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The competencies for community college leaders

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Title:
The competencies for community college leaders community college presidents' and trustee board chairpersons' perspectives
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Hassan, Anthony
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Leadership crisis
Competencies
Development
Succession
Dissertations, Academic -- Higher Ed/Community College Ed -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: At a time when strong leadership is needed to guide community colleges forward, a major crisis seems to be stirring (Eddy & VanDerLinden, 2006). According to some estimates, 45% of community college presidents will have retired by 2007 (Shults, 2001) and an even worse prediction offered by Weisman and Vaughan (2002) predict 79% of community college presidents will be retired by 2012. Echoing this view, Amey et al. (2002) assert that there is much work to be done in preparing the younger generations of community college leaders with skills and competencies necessary to meet this leadership challenge. There were two primary purposes addressed in this study. First, to further validate the AACC competencies by determining how current presidents and trustee board chairpersons from the states of New York and Florida rated the importance of the AACC (2005) characteristics and professional skills for effective community college leadership.Second, to identify those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies. The results of this study provide support for the value of the six AACC competencies and offer important insights into the specific experiences that contributed to the development of these competencies for community college presidents. Specifically, there was consensus among New York and Florida community college presidents and trustee board chairpersons that all six competencies identified by AACC are "very" or "extremely" important for the success of community college leaders. Additionally, this study supported the philosophy that leader development is learned in many ways and that various leadership experiences contribute differently to the development of the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders, some apparently more relevant to certain competencies than others.In conclusion, the results of this study provide community college leaders, boards of trustees, hiring committees and leadership development programmers with additional validation on the AACC competencies and those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ed.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Anthony Hassan.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 145 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002000475
oclc - 318990582
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002496
usfldc handle - e14.2496
System ID:
SFS0026813:00001


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ABSTRACT: At a time when strong leadership is needed to guide community colleges forward, a major crisis seems to be stirring (Eddy & VanDerLinden, 2006). According to some estimates, 45% of community college presidents will have retired by 2007 (Shults, 2001) and an even worse prediction offered by Weisman and Vaughan (2002) predict 79% of community college presidents will be retired by 2012. Echoing this view, Amey et al. (2002) assert that there is much work to be done in preparing the younger generations of community college leaders with skills and competencies necessary to meet this leadership challenge. There were two primary purposes addressed in this study. First, to further validate the AACC competencies by determining how current presidents and trustee board chairpersons from the states of New York and Florida rated the importance of the AACC (2005) characteristics and professional skills for effective community college leadership.Second, to identify those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies. The results of this study provide support for the value of the six AACC competencies and offer important insights into the specific experiences that contributed to the development of these competencies for community college presidents. Specifically, there was consensus among New York and Florida community college presidents and trustee board chairpersons that all six competencies identified by AACC are "very" or "extremely" important for the success of community college leaders. Additionally, this study supported the philosophy that leader development is learned in many ways and that various leadership experiences contribute differently to the development of the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders, some apparently more relevant to certain competencies than others.In conclusion, the results of this study provide community college leaders, boards of trustees, hiring committees and leadership development programmers with additional validation on the AACC competencies and those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies.
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The Competencies for Community College Leaders: Community College Presidents’ and Trustee Board Chairpersons’ Perspectives by Anthony M. Hassan A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Adult, Career, and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Donald Dellow, Ed.D. Robert Sullins, Ed.D. William Young, Ed.D. Michael Rank, Ph.D. Date of Approval: June 4, 2008 Keywords: leadership crisis, competencies, development, succession Copyright 2008, Anthony M. Hassan

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Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to my children, Ulysis, Abraham and Isabella. My hope is that this degree inspires you to never lose sight of your dreams, to always stay the course, and to be an example for others. You can accomplish more than you ever imagined through hard work, determination and the “never give up” attitude. To my mother, you have made all of this possible because of you endless love and support to me both in good times and bad times. You are the embodiment of resiliency and have shown all of us how to overcome when the chips are down. To my sisters Paula and Kathy, I hope this dissertation serves as an example to you of my enduring commitment to everything I do, especially to the both of you. To my deceased brother Chris, I wish you were here to celebrate this moment with me, but my dissertation was defended on your birthday as a remembrance to you. I miss you! Grandma (deceased), you have always been there for me and I know you have been with me through this journey from the beginning to the end. Your absence is physical, but your enduring love is forever. To my Dad, you picked us up when we were down and this I will never forget. I am most grateful for your quiet influences. To my wife, Emiko, you encouraged me to pursue my dream and without your love and support I would not be where I am today. We were made for each other. I love you!

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Acknowledgements The U. S. Army and U.S. Air Force have been the most influential in my success and development as a leader and a life-long learner. The military has motivated and inspired me to strive for excellence, always do the right thing and to be an example for others to follow. These values have guided me throughout my adult life. To First Sergeant Herbert Franks, the maverick, you may never know the doors you opened for me when you allowed me to take a college course during duty time which was unprecedented in the Army during those years. Hooah! Today, I enjoy the support from extra special leaders like Col Gary Packard, Lt Col (ret) Mark Jordan, Lt Col Joseph Sanders, Lt Col Doug Lindsey and Cdr Andy “Shipmate” Bellenkes. I salute you. I want to especially recognize, Lt Col (ret) Robert “Jeff” Jackson, PhD. for his enduring support, mentorship and dedication to see me through the tough times. I can never express in words what you have made possible through your mentorship. To my doctoral committee, Dr. Donald Dellow, Dr. Robert Sullins, Dr. William Young, and Dr. Michael Rank, I thank all of you for being so supportive. A special thank you to my dissertation chair, Dr. Dellow, for his saint-like patience, commitment, and developmental focus as we together prodded this arduous trail. Finally, to Dr. Sullins, who was there with encouragement and mentorship from the very first class and remained a mentor to the finish line. Thank you for believing in me.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iv Abstract v Chapter 1. Introduction 1 Statement of the problem: Community College Leadership Crisis 2 American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and Leading Forward 4 Significance of the Study 6 Purpose of the Study 7 Research Questions 7 Definitions of Terms 8 Delimitations 8 Limitations 8 Organization of the Study 9 Chapter 2. Review of the Literature 10 The Background and Context of Community College Leadership 10 Historical Leader Profile Within the Community College 10 Community College Leadership Today 11 The Community College President 13 The Community College Boards of Trustees 17 Presidents and Trustees’-“The Team” 18 Leadership Competencies Required for Community College Leaders 19 AACC’s Competencies for Community College Leaders 19 Leading Forward Participants 20 Leading Forward Summit Activities 21 Leading Forward Qualitative Analysis 22 Leadership Principles Associated with the Competencies for Community College Leaders 27 Leadership can be Learned 27 Leadership is a Life-Long Developmental Process 28 Benefits of Competency Models/Frameworks 28 AACC’s Competencies and the Identification of Critical Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities 29 Leadership Traits 30 Leadership Behaviors and Skill 31

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ii Situational Leadership 31 Transformational Leadership 32 Team Leadership 33 Community College Leadership Development 33 The Need for Community College Leadership Development Programs 33 The Essential Components of a Community College Leadership Development Program 38 Conclusion 40 Chapter 3. Methods 41 Introduction 41 Research Design 42 Participants 43 Instrumentation 43 Data Collection Process 44 Data Organization 45 Data Analysis Plan 46 Summary 47 Chapter 4. Results 48 Survey Responses 48 Survey Participants Personal Demographic Information 49 Discussion of Research Questions 52 Research Question One 52 Research Question Two 56 Research Question Three 59 Research Question Four 62 Additional Analyses 66 Chapter 5. Summary 68 Summary of Research Study 68 Purpose 69 Summary of Findings 69 Research Question One 69 Research Question Two 71 Research Question Three 73 Research Question Four 74 Implications for Practice 76 Limitations 85 Implications for Future Research 86 Conclusions 87 References 88

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iii Appendices Appendix A: Competencies for Community College Leaders (President’s Survey) 98 Appendix B: Competencies for Community College Leaders (Trustee’s Survey) 107 Appendix C: AACC President Endorsement Letter 114 Appendix D: New York Vice Chancellor for Community Colleges Endorsement Letter 115 Appendix E: Florida Chancellor for Community Colleges Endorsement Letter 116 Appendix F: Letter of Instruction 117 Appendix G: Follow-up Email 118 Appendix H: Means of Importance for the Specific Items within each of The Community College Leader Competencies for Community College for the Participating Presidents 119 Appendix I: Means of Importance for the Specific Items within each of The Community College Leader Competencies for Community College for the Participating Board Chairpersons 128 Appendix J: Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for each of the survey instrument’s six core competencies as reported by Presidents and Board Chairpersons 137 Appendix K: Mean Differences for Each Mean Core Community College Leader Competency by Participating Presidents from New York and Florida (N=30) 138 Appendix L: Mean Scores for the Organizational Competency by the Participating Presidents from New York and Florida 139 Appendix M: Mean Differences for Each Mean Core Community College Leader Competency by Participating Board Chairpersons from New York and Florida (N=28) 140 Appendix N: Mean for Each Mean Core Community College Leader Competency by Participating Presidents and Trustee Board Chairpersons from New York and Florida (N=59) 141 Appendix O: Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for the survey instrument as reported by the Participating Presidents and Board Chairpersons 142 Appendix P: Additional Competencies Offered by Survey Participants 143 Appendix Q: USF IRB Letter 144 About the Author End Page

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iv List of Tables Table 1: Attendees at each AACC summit 21 Table 2: AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders 25 Table 3: Surveys Returned 49 Table 4: Participants’ Demographic Information (Gender and Age) 50 Table 5: Participants’ Demographic Information (Highest Education Level and Degree Type) 51 Table 6: Presidents’ Demographic Information (Previous Careers) 51 Table 7: Mean Score of Importance for Each Community College Leader Competency by the Presidents 53 Table 8: Mean Score of Importance for Each Community College Leader Competency by the Board Chairpersons 57 Table 9: Mean Differences for Each Core Community College Leader Competency by the Participating Presidents and Board Chairpersons 60 Table 10: Mean Differences for Each Core Community College Leader Competency by Paired Participating Presidents and Board Chairpersons from the Same College 61 Table 11: Frequency Scores for Each Leader Development Experience Participating Presidents (N=30) Felt Contributed to their Development of Each Core Community College Leader Competency 63

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v The Competencies for Community College Leaders: Community College Presidents’ and Trustee Board Chairpersons’ Perspectives Anthony M. Hassan Abstract At a time when strong leadership is needed to guide community colleges forward, a major crisis seems to be stirring (Eddy & VanDerLinden, 2006). According to some estimates, 45% of community college presidents will have retired by 2007 (Shults, 2001) and an even worse prediction offered by Weisman and Vaughan (2002) predict 79% of community college presidents will be retired by 2012. Echoing this view, Amey et al. (2002) assert that there is much work to be done in preparing the younger generations of community college leaders with skills and competencies necessary to meet this leadership challenge. There were two primary purposes addressed in this study. First, to further validate the AACC competencies by determining how current presidents and trustee board chairpersons from the states of New York and Florida rated the importance of the AACC (2005) characteristics and professional skills for effective community college leadership. Second, to identify those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies. The results of this study provide support for the value of the six AACC competencies and offer important insights into the specific experiences that contributed to the development of these competencies for community college presidents. Specifically, there

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vi was consensus among New York and Florida community college presidents and trustee board chairpersons that all six competencies identified by AACC are “very” or “extremely” important for the success of community college leaders. Additionally, this study supported the philosophy that leader development is learned in many ways and that various leadership experiences contribute differently to the development of the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders some apparently more relevant to certain competencies than others. In conclusion, the results of this study provide community college leaders, boards of trustees, hiring committees and leadership development programmers with additional validation on the AACC competencies and those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies.

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction Since their founding in 1901, America’s community colleges have grown into unique educational institutions that have proven vital to not only the communities they serve, but to the social, economic, and intellectual development of the United States (Sullivan, 2001). Community colleges have distinctively delivered a plethora of educational opportunities to older as well as younger adults, and have done so within the milieu of their host communities (Cohen & Brawer, 2003). The appeal of community colleges lies in their willingness to deviate from traditional academic patterns, resulting in what has become the most democratic component in the system of higher education (Brint & Karabel, 1989). Of great importance, as well, is the role of community colleges in creating and maintaining strong partnerships with regional corporations so the colleges are able to provide critical on-going workforce education and life-long learning (Roueche, Baker & Rose, 1989). Community colleges experienced a double-digit growth enrollment from 2000 to 2003 and currently enroll over 10 million students annually—almost half of all U.S. undergraduates (American Association of Community Colleges [AACC], 2003). Cohen and Brawer (2003) describe the four core functions of the community college mission that directly and indirectly address students’ diverse educational needs. These include (a) occupational education, (b) collegiate and transfer education, (c) remedial education, and

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2 (d) adult and community education. Cohen and Brawer (2003) also note that the community college is a dynamic institution whose mission and functions vary in keeping with the changing face of modern society. The current context of the community college is being shaped by declining fiscal support from state and other sources, changing student demographics, increasing emphasis on assessment and accountability, and emerging impact of globalization on programs and priorities. The community colleges have had to adapt to these evolving processes and phases in order to stay in tune with variations in their communities’ characteristics, needs and changes in society, the economy, and other aspects of public life (Sullivan, 2001). More recently, many community colleges have added baccalaureate degrees to their programs (Floyd, 2005). With these unforeseen and often dramatic changes, community colleges have seen a concomitant increase in the demand for more flexible, creative, collaborative, entrepreneurial, and imaginative leaders (Kezar, Carducci, & Contreras-McGavin, 2006; Eddy & VanDerLinden, 2006). Statement of the problem: Commun ity College Leadership Crisis At a time when strong leadership is needed to guide community colleges forward, a major crisis seems to be stirring (Eddy & VanDerLinden, 2006). According to some estimates, 45% of community college presidents will have retired by 2007 (Shults, 2001) and an even worse prediction offered by Weisman and Vaughan (2002) predict 79% of community college presidents will be retired by 2012. While those administrators who would be logical choices to fill the vacant positions within community colleges are also approaching retirement age (Boggs, cited in Campbell, 2002). Further, it is anticipated that there will be a 78% reduction in graduates with university degrees in Community

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3 College Administration (Fulton-Calkins & Milling, 2005). It thus becomes alarmingly apparent that there will be great difficulty in filling near-term vacancies of community college leaders (Patton, 2004), and a particular difficulty filling these positions with leaders who have traditional backgrounds and experiences in community college leadership. Boggs, cited in Campbell (2002), stated that if community colleges were to meet the challenges of leadership turnover successfully, they would need to pay particular attention to leadership development. However, Amey (2004) suggests that community colleges have generally failed to provide potential community college senior leadership with programs designed to foster competencies necessary for success in filling the void of retiring community college leaders. The impending leadership and succession crisis also presents an opportunity to address the problem of a lack of diversity within the ranks of community college leadership. Vaughan (2004) has challenged community college institutions (current leaders, professional associations, and higher education programs) to view the imminent leadership crisis as an opportunity to diversify community college executive level administration. He notes that current community college presidents look alike, think alike, and lack the diversity of thought found in most other senior leadership positions. Prompted by the predicted leadership crisis, Vaughan (2004) encourages a critical examination of community college leadership competencies and skills to determine whether community college leaders might be identified in other fields, like business, government, and the military.

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4 American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and Leading Forward “Leading Forward”, a two-year AACC initiative, supported by a $1.9 million planning grant by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation was implemented to address the looming crisis by helping community colleges cultivate a new generation of leaders for America’s largest higher education sector. This initiative not only supported the planning stages of a leadership development model to address the growing leader gap, but also placed particular emphasis on helping community college boards and potential leaders identify those leadership competencies that are deemed as important for successful leadership in the community college setting (AACC, 2003). This competency framework development process began in the summer of 2003. AACC began the Leading Forward’s initiative by hosting a series of four, day-long leadership summits with different community college constituent groups to build a consensus around key knowledge, skills, and values needed by community college leaders, as well as, how to best develop and sustain these leaders. The constituent groups of experts in community college leadership were from AACC affiliate councils, college and state “grow your own” leadership development programs, colleges in underserved areas, and university programs (AACC, 2005). In July 2004, an AACC-commissioned report prepared by the American College Testing (ACT) organization titled; A Qualitative Analysis of Community College Leadership from the Leading Forward Summits transformed a wealth of qualitative data into understandable accounts that reflected the multitude of varied viewpoints presented by the Leading Forward participants. This analysis produced the competency framework for community college leaders Later that year AACC designed a survey based on the

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5 identified competency framework to complete a pilot study validating the competency areas with the Leading Forward participants. AACC distributed their survey instrument electronically to participants from the Leading Forward summits and to the members of the Leading Forward National Advisory Panel. The survey reflected each of six competency areas with specific behavioral indicators for each competency area. The survey response rate was 76 percent; 95 out of the 124 surveys were returned with positive support for the six competency areas identified by the Leading Forward Project. One hundred percent of the survey respondents noted that each of the six competencies was either “very” or “extremely” essential to the effective performance of a community college leader. Respondents were also questioned about how well they, personally, were formally trained to apply each competency. Furthermore, those respondents who work for leadership development programs were asked how well their leadership program prepares participants to apply each competency. Unfortunately, more respondents replied “minimal” or “moderate” to these two questions than when asked how essential the competencies are for effective performance as a community college leader (AACC, 2005). Thus, there is a significant discrepancy between the need for the competencies and the level of preparation for them. As a result of the Leading Forward initiative and AACC’s Pilot Study, the framework of competencies was refined and submitted to AACC for review and board action. On April 9, 2005, the AACC Board of Directors unanimously approved the Competencies for Community College Leaders document and encouraged leaders, boards of trustees and the community college leadership development programmers to use this document to guide their practices. The Competencies for Community College Leaders are collectively

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6 organized in the following six general areas, with more specific behaviors, values and attitudes described for each area: 1. Organizational Strategy 2. Resource Management 3. Communication 4. Collaboration 5. Community College Advocacy 6. Professionalism (AACC, 2005) The competency framework is intended to help emerging leaders chart their professional development, to provide leadership development programs with curricula guidelines, and to guide college human resource departments and boards of trustees in recruitment, hiring, and professional development. It is also intended to be a “living document” that evolves over time to meet the changing needs of community colleges (AACC, 2005). Significance of the Study In 2007 the state of community college leadership is foreboding, pending retirements predict a void in experienced leadership (Shults, 2001), present leadership development does not meet the skill sets and competencies expected of leaders and the competencies themselves are critical, complex, and dynamic (Amey, 2004; Patton, 2004). Despite the fact that we know that change is needed and that leaders for the future will need to develop different competencies (Amey, VanDerLinden & Brown, 2002), there hasn’t been any clarification and further validation of the six leadership competencies and their characteristics previously identified by the AACC Pilot Study as being important for

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7 leadership in community colleges. This additional validation of the competencies and characteristics from practicing presidents and trustee board chairpersons can provide additional guidance for community college presidents, boards of trustees, hiring committees and leadership development programmers on the most essential competencies required for community college leaders. Purpose of the Study It is the purpose of this study to further validate the competencies by determining what practicing presidents and trustee board chairpersons in New York and Florida with local governing boards believe are the most important competencies, characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC (2005) for effective community college leadership. In addition, this study identified those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies. Research Questions The purpose of this study will be fulfilled by obtaining responses to the following research questions. 1. To what degree do practicing community college presidents rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership? 2. To what degree do practicing trustee board chairpersons rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership?

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8 3. Are there significant differences between the responses of practicing presidents and trustee board chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership? 4. Which leader development experiences did the practicing community college presidents identify as the most helpful for their development of the AACC competencies for community college leaders? Definitions of Terms 1. Community College: “…any institution accredited to award the Associate in Arts or the Associate in Science as its highest degree. This community college definition includes the public comprehensive two-year colleges and the many technical institutes” (Cohen & Brawer, 1996, p.5). 2. Succession Planning: Succession planning is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. Succession planning ensures you can fill key roles from within your organization (Hollenbeck, McCall, & Silzer, 2006). Delimitations The study is delimited by the responses of community college presidents and community college trustee board chairpersons and can only be generalized to public community colleges. Limitations The study has a limitation to the external validity because the sample selected for this study is a convenient sample of volunteers. Only New York and Florida public

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9 community college presidents and community college trustee board chairpersons are studied. This excludes private community colleges as well as four-year institutions. Organization of the Study This research study is structured into five chapters. Chapter 1 presents the introduction, statement of the problem, significance of the study, purpose of the study, research questions, definitions, delimitations, limitations, and organization of the study. The literature review in Chapter 2 presents the background and context of community college leadership, leadership competencies required for community college leaders and leadership development for community college leaders. Chapter 3 explains the research methods applied. It includes the research design, a description of the participants, instrumentation used, data collection procedures, data organization, data analysis, and summary. Chapter 4 contains the results of the survey distribution and responses, treatment of data, findings of survey responses, description of respondents, statistical methods for analysis, and a summary of findings. Chapter 5 presents the purpose, findings, implications for practice, limitations, implications for future research and conclusion.

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10 Chapter 2 Review of the Literature The previous chapter described the role of community colleges, the challenges currently faced by community college leadership, and the purpose of this study. Specifically, this chapter reviews the following: € The background and context of community college leadership € Leadership competencies required for community college leaders € Leadership development for community college leaders The Background and Context of Community College Leadership Historical leader profile within the community college. Community colleges were first conceived as an extension of secondary education; so it is not surprising that secondary school principals and superintendents became the first community (junior) college leaders. Vaughan (1989) noted that over 25% of community college presidents in 1960 were former public school superintendents, and as such were overwhelmingly male and Caucasian, as those were the characteristics of public school administrators (Koopke, 1978). These early community college leaders were frequently selected not because of their knowledge and understanding of the community college educational mission, but rather because of their previous experience as leaders in other contexts. As the community college movement expanded those who distinguished themselves as good teachers were

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11 promoted to entry level administrative positions, like department chair, then moved up the administrative ladder, as is often the case today. As with those secondary school leaders described earlier, leadership education provided to this later generation of community college administrators consisted primarily of on-the-job training (movement through the academic ranks and through quasi-administrative and administrative positions) plus short-term, targeted leadership development workshops offered by prestigious universities or professional associations (Piland & Wolf, 2003). When community college faculty held advanced graduate degrees, usually in a specialized subject area, this tended to enhance their movement up through the ranks into leadership positions. The rapid expansion of new community colleges and the lack of time to develop new leaders from within helped contribute to the creation of professional leadership programs in universities around the country. Advanced degrees in higher education leadership (such as the EdD/PhD) became the rule, rather than the exception (Duvall, 2003). “Today few people attain the presidency or any other top-level leadership position in community colleges without a terminal degree. The commonly held belief is that most applicants will have a doctoral degree” (Duvall, 2003. p. 64). In a recent study, Durre’s (2007) findings support this belief in that 87% of the 415 community college president respondents in his study held doctoral degrees with very little difference between the PhD and the EdD (43% and 44% respectively). Unfortunately, only 38% of the respondents’ doctoral degrees were in higher education with a community college emphasis. Community co llege leadership today. There are currently 1,195 community colleges (AACC, 2007) operating throughout the United States. However, despite continued

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12 growth of this critical institution, the current state of community college leadership development and succession planning is concerning. Evidence for this can be found not only with the expected high number of faculty/staff retirements, but also in the reluctance of faculty to assume leadership roles (Evelyn, 2001). The resulting limited number of faculty members and others willing to move into junior administrative roles has reduced the pool of qualified leaders. In addition, Amey et al., (2002) assert that there is limited access to high-quality, sustained opportunities for leadership development, which further erodes the pool of potential leaders. Boggs (2003) suggests that the time is growing near for the most significant transition in leadership in the history of America’s community colleges. Community college leaders are becoming part of the “passing parade that marches forever forward” (Vaughn & Weisman 2003). A survey of community college presidents conducted by the American Associations of Community Colleges (AACC) in 2001 indicated that 45 percent (N=249) of them planned to retire by 2007 (Shults, 2001). Based on findings from another 2001 survey, Weisman and Vaughan (2002) confirmed that the rate of presidential retirement appears to be on the rise, with 79 percent (n=661) of presidents planning to retire by 2012. Even more alarming is that the administrators who report to the presidents—and who might be expected to replace them—are also approaching retirement (Boggs, 2003, p.15). Indeed, today, there are so many anticipated vacancies at the president level alone that AACC foretells of an impending crisis that will create a community college leadership

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13 gap at all levels within the organization (Shults, 2001). What, then, has lead to this impending gap in leadership? Unlike leadership development within business and the military, community colleges have failed to provide adequate succession planning to help aspiring leaders acquire the competencies necessary for success at the next levels of leadership (Amey, 2004). This failure in proactive succession planning has not been limited to community colleges; it is a phenomenon common to business as well. Data collected from 150 companies revealed that most could not adequately meet their future business needs with their current leadership, but that these same companies were not doing anything to develop future leaders (Barrent & Beeson, 2002). It becomes apparent, therefore, that the need for highly qualified, proven leadership in community colleges is more urgent today than ever before (Kezar et al., 2006); that these institutions will require well-trained, experienced leadership if they are to meet the challenges of a growing and ever-changing student body The community college president. During the past 100 years, the roles of community college presidents have changed considerably from the patriarchal, hierarchical (authoritarian) model of leadership to today’s more collaborative forms of leadership. Sullivan ( 2001) describes this change in leadership style as “another changing of the guard”, a transition to a new generation of presidents whose leadership style is remarkably different from that of their predecessors. In describing the unique contributions of each generation of community college presidents, Goff (2002) notes: The founding fathers generation was responsible for the initial development of the new postsecondary education system in America. The good managers were responsible for the rapid growth and management of vast resources infused into

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14 the community colleges. The collaborators developed strong teams of the faculty, staff and administrators in order to bring together scare resources to ensure student access to higher education. The millennium generation of community college presidents will be required to redefine the role of the community college president to meet new challenges (pg. 6). Today, the roles required for community college presidents are numerous and varied. For example, Vaughan (1986) mentions roles such as; serving on a local board, maintaining healthy relationships with college board members, responding to state systems, satisfying local consumers and businesses, making your faculty and staff a priority, and working with the legislature on funding issues. Vaughan also notes that community college presidents help chart the educational, social, and economic life of thousands of communities across the nation. Nasworthy (2002) believes the president’s role is to be responsible for the success of students, the morale of faculty, the fiscal stability of the college and the compliance with accreditation standards. Cohen and Brawer (1996) define the community college president as the person who makes certain that a positive image and solid reputation exists for the college, while, Wen (1999) simply notes that the most important role assigned to the community college president is that of being a leader. Vaughan (1986) has rated the following personal attributes as those of greatest importance for success as community college presidents: integrity, judgment, courage, concern, flexibility, philosophy, loyalty, energy level, and optimism. Vaughan s imilarly ranked a number of skills and abilities defining the successful president. These included: producing results, selecting people, resolving conflicts, communicating, motivating

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15 others, analyzing and evaluating, defining problems and solutions, taking risks, delegating, being a team member, and knowing the community. In Desjardins and Huff’s (2001) book, The Leading Edge: Competencies for Community College Leadership in the New Millennium, the authors conducted two studies (1987; 1997) designed to identify common core leadership competencies characteristic of successful community college presidents. Data from surveys administered to community college presidents revealed 22 critical core competencies. These were then divided into four principle categories: leadership fundamentals, culture and climate, influence, and business management. Further, the authors emphasized the importance of fund raising, globalization, and being able to adjust to the changing business culture as also being critical skills for successful presidents. Similarly, Hammons and Keller (1990) conducted a study on the competencies and personal characteristics of future community college presidents. A panel of 31 community college presidents reached a consensus on 43 competencies which were then sub-divided into three categories: leadership, group related and personal characteristics. According to Hammons and Keller, community college presidents must be strong leaders and highly skilled in group dynamics. The authors believe that tomorrow’s community college leaders need to be visionaries with a knowledge of, and commitment to, the community college mission. They need to be highly competent as leaders, planners, delegators, decision makers, skilled at communicating their vision and motivating others. These individuals are distinguished by observable personal attributes such as high integrity, sense of responsibility, persistent to follow through on tasks, high energy levels, sound mental health, and lastly good judgment.

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16 The research conducted by the Community College Leadership Development Initiative (CCLDI) and its partner Claremont Graduate University (Wolf & Carroll, 2002) also add to the body of research on the competencies required for future community college presidents. Specifically, their research identified two main elements for effective leadership: an inward element to the leader’s personality and values and an outward element to the institutional environment. In addition, they identified twelve fundamental elements for effective leadership: 1. Personal qualities (know thyself) 2. Communication skills 3. Working with individuals and groups 4. Cultivating leadership 5. Institutional Culture 6. Managing internal institutional functions 7. Planning 8. Institution leadership ethics and ethical analysis 9. Education teaching and learning 10. Diversity 11. External environmental educational, political, economic, media, and civic 12. History and mission of higher education and community colleges Findings by Hockaday and Puyear (2000) offer a similar set of traits for effective leadership within the community college. They note that, most importantly, a leader must have vision. In addition, they believe a leader must have integrity, confidence, courage, technical knowledge, collaboration, good judgment, and the desire to lead.

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17 Participants at the AACC Leadership Summit outlined five major competencies that a community college president must have to be effective: understanding the community college mission, effective advocacy with community constituents, administrative/governance skills, economic development, and transformational skills. In summary, there is no typical leader. “Leaders come in all sizes and shapes. Some are striking in appearance and exude personality and charisma, whereas others appear quite ordinary” (Hockaday & Puyear, 2000, pg. 2). It is easy to see from the many studies that have been conducted on the competencies required for community college presidents that the lists are exhaustive with considerable overlap and redundancy. However, the most current list of competencies is published in the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders (AACC, 2005). This document appears to have captured the findings from previous research on community college leader competencies and has categorized them into six core competencies with 45 specific items. The six competencies are organizational strategy, resource management, communication, collaboration, community college advocacy, and professionalism. This framework is intended to provide current and future community college leaders with a guide for further leadership development. The community college boards of trustees. Community college boards of trustees have the daunting task of choosing the person, from inside or from outside of the college, with whom to entrust the future of a community college. For example, in looking for a community college president, these boards usually seek a combination of many competencies including political savvy, fundraising ability, fiscal competence, understanding community college education, ability to build and maintain relationships, a

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18 high degree of emotional and physical stamina, honesty, courage, personal integrity, and leadership skills. In addition, the president must be able to work effectively with the local governance body (e.g. trustees), be the spokesperson for the college, and have the ability to solve a host of internal college problems (Nasworthy, 2002). Campbell (2002) notes that boards of trustees have a responsibility to support leadership development programs for their colleges. He suggests that boards need to be committed to succession planning and complete executive searches before positions become vacant. He believes that trustees should be committed to the completion of leadership team audits to provide trustees with a template of their preferred leadership characteristics before beginning an executive search (Campbell, 2002). Presidents and trustees-“the team”. The nation’s community colleges adapted the lay board-president model that was developed with the chartering of Harvard University in 1636. In general, it is pretty much standard that presidents report on the operations of their colleges to governing boards on a periodic basis. These two entities—the president and the lay governing board—play major roles in charting the direction, mission, role, scope, and destiny of their community colleges (Vaughan & Weisman, 2003). The president and trustees are a team that has power, prestige, influence, and importance. Together, this team leads the organization in establishing, refining, interpreting and communicating the college’s mission (Vaughan & Weisman. 2003). Therefore, since presidents and trustees comprise the power structure of the institution, it is appropriate that the current study elicit board chairs’ perspectives on the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders.

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19 J. Hockaday (personal communication, Aug 2002, cited in Vaughan & Weisman, 2003), believes that presidents and trustees have the responsibility for identifying, cultivating, and educating future leaders. Hockaday also believes that presidents and boards are obligated to nurture and shape leaders. Leadership development, then, can best be defined as a local initiative supported by the local president and the college of board of trustees. Therefore, it is the purview of presidents and trustees to fill academic and administrative vacancies with the most qualified leaders as possible. To do this, the president and board should possess complementary philosophies on leadership and leadership development before they can approve campus-based leadership development programs (Vaughan & Weisman, 2003; Boggs, cited in Campbell, 2002). Leadership Competencies Required for Community College Leaders AACC’s competencies for community college leaders. As the leading advocate for U.S. community colleges the American Association of Community College organization believes that the development and availability of well-prepared community college leaders is critical for the continued success of community colleges and their students (AACC, 2005). For this reason, and in response to the impending leadership gap that is anticipated within the community college leadership ranks, the AACC and the Leading Forward initiative developed a competency framework for current and future community college leaders. The Leading Forward initiative consisted of four, one-day summits created to collect opinions related to community college leadership from experts representing various community college constituent groups. The goal of these four, one-day summits was to aggregate the views of experts and eventually develop a set of community college

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20 leadership competencies. The panel of experts consisted primarily of community college presidents and higher education academics who prepare community college leaders. The selection of these experts was based upon the premise that information should be provided by those who are most qualified to provide data concerning competencies, the activities performed, and the importance of those activities within community colleges (Vincent, 2004). The data provided by the experts addressed four topic areas related to leadership within the community college setting. These four topic areas were grouped onto worksheets and prepared ahead of time by a panel of AACC employees and consultants to guide the discussion of participating experts during the four summits. The four topic areas were: € What are the key knowledge, skills and values of an effective community college leader? € What is leadership development and what are the most effective ways for developing leaders? € Upon review of existing leadership program offerings, how well are the current programs meeting the needs? € How can a national framework be built that is comprehensive; provides real choice and distinctions between leadership development programs/curricula; and is useful to individuals, institution, and employers? (Vincent, 2004, p. 4) Leading forward participants. Prior to the summits, AACC staff created categories that represented the diverse group of stakeholders in various community college settings

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21 (see Table 1). These categories and the dates of their corresponding summit meetings were: € AACC Affiliated Councils – November 18, 2003 € College and State ‘Grow Your Own Programs’ – January 9, 2004 € University Programs – March 16, 2004 € Colleges in Underserved Areas – March 26, 2004 (Vincent, 2004) Based on these categories, more than 100 experts representing the identified community college settings from around the United States were selected by AACC. Table 1 Attendees at each AACC summit Summit Experts & AACC Staff Total Consultants AACC Affiliated 40 5 45 Councils Grow Your Own 22 7 27 Programs University Programs 32 7 39 Underserved Programs 34 7 41 Total 128 26 154 (Vincent, 2004, p. 6) Leading forward summit activities. During each of the four, one-day summits, experts were divided into groups and were asked their opinions on the four topic areas identified by AACC prior to the summits. The groups discussed these topics and documented their

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22 opinions on flip charts. At the end of each topic area discussion, each group selected a spokesperson to present their opinions to the rest of the summit participants. A summit facilitator took notes on a flip chart summarizing the content of each group’s presentation. The facilitator then led a discussion amongst the summit participants to generate observations about the opinions across the groups. In the end, a writing consultant documented themes and supportive details that were elicited by the participants throughout their group activities, presentations, and participant discussions (Vincent, 2004). Leading forward qualitative analysis. AACC then contracted with ACT, Inc to conduct a qualitative analysis of the community college leadership data collected from the Leading Forward summits. AACC provided ACT with all of the original data from each summit that included: pre-summit inventories and surveys, group flip charts, facilitator flipcharts, and the writing consultant’s journalistic summaries. ACT then analyzed the data and offered a preliminary competency model for community college leaders based upon the data provide by the four summits. The ACT preliminary competency model contained five competencies with definitions and illustrative examples. The ACT preliminary five competencies were: € Organizational Strategy, € Management, € Interpersonal, € Communication, and € Professionalism.

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23 “The primary accomplishment of this study is that a large amount of diverse opinions were collected and categorized into descriptions that were to be used to assist AACC in continuing its Leading Forward initiative” (Vincent, 2004, p. 20). ACT encouraged AACC to conduct additional analyses that would qualify and refine the data. Vincent (2004) recommended that additional work by an expert panel, a literature review, and a survey of the profession to validate the content and to prioritize this work would further refine these findings (this study proposes to do exactly what Vincent (2004) has recommended; which is to validate and help refine AACC and Leading Forward’s research findings) Vincent (2004) also notes that the results of such future studies can provide a coherent competency framework that defines what it means to be a leader within a community college, and an implementation plan that prescribes the interventions to be used to advance the development of leaders for community colleges. In keeping with the recommendations of ACT, the AACC in July 2004 designed a survey to ensure that the leadership competencies of community college leaders had been addressed at the Leading Forward summits. The survey was distributed electronically in December 2004 to all leadership summit participants and to members of the Leading Forward National Advisory Panel. The response rate for the survey was 76 percent, with 95 of the 125 surveys returned and completed. The excellent response rate was accompanied by an overwhelming 100 percent endorsement of the competencies as either “very” or “extremely” essential for the community college leader. Additionally respondents offered recommendations and suggested minor modifications which were thereafter reviewed by AACC staff and subsequently integrated into the competencies where appropriate (AACC, 2005).

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24 The survey respondents were also questioned about how well they, personally, were formally trained in the development of each competency. Furthermore, those respondents who worked for leadership development programs were asked how well their leadership program prepares participants to apply each competency. More respondents replied “minimal” or “moderate” to these two questions then when asked how essential the competencies are for effective performance as a community college leader. In other words, the data indicated that a significant percentage of community college leaders and leadership development program educators felt the integration and development of these competencies is not well established. This survey research resulted in the creation of Competencies for Community College Leaders ; a document that currently includes six, instead of five, competencies to fit more closely with the community college environment. On April 9, 2005, the AACC Board of Directors unanimously approved the Competencies for Community College Leaders framework (see Table 2), noting, “The created framework has wide utility for both individuals and institutions. It helps emerging leaders chart their personal leadership development progress. It provides program developers with curricula guidelines. Institutionally, it informs human resources departments with direction for staff recruitment, hiring, rewards, and professional development” (AACC, 2005, p.2).

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25 Table 2 AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders Organizational Strategy An effective community college leader strategically improves the quality of the institution, protects the long-term health of the organization, promotes the success of all students, and sustains the community college mission, based on knowledge of the organization, its environment, and future trends. Illustrations: € Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. € Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. € Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization; to changing demographics; and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. € Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. € Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. € Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. Resource Management An effective community college leader equitably and ethically sustains people, processes, and information as well as physical and financial assets to fulfill the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. Illustrations: € Ensure accountability in reporting. € Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases. € Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies. € Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. € Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. € Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff. € Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. € Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization. Communication An effective community college leader uses clear listening, speaking, and writing skills to engage in honest, open dialogue at all levels of the college and its surrounding community, to promote the success of all students, and to sustain the community college mission.

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26 Illustrations : € Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. € Disseminate and support policies and strategies. € Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. € Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders. € Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. Collaboration An effective community college leader develops and maintains responsive, cooperative, mutually beneficial, and ethical internal and external relationships that nurture diversity, promote the success of all students, and sustain the community college mission. Illustrations € Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. € Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good. € Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. € Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others. € Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. € Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. € Facilitate shared problem-solving and decision-making. Community College Advocacy An effective community college leader understands, commits to, and advocates for the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. Illustrations: € Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. € Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. € Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college, seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders. € Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. € Advance life-long learning and support a learner-centered and learning-centered environment. € Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings.

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27 Professionalism An effective community college leader works ethically to set high standards for self and others, continuously improve self and surroundings, demonstrate accountability to and for the institution, and ensure the long-term viability of the college and community. Illustrations: € Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. € Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. € Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal-setting, and evaluation. € Support lifelong learning for self and others. € Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. € Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility. € Understand the impact of perceptions, worldviews, and emotions on self and others. € Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. € Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge. € Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision-making. € Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication. Note. (AACC, 2005) Leadership principles associated with the competencies for community college leaders. The AACC’s Competencies for Community College Leaders framework highlights the dynamic process of leadership and is couched within two primary principles: leadership can be learned and leadership is a life-long developmental process (AACC, 2005). The assumption associated with the use of this framework is that individuals can and should expand their leadership capacities; as such, they can learn, grow, and change, and thus more effectively encourage individual and organizational effectiveness (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Leadership can be learned. “Leading is extremely important. It is hard work. Leaders do not just happen. Excellent leadership results from the combination of motivated talent, the right leadership opportunity, and appropriate preparation” (Piland & Wolf, 2003, p. 98). “Any skill, like leadership, can be strengthened, honed, and enhanced, given the motivation and desire, through practice and feedback and with good role models and

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28 coaching” (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 97). That is, by effectively integrating basic leadership principles with various teaching techniques including reflection, observations, and dialogue (Bolman & Deal, 1994) and incorporating historical “lessons learned”, most individuals are able to acquire those skills critical to their success as a leaders (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Leadership is a life-long developmental process. Leadership is both a science and an art. While one does not have to be a scholar to lead, understanding some of the research conducted in leadership can help an individual lead with a variety of perspectives. Some leaders may be effective without ever taking leadership courses or seminars, and some researchers in leadership may themselves prove to be poor leaders. However, when effective leaders were asked what they found to make a difference or lasting change in how they lead, they were clear that their development came from many kinds of experiences over many years. For example, Romero, as cited in Duree (2007), exclaims that leaders are better served to assume that leadership development is a continuous process and cannot be isolated to any one particular leadership development experience. Therefore, leaders learn from a miscellany of experiences throughout their career, such as challenging assignments, significant people, hardships, training and coursework (Douglas, 2003; McCall, Lombardo, & Morrison, 1988; Morrison, White & Van Velsor, 1987; Bolman & Deal, 1994). Benefits of competency models/frameworks. Competency models, similar to AACC’s Competencies for Community College Leaders (2005) and the others reviewed are not a panacea for problems associated with effective leadership. Rather, they are attempts to

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29 leverage the experience, lessons learned, and knowledge of experienced leaders to facilitate individual leadership development by: € Summarizing the experience and insight of seasoned leaders, € Specifying a range of useful leader behaviors, € Providing a tool that individuals can use for their self-development, and € Outlining a leadership framework that can be used to help select, develop, and understand leadership effectiveness (Hollenbeck, McCall & Silzer, 2006 p. 402). Competency models also provide organizational development by: € Openly communicating about which leader behaviors are important, € Helping to discriminate the performance of individuals, € Linking leader behaviors to the strategic directions and goals of the business, € Providing an integrative model of leadership that is relevant across many positions and leadership situations, and € Identifying the critical competencies necessary for senior leadership positions (Hollenbeck et al., 2006 p. 402-3). AACC’s competencies and the identification of critical knowledge, skills, and abilities. The AACC’s competencies framework provides current and future community college leaders with guidance about the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) essential for effective leadership within the community college. Leader effectiveness is based on interacting variables and a combination of factors such as; the situation, the leader, the followers, and the culture of an organization (Bass, 1990; Yukl, 2001).

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30 The AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders (Table 2) reflects this in that it includes knowledge, skills, and abilities that overlap and interact with one another, thereby highlighting the complexities inherent in leadership. Campbell and Sloan’s (2002) study on leadership in colleges also supports the requirement for a leader to be able to take into account the situation and organizational culture variables present in the college and the interaction between and among leaders. Therefore, it is prudent to provide a brief overview of the various interacting leadership theories embedded in the Competencies for Community College Leaders’ framework such as: € Leadership traits € Leadership behaviors and skills € Situational leadership € Transformational leadership and € Team leadership Leadership traits. The relationship between personality and leadership success has been couched in terms of individual traits; the “recurring regularities or trends in a person’s behavior” (Hogan, 1991, p. 875). According to this approach, individuals exhibit behaviors as a function of personality traits. For the current discussion, ‘personality’ can best be defined as the characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving that contributes to an individual’s uniqueness from others. It is stable over time and describes the individual’s behavior over a range of situations (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Funder, 2001). In this regard, personality traits are useful concepts for explaining the differences

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31 (and similarities) in the ways that individuals behave in various situations (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2006). Hogan and Kaiser (2005) have concluded that “(a) personality predicts leadership style (who we are determines how we lead), (b) leadership style predicts employee attitudes and team functioning, and (c) attitudes and team functioning predict organizational performance” (p. 175). Moreover, Peterson, Smith, Martorana, and Owens (2003) and Harter, Schmidt, and Hayes (2002) have concluded that the characteristics of the top management team were substantially correlated with business outcomes and employee satisfaction. It is imperative that selection committees consider personality traits in their selection criterion for community college leaders. Leadership behaviors and skill. The focus on leader behaviors and competencies is a shift from thinking about personality characteristics (usually viewed as innate and fixed) to an emphasis on skills that can be learned, developed and changed. While personality plays an important role in leadership, behavior, skills and competencies provide the knowledge and abilities needed for effective leadership (Northouse, 2004). The principle advantage of assessing leadership completely based on behavior (performance) rather than variables associated with personality is that the former, by virtue of its being more easily measured, lends itself to greater empirical scrutiny ( Hughes et al., 2006). Leadership behavior can be observed and measured, whereas personality traits, values and intelligence must be inferred from observations and tests. Situational leadership. The situational leadership paradigm is triune in nature; that is, it consists of three overlapping (interacting) components: a Leader, Follower(s) and Situation(s) in which leadership is exercised. Hersey and Blanchard (1969) developed the

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32 situational leadership approach and as the name of the approach implies, situational leadership focuses on leadership in various circumstances or situations. “The basic premise of the theory is that different situations demand different kinds of leadership. From this perspective, to be an effective leader requires that an individual adapt his or her style to the demands of different situations” (Northouse, 2004, p. 87). Situational leadership emphasizes the concept of leader flexibility (Yukl, 1989). Leaders must adapt their leadership styles to their followers’ competence and level of commitment. Using situational leadership, a leader must remember to treat each subordinate differently based on the task at hand and to seek opportunities to help subordinates learn new skills and become more confident in their work (Northouse, 2004). Transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is based on the relationship between the leader and the follower. The leader is primarily concerned with the follower’s emotions, values, ethics, standards and development. The transformational leader seeks to motivate individuals to do more than they originally intended and often even more than they thought possible (Bass & Avolio, 1990). Transformational leaders do this by assessing followers’ motives, satisfying their needs and treating them with respect as full human beings (Northouse, 2004). Transformational leadership is concerned with the performance of followers and developing them to their fullest potential (Avolio, 1999; Bass & Avolio, 1990). One goal of transformational leadership is to move followers beyond compliance to internalizing the organization’s visions, idealizing their leaders, and transcending their own selfinterests for the sake of others and the organization. The transformational leader creates a

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33 vision that emerges from the collective interests of individuals and groups within an organization. In fact, Rouche, Baker and Rose, cited in Duree (2007), concluded that “vision” was the most critical element of successful transformational leadership. Tierney (1991) through his research revealed that transformational leadership was best suited for moving higher education out of the status quo and allowing changes needed to address the more diverse student body, create greater access and embrace assessment and technology. In this regard, transformational leadership appears to be an approach that best fits the current climate within community colleges today (Roueche, et al., 1989). Principles associated with transformational leadership are embedded in the AACC competencies for community college leaders. Team leadership. It is suggested that community colleges wishing to embrace the idea of participatory leadership throughout the organization must adopt approaches that emphasize team leadership and total follower participation (Eddy, 2005). Indeed, team building and collaboration play central roles in leadership. Kouzes and Posner (2003) identify key skills and behaviors required of team or collaborative leaders. These include creating a shared vision, empowering others to act, and encouraging everyone in the organization to take a role in leadership. It is therefore not surprising that team building is mentioned throughout the higher education literature and in the AACC competencies for community college leaders. In summary, recognizing the connective aspects of leadership — traits, skills, team building, group facilitation, and working with multiple constituencies— allows a bigger picture to emerge; one which fosters the creativity necessary for the development of

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34 community college leader’s for the continued success of the community college (Hockaday & Puyear, 2000). Community College Leadership Development The need for community college leadership development programs. As stated earlier, community colleges are experiencing rapid growth, while concurrently losing significant numbers of leaders. Colleges will therefore need to select and develop their own leaders paying particular attention to succession planning, recruitment and the selection of future community college leaders (inside as well as outside of the institution) to meet the challenges of effective seamless succession (Amey et al., 2002; Campbell, 2002; Evelyn, 2001; Little, 2002; Manzo, 2003; Shults, 2001; Vaughan & Weisman, 2003; Wallin, 2002; Watts & Hammons, 2002). In the past, organizations and institutions (such as community colleges) have accepted leadership development as something that can best be fostered by personnel mobility. That is, moving individuals through job positions along various career paths in order to gain experience with the hoped-for outcome being that these individuals would be able learn those critical skills necessary to be effective at the next organizational level. As such, many academic administrators have been initially placed in senior level leadership positions with little preparation and possessing limited experience ill-preparing them for the demands at hand (Duvall, 2003). Today, however, the challenges for community college leaders are different and more complex than those of their predecessors. For example, modern leaders will require a broader set of leadership competencies to manage the diverse issues related to changing student and staff demographics, increasing competition from private-sector high-quality

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35 training providers, and blurred service boundaries as a result of distance learning (Amey, 2004). What is most revealing is that there has been a dearth of concerted, focused programs designed to foster the development of leaders-to-be, but reportedly with minimal participation and/or effectiveness in developing leaders. For example, in Duree’s (2007) research, 85% of the 415 community college presidents surveyed did not participate in any “Grow Your Own” leadership development programs prior to assuming their first presidency. Similar findings were found in a study conducted by Bain and Mabey (1999) that revealed managers spend only 4% of their time in self-development and 8% of their time developing others in their organization. It is therefore no surprise that an organized leader developmental framework for community college leaders becomes necessary to support and promote continuous effective leadership development opportunities. In 1999, the Community College Leadership Development Initiative (CCDLI) from the Western region of the United States (California, Hawaii, Guam and the Pacific Islands) undertook a study to explore this leadership development challenge. Their results suggested a strong need for specialized professional leadership development training for community college leaders. Specifically, administrators and faculty members reported that their institutions provided very little concrete support for leader training. In addition, the programs that did exist tended to be underfunded and poorly organized and just added responsibilities to those who were already overwhelmed (Romero, 2004; Wolf & Carroll, 2002). Piland and Wolf (2003) identified three main methods of providing community college leadership development (a) graduate programs at universities, (b) in-house

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36 programs, and (c) workshops. They reported that many potential leaders have had difficulty pursuing these opportunities because of the demanding nature of their positions, and at times, these programs do not mesh with the needs of individual leaders. Development programs have been attempted at both national and local levels. The former have proven costly and very selective, while the latter initiatives have been found to reflect haphazard planning and are unknown to those who could benefit from them the most (VanDerLinden, 2003; Montague 2004; Amey 2004). If these criticisms about leadership development programs are true, how then will emerging leaders be equipped to take on the enormous responsibilities inherent in community colleges today? Fortunately, there are ongoing efforts today to improve leadership development at the national, regional, state, and college level. Community college leadership development programs such as those of the League for Innovation in the Community College, the American Association of Community Colleges, Institute of Community College Development, and the National Chair Academy are just a few that are actively aligning their programs to better meet the needs of current and future community college leaders. For example, AACC’s Future Leaders Institute (FLI) is hosting their eighth leader development workshop with reported success. The FLI workshops have had over 350 participants attend in the past three years, with 14 of the participants named to a presidency. Riddell (2006) from the Institute for Community College Development (ICCD) advocates for leadership development programs to be hosted at community college campuses and/or through a statewide community college system. She believes these types

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37 of leadership development programs can specifically target an institution’s mission and strategic goals. For example, Massachusetts has all fifteen of its community colleges involved in a state-based leadership academy called the Community College Leadership Academy (CCLA), which provides a pathway for future leaders. Each community college within the state annually funds and selects two employees who have shown leadership potential to attend the monthly workshop activities, the five-day residential training and the “community college” capstone experience. This academy’s training is both experiential and didactic. In 2005, AACC conducted a formal study of college district and state level ‘growyour-own’ leadership development programs similar to CCLA and found that few such programs even exist. However, it was clear from their findings that there is a strong interest nationwide in the concept of campus and state/system-based leadership academies. There are currently 16 community college programs, two community college district programs and five state programs offering leadership development opportunities to its’ faculty and administrators (AACC, 2007a). Kim (2003) has also contributed to community college leadership development efforts with a document that provides brief descriptions of a sample of nondegree and degree leadership development programs currently offered to administrators, staff, and faculty in community college leadership. These programs are listed as national programs, regional programs, community college programs, and continuing education/degree programs offered by universities. AACC has also developed a similar online database

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38 that includes both degree and nondegree programs at universities, as well as, educational based organizations. The essential components of a co mmunity college leadership development program. The AACC defines leadership development as an investment in a process that provides individuals with opportunities and experiences that position them to be effective leaders in community colleges. This process includes identifying potential leaders and providing support and encouragement to participate in structured, on-going growth and development activities. It also recognizes that leadership development is often unstructured (AACC, 2006). It is clear that leader development is learned in many ways. Leaders can learn from self-reflection, observation and dialogue; leaders can learn from exemplary practices and experiences; and leaders can be taught (Bolman & Deal, 1994). According to Amey (2004), the objective for leader development programs must be to establish learning principles that are substantive, cognitive and inquiry-based, thereby allowing leader development to be useful across multiple settings. Developing selfawareness, working with others through collaboration, understanding organizational culture, nurturing ethical analysis and dedicating oneself to learning are just a few of the tenets essential for community college leadership development programs. AACC (2005) announced that the abilities of a leader can be improved upon through deliberate development, built from education, training, and experience. As such, AACC (2005) offers the following principles essential for leadership development:

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39 € Leadership can be learned € Many members of the community college can lead. However, the competencies required will shift in importance depending upon the level of the leader in the organization. € Leadership development programs must address a variety of overlapping theories, concepts, cases and guided experiences, and other practical information and learning methodologies. € Leadership development is a life-long process. € Leadership development can be addressed through a variety of strategies. Leadership development programs are very important, but a key element for success of any leadership development program is when community college senior leaders are active and seek out those emerging leaders within the college and engage them in meaningful ways. For example, senior leaders need to invite emerging leaders to participate in leadership tasks and involve them in processes that require working with people and external constituents. The community colleges must form supportive environments and encourage participation in programs internal and external to the college. Simply stated, the objective of leader development in community colleges is “to increase the number and quality of leaders prepared to meet present and future challenges facing the field” (Campbell, 2002; Shults, 2001; Vaughan & Weisman, 2003; Watts & Hammons, 2002). The organization’s underlying assumptions must be that people can learn, grow and change, and this learning and personal growth does enhance individual and community college effectiveness.

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40 In summary, leaders learn from experiences, but not all experiences are equally helpful in developing effective leadership competencies. A leader development program that encourages practice, challenges with job assignments that stretch the individual, and provides constructive feedback is probably more effective than a program lacking this experiential approach. A program that provides feedback and support will likely encourage emerging leaders to seek leadership opportunities and stimulate leader development. In addition, an organization that supports this type of leader development through its business strategy, its culture, and the various systems and processes within the organization will undoubtedly have prepared leaders for the challenges of tomorrow (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Conclusion. Community colleges, like many other institutions in American life, are experiencing a leadership gap as many current leaders retire. The AACC Leading Forward initiative has addressed this leadership challenge with the “ Competencies for Community College Leaders ” framework. This framework is intended to provide wide utility for both individuals and community colleges by helping emerging leaders chart their personal leadership development progress and provide program developers with curricula guidelines for leadership development. This study intends to expand on AACC Leading Forward’s initiative by soliciting the perspectives from the field of practicing community college presidents and trustee board chairpersons in an attempt to validate AACC’s findings. The next chapter will outline the design of this study.

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41 Chapter 3 Methods Introduction This quantitative research study investigated four specific objectives. The first objective was to expand earlier AACC findings by investigating how practicing community college presidents and practicing community college trustee board chairpersons rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership. The second objective was to determine whether there are differences between the practicing presidents and trustee board chairpersons on their views of the importance of the characteristics and skills. The third objective was to offer additional insights for community college presidents, boards of trustees, hiring committees and leadership development programs on the most important competencies required for community college leaders. The fourth objective of this study was to identify key experiences practicing community college presidents identified as helpful for their development of the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders (2005). In this chapter, the design, the participants of the study, the instrumentation, the data collection process and the data analysis procedures are explained. The following four questions were used to address the four objectives of this study.

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42 1. To what degree do practicing community college presidents rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership? 2. To what degree do practicing trustee board chairpersons rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership? 3. Are there significant differences between the responses of practicing presidents and board trustee chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership? 4. Which leader development experiences did the practicing community college presidents identify as the most helpful for their development of the AACC competencies for community college leaders? Research Design According to Yukl (2006), survey research with questionnaires is by far the most common method used to study leadership. It seems appropriate to use a descriptive nonexperimental survey research design to address this study’s four objectives. A descriptive research design was intended to describe or determine the “what is’ or “what exists” relative to the phenomena being investigated (Gall, Borg & Gall, 1996). Descriptive research involves obtaining, tabulating and describing collected data on the population studied. Survey research collects information about such things as subjects’ interests, beliefs, attitudes, opinions and behaviors, through questionnaires, interviews, or paperand-pencil tests. Surveys can also be used to explore relationships among variables, or

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43 used to explain relationships. In non-experimental research, the researcher attempts to describe a population in terms of one or more variables, without manipulating them (Gall, et al., 1996; Glass & Hopkins, 1984). Therefore, this study used a descriptive nonexperimental survey design to investigate the “what is or exists” as it relates to leadership competences for community college leaders. Participants Presidents and trustee board chairpersons of New York and Florida community colleges were the target population for this study. The sample was a convenience sample of volunteers who were asked to participate in the study. The sample size was 58 community college presidents and 58 community college trustee board chairpersons. These two states were selected because of the large numbers of colleges within each state, the diversity of community college sizes within the states, and the professional acquaintances within the states. To help facilitate an optimal survey return rate, this researcher contacted Dr. George Boggs, AACC President, Dr. Dennis Golladay, Vice Chancellor of the New York Community Colleges and Dr. Willis N. Holcombe, Chancellor of the Florida Community Colleges and obtained endorsement letters. Instrumentation The survey instrument used for data collection was designed based upon the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders (2005). The survey instrument used the exact wording found in the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders (2005) document with a Likert scale for respondents to indicate the degree of relative importance of each of the specific items (See appendix A and B). This Likert scale was also the same scale used in the AACC 2004 Pilot study. With respect to the internal validity of the

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44 instrument, Duree (2007) conducted a factor analysis on this survey instrument and found that the specific items loaded under the competency themes assigned in the AACC’s Competencies for Community College Leaders were valid. All factors were consistent and well-defined by the variables. There were no factors extracted. Data Collection Process This researcher submitted the appropriate materials (consent form, survey instrument, procedures used in data collection, and reporting procedures) to the University of South Florida Institution Research Board (IRB) for approval to conduct the survey before any data was collected. The data collection process consisted of (a) receiving IRB approval (IRB #106384 Appendix Q), (b) conducting an initial mailing of the survey instrument, (c) collecting and organizing survey responses, (d) sending a follow-up email and (e) reviewing the survey instruments for completeness. The researcher used the following data collection process to manage and control the quality of data collected. 1. Secured listing and mailing labels of the New York and Florida Community College presidents and trustee board chairpersons for each of the community colleges in those states. 2. Reviewed listings and mailing labels for identifying the presidents and trustee board chairpersons. 3. Assigned a code number to each of the presidents and trustee board chairpersons and placed it on the survey instrument and log sheet. The names and institutions corresponding to the code number are kept in a locked file cabinet.

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45 4. On January 25, 2008, survey packages were mailed to 30 New York community college presidents and 30 community college board chairpersons. On January 31, 2008 survey packages were mailed to 28 Florida community college presidents and 28 community college board chairpersons, for a total sample of 116. The mailed survey packages contained the survey instrument for either the president (Appendix A) or the board chairperson (Appendix B), an endorsement letter from the President of the American Association of Community Colleges (Appendix C), either the New York’s Vice Chancellor of Community Colleges endorsement letter (Appendix D) or the Florida Chancellor of Community Colleges endorsement letter (Appendix E), a letter of instruction (Appendix F), and a postage paid return envelope. All mailed packets were accounted for using the code number. The frequency count was maintained by date and non-responders were emailed a follow-up letter. 5. The returned survey instruments were reviewed for completeness. Complete responses to the survey instrument were entered into the SPSS program database. 6. By February 13, 2008, 32 survey responses were received, 20 from presidents and 12 from board chairpersons. On February 14, 2008 and February 22, 2008, this researcher contacted the remaining prospective participants by email or telephone (Appendix G) in order to gain their commitment to complete the survey instrument. No additional mailings of the survey packages were requested by those remaining prospective participants. Data Organization Upon receipt of the survey instruments, the individual responses to the 45 specific items related to the community college leader competencies were entered into SPSS

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46 variable fields and the 14 additional questions for the presidents were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. All responses were anonymous and were not attached to an individual by name or to a community college. SPSS software version 14.0 was used to analyze the data. “The SPSS software is a powerful tool that is capable of conducting just about any type of data analysis used in the social science, the natural sciences, or in the business world” (George & Mallery, 2007, p. 1). Data Analysis Plan The specific tests of differences varied based on the research questions. The types of statistical tests used were descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, standard deviation, range and correlation) and inferential statistics (independent t -tests, paired t -tests and cronbach alpha reliability coefficients). “Descriptive statistics involve tabulating, depicting, and describing sets of data. Descriptive statistics serve as a tool for describing and summarizing, and reducing to manageable forms the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data” (Glass & Hopkins, 1996, p. 2). “Inferential statistics is a formulized body of methods for solving another class of problems. This general class of problems involves attempts to infer the properties of an entire set of data from inspection of only a small sample. Thus, the purpose of inferential statistics is to find out information for a population from the characteristics of a sample of the population” (Glass & Hopkins, 1996, p. 2-3). The following research questions have been paired with appropriate statistical tests designed to answer the research question. 1. To what degree do practicing community college presidents rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as

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47 being essential for effective community college leadership? The research question was analyzed using mean, median, mode, standard deviation, range correlation, independent sample t -tests, and cronbach alpha reliability coefficients. 2. To what degree do practicing trustee board chairpersons rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership? The research question was analyzed using mean, median, mode, standard deviation, range correlation, independent sample t -tests, and cronbach alpha reliability coefficients. 3. Are there significant differences between the responses of presidents and board chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership? The research question was analyzed using mean, median, mode, standard deviation, independent sample t -tests, paired samples t -tests, and cronbach alpha reliability coefficients. 4. Which leader development experiences did the practicing community college presidents identify as the most helpful for their development as community college leaders? The research question was analyzed using mean, median, mode, frequency, standard deviation, range and correlation. Summary This chapter outlined the format that the investigator will follow to accomplish the four objectives of the study and to answer the research questions. The following chapter provides the analysis of data.

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48 Chapter 4 Results The purpose of this research was to further validate with a group of community college practitioners the competencies, characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC (2005) as important for effective community college leadership. The presidents and trustee board chairpersons in the New York and Florida community colleges were selected as a convenience sample. This study extended the work of AACC by identifying those activities and experiences that community college presidents found helpful in developing their leadership competencies. This chapter provides a summary of the quantitative analyses and the findings for the four research questions. Survey Responses A total of 59 survey instruments out of 116 were returned for an overall survey response rate of 51%, with 33 (56%) from New York and 26 (44%) from Florida. Specifically, 30 (51%) presidents and 29 (49%) trustee board chairpersons provided input, 17 (29%) were New York presidents, 13 (22%) were Florida presidents, 16 (27%) were New York trustee board chairpersons and 13 (22%) were Florida trustee board chairpersons (Table 3). The 51% of the usable response rate is within the 45-75% response rate that Isaac and Michael (1990) indicated could be expected in higher education survey research.

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49 Table 3 Surveys Returned _________________________________________________ Participants N Percent _________________________________________________ Presidents 30 51% New York Presidents 17 29% Florida Presidents 13 22% Board Chairpersons 29 49% New York Board Chairpersons 16 27% Florida Board Chairpersons 13 22% Total 59 __________________________________________________ Survey Participants’ Demographic Information As presented in Table 4, the data reveal that the 53 survey respondents consisted of 39 males (74%) and 14 females (26%). Six (10%) participants did not record their gender. In terms of gender by position, there were 24 (80%) male presidents 6 (20%) female presidents, 21 (72%) male trustee board chairpersons and 8 (28%) female trustee board chairpersons.

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50 Table 4 Participants’ Demographic Information (Gender and Age) _____________________________________________________________ Personal Demographic Variable N _____________________________________________________________ Gender 53 Male 39 74% Female 14 26% Age 51 Presidents 25 (M = 61, SD = 8.3) Board Chairperson 26 (M = 62, SD = 7.7 ) _____________________________________________________________ Also shown in Table 4 are the ages of the presidents and trustee board chairpersons. The presidents’ ages ranged from 39 to 72 years old and the trustee board chairpersons’ ages ranged from 48 to 77 years old. The mean age for presidents was 61 and the mean age for trustee board chairpersons was 62. Five presidents and three trustee board chairpersons did not record their age. In Table 5, 26 (90%) of the presidents indicated that they have doctoral degrees as their highest degree, followed by three (10%) with master degrees as their highest degree and none (0%) with bachelor degrees as their highest degree. One president did not record his/her highest degree.

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51 Table 5 Presidents’ Demographic Information (Highest Education Level and Degree Type) _________________________________________________ Highest Level of Education N Percent _________________________________________________ Doctoral Degree 26 90% Master’s Degree 3 10% Bachelor’s Degree 0 0% Total 29 __________________________________________________ As shown in Table 6, the data for presidents’ previous careers show that the majority of presidents surveyed had always had a career in higher education (77%), with just a minority having experience in other fields. One president did not record his or her previous career. Table 6 Presidents’ Demographic Information (Previous Career) _________________________________________________ Previous Career N Percent _________________________________________________ Always Higher Ed. 22 77% Business 3 10% Health Care 2 7% Military 1 3% Government 1 3% Total 29 __________________________________________________

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52 Discussion of Research Questions AACC identified six competency areas, each with specific items which were used to more completely describe the components of each competency area. These specific items were used to create a Likert-type scale that would solicit the respondents’ rating of the importance of the item to effective community college leadership. The Likert-type scale offered respondents the opportunity to rate the specific items from 1 ( “not important”) to 5 (“extremely important”). In addition, the presidents were asked to provide information on whether a list of experiences helped to develop a competency area. Research Question One The first research question asked: “To what degree do practicing community college presidents rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership?” Descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation and standard error, along with independent sample t-tests and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses were used to investigate this question. The presidents’ mean scores for the core competencies, from highest to lowest, were Organizational Strategy -4.5, Community College Advocacy -4.5, Communication -4.5, Professionalism -4.4, Collaboration -4.3, and Resource Management -4.3 (Table 7).

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53 Table 7 Mean Score of Importance for Each Comm unity College Leader Competency by the Presidents Competency N Mean Std.Dev Std. Error Organizational Strategy 30 4.5 .31 .06 Community College Advocacy 30 4.5 .37 .07 Communication 30 4.5 .38 .07 Professionalism 30 4.4 .40 .07 Collaboration 30 4.3 .42 .08 Resource Management 30 4.3 .36 .07 ________________________________________________________________________ In addition to the presidents’ consistently high ratings regarding the value of these six competencies, the Cronbach alpha reliability measures for each of the six competencies ranged from .65 to .83. Since the Cronbach alpha is a measure of internal consistency, these alphas indicate that the Specific Items (SIs) within the competency are generally measuring the same construct. Cronbach alpha values have no set interpretation as to what is an acceptable value, but a rule of thumb that applies to most situations is for the value to be a .7 or higher to be acceptable (George & Mallery, 2007). Thus, for four competency areas, the presidents’ ratings supported the specific clustering of SIs within the competencies areas. However, this was not as true for Resource Management with an alpha of .67 and Organizational Strategy with an alpha of .65. Although slightly lower

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54 than desired, the scales approximate an acceptable degree of integrity and coherence. The specific coefficients are reported in Appendix J. To further examine this data, an independent samples t -test was used to investigate the mean differences between New York and Florida presidents. This investigation revealed considerable similarity between presidents from New York and Florida on five of the six competencies (no significant differences), but did identify a significant difference on the Organizational Strategy competency ( t (28)=-2.72; p .01). Florida presidents rated the Organizational Strategy competency higher ( M = 4.7, SD = .26) than the New York presidents ( M = 4.4, SD = .30). Although this difference is statistically significant, the overall difference score between means is relatively small. This indicates that the overall competency is still very important to both groups, but that presidents from Florida place slightly more value on this particular capacity. These state by state presidents’ mean differences are listed in Appendix K. To better understand the significant difference between the responses of New York and Florida presidents, an independent samples t -test was used to identify specific items within the Organizational Strategy competency which might be contributing to the difference for the competency. The independent samples t -test revealed that the significant difference was found in two of the six specific items. SI1 ( t (28)=-2.23; p .03) “Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization” and SI3 ( t (28)=2.34; p .02) “Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community” were statistically different between the

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55 groups of presidents from each state. Consistent with this analysis, Florida presidents rated specific item one and three, higher in importance (M = 4.9, SD = .38; M = 4.5, SD = .52), than New York presidents (M = 4.4, SD = .62; M = 3.9, SD = .66). The Organizational Strategy competency specific item mean comparisons are located in Appendix L. Additionally, there are state by state SI mean differences as rated by the presidents that are not statistically significant, but reveal some noteworthy findings (Appendix H). Two themes emerged in examining those SIs that had notably different mean scores between New York and Florida presidents. One theme involved institutional development with emphases on strategic and systems perspectives, development, advancement, and support (e.g. Resource Management SI6, Communication SI2, and Professionalism SI3 and SI11). The second theme was based on items addressing diversity and culture (e.g. Collaboration SI2 and Professionalism SI2). Interestingly, these themes moderately align with the Organizational Strategy competency’s SIs 1 and 3 identified earlier as statistically significant. Presidents from Florida generated higher SI averages on both themes than did New York presidents. This focused analysis suggests there are some specific issues that contribute to state by state variation in ratings of importance. The presidents were also asked if they would like to add other important competencies not mentioned in the list of Competencies for Community College Leaders. Seven presidents (23%) responded to this question with suggested competencies that are listed in Appendix P. The responses were most helpful in that they offered skills not included in the six AACC competencies. For example, employing the term “inclusivity” offers a more interpersonal level of collaborating that further demonstrates the Collaboration

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56 competency. Similarly, “fundraising strategies” and “technology” expand Organizational Strategy, “political sensitivity” and “negotiation” provide specific skills absent from Collaboration, “ethics” and “character-based competencies such as courage, strength and wisdom” further describe Professionalism, and “legal skills” align perfectly under Organizational Strategy. Research Question Two The second research question was: “To what degree do practicing community college trustee board chairpersons rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership?” As with the data from the presidents, descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation and standard error, along with independent sample t-tests and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses were used to investigate this question. Board chairpersons in this study were asked to complete the same instrument, but with a different title and without a request to identify how various experiences helped develop the competencies. The trustee board chairpersons mean scores for the core competencies from highest to lowest were Professionalism--4.5, Communication--4.5, Organizational Strategy--4.4, Community College Advocacy--4.3, Resource Management--4.3, and Collaboration--4.3. (Table 8).

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57 Table 8 Mean Score of Importance for Each Community College Leader Competency by the Board Chairpersons Competency N M SD Std. Error Professionalism 29 4.5 .43 .08 Communication 29 4.5 .47 .09 Community College Advocacy 29 4.4 .46 .09 Organizational Strategy 29 4.4 .43 .08 Resource Management 29 4.3 .45 .08 Collaboration 29 4.3 .49 .09 In addition to the trustee board chairpersons’ consistently high rating regarding the value of the six competencies, the Cronbach alphas for each competency they rated ranged from .70 to .80. As previously addressed, .70 is generally agreed upon as an acceptable value for Cronbach alpha levels (George & Mallery, 2007). Given these acceptable reliability coefficients, the SIs relate to their associated competency are generally measuring the same construct. The specific coefficients are reported in Appendix J. Further analysis using an independent samples t -test to analyze the mean differences between New York and Florida trustee board chairpersons revealed no statistically significant differences between these groups. Unlike the presidents, the trustee board chairpersons from New York and Florida were consistent in their ratings of the

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58 importance of the competencies. The comparison of Florida and New York trustee board chairpersons mean differences are listed in Appendix M. As was the case with the presidents, there are state by state SI mean differences as rated by the trustee board chairpersons that are not statistically significant, but reveal interesting findings (Appendix I). For example, the trustee board chairpersons’ state by state differences suggested a different theme, one related to leader interpersonal skills such as “developing teams (Organizational Strategy SI4), cultural competence (Resource Management SI6), authenticity (Professionalism SI1), managing stress (Professionalism SI5), and using power wisely” (Professionalism SI9). Chairpersons from Florida rated these skills higher than chairs from New York. The trustee board chairpersons were also asked if they would like to offer any other important competencies that were not mentioned in the list of Competencies for Community College Leaders. Five chairpersons (17%) responded to this question with suggested competencies that are listed in Appendix P. As with the presidents, the trustee board chairpersons proposed competencies may enhance the existing competencies; that is, the respondents submitted competencies may better define those listed by AACC. For example, “business and institutional acumen” are skills that can further define Organizational Strategy, “fundraising” may offer a distinct type of Organizational Strategy, “strength to stand up to political pressure” can provide a critical skill characterizing Professionalism, “communication with sponsors” is an ability missing from Collaboration, and “respect employees from the janitor to the vice presidents” further defines Professionalism. In addition to these enhancements, both presidents and

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59 trustee board chairpersons recommended “fund raising” which may require its’ own SI within the Organizational Strategy competency. Research Question Three This research question asked: “Are there significant differences between the responses of presidents and trustee board chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership?” Descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation, and standard error were used to investigate this question. In addition, independent samples t -tests and paired samples t -tests were used to analyze the mean differences between presidents and trustee board chairpersons. The independent samples t -test was used to compare differences between independent groups (i.e., presidents and trustee board chairpersons), while the paired samples t -test was used to further explore this mean difference between pairs of leaders (i.e., presidents and trustee board chairpersons from the same college). This paired samples t -test looked at the group effect with an interest in knowing whether presidents and trustee board chairpersons within institutions evaluate the importance of the competencies the same way as the aggregate independent samples. Table 9 presents the independent samples t -test results, which indicate no statistically significant differences between the means of presidents and trustee board chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership. Specifically, the independent samples t -test results for each core competency respectively are Organizational Strategy-t (57)=1.68; p =.10, Resource Management-t (57)=-.011; p =.99, Communication--

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60 t (57)=.66; p =.51,Collaboration-t (57)=.451; p =.65, Community College Advocacy-t (57)=.242; p =.81, and Professionalism-t (57)=.052; p =.96. Table 9 Mean Differences for Each Core Commun ity College Leader Competency by the Participating Presidents and Board Chairpersons Competency N t df p Effect Power Size Organizational Strategy 59 1.68 57 .10 .05 .40 Resource 59 -.011 57 .99 .00 .05 Communication 59 .663 57 .51 .00 .10 Collaboration 59 .451 57 .65 .00 .07 Community College Advocacy 59 .242 57 .81 .00 .06 Professionalism 59 .052 57 .95 .00 .05 Statistically significant difference in means at p<.05 In Table 9, the effect sizes and power statistics are low for the independent samples ttests. The assumption is that one might want to increase the sample size in order to increase the power statistic, but given that the effect sizes are small it is unlikely that an increase in sample size would make any significantly measurable distinction between the mean differences in these sample populations. Table 10 presents the paired mean differences for each core community college leader competency by paired presidents with board chairpersons from the same college. The paired samples t -test indicated no statistically significant differences between the means of paired presidents and trustee board chairpersons on the relative importance of the

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61 characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership. Specifically, the paired samples t -test for each core competency respectively are Organizational Strategy-t (17)=.54; p =.60, Resource Management-t (17)=-.98; p =.34, Communication-t (17)=-.49; p =.63,Collaboration-t (17)=-.24; p =81, Community College Advocacy-t (17)=.13; p =.90, and Professionalism-t (17)=-.72; p =.48. Table 10 Mean Differences for Each Core Community College Leader Competency by Paired Participating Presidents and Board Chairpersons from the Same College Competency N t df p Effect Power Size Organizational Strategy 18 .54 17 .60 .02 .08 Resource Management 18 -.98 17 .34 .05 .15 Communication 18 -.49 17 .63 .01 .08 Collaboration 18 -.24 17 .81 .00 .06 Community College Advocacy 18 .13 17 .90 .00 .05 Professionalism 18 -.72 17 .48 .03 .10 Statistically significant difference in means at p<.05 In Table 10, as in Table 9, the effect sizes and power statistics are low for the paired samples t-tests. Therefore, it is unlikely that an increase in sample size for the paired samples would make any significantly measurable distinction between the mean differences in these sample populations.

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62 Research Question Four The final research question asked: “Which leader development experiences did the community college presidents identify as the most helpful for their development as community college leaders?” Descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, standard deviation and standard error were used to investigate this question. In Table 11, the leader development experiences for each core competency Organizational Strategy (OS), Resource Management (RM), Communication (COMM), Collaboration (COLL), Community College Advocacy (CCADV) and Professionalism (PROF) are illustrated with frequency scores and totals.

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63 Table 11 Frequency Scores for Each Leader Development Experience Participating Presidents (N=30) Felt Contributed to their Development of Each Core Community College Leader Competency Leader Development Competencies Experiences (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) OS RM COMM COLL CCADV PROF TOTAL 1. Graduate Programs 15 12 14 5 10 15 71 2. In-House Programs 3 3 9 6 1 4 26 3. Workshops 13 8 11 9 12 15 68 4. Challenging Job 18 13 18 17 4 1 0 80 Assignments 5. Hardships 11 13 16 11 2 9 62 6. Feedback 6 3 21 14 2 9 55 7. Mentor/Coaching 10 8 12 11 10 15 66 8. Personal-Reflection 6 2 13 4 4 11 40 9. Networking 9 5 16 17 13 12 72 10. Progressive Job 18 15 16 17 10 14 90 Responsibilities 11. Business Experience 4 5 4 2 0 3 18 12. Military Experience 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13. Government Experience 3 3 3 3 0 3 15 Total 116 90 153 116 68 120 The survey data in Table 11 summarize the presidents’ identification of those experiences they thought helped contribute to their development of the six competencies

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64 investigated in this study. Analysis of the Leader Development Experiences provides some interesting insights for leadership development. Analysis of total frequencies of Leadership Development Experiences: In reviewing the data in Table 11, it was clear there were some leadership development experiences that were cited more frequently as being helpful in developing the six competencies investigated in this study. The five most frequently selected leadership development experiences were, in rank order: progressive job responsibilities (90), challenging job assignments (80), networking (72), graduate programs (71), and workshops (68). It seems clear that on-the-job-experience that is challenging and progressively more responsible is perceived to be valuable for leadership development. Graduate programs and workshops seem to confirm the value of more didactic and theoretical experiences for developing leadership competency. The tabulations of three leadership development experiences that were noticeably lower than the others are: military experience (0), government experience (15), and business experience (18). This finding isn’t especially surprising given the few presidents who actually had work related experience in these different sectors. Only one president reported a military background and only four of the presidents had business and government experience that might have contributed to their leadership development competencies. Analysis of total frequencies of Leadership Development Experiences by leadership competency The data in Table 11 also highlight the number of experiences that helped develop each specific competency. These ratings offer interesting findings. For example, the Communication competency indicates that presidents reported a very large number of

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65 developmental experiences (153 responses, column 3 total) that helped them shape these skills. In contrast, the Community College Advocacy competency reveals far fewer developmental experiences (68 responses, column 5 total) that helped them develop capacity for this competency. While the Organizational Strategy and Collaboration competencies share an equal number of developmental experiences (116 responses), but with a completely different collection of specific experiences. The Communication (153 responses) and Professionalism (120 responses) competencies are broad and relevant to most experiences and perhaps this is why they have the highest frequency of helpful experiences. Whereas, the Community College Advocacy (68 responses) competency has the lowest frequency of helpful experiences because it appears to be more narrow in scope across most experiences. Ironically, Community College Advocacy competency was ranked the most important competency overall by presidents and trustee board chairpersons (Appendix N). Analysis of the specific Leadership Development Experiences that were cited most frequently for helping develop each leadership competency The data in Table 11 specifically highlight those leader development experiences that were identified as helpful in developing each AACC competency. However, not all competencies are equally developed by the same experiences. There is no single experience that helps to develop all of the presidents’ competencies and it appears that some competencies have fewer developmental experiences (e.g., Community College Advocacy is most strongly affected by networking while Communication is affected by feedback). In summary, the

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66 following list provides a review of the top three developmental experiences for each AACC competency: € Progressive job responsibilities, challenging job assignments, and graduate degree programs helped develop the Organizational Strategy competency. € Progressive job responsibilities, challenging job assignments, and networking with colleagues helped develop the Resource Management competency. € Feedback, challenging job assignments, and hardships helped develop the Communication competency. € Progressive job responsibilities, challenging job assignments, and feedback helped develop the Collaboration competency. € Networking with colleagues, mentoring/coaching and sponsored workshops helped develop the Community College Advocacy competency. € Mentors/coaches, graduate programs, and progressive job responsibilities helped develop the Professionalism competency. Additional analyses The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the entire survey’s six core competencies completed by the presidents was .94, by the trustee board chairpersons was .96, and for the overall entire survey instrument’s six core competencies was .95. These results indicate that the survey instrument’s measure of internal consistency and reliability for all of the specific items within the six core competencies for community college presidents, trustee board chairpersons, and overall was excellent The Cronbach coefficient alpha scores are listed in Appendix O. These findings are consistent with a recent study by Duree (2007) who found these same AACC core competencies and their

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67 specific items all to be consistent and reliable measures of the construct with the lowest Cronbach alpha coefficients .73 and the highest .97. This chapter provided a summary of the quantitative analysis utilized to respond to the four research questions and the results. Chapter 5 will offer a summary of the findings, implications for practice, limitations, implications for future research and a conclusion.

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68 Chapter 5 Summary This chapter provides a summary of the research study which includes the purpose, findings, implications for practice, limitations, implications for future research and conclusion. Summary of the Research Study Shults (2001) expressed a concern that community college presidents and senior leaders were retiring at an alarming rate and he predicted there would be a void in experienced leadership. Boggs cited in Campbell (2002), stated that if community colleges are to meet this leadership turnover successfully they will need to pay particular attention to leadership development. Echoing this view, Amey et al. (2002) assert that there is much work to be done in preparing the younger generations of community college leaders with skills and competencies necessary to meet this leadership challenge. Collectively, these views and work by Patton (2004) suggest there will be difficulty in filling the near-term vacancies of community college leaders and also filling these positions with leaders who have traditional backgrounds and experiences in community college leadership. Although change is needed to prepare and provide community colleges with capable and effective leaders (Amey et al., 2002), there hasn’t been any further clarification or additional validation of the six essential leadership competencies

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69 and characteristics identified by the AACC 2004 Pilot Study (Vincent, 2004) needed to assist those who are preparing for leadership in community colleges. Purpose There were two primary purposes addressed in this study. First, in an attempt to further validate the AACC competencies, current presidents and trustee board chairpersons from the states of New York and Florida were asked to rate the importance of the AACC (2005) characteristics and professional skills for effective community college leadership. Second, this study sought to identify those experiences and practices that community college presidents reported as helpful to their development of the six AACC leadership competencies. Summary of Findings The results of this study provide support for the value of the six AACC competencies and offer important insights into the specific experiences that contributed to the development of these competencies for community college presidents. The four research questions are presented with a summary of findings. Research Question One To what degree do practicing community college presidents rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership? There was consensus among New York and Florida community college presidents that all six competencies identified by AACC are important for the success of community college leaders. These six competencies were rated as “very” or “extremely” important by each of the presidents. This is consistent with Duree’s (2007) work where he also found all six AACC competencies were rated as important or very important by the 415

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70 community college presidents in his sample. Further, there was very little variation between these competencies in terms of their importance. This finding is particularly interesting since there are dimensions of the presidents’ jobs in these two states that are quite different. In Florida, there is no local funding, so little time has to be spent wooing local county legislators for support and funding. In New York, presidents spend considerable time gaining budget support from local county leaders for budgets and capital projects. So, although the job responsibilities are similar, there are some additional “political considerations” in which New York presidents must engage. So it would seem there are a general set of competencies which are important across at least two state systems and contexts. This lends credence to AACC’s attempt to identify a set of competencies which would have wide applicability. Although there was general agreement on the competencies, there was some variation between New York and Florida presidents on the importance of the Organizational Strategy competency. The results indicate that this difference is with respect to two specific issues, the requirement to “Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization” and the requirement to “Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community.” For these items, a small, but significant difference in importance between the presidents was found, with Florida rating these slightly higher. This specific difference was not initially predicted, but may be worth considering in future research.

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71 In a related study, Duree (2007) also found that presidents agreed on the importance of the organizational strategy competency, but ironically they were least prepared in skills necessary to meet the challenges inherit in this competency. “For example, approximately one out of four presidents did not rate themselves prepared or well-prepared in maintaining and growing college personnel, fiscal resources and assets, or using a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of their communities” (Duree, 2007, p. 118). Seven presidents offered additional competencies for consideration beyond the six AACC competencies. These presidents suggested competencies such as “inclusivity instead of collaboration”, “fundraising”, “technology”, “political sensitivity”, “negotiation skills”, “ethics”, “character based competencies such as courage, strength and wisdom” and “legal skills.” In subsequent research, it would be useful to determine whether adding some of these additional competencies would more fully describe the array of skills and competencies that presidents see as important for success for community college leaders. Research Question Two To what degree do practicing trustee board chairpersons rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leadership? It is notable that the findings for board chairpersons parallel the findings for the presidents. As was the case for presidents, the most significant finding for question two was that there is agreement between New York and Florida community college trustee board chairpersons on the six established AACC competencies. Again, all six

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72 competencies were rated as “very” or “extremely” important by the trustee board chairpersons from both states. Additional analyses of the trustee board chairpersons’ responses by state also revealed that the board chairpersons were in agreement on the importance of each of the competencies and 40 of the 45 specific items under each competency. However, the differences for these five specific items were not statistically significant. The theme that emerged from these few differences was related to leader interpersonal skills (“developing teams”, “cultural competence”, “authenticity”, “managing stress”, and “using power wisely”) with chairpersons in Florida rating these skills higher than their counterparts from New York. These results may indicate that the trustee board chairpersons in both states have high expectations of their community college leaders and are in apparent agreement about what they expect from their leaders. This is important because their understanding of the critical community college leader competencies is vital for their informed support of successful leadership of the colleges, succession planning, and leadership development programs (Nasworthy, 2002). Like the presidents, the trustee board chairpersons offered additional competencies they felt were important to effective community college leadership. Similar to those offered by the presidents, all but one of the trustee board chairpersons’ submissions appears to be similar to existing competencies and specific items. Their proposed competencies such as “institutional acumen”, “fundraising”, “strength to stand up to political pressure”, “communication with sponsors”, and “respect employees from the janitor to the vice president” can expand existing specific items with the exception of

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73 “fund raising”. “Fundraising” appears to be different than other items on the survey and may require an additional item under Organizational Strategy to capture this competency. This is important since “fundraising” has been cited in the literature as the number one challenge confronting community college leaders in the new millennium (Duree, 2007; Amey & VanDerLinden, 2002;Vaughan & Weisman, 1989). Research Question Three Are there significant differences between the responses of practicing presidents and trustee board chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by AACC as being essential for community college leadership? A critical finding pertaining to this question was the absence of significant differences between the presidents and the trustee board chairpersons on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills regarded as essential for community college leadership. Whether examined independently at the group level or in direct pairings between presidents and trustee board chairpersons within the same community college, there were no significant differences in their ratings for each competency. The fact that there were no differences at the aggregate and paired sample level between these leaders suggests a very high degree of agreement on these critical competencies. The presidents and trustee board chairpersons both rated the relative importance of the AACC competencies for community college leadership as “very” to “extremely” important for community college leaders. This supports the AACC 2004 Pilot Study findings where 100 percent of their survey’s 95 respondents were in agreement on the competencies and also rated the competencies as either “very” or “extremely” essential for the community college leader (Vincent, 2004).

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74 This commonality among presidents and board chairpersons is extremely important for community college leadership, because “The team”, the president and board of trustees, play a significant role in establishing, refining, interpreting and communicating the college’s mission and future (Nasworthy, 2002). At the organizational level, the president and board members are the vital element in the strategic leadership process responsible for providing organizational direction and for supporting organizational leadership effectiveness (Senge, 1990). Together they create the synergy and cohesion in the college and represent the confluence of information, much more so than any single individual (Hughes & Beatty, 2005). Hence, it is comforting to know that the president and trustee board chairpersons possess shared leadership philosophies with respect to the AACC competencies, and this overlapping perspective supports an institutional alignment critical for the success of their respective college. However, it must also be acknowledged that there can be agreement about the importance of competencies by the leadership team and differing opinions about how effectively the president is actually demonstrating the competencies. Research Question Four Which leader development experiences did the practicing community college presidents identify as the most helpful for their development of the AACC competencies for community college leaders? The responses of the presidents on the leadership development experiences survey provide important insight into the presidents’ leadership development journeys. It appears that some leadership development experiences are important in developing many different competencies. For example, the presidents reported that, “progressive job responsibilities”, were useful in developing their leadership competencies in all six

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75 AACC competencies. When examining patterns of leadership development experiences, it is not too surprising that many of the activities currently embedded in leadership development programs are identified by presidents as important to the development of their leadership competencies. Similarly, certain pairs of experiences such as “mentoring “and “graduate programs”, “networking” and “progressive job responsibilities” and “hardships” and “workshops” were identified as being helpful in developing the six major competencies described in the AACC research. Furthermore, a second pattern from this study’s findings reveals that there are particular types of experiences that were helpful in developing specific competencies. That is, in addition to some experiences providing generalized development, there were more focused leadership activities, like “networking” or “workshops” that supported the development of competencies like the “community college advocacy” competency. Another important finding regarding developmental experiences is that the “communication” competency was seen as being developed by many different experiences. This finding is not surprising considering that leadership is inherently interpersonal and relational, which means there are multiple opportunities to develop this competency (Day, 2000). Similarly, the “professionalism” competency (e.g., works with others, understands others, is highly visible) was also reported to have been developed by a variety of experiences, which directly relates to many of the functions of a community college president involving a significant amount of interpersonal interaction, persuasion and coordination (Zacarro, 2001). Interestingly, this study’s findings revealed more leadership developmental experiences from on-the-job (e.g., progressive job assignments, challenging assignments,

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76 and networking with colleagues) than from the training experiences that occurred away from work (e.g., training, seminars). This is consistent with the literature, as “job assignments are one of the oldest and most potent forms of leader development. They give leaders the opportunity to learn by doing—by working on real problems and dilemmas” (McCauley & VanVelsor, 2004, p.152). Day (2000) also categorized these onthe-job type experiences as crucial in helping leaders learn about building teams, how to be better strategic thinkers and how to gain valuable persuasion and influence skills. Finally, it is interesting to note the competency that was rated highest in importance by presidents and trustees, Community College Advocacy, was developed by the fewest number of experiences. It is somewhat paradoxical that the highest rated competency had a limited set of experiences to help support its development. This suggests that general experiences are less likely to contribute to the skill sets involved in some competencies which implies that these abilities may need to be specifically targeted for development. An important conclusion to draw from this data is that various experiences contribute differently to the development of key community college leadership competencies, some apparently more relevant to certain competencies than others. Although the research findings for research question four are based on retrospective accounts and are therefore subject to the biases associated with memories, the presidents’ reports are noteworthy in that their conclusions are drawn from actual personal experiences related to their position as president. Implications for Practice The results of this study offer two comprehensive implications for practice for community college administrators, senior leaders, boards of trustees, hiring committees,

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77 and leadership development programmers to address the looming community college leadership crisis (Shults, 2001). These implications for practice are: € Use of the validated AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders framework as a template for hiring future community college leaders. € Design or improve a “Grow Your Own” leadership development program using the leader development experiences that have been identified in this study by current presidents as helpful in developing the six AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders. Use of the validated AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders framework as a template for hiring future community college leaders Since community college presidents and chairpersons strongly agree that the six AACC competencies are all extremely important for effective leadership, these same competencies can be used to guide the selection process for community college leaders. The use of such a competency model has precedence, as Hughes, Ginnet, and Curphy (2006) have shown that having a clearly defined competency model and a structured interview process with questions linked to the model will do a good job of improving the odds of hiring good leaders. This process is particularly critical since the “war for talent” is great; that is to say, it is important for community colleges to rise to the challenge in managing a certain and worrisome future—one in which 45% of community college presidents will have retired by 2012 (Shults, 2001). So how can a community college hiring committee go about selecting the right person to lead within the college? How can they determine how many of these competencies the candidates possess? And even more important, how can they reliably know how well

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78 these competencies are developed in each candidate? Given the inherent challenges in selecting the “right leader”, a written assignment and a structured interview with a common set of questions and rating scales, based on the AACC competencies for community college leaders would provide an excellent foundation. Based on this study’s results, the AACC competency model is the right template to use for screening, interviewing and selecting future community college leaders. The competency framework can be used to structure a written response from the candidates and an interview with questions that ask them to describe situations and/or experiences related to the community college leader competencies. To ensure that the candidates truly have the “right stuff”, a broad set of questions can be used to evaluate how fully these candidates have developed all of the desired competencies. Thus, some of the structured interview questions might include: 1. Describe some of your challenging job assignments? What did you do and what was the outcome of those behaviors? What has been your progression in job assignments? The answers to these questions can address all of the AACC competencies, because the data from this study shows that challenging job assignments and progressive job responsibilities contribute to the development of all AACC competencies. 2. Describe some of the networking you have been involved with inside and outside of your current organization? What types of feedback have you received from others? How have you used this feedback to guide your actions? The answers to these questions reveal the degree of development of the Communication and Collaboration competencies.

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79 3. What conferences and/or workshops have you attended in the past three years? What did you get out of them? How much mentoring/coaching have you had in your career? The answers to these questions can address all of the AACC competencies, because the data shows that workshops and mentoring/coaching contribute to some degree to the development of all AACC competencies. These types of structured questions can offer a comprehensive and focused interview that can more accurately assess the candidate’s level of competence. This particular set of questions also informs the selection committee about how the candidates used and developed all six of the competencies. Further, a written product and a structured interview around these experiences and competencies allow hiring boards to make direct comparisons of all applicants. This approach is much more comprehensive and valid in assessing candidates’ competencies than specifically asking about a particular competency. Inquiries about a candidate’s communication skills can be useful, but is less likely to provide the same kind of behavioral data obtained by asking about their developmental experiences. Candidates are likely to endorse their communication skills without necessarily providing specific examples of how they have used or developed such competencies. This intentional process for selecting and hiring future community college presidents is a useful strategy for managing the concern raised by Patton (2004), that there will be great difficulty in filling near-term vacancies of community college leaders. Design or improve a “Grow Your Own” le adership development program using the leader development experiences that have been identified in this study by current

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80 presidents as helpful in developing the si x AACC Competencies fo r Community College Leaders. The AACC 2004 Pilot study data revealed that the existing leadership development programs “minimally” to “moderately” prepared participants to apply the six AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders and discovered a significant discrepancy between the need for the competencies, the level of preparation of the competencies, and the delivery method for the development of the competencies (Vincent, 2004). This study’s findings can help address this discrepancy by offering “Grow Your Own” programs the leadership development experiences reported by community college presidents as helpful in acquiring the six AACC competencies. The results of this study can also help construct a leadership development program that clearly supports the commonly identified need to pay particular attention to the leadership development of community college leaders (Amey et al., 2002; Campbell, 2002; Evelyn, 2001; Little, 2002; Manzo, 2003; Shults, 2001; Vaughan & Weisman, 2003; Wallin, 2002; Watts & Hammons, 2002). Interestingly, this study’s findings related to leadership developmental experiences parallels Day’s (2000) literature review regarding leadership development. Day’s research found the same essential components for leadership development programs in most organizations such as feedback, networking with colleagues, mentoring/coaching, and action learning (progressive job responsibilities, challenging job assignments, personal reflection/journaling, and hardships). According to Day (2000), these leadership development processes are primarily utilized to enhance human capital and emphasize the creation of social capital in organizations. Human capital is where the focus of

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81 leadership development is on developing individual knowledge, skills and abilities (intrapersonal capacities). Social capital is defined by the emphasis on building networked relationship among individuals that enhance cooperation and resource exchange in creating organizational value (interpersonal capacities). Similar to Day, Wolf and Carroll, cited in Duree (2007), also identify two similar components for effective leadership: an inward element to the leader’s personality and values (i.e., human capital) and an outward element to the institutional environment (i.e., social capital). Consequently, the primary emphasis in leadership development is on both intrapersonal and interpersonal competence in a social context. “Grow Your Own” Leadership Development Practices. The following leadership development practices are offered to community college “Grow Your Own” leadership development programs to specifically develop the six validated AACC competencies. These practices can be employed in the context of ongoing work in the community college environment. Each section contains a brief overview of the practice, how it can be used for development, and the AACC competencies that it addresses. These practices are also intended to improve performance, facilitate college socialization, and/or enhance productivity. Networking With Colleagues. Networking’s primary emphasis is on building support through relationships. This support is beneficial to professional and personal development because it fosters peer and other relationships in work settings (Day, 2000). An important goal of networking is to develop leaders beyond merely “knowing what and knowing how”, to “knowing who” in terms of problem solving resources. This capacity is exactly the kind of skill required of community college leaders, particularly in terms of

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82 Community College Advocacy. In support of this idea, Duree’s (2007) found that 75% of the community college president respondents cited networking with coworkers as very important. More specifically, 54% of the respondents rated social networks as important or very important and 52% rated business networks as important or very important. Hence, effective community college leaders must network within their college, but must also reach beyond the boundaries of their campus in forging relations with the community. For example, presidents regularly represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings. Thus, networking is a crucial capacity for leaders in general, but a particularly important skill for community college presidents. Feedback (Supervisor, Peers, Subordinates, and Others) The leadership development literature lauds the value of feedback, with particular emphasis on 360-degree feedback as the ideal type (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Feedback from peers, direct reports, supervisors and occasionally external stakeholders provides a more complete and accurate picture of an individual’s performance and can be obtained and used for developmental purposes. As we know, a leader’s performance varies across contexts and some leaders behave differently with different constituents. This type of feedback directly acknowledges differences across sources in the opportunity to observe various aspects of an individual’s performance. Any feedback a leader receives has the potential to develop intrapersonal competence, but it can clearly be an aid to interpersonal competence as well (Day, 2000). The findings from community college presidents in this study support the value of feedback. Although this research did not specifically identify 360-degree

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83 feedback processes, these feedback recipients clearly rated feedback as valuable to their development of the competencies of Communication and Collaboration. Mentoring There are both formal mentoring and informal mentoring relationships. Formal, planned mentoring programs are assigned, maintained and monitored by the organization. Most formal mentoring programs pair a junior manager with a more senior executive outside of his or her direct reporting line (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). On the other hand, there is also informal mentoring which is usually encouraged by the organization, but not officially administered or initiated by it. Individuals will seek out, on their own, someone they feel will be able to mentor them on their desired developmental tasks. With respect to community college presidents, Duree’s (2007) found that 50% of the 415 community college president had participated in a mentoring relationship prior to their first presidency. In addition, 85% of his respondents strongly support and have embraced the concept of mentoring on their campuses by employing both formal and informal mentoring approaches. According to McCauley and VanVelsor (2004), mentoring experiences have the potential to enhance the developmental power of natural relationships within the organization, encourage employees to seek out the developmental relationships they need, and to create formal relationships for the purposes of learning and development. It may be that these mentoring experiences may also offer the same leadership development benefits. Specifically, this study’s findings show that mentoring supports the development of specific competencies like Community College Advocacy and Professionalism. This is valuable information, for as previously discussed,

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84 Community College Advocacy is regarded as the most important competency and a competency set that is not readily developed by a general set of professional experiences. Action Learning (Progressive Job Res ponsibilities/Challenging Job Assignments Hardships, Personal Reflection/Journaling) It has long been recognized that experience is among the most important teachers, including the development of leadership. Development through job experiences pertains to how leaders learn, undergo personal change and acquire leadership capacity as a result of the roles, responsibilities and tasks encountered in their jobs (McCauley & VanVelsor, 2004). This study’s findings would seem to support the assumption that people learn most effectively when working on the job with real organizational challenges. Specifically, “progressive job responsibilities” and “challenging job assignments” experiences were reported by the president respondents in this study as helpful in developing the AACC competencies of Organizational Strategy, Resource Management, Communication, Collaboration, and Professionalism. Therefore, deliberate planning of these action learning experiences is critical and must target those less developed leadership competencies needed in the new millennium such as funding, governance, economic and workforce development and legislative advocacy (Duree, 2007). These aforementioned leadership development practices have all been offered by the presidents in this study and lauded by other researchers as beneficial and effective for leadership development in one form or another (Bolman & Deal, 1994; Day, 2000; Douglas, 2003; Duree, 2007; McCall, Lombardo, & Morrison, 1988; McCauley & Velsor, 2004, Morrison, White, & Van Velsor, 1987). Moreover, these developmental experiences contribute to the augmentation of both human and social capital. Therefore, it

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85 is essential to include developmental experiences for both types of capital in any leadership development program. The proposed leadership development experiences based on this study’s findings are unique because they go beyond the weekend seminars, team projects, and required readings offered in the typical Grow-Your-Own leadership development programs currently being offered in community colleges and other organizations across the country (AACC, 2006). These leadership development experiences are intended to step out of the classroom/workshop and be delivered in the context and culture of the community college where the leader actually works. These experiences combined have the potential to integrate the personal, interpersonal, team and organizational competencies within the six AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders. In order for any community college leadership development program to succeed, the college must be disciplined and supportive in introducing leadership development throughout the college, rather than bounded by specific senior level only programs, skill-based workshops and seminars. Limitations Notwithstanding the contributions of this study, there are five potential limitations that should be taken into consideration. These limitations are: 1. This study has a limitation to the external validity because the sample selected for this study is a convenient sample of volunteers. 2. This study used only New York and Florida public community college presidents and community college trustee board chairpersons, excluding private community colleges as well as four-year institutions.

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86 3. This study’s sample did not represent the national community college leader population. 4. This study assessed only existing competencies as defined by the AACC. It did not analyze whether other competencies might also be seen as central to the success of community college presidents. 5. This study used a retrospective methodology in identifying leadership development experiences regarded as helpful in developing the specific competencies. Implications for Future Research The primary contributions of this study include the validation of the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders and the identification of specific leadership development experiences to develop those competencies. However, given the limited research in this area, the results of this study suggest several topics for future research: 1. A similar research study that includes a national sample and the opportunity to explore regional variations. 2. A study to further identify which leader behaviors are important at each level of leadership (stratification). That is, what are the interactions of skill requirements and hierarchical level for the competencies? 3. A study exploring the curriculum being used by the different community college leader developers and its relationship to the competencies identified by AACC.

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87 4. A study to explore the interventions and evaluation criteria based on AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders to be used to advance the development of leaders for community colleges. Conclusions This study has expanded the AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders initiative by further validating their findings and suggesting specific leadership development experiences to assist in the development of the AACC competencies. This study supports the philosophy that leader development is learned in many ways and that the community college “team” must support leadership development through its business strategy, its culture, and the various systems and processes within the college to prepare its’ leaders for the challenges of tomorrow. This research also supports the use of a hiring template based on the agreed upon competencies to evaluate and select candidates. This template is based on the matrix of competencies and developmental experiences and can serve as a tool in selection and hiring using structured questionnaires and interviews to carefully evaluate candidates’ qualifications with respect to these competencies. Further, this research study asserts that a leadership development program must be continuous, encourage practice, challenge with job assignments that stretch the individual, provide constructive feedback, offer mentoring, and support networking with colleagues. Such a program will likely encourage emerging leaders to seek leadership opportunities and stimulate their development. By applying both of these suggested practices and by serving as a bridge for further research, the results of this study draw attention to the leadership crisis facing community colleges and can provide some tools to help alleviate the worrisome picture for the future of these colleges.

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88 References Amey, M. (2004, February/March). Learning leadership in today’s community colleges. Community College Journal 74 (4), 6-9. Amey, M., VanDerLinden, K., & Brown, D. (2002). Perspectives on community college leadership: Twenty years in the making. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 26 (7), 573-589. American Association of Community Colleges (2003 ). Leading forward: Growing your own leadership development programs. Retrieved February 10, 2006, from http://www.ccleadership.org/leading_forward/summits.htm 1-6 American Association of Community Colleges (2005). Competencies for community college leaders Retrieved February 10, 2006, from http://www.ccleadership.org/resource center/competencies.htm American Association of Community Colleges (2006). Growing your own leaders :community colleges step up. Community College Press, Washington, DC American Association of Community Colleges (2007). C ommunity college stats. Retrieved October 5, 2007, from http://www2.aacc.nche.edu/research/index.htm American Association of Community Colleges (2007a). Leadership programs for community college professionals Retrieved September 20, 2007, from http://www.ccleadership.org/resource_center/leadership.asp

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89 Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Barrett, A. & Beeson, J. (2002). Developing business leaders for 2010 New York: The Conference Board. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press. Bass, B. & Avolio, B. (1990). The implications of transactional and transformational leadership for individual, team, and organizational development. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4 231-272. Bain, N. & Mabey, B. (1999). The people advantage: Improving results through better selection and performance West LaFayette, IN: Purdue University Press. Boggs, G. R. (2003, Fall). Leadership context for the twenty-first century. New Directions for Community Colleges, 123 15-25. Bolman, L.& Deal, T. (1994). Looking for leadership: Another search party report. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30 (1), 77-96. Brint, S. & Karabel, J. (1989). The diverted dream: Community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985 New York: Oxford University Press. Campbell, D. F. (2002). The leadership gap. Washington DC: American Association of Community Colleges. Campbell, D. F. & Sloan, B. (2002). Leadership in colleges; engaged in quality improvement. In D. F. Campbell and Associations (Eds.), The Leadership Gap (pp.79-91). Washington, DC: Community College Press.

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90 Cohen, A. M. & Brawer, F. B. (1996). The American community college (3rd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Cohen, A. M. & Brawer, F. B. (2003). The American community college (4th ed.) San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Costa, P. T. Jr. & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO-PI personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Day, D.V. (2000). Leadership development: a review in context. Leadership Quarterly 11(4), 581-613. Desjardins, C. & Huff, S. (2001). The leading edge: Competencies for community college leadership in the new millennium. Mission Viejo, CA: League for Innovation in the Community College. Douglas, C.A. (2003). Key events and lessons for managers in a diverse workforce: A report on research and findings Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. Duree, C. (2007). The challenges of the community college presidency in the new millennium: pathways, preparation, and leadership programs needed to survive. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Iowa State University. Duvall, B. (2003, Fall). Role of universities in leadership development. New Directions for Community Colleges 123 63-71. Eddy, P. L. (2005). Framing the role of leader: How community college presidents construct their leadership. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 29 705-727.

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91 Eddy, P. & VanDerLinden, K. (2006). Emerging definitions of leadership in higher education. Community College Review 34 (1), 5-26. Evelyn, J. (2001). Community colleges face a crisis of leadership. Chronicle of Higher Education, 36 (31), A36. Floyd, D. (2005). The community college baccalaureate in the US. In D. Floyd, M. Skolnik, and K.Walker (Eds.), The community college baccalaureate Sterling, VA: Stylus Press. Fulton-Calkins, P. & Milling, C. (2006). Community-college leadership: An art to be practiced: 2010 and beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 29, 233-250. Funder, D.C. (2001). Personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 197-221. Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R. & Gall, J. P. (1996 ). Educational research: an introduction (6th ed.) New York: Longman. George, D. & Mallery, P. (2007 ). SPSS for windows; step by step(7th ed .). Boston: Pearson. Glass, G. V. & Hopkins, K. D. (1996). Statistical methods in education and psychology (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Goff, D. G. (2002). Community college presidency: What are the challenges to be encountered and the traits to be successful. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED476 681) Hammons, J. & Keller, L. (1990). Competencies and personal characteristics of future community college presidents. Community College Review, 18 34-41.

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92 Harter, J., Schmidt, F., & Hayes, T. (2002). Business-unit-level relationships between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268-279. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1969). Life cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal, 23 (5), 26-34. Hockaday, J. & Puyear, D. (2000). Community college leadership in the new millennium. Washington, DC: Community College Press. Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality measurement. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (pp. 873-919). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Hogan, R. & Kaiser, R. (2005). What we know about leadership. Review of General Psychology 9 (2), 169-180. Hollenbeck, G.., McCall, M., & Silzer, R. (2006). Leadership competency models. The Leadership Quarterly 17 398-413. Hughes, R.L. & Colarelli Beatty, K (2005). Becoming a strategic leader San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, G. J. (2006). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Isaac, S., & Michael, W. (1990). Handbook in research and evaluation (2nd ed.) San Diego, CA: EDITS Publishers. Kezar, A., Carducci, R. & Contreras-McGavin, M. (2006). Rethinking the “L” word in higher education: The revolution of research on leadership. ASHE Higher Education Report, 31 (6). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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93 Kim, K. A. (2003, Fall). Leadership development programs. New Directions for Community Colleges, 123 101-110. Koopke, L. (1978). Chancellor, president, superintendent, provost, vice president, director, or a chief executive by any other name Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. Ed 181 981). Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (2003). Academic administrator’s guide to exemplary leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Little, G. (2002, August/September). Resolving the leadership crisis. Community College Journal 73 (1), 33. Manzo, K.K. (2003). Cultivating the future. Community College Week 15 (19), 6-8. McCall, C. D., Lombardo, M. M. & Morrison, A. M. (1988). The lessons of experience: How successful executives develop on the job San Francisco: New Lexington Press. McCauley, C. D. & Van Velsor, E. V. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of leadership development (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass. Montague, E.L. (2004 ). Leadership development practices in the community college: A case study. Unpublished dissertation. East Lansing: Michigan State University. Morrison, A. M., White, R. P. & VanVelsor, E. V. (1987). Breaking the glass ceiling. Can women reach the top of America largest corporation? Boston: Addison-Wesley. Nasworthy, C. (2002). Selecting community college presidents for the 21st century: A trustee’s perspective In D. F. Campbell and Associations (Eds.), The Leadership Gap (pp.67-78). Washington, DC: Community College Press.

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94 Northouse, P.G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Patton, M. (2004). Initiative seeks to inform and prepare new leaders. Retrieved April 21, 2006, from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Template.cfm?Section Peterson, R., Smith, D., Martorana, P., & Owens, P. (2003). The impact of chief executive officer personality on top management team dynamics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 795-808. Piland, W. & Wolf, D. (2003, Fall). In-House leadership development: Placing the colleges squarely in the middle. New Directions for Community Colleges, 123 93-99. Riddell, L. (2006, Fall). Leadership academies grow among community colleges. Institute for Community College Development, Gravitas, 1-5. Romero, M. (2004). Who will lead our community colleges? Change, 36 (6), 30-34. Roueche, J. E., Baker, G. A., & Rose, R. R. (1989). Shared vision: Transformational leadership in American community colleges. Washington DC: Community College Press. Senge, P.M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York; Doubleday. Sullivan, L.G. ( 2001). Four generations of community college leadership. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 25 (8), 559-571. Shults, C. (2001). The critical impact of impending retirements on community college leadership. Washington DC: Community College Press.

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95 Tierney, W.G. (1991). Organizational culture in higher education: Defining the essentials. In M.W. Peterson (Eds.), Organization and governance in higher education (4th ed.) (pp. 126-139). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster. VanDerLinden, K.E. (2003). Learning to play the game: Professional development and mentoring. Symposium presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Portland. Vaughan, G. B. (1986). The community college presidency New York: Macmillan. Vaughan, G. B. (1989). Leadership in transition: The community college presidency. New York: Macmillian. Vaughan, G. & Weisman, I. (2003). Leadership development: The role of the president-board team. New Directions for Community Colleges 123 51-61. Vaughan, G. B. (2004). Diversify the presidency. The Chronicle of Higher Education 51 (10), B14. Vincent, E. (2004). A qualitative analysis of community college leadership from the leading forward summits. ACT, Inc, Unpublished manuscript. Wallin, D. L. (2002). Professional development for presidents: A study of community and technical college presidents in three states. Community College Review 30 (2), 27-41. Watts, G. & Hammons, J. (2002, Winter). Leadership development for the next generation. New Directions for Community Colleges 120 59-66. Weisman, I., & Vaughan, G. (2002). The community college presidency 2001 Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges

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96 Wen, H. D. (1999). A profile of community college presidents’ leadership styles (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED438858). Wolf, D. & Carroll, C. (2002). Shaking the leadership blues. Community College Journal, 73 (1), 12-17. Yukl, G (1989). Leadership in organizations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Yukl, G. (2001). Leadership in organizations (3d ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Zacarro, S. J. (2001). The nature of executive leadership: A conceptual and empirical analysis of success Washington, DD: American Psychological Association.

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97 Appendices

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98 Appendix A: Competencies for Community College Leaders (President’s Survey) Client ID: Gender: ______ Age: ______ Organizational Strategy An effective community college leader strategically improves the quality of the institution, protects the long-term health of the organiza tion, promotes the success of all students, and sustains the community college mission, based on knowledge of the organization, its environment, and future trends. -Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. -Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. -Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. -Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. -Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. -Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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99 Appendix A (Continued): Resource Management An effective community college leader equitabl y and ethically sustains people, processes, and information as well as physical and financial assets to fulfill the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. -Ensure accountability in reporting. -Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases. -Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies. -Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. -Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. -Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff. -Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. -Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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100 Appendix A (Continued): Communication An effective community college leader uses clear listening, speaking, and writing skills to engage in honest, open dialogue at all levels of the college and its surrounding community, to promote the success of all stude nts, and to sustain the community college mission. -Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. -Disseminate and support policies and strategies. -Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. -Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders. -Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. -Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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101 Appendix A (Continued): Collaboration An effective community college leader devel ops and maintains responsive, cooperative, mutually beneficial, and ethical internal and external relationships that nurture diversity, promote the success of all students, and sustain the community college mission. -Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. -Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. -Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good. -Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. -Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others. -Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. -Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. -Facilitate shared problem solving and decisionmaking. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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102 Appendix A (Continued): Community College Advocacy An effective community college leader understands, commits to, and advocates for the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. -Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. -Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. -Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders. -Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. -Advance lifelong learning and support a learnercentered and learning-centered environment. -Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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103 Appendix A (Continued): Professionalism An effective community college leader works et hically to set high standards for self and others, continuously improve self and surr oundings, demonstrate accountability to and for the institution, and ensure the long-term viability of the college and community. -Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. -Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. -Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. -Support lifelong learning for self and others. -Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. -Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility. -Understand the impact of perceptions, worldviews, and emotions on self and others. -Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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104 Appendix A (Continued): Professionalism (Cont) An effective community college leader works et hically to set high standards for self and others, continuously improve self and surr oundings, demonstrate accountability to and for the institution, and ensure the long-term viability of the college and community. -Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. -Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision-making. -Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication. Are there important competencies you would like to add to the list of Competencies for Community College Leaders ? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Would you like a copy of this study’s results? Yes _____ or No_____ 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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105 Appendix A (Continued): To the Respondent: Certain experiences contribute to the development of competencies. Below is a list of leader development experiences that may have helped you acquire some of the AACC competencies. For each experience, please indicate which, if any, of the AACC competencies that the experience helped develop. Place the number of each competency(ies) next to the leader development experience, or indicate N/A as appropriate. AACC Competencies 1=Organizational Strategy 2=Resource Management 3=Communication 4=Collaboration 5=Community College Advocacy 6=Professionalism Leader Development Experience Competency (ies) 1. Graduate Programs (i.e. degree or certificate) _____________ 2. In-House Programs (i.e. grow-your-own programs – college programs) _____________ 3. Workshops (i.e. Presidents Academy, Future Leaders, ICCD, AACC) _____________ 4. Challenging job assignments (i.e. new positio n, built team from scratch) _____________ 5. Hardship (i.e. failures, career setbacks, downsizing, problem employees) _____________ 6. Feedback (i.e. supervisor, peers, subordinates, team) _____________ 7. Mentor/Coaching _____________ 8. Personal-Reflection, Journaling _____________ 9. Networking with colleagues _____________ 10. Progressive administrative responsibilities within the community college (i.e. Director, Dean, Vice President) _____________ 11. From previous business experience _____________ 12. From previous military experience _____________ 13. From previous government experience _____________ 14 Other: _____________________________________________ _____________

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106 Appendix A (Continued): PROFILE INFORMATION: 1. Highest Level of Education: (check one) (1)____Bachelor’s Degree in ________________ (2)____Master’s Degree in _________________ (3)____Doctoral Degree in _________________ 2. Previous career (check one) (1)_____ Military (2)_____ Business (3)_____ Government (4)_____ Always in Higher Education (5)_____ Other: (specify)

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107 Appendix B: Competencies for Community College Leaders (Trustee’s Survey) Client ID: Gender: ______ Age: ______ Organizational Strategy An effective community college leader strategically improves the quality of the institution, protects the long-term health of the organiza tion, promotes the success of all students, and sustains the community college mission, based on knowledge of the organization, its environment, and future trends. -Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. -Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. -Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. -Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. -Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. -Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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108 Appendix B (Continued): Resource Management An effective community college leader equitabl y and ethically sustains people, processes, and information as well as physical and financial assets to fulfill the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. -Ensure accountability in reporting. -Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases. -Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies. -Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. -Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. -Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff. -Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. -Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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109 Appendix B (Continued): Communication An effective community college leader uses clear listening, speaking, and writing skills to engage in honest, open dialogue at all levels of the college and its surrounding community, to promote the success of all stude nts, and to sustain the community college mission. -Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. -Disseminate and support policies and strategies. -Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. -Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders. -Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. -Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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110 Appendix B (Continued): Collaboration An effective community college leader devel ops and maintains responsive, cooperative, mutually beneficial, and ethical internal and external relationships that nurture diversity, promote the success of all students, and sustain the community college mission. -Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. -Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. -Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good. -Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. -Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others. -Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. -Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. -Facilitate shared problem solving and decisionmaking. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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111 Appendix B (Continued): Community College Advocacy An effective community college leader understands, commits to, and advocates for the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. -Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. -Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. -Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders. -Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. -Advance lifelong learning and support a learnercentered and learning-centered environment. -Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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112 Appendix B (Continued): Professionalism An effective community college leader works et hically to set high standards for self and others, continuously improve self and surr oundings, demonstrate accountability to and for the institution, and ensure the long-term viability of the college and community. -Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. -Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. -Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. -Support lifelong learning for self and others. -Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. -Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility. -Understand the impact of perceptions, worldviews, and emotions on self and others. -Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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113 Appendix B (Continued): Professionalism (Cont) An effective community college leader works et hically to set high standards for self and others, continuously improve self and surr oundings, demonstrate accountability to and for the institution, and ensure the long-term viability of the college and community. -Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. -Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision-making. -Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication. Are there important competencies you would like to add to the list of Competencies for Community College Leaders ? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Would you like a copy of this study’s results? Yes _____ or No_____ 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 To the Respondent: Please read each of the illustrated competencies below and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1=not important, 5=extremely important) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership.

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114 Appendix C: AACC President Endorsement Letter

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115 Appendix D: New York Vice Chancellor Community Colleges Endorsement Letter

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116 Appendix E: Florida Chancellor for Community Colleges Endorsement Letter

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117 Appendix F: Letter of Instruction THE COMPETENCIES FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEADERS: COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS’ AND TRUSTEES’ PERSPECTIVES 8560 Avens Circle Colorado Springs, Co 80920 Dear Community College President/Board Chair: I am a doctoral candidate in Higher Education at the University of South Florida and I am interested in community college leadership. As you know, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) completed a study which identified leadership competencies necessary for success in community colleges and subsequently published these competencies in a document titled, Competencies for Community College Leaders (2005) I am interested in your perceptions of those AACC Competencies for Community College Leaders. It is hoped that your survey responses and the responses from New York and Florida community college presidents and boards of trustee chairpersons will offer valuable data for the future development, recruitment, and selection of community college leaders. In this regard, I would be most grateful if you would complete the enclosed survey. The survey should take you approximately 20-25 minutes to complete. You may be assured that information you provide will be handled in strictest confidence and will never be associated with you by name or college. In addition, the data is being collected in such a way that one institution cannot be compared with another and presidents and trustees are not evaluating each other. I respectfully request that the survey be returned to me no later than February 22, 2008. If you are unable to participate in the study, please let me know by email so that your name will be removed from the list for possible follow-up. If you have any questions about the study, please call me at (719) 388-7971 or email me at ahassan4@msn.com Thank you very much for your assistance. Sincerely, Anthony M. Hassan Doctoral Candidate, University of South Florida

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118 Appendix G: Follow-up Email Dear President/Board Chairperson, On January 25/30, 2008, I mailed you an invitation to participate in my study endorsed by Dr. Golladay/Dr. Holcombe and Dr. George Boggs regarding the competencies for community college leaders. If you have completed the survey, I want to sincerely thank you for your participation and you can disregard this email. However, if you have not completed the survey, I hope that you will consider participating in this research study and assisting me with my dissertation. I want to extend this final appeal for your participation as I believe the significance of your contribution is vital to the overall findings and usefulness of this study. A short time commitment of 20-25 minutes is all that is required. The survey deadline is February 22, 2008. You may be assured that information you provide on the survey will be handled in confidence and will never be associated to you by name or college. In addition, presidents and board chairpersons are not evaluating each other. In the event you misplaced the survey, I will be glad to mail you another survey package. If you need another survey package mailed to you or if you have any questions about this study, please call me at (719) 3887971 or email me at ahassan4@msn.com Sincerely, Anthony M. Hassan Doctoral Candidate, University of South Florida

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119 Appendix H: Means of Importance for the Specific Items within each of the Community College Leader Competencies for the Participating Presidents _____________________________________________________________________ Organizational Strategy Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. 30 4.6 .56 New York 17 4.4 .62 Florida 13 4.9 .38 SI2-Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. 30 4.4 .50 New York 17 4.3 .47 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI3-Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. 30 4.2 .65 New York 17 3.9 .66 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI4-Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. 30 4.9 .35 New York 17 4.8 .44 Florida 13 5.0 .00 SI5-Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. 30 4.6 .50 New York 17 4.5 .51 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI6-Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. 30 4.6 .50 New York 17 4.6 .51 Florida 13 4.6 .51 _____________________________________________________________________

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120 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Resource Management Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Ensure accountability in reporting. 30 4.5 .57 New York 17 4.4 .61 Florida 13 4.8 .44 SI2-Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases. 30 4.0 .72 New York 17 3.8 .66 Florida 13 4.2 .73 SI3-Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies. 30 4.2 .68 New York 17 4.1 .78 Florida 13 4.4 .51 SI4-Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. 30 4.1 .78 New York 17 4.1 .78 Florida 13 4.2 .80 SI5-Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. 30 4.5 .57 New York 17 4.5 .62 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI6-Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff. 30 4.4 .62 New York 17 4.2 .64 Florida 13 4.7 .48 ___________________________________________________________________________________

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121 Appendix H (continued): ____________________________________________________________________ Resource Management (cont) Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI7-Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. 30 4.0 .71 New York 17 4.0 .71 Florida 13 4.0 .71 SI8-Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization. 30 4.5 .51 New York 17 4.5 .51 Florida 13 4.5 .52 _____________________________________________________________________

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122 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Communication Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. 30 4.7 .66 New York 17 4.5 .80 Florida 13 4.9 .28 SI2-Disseminate and support policies and strategies. 30 4.0 .67 New York 17 3.8 .64 Florida 13 4.3 .63 SI3-Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. 30 4.6 .56 New York 17 4.6 .62 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI4-Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders. 30 4.6 .57 New York 17 4.5 .62 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI5-Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. 30 4.6 .49 New York 17 4.6 .51 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI6-Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. 30 4.7 .54 New York 17 4.7 .59 Florida 13 4.7 .48 ____________________________________________________________________

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123 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Collaboration Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. 30 4.3 .64 New York 17 4.2 .66 Florida 13 4.3 .63 SI2-Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. 30 3.7 .79 New York 17 3.5 .64 Florida 13 4.0 .71 SI3 -Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good. 30 4.3 .71 New York 17 4.2 .66 Florida 13 4.5 .78 SI4-Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. 30 4.4 .62 New York 17 4.4 .61 Florida 13 4.5 .66 SI5-Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others. 30 4.7 .47 New York 17 4.8 .44 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI6-Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. 30 4.5 .51 New York 17 4.5 .51 Florida 13 4.5 .52 __________________________________________________________________________________

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124 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Collaboration (cont) Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI7-Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. 30 4.5 .51 New York 17 4.4 .49 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI8-Facilitate shared problem solving and decision-making. 30 4.3 .69 New York 17 4.1 .75 Florida 13 4.5 .52 _____________________________________________________________________

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125 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Community College Advocacy Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. 30 4.6 .56 New York 17 4.5 .62 Florida 13 4.8 .44 SI2-Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. 30 4.7 .48 New York 17 4.5 .51 Florida 13 4.9 .38 SI3-Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders. 30 4.5 .63 New York 17 4.4 .62 Florida 13 4.5 .66 SI4-Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. 30 4.5 .51 New York 17 4.5 .51 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI5-Advance lifelong learning and support a learner-centered and learning-centered environment. 30 4.4 .68 New York 17 4.4 .70 Florida 13 4.5 .66 SI6-Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings. 30 4.6 .63 New York 17 4.6 .62 Florida 13 4.5 .66 _____________________________________________________________________

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126 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Professionalism Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Demonstrate transforma t ional leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. 30 4.5 .68 New York 17 4.4 .80 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI2-Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. 30 4.2 .71 New York 17 3.9 .66 Florida 13 4.5 .66 SI3-Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. 30 4.2 .55 New York 17 4.0 .50 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI4-Support lifelong learning for self and others. 30 4.2 .63 New York 17 4.1 .60 Florida 13 4.4 .65 SI5-Manage stress through self care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. 30 4.4 .67 New York 17 4.4 .70 Florida 13 4.4 .70 SI6-Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibi lity. 30 4.9 .35 New York 17 4.9 .33 Florida 13 4.9 .38 SI7-Understand the impact of perceptions, worldviews, and emotions on self and others. 30 4.2 .61 New York 17 4.0 .66 Florida 13 4.4 .51 __________________________________________________________________________________

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127 Appendix H (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Professionalism (cont) Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI8-Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. 30 4.9 .25 New York 17 4.9 .33 Florida 13 5.0 .00 SI9-Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. 30 4.5 .63 New York 17 4.4 .70 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI10-Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision-making. 30 4.4 .50 New York 17 4.4 .51 Florida 13 4.4 .51 SI11-Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication. 30 3.9 .80 New York 17 3.7 .85 Florida 13 4.2 .69 _____________________________________________________________________

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128 Appendix I: Means of Importance for the Specific Items within each of the Community College Leader Competencies for th e Participating Board Chairpersons ___________________________________________________________________ Organizational Strategy Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. 29 4.4 .83 New York 16 4.4 1.0 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI2-Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. 29 4.3 .67 New York 16 4.3 .76 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI3-Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. 29 4.0 .73 New York 16 4.0 .77 Florida 13 4.0 .71 SI4-Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 29 4.6 .62 New York 16 4.4 .73 Florida 13 4.9 .38 SI5-Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. 29 4.4 .68 New York 16 4.3 .79 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI6-Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. 29 4.5 .51 New York 16 4.4 .51 Florida 13 4.5 .52 _____________________________________________________________________

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129 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Resource Management Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Ensure accountability in reporting. 29 4.6 .56 New York 16 4.6 .63 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI2-Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases. 29 4.2 .60 New York 16 4.3 .68 Florida 13 4.0 .49 SI3-Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies. 29 4.3 .77 New York 16 4.3 .95 Florida 13 4.4 .51 SI4-Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. 29 4.0 .82 New York 16 4.0 .82 Florida 13 3.9 .86 SI5-Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. 29 4.5 .57 New York 16 4.6 .63 Florida 13 4.4 .51 SI6-Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff. 29 4.2 .81 New York 16 3.9 .85 Florida 13 4.5 .66 ___________________________________________________________________________________

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130 Appendix I (continued): ____________________________________________________________________ Resource Management (cont) Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI7-Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. 29 4.0 .71 New York 16 3.8 .66 Florida 13 4.2 .73 SI8-Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization. 29 4.5 .69 New York 16 4.4 .81 Florida 13 4.7 .48 _____________________________________________________________________

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131 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Communication Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. 29 4.8 .51 New York 16 4.6 .62 Florida 13 4.9 .28 SI2-Disseminate and support policies and strategies. 29 4.1 .79 New York 16 4.1 .77 Florida 13 4.2 .83 SI3-Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. 29 4.6 .63 New York 16 4.5 .73 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI4-Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders. 29 4.1 .99 New York 16 4.1 .93 Florida 13 4.2 1.1 SI5-Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. 29 4.5 .83 New York 16 4.3 1.0 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI6-Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. 29 4.7 .55 New York 16 4.6 .62 Florida 13 4.7 .48 ____________________________________________________________________

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132 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Collaboration Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. 29 4.4 .73 New York 16 4.2 .83 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI2-Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. 29 3.8 .82 New York 16 3.6 .89 Florida 13 4.1 .64 SI3 -Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good. 29 4.3 .60 New York 16 4.2 .66 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI4-Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. 29 4.4 .68 New York 16 4.3 .78 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI5-Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others. 29 4.6 .56 New York 16 4.6 .63 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI6-Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. 29 4.2 .57 New York 16 4.2 .66 Florida 13 4.3 .48 __________________________________________________________________________________

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133 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Collaboration (cont) Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI7-Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. 29 4.4 .68 New York 16 4.3 .79 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI8-Facilitate shared problem solving and decision-making. 29 4.1 .77 New York 16 4.0 .89 Florida 13 4.2 .60 _____________________________________________________________________

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134 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Community College Advocacy Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. 29 4.6 .57 New York 16 4.5 .63 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI2-Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. 29 4.7 .61 New York 16 4.5 .73 Florida 13 4.9 .38 SI3-Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders. 29 4.3 .72 New York 16 4.3 .86 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI4-Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. 29 4.5 .69 New York 16 4.4 .81 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI5-Advance lifelong learning and support a learner-centered and learning-centered environment. 29 4.4 .57 New York 16 4.4 .63 Florida 13 4.4 .51 SI6-Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings. 29 4.6 .63 New York 16 4.6 .72 Florida 13 4.5 .52 _____________________________________________________________________

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135 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Professionalism Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Demonstrate transforma t ional leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. 29 4.5 .63 New York 16 4.2 .66 Florida 13 4.8 .44 SI2-Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. 29 4.1 .79 New York 16 4.3 .86 Florida 13 4.0 .71 SI3-Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. 29 4.3 .66 New York 16 4.3 .68 Florida 13 4.4 .65 SI4-Support lifelong learning for self and others. 29 4.4 .63 New York 16 4.4 .65 Florida 13 4.5 .72 SI5-Manage stress through self care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. 29 4.3 .84 New York 16 3.9 .93 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI6-Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibi lity. 29 4.7 .55 New York 16 4.5 .63 Florida 13 4.9 .38 SI7-Understand the impact of perceptions, worldviews, and emotions on self and others. 29 4.2 .79 New York 16 4.0 .96 Florida 13 4.4 .51 __________________________________________________________________________________

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136 Appendix I (continued): _____________________________________________________________________ Professionalism (cont) Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI8-Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. 29 4.9 .31 New York 16 4.9 .34 Florida 13 4.9 .28 SI9-Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. 29 4.3 .72 New York 16 4.1 .72 Florida 13 4.6 .65 SI10-Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision-making. 29 4.3 .59 New York 16 4.2 .66 Florida 13 4.4 .51 SI11-Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication. 29 4.2 .86 New York 16 4.1 1.0 Florida 13 4.4 .65 _____________________________________________________________________

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137 Appendix J: Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for the survey instrument’s six core competencies as reported by Presidents and Board Chairpersons Cronbach Competency Presidents Board Chairpersons Overall Professionalism .83 .84 .83 Collaboration .81 .86 .84 Community College Advocacy .77 .81 .80 Communication .72 .70 .70 Resource Management .67 .80 .74 Organizational Strategy .65 .70 .70

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138 Appendix K: Mean Difference for Each Core Commun ity College Leader Competency by the Participating Presidents from New York and Florida (N=30) Competency M SE t df p Difference Difference Organizational Strategy -.283 .104 -2.72 28 .01* Resource Management -.212 .127 -1.68 28 .10 Communication -.212 .136 -1.55 28 .13 Collaboration -.184 .151 -1.21 28 .23 Community College Advocacy -.170 .147 -1.15 28 .25 Professionalism -.241 .129 -1.85 28 .07 Statistically significant difference in means at p<.05

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139 Appendix L: Mean Scores for the Organizational Competency by the Participating Presidents from New York and Florida _____________________________________________________________________ Organizational Strategy Specific Items N M SD _____________________________________________________________________ SI1-Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. New York 17 4.5 .62 Florida 13 4. 9 .38 SI2-Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. New York 17 4.3 .47 Florida 13 4.6 .51 SI3-Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. New York 17 3.9 .66 Florida 13 4.5 .52 SI4-Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. New York 17 4.8 .44 Florida 13 5.00 .00 SI5-Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. New York 17 4.5 .51 Florida 13 4.7 .48 SI6-Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. New York 17 4.6 .51 Florida 13 4.6 .51 _____________________________________________________________________

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140 Appendix M: Mean Difference for Each Core Comm unity College Leader Competency by the Participating Board Chairpersons from New York and Florida (N=28) Competency M SE t df p Difference Difference Organizational Strategy -.172 .160 -1.07 27 .29 Resource Management -.129 .170 -.756 27 .45 Communication -.212 .173 -1.22 27 .23 Collaboration -.286 .176 -1.62 27 .11 Community College Advocacy -.131 .172 -.760 27 .45 Professionalism -.270 .155 -1.73 27 .09 Statistically significant difference in means at p<.05

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141 Appendix N: Mean for Each Core Community Co llege Leader Competency by the Participating Presidents and Trustee Board Chairpersons from New York and Florida (N=59) ____________________________________ Competency ____________________________________ Organizational Strategy 4.46 Resource Management 4.28 Communication 4.50 Collaboration 4.31 Community College Advocacy 4.53 Professionalism 4.39 ___________________________________

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142 Appendix O: Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for the survey instrument as reported by Participating Presidents and Participating Board Chairpersons Position Cronbach Rating President .94 Excellent Board Chairperson .96 Excellent Note: Overall Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for the survey instrument was .95 (Excellent)

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143 Appendix P: Additional Competencies Offered by Survey Respondents Presidents Board Chairpersons “Inclusivity, instead of collaboration” “Business and institutional acumen” “Fund raising strategies” “Fund raising” “Technology” “Strength to stand up to political pressure” “Political sensitivity” “Communication with sponsors” “Negotiation skills” “Respect employees from the janitor to the “Ethics” vice presidents” “Legal skills” “Character based competencies such as courage, strength and wisdom”

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144 Appendix Q: USF IRB Letter

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145 About the Author Major Anthony M. Hassan is the Deputy Department Head, Leadership Directorate, United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In addition to his administrative duties, he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership and behavioral sciences. He has 24 years of military leadership experience and 17 years of clinical experience in mental health.