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Garden doors :
b tempting the virtuous heroine in Clarissa and Betsy thoughtless
h [electronic resource] /
by Jamie Kinsley.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 47 pages.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Gardens in Eliza Haywood's The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless, and Samuel Richardson's Clarissa, or a History of a Young Lady provide a place for the characters to gain knowledge; but without preparation to receive this knowledge if restrained behind the veil of decorum they come to harm, rather than constructive awareness. A fine line exists between innocence and experience in these works. The ways in which the characters negotiate this line illustrates the complexities involved in the eighteenth-century understanding of virtue and how society attempted to mediate this issue. This negotiation can be seen largely in specific garden scenes in these two novels. In Clarissa, Clarissa's flight with Lovelace early in the novel demonstrates this negotiation; while in Betsy Thoughtless, this demonstration lies in the garden scene at the end with Betsy and Trueworth.Richardson and Haywood present alternate endings for a virtuous heroine tempted by sex and trapped by domestic politics. The different fates of Clarissa Harlowe and Betsy Thoughtless result from not only the difference between tragedy and comedy, but from the differing views of temptation. I wish to investigate the possible didactic messages behind these alternate endings. In investigating the two treatments of the temptation of the virtuous heroine, I hope to provide new material by asserting the importance of flight from the garden as representative of the fallen woman in Richardson's novel, and the triumphantly virtuous in Haywood's. Clarissa's fall out of the garden proves a previous sin punished, while Betsy's flight from the garden proves her virtue. Since both Clarissa and Betsy Thoughtless, and their authors, are seen as groundbreaking, an abundance of scholarship is available. However, little has been done in connecting the two garden scenes to definitions of temptation.Furthermore, though connections between Milton's Satan and Richardson's Lovelace have been drawn and re-drawn, little critical attention has been devoted to the way in which the Paradise Lost expulsion from the garden may mirror the important flights from the gardens that both Clarissa and Betsy experience.
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Advisor: Laura Runge, Ph.D.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Garden Doors: Tempting The Virtuous Heroine In Clarissa And Betsy Thoughtless b y Jamie Kinsley A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment O f the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of English College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Laura Runge, Ph D. Committee Members: Regina Hewitt, Ph.D Pat Rogers, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 10, 2008 Keywords: S amuel R ichardson, E liza H aywood, gardens, temptation, M ilton, E ighteenth century Copyright: 2008, Jamie Kinsley
i Table of Contents Abstract ii Chapter One Introduction 1 Goals of the Study Chapter Two Clarissa, or the History of a Young Lady 5 Textual Analysis of Garden Scene between Clarissa and Lovelace and Clar Chapter Three The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless 24 Textual Analysis of Garden Scene between Betsy and Trueworth tion Chapter Four Conclusion 40
ii Garden Doors: Tempting the Virtuous Heroine in Clarissa and Betsy Thoughtless Jamie Kinsley ABSTRACT Gardens in Eli The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless and Samuel Clarissa, or a History of a Young Lady provide a place for the characters to gain knowledge; but without preparation to receive this knowledge if restrained behind the veil of de corum they come to harm, rather than cons tructive awareness A fine line exists between innocence and experience in these works. The ways in which the characters negotiate this line illustrates the complexities involved in the eighteenth century understa nding of virtue and how society attempted to mediate this is sue This negotiation can be seen largely in specific garden scenes in these two novels. In Clarissa Bet sy Thoughtless this demonstration lies in the garden scene at the end with Betsy and Trueworth. Richardson and Haywood present alternate endings for a virtuous heroine tempted by sex and trapped by domestic politics. The different fates of Clarissa Harlow e and Betsy Thoughtless result from not only the difference between tragedy and comedy, but from the differing views of temptation. I wish to investigate the possible didactic messages behind these alternate endings. In investigating the two treatments of the temptation of the virtuous heroine, I hope to provide new material by asserting the importance of flight from the garden as representative of the fallen woman in
iii the her virtue. Since both Clarissa and Betsy Thoughtless and their authors, are seen as groundbreaking, an abundance of scholarship is available. However, little has been don e in connecting the two garden scenes to definitions of temptation. Furthermore, though drawn, little critical attention has been devoted to the way in which the Paradise L ost expulsion from the garden may mirror the important flights from the gardens that both Clarissa and Betsy experience.
1 Chapter One Introduction Questions of virtue dominate the pages of eighteenth century novels. For authors such as Samuel Richardson, temptation acts in direct conflict with virtue. For Eliza Haywood, and other women writers of this time, temptation lends itself to a different definition. Temptation, whether it is temptation to disobe y or to participate in sexual experience outside of marriage, becomes enticing However, it must be controlled. This control over temptation is only a slight amendment t o the attitude Richardson takes toward the issue, however. While Clarissa and Betsy stand as paragons of virtue, they both suffer in their dealings with Clarissa faces is constructed from outside pressure w temptation is rape and death, while Betsy escapes with forgiveness and self awareness. What didactic message does Richardson bring to the public s phere in punishing the virtuous Clarissa, and what is Haywood saying about virtue by allowing Betsy to remain innocent despite her coquetry? Gardens The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless and Samuel Clarissa, or a History of a Young Lady provide a place for the characters to gain knowledge; but without preparation to receive this knowledge if restrained behind the veil of decorum they come to harm, rather than cons tructive awareness A fine line exists between innocence a nd experience in these works. The ways in which the
2 characters negotiate this line illustrates the complexities involved in the eighteenth century understanding of virtue and how society attempted to mediate this is sue This negotiation can be seen largely in specific garden scenes in these two novels. In Clarissa Betsy Thoughtless this demonstration lies in the garden scene at the end with Betsy and Trueworth. Rich ardson and Haywood present alternate endings for a virtuous heroine tempted by sex and trapped by domestic politics. The different fates of Clarissa Harlow e and Betsy Thoughtless result not only from the difference between tragedy and comedy, but also from the differing views of temptation. I wish to investigate the possible didactic messages behind these endings. For centuries the image of the garden has stood as a symbol of innocence. In Christian religious traditions the Garden of Eden is known as Parad ise a place of peace and perfection from which humankind found themselves banished. A vast number of works have been written attempting to capture the symbolic meaning of the garden. Paradise Lost is not least among the works that translate a me aning behind the century writers in The Anxiety of Influence He states that, Poetic Influence when it involves two strong, authentic poets, -always proceeds by a misreading of the prior poet, an act of creative correction that is to say the main tradition of Western poetry since the Renaissance, is a history of anxiety and self saving caricature, of distortion, of perverse, willful r evisionism without which modern poetry as such could not exist (Bloom 30).
3 Paradise Lost highly influential in the literary world, follows the trajectory outlines by Bloom and naturally succumbs to revisionism. The influence of Milton upon Richar dson and Haywood can be seen in the pivotal garden scenes in their two popular novels, Clarissa and Betsy Thoughtless These two writers utilize the garden as a place to wh ich humans inevitably find themselves banished becomes the template for the garden in these works. However, since Milton merely influences these writers, their explorations into the symbolic space of the garden vary in relation to their didactic messages a bout punishment and reformation While the garden may still stand as a symbol of paradise and innocence, Paradise Lost emphasizes the garden as a place from which humans were forcefully banished l fallen experience had its inevitable foundation in loss, and paradise could be regained only by One Greater Man, of punishment for disobedience arises from Miltonic in fluence. Richardson translates this paradise through willful submission to the patriarchy and death. Haywood, however, tweaks the Miltonic influence. In her novel the garden becomes a place where forgiveness can be found through proper self governance. Clarissa and Betsy Thoughtless as the gardens in these works operate as a place where virtuous heroines are tried and innocence is tested. For the purpose of this paper, I wish to explore the attitudes of Richardson and Haywood toward the symbol of the garden, through their treatment of the tempted
4 heroine. By investigating the two treatments of the temptation of the virtuous hero ine, I hope to provide new material by asserting the importance of flight from the garden as ished,
5 Chapter Two Clarissa, or the History of a Young Lady Laura Hinton argues that Clarissa bases her idea of autonomy on the patr iarcha l ideals of her Christian orthodoxy. She furthermore says that forbids a In Clarissa independent thinking results in punishment, while conforming to societal demands results in eternal reward. I would say, however, that, a s the p ping the heroine of her autonomy, and forcing her into the confusing and precarious situation of the punished sexual ob ject. Nearest to my ch Clarissa suffers punishment i However, even C haber neglects the of temptation. Lois Christian heroism redemption achieved through sufferi ng and of classic female masochism The from the garden demonstrate the confusion and frustration Clarissa feels at being faced simultaneously with t
6 deserves and possesses the power to return to the g arden. As Gwilliam argues, h er in the categories of sexual victim and sexual property but also, to some extent, problematizes the naturalness of those categories for In view the novel addresses the problem of categorizing women as se xual victim and sexual property. Clarissa immediately finds herself occupying the category of sexual property in relation to the way the other characters t reat her The novel soon adds Clarissa to th e category of sexual victim and her suffering finds no alleviation until she stops fighting against the injustice of her plight and accepts these categories and her subsequent punishment for inhabiting them I wi Clarissa, personally Richardson 374). She travels to a part Richardson resonates sealed fate No battle will ensue in this garden between the virtuous Clarissa and the Satanic Lovelace; only banishment awaits the end of this scene. Clarissa, in the shock of seeing Lovelace on the other side of the garden door, nearly faints, and she writes to Ann a that Richardson 374). In this
7 and on the other side of the garden door. Once out of the garden, Clarissa r egains her senses a bit and begins to battle Lovelace for the freedom to return to the garden. Confused as to how she allowed herself to fall into this position in the first place, and determined to go back, Clarissa remains oblivious to the soon apparent fact that she cannot go back. Because she did not choose to leave the garden, but, rather, fell out of it, the emphasis on that she might Terrified with the thought that it is too late to change her mind, desperate with the knowledge that this sit uation equals death for her reputation and thus death for herself Clarissa begins an emotional, mental, and physical struggle with Lovelace to enter back into the garden. In order to u got to that point. mands she marry the vile Solmes against her increasingly desperate insistence that she will not. Clarissa wants on ly to live alone. She feels satisfied with her solitude. Her contentment centers on her opinion that looking forward to her afterlife in Heaven brings peace in her current life on earth. She also finds fulfillment in her friendship with Anna Howe, and feel s that no other relationship, or love for another human being, is necessary beyond that of Anna. Her grandfather, having left her an estate and inheritance, provides Clarissa with what she sees as the ideal opportunity to live comfortably alone. However, y oung John Harlowe sees an opportunity to expand the Harlowe name through a connection with the abominable Solmes. Upon seeing Clarissa, Solmes decides he must possess her. Solmes n, if Clarissa and Solmes have a son, the Harlowe name will be raised to a greater status through land.
8 While Clarissa has no desire to ever marry, she certainly sees no reason to marry a man who desires her only for her beauty. Solmes vile obsession with her purity further the Harlowes, lead by John Jr., decide to use force to persuade Clarissa to wed Solmes. perty exchange functions in conflict with her desire to remain outside the domestic politics of marriage. Clarissa, refusing beyond all shadow of a doubt to marry Solmes, finds herself subject to imprisonment in her own home. Meanwhile, Lovelace begins his pursuit of Clari ssa. Also enticed by her beauty and innocence, Lovelace decides to make her a conquest. However, he has already tarnished a possible relationship with the Harlowe family by dueling with John Jr. at the outset of the novel Though by the ru les of civility the Harlowe family cannot keep Lovelace away, Mrs. Harlowe fears another duel if Lovelace encounter s John Jr. Lovelace proposes to visit the Harlowes, which, Mrs. Harlowe feels would incite John Jr. to challenge Lovelace. Since Lovelace hu rt John Jr. in the past, Mrs. Harlowe fears for Therefore, she encourages Clarissa to correspond with Lovelace in order to keep him content Here Clarissa finds herself forced into the role of peacekeeper because for her. Though Mrs. Harlowe may find this act necessary and rather harmless, Clarissa feels a foreboding sense of dread in agreeing to exchange secret correspondence with a man. However, she continues her correspondence with him and she laments her disco mfiture in doing so to Anna. After leaving a packet of letters for Lovelace Clarissa hurries away to avoid seeing him, but then goes back out of curiosity to for when I found it gone, I
9 began (as yesterday morning) to wish it had not: for no other reason, I believe, than She sees the error of corresponding with Lovelace, yet continu es it Underlying early letters to Anna is a disputable f eeling of affection for Lovelace. Though she details with Anna the possibly admirable qualities of Lovelace, the dominant atmosphere of this secret correspondence is a confused feeling of responsibility toward her family. In an effort to keep her family sa fe, and obey her mother, Clarissa finds herself playing the role of sexual object to placate Lovelace. Furthermore, as her features of sexual subjectivity she describe s his charms, she dwells on his manners, and she delivers her secret words to him in clandestine billets. It appears Clarissa may actually enjoy the idea of Lovelace as a suitor, and may return his affection and physical desires. Regardless of how she may fall into the role of sexual subject, though, Clarissa remains firm on her ultimate desire to remain outside the realm of marriage or sexual desire. She says to Mrs. Norton that it is not a small thing that is insisted upon; nor for a short duration: it i s for my life Consider too, that all this is owing to an overbearing brother, who governs everybody. Consider how desirous I am to oblige them, if a single life and breaking all correspondence with the man they hate because my brother hates him, would d o it (Richardson 179) This conflict between writing to Lovelace and wanting to remain single displays Clarissa as an unwilling sexual subject, forced into this role by feelings of familial responsibility.
10 For a moment, Clarissa allows all the blame for h er current situation to fall upon Lovelace: If I have not an opportunity to meet without hazard or detection, he must once more bear the disappointment. All his trouble, and mine too, is owing to his faulty character. This, although I hate tyranny and arr ogance in all shapes, makes me think less and still less, as my sufferings (derived from the same source) are greater than his ( Richardson 263) Tyranny and a rrogance are the prime culprits making Clarissa miserable. family are clothed in criticism of Lovelace. The tyranny and arrogance of her family for the past several weeks cause her to lose her hold on her ability to think. Here, the weakening of Clarissa appears as she laments that her sufferings may cause a misstep in her thoughts because of her constant battle with tyranny and arrogance on all fronts. Possib tion. Worn down by a tyrannical family that assumes arrogant control over her life, and confused by the pressures from a controlling Lovelace, Clarissa sees her power over thought slipping away more and still more. t becomes clear in her letters to Anna two weeks prior to her fleeing the garden with Lovelace. As her brother and uncles to the chapel
11 ). Here, Clarissa appears to acknowledge her impending ruin. To run away with Lovelace will ruin her reputation, but it is the only choice that she can see as viable to escape a forced marriage to Solmes. She already is conscious of those feelings of despe ration that will drive her to choose a clandestine meeting with Lovelace. Rather than patiently awaiting her fate, Clarissa decides that any avenue is better than being carried away t o a forced marriage with Solmes With the threat of being moved to a plac e where she will be paralyzed from any free movement at all, Clarissa resolves to allow Lovelace to rescue her from marriage to with the appointed escape, she presents him precise qualifications and details about how exactly he will assist her in this escape She writes to him that he may assist her in her escape, but includes the condition that she holds the freedom to change her mind at any time. Clarissa feels the po wer of her words and virtue. She sees her stipulations on the escape as protective of her virtue. By creating a situation of escape with her own rules she feels that she might find safety from being carried away to an undesirable marriage and from being ra ped by a notorious rake. Clarissa sees her virtue as impenetrable by either marriage or seduction. Though her desire to remain single overwhelms all other decisions, Clarissa entertains the idea that she can reform the rake. She briefly mentions the possib ility of her goodness and virtue overtaking the code of the rake and changing him into a man of virtue. More than once in the novel she and Anna outline the requirements for a virtuous gentleman. In allowing herself the temptation of leaving with Lovelace, Clarissa also allows herself to entertain the dangerous idea of reforming a man
12 bent only on her own undoing. However, b y trusting Lovelace, she unknowingly erases a ny power she may assume over the situation. She no longer stands alone with her principles and morals to govern her decisions and movements. In this story the virtuous heroine must remai n isolated from outside influences in order to stay virtuous. By When Clarissa returns fro m depositing the billet that contains a request for in the billet to Lovelace a re the directions that no meeting should take place if she changes her mind. Though she feels apprehensive about the potential of arranging a secret meeting with Lovelace, she brings her decision back to the greater fear that Lovelace will react violently I think, my dear, there can be no harm in meeting him: if I do not he may take some violent measures: what he knows of the treatment I meet with in malice to him, and with a view to frustrate all Richardson 263). Still [Lovelace] requires is not unreasonable, and cannot affect my future choice and determination: it is only to ass ure him from my own lips that I will never be the wife of a Richardson 263). Clarissa finds solace and security in her fortitude against forced to ac t against her principles. Marriage to Solmes would act in direct conflict with her view of him as a man she cannot respect. A secret meeting with Lovelace in the garden conflicts with her open and honest nature; yet, she finds herself groping to gain
13 footi ng in a situation where these two paths appear to her as the only possibilities. Her determination to remain free from a marriage to the vile Solmes soothes her mind in its struggle to make sense of her decision to meet with Lovelace. Soon after arranging to meet with Lovelace, however, Clarissa realizes the error in this decision. This revelation occurs on the day of their secret appointment. All too late The impropriety of leaving garden with a man conflicts with her religious view. To disobey her parents (her father) would be to go against the commandments of her religion, which would, in the fatal error of leaving with Lovelac e befo re she commits the crime. Regardless of her recognition of her misstep in thought, Clarissa already disobeyed in her mind; therefore, she must suffer punishment for her sin Her punishment begins with banishment from the garden. As La ura Hinton argues Clarissa underscores the ironies of a moral sense based In this novel, the idea of autonomy cannot exist if it strays from Christian orthodoxy. Clarissa can with her sense of autonomy, she cannot see a clear path of action. The autonomous decis ions that Clarissa wishes to make center greatly on the desire to remain unwed at all novel. Clarissa think s that her codes for how to live her life allow her to govern herself as an autonomous body, but as the garden scene suggests the moral obligation of being governed by the patriarch complicates her determination to live freely by her moral
14 codes. Though her idea of autonomy is consistent with the patriarchal ideals of Christian (making decisions based on her own ideas of conduct) (following the codes of conduct set out for her by her family and society) (Hinton 2 95). Clarissa cannot both govern herself as an autonomous body and follow the social guidelines for how to conduct her life. More importantly, though, Clarissa thinks she is making choices, yet she has no choices to make. S he attempts to exert moral autono my in her decision to remain single but in a Christian patriarchy she must foll Whereas, perhaps, she should be allowed to make choices that might protect her, the novel punishes her for disobeying the patriarchy. The detection of her fall presents itself strongly in the scene at the threshold of the by she speaks not onl y of her compliance to Lovelace but also of her attempts to appease her family and keep them from harm. Outside the garden, Clarissa, too late, recognizes the danger of her complying nature. By attempting to oblige her mother, and then Lovelace, Cl At this point of meeting with Lovelace h owever, Clarissa is already banished from the garden. The fear that she is too late in her recognition of the hazard risked by gratifying others permeates temper brings her into temptation and thus banishment from the gar den forever.
15 On the day of her banishment, i n an effort to keep Lovelace away from the house and a subsequent duel with her brother, Clarissa attempts to deposit a letter telling Lovelace she will not cumlocution and reasoning: and a steadfast adherence to t hat my written mind is all that will be power Lovelace holds over her. She foresees that a face to face meeting with hi m may cause her to forget her adherence independence Already, Clarissa falls into the sin of temptation. She is tempted to run away with Lovelace in an effort to remain single; yet, as her dec ision to cancel the meeting demonstrates, she sees this as disobedience to her codes of conduct. However, Clarissa has already transgressed by entertaining the prospect of disobediently escaping Her punishment for thinking about disobey ing the patriarch arises in the image of her crossing through the garden gate on this fateful day : I stepped to the garden door; and seeing a clear coast, unbolted the ready unlocked door and there was he, all impatience, waiting for me! A panic, next to fainting seized me when I saw him. My heart seemed convulsed; and I trembled my spirits a little, as he kept drawing me after him, Oh Mr. Lovelace, said I, I cannot go with you Indeed I cannot! I wrote you word so! Let go my hand and you shall see my letter. (Richardson 374) from the panic of seeing him on the other side. Therefore, Clarissa does not leave the garden; rather, she falls out of it and Lovelace closes the door behind her. This fall from the garden resonates with the
16 banishment from the Garden of Eden. The crossing illustrates situation of the Miltonic fall from innocence. L at the garden door, directly precipitates the shock of her imminent danger and his impatience to secure her grow at almost an equal rate. In but I will not go with you! Draw me not thus! How dare you, sir? I would have been guilty of some rashness! and, once more, I will not go! impatienc e that marks his character, and predicts that -should she allow him to draw her thus -letter to Belford, Lovelace spends paragraphs detailing the way Clarissa looks. H is ability to dwell on her beauty, while maintaining the impatience to possess this beauty, demonstrates his inability to see her as anything other than a sexual object. His view of her during her struggle with him is located in the opinion that she coyly pretends to not coy contradiction rather than as Clarissa sees herself an innocen t woman Clarissa repeatedly begs Lovelace to release her as he draws her away from the garden. This request for release intermingled with admonishments and regrets, illustrates U nable to fully comprehend that she is already fallen, Clarissa sees herself as justified in feeling that she still possesses a right to return to the garden and correct her error. Her confusion mounts with her terror as she, realizing Lovelace draws her further and furt her away from the safety of
17 Leave me this moment Do you seek to keep me till my return shall grow dangerous or impracticable? I am not satisfied with you at all! indeed I am not! This moment let me go, if yo u would have me think The dashes in her letter to Anna continue, deepening the feeling Lov elace argues that his happiness and the safety of her family depend on this moment of flight. However, Clarissa now realizes that her fate, should she flee with him, appears quite grim. Leaving with Lovelace will result in a loss of reputation, rape, and a loss of family -all of which Here, Clarissa sees the fatal mistake of her correspondence with this man. She attempts to reason with Lovelace, telling him that her good opinion of him rests in his allowing her return to through the garden door. Lovelace cannot allow Clarissa to return, thoug h. Her fate is sealed. He is a vehicle for the punishment Clarissa must suffer. B efore the scene detailing Claris the text appears to allow her one last hope to refuse temptation. She argues with Lovelace, pleading w tell you (struggling vehemently) that I will sooner die than go with you! 374). The disoriented punctuation of this sentence its colon and parenthesis markin g distinct physical struggles mirrors the disorientation Clarissa experiences in this moment The specific choice of words that Clarissa finds breath to aspirate emphasize s the foreshadowed knowledge that to leave the garden equals death. The tone of thi s paced banishment from the garden. The possibility that Clarissa has a
18 right to return to the garden is an illusion. Since it is an illusion, the innocence with which Clarissa is pushed into temptation is emphasized She steadfastly believes that she Her disobedience in bein g tempted to leave results in this disobedience will only find be forgiven when she admits this sin. Only when Clarissa fully blames herself for being tempted to disobey the patriarchy will she regain paradise Outside the garden door Lovelace repeatedly attempts to pressure Cla rissa away with the impending threat of marriage to Solmes. Though the threat of Solmes forced her into her temptation and fall in the first place, in this scene, all too late, Clarissa finds strength to combat leave the safety of my friends You shall not threaten me into a rashness that my heart condemns! Shall I to promote your happiness, as you call it, destroy all my future symbolizing the terrifying knowledge that her determination to build a pe aceful future is Lovelace, her adher ence to these constructs only comes after her fall. Her confusion chal system frustrates her attempts to regain Paradise, until she gives in and allows the abstracts of providence and law to move her into an acceptance of her state as a fallen and justly suffering woman.
19 In her attempt to return to the garden, Clarissa emphasizes the word ought to be thus compelled? Interrupted I, with equal indignation and vehemence Let go my hands I am resolved not to go with you and I will convince you that I ought (Richardson 374). Strong in her words, weak in her mi ght, and its emphasis throug h italics Ought, will not om Harlowe Place. She ought not allow Lovelace to carry her away, she ought not allow herself to be tempted away from the cruelty of the Harlowes, but she will. This allowance, despite her demonstrates terms conflict in seeing herself as a fallen woman remark ought also demonstrates that her obliging nature, by disobliging herself, comes from the teachings of others namely, those who wish to place her in the role of sexual object. Clarissa begins to see that her fall, constructed by others in their attempt to control he r as a sexual commodity, has surely I am not from her attempt to gratify others against her bet ter judgment, she tells Lovelace: Let me judge for myself, sir. Do not you, who blame my friends for endeavoring to compel me, yourself Your earnestness gives me greater apprehensions and greater reluctance! Let me go ba ck, then!
20 let me before it is too late go back, that it may not be worse for both. What mean you by this forcible treatment? Is thus that I am to judge of the entire 377) Clarissa, havin g seen her obliging nature as harmful to herself, blames Lovelace for her situation She recognizes the danger of Lovelace, yet she finds her fate is sealed. Clarissa struggles, until her imprisonment in jail, with the notion that she somehow deserves th e punishment of a lost paradise. T his brief, emotional plea from Clarissa outside the garden door allows us to see that she cannot bear to be compelled, yet her virtue is judged by the submission of her will. Clarissa believes she holds some control over th e situation outside the garden door, because she still sees herself as a virtuous woman. After much struggle with Lovelace, she feels as though she has successfully argued her case, and writes that: tisfied, as I saw the key there, confuse Clarissa into thinking that she possesses the opportunity to go back through the garden gate; thus, it creates a false sense of power for her. Her dashes cease, her panic on 379). Lovelace then confuses Clarissa into thinking that people are on the other side of the gate, and tells her he will not leave her as is honorable he exclaims Again the dashes rapidly enter her writing as she tells Anna of how he whisks her away from that place. Whether they flee of her volition, or of his
21 contradicting my action: crying, No, no, no, all the while, straining my neck to look back as long as the walls of she leaves the garden forever, Clarissa demonstrates her inabilit y to fully accept her situation. The undertones of the conflict within Clarissa and between her and Lovelace carry throughout the novel. O nly after the rape and her imprisonment, Clarissa begins to tell her story to many people, thereby signifying her new view of herself as a fallen woman. In acknowledging her value as fallen, but rising as virtuous th rough this admission, Claris sa is redeemed by providence and regains Paradise through death Lovelace, however, never able to see Clarissa as holding value in any way other than as a sexual object refuses to find redemption. In the end, the narrative seeks the submission of her wil l. S ubmission of presents itself as the only avenue to grace. However, this submission is also the avenue to her fall. Forced as a sexual object, confused into the role of a temporary sexual subject, Clarissa succumbs to temptation in an ad ulterated fashion. This (Richardson 376), but as the garden scene demonstrates, it is already too late for Clarissa to return to the garden. She never goes back through the garden gate, and, indeed, as she such an idea, and her attempt to remove herse lf from this mistake finds no forgiveness in of leaving the garden becomes a result of the crime,
22 Clarissa from the garden reflects her sufferi ng This suffering follows her throughout her time with Lovelace, and even after the rape, until she finds hersel f in jail, when she completely gives into the idea of providence. Only then does her mind clear the confusion represented by the dashes in her description of sa, constantly plagued with the requirements forced upon her by others, finds herself attempting to negotiate not only her own desires to remain peaceful and alone, but also the desires of others to see her as both a sexual subject and a sexual object Cla rissa has no clear choice of how to act. She continues to think that she has a choice in how to act, that her autonomy is not governed by social standards; however, once she submits, the narrative relieves her of her punishment. Chaber views this submiss ion of will as a facet of suffering Clarissa must endure activity which seems polarization becomes the justification for self (Chaber 511). Yet, before Clarissa can become the justified, righteous heroine, she must submit to sufferin g. Only through this submission of her will does she gain the peace she desperately desires in the beginning of the novel. However, since her removal from the garden resulted directly from her entertainment of temptation, the only way for her to find grace and regain Paradise is to submit willfully to death.
23 Though the epistolary style of the novel allows us as Nancy Roberts says, it also objectifies her (Roberts 112). This objectification of Clarissa begins before Lovelace takes over the fall takes place. Despite he r desire not to become an object in this exchange Clarissa faces punishment for this objectification. Banishment from the garden must occur, and Clarissa must suffer before she might regain Paradise. Clarissa away from the garden gate demonstrates the objectification of Clarissa. A sexual framework of sexual object. This placement prohibits her from fulfilling her desire to remain neither a sexual o bject, nor a sexual subject. 2). In this way, perhaps the read in for falling prey to the sin of attempting to decide not to function as a sexual object. Though the novel appears as a didactic message abou confusion and disorientation outside the garden door demonstrates that her fall was not a clear one to her Her punishment and removal from the garden exists because she can neither comprehend, nor negotiate the codes of the patriarchy.
24 Chapter Three The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless While Clarissa is banished from the garden based on the thought of disobedience, Betsy Thoughtless re mains with her regardless of her difficulty in learning how to govern herself autonomously with in a patriarchal society. Betsy is allowed to make mistakes and learn from her errors. In the end, Betsy Thoughtless seeks a compromise between autonomous thinki disobedience is altered into a more forgiving model. At the end of Betsy Thoughtless the garden symbolizes a place where choices are made and autonomous thinking can be safely emp loyed. I n Betsy Thoughtless s cenes d ecisions are not permanent until actions are executed. While Clarissa realizes the error in her decisions, she cannot change the course of her punishment. Betsy, however, is allowed the opportunity to correct her course of action despite her thinking. When faced with temptation in the garden, Betsy possesses thoughts of sexual desire, yet freely chooses the proper action to remain virtuous A highly defining characteristic of Miss Betsy Thoughtless is her indepen dent nature. She sees herself not as a coquet, but as a woman too young for marriage. She does not wish for her youth to keep her barricaded behind closed doors of propriety, or locked behind what she sees as stuffy decorum. Though Betsy respects what soci ety deems as fit and proper behavior for a young woman, she finds no reason for her enjoyment to be diminished. Her delight in being admired by many suitors runs hand in hand with her ignorance of sexuality and the possible dangers that come from misconduc t. Like other
25 y precarious period in her life o maintains her virtue through a series of fortunate rescues thereby keeping her safe, yet she calls attention to the danger of behavior The Female Quixote rings true of Betsy Thoughtless as well: eighteenth century: a pragmatic didacticism, almost an amoral morality, in which what is clearly but inevitably differs from what should be and in which the author gives advice that would not be rapes that occur se veral times in the novel allow a subversive Haywood to direct a message to her audience regarding the need to enlighten young women about their sexuality. This virtue remains throughout the novel, and though she becomes a reformed heroine in the reward. fully chaste because eighteenth century British society dictated so. However, these is image of femininity included an image of delicate naivety. Young women were to have an ignorance of sexuality and
26 only in the protection of her virtue, but also in the presentation of herself as ignorant of sexual conduct. Furthermore, whether she is virtuous in actuality or not matters rather less than he r reputation as a virtuous woman. Her brothers and guardians continually warn her that what people believe about the state of her virtue matters a great deal. They caution her that who she befriends, how she utilizes her time, and the way in which she pres ents herself, all contribute to the prodding, intrusive view society has of her. Jane carelessness, not design, and she is vulnerable to misrepresentation because of her good na should revolve around the protection of her reputation, regardless of her desire to be independent or generous to those less fortunate than herself. She must surround herself with people of strong reputations, who fall into the same class as she. Betsy ca nnot act freely or knowledgably if she is to remain within the constraints of social propriety. Her every moment must be accounted for in appropriate ways. For instance, when Betsy takes responsibility for the orphaned child of her dress maker, her reputat ion suffers. Rumors mind, however, taking care of the orphan and placing it in a situation where it will survive well within its own class is the honorable thing to reputation might demonstrate the power of society in
27 happiness. Perhaps if she constantly remained within the constraints of society whether or not she believed it to be honorable then her happy marriage might arrive sooner. However, because Betsy ultimately receives her happy ending, regardless of the rumors propriety, yet still utilize her autonomy to make decisions she sees as ethically proper. Betsy is not alone under the scrutiny of eighteenth century society she stands as a representative of women of her time and status. As Shea Stuart demonstrates, century social conflicts emergent versus residual ideologies of patriarchy and of ma rriage, conduct book didacticism versus Pamela s a sacrifice to the current sex gender rules of propriety. However, she struggles to break free of the stodgy oppression placed upon her sex. She acts as a coquette bec ause it pleases her to do so. She sees herself as a strong, independent young lady, and she desires to take advantage of her position in life because she is aware that she will not always be young and independent. Works from women writers of the eighteenth coquette and the trouble she receives for her behavior demonstrate the conflict between the auto nomous eighteenth cen tury woman and the ruling patriarch al society. Haywood artfully creates a world that shows the difficult and precarious positions in which women constantly find themselves because of the constraints society places
28 puts herself in serious danger, but a woman who denies herself these things and maintains creating what Austin refers to desire to break away from the constraints of propriety appears in her many run ins with men who wish to overpower her, and her struggles to escape from their clutches. Whether she is under attack ph ysically or simply unable to remain focused on one suitor at a time, Betsy determined ly holds on to her independence: (Haywood 36). S he sees no reason to marry when she is so comfortable in her life, enjoying company and admiration from many men. dimensions and consequences of these constraints and the ways in which a woman may, if she has such an understanding, use self Betsy cannot overcome the constraints of society throughout the majority of the novel because she has not the self awareness necessary to overcome the walls of propriety. Though she realizes that her virtue must be guarded against all attacks, no matter the cost even if it means jumping to her death from a moving carriage (stra ngely reminiscent of Miss Betsy is unaware of her value as a sexual object. She does not realize that her beauty, which she so highly values, means more to the men who adore her than a surface, distanced, admiration. The trou ble she often finds herself in thus arises from her ignorance of her sexuality both as a desired sexual object and a
29 desiring sexual subject. Juliette Merritt, in Beyond Spectacle Women construct their identity and sexuality largely around the desire to be seen, according to Merritt (8). However, this construction of identity depends upon an s lack of social power seeks remedy in Betsy Thoughtless through the construction of knowledge about sexual desire and how to control it according to societal prescriptions. This knowledge occurs most fully in the Betsy cannot see he rself as a sexual object because she remains an innocent character, devoid of knowledge about sexual conduct outside of marriage. Though Betsy is aware of sexuality and its presence in the lives of other characters such as Flora, she is not aware of her pl ace in this sexual theater. Her flirtations are merely a desire to be admired. She craves the power to be gifted attention from people. For her, male affection happens more readily, but she does not realize that this affection springs from a view of her as a sexual object. Therefore, she is not fully knowledgeable about how to control her power as an object. On the other hand, her inability to govern herself as a sexual object or f which Merritt speaks. As Betsy moves through her adventures, she gains knowledge about her position as a sexual object, it is only in the final garden scene, however, that Betsy realizes her position as a sexual subject. However, in order to remain safe within the patriarchal society, Betsy must become aware of her sexual desires on her own, while also governing herself according to social expectations.
30 of her reputation begins. Though she may have been conscious of the possibility of her virtue falling into jeopardy, a self awareness does not accompany Betsy to the city. If the city represents society, and the country does not, then the gardens become an oasis away from the prodding eyes of society. The gardens may allow an escape from the city, and thus from the intrusive, critical gaze of society, but they do not provide protection from the dangers of isolation and knowledge. The barriers of greenery work not only as a shield from society, but also as a visual representation of the sexuality of which the young women of these feelings remains outside their consciousness. To know that their emotions are linked to sexuality and desire would enable them to protect themselves from falling into ruin. Deborah Nest with very little protection from predatory males, and then casts them away as the shelter of the garde ns provide more than solitude for romantic reflection; gardens allow seclusion from their protectors, and thu s an opportunity for attackers. The dangerous situations in which many of the characters find themselves only worsen with their nave and lively re sponses (Spencer 148). The young man in Oxford, by whose hand Betsy is nearly undone, paints this picture of the garden into which he sun, even in his meridian forc e, could, at the most, but glimmer through the delightful
31 to the advantage of these conjectures must certainly follow isolation in the garden is not in jeopardy, but Betsy, ignorant to any suppositions against her virtue finds herself in a dangerous and undesirable position. W hen Betsy finds herself alone with a young man in the Oxford garden it hardly registers with her that this could be a dangerous position. However, by allowing herself alone with him, the young man assumes that Betsy is allowing him the opportunity to make situation does not erase her naivety over the situation. Though she recognizes sexual threat, s he cannot yet recognize her position as a sexual object. The character of Miss Flora juxtapos es Betsy because while Betsy innocently (Richetti 249). For Miss Flora, a garden in Oxford provides her with a desired space of seclusion. The text gently allows us t o see Miss Flora as a character who is aware of her sexuality before stepping behind the walls of a garden. Betsy previously observed her acting improperly with Gayland alone in her chamber. When Flora reappears after leaving Betsy in an unhappy situation improper, she still lacks the se lf awareness to see how her own actions might be inappropriate for a virtuous young woman. In order to remain socially proper, she must
32 know enough to appear as though she knows nothing about sexual desires. This paradox causes both internal and external c as well The undoing of Miss Forward occurs in a garden outside the safe walls of her school. She has not been taught about sexuality until she comes here, and then it is forced upon her. expect Wildly to act in the way he did. This artificial exchange suggests that Miss retrospect, how her undoing occurred, she entered the garden that night unaware. She did not know that to enter a garden alone with a man was a sign of her willing assent. She was not prepared for the knowledge awaiting her in that green seclusion. In this inter story, as in others, Haywood subversively demonstrates the need for young women to know what awaits them before they enter the gardens. While th e patriarchal society demands that young unmarried women remain blind to knowledge about their positions as sexual objects, and refrain from seeing themselves as sexual subjects, these garden encounters demonstrate the need for women to know. Betsy remain s unaware of herself as a sexual object or subject. She is shocked at unready she is to become self aware. Additionally, Betsy is not worldly enough to
33 583). Trueworth atte mpts to keep Betsy sheltered from the truth about Miss Forward, yet wants to dissuade her from maintaining the relationship and discontinues his courtship with her when she refuses to take his advice. He punishes Betsy for not following his advice on somet hing which she cannot understand due to the ignorance necessary to remain a virtuous woman. The shock she receives when she finally discovers, in a most unpleasant way, that her childhood friend holds an unfavorable reputation still does not fill Betsy wit h the proper amount of knowledge to become aware of how her actions affect the way society sees her. Though she knows enough to realize that she must discontinue her company with Miss Forward, she is not yet aware of herself as a sexual object in society, and thus continues her flirtations and irresponsible behavior. Married life for Betsy becomes emotionally abusive, yet she attempts to make the (Haywood 494). Betsy resolves to remain a virtuous and respectful wife despite her mundane and cruel husband, yet she maintains respect for herself as well. Haywood thus attempted to work within the framew ork and against it simultaneously. Lady Trusty, however, can be viewed also as a representative of a woman attempting to work within the patriarchal structure, yet has only submitted to it. Lady Trusty wants Betsy to be comfortable, and her advice suggests that Betsy should behave kindly to her husband in any way possible so as to create the best possible situation for herself. Only her
34 This also appears as the only s others to side with Betsy. Until this point, all of miserable she may be. Her marriage was seen as a misfortune nothing from which she could save herself. Even after Bets him. However, her friends and family do assist her in removing herself from his home, an avenue she sees as most desirable. Though Betsy believes she wants nothing more than a peaceful life alone, she di scovers that her true desires lie in Trueworth. This realization takes place in a garden. Betsy enters a garden alone to reflect. It is described as a decorated with plots of flowers, statues, and trees cut in the most elegant manne pulls out an image of Trueworth and gazes upon it pensively. Haywood pain ts a comfortable and inviting paradise. Here resides no fear of banishment. Furthermore, Betsy is isolated from the penetrating gaze of society. Thus, Haywood successfully creates a place where Betsy is free to govern herself autonomously. She must make he r own choices in the garden, rather than rely on society to dictate her actions. Betsy herself pleasures of the tumultuous town, yet how have I despised and ridiculed the so ft serenity ability to enjoy the solitude of the garden.
35 Betsy reflects that her individual growth makes her a more worthy companion for Trueworth. With this thought, Be tsy realizes her error in choosing the life of a coquette over Trueworth. However, it is not too late for Betsy to find forgiveness for her errors. As for her choices in life, Trueworth appears out of h is hiding place in the garden. Her surprise at seeing him there causes her admits his equal feelings for her, and expresses his desire for her. Betsy, however, collects herself and returns to a state of propriety. Haywood commends this trait: that admirable presence of mind, which Mrs. Munden had shewn on many occasions, did not in this ent irely leave her; -the time he was speaking those few words sufficed to enable her to recollect her scattered spirits, and [ withdraw ] herself from the hold he had taken of her, and [ remov e ] a little farther on the (Haywood 608) Betsy, because she is allowed to govern herself, does not fall into a state of confusion. She promptly pushes Trueworth back to an acceptable distance and prepares herself to control the situation through her rhetoric. s of love, he feels as though he may take bold steps with her in openly discussing their desire for each other. Betsy, however, does not let the conversation take over her knowledge about the proper way to handle herself. She attempts to dissuade him that her confessions were that of love. The narrative admits that Betsy mustered a great deal of courage in her attempts to
36 push Trueworth away. Though they are isolated from the gaze of society, Betsy governs herself with decision that will protect her reputat ion. When Trueworth, overcome with liberty to be entertained with discourses, nor with actions of this nature; -loose me this moment, or be assured all the kind t Betsy resolutely forbids Trueworth to treat her in any way that is not becoming of her station in life. She demands respect. This demand arises from the know ledge of how to protect her reputation but thrives because she is granted the power to govern her own decisions regarding her heart. Haywood soon rewards her heroine the reformed coquette with the fortunate death of her husband. Though she retreats fr om her husband after discovering his affair she does not become fully self aware until she realizes, in the garden, that her heart lies with produces in her the knowledge that he alone is worthy of her affection and sexual desire. This knowledge comes to her because her adventures have led her to a self awareness that will guide her autonomy into proper decisions for herself; however, this awareness does not occur for Betsy unt il she enters the shelter of the garden. Once Betsy become s self aware, she and her desire for Trueworth grants her the power to push him away and remove herself from the garden, virtu e still in tact. She no longer needs rescuing by fate, or men; her self her love is not unrequited, a knowledge gained only upon entrance into the garden.
37 Haywood does not disguise the double standard of yielding to sexual desire. Trueworth may chastise himself for his affair with Flora, or for having passionate thoughts about Betsy, but he is not punished in the same way he punishes Betsy for her friendship with a prostitute. Love in Excess contains a hero whose conflicts with virtue are not as fiercely punished as his heroines (who all find endings re transgressions. Despite the differences in gender the redemption of both Betsy prove their constancy and their ability to become aware of their desires and the world around them. For these Haywood characters, gardens become the places where knowledge is gained through a transformation i nto a self aware individual that can govern himself/herself properly according to autonomous decisions Perhaps the similarities between lmont and Betsy demonstrate women to be allowed to govern themselves with equal autonom y in order to make the proper decisions. This new self awareness leads to a re birth into a character who receives r edemption from previous errors -e specially errors resulting from ignorance, such as the inability to express themselves as sexual subj ects, or see themselves as sexual object. While Clarissa realized the error of her thoughts, yet still found herself banished from the their mistakes and demonstrate their ability to act properly. Haywood allows for autonomous thinking that works within the patriarchal structure of society. Through
38 desires, yet still obey the constructs of s ociety. She does not run off with Trueworth while still married to her husband, nor does she give into her desires for him there in the garden. She has gained enough self awareness to see herself as a sexual subject without giving into desires that would a ctively function against societal codes of conduct. new found ability to express herself. This knowledge is only gained after she realizes that societal constraints and prop riety must dictate her life; but the knowledge of this affords lengthy adventures in her discovery of proper self representation. Though Betsy Thoughtless how to perform properly within the realms of society. Though she realizes her love for pursuing marriage to Trueworth. On the other hand, Betsy subverts the rules of propriety letter she had ever decorum; in the garden, she gained a self representation that allows her to live safely, yet freely, within her world.
39 l, financial, and emotional abuse of her, she escapes this punishment and is reward ed with a marriage to Trueworth. In the garden, she gains knowledge about her sexual desires. Enlightened as to her true feelings for Trueworth, her self awareness also gran ts her the power to run away from him so as to escape a possible affair that would damage to her reputation. Betsy remains a virtuous heroine because she is allowed the freedom to make her own choices. By the end of the novel Betsy learns the powers of ref lection, and can plan around the possible consequences of her speech and action (Anderson 7). Because her conscious performance becomes a form of self expressive and therefore honest en by public opinion. as self the double standard, and the Betsy cannot pursue an affair with Trueworth, and while she remains within the constraints of the patriarchal society by waiting the obligat ory year before another marriage, her love letter to him demonstrate s her autonomy. Though she has learned how to govern herself according to societal expectations, and therefore live safely within her social world, she still retains a freedom to act as sh e please s by choosing to write to Trueworth before the end of her year of mourning. Thus, Haywood didactically illustrates the need to live according to the rules of a patriarchal society yet retain autonomous thinking.
40 Chapter Four Conclusion Sa Clarissa Miss Betsy Thoughtless explore the symbolic space of the garden. While Richardson uses the garden as a place where banishment for disobedience takes place, Haywood allows her heroine to gain redemption in the garden. The garden stands traditionally as a place of innocence; yet, Paradise Lost the symbol of the garden increasingly became seen as a place from which humans are banished because of their inevitably flawed natur e. Eighteenth influence resulted in a widespread century works. However, as is the nature of re writing, revisionism naturally took place. elf is a revision of a religious story, religious values underwent double revision by the hand of eighteenth century writers. Those works which gained immense popularity, such as Clarissa and Betsy Thoughtless were available to influence readers to trust their respective messages as though they held important religious didacticism. Thus, Clarissa Betsy Thoughtless expressed eighteenth century understanding s of virtue, the fallen woman, and redemption. p ing the heroine of her autonomy, and forcing her into the confusing and precarious situation of the punished sexual object. attempting to govern herself with an au tonomy removed from any social or religious ties.
41 However, the garden stands as the place from which Clarissa is banished for disobedience. Humans, even paragons of virtue such as Clarissa, fall short of paradise Richardson merely translates this symbolic place into Clarissa Her banishment from the garden results from her entertaining the idea of disobeying the patriarchal authority by running away with Lovelace. The garden e to the need to punish the disobedient human spirit as it was represented earlier in Paradise Lost In keeping with Paradise Lost Clarissa literally falls out of the garden when she attempts to govern her own life. After banishment from the garden, and w illful submission to the patriarchy, Clarissa regains of virtue only when she experiences banishment from the garden as punishment for her sin of disobedient thou ghts. The garden scenes in Miss Betsy Thoughtless on the other hand, demonstrate the importance of preparing young women to receive knowledge. Only those characters properly prepared to receive knowledge about their sexuality and desire exit the seclusion of the gardens unscathed. Indeed, Betsy leaves the final garden scene of her own power and fully embraces a new self n the garden and subsequent banishment of him proves her full awareness of her sexuality and the need to remain within the constraints of proper behavior (Nestor 587). Perhaps, as Alexander Pettit posits, Betsy Thoughtless move toward The women in The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless attempt to
42 remain within the constraints of propriety, but the text shows them straini ng to break free and find self expression. Haywood creates a text with a virtuous heroine, yet subversively manages to demonstrate a need to educate young women about their sexuality and reconstruct the feminine image. Betsy Thoughtless allows a powerful Haywood to dislocate passivity and agency in order to violate expected gender Haywood shifts the symbolic space of the garden from one where punishment takes place, to one where for giveness is found through proper autonomous decisions. The didactic messages that Richardson and Haywood bring forth in their treatment of the garden exemplify the differences in thought about autonomy, propriety, and virtue in eighteenth century Britain The Miltonic influence upon these works can be located in the use of the garden as a place where judgment is passed on the heroine. For Clarissa, her fate is sealed in her entertainment of the idea of disobedience. Richardson disallows any forgiveness unt il Clarissa accepts her fallen state and submits willfully to the pat demonstrates the c omplicated nature of her sin. the virtuous heroi ne from the garden illustrates a view of all humans as inevitably flawed. Only when Clarissa accepts that she has no right to return to the garden does she receive a return to paradise in the form of death. Haywood, however, creates a tale about a reformed coquet by continually rescuing her heroine from rape throughout t he novel. In addition to these fateful rescues, Haywood allows Betsy to govern herself with portions of t he novel, it is only when others interfere in her future that she marries an
43 abusive man. Haywood utilizes the safe space of the garden in the end of the novel to give Betsy the freedom to choose properly how to act. Betsy receives redemption from her unha ppy marriage because she governed herself accordingly in the garden with Trueworth The illustrates the irr evocable error in even the thought of disobeying the patriarchy, while
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45 Pettit, Alexander Tables and Papers on Language and Literature 38:3 (Summer 2002) 244 270. Richardson, Samuel. Clarissa or, The History of a Young Lady London: Penguin, 2004. The Passionate Fictions of Eliza Haywood: Essays on Her Life and Work Lexington: UP of Kentucky 2000. 240 258. Spencer, Jane. The R ise of the Woman N ovelist: from Aphra Behn to Jane Austen New York : B. Blackwell, 1986. Betsy Thoughtless English Literature, 1500 1900 42:3 (2002): 559 575.
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