd l i m i t i ng gr ow t h ( A m br os e 2003) U l t i m a t e l y, w ha t w e ha ve i n L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e i s a c i t y t ha t w i s he s t o r e s t r i c t out w a r d gr ow t h a nd i ns t e a d r e di r e c t i t i nw a r ds w h i l e a t t he s a m e t i m e l i m i t i ng t he i nt e ns i t y o f de ve l opm e nt ( a nd t hus t he s t r uc t ur a l d e ns i t y) i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s w i t hi n t he c i t y. T he r e gul a t i ons e na c t e d t o a c hi e ve t he s e g oa l s s houl d ha ve c onf l i c t i ng e f f e c t s on popul a t i on a nd s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t y: one w or ks t o i nc r e a s e de ns i t y, w hi l e t he ot he r w ou l d ha ve l ow e r de ns i t y a s a s i de e f f e c t a t l e a s t i n s om e a r e a s C oul d t he f a c t t ha t s o m a ny s i nkhol e c ont a i ni ng bl oc ks a r e l oc a t e d i n a n a r e a ( L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y) w i t h a n

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174 a r t i f i c i a l ( i e non m a r ke t dr i ve n) c ons t r a i nt on t he s uppl y of bui l da bl e l a nd ha ve i m pa r t e d a ny bi a s ont o t he r e s ul t s ? A t l e a s t t w o f a c t or s a r gue a ga i ns t t hi s hypot he s i s F or one t h i ng, t he m a j or i t y of L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e s i nkhol e s oc c ur out s i de t he ur b a n gr ow t h bounda r y: out of a c ount yw i de t ot a l of 936 s i nkhol e s on l y 200 a r e f o und w i t hi n t he U G B S e c ondl y i f t he U G B w e r e a c t ua l l y a f a c t or w e d e xpe c t s e t ba c ks t o ha ve a w e a ke r e f f e c t or none a t a l l on hous i ng de ns i t y be c a us e of t he de ns i t y i nc r e a s i ng e f f e c t of t he U G B F i na l l y, t he c ount e r i nt u i t i ve phe nom e non o f p os i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s i nkhol e de ns i t i e s a nd hous i ng de ns i t i e s s houl d be a ddr e s s e d. O ne pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i on i s r e por t i ng bi a s i e s i nkhol e s i n hi ghl y popul a t e d a r e a s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be r e por t e d t ha n t hos e i n a r e a s w i t h f e w e r pe opl e H ow e ve r be c a us e s i nkhol e l oc a t i on da t a f r om bo t h s t a t e s w e r e c om pi l e d f r om U S G S t opog r a phi c a l m a ps r e por t i ng bi a s i s a n unl i ke l y e xpl a na t i on. A s e c ond e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t ka r s t f e a t ur e s a r e be i ng us e d a s w a t e r f e a t ur e s i n ne w r e s i de nt i a l de ve l opm e nt s w he r e t he y w oul d be m or e l i k e l y t o be s e e n a s a m e ni t i e s a nd not a s ha z a r ds F i na l l y i t i s a l s o pos s i bl e t ha t hi ghe r hous i ng de ns i t i e s br i ng hi ghe r s i nkhol e de ns i t i e s w i t h t he m a s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r 2 of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, w e do know t ha t hum a n popul a t i ons c a n p l a c e e nough s t r e s s o n ka r s t i c t e r r a i ns t o i nduc e s ubs i de nc e B ut w i t hout s om e i ndi c a t i on o f w he n i ndi vi dua l s i nkhol e s f or m e d, i t i s e xt r e m e l y di f f i c ul t t o t e s t t hi s hypot he s i s P e r ha ps t hi s i nf or m a t i on c a n be gl e a ne d f r om a e r i a l phot ogr a phs or ot he r r e m ot e s e ns i ng i m a ge s ; i f s o, t hi s i s c e r t a i nl y a w o r t hw hi l e a ve nue f or f u t ur e r e s e a r c h.

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175 Summary W he n hous i ng de ns i t i e s i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s a r e c om pa r e d be t w e e n m uni c i pa l i t i e s t ha t e m pl oy s e t ba c k s t yl e or di na nc e s f or s i nkhol e s a nd t hos e t ha t do not w e s e e t ha t s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t y i n t he s e a r e a s i s l ow e r i n c i t i e s w i t h s e t ba c k or di na nc e s W he n t he e nt i r e s t udy a r e a i s t a ke n a s a w hol e w e a l s o s e e a pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s i nkhol e de ns i t i e s a nd hous i ng de ns i t i e s a not he r r e s ul t w e m i ght not i ns t i nc t i ve l y e xpe c t T hi s phe nom e non c oul d be due t o r e por t i ng bi a s t o t he us e of s i nkhol e s a s w a t e r f e a t ur e s i n ne w e r de ve l opm e nt s o r t o e xc e s s i ve s t r e s s pl a c e d on t he ka r s t by ne w de ve l opm e nt pr oj e c t s T he r e s ul t s of t he a na l ys i s c onduc t e d he r e s ugge s t s t ha t s e t ba c ks c a n be a n e f f e c t i ve r e gul a t or y t ool t o c ont r ol de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns ; how e ve r i t w oul d be w or t hw hi l e t o e xa m i ne w hy s e t ba c k or di na nc e s s e e m e d t o ha ve no e f f e c t on s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t y i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s du r i ng t he 1990s w i t h s pe c i f i c a t t e nt i on pa i d t o l oc a l i z e d f a c t or s

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176 8 Str a te g i c b e h a v i o r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s : D o e s i t p a y o ff ? A c a s e s t u d y fr o m Pe n n s y l v a n i a Introduction K a r s t s ys t e m s a r e s ha r e d r e s our c e s B ut be c a us e t he s e s ys t e m s do not r e c ogni z e a dm i ni s t r a t i ve or j u r i s di c t i ona l bounda r i e s ka r s t r e l a t e d pr obl e m s ge ne r a t e d by hum a n a c t i vi t i e s i n one m uni c i pa l i t y c a n e a s i l y s pr e a d t o ne i ghbor i ng c om m uni t i e s I f a l l c om m uni t i e s c onne c t e d t o a pa r t i c ul a r ka r s t s ys t e m i m pl e m e nt r e gul a t i ons i nt e nde d t o p r ot e c t t he s ys t e m t he c os t s of doi ng s o a r e s pr e a d e ve nl y a m ong t he s a m e c om m uni t i e s t ha t e nj oy t he be ne f i t s t ha t e m a na t e f r om t hos e r e g ul a t i ons H ow e ve r s uc h r e gul a t i ons a r e of t e n pe r c e i ve d a s c a r r yi ng hi gh c os t s i n t e r m s of l os t oppor t uni t i e s f or e c on om i c gr ow t h. T hi s c oul d e nc our a ge s om e c om m uni t i e s t o t r y t o a voi d t he c os t s by r e f r a i ni ng f r om i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i o n, w hi l e r e a pi ng t he be ne f i t s of ne i ghbor i ng c om m uni t i e s e f f or t s a t ka r s t p r ot e c t i o n ( i e t he f r e e r i de r pr obl e m s e e V a r i a n, 1992 ) B ut i s s uc h a s t r a t e gy w or t hw hi l e ? U s i ng s oc i oe c onom i c a nd r e gul a t or y da t a f r om c i t i e s a nd t ow ns i n ka r s t i c a r e a s of P e nns yl va ni a t hi s c ha pt e r e xa m i ne s t he que s t i on of w he t he r t ow ns t ha t do not i m pl e m e nt k a r s t r e gul a t i ons e nj oy a n e c on om i c a dva nt a ge ove r t ow ns t ha t do T hi s c ha pt e r be gi ns w i t h a br i e f de s c r i pt i on o f t he s t udy a r e a s f ol l ow e d by a di s c us s i on of l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n P e nns yl va ni a w i t h a f oc us on how i t r e l a t e s t o ka r s t

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177 i s s ue s N e xt t he r e gr e s s i on m ode l s us e d i n t hi s c h a pt e r a r e e xpl a i ne d, f ol l ow e d by t he r e s ul t s a nd di s c us s i on. The study area T he L e hi gh V a l l e y r e gi on of P e nns yl va ni a i s l oc a t e d i n t he e a s t e r n po r t i on o f t he s t a t e a ppr oxi m a t e l y 60 m i l e s nor t h of P hi l a de l phi a a nd 90 m i l e s due w e s t of N e w Y or k C i t y. A s t he na m e s ugge s t s t he r e gi on i s i n a va l l e y of t he A ppa l a c hi a n M ount a i ns w i t h a r e a s of r e l a t i ve l y h i gh r e l i e f a l ong t he nor t hw e s t e r n a nd s out he a s t e r n e dge s T he h i ghe s t e l e va t i on f or t he r e gi on i s 1689 f e e t a bove s e a l e ve l w i t h a l ow e l e va t i on of 133 f e e t a bove s e a l e ve l ( L e hi gh V a l l e y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n, 2005 ) A t t he c e nt e r o f t he L e hi gh V a l l e y a r e L e hi gh a nd N or t ha m pt on c ount i e s B ot h c ount i e s a r e hi ghl y ur ba ni z e d t a ke n t oge t he r t he y ha d a popul a t i on of a bout 579 000 i n 2000 ( U S C e ns us B ur e a u) w i t h a n e c onom i c ba s e t ha t w a s onc e hi ghl y i ndus t r i a l S oc i oe c onom i c s t a t i s t i c s a r e pr e t t y uni f o r m a c r os s t he r e gi on, w i t h N o r t ha m pt on C ount y ha vi ng s l i ght l y hi ghe r hous e hol d i nc om e s a nd m e d i a n hom e va l ue s a nd s l i ght l y l ow e r pove r t y r a t e s w hi l e a l a r ge r pe r c e nt a ge of L e hi gh C ount y r e s i de nt s hol d ba c he l or s de gr e e s or hi ghe r C e nt e r s of popul a t i on i nc l ude t h e c i t i e s of A l l e nt ow n B e t hl e he m a nd E a s t on; c om bi ne d, L e hi gh a nd N or t ha m pt on c ount i e s ha ve 62 m uni c i pa l i t i e s F or t y t w o of t he s e ( T a bl e 8 1) a r e a t l e a s t pa r t i a l l y unde r l a i n by c a r bona t e be dr oc k ( L e hi gh V a l l e y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n, 2005 ) w hi c h ha s l e d t o t he d e ve l opm e nt of ka r s t l a ndf or m s t hr oughout t he r e gi on. T o t he s out hw e s t i s B e r ks C ount y, w hi c h i s not us ua l l y c ons i de r e d t o be pa r t o f t he L e hi gh V a l l e y r e g i on but i s i nc l ude d he r e be c a us e i t s ur ba ni z e d na t ur e a nd e xt e ns i ve ka r s t a r e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i t s ha r e s w i t h L e hi gh a nd N or t ha m pt on c ount i e s B e r ks C ount y

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178 ha d a popul a t i on o f r oug hl y 373 000 i n 2000 ( U S C e ns us B ur e a u) w hi c h i s l a r ge r t ha n t he popul a t i on o f e i t he r L e hi gh C ount y or N or t ha m pt on C ount y t ha t ye a r N e a r l y 80 000 of B e r ks C ount y r e s i de nt s l i ve d i n R e a di ng, t he c o unt y s l a r ge s t c i t y. B e r ks C ount y i s T a b l e 8 1 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n L e h i g h a n d N o r t h a m p t o n C o u n t i e s u n d e r l a i n b y k a r s t P or t l a nd A l l e n t ow n U ppe r M t B e t he l H a nove r ( L e hi gh) L ow e r M t B e t he l C a t a s a uqua F or ks N or t h C a t a s a uqua S t oc ke r t ow n N or t ha m pt on T a t a m y C opl a y P a l m e r W hi t e ha l l N a z a r e t h N or t h W hi t e ha l l U ppe r N a z a r e t h U ppe r S a uc on L ow e r N a z a r e t h S out h W hi t e ha l l E a s t on E m m a us W e s t E a s t on U ppe r M a c ungi e W i l s on L ow e r M a c ungi e W i l l i a m s M a c ungi e G l e ndon L ow e r M i l f or d B e t hl e he m T w p. U ppe r M i l f or d B e t hl e he m C i t y A l bur t i s F r e e m a ns bur g W e i s e nbe r g H e l l e r t ow n S a l i s bur y A l l e n H a nove r ( N or t ha m pt on ) E a s t A l l e n F ount a i n H i l l

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179 s i m i l a r de m ogr a phi c a l l y t o L e hi gh a nd N or t ha m pt on c ount i e s but t he r e a r e not e w or t hy di f f e r e nc e s : of t he t hr e e B e r ks ha d t he l ow e s t pe r c e nt a ge of r e s i de nt s w i t h ba c he l or s de gr e e s t he l ow e s t m e di a n hous i ng va l ue a nd t he hi ghe s t pove r t y r a t e ( e xc e e di ng L e hi gh C o unt y s r a t e by one t e nt h of one pe r c e nt ) B e r ks C ount y c ont a i ns 76 m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t hi n i t s bounda r i e s m a ny of w hi c h ha ve i m pl e m e nt e d a t l e a s t s om e l e ve l of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on T he r e m a i ni ng t hr e e c ount i e s i n t he s t udy a r e a C um be r l a nd, F r a nkl i n a nd L a nc a s t e r a r e l oc a t e d a l ong t he w e s t e r n e dge o f P e nns yl va ni a s ka r s t be l t t ow a r ds t he c e nt e r of t he s t a t e a nd e xt e ndi ng t o t he M a r yl a nd s t a t e l i ne ( F i gur e 8 1 ) W hi l e C um be r l a nd a nd F r a nkl i n c ount i e s a r e s m a l l e r i n t e r m s of popul a t i on t ha n t he c ount i e s i n t he L e hi gh V a l l e y ( w i t h popul a t i ons of 213, 000 a nd 129, 000 i n 2000 r e s pe c t i ve l y) L a nc a s t e r C ount y ha s t he hi ghe s t popul a t i on of a n y i n t he s a m pl e : ne a r l y ha l f a m i l l i on pe opl e l i ve d t he r e i n 2000 F r a nkl i n C ount y ha s t h e l ow e s t popul a t i on, t he l ow e s t c onc e nt r a t i on of c ol l e ge g r a dua t e s a nd t he l ow e s t m e di a n hom e va l ue s of a l l c ount i e s i n t he s a m pl e F r a nkl i n C ount y s l a r ge s t c i t y i s C ha m be r s bur g, w i t h a 2000 popul a t i on o f j us t unde r 18, 000 ( T a bl e 8 2 ) Pennsylvanias karst landscape T he s out he a s t e r n qua r t e r o f P e nns yl va ni a c ont a i ns pa r t of a l ong ba nd of ka r s t t opogr a phy t ha t be gi ns i n M i s s our i a nd A r ka ns a s a nd s t r e t c he s e a s t w a r d a nd nor t hw a r d, a l l t he w a y t o N e w J e r s e y a nd N e w Y or k ( F i gu r e 8 1) A s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r 2, ka r s t l a nds c a pe s f or m vi a di s s ol ut i on of c a r bona t e be dr o c k, w hi c h i s w i de s pr e a d i n P e nns yl va ni a : di f f e r e nt t ype s of c a r bona t e c om m o nl y f ound i n P e nns yl va ni a a r e l i m e s t one w hi c h i s t he m os t c om m on; do l om i t e ( s e di m e nt a r y) a nd m a r bl e

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180 F i g u r e 8 1 M a p p e d k a r s t p o i n t s i n t h e s i x c o u n t i e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u P e n n s y l v a n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s

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181 T a b l e 8 2 Y e a r 2 0 0 0 d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a f o r t h e s i x P e n n s y l v a n i a c o u n t i e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a C o u nty P o p ul a ti o n M edi a n ho us e ho l d i nco m e M edi a n ho m e v a l ue P e rce nt o f po pul a ti o n i n po v e rty P e rce nt o f po pul a ti o n w i th co l l eg e d eg re e Berk s 3 7 3 6 3 8 $ 4 4 7 1 4 $ 1 0 4 9 0 0 9 4 1 8 5 Cu mb e rl an d 2 1 3 6 7 4 $ 4 6 7 0 7 $ 1 2 0 5 0 0 6 6 2 7 9 Fran k l i n 1 2 9 3 1 3 $ 4 0 4 7 6 $ 9 7 8 0 0 7 6 1 4 8 L an cas t er 4 7 0 6 5 8 $ 4 5 5 0 7 $ 1 1 9 3 0 0 7 8 2 0 5 L eh i g h 3 1 2 0 9 0 $ 4 3 4 4 9 $ 1 1 3 6 0 0 9 3 2 3 3 N o rt h a mp t o n 2 6 7 0 6 6 $ 4 5 2 3 4 $ 1 2 0 0 0 0 7 9 2 1 2 Sour c e : U S. C e ns us B ur e au f ac t s he e t s ( m e t a m or phi c ) T h r oughout P e nns yl va ni a s c a r bona t e be dr oc k ba nd, c ondi t i ons a r e s ui t a bl e f or ka r s t t opogr a phy t o de ve l op, a nd l a ndf or m s l i ke s i nkhol e s s pr i ngs a nd c a ve s a r e c om m on ( K oc ha nov, 1999) S i nk i ng s t r e a m s a r e a not he r ka r s t f e a t ur e c om m onl y f ound i n P e nns yl va ni a s ka r s t i c z one s of t e n r unni ng c ons i de r a bl e di s t a nc e s be f or e di s a ppe a r i ng i nt o t he e a r t h S c ot t ( 1806 ) not e d t ha t t he s e pa r t i c ul a r l a nds c a pe f e a t ur e s w e r e l i m i t e d t o l i m e s t one r e gi ons ; ho w e ve r no c a us a l m e c ha ni s m w a s pr opos e d. A n e a r l y de s c r i pt i on of t he s our c e o f P e nn s C r e e k i n C e nt r e C ount y r e a ds l i ke t ha t of a ka r s t s pr i ng, a nd t he l a r ge c a ve i n D a uphi n C ount y ne a r t he S us que ha nna R i ve r w a s a l r e a dy w e l l know n by t he be gi nni ng o f t he 19 t h c e nt ur y ( S c ot t 1806) O t he r c a ve s ha ve l ong be e n know n t o e xi s t ne a r E a s t on, C a r l i s l e a nd e l s e w he r e m a ny o f w hi c h a r e e m be l l i s he d by a l l ki nds of dr i ps t one ( S c hopf 1 787; p. 91)

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182 I n t he L e hi gh V a l l e y a r e a s i nkhol e s a r e m o r e or l e s s e ve nl y di s t r i but e d t hr oughout t he r oc ks of t he B e e km a nt ow n G r oup a nd A l l e nt ow n D ol om i t e ( e a c h ha s a bout 40 pe r c e nt o f t he t ot a l ) J a c ks onbe r g l i m e s t one s e e m s t o be m os t r e s i s t a nt t o s i nkhol e de ve l opm e nt ( U S G S / S l ot o 1991 ) L e a k a ge f r om s t or m s e w e r s a nd w a t e r m a i ns a r e c om m on dr i ve r s of s i nkhol e de ve l opm e nt i n s out he a s t e r n P e nns yl va ni a ; s udde n s ubs i de nc e on t he s ur f a c e i s of t e n t he r e s ul t s om e t i m e s w i t h ne a r di s a s t r ous r e s ul t s ( s e e K oc ha nov, 1999; G i l l e s pi e 1999; M e m on e t a l 2 001; M e m on e t a l . 2002) K a r s t a c c ou nt s f or ne a r l y t he e nt i r e dr a i na ge s ys t e m i n s om e s out he a s t e r n P e nns yl va ni a c om m uni t i e s w he r e ka r s t a qui f e r s a r e t he s our c e of gr oundw a t e r ( C hi c he s t e r 1996; K oc ha nov, 1999) I n t hos e a r e a s s om e of t ha t s ur f a c e w a t e r i ns t e a d s i nks t hr ough t he s oi l i nt o t he s a t ur a t i on z one w he r e i t be c om e s r e c ha r ge a nd e ve nt ua l l y r e t ur ns t o t he s ur f a c e vi a s t r e a m s na t ur a l s pr i ngs o r hum a n m a de w e l l s ( L ongw ood a nd W ood, 1965; G e r ha r dt a nd L a z or c hi c k, 1988) I n N or t ha m pt on s L i m e s t one B e l t i t i s e s t i m a t e d t ha t m or e t ha n ha l f o f a l l pr e c i pi t a t i on f i nds i t s w a y i nt o t he be dr oc k s ys t e m be l ow O f t e n t he r e i s no s ur f a c e r uno f f a s t he a r e a s s i nkhol e s a r e ve r y w e l l de ve l ope d i n pl a c e s B e t w e e n M onoc a c y a nd B us hki l l C r e e ks a nd be t w e e n M onoc a c y a nd C a t a s a uqua C r e e ks t he r e i s l i t t l e i f a ny s ur f a c e d r a i na ge : ne a r l y e ve r y dr op of s ur f a c e w a t e r di s a ppe a r s i nt o t he unde r gr ound dr a i na ge s ys t e m ( M i l l e r e t a l 1939 ) T he r e a r e s e r i ous p r obl e m s w i t h bot h w a t e r s uppl y a nd w a t e r qua l i t y i n s om e of t he s t udy a r e a s l i m e s t one r e gi ons B e c a us e gr oundw a t e r f l ow s t hr ough a nd i s c onc e nt r a t e d i n de f i ne d ope n c ha nne l s c r e a t e d by s ol ut i on pr oc e s s e s a w e l l dr i l l e r ha s t o a c t ua l l y hi t one of t he s e c ha nne l s t o ge t a c c e s s t o t he gr oundw a t e r A nd e ve n i f a c ha nne l i s s t r uc k, t he s e w a t e r s a r e e a s i l y po l l u t e d f r om t he c ont a m i na nt s c a r r i e d by

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183 s ur f a c e r unof f : a s e a r l y a s 1940 m a ny s ha l l ow hou s e hol d w e l l s w e r e be i ng a ba ndone d f or e xa c t l y t h i s r e a s on ( M i l l e r 1941) M or e r e c e nt l y, w a t e r d r a w n f r om w e l l s i n t he a r e a w a s f ound t o c ont a i n hi gh l e ve l s of t ot a l c ol i f or m s a nd s t r e pt oc oc c us ba c t e r i a a s w e l l a s e c ol i ; h i ghe r c onc e nt r a t i ons o f e c ol i s how e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on w i t h t he pr e s e nc e of c a r bona t e be dr oc k ( B i c kf or d e t a l 1996 ) C a r bona t e a qui f e r s i n a gr i c ul t u r a l a r e a s w e r e a l s o s how n t o c ont a i n m e di a n ni t r a t e l e ve l s t ha t e xc e e de d t hos e f ound i n l oc a l s ur f a c e w a t e r s a s w e l l a s i n c a r bona t e a qui f e r s i n ur ba ni z e d z one s ; t hi s c oul d be r e l a t e d t o bot h hi gh e r s pe c i f i c c onduc t a nc e of g r oundw a t e r i n t he s e a gr i c ul t ur a l a r e a s a nd t o m o r e i nt e ns i ve us e of ni t r a t e ba s e d f e r t i l i z e r s f or a gr i c ul t ur e ( H i ppe e t a l 1994; L i nds e y e t a l 199 7) D e e pe r w e l l s of 200 f e e t o r m o r e a r e m uc h m or e s uc c e s s f ul a t f i ndi ng g r oundw a t e r i n t he s e l i m e s t one a r e a s ( de e pe r w e l l s a r e s uc c e s s f ul 70 pe r c e nt o f t he t i m e ) ( M i l l e r 194 1) I n s om e a r e a s t he l i m e s t one ha s be e n s ha t t e r e d by c om pl e x f o l di ng a nd f a ul t i ng p r o c e s s e s ; t he s e a r e a s t e nd t o be good s our c e s of gr oundw a t e r a s i t i s not c onc e nt r a t e d i n t o w e l l de f i ne d c ha nne l s H ow e ve r dr i l l i ng i n t he s e pl a c e s c a n be t r i c ky be c a us e of t he f r a gm e nt e d na t u r e of t he l i m e s t one ; t he s e f r a gm e nt s c a n e a s i l y da m a ge dr i l l i ng e qui pm e nt i f d r i l l e r s a r e not c a r e f u l O f t e n, dr i l l e r s m us t go pr e t t y de e p t o ge t c l e a r w a t e r s i nc e t he r e s a l ot of f i ne c l a y i n s us pe n s i on ( M i l l e r 1941 ) I n s om e ka r s t i c pa r t s o f c e nt r a l P e nns yl va ni a one c a n f i nd s ha l l ow de pr e s s i ons i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns t ha t c ont a i n s m a l l w e t l a nds T he s e w e t l a nds ge ne r a l l y r e s t a bove t he l oc a l w a t e r t a bl e a nd a r e t he r e f or e not c onne c t e d t o t he gr oundw a t e r s ys t e m ; i ns t e a d, t he y ge t m os t of t he i r w a t e r f r om di r e c t p r e c i pi t a t i on. H ow e ve r t he y a r e us ua l l y ve r y s e ns i t i ve t o l oc a l s e a s ona l c l i m a t e c ondi t i ons I n s om e c a s e s t he w a t e r t a bl e i s r e l a t i ve l y s ha l l ow

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184 a nd dur i ng r e c ha r ge e ve nt s w a t e r i s di s c ha r ge d i nt o t he s e w e t l a nds M os t of t he s e s m a l l w e t l a nd a r e a s ha ve c om bi ne d c ont r i but i ng c a t c hm e nt a r e a s e xt e ndi ng t o a m a xi m um o f a bout 150 m e t e r s a w a y. T he s e pa r t i c ul a r l a ndf or m s a r e not f ound e l s e w he r e i n t he s t a t e a nd a r e not e ve n e s pe c i a l l y c om m on i n t h i s r e gi on ( O D r i s c ol l a nd P a r i z e k, 2003 ) Land use regulatio n in Pennsyl vania, a nd how karst relat es T he r e i s a w i de va r i e t y i n a ppr oa c he s t o m a na gi ng gr ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt a c r os s t he ka r s t i c r e gi ons of P e nns yl va ni a T he P e nns yl va ni a P l a nni ng C ode gr a nt s a ut hor i t y t o m uni c i pa l i t i e s t o i m pl e m e nt o r di na nc e s gove r ni ng bot h s ubdi vi s i on a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt a nd z oni ng. T he s e t w o t ype s o f or di n a nc e s a ddr e s s r e l a t e d i s s ue s but di f f e r i n s c ope A s ubdi vi s i on a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt o r di na nc e ( S A L D O ) s i m pl y r e qui r e s t ha t a l l s u bdi vi s i on a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt pl a t s of l a nd m us t be s ubm i t t e d t o t he a ppr opr i a t e m uni c i pa l a ge nc y f or a ppr ova l S A L D O s ge ne r a l l y i nc l ude ( a m ong ot he r t hi ngs ) de s c r i pt i ons of t he p r oc e s s e s r e qui r e d f or pl a t s ubm i s s i on, pr ovi s i ons de s i gne d t o e ns ur e a pa r t i c ul a r s t yl e o f u r ba n f o r m s e t ba c k r e qui r e m e nt s a nd pr oc e dur e s f or w a i ve r s a nd a ppe a l s M uni c i pa l i t i e s c a n r e f us e t o a ppr ove p r oj e c t s be gun i n vi ol a t i on of t he S A L D O a nd s uc h vi ol a t i ons c a n c a r r y a f i ne s e t by t he s t a t e P l a nni ng C ode a t a m a xi m um of $50 0 ( A c t 247 P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e P l a nni ng C ode 1967) Z oni ng or d i na nc e s on t he o t he r ha nd ha ve a m or e a m bi t i ous pur pos e : t he P e nns yl va ni a P l a nni ng C ode gr a nt s m uni c i pa l i t i e s t he a ut hor i t y t o e na c t z oni ng or di na nc e s i n or de r t o i m pl e m e nt c om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns a nd t o a c c om pl i s h a ny of t he pur pos e s of t hi s a c t ( p 45 ) T he goa l s o f a z oni ng or di na nc e i nc l ude p r ot e c t i ng a nd pr om ot i ng publ i c he a l t h a nd ge ne r a l w e l f a r e pr e s e r va t i on of t he na t ur a l l a nds c a pe ( i n pa r t or a s a w hol e ) a nd m a na gi ng de ns i t y a nd pr o vi di ng f or r e a s ona bl e gr ow t h Z oni ng i s

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185 t he r e f or e t o be us e d a s a t ool t hr ough w hi c h t he de ve l opm e nt a nd phys i c a l na t ur e o f t he hum a n l a nds c a pe of a gi ve n m uni c i pa l i t y c a n be g ui de d a nd di r e c t e d a t a m a c r o l e ve l w hi l e S A L D O s c a n be s e e n a s w or ki ng t ow a r d s i m i l a r goa l s on t he m i c r o l e ve l of i ndi vi dua l s ubdi vi s i ons a nd de ve l opm e nt s D e s pi t e di f f e r e nc e s i n f oc us a nd s c ope t he t w o t ype s of o r di na nc e s a r e c l e a r l y c om pl e m e nt a r y A t hi r d m e t hod of l a nd us e m a na ge m e nt e m pl oye d i n P e nns yl va ni a i s t he c om pr e he ns i ve p l a n. C om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns a r e i nt e nde d t o i de nt i f y a r e a s w he r e gr ow t h i s e xpe c t e d t o oc c ur s o t ha t t he m uni c i pa l i t y m a y t he n pl a n f o r s e r vi c e a nd i nf r a s t r uc t ur e pr ovi s i on t o t hos e a r e a s A c c or di ng t o t he s t a t e pl a nni ng c ode t he y s houl d t a ke a w i de r a ngi ng ( c om pr e he ns i ve ) vi e w o f f u t ur e g r ow t h a nd i de nt i f y obj e c t i ve s r e ga r d i ng t he t i m i ng a nd na t u r e of f ut u r e de ve l opm e nt L ong a n d s hor t t e r m s t r a t e gi e s f or a c hi e vi ng t he s e obj e c t i ve s a r e a l s o a ppr opr i a t e f o r i nc l us i on. S t a t e l a w r e qui r e s c ount i e s t o ha ve a c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n i n pl a c e ; m uni c i pa l i t i e s m a y a dopt a c ount y pl a n i n i t s e nt i r e t y a m odi f i e d f o r m o f t he c ount y pl a n, or a c om pl e t e l y s e pa r a t e pl a n. A ny m uni c i pa l pl a n s houl d be ge ne r a l l y c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he c ount y pl a n; how e ve r t he s t a t e pl a nni ng c od e not e s t ha t a n a c t of gove r nm e nt s ha l l not be de c l a r e d i nva l i d or s ubj e c t t o c ha l l e nge on t he s ol e ba s i s t ha t i t i s i nc ons i s t e nt w i t h t he a dopt e d c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n ( A c t 247, P e nns yl va ni a P l a nni ng C ode 1967 ) I n ot he r w or d s t he pl a n i s f or gui da nc e onl y e ve n t hough z oni ng or d i na nc e s a r e s uppos e d t o w or k t o pr om ot e t he goa l s a nd obj e c t i ve s of t he c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n. B e c a us e t he y do not c a r r y t he s a m e f or c e of l a w a s a l oc a l z oni ng or di na nc e or S A L D O c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n s a r e not i nc l ude d i n t he a na l ys i s t ha t f ol l ow s t hi s s e c t i on, a nd a r e m e nt i one d he r e onl y f or t he s a ke of c om pl e t e ne s s

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186 T he i m por t a nc e o f ka r s t ge ol ogy i s a c know l e dge d i n c om pr e he ns i ve pl a ns a c r os s t he r e gi on. T he L e hi gh V a l l e y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n, f o r e xa m pl e s e t s f or t h t w o pol i c i e s r e l a t e d t o s i nkhol e s : one t ha t de ve l opm e nt s s houl d be de s i gne d i n s uc h a w a y a s t o m i ni m i z e t he oc c ur r e nc e o f s i nkhol e s a nd s i nkhol e r e l a t e d pr obl e m s ; a nd t w o, t ha t m uni c i pa l i t i e s on c a r bona t e be dr oc k de ve l op s i nkhol e m a na ge m e nt pr ogr a m s T he p l a n a l s o r e c om m e n ds a dopt i ng S A L D O s t o m a na ge de ve l opm e nt i n c a r bona t e a r e a s a s w e l l a s s ubdi vi s i on or di na nc e s de s i gne d t o m i t i ga t e r i s k pos e d by s i nkhol e s ( L e hi gh V a l l e y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n, 2005) H ow e ve r i t s houl d be not e d t ha t s om e c om p r e he ns i ve pl a ns m a ke no e f f o r t t o a ddr e s s ka r s t a s a f a c t or i n p l a nni ng f or f ut u r e gr ow t h: w hi l e t he B e r ks C ount y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n m e nt i ons ka r s t a s a f a c t or i n ge ne r a t i ng de ve l opm e nt pr e s s ur e s now he r e doe s t he pl a n l a y out a ny po l i c i e s i nt e nde d t o a ddr e s s t he i s s ue I t i s a l s o i m por t a nt t o r e m e m be r t ha t pol i c i e s a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons put f or t h i n a c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n a r e not l e ga l l y bi ndi ng upon t he m uni c i pa l i t i e s s ubj e c t t o t he m ( A c t 247, P e nns yl va ni a P l a nni ng C ode 1967 ) I n t hi s r e ga r d, t he P e nns yl va ni a c om pr e he ns i ve pl a nni ng pr oc e s s ha s m uc h i n c om m on w i t h t hos e i n ot he r s t a t e s M a ny c ount i e s i n P e nns yl va ni a ha ve i m pl e m e nt e d t he i r ow n S A L D O s a nd z oni ng or di na nc e s U nde r s t a t e l a w t he s e c ount yw i de r e g ul a t i ons a ppl y onl y t o m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t hout t he i r ow n or d i na nc e s : t he L e hi gh V a l l e y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n not e s t ha t w hi l e m uni c i pa l pl a ns a r e r e qui r e d t o be ge ne r a l l y c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he a dopt e d c ount y pl a n . c ou n t y c om m e n t s c an n ot ov e r r i de l oc al z on i n g ( L e hi gh V a l l e y C om pr e he ns i ve P l a n 2005; p. 51) ( e m pha s i s m i ne ) I n ot he r w o r ds l oc a l gove r nm e nt s i n P e nns yl va ni a ha ve t he pow e r t o ove r r i de c ount y gove r nm e nt s on s ubdi vi s i on, l a nd de ve l opm e nt a nd z oni ng i s s ue s ( A c t 247, P e nns yl va ni a P l a nni ng C ode 196 7) I n p r a c t i c e t hi s c a n m e a n t ha t

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187 c ount y l e ve l or di na nc e s a r e a ppl i c a bl e i n onl y s m a l l por t i ons ( i e bor oughs a nd t ow ns hi ps w i t hout s i m i l a r or c ont r a di c t or y r e gul a t i ons ) of t he c ount y t ha t pa s s e d t he m s i nc e c ount i e s i n P e nns yl va ni a a r e c om pl e t e l y di vi de d i nt o s m a l l e r j u r i s di c t i ons ( t ow ns hi ps bor oughs a nd c i t i e s ) : t he r e i s no uni n c or por a t e d l a nd t ha t r e l y e xc l us i ve l y on c ount y or di na nc e s f o r m a na ge m e nt T hi s i s a di s t i nc t di f f e r e nc e f r om p r e va i l i ng pr a c t i c e i n s om e ot he r he a vi l y ka r s t i f i e d s t a t e s l i ke F l or i da w he r e l a r ge popul a t i ons on uni nc or por a t e d l a nds a r e c om m on I t i s di f f i c ul t t o ge ne r a l i z e w i t h r e ga r d t o c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of m uni c i pa l i t i e s t ha t c hoos e t o r e gul a t e hum a n a c t i vi t i e s on ka r s t l a nds c a pe s A c c or di ng t o a n e xa m i na t i on of onl i ne m uni c i pa l c ode s a nd t o da t a pr ovi de d by t he P e nns yl va ni a D e pa r t m e nt of C ons e r va t i on a n d N a t ur a l R e s our c e s ( D C N R ) m u ni c i pa l i t i e s w i t h m a ppe d ka r s t a r e j us t a s l i ke l y t o ha ve c hos e n not t o i m p l e m e nt ka r s t l a n d us e r e gul a t i ons a s t he y a r e t o ha ve c hos e n t o do s o. F i gur e 8 2 i s a m a p ge ne r a t e d f r o m t he s a m pl e us e d f or t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s d e s c r i be d l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r W i t hi n t ha t s a m pl e t he r e w e r e 42 m un i c i pa l i t i e s w i t h m a ppe d ka r s t poi nt s i n w hi c h no ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons w e r e f ound; t he r e w e r e 43 m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t h m a ppe d ka r s t poi n t s t h a t di d ha ve t hi s t ype of r e gul a t i on o n t he books O ne m i gh t be i nc l i ne d t o s us pe c t t ha t t h i s m i ght be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e nc e s i n ur ba ni z a t i on or popul a t i ons l e ve l s H ow e ve r t he r e doe s not s e e m t o be a ny c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he l e ve l of ur ba ni z a t i on o f a m un i c i pa l i t y a nd t he l i ke l i hood of f i nd i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons or or di na nc e s on t he books I t i s t r ue t ha t A l l e nt ow n, t he c i t y w i t h t he hi ghe s t popul a t i on i n t he s a m pl e doe s ha ve a w e a k f or m of ka r s t r e gul a t i on on t he books ; how e ve r t he c i t i e s o f R e a di ng ( w i t h a popul a t i on ne a r 80, 000 i n 2000) B e t hl e he m C i t y ( a ppr oxi m a t e l y 70 000) a nd L a nc a s t e r ( a pp r oxi m a t e l y 50, 000) do not e ve n pr ov i de t he

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188 F i g u r e 8 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f k a r s t a n d r e g u l a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n s e l e c t e d P e n n s y l v a n i a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s S o u r c e s : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u ; P e n n s y l v a n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s ; i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l c o d e s

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189 m i ni m a l l e ve l o f ka r s t p r ot e c t i on t ha t A l l e nt ow n d oe s T ow ns hi ps i n P e nns yl va ni a t hus ha ve a w i de de gr e e of l a t i t ude w he n i t c om e s t o i m pl e m e nt i ng l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t ha t a f f e c t de ve l opm e nt ne a r ka r s t l a ndf or m s T he va r i e t y of a ppr oa c he s t a ke n i n r e gul a t i ng de ve l op m e nt i n t hos e a r e a s r e f l e c t s t hi s f r e e dom T a bl e 8 3 di s pl a ys a s um m a r y o f t e c hni q ue s us e d t o r e gul a t e de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t by t he 64 m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he s a m pl e t ha t ha ve s uc h r e gul a t i ons i n pl a c e T he r e i s s i gni f i c a nt va r i a bi l i t y w i t hi n t he s a m pl e but s om e c om m onl y us e d t e c hni que s c a n be e a s i l y i de nt i f i e d. T he m os t c om m on l y us e d t e c hni q ue s f or r e gul a t i ng l a nd us e a nd de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns a r e s t or m w a t e r r e l a t e d c om pone nt s ( i n pa r t i c ul a r m or e s t r i nge nt de s i gn s t a nda r ds f or s t or m w a t e r r e t e nt i on ba s i ns ) a nd r e qui r e m e nt s f or i nc l us i on of ka r s t l a nd f or m s i n de ve l opm e nt pl a ns a t t he s ke t c h, pr e l i m i na r y o r f i na l pl a n s t a ge s R a i s i ng t he l e ve l of de s i gn s t a nda r ds i n o t h e r a r e a s s pe c i f i c a l l y, a s t he y r e l a t e t o gr oundw a t e r f l ow a nd qua l i t y s t a nda r ds a nd t o r e duc i ng t he r i s k o f s i nkhol e f or m a t i on f r om i m pr ove m e nt s or ne w c ons t r uc t i on i s a not h e r f a i r l y c om m on a pp r oa c h. I nt ui t i ve l y, i t m a y s e e m t ha t t he z oni ng ove r l a y a ppr oa c h ( di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r 5) w oul d be t he a ppr oa c h t ha t s m os t e f f e c t i ve a nd e a s i e s t t o m a na ge i n t hi s c ont e xt H ow e ve r ve r y f e w j u r i s di c t i ons i n t he s a m pl e a c t ua l l y us e i t : L ow e r S a uc on a nd L ow e r M a c ungi e i nc l ude ka r s t or c a r bona t e ge ol ogy ove r l a y z one s i n t he i r z oni ng or di na nc e s w hi l e a ha ndf ul ot he r s us e m or e ge ne r a l ove r l a y di s t r i c t s t ha t a f f e c t de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s but a r e not ka r s t s pe c i f i c S e ve r a l m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he s t udy a r e a e xpl i c i t l y c l a i m pow e r s t o r e j e c t or s t op pr o j e c t s t ha t do no t m e e t c e r t a i n k a r s t r e l a t e d r e qui r e m e nt s I n m a ny of t he s e c a s e s t hi s pow e r i s i nc l ude d i n a c om pone nt of a S A L D O O f t e n t hi s i s r e l a t e d t o a

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190 T a b l e 8 3 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e w h e r e l a n d u s e i n k a r s t t e r r a i n s f a c e s a d d i t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s o r m a n a g e m e n t S A L D O Z on i n g R e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d A l l e nt ow n c i t y N Y P l a nni ng, s t or m w a t e r A l s a c e t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn A m i t y t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, ha z a r d A nt r i m Y N P l a nni ng B e c ht e l s vi l l e bor ough Y Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s e t ba c ks s t or m w a t e r B e t hl e he m t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, s t or m w a t e r B oye r t ow n bor ough Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r B r e c knoc k t ow ns hi p Y N D e s i gn, s t or m w a t e r C a e r na r von t ow ns hi p Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn C a m p H i l l N N O t he r C a r l i s l e Y N P l a nni ng D i c ki ns on N N O t he r D i s t r i c t t ow ns hi p N Y O t he r E a s t A l l e n t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s e t ba c ks s t or m w a t e r E a s t P e nns bor o Y N P l a nni n g, de s i gn, ha z a r d E a s t on c i t y N Y P l a nni ng E xe t e r t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng, ot he r H a m bur g bor ough Y N D e s i gn H a m pde n Y N D e s i gn H e i de l be r g t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, ot he r

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191 T a bl e 8 3 c ont i nue d S A L D O Z on i n g R e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d K ut z t ow n bor ough Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r ot he r L ow e r A l l e n Y Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn L ow e r H e i de l be r g t ow ns hi p Y P l a nni ng L ow e r M a c ungi e t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, s e t ba c ks z oni ng ove r l a ys L ow e r S a uc on t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r z oni ng ove r l a ys s e t ba c ks L ynn t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng M a i de nc r e e k t ow ns hi p Y N D e s i gn M a xa t a w ny t ow ns hi p N Y P l a nni ng M e r c e r s bur g Y N H a z a r d M uhl e nbe r g t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r z oni ng ove r l a ys N e w M or ga n bor ough Y N O t he r N or t h H e i de l be r g t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nn i ng, ot he r N or t h M i ddl e t on N Y P l a nni ng P i ke t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng Q ui nc y Y N P l a nni ng, s t or m w a t e r R i c hm ond t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r R obe s on t ow ns hi p Y Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn R obe s oni a bor ough N Y O t he r R oc kl a nd t ow ns hi p Y N D e s i gn S hi l l i ngt on bo r ough Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r

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192 T a bl e 8 3 c ont i nue d S A L D O Z on i n g R e gu l at or y t e c h n i q u e s u s e d S hi ppe ns bur g Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s e t ba c ks ha z a r d S hi ppe ns bur g T ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng S hoe m a ke r s vi l l e bor ough Y N P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r S i l ve r S p r i ng N Y P l a nni ng S out h M i ddl e t ow n Y Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s e t ba c ks s t or m w a t e r S out ha m pt on Y N P l a nni ng S t r a us s t ow n bor ough Y N D e s i gn W a l nut por t bor ough Y N P l a nni ng W a s hi ngt on Y N P l a nni ng, ha z a r d W e r ne r s vi l l e bor ough Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r W hi t e ha l l t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng, ot he r W i l l i a m s t ow ns hi p Y N P l a nni ng W i l s on bor ough Y N P l a nni ng W om e l s dor f bor ough N Y O t he r W yom i s s i ng bor ough Y D e s i gn, s t or m w a t e r W yom i s s i ng H i l l s bor ough Y P l a nni ng, de s i gn, s t or m w a t e r de c l a r a t i on of uns ui t a bi l i t y f o r bui l di ng on a pa r t i c ul a r pl ot a de c l a r a t i on w hi c h c a n us ua l l y be a ddr e s s e d a nd t he n c ha nge d. T he r e i s of t e n no c l e a r di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s t ha t a r e us e d i n S A L D O s a nd t hos e t ha t a r e us e d i n z oni ng or di na n c e s T he r e a r e e xc e pt i ons t o t hi s ge ne r a l i z a t i on z oni ng ove r l a ys a nd P l a nne d R e s i de nt i a l D e ve l opm e nt r e gul a t i ons a r e

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193 us e d i n z oni ng or di na nc e s onl y f o r e xa m pl e but t he f a c t t ha t s om e r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s ( i n pa r t i c ul a r r e qui r e m e nt s t o i nc l ude c a r bona t e l a ndf or m l oc a t i ons i n pl a ns a t va r i ous s t a ge s of t he de ve l opm e nt p r oc e s s ; r e qui r e m e nt s f or a ddi t i ona l a na l ys i s i n c a r bona t e a r e a s ; a nd r e t e nt i on ba s i ns a nd s t or m w a t e r i s s ue s ) a r e f ound i n bot h t ype s of or di na nc e s i n di f f e r e nt t ow ns s ugge s t s t ha t t he m a i n di f f e r e nc e m a y be i n how s t r i nge nt l y a m uni c i pa l i t y w a nt s or i nt e nds t o e nf or c e t he ka r s t r e gul a t i ons F i na l l y, m a ny ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e or di na nc e s a r e ve r y s i m i l a r i f not i de nt i c a l t o t hos e f ound i n t he c ode s of ot he r t ow ns i n t he a r e a F or e xa m pl e s e v e r a l di f f e r e nt t ow ns ha ve i de nt i c a l or ne a r l y i de nt i c a l s t a t ut or y l a ngua ge a ddr e s s i ng r e t e nt i on ba s i n i s s ue s O t he r t ow ns ha ve pa s s e d i de nt i c a l or di na nc e s r e l a t i ng t o g r oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on a nd s pr i ng f l ow pr e ve nt i ng s ubs i de nc e r e l a t e d da m a ge a nd t he pow e r t o de ny uns a t i s f a c t or y a ppl i c a t i ons ba s e d on ka r s t r e l a t e d r e qui r e m e nt s ( i n f a c t i t i s not unc om m on f or m uni c i pa l i t i e s t o s ha r e pr e c i s e l y t hi s r e gul a t or y l a ngua ge ) T h i s s ugge s t s a t l e a s t t w o pos s i bi l i t i e s : one i s t ha t t ow ns i n e a c h r e gi on a r e s i m pl y c opyi ng or d i na nc e s us e d by t he i r ne i ghbo r s ; a not he r i s t ha t t he s e or di n a nc e s a l l ha ve a not he r c om m on s our c e Strategic behavi or and land u se regulat ion A s di s c us s e d, r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he vi c i ni t y of ka r s t l a ndf o r m s i s a n i m por t a nt t ool f or pr ot e c t i ng l oc a l a qui f e r s I n a n a r e a l i ke t he L e hi gh V a l l e y, w he r e t he r e a r e doz e ns of m uni c i pa l i t i e s of va s t l y di f f e r e nt s i z e gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t e d i n one t ow ns hi p doe s n ot t ypi c a l l y s t a y be ne a t h t ha t t ow ns hi p. I t a l s o s e e m s c l e a r t ha t a qui f e r pr o t e c t i on i s a t l e a s t one m a j or goa l of t he a r e a s ka r s t r e gul a t i ons be c a us e dr a i na ge a nd r uno f f i nt o s i nkh ol e s i s a f r e que nt l y a dd r e s s e d i s s ue

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194 w i t hi n t he s e r e gul a t i ons ( o f c our s e a ppr opr i a t e r un of f m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c a n a l s o he l p pr e ve nt t he f or m a t i on of s i nkhol e s ) H ow e ve r s i m pl e ga m e t he o r y w oul d s ugge s t t ha t i t i s i n t he i nt e r e s t o f a ny t ow ns hi p not t o r e gul a t e de ve l opm e nt ne a r ka r s t l a ndf or m s ( s e e N a s h, 1951 ) I n t he o r y, s uc h r e gul a t i on dr i ve s up t he c os t of de ve l opm e nt bot h t o t he de ve l ope r ( w ho m us t s pe nd m or e t i m e i nve s t i ga t i ng pot e nt i a l p r oj e c t s i t e s a nd m or e m one y on m i t i ga t i on) a nd t o t he t ow n ( w hi c h m us t s pe nd m o r e m one y e nf or c i ng i t s ka r s t or di na nc e s a nd he a r i ng a ppe a l s f r om de ve l ope r s w hos e pr oj e c t s ha ve be e n t u r ne d dow n) T he s e or di na nc e s pot e nt i a l l y ha ve a not he r c os t t o m un i c i pa l i t i e s t he c os t of l os t gr ow t h a s de ve l ope r s c hoos e t o bu i l d i n l ow e r r e gul a t i on l ow e r c os t ne i ghbor i ng t ow ns I n e f f e c t j ur i s di c t i ons w i t h ka r s t r e gul a t i ons on t he books w oul d t he n b e pa yi ng t he e nt i r e c os t of pr ot e c t i ng t he r e gi ona l gr oundw a t e r s uppl i e s w hi l e non r e gul a t i ng t ow ns w oul d be f r e e t o undo t ha t p r ot e c t i on a nd a t t r a c t ne w de ve l opm e nt oppo r t uni t i e s t ha t ha ve c hos e n t o bypa s s r e gul a t i ng c om m uni t i e s P ut a not he r w a y, i f a s m a l l t ow ns hi p l i ke L ow e r S a uc on c a nnot i nf l ue nc e w ha t i t s ne i ghbor s c hoos e t o do t o r e gul a t e de ve l o pm e nt ne a r s i nkhol e s or ot he r ka r s t f e a t ur e s w ha t i nc e nt i ve doe s i t ha ve t o i m pl e m e nt i t s ow n ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ? I nt ui t i ve l y, i t w oul d s e e m t ha t t h i s pa t c hw o r k a ppr oa c h e na bl e s de ve l ope r s t o pl a y one t ow n a ga i ns t t he ot he r w he n s e l e c t i ng a l oc a t i on f o r a l a r ge pr o j e c t a nd t ha t t he s e ns i bl e c our s e of a c t i on f o r a ny t ow n hopi ng t o e nc our a ge gr ow t h w ou l d be t o i m pl e m e nt no ka r s t de ve l opm e nt r e gul a t i ons out o f c onc e r n t ha t s uc h r e gul a t i ons w oul d dr i ve gr ow t h t o ne i ghbo r i ng t ow ns Y e t de s pi t e t hi s m a ny of t he m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he L e hi gh V a l l e y do r e gul a t e de ve l opm e nt on a nd ne a r ka r s t l a ndf o r m s

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195 T he que s t i on I i nt e nd t o a ddr e s s i n t hi s c ha pt e r i s t hi s : w he n c o nt e m pl a t i ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e or di na nc e s s houl d l a nd us e pl a nne r s a nd pub l i c of f i c i a l s t a ke i nt o a c c ount w he t he r o r not ne i ghbor i ng c om m uni t i e s ha ve i m pl e m e nt e d s uc h r e gul a t i ons ? D o non r e gul a t i ng t ow ns e nj oy s om e s or t of gr ow t h r e l a t e d e c onom i c be ne f i t a t t he e xpe ns e of t ow ns t ha t c hoos e t o r e gu l a t e de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t a r e a s ? O r a r e ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ge ne r a l l y ne ut r a l i n m a t t e r s of gr ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt ? T o a ns w e r t he s e que s t i ons I c ol l e c t e d da t a f r om t h e U S C e ns us B ur e a u, t h e D e pa r t m e nt of H ous i ng a nd U r ba n D e ve l opm e nt a nd f r om t he l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons of m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he s a m pl e I t he n c ons t r uc t e d a m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on m ode l t o l ook f or a s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a nd c e r t a i n e c onom i c i ndi c a t or va r i a bl e s s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he t o t a l num be r o f r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on pe r m i t s i s s ue d f or e a c h j ur i s di c t i on be t w e e n 1990 a nd 200 0, a nd t he c ha nge i n m e di a n hous i ng va l ue ove r t ha t s a m e t i m e T he s e va r i a bl e s w e r e c h os e n be c a us e t he y w e r e e a s i l y qua nt i f i a bl e t he y w e r e a va i l a bl e f o r ne a r l y e ve r y m uni c i pa l i t y i n t he s a m pl e a nd a c l e a r hypot he t i c a l c onne c t i on be t w e e n bot h of t he m a nd t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on c oul d be m a de ( t hi s w a s not t he c a s e f or m os t ot he r e c onom i c pr os pe r i t y i ndi c a t or s : f or e xa m pl e i t m a y be t he c a s e t ha t t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i on r e s ul t s t o hi ghe r une m pl oym e nt r a t e s i n t ow ns t ha t i m pl e m e nt t hos e r e gul a t i ons bu t a c r e di bl e a nd di r e c t m e c ha ni s m by w hi c h t ha t pr oc e s s oc c ur s i s di f f i c ul t t o i m a gi ne ) T hi s pr oc e s s i s de s c r i be d i n de t a i l i n t he ne xt s e c t i on, f ol l ow e d by t he r e s ul t s Data and methodol ogy T w o s e t s of r e gr e s s i ons w e r e r un a s pa r t of t hi s a n a l ys i s T he f i r s t or di na r y l e a s t s qua r e s ( O L S ) r e gr e s s i on s e t i s i nt e nde d t o m e a s ur e t he i m pa c t o f ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e

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196 r e gul a t i ons on m e di a n hom e va l ue T he r e a r e t w o ge ne r a l s c hool s of t hought r e ga r di ng t he i m pa c t of l a nd us e r e s t r i c t i ons on hom e va l ue s : one i s t ha t t he r e s t r i c t i ons on t he hom e ow ne r s a bi l i t y t o us e pr i va t e p r ope r t y i n w ha t e ve r w a y he o r s he s e e s f i t w i l l be c a pi t a l i z e d i nt o t he va l ue o f t he hom e ( a s a de c l i ne us ua l l y) w hi l e t he ot he r a ppr oa c h hol ds t ha t be c a us e l a nd us e r e s t r i c t i ons c a n a c t t o p r e s e r ve t he c ha r a c t e r a nd na t u r a l a m e ni t i e s of a n a r e a i n w hi c h t he y a r e a ppl i e d t he y c a n j us t a s e a s i l y ha ve a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on hom e va l ue s ( M c C a nn, 2001) A s s um i ng t ha t bot h e f f e c t s a r e pos s i bl e i t s e e m s m or e l i ke l y t ha t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w oul d ha ve a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on hom e va l ue s t ha n a ne ga t i ve one T hi s hypot he s i s i s ba s e d on t h e f a c t t ha t ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons of t e n a c t t o i ndi r e c t l y e nc our a ge pr e s e r va t i on of ope n s pa c e a nd t he na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt a nd l ow e r de ns i t y de ve l opm e nt I n t hi s f i r s t s e t of r e gr e s s i ons t he c ha nge i n m e di a n hom e va l ue f or e a c h t ow n be t w e e n 1990 a n d 2000 i s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e A l l 1990 va l ue s ha ve be e n no r m a l i z e d t o ye a r 2000 dol l a r s T he f ol l ow i ng da t a w e r e obt a i ne d f r om t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u a nd i nc l ude d i n t he r e gr e s s i on a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s : T ot al p op u l a t i on i n 1990 M e di a n hom e va l ue s a r e of t e n l ow e r i n r ur a l s pa r s e l y popul a t e d a r e a s t ha n i n a r e a s w i t h h i ghe r popul a t i on. I nc l udi ng t he t ot a l popul a t i on o f e a c h t ow n i n 1990 i s a c onve ni e nt w a y t o a c c ount f or t he i nhe r e nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n r ur a l t ow ns a nd ur ba ni z e d a r e a s R at e of p op u l at i on c h a n ge b e t w e e n 1990 an d 20 00 R a pi d popul a t i on gr ow t h w i l l us ua l l y dr i ve hous i ng pr i c e s a nd t hu s va l ue hi ghe r a t a f a s t e r r a t e t ha n i s s e e n i n c om m uni t i e s w i t h s l ow e r or ne ga t i ve gr ow t h r a t e s R at e of u r b an p op u l at i on c h an ge b e t w e e n 1990 an d 2000 T hi s va r i a bl e i s

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197 i nt e nde d t o a c c ount f o r i nc r e a s e d popul a t i ons i n t h e m os t de ns e l y popul a t e d a r e a s of e a c h t ow n, a s c ha nge s i n t hos e a r e a s c a n h a ve m or e not i c e a bl e i m pa c t s on m e di a n hom e va l ue s t ha n do c ha nge s i n r u r a l l o c a t i ons C h an ge i n m e d i an r e n t b e t w e e n 1 990 a n d 2000 : R e nt i ng a hous e or a pa r t m e nt i s a s ubs t i t ut e good" f or ow ni ng one s ow n hom e B e c a us e bot h r e nt e d a nd ow ne d pr o pe r t i e s a r e pa r t of t he s a m e h ous i ng m a r ke t p r i c e s of t e n r e s pond t o s i m i l a r s e t s of i nf l ue nc e s E xc e pt i n pe r i ods of he a vy r e a l e s t a t e s pe c ul a t i on, w e w oul d e xpe c t t o s e e r e nt s a nd hom e va l ue s m ove i n t he s a m e di r e c t i on, t hough not ne c e s s a r i l y a t t he s a m e r a t e s or e ve n a t t he s a m e t i m e A ga i n, t he s e 1990 va l ue s ha ve be e n no r m a l i z e d t o 2000 dol l a r s C h an ge i n t h e p e r c e n t age of w or k e r s w h o ar e l on g d i s t an c e c om m u t e r s ( i e w ho c om m ut e m o r e t ha n t h i r t y m i nut e s e a c h da y t o w or k ) : I f t h i s va r i a bl e i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i t s s i gn c a n he l p e xpl a i n w hy m e di a n hom e va l ue s ha ve c ha nge d ( a pos i t i ve s i gn c oul d m e a n t he t ow n i n que s t i o n i s a gr ow i ng be dr oom c om m uni t y f or w e l l pa i d w hi t e c ol l a r e m pl oye e s ; a ne ga t i ve s i gn s ugge s t s t ha t r e s i de nt s m a y f i nd t he m s e l ve s f or c e d t o l ook f ur t he r a f i e l d f o r w or k a s t he i r t ow n's e c onom i c ba s e c ont r a c t s ) C h an ge i n t h e p e r c e n t age of l ar ge r ( m e an i n g w i t h f o u r or m or e b e d r oom s ) h om e s : N a t ur a l l y, hom e s w i t h f our or m or e be dr o om s t e nd t o be m or e e xpe ns i ve t ha n s m a l l e r dom i c i l e s a l l t hi ngs be i ng e qua l W e w oul d t he r e f or e e xpe c t t ha t t ow ns i n w hi c h m or e l a r ge hom e s w e r e a dde d t o t he l oc a l hous i ng s t oc k w o ul d e xpe r i e nc e m or e r a pi d i nc r e a s e s i n ho us i ng va l ue s C h an ge i n t h e p e r c e n t age of r e s i d e n t s w h o h ave a b ac h e l or s d e gr e e or

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198 h i gh e r : C ol l e ge e duc a t e d i ndi vi dua l s ha ve a n i nc r e a s e d a bi l i t y t o pa y f or hous i ng, w hi c h c oul d r e s ul t i n p r i c e i n f l a t i on i n a r e a s t ha t a r e a t t r a c t i ve t o t he m I n a ddi t i on t o t he va r i a bl e s l i s t e d a bove f our dum m y va r i a bl e s w e r e a l s o i nc l ude d a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s T he s e w e r e ob t a i ne d f r o m a n a na l ys i s of e a c h t ow n s z oni ng or di na nc e s a nd s ubdi vi s i on / l a nd de ve l opm e nt or d i na nc e s ( S A L D O s ) a nd f r om da t a pr ovi de d by t he P e nns yl va ni a D C N R T he s e a r e t h e va r i a bl e s of m os t i nt e r e s t t o us i n t hi s s e t of r e gr e s s i ons : K ar s t r e gs : T hi s bi na r y va r i a bl e i s s e t t o 1 f or a l l t ow ns t ha t c ont a i n s om e ka r s t r e l a t e d pr ovi s i ons i n t he i r z oni ng or di na nc e o r S A L D O T hi s a c t ua l l y i nc l ude s a ve r y w i de r a nge of r e gul a t or y r e qui r e m e nt s r a ngi ng f r om a r e qui r e m e nt t o i nc l ude ka r s t f e a t ur e s on pr e l i m i na r y s ubdi vi s i on pl a ns t o c om pl e x z oni ng ove r l a y o r di na nc e s i n w hi c h t he a bi l i t y t o bui l d ne a r ka r s t l a ndf or m s i s s e ve r e l y l i m i t e d I t s houl d be i m m e di a t e l y a ppa r e nt t ha t r e gul a t i ons a s di f f e r e nt a s t he t w o e xa m pl e s gi ve n he r e a r e unl i ke l y t o ha ve i de nt i c a l i m pa c t s on m e di a n hous i ng va l ue s a f a c t t ha t ne c e s s i t a t e d t he i nc l us i on of t he ne xt va r i a bl e S t r on g : T he s t r on g va r i a bl e i s i nt e nde d t o a c c ount f or t he w i de r a nge of di f f e r e nc e s i n r e gul a t o r y t e c hni que s e m pl oye d by c om m uni t i e s i n t he s a m pl e T he s t r on g va r i a bl e c ont a i ns a va l ue of 1 f o r a l l t o w ns w hos e or di na nc e s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s s t r ong. M or e de t a i l s a bout t hi s va r i a bl e a r e pr ovi de d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. M ap p e d K ar s t : T he M appe dK ar s t dum m y va r i a bl e i s c ode d 1 f o r a l l

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199 m uni c i pa l i t i e s t ha t c ont a i n ka r s t po i nt s m a ppe d by t he P e nns yl va ni a D C N R T hi s va r i a bl e i s i nc l ude d t o a c c ount f or t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t s om e m un i c i p a l i t i e s m a y pa s s ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e or di na nc e s e ve n i f t he r e i s no know n ka r s t w i t hi n t he t ow n l i m i t s I n t hos e hypot he t i c a l c a s e s t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e or di na nc e s s houl d ha ve l i t t l e t o no e f f e c t on de ve l opm e nt a nd gr ow t h pa t t e r ns I n t e r : T hi s i s a n i nt e r a c t i on va r i a bl e ge ne r a t e d by m ul t i pl yi ng K ar s t r e gs by M appe dK ar s t T hi s va r i a bl e t he r e f or e c a r r i e s a va l ue of 1 f or a ny m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he s a m pl e t ha t ha ve ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons or or di na nc e s i n pl a c e a nd ha ve know n ( i e m a ppe d) ka r s t poi n t s l oc a t e d w i t hi n t he t ow n l i m i t s K ar s t r e gs M appe dK ar s t a nd I nt e r a r e i nc l ude d i n bot h r e gr e s s i ons i n t hi s s e t ; s t r ong i s i nc l ude d onl y i n t he f i r s t r e gr e s s i on. T hi s w a s done i n pa r t t o a c c ount f o r t he s ubj e c t i ve na t ur e of t he s t r ong va r i a bl e T he s e c ond s e t of r e gr e s s i ons i s s i m i l a r t o t he f i r s t but i nc l ude s t he t ot a l num be r of r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on pe r m i t s i s s ue d be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e T he i nt e nt i on i s t o i de nt i f y a ny e f f e c t on bui l di ng a nd de ve l opm e nt pa t t e r ns t ha t i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons m a y ha ve br ought a bout B e c a us e ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons of t e n a dd s t e ps ( a nd e xpe ns e ) t o t he de ve l opm e nt p r oc e s s a nd i n s om e c a s e s c a n s t op a de ve l opm e nt i n i t s t r a c ks i t i s l i ke l y t ha t w e m a y s e e s om e di r e c t i m pa c t s of s uc h r e gul a t i on r e f l e c t e d i n t he num be r of r e s i de nt i a l pe r m i t s gr a nt e d i n t ow ns w i t h t he s e or di na nc e s on t he books a s de ve l ope r s s e e k out l oc a t i ons w i t h f e w e r obs t a c l e s t o ne w pr oj e c t s M y hypot he s i s i s t ha t t hi s i m pa c t w i l l be ne ga t i ve ; i n ot he r w or ds t he

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200 pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a nd i n pa r t i c ul a r s t r o ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons w i l l a c t t o de pr e s s t he num be r o f pe r m i t s i s s ue d r e l a t i ve t o m un i c i pa l i t i e s t ha t do not us e s uc h r e gul a t i ons D a t a on t he num be r of pe r m i t s i s s ue d i n e a c h t ow n w e r e obt a i ne d f r om t he U S D e pa r t m e nt of H ous i ng a nd U r ba n D e ve l opm e nt T he f ol l ow i ng da t a w e r e ob t a i ne d f r om t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u a nd w e r e i nc l ude d a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s : T ot al p op u l a t i on i n 1990 T hi s i s i nc l ude d t o a c c o unt f or t he f a c t t ha t t ow ns w i t h s m a l l popul a t i ons w i l l ge ne r a l l y i s s ue f e w e r p e r m i t s t ha n c i t i e s w i t h l a r ge popul a t i ons r e ga r dl e s s of t he gr ow t h r a t e R at e of p op u l at i on c h a n ge : P opul a t i on c ha nge s d r i ve de m a nd f o r ne w hous i ng opt i ons w hi c h i s d i r e c t l y t i e d t o t he i s s ua nc e of c o ns t r uc t i on pe r m i t s H ot t e r hous i ng m a r ke t s i e t he one s t ha t w oul d be m or e a t t r a c t i ve t o de ve l ope r s a s l oc a t i ons f or ne w p r oj e c t s a r e us ua l l y t he m a r ke t s e xpe r i e nc i ng t he f a s t e s t popul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e s T he r a t e of c ha nge i s us e d he r e be c a us e us i ng r a w c ount s of popul a t i on i nduc e s a bi a s f a vor i ng l a r ge r c om m uni t i e s C h an ge i n m e d i an h om e va l u e : A hom e s va l ue i s onl y pa r t i a l l y de r i ve d f r om t he phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he hous e i t s e l f M u c h of a ho m e s va l ue c om e s f r om be ne f i t s di r e c t l y t i e d t o i t s l oc a t i on. I f a n a r e a i s w i de l y c ons i de r e d a de s i r a bl e pl a c e t o l i ve i t s l i ke l y t ha t m or e pe r m i t s w oul d be i s s ue d, p r ovi de d ot he r gr ow t h c ont r ol s a r e not i n pl a c e C h an ge i n m e d i an r e n t : H i ghe r r e nt s i ndi c a t e a hi ghe r de m a nd f o r pl a c e s t o l i ve w hi c h i m pl i e s a hi ghe r w i l l i ngne s s t o pa y f or hous i ng i n ge ne r a l a nd i n t ur n s ugge s t s a hi ghe r l e ve l o f a t t r a c t i on f o r de ve l o pe r s R at e of c h a n ge i n u r b an h ou s i n g u n i t s : U r ba ni z i ng t ow ns t e nd t o ha ve

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201 hi ghe r popul a t i on ( a nd t he r e f or e s t r uc t u r a l ) de ns i t i e s ; i f a t ow n i s a ddi ng u r ba n hous i ng uni t s i t s l i ke l y t ha t t ow n w i l l be i s s ui ng m or e pe r m i t s t ha n a t ow n a ddi ng m or e r ur a l uni t s P e r c e n t c h an ge i n l on g d i s t an c e c om m u t e r s P e r c e n t c h an ge i n l ar ge r ( 4 or m or e b e d r oom s ) h om e s : H i gh r a t e s o f gr ow t h i n t he num be r of l a r ge hom e s c oul d i ndi c a t e a pa r t i c ul a r l y pr of i t a bl e m a r ke t f or bui l de r s ; i t c oul d a l s o be r e f l e c t i ve of r e s t r i c t i ve l a r ge l ot z oni ng or di na nc e s I n e i t he r c a s e t r e nds de s c r i be d by t hi s va r i a bl e s houl d ha ve s om e i m pa c t i n t he num be r o f r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on pe r m i t s i s s ue d. T he f our bi na r y va r i a bl e s de s c r i be d e a r l i e r i n t hi s s e c t i on k ar s t r e gs m appe dk ar s t s t r ong a nd i nt e r a r e a l s o i nc l ude d he r e T he s e f ou r va r i a bl e s a r e a ga i n our va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t a nd onc e a ga i n, s t r ong i s i nc l ude d onl y i n t he f i r s t r e gr e s s i on. B e c a us e t he s e r e gr e s s i ons r e l y he a vi l y on t he s e t w o dum m y va r i a bl e s a n e xpl a na t i on of how t he y w e r e de ve l ope d i s i n o r de r F i r s t z oni ng or d i na nc e s a nd S A L D O s w e r e dow nl oa de d f o r c i t i e s a nd t ow ns i n e a c h of t he s e ve n c ount i e s i n t he s t udy a r e a O nc e t he s e doc um e nt s w e r e c ol l e c t e d, ke yw o r d s e a r c he s w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng s e ve r a l ka r s t r e l a t e d t e r m s i n a n e f f or t t o i de nt i f y ka r s t r e l a t e d c om pone nt s of t he s e or di na nc e s A l l hi t s w e r e i nve s t i ga t e d; s e ve r a l di d not r e l a t e t o l a nd us e a nd m a ny ot he r s w e r e f a l s e pos i t i ve s ( f or e xa m pl e s e a r c he s on t he ke yw or d c a r bona t e s om e t i m e s r e t ur ne d r e s ul t s a ddr e s s i ng t he bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e s of t e r m i t e e xt e r m i na t o r s ) A l l r e l e va nt r e s ul t s w e r e t he n i nve nt or i e d by c i t y; t hi s i nve nt or y i s t he ba s i s f or t he k ar s t r e gs va r i a bl e N e xt a m o r e t hor ough r e a di ng of e a c h r e l e va nt r e s ul t w a s c onduc t e d, a nd e a c h

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202 r e gul a t or y c om pone nt w a s e va l ua t e d f or i t s pot e nt i a l t o s i gni f i c a nt l y i nf l ue nc e t he de c i s i on t o bui l d o r not bui l d i n a g i ve n t ow n. S t r o ng r e gul a t i ons di s pl a y on e o f t he f ol l ow i ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s : a s e c t i on s pe c i f i c a l l y s e t a s i de t o a ddr e s s de ve l opm e nt i n ka r s t or c a r bona t e a r e a s e xpl i c i t pow e r t o s t op o r r e j e c t a de ve l opm e nt ba s e d on ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s or ge ne r a l l y a ppl i e d s e t ba c ks ; t hos e c l a s s i f i e d a s w e a k l a c k t he s e f e a t ur e s ( r e pe a t e d us e of t he w or d m a y i n a ka r s t c ont e xt i ns t e a d of s ha l l or m us t w a s a not he r f r e que nt i ndi c a t or o f a s e t o f w e a k r e gul a t i ons ) T hos e t ha t w e r e de e m e d t o ha ve m or e pot e nt i a l i m pa c t on de ve l opm e nt pa t t e r ns w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s s t r ong. C a t e gor i z i ng a s e t of or d i na nc e s a s w e a k or s t r ong w a s f i r s t a nd f or e m os t a s ubj e c t i ve pr oc e s s ; i n s om e c a s e s a c ol l e c t i on o f i ndi vi dua l l y w e a k r e qui r e m e nt s w a s c l a s s i f i e d a s s t r ong, ba s e d on t he ove r a l l pot e nt i a l f o r i m pa c t on t he de ve l o pm e nt pr oc e s s T he ke y que s t i on i n m a ki ng t hi s de t e r m i na t i on w a s t hi s : i s a pa r t i c ul a r s e t of r e gul a t or y r e qui r e m e nt s one r ous e nough t o pot e nt i a l l y m a ke a de ve l ope r t hi nk t w i c e a bout bui l di ng on a g i ve n pi e c e of l a nd w i t h ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s ? H ow e ve r t he c r i t e r i a us e d w e r e a ppl i e d c ons i s t e nt l y t o a l l or di na nc e s i n t he s a m pl e a nd s houl d a t l e a s t be a u s e f ul i ndi c a t i on of r e l a t i ve r e gul a t or y s t r e ngt h. T he s a m pl e i t s e l f c ont a i ns obs e r va t i ons t a ke n i n c i t i e s a nd t ow ns l oc a t e d i n s i x di f f e r e nt P e nns yl va ni a c ount i e s : B e r ks C um be r l a n d, F r a nkl i n, L a nc a s t e r L e hi gh a nd N or t ha m pt on. T he s e c ount i e s r a nge f r om m os t l y u r ba ni z e d t o m os t l y r ur a l ; t he c om m on t hr e a d l i nki ng a l l s e ve n i s t he p r e s e nc e of s i gni f i c a nt ka r s t w i t hi n t he i r bor de r s w hi c h m e a ns t ha t t ow ns l oc a t e d w i t hi n t he s e c ount i e s c ou l d be e xpe c t e d t o ha ve ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on on t he books i n s om e f or m T a ke n t oge t he r t he s e s i x c ount i e s c ont a i n 253 i ndi vi dua l m uni c i pa l i t i e s

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203 a c c or di ng t o t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u. M a ny of t he s e c i t i e s a nd t ow ns w e r e not i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e us e d f or t he s e r e gr e s s i ons E xc l us i on f r om t he s a m pl e w a s ba s e d on one o f t w o ge ne r a l c r i t e r i a : t i m i ng ( r e l e va nt z oni ng o r di n a nc e s or S A L D O s ha d t o be i n pl a c e by 2000; t hos e w i t h unc l e a r da t e s of i m p l e m e nt a t i on w e r e e xc l ude d) a nd da t a a va i l a bi l i t y ( t he s a m pl e i nc l ude s t ow ns w i t h bot h S A L D O s a n d z oni ng or di na nc e s a va i l a bl e onl i ne a nd t ow ns w i t h onl y one s e t of r e gul a t i ons a va i l a bl e onl i ne p r ovi de d t he s e a va i l a bl e or di na nc e s c ont a i ne d ka r s t r e l a t e d pr ovi s i ons a nd t ha t t he s e ka r s t pr ovi s i ons c oul d be c a t e gor i z e d a s s t r ong) T he s e doc um e nt s a r e not u ni ve r s a l l y a va i l a bl e onl i ne f o r e ve r y c i t y a nd t ow ns hi p i n P e nns yl va ni a ; t he f a c t t ha t t he s a m pl e i nc l ude s onl y c om m uni t i e s t ha t ha ve m a de t he s e doc um e nt s a va i l a bl e onl i ne m a y i nt r oduc e s om e a m ount of bi a s i nt o t he r e s ul t s H ow e ve r I c oul d de t e c t no obvi ous pa t t e r n t o e xpl a i n w hy s om e c om m uni t i e s c hos e t o m a ke t he s e doc um e nt s a va i l a bl e i n e l e c t r o ni c f or m a t a nd ot he r s di d not T hi s r e s ul t e d i n a s a m pl e s i z e of 120 w hi c h i s 47 4pe r c e nt of t he popul a t i on o f 253 I ndi vi dua l obs e r va t i ons t ha t m e t t he s e ge ne r a l c r i t e r i a but l a c ke d c e r t a i n da t a w e r e dr oppe d f r om t he r e gr e s s i ons w he n a ppr opr i a t e ; f o r e xa m pl e a l l obs e r va t i ons f r om F r a nkl i n C ount y w e r e dr oppe d f r om t he s e c ond r o und of r e gr e s s i o ns ( us i ng t ot a l pe r m i t s a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ) be c a us e pe r m i t t i ng da t a w e r e not a va i l a bl e f o r t hos e t ow ns T hi s i s w hy n va r i e s s l i ght l y be t w e e n r e gr e s s i ons F i gur e s 8 3 a nd 8 4 di s pl a y c ha nge s i n t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s f or m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n t he s a m pl e be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 Regression result s T he r e gr e s s i ons f ound one s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p ( s i gni f i c a nt a t 10pe r c e nt ) be t w e e n a va r i a bl e of i n t e r e s t a nd a de p e nde nt va r i a bl e : t he i n t e r a c t i on

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204 F i g u r e 8 3 C h a n g e s i n m e d i a n h o m e v a l u e f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n s a m p l e 1 9 9 0 2 0 0 0 S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u

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205 F i g u r e 8 4 T o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l p e r m i t s i s s u e d f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n s a m p l e 1 9 9 0 2 0 0 0 S o u r c e : U S C e n s u s B u r e a u U S D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t

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206 T a b l e 8 4 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 1: or di na r y l e a s t s qua r e s r e gr e s s i on w i t h r o bus t s t a nda r d e r r or s u s i ng t ot a l r e s i de nt i a l bui l di ng pe r m i t s a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e T ot a l popul a t i on 1990 0148708 0059324 2. 51 P opul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e 1990 2000 ( pe r c e nt ) 12. 75187 2. 810637 4. 54 C ha nge i n p e r c e nt a ge of l ong di s t a nc e c om m ut e r s 3. 653832 5. 864986 0. 62 G r ow t h r a t e o f u r ba n hous i ng uni t s 1. 811643 1. 3552 1. 34 R a t e of c ha nge i n t he pe r c e nt a ge of l a r ge hom e s 22. 50077 9. 33764 2. 41 C ha nge i n m e di a n gr os s r e nt 1990 2000 2378838 4161294 0. 57 C ha nge i n m e di a n hous i ng va l ue 1990 2000 0039291 0034126 1. 15 K ar s t r e gul at i ons pr e s e nt ? 69. 8021 87. 08814 0. 80 K ar s t r e gul at i ons c l as s i f i e d as s t r ong 13. 10388 139. 6921 0. 09 M appe d k ar s t poi nt s pr e s e nt ? 77. 51629 66. 51265 1. 17 I nt e r ac t i o n v ar i abl e ( bot h r e gul at i ons and m appe d k ar s t poi nt s ar e pr e s e nt ) 264. 1354 138. 5633 1. 91 C ons t a nt 29. 41458 49. 66519 0. 59 V a r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t i n i t al i c s = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e s ul t s a t 0 10 n = 105 A dj us t e d R 2 : = 0 4673

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207 T a b l e 8 5 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 2: or di na r y l e a s t s qua r e s r e gr e s s i on w i t h r o bus t s t a nda r d e r r or s us i ng t ot a l r e s i de nt i a l bui l di ng pe r m i t s a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e T ot a l popul a t i on 1990 0. 0146225 0. 0058305 2. 51 P opul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e 1990 2000 ( pe r c e nt ) 11. 19164 2. 841066 3. 94 C ha nge i n pe r c e nt a ge of l ong di s t a nc e c om m ut e r s 3. 893057 5. 765894 0. 68 G r ow t h r a t e o f u r ba n hous i ng uni t s 1. 727809 1. 458323 1. 18 R a t e of c ha nge i n t he pe r c e nt a ge of l a r ge hom e s 16. 4858 9. 322062 1. 77 C ha nge i n m e di a n gr os s r e nt 1990 2000 0. 0311469 0. 3794541 0. 08 C ha nge i n m e di a n hous i ng va l ue 1990 2000 0. 0045279 0. 0034124 1. 33 K ar s t r e gul at i ons pr e s e nt ? 72. 97573 79. 97385 0. 91 M appe d k ar s t poi nt s pr e s e nt ? 70. 12362 68. 48701 1. 02 I nt e r ac t i on v ar i abl e ( bot h r e gul at i ons and m appe d k ar s t poi nt s ar e pr e s e nt ) 201. 7053 129. 5102 1. 56 C ons t a nt 0. 1563617 49. 39859 0. 00 V a r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t i n i t al i c s = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 10 n = 112 A dj us t e d R 2 = 0. 4051

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208 T a b l e 8 6 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 3: or di na r y l e a s t s qua r e s r e gr e s s i on w i t h r o bus t s t a nda r d e r r or s us i ng c ha nge i n m e di a n hom e va l ue a s t he de pe nd e nt va r i a bl e E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e T ot a l popul a t i on 1990 0. 1233191 0. 0829727 1. 49 P opul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e 1990 2000 ( pe r c e nt ) 112. 6703 93. 63839 1. 20 G r ow t h r a t e o f u r ba n hous i ng uni t s 10. 87793 64. 47095 0. 17 C ha nge i n pe r c e nt a ge of l ong di s t a nc e c om m ut e r s 327. 9395 267. 3179 1. 23 C ha nge i n popul a t i on w i t h ba c he l or s de gr e e ( pe r c e nt a ge ) 749. 3715 405. 4695 1. 85 R a t e of c ha nge i n t he pe r c e nt a ge of l a r ge hom e s 557. 9663 380. 3822 1. 47 C ha nge i n m e di a n gr os s r e nt 1990 2000 18. 80939 13. 12235 1. 4 3 K ar s t r e gul at i ons pr e s e nt ? 1176. 088 4287. 548 0. 27 K ar s t r e gul at i ons c l as s i f i e d as s t r ong 6893. 434 4317. 497 1. 60 M appe d k ar s t poi nt s pr e s e nt ? 3734. 006 3321. 258 1. 12 I nt e r ac t i on v ar i abl e ( bot h r e gul at i ons and m appe d k ar s t poi nt s ar e pr e s e nt ) 2940. 861 5368. 743 0. 55 C ons t a nt 5435. 561 3458. 283 1. 57 V a r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t i n i t al i c s = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 10 n = 105 A dj us t e d R 2 = 0 1732

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209 T a b l e 8 7 O r d i n a r y L e a s t S q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s M ode l 4: or di na r y l e a s t s qua r e s r e gr e s s i on w i t h r o bus t s t a nda r d e r r or s us i ng c ha nge i n m e di a n hom e va l ue a s t he de pe nd e nt va r i a bl e E xp l an at or y var i ab l e s C oe f f i c i e n t S t an d ar d e r r or t val u e T ot a l popul a t i on 1990 0. 1406539 0. 0861091 1. 63 P opul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e 1990 2000 ( pe r c e nt ) 122. 9 927 82. 45413 1. 49 G r ow t h r a t e o f u r ba n hous i ng uni t s 3. 222844 61. 00146 0. 05 C ha nge i n pe r c e nt a ge of l ong di s t a nc e c om m ut e r s 283. 8614 254. 122 1. 12 C ha nge i n popul a t i on w i t h ba c he l or s de gr e e ( pe r c e nt a ge ) 796. 6282 380. 1347 2. 10 R a t e of c ha nge i n t he pe r c e nt a ge of l a r ge hom e s 783. 9302 354. 0678 2. 21 C ha nge i n m e di a n gr os s r e nt 1990 2000 18. 1366 12. 2212 1. 48 K ar s t r e gul at i ons pr e s e nt ? 3165. 006 4070. 196 0. 78 M appe d k ar s t poi nt s pr e s e nt ? 3790. 971 3315. 346 1. 14 I nt e r ac t i on v ar i abl e ( bo t h r e gul at i ons and m appe d k ar s t poi nt s ar e pr e s e nt ) 3071. 677 5188. 513 0. 59 C ons t a nt 5314. 729 3395. 833 1. 57 V a r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t i n i t al i c s = s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t 0 10 n = 120 A dj us t e d R 2 = 0 1715

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210 va r i a bl e w a s f ound t o ha ve a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a n t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he t ot a l pe r m i t s i s s ue d de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( T a bl e 8 4) H ow e ve r t he c oe f f i c i e nt i s pos i t i ve m e a ni ng t ha t t ot a l pe r m i t s i s s ue d w e r e hi ghe r i n c om m uni t i e s t h a t ha d bot h m a ppe d ka r s t poi nt s a nd ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i on s T hi s s i gni f i c a nc e di s a ppe a r s w he n t he s t r ong va r i a bl e i s dr oppe d f r om t he m ode l ( T a bl e 8 5 ) ; t he r e w a s a l s o no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p di s c ove r e d be t w e e n t he c ha nge i n m e d i a n hous i ng va l ue de pe nde nt va r i a bl e a nd a ny of t he bi na r y va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t ( T a bl e s 8 6 a nd 8 7) F ur t he r t he di f f e r e nc e s i n R 2 va l ue s de m ons t r a t e s t ha t w hi l e t he m ode l doe s e xpl a i n a r e s pe c t a bl e a m ount of t he va r i a t i on i n t ot a l pe r m i t s i s s ue d, i t i s not ve r y us e f ul i n e xpl a i ni ng c ha nge s i n m e di a n hom e va l ue s T he s e r e s ul t s a r gue ve r y f or c e f ul l y a ga i ns t t he i de a t ha t t he p r e s e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ha s m uc h of a n e f f e c t on de ve l opm e nt a t l e a s t w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he r e s i de nt i a l m a r ke t o r on m e di a n hom e va l ue s I t t he r e f or e f ol l ow s t ha t t ow ns c hoos i ng t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on a r e not put t i ng t he m s e l ve s a t a di s a dva nt a ge i n c om pe t i ng f or de ve l opm e nt a nd g r ow t h oppo r t uni t i e s w i t h t he i r non r e gul a t i ng ne i ghbor s T he r e a r e s e ve r a l pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i ons f o r t he s e r e s ul t s : D e ve l opm e nt pr e s s ur e s m a y be c a us i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of m a ppa bl e ka r s t f e a t ur e s T hi s hypo t he s i s w a s a l s o a dva nc e d a s a pot e nt i a l e xpl a na t i on of t he r e s ul t s i n C ha pt e r 7, a nd w oul d e xpl a i n t he pos i t i v e c oe f f i c i e nt on t he i nt e r a c t i on va r i a bl e i n t he f i r s t r e gr e s s i on ( T a bl e 8 4) K a r s t pr ot e c t i ons m a y a c t t o i nc r e a s e t he de s i r a bi l i t y of l i vi ng ( a nd t hus t he de m a nd f or a va i l a bl e hous i ng) i n a c om m uni t y t ha t e m pl oys t he m by f o r c i ng

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211 m or e l a nd t o r e m a i n ope n a nd unde ve l ope d. E ve n t he s t r onge s t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons m a y not r e a l l y be t ha t one r ou s W e know f r om t he r e gr e s s i on r e s ul t s t ha t t he s t r e ngt h of ka r s t r e gul a t i on d i d not ha ve a n i m pa c t on t he i ndi c a t or va r i a bl e s f or j ur i s di c t i o ns i n t he s a m pl e W he n c om bi ne d w i t h t he know l e dge t ha t t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a l s o ha d no i m pa c t pe r h a ps t hi s c a n be t a ke n t o m e a n t ha t k a r s t r e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s ge ne r a l l y a r e n t ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve a nd c a nnot c ount e r a c t t he i nf l ue nc e of m a r ke t f o r c e s K a r s t r e gul a t i ons m a y be goi ng une nf or c e d T he l a c k of i m pa c t of ka r s t or di na nc e s c oul d be a r e f l e c t i on of a l a c k o f e nf o r c e m e nt C e r t a i nl y, va r i a nc e s a nd w a i ve r s c a n be obt a i ne d i n m os t j ur i s di c t i ons ; w he t he r t he r e i s a l a c k of w i l l t o r e gul a t e i n t hi s c a s e i s unc l e a r a nd be yond t he s c ope of t hi s c ha pt e r T i m i ng m a y be a f a c t or I t s e e m e d pl a us i bl e t ha t t h e s hor t t e r m i m pa c t s of e na c t i ng t hi s t ype of r e gul a t i on c oul d be di f f e r e nt f r om t he l ong t e r m e f f e c t s pe r ha ps i t t a ke s a f e w ye a r s f or ka r s t r e gu l a t i ons t o m a ke a not i c e a bl e i m pa c t on t he s e i ndi c a t or va r i a bl e s B y i nc l udi ng a dum m y va r i a bl e i ndi c a t i ng t he ye a r a ka r s t or di na nc e w a s e na c t e d, a ny s uc h r e l a t i ons hi p c oul d be i de nt i f i e d. U nf or t una t e l y t hi s goa l w a s out of r e a c h f o r t hi s a na l ys i s be c a us e t he r e w a s no w a y t o de t e r m i ne t he a c t ua l e na c t m e nt da t e ( a s oppos e d t o pos s i bl y be i ng r e e na c t e d) w i t h a ny de gr e e of c e r t a i nt y I t s pos s i bl e t ha t t hi s c oul d be done us i ng di f f e r e nt da t a a nd i s a w or t hw hi l e di r e c t i on f o r f ut u r e r e s e a r c h.

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212 Summary T he t e s t s c onduc t e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r do not s uppor t t he hypot he s i s t ha t m uni c i pa l i t i e s e m pl oyi ng r e s t r i c t i ons o n de ve l opm e nt a nd c ons t r uc t i on i n ka r s t i c a r e a s s uf f e r a n e c onom i c di s a dva nt a ge r e l a t i ve t o m uni c i pa l i t i e s t ha t do not e m pl oy s uc h r e s t r i c t i ons T he r e f or e i t s e e m s t ha t t he r e i s no r a t i ona l e c onom i c ba s i s f or pl a nne r s a nd pol i c ym a ke r s t o t a ke i nt o a c c oun t t he a c t i ons of ne i ghbor i ng t ow ns a nd c i t i e s w he n c ons i de r i ng t he pos s i bl e f ut ur e i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f ka r s t r e gul a t i ons i n t he i r ow n j ur i s di c t i ons A s f a r a s gr ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt a r e c onc e r ne d, t he p r e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons doe s not s e e m t o m a ke a di f f e r e nc e e i t he r w a y.

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213 9 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p r o t e c t e d a r e a a p p r o a c h to k a r s t p r o t e c ti o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t: A c a s e s t u d y fr o m A p u s e n i N a t u r a l Pa r k R o m a n i a Introduction T he pr e c e di ng c ha pt e r s of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on de m ons t r a t e t he w i de s pr e a d us e o f l a nd us e or di na nc e s a nd r e gul a t i ons i n m a na gi ng t he c ha l l e nge s i nhe r e nt t o l a r ge ur ba ni z e d popul a t i ons e xi s t i ng on ka r s t l a nds H o w e ve r t hi s p r a c t i c e i s not l i m i t e d t o ur ba ni z e d a r e a s K a r s t l a nds c a pe s a l s o e xi s t i n l e s s de ve l ope d a nd w i l d a r e a s ; i n m a ny c a s e s t he s e l a nds c a pe s e xi s t i n c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o na t ur a l r e s our c e s a nd c oul d e a s i l y s uf f e r s e r i ous da m a ge i f t hos e r e s our c e s w e r e t o be e xpl oi t e d w i t hout r e ga r d f or t he ka r s t G ove r nm e nt s w i l l t he r e f o r e of t e n e s t a bl i s h pr ot e c t e d a r e a s i n t he s e l oc a t i ons w i t h t he i nt e nt of p r ot e c t i ng t he ka r s t l a nds c a pe f r om hum a n a c t i vi t i e s ge ne r a l l y r e l a t e d t o r e s our c e e xpl oi t a t i on. P r ot e c t e d a r e a s a r e a r e a s i n w hi c h l a nd us e r e s t r i c t i ons a r e i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h t he s pe c i f i c pur pos e of pr ot e c t i n g t he i nt e gr i t y of t he na t u r a l r e s our c e s of a n a r e a I n s om e c a s e s t he pr ot e c t i on a f f or de d b y pr ot e c t e d a r e a s t a t us a ddr e s s e s r e s our c e s not di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o ka r s t i nc l udi ng f o r e s t s a nd s ur f a c e w a t e r s H ow e ve r a ppl yi ng pr ot e c t i ons t o r e s our c e ba s e s l i ke t he s e c a n of t e n ha v e be ne f i c i a l s pi l l ove r e f f e c t s f or l oc a l ka r s t s ys t e m s I n t hi s c ha pt e r I w i l l di s c us s t he c onc e pt of t he p r o t e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h a nd de s c r i be e xa m pl e s i n w hi c h t hi s a ppr oa c h i s a ppl i e d t o ka r s t l a nds i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd A us t r a l i a I w i l l t h e n e xa m i ne t he a ppl i c a t i on o f t he

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214 pr ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h t o t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k i n R om a ni a M y goa l i s t o i de nt i f y w a ys i n w hi c h s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c f a c t o r s i nt r odu c e d by a pa r k s popul a t i on m i gh t i m pa c t t he de ve l opm e nt o f a pa r k s m a na ge m e nt p l a n. T h r ough t hi s pr oc e s s I hope t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he di f f e r e nt c i r c um s t a nc e s a nd c ont e xt of p r ot e c t e d a r e a r e gul a t i on a nd m a na ge m e nt i n l e s s de ve l ope d ( e c onom i c a l l y s pe a ki ng) c ount r i e s a nd how t hos e c i r c um s t a nc e s a f f e c t t he de ve l opm e nt a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pr ot e c t e d a r e a r e gul a t i ons Methodology I n c ont r a s t t o m uc h of t he r e s t of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, t he a na l ys i s c onduc t e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r i s m uc h m or e qua l i t a t i ve T he pr i m a r y m e t hods us e d f or t hi s c ha pt e r w e r e a n a na l ys i s of t he A pus e ni P a r k s m a na ge m e nt p l a n, w hi c h w a s pl a c e d i nt o c ont e xt by i nt e r vi e w s w i t h i ndi vi dua l s i nvol ve d i n t he de ve l o pm e nt of t he pl a n, a n a na l ys i s of e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e on t he A pus e ni P a r k a br i e f e xa m i na t i on of pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a ns f r om e l s e w he r e i n t he w or l d a nd by pe r s ona l obs e r va t i ons f r om a t r i p t o t he pa r k i n e a r l y s um m e r 2006. The study area: R omanias A puseni Nat ural Park S e ve r a l f a c t or s c ont r i bu t e d t o t he s e l e c t i on of A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k a s t he s t udy a r e a F i r s t t he pa r k i s a l a r ge non ur ba ni z e d a r e a w he r e t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n hum a ns a nd t he unde r l yi ng ka r s t s ys t e m ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o a dve r s e l y a f f e c t bot h t he ka r s t i t s e l f a nd t he l oc a l hum a n popul a t i on. S e c ond, t he pa r k i s a t t he a ppr opr i a t e s t a ge i n i t s l i f e c yc l e i n t ha t i t i s r e l a t i ve l y w e l l e s t a bl i s he d a s a na t ur e pa r k, but ha s onl y r e c e nt l y de ve l ope d a ny s or t of of f i c i a l m a na ge m e nt pl a n t h a t a t t e m pt s t o a ddr e s s t he i s s ue s of

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215 hum a n ka r s t i nt e r a c t i on. F i na l l y be c a us e R om a ni a i s one of E u r ope s poor e r c ount r i e s 1 ( W or l d B a nk D e ve l opm e nt I ndi c a t or s 200 6 ) a ny ka r s t m a na ge m e nt a ppr oa c he s i m pl e m e nt e d by t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n w i l l ha ve t o w or k w i t hi n s t r i c t budge t a r y a nd f undi ng c ons t r a i nt s ; t he s e a ppr oa c he s w oul d t he r e f or e be m or e l i ke l y t o be t r a ns f e r a bl e t o ot he r l ow w e a l t h c ount r i e s w i t h s i gni f i c a nt ka r s t r e s our c e s I n t he l a t e s pr i ng of 2006 I ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o c onduc t s e ve r a l w e e ks of f i e l d w or k i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k. D ur i ng t ha t t i m e I obs e r ve d a nd r e c or de d ge ne r a l c ondi t i ons on t he g r ound i n t he pa r k a nd I c onduc t e d ope n e nde d i nt e r vi e w s of pa r k r e s i de nt s a nd pa r k s e r vi c e e m pl oye e s M uc h of t hi s c ha pt e r i s ba s e d on t he s e obs e r va t i ons a nd i nt e r vi e w s T he A pus e ni M ount a i ns a r e pa r t of t he l a r ge r C a r p a t hi a n m ount a i n r a nge a nd a r e l oc a t e d i n t he w e s t e r n pa r t of t he c ount r y, w he r e m uc h of R o m a ni a s ka r s t c a n be f ound T hi s i s t he l oc a t i on of t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k ( F i gur e s 9 1 a nd 9 2 ) w hi c h c ont a i ns a ppr oxi m a t e l y 80 pe r c e nt of t he ka r s t i c r oc ks of t h e B i hor V l a de a s a r a nge B oa s t i ng w e l l ove r a doz e n s upe r l a t i ve ka r s t f e a t ur e s i nc l udi n g t he S c a r i s oa r a I c e C a ve a nd one of t he de e pe s t c a ve s i n R om a ni a t he de ve l opm e nt o f a na t ur a l pa r k i n t he A pus e ni r a nge w a s s e ve r a l de c a de s i n t he m a ki ng T he i de a w a s f i r s t r a i s e d i n t he 1940s by not e d R om a ni a n bi ol ogi s t E m i l R a c ovi t a a s a w a y t o p r o t e c t t he a r e a s ka r s t l a nd f or m s a nd f e a t ur e s T he pa r k w a s of f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d i n 2003 w i t h t he unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t a pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n w oul d f ol l ow ( a dr a f t w a s c om pl e t e d i n 2006) T hi s pl a n w oul d be de s i gne d t o m a na ge t he na t ur a l pa r k a nd t he na t ur a l r e s o ur c e s i ns i de i t a nd w oul d ha ve t o 1 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 2 0 0 6 e d i t i o n o f t h e W o r l d B a n k D e v e l o p m e n t I n d i c a t o r s R o m a n i a i s c a t e g o r i z e d a s a l o w e r m i d d l e i n c o m e c o u n t r y S e v e n o t h e r E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s A l b a n i a B e l a r u s B o s n i a a n d H e r z e g o v i n a B u l g a r i a M a c e d o n i a F Y R S e r b i a a n d M o n t e n e g r o a n d U k r a i n e a l s o s h a r e t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n M o s t o f t h e b a l a n c e o f E a s t e r n E u r o p e c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e u p p e r m i d d l e i n c o m e c a t e g o r y w i t h a l l o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e c a t e g o r i z e d a s u p p e r i n c o m e M o l d o v a i s t h e o n l y E u r o p e a n c o u n t r y f o u n d i n t h e l o w i n c o m e c a t e g o r y

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216 ba l a nc e t he t w i n obj e c t i ve s of pr ot e c t i ng t he na t ur a l r e s our c e s of t he pa r k, w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y e na bl i ng t he pa r k s s i gni f i c a nt pop ul a t i on t o de ve l op e c onom i c a l l y. T he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he pa r k i t s e l f i t r oot e d i n t he l e ga l a ut hor i t y pr ovi de d by a gove r nm e nt or de r i s s ue d i n 1990 ( M A P P M O r de r no. 7/ 1990) T he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n dr a w s upon R om a ni a n f e de r a l l a w ( L a w N o 462/ 2001) a s t he l e ga l ba s i s of i t s a ut hor i t y, w i t h va r i ous o t he r f e de r a l l a w s o r de r s a nd gove r nm e nt d e c i s i ons pr ovi di ng a l e ga l f r a m e w or k f or da y t o da y ope r a t i ons of t he p a r k a nd t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pl a n. O f pa r t i c ul a r i nt e r e s t f o r t hi s c ha pt e r i s t he p l a n s c a ve m a na ge m e nt c om pone nt s w hi c h w i l l be e xpl o r e d i n de t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s c ha pt e r O ve r a l l R om a ni a i s not a hi ghl y ka r s t i c c ount r y L e s s t ha n 2 pe r c e nt of R om a ni a s l a nd a r e a i s unde r l a i n by c a r bona t e be d r oc k; 13 pe r c e nt of t he c ount r y s ove r a l l w a t e r s uppl y c om e s f r om g r oundw a t e r w i t h onl y 2 pe r c e nt of t ha t c om i ng f r om ka r s t l a nds I n e a c h c a s e t he s e a r e a m ong t he l ow e s t l e ve l s i n E ur ope ( Z w a hl e n, 2003 ) H ow e ve r m uc h o f t he ka r s t t ha t c a n be f ound i n R om a ni a e xi s t s i n t he ge ne r a l v i c i ni t y o f t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k a nd w i t hi n t he pa r k i t s e l f w hi c h c ont a i ns doz e ns of s i gni f i c a nt c a ve s a nd c ount l e s s s i nkhol e s m a ny of w hi c h a r e us e d a s m a ke s hi f t t r a s h dum ps ( M os pe r s c om m 2007 ) O r di na r i l y, pr ot e c t i ng ka r s t l a ndf o r m s w i t hi n a na t ur a l pa r k c oul d be a r e l a t i ve l y s i m pl e m a t t e r of r e s t r i c t i ng a c c e s s a nd us a ge of ka r s t i f i e d l a nds H ow e ve r i n t he c a s e of t he A pus e ni pa r k, t he s ol ut i on i s no t qui t e a s s i m pl e a s t ha t T he r e a s on ha s t o do w i t h t he a r e a s hum a n popul a t i on a nd t he a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t s on t he pa r k s ka r s t A s l a t e a s t he 19 t h c e nt ur y, A pus e ni pe a s a nt s w e r e m or e c om m o nl y e nga ge d i n i ndus t r i e s l i ke ha ndi c r a f t s a nd t r a de i ns t e a d o f t i m be r i ng. T he s e e c onom i c a c t i vi t i e s w e r e not

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217 de t r i m e nt a l t o t he ka r s t a s l a r ge s c a l e t i m be r i ng w oul d ha ve be e n. T he be gi nni ng of t he r a i l w a y a ge a t a ppr oxi m a t e l y t ha t t i m e he l pe d c ha n ge t he na t ur e o f t he l oc a l e c onom y, s i m ul t a ne ous l y c ont r i but i ng t o a ge ne r a l ove r de ve l opm e nt of t he a r e a a nd t o bi odi ve r s i t y c ha nge s ( ne w t r a ns por t a t i on t e c hnol ogy m a de i t e a s i e r t o i m po r t a l i e n s pe c i e s a s w e l l a s F i g u r e 9 1 A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k R o m a n i a M a p a u t h o r : A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k m a n a g e m e n t U s e d b y p e r m i s s i o n

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218 F i g u r e 9 2 L a n d u s e m a n a g e m e n t z o n e s i n A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k M a p a u t h o r : A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k m a n a g e m e n t U s e d b y p e r m i s s i o n

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219 t o e xpor t t i m be r p r oduc t s ) ( T ur noc k 2000) T oda y, t he a r e a of t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k ha s a t ot a l popul a t i on o f a ppr oxi m a t e l y 10, 000 pe opl e di s pe r s e d a m ong t he pa r k s 75 786 he c t a r e s C e r t a i nl y t hi s i s not a hi gh popul a t i on de ns i t y i n a n a bs ol ut e s e ns e H ow e ve r w hi l e s om e W e s t e r n pr ot e c t e d a r e a s do c ont a i n popul a t i ons o f t ha t s i z e m os t ge ne r a l l y do not ; t hi s a dds a c om pl i c a t i ng f a c t or t o a ny a na l ys i s of t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n i n pl a c e a t A pus e ni D e s pi t e t he hi gh ove r a l l popul a t i on ( r e l a t i ve t o t ha t of o t he r pa r ks ) t he i nd i vi dua l s e t t l e m e nt s t he m s e l ve s t e nd t o be qui t e s m a l l f o r e xa m pl e S c a r i s oa r a l oc a t e d a t t he s out he r n e nd of t he pa r k ha s onl y a bout 600 r e s i de nt s a nd i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by s c a t t e r e d c l us t e r s of be t w e e n t w o a nd e i ght hous e s S m a l l s c a l e a gr i c ul t ur e i s w i de l y p r a c t i c e d; m os t hous e s a r e a dj a c e nt t o a t l e a s t a s m a l l a gr i c ul t u r a l pl ot a n d t he l a nds c a pe i s dot t e d w i t h s i nkhol e s t ha t ha ve be e n c onve r t e d t o a gr i c ul t u r a l us e ( F i gu r e s 9 3 a nd 9 4 ) E l e c t r i c i t y i s a va i l a bl e i n s om e a r e a s of t he pa r k a s e vi de nt f r om t he pr e s e nc e of pow e r l i ne s ( F i gu r e 9 5 ) H ow e ve r a c c e s s t o e l e c t r i c i t y i s not un i ve r s a l a nd not a l l hom e s t ha t ha ve a c c e s s a r e a c t ua l l y c onne c t e d t o p ow e r l i ne s G r oundw a t e r qua l i t y i n s om e a r e a s of t he pa r k i s poor ; how e ve r t he s e pr o bl e m s a r e qui t e l oc a l i z e d, a nd a r e no t w i de s pr e a d e nough t o pr e ve nt pa r k r e s i de nt s f r om dr i nki ng di r e c t l y f r om l oc a l s t r e a m s S om e c om m uni t i e s w i t hi n t he pa r k ha ve be gun us i ng w a t e r s f r om t he l oc a l ka r s t s ys t e m a s t he s our c e w a t e r s f or ne w m ode r n w a t e r s uppl y s ys t e m s w hi c h a r e be i ng de ve l ope d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d a s a m e a ns of m ode r ni z i ng t he m ount a i n l i f e s t yl e a nd o f a t t r a c t i ng t our i s m oppor t uni t i e s ( M os pe r s c om m 2007 ) M uc h of t he pa r k l a c ks di r e c t a c c e s s t o s e w a ge s e r vi c e s ; i n s om e a r e a s r e s i de nt s j us t dum p t he i r w a s t e s w he r e ve r t he y c a n. T hi s i s a t r i c ky p r obl e m t o s ol ve a s t he di s pe r s e d popul a t i on w i t hi n t he pa r k m a ke s i t di f f i c ul t

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220 t o c os t e f f e c t i ve l y i m p l e m e nt a ny ki nd of s e w a ge i nf r a s t r uc t ur e B i ol ogi c a l pol l ut i on of t he gr oundw a t e r ha s oc c ur r e d a s a r e s ul t o f c e r t a i n a c t i ons on t he pa r t of t our i s t s a nd l oc a l r e s i de nt s i nc l udi ng i na ppr opr i a t e dum pi ng of w a s t e s but i t i s not c ons i de r e d a m a j or pr obl e m ye t I n s om e a r e a s f e c a l c ont a m i na t i on i s s i gni f i c a nt e nough t o r e nde r t he w a t e r non pot a bl e C he m i c a l pol l ut i on ha s not ye t be e n e nc ount e r e d, pe r ha ps be c a us e t he r e a r e no pot e nt i a l s our c e s of s uc h c ont a m i na t i on w i t hi n t he pa r k ( M os pe r s c om m 2007; pe r s ona l obs e r va t i on, 2006) S t i l l t he c u r r e nt ve r s i on of t he pa r k s m a na ge m e nt p l a n not e s t ha t t he m a j or i t y of w a t e r s our c e s i n A N P a r e a f f e c t e d by pol l ut i on; s om e of t he m a r e e ve n not pot a bl e ( dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 200 6, s e c 3 2. 1 2) F i g u r e 9 3 A g r i c u l t u r e i n a d o l i n e n e a r S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k

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221 F i g u r e 9 4 A g r i c u l t u r e i n a d o l i n e a t S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k F i g u r e 9 5 N e w e r s t r u c t u r e s n e a r S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k T h e c o n c r e t e p o l e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d i s a u t i l i t y p o l e f o r l o c a l e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y

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222 F i g u r e 9 6 F a r m h o u s e a n d r o a d n e a r S c a r i s o a r a A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k R oa ds i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k t e nd t o be ve r y r ough, w i t h s om e be i ng l i t t l e m or e t ha n t r a i l s T he e nt i r e pa r k ha s onl y a s i ngl e pa ve d r oa d; f o r m os t o f t he pa r k, ve hi c ul a r a c c e s s i s onl y pos s i bl e vi a pot hol e d di r t r oa ds ( F i gur e 9 6) S om e pa r k pe r s onne l a nd l oc a l s pe l e ol ogi s t s a r gue t ha t t he pa r k s pa ve d r oa d s i t ua t i o n a c t ua l l y w or ks t o t he pa r k s a dva nt a ge by l i m i t i ng a c c e s s f or l oggi ng t r uc ks a nd t ou r i s t s w hi c h i n t ur n m a ke s i t e a s i e r t o pr e s e r ve t he pa r k l a nds c a pe ( pe r s ona l obs e r va t i on, 2006 ) P r e ve nt i ng e xc e s s i ve l oggi ng a nd t i m be r i ng i s s e e n by pa r k m a na ge m e nt pe r s onne l a s pa r a m ount i n e f f or t s t o pr e s e r ve t he na t ur a l s t a t e o f t he pa r k a s de f o r e s t a t i on ha s w e l l doc um e nt e d ne ga t i ve i m pa c t s on ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd l a ndf or m s ( dr a f t pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 2006; M os pe r s c om m 2006 a nd 2007)

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223 P r ot e c t i ng a ka r s t l a nds c a p e s uc h a s t hi s one w oul d l i ke l y be ve r y di f f i c ul t i f not i m pos s i bl e us i ng t he r e gul a t o r y t ool s de s c r i be d i n e a r l i e r c ha pt e r s of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. I ns t e a d, pa r k m a na ge r s ha ve de c i de d t o t a ke t he pr ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h. A s t he ne xt s e c t i on de m ons t r a t e s t hi s a ppr oa c h i s of t e n us e d i n i s ol a t e d, l e s s e c onom i c a l l y de ve l ope d l a nds c a pe s ; how e ve r i t i s not w i t hout i t s d r a w ba c ks The protected are a approach: an overvi ew T he W or l d C ons e r va t i on U ni on ( I U C N ) de f i ne s a pr ot e c t e d a r e a a s a n a r e a of l a nd a nd/ or s e a e s pe c i a l l y de di c a t e d t o t he pr ot e c t i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e of bi ol ogi c a l di ve r s i t y, a nd o f na t ur a l a nd a s s oc i a t e d c ul t ur a l r e s our c e s a nd m a na ge d t hr ough l e ga l o r ot he r e f f e c t i ve m e a ns ( W or l d C ons e r va t i on U ni o n, 2000 p 12 ) S i x di f f e r e nt t ype s of pr ot e c t e d a r e a s a r e i de nt i f i e d by t he I U C N : t he s t r i c t na t ur e r e s e r ve ; t he na t ur a l pa r k; t he na t ur a l m onum e nt ; a ha bi t a t / s pe c i e s m a na ge m e nt a r e a ; pr ot e c t e d l a nds c a pe s a nd s e a s c a pe s ; a nd m a na ge d r e s our c e pr ot e c t e d a r e a s A l l of t he s e a r e a t ype s i nc or por a t e di f f e r e nt l e ve l s o f pr o t e c t i on, f r om pr e s e r vi ng na t u r e i n a n undi s t ur be d s t a t e t o pr ot e c t i ng t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of a n a r e a s na t ur a l r e s our c e s i n or de r t o e ns ur e t ha t f ut ur e us e o f t he r e s our c e i s pos s i bl e W i t hi n pr ot e c t e d a r e a s s om e s or t of f e de r a l a ut hor i t y i s g e ne r a l l y c i t e d a s j us t i f i c a t i on f or t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of ka r s t p r ot e c t i on pol i c i e s F o r e xa m pl e t he G r a nd C a nyon R e c r e a t i ona l A r e a c i t e s t he F e de r a l C a ve P r ot e c t i on A c t a s w e l l a s N a t i ona l P a r k S e r vi c e M a na ge m e nt P ol i c i e s a s t he s our c e of i t s a ut hor i t y t o r e gul a t e t he pa r k. A s e t o f 1998 r e vi s i ons t o t he s e N P S pol i c i e s e xpl i c i t l y s t a t e t ha t l o c a l a nd r e g i o n a l h y dr ol o g i c a l s y s t e m s r e s ul t i n g f r o m k a r s t p r oc e s s e s c a n b e d i r e c t l y i nf l u e n c e d b y s ur f a c e a nd s ub s ur f a c e l a nd us e p r a c t i c e s . I f e x i s t i n g or p r o p o s e d d e v e l o pm e n t s s uc h a s bui l d i n g s

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224 r o a dw a y s a nd o t he r i n f r a s t r uc t ur e do or w i l l s i g n i f i c a nt l y a l t e r or a dv e r s e l y i m pa c t ka r s t p r oc e s s e s t he s e i m pa c t s w i l l b e m i t i g a t e d. I f m i t i g a t i on i s no t p o s s i bl e a l t e r n a t i v e s ou t s i de of t he k a r s t i c a r e a w i l l b e s ou g h t ( N a t i on a l P a r k S e r v i c e M a na g e m e n t P ol i c y R e v i s i on 1998 ) T he s e s our c e s a r e a l s o c i t e d b y m a n a g e m e nt pl a n s p u bl i s he d f o r C a r l s ba d C a v e r n i n N e w M e x i c o U S A a nd S e quo i a a nd K i n gs P a r k i n C a l i f o r n i a a nd N e va d a U S A M a ny ka r s t l a nds c a pe s t hr oughout t he w or l d f a l l u nde r t he um b r e l l a of I U C N pr ot e c t i on. A c c or di ng t o t he or ga ni z a t i on s G ui de l i ne s f or C a ve a nd K a r s t P r ot e c t i on, ka r s t l a nds c a pe s m e r i t t hi s pr ot e c t i on f or t he f ol l o w i ng r e a s ons : A s ha b i t a t f or e nd a ng e r e d s pe c i e s of f l or a a nd f a u na A s s i t e s c on t a i n i ng r a r e m i n e r a l s or un i qu e l a nd f or m s A s i m po r t a n t s i t e s f or t h e s t udy of g e o l ogy g e o m o r pho l ogy pa l a e on t o l ogy a nd o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s A s c u l t ur a l l y i m por t a n t s i t e s bo t h h i s t o r i c a nd pr e h i s t or i c A s s pi r i t u a l or r e l i g i ous f e a t u r e s F or s pe c i a l i s e d a gr i c u l t ur e a nd i ndus t r i e s A s w i ndo w s i n t o und e r s t a nd i ng r e g i on a l hyd r o l o gy. A s s our c e s of e c ono m i c a l l y i m por t a n t m a t e r i a l s F or t ou r i s m a nd i t s a s s oc i a t e d e c ono m i c b e n e f i t s ( W or l d C on s e r v a t i on U ni on 2005 a p 7 ) T he I U C N c ons i de r s t he c onc e pt o f O ut s t a ndi ng U ni ve r s a l V a l ue w he n de t e r m i ni ng e l i gi bi l i t y f o r i nc l us i on a s a W or l d H e r i t a ge S i t e T he I U C N de f i ne s O ut s t a ndi ng U ni ve r s a l V a l ue a s c ul t ur a l a nd/ or n a t ur a l s i gni f i c a nc e w hi c h i s s o e xc e pt i ona l a s t o t r a ns c e nd na t i ona l bounda r i e s a n d t o be o f c om m on i m por t a nc e f or pr e s e nt a nd f ut ur e ge ne r a t i ons of a l l hum a ni t y ( W or l d C ons e r va t i on U ni on, 2005b, p. 1) E s s e nt i a l l y, ka r s t l a ndf o r m s c a n be c ons i de r e d e xa m pl e s of O ut s t a ndi ng U ni ve r s a l V a l ue

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225 by vi r t ue o f t he f a c t t ha t t he y a r e out s t a ndi ng e xa m pl e s r e pr e s e nt i ng m a j or s t a ge s of e a r t h's hi s t or y, i nc l udi ng t he r e c or d of l i f e s i gni f i c a nt on goi ng ge ol ogi c a l pr oc e s s e s i n t he de ve l opm e nt of l a ndf or m s or s i gni f i c a nt ge om or phi c or phys i ogr a phi c f e a t ur e s ( W or l d C ons e r va t i on U ni on 2005b p 7 ) T he I U C N s gui de l i ne s f o r c a ve a nd ka r s t pr ot e c t i on a r e i nt e nde d a s a w a y t o boos t a w a r e ne s s of ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s w i t hi n t he I U C N a nd ot he r a s s oc i a t e d a ge nc i e s T he e m pha s i s he r e i s on na t i ona l pa r ks a nd p r ot e c t e d a r e a s r a t he r t ha n ur ba ni z e d e nvi r onm e nt s T he gui de l i ne s a c know l e dge t ha t ka r s t s ys t e m s r out i ne l y i nt e r a c t w i t h w i de r e c ol ogi c a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l s ys t e m s a nd t ha t s uc h i nt e r a c t i on c a n e a s i l y l e a d t o da m a ge or c ont a m i na t i on e ve n w he n s t r i nge nt p r ot e c t i on pr ogr a m s a r e i n pl a c e I n e s s e nc e t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of p r ot e c t e d a r e a s i s not e nough; t he gui de l i ne s hi ghl i ght t he i m por t a nc e of p r ot e c t i ng e nt i r e ka r s t s ys t e m s r a t h e r t ha n l i m i t i ng p r ot e c t i on t o onl y t hos e l a ndf or m s l oc a t e d w i t hi n pa r k bounda r i e s : W he r e a k a r s t a r e a a s a w ho l e or a ny p a r t o f s uc h a n a r e a i s und e r c ons i d e r a t i on t h e pr o t e c t i on s t r a t e gy c hos e n s houl d pr o v i d e f or pr o t e c t i on of t h e t o t a l c a t c h m e n t w h e r e v e r pos s i bl e W he r e t h i s i s no t pr a c t i c a b l e t h e r e s houl d a t l e a s t b e a n e x t e ns i v e buf f e r s ur r oundi ng t h e ke y f e a t ur e s t o b e pr o t e c t e d. ( W or l d C ons e r v a t i on U ni on 2005 a p 15 ) A c c om pl i s hi ng t hi s w i l l r e qui r e a hol i s t i c a ppr oa c h t ow a r d m a na gi ng w a t e r a nd a i r qua l i t y a nd m ove m e nt be t w e e n t he s ur f a c e a nd ka r s t e nvi r onm e nt s I n s om e c ount r i e s w he r e ka r s t pr ot e c t i on i s a pr e s s i ng i s s ue t he e xpe r t i s e r e qui r e d t o do s o i s not p r e s e nt a nd m us t be br ought i n f r om a br oa d. A s m or e a nd m or e m a na ge m e nt a ge nc i e s i m pl e m e nt ka r s t s pe c i f i c m a na ge m e nt pol i c i e s t he i m po r t a nc e of i nt e r na t i ona l i nf o r m a t i on e xc ha nge s ha s be c om e m a gni f i e d. I nde e d, s uc h e xc ha nge s be c om e a l l t he m or e i m por t a nt i n c a s e s w he r e e f f e c t i ve w e l l r e c ogni z e d pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s a r e f ol l ow e d bu t not f or m a l l y doc um e nt e d

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226 Viewpoints on the effectiveness of the protected area approach T he pr ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h i s a c ont r ove r s i a l one W a t s on e t a l ( 1997) s pe c i f i c a l l y r e c om m e nd a ppl yi ng t he pr ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h t o c a ve s a nd ka r s t a r e a s ; s uc h a n a ppl i c a t i on i s c ur r e nt l y unde r w a y i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k. A s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d, t he a r e a i s qui t e r u r a l a nd m os t l y unde ve l o pe d, ye t i t a l s o ha s poc ke t s of hi ghe r popul a t i on de ns i t i e s E c onom i c oppor t uni t i e s a r e l i m i t e d f or t hos e l i vi ng i n t he pa r k, a s a c c e s s t o ne a r by c i t i e s i s t r i c ky, a nd t he r ough t opo gr a phy pr e ve nt s t he de ve l opm e nt of l a r ge s c a l e a gr i c ul t ur e M a ny a r e a r e s i de nt s s e e t he e xpl oi t a t i on o f t he A pus e ni s na t u r a l r e s our c e s a s t he i r t i c ke t t o pr os pe r i t y; how e ve r t he ka r s t i c na t ur e o f t he a r e a m e a ns t ha t i t w oul d be pa r t i c ul a r l y s us c e pt i bl e t o t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t s of m i ni ng a nd f o r e s t r y, w hi c h a r e t w o t r a di t i ona l n a t ur a l r e s our c e ba s e d e c onom i c a c t i vi t i e s i n t he r e gi on. R om a ni a s na t ur a l pa r k pl a n w hi c h i nc l ude s t he A pus e ni pa r k w a s de s i gne d w i t h t he i nt e nt o f ba l a nc i ng c ons e r va t i on ne e ds w i t h a c c e s s t o w oodl a nds a nd gr a z i ng. W hi l e t he de t a i l s a r e s t i l l be i ng w or ke d out i t s e e m s t ha t e f f or t s t o a c hi e ve t hi s ba l a nc e w i l l f oc us on pr om ot i ng t he gr ow t h of c e r t a i n l ow i m pa c t i ndus t r i e s ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, r ur a l / e c o t our i s m a nd t r a di t i ona l c r a f t s ) a t t he e xpe ns e of ot he r hi gh i m pa c t a c t i vi t i e s I n ge ne r a l t he l a nd us e i m p l i c a t i ons of s uc h a n a ppr oa c h i nc l ude a g r e a t e r pr i or i t y f o r c ons e r va t i on o f bi odi ve r s i t y r e s our c e s m a i nt e na nc e a nd pos s i bl e e xpa ns i on of w oodl a nds a nd no gr ow t h i n a gr i c ul t ur a l i nt e ns i t y ( T ur noc k 2000) ; how e ve r i n A pus e ni a g r i c ul t ur a l i nt e ns i t y i s a l r e a dy ve r y l ow T he r e i s r e a s on t o be opt i m i s t i c a bout t he pr os pe c t s f or t he p r ot e c t i on e f f or t s unde r w a y i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k a s J e ps on e t a l ( 2002 ) no t e t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he e c onom i c pot e nt i a l of a l a nds c a pe a nd t he c ha nc e of s uc c e s s f or c o ns e r va t i on a nd pr ot e c t i on e f f or t s t he r e : C ons e r va t i on a t t r i but e s t ha t oc c ur i n e c onom i c a l l y m a r gi na l hi l l a nd m ont a ne l a nds c a pe s a r e r e l a t i ve l y s a f e f r o m de gr a da t i on, w he r e a s c ons e r va t i on

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227 a t t r i but e s c onf i ne d t o l ow l a nd a nd c oa s t a l l a nds c a pe s a r e unde r s e r i ous t hr e a t a nd a r e poor l y pr ot e c t e d ( J e ps on e t a l 2002, p. 39 ) H ow e ve r D a y a nd U r i c h ( 2000 ) a nd U r i c h, D a y a nd L yna gh ( 2001) c ont e nd t ha t t he e nt i r e pr o t e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h i s p r obl e m a t i c : C ons i de r a bl e c ont r ove r s y s ur r ounds pr ot e c t e d a r e a t he or y w hi c h i l l us t r a t e s a pos i t i ve a nd w or t hw hi l e c onc e pt a nd pr a c t i c e w he r e l i t t l e c ont e xt ua l e vi de nc e p r ove s t h a t pr ot e c t e d a r e a s a r e e f f e c t i ve ( U r i c h, D a y a nd L yna gh, 2001 p 307 ) D a y a nd U r i c h ( 2000) not e t ha t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pr ot e c t e d a r e a a nd c ons e r v a t i on l e gi s l a t i on f l uc t ua t e s w i de l y f r om r e gi on t o r e gi on a s doe s t he na t ur e of s uc h r e gul a t i ons A pp r oxi m a t e l y 12pe r c e nt of t he w or l d s ka r s t l a nds c a pe ha s be e n pr ovi de d s om e pr ot e c t i on vi a d e s i gna t i on a s a pr ot e c t e d a r e a of s om e f or m ; how e ve r t h i s a m ou nt i s not di s t r i but e d e ve nl y t hr oughout t he w or l d s ka r s t l a nds A s a n e xa m pl e a ppr oxi m a t e l y 18 pe r c e nt of C e nt r a l A m e r i c a n ka r s t l a nds a r e c ove r e d by pr ot e c t e d a r e a l e gi s l a t i on ( K ue ny a nd D a y, 2002) w i t h a s m uc h a s 86 pe r c e nt of B e l i z e s ka r s t e nj oyi ng s uc h pr ot e c t i on ( D a y, 1996 ) S pe c i f i c l e ve l s of p r ot e c t i on va r y f r om c ount r y t o c ount r y, w hi c h i s s e e n a s a r e f l e c t i on of popul a t i on, e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l c ondi t i ons E ve n w he n s uc h pr ot e c t i on i s of f e r e d c ondi t i ons w i t hi n t he f e de r a l gove r nm e nt ha ve a n ot i c e a bl e i m pa c t on w he t he r o r not p r ot e c t i on i s a c t ua l l y m e a ni ngf ul : doe s t he f e de r a l gove r nm e nt ha ve t he c a pa c i t y, i n t e r m s of budge t m a npow e r a nd c e nt r a l a ut hor i t y, t o pl a n a nd e nf or c e l a r ge s c a l e na t ur a l r e s our c e m a na ge m e nt pr ogr a m s ? A r e a t t i t ude s t o w a r d c ons e r va t i on f a vor a bl e or un f a vor a bl e ? A s ki ng t he s e a nd s i m i l a r que s t i ons m a y he l p ga uge t he pot e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s of a pr ot e c t e d a r e a p r ogr a m be f or e i t be gi ns ( D a y, 1996; J e ps on e t a l 2002 ; K ue ny a nd D a y, 2002 )

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228 U r i c h, D a y a nd L yna gh ( 2001) not e t ha t t he t r e nd i n ka r s t pr ot e c t i on pol i c y i s t ow a r d gl oba l a nd na t i ona l pr ot e c t e d a r e a s de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t e s t a bl i s hi ng pr ot e c t e d a r e a s i s a l m os t a l w a ys a l oc a l a f f a i r w i t h e f f e c t s a nd i m pa c t s t ha t a r e bor ne p r i m a r i l y by l oc a l r e s i de nt s T he y po i nt out t ha t t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a pr ot e c t e d a r e a i n t he C hoc ol a t e H i l l s r e gi on of t he P hi l i ppi ne s hom e t o one of t h e w or l d s be s t know n ke ge l ka r s t e nvi r onm e nt s ha s l e d t o c onf l i c t s be t w e e n t he f e de r a l gove r nm e nt a nd l oc a l popul a t i ons I n ge ne r a l one pr obl e m w i t h t he s e ki nds of c ons e r va t i on i s s ue s i s t ha t m a na ge m e nt r i ght s a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s c a n r e s t w i t h e i t he r t he c e nt r a l gove r n m e nt or t he l oc a l pe opl e O f t e n gove r n m e nt i nt r us i on i nt o l a nd us e pr a c t i c e s a nd r e gul a t i ons e xt e nds be yond t he bounda r i e s of t he p r ot e c t e d a r e a i t s e l f M or e om i nous i s t he f a c t t ha t i n t he pa s t pr ot e c t e d a r e a c r e a t i on ha s l e d t o f or c e d r e l oc a t i on of i nd i ge nous popul a t i ons i m pove r i s hm e nt a nd t he c ol l a ps e of t r a di t i ona l r e s our c e m a na ge m e nt s ys t e m s T he a ut hor s a l s o c i t e M c N e e l y e t a l ( 1994) a s i de nt i f yi ng i s s ue s t ha t m us t be a ddr e s s e d be f or e pr ot e c t e d a r e a s i n t he P h i l i ppi ne s c a n be c om e a s t a nda r d f i xt u r e of na t ur a l de ve l opm e nt pl a nni ng: t he s e i s s ue s i nc l ude i m pr ov i ng r e l a t i ons be t w e e n pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge r s a nd l oc a l c om m uni t i e s ; i m p r ovi ng p r ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s ; i nc r e a s i ng i nt e r na t i ona l i nvol ve m e nt a nd c oope r a t i on; a nd m a ki ng t he s e a r e a s a s t a nda r d a nd a c c e pt e d pa r t of s oc i e t y vi a e duc a t i on, t r a i ni ng a nd r e s e a r c h ( U r i c h, D a y a nd L yna gh 2001) Protected area r egulati ons in t he UK, U S and Australia C r i t i c i s m s of t he a ppr oa c h not w i t hs t a ndi ng, a dm i n i s t r a t or s a t t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k i n R om a ni a ha ve pr e s s e d a he a d w i t h de ve l opi ng a pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n t ha t i s he a vi l y r oot e d i n t he p r ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h. W i t h R om a ni a s r e c e nt a dm i s s i on t o t he

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229 E ur ope a n U ni on, t he ne xt s e ve r a l ye a r s pr om i s e t o be a t i m e o f s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge f or t he e nt i r e c ount r y, a s i t a t t e m pt s t o t r a ns i t i on f r om a s t r uggl i ng e c onom y w i t h s t r ong s t r uc t ur a l t i e s t o t he ol d C om m uni s t s ys t e m t o a c o unt r y t ha t i s i n t e r m s o f e c onom i c s a nd gove r na nc e a pe e r of w e s t e r n E ur ope a n na t i o ns T o t ha t e nd, t he m a na ge m e nt p l a n f or A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k s houl d be e xa m i ne d i n a m or e w e s t e r n c ont e xt c om pa r e d t o e xi s t i ng pl a ns f r om ka r s t i c a r e a s i n w e s t e r n na t i ons T h i s ne xt s e c t i on c ont a i ns s e ve r a l br i e f de s c r i pt i on s of ka r s t a r e a s unde r pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt pr ogr a m s w i t hi n t he U K t he U S a nd A us t r a l i a T he s e pa r t i c ul a r a r e a s w e r e c hos e n f or r e a s ons of da t a a c c e s s i bi l i t y a nd b e c a us e t he y ha ve m uc h i n c om m on w i t h A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k no t onl y i n t e r m s of t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe but be c a us e t he w e l l de ve l ope d t our i s m t r a de i n t he s e pa r ks e m bod y one of t he ke y a s pi r a t i ons o f A pus e ni pa r k m a na ge r s w ho hope t o de ve l op a n e c ot our i s m ba s e d e c onom y f or pa r k r e s i de nt s T h e s pe c i f i c pa r k pl a ns e xa m i ne d he r e i nc l ude t hos e f or M a m m ot h C a ve N a t i ona l P a r k, M ol e C r e e k K a r s t N a t i ona l P a r k a n d C ons e r va t i on A r e a N a r a c oor t e C a ve s N a t i ona l P a r k, a nd Y o r ks hi r e D a l e s N a t i ona l P a r k. Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA M a m m ot h C a ve N a t i ona l P a r k s or i gi na l m a s t e r pl a n i s da t e d 1970, m a ki ng i t a n e xc e l l e nt e a r l y e xa m pl e of pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt pl a ns i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s M a m m ot h C a ve N a t i ona l P a r k ha s m a ny c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t m a ke i t a us e f ul c om pa r i s on poi nt f or A pus e ni N a t u r a l P a r k i n R om a ni a : t he pa r k s popul a t i on l i ve s a bove a hi ghl y ka r s t i f i e d t e r r a i n t ha t w a s i n 1970 s t i l l s t r ongl y r u r a l i n c ha r a c t e r but w a s f a c i ng t hr e a t s f r om e nc r oa c hi ng de ve l opm e nt a nd gr ow t h. T he M a m m ot h C a ve P l a t e a u ha s ne a r l y 600km of m a ppe d c a ve pa s s a ge s be ne a t h i t w i t h m a ny m a j or c a ve s T he r e i s a l s o a

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230 100, 000 a c r e s i nkhol e p l a i n t o t he s out h a nd e a s t o f t he pa r k w he r e s ur f a c e dr a i na ge i s s ue s a r e i m por t a nt T he c a ve ha s be e n e xpl or e d b y vi s i t or s a nd t ou r i s t s s i nc e a t l e a s t 1816. C ur r e nt l y l a nd i ns i de t he pa r k i s us e d f o r t o ur i s m a nd r e c r e a t i on a nd f or s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a r c h. T he pa r k i t s e l f w a s o f f i c i a l l y e s t a bl i s he d i n 1940; be f o r e t he n, a bout 45 pe r c e nt of t he l a nd a r e a w a s e i t he r unde r c ul t i va t i on or us e d f or gr a z i ng. T he m a s t e r pl a n w a s de s i g ne d t o a ddr e s s s e ve r a l m a j or c onc e r ns t ha t c oul d ha ve i m pa c t s on t he pa r k s ka r s t s ys t e m F i r s t a m ong t h e m w a s t he i s s ue of vi s i t or c onge s t i on, w hi c h ha d a ppa r e nt l y be e n c a us i ng pr ob l e m s a s f a r ba c k a s 1967. T he r e c om m e nde d s ol ut i on w a s t o ope n m o r e e xi s t i ng c a ve pa s s a ge s t o t he publ i c a nd t o d i g out a ne w t unne l f or c a ve e nt r y i n or de r t o m or e e a s i l y f a c i l i t a t e l a r ge r num be r s of t ou r i s t e xpe di t i ons e a c h da y. P e r ha ps a nt i c i pa t i ng t ha t t hi s l e ve l of m odi f i c a t i on m i ght be s e e n a s r unni ng c ount e r t o t he goa l s of ka r s t pr ot e c t i on t h e pl a n s ugge s t s t ha t s a l t pe t e r m i ni ng a nd i ni t i a l c ons t r uc t i on of t our i s t i n f r a s t r uc t ur e ha d a l r e a dy c a us e d s o m uc h da m a ge t ha t t he s e c ha nge s w oul d ha ve onl y a m i ni m a l i m pa c t o n t he he a l t h o f t he c a ve s A ddi t i ona l l y, m oni t or i ng t e c hn ol ogy w oul d be i ns t a l l e d t o ke e p a n e ye on t he e f f e c t s of t he s e c ha nge s i n pa r t i c ul a r t he i nc r e a s e d f oot t r a f f i c w i t h t he i m p l i c a t i on t ha t i f t he da t a de m ons t r a t e t he e nvi r onm e nt i s de t e r i or a t i ng c or r e c t i ve a c t i on c a n be t a ke n. T he pl a n a l s o a ddr e s s e d t hr e a t s t o c a ve s pos e d by vi s i t or c a r c onge s t i on ( ne w pa r ki ng f a c i l i t i e s w e r e l oc a t e d i n a n a r e a unde r l a i n by a n i m pe r vi ous l a ye r o f c l a y) a nd by t he hi gh de m a nds of t he pa r k s w a t e r s ys t e m ; e s s e nt i a l l y, t he pa r k s w a t e r s uppl y s ys t e m us e d s o m uc h w a t e r t h a t f l ow i nt o t he c a ve s w a s r e duc e d. T he r e c om m e nda t i on i nc l ude d i n t he m a s t e r pl a n w a s t e r m i na t i on of c e r t a i n he a vy w a t e r us e a c t i vi t i e s w i t hi n t he pa r k s o a s t o e na bl e t he w a t e r s ys t e m t o be t t e r a c c om m oda t e m or e da y t o da y vi s i t or s

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231 R e c om m e nda t i ons t o a ddr e s s a l l of t he i s s ue s di s c us s e d a bove i nc l ude d a pl a n t o e m ba r k on a c om m un i c a t i ons a nd i nf o r m a t i on c a m pa i gn w i t h pa r k ne i ghbor s a nd r e l e va nt l oc a l or ga ni z a t i ons l i ke t he l oc a l C ha m be r of C om m e r c e or l oc a l de ve l opm e nt di s t r i c t a s a w a y t o ke e p e ve r yo ne on t he s a m e pa ge w i t h r e ga r d t o N a t i ona l P a r k S e r vi c e pol i c i e s on de ve l opm e nt a nd pr o t e c t i on of t he pa r k r e s our c e s I n 1970, a gr i c ul t ur e ha d l ong be e n t he dom i na nt l a nd us e a r ound t he pa r k P l a nne r s of t ha t e r a w a nt e d t hos e c ondi t i ons t o r e m a i n or f o r t ha t l a nd t o r e ve r t t o f o r e s t a s a w a y o f a voi di ng w a t e r pol l ut i on t ha t c oul d da m a ge t he c a ve s T he pl a n a c know l e dge d t ha t c ha nge s i n t he i nt e ns i t y a nd s c ope of de ve l opm e nt ou t s i de t he pa r k w oul d dr i ve pa r k p l a nni ng pr i or i t i e s i n t he f ut u r e T he pl a n a l s o r e c om m e nde d t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a ne w l a nd c l a s s i f i c a t i on pl a n a s a w a y t o c l a s s i f y a nd m a na ge l a nd us e s w i t hi n t he pa r k. T he r e w e r e s i x c l a s s e s i nc l ude d i n t he pr opos e d c l a s s i f i c a t i on s c he m e : c l a s s I i s f o r hi gh i nt e ns i t y r e c r e a t i on a r e a s w hi l e a c l a s s V de s i gna t i on a ppl i e s t o pr i m i t i ve l a nds a n d V I i s f or hi s t or i c a nd c ul t ur a l a r e a s T he m a s t e r pl a n a c know l e dge s t ha t no C l a s s V or V I l a nds e xi s t e d w i t hi n t he pa r k s bor de r s i n 1970; how e ve r a l l C l a s s I V l a nds ( ou t s t a ndi ng na t ur a l f e a t u r e s ) c ont a i ne d by t he pa r k a r e l i s t e d a nd de s c r i be d t he r e i n T he c a ve c e nt r i c na t ur e o f t he M a m m ot h C a ve N a t i ona l P a r k m a s t e r p l a n w a s m os t e vi de nt i n i t s c a ve c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m I n t h i s s ys t e m c a ve s a r e a s s i gne d l e t t e r s f r om A t o E w hi c h a r e i nt e nde d t o de s i gna t e t he l e ve l of i nt e ns i t y of us e a nd de ve l opm e nt of e a c h c a ve Z one A de s i gna t i ons a r e l i m i t e d t o pl a c e s w i t h l i m i t e d e s t he t i c or s c i e nt i f i c va l ue ; a r e a s de s i gna t e d a s Z one B c a ve s a r e ge ne r a l l y c a ve s w i t h l i ght s f oot pa t hs ha ndr a i l s a nd ot he r a m e ni t i e s d e s i gne d t o f a c i l i t a t e l a r ge s c a l e t our i s t i c

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232 a c t i vi t i e s ; Z one C c a ve s i nc l ude pa s s a ge s w hi c h a r e onl y pa r t i a l l y de ve l ope d or ha ve s i nc e be e n a ba ndone d; Z one D c a ve s a r e na t ur a l p a s s a ge s a nd a r e f or us e by e xpe r i e nc e d c a ve r s onl y; a nd a Z one E de s i gna t i on m e a ns t ha t t he a r e a i n que s t i on i s r e s e r ve d f or s c i e nt i f i c s t udy or c ont a i ns pa s s a ge s t ha t w oul d be i r r e pa r a bl y da m a ge d by he a vy us e A n a ddi t i ona l z one Z one F c ons i s t s of a r e a s w i t h uni que na t ur a l or hi s t or i c f e a t ur e s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he C a ve S upe r i nt e nde n t ha s t he a ut h or i t y t o f ur t he r r e gul a t e a nd r e s t r i c t e nt r y i nt o c a ve s a nd pa s s a ge s A c c or di ng t o t he pl a n, t hi s s ys t e m w a s de s i gne d w i t h t he i nt e nt i on of gui di ng c a ve r e s our c e m a na ge m e nt po l i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he r e s our c e s r e m a i n a va i l a bl e a nd a c c e s s i bl e f or r e s e a r c h a nd r e c r e a t i on pur pos e s I n t hi s pl a n w e s e e a n e a r l y e xa m pl e of a p r ot e c t e d a r e a a t t e m pt i ng t o ba l a nc e t he s e e m i ngl y c ont r a di c t or y pr i o r i t i e s of ka r s t p r ot e c t i on a nd i nc r e a s e d vi s i t or a c c e s s t o pa r k r e s our c e s I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t t he m os t l ogi c a l f i r s t s t e p f o r ka r s t p r ot e c t i on m i gh t be t o s ha r pl y l i m i t t he a m ount of hum a n t r a f f i c t hr oug h t he pa r k s c a ve s a nd pa s s a ge s ; how e ve r t hi s s e e m s unl i ke l y t o oc c ur i n a n e xi s t i n g na t i ona l pa r k pa r t i c ul a r l y one t ha t ha s be e n s o he a vi l y vi s i t e d ove r t he l a s t c e nt ur y. Mole Creek Karst National Park and Conservation Area, Tasmania, Australia T he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n f o r t he M ol e C r e e k K a r s t N a t i ona l P a r k f a c e d s e ve r a l unus ua l a nd i nhe r e nt di f f i c ul t i e s f r om t he s t a r t A ny r e s our c e m a na ge m e nt goa l s a r e c om pl i c a t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y by t he f a c t t ha t t he pa r k i s di s j oi nt e d a nd non c ont i guous w i t h m uc h of t he ka r s t s ys t e m a c t ua l l y l oc a t e d out s i de t he pa r k s bounda r i e s : T he pa r k c om p r i s e s t w e l ve s e pa r a t e bl oc ks w hi c h i ndi vi dua l l y e nc om pa s s o nl y m i nor pa r t s o f l a r ge r c a t c hm e nt s s ubj e c t t o a va r i e t y of l a nd us e s S e ve r a l of t he bl oc ks a r e s m a l l pa r c e l s w hi c h s ur r ound c a ve e nt r a nc e s a l t hough t he m a j o r pa r t of t he c a ve s e xt e nd out s i de t he pa r k I n no c a s e doe s a n i ndi vi dua l por t i on e nc om pa s s t he e nt i r e c a t c hm e nt of t he c a ve s l oc a t e d w i t hi n i t ( M ol e C r e e k K a r s t N a t i ona l P a r k

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233 m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 2004 p 39 ) T he pl a n goe s on t o i de nt i f y l oggi ng a g r i c ul t ur e w a s t e di s pos a l a nd l a nd c l e a r a nc e f or ge ne r a l pur pos e s a s s pe c i f i c pot e nt i a l t hr e a t s t o t he k a r s t s ys t e m ; t he s e a r e a na l ogous t o t he t h r e a t s i de nt i f i e d i n t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n f o r R om a ni a s A pus e ni P a r k ( di s c us s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c ha pt e r ) C e r t a i nl y, t he de pe nde nc e of t he pa r k s ka r s t on w a t e r f l ow i ng i n f r om a r e a s out s i de t he pa r k s j u r i s di c t i on ha s t he p ot e nt i a l t o r e nde r a ny m a na ge m e nt pl a n i ne f f e c t i ve f r om t he s t a r t ; i n t hi s M ol e C r e e k f a c e s s om e of t he s a m e m a na ge m e nt c ha l l e nge s f a c e d by G C R A a nd t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k, a m ong m a ny ot he r s T he pl a n out l i ne s t hr e e m a i n c a t e gor i e s of c a ve s : p ubl i c pr e s e nt a t i on c a ve s s pe c i a l va l ue c a ve s a nd w i l d a nd u nc l a s s i f i e d c a ve s T he r e a r e a l s o r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s c a ve s a s w e l l w hi c h c a n be f ound a m ong c a ve s i n e a c h of t he pr i m a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i ons T he s e r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s c a ve s a r e e a c h a l l oc a t e d a m a xi m um n um be r o f a nnua l v i s i t s ; onc e t ha t num be r i s r e a c he d, t he c a ve i s c l os e d f o r t he r e m a i nde r of t he ye a r T he l i s t of pr ohi bi t e d a c t i vi t i e s ha s m uc h i n c om m on w i t h t he l i s t out l i ne d i n ot he r w e s t e r n pl a ns ; t he s e r e s t r i c t i ons s e e m t o be w i de l y a ppl i c a bl e t o s e ns i t i ve ka r s t l a nds c a pe s a nd not s pe c i f i c a l l y de s i gne d f or e a c h i ndi vi dua l ka r s t s ys t e m T he M ol e C r e e k pl a n r e c ogni z e s t ha t s om e c a ve s ha ve e nt r a nc e s or pa s s a ge s t ha t a r e not on pa r k g r ounds ; t he r e f o r e t he pa r k c a nnot be s ol e l y r e s pons i bl e f or t he m a na ge m e nt a nd pr ot e c t i on o f t he s e c a ve s I n or de r t o be t t e r m a na ge i m pa c t s f r om l a nd us e s oc c ur r i ng out s i de t he pa r k s bounda r i e s t he p l a n pr opos e s a j oi nt ka r s t m a na ge m e nt pr ogr a m w i t h t he l oc a l f or e s t r y s e r vi c e a nd a pol i c y of c ol l a bo r a t i on a nd l i a i s on w i t h pa r k ne i ghbor s a nd ot he r us e r s of t he ne a r by M i l l C r e e k K a ns a s C r e e k c a t c hm e nt a r e a T he pa r k i de nt i f i e s a s a n obj e c t i ve g r ow i ng s uppor t f or t he pa r k a nd i t s ove r a l l goa l s w i t hi n t he c om m uni t y A c t i ons t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s i nc l ude de ve l opi ng oppor t uni t i e s a nd

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234 m e c ha ni s m s t hr ough w hi c h pe opl e i nt e r e s t e d i n t h e m a na ge m e nt of t he pa r k w i l l be c ons ul t e d; t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a f or um f or c om m u ni c a t i on be t w e e n s t a ke hol de r s a nd t he pa r k; w or ki ng w i t h a nd i nvol vi ng c a vi ng c l ubs i n r e l e va nt a nd a ppr opr i a t e a s pe c t s of pa r k m a na ge m e nt a nd de ve l opm e nt ; a nd l i a i s i ng w i t h l o c a l l a ndow ne r s r e ga r di ng t he m a na ge m e nt of W e t C a ve T he pl a n a l s o r e c ogni z e s t ha t s t r onge r i nt e r a c t i on m a y be r e qui r e d be t w e e n t he pa r k a nd t he pa r k s i m m e di a t e ne i ghbor s P l a n obj e c t i ve s f or w or ki ng w i t h ne i ghbor s i nc l ude e nc our a gi ng c om p l e m e nt a r y l a nd m a na ge m e nt p r a c t i c e s on a dj a c e nt pa r c e l s a nd e nl i s t i ng c oope r a t i on f r om ne i ghbor s i n c ons e r vi ng pa r k va l ue s A c t i ons pr opos e d t o a c c om pl i s h t he s e obj e c t i ve s i nc l ude w or ki ng w i t h ne i ghbor s t o pr e ve nt l i ve s t oc k a c c e s s c ol l a bor a t i on on a ny i s s ue s t ha t a f f e c t bot h t he ne i ghbor s a nd t he pa r k, a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng j oi nt m a na ge m e nt pr ot oc ol s w i t h t he f o r e s t r y s e r vi c e I n f a c t s uc h a j oi nt m a na ge m e nt pr ot oc ol f o r t he e nt i r e M i l l C r e e k / K a ns a s C r e e k c a t c hm e nt a r e a i s i nc l ude d i n t he M ol e C r e e k pl a n. T he p r ot oc ol c ove r s e ve r yt hi ng f r om c a t c hm e nt m a na ge m e nt t o f i r e t o e r os i on ha z a r ds t o gr a z i ng t o c a ve s a nd ka r s t U l t i m a t e l y, unde r t hi s pr ot oc ol e a c h a ge nc y i s r e s p ons i bl e f or w ha t oc c ur s on t he l a nds f or w hi c h t he y a r e r e s pons i bl e W hi l e t hi s m a y s e e m l i ke not hi ng m or e t ha n c om m on s e ns e i t doe s ha ve t he e f f e c t of i de nt i f yi ng a s pe c i f i c pa r t y t ha t i s r e s pons i bl e f or m a i nt e na nc e a nd pr ot e c t i on of s e ns i t i ve l a nds t ha t a r e out s i de t he pa r k s bounda r i e s but s t i l l ha ve t he p ot e nt i a l t o i m pa c t t he ka r s t s ys t e m w i t hi n t he pa r k T he M ol e C r e e k pl a n i nc l ude s a de t a i l e d s e t of pe r f or m a nc e i ndi c a t or s T he s e i nc l ude bot h m e a s ur e m e nt s of na t u r a l e nvi r onm e nt he a l t h a nd o f vi s i t or i nt e r e s t a nd e nj oym e nt of t he pa r k; a s i n M a m m ot h C a ve N a t i o na l P a r k a nd e l s e w he r e t he s e t w o goa l s ha ve t he pot e nt i a l t o w or k a ga i ns t e a c h ot he r F u r t he r t he pl a n pr opos e s

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235 i m pl e m e nt i ng a vi s i t or r e s e a r c h pr og r a m t o bu i l d a c om pr e he ns i ve vi s i t or m a na ge m e nt m ode l t o be t t e r pr e di c t a nd r e s pond t o vi s i t or g r ow t h a nd i m pa c t t r e nds ove r t he l ong t e r m ( M ol e C r e e k K a r s t N a t i ona l P a r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 2004, p. 5) Naracoorte Caves National Park, Australia T he N a r a c oor t e C a ve s N a t i ona l P a r k M a na ge m e nt P l a n e xpl i c i t l y s t a t e s t ha t c a ve pr ot e c t i on w a s t he goa l o f obt a i ni ng a nd m a na gi ng t he l a nd i n t he f i r s t pl a c e T he pa r k s m a na ge m e nt f r a m e w or k i s b r oke n dow n by pa r k c om pone nt s ( f l or a f a una e t c ) E a c h c om pone nt ha s a l i s t of i s s ue s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i t w hi c h i s a c c om pa ni e d by m a na ge m e nt obj e c t i ve s a nd pr opos e d a c t i on s w hi c h i n t ur n a r e pr i or i t i z e d. T he c a ve m a na ge m e nt s e c t i on i s t he l a r ge s t a nd m os t de t a i l e d of t he s e a n d i nc l ude s a c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m T he goa l s of t he c a ve m a na ge m e nt s e c t i on of t he p l a n s e e m t o be de s i gne d t o s i m ul t a ne ous l y pr ot e c t r e s our c e s w hi l e pe r m i t t i ng s om e publ i c a c c e s s t o t he r e s our c e ; how e ve r pr ot e c t i on ge ne r a l l y t a ke s pr e c e de nc e T he c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m i n us e a t N a r a c oor t e pl a c e s c a ve s i nt o one of t hr e e br oa d c a t e gor i e s P ubl i c A c c e s s S pe c i a l P ur pos e a nd W i l d a nd U nc l a s s i f i e d. P ub l i c A c c e s s c a ve s a r e a c t i ve l y pr e s e nt e d t o t he publ i c a nd a r e s ubdi vi de d i nt o S how C a ve s a nd A dve nt ur e C a ve s c a t e gor i e s B y c ont r a s t s pe c i a l pur pos e c a ve s ( s ubdi vi de d i nt o R e f e r e nc e S pe c i a l V a l ue a nd D a nge r ous c a ve s ) gr a nt a c c e s s by pe r m i t onl y w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of D a nge r ous c a ve s T he r e a r e a l s o c a ve s c l a s s i f i e d a s w i l d c a ve s a s w e l l a s t hos e t ha t a r e l i s t e d a s unc l a s s i f i e d. A c c or di ng t o t he pl a n, w i l d c a ve s w i l l be m a na ge d i n s uc h a w a y t ha t pr ovi de s oppor t uni t i e s f or r e s e a r c h, e xpl or a t i on a nd r e c r e a t i on; unc l a s s i f i e d a r e us ua l l y a w a i t i ng c l a s s i f i c a t i on. E a c h i ndi vi dua l c a ve i s l i s t e d a nd c a t e gor i z e d w i t hi n t he pl a n i t s e l f ; i t i s t he r e f or e a s i m pl e

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236 m a t t e r t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h a c t i vi t i e s a r e pe r m i t t e d w i t hi n a s pe c i f i c c a ve S e ve r a l of t he pa r k s c a ve s h a ve m ul t i pl e c l a s s i f i c a t i ons a ppl i c a bl e t o di f f e r e nt pa r t s of e a c h c a ve Yorkshire Dales National Park L oc a t e d i n t he P e nni ne s i n E ngl a nd t he Y o r ks hi r e D a l e s N a t i ona l P a r k ha s m a ny c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t m a ke i t a n a pp r opr i a t e c om pa r i s on poi nt t o A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k T he s out he r n e nd of t he pa r k ha s s om e of t he be s t e xa m pl e s of l i m e s t one ka r s t l a nds c a pe s i n a l l of B r i t a i n; hi ghl i gh t s i nc l ude s e ve r a l m a j or c a ve s ys t e m s a nd s om e t e xt book e xa m pl e s of pa ve m e nt ka r s t s T he pa r k a l s o c ont a i ns s i gni f i c a nt l i m e s t one ba s e d ha bi t a t s i nc l udi ng upl a nd pa s t ur e s l i m e s t one pa ve m e nt s a nd w oode d a r e a s t ha t m e r i t p r ot e c t i on. L i ke A pus e ni Y or ks hi r e D a l e s i s not e xc l us i ve l y a ka r s t pa r k; pa r k m a na ge m e nt hope s t o pr e s e r ve not onl y ge ol ogi c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt f e a t ur e s but a l s o t he bi odi ve r s i t y f ound i n t he pa r k a nd t he c ul t u r a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pe opl e l i vi ng t he r e ( Y or ks hi r e D a l e s P a r k M a na ge m e nt P l a n, 2007) T hi s l e a ds t o a not he r poi nt o f s i m i l a r i t y w i t h A pus e ni P e opl e l i ve i n t he Y or ks hi r e D a l e s N a t i ona l P a r k t he pa r k ha s ne a r l y 20, 000 r e s i de nt s t oda y a nd ha ve i n f a c t l i ve d i n t he a r e a f or t hous a nds of ye a r s da t i ng ba c k t o t h e P a l e ol i t hi c e r a T r a di t i ona l l y t he l oc a l e c onom y w a s ba s e d on a gr i c ul t ur a l a nd pa s t or a l a c t i vi t i e s l i ke l i ve s t oc k f a r m i ng a nd c he e s e m a ki ng. A gr i c ul t ur e i s s t i l l i m por t a nt t h e r e t oda y, bu t i t s vi a bi l i t y a s a s us t a i na bl e c om m e r c i a l e nt e r pr i s e i s t hr e a t e ne d by l a r ge r f o r c e s be yond t he pa r k s c ont r ol ( Y or ks hi r e D a l e s P a r k M a na ge m e nt P l a n 2007 ) D e m a nd f or r e c r e a t i ona l s e r vi c e s i n t he pa r k ha s b e e n gr ow i ng f o r s om e t i m e D e m a nd f or va c a t i on hom e s i n t he a r e a i s a l s o gr o w i ng, w hi c h ha s t he e f f e c t o f pus hi ng hous i ng c os t s be yond t he r a nge of a f f o r da bi l i t y f or t he ge ne r a l l y l ow e r w a ge i nha bi t a nt s

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237 of t he pa r k T he pa r k a l s o ha s di f f i c ul t y w i t h t he i n c r e a s i ng a m ount s of w a s t e ge ne r a t e d by i ndi vi dua l s a nd bus i ne s s e nt e r pr i s e s de s pi t e t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of r e c yc l i ng p r ogr a m s ; t he l a ndf i l l s i t e s t ha t do e xi s t t he r e a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r f ut u r e c a pa c i t y, s o w a s t e r e duc t i on i s a pr i or i t y ( Y o r ks hi r e D a l e s P a r k M a na ge m e nt P l a n, 2007) T he pa r k s m a na ge m e nt p l a n i s m a r ke dl y di f f e r e nt f r om a ny of t he pl a ns e xa m i ne d i n t hi s c ha pt e r i nc l udi ng t he A pus e ni pl a n, i n t ha t t he r e a r e no e xpl i c i t ka r s t o r c a ve m a na ge m e nt pr ot oc ol s l a i d out w i t hi n i t T he ove r a r c hi ng goa l of t he pa r k l i ke a l l na t i ona l pa r ks i n B r i t a i n, i s t o p r ot e c t a nd c ons e r ve t he na t ur a l be a ut y, w i l dl i f e a nd c ul t ur a l he r i t a ge o f t he pa r k a r e a a s w e l l a s t o c ont r i but e t o t he e c onom i c a nd s oc i a l w e l l be i ng of a ny c om m uni t i e s l oc a t e d w i t hi n t he pa r k T he Y o r ks hi r e D a l e s m a na ge m e nt pl a n s e t s out t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s by br oa dl y a ddr e s s i ng s e ve n c om pone nt s of t he pa r k: l a nds c a pe c om m uni t y a nd c ul t ur e a c c e s s a nd r e c r e a t i on, unde r s t a ndi ng a nd e nj oym e nt na t ur e c ons e r va t i on, hi s t or i c e nvi r onm e nt a nd e c o nom y a nd e m pl oym e nt I t i s e m pha s i z e d t ha t no e l e m e nt c a n r e a l l y be a ddr e s s e d i n i s ol a t i on, due t o t he l a r ge num be r of c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he m a l l H ow e ve r t he poi nt t ha t p r e s e r vi ng t he ge ol ogy a nd ge om or phol ogy of t he pa r k i s e s s e nt i a l t o pr ope r l y unde r s t a ndi ng t he ove r a l l l a nds c a pe i s m a de s e ve r a l t i m e s ; one of t he pl a n s obj e c t i ve s i s t o m a i nt a i n a l l ge ol ogi c a l l y i m po r t a nt s i t e s i n f a vour a bl e c ondi t i on, t hough t h i s t e r m i s ne ve r de f i ne d w i t hi n t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n i t s e l f R e c ur r i ng t he m e s t hr oughou t t he p l a n i n c l ude s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt a nd s us t a i na bl e l a nd m a na ge m e nt ( f or e xa m pl e f a r m i n g us i ng t r a di t i ona l m e t hods i s m or e e xpe ns i ve t ha n us i ng m ode r n m e t hods but s houl d be pr a c t i c e d none t he l e s s i n or de r t o pr e s e r ve t he pa r k s uni que c ul t ur a l qua l i t i e s ) A s i n A pus e ni pa r k m a na ge r s i n Y or ks hi r e D a l e s r e c ogni z e t he i m por t a nc e of

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238 m a i nt a i ni ng t he t r a di t i ona l l i f e s t yl e of pa r k r e s i de n t s s i nc e t ha t i s a ke y c om pone nt of a ny pl a n t o de ve l op a nd gr ow e c onom i c a c t i vi t i e s c e nt e r e d a r ound l ow i m pa c t t our i s m I nde e d, t h e p l a n obj e c t i ve t o de ve l op a w i de r a nge of t our i s m i ni t i a t i ve s dr i ve n by t he pa r k s i m a ge a nd i t s na t ur a l a nd c ul t ur a l a s s e t s i s s uppor t e d by s e ve r a l o f t he ot he r obj e c t i ve s l a i d out by t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n. F or e x a m pl e t he pl a n s pe c i f i e s t ha t l a r ge s c a l e c om m e r c i a l a gr i c ul t ur a l ope r a t i ons a r e not pe r m i t t e d w i t hi n t he pa r k s o a s not t o i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he m o r e t r a di t i ona l a gr i c ul t u r a l a c t i vi t i e s pr a c t i c e d by pa r k r e s i de nt s M or e ge ne r a l l y, t he p l a n s t i pul a t e s t ha t e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s us t a i na bl e e c onom i c a c t i v i t y s houl d be a c t i ve l y pr om ot e d a s good bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e a nd e f f i c i e nt i n t e r m s o f r e s our c e c ons um pt i on, w i t h a t l e a s t 9 he c t a r e s of pa r k l a nd s e t a s i de f or t hi s t ype of e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt ; f ur t he r t he pa r k s S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt F und w i l l be us e d t o s uppor t f ut ur e pr o j e c t s t ha t a r e e xpe c t e d t o br i ng de s i r e d e c onom i c s oc i a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s t o pa r k c om m uni t i e s a nd t he i r r e s i de nt s F i na l l y, s om e of t he t r a ns por t a t i on r e l a t e d goa l s of t he pl a n i nc l ude r e duc i ng t he i m pa c t s of ve hi c l e t r a f f i c w i t h i n t he pa r k, i n pa r t i c ul a r i n t he vi l l a ge s a nd be t t e r i nt e gr a t i on o f c om m uni t y t r a ns por t s e r vi c e s I nc r e a s i ng l e ve l s of t ou r i s t t r a f f i c t o t he pa r k w i l l r e qui r e a bi t of w o r k i n i m pr ov i ng t he pa r k s ove r a l l e xpos ur e t o t he ge ne r a l publ i c ; a ppa r e nt l y f e w e r t ha n 10pe r c e nt o f E ngl i s h a nd W e l s h pe opl e a c t ua l l y know t ha t Y o r k s hi r e D a l e s i s a na t i ona l pa r k I n f a c t t he pl a n a l s o c l a i m s t ha t a s i gni f i c a nt num be r of pa r k vi s i t or s a r e not e ve n a w a r e t ha t t he y a r e i n a na t i ona l pa r k ( t he e xa c t pe r c e nt a ge i s no t s pe c i f i e d) A s i s s e e n w i t h s e ve r a l ot he r pa r k pl a ns i nc l udi ng A pus e ni s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pl a n w i l l r e qui r e c oope r a t i o n f r om e xt e r na l e nt i t i e s t ha t ha ve i nt e r e s t s w i t hi n t he pa r k s bor de r s I n or de r t o a c c o m pl i s h t he goa l s of t he pl a n, pa r k

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239 m a na ge m e nt m us t de ve l op w or ki ng pa r t ne r s hi ps w i t h t he p r i va t e e nt i t i e s t ha t c ont r ol f ul l y 95pe r c e nt o f t he pa r k s l a nd H ow e ve r t he s p e c i f i c na t ur e of t he s e pa r t ne r s hi ps i s not s pe l l e d out w i t hi n t he pl a n i t s e l f pr e s um a bl y t o a l l ow m a na ge m e nt t o r e t a i n s om e f l e xi bi l i t y. T he Y or ks hi r e D a l e s N a t i ona l P a r k M a na ge m e nt P l a n t a ke s a m uc h di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c h t ow a r d l a nds c a pe a nd c ul t ur a l pr ot e c t i on t ha n a ny ot he r pl a n e xa m i ne d he r e T he m a na ge m e nt pl a n i s no t de t a i l e d, a nd i ns t e a d s e e m s t o of f e r br oa d l a t i t ude t o m a na ge r s of how t he pl a n s obj e c t i ve s s houl d be a c c om pl i s he d. I t i s w o r t h not i ng a s e c ond t i m e t ha t t he r e i s no s e c t i on on c a ve or ka r s t m a na ge m e nt w i t hi n t he pl a n, de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t he pa r k c ont a i ns s om e of B r i t a i n s m os t i m por t a nt ka r s t f or m a t i o ns W he t he r s uc h a n a ppr oa c h w oul d be a ppr opr i a t e f o r t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k i s que s t i ona bl e f or r e a s ons t ha t s houl d be c om e a ppa r e nt i n t he r e m a i nde r o f t hi s c ha pt e r The Management Plan for Apu seni Natu ral Park In troduction E a r l i e r t hi s di s s e r t a t i on di s c us s e d t he pr ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h t o r e gul a t i ng l a nd us e i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns L i t e r a t ur e on t he s ubj e c t poi nt s t o s e ve r a l m a j or w e a kne s s e s of s uc h a n a ppr oa c h, i nc l udi ng l oc a l a t t i t ude s t ow a r d pr e s e r va t i on a nd t he a b i l i t y t o e nf o r c e r e gul a t i ons t ha t m a nda t e pr o t e c t i on a nd p r e s e r va t i on. R e c e nt l y, R om a ni a s A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k pub l i s he d a dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n t h a t out l i ne s s t r a t e gy a nd t a c t i c s f o r i m pl e m e nt i ng a pr o t e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h t o pa r k l a nd m a na ge m e nt T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on e xa m i ne s t he pl a n, c om pa r i ng i t s a ppr oa c h t o t hos e t a ke n i n t he pr ot e c t e d a r e a s di s c us s e d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on.

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240 Apuseni Natural Parks plan I n t he s um m e r of 2006, pa r k m a na ge r s c om pl e t e d a dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n f o r t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k. W hi l e i t doe s c ont a i n not e w or t hy ka r s t r e l a t e d c om pone nt s t he m a i n goa l of t he pa r k i t s e l f i s t o m a na ge t he f or e s t r e s our c e s i t c ont a i ns T he pa r k pl a n not e s t ha t R om a ni a s a dm i s s i on t o t he E ur ope a n U ni on m e a ns t he A pus e ni P a r k pl a n w i l l be r e qui r e d t o c onf or m t o E ur ope a n U ni on r u l e s s e t up unde r t he N a t ur a 2000 p r ogr a m a nd w a s w r i t t e n w i t h t ha t goa l i n m i nd ( T he N a t ur a 2000 ne t w or k i s a ne t w or k of e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s e ns i t i ve l a nds t hr oughout E ur ope T he pr i m a r y goa l o f N a t ur a 2000 i s s pe c i e s a nd bi odi v e r s i t y pr ot e c t i on; how e ve r ne t w or k m a na ge r s a c know l e dge t ha t a br oa d ba s e d a ppr oa c h t o l a nd m a na ge m e nt i s ne e de d t o a c hi e ve t hi s goa l E u r ope a n U ni on w e bs i t e ht t p: / / e c e u r opa e u/ e nvi r onm e nt / na t ur e / i nde x_e n. ht m a c c e s s e d N ove m be r 10, 2007. ) T he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k f a l l s unde r t he 5 t h m a na ge m e nt c a t e gor y of I U C N l a nd us e r ul e s ; t hi s i s t he m os t pe r m i s s i ve of t he I U C N c a t e gor i e s i n t e r m s o f l a nd us e t ype s pe r m i t t e d, be c a us e of t he ne e d t o a c c om m oda t e l o c a l popul a t i ons T he pr i m a r y pur pos e of de s i gna t i ng a n a r e a a s 5 t h c a t e gor y l a nds i s t o pr ot e c t t he l a nds c a pe i n t he pa r k r e ga r dl e s s of t he s pe c i f i c f o r m i t t a ke s ; a not he r i m por t a nt pur pos e i s ha bi t a t pr e s e r va t i on, w hi c h i s obvi ous l y r e l a t e d. T he ka r s t pr ot e c t i on a s pe c t s of t he pl a n w o r k by di vi di ng t he pa r k i nt o va r i ous m a na ge m e nt z one s w i t h e a c h z one ha vi ng a di f f e r e nt l e ve l of a c c e pt a bl e a c c e s s a nd us e ( F i gur e 9 2 ) T he s e z one s a r e ba s e d on t he I U C N c a t e gor i e s e ve n a l l ow i ng f or t he f a c t t ha t t he pa r k i t s e l f i s a n I U C N Z one 5 l a nds c a pe Z one 1 ( S c i e nt i f i c R e s e r ve ) i s t he m os t r e s t r i c t i ve w i t h t he onl y hum a n i m pa c t c om i ng f r om s c i e nt i f i c obs e r va t i on a nd m oni t or i ng a c t i vi t i e s N o o t he r a c t i vi t i e s a r e pe r m i t t e d. M uc h o f t he s i gni f i c a nt k a r s t l a nds i n t h e pa r k i nc l udi ng pa r t s o f t he P a di s

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241 pl a t e a u ( F i gur e 9 7) t he V a r a s oa i a pl a t e a u, a nd t h e O c oa l e G he t a r pl a t e a u a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s Z one 2 ( S pe c i a l C ons e r va t i on Z one s ) A l l a c t i vi t i e s pe r m i t t e d i n Z one 1 a r e a s a r e a l s o pe r m i t t e d i n Z one 2 a r e a s O t he r Z o ne 2 a c c e pt a bl e a c t i vi t i e s i nc l ude c ont r ol l e d t our i s m m os t l y l i m i t e d t o t he us e o f vi s i t or t r a i l s ; pa s t ur i ng w i t h dom e s t i c a ni m a l s unde r c e r t a i n c ont r o l l e d c ondi t i ons ; a nd v e hi c ul a r a c c e s s S pe c i f i c a l l y f or bi dde n a c t i vi t i e s i nc l ude a nyt hi ng t ha t i nvol ve s t he c ons t r uc t i on of pe r m a ne nt bui l di ngs ot he r t ha n t hos e ne c e s s a r y f or t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he p a r k, a nd m a s s t our i s m ; t he r e i s a l s o a s w e e pi ng c a t c h a l l c l a us e t ha t s a ys a ny a c t i vi t i e s not s pe c i f i c a l l y a ppr ove d f or t he z one a r e f or bi dde n F i g u r e 9 7 P a d i s k a r s t p l a t e a u A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k H ow e ve r not a l l t he ka r s t a r e a s i n t he pa r k a r e c on t a i ne d i n a r e a s l a be l e d a s z one 1 or 2 T hi s i s a ppa r e nt f r om a w a l k i n t he pa r k i t s e l f be c a us e t he r e a r e pe opl e l i vi ng

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242 a dj a c e nt t o dol i ne s i n t he vi c i ni t y o f S c a r i s oa r a T h e s e l a nds a nd ot he r s l i ke t he m a r e m os t l i ke l y c ont a i ne d i n Z one 3, t he l a nds c a pe pr ot e c t i on z one or z one 4, t he s oc i oe c onom i c de ve l opm e nt z one Z one 3 c ont a i ns l a nds r e s e r ve d f or t r a di t i ona l l a nd us e s l i ke f or e s t r y, pa s t ur i ng, or t e m por a r y dw e l l i n gs a nd i n w h i c h vi s i t or a c c e s s i s e nc our a ge d. Z one 4 i nc l ude s bui l di ng a r e a s of t he c om m uni t i e s s pr e a d a c r os s t he pa r k s t e r r i t or y a nd m or e t ype s o f l a nd us e a r e pe r m i t t e d he r e ( t hough c ons t r uc t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt i s r e s t r i c t e d i n t he v i c i ni t y of t he P a di s t our i s t z one due t o t he s e ns i t i vi t y of t he s ur r oundi ng a r e a ) T he r e a r e how e ve r s t i l l r e s t r i c t i ons on t he de ve l opm e nt of ne w r e s i de nt i a l a nd i ndus t r i a l bui l di ngs t ha t go be yond t he c a pa c i t y of t he l oc a l e c os ys t e m t o a c c om m oda t e t he m or t ha t a r e i nc ons i s t e nt w i t h A N P m a na ge m e nt obj e c t i ve s B e yond t hi s l a r ge s c a l e z oni ng s ys t e m t he A pus e n i pl a n c ont a i ns a c a ve c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m s i m i l a r t o t hos e di s c us s e d e a r l i e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r I n t he A pus e ni s ys t e m t he r e a r e f our c a t e gor i e s o f c a ve s r a ngi ng f r om C l a s s A t o C l a s s D C l a s s A c a ve s a r e t hos e w i t h e xc e pt i ona l va l ue a nd a l l a c t i vi t i e s ot he r t ha n s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a r c h a nd m oni t or i ng a r e pr oh i bi t e d. N e w l y di s c ove r e d c a ve s a r e a ut om a t i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a s C l a s s A c a ve s unt i l f ur t he r s t udy pe r m i t s a m or e a ppr opr i a t e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i on. C l a s s B a nd C c a ve s a r e a l s o pr ot e c t e d, due t o na t i ona l or l oc a l i m por t a nc e r e s pe c t i ve l y; o r ga ni z e d t our i s m or e xpl or a t i ons a r e pe r m i t t e d i n bot h c l a s s e s w i t h pa r k a ppr ova l C l a s s D c a ve s a r e de s c r i be d a s t hos e t ha t l a c k t he s pe c i f i c qua l i f i c a t i ons t o be pl a c e d i n a ny of t he ot he r t hr e e c a t e gor i e s P a r k m a na ge m e nt pl a ns l i ke t hi s one a r e of t e n di f f i c ul t t o i m pl e m e nt be c a us e of c onf l i c t s w i t h or be t w e e n s t a ke hol de r s H e r e t hos e s t a ke hol de r s e nc om pa s s m or e t ha n t hos e i ndi vi dua l s w i s hi ng t o us e or pr e s e r ve t he l a nds c a pe T he pa r k i t s e l f i s a c t ua l l y s pl i t

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243 be t w e e n t hr e e of R om a ni a s c ount i e s a nd t he r e a r e 21 vi l l a ge s or c om m une s t ha t a r e s t a ke hol de r s i n t he pa r k; pe r ha ps 15 of t he s e a r e di r e c t l y i nvol ve d w i t h p a r k bus i ne s s w i t h t he ot he r s s i m pl y ow ni ng p r ope r t y w i t hi n t he pa r k. T hi s a dds a n e xt r a l a ye r of a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s t a ke hol de r s t ha t m us t be na vi ga t e d m a ki ng t he pl a n de ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s a l l t he m or e di f f i c ul t Threats and solutions T he ka r s t w i t hi n t he A pu s e ni N a t ur a l P a r k f a c e s t h r e a t s f r om s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt s our c e s ; how e ve r i n s e c t i on 3 2. 1 t he dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n c onc l ude s t ha t t he s t a t e o f c ons e r va t i on of t he pa r k s ka r s t i s a t a r a t he r s a t i s f yi ng l e ve l T hi s i s a t t r i but e d di r e c t l y t o t he r e m ot e l oc a t i ons a nd l a c k o f c onve ni e nt a c c e s s r out e s f or a l a r ge num be r of t he pa r k s c a ve s ( A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k M a na ge m e nt P l a n dr a f t 2006 ) S t i l l f ut ur e a l t e r a t i ons t o t he pa r k s phys i c a l a nd hum a n l a nds c a pe c oul d r e s ul t i n a dr a m a t i c c ha nge i n t ha t a s s e s s m e nt A s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r s i nkhol e s pr ovi de a di r e c t pa t hw a y t o t he a qui f e r f or s ur f a c e l e ve l c ont a m i na nt s ; i n m a ny a g r i c ul t ur a l a r e a s t hi s l e a ds t o hi gh c onc e nt r a t i ons of ni t r a t e s i n t he g r oundw a t e r H ow e ve r i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k, a gr i c ul t ur e i n s i nkhol e s i s not a c t ua l l y a s i gni f i c a nt t hr e a t t o t he l oc a l ka r s t a qui f e r de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t he ge ne r a l l a c k of a r a bl e l a nd m a ke s t he i nt e r i o r s of dol i ne s a nd ot he r ka r s t i c de pr e s s i ons m or e a t t r a c t i ve f or a gr i c ul t ur e pa r t i c ul a r l y gr ow i n g pot a t oe s T ha t i s due i n pa r t t o t he f a c t t ha t t he a gr i c ul t ur e i s ve r y s m a l l s c a l e m os t l y s ubs i s t e n c e l e ve l ; ge ne r a l l y, t he a gr i c ul t ur e pr a c t i c e d he r e w a s of t e n i n t e nde d t o s u ppl e m e nt t he f ood s uppl y br ought i n vi a t r a de w i t h l ow l a nd f a r m e r s w ho ne e de d t i m be r f r om t h e A pus e ni f o r e s t s A ddi t i ona l l y, c he m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s a r e ge ne r a l l y not us e d be c a us e t he i r c os t pl a c e s t he m

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244 out of r e a c h f or m os t pa r k r e s i de nt s ( M os pe r s c o m m 2007) T ha t s a i d, i n s e c t i on 3. 2. 1 2 of t he pl a n f a r m i ng i s none t he l e s s i de nt i f i e d a s one o f t he m a j or c ont r i but i ng f a c t or s t o t he a r e a s de gr a de d a qui f e r I n a ddi t i on t o t hr e a t s f r o m f e r t i l i z e r s i nt e ns i ve gr a z i ng c a n ha ve a n i ndi r e c t ne ga t i ve i m pa c t on t h e ka r s t a qui f e r by r e m ovi ng t he ve ge t a t i on t ha t a c t s a s na t ur a l f i l t e r i ng m e c ha ni s m s f or s ur f a c e w a t e r pr i o r t o e nt e r i ng t he ka r s t s ys t e m ( dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 2006 ) T hi s i s a pe r f e c t i l l us t r a t i on of t he pot e nt i a l c onf l i c t be t w e e n di f f e r e nt obj e c t i ve s of t he m a na g e m e nt pl a n ( i n t hi s c a s e pr e s e r va t i on of t r a di t i ona l w a ys of l i f e vs pr ot e c t i on of t he ka r s t a nd gr oundw a t e r r e s our c e s ) di s c us s e d e a r l i e r I l l e ga l l oggi ng on t he ot he r ha nd, i s i ndi s put a bl y a m a j or p r obl e m w i t h i n t he pa r k. R om S i l va t he R om a ni a n f or e s t r y s e r vi c e c o nduc t s t i m be r i ng ope r a t i ons w i t h i n t he pa r k a nd pr o f i t f r om t he e xpl oi t a t i on of t he pa r k s na t ur a l r e s our c e s ; how e ve r be c a us e t he l oggi ng t a ke s pl a c e i n a na t i ona l f or e s t pa r k r e s i de nt s do not c ont r ol t he t i m be r r e s our c e s a nd l i t t l e i f a ny of t hi s m one y e ve r m a k e s i t s w a y i nt o t he i r poc ke t s S o m e pa r k r e s i de nt s a r e u na bl e t o r e s i s t t he pr of i t a bl e na t ur e o f f o r e s t r y a nd c ont i nue t o m a ke t he i r l i vi ng f r om t he t r e e s w i t hout of f i c i a l s upe r vi s i on o r a ppr ova l E ve n s o, t he s e s m a l l s c a l e t i m be r i ng ope r a t i ons do not pos e t he t hr e a t t o t he f or e s t r e s our c e t ha t i s pos e d by l a r ge r c or por a t i ons ( P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 2007 ) T i m be r i ng i s s ue s i n ge ne r a l ha ve be c om e a f oc a l poi nt f or a bur e a uc r a t i c t u r f w a r w i t hi n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k. T he r e i s a c on f l i c t be t w e e n t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd t he na t i ona l f or e s t r y s e r vi c e w hi c h now s upe r vi s e s t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on T he pa r k s e r vi c e s e e s i t s r ol e a s pr e s e r vi ng t he l a nds c a pe i nc l udi ng t he f o r e s t ; t he f or e s t r y s e r vi c e s e e s i t s r ol e a s e nc our a gi ng a nd m a na gi ng t he

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245 us e of t he f o r e s t r e s our c e s i n ot he r w o r ds t o pr o m ot e l oggi ng a nd t i m be r i ng w i t hi n t he pa r k ( M os pe r s c om m 2006 ; P e r s oi u pe r s c om m 2007) T he de ve l opm e nt of s um m e r hom e s a l s o t h r e a t e ns t he pa r k s ka r s t s ys t e m s I l l e ga l c ons t r uc t i on w a s onc e c om m on i n t he a r e a ne a r t h e C a ba na P a di s l oc a t e d t ow a r ds t he c e nt e r of t he pa r k ( F i gur e s 9 8 a nd 9 9) W hi l e t he ne w e r c a bi ns a nd s e a s ona l hom e s unde r c ons t r uc t i on t he r e i n t he s um m e r of 2006 w e r e be i ng bui l t l e ga l l y, t he r e w e r e s e ve r a l ot he r s i n t he vi c i ni t y f o r w hi c h no pe r m i t s or a ppr ova l pa pe r s w e r e e ve r i s s ue d. S i nc e t he pa r k s l a nds ha ve be e n i nha bi t e d f o r c e nt ur i e s bui l di ngs a nd s e t t l e m e nt s l ong pr e da t e d t he l e ga l e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he pa r k H ow e ve r m uc h of t he c ons t r uc t i on t ha t ha s t a ke n pl a c e s i nc e t he n ha s be e n i l l e ga l a nd t he pa r k ul t i m a t e l y ha s no r e c our s e a ga i ns t i l l e ga l c ons t r uc t i on ( F i gur e 9 9) A t m os t vi o l a t or s a r e f i ne d a nom i na l a m ount but a r e ne ve r a c t ua l l y r e qui r e d t o r e m ove a ny i l l e ga l l y bui l t s t r uc t ur e s P a r k r a nge r s i n R om a ni a ha ve ve r y l i t t l e pow e r w hi c h i s a s ha r p c ont r a s t t o ot he r c ount r i e s i n t he r e gi on l i ke P ol a nd; be c a us e t he pa r k l a c ks s uf f i c i e nt e nf or c e m e nt a ut hor i t y, t he hi gh l y pr o f i t a bl e na t ur e of i l l e ga l de ve l opm e nt m e a ns t ha t na t ur e a n d e c ol ogi c a l c onc e r ns w i t hi n t he pa r k a r e of t e n i gno r e d ( pe r s ona l obs e r va t i on, 2006; M os pe r s c om m 200 6 a nd 2007) N e a r l y a l l t he pa r k s na t ur a l s ys t e m s a r e t hr e a t e ne d by t he a gg r e s s i ve a nd unc he c ke d de ve l opm e nt of t our i s t i nf r a s t r uc t u r e ( M os pe r s c om m 2007 ) T hi s i s not t o s a y t ha t pa r k m a na ge r s w i s h t o pr ohi bi t de ve l opm e nt w i t hi n t he pa r k, or e nvi s i o n s uc h a pr ohi bi t i on a s pa r t of t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n. I n f a c t qui t e t he oppos i t e i s t r ue : t he y r e c ogni z e t ha t s om e de ve l opm e nt i s ne c e s s a r y t o p r ovi de a n e c onom i c f r a m e w or k f or t he pa r k s r e s i de nt s T he r e a l que s t i on i s one of how t o a c c om m oda t e e c ono m i c gr ow t h w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y pr e s e r vi ng a s m uc h of t he pa r k s l a nds c a pe a s pos s i bl e F or bot h s oc i a l

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246 F i g u r e 9 8 C a b a n a P a d i s A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k F i g u r e 9 9 I l l e g a l c o n s t r u c t i o n n e a r C a b a n a P a d i s A p u s e n i N a t u r a l P a r k

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247 a nd e c ol ogi c a l r e a s ons t he m os t w i de l y de s i r e d t y pe of de ve l opm e nt i s s m a l l s c a l e s us t a i na bl e r ur a l t our i s m ( B uz a e t a l 2001 ) T our i s m i s of t e n t hought t o be a pot e nt i a l gol d m i ne f o r pl a c e s l i ke A pus e ni H ow e ve r m a ny s out he a s t e r n E ur ope a n c ount r i e s i nc l udi ng R om a ni a ha ve a l s o p r ove d e i t he r unw i l l i ng or una bl e t o i nve s t i n t ou r i s m de ve l opm e nt or t o s e c ur e out s i de i nve s t m e nt f or s uc h ve nt ur e s ( H a l l 2004) T hi s i s not uni f or m t hr oughout t he r e gi on a s na t i ona l pa r ks i n P ol a nd a nd S l ova ki a ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d boom i ng bus i ne s s ( T ur noc k, 2000) T he dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n i s c l e a r l y i nt e nde d t o p os i t i on t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k f o r a t r a ns i t i on t o a m a j or t our i s t a t t r a c t i on w i t hi n t he r e gi on, w hi l e s t i l l m a i n t a i ni ng a nd pr ot e c t i ng t he pa r k s na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt T he pl a n s goa l s w e r e de t e r m i ne d w i t h i nput f r o m s t a ke hol de r w or ks hops a s w e l l a s by t h e c or e t e a m i n c ha r ge of de ve l opi ng t he pl a n. S t a ke hol de r s i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k a r e a i nc l ude : R om a ni a n na t i ona l gove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s l i ke t he M i ni s t r y f or E nvi r onm e nt a nd W a t e r M a na g e m e nt t he M i ni s t r y f or A gr i c ul t ur e F or e s t s a nd S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt t he M i ni s t r y f or E ur ope a n I n t e gr a t i on, a nd R om s i l va t he R om a ni a n f or e s t r y a dm i ni s t r a t i on; A dm i ni s t r a t or s f r om t he t h r e e c ount y gove r nm e nt s w i t h l a nd i ns i de t he pa r k bounda r i e s ( t he c ount i e s of A l ba B i hor a nd C l uj ) ; V a r i ous c ont r ol a nd r e gul a t o r y a ge nc i e s a t t he f e de r a l a nd c ount y l e ve l s i nc l udi ng t he f or e s t r y di r e c t or a t e s e nvi r on m e nt a l pr ot e c t i on a ge nc i e s a nd bui l di ng i ns pe c t i on a ge nc i e s f r om e a c h of t he t hr e e c ount i e s ;

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248 V a r i ous p a r t ne r pa r ks i n H unga r y a nd I t a l y; N on gove r nm e nt a l or ga ni z a t i ons ( N G O s ) i nc l udi n g s pe l e ol ogi c a l c l ubs a nd s oc i e t i e s or ni t hol ogi c a l s oc i e t i e s ba t pr ot e c t i on or ga ni z a t i ons a nd e c ot our i s m o r ga ni z a t i ons ; T he N a t ur a 2000 ne t w or k; L oc a l l a nd ow ne r s i nc l udi ng c om m une s c hur c he s s c hool s a nd pr i va t e ow ne r s a s w e l l a s ow ne r s of w e e ke nd hom e s w i t hi n t he pa r k; a nd V a r i ous s c hool s uni ve r s i t i e s m us e um s a nd r e s e a r c h i ns t i t ut i ons T hi s l i s t i s not a n a l l i nc l us i ve l i s t but doe s pr ovi d e a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve de s c r i p t i on of t he l a r ge s t s t a ke hol de r s i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f t he pa r k a nd t he w r i t i ng of t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n. A c c or di ng t o t he dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n, t he s e s t a ke hol de r s ha d i nput i n t he w r i t i ng of t he p l a n i n ge ne r a l a nd i n t he s e t t i ng of pa r k goa l s i n pa r t i c ul a r T he s e goa l s a r e s um m e d up on pa ge 86 o f t he d r a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n: A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k w i l l be : a n i nt e r na t i ona l l y i m por t a nt a r e a o f m ount a i n ka r s t l a nds c a pe w i t h w e l l c ons e r ve d bi o di ve r s i t y, s pe c i f i c a nd qua l i t y t our i s m s us t a i na bl e us e of r e s our c e s a nd a n i nf r a s t r uc t ur e de s i gne d f or s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt ; a nd w i t h l o c a l c om m uni t i e s t ha t m a i nt a i n t he i r un i que t r a di t i ons a nd a good s t a nda r d of l i f e S pe c i f i c obj e c t i ve s a r e w i de r a ngi ng a s t he pa r k c ont a i ns r e s our c e s ot he r t ha n ka r s t a nd t he pl a n i t s e l f i s obl i ga t e d t o a ddr e s s t he s e r e s our c e s a s w e l l H ow e ve r obj e c t i ve s r e l a t i ng di r e c t l y o r i nd i r e c t l y t o ka r s t f o r m a t i ons w i t hi n t he pa r k i nc l ude t he f ol l ow i ng: C ons e r va t i on of t he pa r k s ka r s t a nd pr ot e c t i on of t he ka r s t f r o m da m a ge a nd pol l ut i on ; I nc r e a s i ng s c i e nt i f i c unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t ;

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249 B oos t i ng vi s i t or a w a r e ne s s of a nd i m pr ovi ng vi s i t or s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h, t he pa r k s ka r s t ; P r ot e c t i on a nd r e s t or a t i on of a qua t i c ha bi t a t s w i t hi n t he pa r k a s w e l l a s pr e ve nt i on a nd r e duc t i on of pol l ut i on of t h e pa r k s s ur f a c e w a t e r a nd gr oundw a t e r ; P r om ot e e c ot our i s m a nd na t ur e or i e nt e d r e c r e a t i o n, a s l ong a s t hos e a c t i vi t i e s a r e c om pa t i bl e w i t h a nd a ppr opr i a t e f or t he pa r k s ka r s t f or m a t i ons ; P r om ot e a nd p r ot e c t t he l oc a l t r a di t i ona l l i f e s t yl e a nd c ul t ur a l h e r i t a ge of t he A pus e ni M ount a i ns ; P r om ot e t he de ve l opm e nt of s us t a i na bl e e c onom i c a c t i vi t i e s T he r e a r e po t e nt i a l i nt e r na l c onf l i c t s he r e ; i n pa r t i c ul a r p r ot e c t i ng r e s our c e s l i ke ka r s t f or m a t i ons a nd gr oundw a t e r c a n ve r y e a s i l y c om e i nt o c onf l i c t w i t h t he obj e c t i ve s of pr ot e c t i ng t r a di t i ona l l i f e s t yl e s a nd pr om o t i ng s us t a i na bl e e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt O f c our s e t ha t i s p r oba bl y w hy t he w or d s us t a i na bl e i s i nc l ude d i n t ha t pa r t i c ul a r obj e c t i ve w i t h t he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t a ny s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt w oul d a l m os t by de f i ni t i on, be c om pa t i bl e w i t h t he r e s our c e r e l a t e d obj e c t i ve s Growing tourism and protecting the natural environment: are they mutually exclusive goals? E s t a bl i s hi ng a t hr i vi ng t our i s m s e c t or f a c e s a pr obl e m f r om t he l a c k o f i nf r a s t r uc t ur e e s pe c i a l l y w a t e r a nd r oa ds N e a r l y a l l r oa ds i n t he pa r k a r e unpa ve d f or e s t r y r oa ds ; s om e f or m e r l y pa ve d r oa ds w i t hi n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k ha ve r e ve r t e d t o a n unpa ve d c ondi t i on due t o a l ong t e r m a bs e nc e of m a i nt e na nc e W a s t e di s pos a l i s a not he r s e gm e nt of i n f r a s t r uc t ur e t ha t w i l l ha ve t o be i m pr ove d t o s uppor t a s t r ong pus h

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250 i nt o t he e c ot our i s m s e c t or W hi l e t he r e a r e t r a s h c ol l e c t i ng s i t e s f or t our i s t s us i ng t he f our a ppr ove d c a m pi ng l oc a t i ons w i t hi n t he pa r k t he r e a r e no a c t ua l t r a s h r e m ova l s e r vi c e s be c a us e t he pa r k c l a i m s r e m ova l i s t he r e s pons i bi l i t y of t he t ow ns w hi c h ge ne r a l l y l a c k t he m one y ne e de d t o a c t ua l l y pr ovi de t he s e r vi c e ( P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 2007; pe r s obs 2006) A b r uda n a nd T ur noc k ( 1998) r e c ogni z e t ha t t he s uc c e s s of a ny s t r a t e gy w i t h a n e m pha s i s on pr i va t e f a r m i ng a nd e xpa ndi ng t our i s m w oul d de pe nd on i m pr ove m e nt s t o t he s e publ i c s e r vi c e s T r a ns por t a t i on i s pa r t i c ul a r l y c r i t i c a l s i nc e t he ve r y r oa ds t ha t a r e ne e de d t o br i ng t our i s t s t o t he s e ha m l e t s ha ve pr ov e d t o be e s pe c i a l l y d i f f i c ul t t o m a i nt a i n s i nc e t he e nd of t he C om m uni s t e r a P r ov i s i on of o t he r t ype s of s e r vi c e s i s m a de a l l t he m or e di f f i c ul t by t he s e t t l e m e nt pa t t e r n of di s pe r s e d, ha m l e t s t yl e vi l l a ge s s c a t t e r e d a c r os s r ugge d t e r r a i n. S om e o f t he s e ha m l e t s a r e n ot a c c e s s i bl e t o ve hi c l e t r a f f i c a t a l l P e r ha ps t he s e pr obl e m s of a c c e s s i bi l i t y of f e r a pa r t i a l e xpl a na t i on of w hy r e l a t i ve l y f e w A pus e ni f a r m e r s pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he young a gr ot our i s m i ndus t r y, e ve n t hough m a ny of t he m c ons i de r a gr ot our i s m t o be hi ghl y de s i r a bl e ( A br uda n a nd T u r noc k, 1998) I f t he pa r k i s t o de ve l op a t hr i vi ng t our i s m i ndus t r y t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n w i l l be t he t ool t ha t pr ovi de s t he bl ue pr i nt f or i t T he pl a n out l i ne s s pe c i f i c a c t s t ha t w i l l be t a ke n t o a c hi e ve t he t w i n goa l s of t our i s m de ve l o pm e nt a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l pr ot e c t i on. B e c a us e t hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s c onc e r ne d w i t h l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns I w i l l f oc us he r e on p r opos e d m a na ge m e nt a c t i ons r e l a t e d t o t he ka r s t c e nt e r e d a s pe c t s of e nvi r onm e nt a l pr ot e c t i on T he pl a n de s c r i be s f o ur br oa d obj e c t i ve s r e l a t e d t o pr ot e c t i ng a nd pr e s e r vi ng t he pa r k s ka r s t : c ons e r vi ng t he pa t r i m ony o f t he ka r s t i nc r e a s i ng s c i e nt i f i c know l e dge a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t f a c i l i t a t i ng a nd i m p r ovi ng vi s i t or a w a r e ne s s of ka r s t a nd

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251 r e duc i ng da m a ge a nd p ol l ut i on t o t he pa r k s ka r s t f e a t ur e s a nd l a ndf or m s E a c h obj e c t i ve i s c onne c t e d t o a l i s t o f t he s pe c i f i c m a na ge m e nt a c t i ons t ha t w i l l be t a ke n t o a c hi e ve t he s e goa l s E a c h of t he s e m a na ge m e nt a c t i ons ha s a pr i o r i t y i nd i c a t or o f 1 2 or 3 w he r e 1 i s t he hi ghe s t l e ve l of p r i or i t y A n e xa m i na t i on o f t he s e pr i or i t y i ndi c a t or s c a n he l p i l l um i na t e w ha t a s pe c t s of t he pl a n a r e c ons i de r e d m os t i m por t a nt by pa r k m a na ge m e nt a nd t he ot he r s t a ke hol de r s T he f a c i l i t a t i ng a nd i m pr ovi ng vi s i t or a w a r e ne s s obj e c t i ve ha s f i ve m a na ge m e nt a c t i ons w i t h a pr i or i t y of 1 ( o ut of n i ne t ot a l a c t i ons ) ; r e duc i ng da m a ge a nd pol l ut i on ha s onl y one a c t i on ( out o f s e ve n) w i t h a s hi gh a pr i o r i t y. L i ke w i s e t he obj e c t i ve of i nc r e a s i ng s c i e nt i f i c know l e dge ha s onl y one t op p r i or i t y a c t i o n, out o f a t ot a l of f i ve ( pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n 2006 ) T he t op p r i or i t y m a na ge m e nt a c t i on r e l a t i ng t o r e d uc i ng da m a ge a nd pol l ut i on t o t he pa r k s ka r s t i s a n e duc a t i ona l c a m pa i gn t o i nf o r m r e s i de nt s a bout t he c ons e que nc e s of pol l ut i ng a nd l i t t e r i ng upon t he ka r s t s ys t e m T w o ot he r a c t i ons l i s t e d i n t hi s c a t e gor y a r e de s i gne d t o pr om ot e c ha nge s i n i nf r a s t r uc t ur e o r i n pa r k r e s i de nt be ha vi or ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, t o pr om ot e t he a ppl i c a t i on o f o r ga ni c f e r t i l i z e r a nd t o pr o m ot e i ns t a l l a t i on o f r ur a l w a s t e w a t e r c ol l e c t i on a nd t r e a t m e nt s ys t e m s r e s pe c t i ve l y) ; t he s e a r e gi ve n a pr i o r i t y o f 2. I n t he f or m e r c a s e t hi s l ow e r pr i o r i t y m i gh t be be c a us e t he pove r t y of pa r k r e s i de nt s m a ke s or ga ni c f e r t i l i z e r a c hoi c e of t e n m a de f r om ne c e s s i t y; l i ke w i s e t he l ow e r pr i o r i t y f or p r om ot i on o f w a s t e w a t e r s ys t e m s c oul d r e f l e c t t he a w a r e ne s s t ha t t he c os t of i ns t a l l i ng s uc h a s ys t e m i s ve r y hi gh a nd l i ke l y out of r e a c h a t t he m om e nt I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he one a c t i on l i ke l y t o yi e l d m or e i m m e di a t e a nd vi s i bl e r e s ul t s c l e a r i ng t r a s h ou t of dol i ne s a l s o ha s a pr i or i t y o f 2 W i t hi n t he f a c i l i t a t e a nd i m pr ove vi s i t or a w a r e ne s s c a t e gor y, t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on s e e m s i nt e nt on w a l ki ng a f i ne l i ne be t w e e n i nc r e a s i ng

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252 a c c e s s t o t he pa r k s ka r s t a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y i m p os i ng be t t e r c ont r ol s on t ha t a c c e s s H i gh pr i or i t y m a na ge m e nt a c t i ons i nc l ude i m pr ovi ng vi s i t or a c c e s s vi a t he m a t i c s e l f gui di ng ka r s t t r a i l s a nd de ve l opi ng a m or e c om p r e he ns i ve a gr e e m e nt r e l a t i ng t o a c c e s s t o ka r s t s i t e s w i t hi n t he pa r k A t t hi s poi nt t he pa r k s i nf r a s t r uc t ur e i s l i ke l y i na de qua t e t o s uppor t a pr of i t a bl e e c ot our i s m s e c t or T he R om a ni a n gove r nm e nt ha s a t t e m pt e d t o he l p s hor e up t he a r e a s i nf r a s t r uc t ur e w i t h a n 8000 bi l l i on l e i p r ogr a m t ha t a l s o a t t e m pt s t o g r ow t he r e gi on s t our i s t t r a de by pr ovi di ng s e e d m on e y" i nve s t m e nt s f or l oc a l ha ndc r a f t s a nd ot he r bus i ne s s e s l i ke l y t o r e i nf o r c e t he i ndus t r y ( A br uda n a nd T u r noc k, 1998 ) G ove r nm e nt s pons or e d gr a nt s a nd f i na nc i ng f o r t he pr om ot i on of e c ot our i s m a nd na t ur e pr e s e r va t i on a r e c r uc i a l f o r t he s uc c e s s of t he pr o j e c t be c a us e m os t de ve l ope r s a nd i nve s t or s a r e r e l uc t a nt t o i nve s t t he i r ow n m one y i n w ha t i s a dm i t t e dl y a ve r y r i s ky ve nt u r e a t t h i s s t a ge I t i s hope d t ha t a s de ve l opm e nt c ont i nue s w or d w i l l s pr e a d t hr oughout E ur ope a bout t he r e c r e a t i on oppor t uni t i e s a va i l a bl e i n t he pa r k, w hi c h w i l l t he n l e a d t o a n i nc r e a s e i n vi s i t or s a nd a j us t i f i c a t i on of f ur t he r i n ve s t m e nt i n t he pa r k pe r ha ps e ve n w i t hout t he i nduc e m e nt s of gr a nt s ( M os pe r s c om m 2007) O t he r pr opos a l s f or boos t i ng t our i s m i n t he a r e a not s pe c i f i c a l l y t i e d t o t hi s f e de r a l gr a nt p r ogr a m i nc l ude i m pr ovi ng m ount a i n a c t i vi t i e s a nd e s t a bl i s hi ng a L a r ge A ni m a l C e nt e r t ha t w oul d m a ke i t e a s i e r t o obs e r ve l a r ge a ni m a l s i n t he i r na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt ( T ur noc k, 2000) T he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on i s a l s o t r yi ng t o pr om ot e a nd s uppor t t he de ve l opm e nt o f ot he r s us t a i na bl e e c onom i c oppor t uni t i e s f o r pa r k r e s i de nt s T he s e i nc l ude but a r e not l i m i t e d t o s us t a i na bl e pr oduc t i on of na t ur a l m e di c i ne s us i ng pl a nt s f ound i n t he pa r k a nd s us t a i na bl e us e of f or e s t r y pr odu c t s i n t he p r oduc t i on of ha ndc r a f t s T he s e a c t i vi t i e s a r e

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253 a l r e a dy oc c ur r i ng i n t he pa r k, but a t ve r y s m a l l s c a l e s ; s t i l l t he y do pr ovi de pot e nt i a l i nve s t or s w i t h a n e xa m pl e of t he t ype s o f non t our i s m e c onom i c i ni t i a t i ve s t ha t a r e c ons i de r e d s ui t a bl e by p a r k m a na ge m e nt ( M os pe r s c om m 2007) E ve n w i t h t he s c a l e of f i na nc i a l a s s i s t a nc e of f e r e d by t he gove r nm e nt how e ve r a gr ot ou r i s m i n t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k w oul d f i nd i t s e l f c om pe t i ng f o r dom i na nc e w i t h m i ni ng f or ba uxi t e c oppe r a nd l i m e s t one a l l t r a di t i ona l e c onom i c a c t i vi t i e s t ha t hol d ve r y l i t t l e a ppe a l f or t he a ve r a ge pl e a s ur e t r a ve l e r O n t he ot he r ha nd, t he r e i s a l s o a s t r ong c ons e r va t i on m ove m e nt a f oot i n t he r e gi on, w i t h 35 e nvi r onm e n t a l non gove r nm e nt a l or ga ni z a t i ons ( E N G O s ) a c t i ve i n t he A pu s e ni M ount a i ns a s of 2 001 ( A br uda n a nd T u r noc k, 1998 ; B uz a e t a l 2001) T hi s m ove m e nt c oul d pot e nt i a l l y ha m pe r a t t e m pt s a t a ny t ype of e c onom i c a nd i ndus t r i a l de ve l opm e nt pe r ha ps by s e e ki ng t h e i m pl e m e nt a t i on of r e gul a t or y t ool s l i ke c ont r ol s on g r a z i ng a nd w oodc ut t i ng ( A b r uda n a nd T u r noc k, 1998 ) A pus e ni P a r k of f i c i a l s c l e a r l y be l i e ve t ha t t he pr o m ot i on of e c ot our i s m i n t he r e gi on i s i m po r t a nt I n f a c t t our i s m a nd pos s i bl e w a ys t o pr om ot e i t a r e di s c us s e d a t l e ngt h w i t hi n t he pl a n i t s e l f T he s e c t i on of t he pl a n a ddr e s s i ng t he m a na gi ng of vi s i t or s t our i s m a nd r e c r e a t i on i s w e l l de ve l ope d a nd de t a i l e d, w i t h s i gni f i c a nt a t t e nt i on de vot e d t o t he i m a ge o f t he pa r k, pr om ot i on of t he pa r k a s a t our i s t de s t i na t i on, a nd ge ne r a l pub l i c r e l a t i ons T he ve r y f i r s t goa l i s t o de ve l op a s e pa r a t e vi s i t or m a na ge m e nt pl a n; bot h t hi s a nd t he de ve l opm e nt of a vi s i t or i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a r e l i s t e d a s t op pr i or i t y i t e m s C l e a r l y, t hi s s e c t i on ha s r e c e i ve d a good de a l o f t hought a n d i s r e f l e c t i ve o f t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on s e m pha s i s on de ve l opi ng e c ot our i s m a s a n e c onom i c ba s e f or t he r e s i de nt s I n a ddi t i on t o e c ot ou r i s m pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t or s ha ve e xpr e s s e d a w i l l i ngne s s t o e nc our a ge a ny ot he r a c t i vi t i e s t ha t s i m ul t a ne ous l y i m pos e a m i ni m a l i m pa c t on t he

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254 l a nds c a pe w hi l e a l s o p r ovi di ng m a xi m um i nc om e t o pa r k r e s i de nt s I n a ny c a s e pl a nne r s w i l l ha ve t o t a ke gr e a t c a r e t o a voi d w ha t H a l l ( 20 04) de s c r i be s a s t he pa r a dox of r u r a l t our i s m : t he g r ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt of a s uc c e s s f ul r ur a l t our i s m i ndus t r y m a y ve r y e a s i l y de s t r oy t he f e a t ur e s a nd qua l i t i e s t ha t m a de s uc h t our i s m pos s i bl e i n t he f i r s t pl a c e I t i s t hi s ve r y r e a l i z a t i on t ha t ha s l e d t o s om e r e s i s t a nc e t o t he pr om o t i on o f e c ot our i s m a s a n e ngi ne of e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt f or t he pe opl e o f t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k. S om e c a v e r s a r gue t ha t t he r e i s a n i nhe r e nt c ont r a di c t i on i n a t t e m pt i ng t o pr ot e c t c a ve s by i nt r oduc i ng t he m t o t he t our i s t c i r c ui t w h i c h w oul d i nc r e a s e t he num be r of vi s i t or s w ho e nt e r t he c a ve s P a r k m a na ge m e nt c l a i m s t ha t a ny c a ve s ope ne d t o t he t our i s t c i r c ui t w oul d s t i l l e nj oy a s i gni f i c a nt a m oun t of p r ot e c t i on, s i nc e no l i ght s o r f oot pa t hs w oul d be i ns t a l l e d; s pe l e ol ogi s t s c ount e r t ha t a ny p r om ot i on of c a ve s f o r t our i s m w i l l by de f i ni t i on l ow e r t he l e ve l of p r ot e c t i on pr ovi de d due s i m pl y t o t he i nc r e a s e d hu m a n c ont a c t ( P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 20 07 ) I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t none of t he m a na ge m e nt a c t i ons l i s t e d i n t he S us t a i ni ng a nd P r om ot i ng L oc a l C ul t ur e a nd T r a d i t i ons s e c t i on a r e gi ve n t op p r i or i t y bi l l i ng. T hi s c om bi ne d w i t h w ha t w e s e e i n t he s e c t i on on m a na gi ng v i s i t or s s t r ongl y s ugge s t s t ha t de ve l opi ng t he t our i s t t r a de i s m or e i m por t a nt t o pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t o r s a nd c oul d ve r y e a s i l y c r ow d out t he de ve l opm e nt a nd g r ow t h of s m a l l s c a l e t r a di t i ona l e c onom i c a c t i vi t i e s ( dr a f t pa r k m a na ge m e nt p l a n, 2006) Authority and attitudes T he i s s ue of pr o t e c t e d a r e a s i n R om a ni a i s s t i l l w i d e l y r e ga r de d a s a pe r i phe r a l one t ha t i s not pa r t i c ul a r l y s i gni f i c a nt t o t he na t i on' s de ve l opm e nt F or e s t e r s a nd e c ol ogi s t s m us t m a ke obvi ous t he be ne f i t s of a s us t a i na bl e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n

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255 c om m uni t y a nd na t ur e i n o r de r t o be s uc c e s s f ul A m a j or dr a w ba c k t o t he pr o t e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h i s t ha t i t c a n l e a d t o f r i c t i on w he n p r ot e c t e d a r e a s a r e pl a c e d a dj a c e nt t o de ve l opi ng c om m uni t i e s T he r e i s a l s o no f unc t i on a l s ys t e m t o m a i nt a i n p r ot e c t e d a r e a s on a na t i ona l l e ve l i n R om a ni a ( D a y, 1996; I o r a s 2003) E a r l i e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r t h i s di s s e r t a t i on di s c us s e d t he r ol e of e nf or c e m e nt c a pa bi l i t i e s a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d pr e s e r va t i on i n pr ot e c t e d a r e a e s t a bl i s hm e nt a nd m a na ge m e nt ( s e e D a y, 1996; J e ps on, e t a l 2002; K ue ny a nd D a y, 2002 ) J udgi ng f r o m t he pl a n i t s e l f a nd f r om di s c us s i ons w i t h s t a ke hol de r s t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k m a y f i nd i t s e l f i n t he s a m e s i t ua t i on a s c ount l e s s ot he r p r ot e c t e d a r e a s a r ound t he w o r l d: una bl e t o a c t ua l l y pr o vi de pr ot e c t i on t o t he pa r k s na t ur a l r e s our c e s r e ga r dl e s s of w ha t t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n s a ys I n a pa r k w i t h a s l a r ge a popul a t i on a s A pus e ni ob t a i ni ng buy i n f r om r e s i de nt s i s c r i t i c a l t o t he s uc c e s s of a ny m a na ge m e nt pl a n. T h e pa r k s l a r ge popu l a t i on m a de i t i m pos s i bl e t o c ons ul t e a c h i ndi vi dua l r e s i de nt w he n a t t e m pt i ng t o i nc or por a t e t he i r pr i or i t i e s i nt o t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n; a ddi t i on a l l y, t he s he e r n um be r o f s t a ke hol de r s ot he r t ha n pa r k r e s i de nt s m a ke s i t ne c e s s a r y t o w or k w i t h r e p r e s e nt a t i ve s of e a c h s t a ke hol de r gr oup ( m a j o r s t a ke hol de r s a r e l i s t e d e a r l i e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r ) R e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of e a c h s t a ke hol de r gr oup t he n c om e t oge t he r t o f o r m a w o r kgr oup, w hi c h w a s s e l e c t e d by pa r k m a na ge m e nt ; i nde e d, t he e nt i r e p r oc e s s of c ol l e c t i ng i nput f r om s t a ke hol de r s s e e m s t o ha ve be e n s t r ongl y gui de d by t he pa r k a d m i ni s t r a t i on ( M os pe r s c om m 2007) P a r k r e s i de nt s w e r e i ni t i a l l y hos t i l e t o t he i de a of a m a na ge m e nt pl a n; t hi s w a s due t o m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs of t he i nt e nt i ons of t he p a r k s a dm i ni s t r a t i o n. T he s e m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs w e r e a ppa r e nt l y c a pi t a l i z e d upon a nd e nc our a ge d by i nt e r e s t gr oups

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256 w ho oppos e d t he de ve l opm e nt a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a m a na ge m e nt pl a n. M os t of t he s e m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs w e r e r e l a t e d t o r e s t r i c t i ons on p e r m i s s i bl e a c t i vi t i e s a nd a c c e s s t o na t ur a l r e s our c e s f or pa r k r e s i de nt s U l t i m a t e l y, i t t ook t w o f ul l ye a r s of w or k t o t u r n t he s e hos t i l e a nd r e l uc t a nt a t t i t ude s a r ound P a r k a dm i ni s t r a t or s c onduc t e d w or ks hops i nf or m a l m e e t i ngs a nd o r ga ni z e d e xc ha nge s be t w e e n ot he r E u r ope a n na t ur a l pa r ks i n t he i r e f f o r t s t o c onvi nc e t he r e s i de nt s of A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k o f t he be ne f i t s of i m pl e m e nt i ng a m a na ge m e nt pl a n I n pa r t i c ul a r t h e y s e e t he E ur ope a n s ys t e m of s ubs i di e s f or na t ur e c ons e r va t i on a nd t ou r i s m de ve l opm e nt a s a t ool t o he l p t he m p r os pe r i n t he s t i l l de ve l opi ng f r e e m a r ke t e c onom y of R o m a ni a ( M os pe r s c om m 2007) H ow e ve r e ve n a s t he i de a o f p r e s e r va t i on ha s ga i ne d a c c e pt a nc e t he c onc e pt of a t our i s m ba s e d e c onom y ha s be e n s l ow e r t o de ve l o p buy i n f r om pa r k r e s i de nt s I t ha s be e n s ugge s t e d t ha t t he pa r k r e s i de nt s f i nd f o r e s t r y e a s i e r i n l a r ge pa r t be c a us e t he pa pe r w or k r e qui r e d f or t our i s m c a n be c ha l l e ngi ng ; a ddi t i ona l l y, f or e s t r y i s s t i l l f a r m or e pr of i t a bl e T hi s i s r e l a t e d t o t he ge ne r a l p r obl e m w i t h e nf or c e m e nt a nd w i t h bu r e a uc r a t i c i s s ue s ; m a ny pa r k r e s i de nt s s e e m t o be w a i t i ng f or t he s e t hi ngs t o c ha nge be f or e m ovi ng i n t o t ou r i s m A ddi t i ona l l y, s om e vi l l a ge r s a r e s i m pl y not m ot i va t e d t o s t a r t bus i ne s s e s a nd be c om e e nt r e pr e ne ur s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n a ne w a nd e xot i c f i e l d l i ke e c ot our i s m T hi s c a n pot e nt i a l l y be ove r c om e by c onvi nc i ng one pe r s on t o e s t a bl i s h a t our i s m bus i ne s s a nd he l pi ng hi m s uc c e e d; hi s ne i ghbor s m a y t he n a t t e m pt t o e m ul a t e hi s s uc c e s s ( P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 2007 ) W hi l e pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on s e e m s t o ha ve be e n s uc c e s s f ul i n t he i r e f f or t s t o br i ng a bout m or e f a vor a bl e a t t i t ude s t ow a r d pr e s e r va t i on a m ong pa r k r e s i de nt s ot he r s t a ke hol de r s ha ve not be e n a s r e c e pt i ve I n pa r t i c ul a r R om S i l va ( t he R om a ni a n f or e s t

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25 7 s e r vi c e ) i s m or e f oc us e d on e xpl oi t a t i on t ha n pr e s e r v a t i on of t he pa r k s f or e s t e d l a nds a nd ha s r e s i s t e d buyi ng i nt o t he a ppl i c a t i on of t he pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt c onc e pt t o t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k ( M os pe r s c om m 20 06 ; P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 2007) T he dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n i t s e l f how e ve r a ggr e s s i ve l y pr om ot e s r e s our c e p r e s e r va t i on r a t he r t ha n r e s our c e e xpl oi t a t i on ( dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 2006) T he na t ur e o f R om S i l va s of f i c i a l m i s s i on a nd t he hi gh pot e nt i a l e c onom i c va l ue of t i m be r p r oduc t s m a de f r om pa r k t r e e s s ugge s t t ha t t he f o r e s t r y s e r v i c e s i ns t i t ut i ona l a t t i t ude t ow a r d pr e s e r va t i on i n t he pa r k w i l l be di f f i c ul t t o c ha nge ; f or t hi s r e a s on, s om e pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t or s a r e a c t i ve l y pu r s ui ng t he pos s i bi l i t y of s e ve r i ng t he pa r k s o f f i c i a l ( a nd s ubor di na t e ) r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h R om S i l va H ow e ve r s uc h a n a ppr oa c h c oul d be c ount e r pr oduc t i ve e s pe c i a l l y i f t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt l a c ks R om S i l va s a c c e s s t o t he va r i ous l e ve r s of R om a ni a s f e de r a l gove r nm e nt R om a ni a s f or e s t s a r e a n i m po r t a nt na t ur a l r e s our c e ; R om S i l va s c ont r ol ove r t he m ( a nd, by e xt e ns i on, t h e r e ve nue t he i r e xpl oi t a t i on w oul d ge ne r a t e ) i s i n a nd of i t s e l f a s our c e of s i gni f i c a nt pol i t i c a l pow e r I t s e e m s unl i ke l y t ha t i n t he e ve nt o f a s e pa r a t i on a ne w l y i nde pe nde nt pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on w oul d ha ve t he pol i t i c a l r e s our c e s t o pr e ve nt R om S i l va f r o m doi ng a s t he y l i ke i n t he pa r k. F o r t ha t r e a s on, a m or e c ons t r uc t i ve e nga ge m e nt w i t h R om S i l va s houl d be c ons i de r e d, t hough i t s e e m s t ha t t he f o r e s t r y s e r vi c e ha s l i t t l e m ot i va t i on f o r a gr e e i ng t o s uc h a n e nga ge m e nt E nf or c e m e nt a ut ho r i t y i s a l s o a s i gn i f i c a nt pot e nt i a l obs t a c l e t o t he s uc c e s s of t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n. S om e s t a ke hol de r s ha ve a s ke d not w he t he r t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n i s a n a ppr opr i a t e t oo l w i t h w hi c h t o pr ot e c t t he ka r s t ; r a t he r t he que s t i on i s w he t he r i t c a n be put i nt o pr a c t i c e a nd e nf o r c e d. T he l a c k o f e nf o r c e m e nt a ut hor i t y i s a ke y p r obl e m

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258 f r om t he s t a ndpoi nt of c a ve a nd r e s our c e p r ot e c t i o n. E ve n i f t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on t e l l s pe opl e not t o c ut dow n t he f or e s t t he m a na ge m e nt pl a n a nd R om a ni a n l a w do not pr ovi de t he a ut ho r i t y t o a c t u a l l y pr e ve nt a nyone f r om doi ng s o ( A pus e ni P a r k d r a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n, 2006; P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 20 07) C e r t a i nl y t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n c a r r i e s w i t h i t t he i m pr i m a t u r of t he R om a ni a n gove r nm e nt T he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he pa r k i t s e l f i t r oot e d i n t he l e ga l a ut hor i t y pr ov i de d by a gove r nm e nt or de r i s s ue d i n 1990 ( M A P P M O r de r no 7/ 1990 ) T he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n dr a w s upon R om a ni a n f e de r a l l a w ( L a w N o 462/ 2001 ) a s t he l e ga l ba s i s of i t s a u t hor i t y, w i t h va r i ous ot he r f e de r a l l a w s or de r s a nd gove r n m e nt d e c i s i ons pr ovi di ng a l e ga l f r a m e w or k f o r da y t o da y ope r a t i ons of t he pa r k a nd t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pl a n. U nf o r t una t e l y, w i t hout t he a bi l i t y t o i m pos e s i gni f i c a nt f i ne s o r ot he r pe na l t i e s t he pa r k i s not l i ke l y t o ha ve m uc h s uc c e s s i n pr e ve nt i ng i l l e ga l t i m be r i ng ope r a t i ons or i l l e ga l r e s or t hom e c ons t r uc t i on w i t hi n i t s bounda r i e s A not he r e xa m pl e of t he di f f i c ul t y f a c e d by pa r k a d m i ni s t r a t i on c a n be f ound i n a di s a gr e e m e nt be t w e e n pa r k m a na ge m e nt a nd t he R om a ni a n s pe l e ol ogi c a l c l ubs t ha t ope r a t e d w i t hi n t he pa r k. T r a di t i ona l l y, t he di s c ov e r y of a ne w c a ve i n t he pa r k di d not r e s ul t i n t he c a ve be c om i ng t he p r i va t e pr ope r t y of t he di s c ove r e r I ns t e a d t he y r e m a i ne d ( w i t h s om e e xc e pt i ons ) i n t he publ i c dom a i n, w hi c h m e a nt t ha t a nyone c oul d a c c e s s t he m M a na ge m e nt of t he s e c a ve s f e l l t o t he c a vi ng c l ubs E a c h c l ub ha d i t s ow n t e r r i t or y w i t h i n t he pa r k, a nd e a c h c l ub w a s r e s p ons i bl e f or t he c a ve s w i t hi n i t s t e r r i t or y S pe l e ol ogi s t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h one c l ub c ou l d s t i l l e nt e r c a ve s i n ot he r c l ubs t e r r i t or i e s ; how e ve r by c onve nt i on t he y m a ppe d o nl y t he c a ve s w i t hi n t he i r c l ubs t e r r i t or y C ur r e nt l y, t he R om a ni a n A c a de m y of S c i e nc e s gr a nt s pe r m i s s i on t o e nt e r

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259 pr ot e c t e d a r e a c a ve s P r e vi ous l y, w he n t he pa r k w a s f i r s t e s t a bl i s he d, t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on w a nt e d t o t a ke c ont r ol of a l l c a ve s ; t hi s na t ur a l l y w oul d ha ve i nc l ude d ha ndi ng ove r t he ke ys T he s pe l e ol ogi c a l c l ubs di s put e d t he l e ga l r i ght o f t he pa r k t o do t hi s ba s e d on a di f f e r e nt i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he r e l e v a nt R om a ni a n l a w T he di s put e w a s r e s ol ve d by pe r m i t t i ng t he c l ubs t o r e t a i n c ont r ol o ve r t he ke ys w i t h t he c l ubs a gr e e i ng t o not i f y pa r k m a na ge m e nt w he n t he y de c i de t o e nt e r a pa r t i c ul a r c a ve T he a r r a nge m e nt s e e m s t o be a w or ka bl e one but pe r i odi c a l l y t he p a r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on s ugge s t s i t m i gh t pr e f e r t o i nc r e a s e t he l e ve l o f c ont r o l t he y a r e a bl e t o e xe r t ove r t he c a ve s ( P e r s oi u, pe r s c om m 2007) Summary I t s e e m s c l e a r t ha t t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k f a c e s m a ny of t he s a m e i s s ue s t ha t ha ve be e n f a c e d by ot he r na t ur e pa r ks a nd a ddr e s s e d vi a m a na ge m e nt pl a ns i n ka r s t r e gi ons t hr oughout t he w or l d goi ng ba c k t o a t l e a s t 1970 w i t h M a m m ot h C a ve N a t i ona l P a r k s f i r s t m a s t e r pl a n i n pa r t i c ul a r t he ve xi ng q ue s t i on of ba l a nc i ng ka r s t p r ot e c t i on w i t h i nc r e a s e d vi s i t or a c c e s s T he c ur r e nt ve r s i on of t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n i s onl y t he f i r s t ve r s i on, w i t h up da t e s pl a nne d a t f i ve ye a r i nt e r va l s a s r e qui r e d by R om a ni a n l a w T hi s ve r s i on o f t he pl a n i s not ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve ; t hi s i s pa r t i a l l y due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he pa r k a dm i ni s t r a t i on i s s t i l l t r yi ng t o ge ne r a t e goodw i l l a m ong t he pa r k r e s i de nt s by not pl a c i ng undue bu r de ns on t he i r e f f o r t s t o de ve l op a nd i m p r ove t he i r ow n l oc a l e c onom y. R a t he r pa r k m a na ge r s a r e e x pl or i ng t he us e of ot he r t ool s t o c ont r ol de ve l opm e nt w i t hi n t he pa r k, i nc l udi ng l oc a l de ve l opm e nt pl a ns a nd ge ne r a l e nvi r onm e nt a l pr ot e c t i on l e gi s l a t i on ( M os pe r s c o m m F e b. 2007)

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260 I n t e r m s o f ka r s t p r ot e c t i on t e c hni que s t he A pus e ni pl a n di f f e r s f r om t he w e s t e r n pl a ns di s c us s e d e a r l i e r onl y i n t he l e ve l of de t a i l ; f our of t he f i ve pl a ns e xa m i ne d he r e us e c a ve c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m s w hi c h a r e r e l a t i ve l y w e l l de ve l ope d i n t he w e s t e r n pl a ns B y c ont r a s t t he A pus e ni pl a n h i nge s on a s i m pl e f ou r c a t e gor y c a ve c l a s s i f i c a t i on s ys t e m w i t hi n a br oa de r s ys t e m of z oni ng i nt e nde d t o i de n t i f y a nd p r ot e c t l a r ge r t r a c t s o f l a nd T hi s z oni ng s ys t e m i s de s i gne d t o d r i ve l a nd us e p a t t e r ns a nd t r e nds w i t hi n t he pa r k a nd c a n t he r e f or e a c t a s a m or e i ndi r e c t m e t hod of pr ot e c t i ng t he pa r k s ka r s t S uc h a dua l s ys t e m c oul d pr ove t o be w or ka bl e i n t he c ont e xt o f s i m ul t a ne ous l y m a na gi ng de ve l opm e nt a nd pr ot e c t i ng t he pa r k s na t u r a l r e s o ur c e s pr ovi de d t he r e s our c e s a nd a ut hor i t y f o r e nf o r c e m e nt a r e p r e s e nt F r om t ha t pe r s pe c t i ve t he A pus e ni pl a n s e e m s t o c om pa r e w e l l w i t h t he m o r e m a t ur e w e s t e r n pl a ns d e s c r i be d e a r l i e r e s pe c i a l l y c ons i de r i ng t ha t t hi s i s t he f i r s t a t t e m pt a t de ve l opi ng s uc h a pl a n f or t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k ( T a bl e 9 1 ) H ow e ve r I t hi n k t he r e a r e ot he r m o r e s t r uc t ur a l pr obl e m s t ha t r e l a t e t o t he pot e nt i a l l y c onf l i c t i ng obj e c t i ve s of na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt p r ot e c t i on a nd l oc a l e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt A c t i ve pur s ui t of bo t h of t he s e goa l s c oul d e a s i l y r e s ul t i n ne i t he r be i ng a c hi e ve d; w ha t s e e m s m or e l i ke l y i s t ha t na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt pr ot e c t i on w i l l s uf f e r a t t he ha nds o f e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt C e r t a i nl y w e c a n a l r e a dy s e e a n e xa m pl e of t h i s i n t he f a c t t ha t R om S i l va doe s not a bi de by t he s pi r i t o f t he pl a n a nd c ont i nu e s t o e xpl oi t t he f or e s t r e s our c e s i n a w a y t ha t i s not c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he pr o t e c t e d a r e a c onc e pt ( a c c or di ng t o s e c t i on 3. 2 4 1 of t he A pus e ni dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n, f or e s t r y i s s ue s a r e a ddr e s s e d i n s e pa r a t e F or e s t r y P l a ns w hi c h ha d ye t t o be r e vi s e d a t t he t i m e t he d r a f t w a s publ i s he d) T hi s a c t i vi t y i s t he r e s ul t of t w o f a c t or s : t he i nhe r e nt c on f l i c t t ha t e xi s t s be t w e e n t he p l a n s m a i n goa l s a nd

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261 f r om a l a c k of e nf or c e m e nt a ut ho r i t y ove r R om S i l va w hi c h i n f a c t ha s a ut hor i t y ove r pa r k m a na ge m e nt T he s e do not a ppe a r t o be i s s ue s t ha t c a n be r e s ol ve d t h r ough f u t ur e dr a f t s of t he pa r k m a na ge m e nt pl a n; i nt e r ve nt i on a t hi ghe r l e ve l s of gove r nm e nt m a y be ne c e s s a r y ( i e e i t he r s e pa r a t i ng t he pa r k s e r vi c e f r om R om S i l va or m or e c ons t r uc t i ve l y e nga gi ng t he f or e s t r y s e r vi c e ; i m pr ovi ng t he pa r k s e r vi c e s a bi l i t y t o e nf or c e i t s ow n r ul e s ) T he ul t i m a t e p r obl e m i s t ha t ne i t he r t he i s s ue o f e c onom i c gr ow t h no r t he i s s ue of r e s our c e pr ot e c t i on c a n be i gnor e d. T he e c onom i c pr obl e m s f a c i ng t he pa r k s 10 000 r e s i de nt s a r e ve r y r e a l a nd w oul d onl y be e xa c e r ba t e d by t oo s t r i c t c ont r ol s on t he us e of pa r k l a nd a nd o t he r na t ur a l r e s our c e s Y e t t he ka r s t c ont a i ne d w i t hi n t he pa r k s bo r de r s i s unque s t i ona bl y va l ua bl e f r o m s c i e nt i f i c e c ol ogi c a l a nd a e s t he t i c vi e w poi nt s I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he dr a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n t a ke s t oo t r a di t i ona l a n a ppr oa c h one de s i gne d w i t h onl y ( or p r i m a r i l y ) na t u r a l r e s o ur c e p r ot e c t i on i n m i nd A c hi e vi ng bot h goa l s s i m ul t a ne ous l y m a y r e qui r e a c om p l e t e l y ne w a ppr oa c h.

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262 T a b l e 9 1 P a r k m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r P ar k n a m e C ou n t r y U n i q u e c on d i t i on s i n p ar k D i s t i n gu i s h i n g f e at u r e s of p l an A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k R om a ni a R e l a t i ve l y hi gh ( ~ 10, 000 ) i ndi ge nous popul a t i on w i t h l i t t l e a c c e s s t o j obs or e c onom i c gr ow t h oppor t uni t i e s A t t e m pt s t o ba l a nc e na t ur a l r e s our c e pr ot e c t i on w i t h de ve l opm e nt of e c onom i c oppor t uni t i e s f or pa r k r e s i de nt s Y or ks hi r e D a l e s N a t i ona l P a r k U K L a r ge l oc a l popul a t i on ( ~ 20, 000) ; e nc r oa c hm e nt on t r a di t i ona l l i f e s t yl e s N o s pe c i f i c ka r s t or c a ve m a na ge m e nt c om pone nt s a t a l l ; ve r y br oa d ba s e d a ppr oa c h t o a c c om pl i s hi ng e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l pr e s e r va t i on goa l s M a m m ot h C a ve s N a t i ona l P a r k U S H i ghl y de ve l ope d c a ve s ; ve r y hi gh l e ve l s o f t our i s t t r a f f i c U s e s a c om bi na t i on of l a nd c l a s s i f i c a t i on a nd c a ve c l a s s i f i c a t i on t o m a na ge ka r s t r e s our c e s M ol e C r e e k K a r s t N a t i ona l P a r k a nd C ons e r va t i on A r e a A us t r a l i a P a r k l a nds a r e di s j oi nt e d a nd non c ont i guous m a ki ng e f f e c t i ve ka r s t pr ot e c t i on m or e di f f i c ul t R e qui r e s a nd f a c i l i t a t e s c oope r a t i on be t w e e n pa r k m a na ge m e nt a nd ow ne r s of s ur r oundi ng l a nds N a r a c oor t e C a ve s N a t i ona l P a r k A us t r a l i a S ol e pur pos e f o r t he pa r k s e xi s t e nc e i s t o pr ot e c t a nd m a na ge t he l oc a l c a ve s R e s our c e pr ot e c t i on ge ne r a l l y t a ke s pr e c e de nc e ove r publ i c a c c e s s t o c a ve s

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263 1 0 C o n c l u s i o n : M o v i n g T o w a r d a F r a m e w o r k f o r K a r s t L a n d U s e R e g u l a ti o n s Introduction I n t he p r e c e di ng c ha pt e r s I ha ve pr e s e nt e d t he r e s ul t s of r e s e a r c h i nt o ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i nvol vi ng t hr e e s e pa r a t e s t udy a r e a s a nd a s ur ve y o f l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s f r om a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he g oa l of t he s e s t udi e s w a s t o a ns w e r t he que s t i on of w he t he r t he i m pa c t s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons on hum a n a nd s oc i a l s ys t e m s a r e s i gni f i c a nt e nough t o m e r i t c ons i de r a t i on by l a nd us e pl a nne r s a nd pr of e s s i ona l s dur i ng t he r e gul a t i on w r i t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s I n t he c our s e of a ns w e r i ng t hi s ove r a r c hi ng que s t i on, I a ddr e s s e d f i ve s e pa r a t e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : H ow do l oc a l ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons di f f e r a c r o s s t he U S f r om s t a t e t o s t a t e or r e gi on t o r e gi on? W ha t c a n t he a t t i t ude s op i ni ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s o f pl a nne r s e xpl a i n a bout l oc a l ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on? D o s e t ba c k or di na nc e s ha ve a pe r c e pt i bl e e f f e c t on hous i ng de ns i t y? I s i t w or t hw h i l e f o r pl a nne r s t o e nga ge i n s t r a t e gi c be ha vi or i n t he r e gul a t i on de ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s ? H ow c a n s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c f a c t or s a f f e c t t he de ve l opm e nt of pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt pl a ns ? C onc l us i ons dr a w n f r om t he a ns w e r s t o t he s e que s t i ons i nc l ude t he f o l l ow i ng:

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264 I n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e of t e n s i m i l a r i f no t i de nt i c a l t o ot he r r e gul a t i ons f ound e l s e w he r e i n t he s a m e s t a t e T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t m uni c i pa l i t i e s m a y be m or e c onc e r ne d w i t h i m pl e m e nt i ng r e gul a t i ons t ha t w i l l w i t hs t a nd l e ga l c ha l l e nge s w i t hi n t he i r ow n s t a t e s t ha n t he y a r e w i t h de ve l opi ng r e gul a t i ons t ha t a r e c a r e f ul l y s ui t e d t o t he s pe c i f i c phys i c a l na t ur e of t he ka r s t s ys t e m be l ow T he r e doe s not s e e m t o be a ny r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n l e ve l s of u r ba ni z a t i on a nd r e gul a t or y m e t hods us e d, or i nde e d be t w e e n ur ba ni z a t i on a nd t he ve r y e xi s t e nc e of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons or or di na nc e s S e ve r a l l a r ge hi ghl y u r ba ni z e d a r e a s on ka r s t ha ve not hi ng m or e t ha n r udi m e nt a r y ka r s t pr ot e c t i ons on t he books ; i n m a ny c a s e s t he r e a r e no r e gul a t i ons w ha t s oe ve r C onve r s e l y, s om e r ur a l m uni c i pa l i t i e s ha ve t a ke n m or e pr oa c t i ve a pp r oa c he s t o r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns H ow e ve r i t s houl d be not e d t ha t t he da t a do not s uppor t t he pr e s e nc e of a n i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n gove r nm e nt s ophi s t i c a t i on a nd r e gul a t or y s ophi s t i c a t i on. S t or m w a t e r r unof f i s a ve r y c om m on w a y i nde e d pe r ha ps t he m os t c om m on w a y t o r e gul a t e l a nd us e on ka r s t t e r r a i ns i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s O ve r l a y z one s c a n be f ound i n r u r a l s e t t i ngs a s w e l l a s ur ba n a r e a s T hi s i s s ur pr i s i ng, a s i t s e e m s r e a s ona bl e t o e xpe c t t ha t i s s ue s of hum a n ka r s t i nt e r a c t i on i n l e s s popul a t e d a r e a s c oul d be r e s ol ve d w i t h l e s s i nt r us i ve r e gul a t or y t ool s t ha n t he ove r l a y z one E m pl oyi ng m a n da t o r y s e t ba c ks a s a r e gul a t or y t oo l i s a m o r e c om m on c hoi c e f or m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t h m o r e e xt e ns i ve ka r s t f o r m a t i ons S e t ba c k or no bui l d

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265 or di na nc e s c a n be a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o l i m i t o r c ont r ol s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t y w he n a ppl i e d t o a r e a s w he r e s i nkhol e s a r e p r e va l e nt P l a nne r s a t t i t ude s t ow a r d ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i o n s e e m t o ha ve a n i n f l ue nc e on w he t he r or not s uc h r e gul a t i ons a r e i m p l e m e nt e d i n t he f i r s t pl a c e T he e xpe c t e d r e s ul t s of ka r s t r e gul a t i on pa r t i c ul a r l y s e c onda r y e f f e c t s l i ke c ha nge s i n popu l a t i on de ns i t y or gr ow t h r a t e s o f t e n a r e not obs e r ve d i n m uni c i pa l i t i e s w he r e s uc h r e gul a t i ons a r e i m pl e m e nt e d. H i ghe r l e ve l s of i nput i nt o t he r e gul a t i on pr oc e s s f r om non e l e c t e d, t e c hni c a l pr of e s s i ona l s ( f or e xa m pl e ge ol ogi s t s e ngi ne e r s hydr ol ogi s t s ) do not l e a d t o i nhe r e nt l y m or e r e s t r i c t i ve r e gul a t i ons N o c l e a r r e l a t i ons hi p c a n be i de nt i f i e d be t w e e n t he r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s of t he r e gul a t i ons a nd t he i de nt i t y of t he i ni t i a t or o f t he r e gul a t i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s R e a c t i ve r e gul a t i ons i n ot he r w or d s t hos e t ha t a r e i m pl e m e nt e d t o a ddr e s s a s pe c i f i c pr obl e m t ha t i s a l r e a dy oc c ur r i ng t e nd t o be m or e r e s t r i c t i ve t ha n pr e ve nt a t i ve r e gul a t i ons O f t e n, pl a nne r s be l i e ve t ha t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e e f f e c t i ve m e t hods of a c hi e vi ng a pa r t i c ul a r goa l e ve n i f t h e y ha ve n t a c t ua l l y w i t ne s s e d i t T he pr e s e nc e of s e t ba c k s t yl e ka r s t l a nd us e or di na nc e s i s c or r e l a t e d w i t h l ow e r hous i ng de ns i t i e s i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s H ow e ve r hi ghe r hous i ng de ns i t i e s a r e a l s o c or r e l a t e d w i t h hi ghe r s i nkhol e d e ns i t i e s S t r a t e gi c be ha vi or doe s not s e e m t o be a n i s s ue i n t he pr oc e s s of de c i di ng w he t he r or not t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons I nde e d, a na l ys i s

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266 s ugge s t s t ha t t he r e i s no r a t i ona l r e a s on t o e nga ge i n s uc h s t r a t e gi c be ha vi or i n t he f i r s t pl a c e s i nc e t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons doe s not a ppe a r t o put a m uni c i pa l i t y a t a n e c onom i c di s a dva nt a ge r e l a t i ve t o ne i ghbor i ng t ow ns t ha t do not e m pl oy s uc h r e gul a t i ons I n a r e a s w he r e l oc a l popu l a t i ons a r e m o r e he a vi l y de pe nde nt on na t ur a l r e s our c e e xpl oi t a t i on a s a n e c onom i c f ounda t i on, a t t e m pt s t o m a na ge a nd pr ot e c t t he l oc a l ka r s t c oul d ve r y e a s i l y i nt e r f e r e w i t h e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt f or t he l oc a l popul a t i on S uc c e s s f ul l y a c hi e vi ng bo t h goa l s m a y w e l l r e qui r e a n a ppr oa c h t ha t di f f e r s f r om t he t r a di t i ona l p r ot e c t e d a r e a a ppr oa c h. U l t i m a t e l y, t he r ol e o f r e gul a t i on i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns i s t w of ol d: f i r s t t o p r ot e c t hum a n bui l t s t r uc t ur e s f r om da m a ge c a us e d by s om e of t he m or e ha z a r dous a s pe c t s of ka r s t t e r r a i ns l i ke s i nkhol e s or f l oodi ng; a nd s e c ond, t o m i t i ga t e a nd pr e ve nt da m a ge t o l oc a l ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd t he r e s our c e s ( f or e xa m pl e gr oundw a t e r s uppl i e s or t our i s t a t t r a c t i ons ) t ha t t he y pr ovi de T he r e s e a r c h de s c r i be d i n pr e vi ous c ha pt e r s s how s t ha t t he r e i s no s i ngl e uni f i e d a ppr oa c h t o t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t hi s t ype o f r e gul a t i on a nd t ha t t he s e di f f e r e nc e s c a nnot be c om pl e t e l y e xpl a i ne d by f a c t or s s uc h a s r e gi on popul a t i on, t he e xt e nt of t he l oc a l ka r s t s ys t e m or t he na t ur e of t he s pe c i f i c ka r s t r e l a t e d i s s ue s N or a r e t he i m pa c t s o f ka r s t r e gul a t i ons c l e a r a nd una m bi guous : t hi s r e s e a r c h a l s o s ugge s t s t ha t t he r e s ul t s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e of t e n not t he r e s ul t s e xpe c t e d by pl a nne r s or ot he r l a nd us e p r of e s s i ona l s B y e xa m i ni ng a w i de r a nge of ka r s t a w a r e r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s i n di ve r s e s e t t i ngs ( i nc l udi ng hi ghl y ur ba ni z e d a nd i s ol a t e d, r ur a l e nvi r onm e nt s ) t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a c t s t o c onne c t m uc h of t he e xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h on l a nd us e i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns unde r a s i ngl e

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267 uni f yi ng um b r e l l a w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y of f e r i ng n e w i ns i ght s i nt o t he de ve l opm e nt of t he s e r e gul a t i ons a nd t he i r i m pa c t s on t he hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s t ha t c hoos e t o i m pl e m e nt t he m M os t of t he pr i o r r e s e a r c h i nt o ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on f oc us e d on a s i ngl e t ype of r e gul a t i on or a pa r t i c ul a r e nvi r onm e nt l i ke pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt a nd ge ne r a l l y ha s pr oduc e d a gr e a t de a l of va l ua bl e know l e dge a bout ka r s t m a na ge m e nt unde r s pe c i f i c c ondi t i ons : I n p r ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt s e e U r i c h, D a y a nd L yna gh ( 2001) w ho de s c r i be how c onf l i c t s be t w e e n f e de r a l gove r nm e nt s a nd l o c a l popul a t i ons c a n de ve l op i n l a nds s ubj e c t t o pr ot e c t e d a r e a m a na ge m e nt pl a ns ; or J e ps on e t a l ( 2002) w ho not e t he i nve r s e c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n a l a nds c a pe s e c onom i c pot e nt i a l a nd t he l i ke l i hood t ha t r e s our c e pr ot e c t i on e f f o r t s w i l l be s uc c e s s f ul L i ke w i s e D i nge r a nd R e bm a nn ( 1986) B ut l e r ( 1987) D oughe r t y ( 1993 ) F i s c he r ( 1997 ) D a vi s ( 1997) R e e s e e t a l ( 1997 ) a nd B a r ne r ( 1999) a l l e xa m i ne ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n s pe c i f i c l oc a t i ons e a c h s t udyi ng di f f e r e nt s t a ge s of t he r e gul a t or y p r oc e s s a s i t unf ol de d i n di f f e r e nt l oc a t i ons S e ve r a l of t he a ut hor s l i s t e d a bove e xa m i ne ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons f r om a hi s t or i c a l or de ve l opm e nt a l pe r s pe c t i ve : m ot i va t i ons r a nge d f r o m pr ot e c t i ng l oc a l gr oundw a t e r s uppl i e s t o f l ood p r e ve nt i on t o a de s i r e t o r e duc e l e ga l a c t i on a ga i ns t t he c i t y N one o f t he s e m ot i va t i ng f a c t or s i s uni que t o a ny of t he l oc a t i ons i n w hi c h t he s e s t udi e s w e r e c onduc t e d; e a c h a ut hor t r e a t s e a c h c a s e s t udy a s a n i s ol a t e d i nc i de nt w i t hout pl a c i ng t he r e gul a t i on i n t he w i de r c ont e x t of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. D a vi s ( 1997 ) c onduc t e d a w i de r r a ngi ng s t udy, i n ge ogr a phi c a l t e r m s ; how e v e r hi s s t udy w a s l i m i t e d t o r e gul a t i ons gove r ni ng l a ndf i l l s i n ka r s t t e r r a i ns F i s c he r ( 199 7) us e d hi s va nt a ge poi nt a s a l a nd us e pl a nni ng pr a c t i t i one r t o e va l ua t e s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c he s t o ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n P e nns yl va ni a a nd N e w J e r s e y, a nd de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he N N J R C & D m ode l or di na nc e

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268 w a s be s t a bl e t o ba l a nc e c om pe t i ng de m a nds ( e c on om i c a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l ) a nd t he r e f or e of f e r e d t he b e s t c ha nc e of s uc c e s s I t i s w or t h not i ng t ha t F i s c he r s a nd D a vi s a ppr oa c h di f f e r s f r om t he ot he r s i n t ha t t he i r s w e r e m or e b r oa dl y de f i ne d s t udy a r e a s ; t he ot he r pa pe r s di s c us s e d i n t he pr e vi ous pa r a gr a ph w e r e m uc h m or e l oc a l i z e d i n t he i r f oc i O t he r a ut hor s ( R ubi n 1992; L a M or e a ux e t a l 199 7; R i c ha r ds on, 2003 ) ha ve unde r t a ke n a na l ys e s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on on a r e gi ona l or na t i onw i de l e ve l ; how e ve r out o f ne c e s s i t y t he s e e f f or t s t e nd t o t a ke a ve r y b r oa d vi e w a nd do not ge ne r a l l y de l ve i nt o t he de t a i l s of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. T hi s pa t t e r n na r r ow l y f oc us e d, de t a i l e d s t udi e s of a s i ngl e l oc a t i on e xi s t i ng s i de by s i de w i t h br oa d ge ne r a l a na l ys e s of t he s t a t e of ka r s t r e gul a t i on on a r e gi ona l or na t i ona l l e ve l i s r e pe a t e d t hr oughout t he ka r s t po l i c y l i t e r a t ur e ; how e ve r t o da t e t he r e ha s be e n l i t t l e e f f o r t t o i nt e gr a t e t hi s know l e dge i nt o a br oa de r unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n ge ne r a l T hi s di s s e r t a t i on r e pr e s e nt s a n e f f or t t o be gi n t o br i dge t ha t ga p, a s i t w e r e by c om bi n i ng bot h t ype s of s t u di e s ; i nde e d, i n do i ng s o w e a r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h a m uddi e r pi c t ur e t ha n w e m i ght ha ve e xpe c t e d, w i t h s om e r e s ul t s t ha t a r e a t f i r s t unc l e a r o r e ve n s e e m t o c ont r a di c t e a c h ot h e r M a ny of t he s e r e s ul t s pr ovi de pr om i s i ng a ve nue s f or f ut u r e r e s e a r c h, w hi c h a r e d i s c us s e d a t t he e nd of t hi s c ha pt e r A ddi t i ona l l y, t h i s di s s e r t a t i on r e l i e s on qua nt i t a t i v e m e t hods f or m a ny of i t s c onc l us i ons F or t he m os t pa r t r e s e a r c h m e t hods i nt o ka r s t a nd l a nd us e ha ve be e n pr i m a r i l y qua l i t a t i ve ( t hough i t s houl d be not e d t ha t ot he r b r a nc he s of ka r s t s t udi e s ha ve hi ghl y de ve l ope d qua nt i t a t i ve t r a di t i ons ) T hi s s t ud y m a ke s a s e r i ous a t t e m pt t o qua nt i f y t he i m pa c t of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons on l oc a l g r ow t h a nd on hom e va l ue s a s w e l l a s t he i m pa c t of s e t ba c k r e gul a t i ons on s t r uc t u r a l de ns i t y i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s I t i s m y hope t ha t t hi s

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269 w or k m a y l e a d t o f u r t he r de ve l opm e nt of qua nt i t a t i ve t e c hni que s f or a na l ys i s of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e i s s ue s K a r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e not de ve l ope d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d i n a va c uum T he r e m us t be a pe r c e i ve d t hr e a t e i t he r t o or f r om t he ka r s t f o r m a t i ons unde r l yi ng a m un i c i pa l i t y t ha t c hoos e s t o r e gul a t e l a nd us e i n t hi s w a y. T he r e s ul t s di s c us s e d he r e of f e r i ns i ght i nt o t he r ol e of hum a ns i n ge ne r a t i ng or e xa c e r ba t i ng t hr e a t s t o ka r s t l a nds c a pe s or r e a c t i ng t o t hr e a t s pos e d by t hos e l a nds c a pe s T hi s c l e a r l y f i t s W hi t e s a ppr oa c h t o ge ogr a phy ( W hi t e 1993 ) a nd e xt e nds t he t r a di t i on i n t he di s c i pl i ne e pi t om i z e d by W hi t e M a r s h ( 1864) a nd S a ue r ( 1925; 1956 ) I t a l s o f i t s w i t hi n a nd a dva nc e s t he de ve l opi ng t r a di t i on of ka r s t s t udi e s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da i n t ha t i t i s a l a r ge s c a l e i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y s t udy of hum a n ka r s t i nt e r a c t i on t ha t dr a w s he a vi l y f r om bot h t he phys i c a l a nd s oc i a l s c i e nc e s t o ge ne r a t e i t s r e s ul t s I n t hi s c h a pt e r I w i l l pul l t he s e r e s ul t s t oge t he r i n s uc h a w a y t ha t a c l e a r e r unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons c a n e m e r ge O n a pr a c t i c a l l e ve l t he i de a i s t o i de nt i f y a nd di s c us s t he c ont r i but i ons o f va r i ous i nput s i nt o t he l a nd us e r e gul a t i on pr oc e s s i n a w a y t ha t e na bl e s pl a nne r s o r ot he r l a nd us e pr o f e s s i ona l s t o m a ke s e ns i bl e r e s e a r c h ba s e d de c i s i on s on how s uc h l e g i s l a t i on or r e gul a t i on s houl d be c ons t r uc t e d i n t he i r ow n j ur i s di c t i ons B ut t he l a r g e r goa l i s t o f u r t he r de ve l op our unde r s t a ndi ng of how hum a ns r e a c t a nd how hum a n s e t t l e m e nt s c ha nge i n r e s pons e t o bot h t he pr e s e nc e of ka r s t a nd t o t he us e of t hi s pa r t i c ul a r t ype of l a nd us e r e gul a t i on I nde e d, i t s houl d be e m pha s i z e d t ha t w ha t i s pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r i s not i nt e nde d t o b e vi e w e d a s a c om pl e t e d f r a m e w or k, a nd i ns t e a d s houl d be c ons i de r e d a w or k i n pr og r e s s or a s t a r t i ng poi nt a s t he r e i s c e r t a i nl y m uc h w or k ye t t o do. F or

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270 e xa m pl e t he r e a r e a l m os t c e r t a i nl y s om e va r i a bl e s t ha t a r e not e xa m i ne d w i t h i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on t ha t m a y w a r r a nt i nc l us i on onc e m o r e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d. A l s o, i t s houl d be c l a r i f i e d t ha t i t i s not m y i nt e nt t o o f f e r a s t e p by s t e p r e c i pe f o r i m p l e m e nt i ng ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons or a f i l l i n t he b l a nks t e m pl a t e f or s uc h r e gul a t i ons a l ong t he l i ne s of t he N or t he r n N e w J e r s e y R e s our c e C ons e r va t i on a nd D e ve l opm e nt C ounc i l doc um e nt di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r 5 of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. T ha t doc um e nt i s s uc c e s s f ul be c a us e i t i s i nt e nde d f or c om m uni t i e s i n a pa r t i c ul a r r e gi on w he r e ge ol og i c c ondi t i ons a nd ot he r va r i a bl e s do not di f f e r w i de l y be t w e e n t ow ns O n t he ot he r ha nd, t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a dhe r e s t o t he p r e m i s e t ha t c om m uni t i e s l oc a t e d i n ka r s t a r e a s i n di f f e r e nt r e gi ons w i l l ha ve di f f e r e nt ne e ds t o c ons i de r a s w e l l a s di f f e r e nt i ni t i a l c ondi t i ons a nd di f f e r e nt i nf l ue nc e s on t he pol i c y p r oc e s s Application of sys tem theory A s di s c us s e d i n c ha pt e r s 3 a nd 4 of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, s ys t e m t he or y i s a f l e xi bl e f r a m e w or k f or a na l yz i ng c a us a l r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n r e l a t e d c om pone nt s W hi l e t he r e ha ve be e n va l i d c r i t i que s of t he e xpl a na t or y pow e r of s ys t e m t he or y B oul di ng s ( 1964) pos i t i on t ha t ge ne r a l s ys t e m t he or y i s m or e a m a t t e r of pe r s pe c t i ve a nd a w a y t o l ook a t t he w or l d t ha n i t i s a body o f doc t r i ne pr ovi de s t he gr oundi ng f o r t he a ppl i c a t i on of t hi s pa r t i c ul a r t he or e t i c a l body of know l e dge U l t i m a t e l y, t he s ubj e c t unde r e xa m i na t i on i n t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on i s a s ys t e m of s ys t e m s : i t i s t he i nt e r a c t i on o f ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd t w o t ype s o f h um a n s ys t e m s s p e c i f i c a l l y ur ba n s ys t e m s or a t t he ve r y l e a s t c l us t e r e d s e t t l e m e nt s a nd pol i c ym a ki ng s ys t e m s T he c om pone nt s of ka r s t s ys t e m s i nc l ude l i m e s t one or c a r bona t e be dr oc k, p r e c i pi t a t i on, t e m pe r a t ur e a nd c a r bon di oxi de de r i ve d f r om or ga ni c m a t e r i a l ( t hi s i s us ua l l y f ound i n

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271 t he ove r bur de n, but no t a l w a ys ) ( F i g ur e 10 1) U r b a n s ys t e m c om pone nt s i nc l ude hum a ns l a nd, a r t i f i c i a l s t r uc t ur e s e c onom i c i nput s out put s a nd bypr oduc t s ( i nc l udi ng f e r t i l i z e r s i ndus t r i a l w a s t e s a nd pol l ut i on t r a s h ge ne r a t e d by pa c ka ge d c ons um e r goods ) a nd ot he r w a s t e s W he n ur ba n s ys t e m s a r e l oc a t e d a bove or ve r y ne a r t o ka r s t s ys t e m s t he t w o s ys t e m s i nt e r a c t t o be c om e a s i ngl e s ys t e m ( i e gr oundw a t e r i s w i t hdr a w n t o he l p f ue l g r ow t h; l a nd s ubs i de nc e da m a ge s a r t i f i c i a l s t r uc t ur e s a nd ope ns ne w pa t hw a ys f r om t he s ur f a c e t o t he a qui f e r ; m or e s ur f a c e l e ve l pol l ut a nt s e nd up i n t he g r oundw a t e r ) U r ba n s ys t e m s a r e a l s o us ua l l y a t l e a s t pa r t i a l l y go ve r ne d by c ons t r a i nt s a nd r ul e s a t l e a s t i n pr a c t i c e i f not ne c e s s a r i l y i n t he or y. T he s e c ons t r a i nt s a r e pr oduc e d by t he l oc a l pol i c ym a ki ng s y s t e m t he na t ur e of w hi c h c a n di f f e r gr e a t l y f r om l oc a l i t y t o l oc a l i t y. I n ge ne r a l i nput s i nc l ude publ i c opi ni on bus i ne s s a nd e c onom i c i nt e r e s t s a m bi t i ons a nd goa l s of t he pol i c ym a ke r s t he m s e l ve s a nd s pe c i a l i z e d t e c hni c a l a na l ys i s T hi s i s a ve r y br oa d ge ne r a l i z a t i on, of c ou r s e ; i n m a ny pl a c e s t h e l oc a l pol i c ym a ki ng s ys t e m i s qui t e c om pl e x. U l t i m a t e l y t he s e c ons t r a i nt s c a n be p r od uc e d by pol i c ym a ki ng s ys t e m s t o gove r n or r e gul a t e t he w a ys i n w hi c h a n ur ba n s ys t e m i nt e r a c t s w i t h a ka r s t s ys t e m C e r t a i n l y, ur ba n s ys t e m s ka r s t s ys t e m s a nd pol i c y s ys t e m s m e e t s e ve r a l of t he t r a di t i ona l de f i ni t i ons of s ys t e m s B ot h t ype s of s y s t e m s a r e a s e t of i nt e r r e l a t e d e l e m e nt s a s pe r von B e r t a l a nnf y ( 1973) T he s ys t e m unde r e xa m i na t i on i n t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on i nc l ude s t he c om pone nt s a nd i nt e r r e l a t i ons hi ps of a l l t hr e e of t he s e s ys t e m s A s von B e r t a l a nnf y ( 1973) poi nt s out a l l l i vi n g s ys t e m s a r e ope n s ys t e m s ; t he s ys t e m unde r e xa m i na t i on he r e i s a s w e l l F o r c e s a nd e nt i t i e s e xt e r na l t o t he s ys t e m a r e a bl e t o pr ovi de i np ut s a nd i nf l ue nc e t he e nd s t a t e B e yond t he s i m pl e ope n / c l os e d s ys t e m di c hot om y, t hi s s ys t e m m e e t s t he de f i ni t i on o f a m e c ha ni c a l s ys t e m ( s ys t e m s t ha t a r e d r i ve n by c ha nge s t o a s e t

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272 F i g u r e 1 0 1 A k a r s t s y s t e m ( N o t t o s c a l e ) G r o u n d w a t e r p u m p i n g l e a d s t o a q u i f e r d r a w d o w n L o w e r h yd r o st a t i c p r e ssu r e l e a d s t o co l l a p se si n kh o l e s R u n o f f w a sh e s p o l l u t a n t s i n t o ka r st f e a t u r e s B e d r o ck su b j e ct e d t o sl o w d i sso l u t i o n p r o ce sse s U n f i l t e r e d p o l l u t a n t s e n t e r a q u i f e r

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273 of r e l a t i ve l y s i m pl e pa r a m e t e r s ) I t c oul d a l s o be a r gue d t ha t i t m e e t s t he de f i ni t i on of a s oc i a l s ys t e m a s w e l l ; how e ve r w hi l e s oc i a l s ys t e m s do a ddr e s s t he i nt e r a c t i on o f hum a ns w i t h t he i r phys i c a l a r t i f a c t s t he y a l s o t e nd t o e m pha s i z e s ym bol i c a r t i f a c t s a s w e l l w hi c h a r e not a s i m po r t a nt he r e T he m os t s i gni f i c a nt di f f i c ul t y i n a ppl yi ng s ys t e m t he or y t o t hi s r e s e a r c h i s t ha t t he m os t i m por t a nt c om pone nt o f t he s ys t e m hu m a ns i s a l s o i t s l e a s t pr e di c t a bl e c om pone nt ( von B e r t a l a nnf y 1973 ) H ow e ve r t hi s i s pe r ha ps t he s i ngl e m os t c om m on di f f i c ul t y i n c onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h i n a ny o f t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s a nd s houl d not s t a nd i n t he w a y of dr a w i ng s ound c onc l us i ons f r om t he da t a g a t he r e d he r e Inputs I n t he p r e c e di ng c ha pt e r s I e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s o f c e r t a i n i npu t s i nt o t he ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ng pr oc e s s a nd t he i r i m pa c t s on b ot h t he r e gul a t i ons t he m s e l ve s a nd t he hum a n s ys t e m s t o w hi c h t he y w e r e a ppl i e d S pe c i f i c a l l y, I e xpl or e d how s e t ba c k s t yl e s i nkhol e or di na nc e s a f f e c t r e s i de nt i a l s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t y i n s i nkhol e he a vy a r e a s ; I e xa m i ne d w he t he r t he r e w e r e e c onom i c i nc e nt i ve s f or pol i c y m a ke r s i n P e nns yl va ni a t o e nga ge i n s t r a t e gi c be ha vi or w he n de c i di ng w he t h e r or not t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ; a nd I l ooke d a t t he c ha l l e nge s f a c i ng ka r s t pr ot e c t i on e f f or t s i n R om a ni a s A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k, i n pa r t i c ul a r t ho s e r e l a t i ng t o a l a c k of e nf or c e m e nt a ut hor i t y. I a l s o e xa m i ne d t he pe r c e i ve d i m pa c t s o f ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a s vi e w e d f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of pl a nne r s ge ol ogi s t s a nd ot he r l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s F i gur e 10 2 de pi c t s a ge ne r a l c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k of t he pr oc e s s of ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i on; i t i s hi ghl y ge ne r a l i z e d, a nd t h e s pe c i f i c s w i l l va r y w i de l y f r o m

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274 F i g u r e 1 0 2 T h e k a r s t r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s I n p u t s A t t i t ude s of pl a nne r s E nf or c e m e nt a ut ho r i t y T e c hni c a l e xpe r t i s e N a t ur e of p r obl e m W r i t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s F or m of r e gu l a t i on s S t or m w a t e r m gt / r unof f S e t ba c ks / no bui l d a r e a s E xt r a s t e ps i n t he pr oc e s s D um pi ng / w a s t e di s pos a l F e r t i l i z e r / c he m i c a l a ppl Z oni ng ove r l a y R e gu l at or y s t r e n gt h or r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s O u t c om e s an d i m p ac t s P opul a t i on / s t r uc t u r a l de ns i t y G r oundw a t e r qua l i t y S ubs i de nc e da m a ge L a w s ui t s f i l e d L os t e c onom i c oppor t uni t i e s P e r c e pt i ons of r e gul a t or y e f f e c t i ve ne s s E xt e nt of ka r s t s ys t e m S t a ke hol de r i nput A va i l a bi l i t y of de ve l opa bl e l a nd R e gul a t or y a c t i ons of ne i ghbor i ng c i t i e s / t ow ns

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275 l oc a l i t y t o l oc a l i t y I w i l l be gi n w i t h a n e xa m i na t i o n of a gr oup of i npu t s i nt o t he r e gul a t i on de ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s T he di s c us s i on i s l i m i t e d t o a ha ndf ul of i nput s t ha t I c ons i de r e d i m por t a nt f o r one of t w o r e a s ons : e a c h i npu t w a s e i t he r a s i gni f i c a nt f a c t or i n t he pr oc e s s of w r i t i ng a nd de ve l opi ng t he s e r e gul a t i ons or i t s e e m s t o ha ve a n une xpe c t e dl y w e a k i m pa c t on t he p r oc e s s P r e c i s e l y qua nt i f yi ng t he s i gni f i c a nc e of e a c h i nput t o t he s ys t e m i s a l m os t c e r t a i nl y a n i m pos s i b l e t a s k; i nde e d, i t i s c ha l l e ngi ng e nough t o s i m pl y i de nt i f y e a c h i nput H ow e ve r ba s e d on t he r e s ul t s of t he r e s e a r c h de s c r i be d i n t he pr e c e di ng s e ve r a l c ha pt e r s w e c a n s e e t ha t s om e i nput s ge ne r a l l y s e e m t o ha ve gr e a t e r i m pa c t on t he r e gul a t or y pr oc e s s a nd r e s ul t s t ha n ot he r s S om e o f t he m or e i nt e r e s t i ng i nput s f r om bot h g r oups a r e de s c r i be d i n t hi s s e c t i on. T e c h n i c al e xp e r t i s e : I n C ha pt e r 6 i nput f r om non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s l i ke ge ol ogi s t s a nd hydr ol ogi s t s w a s c i t e d by a l a r ge nu m be r of r e s ponde nt s a s be i ng a c r i t i c a l f a c t or i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons T hi s i s uns ur pr i s i ng, a s S a ba t i e r ( 1988) e m pha s i z e d t he i m por t a nc e of s pe c i a l i s t know l e dge ( pol i c y or i e nt e d l e a r ni ng ) i n h i s A dvoc a c y C oa l i t i on F r a m e w or k o f t he pol i c y pr oc e s s M y r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t c ons ul t i ng t e c hni c a l e xpe r t s ha s s i gni f i c a nt be ne f i t s ( i e a c qui s i t i on of t he t he or e t i c a l a nd pr a c t i c a l know l e dge r e qui r e d t o t a r ge t a nd de s i gn e f f e c t i ve ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons ) t ha t a r e not a c c om pa ni e d by s i gni f i c a nt dr a w ba c ks ( t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s do not s e e m t o be i nc l i ne d t o p r om ot e e xc e s s i ve l y r e s t r i c t i ve r e gul a t i ons e ve n a s t he i r i nf l ue nc e ove r t he pr oc e s s i nc r e a s e s ) B ut be c a us e of t he ge ne r a l l y i nt a ngi bl e na t u r e of t he be ne f i t s of t e c hni c a l e xpe r t i s e i t s i m pa c t on t h e r e gul a t i on w r i t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e s s i s a l m os t i m pos s i bl e t o qu a nt i f y. T he r e do s e e m t o be s om e t a ngi bl e r e s ul t s of hi ghe r l e ve l s of i nf l ue nc e f r om non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s : S ur ve y

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276 r e s ul t s a l s o s how t ha t t he us e of e xt r a s t e ps i n t he p e r m i t t i ng p r oc e s s of dum pi ng a nd w a s t e di s pos a l r e gul a t i ons a nd of f e r t i l i z e r a nd c h e m i c a l a ppl i c a t i on r e gul a t i ons i s m o r e f r e que nt i n m uni c i pa l i t i e s w he r e non e l e c t e d pr of e s s i ona l s w e r e m or e i nf l ue nt i a l on t he ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on p r oc e s s A t t i t u d e s o f p l a n n e r s an d l an d u s e p r of e s s i on al s : T he s ur ve y r e s ul t s i n C ha pt e r 6 de m ons t r a t e d t ha t t he a t t i t ude s of l a nd us e pr o f e s s i ona l s a r e c r i t i c a l i n t he pr oc e s s of c r a f t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i o ns M os t ge ne r a l l y f e e l t ha t r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t or ne a r ka r s t f e a t ur e s i s a ppr opr i a t e ; opi ni ons di ve r ge on t he que s t i on of w ha t w i l l ha ppe n a s a r e s ul t of a ny s uc h i m pl e m e nt a t i on. A s w a s de m ons t r a t e d i n C ha pt e r 6 c ount i e s c i t i e s a nd t ow ns w i t hout ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons on t he books a r e m or e l i ke l y t o e m pl oy l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s w ho e xpe c t ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t o r e s ul t i n m os t l y ne ga t i ve out c om e s t ha n a r e m uni c i pa l i t i e s w he r e s uc h r e gul a t i ons c a n be f ound P l a nne r s a nd l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s m us t be c onvi nc e d t ha t be ne f i t s w i l l a c c r ue o r t he r e gul a t i ons a r e hi ghl y unl i ke l y t o ge t of f t he gr ound; t hi s i s a l m os t c e r t a i nl y due t o t he i r r o l e a s ga t e ke e pe r s i n t he pr oc e s s E n f or c e m e n t au t h or i t y: T he e xpe r i e nc e of t he a u t hor s of t he A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k s m a na ge m e nt pl a n d e m ons t r a t e s t ha t e nf or c e m e nt a ut hor i t y i s a l s o c r uc i a l a poi nt r a i s e d w i t hi n t he p r ot e c t e d a r e a c ont e xt by J e ps on e t a l ( 2002) a nd K ue ny a nd D a y ( 2002) W i t hout t he a bi l i t y t o e nf o r c e ka r s t pr o t e c t i ons s t a ke hol de r s w i t h a n i nc e nt i ve ( pa r t i c ul a r l y a f i na nc i a l i nc e nt i ve ) t o i gnor e r e gul a t i ons a r e ve r y l i ke l y t o do e xa c t l y t ha t O ut s i de of a pr o t e c t e d a r e a c ont e xt bot h t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e ( D a y, 1996; J e ps on e t a l 2002; K ue ny a nd D a y, 2002 ) a nd i nt e r v i e w s s ugge s t t ha t e nf or c e m e nt a ut ho r i t y i s a l s o a f a c t or i n ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on i n non pr ot e c t e d a r e a s i n t he U S ; f o r e xa m pl e a

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277 c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n t ha t a t t e m pt s t o c ont r ol g r ow t h i n c a r bona t e a r e a s i s not l i ke l y t o be e f f e c t i ve a bs e nt a z oni ng o r di na nc e t o i m p l e m e nt a nd e nf or c e t he pr i or i t i e s of t he c om pr e he ns i ve pl a n. A ddi t i ona l l y s ubdi vi s i on a nd l a nd de ve l opm e nt o r di na nc e s w i t h ka r s t r e l a t e d c om pone nt s a r e e a s i e r t o w a i ve t ha n z oni ng or di na nc e s a nd t hus do not pr ovi de t he s a m e l e ve l o f p r ot e c t i on or e nf or c e m e n t a ut hor i t y N at u r e an d f r am i n g of t h e p r ob l e m : T he na t u r e of t he s pe c i f i c ka r s t pr obl e m qui t e na t ur a l l y ha s a s t r ong i n f l ue nc e on t he c ha r a c t e r of t he l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons ; a ddr e s s i ng a gr oundw a t e r c ont a m i na t i on i s s ue f or e xa m pl e w oul d r e qui r e a d i f f e r e nt ( i f pa r t i a l l y ove r l a ppi ng) s e t o f t ool s t ha n a ddr e s s i ng a l a nd s ubs i de nc e pr obl e m R e s ul t s f r om t he s ur ve y s ugge s t t ha t de ve l opi ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons i s m or e l i ke l y t o s uc c e e d i f t he unde r l yi ng pr obl e m i s hi ghl y vi s i bl e a nd i f t he pr opos e d r e gul a t i ons c a n be r e a di l y c onn e c t e d t o t ha t s pe c i f i c pr obl e m B ut e ve n w he n t he pr obl e m i s vi s i bl e a nd ur ge nt r e gul a t i on c a n di e on t he vi ne i f i t i s not pr ope r l y f r a m e d. C ont a m i na t i on of g r oundw a t e r r e s our c e s a nd s t r uc t ur a l da m a ge f r om l a nd s ubs i de nc e s e e m t o be e f f e c t i ve w a ys t o f r a m e t he pr ob l e m S t ak e h ol d e r i n p u t : I n t hi s c a s e t he t e r m s t a ke hol de r i s gi ve n a br oa d de f i ni t i on, a nd i nc l ude s bot h l oc a l r e s i de nt s a nd t h os e w i t h a n e c onom i c i nt e r e s t i n t he l oc a t i on ( i e t he c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y, or r e s our c e us e r s ) T he i nf l ue nc e o f e a c h g r oup of s t a ke hol de r s va r i e s w i de l y. M y r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t f o r t he m os t pa r t l oc a l r e s i de nt s do not s e e m t o ha ve a m a j or i n f l ue nc e on t he de ve l op m e nt a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ; t he one s w ho do a r e ge ne r a l l y t he one s w ho a r e bot h w e l l i nf o r m e d a nd m os t l i ke l y t o be a f f e c t e d by s uc h r e gul a t i ons T hi s gr oup m a y not be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he ge ne r a l popul a t i on D a t a c ol l e c t e d f r om f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s i ndi c a t e t ha t t hi s c a n

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278 c ha nge w i t h t i m e t hr ough publ i c e duc a t i on p r ogr a m s ; one r e s po nde nt a r gue s t ha t s uc h e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s c a n he l p p r e s e r ve t he r e gul a t i o n i t s e l f by m i t i ga t i ng a ny s hi f t s i n pol i t i c a l pr i o r i t i e s t ha t oc c ur w i t h c ha ngi ng a dm i ni s t r a t i ons ( f or e xa m pl e a ne w m a yor m a y be m or e s ym pa t he t i c t o t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y t ha n he r pr e de c e s s or ; i n t ha t c a s e a vot i ng publ i c w i t h a w e l l de ve l ope d unde r s t a ndi ng of ka r s t a nd t he ne e d f o r i t s p r ot e c t i on c a n a c t a s a n obs t a c l e t o w e a ke ni ng e xi s t i ng r e gul a t i on ) F ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he c ons t r uc t i on i nd us t r y i s ge ne r a l l y hos t i l e t o s uc h r e gul a t i ons ; how e ve r t he s ur ve y r e s ul t s s ugge s t t he i ndus t r y i s not a l w a ys a bl e t o e xe r t a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount of i nf l ue nc e ove r t he p r oc e s s ( w he t he r t hi s i s by c hoi c e or not i s unc l e a r ) A c c or di ng t o t he s ur ve y, i n s om e c a s e s ( l e s s t ha n 20pe r c e nt ) c ons t r uc t i on i nt e r e s t s a r e t he m os t i n f l ue nt i a l gr oup i n t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng r e gul a t i ons but t he c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y w a s one of t he l e a s t f r e que nt l y s e l e c t e d r e s pons e s f or t he que s t i on of w hi c h g r oup or e nt i t y ha d t he m os t i nf l ue nc e on t he pr oc e s s T h i s s t r ongl y s ugge s t s t ha t c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y oppos i t i on c a n be ove r c om e by t hos e w i s hi ng t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a nd f e a r of s uc h oppos i t i on s houl d not be a m a j or f a c t or i n t he pr oc e s s of de ve l opi ng ka r s t a w a r e l a n d us e r e gul a t i ons E xt e n t of t h e k ar s t s ys t e m : T he s i z e of t he unde r l yi ng ka r s t s ys t e m s e e m s t o pl a y a r ol e i n de t e r m i n i ng t he f or m of t he ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons t ha t a r e ul t i m a t e l y i m pl e m e nt e d, but no t on t he r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s of t hos e r e gul a t i ons A c c or di ng t o t he s ur ve y r e s ul t s i n C ha pt e r 6, m uni c i pa l i t i e s w i t h m or e e xt e ns i ve ka r s t s ys t e m s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o e m pl oy m a nda t or y s e t ba c ks / non b ui l da bl e a r e a s a nd dum pi ng / w a s t e di s pos a l r e gul a t i ons t ha n t hos e w i t h l e s s e xt e ns i ve k a r s t ; s i m ul t a ne ous l y, t he r e i s no

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279 s t r ong c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he e xt e nt o f a pa r t i c ul a r ka r s t s ys t e m a nd t he s t r e ngt h of t he ka r s t r e gul a t i ons t ha t a r e ul t i m a t e l y i m pl e m e nt e d. K e e p i n g u p w i t h t h e n e i gh b or s or t h e n e e d f or s t r at e gi c b e h avi or : I t i s a ppr op r i a t e t o t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on w ha t ne i ghb or i ng m uni c i pa l i t i e s ha ve done w i t h r e ga r ds t o r e gul a t i ng de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t t e r r a i ns but onl y t o a poi nt F ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s w i t h pl a nne r s a nd l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s s ugge s t t ha t t he e xpe r i e nc e s of ot he r t o w ns c a n be i l l um i na t i ng i n i de nt i f yi ng e f f e c t i ve r e gul a t or y t e c hni que s f or pr e ve nt i ng ka r s t de gr a da t i on a nd a qui f e r da m a ge O ne r e a s on f or t hi s i s t ha t t ow ns i n c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o e a c h ot he r a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o be s ubj e c t t o t he s a m e e xt e r na l i nf l ue nc e s ( ge ol ogi c e c onom i c pol i t i c a l e t c ) H ow e ve r r e s u l t s f r om C ha pt e r 8 s ugge s t t ha t t he r e i s l i t t l e r e a s on t o c ons i de r t he m e r e e xi s t e nc e of s uc h r e gul a t i ons i n ne i ghbor i ng t ow ns a s a f a c t or i n de c i di ng w he t he r t o i m pl e m e nt ka r s t a w a r e r e gul a t i ons or not a s t he y s e e m t o ha ve no s t a t i s t i c a l l y de t e c t a bl e i m pa c t on i nd i c a t or s of e c onom i c gr ow t h a nd he a l t h; a ddi t i ona l l y, r e s ul t s f r om t he s ur ve y c onf i r m t ha t t hi s i s ge ne r a l l y unde r s t ood by l a nd us e pr of e s s i ona l s t o be t he c a s e T h i s c ont r a di c t s e xpe c t a t i ons r oot e d i n e c onom i c s a nd ga m e t he or y, a nd m a y i ndi c a t e t ha t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e ge ne r a l l y not s w e e pi ng e nough t o ha ve a w i de s pr e a d i m pa c t on gr ow t h a nd de ve l opm e nt p a t t e r ns Outcomes T hi s di s s e r t a t i on doe s not e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons w i t h r e s pe c t t o ka r s t pr ot e c t i on o r a t l e a s t not di r e c t l y ( i e t hr ough w a t e r qua l i t y t e s t s or qua nt i f i a bl e m e a s ur e s of c a ve pr ot e c t i on) I ns t e a d, i t l ooks a t i ndi r e c t m e a s ur e s of t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of ka r s t p r ot e c t i on, g e ne r a l l y i n t e r m s of r e gul a t or y i m pa c t on hum a n s ys t e m s a nd hum a n be ha vi or T h i s i nc l u de s s e t t l e m e nt pa t t e r ns de ns i t y, a nd

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280 e c onom i c c ons i de r a t i ons a m ong ot he r s T hi s s e c t i on i nc l ude s di s c us s i on of t he s e out c om e s a nd t he i r i m pl i c a t i ons E xp e c t at i on s an d p e r c e i ve d ou t c om e s : S ur v e y r e s ul t s a nd f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he m os t c om m onl y obs e r ve d out c om e s of i m pl e m e nt i ng a s e t of ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e a de c l i ne i n da m a ge f r om s ubs i de nc e a nd a n i m pr ove m e nt i n gr oundw a t e r qua l i t y H ow e ve r a s w a s s how n i n c h a pt e r 6, t he s e out c om e s a r e e xpe c t e d t o oc c ur m o r e f r e que nt l y t ha n t he y a r e a c t ua l l y r e p or t e d t o oc c ur W he t he r t hi s i s due t o i na de qua t e m e t hods of r e gul a t i on or s om e t hi ng e l s e i s not ye t know n; i nde e d, i t i s not e ve n know n i f t he s e pe r c e pt i ons a r e i n f a c t a c c ur a t e I t i s e nt i r e l y pos s i bl e f o r e xa m pl e t ha t gr oundw a t e r qua l i t y i m p r ove s f a r m or e f r e que nt l y t ha n s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s r e por t e d. T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t e xpe c t a t i ons f or t he be ne f i t s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons m a y be t oo hi gh, pe r ha ps l e a di ng t o a n e ve nt ua l c ons e ns u s t ha t t he r e gul a t or y r out e i s not a de qua t e f or m a na gi ng de ve l opm e nt o n ka r s t a nd t ha t t he be ne f i t s of t he s e r e gul a t i ons a r e not w o r t h t he t i m e a nd e f f o r t of i m pl e m e nt a t i on. L aw s u i t p r e ve n t i on : A c c or di ng t o s ur ve y r e s u l t s a nd f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s ka r s t s e ns i t i ve l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons s e e m t o be a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o di s c our a ge l a w s ui t s f i l e d a ga i ns t t he c i t y or c ount y. T ypi c a l l y t he s e l a w s ui t s a r i s e f r om una nt i c i pa t e d l a nd s ubs i de nc e a c t i vi t y t ha t s i gni f i c a nt l y da m a ge s p r op e r t y. I n L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y f o r e xa m pl e r e duc i ng l a w s ui t s f i l e d a ga i ns t t he c ount y w a s a n e xpl i c i t goa l of t he de ve l opm e nt a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f t he c ount y s s i nkhol e or di na nc e ( t he or di na nc e t a ke s t he f or m of a m i ni m um s e t ba c k / non bui l da bl e a r e a r e s t r i c t i on) ; t he or di na nc e ha s be e n s uc c e s s f ul i n t hi s goa l ( R e bm a nn, pe r s c om m 20 06) T he pr e s e nc e of s uc h or di na nc e s or s i m i l a r r e gul a t i ons m a y m a ke i t m o r e di f f i c ul t f or pot e nt i a l p l a i nt i f f s t o s uc c e s s f ul l y

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281 a r gue t ha t a ny s ubs i de nc e da m a ge t o s t r uc t ur e s bui l t ne a r a s i nkhol e i s a c t ua l l y t he c i t y s f a ul t f o r ne gl i ge nt l y i s s ui ng a bui l di ng pe r m i t f or a n uns a f e a r e a E c on om i c gr ow t h an d d e ve l op m e n t : H i ghe r hou s i ng c os t s a nd l os t de ve l opm e nt oppor t uni t i e s w e r e bot h c i t e d by s e ve r a l r e s ponde nt s t o t h e s ur ve y a s e xpe c t e d out c om e s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i on H ow e ve r t he s a m e s ur ve y r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he s e out c om e s a r e not of t e n obs e r ve d. W hi l e i t i s t r ue t ha t bot h of t he s e out c om e s a r e di f f i c ul t t o qua nt i f y, or a t l e a s t p r e s e nt di f f i c ul t i e s i n i de nt i f i c a t i on of t he pr i m a r y c a us e i t i s s t i l l pos s i bl e t o dr a w s om e c onc l us i ons f r om t he da t a g a t he r e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. D a t a f r om ka r s t i c a r e a s i n P e nns yl va ni a s ugge s t t ha t t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons doe s not i n f a c t ha ve a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t o n m e di a n hous i ng va l ue w i t h i n t he c om m uni t y. A s f or l os t oppor t uni t i e s f or de ve l opm e nt t he s e c a n be di r e c t l y t i e d t o ka r s t r e gul a t i ons onl y vi a a ne c dot a l e vi de nc e a t be s t H o w e ve r i f w e us e t he t o t a l num be r of r e s i de nt i a l bui l d i ng pe r m i t s i s s ue d by e a c h t ow n a s a pr oxy va r i a bl e f or de ve l opm e nt oppor t uni t i e s w e s e e t he r e i s onc e a ga i n no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n t he num be r of pe r m i t s i s s ue d be t w e e n m uni c i pa l i t i e s t ha t r e gul a t e de ve l opm e nt on ka r s t a nd t hos e t ha t d o not W ha t a r e t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t h i s f i ndi ng? T he r e a r e s e ve r a l pos s i bi l i t i e s F i r s t t he f a c t t ha t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons do not s e e m t o a f f e c t m e di a n hous i ng va l ue s ugge s t s t ha t pe r ha ps t he a m e ni t y f a c t or o f m o r e ope n s pa c e t ha t s houl d r e s ul t f r om i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd e nf or c e m e nt of ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i s ge ne r a l l y not a n i m por t a nt c ons i de r a t i on i n a m a r ke t ba s e d de t e r m i na t i on of hom e va l ue s C onve r s e l y, t he l a nd us e r e s t r i c t i ons i m pos e d by ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons do not s e e m t o a c t a s a dr a g on hom e va l ue s e i t he r R e s i de nt i a l bui l di ng pe r m i t da t a s ugge s t s t ha t ka r s t r e gul a t i ons do not ge ne r a l l y da m pe n

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282 de m a nd f or ne w hous i ng, o r e nc r oa c h on t he p r of i t a bi l i t y of ne w r e s i de nt i a l pr o j e c t s P e r ha ps t he r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on i ndus t r y i s be t t e r a bl e t o a da pt t o e xt e r na l c ondi t i ons a nd f or c e s t ha n i s w i de l y a s s um e d; i t i s a l s o pos s i bl e t ha t t he r e gul a t i ons a r e ge ne r a l l y i ne f f e c t i ve go une nf or c e d, or ha ve onl y l i m i t e d ge ogr a phi c a ppl i c a bi l i t y ( a nd t he r e f o r e onl y l i m i t e d i m pa c t ) P op u l at i o n an d s t r u c t u r al d e n s i t y: R e s pons e s f r om t he s ur ve y s ugge s t t ha t e ve n t hough a s i z a bl e m i nor i t y of r e s ponde nt s e xpe c t e d t o s e e popul a t i on de ns i t y de c r e a s e a s a r e s ul t of i m p l e m e nt i ng ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ve r y f e w a c t ua l l y obs e r ve d t hi s out c om e H ow e ve r i f w e l ook a t bl oc k l e ve l da t a f r om m uni c i pa l i t i e s i n K e nt uc ky a nd M i s s our i w e s e e t he e xpe c t e d r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n s i nkhol e s w i t h m a nda t or y s e t ba c ks a nd popul a t i on / s t r uc t u r a l de ns i t y ( i e a r e a s w i t h l ot s of s i nkhol e s a r e l e s s de ns e ) T he r e i s a c ount e r i nt ui t i ve c om pone nt t o t he s e r e s ul t s na m e l y t he pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n s i nkhol e de ns i t y a nd r e s i de nt i a l s t r uc t ur a l de ns i t y; how e ve r t he r e a r e s e ve r a l pot e nt i a l e xpl a na t i ons f or t hi s phe nom e non ( di s c us s e d a t t he e nd of C ha pt e r 7) T he r e s ul t s f r o m C ha pt e r 7 s ug ge s t ve r y s t r ongl y t ha t up t o a poi n t s e t ba c k a nd non bui l da bl e a r e a or d i na nc e s do a c t a s a dr a g on de ns i t y gr ow t h r a t e s i n s i nkhol e pr one a r e a s S o w hy w a s n t t hi s out c om e r e por t e d m o r e f r e que nt l y? T he a ns w e r t o t ha t que s t i on m a y l i e i n t he f a c t t ha t t h e s e e f f e c t s a r e s i m pl y t oo l oc a l i z e d t o be w i de l y no t i c e d, o r t ha t c ha nge s i n de ns i t y a r e pe r ha ps t oo s ubt l e a nd oc c ur ove r t oo l ong a t i m e pe r i od t o be a c c ur a t e l y pe r c e i ve d by m os t c a s ua l obs e r ve r s on t he gr ound. R e gu l at or y s t r e n gt h a n d r e s t r i c t i ve n e s s : M os t s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s de s c r i be t he i r l oc a l r e gul a t i ons a s e i t he r not ve r y r e s t r i c t i ve or s om e w ha t r e s t r i c t i ve T he r e i s s om e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s a nd t he i nc r e a s e d r a t e s of i m pl e m e nt a t i on

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283 of m a ny c om m onl y a ppl i e d r e gul a t or y t oo l s ( t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p doe s not a ppl y t o s t or m w a t e r r unof f r e gul a t i ons w hi c h a r e a l m os t u ni ve r s a l l y a ppl i e d) ; how e ve r w he t he r or not r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s ha s a ny t a ngi bl e i m pa c t on t he u r ba n s ys t e m i t s e l f i s a n ope n que s t i on. U s i ng m y ow n ( a dm i t t e dl y s ubj e c t i ve but c ons i s t e nt l y a ppl i e d) de f i ni t i on of r e gul a t or y r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s a nd a ppl yi ng i t t o m y P e nns yl va ni a da t a I f ound t ha t r e s t r i c t i ve ne s s ( r e pr e s e nt e d by t he s t r ong bi na r y va r i a bl e ) ha d no i m pa c t on e i t he r m e di a n hom e va l ue s or on t he num be r of r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on pe r m i t s i s s ue d. F or m of r e gu l at i o n s : S ur ve y r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t s t or m w a t e r r uno f f r e gul a t i ons a r e t he e a s i e s t t ype of ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on t o ge t i m pl e m e nt e d; f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e a s on f or t hi s i s t he s t r a i ght f or w a r d na t u r e of t he p r obl e m s t he y ge ne r a l l y a ddr e s s a s w e l l a s t he s t r a i ght f or w a r d na t ur e o f t he r e gul a t i ons t he m s e l ve s R e s ponde nt s s e e m t o ge ne r a l l y f e e l t h a t i f done p r ope r l y, s t or m w a t e r r unof f a nd m a na ge m e nt or di na nc e s c a n be e f f e c t i ve t ool s i n ka r s t l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. T he y a r e e xt r e m e l y c om m on i n P e nns yl va ni a l oc a l l a nd us e r e gul a t i on, pos s i bl y t he m os t c om m on. W hi l e m a nda t or y s e t ba c ks / non bui l da bl e a r e a s a r e ba s e d on a s i m i l a r l y s t r a i ght f or w a r d i de a i nt e r v i e w s s ugge s t t ha t i t c a n be di f f i c ul t t o m a ke t he s e e f f e c t i ve unl e s s i t s di f f i c ul t f or de ve l ope r s a nd l a ndow ne r s t o ge t va r i a nc e s I n o r de r f or t ha t t o oc c ur t he body r e s pons i bl e f or i s s ui ng va r i a nc e s m us t be s ym pa t he t i c t o t he goa l s of r e gul a t i ng l a nd de ve l opm e nt a nd us e i n ka r s t a r e a s ; i t a l s o m us t ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o r e s i s t pol i t i c a l pr e s s ur e t o g r a nt va r i a nc e s i n c a s e s w he r e a va r i a nc e w oul d be i na ppr op r i a t e ( I nt e r vi e w R e bm a nn, 2006 ) H ow e ve r s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s c onduc t e d i n C ha pt e r 7 s ugge s t s ot he r w i s e t ha t i n f a c t t he s e or di na nc e s c a n ha ve s om e e f f e c t on hum a n de ns i t y ne a r s i nkhol e s

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284 F ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s s ugge s t t ha t z oni ng or di na nc e s m a y of t e n be t oo bl unt a t ool f or ka r s t r e l a t e d l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. T hi s i s due t o t he of t l oc a l i z e d na t u r e of ka r s t l a ndf or m de ve l o pm e nt ; r e gul a t i ons i nt e nde d t o m a na ge de ve l opm e nt ne a r s uc h l a ndf or m s m a y not be a pp r opr i a t e f or a l l de ve l opm e nt i n a gi ve n a r e a I ns t e a d, i t m a y be be s t t o us e l e s s i nt r us i ve m e t hods l i ke s t or m w a t e r a nd r uno f f m a na ge m e nt w he n t he y a r e a ppr opr i a t e Gener al conclusi ons S pe a ki ng m or e ge ne r a l l y t he r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on f i nds s c a nt e vi de nc e t o s uppor t a nt i r e gul a t i on a r gu m e nt ba s e d on l os s of e c onom i c gr ow t h oppor t uni t i e s i n u r ba n l oc a t i ons T he e xt e nt t o w hi c h ka r s t r e gul a t i ons ha ve a ny e f f e c t a t a l l on hum a n s ys t e m s va r i e s w i de l y f r om l oc a t i on t o l oc a t i on, a nd i n s om e c a s e s s e e m s unde t e c t a bl e I t i s di f f i c ul t t o pi npoi nt t he e xa c t r e a s ons w hy t hi s m i ght be t hough s om e pos s i bi l i t i e s a r e a l a c k of e n f or c e m e nt ge ne r a l l y w e a k r e gul a t i ons o r ge ne r a l l y l ow c os t s i m pos e d by t hi s t ype o f r e gul a t i on A n e xc e pt i on t o t hi s ge ne r a l r ul e c a n be f ound i n s om e c a s e s w he r e t he l oc a l e c onom y i s or c oul d be ba s e d on t he e xt r a c t i on a nd e xpl oi t a t i on of na t ur a l r e s our c e s ; c e r t a i nl y, a ny ka r s t r e l a t e d r e gul a t i ons i m pl e m e nt e d i n t hi s c ont e xt w i l l ha ve a n i m pa c t on t he l oc a l e c onom i c s ys t e m T ha t not w i t hs t a ndi ng, i t s e e m s t ha t pl a nne r s a nd pol i c ym a ke r s ge ne r a l l y s h oul d not ove r e s t i m a t e t he pot e nt i a l e c onom i c i m pa c t s of ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a nd s houl d us e t he be ne f i t s of p r ot e c t i ng t he ka r s t a s t he i r pr i m a r y m e t r i c w he n dr a f t i ng t he s e r e gul a t i ons a nd or di na nc e s Future research n eeds and di rections A t t he be gi nni ng o f t h i s c ha pt e r I e m pha s i z e d t ha t t he s e c onc l us i ons s houl d not be c ons i de r e d a c om pr e he ns i ve f i n i s h e d f r a m e w or k f or de ve l opi ng ka r s t l a nd us e

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285 r e gul a t i ons T he r e i s s t i l l p l e nt y of w or k t o be don e i n our goa l o f unde r s t a ndi ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n ka r s t s ys t e m s ur ba n s ys t e m s a nd pol i c y s ys t e m s S om e pot e nt i a l l y pr om i s i ng a ve nue s f or f ut ur e s t udy i nc l ude : A m or e ge ne r a l i z e d a ppr oa c h t o t he unde r s t a ndi ng of how ka r s t r e gul a t i ons a r e a f f e c t e d by c ons t r a i nt s on t he a va i l a bi l i t y o f de ve l opa bl e l a nd. W hi l e t he r e s ul t s f r om L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y a r e c l e a r i t i s by no m e a ns obvi ous i f t hos e r e s ul t s a r e a p pl i c a bl e t o ot he r c i t i e s w he r e l a nd a va i l a bi l i t y i s c ons t r a i ne d. I t w oul d be pa r t i c ul a r l y us e f ul t o l ook a t c i t i e s w he r e t he s e c ons t r a i nt s a r e t he r e s ul t o f t he s ur r oundi ng na t u r a l l a nds c a pe a s oppos e d t o a r t i f i c i a l l y i m pos e d c ons t r a i nt s l i ke a n ur ba n gr o w t h bounda r y. A m or e de t a i l e d unde r s t a ndi ng of t he e c onom i c i m pa c t s of i m pl e m e nt i ng ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i on. I n pa r t i c ul a r a s t udy of how s uc h r e gul a t i ons a f f e c t c om m e r c i a l a nd i ndus t r i a l de ve l opm e nt pr oj e c t s w oul d be i l l um i na t i ng A n e xa m i na t i on of t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of di f f e r e nt t y pe s of l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons i n t e r m s of how w e l l t hos e r e gul a t or y t ool s pr o t e c t ka r s t l a ndf or m s a nd a qui f e r s A n e xa m i na t i on of how w e l l ka r s t a w a r e l a nd us e r e gul a t i ons a r e a c t ua l l y e nf or c e d.

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286 R e fe r e n c e s 1. A br uda n, I o a n; T u r noc k, D a vi d. 1998 A r ur a l de v e l opm e nt s t r a t e gy f or t he A pus e ni M ount a i ns R om a ni a G e oJ our na l v 46 pp. 319 336 2. P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e P l a nni ng C ode A c t 247 1967 3. A l l e nt ow n, P A C ode of O r di na nc e s 12779 1 987. 4. A l ons o, W 1964 L oc at i on and L a nd U s e : T ow ar d a G e ne r al T he or y of L and R e nt H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge M A 5. A m br os e B r e nt W 2003 U r ba n gr ow t h c ont r ol s a nd a f f or da bl e hous i ng: T he c a s e of L e xi ngt on, K e nt uc ky. R e por t pr e pa r e d f or t he L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e C ount y H um a n R i ght s C om m i s s i on a nd L e xi ngt on F a ye t t e U r ba n C ount y G ove r n m e nt D i vi s i on of C om m uni t y D e ve l opm e nt 6. A pus e ni N a t ur a l P a r k d r a f t m a na ge m e nt pl a n. 200 6. 7. A xe l r od, R obe r t 1984 T he E v ol ut i on of C oope r at i on B a s i c B ooks N e w Y or k 8. B a c k, W i l l i a m 1983 D e g r a da t i on of gr ound w a t e r r e s our c e s c a us e d by i na dve r t e nt l a nd m i s us e R e l a t i on o f G r oundw a t e r Q ua l i t y a nd Q ua nt i t y, pp. 181 188. W e l l i ngf o r d, O xf or ds hi r e U K 9. B a r ne r W e nde l l L 1999. C om pa r i s on of s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt i n a ka r s t t e r r a ne i n S pr i ngf i e l d M i s s our i c a s e hi s t or i e s E ngi ne e r i ng G e ol ogy, v. 52, pp. 105 112. 10. B e c k, B a r r y F 1986 A ge ne r a l i z e d ge ne t i c f r a m e w or k f or t he de ve l opm e nt of s i nkhol e s a nd ka r s t i n F l o r i da U S A E nvi r on m e nt a l G e ol ogy, v 8 nos 1 2 pp 5 18. 11. B e r ndt M P ; O a ks f or d E T ; M a hon, G L 1998 G r oundw a t e r I n F e r na l d E dw a r d A ; P u r dum E l i z a be t h D ( E ds ) W at e r R e s our c e s A t l as of F l or i da F l or i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, T a l l a ha s s e e 12. B e t hl e he m P A S ubdi vi s i on a nd L a nd D e ve l opm e nt O r di na nc e s 1349. 13 13. B e t s on, R oge r P 1977. T he hyd r ol ogy o f u r ba n ka r s t a r e a s I n D i l a m a r t e r a nd C s a l l a ny ( E ds ) H y dr ol ogi c P r obl e m s i n K ar s t R e gi ons ( ) pp. 162 175 W e s t e r n K e nt uc ky U ni ve r s i t y, B ow l i ng G r e e n, K e nt uc ky. 14. B i c kf or d, T a m m y M ; L i nds e y, B r uc e D ; B e a ve r M a r k R 1996. B a c t e r i ol ogi c a l Q ua l i t y of G r ound W a t e r U s e d f or H ous e hol d S up pl y, L ow e r S us que ha nna R i ve r B a s i n, P e nns yl va ni a a nd M a r yl a nd. U S G S W a t e r r e s our c e s i nve s t i ga t i ons r e por t 96 4212. 15. B l oom A r t hu r L 1998. G e om or phol ogy : A Sy s t e m at i c A nal y s i s of L a t e C e noz oi c L andf or m s P r e nt i c e H a l l I nc U ppe r S a ddl e R i ve r N J

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297 182. Z w a hl e n, F r a nc oi s ( e d. ) 2003 V ul ne r a bi l i t y a nd r i s k m a ppi ng f or t he pr ot e c t i on of c a r bona t e ( ka r s t ) a qui f e r s : s c ope goa l s r e s ul t s E ur ope a n C om m i s s i on f or S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h a nd D e ve l opm e nt L uxe m bou r g.

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299 A p p e n d i x A : Su r v e y o f l a n d u s e p r o fe s s i o n a l s i n k a r s t i c a r e a s i n th e U n i te d S ta te s C onduc t e d onl i ne vi a S ur ve yM onke y, N ov. 25 200 6 J a n. 2 2007 1 A r e y o u f a m i l i a r w i t h k a r s t ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t Y e s 5 9 8 9 3 9 N o 7 1 0 6 1 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 6 6 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 0 2 B y w h i c h t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e y o u e m p l o y e d ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t 4 7 8 2 4 6 S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t 6 1 0 5 3 F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t 1 1 7 5 P r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g / c o n t r a c t i n g 1 1 7 5 O t h e r 2 3 5 1 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 5 7 8 6 3 6 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 9 3 T h i s s u r v e y d e a l s w i t h l o c a l l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s P l e a s e e n t e r t h e n a m e o f t h e c i t y o r c o u n t y o n w h o s e r e g u l a t i o n s y o u w i l l b e c o m m e n t i n g T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 5 5 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 1 1

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300 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 4 I n w h i c h s t a t e d o y o u w o r k ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t F l o r i d a 2 4 4 2 1 1 K e n t u c k y 6 1 0 5 3 M i s s o u r i 8 1 4 0 4 N e w J e r s e y 2 3 5 1 P e n n s y l v a n i a 1 3 2 2 8 1 T e n n e s s e e 4 7 0 2 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 5 7 8 6 3 6 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 9 5 W h a t i s y o u r j o b t i t l e ? T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 5 5 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 1 1 6 T o t h e b e s t o f y o u r k n o w l e d g e d o e s y o u r c i t y o r t o w n c u r r e n t l y h a v e a n y f o r m o f k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s o n t h e b o o k s ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t Y e s 3 2 5 6 1 4 N o 2 1 3 6 8 4 N o t a p p l i c a b l e I w o r k a t t h e s t a t e o r f e d e r a l l e v e l 4 7 0 2 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 5 7 8 6 3 6 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 9

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301 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 7 I n y o u r o p i n i o n w h y h a s y o u r c i t y o r t o w n d e c l i n e d t o e n a c t k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n ? ( S e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t P h i l o s o p h i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o r e g u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l 3 1 6 6 7 F e a r o f l a w s u i t s 0 P r e s s u r e f r o m d e v e l o p e r s 3 1 6 6 7 F e a r o f l o s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r o w t h t o n e i g h b o r i n g t o w n s w i t h o u t s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s 1 5 5 6 T h e r e i s n o k a r s t w i t h i n t h e t o w n l i m i t s 2 1 1 1 1 C i t i z e n i n p u t 0 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 1 1 6 1 1 1 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 1 8 2 7 2 7 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 4 8 8 W e r e y o u i n v o l v e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n y o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t Y e s 1 6 4 5 7 1 N o 1 9 5 4 2 9 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 1

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302 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 9 A p p r o x i m a t e l y h o w l o n g a g o w e r e t h e s e k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s i m p l e m e n t e d ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P e r c e n t W i t h i n t h e l a s t t w o y e a r s 5 1 4 2 9 B e t w e e n t w o a n d f i v e y e a r s a g o 5 1 4 2 9 B e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s a g o 6 1 7 1 4 M o r e t h a n t e n y e a r s a g o 1 6 4 5 7 1 I d o n t k n o w / I d o n t r e m e m b e r 3 8 5 7 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 1 1 0 I n y o u r o p i n i o n h o w s e r i o u s i n y o u r c o m m u n i t y a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g k a r s t r e l a t e d i s s u e s ? T o t a l P c t T o t a l P c t T o t a l P c t V e r y s e r i o u s S o me w h a t s e r i o u s N o t s e r i o u s R e s p o n s e A v e r a g e G r o u n d w a t e r c o n t a mi n a t i o n 1 8 5 1 4 3 1 3 3 7 1 4 3 8 5 7 1 5 6 F l o o d i n g 1 1 3 1 4 3 1 5 4 2 8 6 8 2 2 8 6 1 9 1 S u b s i d e n c e a n d p r o p e r t y d a m a g e f r o m s i n k h o l e s 1 5 4 2 8 6 1 4 4 0 0 0 5 1 4 2 9 1 7 1 K a r s t e c o s y s t e m p r o t e c t i o n 1 2 3 4 2 9 1 3 3 7 1 4 1 0 2 8 5 7 1 9 4 C a v e p r o t e c t i o n 6 1 7 1 4 1 2 3 4 2 9 1 6 4 5 7 1 2 2 9 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3

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303 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 1 1 P l e a s e r a n k t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e k a r s t r e l a t e d i s s u e s i n o r d e r o f s e r i o u s n e s s : T o t a l P c t H o w s e r i o u s ? T o t a l P c t M o s t s e r i o u s L e a s t s e r i o u s R e s p o n s e A v e r a g e G r o u n d w a t e r c o n t a mi n a t i o n 1 7 4 8 5 7 1 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 8 2 S u b s i d e n c e a n d p r o p e r t y d a m a g e f r o m s i n k h o l e s 8 2 2 8 6 1 1 6 5 4 1 1 4 3 2 5 9 K a r s t e c o s y s t e m p r o t e c t i o n 2 5 7 1 6 1 4 6 4 1 1 4 3 3 1 3 F l o o d i n g 7 2 0 0 0 6 7 1 2 2 5 7 1 2 8 8 C a v e p r o t e c t i o n 1 2 8 6 0 4 6 2 2 6 2 8 6 4 4 5 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 1 1 2 I n y o u r o p i n i o n h o w e x t e n s i v e i s t h e k a r s t s y s t e m i n y o u r a r e a ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t N o t a t a l l e x t e n s i v e l e s s t h a n 1 0 % o f t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a c o n t a i n s k a r s t 2 5 7 1 N o t v e r y e x t e n s i v e b e t w e e n 1 0 % a n d 3 0 % 6 1 7 1 4 S o m e w h a t e x t e n s i v e b e t w e e n 3 1 % a n d 5 0 % 1 5 4 2 8 6 V e r y e x t e n s i v e m o r e t h a n 5 0 % 1 1 3 1 4 3 I d o n t k n o w 1 2 8 6 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 1

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304 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 1 3 W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g k a r s t l a n d f o r m s a r e p r e s e n t i n y o u r a r e a ? ( S e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t S p r i n g s 3 3 9 4 2 9 S i n k h o l e s 3 5 1 0 0 0 0 C a v e s 2 6 7 4 2 9 S i n k i n g o r d i s a p p e a r i n g s t r e a m s 2 6 7 4 2 9 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 1 2 8 6 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 1 1 4 I n y o u r o p i n i o n h o w r e s t r i c t i v e a r e t h e k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s i n y o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t V e r y 4 1 1 4 3 S o m e w h a t 1 5 4 2 8 6 N o t v e r y 1 2 3 4 2 9 N o t a t a l l 2 5 7 1 I d o n t k n o w 2 5 7 1 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 5 5 3 0 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 1 1 5 ( q u e s t i o n r e m o v e d )

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305 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 1 6 T o t h e b e s t o f y o u r k n o w l e d g e w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g k a r s t r e l a t e d r e g u l a t o r y c o m p o n e n t s a r e p r e s e n t i n y o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n s l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s ? ( S e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t M a n d a t o r y s e t b a c k s f r o m k a r s t f e a t u r e s 1 9 5 7 5 8 A n e x t r a s t e p i n t h e p e r m i t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s ( f o r e x a m p l e t h e c o u n t y g e o l o g i s t i s r e q u i r e d t o d o a n a n a l y s i s a n d p r o v i d e a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n ) 1 7 5 1 5 2 M u l t i p l e e x t r a s t e p s i n t h e p e r m i t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s 9 2 7 2 7 A m o r a t o r i u m o n n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n i n a r e a s w h e r e k a r s t f e a t u r e s a r e p r e s e n t 0 0 0 0 S t o r m w a t e r d r a i n a g e r u l e s 3 0 9 0 9 1 D u m p i n g a n d w a s t e d i s p o s a l r u l e s 1 8 5 4 5 5 F e r t i l i z e r a n d c h e m i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n r u l e s 6 1 8 1 8 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 6 1 8 1 8 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3

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306 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 1 7 W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s w a s a g o a l o f r e g u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n k a r s t a r e a s ? ( S e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t E n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n 2 2 6 4 7 1 G r o u n d w a t e r p r o t e c t i o n 3 0 8 8 2 4 C a v e p r o t e c t i o n 7 2 0 5 9 D e s i r e t o p r e v e n t p r o p e r t y a n d s t r u c t u r a l d a m a g e 2 8 8 2 3 5 D e s i r e t o l i m i t t h e l e g a l l i a b i l i t y o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t 1 1 3 2 3 5 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 4 5 1 5 2 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 2 1 8 P r i o r t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s h a d t h e r e b e e n a n y a c t u a l p r o b l e m s w i t h s o m e o r a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s l i s t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n o r w e r e t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s i m p l e m e n t e d a s s t r i c t l y a p r e v e n t a t i v e m e a s u r e ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t S t r i c t l y p r e v e n t a t i v e 1 1 3 3 3 3 I n t e n d e d t o a d d r e s s a c t u a l e x i s t i n g p r o b l e m s ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 2 2 6 6 6 7 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3

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307 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 1 9 W h o i n i t i a t e d t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t B r a n c h o r d e p a r t m e n t w i t h i n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t 1 3 3 9 3 9 B r a n c h o f s t a t e o r f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t 7 2 1 2 1 C o u n t y o r c i t y c o m m i s s i o n o r l o c a l e q u i v a l e n t 5 1 5 1 5 M a y o r o r c o u n t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r l o c a l e q u i v a l e n t 0 0 0 0 E n v i r o n m e n t a l o r s c i e n c e g r o u p s 1 3 0 3 L o c a l r e s i d e n t s 0 0 0 0 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 6 1 8 1 8 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 2 4 8 4 8 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 4 2 0 W h o u l t i m a t e l y a p p r o v e d t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t E l e c t e d b o d y ( f o r e x a m p l e c o u n t y c o m m i s s i o n ) 2 1 6 1 7 6 E l e c t e d o f f i c i a l ( f o r e x a m p l e m a y o r o r c o u n t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) 7 2 0 5 9 A p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l 1 2 9 4 C a r e e r c i v i l s e r v i c e o f f i c i a l 1 2 9 4 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 4 1 1 7 6 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 4 5 1 5 2 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 2

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308 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 2 1 H o w m u c h t i m e e l a p s e d b e t w e e n t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e i d e a o f r e g u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o n t o p o f k a r s t w a s f i r s t s e r i o u s l y p r o p o s e d a n d t h e t i m e t h o s e r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e f i n a l l y e n a c t e d ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t 0 2 y e a r s 1 3 3 9 3 9 2 4 y e a r s 4 1 2 1 2 5 7 y e a r s 3 9 0 9 L o n g e r 2 6 0 6 I d o n t r e m e m b e r 1 1 3 3 3 3 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3 2 2 W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e n t i t i e s o r g r o u p s h a d a n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e s i g n i n g t h e k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s i n y o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n ? ( S e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t 5 1 5 1 5 S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t 1 9 5 7 5 8 L o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s 1 8 5 4 5 5 L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s ( l i k e t h e W a t e r D e p a r t m e n t f o r e x a m p l e ) 2 7 8 1 8 2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l o r s c i e n t i f i c g r o u p s ( n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l ) 1 4 4 2 4 2 M e m b e r s o f t h e b u i l d i n g o r r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r i e s 6 1 8 1 8 L o c a l r e s i d e n t s 1 4 4 2 4 2 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 6 1 8 1 8 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3

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309 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 2 3 T o w h a t d e g r e e w e r e t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d b y n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( i e s c i e n t i s t s o r e n g i n e e r s f o r e x a m p l e ) w o r k i n g f o r o r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t N o t a t a l l 0 0 0 0 S l i g h t l y 4 1 1 7 6 M o d e r a t e l y 7 2 0 5 9 S t r o n g l y 1 6 4 7 0 6 I d o n t k n o w 7 2 0 5 9 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 4 5 1 5 2 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 2 P l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e i f a n y : B y u s i n g e d u c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h o b e l i e v e i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f k a r s t f e a t u r e s w e w e r e a b l e t o g a i n ( I f e e l ) a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e R e g u l a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d c r e d i b l e e n g i n e e r i n g a n d g e o l o g i c k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e E n g i n e e r i n g c o m m u n i t y h a d i n p u t H o m e o w n e r s a s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g s w h e r e c o u n t y c o m m i s s i o n e r s w e r e i n v i t e d g i v i n g t e s t i m o n y t o t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n S u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l s o n s t a f f a n d v i a p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m c i t i z e n s a n d s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s h a v i n g t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d S t o r m w a t e r T a s k f o r c e i n v o l v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y M a p p i n g o f p o t e n t i a l k a r s t a r e a s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d e s i g n o f p o n d s s w a l e s a n d u n d e r g r o u n d u t i l i t i e s i n p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s e a r e a s I n p u t f r o m d e v e l o p e r s a n d c o n t r a c t o r s R e p o r t o n K a r s t a r e a s s u b j e c t t o f o o d i n g ( US G S F E M A m a p p i n g w / T V A a n d C i t y

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310 P e r m a n e n t f u l l t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l P l a n n i n g S t a f f d r a f t e d o r d i n a n c e C i t y E n g i n e e r a n d S o l i c t o r s r e v i e w e d P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n r e s o l v e d t o r e c o m m e n d t o C i t y C o u n c i l a d o p t i o n o f o r d i n a n c e C i t y C o u n c i l a d o p t e d s u b d i v i s i o n a n d l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g l a n d s u i t a b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s C o u n t y s t a f f d o i n g r e s e a r c h o n t h e p r o b l e m P r o v i s i o n o f t h e s c i e n c e b a s e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g g r o u n d w a t e r t h e a q u i f e r s i n t h e s t a t e t h e r a t e o f r e c h a r g e e t c a f f e c t e d d e c i s i o n s p r i o r i t i z i n g a r e a s t h a t a r e k a r s t s e n s i t i v e a n d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s t o p r o t e c t t h e m T o w n s h i p ( c i t y ) E n g i n e e r w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n w o r k i n g o n o u r K a r s t R e g u l a t i o n s I n o u r c a s e o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n w o r k e d b y c o m m i t t e e ( o f n o n e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) t o d e v e l o p a m o d e l o r d i n a n c e T h i s o r d i n a n c e h a s b e e n a d o p t e d b y m a n y c o m m u n i t i e s i n o u r r e g i o n T h i s o c c u r r e d 1 6 y e a r s a g o d i r e c t m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e l o c a l T D E C o f f i c e t o d e v e l o p s t o r m w a t e r r e g u l a t i o n s a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n c o u n t y a n d s t a t e o n i n j e c t i o n w e l l p e r m i t s f o r s t o r m w a t e r M o r e c o d e s t o f o l l o w s o o n V e r y i m p o r t a n t I n p u t c a m e f r o m : C i t y P l a n n i n g ( s t a f f w r o t e o r d i n a n c e ) S t a t e W a t e r M a n a g e m e n t d i s t r i c t e n g i n e e r s s o m e p u b l i c i n p u t f r o m l o c a l r e s i d e n t s w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g / n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s b a c k g r o u n d s a n d l o c a l r e a l e s t a t e / d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r e s t s G e o l o g i s t s o i l s c i e n t i s t h y d r o g e o l o g i s t b i o l o g i s t a n d o t h e r s a l l h a v e h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n c o n d u c t i n g s o l i d s c i e n c e t o b e u s e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r u l e l o c a l l a n d u s e p l a n n e r s a n d e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s r e l y o n a u t h o r i t a t i v e o p i n i o n s f r o m g e o s c i e n t i s t s a n d e n g i n e e r s p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s a n d o t h e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e US G S F D E P e t c S o m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e r e g i o n h a d i d e n t i f i e d k a r s t t o p o g r a p h y a s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m f o r s e p t i c f i e l d r e l a t e d g r o u n d w a t e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s w e r e s o u g h t a n d p r o v i d e d t o t h e B O C C ( E d u c a t i o n a l ) T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 2 3 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 4 3

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311 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 2 4 T o w h a t d e g r e e w e r e t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d b y p r e e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ( l i k e f o r e x a m p l e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n u r b a n g r o w t h b o u n d a r y o r o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s ) ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t N o t a t a l l 1 3 3 9 3 9 S l i g h t l y 8 2 4 2 4 M o d e r a t e l y 5 1 5 1 5 S t r o n g l y 2 6 0 6 I d o n t k n o w 5 1 5 1 5 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3 2 5 P l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e i f a n y K a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a n e w f i e l d o f r e g u l a t i o n K n o w l e d g e o f r e l a t e d s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s w a s u s e d i n p r e s s u r i n g t h e l o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s t o p u s h f o r a d o p t i n g s i m i a l r r g u l a t i o n N e w d e v e l o p m e n t s g o i n g i n t o k a r s t a r e a s s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n i n t e r f a c e n e e d s S t a t e s I n j e c t W e l l R e g s . T D E C i s a s k e d t o r e v i e w i m p a c t s i n s i n k h o l e a r e a s P a r t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n C i t y h a d p r e v i o u s l y p a s s e d C r e e k r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g i n c r e a s e d s e t b a c k s C i t y w a s o n e o f f i r s t i n F l o r i d a t o p a s s S t o r m w a t e r U t i l i t y f e e f o r c i t y w i d e s t o r m w a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t s i n c l u d i n g r e t r o f i t t i n g s t o r m d r a i n s u p g r a d i n g w a s t e w a t e r p l a n t w a t e r d i s p o s a l e t c S t a t e a l r e a d y h a d r e g u l a t i o n s a b o u t s e t b a c k o f s e p t i c s y s t e m s f r o m k a r s t a r e a s ( s i n k h o l e s e t c ) w h i c h w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t r e v i e w s P r e v i o u s g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f o u r e a r l i e r c o m p p l a n a n d l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 9 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 5 7

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312 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 2 6 T o w h a t d e g r e e w e r e t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d b y l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t N o t a t a l l 6 1 8 1 8 S l i g h t l y 1 1 3 3 3 3 M o d e r a t e l y 8 2 4 2 4 S t r o n g l y 3 9 0 9 I d o n t k n o w 5 1 5 1 5 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3

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313 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 2 7 P l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e i f a n y R e s i d e n t s w h o a r e c o n c e r n e d f o r t h e g e n e r a l q u a l i t y o f t h e c o u n t y s e n v i r o n m e n t a l w a y s h a v e a v o i c e i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s H o m e o w n e r s a s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g s w h e r e c o m m i s s i o n e r s w e r e i n v i t e d a l s o n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s L o c a l r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o c e s s ; w e r e g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t i v e P u b l i c h e a r i n g s w e r e h e l d w h e r e t h e p u b l i c s p o k e T h e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o w a r r a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d s a f e g u a r d s c o n c e r n s r a i s e d r e l a t i v e t o s t o r m w a t e r d a m a g e a n d t h e a d v e r s e i m p a c t o n l o c a l d r a i n a g e w a y s s t r e a m s a n d e x i s t i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e W h e r e h o u s e s h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t t o f l o o d i n g t h e r e w a s m a j o r c l a m o r i n g t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s . b u y o u t s a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f l o o d l i m i t s a r o u n d s i n k h o l e s C l e a r l y t h e p u b l i c i s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e o c c u r a n c e o f s i n k h o l e s a s i t i s a r e g u l a r p h e n o m e n o n d u e t o s u b s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s l o c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h r e e b o d i e s o f w a t e r a n d t h e e a r l y d e n s e u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C i t y p r e f e d e r a l s t a t e o r l o c a l l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n C i t y P l a n n i n g Z o n i n g a n d E n g i n e e r i n g p e r s o n n e l t o o k t h e l e a d d e v e l o p a n d e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h s a f e t y a n d w e l f a r e c o n s t a n t c o m p l a i n t s o n t h e f a i l u r e o f g o v e r n m e n t r e q u i r i n g p e r m i t s u p f r o n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s o n a l l p a r t i e s p u b l i c f o r u m s s t r o n g o p i n i o n s v o i c e d C i t y h a s s m a l l v o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o v e m e n t S o m e i n c o m m u n i t y r e f l e c t e d s a m e i n f o r m a t i o n a s r e g i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d g e n e r a l c o n c e r n w i t h g r o u n d w a t e r c o n t a m i n i a t i o n A f e w r e s i d e n t s a r e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s w h i c h p u t o n e d u c a t i o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s P u b l i c i n p u t w a s a c o n t i n u i n g p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g r e v i e w p r o c e s s T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 1 4 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 5 2

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314 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 2 8 I n y o u r o p i n i o n w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e n t i t i e s o r g r o u p s h a d t h e m o s t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s ? T o t a l P c t F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t 0 0 0 0 S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t 6 1 8 1 8 L o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s 1 3 0 3 L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s ( l i k e t h e W a t e r D e p a r t m e n t f o r e x a m p l e ) 1 7 5 1 5 2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l o r s c i e n t i f i c g r o u p s ( n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l ) 2 6 0 6 M e m b e r s o f t h e b u i l d i n g o r r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r i e s 1 3 0 3 L o c a l r e s i d e n t s 1 3 0 3 O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 5 1 5 1 5 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3 2 9 I n y o u r o p i n i o n w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e n t i t i e s o r g r o u p s h a d t h e l e a s t a m o u n t o f i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p r o c e s s ? T o t a l P c t F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t 1 7 5 1 5 2 S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t 1 3 0 3 L o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s 2 6 0 6 L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s ( l i k e t h e W a t e r D e p a r t m e n t f o r e x a m p l e ) 1 3 0 3 E n v i r o n m e n t a l o r s c i e n t i f i c g r o u p s ( n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l ) 1 3 0 3 M e m b e r s o f t h e b u i l d i n g o r r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r i e s 1 0 3 0 3 0 L o c a l r e s i d e n t s 1 3 0 3 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3

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315 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 3 0 I n y o u r o p i n i o n i s i t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y t o a t t e m p t t o r e g u l a t e o r m a n a g e d e v e l o p m e n t n e a r k a r s t l a n d f o r m s ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t Y e s 3 2 9 6 9 7 N o 0 0 0 0 D o n t k n o w / n o o p i n i o n 1 3 0 3 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 3 5 0 0 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 3 3 1 I n y o u r o p i n i o n a r e t h e k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n y o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n e f f e c t i v e ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t Y e s 2 3 6 7 6 5 N o 6 1 7 6 5 D o n t k n o w / n o o p i n i o n 5 1 4 7 1 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 4 5 1 5 2 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 2

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316 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 3 2 I n y o u r o p i n i o n w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e l i k e l y o u t c o m e s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g k a r s t r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s i n a c i t y o f t o w n ? ( S e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t A n i n c r e a s e i n r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d v a l u e s 9 1 8 3 7 A n i n c r e a s e i n h o u s i n g c o s t s 1 7 3 4 6 9 A d e c l i n e i n n e w d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s 9 1 8 3 7 A d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n a n d s t r u c t u r a l d e n s i t y 7 1 4 2 9 A d e c l i n e i n d e v e l o p m e n t r e l a t e d l a w s u i t s f i l e d a g a i n s t t h e c i t y 8 1 6 3 3 A n i m p r o v e m e n t i n g r o u n d w a t e r q u a l i t y 3 7 7 5 5 1 S o m e o t h e r o u t c o m e ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 1 4 2 8 5 7 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 4 9 7 4 2 4 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 1 7 3 3 I n y o u r o p i n i o n t o w h a t e x t e n t d i d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s ( o r l a c k t h e r e o f ) i n n e i g h b o r i n g t o w n s a f f e c t t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g k a r s t r e g u l a t i o n s i n y o u r m u n i c i p a l i t y ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t I t w a s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n 0 0 0 0 I t w a s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n b u t n o t t h e o n l y o n e a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o n e 4 8 7 0 I t h a d s o m e i m p a c t b u t n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t 1 0 2 1 7 4 I t h a d n o i m p a c t w h a t s o e v e r 3 2 6 9 5 7 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 4 6 6 9 7 0 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 2 0

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317 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 3 4 F r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t p l e a s e s e l e c t t h e i m p a c t s y o u r t o w n o r c i t y a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d a f t e r e n a c t i n g k a r s t r e l a t e d l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s * P l e a s e s e l e c t O N L Y i m p a c t s t h a t y o u p e r s o n a l l y c a n a t t e s t t o * ( s e l e c t a l l t h a t a p p l y ) : R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t H i g h e r h o u s i n g c o s t s 3 1 1 1 1 L o s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r o w t h a s n e w d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s m i g r a t e d t o n e i g h b o r i n g t o w n s w i t h o u t r e g u l a t i o n 2 7 4 1 A n i n c r e a s e i n l a w s u i t s f i l e d b y l a n d o w n e r s a n d d e v e l o p e r s a g a i n s t t h e c i t y 0 0 0 0 A n i m p r o v e m e n t i n g r o u n d w a t e r q u a l i t y 5 1 8 5 2 A d e c r e a s e i n d a m a g e t o s t r u c t u r e s f r o m n e w s i n k h o l e s 9 3 3 3 3 A d e c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y 2 7 4 1 I h a v e n t w i t n e s s e d a n y i m p a c t s o f t h e k a r s t d e v e l o p m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s 8 2 9 6 3 S o m e o t h e r o u t c o m e ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 1 1 4 0 7 4 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 2 7 4 0 9 1 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 9 3 5 I n y o u r o p i n i o n c a n a n y t h i n g b e d o n e t o i m p r o v e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f k a r s t l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n i n y o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n ? R e s p o n s e T o t a l P c t N o 1 0 2 9 4 1 Y e s ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e i f p o s s i b l e ) 2 4 7 0 5 9 T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t s 3 4 5 1 5 2 ( s k i p p e d t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 3 2

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A b ou t t h e A u t h or E r i k S pe nc e r F l e ur y w a s bor n i n D e t r oi t M i c hi ga n. H e hol ds a B A i n A m e r i c a n S t udi e s ( F l or i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, 1993) a nd a n M A i n E c o nom i c s ( U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l or i da 2003) F r om 1993 t o 1997, he s e r ve d i n t he U S C oa s t G ua r d, w i t h pos t i ngs a boa r d t he m e di um e ndur a nc e c ut t e r C A M P B E L L a nd i n t he F i r s t D i s t r i c t he a dqua r t e r s