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Altogether governed by humours

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Title:
Altogether governed by humours the four ancient temperaments in Shakespeare
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Fahey, Caitlin Jeanne
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sanguine
Phlegmatic
Choleric
Melancholy
Ancient medicine
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Hippocrates, and later Galen, hypothesized that a person's character was influenced by a combination of four humors that governed the body: black bile, phlegm, yellow bile, and blood. Centuries later, the Elizabethans adopted these ideologies to their medical practices, and associated each humor with one of four temperaments: melancholy, phlegmatic, choleric, and sanguine. References to the four temperaments may be found embedded in a number of William Shakespeare's texts, most notably Hamlet, Henry IV, Part 1, Macbeth, and Twelfth Night. While many figures in Shakespeare embody many humoral traits, allowing for character development throughout the play, several characters possess a superfluity of one particular humor. As these characters motivate the action of each respective play, the play provides textual evidence that identifies the traits associated with each temperament. Hamlet exemplifies the melancholy temperament, Sir John Falstaff the phlegmatic temperament, Lady Macbeth the choleric temperament, and Viola the sanguine temperament. The respective personalities of these characters are revealed not only by their actions in the plays but by numerous textual allusions to each humor. In examining these four characters, the reader may become familiar with the humor that each character represents, and, in turn, possess a greater knowledge of the driving forces behind many of Shakespeare's heroes, heroines, villains, and clowns. Moreover, these examinations may also shed light on the beliefs of early modern England and the beginning of character study and development.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Caitlin Jeanne Fahey.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 56 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001970380
oclc - 276407475
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002313
usfldc handle - e14.2313
System ID:
SFS0026631:00001


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A l t oge t he r G ove r ne d by H um or s : T he F our A nc i e nt T e m pe r a m e nt s i n S ha ke s pe a r e by C a i t l i n J e a nne F a he y A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s D e pa r t m e nt of E ngl i s h C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : S a r a M uns on D e a t s P h. D L a gr e t t a T a l l e nt L e nke r P h. D P a t r i c i a N i c ki ns on, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : F e br ua r y 29 2008 K e yw or ds : s a ngui ne phl e gm a t i c c hol e r i c m e l a nc hol y, a nc i e nt m e di c i ne C opyr i ght 2008 C a i t l i n J e a nne F a he y

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D e di c a t i on F or B e t t y J e a n J ohns on, w ho i nc i t e d m y i nt e r e s t i n S ha ke s pe a r e

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A c know l e dge m e nt s I a m bot h pr oud a nd s i nc e r e l y g r a t e f ul t o ha ve c om pl e t e d t hi s pr oj e c t unde r t he di r e c t i on of D r S a r a D e a t s a nd w i s h t o a c know l e dge he r e nc our a ge m e nt opt i m i s m a nd de di c a t i on a s w e l l a s he r w i s e e di t or i a l s ugge s t i ons I de e pl y a ppr e c i a t e t he e f f or t s of D r L a gr e t t a L e nke r a nd D r P a t r i c i a N i c ki ns on, w ho g ui de d m e i n t he w r i t i ng pr oc e s s de s pi t e be i ng bus y w i t h pr o j e c t s out s i de of t he E ngl i s h de pa r t m e nt T ha nk you t o S a r a B a ugh f or he l pi ng m e f i nd t he s i l ve r l i ni ng a f t e r m y ha r d dr i v e c r a s he d. I a m a l s o f or t una t e t o ha ve ha d t he s uppor t o f m y pa r e nt s K e vi n a nd J e a nne e ve r y s t e p of t he w a y. T ha nk you f or a l l you ha ve done f or m e

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s A bs t r a c t i i I I nt r oduc t i on 1 I I T he H u m or s 4 I I I H a m l e t t he M e l a nc hol y P r i nc e 10 I V S i r J ohn F a l s t a f f t he P hl e gm a t i c K ni ght 18 V L a dy M a c be t h, t he C hol e r i c V i l l a i ne s s 27 V I V i ol a t he S a ngui ne H e r oi ne 36 V I I C onc l us i on 4 4 W or ks C i t e d 51 B i bl i ogr a phy 55

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i i A l t oge t he r G ove r ne d by H um or s : T he F our A nc i e nt T e m pe r a m e nt s i n S ha ke s pe a r e C a i t l i n J e a nne F a he y A B S T R A C T H i ppoc r a t e s a nd l a t e r G a l e n hypot he s i z e d t ha t a p e r s on s c ha r a c t e r w a s i nf l ue nc e d by a c om bi na t i on of f our hum or s t ha t g ove r ne d t he body: bl a c k bi l e phl e gm ye l l ow bi l e a nd bl ood. C e nt ur i e s l a t e r t he E l i z a be t ha ns a dopt e d t he s e i de ol ogi e s t o t he i r m e di c a l pr a c t i c e s a nd a s s oc i a t e d e a c h hum or w i t h one of f our t e m pe r a m e nt s : m e l a nc hol y, phl e gm a t i c c hol e r i c a n d s a ngui ne R e f e r e nc e s t o t he f our t e m pe r a m e nt s m a y be f ound e m be dde d i n a num be r o f W i l l i a m S ha ke s pe a r e s t e xt s m os t not a bl y H am l e t H e nr y I V P ar t 1, M ac be t h, a nd T w e l f t h N i ght W hi l e m a ny f i gur e s i n S ha ke s pe a r e e m body m a ny hum or a l t r a i t s a l l ow i n g f o r c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt t hr oughout t he pl a y, s e ve r a l c ha r a c t e r s pos s e s s a s upe r f l ui t y o f one pa r t i c ul a r hu m or A s t he s e c ha r a c t e r s m ot i va t e t he a c t i on of e a c h r e s pe c t i ve pl a y, t he pl a y p r ovi de s t e xt ua l e vi de nc e t ha t i de nt i f i e s t he t r a i t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h e a c h t e m pe r a m e nt H a m l e t e xe m pl i f i e s t he m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt S i r J ohn F a l s t a f f t he ph l e gm a t i c t e m pe r a m e nt L a dy M a c be t h t he c hol e r i c t e m pe r a m e nt a nd V i ol a t he s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt T he r e s pe c t i ve pe r s ona l i t i e s of t he s e c ha r a c t e r s a r e r e ve a l e d not onl y by t he i r a c t i ons i n t he pl a ys but by num e r ous t e xt ua l a l l us i ons t o e a c h hum or I n e xa m i ni ng t he s e f our c ha r a c t e r s t he r e a de r m a y be c om e f a m i l i a r w i t h t he hum or t ha t e a c h c ha r a c t e r r e pr e s e nt s a nd, i n t ur n pos s e s s a gr e a t e r know l e d ge of t he dr i vi ng f or c e s be hi nd m a ny of

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i i i S ha ke s pe a r e s he r oe s he r oi ne s vi l l a i ns a nd c l ow ns M or e ove r t he s e e xa m i na t i ons m a y a l s o s he d l i ght on t he be l i e f s of e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd a nd t he be gi nni ng of c ha r a c t e r s t udy a nd de ve l opm e nt

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1 I I nt r oduc t i on G r e e k s c i e nt i s t s H i pp oc r a t e s a nd G a l e n hypot he s i z e d t ha t a pe r s on s c ha r a c t e r w a s i nf l ue nc e d by a c om bi na t i on of f our l i qui ds o r hum or s t ha t gove r ne d t he body. A n a bunda nc e of bl a c k bi l e phl e gm ye l l ow bi l e o r bl ood ha d a n a ut hor i t a t i ve a f f e c t on one s pe r s ona l i t y. C e n t ur i e s l a t e r t he E l i z a be t ha ns a dopt e d t he s e i de ol ogi e s t o t he i r m e di c a l pr a c t i c e s a nd a s s oc i a t e d e a c h hum or w i t h one of f ou r t e m pe r a m e nt s : m e l a nc hol y, phl e gm a t i c c hol e r i c a nd s a ngui ne A l t hough G a l e n m a i nt a i ne d t ha t a l l i ndi vi dua l s pos s e s s e d a l l f our h um o r s he a l s o he l d t ha t t he hu m or s of t e n be c a m e unba l a nc e d, w hi c h pr oduc e d di s t i nc t i ve pe r s ona l i t y t ype s T hus a pe r s on w i t h a pr e dom i na nc e o f t he hum or bl a c k bi l e w oul d f a l l i nt o a s t a t e of m e l a nc hol y; a pe r s on w i t h a s ur pl us o f phl e gm w oul d gr ow s l ot h f ul a nd phl e gm a t i c ; a pe r s on w i t h a n e x c e s s of ye l l ow bi l e w oul d e xhi bi t a c hol e r i c t e m pe r a m e nt ; a nd a pe r s on w i t h a pl e t hor a of bl ood w oul d s e e m w e l l t e m pe r e d a nd s a ngui ne A s t hi s w a s t he a c c e pt e d i de ol ogy i n e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd W i l l i a m S ha ke s pe a r e f r e que nt l y r e f e r e nc e d t he f our t e m pe r a m e nt s a nd t he f our hum or s W hi l e m a ny f i gur e s i n t he S ha ke s pe a r e a n c a non di s pl a y a va r i e t y o f hum o r a l t r a i t s t ha t a l l ow f or c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt t hr oughout t he pl a ys s e ve r a l c ha r a c t e r s pos s e s s a s upe r f l ui t y of one pa r t i c ul a r hum o r t ha t a s s oc i a t e s t he m w i t h a p a r t i c ul a r pe r s ona l i t y t ype A s t he s e c ha r a c t e r s m ot i va t e t he a c t i on o f e a c h r e s pe c t i ve pl a y, t he pl a y f r e que nt l y pr ovi de s t e xt ua l e vi de nc e t ha t i de nt i f i e s e a c h o f t he m w i t h o ne pa r t i c ul a r t e m pe r a m e nt

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2 I n t hi s t h e s i s I w i l l f oc us on f our of S ha ke s pe a r e s m os t m e m or a bl e hu m or a l c ha r a c t e r s a nd a l s o on t he f o i l f i gur e s i n e a c h p l a y w ho a c c e nt ua t e t he hum or o f t he pr i nc i pl e pl a ye r s H a m l e t pe r ha ps t he m os t f a m ou s m e l a nc hol y f i gur e i n l i t e r a t ur e dom i na t e s S ha ke s pe a r e s m os t popul a r t r a ge dy, w hi c h be a r s hi s na m e a nd t he pl a y pr ovi de s m a ny t e xt ua l a l l us i ons t o t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of m e l a nc hol y a nd i t s gove r ni ng hum or b l a c k bi l e T he ot he r c e nt r a l c ha r a c t e r s o f H am l e t i nc l udi ng C l a udi us w ho e xhi bi t s bot h phl e gm a t i c a nd c hol e r i c t r a i t s a nd t h e c ons i s t e nt l y c hol e r i c L a e r t e s e m pha s i z e t hi s m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt by c ont r a s t S i r J ohn F a l s t a f f one of S ha ke s pe a r e s m os t be l ove d c om i c f i gur e s e xe m pl i f i e s t he m os t i nde l i bl e phl e gm a t i c c ha r a c t e r i n S ha ke s pe a r e s gr e a t e s t hi s t or y pl a y H e nr y I V P ar t 1 A l t hough a f i gur e i n t he c om i c s ubpl ot of t he pl a y F a l s t a f f s ha r e s t he s t a ge w i t h t he m e l a nc hol y K i ng H e nr y t he c hol e r i c H ot s pur a nd t he s a ngui ne P r i nc e H a l a l l of w hom hi ghl i ght hi s pa r t i c ul a r hum or I n L a dy M a c be t h, t he l e a di ng l a dy of t he t r a ge dy M ac be t h S ha ke s pe a r e c r e a t e s t he m os t unf or ge t t a bl e f e m a l e he r o/ v i l l a i n i n a l l o f dr a m a a nd a ppr opr i a t e l y i de nt i f i e s he r w i t h c hol e r T he m a l e vol e nt c hol e r i c Q ue e n a ppr o pr i a t e l y be a r s a s t a r k c ont r a s t t o t he be ne vol e nt s a ngui ne K i ng D unc a n, w ho f a l l s unde r t he w r a t hf ul ha nd of L a dy M a c be t h. F i na l l y, V i ol a t he t r a ns ve s t i t e he r oi ne of S ha ke s pe a r e s f i na l f e s t i ve c om e dy, e m bodi e s t he e xe m pl a r y s a ngui na r y c ha r a c t e r w ho c ont r a s t s vi vi dl y w i t h t he m e l a nc hol y e nt our a ge s ur r ou ndi ng he r a nd t he phl e gm a t i c f oi l s of t he pl a y s s ubpl ot S ur pr i s i ngl y, a l t hough t he e a r l y m ode r n s c i e nt i s t s a s s oc i a t e d t he m e l a nc hol y a nd phl e gm a t i c t e m pe r a m e nt s w i t h t he f e m i ni ne a nd t h e c hol e r i c a nd s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt s w i t h t he m a s c ul i ne i n hi s m o s t c e l e br a t e d hum or a l f i gur e s S ha ke s pe a r e ha s r e ve r s e d t hi s ge nde r s t e r e ot ype I n t he f ou r pl a ys t ha t I w i l l i nv e s t i ga t e H am l e t H e nr y I V P ar t 1

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3 M ac be t h, a nd T w e l f t h N i ght t he r e s pe c t i ve pe r s ona l i t i e s of t he c e nt r a l f i gu r e s a r e r e ve a l e d not onl y t hr oug h t he i r a c t i ons a nd t he c on t r a s t w i t h ot he r f i gu r e s i n t he pl a ys but a l s o by s ubt l e t e xt ua l a l l us i ons M a ny di f f e r e nt e l e m e nt s c oul d i nf l ue nc e a hum or a l a bunda nc e a nd a c ha nge i n one s pe r s ona l i t y i nc l u di ng t he f unc t i on of s pe c i f i c or ga ns t he l oc a t i on o f pa r t i c ul a r pl a ne t s or e ve n t he t i m e of da y a nd s e a s on of t he ye a r S ha ke s pe a r e ha s e m be dde d r e f e r e nc e s t o s e ve r a l gove r ni ng e l e m e nt s of e a c h pe r s ona l i t y i n e a c h of t he s e f our pl a ys w hi c h I w i l l e va l ua t e i n m y e xa m i na t i on of t he f our c ha r a c t e r s I hop e not onl y t o i l l um i na t e t he r e a de r s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s e c ha r a c t e r s but a l s o t o m a ke t he r e a de r m or e f a m i l i a r w i t h t he hum or t ha t e a c h c ha r a c t e r r e pr e s e nt s a nd t hus w i t h t he dr i vi ng f or c e s be hi nd m a ny of S ha ke s pe a r e s he r oe s he r oi ne s vi l l a i ns a nd c l ow ns I n a ddi t i on I hope t ha t t he s e e xa m i na t i ons m a y a l s o s he d l i ght on t he be l i e f s of e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd, s om e of w hi c h ha ve i nf l ue nc e d m ode r n s t udi e s of hum a n pe r s ona l i t y.

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4 I I T he H um or s W hi l e H om e r w r ot e T he I l i ad he c onc ur r e nt l y s e r ve d a s de pu t y c hi e f o f t he m e di c a l s t a f f w i t h A ga m e m non s a r m y du r i ng t he s i e ge of T r oy ( N ut t on 37) W he r e a s popul a r t he or y i n a nc i e nt G r e e c e a t t r i but e d di s e a s e t o w r a t h f ul gods i n h i s poe m s H om e r of f e r e d a m or e c om pl e x i ns i ght i nt o m e di c a l t he or y. V i vi a n N ut t on p r a i s e s t he w r i t e r s s ophi s t i c a t e d t r e a t m e nt of va r i ous m e di c a l de t a i l s w hi c h pr ovi de e vi de nc e of hi s ba c kgr ound i n t he m e di c a l f i e l d ( 37) N ot a l l t r a ge di e s of a nc i e nt G r e e c e w e r e s i m pl y e xpl a i ne d by s upe r na t ur a l i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd N ut t on a r gue s t ha t l i k e H om e r H e s i od of f e r s a l t e r na t i ve e xpl a na t i ons i n hi s W or k s and D ay s : M i s e r y, f a m i ne a nd pl a gue m a y be s e nt f r om he a ve n by Z e us i n or de r t o puni s h t hos e w ho a c t vi ol e nt l y o r c r ue l l y bu t t he poe t a l s o c onj ur e s up a vi v i d pi c t ur e of di s e a s e s r oa m i ng a r o und t he w or l d ( 39) A s a nc i e nt m e di c a l t he or i e s de ve l ope d, w r i t e r s e xpr e s s e d t he m i n l i t e r a r y w or ks : T he H om e r i c poe m s a f f or d us a gl i m ps e o f m e di c a l i de a s a nd pr a c t i c e s l ong be f or e a ny of our s t r i c t l y m e di c a l l i t e r a t ur e a nd a l t hough t he i r i nf or m a t i on c a nnot be t a ke n ba c k t o t he he r oi c da y s of A ga m e m non a nd O dys s e u s i t c a n be us e d t o i l l us t r a t e w ha t t he poe t s a udi e nc e w oul d ha ve e xpe c t e d or t a ke n f o r g r a nt e d ( N ut t on 37) B y e xpl or i ng w or ks o f l i t e r a t ur e w e not onl y ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he s c i e nt i f i c be l i e f s of a n e r a but a l s o unde r s t a nd how t he s e be l i e f s i n f l ue nc e d a popul a t i on. B y s t udyi ng l i t e r a r y

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5 c ha r a c t e r s w e m a y unde r s t a nd how r e a l pe opl e m a y ha ve a c t e d or t r e a t e d di s e a s e a nd how di f f e r e nt t he or i e s i nf l ue nc e d da i l y l i f e I n t he f i f t h c e nt ur y B C E t hi nke r s be ga n t o l ook c l os e l y a t t he hum a n body O ne pr om i ne nt phi l os ophe r E m pe doc l e s l i s t e d f o ur s t a bl e e l e m e nt s a s bui l di ng bl oc ks o f t he w or l d e a r t h, w a t e r a i r a nd f i r e pos i t i ng t ha t i n uns t a bl e c ondi t i ons t he s e e l e m e nt s pr oduc e d e ve r yt hi n g t ha t c oul d be pe r c e i ve d ( N ut t on 45 ) O t he r s c i e nt i s t s a nd phi l os ophe r s a c c e pt e d t hi s not i on, w hi c h e m e r ge d a s t he c om m on be l i e f by t he m i d f our t h c e nt ur y T he o r i e s of di s e a s e l i nke d t o a n i n a de qua t e c om bi na t i on of t he s e e l e m e nt s w e r e no l onge r t he s ol e pu r vi e w of phi l o s ophe r s ( N ut t on 45 46) T he s e t he or i e s e xpl a i ne d t he c onc e pt of hum or a l pa t hol o gy, w hi c h H i ppoc r a t e s e l e va t e d t o t he l e ve l of a s c i e nt i f i c t he or y i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y B C E ( K a i l 141 ) H um o r a l t he or y a t t r i but e d t he s a m e f ou r e l e m e nt s of t he w o r l d e a r t h, w a t e r a i r a nd f i r e t o t he phys i c a l m a ke up of t he hu m a n body. A c c or di ng t o I r vi ng E dga r W e ha ve t he n a pi c t ur e of a m a n a s a r e pl i c a of t he uni ve r s e m a de up of t he f our e l e m e nt s ( 208) T he s e e l e m e nt s c or r e s ponde d t o f our f l ui ds w i t hi n t he bo dy, r e f e r r e d t o a s t he hum o r s A ubr e y C K a i l de s c r i be s t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t he e l e m e nt s a nd t he f l ui ds c or r e l a t i ng e a r t h w i t h bl a c k b i l e w a t e r w i t h phl e gm a i r w i t h bl ood, a nd f i r e w i t h c hol e r ( 142) J us t a s a c c or di ng t o E m pe doc l e s a n uns t a bl e c om bi na t i on of e l e m e nt s a f f e c t e d t he phys i c a l w or l d, o r m a c r oc os m s o a n uns t a bl e c om bi na t i on of hum or s a f f e c t e d t he hum a n body, or m i c r oc os m P hys i c a l a nd m e nt a l i l l ne s s r e s ul t e d f r om a p r e dom i na nc e or de f i c i e nc y o f one o r m or e of t he f ou r hum o r s ( K a i l 142) a nd t he H i ppo c r a t i c t r a di t i on ba s e d on t he t he or y of t he f our hum or s c r e a t e d a f ounda t i on f o r t he m ode r n m e di c a l t r a di t i on ( N ut t on 53 ) I n

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6 t he s e c ond c e nt ur y A C E G a l e n e xpa nde d on t he i de a s of H i ppoc r a t e s a nd, a s F D a vi d H oe ni ge r f ur t he r obs e r ve s G a l e n i nc or po r a t e d ps y c hol ogi c a l be ha vi or i nt o hum or a l t he or y. A c c or di ng t o G a l e n, a n i ndi vi dua l s t e m p e r a m e nt pr oduc e d by t he e xc e s s or de f i c i e nc y of one o r t w o of t he hum o r s e xe r c i s e s a de c i s i ve i nf l ue nc e on hi s o r he r pa s s i ona t e c ondi t i on ( H oe ni ge r 163) W he r e a s H i ppoc r a t e s l i nke d t he f l u i d hum o r s t o t he na t ur a l e l e m e nt s G a l e n c onne c t e d bot h t he e l e m e nt s a nd t he hum or s t o di f f e r e nt pa s s i ons a nd t he s e vi e w s s ur vi ve d s e ve r a l c e nt ur i e s l a s t i ng t hr ough t he R e na i s s a nc e pe r i od i n E ng l a nd ( K a i l 141) J us t a s T he I l i ad e m bodi e s t he m e di c a l pr a c t i c e s of a nc i e nt G r e e c e s o W i l l i a m S ha ke s pe a r e s pl a ys pr ovi de a w i ndow i nt o t he t he or i e s of e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd w hi c h r e vol ve d a r ound t he a nc i e nt t he or i e s of t he f ou r hum o r s T he f our t e m pe r a m e nt s m e l a nc hol y, phl e gm a t i c s a ngui ne a nd c hol e r i c w e r e de t e r m i ne d by di f f e r e nt hum or s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h di f f e r e nt e l e m e nt s hos t e d by di f f e r e nt or ga ns a nd r u l e d by di f f e r e nt pl a ne t s A c c or di ng t o t he phys i c i a ns of e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd, c e r t a i n f oods i n f l ue nc e d pa r t i c ul a r hum or s w hi c h c oul d c a us e a c ha nge i n m ood, a nd t he t i m e of da y a nd s e a s ons of t he ye a r a l s o pl a ye d a pa r t i n a pe r s on s t e m pe r a m e nt R ut h L e i l a A nde r s on l i s t s t w o qua l i t i e s of e a c h e l e m e nt t ha t c oi nc i de w i t h e a c h t e m pe r a m e nt W he n t h e s e qua l i t i e s w e r e m i x e d i n t he m a c r oc os m ( t he phys i c a l uni ve r s e ) t he y p r oduc e d one o f t he f our e l e m e nt s ; w he n t he y w e r e m i xe d i n t he m i c r oc os m ( t he i ndi vi dua l ) t he y p r oduc e d one of t he f our hum or s M e l a nc hol y, a n a f f e c t o f t he e l e m e nt e a r t h a nd t he hum o r bl a c k bi l e w a s c ol d a nd dr y ( A nde r s on 29 ) A ne c e s s a r y ba l a nc e t o t he t w o hot hum o r s ye l l ow bi l e a nd bl ood bl a c k bi l e f e d s uc h pa r t s o f t he body a s t h e s pl e e n ( A nde r s on 34) a nd a n e xc e s s of bl a c k bi l e e nc our a ge d a m e l a nc hol y pe r s ona l i t y ( K a i l 142) E dga r f ur t he r a r gue s t ha t

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7 S a t ur n t e nde d t o c a us e a n e xc e s s of bl a c k bi l e pr o m ot i ng m e l a nc hol y a nd t ha t t he m oon e s pe c i a l l y w a s he l d i m por t a nt i n t he c a us a t i on of m e nt a l i l l ne s s ( 215) E a c h da y, m e l a nc hol y r e i gns f r om 9 p m t o 3 a m a nd i n w i nt e r m e l a nc hol y i nc r e a s e s a s t he hum or s t hi c ke n, s e ndi ng na t u r a l he a t i nw a r d ( A nd e r s on 35) O nc e S ha ke s pe a r e m e nt i one d m e l a nc hol y a s a s ur l y s pi r i t ( K a i l 142 ) A phl e gm a t i c t e m pe r a m e nt gove r ne d by t he e l e m e nt w a t e r a nd t he hum or phl e gm c ons i s t e d of c ol d a nd m oi s t qua l i t i e s ( A nd e r s on 29) T he pr e dom i na nc e o f w a t e r a nd phl e gm l e d a phl e gm a t i c pe r s on t o f e a r f u l ne s s a nd s l uggi s hne s s ( A nde r s on 32) E a r l y m ode r n phys i c i a n A ndr e a s L a ur e nt i us m a i nt a i ns t ha t phl e gm a t i c i ndi vi dua l s w e r e bl oc ki s hbe c a u s e t he s ubs t a nc e i n t he i r br a i ne i s t oo t hi c ke a nd t he s pi r i t s l a bour e d t he r e i n t oo g r os s e ( qt d. i n E dga r 207) T he l ungs hos t e d t he hum or ph l e gm a nd t he pl a ne t V e nus gove r ne d t he phl e gm a t i c t e m pe r a m e nt w hi c h, i nt e r e s t i ngl y w a s l i nke d t o w om e n a nd c hi l dr e n, a s w e l l a s vol upt ua r i e s ( E dga r 215) U nde r t he m oon, a phl e gm a t i c t e m pe r a m e nt t ur ne d pe opl e i nt o s i m pl e t ons a nd f ool s ( E dga r 215 ) A nde r s on l i s t s t he phl e gm a t i c hour s a s be t w e e n 3 p m a nd 9 p. m a n d i m pl i e s t ha t phl e gm a bounds i n a ut um n m ont hs ( 35 ) L a ur e nt i us i de nt i f i e s s a ngui ne i ndi vi dua l s a s ha vi ng t he be s t c om pl e xi on f or he a l t h a nd l ong l i f e ( qt d. i n E dga r 207) L i nke d t o t he e l e m e nt a i r a nd t he hum or bl ood, t he s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt pos s e s s e d hot m oi s t qu a l i t i e s t he a nt i t he s i s of t he c ol d, dr y m e l a nc hol y ( A nde r s on 29) T he s a ngui ne hum o r bl ood, dom i na t e d be t w e e n 3 a m a nd 9 a m a nd be ga n t o i nc r e a s e a nd f l ow f r e e l y du r i ng t he s pr i ng ( A nde r s on 35 ) W i ni f r e d O ve r hol s e r de s c r i be s t he s a ngui ne pe r s on a s phys i c a l l y ha nds om e c he e r f ul a nd c ha r m i ng ( 34 2) T he l i ve r hos t e d t he s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt a nd p r oduc i ng he a l t hy,

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8 w a r m r e d bl ood e nc our a ge d br a ve r y ( H oe ni ge r 17 5) H ow e ve r f r e que nt l y S ha ke s pe a r e r e f e r s t o t he oppos i t e s i t ua t i on w he nt he l i ve r d oe s not t r a ns f or m t he c hyl e c om pl e t e l y i nt o bl ood, l e a vi ng i t pa l e c ol or e d be c a us e of a n a b unda nc e of phl e gm ( H oe ni ge r 175) T hi s oppos i t i on r e f l e c t s t he e a s e w i t h w hi c h hum o r s c oul d be a l t e r e d, t hus a f f e c t i ng a pe r s on s e nt i r e t e m pe r a m e nt T he c hol e r i c t e m pe r a m e nt i n oppos i t i on t o t he ph l e gm a t i c pe r s ona l i t y, c oi nc i de d w i t h t he e l e m e nt o f f i r e pos s e s s i ng hot dr y qua l i t i e s ( A nde r s on 29) A s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he f l ui d hum o r of ye l l ow bi l e c hol e r c ol l e c t e d i n t he ga l l bl a dde r H oe ni ge r i nt e r pr e t s ye l l ow bi l e a s a hot hum or e xpl a i ni ng t ha t ga l l w a s of t e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a pe r s on s s he e r c a pa c i t y f or hot pa s s i ons l i ke a nge r ( 176) T hus w hi l e t he ga l l b l a dde r r e gul a t e d t he c hol e r i n a pe r s on s body i t a l s o s e r ve d a s a r e f e r e nc e t o t he t e m pe r o f a c hol e r i c i ndi vi dua l A s t r ol ogi c a l l y, t he s un w a s i n r e l a t i on t o t he hum or ye l l ow b i l e a ppr opr i a t e t o r ul e r s a nd s e l f w i l l e d w om e n a nd, i n c onj unc t i o n w i t h M a r s t o s ol di e r s r oi s t e r e r s a nd dr unka r ds ( E dga r 215 ) T he c hol e r i c hum o r i s i n r e s i de nc y be t w e e n 9 a m a nd 3 p. m a nd r ul e s dur i ng t he s um m e r m ont hs ( A nde r s on 35) E dga r e xpl a i ns t ha t E l i z a be t ha n m e di c i ne e nc om pa s s e d t he ps yc hol ogy of t he hum or s a s w e l l a s o f c om pl e xi ons a nd m e nt a l pa s s i ons ( 206) T he e l e m e nt s a nd f l ui ds t ha t H i ppoc r a t e s a nd G a l e n he l d r e s pons i bl e f or ph ys i c a l w e l l be i ng w e r e a l s o be l i e ve d t o i nf l ue nc e ps yc hol ogi c a l be ha vi or i nc l udi ng t e m pe r a m e nt a nd pe r s ona l i t y. T he pe r s ona l i t y t ype s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a pr e dom i na nc e of e a c h hum or bl a c k bi l e phl e gm bl ood, a nd ye l l ow bi l e w e r e m e l a nc hol y phl e gm a t i c s a ngui ne a nd c hol e r i c a l l of w hi c h a r e pe r s oni f i e d i n S ha ke s pe a r e s c ha r a c t e r s A s K a i l e xpl a i ns S ha ke s pe a r e m e nt i one d a l l t he hu m our s i n hi s pl a ys us i ng t he m i n di f f e r e nt c ont e xt s a nd w i t h a w i de

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9 r a nge of m e a ni ngs H e kne w w hi c h hum our w a s a ki n t o w hi c h of t he f ou r e l e m e nt s ( 142) H om e r s I l i ad de t a i l s a nc i e nt m e di c a l m a t t e r s a nd, s i m i l a r l y, S ha ke s pe a r e s t r e a t m e nt of t he hum or s c r e a t e s a r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s i xt e e nt h c e nt ur y ( E dga r 108) I n f a c t E dga r a r gue s t ha t [ S ha ke s pe a r e s ] pl a ys r e a l l y gi ve us a be t t e r c om pos i t e of m e di c a l pr a c t i c e i n [ t he s i xt e e nt h] c e nt ur y t ha n a l l t he a ut hor i t i e s quot e d ( 109)

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10 I I I H a m l e t t he M e l a nc hol y P r i nc e T he m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt a bounds t hr oughout E l i z a be t ha n l i t e r a t ur e I n S ha ke s pe a r e s pl a ys t he m e l a nc hol i c f i gur e s a r e e a s i l y r e c ogni z e d. I n A s Y ou L i k e I t D uke S e ni or a nd hi s c ohor t s ha ve a n op t i m i s t i c out l ook t ow a r ds t he i r ba ni s hm e nt t o t he f or e s t of A r de n, w hi l e J a que s c ons t a nt l y r e m i nds t he m of a l l t he i r r e a s ons t o be unha ppy i n t he f o r e s t J a que s s e r ve s a s c om i c r e l i e f by s a t i r i z i ng t he c onc e pt of t he m e l a nc hol y m a l c ont e nt a c t i ng a s a f oi l t o t he opt i m i s t i c c ha r a c t e r s of hi s pl a y pa r t i c ul a r l y R os a l i nd. T hi s t e m pe r a m e nt di d not a l w a ys i nvoke l a ught e r how e ve r a s A nde r s on a s s e r t s : m e l a nc hol y, s om e t i m e s c a l l e d bl a c k c hol e r i s e a r t hy a nd gr os s t hi c k, b l a c k, a nd s our ( 34) I n e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd, a m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt c a r r i e d s e r i ous i m pl i c a t i ons I n H am l e t t he t i t u l a r c ha r a c t e r c ons t a nt l y br oods t hr oughout hi s t r a ge dy, w r a c ke d w i t h gr i e f f r om t he r e c e nt de a t h o f hi s f a t he r t he r e c e nt r e m a r r i a ge of hi s m ot he r t o hi s unc l e a nd hi s t um ul t uous l ove a f f a i r w i t h O phe l i a T he ot he r c ha r a c t e r s c a l l hi m m a d, a nd s t r uggl e t o unc ove r t he c a us e of hi s i l l ne s s H a m l e t w or r i e s s e c ond gue s s e s a nd que s t i ons e ve r yt hi ng, ul t i m a t e l y de s t r oyi ng hi m s e l f a nd t hos e a r ound hi m H a m l e t s t a l e of m e l a nc hol y e nds i n de a t h. I n T he A nat om y of M e l anc hol y R obe r t B ur t on e xp l a i ns t ha t m e l a nc hol i c pe opl e a r e c ons um e d by i r r e s ol ut i on i nc ons t a nc y, [ a nd] va ni t y of m i nd a nd t ha t t he i r f e a r t or t ur e c a r e j e a l ous y, s us pi c i on, e t c c ont i nue s a nd t he y c a nnot be r e l i e ve d ( 139 ) I n

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11 H a m l e t s i nt r oduc t or y s c e ne hi s m ot he r c om m e nt s on hi s da r k di s pos i t i on, p l e a di ng, G ood H a m l e t c a s t t hy n i ght e d c ol or of f a nd do not s e e k f or t hy nobl e f a t he r i n t he dus t r e a s oni ng t ha t t i s c om m on; a l l t ha t l i ve s m us t di e ( 1. 2 68 71 ) H ow e ve r a s B ur t on s de f i ni t i on i m pl i e s H a m l e t c a nnot be r e l i e ve d of t he g r i e f t ha t he f e e l s f or h i s f a t he r ; f u r t he r m or e a s t he pl a y pr og r e s s e s w e s e e t hi s gr i e f d e ve l op i nt o j e a l ous y a nd s us pi c i on of C l a udi us hi s unc l e a nd s t e pf a t he r m e nt a l l y t or t u r i ng t he pr i nc e A C B r a dl e y, t he f i r s t s c hol a r t o di s c us s H a m l e t a s a m e l a nc hol i c t r a gi c he r o, a s s e r t s B y t e m pe r a m e nt [ H a m l e t ] w a s i nc l i ne d t o ne r vous i ns t a bi l i t y, t o r a pi d a nd pe r ha ps e xt r e m e c ha nge s of f e e l i ng a nd m ood ( 110) T he m e l a nc hol y t ha t pos s e s s e s H a m l e t t hr oughout t he pl a y i nf l ue nc e s hi s a c t i ons w hi c h a r e a s uns t a b l e a s hi s m i nd, f or a s B r a dl e y s t a t e s t he w hol e s t or y [ o f H am l e t ] t ur ns upon t he pe c ul i a r c ha r a c t e r of t he he r o ( 89) B l a c k bi l e t he e xc e s s i ve f l ui d t ha t c a us e d m e l a nc hol y, ge ne r a t e d i n t he b r a i n a nd r e m a i ne d i n t he s pl e e n ( D r a pe r S t a r C r os s e d L ove r s 22) W hi l e S ha ke s pe a r e of t e n m a de r e f e r e nc e t o t he gove r ni ng or ga n o f hum o r a l f l ui ds he m a ke s onl y one r e f e r e nc e t o t he s pl e e n i n H am l e t A t O phe l i a s bur i a l L a e r t e s c e ns ur e s H a m l e t a nd t he P r i nc e s w e a r s I a m not s pl e ni t i ve a nd r a s h ( 5 1. 262 ) I n t hi s s ol e r e f e r e nc e t o t he s pl e e n, H a m l e t r e f e r s t o c hol e r r a t he r t ha n m e l a nc hol y, i ns i s t i ng t ha t he i s no t r ul e d by f i e r y pa s s i on l i ke L a e r t e s I nt e r e s t i ngl y, a l t hough S ha ke s pe a r e m a ke s c ount l e s s t e xt ua l a l l us i ons t o t he hum or s t h r oughout h i s pl a ys he r e f r a i ns f r om l i nki ng t he s pl e e n t o m e l a nc hol y. R a t he r a s H oe ni ge r a s s e r t s S ha ke s pe a r e l i nks t he s pl e e n t o o t he r hum o r s t o de m ons t r a t e a f unc t i oni ng s pl e e n t ha t a bs or bs e xc e s s i ve bl a c k bi l e ( 177) S i nc e H a m l e t r e m a i ns m e l a nc hol y, r e f e r e nc e s t o t he s pl e e n pr ov e unne c e s s a r y, f or t he or e t i c a l l y, t he pr i nc e s or ga n doe s not ope r a t e e f f e c t i ve l y.

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12 T he m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt a r i s e s f r om t he e l e m e nt e a r t h. D r y a nd c ol d a s ur pl us of e a r t h c a us e s s l ow he a vy m ove m e nt i n i t s hos t ( A nde r s on 32) T hr oughout H am l e t t he m a ny r e f e r e nc e s t o e a r t h e m be dde d i n t he t e xt r e m i nd t he a udi e nc e of t he und e r l yi ng c a us e of t he t r a ge dy. S ha ke s pe a r e us e s t he w or d e a r t h a nd i t s va r i a nt s e g. e a r t hl y, t w e nt y t h r e e t i m e s i n t he t e xt o f H am l e t I f t hi s nu m be r s e e m s i ns i gni f i c a nt w e m us t r e m e m be r t ha t S ha ke s pe a r e c hos e hi s w or ds c a r e f ul l y a nd de l i be r a t e l y R i c har d I I w hi c h s ha r e s w i t h H am l e t a m e l a nc hol y he r o m e nt i ons t he w or d e a r t h t w e nt y f ou r t i m e s but ot he r w i s e t he w or d i s s c a r c e i n S ha ke s pe a r e s pl a ys A nt ony and C l e opat r a w hi c h ha s t he t hi r d m os t r e f e r e nc e s t o e a r t h, t r a i l s f a r be hi nd H am l e t onl y i nvoki ng t he w or d f i f t e e n t i m e s T o p r ove t ha t us a ge of t he w or d w a s not c om m on, I w i l l poi nt out t ha t T he T am i ng of t he Shr e w us e s t he w or d on l y onc e D a vi d B e vi ngt on s ubm i t s t ha t a r e c ur r i ng m o t i f i n H am l e t i s of a s e e m i ngl y he a l t h y e xt e r i or c onc e a l i ng a n i nt e r i o r s i c kne s s ( 546) T he s ubt l e r e f e r e nc e s t o e a r t h hi d de n i n t he t e xt r e f l e c t t he i nt e r i or s i c kne s s of H a m l e t a s i c kne s s r e l a t e d t o bot h e a r t h a nd bl a c k bi l e a nd, a s B e vi ngt on c ont i nue s t hi s m ot i f of c onc e a l e d e vi l a nd di s e a s e c ont i nua l l y r e m i nds us t ha t i n bot h a s pe c i f i c a nd a br oa de r s e ns e S om e t hi ng i s r ot t e n i n t he s t a t e of D e nm a r k ( 546) T hus t he t e xt of f e r s c l ue s t o t he m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e n t of i t s pr ot a goni s t O f t e n, c ha r a c t e r s i n t he pl a y m a ke r e f e r e nc e s s t r e s s i ng t he di s t a nc e be t w e e n he a ve n a nd e a r t h. W hi l e H a m l e t i s a l i ve he i s r ul e d by m e l a nc hol y; he i s r u l e d by t he e l e m e nt e a r t h w hi l e he w a l ks t he e a r t h. T hi s m e l a nc hol y pr e ve nt s hi m f r o m t he de c i s i ve a c t i on t o w hi c h he ha s be e n c a l l e d by t he ghos t o f hi s f a t he r T he m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt i s of t e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h bot h S a t u r n a nd t he m oon I n a c t 1 H or a t i o c a ut i ons H a m l e t T he ve r y pl a c e put s t oys of de s pe r a t i on, w i t hout m e r e

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13 m ot i ve i nt o e ve r y b r a i n t ha t l ooks s o m a ny f a t hom s t o t he s e a a nd he a r s i t r oa r be ne a t h ( 1 4. 75 78) H ow e ve r H a m l e t doe s not he e d t h i s w a r ni ng, a nd i s t hr ow n i nt o a s e a of m e l a nc hol y. M or e ove r H or a t i o s s t a t e m e nt l i nks t he c onc e pt of m e l a nc hol y t o t he m oon. T he or i s t s m a i nt a i ne d t ha t t he p l a ne t S a t ur n i nf l ue nc e d t he e xc e s s of bl a c k bi l e t ha t l e d t o a m e l a nc hol y di s pos i t i on, a l t hough T ho m a s V i c a r y a nd ot he r s a l s o l i s t e d t he m oon a nd s t a r s a s ha vi ng a n e f f e c t on one s t e m pe r a m e nt ( O ve r hol s e r 336 337) I n f a c t B ur t on c l a i m s t ha t t he m oon m a ny t i m e s pr oduc e t h m e l a nc hol y, a nd c i t e s l una t i c p e r s ons t ha t a r e de pr i ve d o f t he i r w i t s by t he m oon s m ot i on a s a n e xa m pl e ( qt d. i n O ve r hol s e r 337) T he m oon pl a yi ng a n i m po r t a nt r ol e i n one s s a ni t y ( or l a c k t he r e o f ) s e r ve s a s a n i m por t a nt s ym bol t h r oughout H am l e t T he m oon s m ot i on i nf l ue nc e s t he t i de a nd t he e a r l y m o de r ns be l i e ve d t ha t i t a f f e c t e d a m e l a nc hol y pe r s on s w i t s i n a s i m i l a r m a nne r W he n H o r a t i o m e nt i ons e ve r y br a i n t ha t l ooks t o t he s e a he de s c r i be s t he br a i ns of t he m e l a nc hol y i ndi vi dua l w hi c h, l i ke t he t i de s of t he s e a a r e c o nt r ol l e d by t he m oon. I n 1587 V i c a r y c l a i m e d, T he br a i n ha t h t hi s pr ope r t y t ha t i t m ove t h a nd f ol l ow e t h t he m ovi ng of t he m oon; f o r i n t he w a xi ng of t he m oon t he b r a i n f ol l ow e t h upw a r ds ; a nd i n t he w a ne of t he m oon t h e br a i n de s c e nde t h dow nw a r ds ( qt d. i n O ve r hol s e r 337) L una r r e f e r e nc e s t hr oughout t he pl a y i nc l ude t he us e of t he t e r m s w a x a nd w a ne L a e r t e s a s s ur e s O phe l i a t ha t H a m l e t s l ove i s i nc ons t a nt : A s t hi s t e m pl e w a xe s t he i nw a r d s e r vi c e of t he m i nd a nd s oul gr ow s w i de w i t ha l ( 1. 3 12 14 ) ; m or e ove r w he n H a m l e t f ol l ow s t he ghos t H or a t i o de s c r i be s H e w a xe s de s pe r a t e w i t h i m a gi na t i on ( 1. 4 87) T he s e ut t e r a nc e s oc c ur e a r l y i n t he t e xt a nd, i n a c t 2 H a m l e t w onde r s how t he P l a ye r K i ng c oul d f or c e hi s s oul s o t o hi s ow n c onc e i t t ha t a l l hi s vi s a ge w a nne d ( 2. 2. 553 554) T he P l a ye r pe r p l e xe s H a m l e t I n a w or l d w he r e a

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14 he a l t hy e xt e r i or c onc e a l s a n i l l i nt e r i o r t he P l a ye r K i ng a c t s a s a f oi l W hi l e m os t of H am l e t s f i gur e s f e i gn nor m a l c y, t he a c t or por t r a y s t e a r s i n hi s e ye s di s t r a c t i o n i n hi s a s pe c t [ a nd] a b r oke n voi c e ( 2. 2 555 556) T he a c t or s vi s a ge a l t hough not hi s s oul w a ne s ; c onve r s e l y, H a m l e t s s oul de s c e nde t h dow nw a r ds a s t he pl a y pr ogr e s s e s T he P l a ye r K i ng i s not t he s ol e f oi l t o t he m e l a nc h ol y pr i nc e S a r a M uns on D e a t s c ont r a s t s H a m l e t t o t he f i e r y L a e r t e s a nd c om pa r e s hi m t o C l a udi us : a s he de s c e nds s pi r i t ua l l y, H a m l e t be gi ns m or e a nd m or e t o r e s e m bl e hi s a r c h a dve r s a r y C l a udi us ( 22 23) A l t houg h t he w i c ke d C l a udi us pos s e s s e s e nou gh c hol e r t o ki l l hi s br ot he r t he K i ng t o c l a i m t he c r ow n, he a l s o m a y e xhi bi t s om e phl e gm a t i c qua l i t i e s I n a c t 1, s c e ne 4, H a m l e t s c of f s t ha t t he ki ng t a ke s hi s r ous e ke e ps w a s s a i l a nd t ha t a s he dr a i ns hi s dr a ught s of R he ni s h dow n, t he ke t t l e dr u m a nd t r u m pe t t hus br a y out t he t r i um ph of h i s pl e dge ( 8 12) F i e r y L a e r t e s t he n por t r a ys t he m os t c hol e r i c f i gur e i n t he p l a y. A t O phe l i a s gr a ve t he s pl e ni t i ve L a e r t e s doe s not he s i t a t e t o a t t a c k H a m l e t i n a r a ge c r yi ng, T he de vi l t a ke t hy s oul ( 5. 1 259) H e r e unl i ke H a m l e t L a e r t e s r e j e c t s c ons c i e nc e G od, t he a f t e r l i f e e ve r yt hi ng I n t he f i na l s c e ne of t he pl a y, H a m l e t m e nt i ons t ha t hi s m e l a nc hol y a c t i ons w hi c h m i g ht [ L a e r t e s ] na t ur e r oughl y a w a ke w e r e c a us e d by m a dne s s ( 5. 2. 229 230 ) t hus l i nki n g hi s m e l a nc hol y t o m a dne s s a nd a c know l e dgi ng t he i gni t i on o f L a e r t e s c hol e r i n r e s pons e t o hi s ow n m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt M or e ove r a s t he y due l H a m l e t a s s e r t s t ha t L a e r t e s s ki l l w i l l s t i c k f i e r y of f i nde e d ( 5. 2 255) a ga i n l i nk i ng hi s oppone nt s e xpl oi t s t o hi s e xo r b i t a nt pa s s i on. L a e r t e s hot pa s s i on c ont r a s t s dr a s t i c a l l y w i t h H a m l e t a nd A nde r s on pos i t s t ha t w he ne ve r t he qua l i t y [ o f m e l a nc hol y] be c om e s e xt r e m e i t be num bs t he pow e r s of t he s oul ( 38) W he r e a s he a t m a y i nc l i ne L a e r t e s t o hi s hot pa s s i ons c ol d, i n t he r e a l s e ns e

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15 of t he w o r d, [ i s ] de t r i m e nt a l t o m a n ( A nde r s on 38 ) a nd H a m l e t c e r t a i nl y de m ons t r a t e s t hi s poi nt E ve n a s t he m e l a nc hol y t ype i s t he m os t r e f e r e nc e d t e m pe r a m e nt i t i s a l s o t he m os t f r e que nt l y m e nt i one d m e nt a l i l l ne s s i n E l i z a b e t ha n l i t e r a t ur e ( O ve r hol s e r 344) I n e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd, t he w or d ps yc hi a t r y di d not e xi s t ; how e ve r t ype s of m e nt a l i l l ne s s w e r e none t he l e s s c a t e gor i z e d, a s m a ni a c s a s m e l a nc hol i c s a s s uf f e r i ng f r om phr e ni t i s f r e nz y, l una c y or de m oni a c a l pos s e s s i on s ( O ve r hol s e r 335) M e l a nc hol y w a s c l a s s i f i e d a m ong s e ve r a l t ype s of m e nt a l i l l ne s s a nd t a ke n ve r y s e r i ous l y. M e l a nc hol y w a s l i nke d t o m a dne s s a nd a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he e f f e c t s of i ns a ni t y, i nc l udi ng ha l l uc i na t i ons a nd f r e nz y. O ve r hol s e r s ubm i t s t ha t i t w a s g e ne r a l l y be l i e ve d a l s o t ha t t he m e l a nc hol y i ndi vi dua l w a s pa r t i c ul a r l y s ubj e c t t o de m oni c i nf l ue nc e ( 343) T he r e f or e be c a us e H or a t i o, M a r c e l l us a nd B a r na r do a l s o s e e t he s pi r i t w e c a n a s s um e t ha t t he ghos t i s not a ha l l uc i na t i on but t ha t H a m l e t m a y h a ve be e n pa r t i c ul a r l y s us c e pt i bl e t o s upe r na t ur a l c om m uni c a t i on i n hi s m e l a nc hol y s t a t e s i nc e a s a m e l a nc hol i c i t w oul d ha ve be e n l ogi c a l t o t he E l i z a be t ha ns t ha t t he m e l a nc hol y H a m l e t w oul d i nt e r a c t w i t h a s upe r na t ur a l f or c e doom e d f or a c e r t a i n t e r m t o w a l k t he ni gh t a nd f or t he da y c onf i ne d t o f a s t i n f i r e s ( 1. 5 11 12 ) I f H a m l e t ha d a l r e a dy s uc c um be d t o t he a gony of hi s m o t he r s qui c k r e m a r r i a ge a nd hi s un c l e s ne w r ol e a s s t e pf a t he r pe r ha ps he ne e de d no f ur t he r pr oddi ng t o c r os s t he l i ne i nt o m a dne s s D e a t s ha s obs e r ve d H a m l e t s unba l a nc e d be ha vi or a nd vi e w s t he pl a y a s a t r a ge dy of m i s di r e c t e d a c t i on ( 23 ) I n he r s t udy o f t w o i m por t a nt s c e ne s of t he pl a y, D e a t s c onc l ude s t ha t t he P r i nc e s ow n w i l d w hi r l i ng be t w e e n t he e xt r e m e s of m e l a nc hol y a nd c hol e r c e r t a i nl y c ont r i but e s t o t he bl oody c onc l us i on ( 22) I n H am l e t

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16 t he m e l a nc hol y t e m pe r a m e nt c a us e s t he pr i nc e t o t hi nk w he n he s houl d a c t or c onve r s e l y, t o a c t w he n he s houl d t hi nk D e a t s f oc us e s f i r s t on a c t 3 s c e ne 3, i n w hi c h H a m l e t a r m e d t o s l a y C l a udi us f i nds hi s s t e pf a t he r kne e l i ng i n pr a ye r B ur t on obs e r ve s of t he m e l a nc hol i c pe r s on: H e w i l l f r e e l y p r om i s e unde r t a ke a ny bus i ne s s be f or e ha nd, but w he n i t c om e s t o be pe r f or m e d he da r e not a dv e nt ur e but f e a r s a n i nf i n i t e num be r of da nge r s di s a s t e r s e t c ( 135 ) I n de e d, i n a c t 1, H a m l e t pr om i s e s hi s f a t he r s ghos t T hy c om m a ndm e nt a l one s ha l l l i ve w i t h i n t he book a nd vol um e of m y br a i n, unm i xe d w i t h ba s e r m a t t e r ( 1 5. 103 105 ) ye t w he n t he m om e nt a r r i ve s t he pr i nc e f a l t e r s H e r e a s D e a t s poi nt s out he t hi nks w he n he s houl d a c t B r a dl e y a l s o a s s e r t s t ha t H a m l e t f a i l s he r e c i t i ng hi s f i r s t w or ds upon s e e i ng C l a udi us : N ow m i ght I do i t ( qt d i n B r a dl e y 135, e m pha s i s m i ne ) de s c r i bi ng H a m l e t s he s i t a t i on a s m e l a nc hol y pa r a l y s i s ( 135) a nd i de nt i f yi ng t hi s i nc i de nt a s t he p l a y s t ur ni ng p oi nt ( 136) I n s pa r i ng t he ki ng s l i f e c l a i m s B r a dl e y, H a m l e t ul t i m a t e l y s a c r i f i c e s t he ot he r c ha r a c t e r s i n t he pl a y w ho be gi n t o di e s hor t l y t he a r e a f t e r ( 136 ) D e a t s ne xt c i t e s t he s ke w e r i ng of P ol on i us ( 23) be hi nd G e r t r ude s c ur t a i n i n a c t 3, s c e ne 4, a s a c ont r a s t t o H a m l e t s he s i t a t i on: I n f a i l i ng t o a va i l h i m s e l f of t hi s f or t ui t ous oppor t uni t y f or a c t i on [ by s pa r i ng C l a ud i us l i f e ] H a m l e t c om m i t s hi s f i r s t s e r i ous e r r or i n j udgm e nt Y e t c l e a r l y s om e a c t i o n s houl d be t a ke n l e s t H a m l e t i r r e voc a bl y l os e t he i n i t i a t i ve ( 22 ) I nde e d H a m l e t doe s t a ke s om e a c t i on : s hor t l y a f t e r he r e f r a i ns f r om ki l l i ng C l a udi us H a m l e t a c t s qui c kl y, r e c kl e s s l y s l a yi ng P ol oni us T hus he be c om e s a m u r de r e r r a t he r t ha n hi s f a t he r s a ve nge r by a c t i ng t oo qui c kl y i ns t e a d of pa us i ng t o a s s e s s t he s i t ua t i on. H a m l e t bl a m e s hi s ha s t e on hi s m a dne s s w hi c h D e a t s r e a ds i n t he E l i z a be t ha n s e ns e of un c ont r ol l e d by r e a s on ( 23)

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17 T hr oughout t he pl a y, H a m l e t s t r uggl e s t o a c hi e ve a ba l a nc e be t w e e n r e a s on a nd pa s s i on, t hought a nd a c t i on, w hi c h i s e xe m pl i f i e d i n t he s e t w o pa r a doxi c a l s c e ne s H a m l e t l a m e nt s t o H or a t i o B l e s s e d a r e t hos e w hos e bl ood a nd j udgm e nt a r e s o w e l l c om m e ddl e d ( 3. 2 67 68 ) H am l e t i s a p l a y t ha t r e vol ve s a r ound t he t i t ul a r c ha r a c t e r s l a c k of ba l a nc e c a us e d by hi s m e l a nc h ol y t e m pe r a m e nt D e a t s be l i e ve s t ha t H a m l e t w oul d ha ve be e n a be t t e r ki ng t ha n F o r t i nb r a s w ho w i ns t he c r ow n a f t e r t he de a t hs of C l a udi us a nd H a m l e t ( 25 ) but H a m l e t s m e l a nc hol y s e a l s hi s f a t e A l t hough D e a t s s ugge s t s t ha t H a m l e t doe s a c hi e ve e qui l i br i u m be t w e e n pa s s i on a nd r e a s on a t t he e nd of t he pl a y, hi s ne w f ound s t a bi l i t y c om e s t oo l a t e O f c our s e m a ny ot he r s be s i de s t he P r i nc e o f D e nm a r k s uf f e r a s a r e s ul t of H a m l e t s f i c kl e t e m pe r a m e nt ; P ol oni us O phe l i a G e r t r ude C l a udi us L a e r t e s R os e nc r a nt z a nd G ui l de ns t e r n a l s o di e i n i t s w a ke T hus H am l e t i l l us t r a t e s t he s e ve r i t y of t he m os t r e f e r e nc e d t e m pe r a m e nt i n e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd.

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18 I V S i r J ohn F a l s t a f f t he P hl e gm a t i c K ni gh t S ha ke s pe a r e s phl e gm a t i c c ha r a c t e r s of t e n f unc t i o n i n t he s ubpl ot s of hi s pl a ys or pe r f or m m i ni m a l r ol e s of c om i c r e l i e f I n T w e l f t h N i ght t he phl e gm a t i c s S i r A ndr e w A gue c he e k a nd S i r T oby B e l c h, s e r ve a s c om i c f oi l s t o t he l ove r s of t he pl a y, a s S i r T oby s ugge s t s A ndr e w a s a s ui t or f or O l i vi a i n or de r t o c ont i nue dr i nki ng on A ndr e w s di m e I n T he T e m pe s t T r i nc ul o a nd S t e f a no s t um bl e t hr o ugh t he i s l a nd, t he i r e xpl oi t s c ont r a s t i ng w i t h t he a dve nt u r e s of t he ot he r s hi pw r e c ke d c ha r a c t e r s I n M ac be t h a dr unke n por t e r dr a w s l a ught e r f r om t he a udi e nc e i n a br i e f i nt e r m i s s i on be t w e e n t w o bl oody s c e ne s t he m ur de r of K i ng D unc a n, a nd t he di s c ove r y of t he c r i m e W hi l e t he phl e gm a t i c c ha r a c t e r s e l i c i t l a ught e r t he y r a r e l y s h a r e t he s pot l i ght w i t h t he p r ot a goni s t s of t he i r r e s pe c t i ve pl a ys I n H e nr y I V P ar t 1 how e ve r t he phl e gm a t i c c ha r a c t e r i s gi ve n a m uc h l a r ge r r ol e I n f a c t t he dr un ke n, s l ot hf u l S i r J ohn F a l s t a f f r e m a i ns one o f m os t m e m or a bl e c ha r a c t e r s i n t he e nt i r e S ha ke s pe a r e a n c a non. A l b e r t H T ol m a n de c l a r e s O f t he c ha r a c t e r s of t he g r e a t dr a m a t i s t H a m l e t C l e opa t r a I a go a nd F a l s t a f f a r e a m ong t he m os t m a r ve l ous E a c h of t he f i r s t t h r e e na m e di s t he c e nt r a l f o r c e i n a gr e a t pl a ybut how i s i t w i t h F a l s t a f f ? I s he a m e r e a c c i de nt t ha t be f e l l P a r t I a nd I I of H e nr y I V a ha ppy c a s ua l t y? ( 1 2)

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19 D a vi d S c ot t K a s t a n a gr e e s : i nde e d, t h r ough t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, c r i t i c i s m t e nde d t o f oc us on t he f a t kni ght t o t he e xc l us i on of t he r e s t of t he pl a y a t t r a c t e d t o hi s i r r e pr e s s i b l e vi t a l i t y a nd l a r ge l y unc onc e r ne d w i t h how ( o r e ve n i f ) t he c ha r a c t e r f i t t e d i nt o t he l a r ge r dr a m a t i c de s i gn ( 14) W hy w oul d S ha ke s pe a r e i nve nt a c om i c f i gur e w ho w oul d i na dve r t e nt l y de t r a c t f r om t he m a i n pl ot o f hi s pl a y ? I s ugge s t t ha t t he c ha r a c t e r of F a l s t a f f w a s no a c c i de nt ; he i s a n i nt e nt i ona l l y l i ke a bl e c ha r a c t e r w ho, a l t hough l a r ge l y l a c ki ng i n m e r i t d i s pl a ys s e ve r a l c om m e nda bl e vi r t ue s K a s t a n de c l a r e s t ha t t hough F a l s t a f f i s o f c our s e S i r J ohn, a n a r i s t oc r a t he c o nt i nuous l y r e i nve nt s h i m s e l f a s a n i r r e pr e s s i bl e e ve r ym a n: s w e e t J a c k F a l s t a f f ki nd J a c k F a l s t a f f t r ue J a c k F a l s t a f f va l i a nt J a c k F a l s t a f f one w i t h e ve r y m a n j a c k ( 2 4. 463 4) ( 39) I n c r e a t i ng hi s e ve r ym a n S ha ke s pe a r e de e m e d i t a ppr opr i a t e t o m a ke hi m ph l e gm a t i c W he n F a l s t a f f e nt e r s H e nr y I V P ar t 1 he r e que s t s t he t i m e a n hone s t que r y P r i nc e H a l r e s ponds w i t h a n i ns ul t i ng s um m a r y of F a l s t a f f s c ha r a c t e r : T hou a r t s o f a t w i t t e d w i t h dr i nki ng of ol d s a c a nd unbut t oni ng t he e a f t e r s uppe r a nd s l e e pi ng upon be nc h e s a f t e r noon, t ha t t hou ha s t f o r got t e n t o de m a nd t ha t t r ul y w hi c h t hou w oul ds t t r u l y know W ha t a de vi l ha s t t hou t o do w i t h t he t i m e of t he da y? U nl e s s hour s w e r e c ups of s a c k, a nd m i nut e s c a pons a nd c l oc ks t he t ongue s of ba w ds a nd di a l s t he s i gns of l e a pi ng hous e s a nd t he bl e s s e d s un hi m s e l f a f a i r hot w e nc h i n f l a m e c ol our e d t a f f e t a I s e e no r e a s on w hy t hou s houl ds t be s o s upe r f l uous t o de m a nd t he t i m e o f da y ( 1. 2 2 11 ) F a l s t a f f ha s ba r e l y w a l ke d ons t a ge w he n H a l pa i nt s f or t he a udi e nc e t he por t r a i t o f t he phl e gm a t i c m a n. A nde r s on de s c r i be s t he phl e gm a t i c c ha r a c t e r a s ge ne r a l l y s l ot hf ul

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20 gi ve n t o bodi l y pl e a s ur e s s l e e py, i dl e dul l of w i t he a vy, a nd s l ow ( 34 ) a l l t r a i t s t ha t H a l a t t r i but e s t o F a l s t a f f I m m e di a t e l y, w e know t ha t F a l s t a f f i s l a z y f a t w i t t e d or dul l a nd, m os t i m po r t a nt a dr unk F a l s t a f f s e xc e s s i ve dr i nki ng of ol d s a c ( a ha bi t t ha t c ont i nue s t hr oughout t he p l a y) i s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he phl e gm a t i c hum or w hos e e l e m e nt i s w a t e r A s U C K noe pf l m a c he r bl unt l y obs e r ve s [ F a l s t a f f s ] e l e m e nt i s W a t e r o r m or e pr ope r l y w i ne ( 498) H a l a c c us e s F a l s t a f f of s l e e pi ng on be nc he s unt i l a f t e r noon. A s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r A nde r s on l i s t s t he phl e gm a t i c hou r s a s be t w e e n 3 p. m a nd 9 p. m ; t hus H a l s c om m e nt i m pl i e s t ha t F a l s t a f f doe s not be gi n hi s d a y unt i l hi s a ppr op r i a t e hou r W hi l e H a l c r i t i c i z e s F a l s t a f f f o r s l e e pi ng t h r ough t he m or ni ng, I s ugge s t t ha t t hi s ha bi t oc c ur s i n oppos i t i on t o t he c hol e r i c hour s C hol e r a c c or di n g t o A nde r s on, r e i gns be t w e e n 9 a m a nd 3 p. m ; t hus t he dul l w i t t e d F a l s t a f f w oul d ha ve no ne e d t o be a w a ke a t t hi s hou r w he n a hot pa s s i on i s i n a bunda nc e B e c a us e c hol e r oppos e s phl e gm I a l s o s ugge s t t ha t F a l s t a f f m a y s l e e p t hr ough t he s e hour s s i m pl y be c a us e he l a c ks t he c hol e r t ha t w oul d i nc i t e a c t i vi t y i n t he m o r ni ng hou r s T o H a l s a s s e r t i on, F a l s t a f f r e pl i e s W e t ha t t a ke pur s e s go by t he m oon a nd t he s e ve n s t a r s ( 1. 2. 13) T he m oon r e duc e d phl e gm a t i c s t o m e r e s i m pl e t ons a nd s o he r e i t s e e m s t ha t F a l s t a f f not onl y a c know l e dge s H a l s s ugge s t i on t ha t he i s f a t w i t t e d, but he a l s o e m br a c e s i t B y a t t r i but i ng hi s r ol e a s pe t t y t h i e f t o t he i nt r i ns i c i nf l ue nc e of hi s hum or F a l s t a f f a s ks H a l t o f or gi ve hi s f l a w s pl e a di ng, W he n t hou a r t k i ng, l e t not us be c a l l e d t hi e ve s of t he da y s be a ut y ( 1. 2 22 24) ; t ha t i s do not l e t hi s m e n be c r i t i c i z e d f or [ w a s t i ng] t he da yl i ght i n s l ot h ( K a s t a n 151) C ont i nui ng F a l s t a f f r e pe a t s hi m s e l f be ggi ng H a l L e t us be D i a na s f or e s t e r s ge nt l e m e n of t he s ha de m i n i ons of

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21 t he m oon, a nd l e t s a y w e be m e n o f good gove r nm e nt be i ng gove r ne d, a s t he s e a i s by our nobl e a nd c ha s t e m i s t r e s s t he m oon ( 1 2. 24 2 8) K a s t a n s f oot not e s ugge s t s t ha t F a l s t a f f s r e f e r e nc e t o D i a na e c hoe s t he f a m i l i a r l a ngua ge of pr a i s e s ur r oundi ng E l i z a be t h ( 152) H e r e F a l s t a f f us e s hi s f i de l i t y t o P r i nc e H a l t o e xc us e hi s be ha vi or a ga i n s t r e s s i ng t ha t he i s c ont r ol l e d by hi s hum o r a nd t ha t he w i l l be i n good gove r nm e nt unde r t he r ul e o f D i a na M or e ove r t he phl e gm a t i c e l e m e nt w a t e r l i nks F a l s t a f f t o t he s e a S i nc e t he m oon gove r ns t he s e a a s w e l l a s F a l s t a f f t he f a t kni ght t a ke s no r e s pons i bi l i t y f o r hi s be ha vi or s i nc e F a l s t a f f s pe r s ona i nna t e l y bor n unde r t he m oon i s c ont r ol l e d by t he phl e gm a t i c hum o r O nl y a f t e r bui l di ng a de f e ns e r e pl e t e w i t h hum or a l r e f e r e nc e s doe s F a l s t a f f a dm i t t o w ha t e xa c t l y he a nd hi s m e n do w e s t e a l ( 1. 2. 29 ) A l l f our of t he hum o r a l t e m pe r a m e nt s a r e pr e s e nt i n H e nr y I V P ar t 1 I n hi s a r t i c l e T he H um or s a s S ym bol i c N uc l e us i n H e n r y I V P ar t 1 K noe pf l m a c he r a s s e r t s t ha t t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on be t w e e n t he hum or s p r ovi de s t he ba s i s f or a s ym bol i c nuc l e us w hi c h bi nds t he pl a y s a bunda nt r e f e r e nc e s t o bl oo d, s i c kne s s a nd t he f ou r e l e m e nt s ( 497) A c c or di ng t o K noe pf l m a c he r K i ng H e nr y por t r a ys t he m e l a nc hol i c f i gur e ; H ot s pur e m bodi e s t he c ho l e r i c m a n; P r i nc e H a l r e pr e s e nt s t he s a ngui ne he r o; a nd, of c our s e F a l s t a f f i l l us t r a t e s t he e f f e c t s of a phl e gm a t i c t e m pe r a m e nt ( 497 ) K a s t a n a l s o c om m e nt s on t he nuc l e a r c ha r a c t e r s of H e nr y I V P ar t 1 : T he f our m a j or r ol e s uni que i n S ha ke s pe a r e s c a no n i n t he a l m os t e qua l s ha r i ng of t he l i ne s do de f i ne t he out l i ne s o f t he p l a y s br i l l i a nt pr i s m a t i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( 7) W hi l e K a s t a n not e s t he uni que ne s s of t he pl a y t ha t di vi de s t he f our m a j or r ol e s i nt o ne a r l y e qua l pa r t s he a l s o de l i ne a t e s t he br e a kdow n of l i ne s i n t he p l a y. I r on i c a l l y, t he t i t ul a r c ha r a c t e r s pe a ks onl y

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22 338 l i ne s w hi l e H a l s pe a ks 514, H ot s pur 538, a nd t he phl e gm a t i c F a l s t a f f dom i na t e s t he pl a y w i t h 542 l i ne s ( K a s t a n 7) I t m i ght s e e m i r oni c t ha t S ha ke s pe a r e w oul d gi ve m or e l i ne s t o t he c e nt r a l c ha r a c t e r i n t he s uppos e d c om i c s ubpl ot t ha n t o t he e ponym ous he r o of t he pl a y; how e ve r a r gua bl y, t he c om i c pl ot s ha r e s dom i na nc e i n t he pl a y w i t h t he pol i t i c a l pl ot K noe pf l m a c he r not e s t ha t F a l s t a f f s s upe r f l ui t y of phl e gm di s t i ngui s he s hi m f r om t he ot he r hum o r a l c ha r a c t e r s i n H e nr y I V P ar t 1 F i r s t F a l s t a f f s be ha vi or i n t he ba t t l e s i t ua t e s F a l s t a f f i n oppos i t i on t o H ot s pur K noe pf l m a c he r de l i ne a t e s t he c ont r a s t : F a l s t a f f i n t ur n s huns t he he a t o f ba t t l e H i s i n s t i nc t i ve c ol dne s s h ow e ve r p r ol ongs hi s l i f e on e a r t h ( 499 ) H ow e ve r F a l s t a f f s pr i m a r y r ol e i s not t o c ont r a s t w i t h H ot s pur but t o c om pl e m e nt P r i nc e H a l ; a s T ol m a n pos i t s t he w hol e de ve l opm e nt of H a l i s m a de na t ur a l a nd unde r s t a nda bl e by t he i nf l ue nc e o f F a l s t a f f ( 11 ) E a r l y i n t he p l a y, P r i nc e H a l s e e m s m or e c onc e r ne d w i t h pl a yi ng t r i c ks on F a l s t a f f t ha n w i t h m a t t e r s of t he s t a t e S o c onc e r ne d i s K i ng H e n r y t ha t he a s ks hi s s on, C oul d s uc h i nor di na t e a nd l ow de s i r e s S uc h poor s uc h ba r e s uc h l e w d, s uc h m e a n a t t e m pt s S uc h ba r r e n pl e a s ur e s r ude s oc i e t y, A s t hou a r t m a t c he d w i t ha l a nd g r a f t e d t o A c c om pa ny t he gr e a t ne s s of t hy bl ood A nd hol d t he i r l e ve l w i t h t hy pr i nc e l y he a r t ? ( 3. 2 12 17) I ni t i a l l y, H a l s e e m s t o f ol l ow F a l s t a f f s phl e gm a t i c pa t h by c a r ous i ng a t t he t a ve r n w hi l e H ot s pur bui l ds hi s a r m y a nd K i ng H e n r y r e buke s h i s s on, a dm i t t i ng [ H ot s pur ] ha t h m or e w or t hy i nt e r e s t t o t he s t a t e t ha n [ H a l ] t he s ha dow o f s uc c e s s i on ( 3. 2. 98 99) A l t hough

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23 t he t i t l e o f t he p l a y s ugge s t s t ha t t he pl a y i s t he hi s t or y of K i ng H e nr y I V m uc h o f t he pl ot r e l i e s on H a l s c om i ng of a ge i n w hi c h F a l s t a f f pl a ys a c r uc i a l r ol e F a l s t a f f pr ovi de s t he c om pa r i s on be t w e e n t he P r i nc e H a l w hom w e s e e e a r l y i n t he pl a y a nd t he P r i nc e H a l w ho t r i um phs ove r H ot s pur i n t he de no ue m e nt I n a c t 2 H a l de c l a r e s t ha t I a m no p r oud J a c k l i ke F a l s t a f f ( 2 4. 11 ) but i n a c t 3 F a l s t a f f r e m i nds H a l t ha t ne i t he r i s he a K i ng H e nr y: F a l s t a f f : but a s t hou a r t p r i nc e I f e a r t he e a s I f e a r t he r oa r i ng of t he l i on s w he l p P r i nc e : A nd w hy not a s t he l i on? F a l s t a f f : T he K i ng hi m s e l f i s t o be f e a r e d a s t he l i on. D os t t hou t hi nk I l l f e a r t he e a s I f e a r t hy f a t he r ? ( 3. 3. 147 151 ) K i ng H e nr y a dm oni s he s H a l s be ha vi or l a m e nt i ng t ha t t he c hol e r i c H ot s pur i s m or e f i t f or t he t hr one t ha n hi s s on; s i m i l a r l y F a l s t a f f a t t e s t s t ha t H a l r e m a i ns s ubor di na t e t o t he ki ng; c l e a r l y H a l m us t a ba ndon hi s phl e gm a t i c w a ys i n or de r t o a s c e nd t he t h r one A s H a l c ha nge s F a l s t a f f r e m a i ns t he s a m e a s a r e m i n de r of t he e a r l y i m a ge of t he pr i nc e T ol m a n e l a bor a t e s : how c a n [ S ha ke s pe a r e ] m a ke us f e e l t ha t t he boon c om pa ni on o f r oi s t e r e r s de ve l ops na t ur a l l y i nt o t he he r o ki ng, a d m i r e d of a l l ? A l a r ge pa r t o f t he a ns w e r i s F a l s t a f f ( 8) T h r oughout t he pl a y c om pa r e s H a l s w e a kne s s e s t o t he vi c e s of t he phl e gm a t i c F a l s t a f f t he s t r e ngt hs o f t he c hol e r i c H ot s pur a nd t he va c i l l a t i ons o f t he m e l a nc hol y K i ng H e nr y I V I n t e r m s of t he f o ur hum or s F a l s t a f f s e xc e s s of phl e gm i s ne c e s s a r y t o a c c e nt ua t e t he unba l a nc e of hu m or s w hi c h e xi s t s i n t he c h a r a c t e r s of t he K i ng, H ot s pur a nd F a l s t a f f t he f oi l s t o [ H a l s ] gl i t t r i ng r e f or m a t i on ( K noe pf l m a c he r 498)

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24 A s a c om m on t hi e f S i r J ohn F a l s t a f f c r e a t e s a s t a r k c ont r a s t w i t h t he r oya l f i gur e s i n t he pl a y. M or e ove r K a s t a n s ubm i t s t ha t t he s oc i a l a nd ge ne r i c r i c hne s s t ha t m a r ks H e nr y I V P ar t 1 r e ve a l s a nd di s r upt s t he s o c i a l hi e r a r c hi e s t ha t c onve nt i ona l hi s t or i e s s i l e nt l y a s s um e a nd r e pr oduc e ( 16) I s ugge s t t ha t F a l s t a f f s e f f e c t i ve ne s s r e l i e s i n pa r t on hi s phl e gm a t i c pe r s ona l i t y. T ol m a n e xpl a i ns t ha t i n S ha ke s pe a r e s da y t he dr i nki ng of a l c ohol i c l i quor s w a s uni ve r s a l E v e r ybody dr a nk, a nd a t s om e t i m e i n hi s l i f e e ve n t he m os t a bs t e m i ous m a n w a s l i ke l y t o be ove r c om e by hi s pot a t i ons ( 44 ) I t s e e m s r e a s ona bl e t he n, t ha t S ha ke s pe a r e s e ve r ym a n j a c k ha s s om e t hi ng i n c om m on w i t h S ha ke s pe a r e s a udi e nc e S ha ke s pe a r e e xpl oi t s F a l s t a f f s a l c ohol i s m f or c om i c e f f e c t but t he c ha r a c t e r none t he l e s s i nc l ude s e ve n t he G l obe s gr oundl i ngs i n a n ot he r w i s e a r i s t oc r a t i c hi s t or y pl a y F r om H a l s i ni t i a l c hi di ng o f F a l s t a f f t o t he c ont i nuous j e s t s a t F a l s t a f f s e xpe ns e t he f a t kni gh t f unc t i ons a s bot h a c om e di c f o r c e a nd a s ym pa t he t i c c ha r a c t e r f o r e ve r y s oc i a l c l a s s i n a t t e nda nc e a t t he G l obe E ve n t he na m e F a l s t a f f s ugge s t s a ba w dy pl a y o n w o r ds w hi l e s i gna l i ng one e f f e c t of t he phl e gm a t i c s i ndul ge nc e i n a l c ohol i c be ve r a ge s I n M ac be t h s br i e f c om e di c i nt e r j e c t i on a m i ds t t he m ur de r of K i ng D unc a n, t h e w e a r y P or t e r pr ovi de s s om e i ns i nua t i ons r e ga r di ng l i quor H e r e m a r ks t ha t a l c ohol pr ovok e s t he de s i r e but i t t a ke s a w a y t he pe r f or m a nc e a nd m a ke s [ m e n] s t a nd t o a nd not s t a nd t o ( M ac be t h 2. 3 28 33) T he por t e r s r e ve l a t i on a ppl i e s t o t he o r i gi n o f S i r J ohn s na m e M ur r a y J L e vi t h c l a i m s t ha t H ot s pur c onve ys pha l l i c pot e nc y a nd c ont r a s t s m e a ni ngf ul l y w i t h t he na m e F a l s t a f f i m p l yi ng f a l l e n s t a f f f or i m pot e nc e ( 36 ) F a l s t a f f s na m e t he n f unc t i ons a s bot h a ba w dy j oke a nd a phys i c a l e f f e c t L e vi t h s obs e r va t i on a l s o c r e a t e s oppos i t i on

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25 be t w e e n t he na m e s of F a l s t a f f a nd H ot s pur a s u bt l e r e f e r e nc e t o t he c onf l i c t be t w e e n H ot s pur s c hol e r i c t e m pe r a nd F a l s t a f f s e xc e s s of phl e gm A m i ds t t he c ul m i na t i ng ba t t l e i n a c t 5, F a l s t a f f a s s ur e s H a l W e l l i f P e r c y be a l i ve I l l pi e r c e hi m I f he do c om e m y w a y s o ( 5. 3. 57 58 ) H ow e ve r s up e r f i c i a l l y, F a l s t a f f c l a i m s t o de s i r e t o f i ght on H a l s be ha l f ; n one t he l e s s i n t he f ol l ow i ng s c e ne w e w a t c h F a l s t a f f s pe r f or m a nc e f or w he n t he E a r l of D ougl a s e nga ge s hi m i n ba t t l e [ F a l s t a f f ] f a l l s dow n a s i f he w e r e de a d ( 5. 4 ) T hus F a l s t a f f s i nvol ve m e nt i n t he ba t t l e i s c r e a t i ve l y a nd c om i c a l l y phl e gm a t i c O ve r hol s e r pos i t s T he phl e gm a t i c t ype w a s f ond of l uxur y a nd i f he ha d be e n bo r n unde r t he m oon m i ght be a f oo l a nd a c ow a r d ( 342) D ur i ng t he ba t t l e t he kni ght be c om e s a pa r ody of phl e gm ; he c a r r i e s hi s l uxur y a bot t l e of s a c k ( 5. 3 ) e ve n i n t he m i ddl e of w a r a n d qui c kl y f e i gns de a t h i n a n a c t of c ow a r di c e ( 5. 4) J uxt a pos e d w i t h H a l w ho a c kno w l e dge s t he s e r i ous ne s s of w a r F a l s t a f f c ont i nua l l y dr a w s l a ught e r f r om t he a udi e nc e U p on F a l s t a f f s e nt r a nc e i n t he pl a y H a l l a be l s hi m phl e gm a t i c a nd i t i s no a c c i de nt t ha t F a l s t a f f s c ha r a c t e r us ur ps H e nr y I V s hi s t or y. T he c om i c pl ot doe s m o r e t ha n m e r e l y pa r ody t he hi s t or i c a l a c t i on, a s s e r t s K a s t a n ( 16) I n c r e a t i ng a s ubpl ot t ha t c om pe t e s w i t h t he m a i n s t or yl i ne w hy m a ke t he c e nt r a l ve hi c ul a r c ha r a c t e r of t ha t s ubpl ot phl e gm a t i c ? A s a ngui ne pe r s on m i ght out s hi ne t he pl a y s he r o, P r i nc e H a l ; a c hol e r i c c ha r a c t e r w oul d no t e voke t he l a ught e r t h a t F a l s t a f f de m a nds I n t he ve i n of J a que s f r om A s Y ou L i k e I t a m e l a nc hol i c f i gur e m i ght be hum o r ous but w oul d a m e l a nc hol y F a l s t a f f pe r ha ps ove r s ha dow t he s a ngu i ne young P r i nc e ? A c c or di ng t o K a s t a n, c om e dy he r e i s n t s ubor di na t e d t o hi s t or y nor doe s i t c om pe t e w i t h hi s t or y ( 14) S i m i l a r l y F a l s t a f f i s ne i t he r s ubor di na t e d t o H a l nor doe s he c om pe t e w i t h H a l

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26 T he pl a y s e r ve s ne i t he r a s a n e xc l us i ve r e t e l l i ng o f H a l s a s c e ns i on t o t he t hr one no r a s a m e r e ve hi c l e f o r t he d i s pl a y of F a l s t a f f s w i t ( K a s t a n 5) F a l s t a f f c a nnot be i n c om pl e t e oppos i t i on t o H a l or he w oul d c om pe t e w i t h H a l ; t he r e f o r e a m e l a nc hol y F a l s t a f f oppos i ng a s a ngui ne H a l doe s not w or k B e c a us e t he s a ngui ne a nd t he phl e gm a t i c s ha r e m oi s t qua l i t i e s F a l s t a f f w or ks a s a c om e di c c om pl e m e nt t o t he young pr i nc e r a t he r t ha n a s a t h r e a t e ni ng c om pe t i t or

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27 V L a dy M a c be t h, t he C hol e r i c V i l l a i ne s s A nde r s on not e s t ha t H a m l e t r e buke s hi m s e l f f or b e i ng pi ge on l i ve r e d a nd w i t hout ga l l ( 74 ) H a m l e t s uf f e r s f r om m e l a nc hol i a but pe r ha ps he w oul d ha ve r a t he r be e n c hol e r i c C hol e r i n f l a m e s t he s pi r i t a nd i nc i t e s a c t i on ( A nde r s on 75) r a t he r t ha n e nve l opi ng t he s oul i n de s pa i r T he t r a ge di e s ne a r l y a l w a ys i nvol ve a t l e a s t one c hol e r i c c ha r a c t e r w i t h pe r s ona l i t i e s de f i ne d by r a ge a nge r a nd a m bi t i on. T yba l t i n R om e o and J ul i e t i s a c hol e r i c t ype a s he c ont i nue s t o c ha l l e n ge R om e o e ve n a s t he l a t t e r s e e ks pe a c e w i t h hi s ne w ki ns m a n. H am l e t i nve s t s f i r s t C l a udi us a nd t he n L a e r t e s w i t h c hol e r w hi l e O t he l l o pr e s e nt s I a go a s t he c hol e r i c de us e x m ac hi na ba i t i ng O t he l l o f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd f or no r e a s on but j e a l ous y a nd ba d t e m pe r a nd c ons i s t e nt l y c r e a t i ng s c e ne s of vi ol e nc e a nd c ha os K i ng L e a r be gi ns a s t he c hol e r i c m a n, a ng r i l y ba ni s hi ng t he t r ut hf ul C or de l i a a nd w r a t hf ul l y di s m i s s i ng K e nt s pl e a i n he r de f e ns e a nd i r oni c a l l y, L e a r c ha nge s onl y a f t e r s uf f e r i ng a bus e a t t he ha nds of hi s c r ue l da ught e r s R e ga n a nd G one r i l C hol e r i c f i gur e s a r e no t l i m i t e d t o t he t r a ge di e s S om e r e a di ngs i de nt i f y S hyl oc k s t ubbor nl y s e e ki ng ve nge a nc e on A nt oni o i n t he f or m o f t h e i nf a m ous pound of f l e s h, a s t he c hol e r i c vi l l a i n of t he c om e d y T he M e r c hant of V e ni c e A s Y ou L i k e I t s vi l l a i nous c ha r a c t e r s O l i ve r a nd D uke F r e de r i c k, bot h e m body t he c hol e r i c f i gur e s e t t i ng t he pl ot i n m ot i on by ba ni s hi ng t he i r r e s pe c t i ve br ot he r s O r l a ndo a nd

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28 D uke S e ni or a nd dr i v i ng t he a c t i on of t he pl ot t hr ough t he i r a t t e m pt s t o m u r de r t he s e t w o br ot he r s I n e a c h c a s e t he c hol e r i c c ha r a c t e r s e i t he r i n i t i a t e t he a c t i on of t he pl ot t hr ough ba ni s hm e nt or c ons pi r a c y, o r c r e a t e ne w obs t a c l e s i n t he i r s e a r c h f or r e ve nge M a c be t h s a m bi t i on m i ght s ugge s t hi s i nc l us i on i n t hi s c a t e go r y, but I s ubm i t t ha t L a dy M a c be t h por t r a ys t he t r ue c hol e r i c f i gur e of t he pl a y, a nd t h e m os t m e m or a bl e c hol e r i c f e m a l e i n S ha ke s pe a r e M a ny of t he c ha r a c t e r s i n S ha ke s p e a r e s pl a ys s uc h a s J a que s w ho a ppe a r s i nna t e l y m e l a nc hol i c s e e m i nt r i ns i c a l l y l i nke d t o a pa r t i c ul a r hu m or O t he r s m a y ha ve be e n s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d i nt o t he i r r e s pe c t i ve t e m pe r a m e nt s w ho c a n bl a m e S hyl oc k f or hi s c hol e r a f t e r w i t ne s s i ng hi s t r e a t m e nt by t he ot he r c ha r a c t e r s ? H ow e ve r L a dy M a c be t h c hoos e s he r t e m pe r a m e nt N ot onl y doe s s he i nvoke t he a i d of t he s upe r na t ur a l but s he be gs t he s pi r i t s t o t r a ns f or m he r i nt o a w i c ke d, c hol e r i c vi l l a i ne s s w hi c h s he vi e w s a s he r onl y pr a gm a t i c opt i on t o s uc c e s s f ul l y s e c ur e t he c r ow n. W he n L a dy M a c be t h r e c e i ve s he r hus ba nd s l e t t e r de t a i l i ng t he pr ophe c y of t he W e i r d S i s t e r s s he i m m e di a t e l y que s t i ons M a c be t h s t e m pe r a m e nt : Y e t do I f e a r t hy na t ur e ; I t i s t oo f ul l o t h m i l k o f hum a n ki ndne s s T o c a t c h t he ne a r e s t w a y T hou w oul ds t be gr e a t A r t not w i t hout a m bi t i on but w i t hout T he i l l ne s s s houl d a t t e nd i t ( 1 5. 16 20 ) A c c or di ng t o hi s w i f e a l t hough M a c be t h pos s e s s e s s om e a m bi t i on, he l a c ks t he c hol e r i c i l l ne s s t ha t w oul d dr i ve hi m t o t a ke a c t i on. L i ke H a m l e t M a c be t h l a c ks t he ga l l t ha t w oul d i nf l a m e hi s a c t i on; f ur t he r m or e w he r e a s a ghos t pe r s ua de d H a m l e t t o s e e k

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29 r e ve nge L a dy M a c be t h m us t pe r s ua de M a c be t h t o pur s ue t he p r ophe t i c c r ow n: H i e t he e hi t he r t ha t I m a y pou r m y s pi r i t s i n t hi ne e a r L a d y M a c be t h c om m a nds ( 1. 5. 25 26) A f t e r a s s e s s i ng he r hus ba nd s pe r s ona l i t y, s he de s c r i be s how s he w i l l di r e c t hi m t o m ur de r D unc a n. A nde r s on e xpl a i ns t ha t i n t he he a t of s um m e r du r i ng w hi c h s pi r i t s e s c a pe f r om t he body w i t h e xha l a t i on s C hol e r i s i n a s c e nda nc y ( 35) W i t h he r ow n a s c e ndi ng c hol e r t he he a t o f L a dy M a c be t h s f i e r y t e m pe r a m e nt a l l ow s he r t o c onve y he r w r a t hf ul a m bi t i ous s pi r i t s t o he r hus ba nd by t e l l i n g hi m o f he r pl a n. I n t r e a t i ng t hi s pa s s a ge P a ul H K oc he r c l a i m s S he obvi ous l y m e a ns not hi ng s upe r na t ur a l ; s he i s pl a nni ng f i gur a t i ve l y t ha t s he w i l l i m pa r t t o M a c be t h by pe r s ua s i on t he s a m e a m bi t i ous c our a ge t ha t he r a ni m a l s pi r i t s ha ve gi ve n he r ( 34 7) H ow e ve r s he m us t be c e r t a i n t ha t s he pos s e s s e s t he s e a ni m a l s p i r i t s I n or de r t o a c hi e ve t h i s a m bi t i ous c our a ge L a dy M a c be t h i s c onvi nc e d t ha t s he m us t de ny he r f e m i ni ni t y a nd t hus s he i nvoke s t he a ni m a l s pi r i t s : C om e you s pi r i t s t ha t t e nd on m or t a l t hought s uns e x m e he r e a nd f i l l m e f r om t he c r ow n t o t he t oe t op f ul l o f di r e s t c r ue l t y! ( 1. 5 40 43) A nna J a m e s on pos i t s i n t he m i nd of L a dy M a c be t h, a m bi t i on i s r e pr e s e nt e d a s t he r ul i ng m ot i ve a n i nt e ns e ove r m a s t e r i ng pa s s i on, w hi c h i s gr a t i f i e d a t t he e xpe ns e of e ve r y j us t a nd ge ne r ous pr i nc i pl e a nd e ve r y f e m i n i ne f e e l i ng ( 323) L a dy M a c be t h unde r s t a nds t ha t s he m us t r i d he r s e l f of he r f e m i ni ni t y i n o r de r t o e m br a c e t he c hol e r t ha t s he c ove t s J ur ge n S c ha f e r poi nt s out w he n a di s t i nc t i on i s m a de [ a m ong t he hu m or s ] t he hot c om pl e xi ons ( s a ngui ne c hol e r i c ) a r e a s s i gne d t o t he m a l e t he c ol d ( m e l a nc hol i c phl e gm a t i c ) t o t he f e m a l e ( 208 ) T he r e f o r e L a dy M a c be t h f e e l s t ha t s he m us t be uns e xe d i f s he w oul d a c hi e ve t he r a ge of c hol e r t ha t s he de s i r e s M a ke t hi c k m y bl ood! c ont i nue s t he t r a gi c he r oi ne ( 1 5 43) U s ua l l y, m e l a nc hol y

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30 c ont r i but e d t o t hi c k bl ood pr e ve nt i ng i t f r om f l ow i ng f r e e l y t hr ough t he body ( A nde r s on 34) a nd L a dy M a c be t h ha s t hus be e n m i s t a ke n f or a m e l a nc hol i c w om a n. F or e xa m pl e K oc he r a r gue s t ha t t hi c k m e l a nc hol i c b l oodw i l l f l ow t ow a r ds t he he a r t a nd t he r e be m a de ye t he a vi e r a nd c ol de r I t w i l l s t op up t he a v e nue s t o t he c ons c i e nc e ( 347) H ow e ve r I i ns i s t t ha t i n L a dy M a c be t h s ne xt l i ne s s he c l a r i f i e s he r goa l a s c hol e r not m e l a nc hol y, or de r i ng t he s pi r i t s : T a ke m y m i l k f o r ga l l you m ur de r i ng m i ni s t e r s ( 1. 5. 48 ) K oc he r e xpl a i ns B ot h l i t e r a l l y a nd s ym bol i c a l l y, t he m i l k o f hum a n ki ndne s s i n he r w i l l t hus gi ve pl a c e t o a f l ui d pr oduc t i ve o f r ut hl e s s ne s s a nd r a ge ( 348) R ut hl e s s ne s s a nd r a ge a r e a t t r i but e d t o c hol e r a n d t he ga l l bl a dde r hos t s t hi s vi l e t e m pe r a m e nt H oe ni ge r a s s e r t s t ha t t he t e r m ga l l e nc om pa s s e s t he or ga n, t he ga l l bl a dde r a nd t he hum or ye l l ow bi l e a s w e l l a s a ny i nt e ns e l y bi t t e r s ubs t a nc e or a r e l a t e d pa s s i on ( 175) a nd A nde r s on f ur t he r s ugge s t s t ha t c hol e r phys i c a l l y c ol l e c t s i n t he ga l l bl a dde r ( 37) L a dy M a c be t h ba r t e r s he r f e m i ni ni t y a nd e xc ha nge s he r b r e a s t m i l k f or c hol e r i t s e l f S he doe s not s t op by a s ki ng f or c hol e r t o c ol l e c t i n he r ga l l ; s he s e l l s he r s e x, a nd he r s oul f o r e vi l A nde r s on de s c r i be s c hol e r i c i ndi vi dua l s a s e a s i l y pr ovoke d, gi ve n t o t r e a c he r y, ve he m e nt i n a c t i on; f i e r c e i n a s s a i l i ng but i nc ons t a nt i n s us t a i ni ng a s s a ul t ; i nc l i ne d t o e nvy, pr i de pr od i ga l i t y, a nd w r a t h ( 34) F r om he r f i r s t a ppe a r a nc e i n M ac be t h w e s e e t ha t L a dy M a c be t h i s e a s i l y pr ovoke d gi ve n t o t r e a c he r y, a nd ve he m e nt i n a c t i on. O ne l e t t e r i ns pi r e s he r t o r e j e c t a l l qua l i t i e s o f ki ndne s s a nd of w om a nhood a nd t o pl a n t he m ur de r of K i ng D unc a n T hi s s c e ne a l s o c l a r i f i e s he r i nc l i na t i on t o pr i de a nd t o w r a t h; s he t hr i l l s a t t he t i t l e o f G l a m i s a nd t he pr os pe c t of C a w dor S he f or e s ha dow s t he ke e n kni f e t ha t w i l l l a t e r s l a ught e r t he ki ng a nd hi s gua r ds om i nous l y de c l a r i ng t ha t

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31 t he r a ve n hi m s e l f i s hoa r s e t ha t c r oa ks t he f a t a l e n t r a nc e of D un c a n unde r [ he r ] ba t t l e m e nt s ( 1. 5. 38 40) H ow e ve r a s t he pl a y c o nt i nue s L a dy M a c be t h pr ove s i nc ons t a nt i n s us t a i ni ng a s s a ul t K oc he r obs e r ve s t ha t dur i ng he r m onol ogue i n a c t 1, s c e ne 5, t he t hi c k ni ght m us t hi de he r vi c t i m f r om he r e ve n a s s he s t r i ke s t he b l ow ( 348) S i m i l a r l y s he m us t d r i nk i n or de r t o s c r e w he r c our a ge t o t he s t i c ki ng pl a c e ( 1. 7. 61 ) F i na l l y, a s s he a w a i t s t he c onf i r m a t i on of t he m ur de r f r om he r hus ba nd, L a dy M a c be t h l a m e nt s H a d he not r e s e m bl e d m y f a t he r a s he s l e pt I ha d done t ( 2. 2 12 13) T hi s e xpl a i ns w hy our f e m a l e t r a gi c he r o a l t hough f i l l e d w i t h c hol e r m us t r e c r ui t he r hus ba nd t o c a r r y out he r m ur de r ous pl a n I n T he G r a c i ous D unc a n, J ohn W D r a pe r a r gu e s t ha t M ac be t h s i l l f a t e d ki ng pos s e s s e s a s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt w hi c h ul t i m a t e l y l e a ds t o hi s de m i s e D e ve l opi ng D r a pe r s a na l ys i s I s ugge s t t ha t L a dy M a c be t h s c hol e r s e r ve s a s a f oi l t o K i ng D unc a n s l a c k of ye l l ow bi l e D r a pe r pos i t s D unc a n m us t ha ve t he i nna t e goodne s s of a god a ppoi nt e d s ove r e i gn, i n c ont r a s t t o t he w i c ke d us ur pe r M a c be t h ( G r a c i ous D unc a n 495) H ow e ve r a l t hough M a c be t h i s c e r t a i nl y w i c ke d, I w oul d i ns i s t t ha t he a c t s unde r hi s w i f e s i nf l ue nc e ; i f he w e r e a t r ue c hol e r i c i ndi vi dua l M a c be t h w oul d not a l l ow hi m s e l f t o be do m i na t e d by h i s s pous e C onve r s e l y, t he s a ngui ne pe r s ona l i t y a l t hough t he m os t ge ni a l of t he t e m pe r a m e nt s ha d a l s o w e a kne s s e s t ha t m i ght de s t r oy t h i s m os t bl e s s e d c ondi t i on ( D r a pe r G r a c i ous D unc a n 49 6) D unc a n s s a ngui ni t y pr ovi de s hi s t r a gi c f l a w a nd h e i s doom e d t o di e w i t hi n t he c on f i ne s of t he c hol e r i c c a s t l e a t I nve r ne s s U pon e nt e r i ng M a c be t h s c a s t l e D unc a n r e m a r ks T hi s c a s t l e ha t h a pl e a s a nt s e a t T he a i r ni m bl y a nd s w e e t l y r e c om m e nds i t s e l f unt o our ge nt l e s e ns e s ( 1. 6. 1 3) D r a pe r s ugge s t s t ha t a s a s a ngui ne ki ng, D unc a n l a c ks t he c a ut i on t ha t f o r e s e e s a nd

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32 e va de s t he pi t f a l l s of c a t a s t r ophe ( G r a c i ous D un c a n 498) a nd i s a t onc e c ha r m i ng a nd e a s i l y de c e i ve d ( G r a c i ous D unc a n 495) I r o ni c a l l y, D unc a n pr a i s e s t he s w e e t ni m bl e a i r s ur r oundi ng t he c a s t l e a l t hough e ve n t h e a t m os phe r e of t e n i n f l ue nc e d t e m pe r a m e nt ; f or e xa m pl e ba d s m e l l s of t e n c a us e d m e l a nc hol y ( K a i l 147) D r a pe r a s s e r t s t ha t [ D unc a n] pl a c e s hi m s e l f i n M a c be t h s ow n c a s t l e i n doubl e t r us t w i t hout a de qua t e pe r s ona l s a f e gua r ds ; a nd i nde e d he s uf f e r s t he pe na l t y of hi s ove r c on f i de nc e ( G r a c i ous D unc a n 497) L a dy M a c be t h ha r ps on t hi s a s ki ng he r hus ba nd, W ha t c a nnot you a nd I pe r f o r m upon t h ungua r de d D un c a n? ( 1. 7. 70 71) F i l l e d w i t h c hol e r t he c onf i de nt L a dy M a c be t h a s s ur e s M a c be t h, s c r e w your c our a ge t o t he s t i c ki ng pl a c e a nd w e l l not f a i l ( 1. 7 61 62) ; ne ve r t he l e s s s he r e m a i ns c a r e f ul D r a pe r a s s e r t s t ha t r oya l t y i n t ha t a ge ha d t o be m a de o f s t e r ne r c hol e r i c s t uf f ( G r a c i ous D unc a n 499) t ha n D unc a n pos s e s s e s a nd f or s om e t i m e L a dy M a c be t h s pl a n s e e m s t o w or k. H ow e ve r t he m e r c ur i a l M a c be t h i s a m i s f i t i n h i s r oya l r obe a nd a l s o L a dy M a c be t h i n he r gui s e a s c o c ons pi r a t or ( D r a pe r G r a c i ous D unc a n 499) M a c be t h i ni t i a l l y l a c ks t he c hol e r i c i m pul s e t o c l a i m hi s c r ow n, a nd L a dy M a c be t h m us t obt a i n t he ga l l t o ki l l D unc a n s upe r na t ur a l l y; t hus t he t he m e o f t he pi e c e i s t he r ui nous i nc om pa t i bi l i t y o f a m a n s i nne r s e l f w i t h t he de m a nds o f hi s s oc i a l pl a c e ( D r a pe r G r a c i ous D unc a n 499) W hi l e D unc a n, by na t u r e i s not a f i t m ona r c h, L a d y M a c be t h s t r a gi c f l a w r e m a i ns he r unnat ur al a t t e m pt t o a l t e r he r i de nt i t y W hi l e H a m l e t s i nna t e m e l a nc hol y l e a ds hi m t o hi s de a t h, L a dy M a c be t h s de m i s e r e s ul t s f r om a n unna t ur a l i nvoc a t i on o f c hol e r I n M ac be t h t he f e m a l e t r a gi c he r o di s r upt s t he or d e r of t he uni ve r s e by c a l l i ng upon s upe r na t ur a l s pi r i t s t o c ha nge he r t e m pe r a m e nt I n e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd s c hol a r s w e r e f a s c i na t e d by t he c or r e s ponde nc e be t w e e n t he m a c r oc os m a nd m i c r oc os m

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33 t he w or l d c r e a t e d by G od a nd t he r e a l m of t he hum a n body a nd m i nd ( H oe ni ge r 115 116) C hol e r c oul d be i nt r i ns i c or t he e f f e c t of a s t r ol ogy, di e t o r e ve n t i m e of da y. I n L a dy M a c be t h s c a s e how e ve r s he m us t de f y na t u r e t o a l t e r he r t e m pe r a m e nt a nd S ha ke s pe a r e i l l us t r a t e s t he e f f e c t s of t h i s a l t e r a t i on i n he r f i na l s c e ne I n a c t 5 s c e ne 1, a D oc t or of P hys i c k a t t e nds on L a dy M a c be t h, a doc t or w hom K oc he r l a be l s s upe r f l uous ( 341) C e r t a i nl y e a r l y m ode r n doc t or s w e r e s c hoo l e d i n hum o r a l pa t hol ogy a nd m i ght s e e k t o c ur e i l l ne s s e s t ha t s t e m m e d f r om a n e xc e s s of one of t he f ou r hum o r s H ow e ve r a s K oc he r i l l us t r a t e s dur i ng t he s l e e p w a l ki ng s c e ne [ t he D oc t or ] c onf e s s e s T hi s di s e a s e i s be yond m y pr a c t i c e a nd a f t e r t he s l e e pw a l ki ng s c e ne ha s e nde d, w i s he s hi m s e l f r e pl a c e d by a c l e r gym a n ( 341 ) B y di s r u pt i ng he r ow n m i c r oc os m L a dy M a c be t h ha s s t e ppe d out s i de of t he t e r r i t o r y o f phy s i c a l m e di c i ne a nd m us t s uf f e r t he c ons e que nc e s C r i t i c s of t e n vi e w t he s l e e pw a l ki ng s c e ne t hr ough a ps yc hoa na l yt i c l e ns a t t r i but i ng t he gr e a t pe r t u r ba t i on i n na t ur e ( 5. 1 8 ) t o gu i l t a nd i ns a ni t y. I s ugge s t t ha t L a dy M a c be t h s s l um be r y a gi t a t i on ( 5 1. 10 ) m a y a l s o be s t udi e d a s a n e f f e c t of he r dom i na nt hum or A nde r s on a s s e r t s t ha t c hol e r pr e ve nt s t he body f r o m be c om i ng he a vy s l e e py, a nd dul l a nd t ha t i f c hol e r i s c o r r upt [ c h ol e r i c i ndi vi dua l s ] a r e s ubj e c t t o e vi l pa s s i ons a nd dr e a df ul dr e a m s ( 34) A c c or di ng t o H oe ni ge r t he y s l e e p ba dl y a nd ha ve ba d m e m or i e s ( 165) L a dy M a c be t h s i ns a ni t y di f f e r s s i gni f i c a nt l y f r om H a m l e t s be i ng gove r ne d by a di s s i m i l a r hum o r a nd s l e e pw a l ki ng s e e m s t he a ppr opr i a t e e f f e c t of he r m a dne s s L e f t t o t he i r i m a gi na t i ons t he i ns a ne m i ght a l s o r e ve r t t o m e nt a l i m a ge s ( H oe ni ge r 207) a s w he n L a dy M a c be t h, i n he r s e n s e l e s s s t a t e r e pr i m a nds he r hus ba nd, F i e m y l or d f i e a s ol di e r a nd a f e a r d? ( 5 1. 35 ) a nd i ns t r uc t s hi m W a s h your ha nds

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34 put on your ni ght gow n; l ook not s o pa l e ( 5. 1 61 62) E ve n i n ps yc hos i s s he r e m a i ns c hol e r i c I n he r i nt r oduc t or y s c e ne L a dy M a c be t h or de r e d t he s pi r i t s : S t op up t h a c c e s s a nd pa s s a g e t o r e m or s e T ha t no c om punc t i ous v i s i t i ngs of na t u r e S ha ke m y f e l l pur pos e nor ke e p pe a c e be t w e e n T h e f f e c t a nd i t ( 1 5. 44 47) I n he r f i na l s c e ne s he be c om e s w ha t s he de s i r e d a hum a n s he l l de voi d of r e m or s e a nd n a t ur a l f e e l i ngs l e f t a l one w i t h t he e f f e c t s of he r c hol e r A s K oc he r i ns i s t s L a dy M a c be t h s i l l ne s s l i e s be yond he r doc t or s pr a c t i c e O f m a dne s s O ve r hol s e r s t a t e s s i nc e t he c ondi t i on w a s due t o a pe r t u r ba t i on o f t he hum or s i t w a s i m por t a nt t ha t t h e pa t i e nt s houl d be r e l i e ve d of t he m a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e C ons e que nt l y, w e f i nd bl oodl e t t i ng f r e que nt l y p r e s c r i be d ( 345) L a dy M a c be t h e m bodi e s t he gr os s e s t pe r ve r s i on of hum o r s ye t s he c a nnot be r e l i e ve d; he r bl ood ha s be e n t hi c ke ne d a nd dr i e d up a nd t hus no phys i c i a n c a n c ur e he r B ur t on a c c or de d t ha t i f a di s e a s e i s c a us e d by i nc a nt a t i on, i t m us t be c ur e d by i t ( qt d i n O ve r hol s e r 345 ) a nd t he doc t or e c hoe s t hi s i de a : U nna t ur a l de e ds do br e e d unna t ur a l t r oubl e s ( 5 1. 71 72) T hus t he unna t u r a l L a dy M a c be t h c a nnot be s a ve d by a ny na t u r a l r e m e dy T he s l e e pw a l ki ng s c e ne m a r ks t he c ul m i na t i on of L a dy M a c be t h s e a r l y t r a ns i t i on i n t he pl a y f r om hum o r a l ba l a nc e t o e xc e s s c hol e r T he s c e ne di s pl a ys t he c ons e que nc e s of de f yi ng one s na t ur a l m i c r oc o s m by c a l l i ng on s upe r na t ur a l f or c e s t o c ha nge one s i nt r i ns i c hum or a l m a ke up. A pe r s on s t e m pe r a m e nt c oul d be de t e r m i ne d by s e a s ons or c ons t e l l a t i ons but s houl d not be a l t e r e d i n t he f a s hi on of L a dy M a c be t h s i nvoc a t i on.

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35 M or e i m por t a nt l y, L a dy M a c be t h e xhi bi t s t he c ons e que nc e of a n e xt r e m e a bunda nc e o f c hol e r i c w i c ke dne s s t he m os t da nge r ous of t he f o ur t e m pe r a m e nt s

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36 V I V i ol a t he S a ngui ne H e r oi ne P ur e l y s a ngui ne c ha r a c t e r s a r e di f f i c ul t t o r e c ogni z e e ve n i n S ha ke s pe a r e s c om e di e s R os a l i nd i n A s Y ou L i k e I t r e pr e s e nt s a s t r ong, pa s s i ona t e a nd w e l l t e m pe r e d w om a n, but s he be gi ns a s a m e l a nc hol y f e m a l e di s t r a ught by he r f a t he r s ba ni s hm e nt a nd onl y a c hi e ve s a s a ngui ne di s pos i t i on i n t he m a gi c a l F or e s t of A r de n. G a l e n be l i e ve d t ha t va r i ous i nt e r na l or ga ns r e l a t e d t o pa s s i ons a nd e m ot i ons a nd t he l i ve r hos t e d t he hum or bl ood t ha t de t e r m i ne d t he s a ngui ne pe r s ona l i t y t ype T hus i n T he T e m pe s t w he n F e r di na nd pe r s ua de s P r os pe r o t ha t t he w hi t e c ol d vi r gi n s now upon [ hi s ] he a r t a ba t e s t he a r dor of [ hi s ] l i ve r ( 4. 1 55 56 ) he i s i n e f f e c t de n yi ng hi s s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt ; how e ve r a r gua bl y, F e r di na nd s ubm i t s t o P r os pe r o s de m a nds onl y i n o r de r t o w i n t he ha nd of hi s l ove i nt e r e s t M i r a nda S i m i l a r l y, a ki s s f r om B e ne di c k s i l e nc e s t he s ha r p t ongue d, s a ngui ne B e a t r i c e i n M uc h A do A bou t N o t hi ng a nd B e ne di c k s w or ds c onc l ude t he pl a y. H ow e ve r i n T w e l f t h N i ght V i ol a ne ve r c om pr om i s e s he r s t r ong pe r s ona l i t y. V i ol a e m e r ge s a s t he m os t s a ngui ne of S ha ke s pe a r e s he r oi ne s be c a us e s he a l l ow s he r vi t a l or ga n, he r l i ve r t o gove r n he r a c t i ons M a ny c ha r a c t e r s i n S ha ke s pe a r e a l l ow t he l i ve r t o i nf l ue nc e t he i r e m ot i ons but V i ol a r e m a i n s t he m os t opt i m i s t i c a nd w e l l t e m pe r e d of c ha r a c t e r s be c a us e he r pa s s i ons a r e c o ns t a nt F i t t i ngl y S ha ke s pe a r e s f i na l f e s t i ve c om e dy, T w e l f t h N i ght c e nt e r s on one of t h e m os t s a ngui ne of S ha ke s pe a r e s dr am at i s pe r s ona e V i ol a

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37 V i ol a s s a ngui ne a t t i t ude ge ne r a t e s t he a c t i on o f T w e l f t h N i ght a l t hough l i t t l e c r i t i c a l a t t e nt i on ha s be e n pa i d t o he r ge ni a l pe r s ona l i t y. I n f a c t a l t hough m a ny a r t i c l e s ha ve be e n w r i t t e n a bout t he m e l a nc hol i c a nd c hol e r i c c ha r a c t e r s i n S ha ke s pe a r e s w or ks a nd m uc h ha s be e n s a i d a bout t he phl e gm a t i c F a l s t a f f a na l ys e s of t he s a ngui ne c ha r a c t e r s a r e r a r e T he m a j or i t y o f t he s a ngui ne c ha r a c t e r s p r e s e nt i n S ha ke s pe a r e s pl a ys a r e f e m a l e a n i r oni c s ubve r s i on of t he pa t r i a r c ha l s o c i e t y of e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd, i n w hi c h t he ge ne r i c m a n r e f e r r e d t o bot h s e xe s a nd, a s m e nt i one d a bove s a ngui ni t y w a s us ua l l y a s s i gne d t o m a l e s C onve r s e l y, i n S ha ke s pe a r e s c om e di e s t he s a ngui ne w om e n f r e que nt l y f unc t i on a s t he p r obl e m s ol ve r s a nd i nt e r i or di r e c t or s A l t hough t he s e he r oi ne s s uc h a s R os a l i nd, of t e n a c t m e l a nc hol y a t s om e poi nt du r i ng t he i r r e s pe c t i ve pl a ys V i ol a r e m a i ns c ons i s t e nt l y opt i m i s t i c e ve n a f t e r a s hi pw r e c k l e a ve s he r a l one a nd s t r a nde d i n f or e i gn I l l y r i a T he pl a y s t i t l e de r i ve s f r om a t r a di t i ona l f e s t i vi t y c e l e br a t i ng ha ppi ne s s a nd j ovi a l i t y, a nd p r e di c t a bl y, V i ol a s s a ngui ne c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e w a r de d by t he e nd o f t he pl a y. W hi l e G a l e n de s c r i be d a n e xc e s s of ye l l ow bi l e bl a c k bi l e o r phl e gm a s a c a c oc hym i a i n a pe r s on, he c a l l e d t he s upe r f l ui t y of bl ood a pl e t hor a de r i ve d f r om t he G r e e k a bunda nc e ( B r a i n 11) T he f l ui d bl oo d, w hi c h gove r ns t he s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt r e m a i ns s upe r l a t i ve a nd, uns ur pr i s i n gl y, c om pr i s e s t he m os t pl e a s a nt pe r s ona l i t y t ype S c ha f e r e xpl a i ns i t i s pe r ha ps s uf f i c i e nt he r e t o s t a t e t ha t hot c om pl e xi ons a r e ge ne r a l l y gi ve n p r e f e r e nc e ove r c ol d a nd t ha t t he s a ngui ne i s ge ne r a l l y c ons i de r e d t h e be s t of t he s e be c a us e i t s f i r s t qua l i t i e s he a t a nd m oi s t ur e c or r e s pond t o t he ge ne r a l ne c e s s i t i e s of l i f e ( 206 )

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38 A s bl ood s e r ve d a s t he f l ui d l i nke d t o t he s a ngui ne hum or i t w a s a l s o a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he l i ve r a s i t s or ga n H e nr y A l a n S ki nne r m e nt i on s t he i de a t ha t b l ood, l i nke d t o he a l t h a nd nut r i t i on f or m e d i n t he l i ve r ( 214) ; a nd t he f or e m os t f unc t i on of t he l i ve r r e m a i ne d t o s e r ve a s t he b l ood f o r m i ng o r ga n ( 256 ) P e t e r B r a i n e xpa nds on t he us e f ul ne s s of t he or ga n by l i nki ng bl ood a nd l i ve r t o t he he a r t : F r om t he l i ve r t he r out e of t he ve i ns i n G a l e n s s ys t e m t he ve nous bl ood i s di s t r i but e d t o t he pe r i phe r y t h r ough t he ve i ns e xc e pt f o r s om e t ha t goe s t o t he r i ght s i de of t he he a r t ( 10 ) T he r e f or e t he l i ve r a i ds i n nu t r i t i on by f or m i ng bl oo d, t he s a ngui ne f l ui d, a nd di s t r i bu t i ng i t t hr oughout t he body, i nc l udi ng t he he a r t O f c our s e t he s a ngui ne i ndi vi dua l r e l i e s m os t on hi s o r he r he a r t t he s e a t of t he pa s s i ons a nd t he a m ount o f b l ood i n t he he a r t i s de t e r m i ne d by t he s t r e ngt h of t he l i ve r I w i l l a r gue t ha t t he l i ve r i de nt i f yi ng t he hum or of i t s he r oi ne a ppe a r s a s a dom i na nt s ym bol i n t he l a ngua ge of T w e l f t h N i ght W he n V i ol a di s gui s e d a s t he e unuc h C e s a r i o, s ug ge s t s t o D uke O r s i no t ha t pe r ha ps s om e w om a n l ove s hi m a s s t r ongl y a s he l ove s t he c ount e s s O l i vi a t he D uke i m m e di a t e l y di s m i s s e s t he pos s i bi l i t y, de c l a r i ng, T he i r l ove m a y be c a l l e d a ppe t i t e no m ot i on of t he l i ve r but t he pa l a t e ( 2. 4 56 7 ) I n a f oot not e B e vi ngt on e xpl a i ns t ha t O r s i no be l i e ve s t ha t r e a l l ove i s a pa s s i on of t he l i ve r w he r e a s f a nc y, l i ght l ove i s bor n i n t he e ye a nd n our i s he d i n t he pa l a t e ( 206 ) a nd t ha t t he D uke r e f us e s t o be l i e ve t ha t a ny w om a n c oul d e xpe r i e nc e t he r e a l l ove t ha t h e f e e l s f or O l i vi a I r oni c a l l y, O r s i no r e pr e s e nt s t hi s f a nc y l ov e w he r e a s V i ol a r e m a i ns t he pa s s i ona t e l y de vot e d c ha r a c t e r H ow e ve r t he m e r e r e f e r e nc e t o t he l i ve r t he l oc a t i on of t r ue pa s s i on, f o r e s ha dow s V i ol a s s uc c e s s i n w i nni ng O r s i no s he a r t A s L yd i a F or be s not e s B y t he f our t h s c e ne O r s i no ha s a c t ua l l y f a l l e n i n l ove w i t h V i ol a S he w i ns hi m l i ve r a nd a l l i n t he s e c ond

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39 a c t he r di s gui s e l e t s hi m be c om e de vot e d, w i t hou t be i ng c onf us e d by t he e r r a t i c pa s s i ons he a s s oc i a t e s w i t h l ove of w om a n ( 479 ) A s O r s i no s c onf i da nt e V i ol a s pe r s ona l i t y s hi ne s t hr o ugh he r C e s a r i o di s gui s e a nd O r s i no unknow i ngl y de ve l ops a de e pe r a t t r a c t i on t o C e s a r i o t ha n t he l i ght l ove w i t h w hi c h he dot e s on O l i vi a O r s i no s l i nki ng of a ppe t i t e w i t h l ove i s a m e t a pho r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of hi s l ove l or n pos e T h r oughout t he pl a y h e l i ke ns hi s m e l a nc hol y t o e xc e s s of f ood a s w he n he ope ns t he pl a y w i t h t he de m a nd, I f m us i c be t he f ood o f l ove pl a y on G i ve m e e xc e s s of i t t ha t s ur f e i t i ng, t he l ove m a y s i c ke n a nd s o di e ( 1. 1. 1 3) O r s i no s de s i r e f or e xc e s s c a n be s a t i s f i e d on l y by V i ol a t he w om a n c ont r ol l e d b y t he s a ngui ne t e m pe r a m e nt s t e m m i ng f r om t he bl ood i n t he l i ve r S c i e nt i f i c a l l y, t he l i ve r s e r ve s a s t he or ga n t ha t a i ds di ge s t i ons or t he c onve r s i on of f ood a nd d r i nk i nt o us e f ul bl ood ( B r a i n 9) B l ood, of c our s e w a s t he dom i na nt hu m or a l f l ui d i n t he s a ng ui ne f i gur e a nd, a c c or di ng t o G a l e n, t he c onve r s i on i nt o us e f ul bl ood t ook pl a c e i n t he ve i ns of t he l i ve r ; f ur t he r m o r e t he pa r t i c ul a r qua l i t i e s of us e f ul bl ood a r e w e l l t e m pe r e d a nd ba l a nc e d ( B r a i n 9 10) F i t t i n gl y, V i ol a a s s i s t s O r s i no i n a bs or bi ng hi s e xt r e m e ne e ds by f e e di ng hi s c r a vi ng f or l ove w he n s he w i ns hi s he a r t a t t he c l os e of t he pl a y. F or be s e xpl a i ns t ha t s i m i l a r t he m e s pr e s e nt i n t he m a i n pl ot a r e de ve l ope d i n t he s ubpl ot of t he pl a y. M a r i a us e s w h a t F or be s de s c r i be s a s he r de t e r m i na t i on a nd s uc c e s s f ul r us e ( 481) t o w i n S i r T oby A s V i ol a de c e i ve s t he m e l a nc hol y O r s i no a nd w i ns hi s he a r t s o M a r i a dom i na t e s t he f i gu r e s w ho s uppr e s s t he i r l i ve r s t he phl e gm a t i c S i r T oby a nd S i r A ndr e w a nd t he m e l a nc hol y M a l vol i o m a ni pul a t i ng t he m e n f or he r pe r s ona l be ne f i t M a r i a us e s M a l vol i o a s a n i ns t r u m e nt a nd he pr ove s t o be a c r uc i a l pa w n a s t he m e l a nc hol i c c ha r a c t e r w ho ne ve r l e a r n s t o a c c e pt hi s s a ngui ne t r a i t s F o r be s

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40 de s c r i be s M a r i a s c unni ngne s s a s s he pr opos e s t o f or ge a l e t t e r t o M a l vol i o w hi c h ul t i m a t e l y l e a ds t o hi s i m pr i s onm e nt O l i vi a di s a ppr ove s of t he c r ue l t r e a t m e nt of M a l vol i o, w hi c h M a r i a bl a m e s on S i r T oby a nd t h i s put s T oby i n s uc h ba d r a ppo r t w i t h O l i vi a t ha t he i s f or c e d t o m a r r y M a r i a i n or de r t o r e m a i n unde r O l i vi a s r oof F or be s a r gue s t ha t t hi s i s a s s upe r f i c i a l l y s udde n a s O r s i n o s c a pi t ul a t i on t o V i ol a a nd S i r T oby w i l l ne ve r be a ny m or e a w a r e t ha n O r s i no t ha t t hi s r e s ul t ha s be e n i n t he m a ki ng s i nc e A c t I ( 481 ) S i r T oby a n d S i r A ndr e w m a y be e a s i l y dupe d, a nd e ve n F a bi a n j e s t s t o A nd r e w t ha t O l i vi a dot e s on C e s a r i o s i m pl y t o put f i r e i n [ S i r A ndr e w s ] he a r t a nd br i m s t one i n [ hi s ] l i ve r ( 3. 2 19) A s B r a i n s t a t e s w i ne t a ke n i n m ode r a t i on, i nc r e a s e s t he i nna t e he a t m os t e f f e c t i ve l y; i n e x c e s s how e ve r i t ha s t h e oppos i t e e f f e c t ( 9 e m pha s i s m i ne ) a nd bot h A ndr e w a nd T oby s t r a i n t he i r l i ve r s w i t h e xc e s s i v e dr i nk. E ve n S i r T oby w a ge r s f or A nd r e w i f he w e r e ope ne d, a nd you f i nd s o m uc h bl ood i n hi s l i ve r a s w i l l c l og t he f oot of a f l e a I l l e a t t he r e s t o f t h a na t o m y ( 3. 2 59 61 ) B e vi ngt on s f oo t not e e xpl a i ns t ha t a bl oodl e s s l i ve r s i gni f i e d c ow a r di c e ( 212) e nf or c i ng T oby s i de a t ha t s i nc e A ndr e w s l i ve r i s unhe a l t hy s o i s h i s pe r s ona l i t y. F or be s obs e r ve s t ha t M a r i a m a i nt a i ns t ot a l c ont r ol of he r a c t i ons a nd a f f a i r s w hi c h I c on s i de r t he r e s ul t o f a dom i na nt s a ngui ne hum or A l t hough t he phl e gm a t i c S i r T oby r e m a i n s dr unk a t t he e nd of t he pl a y M a r i a ha s s uc c e s s f ul l y ut i l i z e d he r f or c e s he r s a ngui ne t a l e nt s t o m a ni pul a t e hi m i nt o m a r r yi ng he r ( F o r be s 481) A c om pa r i s on of t he t w o he r oi ne s of t he pl a y V i ol a a nd O l i vi a r e ve a l s t he i m por t a nc e of t he l i ve r a nd t he s a ngui ne hum or i n T w e l f t h N i ght V i ol a s l i ve r gove r ns he r pe r s ona l i t y, a nd t hr oughout t he p l a y s he s t r i ve s t o t e a c h O l i vi a t o d r op he r m our n f ul

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41 pe r s ona a nd be c om e a n opt i m i s t i c i ndi v i dua l O l i v i a a nd V i ol a s ha r e s e ve r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s m os t not a bl y t he l os s of t he i r br ot he r s H ow e ve r O l i vi a r e ve l s i n m ou r ni ng, r e f us i ng t o s t r i ve f or l ove w he r e a s V i ol a m a k e s pe a c e w i t h t h e not i on t ha t i f S e ba s t i a n l i ve s s he ne e d not m our n: M i ne ow n e s c a pe unf ol de t h t o m y hope ( 1. 2. 19) ; i f he i s de a d s he unde r s t a nds t ha t he r e s t s i n a be t t e r pl a c e F e s t e c r i t i c i z e s O l i vi a : T he m o r e f ool M a donna t o m our n f or your br ot he r s s oul be i ng i n he a ve n ( 1. 5 67 68) w he r e a s V i ol a doe s not m our n, but r a t he r s e e ks l ove f r om O r s i no f or he r s e l f T he d i f f e r e nt r e a c t i ons of O l i vi a a nd V i ol a t o a s i m i l a r s i t ua t i on a r e gove r ne d by t he i r hum or s W he n V i ol a he a r s of t he m e l a nc hol y C ou nt e s s a nd t he l ove l or n D uke t he s a ngui ne he r o i ne i m m e di a t e l y de ve l ops a pl a n, s w e a r i ng, O h, t ha t I s e r ve d t ha t l a dy, a nd m i ght not be de l i ve r e d t o t he w or l d t i l l I ha d m a de m i ne ow n oc c a s i on m e l l ow w ha t m y e s t a t e i s ( 1 2. 41 4) O nc e s he i nt r oduc e s O l i vi a t o t he opt i m i s t i c t e m pe r a m e n t of s a ngui ni t y O l i vi a doe s f a l l i n l ove w i t h C e s a r i o i n t he s a m e m a nne r t ha t O r s i no de ve l ops a hom os oc i a l a f f e c t i on f or t he boy. T he s i m i l a r i t y of t he i r na m e s V i ol a a nd O l i vi a c ons i s t e nt l y r e m i nds t he a udi e nc e t ha t t he t w o l e a di ng l a di e s of t he pl a y pa r a l l e l e a c h ot he r a nd t he s e na m e s a l s o i de nt i f y t he f or c e c ont r ol l i ng t he i r pe r s ona l i t i e s T he w or d l i ve r or i gi na t e s f r om t he A ngl o S a xon l i f e r a nd i s l i ke l y a de r i va t i ve o f t he G r e e k a nd L a t i n w or ds f or l i f e ( S ki nn e r 255 ) T he l e t t e r s L I V oc c ur i n bo t h na m e s but i n r e ve r s e d o r de r T he or ga n t ha t gove r ns t he s a ngui ne hum or s ym bol i z e s t he t e m pe r a m e nt t ha t O l i vi a m us t e m br a c e i n or de r t o e xpe r i e nc e a ha ppy e ndi ng T he l e t t e r s i n or de r vi v i dl y a c c e nt ua t e t he i m por t a nc e of t he l i ve r a c ons i s t e nt c l ue f o r O l i vi a T he l e t t e r s of t he na m e V i ol a ne e d not be s o bol d be c a us e f r om f i r s t t o l a s t s he r e m a i ns opt i m i s t i c ; t hus t he l e t t e r s c a n

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42 r un ba c kw a r ds i n he r na m e s i nc e V i ol a ne e ds no r e m i nde r of how t o a c h i e ve ha ppi ne s s S i m i l a r l y, M a l vol i o s e e m s a vi c t i m of t he s a m e l i m i t a t i ons a s a ve r y unha ppy pe s s i m i s t i c m a n w hos e na m e a l s o c ont a i ns t he l e t t e r s L I a nd V a l t hough, i n hi s na m e t he l e t t e r s a r e j um bl e d. W i t hout e xa m i ni ng t he s pe l l i n g of w om e n s f or e na m e s t he l e t t e r s of M a l vol i o s na m e w oul d a ppe a r uni m po r t a nt W he n he be l i e ve s O l i vi a ha s w r i t t e n t o h i m i n a l e w d j oke on S ha ke s pe a r e s pa r t M a l vol i o l i s t s he r C U a nd T a s r e c ogni z a bl e H ow e ve r he doe s not m e nt i on t he l e t t e r s i de nt i f yi n g t he l i ve r a nd i nde e d he ne ve r r e c ogni z e s t he m ne ve r a l l ow i ng hi s l i ve r t o gove r n hi s pe r s ona l i t y. W hi l e O l i vi a be c om e s opt i m i s t i c a nd a c qui r e s a ge nui ne l ove by t he e nd of t he pl a y, t he c ons i s t e nt l y puni s he d M a l vol i o r e m a i ns m i s e r a bl e T he t i t l e of t h e pl a y c onne c t s t o t he t he m e s of s a ngui ni t y e m bodi e d i n t he f e s t i va l of T w e l f t h N i ght a nd c e l e br a t e d i n t he da ys s ur r ou ndi ng C hr i s t m a s T he hol i da y f a l l s i n t he m i ddl e of t he w i nt e r s e a s on, but a l s o a t t he e nd of t he G r e gor i a n c a l e nda r ye a r O f c our s e t he hum or s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n s e a s ons of t he ye a r a nd, a s B r a i n poi n t s out bl ood c or r e s ponds t o s pr i ng t he s e a s on i n w hi c h i t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i nc r e a s e s i n t he body, a nd i n G a l e n s v i e w s pr i ng ha s t o be t ho ught of a s e uc r a s i c or w e l l t e m pe r e d ( 7 8) T he c e l e br a t i on of T w e l f t h N i ght t he n, a r r i ve s a t a n oppor t une t i m e t o i ndul ge i n t he s a ngui ne hum or a nd a dopt t he e m ot i ons t ha t a r r i ve w i t h t he s pr i ng s e a s on. T he r i t e s of T w e l f t h N i ght ne a r l y pa r a l l e l t he obs e r va nc e of t he N e w Y e a r a t i m e i n w hi c h w i nt e r e nds a nd s pr i ng f ol l ow s F or t he s a ke of m y a r gu m e nt t he s pr i ng s e a s on i s a n a ppr opr i a t e m e t a phor f or t he c ha nge s t ha t V i ol a pr oduc e s t hr ough he r l e s s ons O l i vi a i nt r oduc e d a s w om a n i n m our ni ng r e l i s he s s or r ow a s a n e xc us e t o r e pe l a n y s ui t or s a nd a ny c ha nc e of l ove ; he r s t a t e of m i nd ve r y c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s w i nt e r a nd t he i m a ge s of

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43 de a t h a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s e a s on. H ow e ve r unde r V i ol a s i ns t r uc t i on, O l i vi a a s s um e s a ne w a ppr oa c h t o l ove r e a di l y e m br a c i ng t he pa s s i on. O f c our s e O l i vi a c a nnot obt a i n V i ol a s he a r t bu t w he n s he be c om e s m or e s a ngui ne S e ba s t i a n a ppe a r s a s a r e ge ne r a t i on of C e s a r i o, w hom V i ol a ha s l a i d t o r e s t M or e ove r O r s i no, w a l l ow i ng i n m e l a nc hol y l i ke O l i vi a a t t he be gi nni ng of t he pl a y i s r e bor n t h r ou gh hi s l o ve f o r V i ol a T he pe r s ona l i t y c ha nge s of bot h O r s i no a nd O l i vi a f r om m e l a nc hol y t o s a ngui ne r e s e m bl e t he m e t a phor s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s pr i ng, a nd oc c ur j us t i n t i m e f o r t he s e a s ons t o c ha nge t hus m a ki ng T w e l f t h N i ght a n a ppr op r i a t e pe r i od t o c e l e br a t e t h e m os t pl e a s ur a bl e t e m pe r a m e nt

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44 V I I C onc l us i on I n hi s book P e r s onal i t y and T e m pe r am e nt S ol om on D i a m ond r e f e r e nc e s S ha ke s pe a r e w he n he a s s e r t s T he r e ha ve be e n m a ny a t t e m pt s i n t he h i s t or y of m e di c i ne t o de f i ne a r e l a t i on be t w e e n t e m pe r a m e nt a nd phys i q ue or gr os s body bui l d ( 138 ) I n c r e a t i ng hi s c ha r a c t e r s S ha ke s pe a r e kne w t o m a ke F a l s t a f f f a t a nd C a s s i us l e a n f or t he a t r i c a l e f f e c t ( 138) B y a c c e pt i ng H a m l e t a s m e l a nc hol i c L a dy M a c be t h a s c hol e r i c a nd V i ol a a s s a ngui ne w e m i ght i nf e r t he phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ne c e s s a r y t o t he s e c ha r a c t e r s j us t a s f a t ne s s w a s r e qui r e d of F a l s t a f f B e vi ngt on pr ovi de s a l i s t o f t he H a m l e t s o f t he pa s t a s s e r t i ng t ha t H am l e t pos s e s s e s a r i c h pr oduc t i on hi s t or y a nd a va r i e t y of i nt e r pr e t a t i ons ( 551) H e n r y I r vi ng w ho pe r f or m e d t he r o l e f r om 1864 t o 1885 ( B e vi n gt on 551) w a s r a t he r una t t r a c t i ve a nd ha d a s l i ght bui l d ( I r vi ng) A s t he d r yne s s of t he h um or m a de t he body l e a n ( A nde r s on 38) I r vi ng m a y ha ve r e s e m bl e d t he e s s e nt i a l m e l a nc hol i c a l t hough h i s phys i que m a y ha ve be e n s oc i a l l y una ppe a l i ng. J ohn G e i l gud, p l a yi ng H a m l e t i n 1930, por t r a ye d t he pa l e pr i nc e t ha t C ol e r i dge ha d i m a gi ne d ( B e vi ng t on 551) M or e r e c e nt H a m l e t s i nc l ude L a ur e nc e O l i vi e r i n 1948 A i de n Q ui nn i n t he 1970s M e l G i bs on i n 1990, K e nne t h B r a na gh i n 1996, a nd E t ha n H a w ke i n 20 00 ( B e vi ngt on 551 552 ) W hi l e t he s e m e n l ook m o r e c onve nt i ona l l y a t t r a c t i ve t ha n I r vi n g s e a r l i e r H a m l e t none ha s a n

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45 e xc e pt i ona l bui l d. F ur t he r m or e i t s e e m s t ha t t he t ypi c a l H a m l e t po r t r a ye d on bot h s t a ge a nd s c r e e n, us ua l l y ha s br ow n ha i r W he r e a s c a s t i ng di r e c t or s f or H am l e t t a ke s om e l i c e ns e i n c hoos i ng t he i r D a ni s h pr i nc e t he r ol e o f F a l s t a f f pr ovi de s l e s s f l e xi bi l i t y. T he s t e r e ot ype d phl e gm a t i c c ha r a c t e r i s s hor t a nd f a t ( A nde r s on 34 ) w i t h bl ond o r w hi t e ha i r ( A nde r s on 40 ) T he t e xt o f H e nr y I V P ar t 1 c l a r i f i e s t ha t F a l s t a f f a dhe r e s t o t hi s de s c r i pt i on. E a r l y F a l s t a f f s i nc l ude d J ohn L ow i n, w ho pl a ye d t o m i ght y a ppl a us e i n t he s e ve nt e e nt h c e nt ur y; T hom a s B e t t e r t on w ho a s s um e d t he r ol e f r om 1700 t o hi s d e a t h i n 17 10; a nd J a m e s Q ui n, a popul a r F a l s t a f f f r om 1721 t o 1751 ( K a s t a n 79 85 ) B ot h B e t t e r t on a nd Q ui n g r a dua t e d t o t he r ol e of F a l s t a f f a f t e r pl a yi ng H ot s pur a s t he f or m e r be c a m e m or e a ppr op r i a t e t o t he i r a ge ( K a s t a n 83 85) W he n a c t or s di d not pr o pe r l y f i t t he r ot und m ode l of t he kni ght t he y of t e n a dde d s t uf f i ng f o r t he pa r t A l t hough F a l s t a f f m us t be f a t not a l l pl um p a c t or s m us t be F a l s t a f f s ; t hus i n t he n i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, a pe r f or m a nc e by t he obe s e S t e phe n K e m bl e pr om pt e d a r e vi e w t ha t r e a d E ve r y f a t m a n c a nno t pl a y a g r e a t m a n ( qt d. i n K a s t a n 86) W hi l e E l l e n T e r r y s phys i c a l be a ut y a nd c ha r m c om pe ns a t e d f or he r t he a t r i c a l s hor t c om i ngs a s L a dy M a c be t h, t he c ha r a c t e r of F a l s t a f f r e l i e s e qua l l y on s t a t ur e a nd w i t A nde r s on l i s t s t he phys i c a l t r a i t s of c hol e r a s t a l l l e a n, a nd br ow n w i t h bl a c k, c r i s p ha i r ( 34 ) J a m e s on pr e s e nt s t w o i l l us t r a t i ons of L a dy M a c be t h i n he r book, J S S a r ge nt s pa i nt i ng o f M i s s E l l e n T e r r y a s L a dy M a c be t h a nd R W e s t a l l P i nxt s po r t r a i t of S a r a h S i ddons i n t he s a m e r ol e B ot h w om e n f i t t he de s c r i pt i on a bove a nd a r e pos e d i n pow e r f ul m e na c i ng pos i t i ons M r s S i ddons a c c l a i m e d a s a t r a gi c a c t r e s s i n 1812 pl a ye d L a dy M a c be t h i n he r f a r e w e l l r ol e t o m uc h a ppr oba t i on ( S i ddons ) M i s s T e r r y a n a c t r e s s w ho pl a ye d L a dy M a c be t h i n t he l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, ga i ne d a ppr ova l f r om

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46 he r r e ga l be a ut y a nd r a di a nt pe r s ona l i t y w hi c h c om pe ns a t e d f or he r i na de qua c i e s a s a n a c t r e s s ( T e r r y) I n 1976, T r e vo r N unn s t a ge d M ac be t h w i t h J udi D e nc h a s t he f e m a l e l e a d, c l o t hi ng D e nc h i n bl a c k t o pr ovi de a s t a r k c o nt r a s t t o L a dy M a c duf f c l ot he d i n w hi t e ( R os e nbe r g 195) D e nc h s e e m e d unm i s t a ka bl y a w r e t c he d que e n ( R os e nbe r g 195) a nd r e c e i ve d pr a i s e f o r he r pe r f o r m a nc e M or e r e c e nt l y, i n 2006 t he bl onde ha i r e d J e nni f e r E hl e w e a r i ng a w hi t e M i c ha e l K r a s s gow n, pl a ye d t he pa r t oppos i t e L i e v S c hr e i be r i n a P ubl i c T he a t e r p r oduc t i on i n N e w Y or k. T he pa i r r e c e i ve d m e di oc r e r e vi e w s a s one c r i t i c w r ot e B l ood f l ow s r e gul a r l y, but a s i f d i s pe ns e d f r om s i l ve r t a ps I n t he e nd ne i t he r M r S c h r e i be r no r M s E hl e s e e m s f ul l y t o i nha bi t t he da r kne s s of t he i r c ha r a c t e r s ( I s he r w ood) I n M ac be t h t he f e m a l e v i l l a i n a dvi s e s he r hus ba nd t o l ook l i ke t h i nnoc e nt f l ow e r but be t he s e r pe nt unde r t ( 1. 5 65 66 ) ; c onve r s e l y, t he a c t r e s s pl a yi ng L a dy M a c be t h m i ght ne e d t o l ook l i ke t he s e r pe nt i n or de r t o c onvi nc i ngl y pl a y one of S ha ke s pe a r e s m os t w i c ke d f e m a l e s T he s a ngui ne c ha r a c t e r m i ght be i de nt i f i e d by a ubur n or ye l l ow ha i r ( A nde r s on 40) a nd a s bl ood i n f l ue nc e d t he m os t he a l t hy ge ni a l hum or t he s a ngui ne c ha r a c t e r pos s e s s e d t he m os t ha nds om e l ooks ( D r a pe r S t a r C r os s e d L ove r s 21) W e i m a gi ne a ha nds om e V i ol a a s D uke O r s i no de s c r i be s C e s a r i o: D i a na s l i p i s not m or e s m oot h a nd r ubi ous ( 1. 4 31 32) I n hi s 1996 f i l m a da pt a t i on, N unn c a s t hi s w i f e I m oge n S t ubbs a s V i ol a w i t h H e l e na B onha m C a r t e r a s O l i vi a T o t r a ns l a t e O r s i no s c om m e nt i nt o m ode r n t e r m s a S a n F r a nc i s c o C hr oni c l e c r i t i c w r ot e V i ol a c ut s he r ha i r dons a b r e a s t f l a t t e ne r a nd a f a ke m us t a c he S he s t i l l l o oks p r e t t y good ( L a S a l l e ) M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, S t ubbs bl onde V i ol a f i t s A nde r s on s m ode l a nd B onha m C a r t e r s da r k ha i r e d O l i vi a a l l ow s t he a udi e nc e t o c om pa r e t w o ve r y d i f f e r e nt l e a di ng l a di e s B e c a us e O l i vi a be gi ns

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47 t he pl a y i n m our ni ng t he da r k f e a t u r e d B onha m C a r t e r phys i c a l l y e xe m pl i f i e s t he pa r t o f t he m e l a nc hol y br une t t e O f c our s e i t w oul d be f ool i s h t o s ugge s t t ha t T r e v or N unn a nd hi s c ont e m por a r i e s r e a d G a l e n a nd H i ppoc r a t e s be f or e c a s t i ng t he i r l e a di ng pa r t s W hi l e t he hum or a l t he or y c i r c ul a t e d t hr oughout e a r l y m ode r n E ng l a nd, ou r m e di c a l pr a c t i c e s t oda y ha ve e vol ve d w e l l be yond t he i de a s t ha t S ha ke s pe a r e i nc or por a t e d i nt o hi s w or ks Y e t a r e our t he or i e s s o f a r r e m ove d f r om t hos e of t he s e ve nt e e nt h c e nt ur y? O ve r hol s e r poi nt s out I f w i t h a l l our pr e s e nt unde r s t a ndi ng o f ps yc hol ogy, of phys i ol ogy a nd a na t om y w e s t i l l ha ve m uc h t o l e a r n w ha t s houl d w e e xpe c t of t he a t t i t u de s a nd know l e dge i n t he t i m e of S ha ke s pe a r e ? ( 336, e m pha s i s m i ne ) P s yc hol ogi s t s c ont i nue t o s pe nd a m pl e t i m e s t udyi n g be ha vi or a l pa t t e r ns a nd pe r s ona l i t y, a nd e ve n i n t he l a s t c e nt u r y w e ha ve be e n of f e r e d ne w t he o r i e s t o a c c e pt or t o r e j e c t a s e xpl a na t i ons of t he hum a n m i nd a nd body. E ve n O ve r hol s e r s a r t i c l e not ye t f i f t y ye a r s ol d, s e e m s out da t e d a s s he c l a i m s t ha t da i l y w e r e a d of F r e ud a nd J ung ( 335 ) Y e t c r i t i c s l a be l M a c be t h s c hi z ophr e ni c a nd H a m l e t bi pol a r a s i f S ha ke s pe a r e s c ha r a c t e r s ke t c he s pr ovi de r e l e va nt i ns i ght i nt o m ode r n ps yc hol ogi c a l pa r a di gm s I n D i a m ond s book publ i s he d i n 1957, t he a ut ho r l i s t s f our di m e ns i ons of t e m pe r a m e nt ( 126) a nd f our pa t t e r ns of e f f e c t i ve r e s pons e ( 128) A l t hough t he s e t r a i t s r e l a t e t o t he hum or a l t he or y onl y i n t e r m s of num b e r D i a m ond dr a w s a t w o d i m e ns i ona l m ode l t o i l l us t r a t e how t he f our hum or s w oul d f i t i nt o m od e r n ps yc hol ogy. D i a m ond s f our f e e l i ngs l i s t e d i n c l oc kw i s e f a s hi on, a r e e xc i t e m e nt pl e a s a nt ne s s de pr e s s i on, a nd unpl e a s a nt ne s s ( 129) E xc i t e m e nt a nd de pr e s s i on, l oc a t e d t op c e nt e r a nd bot t om c e nt e r r e s pe c t i ve l y, s i gni f y e i t he r hi gh o r l ow a c t i vi t y. U npl e a s a nt ne s s l oc a t e d f a r l e f t a nd

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48 pl e a s a nt ne s s l oc a t e d f a r r i ght s t a nd f o r w i t hdr a w a l or a pp r oa c h, r e s pe c t i ve l y. J us t a s t he f our hum o r s c ons i s t e d of t w o of t he f our qua l i t i e s hot c ol d m oi s t a nd d r y, D i a m ond pl a c e s t he f our t e m pe r a m e nt s a t 45 d e gr e e a ngl e s be t w e e n e a c h a xi s T hus s a ngui ni t y be l ongs be t w e e n H i gh A c t i vi t y/ E xc i t e m e nt a nd A p pr oa c h/ P l e a s a nt ne s s phl e gm be t w e e n A ppr oa c h/ P l e a s a nt ne s s a nd L ow A c t i vi t y/ D e pr e s s i on, m e l a nc hol i a be t w e e n L ow A c t i vi t y/ D e pr e s s i on a nd W i t hdr a w a l / U npl e a s a nt ne s s a nd c hol e r be t w e e n W i t hdr a w a l / U npl e a s a nt ne s s a nd H i gh A c t i vi t y/ E x c i t e m e nt A l t hough D i a m ond a dm i t s t ha t hi s m ode l doe s not f i t e a c h t e m pe r a m e nt pe r f e c t l y, he i ns i s t s t ha t i t c r e a t e s a vi s ua l c or r e s ponde nc e be t w e e n a nc i e nt m e di c i ne a nd m ode r n t hought T he s a ngui ne pe r s ona l i t y f i t s w e l l be t w e e n t he f e e l i ngs of e xc i t e m e nt a nd pl e a s a nt ne s s a s m e l a nc hol y f i t s i nt o t he s pa c e be t w e e n de pr e s s i on a nd unpl e a s a nt ne s s D i a m ond l a m e nt s t ha t phl e gm a nd c hol e r do not f i t s o c om f or t a bl y ( 130) H ow e ve r I a r gue t ha t c hol e r doe s r e pr e s e nt e xc i t e m e nt a nd un pl e a s a nt ne s s a s t he c hol e r i c i ndi vi dua l i s pr one t o r a ge A s f o r phl e gm F a l s t a f f i l l us t r a t e s t he pl e a s a nt ne s s of t he t e m pe r a m e nt a nd r e c e nt s t udi e s l i nki ng a l c ohol i s m t o de pr e s s i on m i ght a c c ount f or t he s e c ond f a c t or of t he c ha r t A l t hough not a n i m pe c c a bl e m a t c h, D i a m ond s m or e m ode r n m ode l doe s i l l us t r a t e s om e c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n m ode r n be ha vi or s a nd t he pa t t e r ns of t he hum or a l t he or y. M or e r e c e nt l y, D a vi d K e i r s e y publ i s he d hi s book, P l e as e U nde r s t and M e I I w hi c h de a l s w i t h t e m pe r a m e nt c ha r a c t e r a nd i nt e l l i ge nc e K e i r s e y l i s t s f ou r gr oups o f pe r s ona l i t i e s a da pt e d f r om I s a be l M ye r s s i xt e e n t ype s ( 18) M ye r s a nd he r m ot he r K a t hr yn B r i ggs c r e a t e d a que s t i onna i r e e nt i t l e d T he M ye r s B r i ggs T ype I ndi c a t or w hi c h ga i ne d popul a r i t y i n t he 1990s w i t h m i l l i on s of pe opl e t a ki ng t he t e s t e a c h ye a r

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49 ( K e i r s e y 3) U s i ng M ye r s g r oups a s a m ode r n e x a m pl e K e i r s e y a s s e r t s I f w e s c a n t he va r i e t y of c ont r i but or s a nd t he m a ny c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t he y ha ve a t t r i but e d t o t he f our t e m pe r a m e nt s w e a r e a bl e t o s e e how t r ue t o t ype t he f our c l a s s i f i c a t i ons ha ve r e m a i ne d ove r t he c e nt ur i e s ( 26 ) A r gua bl y a w i de l y s ha r e d r e c ogni t i on o f pe r s ona l i t y e xi s t s a l t hough t he m os t r e c ogni z e d di s pos i t i ons c ha nge ove r t i m e K e i r s e y i nc l ude s t w o pe r s ona l i t y t e s t s i n hi s book w hi c h he l a be l s s or t e r s C om pl e t e w i t h a ns w e r ke y, t he t e s t s i nvi t e r e a de r s t o di s c ove r t he i r ow n i nt r i ns i c pe r s ona l i t y. T he s t udy o f pe r s ona l i t y a nd be ha vi or s t i l l e xc i t e s i nt e r e s t i n t oda y s s oc i e t y, a nd i s e m be dde d i n ou r ow n l i t e r a t ur e N e w s pa pe r s a nd w om e n s m a ga z i ne s of f e r da i l y or m ont hl y hor os c ope s a nd pe opl e a r e of t e n t houg ht t o pos s e s s c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s de pe ndi ng on t he i r a s t r ol ogi c a l s i gn. D r a pe r c l a i m s t ha t m e l a nc hol i c i ndi vi dua l s w e r e of t e n bor n unde r T a ur us V i r go, a nd C a pr i c or n; ph l e gm a t i c pe r s ons unde r C a nc e r S c or pi o, a nd P i s c e s ; c hol e r i c t ype s unde r A r i e s S a gi t t a r i us a nd L e o; a nd s a ngui ne i ndi vi dua l s unde r G e m i ni L i br a a nd A qua r i us ( S t a r C r os s e d L ove r s 21 22) T oda y s popul a r hor os c o pe s of t e n a dvi s e l ove m a t c he s f o r e a c h z odi a c s i gn, a pr a c t i c e not unl i ke t he e a r l y m ode r n be l i e f t ha t c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s w e r e i n op pos i t i on, w hi l e c e r t a i n t e m pe r a m e nt s c om pl e m e nt e d e a c h ot he r S ha ke s pe a r e us e s num e r ous r e f e r e nc e s t o t he phys i ol ogi c a l a n d ps yc hol ogi c a l be l i e f s of e a r l y m ode r n E ngl a nd i n hi s pl a ys T he f our di s t i ngui s ha bl e pe r s ona l i t y t ype s m e l a nc hol y, phl e gm a t i c c hol e r i c a nd s a ngui ne m a y be a t t r i but e d t o ne a r l y a l l o f t he c ha r a c t e r s w i t hi n t he s c ope of S ha ke s pe a r e s w or ks U s ua l l y t he c ha r a c t e r s e xhi bi t m o r e t ha n one t e m pe r a m e nt t h r oughout t he c our s e of a p l a y, but s om e c ha r a c t e r s s e r ve a s t he ve r y e m bodi m e nt o f one hu m or T e xt ua l e vi de nc e pur por t s H a m l e t t o be t r a gi c a l l y

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50 m e l a nc hol i c F a l s t a f f t o be w hol l y phl e gm a t i c L a d y M a c be t h t o be f a t a l l y c hol e r i c a nd V i ol a t o be i nna t e l y s a ngui ne A s quot e d e a r l i e r H om e r pr ovi de d a gl i m ps e i nt o a nc i e nt m e di c a l pr a c t i c e s a s doe s S ha ke s pe a r e A s N ut t o n c l a i m s t he s e w or ks i l l us t r a t e t he know l e dge t ha t a udi e nc e s of t he pe r i od e xpe c t e d o f t he w r i t e r s A l t hough G a l e n a nd H i ppoc r a t e s a r e no l onge r hous e hol d na m e s e ve n t oda y s s oc i e t y r e f l e c t s on t he t he or i e s t ha t t he y pr e s e nt e d c e nt ur i e s a go. A s m ode r n doc t or s ps yc hi a t r i s t s s ur ge ons a nd ps yc hol ogi s t s c ont i nue t o pe r f or m s t udi e s on pe r s o na l i t y, be ha vi or a nd m e di c i ne t he i r m e di c a l r e s e a r c h w i l l c ont i nue t o i nf l ue nc e t he l i t e r a t ur e of e ve n t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y.

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51 W or ks C i t e d A nde r s on, R ut h L e i l a E l i z abe t han P s y c hol ogy an d Shak e s pe ar e s P l ay s N e w Y or k: H a s ke l l H ous e 1964. B e vi ngt o n, D a vi d, e d. T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 B r a dl e y, A C Shak e s pe ar e an T r age dy : L e c t ur e s on H am l e t O t he l l o K i ng L e ar and M ac be t h, Se c ond E di t i on L ondon: M a c M i l l a n a nd C o. 1915. B r a i n, P e t e r G al e n on B l oodl e t t i ng C a m br i dge : U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1986 B ur t on, R obe r t T he A nat om y of M e l anc hol y ( A Se l e c t i on) E d L a w r e nc e B a bb. M i c hi ga n: M i c hi ga n S t a t e U P 1965. D e a t s S a r a M uns on. T he O nc e a nd F ut ur e K i ngs : F our S t udi e s of K i ngs hi p i n H am l e t E s s ay s i n L i t e r at ur e 9 1 ( S pr i ng 1982) 15 30. D i a m ond, S ol om on P e r s onal i t y and T e m pe r am e nt N e w Y or k: H a r pe r a nd B r ot he r s 1957. D r a pe r J ohn W T he G r a c i ous D unc a n. T he M ode r n L anguage R e v i e w 36 4 ( O c t obe r 1941) 495 499. S ha ke s pe a r e s S t a r C r os s e d L ove r s T he R e v i e w of E ngl i s h St udi e s 15. 57 ( J a nua r y 1939) 16 34 E dga r I r vi ng Shak e s pe ar e M e di c i ne and P s y c hi at r y L ondon: V i s i on P r e s s L i m i t e d, 1971.

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52 F or be s L ydi a W ha t you W i l l ? Shak e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 13. 4 ( A ut um n 1962) 475 485. H oe ni ge r F D a vi d M e di c i ne and Shak e s pe ar e i n t he E ngl i s h R e nai s s anc e N e w a r k: U ni ve r s i t y of D e l a w a r e P r e s s 1992. I r vi ng, H e nr y" T he O x f or d C om pani on t o A m e r i c an T he at r e 3r d e d. E ds G e r a l d B or dm a n a nd T hom a s S H i s c ha k. O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2004. O x f or d R e f e r e nc e O nl i ne O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s U ni v e r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da 28 O c t obe r 2007. < ht t p: / / w w w oxf or d r e f e r e nc e c om p r oxy. us f e du/ vi e w s / E N T R Y ht m l ? s ubvi e w = M a i n& e nt r y= t 149. e 1578> I s he r w ood, C ha r l e s M a c be t h I n t he P a r k: W he r e F a i r i s F oul a nd W a r S t i l l H e l l N e w Y or k T i m e s 29 J une 2006. N e w Y or k T i m e s A r c hi ve s 28 O c t obe r 2007 < ht t p: / / w w w nyt i m e s c om > J a m e s on, A nna Shak e s pe ar e s H e r oi n e s L ondon: G e or ge B e l l a nd S ons 1898. K a i l A ubr e y C T he M e di c al M i nd of Shak e s pe ar e B a l gow l a h: W i l l i a m s a nd W i l ki ns 1986. K a s t a n, D a vi d S c ot t I nt r oduc t i on. K i ng H e nr y I V P ar t 1 B y W i l l i a m S ha ke s pe a r e L ondon: T hom s on L e a r ni ng 2002 K e i r s e y, D a vi d. P l e as e U nde r s t and M e I I : T e m pe r am e nt C har ac t e r I nt e l l i ge nc e D e l M a r : P r om e t he us N e m e s i s B oo k C om pa ny, 1998. K noe pf l m a c he r U C T he H um or s a s S ym bol i c N uc l e us i n H e nr y I V P a r t I C ol l e ge E ngl i s h. 24 7 ( A pr i l 1963) 497 501 K oc he r P a ul H L a dy M a c be t h a nd t he D oc t o r Shak e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 5. 4 ( A ut um n 1954) 341 349.

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53 L a S a l l e M i c k. F i l m B e nds G e nde r s B ut N ot S ha ke s pe a r e : N unn s W i s t f ul V e r s i on of T w e l f t h N i ght San F r anc i s c o C hr oni c l e 8 N ov e m be r 1996: C 3. S a n F r a nc i s c o C hr oni c l e A r c hi ve s 26 O c t obe r 2007 < ht t p: / / w w w S F G a t e c om > L e vi t h, M ur r a y J W hat s i n Shak e s pe ar e s N am e s H a m de n: A r c hon B ooks 1978. N ut t on, V i vi a n A nc i e nt M e di c i ne N e w Y or k: R ou t l e dge 2004. O ve r hol s e r W i ni f r e d. S ha ke s pe a r e s P ys c hol ogy A nd A f t e r Shak e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 10. 3 ( S um m e r 1959 ) 335 352 R os e nbe r g, M a r vi n. T r e vor N unn s M a c be t h ( R e vi e w ) Shak e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 28. 2 ( S pr i ng 1977) 195 196 S a r ge nt J S M i s s E l l e n T e r r y as L ady M ac be t h. S hak e s pe ar e s H e r oi ne s B y A nna J a m e s on. L ondon: G e or ge B e l l a nd S ons 1898. S c ha f e r J ur ge n W he n T he y M a r r y, T he y G e t W e nc he s Shak e s pe a r e Q uar t e r l y ( S um m e r 1971 ) 203 211 S ha ke s pe a r e W i l l i a m T he F i r s t P ar t of K i ng H e nr y t he F our t h. E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s a r y Shak e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005. 373 411 . H am l e t E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s ar y S hak e s pe ar e Se c ond E di t i on N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 552 604 . M ac be t h E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s pe ar e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 715 747 . T w e l f t h N i ght E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 194 22 6.

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54 S i ddons S a r a h. T he C onc i s e O x f or d C om pani on t o t he T he at r e E d. P hyl l i s H a r t nol l a nd P e t e r F ound O x f or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1996 O x f or d R e f e r e nc e O nl i ne O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s U n i ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da 28 O c t obe r 2007. < ht t p: / / w w w oxf or d r e f e r e nc e c om p r oxy. us f e du/ vi e w s / E N T R Y ht m l ? s ubvi e w = M a i n& e nt r y= t 79. e 2811 > S ki nne r H e n r y A l a n. O r i gi n of M e di c al T e r m s B a l t i m or e : W i l l i a m s a nd W i l ki ns C o. 1961. T e r r y, E l l e n [ A l i c e ] T he O x f or d C om pani on t o A m e r i c an T he at r e 3r d e d E ds G e r a l d B or dm a n a nd T hom a s S H i s c ha k. O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2004 O x f or d R e f e r e nc e O nl i ne O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s U ni v e r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da 28 O c t obe r 2007. < ht t p: / / w w w oxf o r dr e f e r e nc e c o m pr oxy us f e du/ vi e w s / E N T R Y ht m l ? s ubvi e w = M a i n& e nt r y= t 149. e 3029 > T ol m a n, A l be r t H F al s t af f and O t he r Shak e s pe ar e an T opi c s N e w Y o r k: T he M a c m i l l a n C om pa ny, 1925. W e s t a l l P i nxt R L ady M ac be t h ( M r s Si ddons ) S hak e s pe ar e s H e r oi ne s B y A nna J a m e s on. L ondo n: G e or ge B e l l a nd S ons 1898. 32 0.

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55 B i bl i ogr a phy C ur t h, L oui s e H i l l T he M e di c a l C ont e nt o f E ngl i s h A l m a na c s 1640 1700. J our nal of H i s t or y of M e di c i ne and A l l i e d Sc i e nc e s 60 3 ( 200 5) 255 282. F r a s e r H a r r i s D F B i ol ogy i n S ha ke s pe a r e T he Sc i e n t i f i c M ont h l y 34 1 ( J a nua r y 1932) 54 68. O B r i e n, G or don W H a m l e t I V i v. 26 29. Shak e s pe ar e Q uar t e r l y 20. 1 ( W i nt e r 1969 ) 88 90. S ha ke s pe a r e W i l l i a m A nt ony and C l e opat r a. E d D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s a r y Shak e s pe ar e Se c ond E di t i on N e w Y o r k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 752 800 . A s Y ou L i k e I t E d D a vi d B e vi ngt on T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 155 18 9. K i ng L e ar E d D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s pe ar e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 662 709 . T he M e r c hant of V e ni c e E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s pe ar e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on I nc 2005 79 112. M uc h A do A bout N ot hi ng. E d D a vi d B e vi ngt o n. T he N e c e s s a r y Sha k e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on I nc 2005 117 149. O t he l l o t he M oor of V e ni c e E d D a vi d B e vi ng t on. T he N e c e s s a r y Shak e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I n c 2005 611 655. R om e o and J ul i e t E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s a r y Shak e s p e ar e Se c ond E di t i on.

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56 N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 464 50 5. T he T am i ng of t he Shr e w E d. D a vi d B e vi ngt o n. T he N e c e s s a r y Shak e s pe a r e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on I nc 2005 5 41. T he T e m pe s t E d D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s ar y Shak e s p e ar e Se c ond E di t i on. N e w Y or k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 849 87 8. T he T r age dy of K i ng R i c har d t he Se c ond E d D a vi d B e vi ngt on. T he N e c e s s a r y Shak e s pe ar e Se c ond E di t i on N e w Y o r k: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc 2005 331 369 T w e l f t h N i ght : O r W hat Y ou W i l l D i r T r e vor N un n. W r i t t e n by W i l l i a m S ha ke s pe a r e A da pt e d by T r e vo r N unn B B C F i l m s 1996


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ABSTRACT: Hippocrates, and later Galen, hypothesized that a person's character was influenced by a combination of four humors that governed the body: black bile, phlegm, yellow bile, and blood. Centuries later, the Elizabethans adopted these ideologies to their medical practices, and associated each humor with one of four temperaments: melancholy, phlegmatic, choleric, and sanguine. References to the four temperaments may be found embedded in a number of William Shakespeare's texts, most notably Hamlet, Henry IV, Part 1, Macbeth, and Twelfth Night. While many figures in Shakespeare embody many humoral traits, allowing for character development throughout the play, several characters possess a superfluity of one particular humor. As these characters motivate the action of each respective play, the play provides textual evidence that identifies the traits associated with each temperament. Hamlet exemplifies the melancholy temperament, Sir John Falstaff the phlegmatic temperament, Lady Macbeth the choleric temperament, and Viola the sanguine temperament. The respective personalities of these characters are revealed not only by their actions in the plays but by numerous textual allusions to each humor. In examining these four characters, the reader may become familiar with the humor that each character represents, and, in turn, possess a greater knowledge of the driving forces behind many of Shakespeare's heroes, heroines, villains, and clowns. Moreover, these examinations may also shed light on the beliefs of early modern England and the beginning of character study and development.
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