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Towards regenerative development

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Material Information

Title:
Towards regenerative development a methodology for university campuses to become more sustainable, with a focus on the University of South Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
McDonald, Richard Keirs
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Restorative
LEED
Green building
College operations
Facilities planning
Dissertations, Academic -- Geography -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The administrations of several universities have developed strategies to reduce the negative environmental effects created by their institutions. Because no single, comprehensive methodology to guide institutions to sustainability exists, these strategies range widely in scope. As well, the definition of "sustainability" differs for these various institutions, resulting in strategies ranging from small-scale recycling programs to major initiatives to incorporate green building and revamping curricula. This study attempts to create the first comprehensive methodology to guide university campuses and processes to become regenerative. Regenerative systems "produce more resources than needed, provide resources for other projects, and enhance the environment" (Bernheim 2003), and are synonymous with the "triple top line" of sustainability presented by Braungart and McDonough (2002). Sustainability plans of other universities were reviewed to determine what strategies have been successful for these institutions. These data were synthesized to create the comprehensive methodology. The methodology is incremental to allow time for institutions to adjust their financial plans and facilities management practices. Subsequently, the University of South Florida's Tampa campus (USF) served as a case study. Buildings and other infrastructure were reviewed, as were the curricula, buying practices, food service, and other university processes. Finally, a survey was presented to the primary decision-makers for USF to identify obstacles to implementation of the sustainability methodology. Recommendations for overcoming these obstacles were then be devised, incorporating solutions developed at other institutions as well as novel ideas.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Richard Keirs McDonald, III (Trey).
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 265 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001994147
oclc - 317403724
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002430
usfldc handle - e14.2430
System ID:
SFS0026747:00001


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ABSTRACT: The administrations of several universities have developed strategies to reduce the negative environmental effects created by their institutions. Because no single, comprehensive methodology to guide institutions to sustainability exists, these strategies range widely in scope. As well, the definition of "sustainability" differs for these various institutions, resulting in strategies ranging from small-scale recycling programs to major initiatives to incorporate green building and revamping curricula. This study attempts to create the first comprehensive methodology to guide university campuses and processes to become regenerative. Regenerative systems "produce more resources than needed, provide resources for other projects, and enhance [the] environment" (Bernheim 2003), and are synonymous with the "triple top line" of sustainability presented by Braungart and McDonough (2002). Sustainability plans of other universities were reviewed to determine what strategies have been successful for these institutions. These data were synthesized to create the comprehensive methodology. The methodology is incremental to allow time for institutions to adjust their financial plans and facilities management practices. Subsequently, the University of South Florida's Tampa campus (USF) served as a case study. Buildings and other infrastructure were reviewed, as were the curricula, buying practices, food service, and other university processes. Finally, a survey was presented to the primary decision-makers for USF to identify obstacles to implementation of the sustainability methodology. Recommendations for overcoming these obstacles were then be devised, incorporating solutions developed at other institutions as well as novel ideas.
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PAGE 1

T ow a r ds R e ge n e r a t i ve D e ve l opm e nt : A M e t hodol ogy f or U ni ve r s i t y C a m p us e s t o B e c om e M or e S us t a i na bl e W i t h a F oc us on t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i d a by R i c ha r d K e i r s M c D ona l d I I I ( T r e y) A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t h e de gr e e of M a s t e r of S c i e n c e D e pa r t m e nt of E nvi r onm e nt a l S c i e nc e a nd P ol i c y C ol l e ge of A r t s a nd S c i e nc e s U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da C o M a j or P r of e s s or : E l i z a be t h S t r om P h.D C o M a j or P r of e s s or : Y a nn W e ym out h, M A r c h. L D ona l d D uke P h.D H ol l y S c hoe nhe r r B .A D a t e of A pp r ova l : A pr i l 4, 2008 K e yw or ds : r e s t or a t i ve L E E D gr e e n b ui l di ng, c ol l e ge ope r a t i ons f a c i l i t i e s pl a nni ng C opyr i ght 2008, R i c ha r d K M c D ona l d, I I I

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A C K N O WL E D G E M E N T S W ha l e s m a y s e e m a c u r i ous f i r s t r e c i pi e nt of a c kn ow l e dge m e nt s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n a t he s i s c e nt e r e d on s us t a i na bl e d e ve l opm e nt H ow e v e r t he j our ne y t o r e a c h t hi s g oa l be ga n w i t h m y gr a dua t e s t udi e s i n c e t a c e a n e c ol ogy ove r 12 y e a r s a go. M y e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t he s e ponde r ous c r e a t ur e s pr ov i de d m e t h e ba c kg r ound ne c e s s a r y t o de a l w i t h un i ve r s i t y bur e a uc r a c i e s A s f or t he hum a ns w ho a s s i s t e d a nd s uppor t e d m e i n t hi s pr oj e c t t he y a r e n um e r ous T a ve y M c D a ni e l C a pps t he S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or a t D uke U ni ve r s i t y pr ovi de d va l ua bl e i ns i ght s a nd i nf or m a t i on on bot h he r s c h ool s e f f or t s a nd t he r e a l i t i e s of i m pl e m e nt i ng s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pl a ns a t a uni ve r s i t y. D r R i c ha r d F l a m m of t he F l or i da W i l dl i f e R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e pr ovi de d va l ua bl e f e e dba c k a nd s ugge s t i ons on w a ys t o i m pr ove t he s ur ve y s u bm i t t e d t o U S F l e a de r s hi p. D r S ha r on H a nn a W e s t of U S F s C ol l e ge of B us i ne s s A dm i ni s t r a t i on l e nt he r s uppor t a nd s ha r e d t he da t a c ol l a t e d by he r c l a s s a bout s om e of t he s us t a i na bl e pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s a t U S F O t he r s w ho ge ne r ous l y s ha r e d t he i r t i m e a nd i n f or m a t i on a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y a t U S F i nc l ude N a i na n D e s a i B a r ba r a D one r l y, a nd J e n ni f e r I s e nb e c k, a s w e l l a s t hos e c a m pus l e a d e r s w h o c hos e t o r e s pond t o t he s us t a i na bi l i t y s ur ve y c r e a t e d f o r t hi s s t udy. I s i nc e r e l y t ha nk t he m a l l f or t he i r t i m e a nd i nt e r e s t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. F ur t he r I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk m y e m pl oye r s a t V H B I nc f o r t he i r f l e xi b i l i t y i n s c he dul i ng a nd s uppor t f or t he s t udy.

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S pe c i a l t ha nks go t o m y f a m i l y a nd f r i e nds f o r t he i r e nc our a ge m e nt t hr ough a l l pha s e s of m y gr a dua t e s c h ool c a r e e r M a t t a nd S ue N i gr o, m y i n l a w s ha ve be e n ge ne r ous i n t he i r t i m e a nd s uppor t ove r t he s e ye a r s p a r t i c ul a r l y w h e n i t c om e s t o a c e r t a i n 90 ye a r ol d hous e M y s i bl i ngs C a m R i na r d, R ob M c D ona l d a nd S t e ve M c D on a l d, ha ve c e r t a i nl y w onde r e d a bout t he i r ol d e r br ot he r t h e pe r m a ne nt s t ude nt a nd w he t he r h e w oul d e ve r c om pl e t e hi s M a s t e r s T ha nks t o t he i r s uppor t a n d pa r t i c i pa t i on a s gui ne a pi gs f or t he s ur ve y, t he f i ni s h i s ne a r M y pa r e nt s D i c k a nd J a n M c D ona l d, a l s o he l pe d i r on out t he ki nks i n t he s ur ve y, but t he i r c ont r i but i ons a r e i nn um e r a bl e W i t hout t he i r l ove e nc our a g e m e nt a nd und e r s t a ndi ng, I c oul d ha ve e a s i l y qui t A nd of c our s e i m m e a s ur a bl e gr a t i t ude goe s t o m y w i f e S a r a w ho ha s l i ve d t he t r i a l s a nd t r i bul a t i ons of t hi s pr oc e s s w i t h m e gi vi ng t he l ove s uppor t w i s dom of e xpe r i e n c e a nd o c c a s i ona l m e nt a l ki c k i n t he r e a r t o c om pl e t e t hi s j our ne y. F i na l l y, I ow e m uc h t o m y c om m i t t e e m e m be r s D e a n C ha r l e s H i ght of t he S c hool of A r c hi t e c t ur e w a s not a bl e t o s e r ve ov e r t he e nt i r e pe r i od, but hi s i ns i ght s d ur i ng t he pr opos a l pr oc e s s w e r e va l ue d. H ol l y S c hoe nhe r r br ought a va l ua bl e p e r s p e c t i ve f r om t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of U S F he l pi ng t he s e i de a s be c om e m or e a m e n a bl e t o t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on. D r D ona l d D uk e ke pt t hi s s t udy on t r a c k a s a n a c a de m i c e xe r c i s e t hr ough h i s c a r e f ul r e a di ngs a nd m a d e t hi s a be t t e r pr e s e nt a t i on; hi s c om m i t m e nt t o m e e ve n a f t e r l e a vi ng U S F i s ge nui ne l y a ppr e c i a t e d. D r E l i z a be t h S t r om s he phe r de d m e t hr oug hout t he pr oc e s s l e ndi ng a c r i t i c a l e ye t o t he pa p e r a nd k e e p i ng m e f oc us e d a nd pos i t i ve w he n pr ogr e s s w oul d s l ow F i na l l y, Y a nn W e ym out h w a s t he f i r s t t o e nt hus i a s t i c a l l y s uppor t t he i de a of c r e a t i ng a s us t a i na bl e de v e l opm e nt s t udy f or U S F a nd ha s c h a m pi one d t hi s

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e f f or t s i nc e i t s i nc e pt i on. T hough none of t he m e m be r s s pe c i a l i z e s i n s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt t he va r i ous di s c i pl i ne s e a c h m e m be r br ought t o t he c om m i t t e e r e f l e c t t he i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y, hol i s t i c na t ur e of r e ge n e r a t i ve d e s i gn a nd m a de t he f i na l t he s i s

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D E D I C A T I O N T o m y f a t he r w ho t a ught m e l ove a nd r e s p e c t f o r t he e nvi r onm e nt a s w e l l a s t he s t ubbor nne s s t o a l w a ys f i ni s h w ha t I s t a r t T o m y m ot he r w hos e e t e r na l opt i m i s m c ons t a nt l y a m a z e s m e a nd l e a ds m e t o be l i e ve t he r e w i l l a l w a ys be s ol ut i ons t o a ny pr obl e m A nd of c our s e t o S a r a m y P e ne l ope i n t hi s O dys s e y, w hos e l ove s uppor t a nd oc c a s i ona l e x a s pe r a t i on i ns pi r e d m e t o c om pl e t e t hi s j our ne y.

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W he n w e t r y t o pi c k out any t hi ng by i t s e l f w e f i n d i t hi t c he d t o e v e r y t hi ng e l s e i n t he uni v e r s e Joh n M u i r

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i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S L I S T O F T A B L E S i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S i v A B S T R A C T v I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 6 S us t a i na bi l i t y D e f i ne d 6 G r e e n B ui l di ng a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y S t r a t e gi e s 8 B e ne f i t s of G r e e n B ui l di ng 10 G r e e n B ui l di ng O r ga ni z a t i ons 12 L E E D B e ne f i t s a nd C r i t i c i s m s 13 L E E D N C C r i t e r i a 16 L E E D E B C r i t e r i a 19 S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd U ni ve r s i t y C a m pus e s 23 S us t a i na bl e E l e m e nt s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da 29 S um m a r y 32 M E T H O D S 33 C r e a t i ng t he R e ge ne r a t i v e S t r a t e gy 33 P r e l i m i na r y A s s e s s m e nt of U S F 35 D e t e r m i ni ng O bs t a c l e s t o I m pl e m e nt a t i on 36 R E S U L T S 37 C h ap t e r 1: T h e R e g e n e r at i ve S t r at e gy 37 A r e a o f F oc us 1: A dm i ni s t r a t i on 39 A r e a o f F oc us 2: A c a d e m i a 54 A r e a o f F oc us 3: B ui l di n gs 68 A r e a o f F oc us 4: E ne r gy S uppl y 98 A r e a o f F oc us 5: G r e e nh ous e G a s E m i s s i ons 103 A r e a o f F oc us 6: W a t e r 110 A r e a o f F oc us 7: L a nds c a pe a nd N a t i ve H a bi t a t 120 A r e a o f F oc us 8: M a t e r i a l s M a na ge m e nt ( W a s t e a nd R e c yc l i ng) 132 A r e a o f F oc us 9: T r a ns po r t a t i on 144 A r e a o f F oc us 10: F ood R e s our c e s 162 A r e a o f F oc us 11: P r oc ur e m e nt 176 A r e a o f F oc us 12: I nve s t m e nt s 189

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i i C h ap t e r 2: U S F A s s e s s m e n t 197 1. A dm i ni s t r a t i on 197 2. A c a de m i a 199 3. B ui l di ngs 200 4. E ne r gy S uppl y 205 5. G H G s 207 6. W a t e r 208 7. L a nds c a p e a nd N a t i ve H a bi t a t 209 8. M a t e r i a l s M a na g e m e n t ( W a s t e a nd R e c yc l i ng) 213 9. T r a ns por t a t i on 215 10. F ood R e s our c e s 220 11. P r oc ur e m e nt 222 12. E ndow m e nt I nve s t m e nt 223 C h ap t e r 3: I m p e d i m e n t s t o i m p l e m e n t at i on an d p os s i b l e s ol u t i on s 226 C a m pus L e a de r s hi p S ur v e y 226 O bs t a c l e s a nd S ol ut i ons 231 C O N C L U S I O N S 237 L I T E R A T U R E C I T E D 242 A P P E N D I X 264 A ppe ndi x A : L i s t of U ni ve r s i t y L e a de r s S ur ve ye d 265

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i i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e 1: S um m a r y of A dm i ni s t r a t i ve E f f or t s i n S us t a i na bi l i t y a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 48 T a bl e 2: O ve r vi e w o f A c a de m i c E f f or t s i n S us t a i na bi l i t y a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 64 T a bl e 3: S um m a r y of G r e e n B ui l di ng E f f or t s a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 84 T a bl e 4: S um m a r y of G H G R e duc t i on a nd R e ne w a bl e E n e r gy S uppl y a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 108 T a bl e 5: S um m a r y of W a t e r S uppl y P r e s e r va t i on a nd C ons e r va t i on a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 115 T a bl e 6: O ve r vi e w of L a nds c a pe P r a c t i c e s a nd H a bi t a t P r e s e r va t i on a t E i gh t S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 128 128 T a bl e 7: O ve r vi e w of R e c yc l i ng a nd W a s t e R e duc t i on S t r a t e gi e s a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 140 T a bl e 8: A l t e r na t i ve T r a ns por t a t i on S t r a t e gi e s a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 153 T a bl e 9: S us t a i na bl e F ood R e s our c e S t r a t e gi e s a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 170 T a bl e 10: S us t a i na bl e P ur c ha s i ng S t r a t e gi e s a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 184 T a bl e 11: S us t a i na bl e I n ve s t m e nt S t r a t e gi e s a t E i ght S ubj e c t U ni ve r s i t i e s 193 T a bl e 12: O ve r vi e w of C ur r e nt U S F P ol i c i e s a nd P ot e nt i a l N e xt S t e ps 225

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i v L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i gur e 1: S uppor t ( % ) f o r V a r i ous S us t a i na bi l i t y I ni t i a t i ve s a t U S F 228

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v T O W A R D S R E G E N E R A T I V E D E V E L O P M E N T : A S T R A T E G Y T O I N C R E A S E S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y O F U N I V E R S I T Y C A M P U S E S W I T H A F O C U S O N T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F S O U T H F L O R I D A R i c ha r d K M c D on a l d, I I I A B S T R A C T T he a dm i ni s t r a t i ons of s e ve r a l uni ve r s i t i e s ha v e de ve l ope d s t r a t e gi e s t o r e d uc e t he ne ga t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l e f f e c t s c r e a t e d by t he i r i ns t i t ut i ons B e c a us e no s i ngl e c om pr e he ns i ve m e t hodol ogy t o gui de i ns t i t ut i ons t o s us t a i na bi l i t y e xi s t s t h e s e s t r a t e gi e s r a nge w i de l y i n s c op e A s w e l l t he de f i ni t i o n of s us t a i na bi l i t y di f f e r s f or t he s e va r i ous i ns t i t ut i ons r e s ul t i ng i n s t r a t e gi e s r a ngi ng f r om s m a l l s c a l e r e c yc l i ng pr og r a m s t o m a j or i ni t i a t i ve s t o i nc or por a t e gr e e n bui l di ng a nd r e va m pi ng c ur r i c ul a T hi s s t udy a t t e m pt s t o c r e a t e t he f i r s t c om pr e he n s i ve m e t hodol ogy t o gui de uni ve r s i t y c a m pus e s a nd pr oc e s s e s t o be c om e r e ge n e r at i v e R e ge ne r a t i ve s ys t e m s pr oduc e m or e r e s ou r c e s t ha n ne e d e d, pr ovi de r e s our c e s f o r ot h e r pr oj e c t s a nd e nh a nc e [ t he ] e nvi r onm e nt ( B e r n he i m 2003) a nd a r e s ynonym ous w i t h t h e t r i pl e t op l i ne of s us t a i na bi l i t y pr e s e nt e d b y B r a unga r t a nd M c D onough ( 2002 ) S us t a i na bi l i t y pl a ns of ot he r uni ve r s i t i e s w e r e r e vi e w e d t o de t e r m i ne w ha t s t r a t e gi e s ha v e be e n s uc c e s s f ul f o r t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons T he s e da t a w e r e s ynt he s i z e d t o c r e a t e t he c om pr e he ns i ve m e t hodol ogy. T he m e t hodol ogy i s i nc r e m e nt a l t o a l l ow t i m e f or i ns t i t ut i ons t o a dj us t t he i r f i na nc i a l pl a ns a nd f a c i l i t i e s m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s S ubs e que nt l y, t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da s T a m pa c a m pus ( U S F ) s e r v e d a s a c a s e

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vi s t udy. B u i l di ngs a nd ot h e r i nf r a s t r uc t ur e w e r e r e v i e w e d, a s w e r e t h e c ur r i c ul a buyi ng pr a c t i c e s f ood s e r vi c e a nd ot he r uni ve r s i t y pr oc e s s e s F i na l l y, a s ur ve y w a s pr e s e nt e d t o t he pr i m a r y de c i s i on m a ke r s f or U S F t o i de nt i f y obs t a c l e s t o i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he s u s t a i na bi l i t y m e t hodol o gy. R e c om m e nda t i ons f or ove r c om i ng t he s e obs t a c l e s w e r e t he n be de vi s e d, i nc or po r a t i ng s ol ut i ons de ve l ope d a t ot he r i ns t i t ut i ons a s w e l l a s nove l i de a s

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1 I N T R O D U C T I O N T he i de a of gr e e n, o r s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt i s one t ha t c oul d ge ne r a t e i m por t a nt be ne f i t s t o bot h na t ur a l a nd hum a n e nvi r onm e nt s a t i ni t i a l f i na nc i a l c os t s t ha t a r e o f t e n m i ni m a l S us t a i na bl e de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on pr e s e nt a l t e r na t i ve s t o t he t r a di t i ona l c ons t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s t ha t ha ve l e d t o t he e nvi r on m e n t a l i m pa c t s of bui l di ngs G r e e n bui l di ng c onc e pt s a r e de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s t ha t s i gni f i c a nt l y r e duc e or e l i m i na t e t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t of bui l di ngs on t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd oc c up a nt s ( U S G B C 2005a ) T he 1987 B r und t l a nd C om m i s s i on de f i ne d s us t a i na bi l i t y a s m e e t i ng t he ne e ds of t he pr e s e nt ge ne r a t i on w i t hout c om pr om i s i ng t h e a bi l i t y of f ut ur e g e ne r a t i ons t o m e e t t he i r ow n ne e ds ( M e ndl e r e t a l 2006) V a r i ous l e ve l s of g r e e n d e ve l opm e nt ha ve b e e n d e f i ne d, r a ngi ng f r om l i ght gr e e n t o l i vi ng or r e s t or a t i ve pr oj e c t s L i ght gr e e n p r oj e c t s m ove l i t t l e be yon d c onve nt i ona l c ons t r uc t i on a nd de s i gn m e t hodol ogy a nd t e c hnol ogy. L i vi ng bui l di ngs a r e de s i gne d t o pr oduc e s uf f i c i e nt r e s our c e s f or t h e i r ow n us e w i t hout pol l ut i ng t he e nv i r onm e nt R e s t or a t i ve pr oj e c t s pr od uc e m or e r e s our c e s t ha n ne e de d f or t he i r ow n us e a nd a r e a bl e t o pr ovi de r e s our c e s f o r ot h e r pr oj e c t s ( B e r nh e i m 2003) R e s t or a t i ve or r e ge n e r at i v e bui l di ng pr oj e c t s c a n he l p e s t a bl i s h t he f ounda t i on f or a w hol l y s us t a i na bl e c o m m uni t y. T hi s t he s i s ha s t w o pr i m a r y goa l s F i r s t i t de ve l ops a c om pr e h e ns i ve s e t o f f oc us a r e a s t ha t c a n be vi e w e d a s bot h a m e t hod of as s e s s i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s a nd a s a s e t of

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2 goal s t o be a c hi e ve d by b ui l de r s a nd pl a nne r s s e e k i ng t o de ve l op t r ul y r e ge ne r a t i ve bui l t e nvi r onm e nt s S e c ondl y, i t a ppl i e s t hi s a s s e s s m e nt t ool t o uni v e r s i t y c am pus e s B e c a us e t he y e nc om pa s s hundr e ds of bui l di ngs a n d i nf l ue nc e t hous a nds of pe opl e uni ve r s i t i e s pr ovi de a l og i c a l ve nue i n w hi c h t o s t udy s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s a nd t o pr opos e a s t r a t e gy t o a c hi e ve r e g e ne r a t i ve bui l di ng a nd pl a nni ng goa l s B y r e t r of i t t i ng e xi s t i ng s t r uc t ur e s a nd pl a nni ng ne w bui l di ngs t o i nc l ude gr e e n e l e m e nt s e ne r gy a nd w a t e r c ons um pt i on c a n b e gr e a t l y r e duc e d, l e a di n g t o c os t r e duc t i ons f or t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons O t he r m e a s ur e s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e a i m e d a t bui l di ng i nt e r i or s c a n i nc r e a s e t he pr oduc t i vi t y, pe r f or m a nc e a nd he a l t h of s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f t hus s a vi ng m or e m one y i n he a l t hc a r e c os t s a nd i m pr ovi ng t he s t a ndi ng of a uni ve r s i t y. I nc l udi ng s us t a i na bi l i t y c onc e pt s i n t he ove r a l l c u r r i c ul um c a n r e a c h t hous a nds of s t u de nt s t hus m ovi ng t he c onc e pt s be y ond t he e s ot e r i c F i na l l y, uni ve r s i t i e s t ypi c a l l y e m pl oy a c a d e m i c pr of e s s i ona l s w i t h e xpe r t i s e i n a r e na s t ha t f ur t he r e nha nc e a nd i m pr ove s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s f or c a m pus e s U ni ve r s i t y c a m pus e s a l s o m a ke i de a l r e s e a r c h s i t e s f or ot he r r e a s ons U ni ve r s i t i e s r e t a i n a hi gh de gr e e of c r e di bi l i t y i n t he U S ; t he i r a dopt i on of r e ge n e r a t i ve pr a c t i c e s w i l l m ode l be s t pr a c t i c e s t o ot he r i ns t i t ut i ons a nd t o t he m i l l i ons of s t ude nt s w ho l i ve a nd s t udy on t he i r c a m pus e s e a c h y e a r D ue t o t he pot e nt i a l e c on om i c s oc i a l a nd e nvi r on m e nt a l be ne f i t s s e ve r a l u ni ve r s i t i e s ha ve w e i gh e d pl a ns t o i nc or por a t e s us t a i na bl e e l e m e nt s i nt o pr e s e nt a nd f u t ur e bui l di ng pr oj e c t s M a ny of t he s e ha ve a s of y e t onl y c ond uc t e d a s s e s s m e nt s of t he i r i nf r a s t r uc t ur e s t o de t e r m i ne t he i r pr e s e nt e nvi r on m e nt a l i m pa c t s t he i r m e a s ur e s of

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3 s us t a i na bi l i t y, a nd w ha t t he s e m a y be i n t he f ut ur e T hi s ha s a l l ow e d t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons t o be gi n a dj us t i ng t he i r c a m pus pl a nni ng t o c ons i de r s us t a i na bl e s t r a t e gi e s O t he r s ha ve pr oc e e d e d t o c ons t r uc t i n di vi dua l gr e e n bui l di ngs F i na l l y, a f e w s c hool s ha ve m a de c om m i t m e nt s t o a c hi e vi ng c e r t a i n s t a nd a r ds de v e l ope d by t he U .S G r e e n B u i l di ng C ounc i l ( U S G B C ) f or e a c h ne w bui l di ng c ons t r uc t e d on t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c a m pus e s T he U S G B C i s ge ne r a l l y r e c o gni z e d a s t he pr e e m i ne nt or ga ni z a t i on f o r gr e e n bu i l di ng i n t he U .S H ow e ve r no s i ngl e t ool f or a s s e s s i ng t he s us t a i na bl e e l e m e nt s of a c a m pus ha s be e n c hos e n by t hos e uni ve r s i t i e s t ha t ha ve c ondu c t e d a s s e s s m e nt s T hi s t he s i s t he r e f o r e pr opos e s a c om pr e he ns i v e a s s e s s m e nt m ode l ba s e d on t he va r i ous i ns t r um e nt s c ur r e nt l y us e d by uni ve r s i t i e s a nd pr i va t e c om pa ni e s T h e L E E D ( L e a de r s hi p i n E n e r gy a nd E nvi r onm e nt a l D e s i gn) g r e e n bui l di ng r a t i ng s ys t e m de ve l ope d by t he U S G B C i s us e d i n s e ve r a l o f t he s e a s s e s s m e nt s a s t he be nc hm a r k f or s us t a i na bl e de s i gn; L E E D i s w i de l y a c c e pt e d a s t he c ur r e nt be s t pr a c t i c e f or gr e e n bui l di ng. M os t i f not a l l o f t he s e a s s e s s m e nt s how e ve r ha ve be e n b a s e d on t he L E E D gui de l i ne s f or ne w c o ns t r uc t i on a nd m a j or r e nova t i ons ( L E E D N C ) a nd di r e c t e d t ow a r d ne w bui l di ngs O ne p or t i on of t he L E E D pr ogr a m t ha t h a s not be e n s pe c i f i c a l l y i nc or por a t e d i nt o s om e of t h e s e a s s e s s m e nt s or s t r a t e gi e s i s L E E D E B t he r a t i ng s ys t e m f or e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs A s i ns t i t ut i ons f oc us on f ut ur e c ons t r u c t i on, i m pr ove m e nt s t o t he e xt a nt phys i c a l s t r uc t ur e s ha v e of t e n be e n ove r l ooke d; how e v e r s o m e s c hool s a r e b e gi nni ng t o a ddr e s s t hi s a r e a

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4 S i m i l a r l y, no m e t hodol o gy t o gui de c a m pus e s t o be c om e s us t a i na bl e a f t e r c om pl e t i on of a s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt ha s ga i ne d w i de s pr e a d a c c e pt a nc e T he U S G B C i t s e l f ha s de ve l ope d a gui d e f or c a m pus e s but t hi s i s ba s e d on t he L E E D N C c r i t e r i a a nd f oc us e s on t he c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s f or m ul t i pl e bui l di ngs ; i t doe s not e va l ua t e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he ope r a t i ons of t he c a m pus a s a w hol e F i na l l y, a nd of m os t c ons e que n c e t o t hi s s t udy, no s t r a t e gy t o gui de c a m pus e s t o be c om e r e ge ne r a t i ve h a s be e n a t t e m p t e d. T he t e ne t s of r e g e ne r a t i ve de ve l opm e nt of f e r s ol ut i ons t o t he m ount i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s c r e a t e d or e xa c e r ba t e d by t he bui l t e nvi r onm e nt T hough i t i s t he ni nt h l a r ge s t uni ve r s i t y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ( by e nr ol l m e nt ) a nd t he t hi r d l a r ge s t i n F l or i da t he U n i ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da ( U S F ) ha s done l i t t l e t o r e duc e i t s e c ol ogi c a l f oot pr i nt T he m a i n c a m pus i n T a m pa c a m pus c ove r s ove r 1,50 0 a c r e s a nd bui l di ng f oot pr i nt s a l one e nc om pa s s a pp r oxi m a t e l y 10% of t he s i t e A c c or di ng t o U S F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on, 28 ne w s t r uc t ur e s ha ve b e e n pr opos e d f or c ons t r uc t i on ove r t he n e x t de c a de ( U S F 2006a ) T he phys i c a l s i z e a nd e nr o l l m e nt num be r s of t he s c hool c o ul d m a ke t he pot e nt i a l e n vi r onm e nt a l i m pr ove m e n t s a nd e c onom i c ga i ns a c c r u e q ui c kl y T he r e f or e a s t udy t o c r e a t e a pl a n f o r r e g e ne r a t i ve de ve l opm e nt t ha t c oul d b e i m pl e m e nt e d a t U S F or a ny ot he r uni ve r s i t y, pa r t i c ul a r l y s c hool s t ha t ha ve no s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a n, w a s c ond uc t e d. T he pr i m a r y obj e c t i ve of t hi s s t udy i s t o c r e a t e t he f i r s t c om pr e he ns i v e m e t hodol ogy t o gui de uni ve r s i t i e s a nd s i m i l a r i ns t i t ut i ons t o be c om e r e ge n e r a t i ve pl a c e s T he T a m pa c a m pus of U S F s e r ve s a s t he t e s t s i t e f or a nd a ppl yi ng a nd e va l ua t i ng t he m e t hodol ogy.

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5 T he i ni t i a l s t e p w i t hi n t hi s s t udy i s t o r e vi e w t he p r a c t i c e s o f a s a m pl e o f u ni ve r s i t i e s t ha t ha ve be gun t o i m pl e m e nt s t r a t e gi e s t o be c om e m o r e s us t a i na bl e U s i ng t he s e a s w e l l a s pr i nc i pl e s of r e g e ne r a t i ve de s i gn a nd t he c r i t e r i a w i t hi n t he L E E D r a t i ng s ys t e m s t hi s r e s e a r c h c r e a t e s a s t r a t e g y t o l e a d c a m pus e s t o be c om e r e g e ne r a t i ve ( t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy) T he s t udy t he n r e vi e w s t he s us t a i na bl e e l e m e nt s of t he c u r r e nt U S F c a m pus N e xt t he r e s e a r c h a ppl i e s t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy t o U S F t o de m ons t r a t e i t s a ppl i c a t i on. A pa r t f r om t he S us t a i na bl e E ndow m e nt s I ns t i t ut e r e vi e w of U S F i n i t s C ol l e ge S us t a i na bi l i t y R e por t C a r d, t hi s e f f or t i s t h e onl y c om pr e he ns i v e a s s e s s m e nt of t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of U S F F ur t he r t hi s a l s o t he f i r s t e f f or t t o gui de U S F t o s us t a i na bi l i t y. F i na l l y, t he t he s i s e xa m i ne s o bs t a c l e s t o i m pl e m e nt a t i on of gr e e n s t r a t e gi e s a nd pot e nt i a l s ol ut i ons t o ove r c om e t he s e obs t a c l e s

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6 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W S u s t ai n a b i l i t y D e f i n e d S us t a i na bi l i t y i s a s om e w ha t ne bul ous c onc e pt ; of t e nt i m e s i t i s us e r de f i ne d. N um e r ous a t t e m pt s t o de f i ne t he t e r m ha ve be e n m a de a nd m a ny pa pe r s h a ve be e n w r i t t e n t o a ddr e s s t hi s c om pl e x i s s ue ( e .g., B r ow n e t a l 1987 ; S he a r m a n 1990; F r a z i e r 1997; P a r r i s a nd K a t e s 2003) A c om m onl y us e d de f i ni t i on of s us t a i na bi l i t y w a s pr ovi de d i n t he 1987 r e por t of t he B r undt l a nd C om m i s s i on, a gr oup c onve ne d by t he U ni t e d N a t i ons t o r e s pond t o i nt e r na t i ona l e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s A c c or di ng t o t he C om m i s s i on, s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e n t i s de ve l opm e nt t ha t m e e t s t he ne e ds of t h e pr e s e nt w i t hout c om pr om i s i ng t he a bi l i t y of f ut ur e g e n e r a t i ons t o m e e t t he i r ow n ne e ds ( B r undt l a nd C om m i s s i on 1987) H e s ( 2005) not e s t ha t t hi s de f i ni t i on i s pr obl e m a t i c a s i t vi e w s de ve l opm e nt s t r i c t l y f r o m a hum a n pe r s pe c t i ve H ow e ve r de ve l opm e nt i s a hum a n a c t i vi t y a nd i t s e f f e c t s m us t be put i nt o a hu m a n c ont e xt f or m e a ni ngf ul di s c us s i on t o oc c ur M or e ove r t h e B r undt l a nd de f i ni t i on doe s not pr e c l ude a ny p r ot e c t i ons f or ot he r s pe c i e s ; i n f a c t i t c a n be a r gue d t ha t t he a bi l i t y of f ut ur e [ hum a n] ge n e r a t i ons t o m e e t t he i r ow n ne e ds w oul d l i ke l y be c om pr om i s e d i f ot he r s pe c i e s a r e h a r m e d. T he B r undt l a nd C om m i s s i on s de f i ni t i on i s a c c e p t a bl e a s a br o a d ba s e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i on of s us t a i na bi l i t y, but o t he r s ha ve c r e a t e d t he i r ow n m or e s pe c i f i c de f i ni t i ons of t he c onc e pt A not he r r e gul a r l y us e d s e t of c r i t e r i a t o de f i ne s us t a i na bl e p r a c t i c e i s know n a s t he t r i pl e bot t om l i ne , pr e s e nt e d by E l ki ngt on ( 1997) A l ong w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l bot t om l i ne of e c onom i c gr ow t h, E l ki ngt on pr opos e d t ha t m ode r n bus i ne s s a nd

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7 de ve l opm e nt s houl d m e e t goa l s f or e nvi r onm e n t a l pr ot e c t i on a nd s oc i a l e q ui t y. T he U ni ve r s i t y L e a de r s f or a S us t a i na bl e F ut ur e ( U L S F ) c om bi ne bot h t he B r undt l a nd de f i ni t i on a nd t he t r i pl e b ot t om l i ne l a be l i ng s us t a i na bl e a c t i vi t i e s a s t hos e w hi c h a r e e c ol ogi c a l l y s ound, s oc i a l l y j us t a nd e c onom i c a l l y vi a bl e a nd w i l l c ont i nue t o be s o f or f ut ur e ge ne r a t i ons ( U L S F 2007a ) T he t r i pl e bot t om l i ne ha s be gun t o de f i ne bot h l ong t e r m s t r a t e gy a nd e v e r yda y pr a c t i c e f or l e a di ng m a nu f a c t ur i n g c or por a t i ons a l l ove r t he w or l d ( M c D onough a nd B r a unga r t 2 002) A s H e s ( 2005 ) i ndi c a t e s how e v e r E l ki ngt on s vi e w e qua l l y va l u e s a l l t hr e e c a t e gor i e s A n a l t e r n a t i ve vi e w i s t ha t t he e nvi r on m e nt i s t he m os t i m por t a nt of t he t hr e e a s i t c ont a i ns bot h s oc i e t y a nd t he e c onom y ( G i bs on e t a l 2005) I n t ur n, s oc i e t y i s m or e i m por t a nt t ha n t he e c ono m i c f a c t or s f o r w i t hout s oc i e t y t he e c onom y w oul d not e xi s t ( H e s 2005; G i bs on e t a l 2005) W i l l i a m M c D onough, one of t he f o r e m os t a r c hi t e c t s i n t he w or l d, a nd hi s c he m i s t c ol l e a gue M i c h a e l B r a un ga r t t a ke t he i de a o f t he t r i pl e bot t om l i ne t o a not he r l e ve l T h e y s e e t he t r i pl e bot t om l i ne a s a us e f ul s t a r t i ng poi nt but one t ha t m e r e l y e xt e nds t he l i ve s of c onve nt i ona l i ndus t r i a l a nd bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e s ( M c D onough a nd B r a ung a r t 2002) T he y s t a t e t ha t m os t s t r a t e gi e s f or s us t a i na bi l i t y m e r e l y m e e t m i ni m a l c ond i t i ons f or s ur vi va l f oc us i ng on e n d of pi pe r e s ul t s i ns t e a d of t r ue i nnova t i on ( M c D onough a nd B r a unga r t 2002) I ns t e a d t he y pr opos e a n e w pa r a di gm t he t r i pl e t op l i ne a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s s us t a i ni ng de ve l o pm e nt T he goa l of t r i pl e t op l i ne s t r a t e gi e s i s t o c r e a t e a ne w de s i gn s t a nda r d t ha t f o c u s e s on t he i nt e nt i ons of t he pr oj e c t a nd t he n pl a ns f or pos i t i ve

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8 out c om e s t ha t m e e t t he t hr e e f a c t or s ; i .e ., p r oduc t s a r e de s i gne d t o e nha nc e t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd h um a n c ul t ur e s w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y ge ne r a t i ng e c onom i c va l ue ( M c D onough a nd B r a un ga r t 2002) T he s e pr odu c t s w oul d i nc l ude bui l di ngs a nd bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s G r e e n B u i l d i n g an d S u s t ai n ab i l i t y S t r at e gi e s R e t hi nki ng bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on a nd de s i gn i s i m por t a nt f r om a n e nvi r on m e nt a l pe r s pe c t i ve du e t o t he m a j or i m pa c t s bui l di ngs ha ve on t he na t ur a l e nvi r on m e nt R oodm a n a nd L e ns s e n ( 1 995) poi nt out t ha t 55% of t he w ood ha r v e s t e d f o r non f ue l us e s i s f or bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on a nd t ha t bui l di ngs us e 40% of t he w or l d's m a t e r i a l s a nd e ne r gy. S i m i l a r s t udi e s r e ve a l t ha t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on a nd ope r a t i on a r e r e s pons i bl e f or 30% of t ot a l w a s t e o ut put ( 60% of non i ndus t r i a l w a s t e ) 12% of pot a bl e w a t e r c o ns um pt i on, a nd 65% of e l e c t r i c i t y us e ( U S E P A 20 04; U S G B C 2007) B ui l di ngs a l s o a c c ount f or a pp r oxi m a t e l y 50% of t he t ot a l c hl or of l uor oc a r bons ( C F C s ) pr oduc e d a nd 33 % of t he C O 2 e m i t t e d ( R oodm a n a nd L e ns s e n 199 5) S t udi e s on C a na di a n bui l di ngs r e f l e c t s i m i l a r e nvi r onm e nt a l e f f e c t s ( L uc ui k e t a l 200 5) A nd a s L uc ui k e t a l ( 2005) not e t he s e f i gur e s do not i nc l ude t he e ne r gy a nd pol l ut a nt s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t r a ns por t a t i on a nd pr oduc t i on of t he bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s T he qua l i t y of i ndoor e nvi r onm e nt s a l s o ha s t r e m e ndous i m pa c t s on bui l di ng oc c upa n t s B ot h t he U S E P A ( M e ndl e r e t a l 2 006 ) a nd t he R oodm a n a nd L e ns s e n ( 1995) p a pe r r e ve a l t ha t 30 33% of a l l bui l di ngs ha ve s i c k bui l di ng s yndr om e , a c ondi t i on i n w hi c h bui l di ng oc c upa nt s a r e e xpos e d t o s t a l e m ol d l a de n, or c h e m i c a l l y t oxi c a i r

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9 D ue t o t he s c ope a nd br e a dt h of t he i m pa c t s of bu i l di ngs on t he e nvi r onm e nt gr e e n bui l di ng ha s be c om e a m a j or c om pone nt w i t hi n m a ny s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s T he e xpr e s s i ons s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt , s m a r t bu i l di ng, a nd gr e e n bui l di ng a r e o f t e n us e d i nt e r c ha ng e a bl y i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ; t hi s pa pe r w i l l r e f e r t o bot h gr e e n bu i l di ng a nd s us t a i na bl e de v e l opm e n t s ynonym ous l y. A s w i t h s us t a i na bi l i t y, how e v e r c l e a r l y de f i ni ng gr e e n bui l di ng i s a c ha l l e nge T he U ni t e d S t a t e s G r e e n B ui l di ng C ounc i l ( U S G B C ) s t a t e s t ha t t he i r goa l f or gr e e n bui l di ngs i s t o s i gni f i c a nt l y r e duc e or e l i m i na t e t he ne ga t i ve i m pa c t of bu i l di ngs on t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd on t he bui l di ng oc c upa nt s ( U S G B C 2005a ) T he C a l i f or ni a I nt e g r a t e d W a s t e M a na ge m e nt B oa r d ( 20 07) de f i ne s a gr e e n bui l di ng a s a s t r uc t ur e t ha t i s de s i gne d, bui l t r e nova t e d, ope r a t e d, o r r e us e d i n a n e c ol ogi c a l a nd r e s our c e e f f i c i e nt m a nne r . C om pl i c a t i ng t he c onc e p t of gr e e n bui l di ng i s t he f a c t t ha t va r i ous pr a c t i t i o ne r s a r e i nvol ve d a nd a l l ha ve t he i r i ndi vi d ua l i de a s of w ha t c ons t i t ut e s gr e e n. P r oj e c t s r un f r om l i ght gr e e n t o r e s t or a t i ve or r e ge ne r a t i ve a nd a ny of t he s e m a y b e l a be l e d a s gr e e n de v e l opm e nt L i g ht gr e e n r e f e r s t o pr oj e c t s t ha t i ns t i t ut e m i ni m a l e nvi r onm e nt a l l y be ne f i c i a l t e c hnol ogy, or c a n e ve n be us e d a s a s ubs t i t ut e f or gr e e nw a s hi ng. M a ny ha ve c hos e n not t o a t t e m pt a de f i ni t i on, c i t i ng i ns t e a d s e ve r a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of g r e e n b ui l di ng a nd not i ng t ha t t h e c onc e pt i s i m pr e c i s e a n d f l ui d. F or e xa m pl e i n t he i r 2005 pr e s e nt a t i on on C a na di a n g r e e n bui l di ngs L uc ui k e t a l l i s t 25 c om m on gr e e n bui l di ng t r a i t s w i t hi n f i ve c a t e go r i e s T he num be r o f t he s e t r a i t s f ound i n a bui l di ng, a nd t he r e f o r e i t s gr e e nne s s , i s de p e nde nt on s pe c i f i c s i t e f i s c a l a nd ope r a t i ona l pa r a m e t e r s ( L uc ui k e t a l 2005)

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10 R e ge ne r a t i ve bui l di ngs or pr oj e c t s a r e t hos e t ha t p r oduc e m or e r e s ou r c e s t h a n ne e d e d f or t he i r ow n us e a nd a r e c a p a bl e of pr ovi di ng r e s our c e s bot h f or ot he r p r oj e c t s a nd t o e nha nc e t he na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt ( B e r nhe i m 2003) T he s us t a i ni ng de s i g n of M c D onough a nd B r a ung a r t c a n b e c ons i de r e d s yn onym ous w i t h r e ge ne r a t i ve de s i gn. R e ge ne r a t i ve de s i gn i s pl a c e b a s e d: t ha t i s i t us e s t he e xi s t i ng na t ur a l i n f r a s t r uc t u r e a nd c ondi t i ons i n t he de s i gn i ns t e a d of m ol di ng t he s i t e t o f i t t he ne e ds of t h e de ve l opm e nt ( H a gg a r d 2 002) T e ne t s of a ny r e g e ne r a t i ve de s i gn pr oj e c t i n c l ude e l i m i na t i on of w a s t e us e of r e c y c l e d a nd s a l va ge d m a t e r i a l s on s i t e f ood p r oduc t i on, m a xi m i z a t i on of pa s s i ve s ol a r s t r a t e gi e s t r e a t m e n t a nd r e us e o f a l l w a s t e w a t e r on s i t e a nd pr oduc t i on of a l l po w e r t hr ough r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy. I n J a nu a r y 2008, de ve l opm e nt of w ha t m a y be t he f i r s t r e g e ne r a t i ve c i t y i n t he w or l d w a s a nnounc e d. M a s da r C i t y i n A bu D ha bi U A E i s pl a nne d t o be t he f i r s t z e r o c a r bon z e r o w a s t e c a r f r e e c i t y i n t he w or l d ( M a s da r I ni t i a t i ve 2008 ) E qui t y a nd f a i r t r a d e us e of s us t a i na bl e m a t e r i a l s i n c ons t r uc t i on, or ga ni c f oo d, s us t a i na bl e w a t e r s upp l i e s a nd pr e s e r va t i on of ha bi t a t s a nd r a r e s p e c i e s a r e ot he r goa l s of t hi s de s i gn ( M a s da r I ni t i a t i ve 2008 ) B e n e f i t s of G r e e n B u i l d i n g S om e be l i e ve t he c on c e p t s of gr e e n bui l di ng a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y a r e oxym or oni c or m yt hs F r a z i e r ( 1997 ) not e s t ha t t he m ode r n pa r a di gm of hum a n s oc i e t i e s i s f oc us e d on f i s c a l a nd phys i c a l gr ow t h, a nd t ha t s us t a i na bl e de ve l op m e nt i n i t s c ur r e nt gui s e a c t ua l l y r e f e r s t o m a i nt a i ni ng t he pr oc e s s of gr ow t h. U nt i l t hi s w or l dvi e w i s a l t e r e d, e s p e c i a l l y t o t he poi nt t ha t w e a l t hy na t i ons a r e w i l l i ng t o r e l i nqui s h s om e e c onom i c pow e r a nd c om f or t t o e nha nc e poor e r na t i ons ( i .e ., r e s t r a i n g r ow t h) s t r a t e gi e s f or s us t a i na bi l i t y i nc l udi ng gr e e n

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11 bui l di ng w i l l r e m a i n m e r e l y f a s hi ona bl e a nd p r ovi de no r e a l be n e f i t s ( F r a z i e r 1997 ) F r a z i e r c ont i nue s l a be l i n g t he c onc e pt o f s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt onl y a n a s pi r a t i on t ha t unt i l c l e a r l y de f i ne d a nd m e a s ur a bl e c a nnot be a ppl i e d e f f e c t i ve l y t o s c i e nt i f i c or t e c hni c a l a c t i vi t i e s S om e gr e e n bui l di ng pr ogr a m s a r e t r yi ng t o do j us t t ha t how e ve r G r e e n bui l di ng pr e s e nt s m a ny e nvi r onm e nt a l s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c b e ne f i t s w i t h f e w dr a w ba c ks I nc r e a s e d c o s t s a r e of t e n c i t e d by c r i t i c s of gr e e n bui l di ng a s a pr i m a r y i m pe di m e nt t o i t s i m p l e m e nt a t i on. R e s e a r c h s ho w s t he s e s t r a t e gi e s t o be c os t e f f e c t i ve how e ve r p a r t i c ul a r l y i n t he l ong t e r m O ne s t udy of 33 gr e e n bui l di ngs i n C a l i f or ni a r e ve a l e d t ha t f or a n a ve r a ge 2% c os t pr e m i um ove r c onve nt i ona l s t r uc t ur e s t he s e gr e e n bui l di ngs w oul d s a ve t e n t i m e s t ha t a m ount ove r t he l i f e of t he bui l di ng ( K a t s e t a l 2003) F ur t he r M a t t hi e s s e n a nd M or r i s ( 2004, c i t e d i n L uc ui k e t a l 2005) c om pa r e d 45 gr e e n bui l di n gs t o 93 c on ve nt i ona l s t r uc t ur e s a nd de t e r m i ne d no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e i n t he c os t s of c ons t r uc t i on. I m por t a nt l y, t he y f i nd m a ny pr oj e c t s c a n a c hi e v e s us t a i na bl e de s i gn w i t hi n t he i r i ni t i a l budge t or w i t h a ve r y s m a l l s uppl e m e nt a l f undi ng ( M a t t hi e s s e n a nd M or r i s 2004, i n L uc ui k e t a l 2005) O t he r s t udi e s ha v e i ndi c a t e d t ha t 60 85% of a bui l di ng s t ot a l c os t s a r e i n ope r a t i o ns a nd m a i nt e na nc e ; c on s t r uc t i on c os t s a r e onl y a pp r oxi m a t e l y 1 0% ( N a t i ona l A c a de m i e s 1999) F i na nc i a l i nc e nt i ve s a r e a l s o be i ng of f e r e d f o r gr e e n b ui l di ngs i n t he f or m s of s ubs i di e s a nd t a x c r e di t s a nd pe r m i t s i n s om e m uni c i pa l i t i e s a nd c ount i e s a r e f a s t t r a c ke d f or gr e e n c ons t r u c t i on pr oj e c t s ( G ot t f r i e d 2003)

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12 F ur t he r m a ny gr e e n de s i gn e l e m e nt s ha ve b e e n s h ow n t o i m pr ove oc c upa nt he a l t h a nd pr oduc t i vi t y, w hi c h c a n d e c r e a s e m e di c a l c os t s a n d i nc r e a s e pr of i t a bi l i t y. L uc ui k e t a l ( 2005) not e t ha t s om e i ns ur a nc e c om pa ni e s o f f e r l ow e r pr e m i um s f or bui l di ngs t ha t i nc or por a t e g r e e n s t r a t e gi e s be c a us e oc c upa nt s of t he i m pr ove d he a l t h of o c c upa nt s of t he s e bui l di ngs B e c a us e pa yr ol l c os t s a r e m u c h h i ghe r t ha n bui l di ng ope r a t i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e c os t s a ny i nc r e a s e i n w or ke r pr odu c t i vi t y w i l l c onc om i t a nt l y i m pr ove pr of i t a bi l i t y; L uc ui k e t a l ( 2005) de t e r m i ne t h a t a 1% i nc r e a s e i n pr o duc t i v i t y t r a ns l a t e s t o a n i m pr ove m e nt of $2. 00/ s qua r e f oot a nnu a l l y. S i m i l a r pr oduc t i vi t y ga i n s ha ve be e n obs e r ve d i n a c a de m i c s e t t i ngs A n e xa m i na t i on of s t ude nt pe r f or m a n c e c on duc t e d by t he H e s c hong M a hon e G r ou p r e ve a l e d t ha t s t ude nt s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h da yl i ght i ng pe r f or m e d a t l e ve l s up t o 20% hi ghe r t ha n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e t a ught i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h m i ni m a l or no da yl i ght i n g ( M e ndl e r e t a l 2006) G r e e n B u i l d i n g O r gan i z at i on s A s t he popul a r i t y of gr e e n bui l di ng ha s i nc r e a s e d, s e ve r a l s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng or ga ni z a t i ons ha v e a r i s e n T he s e gr oups i nc l ude t he E c ol ogi c a l B ui l di ng N e t w or k, t he H e a l t hy B ui l di ng N e t w or k, a nd t he N e w B ui l di ngs I ns t i t ut e M os t of t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons a r e a t t e m pt i ng t o c ha ng e t he phi l os ophy dr i vi ng t h e w a y s t r uc t ur e s a r e de s i gn e d a nd bui l t s o t ha t t he i m pa c t s t o t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd f ut ur e g e ne r a t i ons w i l l be m i ni m a l O f t he pr opone nt s of gr e e n bui l di ng t ha t ha ve e m e r g e d, t he U ni t e d S t a t e s G r e e n B ui l di ng C ounc i l ( U S G B C ) i s pe r ha ps t he m os t e s t a bl i s he d a nd r e s pe c t e d. T he U S G B C w a s f ounde d i n 1993, a nd i t s m e m be r s hi p i s a c ons or t i um of a r c hi t e c t s e ngi ne e r s l a nds c a pe a r c hi t e c t s d e ve l ope r s a c a de m i c s gove r nm e nt r e p r e s e nt a t i ve s a nd m a nuf a c t ur e r s

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13 M or e ove r t he U S G B C ha s c r e a t e d a nd i ns t i t ut e d a c om pr e h e ns i ve c ons e n s us ba s e d gr e e n bui l di ng e va l ua t i on pr oc e s s t he L E E D ( L e a de r s hi p i n E ne r gy a nd E n vi r onm e nt a l D e s i gn) bui l di ng c e r t i f i c a t i on pr ogr a m S om e s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng a s s oc i a t i ons how e ve r ha ve be e n c r e a t e d by d e v e l ope r s a nd c ons t r uc t i on m a t e r i a l m a nuf a c t ur e r s t ha t us e t r a di t i ona l de s i gn a nd t e c hni q ue s i nt e gr a t i ng f e w g r e e n f e a t ur e s T he s e c om pa ni e s gi ve t he a pp e a r a nc e o f b e i ng gr e e n w i t hout pr ovi di ng s ubs t a nt i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t ( C oc kr a m 2006 ) T h i s s t r a t e gy, know n a s gr e e nw a s hi ng, l e t s a pr oj e c t us i ng pr a c t i c e s t ha t a r e l e s s e nvi r o nm e nt a l l y s ound r e a p t he f i na nc i a l r e w a r ds o f t he bur ge oni ng de m a nd f or g r e e n bui l di ngs T he G r e e n B ui l di ng I ni t i a t i ve ( G B I ) i s t he be s t know n e xa m pl e of t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons G B I w a s f ounde d i n 2004 a nd ha s be e n pr i m a r i l y f unde d by pl a s t i c s a nd t i m be r i ndus t r y t r a de gr oups a s w e l l a s t he ho m e bui l di ng i ndus t r y ( W a l s h 2006) G B I ha s de v e l ope d t he G r e e n G l obe s s t a nda r d s w hi c h a r e p r i m a r i l y w a t e r e d dow n L E E D c r i t e r i a ( R a i nf or e s t A c t i on N e t w or k 2005) H ow e ve r w i t h G B I m e m be r s hi p i n c l udi ng r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of s e ve r a l H om e B ui l de r A s s oc i a t i ons c he m i c a l c om pa ni e s ( e .g., D O W C he m i c a l ) a nd t he w ood i ndus t r y ( e .g., G e o r gi a P a c i f i c ) G r e e n G l ob e s i s ga i ni ng pr om i ne nc e a nd c r e di bi l i t y na t i onw i de ( W a l s h 2006) L E E D B e n e f i t s an d C r i t i c i s m s T he pr i m a r y a dv a nt a ge o f t he L E E D r a t i ng s ys t e m ove r ot he r s i s t ha t i t of f e r s a r e f e r e n c e s t a nda r d t ha t i s w e l l e s t a bl i s he d a nd w e l l s uppor t e d by t he de s i gn i ndus t r y ( U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t B e r ke l e y 2002) L E E D w a s de v e l ope d vi a t he c ons e ns us of a

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14 gr oup of a r c hi t e c t s e ngi n e e r s hom e bui l de r s e c ol o gi s t s a nd ot he r m e m be r s of t he U S G B C T he f i r s t L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on c r i t e r i a w e r e r e l e a s e d i n 1998, a nd L E E D f or N e w C ons t r uc t i on a nd M a j or R e nova t i on pr oj e c t s i s c u r r e nt l y i n i t s f our t h i t e r a t i on ( ve r s i on 2.2) T he di ve r s e m a ke up of t he U S G B C ha s he l pe d t he c r i t e r i a r e m a i n s t r i nge nt a nd r e duc e g r e e nw a s hi ng. L E E D c r e a t e s s pe c i f i c e nv i r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e c r i t e r i a f o r bui l di ngs a nd de ve l opm e nt s t o a c hi e ve c e r t i f i c a t i o n a nd t he r e f or e a hi ghe r de gr e e o f s us t a i na bi l i t y. T he U S G B C r e c ogni z i ng t ha t not a l l de ve l opm e nt s c a n b e c a t e gor i z e d t oge t he r ha s de v e l ope d L E E D c r i t e r i a f or a va r i e t y of pr oj e c t s : N e w C on s t r uc t i on a nd M a j or R e nova t i ons ( N C ) E xi s t i ng B ui l d i ngs ( E B ) C om m e r c i a l I nt e r i or s ( C I ) e t c E a c h s ys t e m r e w a r ds e a r l y i nc or por a t i on of gr e e n e l e m e nt s i nt o a pr oj e c t a nd v a l ue s hol i s t i c de s i gn of bui l di ngs L E E D how e v e r i s not w i t hout i t s f l a w s A s L e w i s ( 2006) poi nt s out t he c ons e ns us ba s e d a ppr o a c h us e d i n de ve l opi ng L E E D s t a nda r ds ha s l e d t o s e ve r a l c om pr om i s e s w i t h m a nuf a c t ur e r s w hos e pr oduc t s i t [ t he U S G B C ] s houl d ha ve ba nne d. F or e xa m pl e he de t a i l s a c ont r ove r s y i n w hi c h t he U S G B C de c i d e d not t o a w a r d c r e di t f o r e l i m i na t i ng t he us e of pol yvi nyl c hl or i de ( P V C ) i n bui l di ngs de s pi t e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l l y u nt e na bl e pr oc e s s r e qui r e d t o m a nu f a c t ur e i t ( L e w i s 2006) T hi s de c i s i on w a s r e a c he d a f t e r i nt e ns e l obbyi ng f r om t he vi nyl i ndus t r y ( L e w i s 2006) F ur t he r s hor t c om i ngs a n d di f f i c ul t i e s w i t h L E E D a r e de s c r i be d by t w o g r e e n bui l de r s one of w hom i s a L E E D A c c r e di t e d P r of e s s i ona l A ude n S c he ndl e r a nd R a ndy U da l l ( 2005) be l i e ve t h a t L E E D s c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s i s ove r l y c om pl e x, e xpe n s i ve a nd t i m e

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15 c ons um i ng, t hus di s c our a gi ng m a ny bui l de r s f r om put t i ng i t i nt o pr a c t i c e C os t s t o pr e pa r e a nd s ubm i t t he r e qui r e d pa pe r w or k c a n of t e n t a ke a w a y f undi ng f o r ot he r gr e e n e l e m e nt s t ha t c oul d ot he r w i s e be i nc or po r a t e d i nt o t he bui l di ng s de s i gn ( S c he ndl e r a nd U da l l 2005) A l s o, de s i g n pr of e s s i ona l s a nd d e ve l ope r s c a n poi nt m onge r : i ns t e a d of c r e a t i ng a s t r u c t ur e m or e s e ns i t i ve t o t he e nvi r onm e nt t he goa l of t he de s i g n a nd bui l di ng gr oup be c om e s f oc us e d o n e a r ni ng c r e di t s r e g a r dl e s s of w he t he r t he y a c t ua l l y a dd e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s ( S c he ndl e r a nd U da l l 2005) A s a r e s ul t a bui l di ng c a n a c h i e ve L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on t hough not be ve r y gr e e n. T he a ut hor s c i t e a pr oj e c t i n B oul de r C ol or a do i n w hi c h a r e c r e a t i on c e nt e r r e c e i ve d a n A l t e r na t i ve T r a ns por t a t i o n c r e di t f or i ns t a l l i ng a n e l e c t r i c ve hi c l e r e c ha r gi ng s t a t i on. H ow e ve r a t t he t i m e of t h e w r i t i ng, onl y s i x e l e c t r i c ve hi c l e s i n t he c i t y c oul d be c h a r ge d a t t he s i t e a nd t he c ha r gi ng s t a t i on w a s be i ng us e d l e s s t ha n onc e a nnua l l y ( S c he ndl e r a nd U da l l 2005) C r i t i c s a l s o c l a i m t ha t L E E D ove r l ooks c l i m a t i c a n d ot he r di f f e r e nc e s a m on g r e gi o ns a nd t ha t t he poi nt s ys t e m r e nde r s s om e o f t he c r i t e r i a m e a ni ngl e s s ( L e w i s 2006) U da l l a nd S c he ndl e r ( 20 05) poi nt t o t he f a c t t ha t one of t he i r pr oj e c t s r e c e i ve d a c r e di t f or r e duc i ng t he he a t i s l a nd e f f e c t vi a a r e f l e c t i ve r oof e ve n t hough t he pr o j e c t s i t e w a s f a r r e m ove d f r om ur ba n a r e a s ne s t l e d hi gh i n t he R oc ky M ount a i ns S t i l l o t he r s s uc h a s B i l l W a l s h of t he H e a l t h y B ui l di ngs N e t w or k, not e t ha t L E E D i s not e nt i r e l y s c i e nc e ba s e d a nd c a n t he r e f or e c r e a t e c onf l i c t s w i t h e nvi r onm e nt a l pol i c y goa l s ( L e w i s 2006) D e s pi t e t he s e c r i t i c i s m s L E E D i s be t t e r f o r t hi s r e s e a r c h t h a n ot he r m e t hod s t ha t ha ve be e n c r e a t e d. L E E D r e m a i ns t he be nc hm a r k f or g r e e n bui l di ng i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd

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16 e ve n t he c r i t i c s s e e m a ny pos i t i ve s i n t he s ys t e m S c he ndl e r a nd U da l l ( 20 05) poi nt out t ha t e ve n w i t h t he f l a w s t he y ha ve not e d, L E E D h a s c r e a t e d m om e nt um f or publ i c i t y a bout a nd a br o a de r g e n e r a l know l e dg e of gr e e n bui l di ng. L E E D i s a pr ove n s ys t e m t ha t ha s be e n i m pl e m e nt e d i n hundr e ds of bui l di ngs na t i onw i de a l l ow i ng i t t o be r e f i n e d a nd i m pr ove d ( B ow e n 2005) O t he r s obs e r v e t ha t L E E D i s but one m e t hod t o e va l ua t e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a s pe c t s of bui l di ng de s i gn, a nd l i ke a l l t ool s m us t be w i e l de d a ppr opr i a t e l y ( L e w i s 2006) A nd, i t s r i gor ous s t a nda r ds a nd w i d e s pr e a d a c c e pt a n c e ha v e he l pe d e xpa nd t he m a r k e t pl a c e f or gr e e n bui l di ng a s w e l l a s c ur b gr e e nw a s hi ng ( B ow e n 2005; L e w i s 2006) F i na l l y, t he U S G B C i s l i s t e ni ng t o t he c r i t i c i s m s l e vi e d a t L E E D T h e r a t i ng s ys t e m f or ne w c ons t r uc t i on ( L E E D N C ) r e l e a s e d i n l a t e 20 06, i s pr e s e nt l y i n i t s f our t h i t e r a t i on, a nd t he f i f t h i s a l r e a dy u nde r de ve l opm e nt A c c o r di ng t o B ow e n ( 2005) t he U S G B C i s i nc or por a t i ng i nput f r om e xpe r i e n c e d L E E D pr of e s s i ona l s i n e f f or t s t o i m pr ove a nd s t r e a m l i ne t he c e r t i f i c a t i o n pr oc e s s F ur t he r m or e ot he r L E E D r a t i ng s ys t e m s a r e be i ng c r e a t e d or r e vi s e d t o a ddr e s s bui l di ng t ype s be yond t he c om m e r c i a l a nd i ndus t r i a l s t r uc t ur e s on w hi c h L E E D t ypi c a l l y f oc us e s ( B ow e n 2005) L E E D N C C r i t e r i a B e c a us e t he R e g e ne r a t i v e S t r a t e gy ut i l i z e s L E E D e xt e ns i ve l y, a r e vi e w of bot h L E E D f or N e w C ons t r uc t i on a nd M a j or R e nova t i ons ( L E E D N C ) a nd L E E D f or E xi s t i ng B ui l di ngs ( L E E D E B ) i s w a r r a nt e d T he ove r vi e w of L E E D N C i s s um m a r i z e d f r om t he U S G B C s L E E D N C : G r e e n B ui l di ng R a t i ng S ys t e m F or N e w C ons t r u c t i on & M a j or R e nova t i ons

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17 V e r s i on 2.2 ( U S G B C 2005b; U S G B C 2005c ) W i t hi n L E E D N C 2.2, l e ve l s of c e r t i f i c a t i on a r e b a s e d on a poi nt / c r e di t s ys t e m t ha t i s a ppl i e d t o t he de s i gn a nd e xpe c t e d pe r f or m a nc e o f t he bui l di ng ( U S G B C 2005b) T he l e ve l s r a ng e f r om b a s i c C e r t i f i e d t o P l a t i num S e ve n ( 7) pr e r e qui s i t e s w i t hi n t he de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on pr oc e s s m us t be m e t f or a ny pr oj e c t t o a t t a i n L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on. C r e di t s a r e a c qui r e d by a dd r e s s i ng s pe c i f i c goa l s w i t hi n f i ve c a t e gor i e s : S us t a i na bl e S i t e s ( 14 pos s i bl e poi nt s ) W a t e r E f f i c i e nc y ( 5 pos s i bl e ) M a t e r i a l s a nd R e s our c e s ( 13 pos s i bl e ) E ne r gy a nd A t m os phe r e ( 17 pos s i bl e ) a nd I ndoor E nvi r onm e nt a l Q ua l i t y ( 15 pos s i bl e ) U p t o f i ve a ddi t i ona l poi nt s m a y be e a r ne d t h r ough i nnova t i on w i t hi n t he de s i gn pr oc e s s f or a pot e nt i a l t ot a l of 69 c r e di t s T he ba s i c c e r t i f i c a t i on c a n be a c hi e v e d by ga i ni ng 26 poi nt s L E E D S i l ve r r e qui r e s 33, L E E D G ol d l e ve l r e qui r e s 39, a nd a m i ni m um of 52 poi nt s i s ne c e s s a r y f o r r e c ogni t i on a s a L E E D P l a t i num bui l di ng. A f t e r c ons t r u c t i on i s c om pl e t e a pa c ka ge d e t a i l i ng t he s c or e s a nd v e r i f yi ng a l l c a l c ul a t i ons a nd m ode l s s uppor t i ng t he a ppl i c a t i on i s c om pi l e d a nd pr e s e nt e d t o t he U S G B C f or r e vi e w a nd, i f s uc c e s s f ul e ve nt ua l L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on. T he U S G B C i s a va i l a bl e f or c ons ul t a t i o n t hr ough t he e nt i r e c e r t i f i c a t i on pr o c e s s A l l L E E D r a t i ng s ys t e m s ha ve pr e r e qui s i t e s t ha t a r e m a nda t or y f or a p r oj e c t t o be c ons i de r e d f or c e r t i f i c a t i on. W i t hi n L E E D N C t he s e ve n pr e r e qui s i t e s a r e : t o c ont r ol e r os i on a nd pr e ve nt s e di m e nt a t i on of w a t e r bodi e s ; t o i ns t i t u t e a c om m i s s i oni ng pl a n t o e ns ur e pr op e r f un c t i on of bui l di ng ope r a t i ons ; t o de s i gn t he bui l di ng t o m e e t m i ni m um e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y s t a nda r ds ( e s t a bl i s he d by l oc a l c ode or t he A m e r i c a n S oc i e t y of H e a t i ng, R e f i ge r a t i on a n d A i r C ondi t i oni ng E ngi ne e r s [ A S H R A E ] ) ; t o e l i m i na t e t he us e of oz one d e pl e t i ng c hl or o f l uor oc a r bons ( C F C s ) f r om H V A C & R e qui pm e nt ( he a t i ng,

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18 ve nt i l a t i on, a i r c ondi t i oni ng a nd r e f r i ge r a t i on) ; t o pr ovi de ba s i c r e c yc l i ng f or t he e nt i r e bui l di ng; t o m e e t m i ni m u m i ndoor a i r qua l i t y ( I A Q ) s t a nda r ds ( a l s o e s t a bl i s he d by A S H R A E ) ; a nd t o pr e ve nt e xpos ur e of non s m ok e r s t o e nvi r onm e nt a l t oba c c o s m oke M a ny of t he s e r e qui r e m e nt s a r e c ont a i n e d w i t hi n or s ur pa s s e d by e xi s t i ng bui l di ng c ode s m a ki ng t he s e pr e r e qui s i t e s e a s y t o a t t a i n. T h e Sus t ai nabl e Si t e s c a t e gor y a ddr e s s e s a w i de r a nge of i s s ue s i nc l udi ng s e l e c t i ng a ppr opr i a t e s i t e s f or de v e l opm e nt ( e .g., a voi di ng w e t l a nds f l oodpl a i ns ha bi t a t f or e nda nge r e d s pe c i e s ) c r e a t i ng hi ghe r de ve l opm e nt de ns i t i e s r e de ve l opi ng s i t e s ( pa r t i c ul a r l y b r ow nf i e l ds ) e nc our a gi ng a l t e r n a t i ve f or m s of t r a ns por t a t i on, pr ot e c t i ng na t ur a l ha bi t a t s a nd op e n s pa c e s i m pr ovi ng s t or m w a t e r t r e a t m e nt a nd r e du c i ng bot h l i ght pol l ut i on a nd t he he a t i s l a nd e f f e c t W at e r E f f i c i e nc y c r e di t s a r e g a i ne d t hr ough m e a s u r e d d e c r e a s e s i n po t a bl e w a t e r us e i ns t a l l a t i on of dr ought t ol e r a nt l a n ds c a pi ng, a nd r e duc t i ons i n w a s t e w a t e r de l i ve r e d t o c onv e nt i ona l s e w a ge s ys t e m s T he gr e a t e s t num be r of c r e di t s i s a va i l a bl e w i t hi n t he E ne r gy and A t m os ph e r e c a t e gor y. O pt i m i z a t i on of E ne r gy P e r f or m a n c e ha s up t o t e n c r e di t s a va i l a bl e ba s e d on a pe r c e nt a ge of e ne r gy us e r e duc t i on c om pa r e d t o ba s e l i ne A 35% r e duc t i on i n a r e nova t e d bui l di ng, or a 42% r e duc t i on i n a n e w bui l di ng ( ba s e d on e ne r g y us e m ode l i ng) w i l l r e s ul t i n t he f u l l t e n poi nt s ; l e s s e ne r gy r e du c t i on r e s ul t s i n f e w e r a w a r d e d c r e di t s O t he r c r e di t s c a n be g a i ne d t hr o ugh t he us e of on s i t e r e n e w a bl e e ne r gy s our c e s us e o f gr e e n po w e r ( non f os s i l f ue l ba s e d pow e r ) f r om a n out s i d e s uppl i e r a nd/ or i m pr ove d m a na g e m e nt of pow e r s ys t e m s M at e r i al s and R e s our c e s pr ovi de

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19 oppor t uni t i e s t o e a r n s e v e r a l c r e di t s R e us i ng bui l di ng s he l l s a nd i nt e r i or s i ns t e a d of t ot a l de m ol i t i on a nd r e bui l d, r e c yc l i ng or r e us i ng c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e ut i l i z i ng c ons t r uc t i on m a t e r i a l s w i t h r e ne w a bl e or r e c y c l e d c ont e nt e m p l oyi ng w ood pr oduc t s c e r t i f i e d by t he F or e s t S t e w a r ds hi p C ounc i l ( F S C ) a nd i nc or por a t i ng m a t e r i a l s t ha t a r e r e gi ona l l y pr oduc e d a r e a l l m e t hods t o a c qui r e c r e di t s w i t hi n t hi s c a t e gor y. I ndoor E nv i r onm e nt al Q ual i t y i s t he f i f t h c a t e gor y. I nc or por a t i on of m a t e r i a l s i n t he bui l di ng t ha t do not e m i t V ol a t i l e O r ga ni c C om po unds ( V O C s ) or ot he r h a r m f ul ga s e s c a n l e a d t o f o ur pos s i bl e c r e di t s O t he r poi nt s c o m e f r om i m pr ovi ng ve nt i l a t i on, c r e a t i ng a m a na ge m e nt pl a n f or i n door a i r qu a l i t y bot h pr e c ons t r uc t i on a nd pr e oc c upa nc y, a l l ow i ng i ndi vi dua l c ont r ol of t he r m a l a nd l i ght c o nt r ol s a nd c r e a t i ng da yl i ght i ng a nd vi e w s f or a s m a ny bui l di ng oc c upa nt s a s pos s i bl e F i na l l y, ne w t e c hni que s or s t r a t e gi e s not i nc l ude d i n t he a bove L E E D c a t e go r i e s m a y b e pr e s e nt e d t o r e c e i ve c r e di t s f or t he I nnov at i on and D e s i gn P r oc e s s c a t e go r y. A nd, a poi nt i s gi ve n w i t hi n t hi s c a t e gor y i f a L E E D a c c r e di t e d pr of e s s i ona l i s on t he de s i gn a nd s ubm i t t a l t e a m L E E D E B C r i t e r i a L E E D E B ha s not be e n u pda t e d a s r e c e nt l y a s L E E D N C s o t he f ol l ow i ng s um m a r y i s f r om t he 2005 U S G B C L E E D E B G r e e n B ui l di ng R a t i ng S ys t e m ( U S G B C 2005d) L E E D E B ha s s i m i l a r c a t e gor i e s but di f f e r s f r om L E E D N C i n s e ve r a l w a ys P r i m a r i l y, L E E D E B c r e di t s a r e b a s e d on pe r f or m anc e s t a nd a r ds ; L E E D N C f o c us e s i ns t e a d on de s i gn s t a nda r ds T he U S G B C s t a t e s t ha t L E E D E B m a xi m i z e s ope r a t i ona l e f f i c i e nc y w hi l e m i ni m i z i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s ( U S G B C 2005) L E E D E B a l s o r e qui r e s

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20 pe r i odi c r e c e r t i f i c a t i on ( m i ni m a l l y e ve r y f i ve ye a r s ) e ns u r i ng t ha t bui l di ng pe r f or m a nc e r e m a i ns e f f i c i e nt a nd c on t i nue s t o ha ve r e du c e d a d ve r s e e nvi r onm e nt a l a f f e c t s F ur t he r t he r e c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s a l l ow s t he bui l di ng r a t i ng t o be upgr a de d s houl d ope r a t i ona l or s t r uc t ur a l i m pr ove m e n t s be m a de ove r t i m e a n i m pos s i bi l i t y i n t he L E E D N C pr oc e s s B e c a us e i t i s pe r f or m a nc e ba s e d, m os t of t he c r e di t s a va i l a bl e w i t hi n L E E D E B r e qui r e hi s t or i c da t a on bui l di ng ope r a t i ons f or c om pa r i s o n t o pr e s e nt a nd f ut ur e da t a on t he us e of r e s our c e s by t he bui l di ng a nd i t s oc c upa nt s A s i n L E E D N C f our c e r t i f i c a t i on l e ve l s e xi s t but m or e poi nt s a r e r e qui r e d ( a nd a v a i l a bl e ) O ut of 85 t ot a l c r e di t s a va i l a bl e onl y 32 ( l e s s t ha n 40% ) a r e r e qui r e d f or a s t r uc t ur e t o a t t a i n a C e r t i f i e d r a t i ng, w hi l e 64 a r e ne c e s s a r y f or P l a t i num C onc om i t a nt w i t h t he gr e a t e r num be r o f c r e di t s a r e a hi ghe r num be r of P r e r e qui s i t e s T he s e 13 m a nda t or y r e qu i r e m e nt s f or a ny bui l di ng a t t e m pt i ng t o a t t a i n a L E E D E B r a t i ng i nc l ude m a ny of t he s a m e pr e r e qui s i t e s a s L E E D N C : e r os i on a nd s e di m e nt a t i on c ont r o l bui l di ng c om m i s s i on i n g, m i ni m um e ne r gy pe r f o r m a nc e oz one pr ot e c t i on, r e c y c l i ng, a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l t o ba c c o s m oke c ont r ol T h e ot he r pr e r e qui s i t e s a dd r e s s t he bui l di ng s a ge ( c a nnot b e l e s s t ha n t w o ye a r s a t t he t i m e of a ppl i c a t i on) m i ni m a l w a t e r e f f i c i e nc y, pol l ut a nt s i n di s c ha r ge w a t e r s r e du c t i on of t oxi c m a t e r i a l s our c e s ( i .e ., m e r c ur y i n l i ght bul bs ) r e m ova l of P C B s ( pol yc hl or i na t e d bi phe nyl s ) a nd a s be s t os a nd m a i nt a i ni ng ve nt i l a t i on f r om out s i de a i r a nd e xha us t f a n s ys t e m s W i t hi n L E E D E B t he Su s t ai nabl e Si t e s c a t e gor y a t t e nds t o a r a nge o f i s s ue s s i m i l a r i n s i z e a nd s c op e t o t he s a m e c a t e go r y i n L E E D N C I nc or por a t i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l l y

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21 s e ns i t i ve bui l di ng e xt e r i or m a na ge m e nt c r e a t i ng hi ghe r de ve l opm e nt de ns i t i e s ( s uc h a s i nf i l l ) e nc ou r a gi ng a l t e r na t i ve f or m s of t r a ns por t a t i on, pr ot e c t i ng na t ur a l ha bi t a t s a nd ope n s pa c e s i m pr ovi ng s t or m w a t e r t r e a t m e nt a nd r e duc i ng bot h l i ght pol l ut i on a nd t he he a t i s l a nd e f f e c t a r e a l l a ddr e s s e d. W at e r E f f i c i e nc y c r e di t s a r e a ga i n a c q ui r e d t hr ough r e duc t i ons i n pot a bl e w a t e r us e i ns t a l l a t i on of xe r i c l a nds c a pi ng, a nd d e c r e a s e s i n w a s t e w a t e r de l i ve r e d t o c onve nt i ona l s e w a ge s ys t e m s T he E ne r gy and A t m os ph e r e c a t e gor y a g a i n pr ovi de s t he gr e a t e s t oppor t un i t y f or a c qui r i ng c r e di t s a nd O p t i m i z a t i on of E ne r gy P e r f or m a nc e o f f e r s up t o t e n pot e nt i a l poi nt s O n s i t e r e ne w a b l e e ne r gy s our c e s a nd/ or us e of gr e e n pow e r f r o m a n out s i de s uppl i e r a l s o pr ovi de c r e di t s C r e di t s r e l a t e d t o t he pe r f o r m a nc e of t he bu i l di ng a r e a bunda nt i n t he L E E D E B ve r s i on of E ne r gy a nd A t m os phe r e C ont i nui ng e duc a t i on f or bui l di ng ope r a t i ons a nd m a i nt e na nc e s t a f f a s w e l l a s l ong t e r m m a i nt e na n c e a nd m oni t or i ng of bui l di ng s ys t e m s c ont r i but e c r e di t s A ddi ng c ont i nuous m e t e r i ng pr ogr a m s f or va r i ous bui l di ng s ys t e m s t ha t us e e ne r gy a nd w a t e r m e a s u r i ng e m i s s i on r e duc t i ons a nd doc um e nt i ng t he c os t s a nd be ne f i t s of t he s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng pr ogr a m a r e ot he r pot e nt i a l pe r f or m a n c e r e l a t e d poi nt s M at e r i al s and R e s our c e s a l s o pr ovi de s e ve r a l pos s i bl e c r e di t s w i t hi n L E E D E B D i ve r s i on of c ons t r u c t i on w a s t e f r om l a nd f i l l s ut i l i z a t i on of c ons t r uc t i on m a t e r i a l s w i t h r e ne w a bl e or r e c y c l e d c o nt e nt us e of F S C w ood pr oduc t s a nd i nc or po r a t i o n of r e gi ona l l y pr oduc e d bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s a r e a l l m e t hods s i m i l a r t o t hos e i n L E E D N C t o a c qui r e c r e di t s w i t hi n t hi s c a t e gor y. O v e r l a p w i t h L E E D N C s I ndoor E n v i r onm e nt al

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22 Q ual i t y i s s e e n he r e a s w e l l a s t w o c r e di t s s e t m i n i m um s t a nda r ds f or t he u s e of i ndoor m a t e r i a l s w i t h l ow or no V O C s a nd ot he r c h e m i c a l s I nc or por a t i ng s us t a i n a bl e c l e a ni ng pr oduc t s e xpa ndi ng ba s i c r e c y c l i ng t o i nc l ude ha z a r dous or t oxi c m a t e r i a l s ( e .g., ba t t e r i e s ) a nd us i ng f ur t he r r e du c e d m e r c u r y l i ght bul bs a r e ot he r oppor t u ni t i e s f or c r e di t s F i na l l y, t he I ndoor E nv i r onm e nt al Q ual i t y c a t e gor y w i t hi n L E E D E B ha s s e ve r a l c r e di t s t ha t di f f e r f r om t he s a m e c a t e gor y w i t hi n L E E D N C F or e xa m pl e doc um e nt a t i on of t he a f f e c t s on pr oduc t i vi t y by s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng s t r a t e gi e s i n t he f or m s of a bs e nt e e i s m a nd w or ke r out put w i l l ga r ne r t w o c r e di t s E s t a bl i s hm e nt of a gr e e n c l e a n i ng pr ogr a m t o gove r n pe s t m a na g e m e nt j a ni t or i a l c he m i c a l s e nt r yw a ys c l e a ni ng a ppl i a n c e s w or k e r t r a i ni ng a nd m uc h m or e c a n l e a d t o s i x pot e nt i a l c r e di t s C r e di t pos s i bi l i t i e s s i m i l a r t o t hos e a va i l a bl e i n t he ne w c ons t r uc t i on s ys t e m i nc l ude i nc r e a s i n g a nd i m p r ovi ng ve nt i l a t i on, m a na gi ng i ndoor a i r qua l i t y bot h pr e c ons t r uc t i on a nd pr e oc c upa nc y, i ns t a l l i ng c ont r ol s f or i ndi vi dua l oc c upa nt s f or t e m pe r a t ur e a nd l i ght r e gul a t i on, r e duc i ng i ndoor pol l ut a nt s t hr ough t he us e of pa r t i c l e f i l t e r s a nd i s ol a t i o n of c he m i c a l s our c e s a nd c r e a t i ng da yl i ght i ng a nd vi e w s f or bui l di ng oc c up a nt s A ny nove l s t r a t e gi e s or a c hi e ve m e nt of e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s be yond t he L E E D E B s ys t e m m a y be pr e s e nt e d t o t he U S G B C i n a n a t t e m pt t o r e c e i ve c r e di t s f or t he I nnov at i on i n U pgr ade s O pe r at i ons and M ai nt e nanc e c a t e gor y. A g a i n, a poi nt i s gi ve n i f a L E E D a c c r e di t e d pr o f e s s i ona l i s on t he de s i gn a nd s ubm i t t a l t e a m

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23 S u s t ai n a b i l i t y an d U n i v e r s i t y C am p u s e s G r e e n bui l di ng a nd de s i g n, i nc l udi ng c ons t r uc t i ng t o L E E D s t a nda r ds i s a t a c t i c t ha t uni ve r s i t i e s c a n us e t o r e duc e t he i r e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s F ur t he r by i nc or por a t i ng t he s e t e c hni que s a nd s e r v i ng a s a n e xa m pl e uni ve r s i t i e s m a y i nf l ue nc e t he i r s t ude nt s e m pl oye e s a nd s ur r oundi ng c om m uni t i e s t o r e duc e t he i r ow n i m pa c t s I ndi vi dua l uni ve r s i t y c a m pus e s a r e t ypi c a l l y phy s i c a l l y e xpa ns i ve a nd p r o vi de s e r vi c e s t o hundr e ds or t hous a nds of pe opl e I nc l udi ng t w o y e a r c ol l e g e s a s of 2004 t he r e w e r e 4,388 i ns t i t ut i ons of hi gh e r l e a r ni ng i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w i t h a t ot a l e nr o l l m e nt of 17,568,606 s t ude nt s ( C a r ne gi e F ounda t i on 2007) B e yond s t ude nt s uni ve r s i t i e s i nvol ve m a ny f a c ul t y, s t a f f a nd a l um ni T he va s t num be r s of pe opl e t ha t m us t be m a na ge d by uni ve r s i t i e s a nd t he a c c o m pa nyi ng i nf r a s t r uc t ur e ne c e s s a r y t o s uppor t uni ve r s i t y a c t i vi t i e s ha ve e x a c e r ba t e d s e ve r a l of t he e nvi r on m e nt a l pr obl e m s s oc i e t y f a c e s T he phys i c a l c a m pus m us t gr ow t o a c c om m oda t e t h e c onc om i t a nt gr ow t h of t he s t ude nt a nd f a c ul t y body, t hus of t e n de s t r oyi ng na t ur a l ha bi t a t a nd us i ng na t ur a l r e s ou r c e s f or bui l di ngs A nd t ot a l U .S e nr ol l m e nt i s e xpe c t e d t o i nc r e a s e 13 18% b e t w e e n 2004 a nd 2015 ( I ns t i t ut e f or E duc a t i on S c i e nc e s 2006) A c onc om i t a nt i nc r e a s e i n e ne r gy a nd w a t e r us e t ypi c a l l y oc c ur s a s e nr ol l m e nt r i s e s B e t w e e n 1990 a nd 2000 a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of M i c h i ga n, e ne r gy c ons um pt i on gr e w 11% w hi l e t he s t ude nt popul a t i on gr e w onl y 9% ( K a dw e l l 2002) F a c i l i t i e s m us t e xpa nd a s w e l l n e w hous i ng, c l a s s r oom s l a bor a t or i e s r o a d s pa r ki ng, a nd ot he r i nf r a s t r uc t ur e m us t be bui l t f or t he gr ow i ng uni ve r s i t y popul a t i on. T hi s l e a ds t o m or e p ol l ut a nt s f r om

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24 a ut om obi l e us e a s w e l l a s f ur t he r de s t r u c t i on of h a bi t a t a nd c ons um pt i on of na t ur a l r e s our c e s f r om c ons t r u c t i on. H ow e ve r due t o t he i r ph ys i c a l s i z e s a nd a bi l i t i e s t o r e a c h l a r ge num b e r s of pe opl e u ni ve r s i t i e s a l s o of f e r op por t uni t i e s f or gr e e n bui l di ng a nd ot he r s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s t o c r e a t e t r e m e ndous pos i t i ve e f f e c t s i n a r e l a t i ve l y s hor t t i m e pe r i od. B y i m pl e m e nt i ng gr e e n de s i gn a nd de ve l op m e nt on a c a m pus t he e n vi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of t ho us a nds c a n be r e duc e d t hr ough t he c ons t r uc t i on a nd ope r a t i on of m e r e s c or e s o f bui l di ngs I nc or por a t i ng i de a s of s u s t a i na bi l i t y i nt o t he e ve r yda y l i ve s of s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y ge t t he s e s a m e t hous a nds of pe opl e a c c us t om e d t o t he s e s t r a t e gi e s a nd i n t ur n t he y m a y i nc or por a t e t h e s e i nt o t he i r l i ve s out s i de of t he uni ve r s i t y. A ddi ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o c ur r i c ul a i s a not h e r m e t h od of di s s e m i na t i ng t hi s i nf or m a t i on ( V a n W e e ne n 2000) F i na l l y, uni ve r s i t y f a c ul t i e s of t e n c ont a i n e xpe r t s i n a r e a s t h a t m a y pr ov i de c ont r i but i ons t o a ny s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a n f or t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c a m p us e s ( U hl a nd A nd e r s on 2001; V a n W e e n e n 2000) U ni ve r s i t y l e a de r s w or l d w i de ha ve b e e n c ons i de r i ng t he i m pa c t s of t he i r i n s t i t ut i ons on t he e nvi r onm e nt f or d e c a de s I n 1990, t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on w a s c r e a t e d a nd s i gne d by 19 a dm i ni s t r a t or s r e pr e s e nt i ng uni ve r s i t i e s f r o m a r ound t he w or l d t o c o m m i t t o e nvi r onm e nt a l s us t a i na bi l i t y i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on ( U ni ve r s i t y L e a de r s f or a S us t a i na bl e F ut ur e [ U L S F ] 2007b) T he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on i s a t e n poi nt a c t i on pl a n f or i nc or por a t i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s a nd e nvi r on m e nt a l e duc a t i on i n a l l f a c e t s of uni ve r s i t y r e s pons i bi l i t i e s i nc l udi ng t e a c hi ng, r e s e a r c h, op e r a t i ons a nd out r e a c h ( U L S F

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25 2007b) M or e t ha n 300 u ni ve r s i t y l e a de r s f r om ov e r 40 na t i ons ha ve e ndor s e d t he D e c l a r a t i on s i nc e t he i ni t i a l s i gni ng ( U L S F 2007b ) S e ve r a l gr oups d e di c a t e d t o r e duc i ng or e l i m i na t i ng t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of uni ve r s i t y c a m pus e s ha v e a r i s e n, i nc l udi ng t he U L S F t he A s s oc i a t i on f or t he A dva nc e m e nt o f S us t a i na bi l i t y i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on ( A A S H E ) a nd t h e S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt on C a m pus gr oup w i t hi n t he I nt e r na t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f or S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt T he s e ha v e de ve l ope d r e pos i t or i e s f or i nf or m a t i on on s us t a i na bi l i t y i n uni ve r s i t i e s H ow e ve r n o s i ngl e c om pr e he ns i ve m e t hodol ogy f or a c hi e vi ng a gr e e n c a m pus t ha t c a n b e a ppl i e d t o a br oa d s p e c t r um of c a m pus e s ha s b e e n pr op os e d by a ny of t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons F ur t he r d e s pi t e s e v e r a l e f f o r t s r e c e nt s t udi e s i ndi c a t e t ha t f e w i ns t i t ut e s of hi ghe r e du c a t i on ha ve ye t t o a ddr e s s t he i s s ue of s us t a i na bi l i t y i n a br oa d ba s e d, m e a ni ngf ul w a y ( G l a s s e r 2002, c i t e d i n C S A P 2007) ; t he be s t s t r a t e gi e s ha ve be e n c a m pus s pe c i f i c T he U S G B C ha s e s t a bl i s he d L E E D gui de l i ne s f or c a m p us e s but t he s e pr i nc i pl e s a r e m e r e l y m o di f i e d c onc e pt s o f t he L E E D N C ( N e w C ons t r uc t i on) c r i t e r i a a l t e r e d t o i nc or po r a t e m u l t i pl e r a t he r t ha n i ndi vi dua l bui l di ngs ( U S G B C 20 05e ) U ni ve r s i t i e s a nd c ol l e ge s w or l dw i de a r e a t va r i ous s t a ge s of i nc or po r a t i ng g r e e n bui l di ng s t r a t e gi e s i nt o t he i r c a m p us pl a ns S om e ha ve be g un t o i m pl e m e nt i s ol a t e d gr e e n e f f or t s s uc h a s i ns t i t ut i ng r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m s e n c our a gi n g a nd i m pr ovi ng bi c yc l e t r a ns i t m a ki ng r e a l t i m e e n e r gy a nd w a t e r us e i nf or m a t i o n a va i l a bl e a nd ph a s i ng i n t he us e of hi gh e f f i c i e n c y l i ght bul bs O t he r hi ghe r e duc a t i o n c a m pus e s ha v e di s c us s e d i m pl e m e nt a t i on or ha ve i nc or por a t e d gr e e n bui l di ng i nt o t he i r f a c i l i t i e s a n d s i t e pl a nni ng.

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26 S c hool s t ha t ha ve done s o i nc l ude t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon, t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t M e r c e d, t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a nd t he U ni v e r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da E a c h c ont a i ns bui l di ngs t ha t a r e L E E D N C c e r t i f i e d, a n d e a c h h a s m a de c om m i t m e nt s t o c ons t r uc t a l l f ut ur e bui l di ngs t o m e e t m i ni m um L E E D N C c e r t i f i c a t i on s t a n da r ds or hi ghe r T he pr og r a m s pl a nne d or i m pl e m e nt e d a t t he f i r s t t hr e e s c hool s e xe m pl i f y s om e of t he m or e a dv a nc e d gr e e n c a m pus s t r a t e gi e s f ou nd i n uni ve r s i t i e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w hi l e U C F i s be gi nni ng i t s pr ogr a m B r i e f s um m a r i e s of e a c h p r ogr a m a r e a s f ol l ow s : T he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e go n f i r s t publ i s he d i t s S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n i n O c t obe r 2000. I t s c a m pus pl a n s t a t e s t ha t a l l c ons t r u c t i on pr oj e c t s s ha l l a dhe r e t o t he uni ve r s i t y s S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n ( U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon 2005 ) T he S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e n t P l a n i s di vi de d i nt o s e v e n c a t e go r i e s a ddr e s s i ng bui l di ngs t r a ns por t a t i on, l a nds c a pi ng, e ne r gy us e a nd w a t e r r e s our c e s S us t a i na bl e d e s i gn i s t o be i nc l ude d e a r l y i n di s c us s i ons of a ny ne w p r oj e c t a nd a l l ne w bui l di ngs m us t a c hi e ve m i ni m a l c e r t i f i c a t i on w i t hi n L E E D N C E ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y a nd s t or m w a t e r r un of f a r e pr i or i t i z e d f or a l l ne w bu i l di ng pr oj e c t s T he S us t a i na bl e D e v e l opm e nt P l a n of f e r s s e ve r a l s ugge s t e d a ppr o a c he s a nd e x a m pl e s f or a d m i ni s t r a t or s a nd s t a f f t o f ol l ow B e nc hm a r ks t o a s s e s s t he c ha n ge s on t he c a m pus due t o t he S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n m us t be m e a s ur e d e ve r y f i ve y e a r s A n i ni t i a l e va l ua t i on w a s c ondu c t e d i n 2002 by a n out s i de f i r m ( G ood C om pa ny, I nc .) a s pa r t of t he pr oc e s s A s a ne w c a m pus w i t hi n t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a ( U C ) s ys t e m t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t M e r c e d ( U C M e r c e d) w a s a bl e t o i nc or por a t e gr e e n de ve l op m e nt s t r a t e gi e s

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27 f r om t he ons e t of pl a nni n g t he c a m pus I t s f i r s t c h a nc e l l or i ns t i t ut e d a pol i c y t ha t a l l t he bui l di ngs on t he c a m pus w oul d m e e t L E E D N C S i l ve r s t a nda r ds a pol i c y t ha t i s m or e s t r i nge nt t ha n t ha t of t he U C s ys t e m O f t he a ppr o xi m a t e l y 7,000 a c r e s t h a t c om pr i s e t he c a m pus onl y 910 a r e t o be us e d f or i n f r a s t r u c t ur e t he r e m a i nde r w i l l s e r ve a s a w i l dl i f e pr e s e r v e ( Y od e r s 2005) T he s e gr e e n bui l di ng r e q ui r e m e nt s m a ke up a l a r g e por t i on of t he E nvi r onm e nt a l S t e w a r ds hi p P r ogr a m t ha t gui de s m a ny of t he de v e l opm e nt a nd ope r a t i ona l de c i s i ons of t he s c hool ( U C M e r c e d 2 007a ) O t he r a r e a s gove r ne d by t he E S P a r e pur c h a s i ng, f ood t r a ns por t a t i on, a nd c u r r i c ul um / r e s e a r c h ( U C M e r c e d 2007a ) T he c a m pus i s a l s o be i ng de ve l ope d i n pha s e s a s t r a t e gy t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s t he c ons t r uc t i on of hi ghe r pe r f or m a n c e bu i l di ngs a nd a l l ow s t i m e f or r e a s s e s s m e nt a nd pl a n m odi f i c a t i ons s houl d t he y be c om e ne c e s s a r y. U C M e r c e d op e ne d t o 1,000 s t ude nt s i n 2005, but i s t o e xpa nd t o a c c om m oda t e 25,000 by 2030 ( Y ode r s 2005) T he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i d a ha s de ve l op e d one of t h e m os t c om pr e he ns i ve a n d c om pl e x s us t a i na bi l i t y pr ogr a m s on a ny U .S c a m pus L i ke t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e go n, a l l ne w bui l di ngs m us t m e e t t he m i ni m um c r i t e r i a t o a c hi e ve L E E D N C c e r t i f i c a t i on. T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s c r e a t e d a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w hos e goa l i s t o m a ke t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i d a a m ode l of s us t a i na bi l i t y, i nt e gr a t i ng t he goa l s of e c ol og i c a l r e s t or a t i on, e c onom i c d e ve l opm e nt a nd s oc i a l e q ui t y; i n ot he r w or ds t o m e e t E l ki ngt on s t r i pl e bot t om l i ne ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007a ) T hi s of f i c e s e t s f or t h gui de l i ne s t o di r e c t ope r a t i ons a nd de ve l opm e nt on t he c a m pus a nd goe s w e l l be y ond t he bui l t e nvi r onm e nt F ur t he r t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da ha s a s t a t e d go a l of b e c om i ng a c a r bon ne ut r a l c a m pus by 2030 ( S t a nna r d 2003) T hi s m e a ns t ha t c a m pu s ope r a t i ons

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28 a nd r e l a t e d a c t i vi t i e s w i l l e l i m i na t e or of f s e t t he r e l e a s e of c a r bon di oxi de m e t ha ne ni t r ous oxi de a nd ot he r g r e e nhous e g a s e s ( S t a nn a r d 2003) A f i na l e xa m pl e o f a c a m pus t ha t ha s i nc or por a t e d gr e e n bui l di ng i nt o i t s ne w c ons t r uc t i on i s t he U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da i n O r l a ndo. U C F r e qui r e s t ha t a l l ne w bui l di ngs m e e t L E E D N C S i l ve r s t a nda r ds a nd h a s e s t a bl i s he d 19 c r e di t s t ha t m us t be m e t w i t hi n t he s e s t a nda r ds ( U C F 2007a ) T he C e nt e r f or E n e r gy a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y i s a uni t w i t hi n t he P hys i c a l P l a nt of t he uni ve r s i t y t ha t pr om ot e s e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y a nd gr e e n bui l di ng pr a c t i c e s w i t hi n U C F s ope r a t i ons ( U C F 2007b) O t he r r e s our c e s f or s us t a i na bl e s t r a t e gi e s i nc l ude t he F l or i da S ol a r E ne r gy C e nt e r a nd t he S t or m w a t e r M a na ge m e nt A c a de m y. T he A c a d e m y bui l t a gr e e n r oof on t he S t ude nt U ni on, t he f i r s t gr e e n r oo f on a ny uni ve r s i t y bui l di ng i n F l or i da a nd pl a ns e xi s t f or s e ve r a l m or e ( B i ne t t e 2005) U C F i s a r i va l of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da i n T a m pa ( U S F ) i n m a ny w a ys T he t w o s c hool s a r e s e p a r a t e d by l e s s t ha n 100 m i l e s dr a w f r om t he s a m e a ppl i c a nt pool a nd a r e s i m i l a r i n s i z e ( > 40,0 00 s t ude nt s ) a nd l oc a t i on ( t he s ubur bs of l a r g e c i t i e s i n c e nt r a l F l or i da ) H ow e ve r t he c a m pus pl a nni ng f or U C F ha s f a r s u r pa s s e d t ha t o f U S F w he n i t c om e s t o s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s e s pe c i a l l y gr e e n b ui l di ng.

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29 S u s t ai n a b l e E l e m e n t s at t h e U n i ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l or i d a T hi s r e s e a r c h e v a l ua t e s o ne c a m pus i n de t a i l a s a c a s e s t udy t o de t e r m i ne ho w t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy m i ght be a ppl i e d. T ha t uni ve r s i t y a nd c a m pus t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da ( U S F ) i s d e s c r i be d i n t hi s s e c t i on. U S F c ont r i but e s t o e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s vi a m a ny f a c t or s T he t ot a l e n r ol l m e nt i n 2006 w a s 44,038 m a ki ng i t t he 9 t h l a r ge s t uni ve r s i t y i n t he na t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt popul a t i on ( U S F 2006b) 37,645 s t ude nt s a r e e n r ol l e d on t he T a m pa c a m pus a l one on w hi c h t hi s pa pe r w i l l c on c e nt r a t e D ue t o t hi s hi gh e nr ol l m e nt a nd t he pr oj e c t e d 24% i nc r e a s e by 2014 15 not e d i n t he C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n U pda t e ( U S F 2005) s e ve r a l n e w bui l di ngs a r e pl a nne d. C ons t r uc t i on of m or e t ha n 20 ne w bui l di ngs i s s l a t e d t o oc c ur by 2 015 ( U S F F a c i l i t i e s 200 6a ) U S F i s a l s o a c om m ut e r s c hool w i t h a ppr oxi m a t e l y 98% of i t s s t ude nt s dr i vi ng t o c a m pus ( N e w N or t h T r a ns por t a t i on A l l i a nc e 200 7) H ow e v e r m a ny c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of U S F m a ke t hi s c a m pus a s t r ong c a ndi da t e t o i nc or por a t e a c om pr e he ns i ve g r e e n s t r a t e gy. T he l a r g e s t ude nt body a nd s e ve r a l pl a nne d ne w bui l di ngs of f e r oppo r t uni t i e s t o i nf l ue nc e t he bui l t e nvi r onm e nt on t he c a m pus ve r y q ui c kl y. U S F ha s a f e w s us t a i na bl e de s i gn a nd c ons t r u c t i on c onc e pt s w i t hi n i t s 2005 C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n ( U S F 2006c ) i nc l udi ng pr ot e c t i on of gr e e nw a ys a nd ope n s p a c e s us e of na t i ve pl a nt s pe c i e s i n l a nds c a pi ng, a nd i m pr ove m e nt of e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y i n bui l di ngs t hr ough t he us e of c onv e nt i ona l t e c hnol ogy. T he s e nods t o gr e e n d e s i gn, a s w e l l a s s pe c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o t he L E E D pr ogr a m a r e e nc o ur a gi ng a nd i ndi c a t e t h a t s uppor t f or t he s e c onc e pt s e xi s t s a t U S F N o r e qui r e m e nt s t o a c hi e ve a ny c e r t i f i c a t i o n l e ve l a r e c ont a i ne d i n t he M a s t e r P l a n, how e ve r M os t of t he l a ngua ge i ndi c a t e s t ha t i nc or por a t i ng

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30 s us t a i na bl e de s i gn e l e m e nt s i s vol unt a r y a nd/ or pr e di c a t e d on U ni v e r s i t y f i na nc e s F or e xa m pl e t he M a s t e r P l a n ( U S F 2006c ) s t a t e s : U S F e m br a c e s t he c onc e pt s of s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng a nd s i t e de s i gn. T he U ni ve r s i t y a l s o r e c o gni z e s t ha t t he t e c hni que s t e c hn ol ogy a nd c os t s of s us t a i na bl e d e s i gn a r e c ont i nuous l y e vol vi ng a nd i m pr ovi ng. T he r e f o r e i t i s t he i nt e nt i on of t he U ni ve r s i t y t o bui l d t he m os t s us t a i na bl e e f f i c i e nt a nd he a l t hy bui l di ngs pr ac t i c al an d f i n an c i al l y f e as i bl e at t h e t i m e of t h e i r c on s t r u c t i o n ( e m pha s i s a dde d) S t ude nt a nd publ i c s uppor t f or U S F be c om i ng a s u s t a i na bl e c a m pus ha s a l s o gr ow n. O ne of t he m os t pr om i ne nt c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s on t he c a m pus i s t he r e nova t i on a nd e xpa ns i on of t he M a r s ha l l C e nt e r w hi c h s e r v e s a s t he s t ude nt un i on a nd books t or e I n F e br ua r y 2006, a n a r t i c l e i n t he s t ude nt ne w s pa pe r of U S F quot e d s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pus hi ng t he U S F a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o r e qui r e t he n e w M a r s ha l l C e nt e r t o a c hi e ve L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on ( C a r r ol l 200 6) A l um ni a r e a l s o s upp or t i ve C ha r l e s J K i be r t w ho s e r ve s a s D i r e c t or o f t he P ow e l l C e nt e r f o r C ons t r uc t i on & E nvi r onm e nt i s a pr of e s s or i n t he R i nke r S c hool of B ui l di n g C ons t r uc t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a nd e a r ne d hi s doc t or a t e i n m e c h a ni c a l e ngi ne e r i ng f r om U S F i n 1982 ( T a m pa B a y V i gi l 2006) K i be r t w ho i s a l s o on t he B oa r d of D i r e c t o r s f or t he F l or i da G ul f C oa s t c ha pt e r of t he U S G B C a nd w a s i ns t r um e nt a l i n ge t t i ng t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da t o a dopt L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on f or t he i r bui l di ngs ha s l obbi e d U S F P r e s i de nt J udy G e ns ha f t t o i m pl e m e nt L E E D s t a nda r ds ( T a m pa B a y V i gi l 2006) U S F a l s o ha s m a ny on c a m pus e xpe r t s a nd r e s our c e s t ha t c oul d c ont r i but e v a l ua bl e i ns i ght a nd a s s i s t a nc e i n de ve l opi ng a gr e e n c a m pus T he C e nt e r f o r U r b a n

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31 T r a ns por t a t i on R e s e a r c h ( C U T R ) i s a r e s e a r c h g r oup w i t hi n t he U S F C ol l e ge of E ngi ne e r i ng t ha t de v e l ops i nnova t i ve pr a c t i c a l s ol ut i ons t o t r a ns por t a t i on i s s ue s a nd s e r ve s a s a n i m por t a nt r e s our c e f or pol i c ym a k e r s t r a ns por t a t i on pr of e s s i ona l s t he e duc a t i on s ys t e m a nd t h e publ i c ( C U T R 2007a ) E xp e r t s i n a l t e r na t i ve f u e l s bi c yc l e / pe de s t r i a n pa t hs gr e e nw a ys a nd r a i l a nd m a ny ot he r s c onduc t s t u di e s a t C U T R ( C U T R 2007a ) A l s o w i t hi n t he C ol l e ge of E ngi ne e r i ng i s t he C l e a n E n e r g y R e s e a r c h C e nt e r ( C E R C ) w hi c h e va l ua t e s e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl i e r e n e r gy s our c e s l i ke hydr oge n, f ue l c e l l s s ol a r e ne r gy, a nd bi om a s s ( C E R C 2007a ) W i t hi n t he S c hool of A r c hi t e c t ur e a nd C om m uni t y D e s i gn i s t he F l or i da C e nt e r f or C om m uni t y D e s i gn a nd R e s e a r c h ( F C C D R ) a r e s e a r c h g r oup f ound e d t o f oc us on ur ba n a nd r e gi on a l pr obl e m s r e l a t e d t o na t ur a l a nd bui l t e nvi r onm e nt s a nd t o a s s i s t t he c i t i z e ns of F l or i da i n t he c r e a t i on of m o r e l i va bl e a nd s us t a i na bl e c om m uni t i e s ( F C C D R 2003) O t he r pot e nt i a l c a m pus r e s our c e s i nc l ud e s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y w i t hi n t he G e ogr a phy D e pa r t m e nt t he E nvi r onm e nt a l S c i e nc e a nd P ol i c y pr ogr a m t he S c hool of P ubl i c H e a l t h, a nd t he C ol l e ge of B us i ne s s A dm i ni s t r a t i on. A not he r pos s i bl e r e s our c e i s one of t he ne w e s t pr o gr a m s a t U S F t he P a t e l C e nt e r f or G l oba l S ol ut i ons F ound e d i n 2005 a nd a l r e a dy i n t e r na t i ona l l y know n, t he goa l of t he P a t e l C e nt e r i s t o pr om o t e s us t a i na bl e he a l t hy c o m m uni t i e s i n a gl oba l i z i n g w or l d ( P a t e l C e nt e r 2006) I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he P a t e l C e nt e r s c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on of a s us t a i na bl e he a l t hy c om m uni t y m i r r or s t ha t of t h e t r i pl e bot t om l i ne : t he na t ur a l e c ono m i c a nd s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt s i nt e r a c t t o i nf l ue nc e c om m uni t i e s w or l dw i de ( P a t e l C e nt e r 2006)

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32 P l a ns f or t he ne w P a t e l C e nt e r bui l di ng i nc l ude r e f e r e nc e s t o gr e e n t e c hnol o gi e s i nc l udi ng s ol a r pow e r a n d w a s t e w a t e r r e c l a m a t i on but L E E D i s not r e f e r e n c e d. S u m m ar y W i t h t he pot e nt i a l e nvi r o nm e nt a l a nd e c onom i c b e ne f i t s t he s i z e a nd c ont i nue d gr ow t h of c ol l e ge c a m pus e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t he s uppor t of s t ude nt s a l um ni a nd c om m uni t y m e m be r s c r e a t i ng a s us t a i na bl e de v e l opm e nt pl a n i s a n i m por t a nt c ons i de r a t i on f or a ny uni ve r s i t y a dm i ni s t r a t i on. A c om pr e he ns i ve b r oa d b a s e d m e t hodol ogy f or s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t he c r e a t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he s e s t r a t e gi e s U t i l i z i ng be s t bui l di ng pr a c t i c e s s uc h a s L E E D w i l l be gi n t o m ove t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons t o hi gh e r l e ve l s of s us t a i n a bi l i t y a nd t o m odi f y t he c ur r e n t pa r a di gm of unc he c k e d gr ow t h a nd c ons um pt i on of r e s our c e s M a ny uni ve r s i t i e s ha ve t a ke n t he i r s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a ns be yond bui l di ngs : c ur r i c ul a f ood r e s our c e s pur c h a s i ng a nd ot he r bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e s h a bi t a t r e s t or a t i on, e t c A nd t h ough no c a m pus ha s don e s o, i t i s t e c hnol ogi c a l l y f e a s i bl e t o be c om e f ul l y s us t a i na b l e ( r e g e ne r a t i ve ) A s t he w or l dvi e w c ont i nue s t o s hi f t c a m pus e s c a n m ove b e yond L E E D r e qui r e m e nt s c ha ngi ng i nt o t he r e ge ne r a t i ve s us t a i ni ng pl a c e s e nvi s i one d by M c D onough a nd B r a um ga r t U S F be c a us e i t ha s no e xt a nt s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pl a n, pr o vi de s a n oppor t uni t y t o s e r ve a s a c a s e s t udy f or c r e a t i on of a m e t hodol ogy t o t a ke a c a m pus f r om c onve nt i ona l t o r e ge ne r a t i ve

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33 M E T H O D S C r e at i n g t h e R e ge n e r a t i ve S t r at e gy T he pr i m a r y obj e c t i ve of t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s t o c r e a t e a c om pr e he ns i ve m e t ho dol ogy ( R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy) t o gui de a ny uni ve r s i t y or s i m i l a r i ns t i t ut i on t o t he r e ge ne r a t i ve or s us t a i ni ng, de ve l opm e nt i de a l s e t f or t h by M c D onough a nd B r a um ga r t T o c r e a t e t he S t r a t e gy, t he t he s i s c a r e f ul l y r e vi e w e d pl a ns f or s us t a i na bi l i t y de ve l ope d a t ot he r i ns t i t ut i ons de t e r m i ni ng c om m on t he m e s t o be i nc l ude d i n a ny s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt m e t hodol ogy. A l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a l s o r e v e a l e d no ve l i de a s t ha t m i ght a l s o be i nc or por a t e d i nt o a b r oa d ba s e d m e t hodol ogy. T he s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s i n pl a c e a t e i ght ( 8 ) u ni ve r s i t i e s w e r e s e l e c t e d f or r e vi e w T he s c hool s c hos e n w e r e t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da ( U F ) t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon ( U O ) D uke U ni ve r s i t y ( D uk e ) H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y ( H a r va r d) P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y ( P e nn S t a t e ) t he U ni ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h C ol um b i a ( U B C ) t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t M e r c e d ( U C M e r c e d) a n d t he U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da ( U C F ) T he s e c hoi c e s pr ovi de d a m i xt ur e of i ns t i t ut i ons of va r yi ng s i z e s f undi ng s our c e s ( publ i c vs pr i va t e ) a nd va r i ous ge og r a phi c a nd c l i m a t i c l oc a t i ons S e ve n of t he e i ght ha v e be e n r e c ogni z e d a s be i ng on t he f or e f r ont of c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s D uk e H a r va r d, P e nn S t a t e U B C a nd t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a ( o f w hi c h U C M e r c e d i s a m e m b e r ) a l l w e r e na m e d a s C a m pus S us t a i na bi l i t y L e a de r s by t he S us t a i na bl e E ndow m e nt s I ns t i t ut e ( S E I ) i n 2006. I n 2007, t he S E I a dde d U O a nd U F t o t ha t l i s t U B C a l s o r e c e i ve d a n A s s oc i a t i on f or t he A dv a nc e m e nt of S us t a i na bi l i t y i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on ( A A S H E )

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34 C a m pus S us t a i na bi l i t y L e a de r s hi p A w a r ds T h e S i e r r a C l ub na m e d H a r va r d, U C D uke a nd P e nn S t a t e t o i t s T op T e n gr e e n c a m pus e s i n N ove m be r 2007. U C F t he e i ght h s c hool w a s s e l e c t e d be c a us e i t s ha r e s m a ny s i m i l a r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h U S F i nc l udi ng e nr ol l m e nt a ge c l i m a t e a nd l oc a t i on, a nd pr ovi de d a n i nt e r e s t i ng c om pa r i s on. A f t e r t he r e vi e w i ng t he s t r a t e gi e s a t t he s e c a m pus e s t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy f or c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s w a s c r e a t e d. T hi s S t r a t e gy w a s s ynt he s i z e d f r om t he be s t e l e m e nt s of t he s e l e c t e d c a m pus pl a ns L E E D N C a nd E B c r i t e r i a a nd gui d e l i ne s a nd f r om t he s t r a t e gi e s us e d t o c ons t r uc t e xi s t i ng a nd pr opos e d r e g e ne r a t i ve bu i l di ngs a nd de ve l opm e nt s T he S t r a t e gy, de ve l ope d a f t e r r e vi e w of t he e i ght s ubj e c t c a m pus e s i nc or por a t e d t w e l ve ( 12 ) A r e a s o f F oc us t o a s s e s s a nd gui de s c hool s on t he pa t h t o be c om i ng r e ge n e r a t i ve T he r e vi e w i nc l ude d a s s e s s m e nt t ool s c r e a t e d a t i n di vi dua l uni ve r s i t i e s s pe c i f i c a l l y, t hos e pr oduc e d by U O P e nn S t a t e a nd U B C T he s e t ool s a s w e l l a s t hos e de ve l op e d by t he S us t a i na bl e E ndow m e nt s I ns t i t ut e a nd G ood C om pa ny, I nc ., a pr i v a t e c ons ul t i ng f i r m s pe c i a l i z i ng i n s us t a i na bi l i t y, a l l c ont a i n s us t a i na bi l i t y i ndi c a t or s w hi c h a r e s yn onym ous w i t h A r e a s of F oc us T he A r e a s of F oc u s de ve l ope d a nd us e d a s t he b a s i s f or t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e g y w e r e : a dm i ni s t r a t i on, a c a de m i a bui l di ngs e ne r gy s uppl y, gr e e nhous e g a s e m i s s i o ns w a t e r l a nds c a pe a nd n a t i ve ha bi t a t m a t e r i a l s m a na ge m e nt ( w a s t e a nd r e c y c l i ng) t r a ns por t a t i on, f ood r e s our c e s pr oc ur e m e nt a nd e ndow m e nt i nve s t m e nt T he s e A r e a s e nc om pa s s vi r t ua l l y e ve r y a s p e c t of c a m pus pl a nni ng a nd ope r a t i ons

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35 N e i t he r t he P e nn S t a t e ( P e nn S t a t e G r e e n D e s t i ny C ounc i l 2000) nor t he U O ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) a s s e s s m e nt s us e d P ur c ha s i ng a s a n i ndi c a t o r a nd t he P e nn S t a t e s t ud y a l s o de c l i ne d t o i nc l ude E ndo w m e nt I nve s t m e nt T he S E I a s s e s s m e nt f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y on E ndow m e nt I nve s t m e nt T hough or ga ni z e d i n a d i f f e r e nt m a nne r t ha n t hi s r e s e a r c h, U B C a s s e s s e d i ndi c a t or s e qui va l e nt t o a l l 12 i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t r a t e gy ( U B C 2007a ) F i na l l y, G ood C om pa ny i nc or por a t e d m a ny s i m i l a r i ndi c a t or s i n i t s c a m pus a s s e s s m e nt s but c ons i de r e d s om e i nc l u di ng r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy pur c ha s e a nd e ndow m e nt i nve s t m e nt a s s uppl e m e nt a r y i ndi c a t or s ( G ood C om pa ny, I nc 2002) G ood C om pa ny c ons i de r e d t he s e s uppl e m e nt a l be c a u s e : a .) t he r e w a s a l ow l e ve l of c ons e ns us a s t o t he s ui t a bi l i t y of t he i ndi c a t or ; b.) i t w a s di f f i c ul t t o de f i ne t e c h nol ogi e s or s t r a t e gi e s f o r s ol ut i ons ; or c .) i t w a s di f f i c ul t t o c r e a t e be nc hm a r ks e s p e c i a l l y f or t he l ong t e r m ( G o od C om pa ny, I nc 2002) L i ke t he i ndi c a t or s f or U O t he A r e a s o f F oc us i n t hi s s t udy w e r e s e l e c t e d be c a us e t h e y w e r e de e m e d t he m os t r e l e va nt t o c a m pus e nvi r onm e nt a l s us t a i na bi l i t y ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F ur t he r s yne r gi e s a m ong t he s e A r e a s w e r e not e d a n d e nc our a ge d, f or r e ge ne r a t i ve d e s i gn r e qui r e s hol i s t i c i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y a ppr o a c h e s P r e l i m i n ar y A s s e s s m e n t of U S F O nc e t he R e g e ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy w a s c r e a t e d, a p r e l i m i na r y a s s e s s m e nt of t h e s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s a t U S F w a s pe r f or m e d. I nt e r vi e w s w i t h a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd s t a f f m e m be r s a s w e l l a s r e vi e w of t he 2005 C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n a nd ot he r U S F i nf or m a t i on ( w r i t t e n a nd e l e c t r oni c ) w e r e i nc o r por a t e d i nt o t he e va l ua t i on. A f t e r t hi s w a s c om pl e t e d, t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e g y w a s a ppl i e d t o t he c u r r e nt U S F c a m pus t o de m ons t r a t e a nd

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36 e va l ua t e t he m e t hodol og y; i t a l s o de t e r m i ne d w he r e U S F l i e s on t he r oa d t o r e ge ne r a t i ve de ve l opm e nt a nd t he n e x t s t e ps t he s c hool s houl d t a ke t o i m pr ove i t s s us t a i na bi l i t y. D e t e r m i n i n g O b s t ac l e s t o I m p l e m e n t at i on F i na l l y, t hi s s t udy a t t e m p t e d t o de t e r m i ne w ha t ob s t a c l e s m i ght be i n pl a c e t o i m pe de t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a ny a nd a l l of t he pr opos e d s t r a t e gi e s f or r e ge n e r a t i ve d e ve l opm e nt a t U S F U s i ng t he S ur ve y M onke y on l i ne a na l ys i s t ool a s ur ve y of c a m pus l e a de r s w a s pe r f or m e d t o he l p i de nt i f y t he s e obs t a c l e s a nd t h e i r pot e nt i a l s ol ut i ons T he U S F I ns t i t ut i ona l R e s e a r c h B o a r d a ppr ov e d t he s ur v e y pr ot oc ol ( I R B # 106295) S t r a t e gi e s t o ove r c om e t he s e obs t a c l e s w e r e r e vi e w e d a nd a s s e s s e d, i nc l udi ng s uc c e s s f ul s t r a t e gi e s f r om ot he r uni ve r s i t i e s

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37 R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N T hi s s e c t i on i s di vi de d i nt o t hr e e c ha pt e r s C ha pt e r 1 r e vi e w s t h e pl a ns f or s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt t ha t e i ght uni ve r s i t i e s ha ve i ns t i t ut e d a nd de ve l ops a s t r a t e gy de ve l ope d f o r c a m pus e s t o a c hi e ve r e ge ne r a t i ve s t a t us he r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s t he R e ge n e r a t i ve S t r a t e gy. I n C ha pt e r 2, t he r e s ul t s of a p r e l i m i na r y a s s e s s m e nt of t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of U S F a nd a s ubs e que nt a p pl i c a t i on of t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy us i ng U S F a s a c a s e s t udy a r e r e vi e w e d a nd di s c us s e d. P a r t i c ul a r f oc us i s pl a c e d on how t h e R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy m i ght be i m pl e m e nt e d a t U S F F i na l l y, i n C ha pt e r 3 t he r e s ul t s of t he on l i ne s ur ve y a nd l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w us e d t o de t e r m i ne pot e nt i a l obs t a c l e s t o i m pl e m e nt i ng t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy a t U S F a r e pr e s e nt e d a nd di s c us s e d, i nc l u di ng m e t hods t o ove r c om e t he s e obs t a c l e s C h ap t e r 1: T h e R e g e n e r at i ve S t r at e gy T he s t r a t e gy t o m ove c a m pus e s t o r e ge ne r a t i ve d e s i gn a nd de ve l opm e nt c r e a t e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r i s ba s e d i n pa r t o n t he va r i ous L E E D c r i t e r i a t he s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s de ve l ope d a nd i m pl e m e n t e d a t e i ght uni ve r s i t i e s a nd t he pr oc e s s e s t o c r e a t e i ndi v i dua l r e ge ne r a t i ve bui l di ngs T he s t r a t e gy c ont a i ns 12 A r e a s o f F oc us s i m i l a r t o a nd de r i ve d f r om s us t a i na bi l i t y i ndi c a t or s de ve l ope d dur i ng a s s e s s m e nt s of s pe c i f i c uni v e r s i t i e s T he A r e a s o f F oc us a r e : a dm i ni s t r a t i on, c ur r i c ul um a n d r e s e a r c h, bui l di ngs e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y, gr e e nhous e g a s ( G H G ) e m i s s i ons w a t e r us e l a nd s c a pe f ood r e s our c e s pr oc ur e m e nt e ndow m e nt i nve s t m e nt t r a ns por t a t i on, a nd r e c y c l i ng/ w a s t e m a na ge m e nt W i t hi n e a c h A r e a o f F oc us a r e vi e w of i t s i m por t a nc e t o t he s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a n i s c onduc t e d, f ol l ow e d

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38 by a s um m a r y of how e a c h of t he e i ght s ubj e c t un i ve r s i t i e s ha s a ddr e s s e d s us t a i na bi l i t y w i t hi n t ha t A r e a T he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s br ok e n i nt o pha s e s ba s e d on a pr opos e d c hr o nol ogy f or e a c h A r e a of F oc us A 30 ye a r t i m e f r a m e f or i nc or por a t i ng r e g e ne r a t i v e de s i gn a nd de v e l opm e n t a t c ol l e ge c a m pus e s w a s c hos e n a s t he goa l be c a us e i t a l l ow s s c hool s t i m e e nough t o a c qui r e t he f undi ng a nd e xpe r t i s e ne c e s s a r y t o i m pl e m e nt t he t e c hnol ogi e s a s w e l l a s t o ove r c om e t h e i ns t i t ut i ona l i ne r t i a pr e s e nt a t a l l uni ve r s i t i e s H ow e ve r t he t i m e f r a m e i s a ggr e s s i ve e nough t o a c know l e dg e t he w a r ni ngs of m a ny c l i m a t e s c i e nt i s t s T he 200 7 U ni t e d N a t i ons I nt e r go ve r nm e nt a l P a ne l on C l i m a t e C ha nge R e por t ( M e t z e t a l 2007) de t e r m i ne d t ha t G H G e m i s s i ons m us t de c l i ne by 2015 a nd b e h a l ve d by 2050 t o l i m i t t h e pot e nt i a l da m a ge f r om gl oba l c l i m a t e c ha nge M uc h of t he t e c hnol ogy t o bui l d r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus e s a l r e a dy e xi s t s a nd ha s be e n i nc or po r a t e d i nt o b ui l di ngs a t s c hool s s uc h a s O b e r l i n a nd C a l i f or ni a S t a t e P ol yt e c hni c U ni ve r s i t y, P om ona s o t hi s R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s r e a l i s t i c T he A r e a s of F oc us w e r e c hos e n bot h t o s i m pl i f y t he pr e s e nt a t i on a nd t o gui de a dm i ni s t r a t i ons t o s pe c i f i c a r e a s of s us t a i na bi l i t y; s yne r gi e s a nd ov e r l a p s a m ong t he s e A r e a s w i l l be e vi de nt a nd s t r a t e gi e s t o f os t e r t he s e s yne r gi e s s houl d be e n c o ur a ge d. B e c a us e e a c h c a m pus i s uni que a nd r e g e ne r a t i ve de s i gn by de f i ni t i on bot h i nc or por a t e s a nd r e s ponds t o i t s l oc a l e t he s t r a t e gy of f e r s ge n e r a l di r e c t i on a nd m ul t i pl e opt i ons t o a c hi e ve c e r t a i n obj e c t i ve s ; i t w i l l be a t t he di s c r e t i on of c a m pus l e a d e r s hi p a nd de s i gne r s t o de t e r m i ne w ha t s pe c i f i c m e t hods be s t f i t t he i r r e s pe c t i ve s c hool s A l s o n ot e t ha t a ny s e gm e nt or a ny pha s e m a y be bypa s s e d s houl d a u ni ve r s i t y w i s h t o m ove m or e r a pi dl y t ow a r d a r e ge n e r a t i ve c a m pus or i f t he goa l s ha v e a l r e a dy be e n a c hi e v e d.

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39 A RE A O F F O CUS 1: A DM I NI S T RAT I O N S t ude nt a nd/ or f a c ul t y gr a s s r oot s e f f o r t s i ni t i a t e d s us t a i na bi l i t y m ove m e nt s on m a ny c a m pus e s F or e x a m pl e s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e go n be ga n w i t h a r e c y c l i ng pr ogr a m a nd a bi c yc l i ng pl a n t ha t or i g i na t e d w i t h s t ude nt vol unt e e r s i n t he 1970s ( U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon 2007 a ) H ow e ve r n o s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a n w i l l be s uc c e s s f ul w i t hout t he s uppor t of t he uni ve r s i t y a dm i ni s t r a t i on ( K i be r t 2007) T hi s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t he s c hool s t ha t w e r e a na l yz e d f or t hi s s t udy, a s a l l e i ght ha ve r e c e i ve d c o m m i t m e nt s f r om pr e vi ous a nd c ur r e n t uni ve r s i t y a dm i ni s t r a t i o n. A t D uke U ni ve r s i t y, t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s t a ke n s e ve r a l s t e ps t o s uppor t s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s f o r t he c a m pus I n 2004, D uke hi r e d i t s f i r s t S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or w ho r e por t s t o t he E xe c ut i ve V i c e P r e s i de nt S i x ot he r s t a f f m e m be r s a r e de di c a t e d t o s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s w i t h i n va r i ous de pa r t m e nt s a t D uke D uke a dopt e d a C a m pus E nvi r onm e nt a l P ol i c y i n 2005, s i gne d by t he U ni ve r s i t y P r e s i de nt a nd ot he r a dm i ni s t r a t i on of f i c i a l s ( C a pps 2007a ) D uke h a s a l s o hi r e d a G r e e n P ur c h a s i ng C oor di na t or a dopt e d s e v e r a l pur c ha s i ng pol i c i e s i ns t i t ut e d a L E E D pol i c y f or c a m pus bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on, a nd ha s s i gne d t he A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge a nd U ni ve r s i t y P r e s i de nt s C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt ( C a pps 2007a ) S e ve r a l c o m m i t t e e s ha ve be e n f or m e d t o r e por t t o s e ni or a dm i ni s t r a t i on of f i c i a l s a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s a n d ne e ds i nc l udi ng t he E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt A dvi s or y c om m i t t e e t he C om m i t t e e on F a c i l i t i e s a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt a nd t he D u ke T r a ns i t A dvi s or y c om m i t t e e ( C a pps 2007b) T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s a l s o s uppor t e d t he c r e a t i on of t he G r e e n G r a nt F und t hr ough t he

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40 O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. T hi s $50,000 ye a r l y gr a n t f unds s t ude nt s t a f f a nd f a c ul t y i ni t i a t i ve s t o i nc r e a s e s us t a i na bi l i t y a t D uke T he P r e s i de nt of t he U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da ( U C F ) ha s t a ke n s e v e r a l s t e ps t o br i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y t o t he f or e f r ont a t t ha t s c hool I n 20 06 U C F s a dm i ni s t r a t i on m a de a c om m i t m e nt t o a dopt L E E D N C S i l ve r s t a nda r ds f or a l l c a m pus c ons t r uc t i on. S oon t he r e a f t e r i n e a r l y 2007, t he P r e s i de nt s i gne d t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt a nd w a s na m e d a m e m be r of t he A C U P L e a de r s hi p C i r c l e ( B i ne t t e 2007) F ur t he r U C F ha s c r e a t e d a nd t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on e ndor s e d a n E nvi r o nm e nt a l P ol i c y. T he pol i c y e nc our a ge s e duc a t i on of s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd t he c om m uni t y i n e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s r e s e a r c h i n s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd m i ni m i z a t i on o f U C F s i m pa c t s on t he e nvi r onm e nt ( U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt 2007a ) T he E nvi r onm e nt a l M a n a ge m e nt D e p a r t m e nt w or ks t o f ul f i l l t he goa l s of t he E nvi r onm e nt a l P ol i c y a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt P l a n f or t he c a m pus T he D e pa r t m e nt i s l e d by a n E n vi r onm e nt a l C oor di na t or w hos e pr i m a r y r e s pon s i bi l i t i e s i nc l ude r e vi e w i ng e nvi r o nm e nt a l l e ga l r e qui r e m e n t s t ha t a ppl y t o U C F pr e s e nt i ng i de a s t o upda t e a nd i m pr ove t h e c ons e r v a t i on por t i on of t he c a m pus M a s t e r P l a n, m a i nt a i ni ng da t a on e nvi r onm e nt a l p e r f o r m a n c e a t U C F de t e r m i ni ng pr ope r di s pos a l m e t hods f or a l l uni ve r s i t y ge ne r a t e d w a s t e a nd ove r s e e i ng e nvi r o nm e nt a l t r a i ni ng of s t a f f ( U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt 2007b )

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41 B e yond t he E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt D e pa r t m e nt f i ve di ve r s e de pa r t m e nt s ha ve c ol l a bor a t e d t o c r e a t e t he S us t a i na bi l i t y A l l i a nc e t o f oc us on i nc r e a s i ng t he e nvi r onm e nt a l s us t a i na bi l i t y of c a m pus ope r a t i ons ( Y oung 2007) T he f i ve de pa r t m e nt s a r e t he P hys i c a l P l a nt t h e C e nt e r f o r E ne r gy a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y, C a m pus L a nds c a pe a nd N a t ur a l R e s our c e s t he U C F A r bor e t um a nd t he U C F D e pa r t m e nt f or E nv i r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y ( Y oun g 2007) T he i nt e nt of t h i s gr oup i s t o i m pr ove upon a nd e ve nt ua l l y r e pl a c e t he E n vi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e n t D e pa r t m e nt ( Y oung 20 07) I n 2001, t he P r e s i de nt a n d t he F a c ul t y S e na t e of P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y ( P e nn S t a t e ) una ni m ous l y a ppr ove d t he G r e e n D e s t i ny E c ol ogi c a l M i s s i on f or t he U ni ve r s i t y, a doc um e nt t ha t pr ovi de s a n ove r vi e w of s us t a i n a bi l i t y goa l s a nd s t r a t e gi e s t o a c hi e ve t he m T hi s w a s a f ol l ow up t o t he G r e e n D e s t i ny C ounc i l s P e nn S t a t e I ndi c a t or s R e por t a c om pr e h e ns i ve r e vi e w of t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of P e nn S t a t e s pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s E nvi r onm e nt a l s t e w a r ds h i p i s a l s o a K e y I ni t i a t i ve i n t he P e nn S t a t e F i na nc e a nd B us i ne s s s t r a t e gi c pl a n; t hi s I ni t i a t i ve s t a t e s a goa l of m ovi ng t ow a r d e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s us t a i na bl e be ha vi or ( P e nn S t a t e F i na nc e a nd B us i ne s s O f f i c e 2002 ) T e a m m e m be r s of t hi s I ni t i a t i ve a r e w or ki n g t o i nc or por a t e s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o a l l ope r a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s a c r os s t he c a m pus ( S E I 2 007) A s not e d a bove s us t a i na bi l i t y a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon ( U O ) be g a n w i t h a s t ude nt i ni t i a t e d r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m a nd ot he r gr a s s r oot s e f f or t s I n 1989, t he uni ve r s i t y a dm i ni s t r a t i on r e a l i z e d t h a t t he r e w a s a ne e d f or a m or e f or m a l i z e d gr oup t o a dvi s e t he s c hool a bout e nvi r onm e n t a l i s s ue s s o t he E nvi r onm e nt a l I s s ue s C om m i t t e e ( E I C ) w a s

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42 de ve l ope d a nd b e c a m e e s t a bl i s he d i n 1991 t hr ough t he pr e s i de nt 's of f i c e ( U O ) 2007 a ) T he E I C m e e t s m ont hl y a nd a c t s a s vi s i ona r y bo dy f or uni ve r s i t y s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s ( U O 2007 a ) I n 1997, U O pr oduc e d i t s C om pr e he ns i ve E nvi r on m e nt a l P ol i c y S t a t e m e nt T hi s pol i c y w a s c r e a t e d t o i de nt i f y ge ne r a l go a l s a nd s t r a t e gi e s f or a c om m i t m e nt t o e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s pons i bi l i t y i nc l udi ng e nvi r onm e nt a l e duc a t i on, pur c h a s i ng pol i c i e s e f f i c i e nt us e of r e s our c e s m i ni m i z a t i on of w a s t e a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e c a m pus de s i gn ( L i ve l ybr ooks e t a l 2005) I n 200 0, t he U ni ve r s i t y de ve l op e d a S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e n t P l a n f or t he l ong t e r m d e ve l opm e nt of i t s c a m pu s a nd l a t e r a ut hor i z e d a p r i va t e c om pa ny ( G ood C om pa ny, I n c .) t o a s s e s s t he s t a t us of t he U ni ve r s i t y s e f f or t s a t s u s t a i na bi l i t y; t he a s s e s s m e nt w a s c om pl e t e d i n 200 2. A S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or w a s hi r e d i n 2004, t ho ugh a s a pa r t t i m e e m pl oye e ; ot he r e m pl oye e s t ha t a r e pa r t i a l l y r e s pons i bl e f or s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s a r e t he E n vi r onm e nt a l R e s our c e a nd R e c yc l i ng M a na ge r ( 50% ) a nd t he U t i l i t i e s A na l ys t ( 60% ) ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) M or e r e c e nt l y, t h e P r e s i de nt of U O s i gne d t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt i n A pr i l 2007 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) H ow e v e r t hough r e c om m e nde d by t he E I C ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) t he uni ve r s i t y ha d not s i gne d t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on a s of N ov e m be r 2007. T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on a t H a r va r d ha s m a d e s e v e r a l c om m i t m e nt s t o c r e a t e a m or e s us t a i na bl e c a m pus I n 2 004, H a r va r d e na c t e d a s t a t e m e nt of S us t a i na bi l i t y P r i nc i pl e s t o gui de c a m pus de ve l opm e nt a nd pr a c t i c e s F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y ha s gi ve n s uppor t t o t he H a r va r d G r e e n C a m pus I ni t i a t i ve ( H G C I ) T he H G C I i s a s e r vi c e or ga ni z a t i on t ha t

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43 w or ks on va r i ous s us t a i n a bi l i t y e f f or t s a c r os s t he c a m pus i nc l udi ng pr oc ur e m e nt a l t e r na t i ve e n e r gy, e du c a t i on a nd out r e a c h, r e c y c l i ng, a nd bui l di ng upgr a de s de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on. T he gr oup m a r ke t s a nd s e l l s t he s e s e r vi c e s t o de p a r t m e nt s a n d s c ho ol s w i t hi n H a r va r d t ha t a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n s a vi ng m one y a nd di m i ni s hi ng t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of t he i r pr a c t i c e s ( H G C I 2006 ) S houl d t he s e uni t s not ha ve f unds t o pa y f or t he s e s e r vi c e s H G C I ha s e s t a bl i s he d t he G r e e n C a m pus L oa n F und t o pr ovi de up f r o nt c a pi t a l f or pr oj e c t s I n t u r n, t he F und i s r e pa i d f r o m t he s a vi ngs ga r ne r e d t hr ough t he s a vi ngs i n ope r a t i ng c os t s a c hi e ve d a f t e r i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pr oj e c t ( H G C I 2006 ) T he G r e e n C a m pus L oa n F und ha s r e c e i v e d t r e m e ndous s uppor t f r om H a r v a r d s P r e s i de nt w ho s t a t e d, t he be s t i nve s t m e nt i n t he U ni ve r s i t y i s not t he e ndow m e nt but t he G r e e n L o a n F und ( H G C I 2007a ) A s s uppor t h a s r i s e n, s o ha s t he s i z e o f t he F und; i t be ga n i n 2001 w i t h $3 m i l l i on, a nd ha s gr ow n t o $12 m i l l i on due t o i t s s uc c e s s e s a n d s ubs e que nt a dm i ni s t r a t i on ba c ki ng. T he U ni ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h C ol um bi a ( U B C ) be ga n i t s f or m a l e f f o r t s i n s us t a i na bi l i t y w he n i t s l e a de r s hi p s i gne d t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on a nd t he H a l i f a x D e c l a r a t i on i n 1991. T he H a l i f a x D e c l a r a t i on c a m e out of a c on f e r e nc e of u ni ve r s i t y l e a de r s f r om C a na da B r a z i l I ndone s i a a nd ot he r na t i o ns r e ga r di ng t he r ol e s of uni ve r s i t i e s i n t he e nvi r o nm e nt a nd de ve l opm e nt ( I I S D 1996 ) I n 1997, U B C be c a m e t he f i r s t C a na di a n uni v e r s i t y t o e xe c ut e a s us t a i na bi l i t y pol i c y, a nd t he f ol l ow i ng ye a r c r e a t e d i t s S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e ( U B C 2007 b ) T he m i s s i on of t he S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e i s t o de v e l op a n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e c a m pus t ha t i s s i m ul t a ne ous l y e c onom i c a l l y s ound a nd pr om ot e s t he va l ue s of t he c a m pus c om m uni t y ( U B C 2007 b ) A s of 2 007, t he S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e i s s ol e l y

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44 f unde d by s a vi ngs c r e a t e d f r om t he e ne r gy r e du c t i on pr ogr a m s t ha t ha ve b e e n i m pl e m e nt e d on t he c a m pus t hr ough va r i ous s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s ( U B C 2007 b ) O ve r s e e i ng t he S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e i s t he D i r e c t or f or S us t a i na bl e D e ve l o pm e nt w ho i n t ur n r e por t s t o t he A s s oc i a t e V i c e P r e s i de nt f or L a nd a nd B ui l di ng S e r vi c e s T he D i r e c t or i s r e s pons i bl e f o r c oor di na t i ng s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s a c r os s t he c a m pus a nd i s t he pr i m a r y c ont a c t w i t h t h e c om m uni t y r e ga r di ng s us t a i na b i l i t y e f f or t s a t U B C ( U B C 2007 b) A S us t a i na bi l i t y A dvi s or y C om m i t t e e c om pr i s e d of s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f c ouns e l t he D i r e c t or on m a ny of t h e s e i s s ue s ( U B C 2007 b ) F i n a l l y U B C P o l i c y r e q u i r e s a l l un i v e r s i t y de pa r t m e n t s a nd o p e r a t i on s un i t s t o c r e a t e a c t i on pl a ns f or m a k i n g t h e i r p r a c t i c e s m or e s u s t a i n a b l e E a c h pl a n i s r e v i e w e d a nd a p p r o v e d b y t he V i c e P r e s i d e n t ove r s e e i n g t he d e p a r t m e n t or un i t U n i t h e a ds a r e a r e s p o n s i b l e f or i m pl e m e n t a t i on o f t he pl a n a nd c o m m u n i c a t i on w i t h un i t m e m b e r s r e g a r d i n g pl a n g o a l s a nd p r a c t i c e s P l a n s a r e r e v i e w e d, a nd i f n e c e s s a r y r e v i s e d b y t he un i t e v e r y t w o y e a r s t o a c c o un t f or c h a n g e s i n t e c hno l o g y or f und i n g ( U B C B o a r d of G o ve r nor s 2005) T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da ( U F ) ha s a l ong hi s t or y of c om m i t m e nt t o s us t a i na bi l i t y. I n 1994, U F be c a m e a s i gna t or y t o t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i o n, a nd l e s s t ha n t hr e e ye a r s l a t e r a gr a s s r o ot s c a m pus e nvi r onm e nt a l s t e w a r ds hi p gr oup, G r e e ni ng U F w a s i ni t i a t e d by a c oa l i t i on of s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a n d s t a f f ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007a ) I n 2000, a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w a s e s t a bl i s he d by t he C ol l e ge of D e s i gn,

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45 C ons t r uc t i on a nd P l a nni ng t o pr om ot e s us t a i na bi l i t y pr oj e c t s on c a m pus T he f ol l ow i ng ye a r U F a dopt e d L E E D N C c r i t e r i a f o r a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on a nd m a j or r e nova t i on pr oj e c t s L a t e r i n 2001, a t t he be he s t of t he F a c ul t y S e na t e t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on e s t a bl i s he d t he S us t a i na bi l i t y T a s k F or c e t o r e vi e w U F s pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s a nd i n t ur n r e c om m e nd i de a s t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he U F c a m pus ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007b) T he T a s k F or c e publ i s he d i t s f i ndi ngs a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons i n a 2002 r e por t t ha t w a s e nd or s e d by t he F a c ul t y S e n a t e I n 2004, a S t ude nt S e na t e r e s ol ut i on c a l l e d f o r a u ni ve r s i t y O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y, a nd t he P r e s i de nt a nd F a c ul t y S e na t e i ns t i t ut e d a n a d h oc S us t a i na bi l i t y C om m i t t e e T he f ol l ow i ng ye a r U F e s t a bl i s he d t he uni ve r s i t y O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, e l e va t i ng i t f r om i t s pr e vi ous pos i t i on w i t hi n a s i ngl e C ol l e ge a nd t h e O f f i c e hi r e d i t s f i r s t di r e c t or i n 2006. T he m i s s i on of t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y i s t o m a ke t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n i t s ope r a t i ons e duc a t i on, r e s e a r c h, a nd out r e a c h a m ode l of s us t a i na bi l i t y, i nt e gr a t i ng t he goa l s of e c ol ogi c a l r e s t or a t i o n, e c onom i c de v e l opm e nt a nd s oc i a l e qui t y ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007b) L a t e r i n 2006, t he a d ho c S us t a i na bi l i t y C om m i t t e e w a s m a de a pe r m a ne nt c om m i t t e e o f t he F a c ul t y S e na t e I n 20 07, t he U F P r e s i de nt w a s t he f i r s t t o s i gn t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007b) A s a ne w uni ve r s i t y, t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t M e r c e d ( U C M e r c e d ) ha s m a ny a dva nt a ge s ov e r ol de r e s t a bl i s he d uni ve r s i t i e s t ha t ha ve e xi s t i ng s t r uc t ur e s a nd bur e a uc r a c i e s t ha t m us t be r e nova t e d or r e va m p e d t o i nc or por a t e pol i c i e s t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he i r pr a c t i c e s T hi s e xt e nds t o t h e uni ve r s i t y l e a de r s hi p. T he U C

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46 M e r c e d a dm i ni s t r a t i on, ope r a t i ng f r om t he B r undt l a nd C om m i s s i on s de f i ni t i on of s us t a i na bi l i t y, c om m i t t e d e a r l y i n t he pl a nni n g pr o c e s s t o i nc l ude gr e e n t e c hnol ogy a nd pr a c t i c e s i n t he i r n e w uni ve r s i t y. I n J a nua r y 2002, t he C ha nc e l l or s t a t e d t ha t t he U C M e r c e d s houl d s e t t he s t a nda r ds f o r s us t a i na bl e u s e of e ne r gy a nd ot he r s c a r c e r e s our c e s a nd t o be a m ode l of d e v e l opm e nt i n t he gr e a t S a n J oa qui n V a l l e y ( U C M e r c e d 2007b ) T he E nvi r onm e nt a l S t e w a r ds hi p P r ogr a m a t U C M e r c e d i s t he g r oup pr i m a r i l y r e s pons i bl e f or d e ve l opi n g s pe c i f i c goa l s a nd pol i c i e s t o a c hi e ve t he s us t a i n a bi l i t y a m bi t i ons of t he s c hool A s a m e m be r o f t he U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a s ys t e m U C M e r c e d m us t a dh e r e t o t he pr a c t i c e s a nd pol i c i e s put i n pl a c e by t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a T he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a ha s m a de c om m i t m e nt s t o r e duc e t he U ni ve r s i t y s e f f e c t s on t he e nvi r onm e nt F or e xa m pl e i t ha s c r e a t e d a nd i ns t i t ut e d pol i c i e s f or gr e e n bui l di ng de s i gn, c l e a n e n e r gy s t a nda r ds a nd s us t a i na bl e t r a ns por t a t i on pr a c t i c e s O t he r pol i c i e s f o c us on bui l di ng r e nova t i ons c l i m a t e pr ot e c t i on, s us t a i na bl e pur c h a s i ng a nd r e c yc l i ng a nd w a s t e m a na ge m e nt F ur t he r t h e of f i c e of t he S e ni or V i c e P r e s i de nt f or B us i ne s s a nd F i na nc e ha s de ve l ope d gui de l i ne s f or i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he s e pol i c i e s ( U C M e r c e d 2007c ) T he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a ha s i ndi c a t e d t ha t i t w i l l i ns t i t ut e f ut ur e c a m pus po l i c i e s f or gr e e n c l e a ni ng, gr e e n l a nds c a pi ng, a nd c l i m a t e ne ut r a l i t y ( U C M e r c e d 2007c ) T he pr e s i de nt of t he U ni v e r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a s ys t e m ha s a l s o s i gne d t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt T hough t he c ha nc e l l or of U C M e r c e d ha s not s i gne d t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt

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47 t he U C M e r c e d a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s c r e a t e d t he C ha nc e l l or s A dvi s or y C om m i t t e e on S us t a i na bi l i t y t o pr om ot e e nvi r onm e nt a l s t e w a r ds hi p a nd de ve l opm e nt t ha t i s ba s e d on e c ol ogi c a l pr i nc i p a l s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or n i a M e r c e d ( U C M e r c e d 2007d ) T he C om m i t t e e a dvi s e s t he C ha nc e l l or on s us t a i na bi l i t y goa l s pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s c e nt e r i ng on s e v e r a l k e y poi nt s i nc l udi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o a c hi e ve t he r e qui r e d L E E D N C a nd E B c r i t e r i a f or c a m p us bui l di ngs a nd i de a s t o i nt e gr a t e s us t a i na bi l i t y t hr oughout c a m pus pr ogr a m s a nd pl a nni ng ( U C M e r c e d 200 7d )

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48 T ab l e 1: S u m m ar y of A d m i n i s t r at i ve E f f or t s i n S u s t ai n ab i l i t y at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M P u b l i c C o m m i t m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f S u s t a i n a b i l i t y P r i n c i p l e s T a l l o i r e s D e c l a r a t i o n H a l i f a x D e c l a r a t i o n T a l l o i r e s D e c l a r a t i o n A C U P U C s y s t e m s i g n e d A C U P ; p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s a n d d o c u m e n t s C r e a t i o n o f a n O f f i c e o f S u s t a i n a b i l i t y Y e s H G C I i n 2 0 0 0 Y e s 1 9 9 8 Y e s 2 0 0 0 ( d e p a r t m e n t a l ) 2 0 0 5 ( u n i v e r s i t y w i d e ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t e w a r d s h i p P r o g r a m C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d O p e r a t i o n s b u d g e t s l i n k e d / o t h e r f u n d i n g s o l u t i o n s G r e e n C a m p u s L o a n F u n d H i r e e n e r g y m a n a g e m e n t c o m p a n i e s N o n e N e w s c h o o l f u n d i n g i n b u d g e t S t u d e n t / F a c u l t y i n p u t H G C I D e p t s a s s i s t w i t h s u s t a i n a b i l i t y p l a n s F a c u l t y a n d S t u d e n t S e n a t e c o m m i t t e e s A d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e A d m i n i s t r at i on G oal s : B e c a us e i t i s e vi de nt t ha t a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t i s vi t a l f or s us t a i na bi l i t y t o be i m pl e m e nt e d a t a uni ve r s i t y, t he s t r a t e gy be gi ns w i t h t he s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t i on a s t he f i r s t D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O P u b l i c C o m m i t m e n t A C U P ; C a m p u s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y A C U P ; E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y E m b r a c e d G r e e n D e s t i n y I n d i c a t o r s R e p o r t A C U P ; C o m p r e h e n s i v e E n v P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t C r e a t i o n o f a n O f f i c e o f S u s t a i n a b i l i t y Y e s 2 0 0 4 N o N o Y e s 2 0 0 4 C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d O p e r a t i o n s b u d g e t s l i n k e d / o t h e r f u n d i n g s o l u t i o n s G r e e n G r a n t F u n d N o n e H i r e e n e r g y m a n a g e m e n t c o m p a n i e s N o n e S t u d e n t / F a c u l t y i n p u t Y e s s e v e r a l c o m m i t t e e s S u s t a i n a b i l i t y A l l i a n c e G r e e n D e s t i n y C o u n c i l E n v i r o n m e n t a l I s s u e s C o m m i t t e e

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49 A r e a o f F oc us T he goa l s f or t hi s A r e a a r e t h a t t he a dm i n i s t r a t i on e m br a c e s t he ne e d f o r s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt s uc h t ha t t he c onc e pt s be c om e i ns t i t ut i ona l i z e d w i t hi n t he uni ve r s i t y; a nd t ha t t he uni ve r s i t y de ve l op s t he f i n a nc i a l a nd p e r s onne l r e s o ur c e s ne c e s s a r y t o a dopt t he s t r a t e gi e s t o a c hi e v e a r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus w i t hi n 30 ye a r s P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy I n t he f i r s t pha s e m u c h i s a s ke d of t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he i ns t i t ut i on. A c om m i t m e nt f r om t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o c r e a t i ng a m o r e s us t a i n a bl e a nd ul t i m a t e l y r e g e ne r a t i ve c a m pus i s t he f i r s t s t e p. T o do s o, t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on w i l l m a ke publ i c c om m i t m e nt s t o t hi s goa l s o t ha t t he y m a y be he l d a c c ount a bl e t o a c hi e vi ng t he s e go a l s F i r s t t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c r e a t e a nd di s t r i but e a n e nvi r onm e nt a l / s us t a i na bi l i t y pol i c y s t a t e m e nt t o s e r ve a s t he b a s i s f or i t s e nvi r onm e nt a l s t r a t e gy. W i t hi n t hi s s t a t e m e nt w i l l be a c om m i t m e nt t o t r a ns f or m t he c ur r e nt c a m pus i nt o a r e ge n e r a t i ve c a m pus w i t hi n a 30 ye a r t i m e f r a m e N e xt t he uni ve r s i t y P r e s i de nt ( or ot he r c hi e f e xe c ut i ve ) w i l l s i gn bot h t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on a nd t he A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge a nd U ni ve r s i t y P r e s i de nt s ( A C U P ) C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt R e l e a s e d i n 1990, t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on i s a t e n poi nt a c t i on pl a n f or i nc o r por a t i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l l i t e r a c y i n t e a c hi ng, r e s e a r c h ope r a t i ons a nd out r e a c h a t c ol l e g e s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s I t ha s be e n s i gne d by ove r 350 un i ve r s i t y pr e s i de nt s a nd c h a nc e l l or s i n ove r 40 c ount r i e s ( U L S F 2001) T he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt i s a m or e r e c e nt doc um e nt de v e l ope d i n 2006, w hi c h 422 uni ve r s i t y a nd

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50 c ol l e ge pr e s i d e nt s ha d s i gne d a s of l a t e O c t obe r 2 007. L i ke t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on, t he C om m i t m e nt c ont a i ns s t e ps t o m ove c a m pus e s t ow a r d be c om i ng m or e s us t a i na bl e but c onc e n t r a t e s pr i m a r i l y on w a s t e a nd e n e r gy us e r e duc t i on a s w e l l a s i nc or p or a t i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s i nt o uni ve r s i t y c ur r i c ul a ( A C U P C C 2007) F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y a d m i ni s t r a t i on w i l l i m m e di a t e l y c r e a t e a nd f und a n O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y f or t he c a m pus T he O f f i c e s houl d a t a m i ni m um c ons i s t of a di r e c t or a nd s uppor t s t a f f T he p r i m a r y dut y of t he O f f i c e w i l l be t o s e r ve a s a c l e a r i ng hous e f or i nf or m a t i on on uni ve r s i t y s us t a i na bi l i t y r e s our c e s a nd e f f o r t s A s s e s s i ng c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y ne e ds a s s i s t i ng i n pe r i odi c r e vi e w s of s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s a nd pr i or i t i z i ng pr oj e c t s f or c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l be ot he r dut i e s of t he O f f i c e T he O f f i c e w i l l a l s o c onduc t out r e a c h e f f o r t s a bout t he be ne f i t s of s us t a i na bi l i t y a nd s t r a t e gi e s t o ove r c om e obs t a c l e s t o a c hi e vi ng i t ; e duc a t i ng ot he r de pa r t m e nt s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i on of f i c i a l s i s vi t a l t o s uc c e s s f ul l y de ve l opi ng a s us t a i na bl e c a m pus A c c or di ng t o t he S us t a i n a bi l i t y C oor di na t or a t D uke t o be m os t e f f e c t i ve t he D i r e c t o r of t he S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e m us t r e por t t o a hi gh l e ve l a dm i ni s t r a t or ; s ugge s t e d pl a c e m e nt of t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y i s w i t h i n t he O f f i c e of t he V i c e P r e s i de nt of O pe r a t i ons or i t s e qui va l e nt ( C a pps 2007c ) W i t hout t hi s l e ve l of i nf l ue nc e i t w i l l be m u c h m or e di f f i c ul t t o i ns t i t ut e t he p hi l os ophy of s us t a i na bi l i t y ne c e s s a r y t o t r a ns f o r m t he c a m pus ( M G oni gl e a nd S t a r k e 2 006) N ot e t ha t a s a dm i n i s t r a t i ons c ha nge i t m a y be c om e ne c e s s a r y t o e duc a t e ne w of f i c i a l s a bout s us t a i na b i l i t y s o t ha t t he uni ve r s i t y c om m i t m e nt a c hi e ve d i n P ha s e I doe s not w a ve r

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51 B udge t a r y c ons t r a i nt s a r e a n of t c i t e d r e a s on f or i n s t i t ut i ons r e j e c t i ng t he c ons t r uc t i on of gr e e n bui l di ngs a nd ot he r s us t a i na bl e i nf r a s t r u c t ur e T hough t hi s w i l l be di s c us s e d f ur t he r i n C ha pt e r 3, a po s s i bl e s ol ut i on t o t h i s pr obl e m l i e s i n t he a r r a ng e m e nt t ha t m os t uni ve r s i t i e s ha ve w i t h t he i r f a c i l i t i e s budge t s I n m a ny uni ve r s i t y s ys t e m s t he budge t f or bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on i s s e pa r a t e f r om t he bui l di ng ope r a t i ons budge t B e c a us e of t hi s di vi s i on, no f i na nc i a l i nc e nt i ve e xi s t s f or t he c ons t r uc t i on t e a m t o i nc or por a t e gr e e n t e c hnol ogi e s pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n t he c ons t r u c t i on t e a m ha s s e ve r a l ot he r di r e c t i ve s s uc h a s m a xi m i z i ng s pa c e a v a i l a bl e f or c l a s s r oom s of f i c e s or l a bs a e s t he t i c c ons i de r a t i ons de a dl i ne s e t c T h e r e f o r e a dj us t i ng t he budge t a r y s ys t e m t o l i nk t he c ons t r uc t i on a nd ope r a t i ons budge t s s o t ha t t he pot e nt i a l l ong t e r m c os t s a vi ngs of gr e e n t e c hnol ogy, a s w e l l a s t he s hor t t e r m c o s t i nc r e a s e s ( i f a ny) a r e e qui t a bl y s ha r e d a m ong u ni ve r s i t y de pa r t m e nt s i s a not he r t a s k w i t h w hi c h t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on w i l l be t a s ke d. A l t e r na t i ve l y, t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on c oul d e s t a bl i s h a l oa n pr ogr a m s i m i l a r t o H a r va r d s G r e e n C a m pus L oa n F und s uc h t ha t t he l oa n i s r e pa i d vi a t he s a vi ngs ga i ne d by i m pl e m e nt i ng gr e e n t e c hnol ogy. O nc e e s t a bl i s he d, t h e O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c onduc t a n a s s e s s m e nt of t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of c ur r e nt c a m pus i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a nd pr a c t i c e s w i t hi n t he f i r s t ye a r t o l a y t he gr oundw or k f o r t he r e s t of t he P ha s e s a nd A r e a s of F oc us F or c a m pus i nf r a s t r uc t ur e L E E D E B w i l l be t he a s s e s s m e nt t ool f or a l l c a m p us bui l di ngs gr e a t e r t ha n 2 ye a r s ol d, a nd L E E D N C f o r a l l yo unge r a s w e l l a s pr opos e d bui l di ngs F ur t he r t he L E E D N C A ppl i c a t i on G ui de f or M ul t i pl e B ui l di ngs a nd O n C a m pus B ui l di ng P r oj e c t s w i l l be i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he a s s e s s m e nt a s t hi s gui de pr ovi de s di r e c t i on i n how b e s t t o a ppl y

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52 L E E D N C c r i t e r i a t o c a m pus e s P a r t i c ul a r f o c us of t hi s L E E D C a m pus G ui de i s on s ha r e d t r a ns po r t a t i on, w a t e r a nd w a s t e m a na g e m e nt r e s our c e s B e yond bui l di ngs t he c a m pus a s s e s s m e nt w i l l r e vi e w pol i c i e s a nd p r a c t i c e s i nvol vi ng f ood r e s our c e s c ur r i c ul um a nd r e s e a r c h, pr oc ur e m e nt i nve s t m e nt s t r a ns por t a t i on, a nd gr e e nhous e ga s ( G H G ) e m i s s i ons F i na l l y, t he r e por t w i l l of f e r r e c om m e nda t i ons a s t o w h a t pr oj e c t s t he uni ve r s i t y s houl d pur s ue i n t he e ns ui ng f i ve ye a r s t o i nc r e a s e s us t a i n a bi l i t y. P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t 5 y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: D ur i ng t he s e c o nd ye a r of i m pl e m e nt a t i on, t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l w or k w i t h va r i ous uni ve r s i t y de pa r t m e nt s t o be g i n i ns t i t ut i ng t he r e c om m e nda t i ons e s t a bl i s he d dur i ng t he P ha s e I a s s e s s m e nt T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l s e r ve a s t he l e a d f or t he a d m i ni s t r a t i on on a l l s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd t he S us t a i na bi l i t y C oo r di na t or ( he a d of t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y ) w i l l di r e c t l y a dvi s e t he V i c e P r e s i de nt of O pe r a t i ons A n op t i on i s t o e l e va t e t he S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or pos i t i on t o t he l e ve l of a V i c e P r e s i de nt t o i nf us e s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s i nt o t he de c i s i ons of t he c a bi ne t a nd B oa r d of T r us t e e s O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y m e m be r s w i l l be i nc l ude d on ot he r m a j or uni ve r s i t y de c i s i o n m a ki ng bodi e s a s w e l l T he H a r v a r d C a m pus S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or pos i t i on i s a m ode l t o f ol l ow a s i t i s a ut onom ous i n na t ur e a nd c a n t he r e f or e f a c i l i t a t e pr oj e c t s a c r os s t he e n t i r e uni ve r s i t y, but i s a l s o a c c ount a bl e t o a c a d e m i c a nd ope r a t i ons ne e ds ( M G o ni gl e a nd S t a r ke 2006) M uc h l i ke t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da t he O f f i c e w i l l c onduc t a nnua l s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt s of t he e nt i r e c a m pus a n d r e l e a s e a n a nnu a l r e po r t of i t s f i ndi ngs t o gui de c a m pus de ve l opm e nt t ow a r d b e c om i ng m or e r e ge n e r a t i ve

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53 A f t e r t he s e pr ogr a m s ha v e be e n e s t a bl i s he d, t he O f f i c e w i l l c r e a t e a r e ge ne r a t i ve de ve l opm e nt pl a n s pe c i f i c t o i t s uni ve r s i t y us i ng t he goa l s e l a bor a t e d w i t hi n t hi s s t r a t e gy a s a gui de l i ne F i na l l y, a f und t o pr ovi de t he f i na n c i ng ne c e s s a r y t o bui l d t he r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus w i l l be e s t a bl i s he d, f und e d i n pa r t by t he s a vi ngs ge ne r a t e d by t he c ons t r uc t i on a nd r e t r of i t of gr e e n e r c a m pus bui l di ngs S i m i l a r t o t he D e pa r t m e n t a l S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or pr ogr a m a t U B C ( s e e be l ow ) e a c h a c a d e m i c ope r a t i ona l a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i ve de p a r t m e nt w i l l e s t a bl i s h a s us t a i na bi l i t y of f i c e r t o c ha m pi on s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s w i t hi n hi s / he r r e s pe c t i ve de p a r t m e nt I n t ur n, t he of f i c e r w i l l r e por t t o t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y a bout pr ogr e s s a nnu a l l y, t hus a s s um i ng s om e of t he a s s e s s m e nt r ol e s P has e I I I : O n goi ng af t e r P has e I I : T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c ont i nue t o be a c l e a r i nghous e f o r i nf or m a t i on on s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s a t t he c a m pus a n d w i l l pr e s s f or m or e s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s a nd r e ge ne r a t i ve s ol ut i ons T he O f f i c e w i l l c ons t a nt l y m oni t or ne w t e c hnol ogy a nd s t r a t e gi e s t o s t a y up t o da t e on pr a c t i c e s t ha t e ns ur e t ha t t he uni ve r s i t y w a s ut i l i z i ng t he be s t pr a c t i c e s a va i l a bl e t o be c om e m or e s us t a i na bl e a n d a c c e l e r a t e t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of r e ge ne r a t i ve d e ve l opm e n t F ur t he r t he O f f i c e w i l l i nc r e a s e out r e a c h a nd f undr a i s i ng t o pr om ot e r e ge n e r a t i ve d e s i gn f or t he c a m pus e duc a t e pot e nt i a l donor s a nd c a m pus us e r s on r e ge ne r a t i ve d e ve l op m e nt a nd r e pl e ni s h t he f und e s t a bl i s he d t o c r e a t e t he r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus F unds w i l l be di s bur s e d f r o m t he a c c ount s uc h t ha t m one y w i l l be gi ve n t o r e ge ne r a t i ve pr o j e c t s on t he c a m pus t o a c c ount f or a ny c ons t r uc t i o n c os t

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54 i nc r e a s e s ove r s t a nd a r d c ons t r uc t i on c os t s ; a ga i n, ope r a t i ona l c os t s a vi ngs w i l l be di ve r t e d t o r e pl e ni s h t he f und unt i l t he l oa n i s r e pa i d i n f ul l F i na l l y, onc e t he uni ve r s i t y ha s a c hi e v e d r e g e ne r a t i ve s t a t us t he O f f i c e of S u s t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c ont i nue t o s e a r c h f or w a ys t o i m pr ove t he c a m pus a nd s ur r oundi ng c om m uni t y e nvi r onm e nt a nd s oc i a l A RE A O F F O CUS 2: A C A DE M I A W i t h t he a bi l i t y t o r e a c h m i l l i ons of s t ude nt s a s w e l l a s m i l l i ons m or e f a c ul t y, s t a f f a nd a l um ni uni ve r s i t i e s c a n i nf l ue nc e a nd e duc a t e a s i gni f i c a nt por t i on of t he p opul a t i on a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y. I ns t i t ut i ons c a n a c c om pl i s h t hi s by s e r vi ng a s e xa m pl e s vi a bui l di ng a nd ope r a t i ng pr a c t i c e s a nd t hr ough out r e a c h p r og r a m s i nt o t he c om m uni t y. O ne of t he m os t di r e c t i nf l ue nt i a l a nd i m por t a nt w a ys t o i nf l ue nc e a nd e duc a t e i s t o a ddr e s s s us t a i na bi l i t y w i t hi n t he c ur r i c ul a t a ught on t he c a m pus B y e xpa ndi ng t he num be r s of c our s e s a v a i l a bl e t ha t e d uc a t e s t ude nt s a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y, a s w e l l a s i nc o r por a t i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o c or e c our s e s t he s e l e s s ons c a n be gi n t o pe r m e a t e t h e s t ude nt c ul t ur e A not he r a r e a t o be a ddr e s s e d w i t hi n s us t a i na bl e a c a de m i a i s t he t ype o f r e s e a r c h t h a t i s c onduc t e d a nd f unde d a t t he uni ve r s i t y. M a ny s c h ool s ha ve r e s e a r c h gr oup s t ha t di r e c t l y or i ndi r e c t l y s t udy i s s ue s of s us t a i na bi l i t y. A s t he s e pr ogr a m s gr o w m or e s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y be c om e i nvol ve d a nd t he i s s ue s be c om e m or e pr om i ne nt w i t hi n a nd be yond t he uni ve r s i t y F i na nc i a l a nd ot he r i ns t i t ut i ona l s uppo r t f or s t ude nt gr oups t ha t f oc us on t he s e i s s ue s i s a l s o i m por t a nt pa r t i c ul a r l y i f t he s e gr ou ps a r e gr o w i ng ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A ny s uc c e s s f ul s t r a t e gy t o i ns t i t ut e s us t a i na bl e a nd e v e nt ua l l y r e ge n e r a t i ve d e ve l opm e nt a t a uni ve r s i t y m us t i nc l ude gr e e ni ng c ur r i c ul a r e s e a r c h a nd out r e a c h t o t he c om m uni t y.

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55 T he e f f or t t o m ove t ow a r d s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pol i c i e s i n s oc i e t y a s w e l l a s a t uni ve r s i t i e s ha s t o be gi n w i t h e duc a t i on. M os t pe opl e a r e un a w a r e of t h e i r i ndi vi dua l i m pa c t s on t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd ha ve l i t t l e know l e dge of e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s i n ge ne r a l A s a n e xa m pl e P e nn S t a t e s ur ve ye d 150 g r a dua t i ng s e ni or s t o de t e r m i ne t he i r e c ol ogi c a l l i t e r a c y, a nd de t e r m i ne d t ha t 63 % w e r e una bl e t o na m e one f e de r a l o r s t a t e l a w t ha t pr ot e c t s t he e nvi r onm e nt 72% ha d no i de a t ha t t he y w e r e l i vi ng w i t hi n t he S us que ha nna R i ve r B a s i n; a nd 40 % w e r e una bl e t o na m e e ve n t w o t r e e t yp e s on c a m pus ( P e nn S t a t e G r e e n D e s t i n y C ounc i l 2000) T hi s l a c k of know l e dg e i s one s ym pt om of how s oc i e t y ha s f or got t e n i t s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he pl a ne t a nd onl y a s e a c h a nge i n how hum a ns vi e w a nd s ubs e q ue nt l y i n t e r a c t w i t h t he n a t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt w i l l b r i ng a bout a s us t a i ni ng r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hum a ni t y a nd t he e a r t h. M e m be r s of s us t a i na bl e c om m uni t i e s ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t o s e e t he m s e l ve s a s pa r t of r a t he r t h a n s e p a r a t e f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h t he y dw e l l ( e .g., t h e y unde r s t a nd w he r e t h e i r w a t e r c om e s f r om a nd w he r e t he i r w a s t e go e s ) ( P e nn S t a t e G r e e n D e s t i ny C ounc i l 2000) A l l e i ght of t he uni ve r s i t i e s r e vi e w e d f or t hi s s t ud y ha ve c r e a t e d c our s e s a n d s uppor t e d r e s e a r c h f o c us e d on s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd e a c h ha s gi ve n f i na nc i a l a nd i ns t i t ut i ona l ba c ki ng t o s t ude nt or ga ni z a t i ons a dvoc a t i ng t he s a m e F or e xa m pl e t w e nt y t w o of t he 46 a c a d e m i c de pa r t m e nt s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon of f e r c our s e s r e l a t e d t o e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F ur t he r O r e go n ha s s e ve n r e s e a r c h i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t f oc us on s us t a i na bi l i t y: t he O r e gon I ns t i t ut e of M a r i ne B i ol ogy, t he I ns t i t ut e f or a S us t a i na bl e E nvi r onm e nt t he S o l a r E ne r gy C e nt e r t he C e nt e r f or E c ol ogy a nd E vol ut i ona r y B i ol ogy, t h e O r e gon I n s t i t ut e of M a r i ne B i ol ogy, t he C e nt e r

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56 f or H ous i ng I nnova t i on, t he O r e gon T r a ns por t a t i on R e s e a r c h a nd E duc a t i on C ons or t i um a nd t he S us t a i na bl e S uppl y C ha i n M a na ge m e nt C e nt e r ( M i t a l e t a l 2007 ) T he r e e xi s t m a ny s m a l l e r s us t a i na bi l i t y r e s e a r c h pr ogr a m s s uc h a s t he G r e e n C he m i s t r y P r ogr a m a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt a l C ha n ge R e s e a r c h G r oup ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) S t ude nt s a r e a l s o i nvol ve d w i t h s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s u e s vi a s e ve r a l s t ude nt gr o ups i nc l udi ng e i ght t ha t ha ve f or m e d o ve r t he pa s t de c a d e ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) S t ude nt or ga ni z a t i ons i nc l ude t he S us t a i na bl e B us i ne s s G r oup a nd t he C e nt e r f or t he A dva nc e m e n t of S us t a i na bl e L i vi ng ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) O r e gon s p ons or s 11 c om m uni t y out r e a c h pr ogr a m s a bout s us t a i na b i l i t y, i nc l udi ng t he C om m uni t y P l a nni ng W or ks hop a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt a l L e a d e r s hi p P r ogr a m ( M i t a l e t a l 2 007) T hr ough i t s C ont i nui ng E duc a t i on C e nt e r O r e go n ha s a l s o e s t a bl i s he d a c ont i nui ng e duc a t i on pr ogr a m f or w or ki ng pr of e s s i ona l s c a l l e d t he S us t a i na bi l i t y L e a de r s hi p P r ogr a m T he ne w l y ope n e d ( 2005 ) U C M e r c e d ha s t hr e e a c a de m i c s c hool s e a c h w i t h s us t a i na bi l i t y r e l a t e d c ou r s e s t hr oughout A m ul t i di s c i pl i na r y gr a dua t e s t u di e s pr ogr a m i n E nvi r onm e nt a l S ys t e m s ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d w i t h t he S c hool s of E ngi ne e r i ng a nd N a t ur a l S c i e nc e s a nd s e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s a r e w or ki ng on c l i m a t e c ha nge i s s ue s O ne r e s e a r c h gr oup i s t he S i e r r a N e v a da R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e w hi c h t a ke s a n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y a ppr oa c h t o e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s T he i r r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on s e v e n pr i m a r y s ubj e c t a r e a s : popul a t i on gr o w t h a nd de ve l opm e nt w a t e r a nd w a t e r s he ds a i r qua l i t y, f i r e e c ol ogy, bi odi ve r s i t y, c l i m a t e c ha nge a nd r e s ou r c e m a na g e m e nt a nd pol i c y ( U C M e r c e d 2007 e )

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57 F i na l l y, s t ude nt s a t t hi s n e w uni ve r s i t y ha ve a l r e a dy e s t a bl i s he d t w o s t ude nt gr oups t o a ddr e s s s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s H a r va r d of f e r s 370 c ou r s e s i n e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y r e l a t e d i s s ue s F ur t he r m a ny ot he r s us t a i na bi l i t y c our s e s a r e a v a i l a bl e vi a c r os s r e gi s t r a t i on a gr e e m e nt s w i t h t he M a s s a c hus e t t s I ns t i t ut e of T e c hnol ogy a nd T uf t s U ni ve r s i t y. S e ve r a l r e s e a r c h gr oups f oc us e d on s us t a i na bi l i t y a r e a l s o f ound a t H a r va r d i nc l udi ng t he C l e a n E ne r gy P r oj e c t S us t a i na bi l i t y S c i e nc e P r ogr a m a t H a r va r d s C e nt e r f or I nt e r n a t i ona l D e ve l opm e nt a nd t he S c i e nc e E nvi r onm e n t a nd D e ve l opm e nt ( S E D ) G r oup. T he H a r v a r d U ni ve r s i t y C e nt e r f or t he E nvi r onm e nt pr om ot e s i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y s t r a t e gi e s t o a ddr e s s gl oba l e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s a nd s uppor t s t he de ve l op m e nt of e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s e a r c h a nd i ns t r uc t i on t hr oughout H a r va r d. S e v e r a l s t ude nt g r oups w or k w i t h t hi s r e s e a r c h gr oup a nd a c r os s H a r v a r d, i nc l u di ng t he H a r va r d E nvi r o nm e nt a l L a w S oc i e t y, t he H a r va r d B us i ne s s S c hool B us i ne s s & E nvi r onm e nt C l ub, a nd t he H a r va r d C ol l e ge E nvi r onm e nt a l A c t i on C om m i t t e e T he H a r v a r d G r e e n C a m pus I ni t i a t i ve ha s i ni t i a t e d num e r ous e duc a t i on a n d out r e a c h pr ogr a m s a s w e l l I n pa r t ne r s hi p w i t h t he H a r v a r d E xt e ns i on S e r vi c e H G C I pr e s e nt s c our s e s i n s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s a nd g r e e n bui l di ng. H G C I hos t s t he B e s t P r a c t i c e s E xc ha nge t o f a c i l i t a t e di s c us s i on a nd e duc a t i on i n t he H a r v a r d c om m uni t y a bout e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s us t a i na bl e c a m pus pr a c t i c e s ( H G C I 2007b ) T he G r a du a t e G r e e n L i vi ng P r ogr a m a not he r H G C I i ni t i a t i ve pr om ot e s s us t a i na bl e l i vi ng i n gr a dua t e s t ude nt r e s i de nc e s on c a m pus G r a dua t e s t ude nt vol unt e e r s e duc a t e f e l l ow r e s i de nt s on e ne r gy

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58 a nd w a t e r c ons e r v a t i on a nd r e c yc l i ng ( H G C I 200 7c ) A s i m i l a r pr ogr a m e xi s t s f or unde r gr a du a t e r e s i de nc e s U F of f e r s m or e t ha n 100 c our s e s on s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s w i t hi n t e n a c a de m i c pr ogr a m s F ur t he r 23 r e s e a r c h c e nt e r s on c a m pus a dd r e s s s u s t a i na bi l i t y, i nc l udi ng t he L a nd U s e a nd E nvi r onm e nt a l C ha n ge I ns t i t ut e t he C e nt e r f o r H e a l t h a nd t he B ui l t E n vi r onm e nt t he F l or i da I ns t i t ut e f or S us t a i na bl e E ne r gy, t he W a t e r I ns t i t ut e a nd t he P o w e l l C e nt e r f or C ons t r uc t i on a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt T he P r ovo s t ha s f unde d a F e l l ow s hi p i n S us t a i na bi l i t y t o l e a d t o t he c r e a t i on of a de di c a t e d c our s e of s t udy i n s us t a i na bi l i t y ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007c ) S e ve r a l s t ude nt s w or k a s i nt e r ns w i t hi n t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd ha ve he l pe d c r e a t e t he G a t o r G r e e n G ui de t o e duc a t e t h e i r f e l l o w s t ude nt s a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y a t F l or i da M a ny s t ude nt gr oups ha ve or i gi na t e d t o a ddr e s s t he s e i s s ue s a s w e l l i nc l udi ng G a t or s f or a S us t a i na bl e C a m pus t he B i oe ne r gy a nd S us t a i na bl e T e c hnol o gy S oc i e t y, a nd t he A m e r i c a n S ol a r E ne r gy S oc i e t y. G a t or s f or a S us t a i na bl e C a m pus ( G S C ) ha s l e d a n i ni t i a t i ve f or a R e n e w a bl e E n e r gy S t ude nt F e e ( G r e e n F e e ) t o pur c ha s e gr e e n pow e r a nd f und r e n e w a bl e e ne r gy p r oj e c t s on t he c a m pus ( G S C 2007) G S C a l s o c onduc t s out r e a c h t o l oc a l m i ddl e a nd hi gh s c hool s a s w e l l a s t o s t ude nt s on c a m pus F i na l l y, s t ude nt s c a n be i nvol ve d i n t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on a s m e m be r s of t he U ni ve r s i t y s S us t a i na bi l i t y C om m i t t e e a nd t he S t ude nt G ove r n m e nt E nvi r onm e nt a l A f f a i r s C a bi ne t ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007c )

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59 P e nn S t a t e of f e r s 517 c o ur s e s on e nvi r onm e nt e n e r gy a nd ot he r s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s T he C e nt e r f o r S us t a i na b i l i t y a t P e nn S t a t e a r e s e a r c h, e du c a t i on a nd out r e a c h or ga ni z a t i on, pr om ot e s t he s e c our s e s a nd m a ny o f t he i r uppe r l e v e l s t a f f s e r ve a s i ns t r uc t or s f or s om e of t h e s e c l a s s e s O t he r c a m p us r e s e a r c h uni t s a ddr e s s i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s i nc l u de t he P e nn S t a t e I ns t i t ut e s of E ne r gy a nd t he E nv i r onm e nt t he S oc i a l S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e t he U nde r gr a du a t e B i odi e s e l R e s e a r c h G r oup, a nd t he R oc k E t hi c s I ns t i t ut e w hi c h f oc us e s i n pa r t on gl oba l c l i m a t e c ha ng e B e y ond t he s e r e s e a r c h a nd c ur r i c ul um oppor t uni t i e s s t ude nt s m a y a l s o be i nvol ve d i n s u s t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s t hr ough c a m pus s uppor t e d s t ude nt or ga ni z a t i ons s uc h a s E c o A c t i on, t he P e nn S t a t e G r e e n D e s t i ny C oun c i l t he S ol a r D e c a t hl on t e a m a nd t he S us t a i na bl e A gr i c ul t ur e C l ub. T hi r t e e n of t he 37 a c a d e m i c de pa r t m e nt s a t U C F w e r e f ound t o ha ve c our s e s i nvol vi ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h uni t s on c a m pus f oc us on t he s e a s w e l l i nc l udi ng t he F l or i da S ol a r E ne r gy C e nt e r t he S t or m w a t e r M a na ge m e nt A c a de m y, a nd t he C e nt e r f or E ne r gy a nd S us t a i na b i l i t y. T he s e r e s e a r c h uni t s a s w e l l a s t he U C F P hys i c a l P l a nt of f e r out r e a c h t o s t ude nt s e m pl oye e s a nd t he g e ne r a l publ i c vi a w e bp a ge s t ha t of f e r s t r a t e gi e s f or e ne r gy a nd w a t e r c ons e r va t i on. T he G e ne r a l E duc a t i on P r ogr a m ( G E P ) t h e c or e c ur r i c ul um pr ogr a m a t U C F c e nt e r s on a U ni f yi ng T he m e o f gl oba l c l i m a t e c ha ng e T he s t ude nt s i ndi c a t i ng t he i r c om m i t m e nt t o l e a r ni ng a bout a nd a c t i ng on e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s c hos e t hi s T he m e T he G E P U ni f yi ng T he m e e n c our a ge s U C F unde r gr a du a t e s t ude nt s t o e nga ge i n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y,

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60 a c a d e m i c di s c our s e a bou t gl oba l c l i m a t e c ha nge pot e nt i a l s ol ut i ons a nd oppor t uni t i e s f or di r e c t s t ude nt a c t i on ( U C F G e ne r a l E duc a t i on P r ogr a m 2007 ) A l s o, t he G E P U ni f yi ng T he m e w e bs i t e s e r ve s a s a c l e a r i nghous e f or f a c ul t y r e s e a r c h a nd r e s our c e s f or us e i n t hi s e f f or t S t ude nt gr oups f oc us i ng on s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s i nc l ude E ngi ne e r s W i t hout B or de r s t he A S H R A E gr oup, a nd t he S oc i e t y of E nvi r onm e nt a l E ngi ne e r s E c o A dvo c a t e s a s t ude nt e nvi r onm e nt a l or ga ni z a t i on, ha s be e n a c t i ve i n pr o m ot i ng s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s a t U C F O ne i ni t i a t i ve ba c ke d by E c o A dvoc a t e s ha s b e e n a m e a s ur e t o i nc l ude a G r e e n F e e w i t hi n s t ude nt f e e s t o f un d s us t a i na bl e t e c hnol ogy a nd pr a c t i c e s f or U C F ( Y oung 2007b ) A l l m one y f r om t hi s a s s e s s m e nt w oul d be pl a c e d i n a f und ove r s e e n by a G r e e n F e e s ubc om m i t t e e unde r t he S us t a i na bi l i t y A l l i a nc e a nd w oul d be c om pr i s e d p r i m a r i l y by s t ude nt s ( Y oung 2007b ) F i na l l y, t he U C F S t ude n t G ove r nm e nt A s s oc i a t i o n ha s e s t a bl i s he d a n e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y c oor di na t or pos i t i on D uke s E nvi r onm e nt a l P ol i c y S t a t e m e nt m a ke s a c om m i t m e nt t o e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s e a r c h a nd e duc a t i on, s t a t i ng i t s goa l t o us e [ i t s ] i ns t i t ut i ona l c a pa bi l i t y t o c ons t r u c t i ve l y a f f e c t e nvi r onm e nt a l pol i c y t hr oughout t he w or l d. [ T he y] a r e c om m i t t e d t o s uppor t i ng i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y e nvi r on m e nt a l s c hol a r s hi p a nd r e s e a r c h, di s s e m i na t i ng i nf or m a t i on a bout e nvi r o nm e nt a l r e s e a r c h a nd pol i c y, i n c r e a s i ng f a c ul t y a nd s t ude nt a w a r e n e s s of e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s a n d e nha nc i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l e duc a t i ona l of f e r i ngs ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2007a )

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61 A l t hough a n e xa c t num b e r w a s not a v a i l a bl e D uk e of f e r s hundr e ds o f c our s e s i n s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s I n pa r t i c ul a r t he N i c hol a s S c hool f or t he E nvi r onm e nt a nd E a r t h S c i e nc e s of f e r s c our s e s r e s e a r c h a nd out r e a c h p r o gr a m s i n m a ny a s pe c t s o f s us t a i na bi l i t y. S t ude nt s ha ve be c om e f ur t h e r i nv ol ve d by c r e a t i ng s e ve r a l or ga ni z a t i ons on c a m pus i nc l udi ng t he S t ude nt s f or S us t a i na bl e L i vi ng, t he D uke E nvi r o nm e nt a l A l l i a nc e t he D uk e U ni ve r s i t y G r e e ni ng I ni t i a t i ve a nd t he D uke B i ke A dvo c a t e s T o e duc a t e t h e c om m uni t y a bout D uke s e f f or t s a n d di r e c t s t ude nt s a nd e m p l oye e s w ho m i ght w i s h t o be i nvol ve d, a w e bs i t e w a s c r e a t e d by t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y t o s e r ve a s a c l e a r i nghous e f o r t he m a ny s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s t hr oughout t he c a m pus ( C a pps 2007b) T he O f f i c e a l s o w r i t e s a bi m ont hl y e l e c t r oni c ne w s l e t t e r e duc a t e s s t ude nt s vi a t he S u s t a i na bi l i t y I nt e r ns hi p P r ogr a m a nd of f e r s w or ks hops t o f a c ul t y, s t a f f a nd s t ude nt s ( C a pps 2007b) C om m uni t y out r e a c h i s done vi a a l e c t ur e s e r i e s t he publ i c a t i on of t he D uke E nvi r onm e nt a l M a ga z i ne a nd p r oj e c t s s uc h a s t he S ha r e t he L i ght pr ogr a m i n w hi c h s t ude nt s de l i ve r e d e ne r gy s a vi ng l i ght bul bs t o t he l oc a l D e pa r t m e nt of S oc i a l S e r vi c e s f or f r e e di s t r i but i on ( C a pps 2007b) T he D uke E nvi r onm e nt a l L e a de r s hi p P r ogr a m of f e r s c ont i nui ng e duc a t i on f or e nvi r onm e nt a l pr of e s s i ona l s a nd ot he r s w i s hi ng t o l e a r n m or e a bout e nvi r onm e nt a l pol i c y a nd m a n a ge m e nt F i na l l y, D uke us e s t he phys i c a l c a m pus t o e duc a t e t he c om m uni t y a nd vi s i t or s ; t he uni ve r s i t y ha s de ve l ope d a s us t a i na bi l i t y m a p f oc us i ng on t he s us t a i na bl e pr o j e c t s a nd bui l di ngs l oc a t e d a c r os s t he c a m pus ( C a pps 2007b) U B C o f f e r s ove r 300 und e r gr a du a t e a nd g r a dua t e c our s e s t ha t a dd r e s s s us t a i na bi l i t y

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62 i s s ue s F ur t he r m or e t ha n 150 f a c ul t y m e m be r s a r e c onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h i nt o a r e a s s u c h a s s oc i a l pol i c i e s a nd gr e e n bui l di ng R e s e a r c h g r oups on t he c a m pus i nc l u de t he G l oba l S us t a i na bi l i t y S o l ut i ons E xc ha nge t he I ns t i t ut e f or R e s our c e s E nvi r onm e nt a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd t h e C e nt e r f o r H um a n S e t t l e m e nt s T w o U B C r e s e a r c h e r s de ve l op e d t he E c ol ogi c a l F oot pr i nt c onc e pt a nd publ i s he d a book de t a i l i ng t he i r i de a s ; s e ve r a l gove r nm e nt s a nd c om p a ni e s t hr oughout t he w or l d ha ve e m br a c e d t hi s c on c e pt ( U B C 2007c ) U B C ha s de ve l ope d a nd/ or e nc our a ge d t he d e ve l o pm e nt of pr ogr a m s a nd o r g a ni z a t i ons f or s t ude nt s t o i nc r e a s e t he i r know l e dge o f s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd t o a s s i s t t he c a m pus i n i t s e nvi r onm e nt a l i ni t i a t i ve s F i r s t t he S us t a i n a bi l i t y O f f i c e ha s c r e a t e d a S us t a i na bi l i t y P l e dge f or s t ude nt s t o s i gn on l i ne a c c om pa ni e d by i nf or m a t i on on U B C s e f f or t s a n d w ha t t he y a s s t ude nt s m i ght do t o be c om e m or e e f f e c t i ve e nvi r o nm e nt a l s t e w a r ds S t ude nt s m a y a l s o a c t a s S us t a i na bi l i t y A m ba s s a dor s t o e duc a t e f e l l ow s t ude nt s m a y s e r ve a s R e s i de nc e S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or s t o l e a d i ni t i a t i ve s i n s t ude nt hous i ng, or m a y e nr ol l w i t h t he S us t a i na bl e L e a de r s m e nt or i ng pr ogr a m c o or di na t e d be t w e e n U B C a nd l oc a l pr of e s s i ona l s w or ki ng on s us t a i na bi l i t y m a t t e r s ( U B C 2007d ) O t he r s t ude nt gr oups i nc l ude t he B i ke C o op, t he F ood C O op, t he S t ude nt E nvi r onm e nt a l C e nt r e a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt a l L a w C l ub ( U B C 2007d ) F a c ul t y a nd s t a f f a r e i nvo l ve d i n s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s a t U B C be yond t he c l a s s r oom a s w e l l W i t hi n e a c h o f U B C s 300 a c a de m i c a n d ope r a t i ona l de p a r t m e nt s a r e S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or s w ho e duc a t e f e l l ow w or ke r s a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd

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63 a bout a l t e r na t i v e s a va i l a b l e t o r e duc e t h e e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of t he i r a c t i vi t i e s P r i m a r y a r e a s of f o c us a r e e ne r gy us e w a s t e pr od uc t i on a nd t r a ns por t a t i on E s t i m a t e s a r e t ha t t he S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or pr ogr a m s a ve s U B C a ppr oxi m a t e l y $75,000 a nnua l l y ( U B C 2007 e ) F i na l l y U B C a s c r e a t e d a n a c a de m i c pr og r a m t o a s s e m bl e i nt e r e s t e d f a c ul t y s t a f f a nd s t ude nt s t o w or k on pr oj e c t s t ha t f oc us on s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s T h e S oc i a l E c ol ogi c a l E c onom i c D e ve l opm e nt S t udi e s pr ogr a m ( S E E D S ) w a s c r e a t e d i n 2001, h a s i n vol ve d m or e t ha n 1,000 pa r t i c i p a nt s a nd ha s s a v e d U B C hundr e ds of t hous a nds of dol l a r s t hr ough i m pl e m e nt a t i on of i de a s t ha t ha v e or i gi na t e d i n t hi s pr ogr a m ( U B C 2007f ) S E E D S pr oj e c t s i nc l ude e xpl or i ng a s us t a i na bl e f ood s ys t e m f or U B C f i ndi ng a l t e r na t i ve s t o pe s t i c i de s a nd de t e r m i ni ng s t or m w a t e r t r e a t m e nt opt i ons

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64 T ab l e 2: O ve r vi e w of A c ad e m i c E f f o r t s i n S u s t ai n ab i l i t y at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M C o u r s e s 3 7 0 c o u r s e s ; c r o s s o f f e r i n g s w / T u f t s a n d M I T O v e r 3 0 0 c o u r s e s 1 0 9 c o u r s e s A l l 3 a c a d e m i c s c h o o l s h a v e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y c o u r s e s R e s e a r c h S e v e r a l i n c l u d i n g t h e S u s t a i n a b i l i t y S c i e n c e P r o g r a m a t H a r v a r d s C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t S e v e r a l i n c l u d i n g t h e I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s o u r c e s t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a n d t h e D e s i g n C e n t r e f o r S u s t a i n a b i l i t y 2 3 c e n t e r s i n s t i t u t e s a n d o u t r e a c h p r o g r a m s S i e r r a N e v a d a R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e E n v i r o n m e n t a l L i t e r a c y M a n d a t e N o N o N o N o S t u d e n t g r o u p s S e v e r a l S e v e r a l S e v e r a l 2 g r o u p s A c ad e m i a G oal s : A l l s t ude nt s w i l l a t t a i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l i t e r a c y a s a r e qui r e m e nt f or g r a dua t i on, l e a r ni ng a l t e r na t i ve s t o t he c u r r e nt non s us t a i na bl e pa r a di g m t ha t pe r m e a t e s W e s t e r n s oc i e t y. D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O C o u r s e s H u n d r e d s o f s u s t a i n a b i l i t y c o u r s e s 1 3 o f 3 7 d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h s u s t a i n a b i l i t y c o u r s e s 5 1 7 c o u r s e s o n e n v i r o n m e n t a n d e n e r g y 2 2 o f 4 6 d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h s u s t a i n a b i l i t y c o u r s e s R e s e a r c h S e v e r a l i n c l u d i n g t h e N i c h o l a s S c h o o l o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e D u k e C e n t e r f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S o l u t i o n s S e v e r a l i n c l u d i n g t h e F l o r i d a S o l a r E n e r g y C e n t e r a n d t h e S t o r m w a t e r M a n a g e m e n t A c a d e m y S e v e r a l i n c l u d i n g t h e C e n t e r f o r S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a n d t h e P e n n S t a t e I n s t i t u t e s o f E n e r g y a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t 2 0 r e s e a r c h u n i t s f o c u s i n g o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y E n v i r o n m e n t a l L i t e r a c y M a n d a t e N o N o I n d e v e l o p m e n t N o S t u d e n t g r o u p s S e v e r a l S e v e r a l S e v e r a l 1 6 s t u d e n t g r o u p s f o c u s o n s u s t a i n a b i l i t y

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65 S t ude nt s w i l l unde r s t a nd how t he i r pe r s on a l c hoi c e s i nf l ue nc e t h e e nvi r on m e nt a nd l e a r n a bout a c c e s s i bl e vi a bl e a l t e r na t i ve s t o t he c onve nt i ona l P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy W i t hi n t he f i r s t ye a r o f a dopt i ng t he s t r a t e gy, a s p a r t of t he c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt O f f i c e of S u s t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c om pi l e a l i s t of a l l c our s e s di r e c t l y or i ndi r e c t l y a ddr e s s i ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s I n t he a s s e s s m e nt t he O f f i c e w i l l a l s o r e vi e w gr a du a t i on pr e r e qui s i t e s f o r e a c h a c a de m i c m a j or t o e va l ua t e w hi c h s c hool s r e qui r e s t ude nt s t o pos s e s s know l e dge of s u s t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd w i l l l i s t a l l r e s e a r c h uni t s a nd t he i r r e s e a r c h c on c e nt r a t i ons t o e va l ua t e t he l e v e l of r e s e a r c h b e i ng c onduc t e d i nt o s us t a i na bi l i t y. F i na l l y, t h e a s s e s s m e nt w i l l de t e r m i ne t he s t ude nt gr oups on c a m pus t ha t a dvoc a t e f or a nd/ o r f oc us on s us t a i na bi l i t y, a s w e l l a s t he u ni ve r s i t y f undi ng f or t he s e gr oups P has e I I : W i t hi n t hr e e ( 3) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T o i m pr ove t he s us t a i na b i l i t y know l e dge ba s e i n m ode r n uni ve r s i t y s t ude n t s t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l of f e r s us t a i na bi l i t y r e l a t e d c ou r s e s t o a l l s t ude nt s i n t he uni ve r s i t y. E a c h a c a d e m i c de pa r t m e nt w i l l t e a c h a t l e a s t on e c our s e on s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s A l t e r na t i ve l y, i f e nough i ns t i t ut i ons a r e i n pr oxi m i t y t o one a not he r a n e xc ha nge pr ogr a m f or s us t a i n a bi l i t y c our s e s s i m i l a r t o t he o ne i ns t i t ut e d by T uf t s M I T a nd H a r va r d c oul d be e s t a bl i s he d. S i m ul t a ne ous l y, r e s e a r c h i nt o c r e a t i ng s us t a i na bl e s ol ut i ons f or e nvi r onm e nt a l e c onom i c a nd s oc i a l pr obl e m s w i l l be e nc our a ge d t hr ough f undi ng a nd

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66 f a c ul t y hi r i ng pr o c e s s e s R e s e a r c h p r ogr a m s i n t h e s e a r e a s w i l l r e c e i ve p r i or i t y f or l a bor a t or y s pa c e U ni ve r s i t y f undi ng t o s t ude nt gr oups t ha t a dvoc a t e f or s u s t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s w i l l i nc r e a s e S t ude nt s w i l l pa r t i c i pa t e w i t h t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na b i l i t y on a dvi s or y pa ne l s f o r c a m p us s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a ns m uc h l i ke t he U F S us t a i na bi l i t y C om m i t t e e I nt e r e s t e d s t ude nt s w i l l r e c e i ve t h e o ppor t uni t y t o i nt e r n w i t h t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y t o w or k on s pe c i f i c s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s m uc h l i ke i nt e r ns a t U F a nd D uke T he a dm i ni s t r a t i o n, vi a t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, w i l l a l s o w or k w i t h s t ude nt gr oups t ha t w i s h t o i m pl e m e nt t he i r ow n s us t a i na b i l i t y pr oj e c t s f or t he c a m pus a nd c om m uni t y. L oa ns f r om t he of f i c e t h a t a r e r e p a i d f r om t he c os t s a vi ngs a c c r ue d by t he pr oj e c t m uc h l i ke t he pr opos e d l oa n pr ogr a m f or t he uni ve r s i t y a t l a r ge di s c us s e d a bove w oul d gi ve t he s e gr oups t he f i na nc i a l ba c ki ng t o i m pl e m e nt t he i r i de a s P has e I I I : W i t hi n f i v e ( 5 ) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: A f t e r s us t a i na bi l i t y c our s e s a r e i n pl a c e t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l i m p l e m e nt a pol i c y t ha t e a c h m a t r i c ul a t i ng s e ni or m us t pa s s a t l e a s t one c ou r s e i n s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s D e pa r t m e nt s w i l l c ont i nue t o pr i or i t i z e f undi ng a nd l a bor a t o r y a nd of f i c e s p a c e f or r e s e a r c h uni t s t ha t f oc us on s t udi e s i nvol vi ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s A l s o, a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s up por t f or s t ude nt s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s a nd s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on w i l l e xpa nd. P has e I V : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s : T o a c hi e ve t h e goa l of e n vi r onm e nt a l l y l i t e r a t e gr a dua t e s e a c h m a j or w i l l h a ve s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt e gr a t e d i nt o i t s c ur r i c ul um M i ni m a l l y, on e c or e c our s e w i t hi n a m a j or w i l l c onc e nt r a t e on t h e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he m a j or s ubj e c t a nd how i t m a y i nf l ue nc e

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67 or be i nf l ue nc e d by e nvi r onm e nt a l s oc i a l a nd e c o nom i c s us t a i na bi l i t y. A s t e c hnol ogy a nd f undi ng i m pr ove s us t a i na bi l i t y c a n be w ove n i nt o t he c ur r i c ul a of a l l a c a de m i c m a j or s S t ude nt s w i l l r e c e i ve i ns t r uc t i on i nt o how t he i r c hos e n c a r e e r s m a y i m pa c t t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd w i l l be e xpos e d t o t he m or e s us t a i na bl e opt i ons a va i l a bl e w i t hi n t he i r f i e l ds A s a n e x a m pl e t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da s S c hool of B ui l di ng C ons t r uc t i on of f e r s a c our s e e nt i t l e d I nt e r na t i ona l S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt t ha t f oc us e s on t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of c ons t r uc t i on w or l dw i de F ur t he r a l l gr a dua t i ng s e ni or s w i l l be r e qui r e d t o pa s s a c our s e of f e r e d uni ve r s i t y w i de t ha t f oc us e s on g e ne r a l s us t a i na bi l i t y. T hi s c our s e w oul d be d e s i gne d t o of f e r s t ude nt s a n a l t e r na t i ve vi e w t o t he u ns us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s t h a t a r e t h e c ur r e nt nor m i n W e s t e r n s o c i e t y. T he ba s i c e l e m e nt s of r e ge ne r a t i ve d e s i gn a nd de ve l opm e nt w i l l be i nc l ude d i n t hi s c our s e a s w e l l T he goa l of t he c our s e w i l l be t o e du c a t e s t ude nt s a s t o how t he i r pe r s ona l c hoi c e s i nf l ue nc e t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd e xpl or e a c c e s s i bl e vi a bl e a l t e r n a t i ve s t o c onve nt i ona l pr a c t i c e s T he m a nda t e t ha t a l l s t ude nt s a t t a i n e nv i r onm e nt a l l i t e r a c y a s a r e qui r e m e nt f or gr a dua t i on m a y a pp e a r t o be unr e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n m a j or s e .g. m us i c da n c e f or e i gn l a ngua ge e t c H ow e v e r t he s e s t ude nt s a l l ha ve e f f e c t s on t he pl a n e t t hr ough t he i r pe r s ona l be h a vi or s a nd t e a c hi ng t he m t he pot e nt i a l c ons e que n c e s of t h e i r a c t i ons i s a s i m por t a nt a s t e a c hi ng t ho s e i n di s c i pl i ne s m or e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s us t a i na bi l i t y. I n f a c t i t m a y be m or e i m por t a nt a s m a ny i n t he m or e r e l a t e d di s c i pl i ne s pr oba bl y a l r e a dy h a ve s om e de gr e e of e nvi r onm e nt a l l i t e r a c y. A s e xa m p l e s of s c hool s a t t e m pt i ng t o i m pl e m e nt s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o s e e m i n gl y unr e l a t e d di s c i pl i ne s P e nn S t a t e s G r e e n D e s t i ny C ounc i l ( 2000) r e l a t e s t ha t t he W or l d R e s our c e s I ns t i t ut e i s w or ki ng w i t h ove r 1 00 bus i ne s s

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68 s c hool s t o i nt e gr a t e e c ol o gi c a l l i t e r a c y i nt o bus i ne s s c ur r i c ul a ( w w w .w r i .or g/ w r i / m e b/ ) ; a nd t he C ons or t i um f or E nvi r onm e nt a l E duc a t i on i n M e di c i ne i s w or ki ng w i t h m e di c a l s c hool s t o e l uc i da t e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hum a n he a l t h a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l he a l t h ( w w w .c e e m .or g ) . P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : A s t he bui l t e nvi r onm e nt of t he c a m pus be c om e s r e ge ne r a t i ve c ou r s e s w i l l be upda t e d s o t ha t a l l s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y ha ve a w or ki ng know l e dge of t he p r oc e s s e s t ha t m a ke t he c a m pus r e g e ne r a t i ve C our s e s t a ught i n r e ge n e r a t i ve bui l di ngs w i l l i nc or por a t e t he f e a t ur e s of t he bui l di ngs i nt o c l a s s m a t e r i a l E duc a t i on on t he r e ge n e r a t i ve na t ur e of r e s i de nc e ha l l s c a f e t e r i a s a nd ot he r c om m on s pa c e s w i l l be i nc l ude d i n f r e s hm a n a nd f a c ul t y or i e nt a t i on. W i t h t hi s know l e dge of r e g e n e r a t i ve de v e l opm e nt s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y w i l l be be t t e r e qu i ppe d t o l e a d t he i r c om m uni t i e s t ow a r d t hi s t ype of de ve l opm e nt a s w e l l A RE A O F F O CUS 3: B UI L DI NG S A s not e d i n t he L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w bui l di ngs a c c o unt f or c ons i de r a bl e gl ob a l r e s our c e c ons um pt i on. C o ns t r uc t i on, ope r a t i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e o f bui l di ngs c ons um e 40% of t ot a l r a w m a t e r i a l s a nd e ne r gy, 16% of w a t e r a nd 25% of ha r v e s t e d w ood ( O r r 2004) B ui l di ngs a c c ount f or a p pr oxi m a t e l y 30% of t ot a l w a s t e out put ( 60% of no n i ndus t r i a l w a s t e ) 50% o f t he t ot a l c hl or of l uor oc a r bons ( C F C s ) pr oduc e d, 40 % of S O 2 a nd N O x pol l ut i on, a nd 33% of t he C O 2 e m i t t e d ( O r r 2004; R oodm a n a nd L e ns s e n 1 995) A nd i ndoor e nvi r onm e nt a l qu a l i t y ha s t r e m e ndous i m pa c t s on hum a n he a l t h, a s t he U S E P A

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69 r e por t s t ha t a ppr oxi m a t e l y 30% o f a l l bui l di ngs ha ve s i c k bui l di ng s yndr o m e ( M e ndl e r e t a l 2006 ) U ni ve r s i t i e s ha ve t hous a nds of ne w bui l di ngs pl a nne d f or c ons t r u c t i on ( O r r 2004) H ow c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s c ons t r uc t t he s e ne w bui l di ngs a nd r e nova t e t h e i r e xi s t i ng one s w i l l ha ve e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s t hr ough e ne r gy a nd w a t e r us e w a t e r qua l i t y, hum a n he a l t h, r a w m a t e r i a l c ons um pt i on, G H G e m i s s i ons a nd w a s t e c r e a t i on. T hough m a ny of t he s e t opi c s w i l l be di s c us s e d i ndi vi dua l l y w a s t e m a na ge m e nt G H G s e n e r gy a nd w a t e r a l l w i l l be a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s e c t i on t hr ough t he ne w a nd r e nova t e d bui l di n g c r i t e r i a pr opos e d f or c ol l e ge c a m pus e s A nd, be c a us e t he s e a r e a s do not f unc t i on i n di vi dua l l y, m a ny oppor t uni t i e s t o c oor di na t e de s i gn a nd op e r a t i ons a m ong s e ve r a l d e p a r t m e nt s w i l l a r i s e S e ve r a l uni ve r s i t i e s a f t e r r e c ogni z i ng t he r e duc e d e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s a s w e l l a s t he l ong t e r m e c onom i c b e ne f i t s ha ve be gun t o i m pl e m e nt gr e e n de s i gn a nd c o ns t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s on t h e i r c a m pus e s F or e xa m pl e U F ha s i nc or por a t e d g r e e n bui l di ng t o s h ow i t s c om m i t m e nt t o s a ve a nd pr ot e c t t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd pr ovi de i t s oc c up a nt s he a l t h a nd c om f or t ( U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on 2007a ) O f t he s e m a ny ha ve i ns t i t ut e d r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t ne w bui l di ngs a c hi e ve L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on or m e e t L E E D c r i t e r i a w i t hout unde r goi ng t he f ul l c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s ; one ha s d e ve l ope d i t s ow n c r i t e r i a t o c om pl e m e nt L E E D H ow e v e r none o f t he s e ha s be gun r e ge n e r a t i ve de ve l opm e nt

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70 I n 2001 U F a dopt e d L E E D N C s t a nda r ds f or a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on a nd r e n ova t i on pr o j e c t s a nd i n 2006 e nh a nc e d t hi s t o r e qui r e L E E D S i l ve r c r i t e r i a A s of N ove m be r 2007, U F ha s 17 L E E D N C c e r t i f i e d bui l di ngs i nc l udi ng t w o L E E D N C G ol d s t r uc t ur e s a nd s e ve r a l ot he r pr oj e c t s ha ve be gun t he L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i n a bi l i t y 2007e ) T o a ddr e s s e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs U F ha s s e l e c t e d 35 s t r uc t ur e s t o be e va l ua t e d t hr ough i t s L E E D E B pi l ot pr ogr a m ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007e ) T he U F P hys i c a l P l a nt c ont a i ns a n O f f i c e of E n e r g y C ons e r va t i on t o m oni t o r a nd de c r e a s e t h e c ons um pt i on of e ne r g y on t he c a m pus E va l ua t i ons of e xi s t i ng bui l di ng s a nd e ne r gy s c he dul e s a r e be i ng c ond uc t e d. F ut ur e pr oj e c t s of t hi s of f i c e i nc l ude i ns t a l l a t i on of a ut om a t e d bui l di ng ut i l i t y m e t e r s a nd hi ghe r e f f i c i e nc y bui l di ng e ne r gy c o nt r ol s ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007f ) S t ude nt s ha ve a l s o m a de a c om m i t m e nt t o m or e s us t a i na bl e e ne r gy by vot i ng f or a f e e i nc r e a s e t o pa y f or r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy pr oj e c t s a t U F F i na l l y, a de m ons t r a t i on gr e e n r oo f pr oj e c t ha s be e n c on s t r uc t e d on on e c a m pus bui l di ng. P r ogr e s s E ne r gy, t he e l e c t r i c i t y pr ovi de r f or t he un i ve r s i t y, ha s a s s i s t e d i n bui l di ng a c oge ne r a t i on pl a nt a t t he s c hool a nd ha s f und e d a pr of e s s or s hi p. P r ogr e s s E ne r gy i s a l s o e va l ua t i ng t he f e a s i bi l i t y of i m pl e m e nt i ng s ol a r phot ovol t a i c pr oj e c t s A t U F a l l w a s t e w a t e r pr oduc e d on c a m pus i s s e nt t o a 3 m i l l i on ga l l on pe r da y W a t e r R e c l a m a t i on F a c i l i t y f or t r e a t m e nt a nd t he n a por t i on i s pi pe d t o t he i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007g) O t he r e f f l ue nt w a t e r not us e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n i s di ve r t e d t o P r ogr e s s E ne r gy s c a m pu s c oge ne r a t i on pl a nt ( U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007a ) O t he r w a t e r

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71 s a vi ng m e a s ur e s i n pl a c e a t t he U F i nc l ude c i s t e r ns t o c ol l e c t r a i nw a t e r a nd i ns t a l l a t i on of l ow f l ow f i xt ur e s i n ne w bui l di ngs T he 2005 U ni ve r s i t y o f O r e gon C a m pus P l a n m a nda t e s t ha t a l l ne w bui l di ng de s i gn a nd ope r a t i ons a dhe r e t o t he 2000 S us t a i na bl e D e ve l o pm e nt P l a n. T he S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n r e qui r e s t ha t a l l c ons t r uc t i on m e e t L E E D s t a nd a r ds but doe s not m a nda t e c e r t i f i c a t i on due t o t he a dde d e xp e ns e ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) L a t e r a r e qui r e m e nt t ha t L E E D s c or e c a r ds be us e d t o s e l f a s s e s s bui l di ngs w a s de ve l ope d ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) I n 2004, t he r e qui r e m e nt w a s i nc r e a s e d t o m a nda t e L E E D N C ( V e r s i on 2.0 ) S i l ve r c r i t e r i a but a g a i n, c e r t i f i c a t i on w a s not r e qui r e d; r e nova t i on pr oj e c t s a r e r e qui r e d t o a c hi e ve onl y b a s i c c e r t i f i c a t i on s t a nda r ds ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he s e r e qui r e m e nt s a r e ba s e d on a n O r e gon l a w r e qui r i ng s e l f a s s e s s m e nt of c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s by a l l s t a t e a ge nc i e s ; t he l a w f ur t h e r m a nda t e s t he c r e a t i on of a m a i nt e na nc e pl a n t ha t i nc or por a t e s s us t a i na bl e m e t hods a s w e l l ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) O t he r c r i t e r i a ne w bui l di ngs m us t m e e t a r e t hos e s e t f or t h i n t he S t a t e E ne r gy E f f i c i e n c y D e s i gn ( S E E D ) pr og r a m c r e a t e d O r e gon D e pt of E ne r gy I n i t s c ur r e nt f or m S E E D r e qui r e s t ha t s t a t e a ge n c y pr oj e c t s c ons t r uc t e d a f t e r J une 2001 e xc e e d bui l d i ng c ode e ne r gy c ons e r va t i on r e qu i r e m e nt s by 20% a nd t ha t e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs m u s t be r e t r o f i t t o e xc e e d t he s e r e qui r e m e nt s by 10% ( M i t a l e t a l 20 07) H ow e v e r no m e c h a ni s m e xi s t s w i t hi n t he uni ve r s i t y t o e ns ur e c om pl i a nc e w i t h t he s e c ondi t i ons a nd no c e nt r a l i z e d s t a f f i s i n pl a c e t o ove r s e e pr o j e c t qua l i f i c a t i ons m a na ge t he L E E D a nd S E E D pr oc e s s e s o r e ns ur e c om pl i a n c e w i t h L E E D / S E E D c r i t e r i a ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A s of M a y 2007, U O

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72 ha d c ons t r uc t e d f our bui l di ngs t ha t m e t L E E D N C 2.0 C e r t i f i e d or hi ghe r s t a nda r ds a nd ha s pr opos e d t hr e e m or e O ne of t he c om pl e t e d b ui l di ngs ha s a c hi e ve d L E E D N C S i l ve r c e r t i f i c a t i on, but onl y one bui l di ng m e e t s t he S E E D r e qui r e m e nt s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) I n f i s c a l ye a r 2005 06, t h r ough t he us e of s ol a r pa ne l s a nd t he pur c h a s e of w i nd pow e r 4% of U O s t ot a l e l e c t r i c i t y c a m e f r om on s i t e r e n e w a bl e r e s our c e s c ons t i t ut i ng 1.3% of t he t ot a l e ne r gy us e d on s i t e ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he C e nt r a l P ow e r S t a t i o n i s a c oge ne r a t i on f a c i l i t y t ha t pr oduc e s up t o 30% of t he uni ve r s i t y s e l e c t r i c i t y a s a by pr oduc t of t he c r e a t i on of s t e a m ( U O F a c i l i t i e s S e r vi c e s 2007) M or e r e n e w a bl e e n e r gy pr oj e c t s w i l l be i m pl e m e nt e d a t U O a s t he s t ude n t s vot e d t o i nc r e a s e t he i r a nnua l f e e s t o pur c ha s e r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy c r e di t s f or t he s t ud e nt uni on ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A nd t hough no f or m a l pol i c y e xi s t s U O ha s c onv e r t e d ove r 8 0% of i t s f l uor e s c e nt l i ght i ng f r om T 12 l a m ps t o t he c ons i de r a bl y m o r e e f f i c i e nt T 8 l a m p s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) U O ha s a l s o be gun s e ve r a l pi l ot pr ogr a m s f or w a t e r c ons e r va t i on a nd r e du c t i on of s t or m w a t e r r uno f f A r a i nw a t e r c a t c hm e nt s ys t e m ( c i s t e r n) w a s i ns t a l l e d o n t he O ut door P r ogr a m bui l di ng, a nd t he w a t e r i s us e d t o c l e a n t he e qui pm e nt a nd ve hi c l e s us e d by t he pr ogr a m ( M i t a l e t a l 200 7) T w o l i vi ng r oof s ha v e be e n i ns t a l l e d on c a m p us bui l di ngs but one f a i l e d. T he i n f r a s t r uc t ur e r e m a i ns f or t he f a i l e d r oof a nd v a l ua bl e l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s w e r e p r ov i de d f or f ut ur e pr oj e c t s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) D uke ha s be c om e a uni v e r s i t y l e a de r i n c ons t r uc t i ng ne w bui l di ngs t o L E E D N C s t a nda r ds A s of D e c e m be r 2007, 17 bui l di ngs on t he c a m pus ha d a t t a i n e d a L E E D N C

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73 C e r t i f i e d r a t i ng or hi ghe r D uke ha s a l s o e s t a bl i s he d U ni ve r s i t y D e s i gn G u i de l i ne s w hi c h s t a t e t ha t e ne r gy c ons e r va t i on, a nd e f f i c i e n c y of m e c h a ni c a l a nd e l e c t r i c a l s ys t e m s a nd e qui pm e nt i s of pr i m e i m por t a nc e ( C a pps 200 7b) A m a j or i ni t i a t i ve a t D uke i s t he r e de v e l opm e nt of t he C e nt r a l C a m pus a 2 00 a c r e pr o j e c t t ha t i nvol ve s i nt e gr a t i on of s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s i nt o a l l a s pe c t s of t hi s a r e a o f c a m pus A m ong t he goa l s a r e t o pr e s e r ve g r e e n s pa c e s a nd c r e a t e a m or e w a l ka bl e c a m pus ( C a pps 2007b) A l l ne w bui l di ngs a s w e l l a s t hos e unde r goi ng r e n ova t i on i n t he C e nt r a l C a m pus a r e b e i ng t a r ge t e d f o r L E E D N C S i l ve r a t m i ni m um ( D uke 2007b) Y e t a not he r g r e e n bui l di ng pr oj e c t i s t he S m a r t H om e pi l ot pr ogr a m i n w hi c h t he C ol l e ge of E ngi ne e r i ng h a s pa r t ne r e d w i t h H om e D e pot I nc t o c ons t r u c t a gr e e n hom e t ha t s e r ve s a s a l i vi ng e xpe r i m e nt a s w e l l a s a ho m e t o a s e l e c t num be r of D uke s t ude nt s e ve r y ye a r T hi s pr oj e c t i s a i m i ng t o a c hi e ve L E E D N C G ol d c e r t i f i c a t i on. D uke ha s m a d e s ubs t a nt i a l e f f o r t s i n i m pr ovi ng t he e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y o f a n d r e duc i ng t he e ne r gy c ons um pt i on by i t s c a m pus W i t hi n t he F a c i l i t i e s M a na ge m e nt D e p a r t m e nt ( F M D ) D uke ha s c r e a t e d a n E ne r gy M a na ge r pos i t i on. T hi s m a na ge r i s r e s pons i bl e f or de ve l opi ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng a l l e ne r gy pr ogr a m s but e s pe c i a l l y e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y a nd s e l f ge n e r a t i on pr oj e c t s T he m a na ge r i s a l s o t he pr i m a r y t e c hni c a l a dvi s or t o D uke r e ga r di ng e n e r gy s uppl y a nd de l i ve r y i s s ue s F ur t he r t he F M D i s i n t he pr oc e s s of c r e a t i ng a l ong t e r m e n e r gy m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gy t o he l p gui de c a m pus de v e l opm e nt T he E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt T e a m w i t hi n F M D c onduc t e d a n e n e r gy a udi t a n d pe r f or m e d s i m pl e r e t r of i t s a nd t e c hn i c a l upgr a de s i n c a m pus bui l di ngs s t a r t i ng i n 199 5. B e t w e e n

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74 F i s c a l Y e a r 1997 98 a nd 1999 2000, t he s e e f f or t s s a ve d t he uni ve r s i t y ove r $2.8 m i l l i on i n w a t e r a nd e ne r gy c os t s ( F r i e dm a n 2000) D uke ha s a l s o m a nd a t e d t ha t a l l pur c ha s e s f or qua l i f yi ng pr oduc t s w i l l be E N E R G Y S T A R c e r t i f i e d; f or t hos e pr oduc t s not gove r ne d b y E N E R G Y S T A R e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt pr oduc t s w i l l be s ought ( C a pps 2007b) E N E R G Y S T A R i s a j oi nt p r ogr a m of t he U S E nvi r onm e nt a l P r ot e c t i on A ge nc y a nd t h e U S D e pa r t m e nt of E ne r gy t o pr om ot e e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt p r oduc t s a nd pr a c t i c e s ( E N E R G Y S T A R 2007) I n 2006, E N E R G Y S T A R he l pe d A m e r i c a ns s a ve $ 14 bi l l i on i n ut i l i t y bi l l s a nd pr e ve nt e d t he r e l e a s e of gr e e nhous e ga s e m i s s i ons e qui va l e nt t o t hos e pr oduc e d by a pp r oxi m a t e l y 25 m i l l i on c a r s ( E N E R G Y S T A R 2007) D uke ha s e s t a bl i s he d a g oa l of r e du c i ng w a t e r c on s um pt i on by 30% of f i s c a l ye a r 2006 07. A s L E E D c e r t i f i e d b ui l di ngs a r e c ons t r uc t e d on c a m pus m or e w a t e r s a vi ng f i xt ur e s a r e be i ng i ns t a l l e d. F or e xa m pl e one bui l di ng ha s a 70,000 ga l l on c i s t e r n t o c ol l e c t r a i nw a t e r f or i r r i ga t i on; a s e c ond ha d 50 w a t e r l e s s ur i na l s a nd l ow f l ow t oi l e t s t ha t s a ve a ppr oxi m a t e l y 2 m i l l i on ga l l ons pe r ye a r ( B a xt e r 2007) U B C ope ne d i t s f i r s t gr e e n bui l di ng i n 1996. T he C K C hoi B ui l di ng f or t he I ns t i t ut e of A s i a n R e s e a r c h i nc l ude d r e us e d a nd r e c y c l e d m a t e r i a l s na t ur a l ve nt i l a t i on, a nd c om pos t i ng t oi l e t s a nd w on s e ve r a l a w a r ds f or i t s e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y de s i gn. S e ve r a l ot he r g r e e n bui l d i ngs i nc l udi ng s t r uc t ur e s a c hi e vi ng L E E D N C ba s i c c e r t i f i c a t i on a nd hi ghe r ha ve be e n c ons t r uc t e d or a r e i n t he pl a nni ng s t a g e s a t U B C T o

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75 c om pl e m e nt L E E D U B C de ve l ope d i t s ow n gr e e n bui l di ng a s s e s s m e nt s t a nda r d t o e ns ur e t ha t a l l ne w r e s i de nt i a l c ons t r uc t i on on c a m pus l a nds w oul d be m or e s us t a i na bl e T he U B C R e s i de nt i a l E nvi r onm e nt a l A s s e s s m e nt P r ogr a m ( R E A P ) w a s i nt r oduc e d i n 2006. T hough ba s e d on L E E D R E A P i s uni que i n t ha t i t i s a s i ngl e s ys t e m t ha t c a n be a ppl i e d t o bot h l ow a nd hi gh r i s e bui l di ngs ( U B C 2007h) L i ke L E E D R E A P ha s m a nda t or y a nd opt i ona l r e qui r e m e nt s a s w e l l a s va r i ous l e ve l s of c e r t i f i c a t i on. R e ga r dl e s s de v e l ope r s o f r e s i de nt i a l pr oj e c t s on U B C l a nds m us t a ppl y R E A P c r i t e r i a t o t he i r de ve l opm e nt s a nd a r e e nc ou r a g e d t o go be yo nd B a s e C om pl i a nc e ( U B C 2007h) U ni v e r s i t y T o w n i s a s u s t a i n a b l e c o m m u n i t y be i n g d e v e l o pe d b y U B C W h e n a l l p ha s e s a r e c o m pl e t e U n i v e r s i t y T o w n w i l l i n c l u d e f i v e n e i g h b or hood s t h r ou g h ou t t h e c a m p u s c on t a i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a n d r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h a c c o m pa n y i n g r e c r e a t i on a l a n d n a t ur a l a r e a s ( U B C 2007 i ) T he d e v e l o pm e n t s w i l l b e c on s t r u c t e d f o l l o w i n g R E A P c r i t e r i a a nd a r e e x pe c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t he p o p ul a t i on l i v i n g o n c a m p u s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18, 000 r e s i d e n t s b y 2021 ( U B C 2006a ) A m i n i m u m of h a l f of t he n e w r e s i d e n t s w i l l b e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t he un i v e r s i t y a s e m pl o y e e s or s t u de n t s i n a n e f f or t t o m ov e t h i s c o m m u t e r c a m p u s t o a m or e s u s t a i n a b l e on e ( U B C 20 06 a ) E xi s t i ng bui l di ngs a r e a l s o pa r t of t he U B C pl a n. U B C e nt e r e d i nt o a publ i c pr i va t e pa r t ne r s hi p w i t h t he pr ov i nc i a l gove r nm e nt of B r i t i s h C ol um bi a t o c r e a t e a n d f und t he $120 m i l l i on U B C R e ne w pr ogr a m ( U B C P ubl i c A f f a i r s 2005 ) T he R e n e w pr ogr a m i s a n e f f o r t t o upgr a de ol d e r bui l di ngs on c a m pus be f or e t he y de t e r i or a t e a nd i n t ur n s a ve m a t e r i a l s a nd m one y t ha t w oul d ha ve be e n us e d f o r ne w c ons t r u c t i on ( U B C 2007j ) T he

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76 pl a n c a l l s f or t he us e f ul l i ve s of t he s e ol de r bui l di ngs t o be e xt e nde d by 40 y e a r s or m or e a nd w he n c om pl e t e d a l m os t 1 m i l l i on s qua r e f e e t of bui l di ngs w i l l be upgr a de d ( U B C 2007j ) A s of A pr i l 2007 t e n bui l di ngs w e r e unde r goi ng t he pr oc e s s E s t i m a t e s a r e t h a t t he s e w oul d ha ve c os t $209 m i l l i on t o bui l d ne w c om pa r e d t o t he r e nova t i o n c os t s of $120 m i l l i on, t hus s a vi ng U B C $89 m i l l i on ( U B C P ubl i c A f f a i r s 2007) L ooke d a t a not he r w a y, w he n c om pa r e d t o t he c os t o f c ons t r uc t i ng ne w bui l di ngs t he U B C R e ne w pr ogr a m ge n e r a t e s s a vi ngs s uc h t ha t e ve r y t hi r d c a m pus bui l di ng w oul d be f r e e ( U B C P ubl i c A f f a i r s 2007) D ue t o t he e f f or t s of t he S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e i n 2003 U B C i m pl e m e nt e d t he l a r ge s t uni ve r s i t y e ne r gy a nd w a t e r r e t r o f i t pr ogr a m i n C a na da E c ot r e k ( U B C 2006b) T hi s t hr e e ye a r $35 m i l l i on pr oj e c t i nvol ve d t he r e nov a t i on of t he i nf r a s t r uc t ur e of a l m os t 300 bui l di ngs t o i ns t a l l ne w e ne r gy a nd w a t e r s a vi ng t e c hnol ogi e s ( U B C 2006b ) S i nc e i t s c om pl e t i on i n m i d 2006, t he pr ogr a m ha s s a ve d $3 .8 m i l l i on i n e ne r gy c os t s a nd pr oj e c t e d a nn ua l ut i l i t y s a vi ngs a r e $2.6 m i l l i on ( U B C 2006b) F ur t he r E c ot r e k ha s a l r e a dy m e t a nd e xc e e d e d t he be nc hm a r k 20 % r e d uc t i on i n e ne r gy us e e s t a bl i s he d a t t he out s e t of t he pr oj e c t ( U B C 2006b) S pe c i f i c a c t i ons t a k e n t o s a ve e ne r gy i n t he E c ot r e k pr ogr a m i nc l ude t he f ol l ow i ng: r e t r of i t t i ng l i ght i ng s ys t e m s i n 120 bui l di ngs w i t h e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt f i xt ur e s a nd ot he r c om po ne nt s ; r e pl a c e m e nt of r o a d a nd pa t h l i ght i ng w i t h e f f i c i e nt f i xt ur e s ; e xpa ns i on of t he B ui l di ng M a na ge m e nt S ys t e m a n a ut om a t e d m oni t or a nd c ont r ol s ys t e m t o i nc l ude 90% of c a m pus bui l di ngs ; s e a l i ng door a nd w i ndow l e a ks i n 200 bui l di ngs ; i ns t a l l a t i on of s ol a r pa ne l s on a ne w e ngi n e e r i ng b ui l di ng; a nd s c he dul i ng pe r i odi c t r a i ni ng f or s t a f f on t he ne w t e c hnol ogi e s a nd e n e r g y

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77 e f f i c i e nt op e r a t i on of bui l di ngs ( U B C 2006b) E c ot r e k w a s f unde d vi a E ne r gy P e r f o r m a nc e C ont r a c t i ng, a n a r r a ng e m e nt w he r e i n t he e ne r g y c os t s a vi ngs a r e u s e d t o r e pa y t he c os t s of t he i nf r a s t r u c t ur e i m pr ove m e nt s T he E ne r gy P e r f o r m a nc e C ont r a c t i s a dm i ni s t e r e d t hr o ugh a n E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt S e r vi c e s A gr e e m e nt b e t w e e n t h e uni ve r s i t y a nd a pr i va t e e ne r gy m a na g e m e nt f i r m ( M C W 2002) T he uni ve r s i t y c ont r a c t s t he f i r m t o de s i gn, i ns t a l l a nd f und t he ne w t e c hnol ogy, a nd t he E M S A i s w or de d s uc h t h a t t he pa ym e nt s t o t he f i r m a r e c ont i nge nt on t he p e r f or m a nc e o f t he s ys t e m upgr a de s t h e f i r m gua r a nt e e s t he e ne r gy s a vi ngs a nd w i l l r e i m bur s e a ny s h or t f a l l ( M C W 2002) W a t e r c ons e r v a t i on i s a l s o a ddr e s s e d i n t he c om pr e he ns i ve E c ot r e k pr og r a m T he t a r ge t f or w a t e r us e r e duc t i on w a s 30% a f i gur e t ha t w a s a c hi e ve d by t h e e nd of t he pr ogr a m i n 2006. I n t he f i r s t ye a r a n d a ha l f a f t e r t he p r oj e c t w a s c om pl e t e d, U B C s a v e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y $1.5 m i l l i on i n w a t e r ut i l i t y c os t s T o a c c om pl i s h t he s e s a vi ngs ove r 3,000 l ow f l ow pl um bi ng f i xt ur e s w e r e i ns t a l l e d a nd m or e t ha n t hr e e m i l e s of s t e a m s ys t e m c onde ns a t e pi pe w a s r e p a i r e d. H a r va r d ha s c ons t r u c t e d s e ve r a l gr e e n bui l di ngs o n i t s c a m pus E i ght of t he s e bui l di ngs a r e L E E D N C or L E E D C I c e r t i f i e d, 21 m or e ha v e be e n r e gi s t e r e d t o b e gi n t he c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s a nd t hr e e ot he r s a r e i n pl a nni ng. O ne of t he s e t h e ho m e of U ni ve r s i t y O pe r a t i ng S e r vi c e s a c hi e v e d L E E D N C P l a t i num a nd H a r va r d ha s c om m i t t e d t o c e r t i f y a l l bui l di ngs a t L E E D N C G ol d f or t he ne w A l l s t on c a m pus ( S E I 2007)

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78 L i ke U B C H a r va r d ha s a l s o e s t a bl i s he d i t s ow n gr e e n bui l di ng gui de l i ne s A l l pr oj e c t s t ha t c os t i n e xc e s s of $5 m i l l i on m u s t a c qui r e L E E D N C S i l ve r r a t i ngs a n d H a r va r d m a nda t e s t ha t s om e of t h e s e L E E D c r e di t s be a c hi e ve d a s pr e r e qui s i t e s ; t he r e qui r e d c r e di t s a r e f or e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y, w a t e r c ons um pt i on, ut i l i t y m e t e r i ng, a nd i ndoor e nvi r onm e nt a l qua l i t y ( H G C I 2007d) F ur t h e r t he s e pr oj e c t s m us t unde r go pe r i odi c bui l di ng c om m i s s i oni ng ove r t he l i f e o f t he s t r uc t ur e ( H G C I 2007d ) T ho ugh L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on i s not r e qui r e d of pr oj e c t s be l ow $5 m i l l i on, H a r va r d ha s c r e a t e d L E E D ba s e d gui de l i ne s f or t h e s e a s w e l l F or e xi s t i n g bui l di ngs a pi l ot pr ogr a m t o de t e r m i ne t he f e a s i bi l i t y of a c qui r i n g L E E D E B f or t w o bui l di ngs i s unde r w a y. S ol a r phot ovol t a i c pa ne l s ha ve be e n i ns t a l l e d a t f o ur l oc a t i ons a c r os s t he c a m pus t o pr ovi de s uppl e m e nt a l e l e c t r i c a l pow e r t o H a r v a r d bui l di ngs H a r va r d a l s o ut i l i z e s ge ot he r m a l s ys t e m s f or s i x bui l di ngs w i t h pl a ns t o i ns t a l l s i m i l a r e qui pm e nt i n t w o m or e T he s e ge ot he r m a l s ys t e m s ha ve pr ove n t o b e m or e e f f i c i e nt t ha n f os s i l f ue l ba s e d he a t i ng a nd c ool i ng a t H a r v a r d ( H G C I 2007e ) H a r va r d ha s s t r i ve d t o r e duc e pot a bl e w a t e r c ons u m pt i on on i t s c a m pus L ow f l ow t oi l e t s a nd s how e r he a ds ha ve be e n i ns t a l l e d i n m a ny bui l di ngs ; r e pl a c i ng c onve nt i ona l t oi l e t s i n 12 r e s i de nt i a l ha l l s l e d t o a n a nnua l s a vi ngs of ove r 4.1 m i l l i on ga l l ons of w a t e r a nd $43 ,000 ( H G C I 2007 f ) O t he r i ni t i a t i ve s i nc l u de r e pl a c i ng w a s hi ng m a c hi ne s a t r e s i de nc e ha l l s w i t h m or e e f f i c i e nt m ode l s a nd a l t e r i ng c he m i c a l a nd bi ol ogi c a l l a bor a t or y pr ot oc ol s ( H G C I 2007f ) F i n a l l y g r e e n r oof s ha v e b e e n i n s t a l l e d on f our bu i l d i n g s t o r e du c e a nd t r e a t s t o r m w a t e r

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79 U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a pol i c y m a nda t e s t ha t a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on a t e a c h c a m pus a c hi e ve L E E D S i l ve r C e r t i f i c a t i on or t he e qui va l e nt ( U C M e r c e d 2007b ) A t U C M e r c e d, t h e L E E D S i l ve r r a t i ng i s t he m i ni m um a c qui r e d, w i t h t hr e e L E E D N C G ol d a nd one S i l ve r i n t he a pp l i c a t i on s t a ge s I n or de r t o m e e t t he s e goa l s a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on c ont r a c t s c o nt a i n L E E D S i l ve r r e qui r e m e nt s a nd s pe c i f i c bui l di ng pe r f or m a nc e go a l s ( U C M e r c e d 2007b. ) U C M e r c e d ha s c r e a t e d c a m pus w i de s i t e de ve l opm e nt a nd i nf r a s t r uc t ur e c r e di t s t o be a ppl i e d t o e ve r y n e w c ons t r u c t i on pr oj e c t a s pa r t of a U S G B C P i l ot P r ogr a m f or c ol l e ge c a m pus e s ( U C M e r c e d 2007b) F ur t he r s t r a t e gi e s t o a c hi e v e t he r e m a i ni ng ne c e s s a r y c r e di t s a r e de v e l ope d on a pr o j e c t s pe c i f i c ba s i s ( U C M e r c e d 2007b ) U C M e r c e d h a s c om m i t t e d t o i nc or por a t i ng a hi gh de gr e e o f e n e r gy e f f i c i e nc y i nt o t he de s i gn of a l l i t s bui l di ngs a s w e l l a s m a j or r e nova t i on pr oj e c t s t ha t w i l l oc c ur a s t hi s ne w c a m pus a ge s ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) U C M e r c e d ha s e s t a bl i s h e d bui l di ng e ne r gy pe r f or m a nc e t a r ge t s t ha t e ns ur e t h a t ne w bui l di ngs a r e s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e e f f i c i e nt t ha n r e qui r e d by c ode or c om pa r e d t o ot he r uni v e r s i t y bui l di ngs i n C a l i f or ni a ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) T he t a r ge t s a r e f or ne w bui l di ngs on c a m pus t o us e 30 % l e s s e ne r gy t ha n r e qui r e d by T i t l e 24, t he C a l i f or ni a l a w t ha t s e t e n e r gy e f f i c i e n c y be nc hm a r ks f or s t r uc t ur e s ( U C M e r c e d 2 007f ) A s w e l l t he n e w bui l di ngs m us t m e e t e ne r gy budge t s t ha t a r e 50% o f t he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a / C a l i f or n i a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y e ne r g y pe r f or m a nc e be nc hm a r ks ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) H ow e ve r t he s e r e qui r e m e nt s a r e b e i ng pha s e d i n; i nt e r i m t a r ge t s a r e 80% o f t he U C / C S U s t a nda r ds t he n 65% t hr ough t he f i r s t 1.2 m i l l i on

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80 gr os s s qua r e f e e t of bui l d i ngs ( U C M e r c e d 2007 f ) A r c hi t e c t ur a l s ha di ng, hi gh e f f i c i e n c y bui l di ng m e c ha ni c a l s ys t e m s a nd hi gh pe r f or m a n c e w i ndow gl a z i ng a r e b ut s om e of t he t e c hnol ogi e s us e d t o a c hi e ve t he s e t a r ge t s A not he r s t r a t e gy i nvol ve s budge t i ng f or pe a k d e m a nds f or c hi l l e d w a t e r e l e c t r i c i t y, a nd na t ur a l ga s W i t hi n U C M e r c e d s C e nt r a l P l a n i s a T he r m a l E n e r gy S t or a g e T a nk. E ne r gy i s us e d t o c hi l l w a t e r dur i ng of f pe a k ni gh t hour s w hi c h i s t he n s t or e d a nd l a t e r di s t r i but e d t o c ool bui l di ngs dur i ng t he da y ( U C M e r c e d 2007 f ) F ur t he r U C M e r c e d i s a P i l ot P a r t ne r of L a bor a t o r i e s f or t he 21s t C e nt ur y ( L a bs 21) a pr ogr a m de v e l ope d a nd s uppor t e d by t he U .S E nv i r onm e nt a l P r ot e c t i on A g e nc y ( E P A ) t he U .S D e pa r t m e nt of E ne r gy ( D O E ) a nd t he I nt e r na t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f or S us t a i na bl e L a bor a t or i e s ( I 2S L ) ( U C M e r c e d 2007 f ) L a bs 21 i s a pr ogr a m t o i nc r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y of e ne r gy, w a t e r a nd ot he r s ys t e m s i n l a bor a t or y bui l di ngs B e c a us e l a bor a t or i e s us e t hr e e t o f i ve t i m e s t he e ne r gy t ha t a t ypi c a l bui l di ng us e s a nd be c a us e s e v e r a l l a bor a t or y f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be l oc a t e d on t he c a m pus t he i nc or por a t i on of t he L a bs 21 p r ot oc ol s i s e xt r e m e l y i m por t a nt t o U C M e r c e d s e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y s t r a t e gy ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) F i na l l y, U C M e r c e d ha s i ns t a l l e d a n e ne r gy m a na g e m e nt a nd c ont r ol s ys t e m t ha t i s ope r a t e d f r om a c e nt r a l l oc a t i on. T he s ys t e m m oni t or s a t bot h t he w hol e bui l di ng a nd i ndi vi dua l s ys t e m l e ve l s a l l ow i ng f or qui c ke r i de n t i f i c a t i on a nd r e p a i r of pr obl e m s ( U C M e r c e d 2007 f ) W a t e r us e i n a l l bui l di ngs a t U C M e r c e d i s a t l e a s t 20% be l ow s t a t e m a nd a t e d goa l s w i t h

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81 s om e b ui l di ngs a c hi e vi ng 30% r e duc t i ons ( U C M e r c e d 2007g) I ns t a l l a t i on of l ow f l ow f i xt ur e s a nd w a t e r l e s s ur i na l s ha s a s s i s t e d i n c r e a t i ng t he s e r e duc t i ons F ur t he r de c r e a s e s i n pot a bl e w a t e r c ons um pt i on a r e e xpe c t e d t o a r i s e f r om r a i nw a t e r c a pt ur e t e c hnol og y ( c i s t e r ns ) gr a y w a t e r r e c yc l i ng, a nd i ns t a l l a t i on of upda t e d s e w a ge t r e a t m e nt e qui pm e nt ( U C M e r c e d 2007g) P e nn S t a t e ha s de ve l ope d a nd pe r i odi c a l l y upda t e s a gr e e n bui l di ng pol i c y ba s e d on L E E D N C c r i t e r i a T he m os t c ur r e nt r e vi s i on w a s i n A ugus t 20 07, a nd i s ba s e d on L E E D N C v.2.2. L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on i s r e qui r e d f or a l l ne w bui l di ngs a nd m a j or r e nova t i ons a nd t he pol i c y gi ve s gui da nc e t o a r c h i t e c t s a nd e ngi ne e r s a s t o w hi c h c r e di t s w i t hi n L E E D w i l l be gi ve n pr i or i t y i n de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on ( P e n n S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007b) F i na l l y, a C ont i nuous C om m i s s i on i ng P r ogr a m ha s a l s o be e n i m pl e m e nt e d a t P e nn S t a t e s i nc e 1998 t o opt i m i z e bui l di ng ope r a t i ng s ys t e m s r e s ul t i ng i n i m pr ove d i ndoor a i r qua l i t y a nd r e d uc e d ut i l i t i e s c os t s i n e xi s t i ng bui l di ng s on c a m pu s w i t h a t ypi c a l pa yba c k p e r i od of t w o f our ye a r s ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007c ) P e nn S t a t e ha s i m pl e m e nt e d s e ve r a l pr ogr a m s t o o pt i m i z e e ne r gy us e i n c a m pus bui l di ngs B e yond t he C ont i nuous C om m i s s i oni n g P r ogr a m P e nn S t a t e ha s a l s o i m pl e m e nt e d a G ua r a nt e e d E ne r gy S a vi ngs P r ogr a m pe r t he gui de l i ne s of t he S t a t e of P e nns yl va ni a A m ong m a ny ot he r s s om e of t he E ne r gy C ons e r va t i on M e a s ur e s e m pl oye d vi a t hi s pr ogr a m i nc l ude i ns t a l l a t i on of s ol a r P V pa ne l s ( on t w o bui l di ngs ) r e pl a c e m e nt of T 12 w i t h T 8 f l uor e s c e nt s bui l di ng m e t e r i ng, a nd pe r i odi c s ys t e m t une ups ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007d) T o pe r f or m t he s e pr oj e c t s m uc h l i ke U B C P e nn

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82 S t a t e c ont r a c t s e n e r gy s e r vi c e c om pa ni e s t o de s i gn, e m pl oy a nd w a r r a nt y s e l f f und e d e ne r gy s a vi ngs pr oj e c t s I f a pr oj e c t f a i l s t o m e e t t he de s i gne d s a vi ngs t he e ne r gy s e r vi c e c om pa ny m us t r e i m bur s e t he uni ve r s i t y f o r t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he gua r a nt e e d a nd t he r e a l i z e d s a vi ngs ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007e ) O t he r E ne r gy C ons e r va t i on M e a s ur e s a t P e nn S t a t e i nc l ude t he i ns t a l l a t i on of oc c upa n c y s e ns or s f o r l i ght i ng i n ba t hr oom s a nd r e du c i ng t e m pe r a t ur e s i n s om e bui l di ngs dur i ng w i nt e r br e a k ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007d ) P e nn S t a t e ow ns a nd ope r a t e s i t s w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e nt f a c i l i t y, a nd a f t e r t r e a t m e nt a l l 2.6 m i l l i on ga l l ons pe r da y a r e us e d t o i r r i ga t e f a r m c r ops on or ne a r c a m pus ( F e nne s s e y 2007) T o r e du c e w a t e r c ons um pt i on a nd w a s t e t he uni ve r s i t y ha s c om pl e t e d pl um bi ng r e t r of i t s f or s e ve r a l r e s i d e nc e h a l l s i nc l udi ng t he i ns t a l l a t i on of l ow f l ow s how e r he a ds R e pl a c i ng a l l w a s hi ng m a c hi ne s i n r e s i de n c e h a l l l a undr y f a c i l i t i e s w i t h E N E R G Y S T A R m ode l s s a ve s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 14 m i l l i on ga l l ons a n nua l l y ( Z i t om e r a nd N e i l 2004) T he ne w bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on gui de l i ne s a t P e nn S t a t e ba s e d on L E E D c r i t e r i a r e qui r e a 20% r e duc t i on i n w a t e r u s e f r om ba s e l i ne a nd a 3 0% r e duc t i on i s e nc ou r a g e d ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 b) F i na l l y, P e nn S t a t e m a nda t e s a s p a r t of i t s gr e e n bui l di ng pol i c y t ha t a m i ni m um of 75% of c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e be d i ve r t e d f r om l a ndf i l l s ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 b) A t U C F a l l ne w bui l di ngs a nd m a j or r e nov a t i ons t o bui l di ngs a r e r e qui r e d t o m e e t L E E D N C S i l ve r s t a nda r ds C ons t r uc t i on be ga n i n A ugus t 2007 on t he f i r s t L E E D s t r uc t ur e a t U C F t he ne w P hys i c a l S c i e nc e bui l d i ng. T o i nc r e a s e t h e e f f i c i e nc y of e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs t he C e nt e r f or E n e r gy a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y c r e a t e d a n i n ho us e B ui l di ng

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83 C om m i s s i on i ng T e a m f o r t he pur pos e of i d e nt i f yi ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng r e s our c e s a vi ng pr a c t i c e s a nd t e c hnol ogy ( U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 200 7) T he f i r s t t hr e e bui l di ngs ha ve e nt e r e d t he c om m i s s i oni ng pr oc e s s w hi l e a l l ot he r bui l di ngs ha ve be e n pl a c e d i nt o a f our y e a r r e c om m i s s i oni ng c yc l e T he f i r s t t w o bui l di ngs t o c om pl e t e t he pr oc e s s ha ve di s pl a ye d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 20 28% r e duc t i ons i n e l e c t r i c i t y us e a nd 14% r e duc t i ons i n c hi l l e d w a t e r us e ; t he t hi r d r e m a i ns i n t he bi ddi ng pha s e ( U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 2007a ) U C F s C e nt e r f or E ne r gy a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y pl a ns t o i ns t a l l a s ol a r w a t e r h e a t e r i n a 500 pe r s on r e s i de n c e t ow e r a s a pi l ot pr ogr a m ( U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 2007b) I f s uc c e s s f ul s o l a r w a t e r he a t i ng s ys t e m s w i l l be pl a c e d on t hr e e o t he r r e s i de n c e s t r uc t ur e s a nd i n f ut ur e c ons t r uc t i on ( U C F S us t a i n a bi l i t y a nd E ne r g y M a na ge m e nt 2007b) F ur t he r e n e r gy s a vi ngs w i l l be a c hi e ve d w he n l i ght i ng s ys t e m s i n t he l i br a r y a nd phys i c a l pl a nt f a c i l i t i e s a r e r e t r o f i t C ur r e nt l y, T 12 f l uor e s c e nt l i ght i ng i s us e d but w i l l be r e pl a c e d w i t h hi gh e f f i c i e nc y T 8 f l uo r e s c e nt s W he n c om pl e t e d, t h e r e t ur n on i nve s t m e nt ( R O I ) f or t hi s pr oj e c t i s e xpe c t e d t o be s l i ght l y m or e t ha n one ye a r ( U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 2007c ) F i na l l y, t o r e duc e w a t e r c ons um pt i on, t he ne w c a m pus m a s t e r p l a n a t U C F m a nda t e s t he us e of l ow f l ow f i xt ur e s i n a l l ne w bui l di ngs ( U C F B oa r d of T r us t e e s 2004)

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84 T ab l e 3: S u m m ar y of G r e e n B u i l d i n g E f f or t s at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M L E E D N C r e q u i r e m e n t S e v e r a l L E E D b u i l d i n g s > $ 5 m i l l i o n S i l v e r < $ 5 m i l l i o n s c h o o l g u i d e l i n e s o n s p e c i f i c c r e d i t s N o p o l i c y ; s e v e r a l L E E D b l d g s o n c a m p u s ; R E A P s y s t e m f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s S i l v e r S i l v e r ; a l s o p a r t o f U S G B C P i l o t P r o g r a m f o r C o l l e g e C a m p u s e s E x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g r e t r o f i t s F e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y f o r L E E D E B a t 2 b u i l d i n g s U B C R e n e w ; E c o t r e k 3 0 0 b u i l d i n g s 3 5 s t r u c t u r e s t o b e e v a l u a t e d t h r o u g h L E E D E B p i l o t p r o g r a m N o n e o p e n e d i n 2 0 0 5 B u i l d i n g e n e r g y e f f i c i e n c y P h o t o v o l t a i c c e l l s o n 4 b u i l d i n g s ; g e o t h e r m a l a t 6 E c o t r e k r e d u c e d e n e r g y u s e b y o v e r 2 0 % ; P i l o t s o l a r p a n e l p r o j e c t O f f i c e o f E n e r g y C o n s e r v a t i o n ; C o g e n e r a t i o n P l a n t ; S t u d e n t f e e f o r r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y A l l m u s t u s e 3 0 % l e s s t h a n C A m a n d a t e ; T h e r m a l E n e r g y S t o r a g e T a n k B u i l d i n g w a t e r e f f i c i e n c y L o w f l o w f i x t u r e s h i g h e f f i c i e n c y w a s h i n g m a c h i n e s 4 g r e e n r o o f s E c o t r e k r e d u c e d w a t e r u s e b y 3 0 % ; L o w f l o w f i x t u r e s a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e p a i r R e c l a m a t i o n f a c i l i t y w a s t e w a t e r r e u s e d ; C i s t e r n s ; L o w f l o w f i x t u r e s 2 0 % b e l o w C A m a n d a t e s ; l o w f l o w a n d w a t e r l e s s f i x t u r e s ; g r a y w a t e r r e u s e a n d c i s t e r n s p l a n n e d R e c y c l i n g / s a l v a g e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s t e N o k n o w n p o l i c y b u t h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d o n s o m e p r o j e c t s D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O L E E D N C r e q u i r e m e n t N o f o r m a l p o l i c y ; 1 7 c e r t i f i e d b u i l d i n g s ; S i l v e r f o r C e n t r a l C a m p u s S i l v e r B a s i c s c h o o l g u i d e l i n e s o n s p e c i f i c c r e d i t s S i l v e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n n o t r e q u i r e d E x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g r e t r o f i t s R e t r o f i t a n d u p g r a d e p r o g r a m i n 1 9 9 5 I n h o u s e b u i l d i n g c o m m i s s i o n i n g t e a m s t a r t e d r e t r o f i t o f 4 b u i l d i n g s C o n t i n u o u s c o m m i s s i o n i n g p r o g r a m ; R e p l a c e T 1 2 w i t h T 8 f l u o r e s c e n t s R e p l a c e T 1 2 w i t h T 8 f l u o r e s c e n t s B u i l d i n g e n e r g y e f f i c i e n c y E N E R G Y S T A R a p p l i a n c e s ; C a m p u s E n e r g y M a n a g e r S o l a r w a t e r h e a t e r s p l a n n e d f o r 4 r e s i d e n c e h a l l s P i l o t s o l a r p a n e l p r o j e c t ; o c c u p a n c y s e n s o r s E x c e e d c o d e b y 2 0 % ; s o l a r a n d w i n d o n s i t e B u i l d i n g w a t e r e f f i c i e n c y G O A L : r e d u c e u s e b y 3 0 % ; C i s t e r n s w a t e r l e s s u r i n a l s l o w f l o w f i x t u r e s L o w f l o w f i x t u r e s W a t e r r e c l a m a t i o n f a c i l i t y u s e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n ; L o w f l o w f i x t u r e s a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e p a i r P i l o t g r e e n r o o f a n d c i s t e r n p r o g r a m s R e c y c l i n g / s a l v a g e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s t e M i n i m u m o f 7 5 % o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s t e b e d i v e r t e d

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85 B u i l d i n gs G oa l s : A l l bui l di ngs on c a m pus w i l l be r e ge ne r a t i ve e i t h e r t hr ough r e n ova t i on or ne w c ons t r uc t i on. T hough t hi s goa l m a y a ppe a r da unt i ng, a f e w r e ge n e r a t i ve pr oj e c t s ha ve a l r e a dy b e e n c ons t r u c t e d on c ol l e ge c a m pus e s T h e L yl e C e nt e r f or R e ge n e r a t i ve S t udi e s a t C a l i f or ni a S t a t e P ol yt e c hni c U ni ve r s i t y a t P om ona a nd t he L e w i s C e nt e r f or E nvi r onm e nt a l S t udi e s a t O be r l i n C ol l e ge a r e t w o w e l l know n e x a m pl e s P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on w i l l c r e a t e a pol i c y t ha t a l l ne w bui l di ngs a nd m a j or r e nova t i on pr oj e c t s w i l l a ppl y f or a n d a c hi e ve L E E D N C S i l ve r c e r t i f i c a t i on be gi nni ng one ye a r a f t e r t he c a m pus s t r a t e gy i s i ni t i a t e d. D ur i ng t he c a m pus w i de s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt c onduc t e d by t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y i n t hi s P ha s e a n e v a l ua t i on of t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of c ur r e nt c a m pus i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a nd ope r a t i ons w i l l be pe r f or m e d. A l l c a m pus bui l di ngs gr e a t e r t ha n 2 ye a r s i n a g e w i l l be r e vi e w e d us i ng L E E D E B c r i t e r i a T hi s a s s e s s m e nt w i l l he l p de t e r m i ne w hi c h bui l di ngs a r e t he m os t i ne f f i c i e nt a nd uns us t a i na bl e ul t i m a t e l y l e a di ng t o a pr i or i t y l i s t of bui l di ngs t o r e t r of i t or r e pl a c e D e pe ndi ng on t h e e xt e nt of r e nova t i on ne c e s s a r y, t h e bot t om 25% of e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs i n t e r m s of e f f i c i e nc y w i l l be upda t e d t o a c hi e v e L E E D N C S i l ve r or L E E D E B S i l ve r F ur t he r m uc h a s U B C di d i n i t s E c ot r e k pr oj e c t t he r e s pons i bl e ope r a t i ons gr o u ps w i l l r e pl a c e a l l l i ght f i xt ur e s i n a l l e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs w i t h hi gh e f f i c i e n c y ve r s i ons ; i ns pe c t a l l door s a nd w i ndo w s a nd r e pa i r a ny l e a ks or d a m a ge ; a nd i ns pe c t a nd r e pa i r a l l w a t e r l i ne s a nd f i xt u r e s a s w e l l

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86 L E E D N C w i l l be us e d t o e va l ua t e a l l younge r bu i l di ngs a nd pr opos e d bui l di ngs a nd c os t s t o upgr a de t he s e t o m e e t L E E D N C S i l ve r c r i t e r i a w i l l be de t e r m i ne d. I f a ny r e c e nt l y c om pl e t e d s t r uc t ur e s m i ght m e e t t he c r i t e r i a or do s o w i t h m i ni m a l e f f or t t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l m a ke a ppl i c a t i on f or c e r t i f i c a t i on w i t h t he U S B G C F ur t he r t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l i nc or por a t e t he L E E D N C A pp l i c a t i on G ui de f or M ul t i pl e B ui l di ngs a nd O n C a m pus B ui l di ng P r oj e c t s i nt o t he a s s e s s m e nt a s t hi s gui de pr ovi de s di r e c t i on on how be s t t o c oor di na t e e f f or t s a c r os s t he c a m pus t o s a t i s f y L E E D c r e di t s f o r s e ve r a l i ndi vi dua l bui l di ng pr oj e c t s C r e di t s t ha t c oul d be s ha r e d a m ong p r oj e c t s a r e f ound pr i m a r i l y i n t r a ns por t a t i on, w a t e r e f f i c i e nc y ( i r r i ga t i on) a nd w a s t e m a n a ge m e nt P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: I m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he L E E D N C a nd E B S i l ve r goa l s s t a t e d i n P ha s e I w i l l oc c ur i n P ha s e I I T hough L E E D N C S i l ve r bui l di ngs a r e a t be s t m i ni m a l l y s us t a i na bl e c onduc t i ng t he s e e f f or t s w i l l i nt r oduc e t he c onc e p t s of L E E D a nd gr e e n bu i l di ng t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y a t l a r ge di s pl a y t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd e c onom i c be ne f i t s of t he c onc e pt s a nd gi ve t h e a d m i ni s t r a t i on a nd s t a f f t a s ke d w i t h s us t a i na bl e de v e l opm e nt va l ua bl e e xp e r i e nc e i n c o or di na t i ng gr e e n bui l di ng de s i gn a nd c o ns t r uc t i on; i n s hor t t he y w i l l l e a r n by doi ng. T he de s i gns w i l l c onc e nt r a t e on a c hi e vi ng a s m a ny c r e di t s a s pos s i bl e i n t he c a t e gor i e s t ha t pr ovi de e ne r gy a nd w a t e r s a vi ngs a s w e l l a s t hos e t ha t pr om ot e t he he a l t h of bui l di ng oc c upa nt s F oc us i ng on t h e s e a r e a s w i l l l i ke l y di s pl a y t he gr e a t e s t r e t ur n on i nve s t m e nt vi a r e duc e d ope r a t i ng c os t s i nc r e a s e d e m pl oye e a nd s t ude nt pr oduc t i vi t y, a nd i m pr ove d he a l t h of bui l di ng oc c upa nt s T he op e r a t i ons c os t

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87 s a vi ngs w i l l be s e t a s i de w i t hi n t he c a m pus budge t f or f ur t he r s us t a i na bl e c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s S e ve r a l c r e di t s w i t hi n L E E D N C c a t e go r i e s E ne r gy a nd A t m os phe r e M a t e r i a l s a nd R e s our c e s I ndoo r E nvi r onm e nt a l Q ua l i t y, a nd W a t e r E f f i c i e nc y g e ne r a t e s i gni f i c a nt e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s a nd l ong t e r m c os t s a vi ng s e i t he r t hr ough r e du c e d ut i l i t y bi l l s or i nc r e a s e d w or ke r pr odu c t i vi t y a nd he a l t h. S i m i l a r c r e di t s e xi s t w i t hi n L E E D E B a nd w i l l be a ppl i e d t o e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs ; t he 25% l e a s t e f f i c i e nt e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs ba s e d on t he P ha s e I a s s e s s m e nt w i l l be r e nov a t e d t o a c hi e v e L E E D N C S i l ve r or L E E D E B S i l ve r H ow e ve r t hi s s t r a t e gy w i l l f oc us on L E E D N C c r i t e r i a f or s i m pl i c i t y. T o m a ke bui l di ngs m or e e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt a nd i n t ur n m e e t f i ve c r e di t s w i t hi n E ne r gy a nd A t m os phe r e ne w bui l di n gs w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d t o a c hi e ve a 25% i m pr ove m e nt i n e ne r gy pe r f or m a nc e T hi s w i l l b e a c hi e v e d w i t h c l i m a t e a ppr opr i a t e a nd e n e r gy e f f i c i e nt m a t e r i a l s i nc l udi ng gl a z i ng; t he s t r uc t ur e s w i l l be s i t e d t o m a xi m i z e da yl i ght i ng a nd pa s s i ve c l i m a t e c ont r ol ; a nd t he m os t e f f i c i e nt a ppl i a nc e s a nd f i xt ur e s a v a i l a bl e w i l l be i ns t a l l e d i n t he bui l di ngs R oom oc c upa nc y s e ns o r s a nd c om pa c t f l uor e s c e nt or L E D l i ght bul bs a r e ot he r s i m pl e t e c hnol ogi e s t ha t c a n b e i nc or por a t e d i m m e di a t e l y t o i m pr ove e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y. T he r e f or e r e ga r dl e s s of t he po w e r s ys t e m us e d f o r t he bui l di ngs r e duc e d f i na nc i a l out l a y w i l l be ne c e s s a r y f or e ne r gy. C os t s f r om e ne r gy s uppl i e r s w i l l di m i ni s h, or i f t he de c i s i on t o us e on s i t e a l t e r na t i ve e ne r gy i s m a d e s m a l l e r s ys t e m s ( e .g., f e w e r s ol a r pa n e l s ) w i l l s uf f i c e T o m a i nt a i n t he e f f i c i e nc i e s d e s i gne d i nt o t he

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88 bui l di ngs e a c h w i l l be m e t e r e d t o c om p a r e a c t ua l e ne r gy c ons um pt i on t o t he de s i gn; t hi s w i l l a l s o m e e t t he M e a s u r e m e nt a nd V e r i f i c a t i on c r e di t w i t hi n L E E D N C T he goa l f or W a t e r E f f i c i e nc y i n P h a s e I I i s t o a t t a i n a 20% r e du c t i on i n w a t e r us e c om pa r e d t o ba s e l i ne a n d i n doi ng s o a c qui r e one L E E D N C W a t e r U s e R e duc t i on c r e di t I nc o r por a t i ng t e c hnol ogi e s s uc h a s l ow f l ow f i xt ur e s a nd w a t e r l e s s ur i na l s w i l l he l p t o a c hi e ve t hi s s t a nd a r d. I ndoor E nvi r onm e nt a l Q ua l i t y c r e di t s pr oduc e hi gh r e t ur n on i nve s t m e nt t hr ough pr ot e c t i ng t he he a l t h of bui l di ng oc c upa nt s F e w e r i l l ne s s e s a nd t he r e f o r e pot e nt i a l l y l ow e r i ns ur a nc e c os t s w i l l r e s ul t a s w i l l hi ghe r w or ke r pr oduc t i vi t y a nd s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e F or e xa m pl e F i s k ( 2002) not e s t ha t t he e s t i m a t e d pr oduc t i vi t y r e duc t i on i n U .S of f i c e s due t o s i c k bui l di ng s yndr om e i n e m pl oye e s w a s 2% r e s ul t i ng i n a n a nnua l l os s of $60 bi l l i on. I f s ym pt om s of s i c k bui l di ng s yndr om e a r e de c r e a s e d 20% t o 50% a nnua l s a vi ngs c oul d a c hi e ve $10 bi l l i on t o $30 bi l l i on ( F i s k 2002) T he r e f or e e a s i l y i nc or po r a t e d pr odu c t s s uc h a s i nt e r i or f ur ni s hi ngs c a r pe t s a dhe s i ve s a nd f i ni s he s t ha t c ont a i n l ow or no V O C s ( 4 c r e di t s ) a nd i ndi vi dua l c ont r ol s f or l i ght s a nd t he r m a l c om f or t ( 2 c r e di t s ) w i l l be m a xi m i z e d. T o a voi d c ont a m i na t i on of t he H V A C s ys t e m a nd t he r e f o r e t he e nt i r e bui l di ng dur i ng t he c ons t r uc t i on pr oc e s s a C ons t r uc t i on I ndoor A i r Q u a l i t y ( I A Q ) M a na ge m e nt P l a n w i l l be r e qui r e d f or a l l ne w pr o j e c t s A ny I A Q pl a n f o r c a m pus bui l di ngs m us t m e e t t he L E E D c r i t e r i a f or bot h dur i n g c ons t r uc t i on a nd be f or e oc c upa t i on; t hi s w i l l a l s o r e s ul t i n qua l i f yi ng f or 2 m or e L E E D c r e di t s T he s our c e a nd c ont e nt o f bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s a nd how c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e i s ha ndl e d c a n a l s o c ont r i but e t o bot h L E E D c r e di t s a nd r e duc i n g e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of

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89 c ons t r uc t i on. D i ve r s i on f r om l a ndf i l l s of a m i ni m um of 50% of c ons t r u c t i on w a s t e w i l l be m a nda t e d f or a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on ( 1 poi nt ) T hi s c a n be a c c om pl i s he d by r e c yc l i ng w a s t e m a t e r i a l s us i ng a t l e a s t 5% ( by c os t ) o f ot he r w i s e w a s t e pr oduc t s i n t he ne w bui l di ng ( br i c k, f l oor i ng, e t c .) f o r a not he r poi nt a n d e ns ur i ng t ha t 50% of t h e w ood us e d i n t he bui l di ng i s F or e s t S t e w a r ds hi p C ounc i l ( F S C ) c e r t i f i e d f or a t hi r d po i nt I nc or por a t i ng m a t e r i a l s w i t h r e c y c l e d c on t e n t s u c h t h a t t h e s u m of po s t c o n s u m e r r e c y c l e d c on t e n t p l u s one h a l f of t h e pr e c on s u m e r c on t e n t c on s t i t u t e s a t l e a s t 10% ( b a s e d on c os t ) of t h e t o t a l v a l u e of t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e pr o j e c t i s e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e w i l l r e duc e r e s our c e c ons um pt i on, a nd w i l l ga r ne r a not h e r L E E D c r e di t ( U S G B C 2005c ) F i na l l y, t o r e duc e t h e e m bodi e d e n e r gy us e d i n t r a ns por t i ng bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s a m i ni m um of 10% of m a t e r i a l s ( by c os t ) e xt r a c t e d a nd pr oduc e d r e gi ona l l y ( w i t hi n 500 m i l e s ) w i l l be r e qui r e d o f a l l ne w bui l di ng pr oj e c t s ( 1 poi nt ) T he a bove t a c t i c s m i ni m a l l y pr ovi de 19 of t he 33 L E E D N C c r e di t s r e qui r e d t o a c hi e v e S i l ve r T he r e m a i ni ng p oi nt s w i l l be ga r ne r e d f r o m l ow ha ngi ng f r ui t c r e di t s t ha t a r e a t t a i ne d w i t h m i ni m a l c os t or e f f or t E x a m pl e s of t he s e a r e : s ur ve yi ng bui l di ng oc c upa nt s a bout t he t he r m a l c om f or t of t he n e w b ui l di ng ( 1 poi nt .) ; e l i m i n a t i ng l i ght pol l ut i on vi a f i xt ur e or i e nt a t i on a nd a ut om a t e d ni ght s hut of f of non e m e r ge nc y l i ght s ( i n c onj unc t i on w i t h e xt e r i or l i g ht r e gul a t i ons c a n a c hi e ve 1 poi nt ) ; a nd i ns t a l l i ng bi c yc l e r a c ks a nd s ho w e r s a t ne w bui l di ngs ( 1 poi nt ) I nc l us i on of a L E E D A P on t he de s i gn t e a m a l s o ga i ns t he pr oj e c t a c r e di t H ow e ve r t ho s e c r e di t s t ha t be s t f i t e a c h pr oj e c t w i l l ul t i m a t e l y be c ho s e n.

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90 F i na l l y, i n t hi s s t a ge t he pl a nni ng f or a r e ge n e r a t i ve c a m pus w i l l be gi n. E s t a bl i s hi ng t he i nf r a s t r uc t ur e l a yout pl a nt i ngs e t c e a r l y i n t he pr oc e s s a l l ow s f or budg e t s t o be de t e r m i ne d a nd f unds t o be r a i s e d, a nd m i ni m i z e s di s r upt i ons t o c a m pus l i f e V i t a l t o t he ove r a l l R e ge n e r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s t ha t t he c a m pus a ugm e nt s t he s us t a i na bi l i t y a c hi e ve d i n e a r l y pha s e s unt i l t he r e g e ne r a t i ve l e ve l i s m e t N e w s t r uc t ur e s m us t a l l ot s pa c e f or f ut ur e a l t e r n a t i ve s i n t he i r de s i gns S ol a r c ol l e c t or s w i nd t ur bi ne s or ot he r a l t e r na t i ve e ne r gy s our c e s a s w e l l a s gr e e n r oo f i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a nd s i t e s f or c i s t e r ns a n d w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e nt w e t l a nds a r e b ut a f e w e xa m pl e s of pos s i bl e t e c hnol ogy t ha t c ou l d be i m pl e m e nt e d f or bui l di ngs t o m e e t hi ghe r L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on. E a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e a nd r e m ova bl e i nt e r i or i n f r a s t r uc t ur e s uc h a s w i r i ng a n d pl um bi ng, w i l l be f a vor e d i n de s i gns t o a l l ow upgr a de s t o oc c ur w i t h nom i na l di s r upt i o n t o t he bui l di ng a nd m i n i m a l w a s t e pr oduc e d. P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m p l e m e nt at i on: T o c ont i nue i m pr ovi ng t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he c a m pus a nd m ovi ng t ow a r d r e ge ne r a t i ve l e ve l s a l l ne w bui l di ngs w i l l a c hi e ve L E E D N C G ol d. T he l ow e s t 25% o f e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs not upgr a de d dur i ng P ha s e I I w i l l be e n ha nc e d t o a c hi e ve L E E D N C o r E B G ol d s t a nda r ds F ur t he r t o e ns ur e t ha t e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs ope r a t e a t m a xi m um e f f i c i e n c y a nd t o bui l d on t he i r s uc c e s s e s t he 25% t ha t w e r e upgr a de d i n P ha s e I I w i l l be r e a s s e s s e d pe r L E E D E B r e qui r e m e nt s e ve r y f i ve y e a r s t o m a i nt a i n t he i r c e r t i f i c a t i on s ; w i t hi n P ha s e I I I t he s e w i l l a l s o be i m pr ove d t o G ol d l e ve l s F i na l l y, a l l L E E D N C S i l ve r bui l di ngs c ons t r uc t e d dur i ng P ha s e I I w i l l unde r go L E E D E B a na l ys i s w i t hi n f i ve ye a r s of c ons t r uc t i on. E a c h o f t he s e w i l l be upgr a d e d t o a t t a i n L E E D E B G ol d a s w e l l

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91 A ga i n, t he de s i gns w i l l f oc us on a c qui r i ng a s m a n y c r e di t s a s pos s i bl e i n t he c a t e go r i e s of e ne r gy a nd w a t e r c ons e r va t i on a nd i ndoor e nvi r o nm e nt a l qua l i t y t o m a xi m i z e t he r e t ur n on i nve s t m e nt i nc or por a t i ng m a ny of t he s a m e c r i t e r i a t ha t w e r e u s e d i n P h a s e I I a nd e xpa ndi ng t o i nc l ude m o r e s us t a i na bl e t e c hnol ogy. A nd a ga i n t he ope r a t i o ns c os t s a vi ngs w i l l be pl a c e d i nt o t he bu dge t f or f u r t he r s us t a i na b l e c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s T o i m pr ove bui l di ng e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y, a nd i n t ur n m e e t e i ght c r e di t s w i t hi n E ne r gy a nd A t m os phe r e ne w c ons t r uc t i on w i l l be m a nda t e d t o a c hi e ve a 35% i m pr ove m e nt i n e ne r gy pe r f or m a nc e T o i m pr ove t he i ns ul a t i on of t he bui l di ng r oof one op t i on i s t o i nc or por a t e a gr e e n, or v e ge t a t e d, r oo f G r e e n r o of s not onl y pr ovi de e xt r a i ns ul a t i on, t he y a l s o t r e a t a nd r e duc e s t or m w a t e r a nd c oul d be us e d t o gr ow f ood f or c a m pus ne e ds ( s e e t he F ood R e s our c e s s e c t i on) B e yond t he r e q ui r e m e nt s i n P ha s e I I a m ode s t a m ount of e ne r gy ( 2.5% of t h e s t r uc t ur e s n e e ds ) w i l l be pr oduc e d on s i t e by r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy s our c e s ; pos s i bl e s our c e s a r e s ol a r phot ovol t a i c g e ot he r m a l bi om a s s a nd o t he r s M e e t i ng t hi s goa l w i l l a t t a i n a not he r L E E D c r e di t f or t he bui l di ng pr oj e c t T he goa l f or W a t e r E f f i c i e nc y i n P ha s e I I I i s t o a t t a i n a 30% r e duc t i on i n w a t e r us e c om pa r e d t o ba s e l i ne a n d t he r e f o r e t o ga i n t w o L E E D N C W a t e r U s e R e d uc t i on c r e di t s I ns t a l l a t i on of c om pos t i ng t oi l e t s w i l l f ur t he r r e du c e w a t e r c ons um pt i on t o m e e t t hi s goa l but l a r ge r ga i ns i n w a t e r c ons e r va t i on w i l l a r i s e f r om us i ng a l t e r na t i ve s our c e s of w a t e r f or non dr i nki ng pur pos e s T hough t hi s c om pone nt w i l l be di s c us s e d i n m or e de t a i l i n t he W a t e r s e c t i on, i t i s m e nt i one d he r e du e t o t he i nf r a s t r uc t u r e t ha t w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o i ns t a l l G r a y w a t e r , t h e w a s t e w a t e r f r om s i nks s how e r s l a undr y a nd di s hw a s hi ng, c a n

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92 be c a pt ur e d a nd r e us e d f or i r r i ga t i on a nd t oi l e t f l u s hi ng. C i s t e r ns t o c a pt ur e r a i nw a t e r c oul d be us e d f o r a s i m i l a r pur pos e F i na l l y, t r e a t i ng w a s t e w a t e r on s i t e t o t e r t i a r y s t a nda r ds i s a n a l t e r n a t i ve a c c e pt a bl e un d e r L E E D c r i t e r i a s o l ong a s t h e w a t e r i s a l l ow e d t o i nf i l t r a t e or be us e d on t he s i t e T he a p pr oa c h m os t s ui t e d f or t h e c a m pus w i l l be i m pl e m e nt e d, a s c l i m a t e a nd s pa c e r e qui r e m e nt s w i l l a f f e c t t he s e de c i s i o ns O n t op of t he r e qui r e m e n t s i n P ha s e I I I ndoor E nv i r onm e nt a l Q ua l i t y c r e di t s r e qui r e d of ne w bui l di ngs w i l l i nc l ud e de s i gns t o pr ovi de da yl i ght i ng f or 75% a nd vi e w s f or 90% of r e gul a r l y oc c upi e d a r e a s ( 2 c r e di t s ) t o i nc r e a s e ou t door a i r ve nt i l a t i on f or s pa c e s ( 1 poi nt ) a nd t o r e duc e pol l ut a nt s f r om c he m i c a l s s t or e d i n t he bui l di ng or pa r t i c ul a t e pol l ut a nt s t ha t m a y e nt e r vi a e xt e r i or door w a ys ( 1 poi nt ) M oni t or i ng of out door a i r de l i ve r y vi a C O 2 m oni t or i ng e qui pm e nt a nd a i r f l o w m e a s ur i ng w i l l a l s o be i nc l ude d t o pr ot e c t oc c up a nt s ( 1 poi n t ) B ot h s our c i ng of bui l di ng m a t e r i a l a nd c ons t r u c t i on w a s t e di s pos a l w i l l a l s o be c om e m or e s t r i nge nt M a nda t e t ha t f or a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on a m i ni m um of 75% of c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e be di ve r t e d f r om l a ndf i l l s ( 1 poi nt be yond P ha s e I I ) I nc o r por a t i ng a t l e a s t 10% ( by c os t ) of ot he r w i s e w a s t e pr oduc t s i n t he ne w b ui l di ng ( br i c k, f l oor i ng, e t c .) w i l l a s s i s t i n t ha t goa l a nd ga r ne r a c r e di t be yond t ha t a c hi e v e d i n P ha s e I I A l s o, t he us e of m a t e r i a l s w i t h r e c y c l e d c on t e n t w i l l i n c r e a s e t o a t l e a s t 20% ( b a s e d on c o s t ) of t h e t o t a l v a l u e of t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e pr o j e c t ; t h i s w i l l f ur t h e r r e duc e r e s our c e c ons u m pt i on a nd a t t a i n a not he r L E E D c r e di t F ur t he r a r e qui r e m e nt t ha t a m i ni m um of 20 % of m a t e r i a l s ( by c os t ) i n t he bui l di ng be e xt r a c t e d a nd p r oduc e d r e gi ona l l y ( 1 c r e di t be y ond P ha s e I I )

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93 w i l l be i ns t i t ut e d, a s w e l l a s one t ha t m a nda t e s no l e s s t ha n 2.5% ( by c os t ) of bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s be f r om r a pi dl y r e ne w a bl e r e s our c e s s uc h a s ba m boo, l i nol e um or w he a t boa r d ( 1 poi nt ) W he n a c a m pus bui l di ng i s t o be r a z e d, on e opt i on t o m i ni m i z e t he w a s t e f r om de m ol i t i on, a s w e l l a s a t t a i n m or e L E E D poi nt s i s t o c ont r a c t a bui l di ng de c ons t r uc t i on c om pa ny. D e m ol i t i on ha s s i gni f i c a nt e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd e c onom i c c os t s A c c or di ng t o t he E P A t he r e a r e ove r 1 36 m i l l i on t ons of bu i l d i n g r e l a t e d c ons t r u c t i on de br i s ge ne r a t e d a nnua l l y ( S t e w a r d e t a l 2004) W i t hi n t hi s t ot a l 125 m i l l i on t ons ( 80% ) a r e t a ke n f r om de m ol i t i on a nd r e nova t i on s i t e s w hi l e 11 m i l l i on t ons ( 8% ) or i gi na t e f r om ne w c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s ( S t e w a r d e t a l 2004 ) T he s e qua nt i t i e s a c c ount f or a t l e a s t one qua r t e r o f t he t ot a l l a ndf i l l e d w a s t e i n t he U .S ( H i l m oe e t a l 2001) ( E ndi c ot t e t a l 2005) F ur t he r pl a nne d de c ons t r uc t i on c a n pr ovi de e c onom i c b e ne f i t s t o t he uni ve r s i t y t hr ough t a x i nc e nt i ve s gr a nt s a nd r e du c e d t i ppi ng f e e s C om bi ne d w i t h t he 19 c r e di t s a c qui r e d i n P ha s e I I t he a bove pr ovi de 33 c r e di t s t ow a r d t he 39 ne c e s s a r y t o a c hi e ve L E E D N C G ol d. T h e l ow ha ngi ng f r ui t c r e d i t s a r e not i nc l ude d i n t he s e num be r s A ga i n, t hos e c r e di t s t ha t be s t f i t e a c h p r oj e c t a n d e a c h c a m pus w i l l be s ought T o c ont i nue t he s t e ps t ow a r d t he r e ge n e r a t i ve c a m pus l a nd w i l l be s e t a s i de f or t he ne c e s s a r y i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a nd no de ve l opm e nt of t h i s l a nd w i l l oc c ur F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l i nvi t e pa r t i c i pa t i on f r om l e a de r s i n r e ge ne r a t i ve d e s i gn t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n

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94 c ha r r e t t e s w i t h uni ve r s i t y l e a de r s a nd r e p r e s e nt a t i v e s of c a m pus c om m uni t y gr oups i nc l udi ng s t ude nt s t o c r e a t e pl a ns f or t h e r e g e ne r a t i ve bui l di ngs A s one of t he ba s i c t e ne t s of r e ge n e r a t i ve d e s i gn i s t o de s i gn t o pl a c e , f or m ul a i c de s i gn i s not a ppr opr i a t e a nd c a nne d s ol ut i ons a r e not of f e r e d i n t hi s s t r a t e gy. I ns t e a d, by w or ki ng w i t h t he e nvi r on m e nt of e a c h bui l di ng, t he de s i gn t e a m w i l l de t e r m i ne t he a ppr opr i a t e a r c hi t e c t ur e a nd t e c hnol ogi e s t o m e e t t he obj e c t i ve s of r e ge n e r a t i ve de s i gn f or t ha t pa r t i c ul a r s t r uc t u r e T he d e s i gn w i l l m a xi m i z e s yne r gi e s w i t hi n t he bui l di ng a s w e l l a s w i t h ot he r c a m pus bui l di ngs a nd i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a s t hi s i s a not he r ha l l m a r k of r e ge ne r a t i ve d e s i gn. P has e I V : W i t h i n 25 y e a r s : A s t e c hnol ogy a nd e xp e r i e nc e w i t h L E E D c ons t r u c t i on i m pr ove a t t he c a m pus t he goa l f or a l l ne w a nd e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs i s t o a c hi e ve L E E D P l a t i num r a t i ngs B u i l di ng de s i gns w i l l a t t a i n a m i ni m um of 42% i m pr ove m e nt i n e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y ov e r b a s e l i ne w hi c h w i l l qua l i f y f or a l l 10 L E E D c r e di t s i n O pt i m i z e E ne r gy P e r f o r m a nc e F ur t he r on s i t e r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy s our c e s w i l l a c c ount f or a m i ni m um of 12.5% of e a c h n e w bui l di ng s e ne r gy us e t o a c hi e v e t he t hr e e c r e di t s a va i l a bl e T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l a l s o f i na l i z e pl a ns f or t he f i r s t r e ge ne r a t i ve bui l di ngs t o be c ons t r uc t e d i n P ha s e I V A t t he e nd of t hi s pha s e bi ds w i l l go out f or de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on of r e g e ne r a t i ve bui l di ngs T he pl a ns w i l l a ddr e s s t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s m e nt i one d i n P ha s e I I I

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95 R e ge ne r a t i ve bui l di ngs m a xi m i z e t he us e of p a s s i ve s ol a r s t r a t e gi e s t o m i ni m i z e t he ne e d f or e ne r gy i nt e ns i ve l i ght i ng a nd c l i m a t e c ont r ol B y de s i gni ng t o t he s i t e pr e va i l i ng w i nds s ol a r a ngl e s a nd l a nds c a pe e l e m e nt s c a n b e i m por t a nt e l e m e nt s i n r e duc i ng e ne r gy ne e ds f or bui l di n gs A s H a gga r d ( 2002) n ot e s e ve r y a s pe c t of t he de s i gn a t t e m pt s t o r e duc e or e l i m i na t e t he ne e d f o r m e c h a ni c a l or e l e c t r i c a l e ne r g y, w hi l e t a ki ng a dva nt a ge o f s ol a r a nd bi ol ogi c a l e ne r gy. R un of f w a t e r s uppor t s de c i duou s t r e e s t ha t pr ovi de s ha de i n s um m e r a nd s ol a r a c c e s s i n w i nt e r . F ur t he r r e ge n e r a t i ve bui l di ngs i nc or por a t e t e c hnol ogy t o ge ne r a t e t h e e ne r g y t o m e e t t he i r ow n ne e ds A g a i n, t he s pe c i f i c s i t e of t h e bu i l di ng w i l l di c t a t e w hi c h pa r t i c ul a r e ne r gy s our c e s a r e us e d. W i nd t ur bi ne s s ol a r pho t ovol t a i c pa ne l s s ol a r c o nc e nt r a t or s ge ot he r m a l t i da l ge ne r a t or s a nd bi oga s ge n e r a t i o n vi a a na e r obi c di ge s t e r s a r e a l l pot e nt i a l opt i ons a s a r e c om bi na t i ons of t he s e t e c hnol ogi e s A nd, t he s e r e pr e s e nt t he be s t r e ge n e r a t i ve t e c hnol ogi e s a va i l a bl e c u r r e nt l y f ut ur e e n e r gy ge n e r a t i o n m a y gr ow f r om s our c e s i n t he i r i n f a nc y t oda y, i nc l udi ng nuc l e a r f us i on a nd c r ow d f a r m s . T hi s l a t t e r c onc e pt i s be i ng de ve l ope d a t M I T t o ha r ne s s t he pow e r ge n e r a t e d b y t he s i m pl e a c t o f w a l ki ng.T he C r ow d F a r m w oul d ha r ne s s t ha t e ne r gy t hr ough a r e s pons i ve f l oor i ng s ys t e m m a de up of bl oc ks t ha t de pr e s s s l i ght l y unde r t he f or c e of h um a n s t e ps a bs or bi ng vi br a t i ons of m ove m e nt t ha t w oul d ot he r w i s e be w a s t e d ( M I T 2007 ) S i m i l a r l y, r e ge ne r a t i ve b ui l di ngs t r e a t a nd r e us e 1 00% of t he i r w a s t e w a t e r a nd s our c e a s m uc h dr i nki ng w a t e r a s pos s i bl e A ga i n, be c a us e r e ge ne r a t i ve de s i gn i s not f or m ul a i c de s i gn t e a m s w i l l de t e r m i ne w hi c h s t r a t e gi e s f or w a t e r s uppl y a nd w a s t e w a t e r

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96 m a na ge m e nt a r e m os t a p pr opr i a t e f o r t he s i t e a nd c r e a t e t he m os t s yne r gi e s w i t h ot he r bui l di ng s ys t e m s W a t e r s uppl y opt i ons i nc l ude pl a c i ng c i s t e r ns on t he s i t e t o c ol l e c t r a i nw a t e r or w a t e r de s a l i na t i on ( r e ve r s e os m os i s ) f a c i l i t i e s f or c o a s t a l c a m pus e s C onde ns a t i on c ol l e c t i on f r om de hum i di f yi ng m a c hi ne s ha s a l s o pr ove n t o pr oduc e hi gh qua l i t y dr i nki ng w a t e r a nd a t l e a s t one m a nuf a c t u r e r i s w or ki ng w i t h t he U S G B C t o qua l i f y f or L E E D c r e di t s ( G a r g a r o 2005) D e hum i di f i c a t i on a l s o a i ds i n i m pr ovi ng oc c upa nt c om f or t pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t r opi c a l a nd s ub t r opi c a l c l i m e s H ow e ve r a l a r g e por t i on of t he pot a bl e w a t e r i n b ui l di ngs i s us e d f or non pot a bl e dut i e s i nc l udi ng t oi l e t f l us hi ng a nd i r r i ga t i on. B y us i ng r e c yc l e d w a t e r f or t h e s e f unc t i ons t he a m ount of ne c e s s a r y pot a bl e w a t e r w i l l dr op c ons i de r a bl y. T o be d e e m e d r e ge ne r a t i ve a bui l di ng m us t r e c yc l e a l l i t s w a t e r f or us e i n i r r i ga t i on a nd w a s t e r e m ova l A f e w c om pa ni e s ha ve d e ve l op e d w e t l a nd s ys t e m s or l i vi ng m a c hi ne s , t o m i m i c t he na t ur a l pr oc e s s e s t ha t t r e a t w a s t e w a t e r T h e L e w i s C e nt e r f or E nvi r onm e nt a l S t udi e s a t O be r l i n c ont a i ns a l i vi ng m a c hi ne s ys t e m t ha t ha s s uc c e s s f ul l y t r e a t e d a l l w a s t e w a t e r a nd r e c i r c ul a t e d i t f or i r r i ga t i on a nd t oi l e t f l us hi ng s i nc e t he bui l di ng w a s c om pl e t e d i n 2000, s a vi ng hundr e ds of ga l l o ns of pot a bl e w a t e r da i l y ( O be r l i n C ol l e ge 2007) S houl d pot a bl e w a t e r r e s our c e s b e c om e e v e n m or e l i m i t e d i n t he f ut ur e t he s e n a t ur a l s ys t e m s c oul d be us e d t o t r e a t t he bui l di ng w a s t e w a t e r t o d r i nki ng w a t e r s t a nda r ds ( a pr oc e s s know n a s t oi l e t t o t a p ) T he di f f i c ul t y i n i m pl e m e nt i ng t hi s i s not i n c r e a t i ng t he t e c hnol ogy, a s i t i s c ur r e nt l y a va i l a bl e a nd us e d i n s e ve r a l l oc a t i ons i nc l udi ng S i nga por e ; t he ps yc hol ogi c a l ba t t l e t o ge t c a m pus us e r s b e yo nd t he ugh f a c t or a nd a c c e pt t ha t

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97 w a s t e w a t e r c a n be t r e a t e d t o be c om e c l e a ne r t h a n t ypi c a l t a p w a t e r h a s pr o ve n t o be t he m or e a r duous t a s k ( D i ng f e l de r 2004 ) R e c yc l e d, r e us e d, a nd/ o r s a l va ge d c ons t r u c t i on m a t e r i a l s w i l l be c hos e n f o r t he bui l di ngs T he s e w i l l a l s o be r e c yc l a bl e or r e us a bl e or b e c a pa bl e of br e a ki ng dow n i nt o us e a bl e nut r i e nt s f or t he na t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt A s M c D on ough a nd B r a unga r t not e one of t he ba s i c pr i nc i pl e s of r e ge n e r a t i ve de s i gn t ha t m i m i c s na t ur e i s t ha t w a s t e e q ua l s f ood; w a s t e doe s not e xi s t i n na t ur e a nd t he r e f o r e i s e l i m i na t e d i n r e ge ne r a t i ve d e s i gn ( M B D C 2007) M or e ove r bui l di ngs w i l l a l s o be de s i gne d f or l onge vi t y. I n t h e U S t h e a v e r a g e l i f e s p a n of a bu i l d i n g i s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 35 ye a r s ( B i r ke l a nd 2002) R e pl a c i ng bui l di ngs a t t ha t r a t e c ons um e s t r e m e ndous e ne r gy a nd r e s our c e s A t ypi c a l c om pl a i nt i s t ha t bui l di ngs out l i ve t he i r de s i gn or f unc t i ona l i t y w i t hi n t he 35 ye a r t i m e f r a m e ( or l e s s ) l e a di ng f or a d e s i r e t o c h a nge ( B i r ke l a nd 2002 ) H ow e ve r s om e uni ve r s i t y bui l di ngs ha ve l a s t e d f o r c e nt ur i e s i nc l udi ng N e w C ol l e ge a t O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y, w hi c h w a s f ounde d i n 1379. T o s a v e r e s our c e s a nd r e duc e e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s m ode r n uni ve r s i t y de s i gn a nd c o ns t r uc t i on s houl d s t r i ve t o e m ul a t e t he s e e x a m pl e s t hr ough t i m e l e s s s m a r t de s i gn a nd t he us e of hi ghl y d ur a b l e m a t e r i a l s T o pr ot e c t hum a n he a l t h a nd i m pr ove t he i ndoor e nvi r onm e nt a l l m a t e r i a l s w i l l be non t oxi c T hi s m a nda t e w i l l gove r n a l l t e xt i l e s f i ni s he s f l oor i ng, e t c F ur t he r f r e s h a i r de l i ve r y w i l l be m a xi m i z e d vi a ope r a bl e w i ndow s a nd ve nt s a nd i nc or po r a t i ng pa s s i ve a i r f l ow de s i gn s uc h a s t he s t a c k e f f e c t

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98 P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : A l l ne w bui l di ngs c ons t r uc t e d on t he c a m pus a f t e r t hi s t i m e w i l l be r e ge ne r a t i ve i nc or por a t i ng t he de s i gn e l e m e nt s di s c us s e d i n P ha s e s I I I a nd I V a s a ppr op r i a t e t o t he l oc a t i ons of t he bui l di ngs E xi s t i ng bui l di ngs w i l l be upgr a de d t o b e r e g e ne r a t i ve a s w e l l be gi nni ng w i t h t he l e a s t e f f i c i e nt bui l di ngs on t he c a m pus A RE A O F F O CUS 4: E NE RG Y S UP P L Y T he w or l d c ont i nue s t o d e pe nd on f os s i l f ue l s a s i t s e ne r gy s our c e I n 2005 pe t r ol e um ( c r ude oi l a nd n a t ur a l ga s pl a nt l i qui ds ) w a s t he w or l d s pr i m a r y e n e r gy s o ur c e a c c ount i ng f or 36.8 % of w or l d pr i m a r y e n e r gy pr oduc t i on ( E I A 2007) C oa l r a nke d s e c ond, a c c ount i ng f or 2 6.6% a nd na t ur a l ga s t hi r d ( 22.9% ) s o t ha t t hos e s our c e s c ont r i but i ng m os t t o gl ob a l c l i m a t e c ha ng e e m i s s i ons c om bi ne d t o a c c ount f or 86.3% of t he w or l d s pr i m a r y e ne r gy pr oduc t i on ( E I A 2007 ) S our c e s t ha t a r e pr odu c e f e w i f a ny G H G e m i s s i ons i nc l udi ng hydr oe l e c t r i c nuc l e a r a nd r e ne w a bl e ( ge ot he r m a l s ol a r w i nd, a nd w ood a nd w a s t e ) e l e c t r i c pow e r ge n e r a t i on r a nke d f ou r t h, f i f t h, a nd s i xt h, a c c ount i ng f or 6.3 % 6.0 % a nd 0.9% r e s pe c t i ve l y ( E I A 2007) T o r e duc e G H G e m i s s i ons a nd t he c ons e q ue nc e s of gl ob a l c l i m a t e c ha nge a s w e l l a s t he e n vi r onm e nt a l da m a ge w r ou ght dur i ng t he e xt r a c t i on a nd pr oduc t i on of f os s i l f ue l s t he e n e r gy pa r a di gm m us t c ha nge s uc h t ha t r e ne w a bl e s our c e s pr ovi d e t he m a j or i t y of t he e ne r g y pr oduc e d gl oba l l y. U ni ve r s i t i e s c a n a s s i s t by m a nda t i ng t ha t t he i r e ne r gy s up pl y c om p a ni e s pr ovi de m or e r e ne w a bl e a nd a l t e r na t i v e e ne r g y T hough r e n e w a bl e e ne r gy c ont r i but e d l e s s t ha n one

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99 pe r c e nt o f t he gl oba l pr i m a r y e ne r gy pr oduc t i on i n 2005, e ne r gy f r om r e n e w a bl e f u e l s i nc r e a s e d a t a n a ve r a ge a nnua l r a t e of 7.9 % be t w e e n 1995 200 5 ( E I A 2007 ) A s de m a nd r i s e s f or t he s e e ne r gy s uppl i e s a nd a s t he y be c om e m or e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e u ni ve r s i t i e s w i l l ha ve m or e oppor t uni t i e s t o pur c ha s e r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy; m a ny h a ve b e g un buyi ng i t a l r e a dy. U B C pur c ha s e s G r e e n P ow e r c e r t i f i c a t e s t o a ddr e s s t he e ne r gy n e e ds of t w o bui l di ngs a nd i s i nve s t i ga t i ng a n e x pa ns i on of t hi s pr ogr a m ( U B C 2007k) P e nn S t a t e ha s s i gne d c ont r a c t s t o i nc r e a s e t h e s ha r e of g r e e n po w e r t o s e r vi c e t he c a m pus ; t he un i ve r s i t y ha s be e n pur c h a s i ng r e n e w a b l e pow e r s i nc e 2001, a nd i n 2006 c ont r a c t e d t o ha v e 20% of i t s e l e c t r i c i t y pr ovi de d by w i nd, bi om a s s a nd hydr oe l e c t r i c s our c e s A l l s our c e s a r e c e r t i f i e d t hr ough t he G r e e n e S t a nda r d f or R e n e w a bl e E ne r gy P r odu c t s t he c e r t i f yi ng s ys t e m f a vor e d by t he U S G B C f or L E E D c r i t e r i a ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007f ) H a r va r d ha s e s t a bl i s he d a goa l t o be c om e t h e l a r g e s t uni ve r s i t y pur c ha s e r of r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy i n t he U S ( H G C I 2007g ) E f f or t s t o m e e t t hi s goa l ha ve e nt a i l e d pu r c ha s i ng R e ne w a bl e E n e r gy C r e di t s H a r va r d s R e ne w a bl e E ne r gy F und pur c h a s e s t he R e ne w a bl e E ne r gy C r e di t s ( R E C s ) f r om a l oc a l w i nd e ne r gy f a c i l i t y; t he uni ve r s i t y r e c e i ve s no pow e r f r om t he w i nd t ur bi ne s but t he R E C s a r e a n a t t e m pt t o e qua t e a m o ne t a r y va l ue t o a f i xe d a m ount of e nvi r o nm e nt a l be ne f i t s ga i ne d f r om w i nd pow e r ( H G C I 2007h ) I n t he 2006 F i s c a l Y e a r R E C s a c c ount e d f or 7.36% o f H a r va r d s t ot a l e l e c t r i c a l us e up f r om 1.86% i n 2004 ( H G C I 20 07i ) D uke i s t he f i f t h l a r ge s t uni ve r s i t y pur c ha s e r of gr e e n

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100 pow e r i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd i s c ur r e nt l y c r e a t i n g a l ong t e r m e n e r gy m a na ge m e nt pl a n f or t he c a m pus ( C a pps 2 007b) T he e l e c t r i c a l pow e r pr o vi de r f or t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l or i da P r ogr e s s E ne r g y, i s t he l e a de r i n e n e r gy e f f i c i e nc y i n t he S t a t e of F l or i da a nd one of t he t op l e a d e r s i n t he U .S . ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007f ) P r ogr e s s E ne r gy ha s e nt e r e d i nt o a c o nt r a c t t o pur c ha s e e ne r gy f r om t he t w o l a r ge s t bi om a s s pow e r pl a nt s i n t he c ount r y ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007f ) U C M e r c e d ha s c om m i t t e d t o us i ng r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy s our c e s a nd O r e gon s gov e r nor h a s s t a t e d a goa l t o ha v e a l l s t a t e a ge nc i e s i nc l udi ng uni ve r s i t i e s pow e r e d by 100 % r e n e w a bl e e l e c t r i c i t y by 2010 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) E n e r gy S u p p l y G oal s : A l l ne w c a m pus bui l di ngs w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d t o b e of f t he po w e r g r i d, a nd ol de r bui l di ngs r e t r of i t t o t he s a m e A ny e ne r gy pr ovi d e d t o t he c a m pus f or bui l di ngs not r e t r of i t t o 100% on s i t e r e ne w a bl e pow e r a f t e r t he 30 ye a r goa l w i l l be r e ne w a bl e T h e U S G B C us e s t he C e nt e r f or R e s ou r c e S ol u t i ons de f i ni t i ons f or r e ne w a bl e or gr e e n, e ne r g y w i t hi n t he i r G r e e n e pr odu c t s c e r t i f i c a t i on. R e ne w a bl e e ne r gy ( a s i de f r om t r a ns por t a t i o n) i nc l ude s ge ot he r m a l s ol a r w i nd, bi om a s s bi odi e s e l a nd f u e l c e l l s L ow i m pa c t hyd r oe l e c t r i c ge ne r a t o r s m a y a l s o be c ons i de r e d r e n e w a bl e ( U S G B C 2003) E l e c t r i c a l p r ovi de r s ha ve be gun us i ng t he s e s our c e s a l be i t i n s m a l l a m ount s t o ge ne r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y. I n a r e a s w he r e no gr e e n pow e r i s ge n e r a t e d, R e ne w a bl e E ne r gy C r e di t s ( R E C s ) m a y be pur c ha s e d a s of f s e t s ( a s H a r v a r d doe s ) w hi c h i s a n a c c e pt a bl e opt i on unde r L E E D c r i t e r i a a s w e l l A s t he gr e e n pow e r m a r ke t m a t ur e s a nd i m pa c t s on t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd h um a n he a l t h

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101 a r e f a c t or e d i nt o pow e r c os t s gr e e n pow e r pr oduc t s a r e e xp e c t e d t o be l e s s e xpe ns i ve a nd i nc r e a s i ngl y a v a i l a bl e t o a w i de r ge og r a phi c a l r a n ge of c on s um e r s ( U S G B C 2003) P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy T o be gi n i m pl e m e nt i ng t he us e of r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy f r om of f s i t e s ou r c e s dur i ng t he i ni t i a l c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l de t e r m i ne w ha t e ne r gy s our c e s s uppl y t h e c a m pus I f r e n e w a bl e pow e r i s una va i l a bl e f r o m t he c ur r e nt e ne r gy s uppl i e r t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l e xpr e s s i t s i nt e r e s t i n pur c ha s i ng pow e r ge ne r a t e d by r e ne w a bl e s our c e s t o i t s s uppl i e r t o e nc our a ge t he s uppl i e r t o pr ovi de r e n e w a bl e e n e r gy. T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l a l s o r e s e a r c h t he c os t s t o pur c ha s e R E C s t o of f s e t f os s i l f ue l ba s e d c a m pus e ne r gy us e P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T o f ul f i l l one of t he obl i g a t i ons w i t hi n t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt s i g ne d by t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on i n P ha s e I t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e qui r e a m i ni m um of 15% of t he e l e c t r i c i t y f or t he c a m pus be pr ovi d e d by r e ne w a bl e s ou r c e s t hr ough c ont r a c t s w i t h t h e e ne r gy s uppl i e r or vi a t he pur c ha s e of R E C s I f t he c a m pus ha s i t s ow n pow e r g e n e r a t i ng f a c i l i t y i ns t e a d of a n out s i de s up pl i e r t he s a m e c r i t e r i a w i l l be a ppl i e d t o i t T he us e of t he r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy i s pr e f e r a bl e f or a s t he H a r v a r d G r e e n C a m pus I ni t i a t i ve ( H G C I 2007h) not e s t he us e of R E C s a s c a r bon of f s e t s i s s om e w ha t c ont e nt i ous a nd t he m os t c ons e r va t i ve o f f s e t t i ng s c he m e w oul d of f s e t e l e c t r i c i t y w i t h t r ue c a r bon o f f s e t s not R E C s .

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102 P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: S i m i l a r t o P ha s e I I but e xpa nd t o r e qui r e t h a t a m i ni m um of 20% of t he e l e c t r i c i t y f or t he c a m pus be pr ovi de d by r e ne w a bl e s our c e s t hr oug h c ont r a c t s w i t h t he e n e r gy s uppl i e r vi a t he pur c ha s e of R E C s or a c om bi na t i on of t he t w o. I nc r e a s i ng t he r e qui r e m e nt s i nc r e m e nt a l l y w i l l a l l ow t he e ne r gy p r oduc e r s t o c a t c h up t o t he m a r ke t a nd gr a dua l l y r e pl a c e t he i r f os s i l f ue l t e c hnol ogy w i t h r e ne w a bl e s our c e s P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : T o he l p m e e t t he L E E D P l a t i num c r i t e r i a s uc h t ha t P ha s e I V i n B ui l di ngs i s a c c om pl i s he d, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e qui r e a m i ni m um of 35% of t he e l e c t r i c i t y f or t he c a m pus be pr ovi de d by r e ne w a bl e s our c e s t hr ough c ont r a c t s w i t h t he e ne r gy s uppl i e r T he L E E D c r e di t f o r G r e e n P ow e r r e qui r e s 35 % of t he pow e r be s uppl i e d t hr ough t he s e s our c e s f or e a c h bui l di ng i n a c a m pus s i t ua t i o n, s o pr ovi di ng t hi s f or t he e nt i r e c a m pus w i l l e ns ur e t ha t a l l ne w bui l di ng pr oj e c t s a t t a i n t hi s poi nt A l s o, a s t h e bui l di ngs on c a m pus a r e bui l t t o be m or e e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt t hr ough t he i nc r e m e nt a l i ns t i t ut i on of hi ghe r L E E D goa l s ove r a l l c a m pus e ne r gy us e w i l l de c r e a s e c onc om i t a nt l y de c r e a s i ng t he a m ount of gr e e n pow e r ne c e s s a r y t o m e e t t he 35 % goa l P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : A t t hi s poi nt a l l ne w c a m pus bui l di ngs w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d t o be r e g e ne r a t i ve a nd t he r e f o r e of f t he pow e r g r i d. H ow e ve r e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs w i l l s t i l l be pow e r e d vi a e xt e r na l e n e r gy s uppl i e r s unt i l t he y a r e r e t r o f i t t o a c hi e ve t h e r e g e ne r a t i ve goa l s s t a t e d i n P ha s e V of t he B ui l di ngs A r e a o f F oc us T he r e f or e t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l m a nda t e t ha t a l l

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103 e ne r gy f r om e xt e r n a l pr o vi de r s ne c e s s a r y t o pow e r t he c a m pus dur i ng t hi s t r a ns i t i on pe r i od be r e ne w a bl e A RE A O F F O CUS 5: G RE E NH O US E G AS E M I S S I O N S G l oba l c l i m a t e c ha ng e w hi c h t he m a j or i t y of t he s c i e nt i f i c c om m uni t y a t t r i but e s t o a n i nc r e a s e i n gr e e nhous e g a s ( G H G ) e m i s s i ons a nd a s i m ul t a ne ous i nc r e a s e i n de f or e s t a t i on, i s one of t he m os t s e r i ous e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s t he w or l d c ur r e nt l y f a c e s S c i e nt i s t s pr e di c t m a ny e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd hum a n he a l t h pe r t ur b a t i ons w i l l oc c ur a s t he c l i m a t e c h a nge s i nc l udi ng a r i s e i n oc e a n l e ve l s m or e pow e r f ul t r o pi c a l w e a t h e r s ys t e m s i nc r e a s e d r a nge s of di s e a s e s s pe c i e s l os s i n t e m pe r a t e a nd ot h e r h i ghe r l a t i t ude c l i m a t e s a nd r e du c t i on i n c r op yi e l ds ( U S E P A 20 08) C om bus t i on of f os s i l f ue l s f or he a t i ng, c ool i ng, t r a ns por t a t i on, a nd ot he r e l e c t r i c a l a nd m e c ha ni c a l f unc t i ons i s t he l e a di ng pr oduc e r o f c a r bon di oxi de ( C O 2 ) t he p r i m a r y pol l ut a nt f or gl oba l c l i m a t e c ha nge vi a i t s c ont r i but i ons t o t he s o c a l l e d gr e e nhous e e f f e c t ( U S G B C 2003) M e t ha ne ( C H 4 ) a nd ni t r o us oxi de ( N 2 O ) a r e t he t w o o t he r m a j or G H G s ( U S E P A 2008) T he U S E P A ( 2008) not e s t ha t ove r 50% of t he e n e r gy r e l a t e d e m i s s i ons c om e f r om s our c e s s uc h a s pow e r pl a nt s w hi l e t r a ns por t a t i on i s r e s pons i bl e f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y one t h i r d. R e duc i ng t he s e e m i s s i ons t hr ough s w i t c hi ng t o m or e e f f i c i e nt bui l di ngs a nd ve hi c l e s r e l yi ng m or e on r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy s our c e s a nd c r e a t i ng c a r bon s i nks t hr ough r e ve ge t a t i on a nd ha bi t a t r e s t or a t i on e f f or t s a r e t he p r i m a r y s t r a t e gi e s t o c om ba t c l i m a t e c ha ng e pr of f e r e d by t he U S E P A ( 2008)

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104 S e ve r a l uni v e r s i t i e s ha v e be gun t o i nc or por a t e m a ny of t he i de a s t o a dd r e s s G H G e m i s s i ons I n 2007, U F s P r e s i de nt be c a m e t h e f i r s t t o s i gn t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt T o m e e t t he r e qui r e m e nt s s e t f or t h i n t ha t doc um e nt U F ha s pl e dge d t o be c om e a c a r bon ne ut r a l c a m pus by 2020 ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007f ) U F i s t a ki ng t he f i r s t s t e ps t o a c hi e ve t hi s goa l by pe r f or m i ng a n a udi t of t he c a r b on e m i s s i ons of t he c a m pus F ur t he r U F i s w or ki ng w i t h t he I nt e r na t i ona l C a r bon B a n k a nd E xc ha ng e t o de ve l op a s t r a t e gy t o m e e t t he 2020 de a dl i ne ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007f ) U C F c onduc t e d a G H G ( c a r bon di oxi de ) e m i s s i ons s t udy t o qua nt i f y a ba s e l i ne of t he G H G s pr oduc e d by c a m p us ope r a t i ons I n 2006, t he pr i m a r y s our c e of G H G e m i s s i ons w a s e l e c t r i c a l pow e r us e d f or l i ght i ng a nd c l i m a t e c ont r ol i n c a m pus bui l di ngs ( 88.5% ) ; t r a ns por t a t i on a c c ount e d f or onl y 6% ( U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a n a ge m e nt 2007d ) H ow e v e r t he t r a ns por t a t i on s e gm e nt di d not i nc l ude c om m ut e s f o r s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f A n a nn u a l G H G e m i s s i ons s t udy w i l l be c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne U C F s pr ogr e s s t ow a r d r e du c i ng i t s e m i s s i ons T he e ne r g y e f f i c i e n c y m e a s u r e s i m pl e m e nt e d on t he c a m pus a r e e xp e c t e d t o a s s i s t i n t hi s goa l I n 2004, P e nn S t a t e r e s e a r c he r s d e ve l ope d a gr e e n hous e ga s e m i s s i ons i nve nt or y a nd pr oj e c t e d G H G e m i s s i ons f r om t he c a m pus out t o t he ye a r 2012. T h e pr oj e c t w a s c onduc t e d i n pa r t t o a i d t he uni ve r s i t y i n m i t i ga t i n g a nd r e duc i ng i t s G H G pr oduc t i on. E ne r gy t o s uppl y bui l di ng e l e c t r i c i t y a nd c l i m a t e c ont r ol a c c oun t e d f or a l m os t 90% of G H G e m i s s i ons a t P e nn S t a t e ( S t e ue r 2004) I n 2 006 t he U ni ve r s i t y P r e s i de nt of f e r e d publ i c s uppor t f or r e du c i ng G H G s a nd s t a t e d t ha t t he pl a n f or t he c a m pus w oul d r e s ul t i n

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105 doubl e di gi t r e duc t i ons by 2012, a nd m a de a c o m m i t m e nt t o a 17% de c r e a s e i n t he s e e m i s s i ons ( S E I 2007; S p a ni e r 2006) T h e pur c h a s e of m or e r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy, t he i ns t a l l a t i on of a l t e r na t i ve e ne r gy s our c e s a nd t h e c om pr e he ns i ve e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y a nd bui l di ng c om m i s s i oni ng pr ogr a m s c om bi ne t o r e d uc e t he G H G e m i s s i ons f or w hi c h P e nn S t a t e i s r e s pons i bl e O r e gon ha s p e r f o r m e d a c om pr e he ns i ve a udi t t o e s t i m a t e i t s G H G e m i s s i ons ( C O 2 e qui va l e nt ) f r om he a t i ng a nd c ool i ng, l i ght i ng, c om m ut e r t r a ve l a nd ot he r uni ve r s i t y t r a ve l e xc l udi ng a i r ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) O r e gon h a s be e n a bl e t o de t e r m i ne t he s our c e s of t he e m i s s i ons t o t r a c k t he a r e a s p r oduc i ng t he m os t G H G s F r om t hi s br e a k dow n, i t w a s f ound t ha t t he m a j or i t y of e m i s s i ons c om e f r om b oi l e r s t o he a t t he c a m pus a nd t he uni ve r s i t y s ubs e que nt l y a l l oc a t e d f unds t o r e pl a c e t he s e w i t h m or e e f f i c i e nt uni t s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he e l e c t r i c i t y s uppl i e r f or t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e g on ha s c om m i t t e d t o pr oduc i ng c a r bon ne ut r a l e ne r gy, a n a c t i on t ha t i n 2004 r e s ul t e d i n 22% of t he e n e r gy us e d a t t he O r e gon c a m pus pr oduc e d f r om c a r bon ne ut r a l m e t hods ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F ur t he r i n 2005 s t ude nt s e l e c t e d t o r a i s e t he i r f e e s i n or de r t o pur c ha s e r e n e w a bl e e ne r gy c r e di t s f or t he S t ude nt U ni on bui l di ng ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s s uppor t e d G H G r e duc t i ons by s i gni n g t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt pl e dgi ng t o r e duc e G H G s by 80% by 2050 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A nd, t he G ove r nor of O r e gon ha s c om m i t t e d, t hough not i n a ny bi ndi ng f a s hi on, t o ha ve a l l s t a t e a g e nc i e s us e 100% r e ne w a bl e e l e c t r i c i t y by 2010 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007)

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106 T hough no be nc hm a r k f o r r e duc t i on w a s e s t a bl i s he d, i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he e c ot r e k pr ogr a m a t U B C a s di s c us s e d i n t he E ne r gy a nd B ui l di ngs s e c t i ons ha s r e s ul t e d i n a 15% r e duc t i on i n G H G e m i s s i ons F ur t he r m odi f i c a t i ons t o t he C e nt r a l S t e a m P l a nt r e s ul t e d i n a 15% de c r e a s e i n ni t r oge n oxi de e m i s s i ons T he upd a t e d S us t a i na bi l i t y S t r a t e gy ha s s e t hi ghe r b e nc hm a r ks : t o c ut C O 2 e m i s s i ons by 25% a nd ni t r oge n oxi de e m i s s i ons f r om t he s t e a m pl a nt by 80% A s o f N o ve m be r 29, 2007, U B C e s t i m a t e s t ha t i t ha s r e d uc e d G H G e m i s s i ons by 62,000 t ons vi a i t s s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s s i nc e 1999 ( U B C 2007l ) T hough t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s m a de no c on c r e t e c om m i t m e nt t o r e duc i ng G H G e m i s s i ons f r om t he H a r v a r d c a m pus t he uni v e r s i t y ha s c onduc t e d a n a nnu a l i nve nt or y of G H G s s i nc e 2001. D a t a ba c k t o 1990 w e r e m a de a va i l a bl e a nd h a ve be e n a na l yz e d a s w e l l A s of O c t obe r 200 7, e m i s s i ons ha d r i s e n by ove r 65% s i nc e 1990, a n d by 1.2% s i nc e 2005 ( H G C I 2007j ) D uke ha s pe r f or m e d a gr e e nhous e ga s e m i s s i ons i nve nt or y a nd ha s d e ve l o pe d a s t udy t o de t e r m i ne t he f e a s i bi l i t y of va r i ous opt i ons t o r e d uc e or e l i m i na t e t he s e e m i s s i ons ( C a pps 2007b) T he i nve nt or y r e ve a l s a 31 % i nc r e a s e o f G H G e m i s s i ons be t w e e n 1990 a nd 2003 f or w hi c h D uk e w a s r e s pons i bl e ( H um m e l a nd H ua ng 2004) H ow e v e r t he i nc r e a s e s s l ow e d w i t h t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he e ne r gy m a na g e m e nt pr ogr a m t ha t r e t r of i t s e ve r a l bui l di ngs on c a m pus w i t h e ne r gy a nd w a t e r s a vi ng f e a t ur e s ( H um m e l a nd H ua ng 2004)

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107 T he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s s i gne d t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt but t he U C M e r c e d C ha n c e l l or ha s not R e ga r dl e s s U C M e r c e d h a s m a de c l i m a t e ne ut r a l i t y a goa l t o be a c hi e ve d vi a ut i l i z a t i on of r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy a nd pur c ha s i ng or c r e a t i ng c a r bon of f s e t s A s pa r t of t he U C pol i c i e s e a c h c a m pus r e gi s t e r s w i t h t he C a l i f or ni a C l i m a t e A c t i on R e gi s t r y t o m e a s ur e a n d r e por t on G H G e m i s s i ons a nnua l l y ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) F ur t he r U C pol i c y m a nda t e s t ha t a l l c a m pus e s de c r e a s e G H G e m i s s i ons t o 2000 l e ve l s by 2014, a nd t o 1990 l e ve l s by 2020 ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) H ow e ve r ot he r be n c hm a r ks w i l l be ne c e s s a r y f o r U C M e r c e d a s i t i s a ne w c a m pus w i t h no 1990 or 2000 G H G da t a ( U C M e r c e d 2007f ) F i na l l y, U C M e r c e d pur c h a s i ng pol i c i e s e nc our a g e l oc a l a nd r e gi ona l l y pr oduc e d goods t o m i ni m i z e t r a ns por t a t i on e m i s s i ons

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108 T ab l e 4: S u m m ar y of G H G R e d u c t i on an d R e n e w ab l e E n e r gy S u p p l y at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M P u r c h a s e o f r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y Y e s : g o a l i s t o b e l a r g e s t p u r c h a s e r o f r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y i n U S ; h a s b o u g h t R E C s t o e q u a l o v e r 7 % o f u s e P u r c h a s e s G r e e n P o w e r c e r t i f i c a t e s P u r c h a s e s b i o m a s s p o w e r C o m m i t e d t o u s i n g r e n e w a b l e s C a r b o n e m i s s i o n r e d u c t i o n c o m m i t m e n t N o n e G o a l : r e d u c e c a r b o n e m i s s i o n s b y 2 5 % A C U P C l i m a t e C o m m i t m e n t s i g n a t o r y ; g o a l o f c a r b o n n e u t r a l i t y b y 2 0 2 0 U C i s a n A C U P C l i m a t e C o m m i t m e n t s i g n a t o r y ; U C M e r c e d g o a l i s c a r b o n n e u t r a l i t y G H G i n v e n t o r y Y e s U n k n o w n Y e s N o G H G G oal s : T hi s A r e a of F oc us unl i ke t he ot he r s i s not di vi de d i nt o pha s e s A l l r e qui r e m e nt s s e t f or t h by t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt s i gne d i n P ha s e I m us t be f ol l ow e d. T he i ni t i a l c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt w i l l i nc l ude a G H G i nve nt or y t o e s t a bl i s h a ba s e l i ne f r om w hi c h t o t r a c k G H G r e duc t i ons A s pe r t he gui de l i ne s of t he A C U P C l i m a t e D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O P u r c h a s e o f r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y Y e s N o n e 2 0 % o f e l e c t r i c i t y f r o m r e n e w a b l e s o u r c e s S t a t e g o v t g o a l t o h a v e a l l a g e n c i e s p o w e r e d b y 1 0 0 % r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y b y 2 0 1 0 C a r b o n e m i s s i o n r e d u c t i o n c o m m i t m e n t N o n e A C U P C l i m a t e C o m m i t m e n t s i g n a t o r y 1 7 % r e d u c t i o n b y 2 0 1 2 A C U P C l i m a t e C o m m i t m e n t s i g n a t o r y ; e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l i e r a l s o c o m m i t t i n g t o b e c o m e c a r b o n n e u t r a l G H G i n v e n t o r y Y e s Y e s w i l l b e a n n u a l Y e s Y e s

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109 C om m i t m e nt e m i s s i ons f r om a l l s our c e s i n c l udi ng e l e c t r i c i t y, he a t i ng, c oo l i ng, a nd a i r t r a ve l a nd ot he r t r a ns por t a t i on w i l l be qua nt i f i e d. I f da t a a r e a va i l a bl e t he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l i nve nt or y t he G H G e m i s s i ons c r e a t e d dur i ng t he ha r ve s t m a nu f a c t ur e a nd de l i ve r y of c a m pus goods A ga i n, pe r t he A C U P doc um e nt t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l de ve l op a pl a n of a c t i on t o be c om e c l i m a t e ne ut r a l w i t hi n t w o ye a r s of s i gni ng t he C om m i t m e nt P ot e nt i a l m e t hods t o r e duc e G H G e m i s s i ons i nc l ude i nc r e a s i ng t he e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y of c a m pus bui l di ngs a nd ve hi c l e s s w i t c hi ng t o r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy s our c e s pur c h a s i ng l oc a l a nd s us t a i na bl y pr oduc e d m a t e r i a l s a nd goods pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n or f undi ng c a r bo n s e que s t r a t i on pr oj e c t s a n d pur c ha s i ng c a r bon of f s e t s U s e of r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy i s t he m os t e f f e c t i ve opt i on; U F no t e s t h a t i f a l l i t s e n e r g y c a m e f r o m r e n e w a b l e s our c e s t h e c a m p u s G H G pr o f i l e w o u l d d e c r e a s e by 80% ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2004 ) S e qu e s t r a t i o n of c a r bon e m i s s i on s t hr ough i n s t a l l a t i o n of p l a n t s ( t yp i c a l l y t r e e s ) i s a l e s s e xp e n s i v e op t i o n a n d o nl y t he s e que s t r a t i on opt i on a c t ua l l y r e m ove s c a r bo n f r om t he a t m os phe r e ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2004 ) I t i s l i ke l y t ha t a c om bi na t i on of t he s e s t r a t e gi e s w i l l be e m pl oy e d t o a c hi e v e c a r bon ne ut r a l i t y f or t he c a m pus T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l i nc l ude G H G i nve nt or i e s i n t he a nnua l c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt s t o t r a c k t he pr ogr e s s t ow a r ds t he f i n a l goa l of a c hi e vi ng c l i m a t e ne ut r a l i t y. T he A C U P gui de l i ne s r e qui r e a t a r ge t da t e f or c l i m a t e ne ut r a l i t y, w hi c h w i t hi n t hi s s t r a t e gy w i l l c or r e s pond t o t he be gi nni ng of P ha s e V ( 30 ye a r s a f t e r i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he r e ge ne r a t i ve s t r a t e gy)

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110 A RE A O F F O CUS 6: W AT E R W a t e r s hor t a ge s a f f e c t m a ny a r e a s of t he U S a nd w i t h s e ve r a l a qui f e r s a l r e a dy a t l ow l e ve l s a nd r e c ha r g e r a t e s una bl e t o ke e p p a c e w i t h U S c ons um pt i on, t he s e s hor t a ge s a r e e xpe c t e d t o w i d e n. F or e xa m pl e t he O ga l l a l a A q ui f e r i n t he c e nt r a l U S i s de pl e t e d a t a r a t e 14 t i m e s f a s t e r t ha n i t c a n be r e c ha r ge d t hr oug h na t ur a l pr oc e s s e s a nd be t w e e n 1991 a nd 2002 i t de c r e a s e d a n a ve r a g e of t hr e e f e e t a nn ua l l y ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r k e 2002) N um e r ous ot he r N o r t h A m e r i c a n a qui f e r s r e ve a l s i m i l a r ove r us e pa t t e r n s i nc l udi ng t he F l or i da n a qui f e r s ys t e m i n t he s out he a s t e r n U S I n s om e a r e a s t he w a t e r t a bl e ha s dr oppe d s o f a r t ha t s a l t w a t e r f r om t he A t l a nt i c ha s i nt r ude d a nd c ont a m i na t e d t he f r e s hw a t e r dr i nki ng s upp l y ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r ke 20 02) S e ve r a l f a c t or s ha v e l e d t o t he s e w a t e r s hor t a ge s T hough popul a t i on gr ow t h a nd i nc r e a s e d pe r s on a l w a t e r us e f or s a ni t a t i on ha v e i nc r e a s e d, hous e hol ds a nd c i t i e s onl y a c c ount f o r a bout 10% of ove r a l l w a t e r c ons um pt i on; i ndus t r i a l pr oc e s s e s c ons um e 20 25% of gl oba l f r e s hw a t e r r e s our c e s ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r ke 2002) T h e m a j or i t y of a va i l a bl e f r e s hw a t e r i s us e d f o r i r r i ga t i ng a gr i c ul t ur a l c r ops pa r t i c ul a r l y l a r g e f a c t or y f a r m s ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r k e 2002 ) A qua t i c pol l ut i on a l s o r e duc e s t he a m ount of f r e s hw a t e r a v a i l a bl e f o r c ons u m pt i on. H a bi t a t de s t r uc t i on ha s e l i m i na t e d m i l l i ons of a c r e s of w e t l a nds a nd r i p a r i a n f or e s t s w hi c h s e r ve a s pol l ut a nt f i l t e r s a nd r e du c e f l ood r i s ks ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r k e 2 002) B ot h gr oundw a t e r a nd s ur f a c e w a t e r s our c e s ha v e s e e n i nc r e a s e s i n pol l ut i on f r om c he m i c a l s e di m e nt a nd s e w a g e r u nof f a s w e l l a s gr oundw a t e r l e a c h a t e f r om i ndus t r y, a gr i c ul t ur e

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111 a nd t r a ns por t a t i on ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r ke 2002 ) G l o ba l c l i m a t e c ha ng e a nd t h e pr e di c t e d c onc om i t a nt dr ought s i n m a ny a r e a s a r e e xpe c t e d t o e xa c e r ba t e t he w a t e r s hor t a ge s a s w e l l ( B a r l ow a nd C l a r k e 2002) A s w i t h e ne r gy a nd G H G s t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of c a m pus w a t e r us e go w e l l be yond bui l di ngs T o r e duc e t he s e i m pa c t s uni ve r s i t i e s c a n pa r t i c i pa t e i n e f f or t s t o s a f e gua r d t he dr i nki ng w a t e r s uppl i e s f or t h e c a m pus a nd s ur r oundi ng c om m uni t y, pr ot e c t na t i ve a qu a t i c ha bi t a t f r om w a t e r bor ne p ol l ut i on, a nd r e duc e t he a m ount of pot a bl e w a t e r us e d f or no n pot a bl e ne e ds s u c h a s i r r i ga t i on of t he c a m pus l a nds c a pe S e ve r a l c a m pus e s ha ve a l r e a dy i ns t i t ut e d s t or m w a t e r a nd w a s t e w a t e r i ni t i a t i ve s t ha t c om pl e m e nt t he s t r a t e gi e s e m pl oye d f or w a t e r c on s e r va t i on w i t hi n bui l di ngs P e nn S t a t e s c a m pus de s i gn ha s pr e s e r ve d na t u r a l hydr ol ogi c a r e a s f or s t or m w a t e r r uno f f ; t he c a m pus ha s f ou r pr i m a r y dr a i n a ge ba s i ns e a c h of w hi c h i s m a na ge d di f f e r e nt l y due t o va r yi ng t opogr a phy a nd ge ol ogy ( F e nne s s e y 2007 ) F ur t he r 500 a c r e s of W a t e r R e s our c e s P r e s e r va t i on A r e a s h a ve be e n i de nt i f i e d a nd s l a t e d f or p r ot e c t i o n t o s a f e gua r d t he w a t e r r e s our c e s of t h e uni ve r s i t y ( F e nne s s e y 2 007) T he s e e f f o r t s ha ve a l l ow e d P e nn S t a t e t o m a i nt a i n a w a t e r s uppl y t o t he c a m pus t ha t r e qui r e s no f i l t r a t i on t o m e e t bot h P e nns yl va ni a a nd U .S dr i nki ng w a t e r s t a nda r ds ( F e nne s s e y 2007) T he U B C L a nds c a p e P l a n a ddr e s s e s w a t e r c ons e r va t i on a nd s t or m w a t e r e nc our a gi ng t he m a xi m i z a t i on of pe r m e a bl e s ur f a c e s c r e a t i on of bi os w a l e s a nd i ns t a l l a t i on of a ut om a t i c i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m s A n I nt e gr a t e d S t or m w a t e r M a n a ge m e nt R e vi e w i s be i ng c onduc t e d

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112 a nd i s s c he dul e d f o r c om pl e t i on i n 2009 ( U B C C a m pus a nd C om m un i t y P l a nni ng 2007a ) C ur r e nt l y, U B C ope r a t e s a s t or m w a t e r m oni t or i ng pr ogr a m t o de t e r m i ne c ha nge s i n t he s t or m w a t e r di s c ha r ge d f r om t he c a m pus ( U B C C a m pus a nd C om m uni t y P l a nni ng 2007a ) F i na l l y, U B C c r e a t e d S us t a i na bi l i t y S t r e e t , a w a t e r s a vi ngs pr oj e c t t ha t i s t he w or l d s f i r s t c l os e d l oo p s y s t e m i n t e g r a t i n g s t o r m w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t a n d g r ound s our c e h e a t p u m p s I t w i l l no t on l y de m o n s t r a t e t he l a t e s t i n s u s t a i n a b l e s t r e e t de s i g n i t w i l l a l s o t e a c h a nd i n s p i r e t he w o r l d t o bu i l d w i t h t he l i g h t e s t of e c o l o g i c a l f oo t p r i n t s ( U B C 2006 a ) A t t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon, w a t e r c o ns um pt i on w a s r e du c e d by 13% f r o m 2001 2006 due i n l a r ge pa r t t o t he i ns t a l l a t i on of a m or e e f f i c i e nt i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he F a c i l i t i e s S e r vi c e s D e pa r t m e nt i s i n t he pr oc e s s o f pha s i ng i n t he i ns t a l l a t i on of a n a ut om a t e d w a t e r i ng s ys t e m f or l a nds c a p e i r r i g a t i on t ha t i s ba s e d on l oc a l w e a t he r i nf or m a t i on; i t c a n a l s o de t e c t l e a ks a nd e l i m i na t e f l ow t o da m a ge d a r e a s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T hi s s ys t e m ha s be e n s how n t o de c r e a s e w a t e r us e 30 70 % ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T o r e duc e t he pol l ut a nt l oa ds e nt e r i ng l oc a l w a t e r bodi e s O r e gon ha s i ns t a l l e d s i x bi os w a l e s t o f i l t e r out s t or m w a t e r r uno f f a nd t he c a m pus a bi de s by t he O r e gon D e pa r t m e nt of E nvi r onm e nt a l Q ua l i t y B e s t M a na ge m e nt P r a c t i c e s f or S t or m w a t e r D i s c ha r ge s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) O r e gon h a s a l s o c om m i t e d t o pr e s e r ve a nd e xpa nd ope n s pa c e on c a m pus i n or de r t o i nc r e a s e t he pe r m e a b l e s ur f a c e a v a i l a bl e f or s t or m w a t e r t o pe r c ol a t e T hi s c om m i t m e nt s uc c e e d e d i n i nc r e a s i ng t he pe r m e a bl e s u r f a c e s f r om 39.5% of t he gr os s a c r e a ge of t h e c a m pus t o 49% be t w e e n 2001 a nd 2006 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007)

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113 A ut om a t i on of t he i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m f or t he H a r v a r d B us i ne s s S c hool gr ounds r e duc e d us a ge by a l m os t 4.8 m i l l i on ga l l ons pe r ye a r ; s i m i l a r r e s ul t s w e r e a c hi e ve d us i ng r a i n m e t e r s i n i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m s a t H a r va r d Y a r d ( H G C I 2007k ) T o a ddr e s s s t or m w a t e r i s s ue s H a r va r d s E nvi r o nm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y gr oup d e v e l o pe d b e s t p r a c t i c e s f or s t o r m w a t e r t r e a t m e n t T h e s e p r a c t i c e s i n c l u d e i n c r e a s i n g v e g e t a t e d a r e a s a n d r e du c i n g t h e a r e a of i m pe r v i ou s s u r f a c e s t o a l l ow m or e pe r c o l a t i o n t h r ou g h s o i l s ; s p e c i f i c b e s t m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d f or v a r i ou s p r oj e c t t y p e s T he pr i m a r y w a t e r s a vi n g m e a s ur e a t U C F i s t he a ut om a t e d M a xi c om i r r i g a t i on s ys t e m t ha t a dj us t s e ve r y s pr i nkl e r ba s e d on w e a t h e r c ond i t i ons a nd f or e c a s t s E m pl oym e nt of t he M a xi c om s ys t e m s a v e d a l m os t 2 m i l l i on ga l l o ns of w a t e r p e r m ont h i n 2004 ve r s us 2003 ( L a i ng 2004 ) P l a n s a r e a l s o be i ng c r e a t e d t o i r r i ga t e t he l a nds c a pe w i t h r e c l a i m e d w a t e r a nd w a t e r t a ke n f r o m s t or m w a t e r ponds F i na l l y, xe r i s c a pi ng f o r ne w bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on a nd c om m o n a r e a s i s r e qui r e d i n t he ne w c a m pus M a s t e r P l a n ( U C F B oa r d of T r us t e e s 2004 ) D uke ha s e s t a bl i s he d a g oa l of r e du c i ng w a t e r c on s um pt i on by 30% of f i s c a l ye a r 2006 07. T o a c hi e ve t hi s goa l D uke ha s a l r e a dy b e gun i ns t a l l i ng dr ought t ol e r a nt l a nds c a pe pl a nt s a nd de c r e a s i ng t he t i m e f or i r r i ga t i on of a t h l e t i c f i e l ds ( C a pps 2007b ) S t or m w a t e r i s a l s o be i ng m a na ge d w i t h m or e e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y t e c hnol ogy. A s t udy t o m ode l s t or m w a t e r f l ow on t he D uke c a m pus w a s c ondu c t e d by D uke r e s e a r c h e r s a nd l e d t o t he de s i gn a nd c ons t r uc t i on of a n 8 a c r e w e t l a nd a nd r e t e nt i on pond t o a t t e nua t e r un of f f r om 1600 a c r e s o f D uke a nd t he c i t y of D ur h a m ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2007c ) W o r ki ng i n

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114 c onj unc t i on w i t h t hi s i s t he D uke S t r e a m a nd W e t l a nd A s s e s s m e nt M a na g e m e nt P a r k ( S W A M P ) a s t r e a m / l a ke s ys t e m t ha t w a s de s i gne d a nd r e s t or e d t o he l p pr ot e c t t he r e gi on s w a t e r s uppl y a n d i m pr ove t he he a l t h of d ow ns t r e a m r i ve r s ys t e m s ( C a pps 2007b) S W A M P c ont r o l s s t or m w a t e r r un o f f f r o m t he c a m pus a nd 1200 s ur r oundi ng a c r e s ( C a pps 2007b) O ve r 90% o f t he F l or i da c a m pus i s i r r i ga t e d w i t h r e c l a i m e d w a t e r a nd i r r i g a t i on i s ke pt t o a m i ni m um t hr ough xe r i s c a pi ng ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007g) T he S upe r i nt e nde nt of L a nds c a pi ng a nd G r ou nds ke e pi ng e s t i m a t e s t ha t 80% of ne w l a nds c a pi n g pr oj e c t s a r e xe r i s c a p e d, w i t h m or e t h a n ha l f of t hos e ut i l i z i ng a m a j or i t y of na t i ve s pe c i e s ( U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007b ) T o i m pr ove w a t e r qu a l i t y on t he c a m pus t he U F C l e a n W a t e r C a m pa i gn e duc a t e s s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s a bout w a t e r qua l i t y, m oni t or s w a t e r qua l i t y, a nd ha s s uc c e s s f ul l y a dv oc a t e d f o r t he us e of B e s t M a na ge m e nt P r a c t i c e s i n s t or m w a t e r pol l ut i on c ont r ol s i nc l udi ng bi os w a l e s w e t l a nd r e t e nt i on a r e a s po r ous pa ve m e nt a nd f or e s t e d bu f f e r z one s ( U F C l e a n W a t e r C a m pa i gn 2006) T he f i r s t P ha s e of t he U C M e r c e d d e ve l opm e nt c o ns t i t ut e s 100 a c r e s W i t h i n t hi s P ha s e t he l a nds c a pe h a s be e n d e s i gne d t o us e 50% l e s s w a t e r t ha n p r oj e c t e d t hr o ugh i ns t a l l a t i on of C a l i f or ni a na t i ve a nd ot he r dr ought t ol e r a nt pl a nt s a nd l i m i t i ng t he us e of t ur f gr a s s i n t he l a nds c a pe t o onl y hi g h us e a nd r e c r e a t i ona l f i e l d a r e a s T r e e pl a nt i ng ha s be e n c onc e nt r a t e d a dj a c e nt t o t he s e l i m i t e d t ur f a r e a s t o m i ni m i z e e va pot r a ns pi r a t i on i n t he s um m e r ( U C M e r c e d 20 07g ) T he c om put e r i z e d i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m i s c e nt r a l l y c ont r ol l e d a nd m oni t or e d; i t i nc or por a t e s f i e l d m oi s t ur e s e ns o r s dr i p i r r i ga t i on a nd s pe c i a l i z e d

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115 w a t e r i ng t ube s f o r t r e e s ( U C M e r c e d 2007g ) T hi s i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m w a s de s i gne d t o be f e d by r e c l a i m e d w a t e r s our c e s w h e n t he y be c om e a va i l a bl e t o t he c a m pus ( U C M e r c e d 2007g ) T ab l e 5: S u m m ar y of Wat e r S u p p l y P r e s e r va t i on an d C on s e r vat i on at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M X e r i s c a p e N o N o Y e s Y e s A u t o m a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m Y e s i n l i m i t e d l o c a t i o n s Y e s N o Y e s U s e o f r e c l a i m e d w a t e r N o N o Y e s f r o m c a m p u s w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t y P l a n n e d S t o r m w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t D e v e l o p e d o w n B M P s f o r s t o r m w a t e r t r e a t m e n t ; i n c r e a s e v e g e t a t e d s u r f a c e s a n d r e d u c e i m p e r v i o u s a r e a s M a x i m i z e p e r m e a b l e a r e a s ; i n s t a l l a t i o n o f b i o s w a l e s ; c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t o r m w a t e r r e v i e w B M P s : i n s t a l l a t i o n o f b i o s w a l e s a n d p o r o u s p a v e m e n t s B M P s : b i o s w a l e s p r o t e c t a n d e x p a n d o p e n s p a c e D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O X e r i s c a p e Y e s Y e s n e w b u i l d i n g s N o ? N o A u t o m a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m N o Y e s N o Y e s U s e o f r e c l a i m e d w a t e r N o P l a n n e d Y e s f r o m c a m p u s w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t y N o S t o r m w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t C r e a t e d w e t l a n d ; r e s t o r e d l a k e a n d s t r e a m s y s t e m N o s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s P r e s e r v e n a t u r a l h y d r o l o g i c a r e a s f o r r u n o f f B M P s : b i o s w a l e s p r o t e c t a n d e x p a n d o p e n s p a c e

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116 Wat e r G oal s : I n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he i m pr ove m e nt s i n w a t e r us e t e c hnol ogy i n c a m pus b ui l di ngs di s c us s e d e a r l i e r t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l us e no pot a bl e w a t e r f or non pot a bl e f unc t i ons T he c a m pus de s i gn a nd de v e l opm e nt w i l l c a pt ur e a nd t r e a t a l l s t or m w a t e r ; t hi s r e s our c e w i l l a l s o be m a de a v a i l a bl e f o r non pot a bl e ne e ds pa r t i c ul a r l y i r r i ga t i on. T he c a pt ur e t r e a t m e nt a nd r e us e of w a s t e w a t e r a r e a l s o i m por t a nt t o a c hi e ve t hi s goa l a nd a r e di s c us s e d i n t he B ui l di ng s A r e a o f F oc us P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy D ur i ng t he c a m pus a s s e s s m e nt t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l de t e r m i ne t he s our c e s of w a t e r f o r t he c a m pus a s w e l l a s how t he c a m pus us e s w a t e r bot h pot a bl e a nd non pot a bl e F ur t he r t he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l e va l ua t e t he a m ount of pot a bl e w a t e r us e d f or non pot a bl e f unc t i ons a nd c o m pa r e t o t he o ve r a l l c a m pus w a t e r budge t T h e c a m pus a s s e s s m e nt w i l l a l s o i nc l ude a c om pa r i s on of t he pe r c e nt a ge of w a t e r i nt e n s i ve l a nds c a pe ve ge t a t i on, i nc l udi ng t ur f gr a s s e s w i t h xe r i s c a pe d a r e a s F or s t or m w a t e r t h e a s s e s s m e nt w i l l de t e r m i ne t he pe r c e n t a ge a nd qua l i t y of s t or m w a t e r c a pt ur e d, t r e a t e d a nd r e l e a s e d f r om t he c a m pus a s w e l l a s a ny oppor t uni t i e s t o us e r e c l a i m e d w a t e r f r om t he m uni c i pa l i t y or f r om c a m pus s uppl i e s s uc h a s s t or m w a t e r ponds P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i o n: T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l de ve l op a pl a n t o pha s e out w a t e r i nt e ns i ve l a nds c a pi ng f r om t he c a m pus gr ounds i n f a vo r of xe r i s c a pi ng a s w e l l a s c a pt ur e t r e a t a nd r e us e e nough

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117 s t or m w a t e r t o a ddr e s s c a m pus i r r i ga t i on a nd ot he r non pot a bl e ne e ds T o f ur t he r r e du c e t he ne e ds f o r i r r i ga t i on w a t e r i t w i l l i nve s t i ga t e t he opt i on of i ns t a l l i ng a s m a r t i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m l i ke t he s ys t e m s i n pl a c e a t U C F O r e gon a nd H a r v a r d. I f a va i l a bl e t he i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m w i l l be c onne c t e d t o t he l o c a l m uni c i pa l r e c l a i m e d w a t e r s uppl y. T o r e duc e r unof f a nd i nc r e a s e g r ound i nf i l t r a t i on of s t or m w a t e r t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l e s t a bl i s h a pl a n t o r e pl a c e i m pe r vi ous s ur f a c e s ( p a r ki ng l ot s s i de w a l ks r o a ds e t c .) w i t h pe r m e a bl e m a t e r i a l s T h e s e m a t e r i a l s c a n be qui t e e f f e c t i ve ; r e s e a r c he r s a t N or t h C a r ol i na S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y t e s t e d s e v e r a l pe r m e a b l e p a r k i n g l o t s i n e a s t e r n N o r t h C a r o l i n a a nd d e t e r m i n e d t ha t ov e r s e v e r a l ye a r s a nnu a l r un of f vo l u m e d e c r e a s e d b y a t l e a s t 60 % ( H un t a nd S z p i r 2006 ) O t he r pot e nt i a l s ol ut i ons t o de c r e a s e r un o f f a nd i m pr ove t he qua l i t y of a ny r unof f a r e i ns t a l l a t i on of gr e e n r oo f s a nd/ or c i s t e r ns c ons t r u c t i on of bi os w a l e s de t e nt i on a nd r e t e nt i on ponds a nd de v e l opm e nt of m a n m a d e w e t l a nds t o m i m i c na t ur a l w e t l a nd f u nc t i ons A l l of t he s e a s w e l l a s ot he r e m e r gi ng s t or m w a t e r t e c hnol ogi e s w i l l be c ons i de r e d a s t he pl a n i s de ve l ope d. W hi l e t he pl a ns a r e be i ng de ve l ope d, t he c a m pus w i l l be gi n w i t h a goa l t ha t ove r a l l w a t e r us e f or i r r i g a t i on de c r e a s e by 25% of t he b a s e l i ne de t e r m i ne d i n P ha s e I T o a c c om pl i s h t hi s t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e pl a c e c onve nt i ona l i r r i g a t i on c ont r ol s w i t h a n a ut om a t e d i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m t ha t r e s ponds t o pl a nt t ype s oi l m oi s t ur e a nd w e a t h e r a s U C F a nd ot he r s c hool s ha ve done T h e s e s ys t e m s ha ve be e n s ho w n t o de c r e a s e w a t e r us e by 30 70 % ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e q ui r e xe r i s c a pi ng f or a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s t o m e e t t he L E E D c r i t e r i a f or t he t w o W a t e r E f f i c i e n t L a nds c a pi ng

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118 c r e di t s A l s o, na t i ve or d r ought t ol e r a nt gr a s s e s w i l l r e pl a c e de s i gna t e d a r e a s of nonna t i ve t ur f gr a s s e s T h e a m ount t o be r e pl a c e d i n t hi s P ha s e w i l l be ba s e d on e xi s t i ng i r r i ga t i on r a t e s f o r t he s e a r e a s N a t i ve dr ought t o l e r a nt gr a s s e s a r e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e a nd s om e ne w t ur f gr a s s e s ha ve be e n d e ve l ope d t ha t t h r i ve w he n i r r i g a t e d w i t h br a c ki s h or s a l t y w a t e r ( E nvi r onm e n t a l T ur f 2007 ) C a m pus w i de s t or m w a t e r r unof f r e duc t i on of 25 % w i l l a l s o oc c ur by t he e nd of P ha s e I I T hi s w i l l a s s i s t ne w bui l d i ng pr oj e c t s i n m e e t i ng a not he r L E E D r e qui r e m e n t ( S t or m w a t e r D e s i gn Q ua nt i t y C ont r ol ) i n P ha s e I I I T o d e c r e a s e r uno f f i m pe r vi ous s i de w a l ks w i l l be r e pl a c e d w i t h pe r m e a bl e m a t e r i a l s i nc l udi ng por ous pa ve m e nt or op e n c e l l pa ve r s T he a m ount t o be r e pl a c e d w i l l be ba s e d on t he s q ua r e f oot a ge of i m pe r vi ous a r e a v e r s us t ot a l a r e a F or i ndi vi dua l bui l di ngs bui l d i ng de s i gne r s w i l l c r e a t e t he s m a l l e s t bui l di ng f oot pr i nt pos s i bl e i n t he de s i gn pha s e of e a c h bui l di ng. U nde r gr ound pa r ki ng de s i gne d i nt o t he bui l di ng c a n gr e a t l y r e duc e t he a m ount of s t or m w a t e r r un of f f r om a bui l di ng pr oj e c t a nd s houl d be s t u di e d f or e a c h ne w c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t i f pa r ki ng i s ne c e s s a r y. P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l i nc r e a s e t he goa l f o r c a m pus i r r i ga t i on r e duc t i on t o 50 % E f f or t s w i l l i nc l ude c ont i nui ng t o r e p l a c e a r e a s o f nonna t i ve t u r f gr a s s e s w i t h na t i ve or d r ought t ol e r a nt gr a s s e s a nd t o i ns t a l l xe r i s c a pe a t a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s F u r t he r e xi s t i ng w a t e r i nt e ns i ve l a nds c a pi ng w i l l be r e pl a c e d w i t h na t i ve a nd dr ought t ol e r a nt s pe c i e s s o t ha t e xi s t i ng bui l di n gs m i ght c l a i m one of t he W a t e r E f f i c i e nt L a nds c a pi ng c r e di t s a s w e l l

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119 A t t he e nd of P ha s e I I I t he c a m pus w i l l a c hi e v e a s t or m w a t e r r uno f f r e duc t i on of 50% R e pl a c e m e nt of r e m a i ni n g i m pe r vi ous s i de w a l k w i l l c ont i nue ; r e pl a c e m e nt of e xi s t i ng i m pe r vi ous p a r ki ng a nd r oa d s ur f a c e s w i t h pe r m e a bl e m a t e r i a l s w i l l be gi n, a nd a ny ne w pa r ki ng, s i de w a l k or r oa d s w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d us i n g t he s e s a m e pe r vi ous m a t e r i a l s C oi nc i de nt w i t h B ui l di ng P ha s e I I I t he d e s i gn t e a m w i l l a s s e s s t he f e a s i bi l i t y of gr e e n r oof s f o r e a c h n e w bui l di ng pr oj e c t a nd i f a ppr opr i a t e i nc l ude t he m i n t he d e s i gn. G r e e n r oof s r e t a i n w e l l ov e r 50 % of a nnu a l p r e c i pi t a t i on, a nd a l s o d i m i n i s h p e a k f l ow s a nd vo l u m e s of r a i nf a l l ( H un t a nd S z p i r 2006 ) V e g e t a t e d r oof s c a n a l s o pr ovi de c a m pus gr ow n pr oduc e f or c a f e t e r i a s a nd/ or r e c r e a t e h a bi t a t f or l oc a l f a una I f gr e e n r o of s a r e not f e a s i bl e c i s t e r ns a r e a not he r opt i on. C i s t e r n r a i nw a t e r c a t c h m e n t s s y s t e m s c a n c a p t u r e a nd r e us e 30 7 0 % of s t o r m w a t e r ( H un t a nd S z p i r 2006 ) P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : N a t i ve or dr ought t ol e r a n t gr a s s e s w i l l be pl a nt e d i n pl a c e of a ny r e m a i ni ng a r e a s o f nonna t i ve t ur f gr a s s e s X e r i s c a pi ng a t a l l ne w c on s t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s w i l l a l s o c ont i nue i n or de r t o m e e t t he L E E D c r i t e r i a f o r bot h W a t e r E f f i c i e nt L a nds c a pi ng c r e di t s T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e pl a c e a ny r e m a i ni ng i m pe r v i ous s i de w a l k a nd c ont i n ue r e bui l di ng i m pe r vi ous pa r ki ng a nd r oa d s ur f a c e s w i t h pe r m e a bl e m a t e r i a l s T he s e c on d L E E D N C S t or m w a t e r D e s i gn c r e di t ( Q ua l i t y C ont r ol ) s t a t e s t ha t e a c h bui l di ng m u s t I m pl e m e nt a s t or m w a t e r m a na g e m e nt pl a n t ha t r e duc e s i m pe r vi ous c ove r pr om ot e s i nf i l t r a t i on, a nd c a pt ur e s a nd t r e a t s t he s t or m w a t e r r un of f f r om 90 % of t he a v e r a g e a nnu a l r a i nf a l l us i ng a c c e pt a bl e be s t m a n a ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s ( B M P s ) B M P s us e d t o t r e a t r u nof f m us t be

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120 c a pa bl e o f r e m ovi ng 80 % of t he a v e r a g e a nnu a l pos t de ve l opm e nt t ot a l s us pe nde d s ol i ds ( T S S ) l oa d ba s e d on e xi s t i ng m oni t or i ng r e por t s ( U S G B C 2005c ) A s s uc h, s t or m w a t e r s ys t e m s f or a l l ne w bui l d i ngs w i l l m e e t t hi s s t a nda r d. A l ong w i t h t he r a i n c a t c hm e nt s ys t e m s gr e e n r oof s a nd pe r vi ous s ur f a c e s pot e nt i a l t e c hni que s s uc h a s v e ge t a t e d s w a l e s c ons t r uc t e d w e t l a nds a nd ot he r s m e nt i one d a bove ( s e e P ha s e I I ) w i l l be i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he d e s i gn t o pr om ot e i nf i l t r a t i on a nd i n t ur n de c r e a s e pol l ut a nt l oa ds ( U S G B C 2005c ) I f pos s i bl e c a m pus pl a ns w i l l c l us t e r bui l di ngs s uc h t ha t t he a ppr opr i a t e s t or m w a t e r t e c hnol ogi e s ( e .g., d e t e nt i on ponds or c ons t r uc t e d w e t l a nds ) c a n be s ha r e d by s e ve r a l s t r u c t ur e s P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : P ot a bl e w a t e r w i l l no l onge r be us e d f or non pot a bl e f unc t i ons T o a c hi e v e t hi s c a m pus i nf r a s t r uc t ur e w i l l c a pt ur e a nd t r e a t a l l s t or m w a t e r f r om t he c a m pus us i ng t he m e t hods de t a i l e d a bove ; i f n e e de d s t or m w a t e r w i l l be a v a i l a bl e f or non pot a bl e ne e ds pa r t i c ul a r l y i r r i ga t i on. F ur t he r a l l c a m pus l a nds c a pi ng w i l l i nc or por a t e onl y na t i ve a nd / or dr ought t ol e r a nt s pe c i e s A s i d e f r om a t hl e t i c f i e l ds a nd f or m a l c om m on a r e a s i r r i ga t i on w i l l no l onge r be ne c e s s a r y a nd t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e m ove t he l i ne s F i na l l y, a ny r e m a i ni ng pa ve d s ur f a c e s a s w e l l a s a l l f ut ur e pa v e d a r e a s w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d w i t h pe r m e a bl e m a t e r i a l s A RE A O F F O CUS 7: L AN DS CAP E AND N AT I VE H A B I T AT L a nd de ve l opm e nt a nd ot he r hum a n a c t i vi t i e s ha ve de s t r oye d m i l l i ons of a c r e s of n a t ur a l ha bi t a t s T h i s ha bi t a t l os s ha s l e d t o a m ul t i t ude of e nvi r onm e nt a l i l l s i nc l udi ng

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121 de c r e a s e d bi odi ve r s i t y, d e gr a de d a i r a nd w a t e r qu a l i t y, a nd i nc r e a s e s t o G H G c onc e nt r a t i ons i n t he a t m os phe r e a s c a r bon s i nks d i s a ppe a r U ni v e r s i t i e s ha ve c ont r i but e d t o t hi s de s t r uc t i on by c l e a r i ng l a nd f or bui l di ngs a nd r e pl a c i ng e xi s t i ng na t i ve ha bi t a t w i t h f or m a l l a nds c a pi ng a nd l a w ns ov e r t h e hundr e ds or t hous a nds of a c r e s a t ypi c a l c a m pus c ove r s T he e xt e ns i ve a r e a s of t ur f gr a s s e s f ound on m os t c a m pus e s r e qui r e f r e qu e nt i r r i ga t i o n w i t h va l ua bl e w a t e r r e s our c e s E xa c e r ba t i ng t he e nvi r on m e nt a l pr obl e m s of uni ve r s i t y de ve l opm e nt a r e t h e c hoi c e s uni ve r s i t i e s m a ke w he n m a i nt a i ni ng t he i r c a m pus l a nds c a pi ng. P e s t i c i de s he r bi c i de s a nd f e r t i l i z e r s o f t e n c ont a i n t oxi c c he m i c a l s t ha t r un o f f i n s t or m w a t e r a nd c ont r i but e t o w a t e r pol l ut i on. F ur t he r t o m a i nt a i n t he s e f or m a l l a w ns c a m pus l a nds c a p e pe r s o nne l a ppl y l a r ge a m ount s of p e s t i c i de s a nd he r bi c i de s a nd c o nduc t m e c ha ni c a l l y i nt e ns i ve m a i nt e na nc e ( m ow i ng) M ow i ng a nd t r i m m i ng gr a s s e s c ont r i but e gr e a t l y t o G H G e m i s s i ons a nd s m og. A c c or di ng t o a n E P A s t udy, l a w n a nd ga r de n e qui pm e nt a c c ount e d f or a s m uc h a s 5% of a l l m a n m a de hydr o c a r bons e m i s s i ons pr i or t o 1997 ( U S E P A 1998) U s e of non na t i ve or na m e nt a l v e ge t a t i on of t e n r e qui r e s s i m i l a r l e v e l s of i r r i ga t i on, s uppl e m e nt a l f e e di ng, a nd m a i nt e n a nc e T hough i t e nc our a g e s e x pa ns i on a nd r e t e nt i on of na t i ve ha bi t a t s t hi s s t r a t e gy r e c ogni z e s t ha t t he uni ve r s i t y ha s s e ve r a l obl i ga t i ons t o a va r i e t y of c a m pus us e r s U ni ve r s i t y c om m uni t i e s n e e d t ur f a r e a s f or r e c r e a t i ona l pur p os e s M or e f o r m a l c om m ons a r e a s a n d qua dr a ngl e s t ypi c a l l y ne a r c a m pus c e nt e r s a r e h a l l m a r ks of c ol l e ge s a nd o f f e r pl a c e s f or s t ude nt s t o s oc i a l i z e H o w e ve r t he uni v e r s i t y a l s o ha s r e s pons i bi l i t i e s t o t e a c h

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122 e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s a nd s e r ve a s a n e xa m pl e t o t he c om m uni t y of how t o l i ve i n a c c or d w i t h t he pl a ne t T he c hoi c e s of pl a nt s f o r c a m pus gr ounds t he pr ot e c t i on a nd c r e a t i on of ha bi t a t on i t s l a nds a nd t he m e t hods of m a i nt a i ni ng i t s l a nds c a pe i n pa r t r e f l e c t t he va l ue s of a uni ve r s i t y, a nd s e v e r a l ha ve t a k e n t he f i r s t s t e ps t o c r e a t e m or e s us t a i n a bl e l a nds c a pe s A s not e d i n t he W a t e r s e c t i on, U C M e r c e d h a s i nc or por a t e d na t i ve a nd d r ought t ol e r a nt s pe c i e s i nt o t he f i r s t pha s e of i t s ne w c a m pus T ur f gr a s s a r e a s h a ve be e n m i ni m i z e d, a nd t r e e pl a nt i ngs a l ong t he s e a r e a s w i l l c r e a t e s ha di ng a nd l i m i t e va pot r a ns pi r a t i on. U C M e r c e d i s l oc a t e d w i t hi n t he 7,030 a c r e V i r gi ni a S m i t h T r us t L a nds nor t he a s t of t he c i t y of M e r c e d. T hough t he f i r s t pha s e of d e ve l op m e nt i s o nl y 100 a c r e s t he c a m pus i s pl a nne d t o c ove r 2,000 a c r e s a t bui l d out ( U C M e r c e d 2007h) E ve nt ua l l y, 910 a c r e s o f t he 2,000 w i l l be w i t hi n a de s i gna t e d a c a d e m i c l i f e a r e a a nd 340 m or e w i l l be pl a c e d i n a l a nd r e s e r ve f or f ut ur e us e ( U C M e r c e d 2007h) T he f i na l 750 a c r e s w i l l be c om e a pr ot e c t e d C a m pus N a t u r a l R e s e r ve f o r r e s e a r c h a n d i ns t r uc t i on i n na t i ve C a l i f or ni a e c os ys t e m s ( U C M e r c e d 2007h) D ur i ng t he pl a n ni ng pr oc e s s f or t h e c a m pus a c ons e r va t i on s t r a t e gy w a s c r e a t e d t o a ddr e s s c onc e r ns r a i s e d b y t h e U .S F i s h a nd W i l dl i f e S e r vi c e r e ga r di ng f e de r a l l y l i s t e d pl a nt a nd a ni m a l s pe c i e s f ound o n t he s i t e T he c ons e r v a t i on s t r a t e g y pr ovi de s gui da nc e f or d e ve l opi ng a nd i nc or po r a t i ng c ons e r va t i on e f f or t s f o c u s i ng on t he s e a f f e c t e d s p e c i e s a nd s e ns i t i ve ha bi t a t s P e nn S t a t e ha s c onduc t e d a t r e e s ur v e y of i t s c a m pus c a t a l ogi ng a l l t r e e s p e c i e s a s w e l l

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123 a s H e r i t a ge T r e e s t h a t pr ovi de s pe c i a l hi s t or i c o r a e s t he t i c v a l ue t o t he c a m pus ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 g ) T he A r bo r e t um a t P e nn S t a t e w a s c om p l e t e d i n N ove m be r of 2007; pa r t of t hi s pr oj e c t i nvol ve d r e s t or a t i on of w oodl a nds on pa r t o f t he c a m pus vi a e xot i c s pe c i e s r e m ova l a nd i ns t a l l a t i on of na t i ve f l or a ( S t e i ne r 2007) I nt e gr a t e d P e s t M a na ge m e nt pl a ns a r e i n pl a c e f o r t he A r bo r e t um a nd t he r e s t of t h e c a m pu s ( S t e i ne r 2007) U B C ha s c onduc t e d a v e ge t a t i on s ur ve y f or t h e e n t i r e c a m pus t o i nve nt or y a l l pl a nt s pe c i e s T hi s s ur ve y r e v e a l e d t ha t 17.2% o f t he c a m pus c ons i s t s of na t ur a l ve ge t a t i on ( U B C C a m pus a nd C om m uni t y P l a nni ng 2007b ) T he U B C l a nds c a pe pl a n di r e c t s t ha t a l l m a t e r i a l s i n t he l a nds c a pe f r om pa vi ng t o pl a nt s w i l l be c ons i de r e d i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r s our c e p r oduc t i on, c os t i ns t a l l a t i on, m a i nt e na nc e r e pl a c e m e nt a nd di s pos a l ( U B C L a nd a nd B ui l di ng S e r vi c e s 2001 ) T hough t h e i nt e r i or of t h e c a m pus i s ur ba ni z e d, w i t h pl a nne d gr e e n s p a c e s a nd or na m e nt a l pl a nt i ngs t he e dge s a but t he P a c i f i c O c e a n a nd P a c i f i c S pi r i t R e gi ona l P a r k, a 1,885 a c r e f or e s t s e r vi ng a s a bu f f e r b e t w e e n U B C a nd V a n c ouv e r ( U B C L a nd a nd B ui l di ng S e r vi c e s 2001 ) T he P a r k c ont a i ns m i l e s of hi ki ng a nd c yc l i ng t r a i l s a nd a c c e s s t o t he P a c i f i c a s w e l l a s e c ol ogi c a l r e s e r v e a r e a s t ha t a r e not a v a i l a bl e t o t h e ge ne r a l publ i c ( M e t r o V a n c ouve r 2007) S e ve r a l c our s e s a r e t a ught i n t he P a r k s f or e s t s a nd e c ol ogi c a l r e s e a r c h i s c o nduc t e d w i t hi n t he P a r k a s w e l l

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124 A t r e e i nve nt or y w a s c on duc t e d f or t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon c a m pus a nd r e ve a l e d t h a t 14% of t r e e s on c a m pus a r e na t i ve t o t he a r e a ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n f or t h e uni ve r s i t y r e c om m e nds pr ot e c t i on of w i l dl i f e ha bi t a t f or e s t s w e t l a nds a nd w a t e r s he ds a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e a nd c r e a t i on of w i l dl i f e a nd p l a nt c or r i dor s ( L i ve l ybr ooks e t a l 2005 ) O r e gon h a s m a de a c o m m i t m e nt t o pr e s e r ve a n d e xpa nd ope n s pa c e on c a m pus w hi c h w oul d r e s ul t i n e xpa ndi n g t he a m ount of pe r m e a b l e s ur f a c e t o a l l ow s t or m w a t e r t o pe r c ol a t e A s not e d i n t he W a t e r s e c t i on, be t w e e n 200 1 a nd 2006, pe r m e a bl e s u r f a c e s i nc r e a s e d f r om 39.5% o f t he g r os s a c r e a ge o f t he c a m p us t o 49% ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he F a c i l i t i e s D e pa r t m e n t ha s be gun i m pl e m e nt i ng a pl a n t o e xpa nd bi r d h a bi t a t on t he c a m pus by i ns t a l l i ng na t i ve t r e e s a nd s hr ubs l e a vi ng de a d t r e e s on s i t e t o c r e a t e ne s t i ng ha bi t a t a nd m ount i ng bi r dhous e s i n s t r a t e gi c a r e a s ( U O E xt e r i or T e a m 200 2) W he n t r e e s m us t be f e l l e d t o m a ke w a y f or c a m pus de ve l opm e nt w ood i s of t e n m i l l e d f r om t he s e t r e e s ( U O S us t a i na bi l i t y D a t a ba s e 200 7) F i na l l y, a n i nt e gr a t e d p e s t m a na g e m e nt pl a n ha s be e n pr a c t i c e d s i nc e 1994. S t r ong e f f o r t s a r e m a de t o c ont r ol pe s t s by m e a ns ot he r t ha n c he m i c a l pe s t i c i d e s a t t he uni ve r s i t y ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) P r ot e c t i ng na t i ve ha bi t a t a nd us i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s ound l a nd m a na ge m e n t a r e t he t w o ove r a r c hi ng goa l s f or U F l a nds T o a c hi e v e t he s e t he uni ve r s i t y i s i m pl e m e nt i ng s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s l i m i t i ng t he us e of pe s t i c i de s h e r bi c i de s a nd i nor g a ni c f e r t i l i z e r s i ns t a l l i ng m or e i ndi ge nous pl a nt s pe c i e s i n t he c a m pus l a nds c a pe a nd pl a nni ng f or a de ns e r m or e c e nt r a l l y f o c us e d c a m pus t o c ons e r v e e xi s t i ng na t ur a l ha bi t a t s on

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125 uni ve r s i t y pr ope r t y ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007h) F ur t he r F l or i da h a s c r e a t e d 31 C ons e r va t i on A r e a s on t he c a m pus w hi c h a r e gov e r ne d by a C ons e r v a t i on A r e a L a nd M a na ge m e nt ( C A L M ) pl a n t o pr ot e c t a nd e nha nc e t he s e de s i gna t e d a r e a s ( U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on 2007b; U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on 2004 ) T he s e l a nds a l s o i nc l ude t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da N a t ur a l A r e a T e a c hi ng L a bor a t or y f or f i e l d i ns t r uc t i on i n e c ol ogy a nd bi odi ve r s i t y. T he C ons e r va t i on A r e a s a nd C A L M pl a ns l e d t o F l or i da be i ng na m e d a n A udubon I nt e r na t i ona l C oope r a t i ve S a nc t u a r y. A udubon s pr ogr a m p r o m ot e s e c ol ogi c a l l y f r i e nd l y l a nd m a na ge m e nt a nd r e s our c e c ons e r va t i on vi a a c e r t i f i c a t i on pr ogr a m ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007h) F l or i da i s t he f i r s t uni ve r s i t y i n t he na t i on t o w or k w i t h A udubon w i t hi n t he gui de l i ne s of t he C oope r a t i ve S a nc t ua r y P r ogr a m t o e s t a bl i s h c a m p us w i de e nvi r onm e nt a l pl a nni ng, a nd i s pa r t of a pi l ot s t udy w i t hi n t he S a nc t ua r y P r ogr a m t o e s t a bl i s h s t a nda r ds s pe c i f i c a l l y f or c ol l e ge c a m pus e s ( U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on 2007b) T he F our t h P r i nc i pl e of t he D uke C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n s t a t e s t ha t D uke i s a uni ve r s i t y i n t he f or e s t , a nd a s s uc h s e l e c t e d n a t ur a l a r e a s s ho ul d be pr e s e r v e d or c ons e r ve d; e xpa ns i on of de v e l opm e nt s houl d be l i m i t e d a s w e l l ( C a pps 2007b; D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2000) T he D uke F or e s t s ur r oundi ng a nd w i t hi n t he D uke c a m pus c ove r s 7050 a c r e s a nd c ont a i ns a di ve r s i t y of s p e c i e s ( C a pps 2007b ) R e s e a r c h on f or e s t e c os ys t e m s a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt ha s t a ke n pl a c e i n t he D uk e F or e s t f o r de c a d e s T o pr ot e c t t hi s r e s our c e 1220 a c r e s o f t he F or e s t w e r e pl a c e d i n t he R e gi s t r y of N a t ur a l H e r i t a g e A r e a s i n a n a gr e e m e nt w i t h t he N or t h C a r ol i na D e pa r t m e nt of E nvi r onm e nt a nd N a t ur a l R e s our c e s ( C a pps 2007b) T hi s a c t i on pr ot e c t s t hi s por t i on of t he F or e s t f r om a ny d e v e l opm e nt a nd

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126 i nva s i ve r e s e a r c h ( C a pps 2007b) A D uke F or e s t c om m i t t e e ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d t o a s s i s t i n pl a nni ng f or t he f ut ur e of t he F or e s t T he M a s t e r P l a n pl a c e s o t he r a r e a s i n c ons e r v a t i on z one s f or p r ot e c t i on, w he r e de ve l opm e nt i s di s c our a ge d or pr ohi bi t e d ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2000) A s s e t s t o be c ons e r ve d i n c l ude f or e s t e d a r e a s f r a gi l e e c ol ogi c a l a r e a s r i p a r i a n c or r i dor s D uke G a r de ns a nd c e nt r a l ope n s pa c e s O t he r pr ot e c t i on z one s w he r e de v e l opm e nt i s l i m i t e d i nc l ude m a na ge d op e n s p a c e s a nd hi s t or i c qu a ds but w i t h l e s s e r de gr e e s of pr ot e c t i on ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2000) F i na l l y, pl a nt s t ha t w i l l b e i ns t a l l e d on t he c a m pus a r e t o be dr ought t ol e r a nt a nd w i t hi n c ons e r va t i on z on e s t he y m us t be na t i ve t o t he r e gi on ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2000) T he U C F M a s t e r P l a n ( 2 004) r e c om m e nds t he i ns t a l l a t i on of na t i ve l a nds c a pi ng m a t e r i a l s w he r e a ppr op r i a t e a nd l i m i t s t he pl a nt i ng of e xot i c a nd/ or i nva s i ve pl a nt s pe c i e s E xi s t i ng i nva s i ve pl a nt s t ha t a r e on t he F l or i da E x ot i c P e s t P l a nt C ounc i l s M os t I nva s i ve S pe c i e s l i s t w i l l be r e m ove d f r om t he c a m pus U C F s c a m pus c ont a i ns e xi s t i ng na t ur a l pr e s e r ve s a nd pr ot e c t e d w e t l a nds ; one w e t l a nd ne a r t he c e nt e r of c a m pus ha s a boa r d w a l k a nd i s a f oc a l poi nt of t he c a m p us T he C a m pus A r bor e t um c ont a i ns r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of s e ve r a l na t i ve F l or i da h a bi t a t s a nd w a s a c t i ve i n pr om ot i ng a c a m pus t r e e s ur ve y. P r e s c r i be d bur ns pe r f o r m e d by t he A r bor e t um s t a f f a r e c ondu c t e d t o he l p r e s t or e w i l dl i f e ha bi t a t t hr oughout t he c a m pus D ue t o t he s e

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127 e f f o r t s t he N a t i ona l W i l dl i f e F e de r a t i on a w a r d e d U C F a C a m pus E c ol ogy R e c ogni t i on f or i t s pr e s c r i b e d bur n po l i c y i n 2005 ( B a r t l e t t 2005) A ppr oxi m a t e l y 60% of t he H a r v a r d c a m pus i s ope n s pa c e d e s pi t e i t s ur ba n s e t t i ng. H a r va r d ha s be e n i n ope r a t i on f or ove r 350 y e a r s a nd i t s l a nds c a pe h a s e vo l ve d ove r t ha t t i m e t o i nc l ude l a w ns f o r m a l ga r de ns a nd buf f e r s pa c e s O n e pr i m a r y f un c t i on of t he l a nds c a pe t ha t d e ve l ope d ove r t he ye a r s i s t o di r e c t pe de s t r i a n t r a f f i c ( H a r v a r d P l a nni ng a nd R e a l E s t a t e 2000 ) T h e e vol ut i on of t he l a nds c a pe c ont i nue s a s xe r i s c a pi ng ha s be e n us e d a t s om e of H a r va r d s L E E D c e r t i f i e d bui l di ngs

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128 T ab l e 6: O ve r vi e w of L an d s c ap e P r ac t i c e s an d H ab i t at P r e s e r va t i on at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M R e q u i r e d u s e o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s i n l a n d s c a p e Y e s N o Y e s Y e s ; a l s o m i n i m i z i n g t u r f g r a s s i n s t a l l a t i o n S u r v e y o f e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n N o Y e s P r i o r t o d e v e l o p m e n t N o P r o t e c t i o n p l a n s f o r e x i s t i n g h a b i t a t F o r o f f c a m p u s f o r e s t Y e s P a c i f i c S p i r i t R e g i o n a l P a r k Y e s 3 1 c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s ; A u d u b o n I n t l C o o p e r a t i v e S a n c t u a r y Y e s 7 5 0 a c r e r e s e r v e I n t e g r a t e d P e s t M a n a g e m e n t P l a n f o r L a n d s c a p e Y e s Y e s Y e s N o L an d s c ap e G oal s : R e s t or e or c r e a t e n a t i ve h a bi t a t s on a m i ni m um of 50% of r e m a i ni ng c a m pu s ope n s pa c e ( e xc l udi ng bui l di ng f oot pr i nt s a s pe r L E E D ) E l i m i na t e t he us e of t oxi c f e r t i l i z e r s he r bi c i de s a nd p e s t i c i de s i n t he l a nds c a pe E r a di c a t e a l l n ui s a nc e a nd i nva s i ve pl a nt s pe c i e s D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O R e q u i r e d u s e o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s i n l a n d s c a p e Y e s Y e s N o N o S u r v e y o f e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n N o T r e e s T r e e s T r e e s P r o t e c t i o n p l a n s f o r e x i s t i n g h a b i t a t Y e s D u k e F o r e s t c o n s e r v a t i o n z o n e s Y e s p r e s c r i b e d b u r n s e x o t i c s r e m o v a l Y e s A r b o r e t u m l a n d s Y e s c r e a t e c o r r i d o r s a n d h a b i t a t a s w e l l I n t e g r a t e d P e s t M a n a g e m e n t P l a n f o r L a n d s c a p e N o N o Y e s Y e s

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129 P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy A s pa r t of t he ov e r a l l c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c onduc t a r e vi e w of a l l e xi s t i ng e c ol ogi c a l r e s our c e s i nc l udi ng w e t l a nds f or e s t s m a t ur e t r e e s l i s t e d ( t hr e a t e ne d o r e nda nge r e d) s p e c i e s a n d w i l dl i f e c or r i dor s w i t hi n w hi c h t he c a m pus m a y l i e T he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l a l s o i de nt i f y l oc a t i ons of a l l nui s a nc e a nd i nva s i ve pl a nt s pe c i e s F ur t he r t h e uni ve r s i t y w i l l pe r f or m a s t udy t o l e a r n w ha t h a b i t a t s e xi s t e d a t t he s i t e pr i or t o de ve l o pm e nt of t he c a m pus ; a n ot he r w i l l be c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h a r e a s a r e s ui t a bl e f or r e s t or a t i on t o pr e de v e l opm e nt c ondi t i ons or f or t he c r e a t i on of ha bi t a t na t i ve t o t he r e gi on. T he e va l ua t i on w i l l pl a c e pa r t i c ul a r f o c us o n a r e a s o f t ur f t ha t a r e not de s i gna t e d f o r r e c r e a t i on or a r e und e r u t i l i z e d by t he c a m pus c o m m uni t y. F i na l l y, t he pe s t i c i de he r bi c i de a nd f e r t i l i z e r r e gi m e s f or t he c a m pus w i l l be a s s e s s e d. P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: A f t e r t he i nf o r m a t i on ha s be e n ga t he r e d, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l de ve l op a pl a n t o r e s t or e or c r e a t e na t i ve ha bi t a t s on a m i ni m um of 50% of r e m a i ni ng c a m pus ope n s p a c e e l i m i na t e t he us e of t oxi c f e r t i l i z e r s he r bi c i de s a nd p e s t i c i de s i n t he l a nds c a pe a nd t o e r a di c a t e a l l nui s a nc e a nd i nva s i v e pl a nt s pe c i e s A s t he pl a n i s be i ng c r e a t e d, t he s c ho ol w i l l i ns t i t ut e a m or a t or i um on de ve l op m e nt i n t he a r e a s i d e nt i f i e d i n P ha s e I a s pot e nt i a l s i t e s f or r e s t or a t i on or c r e a t i on of na t i ve ha bi t a t D e v e l opm e nt w i l l a l s o be pr ohi bi t e d w i t hi n t he ha bi t a t of a ny l i s t e d s pe c i e s f ound on c a m pus a s i de nt i f i e d i n t he a s s e s s m e nt i n P ha s e I T he l a nds c a p e de s i gn t e a m w i l l e xpl or e a nd i nc or por a t e oppor t uni t i e s t o e xpa nd t he s e ha bi t a t s vi a r e s t or a t i on or c r e a t i on of l i ke h a bi t a t i n a dj a c e nt l a nds B y c oo r di na t i ng w i t h

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130 t he a ppr opr i a t e a c a de m i c pr ogr a m s s om e of t he r e s t or a t i on pr oj e c t s m a y be us e d a s a t e a c hi ng a nd r e s e a r c h op por t uni t i e s E l e m e nt s of t he pl a n w i l l i nc l ude t he f ol l ow i ng: be gi n w or ki ng w i t h t he f o od/ di ni ng s e r vi c e s l a nds c a pe a nd w a s t e m a na g e m e nt pe r s o nne l on a c om pos t i ng pl a n t o de c r e a s e c a m pus w a s t e p r oduc t i on a nd t o pr ovi de a r e pl a c e m e nt f or c he m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s us e d i n t he l a nds c a pe F ood/ di ni ng s e r vi c e s w i l l be gi n c om po s t i ng pr e c ons um e r f ood w a s t e s by t he e nd of P ha s e I I a nd c oo r di na t e w i t h l a nds c a pe m a i nt e na nc e gr oup t o i nt r od uc e i t a s a r e pl a c e m e nt f or c he m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s ; l a nds c a pe w a s t e s w i l l be a dde d t o t he c om pos t pr oc e s s a s w e l l T o r e duc e t he a ppl i c a t i on of c he m i c a l p e s t i c i de s t he l a nds c a p e m a i nt e na n c e gr oup w i l l i ns t i t ut e a n i nt e gr a t e d pe s t m a na ge m e nt ( I P M ) pl a n by t he e nd of P ha s e I I I n t e gr a t e d p e s t m a n a g e m e n t ( I P M ) i s a m e t h od of p e s t c on t r o l t h a t i n c or p or a t e s m on i t o r i n g a nd r e c or d k e e p i ng t o i nd i c a t e w h e n t r e a t m e n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y ( U S E P A 1997) B i o l og i c a l c u l t u r a l phy s i c a l m e c h a n i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c h e m i c a l m e t hod s a r e u s e d i n s i t e s pe c i f i c c o m b i n a t i o n s t o s o l v e t h e p e s t pr ob l e m C h e m i c a l c on t r o l s a r e us e d on l y w h e n n e e d e d a n d i n t h e l e a s t t ox i c f or m u l a t i o n t h a t i s e f f e c t i v e a g a i ns t t h e p e s t ( U S E P A 1997 ) F ur t h e r t h i s gr oup w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e a nd d e v e l o p a ph a s e i n p l a n f or or g a n i c h e r b i c i d e s t o r e p l a c e c h e m i c a l h e r b i c i d e s s t a r t i ng by t h e e nd o f P ha s e I I V i n e g a r i s a n e x a m p l e o f a non t ox i c c o m pound t h a t w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y k i l l und e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n bu t l e a v e n o po l l u t a n t s i n t h e s o i l ( P o l l o c k 2005) F i n a l l y t o pr o t e c t r e m a i n i n g n a t u r a l h a b i t a t t h e un i v e r s i t y w i l l m a n d a t e t h a t a l l nu i s a n c e a nd i n v a s i v e s pe c i e s w i l l b e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c a m p u s A m a i n t e n a n c e p l a n t o pr e v e n t i n v a s i v e s p e c i e s f r o m r e e s t a b l i s h i ng popu l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e n a t u r a l a r e a s w i l l a l s o b e d e v e l o p e d.

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131 P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l be gi n t o i m pl e m e nt t he ha bi t a t pl a n s o t ha t 10% of t he c a m pus ope n s pa c e i s r e s t or e d or c onv e r t e d t o na t i ve ha bi t a t w i t h pa r t i c ul a r f o c us on a r e a s c ont a i ni ng l i s t e d s pe c i e s A m i ni m um of 50% ( by a r e a ) of t h e nui s a nc e a nd e xot i c s pe c i e s w i l l be r e m ove d f r om c a m pus l a nds c a pi ng a nd t he s e a r e a s r e pl a nt e d w i t h na t i ve a nd dr ought t ol e r a nt s pe c i e s T h e e xo t i c a nd nui s a nc e pl a nt m a i nt e na nc e e f f o r t s a s w e l l a s t he I P M w i l l c ont i nue a nd t he gr ounds ke e pi ng s t a f f w i l l m oni t or a dva nc e s i n pe s t c ont r ol a nd he r bi c i de t e c hnol ogy t ha t m a y f ur t he r m i ni m i z e t h e us e of c h e m i c a l pe s t i c i de s T o f ur t he r r e duc e t he a ppl i c a t i on of c he m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s t he c om pos t i ng pr ogr a m w i l l e xpa nd t o i nc or por a t e po s t c ons um e r f ood w a s t e a s w e l l a s pa pe r pr oduc t s S houl d e xc e s s c om pos t b e a va i l a bl e t he l a nds c a p e / gr oun ds ke e pi ng gr oup w i l l of f e r i t t o l oc a l m uni c i pa l i t i e s ga r de ni ng gr oups l oc a l f a r m s a nd ot he r s t o r e pl a c e t he i r c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : R e s t or a t i on a nd c r e a t i on of na t ur a l ha bi t a t s w i l l c o nt i n ue s uc h t ha t 25% of t he c a m pus ope n s pa c e i s r e s t or e d o r c onve r t e d t o na t i ve h a bi t a t by t he e nd of P ha s e I V T he r e pl a c e m e nt of t oxi c c h e m i c a l l a nds c a pe m a i nt e n a nc e pr odu c t s w i t h be ni g n, or ga ni c ve r s i ons w i l l a l s o c ont i nue P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : T he r e s t or a t i on a nd c r e a t i on of ha bi t a t w i l l c ont i nue unt i l a m i ni m um of 50 % of t he c a m pus ope n s pa c e ( m e a s ur e d w he n t he S t r a t e gy i s i ns t i t ut e d) i s r e s t or e d or c onve r t e d t o

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132 na t i ve ha bi t a t N o t oxi c f e r t i l i z e r s pe s t i c i de s o r he r bi c i de s w i l l be us e d on t he c a m pus W i t h t he i nc r e a s e d a m ou nt of na t i ve a nd a d a pt e d ve ge t a t i on, t he ne e d f or t he s e pr oduc t s w i l l be r e duc e d, p a r t i c ul a r l y a s l a r ge s w a t hs of t ur f a r e r e pl a c e d w i t h na t ur a l ha bi t a t s A RE A O F F O CUS 8: M A T E RI AL S M ANAG E M E NT ( W AS T E & R E CYCL I NG ) T he pr i m a r y s ol ut i on f or de a l i ng w i t h s ol i d w a s t e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s t he de ve l opm e nt of l a ndf i l l s H ow e ve r l a ndf i l l s pr e s e nt s e ve r a l e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s i nc l udi ng s oi l a nd gr oundw a t e r pol l ut i on f r om l e a c hi ng a nd G H G e m i s s i ons due t o t he m e t ha ne pr oduc e d dur i ng t he bi ol ogi c a l de c om pos i t i on pr oc e s s ( L yl e 1994) T he s e e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s a s w e l l a s i nc r e a s i ng ur ba n popul a t i on de ns i t i e s publ i c he a l t h c onc e r ns a nd l e s s l a nd a va i l a bl e f or l a nd f i l l s i m pe de t he c ons t r u c t i on of n e w l a ndf i l l f a c i l i t i e s ( S e n e r S z e n, a nd D oyur a n 2006) A l t e r na t i ve s t o di s pos a l i n l a ndf i l l s i nc l ude di r e c t r e us e of p r oduc t s a nd r e c yc l i ng. R e us e i s pr e f e r a bl e a s i t r e qui r e s no e ne r gy; bot h pr oc e s s e s he l p t o e l i m i na t e t he n e e d f or vi r gi n na t ur a l r e s ou r c e s t o c r e a t e a pr oduc t a nd t o r e du c e l a ndf i l l r e qui r e m e nt s ( L yl e 1994) L yl e ( 1994) not e s t ha t r e c yc l i ng one t on of pa p e r pr oduc t s s a ve s 17 t r e e s f r om be i ng pr oc e s s e d a nd t hr e e c ubi c ya r ds of l a ndf i l l s pa c e A l um i num r e c yc l i ng us e s onl y 5% of t he e ne r gy n e c e s s a r y t o p r oduc e ne w a l um i num ( L yl e 1994) W i t h c om put e r s c e l l pho ne s a nd ot he r e l e c t r oni c t e c hnol ogy ubi qui t ous a c r os s c ol l e ge c a m pus e s of p a r t i c ul a r c onc e r n t o uni ve r s i t i e s a r e e w a s t e s . E w a s t e o r e l e c t r oni c w a s t e i s t he f a s t e s t g r ow i ng c ons t i t ue nt of r e f us e i nc r e a s i ng a t a r a t e f i ve t i m e s t ha t of

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133 a l l ot he r w a s t e s our c e s ( E l e c t r oni c R e c y c l e r s I nt e r na t i ona l 2007 ) E w a s t e i nc l ude s obs ol e t e or unw a nt e d c o m put e r s c e l l phone s t e l e vi s i ons pr i nt e r s a nd m a ny m or e pr oduc t s D ue t o t he ha z a r dous c om pounds us e d t o c r e a t e t he s e pr odu c t s t hough e w a s t e c om pr i s e s onl y 2% of t he t ot a l t r a s h i n l a ndf i l l s i t a c c ount s f o r 70% of t oxi c l a ndf i l l w a s t e s ( S l a de 2007) C l e a ni ng pr oduc t s a nd c h e m i c a l s us e d i n r e s e a r c h a nd t e a c hi ng a l s o of t e n c ont a i n t oxi ns t ha t m a y a dve r s e l y a f f e c t c us t odi a l s t a f f bui l di ng oc c u pa nt s a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt M a ny uni ve r s i t i e s ha ve c r e a t e d pl a ns t o a ddr e s s t h e gr ow i ng c on c e r ns r e ga r di ng t he e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s ge ne r a t e d by c onve nt i on a l w a s t e di s pos a l m e t hod s i .e ., l a ndf i l l s T he P hys i c a l P l a nt a t U C F i ns t i t u t e d a r e c y c l i ng pr ogr a m f or c onve nt i ona l r e c yc l a bl e s t ha t i s m a i nt a i ne d by i t s S pe c i a l S e r vi c e s U ni t ( U C F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007) S ur pl us pr ope r t y f r om c a m pus un i t s i s a uc t i one d or of f e r e d f or c a nni ba l i z a t i on, w he r e i n de s i r a bl e pa r t s a r e r e m ov e d a nd t he r e m a i nde r di s c a r de d ( U C F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 ) A l s o, a t t he e nd of e a c h a c a de m i c y e a r unw a nt e d c l ot hi ng, f ur ni t ur e a nd a p pl i a nc e s a r e c ol l e c t e d dur i ng M ov e O ut D a ys a t c a m pus dor m i t or i e s t o be dona t e d t o c ha r i t y ( K ot a l a 2007) T o r e duc e pot e nt i a l ha z a r dous w a s t e f r om m e r c ur y U C F ha s i m pl e m e nt e d a t he r m om e t e r e xc ha ng e pr ogr a m T he R e C he m pr ogr a m w a s i n i t i a t e d t o a c c e pt a nd don a t e c he m i c a l s f r om c our s e s a nd r e s e a r c h i n a n e f f o r t t o r e duc e c he m i c a l w a s t e a nd c os t s ( U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a n d S a f e t y 2006a ) F i na l l y, t he E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y D e pa r t m e nt ha s i ns t i t ut e d c he m i c a l pur c ha s i ng g ui de l i ne s t o r e duc e t h e n um be r s of

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134 ha z a r dous c he m i c a l s on t he c a m pus ; i f l e s s t oxi c a l t e r na t i ve s a r e a va i l a bl e t he s e a r e r e c om m e nde d f or pur c ha s e ( U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y 2006b ) T he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e go n ha s a n e xt e ns i ve r e c y c l i ng pr ogr a m t ha t de a l s w i t h a t l e a s t 24 m a t e r i a l s ; i n 2005 6, 45% of c a m pus w a s t e w a s di ve r t e d f r om l a nd f i l l s t hough t hi s di d not i nc l ude c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e a nd de b r i s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he r e c yc l i n g e f f or t s h a ve w on s e ve r a l a w a r ds i nc l udi ng a 2005 E P A U ni ve r s i t y P a r t ne r of t he Y e a r A w a r d. T h e C a m pus R e c yc l i ng P r ogr a m ha s l oc a t e d di s pos a l b i ns f or r e c y c l a bl e s on e ve r y f l oor of e ve r y a c a d e m i c bui l di n g a nd i n m os t de pa r t m e nt o f f i c e s a nd c opy r oom s ; t h e r e a r e a l s o 20 out door dr op of f s i t e s f or gl a s s a l um i num pa p e r c a r dboa r d a nd pl a s t i c s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) S e ve r a l ot he r m a t e r i a l s a r e pi c ke d up vi a s pe c i a l a r r a ng e m e nt U O ha s m a de ot h e r e f f or t s t o r e duc e w a s t e f r om i t s c a m pus S t yr of oa m f o od c ont a i ne r s w e r e b a nne d i n 1989, a s t he y c a nnot be r e c y c l e d o r c om pos t e d ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) C a m pus R e c yc l i ng e s t a bl i s he d e xc ha ng e s f or s ur pl us of f i c e s uppl i e s a nd f ur ni t ur e a nd t he D e pa r t m e nt o f E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y ha s c r e a t e d t he C om put e r H a r v e s t P r ogr a m t o pi c k up obs ol e t e or br ok e n c om put e r e qui pm e nt f or de c ons t r u c t i on a nd r e c yc l i ng ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) H a z a r dous w a s t e s a r e b e i ng m i ni m i z e d t hr ough s e ve r a l e f f or t s a s w e l l F i r s t t he R e us e C he m i c a l F a c i l i t y a c c e pt s us a bl e c he m i c a l s t ha t a r e no l onge r ne e de d a nd m a ke s t he m a va i l a bl e t o f a c ul t y a nd r e s e a r c he r s F a c i l i t i e s S e r vi c e s a t O r e gon ha s i nc r e a s e d t he a m ount of gr e e n c l e a ni ng c he m i c a l s t o 92% a s o f 2006 a nd r e du c e d t he n um be r s of

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135 c he m i c a l s a v a i l a bl e f or u s e by c us t odi a ns ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) C l e a ni ng s uppl i e s m us t be c e r t i f i e d a s S us t a i na bl e E a r t h pr oduc t s f r om C oa s t w i de L a bs i n or de r t o a c c e pt e d f or us e on t he c a m pus ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) I n t he l a nds c a p e f e w p e s t i c i de s ha s be e n r e d uc e d p e r t he I nt e gr a t e d P e s t M a na ge m e nt P l a n, a nd a ny f e r t i l i z e r s us e d a r e s l ow r e l e a s e ; phos phor ous us e ha s be e n r e duc e d t o d e c r e a s e pot e nt i a l w a t e r pol l ut i on vi a r un of f ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F i na l l y, O r e gon c r e a t e d t he G r e e n C h e m i s t r y P r ogr a m a n i nt e r n a t i ona l l y r e c ogni z e d pr ot oc ol t ha t pr om ot e s t he us e of f e w e r t oxi c c he m i c a l s i n c l a s s e s t o t e a c h t he s a m e c onc e pt s a nd t e c hni que s f ound i n t r a di t i ona l c he m i s t r y c our s e s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) U F ha s i ns t i t ut e d r e c yc l i ng a nd w a s t e r e duc t i on i ni t i a t i ve s t ha t ha ve s uc c e s s f ul l y di ve r t e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 40% of t he c a m pus w a s t e f r om l a ndf i l l s ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007d) M os t of t he w a s t e ge n e r a t e d a nd s ubs e que nt l y r e c yc l e d c om e s f r om t he de c ons t r u c t i on of bui l di ngs a s w e l l a s t he m a i nt e na nc e a nd m a n a ge m e nt of c a m pus gr ounds F l or i da ha s e s t a bl i s he d a goa l t o r e c yc l e 60% of i t s de c on s t r uc t i on m a t e r i a l s ; ne a r l y 100 % o f t he c onc r e t e f r om de c o ns t r uc t i on a c t i vi t i e s i s r e c yc l e d c ur r e nt l y ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007d) A l m os t a l l l a nds c a pe de br i s i s a l s o r e c ove r e d a nd e i t he r m ul c he d or c om pos t e d. R e c yc l i ng of c onv e nt i ona l of f i c e m a t e r i a l s ha s b e e n pr ovi de d s i nc e 1989 ( U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007c ) O t he r r e c y c l i ng e f f or t s i nc l ude d e ve l opm e nt of a n e l e c t r oni c s r e us e / r e c yc l i ng pol i c y, s c r a p m e t a l r e c yc l i ng f o r u s e d a ppl i a nc e s a nd m a c hi ne r y, us e d pa l l e t r e c ov e r y, a nd r e us e of s l udge f r om t he w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e nt f a c i l i t y a s f e r t i l i z e r ( U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007c ) U F U ni ve r s i t y H ous i ng pr om ot e s a m ove out pr ogr a m t o

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136 dona t e unw a nt e d f ur ni t ur e a nd a ppl i a n c e s t o l oc a l c ha r i t i e s ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007d) F i na l l y, t he D i vi s i on of E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y ov e r s e e s r e c yc l i ng of ol d pa i nt ba t t e r i e s oi l s a nd f l uor e s c e nt bul bs ( U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007c ) U C M e r c e d h a s i m pl e m e nt e d a r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m f or t he c a m pus w or ki ng i n c oope r a t i on w i t h t he l oc a l c ount y gove r nm e nt S t a nda r d r e c y c l a bl e s ( gl a s s pl a s t i c pa pe r c a r dbo a r d a nd m e t a l s ) a r e a c c e pt e d a t s t a t i ons i n bui l di ngs a c r os s t he c a m pus S m a l l c ont a i ne r s f or ba t t e r i e s a r e l oc a t e d by t he s e bi ns a s w e l l S t a f f w or k s t a t i ons a r e pr ovi de d w i t h i ndi vi dua l r e c yc l i ng c ont a i ne r s w hi l e l a r ge r bi ns a r e l oc a t e d i n c om m on a r e a s s u c h a s c opi e r a nd br e a k r oom s ( U C M e r c e d 2007i ) T he E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y D e p a r t m e nt ha ndl e s di s pos a l a nd r e c yc l i ng of ba t t e r i e s e w a s t e a nd ot he r ha z a r dous m a t e r i a l s ( U C M e r c e d 2007i ) A s a r e s ul t of t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s U C M e r c e d s uc c e s s f ul l y di ve r t e d 43 % of t he w a s t e ge ne r a t e d on t he c a m pus e xc l udi n g c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e f r om l a nd f i l l s dur i ng t he 2006 07 a c a de m i c ye a r ( U C M e r c e d 2007j ) U B C ha s a n a ggr e s s i ve s t r a t e gy t o r e du c e w a s t e pr oduc t i on on i t s c a m pus T he W a s t e M a na ge m e nt uni t ha s e s t a bl i s he d a goa l of 55 % p e r c a pi t a w a s t e r e duc t i on by 2010 ( U B C 2006c ) T o a c hi e ve t hi s s e ve r a l i ni t i a t i ve s a r e un de r w a y, i nc l udi ng num e r ous pa pe r us e r e duc t i on t ool s D oubl e s i de d c opyi ng a nd pr i nt i ng i s e nc our a g e d, a nd t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on i s be i ng l obbi e d t o a l l ow doubl e s i de d pr i nt i ng f or f or m a l t he s e s a nd di s s e r t a t i ons ( U B C 2007m )

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137 R e c yc l i ng i s a m a j or c om pone nt of t he w a s t e r e d u c t i on s t r a t e gy a s w e l l T he U B C L a nds c a p e P l a n ( 2001) i nt e gr a t e s r e c yc l i ng bi ns i nt o i t s de s i gns t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c y c l i ng of c onve nt i ona l m a t e r i a l s ( e .g., gl a s s pa pe r pl a s t i c a l um i num ) D e pa r t m e nt of f i c e s a r e pr ovi de d r e c yc l i ng c ont a i ne r s a t e a c h de s k f or pa p e r a nd c a r dbo a r d. S pe c i a l i t e m s l i ke f l uor e s c e nt bul bs a nd ba t t e r i e s a r e s e nt of f s i t e t o c om pa ni e s t ha t r e c yc l e t h e m w hi l e f ur ni t ur e i s c ol l e c t e d f or r e s a l e or r e us e t h r ough t he S ur pl us E qui pm e nt R e c yc l i ng F a c i l i t y ( U B C W a s t e M a na ge m e nt 2007 ) S pe c i a l i t e m s r e c yc l i ng s t a t i ons a r e a l s o di s t r i but e d a c r os s t he c a m pus f or hous e hol d ba t t e r i e s pl a s t i c ba gs a nd s m a l l e w a s t e pr oduc t s ( U B C W a s t e M a na ge m e nt 2007 ) T he s e a nd ot he r i ni t i a t i ve s ha ve l e d t o U B C r e c y c l i ng or c om pos t i ng 46% of i t s w a s t e ( U B C W a s t e M a n a ge m e nt 2004) A nd t o c l os e t he l oop of r e c yc l i ng, U B C ha s i ns t i t ut e d a pol i c y t ha t m i ni m um 30% pos t c ons um e r r e c yc l e d c ont e nt pa p e r be pur c ha s e d ( U B C 2007m ) F i na l l y, t o r e duc e c he m i c a l w a s t e s U B C be ga n us i ng c e r t i f i e d gr e e n c l e a ni ng pr od u c t s i n one bui l di ng i n 2005, t he n e xpa nd e d t he pr ogr a m t o e i ght m or e bui l di ngs i n 2006 ( U B C 2006a ) I n 1989, a gr oup of s t ude nt s t ook on t he t a s k of r e c yc l i ng a t D uke U ni v e r s i t y, be gi nni ng w i t h f our pi c kup l oc a t i on s s e ve n c ol l e c t i on i t e m s a nd one t r uc k ( D uke F a c i l i t i e s M a na ge m e nt 2007) T hi s pr ogr a m ha s gr o w n i nt o one of t he l e a di ng uni ve r s i t y r e c yc l i ng pr og r a m s i n t he na t i on, a s D uke c ol l e c t s 18 di f f e r e nt t ype s of r e c yc l a bl e s a t hundr e ds of l oc a t i ons di ve r t i ng ove r 1250 t ons of w a s t e f r om l a nd f i l l s e a c h ye a r ( D uke F a c i l i t i e s M a na ge m e nt 2 007) M a ny non t r a di t i o na l m a t e r i a l s a r e r e c yc l e d a s w e l l s uc h a s f ood c om pos t m ot or oi l pa l l e t s c oa l a s h a nd t i r e s t hus r e duc i ng w a s t e s t r e a m by a n

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138 a ddi t i ona l 5,000 t ons ( D uke F a c i l i t i e s M a na ge m e n t 2007) D uke h a s a l s o b e gun a R e c ha r g e a bl e B a t t e r y a n d C e l l P hone R e c yc l i ng P r ogr a m ( C a pps 2007b) P u r c h a s e of v i a b l e r e p l a c e m e n t s f or c l e a n i n g pr odu c t s a nd o t h e r c h e m i c a l s i s e n c our a g e d ( D uke 2004) O t he r e xa m pl e s o f D uke s w a s t e m i ni m i z a t i on a nd r e c yc l i ng i nc l ude a c om put e r e xc ha ng e pr ogr a m t ha t dona t e s D uke c om put e r s f or us e i n l oc a l publ i c s c h ool s a nd t he D uke S ur pl us P r ogr a m w hi c h c ol l e c t s s ur pl us f ur n i t ur e a nd of f i c e e qui pm e nt a nd ot he r m a t e r i a l s t he n of f e r s t he s e i t e m s t o ot he r de pa r t m e nt s a nd t o l oc a l non pr o f i t s a t no c ha r ge ( D uke F a c i l i t i e s M a na ge m e nt 2007) D ur i ng t he M ove O ut f or C ha r i t y pr ogr a m a t t he e nd of t he a c a d e m i c ye a r un w a nt e d f ur ni t ur e c l ot he s a nd a ppl i a n c e s a r e c ol l e c t e d f r om t he dor m i t or i e s t o be gi ve n t o c ha r i t a bl e or ga ni z a t i ons ( C a pps 200 7b) R e c yc l i ng be ga n a t P e nn S t a t e i n t he 1970s a s a n i nf or m a l e f f or t e s t a bl i s he d by c onc e r n e d s t ude nt s ; t he f or m a l c a m pus w i de p r og r a m di d not be gi n unt i l 1989. T he c ur r e nt pr og r a m i s e xt e ns i ve a s r e c yc l i ng of s t a nd a r d of f i c e a nd r e s i de nt i a l pr oduc t s m a r k onl y t he be gi nni ng of t he e f f or t C om put e r s ba t t e r i e s f l uor e s c e nt bul bs m ot or oi l c e l l phone s a nd pa l l e t s a r e a c c e pt e d f o r r e c yc l i ng or r e us e a t va r i ous l oc a t i ons a t P e nn S t a t e ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007h ) T he r e c y c l i ng w e bs i t e e s t a bl i s he d by t he O f f i c e of t he P hys i c a l P l a nt a l s o di r e c t s c a m pus us e r s t o of f c a m pus l oc a t i ons w h e r e ot he r m a t e r i a l s i nc l udi ng S t yr of oa m pa c k a gi ng, a r e a c c e pt e d f or r e us e P e nn S t a t e a l s o ha s a s ur pl us out l e t t ha t a c c e pt s i t e m s no l onge r w a nt e d by uni ve r s i t y de pa r t m e n t s a nd s e l l s t he m t o s t ude nt s e m pl oye e s a nd t he g e ne r a l publ i c C om bi ne d, t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s l e d P e nn S t a t e t o r e c yc l e 48 % of i t s t ot a l w a s t e i n 2006 ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2 007h )

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139 L i ke t he ot he r uni ve r s i t i e s r e vi e w e d, H a r v a r d ha s a c a m pus w i d e r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m i n pl a c e f o r c onve nt i ona l r e c yc l a bl e s ( p a pe r pl a s t i c s c a r dboa r d, a nd gl a s s ) E l e c t r oni c w a s t e i nc l udi ng c om put e r s a nd ba t t e r i e s a r e r e c yc l e d, a nd H a r va r d e ns ur e s t ha t r e c y c l e d c om put e r s a r e di s m a nt l e d pr ope r l y a nd not s e nt a br oa d t o na t i ons w i t h l e s s s t r i nge nt w a s t e di s pos a l l a w s ( H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y O p e r a t i o ns S e r vi c e s 2007a ) S ur p l us i t e m s t ha t a r e i n good c ondi t i on a r e dona t e d t o c ha r i t i e s a nd ot he r gr oups T he s e i ni t i a t i ve s l e d H a r va r d t o a n ove r a l l r e c yc l i ng r a t e of 45 % i n 2001 ( H G C I 2007l ) C he m i c a l us e i s r e duc e d vi a a c a m pus w i de gr e e n c l e a ni ng p r ogr a m a nd a n I nt e gr a t e d P e s t M a na ge m e nt pl a n f or bui l di ngs a nd t he l a nds c a p e

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140 T ab l e 7: O ve r vi e w of R e c yc l i n g an d Was t e R e d u c t i on S t r at e gi e s at E i g h t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M R e c y c l i n g o f s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s N o n c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d h a z a r d o u s w a s t e r e c y c l i n g Y e s Y e s Y e s ( E H & S ) Y e s ( E H & S ) E w a s t e r e c y c l i n g Y e s e n s u r e s t h e p r o d u c t s a r e r e c y c l e d n o t s h i p p e d a b r o a d f o r d i s p o s a l Y e s e n s u r e s t h e p r o d u c t s a r e r e c y c l e d n o t s h i p p e d a b r o a d f o r d i s p o s a l Y e s Y e s ( E H & S ) S u r p l u s e x c h a n g e / d o n a t i o n Y e s Y e s Y e s N o L a b C h e m i c a l R e u s e / R e d u c t i o n N o Y e s N o Y e s c r e a t e d G r e e n C h e m i s t r y p r o g r a m G r e e n C l e a n i n g P r o g r a m Y e s c a m p u s w i d e Y e s p i l o t p r o g r a m N o N o D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O R e c y c l i n g o f s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s N o n c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d h a z a r d o u s w a s t e r e c y c l i n g Y e s N o Y e s Y e s E w a s t e r e c y c l i n g Y e s N o Y e s Y e s c o m p u t e r s S u r p l u s e x c h a n g e / d o n a t i o n Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s L a b C h e m i c a l R e u s e / R e d u c t i o n N o Y e s N o Y e s c r e a t e d G r e e n C h e m i s t r y p r o g r a m G r e e n C l e a n i n g P r o g r a m Y e s N o N o Y e s c a m p u s w i d e

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141 M at e r i al s M an age m e n t G oal s : D i ve r t 100% of w a s t e f r o m l a ndf i l l s i nc l udi ng f ood a nd c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e E l i m i na t e t oxi c c he m i c a l c l e a ne r s M i ni m i z e ot h e r c he m i c a l s i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy D ur i ng t he c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt t he O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c onduc t a n a udi t of w a s t e pr odu c t s f r om ope r a t i ons a nd c a m pus l i f e de t e r m i ni ng t he i r s our c e s a nd f a t e s ; f ood a nd c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e s r e vi e w e d i n ot he r s e c t i ons of t hi s s t r a t e gy w i l l be i nc l ude d i n t he a s s e s s m e nt I f not a l r e a dy i n pl a c e t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l i m m e di a t e l y de v e l op a nd i m pl e m e nt a pl a n t o r e c yc l e pa pe r c a r dboa r d, gl a s s pl a s t i c a n d c om m on m e t a l s c a m pus w i de i n o r de r t o a ddr e s s t he L E E D M a t e r i a l s a nd R e s our c e s pr e r e qui s i t e f or S t or a ge & C ol l e c t i on of R e c yc l a bl e s A n i m por t a nt c om pone nt of w a s t e m a n a ge m e nt i s p ur c ha s i ng. T hough t hi s i s di s c us s e d i n m or e de t a i l i n t he P r oc ur e m e nt s e c t i on, w a s t e m a na ge m e nt t e a m s a nd pr o c ur e m e nt t e a m s w i l l w or k c l os e l y t o m i ni m i z e a nd e ve nt ua l l y e l i m i na t e t he pur c ha s e of non r e c yc l a bl e pr odu c t s T he uni ve r s i t y, t hr ough i t s pur c ha s i ng gr oup, w i l l de v e l op r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t pur c ha s e d pr oduc t s be l onge r l a s t i ng, c om pos e d of r e c y c l e d m a t e r i a l s ( t o ge ne r a t e a m a r ke t f or r e c yc l a bl e pr odu c t s ) a nd r e c yc l a bl e or r e us a bl e E duc a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s a bout t he i r pur c ha s e s w a s t e m i ni m i z a t i on a nd r e c y c l i ng w i l l be vi t a l a s w e l l

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142 P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l e s t a bl i s h a goa l t o e l i m i na t e 30% of t ot a l c a m pus w a s t e s by w e i ght f r om l a ndf i l l s ; t hi s goa l ha s be e n m e t a nd e xc e e de d by s e ve r a l o f t he c a m pus e s r e vi e w e d a bove T o a c hi e ve t hi s t he s c hool w i l l c r e a t e a s u r pl us e qui pm e nt di r e c t or y t o of f e r t he s e i t e m s t o ot he r de pa r t m e n t s U nw a nt e d goods w i l l be dona t e d t o l oc a l s c hoo l s or c ha r i t i e s a nd c a m pus hous i ng w i l l de s i gna t e t w o or t hr e e da ys pe r ye a r w he n t h e uni ve r s i t y w i l l c ol l e c t unw a nt e d i t e m s f r om c a m pus r e s i de nt s a nd dona t e t he s e t o c h a r i t i e s a s w e l l C om pos t i ng w i l l be gi n a t t he e nd of t hi s pha s e a n d 50% of a l l c ons t r uc t i on w a s t e w i l l be di ve r t e d f r om l a nd f i l l s a s w e l l T o r e duc e pa p e r w a s t e a l l pr i nt e r s w i l l de f a ul t t o pr i nt doubl e s i de d. T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c oor di na t e w i t h pr oc ur e m e nt pe r s onne l t o e s t a bl i s h a pol i c y t o pur c ha s e pa pe r pr oduc t s w i t h r e c yc l e d c ont e nt C a m pus r e c yc l i ng w i l l e xpa nd t o i nc l ude ba t t e r i e s a nd e w a s t e a s t he s e a r e c om m on pr oduc t s t ha t c ont a i n ha z a r dous a nd t oxi c c om pou nds M uc h l i ke H a r v a r d ha s done t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c ont r a c t e w a s t e r e m ova l onl y w i t h c om pa ni e s t ha t e ns ur e r e c yc l e d e l e c t r oni c e qui pm e nt i s pr ope r l y di s a s s e m bl e d a nd not e xpor t e d t o c ount r i e s w i t h l a x e nvi r onm e nt a l l a w s R e c yc l i ng pl a ns f or c om pa c t f l uor e s c e nt bul bs a nd f i xt ur e s w i l l a l s o be ne c e s s a r y, a s t h e s e w i l l be us e d m or e c om m onl y. G r e e n c l e a ni ng pr odu c t s w i l l be gi n r e pl a c i ng c o nve nt i ona l c he m i c a l c l e a ne r s S e ve r a l m a nuf a c t ur e r s a r e pr odu c i ng t he s e c ur r e nt l y, a nd o r ga ni z a t i ons s uc h a s G r e e n S e a l ha ve e s t a bl i s he d c r i t e r i a t o s c i e nt i f i c a l l y e va l ua t e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s a n d be ne f i t s of va r i ous pr oduc t s i nc l udi ng c l e a ne r s

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143 P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he goa l f or di v e r t i ng c a m pus r e f us e f r om l a ndf i l l s w i l l i nc r e a s e t o 50% o f t ot a l c a m pus w a s t e s by w e i ght T he r e c yc l i ng, r e us e a nd dona t i on pr ogr a m s be gun i n P h a s e s I a nd I I w i l l c ont i nue a nd e xpa nd ; s i m i l a r pr ogr a m s a t t he r e vi e w e d s c hool s ha ve s h ow n i n 40 48% r e duc t i ons i n w a s t e s goi ng t o l a ndf i l l s T he r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m w i l l gr ow t o i nc l ude l e s s c om m on i t e m s i nc l udi ng f l e e t m a i nt e na nc e s uppl i e s ( t i r e s oi l s e t c .) U s i ng O r e gon s G r e e n C he m i s t r y P r ogr a m a s a m ode l t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e pl a c e t h e t oxi c c he m i c a l s i n c l a s s e s w i t h l e s s ha r m f ul or be ni gn s ubs t a nc e s t o t e a c h t he s a m e c onc e pt s a nd t e c hni que s f ound i n t r a di t i ona l c he m i s t r y c our s e s T he ph a s e i n of gr e e n c l e a ni ng pr oduc t s w i l l a l s o c ont i nue P has e s I V a nd V : T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l di ve r t 75% a nd e ve nt ua l l y a l l c a m pus w a s t e s by w e i ght f r om l a ndf i l l s T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr o c ur e m e nt a nd w a s t e m a na g e m e nt w i l l be m os t c r i t i c a l i n t he s e l a t t e r ph a s e s a s r e us e a nd r e c yc l i n g of c onve nt i ona l pr odu c t s ha s i t s l i m i t s P ur c ha s i ng m a t e r i a l s t ha t w i l l br e a k dow n a nd be c om e nut r i e nt s f or t he e nvi r onm e nt or t ha t c a n be r e t ur n e d t o m a nuf a c t ur e r s a t t he e nds of t he i r u s e f ul l i ve s t o be di s a s s e m bl e d a nd r e i n t e gr a t e d i nt o ne w p r oduc t s w i l l be vi t a l t o a c hi e vi ng t he go a l of e l i m i na t i ng w a s t e s t o l a ndf i l l s T he pr oc ur e m e nt of f i c e w i l l r e s e a r c h pr od uc t s f or t he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s A t t he b e gi nni ng of P ha s e V a ba n w i l l be pl a c e d on t he p ur c ha s e o r s a l e of pr oduc t s i nc l udi ng pa c ka gi ng, on c a m pus t ha t c a nnot be r e c yc l e d, c om p os t e d or r e us e d. A l s o, t he c us t odi a l gr oup w i l l pr ohi bi t t he us e of c l e a ni ng pr oduc t s t ha t c ont a i n

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144 c he m i c a l s pr ov e n ha r m f u l t o hum a n he a l t h a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt F i na l l y, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c ont i nuous l y upda t e t he G r e e n C h e m i s t r y pr ogr a m t o m i ni m i z e t he us e of ha r m f ul c he m i c a l s i n t he l a bor a t or y a nd c l a s s r oom A RE A O F F O CUS 9: T RA NS P O RT AT I O N A ut om obi l e s be c a m e t he pr i m a r y s our c e of t r a ns p or t a t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i n t he e a r l y 20 t h C e nt ur y a t t he e xpe n s e of ot he r f or m s of t r a ns i t ( D r e i e r e t a l 2004) U r ba n de ve l opm e nt pa t t e r ns i n t he U .S a r os e i n l a r ge pa r t be c a us e o f A m e r i c a n a t t i t ude s a bout c a r s e s p e c i a l l y t he be l i e f t ha t t he y pr ovi de a d e gr e e of p e r s ona l f r e e dom a nd f l e xi bi l i t y t ha t publ i c t r a ns i t c a nnot ( D r e i e r e t a l 2004) F e de r a l p ol i c y, i nc l udi ng t he I nt e r s t a t e H i ghw a y a nd D e f e ns e A c t ( 1956) pr om ot e d s ubur ba n de ve l opm e nt vi a t he c ons t r uc t i on of hi ghw a ys r i ngi ng a nd r a di a t i ng f r om m a j or c i t i e s f unde d w i t h f e de r a l ga s t a x r e v e nue s ( D r e i e r e t a l 2004) A s pe opl e a nd c om m e r c e m ove d a w a y f r om c e nt r a l c i t i e s e xi s t i ng m a s s t r a ns i t be c a m e a m uc h l ow e r pr i o r i t y f or f un di ng, a nd ne w t r a ns i t pr o j e c t s m a de l i t t l e s e ns e i n c a r dom i na t e d s ubur bi a F l i ght f r om c e nt r a l c i t i e s l e f t t hos e a r e a s poo r e r a nd m a s s t r a ns i t be c a m e i de nt i f i e d w i t h pov e r t y a nd c r i m e a nd w a s s t i gm a t i z e d a s a l ow e r c l a s s a l t e r na t i ve b y s ubur ba n dw e l l e r s T h e s e pol i c i e s a nd a t t i t ude s ha ve l e d t o t he c ur r e nt s i t ua t i on i n w hi c h m os t A m e r i c a n ha v e n o c hoi c e but t o us e t he a u t om obi l e ( D r e i e r e t a l 2004) I r oni c a l l y, a s D r e i e r e t a l ( 2004) poi nt out t he pr om i s e of f r e e dom a nd f l e x i bi l i t y he l d by t he a ut om obi l e of t e n f a d e s due t o t r a f f i c j a m s C ol l e c t i ve l y, A m e r i c a ns s p e nd 8 bi l l i on hour s pe r ye a r i n t r a f f i c a nd t hi s i s i nc r e a s i ng a nn ua l l y ( D r e i e r e t a l 2004) A ut om obi l e

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145 us e a l s o i nhi bi t s t he he a l t h of bot h hum a ns a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt T r a ns por t a t i on a c c ount s f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y 66% o f U .S pe t r ol e um c ons um pt i on, 50% of w hi c h i s us e d f or pe r s ona l ve hi c l e s ( T oor a nd H a vl i c k 2004) V e hi c l e s c ont r i but e 26% of V O C 32% of N O x a nd 60% of c a r bon m onoxi de ( C O ) pol l ut i on t o t he a t m os phe r e l e a di ng t o va r i ous hum a n he a l t h pr obl e m s i nc l udi ng l ung a nd he a r t d i s e a s e ( T oor a nd H a vl i c k 2004) C om bus t i on e ngi ne s pow e r i ng pe r s ona l v e hi c l e s a l s o c ont r i but e s i gni f i c a nt a m ount s of G H G e m i s s i ons A ut om obi l e t r a f f i c a nd p a r ki ng pr obl e m s pl a gue m os t ur ba n a nd s ubur ba n uni ve r s i t y c a m pus e s ( T oo r a nd H a v l i c k 2004) T he r i s e i n t h e num be r s of s t ude nt s w i t h c a r s a t r e nd pa r a l l e l i ng t he U .S a s a w hol e h a s i nc r e a s e d not onl y t r a f f i c a nd p a r ki ng di f f i c ul t i e s but a l s o t he ne ga t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s t o uni ve r s i t y c om m uni t i e s ( T oor a nd H a vl i c k 2004) T h e r e f or e a s T oor a nd H a vl i c k ( 2004) s t a t e A ny uni ve r s i t y t ha t i s a t t e m pt i ng t o m a ke t he t r a ns i t i on t ow a r d s us t a i na b i l i t y m us t c onf r ont t he i s s ue of t r a ns por t a t i on. T he da i l y m ove m e nt of pe opl e ba c k a nd f or t h t o c a m pus i n a ut om obi l e s bur ni ng f os s i l f ue l s i s one of t he l a r g e s t i m pa c t s a t ypi c a l e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i on i m pos e s on t he l i f e s uppor t s ys t e m s of t he pl a ne t . R e c ogni z i ng t he m a gni t ude of t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s f or w hi c h t r a ns po r t a t i on i s r e s pons i bl e m a ny uni ve r s i t i e s ha ve t a ke n s t e ps t o r e duc e t h e s e i m pa c t s D uke s c a m pus f l e e t c ont a i ns 35 a l t e r na t i ve f ue l ve hi c l e s i nc l udi ng ga s e l e c t r i c hybr i d, c o m pr e s s e d na t ur a l ga s a n d e l e c t r i c ve hi c l e s ( C a pps 2007b) I n 2004, t he c a m pus s hut t l e bus e s

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146 be ga n us i ng bi odi e s e l f ue l s a s w e l l T he s e s hut t l e s m ove s t ude nt s w i t hi n a nd be t w e e n t he D uke c a m pus e s C a r pool i ng i s e nc our a g e d vi a a pa r ki ng pe r m i t f e e r e duc t i on. V a npool s a r e s i m i l a r l y s uppor t e d; r e s e r ve d, f r e e pa r ki ng i s of f e r e d t o gr ou ps of s e ve n or m or e c om m ut e r s w ho l i ve ne a r one a not he r a nd r i de t oge t he r D uk e w or ks w i t h t he l oc a l t r a ns i t a ut hor i t y, w hi c h pr ovi de s t he va n a nd pa ys f or f u e l i ns ur a nc e a nd m a i nt e na n c e ; va np ool m e m be r s i n t ur n pa y a l ow m ont hl y f a r e b a s e d on t he m i l e a ge ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 200 7d) E m e r ge nc y R i de H om e s e r vi c e s a r e p r ovi de d t o a s s i s t t hos e us i ng t he s e a nd ot he r f or m s of a l t e r na t e t r a ns por t a t i o n. B i c yc l i ng i s a l s o e nc our a ge d a t D uke S e v e r a l bui l di ngs c ont a i n s how e r f a c i l i t i e s a nd t he uni ve r s i t y i s c r e a t i ng a c a m pus m a p of bi k e r a c ks a nd s t or a g e a s w e l l a s s how e r s ( D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2007d) F ur t he r t hos e w ho r e l y pr i m a r i l y on bi c yc l e s c a n a c qui r e s i ngl e da y pa r ki ng pe r m i t s f or e m e r g e nc i e s i nc l e m e nt w e a t he r o r ot he r t i m e s a c a r m a y be ne c e s s a r y ( D uke U ni v e r s i t y 2007d) F i na l l y, D uke ha s e s t a bl i s he d a D uke B i ke s pi l ot pr ogr a m f or l oa ni ng bi c yc l e s t o c a m pus us e r s ( C a pps 2007b) U C F ha s m a de s e ve r a l o pt i ons f or t r a ns por t a t i on ot he r t ha n pe r s on a l a ut o m o bi l e s a va i l a bl e t o s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s B i c yc l i ng i s e nc our a g e d a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt C om m i t t e e ha s a T r a ns po r t a t i on S ubc om m i t t e e t o f oc us on de ve l opi ng m or e bi c yc l e p a t hs on c a m pus a nd i n t he s ur r ound i ng c om m uni t y A f r e e s hut t l e s ys t e m s e r ve s of f c a m pus s t ude n t r e s i de nt i a l c om pl e xe s w i t hi n one m i l e of t he c a m pus a l l ow i ng

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147 s t ude nt s t o a voi d dr i vi ng; ove r 11,000 s t ude nt s us e t he s hut t l e da i l y ( M e r c k 2007) T he s hut t l e s ys t e m a l s o s e r ve s s t ude nt s t r a ve l i ng w i t hi n t he c a m pus U C F l i ke m a ny ot he r s c hool s ha s w or ke d w i t h t he l oc a l t r a ns i t a ge n c y t o pr ovi de c onve ni e nt r ou t e s a nd di s c ount e d r a t e s f o r s t ude nt s t o us e t he publ i c bus s ys t e m U C F i s a l s o e xpe r i m e nt i ng w i t h a l t e r na t i ve f u e l ve hi c l e s i n i t s c a m pus f l e e t T he C e nt e r f or E ne r gy a nd S us t a i na b i l i t y ha s m odi f i e d a c onve nt i ona l ga s e l e c t r i c hybr i d ve hi c l e t o be c om e F l or i da s f i r s t pl ug i n hybr i d ( D e l l e r t 200 7) F ur t he r i n J a nua r y 2 007 U C F be ga n t e s t i ng di f f e r e nt a p pl i c a t i ons f or bi odi e s e l i n f l e e t ve hi c l e s t o d e t e r m i ne w hi c h m i ght be m o s t s ui t a bl e f or t hi s f ue l ; pot e nt i a l l y, l a nds c a pe m a i nt e n a nc e e qu i pm e nt a nd t he c a m pus s hut t l e s m a y r un on t hi s f ue l ( U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 2007e ) U F ha s pr om ot e d a l t e r na t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on i n a va r i e t y of w a ys F i r s t U F ha s c ol l a b or a t e d w i t h t he l oc a l m uni c i pa l gove r nm e nt t o of f e r f r e e bus pa s s e s t o a l l s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f a nd s e v e r a l of t he bus e s ha ve bi c yc l e r a c ks T he f r e e b us pa s s e s w e r e f i r s t di s t r i but e d i n 1998, a ye a r i n w hi c h l e s s t ha n a m i l l i on r i de r s us e d t he s y s t e m B y 2006, r i de r s hi p ha d gr ow n t o 8.6 m i l l i on, a nd F l or i da s t ude nt s c om pr i s e 75 % of t he r i de r s ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007i ) T o f ur t he r f a c i l i t a t e c yc l i ng a s a t r a ns p or t a t i on opt i on, U F ha s c r e a t e d bi c yc l e l a n e s on m a j or r oa ds a nd ha s pr ovi de d bi ke r a c ks a c r os s t he c a m pus ; m or e bi ke w a ys a nd ot he r c yc l i ng i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a r e pl a nne d. A l s o, t he S t ude nt G ove r nm e nt ha s e s t a bl i s he d a f r e e bi c y c l e r e pa i r pr og r a m on t he c a m pus C a r pool i ng i s pr om ot e d a nd m e m be r s a r e of f e r e d r e duc e d p a r ki ng pe r m i t f e e s a nd

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148 pr e f e r r e d p a r ki ng s pa c e s A pr ogr a m c a l l e d U F G r e e nr i d e t ha t a s s i s t s c a r p ool e r s i n l oc a t i ng ot he r pot e nt i a l c a r pool m e m be r s ha s m a d e gr e a t s t r i de s i n e l i m i na t i ng t he ne e d f or s i ngl e oc c up a nc y v e h i c l e t r a ve l t o, f r om a nd a r ound c a m pus ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007i ) U F ha s pa r t ne r e d w i t h F l e xc a r t o o f f e r a c a r s h a r i ng pr ogr a m t o c a m pus us e r s H ybr i d a nd ot he r l ow e m i s s i ons ve hi c l e s a r e a v a i l a bl e f or hour l y or da i l y r e nt a l a n d t he c om pa ny pr ovi de s a l l i ns ur a nc e m a i nt e na nc e a nd f ue l c os t s ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007i ) T he uni ve r s i t y f l e e t i s a l s o gr ow i ng t o be m or e s us t a i na bl e a s m or e hybr i ds a nd f l e x f u e l ve hi c l e s a r e b e i ng pur c ha s e d t o r e pl a c e a gi ng c onve nt i ona l ve hi c l e s U F ha s e s t a bl i s he d E 85 e t ha nol a nd bi odi e s e l r e f u e l i ng s t a t i ons f or f l e e t ve hi c l e s a n d i s c onduc t i ng a pi l ot s t udy on t he us e of bi odi e s e l i n i t s f l e e t t r uc ks a nd l a nds c a pe e qui pm e nt ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007f ) T o r e duc e r e l i a n c e on a ut om obi l e s f or s t ude nt a nd e m pl oye e t r a ns por t a t i on, P e nn S t a t e pr ovi de s s e ve r a l a l t e r n a t e t r a ns por t a t i on opt i ons F i r s t dr i vi ng i s di s c our a ge d t hr ough hi gh pa r ki ng pe r m i t f e e s ( $145 $325 pe r s e m e s t e r ) a nd a l i m i t e d num be r o f pa r ki ng s pa c e s ( P e nn S t a t e T r a ns por t a t i on S e r vi c e s 2007 ) T o e nc our a ge bus r i de r s hi p, a n a gr e e m e nt w i t h t he l oc a l t r a ns i t a ut hor i t y a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o r i de w i t hout pa yi ng f a r e s on m os t r out e s a nd a l l e m pl oye e s a r e e l i gi bl e t o pur c ha s e a r e duc e d f e e pa s s T he uni ve r s i t y ha s a l s o w or ke d w i t h t he l oc a l a ut hor i t y t o c r e a t e c a r pool s a nd va npool s w i t h a n a c c om pa nyi ng gua r a n t e e d r i de hom e p r ogr a m O n c a m pus a f r e e s hut t l e s e r vi c e i s a va i l a bl e f o r s t ude nt s e m pl oye e s a nd vi s i t or s A l t e r na t i ve l y, pe de s t r i a n a c c e s s ha s b e e n

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149 i m pr ove d vi a t he c a m pus m a s t e r pl a n pr oc e s s a nd by w or ki ng w i t h l oc a l m uni c i pa l g ove r nm e nt t o i m pr ove p e de s t r i a n c r os s i ngs ; f ut ur e pl a ns c a l l f o r m or e r o a ds t o be c l os e d on c a m pus f or i nc r e a s e d pe de s t r i a n a c c e s s ( S E I 2 007, P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007i ) C yc l i ng i s pr om ot e d t hr ough t he c ons t r uc t i on of s e ve r a l p a t hs i n a nd a r oun d t he c a m pus c om m uni t y a nd m or e a r e pl a nne d; c a m pus s hut t l e s a nd r e gi ona l bus e s h a ve bi c yc l e r a c ks a s w e l l F l e e t S e r vi c e s p r ovi de s ve hi c l e s f o r f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f bus i ne s s t r i ps i nc l udi ng hybr i d S U V s A nd, t he O f f i c e o f t he P hys i c a l P l a nt i s s w i t c hi ng i t s f l e e t ve hi c l e s t o a l t e r na t i ve f u e l s U B C ha s e s t a b l i s h e d a g o a l t o r e du c e t h e nu m b e r o f s i n g l e o c c u p a n t ve h i c l e ( S O V ) t r i p s b y 30 % of 1997 l e v e l s by 2 010 ( U B C T r e k 2007) T o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l U B C p r om o t e s s e v e r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i on o p t i on s F i r s t U B C e n c o ur a g e s b i c yc l e a nd p e d e s t r i a n t r a n s p o r t a t i on v i a t he pl a nn i n g p r oc e s s b y i n c or p o r a t i n g l i n k s f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t t o s i d e w a l k s a nd b i k e p a t h s ( U B C L a nd a nd B ui l di ng S e r vi c e s 2001) T he s e l i n k s a r e f ur t he r c onn e c t e d t o bu s r ou t e s t ha t a r e on or n e a r t he c a m p u s T o f a c i l i t a t e us e of bu s e s a nd o t he r p u b l i c t r a n s i t U B C ha s a l s o w or ke d w i t h l o c a l of f i c i a l s t o c r e a t e t he U P a s s p r o g r a m t h a t of f e r s un l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o bu s f e r r y a nd l i g h t r a i l s e r v i c e s t hr ou g h ou t V a n c ouv e r T h ou g h a m on t hl y $22.00 f e e i s a s s e s s e d a s p a r t of t ui t i on a n d f e e s s t u de n t s h a v e vo t e d i n f a vor of r e f e r e nd a i n s t i t u t i n g t h i s f e e t w i c e ( U B C U P a s s 20 07 ) T he s e i n i t i a t i v e s a l on g w i t h h i g h p a r k i n g pe r m i t f e e s ( be g i n n i n g a t $84.00 p e r m o n t h ) d i s c our a g e dr i v i n g o n c a m p u s ( U B C P a r k i n g 2 007 a ) F u r t he r on l y 9,268 s p a c e s ( r e du c e d f r o m

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150 14,000 i n 1980) a r e a v a i l a b l e f or ov e r 43,000 s t u d e n t s ( U B C P a r k i n g 2 007 b) A s m or e on c a m p u s r e s i d e n c e s a r e c r e a t e d, s uc h a s U n i v e r s i t y T o w n f e w e r e m pl o y e e s a nd s t u de n t s w i l l n e e d t o c o m m u t e t o t he s c hoo l P r i m a r i l y due t o t he i m pl e m e n t a t i on of t he U P a s s p r o g r a m a nd t he h i g h e r p a r k i n g f e e s t r a n s i t r i d e r s h i p h a s i n c r e a s e d 163% s i n c e 1997 ( U B C C a m pus a nd C om m u ni t y P l a nni ng 2007c ) A nd a l t hou g h e n r o l l m e n t une x pe c t e d l y j u m pe d 22% i n t he e a r l y p a r t o f t hi s d e c a d e ov e r a l l S O V t r i p s h a v e b e e n r e du c e d b y 4. 8% ( U B C C a m pus a nd C om m uni t y P l a nni ng 2007c ) O t he r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o S O V t r i p s of f e r e d b y U B C i n c l u d e c a r p o o l i n g a nd v a n p o o l i n g a c a r s h a r i n g p r o g r a m a nd a n e m e r g e n c y r i d e ho m e pl a n. A f i n a l e f f or t t o r e du c e t h e e nv i r on m e n t a l i m pa c t s of c a m p u s t r a n s p o r t a t i on a t U B C i s t he i n c or p o r a t i on of b i od i e s e l f u e l t o p o w e r t he v e h i c l e s of t he m a i n t e na n c e d e pa r t m e n t f l e e t ( U B C 2006 a ) A t t he U O 73% of s t ude nt s l i ve of f c a m pus O f t he s e 22% us e bus e s 15 % bi ke 22% w a l k, 6% c a r pool a nd 4 % ge t t o a nd a r ound c a m pus us i ng ot he r m e a ns ; onl y 31% dr i ve a l one ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F a c ul t y a nd s t a f f s how a m or e c a r d om i na nt pa t t e r n, w i t h 60% of t he m dr i vi ng a l o ne a nd 7% c a r pool i ng ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T e n pe r c e nt of e m pl oye e s us e t he bus s y s t e m 13% bi c yc l e 6% w a l k, a nd 4% us e ot he r m e a ns ( M i t a l e t a l 2007)

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151 T o a c hi e ve t h e r e l a t i ve l y l ow num be r s of c a m pus us e r s dr i vi ng a l one t o c a m pus U O ha s i ns t i t ut e d s e ve r a l pr ogr a m s t o f a c i l i t a t e a nd pr om ot e a l t e r na t i ve t r a ns po r t a t i on. B i c yc l i ng w a s e nha n c e d a s a n opt i on w he n t he uni ve r s i t y s pe nt ove r $400,000 t o c r e a t e a c y c l i ng i nf r a s t r uc t ur e by 1996 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) O ve r 4 ,000 bi c yc l e pa r ki ng s p a c e s a r e a va i l a bl e on c a m pus or a ppr oxi m a t e l y one f or e ve r y s i x c a m pus us e r s ( f a c u l t y, s t a f f a nd s t ude nt s ) ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A l t e r na t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on i s f ur t h e r e nc ou r a g e d by t he e xt r e m e l y l ow r a t i o of a u t om obi l e pa r ki ng s pa c e s t o c a m pus us e r s ; a t one s pa c e p e r e i ght dr i ve r s t hi s i s one of t he l ow e s t r a t i os of uni ve r s i t i e s i n t he U S ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he uni ve r s i t y a l s o pr ovi de s i nc e nt i ve s f or c a r poo l i ng a nd publ i c t r a ns por t a t i on B y w or ki ng w i t h t he l oc a l t r a ns i t s ys t e m s e ve r a l pa r k a nd r i de l o c a t i ons ha ve be e n e s t a bl i s he d a r ound E ug e ne t he hom e of t he uni ve r s i t y, t o r e duc e a ut o t r a f f i c t o a nd f r om t he c a m pus ( M i t a l e t a l 2 007) S i nc e 1988 a por t i on of s t ude nt f e e s h a ve b e e n us e d t o pr ovi de f r e e bus pa s s e s f or t he uni ve r s i t y popul a t i on ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) S hut t l e s e r vi c e s t o bus s t ops a nd a G ua r a nt e e d R i de H o m e s e r vi c e f or f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f w ho r i de t he bus t o c a m pus a r e a l s o pr ovi de d ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) C a r p ool i ng i s e nc our a ge d t hr o ugh r e duc e d r a t e s f or p a r ki ng pe r m i t s a s w e l l a s pr e f e r e nt i a l pa r ki ng a r e a s ( M i t a l e t a l 2 007) F i na l l y, t he uni ve r s i t y s F a c i l i t i e s S e r vi c e s gr oup h a s pur c ha s e d a n e l e c t r i c t r u c k f o r i t s r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m H a r va r d ha s e s t a bl i s he d i nc e nt i ve s f or c a r pool s a n d va npool s a s w a ys t o e n c our a ge e m pl oye e s t o us e a l t e r n a t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on. C a r po ol m e m be r s a r e gi v e n a 5 0% pa r ki ng pe r m i t di s c ount f or a t w o pe r s on c a r pool 75% f o r t hr e e or m or e ( H a r va r d C om m ut e r

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152 C hoi c e P r ogr a m 2007) M e m be r s a r e a l s o a ut om a t i c a l l y e nr ol l e d i n t he E m e r ge nc y R i de H om e P r ogr a m S i m i l a r i nc e nt i ve s a r e pr ovi de d f or va npool s A pr e f e r r e d pa r ki ng pr og r a m f or l ow e m i s s i ons a nd f ue l e f f i c i e nt ve hi c l e s i s i n a pr e l i m i na r y s t a ge a t t he H a r va r d B us i ne s s S c hool I f a pe r m i t hol de r dr i ve s a ve hi c l e m e e t i ng E P A S m a r t W a y E l i t e c e r t i f i c a t i on c r i t e r i a t he pe r m i t t e e i s e l i gi bl e t o pa r k i n pr e f e r r e d s p a c e s s i m i l a r t o t he c a r pool s pa c e s ( H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y O p e r a t i o ns S e r vi c e s 2007b) T o di s c our a g e d r i vi ng t o c a m pus pe r m i t f e e s a r e e xt r e m e l y hi gh, be gi nni ng a t $880 a nnua l l y f or c om m ut e r s a nd $1710 f or c a m p us r e s i de nt s C yc l i ng i s pr om ot e d a s a n opt i on t hr ough a de pa r t m e nt a l bi c yc l e pur c ha s e t o a c qui r e bi ke s f or e m pl oye e s t o us e on c a m pus S e ve r a l bi c yc l e r a c ks a r e l oc a t e d a r o und t he c a m pus a nd a non pr of i t s t ude nt r un gr oup c a l l e d Q ua d B i ke s pr ovi de s bi c yc l e r e pa i r s e r vi c e s a nd us e d bi ke s f or s a l e on t he c a m pus B e yond bi c yc l e s a c a r s ha r i ng pr ogr a m w i t h Z i pC a r ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d, a nd a b i odi e s e l f ue l e d s hut t l e s ys t e m m ove s s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s a r ound t h e c a m pus B i odi e s e l ha s be e n us e d t o pow e r a l l di e s e l ve hi c l e s i n H a r va r d s f l e e t s i nc e 2 004. M os t of t he U C M e r c e d c a m pus r e m a i ns unde v e l ope d, but t r a ns por t a t i on ha s be e n i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he c a m pus de ve l opm e nt pl a n. F i r s t t he pl a n i nc l ude s pr ovi s i ons t ha t t he a c a d e m i c c or e a r e a w i l l be a c c e s s i bl e w i t hi n a t e n m i nut e w a l k f r om a n y poi nt on t he m a i n c a m pus ( U C M e r c e d 2007k ) A f r e e c a m pus t r a ns i t s e r vi c e ( s hut t l e ) a nd bus s e r vi c e a dd a c c e s s i bi l i t y t o c a m pus a nd l i nks t o l oc a l l i ght r a i l a s w e l l A n e xt e ns i ve

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153 s ys t e m of bi c yc l e pa t hs i s pl a nne d, a nd s om e ha v e be e n bui l t dur i ng t he f i r s t pha s e of c a m pus c ons t r uc t i on ( U C M e r c e d 2007k ) D e v e l o pm e nt of a bi c yc l e f r i e nd l y c om m uni t y a dj a c e nt t o c a m pus i s a l s o be i ng c ons i de r e d ( U C M e r c e d 2007k ) T ab l e 8: A l t e r n at i ve T r an s p or t at i on S t r at e gi e s at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M C a m p u s s h u t t l e Y e s N o m u n i c i p a l b u s e s s e r v e m o s t o f c a m p u s N o l o c a l b u s l i n e s e r v e s a s s h u t t l e Y e s C a r p o o l i n c e n t i v e s Y e s p a r k i n g f e e r e d u c t i o n N o Y e s r e d u c e d p a r k i n g p e r m i t f e e p r e f e r e n t i a l p a r k i n g Y e s p a r k i n g f e e r e d u c t i o n I m p r o v e d b i k e / p e d e s t r i a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s R e d u c e d f e e t o u s e l o c a l t r a n s i t N o Y e s Y e s N o C a r S h a r i n g P r o g r a m Y e s Y e s Y e s N o H i g h p a r k i n g f e e s / r e d u c e d s p a c e s Y e s h i g h f e e s Y e s h i g h f e e s a n d f e w s p a c e s N o N o A l t e r n a t i v e f u e l v e h i c l e s f o r f l e e t Y e s Y e s Y e s N o D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O C a m p u s s h u t t l e Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s C a r p o o l i n c e n t i v e s Y e s p a r k i n g f e e r e d u c t i o n N o N o p r o m o t e d Y e s r e d u c e d p a r k i n g p e r m i t f e e p r e f e r e n t i a l p a r k i n g I m p r o v e d b i k e / p e d e s t r i a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e Y e s P l a n n i n g Y e s Y e s R e d u c e d f e e t o u s e l o c a l t r a n s i t N o Y e s Y e s Y e s C a r S h a r i n g P r o g r a m N o N o N o N o H i g h p a r k i n g f e e s / r e d u c e d s p a c e s N o N o Y e s h i g h f e e s Y e s f e w s p a c e s A l t e r n a t i v e f u e l v e h i c l e s f o r f l e e t Y e s Y e s p i l o t Y e s Y e s p i l o t

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154 T r an s p or t at i on G oal s : T hough t he ul t i m a t e goa l of a ny r e g e ne r a t i ve c a m pus i s t o e l i m i na t e a l l t r a ns por t a t i on ba s e d on f os s i l f ue l s t hi s i s unl i ke l y i n t he 30 ye a r t i m e pe r i od di s c us s e d i n t hi s s t r a t e gy. A s i de f r om t he t e c hnol ogi c a l c ha l l e nge s t h e uni ve r s i t y c a nnot c ont r ol a l l e l e m e nt s of t he t r a ns por t a t i on opt i ons a va i l a bl e t o c a m pus us e r s a nd t he r e f o r e c a nnot be e x pe c t e d t o e l i m i na t e unde s i r a bl e opt i ons a l one I f t he s e a r e t o be e l i m i na t e d, c ons um e r s pr i va t e bus i ne s s a nd gove r nm e nt m us t be i nvol ve d i n de m a ndi ng, i m pl e m e nt i ng a nd us i ng t r a ns por t a t i on ba s e d on a l t e r na t i ve f ue l s T h e r e f or e t hi s w i l l r e m a i n a goa l t o r e a c h be yond t he 30 ye a r t i m e f r a m e I ns t e a d, t o de c r e a s e t r a f f i c a nd pa r ki ng p r obl e m s t hi s s t r a t e gy c a l l s f or a r e duc t i on of S O V t r i ps or i gi na t i ng or e ndi ng a t t he uni ve r s i t y b y 75% F ur t he r t he e nt i r e uni ve r s i t y f l e e t i nc l udi ng s uppor t ve hi c l e s ( s hut t l e s c a r t s l a nds c a pe e qui pm e nt e t c .) w i l l be pow e r e d by a l t e r na t i ve f ue l s t ha t a r e not f os s i l f u e l ba s e d. P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l c onduc t a c om pr e he ns i ve r e vi e w of c a m pu s t r a ns por t a t i on e l e m e nt s I nc l ude d i n t he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l be a de t e r m i na t i o n of t he pr i m a r y t r a ns por t a t i on us e d by m e m be r s of t h e c a m pus c om m uni t y, t he nu m be r of da i l y S O V t r i ps t o a nd f r om c a m pus t he f r e que n c y of u s e of a l t e r n a t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on ( c yc l i ng, w a l ki ng, m a s s t r a ns i t c a r pool i ng, e t c ) t he i nf r a s t r u c t ur e of t h e c a m pus f or pe de s t r i a ns a nd c yc l i s t s a nd pa r ki ng f a c i l i t i e s T he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l a l s o e va l ua t e on

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155 c a m pus a nd ne a r c a m pus hous i ng a va i l a bl e f or s t u de nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f a s w e l l a s pr ogr a m s f or a l t e r na t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on i ns t i t ut e d by s ur r oundi ng m uni c i pa l i t i e s P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: I n t hi s pha s e t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l de ve l op a pl a n t o m e e t t he r e g e ne r a t i ve go a l s s t a t e d a bove a nd b e gi n i m pl e m e nt a t i on by t he e nd of P h a s e I I T h e U ni ve r s i t y of C ol or a do c r e a t e d a hi e r a r c hy of pr i or i t i e s i n i t s t r a ns por t a t i on pl a n; pe de s t r i a n t r a v e l r a nke d f i r s t f ol l ow e d by bi c yc l e bus e s ( a nd ot he r t r a ns i t ) a nd a ut om obi l e s ( T oor a nd H a vl i c k 2004) A ny c om pr e h e ns i ve t r a ns por t a t i on pl a n pr oduc e d f or t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l pr i or i t i z e t r a ns por t a t i on opt i ons i n a s i m i l a r m a nne r S ugge s t e d t a c t i c s a nd a c hr onol ogy f or i m pl e m e nt a t i on f ol l ow : I n P ha s e I I t he s c hool w i l l s e c ur e f undi ng t o be gi n or e xpa nd pr og r a m s t o b e i m pl e m e nt e d i n t he t r a ns por t a t i on pl a n. T he goa l f or P ha s e I I i s t o r e duc e S O V s by 25% f r om t he ba s e l i ne l e v e l d e t e r m i ne d i n t he t r a ns po r t a t i on a udi t c onduc t e d i n P ha s e I O ne pr ogr a m t ha t l e a ds t o s i g ni f i c a nt r e du c t i ons i n dr i vi ng t o c a m pus i s a uni ve r s i t y s hut t l e s ys t e m t ha t s e r ve s t he c a m pus a nd ne a r by o f f c a m pus hous i ng. O t he r f un di ng w i l l be us e d t o pr ovi de f i na n c i a l i nc e nt i ve s t o di s c our a ge s t ud e nt s f r om dr i vi ng a n d t o i m pr ove pe de s t r i a n a nd bi k e i nf r a s t r uc t ur e I n c e nt i ve s not t o dr i ve c oul d i nc l ude of f e r i ng t ui t i on or f e e r e du c t i ons a nd r e c e i vi ng pr e f e r e nc e i n c our s e r e gi s t r a t i on or dor m a s s i gnm e nt s T he c a m pus w i l l m a ke p e de s t r i a n c r os s w a l ks m or e vi s i bl e t hr ough s i gna ge a nd l i ght i ng; e l e va t i ng t he m f or vi s i bi l i t y a nd t o a c t a s t r a f f i c c a l m i ng de vi c e s i s a not he r opt i on.

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156 P ot e nt i a l s our c e s of f und i ng f or t he s e pr og r a m s i nc l ude i nc r e a s e d p a r ki ng pe r m i t f e e s a n d t r a f f i c vi ol a t i on f i ne s T he s e ha ve t h e a dde d e f f e c t of de c r e a s i ng t he num be r s of dr i ve r s t o c a m pus a nd t he r e f or e r e duc i ng t he ne e d t o a dd pa r ki ng. A s T oor a nd H a vl i c k ( 2004) r e por t t ha t t he c a pi t a l c os t s t o bui l d s t r uc t ur e d pa r ki ng a r e $15 30,000 p e r ne t ne w s pa c e t hi s m a ke s f i na nc i a l s e ns e f or t he uni ve r s i t y. T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l a l s o c r e a t e a nd i m pr ove bi ke l a ne s on c a m pus pr op e r t y a nd c oor di na t e w i t h t he l oc a l m uni c i pa l i t y t o pe r f or m s i m i l a r t a s ks on r oa ds t ha t s e r ve t he s c hool A bi ke l oa n pr og r a m f or t he c a m pus s i m i l a r t o t he one f ound a t D u ke ( a bove ) w i l l be gi n, a nd t he uni ve r s i t y c oul d w or k w i t h c yc l i ng c l ubs t o of f e r a bi c y c l e r e p a i r a nd m a i nt e na nc e f a c i l i t y i n t he s t ude nt uni on or ot he r c om m on a r e a T o a c hi e v e a L E E D c r e di t t he s c hool w i l l i ns t a l l bi c yc l e r a c ks a t a l l b ui l di ngs a nd de s i gn s how e r a nd c ha ngi ng f a c i l i t i e s i n ne w bui l di ngs T o f ur t he r r e duc e bot h s t r a i ns on pa r ki ng a nd c a m pus t r a f f i c a pol i c y t ha t no f r e s hm e n m a y ha ve c a r s on c a m pu s w i l l be e na c t e d. T hi s h a s be e n i m pl e m e nt e d a t s c hool s i nc l udi ng T ul a ne U ni ve r s i t y, P ur due U ni ve r s i t y, a nd U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or n i a D a vi s a nd s e ve r a l ot he r s ha ve r e s t r i c t i ons on f r e s hm a n a ut o m obi l e s on c a m pus ; t he C a l i f or ni a D a vi s pol i c y r e s ul t e d i n 600 s pa c e s be i ng op e ne d ( T oo r a nd H a vl i c k 2004) T o p r ovi de a not he r i nc e nt i ve f or a l t e r na t e t r a ns por t a t i on, t o r e duc e p a r ki ng a nd t r a f f i c pr e s s ur e s a nd t o m e e t a not he r L E E D c r e di t t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l of f e r pr e f e r r e d p a r ki ng f o r hybr i ds a nd a l t e r na t i ve f u e l ve hi c l e s c a r pool s a nd v a npool s F ur t he r i t w i l l of f e r di s c ount e d pa r ki ng pe r m i t s f or c a r pool m e m be r s

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157 I nc r e a s i ng t he num be r s o f s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s l i vi ng on a nd i n c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o c a m pus f a c i l i t a t e s t he i r u s e of a l t e r n a t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on, pa r t i c ul a r l y w a l ki ng, c yc l i ng a nd c a m pus s hut t l e s ( T oor a n d H a vl i c k 2004) M os t s t ude nt s w ho r e s i de on c a m pus do not us e t he i r c a r s da i l y; r a t he r t he y s t or e t he m f or w e e ke nd t r i ps a nd oc c a s i ona l e r r a nds ( T oor a nd H a vl i c k 2004) T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd uni ve r s i t y pl a nne r s w i l l de ve l op pl a ns t o i nc r e a s e t h e num be r s o f dor m s on c a m pus F ur t he r by t he be gi nni ng of P ha s e I I I a l l f i r s t ye a r s t ude nt s w i l l be r e qui r e d l i ve on c a m pus T he s e t a c t i c s w i l l not o nl y r e duc e t he num be r s of a ut om obi l e t r i ps or i gi na t i ng or e ndi ng a t t he s c hool t he y w i l l a l s o bui l d a s t r onge r m or e c ol l e gi a l a t m os phe r e A l s o, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c oor di na t e w i t h a nd e nc our a g e l oc a l d e ve l ope r s a nd m uni c i pa l i t i e s t o bui l d s t ude nt or i e nt e d hous i ng a nd a f f i l i a t e d r e t a i l a nd r e c r e a t i on f a c i l i t i e s ne a r c a m p us B y t he e nd of P ha s e I V t he c a m pus i s f or e s e e n a s t he c e nt e r of t he uni ve r s i t y c om m uni t y, a nd t he ne e ds of a l l r e s i de nt s w i l l be m e t w i t hi n a m i l e of t he c a m pus pe r t he r e c om m e nda t i on of N e w U r ba ni s t phi l os ophy. C oor di na t i on w i t h t he l oc a l t r a ns i t a ge n c y t o c r e a t e a pr ogr a m t o pr ovi de f r e e or r e duc e d f a r e a c c e s s t o publ i c t r a n s i t f or s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f ha s b e e n s uc c e s s f ul a t s e ve r a l s c hool s i nc l udi ng U F a nd U B C a nd a ny c om pr e h e ns i ve t r a ns por t a t i on pl a n w i l l i nc or por a t e t hi s i de a C o ns t r uc t i on of bus s t ops w i t hi n m i l e of c a m pus bui l di ngs w i l l oc c ur t o m e e t t he r e qui r e m e nt s w i t hi n t he L E E D P ubl i c T r a ns por t a t i on A c c e s s c r e di t A c a m pus s hut t l e bus s ys t e m m a y be us e d t o c onne c t t o publ i c bus s t a t i ons f o r t hi s c r e di t a s l ong a s t he s t ops f or t he c a m pus s ys t e m m e e t t he m i l e l oc a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s a s a b ove T he pr ogr a m c oul d be f u nde d t hr ough s t ude nt a c t i vi t y f e e s a nd s a vi ngs ge n e r a t e d by not

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158 ha vi ng t o c ons t r uc t pa r ki ng l ot s I f t he l oc a l t r a ns i t s ys t e m i nc l ude s l i ght r a i l t he l oc a l t r a ns i t c oor di na t i on w i l l i nc l ude a c c e s s t o i t a s w e l l F ur t he r i f a r a i l s t op i s not l oc a t e d a t or ne a r t he s c hool t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l l obby f or one t o be bui l t I f l i ght r a i l i s not a va i l a bl e i n t he a r e a t h e s c hool w i l l e nc our a g e i t s c ons t r uc t i on i f t he popul a t i on ba s e of t he c om m uni t y out s i de of t he uni ve r s i t y i s l a r ge e nough t o s uppor t one A not he r pr ogr a m t ha t c a n e a s i l y be i m pl e m e nt e d w i t hi n P ha s e I I i s c a r s ha r i ng. A s not e d a bove m a ny s t ude nt s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e l i vi ng on c a m pus us e t he i r c a r s s p or a di c a l l y. D ue t o t he hi gh f i na nc i a l c os t s a nd t he s c a r c i t y o f l a nd f or pa r ki ng f a c i l i t i e s a c a r s ha r i ng pr ogr a m w oul d l i ke l y be l e s s e xpe ns i ve not onl y f or dr i ve r s but a l s o f o r un i ve r s i t i e s P r i va t e c om pa ni e s pr ovi d e ve hi c l e s on a n hou r l y o r da i l y ba s i s t o c us t om e r s w ho pa y a nom i na l m e m be r s hi p f e e a nd a f i xe d r a t e f or t he us e of t he c a r T he uni ve r s i t y ha s no f i na nc i a l obl i ga t i on t o t he c om pa ny; i t m e r e l y m a r ke t s t he opt i on t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y a nd pr ovi de s pa r ki ng s pa c e s f or t he s e c a r s on c a m pus ( Z i pc a r 2 008 ) A ke y t o a ny a l t e r n a t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on e f f o r t i s ho w i t i s m a r ke t e d t o t he e n d us e r s T oor a nd H a vl i c k ( 2004 ) r e l a t e a s t udy t ha t obs e r ve d a 6 14% r e du c t i on i n a ut om obi l e dr i vi ng a s a r e s ul t of s t r ong m a r k e t i ng t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y. T he r e f or e f undi ng s houl d be a l l ot t e d f or m a r ke t i ng c a m pa i gns t o e duc a t e s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s a bout t r a ns por t a t i on opt i ons c os t s of dr i vi ng, a nd be ne f i t s of a l t e r na t i v e s T hi s i nf or m a t i on w i l l be i nc l ude d i n or i e nt a t i on m a t e r i a l s s ubm i t t e d t o bot h s t ude nt s a nd pa r e nt s O t h e r s uc c e s s f ul i de a s f r om ot he r c a m pus e s i nv ol ve on c a m pus f a i r s a nd c ont e s t s c a m pus di s pl a y s a nd di r e c t e m a i l t o c a m pus us e r s ( T oor a nd H a vl i c k 2004 )

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159 F i na l l y, a s t he uni ve r s i t y f l e e t ve hi c l e s r e a c h t he e nds of t he i r us e f ul l i ve s t he uni ve r s i t y m ot or pool w i l l r e pl a c e t he m w i t h hybr i ds or a l t e r na t i ve f ue l ve hi c l e s A s a l t e r na t i ve f u e l t e c hnol ogy i m pr ove s a nd be c om e s m or e w i de l y a v a i l a bl e f os s i l f ue l pow e r e d ve hi c l e s w i l l be pha s e d out T hi s pr oc e s s w i l l be gi n i n P ha s e I I ; by P ha s e V t he e nt i r e f l e e t w i l l ha ve t ur ne d ov e r s o t ha t e ve r y f l e e t ve hi c l e r uns o n a l t e r na t e f ue l s A s w e l l t he uni ve r s i t y f l e e t w i l l be a u di t e d t o de t e r m i ne i f i t c a n be r e duc e d, a nd t he us e of a l t e r na t i ve f ue l s f or s uppor t v e hi c l e s ( l a nds c a p e e qui pm e nt c a r t s s hut t l e s e t c .) w i l l be i nve s t i ga t e d. P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he goa l f or S O V t r i p r e duc t i on w i l l i nc r e a s e t o 3 5% of t he ba s e l i ne i n P ha s e I T o a c c om pl i s h t hi s f undi ng of t he pr ogr a m s be gun i n P ha s e I I w i l l c ont i nue P e r i odi c e va l ua t i ons t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h of t he s e p r ovi de t h e b e s t r e s ul t s w i l l oc c ur ; t he m os t s uc c e s s f ul pr og r a m s w i l l be e xpa nd e d. F ur t he r t h e s t udy w i l l a s c e r t a i n r e a s ons ot he r pr ogr a m s ha v e pr ove n un s uc c e s s f ul a nd r e c om m e nd e i t he r i m pr ovi ng or e l i m i na t i ng t he m T he ba n on c a r pe r m i t s w i l l e xpa nd t o i nc l ude s op hom or e s t hus f r e e i ng m or e pa r ki ng s pa c e s a nd di m i ni s hi ng t he num be r of S O V t r i ps P l a nni ng w i l l be gi n f or t he r e l oc a t i on of pa r ki ng t o c a m pus e dge s ; t o c ons e r ve gr e e n s pa c e t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c om m i t t o bui l d onl y s t r uc t ur e s not s ur f a c e l ot s i f ne w pa r ki ng i s ne c e s s a r y o r e xi s t i ng s pa c e s m us t be r e l oc a t e d. D i r e c t i ng pa r ki ng t o c a m pus e dge s i s e xpe c t e d t o r e duc e c onf l i c t s be t w e e n c a r s a nd pe d e s t r i a ns or c y c l i s t s I f a p pr opr i a t e a l oop r oa d s ys t e m m uc h l i ke w ha t ha s be e n c r e a t e d a t U ni ve r s i t y of N o r t h C a r ol i na C ha r l ot t e w i l l be i nt e gr a t e d i nt o c a m pus pl a ns L oop r oa ds c r e a t e a pe de s t r i a n a nd

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160 c yc l i s t f r i e ndl y c o r e by f oc us i ng t r a f f i c a t t he c a m pus pe r i m e t e r ; t he y a l s o di s t r i but e t r a f f i c t o m ul t i pl e a c c e s s r out e s t hus de c r e a s i ng pr obl e m s on r oa ds out s i de t he uni ve r s i t y ( U N C C ha r l ot t e 2007 ) F ur t he r f ut ur e p a r ki ng n e e ds w i l l be r e a s s e s s e d p e r i odi c a l l y; a s S O V t r i ps dr op, t he ne c e s s a r y num be r s of p a r ki ng s pa c e s w i l l de c r e a s e a s w e l l T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c om m i t t o f r e e z i ng t he num be r o f p a r ki ng s pa c e s a t P ha s e I I l e ve l s ; by pr ovi di ng no ne w pa r ki n g f or bui l di ngs a not he r L E E D c r e di t c a n be a t t a i ne d. T o he l p a c c om pl i s h t hi s c om m i t m e nt t he c a m pus s hut t l e s ys t e m w i l l e xpa nd t o s e r ve m or e of f c a m pus l oc a t i ons pa r t i c ul a r l y hous i ng a nd r e t a i l hubs C on s t r uc t i on of dor m i t or i e s w i l l c ont i nue s o t ha t t he m a nda t e t ha t f i r s t ye a r s t ude nt s l i ve on c a m pus c a n be m e t A l s o, t he uni ve r s i t y m a y s e e k pr opos a l s f or de s i gns f or a uni ve r s i t y vi l l a ge m uc h l i ke U ni ve r s i t y T ow n a t U B C pr ovi de d c a m pus s pa c e i s a va i l a bl e I f not s i m i l a r pr opos a l s w i l l be s ought f or t he c onv e r s i on of e xi s t i ng r e s i de nc e h a l l s or t he r e de s i gn o f pl a nne d one s t o i nc or por a t e t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he vi l l a ge c onc e pt D e s i gn f e a t ur e s w i l l i nc l ude hous i ng f or f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f a s w e l l a s s t ude nt s r e c r e a t i ona l a nd gr e e n s pa c e s a nd r e t a i l out l e t s T he f l e e t v e hi c l e r e pl a c e m e nt pr ogr a m i n P ha s e I I w i l l e xpa nd a nd i nc l ude a r e t r o f i t pr ogr a m f or s uppo r t ve hi c l e s t o r un on a l t e r n a t i ve f ue l s ; bi odi e s e l i s t he m os t a va i l a bl e a nd m os t c om m on c h oi c e a t pr e s e nt I f r e t r of i t i s not pos s i bl e t he s e ve hi c l e s w i l l be r e pl a c e d a t t he e nds o f t he i r us e f ul l i ve s w i t h s i m i l a r e qui pm e nt t ha t ope r a t e s on t he s e f ue l s

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161 P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : T he goa l f or S O V t r i p r e duc t i on w i l l i nc r e a s e f u r t he r t o 50 % of t he b a s e l i ne i n P ha s e I A ga i n, t he pr ogr a m s be g un i n P ha s e I I w i l l be f ul l y f unde d a nd t he p e r i odi c a udi t s t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h s u c c e s s of t he pr ogr a m s w i l l c ont i nue P a r ki ng de m a nds w i l l a l s o be r e a s s e s s e d a s t he pa r ki ng r e l oc a t i on pl a n a nd l oop r oa d a r e i m pl e m e nt e d. A s t he r e duc t i on i n S O V t r i ps l ow e r s de m a nd, t h e uni ve r s i t y w i l l c om m i t t o r e duc e t he num be r of pa r ki ng s pa c e s ; l ot s a n d s t r uc t ur e s m a y t he n b e r e m ove d a nd r e pl a c e d w i t h gr e e n s pa c e or bui l di ngs a nd f e w e r l ot s w i l l r e qui r e r e l oc a t i on. D e ve l opm e nt of t he uni v e r s i t y vi l l a ge or s i m i l a r pr oj e c t w i l l be gi n a nd c on s t r uc t i on of ot he r r e s i de n c e s w i l l go on unt i l on c a m pus hous i ng ne e ds a r e m e t U ni ve r s i t y s uppor t w i l l c ont i nue f or t he c r e a t i on of r e t a i l a nd r e c r e a t i ona l de ve l opm e nt by pr i va t e e nt i t i e s a dj a c e nt t o a nd n e a r c a m pus s uc h t ha t t he ne e ds o f a l l r e s i de nt s w i l l be m e t w i t hi n a m i l e of t he c a m pus T o f ur t he r e nc our a ge t he us e of a l t e r n a t i ve f ue l v e hi c l e s r e f u e l i ng s t a t i ons f or a va r i e t y of t he s e ( e l e c t r i c pl ug i ns hydr oge n, e t c ) w i l l be i nc l ude d i n pa r ki ng a r e a s a r ound t he c a m pus t o m e e t de m a nd, m e e t i ng ye t a not he r L E E D c r e di t f o r a l t e r n a t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on. P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : T he goa l f or S O V t r i p r e duc t i on w i l l i nc r e a s e t o 7 5% of t he ba s e l i ne i n P ha s e I F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l c om pl e t e t he l oop r oa d s ys t e m a nd t he r e l oc a t i on of pa r ki ng s t r uc t ur e s t o t he c a m pus pe r i m e t e r A l s o, t he uni ve r s i t y vi l l a ge de ve l opm e nt a nd ot h e r on c a m pus

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162 hous i ng w i l l be f i na l i z e d a nd a va i l a bl e p a r ki ng w i l l be f ur t he r r e duc e d. B y t hi s t i m e t he c a m pus f l e e t w i l l c ons i s t e nt i r e l y of a l t e r n a t e f u e l ve hi c l e s ; e xc l us i ve pur c h a s e of a l t e r na t e f ue l ve hi c l e s w i l l oc c ur f or t h e f ut ur e f l e e t T hough t he c hoi c e s a r e l i m i t e d pr e s e nt l y, w i t h t he a dva n c e s i n t e c hnol ogy e xp e c t e d ove r t he n e xt 30 ye a r s m a ny m or e opt i ons s houl d be a va i l a bl e i nc l udi ng hydr oge n, f u l l y e l e c t r i c a nd s ol a r po w e r e d ve hi c l e s I nt r i gui ng i de a s a r e e m e r gi ng f r om s t ud i e s s uc h a s M i t c he l l J oa c hi m s e c ot r a ns ol ogy, a n e w de s i gn f i e l d t ha t c om bi ne s e c ol ogy, ur ba n de s i gn, t r a ns por t a t i on pl a nni ng, a ut om ot i ve e ngi ne e r i ng, a nd e n e r gy c on s ul t a t i on ( J oa c hi m 2006) W i t hi n t hi s s t udy a r e c on c e pt s f or g e nt l e c onge s t i on a nd s m a r t c a r s t ha t r e s pond t o c onge s t i on vi a f l oc ki ng l i ke m a ny a ni m a l s pe c i e s ; J oa c hi m ( 200 6) r e f e r s t o t hi s a s ur b a n m obi l i t y t hr ough e c ol ogi c a l de s i g n . A RE A O F F O CUS 10: F O O D R E S O U RCE S M a ny f a c ul t y a nd s t ud e nt s w i l l c ons um e a t l e a s t one m e a l or s na c k s uppl i e d by a c a m pus ve ndor or ve ndi ng m a c hi ne e ve r y d a y t ha t t he y a r e on c a m pus s pe ndi ng m i l l i ons of dol l a r s a nn ua l l y f or f ood a nd be ve r a ge s T h e U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon s p e nt a ppr oxi m a t e l y $6 m i l l i on on f ood pr oduc t s i n 2005 06 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of pr oduc t i on, t r a ns por t a t i on, pa c ka gi ng a nd di s po s a l of t he s e goods i s i m m e ns e T he r e f or e m e t hods t o r e duc e or e l i m i na t e t he s e n e ga t i ve i m pa c t s s houl d b e e m br a c e d a s pa r t of a ny s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gy. P r oduc t i on, pr oc e s s i ng a nd t r a ns por t of f ood a r e s our c e s of t r e m e ndous e n vi r onm e nt a l pe r t ur ba t i on. C l e a r i ng of na t ur a l a r e a s t o c r e a t e a g r i c u l t ur a l f i e l ds ha s r e s ul t e d i n t he l os s

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1 63 of m i l l i ons of a c r e s of h a bi t a t L i ve s t oc k a gr i c ul t ur e us e s 30% o f t he gl ob a l l a nd s ur f a c e c ont r i but i ng t o t he c ur r e n t bi odi ve r s i t y l os s not e d i n m a ny e c os ys t e m s ( F A O 2006) C l e a r c ut t i ng of S out h A m e r i c a n r a i nf or e s t s f or l i ve s t oc k gr a z i ng a nd c r op pl a nt i ng ha s not onl y de s t r oye d ha bi t a t i t ha s a l s o r e duc e d n a t ur a l c a r bon s i nks t hus c ont r i but i ng t o t he bui l d up of G H G s W or l dw i de l i ve s t oc k a g r i c ul t ur e a c c ount s f or m or e G H G e m i s s i ons t ha n t r a ns por t a t i on ( 18% vs 13.5% ba s e d on C O 2 e qui va l e nt s ) a nd gl oba l m e a t a nd da i r y p r oduc t i o n a nd c ons um pt i on a r e i n c r e a s i ng m or e r a pi dl y t ha n a ny ot he r s e c t or of a gr i c ul t ur e ( F A O 2006) H a bi t a t de gr a d a t i on i s a l s o c a us e d by w a s t e w a t e r a nd s t or m w a t e r r un of f f r om l a r ge f a r m s T hi s r un o f f of t e n c ont a i ns s e di m e nt s a ni m a l w a s t e s r e s i dua l a nt i bi ot i c s a nd gr ow t h hor m one s pe s t i c i de s he r bi c i de s a nd f e r t i l i z e r s A s t he s e pr oduc t s e nt e r t he a qua t i c e nvi r onm e nt t he y de gr a de i t t hr ough w a t e r pol l ut i on a nd e ut r ophi c a t i on; m a ny s c i e nt i s t s a t t r i but e t he D e a d Z one f ound i n t he G ul f of M e xi c o t o t he va s t a m ount of a gr i c ul t ur a l r un of f f r om t he c e nt r a l U ni t e d S t a t e s i nt o t he M i s s i s s i ppi R i ve r T r a ns por t i ng f ood ove r g r e a t di s t a nc e s a l s o c a us e s ne ga t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l e f f e c t s T he a ve r a g e i t e m i n a n A m e r i c a n m e a l t r a ve l s 1,500 2,400 m i l e s t o r e a c h i t s f i na l de s t i na t i on, a nd l oc a l l y gr ow n f ood i s i nc r e a s i ngl y unc om m on ( M G oni gl e a nd C l a r k 2006) M os t f ood i s now pr oduc e d a t l a r ge f a c t or y f a r m s t ha t a r e l oc a t e d f a r f r om t he m a j or i t y of f ood de m a nd. A s M G oni gl e a nd C l a r k ( 2006) not e a f ood s uppl y r e l i a nt on l ong di s t a nc e t r a ns por t a nd hydr oc a r bon ba s e d f e r t i l i z e r s i s i nc r e a s i ngl y v ul ne r a bl e a s oi l s uppl i e s dw i ndl e L ong di s t a nc e t r a ns por t a l s o m a ke s t he c u r r e nt pr odu c t i on a nd

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164 de l i ve r y s ys t e m f or f ood uns us t a i na bl e J one s ( 20 03) poi nt s out t ha t m or e e ne r gy ( a s f os s i l f ue l s ) i s put i nt o t h e s ys t e m t ha n i s r e c e i ve d ( a s f ood c a l or i e s ) H e c i t e s t ha t f or e ve r y c a l or i e of i c e be r g l e t t uc e f l ow n t o t he U K f r om L os A nge l e s 127 c a l or i e s of f os s i l f ue l a r e us e d; i n a s e ns e t he w or l d i s e a t i ng oi l ( J one s 2003) I n a n e f f or t t o s a ve m on e y, m a ny uni ve r s i t i e s c ont r a c t t he i r di ni ng a nd f ood s e r vi c e s t o pr i va t e f i r m s I n t ur n, du e t o e c onom i e s of s c a l e t he s e c om pa ni e s pu r c ha s e f ood f r om l a r ge f a c t or y f a r m s a t ho m e a nd a br o a d. T hi s ne g a t i ve l y i m pa c t s not onl y t he e nvi r onm e nt but a l s o l oc a l e c onom i e s a s s m a l l l o c a l f a r m e r s a r e una bl e t o c om pe t e H ow e ve r w e r e J one s p r oxi m i t y pr i nc i pl e f ol l ow e d, m a ny of t he s e uns u s t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s c oul d be r e ve r s e d. T he pr oxi m i t y pr i nc i pl e s t a t e s t ha t pr oduc t s s houl d be s our c e d a s c l os e l y a s pos s i bl e t o t he c ons um e r s ( J one s 2003) D oor t o doo r de l i ve r y of f ood, f a r m e r s m a r ke t s a nd s hops s e l l i ng l oc a l l y pr oduc e d f ood r e pl a c e i m por t e d a nd c e nt r a l l y di s t r i but e d f ood s r e s ul t i ng i n f e w e r G H G e m i s s i ons a nd a boos t t o l oc a l e c onom i e s ( J one s 2003 ) O ne s t udy f ound t ha t s o ur c i ng of c e r t a i n l oc a l p r oduc e vi a f a r m e r s m a r k e t s w oul d r e duc e G H G e m i s s i ons f r om di s t r i but i on by a f a c t or of 650 ( J one s 2003) M a ny un i ve r s i t i e s ha ve b e gun t o i m pl e m e nt s t r a t e gi e s t o de c r e a s e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of t he i r f ood r e s our c e s I n s om e pl a ns t he s e a r e i nc l ude d w i t h ot h e r goods a nd s e r vi c e s i n P r oc u r e m e nt / P ur c ha s i ng, but a c qui s i t i on of f ood f or t h e c a m pu s pr e s e nt s uni que oppor t uni t i e s f or s us t a i na bl e a nd r e g e ne r a t i ve pol i c i e s A s s uc h, t hi s s t r a t e gy s e pa r a t e s f ood r e s our c e s f r om ot he r goods a nd s e r vi c e s S i m i l a r l y, f ood w a s t e i s of t e n

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165 di s c us s e d w i t h w a s t e m a na ge m e nt a nd r e c y c l i ng, but w i l l be r e vi e w e d w i t h i n t hi s s e c t i on T he F ood S e r vi c e s D e pa r t m e nt a t P e nn S t a t e m a ke s c onc e r t e d e f f or t s t o pa r t ne r w i t h e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y a nd c ons c i ous c om pa ni e s ( P e nn S t a t e F ood S e r vi c e s 2007) T hi s de pa r t m e nt ha s a l s o m a de buyi ng l oc a l l y a nd r e gi ona l l y pr oduc e d f ood s a pr i or i t y A s s uc h, F ood S e r vi c e s h a s j oi ne d t he F a r m t o C ol l e ge pr ogr a m a na t i ona l e f f or t t o c onne c t uni ve r s i t i e s w i t h l oc a l gr ow e r s t o pr ovi de pr oduc t s f or m e a l s e r vi c e s ( P e nn S t a t e F ood S e r vi c e s 2007) P e nn S t a t e pur c ha s e s 100 % of i t s m i l k a nd m uc h of i t s pr o duc e f r om l oc a l f a r m e r s ( P e nn S t a t e F ood S e r vi c e s 2007) P e nn S t a t e ha s a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d ve ga n a nd v e ge t a r i a n di ni ng on c a m pus t hr ough m e nu c hoi c e s a nd c l e a r l a b e l i ng of s e l e c t i ons ( P e nn S t a t e F ood S e r vi c e s 2007) F ood w a s t e i s a l s o be i ng a ddr e s s e d w i t h a m or e s u s t a i na bl e s t r a t e gy a t P e nn S t a t e A pi l ot pr ogr a m c r e a t e d i n 1997 t o c om pos t pr e c on s um e r f ood w a s t e h a s gr o w n i nt o a l a r ge s c a l e c om pos t i ng p r ogr a m a t t he O r ga ni c M a t e r i a l s P r oc e s s i ng a nd E duc a t i on c e nt e r on c a m pus ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 j ) P r e c ons um e r f ood w a s t e a nd di r t y pa pe r na pki ns c ol l e c t e d a t 11 di ni ng f a c i l i t i e s a c r o s s t he c a m pus a r e c om bi ne d w i t h m a nur e f r om a ni m a l r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s t o pr oduc e c om pos t f or c a m pus l a nd s c a pi ng ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 j ) A ppr oxi m a t e l y 1.6 t ons of w a s t e a r e di ve r t e d da i l y f r om l oc a l l a ndf i l l s w hi c h r e p r e s e nt s a n e c onom i c s a vi ngs of ove r $16,000 a nnu a l l y ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 j ) T he s c hool i s l ooki ng t o e xpa nd t he pr ogr a m t o i nc l ude pos t c ons um e r f ood w a s t e a s w e l l

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166 T hough t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon ha s n o f or m a l p ol i c i e s gove r n i ng f ood p ur c ha s e a nd di s pos a l t he U ni ve r s i t y H ous i ng D i vi s i on a nd t he S t ude nt U ni on F ood S e r vi c e s gr oup c om pos t pr e c ons um e r f o od w a s t e dona t e e xc e s s c ooke d f ood t o c h a r i t y, a nd pe r f or m w a s t e a udi t s ( U O C a m pu s R e c yc l i ng P r ogr a m 200 7 ; M i t a l e t a l 2007) U s e d c ooki ng oi l s a r e s e nt t o a bi of ue l s c om pa ny ( M i t a l e t a l 20 07) F ur t he r f or a n a ddi t i ona l f e e U ni ve r s i t y C a t e r i ng c us t om e r s a r e o f f e r e d a n opt i on t o ha ve t he f ood w a s t e f r om t he i r e ve nt s c o m pos t e d by a n out s i de c om pos t i ng c om pa ny ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) C om bi ne d, t he s e e f f or t s l e d t o m or e t ha n 50 t ons of f ood w a s t e be i ng di ve r t e d f r om l a n df i l l s i n 2005 06 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T he f ood s e r vi c e s uni t s ha ve a l s o be gun pu r c ha s i n g l oc a l l y a nd r e gi ona l l y g r ow n f oods i nc l udi ng be e f pr odu c e a nd da i r y pr oduc t s a s w e l l a s ba ke d goods a nd c of f e e ( U O H ous i ng 2007 ) T he s t ude nt uni on ove r s e e s s e ve r a l f ood ve ndor s a nd w or k s t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he pr oduc t s t he y of f e r F or e xa m pl e 75% of t he c of f e e of f e r e d i s F a i r T r a de C e r t i f i e d, or g a ni c a l l y pr oduc e d a nd s h a de gr ow n, w hi l e t he r e m a i ni ng 25% i s pr ovi de d by a ve ndo r t ha t i s a m e m be r of t he R a i n f or e s t A l l i a nc e ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) H ow e ve r e f f or t s t o i nf l ue nc e t he p r a c t i c e s of na t i ona l ve ndor s ha v e m e t w i t h l i t t l e s uc c e s s ( M i t a l e t a l 200 7) H a r va r d ha s a l s o m a d e s e ve r a l e f f or t s t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he f o od of f e r e d a t i t s di ni ng f a c i l i t i e s H a r va r d D i ni ng S e r vi c e s a c qu i r e s f ood f r om s e ve n l oc a l f a r m s a nd 60 l oc a l pr od uc e r s s uc h t ha t de pe ndi ng on t he s e a s on, a nyw he r e f r om 35 7 0% of t he f r ui t s a nd ve ge t a bl e s s e r v e d a t H a r v a r d di ni ng f a c i l i t i e s a r e f r om l oc a l s our c e s ; s om e of

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167 t hi s pr oduc e i s or ga ni c a l l y f a r m e d, t hough no pe r c e nt a ge w a s a va i l a bl e ( S E I 2007) D i ni ng S e r vi c e s a l s o e s t a bl i s he d a f a r m e r s m a r ke t on t he c a m pus t o s e l l l oc a l pr oduc e di r e c t l y t o t he H a r v a r d c om m uni t y. F a i r T r a de C e r t i f i e d c o f f e e i s s e r ve d b y D i ni ng S e r vi c e s A nd, s e v e r a l o f t he di ni ng ha l l s ha ve t h e i r ow n c om pos t i ng m a c hi ne s a nd a c c e pt bot h p r e a nd pos t c ons um e r f ood w a s t e ( S E I 2007) T he U C M e r c e d D i ni ng S e r vi c e s gr oup h a s i nc or por a t e d s us t a i na bl e p r a c t i c e s i nt o i t s ope r a t i ons P ur c ha s i ng p r a c t i c e s i n c l ude buyi ng f r om l oc a l a nd/ or gr e e n bus i ne s s e s f a vor i ng pr odu c t s w i t h bi ode gr a da bl e p a c k a gi ng, a nd buyi ng i n bul k t o r e duc e c os t s a nd pa c ka gi ng ( U C M e r c e d 2 007l ) U C M e r c e d i s a l s o pl a nni ng t o of f e r l oc a l l y gr ow n a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y f ood t o s t ude nt s ( U C M e r c e d 2007l ) T o r e du c e f ood w a s t e U C M e r c e d D i ni ng S e r vi c e s i s pl a nni ng a c om pos t pi l e a nd r e c y c l i ng of c o f f e e g r ounds A nd f or 2007 08, a goa l of r e duc i ng di s pos a bl e w a r e s by 60% h a s be e n e s t a bl i s he d, a s ha s a goa l t o i ns t a l l a n e n e r gy e f f i c i e nt di s hw a s hi n g r oom ( U C M e r c e d D i ni ng S e r vi c e s 2007) U C F ha s c ont r a c t e d t he A R A M A R K C or por a t i on t o pr ovi de di ni ng s e r vi c e s f or t he c a m pus A R A M A R K s e r ve s i n t he s a m e c a pa c i t y a t hundr e ds of c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s a c r os s N o r t h A m e r i c a T hough a de t a i l e d r e vi e w o f A R A M A R K s pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s i s be yond t he pur vi e w of t hi s s t udy t he c om pa ny ha s num e r o us s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s a nd ha s w or ke d w i t h s e v e r a l s t ude nt gr oups a nd s c h ool a dm i ni s t r a t i ons t o i nc r e a s e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l s us t a i na bi l i t y of f ood s uppl i e s a nd di ni ng s e r vi c e pr a c t i c e s A R A M A R K ha s a l s o m a de i t s c or por a t e pr a c t i c e s a nd f a c i l i t i e s m or e

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168 e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y. F or e xa m pl e A R A M A R K ha s c om m i t t e d t o pur c ha s e l oc a l a nd or ga ni c f oods w he n a va i l a bl e t hr ough i t s F a r m t o T a bl e pr ogr a m ( A R A M A R K 2007 ) A R A M A R K ha s a l s o e s t a bl i s he d a V i c e P r e s i de nt f or S us t a i na bi l i t y. A s a t U C F A R A M A R K i s t he f ood ve ndor f o r t he U F A t U F t he O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y ha s w or ke d w i t h A R A M A R K t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of f ood s e r vi c e ope r a t i ons A r e a s of f oc us ha ve i nc l ude d pur c ha s i ng f r om r e gi ona l f ood s u ppl i e r s r e duc i ng f ood w a s t e a nd of f e r i ng g r e e n c a t e r i ng. A s a r e s ul t t w o di ni ng ha l l s a t U F of f e r l oc a l l y gr ow n f ood a nd v e ga n opt i ons A c c o r di ng t o t he D i r e c t or o f S us t a i na bi l i t y, di ni ng f a c i l i t i e s on c a m pus a s a w hol e pur c ha s e a pp r oxi m a t e l y 30% of t he i r pr od uc e f r om l oc a l f a r m e r s ( U F 2007 ) T he e f f or t s t o pr ovi de a ve g a n m e nu l e d t o t he P e opl e f or t he E t hi c a l T r e a t m e nt of A ni m a l s na m i ng U F a T op 10 B e s t V e ge t a r i a n F r i e ndl y C ol l e ge ( U F O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007j ) U F s D i ni ng S e r vi c e s a r e a l s o r e pl a c i ng di s pos a bl e s e r vi c e i t e m s t o bi ode gr a da bl e a nd r e d uc e d w a s t e opt i ons ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007j ) U B C F ood S e r vi c e s ha s i ns t i t ut e d s e ve r a l s us t a i na bi l i t y m e a s ur e s i n c onj unc t i on w i t h ot he r de pa r t m e nt s F ood S e r vi c e s pr ovi de s w a s t e c ooki ng oi l f or t he bi o d i e s e l f ue l us e d t o pow e r m a i nt e na n c e ve hi c l e s a nd ha s w o r ke d w i t h t he W a s t e M a n a ge m e n t D e pa r t m e nt t o c r e a t e a c om pos t i ng pr ogr a m ( U B C F ood S e r vi c e s 2007 ) T h e c om pos t i s i n t ur n us e d a s f e r t i l i z e r f or t he c a m p us l a nds c a pe F ood S e r v i c e s a l s o c oor di na t e d w i t h t he S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e a nd ot he r gr oups on t he S us t a i na bl e S e a f o od P r oj e c t t o c r e a t e pr oc ur e m e nt c r i t e r i a f or f i s h a nd s he l l f i s h a nd t o i ns t i t ut e pr ogr a m s e duc a t i ng s t ude nt s a bout t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of c ons um i ng va r i ous s e a f ood i t e m s ( U B C F ood

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169 S e r vi c e s 2007 ) T h e e du c a t i on i ni t i a t i ve s of t he F ood S e r vi c e s de p a r t m e nt e xt e nds i nt o t he r e s e a r c h a nd c l a s s r oo m a r e na s a s w e l l ; t he de p a r t m e nt ha s w or k e d w i t h ove r 400 s t ude nt s on pr oj e c t s a nd a s s i s t s i n i ns t r uc t i ng a F o od S ys t e m s c our s e ( U B C F ood S e r vi c e s 2007 ) F ood S e r vi c e s ha s a l s o d e ve l ope d i t s ow n i ni t i a t i ve s a s w e l l pa r t i c ul a r l y i n i t s e f f or t s t o of f e r m or e s us t a i na bl y pr oduc e d f ood c hoi c e s S o m e pr oduc e i s pur c ha s e d f r om t he U B C F a r m a s t ude nt pr oj e c t t o c r e a t e a w o r ki ng f a r m t ha t yi e l ds a l l or ga ni c pr o duc e ( U B C F a r m 2005) F ood S e r vi c e s a l s o of f e r s F a i r T r a de a nd or ga ni c c of f e e s a t o ut l e t s a c r os s t he c a m pus T he pur c ha s i ng a r m of F ood S e r vi c e s gi ve s pr e f e r e n c e t o l oc a l ve ndor s a nd m a nuf a c t ur e r s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e w ho us e e nvi r on m e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y pa c k a g i ng ( U B C F ood S e r vi c e s 2007 ) F i na l l y, s e ve r a l i nc e nt i ve s f or f a c ul t y, s t ude nt s a nd s t a f f t o ut i l i z e r e us a bl e c ont a i ne r s ut e n s i l s a nd m ugs ha ve be e n i m pl e m e nt e d i n e f f or t s t o r e duc e w a s t e ge ne r a t i on. A R A M A R K a l s o pr ovi de s t he m a j or i t y o f f ood s e r vi c e s a t D uk e a nd t he u ni ve r s i t y ha s m a de e f f or t s t o i nc l ude m or e l oc a l l y pr oduc e d f o od i n i t s m e a l s S e ve r a l i ni t i a t i ve s w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d a f t e r a s t ude nt s t udy i nve nt or i e d t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c a m pus di ni ng ( C a pps 2007b) F ol l ow i ng t he i nve nt or y, t he D i vi ni t y S c hool a t D uke s ought out a nd s ubs e que nt l y hi r e d a s oc i a l l y a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f ood ve ndor r e s ul t i ng i n a m e nu f i l l e d w i t h l oc a l l y gr ow n a nd or ga ni c f ood opt i ons ( C a pps 2007b) V e ga n a nd ve g e t a r i a n opt i ons a r e p r ovi de d t he r e a nd a t ot he r f a c i l i t i e s a c r os s t he

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170 c a m pus D uke a l s o ha s t w o s us t a i na bl e di ni ng a d vi s or y c om m i t t e e s a nd a G r e e n D i ni ng C oor di na t or w i t hi n t he D i ni ng S e r vi c e s D e pa r t m e nt ( C a pps 2007b) T ab l e 9: S u s t ai n a b l e F ood R e s ou r c e S t r a t e gi e s at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M P u r c h a s e l o c a l a n d r e g i o n a l f o o d Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s F a i r T r a d e o r o r g a n i c f o o d c h o i c e s Y e s Y e s Y e s N o C o m p o s t i n g a n d / o r o t h e r w a s t e r e d u c t i o n Y e s c o m p o s t Y e s c o m p o s t ; w a s t e o i l t o b i o d i e s e l ; o t h e r s Y e s b i o d e g r a d a b l e u t e n s i l s a n d c o n t a i n e r s Y e s c o m p o s t V e g a n a n d v e g e t a r i a n o p t i o n s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s F ood R e s ou r c e s G oal s : T o a c hi e ve r e g e ne r a t i ve s t a t us t he goa l s f or f ood r e s our c e s on t he c a m pus a r e t o ha v e 100% of i t s f ood or ga ni c a l l y gr ow n a nd r a i s e d on t he c a m pus a nd a l l f ood w a s t e e l i m i na t e d. T o pr ovi de f ur t he r s yne r gi e s f or t he c a m pus t he s e w a s t e s w i l l be c onve r t e d i nt o c om pos t f or us e on t he c a m pus gr ounds a s f e r t i l i z e r f or l a nds c a pe a nd f ut ur e c r ops B e c a us e t he f i r s t goa l m a y be i m pos s i bl e due t o l a nd c ons t r a i nt s a n a l t e r n a t i ve i s t o ha ve D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O P u r c h a s e l o c a l a n d r e g i o n a l f o o d Y e s N o Y e s Y e s F a i r T r a d e o r o r g a n i c f o o d c h o i c e s Y e s N o Y e s Y e s C o m p o s t i n g a n d / o r o t h e r w a s t e r e d u c t i o n N o c o m p o s t i n g ; n o n s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n o f w a s t e r e d u c t i o n N o Y e s c o m p o s t p r e c o n s u m e r f o o d a n d p a p e r n a p k i n s Y e s c o m p o s t p r e c o n s u m e r f o o d ; w a s t e o i l t o b i o d i e s e l V e g a n a n d v e g e t a r i a n o p t i o n s Y e s N o Y e s Y e s

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171 100% of f ood c om e f r om a c om bi na t i on of or ga ni c r e gi ona l l y pr odu c e d a n d c a m p us gr ow n s our c e s P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy D ur i ng t he i ni t i a l c a m pus a s s e s s m e nt t he O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l de t e r m i ne t he pe r c e nt a ge of f ood pr ovi de d on c a m pus t ha t i s gr o w n l oc a l l y or r e gi on a l l y ( w i t hi n 500 m i l e s a s de f i ne d i n L E E D ) F ur t he r t he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l qua nt i f y t he a m ount s of a l l f ood of f e r e d on c a m pus t ha t i s or ga ni c a l l y f a r m e d a nd F r e e T r a d e or ot he r w i s e c e r t i f i e d. I f a pr i va t e c om pa ny h a s be e n c ont r a c t e d by t h e s c hoo l t o pr ovi de di ni ng/ f ood s e r vi c e s t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of i t s ope r a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s w i l l a l s o be e va l ua t e d a s w e l l T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, c oor di na t i ng w i t h t he f ood/ di ni ng s e r vi c e s gr o up, w i l l i nve s t i ga t e s our c e s o f l oc a l l y a nd r e gi ona l l y pr odu c e d f oods pa r t i c ul a r l y or ga ni c i t e m s T he F a r m t o C ol l e ge pr o gr a m c r e a t e d by t he C om m uni t y F ood S e c ur i t y C o a l i t i on i s a va l ua bl e r e s ou r c e f or t hi s a s i t s pur pos e i t t o c on ne c t c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s w i t h pr oduc e r s i n t he i r a r e a t o pr ovi de l oc a l f a r m pr odu c t s f or m e a l s a nd s p e c i a l e ve nt s on c a m pus ( C om m uni t y F ood S e c ur i t y C oa l i t i on 2007) F or m e a t pr oduc t s t he i nve s t i ga t i on w i l l i nc l ude a r e vi e w o f f a r m ope r a t i ons t o de t e r m i ne i f t he s u ppl i e r ha s i m pl e m e nt e d w a s t e r e c ov e r y t e c hnol ogy t o m i ni m i z e G H G e m i s s i ons a nd r un of f pol l ut i on; f or e xa m pl e s om e s m a l l f a r m s ha ve i ns t a l l e d a na e r obi c di ge s t e r s t o c onve r t t he l i ve s t oc k w a s t e i nt o e ne r gy t o r un t he f a r m ( bi og a s ) A not he r i s s ue t o a s s e s s i s w he t he r a nt i bi ot i c s or gr ow t h hor m one s a r e p a r t of t he l i ve s t oc k di e t pol l ut a nt s t ha t c a n be

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172 w a s he d i nt o t he w a t e r e n vi r onm e nt vi a r un of f I f f ood s e r vi c e s a r e i nde pe nde nt l y ope r a t e d, t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l di s c us s goa l s t o i nc r e a s e t he a m ount s of r e gi o na l l y a nd or ga ni c a l l y gr ow n f oods a va i l a bl e t o t he c a m pus w i t h t he s e c ont r a c t or s O ne c om pa ny t ha t ha s i nc or por a t e d l oc a l buyi ng i nt o i t s s t r a t e gy i s B on A pp t i t M a na ge m e nt C om pa ny, t he f i r m t ha t pr ovi de s f oo d s e r vi c e s t o E c k e r d C ol l e ge M I T a nd O be r l i n, a m ong ot he r s T o be gi n a ddr e s s i ng f ood w a s t e r e du c t i on, t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a di a l ogue a m ong w a s t e m a na ge m e nt di ni ng/ f ood s e r vi c e s a nd gr ounds m a i nt e na nc e t o c r e a t e or e xp a nd c om pos t pr ogr a m s f or t he s c hool F ol l ow i ng t he e xa m pl e of U B C t he s e gr oups w i l l c onduc t a n a udi t of w a s t e pr oduc e d f r om f ood s e r vi c e s i nc l udi ng pr e a nd pos t c ons um e r f ood w a s t e e a t i ng ut e ns i l s a nd c on t a i ne r s e t c F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l a l s o c ont a c t a r e a hom e l e s s s he l t e r s a f t e r s c hool p r ogr a m s a nd ot he r non pr of i t c e nt e r s a bout t he pos s i bi l i t y o f t h e s e gr oups a c c e pt i ng e x c e s s pr e pa r e d f ood f r om t he c a m pus P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: D i r e c t l y or t hr ough t he c ont r a c t e d f ood s e r vi c e s c om pa ny, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l pur c ha s e or ga ni c a l l y a nd r e gi ona l l y gr ow n pr odu c e s o t ha t 25% a r e f r om t he s e s ou r c e s F or m e a t pr oduc t s f ood s e r vi c e s w i l l of f e r a m i ni m um of 10% f r om s us t a i na bl e or g a ni c f a r m s I f i nde pe nde nt f ood v e ndor s ope r a t e on c a m pus t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l m a nda t e t he s a m e be nc hm a r ks f r om t he m T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l e l i m i na t e 50% of f ood a nd be ve r a ge w a s t e ( b a s e d on a s s e s s m e nt ye a r ba s e l i ne ) i nc l udi ng pa c k a gi ng, c ont a i ne r s a nd ut e ns i l s t hr ough a c om bi na t i on of

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173 s t r a t e gi e s F i r s t c om pos t i ng f ood w a s t e s w i l l be g i n. P r e c ons um e r f ood w a s t e s a r e e a s i l y r e c ov e r e d, s o 100 % of t he s e w i l l be c om pos t e d, a nd i n a not he r s yne r gy, us e t he c om pos t t o r e pl a c e f e r t i l i z e r us e on t h e c a m pus N o s t yr of oa m pa c ka gi ng w i l l be a l l ow e d on t he c a m pus a s i t i s a n uns us t a i na bl e pr oduc t A s a n i nc e nt i ve f o r c a m pus c om m uni t y m e m be r s f ood s e r vi c e s w i l l of f e r di s c ount s t o t hos e w ho us e t he i r ow n m ugs F ur t he r f e w e r por t a bl e f ood opt i ons w i l l be pr e s e nt e d ; i ns t e a d, f ood/ di ni ng s e r vi c e s w i l l m a ke r e us a bl e pl a t e s gl a s s e s e t c a va i l a bl e f o r s i t dow n m e a l s t o r e duc e w a s t e a n d e nc our a g e m or e i nt e r a c t i on a m ong di ne r s T he pr opos e d pr ogr a m t o de l i ve r l e f t ov e r pr e pa r e d m e a l s t o hom e l e s s s he l t e r s w i l l be f or m a l i z e d. F i na l l y, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e que s t t ha t f ood a nd be ve r a g e s uppl i e r s r e duc e t he pa c k a gi ng of t he i r f ood pr oduc t s a nd t ha t t he pa c ka gi ng a nd c ont a i ne r s t h a t i s ne c e s s a r y c ont a i ns r e c y c l e d c ont e nt T he s e s uppl i e r s w i l l r e c e i ve a f i ve ye a r pe r i od t o m odi f y t he i r pa c ka gi ng t o be 1 00% r e c y c l e d a nd r e c y c l a bl e w i t hi n; t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l a l s o a l e r t c om pe t i t or s f or t he s e s uppl i e r s o f t he s e m a nd a t e s s o t ha t opt i ons w i l l be a va i l a bl e a f t e r t he f i ve y e a r p e r i od. A s pa r t of t he r e ge n e r a t i v e de ve l opm e nt pl a n t ha t w i l l be c r e a t e d by t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y dur i ng P ha s e I I f o r t he A dm i ni s t r a t i on A r e a o f F oc us c a m pu s f a r m i ng w i l l be gi n. P ot e nt i a l s i t e s w i l l be l oc a t e d f o r t r a di t i ona l or ga ni c f a r m s a nd c om m uni t y ga r de ns a c r os s t he c a m p us I n a n e f f or t t o m a xi m i z e s pa c e pr opos e d d e s i gns w i l l i nc or por a t e f or e s t or w oodl a nd ga r de ni ng, i n w hi c h pl a nt s f r om he r b a c e ous s pe c i e s t o t r e e s a r e l a ye r e d. S ho ul d l a nd be una va i l a bl e bui l di ng r oof s a nd w a l l s a s w e l l a s uni ve r s i t y c om m ons w i l l s e r ve a s l oc a t i ons f or a g r i c ul t ur e m uc h l i ke t he L yl e C e nt e r f or R e ge ne r a t i ve S t udi e s C oor di na t i on w i t h f a c i l i t i e s a nd c ons t r uc t i on uni t s w i t hi n t he

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174 c a m pus w i l l be vi t a l t o de t e r m i ni ng w hi c h bui l di ngs w i l l be a ppr opr i a t e f or t he s e pr oj e c t s A not he r r e g e ne r a t i ve opt i on f or l a nd l i m i t e d c a m pus e s i s ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng. T he t e r m ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng i s us e d be c a us e t h e s t r uc t ur e s i n w hi c h t he a gr i c ul t ur e t a k e s pl a c e a r e s e ve r a l s t or i e s i n he i ght d ue t o t he i r ur ba n l oc a t i ons T hough s t i l l i n t he c on c e pt ua l s t a ge a t e a m a t C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y ha s c om pi l e d a s t u dy t o de s i gn a n ur ba n, i n door f a r m t ha t w i l l be c a pa bl e o f f e e di n g 50,000 pe opl e ( B uc k e t a l 2004) O t he r d e s i gn m a nda t e s of t he f a r m i nc l ude p r ovi di ng a r e a s f or or g a ni c poul t r y a nd f i s h pr oduc t i on, pr oduc i ng z e r o ne t e m i s s i ons c onve r t i ng bl a c k a nd gr a y w a t e r i nt o dr i nki ng w a t e r r e c yc l i ng a l l e va pot r a ns pi r a t i on w a t e r va por a l l ow i ng f or e xt e ns i ve us e of hydr oponi c f a r m i ng, a nd pl a nni ng f or t he i nc or po r a t i on of r e ne w a bl e e ne r g y ( B uc k e t a l 2004) T he C ol um bi a s t udy r e ve a l s t ha t a ve r t i c a l f a r m c a pa bl e of m e e t i ng t he e s t a bl i s he d goa l s w oul d r e qui r e t w o bui l di ngs one 49 s t or i e s a nd t h e ot he r 18 s t or i e s i n he i g ht w hi c h w oul d f i t w i t hi n a t ypi c a l c i t y bl oc k ( B uc k e t a l 2 004) A s i m i l a r s ys t e m bui l t on c a m pus t o pr ovi de f or t h e ne e ds of a uni ve r s i t y w oul d pr ovi de t he va s t m a j or i t y of f ood f or a n e nt i r e c a m pus c om m uni t y a nd e l i m i na t e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of t r a di t i ona l non s us t a i na bl e f a r m i ng. A m a j or be ne f i t of ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng i s t ha t l a nd t ha t ha d be e n us e d f or c onv e nt i ona l f a r m i ng c oul d r e t ur n t o i t s pr e a g r i c ul t ur e c ondi t i on, be i t f or e s t gr a s s l a nd, e t c S houl d t hi s oc c ur t he r e s ul t w oul d be a m a j o r c ount e r w e i g ht t o gl oba l w a r m i ng. D e f o r e s t e d a r e a s c oul d be r e t ur ne d t o t h e i r na t ur a l s t a t e s r e pl e ni s hi ng pl a nt a nd a ni m a l s pe c i e s r e du c i ng C O 2 i n t he a t m os phe r e a nd p r ovi di ng be a ut i f ul pa r k a nd

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175 w oodl a nd s pa c e s f or r e c r e a t i on a nd t our i s m ( S i l ve r m a n 2007) T h e f e a s i b i l i t y of ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng a s a n opt i on f or t he c a m pus w i l l b e e xpl or e d i n t hi s pha s e P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: P ur c ha s e of o r ga ni c a l l y a nd r e gi ona l l y gr ow n pr od uc e w i l l c ont i nue a nd i nc r e a s e s u c h t ha t 50% a r e f r om t he s e s our c e s A m i ni m um of 2 5% of m e a t pr odu c t s w i l l c om e f r om s us t a i na bl e or ga ni c f a r m s T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l m a nda t e t he s a m e c ha nge s f r om a ny i nde pe nde nt f ood v e ndor s t ha t ope r a t e on t he c a m pus C ons t r uc t i on of t he c a m pus a gr i c ul t ur a l pr oj e c t s w i l l be gi n, i nc l udi ng gr e e n r o of s a nd c om m on a r e a g a r de ns ; a s t he f i r s t f e w a r e c om pl e t e d, r e qui r e t ha t 10% o f t he pr oduc e f or t h e c a m pus c o m m uni t y c om e s f r om t he s e s ou r c e s T he e f f or t t o di m i ni s h f ood w a s t e w i l l c ont i nue a s w e l l B ui l di ng on t he P ha s e I I r e qui r e m e nt 75% o f f oo d a nd be ve r a ge w a s t e ( b a s e d on a s s e s s m e nt ye a r b a s e l i ne ) w i l l be e l i m i na t e d, i nc l udi ng pa c ka gi ng, c ont a i ne r s a n d ut e ns i l s E xpa ns i on of t he c om pos t i ng pr ogr a m t o i nc l ude pos t c ons um e r f o od w a s t e a nd p a pe r p r od uc t s w i l l a l s o a i d i n r e a c hi ng t hi s goa l F i na l l y, no pr oduc t s t ha t a r e pa c ka g e d i n non r e c yc l a bl e m a t e r i a l s w i l l be m a de a va i l a bl e f or pu r c ha s e on c a m pus P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : T he uni ve r s i t y f ood/ di ni ng s e r vi c e s gr oup w i l l pur c ha s e m or e or ga ni c a l l y a n d r e gi ona l l y gr ow n pr oduc e s uc h t ha t 75% a r e f r om t he s e s ou r c e s S i m i l a r l y, i t w i l l pr o vi de a

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176 m i ni m um of 50% of m e a t pr oduc t s f r om s us t a i na b l e or ga ni c f a r m s T he s e s a m e l e ve l s w i l l be r e qui r e d f r om a ny i nde pe nde nt f ood v e ndo r s t ha t ope r a t e on t h e c a m pus C ons t r uc t i on of t he c a m p us a gr i c ul t ur a l pr oj e c t s w i l l c ont i nue i nc l udi ng gr e e n r oof s a nd c om m on a r e a g a r d e ns ; a s t he s e a r e bui l t t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e qui r e t ha t 25 % of t he pr oduc e f o r t he c a m pus c om m uni t y c om e s f r om t he s e s our c e s I f a ve r t i c a l f a r m i s pa r t of t he c hos e n s t r a t e gy, c o ns t r uc t i on w i l l s t a r t w i t hi n t hi s pha s e B y e xpa ndi ng s t r a t e gi e s us e d i n P ha s e s I I a nd I I I a s w e l l a s nove l i de a s f r o m f ood s e r vi c e s s t a f f a nd ot he r s f ood a nd be ve r a ge w a s t e r e du c t i on w i l l r e a c h 90% ( ba s e d on a s s e s s m e nt ye a r ba s e l i ne ) P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : T hr ough ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng or ot he r opt i ons t he c a m pus w i l l pr ovi de 100% of i t s f ood or ga ni c a l l y gr ow n; a ny s hor t f a l l w i l l be m e t t hr ough l oc a l or ga ni c p r oduc e r s A l l f ood w a s t e w i l l be e l i m i na t e d, c onve r t e d t o c om pos t f o r us e a s f e r t i l i z e r f or l a nd s c a pe a nd f ut ur e c r ops or a s a m e t ha ne s our c e f or bi og a s ge n e r a t i on. A RE A O F F O CUS 11: P R O CURE M E NT C ha ngi ng t he i nf r a s t r uc t u r e a nd ope r a t i ons of a uni ve r s i t y i s vi t a l f or a ny s u c c e s s f ul s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gy O ne of t e n ov e r l ooke d y e t i m por t a nt a s pe c t i s t he pu r c ha s i ng pol i c y of a s c hool P a r t of t he r e s our c e c ons um pt i on a nd pol l ut i on f or w hi c h a uni ve r s i t y i s r e s pons i bl e i s e m bodi e d w i t hi n t he pr oduc t i on, t r a ns por t a t i on a nd di s pos a l of t he pr oduc t s i t buys C ol l e c t i ve l y, uni ve r s i t i e s pur c ha s e bi l l i ons of dol l a r s i n goods a nd s e r vi c e s a nnu a l l y; M G o ni gl e a nd S t a r ke ( 2006) r e por t one s t udy t ha t s how e d 1,900

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177 ur ba n uni ve r s i t i e s i n t he U .S s pe nt $136 bi l l i on p e r ye a r ; how e v e r t he r e a r e ove r 4000 c ol l e ge s a nd u ni ve r s i t i e s i n t he U .S s o t he e xpe n di t ur e s a r e m uc h hi gh e r T he r e f or e t o f u r t he r r e du c e t he i r e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s uni ve r s i t i e s c a n a l t e r t he i r pol i c i e s t o c onduc t bus i ne s s w i t h ve ndor s t ha t i ns t i t ut e s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s P r oduc t s us e d by a nd/ or s ol d by t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l i n t ur n be c om e m or e s us t a i n a bl e a nd e ve nt ua l l y be m a nuf a c t ur e d a nd s hi ppe d i n a s r e ge ne r a t i ve a m a nne r a s t he pr opos e d c a m pus e s of t he f ut ur e S e ve r a l uni ve r s i t i e s ha v e a l r e a dy f or m ul a t e d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d pl a ns f or i nc r e a s i ng t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he i r pur c ha s i ng pol i c i e s I n i t s C a m pus S us t a i na bi l i t y A s s e s s m e nt ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon hi ghl i ght e d i t s R e c yc l e d P a pe r pr oc ur e m e nt pol i c y a nd W ood P r oduc t s pur c ha s i ng pol i c y. T h e R e c yc l e d P a p e r P ol i c y r e c om m e nds t ha t a l l pa pe r pr odu c t s c o nt a i n a m i ni m um of 50% r e c yc l e d c ont e nt w i t h 3 0% pos t c ons um e r c ont e nt a nd be c hl or i ne f r e e ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) B e c a us e e a c h de pa r t m e nt m a ke s i t s ow n pur c ha s e s how e ve r t hi s i s not m a nda t or y. S i m i l a r l y, t he W ood P r oduc t s P ur c ha s i ng P ol i c y e nc our a ge s t he pr o c ur e m e nt o f c e r t i f i e d s us t a i na bl y h a r v e s t e d w ood pr oduc t s a nd di s c our a ge s us e of ol d gr ow t h w ood pr oduc t s ( M i t a l e t a l 20 07) F ur t he r t he pur c ha s i ng m a n a ge r w i t hi n F a c i l i t i e s S e r vi c e s i ndi c a t e d t ha t be yond t h e s e p ol i c i e s a l l pr oc ur e m e nt i s ba s e d up on be s t va l ue a nd s us t a i n a bi l i t y gui de l i ne s s e t up by[ e a c h ] de pa r t m e nt , a nd t ha t t he O r e gon i s de ve l opi ng a be nc hm a r ki ng pr og r a m t o t r a c k t he i r pur c ha s i ng de c i s i ons ba s e d on s us t a i na bi l i t y c r i t e r i a ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) T hi s s a m e pur c ha s i ng m a na g e r ha s or ga ni z e d w o r ks hops f or buye r s a nd s upe r vi s or s t o pr om ot e

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178 s us t a i na bl e pur c ha s i ng t h r oughout t he c a m pus ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) F i na l l y, O r e gon s B us i ne s s A f f a i r s O f f i c e h a s pr oduc e d a w e bp a ge o f E nvi r onm e nt a l l y P r e f e r a bl e P ur c ha s i ng T i ps a nd R e s our c e s p r om ot i ng t he be ne f i t s of a nd e du c a t i ng pr oc ur e m e nt a ge nt s i n t he pur c h a s i ng of s us t a i na bl y pr oduc e d pr oduc t s H ow e v e r de s p i t e t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s O r e gon ha d n ot de ve l ope d a ny m e t hod t o t r a c k t he pur c ha s e o f s us t a i na bl e goo ds a nd s e r vi c e s i n i t s va r i ous s c hool s a nd de p a r t m e nt s a s of M a y 2007 ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A t H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y, t he H G C I ha s b e e n i nvol v e d i n c r e a t i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l pr oc ur e m e nt pr a c t i c e s f o r t he uni ve r s i t y a nd l a unc he d r e s e a r c h p r oj e c t s w i t h s t ude nt s t o de t e r m i ne be n e f i t s a nd dr a w ba c ks T h e F i na nc i a l A dm i ni s t r a t i on D e pa r t m e nt hi r e d t he H a r va r d G r e e n C a m pus I ni t i a t i ve t o upda t e i t s pur c ha s i ng pr a c t i c e s N o c o he s i ve pol i c y e xi s t s f or t he uni ve r s i t y, but F i na nc i a l A dm i ni s t r a t i on be ga n a pi l ot pur c h a s i ng p r ogr a m i n J une 2007 c a l l e d e P r oc ur e m e nt . T hi s pi l ot pr ogr a m be i ng c ondu c t e d a t t he F i na nc i a l A dm i ni s t r a t i on D e pa r t m e nt t he L a w S c hool a nd pa r t s of t he M e di c a l S c hool i s f oc us e d on l ow e r i ng c os t s i nc r e a s i ng pur c h a s i ng pow e r w i t h ve ndor s a nd f a c i l i t a t i ng pr oc ur e m e nt f r om c om pa ni e s t ha t m or e s us t a i na bi l i t y or i e nt e d c om pa ni e s ( I r e l a nd 2007) T he U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da pur c ha s e s E N E R G Y S T A R c e r t i f i e d p r o duc t s w he n a va i l a bl e a nd a pr ovi s i o n r e qui r i ng t he s e pr odu c t s t o be pur c ha s e d i s pa r t of t h e pr opos e d e ne r gy a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y pol i c y f or U C F ( B i ne t t e 2007) T hi s m e e t s t he s e c ond s t a nda r d of t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt c a l l s f or a n e n e r gy e f f i c i e nt pu r c ha s i ng pol i c y, w hi c h r e qui r e s t he pu r c ha s e of E N E R G Y S T A R c e r t i f i e d pr oduc t s w he ne v e r t he y a r e a v a i l a bl e

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179 B e yond t hi s m e a s ur e no ot he r e nvi r onm e nt a l or s us t a i na bl e pur c h a s i ng pol i c y w a s di s c ove r e d. T he U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t M e r c e d ha s c r e a t e d a pur c ha s i ng pol i c y t ha t w on t he 2006 U C B e s t P r a c t i c e s A c hi e ve m e nt A w a r d ( U C M e r c e d 2007 m ) T he U ni ve r s i t y s P ur c ha s i ng P ol i c y a nd P r oc e dur e s s t a t e t ha t S pe c i a l c ons i de r a t i on a nd pr e f e r e nc e s ha l l be gi ve n t o e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s us t a i na bl e pr oduc t s a nd s e r vi c e s t ha t of f e r t h e f ol l ow i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s : m i ni m i z e e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s s uc h a s b ut not l i m i t e d t o, t oxi c s pol l ut i on a nd ha z a r ds t o w or ke r s ; pr om ot e c om m uni t y s a f e t y; a r e d ur a bl e a nd l ong l a s t i ng; c ons e r ve e n e r gy a nd w a t e r a nd us e a gr i c ul t ur a l f i be r s a nd r e s i due s ; r e duc e w a s t e t hr ough pr odu c t e f f i c i e nc y a nd e f f e c t i ve n e s s ; a r e c om pr i s e d o f r e c yc l e d c ont e nt ; i nc l ude e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y pa c k a gi ng; ha ve e a r ne d E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y C e r t i f i c a t i ons ( U C M e r c e d 2006) U C M e r c e d i s goi ng be yond t hi s de ve l opi ng a n E nvi r onm e nt a l l y P r e f e r a bl e P ur c ha s i ng ( E P P ) pr o gr a m T he E P P s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s e s c e r t a i n i t e m s i nc l udi ng f ur ni t ur e a ppl i a nc e s a nd c a r pe t i ng; i t a l s o e s t a bl i s he s r e c y c l e d pa pe r a nd r e pr og r a phi c s e r vi c e s c r i t e r i a c r e a t e s a m e t hod t o t r a c k pur c h a s e s t ha t c ont a i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y f a c e t s a nd di s c us s e s i nc o r por a t i on of c ont r a c t l a ng ua ge a nd bi d c r i t e r i a t o pr om ot e e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s pons i bi l i t y f r om s uppl i e r s ( U C M e r c e d 2007 m ) H ow e ve r t he E P P r e m a i ns a w or k i n pr ogr e s s a n d ha s ye t t o be f or m a l l y a dopt e d i nt o t he P ur c ha s i ng P ol i c y a nd P r oc e dur e s I n i t s 2002 F i na l R e por t t he S us t a i na bi l i t y T a s k F or c e a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da r e c om m e nde d t h a t t he un i ve r s i t y s houl d a s s e s s t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd s oc i a l i m pa c t s of

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180 i t s pur c ha s i ng a nd c ont r a c t i ng pol i c i e s a nd r e vi s e t he m t o i nc or por a t e s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s I n 2003, U F p r oduc e d a c om pr e h e ns i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l pur c h a s i ng pol i c y, s t a t i ng a p r e f e r e n c e f or t he p u r c h a s e of e nv i r on m e n t a l l y p r e f e r a b l e p r o du c t s w he n e v e r t he y p e r f or m s a t i s f a c t or i l y a nd a r e a v a i l a b l e a t a r e a s on a b l e p r i c e ( U F 200 3) W i t h i n t hi s p ol i c y a r e r e qu i r e m e n t s t ha t t he U n i v e r s i t y u s e s t a t i on e r y e nv e l o pe s a nd bus i n e s s c a r ds m a nuf a c t ur e d f r o m r e c yc l e d pa p e r p u bl i c i z e t he p r o g r a m t o s e r v e a s a n e x a m pl e t o s t u de n t s a nd t he c o m m u n i t y a nd m a k e e f f or t s t o c on t r a c t w i t h ve ndor s t h a t a r e e nv i r on m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e ( U F 2003 ) F ur t he r t he U n i v e r s i t y ha s c r e a t e d S us t a i n a b l e P u r c h a s i n g g u i d e l i n e s t h r ou g h t he U n i v e r s i t y C on t r ol l e r s O f f i c e M a n y o f t he s e a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f ound i n t he e nv i r on m e n t a l p u r c h a s i n g p ol i c y bu t o t he r s a r e n e w o r e x pa nd e d. T h e a c qu i s i t i o n of of f i c e p r oduc t s t ha t a r e bo t h c r e a t e d f r o m r e c y c l e d m a t e r i a l s a nd r e c yc l a b l e c o m p o s t a b l e or r e us a b l e a t t he e nds o f t he i r u s e f u l l i v e s i s e n c our a g e d ( U F U n i v e r s i t y C on t r o l l e r 's O f f i c e 20 07) O t he r p r a c t i c e s t ha t a r e p r om o t e d i n c l u d e pur c ha s i ng dur a bl e a nd r e us a bl e goods l e a s i ng e qui pm e nt i ns t e a d of buy i ng w he n a ppr opr i a t e s p e c i f y pr odu c t a nd pa c ka g i ng t a ke ba c k by ve ndor s pur c h a s i ng goods i n bul k or c onc e nt r a t e d f or m t o r e du c e pa c ka gi ng, m a na gi ng s ur pl us e f f e c t i ve l y t o r e duc e n e c e s s a r y pur c ha s i ng, pr o c ur i ng c o m m odi t i e s t ha t a r e c e r t i f i e d t o m e e t s us t a i na bi l i t y s t a nda r ds i nc l udi ng L E E D a nd G r e e n G ua r d, pr oc u r i ng r e m a nuf a c t ur e d g oods a n d us i ng r e f ur bi s hi ng s e r v i c e s a nd pur c ha s i ng goo ds c ont a i ni ng f e w e r t oxi c c ons t i t ue nt s ( U F U ni v e r s i t y C on t r o l l e r s O f f i c e 2007) T he F ol l e t t H i ghe r E duc a t i on G r oup, w hi c h s uppl i e s c a m pus books t or e s i s de ve l opi ng a G r e e n T e xt book

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181 i ni t i a t i ve t ha t e nc our a ge s publ i s he r s t o us e a m i ni m um of 30% pos t c ons um e r r e c yc l e d pa pe r i n t he i r pr odu c t s a n d i nf or m s p r of e s s or s a s t o w hi c h publ i s he r s a r e m e m be r s of t he pr ogr a m ( U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007d ) F i na l l y, T he U ni ve r s i t y P ur c ha s i ng a nd D i s bur s e m e nt s D e pa r t m e nt w i l l m a ke e ve r y e f f or t t o s e c ur e c ont r a c t s w i t h v e ndor s t ha t a r e s oc i a l l y a nd e nvi r on m e nt a l l y c ons c i e nt i ous a nd c e r t i f i e d gr e e n w he ne ve r pr a c t i c a bl e ( U F U ni v e r s i t y C on t r o l l e r 's O f f i c e 2007) S i m i l a r l y, i n 2004 D uke i ns t i t ut e d a c om pr e he ns i v e G r e e n P ur c ha s i ng pol i c y i n w hi c h t he pos s i bl e e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s of pur c h a s i ng a r e a c know l e dg e d a nd gui de l i ne s f or c a m pus pr oc u r e m e nt a g e nt s a r e pr e s e nt e d ( C a pps 2007b) T hi s pol i c y a ddr e s s e s s i x pa r t i c ul a r a r e a s of f oc us : s our c e r e duc t i on, r e c y c l e d pr oduc t c ont e nt s e n e r gy a nd w a t e r s a vi ngs l a nds c a pi ng, t oxi c s a nd pol l ut i on, a nd f or e s t c ons e r va t i on ( D uke 2 004) T hough s om e of t he s e a r e a dd r e s s e d e l s e w he r e by D uk e ( a nd w i t hi n t hi s pr opos e d s t r a t e gy) t he i r i nc l us i on i n pur c ha s i ng di s pl a ys t he c om m i t m e nt of D uke t o s us t a i na bi l i t y a c r os s a l l di s c i pl i ne s T he s our c e r e duc t i on a r e a a dd r e s s e s o f f i c e p r oduc t s a nd ot he r pur c ha s i ng i n m a nne r s s i m i l a r t o t hos e pr opos e d by U F a nd U C M e r c e d, i n c l udi ng r e duc e d pa c k a gi ng, l ong t e r m ve r s us s hor t t e r m c os t s a nd r e us a bl e or r e m a nuf a c t ur e d p r oduc t s ( D uke 2004) T o c l o s e t h e r e c y c l i n g l oop D u ke l i k e U C M e r c e d U F a nd U O e n c our a g e s t h e pur c h a s e of pr odu c t s w i t h r e c y c l e d c on t e n t ( D uk e 2 004) P r oduc t s t h a t m e e t t h e E P A m i n i m u m r e c y c l e d c on t e n t s t a nd a r d gu i d e l i n e s a r e g i v e n pr i or i t y i n pur c h a s i ng ( D uke 2004) P ur c h a s e of v i a b l e r e p l a c e m e n t s f or c l e a n i n g pr odu c t s a nd o t h e r t ox i c c h e m i c a l s i s e n c our a g e d ( D uke 2004)

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182 T he D uke S t or e s w hi c h a r e t he p r i m a r y book a nd r e t a i l s t or e s on t he c a m p us a l s o ha ve a pur c ha s i ng pol i c y c om m i t m e nt t o gr e e n i t s pr od uc t of f e r i ngs ( C a pps 200 7b) D uke ha s i ns t i t ut e d a r e m a nuf a c t ur e d t one r c a r t r i dge s pol i c y t ha t r e qui r e s i t s of f i c e s u ppl y ve ndor s t o r e pl a c e s p e nt c a r t r i dge s w i t h r e m a nuf a c t ur e d on e s a nd a n E N E R G Y S T A R pol i c y m a nda t i ng t ha t a l l pur c ha s e s f or qua l i f yi ng pr odu c t s be E N E R G Y S T A R c e r t i f i e d ( C a pps 2007b) F i na l l y, i n c oope r a t i on w i t h t he of f i c e s u ppl y ve ndor s D uke s P r o c ur e m e nt O f f i c e h a s c r e a t e d a G r e e n S hoppi ng L i s t a va i l a bl e t o a l l c a m pus pur c h a s i ng a ge nt s ; t hi s e f f or t ha s r e s ul t e d i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl i e r pr oduc t s c om pr i s i ng ov e r 30% of a l l pur c ha s e s ( C a pps 2007b) I n 2002 03, P e nn S t a t e s P hys i c a l P l a nt a dopt e d pol i c i e s f or e nvi r onm e nt a l pur c ha s i ng. T he s e pol i c i e s e n c our a g e l i f e c yc l e c os t s e ne r gy u s e l ong t e r m i m pl i c a t i ons di s pos a l a nd r e l a t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l ha r m of pr odu c t s be i n c l ude d i n pur c ha s i ng d e c i s i ons ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007 a ) W i t hi n t he pol i c y i s a pr ovi s i on t ha t a l l pur c ha s i ng bi d r e que s t s e nc o ur a g e ve nd or s t o pr ovi de a l t e r n a t e b i ds f or m or e e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e pr oduc t s A l l U ni ve r s i t y pur c ha s i ng c a r d hol de r s w e r e not i f i e d of t he U ni ve r s i t y's c om m i t m e nt t o pur c ha s e E N E R G Y S T A R pr oduc t s L oc a l ve ndor s w e r e a l s o not i f i e d a nd a s ke d t o pr om ot e t hi s pol i c y t o U ni ve r s i t y pur c ha s e r s ( P e n n S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007a ) A s e c ond pol i c y e nc our a g e s obt a i ni ng goods t ha t m i ni m i z e w a s t e pr oduc t s h a ve hi g h r e c yc l e d c ont e nt us e e nvi r onm e nt a l pr oduc t i on m e t hods de m ons t r a t e m a xi m um dur a bi l i t y or bi ode gr a da bi l i t y, r e pa r a bi l i t y, e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y, non t oxi c i t y, a nd r e c y c l a bi l i t y ( P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007a )

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183 P e nn S t a t e s pur c ha s i n g gr oup e nc our a ge s s uppl i e r s t o i de nt i f y pr oduc t s or s e r vi c e s t ha t a dva nc e e nvi r onm e nt a l s t e w a r ds hi p, a nd du r i ng t he bi ddi ng pr oc e s s t o of f e r a n a ddi t i ona l bi d f or pr oduc t s s e r vi c e s or pr o c e s s e s t ha t a r e m or e e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y ( P e nn S t a t e A uxi l i a r y a n d B us i ne s s S e r vi c e s 2006) E nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s t ha t P e nn S t a t e r e c ogni z e s i nc l ude de c r e a s e d l i f e c yc l e c os t s l ow e r e ne r gy c ons um pt i on, r e c yc l e d c ont e nt e xt e nde d p r oduc t l i f e r e duc e d m a i nt e na n c e a nd a bi l i t y f or t he pr o duc t t o be r e c yc l e d a t t he e nd o f i t s us e f ul l i f e ( P e nn S t a t e A uxi l i a r y a nd B us i ne s s S e r vi c e s 2006) A l s o, P e nn S t a t e i s f i na l i z i ng a F i nanc e and B us i n e s s St r at e gy f or E nv i r onm e nt al St e w ar ds hi p F i na l l y, one of t he s t a t e d a i m s of t he U B C pr oc ur e m e nt pol i c y i s t o us e t he s c hool s pur c ha s i ng pow e r t o l e ve r a ge s oc i a l e t hi c a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l be ne f i t s ( U B C 2007a ) S us t a i na bi l i t y c om pone nt s / c r i t e r i a w e r e e s t a bl i s he d i n bi d doc um e nt s by t he S uppl y M a na ge m e nt de p a r t m e nt i n 2005. S uppl y M a na ge m e nt i ni t i a t e d a pr oc e dur e t o r e c om m e nd t he i nc l us i on of a s us t a i na bi l i t y c om pone nt phr a s e i n t he e va l u a t i on of c ont r a c t bi ds ( U B C 2007 a ) E ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y s t a nda r ds a r e a l s o i nc l ude d i n bi d doc um e nt s on a c a s e by c a s e ba s i s i nc l udi ng t he a c qui s i t i on of phot oc opi e r s a nd ot he r m a j or a ppl i a nc e s ( U B C 2007 a ) B y 2006, a l m os t 2/ 3 of a l l r e que s t s f or p r o pos a l s i nc l ude d a t l e a s t one s us t a i na bi l i t y e l e m e nt ( U B C 2007 a )

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184 T ab l e 10: S u s t ai n a b l e P u r c h as i n g S t r at e gi e s a t E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M M a n d a t o r y E n v i r o n m e n t a l P u r c h a s i n g P o l i c y N o p i l o t p r o g r a m Y e s Y e s N o p r o p o s e d P u r c h a s i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s N o Y e s Y e s L E E D a n d G r e e n G u a r d Y e s L E E D a n d C r a d l e t o C r a d l e i n p r o p o s e d E P P E d u c a t i o n o f p u r c h a s i n g s t a f f N o Y e s t h r o u g h b i d d o c u m e n t s Y e s Y e s w i t h i n p r o p o s e d E P P W o r k w i t h v e n d o r s t o i n c r e a s e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f p r o d u c t s N o Y e s t h r o u g h b i d d o c u m e n t s Y e s t e x t b o o k s u p p l i e r Y e s w i t h i n p r o p o s e d E P P P r oc u r e m e n t G oal s : I t e m s pur c ha s e d by t he u ni ve r s i t y w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d f r om r e n e w a bl e r e c y c l e d m a t e r i a l s a nd t he s e pr odu c t s i n t ur n w i l l be r e c yc l a bl e E ve nt ua l l y, 100% of t he s e pr oduc t s w i l l be r e c yc l e d or w i l l be c a pa b l e of bi ode gr a di ng t o r e t ur n nut r i e nt s t o t he e a r t h. F ur t he r t he D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O M a n d a t o r y E n v i r o n m e n t a l P u r c h a s i n g P o l i c y Y e s N o N o N o P u r c h a s i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s Y e s Y e s E N E R G Y S T A R w h e n a v a i l a b l e Y e s E N E R G Y S T A R o t h e r s Y e s R e c y c l e d p a p e r ; w o o d p r o d u c t s E d u c a t i o n o f p u r c h a s i n g s t a f f Y e s G r e e n S h o p p i n g L i s t N o Y e s Y e s W o r k w i t h v e n d o r s t o i n c r e a s e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f p r o d u c t s Y e s G r e e n S h o p p i n g L i s t N o Y e s N o

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185 m a nuf a c t ur e of a l l pr oduc t s pur c ha s e d by t he s c ho ol w i l l oc c ur i n a s us t a i na bl e m a nne r ve ndor s t ha t uni ve r s i t i e s c hoos e t o e nt e r i nt o c ont r a c t s w i t h w i l l ope r a t e s us t a i na bl y, a nd t he f a c t or y w or ke r s w i l l ope r a t e i n hum a n e c ondi t i ons a nd r e c e i ve l i vi ng w a ge s P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy D ur i ng t he i ni t i a l c a m pus r e vi e w t he O f f i c e of S u s t a i na bi l i t y w i l l obt a i n a n d r e vi e w e xi s t i ng uni ve r s i t y pur c ha s i ng pol i c i e s t o de t e r m i ne i f s us t a i na bi l i t y f a c t or s a r e r e qui r e d or e nc our a ge d. S us t a i na bi l i t y f a c t or s w i l l i nc l ude r e c yc l e d a nd r e c y c l a bl e c ont e nt of t he pr oduc t s r e us a bi l i t y of t he pr oduc t s l onge vi t y a n d dur a bi l i t y of t he pr oduc t s t oxi c / pol l ut a nt c ont e nt of t he pr oduc t s w or k e r pr o t e c t i ons a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l pol i c i e s of t he m a nuf a c t u r e r s o f t he pr oduc t s or s uppl i e r s of a s e r vi c e a nd t he l oc a t i on s of t he m a nuf a c t ur e r s i n r e l a t i on t o t he uni ve r s i t y. I f di f f e r e nc e s i n pol i c i e s e xi s t a m ong va r i ous de pa r t m e nt s on c a m pus t he i ndi vi dua l pol i c i e s f or e a c h d e pa r t m e nt w i l l be r e vi e w e d f or e l e m e nt s of s us t a i na bi l i t y. T he pur c h a s i ng de pa r t m e nt w i l l t he n c ont a c t c ur r e nt ve ndor s t o i nf or m t he m of t he uni ve r s i t y s de s i r e t o pur c h a s e m or e s us t a i na bl e good s T he c om m i t m e nt s of t he s e ve ndor s t o c r e a t e m or e r e c y c l a bl e a nd r e c y c l e d good s a nd t o ope r a t e i n s us t a i na bl e f a s hi on w i l l be a s s e s s e d. I f a c om pa ny ha s no pl a n m odi f y i t s pr a c t i c e s t h e uni ve r s i t y w i l l pr ovi de be nc hm a r ks a nd de a dl i ne s f o r s uc h pr a c t i c e s a nd a l l ow t he bus i ne s s t he oppor t uni t y t o a c hi e ve t he s e C onc ur r e nt l y, t he pu r c ha s i ng gr oup w i l l i de nt i f y c om pa ni e s t ha t m e e t t he s us t a i na bi l i t y t a r ge t s T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l s hi f t i t s pur c ha s i ng t o t he s e c om p a ni e s s houl d t he c u r r e nt ve ndor s not m e e t t he be n c hm a r ks a nd de a dl i ne s

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186 P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he pur c h a s i ng gr oup, i n c oor di na t i on w i t h t he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, w i l l i ns t i t ut e a n e duc a t i on pl a n f o r pur c h a s i ng gr oups a t t he u ni ve r s i t y, m uc h l i ke t he pr ogr a m s be gun a t U B C a nd U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon. L i ke m a ny o f t h e s c hool s a bove t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l e nc our a g e t ha t s us t a i na bi l i t y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s be i nc l ude d i n bi d doc um e nt s N o s c hool r e vi e w e d m a de pur c ha s i n g of s us t a i na bl e pr o duc t s a s i de f r om pa p e r m a nd a t or y, how e ve r B e c a us e of t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s n ot e d i n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o t hi s A r e a of F oc us how e ve r t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l be gi n t o r e qui r e pr oc ur e m e nt of t he s e pr oduc t s I n t hi s pha s e t he s c hool w i l l m a nda t e t ha t a t l e a s t 10 % of a l l pr oduc t s ( m e a s u r e d i n dol l a r s s pe nt ) pur c ha s e d by t he u ni ve r s i t y be c e r t i f i e d a s e nvi r onm e nt a l l y pr e f e r a bl e by a t hi r d pa r t y or ga ni z a t i on s uc h a s G r e e ngu a r d E nvi r onm e nt a l I ns t i t ut e or G r e e n S e a l F ur t he r a l l a ppl i a nc e s w i l l be E N E R G Y S T A R c e r t i f i e d t o a i d i n r e duc i ng e ne r gy c on s um pt i on. F i na l l y, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e vi e w t r a v e l pol i c y a n d s t udy w a ys t o r e duc e i m pa c t s of s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y t r a v e l t o c onf e r e nc e s a nd f i e l d r e s e a r c h a r e a s C a r poo l i ng or r i di ng a t r a i n t o r e gi ona l c onf e r e n c e s w i l l be pr i or i t i z e d, a s a i r pl a ne e m i s s i ons a r e c ons i de r a bl y hi ghe r t ha n f r om ot he r m ode s of t r a v e l f or s hor t t r i ps ( T uf t s C l i m a t e I ni t i a t i ve 2007) W he r e a va i l a bl e uni v e r s i t y t r a ve l e r s w i l l f r e qu e nt hot e l s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t e i n G r e e n S e a l s G r e e n L odg i ng P r ogr a m F i na l l y, i n t hi s a nd a l l s u bs e que nt pha s e s t he uni v e r s i t y w i l l pur c ha s e a s m a ny l oc a l a nd r e gi ona l l y pr oduc e d goo ds a s pos s i bl e N ot onl y w i l l t hi s a i d i n r e duc i ng t he e m bodi e d e ne r gy a nd pol l ut i on t ha t f or w hi c h t he uni ve r s i t y i s r e s pons i bl e i t i m pr ove s t he r e gi ona l e c onom y. A t t he U ni ve r s i t y of P e nns yl va ni a a pr ogr a m t o buy l oc a l pr odu c t s i nc r e a s e d

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187 l oc a l s pe ndi ng f r om $1 m i l l i on i n 1986 t o $57 m i l l i on i n 2000 ( M G oni gl e a nd S t a r ke 2006) P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt a t i on: M i ni m a l l y, 50% of a l l pr oduc t s ( m e a s ur e d i n dol l a r s s pe nt ) pur c ha s e d by t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l be c e r t i f i e d a s e nvi r o nm e nt a l l y pr e f e r a bl e by a t hi r d pa r t y or g a ni z a t i on F oc us w i l l be pl a c e d on p r oduc t s t ha t c a n be r e c yc l e d or r e us e d, t o a i d i n r e duc i ng w a s t e ge ne r a t i on f r om t he c a m pus O f t he s e c e r t i f i e d m a nuf a c t ur e d goods 10% w i l l be r e qu i r e d t o m e e t t he hi ghe s t C r a dl e t o C r a dl e ( C 2C ) P r oduc t C e r t i f i c a t i on s t a nda r d a va i l a bl e f or e a c h t ype of pr oduc t C r a dl e t o C r a dl e i s a pr oduc t e va l ua t i on t ool de v e l ope d by M c D onough a nd B r a unga r t t o de t e r m i ne t he e nvi r onm e nt a l i m pa c t s B ut C 2C goe s be yond ot he r s ys t e m s i n t ha t i t i s a hi e r a r c hi c a l a ppr oa c h t h a t l e a ds pr od uc t s a nd c om pa ni e s t o be c om e r e ge ne r a t i ve i n na t ur e m uc h l i ke t he ove r a l l R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy p r e s e nt e d i n t hi s s t udy. C 2C c e r t i f i c a t i on i ndi c a t e s t ha t a c om pa ny ha s c om m i t t e d t o pr oduc i ng goods us i ng c he m i c a l s m a t e r i a l s a nd pr oc e s s e s t ha t pr o m ot e e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd hum a n he a l t h a nd pe r pe t u a l r e c yc l a bi l i t y ( M B D C 2007) A l l C 2C pr oduc t s m e e t a nd of t e n l e a d t he hi ghe s t i nt e r na t i ona l r e gu l a t or y a nd i ndus t r y s t a nd a r ds ( M B D C 2007) C 2 C l a be l i ng i s a ppl i e d t o c e r t i f i e d p r odu c t s m uc h l i ke E N E R G Y S T A R ; t he l a be l s he l p c ons um e r s i de nt i f y t he s e pr oduc t s t h a t m ove us t o a pos i t i ve w or l d of s a f e he a l t hy a nd f a i r e c onom i c e nj oym e nt ( M B D C 2007) A c hi e vi ng t he 10% goa l s houl d not be di f f i c ul t a s s e ve r a l o f f i c e p r oduc t s f ur ni t ur e a nd bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s a r e c u r r e nt l y C 2C c e r t i f i e d, a n d m or e a r e c e r t i f i e d ye a r l y. T he

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188 U S G B C ha s r e c e nt l y r ul e d t ha t i nc or p or a t i on of C 2C pr oduc t s ( 2.5% of t he t ot a l va l ue of a l l bui l di ng m a t e r i a l s a nd pr oduc t s us e d i n t he pr oj e c t ) w i l l a c hi e v e one L E E D I nnova t i on i n D e s i gn c r e di t M e e t i ng t hi s goa l w i l l be gi n uni ve r s i t y pur c ha s i ng on t he r oa d t o r e g e ne r a t i ve de ve l opm e nt ; a s C 2C c e r t i f i c a t i on e xpa nds s o w i l l oppor t uni t i e s t o buy m or e r e g e ne r a t i ve l y pr oduc e d pr odu c t s P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e qui r e t ha t a l l pr oduc t s pur c h a s e d by t he s c hool w i l l b e c e r t i f i e d a s e nvi r onm e nt a l l y pr e f e r a b l e by a t hi r d p a r t y o r ga ni z a t i on. T o m ove c l os e r t o t he ove r a r c hi ng goa l of c r e a t i ng a r e ge n e r a t i ve c a m pu s 50% of t he pr oduc t s w i l l be r e qui r e d t o m e e t t he hi ghe s t C r a dl e t o C r a dl e ( C 2C ) P r oduc t C e r t i f i c a t i on s t a nda r d a va i l a bl e f o r e a c h t ype o f pr oduc t P has e V : W i t h i n 30 y e ar s : T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l r e qui r e t ha t a l l pr oduc t s pur c h a s e d by t he s c hool w i l l b e t hos e t ha t ha ve a c hi e ve d t he hi gh e s t C 2C s t a nda r d a va i l a bl e f or t ha t pr oduc t t ype A s pr oduc t s a nd c om pa ni e s be c om e m or e r e ge ne r a t i ve hi ghe r s t a n da r ds w i l l be m e t unt i l a l l pr oduc t s a c hi e ve C 2C P l a t i num I f C 2C i s una va i l a bl e f or pa r t i c ul a r goods t he m os t s us t a i na bl e ve r s i on on t he m a r ke t a s c e r t i f i e d by on e of t he t hi r d pa r t y or g a ni z a t i ons di s c us s e d a bove w i l l s e r ve a s a n a c c e pt a bl e r e pl a c e m e nt

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189 A RE A O F F O CUS 12: I N VE S T M E NT S A not he r a r e a o f t e n ove r l ooke d by i ns t i t ut i ons w h e n pl a nni ng t he i r s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s i s t he pl a c e m e nt of uni v e r s i t y e ndow m e nt f unds T h i s ove r s i ght c a n pr ove d e t r i m e nt a l t o gl oba l s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s A s B a ue ( 2006) not e s P o s i t i ve a c t i on on c a m pus c a n be dw a r f e d a nd c ount e r a c t e d by i na c t i ons on t he i nve s t m e nt f r ont , f o r i ndi vi dua l uni ve r s i t y e ndow m e nt s r a ng e f r om hundr e ds of m i l l i ons t o bi l l i ons of dol l a r s a nd w he r e uni ve r s i t i e s i nve s t t he s e m oni e s c a n a l t e r t h e pr a c t i c e s o f pr i va t e f i r m s a nd i nve s t m e nt f unds T he e c onom i c po w e r w i e l de d b y uni ve r s i t i e s c a n dr i v e t he m a r k e t t ow a r d gr e a t e r s us t a i na bi l i t y; t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons c a n be pow e r f ul s ha r e hol de r a dvoc a t e s t o i nf l ue nc e c or por a t e be ha vi or ( G r e e n C e nt ur y F unds 2007) I nve s t i ng t he i r s i gni f i c a n t f unds i n gr e e n f unds a nd c om pa ni e s or r e m ovi ng m one y f r om t hos e t ha t ha ve poo r e nvi r onm e nt a l r e c or ds s e nds a m e s s a g e t o t he m a r ke t G r e e n i nve s t i ng f o c us e s on e nvi r onm e nt a l l y pr oa c t i ve c om pa ni e s i nc l udi ng t hos e i nvol ve d i n a l t e r na t i ve e n e r gy, c om m uni t y i nve s t m e nt or ga ni c a nd n a t ur a l f oods a nd ot he r e c o f r i e ndl y t e c hno l ogi e s ( G r e e n C e nt ur y F unds 2007) F ur t he r t he e nvi r onm e nt a l e f f e c t s of t he op e r a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s of c om pa ni e s a r e e va l ua t e d i n gr e e n i nve s t m e nt C om pa ni e s t ha t a r e de v e l opi ng f os s i l f ue l s nuc l e a r t e c hnol ogy, f a c t or y f a r m i ng, a nd ot he r uns us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s a r e a voi de d ( G r e e n C e nt ur y F unds 2007) A s t he m a r ke t s hi f t s t o f a vor t he s e gr e e ne r c om pa ni e s t hos e c on duc t i ng uns us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s w i l l be e nc our a g e d t o c ha ng e t he i r pr a c t i c e s t o r e m a i n c o m pe t i t i ve A s a n a dde d b e ne f i t t he r e s ul t a nt gr e e n e r pr odu c t s of t he s e c om pa ni e s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t he pr o c ur e m e nt goa l s of t hi s s t r a t e gy, di s pl a yi ng ye t a not he r s yne r gy w i t hi n s us t a i na bi l i t y.

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190 W hi l e s om e uni v e r s i t i e s ha ve be gun t o i nve s t i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds m a ny ha ve j us t be gun t o c ons i de r t hi s a r e a w he n i nve s t i ng. T he S us t a i na bl e E ndow m e nt s I ns t i t ut e ( S E I ) not e s t ha t 19% of t h e s c hool s w i t h t he l a r ge s t 200 e ndow m e nt s i nve s t i n r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy ( S E I 200 7) O t he r s us t a i na bl e f un ds s uppor t e d by uni ve r s i t i e s i nc l ude c om m uni t y de ve l opm e nt a nd r e de ve l opm e nt i ni t i a t i ve s A t $34.9 bi l l i on, H a r va r d ha s one of t he l a r ge s t e n dow m e nt s of a ny uni ve r s i t y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T o he l p ove r s e e t h e e t hi c a l r e s pon s i bi l i t i e s of H a r va r d s i n ve s t m e nt s t w o c om m i t t e e s w e r e e s t a bl i s he d: t he C or por a t i on C om m i t t e e on S ha r e hol de r R e s pons i bi l i t y a nd t he A dvi s or y C om m i t t e e on S ha r e hol de r R e s p ons i bi l i t y. S t ude nt r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a r e i nc l ude d i n t he l a t t e r T h ough no f or m a l pol i c y on i nve s t i ng i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y or s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e f und s ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d, H a r va r d h a s i nve s t e d $20 m i l l i on i n l oc a l c om m uni t y de ve l opm e nt l oa n f unds a nd f i na n c i a l i ns t i t ut i ons gr a nt i ng l ow i nt e r e s t l oa ns f or a f f or da bl e hous i ng ( S E I 2007) T he A dvi s or y C om m i t t e e on S ha r e hol de r R e s pons i bi l i t y ha s a l s o b e e n voc a l i n a s ki ng f or s us t a i na bi l i t y r e por t s f r om c or por a t i ons i n w hi c h H a r v a r d i nve s t s a nd i n 2007 c oor di na t e d w i t h t he C or por a t i on C om m i t t e e on S ha r e hol de r R e s pons i bi l i t y t o i nve s t i ga t e di ve s t i n g f unds f r om c om pa ni e s t ha t c ont i nue d t o c onduc t bus i ne s s i n S uda n dur i ng t he ge noc i d e i n t ha t na t i on ( H a r v a r d U ni ve r s i t y 2007 ) H a r v a r d publ i s he s a n a nnua l r e por t gi vi ng ge ne r a l i nf o r m a t i on on i t s e ndow m e nt a nd pr oxy vot i ng r e c o r ds a r e a v a i l a bl e t o i nt e r e s t e d pa r t i e s upon r e qu e s t ( S E I 2007) T he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e go n a l s o ha s no f or m a l pol i c y r e ga r di ng e nvi r onm e n t a l s us t a i na bi l i t y i n i t s i nve s t m e nt por t f ol i o. F ur t he r ne i t he r i t s I nve s t m e nt P ol i c y S t a t e m e nt

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191 nor a l i s t of c om p a ni e s i n w hi c h i t i nve s t s i s publ i c l y a va i l a bl e ( S E I 2007) H ow e ve r t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon F o unda t i on s t a f f m e m be r s a ddr e s s s us t a i na bi l i t y c o nc e r ns on a c a s e by c a s e ba s i s w he n s c r e e ni ng pot e nt i a l n e w i nve s t m e nt s ( M i t a l e t a l 2007) A l s o, t he E nvi r onm e nt a l I s s ue s C om m i t t e e not e d t he ne e d f or p l a n s t o be g i n a s u s t a i n a b i l i t y e ndo w m e n t f und i n i t s 2 006 07 A nnua l R e p o r t ( U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon 2007 b) D uke c ur r e nt l y i nve s t s i n r e ne w a bl e e n e r gy a nd c o m m uni t y de ve l opm e nt l o a n f unds i nc l udi ng a $5 m i l l i on i n ve s t m e nt i n t he L a t i no C om m uni t y C r e di t U ni on ba s e d i n D ur ha m N C ( S E I 2007) D uke ha s c r e a t e d a P r e s i de nt 's A dvi s or y C om m i t t e e on I nve s t m e nt R e s pons i bi l i t y a nd i n F e br ua r y 2004, t h e boa r d o f t r us t e e s a do pt e d gui de l i ne s f or i nve s t i ng t he uni ve r s i t y's f i na nc e s i n a s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e m a nne r ( D uk e M a ga z i ne 2004 ) E ndow m e nt i nf or m a t i on c a n be a c c e s s e d vi a a w e bs i t e a n d a pa s s w or d, but i s not r e a di l y a va i l a bl e t o t he publ i c ( S E I 2007 ) L i t t l e i nf or m a t i on w a s a v a i l a bl e r e g a r di ng t he f un ds i n w hi c h U B C s e ndow m e nt f i na nc e s a r e i nve s t e d. T h e d e v e l o pm e n t o f t he s u s t a i n a b l e U n i v e r s i t y T o w n c o m m u n i t y on c a m p u s l a nd s i s p r oj e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t he U n i v e r s i t y E ndo w m e n t b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y $500 m i l l i o n ( U B C 2007 g ) A c c or di ng t o t he S E I ( 2007) N e w i nve s t m e nt m a na ge r s a r e a s ke d a bout t he i r und e r s t a ndi ng of t he s oc i a l e c ol ogi c a l a nd e c onom i c c on s e que nc e s o f t he i r i nve s t m e nt de c i s i ons i n or de r t o c l a r i f y t he i r a ppr oa c h a nd va l ue s i n m a ki ng i nve s t m e nt s on be ha l f of t he uni ve r s i t y. H ow e v e r t hough d e s i r e d by s om e e m pl oye e s s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e i nve s t m e nt f unds a r e not a v a i l a bl e a s a n opt i on w i t hi n t he uni ve r s i t y s pe ns i on pl a n be c a us e o f l e ga l c ons t r a i nt s obl i ga t i ng t he B oa r d of G ove r no r s

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192 t o f ol l ow i nve s t m e nt c r i t e r i a s ol e l y ba s e d on t h e b e s t f i na nc i a l i nt e r e s t s of t h e pe ns i on pl a n m e m be r s ( U B C F a c ul t y P e ns i on P l a n 2006) T he U n i v e r s i t y o f F l or i d a i s no t f or t hc o m i n g a b ou t i t s i nv e s t m e n t s s o i t i s unknow n a s t o w hi c h f unds a nd c om p a n i e s t he uni ve r s i t y i nve s t s i t s e ndow m e nt ( S E I 2007) S i m i l a r l y, n o pol i c i e s f or i n ve s t m e n t i n s us t a i na bl e t e c hnol ogy or c om pa ni e s w e r e f ou nd f or t he U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da U C M e r c e d i s pa r t of t he U C s ys t e m a nd t he r e f or e ha s no s t a nd a l one e ndo w m e nt H ow e ve r l i ke m a ny s c h ool s t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f or n i a h a s no t m a d e a ny p ub l i c s t a t e m e n t s a bou t i n v e s t i g a t i n g or i n v e s t i n g i n r e n e w a b l e e n e r gy f und s or c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t l o a n f und s ( S E I 2007 ) A nd f i na l l y, a c c or di ng t o t he S E I ( 2007) s om e of P e nn S t a t e s f unds m a y be i n c o m pa ni e s w i t h r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy s t r a t e gi e s H ow e ve r no f or m a l pol i c y t o i nve s t i n s oc i a l l y or e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d by t he s c h ool

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193 T ab l e 11: S u s t ai n a b l e I n ve s t m e n t S t r at e gi e s at E i gh t S u b j e c t U n i ve r s i t i e s H a r v a r d U B C U F U C M F o r m a l p o l i c y t o i n v e s t i n s u s t a i n a b l e f u n d s / p r o j e c t s N o N o N o n o I n v e s t m e n t i n s u s t a i n a b l e f u n d s / p r o j e c t s Y e s Y e s U n k n o w n U n k n o w n I n v e s t m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e L i m i t e d N o N o N o C a m p u s c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s Y e s N o N o N o E n d ow m e n t I n ve s t m e n t G oal s : T he 30 ye a r goa l f o r t hi s A r e a o f F oc us i s t ha t 100% of t he uni ve r s i t y s i nv e s t m e nt s be i n c om pa ni e s t ha t i m pl e m e nt r e ge ne r a t i ve ope r a t i on s a nd pr a c t i c e s or i n f und s t ha t s uppor t i ni t i a t i ve s t o s us t a i n hum a n a nd e c ol ogi c a l c om m uni t i e s a l l w hi l e r e c e i vi n g a he a l t hy D u k e U C F P e n n S t a t e U O F o r m a l p o l i c y t o i n v e s t i n s u s t a i n a b l e f u n d s / p r o j e c t s Y e s N o N o N o I n v e s t m e n t i n s u s t a i n a b l e f u n d s / p r o j e c t s Y e s U n k n o w n P o s s i b l y i n r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y U n k n o w n I n v e s t m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e L i m i t e d N o N o N o C a m p u s c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s Y e s N o N o N o

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194 f i na nc i a l r e t ur n on t he i n ve s t m e nt s T hough t he uni ve r s i t y i s s om e w ha t a t t he m e r c y o f t he bus i ne s s e s c a r e f ul r e s e a r c h i nt o c om p a ni e s a n d a dvoc a c y by t he uni ve r s i t y a s a pow e r f ul s ha r e hol de r w i l l he l p e ns ur e t he s e opt i on s a r e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e f or i nve s t m e nt i n t he f ut ur e P has e I : I m m e di at e i m pl e m e nt at i on, t o be c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t y e ar o f adopt i ng t he s t r at e gy A s pa r t of t he i ni t i a l s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt of t he c a m pus t he O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y w i l l de t e r m i ne t he pe r c e n t a ge of t he uni ve r s i t y e ndow m e nt i nve s t m e nt s t ha t a r e i n s oc i a l l y a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds T he uni ve r s i t y w i l l t he n c o nt a c t c om pa ni e s t ha t a r e not o pe r a t i ng i n s us t a i na bl e f a s hi on a nd f und m a na ge r s o f non s us t a i na bl e f unds t o i nf or m t he m of t he uni ve r s i t y s de s i r e t o i nve s t i n m or e s us t a i na bl e f unds A s i n t he P r oc ur e m e nt A r e a o f F oc us t he a s s e s s m e nt w i l l de t e r m i ne t he c om m i t m e nt s of t he s e c o m pa ni e s a nd f unds t o be c om e m or e s us t a i na bl e ; t i m e t a bl e s a nd be nc hm a r ks a r e p a r t i c ul a r l y he l pf ul I f no pl a n e x i s t s t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l d e ve l op t he be nc hm a r ks a nd de a dl i ne s a nd a l l ow t he bus i ne s s / f und t he oppor t uni t y t o m e e t t he s e S i m ul t a ne ous l y, uni ve r s i t y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s w i l l r e s e a r c h f i na nc i a l l y vi a bl e f un ds a nd c om pa ni e s t ha t a r e e nvi r onm e nt a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e ; s houl d t he r e qui r e d be nc hm a r ks not be m e t t he uni ve r s i t y m a y pot e nt i a l l y s hi f t a l l or pa r t of i t s por t f ol i o i nt o t he s e T o f a c i l i t a t e c h a nge s w i t hi n uni ve r s i t y e ndow m e n t i nve s t m e nt i t i s a l s o i m por t a nt t ha t i nf or m a t i on a bout t he e n dow m e nt be a c c e s s i bl e t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y ( S E I 2007) I n

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195 a ddi t i on, t he i nc l us i on of r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s f r om a c r os s t he c a m pus i n di s c us s i ons of t he s us t a i na bl e a s pe c t s o f i nve s t m e nt s a s s i s t s t he t r us t e e s a nd uni ve r s i t y f ounda t i on m e m be r s i n m a ki ng be t t e r i nf or m e d de c i s i ons T he r e f or e t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd e n dow m e nt f ounda t i on w i l l l a y t he gr oundw or k f or a n a dvi s or y boa r d r e g a r di ng e nvi r o nm e nt a l a nd s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y i n i n ve s t m e nt s P e r t he r e c o m m e nda t i on of t he S E I ( 2007) t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l a l s o r e l e a s e a n a nnua l r e por t of s h a r e hol de r pr oxy vot e s a n d a l i s t of t he f unds i n w hi c h t he uni ve r s i t y ha s i nve s t e d. P has e I I : W i t hi n t he f i r s t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: T he a dvi s or y boa r d t o e v a l ua t e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he uni ve r s i t y s i nve s t m e nt s w i l l be e s t a bl i s he d i n t hi s pha s e S ha r e hol de r r e s pons i bi l i t y c om m i t t e e s l i ke t he s e w hi c h a i d i n pr oxy vot e s a r e f ound a t H a r va r d, Y a l e S t a n f or d, a nd s e ve r a l ot he r s c hool s ( B a ue 2006) A good m od e l i s t he c om m i t t e e a t C l a r k U ni ve r s i t y, f or i t c ont a i ns r e p r e s e n t a t i ve s f r om a c r os s t he c a m pus c om m uni t y. C l a r k s c om m i t t e e c ons i s t s of f our t r us t e e s t hr e e f a c ul t y m e m be r s t hr e e s t ud e nt s one s t a f f m e m b e r a nd on e a l um nus w ho de l i be r a t e a nd m a ke r e c om m e nda t i ons or d e c i s i ons on pr oxy vot e s f or t he uni ve r s i t y. B y t he e nd of P ha s e I I a m i ni m um of 10% of e ndow m e nt i nve s t m e nt s w i l l be i n s oc i a l l y a nd/ or e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds or i n c om pa ni e s t ha t a r e e nvi r o nm e nt a l l y pr oa c t i ve a s di s c us s e d a bove P has e I I I : W i t hi n 10 y e a r s of pl an i m pl e m e nt at i on: B y t he e nd of P ha s e I I I a t l e a s t 25% of i nve s t m e nt s w i l l be i n s oc i a l l y a nd/ or

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196 e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds or i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y pr oa c t i ve c om pa n i e s P has e I V : W i t hi n 25 y e a r s : A t t he e nd of t hi s pha s e t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l ha ve i nve s t e d a s c l os e t o 100% of i t s e ndow m e nt a s pos s i bl e i nt o s oc i a l l y a nd/ or e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds O f t he s e 50% w i l l be w i t hi n f unds t ha t f oc us on bus i ne s s e s t ha t c onduc t r e g e ne r a t i ve bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e a nd/ or pr odu c e r e ge ne r a t i ve goods A s o ur c e f o r c om pa ni e s t h a t pe r f or m i n a r e ge ne r a t i ve m a nn e r i s t h e C r a dl e t o C r a dl e pr og r a m di s c us s e d i n t he P r oc ur e m e nt A r e a of F oc us I f i t a ppe a r s t h a t t he bus i ne s s c om m uni t y i s not r e s pondi ng r a pi dl y e nough a f t e r P ha s e I I I t o m e e t t he P ha s e I V b e nc hm a r k, u ni ve r s i t i e s t ha t s ha r e a g e ogr a phi c r e gi on or gove r ni ng a ge n c i e s ( e .g., t he F l or i da pub l i c uni ve r s i t y s ys t e m ) c oul d c ons i de r c r e a t i ng a s us t a i n a bl e i nv e s t m e nt c ons or t i um t o br i ng a n e ve n m or e po w e r f ul voi c e t o a l t e r i ng t r a di t i ona l non s us t a i na bl e bus i ne s s pr a c t i c e s vi a pr oxy vot e s a nd o t he r a ve nu e s P has e V : W i t hi n 30 y e ar s : 100% of i nve s t m e nt s w i l l be i n r e ge ne r a t i ve f unds or bus i ne s s e s

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197 C h ap t e r 2: U S F A s s e s s m e n t T hi s c ha pt e r pr ovi d e s a p r e l i m i na r y a s s e s s m e nt of t he e nvi r onm e nt a l s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s a t U S F T he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy s ynt he s i z e d a nd de s c r i be d i n C ha pt e r 1 s e r v e s a s t he a s s e s s m e nt t ool O pt i ons f or i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he va r i ous A r e a s of F oc us w i t hi n t he pr opos e d s t r a t e gy a t U S F a r e a l s o di s c us s e d. T hough U S F w oul d be gi n i n P ha s e I of m os t of t he A r e a s of F oc us po s s i bl e i de a s of w ha t t he c a m pus m a y i m pl e m e nt t hr ough P ha s e V a r e a l s o e xpl or e d. 1. A DM I NI S T RAT I O N : A s of J a nua r y 2008, t he U S F a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s m a d e no publ i c c om m i t m e nt t o s e t t i ng a nd a c hi e vi ng go a l s f or c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y. T he U S F P r e s i de nt ha s s i gne d ne i t he r t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on nor t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt F ur t he r no O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y or s i m i l a r de pa r t m e nt ha s b e e n e s t a bl i s h e d a t U S F H ow e ve r t he F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on D e pa r t m e nt ( F P & C ) ha s t w o L E E D A c c r e di t e d P r of e s s i ona l s ( A P s ) on s t a f f a nd s om e a s pe c t s of t he 2005 C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n a ddr e s s s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s M a s t e r P l a n t opi c s i nc l ude e ne r gy a nd w a t e r c ons um pt i on, r e c y c l i ng, t r a ns por t a t i on, a nd pr e s e r va t i on of gr e e n s p a c e a n d a r e di s c us s e d i n m or e d e t a i l i n t he i r r e s pe c t i ve s e c t i ons be l ow T he F P & C D e pa r t m e nt l i s t s w i t hi n i t s va l ue s s uc h i de a s a s c ons e r v a t i on/ e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y, e nvi r onm e nt a l r e s pon s i bi l i t y, c l i m a t o l ogi c a l l y r e s pons i ve de s i gns hi gh qua l i t y c ont e xt ua l de s i gn, a nd [ t o] e nh a nc e l a nds c a pe / i ndi ge nous s pe c i e s ( U S F F P & C 2005) Y e t de s pi t e t he m e nt i ons of e ne r g y e f f i c i e n c y

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198 a nd ot he r s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gi e s no be n c hm a r ks ha ve be e n e s t a bl i s he d a n d f e w pr ogr a m s e na c t e d t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he U S F c a m pus a nd ope r a t i ons W i t hout a c om m i t m e nt f r om t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o s us t a i na bl e pr a c t i c e s a nd w i t hout t he f or m a t i on of s pe c i f i c s t r a t e gi e s a nd c onc r e t e go a l s f or c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y, t hi s w i l l r e m a i n a l ow pr i or i t y f o r U S F C ha r l e s K i be r t D i r e c t or of t he P ow e l l C e nt e r f or C ons t r uc t i on & E nvi r onm e nt a t U F a nd a 1982 P h.D gr a dua t e of U S F ha s a t t e m pt e d t o i nt r oduc e c onc e pt s of s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o pl a ns f or U S F w i t h l i t t l e s uc c e s s H ow e ve r hi s e f f or t s ha ve he l pe d U F be c om e a n a t i ona l l e a de r i n c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y. A s he not e d i n a r e c e nt pr e s e nt a t i on, hi s e xpe r i e n c e s a t bot h s c ho ol s s how t ha t no s us t a i na bi l i t y m ove m e nt on c a m pus w i l l s uc c e e d w i t hout t he s u ppor t of t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on. T he r e f or e U S F w oul d be gi n i n P ha s e I of t hi s R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy. E m ul a t i ng t he be s t pr a c t i c e s a t i ns t i t ut i ons w i t h a dva nc e d s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s P r e s i d e nt G e ns ha f t w oul d s i gn bot h t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on a nd t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on, w i t h i npu t f r om s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f w oul d t he n de v e l op a n e nvi r onm e nt a l pol i c y t ha t i nc l ude s t he goa l of be c om i ng a r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus w i t hi n 30 ye a r s I m m e di a t e c r e a t i o n of a n O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y, s i m i l a r t o t hos e a t D uke U F a nd U B C w oul d oc c ur w i t h i t s f i r s t dut y t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a c om pr e he ns i ve a s s e s s m e nt of t he U S F c a m pus ba s e d i n pa r t on t he f i ndi ngs i n t hi s s t udy. T hi s O f f i c e w i l l s e r ve a s t he hub f o r a l l pr ogr a m s r e l a t e d t o s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a nd i t s D i r e c t or b e t he c ha m pi on f or s us t a i n a bi l i t y a t t he uni ve r s i t y. T o be m os t e f f e c t i ve f or t he s e dut i e s t he O f f i c e w oul d be pl a c e d hi gh w i t hi n t he O f f i c e of t he E xe c ut i ve V i c e P r e s i de nt a nd

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199 c oor di na t e c l os e l y w i t h t he D i r e c t o r of t he P hys i c a l P l a nt a nd t he D i r e c t o r of F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on. 2. A CADE M I A C ur r e nt l y ( J a nua r y 2008) U S F of f e r s a t l e a s t 136 c our s e s i nvol vi ng s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s U S F a l s o hous e s s e ve r a l r e s e a r c h gr oups c onduc t i ng s t udi e s i nt o s us t a i na bi l i t y a nd gr e e n t e c hn ol ogy; t he s e gr oups i nc l ude t he C l e a n E ne r g y R e s e a r c h C e nt e r ( C E R C ) t he C e nt e r f or U r b a n T r a ns po r t a t i on R e s e a r c h ( C U T R ) a nd t he F l or i da C e nt e r f o r C om m uni t y D e s i gn a nd R e s e a r c h. F a c ul t y a nd s t ude nt s i n t he C ol l e ge of B us i ne s s A dm i ni s t r a t i on ( C O B A ) e di t a nd pr odu c e t he j our na l O r gani z at i on and E nv i r onm e nt a nd C O B A hos t s t he A nnua l B us i ne s s S us t a i na bi l i t y S ym pos i um T he ne w l y c r e a t e d P a t e l C e nt e r f o r G l oba l S ol ut i ons i nc or por a t e s t he t r i pl e bot t om l i ne of s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o i t s r e s e a r c h goa l s a nd va l ue s ( U S F P a t e l C e nt e r 2006 ) A nd, t he P a t e l C e nt e r w a s one of t he m a j or or ga ni z e r s of t he M a y 20 07 F l or i da C l i m a t e C ha nge C onf e r e nc e S e ve r a l s t ude nt gr oups h a ve a r i s e n a t U S F a s w e l l T he S t ude nt E nvi r onm e nt a l A s s oc i a t i on, E ngi ne e r s W i t hout B or de r s C oa l i t i on f or G l oba l J us t i c e a n d E ngi ne e r s f o r a S us t a i na bl e W or l d w or k on va r i ous s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s T he r e c e nt l y c r e a t e d E m e r gi ng G r e e n B ui l de r s a s t ude nt a r m of t he U S G B C ha s hos t e d a pa ne l di s c us s i on on gr e e n bui l di ng a nd i s c on duc t i ng a m oc k L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on f or t he n e w M a r s ha l l C e nt e r a s a n e duc a t i on t ool f or g r oup m e m be r s a nd t he un i ve r s i t y. A not he r e duc a t i ona l oppor t uni t y oc c ur r e d du r i ng t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he G r e e n L i ght s P r ogr a m ( s e e B ui l di ngs s e c t i on be l ow ) T hr ough t he G r e e n L i g ht s P r ogr a m t he U ni ve r s i t y ha s t r a i ne d

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200 e ngi ne e r i ng s t ude nt s t o s ur ve y a nd de s i gn l i ght i ng w hi l e gi vi ng t he m pr oj e c t m a na ge m e nt e xp e r i e n c e ( U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 200 4a ) U S F a l s o e nc our a ge s s ol i c i t i ng t he i nvol ve m e nt of f a c ul t y, s t a f f a nd s t ude nt s t o a d dr e s s a nd de v e l op pl a ns f or s us t a i na bi l i t y on c a m pus ( P ol i c y 15.1.5) a pol i c y t ha t ha s t r a ns l a t e d i nt o a s uc c e s s f ul pa r t ne r s hi p be t w e e n U S F a nd C U T R f or t r a ns por t a t i on i s s ue s U S F ha s a s t r ong nuc l e us of c our s e s r e s e a r c h a nd s t ude nt gr oups f oc us e d o n s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s A m or e c om pr e h e ns i ve r e vi e w t ha n t hi s s t udy i s ne c e s s a r y t o de t e r m i ne e x a c t l y w he r e U S F i s i n t he s e a r e a s pa r t i c ul a r l y r e ga r di ng f undi ng l e ve l s f or t he s e pr ogr a m s T h e r e f o r e U S F w oul d be gi n by e va l ua t i ng t he c ur r e nt a c a de m i c s uppor t f or a nd i nt e r e s t i n gr e e n i s s ue s a s pe r P ha s e I of t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e g y. E ve nt ua l l y, a l l U S F gr a dua t e s w i l l be e nvi r onm e n t a l l y l i t e r a t e a nd ha v e a w or ki ng know l e dge of s us t a i na bi l i t y l e a r ne d bot h i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd t hr ough da i l y l i f e on t he c a m pus 3. B UI L DI NG S : E l e m e nt s of t he 2005 M a s t e r P l a n a ddr e s s L E E D a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y. W i t hi n t he pl a n e l e m e nt s U S F e m br a c e s t he c onc e pt s of s us t a i n a bl e bui l di ng a nd s i t e de s i gn. T he U ni ve r s i t y a l s o r e c ogni z e s t ha t t he t e c hni que s t e c hnol ogy a nd c os t s of s us t a i na bl e de s i gn a r e c ont i nuous l y e vol vi n g a nd i m pr ovi ng. T he r e f or e i t i s t he i nt e nt i on of t he U ni ve r s i t y t o bui l d t he m os t s us t a i na bl e e f f i c i e nt a nd he a l t hy bui l di ngs pr a c t i c a l a nd f i na nc i a l l y f e a s i bl e a t t he t i m e of t h e i r c ons t r uc t i on.

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201 A s f or L E E D s t a nd a r ds w i t hi n c ons t r uc t i on, 2005 C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n P ol i c y 15.1.4 s t a t e s : T he U ni ve r s i t y s ha l l e nc our a g e a l l f ut ur e bui l di ngs t o be de s i gne d i n a c c or d a nc e w i t h L E E D ( L e a d e r s hi p i n E ne r gy a nd E nvi r onm e nt a l D e s i gn) de s i gn c r i t e r i a e s t a bl i s he d by t he U ni t e d S t a t e s G r e e n B ui l di ng C ounc i l a s m uc h a s pr a c t i c a l pos s i bl e a nd f i na nc i a l l y f e a s i bl e . P ol i c y 10A .3.12 m e nt i ons t ha t t he U ni ve r s i t y s ha l l d e ve l op a pl a n t o pr ovi de L E E D ba s e d p r oj e c t s t o pr om ot e l e s s e n e r gy us e r e duc i ng t he e l e c t r i c a nd f os s i l f ue l de m a nd. F ur t he r P ol i c y 10C .2.4 m a nda t e s t ha t t he e l e c t r i c a l de s i gn of a l l f ut ur e bui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on s ha l l be de s i gne d t o a c hi e ve a t m i ni m um a C e r t i f i e d L E E D r a t i ng. O t he r pol i c i e s i nc l ude i n s t a l l i ng l ow vol um e pl u m bi ng f i xt ur e s a nd e ne r g y e f f i c i e nt l i ght i ng, c r e a t i ng a w a t e r l e a k de t e c t i on pr ogr a m e nc our a gi ng bui l di ng de s i gns t o i nc or por a t e op e r a bl e w i n dow s a nd s ol a r s c r e e ns a nd r e qui r i ng bui l di ngs t o be de s i gne d t o F l or i da s c l i m a t e T he M a s t e r P l a n e nc ou r a ge s t he de s i gn, c ons t r uc t i on, a nd r e nova t i on of a l l bui l di ng e xt e r i or s t o ha ve a m i ni m um us e f ul l i f e of 40 ye a r s a nd i nt e r i or s pa c e s a nd bui l di ng s ys t e m s 20 ye a r s w i t hout ne e d of m a j or ove r h a ul w i t hi n t ha t t i m e pe r i od. A pa s t i ni t i a t i ve t o a ddr e s s e ne r gy c ons e r va t i on w a s t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he U S E P A G r e e n L i ght s P r ogr a m by f or m e r P r e s i d e nt B e t t y C a s t or T hi s pr ogr a m a i m e d t o de c r e a s e e ne r gy c ons um pt i on by r e t r of i t t i ng l i ght i ng s ys t e m s t hr oughout U S F L i g ht i ng s ur ve ys w e r e c onduc t e d i n a l l bui l di ngs t o i de nt i f y oppor t uni t i e s t o i m pr ove l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons l i ght i ng s ys t e m de s i gn, u s e of e f f i c i e nt l a m p a nd b a l l a s t t ype s a nd us e of m ode r n c ont r ol s

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202 t o s hut of f l i ght i ng w he n not i n us e t hus i m pr ovi n g e f f i c i e n c y a nd r e duc i ng w a s t e ( U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2004a ) A t t he t i m e t he pr ogr a m w a s be gun, i t w a s e s t i m a t e d t ha t ove r $600,000 pe r ye a r w oul d be s a ve d i n ut i l i t y c os t s a f t e r t he p r ogr a m w a s f ul l y i m pl e m e nt e d ( U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2004a ) T he f i r s t m a j or de m ons t r a t i on pr oj e c t t ook pl a c e a t t he L i f e S c i e n c e F a c i l i t y ( L I F ) w he r e e l e c t r i c i t y c ons um pt i on dr oppe d by 250,585 kW h a nd c os t s w e r e r e duc e d by ove r $2 0,000 pe r ye a r ( U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2004a ) G r e e n L i ght s a t U S F ha s pr ove n t o be e v e n m or e s uc c e s s f ul t ha n pl a nne d, how e ve r a s N a i na n D e s a i of t he P hys i c a l P l a nt r e por t e d t ha t a ppr oxi m a t e l y $1 m i l l i on a nnua l l y i s s a ve d due t o t he s e r e t r o f i t s ( H a nn a W e s t 2006) F ur t he r t he ov e r a l l pr oj e c t c a m e i n a t a l m os t $2 m i l l i on unde r t he or i gi na l $5 m i l l i on budge t ( H a nna W e s t 2006) O t he r c ur r e nt e n e r gy c on s e r va t i on m e a s ur e s i nc l u de B ui l di ng S c he dul e O pt i m i z a t i on, r e pl a c e m e nt of c hi l l e r s a nd boi l e r s w i t h hi ghe r e f f i c i e nc y ve r s i ons a nd i ns t a l l a t i on of ne w e l e c t r i c t r a ns f or m e r s a c r os s t he c a m pus ( U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2004a ) A not he r opt i on unde r c ons i de r a t i on i n t he M a s t e r P l a n i s t he c ons t r uc t i on of a c og e ne r a t i on f a c i l i t y or ot he r on s i t e pow e r s our c e t o a ddr e s s pe a k d e m a n d pe r i ods D i s c us s i on t o c ons t r uc t t he ne w P a t e l C e nt e r bui l di ng t o a c hi e ve m i ni m um L E E D N C c e r t i f i c a t i on ha s oc c u r r e d but no de c i s i on ha s be e n m a de A not he r n e w bu i l di ng, t he M a r s ha l l C e nt e r s t ude nt uni on, i s c ur r e nt l y unde r c ons t r uc t i on a nd ha s s om e gr e e n d e s i gn e l e m e nt s a nd t e c hnol ogy. H ow e ve r i t w i l l not be a L E E D N C c e r t i f i e d bui l di ng. A s of J a nua r y 2008 U S F ha d no pol i c y t o r e qui r e bui l di ngs t o be L E E D N C c e r t i f i e d or a s a n a l t e r n a t i ve t o be c o ns t r uc t e d t o L E E D s t a nd a r ds but f or e go c e r t i f i c a t i on. N o

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203 m a nda t e f or e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs t o a c hi e ve L E E D E B r a t i ngs e xi s t s e i t he r T he M a s t e r P l a n c ont a i ns l a ngua ge t ha t doe s not c om m i t t he U ni ve r s i t y t o m a ny goa l s ; i ns t e a d, s us t a i na bi l i t y i n ope r a t i ons a nd c ons t r uc t i on i s t o be e n c our a g e d or t o b e i nc or por a t e d i f f e a s i bl e or pr a c t i c a l . F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on s t a f f i ndi c a t e a w i l l i ngne s s t o bui l d t o L E E D N C but ha ve not r e c e i ve d t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t ne c e s s a r y t o be gi n t he s e pr ogr a m s I n a n i nt e r vi e w s t a f f not e d t ha t t he y i n c or por a t e t e c hnol ogy a nd i de a s i nt o ne w bui l di ngs w he r e t h e y c a n t o c r e a t e gr e e n e r s t r uc t ur e s w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y m e e t i ng ot he r uni ve r s i t y m a nda t e s i nc l udi ng m i ni m u m s qua r e f oot a ge f o r bu i l di ngs budge t l i m i t a t i ons e t c ( D one r l y a nd I s e n be c k, 2007 ) T he pr opos e d gr o w t h f or U S F ove r t he ne xt 10 ye a r s pr ovi de s a t r e m e ndous oppor t uni t y t o be gi n t he j our ne y t ow a r ds be c om i ng a r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus T he 2005 C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n upda t e e s t a bl i s he s s e ve r a l f ut ur e bui l di ng s i t e s f or t he n e xt de c a de w i t h a t l e a s t 778,716 gr os s s qua r e f e e t of s t r uc t ur e s pl a nn e d. I f t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e g y i s i m pl e m e nt e d i n 2008, t he s e ne w bui l di ngs w i l l be c ons t r uc t e d a nd s ubs e que nt l y ope r a t e d t o de c r e a s e t he i r e nvi r on m e nt a l i m pa c t s F ur t he r a s a l m os t 25% of t he 24 0 bui l di ngs a t U S F w i l l r e a c h t he a ge o f 50 ye a r s du r i ng t he ne x t de c a de t h e pl a n i nc l ude s r e nova t i on of t he s e a s w e l l P ol i c y 15.1.6 of t he M a s t e r P l a n pr ovi de s a s t a r t i ng poi nt f or t hi s a s i t r e q ui r e s t he e va l ua t i on of a l l e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs w i t h r e s pe c t t o e n e r gy e f f i c i e nc y a s w e l l a s t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a c a m pus w i de e ne r gy m a na ge m e nt s ys t e m T o be gi n a c hi e vi ng t he r e qui r e m e nt s of P ha s e I o f t he B ui l di ngs s e c t i on of t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy U S F w oul d e xpa nd t he M a s t e r P l a n m a nda t e d e va l u a t i on of

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204 e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs t o i nc l ude a l l c r i t e r i a w i t hi n L E E D E B F ur t he r U S F w oul d c ont i nue t o r e pl a c e a l l l i ght f i xt ur e s i n a l l e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs w i t h hi gh e f f i c i e nc y v e r s i ons M uc h a s U B C di d i n i t s E c ot r e k pr oj e c t P hys i c a l P l a nt s t a f f w oul d i ns pe c t a l l do or s a nd w i ndow s a nd r e p a i r a ny l e a ks or da m a ge a nd i ns p e c t a nd r e pa i r a l l w a t e r l i ne s a nd f i xt ur e s a s w e l l F ol l ow i ng t he be s t pr a c t i c e s e s t a bl i s he d by s e v e r a l s c hool s not e d f or t he i r s us t a i na b i l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s U S F w oul d m a nda t e t ha t a l l ne w bui l di ngs a nd m a j or r e nov a t i on pr oj e c t s a ppl y f or a nd a c hi e v e L E E D N C S i l ve r c e r t i f i c a t i on be gi nni ng one ye a r a f t e r t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s i ni t i a t e d. U S F w oul d us e L E E D N C c r i t e r i a t o e v a l ua t e a l l yo unge r bui l di ngs a nd pr opos e d bui l di ngs a nd de t e r m i ne t he c os t s t o upgr a de t he s e t o a t t a i n L E E D N C S i l ve r I f a ny r e c e nt l y c om pl e t e d s t r uc t ur e s m e e t t he c r i t e r i a or do s o w i t h m i ni m a l e f f or t U S F w oul d m a ke i m m e di a t e a ppl i c a t i on f or c e r t i f i c a t i on w i t h t he U S B G C t he ne w M a r s ha l l C e nt e r i s a l i ke l y c a n di da t e A s bui l di ng t e c hnol ogy i m pr ove s a nd a s t he m a r ke t f or gr e e n bui l di ng pr oduc t s e xpa nds t hus r e duc i ng c os t s U S F w i l l be a bl e t o c ons t r uc t a nd r e nova t e bui l di ngs t o a c hi e ve hi ghe r l e ve l s of s us t a i na b i l i t y; e ve nt ua l l y a l l w i l l b e r e ge n e r a t i ve A n i nt e r e s t i ng t e c hnol ogy t ha t m a y pr o ve us e f ul i n bui l di ngs on t he U S F c a m pus i s a c l a d di ng m a de w i t h a s upe r c onduc t i ve phot os ynt he t i c pl a s m a c e l l s ki n; t hi s t e c hnol ogy w a s pr opos e d i n a de s i gn f or a r e g e ne r a t i ve hom e a w a r de d f i r s t pl a c e i n t he C r a dl e t o C r a dl e H om e C om pe t i t i on ( C oa t e s a nd M e l dr um 2005) T hi s t e c hnol ogy ha s not be e n pe r f e c t e d, but t he i de a c a m e f r om c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h i nvol vi ng e xt r a c t e d s pi na c h pr ot e i n ( C oa t e s a nd

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205 M e l dr um 2005) A c c or d i ng t o t he de s i gne r s t hi s s ki n w oul d be c a pa bl e o f ge ne r a t i ng 200% m or e e l e c t r i c a l vol t a ge pe r a r e a t ha n c ont e m por a r y phot ovol t a i c s ( C oa t e s a nd M e l dr um 2005) N ot onl y i s t he c l a ddi ng phot os ynt he t i c i t i s a l s o phot ot r o pi c m e a ni ng i t w i l l gr ow a nd f ol l ow s unl i ght ( C oa t e s a nd M e l dr um 2005) W i t h t he i nt e ns i t y a nd dur a t i on of s unl i ght t hr oughout t he ye a r i n s out h F l or i da t hi s c oul d be a t r e m e ndous pow e r s our c e f o r e a c h bu i l di ng. C oa t e s a nd M e l dr um ( 20 05) a l s o c r e a t e d a c e nt r a l c or e t ow e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t he s t a c k e f f e c t i n w hi c h t e m pe r a t ur e di f f e r e nc e s c a us e a i r p r e s s ur e di f f e r e nc e s a nd t hus m ove m e nt of a i r i nt o t he bui l di ng. T hi s n a t ur a l ve nt i l a t i on a nd a i r f l ow w oul d s e r ve U S F bui l di ngs w e l l dur i ng m os t of t he ye a r T he de s i gn t e a m w r a ppe d t he c e nt r a l c or e w i t h t he s upe r c onduc t i ve s ki n t o opt i m i z e i t s pos i t i on r e l a t i ve t o s unl i ght ; a s i m i l a r s t r a t e gy c oul d be us e d i n U S F bui l di ngs A nd be c a us e t he a i r i n t he T a m pa r e gi on i s of t e n hum i d, pl a c i ng a de hum i di f i e r i n t he c e nt r a l c or e c oul d ge ne r a t e s u f f i c i e nt a m o unt s of hi gh qua l i t y dr i nki ng w a t e r t o m e e t t he ne e ds o f bui l di ng oc c upa nt s t hus r e du c i ng pr e s s ur e on t he a qui f e r 4. E NE RG Y S UP P L Y : U S F c ur r e nt l y ha s no pol i c y r e qui r i ng t he pur c ha s e or pr oduc t i on of e ne r gy ge ne r a t e d by s our c e s ot he r t h a n c onve nt i on a l f os s i l f ue l s T he 2005 M a s t e r P l a n s ugge s t s t ha t a l t e r na t i ve e n e r gy s our c e s be s t udi e d a nd t ha t s ol a r e ne r gy b e e v a l ua t e d a s a pot e nt i a l opt i on f or i r r i ga t i on s ys t e m s l i ght i ng, t e l e phone s a nd s hut t l e s T a m pa E l e c t r i c C om pa ny

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206 ( T E C O ) r e m a i ns t he c a m pus e l e c t r i c a l pr ovi de r w hi l e U S F ow ns a nd ope r a t e s t he on c a m pus di s t r i but i on s ys t e m T E C O doe s pr ovi de a R e ne w a bl e E n e r gy P r ogr a m t ha t of f e r s a l t e r na t i ve e n e r gy f or pur c ha s e B l oc ks o f e ne r gy, e a c h r e pr e s e nt i ng 200 ki l ow a t t hour s of e ne r g y pr oduc t i on f r o m r e n e w a bl e s ou r c e s a t T E C O pl a nt s a r e a va i l a bl e t o r e s i de nt i a l a nd c o m m e r c i a l c ons um e r s be gi nni ng a t f i ve dol l a r s pe r bl oc k. T E C O a l s o ha s a pr ogr a m t o c onne c t s ol a r pa ne l s ys t e m s t o i t s gr i d a nd a l l ow r e v e r s e m e t e r i ng s o t ha t pow e r f r om t h e s e s ys t e m s c a n be s ol d t o T E C O H ow e ve r U S F ha s c hos e n not t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n e i t he r p r ogr a m t hus f a r U S F w oul d be gi n i n P ha s e I of t he E n e r gy A r e a o f F oc us w i t hi n t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, be gi nni ng by ne got i a t i ng w i t h T E C O t o pur c ha s e g r e e n po w e r vi a i t s R e n e w a bl e E n e r gy P r ogr a m H a r va r d a nd D uk e h a ve i m pl e m e nt e d s i m i l a r gr e e n pow e r pur c ha s i ng pr ogr a m s U S F c oul d qui c kl y m ove i nt o P ha s e I I pa yi ng t he e xt r a f e w dol l a r s pe r bl oc k of e ne r gy t o a c hi e ve t he goa l t ha t a m i ni m um 15% of e l e c t r i c i t y b e s uppl i e d vi a r e ne w a bl e s our c e s P ur c ha s e of R E C s f r om a c a r bon of f s e t pr ogr a m m a y be us e d t o s uppl e m e nt t he r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy us e t o a c hi e ve 1 5% i f T E C O doe s not pr oduc e a de qua t e a m ount s of a l t e r na t i ve e ne r gy t o m e e t U S F s de m a nds T he r e qu i r e m e nt s f or r e ne w a bl e e n e r g y i nc r e a s e ove r t he l i f e of t he R e g e ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, s o di s c us s i ons w i t h T E C O t o boos t i t s ge ne r a t i on of e l e c t r i c i t y vi a a l t e r na t i ve s our c e s w oul d be vi t a l t o s uc c e s s f ul l y i m pl e m e nt i ng t he S t r a t e gy.

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207 5. G H G s : T he r e a r e pol i c y s t a t e m e nt s r e ga r di ng a i r pol l ut i o n w i t hi n t he M a s t e r P l a n. U S F ha s c om m i t t e d t o m i ni m i z e a i r pol l ut a nt s f r om a nd w i t hi n bui l di ngs on c a m pus t hr ough t he i ns t a l l a t i on of f i l t e r s on f um e hoods a nd w i l l m oni t or i ndoor a nd out door a i r qua l i t y. H ow e ve r no s pe c i f i c pol i c i e s t o r e duc e G H G s h a ve be e n e na c t e d a t U S F F ur t he r t he uni ve r s i t y ha s m a de no c om m i t m e nt t o c ount e r i t s G H G pr oduc t i on, nor h a s i t i ns t i t u t e d a ny pr ogr a m t o m e a s ur e t he c ont r i but i ons of c a m p us f unc t i ons a nd ope r a t i ons t o G H G e m i s s i ons T he U S F P r e s i de nt ha s s i gne d ne i t he r t he T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on nor t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt I f i t i m pl e m e nt e d t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, U S F w oul d s i gn t he A C U P C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt a nd a bi de by a l l i t s r e qui r e m e nt s j us t a s U C F U F D uke a nd U O ha ve don e T he i ni t i a l U S F c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt w oul d i nc l ude a G H G i n ve nt or y t o e s t a bl i s h a ba s e l i ne P e r t he w or di ng of t he C om m i t m e nt w i t hi n t w o ye a r s of s i gni ng on, U S F w oul d be r e qui r e d d e ve l op a pl a n o f a c t i on t o be c om e c l i m a t e n e ut r a l A ddi ng t r e e s t o t he U S F c a m pus l a nds c a pe i s a n i ne xp e ns i ve m e t hod of s e qu e s t e r i ng c a r bon e m i s s i on s a nd i n t ur n c a n e nh a n c e n a t u r a l h a b i t a t a nd bu i l d i n g s h a d i ng. H ow e ve r a c o m bi na t i on of s t r a t e gi e s i nc l udi ng e ne r gy e f f i c i e n c y a nd us e of r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy, a l ong w i t h s e que s t r a t i on w oul d be e m pl oye d t o a c hi e ve c a r b on ne ut r a l i t y f or t he c a m pus A nnua l c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt s l i ke t hos e a t U F a nd U B C w oul d i nc l ude G H G i nve nt or i e s t o m oni t or U S F s pr ogr e s s t ow a r d t he f i na l goa l of a c hi e vi ng c l i m a t e ne ut r a l i t y. T he t a r g e t da t e f or c l i m a t e n e ut r a l i t y w oul d be s e t a t 30 ye a r s a f t e r i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy.

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208 6. W AT E R : U S F ha s e s t a bl i s he d t he G r e e n w a y a s t he l o c a t i on f or a l l s t or m w a t e r de t e nt i on a nd r e t e nt i on f a c i l i t i e s f or c ur r e nt a nd f ut ur e bui l di ng pr oj e c t s T he G r e e n w a y i s t he pr i m a r y ope n s pa c e a t U S F a nd r uns f r om L a ke B e hnk e i n t he s out hw e s t c or ne r of c a m pus t o t he na t ur a l w e t l a nd h a bi t a t t o t he nor t he a s t F our s t or m w a t e r ponds a r e w i t hi n t he G r e e n w a y a nd a c c or di ng t o t he M a s t e r P l a n, one m or e w i l l b e bui l t by 2015. A not he r s e ve n a r e pl a nne d l ong t e r m w i t hi n a nd out s i de of t he G r e e n w a y. U s i ng t he r e g e ne r a t i ve de s i gn pr i nc i pl e of i nt e gr a t i ng t he de ve l opm e nt w i t h t he e xi s t i ng s i t e c ondi t i ons t he s t or m w a t e r pl a n w or ks w i t h t he na t ur a l dr a i na ge p a t t e r ns on c a m pus t a ki ng a dva nt a ge o f t he c e nt r a l r i dge l i ne t ha t r uns nor t h t o s out h a nd f or c e s s t or m w a t e r t o t he e a s t a nd w e s t P l a ns c a l l f or e nh a nc e m e nt of t he G r e e nw a y a nd t he va r i ous s t or m w a t e r po nds t hr ough na t i ve pl a nt i ngs a nd t he i ns t a l l a t i on of boa r dw a l ks a nd pa t hs T he s t or m w a t e r m a na ge m e nt pl a n a l s o r e que s t s t he i nc or por a t i on of B e s t M a na ge m e nt P r a c t i c e s ( B M P s ) i nc l udi ng t he us e of por o us m a t e r i a l s t o r e duc e r u n of f ; t he j udi c i ous a ppl i c a t i on of f e r t i l i z e r s a nd pe s t i c i de s a nd e duc a t i on a nd l i c e ns i ng f or gr ounds s t a f f a ppl yi ng t he s e c he m i c a l s ; a nd t he us e of t he l e a s t pol l ut i ng l a nds c a pe m a i nt e n a nc e p r oduc t s C ons t r uc t i on of bi or e t e nt i on a r e a s i s e n c our a g e d f or pa r ki ng l ot s M os t of t he pot a bl e w a t e r f or U S F i s pr ovi de d f r o m w e l l s l oc a t e d a c r os s t he c a m pus A r e a s a r ound t he s e a nd p r opos e d w e l l s a r e c ons i d e r e d no bui l d z one s t o r e duc e t h e pot e nt i a l f or f oul i ng t he w a t e r s uppl y. T o de c r e a s e c ons um pt i on of pot a bl e w a t e r U S F ha s be gun a w a t e r c ons e r va t i on pr ogr a m T he C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n di r e c t s t ha t t hi s

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209 pr ogr a m i nc l ude x e r i s c a p i ng f or a l l ne w c ons t r u c t i on, s ub m e t e r i ng f or a l l f a c i l i t i e s t o t r a c k w a t e r us a g e a nd i n s t a l l i ng a c om put e r i z e d, r a i n s e ns i t i ve i r r i ga t i on s y s t e m R e s ul t s of t he bui l di ng s ub m e t e r i ng e f f or t w i l l be a n a l yz e d a nd i nc or por a t e d i nt o a n e duc a t i on pr ogr a m f or bui l di ng oc c upa nt s F i na l l y, U S F w i l l e xpl or e t he us e o f m uni c i pa l r e c l a i m e d w a t e r c ol l e c t e d s t or m w a t e r a nd g r a y w a t e r f o r i r r i ga t i on pur pos e s U S F ha s s om e pol i c i e s i n pl a c e t o m i ni m i z e t he us e of pot a bl e w a t e r a nd t o t r e a t s t or m w a t e r ; ot he r s t a t e m e nt s w i t hi n t he M a s t e r P l a n s uppor t w a t e r us e r e d uc t i on, but do not r e qui r e i t A f t e r c on duc t i ng t he a s s e s s m e nt di s c us s e d i n P ha s e I of t he W a t e r A r e a of F oc us U S F w oul d m ove i m m e di a t e l y i nt o P ha s e I I A s U S F ha s a l r e a dy m e t s o m e of t he goa l s s e t f or t h i n P ha s e I I f oc us w oul d be pl a c e d o n a c hi e vi ng t he r e m a i ni ng r e qui r e m e nt s a nd m ovi ng s om e ope r a t i ons i nt o P ha s e I I I I f t he S t r a t e gy i s i m pl e m e nt e d, by t he e nd of P ha s e V t h e c a m pus w oul d r e qui r e l i t t l e w a t e r f or i r r i ga t i on; a ny t ha t ne c e s s a r y w a t e r w oul d b e s uppl i e d by w a t e r r e c l a i m e d f r om U S F bui l di ng s A l l pa ve d s ur f a c e s w oul d be c ons t r uc t e d w i t h pe r m e a bl e m a t e r i a l s t o e l i m i na t e r unof f f r om t he s e a r e a s O ne i nt e r e s t i ng opt i on f or U S F i s w or ki ng i n c onj unc t i on w i t h l a nds c a pe a nd ha bi t a t r e s t or a t i on, t o i ns t a l l a s e r i e s of bo a r dw a l ks t o r e pl a c e m a ny of t he p a ve d s i de w a l ks T hi s w oul d not onl y r e m ove i m pe r vi o us s ur f a c e s but a l s o a l l ow c ont i guous ha bi t a t a nd w i l dl i f e c or r i dor s t o be r e s t or e d ( s e e b e l ow ) 7. L ANDS CAP E AND N AT I VE H AB I T AT M uc h l i ke i n t he B ui l di n gs s e c t i on, U S F r e c ogni z e s t he ne e d f or s us t a i na bi l i t y i n c a m pus pl a nni ng a nd t he l a nds c a pe a nd i f p r a c t i c a l a nd f i na nc i a l l y f e a s i bl e w i l l i nc or por a t e

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210 t he c onc e pt s of s us t a i n a b i l i t y i nt o t he s e a r e a s ( C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n 2005) T o a c c om pl i s h t hi s U S F e nc our a ge s a l l f ut ur e s i t e de s i gns t o a dhe r e t o L E E D c r i t e r i a ( C M P 2005) U S F ha s ove r 600 c ul t i v a t e d a c r e s on i t s c a m pus i nc l udi ng t he 156.4 a c r e G r e e nw a y ( U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 200 4b; C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n ) C a m pus l a nd s c a pe gui de l i ne s pl a c e t he hi ghe s t pr i or i t y on i ns t a l l i ng na t i ve pl a nt s P l a nt i ng of e xot i c s pe c i e s i s a l l ow e d i f t he y a r e non i nva s i ve a n d dr ought t ol e r a nt ; t he s e pol i c i e s pr om ot e xe r i s c a pi ng. I nva s i ve e xot i c s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e l i s t e d by t he F l or i da E xot i c P e s t P l a nt C ounc i l a r e t o be r e m ove d f r om c a m pus A c a m pus t r e e i nve nt or y i s pl a nne d t ha t w i l l a s s i s t i n t hi s a nd ot he r pr oj e c t s T hough l i t t l e na t ur a l ha bi t a t r e m a i ns on c a m pus w ha t e xi s t s i s pr ot e c t e d un de r t he 2005 C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n. A r e a s d e s i gna t e d f or pr e s e r va t i on a r e t he w e t l a nd a n d buf f e r i n t he nor t he a s t c or n e r of t h e c a m pus t he L a ke B e hnke / B ot a ni c a l G a r d e ns di s t r i c t a nd t he 735 a c r e E c ol ogi c a l R e s e a r c h A r e a no r t he a s t of t he m a i n c a m pus T he F l or i da N a t ur a l A r e a s I nve nt or y de not e d t h e E c ol ogi c a l R e s e a r c h A r e a a s a P ot e nt i a l H a bi t a t f or R a r e S pe c i e s S e ve r a l ha v e be e n r e c or d e d on t he s i t e i nc l udi ng ni ne l i s t e d pl a nt s pe c i e s a n d t he t hr e a t e ne d goph e r t or t oi s e s ( G ophe r us pol y ph e m u s ) G ophe r t or t oi s e s a l s o i nha bi t t he pr ot e c t e d a r e a i m m e di a t e l y nor t h of t he B ot a ni c a l G a r de ns T he m a j or i t y of t he ope n s pa c e on c a m pus i s pa r k l i ke by de s i gn. T he 2005 M a s t e r P l a n s t a t e s t ha t c a m pus e dge s a l ong F ow l e r a nd F l e t c he r ha ve pr e dom i na nt l y na t i ve oa ks a nd

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211 pi ne s i n na t ur a l i s t i c gr ou pi ngs w i t hi n a r e a s of op e n e xpa ns i ve l a w n or a s s oc i a t e d na t i ve c om m uni t y s hr ub m a s s i ngs O bs e r v a t i on of t he c a m pus e dge s s ugge s t s t h a t t he ope n l a w n opt i on i s t he m os t c om m onl y us e d de s i gn f or t he s e a r e a s F ur t he r m o s t a r e a s w i t hi n t he G r e e nw a y out s i de of t he f or m a l C e nt r a l Q ua dr a ngl e a nd t he s t or m w a t e r ponds a r e m a i nt a i ne d a s l a w ns or r e c r e a t i ona l f i e l ds T o pr e s e r v e c a m pus l a nd f or f ut ur e ne e ds a nd t o pr ovi de ope n s pa c e t he M a s t e r P l a n r e qui r e s t ha t bui l di ng he i ght s be m a xi m i z e d. N e w c ons t r uc t i on m us t be de s i gne d t o t hr e e s t or i e s f our i f i t i s t o f a c e t he C e nt r a l Q u a d or L e r oy C ol l i ns B oul e va r d. N o de ve l opm e nt i s a l l ow e d on t he G r e e n w a y ot he r t ha n r e c r e a t i ona l f i e l ds a nd s uppor t f a c i l i t i e s s uc h a s ba t hr oo m s N e w bui l di ng pl a c e m e nt w i l l a l s o m i ni m i z e i m pa c t s t o e xi s t i ng t r e e s S i t i ng i s i m por t a nt f or a ny pr opos e d de ve l opm e nt a dj a c e nt t o t he e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s e ns i t i ve a r e a s on c a m pus ; t he M a s t e r P l a n r e qui r e s t ha t a ny ne w bui l di ngs ne a r t he s e a r e a s be i nt e gr a t e d i nt o t he e xi s t i ng l a nds c a pe a nd t ha t ne w l a nds c a pi ng f or t h e s e s t r uc t ur e s pr e s e r ve e xi s t i ng ve ge t a t i on t o a c t a s a buf f e r N e w out door l i ght i ng ove r 3500 i ni t i a l l a m p l um e ns m us t m e e t F ul l C ut of f I l l u m i na t i ng E ngi ne e r i ng S oc i e t y of N or t h A m e r i c a ( I E S N A ) C l a s s i f i c a t i on, a nd e nc ou r a ge hi gh a l be do m a t e r i a l s f o r us e i n pa ve d a r e a s I f U S F w e r e t o i m pl e m e n t t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, t he s c hool w oul d be g i n t he L a nds c a p e / N a t i ve H a bi t a t A r e a of F oc us i n P ha s e I by f ul l y a s s e s s i ng a l l e c ol ogi c a l r e s our c e s T hough a n i n ve nt or y of l i s t e d s pe c i e s on t he c a m pus ha s be e n c onduc t e d a nd a not he r of c a m pus t r e e s i s pl a nne d, a n a s s e s s m e nt of a l l a r e a s a nd t he i r pot e nt i a l s f or ha bi t a t r e s t or a t i on i s c a l l e d f or by t he S t r a t e gy. T he M a s t e r P l a n r e qui r e s r e m ova l of

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212 i nva s i ve e xot i c s pe c i e s s o t he l oc a t i ons of t he s e pl a n t s m us t be de t e r m i ne d. A l s o, a s obs e r ve d i n t he W a t e r s e c t i on a bove c a ut i ous us e of t he l e a s t pol l ut i ng l a nds c a pe m a i nt e na nc e c he m i c a l s i s e nc our a g e d, s o a r e vi e w of c ur r e nt U S F pr a c t i c e s w oul d a l s o oc c ur A s t he ove r a r c hi ng goa l of t hi s A r e a o f F oc us i s t o r e s t or e or c r e a t e na t i ve ha bi t a t on 50% of t he r e m a i ni ng c a m pus ope n s pa c e i d e nt i f i c a t i o n of t he be s t s i t e s on t he uni ve r s i t y gr ounds t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s i s i m pe r a t i ve R e s t or i ng a nd c r e a t i ng na t i ve ha bi t a t on t he c a m pus i s i m por t a nt f or r e e s t a bl i s hi ng w i l dl i f e c or r i dor s e xpa ndi ng oppor t uni t i e s f or ne s t i ng a nd f or a gi ng a r e a s e duc a t i ng s t ude nt s a bo ut na t i ve F l or i da a nd r e p a i r i ng s om e of t he e c ol ogi c a l da m a ge c a us e d by t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he c a m pus T hi s goa l e xc l ude s t he E c ol ogi c a l R e s e a r c h A r e a f or t he s e l a nds ha ve b e e n pr ot e c t e d f r om de v e l opm e nt a nd ne e d no r e s t or a t i on, a nd f e w m e m be r s o f t he c a m pus c om m uni t y a r e a l l ow e d t o e nt e r t he s e l a nds T hough t he M a s t e r P l a n c a l l s f or t he e dge s of c a m pus pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e a l ong F ow l e r a nd F l e t c he r A v e nue s t o be na t ur a l i s t i c pa r ks , t h e s e pr ovi de good oppo r t uni t i e s f or r e s t or i ng t he l ongl e a f pi n e t ur ke y o a k ha bi t a t t ha t l i ke l y e xi s t e d pr i or t o de ve l opm e nt T he M a s t e r P l a n a l s o i ns t r uc t s t ha t a l ong w i t h t he l a w n l i ke ope n a r e a s na t i ve oa ks a nd pi ne s w i t h a f f i l i a t e d na t i ve c om m uni t y s hr ubs be pl a nt e d; m e r e l y r e m ovi n g t he l a w n l i ke ope n a r e a opt i on w oul d m ove t he c a m pus t ow a r d t he ha bi t a t r e s t or a t i on a nd c r e a t i on goa l A not h e r l oc a t i on t ha t m i ght pr ove s ui t a bl e f or r e s t or a t i on i s t he ope n a r e a w i t hi n t he G r e e nw a y w e s t of M L K P l a z a nor t h of t he N a t ur a l a nd E nvi r on m e nt a l

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213 S c i e nc e s B ui l di ng, a nd e a s t of M a gnol i a D r i ve L a w ns a nd l i t t l e us e d c on c r e t e pa t hs c ur r e nt l y oc c upy t hi s l a nd. I t s l oc a t i on ne a r t he N E S bui l di ng w oul d s e r ve e nvi r onm e nt a l s c i e nc e c o ur s e s a nd gr a d ua t e s t ude nt pr oj e c t s c e nt e r e d on r e s t or i ng F l or i da ha bi t a t E na bl i ng r e gr o w t h of l o ngl e a f pi ne a n d t ur ke y oa k ha m m oc ks a nd c ons t r u c t i ng boa r dw a l ks t o r e pl a c e c o nc r e t e p a t hs w oul d a l s o pr ovi de s ha de d w a l ks be t w e e n bui l di ngs ha bi t a t f or s pe c i e s i nc l udi ng gophe r t or t oi s e s a nd a r a r e oppor t u ni t y f or m os t s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f t o e xpe r i e n c e n a t ur a l F l or i da 8. M AT E RI AL S M ANAG E M E NT ( W AS T E & R E CYCL I NG ) T hough t he M a s t e r P l a n s t a t e s a goa l of di s pos i ng of s ol i d w a s t e i n a n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y s ound m a nne r U S F ha s s o f a r f a l l e n s hor t on t hi s goa l A r udi m e nt a r y r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m f or m i xe d p a pe r a nd a l um i num e xi s t s f or s om e c a m pus bui l di ngs T hr ough a gr e e m e nt s w i t h t he C i t y of T a m pa a nd t h e C i t y of L a nd O L a ke s U S F pl a c e d a c om m uni t y r e c yc l i ng s i t e on t he e a s t s i de of c a m p us t o c ol l e c t t he s e m a t e r i a l s a s w e l l a s c a r dboa r d, gl a s s a nd pl a s t i c T hough pe r c e nt s of t ot a l c a m pus w a s t e w e r e una va i l a bl e be t w e e n 2003 2006, U S F r e c yc l e d a n a ve r a g e of 416.5 t ons a nnua l l y ( M onr oe 2007) T he C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n m a nda t e s a n e xp a ns i on of t he r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m by c r e a t i ng m or e dr op of f l oc a t i ons i n bui l di ngs a nd e l s e w he r e a nd by de v e l opi ng a n a w a r e n e s s c a m pa i gn f or t h e c a m pus c om m uni t y. B e yond s t a nda r d of f i c e m a t e r i a l s c om pa c t f l uor e s c e nt bul bs a nd f i xt ur e b a l l a s t s a r e a l s o r e c yc l e d due t o t he i r m e r c ur y c ont e nt ( M on r oe 20 07) A pr i va t e c ont r a c t o r pr ovi de s a bi n a t t he P hys i c a l P l a nt t o c ol l e c t s c r a p m e t a l s r e s ul t i ng i n 91 a ddi t i ona l t ons be i ng

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214 di ve r t e d f r om l a nd f i l l s i n 2005 ( H a nna W e s t 2006 ) O t he r r e c yc l i ng pr og r a m s on c a m pus a r e c oor di na t e d e i t he r w i t hi n i ndi vi dua l de pa r t m e nt s or by s t ude nt g r oups A c c or di ng t o D ot M onr o e ( 2007) P r ogr a m A s s i s t a nt f or R e c y c l i ng a t U S F i ndi vi dua l de pa r t m e nt s a r e r e s pons i bl e f or t he i r e w a s t e di s pos a l T he B i ol ogy G r a du a t e S t ude nt O r ga ni z a t i on c ol l e c t s ba t t e r i e s f r om t he B i ol ogy D e pa r t m e nt f o r r e c yc l i ng a nd a l s o hos t s a w e bpa g e t ha t i nf or m s u s e r s a bout l oc a l ba t t e r y a nd e w a s t e r e c y c l i ng f a c i l i t i e s U S F l a gs be hi nd m a ny s c hool s i n i t s r e c yc l i ng a nd w a s t e r e du c t i on e f f o r t s I f t he uni ve r s i t y c hoos e s t o i m pl e m e nt t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, i t w oul d i m m e di a t e l y i m pl e m e nt P ha s e I of t he M a t e r i a l s M a na g e m e nt A r e a o f F oc us E a c h bui l di ng w oul d be pr ovi de d bi ns t o r e c yc l e pa pe r c a r dbo a r d, gl a s s p l a s t i c a nd c om m on m e t a l s c a m pus w i de i n or de r t o a dd r e s s t he L E E D M a t e r i a l s a nd R e s our c e s pr e r e qui s i t e f o r S t or a ge & C ol l e c t i on of R e c yc l a bl e s ; w i t hout m e e t i ng t hi s n o L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i on c a n be a t t a i ne d. M os t of t he uni ve r s i t i e s r e vi e w e d t o c r e a t e t he S t r a t e gy pr ovi de d r e c y c l i ng i nf r a s t r uc t ur e t o m e e t t he L E E D pr e r e q ui s i t e B e c a us e pur c ha s i ng i s i nt e r t w i ne d w i t h w a s t e r e duc t i on, w a s t e m a na g e m e nt t e a m s a nd pr oc ur e m e nt t e a m s w oul d be gi n c oor di na t i n g t he i r e f f o r t s t o m i ni m i z e a nd e ve nt ua l l y e l i m i na t e t he pur c ha s e of non r e c yc l a bl e pr odu c t s E duc a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd e m pl oye e s a bout t he i r pur c ha s e s w a s t e m i ni m i z a t i on a nd r e c yc l i ng i s a l s o i m por t a nt a nd a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m s w oul d be e s t a bl i s he d t hr ough t he a ppr opr i a t e de pa r t m e nt s a t U S F t o pr om ot e t he s e e f f or t s A f t e r P ha s e I of M a t e r i a l s M a na ge m e nt i s a c hi e ve d, s e ve r a l ot he r pr ogr a m s be yond r e c yc l i ng s t a nd a r d m a t e r i a l s c oul d be gi n. E xpa ns i on of t he r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m t o i nc l ude

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215 ba t t e r i e s a nd e w a s t e w o ul d pr ovi de m or e e nvi r on m e nt a l be ne f i t s a s l ong a s t hos e c ont r a c t e d t o r e c y c l e t he s e do s o pr ope r l y. U S F w oul d a l s o e s t a bl i s h a s ur pl us e qui pm e nt e xc ha ng e dor m i t or y m ove out da ys a nd t o r e d uc e pa p e r w a s t e de f a ul t a l l pr i nt e r s t o pr i nt doubl e s i de d. U S F w oul d m ove t ow a r d t he g oa l s of e l i m i na t i ng t oxi c c l e a ni ng pr oduc t s a nd m i ni m i z i ng t he us e of c h e m i c a l s i n t he uni ve r s i t y. T he c us t o di a l s t a f f w oul d be t a s ke d t o c r e a t e a nd i m pl e m e nt a pl a n t o r e pl a c e c onve nt i ona l c l e a ni ng pr oduc t s w i t h gr e e n c l e a ne r s ; s e ve r a l c om pa ni e s c ur r e nt l y m a nuf a c t ur e t he s e p r od uc t s F ur t he r U S F c oul d f ur t he r r e du c e i t s ha z a r dous w a s t e pr od uc t i on by e m ul a t i ng t he G r e e n C he m i s t r y P r ogr a m de ve l ope d a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon. A s m or e r e c yc l a bl e a nd non t oxi c pr oduc t s be c om e a va i l a bl e a nd a s U S F e du c a t e s i t s e m pl oye e s a nd s t ude nt s a bout t he ne c e s s i t y of w a s t e r e duc t i on a nd r e c y c l i ng, t he uni ve r s i t y w oul d a ppr o a c h t he goa l o f e l i m i na t i ng w a s t e f r om t he c a m pus 9. T RANS P O RT AT I O N O ne A r e a of F oc us i n w h i c h U S F ha s pe r f or m e d w e l l i s T r a ns por t a t i on. T he uni ve r s i t y ha s i m pl e m e nt e d s e ve r a l i ni t i a t i ve s t o r e duc e S O V t r i ps T he f r e e B ul l R unne r s hut t l e s e r ve s not onl y t he c a m p us but a l s o s om e ne a r by of f c a m pus r e s i de nt i a l c o m pl e xe s T he s e s hut t l e bus e s ha ve ope r a t e d on bi odi e s e l f ue l s s i nc e 2002. T he M a s t e r P l a n c a l l s f or t hi s s e r vi c e t o b e e xp a nde d bot h on a nd of f c a m pus T he uni ve r s i t y ha s a l s o c oor di na t e d w i t h H i l l s bor ough A r e a R a pi d T r a ns i t ( H A R T ) t o pr ovi de f r e e t r a ns i t pa s s e s f or s t ude nt s a nd r e duc e d f a r e s f or e m pl oye e s M o r e us e of m a s s t r a ns i t opt i ons i s de s i r e d, pa r t i c ul a r l y l i ght r a i l ; t he M a s t e r P l a n s e t s a s i de l a nd on t he e a s t e r n e dge of c a m pus f or a f ut ur e l i ght r a i l s t a t i on. H ow e ve r l i g ht r a i l r e m a i ns onl y a di s t a nt

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216 pos s i bi l i t y i n t he T a m pa a r e a C a r pool i ng a nd va npool i ng a r e e n c our a ge d a nd t h e uni ve r s i t y ha s l i nke d w i t h B a y A r e a C om m ut e r S e r vi c e s t o pr ovi de i nf or m a t i on t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y a bout t he s e opt i ons H ow e ve r no pr e f e r r e d p a r ki ng or r e duc e d pe r m i t f e e s h a ve be e n of f e r e d a s i nc e nt i ve s f or t he s e pr ogr a m s U S F ha s a l s o ne got i a t e d a n a gr e e m e nt w i t h Z i pC a r t o pr ovi de a c a r s h a r i ng pr o gr a m f or c a m pus us e r s A n E m e r ge n c y R i de H o m e s e r vi c e i s a v a i l a bl e t o t hos e w ho c hoos e a l t e r n a t i ve t r a ns por t a t i on, i nc l udi ng c yc l i ng a nd w a l ki ng. U S F s uppor t s t he s e m ode s i n num e r ous w a ys B i c yc l e r a c ks a r e l oc a t e d a c r os s t he c a m pus a nd t he M a s t e r P l a n m a nda t e s t he i r i nc l us i on i n a l l ne w c ons t r uc t i on a nd r e nov a t i on pr oj e c t s A l l H A R T L i ne a nd B ul l R unne r bus e s ha ve b i ke r a c ks a s w e l l T he un i ve r s i t y pol i c e de pa r t m e n t pr ovi de s bi c yc l e e ngr a vi ng s e r vi c e s a nd r e gi s t r a t i on t o di s c our a ge t he f t ( N e w N or t h T r a ns por t a t i on A l l i a nc e 2007) U S F c o or di na t e s w i t h l oc a l m uni c i pa l i t i e s a nd gove r nm e n t a ge nc i e s t o bui l d bi c yc l e a nd pe d e s t r i a n l i nka ge s be t w e e n t he c a m pus a nd s ur r oundi ng ne i ghbor hoods P l a ns f o r m or e pe d e s t r i a n a nd bi k e l a ne s a nd c or r i dor s a r e c o nt a i ne d w i t hi n t he M a s t e r P l a n. O t he r pr ogr a m s a nd pol i c i e s i m pl e m e nt e d by U S F i nc l ude hol di ng c l a s s e s dur i ng of f pe a k hour s a nd w e e k e nd s i nc r e a s i ng t he num be r of di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng a nd w e b ba s e d c our s e s e s t a bl i s hi ng a t e l e c om m ut i ng pol i c y f or e m pl oye e s a nd bui l di ng ne w on c a m pus hous i ng. O ne pot e nt i a l opt i on f or hous i ng c ons t r uc t i on of f e r e d i n t he M a s t e r P l a n i s a

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217 pa r t ne r s hi p be t w e e n U S F a nd pr i va t e de v e l ope r s t o bui l d m or e r e s i de nt i a l f a c i l i t i e s on t he c a m pus A l s o, pe r M a s t e r P l a n P ol i c y 7.4.1, t he uni ve r s i t y w i l l w or k w i t h l oc a l gove r nm e nt s t o pr om ot e ne w of f c a m pus hous i ng, r e t a i l a nd s e r vi c e de v e l o pm e nt s ne a r t he s c hool T he r oa d i nf r a s t r uc t u r e a t U S F i s be i ng m odi f i e d t o m i ni m i z e a ut o t r a f f i c i n t he c a m pus i nt e r i or P l a nni ng c a l l s f or a l oop r oa d s ys t e m w i t h m os t pa r ki ng s t r uc t ur e s a l ong t he i nt e r na l e dge o f t hi s l oop. P a r ki ng i s a pr i m a r y f o c us of t he t r a ns po r t a t i on pl a n. I n 2007, U S F of f e r e d 20,000 p a r k i ng s pa c e s f or 46,180 p e r m i t hol de r s w i t h a not he r 5,000 s pa c e s t o be c ons t r uc t e d by 20 1 5. U p t o 15 m or e pa r ki n g s t r uc t ur e s a r e pl a nne d l ong t e r m P a r ki ng pr e s s ur e s a r e du e i n pa r t t o t he r e l a t i ve l y l ow pa r ki ng pe r m i t f e e s a t l e a s t c om pa r e d t o t hos e a t t he s c hool s r e vi e w e d i n t hi s s t udy. A nnua l pe r m i t s c os t c a m pus r e s i de nt s t ude nt s $131. 00, a nd of f c a m pus r e s i de nt s t ude nt s $106.00. H ow e ve r t he M a s t e r P l a n i ndi c a t e s t ha t a n i nc r e a s e i n t he s e pe r m i t f e e s w i l l be c ons i de r e d. O t he r m e a s ur e s U S F w i l l c ons i de r pe r t h e M a s t e r P l a n i nc l ude pur s ui t of of f c a m pus P a r k a nd R i de l ot s us e of a l t e r na t i ve f ue l ve hi c l e s f or t he u ni ve r s i t y f l e e t a nd e xpl o r a t i on of a c a m pus m onor a i l or t r ol l e y t o l i nk t o t he f ut ur e l i ght r a i l s t a t i on. A s t udy by t he N e w N or t h T r a ns por t a t i on A l l i a nc e ( N N T A ) r e v e a l e d t h a t a l m os t 98% of s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f c om m u t e t o U S F i n a ut om obi l e s m os t of t e n a l one ( H a g e l i n 2000) C U T R s t a f f r e c e n t l y c onduc t e d a s ur v e y of c a m pus c om m uni t y m e m be r s a bout t r a ns por t a t i on opt i ons a nd d e s pi t e t he e f f or t s of t h e uni ve r s i t y, onl y 1% of s t ude nt s us e t he i r bi c yc l e s t o c om m ut e t o c a m pus ( S m i t he r s 20 07) I n 2007, a ppr oxi m a t e l y 85% of

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218 s t ude nt s a nd 91% of f a c u l t y a nd s t a f f t r a v e l i ng t o t he c a m pus dur i ng t he w e e k t r a ve l e d i n pr i va t e ve hi c l e s ( C U T R 2007b) T hough t he s t udy pr ot oc ol s m a y di f f e r t he r e a pp e a r s t o be a s l i ght de c r e a s e i n S O V t r i ps be t w e e n 2000 a nd 2007. U S F ha s c oor di na t e d w i t h C U T R a nd N N T A t o e s t a bl i s h m a ny s t r a t e gi e s f or S O V t r i p r e duc t i on, s o i f t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s i m pl e m e nt e d, P ha s e I o f t he T r a ns por t a t i on A r e a o f F oc us ha s be e n a c c om pl i s he d; m a ny f a c e t s of P h a s e I I h a ve be e n m e t a s w e l l H ow e ve r pa r ki ng r e m a i ns t he pr i m a r y f oc us o f t he c a m pus t r a ns po r t a t i on pl a n. P a r ki ng f a c i l i t i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y s t r uc t ur e s a r e c os t l y bot h f i na nc i a l l y ( $15 30,000 p e r s pa c e a c c or di ng t o T oor a nd H a vl i c k [ 2004] ) a nd i n l a n d u s e ; t he r e f o r e f i ndi ng i nc e nt i ve s t o r e duc e t h e ne e d f or ne w pa r ki ng w oul d be c os t e f f e c t i ve f or U S F A pr opos a l i n 2007 t o r e qui r e a l l f r e s hm e n not f r om H i l l s bor ough, P i ne l l a s or P a s c o C ount i e s t o l i ve on c a m pus i s a good be gi nni ng; i f t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s i ns t i t ut e d, t he pol i c y w oul d be e xpa nde d t o i nc l ude a l l f r e s hm e n w he n t he num be r of r e s i de n c e s on c a m pu s gr ow s t o m e e t t hi s num be r ( M e i nh a r dt 2007) A ddi t i ona l l y, a s m a ny ot he r s c hool s h a ve done U S F w oul d pr ohi bi t a l l f r e s hm e n f r om pur c ha s i ng pa r ki ng pe r m i t s N ot onl y w oul d t he s e pol i c i e s r e duc e S O V t r i ps t he y w oul d l i ke l y t o e nc our a ge m o r e i nt e r a c t i on a m ong s t ude nt s a nd i m pr ove a c a de m i c a c hi e v e m e nt ( M e i nha r dt 2007) T o f ur t he r r e duc e pa r ki n g pr e s s ur e s a nd s ubs e que nt l y i nc r e a s e f undi ng f or t r a ns por t a t i on i ni t i a t i ve s U S F w oul d i n c r e a s e t he f e e s f o r pa r ki n g pe r m i t s T he 2005 M a s t e r P l a n s t a t e s t ha t t hi s opt i on w i l l be c o ns i de r e d. H ow e ve r t h e c ur r e nt f e e s f or U S F ( $106 a nnua l l y) a r e e xt r e m e l y l ow c om p a r e d w i t h H a r v a r d ( $880 a nnua l l y) or U B C ( $84 99 pe r m ont h)

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219 a nd t he r e f or e do l i t t l e t o di s c our a ge dr i vi ng t o c a m pus U S F w oul d a l s o e s t a bl i s h pr e f e r r e d p a r ki ng a nd di s c ount e d pa r ki ng pe r m i t s f or c a r pool s A s t he C U T R ( 2007b) s t udy r e ve a l e d, 26 % of r e s ponde nt s w oul d be ve r y l i ke l y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a c a r pool i f c a r pool ve hi c l e s w e r e gi ve n pr i or i t y pa r ki ng, a nd 24% i f gi ve n r e du c e d c os t pa r ki ng pa s s e s f or c a r pool s M or e on c a m pus hous i ng w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o f ur t he r r e du c e S O V t r i ps T o a ddr e s s f undi ng i s s ue s U S F c oul d pa r t ne r w i t h pr i va t e de ve l ope r s t o c r e a t e not onl y dor m s ( a s s ugge s t e d i n t he M a s t e r P l a n) but a l s o c a m pus vi l l a ge s t ha t i nc l ude r e s t a ur a nt s gr oc e r i e s a nd e nt e r t a i nm e nt v e nue s A n O c t obe r 2007 e di t or i a l i n t he U S F O r a c l e n e w s pa pe r f oc us e d on t hi s i s s ue s t a t i ng t ha t U S F i s f a l l i ng be hi nd r i va l s l i ke U C F i n t hi s a r e a : U S F m us t r e va m p i t s c a m pus by i nc l udi ng m or e r e s t a u r a nt s a nd m or e w a l ki ng di s t a nc e a nd t ow n l i ke of f e r i ngs . C e r t a i nl y t hi s c oul d a l s o oc c ur on pr i va t e l a nd a t t he pe r i phe r y o f c a m pus a s w e l l a nd t h e M a s t e r P l a n r e c om m e nds t ha t U S F t o pr om ot e t hi s a s w e l l T he uni ve r s i t y s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h H A R T ha s be e n e f f e c t i ve pa r t i c ul a r l y t h e e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he U P a s s f or t he c a m pus c om m uni t y. U S F ha s a l s o s ho w n i nt e r e s t i n m a s s t r a ns i t r a i l but t ha t opt i on w i l l not be a va i l a bl e unl e s s va r i ous gove r n m e nt a ge nc i e s c oor di na t e t o bui l d i t H ow e ve r U S F c oul d be a pow e r f ul voi c e t o l obby f or a l i ght r a i l s ys t e m i n t he a r e a w i t h t he ba c ki ng of ov e r 40,00 0 s t ude nt s a s w e l l a s t hous a nds m or e f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f H ow e v e r t he pr opos e d i de a t o c r e a t e a m onor a i l on t he c a m pus t o l i nk t o t he f ut ur e l i ght r a i l s t a t i on a ppe a r s t o be a n unne c e s s a r y e xpe ns e a nd w ou l d de t r a c t f r om t he c ol l e gi a l pe d e s t r i a n c or e of t he c a m pus

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220 F i na l l y, a s T oor a nd H a v l i c k ( 2004) obs e r v e d, m a r ke t i ng i s a ke y e l e m e nt i n a ny t r a ns por t a t i on i ni t i a t i ve T he y r e l a t e a s t udy t ha t o bs e r ve d a 6 14% r e duc t i on i n a ut om obi l e dr i vi ng a s a r e s ul t of s t r ong m a r ke t i ng t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y. T he r e f or e U S F w oul d a l l ot f undi ng f or m a r k e t i ng c a m pa i gns t o e duc a t e s t u de nt s a nd e m pl oye e s a bout t r a ns por t a t i on opt i ons c os t s of dr i vi ng, a nd be ne f i t s of a l t e r na t i ve s T he s e pol i c i e s c om bi ne d w i t h t e c hnol og i c a l i m pr ove m e nt s a nd e xpa ns i on of m a s s t r a ns i t opt i ons w oul d m ove U S F t ow a r ds t he f i na l goa l of r e du c i ng S O V t r i ps t o a nd f r om c a m p us by 75% 10. F O O D R E S O URCE S A R A M A R K ove r s e e s f o od s e r vi c e s a t U S F a s i t doe s a t U F a nd U C F A t t e m pt s t o c ont a c t R obbi e T ur ne r A R A M A R K D i r e c t or o f O pe r a t i ons f or U S F D i ni ng S e r vi c e s w e r e uns u c c e s s f ul N o U S F i ni t i a t e d pr ogr a m s t o i nc l ude l oc a l a nd or g a n i c f oods i n di ni ng c hoi c e s T he 200 7 S E I r e vi e w h a d s i m i l a r f i ndi ngs s t a t i ng t he uni ve r s i t y s di ni ng s e r vi c e s de pa r t m e nt doe s not of f e r a ny not a bl e a m ount of l oc a l o r o r ga ni c f oods T he r e f or e i f U S F de c i de s t o i nc or por a t e t he R e g e n e r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, i t w oul d be gi n w i t h P ha s e I of t he F ood R e s o ur c e s A r e a o f F oc us A s pa r t of U S F s a s s e s s m e nt t he uni ve r s i t y w oul d qua nt i f y t he a m ount of f ood pr o vi de d on c a m pus t ha t i s gr ow n l oc a l l y or r e gi ona l l y ( w i t hi n 500 m i l e s a s de f i ne d i n L E E D ) a s w e l l a s t h e pe r c e nt a ge of a l l a va i l a bl e f ood t ha t i s or g a ni c a l l y f a r m e d a nd F r e e T r a de or ot h e r w i s e c e r t i f i e d. A R A M A R K ha s s om e s u s t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s w i t hi n i t s ope r a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s but t he s e w oul d be e xpl or e d f ur t he r U S F m uc h a s U F ha s d one w oul d w or k w i t h A R A M A R K t o de ve l op pr opos a l s t o i nc r e a s e t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of t he f ood r e s our c e s

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221 pr ovi de d t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y. B e c a us e on e s t r a t e gy i s t o pur c ha s e m o r e l oc a l l y gr ow n f oods t he U S F w oul d a l s o i nve s t i ga t e s our c e s f or t h e s e pa r t i c ul a r l y or ga ni c i t e m s T he F a r m t o C ol l e ge pr ogr a m i s one pot e nt i a l r e s our c e f o r t hi s e f f or t T he T a m pa a r e a a l s o ha s a t l e a s t one c om m uni t y f a r m t he S w e e t w a t e r O r ga ni c C om m uni t y F a r m f r om w hi c h U S F c oul d p ur c ha s e pr oduc e a nd l e a r n a bout s m a l l s c a l e o r g a ni c f a r m i ng. O ne of t he m i s s i ons of S w e e t w a t e r i s t o s e r ve a s a m ode l t o e duc a t e t h e T a m pa c om m uni t y a bout or ga ni c a n d s us t a i na bl e f a r m i ng ( S w e e t w a t e r O r g a ni c C om m uni t y F a r m 2007) A l s o, c a m pus pl a n ni ng w oul d be gi n t o s e t a s i de s pa c e f or on c a m pus a gr i c ul t ur e pr oduc t i on, w he t he r t hi s be vi a de ve l opi ng a ve r t i c a l f a r m or i nc or por a t i ng f ood c r ops i nt o gr e e n r oof s a n d c a m pus ga r de ns T o a ddr e s s f ood w a s t e r e duc t i on, c oor di na t i on of a c om pos t i ng pr ogr a m w i t h t he P hys i c a l P l a nt a nd D i ni ng S e r vi c e s w oul d b e gi n, e m ul a t i ng t hos e c r e a t e d a t P e nn S t a t e U B C a nd U C M e r c e d. T he goa l w oul d be t o c r e a t e a c om pos t s ys t e m f or U S F s uc h t ha t c om pos t i ng of pr e c ons u m e r f ood w a s t e s a nd l a nd s c a pe de b r i s w oul d oc c u r w i t hi n t he f i r s t ye a r o f i m pl e m e nt i ng t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy. A n a udi t of w a s t e p r oduc e d f r om D i ni ng S e r vi c e s w oul d b e c onduc t e d t o e s t a bl i s h a ba s e l i ne f r om w hi c h t o m e a s ur e pr ogr e s s i n t he w a s t e r e d uc t i on. U S F w oul d a l s o c ont a c t T a m pa hom e l e s s s he l t e r s H i l l s bor ough C ount y a f t e r s c hool pr ogr a m s a nd ot he r non pr o f i t c e nt e r s a b out a c c e pt i ng e xc e s s f ood f r om U S F B e yond P ha s e I U S F w i l l be a bl e t o pr ovi de m os t i f not a l l of i t s ow n f ood t hr ough

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222 ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng or ot he r opt i ons B y gr ow i ng f ood on c a m pus s t ude nt s w i l l ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o l e a r n a bou t s us t a i na bl e a gr i c ul t ur e a ddi ng t o t he e nvi r onm e nt a l l i t e r a c y e a c h U S F gr a du a t e w i l l e ve nt ua l l y a c hi e ve F ur t he r i t c oul d gr e a t l y r e duc e t he e ne r gy us e d a nd t he pol l ut a nt s c r e a t e d i n t he c u r r e nt m ode s of f ood pr oduc t i on a nd t r a ns por t A l l f ood w a s t e c ou l d be e l i m i na t e d e i t he r by c onv e r t i ng i t t o c om pos t f or us e a s f e r t i l i z e r or by us i ng i t a s a m e t ha ne s our c e f or bi oga s g e ne r a t i on t o pow e r a v e r t i c a l f a r m or ot he r bui l di ng. 11. P RO CURE M E NT U S F ha s no pol i c i e s r e ga r di ng e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e or s us t a i na bl e pur c ha s i ng. H ow e ve r a c c or di ng t o B i l l G i l l ( 2007) A s s oc i a t e D i r e c t or U n i v e r s i t y o f S ou t h F l or i d a P u r c h a s i n g & P r o p e r t y S e r v i c e s t he D e p a r t m e n t i s l e a r n i n g a b ou t t hi s i s s u e a nd w i l l b e i m pl e m e n t i n g s o m e [ i n i t i a t i v e s ] i n t he v e r y ne a r f u t u r e E du c a t i on of t he p r oc ur e m e n t s t a f f i s a g o o d f i r s t s t e p i n t he e f f or t t o i n c r e a s e t h e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f g o od s p u r c h a s e d b y U S F I f i m pl e m e n t e d, U S F w o u l d b e g i n i n P h a s e I of t h e P r oc ur e m e n t A r e a of F o c us w i t hi n t he R e g e n e r a t i v e S t r a t e g y b y c on t a c t i n g c ur r e nt ve ndo r s t o i nf or m t he m of t he uni ve r s i t y s de s i r e t o pur c h a s e m or e s us t a i na bl e pr oduc t s I f a ve ndor ha s no pl a n m odi f y i t s pr a c t i c e s U S F w oul d pr ovi de s us t a i na bi l i t y goa l s a nd de a dl i ne s f o r t he bus i ne s s t o a c hi e ve T h e U S F O f f i c e of S us t a i na b i l i t y a nd U S F P ur c ha s i ng S e r vi c e s w oul d s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e s e a r c h c om pa ni e s t ha t m e e t t hos e goa l s s o t ha t i f t he c ur r e nt ve ndor s do not a ddr e s s t he e s t a bl i s he d be nc hm a r ks a nd de a dl i ne s t he uni ve r s i t y w oul d s hi f t i t s

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223 pur c ha s i ng t o t hos e t ha t do. F ur t he r t o e ns ur e t h a t t he w a s t e r e duc t i on go a l s f or U S F a r e m e t P ur c ha s i ng a nd t he O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y w oul d m e e t w i t h t he P hys i c a l P l a nt t o de t e r m i ne w he r e w a s t e r e duc t i on ne e ds a r e gr e a t e s t T he H a nna W e s t ( 20 06) s t udy r e por t s t ha t 70% of U S F pur c ha s i ng i s i n pa pe r p r oduc t s pur c ha s i ng r e c y c l e d pa pe r w oul d he l p c r e a t e a m a r k e t f or r e c yc l e d go ods a n d i f t hi s pa pe r i s a l s o r e c yc l a bl e s i gni f i c a nt a m ount s of U S F w a s t e c oul d be di ve r t e d f r om l a ndf i l l s E ve nt ua l l y a l l pr oc ur e m e nt w i l l f oc us n ot m e r e l y on t he e nd pr o duc t c os t but on t he ove r a l l c os t s t o ge ne r a t e t r a ns por t us e a nd di s pos e of t he goods t ha t a r e pu r c ha s e d. 12. E NDO WM E NT I NVE S T M E NT L i ke m a ny of t he uni ve r s i t i e s e xa m i ne d f or t he s t r a t e gy, U S F ha s no pol i c y r e ga r di ng i nve s t m e nt i n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y a nd/ or s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds or c om pa ni e s H ow e ve r t he S E I R e por t ( 2007) no t e s t ha t U S F i s e xpl or i ng i nve s t m e nt i n r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy f unds S houl d i t c hoos e t o i nc or por a t e t he R e g e ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy, U S F w oul d be gi n i n P ha s e I of t he E ndow m e nt I nve s t m e nt A r e a of F oc us A s pa r t of t he i ni t i a l s us t a i na bi l i t y a s s e s s m e nt of t he c a m pus t he p e r c e nt a ge of t he U S F s i nve s t m e nt s t ha t a r e i n s oc i a l l y a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds w oul d be de t e r m i ne d. S i m i l a r t o t he i de a i n t he P r oc ur e m e nt s e c t i o n, f un d m a na ge r s w oul d b e i nf or m e d of t he uni ve r s i t y s de s i r e t o i nve s t i n m or e s us t a i na bl e f unds B y t he e nd of P ha s e I I e xi s t i ng f unds w oul d be r e qui r e d t o be m ovi ng t o w a r d s us t a i na bi l i t y, or U S F w oul d s hi f t i t s i nve s t m e nt s i nt o f unds t ha t a r e e nvi r onm e nt a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y r e s po ns i bl e a s w e l l a s f i na n c i a l l y vi a bl e T o f a c i l i t a t e c h a nge s t o U S F i nve s t m e nt pol i c y, t he I nve s t m e nt C om m i t t e e w oul d r e l e a s e

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224 de t a i l e d i nf or m a t i on on i t s i nve s t m e nt s P r ovi di ng f i na nc i a l s uppor t t o c om pa ni e s t ha t t r e a t w or k e r s poo r l y, i gn or e e nvi r onm e nt a l r e gul a t i ons ope r a t e i n na t i ons w i t h oppr e s s i ve pol i t i c a l r e gi m e s or pr oduc e goods or s e r vi c e s t ha t a r e e nvi r on m e nt a l l y ha r m f ul r e f l e c t s poor l y o n U S F H ow e ve r U S F i s f a r f r om a l one i n not di s c l os i ng i t s i nve s t m e nt s ; i n f a c t o nl y 22% of s ur ve y e d s c hool s r e l e a s e t hi s i nf or m a t i on publ i c l y ( B a ue 2006) A s a publ i c i ns t i t ut i on, t hi s i nf or m a t i on s houl d be a va i l a bl e t o t he c a m pus c om m uni t y s o t ha t i t m a y pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s e d e c i s i ons R e pr e s e nt a t i ve s f r o m a c r os s t he c a m pus w oul d b e i nc l ude d i n t he e va l ua t i ons of t h e i nve s t m e nt s t o be t t e r i nf or m t he I nve s t m e nt C om m i t t e e a nd t he U S F F ounda t i on a bout t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd s oc i a l r a m i f i c a t i ons of t he s e f u nds T he O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y w oul d be gi n t o w or k w i t h t he I nve s t m e nt C om m i t t e e a nd t he F ounda t i on t o e s t a bl i s h t he gr oundw or k f or a n a dvi s or y boa r d r e g a r di ng e nvi r on m e nt a l a nd s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y i n i nve s t m e nt s s i m i l a r t o t he A dvi s or y C om m i t t e e on S ha r e hol de r R e s pons i bi l i t y a t H a r va r d

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225 T ab l e 12: O ve r vi e w of C u r r e n t U S F P ol i c i e s a n d P ot e n t i al N e xt S t e p s A r e a o f F o c u s A c t i o n s P h a s e N e x t S t e p A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S o m e m e n t i o n o f L E E D s u s t a i n a b i l i t y i n M a s t e r P l a n ( M P ) I S i g n T a l l o i r e s / A C U P c o m m i t m e n t C r e a t e O f f c o f S u s t a i n a b i l i t y A c a d e m i a 1 3 6 c o u r s e s R e s e a r c h g r o u p s S t u d e n t g r o u p s I E v a l u a t e s u p p o r t f o r g r e e n i s s u e s B u i l d i n g s N o L E E D c o m m i t m e n t E n c o u r a g e L E E D G r e e n L i g h t s p r o g r a m I L E E D E B a s s e s s m e n t L E E D S i l v e r p o l i c y R e s u m e G r e e n L i g h t s E n e r g y S u p p l y N o p o l i c y M P s u g g e s t s s t u d y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s s o l a r o p t i o n s I D e v e l o p p l a n t o p u r c h a s e g r e e n e n e r g y v i a T E C O G H G s N o p o l i c y I S i g n A C U P c o m m i t m e n t C o n d u c t G H G i n v e n t o r y W a t e r G r e e n w a y M P a u t o m a t e d i r r i g a t i o n x e r i s c a p e a l l n e w c o n s t e x p l o r e r e c l a i m e d g r a y w a t e r I / I I D e t e r m i n e w a t e r b u d g e t I n s t a l l a u t o m a t e d i r r i g a t i o n B e g i n r e p l a c e m e n t o f i m p e r v i o u s s u r f a c e s H a s t e n x e r i s c a p i n g L a n d s c a p e / H a b i t a t M P e n c o u r a g e s L E E D L a n d s c a p e g u i d e l i n e s o F a v o r n a t i v e s o L i m i t e x o t i c s P r e s e r v a t i o n a r e a s I / I I A s s e s s a r e a s f o r r e s t o r a t i o n R e v i e w c h e m i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n p r o g r a m B e g i n t o e l i m i n a t e l a w n l i k e a r e a s M a t e r i a l s M a n a g e m e n t L i m i t e d r e c y c l i n g p r o g r a m M P m a n d a t e s e x p a n s i o n I M e e t L E E D p r e r e q u i s i t e A u d i t w a s t e s t r e a m C o o r d i n a t e w / P u r c h a s i n g G r o u p T r a n s p o r t a t i o n B u l l R u n n e r b i o d i e s e l F r e e t r a n s i t C a r s h a r i n g B i k e r a c k s l a n e s e t c P l a n n e d l o o p s y s t e m P l a n s t o i n c r e a s e c a m p u s h o u s i n g I I / I I I R e q u i r e a l l f r e s h m e n t o l i v e o n c a m p u s N o p a r k i n g p e r m i t s f o r f r e s h m e n I n c r e a s e p e r m i t f e e s C a r p o o l i n g i n c e n t i v e s M a r k e t i n g F o o d R e s o u r c e s N o p o l i c i e s A R A M A R K i s s u p p l i e r I A s s e s s s o u r c e s o f f o o d I n c r e a s e l o c a l o r g a n i c o p t i o n s B e g i n F a r m t o C o l l e g e p r o g r a m B e g i n c o m p o s t i n g P u r c h a s i n g N o p o l i c i e s D i s c u s s i o n s e d u c a t i o n o f s t a f f M a y i m p l e m e n t p o l i c y i n n e a r f u t u r e I C o n t a c t v e n d o r s a b o u t s u s t a i n a b i l i t y i n i t i a t i v e s I n v e s t i g a t e m o r e s u s t a i n a b l e o p t i o n s E n d o w m e n t I n v e s t m e n t N o p o l i c y E x p l o r i n g r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y f u n d s I D e t e r m i n e % e n d o w m e n t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f u n d s C r e a t e a d v i s o r y b o a r d f o r r e s p o n s i b l e i n v e s t i n g

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226 C h ap t e r 3: I m p e d i m e n t s t o i m p l e m e n t at i on an d p os s i b l e s ol u t i on s T hi s f i na l c ha pt e r e xpl or e s pot e nt i a l obs t a c l e s t ha t m a y i nhi bi t t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt s t r a t e gy a t U S F T hough va r i ous a ppr o a c he s t o i m pr ovi ng s us t a i na bi l i t y ha ve be e n i ns t i t ut e d a t ot he r uni ve r s i t i e s t he U S F a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s s o f a r c hos e n not t o i nc or por a t e m a ny of t he m A nd a s s t a t e d pr e vi ous l y, unt i l t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on gi ve s i t s s uppor t t o i nc r e a s e t h e s us t a i na bi l i t y of U S F s ope r a t i ons a nd pol i c i e s l i t t l e pr ogr e s s c a n be m a de t ow a r d t ha t go a l C AM P US L E ADE RS H I P S URVE Y T o de t e r m i ne w h a t i m pe di m e nt s t o i m pl e m e nt i ng a s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a n a t U S F m i ght e xi s t a s w e l l a s ga uge t h e i nt e r e s t i n s uc h pl a n by U S F l e a de r s hi p, a s ur ve y of c a m pus l e a de r s w a s c ondu c t e d. T hi s s ur ve y w a s by no m e a ns c om pr e he ns i ve ; i t w a s de ve l ope d t o l e a r n t he ge n e r a l a t t i t u de s of de c i s i on m a k e r s a t U S F a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s a s w e l l a s t he i r r e c e pt i ve n e s s t o s pe c i f i c t e c hnol ogi e s or pol i c i e s F or t he pur p os e s of t he s ur ve y, c a m pus l e a de r s i nc l ude d t he P r e s i de nt V i c e P r e s i de nt s S t ude nt G ove r nm e nt A s s oc i a t i on of f i c e r s F a c ul t y S e na t e O f f i c e r s D e a ns of e a c h c ol l e ge a nd S t a f f S e na t e of f i c e r s ( s e e A ppe ndi x A f or a c om pl e t e l i s t of t hos e s ur ve ye d ) O f t he 41 c a m pus l e a de r s t o w hom t he s ur v e y w a s s ubm i t t e d, 19 r e s ponde d ( 46.3% ) B a s e d on t he s ur ve y r e s u l t s t he r e a ppe a r s t o be s t r ong s uppor t f or s us t a i na b i l i t y a t U S F W he n pr e s e nt e d t he B r un dt l a nd de f i ni t i on of s us t a i na bi l i t y, 94.7% of r e s po nde nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t i t i s a n i m por t a nt or i m pe r a t i ve go a l t o w hi c h U S F s houl d a s pi r e F ur t he r

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227 94.2% w e r e s om e w ha t or e x t r e m e l y l i ke l y t o s uppor t t he c r e a t i on of a s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pl a n f or U S F W he n s pe c i f i c s t r a t e gi e s w e r e o f f e r e d t o i nc r e a s e s us t a i na bi l i t y a t U S F ho w e ve r t he s uppor t w a s not a s e nt hu s i a s t i c ( s e e F i gu r e 1 ) O nl y 23.6% of r e s ponde nt s w e r e l i ke l y or e xt r e m e l y l i ke l y t o s uppor t t he c r e a t i on of a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, a nd 29.4% t ui t i on i nc r e a s e s t o i m pr ove bui l di ngs A ddi ng or ga ni c f ood c hoi c e s ( 64.7 % ) r e p l a c i ng t he e xi s t i ng l a nds c a pe w i t h n a t i ve pl a nt s ( 47.0% ) a nd i ns t i t ut i ng e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y pur c ha s i ng ( 70.5% ) a nd i nve s t i ng ( 53.0% ) ga r ne r e d m or e ba c ki ng. T h e t w o a r e a s r e c e i vi ng t he hi ghe s t i nt e r e s t w e r e e xpa ndi ng t he U S F r e c yc l i ng pr ogr a m a nd e duc a t i ng s t ude nt s i n t he c onc e pt s of s us t a i na bi l i t y ( 88.2% e a c h) F or s e ve r a l of t h e o pt i ons pr e s e nt e d, t he m a j or i t y of r e s pons e s w e r e unde c i de d/ no opi ni on. E s t a bl i s hi ng a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, i nc r e a s i ng t ui t i on t o pa y f or bui l di ng e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y upgr a d e s a nd r e pl a c i ng t he c u r r e nt l a nds c a pe w i t h na t i ve s pe c i e s a l l e l i c i t e d t hi s a ns w e r m or e t ha n ot he r s I nc r e a s i ng t he uni ve r s i t y s i nve s t m e nt s i n s oc i a l l y a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l l y r e s pons i bl e f unds obt a i ne d t hi s r e s pons e a t t he s a m e r a t e a s l i ke l y. T hus t he s e r e s ul t s c oul d c ha nge s i gni f i c a nt l y i f r e s ponde nt s w e r e m or e f a m i l i a r w i t h t he c onc e pt s or h a d m or e i nf or m a t i on w i t h w hi c h t o a s s e s s m a ny of t he s e opt i o ns

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228 T he t w o opt i ons t ha t r e c e i ve d t he l e a s t s uppor t w e r e e s t a bl i s hi ng a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd i nc r e a s i ng t ui t i on. O f t hos e r e s pondi ng, 29.4% w e r e not l i ke l y t o s u ppor t t he c r e a t i on of a n O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y, w hi l e 23.5% w e r e unl i ke l y t o a gr e e t o t ui t i on i nc r e a s e s F ur t he r 5.9% oppos e d t he t ui t i on i nc r e a s e ; t he onl y ot he r i de a t o be oppos e d by a ny r e s pond e nt ( a ga i n, 5.9% ) w a s t he i nc r e a s e d a va i l a bi l i t y of or ga ni c f ood opt i ons on c a m pus N o s pe c i f i c c om m e nt s w e r e s ubm i t t e d r e ga r di ng t he O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y, but one r e s ponde nt s t a t e d: T ui t i on s houl d not be us e d t o f und bui l di ngs I t s houl d be us e d O N L Y f or a c a de m i c r e s our c e s [ e m pha s i s f r om r e s pond e nt ] . n = 1 9

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229 M os t of t he s pe c i f i c w a t e r c ons e r v a t i on a nd w a s t e w a t e r r e duc t i on m e a s u r e s pr e s e nt e d r e c e i v e d m ode r a t e s uppo r t ( 20 60% ) T w o opt i ons t ha t w e r e w e l l r e c e i ve d w e r e t he i ns t a l l a t i on of c i s t e r ns t o c ol l e c t r a i nw a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i on a nd t oi l e t us e ( 86.7 % ) a nd t he c r e a t i on of g r a y w a t e r r e us e c ol l e c t i on s ys t e m s f o r bui l di ngs ( 73.3% ) N o r e s ponde nt i ndi c a t e d t ha t U S F c ur r e nt l y doe s e nough t o c ons e r ve w a t e r S i m i l a r l y, none of t hos e s ur ve ye d r e s ponde d t ha t a l t e r na t i ve t r a ns po r t a t i on i s unne c e s s a r y a t U S F T he t r a ns por t a t i on opt i on t ha t r e c e i ve d t h e m os t s uppor t ( 70.6% ) w a s t he c ons t r uc t i on of a l i ght r a i l s t a t i on f or t he c a m pus s houl d r a i l t r a ns i t be c on s t r uc t e d i n t he T a m pa a r e a ; t w o r e s pond e nt s not e d t ha t t hi s opt i o n i s a l r e a dy i n t he pl a ns f or U S F S e ve r a l ot he r pot e nt i a l opt i ons obt a i ne d m ode r a t e s uppor t i nc l udi ng c r e a t i ng a bi ke s ha r i ng pr ogr a m ( 52.9% ) m odi f yi ng U S F t o be c om e a w a l ki ng c a m pus ( 5 2.9% ) of f e r i ng t ui t i on i nc e nt i ve s t o c a r pool e r s t hos e not r e gi s t e r i ng a ve hi c l e a t U S F ( 47.1% ) a nd e xt e ndi ng t he B ul l R unne r s ys t e m t o s e r ve m or e o f f c a m pus hous i ng l oc a t i o ns ( 47.1% ) A n i nc r e a s e i n H A R T L i n e s e r vi c e t o t he c a m pus ( 41.2% ) a nd pr e f e r r e d p a r ki ng f or a l t e r na t i ve f u e l ve hi c l e s a nd c a r pool s ( 35.3% ) r e c e i ve d t he l e a s t ba c ki ng. T hough 11.8% of f e r e d ot he r a s a n a ns w e r no s pe c i f i c opt i ons w e r e gi ve n. H ow e v e r o ne r e s ponde nt s t a t e d t ha t U S F i s a l r e a d y a w a l ki ng c a m pus t ha t H A R T L i ne i s he a vy e n ough on c a m pus , a nd t ha t e xt e nd i ng t he B ul l R unne r s e r vi c e i s not vi a bl e due t o l a c k of f undi ng. T he f i na l que s t i on of t he s ur ve y a ddr e s s e d c a r bon ne ut r a l i t y a nd w he t he r U S F s houl d c om m i t t o a c hi e vi ng t hi s by 2030. C a r bon ne ut r a l w a s de f i ne d i n t he s u r ve y a s t he pr oc e s s of n e ut r a l i z i ng t h e gr e e nhous e e f f e c t s of c a r bon e m i s s i ons by ( a ) r e duc i ng t he

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230 a m ount of c a r bon e m i s s i ons pr oduc e d a nd ( b) of f s e t t i ng a ny r e m a i ni ng c a r bon r e l e a s e by f undi ng or de ve l opi ng pr oj e c t s t ha t r e duc e c a r bon i n t he a t m os phe r e T he s e pr oj e c t s of t e n i nc l ude pl a nt i ng t r e e s or c ons t r uc t i ng a l t e r na t i ve e ne r gy f a c i l i t i e s . A s m a l l m a j or i t y ( 53.3% ) a g r e e d t h a t t he y w oul d ba c k s uc h a c om m i t m e nt ; no r e s ponde nt oppos e d i t nor di d a ny s uppor t e xt e ndi n g or de c r e a s i ng t he 2030 de a dl i ne H ow e ve r t hou gh a de f i ni t i on w a s gi ve n w i t h t he s ur ve y que s t i on, 46.7% a ns w e r e d t ha t t he y w e r e not f a m i l i a r e no ugh w i t h t he c onc e pt t o s upp or t t he c om m i t m e nt O t he r c om m e nt s w r i t t e n by s ur ve y r e s pond e nt s i ndi c a t e d t he ne e d t o be t t e r i nf or m c a m pus l e a de r s a bout s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s e s pe c i a l l y s pe c i f i c t e c hnol ogy. I n r e s pons e t o t he que s t i on a bout s uppor t f or pa r t i c ul a r w a t e r s a v i ng opt i ons f or e xa m pl e one pe r s on a ns w e r e d: I t w oul d de p e nd on how s a ni t a r y t he s e opt i ons a r e . A not he r a c know l e dg e d t ha t he / s he di d not know e nough a bout s om e of t he s e opt i ons t o r e s pond. F ur t he r a l l r e s ponde nt s w e r e s om e w ha t t o e xt r e m e l y s uppor t i ve of i nc l udi ng gr e e n bui l di ng s t a nda r ds f or a l l uni ve r s i t y bui l di ngs i f e vi de nc e w a s pr ovi de d t o s how t ha t gr e e n bui l di ng t e c hnol ogy l e a ds t o he a l t hi e r m or e pr od uc t i ve e m pl oye e s a nd s t u de nt s S e ve r a l s t udi e s r e v e a l i nc r e a s e d p r oduc t i vi t y a nd i m pr ove d he a l t h i n oc c up a nt s of gr e e n bui l di ngs a nd pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s e be n e f i t s t o t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on m a y ga r ne r m or e s uppor t f or i nc or por a t i ng gr e e n bui l di ng a t U S F A s not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w s t ude nt s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h da yl i ght i ng pe r f or m e d a t l e ve l s up t o 20% hi ghe r t ha n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e t a ught i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h m i ni m a l or no da yl i ght i ng ( M e ndl e r e t a l 2006) A 2003 r e po r t s how e d t ha t w or k e r s ha vi n g be t t e r vi e w s m e a s ur e d by t he s i z e of

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231 t he vi e w a nd s e c onda r i l y by t he c ont e nt o f obs e r va bl e ve ge t a t i on, c ons i s t e nt l y pe r f or m e d be t t e r ( H e s c hong M a hon e 2003) I n c a l l c e nt e r s w or ke r s h a vi ng t he be s t vi e w a va i l a bl e pr oc e s s e d c a l l s 6 12% f a s t e r t ha n t hos e ha vi ng no vi e w ( H e s c hong M a hon e 2003) S i m i l a r l y, of f i c e w or ke r s pe r f or m e d 10% t o 25% be t t e r on t e s t s of m e nt a l a c ui t y a nd m e m or y w he n t he y ha d t he opt i m a l vi e w s ve r s us t hos e ha vi ng no vi e w s ( H e s c hong M a hone 2003) T hough no s t a nda r d f or e s t i m a t i ng t he e xa c t pr od uc t i vi t y i m pa c t of a gr e e n bui l di ng e xi s t s one s t udy a t t r i but e s a 1 1.5% pr odu c t i vi t y a nd he a l t h ga i n t o L E E D N C bui l di ngs ( K a t s e t a l 2003) T hou gh t hi s m a y s e e m a m ode s t i nc r e a s e e m pl oye e c os t s a r e a ppr oxi m a t e l y 10 t i m e s t he c os t s of t he bui l di ng i t s e l f ( K a t s e t a l 2003) T he r e f o r e a s K a t s e t a l ( 2003) s t a t e i f gr e e n d e s i gn m e a s ur e s c a n i nc r e a s e p r oduc t i vi t y by 1% t hi s w oul d, ove r t i m e ha ve a f i s c a l i m pa c t r oughl y e qu a l t o r e duc i ng pr op e r t y c os t s by 10% . O B S T ACL E S AND S O L UT I O NS T he unf a m i l i a r i t y of a l m os t ha l f of r e s pond e nt s w i t h t he c onc e pt of c a r bon ne ut r a l i t y, a c c om pa ni e d by ot he r c o m m e nt s not e d t hr oughout t he s ur ve y r e s pons e s i ndi c a t e t ha t e duc a t i on of t he l e a de r s hi p of U S F w i l l be i m pe r a t i ve t o t he s uc c e s s of a ny s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve B e c a us e t he c onc e r n m os t e xpr e s s e d b y r e s ponde nt s r e g a r d e d t he e c onom i c c os t s t o i m pl e m e nt s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s a vi t a l c om pone nt of t ha t e duc a t i on i s t he di s c us s i on of t he f i na nc i a l be ne f i t s of gr e e n bui l di ng a nd ot he r s us t a i na bi l i t y pol i c i e s I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t hough a l l r e s ponde nt s s houl d ha ve bypa s s e d Q ue s t i ons 3 5 of t he s ur ve y ba s e d on t he i r a ns w e r s t o Q ue s t i on 2, s e ve r a l c hos e t o r e s pond t o t hos e t hr e e que s t i ons

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232 M a ny of t he i r c om m e nt s pr ove d t o be e nl i ght e ni n g. O ne not e d t ha t a pot e nt i a l r e a s on f or not s uppor t i ng a s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pl a n a t U S F i s t ha t f undi ng i s n ot t he r e . F or t he s pe c i f i c t e c hnol ogi e s pr e s e nt e d i n t he s ur v e y, a ga i n s uppor t de pe nds on c os t s a nd be ne f i t s t o one r e s ponde nt T he be l i e f und e r l yi ng t he s e a ns w e r s i s t ha t gr e e n b ui l di ng r e qui r e s c ons i de r a bl y hi ghe r f i na nc i a l c os t s t o c ons t r u c t ; f ur t he r i t doe s not a c c ount f or t he f i na n c i a l be n e f i t s pr ovi de d by gr e e n bui l di ngs a s not e d a bove A l t e r na t i ve l y, i t c oul d r e f l e c t t he budg e t a r y di s c onne c t be t w e e n ope r a t i ons a nd c ons t r uc t i on f unds not e d i n C ha pt e r 1. T he s e i de a s ha ve i nf l ue nc e d r e c e nt d e c i s i ons r e ga r di ng ne w b ui l di ng c ons t r uc t i on a t U S F A s t ude nt i ni t i a t i ve t o ha ve t he ne w M a r s ha l l C e nt e r a c hi e ve L E E D N C c e r t i f i c a t i on w a s s t oppe d by t he U S F a dm i ni s t r a t i o n due t o f i na nc i a l c on c e r ns W he n a r e s ol ut i on w a s be i ng pr e pa r e d t o s ubm i t t o t he U S F S t ude nt G ove r nm e nt S e na t e pr opos i ng t ha t t he M a r s ha l l C e nt e r be L E E D c e r t i f i e d, t he D i r e c t or o f t he M a r s ha l l C e nt e r s e nt a m e m or a ndum t o t he P r e s i de nt of t he S t ude nt G ove r nm e nt S e na t e s t a t i ng t ha t L E E D c e r t i f i c a t i o n w oul d r e qui r e a n a ddi t i ona l 2% of t he bui l di ng budge t ; t he S t ude nt S e na t e ne ve r v ot e d on t he r e s ol ut i on. T hough t he 2% f i gur e m a y be t e c hni c a l l y a c c ur a t e t he w a y i t w a s p r e s e nt e d t o t he S e na t e w a s s om e w ha t m i s l e a di n g. A c c or di ng t o K a t s e t a l ( 2003 ) t he a v e r a g e pr e m i um t o c ons t r uc t gr e e n bui l di ngs i s i nde e d s l i ght l y l e s s t h a n 2% H ow e ve r m os t o f t hi s c os t i nc r e a s e i s due t o t he a dd i t i ona l a r c hi t e c t ur a l a nd e ngi ne e r i ng de s i gn t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o i nt e gr a t e s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng pr a c t i c e s i nt o t he pr oj e c t s ( K a t s e t a l 2003 ) T he

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233 m e m or a ndum f r om t he M a r s ha l l C e nt e r D i r e c t or i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he a r c hi t e c t s ha d a l r e a dy pl a nne d t o de s i gn a s us t a i na bl e bui l di ng, s o t he s e c os t s w e r e a l r e a dy a c c ou nt e d f or i n t he a r c hi t e c t s budg e t A not he r m or e r e c e nt s t udy f o und no s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e i n a ve r a ge c os t s f or c ons t r uc t i ng gr e e n bui l di ngs i nc l udi ng L E E D c e r t i f i e d s t r uc t ur e s c om pa r e d t o non gr e e n bui l di ngs ( M o r r i s a nd M a t t hi e s e n 2007 ) A t l e a s t one oppor t uni t y t o c ons t r uc t a L E E D c e r t i f i e d bui l di ng a t U S F a ppe a r s t o ha v e be e n m i s s e d due t o c on f u s i on a bout t he c os t s i nvol ve d. T hough a bui l di ng doe s not ha ve t o m e e t L E E D c r i t e r i a t o be c ons i de r e d gr e e n, t he r i gor of t he c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s e ns ur e s t ha t t he de s i gn m e e t s a c c e pt e d s t a nd a r ds t ha t m a ny c ons t r uc t i on pr of e s s i ona l s us e t o de f i ne gr e e n. T he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da not e s t ha t L E E D pr ovi de s a r oa dm a p f or m e a s ur i ng a nd doc um e nt i ng s uc c e s s f or e ve r bui l d i ng t ype a nd pha s e of a b ui l di ng l i f e c yc l e ( U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on 2007a ) L E E D i s be c o m i ng t he s t a nda r d f or g r e e n bui l di ng a nd de s i gn i n t he U S ( K a t s e t a l 2003) S o t hough t he a ppl i c a t i on a nd c e r t i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s a dds s om e c o s t t o t he f i na l pr oj e c t t he r e s ul t a nt ope r a t i ons c os t s a vi ngs f r om t he bui l di ng pa y f or t he a ddi t i ona l f i na nc i a l ou t l a y w e l l be f or e t h e e nd of t h e us e f ul l i f e of t he s t r uc t ur e A c c or di ng t o t he s ur v e y r e s ponde nt s 75% w oul d be m or e l i ke l y t o s uppor t a s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pl a n i f l ong t e r m ope r a t i ona l c os t s a vi ngs r e s ul t e d f r om m i nor c ons t r uc t i on c os t i nc r e a s e s B e yond t he u ni ve r s i t y e xa m pl e s g i ve n i n C ha pt e r 1, r e s e a r c h s how s t ha t ope r a t i ons s a vi ngs w i l l r e s ul t f r om a nd pa y f o r t h e i nc or por a t i on of gr e e n t e c hnol ogy i n bui l di ngs A n a na l ys i s of t he f i na nc i a l c os t s a nd be ne f i t s of 33 L E E D c e r t i f i e d bui l di ngs

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234 a t a l l l e ve l s ( B a s i c P l a t i num ) r e ve a l e d t ha t a 2% upf r ont i nve s t m e nt i n c ons t r uc t i on c os t s t ypi c a l l y r e s ul t e d i n l i f e c yc l e s a vi ngs of ove r t e n t i m e s t he i ni t i a l i nv e s t m e nt ( K a t s e t a l 2003) A ga i n, t hi s i nf or m a t i on w oul d be va l ua bl e i n e duc a t i ng t he a d m i ni s t r a t i on a bo ut t he be ne f i t s of gr e e n bui l di ng. B ui l d i ng t o L E E D s t a nda r ds w i l l he l p a s s ur e t ha t U S F m e e t s C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n P ol i c y 14.2.6: T he U ni ve r s i t y s ha l l a dhe r e t o s ound f i s c a l pol i c i e s i n pr ovi di ng t he c a pi t a l i m pr ove m e n t s of t hi s c a m pus m a s t e r pl a n a nd s ha l l pr oc e e d w i t h ne w c a pi t a l i m pr ove m e nt s e xpa ns i o ns or r e pl a c e m e nt s ba s e d upon t he i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd c om m i t m e nt of a de qua t e f undi n g a nd r e s our c e s . H ow e ve r e ve n t hough t h e e xt r a c os t s a r e t ypi c a l l y m i ni m a l t o i m p l e m e nt gr e e n bui l di ng t he uni ve r s i t y m u s t f i nd t he s e f i na n c e s T he F l or i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y S ys t e m c ur r e nt l y f a c e s budge t c ut s ; U S F i s e xpe c t e d t o l os e $50 m i l l i on i n f undi ng i n 2007 2008. H ow e ve r F l or i da s G ove r nor r e l e a s e d E x e c ut i ve O r de r 07 126 i n J ul y 2007 t ha t di r e c t e d t he D e pa r t m e nt o f M a na ge m e nt S e r vi c e s ( D M S ) t o c ons t r uc t a l l ne w bui l di ngs t o L E E D N C s t a nda r ds a nd s t r i ve f or L E E D N C P l a t i num ; t he O r de r a l s o di r e c t e d t h a t L E E D E B i s t o be i m pl e m e nt e d f or a l l D M S ow ne d bui l di ngs T hough S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y S ys t e m bui l di ngs a r e not ow ne d b y D M S t he E xe c ut i ve O r de r e nc ou r a g e s uni v e r s i t i e s t o i m pl e m e nt t he s a m e s t a nda r ds f or n e w a nd e xi s t i ng bui l di ngs T hi s i s be yo nd t he c ont r ol of U S F ; onl y t he G ove r n or a nd t he s t a t e l e gi s l a t ur e c a n r e s ol ve t hi s c ont r a d i c t i on be t w e e n t he E x e c ut i ve O r de r a nd t h e budge t r e du c t i ons A not he r f undi ng opt i on f or U S F i s t he a c qui s i t i on of gr a nt s f r om v a r i ous s o ur c e s T he H a nna W e s t ( 2006) s t ud y de t a i l s s e ve r a l o f t he s e f r om bot h gove r nm e nt a nd pr i va t e

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235 s our c e s G r a nt s a r e a va i l a bl e f or g e ne r a l s us t a i na bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s a s w e l l a s s pe c i f i c pr ogr a m s f oc us e d on e n e r gy c ons e r v a t i on, r e c y c l i ng, a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l e d uc a t i on ( H a nna W e s t 2006) P hi l a nt hr opi c gi f t s f r om e nv i r onm e nt a l l y c ons c i ous a l um ni a nd ot he r donor s a s w e l l a s s ol i c i t i ng ve nt ur e c a pi t a l f r om pr i v a t e f i r m s a r e ot h e r s ugge s t i ons pr e s e nt e d i n t he H a nna W e s t pa pe r O t he r i ns t i t ut i ons f a c e d f i na nc i a l obs t a c l e s w h e n be gi nni ng t he i r s us t a i na bi l i t y e f f or t s H a r va r d be ga n i t s G r e e n C a m pus L oa n F und i n 2000 w i t h $3 m i l l i on f r om H a r va r d s ba nk ( H G C I 2007m ) T h e F und pr ovi de s t he up f r ont c a pi t a l f or pr oj e c t s t o i m pr ove t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of bui l di ng s a nd c a m pus pr a c t i c e s ; a ppl i c a nt s r e pa y t he F und w i t h t he s a vi ngs a c hi e ve d t hr ough t he r e s ul t i ng r e duc t i ons i n r e s our c e c ons um pt i on or ope r a t i ng c os t s ( H G C I 20 07n ) A n y pr oj e c t t ha t i s f unde d m us t ha ve a 5 ye a r pa yb a c k or l e s s ; a l t e r na t i ve l y, t he F und m us t be r e pa i d w i t hi n f i ve ye a r s e v e n i f t he pr oj e c t pa yba c k t o t he s pe c i f i c c a m pus uni t i s l onge r ( H G C I 2007m ) A n d a s not e d i n C ha pt e r 1, t he F und s s uc c e s s ha s e nc our a ge d t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o i nc r e a s e i t s f undi ng t o $12 m i l l i on. U S F c oul d w or k w i t h i t s f i na n c i a l i ns t i t ut i ons t o c r e a t e a s i m i l a r pr ogr a m t o ge t a s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gy of f t he g r ound. A f i na l opt i on f or U S F t ha t w oul d be us e d i nde pe n de nt l y o r i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he a bove l oa n pr og r a m i s t o hi r e a pr i va t e c om pa ny t o de s i gn a nd i ns t a l l r e s ou r c e s a vi ng t e c hnol ogi e s O t he r c a m pus e s ha ve t a k e n t hi s a ppr oa c h w h e n i m pl e m e nt i ng e ne r gy c ons e r va t i on pr oj e c t s A s not e d i n C ha pt e r 1, bot h P e nn S t a t e a nd U B C ha ve e nt e r e d i nt o E ne r gy P e r f o r m a nc e C ont r a c t s i n w hi c h e n e r gy c o s t s a vi ngs a r e us e d t o r e p a y t he c os t s of

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236 t he i nf r a s t r uc t u r e i m pr ov e m e nt s P r i va t e e ne r gy f i r m s m a na ge d t he s e C ont r a c t s vi a E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt S e r vi c e s A gr e e m e nt s w i t h i ndi vi dua l uni v e r s i t i e s T he s e f i r m s de s i gn, i ns t a l l a nd f und t he ne w t e c hnol ogy, a nd t he A gr e e m e nt s m a nda t e t ha t pa ym e nt s t o t he f i r m s a r e c ont i nge nt on t he pe r f or m a nc e o f t he s ys t e m upgr a de s

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237 C O N C L U S I O N S S us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pol i c i e s a nd i ni t i a t i ve s ha ve be e n e s t a bl i s he d a t n um e r ous uni ve r s i t i e s S om e ha ve c r e a t e d pl a ns a nd b e nc h m a r ks w hi l e ot he r s a r e j us t be gi nni ng t o de t e r m i ne t he i r s t r a t e gi e s A f e w i ns t i t ut i ons ha ve e ve n c ons t r u c t e d bui l di ngs t ha t a ppr oa c h r e g e ne r a t i ve s t a t us R e ga r dl e s s by i nc or por a t i n g s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o t he i r pr a c t i c e s t h e s e s c hool s h a ve t a ke n t h e f i r s t s t e ps t ow a r ds be c om i ng r e ge n e r a t i ve pl a c e s A s a dm i ni s t r a t i ons ha ve a dopt e d s t r a t e gi e s a nd be nc hm a r ks f or s us t a i n a bi l i t y, t he c onc e pt s ha v e pe r m e a t e d t he phi l os ophi e s of t he s e s c hoo l s a s w e l l M a ny i ns t i t ut i ons i nc l ud i ng t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da ha ve not ye t c hos e n t o i nt e gr a t e s us t a i na bi l i t y i nt o t he i r pol i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s how e ve r T he s e c a m pus e s r e pr e s e nt oppor t uni t i e s t o m a ke r a pi d pr og r e s s i n t he e f f o r t s t o r e duc e a nd e ve nt ua l l y e l i m i na t e t he e nvi r onm e n t a l i m pa c t s r e s ul t i ng f r o m uni ve r s i t y c ons t r uc t i on, ope r a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s T he R e g e ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy d e ve l op e d i n t hi s pa pe r of f e r s a w a y f or uni ve r s i t i e s t o a c hi e ve t h e s e goa l s T hi s i s t he f i r s t s t udy t o c r e a t e a c om pr e he ns i ve b r oa d ba s e d s t r a t e gy t o l e a d uni ve r s i t i e s t o be c om e r e g e ne r a t i ve p l a c e s T he s t r a t e gy i s hol i s t i c e nc our a gi ng s yne r g i e s a m ong t he 12 A r e a s o f F oc us de ve l o pe d f r om t he be s t pr a c t i c e s pr e s e nt e d i n ot he r a s s e s s m e nt t ool s a nd i ns t i t ut e d a t uni ve r s i t i e s r e c ogni z e d a s l e a de r s i n c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y. T he t ool s c r e a t e d by t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon, P e nn S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, t he U ni ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h C ol um bi a t he S us t a i na bl e E ndow m e nt s I ns t i t ut e a nd G ood C om pa ny, I nc e a c h o f f e r e d

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238 s us t a i na bi l i t y i ndi c a t or s H ow e ve r none a dd r e s s e d a l l t he i ndi c a t or s e qua l l y. T he U O a nd P e nn S t a t e a s s e s s m e nt t ool s ne gl e c t e d P r oc ur e m e nt a nd P e nn S t a t e s a l s o di d not i nc l ude E ndow m e nt I nve s t m e nt T he S E I a s s e s s m e nt s i n t ur n, f oc us e d on I nve s t m e nt s A nd, t ho ugh t he G ood C om pa ny t ool i nc or por a t e d a l l t he A r e a s o f F oc us i nc l ude d i n t hi s pa pe r t he y w e r e une qua l l y w e i ght e d; s om e w e r e pr i m a r y i ndi c a t or s w hi l e ot he r s w e r e de e m e d s e c onda r y. T hi s s t r a t e gy, be c a us e i t m ove s be yond s us t a i na bl e t o r e ge n e r a t i ve gi v e s n o pr e f e r e n c e t o a ny of t he A r e a s R e g e n e r a t i ve de s i gn i s hol i s t i c r e l yi ng on t he i nt e r pl a y o f a l l e l e m e nt s w i t hi n t he de ve l opm e nt ; e xt e ndi ng t hi s t o a c a m p us m e a ns t ha t s yne r gi e s a m ong t he va r i ous e l e m e nt s of t he c a m pus w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a r e ge ne r a t i ve p l a c e A nd t hough t he r e a r e s pe c i f i c s ugge s t e d t e c hnol ogi e s a nd t a c t i c s w i t hi n t he S t r a t e gy, due t o t he pl a c e ba s e d na t ur e of r e ge n e r a t i ve de s i gn, i t i s i nt e nde d a s a gui de t o a c hi e ve r e ge ne r a t i ve s t a t us not a bl ue pr i nt A not he r ha l l m a r k o f t hi s R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i s t ha t t he c a m pus a ugm e nt s t he a dva nc e s i n s us t a i na bi l i t y a c hi e ve d i n e a r l y pha s e s unt i l t he r e ge ne r a t i ve l e v e l i s m e t N o c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y s t r a t e gy r e vi e w e d f ol l ow e d a s i m i l a r pa t t e r n, pos s i bl y be c a us e t he s e us e di f f e r e nt de f i ni t i ons of s us t a i na bi l i t y. T hi s s t udy i s a l s o t he m o s t c om pr e he ns i ve a s s e s s m e nt of U S F s s us t a i na bi l i t y m e a s ur e s t o da t e T he H a nn a W e s t pa pe r f o c us e s pr i m a r i l y on c r e a t i ng a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y, w hi l e t he S E I a s s e s s m e nt gi ve s m os t w e i ght t o e ndow m e nt i nve s t m e nt s R e s ul t s of t hi s

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239 t he s i s i ndi c a t e t ha t t hough U S F ha s s o f a r done l i t t l e t o e m br a c e s us t a i na bi l i t y, t he f i r s t s t e ps i n t ha t di r e c t i on w i l l t a ke m ode s t e f f o r t s a nd m i ni m a l f i na nc e s S t a f f a nd s t ude nt s a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n t hi s i s s ue a nd w oul d be n e f i t f r om t he c r e a t i on of a n O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y t o c oor di n a t e t he i r e f f or t s pe r P ha s e I m uc h a s i ni t i a t i ve s a t U O U B C a nd U F be ne f i t e d f r om t he i ns t i t ut i on of s i m i l a r of f i c e s C r e a t i ng a ba s e l i ne o f U S F s c ur r e nt c a m pus i s a l s o ne c e s s a r y t o ga uge t he s t a r t i ng poi n t f or t he uni ve r s i t y, but ne e d not be e xpe ns i ve ; m uc h i f not a l l c a n be c om pl e t e d i n ho us e B a s e d on t he e xp e r i e nc e s of s us t a i na bi l i t y of f i c i a l s a t bot h D uke a nd U F t he m os t i m por t a nt t a s k i s t o g a i n a c om m i t m e nt f r om t he c u r r e nt a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o s uppor t a nd f i na nc e s us t a i n a bi l i t y i ni t i a t i ve s a t t he s c hool T he s ur ve y r e s ul t s r e ve a l t ha t e duc a t i on of t he a d m i ni s t r a t i on a t U S F i s i m por t a nt t o ga i n s uppor t f or a ny s us t a i na b i l i t y e f f or t O f pa r t i c ul a r i m por t a nc e a r e t he e c o no m i c be ne f i t s of gr e e n bui l di ng a nd s us t a i na bl e de s i gn. T he f i n a nc i a l c os t s of gr e e n bui l di ng a nd ot he r s us t a i na bi l i t y pl a ns a r e t he m os t c om m on a r gum e n t a ga i ns t i m pl e m e nt a t i on; how e ve r s e ve r a l s t udi e s ha v e s ho w n t ha t s c hool s i ns t i t ut i n g t he s e pol i c i e s w i l l e xpe nd l i t t l e i f a ny a ddi t i ona l m one y, s a ve m one y i n t he l ong t e r m a nd c ons e r v e na t ur a l r e s o ur c e s a nd ha bi t a t E vi de nc e a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he s e s c hool s w i l l a t t r a c t i nt e r e s t f r om gr e a t e r num be r s of f a c ul t y a nd s t ude nt s U S F s a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s of t e n r e pe a t e d t he goa l o f b e c om i ng one of t he t op r e s e a r c h uni v e r s i t i e s i n F l or i da a nd t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he s us t a i na bi l i t y of c a m pus bui l di ngs a nd ope r a t i ons pl a y a l a r ge r r ol e i n t he de c i s i on m a ki ng p r oc e s s of

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240 m a ny pr os pe c t i ve s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y a c r os s t he c ount r y. F or e xa m pl e pot e nt i a l s t ude nt s vi s i t i ng C or ne l l U ni ve r s i t y ha ve i nqui r e d a bout t oi l e t s f l us he d w i t h r a i nw a t e r r e c yc l e d m a t e r i a l us e i n c ons t r uc t i on of r e s i de n c e ha l l s a nd pe r c e nt a ge o f r e ne w a bl e e ne r gy bought by t he c a m pus ( P i e r c e 2008 ) A c c or di ng t o D e a n K oy a na gi t he S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or f or C or ne l l T he d r i ve r s a r e t he i nc om i ng p ool of s t ude nt s W e 'r e he a r i ng t ha t f r om a l um ni a f f a i r s a nd d e ve l o pm e nt w e 'r e h e a r i ng t ha t f r om a dm i s s i ons w e 'r e he a r i n g t ha t f r om vi s i t or s w ho a r e a s ki ng, W he r e 's your gr e e n bui l di ng, I w a nt t o l ook a t i t ( P i e r c e 2008 ) O n t he r e s e a r c h e nd, S yr a c us e c r e a t e d i t s C e nt e r of E xc e l l e nc e i n E nvi r onm e nt a l a nd E ne r gy S ys t e m s w hi c h ha s s pa w ne d a r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h s e ve r a l pr i va t e c om pa ni e s i n c l udi ng C a r r i e r C or por a t i on ( K na us s 2008) T hi s pa r t ne r s hi p ha s pa i r e d i ndus t r y a nd u ni ve r s i t y r e s e a r c he r s l e a di ng t o t he c r e a t i on of ov e r 180 j obs ( K na us s 2008) T o s om e t hi s R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy m a y a pp e a r o ve r l y a m bi t i ous or e ve n i m pos s i bl e H ow e ve r t he t e c hnol ogy t o a c hi e ve t he s e goa l s e x i s t s t oda y, a nd w i l l l i ke l y be c om e l e s s e xpe ns i ve a nd m or e w i de l y a va i l a bl e a s de m a nd gr ow s f or t he s e p r oduc t s a n d de s i gn i de a s F ur t he r t he ur g e n c y t o m i ni m i z e a nd e ve nt ua l l y r e ve r s e hum a n i m pa c t s on t he e nvi r onm e nt i nc r e a s e s a n nua l l y. A s not e d e a r l i e r t he 2007 U ni t e d N a t i ons I nt e r gove r nm e nt a l P a ne l on C l i m a t e C ha nge R e por t s t a t e s t ha t G H G e m i s s i ons m us t be ha l ve d by 2050 t o l i m i t t he pot e nt i a l da m a ge f r o m gl oba l c l i m a t e c ha nge W a t e r s uppl i e s c onve nt i ona l e n e r gy s our c e s a nd w i l dl i f e ha bi t a t a r e a l l on t he de c l i ne a s w e l l

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241 B y w or ki ng a c r os s di s c i p l i ne s w i t h i nput f r om a l l c a m pus us e r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t t he c r e a t i on of a r e ge ne r a t i ve c a m pus c a n be s uc c e s s f ul I m pl e m e n t a t i on of t he S t r a t e gy w i l l be ne f i t not onl y t he e nvi r onm e nt but a l s o s t ude nt s f a c ul t y, a nd f i na nc e s a t a ny uni ve r s i t y. U S F i s a pr i m e c a ndi da t e f or t hi s s t r a t e gy due t o t he s i z e of i t s e nr ol l m e nt t he a c a de m i c a nd r e s e a r c h r e s our c e s o n i t s c a m pus a nd t he de s i r e s of i t s a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o be c om e a be t t e r kno w n r e s e a r c h uni ve r s i t y. B e c a us e no u ni ve r s i t y ha s i nc or por a t e d a s i m i l a r s t r a t e gy, s houl d U S F c hoos e t o e m br a c e t he R e ge ne r a t i ve S t r a t e gy i t w oul d ga i n i ns t a nt r e c o gni t i on a s a l e a de r i n t he s us t a i na bi l i t y m ove m e nt a nd i n t ur n be c om e a uni qu e de s t i na t i on f or s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd r e s e a r c he r s a l i ke

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242 L I T E R A T U R E C I T E D A p p l e dor n, B L a nd T T A nke r s e n. 2006. F o s t e r i n g C ur r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t a nd C r o s s C a m p u s C o l l a b or a t i on i n S us t a i n a b i l i t y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f F l or i d a : A R e p o r t w i t h C on c l u s i ons a nd R e c o m m e n d a t i on s . C on s e r v a t i on C l i n i c C e n t e r f or G o ve r n m e n t a l R e s p o n s i bi l i t y U ni v e r s i t y o f F l or i d a L e v i n C o l l e g e of L a w R e t r i e v e d 9 / 23 / 2007 f r om h t t p : / / s u s t a i n a b i l i t y u f l e du / r e p o r t s / F i n a l % 20 S us t a i n a b i l i t y % 2 0R e p o r t % 2 010 18 06. p d f A R A M A R K 2007. E nv i r onm e nt a l S t e w a r ds hi p. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .a r a m a r k. c om / C ont e nt T e m pl a t e .a s px? P os t i ngI D = 392& C ha nne l I D = 22 3 B a r t l e t t K 2005. N a t i o na l W i l dl i f e F e de r a t i on H onor s U C F P r e s c r i be d B ur n P r ogr a m . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / ne w s .uc f .e du/ U C F ne w s / i nde x? pa g e = a r t i c l e & i d= 0024004105c 1b71a 90107d c b09e b8007a 25 B a ue B 2006. S ur ve y S t a r t s t o P r y O pe n B l a c k B ox of U ni ve r s i t y E ndow m e nt H ol di ngs a nd P r oxy V ot i ng. R e t r i e ve d 1/ 21/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s oc i a l f unds .c om / ne w s / pr i nt .c gi ? s f A r t i c l e I d= 2020 B a xt e r M 2007. D uk e R a t c he t s U p W a t e r C ons e r va t i on. D uk e O f f i c e o f N e w s a nd C om m uni c a t i ons R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ne w s .duke .e du/ 2007/ 10/ w a t e r 21.ht m l B e r nhe i m A 2003. H o w gr e e n i s gr e e n? D e ve l opi ng a pr oc e s s f o r de t e r m i ni ng s us t a i na bi l i t y w he n pl a nni ng c a m pus e s a nd a c a d e m i c bui l di ngs P l anni ng f or H i ghe r E duc at i on 31( 3) : 99 110. B i ne t t e C 2007. P r e s i de nt H i t t J oi ns C ol l e a gue s i n L e a di ng C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt E f f or t . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 30/ 0 7 f r om : ht t p: / / ne w s .uc f .e d u/ U C F ne w s / i nde x? pa g e = a r t i c l e & i d= 002400415bc 28a 54 010f 970 70b37006d2c B i ne t t e C 2005. N e w gr e e n r oo f a t s t ude nt uni on a n e a r l y s u c c e s s U C F N e w s a nd I nf or m a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 3 / 13/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / ne w s .uc f .e du/ U C F ne w s / i nde x? pa g e = a r t i c l e & i d= 002400411a 42 8d50103 c 2675a 02007d87& m ode = ne w s B i r ke l a nd, J 2002. D e s i gn f or S us t a i na bi l i t y: A S our c e book of I nt e gr a t e d, E c o L ogi c a l S ol ut i ons E a r t hs c a n P ubl i c a t i ons L t d. 288 pp.

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243 B ow e n, T .S 2005. C ons t r uc t i ve C r i t i c i s m : L E E D gr e e n bui l di ng pr ogr a m c onf r ont s c r i t i c s a nd gr ow i ng pa i ns . G r i s t E nvi r onm e nt a l N e w s a nd C om m e nt a r y. R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 13, 2 007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr i s t .or g/ ne w s / m a i ndi s h/ 2005/ 10/ 26/ l e e d/ B r ow n, B .J ., M E H a ns on, D M L i ve r m a n, a nd R W M e r i de t h. 1 987. G l oba l s us t a i na bi l i t y: t ow a r d de f i ni t i on. E nv i r onm e nt al M anage m e nt 11( 6 ) : 713 719. B r undt l a nd C om m i s s i on. 1987. O ur C om m on F ut ur e ( T h e B r undt l a nd R e por t ) W or l d C ounc i l on S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt ( W C S D ) O xf or d. B uc k, A ., D D i ne S G o l dbe r g, V G ul a t e V I ye r B J a c ob, E K a ng, R K i m J M ont e s P M oy, A O 'C onnor K P a r a s k e va s R T a t um C T e i c he r a nd J T ur ne r 2004. T he V e r t i c a l F a r m : F ood P r oduc t i on of t h e F ut ur e . C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y D e pa r t m e nt of E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h S c i e n c e s 8 1 pp. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 21/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / ve r t i c a l f a r m .c om / i nde x.php C a l i f or ni a I nt e gr a t e d W a s t e M a na ge m e nt B oa r d. 2007. G r e e n B ui l di ng B a s i c s . R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 3, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .c i w m b.c a .go v/ G r e e nB ui l di ng/ B a s i c s .ht m C a pps T 2007a D uk e S us t a i na bi l i t y T i m e l i ne . E m a i l t o R M c D ona l d. S e pt e m be r 23, 2007. C a pps T 2007b. D uke U ni ve r s i t y S us t a i na bi l i t y I ni t i a t i ve s O ve r vi e w C a pps T 2007c P e r s on a l I nt e r vi e w S e pt e m be r 27, 2007. C a r ne gi e F ounda t i on f or t he A dva nc e m e nt of T e a c hi ng. 2007. E nr ol l m e nt P r of i l e T a bl e s R e t r i e v e d M a r c h 13, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .c a r ne gi e f oun da t i on.or g/ c l a s s i f i c a t i ons / s ub.a s p? ke y= 802 C a r r ol l L 2006. E nvi r onm e nt a l l y s pe a ki ng, s t ude nt s w a nt M a r s ha l l C e n t e r t o be gr e e n. T he O r a c l e R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 30, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .us f or a c l e c o m / m e di a / s t or a ge / pa pe r 88 0/ ne w s / 2006/ 02/ 02/ N e w s / E nvi r onm e nt a l l y.S pe a ki ng.S t ude nt s .W a nt .M a r s ha l l .C e nt e r .T o.B e .gr e e n 1671751.s ht m l ? nor e w r i t e 200604250204& s our c e dom a i n= w w w .us f o r a c l e c om C e nt e r f or U r ba n T r a ns p or t a t i on R e s e a r c h ( C U T R ) 2007a T he C e nt e r f or U r ba n T r a ns por t a t i on R e s e a r c h. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 23, 2 007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .c ut r .us f .e du/ i nde x2.ht m C U T R 2007b. 2007 U S F P a r ki ng a nd T r a ns por t a t i on S ur ve y. R e t r i e ve d 2 / 15/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ne w nor t ha l l i a nc e .or g/ U S F % 20P a r ki ng% 20a nd % 20T r a ns por t a t i on % 20S ur ve y% 205 18 07. pdf

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244 C l e a n E ne r gy R e s e a r c h C e nt e r 2006. A bout C E R C . R e t r i e ve d 4/ 7/ 2006 f r om ht t p: / / c e r c .e ng.us f .e du/ C oa t e s M a nd T M e l dr um 2005. C 2C H om e : I de a s . R e t r i e ve d 10/ 06/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .c r a dl e t oc r a dl e hom e .c om / w s t _pa ge 2.ht m l C oc kr a m M 2006. D e e p a nd m e r e l y t i nt e d gr e e ns A r c hi t e c t ur e W e e k 281. R e t r i e ve d 1/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .a r c hi t e c t ur e w e e k. c o m / 2006/ 0405/ e nvi r onm e nt _1 1.ht m l C om m uni t y F ood S e c ur i t y C oa l i t i on. 2007. A bout F a r m t o C ol l e ge . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 30/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f a r m t oc ol l e g e .or g/ a b out .ht m D e l l e r t C 2007. U C F 's F i r s t P l ug I n H ybr i d C a r S a ve s E ne r gy, G a s . R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / ne w s .uc f .e du/ U C F ne w s / i nde x? pa g e = a r t i c l e & i d= 00240041045494c 8d01161 d3164c 1007c 79 D i ngf e l de r S 2004. F r o m T oi l e t t o T a p: P s yc hol ogi s t s l e nd t he i r e xpe r t i s e t o ove r c om i ng t he publ i c 's a ve r s i on t o r e c l a i m e d w a t e r . M oni t or on P s y c hol ogy 35( 8) : 26 27. D one r l y, B a nd J I s e nb e c k, 2007. P e r s ona l I nt e r v i e w S e pt e m be r 27, 2007. D r e i e r P ., J M ol l e nkopf a nd T S w a ns t r om 2004 P l a c e M a t t e r s : M e t r opol i t i c s f or t he T w e nt y f i r s t C e nt ur y. U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s of K a ns a s L a w r e n c e K S 428 pp. D uke M a ga z i ne 2004. T r us t e e s A dopt I nv e s t m e nt G ui de l i ne s . R e t r i e ve d 2/ 12/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .duke m a ga z i ne .du ke e du/ duke m a g/ i s s ue s / 050604/ de pga z 3.ht m l D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2007a E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y a t D uke : D uke U ni ve r s i t y E nvi r onm e nt a l P ol i c y. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 22/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .duke .e du/ s us t a i na bi l i t y/ pol i c y.ht m l D uke U ni ve r s i t y. 2007b. C e nt r a l C a m pus P l a nni ng: P r e s e r vi ng O pe n G r e e ns pa c e . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 24/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .duke .e du/ w e b/ c e nt r a l c a m pus / gr e e ns p a c e .ht m D uke U ni ve r s i t y. 2007c E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y a t D uke : S t or m W a t e r M a na ge m e nt . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 24/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .duke .e d u/ s us t a i na bi l i t y/ s t or m _w a t e r .ht m l D uke U ni ve r s i t y 2007d. E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y a t D uke : T r a ns por t a t i on . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 22/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .duke .e du/ w e b/ E S C / t r a ns por t a t i on.ht m l

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245 D uke U ni ve r s i t y. 2004. E nvi r onm e nt a l l y P r e f e r a bl e P ur c ha s i ng ( E P P ) G u i de l i ne s . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .duke .e du/ s us t a i na bi l i t y/ doc um e nt s / E P P % 20G ui de l i ne s % 207 8 04.pdf D uke U ni ve r s i t y. 2000. D uke U ni ve r s i t y M a s t e r P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 24/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .a r c hi t e c t .duk e .e du/ m a s t e r pl a n/ D uke F a c i l i t i e s M a na ge m e nt 2007. D uke R e c y c l e s : H i s t or y. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 22/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f m d.duke .e d u/ r e c yc l e s / d e f a ul t .ht m # E l e c t r oni c R e c y c l e r s I nt e r na t i ona l 2007. C ur r e n t E W a s t e T r e nds . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e l e c t r oni c r e c yc l e r s .c om / hi s t or yo f e w a s t e _c ur r e nt t r e nds .a s px E l ki ngt on, J 1997. C a nni ba l s W i t h F or ks : T he T r i pl e B ot t om L i ne of 21s t C e nt ur y B us i ne s s C a ps t one P ubl i s hi ng, O xf or d. 416 pp. E ne r gy I nf o r m a t i on A dm i ni s t r a t i on ( E I A ) 2007. W or l d E ne r gy O ve r vi e w : 1995 2005. R e t r i e ve d 1/ 12 / 2008 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e i a .doe .gov/ i e a / ove r vi e w .ht m l E ndi c ot t B ., A F i a t o, S F os t e r T H ua ng, a nd P T ot e v 2005. F i na l P r oj e c t R e por t : R e s e a r c h on B ui l di ng D e c ons t r uc t i on. U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a B e r k e l e y D e pa r t m e nt of C i vi l a nd E nvi r onm e nt a l E n gi ne e r i ng. E N E R G Y S T A R 2007. A bout E N E R G Y S T A R . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e ne r gys t a r .go v/ i nde x.c f m ? c = a bout .a b_ i nde x E nvi r onm e nt a l T ur f 200 7. O ur G r a s s e s . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 31/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e nvi r onm e nt a l t ur f .c om / gr a s s e s .ht m l F C C D R 2 003. A bout t he F l or i da C e nt e r f o r C om m uni t y D e s i gn a nd R e s e a r c h. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 25, 200 7 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f c c dr us f .e du/ a bout .a s p F e nne s s e y, L 2007. P e n n S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y C om pr e he ns i ve W a t e r R e s our c e s f or L ong T e r m S us t a i na bi l i t y a t t he U ni ve r s i t y P a r k C a m pu s . P ow e r poi nt P r e s e nt a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .opp.ps u.e du/ e nvi r onm e nt / s t or m w a t e r / ps u i ni t i a t i ve s .pdf F i s k, W .J 2002. H ow I E Q A f f e c t s H e a l t h, P r oduc t i vi t y. A SH R A E J our nal 44( 5) : 56 60. F ood a nd A gr i c ul t ur a l O r ga ni z a t i on ( F A O ) o f t he U ni t e d N a t i ons 2006. L i ve s t oc k a m a j or t hr e a t t o e nvi r onm e nt . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 23/ 200 8 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f a o.or g/ ne w s r oom / e n/ ne w s / 2006/ 1000448/ i nde x.ht m l

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246 F r a z i e r J .G 1997. S us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt : m ode r n e l i xi r or s a c k dr e s s ? E nv i r o nm e nt al C ons e r v a t i on 24( 2) : 182 193. F r i e dm a n, R 2000. E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt a t D uke . P ow e r poi nt pr e s e nt a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 08/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .f m d.duke .e d u/ S ubs t a i na bi l i t y/ P r ogr a m H i s t or y.pps G a r g a r o, K 2005. H um i d i t y C on t r o l S y s t e m P r o du c e s D r i nk i n g W a t e r A i r C ond i t i o n i ng, H e a t i n g an d R e f r i g e r a t i on N e w s R e t r i e v e d 1 / 31 / 2008 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w .a c hr n e w s .c o m / c o p y r i g h t / dd24d c 872b 06 a 010 V g n V C M 1 00000 f 932 a 8 c 0 ____ ? v i e w = p r i n t G a t or s f or a S us t a i na bl e C a m pus ( G S C ) 2007. R e ne w a bl e E n e r gy S t ude nt F e e . R e t r i e ve d 10/ 04/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / gr ove .uf l .e du/ ~ s us t uf / ? m odul e = r e ne w a bl e % 20e ne r gy% 20 f e e G i bs on, R .B ., S H a s s a n, S H ol t z J T a ns e y, a nd G W hi t e l a w 2005. S us t a i na bi l i t y A s s e s s m e nt : C r i t e r i a P r oc e s s e s a nd A ppl i c a t i ons E a r t hs c a n, L ondon. 254 p p. G i l l B 2007. R E : R e qu e s t f or t he s i s a s s i s t a nc e E m a i l t o R M c D ona l d. N ove m be r 16, 2007. G l a s s e r H 2002. M ur k y gr a de s on c a m pus s us t a i na bi l i t y: a s ur ve y r e ve a l s a w i de s pr e a d unw i l l i ngne s s t o m a ke t he e nvi r onm e nt a hi gh pr i or i t y. A s s oc i a t i on of G ove r ni ng B oa r ds T r us t e e s hi p 10: 34 35. C i t e d i n t he C a m pus S us t a i na bi l i t y A s s e s s m e nt P r oj e c t 200 7. T he S us t a i n a b i l i t y I m p e r a t i v e a nd H i g h e r E du c a t i on R e t r i e ve d 2/ 20/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / c s a p.e nvs .w m i c h.e du/ pa ge s / i nt r o_i m pe r a t i ve .ht m l G ood C om pa ny, I nc 20 02. S us t a i na bi l i t y A s s e s s m e nt of t he U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon ba s e d on G ood C om pa ny s S us t a i na bl e P a t hw a ys T ool ki t : F i na l R e por t . R e t r i e ve d 3/ 9/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uor e gon.e du/ % 7 E e i c / U O f i na l r e por t 051502.p df G ot t f r i e d, D 2003. A B l ue pr i nt f or G r e e n B ui l di ng E c onom i c s . E nv i r on m e nt al D e s i gn and C ons t r uc t i on. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 20/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e dc m a g.c om / C D A / A r t i c l e I nf o r m a t i on/ f e a t ur e s / B N P __F e a t ur e s __I t e m / 0,4120,103638,00.ht m l G r e e n C e nt ur y F unds 2007. W ha t i s G r e e n I nv e s t i ng: I nve s t i ng U s i ng E nvi r onm e nt a l S c r e e ns . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 23 / 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc e nt u r y .c om / gr e e ni nve s t i ng/ pol i c i e s .a s px H a gga r d, B 2002. G r e e n t o t he P ow e r of T hr e e . E nv i r onm e nt al D e s i gn a nd C ons t r uc t i on 5( 3) : 11 pp.

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247 H a ge l i n, C 2000. A na l y s i s of B i c yc l e C r a s h S t a t i s t i c s a nd R e c om m e nda t i ons f or t he R e duc t i on of O n C a m pu s B i c yc l e C r a s he s . N e w N or t h T r a ns por t a t i on A l l i a nc e H a nna W e s t S 2006. S us t a i na bi l i t y A na l ys i s of U S F A dvoc a t i ng t he C r e a t i on of a U S F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. U S F C O B A S t ude nt P r oj e c t S pr i ng 2006. H a r va r d C om m ut e r C hoi c e P r ogr a m 2007. C a r p ool . R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 20 07 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .c om m ut e r c hoi c e .ha r v a r d.e du/ c a r pool s ht m l H a r va r d G r e e n C a m pus I ni t i a t i ve ( H G C I ) 2007a T he G r e e n C a m pus L o a n F und. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / gr e e nc a m p us .ha r va r d. e du/ gc l f / H G C I 2007b. B e s t P r a c t i c e s E xc ha ng e R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ bpe / H G C I 2007c G r a dua t e G r e e n L i vi ng P r ogr a m R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus ha r va r d. e du/ gr e e nl i vi ng/ i nde x.php H G C I 2007d. H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y G r e e n B u i l d i n g G ui d e l i n e s f or P r o j e c t s O v e r $ 5 m i l l i o n. R e t r i e v e d 12 / 29 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / h g c i 2 c o m / t h e r e s ou r c e / g u i d e l i n e s / do c u m e n t s / G r e e n_ B l dg_ G u i d e l i n e s _o v e r $ 5m i l l i o n.pdf H G C I 2007e G e ot h e r m a l a t H a r v a r d. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ c r e / ge ot he r m a l _c a s e _s t udi e s .php H G C I 2007f W a t e r C ons e r va t i on O ve r vi e w . R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ c e r p/ doc um e nt s / h20c ons e r va t i onove r vi e w pdf H G C I 2007g. C l e a n, R e ne w a bl e E ne r gy a t H a r v a r d. R e t r i e v e d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ c r e / H G C I 2007h. C a r bon O f f s e t s a nd R E C s R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ c r e / of f s e t s .p hp H G C I 2 007i R e ne w a bl e E ne r gy P ur c ha s e s a t H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d.e du/ c r e / pur c ha s e s .php H G C I 2007j H a r va r d s G H G E m i s s i ons R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ ggi / t ot a l _e m i s s i ons .php H G C I 2007k. H G C I L o a n F und C a s e S t udy. C a s e 1: I r r i ga t i on. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e n c a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ gc l f / d oc um e nt s / gc l f _c a s e _s t udy_100 07_hbs _i r r i ga t i on.pdf

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248 H G C I 2007l W ha t i s t he H G C I ? R e t r i e ve d 10 / 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ a bout / H G C I 2007m G r e e n C a m pus L oa n F und: S t a r t up S t or y. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ gc l f / s t a r t up. php H G C I 2007n. T he G r e e n C a m pus L oa n F und. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .gr e e nc a m pus .ha r va r d. e du/ gc l f / i nde x.p hp H a r va r d P l a nni ng a nd R e a l E s t a t e 2000. H a r va r d s V i s i on f or A l l s t on L a n di ng. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .a l l s t on.ha r va r d.e du/ pa t t e r ns / V i s i on_D oc um e nt .pdf H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y. 200 7. S t a t e m e nt by t he H a r va r d C or por a t i on C om m i t t e e on S ha r e hol de r R e s pons i bi l i t y ( C C S R ) R e ga r di ng A s pe c t s of D i ve s t m e nt P ol i c y R e l a t e d t o S uda n . H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y G a z e t t e O n l i ne R e t r i e ve d 12/ 12/ 2007 f r om w w w .n e w s .ha r v a r d.e du/ g a z e t t e / 2007/ 07.19/ 99 c c s r .ht m l H a r va r d U ni v e r s i t y O pe r a t i ons S e r vi c e s 2007a R e c yc l i ng F A Q s . R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uos .ha r va r d.e du/ i nf o r m a t i on/ de p_f a c _s ol _f a q .s ht m l H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y O pe r a t i ons S e r vi c e s 2007b. F a c ul t y a nd S t a f f P a r ki n g. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uos .ha r va r d.e du/ t r a n s por t a t i on/ pa r _f a c .s ht m l #f a c 6 a H e s D 2005. F a c i l i t a t i ng G r e e n B ui l di ng: T ur ni ng O bs e r va t i on i nt o P r a c t i c e D oc t or a l D i s s e r t a t i on, S c hool of A r c hi t e c t ur e a nd D e s i gn, R M I T U ni ve r s i t y. H e s c hong M a hon e G r ou p, I nc 2003. W i ndow s a n d O f f i c e s : A S t udy of O f f i c e W or k e r P e r f or m a n c e a nd t h e I nd oor E nvi r onm e nt T e c hn i c a l R e por t P 500 03 082 A 9, pr e pa r e d f or t h e C a l i f or n i a E ne r gy C om m i s s i on. 143 pp. H um m e l S a nd A H ua n g. 2004. F i r s t I nve nt or y of D uke 's G r e e nhous e G a s E m i s s i ons i s C om pl e t e d. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .duke .e du/ w e b/ E S C / 2004 10 22i nve nt or y.ht m l H unt W .F a nd L S z pi r 2006. U r ba n W a t e r w a ys : P e r m e a bl e P a ve m e nt s G r e e n R oof s a nd C i s t e r ns : S t or m w a t e r T r e a t m e nt P r a c t i c e s f o r L ow I m pa c t D e ve l opm e nt N or t h C a r ol i na C oope r a t i ve E xt e ns i on S e r vi c e P ubl i c a t i o n #588 06. R a l e i gh, N .C S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y. 8 pp. I ns t i t ut e of E duc a t i on S c i e nc e s 2006. P r oj e c t i ons of E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s t o 2015: S e c t i on 2. E nr ol l m e nt i n D e gr e e G r a nt i ng I ns t i t ut i ons : T ot a l E nr ol l m e nt . R e t r i e ve d 3/ 29/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / nc e s .e d.gov/ pr ogr a m s / pr oj e c t i ons / s e c 2b. a s p

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249 I nt e r na t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f or S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e n t ( I I S D ) 1996. D e c l a r a t i ons f or S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e n t : t he R e s pons e of U ni ve r s i t i e s R e t r i e ve d 9/ 24/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .i i s d.or g/ e duc a t e / de c l a r e .ht m #ha l I r e l a nd, C 2007. T h e bi gge s t c ha l l e nge o f s us t a i na bi l i t y: C ha ngi ng m i nds . H a r v a r d G a z e t t e O nl i ne M a y 31, 2007. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 6/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ne w s .ha r va r d .e du/ ga z e t t e / 2007/ 05.31/ gr e e n_c h a l l e nge .ht m l J oa c hi m M .W 2006. E c ot r a ns ol ogy: I nt e gr a t e d D e s i gn f or U r ba n M obi l i t y. D oc t or a l T he s i s M a s s a c hus e t t s I n s t i t ut e of T e c hnol ogy. 412 pp. J one s A 2003. E a t i ng O i l : F ood S uppl y i n a C ha ngi ng C l i m a t e . R e s ur g e nc e N o. 216 ( J a n F e b 2003) : 8 pp. R e t r i e ve d 1/ 23/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .r e s ur ge nc e .or g/ r e s ur ge nc e / i s s ue s / j one s 216.ht m K a dw e l l L 2002. U ni ve r s i t y e ne r gy us e i nc r e a s e s a s gl oba l w a r m i ng he a t s pl a ne t T he M i c hi ga n D a i l y. R e t r i e ve d 3/ 23/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / m e di a .w w w .m i c hi ga nda i l y.c om / m e di a / s t or a ge / pa pe r 851/ ne w s / 2002 / 10/ 23/ N e w s / U ni ve r s i t y.E ne r gy. U s e .I nc r e a s e s .A s .G l oba l W a r m i ng.H e a t s .P l a ne t 1413246.s ht m l K a t s G ., L A l e va nt i s A B e r m a n, E M i l l s a nd J P e r l m a n. 2003. T he C os t s a nd F i na nc i a l B e ne f i t s of G r e e n B ui l di ngs : A R e por t t o C a l i f or ni a s S us t a i na bl e B ui l di ng T a s k F or c e 120 pp. A va i l a bl e onl i ne a t ht t p: / / w w w .us gbc .or g/ D oc s / N e w s / N e w s 477.pd f K i be r t C 2007. P a ne l i s t : A C onve r s a t i on on G r e e n B ui l di ng. U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da O c t obe r 11, 200 7. K na us s T 2008. L e a d G r e e n: G o v e r nm e nt s ho s pi t a l s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s poi nt t he w a y t o a m or e s us t a i na bl e f ut ur e . T he P os t S t a nda r d. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 28/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s yr a c us e .c om / pr ogr e s s / i nde x.s s f / 2008/ 02/ l e a d_gr e e n_gov e r nm e nt s _h os pi t a .ht m l K ot a l a Z .G 2007. R e c yc l i ng a t U C F B e n e f i t s F a m i l i e s i n B i t hl o a nd C hr i s t m a s . R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / ne i ghbor s .uc f .e du/ U C F ne w s / i nde x? pa ge = a r t i c l e & i d= 0024004102c 4c 1d990 11146f c 1c 3200600 c L a i ng, M 2004. U C F P hys i c a l P l a nt T a ki ng t he L e a d i n W a t e r C ons e r v a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / n e i ghbor s .uc f e du/ U C F ne w s / i nde x? pa ge = a r t i c l e & i d= 002400411c f 2c 030f f a c 563c a 900768f L e w i s J 2006. L E E D i ng t he P a c k: W hy our gr e e n s t a nda r ds m a y not be gr e e n e nough. L A W e e kl y. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 13/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .l a w e e kl y.c o m / ge ne r a l / f e a t ur e s / l e e di ng t he pa c k/ 14450/

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250 L i ve l ybr ooks D ., S A l e xa nde r J B r uba k e r T D yke M F i f i e l d, C G i r l i ng, L K a hl e S K ol w i t z R M c G ow e n, R M e l ni c k, N S l i ght G i bne y, G S t r i pp, T T a ka ha s hi C T T hom ps on, a nd C R a m e y. 2005. S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon. 25 pp. L uc ui k, M ., W T r us t y, N L a r s s on, a nd R C ha r e t t e 2005. A B us i ne s s C a s e f or G r e e n B ui l di ngs i n C a na da M or r i s on H e r s h f i e l d, I nc ., O t t a w a O nt a r i o. 63 pp. L yl e J .T 1994. R e ge ne r a t i ve D e s i gn f or S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt J ohn W i l e y a nd S ons N e w Y or k. 338 pp. M G oni gl e M a nd J S t a r ke 2006. P l a ne t U : S us t a i ni ng t he W or l d, R e i nve nt i ng t he U ni ve r s i t y. N e w S oc i e t y P ubl i s he r s 270 pp. M a s s a c hus e t t s I ns t i t ut e of T e c hnol ogy ( M I T ) 200 7. T he C r ow d F a r m R e t r i e ve d 1/ 24/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / s a p .m i t .e du/ r e s our c e s / por t f o l i o/ c r ow d_f a r m / M a s da r I ni t i a t i ve 2008. W W F a nd A bu D h a bi s M a s da r I ni t i a t i ve unve i l pl a n f or w or l d s f i r s t c a r bon ne ut r a l w a s t e f r e e c a r f r e e c i t y. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 2/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w m a s da r ua e c om / t e xt / ne w s d.a s px? _i d = 47 M a t t hi e s e n, L .F a nd P M or r i s 2004. C os t of G r e e n: A C om pr e he ns i ve C os t D a t a ba s e a nd B udge t i ng M e t hodol ogy. D a vi s L a ngdon C o. M c D onough, W a nd M B r a unga r t 2002. D e s i gn f or t he t r i pl e t op l i ne : ne w t ool s f or s us t a i na bl e c om m e r c e C or por at e E nv i r onm e nt al St r at e gy 9( 3) : 251 258. M c D onough B r a unga r t D e s i gn C he m i s t r y ( M B D C ) 2007 C r a dl e t o C r a dl e C e r t i f i c a t i on P r ogr a m 25 pp. M C W C us t om E ne r gy S ol ut i ons I nc 2002. E c o t r e k U ni ve r s a l E n e r gy P e r f or m a n c e : W ha t i s E P C ? R e t r i e ve d 9/ 22/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e c ot r e ke n e r g yi nf o.c om / 01_E pc / 01_01/ 01_01_01.a s p M e i nha r dt J 2007. U S F t o c ons i de r on c a m pus hous i ng r e qui r e m e nt a s w a y t o boos t pe r f or m a nc e T am pa B ay B us i ne s s J our nal R e t r i e ve d 2/ 15/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / t a m pa ba y.bi z j our na l s .c om / t a m pa ba y/ s t or i e s / 2007/ 10/ 29/ s t or y12.ht m l ? j s t = s _c n_hl M e ndl e r S ., W O de l l a nd M A L a z a r us 2006. T he H .O .K G ui d e book t o S us t a i na bl e D e s i gn. J ohn W i l e y & S ons I nc ., H oboke n, N .J 459 pp. M e r c k, W .F 2007. U C F A dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd F i n a nc e A nnu a l R e por t 200 6 7. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / pe ga s us .c c .uc f .e du/ ~ a dm f i n/ 2006 07% 20a nnua l % 20 r e por t pdf

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251 M e t r o V a nc ouv e r 2007. R e gi ona l P a r ks : P a c i f i c S pi r i t R e gi ona l P a r k. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .gvr d.bc c a / pa r ks / P a c i f i c S pi r i t .ht m M e t z B ., O D a vi ds on, P B os c h, R D a ve a nd L M e ye r e ds 2007. C l i m a t e C ha nge 2007: M i t i ga t i on of C l i m a t e C ha nge I nt e r gove r n m e nt a l P a ne l on C l i m a t e C ha nge C a m br i dg e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y o r k. 851 pp. M i t a l S ., C B a r r y, R B r i ggs B D oe f f i nge r D F i s c he t t i M M ur phy, M P e t e r s on, R S i l ve r a nd K L ync h. 2007. C a m pus S us t a i na bi l i t y A s s e s s m e nt : U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon. R e t r i e ve d 8/ 24/ 2007 f r o m : ht t p: / / s us t a i na bi l i t y.uor e gon.e du/ i ndi c a t or s / U O % 20S us t a i na bi l i t y% 20R e p or t pdf M onr oe D 2007. R E : r e c yc l i ng que s t i ons . E m a i l t o R M c D ona l d O c t obe r 2, 2007. M or r i s P a nd L .F M a t t hi e s e n. 2007. C os t of G r e e n R e vi s i t e d: R e e xa m i n i ng t he F e a s i bi l i t y a nd C os t I m p a c t of S us t a i na bl e D e s i gn i n L i ght of I nc r e a s e d M a r ke t A dopt i on. D a vi s L a ngd on, I nc R e t r i e ve d 12/ 13/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .bdc ne t w or k.c om / c ont e nt s / pdf s / bdc 0708da vi s l a ngdonc os t of gr e e n.pdf ? ni d= 2073 N a t i ona l A c a d e m i e s 199 9. S t e w a r ds hi p of F e d e r a l F a c i l i t i e s : A P r oa c t i ve S t r a t e gy f or M a na gi ng t he N a t i on s P ubl i c A s s e t s ; S t a t e m e nt of W i l l i a m L G r e gor y. R e t r i e ve d 3/ 28/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w 7.na t i ona l a c a de m i e s .or g/ o c ga / t e s t i m ony/ F e de r a l _P r ope r t y_M a na ge m e nt a s p#T o pO f P a ge N e w N or t h T r a ns por t a t i o n A l l i a nc e 2007. U S F C om m ut e O pt i ons : B i c yc l e s . R e t r i e ve d 2/ 12/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ne w nor t h a l l i a nc e .or g / U S F % 20C O % 20w e bpa ge s / B i ke % 20C O % 20U S F .ht m N e w N or t h T r a ns por t a t i o n A l l i a nc e 2005. P ubl i c a t i ons a nd R e por t s . R e t r i e ve d 2/ 20/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ne w nor t h a l l i a nc e .or g / m a ps & pubs .ht m O be r l i n C ol l e ge 2007. L i vi ng M a c hi ne a nd W a t e r U s e : F A Q . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 12/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .obe r l i n.e du/ a j l c / s ys t e m s _l m _6.ht m l # w a t e r _f ount a i ns O r r D .W 2004. C a n E d uc a t i ona l I ns t i t ut i ons L e a r n? T he C r e a t i on of t he A da m J os e ph L e w i s E nvi r onm e nt a l C e nt e r a t O be r l i n C ol l e ge , pp. 159 176 of S us t a i na bi l i t y on C a m pu s : S t or i e s a nd S t r a t e gi e s f or C ha nge P .F B a r t l e t t a nd G .W C ha s e e ds M I T P r e s s C a m br i dge M A 32 5 pp. P a r r i s T .M a nd R W K a t e s 2003. C ha r a c t e r i z i n g a nd m e a s ur i ng s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt A nnual R e v i e w of E nv i r o nm e nt and R e s our c e s 28: 559 586.

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252 P a t e l C e nt e r 2006. T he P a t e l C e nt e r f or G l ob a l S ol ut i ons 2006 2010 S t r a t e gi c R e s e a r c h P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 29/ 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pa t e l c e nt e r .u s f .e du/ a bout _us / s t r a t e gi c _pl a n.php P e nn S t a t e A uxi l i a r y a nd B us i ne s s S e r v i c e s 2006. P ur c ha s i ng: E nvi r onm e nt a l S t e w a r ds hi p. R e t r i e v e d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pur c ha s i ng.ps u.e du/ e nvi r onm e nt a l .s ht m l P e nn S t a t e F i na nc e a nd B us i ne s s O f f i c e 2002. P e nn S t a t e E nvi r onm e nt a l S t e w a r ds hi p I ni t i a t i ve U pda t e . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f a ndb.ps u.e d u/ ki m 1.pdf P e nn S t a t e F ood S e r vi c e s 2007. E nvi r onm e nt a l A w a r e ne s s . R e t r i e ve d 1 0/ 22/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f oods e r vi c e s ps u.e du/ e nvi r ona w a r e n e s s / P e nn S t a t e G r e e n D e s t i ny C ounc i l 2000. P e nn S t a t e I ndi c a t or s R e po r t 2 000. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .bi o.ps u.e du/ gr e e nd e s t i ny/ publ i c a t i ons / gdc i ndi c a t or s _2000.pdf P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007a G oa l s : E nvi r on m e nt a l l y R e s pons i bl e P u r c ha s i ng P ol i c i e s R e t r i e ve d 11/ 1 1/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .opp.ps u.e du/ e nvi r onm e nt / e nvs t r a t e gy/ goa l s / goa l 2.c f m P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007b. P S U L E E D P ol i c y. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 20 07 f r om ht t p: / / e ne r gy.opp.ps u.e du/ gr e e n bui l di ngs / P S U L E E D R e qui r e m e nt s v8.pdf P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007c C C x P r ogr a m . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / e ne r gy.opp.ps u.e du/ pr oj e c t s / c c x/ doc um e nt .2 005 09 28.8977775139 P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007d. E C M s : E ne r gy C ons e r va t i on M e a s ur e s a t P e nn S t a t e . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / e ne r gy.opp.ps u.e du/ pr oj e c t s / e c m s P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 200 7e G E S P P r ogr a m . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / e ne r gy.opp.ps u.e du/ pr oj e c t s / ge s p/ ge s p pr og r a m / ge s p P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007f G r e e n P ow e r . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / e ne r gy.opp.ps u.e du/ e ne r gy pr og r a m s / pr oc u r e m e nt / gr e e n pow e r / g r e e n pow e r P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007g. T r e e s of P e nn S t a t e . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 15/ 2 007 f r om ht t p: / / l or a x.opp.ps u.e du/ he r i t a ge / H e r i t a ge P ol i c y.a s p P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007h. G oa l s A c t i ons a nd A c c om pl i s hm e nt s : M i ni m i z e S ol i d W a s t e P r oduc t i on. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .opp.ps u.e du/ e nvi r onm e nt / e nvs t r a t e gy/ goa l s / goa l 4.c f m

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253 P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007i I nt e r m oda l T r a ns por t a t i on C onc e pt O ve r vi e w . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .opp.ps u.e du/ c ons t r uc t i on/ i t c / ove r vi e w .c f m P e nn S t a t e P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007j N e w a nd F ut ur e R e c yc l i ng I ni t i a t i ve s . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .opp.ps u.e du/ e nvi r on m e nt / r e c yc l e / i ni t i a t i ve s .c f m P e nn S t a t e T r a ns por t a t i o n S e r vi c e s 2007. S t ude nt P a r ki ng P e r m i t s . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .t r a ns por t a t i on.ps u.e du/ pa r ki ng/ s t ude nt / c a m pus _pe r m i t .s ht m l P i e r c e F 2008. C ol l e ge s e m pha s i z e gr e e n t e c hn ol ogy t o a t t r a c t s t ude nt s . T he P os t S t a nda r d. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 28 / 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s yr a c us e .c om / pr ogr e s s / i nde x.s s f / 2008/ 02/ c ol l e ge s _e m pha s i z e gr e e n t e c hn.ht m l P o l l o c k C 2005. V i n e g a r M a ke s G ood O r ga ni c H e r bi c i de O hi o S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y E xt e ns i on. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 2/ 2008 f r om h t t p : / / e x t e ns i on.o s u. e du / ~ n e w s / s t or y.php ? i d= 3209 P r e s i de nt s C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt ( A C U P C C ) 20 07. A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge a nd U ni ve r s i t y P r e s i de nt s C l i m a t e C om m i t m e nt . R e t r i e ve d 7/ 23/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pr e s i de nt s c l i m a t e c om m i t m e nt .or g/ ht m l / c om m i t m e nt .php R a i nf or e s t A c t i on N e t w o r k. 2005. G r e e n B ui l di ng B ui l ds S t e a m a nd I ndus t r y C opy C a t s . R e t r i e ve d 4/ 22/ 20 06 f r om ht t p: / / unde r s t or y.r a n.or g/ 2005/ 09/ 30/ ge or gi a p a c i f i c bui l di ng pr oduc t s a nd m a t e r i a l s / R oodm a n, D .M a nd N L e ns s e n 1995. A bui l di ng r e vol ut i on: how e c ol o gy a nd he a l t h c onc e r ns a r e t r a ns f o r m i ng c ons t r uc t i on W o r l d w a t c h P a pe r 1 24. W or l d w a t c h I ns t i t ut e W a s hi ngt on, D .C 67 pp. S c he ndl e r A a nd R U da l l 2005. L E E D i s br ok e n; l e t s f i x i t . G r i s t E nv i r onm e nt a l N e w s a nd C om m e nt a r y. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 13/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .gr i s t .or g/ c om m e nt s / s oa pbox/ 2005/ 10/ 26/ l e e d/ i nde x1.ht m l S e ne r ,B ., M .L S z e n, a n d V D oyur a n. 20 06. L a ndf i l l s i t e s e l e c t i on by us i ng ge ogr a phi c i nf o r m a t i on s ys t e m s . E nv i r onm e nt al G e ol ogy 49: 376 388. S he a r m a n, R 1990. T he m e a ni ng a nd e t hi c s of s u s t a i na bi l i t y. E nv i r onm e nt al M anage m e nt 14( 1 ) : 1 8. S i l ve r m a n, J 2007. W i l l t he r e be f a r m s i n N e w Y or k C i t y s s kys c r a pe r s ? R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / s c i e nc e .how s t u f f w or ks c om / ve r t i c a l f a r m i ng1.ht m S l a de G 2007. i W a s t e M ot he r J on e s M a r c h/ A pr i l 2007. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 12/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .m ot he r j one s .c om / c om m e nt a r y/ c ol um ns / 2007/ 03/ i w a s t e .ht m l

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254 S m i t he r s E 2007. U S F e nc our a g e s s t ude nt s t o r e duc e e c o f oot pr i nt by r i di ng gr e e n. T he O r a c l e 10/ 4/ 07. h t t p: / / m e di a .w w w .us f or a c l e .c om / m e di a / s t or a ge / pa pe r 880/ ne w s / 2007/ 10/ 04/ N e w s / U s f e nc ou r a ge s .S t ude nt s T o.R e duc e .E c o.F oot pr i nt .B y. R i di ng.G r e e n 3010973.s ht m l S pa ni e r G .B 2006. S t a t e m e nt f r om P r e s i de nt S p a ni e r r e ga r di ng P e nn S t a t e 's c om m i t m e nt t o t he e nvi r onm e nt . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 1 2/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .l i ve .ps u.e du/ s t or y/ 17519 S t a nna r d, P A pr i l 14, 2003. U F l a unc he s f i r s t m a j or uni ve r s i t y e f f or t a t b e c om i ng c a r bon ne ut r a l . U F N e w s R e t r i e ve d 3/ 10/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .na pa .uf l .e du/ 2003ne w s / c a r bonn e ut r a l ht m S t e i ne r K .C 2007. T he A r bor e t um a t P e nn S t a t e R e t r i e ve d 11/ 15/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .a r bor e t um .ps u.e du/ S t e ue r E 2004. A G r e e nhous e G a s E m i s s i ons I nve nt or y a nd P r oj e c t i on f o r t he U ni ve r s i t y P a r k C a m pus of t he P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y E xe c ut i ve S um m a r y. P e nn S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, C e nt e r f or I nt e gr a t e d R e gi ona l A s s e s s m e n t 9 pp. S us t a i na bl e E ndow m e nt s I ns t i t ut e ( S E I ) 2 007. C ol l e ge S us t a i na bi l i t y R e p or t C a r d: A R e vi e w of C a m pus a nd E ndow m e nt P ol i c i e s a t L e a di ng I ns t i t ut i ons 2008. R e t r i e ve d 8/ 28/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e ndow m e nt i ns t i t ut e .or g/ s us t a i na bi l i t y/ C ol l e ge S us t a i na bi l i t yR e p or t C a r d2008.pdf S w e e t w a t e r O r ga ni c C om m u ni t y F a r m 2007. O ur M i s s i on. R e t r i e ve d 2/ 12/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s w e e t w a t e r o r ga ni c .or g/ a bout .ht m l T a m pa B a y V i gi l 2006. U S F m a y bui l d s us t a i na bl e s t ude nt uni on... but a dm i ni s t r a t or s a r e n't buyi ng. R e t r i e v e d 3/ 30/ 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .vi gi l pr e s s .ne t / i ns i de .ht m l ? a r t i c l e = 200 6/ 1/ 29/ U S F _m a y_bui l d s us t a i na bl e _s t ude nt _uni on.xm l T oor W a nd S H a vl i c k. 2004. T r a ns por t a t i on a n d S us t a i na bl e C a m pus C om m uni t i e s : I s s ue s E xa m pl e s a nd S ol ut i ons I s l a nd P r e s s W a s hi ngt on, D C 293 pp. T uf t s C l i m a t e I ni t i a t i ve 2007. C l i m a t e C ha nge a nd A i r T r a ve l R e t r i e ve d 2/ 10/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .t uf t s .e du/ t i e / t c i / a i r t r a ve l .ht m U hl C a nd A A nde r s on. 2001. G r e e n D e s t i ny: U ni ve r s i t i e s L e a di ng t he W a y t o a S us t a i na bl e F ut ur e B i os c i e nc e 51 ( 1) : 36 42. U ni t e d S t a t e s E nvi r onm e nt a l P r ot e c t i on A ge nc y ( U S E P A ) 2008. C l i m a t e C ha nge : B a s i c I nf or m a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 1/ 24/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e pa .gov/ c l i m a t e c ha ng e / ba s i c i nf o.ht m l

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255 U S E P A 2004. B ui l di ng s a nd t he E nvi r onm e nt : A S t a t i s t i c a l S um m a r y. U S E P A G r e e n B ui l di ng W or kgr oup. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 28/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e pa .gov/ gr e e nbui l di ng/ pubs / gbs t a t s .p df U S E P A 1998. S m a l l E ngi ne E m i s s i ons S t a nda r ds . U S E P A O f f i c e of M obi l e S our c e s R e t r i e ve d 2/ 2/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e pa .gov/ om s / c ons um e r / f 98025a .pd f U S E P A 1997. I P M f or S c hool s . R e t r i e ve d 2/ 2/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e pa .gov/ pe s t i c i de s / i pm / s c hool i pm / c ha p 1.pdf U ni t e d S t a t e s G r e e n B ui l di ng C ounc i l ( U S G B C ) 2 007. W hy B ui l d G r e e n? R e t r i e ve d 1/ 20/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .us gbc .or g/ D i s pl a yP a ge .a s px? C M S P a ge I D = 29 1 & U S G B C 2005a L E E D N C : T e c hni c a l R e vi e w U .S G r e e n B ui l di ng C ounc i l W a s hi ngt on, D .C 210 pp. U S G B C 2005b. L E E D N C V e r s i on 2.2 R a t i ng S ys t e m C he c kl i s t R e t r i e ve d 4/ 22/ 2006 f r om ht t ps : / / w w w .us gbc .or g/ F i l e H a ndl i ng/ s how _ge ne r a l _f i l e .a s p? D oc um e nt I D = 1 096 U S G B C 2005c L E E D f or N e w C ons t r u c t i on & M a j or R e nova t i ons V e r s i on 2.2. U S G B C W a s hi ngt on, D C 78 pp. U S G B C 2005d. L E E D E B G r e e n B ui l di ng R a t i ng S ys t e m f or E xi s t i ng B u i l di ngs U pgr a de s O p e r a t i ons a nd M a i nt e na nc e V e r s i on 2. U S G B C W a s hi ngt on, D .C 122 pp. U S G B C 2005e L E E D N C A ppl i c a t i on G ui de f o r M ul t i pl e B ui l di ngs a nd O n C a m pus B ui l di ng P r oj e c t s R e t r i e ve d 4/ 14/ 2006 f r om ht t ps : / / w w w .us gbc .or g/ F i l e H a ndl i ng/ s how _ge ne r a l _f i l e .a s p? D oc um e nt I D = 1097 U S G B C 2003. L E E D R e f e r e nc e G ui de f o r N e w C ons t r uc t i on & M a j or R e nova t i ons V e r s i on 2.1. U S G B C W a s hi ngt on, D C 328 pp. U ni ve r s i t y L e a de r s f or a S us t a i na bl e F ut ur e ( U L S F ) 2007a A bout U L S F . R e t r i e ve d 12/ 28/ 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ul s f .or g/ a bout .ht m l U L S F 2007b. P r ogr a m s T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 28/ 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ul s f .or g/ pr ogr a m s _t a l l oi r e s .ht m l U ni ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h C ol um bi a ( U B C ) 2007 a T he U B C S us t a i na bi l i t y R e por t 2006 2007. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 2/ 20 07 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i n.ubc .c a / pdf s / a r / U B C S us t a i na bi l i t y_R e p or t _20 06 2007.pdf U B C 2007 b S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : A bout U s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i n.ubc .c a / a bout .ht m l

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256 U B C 2007c S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : U B C F a c ul t y a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i n.ubc .c a / f a c ul t y.ht m l U B C 2007d S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : S t ude nt s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i n.ubc .c a / s t ude nt s .ht m l U B C 2007e S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : S us t a i na bi l i t y C oor di na t or s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / s us t a i n.ubc .c a / s c .ht m l U B C 2007f S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : U B C S oc i a l E c ol ogi c a l E c onom i c D e ve l opm e nt S t udi e s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / s us t a i n.ubc .c a / s e e ds .ht m l U B C 2007g. U ni ve r s i t y T ow n S us t a i na bi l i t y: E c onom y. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 2/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uni ve r s i t yt ow n.ubc .c a / s us t a i na bl e _e c onom y.php U B C 2007h. S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : U B C R e s i de nt i a l E nvi r onm e nt a l A s s e s s m e nt P r ogr a m ( R E A P ) . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s us t a i n.ubc .c a / r e a p.ht m l U B C 2007 i U ni v e r s i t y T o w n: L i v i n g o n C a m p u s . R e t r i e v e d 10 / 4 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w un i v e r s i t y t o w n .ubc c a / l i v i n g i n t r o. p h p U B C 2007j S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : G r e e n B ui l di ngs . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i n.ubc .c a / gr e e nbui l di ng.ht m l U B C 2007k. S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 f r om h t t p : / / w w w s u s t a i n.ub c c a / e n e r g y .h t m l U B C 2007 l S u s t a i n a b i l i t y O f f i c e R e t r i e v e d 11 / 29 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w s us t a i n.ubc c a U B C 2007m S us t a i na bi l i t y O f f i c e : P a pe r R e du c t i on. R e t r i e ve d 11 / 29 / 20 07 f r om h t t p : / / w w w s u s t a i n .ub c c a / pa p e r .h t m l U B C C a m pus a nd C om m uni t y P l a nni ng. 2007a I nf r a s t r uc t ur e P l a nni ng: I nt e gr a t e d S t or m w a t e r M a na g e m e nt R e vi e w . R e t r i e v e d 11 / 2 9 / 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pl a nni ng.ubc .c a / c or e bus / pdf s / pdf i nf r a s t r uc t ur e / I S M P R e vi e w pdf U B C C a m pus a nd C om m uni t y P l a nni ng. 2007b. U B C N a t ur a l F e a t ur e s a nd S ys t e m s S t udy R e por t . R e t r i e ve d 11 / 29 / 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pl a nni ng.ubc .c a / c or e bus / pdf s / pdf l a nd us e / V C P _N a t ur a l F e a t ur e s .pdf U B C C a m pus a nd C om m uni t y P l a nni ng 2007 c T r a n s p o r t a t i on P l a nn i n g R e t r i e v e d 11 / 28 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w p l a nn i n g u b c c a / c or e bu s / t r a n s p o r t a t i on.h t m l

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257 U B C P a r k i n g 2007 a S t ud e n t P a r k i n g R a t e s . R e t r i e v e d 11 / 28 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w p a r k i n g u b c c a / s t u de n t r a t e s .h t m l U B C P a r k i n g 2007b. A bou t U s : W h a t W e D o. R e t r i e v e d 11 / 28 / 2007 f r om h t t p : / / w w w p a r k i n g u b c c a / w h a t w e do.h t m l U B C T r e k. 2007. S t r a t e g i c T r a n s p o r t a t i on P l a n. R e t r i e v e d 11 / 28 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w t r e k.ub c c a / r e s e a r c h / s t p / i nd e x h t m l U B C U P a s s 2007. A b ou t t he U P a s s S y s t e m R e t r i e v e d 11 / 28 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w u p a s s ubc c a / u pa s s / u pa s s a bou t h t m l U B C 2006a 2 005 200 6 A nnua l R e p o r t : P r o g r e s s T o w a r d s a S us t a i n a b l e C a m p u s . U B C S us t a i n a b i l i t y O f f i c e R e t r i e v e d 10 / 4 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w s u s t a i n.ub c c a / p d f s / a r / 2006 s u s t _a r p d f U B C 2006b. E c ot r e k P r oj e c t C om pl e t e . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 22/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w e c ot r e k.ubc c a / i nde x.ht m U B C 2006c T he S us t a i n a b i l i t y S t r a t e g y U B C S us t a i n a b i l i t y O f f i c e R e t r i e v e d 7 / 24 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / w w w s u s t a i n.ub c c a / p d f s / i a / 5 1059_ i a t a r g a p r i l 3_r v 2. p d f U B C B oa r d of G ove r nor s 2005. B oa r d of G ove r n or s P ol i c i e s P r oc e dur e s a nd G ui de l i ne s P ol i c y #5, S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt R e t r i e ve d 9/ 21/ 2007 F r om h t t p : / / w w w un i v e r s i t y c oun s e l .ub c c a / p ol i c i e s / p ol i c y 5 p d f U B C F a c ul t y P e ns i on P l a n. 2006. P e ns i on N e w s : U pda t e on S oc i a l l y R e s pons i bl e I nve s t m e nt F unds ( S R I F unds ) . R e t r i e ve d 11 / 25 / 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pe ns i ons .ubc .c a / f a c ul t y/ publ i c a t i ons / ne w s l e t t e r s / 2006 4t hQ ua r t e r .pdf U B C F a r m 2005. U B C F a r m F A Q . R e t r i e ve d 1 1 / 2= / 2007 f r om l a ndf ood.ubc .c a / ubc f a r m / f a q.php U B C F ood S e r vi c e s 2007. U B C F ood S e r vi c e s S us t a i na bi l i t y I ni t i a t i ve s R e t r i e ve d 11 / 28 / 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f ood.ubc c a / a bout / i ni t i a t i ve s .ht m l U B C L a nd a nd B ui l di ng S e r vi c e s 2001. L a nds c a p e P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 11 / 29 / 2 007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w ua l a .ub c .c a / pdf s / U B C A .P D F U B C P ubl i c A f f a i r s 200 7. U B C R e ne w s I c oni c B uc ha na n B ui l di ngs f or F ut ur e G e ne r a t i ons S a vi ng T a xpa ye r s M i l l i ons . R e t r i e v e d 2/ 10/ 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .publ i c a f f a i r s ubc .c a / m e di a / r e l e a s e s / 2007/ m r 07 041.ht m l

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258 U B C P ubl i c A f f a i r s 200 5. U B C a nd B .C G ove r nm e nt P a r t ne r s hi p I nj e c t s $120 M i l l i on i nt o C a m pus F a c i l i t i e s R e ne w a l R e t r i e ve d 10/ 5/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .publ i c a f f a i r s ubc .c a / m e di a / r e l e a s e s / 2005/ m r 05 141.ht m l U B C S uppl y M a na ge m e nt 2005. W e l c om e t o S E R F . R e t r i e ve d 10/ 1/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s e r f .ubc .c a / E I S / S e r f / U B C W a s t e M a na g e m e n t 2007. R e c yc l i ng. R e t r i e ve d 10/ 1/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .r e c yc l e .ub c .c a / r e c y c l i ng.ht m U B C W a s t e M a na g e m e n t 2004. 2003/ 2004 A nnua l R e por t . R e t r i e v e d 1 0/ 1/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .r e c y c l e ubc .c a / a bout us .ht m U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da ( U C F ) 200 7a N e w C ons t r uc t i on a nd M a j or R e nova t i ons R e qui r e m e nt s R e t r i e ve d 3/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f p.uc f .e du/ gu i de s / c ons t r uc t i on_r e qui r e m e nt s .pdf U C F 2007b. C e nt e r f or E ne r gy a nd S us t a i na bi l i t y. R e t r i e ve d 3/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / e ne r gy.uc f .e du/ U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da ( U C F ) B oa r d of T r u s t e e s 2004. U ni ve r s i t y o f C e nt r a l F l or i da C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n 2005: C ons e r va t i on E l e m e nt R e t r i e ve d 12/ 1 5/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f p.uc f e du/ m p2005/ G O P s / c ons e r va t i on.ht m U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y. 2006a R e C he m . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 13 / 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e hs .uc f .e du/ h a z a r d/ w a s t e m i n/ r e c h e m i nf o.ht m U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l H e a l t h a nd S a f e t y. 2006b. W a s t e M i ni m i z a t i on: P ur c ha s i ng. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 13/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e hs .uc f .e du/ h a z a r d/ w a s t e m i n/ pur c ha s i ng.ht m U C F E nv i r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt 2007a E nvi r onm e nt a l P ol i c y. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e nvi r onm e nt .uc f .e du / U C F E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt 2007b. U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da E nvi r onm e nt a l M a na ge m e nt P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e nvi r onm e nt .uc f .e du/ pl a n.ht m l U C F G e ne r a l E du c a t i on P r ogr a m 2007. W h a t i s t he U ni f yi ng T he m e ? R e t r i e ve d 11/ 14/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / g e p.uc f e du/ a bout / U C F P hys i c a l P l a nt 200 7. S ur pl us P r oc e dur e s R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r o m w w w .pp.uc f e du/ a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s e r vi c e s / c e nt r a l s t or e s w e bs i t e / N e w S ur pl us / s ur pl us _pr oc e dur e s _ne w ht m

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259 U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 20 07a B ui l di ng C om m i s s i oni ng. R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e ne r gy.uc f .e du/ ? q= node / 8 U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 20 07b. S o l a r H ot W a t e r i s C om i ng t o t he T ow e r s . R e t r i e ve d 12/ 1 5/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .e ne r gy.uc f .e du/ ? q = node / 7 U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 20 07c L i br a r y L i ght i ng R e t r of i t . R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e ne r gy.uc f .e du/ ? q= node / 16 U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 20 07d. G r e e nhous e G a s R e por t . R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e ne r gy.uc f .e du/ i m a ge s / C O 2r e por t 0 6.pdf U C F S us t a i na bi l i t y a nd E ne r gy M a na ge m e nt 20 07e B i odi e s e l i s H e r e R e t r i e ve d 12/ 15/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .e ne r gy .uc f .e du/ ? q= node / 6 U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t B e r ke l e y. 2002. S us t a i na bl e C a m pus R e t r i e ve d 12/ 28/ 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .c p.be r k e l e y.e du/ nc p/ goa l s / s us t a i na bl e c a m pus .ht m l U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a a t M e r c e d ( U C M e r c e d ) 2007a E nv i r on m e n t a l S t e w a r d s h i p P r o g r a m R e t r i e ve d 3/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 57& c ont e nt i d= 90 U C M e r c e d. 2007b. A dm i ni s t r a t i on: E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y P r ogr a m R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 39 & c ont e nt i d= 94 U C M e r c e d. 2007 c A dm i ni s t r a t i on: G r e e n P ol i c i e s R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 39& l vl 3= 39& l vl 4= 85& c ont e nt i d= 106 U C M e r c e d. 2007d. A dm i ni s t r a t i on: E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y C om m i t t e e R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 86& l vl 3= 86& l vl 4= 90& c ont e nt i d= 111 U C M e r c e d. 2007 e S i e r r a N e va d a R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uc m e r c e d. e d u/ r e s e a r c h/ s nr i .a s p U C M e r c e d. 2007 f A dm i ni s t r a t i on: E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y: E ne r gy. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 39& l vl 3= 39& l vl 4= 77& c ont e nt i d= 99

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260 U C M e r c e d. 2007g. A dm i ni s t r a t i on: E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y: W a t e r R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 39& l vl 3= 39& l vl 4= 78& c ont e nt i d= 100 U C M e r c e d. 2007h. U C M e r c e d P l a nn e r s T o U n ve i l C a m pus V i s i on A t U C R e ge nt s M e e t i ng. J ul y 19, 2001. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .uc m e r c e d. e d u/ ne w s _a r t i c l e s / 0719200 1_uc _m e r c e d_pl a nne r s _t o.a s p U C M e r c e d. 2007i U C M e r c e d R e c yc l i ng P r ogr a m . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 200 7 f r om ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 72& c ont e nt i d= 89 U C M e r c e d. 2007j W e r e G r e e n H e l p K e e p U s C l e a n. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uc m e r c e d. e d u/ f e a t ur e d e t a i l .a s p? f e a t ur e i d= 59 U C M e r c e d. 2007k. A d m i ni s t r a t i on: E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y: C om m ut i ng a nd T r a ns por t a t i on. R e t r i e v e d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? uc = 1& l vl 2= 39& l v l 3= 39& l vl 4= 84& c ont e nt i d= 105 U C M e r c e d. 2007l A d m i ni s t r a t i on: E nvi r onm e nt a l S us t a i na bi l i t y: D i ni n g. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om h t t p: / / a d m i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d.e d u/ 2.a s p? uc = 1& l vl 2= 39& l v l 3= 39& l vl 4= 83& c ont e nt i d= 104 U C M e r c e d. 2007m A d m i ni s t r a t i on: P ur c ha s i ng. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / a dm i ni s t r a t i on.uc m e r c e d. e du/ 2.a s p? u c = 1& l v l 2= 39& l vl 3= 39& l vl 4= 82& c ont e nt i d= 103 U C M e r c e d. 2006. B us i ne s s a nd F i na nc e S e r vi c e s : P ur c ha s i ng P ol i c y a nd P r oc e dur e s R e t r i e ve d 9 / 29 / 07 f r om ht t p: / / bf s .uc m e r c e d.e du/ p ol i c i e s / i m a ge s / P ur c ha s i ng_P ol i c y.pdf U C M e r c e d D i ni ng S e r vi c e s 2007. S us t a i na bi l i t y. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / di ni ng.uc m e r c e d.e du/ 2.a s p? uc = 1& l vl 2= 46 & c ont e nt i d= 28 U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da ( U F ) 2007. S pot l i ght : D e D e e D e l ongpr e D i r e c t o r O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 16/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uf l .e du/ s pot l i ght / de l ongpr e .ht m l U F 2003. U ni ve r s i t y o f F l or i da E nvi r onm e nt a l P ur c ha s i ng P ol i c y. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 07 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pur c ha s i ng.uf l .e du/ U F _E nvi onm e nt a l _P ur c ha s i ng_P ol i c y.pdf U F C l e a n W a t e r C a m p a i g n 2006. U F C l e a n W a t e r C a m pa i g n R e t r i e v e d 9 / 29 / 2007 f r o m h t t p : / / c a m p u s w a t e r qua l i t y .i f a s .uf l e du /

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261 U F C on t r o l l e r 's O f f i c e 2 007. D i r e c t i ve s a nd P r o c e dur e s : S us t a i na bl e P ur c ha s i ng. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r o m h t t p: / / f a .uf l .e du/ uc o/ ha nd book/ ha ndb ook.a s p? doc = 1.4.12.16 U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a n d C ons t r uc t i on. 2007a U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da L E E D s by E xa m pl e . R e t r i e v e d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om h t t p: / / w w w .f a c i l i t i e s .uf l .e du/ s us t a i n/ U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a n d C ons t r uc t i on. 2007b. C ons e r va t i on A r e a L a nd M a n a ge m e nt ( C A L M ) P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f a c i l i t i e s .uf l .e du/ f a c i l i t i e s / c p/ c l m p/ c l m p.ht m U F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a n d C ons t r uc t i on. 2004. C ons e r va t i on A r e a L a nd M a na ge m e nt P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 20 07 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .f a c i l i t i e s .uf l .e du/ f a c i l i t i e s / c p/ c l m p/ c a l m _i nt r o_N e w _062006.p df U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y 2007a M i s s i on a nd G ui di ng P r i nc i pl e s of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da 's O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y. R e t r i e ve d 3/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ m i s s i on.ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007b. O ur H i s t or y. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 24/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i n a bl e .uf l .e du/ hi s t or y.ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007c A c a de m i c P r ogr a m s a nd R e s e a r c h. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ a c a de m i c .ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007d. W a s t e M a n a ge m e nt . R e t r i e v e d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ hi ghl i ght s / w a s t e _m a na ge m e nt .ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007e U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da s O f f i c e of S us t a i na bi l i t y H i ghl i ght s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ hi ghl i ght s / U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007f E ne r gy a nd C l i m a t e C ha nge . R e t r i e v e d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ hi ghl i ght s / e ne r gy.ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007g. W a t e r . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ hi ghl i ght s / w a t e r .ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007h. L a nd a nd R e s our c e M a n a ge m e nt R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ h i ghl i ght s / l a ndr e s our c e .ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007i T r a ns por t a t i o n. R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du / hi ghl i ght s / t r a ns por t a t i on.ht m l U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2007j D i ni ng S e r vi c e s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .s us t a i na bl e .uf l .e du/ hi ghl i ght s / di ni ng.h t m l

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262 U F O f f i c e o f S us t a i na bi l i t y. 2004. C a r bon N e ut r a l A s s e s s m e nt P r oj e c t . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 1 2/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / i c be .c om / a bout / uf / doc um e nt s / U F _C a r bon_N e ut r a l _A s s e s s m e nt _P r o j e c t .pdf U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007a W a s t e w a t e r R e t r i e v e d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ppd.uf l .e du/ s ys t e m s w a s t e w a t e r .ht m U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007b C ur r e nt E ve nt s : C a m p us P r oj e c t s . R e t r i e ve d 9/ 29/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ppd.uf l .e du/ c ur r e nt e v e nt s .ht m U F P hys i c a l P l a nt 2007c P P D W a s t e R e duc t i on M e a s ur e s R e t r i e ve d 9/ 2 9/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ppd.uf l .e du/ s us t a i na bi l i t y.ht m U ni ve r s i t y L e a de r s f or a S us t a i na bl e F ut ur e ( U L S F ) 2001. T a l l oi r e s D e c l a r a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 7/ 23/ 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .ul s f .or g/ t a l l oi r e s _de c l a r a t i on.ht m l U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h C a r o l i na a t C ha r l ot t e 2007. C a m pus M a s t e r P l a n: A na l ys i s . R e t r i e ve d 1/ 22/ 2008 f r o m ht t p: / / f m bl d02.unc c .e du/ M a s t e r P l a n/ A na l ys i s .ht m U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon ( U O ) 2007a U ni ve r s i t y o f O r e gon S us t a i na bi l i t y: I nt r oduc t i on a nd H i s t or y. R e t r i e v e d 8/ 24/ 2007 f r om : ht t p: / / s us t a i na bi l i t y.uor e gon.e du / U O 2007 b E nvi r onm e nt a l I s s ue s C om m i t t e e 2006 07 A nnua l R e por t . R e t r i e ve d 8/ 24/ 200 7 f r om h t t p : / / d a r k w i n g u or e g o n e du / % 7 E e i c / E I C 0607r e p o r t p d f U O C a m pus R e c yc l i ng P r ogr a m 2007. C om pos t i ng/ F ood S e r vi c e s . R e t r i e ve d 8/ 27/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .uor e gon. e du/ ~ r e c yc l e / C om pos t i ng.ht m U O E xt e r i or T e a m 2002 B i r d H a bi t a t a nd E nha nc e m e nt P r oj e c t . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 03/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / f a c i l i t i e s .uor e gon.e du/ G r ou nds / ha bi t a t .ht m U O F a c i l i t i e s S e r vi c e s 2 007. C e nt r a l P ow e r S t a t i on. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 03/ 20 07 f r om ht t p: / / f a c i l i t i e s .uor e gon.e du/ c ps / U O H ous i ng. 2007. A b out U ni ve r s i t y H ous i ng: S us t a i na b i l i t y E f f or t s . R e t r i e ve d 8/ 27/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .hous i ng.uor e gon.e du / a bout / s us t a i na bi l i t y.php U O S us t a i na bi l i t y D a t a ba s e 2007. C a m pus T r e e P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 11/ 03/ 2 007 f r om ht t p: / / s us t a i na bi l i t y.uor e gon.e du/ s e a r c h/ vi e w a r e a php? i d= 26 U O 2005. S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt P l a n. R e t r i e ve d 3/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / da r kw i ng.uor e gon.e du/ ~ upl a n/ s ubj e c t s / S us t a i na bi l i t y/ S D P F u l l .pdf U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da ( U S F ) 2006a L ong r a nge c om pr e he ns i ve c a m pus m a s t e r pl a n i l l us t r a t i ve R e t r i e ve d 2/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / us f w e b2.us f e du/ F a c i l i t i e s P l a n/ C a m pus % 20P l a nni ng/ I m a ge P D F / f 3.3_U S F _I l l us t r a t i ve .pdf

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263 U S F 2006b. Q ui c k F a c t s A bout U S F R e t r i e ve d 1/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .us f .e du/ a t a gl a nc e .ht m l U S F 2006c D r a f t G o a l s O bj e c t i ve s & P ol i c i e s of t he 2005 T a m pa C a m pu s M a s t e r P l a n ( O c t obe r 2006 ) R e t r i e ve d 1/ 10/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / u s f w e b2.us f e du/ F a c i l i t i e s P l a n/ C a m pus % 20P l a nni ng/ pl a n_dr a f t .ht m l # U S F 2005. 2005 C a m pu s M a s t e r P l a n U pda t e : G oa l s P ol i c i e s a nd O bj e c t i ve s P r e pa r e d by W a l l a c e R obe r t s & T odd, L L C A do pt e d D e c e m be r 7, 2006. U S F F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng a nd C ons t r uc t i on ( F P & C ) 2005. M i s s i on. R e t r i e ve d 4/ 23/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / us f w e b2.us f .e du/ f a c i l i t i e s pl a n/ f pc / m i s s i on.h t m l U S F P a t e l C e nt e r 2006. S t r a t e gi c P l a n. R e t r i e v e d 8/ 24/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .p a t e l c e nt e r .u s f .e du/ pl a n.php U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 200 4a E ne r gy M a na g e m e n t / E ne r gy C ons e r va t i on. R e t r i e ve d 4/ 25/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .ppl a nt .us f .e du/ e n e r g y.ht m U S F P hys i c a l P l a nt 200 4b. G r ounds / L a nds c a pi ng. R e t r i e ve d 4/ 25/ 200 7 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .pp l a nt .us f .e du/ G r ounds .ht m V a n W e e ne n, H 2000. T ow a r ds a vi s i on of a s us t a i na bl e uni ve r s i t y. I nt e r nat i onal J our nal of Sus t ai nabi l i t y i n H i ghe r E duc at i on 1( 1) : 20 34. W a l s h, B 2006. C a r e a b out f or e s t s ? D on't us e t he gr e e n gl obe s bui l di ng r a t i ng t ool H e al t hy B ui l di ngs N e t w or k R e t r i e ve d 2/ 21/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .he a l t hybui l di ng.ne t / ne w s / 060324f or e s t e t hi c s .ht m l Y ode r s J 2005. T he g r e e ni ng of a c a de m e B ui l di ng D e s i gn and C ons t r uc t i on R e t r i e ve d 2/ 22/ 2007 f r o m h t t p: / / w w w .bdc ne t w or k.c om / a r t i c l e / C A 625621 1.ht m l Y oung, T 2007 a U C F A l l i a nc e t o E na c t E n e r gy S a vi ng P r oj e c t s . C e nt r a l F l or i da F ut ur e U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .a r bor e t um .uc f .e du/ N e w s / 2007/ 8 31_U C F A l l i a nc e .ht m l Y oung, T 2007b. G r ou p a s ks f or hi ghe r t ui t i on, gr e e ne r c a m pus . R e t r i e ve d 11/ 12/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w .a r bor e t um .uc f e du/ N e w s / 2007/ 10 26_G r e e n e r C a m pus .ht m l Z i pc a r 2008. Z i pc a r U n i ve r s i t y P a r t ne r P r ogr a m R e t r i e ve d 2/ 4/ 2008 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w .z i pc a r .c om / i m a ge s / uni ve r s i t i e s / dow nl oa d s / Z 2uni ve r s i t i e s .pdf Z i t om e r K a nd A N e i l 2004. N e w w a s he r s t o s a ve w a t e r e n e r gy, t i m e a nd m one y a t P e nn S t a t e . 8/ 20/ 2004 e di t i on of P e nn S t a t e L i ve R e t r i e ve d 11/ 11/ 2007 f r om ht t p: / / l i ve .ps u.e du/ s t or y/ 7704p

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265 A ppe ndi x A : L i s t of U ni ve r s i t y L e a de r s S ur ve ye d U S F A d m i n i s t r at i on : P r e s i de nt E xe c ut i ve V i c e P r e s i de nt a nd C hi e f F i na nc i a l O f f i c e r P r ovos t V i c e P r ovos t f or F a c ul t y & P r ogr a m D e ve l opm e nt V i c e P r ovos t P ol i c y A na l ys i s P l a nni ng a nd P e r f or m a nc e A s s oc i a t e V .P A c a de m i c P r ogr a m s & E duc a t i ona l O ut r e a c h A s s oc i a t e V .P E nr ol l m e nt P l a nni ng & M a na ge m e nt A s s oc i a t e P r ovos t F a c i l i t i e s & A c a de m i c S t a f f D i r e c t or o f F a c i l i t i e s P l a nni ng & C ons t r uc t i on I nt e r i m D i r e c t o r E nvi r on m e nt a l H e a l t h & S a f e t y S G A E xe c s S G A S e n at e : S t ude nt B ody P r e s i de nt S e na t e P r e s i de nt V i c e P r e s i de nt S e na t e P r e s i de nt P r o T e m por e C hi e f P ol i c y A dvi s or & L obbyi s t U ni ve r s i t y R e l a t i ons C om m i t t e e C ha i r D i r e c t or o f S pe c i a l P r oj e c t s D i r e c t or D e pt of U ni v e r s i t y A f f a i r s D i r e c t or M a r ke t i ng & P ubl i c A f f a i r s D e an s of t h e C ol l e ge s : A r c hi t e c t ur e H onor s C ol l e ge A r t s & S c i e nc e s M a r i ne S c i e nc e B us i ne s s U nde r gr a dua t e S t udi e s E duc a t i on C ol l e ge of M e di c i ne E ngi ne e r i ng N ur s i ng F l or i da M e nt a l H e a l t h I n s t i t ut e C ol l e ge of P ubl i c H e a l t h G r a dua t e S t udi e s V i s ua l & P e r f or m i ng A r t s F ac u l t y S e n at e S t af f S e n at e P r e s i de nt P r e s i de nt V i c e P r e s i de nt V i c e P r e s i de nt S e c r e t a r y S e r ge a nt a t A r m s P a r l i a m e nt a r i a n S e na t or a t L a r ge *N .B .: 46.3% of t hos e s ur ve ye d s ubm i t t e d r e s pons e s