USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

An investigation of the online learning environment in higher education through the observations and perceptions of stud...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
An investigation of the online learning environment in higher education through the observations and perceptions of students of color
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Boyette, Marie Adele
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adult learning
Andragogy
Digital divide
Distance learning
Polyrhythmics
Dissertations, Academic -- Adult/Career and Higher Ed -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: A need exists to gain a better understanding of how the online learning environment found in higher education is perceived by students of color. The research completed for this dissertation explored student participation in the online learning environment in higher education by examining the observations and perceptions of students of color. Along the way, the process of the research journey drew attention to the lack of inclusion of students of color in the literature and data collected about online learning, and pointed to the existence of the digital divide and its impact on graduate students of color and their participation in online learning. In this study, no significant relationships were found in the examination of the nature of the relationship between ethnicity and the variables of gender, age, and self-reported computer experience. The online learning environment was not conclusively found to be an environment where opinions or critiques could be expressed more easily than in a face to face classroom, and the importance to students of having the opportunity to challenge white norms in the online learning environment was not found to be significant. Advice is offered from students and instructors of color providing examples of ways in which an online course environment may more fully consider the voices and experiences of persons of color.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marie Adele Boyette.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 172 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002001014
oclc - 319422116
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002535
usfldc handle - e14.2535
System ID:
SFS0026852:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

A n I nve s t i ga t i on o f t he O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E nvi r on m e nt i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on t hr ough t he O bs e r va t i ons a nd P e r c e pt i ons of S t ude nt s of C ol or by M a r i e A de l e B oye t t e A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of A dul t C a r e e r a nd H i ghe r E duc a t i o n C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : W i l l i a m Y oung E d. D W i l l i a m B l a nk, P h D R os e m a r y C l os s on, P h. D J a ne J or ge ns on, P h. D J e f f r e y K r om r e y P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : M a y 2 9 2008 K e yw or ds : a dul t l e a r ni ng a nd r a gogy, di gi t a l di vi de di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng, pol yr hyt hm i c s C opyr i ght 2008 M a r i e A de l e B oye t t e

PAGE 2

D e di c a t i on I w i s h t o t ha nk A l m i ght y G od f or be i ng m y s our c e m y i ns pi r a t i on, a nd m y s t r e ngt h. E ve r y ne w da y i s a n oppor t uni t y t o pr a i s e a nd t ha nk H i m I de di c a t e t he t hought s a c t i ons a nd w or ds f ound i n t h i s w or k t o H i m a nd I de c l a r e H i s W or d ove r m y l i f e G od i s a l w a ys t he w a y: I a m t r us t i ng you O h L or d, s a yi ng, Y ou a r e m y G od! M y f ut u r e i s i n your ha nds P s a l m 31 : 14 15.

PAGE 3

A c know l e dge m e nt s I w i s h t o t ha nk m y da ught e r a nd be s t f r i e nd L e a h f or he r c ons i s t e nt l ove c a r i ng j oy, a nd s uppor t I a l s o w i s h t o t ha nk m y good f r i e nds J e nni f e r a nd S a ndy f or t he i r he l p a nd t he m a ny i ns t r uc t o r s a t U S F w ho m a de l e a r ni n g s uc h a r e w a r di ng e xpe r i e nc e S pe c i a l t ha nks t o m y m ot he r P a t r i c i a w ho a l w a ys m ode l e d a l ove o f l e a r ni ng a nd pr ov i de d books m us i c a nd oppo r t uni t i e s t o l e a r n a nd gr ow t hr oughout m y c hi l dhood.

PAGE 4

i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a b l e s i v A bs t r a c t v C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m 3 P ur pos e of t he S t udy 3 O bj e c t i ve of t he S t udy a nd R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons 4 T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k 4 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy 6 D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s 7 O r ga ni z a t i on of t he S t udy 1 1 C ha pt e r T w o R e vi e w of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e 1 3 I nt r oduc t i on 13 O r ga ni z a t i on of t he C ha pt e r 14 S e l f di r e c t e d L e a r ni ng a nd t h e O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E n vi r onm e nt 15 A dul t L e a r ni ng S t yl e s a nd t he O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E n vi r onm e nt 18 G e nde r R a c e a nd O nl i ne D i a l ogue 20 A dul t L e a r ni ng P e r c e pt i ons a nd t he O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E nvi r on m e nt 23 B a r r i e r s t o L e a r ni ng 25 T e c hnol ogy 27 C om put e r A nxi e t y 28 E t hni c i t y i n t h e O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E nvi r onm e nt 30 P os i t i oni ng of S t ude nt s of C ol or i n O nl i ne D i a l ogu e 36 C om m uni c a t i ng P r i vi l e ge i n t he O nl i ne E nvi r onm e nt 39 S e ns e m a ki ng f or S t ude nt s o f C ol or i n t h e O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E nvi r onm e nt 41 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hodol ogy 43 I nt r oduc t i on 43 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 43 R ol e of t he R e s e a r c he r 44 R e s e a r c h D e s i gn 46 T r i a ngul a t i on 50 I nc l us i on of W hi t e S t ude nt s V oi c e s 50 I nc l us i on of I ns t r uc t or s V oi c e s 5 1 P i l ot S t udy 52 P opul a t i on a nd S a m pl e 54

PAGE 5

i i D a t a C ol l e c t i on 5 6 I ns t r um e nt a t i on 5 6 S t r a t e gy f o r D a t a A na l ys i s 57 D a t a A na l ys i s S t r a t e gy f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on O ne 5 8 D a t a A na l ys i s S t r a t e gy f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o 59 A n a l ys i s of O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i ons 61 D a t a A na l ys i s S t r a t e gy f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e 62 L i m i t a t i ons 63 H um a n S ubj e c t s P r ot e c t i on a nd C onf i de nt i a l i t y 65 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s 6 6 I nt r oduc t i on 6 6 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on O ne R e s ul t s 6 7 E t hno gr a phi c P r of i l e of S t ude nt P a r t i c i pa nt s 6 8 C hi S qua r e A na l ys i s of S t ude nt D e m ogr a phi c s 69 C hi S qua r e A na l ys i s f or E t hni c i t y a nd G e nde r 70 C hi S qua r e A na l ys i s f or E t hni c i t y a nd A ge 71 C hi S qua r e A na l ys i s f or E t hni c i t y a nd O nl i ne C l a s s e s T a ke n 72 A N O V A A na l ys i s of C om f or t L e ve l w i t h C om put e r s 75 R e s ul t s S um m a r y f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on O ne 77 77 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o R e s ul t s 7 8 t T e s t f o r S u r ve y Q ue s t i on O ne 80 A N O V A T e s t f or S ur ve y Q ue s t i on O ne 80 t T e s t f o r S u r ve y Q ue s t i on T w o 82 A N O V A T e s t f or S ur ve y Q ue s t i on T w o 83 O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i on R e s ul t s f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o 85 T he m e s 86 P r e s e nt a t i on of T he m e s T hr ough R e pr e s e nt a t i ve R e s pons e s 87 T he m e O ne R e pr e s e nt a t i ve R e s pons e s 87 T he m e T w o R e pr e s e nt a t i ve R e s pons e s 90 T he m e T h r e e R e pr e s e nt a t i ve R e s pons e s 92 R e s ul t s S um m a r y f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o 94 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e R e s ul t s 95 O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i on T he m e s f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e 96 T he m e O ne R e pr e s e nt a t i ve R e s pons e s 96 T he m e T w o R e pr e s e nt a t i ve R e s pons e s 9 9 R e s ul t s S um m a r y f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e 10 2 C ha pt e r F i ve A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on 10 4 I nt r oduc t i on 10 4 A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on O ne 10 6 D i s c us s i on of S a m pl e S e l e c t i on 10 7 E t hni c i t y 10 8 E t hni c i t y a nd G e nde r 1 10 E t hni c i t y a nd A ge 1 11

PAGE 6

i i i E t hni c i t y a nd O nl i ne C l a s s P a r t i c i pa t i on 11 2 A na l ys i s of S t ude nt C om f o r t L e ve l U s i ng C om put e r s 11 4 S um m a r y D i s c us s i on f o r R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on O ne 11 5 A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o 11 8 S ur ve y Q ue s t i on O ne 1 20 S ur ve y Q ue s t i on T w o 1 21 D i s c us s i on of T he m e s f o r O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i ons 12 2 A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on of T he m e O ne 12 3 A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i o n of T he m e T w o 12 6 A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on of T he m e T hr e e 12 8 S um m a r y D i s c us s i on f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o 129 A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on f or R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T h r e e 1 30 T he m e O ne 131 T he m e T w o 131 D i s c us s i on of C o c ons t r uc t e d T he m e s 13 1 C onc l us i on 13 4 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or F ur t he r S t udy 13 5 R e f e r e nc e s 1 39 A ppe ndi x A : S t ude nt O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E xpe r i e nc e S ur ve y 162 A ppe ndi x B : I ns t r uc t o r O nl i ne T e a c hi ng E xpe r i e n c e S ur ve y 165 A ppe ndi x C : W or d L i s t 168 A ppe ndi x D : E xa m pl e o f S u r ve y R e s po ns e s t o O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i ons 170 A bout t he A ut hor E nd P a ge

PAGE 7

i v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 E xi s t i ng I ns t r uc t i ona l D e s i gn ( I D ) P a r a di gm s a nd t he i r L i m i t a t i ons 34 T a bl e 2 M ode l f or t he T hr e e S t e p C om m uni c a t i on P r oc e s s 4 8 T a bl e 3 C om f or t L e ve l s us e d f or V a r i a bl e of O nl i ne E xpe r i e nc e 49 T a bl e 4 E t hni c i t y o f S t ude nt P a r t i c i pa nt s 69 T a bl e 5 C hi S qua r e A na l ys i s of S t ude nt D e m ogr a phi c s 7 0 T a bl e 6 B i va r i a t e D a t a f or E t hni c i t y by G e nde r 71 T a bl e 7 B i va r i a t e D a t a f or E t hni c i t y by A ge 7 2 T a b l e 8 B i va r i a t e D a t a f or E t hni c i t y by O nl i ne C l a s s e s T a ke n 74 T a bl e 9 A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e f or S e l f r e por t e d C om f or t L e ve l S c or e s 75 T a bl e 10 F r e que nc y a nd P e r c e nt a ge s f or C om f or t L e ve l w i t h C om put e r s 7 6 T a bl e 11 S t ude nt M e a ns f or C om f o r t L e ve l W i t h C om put e r s by E t hni c i t y 7 7 T a bl e 12 R e pr e s e nt a t i on of O r i gi na l a nd C ol l a ps e d D a t a 80 T a bl e 13 A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e f or Q ue s t i on O ne S c or e s 81 T a bl e 14 S t ude nt A ns w e r s t o S ur ve y Q ue s t i on O ne by E t hni c i t y 82 T a bl e 15 A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e f or Q ue s t i on T w o S c or e s 83 T a bl e 16 S t ude nt A ns w e r s t o S ur ve y Q ue s t i on O ne by E t hni c i t y 84

PAGE 8

v A n I nve s t i ga t i on of t he O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E nvi r onm e nt i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on t hr ough t he O bs e r va t i ons a nd P e r c e pt i ons of S t ude nt s of C ol or M a r i e A de l e B oye t t e A B S T R A C T A ne e d e xi s t s t o ga i n a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng o f ho w t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on i s pe r c e i ve d by s t ude nt s of c ol o r T he r e s e a r c h c om pl e t e d f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on e xpl or e d s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on by e xa m i ni ng t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or A l ong t he w a y, t he pr oc e s s of t h e r e s e a r c h j our ne y dr e w a t t e nt i on t o t he l a c k of i nc l us i on o f s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he l i t e r a t u r e a nd da t a c ol l e c t e d a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng, a nd poi nt e d t o t he e xi s t e nc e of t he di gi t a l di vi de a nd i t s i m pa c t on gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng. I n t hi s s t udy, no s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e f ound i n t he e xa m i na t i on of t he na t ur e of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e por t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e T he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s not c onc l us i ve l y f ound t o be a n e nvi r onm e nt w he r e opi ni ons or c r i t i que s c oul d be e xpr e s s e d m or e e a s i l y t ha n i n a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom a nd t he i m por t a nc e t o s t ude nt s of ha vi ng t he oppor t u ni t y t o c ha l l e nge w hi t e nor m s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s not f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt A dvi c e i s of f e r e d f r o m s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol o r pr ovi di ng e xa m pl e s of w a ys i n w hi c h a n on l i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt m a y m o r e f ul l y c ons i de r t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or

PAGE 9

1 C ha pt e r O ne : I nt r oduc t i on O nl i ne l e a r ni ng i s a n i ns t r uc t i ona l f or m a t w he r e t h e i ns t r uc t or a nd s t ude nt s a r e s e pa r a t e d by t i m e a nd/ or di s t a nc e a nd pr i m a r i l y us e t he I nt e r ne t a nd a pe r s ona l c om put e r a s a m e a ns of c ont e nt de l i ve r y a nd s t ude nt / i ns t r uc t or i nt e r a c t i on t o c om m uni c a t e a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n a va r i e t y o f e duc a t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s O nl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on, a n i ns t r uc t i ona l m ode l t ha t s e r ve s a bou t 3. 2 m i l l i on o nl i ne a dul t s t ude nt s i n a s e m e s t e r a t de gr e e gr a nt i ng i ns t i t ut i ons ( P ow e r s 2006) c ont i n ue s t o gr ow due t o t he c onve ni e nc e of a dul t l e a r ne r s be i ng a bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e onl i ne vi a p e r s ona l c om put e r s a t t i m e s a nd pl a c e s c onve ni e nt t o t he m I t i s i m po r t a nt t o c ons i de r t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of onl i ne s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s i n or de r t o e f f e c t i ve l y a dd r e s s t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt A l t hough t he l i t e r a t ur e i s r i c h w i t h c ont r i but i ons e xpl or i ng t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng i n a m ul t i c ul t u r a l s oc i e t y f o r t r a di t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e t e a c he r / s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons ( s e e B a nks 2001 f or a good r e vi e w ) I f i nd i t t r oubl i ng t ha t s o l i t t l e r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e n t T hu s i t i s i m po r t a nt t o pr ovi de r e s e a r c h a i m e d di r e c t l y a t t he pa r t i c i pa t i on of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he r a pi dl y gr ow i ng onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt o f hi ghe r e duc a t i on. C ur r e nt l y m a i ns t r e a m e xa m i na t i ons of a nd r e por t s a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng, s t ude nt s a nd p r a c t i c e s ( s e e M oor e 2005 f o r a n e xa m pl e ) do not f oc us on or e ve n i nc l ude da t a s pe c i f i c t o s t u de nt s of c ol or T hi s l a c k a bs or bs t he gr ow i ng popul a t i on of m i nor i t y l e a r ne r s i nt o t he o nl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w i t hout

PAGE 10

2 t a ki ng i nt o c ons c i ous c ons i de r a t i on t he pe r c e p t i ons of t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt by s t ude nt s of c ol or or c ons i de r a t i on of a ny pa r t i c ul a r ne e ds or obs e r va t i ons s pe c i f i c a l l y e xpr e s s e d by s t ude nt s of c ol or a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt P a r t i c i pa t i on by pe r s ons of c ol or i n gr a dua t e e duc a t i on i s i nc r e a s i ng a t a dr a m a t i c r a t e ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) 2005 ) T ot a l m i nor i t y e nr ol l m e nt i n gr a dua t e s t udi e s i nc r e a s e d 254% vs 27% f or w h i t e s ove r a 27 ye a r pe r i od F or bo t h w hi t e a nd m i nor i t y s t ude nt s t he f a s t e s t gr ow t h i n de gr e e s a t t a i ne d w a s a t t he m a s t e r s l e ve l F r o m 1993 4 t o 2003 4, m a s t e r s de gr e e s a w a r de d t o m i no r i t y s t ude nt s i nc r e a s e d by 105. 7% w hi l e t hos e a w a r de d t o w hi t e s t ude nt s i nc r e a s e d by 21. 5% ( J a s c hi k, 2006) T he pl e nt i f ul l i t e r a t u r e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on not e s t he i m por t a nc e of t he gr ow i ng popul a t i on o f s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on ( S out he r n R e gi ona l E l e c t r oni c B oa r d ( S R E B ) 2007) a nd t he gr ow t h of onl i ne l e a r ni ng ( A l l e n & S e a m a n, 2005, 2006) but l e a ve s a ga p w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c t o t he i n t e r s e c t i on of onl i ne l e a r n i ng a nd t he popul a t i on of s t ude nt s o f c ol or ( L a l 2003; W a ng, 2007) T he r e f or e a ne e d e xi s t s t o ga i n a be t t e r unde r s t a nd i ng of how t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on i s pe r c e i ve d by s t ude nt s of c ol or r e qui r i ng r e s e a r c h w hi c h f oc us e s on s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on B y di r e c t l y s e e ki ng obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng f r om s t ude nt s of c ol o r w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng t he r e s e a r c h c om p l e t e d f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on di r e c t s a m uc h ne e de d f oc us t ow a r d t he e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt by e xa m i ni ng t he i r obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons a nd a dds di ve r s i t y t o t he r e s e a r c h s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng.

PAGE 11

3 St at e m e nt of t he P r obl e m I n or de r t o a dd r e s s t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng, i t i s i m por t a nt t o t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of t hos e pa r t i c i pa nt s T he l i t e r a t u r e i s r i c h w i t h c ont r i but i ons e xpl or i ng m i nor i t y, e t hni c or r a c i a l i s s ue s f or t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng i n a m ul t i c ul t ur a l s oc i e t y f or t r a di t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e t e a c he r / s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons a nd r e s e a r c h de a l i ng w i t h t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i s bot h p r e va l e nt a nd pl e nt i f ul ; how e ve r r e s e a r c h i s m i s s i n g f r om t h e i nt e r s e c t i on of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a nd t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt A ne e d e xi s t s t o e xa m i ne t hi s i nt e r s e c t i on due t o t he r a pi d g r ow t h i n pa r t i c i pa t i o n by s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he r a pi d gr ow t h of t h e onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. P ur pos e of t he St udy T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or S i nc e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n di r e c t e d t ow a r d s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt of hi ghe r e duc a t i on, t hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he i nt e r s e c t i on of t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on us i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o pr ovoke i nq ui r y, pr ovi de di r e c t i on a nd c r e a t e a s pa c e f or l ooki ng s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r I t w a s not a s t udy f oc us e d on di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s ; t hi s s t udy s ou ght t o l e a r n m or e a bout t he on l i ne e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or s i nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h f or t hi s popul a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne e nv i r onm e nt a t t he pr e s e nt t i m e Q ui gl e y r e m i nds us t ha t r e s e a r c h be gi ns w i t h a que s t i on a nd a de s i r e f o r c ha nge ( 1997 ) A s a

PAGE 12

4 pr a c t i t i one r a nd r e s e a r c he r i n t he f i e l d o f a dul t e du c a t i on a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng I de s i gne d t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy a s a s m a l l s t e p t ow a r d a c ha nge i n t he s t a t us quo f or a s ys t e m w he r e r e s e a r c h t ypi c a l l y ha s t a ke n t he w hi t e e xpe r i e nc e t o be t he w i de l y a c c e pt e d a nd nor m a l e xpe r i e nc e f or a dul t l e a r ne r s ( J ohns on B a i l e y & C e r ve r o, 2000 ) O bj e c t i v e of t he St udy and R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons T hi s s t udy ga t he r s a nd a dds ne w i n f or m a t i on t o t h e body of know l e dge s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng by e xa m i ni ng va r i a bi l i t y a m ong s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd t he i r pe r c e pt i ons a nd obs e r va t i ons a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng B a s e d on ne e ds e xpr e s s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons gui de d t he r e s e a r c h: 1. W ha t i s t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e po r t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e ? 2. T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt p r o vi de a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c ol or c a n m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt ? 3. I f pe r s ons of c ol or [ s t ude nt s or on l i ne i ns t r uc t or s ] c oul d of f e r onl i ne l e a r ni ng i ns t r uc t or s a nd de s i gne r s a dvi c e a bout pr ovi d i ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h f ul l y c ons i de r s t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or w ha t w ou l d i t be ? T he or e t i c al F r am e w or k T e c hnol ogy a nd I n t e r ne t us e w i t hi n hi ghe r e duc a t i on ha s f l oode d t he l i t e r a t ur e i n r e c e nt ye a r s a nd e duc a t or s o f a dul t s a r e t ur ni ng t o a dul t e duc a t i on pr i nc i pl e s a nd pr a c t i c e s s uc h a s a ndr a gogy a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng, f o r a n e f f e c t i ve f i t K a s w or m & L ondone r ( 2000) a dvoc a t e a dul t e duc a t or s t o s i t u a t e a dul t l e a r ni ng w i t hi n c om put i ng t e c hnol ogy . [ be c om i ng] i nnova t or s f o r i t s us e s a nd a ppl i c a t i ons ( p. 225 ) w he n

PAGE 13

5 t e a c hi ng a dul t s T he r e s e a r c h s t udy f ound i n t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on l ooks a t a dul t l e a r ne r s ove r t he a ge of 2 0 i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt of onl i ne l e a r n i ng a nd us e s a ndr a gogy a s a c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k ( K now l e s 1989, p. 1 12) A nd r a gogy pr o vi de s a t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k w hi c h he l ps r e c ogni z e a nd a r t i c ul a t e t h e ne e ds of a dul t l e a r ne r s i n a n onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt s i nc e t he r e i s no uni ve r s a l l y a c c e pt e d a nd c om pr e he ns i ve t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k f or onl i ne l e a r ni ng ( M c I s a a c & G una w a r de na 1996 ) A ndr a gogy, t he a r t a nd s c i e nc e of he l pi ng a dul t s l e a r n, i s a gr oup of p r i nc i pl e s a nd pr a c t i c e s w hi c h pr ovi de a t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k f o r a dul t l e a r ni ng ( K now l e s 1975, 1980, 1984a 1984b) w i t h t he p r e m i s e be i ng t ha t a dul t s s houl d ha ve t he oppor t un i t y t o t a ke r e s pons i bi l i t y f or a nd a n a c t i ve r o l e i n, de c i s i ons m a de a bout t he i r l e a r ni ng. W i t hi n t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k of a ndr a gogy, t he l e a r n e r s ba c kgr ound i s a n e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt . s t ude nt s l e a r n w ha t i s w or t hw hi l e i n t he i r ow n r e a l l i f e a ppl i c a t i on ( B a i r d & F i s he r 2005 / 2006, p. 7) A c c or di ng t o t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k o f a ndr a gogy a dul t s ne e d t o know w hy t he y ne e d t o l e a r n s om e t hi ng, ha ve i nput i nt o how t he y l e a r n, a ppr oa c h l e a r ni ng a s pr obl e m s ol vi ng, l e a r n e xpe r i e nt i a l l y ( i nc l udi ng l e a r ni ng f r om m i s t a ke s ) a nd l e a r n be s t w he n t opi c s ha ve pe r s ona l or i m m e di a t e va l ue A ndr a gogy i s not a c om pr e he ns i ve t he or y r a t he r i t i s a ba s i s f or a n e m e r ge nt t he o r y ( K now l e s 1989, p. 112) A ndr a gogy a s a t he or y i s us e d a s a f ounda t i on f or c ont e m por a r y r e s e a r c h f or t he l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on ( C a s s i t y, 2005; H uds on, 2005) a nd a s a s pr i ngboa r d f or di s c us s i ons a bout s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng ( H i e m s t r a 2006; T ough 2006) A nd r a gogy pr ov i de s a hi s t or i c a l f ounda t i on f o r t he e duc a t i on of a dul t s c ont i nue s t o i n f l ue nc e t he f i e l d a nd gui de c ont e m por a r y a dul t a nd hi ghe r e duc a t i on s c hol a r s a nd pr a c t i t i one r s a nd pr ovi de s a ba c kgr ound f o r s t udyi ng p r a c t i c e s i n

PAGE 14

6 onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd hi ghe r e duc a t i on F or a dul t l e a r ne r s t he e xpe r i e nc e s of w hi t e s t ude nt s a r e c ons i de r e d nor m a t i ve t he r e i s ve r y l i t t l e l i t e r a t ur e on a ny ot h e r e t hni c or r a c i a l g r oups ( A i ke n, C e r ve r o, & J ohns on B a i l e y, 2001, p. 307) A l ong w i t h c ons i de r i ng t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of a ge ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y w he n e xa m i ni ng s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on ( T i nt o 1993) t he f r a m e w or k f o r t hi s s t udy pr ovi d e s a pl a c e t o i nt e nt i ona l l y e xpl or e t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt r e s e a r c h w hi c h i s de s pe r a t e l y ne e d e d ( L a l 2003) T he l i t e r a t u r e c onc e r ni ng e duc a t i ona l pr a c t i c e s f or s t ude nt s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on r a r e l y s e e ks out nor e m pha s i z e s t he voi c e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or ( M a ngl i t z 2003; P r yc e 2000) a n d t hi s a s pe c t r e m a i ns a r e l a t i ve l y une xa m i ne d f a c e t of t he r e s e a r c h s ur r oundi ng t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. I n f a c t s e e ki ng t he pe r c e pt i ons of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s r e ga r di ng t he i r s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e i s c ons i de r e d a r a r i t y ( R os s G or don & B r ow n H a yw ood, 2000 ) B y us i ng t ool s s pe c i f i c t o t h e onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s uc h a s e m a i l a nd a n onl i ne s ur ve y t ool a nd by di r e c t i ng a n i nt e nt i ona l vi e w f oc us e d on t h e e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or t he pl a n f or t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s t ha t a p i c t ur e o f e xpe r i e n c e s e nc ount e r e d by s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on w oul d e m e r ge Si gni f i c anc e of t he S t udy S t ude nt s of c ol or a r e t yp i c a l l y unde r r e p r e s e nt e d i n t he m a j or i t y of hi ghe r e duc a t i on i ns t i t ut i ons a s w e l l a s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w i t h w hi t e ne s s a s t he i nvi s i bl e nor m ( S hor e 19 97, p. 414) a f a c t w hi c h ha s be e n f or t h e m os t pa r t una c know l e dge d ( F l a nne r y, 1994) a nd une xa m i ne d ( R oc c o & W e s t 1998 ; S ho r e 1997 ) a nd t he l i t e r a t ur e r e f l e c t s t ha t t hi s f a c t ha s not c ha nge d ( L a t he r 2003; M a ngl i t z 2003) A dul t s l e a r n be s t w he n

PAGE 15

7 t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i s a c know l e dge d, w he n ne w i nf o r m a t i on bui l ds on t he i r pa s t e xpe r i e nc e a nd w he n c ur r i c ul um c ont e nt i s m e a ni ngf ul pr ob l e m or i e nt e d, a nd p r a c t i c a l ( C a f f a r e l l a 1994, p 24 25) T hi s s t udy f oc us e d on t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho ha ve t a ke n onl i ne c our s e s T he i nt e nt of t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s t o c ont r i but e t o t he l a r ge r body o f know l e dge s ur r oundi ng, de s c r i bi ng, a nd s ha pi ng onl i ne l e a r n i ng f o r s t ude nt s i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s T he f ol l ow i ng t e r m s w e r e us e d i n t hi s s t udy: A dul t L e ar ne r s : S t ude nt s a ge 2 0 o r ol de r w ho ha ve l e f t a t r a di t i ona l hi gh s c hool e nvi r onm e nt A f r i c an A m e r i c an : A pe r s on w i t h or i gi ns i n a ny of t he B l a c k r a c i a l gr oups o f A f r i c a A m e r i c an I ndi an or A l as k a N at i v e : A pe r s on w i t h or i gi ns i n a ny of t he or i gi na l pe opl e s of N or t h A m e r i c a a nd S out h A m e r i c a ( i nc l udi ng C e nt r a l A m e r i c a ) a nd w ho m a i nt a i ns t r i ba l a f f i l i a t i on o r ha s c om m uni t y r e c og ni t i ons a s a n A m e r i c a n I ndi a n or A l a s ka N a t i ve A ny t i m e A ny pl ac e : A popu l a r t e r m f o r onl i ne l e a r ni ng w he r e s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e f r om t he i r ow n l oc a t i on a t a t i m e c onve ni e nt t o t he m A s i an : A pe r s on w i t h or i g i ns i n a ny of t he or i gi na l pe opl e s of t he F a r E a s t S out he a s t A s i a or t he I ndi a n S ubc ont i ne nt i nc l udi ng f or e xa m pl e C a m bodi a C hi na I ndi a J a pa n, K or e a M a l a ys i a P a ki s t a n, t he P hi l i ppi ne I s l a nds T ha i l a nd a nd V i e t na m A s y nc hr onous : A n i ns t r uc t i ona l f or m a t w he r e t he i ns t r uc t or a nd s t ude nt s a r e s e pa r a t e d by t i m e a nd di s t a nc e T he s t ude nt t ypi c a l l y pa r t i c i pa t e s a s a n i ndi vi dua l r a t he r t ha n a s pa r t of a g r oup.

PAGE 16

8 B l ac k : B l a c k or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n r e f e r s t o a pe r s on w i t h or i gi ns i n a ny of t he B l a c k r a c i a l gr oups of A f r i c a B l a c k i s c ons i de r e d a popu l a r i f not pol i t i c a l l y c or r e c t t e r m ( W e i t z & G or don 1993 ) B l ac k boar d T M : A n onl i ne c our s e m a na ge m e nt s ys t e m C om put e r A nx i e t y : A ppr e he ns i on a nd/ or f e a r w he n us i ng or t hi nki ng a bout c om put e r s w hi c h c ont r i but e s t o a s t a t e of a nxi e t y i n c om put i n g s i t ua t i ons M a ni f e s t a t i ons i nc l ude w or r y, de s pa i r di s t r a c t i bi l i t y a nd phys i o l o gi c a l s ym pt om s C om put e r B as e d E duc at i on ( C B E ) : I ns t r uc t i ona l f or m a t us i ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd pe r s ona l c om put e r s C om put e r M e di at e d C om m uni c at i on ( C M C ) : U s i ng a c om put e r t o e nga ge i n di a l ogue w he r e t he di a l ogue i s p r e s e nt e d a s w r i t t e n t e xt A l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s e l e c t r oni c di s c our s e or onl i ne di a l ogue C ul t ur e : N or m s a nd pr a c t i c e s of a pa r t i c ul a r gr oup w hi c h a r e l e a r ne d a nd s ha r e d a nd gui de t hi nki ng, de c i s i ons a nd a c t i ons C ul t ur al V al ue s : G r oup o r i ndi v i dua l 's de s i r a bl e or pr e f e r r e d w a y of a c t i ng o r know i ng w hi c h i s s us t a i ne d ove r a pe r i od of t i m e a nd w hi c h gove r ns a c t i ons or de c i s i ons C y be r s pac e : T he onl i ne w or l d c r e a t e d by t he W or l d W i de W e b a nd pe r s ona l c om put e r s D i gi t al D i v i de : A popul a r na m e f or t he t e c hnol ogy ga p c r e a t e d due t o di s pa r i t y i n t e c hnol ogy r e s our c e s ow ne r s hi p a nd a c c e s s a nd i s a t t r i but e d t o di f f e r e nt f a c t or s i nc l udi ng: l a c k of e a s y I nt e r ne t a c c e s s by unde r s e r ve d s t ude nt s a nd s c hool s di f f e r e nc e i n c ul t ur a l a c c l i m a t i on t o t e c hnol ogy a n d l a c k of r e s our c e s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on i ns t i t ut i ons t o i m pl e m e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l t e c hnol ogi e s or t o r e pl a c e t e c hnol ogy w hi c h qui c kl y be c om e s obs ol e t e

PAGE 17

9 D i s t anc e L e ar ne r s : S t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n c l a s s e s t a ki ng pl a c e of f c a m pus w he r e t he i ns t r uc t or a nd c l a s s a r e s e pa r a t e d by t i m e a nd pl a c e D i s t anc e L e ar ni ng : C l a s s e s t a ki ng pl a c e of f c a m pu s w he r e t he i ns t r uc t or a nd c l a s s a r e s e pa r a t e d by t i m e a nd pl a c e T he t e r m s di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng a r e of t e n us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y i n t he l i t e r a t u r e e l e ar ne r : A s t ude nt us i ng a pe r s ona l c om pu t e r a n d t he I nt e r ne t t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e e l e ar ni ng : O nl i ne l e a r ni ng us i ng a pe r s ona l c om p ut e r a nd t he I nt e r ne t E l e c t r oni c D i s c our s e : U s i ng a c om put e r t o e nga ge i n di a l ogue w he r e t he di a l ogue i s pr e s e nt e d a s w r i t t e n t e xt A l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s onl i ne di a l ogue or c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on. E t hni c : R e f e r s t o l a r ge gr oups of pe opl e c l a s s i f i e d a c c or di ng t o c om m on t r a i t s or c us t om s G l obal i z at i on: T he i nc r e a s i ng m obi l i t y of t e c hnol ogy, e duc a t i on, a nd c a pi t a l t h r oughout t he w or l d. H i s pani c : A pe r s on w i t h o r i gi ns of M e xi c a n, P ue r t o R i c a n, C uba n, C e nt r a l or S out h A m e r i c a n, or ot he r S pa ni s h c ul t ur e o r o r i gi n : L a t i n a ( w om e n) o r L a t i no ( m e n) M i nor i t y / M i nor i t i e s : P opul a r a nd w i de l y a c c e pt e d t e r m f o r a ny r a c e ot he r t ha n C a uc a s i a n. N at i v e H a w ai i an or ot he r P ac i f i c I s l ande r : R e f e r s t o a pe r s on ha vi ng or i gi ns i n a ny of t he pe opl e s of H a w a i i G ua m S a m oa o r ot he r P a c i f i c I s l a nds ( N a t i ve H a w a i i a n doe s not i nc l ude i ndi vi dua l s w ho a r e na t i ve t o t he s t a t e of H a w a i i by vi r t ue o f be i ng bor n t he r e ) O nl i ne : U s i ng t he I n t e r ne t a nd a pe r s ona l c om put e r t o c om m uni c a t e a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n a va r i e t y of a c t i vi t i e s

PAGE 18

10 O nl i ne C l as s : A c our s e of i ns t r uc t i on w hi c h r e l i e s pr i m a r i l y on t he I nt e r ne t a nd pe r s ona l c om put e r s a s a m e a ns of c ont e nt de l i ve r y a nd s t ud e nt / i ns t r uc t or i nt e r a c t i on T he t e r m i s us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y w i t h onl i ne c our s e a nd w e b ba s e d c our s e O nl i ne C our s e : A c our s e of i ns t r uc t i on w hi c h r e l i e s pr i m a r i l y on t he I nt e r ne t a nd pe r s ona l c om put e r s a s a m e a ns of c ont e nt de l i ve r y a nd s t ude nt / i n s t r uc t or i nt e r a c t i on. T he t e r m i s us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y w i t h onl i ne c l a s s a nd w e b ba s e d c our s e O nl i ne D i al ogu e : U s i ng a c om put e r t o e nga ge i n d i a l ogue w he r e t he di a l ogue i s pr e s e nt e d a s w r i t t e n t e xt A l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s e l e c t r oni c di s c our s e or c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on. O nl i ne L e ar ne r : A s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h a c om p ut e r a nd t he I nt e r ne t t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a s e l f di r e c t e d but s t r uc t u r e d l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e O nl i ne L e ar n i ng : I nt e r a c t i ng w i t h a c om put e r a nd t he I nt e r ne t t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a s e l f di r e c t e d but s t r uc t u r e d l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e T he t e r m s onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng a r e of t e n us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y i n t he l i t e r a t u r e R ac e : T he r e i s no e s t a bl i s he d a gr e e m e nt on a s c i e nt i f i c de f i ni t i on e xc e pt t he f a c t t ha t r a c e ha s no bi ol ogi c a l or na t u r a l ba s i s Se l f di r e c t e d L e ar ni ng: A l e a r ni ng f or m a t w he r e s t ude nt s t a ke pe r s ona l r e s po ns i bi l i t y f or t he i r l e a r ni ng i nc l udi ng pl a nni ng, f i ndi ng he l p, c o nt e nt a nd out c om e s St ude nt s of C ol or : S t ude nt s of a ny r a c e ot he r t ha n C a uc a s i a n. Sy nc hr onous : A c l a s s de l i ve r e d f a c e t o f a c e or onl i ne a t a s pe c i f i e d t i m e a nd pl a c e T e c hnol ogy G ap : A l s o know n a s t he di gi t a l di v i de i t r e f e r s t o t he ga p be t w e e n t hos e w i t h t e c hnol ogy r e s our c e s ow ne r s hi p a nd a c c e s s a nd t hos e w i t hout s i m i l a r a c c e s s

PAGE 19

11 U r ban / R ur al : A r e a s w i t h m o r e popul a t i on de ns i t y ( ur ba n) o r l e s s popul a t i on de ns i t y ( r ur a l ) M a y a l s o be c om m onl y r e f e r r e d t o a s t he c i t y ( ur ba n) or t he c ount r y ( r ur a l ) V i r t ual C om m uni t y : T he c om m uni t y c om pos e d of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r i ns t r uc t or i n a n onl i ne c l a s s W e b ba s e d C our s e : A c our s e de l i ve r e d us i ng t he I nt e r ne t a nd a pe r s ona l c om put e r i n a n a s ync hr onous e nvi r onm e nt a s t he pr i m a r y m e a ns o f c om m uni c a t i on a nd c our s e c ont e nt T he t e r m i s us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y w i t h on l i ne c l a s s a nd onl i ne c our s e W hi t e : R e f e r s t o t he C a uc a s i a n r a c e ; a pe r s on ha vi ng or i gi ns i n a ny of t he o r i gi na l pe opl e s of E ur ope t he M i ddl e E a s t or N or t h A f r i c a W hi t e pr i v i l e ge : A s oc i ol ogi c a l t he or y de not i ng t h e a dva nt a ge s pur por t e d t o be e nj oye d by w hi t e pe r s ons be yond w ha t i s c om m onl y a nd t y pi c a l l y e xpe r i e nc e d by pe r s ons w ho a r e not w hi t e W hi t e N or m s : T e r m w hi c h m a y be unde r s t ood a s s i m i l a r t o t he t e r m w hi t e pr i v i l e ge w he r e t he s t a nda r d of e xpe r i e nc e r e f l e c t s t he e xpe r i e nc e s hi s t or y, a nd t r a di t i on of w hi t e pe r s ons W or l d W i de W e b ( W W W ) : A hype r m e di a ba s e d s ys t e m f or b r ow s i ng I nt e r ne t s i t e s I t i s na m e d t he w e b be c a us e i t i s c om pos e d of m a ny s i t e s l i nke d t oge t he r O r gani z at i on of t he St udy C ha pt e r O ne i nc l ude d a n i nt r oduc t i on t o t he s t udy, t he s t a t e m e nt of t he pr ob l e m t he pur pos e of t he s t udy, t he obj e c t i ve a nd gui di ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k gui di ng t he s t udy t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he s t udy, a nd a de f i ni t i on of t e r m s C ha pt e r T w o pr ov i de s a r e vi e w o f t he l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h i nc l ude s a n i nt r oduc t i on

PAGE 20

12 a nd t w o m a j or c ont e nt a r e a s T he f i r s t c ont e nt a r e a pr ovi de s a ba c kgr ound f or t he s t udy w hi c h i nc l ude s s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng a dul t l e a r ni n g s t yl e s t he i nt e r s e c t i on o f ge nde r r a c e a nd onl i ne di a l ogue a dul t l e a r ni ng pe r c e pt i o ns a nd ba r r i e r s t o l e a r n i ng. T h e s e c ond c ont e nt a r e a di s c us s e s a s pe c t s of e t hni c i t y i n t he o nl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt he l pi ng t o f i x a nd f oc us t he ga ps f ound i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t o i n f or m t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons pos e d by t hi s s t udy. T h i s por t i on of t he r e vi e w e xa m i ne s t he pos i t i oni ng of s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n onl i ne di a l ogue t he c om m uni c a t i on o f p r i vi l e ge i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a nd s e ns e m a ki ng f or s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt C ha pt e r T hr e e de s c r i be s t he m e t hodol ogy w hi c h w a s us e d f or t he r e s e a r c h s t udy a nd i n c l ude s a di s c us s i on of t he r ol e of t he r e s e a r c he r t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn, t r i a ngul a t i on, pi l ot s t udy, popul a t i on a nd s a m pl e da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd i ns t r um e nt a t i on s t r a t e gy f or da t a a na l ys i s l i m i t a t i ons of t he s t udy, a nd hum a n s ubj e c t s pr ot e c t i on a nd c onf i de n t i a l i t y. C ha pt e r F our p r e s e nt s t he r e s ul t s of t he r e s e a r c h f o r e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on. P r oc e s s e s a nd r e s ul t s f or s t a t i s t i c a l a nd qua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s a r e pr ovi de d. A n e t hno gr a phi c pr of i l e o f s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy i s pr ovi de d. R e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd a ge a nd e t hni c i t y a nd c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e i s e xa m i ne d. F or ope n e nde d que s t i ons r e pr e s e nt a t i ve r e s pons e s f or qua l i t a t i ve da t a a r e i nc l ude d. C ha pt e r F i ve a na l yz e s a nd di s c us s e s t he f i ndi ngs f or e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on R e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h a r e w ove n t hr oughout t he d i s c us s i on f or e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on a nd i n c onc l us i ons dr a w n. A l t ho ugh t he di gi t a l di vi de w a s not a pa r t of t he r e s e a r c h, i t w a s a pa r t of t he r e s e a r c h j our ne y a nd i s i nc l ude d i n t he c onc l us i on a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h.

PAGE 21

13 C ha pt e r T w o: R e vi e w of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t ur e I nt r oduc t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or T he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i de nt i f i e s ga ps i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e f or s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. I n t he pl e nt i f ul a nd p r e va l e nt l i t e r a t ur e a nd r e s e a r c h s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on ( s e e f or e xa m pl e A l l e n & S e a m a n, 2006; C ha l oux & M i ngl e 2002 ) t he e t hni c i t y o f s t ude nt s i s r a r e l y e xa m i ne d. T w o m a j o r t he m e s f o r onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on f ound i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f oc us on di f f e r e nc e s t udi e s a nd be s t p r a c t i c e s D i f f e r e nc e s t udi e s be t w e e n o n c a m pus a nd onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e s s pa n pa r t i c i pa t i on, pe r f or m a nc e pe r s i s t e nc e de l i ve r y m e t hod ol ogy i ns t r uc t i ona l de s i gn, l e a r ni ng obj e c t s e va l ua t i on a nd l e a r ni ng out c om e s a nd s t ude nt a nd i ns t r uc t or s a t i s f a c t i on I n ge ne r a l no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e ( N a va r r o & S hoe m a ke r 20 00; R us s e l l 1999) ha s be e n c ons i s t e nt l y r e por t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e be t w e e n f a c e t o f a c e a nd onl i ne i ns t r uc t i on. T he no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e c ont r ove r s y c ont i nue s t o be de ba t e d a c r os s t opi c s a nd t e c hnol ogi e s ( L i e vr ouw 2001) a nd i s not a f oc us of t hi s r e s e a r c h s i nc e s t ude nt s of c ol or a r e t ypi c a l l y not s pe c i f i c a l l y m e nt i one d i n s uc h s t udi e s ( M a ngl i t z 2003; P r yc e 2000; R os s G or don & B r ow n H a yw ood, 2000) B e s t pr a c t i c e s f or t he onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a r e a c t i ve l y r e s e a r c he d a nd a r e unde r c ons t a nt c ons t r uc t i on a nd r e c ons t r uc t i on i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w i t h a m yr i a d o f s ugge s t i ons f or be s t pr a c t i c e s i n onl i ne i ns t r uc t i on

PAGE 22

14 pe da gogi c a l i s s ue s f or i ns t r uc t or s a nd t he us e of t e c hnol ogy i n e duc a t i on e m e r g i ng f r om t he r e s e a r c h a nd i nt o p r a c t i c e ( K e e t on, 2004) but t ypi c a l l y do not i nc l ude s pe c i f i c s or be s t pr a c t i c e s f or s t ude nt s of c ol o r D i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng l i t e r a t ur e f oc us e d on t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s popul a r w i t h m a ny onl i ne a c a de m i c a nd or ga ni z a t i ona l w e bs i t e s de vot e d t o s ha r i ng t he r e s e a r c h, s uc h a s t he S l oa n C ons or t i um a c ons or t i um o f i ns t i t ut i ons a nd or ga ni z a t i ons c om m i t t e d t o qua l i t y onl i ne e duc a t i on ( 2006) a nd t he I ns t r uc t i ona l T e c hnol ogy C ounc i l w hi c h pr ovi de s l e a de r s hi p, i nf or m a t i on a nd r e s our c e s t o e xpa n d a nd e nha nc e di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng t hr ough t he e f f e c t i ve us e of t e c hnol ogy ( 2007 ) O nl i ne l e a r ni ng, a n i ns t r uc t i ona l m ode l w hi c h s e r ve s a gr ow i ng popul a t i on of s t ude nt s i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on, i s l i s t e d a s a n i m por t a nt l ong t e r m gr ow t h s t r a t e gy a t U S i ns t i t u t i ons of hi ghe r l e a r ni ng ( A l l e n & S e a m a n, 2006) t hus i t i s i m por t a nt t o s ol i c i t a nd i nc l ude t he pe r c e pt i ons of onl i ne s t ude nt s s e r ve d i n or de r t o c om pr e he ns i ve l y a nd e f f e c t i ve l y a ddr e s s t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e n t f o und i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. T he r e c ur r e nt l y e xi s t s a ga p i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f or t he s pe c i f i c i nc l us i on of onl i ne s t ude nt s of c ol or T he r e vi e w o f t he l i t e r a t ur e i s di vi de d i n t o c ont e nt s e c t i ons w hi c h pr ovi de a ba c kgr ound a nd a f oc us f o r t he p r opos e d s t udy O r gani z at i on of t he C hapt e r T he b a c kgr ound f or t hi s s t udy i nc l ude s s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng, l e a r ni ng s t yl e s t he i nt e r s e c t i on of ge nde r r a c e a nd onl i ne di a l ogue a dul t l e a r ni ng pe r c e pt i ons a nd ba r r i e r s t o l e a r ni ng. T he l i t e r a t ur e e xhi bi t s a r e ne w e d i n t e r e s t i n s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng ( H i e m s t r a 2006 ) due t o t he t ypi c a l l y a s ync hr onous na t ur e of onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd i ndi vi dua l pa r t i c i pa t i on i n on l i ne l e a r ni ng t hr ough t he us e of a pe r s ona l c om put e r t he r e f or e

PAGE 23

15 s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng i s e xa m i ne d f r o m a hi s t o r i c a l t o a c ont e m po r a r y pe r s pe c t i ve N e xt l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a r e r e vi e w e d f r om a pr e onl i ne pe r s pe c t i ve t o c ons i de r a t i on of w ha t c ont r i but e s t o t he s uc c e s s of onl i ne s t ude nt s t oda y. T he n, ge nde r a nd r a c e i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a r e e xa m i ne d f r om t he pe r s p e c t i ve of onl i ne di a l ogue A dul t l e a r ni ng pe r c e pt i ons i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt a r e di s c us s e d a l ong w i t h t he ne e d f or ne w r e s e a r c h i nt o a dul t pe r c e pt i ons of t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt F i na l l y, t r a di t i ona l ba r r i e r s t o l e a r ni ng f o r a dul t l e a r ne r s a r e t r a c e d, a nd t he not i on t ha t onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd t he I nt e r ne t ove r c om e s t he s e t r a di t i ona l ba r r i e r s i s e xa m i ne d. T he ba r r i e r of c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e a nd a nxi e t y i s a ddr e s s e d i n pa r t i c ul a r s i nc e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s uc c e s s i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n h i ghe r e du c a t i on a nd c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e a nd a nxi e t y i s a n e vol vi ng poi nt i n t he l i t e r a t ur e due t o t he r a pi dl y c ha ngi ng na t ur e of t e c hnol ogy us e d i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng. T he f oc us of t hi s s t udy w a s on s t ude nt s of c ol or pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he onl i ne gr a dua t e l e ve l l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he s e c ond s e c t i on of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w di s c us s e s a s pe c t s of e t hni c i t y i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt T hi s po r t i on of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w ope ns w i t h a c r i t i que o f t he l i t e r a t ur e a ddr e s s i ng e t hni c i t y i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nv i r onm e nt T he r e vi e w c ont i nue s w i t h a n e xa m i na t i on of t he pos i t i oni ng of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n onl i ne d i a l ogue a nd goe s on t o a ddr e s s t he i nvi s i bi l i t y o f t he c om m uni c a t i on of p r i vi l e ge i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt F i na l l y s e ns e m a ki ng f or s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i s e xpl or e d. G a ps f ound i n t he l i t e r a t u r e w e r e a r t i c ul a t e d t hr ough t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons Se l f di r e c t e d L e ar ni ng and t he O nl i ne L e ar ni ng E nv i r onm e nt C yr i l H oul e ( 1961 ) i s c r e di t e d w i t h i ns pi r i ng t w o s t r a nds of r e s e a r c h a bout a dul t

PAGE 24

16 l e a r ne r s : pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng W i t h H oul e a s hi s a dvi s or A l a n T ough pi one e r e d t he t he or y of s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng a nd a dul t l e a r ni ng p r oj e c t s i n hi s doc t o r a l di s s e r t a t i on ( 1967) S e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng c ont i nue s t o be a c or ne r s t one of t he or y, pr i nc i pl e s a nd p r a c t i c e s t oda y f or t he e duc a t i on o f a dul t s ( M e r r i a m 2001) a s w e l l a s a ba s i c pr e c e pt f or onl i ne l e a r ni ng T he t r a i t of be i ng s e l f di r e c t e d t ops t he l i s t f o r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s uc c e s s f ul onl i ne l e a r ne r s a nd i s w i de l y doc um e nt e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e T ough s e a r l y w o r k w i t h s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng p r o vi de s a s t a ge f or t he gr ow i ng f i e l d of onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd c ont e m por a r y r e s e a r c h i n t he f i e l d o f s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r ni ng ( B r oc ke t t & H i e m s t r a 1991; H i e m s t r a 2006 ) R e c ogni z e d a s t he l e a di ng pr opone nt o f r e s e a r c h on s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng ( C r os s 1981 p 120) T ough s o r i gi na l r e s e a r c h ha s be e n w e l l r e pl i c a t e d a nd e xt e nde d by s ubs e que nt r e s e a r c h i n t he f i e l d s of onl i ne a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng S e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni n g i s c on s i de r e d t o be t he m os t pr om i ne nt a nd w e l l r e s e a r c he d t opi c i n t he f i e l d of a dul t e duc a t i o n ( B r oc ke t t & H i e m s t r a 1991; G a r r i s on & A r c he r 2000 ) T ough ( 2006) a c know l e dge s t he a l m os t l i m i t l e s s t e c hnol ogi c a l l y e nha nc e d oppor t uni t i e s f or s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng be i ng p r e s e nt e d by t he i nf or m a t i on a ge a nd t he I nt e r ne t a nd a dds t he us e of pe r s ona l c om put e r s a nd t he I nt e r ne t t o t he m i x of nonhum a n r e s our c e s w hi c h c a n be us e d a s pl a nne r s he l pe r s a nd pr ovi de r s of s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng L i t e r a t ur e a nd r e s e a r c h i n t he f i e l d of s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng ha s br a nc he d out t o i nc l ude t he or i e s pr i nc i pl e s a nd p r a c t i c e s of how i ndi vi dua l s l e a r n on t he i r ow n a t t r i but e s of s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r ne r s r e a di ne s s f or s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng l e a r ni ng pl a ns a nd c ont r a c t s c i r c um s t a nc e s a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt w i t h i n w hi c h l e a r ne r s l e a r n a nd t e a c hi ng t ool s f or bot h f a c e t o f a c e a nd onl i ne l e a r ne r s ( C a f f a r e l l a & M e r r i a m 2000) F o r t he

PAGE 25

17 m os t pa r t a ndr a gogy a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng pr i nc i pl e s a r e c ur r e nt l y c ons i de r e d m or e a s pr a c t i c e s f or t he f i e l d o f a dul t e duc a t i on r a t he r t ha n a s pr i nc i pl e s f or t he e duc a t i on o f a l l a dul t l e a r ne r s but due t o t he i ndi vi dua l i z e d a nd t ypi c a l l y a s ync hr onous na t ur e o f onl i ne l e a r ni ng, a dul t e duc a t or s a r e c a l l e d on t o be l e a de r s a nd know l e dge e xpe r t s f or t he i nt e gr a t i on of a ndr a gogy a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng i nt o t he e xpe r i e nc e of onl i ne e duc a t i on f or a dul t s ( H e i m s t r a 2006; L ong, 2006) B r oc ke t t a nd H i e m s t r a ( 1991 ) c om pa r e r e s e a r c h i n s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng t o f i nd: T he r e i s a m pl e e vi de nc e t ha t s e l f di r e c t i on i s m uc h m or e t ha n a m i ddl e c l a s s w hi t e phe nom e non. Y e t i t w oul d be e qua l l y s hor t s i ght e d t o go t o t he ot he r e xt r e m e a nd s ugge s t t ha t t he i de a s unde r l yi ng s e l f di r e c t i on i n a dul t l e a r ni ng a r e uni ve r s a l l y va l ue d by a l l c ul t u r e s R e s e a r c h t ha t a ppr oa c he s s e l f di r e c t i on f r om a c r os s c ul t ur a l pe r s pe c t i ve c oul d pr ovi de s om e i m por t a nt i ns i ght s i n t hi s r e ga r d I t i s c r uc i a l t o unde r s t a nd t he i nt e r f a c e be t w e e n s e l f di r e c t i on a nd t he s oc i a l c o nt e xt i n w hi c h one i s ope r a t i ng ( pp 222 223 ) A c onf l i c t i ng poi n t oc c ur s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a ddr e s s i ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p o f s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng w i t h i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt W he r e a s s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt f oc us e s on i ndi vi dua l s a nd do e s not e m pha s i z e t he va l u e of gr oup pe r s pe c t i ve a nd c om m uni c a t i on t ha t t he l i t e r a t ur e s ugge s t s s t ude nt s of c ol or a ppr e c i a t e ( F l a nne r y, 1995) onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on w i t hi n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s s uppor t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a s ha vi ng t he pot e nt i a l t o f os t e r pr o m ot e a nd p r ovi de a g r e a t e r pe r c e pt i on of gr oup c ol l a bor a t i on a nd c om m uni t y bui l di ng t h a n i s t ypi c a l l y e xpe r i e nc e d i n t r a di t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom m e e t i ngs ( K i ng 2002; M e r r yf i e l d 2001) F ur t he r

PAGE 26

18 r e s e a r c h s ol i c i t i ng s t ude nt us e r pe r c e pt i ons of t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s ne e de d, a nd l e a ds t o a di s c us s i on of a dul t l e a r ni ng s t yl e s A dul t L e ar ni ng St y l e s and t he O nl i ne L e ar ni ng E n v i r onm e nt A dul t l e a r ne r s pos s e s s i ndi vi dua l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd uni que di f f e r e nc e s w hi c h w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n t he i r a bi l i t y t o l e a r n a nd i n t he i r l e a r ni ng s t yl e pr e f e r e nc e s ( K now l e s 1980, 1984a 1984b, 1989) A n a dul t s pe r s ona l i t y i nvol v e s pe r s ona l f e e l i ngs e m ot i ons a t t i t ude s i nt e r e s t s va l ue s s e l f c onc e pt a nd m o t i v a t i on. T he s e a f f e c t i ve f a c t or s i n f l ue nc e a n i ndi vi dua l s l e ve l o f c onf i de nc e f e e l i ngs of pr o f i c i e nc y, w i l l i ngne s s t o t a ke r i s ks a bi l i t y t o pl a n s e t goa l s a nd f o l l ow t h r ough w i t h a c t i on. A l e a r ne r ne e ds a pos i t i ve s e l f c onc e pt i n or de r t o m a i nt a i n t he l e ve l of c onf i de nc e ne c e s s a r y t o be a bl e t o t r y t o l e a r n ne w t hi ngs a nd a ny ne w l e a r ni ng i nvol ve s r i s k be c a us e i t t ypi c a l l y e nc om pa s s e s s om e t hi ng w hi c h i s pr e s e nt l y unknow n. E ve n s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng pl a ns a nd pr oj e c t s r e qui r e a l e ve l of c om m i t m e nt i n or de r f o r t he a dul t t o m ove t hr ough t he pl a nni ng pha s e i n or de r t o t a ke a c t i on a nd m e e t pe r s ona l l e a r ni ng goa l s A dul t s ha ve pr e f e r e nc e s f o r c e r t a i n t ype s of l e a r n i ng w hi c h w o r k be s t w i t h t he i r i ndi vi dua l l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd t h e s e pr e f e r e nc e s e xt e nd t o t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt L e a r ni ng s t yl e s i nve nt or i e s f o r a dul t s a r e w e l l e s t a bl i s he d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e o f a dul t e duc a t i on, ( f o r a c om pr e he ns i ve r e vi e w r e f e r t o J a m e s & B l a nk, 1993 ) a nd ha ve gi ve n r i s e t o c r i t i c a l vi e w s of a dul t l e a r ne r s a nd a s s e s s m e nt pr a c t i c e s w hi c h t a ke l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd f a c t or s s uc h a s ge nde r a nd c ul t u r a l di f f e r e nc e s i nt o g r e a t e r c ons i de r a t i on ( M e r r i a m & C a f f a r e l l a 1999; R os e 1989; R os s G or don, 1999) V a l ui ng di ve r s i t y t hr ough c ons i de r a t i on of di f f e r e nc e i n l e a r ni ng s t yl e s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s c r i t i c a l l y r e vi e w e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( H e nde r s on, 1 996; M c L o ughl i n & O l i ve r 2000; W i l d &

PAGE 27

19 H e nde r s on, 1997 ) a nd ha s r e c e nt l y e xpa nde d t o i n c l ude va l ui ng t he i ndi ge nous know l e dge of na t i ve c ul t u r e s ( U ni ve r s i t y o f S ou t h e r n Q ue e ns l a nd 2005; K oha l a C e nt e r 2005) how e ve r ve r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e xa m i ne s t he i nvi s i bi l i t y of w hi t e nor m s s pe c i f i c t o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( M a ngl i t z 2003; S hor e 19 97) O ve r t he pa s t s e ve r a l ye a r s l e a r ni ng s t yl e s s pe c i f i c a l l y f or onl i ne l e a r ni ng ha ve be e n a dde d t o t he l i t e r a t ur e de s c r i bi ng l e a r ni ng s t y l e s a nd a r e w i de l y doc um e nt e d i n a c a de m i c a nd popul a r l i t e r a t u r e on t r a di t i ona l c ol l e ge a nd uni ve r s i t y w e bs i t e s of f e r i ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng, a nd a r e e ve n e m pha s i z e d t hr ough m a r ke t i ng on p r opr i e t a r y onl i ne uni ve r s i t y w e bs i t e s T he s e t r a i t s m a y va r y s om e w h a t but t ypi c a l l i s t i ngs i nc l ud e : S e l f d i r e c t e d M ot i va t e d C om f or t a bl e w i t h c om put e r s A bl e t o us e e m a i l I n t e r ne t b r ow s e r w or d pr oc e s s or L i ke s t o r e a d a nd w r i t e D i s c i pl i ne d I nde pe nde nt A bl e t o s t a y on t a s k T w o t he m e s e m e r gi ng f r om t he g r ow i ng body of l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng l ook a t t he c om m on f a c t or s o f onl i ne l e a r ni ng, l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s l e a di ng t o s t ude nt s uc c e s s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt O ne t he m e f oc us e s on a s ki ng e xpe r i e nc e d e duc a t or s t o s ha r e pe r c e pt i o ns a nd obs e r va t i ons a bout w ha t w or ks be s t f or s t ude nt s i n a n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( S c hr u m & H ong 2002 ) T he s e c ond t he m e a s ks t he s t ude nt s t he m s e l ve s w hi c h c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s l e a d t o s uc c e s s ( B e r ge & M ui l e nbur g,

PAGE 28

20 2005 ; S ong, S i ngl e t on H i l l & K oh, 2004) T a ki ng s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons i nt o a c c ount a d ds r e l e va nc e t o t he r e s e a r c h. A s A yr e s ( 2001) poi nt s out i n hi s book a dvoc a t i ng a ut he nt i c i t y i n t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng i n or de r t o be e f f e c t i ve e duc a t or s w e m us t f i r s t de t e r m i ne w ha t w e va l ue G e nde r R ac e and O nl i ne D i al ogue D i a l ogue a l l ow s pe opl e t o f unc t i on s oc i a l l y a nd he l ps t he m m a ke s e ns e of t he i r da y t o da y w or l d how e ve r a pr obl e m e xi s t s w he n di a l ogue w hi c h m a y be t a ke n f or gr a nt e d f r a m e s de f i c i t di s c our s e a nd pr e j udi c e C o ns i de r W e i t z a nd G or don s ( 1993) r e s e a r c h f oc us i ng on c ha r a c t e r i z a t i ons of B l a c k w om e n i n pa r t i c ul a r a nd A m e r i c a n w om e n i n ge ne r a l a m ong w hi t e c ol l e ge s t ude nt s F or t he 256 s t ude nt s i n t he f i na l s a m pl e r e s pondi ng t o que s t i onna i r e s t he e t hni c i t y o f r e s po nde nt s c l os e l y r e f l e c t e d t he r a c i a l di s t r i but i on of t he ge ne r a l popul a t i on F i ndi ngs i nc l ude s uppor t f o r t h e r e s e a r c h hypot he s i s t ha t a s ki ng r e s ponde nt s s ol e l y a bout w om e n i n ge ne r a l ge ne r a t e s i m a ge s w hi c h do not ho l d f o r B l a c k w om e n. F i ndi ng s s up por t t he no t i on t ha t s t e r e ot ype s a r e m i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of r e a l i t y ye t t he l i t e r a t u r e i ndi c a t e s t ha t m ode r n da y di a l ogue r e i nf or c e s ne ga t i ve s t e r e ot ype s f or m i nor i t i e s G e nde r di f f e r e nc e s i n f a c e t o f a c e a s w e l l a s i n onl i ne di a l ogue a r e w i de l y di s c us s e d w i t hi n t he l i t e r a t ur e how e ve r W a ng e t a l ( 2003 ) c a ut i ons r e s e a r c he r s not t o ove r r a t e ge nde r i n s t udi e s of onl i ne l e a r ni ng s i nc e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a ddr e s s e s t he i nt e r s e c t i on of c ul t u r e a nd ge nde r i n t he onl i ne e nv i r onm e nt A r e l e va nt po i nt oc c ur s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w he n r e s e a r c h s uppor t i ng f i ndi ngs of c onve r s a t i ona l s t e r e ot ypi ng ( P opp, D onova n, C r a w f or d M a r s h, & P e e l e 2003) pos i t s t ha t be l i e f s a bout s pe e c h s t yl e a r e s t r onge r w he n l ooke d a t by r a c e r a t he r t ha n by ge n de r I n t hi s s t udy, B l a c k s pe a ke r s w e r e

PAGE 29

21 s e e n a s m or e di r e c t a nd e m ot i ona l l e s s gr a m m a t i c a l a nd m or e pr of a ne a nd l e s s s oc i a l l y a ppr opr i a t e a nd pl a yf u l t ha n w hi t e s pe a ke r s P opp e t a l s ha r e a n i m por t a nt obs e r va t i on, B e l i e f s a bout s pe e c h a nd c om m uni c a t i on s t yl e a r e i m por t a nt be c a us e t he y m a y f unc t i on not onl y t o de s c r i be w ha t i s but t o p r e s c r i be w ha t s houl d be i n s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on ( p. 317 ) I n a n onl i ne c our s e a s pe c t s of ge nde r s t a t us r a c e a nd phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e a r e gr e a t l y di m i ni s he d ( W oods 2002) how e ve r l e a r n e r s pr oj e c t t he m s e l ve s bot h s oc i a l l y a nd a f f e c t i ve l y i nt o a n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( H e w & C he ung, 2003) a nd pow e r r e l a t i ons hi ps m a y pe r s i s t ( W a ng, 2007 ) L a l ( 2003 ) e xa m i ne s t he l i t e r a t u r e f o r w a ys i n w hi c h c ul t ur e i nf l ue nc e s onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd f i nds l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t o r e por t a nd W a ng ( 2007) i de nt i f i e s t he ne e d f or m or e s ys t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng f or a c ul t ur a l l y di ve r s e gl oba l a udi e nc e a s de s pe r a t e O ne poi nt m a de by L a l ( 2003 p 2) i s t ha t t he l i t e r a t ur e doe s not ge t a t t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s a nd s e e k m e a ni ngs f r om t he i r poi nt of vi e w H a ve s t e r e ot ype s m i gr a t e d i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ? O ppor t uni t i e s s houl d be t a ke n t o s pe c i f i c a l l y a s k s t ude nt s of c ol o r f o r t he i r obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons r e ga r di ng t he i r onl i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e i n or de r t o f r a m e a pe r s pe c t i ve of a w a r e ne s s a nd de ve l op a pi c t ur e of t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r o nm e nt f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of s t ude nt s of c ol o r T he de pt h a nd r i c hne s s f ound i n onl i ne di a l ogue i s a c om m on oc c ur r e nc e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd t he na t u r e of r e s e a r c h w hi c h c a pt ur e s di a l ogue t hr ough e xa m i na t i on of w r i t i ng i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt m e a ns t ha t t he r e i s a r e c or d of a l l di s c us s i ons pr ovi di ng da t a f or i ns t r uc t or s w hi c h c a n be s a ve d f or e a s y a c c e s s a nd a na l ys i s T he s poke n w or d us e d a s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s i s r e pl a c e d by w r i t t e n

PAGE 30

22 c onve r s a t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt c r e a t i ng d oc um e nt e d r e c or ds w hi c h s e r ve a s bot h c om m uni c a t i on a nd c l a s s pr oduc t A s e a r c h of t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd r e s e a r c h s ur r oundi ng onl i ne di a l ogue r e ve a l s t ha t i n s t udi e s of on l i ne l e a r ni ng w i t hi n gr a dua t e l e ve l c our s e w or k, a f oc us on s t ude nt s of c ol o r c a n be f o u nd w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of m ul t i c ul t u r a l e duc a t i on, a nd dr a w s a t t e nt i on t o t he i m por t a nc e o f t he onl i ne ve nue F or e xa m pl e M e r r yf i e l d ( 2001 p 284 ) r a i s e s s om e i s s ue s r e ga r di ng he r e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h o nl i ne di a l ogue i n a m u l t i c ul t ur a l e duc a t i on c l a s s : W hy w a s i t t ha t t he [ s t ude nt s ] i m m e di a t e l y j um pe d i nt o a n onl i ne di s c us s i on t ha t w a s f r a nk a nd e xpa ns i ve a bout pr e j udi c e r a c i s m a nd W hi t e pr i vi l e ge t opi c s t ha t t e a c he r s r e s i s t di s c us s i ng i n t he s a m e c l a s s on c a m pus ? W hy di d s om e of t he t e a c he r s f r om A s i a a nd A f r i c a s a y t ha t onl i ne t e c hnol ogi e s he l pe d t he m pa r t i c i pa t e a nd s u c c e e d i n t he c l a s s w he r e a s a s one T a i w a ne s e t e a c he r s a i d, T he s e a r e W e s t e r n t e c hnol ogi e s not of ou r c ul t u r e ? A nd w hy, a f t e r s om e pr of ound di s c us s i ons a nd w e e ks of c ol l a bor a t i ve w o r k, di d m a ny of t he [ s t ude nt s ] f e e l t he y di d not know e a c h ot he r t ha t t he i r onl i ne r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e not r e a l ? ( p. 283) T he l i t e r a t u r e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne di s c us s i on f or um s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on i s r i c h i n e m pha s i s on pa r t i c i pa nt s p e r c e i ve d s e ns e of c om m uni t y of pa r t i c i pa t i on w i t hi n onl i ne di a l ogue H ow e ve r i n di s c us s i ng t he i m por t a nc e o f pl a c e of dua l i s t i c r e a l i t i e s f o r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n w om e n f r o m t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a dul t e d uc a t i on, S he a r e d ( 1994) s pe a ks of t he i m por t a nc e of p r ovi d i ng a dul t l e a r ne r s w i t h a n op por t uni t y t o be c om e e nga ge d i n a c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i ve di a l ogue r e ga r dl e s s of t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r ( p 31 ) a nd t he l i t e r a t ur e doe s not r e f l e c t a f oc us on w he t he r or not t he onl i n e l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd l e a r ne r

PAGE 31

23 di a l ogue e xp e r i e nc e s out s i de of m u l t i c ul t ur a l a nd e qui t y c l a s s s t r uc t ur e s r e f l e c t s t he pe r s pe c t i ve of s t ude nt s of c ol or A dul t L e ar ni ng P e r c e pt i ons and t he O nl i ne L e ar ni ng E nv i r onm e nt S i t ua t i ona l f a c t or s f r a m e t he r e a l a nd pe r c e i ve d l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w i t hi n w h i c h t he a dul t l e a r ne r t hi nks s pe a ks a nd a c t s a s w e l l a s t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd l i f e s i t ua t i on out s i de of t he c l a s s r oom R e s e a r c h w hi c h a c know l e dge s t he uni que pe r c e pt i ons a nd l e a r ni ng or i e nt a t i ons of a dul t l e a r ne r s i n onl i ne hi ghe r e duc a t i on i s one w a y of l i s t e ni ng a nd pa yi ng a t t e nt i on t o c ogni t i ve a nd s i t u a t i ona l f a c t or s w hi c h a dd t o t he body of know l e dge a bout how w hy ( or w hy not ) a nd w he n a dul t s l e a r n. H ow e ve r t he l i t e r a t ur e c onc e r ni ng t he gr a dua t e s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on r a r e l y r e f l e c t s t he voi c e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or ( M a ngl i t z 2003; P r yc e 2000 ; R os s G or don & B r ow n H a yw ood, 2000 ) T he a dul t l e a r ne r s s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d w or l d bot h i ns i de a nd out s i de of t he c l a s s r oom i s t he s ubj e c t of K a s w or m s ( 2003 ) r e s e a r c h w hi c h e xpl or e s t he que s t i on H ow do a dul t s de s c r i be t he i r l e a r ni ng e nga ge m e n t i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o br oa de r l i f e i nvo l ve m e nt s ? ( p. 82 ) a nd e xa m i n e s t he va r i e d t e ns i ons of a dul t l i vi ng a nd l e a r ni ng a nd t he uni que i nt e r a c t i ons of c ol l e gi a t e l e a r ni ng ( p 86) K a s w or m s ( 2003) r e s e a r c h c r e a t e s t he l a be l know l e dge voi c e s a nd i de nt i f i e s m e a ni ng pe r s pe c t i ve s f or a dul t l e a r ne r s : t he e nt r y voi c e t he out s i de voi c e t he c yni c a l vo i c e t he s t r a ddl i ng voi c e a nd t he i nc l us i on voi c e ( pp. 8 4 87) T he s e voi c e s f r a m e s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i on s w i t h a s pe c t s of t he l e a r n i ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd w i t h s t ude nt s s e l f a nd s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i ons of t he m s e l ve s a s s t ude nt s ( pp. 84 87 ) D e m ogr a phi c s i nc l udi ng e t hni c i t y w e r e c ol l e c t e d but w e r e no t a f oc us of t he s t udy, a nd ope n a doo r f o r f ur t he r r e s e a r c h.

PAGE 32

24 D e f i ni ng t he know l e dge voi c e l a be l s a s ope r a t i ona l c ons t r uc t s i s a n i m por t a nt c ont r i but i on t o t he r e s e a r c h f or a dul t l e a r ne r s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on be c a us e i t a r t i c ul a t e s t e r m i nol ogy t o f a c i l i t a t e f ur t he r di s c us s i on on t he t opi c a nd a dds t o t he r e s e a r c h w hi c h s t udi e s c ogni t i ve a nd s i t ua t i ona l f a c t or s i n f l ue nc i ng t he s oc i a l r ol e a c t i ons of a dul t l e a r ne r s a s s t ude nt s F r a m i ng t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs a s voi c e s i s a l s o i m por t a nt f r om a c ons t r uc t i vi s t pe r s pe c t i ve w a ys of s pe a ki ng be c om e c e nt r a l . w e s pe a k i n o r de r t o m a i nt a i n, r e p r oduc e a nd t r a ns f or m c e r t a i n m ode s o f s oc i a l a nd s oc i e t a l r e l a t i ons hi ps ( S hot t e r 2003, p. 133 ) W he n s t ude nt s a nd r e s e a r c he r s c a n pi n que s t i ons a nd c onc e pt s ont o a n a va i l a bl e l a be l f u r t he r di s c us s i on a nd c r i t i c a l c om m e nt on t he t opi c i s e na bl e d. T he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt r e qui r e s ne w l a be l s i n o r d e r t o be t t e r a r t i c ul a t e t he r e a l i t y e xpe r i e nc e d by onl i ne l e a r ne r s N e w t e c hni que s a r e ne e de d t o a da pt r e s e a r c h t o onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s ( K oz i ne t s 2002) a nd ne w t e r m s a r e e m e r gi ng t o he l p a r t i c ul a t e t he t r a ns i t i on. K oz i ne t s c oi ns ne t ogr a phy, or e t hnogr a phy on t he I nt e r ne t [ a s ] a ne w qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy ( p 63) a nd I ha ve s ugge s t e d qua l e t a t i ve r e s e a r c h a s a ne w t e r m s pe c i f i c t o t he qua l i t a t i ve s t udy of t he I n t e r ne t ba s e d e nvi r onm e nt s om e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s e l e a r ni ng N e t ogr a phy us e d i n r e s e a r c h w i t h onl i ne c ons um e r gr oups i s a m e t hod w hi c h pr ovi de s r e s e a r c he r s w i t h a w i ndo w i nt o na t ur a l l y oc c ur r i ng be ha vi or s ( K i m K i m & K i m 2005 p 3 ) A l t hough ne t og r a phy i s c ur r e nt l y f oc us e d on m a r ke t r e s e a r c h a nd publ i c onl i ne f or um s a n i m po r t a nt ob s e r va t i on m a de t hr ough t he us e of ne t ogr a phy a bout onl i ne voc a bul a r y t r a ns l a t e s w e l l t o t he e nvi r onm e nt o f e duc a t i on a nd c ur r i c ul um : onl i ne voc a bul a r y c a n e xp r e s s ne e d s T he s e c oul d be c ons um e r or s t ude nt ne e ds a nd due t o t he t r e m e ndous gr ow t h of onl i ne c l a s s e s i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt a w i ndow i nt o na t ur a l l y e xpr e s s e d ne e ds c oul d pr ovi de ne e ds ba s e d

PAGE 33

25 a s s e s s m e nt s f or c ur r i c ul um de s i gn. K oz i ne t s c ont e nds t ha t t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s a s oc i a l c ue i m p ove r i s he d c om m uni t y, r e qui r i ng r i gor ous i nve s t i ga t i on ( p 62) T he r e s e a r c h pr e s e nt e d i n t h i s di s s e r t a t i on pr ovi de d a n i nve s t i ga t i on i nt o t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f oc us e d on s t ude nt s of c ol or a pe r s pe c t i ve w hi c h i s c ur r e nt l y l a c ki ng i n t he m a i ns t r e a m r e s e a r c h i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng f o r a dul t l e a r ne r s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. S oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on a nd c om m un i c a t i on of i de a s t h r ough r e s e a r c h e nc our a ge s di a l ogue a c r os s i s s ue s a nd di s c i pl i ne s s uc h a s s e a r c hi ng f o r a nd r e por t i ng f i ndi ngs f or s t ude nt s of c ol o r A c t i vi t y f r a m e d i n a pa r t i c ul a r w a y e s pe c i a l l y c ol l e c t i ve l y or ga ni z e d s oc i a l a c t i vi t y i s of t e n m a r ke d of f f r om t he ongoi ng f l ow of s ur r oundi ng e ve nt s by a s pe c i a l s e t o f bounda r y m a r ke r s ( G of f m a n 1986 p 251) A s t he c l a s s r oom f r a m e s t he l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e f o r t he a dul t l e a r ne r s i n K a s w or m s ( 2003 ) s t udy, t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt f r a m e s t he e xpe r i e n c e of t he on l i ne l e a r ne r A s t he know l e dge voi c e s i n K a s w or m s s t udy he l p f r a m e a nd de f i ne be i ng a s t ud e nt t he c ol l e ge e xpe r i e nc e a nd i t s i m pa c t ( p. 84) I ha ve t r i e d, t hr ough t hi s s t udy, t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd a nd de s c r i be t he w a ys i n w hi c h s t ude nt s of c ol or f r a m e t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt K a s w or m s i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd l a be l i n g of t he a c a de m i c voi c e s of a dul t l e a r ne r s he l ps a c know l e dge t he c ogni t i ve s i t ua t i on a l a nd a f f e c t i ve f a c t or s e f f e c t i ng t he l e a r ni ng of a dul t s E x a m i ni ng t he pe r c e pt i ons of a dul t l e a r ne r s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s a not he r i m por t a nt a r e a of r e s e a r c h t o c ons i de r a s t he popul a t i on of on l i ne a dul t l e a r ne r s i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on g r ow s a nd i nt e r e s t i n t he e pi s t e m ol ogy of t hi s s t ude nt gr oup i nc r e a s e s B ar r i e r s t o L e ar ni ng T he e xa m i na t i on o f b a r r i e r s t o a dul t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e duc a t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s i s

PAGE 34

26 br oa dl y c ove r e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e M e r r i a m a nd C a f f a r e l l a ( 1999 ) i de nt i f y, e xpl a i n, a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n s t udi e s of a dul t pa r t i c i pa t i on, be gi nni ng i n 1965 w i t h J ohns t one a nd R i ve r a s l a ndm a r k s t udy, V ol unt e e r s f or L e ar ni ng ( p p 46 49) a nd t he N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) doe s a t hor ough j o b r e vi e w i ng e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s of ba r r i e r s a nd pa r t i c i pa t i on ( 1998 2002 ) S om e i ndi vi dua l s s e e ki ng hi ghe r e duc a t i on c a nnot be e a s i l y s e r vi c e d by a n i ns t i t ut i ona l s e t t i ng P a r t i c i pa t i on by a dul t l e a r ne r s i n gr a dua t e l e ve l onl i ne l e a r n i ng c our s e w or k ha s g r o w n dr a m a t i c a l l y ove r t he pa s t t e n ye a r s due t o t he a dde d f l e xi bi l i t y a nd a dva nt a ge s of f e r e d by onl i ne l e a r ni ng w hi c h c a n ha ppe n a nyt i m e a nypl a c e a nd s o ove r c om e s s om e of t he t r a di t i ona l ba r r i e r s t o l e a r n i ng by of f e r i ng c hoi c e s of pa r t i c i pa t i on f r om hom e a nd w or k a t t i m e s w hi c h m e e t pe r s ona l ne e ds s c he dul e s a nd f a m i l y l i f e s t yl e s ( B e l c he r 1997; C a i n, M a r r a r a P i t r e A m our 2003) L i vi ng i n r u r a l a nd r e m ot e a r e a s va r y i ng a bi l i t i e s a nd he a l t h c onc e r ns a r e s om e of t he hi s t or i c ba r r i e r s t o pa r t i c i pa t i on i n l e a r ni ng t ha t a r e be i ng a m e l i or a t e d by t e c hnol ogy. I n t oda y s hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r on m e nt t e c hnol ogy i s r e m ovi ng t he hi s t or i c a l ba r r i e r s of t i m e a nd pl a c e f or l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s c a l l i ng i nt o pl a y a r e ne w e d i nt e r e s t i n s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng a nd l e a r ni ng s t yl e s w hi c h ha ve l ong be e n m a i ns t a ys of a dul t e duc a t i on pr a c t i c e s T r a di t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s a r e be i ng s uppor t e d, s uppl e m e nt e d, or s uppl a nt e d by pe r s ona l a c c e s s t o t he I nt e r ne t by i ndi vi dua l s a nd by m or e s e l f di r e c t e d know l e dge a c qui s i t i on t hr ough onl i ne l e a r ni ng oppo r t uni t i e s O nl i ne hi ghe r e duc a t i on pr ovi de s a dul t l e a r ne r s w i t h m ul t i pl e l e a r ni ng f o r m a t opt i ons f or gr a dua t e s t udi e s a nd gr e a t e r a c c e s s t o a c a de m i c l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s t hr ough t he us e of pe r s ona l c om put e r s a nd I nt e r ne t t e c hnol ogy D i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng i s a n i ns t r uc t i ona l m ode l w hi c h be ga n w i t h c or r e s ponde nc e c our s e s a nd s t u de nt s r e l yi ng on t he U S m a i l a s a

PAGE 35

27 c om m uni c a t i on de vi c e T oda y, di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng m ode l s r e l y on t he I nt e r ne t c r e a t i ng ne w a nd di f f e r e nt ba r r i e r s t o l e a r n i ng. S om e ba r r i e r s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h onl i ne c our s e s c om pa r e d t o t r a di t i ona l on c a m pus i ns t r uc t i on i nc l ude t r oubl e w i t h t e c hnol ogy a nd c om put e r a nxi e t y a s s om e of t he m o r e c om m onl y m e nt i one d pr obl e m s ( K i ng 2002 ) T e c hno l ogy D e s pi t e t he r a pi d gr ow t h m a i ns t r e a m pr e s e nc e a n d hi ghl y t out e d e a s e of a c c e s s t o hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough onl i ne l e a r ni ng t he r e e xi s t s a ne e d t o m or e c l os e l y e xa m i ne t he obvi ous a nd t he l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s t w o s i de s t o t he pl a t f or m of onl i ne l e a r ni ng: t he e xe c ut i on of t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e i s bot h e na bl e d a nd di s a bl e d by t e c hnol ogy T hough t he a dva nt a ge s of onl i ne l e a r ni ng due t o e a s e of a c c e s s a r e a vi dl y di s c us s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a r e s e a r c h t r e nd i n e duc a t i ona l t e c hnol ogy f oc us e s on w he t he r or not a c c e s s a t r a di t i ona l ba r r i e r t o l e a r ni ng i s i m pr ove d by t he us e of t e c hnol ogy or i f a di f f e r e nt t ype of ga p i s be i ng c r e a t e d ( K a s w or m & L ondone r 2000; R os e 1 999a ) C om m onl y c a l l e d t he di gi t a l di v i de a t e c hnol ogy ga p e xi s t s i n hi ghe r e du c a t i on due t o d i s pa r i t y i n t e c hnol ogy ow ne r s hi p a nd a c c e s s ( H a m i l t on, 2001 ; R oa c h, 2000) D e s pi t e w i de l y he l d be l i e f s t ha t e ve r yone i n t he U S ha s e a s y a c c e s s t o c om put e r s a nd t he I nt e r ne t m a ny r ur a l a nd r e m ot e a r e a s s t i l l l a c k pe r s ona l c om put e r s or c o m put e r a nd I nt e r ne t a c c e s s or a c c e s s t o l i br a r i e s w i t h c om put e r s a nd I nt e r ne t a c c e s s a nd bot h r ur a l a nd u r ba n unde r s e r ve d s t ude nt s a nd i ns t i t ut i o ns ha ve f r e que nt t r oubl e w i t h t e c hnol ogy due t he f a c t t ha t t e c hnol ogy c ha nge s m or e qui c kl y t ha n i t c a n be upg r a de d o r r e pl a c e d ( H i e m s t r a 2006; K a s w or m & L ondone r 2000) T hus t he l a c k of c om put e r a nd I nt e r ne t a c c e s s by unde r s e r ve d s t ude nt s a nd s c hool s a nd t he l a c k of r e s our c e s f or i ns t i t ut i ons t o i m pl e m e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l t e c hnol ogi e s or t o r e pl a c e t e c hnol ogy w hi c h

PAGE 36

28 qui c kl y be c om e s obs ol e t e i s a pr obl e m o f c onc e r n T e c hnol ogy a s a ba r r i e r t o l e a r ni ng w hi c h ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t s m i nor i t y l e a r ne r s ( B e ns on, 2007; C l a r k & M oor e 2007) c a n be f oun d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e di s c us s i ng hi s t or i c a l l y B l a c k c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s ( H B C U s ) O n one ha nd, T he U ni t e d N e gr o C ol l e ge F und ( U N C F ) a r t i c ul a t e s a m i s s i on a i m e d a t e duc a t i ng t he w or k f or c e f o r t he gl oba l e c onom y a nd pl a yi ng a vi t a l r ol e i n m i no r i t y hi ghe r e duc a t i on a nd r e por t s t ha t gr a dua t i on r a t e s f o r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s a t H B C U s a r e hi ghe r t ha n f o r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s a t m a j or i t y c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s ( U N C F 2006) O n t he ot he r ha nd, s t udi e s s how t ha t hi s t or i c a l l y B l a c k i ns t i t ut i ons t h ough e xhi bi t i ng a n upw a r d t r e nd i n e duc a t i ona l t e c hnol ogy a dopt i on ( M c H e nr y & P e r s on, 2007) s t i l l f a l l be hi nd ot he r i ns t i t ut i ons of hi ghe r l e a r ni ng i n de ve l opi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng p r ogr a m s ( H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b, 2007 ; R oa c h, 2 000) W hi l e t e c hnol ogy r e m ove s ba r r i e r s a nd br i n gs a c c e s s a nd l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s t o m a ny, t he di gi t a l di vi de i m pa c t s i ns t i t ut i ons a nd popul a t i ons of pot e nt i a l onl i ne s t ude nt s not ha vi ng a de qua t e t e c hnol ogy a c c e s s a nd r e s our c e s A s i ns t i t ut i ons s e r vi ng s t ude nt s of c ol or g r ow t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l t e c hnol ogy c our s e s a nd pr ogr a m s ( H a m i l t on, 2001; R oa c h 2000) i t i s pr ude nt f or r e s e a r c h t o f o c us on t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r r e ga r d i ng t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a nd be gi n t o a dd t h i s i m por t a nt s t r e a m of know l e dge t o t he r i ve r of m a i ns t r e a m l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng t e c hnol ogy a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n h i g he r e duc a t i on. C om put e r A nx i e t y A s s um pt i ons of t he t e c hnol ogi c a l e a s e a nd r e a dy a c c e s s i bi l i t y of onl i ne gr a dua t e l e ve l c our s e w or k i s pos i ng s om e a ddi t i ona l non t r a di t i ona l ba r r i e r s t o l e a r ni ng w hi c h

PAGE 37

29 m a y not ye t be a de qua t e l y a ddr e s s e d f or onl i ne l e a r ne r s D i f f e r e nc e s i n c om put e r s ki l l l e ve l s or c om put e r f a m i l i a r i t y a s w e l l a s c ul t ur a l a c c l i m a t i on t o t e c hnol ogy m a y be c r e a t i ng a n a nxi e t y ba r r i e r t o l e a r ni ng f or onl i ne l e a r ne r s w ho a r e l e s s e xpe r t t ha n t he i r pe e r s w i t h c om put e r us e but w ho w i s h t o pa r t i c i pa t e s uc c e s s f ul l y i n a n on l i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e a t t he gr a dua t e l e ve l T hr oughout m y g r a dua t e l e ve l w or k I ha ve pe r s ona l l y a nd r e pe a t e dl y be e n m e t w i t h a s s um pt i ons of c om put e r a c c e s s a nd e xpe r t i s e f r om i ns t r uc t or s a nd pe e r s a l i ke a nd ha ve be e n t he s t ude nt w i t h t he o l de r a nd i nc om pa t i bl e c om put e r a t hom e a s w e l l a s t he s t ude nt w i t h t he s i m pl e pr e s e nt a t i on f ol l ow i ng t hos e w i t h hi ghe r l e ve l s of e xpe r t i s e a nd a c c e s s t o m or e s ophi s t i c a t e d t e c hni c a l t ool s T hus I c a n s pe a k t o t he e xi s t e nc e of c om put e r a nxi e t y a nd ga ps i n t e c hnol ogi c a l a c c e s s a nd e xpe r t i s e be t w e e n s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n gr a dua t e l e ve l onl i ne s t udi e s f r om f i r s t ha nd e xpe r i e nc e S t ude nt a c c e s s t o t e c hnol ogy, c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h t e c hnol ogy, a nd c om pe t e nc e a nd c onf i de nc e w i t h c om put e r s m a y not be e qua l f or a l l gr a dua t e s t ude nt s D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n novi c e a nd e xpe r i e nc e d I nt e r ne t us e r s a n d i ns t a nc e s of s t ude nt s t r e s s w i t h onl i ne c our s e w or k due t o e xpe r t i s e w i t h c om pu t e r s a nd t he I nt e r ne t i s a n i s s ue f or s om e s t ude nt s a t t he gr a dua t e l e ve l ( B oye r M a he r & K i r km a n, 2006; K i r km a n C oughl i n & K r om r e y, 2006) L a c k of c om pe t e nc e a nd c on f i de nc e w i t h onl i ne l e a r ni ng s of t w a r e i s c i t e d a s a r e a s on f or a t t r i t i on i n onl i ne de gr e e p r og r a m s a t t h e g r a dua t e l e ve l ( W i l l g i ng & J ohns on, 2004) a nd f or a nxi e t y i n c ol l e ge s t ude nt s w i t h di ve r s e e t hni c ba c kgr ounds ( M c I ne r ne y, M a r c h, & M c I ne r ne y, 1999) I n a n i nt e r na t i ona l s t udy f or gr a dua t e s t ude nt s a c r os s t e n c ount r i e s r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t e a c h c ount r y pos s e s s e d a uni que c ul t ur e de pe nde nt m ode l of c om put e r a nxi e t y ( R os e n & W e i l 2006)

PAGE 38

30 L a t i na s a nd L a t i nos a r e c ons i de r e d t he m os t r a pi dl y gr ow i ng m i nor i t y gr oup i n t he U S t oda y, ye t l i t t l e i s know n c onc e r ni ng how t hi s popul a t i on l e a r ns i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( F ox & L i vi ngs t on, 2007) H uf f m a n L e yva ( 2005) a s s e r t s w he r e w hi t e s t ude nt s ha ve be e n pr ogr a m m e d t o us e c om put e r s s i nc e t he y w e r e ve r y young . H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ha ve not be e n a c c l i m a t e d t o us i n g t he c om put e r ( p 35 ) a nd f ound t ha t one of t he m os t a p p a r e n t ba r r i e r s t o onl i n e l e a r n i n g f or L a t i n a s i n c o m m un i t y c ol l e g e s w a s a l a c k of h i g h e r l e v e l t e c hno l o g y s ki l l s i n c o m pu t e r a s s i s t e d l e a r n i n g ( p. 142) A l a c k of s i m i l a r s t udi e s f or H i s p a ni c g r a du a t e s t ude n t s a nd o t he r m i no r i t y g r ou p s r e v e a l s a g a p i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h i s r e f l e c t i v e o f t he l ow e r l e v e l s of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n g r a du a t e s t udi e s b y m i nor i t y g r ou p s E t hni c i t y i n t he O nl i ne L e ar ni ng E nv i r onm e nt T he r e i s a g r ow i ng i n t e r e s t i n e t hni c i t y c ul t u r e a nd l e a r ni ng s t yl e s ( C a s s i t y, 2005; W a n g 2004) due t o t he gl oba l a c c e s s i bi l i t y of onl i ne l e a r n i ng. I t i s i m por t a nt t o e xa m i ne s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons a bout t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s i nc e onl i ne pa r t i c i pa t i on i s r e m ove d f r om t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r on m e nt a nd t hus r e m ove d f r om t he t ypi c a l c ue s of f a c e t o f a c e e nga ge m e nt i ns t r uc t or s no r m a l l y r e l y on, s uc h a s noddi ng he a ds or bl a nk s t a r e s R os e ( 1989) f i nds t ha t a dul t l e a r ne r s ha ve t he m os t t o ga i n f r om nont r a di t i ona l e duc a t i on w i t h i t s out c om e s or i e nt a t i on c onc e r n f or pr oc e s s [ a nd] . e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng ( p. 219) but i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he s e pr a c t i c e s i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s s t i l l unde r di s c us s i on a nd e xa m i na t i on. F or e xa m pl e i n bui l di ng a pa r t i c i pa t or y r e s e a r c h m ode l E l de n & L e vi n ( 1991, p. 130) not e t he e xi s t e nc e of a n i ndi v i dua l a nd f r a gm e nt e d f r a m e w or k i m pl i c i t t o i ns i de r s a nd t he t he or y ba s e d f r a m e w or k of out s i de r s W e c a n e xt r a p ol a t e t hi s not i on t o

PAGE 39

31 c ons i de r t he i ndi vi dua l a nd di ve r s e p e r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s c ons t r uc t i ng a ne w s ha r e d f r a m e w or k t oge t he r w i t hi n t he e duc a t i ona l e nvi r onm e nt of a n onl i ne c our s e a nd i nc l ude t he pos s i bi l i t y o f a p r i vi l e ge d out s i de r c ur r i c ul um pe r s pe c t i ve w hi c h m a y ove r l ook t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol or I s t h e r e a pos i t i ona l i t y o f w hi t e pr i vi l e ge e m be dde d w i t hi n onl i ne l e a r n i ng w hi c h ha s be e n o ve r l ooke d? E duc a t i on i s a s oc i a l p r a c t i c e ( L a uz on, 1999) a nd t e nds t o r e pr oduc e c ul t u r e T hi s f a c t m a ke s t he not i on t ha t t he on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s dom i na t e d by W e s t e r n va l ue s a nd i nf or m a t i on ( J oo, 1999 ) a pr obl e m I nc l udi ng m i no r i t y pe r s pe c t i ve s i n c ur r i c ul um s uc h a s i n m ul t i c ul t ur a l s t udi e s r a t he r t ha n r e a r t i c ul a t i ng t he w a y i n w hi c h m i nor i t y pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e r e pr e s e nt e d ( S i ngh 1994 ) a nd r e pr oduc e d i n m a i ns t r e a m onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on dr a w s a t t e nt i on t o t he f a c t t ha t m i no r i t i e s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a r e s e l dom a f oc us i n t he m a i ns t r e a m r e s e a r c h. W he n e xa m i ni ng t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on o f w hi t e a nd m i nor i t y l e a r ne r s w e f i nd t ha t r a c e i s a s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on w hi c h di vi de s pe o pl e i nt o i m a gi na r y di s t i nc t g r oups ( S m e dl e y 19 93 ) w hi c h a r e t ypi c a l l y w hi t e or m i n or i t i e s ( e ve r yone w ho i s n t w hi t e ) M i nor i t y gr oups a r e a n i m po r t a nt popul a t i on s e r ve d by gr a dua t e s t udi e s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on w hi c h i nc l ude s a n e ve r i nc r e a s i ng a m ou nt of on l i ne c our s e w or k i n t he gr a dua t e c ur r i c ul um T hus c ons i de r i ng t he pos s i bi l i t y of ove r t a nd c ove r t a s pe c t s of c ul t ur a l r a c i s m i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s i m por t a nt f or pr a c t i t i one r s i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt ( B r ook f i e l d, 2003; B r ow n & C e r ve r o 2000; J ohns on B a i l e y & C e r ve r o, 1996; M a ngl i t z 2003) A pe r t i ne nt ga p oc c ur s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w he n t he p os i t i on of w hi t e pr i vi l e ge i s not que s t i one d i n t he r e s e a r c h e xa m i ni ng w ho ha s a c c e s s t o t e c hnol ogy t he t r a i ni ng t o us e i t

PAGE 40

32 a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s a bout i t be yond t he pr ovi s i on o f s i m pl e de m ogr a phi c i n f or m a t i on C a r e m us t be t a ke n t o e xa m i ne m a r gi na l i z a t i on i n t he o nl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( W i l d & H e nde r s on, 1997) H e nde r s on ( 1996) a s s e r t s t ha t i ns t r uc t i ona l m ode l s c a nnot be c ul t ur a l l y ne ut r a l W hi t e ne s s r e f e r s t o c ul t ur a l p r a c t i c e s w hi c h a r e un m a r ke d a nd unna m e d ( H unt e r & N e t t l e s 1999) A c e nt r a l t he m e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e of onl i ne l e a r ni ng i s t ha t vi r t ua l l e a r ne r s a r e m or e c ul t u r a l l y hom oge nous due t o t he ne ut r a l i t y of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n vi r t ua l s pa c e how e ve r t he w o r k of C ha s e M a c f a dye n, R e e de r & R oc he ( 2002 ) de m ons t r a t e s t ha t onl i ne l e a r ni ng i s no t a s i m pl e c ul t ur a l l y ne ut r a l s pa c e T he i r a na l ys i s of 424 pos t i ngs a c r os s s i x c our s e a s s i gnm e nt s i n one c our s e by 23 s t ude nt s f i ve onl i ne f a c i l i t a t or s a nd t w o c our s e m ode r a t or s ove r a pe r i od of 12 w e e ks u s e d di s c our s e a na l ys i s a nd e t hnogr a phi c a na l ys i s t o i de nt i f y m a j or t he m e s a nd c l us t e r s of c om m uni c a t i on pr obl e m s A f oc a l poi nt i n t he C ha s e e t a l r e s e a r c h f i nds t ha t t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt ha s a r e f l e c t i ve r a t he r t ha n a n i nvi s i bl e c ul t ur e F o r t he c our s e obs e r ve d, t he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t onl i ne c our s e c ul t u r e i s a c o c ons t r uc t e d e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h i s ove r t l y a nd c ove r t l y m a i nt a i ne d a s a pr oduc t o f i t s c r e a t or s M c L oughl i n & O l i ve r ( 2000 ) p r ovi de pa r a di gm s b a s e d on H e nde r s on s m ode l ( T a bl e 1 ) a nd e xp l a i n a w a y t o c ons i de r c ur r i c ul um de s i gn f r om t hr e e d i f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve s f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s : t he i nc l us i ve or pe r s pe c t i ve s a ppr oa c h i m por t s t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l a nd hi s t or i c a l pe r s p e c t i ve s of m i no r i t y gr oups but doe s not c ha l l e nge t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e a nd i s t he r e f o r e c os m e t i c ; t he i nv e r t e d c ur r i c ul um a ppr oa c h a t t e m pt s t o de s i gn a n i ns t r uc t i ona l c om pone nt f r om t he m i no r i t y pe r s pe c t i ve but f a i l s t o pr ovi de t he l e a r ne r w i t h e duc a t i ona l l y va l i d e xpe r i e nc e s a s i t d oe s not a dm i t t he m i nt o t he m a i ns t r e a m c ul t ur e ; t he c ul t ur a l l y un i di m e ns i ona l a ppr oa c h e xc l ude s or de ni e s c ul t ur a l

PAGE 41

33 di ve r s i t y a nd a s s um e s t ha t e duc a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a r e t he s a m e f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s a s t he y a r e f o r ot he r s T a bl e 1 E x i s t i ng I ns t r uc t i onal D e s i gn ( I D ) P ar adi gm s and t he i r L i m i t at i ons I D P a r a di gm D e f i ni t i on L i m i t a t i ons I nc l us i ve or pe r s pe c t i ve s A c know l e dge s m ul t i c ul t ur a l r e a l i t i e s dr i ve n by e qui t y a nd s oc i a l j us t i c e S of t m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m I nc l us i on of t he e xot i c T oke ni s m I nve r t e d c ur r i c ul um a ppr oa c h C on c e pt ua l i z e s s o c i e t y a s une qua l M i nor i t y p e r s pe c t i ve s D oe s not c a t e r t o c ogni t i ve ne e ds D oe s not s uppor t e qui t y i n l e a r ni ng out c om e s C ul t ur a l l y uni di m e ns i ona l C ul t ur a l m i nor i t i e s a r e i nvi s i bl e C ul t ur e i s pr e s e nt e d a s hom oge nous D om i na nt c ul t ur e s onl y a r e a c know l e dge d C ul t ur e i s r e pr e s e nt e d a s pe r i phe r a l

PAGE 42

34 A dul t l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd p r e f e r e nc e s a r e a f f e c t e d by c ul t ur a l a nd s oc i a l i nf l ue nc e s a s w e l l a s by pe r s ona l pr e f e r e nc e s a nd s oc i a l l y r e c ons t r uc t i ng w hi t e pr i v i l e ge by f a i l i ng t o e xa m i ne i t i s a p r ob l e m unde r e xa m i n a t i on ( B r i e s c hke 199 8; L e w i s 2003 ; M a ngl i t z 2003) I n t oda y s e duc a t i ona l c l i m a t e c u l t ur a l di ve r s i t y i s pr om ot e d a s a s t r e ngt h r a t he r t ha n a w e a kne s s a nd t he p r obl e m b e c om e s how t o i nf us e t hi s not i on i nt o m a i ns t r e a m A m e r i c a n e duc a t i on a nd s oc i a l c ons c i ous ne s s : how t o m ove t hi nki ng o f m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m f r om a c l a s s i n m ul t i c ul t ur a l e duc a t i on i nt o t he m a i ns t r e a m hi ghe r e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um w hi c h i nc l ude s t he e ve r i nc r e a s i ng pr e s e nc e of onl i ne l e a r ni ng L e a r ni ng i s a pe r s ona l pr oc e s s t a k i ng pl a c e w i t h i n a s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d s e t t i ng. A s t udy of c u r r i c ul um pr a c t i c e s i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng c a l l s f or e duc a t or s t o w a t c h c a r e f ul l y f or no r m a l i z e d pr a c t i c e s w hi c h a bs e nt m i nde dl y w o r k t o r e pr e s s t he i de nt i t y of s t ude nt s of c ol or Q ue s t i oni ng f a m i l i a r t hi ngs br i ngs i ns i ght ( B a t e s on, 1994) A f oc us on t he e xpr e s s i ons of s e l f w i t hi n c ont e xt a l l ow s c ur r i c ul um de ve l opm e nt . w hi c h c e l e br a t e s t he uni que ne s s of e a c h i ndi vi dua l pe r s on t e xt e ve nt c ul t u r e a nd e duc a t i ve m om e nt ( S l a t t e r y, 1995, p. 142) S a r l i n ( 2005 ) r e por t s t ha t pr i or r e s e a r c h ha s not c o ns i de r e d pa r t i c i pa nt a t t i t ude s t ow a r d di ve r s i t y i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt A l t hou gh t he l i t e r a t u r e pr ovi de s s om e e vi de nc e of di f f e r e nc e s t udi e s r e por t i ng r e s ul t s f or e t hni c i t y by e xa m i ni ng s pe c i f i c onl i ne c l a s s e s pa i r e d w i t h s t ude nt s s e ns e of c om m uni t y i n a n onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt ( R ova i & G a l l i e n, 2005; S a r l i n 2005) no c l e a r c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n r a c e a nd t he out c om e va r i a bl e of i n t e r a c t i vi t y ( e xa m i ne d a s a t t i t ude ) ha s be e n f ound ( S a r l i n, 2005) D i f f e r e nc e s t udi e s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a r e t ypi c a l l y l i m i t e d t o i nd i vi dua l c l a s s t o c l a s s c om pa r i s ons a nd f oc us on w i t hi n c l a s s obs e r va t i ons r e por t e d by t he i ns t r uc t or s uc h a s R ova i & G a l l i e n s

PAGE 43

35 ( 2005) f i ndi ng t ha t gr oup hom oge ne i t y a nd s e ns e of c om m uni t y i s e nha nc e d f or s t ude nt s of c ol or by bl e ndi ng s om e f a c e t o f a c e a c t i vi t y i n t o t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng m ode l T he l i t e r a t ur e de m ons t r a t e s t ha t i ns t r uc t o r obs e r va t i ons c a n be us e f ul f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol or F o r i ns t a nc e i n a qua l i t a t i ve a s s e s s m e nt of i nt e r a c t i vi t y a nd s e l f r e por t e d a t t i t ude i n a m ul t i c ul t u r a l c l a s s f o r gr a dua t e s t ude nt s M e r r y f i e l d ( 2001, p. 296) obs e r ve s t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n a f a c e t o f a c e di s c us s i on i n c l a s s a nd a n onl i ne di s c us s i on w he n s he a s k s t he c l a s s how t h e y m a de s e ns e of t he di f f e r e nc e s i n di s c us s i ons onl i ne a nd i n c l a s s : I got bl a nk s t a r e s a nd s om e ne r vous l a ught e r a s a r e s pons e P e opl e di d not w a nt t o t a l k a bout i t [ f a c e t o f a c e ] B ut t ha t ni ght on t he l i s t s e r ve r m e s s a ge s f l e w ba c k a nd f or t h a b out w hy pe opl e a c t di f f e r e nt l y onl i ne t ha n t he y do f a c e t o f a c e T he f ou r w ho ha d not i c e a bl y di f f e r e nt i n t e r a c t i on pa t t e r ns ha d di ve r s e e xpl a na t i ons O ne w om a n w r o t e of he r pa i nf ul s hyne s s i n l a r ge c l a s s e s a nd t w o ot he r s e xpl a i ne d how t he y f e l t e m ba r r a s s e d by t he i r pr ob l e m s i n s pe a ki ng E ng l i s h or unde r s t a ndi ng ot he r s E ngl i s h. T he ot he r pe r s on w r ot e t ha t s he c oul d s a y w ha t s he t hought t hr ough t he c om put e r be c a us e i t w a s e a s i e r t o f i t i n t o t he c onve r s a t i on" a nd e xpr e s s m ys e l f T hi s di s c us s i on be c a m e a s i gni f i c a nt l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e f or a l l o f us a s w e r e a l i z e d i t w oul d pr oba bl y ne ve r ha ve t a ke n pl a c e w i t hout e l e c t r oni c t e c hnol ogy. M a i ns t r e a m e duc a t i on a nd r e s e a r c h vi e w s r a c e a s a m a r ke r f or ot he r a nd not f o r w hi t e s ; w hi t e i s s e e n a s ne ut r a l a nd a s t he nor m ( M a ngl i t z 2003) C l e a r l y, a f oc us on a dul t l e a r ne r s of c ol or i s m i s s i ng f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e ( P r yc e 2000) O nl i ne l e a r ni ng i n a

PAGE 44

36 s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i s c om m on l y c o ns i de r e d r a c e ne ut r a l due t o t he i ndi vi dua l i t y of t he pa r t i c i pa t i on e nvi r on m e nt ( B r a y, 2006) how e ve r a dul t s l e a r n be s t w he n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i s a c know l e dge d, w he n ne w i nf or m a t i on bui l ds on t he i r pa s t e xpe r i e nc e a nd w he n c ur r i c ul um c ont e nt i s m e a ni ngf ul p r obl e m o r i e nt e d, a nd pr a c t i c a l ( C a f f a r e l l a 199 4, p p 24 25 ) T he r e f or e i t i s i m por t a nt not onl y t o i nc l ude but t o f oc us on s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r on m e nt P os i t i oni ng of St ude nt s of C ol or i n O nl i ne D i al ogu e T he s t udy of onl i ne di a l ogue ha s r i s e n i n r e s pons e t o t he phe no m e na l g r ow t h of onl i ne l e a r ni ng. W hi l e m uc h r e s e a r c h e xi s t s on t he t opi c of onl i ne l e a r ni ng c om m uni t i e s a nd t he i nna t e gl oba l na t ur e o f onl i ne l e a r ni ng ( L e a & N i c ol l 2002) f e w s t udi e s f oc us di r e c t l y on t he m i nor i t y pa r t i c i pa nt a nd t he i r i ndi vi dua l obs e r v a t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons a bout onl i ne c our s e w or k. S t udi e s of m i nor i t y s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n gr a dua t e l e ve l onl i ne c our s e w or k a r e t yp i c a l l y c onf i ne d w i t hi n t h e m i l i e u of m ul t i c ul t u r a l o r e qui t y s t udi e s a nd m a y w or k t o no r m a l i z e t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r o nm e nt t o a w hi t e de f a ul t m a j or i t y ( K ol ko N a ka m ur a & R odm a n, 2 000) I n a c om pr e he ns i ve ove r vi e w of i ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e s i n onl i ne i ns t r uc t i on ( B r i t i s h E duc a t i ona l C om m uni c a t i ons 2003) di f f e r e nc e s ba s e d on ge nde r pr i or c ont e nt know l e dge c om put i ng s ki l l l e ve l s a nd c ogni t i ve s t yl e s a r e c om m onl y a ddr e s s e d i n t he r e s e a r c h on onl i ne i ns t r uc t i on, but di f f e r e nc e s ba s e d on e t hni c i t y i s not T he i nt e nt of t hi s r e s e a r c h i s t ha t by r e que s t i ng a nd r e por t i ng r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or r e ga r di ng t he i r pe r c e pt i ons of onl i ne l e a r ni ng s om e gr ound w i l l be ga i ne d t o c ount e r t he r a c i a l i n vi s i bi l i t y ( K ol ko N a ka m ur a & R odm a n, 2000) w hi c h c ur r e nt l y e xi s t s i n t he l i t e r a t ur e e xa m i ni ng t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt ( A i ke n C e r ve r o & J ohns on B a i l e y, 2001)

PAGE 45

37 S t ud e nt p a r t i c i pa t i on i n m e a ni ng c ons t r uc t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt va r i e s ba s e d on i nde pe nde nt e duc a t i ona l goa l s ( R oge r s 200 6) A ppl yi ng pr i nc i pl e s of a ndr a gogy t o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s ugge s t s t he a dva nt a ge s of s e l f di r e c t e d a nd m o r e i nde pe nde nt l e a r n i ng opt i ons I n f a c t R oge r s ( 2006) r e s e a r c h f i nds t ha t l e ve l s of pa r t i c i pa t i on m a y va r y due t o pe r s ona l c om m uni c a t i on l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd pr e f e r e nc e s pe r s ona l c om f o r t a nd ne e ds l e ve l s a nd va r i a t i on s i n pe r s ona l a s s e s s m e nt s of w ha t i s be i ng r e que s t e d a nd ne e de d by t he i ns t r uc t or B y s pe c i f i c a l l y e xa m i ni ng t he e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t he r e i s a n oppo r t uni t y t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd how w e unknow i ngl y e nga ge t he uni ve r s a l i t y a nd nor m s o f w hi t e ne s s w i t hi n our r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e ( M a ngl i t z 2003) F or t he pur pos e of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, t hi s c om pl e x s ubj e c t w a s s i m pl i f i e d t o di s c ove r i f t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt pr ovi de s a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c ol or c a n m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a bout a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt C onve r s a t i on pr ovi de s t he i nt e r a c t i on a m ong s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or a nd onl i ne di a l ogue a l l ow s l e a r ne r s t he t i m e t o r e f l e c t be f o r e r e s pondi ng ( H a r a s i m 2000 ) T i m e f or r e f l e c t i on ha s t r a di t i ona l l y be e n f ound t o be a ppr e c i a t e d by a dul t l e a r ne r s ( K now l e s 1980) S t ude nt s m a y s e l f c he c k a nd be c om e m or e a r t i c ul a t e w he n w r i t i ng t he i r t hought s s i nc e t he i r w or ds m a y be ponde r e d a t l e i s ur e a nd onc e pos t e d, r e s ponde d t o by t he e nt i r e c l a s s s om e t hi ng t ha t w oul d ne ve r ha ppe n i n a t r a d i t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom T he a bi l i t y t o ha ve a r e c or d of e ve r yone s w or k f or r e vi e w i nc l udi ng t he i ns t r uc t or s onl i ne i nt e r a c t i on i s s e e n a s a be ne f i t f o r bot h onl i ne i ns t r uc t or s a s w e l l a s onl i n e s t ude nt s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 2001) O nl i ne di a l ogue pr ovi de s t he i ns t r uc t or w i t h f e e db a c k a s t o s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons

PAGE 46

38 a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of a c onc e pt A r e t he y ge t t i ng i t ? I f not t he i ns t r uc t or m a y i nt e r ve ne onl i ne t o gui de t he di s c us s i on ba c k ont o t he p l a nne d t r a c k, or t he s um m a t i ve f e e dba c k m a y a l l ow t he i ns t r uc t o r t o m ove i n t he di r e c t i on o f i nt e r e s t s e xpr e s s e d by t he s t ude nt s O n t he ot he r ha nd, K a s w or m & L ondone r ( 2000, p 237) not e t ha t di gi t a l c onne c t e dne s s doe s not ne c e s s a r i l y c r e a t e i nt e r a c t i on, a nd c ons i d e r s t he l a c k of di ve r s e s t i m ul a t i ng e nga ge m e nt t o be a pr ob l e m i n w e b ba s e d i ns t r uc t i on a nd m or e r e s e a r c h e xpl or i ng t he di a l ogue of l e a r ni ng i n a n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s c a l l e d f or ( P a ul us & R obe r t s 2006 ) A r e s t ude nt s m or e c om f o r t a bl e onl i ne t h a n i n a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s w he n c r i t i qui ng uni ve r s a l i z e d a s s um pt i ons s uc h a s w hi t e ne s s ( M a h e r & T e t r a ul t 1997 2000) or r a i s i ng i s s ue s of i m por t a nc e s pe c i f i c a l l y t o s t ude nt s of c ol or ? A r e t he s e i s s ue s c ons i de r e d i m por t a nt by s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i n e l e a r ni n g e nvi r onm e nt ? O nl i ne di a l ogue f r a m e s a nd pr ovi de s a w r i t i ng s ur f a c e f or t he t a l k f ound i n a n onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt T hi s s ur f a c e m a y be ne f i t l e a r ne r s w ho do not nor m a l l y pa r t i c i pa t e i n c l a s s di s c us s i on s by l e ve l i ng t he pl a yi ng f i e l d ( C r e e d, 1 997) I n f a c t one r e s e a r c h s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t a n a nt i c i pa t e d be ne f i t of onl i ne d i s c us s i on i s t ha t i t e m pow e r s s t ude nt s w ho a r e l e s s ve r ba l i n c l a s s di s c us s i ons ( K i l l i a n & W i l l hi t e 2003) S c e na r i os w hi c h pl a c e t he or y i nt o pr a c t i c e t hr ough onl i ne c om m un i c a t i on a nd t a l k a s t e xt t a s k t he onl i ne i ns t r uc t or w i t h de s i gni ng que s t i ons a nd gui de d di s c us s i ons w hi c h pr ovoke t hought f ul di a l ogue a nd br i ng e l e a r ne r s out of a n a s ync hr onous di s c onne c t e d s t a t e a nd i nt o a c onne c t e d a nd c ol l e c t i ve c ons c i ous ne s s U nde r s t a ndi ng t he onl i ne s t ude nt e xpe r i e nc e c a n be c om pa r e d t o t he w a y C a f f a r e l l a a nd M e r r i a m ( 2 000) f r a m e s i t ua t e d c ogni t i on, one c a nnot s e pa r a t e t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s f r om t he s i t ua t i on i n w hi c h t he l e a r ni ng t a ke s pl a c e ( p. 59 )

PAGE 47

39 C om m uni c at i ng P r i v i l e ge i n t h e O nl i ne E nv i r onm e nt P a r t i c ul a r l y di s t ur b i ng i n t he l i t e r a t ur e i s t he not i o n of una c know l e dge d w hi t e pr i vi l e ge i nf o r m i ng s ki l l a nd e xpe r i e nc e l e ve l s w hi c h e xi s t be hi nd t he di a l ogue of onl i ne l e a r ni ng a s di s c us s e d by L i m bu r g & C l a r k ( 2006) : P a t t e r ns of o nl i ne c om m uni c a t i on m i r r o r t hos e i n g r ound c l a s s e s : w hi t e pr i vi l e ge d s t ude nt s us ua l l y s pe a k ( w r i t e ) m or e pr ol i f i c a l l y, f or c e f ul l y a nd w i t h gr e a t e r c on f i de nc e w he r e a s s t ude nt s of c ol o r f e m a l e s t ude nt s a nd w or ki ng c l a s s s t ude nt s t e nd t o s pe a k l e s s m or e de f e r e nt i a l l y, a nd w i t h gr e a t e r c a ut i on ( p 49 ) S i l e nc e m a y s om e t i m e s be m i s c ons t r ue d by pe e r s a nd i ns t r uc t or s t o m e a n c ons e nt a gr e e m e nt or e ve n l a c k of i nt e r e s t w he n i n f a c t l a ngua ge f l ue nc y, unw i l l i ngne s s t o a r gue or c ul t ur a l a t t i t ude m a y be c ont r i bu t i ng c a us e s of s i l e nc e C om m uni c a t i on s t r a t e gi e s w hi c h r e l y on s i l e nc e a r e unr e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e nt a t i ons of how hum a n be i ngs l e a r n a nd i nt e r a c t i n t he r e a l w o r l d ( L e a & H e l f a nd, 2004) P e r s ons of c ol or m us t l e a r n t o us e t he i r voi c e s i n a ut he nt i c s e t t i ngs ( D e l pi t 1995 ) a nd i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on, i n our c ur r e nt t e c hnol ogi c a l l y or i e nt e d c ul t ur e t hi s s e t t i ng i nc l ud e s t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt A n e xa m i na t i on of t he l i t e r a t ur e f o r r e s e a r c h pe r t a i ni ng t o onl i ne di a l ogue i n ge ne r a l a nd a dul t l e a r ne r s of c o l or i n t he e nvi r on m e nt of hi ghe r e duc a t i on i n pa r t i c ul a r he l ps f i x a nd f oc us t he m a i n i de a s of t hi s s t udy t o t he l i t e r a t ur e O t he r t ha n i nc l us i on i n s om e r e t e nt i on a nd pe r s i s t e nc e da t a s t ude nt s of c o l or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t e nd t o be i nvi s i bl e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e T hough a t r e m e ndous a m ount of da t a r e por t t he g r ow i ng pa r t i c i pa t i on i n on l i ne e duc a t i on a t t he unde r g r a dua t e a nd gr a dua t e l e ve l i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on, m i ni m a l da t a r e f l e c t t he m i no r i t y s t ude n t e xpe r i e nc e i n onl i ne hi ghe r

PAGE 48

40 e duc a t i on. O nl i ne l e a r ni ng i s s t i l l t oo r e c e nt a phe n om e non t o ha ve i t s p r oc e s s e s c l a s s i f i e d a s t r a di t i ona l ; w ha t ha ppe ns t oda y i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng w i l l c ont r i but e t o w ha t w i l l be c ons i de r e d i n t he f ut u r e a s a t r a di t i ona l m o de l I f e duc a t i ona l t e c hnol ogy w hi c h i nc l ude s onl i ne l e a r ni n g, c a n be c ons i de r e d a s a s y s t e m of s oc i a l pr a c t i c e ( F r a nkl i n 1990) how doe s t he c ul t ur e a nd e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng w hi c h s t ude nt s of c ol or br i ng t o t he i r l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e i nf o r m t he f ut ur e de ve l opm e nt a nd pr e s e nt a t i on of t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng m ode l ? T h e l i t e r a t u r e e xa m i ni ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng e xpl or e s t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l a nd i nt e r pe r s ona l pr e s e nc e of t he on l i ne l e a r ne r ( C l a gu e 2003; M c I s s a c & T u 2002 ; S hi n 2002; W e ge r i f 1998) t hough none o f t he po i nt s a r e di r e c t e d s pe c i f i c a l l y t ow a r d s t ude nt s of c ol or L i t e r a t ur e e xa m i ni ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e pr i vi l e ge i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom f i nd w hi t e ne s s t o be t he un r e c ogni z e d n or m ( B r ow n C e r ve r o & J ohns on B a i l e y, 2000; M a he r & T e t r a ul t 1997, 2000) a nd E ngl i s h a s t he a c c e pt e d gl oba l l a ngua ge a nd pl a t f or m f or onl i ne c ou r s e s ( L e a & N i c ol l 2002) C ons i de r a n obs e r va t i on m a de by de C a s t a l l B r ys on, & J e ns on: M os t e duc a t i ona l t e c hnol ogy de s i gn a nd de ve l opm e nt . ha s be e n pr e di c a t e d on t he unc r i t i c a l s i m ul a t i on o f c ul t u r a l l y va l ue d know l e dge r ol e s a nd pr a c t i c e s T he s e t r a di t i ona l l y i m i t a t i ve pr a c t i c e s t hi nl y ve i l e d be l i ke m e i nj unc t i ons m i m i c t he c ogni t i ve s t yl e s a nd w or k pr a c t i c e s of r e c ogni z e d 'e xpe r t s ( 2002) T he e xpe r t s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a r e i ns t r uc t or s but t he r e e xi s t s a l a c k o f i ns t r uc t o r s of c ol or ( C ol e 2003) T hus a pa r a dox e xi s t s : l e a r ni n g e nvi r onm e nt s a r e e nha nc e d by di ve r s i t y ( H ur t a do M i l e m C l a yt on P e de r s on, & A l l e n; 1999) ; pe opl e of c ol or a r e

PAGE 49

41 unde r r e pr e s e nt e d a s i ns t r uc t or s a nd a s gr a dua t e s t u de nt s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i o n ( T u r ne r M ye r s & C r e s w e l l 1999 ) O nl y a bout 5% o f U S i ns t r uc t or s a r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, a nd onl y a bout 2% a r e H i s pa ni c w he r e a s a bout one f o ur t h of U S h i ghe r e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a r e s t ude nt s of c ol or ( S out he r n R e gi ona l E duc a t i on B oa r d, 2007 ) S t ude n t s of c ol or a r e s e l dom i de nt i f i e d a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d be yond de m ogr a phi c s i n t he gr ow i ng body of l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng ( A i ke n, C e r ve r o, & J ohns on B a i l e y, 2001 ) I n a s ynt he s i s a nd c r i t i que o f t he l i t e r a t ur e e xa m i ni ng w hi t e ne s s a nd w hi t e pr i vi l e ge i n e duc a t i on M a ngl i t z ( 2003 ) c ha l l e nge s e duc a t or s t o be a w a r e of w ha t i s m i s s i ng i n t he l i t e r a t u r e ( p 121 ) S t udi e s w hi c h f oc us on t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n t he e nvi r on m e nt of onl i ne l e a r ni ng a r e ne e de d i n or de r t o gi ve a m o r e c om pr e he ns i ve vi e w t o t he g r ow i ng body of l i t e r a t u r e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng. Se ns e m ak i ng f or St ude nt s of C ol or i n t he O nl i ne L e ar ni ng E nv i r onm e nt T he pr opos e d pr og r a m of s t udi e s t hought o f a s c ur r i c ul um s e nds a pot e nt m e s s a ge a bout w ha t i s va l ue d ( G our l e y, 2003) S l a t t e r y a r g ue s t ha t c ur r i c ul um m a y r e p r e s e nt a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s ( 1995, p 77) h ow e ve r G our l e y obs e r ve s t ha t t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng c ur r i c ul um m a y be c ul t ur a l l y m yo pi c ( 2003, p. 127) T a ke n f or gr a nt e d w a ys of m a ki ng s e ns e of r a c e e xi s t w i t hi n t he c ont e m por a r y c ul t ur e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd m i no r i t y pa r t i c i pa nt s R a c e a n a r t i f i c i a l s oc i a l c ons t r uc t w hi c h ha s di vi de d pe opl e f r om hi s t or i c a l t i m e s t o t he p r e s e nt da y, i s e m be dde d i nt o m a i ns t r e a m A m e r i c a n c ons c i ous ne s s I t c ont i nue s t o r e pr oduc e i t s e l f a nd i nf or m m ode r n s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i ons i n da i l y l i f e a s w e l l a s i n A m e r i c a n e duc a t i on s ys t e m s w hi c h i nc l ude onl i ne l e a r ni ng N on i s s ue s of e t hni c i t y f r a m e c ont e m po r a r y e duc a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd pr a c t i c e s a nd

PAGE 50

42 pr om ul ga t e a c ove r t e duc a t i ona l a ge nda w hi c h ha s be e n i nf e c t e d a nd r e f l e c t e d by hi s t or i c a l s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d r a c i a l f r a m e w or ks w hi c h de f a ul t t o r e f l e c t t he w hi t e m a j or i t y ( K ol ko N a ka m ur a & R odm a n, 2 000) C a n onl i ne s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e e qu a l l y s o t ha t no o ne i s s i l e nc e d or pr i vi l e ge d? de M ont e s O r a n, a nd W i l l i s ( 2002 ) pos e t hi s que s t i on i n r e s e a r c h w hi c h a r t i c ul a t e s t he not i on of a n i nvi s i bl e s ys t e m w hi c h gi ve s pr i vi l e ge a nd r a c i a l dom i na nc e t o w hi t e s i n a n onl i ne gr a dua t e l e ve l c l a s s F u r t he r r e s e a r c h s ugge s t e d by de M ont e s e t a l i nc l ude s a na l ys i s by onl i ne e duc a t or s a nd c our s e de ve l ope r s of pe r s ona l bi a s e s a nd a s s um pt i ons i n i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h onl i ne s t ude nt s T hi s s ugge s t i on he l pe d gui de t he s t r uc t ur e a nd de ve l opm e nt of r e s e a r c h que s t i on t h r e e pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s s t udy. A s t he s t ude nt popul a t i on i n t he U S i s gr ow i ng m or e di ve r s e t he t e a c hi ng popul a t i on i s be c om i ng m o r e w hi t e ( S l e e t e r 1993) t hus t he onl y w a y t o r e ve r s e i ns t i t ut i ona l r a c i s m i s t o dr a w m o r e t e a c he r s of c ol or i nt o t he t e a c hi ng p r of e s s i on S l e e t e r s ugge s t s t ha t t he be s t s ol ut i ons t o r a c i s m w i l l c o m e f r om m ul t i r a c i a l c oa l i t i ons i n w hi c h w hi t e pe opl e pa r t i c i pa t e but do not dom i na t e ( p. 1 69) R e f l e c t i ng t hi s m ode l m y r e s e a r c h s t udy i nc l ude s w hi t e voi c e s but i s f oc us e d on s t ude nt s of c ol o r

PAGE 51

43 C ha pt e r T hr e e : M e t hodol ogy I nt r oduc t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or S i nc e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n di r e c t e d t ow a r d s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt of hi ghe r e duc a t i on, t hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he i nt e r s e c t i on of t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on us i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o pr ovoke i nqui r y, pr ovi de di r e c t i on a nd c r e a t e a s pa c e f or l ooki ng s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r I t w a s not a s t udy f oc us e d on di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s ; t hi s s t udy s ou ght t o l e a r n m or e a bout t he on l i ne e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s t hr ough t he us e o f a s ur ve y s i nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h f or t hi s popu l a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt a t t he pr e s e nt t i m e T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d va r i a bi l i t y a m o ng gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol o r t h r oug h t he a na l ys i s of pa r t i c i pa nt s obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons r e ga r di ng pa r t i c ul a r a s pe c t s of t he i r onl i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e us i ng da t a c ol l e c t e d i n r e s pons e t o a s ur ve y. T he s t udy f ol l ow e d a none xpe r i m e nt a l e xpl or a t o r y de s i gn us i ng ga ps f ound i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t o gui de a nd f r a m e t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons 1. W ha t i s t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e po r t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e ?

PAGE 52

44 2. T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt p r o v i de a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c ol or c a n m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt ? 3. I f pe r s ons of c ol or [ s t ude nt s or on l i ne i ns t r uc t or s ] c oul d of f e r onl i ne l e a r ni ng i ns t r uc t or s a nd de s i gne r s a dvi c e a bout pr ovi d i ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h f ul l y c ons i de r s t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or w ha t w ou l d i t be ? T he i nc r e a s e i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n t he h i ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt ha s c r e a t e d a vi r t ua l c om m uni t y of onl i ne l e a r ne r s w ho i nt e r a c t w i t h e a c h ot he r w i t hou t be i ng t oge t he r phys i c a l l y. P a r t i c i pa nt obs e r va t i on i s a n i m po r t a nt pa r t of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h; t he onl i ne s e t t i ng w i t hi n w hi c h onl i ne l e a r ne r s ope r a t e c r e a t e s a ne e d f or r e s e a r c h w hi c h e xpl or e s onl i ne l e a r ne r pa r t i c i pa t i on w i t h i n t he onl i ne c om m uni t y t he y ve c hos e n. T hi s c r e a t e s a c ha l l e nge f or r e s e a r c he r s : how t o pe r f or m r e s e a r c h r e f l e c t i ng r e a l i s t i c l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s f or pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a n on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt T hus t h e s t udy of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n a n onl i ne s e t t i ng pr e s e nt e d t w o pa r t i c ul a r c ha l l e nge s t o m ys e l f a s a r e s e a r c he r : t he a bs e nc e of c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o s t ude nt s a nd c l a s s r oom s t o w hi c h a p hys i c a l obs e r ve r w oul d ha ve a c c e s s a nd how a s a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r t o w or k w i t h r a c i a l a nd e t hni c c a t e gor i e s i n r e s e a r c h. R ol e of t he R e s e ar c he r M y r ol e a s a di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng a dm i n i s t r a t or i nc l ud e s c ol l e c t i ng a nd r e por t i ng on a va r i e t y of di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng da t a A s I c ol l e c t e d t he s e da t a I no t i c e d t ha t t he i nf o r m a t i on be i ng c ol l e c t e d a bout di s t a nc e l e a r ne r s di d not t ypi c a l l y i nc l ude de m ogr a phi c s a nd di d not r e f l e c t a s pe c t s of d i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng s t ude nt s be yond e nr ol l m e nt a nd c om pl e t i on A s I be c a m e i nc r e a s i ngl y i nt e r e s t e d i n know i ng m o r e a bout di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng s t ud e nt s I obs e r ve d t ha t us i ng onl i ne t e c hnol ogi e s t o c ol l e c t qua l i t a t i ve da t a f or onl i ne c ou r s e w or k

PAGE 53

45 w oul d be a n i nt e r e s t i ng a ddi t i on t o t he r e s e a r c h, a n d s ugge s t e d qua l e t a t i ve a s a ne w t e r m s pe c i f i c t o t he qua l i t a t i ve s t udy of t he I nt e r ne t ba s e d onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt s om e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s e l e a r ni ng ( B oye t t e 2006 ) A n i nt e r e s t i n di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng s t ude nt s a nd i nf or m a t i on w hi c h i s c ur r e nt l y r e por t e d a bout t he m l e d m e t o de s i gn m y di s s e r t a t i on r e s e a r c h t o r e f l e c t a m or e i n de pt h l oo k a t gr a dua t e s t u de nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he l a c k of r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c t o s t ude nt s of c ol or not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e i ns pi r e d t he t he m e a nd t i t l e o f t he s t udy. H ow a r e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r a n d m i nor i t y pa r t i c i pa nt s a m e l i or a t e d? B a s e d on t he l i t e r a t ur e t he r e w oul d b e no c l e a r a dva nt a ge a dde d t o t he r e s e a r c h by ove r t l y d r a w i ng a t t e nt i on t o m y e t hni c i t y a s a r e s e a r c he r A c c or di ng t o t he l i t e r a t ur e r a c i a l a nd e t hni c di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r s a nd r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s c a n be a s our c e of e m o t i ona l l y c ha r ge d a nxi e t y a nd a s s um pt i ons a nd m a y e ve n a f f e c t w ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s voc a l i z e a bout r a c i a l t opi c s ( G una r a t n a m 2003, 2006; T w i ne & W a r r e n 2000) O n t he ot he r ha nd, K r ys a n & C oupe r ( 2006 ) f i nd m i xe d s uppor t f o r t he i r hypot h e s i s t ha t r e s e a r c he r pr e s e nc e e f f e c t s ne ga t i ve r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt a t t i t ude s o r c e ns or i ng. T he l i t e r a t u r e s uppor t s t he not i on t ha t r e s e a r c he r s w i t h t he s a m e e t hni c ba c kgr ound a s t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve t he a dva nt a ge of a n e m i c pe r s pe c t i ve a nd a n i ns i de r s e m pa t hy a nd s ha r e d w a ys of know i ng, un de r s t a ndi ng, a nd i nt e r e s t ( H i l l i e r & R a c hm a n, 1996 ; L e i ni nge r 1991) w he n pe r f or m i n g f i e l d r e s e a r c h. H ow e ve r t he i m pa c t of r a c e a nd e t hni c i t y i s not pr e di c t a bl e ( G una r a t na m 2006) a nd m e t hodol ogi c a l i s s ue s de a l i ng w i t h r a c e a nd t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s r a i s e c o m pl i c a t i ons a nd i s s ue s w hi c h r e m a i n unr e s ol ve d ( T w i ne & W a r r e n 2000) T hough s ha r e d r a c i a l i de nt i t y i s w i de l y a s s um e d t o

PAGE 54

46 pr om ot e e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i on be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r a nd pa r t i c i pa nt ( R hode s 1994) r a c e of i nt e r vi e w e r e f f e c t s ( R hode s 1994; T w i ne 2006; T w i ne & W a r r e n 2000 ) a r e a dde d t o s oc i a l c l a s s a ge a nd ge nde r a s va r i a bl e s w hi c h m a y i nf l ue nc e t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s ( E dw a r ds 1998) R e s e ar c h D e s i gn T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d va r i a bi l i t y a m ong g r a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol or t hr ough t he a na l ys i s of pa r t i c i pa nt s obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons r e ga r di ng pa r t i c ul a r a s pe c t s of t he i r onl i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e us i ng da t a c ol l e c t e d i n r e s pons e t o a s ur ve y ( A ppe ndi x A ) T he s t udy f ol l ow e d a none xpe r i m e nt a l e xpl or a t o r y de s i gn us i ng ga ps f ound i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t o gui de a nd f r a m e t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons O ne w a y t o c om e t o know t he pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i s t o s ol i c i t obs e r va t i ons a bout t he i r e xpe r i e n c e s S ur ve y m e t hodol ogy ha s be e n us e d f or a na l ys i s of pe r c e pt i ons of e t hni c m i n or i t i e s ( B e r t houd, 2006) ; a que s t i onna i r e i s a r e s e a r c h m e t hod w hi c h c a n be u s e d t o c ol l e c t a nd r e po r t pe r s ona l opi ni ons a nd c ul t ur a l know l e dge ( S pi c ka r d 2006 ) E dw a r ds ( 1998 ) not e s a t r a di t i on of s ur ve y r e s e a r c h a s a m e t hod w hi c h a l l ow s t he r e s e a r c he r t o he l p c ont r ol f or i nt e r vi e w bi a s a nd w i l l he l p t o a m e l i or a t e t he i nf l ue nc e of r e s e a r c he r e t hni c i t y di s c us s e d i n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o t hi s c ha pt e r T hi s de s c r i pt i ve r e s e a r c h s t ud y de s c r i be d t he c u r r e nt s t a t e of a f f a i r s ( S a l ki nd, 2000) f o r a s a m pl e o f gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of va r yi ng e t hni c i t i e s w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i o n. D a t a a na l ys i s i n t hi s s t udy w a s pr e s e nt e d w i t hi n t he c ont e xt o f i nqu i r y, e xpl or a t i o n, a nd di s c ove r y, a nd doe s not i m pl y a c onf i r m a t i on o f f i ndi ngs a bout t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy ( K r om r e y, 1993 ) T hi s s t udy

PAGE 55

47 e xa m i ne d r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s of va r yi ng e t hni c i t i e s a nd w a s not de s i gne d t o be a c om pa r a t i ve s t udy of d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s o f c ol or T hi s r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c a l l y s ought out s t ude nt s of c ol o r a s t he f oc us of t he s t udy. T hi s de s c r i pt i ve s t udy pr ovi de d know l e dge a bout a s pe c i f i c s a m pl e of s t ude nt s w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng a t t he g r a dua t e s t ude nt l e ve l us i ng t ool s f ound i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n t he f or m of e m a i l a nd a n onl i ne s ur ve y f or t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s T hr ough t he s ur ve y, a t opi c w a s i nt r oduc e d t o pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e us e d t o pr ovi d e da t a a bout t he t op i c S t a t i s t i c s w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne r e f l e c t a nd de s c r i be va r i a bi l i t y f o r s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne c our s e w or k. S t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s of da t a w a s a c c om pl i s he d us i ng t he S A S s of t w a r e pr og r a m S om e da t a a nd r e s ul t s w e r e de s c r i be d us i ng a na r r a t i ve f or m a t O p e n e nde d s ur ve y que s t i ons pr ovi de d qua l i t a t i ve da t a w hi c h w a s a na l yz e d f or t he m e s T hi s r e s e a r c h e xa m i ne d a nd de s c r i be d r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r a ge a n d onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e a nd pr ovi de d pe r s ona l r e f l e c t i ons f r om s ur ve y pa r t i c i pa nt s a bout onl i ne pa r t i c i pa t i on U s i ng a m ode l f i r s t pr opos e d by B r e t z ( 1983 ) H e nr i ( 1992 p 128 ) ope r a t i ona l i z e s a c om m uni c a t i ons m ode l by de f i ni ng e xpl i c i t a nd i m pl i c i t i nt e r a c t i ons a s a t hr e e s t e p pr oc e s s : c om m uni c a t i on of i nf o r m a t i o n a f i r s t r e s pons e t o t hi s i nf o r m a t i on a nd a s e c ond a ns w e r r e l a t i ng t o t he f i r s t S ynt he s i z i ng H e nr i s m ode l H e w a nd C he ung ( 2003) p r ovi de a s um m a r y de s c r i bi ng H e nr i s i nt e r a c t i vi t y di m e ns i on ( p 247 ) a nd t he s pe c i f i c s f or t hi s pr oc e s s ( T a bl e 2 ) B a s e d on H e nr i s m ode l a r t i c ul a t i ng e xpl i c i t a nd i m pl i c i t i nt e r a c t i ons f or a na l ys i s of s t a t e m e nt s s ur ve y que s t i ons us e d i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy w e r e de s i gne d t o c ont a i n a n e xpl i c i t i nt e r a c t i on f or a di r e c t r e s pons e a n i m pl i c i t i nt e r a c t i on f or a n i ndi r e c t r e s pons e a nd a n ope n e n de d que s t i on r e que s t f or a n

PAGE 56

48 i nde pe nde nt s t a t e m e nt a s a s hor t a ns w e r or s t or y r e s pons e S hor t a ns w e r s a nd s t or y r e s pons e s w e r e us e d t o i de nt i f y t he m e s i n t he s ur v e y da t a a nd t o p r ovi de a pl a c e w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s c oul d a d d c om m e nt s w hi c h ha d not be e n s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s e d i n t he s ur ve y que s t i ons i f t he y c hos e t o do s o. T a bl e 2 M ode l f or t he T hr e e St e p C om m uni c at i on P r oc e s s M e t hod I ndi c a t or H e nr i s I nt e r ac t i v i t y di m e ns i on ( 1992) U ni t of a na l ys i s : t he m a t i c uni t T hi s m ode l di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n i nt e r a c t i ve ve r s u s non i nt e r a c t i ve a nd e xpl i c i t ve r s us i m pl i c i t i nt e r a c t i on. E xpl i c i t a n d i m pl i c i t i nt e r a c t i ons a r e de f i ne d a s a t hr e e s t e p pr oc e s s : E x pl i c i t i nt e r ac t i on D i r e c t r e s pons e ( s t a t e m e nt s r e s pondi ng t o a que s t i on by na m e ) D i r e c t c om m e nt a r y ( s t a t e m e nt s a bout s om e one e l s e 's m e s s a ge by na m e ) I m pl i c i t i nt e r ac t i on I nd i r e c t r e s pons e ( s t a t e m e nt s t ha t r e s pond e i t he r t o a que s t i on w i t hout r e f e r r i ng t o i t by na m e ) I ndi r e c t c om m e nt a r y ( s t a t e m e nt s t a ki ng up a p r e vi ous l y e xpr e s s e d i de a but w i t hout r e f e r r i ng t o t he or i gi na l m e s s a ge by na m e ) I nde pe nde nt s t at e m e nt ( s t a t e m e nt s t ha t a r e not c on ne c t e d t o ot he r s t ha t ha ve be e n pr e vi ous l y e xpr e s s e d i n t he onl i ne d i s c us s i on)

PAGE 57

49 F our de m ogr a phi c va r i a bl e s w e r e c ol l e c t e d t h r oug h t he s ur ve y : e t hni c i t y ge nde r a ge a nd onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e F o r t he pur pos e s of t hi s r e s e a r c h, onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e i s de f i ne d by c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd by c om f or t l e ve l w i t h c o m put e r s T he va r i a bl e o f c om f o r t l e ve l w a s ope r a t i ona l i z e d i nt o t hr e e c a t e gor i e s ( T a bl e 3 ) T a bl e 3 C om f or t L e v e l s U s e d f or V ar i abl e of O nl i ne E x pe r i e nc e L e ve l D e s c r i pt i on of E xpe r i e nc e N ovi c e L i m i t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e goi ng i nt o g r a dua t e s t udi e s l i m i t e d I nt e r ne t us e i n pe r s ona l a nd pr o f e s s i ona l l i f e ; of t e n ne e de d he l p w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s C om f or t a bl e O f t e n us e d t he c om put e r i n pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l l i f e be f o r e goi ng i nt o g r a dua t e s t udi e s t he r e f o r e c onf i de nt w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ; r a r e l y ne e de d he l p w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s E xpe r t F r e que nt a nd s om e t i m e s a dva nc e d c om put e r us e i n pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l l i f e ( e x: P hot os hop, c r e a t i on o f pe r s on a l or p r of e s s i ona l W e b pa ge or pr e s e nt a t i ons ) be f o r e goi ng i nt o g r a d ua t e s t udi e s ; he l pe d ot he r s or t ook a l e a de r s hi p r ol e i n gr oups w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s

PAGE 58

50 T r i angul at i on I nc l us i on of W h i t e S t ude nt s V oi c e s I t r i a ngul a t e d t he s t udy w i t h w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd w i t h onl i ne i ns t r uc t o r s r a t he r t ha n l i m i t i ng t he s t udy s t r i c t l y t o va r i a bi l i t y of s t ude nt s of c ol or I n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w a s m or e or l e s s i m por t a nt t o w hi t e s t ude nt s A N O V A w a s us e d t o e xa m i ne r e s pons e s f r om bot h w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or t o s ur ve y que s t i ons 1 a nd 2 ( A ppe ndi x A ) T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o f oc us on s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w a s not i nt e nde d t o be a c om pa r i s on s t udy be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s I n r e s pons e t o t he l i t e r a t u r e r e ga r di ng w hi t e nor m s a ddr e s s e d i n C ha pt e r T w o w hi t e s t ude nt r e s pons e s w e r e i nc l ud e d i n t hi s pa r t of t he s t udy i n or de r t o obs e r ve how w hi t e ne s s m a y ope r a t e by e xa m i ni ng m or e or l e s s i nt e r e s t i n c ha l l e ngi ng w hi t e nor m s by w hi t e s t ude nt s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r o nm e nt I nc l udi ng w hi t e s t ude nt s i n t he r e s e a r c h r e s ul t s w a s not i nt e nde d t o de m ons t r a t e di f f e r e nc e but r a t he r s e r ve a pu r pos e t o s he d l i ght on a ny i s s ue s of r a c e t hr ough a de m ons t r a t i on of va r i a bi l i t y i n m or e or l e s s w i l l i ngne s s t o di s c us s r a c e onl i ne or f i ndi ng i s s ue s of r a c e t o be m o r e or l e s s i m por t a nt A j us t i f i c a t i on f or t r i a ngul a t i ng t he s t udy w i t h r e s pons e s f r om w hi t e s t ude nt s i s e vi de nt i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w he n D ol a n ( 2006, p. 137) obs e r ve s S c hol a r s f a c e t ough que s t i ons w he n de c i di ng how t o i nve s t i ga t e a phe nom e non w hi c h i s not a c c us t om e d t o s e e i ng i t s e l f s e e i ng I nc l udi ng r e s pons e s f r om w hi t e s t ude nt s di d not p r ovi de a w hi t e c a nva s ont o w hi c h I pa i nt e d a s t udy of m i nor i t y s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons r a t he r I ha d t he c ha nc e t o obs e r ve pe r f o r m a nc e of w hi t e ne s s a s r e f l e c t e d by s ur ve y r e s pons e s A na l ys i s of w hi t e s t ude nt r e s pons e s pr ovi de d a m or e c om pl e t e a na l ys i s of s ur ve y que s t i ons w hi c h a s k e d pa r t i c i pa nt s i f c ha l l e ngi ng or

PAGE 59

51 c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons w a s i m por t a nt t o t he m a nd p r ovi de d pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h a n oppo r t uni t y t o s ha r e opi ni on s r e ga r di ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ov i de s a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s m a y m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom S i nc e a s D ol a n not e s t he w a y w hi t e i nvi s i bi l i t y w or ks r e m a i ns h i dde n ( p 137) t r i a ngul a t i on a c c om pl i s he d by a ddi ng w hi t e s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng w a s us e f ul i n p r ovi di ng a c om pl e t e a na l ys i s f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o. I nc l us i on of I ns t r uc t or s V oi c e s S e e ki ng t he pe r s pe c t i ve of i ns t r uc t or s t e a c hi ng onl i ne pr ovi de d a n a ddi t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve t o t ha t of s t ude nt s a nd a dde d a not he r f a c e t t o t he da t a c ol l e c t e d f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t hr e e O bs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt w e r e c ol l e c t e d us i ng t he s a m e s ur ve y que s t i ons bu t t un e d t o t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he onl i ne i ns t r uc t or ( A ppe ndi x B ) O ne hundr e d i ns t r uc t or s of va r yi ng e t hni c i t i e s w ho r e gul a r l y t e a c h i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a t i ns t i t ut i ons of hi ghe r e duc a t i on i n one s out he r n s t a t e w e r e pur pos e l y s e l e c t e d us i ng publ i c un i ve r s i t y i n f or m a t i on i de nt i f yi ng onl i ne i ns t r uc t or s s uc h a s c l a s s s c he dul e s O nl i ne i ns t r uc t or s w e r e c o nt a c t e d a nd pr ovi de d w i t h t he s ur ve y vi a e m a i l A s t udy o f i ns t r uc t o r s w a s not pl a nne d f or t hi s s t udy ; s i nc e t hi s s t udy w a s a bout s t ude nt s i ns t r uc t or s r e s pons e s w e r e r e por t e d onl y t h r ough t he i r de s c r i pt i ve c om m e nt s a nd s t or i e s s ha r e d i n r e s pons e t o ope n e nde d que s t i ons O nl y r e s pons e s ga t he r e d f r om i ns t r uc t or s of c ol or w e r e r e por t e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he i ns t r uc t o r s r e s pons e s t o t he ope n e nde d s ur ve y que s t i on s s uppl i e d de s c r i pt i ve da t a a nd pr ov i de d a n i l l us t r a t i ve ba c kgr ound f or t he r e s e a r c h f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve o f i ns t r uc t or s o f c ol or

PAGE 60

52 P i l ot St udy A f t e r obt a i ni ng a ppr opr i a t e I R B a ppr ova l a pi l ot s ur ve y us i ng e m a i l a nd S u r ve y M onke y T M w a s s e nt t o s e v e nt y doc t or a l s t ude nt s a nd t o t w e nt y onl i ne l e a r ni ng i ns t r uc t or s of m i xe d di ve r s i t y f r om a m a j or m e t r op ol i t a n uni ve r s i t y f or f e e dba c k. T he pur pos e f ul s a m pl e of s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng t he pi l ot s ur ve y w a s s e l e c t e d f r om doc t o r a l s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n A dul t C ont i nui ng a nd H i ghe r E duc a t i on doc t o r a l de gr e e p r ogr a m s T hi s s a m pl e w a s s e l e c t e d be c a us e i t c ont a i ne d de m ogr a phi c s s i m i l a r t o t he uni ve r s i t y ove r a l l a nd be c a us e t he C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on o f f e r e d t he gr e a t e s t num be r of on l i ne c our s e s a t t he gr a dua t e l e ve l du r i ng t he F a l l 2007 s e m e s t e r w he n t he s ur ve y w a s di s t r i but e d. T he i ns t r uc t or s w e r e pur pos e l y s e l e c t e d f r om i ns t r uc t or s t e a c hi ng on l i ne dur i ng t he F a l l 2007 s e m e s t e r us i ng publ i c uni ve r s i t y s c he dul e r e c or ds T he i nt e nt i on of t he pi l ot s t udy w a s t o t e s t t he s ur ve y que s t i ons t o e ns ur e t ha t t he s ur ve y que s t i ons w e r e s t r uc t ur e d i n a w a y t ha t w a s unde r s t a nda bl e t o pa r t i c i pa nt s t o i m p r ove t he s ur ve y que s t i ons i n or de r t o i nc r e a s e pa r t i c i pa nt unde r s t a ndi ng of t he f oc us of t he que s t i ons a nd t o e ns ur e t ha t t he s ur ve y que s t i ons r e t ur ne d da t a t h a t a ddr e s s e d a nd a ns w e r e d t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons I n de s i gni ng t hi s s t udy, I c ons c i ous l y m a de a pe r s ona l c om m i t m e nt t o t a ke a l e a r ni ng pos t ur e t o be ope n t o po t e nt i a l c r i t i c i s m r e ga r di ng t he s ur ve y t ool I us e d t o c ol l e c t t he da t a o r t ow a r d a ny a s pe c t of w hi t e ne s s I c ons c i ous l y or unc ons c i ous l y br ought a l ong w i t h m e t o t he r e s e a r c h. M y goa l i n pur s ui ng t hi s t opi c w a s t o l e a r n m o r e a bout s t ude nt s of c ol or t hr ough t he r e s e a r c h, w i t h a goa l t ow a r d m a ki ng t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or m o r e vi s i bl e A l l s ur ve y r e s pons e s t o t he pi l ot s t udy w e r e a nonym ous a s s e t up a nd c ol l e c t e d t h r o ugh S ur ve y M onke y T M F o r t he pi l ot

PAGE 61

53 s t udy, i n a ddi t i on t o a r e que s t t o c om pl e t e t he s ur v e y, a n e m a i l i nvi t a t i on w a s e xt e nde d t o s t ud e nt a nd i ns t r uc t or s ur ve y pa r t i c i pa nt s t o c on t a c t t he r e s e a r c he r a nd o f f e r f a c e t o f a c e f e e dba c k. A l t hough no s ur ve y pa r t i c i pa nt s w i s he d t o m e e t f a c e t o f a c e I di d r e c e i ve c om m e nt s vi a e m a i l f r om s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s I a ppr e c i a t e d t he r e s pons e s us i n g e m a i l a s I w a s a c t i ve l y us i ng t he onl i ne t ool s of t h e di s t a nc e l e a r ne r ( e l e c t r oni c c om m uni c a t i on vi a e m a i l ) t o he a r f r om di s t a nc e l e a r ne r s a nd i ns t r uc t or s a bout d i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng. T hus I f e l t i m m e r s e d i n t he onl i ne e nvi r o nm e nt D ur i ng t he f e e dba c k pr oc e s s s ur ve y l a ngua ge w a s i m pr ove d, a nd s ur ve y que s t i o ns a dj us t e d t o i nc r e a s e unde r s t a ndi ng of t he que s t i on be i ng a s ke d. I r e c e i ve d a 68 8% r a t e o f r e t ur n f r om t he pi l ot s ur ve ys s e nt t o s t ude nt s I n a ddi t i on t o t he s ur ve y r e s pons e s I r e c e i ve d onl y o ne a ddi t i ona l c om m e nt f r om t he s t ude nt s a nd t he s a m e c om m e nt w a s r e c e i ve d f r o m 16 r e s ponde r s T hi s c om m e nt w a s a c onc e r n a bout c om pl e t i ng t he s ur ve y be c a us e t he r e s ponde r w a s not a s t ude nt of c ol or T hi s c onc e r n, w hi c h w hi t e s t ude nt s t ook t he t i m e t o s e nd t o m e v i a e m a i l i n a ddi t i on t o t he s ur ve y, a ddr e s s e d t he que s t i on pos e d by s ur ve y q ue s t i on t w o: A r e w hi t e s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t e d i n c r i t i qui ng w hi t e no r m s ? M y i nt e nt w a s not t o f oc us on w hi t e s t ude nt s ; how e ve r I f ound i t r e l e va nt t o c onc e r ns e xpr e s s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a s w e l l a s r e l e va nt f or a ddi ng t r i a ngul a t i on t o t he s t udy t o s e e i f w hi t e s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n c r i t i qui ng pe r c e pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt S i nc e t he r e ha d not be e n a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o s e l e c t f o r e t hni c i t y pr i o r t o s e ndi ng out t he pi l ot s ur ve y, I de c i de d t ha t a l l ow i n g t he voi c e o f w hi t e s t ude nt s f o r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o i n t he f i na l s ur ve y w oul d be of be ne f i t t o i nve s t i ga t e t he i s s ue of w hi t e pe r c e pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s

PAGE 62

54 T he de m ogr a phi c s f o r s t ude nt s ur ve ys c om pl e t e d f or t he pi l ot s t udy i nd i c a t e d r e s pons e s f r om 6. 3% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, 31. 3% H i s pa ni c a nd 62. 4% W hi t e s t ude nt s S i nc e t he l a c k of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s i n h i g he r e duc a t i on i s a p r obl e m not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e I w a s not s ur pr i s e d by t he s e pe r c e nt a ge s of r e s pons e s T he num be r a nd di ve r s i t y of r e s pons e s w a s a de qua t e t o m ove f or w a r d w i t h t he s t udy. P opul at i on and Sam pl e T hi s s t udy c ons i de r e d t he popul a t i on of s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne gr a dua t e l e ve l c our s e w or k by e xa m i ni ng a s a m pl e of gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of va r yi ng e t hni c i t i e s e nr ol l e d i n c ol l e ge s a nd un i ve r s i t i e s l oc a t e d a c r os s 16 s t a t e s i n t he s out he a s t e r n r e gi on of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s O nc e t he pi l ot s t udy w a s c om pl e t e d, t he s ur ve y w a s pr ovi de d vi a e m a i l t o a pur pos e l y s e l e c t e d c ohor t of a ppr oxi m a t e l y 200 gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol or e nr o l l e d i n m ul t i pl e i ns t i t ut i ons a c r os s t he s out he r n r e gi on. T he pr ogr a m di r e c t or f o r t hi s c ohor t o f s t ude nt s w a s s pe c i f i c a bout pr ot e c t i ng t he c onf i de nt i a l i t y of p a r t i c i pa nt s gi ve n t he c onve ni e nc e of t hi s s a m pl e ; t he r e f or e s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he pr ogr a m a t t he t i m e of t he s ur ve y r e c e i ve d t he s ur v e y f r om t he pr og r a m di r e c t or e ns ur i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s pr i va c y. A f t e r I de f e nde d m y pr opos a l I d r e que s t e d a l e t t e r of s uppor t f r om t he pr og r a m di r e c t or of t he s e l e c t e d c ohor t of s t ude nt s s o t ha t I c oul d r e c e i ve I R B a ppr ova l t o c onduc t t he s t udy w i t h t he m D u r i ng t he c our s e of t hi s c on ve r s a t i on, t he p r ogr a m di r e c t or t a l ke d a bout t he di gi t a l di vi de i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a nd e xpr e s s e d a c onc e r n r e ga r di ng t he f a c t t ha t t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s i n t he pr ogr a m m i ght not ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d onl i ne l e a r n i ng. I ha d e nc ount e r e d t he di gi t a l di vi de i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e f e r t o i t i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w on pa ge s 28 29 a nd d r a w a t t e nt i o n t o i t a ga i n i n C ha pt e r F i ve

PAGE 63

55 W i t h t hi s f l a g r a i s e d, I e xpa nde d t he s t udy t o a n a ddi t i ona l 300 g r a dua t e s t ude nt s of m i xe d e t hni c i t i e s a t a m a j o r m e t r opol i t a n uni ve r s i t y l oc a t e d i n t he s out h e a s t e r n U S w i t h onl i ne gr a dua t e e nr ol l m e n t s o f ove r 8, 000 a nnua l l y T he s e c ond gr oup o f 300 s t ude nt s w a s pur pos e l y s e l e c t e d f r om t hos e e nr ol l e d i n g r a dua t e l e ve l c our s e s i n t he C ol l e ge o f E duc a t i on, t he c ol l e ge of f e r i ng t he gr e a t e s t num be r of onl i ne gr a dua t e l e ve l c ou r s e s a t t he s e l e c t e d i ns t i t u t i on a t t he t i m e o f t he s t udy S i n c e t he r e w a s no w a y t o pr e s e l e c t f o r s t ude nt s of c ol or f r om a m ong t he s t ude nt s i n t he m i xe d e t hni c i t i e s gr oup, t he s i t ua t i on pr ovi de d a w a y t o i nc l ude but not f oc us on r e s pons e s f r om w hi t e voi c e s T he c om bi na t i on o f t he t w o s a m pl e gr oups p r ovi de d a s a m pl e of 30 8 s t ude nt s w i t h s t ude nt s of c ol or c om pr i s i ng 30 % o f t hi s s a m pl e B a s e d on t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s s t udy de m ons t r a t i ng a l a c k of r e s e a r c h f or t he popul a t i on of g r a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol or t he i m po r t a nc e of f oc us i ng on s t ude nt s of c ol or gui de d t hi s s t udy. T he pur pos e l y s e l e c t e d pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s t ude nt s of c o l or w ho w e r e w or ki ng t ow a r ds or ha d c om pl e t e d gr a dua t e l e ve l de gr e e s w hi c h i nc r e a s e d t he l i ke l i hood t ha t s t ude nt s w oul d ha ve ha d e xpe r i e nc e w i t h onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd onl i n e s ur ve y t ool s ( W a ng, 2007) S i nc e s upe r f i c i a l onl i ne di a l ogue i s a pr obl e m not e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h f or unde r gr a dua t e s t ude nt s i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng ( P a ul us & R obe r t s 2006) onl y gr a dua t e l e ve l s t ude nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy T hi s r e s e a r c h w a s de s i gne d a s a de s c r i pt i ve s t udy of a s a m pl e of s t ude nt s of c ol o r w ho ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d a t t he gr a dua t e l e ve l i n t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. G e ne r a l i z i ng t he f i ndi ngs a bout t hi s pa r t i c i pa nt gr o up of s t ude nt s of c ol or t o t he l a r ge r popul a t i on o f a l l s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt f ound i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on w a s not i nt e nde d. T he s t udy of t he r e s pons e s m a de by t he

PAGE 64

56 gr oup of s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy a b out t he onl i n e l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on c a n be us e d t o i l l us t r a t e ga ps c ur r e nt l y obs e r ve d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e T hi s s t udy w a s pl a nne d t o i l l us t r a t e a nd dr a w a t t e nt i on t o i s s ue s e xpos e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a nd w hi c h I s us pe c t m a y be of i m por t a nc e t o t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on, s uc h a s t he f a c t t ha t t he r e i s ve r y l i t t l e l i t e r a t ur e on a ny ot he r e t hni c or r a c i a l gr oups [ t ha n w hi t e ] ( A i ke n, C e r ve r o, & J ohns on B a i l e y, 2001, p. 307) T he us e of s ur ve y da t a i nc l udi ng s ur ve y r e s pons e s a nd ope n e nde d que s t i ons i s us e d t o r e f l e c t a r e a l l i f e e xpe r i e nc e i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng f or a pa r t i c ul a r gr oup of s t ude nt s D at a C ol l e c t i on I ns t r um e nt at i on O nc e I R B a ppr ova l w a s r e c e i ve d t he pi l ot s t udy f or t he s ur ve y w a s c om pl e t e d a s de s c r i be d. T he f i na l pa pe r ve r s i on of t he s ur ve y w a s t r a ns l a t e d i nt o a n onl i ne s ur ve y t ool S ur ve yM onke y T M T he l i nk t o t he s ur ve y w a s di s t r i but e d vi a e m a i l t o t he pur pos e l y s e l e c t e d c ohor t of a ppr oxi m a t e l y 200 s t ude nt s of c ol or by t he i r p r ogr a m di r e c t or I pr ovi de d t he p r ogr a m di r e c t or w i t h a pa pe r ve r s i on of t he s ur ve y f o r hi s r e f e r e nc e I R B a ppr ova l c onf i r m a t i on a nd a n e m a i l i nvi t a t i on t o s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e c ont a i ni ng a l i nk t o t he s ur ve y T he di r e c t or e m a i l e d t he i nvi t a t i on a nd s ur ve y l i nk t o t he s t ude nt s i n hi s pr ogr a m T he s ur ve y w a s pr ovi de d c onc ur r e nt l y t o a s e c ond gr oup o f a ppr oxi m a t e l y 300 gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of m i xe d e t hni c i t i e s a l ong w i t h a n i nvi t a t i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. I w a s r e qui r e d t o s ubm i t a ppr opr i a t e I R B a ppr ova l pa pe r w or k t o t he C o l l e ge of E duc a t i on a t t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng i ns t i t ut i on be f or e a l i s t of e m a i l a ddr e s s e s w a s pr ovi de d. T he s a m e

PAGE 65

57 i nvi t a t i on a nd s ur ve y w a s di s t r i bu t e d t o t he s e s t ude nt s vi a e m a i l w i t h s i m i l a r p r ot e c t i ons i n pl a c e t o p r ot e c t t he i de nt i t y o f pa r t i c i pa nt s T o c ol l e c t t he da t a f o r t hi s s t udy f r om i ns t r uc t or s t e a c hi ng onl i ne f or t r i a ngul a t i on pur pos e s a pi l ot t e s t e d s ur ve y w a s pr ovi de d t o 100 pur pos e f ul l y s e l e c t e d i ns t r uc t or s o f m i xe d e t hni c i t i e s us i ng S ur ve y M onke y T M ( A ppe ndi x B ) T he s ur ve y w a s s i m i l a r t o t he s ur ve y pr ovi de d t o s t ude nt s a nd a s ke d t he s a m e q ue s t i ons a l be i t r e que s t i ng r e s pons e s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a n i ns t r uc t or r a t he r t ha n a s t ude nt I ns t r uc t o r s w ho r e gul a r l y t e a c h i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt w e r e i de nt i f i e d us i ng de m ogr a phi c s c r i t e r i a t o s e l e c t onl i ne i ns t r uc t or s w ho ha ve t a ught onl i ne f o r t w o ye a r s or l onge r yi e l di ng a pu r pos e f ul s a m pl e s i z e of 70. St r at e gy f or D at a A nal y s i s T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or S i nc e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n di r e c t e d t ow a r d s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt of hi ghe r e duc a t i on, t hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he i nt e r s e c t i on of t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on us i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o pr ovoke i nqui r y, pr ovi de di r e c t i on a nd c r e a t e a s pa c e f or l ooki ng s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r I t w a s not a s t udy f oc us e d on di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s ; t hi s s t udy s ou ght t o l e a r n m or e a bout t he on l i ne e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or by e xa m i ni ng t he e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt t h r ough t he us e of a s ur ve y s i nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h f or t hi s popu l a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r p a r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a t t he pr e s e nt t i m e T hi s s e c t i on e xpl a i ns how e a c h of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w a s

PAGE 66

58 a na l yz e d. R e s ul t s f or e a c h of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n C ha pt e r F our ; a ddi t i ona l d e t a i l s pe r t i ne nt t o a na l ys i s a nd di s c us s i on of r e s ul t s a ppe a r i n C ha pt e r F i ve D at a A nal y s i s St r at e gy f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on O ne O ne of t he goa l s o f t h i s s t udy a s a r t i c ul a t e d by r e s e a r c h que s t i on one w a s t o e xa m i ne t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t h ni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e por t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e E t hni c i t y c a t e gor i e s on t he s ur ve y f ol l ow e d t hos e l i s t e d on a n e qua l oppo r t uni t y f or m f ound a t a m a j or m e t r opol i t a n uni ve r s i t y, a nd l i s t B l a c k or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c A m e r i c a n I ndi a n or A l a s ka N a t i ve A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r a nd W hi t e A s w e l l I a dde d a s pa c e s t a t i ng O r pl e a s e de s c r i be your e t hni c i t y t o r e pl a c e c a t e gor y O t he r on t he s ur ve y f or m T h e e nt i r e s a m pl e of s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t he s ur ve y, w hi c h i nc l ude d w h i t e s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s w a s us e d t o a ns w e r t hi s s ur ve y que s t i on. S i nc e t he r e ha d no t be e n a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o s e l e c t f or e t hni c i t y pr i or t o s e ndi ng out t he s ur ve y t o t he m i xe d e t hni c i t y gr oup a s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r a nd s i nc e t he de c i s i on ha d be e n m a de t o a l l ow t he voi c e o f w hi t e s t ude nt s i n or de r t o pr ovi de t r i a ngul a t i on t o he l p a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o, de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s r e f l e c t e d t he e t hnogr a phi c pr of i l e of a l l s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y, N = 308. D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f r om S ur ve y M onke y T M a nd dow nl oa de d us i ng S A S pr og r a m s of t w a r e f or s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s a nd us e d t o pr ovi de de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s E a c h e t hni c i t y w a s e xa m i ne d i nde pe nde nt l y. R e s ul t s a r e pr ovi de d a s a n e t hnogr a phi c pr of i l e of a l l s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t he s ur ve y i n C ha pt e r F ou r C hi s qua r e s t a t i s t i c s w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne t he de m ogr a phi c s t o de t e r m i ne i f a r e l a t i ons hi p w a s pr e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd num be r of onl i ne c l a s s e s t he s a m pl e of s t ude nt s ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d i n. B i va r i a t e da t a w e r e r e por t e d

PAGE 67

59 f or e t hni c i t y a nd e a c h va r i a bl e C hi s qua r e t e s t s w e r e r un us i ng S A S t o t e s t t he da t a f or i nde pe nde nc e a nd hom oge ne i t y be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd e a c h of t he va r i a bl e s D ue t o t he p r e va l e nc e of c om put e r a nxi e t y w i t h on l i ne c l a s s e s not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e ( A N O V A ) w a s us e d t o e xa m i ne di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f or s e l f r e por t e d c om f or t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a one w a y A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t due t o t he une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s of t h e e t hni c i t y gr oups D ue t o t he s m a l l a nd une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s i n t hi s s t udy, a n e s t i m a t e of e f f e c t s i z e w a s c om put e d t o a ugm e nt t he A N O V A D at a A nal y s i s St r at e gy f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o R e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o s ought t o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t h e onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de s a p l a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c o l or c a n m o r e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt S t ude nt s of c ol or w e r e t he f oc us of t hi s s t udy; f o r t r i a ngul a t i on a nd t o de t e r m i ne i f c r i t i qui ng w hi t e n or m s w a s m or e or l e s s i m por t a nt t o w hi t e s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y w hi t e s t ude nt voi c e s w e r e a l l ow e d a nd p r e s e nt e d i n t he s t a t i s t i c a l r e s ul t s a nd a na l ys i s f or r e s e a r c h q ue s t i o n t w o. T he goa l o f t hi s i nc l us i on w a s t o i de nt i f y t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h c r i t i qui ng w hi t e nor m s w a s or w a s not i m po r t a nt t o w hi t e s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s ur ve y. D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a one w a y A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t due t o t he une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s of t he e t hni c i t y g r oups f or r e s pons e s t o e a c h of t w o s ur ve y que s t i ons : 1. I n your opi ni on, t o w ha t e xt e nt di d t he onl i ne e n vi r onm e nt pr ovi de a pl a c e w he r e you c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s your opi ni ons o r c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng

PAGE 68

60 a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppo r t u ni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom ? 2. I s c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s i m por t a nt t o you? D ue t o t he s m a l l a nd une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s i n t hi s s t udy, a n e s t i m a t e o f e f f e c t s i z e w a s c om put e d t o a ugm e nt t he A N O V A I n a ddi t i on t o a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e a m ong t he va r i o us s t ude nt e t hni c i t i e s I w a s i nt e r e s t e d i n s t ude nt r e s pons e s t o t he s ur ve y que s t i ons f r om a gr oup pe r s pe c t i ve T he r e f or e a t t e s t w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s e xi s t e d be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt r e s pons e s f or e a c h of t he t w o s ur ve y que s t i ons M y pl a n w a s not t o c om pa r e a nd c ont r a s t s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s R a t he r I w a nt e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e w a s m or e o r l e s s i nt e r e s t by e t hni c i t y i n e xpr e s s i ng opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s onl i ne a s oppos e d t o oppor t un i t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt I c hos e t o us e a n i nc l us i ve a ppr oa c h f o r a l l e t hni c i t i e s ot he r t ha n w hi t e t o he l p a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o due t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s r e f l e c t e d by t he de m ogr a phi c s a nd di s pl a ye d i n C ha pt e r F ou r f or s om e of t he e t hni c i t y g r oups M i ni m um s a m pl e s i z e s of 30 a r e r e c om m e nde d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e f or c or r e l a t i ona l r e s e a r c h ( C ha r l e s & M e r t l e r 2002; G a y & A i r a s i a n, 2003; M c M i l l i a n & S c hum a c he r 2001) S m a l l pur pos e f u l s a m pl e s ha ve be e n f ound t o be a c c e pt a bl e f or e xpl or a t or y r e s e a r c h ( J a m e s & B l a nk, 1993; J a ne s i c k, 2004 ; K va l e 1996) T he f a c t t ha t I a m a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r s e e ki ng t o un de r s t a nd t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol o r w a s a l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy, a nd I r e l i e d on t he l i t e r a t u r e t o pr ovi de a

PAGE 69

61 f r a m e w or k f or unde r s t a ndi ng a nd i nt e r p r e t i ng t he da t a I f ound M c L oughl i n a nd O l i ve r s ( 2000) pe r s pe c t i ve s f or i ns t r uc t i ona l de s i gn f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s he l pf ul w he n c ons i de r i ng de c i s i ons on how be s t t o w or k w i t h t h e e t hni c i t y c a t e gor i e s a s I de s i gne d t he m e t hodol ogy f or t hi s s t udy. U s i ng a n i nc l us i ve m o de l I c ol l a ps e d t he da t a f o r a l l e t hni c i t i e s ot he r t ha n w hi t e t oge t he r c r e a t i ng a s a m pl e popul a t i on c a l l e d s t ude nt s of c ol or w hi c h a l l ow e d m e t o e xa m i ne r e s pons e s f r om a gr oup pe r s pe c t i ve t o a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o. T hi s a ppr oa c h i s di s pl a ye d i n C ha pt e r F our a nd he l pe d a l i gn t he da t a us e d f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o w i t h t he pur pos e of t he s t udy. A nal y s i s of o pe n e nde d q ue s t i ons T he ope n e nde d que s t i on por t i on o f t he s t ude nt s ur v e y pr ovi de d obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s pe c i f i c i l l us t r a t i ve e xa m pl e s f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or T he i nde pe nde nt s t a t e m e nt s f r o m s t u de nt s pr ovi de d a l a ye r of r e s pons e de t a i l t o he l p a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. T o a i d i n t he i de nt i f i c a t i on of t he m e s a ke y w or d l i s t w a s us e d f or t he m e a na l ys i s ( A ppe ndi x C ) T hi s l i s t o f r e c ur r i ng w o r ds w a s c om pi l e d f r om t he ope n e nde d s ur ve y r e s pons e da t a r e s ul t i ng f r om t he s ur ve y que s t i ons ( A ppe ndi x D ) R e c ur r i ng w or ds w e r e i de nt i f i e d i n de pe nde nt l y by m ys e l f a nd a not he r r e a de r t he n c om pa r e d a nd c om bi ne d ( T a yl o r P ow e l l & R e nne r 2003) T he s e c ond r e a de r w a s a pos t gr a dua t e s t ude nt t r a i ne d i n C om m uni c a t i on R e s e a r c h a t t he A nne nbe r g S c hool f or C om m uni c a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out he r n C a l i f or ni a N e xt t he ope n e nde d s ur ve y r e s pons e da t a w e r e e xa m i ne d f or r e c ur r i ng t he m e s by t he t w o r e a de r s us i ng t he ke y w or d l i s t t o he l p i de nt i f y m a i n t opi c s w i t hi n t h e m e s R e c ur r i ng t he m e s w e r e i de nt i f i e d i nde pe nde nt l y, t he n c om pa r e d be t w e e n t he t w o r e a de r s f or i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y I i nt e r pr e t e d D e nz i n a nd L i nc ol n s c a l l f or c r i t i c a l c onve r s a t i ons i n qua l i t a t i ve i nqui r y, a c a l l w hi c h i nc l ude s c onve r s a t i ons a bout r a c e ( 2003 p 3) t o a ppl y t o ope n e nde d

PAGE 70

62 que s t i ons c ol l e c t e d f r om a n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt T he s c i s s or a nd s or t pr oc e s s of i de nt i f yi ng t opi c s a nd a s s oc i a t i ng t opi c s w i t h r e l e v a nt quot e s ( A r c he r 1988) w a s us e d s e pa r a t e l y by t w o r e a de r s t o i nde pe nde nt l y or ga ni z e a nd m a ke s e ns e of t he da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om ope n e nde d s ur ve y que s t i ons T hi s pr oc e s s i nvol ve d a t t a c hi ng m e a ni ng t o w or ds a nd or ga ni z i ng t he w r i t t e n da t a i nt o de s c r i pt i ve uni t s by l ooki ng f or pa t t e r ns a nd t he m e s e m be dde d i n t he da t a T he r e s ul t w a s a br i c ol a ge a pi e c e d t oge t he r s e t of r e pr e s e nt a t i ons t ha t a r e f i t t e d t o t he s pe c i f i c s of a c om pl e x s i t ua t i on ( D e nz i n & L i nc ol n 2003, p 5) D ue t o t he c om pl e x i s s ue s f ound i n di s c us s i ons of r a c e a nd t he pos s i bl y s e ns i t i ve t opi c s pr e s e nt e d by t he s ur ve y que s t i ons c ont r a r y t he m e s i n t he da t a w e r e s ought out a nd a r t i c ul a t e d O nc e a gr e e m e nt w a s r e a c he d be t w e e n t he t w o r e a de r s f o r f i na l t he m e s e a c h t he m e w a s r e a d i nde pe nde nt l y a s a d i r e c t a ns w e r t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on f or r e l e va nc e a nd s e ns e m a ki ng. F i na l t he m e s w i t h e xa m pl e s a r e p r e s e nt e d a s r e s ul t s i n C ha pt e r F our R e l e va nt quot e s w e r e w ove n i nt o t he s um m a r y a nd di s c us s i on i n C ha pt e r F i ve O pe n e nde d r e s pons e s pr ovi de d e xa m pl e s of pe r s ona l e xpe r i e n c e s f r om s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s o f c ol or w ho a ns w e r e d t he s u r ve y que s t i ons T he s t ud y of r e s pons e s t o t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons w a s phe nom e nol ogi c a l i n a ppr oa c h a nd e m pha s i z e s s ubj e c t i ve c ons c i ous ne s s a nd i nt e nt i ons r a t he r t ha n t a ki ng a n ont ol ogi c a l a p pr oa c h, w hi c h w oul d e m pha s i z e t he a bs t r a c t ( S l a t t e r y, 1995) D at a A nal y s i s St r at e gy f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e S ur ve y que s t i ons a ddr e s s e d ga ps not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e pe r t i ne nt t o s t ude nt s of c ol or pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt S i nc e s t udi e s a bout t he e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i n e l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt w e r e f ound t o be

PAGE 71

63 m i s s i ng f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e s ur ve y pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d, I f you c oul d o f f e r onl i ne l e a r ni ng i ns t r uc t or s a nd de s i gne r s a dvi c e a bout pr o vi di ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h e m pha s i z e s t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e n c e s of pe r s ons of c ol or w ha t w oul d i t be ? T he ope n e nde d que s t i on po r t i on o f t he s t ude nt s ur ve y ( A ppe ndi x A ) pr ovi de d obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s pe c i f i c i l l us t r a t i ve e xa m pl e s f r om s t ude nt s of c ol o r T he i nde pe nde nt s t a t e m e n t s f r om s t ude nt s pr ovi de d a l a ye r of r e s pons e de t a i l t o he l p a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. S t ude nt r e s pons e s w e r e s uppl e m e nt e d w i t h i ns t r uc t or r e s pons e s f or t r i a ngul a t i on. T r i a ngul a t i on us i ng onl i ne i ns t r uc t or r e s pons e s t o t he s ur ve y que s t i on pr ovi de d t he a dde d pe r s pe c t i ve of onl i ne i ns t r uc t or s T he ope n e nde d que s t i on por t i on of t he i ns t r uc t or s ur ve y ( A ppe ndi x B ) pr ovi de d obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s pe c i f i c i l l us t r a t i ve e xa m pl e s f r om i ns t r uc t or s of c ol or I n k e e pi ng w i t h t he r e s e a r c h f oc us on s t ude nt s of c ol or onl y r e s pon s e s f r om s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol or w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he r e s ul t s a nd a na l ys i s of t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons L i m i t at i ons T hi s s t udy f ol l ow e d a none xpe r i m e nt a l e xpl or a t o r y de s i gn us i ng ga ps f ound i n t he l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd f oc us e d on t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons a bout t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de d by s t ude nt s of c ol or N o a s s um pt i ons a bout t hi s popul a t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ha ve be e n m a de s i nc e a s t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i ndi c a t e s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e xi s t s f or t hi s popul a t i on T he r e i s no c l e a r i ndi c a t i on i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a s t o w hy t hi s l a c k m a y e xi s t ot he r t ha n t he f a c t t ha t s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol o r a r e a m i nor i t y i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s of va r yi ng e t hni c i t i e s a nd w a s not

PAGE 72

64 de s i gne d t o be a c om pa r a t i ve s t udy of d i f f e r e nc e b e t w e e n w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s o f c ol or T hi s r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c a l l y s ought out s t ude nt s of c ol or a s t he f oc us of t he s t udy T hi s de s c r i pt i ve s t udy pr ovi de d i nf o r m a t i on a bout a s pe c i f i c s a m pl e of s t ude nt s w ho ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng a t t he g r a dua t e s t ude nt l e ve l D ue t o t he a nonym i t y o f t he s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s I di d not know w he r e r e s ponde nt s a t t e nd e d c ol l e ge S i nc e no t w o i ns t i t ut i ons no t w o i ns t r uc t or s a nd no t w o s t ude nt s a r e e xa c t l y a l i ke t h i s s t udy w a s l i m i t e d t o t he s t ude nt s i ns t r uc t or s a nd i ns t i t ut i ons i nvol ve d i n t h e s t udy a nd t he r e f or e i s not i m pl i e d t o be a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl e of t he po pul a t i on of s t ude nt s of c ol or pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n g r a dua t e l e ve l onl i ne c l a s s e s S i nc e t he r e e xi s t s a l a c k o f r a ndom ne s s of a s s i gne d pa r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y i s not pos s i b l e a nd c ons i s t e nc y of da t a i s a l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy due t o t he us e of s e l f r e por t i ng que s t i onna i r e s T hi s r e s e a r c h f oc us e d on a ut he nt i c e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a s r e por t e d f r o m t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd i nc l ude d obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s f r om i ns t r uc t or s o f c ol or a bout t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt A s t e c hnol ogi e s c ha nge n e w f or m s o f onl i ne i ns t r uc t i on e vol ve a nd t hi s s t udy d i d not a t t e m pt t o di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n ha r dw a r e s of t w a r e bl e nde d t e c hnol ogi e s o r s ys t e m s us e d f or onl i ne l e a r ni ng, r a t he r s ought t he pe r c e i ve d e xpe r i e nc e of pe r s ona l pa r t i c i pa t i on i n w ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c ons i de r e d t o be a n onl i ne c l a s s T e c hnol ogi c a l i s s ue s s uc h a s c om put e r or s of t w a r e t ype s ys t e m de s i gn, a nd s pe e d of t r a ns m i s s i on w e r e not t a ke n i nt o c ons i de r a t i on f or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy. T hi s r e s e a r c h w a s pl a nne d t o r e f l e c t a t r ue e xpe r i e nc e a s s e l f r e por t e d f o r t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nvol ve d i n t he s t udy. T he a s s um pt i on w a s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d a ns w e r que s t i ons hone s t l y. D ur i ng t he a na l ys i s of t he da t a I s t r ove t o de s c r i be e xpl a i n, a nd

PAGE 73

65 m a ke unde r s t a nda bl e t he f a m i l i a r i n a c ont e xt ua l pe r s ona l a nd pa s s i ona t e w a y ( J a ne s i c k, 2003, p 73) ke e pi ng i n m i nd t he f a c t t h a t I a m a w hi t e vo i c e r e por t i ng a nd de s c r i bi ng e xpe r i e nc e s f or pe r s ons of c ol or H um an Subj e c t s P r ot e c t i on and C onf i de nt i al i t y A ppr opr i a t e hum a n s ubj e c t s pr ot e c t i on w a s i m p l e m e nt e d a t a l l s t a ge s of t he r e s e a r c h a nd a ppr opr i a t e pa pe r w or k f o r I R B a ppr o va l w a s s ubm i t t e d a nd a ppr ove d be f o r e t he r e s e a r c h c om m e nc e d. T he c onf i de nt i a l i t y of pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s c om m uni c a t e d t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd a ppr opr i a t e p r oc e s s e s put i n pl a c e t o s e c ur e pa r t i c i pa nt f i l e s a nd da t a S ur ve ys w e r e not i de nt i f i e d w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s o r w i t h a pa r t i c ul a r e m a i l w he n r e c e i ve d ba c k t hr ough S u r ve yM onke y T M a nd t he na m e s a n d a s s oc i a t e d e m a i l t o w hom t he s ur ve y w a s s e nt w a s not l i nke d i n t he r e s e a r c h da t a i n a ny w a y. A ny pa pe r da t a w a s s hr e dde d a f t e r t he r e s e a r c h w a s c om pl e t e d, a nd a ny onl i ne f i l e s i nc l udi ng s e nt e m a i l w e r e de l e t e d. L oc ke d c a bi ne t s w e r e us e d f or pa pe r c opi e s not e s a nd c om put e r di s ks a nd onl i ne da t a f i l e s w e r e pa s s w or d pr ot e c t e d. T he r e s e a r c he r w a s a va i l a bl e vi a t e l e phone a nd e m a i l t o a ns w e r a ny pa r t i c i pa nt que s t i ons a bout t he s t udy T he r e s e a r c he r c om pl e t e d t he r e qui r e d c our s e F ounda t i ons i n H um a n S ubj e c t P r ot e c t i ons a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a nd I R B E xe m pt C e r t i f i c a t i on f or t he pr oj e c t w a s r e c e i v e d.

PAGE 74

66 C ha pt e r F our : R e s ul t s I nt r oduc t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or S i nc e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n di r e c t e d t ow a r d s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt of hi ghe r e duc a t i on, t hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he i nt e r s e c t i on of t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on us i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o pr ovoke i nqui r y, pr ovi de di r e c t i o n a nd c r e a t e a s pa c e f or l ooki ng s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r T hi s s t udy w a s no t f oc us e d on di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s ; t hi s s t udy s ou ght t o unde r s t a nd m or e a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on b y e xa m i ni ng t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r t h r ough t he us e i f a s ur ve y s i nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h f or t hi s popu l a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r p a r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a t t h e pr e s e nt t i m e T hi s s t udy pr oduc e d none xpe r i m e nt a l e xpl o r a t or y r e s e a r c h a nd de s c r i pt i ve da t a D a t a w e r e ga t he r e d by a s ki ng que s t i ons us i ng a n o nl i ne s ur ve y, w i t h t he a ns w e r s t o t he s ur ve y que s t i ons pr ovi di ng t he da t a t ha t w a s a na l y z e d a nd us e d t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T hi s c ha pt e r p r e s e nt s a nd e xpl a i ns r e s ul t s obt a i ne d f r om da t a c ol l e c t e d a nd a na l yz e d f or t hi s s t udy i n or de r t o a ns w e r t he f o l l o w i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : 1. W ha t i s t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r

PAGE 75

67 a ge a nd s e l f r e po r t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e ? 2. T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt p r o vi de a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c ol or c a n m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt ? 3. I f pe r s ons of c ol or [ s t ude nt s or on l i ne i ns t r uc t or s ] c oul d of f e r onl i ne l e a r ni ng i ns t r uc t or s a nd de s i gne r s a dvi c e a bout pr ovi d i ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h f ul l y c ons i de r s t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or w ha t w ou l d i t be ? A na l ys i s a nd di s c us s i on of t he r e s ul t s f ound f or t h e s e da t a a r e pr e s e nt e d i n C ha pt e r F i ve R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on O ne R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s c hi s qua r e a nd A N O V A w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne t he da t a a nd a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on A n e t hno g r a phi c pr o f i l e of s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy w a s de ve l ope d us i ng da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om t he s ur ve y t o pr ovi de i nf or m a t i on a bout t he e t hni c i t y of pa r t i c i pa nt s C hi s qua r e s t a t i s t i c s w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne t he da t a t o de t e r m i ne i f a s s oc i a t i ons e xi s t e d be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd onl i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on. A f r e que nc y di s t r i bu t i on pe r c e nt a ge of r e s pons e s r e por t of m e a ns a nd a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e ( A N O V A ) w e r e u s e d t o e xa m i ne s t ude nt c om f or t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s due t o t he pr e va l e nc e of c om put e r a nxi e t y f o r a dul t l e a r ne r s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e F i ndi ngs w e r e s um m a r i z e d f or e a c h va r i a bl e T he e nt i r e s a m pl e o f s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t h e s ur ve y, w hi c h i nc l ude d w hi t e s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s w a s us e d t o a ns w e r r e s e a r c h q ue s t i ons one a nd t w o. S i nc e t he r e ha d not be e n a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o s e l e c t f or e t hni c i t y pr i or t o s e ndi ng ou t t he s ur ve y t o t he m i xe d e t hni c i t y gr oup a s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r T hr e e a nd s i nc e t he de c i s i on ha d be e n m a de t o a l l ow t he voi c e of w hi t e s t ude nt s i n o r de r t o pr ovi de t r i a ngul a t i on t o he l p a ns w e r

PAGE 76

68 r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o, de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s r e f l e c t t he e t hno gr a phi c pr o f i l e o f a l l s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y N = 308. E t hn i c i t y c a t e g or i e s on t he s ur ve y f ol l ow e d t hos e l i s t e d on a n e qua l oppo r t uni t y f or m f ound a t a m a j or m e t r opol i t a n uni ve r s i t y, a nd l i s t e d B l a c k or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r A m e r i c a n I ndi a n / A l a s ka N a t i ve a nd W hi t e A s w e l l I a dde d a s pa c e s t a t i ng O r pl e a s e de s c r i be your e t hni c i t y t o r e pl a c e c a t e gor y O t he r on t he s ur ve y f or m S t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t hi s c a t e gor y on t he s ur ve y i nc l ude d t he s e l f r e por t e d c a t e gor i e s of A f r i c a n I r i s h A r a bi c C a r i bbe a n, C uba n A m e r i c a n, D om i ni c a n A m e r i c a n I nd i a n, L e ba ne s e A m e r i c a n, W e s t I ndi a n, W hi t e H i s pa ni c a nd m ul t i r a c i a l D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f r om a n onl i ne s ur ve y hos t e d by S ur ve y M onke y T M a nd dow nl oa de d us i ng S A S pr ogr a m s of t w a r e f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s E a c h e t hni c i t y w a s e xa m i ne d i nde pe nde nt l y f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on o ne E t hn ogr aphi c P r of i l e of St ude nt P ar t i c i pant s T he e t hno gr a phi c p r of i l e r e pr e s e nt s da t a f or a l l s t u de nt s w ho r e s pond e d t o t he s ur ve y. F or t he s a m pl e of s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t h e s ur ve y, 93 s t ude nt s w e r e s t ude nt s of c ol or r e pr e s e nt i ng 30% of t he t ot a l r e s ponde nt s B l a c k a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s w e r e c l os e i n r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n t he s a m pl e of pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s a t 13% a nd 11% r e s pe c t i ve l y. A s i a n s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt e d 2 % of t he s a m pl e a nd A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve s r e pr e s e nt e d 1 % T h e c a t e gor y O t he r r e pr e s e nt e d 3% o f t he t ot a l s a m pl e F i r s t a f r e que nc y di s t r i but i on i s pr ovi de d f or e a c h e t hni c i t y gr oup o f s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s ( T a bl e 4 ) N e xt t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd e a c h of t he va r i a bl e s i s de s c r i be d T he n, t he r e l a t i o ns hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd c om f o r t l e ve l us i ng c om put e r s i s e xa m i ne d. F i na l l y a s um m a r y of t he r e s ul t s a ns w e r s t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on.

PAGE 77

69 T a bl e 4 E t hni c i t y of St ude nt P ar t i c i pant s E t hni c i t y o f P a r t i c i pa nt s F r e que nc y % R e pr e s e nt a t i on A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 40 13% H i s pa ni c 35 11% A s i a n 6 2% A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve 2 1% O t he r 10 3% W hi t e 215 70% T ot a l N = 308 C hi S quar e A nal y s i s of St ude nt D e m ogr aphi c s T he c hi s qua r e t e s t w a s us e d t o e xa m i ne t he de m o gr a phi c s a nd t he hypot he s i s t ha t r e l a t i ons hi ps e xi s t e d be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd num be r o f onl i ne c l a s s e s t he s a m pl e of s t ude nt s ha d t a ke n ( T a bl e 5 ) T he c hi s qua r e t e s t w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l T he obt a i ne d x 2 va l ue w a s l e s s t h a n t he c r i t i c a l x 2 va l ue t he r e f or e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot h e s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e pr e s e nt b e t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd a ge a nd e t hni c i t y a nd on l i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n. E f f e c t s i z e s w e r e s m a l l f or e a c h r e l a t i ons hi p t e s t e d.

PAGE 78

70 T a bl e 5 C hi S quar e A nal y s i s of St ude nt D e m ogr aphi c s V a r i a bl e V a l ue / E t hni c i t y D F A l pha L e ve l 05 E f f e c t S i z e G e nde r 8. 39 5 11. 07 17 A ge 18. 54 25 37. 65 11 O nl i ne C l a s s e s T a ke n 56. 48 65 79. 08 19 C hi S quar e A nal y s i s f or E t hni c i t y and G e nde r T h e c hi s qua r e t e s t f o r e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r x 2 ( 5, N = 308) = 8. 39 p = 05, w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l ; t he r e f or e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot he s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi p w a s pr e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r T he t ot a l s a m p l e of s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w a s dom i na t e d by f e m a l e s a t 78% w i t h m a l e s r e pr e s e nt e d a t 22% V a r i a bi l i t y a m ong pa r t i c i pa t i n g e t hni c i t i e s f or ge nde r i s de s c r i be d us i ng bi va r i a t e da t a ( T a bl e 6 ) T he p r e dom i na nc e of f e m a l e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s gr a dua t e s t ude nt popul a t i on w a s e s t a bl i s he d w i t h r e por t e d p e r c e nt a ge s of 54% f or f ul l t i m e s t ude nt s a nd 61% f o r pa r t t i m e s t ude nt s ( U S D e pt of E duc a t i on 2004 ) a nd ha s c ont i nue d t o gr ow ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s 2005) F or s t ude nt s of c ol or f e m a l e s t ude nt s of c ol or dom i na t e d t he s a m pl e of c om bi ne d e t hni c i t i e s of s t ude nt s of c ol o r a t 23. 7% f o r f e m a l e s vs 6. 49% f or m a l e s F e m a l e s r e pr e s e nt e d t he m a j or i t y of t he s a m pl e f or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c A s i a n, a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy. A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve a nd s t ude nt s r e por t i ng

PAGE 79

71 i n t he ot he r c a t e gor y w e r e e qua l l y r e pr e s e nt e d b e t w e e n m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s t hough t he s e s a m pl e s i z e s w e r e s m a l l a nd pos e d a t hr e a t t o t he a na l ys i s T a bl e 6 B i v ar i at e D at a f or E t hni c i t y by G e nde r E t hni c i t y M a l e s P e r c e nt F e m a l e s P e r c e nt A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 6 1. 95 34 11. 04 H i s pa ni c 8 2. 60 27 8. 77 A s i a n 0 0 6 1. 95 A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve 1 32 1 32 O t he r 5 1. 62 5 1. 62 T ot a l S t ude nt s o f C ol or N = 93 20 6. 49 73 23. 7 W hi t e 47 15 26 168 54. 55 T ot a l N = 308 N = 67 21. 75 N = 241 78. 25 C hi S quar e A nal y s i s f or E t hni c i t y and A ge T he c hi s qua r e t e s t f o r e t hni c i t y a nd a ge x 2 ( 25 N = 308) = 18 54 p = 05 w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l T he r e f o r e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot he s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi p w a s pr e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd a ge T he a ge r a nge f or s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy w a s s pr e a d be t w e e n 100 pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he 20 29 a ge r a nge t o t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s ove r t he a ge of 70. V a r i a bi l i t y a m ong pa r t i c i pa t i ng e t hni c i t i e s f or a ge i s

PAGE 80

72 de s c r i be d us i ng bi va r i a t e da t a ( T a bl e 7) E xt r e m e obs e r va t i ons a nd s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s pos e d a t hr e a t t o t he a na l ys i s T a bl e 7 B i v ar i at e D at a f or E t hni c i t y by A ge A ge R a nge A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n H i s pa ni c A s i a n A m I nd / A K N a t i v e O t he r W hi t e N % N % N % N % N % N % 20 29 13 4. 22 16 5. 19 3 97 0 0 4 1. 30 64 20. 78 30 39 16 5. 19 8 2. 60 3 97 1 32 4 1. 30 72 23. 38 40 49 6 1. 95 8 2. 60 0 0 1 32 0 0 45 14. 61 50 59 4 1. 30 2 65 0 0 0 0 2 65 29 9. 42 60 69 5 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 65 29 9. 42 70 + 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32 C hi S quar e A nal y s i s f or E t hni c i t y and O nl i ne C l as s e s T ak e n T he c hi s qua r e t e s t f o r e t hni c i t y a nd onl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n, x 2 ( 65, N = 308) = 56 48, p = 05 w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l

PAGE 81

73 T he r e f or e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot he s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi p w a s p r e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd onl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n. T he r a nge f o r o nl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n w a s s pr e a d be t w e e n one c l a s s t a ke n by 152 pa r t i c i pa nt s t o one pa r t i c i pa nt t a ki ng 28 c l a s s e s T he m e a n num be r of c l a s s e s t a ke n a m ong s t ude nt s w a s 2. 45. V a r i a bi l i t y a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f or onl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n i s de s c r i be d us i ng bi va r i a t e da t a ( T a bl e 8 ) E xt r e m e obs e r va t i ons a nd s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s pos e d a t hr e a t t o t he a na l ys i s

PAGE 82

74 T a bl e 8 B i v ar i at e D at a f or E t hni c i t y by O nl i ne C l as s e s T ak e n N of C l a s s e s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n H i s pa ni c A s i a n A m I nd i a n A K N a t i v e O t he r W hi t e N % N % N % N % N % N % 1 16 5. 20 15 4. 87 4 1. 30 1 32 4 1. 30 112 36. 36 2 8 2. 60 7 2. 27 0 0 1 32 2 65 28 12. 34 3 1 32 3 97 2 65 0 0 1 32 15 4. 87 4 2 65 3 97 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 3. 90 5 7 2. 27 2 65 0 0 0 0 1 32 12 3. 90 6 2 65 3 97 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 2. 92 7 1 32 1 32 0 0 0 0 1 32 5 1. 62 8 2 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2. 60 11 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32 1 32 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32

PAGE 83

75 A N O V A A nal y s i s of C om f or t L e v e l w i t h C om put e r s D ue t o t he p r e va l e nc e of c om put e r a nxi e t y w i t h on l i ne c l a s s e s not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e A N O V A w a s us e d t o e xa m i ne di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f or s e l f r e por t e d c om f or t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a one w a y A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t due t o t he une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s of t he e t hni c i t y gr oups ( T a bl e 9 ) D ue t o t he s m a l l a nd une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s i n t hi s s t udy, a n e s t i m a t e of e f f e c t s i z e w a s c om put e d t o a ugm e nt t he A N O V A T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f or c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s a t p > t ha n 05, F ( 5 302 ) = 1 05 p = 40 ; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 13. T a bl e 9 A nal y s i s of v ar i anc e f or s e l f r e por t e d c om f or t l e v e l s c or e s S our c e df S S M S F p E f f e c t S i z e E t hni c i t y 5 1. 4. 3 29 1. 05 40 13 W i t hi n G r oups 302 82. 32 27 T he va r i a bl e o f s e l f r e por t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e w a s ope r a t i ona l i z e d a s c om f or t l e ve l a nd di s c us s e d i n C ha p t e r T hr e e ( T a bl e 4 p 4 9) F r e que nc y a nd pe r c e nt a ge o f t he s a m pl e s e l f r e por t i ng t he i r c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s de m ons t r a t e d t ha t t he m a j or i t y of pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e c om f or t a bl e w i t h c om put e r s ( T a bl e 1 0 ) M e a ns f or c om f or t l e ve l by e t hni c i t y w e r e c om put e d a nd r e f l e c t s i m i l a r m e a ns a m ong t he e t hni c i t i e s f o r t he t ot a l pa r t i c i pa nt gr oup N = 308 ( T a bl e 1 1 )

PAGE 84

76 T a bl e 1 0 F r e que nc y and P e r c e nt age s f or C om f or t L e v e l w i t h C om put e r s L e ve l of C om f or t F r e que nc y P e r c e nt a ge D e s c r i pt i on of C om f o r t L e ve l N ovi c e 13 4. 22% L i m i t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e goi ng i nt o gr a dua t e s t udi e s l i m i t e d I nt e r ne t us e i n pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l l i f e ; of t e n ne e de d he l p w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s C om f or t a bl e 20 5 66. 56% O f t e n us e d t he c om put e r i n pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l l i f e be f or e goi ng i nt o g r a dua t e s t udi e s t he r e f or e c onf i de nt w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ; r a r e l y ne e de d he l p w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s a nd a c t i vi t i e s E xpe r t 90 29. 22% F r e que nt a nd s om e t i m e s a dva nc e d c om put e r us e i n pe r s ona l a nd pr o f e s s i ona l l i f e ( e x: P hot os hop, c r e a t i on o f pe r s ona l o r p r of e s s i ona l W e b pa ge or pr e s e nt a t i ons ) be f o r e goi ng i nt o gr a dua t e s t udi e s ; he l pe d ot he r s or t ook a l e a de r s hi p r ol e i n g r oups w i t h onl i ne a s s i gnm e nt s

PAGE 85

77 T a bl e 1 1 St ude nt M e ans f or C om f or t L e v e l W i t h C om put e r s by E t hni c i t y E t hni c i t y N M e a n S D A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 40 2. 15 47 H i s pa ni c 35 2. 34 54 A s i a n 6 2. 00 63 A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve 2 2. 50 70 O t he r 10 2. 40 52 W hi t e 215 2. 25 52 T ot a l N = 308 R e s ul t s Sum m ar y f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on O ne T he de m ogr a phi c s r e pr e s e nt e d da t a f or t he t ot a l s a m pl e of a l l s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t he s ur ve y, N = 308. F or t he s a m pl e of s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y, 93 s t ude nt s w e r e s t ude nt s of c ol or r e pr e s e nt i ng 30 % of t he t ot a l s a m pl e B l a c k a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s w e r e c l os e i n r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n t he s a m pl e of pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s a t 13 % a nd 11% r e s pe c t i ve l y. A s i a n s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt e d 2% o f t he s a m pl e a nd A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve s r e pr e s e nt e d 1 % T he c a t e gor y O t he r r e pr e s e nt e d 3% of t he t o t a l s a m pl e F e m a l e s dom i na t e d t he t ot a l s a m pl e a t 78% T he m os t f r e que nt l y r e por t e d a ge r a nge f o r s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y w a s 30 39 T he m e a n f or on l i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on w a s 2. 45. T he i nve s t i ga t i on of t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he

PAGE 86

78 va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e po r t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e f or t he s a m pl e popul a t i on r e ve a l e d t ha t t he va r i a bl e s o f e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r a ge a nd onl i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on w e r e not r e l a t e d w he n e xa m i ne d us i ng c hi s qua r e a na l ys i s a nd e f f e c t s i z e s w e r e s m a l l T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f or c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s w he n e xa m i ne d i n A N O V A p = 40 w i t h a s m a l l e f f e c t s i z e of 13. F o r c om put e r c om f or t l e ve l 66. 56 % of t he popu l a t i on s ur ve ye d r e por t e d t ha t t he y w e r e c om f or t a bl e w i t h c om put e r s i n r e s pons e t o t he s ur ve y r e que s t t o r a t e pe r s ona l c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h onl y 4. 22 % r a t i ng t he m s e l ve s a s novi c e s a nd 29. 22% r a t i ng t he m s e l ve s a s e xpe r t T he s m a l l e r e t hni c i t y s a m pl e s i z e s pos e d a t hr e a t t o t he a na l ys i s of r e s ul t s F or e xa m pl e t he hi ghe s t m e a n r e por t e d f or c om f or t l e ve l by e t hni c i t y i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of onl y t w o s t ude nt s D i s c us s i on of e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e por t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e f or t he s a m pl e popul a t i on a r e pr e s e nt e d i n C ha pt e r F i ve R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o R e s ul t s I n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f c ha l l e ngi ng o r c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w a s m or e or l e s s i m por t a nt t o s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t h e s ur ve y t t e s t s a nd A N O V A w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne r e s pons e s f r om bot h w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or us i ng da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om t w o s ur ve y que s t i on s : 1. I n your opi ni on, t o w ha t e xt e nt di d t he onl i ne e n vi r onm e nt pr ovi de a pl a c e w he r e you c oul d m o r e e a s i l y e xpr e s s y our op i ni on s or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppo r t u ni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom ? 2. I s c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s i m por t a nt t o you?

PAGE 87

79 T hi s s t u dy w a s not i nt e nde d t o be a c om pa r i s on s t u dy be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s how e ve r i n r e s pons e t o t he l i t e r a t u r e r e ga r di ng w hi t e nor m s a ddr e s s e d i n C ha pt e r T w o w hi t e s t ude nt r e s pons e s w e r e i nc l ud e d i n t hi s pa r t of t he s t udy i n or de r t o e xa m i ne m or e or l e s s i nt e r e s t i n c ha l l e ngi ng w hi t e nor m s by w hi t e s t ude nt s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt T he f a c t t ha t I a m a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r s e e ki ng t o unde r s t a nd t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol o r w a s a l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy, a nd I r e l i e d on t he l i t e r a t u r e t o pr ovi de a f r a m e w or k f or unde r s t a ndi ng a nd i nt e r p r e t i ng t he da t a I f ound M c L oughl i n a nd O l i ve r s ( 2000) pe r s pe c t i ve s f or i ns t r uc t i ona l de s i gn f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s he l pf ul w he n c ons i de r i ng de c i s i ons on how be s t t o w or k w i t h t h e e t hni c i t y c a t e gor i e s a s I de s i gne d t he m e t hodol ogy f or t hi s s t udy. I c hos e t o us e a n i nc l u s i ve a ppr oa c h f or a l l e t hni c i t i e s ot he r t ha n w hi t e t o he l p a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o d ue t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s r e f l e c t e d by t he de m ogr a phi c s f o r s om e o f t he e t hni c i t y gr o ups t hu s c r e a t i ng a s a m pl e popul a t i on c a l l e d s t ude nt s of c ol or w hi c h a l l ow e d m e t o e xa m i ne r e s pons e s f r om a g r oup pe r s pe c t i ve t o a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o. T hi s a ppr oa c h he l pe d a l i gn t he da t a us e d f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o w i t h t he pur pos e of t he s t ud y. F or t he pu r pos e of t he t t e s t s a l l r e pr e s e nt e d e t hni c i t i e s w ho w e r e not w hi t e w e r e c ol l a ps e d t oge t he r t o r e f l e c t s t ude nt s of c ol o r a s a gr oup ( T a bl e 1 2 ) I c hos e t o l ook a t t he popul a t i on of s t ude nt s of c ol or a s a gr oup f or r e s po ns e s t o t w o s ur ve y que s t i ons du e t o une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s F or s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t he s e t w o que s t i ons on t he s ur ve y w hi t e s t ude nt s N = 137 a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or N = 6 9 A s w e l l t hi s c hoi c e p r ovi de d t he oppor t uni t y t o c ol l e c t a nd r e f l e c t a gr oup r e s pons e f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or i n ke e pi ng w i t h t he pur pos e of t he r e s e a r c h s t udy.

PAGE 88

80 T a bl e 1 2 R e pr e s e nt at i on of O r i gi nal and C ol l aps e d D at a O r i gi na l da t a by I ndi vi dua l E t hni c i t y N = 206 C ol l a ps e d da t a N = 206 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 32 S t ude nt s of c ol or 69 H i s pa ni c 26 W hi t e s t ude nt s 137 A s i a n 4 O t he r 7 W hi t e 137 t T e s t f or S ur v e y Q ue s t i on O ne T he c ol l a ps e d s a m pl e w a s us e d t o e xa m i ne t he s ur ve y que s t i on: I n you r opi ni on t o w ha t e xt e nt di d t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de a pl a c e w he r e you c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s your opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom ? N o t a t a l l M i n i m a l l y O n l i n e a n d F a c e t o F a c e E n v i r o n m e n t s P r o v i d e d t h e S a m e O p p o r t u n i t i e s S o m e w h a t T o a g r e a t e x t e n t D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a n i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t E qua l va r i a nc e s t t e s t w a s s e l e c t e d: ( F = 1. 13, p = 53) T hi s a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o gr o ups t ( 204 ) = 1. 67 ; p = 10 A N O V A T e s t f or S ur v e y Q ue s t i on O ne D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a one w a y A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t due t o t he

PAGE 89

81 une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s of t he e t hni c i t y g r oups ( T a bl e 1 3 ) D ue t o t he s m a l l a nd une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s i n t hi s s t ud y, a n e s t i m a t e of e f f e c t s i z e w a s c om put e d t o a ugm e nt t he A N O V A T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d a m ong e t hni c i t i e s a t p > 05 F ( 4 200 ) = 1. 33 p = 26; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 16 T a bl e 1 3 A nal y s i s of V ar i anc e f or Q ue s t i on O ne S c or e s S our c e df S S M S F p E f f e c t S i z e E t hni c i t y 4 8. 44 2. 11 1. 33 26 16 W i t hi n G r oups 200 317. 54 1. 59 T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d be t w e e n gr oups us i ng t he t t e s t ; t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s w he n e xa m i ne d i n A N O V A w i t h L e ve ne t e s t f or gr oups of une qua l s i z e s M e a ns f or s t ude nt s w ho a ns w e r e d t he s ur ve y que s t i on by e t hni c i t y w e r e c om put e d a nd r e f l e c t s i m i l a r m e a ns a m ong t he e t hni c i t i e s f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s N = 206 ( T a bl e 14 ) T he s a m pl e m e a ns f or s t ude nt s of c ol o r de m ons t r a t e d s i m i l a r s c or e s i n f i nd i ng oppor t uni t i e s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt f r om w hi c h t o e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a bout e qua l t o a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom A s i a n s t ude nt s r a t e d t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt s s om e w ha t hi ghe r t ha n t he f a c e t o f a c e e xpe r i e nc e

PAGE 90

82 a nd ot he r s t ude nt s of c ol or f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r o nm e nt s om e w ha t l e s s t ha n e qua l t o a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom a s a pl a c e f r om w hi c h t o m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i on s of w hi t e no r m s T a bl e 14 St ude nt A ns w e r s t o S ur v e y Q ue s t i on O ne by E t hni c i t y E t hni c i t y N M e a n S D A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 3 2 3. 06 1. 36 H i s pa ni c 26 2. 92 1. 29 A s i a n 4 3. 75 1. 26 O t he r 7 2. 86 90 W hi t e 137 2. 67 1. 24 T ot a l N = 206 t T e s t f or S ur v e y Q ue s t i on T w o T he c ol l a ps e d s a m pl e w a s us e d t o e xa m i ne s ur v e y que s t i on: I s c ha l l e ngi ng o r c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons i m por t a nt t o you? N o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l M i n i m a l l y i m p o r t a n t N e i t h e r i m p o r t a n t n o r u n i m p o r t a n t S o m e w h a t i m p o r t a n t V e r y i m p o r t a n t D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a n i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t E qua l va r i a nc e s t t e s t w a s s e l e c t e d: ( F = 1. 01, p = 96) S om e di f f e r e nc e s w e r e obs e r ve d be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s of

PAGE 91

83 s t ude nt s t o t he s ur ve y que s t i on, but t he y w e r e not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he p> 05 l e ve l t ( 204) = 1 94; p = 05. A N O V A T e s t f or S ur v e y Q ue s t i on T w o D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a one w a y A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t due t o t he une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s of t he e t hni c i t y g r oups ( T a bl e 1 5 ) D ue t o t he s m a l l a nd une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s i n t hi s s t udy, a n e s t i m a t e of e f f e c t s i z e w a s c om put e d t o a ugm e nt t he A N O V A T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d a m ong e t hni c i t i e s a t p > 05, F ( 4 201 ) = 1. 08 p = 37 ; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 14 T a bl e 1 5 A nal y s i s of V ar i anc e f or Q ue s t i on T w o S c or e s S our c e df S S M S F p E f f e c t S i z e E t hni c i t y 4 7. 60 1. 90 1. 08 37 14 W i t hi n G r oups 201 354. 59 1. 76 M e a ns f or s t ude nt s w ho a ns w e r e d t he s ur ve y que s t i on by e t hni c i t y w e r e c om put e d a nd r e f l e c t s i m i l a r m e a ns a m ong t he e t h ni c i t i e s f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s N = 206 ( T a bl e 16) T he r e w e r e s om e di f f e r e nc e s a m ong m e a ns obs e r ve d be t w e e n gr oups us i ng t he t t e s t ( p = 05 ) but t he y w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt ; t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s w he n e xa m i ne d i n A N O V A w i t h L e ve ne t e s t f o r g r oups of une qua l

PAGE 92

84 s i z e s S t ude nt s of c ol or di s pl a ye d s i m i l a r m e a ns W he n e xa m i ni ng m e a ns i t c a n be not e d t ha t w hi t e s t ude nt s di s pl a ye d t he l ow e s t m e a n, i ndi c a t i ng t ha t w hi t e s t ude nt s f ound c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons t o be t he l e a s t i m por t a nt a m ong t he e t hni c i t i e s e xa m i ne d. T he s a m pl e m e a ns f or s t ude nt s of c ol or de m ons t r a t e d s i m i l a r s c or e s i ndi c a t i ng t he i m por t a nc e of c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons T he ove r a l l m e a n s c or e s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s of c ol o r w ho a ns w e r e d t he que s t i on f ound t he i m por t a nc e of c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons t o be be t w e e n ne i t he r i m po r t a nt nor uni m po r t a nt t o m i ni m a l l y i m por t a nt T a bl e 1 6 St ude nt A ns w e r s t o S ur v e y Q ue s t i on O ne by E t hni c i t y E t hni c i t y N M e a n S D A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 32 3. 03 1. 33 H i s pa ni c 26 3. 12 1. 40 A s i a n 4 3. 50 1. 29 O t he r 7 3. 29 1. 25 W hi t e 137 2. 74 1. 32 T ot a l N = 206

PAGE 93

85 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s a nd ot he r s t ude nt s of c ol o r r a t e d t he i m por t a nc e of c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s ne i t he r i m por t a nt nor un i m por t a nt A s i a n s t ude nt s r a t e d t he i m po r t a nc e m i dw a y be t w e e n ne i t he r i m po r t a nt no r uni m po r t a n t a nd s om e w ha t i m por t a nt T he s e f i ndi ngs a r e r e f l e c t e d a ga i ns t t he l i t e r a t ur e i n C ha pt e r F i ve O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i on R e s ul t s f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o O pe n e nde d que s t i ons on t he s ur ve y w e r e de s i gne d t o s ol i c i t r e s po ns e s i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s ow n w o r ds t o p r ovi de obs e r va t i ons f r om t he pe r s ona l pe r s pe c t i ve of s t ud e nt s of c ol o r i n or de r t o c om pl e t e l y e va l ua t e t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. F or t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons us i ng t he pr i nt e d w or d r a t he r t ha n t r a ns c r i pt i on f r om a n or a l i nt e r vi e w pr ovi de d pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h m or e t i m e t o r e f l e c t on a ns w e r s t ha n i s t ypi c a l l y t he c a s e ( K va l e 1996 p 172) a nd m y a na l ys i s de s c r i be s pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s r a t he r t ha n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he m ( p 127 ) S e l e c t e d c om m e nt s c ol l e c t e d f r om t he s ur ve y a r e us e d t o i l l us t r a t e t he poi nt of e a c h t he m e a nd a ppe a r ve r ba t i m T he m e t hod us e d f or e xt r a c t i ng t he m e s f r om s t ude nt r e s pons e s w a s de s c r i be d i n C ha pt e r T hr e e S i nc e t he goa l of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on w a s t o f oc us on s t ude nt s of c ol or onl y ope n e nde d r e s pons e s r e c e i ve d f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or w e r e i nc l ude d E a c h r e s pons e r e por t e d i n t hi s s e c t i on w a s pr ovi d e d by a di f f e r e nt s t ude nt of c ol o r i nc l udi ng A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c A s i a n, I ndi a n, a nd A r a b G e n de r i s not i ndi c a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i on s i nc e ge nde r i n onl i ne di a l ogue c om pa r i s on i s r e a di l y l o c a t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd ge nde r i s not a f oc a l poi nt of t hi s r e s e a r c h; t hi s r e s e a r c h c ons i de r e d s t ude nt s of c ol or f r om a n e t hni c i t y gr oup pe r s pe c t i ve r a t he r t ha n by ge nde r f o r t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy. P l e a s e c ons i de r t ha t e a c h of t he s e s t or i e s r e p r e s e nt s t he obs e r va t i on or e xpe r i e nc e o f one s t ude nt of c ol o r

PAGE 94

86 r e s pondi ng t o a s ur ve y. T he r e i s no a t t e m pt m a de i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on t o ge ne r a l i z e t he s e obs e r va t i ons t o ot he r s t ude nt s of c ol or ; how e ve r s t ude nt s of a ny e t hni c i t y w ho r e a d t hi s di s s e r t a t i on m a y de c i de t ha t s om e of t he s t or i e s r e s ona t e f or t he m O ut of t he 93 s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho r e s ponde d t o t he s ur ve y, onl y 20 p r ovi de d a ns w e r s t o t he ope n e nde d r e s pons e que s t i ons O f t he s e r e s pons e s ni ne w e r e f r om A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s s i x w e r e f r om H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s t hr e e w e r e f r om A s i a n s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s of ot he r e t hni c i t i e s pr ovi de d t w o r e s pons e s T he s t r a t e gy f or e xt r a c t i ng t he m e s f r om c ol l e c t e d r e s pons e s w a s de s c r i be d i n C ha pt e r T h r e e R e s pons e s r e por t e d obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd opi ni ons r e ga r di ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de s a p l a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c o l or c a n m o r e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt T hr e e t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om s t or y r e s pons e s by s t ude nt s of c ol or pe r t i ne nt t o a ddr e s s i ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. S i nc e t he goa l o f t hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s t o f oc us on s t ude nt s of c ol or onl y o pe n e nde d r e s pons e s r e c e i ve d f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or w e r e us e d t o c ons t r uc t t h e m e s T he m e s a r e f i r s t l i s t e d, t he n a dd r e s s e d s e pa r a t e l y w i t h a s s oc i a t e d r e s ul t s R e s ul t s a r e r e por t e d ve r ba t i m A na l ys i s a nd di s c us s i on of r e s ul t s i s pr ovi de d i n C ha pt e r F i ve T he m e s I n t he m e o ne s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y r e por t e d t ha t oppor t uni t i e s t o c ha l l e nge pe r s pe c t i ve s pr e s e nt e d b y f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s de a l i ng w i t h s t ude nt uni que ne s s a nd w hi t e nor m s m a y not a l w a ys be e a s i l y t r a ns l a t e d i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt I n t he m e t w o s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y f ound t he on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e opi ni ons or c r i t i q ue s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w e r e not us ua l l y pa r t o f t he c ur r i c ul um a nd w e r e t ypi c a l l y no t a ddr e s s e d ( unl e s s i t

PAGE 95

87 i s a n a ppr opr i a t e s ubj e c t f or a c l a s s t opi c s uc h a s m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m ) a f a c t r e por t e d t o be a pr obl e m I n t he m e t hr e e s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e opi ni ons or c r i t i q ue s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w e r e not us ua l l y pa r t o f t he c ur r i c ul um a nd w e r e t ypi c a l l y no t a ddr e s s e d ( unl e s s i t w a s a n a ppr opr i a t e s ubj e c t f o r a pa r t i c ul a r c l a s s or c l a s s t opi c s uc h a s m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m ) a f a c t r e por t e d t o be w e l c om e P r e s e nt at i on and D i s c us s i on of T he m e s T hr ough R e pr e s e nt at i v e R e s pons e s T he m e o ne r e pr e s e nt at i v e r e s pons e s T hr ough t he s e r e s pons e s s t ude nt s t a l k a bout s om e of t he p r obl e m s t he y o bs e r ve d o r e xpe r i e nc e d w he n t r a ns l a t i ng f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i ons i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt R e s pons e s a r e r e por t e d ve r ba t i m M y c l a s s m a t e s of t e n di d not t a ke i nt o pe r s pe c t i ve i s s ue s f a c i ng m i nor i t i e s a nd e ve n m or e f r e que nt l y, pe opl e of po ve r t y T he i r be l i e f s ha d ne ve r be e n c ha l l e nge d be c a us e t he y ha d ne ve r ha d m a ny e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he i r pe r s ona l l i f e I di d a c l a s s pr e s e nt a t i on w he r e I us e d t he m a t e r i a l s of R uby P a yne a ha pr oc e s s t o di s c us s i s s ue s of pove r t y a nd I t hi n k t he c l a s s w a s s t unne d. I don't t hi nk i t w oul d ha ve be e n a s pow e r f ul i f i t w e r e onl i ne T he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s pe a ki ng i n t he e xa m pl e a bove a r t i c ul a t e s t he t he m e t ha t oppor t uni t i e s t o c ha l l e nge pe r s pe c t i ve s pr e s e nt e d b y f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s de a l i ng w i t h s t ud e nt uni que ne s s a nd w hi t e nor m s w e r e not a l w a ys e a s i l y t r a ns l a t e d i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt A H i s pa ni c s t ude nt t a ki ng a n onl i ne c l a s s s ha r e s a s t or y a nd a n obs e r va t i on t ha t onl i ne s t ude nt s m a y m i s s t he be ne f i t s of f a c e t o f a c e i nt e r a c t i on: W e l l I t o ok t h i s onl i ne c our s e a s a m e a ns t o ge t a h e a d a s a ne w

PAGE 96

88 m ot he r t o a f ou r m ont h ol d ba by W hi l e I e nj oy t he r e a di ngs a gr e a t de a l a nd I a l s o e nj oy t he pa r t i c i pa t i on t he j ou r na l e nt r i e s l e nd t o t he c l a s s I do w i s h w e m e t m or e t ha n t w i c e i n t he s e m e s t e r S om e t i m e s f a c e t o f a c e i nt e r a c t i on w i t h pe e r s a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o s e e t he gr a vi t y of t he s i t ua t i on of r a c i s m m or e c l os e l y, a nd unf or t una t e l y, I don't t hi nk t hi s c l a s s a l l ow s f or m uc h t i m e t o f oc us on i m por t a nt i s s ue s de a l i ng w i t h t hi s t opi c W hi l e i t m a y be unc om f or t a bl e f or t he s t ude nt s t hi s t ype o f t opi c a l l ow s a n i ndi vi dua l t o g r ow a s a pe r s on a nd I t hi nk a t t i m e s w e a r e r obbe d of t ha t w i t hout c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i on. T w o A s i a n s t ude nt s s ha r e d s i m i l a r ne ga t i ve vi e w s : I t t a ke s a w a y m y i de nt i t y ; I do no t pr e f e r t a ki ng o nl i ne c our s e s ; I don t f e e l a s i f I l e a r n a s m uc h a s i n a c l a s s r oom e nvi r on m e nt I ha ve ne ve r t a l ke d a bout a nyt hi ng t ha t w a s ve r y de e p. T he on l i ne di s c us s i on w a s l i ght a nd s hor t M os t of a l l I ne ve r kne w i f a nybody c a r e d a bout t he i nf o r m a t i on I s e nt out W he r e one H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ha r e s a dvi c e f or s t a t i ng opi ni ons i n a n onl i ne c l a s s a s oppos e d t o a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s : T r e a t t he on l i ne c our s e a s a n f a c e t o f a c e c our s e Y ou s houl d be a bl e t o s t a t e y our opi ni ons r e ga r dl e s s of w he r e a nd how y ou t a ke a c our s e I f pr of e s s or s don't w a nt t o he a r you I N S I S T a nd P E R S I S T [ s i c ] . a not he r H i s pa ni c s t ude nt e nc ount e r s a pr obl e m : A s a l e a r ne r of E ngl i s h a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge s om e c onc e pt s s t e e pe d i n t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e r e qui r e d e xt r a t i m e a nd s t udy.

PAGE 97

89 T he a dul t e duc a t i on p r i nc i pl e s a nd p r a c t i c e s f ound w i t hi n a ndr a gogy p r ovi de d t he f r a m e w or k f or t h i s s t udy. A nd r a gogy he l ps i de nt i f y s i t ua t i ons i n w hi c h a dul t l e a r ne r s l e a r n be s t s uc h a s a ppr e c i a t i on o f t he a bi l i t y t o w o r k a t one s ow n pa c e K e e pi ng t hi s i n m i nd, I c om pa r e d t he H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s c om m e nt r e f l e c t i ng on t he ne e d f o r m o r e t i m e t o a s s i m i l a t e c ul t ur a l c onc e pt s by s t ude nt s w ho s pe a k E ngl i s h a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge t o t w o r e s pons e s f r om A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s r e por t i ng a c ont r a di c t or y pe r s pe c t i ve : I f e l t l i ke I c oul d e xpr e s s m ys e l f a nd opi ni ons m o r e ope nl y a nd i nt e l l i ge nt l y s i nc e I ha d s uf f i c i e nt t i m e t o t hi nk t hr ough r e s pons e s be f or e pos t i ng. I w oul d ha ve pr e f e r r e d m e e t i ng f a c e t o f a c e I l i ke t o a s k que s t i ons a nd ge t t he r e a c t i on f r om m y c l a s s m a t e s a nd i ns t r uc t or C om m uni c a t i on onl i ne i s not ve r y pe r s ona bl e I n m y op i ni on, pe opl e w oul d s pe a k m or e f r e e l y i f t he i r w or ds w e r e not e s s e nt i a l l y doc um e nt e d. F r om t he s e r e s pons e s i t m a y be s ur m i s e d t ha t us i n g t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s a pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h m a y d i f f e r f o r s t ude nt s us i ng E ngl i s h a s t he i r s e c ond l a ngua ge O t he r c ha l l e nge s r e por t e d i nc l ude d f r us t r a t i on w i t h onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on O ne of t he r e s pons e s s e l e c t e d t o r e pr e s e nt t hi s t he m e c o nt a i ne d a n onl i ne c ue I N S I S T A N D P E R S I S T T he us e o f c a pi t a l l e t t e r s i ndi c a t e s s hout i ng i n t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt R e s pons e s f r om A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c a nd A s i a n s t ude nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s f i nd t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i m pe r s ona l A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt r e s pons e s a l s o r e por t e d t ha t s t ude nt s e nj oy a nd pr e f e r f a c e t o f a c e i nt e r a c t i on.

PAGE 98

90 T he m e t w o r e pr e s e nt at i v e r e s pon s e s T hr ough t he s e r e s pons e s s t ude nt s s ha r e t he i r obs e r va t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s r e ga r di ng t he o ppo r t uni t y t o c r i t i que a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s i n onl i ne c our s e w or k, a f a c t r e por t e d t o be a pr ob l e m R e s pons e s a r e r e por t e d ve r ba t i m T he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt o f a no nym i t y a nd e qui t y i s not a l w a ys s e e n a s a pos i t i ve e nvi r onm e nt w i t h i n w hi c h t o e xa m i ne i s s ue s of r a c e c l a s s a nd ge nde r i n t he e xa m pl e pr ovi de d by a s t ude nt of m ul t i r a c i a l e t hni c i t y : A s s om e one w ho w a s r a i s e d i n a l a r ge l y w hi t e ne i ghbor hood, I r e a l l y be l i e ve t ha t m os t w hi t e pe opl e r e a l l y do not un de r s t a nd w hy pe r s ons of c ol or f e e l d e va l ue d a nd voi c e l e s s T he y do not und e r s t a nd ba s i c t e ne t s of s oc i ol ogy s uc h a s t ha t t he m a j or i t y t e nds t o s e t c ul t ur a l va l ue s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons a nd t ha t va l ue s a r e not uni ve r s a l s a nd t hus e vol ve ove r t i m e ba s e d on e xpe r i e nc e s e nvi r onm e nt s e t c A not he r s t ude nt s ha r e d t hi s e xpe r i e nc e : A s a n A r a b, I ve m a de i t a poi nt t o br i ng i n m y uni que pe r s pe c t i ve i nt o a l m os t a l l c l a s s di s c us s i on s e ve n t hough s e ve r a l ot he r s s e e m e d unc om f or t a bl e by i t O ne H i s pa ni c s t ude nt obs e r ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or a r e c l e a r l y be i ng s hi f t e d t o one s i de be c a us e t he y a ppe a r t oo c ont r ov e r s i a l a nd a not he r H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ha r e s t he f ol l ow i ng a c c ount of a n e xpe r i e nc e w i t h a n i ns t r uc t or : I ha ve a p r of e s s or t hi s s e m e s t e r w ho s pe c i f i c a l l y a s ke d f o r opi ni ons i n a t e s t a nd gr a de d m y pa pe r w i t h a n unf a i r gr a de be c a us e m y opi ni on w a s not w ha t he w a nt e d. I be l i e ve t ha t opi ni ons s houl d not be a s ke d i f t he y a r e not goi ng t o be r e s pe c t e d. H e c oul d us e a m ul t i pl e c hoi c e t e s t i ns t e a d.

PAGE 99

91 T he ne xt obs e r va t i on i n t hi s s e c t i on poi nt s t o a p r o bl e m a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt e nc ount e r e d w i t h a n i ns t r uc t o r I r e m i nd t h e r e a de r t ha t t hi s pr obl e m r e l a t e s t o a pa r t i c ul a r i ns t r uc t or i t i s not i nt e nde d t o i nf e r t ha t a l l s t ude nt s of c ol or e nc ount e r t hi s pr obl e m w i t h t he i r i ns t r uc t or s A t t he s a m e t i m e t he pur pos e of t h i s di s s e r t a t i on i s t o f oc us on t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons o f s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd r e ga r dl e s s i f on l y one obs e r va t i on of t hi s t ype i s pr ovi de d t ha t i t e ve n a ppe a r s i n t he da t a w i l l hope f ul l y gi ve i ns t r uc t or s r e a di ng t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a c ha nc e t o s e l f c he c k t he i r c ons c i ous or unc ons c i ous i ns t r uc t i ona l s t yl e w i t h s t ude nt s of m i xe d e t hni c i t i e s I obs e r ve d w hi t e s be i ng p r ovi de d m o r e i nf o r m a t i o n. W he n I que s t i one d s om e t hi ng I w a s gi ve n t he a ns w e r t o t ha t que s t i on, w hi l e i t w a s e xpl a i ne d t o w hi t e s t he w hys a nd i f s T he r e s pons e a bove a l s o pr e s e nt s a good e xa m pl e of a p r obl e m I e nc ount e r e d w he n c ol l e c t i ng qua l i t a t i ve r e s pons e s onl i ne D ue t o t he a nonym i t y of t he s ur v e y s i t ua t i on, I w a s not a bl e t o c he c k ba c k w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s i n or d e r t o e xpa nd a ns w e r s by a s ki ng f or c l a r i f i c a t i on. F or t hi s r e s e a r c h, I us e d t he f a c t t ha t m y j ob i s s t e e pe d i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt t o c l a r i f y t he r e s pons e a bove a nd t he r e a r e s e ve r a l w a ys i n w hi c h t he i ns t r uc t or c oul d ha ve d i f f e r e nt i a t e d be t w e e n w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or onl i ne I ns t r uc t or s m a y ha ve a c c e s s t o s t ude nt de m ogr a phi c s t he r e m a y ha ve be e n a f a c e t o f a c e or i e nt a t i on, s t ude nt s m a y be a s ke d t o pos t a pi c t ur e a nd bi ogr a phi c a l i nf or m a t i on a s a m e a ns t o ge t t o know ot he r s t ude nt s or i n t he c a s e of a not he r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt : G r a dua t e s t ude nt s a r e t ypi c a l l y pa r t of a s m a l l c om m uni t y. A l l of t he s t ude nt s know one a not he r A l l o f t he i ns t r uc t or s m e m be r s know t he gr a dua t e s t ude n t s M a ny gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol or a r e t he on l y one s i n t he i r de pa r t m e nt s E ve r yone

PAGE 100

92 s e e m s t o know t he ne w B l a c k gi r l be f or e s he s f or m a l l y m e t t he m A not he r t hi ng t o c ons i de r : i n t he hum a ni t i e s r a c e a nd ot he r s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i ons a r e pa r f or t he c our s e not t he e l e pha nt i n t he r o om T he obs e r va t i on of t he s t ude nt i n t hi s e xa m pl e a bo ve pr ovi de d a s e gue t o t he ne xt t he m e w he r e not a ddr e s s i ng w hi t e nor m s w a s f ound by s t ude nt s of c ol or t o be bot h a ppr op r i a t e a nd w e l c om e i n onl i ne c our s e w or k. T he m e t hr e e r e pr e s e nt at i v e r e s pons e s T hr ough t h e s e r e s pons e s s t ude nt s s ha r e t he i r obs e r va t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s r e ga r di ng t he o ppor t uni t y t o c r i t i que a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s i n onl i ne c our s e w or k, a f a c t r e por t e d t o be w e l c om e R e s pons e s a r e r e por t e d v e r ba t i m T he m e t hr e e r e pr e s e nt s one of t w o s i de s t o t he s a m e i s s ue di s c us s e d f or t he m e t w o. F o r t hi s t he m e s t ude nt s of c ol or r e por t e d t ha t t he y pr e f e r r e d t o f oc us on t he c our s e c ur r i c ul um a nd f ound di s c us s i ons of w hi t e no r m s a nd r a c e out o f pl a c e f or c l a s s e s s uc h a s phys i c s or m a t he m a t i c s S t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t hi s que s t i on e xpr e s s e d a de s i r e t o f oc us onl y on c our s e c ont e nt T he s e s t ude nt s f ound di s c us s i ons of w hi t e nor m s a l r e a dy bu i l t i nt o a s oc i a l s c i e nc e s n ur s i ng, o r e duc a t i on c u r r i c u l um w hi c h w e r e t he a r e a s of de gr e e c onc e nt r a t i on f or t he m a j or i t y of s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s r e por t e d: I f i nd t ha t r a c e ha s not be e n t r u l y de l i ne a t e d o r e v e n a ddr e s s e d. A l l s t ude nt s pr ovi de i nput a nd unl e s s w e l ook a t e a c h ot he r 's pr of i l e s w e do n't s a y a s a pe r s on of c ol or w e j us t r e pl y a nd ke e p goi ng. O nl y da t a r e l a t i ng t o s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt s oc i oe c onom i c s e t c w e r e [ di s c us s e d] R a c e not be i ng a f a c t or i n t he c our s e i s a s hor t s t or y w i t h a ha ppy e ndi ng

PAGE 101

93 T he r e i s n't a n i s s ue t ha t ne e ds t o be di s c us s e d. A l t hough onl y A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s voi c e d a n opi ni on f or t hi s t he m e a ndr a gogi c a l pr i nc i pl e s w hi c h c ons i de r pe r s ona l l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd pr e f e r e nc e s m us t be t a ke n i n t o c ons i de r a t i on a nd c onf ounde d m y a bi l i t y t o dr a w a ny f i ni t e c onc l us i on f r om t hi s t he m e T he m e s r e f l e c t e d r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc e s a nd opi ni on s r e ga r di ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de d a pl a c e w he r e s t u de nt s of c ol or c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt T he r e s ul t s of r e s pons e s t o ope n e nde d que s t i ons w e r e gr oupe d i nt o t he m e s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ve a ns w e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o i l l us t r a t e t he t he m e ; how e ve r r e s pons e s a r e hi ghl y i ndi v i dua l i n na t ur e a nd r e f l e c t f a c e t e d a ns w e r s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on r a t he r t ha n one s i m pl e a ns w e r N a r r a t i ve r e s pons e s f r om pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons w e r e be ne f i c i a l t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on be i ng m or e f ul l y e xpl o r e d, a nd c a pt ur e d e xp r e s s e d e m ot i ons t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s c hoos e t o put i nt o w or ds c r e a t i ng a s oc i a l pr e s e nc e i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( A r a gon 2003 ) I c ol l e c t e d a nd r e por t e d t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on be c a us e t he y a r e not e xa m i ne d i n t he m a i ns t r e a m l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng. I us e d t he i nt e r a c t i vi t y m ode l ( T a b l e 2, p 48 ) t o c r a f t ope n e nde d que s t i ons i n or de r t o pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h a pl a c e t o pr ovi de i nde pe nd e nt s t a t e m e nt s w hi c h w e r e not ne c e s s a r i l y c onne c t e d t o ot he r s w hi c h ha d be e n pr e vi ous l y e xp r e s s e d. T he f ol l ow i ng s t or y r e s pons e r e f l e c t s a uni que e xp e r i e nc e f or a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt of c ol or f or t he t he m e a nd I ha ve i nc l ude d i t he r e t o e xpe r i e nt i a l l y r ound out t he di s c us s i on: T he be a ut y of a n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s t ha t i t t ot a l l y r e m ov e s t he

PAGE 102

94 i nt i m i da t i on f a c t o r H e r e I w a s s i gni ng up f or a c l a s s c a l l e d, S oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r a c e a nd r a c i s m of f e r e d by t he A f r i c a na S t udi e s de pa r t m e nt I a s s um e d m y i ns t r uc t or w a s bl a c k, a n d t ha t m a de i t e a s y f or m e t o s pe a k w i t hout r e s e r va t i on, s ha r i ng t hi ngs t ha t bl a c k pe opl e nor m a l l y onl y s ha r e w i t h e a c h ot he r I m a gi ne m y s ur pr i s e ha l f w a y t hr ough t he s e m e s t e r w he n I di s c ove r e d m y P r of e s s or i s w hi t e T ha t e xpe r i e nc e i n a nd of i t s e l f w a s e xt r e m e l y s i gni f i c a nt H a d I w a l ke d i nt o a c l a s s r oom a nd r a n i nt o hi m t he f i r s t da y, I w oul d ne ve r ha ve f e l t I c ou l d s pe a k a s f r e e l y a s I ha ve dur i ng t hi s s e s s i on. R e s ul t s Sum m ar y f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o R e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o e xa m i ne d t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt p r ovi de d a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c o l or c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ov i de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt T he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s not c onc l us i ve l y f ound t o be a n e nvi r onm e nt w he r e op i ni ons or c r i t i que s c oul d be e xpr e s s e d m or e e a s i l y t ha n i n a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom a nd t h e i m por t a nc e t o s t ude nt s of ha vi ng t he oppor t uni t y t o c ha l l e nge w hi t e no r m s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r o nm e nt w a s not f ound t o b e s i gni f i c a nt by a ny e t hni c gr oup. N o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s a s a g r oup or a m ong i ndi v i dua l e t hni c i t i e s i n a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on T he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons r e por t e d i n ope n e nd e d que s t i on r e s pons e s t o t he s ur ve y de m ons t r a t e t ha t di f f e r e nc e s e xi s t e d f or i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y on a pe r s ona l l e v e l O ne w a y w e m a y i nt e r p r e t t he s e di f f e r e nc e s i s a ga i ns t t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k us e d i n t hi s s t udy, a ndr a gogy, w h i c h

PAGE 103

95 c ons i de r s t he va r i ous pe r s ona l c i r c um s t a nc e s a nd s oc i a l s i t ua t i ons w hi c h a r e pr e s e nt f o r a dul t l e a r ne r s a nd t he w a ys i n w hi c h a dul t s l e a r n. T he pr i nc i pl e s a nd p r a c t i c e s of a ndr a gogy pr ovi de a pl a c e f or t he s t ude nt s uni que i ndi vi dua l l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e n c e s w hi c h w i l l va r y due t o c u r r i c ul um c ont e nt i ns t r uc t or a nd by pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e a nd s i t ua t i on. R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e R e s ul t s T he a ns w e r t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on t hr e e w a s c o c ons t r uc t e d by a s ki ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on t o s t ude nt s w ho ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne c our s e s a nd t o i ns t r uc t or s w ho ha d t a ught onl i ne a s a s ur ve y que s t i on T he s a m e t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om t he r e s pons e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or a s f r om t he i ns t r uc t or s r e s pons e s us e d f or t r i a ngul a t i on F o r i ns t r uc t o r s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y i ns t r uc t o r s of c ol o r r e pr e s e nt e d 22% ( N = 16 ) of t he t ot a l s a m pl e ( N = 72 ) A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n i ns t r uc t or s ( N = 7 ) H i s pa ni c i ns t r uc t or s ( N = 11 ) ot he r e t hni c i t i e s ( N = 3 ) T hr e e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, t hr e e H i s pa ni c a nd one S e m i t i c i ns t r uc t or pr ovi de d s t or i e s T he m e t hodol ogy f or a na l yz i ng t he t he m e s w a s pr ovi de d i n C ha pt e r T hr e e T he t he m e s w e r e s i m i l a r i n s c ope but w e r e s e pa r a t e d f or i nc l us i on of di f f e r e nc e s of e m pha s i s A l l r e s pons e s a r e r e por t e d ve r ba t i m T he f i r s t t he m e w a s m or e c onc e r ne d w i t h t he a nonym ous na t u r e of t he onl i n e e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he s e c ond t he m e c e nt e r s a r ound s ugge s t e d w a ys c l a s s e s c oul d be s t r uc t ur e d. A f t e r pr e s e nt a t i on o f e a c h t he m e bot h t he m e s a r e di s c us s e d t oge t he r s i nc e t he y w e r e us e d t oge t he r t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. I de a s a nd s pe c i f i c s w e r e pr ovi d e d by i ndi vi dua l r e s pons e s t o t he ope n e nde d s ur ve y que s t i on w hi c h a s k e d bot h s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y o f c ol or t o o f f e r di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng i ns t r uc t or s a nd de s i gne r s a dvi c e a bout pr o vi di ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h f ul l y c ons i de r s t he v oi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol o r

PAGE 104

96 O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i on T he m e s f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e 1. I t i s e a s i e r t o i gnor e r a c e c l a s s a nd ge nde r i n t h e onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ; t he r e f or e i t i s i m po r t a nt f o r i ns t r uc t o r s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o i nf o r m a nd r e m i nd s t ude nt s of t he uni que i s s ue s a s pe c t s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of a l l i ndi vi dua l s 2. S t ude nt s pe r s pe c t i ve s c oul d be c ha l l e nge d by i ns t r uc t or s t a ki ng a m o r e c ons t r uc t i vi s t a ppr oa c h i n c ur r i c ul um t ha t m or e f ul l y c ons i de r s t he s i t ua t i on a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of a l l i ndi vi dua l s T he m e o ne r e pr e s e nt at i v e r e s pons e s T hr ough t he s e r e s pons e s s t ude nt s w ho ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol or w ho t e a c h onl i ne c l a s s e s pr ovi de obs e r va t i ons a nd r e s pons e s r e ga r di ng t he f a c t t ha t i t i s e a s i e r t o i gno r e r a c e c l a s s a nd ge nde r i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e n t ; t he r e f o r e i t i s i m por t a nt f o r i ns t r uc t o r s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o i nf or m a nd r e m i nd s t ude nt s of t he uni que i s s ue s a s pe c t s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s o f a l l i ndi vi d ua l s R e s pons e s a r e r e por t e d ve r ba t i m T he r e a r e m a ny di r e c t i ons f r om w hi c h t o v i e w t he s e da t a R e a de r s w i l l e a c h ha ve a di f f e r e nt onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e l e ns t h r ough w hi c h t o vi e w t he na r r a t i ve s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a n onl i ne s t ude nt o r a s a s t ude nt w h o ha s ne ve r t a ke n a n on l i ne c l a s s f r o m t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a n i ns t r uc t or w i t h or w i t hout onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e a s a pe r s on o f c ol or or a s a w hi t e pe r s on. T he s e da t a a r e not obj e c t i ve t he y a r e s ubj e c t i ve a nd bound w i t hi n a pe r s ona l i nt e r a c t i on pe r s pe c t i ve ; t he r e f o r e f i ndi ng s w i l l not m a t c h up w i t h e xpe c t a t i ons of obj e c t i ve f i ndi ngs O ne o f t he pur pos e s of t he s t udy w a s t o c r e a t e a s pa c e f o r l ooki ng s pe c i f i c a l l y a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol or a bout t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt I n t hi s s t ud y I a c t e d a s a n i ns t r um e nt t o br i ng a s e t o f obs e r va t i ons a bout

PAGE 105

97 t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n c ont a c t w i t h t he pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or a n i nt e r s e c t i on w hi c h i s m i s s i ng f r o m t he l i t e r a t ur e I onl y t ook one c ou r s e onl i ne w hi c h w a s pr og r a m s up e r vi s i on. T he r e w e r e onl y t hr e e i ndi v i dua l s e nr ol l e d, t w o w hi t e m a l e s a nd m ys e l f ( a bl a c k f e m a l e ) T he pr o f e s s or w a s a l s o a w hi t e m a l e T he r e w a s ne ve r a ny di s c us s i on a bout i ndi vi dua l s of c ol or a s i t r e l a t e d t o e va l ua t i ng, a s s e s s i ng, pr ovi di ng t he m os t e f f e c t i ve s upe r vi s i on s t yl e s / t he or i e s e t c a s i t r e l a t e d t o i ndi vi dua l s of c ol or T hi s r e s pons e de m ons t r a t e d t he l i m i t a t i ons o f c ol l e c t i ng qua l i t a t i ve a ns w e r s i n a s t r i c t l y onl i ne s ur ve y us i ng s t r i c t l y a nonym ous r e s pons e s : di d t hi s s t ude nt f i nd t he e xc l us i on o f di s c us s i on s of i ndi vi dua l s of c ol or t o be pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve ? I a s s um e d t ha t t hi s s t ude nt s a w t he s i t ua t i on a s a n om i s s i on of t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of pe r s ons of c ol o r f r om a ne ga t i ve s t a ndpoi nt I t w a s di f f i c ul t t o s a y w ha t I t hought s t ude n t s of c ol or w e r e s a yi ng f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r a nd pr e s e nt e d a l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy. H i s pa ni c i ns t r uc t or s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y w e r e i n a gr e e m e nt t ha t e t hni c i t y i s s ue s do not be l ong i n onl i ne c l a s s e s out s i de of m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s s ue s c l a s s e s a nd f ound t he a nonym ous e nvi r onm e nt a pl us R e s pons e s i nc l ude d : I t hi nk t ha t i s one o f t he be ne f i t s of t e a c hi ng onl i n e ; i s s ue s of c ol or ge nde r or s e xua l pr e f e r e nc e i s m i ni m i z e d due t o t he f a c t t ha t you a r e r e pr e s e nt e d a s a pe r s on onl i ne a nd not hi ng m or e t ha n t ha t de s c r i pt i on. A l l de s c r i pt i ve s a nd a s s um pt i ons a r e ne ga t e d a nd you a r e a bl e t o r e pr e s e nt your s e l f w i t h you r w or k a nd w or ds O ne of t he c hi e f a dva nt a ge s of onl i ne l e a r ni ng i s t ha t r a c e c ons i de r a t i ons s houl d

PAGE 106

98 be c om pl e t e l y e l i m i na t e d f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd i t s houl d no t i m pa c t t e a c hi ng s t yl e s or gr a de s i n a ny w a y T he s ur ve y r e s pons e s r e f l e c t e d s om e di s s ona nc e be t w e e n i ns t r uc t or a nd s t ude nt opi ni ons s i nc e t he a bi l i t y t o s pe a k f r e e l y a bout a n y i s s ue w a s r e por t e d a s va l ua bl e by A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s A n i ns t r uc t or s pos i t i on of not c ons i de r i ng a s pe c t s of e t hni c i t y i n t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt m a y not be t he be s t a ppr oa c h t o t a ke c ons i de r i ng t he f ol l ow i ng c om m e nt f r om a m ul t i r a c i a l s t ude nt w ho w e nt i nt o de t a i l r e ga r di ng how i nd i vi dua l s m a y ove r l ook t he poi n t of vi e w of pe r s ons of c ol or : I w oul d r e a l l y l i ke t o s e e di s c us s i ons of t hi s na t ur e t a ke m or e of a s oc i ol ogi c a l f oc us A s s om e one w ho w a s r a i s e d i n a l a r ge l y w h i t e ne i ghbor hood, I r e a l l y be l i e ve t ha t m os t w hi t e pe opl e r e a l l y do not un de r s t a nd w hy pe r s ons of c ol o r f e e l de va l ue d a nd voi c e l e s s T he y do no t unde r s t a nd ba s i c t e ne t s of s oc i ol ogy s uc h a s t ha t t he m a j or i t y t e nds t o s e t c ul t ur a l va l ue s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons a nd t ha t va l ue s a r e not uni ve r s a l s a nd t hus e vol ve ove r t i m e ba s e d on e xpe r i e nc e s e nvi r onm e nt s e t c T he y t e nd t o be l i e ve t ha t va l ue s ha ve a l w a ys be e n t he s a m e a nd t ha t t he y s houl d a ppl y t o e ve r yone e qua l l y I be l i e ve t ha t i t i s t hi s w or l d vi e w t ha t l e a ds m a ny w hi t e i ndi vi dua l s t o not l i s t e n t o t he voi c e o f pe opl e of c ol or I a m r a m bl i ng a bi t but t o s um m a r i z e I t hi nk t ha t a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he ba s i c pr i nc i pl e s of c ul t u r e a nd how i t c om e s t o va r y m i ght he l p br e a k dow n s om e of t he w a l l s t ha t pe opl e ha ve bui l t up be c a us e of t he s e ns i t i v e na t ur e o f r a c e di s c us s i ons i n t hi s c ount r y. A S e m i t i c i ns t r uc t o r pr ov i de d s om e s ugge s t i ons f or i nc l udi ng pe r s pe c t i ve s w hi c h m a y di f f e r f r om w hi t e no r m s ba s e d on t he i r pe da gogy a nd pr a c t i c e w he n de a l i ng w i t h t he a nonym ous na t ur e of t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt :

PAGE 107

99 I n a w hol l y onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i t i s not obvi ous w ho i s a nd w ho i s no t a s t ude nt of c ol or I t c a nnot be de duc e d f r om a na m e f o r e x a m pl e a nd s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r s ne ve r m e e t f a c e t o f a c e no r do i ns t r uc t or s ha ve a c c e s s t o r e c or ds t ha t w i l l i de nt i f y s t ude nt s e t hni c ba c kgr ounds T he onl y t i m e i ns t r uc t o r s a r e m a de a w a r e of a s t ude nt 's e t hni c i t y i s w he n t he y s e l f r e v e a l i n di s c us s i on. I ha ve f ound t ha t i nc or por a t i ng m a t e r i a l s i n t he c our s e t ha t pr ov oke di s c us s i on a bout i s s ue s or pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t di f f e r f r om t he nor m of w hi t e s oc i e t y s e e m t o c r e a t e a s pa c e i n w hi c h s t ude nt s f e e l s a f e t o r e ve a l t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e s i n r e s pons e M y pol i c y ha s be e n t o t a ke s t ude nt c om m e nt s f r om w r i t t e n j o ur na l s on t he a s s i gne d r e a di ngs t ur ne d i n t o m e a nd t o pos t t he s e r e f l e c t i ons a nony m ous l y i n a n onl i ne f or u m f o r s t ude nt f e e dba c k. S t ude nt s obt a i n t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i o n c r e di t by r e a di ng a nd r e s pondi ng t o t he a nonym ous c om m e nt s on l i ne S o s t ude nt s i ni t i a l l y w r i t e t he i r t hought s i n a s a f e e nvi r o nm e nt t he n pr e s e nt t he s e i n a n a nonym ous f a s hi on t o t he c l a s s f or a l l s t ude nt s t o r e a d a nd r e s pond t o i n a m or e publ i c w a y. M y pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s e onl i ne obs e r va t i ons a nd p e r c e pt i ons a c know l e dge s m ul t i pl e i nt e r p r e t a t i ons R e s pons e s f r om i ns t r uc t or s i nc l ude t he i r pe r s on a l t e a c hi ng phi l os ophi e s c ur r i c ul um a nd l e s s on c ont e xt a ny i ns t r uc t or bi a s t ha t m a y e xi s t a nd c om m i t m e nt by i ns t r uc t o r t o i nc or por a t e a m ul t i r a c i a l pe r s pe c t i ve i nt o t he c ou r s e c ont e nt T he s e obs e r va t i ons pr e s e nt a c t i ons obs e r ve d by pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd doc u m e nt e d by r e s pondi ng t o a s ur ve y. C our s e w or k s t r uc t ur e va r i e s gr e a t l y a m ong i ns t r uc t o r s ; t he r e f o r e no ge ne r a l i z a t i on i s pos s i bl e T he m e t w o r e pr e s e nt at i v e r e s pon s e s T hr ough t he s e r e s pons e s s t ude nt s w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol or w ho t e a c h onl i ne c l a s s e s pr ovi de

PAGE 108

100 obs e r va t i ons a nd a dvi c e f or c ons t r uc t i ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h f ul l y c ons i de r s t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or R e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s s ha r e opi ni ons r e ga r di ng w a ys i n w hi c h s t ude nt s pe r s pe c t i ve s c oul d be c ha l l e nge d by i ns t r uc t or s t a ki ng a m or e c ons t r uc t i vi s t a ppr oa c h i n c ur r i c ul um w hi c h m or e f ul l y c ons i de r s t he s i t ua t i on a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of a l l i ndi vi dua l s R e s pons e s a r e r e por t e d ve r ba t i m F or t hi s t he m e s t ude nt s a n d i ns t r uc t o r s a r e a l i gne d w i t h c om m on s ugge s t i ons t o i nc or por a t e m or e di ve r s e m a t e r i a l s i nt o c our s e c ur r i c ul um a s e vi de nc e d by A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, A s i a n, A r a b, a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c i ns t r uc t or s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y w ho a l l ur ge o nl i ne i ns t r uc t or s t o s e l e c t m a t e r i a l s w r i t t e n by a di ve r s e popul a t i on c onc e r ni ng di ve r s e s ubj e c t s H ow e ve r i n t hi s s e c t i on I ve s e l e c t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i ve a ns w e r s t ha t go be yond t he t ypi c a l s ugge s t i on t o i nc l ude m o r e w r i t i ng by m i nor i t y a ut hor s i n t he c our s e c ont e nt A n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s ha r e s a s ugge s t i on: C ont r i but i ons a nd t he uni que a s pe c t s of i ndi vi dua l s of c ol or c a n be i nt r oduc e d a nd i nc or por a t e d i nt o a l m os t a ny s ubj e c t m a t t e r I a l s o t hi nk t ha t i t i s i m po r t a nt f or pr of e s s or s t o m a ke i t a poi nt t o i n f or m s t ude nt s of t he uni que i s s ue s a s pe c t s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of i ndi vi dua l s of c ol o r A n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n onl i ne i ns t r uc t o r a gr e e s w i t h t h e pe r s pe c t i ve of t he s t ude nt s r e s pons e a nd of f e r s a n e xa m pl e us i ng m ode r n t e c h nol ogi e s a s a w a y t o m a ke t he s t ude nt s ugge s t i on c om e t o l i f e : I nc or por a t e di ve r s e voi c e s by us i ng s our c e s l i ke Y out ube a nd c ur r e nt e ve nt s f or t he ne w s G i ve s t ude nt s a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t e xpos e t he m t o e ve nt s on c a m pus or i n

PAGE 109

101 t he c om m uni t y w he r e di ve r s i t y w i l l be a f a c t or H a v e t he s t ude nt s do a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t r e qui r e t he m t o i nt e gr a t e p r e va i l i ng va l ue s a nd t r a di t i ons a nd w hos e voi c e s / pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e m i s s i ng a nd w hy. A n i nt e r e s t i ng c ons t r uc t i vi s t i de a i s pos e d by a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt : I w oul d p r oba bl y ha ve a l i nk t o t hos e s t ude nt s w ho a r e w hi t e t o e xpr e s s t he i r pos i t i on a nd I w oul d ha ve a l i nk t o t hos e s t ude nt s of c ol or t o e xpr e s s t he i r pos i t i on. T he n I w oul d ha ve a f o r um t o i nt r oduc e a s pe c i f i c t opi c s uc h a s H ow ha ve r a c e r e l a t i ons i m pr ove d s i nc e t he C i vi l R i gh t s M ove m e nt ? H ow ha ve r a c e r e l a t i ons s t a ye d t he s a m e s i nc e t he C i vi l R i ght s M ove m e nt ? T hi s w i l l a l l ow t he s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s t o s e e t he di f f e r e nc e t hr ou gh t he e ye s of bo t h c ul t ur a l s t a ndpoi nt s I de a s a nd c onc r e t e s ugge s t i ons t o a dd c ons t r uc t i vi s m t o onl i ne c l a s s e s t o be t t e r c ons i de r di ve r s e pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e pr ovi de d by a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n i ns t r uc t or : T a ke t he oppor t uni t i e s t ha t t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r p r ovi de s t o e nc our a ge t he e xpl or a t i on of di ve r s e pe r s pe c t i ve s ( w he t he r t he y be r a c i a l ge nde r e t hni c ( l a ngua ge ) o r s oc i oe c onom i c a l l y ba s e d) I n s oc i ol ogy a n i ns t r uc t or m i ght ope nl y a s k, W hy m i ght A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns s e e t he i s s ue of i m m i g r a t i on di f f e r e nt l y t ha n W hi t e A m e r i c a ns ? T he n, a l l ow t he a dva nt a ge of ha vi ng a non t i m e c ons t r a i ne d e xc ha nge on t he di s c us s i on boa r d t ha t c oul d not ha ppe n w i t hi n t he l i m i t e d hou r i n t he f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom I n a he a l t h r e l a t e d c our s e t he i ns t r uc t or m i ght a s k f or s t ude nt s t hought s on w hy di a be t e s ( a l c ohol i s m hi gh bl ood pr e s s ur e or o t he r di s or de r ) w a s m or e pr e va l e nt i n one r a c e t ha t a not h e r T he poi nt be i ng t o t a ke a dva nt a ge of t he f a c t t ha t t he onl i ne di s c us s i on a f f or ds a f or u m f o r e xt e nde d,

PAGE 110

102 t hought f ul s ha r i ng I n m y f i e l d, e duc a t i on, t he r e s h oul d be ope n di a l og a bout t he ga p i n a c c e s s t o t e c hnol ogy a s t oo l s i n unde r f unde d s c hool s ( s c hool s i n a r e a s w i t h l ow e r p r ope r t y t a x r e ve nue a nd t he f a i r ne s s of t ha t f undi ng s t r uc t ur e ) T he r e s houl d be di s c us s i on a bout how w or ki ng c l a s s pa r e nt s w hos e a m bi t i ons do not r e a c h be yond ge t a j ob c a n i m pa c t s t ude nt s a m b i t i on t o s t r i ve t ow a r d a c ol l e ge e duc a t i on w hi l e i n t he K 12 s ys t e m a nd how t ha t t r e nd m a y va r y a c r os s r a c e s a nd e c onom i c c l a s s e s i nc l udi ng i s s ue s l i ke how va l ua bl e t he pr ovi di ng c om put e r a c c e s s a t hom e m a ybe i n t he m i ddl e c l a s s hom e of c ol l e ge e duc a t e d pa r e nt s a s oppos e d t o t he hom e o f w or k i ng c l a s s pe opl e I t hi nk t he r e s houl d be i nf or m a t i on pr ovi de d t o t he e nt i r e c l a s s a bout how i m por t a nt c om put i ng s ki l l s w i l l be i n t he w or k pl a c e of t he f u t ur e f or e ve r yone E nc our a gi n g pe r s ona l a ne c dot e s r e l a t e d t o t opi c s a s pa r t of di s c us s i on pos t i ngs pa s s i ve l y e xpos e di f f e r e nt poi nt s o f vi e w w i t hout l a be l i ng t he m a s w hi t e or bl a c k or l a t i no w a y of l ooki ng a t t hi ngs A l s o, t hi s ki nd o f a ppl i c a t i on of ne w know l e dge c a n he l p t o i nt e gr a t e i t i nt o l a s t i ng l e a r ni ng ( c r i t i c a l t hi nki ng ) T he i m m e di a t e a nonym i t y of t he W e b c a n of f e r s t ude nt s a c ha nc e t o r e a d w i t h a n ope n m i nd. T hough s t ude nt s m a y ul t i m a t e l y know t he r a c e or ge nde r o f a c l a s s m a t e t hi s m a y not be t he f i r s t t hi ng t ha t c om e s t o m i nd w he n r e a d a not he r 's po i nt of vi e w a l l ow i ng f or t ha t ne w pe r s pe c t i ve t o s i nk i n be f o r e pr e j udi c e s be gi n t o c l oud pe r c e pt i ons R e s ul t s Sum m ar y f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or O ne of t he goa l s of t he s t udy w a s t o p r ovi de di r e c t i on a nd c r e a t e a s pa c e f or l ooki ng s pe c i f i c a l l y

PAGE 111

103 a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or T he r e s ul t s f or r e s e a r c h que s t i o n t hr e e he l pe d a c c om pl i s h t hi s goa l by pr e s e nt i ng s p e c i f i c i de a s pr ovi de d by s t ude nt s of c ol or f or w a ys i n w hi c h t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r o nm e nt c oul d m or e f ul l y c ons i de r t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or T he i d e a s pr ovi de d by s t ude nt s of c ol o r w e r e s uppl e m e nt e d by t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of i ns t r uc t o r s of c ol or f or t r i a ngul a t i on a nd pr ovi de d a m or e c om pl e t e r a nge of r e s pons e s s pe c i f i c a l l y f r om pe r s ons of c ol or a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt I n C ha pt e r F i ve r e s pons e s a r e r e f l e c t e d a ga i ns t t he l i t e r a t ur e D i r e c t r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd f a c ul t y of c ol or c ol l e c t i ve l y a r e m i s s i ng i n t he l a r ge body of l i t e r a t u r e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a l l ow e d m e t o f i l l i n t hi s bl a nk a l be i t i n a ve r y s m a l l w a y. I t w a s i m po r t a nt t o m e a s a r e s e a r c he r t o t a ke a s t e p i n t hi s di r e c t i on, s i nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h f or t hi s popul a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a t t he pr e s e nt t i m e

PAGE 112

104 C ha pt e r F i ve : A na l ys i s a nd D i s c us s i on I nt r oduc t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t hr ough t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or S i nc e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n d i r e c t e d t ow a r d s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt of hi ghe r e duc a t i on, t hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he i nt e r s e c t i on of t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on us i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t o pr ovoke i nqui r y, pr ovi de di r e c t i on a nd c r e a t e a s pa c e f or l ooki ng s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r T hi s s t udy w a s no t f oc us e d on di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s ; t hi s s t udy s ou ght t o unde r s t a nd m or e a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on b y e xa m i ni ng t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol o r t h r ough t he us e i f a s ur ve y s i nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h f or t hi s popu l a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd t he i r p a r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a t t he pr e s e nt t i m e I n C ha pt e r F ou r I de s c r i be d r e s ul t s f or da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om t he s a m pl e popul a t i on w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy by r e s pondi ng t o a s u r ve y. I n t hi s c ha pt e r I di s c us s t he f i ndi ngs obt a i ne d f r om t he da t a a nd m a ke r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f u r t he r r e s e a r c h. E a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on i s a na l yz e d a nd di s c us s e d s e p a r a t e l y. D i s c us s i on of r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o i nc l ude s s e l e c t e d, r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl e s of ob s e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons c ol l e c t e d f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd r e s e a r c h que s t i on t hr e e i nc l ude s s e l e c t e d, r e pr e s e nt a t i ve

PAGE 113

105 s a m pl e s of obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons c ol l e c t e d f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd f r om i ns t r uc t or s of c ol o r I us e d t he t ool s of de s c r i pt i ve a nd i nt e r pr e t i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t he m e s e xt r a c t e d f r om ope n e nde d que s t i ons pr e s e nt e d i n a s ur ve y t o a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : 1. W ha t i s t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e po r t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e ? 2. T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt p r o vi de a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c ol or c a n m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt ? 3. I f pe r s ons of c ol or [ s t ude nt s or on l i ne i ns t r uc t or s ] c oul d of f e r onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n s t r uc t or s a nd de s i gne r s a dvi c e a bout pr ovi d i ng a n onl i ne c our s e e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h f ul l y c ons i de r s t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or w ha t w ou l d i t be ? T he a na l ys i s of r e s ul t s pr ov i de d i n t hi s c ha pt e r i s a c c om pl i s he d by t he di s c us s i on of a s a m pl e of e xpe r i e nc e s f or s t ude nt s of m i xe d di ve r s i t y w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. T he s e e xpe r i e nc e s r e f l e c t onl y a t i ny s e gm e nt i n t he huge a nd e vol vi ng phe nom e no n of onl i ne l e a r ni ng f r om m y poi nt o f v i e w a s a r e s e a r c he r ye t I f i nd i t c r i t i c a l t o t he c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h a va i l a bl e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e on t he s ubj e c t of onl i ne l e a r ni ng t ha t ge ne r a l a nd w i de s pr e a d a s s um pt i ons a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng be a ppr oa c he d f r om a pr obl e m a t i c pe r s pe c t i ve T he a na l ys i s of t h e f i ndi ngs f r om t he da t a a ppl i e d m y i nt e r pr e t i ve poi nt o f vi e w a s a r e s e a r c he r t o or di na r y a c t i vi t i e s e nc ount e r e d by s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt A n a s s um pt i on t ha t I e nc ount e r e d e a r l y i n m y gr a d ua t e s t udi e s one t ha t I i nt ui t i v e l y r e j e c t e d, pr ope l l e d m e i nt o i nqui r y w hi c h e nde d w i t h t he e xa m i na t i on of t opi c s

PAGE 114

106 f ound i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. I r e f e r t o t he w i de s pr e a d not i on not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w : a l l c ol l e ge s t ude nt s ha ve r e a dy a c c e s s t o c om put e r s a nd t he i nt e r ne t A s t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a l s o doc um e nt s t hi s i s not t he c a s e A s I be ga n t o l ook f or c l ue s t ha t a l l s t ude nt s m a y not ha ve e a s y a nd e qui t a bl e a c c e s s t o onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on I e nc ount e r e d t he ba r r i e r s of c om put e r a nxi e t y f or a dul t l e a r ne r s i n onl i ne e duc a t i on a nd t he di gi t a l di vi de I w a s t ol d t ha t a l l s t ude nt s a t l e a s t ha ve a c c e s s t o c om put e r s a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng a t t he i r l oc a l s c hool or l i br a r y by bot h i ns t r uc t or s a nd pe e r s but f ound c ont r a di c t or y e vi de nc e i n t he l i t e r a t u r e I l e a r ne d f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd t hr ough pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e w he n I s e nt t he s ur ve y t o pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy t ha t t he di gi t a l di vi de c ur r e nt l y e xi s t s f or s t ude nt s i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i o n e nvi r onm e nt ; t hus I di s c ove r e d pr obl e m s i n ne e d o f pos i ng. I c hos e t o us e or di na r y l a ngua ge ( J a ne s i c k, 2004, p 13 ) t hr oughout t hi s r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t i n or de r t o p r om ot e a r e a l i s t i c a nd a ut he nt i c c om m uni c a t i on e xc ha nge a nd t o e nga ge r a t he r t h a n di s t a nc e ( i bi d. ) r e a de r s of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. A nal y s i s and D i s c us s i on f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i o n O ne D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s c hi s qua r e a nd A N O V A w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne t he da t a a nd a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. I n C ha pt e r F ou r a d e m ogr a phi c pr of i l e of s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy w a s c ons t r uc t e d a nd a na l y z e d us i ng c hi s qua r e s t a t i s t i c s t o di s c ove r i f r e l a t i ons hi ps e xi s t e d a m ong t he va r i a bl e s T he de m ogr a phi c pr of i l e a nd c hi s qua r e a na l ys i s pr ovi de d i nf or m a t i on a bout t he e t hni c i t y, ge nde r a ge a nd onl i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on f or s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy. T he d i s c us s i on of t he d e m ogr a phi c va r i a bl e s be gi ns w i t h a n a na l ys i s of t he de c i s i on t o i nc l ude w hi t e s t ude nt s i n a s t udy f oc us e d on s t ude nt s of c ol or N e xt a n a na l ys i s of t he na t ur e o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p

PAGE 115

107 be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd onl i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on i s pr ovi de d t hr ough t he e xa m i na t i on of e a c h va r i a bl e a nd i nc l ude s s ugge s t i ons f or f ur t he r s t udy. T he n, t he r e s ul t s obt a i ne d f r o m t he s a m pl e f or s t ude nt c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s a r e di s c us s e d due t o t he pr e va l e nc e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e o f c om put e r a n xi e t y f or onl i ne l e a r ne r s i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on. F i na l l y a s um m a r y di s c us s i on a ns w e r s t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. D i s c us s i on of Sam pl e Se l e c t i on T he e nt i r e s a m pl e o f s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t h e s ur ve y, w hi c h i nc l ude d w hi t e s ur ve y r e s ponde nt s w a s us e d t o a ns w e r r e s e a r c h q ue s t i ons one a nd t w o. S i nc e t he r e ha d not be e n a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o s e l e c t f or e t hni c i t y pr i or t o s e ndi ng ou t t he s ur ve y t o t he m i xe d e t hni c i t y gr oup a s di s c us s e d i n t he C ha pt e r s T hr e e a nd F our a nd s i nc e t he de c i s i on ha d be e n m a de t o a l l ow t he voi c e o f w hi t e s t ude nt s i n or de r t o p r ovi de t r i a ngul a t i on t o he l p a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s r e f l e c t t he de m ogr a phi c pr of i l e of a l l s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y, N = 308. T he de c i s i on t o t r i a ngul a t e t he r e s pons e s t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o by i nc l udi ng r e s pons e s f r om w hi t e s t ude nt s r a t he r t ha n l i m i t t he s t udy s t r i c t l y t o va r i a bi l i t y of s t ude nt s of c ol o r w a s m a de i n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w a s m or e or l e s s i m por t a nt t o w hi t e s t ude nt s T hus s i nc e w hi t e s t ude nt r e s pons e s a r e us e d i n t he a na l ys i s f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o, t he y a r e i nc l ud e d i n t he de m og r a phi c pr o f i l e I nc l udi ng w hi t e s t ude nt s i n t he r e s e a r c h r e s ul t s w a s not i nt e nde d t o de m ons t r a t e di f f e r e nc e but r a t he r s e r ve t he pu r pos e of s he ddi n g l i ght on a ny i s s ue s of r a c e t h r ough a n e xa m i na t i on of va r i a bi l i t y i n f i ndi ng i s s ue s of r a c e t o be m or e or l e s s i m por t a nt t o di s c us s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt

PAGE 116

108 T he r e i s a m pl e e vi de nc e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h I i n t e r pr e t e d a nd a ppl i e d t o t he de c i s i on t o i nc l ude w hi t e s t ude nt s i n t he s t a t i s t i c a l por t i on of t he s t udy I n a ny s t udy na m i ng a nd e xa m i ni ng r a c e or e t hn i c i t y, t he r e i s a r i s k of r e pr oduc i ng r a c i a l a nd e t hni c c a t e gor i e s a nd pow e r r e l a t i ons s uc h a s w hi t e nor m s ( G una r a t na m 2003 ) I n or de r t o a voi d r e s e a r c h w hi c h pr oduc e s r a t he r t ha n r e f l e c t s r e s e a r c he r s m us t be c ogni z a nt of how r e s e a r c h pr a c t i c e s f i t w i t h i n t he d om i na nt e pi s t e m ol ogy ( G una r a t na m p. 7 8 ) I t w a s not t he i nt e nt of t hi s r e s e a r c h t o p r oduc e or r e pr od uc e w hi t e ne s s by l ooki ng a t m i no r i t y gr oups f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r or us i ng w hi t e s t ude nt s a s a ba s i s f or c om pa r i s on t o s t ude nt s w ho a r e no t w hi t e ; t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s i ns pi r e d by t he pa uc i t y of l i t e r a t ur e a bout s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd pu r pos e l y bui l t r e s e a r c h a r o und t hi s popul a t i on of s t ude nt s T he f a c t t ha t I a m a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r i s a not he r a s pe c t of t he s t udy w hi c h c a nnot be i gnor e d, a nd not i ng F l a gg s c om m e nt r e ga r di ng t he t e nde nc y o f w hi t e s no t t o t h i nk a bo ut w hi t e ne s s ( F l a gg, 1998 p 2 ) de e m e d i t pr ude nt t o i nc l ude w hi t e voi c e s i n o r de r t o pr ovi de a c om pl e t e a ns w e r t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o w hi c h e xa m i ne d w hi t e nor m s E t hni c i t y T he e t hnogr a phi c p r of i l e r e pr e s e nt e d da t a f o r a l l s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d t o t he s ur ve y, N = 308 E t hni c i t y w a s e xa m i ne d i nde pe nde nt l y f or t he e t hno gr a phi c pr of i l e F or t he t ot a l s a m pl e of s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur v e y, 93 s t ude nt s w e r e s t ude nt s of c ol or r e pr e s e nt i ng 30% o f t he t ot a l r e s ponde nt s B l a c k a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s w e r e c l os e i n r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n t he s a m pl e o f pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s a t 13% a nd 11% r e s pe c t i ve l y. A s i a n s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt e d 2% of t he s a m pl e a nd A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve s r e pr e s e nt e d 1% O t he r e t hni c i t i e s r e p r e s e nt e d 3% of t he t o t a l s a m pl e a nd i nc l ude d t he s e l f r e po r t e d

PAGE 117

109 c a t e gor i e s of A f r i c a n I r i s h, A r a bi c C a r i bbe a n, C u ba n A m e r i c a n, D om i ni c a n A m e r i c a n, I ndi a n, L e ba ne s e A m e r i c a n, W e s t I ndi a n, W hi t e H i s pa ni c a nd m ul t i r a c i a l W hi t e s t ude nt s c om pr i s e t he m a j or i t y o f s t ude nt s i n gr a du a t e e duc a t i on, a nd t he de m ogr a phi c s c ol l e c t e d i n t hi s s a m pl e r e f l e c t e d t ha t f a c t D e t e r m i ni ng how I w oul d c ol l e c t a nd or ga ni z e da t a f or s t ude nt s w ho w e r e not w hi t e a s a s a m pl e f or t hi s s t udy p r e s e nt e d pr obl e m s I n one i ns t a nc e a s t ude nt l i s t e d W hi t e H i s pa ni c i n t he s e c t i on o f t he s ur ve y r e que s t i ng s t ude nt s t o de s c r i be t he i r e t hni c i t y T w o ot he r H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d t he s ur ve y a s onl i ne s t ude nt s but a dde d s t a t e m e nt s on t he s ur ve y t ha t t he y w e r e not s t ude nt s of c ol or T he s e c om m e nt s a dde d t o t he c om pl e xi t y of c a t e gor i z i ng s t ude nt s by e t hni c i t y l a be l s a nd pr ovi de d e vi de nc e t ha t a t t a c hi ng a n e t hni c i t y l a be l i s a c l oudy a r e a A s t he s e c om m e nt s s ugge s t e t hni c i t y l a be l i ng i s c om pl e x a nd f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i nt o e t hni c i t y l a be l s a nd e t hni c i t y c a t e gor i e s i s a t opi c r e qui r i ng f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. F or i ns t a nc e s houl d I c ons i de r A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve s s t ude nt s of c ol o r ? O n e t hni c i t y r e por t i ng f or m s t he s e s t ude nt s w e r e l i s t e d s e pa r a t e l y f r om w hi t e s t ude nt s r e nde r i ng i t c om pl i c a t e d t o de t e r m i ne c a t e gor i e s f or s t ude nt s w ho w e r e not w h i t e T he r e f or e I r e s or t e d t o us i ng m a i ns t r e a m e t hni c i t y l a be l s f ound on t he e t hni c i t y r e por t i ng f or m t o i de nt i f y s t ude nt s a nd f or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, us e d a l l e t hni c i t y l a be l s t ha t w e r e not w hi t e t o c om pr i s e t he gr oup f or t hi s s t udy c a l l e d s t ude nt s o f c ol or T he f a c t t ha t I a m a w hi t e r e s e a r c he r s e e ki ng t o un de r s t a nd t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol or w a s a l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy a nd I r e l i e d on t he l i t e r a t ur e t o p r ovi de a f r a m e w or k f or unde r s t a ndi ng a nd i nt e r p r e t i ng t he da t a I f ound M c L oughl i n a nd O l i ve r s ( 2000) pe r s pe c t i ve s f or i ns t r uc t i ona l de s i gn f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s he l pf ul w he n c ons i de r i ng de c i s i ons on how be s t t o w or k w i t h t h e e t hni c i t y c a t e gor i e s a s I de t e r m i ne d

PAGE 118

110 t he m e t hodol ogy t o be us e d f o r t hi s s t udy I c hos e t o us e a n i nc l us i ve a ppr oa c h f o r a l l e t hni c i t i e s ot he r t ha n w hi t e t o he l p a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o due t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s r e f l e c t e d by t he de m ogr a phi c s f o r s om e of t h e e t hni c i t y gr oups c r e a t i ng a s a m pl e popul a t i on c a l l e d s t ude nt s of c ol o r T hi s s a m pl e a l l ow e d m e t o e xa m i ne r e s pons e s f r om a gr oup pe r s pe c t i ve t o a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o. T hi s a ppr oa c h he l pe d a l i gn t he da t a us e d f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o w i t h t he pur pos e of t he s t udy. E t hni c i t y and G e nde r T he c hi s qua r e t e s t f o r e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r x 2 ( 5 N = 308) = 8. 39 p = 05, w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l T he r e f o r e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot he s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi p w a s pr e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd ge nde r T he pr e dom i na nc e o f f e m a l e s i n t he gr a dua t e s t ude nt popul a t i on i s w e l l doc um e nt e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd i n da t a c ol l e c t e d a nd r e por t e d f or hi ghe r e duc a t i on de m ogr a phi c s ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s 2005) T he t ot a l s a m pl e of s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w a s dom i na t e d by f e m a l e s a t 78% w i t h m a l e s r e pr e s e nt e d a t 22% F or s t ude nt s of c ol o r f e m a l e s t ude nt s of c ol or dom i na t e d t he s a m pl e f or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c a nd A s i a n s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy. A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve a nd s t ude nt s r e por t i ng i n t he ot he r e t hni c i t i e s c a t e gor y w e r e e qua l l y r e pr e s e nt e d be t w e e n m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s t hough t he s e s a m pl e s i z e s w e r e s m a l l A poi nt o f i nt e r e s t oc c ur r e d i n t he s t udy w he n I f ound t ha t t he s a m pl e pe r c e nt a ge s e xa c t l y m i r r or e d t he c ol l e c t i ve pe r c e nt a ge of bo t h f ul l a nd pa r t t i m e e nr o l l e d s t ude n t s f ound i n t he c ol l e ge I s a m pl e d dur i ng t he s e m e s t e r i n w hi c h I s a m pl e d t he gr oup o f 300 s t ude nt s of m i xe d e t hni c i t i e s T he pr e dom i na nc e of f e m a l e s i n t he A m e r i c a n g r a dua t e s t ude nt popul a t i on i s e s t a bl i s he d w i t h r e por t e d pe r c e nt a ge s of 54 % f or f ul l t i m e s t ude nt s a nd 61 % f o r pa r t t i m e

PAGE 119

111 s t ude nt s ( U S D e pt o f E duc a t i on, 2004) T he a va i l a bi l i t y of onl i ne l e a r ni ng ha s br oke n ba r r i e r s of a c c e s s f or onl i ne l e a r ne r s a nd t he onl i n e e nvi r onm e nt i s r e por t e d t o be c om pa t i bl e t o w om e n s s t yl e s of c om m uni c a t i on. T he l i t e r a t u r e i s r i c h w i t h s t udi e s r e l a t i ng t o w om e n a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng a nd w om e n i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h r e ga r ds t o onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on a nd c om m un i t y b ui l di ng ( R a va 200 1; S a vi c ki & K e l l y 2000) M y f oc us f or t hi s s t udy w a s not on ge nde r s pe c i f i c be ha vi or s a nd obs e r va t i ons t hough due t o t he a ppa r e nt p r e dom i na nc e of w om e n i n A m e r i c a n hi ghe r e duc a t i on, a f oc us s pe c i f i c a l l y on w om e n of c ol or i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt f r om a n A m e r i c a n a s w e l l a s f r om a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i s a t opi c s ugge s t e d f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. E t hni c i t y and A ge T he c hi s qua r e t e s t f o r e t hni c i t y a nd a ge x 2 ( 25 N = 308) = 18 54 p = 05 w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l T he r e f o r e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot he s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi p w a s pr e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd a ge T he a ge r a nge f or t he t ot a l s a m pl e of s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy w a s s pr e a d be t w e e n 100 pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he 20 29 a ge r a nge t o f i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s ove r t he a ge o f 60 a nd t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e ove r t he a ge of 70. W hi t e s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt e d t he m a j or i t y i n a l l a ge r a nge s a m pl e s a s t he y do i n t he gr e a t e r popul a t i on O ne of t he f i ve s t ude nt s ove r t he a ge o f 60 w a s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n one of t he t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s ove r t he a ge of 70 w a s H i s pa ni c a nd t he ot he r w a s w hi t e F o r s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he s a m pl e t he m a j or i t y o f pa r t i c i pa nt s by a ge w e r e r e p r e s e nt e d by H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s i n t he 20 29 a ge r a nge ( N = 16) a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s i n t he 30 39 a ge r a nge ( N = 16) D a t a f or e t hni c i t y a nd a ge r e por t e d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n gr a dua t e l e ve l c our s e w or k f or a w i de r a nge of a ge s f or s t ude nt s of c ol o r : f r om a g e 20 t o ove r 60 f or t he A f r i c a n

PAGE 120

112 A m e r i c a n s a m pl e f r o m a ge 20 t o ove r 70 f or t he H i s pa ni c s a m pl e f r om a ge 20 t o ove r 30 f or t he A s i a n s a m pl e f r om a ge 30 t o ove r 40 f o r t he A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve s a m pl e a nd f r o m a ge 20 t o ove r 50 f or t he s a m pl e r e por t i ng ot he r e t hni c i t i e s T he m o r e na r r ow r a nge f or A s i a n ( N = 6) a nd A m e r i c a n I nd i a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve ( N = 2) i s due t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e r e pr e s e nt a t i on. W hi t e s t ude nt s ( N = 215) w e r e r e pr e s e nt e d i n e a c h a ge c a t e gor y. T he s e r e s ul t s pr ov i de d e vi de nc e of a dul t l e a r ne r s i nt e r e s t i n l i f e l ong l e a r ni ng a c r os s e t hni c i t i e s A c om m on t he m e t h r oughout t he r e s e a r c h a nd pop ul a r w r i t i ng f o r a dul t l e a r ne r s i s t he obs e r va t i on t ha t p r i or i t i e s c ha nge a s a dul t s a ge a nd m ove t hr ough e a c h s uc c e s s i ve l i f e c yc l e s t a ge T he s e pr i or i t i e s r e f l e c t c ha ngi ng i nt e r e s t s a nd m ot i va t i ons f or a dul t l e a r ne r s A s m e n a nd w om e n ne got i a t e l i f e c yc l e pa s s a ge s a nd m ove on t o t he ne xt l i f e c yc l e t he i r a t t i t ude s on l e a r ni ng bot h r e f l e c t a nd e xpa nd ( H a v i ghur s t 1973 ) P opul a r w r i t e r a nd m e di a pe r s ona l i t y S he e hy ( 1995 2005 ) de f i ne s m a j or l i f e s t a ge s a s P r ovi s i ona l A dul t hood 18 30 F i r s t A dul t hood: 30 45, a nd S e c ond A dul t hood 45 85+ a nd vi e w s s e c ond a dul t hood a s a t i m e of po w e r a n d r e ne w a l e s pe c i a l l y f or w om e n. T he c ont i nue d i nt e r e s t i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a c r os s t he a ge r a nge s i s a ppa r e nt i n t he a ge de m ogr a phi c s f or s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y. T he r a nge of a g e s a m ong pa r t i c i pa nt s de m ons t r a t e d t he i nt e r e s t i n g r a dua t e s t udy by a dul t s i n t he s e c ond s t a ge of a dul t hood w i t h 14% of t he t ot a l s t ude nt s s a m pl e d ove r 50 ye a r s o f a ge a nd s u gge s t s a n i nt e r e s t i ng t opi c f o r f u r t he r r e s e a r c h i n a dul t e duc a t i on : c ons i de r a t i on of t he i n t e r e s t of s t ude nt s of c ol or ove r t he a ge of 50 i n t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. E t hni c i t y and O nl i ne C l as s P ar t i c i pat i on T he r e s ul t s of t he c hi s qua r e t e s t f or e t hni c i t y a nd onl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n,

PAGE 121

113 x 2 ( 65, N = 308) = 56 48, p = 05, w e r e not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l T he r e f or e I f a i l e d t o r e j e c t t he nul l hypot he s i s t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi p w a s p r e s e nt be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd onl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n. T he r a nge f o r t h e num be r of onl i ne c l a s s e s c om pl e t e d va r i e d w i de l y w i t h 49% of s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y c om pl e t i ng one c l a s s a nd one s t ude nt r e por t i ng c om pl e t i on o f 28 c l a s s e s w hi c h pr oba bl y i ndi c a t e s a n onl i ne de gr e e pr ogr a m T he s e da t a c ove r e d a w i de r a nge w hi c h i nc l ude d s om e e xt r e m e obs e r va t i ons a nd s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s pos i ng a t hr e a t t o t he a na l ys i s F or t h e s a m pl e o f s t ude nt s of c ol or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s ( N = 40) a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ( N = 35) ha d s i m i l a r pe r c e nt a ge s f or onl i ne c l a s s e s t a ke n. F or t he t ot a l popul a t i on of s t ude nt s ( N = 308 ) A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d 12. 99% of onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d 11. 36% L a t i na s a nd L a t i nos a r e c ons i de r e d t he m os t r a pi dl y g r ow i ng m i no r i t y g r oup i n t he U S t o da y, ye t l i t t l e i s know n c onc e r ni ng how t hi s popul a t i on l e a r ns i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ( F ox & L i vi ngs t on, 2007) T h i s e xa m pl e of t he ga p i n t he l i t e r a t u r e s ur r oundi ng t h e onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on f or s t ude nt s of c ol or de m ons t r a t e s t ha t m or e r e s e a r c h a bout s t ude nt s of c ol or i s c a l l e d f or D r a w i ng a t t e nt i o n t o t he l a c k o f l i t e r a t ur e a nd r e s e a r c h f or s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n t he onl i ne l e a ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ou nd i n hi ghe r e d uc a t i on i n or de r t o pr ovoke i nqu i r y w a s pa r t of t he pur pos e o f t hi s s t udy T he r e i s t r e m e ndous va r i a t i on a m ong i ns t i t ut i ons f or t he num be r of onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd onl i ne de gr e e p r ogr a m s of f e r e d. D ue t o t h e a n onym i t y of t he s ur ve y, I w a s not a bl e t o t e l l w he r e s t ude nt s a t t e nde d c ol l e ge C om pa r i s o n of i n f or m a t i on a m ong i ns t i t ut i ons m a y be f ound i n num e r o us s t udi e s w hi c h a r e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e on c om pr e he ns i ve w e bs i t e s f oc us e d on onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e du c a t i on ( S l oa n C ons or t i um 2006 ;

PAGE 122

114 S out he r n R e gi ona l E l e c t r oni c B oa r d, 2007) W hi l e t he s e w e bs i t e s r e por t i nf o r m a t i on a bout i ns t i t ut i ons of f e r i ng onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd pr ogr a m s de m ogr a phi c s a r e r a r e l y pr ovi de d be yond e nr ol l m e nt a nd c om pl e t i on da t a A r e c om m e nda t i on of t h i s s t udy i s t ha t e t hni c i t y, ge nde r a nd a ge de m og r a phi c s be a dde d t o t he da t a c om m onl y c ol l e c t e d a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng s o t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on ga ps m a y be i de nt i f i e d. P a r t i c i pa t i on r a t e s i n onl i ne c l a s s e s c ont i nue t o gr ow a nd t he a bi l i t y of s t ude n t s t o s e l e c t onl i ne c l a s s e s f r om ot he r i ns t i t ut i ons t o s uppl e m e nt or de ve l op t he i r pr og r a m of s t udy i s a not he r i s s ue r e l a t e d t o onl i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on w hi c h r e qui r e s f ur t he r r e s e a r c h a nd da t a c ol l e c t i on A nal y s i s of S t ude nt C om f or t L e v e l U s i ng C om put e r s C om f or t l e ve l us i ng c om put e r s w a s c ons i de r e d a l ong w i t h onl i ne c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on f o r t he va r i a bl e of s e l f r e por t e d c om p ut e r e xpe r i e nc e due t o t he ga p not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a r ound c om put e r a nxi e t y a nd t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on. B a r r i e r s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h onl i ne c ou r s e s c om pa r e d t o t r a di t i ona l on c a m pus i ns t r uc t i on i nc l ude c om put e r a nxi e t y a s one o f t he m or e c om m onl y m e nt i one d pr obl e m s ( K i ng, 2002 ) D i f f e r e nc e s i n c om put e r s ki l l l e ve l s or c om put e r f a m i l i a r i t y a s w e l l a s c ul t ur a l a c c l i m a t i on t o t e c hnol ogy m a y be c r e a t i ng a n a nxi e t y ba r r i e r t o l e a r ni ng f or onl i ne l e a r ne r s w ho a r e l e s s e xpe r t t ha n t he i r pe e r s w i t h c om put e r us e L a c k of c om pe t e nc e a nd c onf i de nc e w i t h onl i ne l e a r ni ng s of t w a r e i s c i t e d a s a r e a s on f or a t t r i t i on i n on l i ne de gr e e p r ogr a m s a t t he gr a dua t e l e ve l ( W i l l gi ng & J ohns on, 2004) a nd f or a nxi e t y i n c ol l e ge s t ude nt s w i t h d i ve r s e e t hni c ba c kgr ounds ( M c I ne r ne y, M a r c h & M c I ne r ne y, 1999) F or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s s t udy t he va r i a bl e of s e l f r e por t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e w a s ope r a t i ona l i z e d a s c om f or t l e ve l a nd de f i ne d i n C ha pt e r T h r e e ( T a bl e 4, p. 49 )

PAGE 123

115 a r t i c ul a t i ng c om f or t l e ve l s a t t he novi c e c om f or t a bl e a nd e xpe r t l e ve l W he n da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f r om t he t ot a l s a m pl e o f pa r t i c i pa nt s ( N = 308) a nd a na l yz e d us i ng a one w a y A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t f or une qua l s a m pl e s i z e s t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f o r c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h c om pu t e r s a t p > t ha n 05, F ( 5 302 ) = 1. 05 p = 40; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 13 F or c om f or t l e v e l us i ng c om put e r s 66. 56 % of t he popu l a t i on s ur ve ye d r e p or t e d t ha t t he y w e r e c om f o r t a bl e w i t h c om put e r s i n r e s pons e t o t he s ur ve y r e que s t t o r a t e pe r s ona l c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h onl y 4. 22% r a t i ng t he m s e l ve s a s novi c e s a nd 29. 2 2% r a t i ng t he m s e l ve s a s e xpe r t M i nor i t y pa r t i c i pa t i on i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on i n ge ne r a l w a s a c a us e of s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s i n t hi s s t udy, e s pe c i a l l y f or t he A s i a n, A m e r i c a n I ndi a n/ A l a s ka N a t i ve a nd ot he r e t hni c i t i e s R e s e a r c h f or s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on i s ne e de d, ye t t he y a r e ove r l ooke d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e F o r e xa m pl e H uf f m a n L e yva ( 2005) f i nds w hi t e s t ud e nt s ha ve be e n pr ogr a m m e d t o us e c om put e r s s i nc e t he y w e r e ve r y young . H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ha ve not be e n a c c l i m a t e d t o us i ng t he c om put e r ( p 35 ) A l a c k o f s i m i l a r s t udi e s f or H i s p a ni c g r a du a t e s t ude n t s a nd o t he r m i no r i t y g r ou p s p e r ha p s due i n pa r t t o a s s u m p t i on s of e qu a l i t y i n c o m p u t e r a c c e s s a nd us e r e v e a l s a g a p i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h i s r e f l e c t i ve of t he l o w e r l e v e l s of p a r t i c i pa t i on b y m i nor i t y g r ou p s i n on l i n e c our s e p a r t i c i pa t i on a t t he g r a du a t e l e v e l Sum m ar y D i s c us s i on f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on O ne T he i nve s t i ga t i on of t he na t u r e of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e po r t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e f or t he s a m pl e popul a t i on r e ve a l e d t ha t no r e l a t i ons hi ps e xi s t e d be t w e e n t he va r i a bl e s E t hni c i t y e xa m i ne d w i t h t he va r i a bl e ge nde r de m ons t r a t e d t ha t t he s a m pl e m i r r or e d t he pr e dom i na nc e of w om e n

PAGE 124

116 f ound i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt F i nd i n gs f r om t he da t a f o r e t hni c i t y e xa m i ne d w i t h t he va r i a bl e a ge r e ve a l e d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n g r a d ua t e l e ve l c ou r s e w or k f o r a w i de r a nge of a ge s a nd p r ovi d e d e vi de nc e of a dul t l e a r ne r s i nt e r e s t i n l i f e l ong l e a r ni ng a c r os s e t hni c i t i e s E t h ni c i t y e xa m i ne d w i t h t he va r i a bl e o nl i ne c our s e pa r t i c i pa t i on de m ons t r a t e d onl i ne c our s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a c r os s e t hni c i t i e s ; how e ve r t he s a m pl e c ont a i ne d e xt r e m e obs e r va t i ons a nd s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s ove r w i de va r i a bi l i t y of da t a f o r c our s e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd w a s a w e a kne s s of t he s t udy. A s w e l l I c ons i de r e d not know i ng t he t ot a l num be r of c l a s s e s a va i l a bl e f or s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on t o be a c onf oundi ng va r i a bl e T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d a m ong e t hni c i t i e s f or c om f o r t l e ve l w i t h c om put e r s a t p > t ha n 05, F ( 5 302) = 1 05, p = 40; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 13 W ha t do t he s e r e s ul t s i m pl y? T hough no s i gni f i c a n t r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong e t hni c i t i e s ba s e d on t he va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e w e r e f ound f or s t ude nt s r e s pon di ng t o t he s ur ve y t he i m p l i c a t i on f or t he f i e l d i s t ha t i f s t ude nt s of c ol or ha ve a c c e s s t o t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pondi ng t o t hi s s ur ve y ha d, pa r t i c i pa t i on e xi s t s A s a n a c t i ve r e s e a r c he r I c ons i de r e d how I c oul d m ov e t he f i ndi ngs f r om t h i s s t udy i nt o t he f i e l d t o i nt e r s e c t t he gr ow t h f ound i n t he di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on T he s ur ve y us e d f o r t hi s e xpl o r a t or y r e s e a r c h s t udy w a s de ve l ope d t o be a t ool us e d onl i ne vi a e m a i l i n o r de r t o f i nd o ut m or e a b out t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt I w a nt e d t o be a nd f e e l a pa r t of t he s e t t i ng w i t hi n w hi c h onl i ne us e r s i nt e r a c t T he f a c t t ha t I c hos e t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt e xpos e d m e t o t he r e a l l i f e s i t ua t i on r e por t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e : s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a r e i n t he m i nor i t y a nd i n a ddi t i on, e xpe r i e nc e a t e c hnol ogy ba r r i e r t o l e a r n i ng know n a s

PAGE 125

117 t he di gi t a l di vi de i f t he y a t t e nd h i s t or i c a l l y B l a c k c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s ( H B C U s ) a s opp os e d t o a t t e ndi ng t r a di t i ona l l y w hi t e i ns t i t ut i on s ( T W I s ) A s J a ne s i c k s ugge s t s I ne ve r s t oppe d r e vi e w i ng t he l i t e r a t ur e dur i ng t he c our s e of m y r e s e a r c h ( 2004 p 36) T he r e s e a r c he r s a t H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y s D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b r e c e nt l y p r ovi de d t hi s i n f or m a t i on: D i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng i s ha r d: i t 's ha r d f o r i ns t r uc t o r s t o i m pl e m e nt ; i t s c ur r e nt f or m a t s a r e not s ui t a bl e f o r a l l s t ude nt s ; a nd i t 's ha r d f o r a dm i ni s t r a t or s t o f und. N e ve r t he l e s s H B C U s ha ve a c hi e ve d m uc h t o be pr oud of i n t he i r i m pl e m e nt a t i on of di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng pr og r a m s D i s t anc e L e ar ni ng C our s e s 2006 2007 C ha nge P e r c e nt A c t i ve H B C U s 29 40 11 38% A l l H B C U s 103 103 P e r c e nt 28% 39% P e r c e nt H B C U s O f f e r i ng D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng C our s e s H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b ( 2007) T he r e w e r e une xpe c t e d i m p l i c a t i ons f or t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy w he n, a s a r e s e a r c he r I pe r s ona l l y e nc ount e r e d t he t e c hnol ogy ba r r i e r t ha t e xi s t s f or s t ude nt s of c ol or a s I t r i e d t o c ol l e c t a s a m pl e of s t ude nt s of c ol o r w ho ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t h e onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt J a ne s i c k ur ge s r e s e a r c he r s t o be a da pt a bl e a nd f l e xi bl e t o s i t ua t i ons e nc ount e r e d dur i ng t he c our s e of t he i r r e s e a r c h ( 20 04, p 36) I a c c e pt e d t he di f f i c ul t y of l oc a t i ng s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho ha d c om pl e t e d onl i ne c our s e w or k a s a n oppor t uni t y f o r

PAGE 126

118 be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he popul a t i on of s t ude nt s I c hos e t o s t udy r a t he r t ha n a s a pr obl e m i n da t a c ol l e c t i on. W ha t t hi s m e a nt goi ng i nt o t he da t a c ol l e c t i on por t i on of t he r e s e a r c h s t udy w a s t ha t m y t a r ge t de m ogr a phi c s a m pl e w a s m or e di f f i c ul t t o f i nd a nd s m a l l e r t ha n I ha d hope d f or g i ve n t he l i m i t e d t i m e a va i l a bl e t o doc t or a l s t ude nt s w i t hi n w hi c h t o c om pl e t e t he i r r e s e a r c h s t udy W ha t t hi s m e a n t f or t he r e s ul t s of t he r e s e a r c h w a s a n a ddi t i ona l e m pha s i s on t he i m po r t a nc e of t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons e xpr e s s e d by s t ude nt s of c ol or T he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i s bu i l di ng f or t hi s popul a t i on of s t ude nt s a nd ne e ds t o i nc l ude t he vo i c e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or e i t he r i n o r i n a ddi t i on t o t he m a ny m a i ns t r e a m d i s t a nc e l e a r ni n g s t udi e s i n w hi c h t he l i t e r a t u r e i ndi c a t e s t he s pe c i f i c voi c e s of s t ude nt s of c ol o r ha ve be e n e xc l ude d. A nal y s i s and D i s c us s i on f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o I w a nt e d t o us e s t a t i s t i c s t o e xa m i ne t he da t a a nd s t a t i s t i c s c om e w i t h a s e t of r ul e s f or r e por t i ng w hi c h i nc l ude s t he us e o f s pe c i f i c t e r m s s uc h a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e f or a s t udy w hi c h I s t a t e d w a s not a bo ut di f f e r e nc e I n c om pa r i ng s t ude nt r e s pons e s t o t he s ur ve y que s t i ons t he goa l w a s t o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h s t ude nt s f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e t he y c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppo r t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom a nd t o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons w a s i m por t a nt B a s e d on ga ps r e por t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e I w a nt e d t o know i f c ha l l e ngi ng w hi t e nor m s w a s i m por t a nt t o w hi t e s t ude nt s S c hol a r s f a c e t ough que s t i ons w he n de c i di ng how t o i nve s t i ga t e a phe nom e non t ha t i s not a c c us t om e d t o s e e i ng i t s e l f s e e i ng ( D ol a n 2006 p. 137) A na l ys i s of w hi t e s t ude nt r e s pons e s pr ovi de d a m or e c om pl e t e a na l ys i s of s ur ve y

PAGE 127

119 que s t i ons w hi c h a s k e d pa r t i c i pa nt s i f c ha l l e ngi ng o r c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s w a s i m por t a nt t o t he m a nd pr ovi de d pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h a n oppor t un i t y t o s ha r e opi ni on s r e ga r d i ng t h e e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de d a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s m a y m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom I nc l udi ng r e s pons e s f r om w hi t e s t ude nt s d i d not pr ovi de a w hi t e c a nva s ont o w hi c h I pa i nt e d a s t udy of m i no r i t y s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons r a t he r I ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o obs e r ve w hi t e ne s s a s r e f l e c t e d by s u r ve y r e s pons e s f r om w hi t e s t ude nt s T hus f o r t r i a ngul a t i on a nd i n r e s pons e t o t he l i t e r a t ur e I e xa m i ne d s t ude nt s of c ol or a s a gr oup a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s a s a gr oup t o de t e r m i ne t he i m por t a nc e of c ha l l e ngi ng w hi t e nor m s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt A c om bi na t i on o f s t a t i s t i c s us i ng t t e s t s a nd A N O V A a nd t he m e s e xt r a c t e d f r om ope n e nde d s ur ve y que s t i ons w a s us e d t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. I n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w a s m or e o r l e s s i m por t a nt t o w hi t e s t ude nt s a s w e l l a s t o s t ude nt s of c ol or t t e s t s a nd A N O V A w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne r e s pons e s f r om bot h w hi t e s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or us i ng da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om t w o s ur ve y que s t i ons ( A ppe ndi x A ) : 1. I n your opi ni on, t o w ha t e xt e nt di d t he onl i ne e n vi r onm e nt pr ovi de a pl a c e w he r e you c oul d m o r e e a s i l y e xpr e s s your op i ni on s or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppo r t u ni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom ? 2. I s c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s i m por t a nt t o you?

PAGE 128

120 F i r s t t t e s t s a nd A N O V A a r e di s c us s e d f or e a c h s u r ve y que s t i on. N e xt t he m e s e xt r a c t e d f r om ope n e nde d que s t i ons a r e di s c us s e d. F i na l l y, a s um m a r y di s c us s i on a ns w e r s t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. Sur v e y Q ue s t i on O ne D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a n i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t a nd A N O V A N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s obs e r ve d i n t he da t a be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s t o t he s ur ve y q ue s t i on f or t he t t e s t t ( 204 ) = 1. 67 ; p = 10 T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s w he n e xa m i ne d i n A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t f or gr oups of une qua l s i z e s a t p > 05, F ( 4 200 ) = 1. 33 p = 26; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 16. T houg h A N O V A de m ons t r a t e d no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s i t c a n be not e d t ha t a m on g t he s t ude nt m e a ns w hi t e s t ude nt s di s pl a ye d t he l ow e s t m e a n ( M = 2 67) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t f or t hi s s a m pl e w hi t e s t ude nt s f ound t he l e a s t oppo r t uni t i e s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt f r om w hi c h t o e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppo r t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom T he s a m pl e m e a ns f or s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d s i m i l a r s c or e s i n f i ndi ng o ppor t uni t i e s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt f r om w hi c h t o e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s p r ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s f ound t he on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt a bout e qua l t o a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom A s i a n s t ude nt s r a t e d t he onl i ne e nvi r o nm e nt s om e w ha t hi ghe r t ha n t he f a c e t o f a c e e xpe r i e nc e a nd ot he r s t ude nt s of c ol or f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s om e w ha t l e s s t ha n e qua l t o a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom a s a pl a c e f r om w h i c h

PAGE 129

121 t o e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s A l t hough t he r e w e r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n s ur ve y que s t i on r e s pons e s t he r e w e r e s om e di f f e r e nc e s i n m e a ns O ne w a y di f f e r e nc e s i n m e a n r e s pons e s t o t hi s que s t i on m a y be i nt e r pr e t e d i s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of c ul t ur a l pr e f e r e nc e f or di f f e r e nt s t yl e s of c om m uni c a t i on w hi c h m a y or m a y not be s uppor t e d by t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt W h e n m i no r i t y g r ou p s a r e o m i t t e d f r o m t he l i t e r a t ur e s ur r ound i n g on l i n e l e a r n i n g i t be c o m e s di f f i c u l t t o e x a m i n e t he i r pe r s p e c t i ve s r e g a r d i n g t he i r on l i n e l e a r n i n g e xpe r i e n c e S i nc e t he l i t e r a t ur e pr ovi de s e vi de nc e t ha t l i t t l e i s know n a bout m i nor i t y gr oup pa r t i c i pa t i on i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng i t i s pr ude nt t o be gi n t o a dd t hi s i m po r t a nt s t r e a m of know l e dge t o t he r i ve r of m a i ns t r e a m l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. Sur v e y Q ue s t i on T w o D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a n i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s t t e s t a nd A N O V A S om e di f f e r e nc e s w e r e obs e r ve d be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s o f s t ude nt s t he s ur ve y que s t i on f or t he t t e s t but t he y w e r e not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he p> 05 l e ve l t ( 204) = 1 94; p = 05. T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong e t hni c i t i e s w he n e xa m i ne d i n A N O V A w i t h t he L e ve ne t e s t f o r gr oups of une qu a l s i z e s F ( 4, 2 01) = 1 08, p = 37 ; t he e f f e c t s i z e w a s s m a l l a t 14 S t ude nt s d i s pl a ye d s i m i l a r m e a ns I t c a n be not e d t ha t w hi t e s t ude nt s di s pl a ye d t he l ow e s t m e a n ( M = 2 74) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t w hi t e s t ude nt s f ound c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons o f w hi t e nor m s w i t hi n o nl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i ons t o be t he l e a s t i m por t a nt a m ong t he e t hni c i t i e s e xa m i ne d but not t o a s i gni f i c a nt de g r e e T he s a m pl e m e a ns f or s t ude nt s of c ol or de m ons t r a t e d s i m i l a r s c or e s i ndi c a t i ng t he i m por t a nc e of c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i q ui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s

PAGE 130

122 di s c us s i on s T he ove r a l l m e a n s c or e s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho a ns w e r e d t he que s t i on f ound c ha l l e ngi ng o r c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s t o be be t w e e n ne i t he r i m por t a nt no r un i m por t a nt t o m i ni m a l l y i m por t a nt A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s a nd ot he r s t ude nt s of c ol o r r a t e d t he i m por t a nc e of c ha l l e ngi ng or c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w i t hi n onl i ne c l a s s di s c us s i on s ne i t he r i m por t a nt n or un i m por t a nt A s i a n s t ude nt s r a t e d t he i m po r t a nc e m i dw a y be t w e e n ne i t he r i m po r t a nt no r uni m po r t a n t a nd s om e w ha t i m por t a nt A t he m e e xt r a c t e d f r om t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons on t he s ur ve y he l ps e xpl a i n t he r e s ul t s obt a i ne d f r om t he s t a t i s t i c s f or t hi s s ur ve y q ue s t i on: s t ude nt s f ound opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s w e r e not us ua l l y pa r t of t he c ur r i c ul um a nd w e r e t ypi c a l l y not a ddr e s s e d ( unl e s s i t w a s a n a ppr opr i a t e s ubj e c t f or a pa r t i c ul a r c l a s s or c l a s s t opi c s uc h a s m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m ) a nd f ound t hi s f a c t t o be e i t he r a pr obl e m ( t he m e one ) o r w e l c om e ( t he m e t w o) T he l i t e r a t ur e not e s t he i m por t a nc e o f a ddr e s s i ng w hi t e nor m s bu t doe s not i nt e r s e c t t hi s i m po r t a nc e w i t h t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt C r i t i c a l w hi t e ne s s s t ud i e s c a ut i on a bout unc ons c i ous ne s s pe r f or m a nc e of w hi t e ne s s ( D ol a n, 2006 ) t he r e f or e I s t r i ve d f o r a n e xpos i t or y t one i n r e por t i ng da t a a nd de s c r i be d pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s ve r ba t i m r a t he r t ha n i nt e r p r e t i ng t he m ( K va l e 1996 p 127 ) D i s c us s i on of T he m e s f o r O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i ons F or t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons us i ng t he p r i nt e d w or d r a t he r t ha n t r a ns c r i pt i on f r om a n or a l i nt e r vi e w pr ov i de d pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h m or e t i m e t o r e f l e c t on a ns w e r s t ha n i s t ypi c a l l y t he c a s e ( K va l e 1996 p 172) O pe n e nde d que s t i ons on t he s ur ve y ( A ppe ndi x A ) w e r e de s i gne d t o s ol i c i t r e s pons e s i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s ow n w or ds t o pr ovi de de pt h a nd de t a i l s f r o m t he pe r s ona l pe r s pe c t i ve of pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n or de r

PAGE 131

123 t o c om pl e t e l y a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on C ol l e c t e d r e s pons e s r e s ul t e d i n t hr e e t he m e s O nl y t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s of c ol or w e r e c ons i de r e d i n t he e xt r a c t i on of t he m e s f r om t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons T he s e r e s pons e s w e r e or ga ni z e d i nt o t he m e s a nd r e f l e c t t he on l i ne t hr o ugh i m p r e s s i on s a nd e xpr e s s i ons f r om s t ude nt s of c ol o r A nal y s i s and d i s c us s i on of t he m e one S t ude nt s of c ol or r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y r e por t e d t ha t op por t uni t i e s t o c ha l l e nge pe r s pe c t i ve s pr e s e nt e d by f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s de a l i ng w i t h s t ude nt uni que ne s s a nd w hi t e no r m s m a y not a l w a ys be e a s i l y t r a ns l a t e d i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt T hi s s t udy l ooke d a t a dul t l e a r ne r s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a c r os s ge nde r s a nd a c r os s a w i de a ge r a nge t hus a s a r t i c ul a t e d by t he p r i nc i pl e s a nd pr a c t i c e s of a dul t e duc a t i on t he pe r s ona l c i r c um s t a nc e s s oc i a l r ol e s a nd l e a r ni ng s t yl e p r e f e r e nc e s a r e e m be dde d i n w a ys i n w hi c h a dul t s s t ude nt s l e a r n be s t T he s e di f f e r e nc e s i m pa c t t he di f f e r e nc e i n obs e r va t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s r e por t e d by s t ude nt s of c ol o r T he s oc i a l r ol e of a H i s pa ni c s t ud e nt w a s a f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i ng t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n t hi s e xa m pl e : W e l l I t ook t h i s onl i ne c our s e a s a m e a ns t o ge t a h e a d a s a ne w m o t he r t o a f ou r m ont h ol d ba by W hi l e I e nj oy t he r e a di ngs a gr e a t de a l a nd I a l s o e nj oy t he pa r t i c i p a t i on t he j ou r na l e nt r i e s l e nd t o t he c l a s s I do w i s h w e m e t m o r e t ha n t w i c e i n t he s e m e s t e r S om e t i m e s f a c e t o f a c e i nt e r a c t i on w i t h pe e r s a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o s e e t he gr a vi t y of t he s i t ua t i on of r a c i s m m or e c l os e l y, a nd unf or t una t e l y, I don't t h i nk t hi s c l a s s a l l ow s f or m uc h t i m e t o f oc us on i m por t a nt i s s ue s de a l i ng w i t h t hi s t opi c A c om m on pr obl e m not e d by s t ude nt s of c ol o r i s t ha t t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt doe s not pr ovi de t he s a m e oppor t un i t i e s f or pe r s ona l i nt e r a c t i on pr ovi de d by f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s

PAGE 132

124 S t ude nt obs e r va t i ons r e por t e d t ha t pr e s e nt a t i ons i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt w e r e not a s pow e r f ul a s f a c e t o f a c e pr e s e nt a t i ons a nd di s c us s i ons of r a c e r e l a t e d t opi c s T hough t e c hnol ogy i nt e gr a t i on a nd onl i ne l e a r ni ng r e m ove s s om e ba r r i e r s of a c c e s s a nd of f e r s l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s l i m i t a t i ons t o onl i ne l e a r ni n g a r e r e ve a l e d i n ge ne r a l i n t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t hi s s t udy I t i s p r ude nt t o r e m e m be r t ha t t he s e l i m i t a t i ons m a y be due t o s pe c i f i c c our s e c ont e nt or s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t or pr a c t i c e s a nd t ha t t hi s s t udy de a l s w i t h how a r e l a t i ve l y s m a l l num be r of pe opl e pe r c e i ve pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s T hi s t he m e a ddr e s s e d a c onf l i c t i ng poi nt not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e : w he r e a s s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng i n t he on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt f o c us e s on i ndi v i dua l s a nd do e s not e m pha s i z e t he va l ue of gr oup pe r s pe c t i ve a nd c om m uni c a t i on t ha t t he l i t e r a t ur e s ugge s t s s t ude nt s of c ol or a ppr e c i a t e ( F l a nne r y 1995) on l i ne c om m uni c a t i on w i t hi n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o f os t e r p r om ot e a nd pr ovi de a gr e a t e r pe r c e pt i on of gr oup c ol l a bor a t i on a nd c om m uni t y bui l di ng t ha n i s t ypi c a l l y e xpe r i e nc e d i n t r a di t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom m e e t i ngs ( K i ng 2002; M e r r yf i e l d, 2001) T he hi ghe r e duc a t i on i ns t r uc t i ona l t e c hnol ogy i nf r a s t r uc t ur e c ur r e nt l y e xi s t s a s s om e t hi ng t o buy, a nd c a r e s houl d be t a ke n t ha t t h e di gi t a l di vi de not be a l l ow e d i nt o hi ghe r e duc a t i on a s a pe r m a ne nt ga p. I t m a y be t i m e t o e xa m i ne t he s t a t us quo of nor m a l i z e d pr a c t i c e s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. A s B a t e s on ( 1994 ) s ugge s t s l e a r ni ng a bout ot he r s i s a l w a ys he l pf ul i n que s t i oni ng f a m i l i a r t hi ngs A na l ys i s of t hi s t he m e p r ovi de d t he pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t s om e f or m s of l e a r n i ng a c t i vi t y s uc h a s pr e s e nt a t i ons a nd t he pow e r of f a c e t o f a c e e nga ge m e nt m a y s om e t i m e s be m i s s i ng i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a s a r t i c ul a t e d by t hi s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt : M y c l a s s m a t e s of t e n di d not t a ke i nt o pe r s pe c t i ve i s s ue s f a c i ng m i nor i t i e s

PAGE 133

125 a nd e ve n m or e f r e que nt l y, pe opl e of pove r t y T he i r be l i e f s ha d ne ve r be e n c ha l l e nge d be c a us e t h e y ha d ne ve r ha d m a ny e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he i r pe r s ona l l i f e I di d a c l a s s pr e s e nt a t i on w he r e I us e d t he m a t e r i a l s of R uby P a yne a ha pr oc e s s t o di s c us s i s s ue s of pove r t y a nd I t hi n k t he c l a s s w a s s t unne d. I don't t hi nk i t w oul d ha ve be e n a s pow e r f ul i f i t w e r e onl i ne C a r e s houl d be t a ke n t o i nc l ude t he voi c e s of pe r s o ns of c ol or i n t he de s i gn, a ppl i c a t i on a nd us e of t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i n hi gh e r e duc a t i on a pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t a ppe a r s t o be m i s s i ng f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e T he pr i nc i pl e s a nd p r a c t i c e s f ound w i t hi n a ndr a go gy he l pe d i de nt i f y s i t ua t i ons i n w hi c h a dul t l e a r ne r s l e a r n be s t s uc h a s a ppr e c i a t i o n of t he a bi l i t y t o w or k a t one s ow n pa c e T he ne e d f or m or e t i m e t o a s s i m i l a t e i nf or m a t i on a nd c ul t ur a l c onc e pt s w a s e xpr e s s e d by s t ude nt s w ho s pe a k E ngl i s h a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge a nd de m ons t r a t e s t he pe r s ona l or i e nt a t i on s t ude nt s br i ng w i t h t he m t o t h e onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt O n one ha nd, t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt m a y pr ovi de a ddi t i ona l t i m e t o t hi nk a nd r e f l e c t a be ne f i t f or a dul t l e a r n e r s a s a r t i c ul a t e d i n t he p r i nc i pl e s a nd pr a c t i c e s of a ndr a gogy O n t he ot he r ha nd c ul t ur a l c onc e pt s m a y be m o r e di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd i f a pe r s on i s not pa r t of t he m a i ns t r e a m c ul t u r e a nd l a c ki ng t he l a n gua ge s ki l l s of t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e c oul d m a ke i t m or e di f f i c ul t f or s t ude nt s t o c om m u ni c a t e i n w r i t i ng w i t h w r i t t e n c om m uni c a t i on be i ng a m a i n f e a t ur e of t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt I w e nt ba c k t o t he r e s e a r c he r s j our na l ( J a ne s i c k, 2004) I ke pt w he n I j oi ne d t w o gr a dua t e onl i ne c l a s s e s a s a pa r t i c i pa n t obs e r ve r a f e w ye a r s a go be c a us e I w a s di s t ur be d by t he c om m e nt : M os t of a l l I ne ve r kne w i f a ny body c a r e d a bout t he i nf or m a t i on I s e nt out I f ound r e f e r e nc e s i n m y r e s e a r c he r s j ou r na l t ha t j us t a s i n f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s

PAGE 134

126 t he r e m a y be dom i na nt s pe a ke r s w ho a r e bol de r i n onl i ne c onve r s a t i on. A nd j us t a s i n a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s s om e s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t m or e w i t h t he i ns t r uc t or onl i ne vi a di s c us s i on boa r ds a nd e m a i l C our s e w or k s t r uc t ur e va r i e s gr e a t l y a m ong i ns t r uc t or s t he r e f o r e no ge ne r a l i z a t i on i s pos s i bl e T he po i nt o f s ha r i ng r e s pons e s t o t he s ur ve y i s t ha t t he y a r e doc um e nt e d e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he r e f or e pe r t i ne nt t o not e A l t hough ge ne r a l i z a t i o n i s not s ugge s t e d, i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he e xpe r i e nc e s m a y be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of w ha t ha s be e n e xpe r i e nc e d by ot he r s t ude nt s a nd s t ude nt s di d not c ons i s t e nt l y f i nd t he onl i ne e nvi r o nm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c ol or c oul d m o r e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i qu e s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt A nal y s i s and d i s c us s i on of t he m e t w o. S t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e op i ni o ns or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w e r e not us ua l l y pa r t of t he c ur r i c ul um a nd w e r e t ypi c a l l y not a ddr e s s e d ( unl e s s i t w a s a n a ppr opr i a t e s ubj e c t f or a c l a s s or c l a s s t opi c s uc h a s m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m ) a f a c t r e por t e d t o be a pr obl e m T he m e t w o a nd t hr e e r e pr e s e nt e d t w o s i de s t o t he s a m e i s s ue I n t he m e t w o s t ude nt s w i s he d t o ha ve t he o ppor t uni t y t o a ddr e s s w hi t e nor m s ; i n t he m e t hr e e t he f a c t t ha t w hi t e no r m s w e r e not pa r t of t he c our s e c ont e nt w a s w e l c om e E a c h t he m e w a s a na l yz e d i ndi vi dua l l y. S t ude nt s w ho f e l t t ha t t he i s s ue of w hi t e no r m s s houl d be a ddr e s s e d a s a pa r t o f r e gul a r onl i ne c l a s s e s r e s ponde d w i t h c om m e nt s i n c l udi ng t hi s one s ha r e d by a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt : I n m y l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e i n a l l c our s e s f a c e t o f a c e a nd t hos e onl i ne a l l of m y w hi t e i ns t r uc t or s e xc e pt one ha ve ne ve r or m i n i m a l l y di s c us s e d r a c e

PAGE 135

127 c l a s s a nd ge nde r i ne qui t y. S t ude nt s of c ol o r t ha t ha ve di s c us s e d t he s e i s s ue s ha ve be e n i gnor e d, c ons i de r s e ns i t i ve or pa r a noi d a nd os t r a c i z e d. W hi t e s t ude nt s t ha t ha ve br ought up t he s e i s s u e s ha ve be e n pr a i s e d f or t he i r pr ogr e s s i ve t hi nki ng. I n onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nv i r onm e nt s i t i s e ve n e a s i e r t o i gnor e r a c e c l a s s a nd ge nde r T he r e i s a f a l s e i l l us i on of a nonym i t y a nd e qui t y i n t he s e vi r t ua l e nvi r onm e nt s O t he r c om m e nt s i nc l ude d t he f a c t t ha t w hi t e pe r s o ns do not f ul l y unde r s t a nd t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of pe r s ons of c ol or T he e xi s t e nc e a nd t r a ns pa r e nc y of w hi t e nor m s i s a c om m on t he m e i n t he l i t e r a t u r e ; t he di s c us s i on of how w hi t e nor m s t r a ns l a t e i nt o t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt out s i de o f s pe c i f i c c l a s s e s s uc h a s m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m i s not a c om m on t opi c w he n i t i nt e r s e c t s t he onl i ne c ur r i c ul um i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. T he pr i nc i pl e s a nd p r a c t i c e s of a ndr a gogy f i r s t a r t i c ul a t e d by M a l c ol m K now l e s ( 1968) a r e s t i l l i n a c t i ve pr a c t i c e f or a dul t e duc a t i o n t oda y. A nd r a gogy not e s t ha t a dul t l e a r ne r s br i ng c e r t a i n pe r s ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h t he m t o t he i r l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h i nc l ude s pr i or e xpe r i e nc e s c ul t ur a l a t t i t ude s a nd pe r s ona l va l ue s S t ude nt i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he i ns t r uc t or a nd w i t h t he c ur r i c ul um i s m i xe d w i t h t he c om pl e xi t y of ba c kgr ound know l e dge p r e c onc e i ve d not i ons a nd i nt e r e s t i n t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r R e a di ne s s t o l e a r n a nd w he t he r or not t he a dul t l e a r ne r s e e s a r e l e va nt or pr a c t i c a l a ppl i c a t i on t o t he i r l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e a l s o pl a ys a pa r t i n s t ude nt s de t e r m i ni ng i f t he i r l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e m e e t s t he i r ne e ds K now l e s obs e r ve d t ha t a dul t s a r e m o r e pr obl e m c e nt e r e d t ha n s ubj e c t c e nt e r e d ( 1980) a nd a r e m o r e m ot i va t e d by i nt e r na l t ha n e xt e r na l f a c t or s ( 1984a ) U s i ng a ndr a gogy a s a f r a m e w or k I c onc l ude d t ha t t he s t ude nt r e s pons e s f or t hi s t he m e w e r e e xpe r i e nt i a l l y a nd pe r s ona l l y m ot i va t e d.

PAGE 136

128 T he l i t e r a t u r e pa i nt s t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a s r a c e ne ut r a l ; t hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d t he obs e r va t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ud e nt s o f c ol or t hr ough r e s e a r c h que s t i ons de ve l ope d a r ound ga ps not e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f or m i nor i t y pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt C ont r a r y e vi de nc e w a s s ought a nd pr e s e nt e d i n a n e f f or t t o r e por t a nd r e f l e c t a ut he nt i c e xpe r i e nc e s f or pa r t i c i p a nt s i n t he s t udy. A r e t he r e dom i na nt a nd nor m a l i z e d w hi t e c ogni t i ve pr a c t i c e s ( F l a gg 1 998) i n p l a c e i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt o r e ve n e m be dde d i n a ndr a gogy? T hi s s t udy doe s not pr ovi de a n a ns w e r t o t hos e que s t i ons ; how e ve r a c c or di ng t o F l a gg ( 199 8, p 8) w e s houl d not a c c e pt s e e m i ngl y ne ut r a l c r i t e r i a w hi c h m a y r e l y on w hi t e r e f e r e nt s i n f or m ul a t i ng t he nor m s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons t ha t be c om e c r i t e r i a f or w hi t e de c i s i on m a ki ng. T he r e f or e i t i s i m pe r a t i ve t o s ol i c i t a nd a t t e nd t he voi c e s of pe r s o ns of c ol or r e ga r di ng t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt t hus t he f oc us of t hi s s t udy on s t ude nt s of c ol or w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ou nd i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. A nal y s i s and d i s c us s i on of t he m e t hr e e S t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y f ound t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e op i ni o ns or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s w e r e not us ua l l y pa r t of t he c ur r i c ul um a nd w e r e t ypi c a l l y not a ddr e s s e d ( unl e s s i t w a s a n a ppr opr i a t e s ubj e c t f or a c l a s s or c l a s s t opi c s uc h a s m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m ) a f a c t r e por t e d t o be w e l c om e T he m e t hr e e r e pr e s e nt e d one of t w o s i de s t o t he s a m e i s s ue a s di s c us s e d f or t he m e t w o F o r t h i s t he m e s t ude nt s of c ol or r e por t e d t ha t t he y pr e f e r r e d t o f oc us on t he c our s e c ur r i c ul um a nd f ound di s c us s i ons of w hi t e nor m s a nd r a c e out of pl a c e f or c l a s s e s s uc h a s phys i c s or m a t he m a t i c s S t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t hi s que s t i on e xpr e s s e d a de s i r e t o f oc us onl y on c our s e c ont e nt T he s e s t ude nt s f ound di s c us s i ons of w hi t e nor m s a l r e a dy bui l t i n t o a s oc i a l s c i e nc e s nu r s i ng, or e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um

PAGE 137

129 A pr obl e m m a y oc c ur i f l i f e or l e a r ne d e xpe r i e nc e s i nt e r f e r e w i t h f ut ur e l e a r ni ng. P r e j udi c e w oul d be a n e xa m pl e or a n e xpe r i e nc e w i t h one onl i ne c l a s s c oul d i n f l ue nc e a s t ude nt r e ga r di ng e nr ol l m e nt i n f ut ur e onl i ne c l a s s e s K now l e s ( 1984a ) a r t i c ul a t e d a ndr a gogy a s a s ys t e m of c onc e pt s r a t he r t ha n a t h e or y. U s i ng c onc e pt s gr ounde d i n a ndr a gogy t o a na l yz e t hi s t he m e w e f i nd t ha t a dul t l e a r ne r s w i s h t o f e e l a c c e pt e d, r e s pe c t e d, a nd s uppor t e d w i t h c u r r i c ul um g r ound e d i n a s pi r i t o f m ut ua l i t y be t w e e n s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r s a s j oi nt i nqui r e r s ( K now l e s 1980 p 43) A nd r a gogy i s f i r m i n t he not i on t ha t s t ude nt s s houl d pl a y a n a c t i ve r ol e i n t he pl a nni ng, i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd a na l ys i s of t he i r l e a r ni ng Sum m ar y D i s c us s i on f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o R e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o e xa m i ne d t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de d a pl a c e w he r e s t ude nt s of c o l or c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e no r m s a s oppo s e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ov i de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt N o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n s t ude nt s of c ol o r a nd w hi t e s t ude nt s a s a gr oup or a m ong i n di vi dua l e t hni c i t i e s i n a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on T he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y c ons i de r e d t o be a pl a c e w he r e s t ude n t s c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng w hi t e no r m s a nd t he oppor t uni t y t o e xp r e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng w hi t e nor m s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s not r e por t e d a s s i gni f i c a nt l y i m por t a nt by a ny e t hni c gr oup T he o bs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons r e por t e d i n ope n e nde d que s t i on r e s pons e s t o t he s ur ve y de m o ns t r a t e d t ha t di f f e r e nc e s e xi s t e d f or i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y on a p e r s on a l l e ve l O ne w a y w e m a y i nt e r pr e t t he s e di f f e r e nc e s i s a ga i ns t t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k us e d i n t hi s s t udy

PAGE 138

130 a ndr a gogy, w hi c h c ons i de r s t he va r i ous pe r s ona l a nd s oc i a l s i t ua t i ons w hi c h a r e pr e s e nt f or a dul t l e a r ne r s a nd t he w a ys i n w hi c h a dul t s l e a r n. T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons a bout onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n ge ne r a l a nd t hough not s pe c i f i c a l l y f oc us e d on l e a r ni ng s t yl e s a nd t he de ve l opm e nt a l t a s ks of t he s oc i a l r ol e s of s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s w e m a y a s s um e a va r i e t y of l e a r ni ng pr e f e r e nc e s a nd s oc i a l r ol e s i t ua t i ons w e r e p r e s e nt f or s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy a s t he y i nt e r a c t e d w i t hi n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt D i f f e r e nc e s i n l e a r ni ng pr e f e r e nc e s r e f l e c t pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a s r e por t e d by s t ude nt s i n t he ope n e nde d r e s pons e s A ndr a gogy c ons i de r s a dul t s t ude nt s f r o m a hol i s t i c pe r s pe c t i ve t a ki ng i nt o c ons i de r a t i on pe r s ona l c i r c um s t a nc e s s oc i a l r ol e s a nd l e a r ni ng pr e f e r e nc e s S i nc e s t ude nt s i ndi vi dua l e xpe r i e nc e s a r e uni que a nd w i l l va r y due t o c ur r i c ul um c ont e nt i ns t r uc t or a nd by pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e a nd s i t ua t i on, no ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y i s s ugge s t e d by t hi s s t udy. R e a de r s m a y f i nd t he m s e l ve s a gr e e i ng or di s a gr e e i ng w i t h t he c om m e nt s di s c us s i on, a nd a na l ys i s ba s e d on t he i r pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e A s a r e s ul t o f t he a ns w e r t o t hi s r e s e a r c h que s t i on, I p r opos e c ons i de r a t i on of t he l e a r ni ng pr e f e r e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e n t a s a s ugge s t e d t opi c f or f u r t he r r e s e a r c h. A nal y s i s and D i s c us s i on f or R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e T he a ns w e r t o r e s e a r c h que s t i on t hr e e w a s c o c ons t r uc t e d by a s ki ng f or a dvi c e f r om s t ude nt s w ho ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n onl i ne c our s e s a nd f r om i ns t r uc t or s w ho ha ve t a ught onl i ne by us i ng a s ur ve y que s t i on a nd r e por t i ng t he i r a ns w e r s T he s a m e t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om t he r e s pons e s o f s t ude nt s of c ol or a s f r om t he i ns t r uc t o r s r e s pons e s us e d f or t r i a ngul a t i on. T he t he m e s a r e s i m i l a r i n s c ope a s di s c us s e d i n t he r e s ul t s s e c t i on, but

PAGE 139

131 w e r e s e pa r a t e d f or i nc l us i on of s l i ght di f f e r e nc e s of e m pha s i s T he f i r s t t he m e i s m or e c onc e r ne d w i t h t h e a nonym ous na t ur e of t he onl i n e e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he s e c ond t he m e c e nt e r s a r ound s ugge s t e d w a ys c l a s s e s c oul d be s t r uc t ur e d. A f t e r pr e s e nt a t i on o f e a c h t he m e bot h t he m e s a r e di s c us s e d t oge t he r s i nc e t he y a r e us e d t oge t he r t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on. I ndi vi dua l i de a s a nd s pe c i f i c s w e r e pr ovi de d by i ndi vi dua l r e s pons e s t o t he ope n e nde d s ur ve y que s t i on a nd pr e s e nt e d a s r e s ul t s i n C ha pt e r F our T he m e O ne I t i s e a s i e r t o i gnor e r a c e c l a s s a nd ge nde r i n t he o nl i ne e nvi r onm e nt ; t he r e f or e i t i s i m por t a nt f o r i ns t r uc t o r s i n t he on l i ne e nvi r onm e nt t o i n f or m a nd r e m i nd s t ude nt s of t he uni que i s s ue s a s pe c t s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of a l l i nd i vi dua l s T he m e T w o S t ude nt s pe r s pe c t i ve s c oul d be c ha l l e nge d by i ns t r uc t or s t a ki ng a m or e c ons t r uc t i vi s t a ppr oa c h i n c u r r i c ul um w hi c h m or e f u l l y c ons i de r s t he s i t ua t i on a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of a l l i ndi vi dua l s D i s c us s i on of C o c ons t r uc t e d T he m e s M uc h of t he l i t e r a t ur e s ur r ound i ng t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt e xa m i ne s pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s i n a pa r t i c ul a r c l a s s or us i ng a pa r t i c ul a r t e c hnol ogy, c om pa r e s pa r t i c ul a r c l a s s e s or c l a s s s e c t i ons one t o a not he r c om pa r e s a di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng c l a s s t o i t s c om pa ni on f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s o r c om pa r e s di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng s t ude nt s i n a va r i e t y of w a ys ; t he l i t e r a t u r e s e l dom l ooks pu r pos e f ul l y a t s t ude nt s of c ol or w he n e xa m i ni ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng T hi s r e s e a r c h r e c e i ve d c om m e nt r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or pa r t i c i pa t i ng a t t he g r a dua t e l e ve l i n a va r i e t y of c l a s s e s a nd f r om a s m a l l s a m pl e of i ns t r uc t or s of c ol o r f o r t r i a ngul a t i on T he pe r s ona l c om m e nt s r e c e i ve d f r om onl i ne

PAGE 140

132 s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol o r w ho t e a c h onl i ne a ns w e r e d t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on by pr ovi di ng obs e r va t i ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s pe c i f i c s ugge s t i ons a s t o how t he onl i ne c ou r s e e nvi r onm e nt c oul d m o r e f ul l y c ons i de r t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol o r T he ve r ba t i m obs e r va t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s r e por t e d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he s a m pl e r e f l e c t e d i ndi vi dua l r e s pons e s a nd de s c r i be a nd e xpl a i n r e a l e xpe r i e nc e s f or t he s a m pl e r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y T he r e s pons e s br i ng t o l i ght bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i s s ue s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt w hi c h ha ve be e n e xpe r i e nc e d by s t ud e nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s of c ol or T he r e s pons e s w e r e i n s t r uc t i ve be c a us e t he y r e pr e s e nt e d poi nt s of bot h a gr e e m e nt a nd di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n s t ude nt a nd i ns t r uc t o r pe r c e pt i ons a nd de m ons t r a t e d a be l i e va bl e pr e s e nc e w hi l e pr ovi di ng pa r t i c ul a r s a s w e l l a s i ns i ght w hi c h c a n be us e d i n t he de ve l opm e nt a nd pr e s e nt a t i on of onl i ne c our s e w or k t o m o r e f ul l y c ons i de r t he voi c e s a nd e xp e r i e nc e s of pe r s ons of c ol or A l t hough f a c ul t y a nd s t ude nt s w e r e f or t he m os t pa r t on t he s a m e pa ge t he r e w a s a n oc c ur r e nc e of d i s s ona nc e be t w e e n s t ude nt a nd f a c ul t y pe r c e pt i ons f ound i n t he r e s ul t s O n one ha nd, H i s pa ni c i ns t r uc t or s r e s pondi ng t o t he s ur ve y a nd pr ovi di ng a n ope n e nde d r e s pons e t o t h e que s t i on c ons i de r e d t he m i ni m i z a t i on of r a c e c ons i de r a t i ons a pos i t i ve a s p e c t of t he o nl i ne e nvi r onm e nt A nd i n r e s pons e s c ol l e c t e d f or r e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o, s t ude nt s f ound t hi s f a c t w e l c om e a s w e l l O n t he ot he r ha nd, i n ot he r r e s pons e s f r om s t ude nt s c ol l e c t e d f or bot h r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t w o a nd t hr e e s t ude nt s of c ol o r w i s he d t o a ddr e s s a nd c ons i de r r a c i a l i s s ue s a s pa r t of t he i r onl i ne c ou r s e w or k I l ooke d f or da t a w hi c h c a s t doubt on a s s um pt i ons of t he hom o ge ne i t y of t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt a nd pr e s e nt e d t he m i n t he r e s ul t s s e c t i on. R e s e a r c h by de M ont e s

PAGE 141

133 e t a l ( 2002) r a i s e s c onc e r ns t ha t onl i ne c our s e de v e l ope r s a nd e duc a t or s i nc l ude pe r s ona l bi a s e s a nd a s s um pt i on s i n i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h on l i ne s t ude nt s S t ude nt s a l s o a r r i ve f or bot h f a c e t o f a c e a nd onl i ne c l a s s e s w i t h bi a s e s a nd a s s um pt i ons i n pl a c e I f ound a nd r e por t e d c ont r a r y a s s um pt i ons a bout t he a ppr op r i a t e ne s s of di s c us s i on s a bout r a c e a nd w hi t e nor m s i n t he onl i ne e nvi r on m e nt a l t hough ne i t he r gr ou p of t he m e s f r om s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s c ont a i ne d e nough r e s pons e s t o c ha l l e nge e a c h ot he r s i de a s T he t he m e s a nd r e s pons e s di d pr ovi de a c ha nc e t o e xpl o r e a nd r e f l e c t on t he r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc e s s pe c i f i c a l l y f or pe r s ons of c ol or w hi c h w a s t he pu r pos e of t he s t udy T he di s c our s e c ol l e c t e d s t r i c t l y f r om t he ope n e nde d s ur ve y da t a w a s i nf o r m a t i ve a nd a ns w e r e d t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons f r om a s ubj e c t i ve poi nt o f vi e w a nd i n pa r t i c ul a r pr ovi de d t he oppo r t uni t y f or r e a de r s of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on t o r e f l e c t on t he c om m e nt s T he da t a pr ovi de d i nf o r m a t i on t ha t di r e c t l y but s ubj e c t i ve l y de s c r i be d obs e r va t i ons a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt B e c a us e onl i ne l e a r ni ng pr ovi de s a dul t s w i t h i nc r e a s e d oppor t uni t i e s f or s e l f di r e c t i on due t o t he pe r s ona l na t ur e of i nt e r a c t i ng f r om a pe r s ona l c om put e r a t t i m e s a nd pl a c e s c onve ni e nt t o t he m t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a s i t a ppl i e s t o t he ne e ds a nd p r e f e r e n c e s of a dul t l e a r ne r s i s di ve r s e a nd t he da t a pr ovi de s e vi de nc e of bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve pe r c e pt i ons a c r os s e t hni c i t i e s T he c ont r a r y pos i t i oni ng o f t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on a s r a c e a nd c u l t u r a l l y ne ut r a l ( B r a y 2006) or not ( C ha s e M a c f a dye n, R e e de r & R oc he 2002) a s w e l l a s t he f i ndi ngs f r om t he da t a c ol l e c t e d i n t h i s s t udy s ugge s t s t ha t t he r e i s a g r e a t de a l a bout t he i nt e r s e c t i on of e t hni c i t y a nd t he on l i ne l e a r ni ng e n vi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t ha t r e m a i ns t o be e xpl or e d

PAGE 142

134 C onc l us i on I n t hi s s t udy, no s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w e r e f ou nd i n t he e xa m i na t i on of t he na t ur e of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd t h e va r i a bl e s of ge nde r a ge a nd s e l f r e por t e d c om put e r e xpe r i e nc e T he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s not c onc l us i ve l y f ound t o be a n e nvi r onm e nt w he r e opi n i ons or c r i t i que s c oul d be e xpr e s s e d m o r e e a s i l y t ha n i n a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom a nd t he i m por t a nc e t o s t ude nt s of ha vi ng t he oppo r t uni t y t o c ha l l e nge w hi t e nor m s i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e n vi r onm e nt w a s not f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt F o r t he da t a c ol l e c t e d f or t hi s r e s e a r c h t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e s i n r e s pons e s f ound a m ong e t hni c i t i e s S t ude nt s of c ol or di d not f i nd t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt t o be a pl a c e w he r e t he y c oul d m or e e a s i l y e xpr e s s opi ni ons or c r i t i que s a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s a s oppos e d t o oppor t uni t i e s pr ovi de d by a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt T he da t a r e po r t e d t hi s oppo r t uni t y a s ne i t he r s i gni f i c a nt l y i m por t a nt nor un i m por t a nt t o s t ude nt s of c ol or e i t he r a s a gr oup or by i nd i vi dua l e t hni c i t i e s W hi l e I w a s s ur pr i s e d by t hi s f i ndi ng, t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e d pr ovi de d f e w s t udi e s f or s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd t he i r i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt t o us e a s a ba s i s f or c om pa r i s on T he da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om s t ude nt s of c ol or a nd s ha r e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a r e of f e r e d a s a s m a l l s t e p t o c or r e c t t he i m ba l a nc e i n t he m a i ns t r e a m l i t e r a t ur e s ur r oundi ng onl i ne l e a r n i ng, w hi c h r a r e l y i nc l ude s opi ni ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e s s pe c i f i c t o s t ude nt s of c ol or B or r ow i ng B e r g s ( 2001 p 139) e m pha s i s a s he a ddr e s s e s t he i m por t a nc e of r e f l e xi vi t y i n r e s e a r c he r s r e f l e xi v i t y f u r t he r i m pl i e s a s hi f t i n t he w a y w e unde r s t a nd da t a a nd t he i r c ol l e c t i on T hi s s t udy p r ovi de d de s c r i pt i ve a c c ount s t ha t c a n be us e f ul t o m a ke e xt r a pol a t i ons t o di f f e r e nt c a s e s ( M c T a gga r t 1991 p 169 ) P r ovi di ng pe r s ona l

PAGE 143

135 e xa m pl e s f r om s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s o f c ol o r ba s e d on t he i r i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de s e ve r yda y e xa m pl e s ( S he a r e d, 1994 p 33 ) of t ype d di a l ogue i n or de r t o he l p c ons t r uc t t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt by s pe c i f i c a l l y c ons i de r i ng t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol or T he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt i s c om m onl y c ons i de r e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y a nonym ous or pr i va t e due t o t he i ndi vi dua l a nd pe r s ona l na t u r e of t he pa r t i c i pa t i on e nvi r onm e nt how e ve r a dul t s l e a r n be s t w he n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i s a c know l e dge d, w he n ne w i nf o r m a t i on bui l ds on t he i r pa s t e xpe r i e nc e a nd w he n c ur r i c ul um c ont e nt i s m e a ni ngf ul p r obl e m o r i e nt e d, a nd pr a c t i c a l ( C a f f a r e l l a 199 4, p p 24 25 ) A n e pi s t e m ol ogi c a l s hi f t m a y be ne c e s s a r y f or t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt a s hi f t w hi c h ne c e s s i t a t e s t he i nc l us i on of m u l t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ons t ha t i nc l ude t he obs e r va t i ons a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of s t ude nt s of c ol o r R e c om m e ndat i ons f or F ur t he r S t udy A l t hough t he r e w a s no da t a pr e s e nt e d i n t h i s s t udy t o s uppor t t he s uppos i t i on of t he di gi t a l ot he r t ha n a s a pa r t o f t he da t a c ol l e c t i o n pr oc e s s t he di s pa r i t y I e nc ount e r e d be t w e e n t he t r a di t i ona l l y w hi t e i ns t i t ut i ons ( T W I s ) of hi ghe r e duc a t i on a nd H B C U s a nd t he i r va r yi ng a bi l i t y t o of f e r d i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng pr og r a m s ( H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b, 2007 ) w a s a poi n t of c onf l i c t i n t he l i t e r a t ur e f o r m e : L e s s t ha n one t hi r d of a l l H B C U s a r e c ur r e nt l y of f e r i ng a ny c our s e s t ha t a r e 100 pe r c e nt on l i ne ; a nd none of t he s e H B C U s of f e r m o r e t h a n 5 pe r c e nt of t he i r c our s e s onl i ne T he r e f or e t he r e por t e nc our a ge s H B C U s t o r e qui r e t he i r i ns t r uc t or s t o bui l d f e w e r c om pone nt s a nd e nc our a ge s t he H B C U s t o a c qui r e m or e c om pone nt s f r om ve ndor s a nd/ or f r om ot he r c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s

PAGE 144

136 T he r e i s a c u r r e nt i n t e r e s t i n s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t h e onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt by t he hi s t or i c a l l y B l a c k C ol l e ge s a nd U ni ve r s i t i e s a nd M c H e nr y a nd P e r s on s pa pe r f r om t he i r pr e s e nt a t i on, H i s t or i c al l y B l ac k c ol l e ge s and uni v e r s i t i e s : C at c hi ng t he f as t m o v i ng onl i ne l e ar ni ng t r ai n ( 2007 ) i s e a ge r l y a w a i t e d. T he r e f or e t he que s t i on be c om e s : H ow c a n m or e s t ude nt s of c ol o r i n t he hi ghe r e duc a t i on e nvi r onm e nt be p r ovi de d w i t h a br i dge ove r t he di gi t a l di vi de ? I s ugge s t r e s e a r c h i nt o pos s i bi l i t i e s of i ns t i t ut i ona l pa r t ne r s hi ps c ol l a bor a t i on, a nd s ha r i ng of onl i ne t ool s r e s our c e s a nd s e r vi c e s I n ve s t i ga t i ons i nt o ne e de d pr ogr a m s a nd l ongi t udi na l s t udi e s of onl i ne c our s e a nd p r ogr a m s uc c e s s a s m e a s ur e d by c om pl e t i on a nd s a t i s f a c t i on by s t ude nt s of c ol or a r e n e e de d. C ons i de r a t i on of w ha t i s a ne e de d p r ogr a m i s a c om pl e x i s s ue i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on t oda y a s a r t i c u l a t e d i n a n e xc e r pt f r om a c ur r e nt ne w s bul l e t i n: T he r e a r e c e r t a i nl y ve r y c ons e r va t i ve f or c e s w i t hi n t he c ount r y t ha t w a nt t o di m i ni s h f und i ng f o r e duc a t i on ge ne r a l l y pa r t i c ul a r l y f undi ng f o r hi ghe r e duc a t i on. A nd t he r e a r e c e r t a i nl y ve r y c on s e r va t i ve a nd i nde e d r e a c t i ona r y f or c e s t ha t w a nt t o di m i ni s h W om e n s S t udi e s a nd A f r i c a na S t udi e s a s i nde e d t he y w a nt t o di m i ni s h t he pow e r a nd i m por t a nc e of w om e n a nd pe opl e of c ol or ( K i na ne 2008) M or e r e s e a r c h on s t ude nt s of c ol or i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on a nd i n t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i s ne e de d, a nd s t udi e s c oul d s t a r t out l oc a l l y a nd t he n c om bi ne onl i ne w i t h l a r ge r s t ud i e s s pa nni ng s e ve r a l i ns t i t ut i ons a nd pr ogr a m s I w oul d a l s o s ugge s t s t udi e s of l e a r ni ng pr e f e r e nc e s f or s t ude nt s of c ol or i n t he onl i ne l e a r n i ng e nvi r onm e nt by s t ude nt s of c ol o r

PAGE 145

137 w ho ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d onl i ne l e a r ni ng i n o r de r t o f ul l y gr a s p t he i s s ue s w hi c h I ha ve t ouc he d on a nd pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. A ndr a gogi c a l pr a c t i c e s e nc our a ge a dul t l e a r ne r s t o e nga ge l e a r ni ng f r om a pe r s ona l l e ve l a nd p r ovi de i nput a bout w ha t a nd h ow t he y l e a r n W he n di s c us s i ng a ndr a gogi c a l pr a c t i c e s K now l e s ( 1986) pos t ul a t e d t he i m po r t a nc e of e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s f o r a dul t l e a r ne r s T he s e e xpe r i e nc e s a r e m or e a nd m o r e f r e que nt l y a r e be i ng of f e r e d vi a t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f or bot h i nf or m a l a nd f or m a l l e a r ni ng A s obs e r ve d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on i s e xpa ndi ng a t a t r e m e ndous s pe e d, a nd of f e r s oppor t un i t i e s of a c c e s s t o a dul t l e a r ne r s w ho c a nnot e a s i l y a t t e nd c a m pus ba s e d c l a s s e s or w ho pr e f e r t he f l e xi bi l i t y o f pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n c our s e w or k f r om a n o f f c a m pu s l oc a t i on A s w e l l onl i ne l e a r ni ng pr a c t i c e s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on us e a w i de a nd gr ow i ng r a nge of t e c hnol og y m e di a t e d e xpe r i e nc e s s uc h a s onl i ne l e a r ni ng c ont a c t s ( B oye r 2003) t o o f f e r a dul t l e a r ne r s a nd e duc a t or s c ol l a bor a t i ve e x pe r i e nc e s S e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng i s a c or ne r s t one of bot h a nd r a gogy a nd t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt pr o v i di ng e xpa ndi ng oppor t uni t i e s f or a dul t l e a r ne r s i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on I n or de r f o r e duc a t or s t o s t r uc t ur e s a t i s f yi ng onl i ne e xpe r i e nc e s f or a dul t l e a r ne r s w h o a r e s e l f di r e c t e d, r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he i ndi vi dua l pe r c e pt i ons of o nl i ne l e a r ne r s i n h i ghe r e duc a t i on. T hi s s t udy c om bi ne d m y e duc a t i on, t r a i ni ng, a nd i nt e r e s t i n a dul t l e a r ni ng, c ur r i c ul um de ve l opm e nt a nd onl i ne pr og r a m a dm i ni s t r a t i on. A n a s pe c t i n t he l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h c a ught m y a t t e nt i on a s I c ont i nue d t o pe r us e t he l i t e r a t u r e l e a r n, a nd gr ow t hr oughout t he di s s e r t a t i on pr oc e s s i s one w hi c h I w i l l pr e s e nt he r e f or c ons i de r a t i on of f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. I t i s a c onne c t i on t o a ndr a gogy w hi c h I h a d not be e n e xpos e d t o i n m y

PAGE 146

138 gr a dua t e w or k i n a dul t e duc a t i on: pol yr hyt hm i c s T he c onc e pt of c ons i de r a t i on of c ur r i c ul um i n t a nde m w i t h t he i m por t a nc e of a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a dul t l e a r ne r s r e a l i t y, pol yr hyt h m i c s w a s i nt r oduc e d by S he a r e d ( 1994) a nd de s c r i be s t he w hol e ne s s uni que ne s s a nd c onne c t e dne s s of i ndi vi dua l A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a dul t s t ude nt s S he a r e d ( 1999) a dds t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t e a c he r s a nd l e a r ne r s w hi c h a r e gr ounde d i n r a c e a s w e l l a s i n g e nde r a nd c l a s s t o t he a dul t l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e ba s e d on a ndr a gogy, a nd c ons i de r s t he s e pol yr hyt hm i c r e a l i t i e s i m por t a nt t o t he l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a dul t l e a r ne r s T he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n a ndr a gogy a nd t he uni que e t hni c ba c kgr ound of s t ude nt s t hr ough pol yr hy t hm i c c ons i de r a t i on a dds de pt h t o t he f r a m e w or k of a ndr a gogy S he a r e d c ha l l e nge s a dul t e duc a t or s t o f i nd w a ys i n w hi c h w e c a n unc ove r a nd a c know l e dge t he voi c e of e a c h s t ude nt ( p. 31 1994 ) S e e ki ng obs e r va t i ons a nd p e r c e pt i ons a bout t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f r om s t ude nt s o f c ol or by us i ng r e s po ns e s c ol l e c t e d f r om a s ur ve y a nd pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s a s t e p t ow a r d unc o ve r i ng t he voi c e s of s t ude nt s of c ol o r pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt S he a r e d ( 1994, p. 31) be l i e ve s t ha t gi vi ng voi c e ha s be c om e a n a i m of t hos e w ho s e e k t o pr ov i de s t ude nt s a nd e duc a t or s w i t h a n oppor t un i t y t o be c om e e nga ge d i n c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i ve di a l ogue r e ga r dl e s s of t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r M y hope i s t ha t t he r e s e a r c h pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on ha s gi ve n voi c e t o a s a m pl e o f s t ude nt s of c ol o r r e ga r di ng t h e i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt f ound i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on, a nd w i l l i n s pi r e ot he r r e s e a r c he r s t o f oc us on t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of s t ude nt s of c ol or

PAGE 147

139 R e f e r e nc e s A i ke n, L C e r ve r o, R & J ohns on B a i l e y, J ( 2001 ) B l a c k w om e n i n nur s i ng e duc a t i on c om pl e t i on pr ogr a m s : I s s ue s a f f e c t i ng pa r t i c i pa t i o n. A du l t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y ( 51 ) 306 321 A l l e n, I & S e a m a n, J ( 2005 ) G r ow i ng by D e gr e e s : O nl i ne e duc at i on i n t he U ni t e d St at e s 200 5 T he S l oa n C ons or t i um R e t r i e ve d J ul y 20, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ publ i c a t i ons / s ur ve y/ s out he r n05. a s p A l l e n, I & S e a m a n, J ( 2006 ) M ak i ng t he gr ade : O nl i ne e duc at i on i n t he U ni t e d St a t e s 2006. T he S l oa n C ons or t i um R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 19 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ publ i c a t i ons / s ur ve y/ pdf / m a ki ng_t he _gr a de pdf A yr e s W ( 2001) T o t e ac h: T he j our ne y of a t e ac he r N Y : T e a c he r s C ol l e ge P r e s s A nge l i C V a l a ni de s N & B onk, C ( 2003) C o m m uni c a t i on i n a w e b ba s e d c onf e r e nc i ng s ys t e m : T he qua l i t y of c om put e r m e d i a t e d i nt e r a c t i ons B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy 3 4 ( 1 ) 31 43 A r a gon, S ( 2003) C r e a t i ng s oc i a l p r e s e nc e i n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s I n S R A r a gon ( E d. ) N e w di r e c t i ons f or adul t and c ont i nui ng e du c at i on; F ac i l i t at i ng l e ar ni ng i n onl i ne e nv i r onm e nt s 100, 57 68. S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s A r c he r T ( 1988) A nal y z i ng Q ual i t at i v e D at a E D G E G ui de She e t O hi o C oope r a t i ve E xt e ns i on S e r vi c e : C ol um bus O hi o. R e t r i e ve d A p r i l 13 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w a g. ohi o s t a t e e du/ ~ pde / 770A / doc s / qua l i t a t i ve _a na l ys i s pdf

PAGE 148

140 B a i r d, D & F i s he r M ( 2005/ 2006) N e om i l l e nni a l us e r e xpe r i e nc e de s i gn s t r a t e gi e s : U t i l i z i ng s oc i a l ne t w or ki ng m e di a t o s uppor t a l w a ys on l e a r ni ng s t yl e s J our nal of E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy Sy s t e m s ( 34) 1, 5 32 B a nks J ( 2001) C ul t ur al D i v e r s i t y and E duc at i on B os t on: A l l yn a nd B a c on. B a t e s on, M C ( 1994) P e r i phe r al v i s i on: L e ar ni ng al ong t he w ay N e w Y or k : H a r pe r C ol l i ns B e l c he r M ( 1997 ) A s ur ve y o f c ur r e nt a nd pot e nt i a l gr a dua t e s t ude nt s B o i s e I N : B oi s e S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y. ( E R I C D oc um e nt R e pr oduc t i on S e r vi c e N o. E D 400773 ) B e r g, B ( 2001) Q ual i t a t i v e r e s e ar c h m e t hods f or t he s oc i al s c i e nc e s ( 4 t h E d. ) B os t on: A l l yn & B a c on. B e r ge Z & M ui l e nbur g L ( 200 5 ) S t ude nt ba r r i e r s t o onl i ne l e a r ni ng: A f a c t or a na l yt i c s t udy D i s t anc e E duc at i on 26 ( 1 ) 29 48 B e r t houd, R ( J ul y, 2006) U s i ng s ur ve y m e t hods t o r e s e a r c h e t hni c di f f e r e nc e s E S R C R e s e ar c h M e t hods F e s t i v al 2006 R e t r i e ve d A p r i l 23, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w c c s r a c uk/ m e t hods / f e s t i va l / pr ogr a m m e / qr s / doc um e nt s / be r t houd ppt B oye r N ( 2003) T he l e a r ni ng c ont r a c t p r oc e s s : S c a f f ol ds f or t he bui l di ng of s oc i a l s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng. Q uar t e r l y R e v i e w of D i s t an c e E duc at i on, 4 ( 4) 369 384 B oye r N M a he r P & K i r k m a n, S ( 2006) T r a ns f or m a t i ve l e a r ni ng i n on l i ne s e t t i ngs : T he us e of s e l f di r e c t i on, m e t a c ogni t i on, a nd c ol l a bor a t i ve l e a r ni ng J our nal of T r ans f or m at i v e E duc at i on, 4 ( 4) 335 361 B oye t t e M ( 20 06 ) Q ua l e t a t i ve R e s e a r c h. C opyr i ght e d c onc e pt pa pe r U S C opyr i ght O f f i c e

PAGE 149

141 B r a y, C ( 2006) C om i ng out i n byt e s a nd pi e c e s : S e l f i de nt i f i c a t i on onl i ne M E R L O T J our nal of O nl i ne L e ar ni ng and T e ac hi ng ( 2) 3. R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 1, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / j ol t m e r l ot o r g/ vol 2no3/ br a y ht m B r e t z R ( 1983) M e di a f or I n t e r ac t i v e C om m uni c at i on L ondon: S a ge B r i e s c hke P ( 1998) O ne be i ge c r a yon: R e t hi nki n g t he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on o f r a c i s m U r ban E duc at i on, 33 ( 1 ) 50 70 B r i t i s h E duc a t i ona l C om m uni c a t i ons a nd T e c h nol ogy A ge nc y ( 2003) E di t or i a l : I ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e s i n w e b ba s e d i ns t r uc t i on a n ove r vi e w B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy ( 34 ) 4 385 392. B r oc ke t t R & H i e m s t r a R ( 1991) Se l f di r e c t i on i n adul t l e ar ni ng: P e r s pe c t i v e s on t he or y r e s e ar c h, and pr ac t i c e R e t r i e ve d S e pt e m b e r 30, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / hom e t w c ny. r r c om / hi e m s t r a / s dl i nde x. ht m l B r ookf i e l d, S ( 2003) R a c i a l i z i ng t he di s c our s e of a dul t e duc a t i on. H ar v ar d E duc at i onal R e v i e w 73 ( 4) 497 523 B r ow n, A & C e r ve r o R ( 2000 ) M a ki ng t he i nvi s i bl e vi s i bl e : R a c e ge nde r a nd t e a c hi ng i n a dul t e duc a t i on. A du l t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y 50 ( 4) 273 288. C a f f a r e l l a R ( 1994 ) P l anni ng pr ogr am s f or adul t l e ar ne r s S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s C a f f a r e l l a R & M e r r i a m S ( 2000) L i nki ng t he i ndi vi dua l l e a r ne r t o t he c ont e xt of a dul t l e a r ni ng. I n A W i l s on & E H a ye s ( E ds ) H a ndbook of adul t and c ont i nui ng e duc at i on 55 70 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s C a i n, D M a r r a r a C P i t r e P & A m our S ( 2003 ) S uppor t s e r vi c e s t ha t m a t t e r : A n e xpl or a t i on of t he e xpe r i e nc e s a nd ne e ds of gr a dua t e s t ude nt s i n a di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt J our nal of D i s t anc e E duc at i on, 18 ( 1) 42 56.

PAGE 150

142 C a s s i t y, K ( 2005) B r i ngi ng l i ve d c ul t ur e a nd e xp e r i e nc e t o t he W A C c l a s s r oom : A qua l i t a t i ve s t udy of s e l e c t e d nont r a di t i ona l c om m u ni t y c ol l e ge s t ude nt s w r i t i ng a c r os s t he c ur r i c ul um ( D oc t or a l D i s s e r t a t i on. U ni ve r s i t y of H a w a i i 2005) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 5, 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I C ha l oux, B & M i ngl e J ( 2002 ) T e c hnol ogy C a n E x t e nd A c c e s s t o P os t s e c ondar y E duc at i on: A n A c t i on A ge nda f or t he Sout h. A t l a nt a : S out he r n R e gi ona l E duc a t i on B oa r d. R e t r i e ve d J ul y 22 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e c i ni t i a t i ve s or g/ pol i c yl a b/ i nde x a s p C ha r l e s C & M e r t l e r C ( 1002 ) I nt r oduc t i on t o e duc at i onal r e s e ar c h ( 4 t h e d. ) B os t on: A l l yn & B a c on. C ha s e M M a c f a dye n, L R e e de r K & R oc he J ( 2002, A ugus t ) I nt e r c ul t u r a l c ha l l e nge s i n ne t w or ke d l e a r ni ng: H a r d t e c hnol ogi e s m e e t s of t s ki l l s F i r s t M onday 7 ( 8) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 5, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r s t m onda y. or g C l a gue J ( 2003 ) W ha t c a n e duc a t or s do t o be t t e r a c c om m oda t e c ul t ur a l l y di ve r s e l e a r ne r s i n onl i ne c om m uni t i e s ( D i s s e r t a t i on f or M a s t e r of A r t s R oya l R oa ds U ni ve r s i t y, 2003) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 5 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I C ol e S t e phe n ( F e b. 21 2003 ) W hy a r e n t m i no r i t y s t ude nt s be c om i ng pr of e s s or s ? C hr oni c l e of H i ghe r E duc at i on, 49 ( 24 ) 86. C r e e d, T ( 1997 ) E xt e ndi ng t he c l a s s r oom w a l l s e l e c t r oni c a l l y. I n W C a m pbe l l & K S m i t h ( E ds ) N e w par adi gm s f or c ol l e ge t e ac hi ng 149 184. E di na M N : I nt e r a c t i on B ook C o.

PAGE 151

143 C r os s K P ( 1981 ) A dul t s as l e ar ne r s : I nc r e as i n g par t i c i pat i on and f ac i l i t at i ng l e ar ni ng S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s de C a s t e l l S B r ys on, M & J e ns on, J ( 2002 ) O b j e c t l e s s ons : T ow a r ds a n e duc a t i ona l t he or y of t e c hnol ogy. F i r s t M onday 7( 8 ) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 5 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r s t m onda y. or g de M ont e s L O r a n, S W i l l i s E ( 2002) P ow e r l a ngua ge a nd i de nt i t y: V oi c e s f r om a n onl i ne c our s e C om put e r s and C om pos i t i on, 19 ( 3) 251 271 D e l pi t L ( 1995) O t he r pe opl e s c hi l dr e n: C ul t ur a l c onf l i c t i n t he c l as s r oom N e w Y or k: T he N e w P r e s s D e nz i n, N & L i nc ol n Y ( 2003 ) I nt r oduc t i on: T h e di s c i pl i ne a nd pr a c t i c e of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. St r at e gi e s of Q ual i t at i v e I nqui r y T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge D ol a n, K ( 2006) Q ua l i t a t i ve i nqui r y i n c r i t i c a l w h i t e ne s s s t udi e s 137 141. I n T ow ar ds a B i bl i ogr aph y of C r i t i c al W hi t e ne s s St udi e s U r ba n a C ha m pa i gn: U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i noi s E dw a r ds R ( 1998) A c r i t i c a l e xa m i na t i on of t he us e of i nt e r pr e t e r s i n t he qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s J our nal of E t hni c and M i gr at i on St udi e s 24 R e t r i e ve d M a y 1, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w que s t i a c om E l de n, M & L e vi n, M ( 1991 ) C oge ne r a t i ve l e a r n i ng: B r i ngi ng pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t o a c t i on r e s e a r c h. I n W i l l i a m F W hyt e 1991 P ar t i c i pat or y A c t i on R e s e ar c h ( pp. 127 142) N e w bur y P a r k: S a ge E nge r K ( 2006) O nl i ne e duc a t i on of f e r s a c ol or bl i nd e nvi r onm e nt t o e nga ge s t ude nt s f r om a l l ba c kgr ounds i n m e nt or e d l e a r ni ng E duc a us e Q uar t e r l y 29 ( 4) R e t r i e ve d M a y 1 2007 f r om w w w e duc a us e e du/ a pps / e q/ e qm 06/ e qm 0641. a s p

PAGE 152

144 F l a nne r y, D ( 1994) C ha ngi ng dom i na nt unde r s t a ndi ngs of a dul t s a s l e a r ne r s I n E H a ye s & S C ol l i ns I I I ( E ds ) C onf r ont i ng R a c i s m a nd S e xi s m N e w D i r e c t i ons f or A dul t and C ont i nui ng E duc at i on, 61 47 57 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s F l a nne r y, D ( 199 5) A dul t e duc a t i on a nd t he po l i t i c s of t he or e t i c a l t e xt I n B K a npol & P M c L a r e n ( E ds ) C r i t i c al M ul t i c ul t ur al i s m : U nc om m on V oi c e s i n a C om m on St r uggl e B e r gi n a nd G a r ve y: W e s t por t C T F o x S & L i v i n gs t on, G ( 2007) L at i nos onl i n e P e w H i s p a ni c C e nt e r R e t r i e v e d M a y 10, 2007, f r o m ht t p: / / pe w hi s pa ni c or g/ r e por t s / F r a nkl i n, U ( 1990) T he R e al W or l d of T e c hnol og y M ont r e a l : C B C E nt e r p r i s e s R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 5, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w m a s s e yl e c t ur e s c bc c a / M _A udi o. ht m l G a r r i s on, R & A r c he r W ( 2000 ) A t r ans ac t i onal pe r s pe c t i v e on t e ac hi ng and l e ar ni ng: A f r am e w or k f or adul t and hi ghe r e duc at i on U K : E l s e vi e r G a y, L & A i r a s i a n, P ( 2003) E duc at i ona l r e s e ar c h: C om pe t e nc i e s f or anal y s i s and appl i c at i on ( 7 t h e d. ) U ppe r S a ddl e R i ve r N J : P e a r s on E duc a t i on. G of f m a n, E ( 1986 ) F r am e A nal y s i s Y o r k, P A : M a pl e P r e s s G our l e y, B ( 2003 ) T he gl oba l c ha l l e nge I n M S l ow e y a nd D W a t s on ( E ds ) H i ghe r E duc at i on and t he L i f e c our s e 125 134 L ondon: O pe n U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s G ugl i e l m i no, L M ( 1977) D e ve l opm e nt o f t he s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r n i ng r e a di ne s s s c a l e ( D oc t or a l D i s s e r t a t i on, U ni ve r s i t y of G e or gi a ) D i s s e r t at i on A bs t r ac t s I nt e r nat i onal 38 6467A

PAGE 153

145 G ugl i e l m i no, L M ( 1997) R e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y of t he S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r n i ng R e a di ne s s S c a l e a nd t he L e a r ni ng P r e f e r e nc e A s s e s s m e nt ( L P A ) I n H B L ong ( E d. ) E x pandi ng H or i z ons i n Se l f D i r e c t e d L e ar ni ng N or m a n: P ubl i c M a na g e r s C e nt e r U ni ve r s i t y o f O kl a hom a G una r a t na m Y ( J ul y, 2006) T he p r oduc t i on o f di f f e r e nc e i n qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. E SR C R e s e ar c h M e t hods F e s t i c al 2006 R e t r i e ve d A p r i l 23, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w c c s r a c uk/ m e t hods / f e s t i va l / pr ogr a m m e / qr s / doc um e nt s / guna r a t na m ppt G una r a t na m Y ( 2003 ) R e s e ar c hi ng r ac e and e t hni c i t y : M e t hods k now l e dge and pow e r L ondon: S a ge G una w a r de na C L ow e C & A nde r s on, T ( 1997) A na l ys i s of a gl oba l onl i ne de ba t e a nd t he de ve l opm e nt of a n i nt e r a c t i on a na l ys i s m ode l f or e xa m i ni ng s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of know l e dge i n c om put e r c onf e r e nc i ng. J our nal of E duc at i onal C om put i ng R e s e ar c h, 17 ( 4) 397 431 H a m i l t on, K ( 2001 ) H i s t or i c a l l y bl a c k c ol l e ge s s t r i ve t o b r i ng c a m pus c om m uni t i e s up t o t e c hnol ogi c a l s pe e d. B l ac k I s s ue s i n H i ghe r E du c at i on 12 ( 2 ) 30 33 H a r a s i m L ( 2000 ) S hi f t ha ppe ns : O nl i ne e duc a t i on a s a ne w pa r a di gm i n l e a r ni ng I nt e r ne t and H i ghe r E duc at i on 3 ( 1 2) 41 61. H a r be c k J ( 2001) C om m uni t y c o l l e g e s t ude n t s t a k i ng on l i n e c our s e s : T he s t ud e n t po i n t o f v i e w R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 1, 2007 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I H e nde r s on, L ( 1996 ) I ns t r uc t i ona l de s i gn o f i nt e r a c t i ve m ul t i m e di a E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy R e s e ar c h and D e v e l opm e nt 44 ( 4 ) 85 104.

PAGE 154

146 H e nr i F ( 1992) C om put e r c onf e r e nc i ng a nd c ont e nt a na l ys i s I n A R K a ye ( E d) C ol l abor at i v e L e ar ni ng T hr ough C om put e r C onf e r e nc i ng: T he N aj ade n P ape r s 117 136. B e r l i n : S p r i nge r V e r l a g H e w K & C he ung, W ( 2003 ) M ode l s t o e va l ua t e onl i ne l e a r ni ng c om m uni t i e s of a s ync hr ono us di s c us s i on f or um s A us t r al i an J our n al of E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy 19 ( 2) 241 259. H i e m s t r a R ( 2006) H a s t he I nt e r ne t c ha nge d s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng? P a pe r pr e s e nt e d a t T he 20 t h I n t e r nat i onal Se l f di r e c t e d L e ar ni ng Sy m pos i um C oc oa B e a c h, F L : I nt e r na t i ona l S oc i e t y f or S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r ni ng. H i l l i e r S & R a c hm a n S ( 1996) C h i l dhood de ve l o pm e nt a nd be ha vi or a l a nd e m ot i ona l pr obl e m s a s p e r c e i ve d by B a ngl a de s hi pa r e nt s i n E a s t L ondon. I n D K e l l e he r & S H i l l i e r E ds R e s e ar c hi ng C ul t ur al D i f f e r e n c e s i n H e al t h L ondon : R out l e dge pp. 38 68. H oul e C ( 1961) T he i nqui r i ng m i nd M a di s on: U ni ve r s i t y of W i s c ons i n P r e s s H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b ( 2008 ) D i s t anc e L e ar ni ng B ui l d or B uy D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng R e por t #1 D e c e m be r 2005 ) R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 20, 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w dl l o r g/ F i l e s / W or ki ngP a pe r s ht m #D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng_F e b07 H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng L a b ( 2007) H B C U D i s t anc e L e ar ni ng 2007 H ow a r d U ni ve r s i t y. R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 1 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w dl l o r g/ H B C U s / D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng_F e b 2007/ H ow e l l R i c ha r ds on, C & M e l l a r H ( 1996 ) A m e t hodol ogy f or t he a na l ys i s of pa t t e r ns of pa r t i c i pa t i on w i t hi n c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m u n i c a t i on c our s e s I ns t r uc t i onal Sc i e nc e 24 47 69.

PAGE 155

147 H uds on, G ( 2005 ) A c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s of t he e f f e c t s of pe da gogi c a l a nd a ndr a gogi c a l i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hods on a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e of c om m uni t y c ol l e ge s t ude nt s ( D oc t or a l D i s s e r t a t i on. D e l t a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, 1996 ) H uf f m a n L e yva L ( 2005) A de s c r i pt i on of t he pe r c e pt i ons a nd a t t i t ude s of s t ude nt s a nd i ns t r uc t or s r e ga r di ng L a t i na s i n onl i ne i ns t r uc t i on a t t hr e e nor t he r n C a l i f o r ni a c om m uni t y c ol l e ge s R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 1 2007 f r o m P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I A A T 3174324. H unt e r M & N e t t l e s K ( 1999) W ha t a bout t he w hi t e w om e n? : R a c i a l pol i t i c s i n a w om e n s s t udi e s c l a s s r oom T e ac hi ng Soc i ol ogy ( 27) 4, 985 97 H ur t a do, S M i l e m J C l a yt on P e de r s on, A & A l l e n, W ( 1999 ) E na c t i ng d i ve r s e l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt s : I m pr ovi ng t he c l i m a t e f or r a c i a l / e t hni c di ve r s i t y i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. A SH E E R I C H i ghe r E duc at i on R e por t 26 ( 8) W a s hi ngt on, D C : T he G e or ge W a s hi ngt on U ni ve r s i t y G r a dua t e S c hool o f E duc a t i on a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt H yun, K ( 2004 ) W om e n a nd pl a c e : S pa t i a l be ha v i or s a nd l e a r ni ng i n a n on l i ne c l a s s ( D oc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on, P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, 2004) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I I ns t r uc t i ona l T e c hnol ogy C ounc i l ( I T C ) ( 2007) W e bs i t e i nt r oduc t i on. R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 1, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w i t c ne t w or k. o r g/ J a m e s W & B l a nk, W ( 1993) R e vi e w a nd c r i t i q ue of a va i l a bl e l e a r ni ng s t yl e i ns t r um e nt s f or a dul t s I n D F l a nne r y ( E d ) A ppl y i ng c ogni t i ve l e a r ni ng t he or y t o a dul t l e a r ni ng i ns t r um e nt s N e w D i r e c t i ons f or A dul t and C ont i nu i ng E duc at i on 59 47 57 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s

PAGE 156

148 J a ne s i c k, V ( 2003) T he c hor e ogr a phy of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h de s i gn: m i nue t s i m pr ovi s a t i ons a nd c r ys t a l l i z a t i on. I n D e nz i n, N & L i nc ol n, Y ( E ds ) St r at e gi e s of qual i t at i v e i nqu i r y S a ge : L ondon. J a ne s i c k, V ( 2004, 2 n d e d. ) S t r e t c hi ng e xe r c i s e s f or qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c he r s T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge J a s c hi k, S ( 2006 ) M i nor i t y ga i ns a nd ga ps I ns i de H i ghe r E d. R e t r i e ve d on A p r i l 1, 2007 f r om i ns i de hi ghe r e d. c om ht t p: / / w w w i ns i de hi ghe r e d. c om / ne w s / 2006/ 10/ 30/ m i nor i t i e s J ohns on B a i l e y, J & C e r ve r o R ( 2000 ) T he i nv i s i bl e pol i t i c s of r a c e i n a dul t e duc a t i on. H andbook of A dul t and C ont i nui ng E duc at i on: N e w E di t i on ( pp. 147 1 60 ) S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s J ohns on B a i l e y, J & C e r ve r o, R ( 1996) A n a na l ys i s of t he e duc a t i ona l na r r a t i ve s of r e e nt r y bl a c k w om e n A du l t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y 46 ( 3) 142 157. J ohns on B a i l e y, J T i s de l l E & C e r ve r o, R ( 199 4 ) R a c e ge nde r a nd t he pol i t i c s of pr of e s s i ona l i s m I n R B r oc ke t t & A K nox ( E ds ) N e w di r e c t i ons f or adul t and c ont i nui ng e duc at i on; C onf r ont i ng R ac i s m and Se x i s m 61 63 76. S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s J oo, J ( 1999 ) C ul t ur a l i s s ue s of t he I nt e r ne t i n c l a s s r o om s B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy 30 ( 3) 245 250 K a s w or m C ( 2003) A dul t m e a ni ng m a ki ng i n t he unde r gr a dua t e c l a s s r oom A dul t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y 53 ( 2) 81 98

PAGE 157

149 K a s w or m C & L ondone r C ( 2000) A dul t l e a r ni ng a nd t e c hnol ogy. I n A W i l s on & E H a ye s ( E ds ) H andbook of adul t and c ont i nui ng e duc at i on 224 241 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s K va l e S ( 1996 ) I nt e r v i e w s : A n i nt r oduc t i on t o qu al i t at i v e r e s e ar c h i nt e r v i e w i ng. T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge K e e t on, M ( 2004) B e s t onl i ne i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s : R e por t of pha s e I of a n ongoi ng s t udy. J our nal of A s y nc hr onous L e ar ni ng N e t w o r k s 8 ( 2 ) R e t r i e ve d J ul y 22 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ publ i c a t i ons / J A L N / v8n2/ v8n2_ke e t on. a s p K i l l i a n, J & W i l l h i t e G ( 2003) E l e c t r oni c di s c ou r s e i n pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on. J our nal of T e c hnol ogy and T e ac he r E duc at i on ( 11 ) 3, 377 395 K i m K K i m Y & K i m M ( 2005) A s t udy on de s i gn i nf or m a t i on s e a r c h p r oc e s s of c ons um e r be ha vi or i n onl i ne c om m uni t y w i t h a n e m pha s i s on de s i gn gui de l i ne us i ng qua l i t a t i ve m e t hod f or obs e r vi ng c ons um e r v oc a bul a r y. R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om G oogl e S c hol a r a t ht t p: / / s c hol a r googl e c om K i na ne S ( A pr i l 3 2008 ) U SF m i gh t c ons ol i dat e de par t m e nt s of W om e n s St udi e s A f r i c ana St udi e s I SL A C W M N F N e w s R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 4 200 8 f r om ht t p: / / w w w w m nf or g/ ne w s _s t or i e s / 5384 K i ng, F ( 2002) A vi r t ua l s t ude nt : N ot a n o r di na r y J oe I nt e r ne t & H i ghe r E duc at i on ( 5) 2, 157 166 K i ng, K ( 2002 ) E duc a t i ona l t e c hnol ogy pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a s t r a ns f or m a t i ve l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s C om put e r s & E duc at i on 3 9, 283 293

PAGE 158

150 K i r km a n, S C oughl i n, K & K r om r e y, J ( 2006 ) C or r e l a t e s of S a t i s f a c t i on a nd S uc c e s s i n S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r ni ng: R e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h S c hool E xp e r i e nc e C our s e F or m a t a nd I nt e r ne t U s e P a pe r p r e s e nt e d a t T he 20 t h I nt e r nat i onal Se l f di r e c t e d L e ar ni ng Sy m pos i um C oc oa B e a c h, F L : I nt e r na t i ona l S oc i e t y f or S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r ni ng K now l e s M ( 1986 ) U s i ng l e ar ni ng c ont r ac t s S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s K now l e s M ( 1975 ) Se l f di r e c t e d l e ar ni n g: a gui d e f or l e ar ne r s and t e ac he r s C hi c a go: F ol l e t t K now l e s M ( 1980 ) T he m ode r n pr ac t i c e of adul t e duc at i on: F r om pe dagogy t o andr agogy ( r e v. e d ) N e w Y or k : A s s oc i a t i on P r e s s K now l e s M ( 1984a ) A ndr agogy i n ac t i on S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s K now l e s M ( 1984b ) T he adul t l e ar ne r : A ne gl e c t e d s pe c i e s ( 3 r d E d. ) H ous t on, T X : G ul f P ubl i s hi ng. K now l e s M ( 1989 ) T he m ak i ng o f an adul t e duc at or S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s K oha l a C e nt e r ( 2005) E t hnobot any and E t hnopha r m ac ol ogy T he K oha l a C e nt e r K a m ue l a H a w a i i R e t r i e ve d S e pt e m be r 18 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w koha l a c e nt e r or g/ hi s p/ e t hnobot a ny s ht m l K ol ko, B N a ka m ur a L R odm a n, G ( 2000) R ac e i n c y be r s pac e N e w Y or k: R out l e dge K oz i ne t s R ( 2002 F e br ua r y) T he f i e l d be hi nd t h e s c r e e n: U s i ng ne t ogr a phy f o r m a r ke t i ng r e s e a r c h i n on l i ne c om m uni t i e s J our nal of M ar k e t i ng R e s e ar c h, 39 61 72. K r om r e y, J ( 1993 ) R e s e a r c h ne w s a nd c om m e nt : E t hi c s a nd da t a a na l ys i s E duc at i onal R e s e ar c he r 22 ( 4 ) 24 27.

PAGE 159

151 K r ys a n, M & C oupe r M ( 2006) R a c e of i nt e r vi e w e r e f f e c t s : W ha t ha ppe ns on t he w e b? I nt e r nat i onal J our nal of I nt e r ne t Sc i e nc e 1 ( 1) 17 28 L a l V ( 2003) C ul t ur a l di f f e r e nc e a nd i t s i n f l ue nc e on l e a r ni ng A us t r al i an F l e x i bl e L e ar ni ng C om m uni t y. R e t r i e ve d M a y 1, 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / c om m uni t y. f l e xi bl e l e a r ni ng. ne t a u/ t e a c hi ngT r a i ni ngL e a r ne r s / c ont e nt / a r t i c l e 4502. ht m L a t he r P ( 2003) T hi s i s you r f a t he r s pa r a di gm : G ove r nm e nt i nt r us i on a nd t he c a s e of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h i n e duc a t i on. G uba L e c t u r e A E R A Spe c i al I nt e r e s t G r oup: Q ual i t at i v e R e s e ar c h C hi c a go, I L A pr i l 2003. L a uz on, A C ( 1999) S i t ua t i ng c ogni t i on a nd c r os s i ng bor de r s : R e s i s t i ng t he he ge m ony of m e di a t e d e duc a t i on. B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i o nal T e c hnol ogy 30 ( 3 ) 261 276. L e a M & N i c ol l K ( 2002) D i s t r i but e d l e ar ni ng : Soc i al and c ul t ur al appr oac he s t o pr ac t i c e L ondon: R out l e dge L e i ni nge r M ( 1991) T r a ns c ul t ur a l nur s i ng: t he s t udy a nd pr a c t i c e f i e l d I m pr i nt 38 ( 2 ) 55 66. L i e vr ouw L ( 2001) I ns t r uc t i ona l m e di a a nd t he no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e phe nom e non. I C A N e w s J une R e t r i e ve d J ul y, 20, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / pol a r i s gs e i s uc l a e du/ l l i e vr ou/ I C A j une 01N S D s hor t pdf L e w i s A ( 2003) E ve r yda y r a c e m a ki ng: N a vi ga t i ng r a c i a l bounda r i e s i n s c hool s A m e r i c an B e hav i or al Sc i e nt i s t 47 ( 3) 283 305. L i m bur g F & C l a r k, C ( 2006) D i ve r s i t y I ni t i a t i v e s i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on: T e a c hi ng M ul t i c ul t ur a l E duc a t i on O nl i ne M ul t i c ul t ur al E du c at i on ( 13) 3, 49 55

PAGE 160

152 L i u, S ( 2006 ) A s ha r e d r e a l i t y ba s e d on a pe r c e i v e d phe nom e non: T he e f f e c t i ve c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r os s c ul t ur a l vi r t ua l t e a m s ( D oc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. W a l de n U ni ve r s i t y, 2006) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I L o ng, H ( 1983) A dul t l e ar ni ng, r e s e ar c h and pr ac t i c e N Y : C a m br i dge T he A dul t E duc a t i on C om pa ny. L ong, H ( 2006) T he m e s and T he s e s i n s e l f di r e c t e d l e ar ni ng. K e ynot e a ddr e s s : 20 t h I nt e r na t i ona l S e l f di r e c t e d L e a r ni ng S ym pos i um C oc o a B e a c h, F L : I nt e r n a t i ona l S oc i e t y f or S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r ni n g. M a he r F & T e t r a ul t M ( 1997) L e a r ni ng i n t he da r k: H ow a s s um pt i ons of W hi t e ne s s s ha pe c l a s s r oom know l e dge H ar v ar d E duc at i onal R e v i e w 67 321 347. M a he r F & T e t r a ul t M ( 2000) T he m a ki ng a nd unm a ki ng of w hi t e ne s s ge nde r a nd c l a s s i n c ol l e ge c l a s s r oom s I n N R odr i gue z & L V i l l a ve r de ( E ds ) D i s m ant l i ng W hi t e pr i v i l e ge : P e dagogy po l i t i c s a nd w hi t e ne s s ( pp. 158 177 ) N e w Y or k : P e t e r L a ng M a ngl i t z E ( 2003 ) C ha l l e ngi ng w hi t e p r i vi l e ge i n a du l t e duc a t i on: A c r i t i c a l r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e A du l t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y 53 ( 2) 1 19 134. M c M i l l a n, J & S c hum a c he r S ( 2001 ) R e s e ar c h i n e duc at i on: A c onc e pt ual i nt r oduc t i on ( 5 t h e d ) N Y : L ongm a n. M c H e nr y, W & P e r s on, C ( 2007 ) H i s t or i c al l y B l ac k c ol l e ge s and uni v e r s i t i e s : C at c hi ng t he f as t m ov i ng onl i ne l e ar ni ng t r ai n W C E T / S R E B F e a t ur e s S e s s i on. W C E T 19 t h A nnua l C onf e r e nc e E L e a r ni ng i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on: M a ki ng G ood on t he P r o m i s e s N ov. 7 10, 2007, A t l a nt a G A

PAGE 161

153 M c I ne r ne y, V M a r c h, H M c I ne r ne y, D ( 1999) T he de s i gni ng of t he c om put e r a nxi e t y a nd l e a r ni ng m e a s ur e ( C A L M ) : V a l i da t i on o f s c or e s on a m ul t i di m e ns i ona l m e a s ur e of a nxi e t y a nd c ondi t i ons r e l a t i ng t o a dul t l e a r ni ng o f c om put i ng s ki l l us i ng s t r uc t ur a l e qua t i on m ode l i ng E du c at i onal a nd P s y c hol ogi c al M e as ur e m e nt 59 ( 3 ) 451 470. M c I s a a c M & G una w a r de na N ( 1996) D i s t a nc e e duc a t i on. I n D J ona s s e n ( E d. ) H andbook of R e s e ar c h f or E duc at i onal C om m uni c at i ons and T e c hnol ogy 403 37. N e w Y or k: S i m on & S c hus t e r M a c m i l l a n. M c I s s a c M & T u, C ( 2002) T he R e l a t i ons hi p of S oc i a l P r e s e nc e a nd I nt e r a c t i on i n O nl i ne C l a s s e s A m e r i c an J our nal of D i s t anc e E duc at i on 16 ( 3) 131 150. M c L oughl i n, C & O l i ve r R ( 2000 ) D e s i gni ng l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt s f o r c ul t u r a l i nc l us i vi t y: A c a s e s t udy of i ndi ge nous onl i ne l e a r ni ng a t t e r t i a r y l e ve l A us t r al i an J our nal of E duc at i onal T e c hnol ogy 1 6 ( 1 ) 58 72 R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 30 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w a s c i l i t e or g a u/ a j e t / a j e t 16/ m c l oughl i n. h t m l M c T a gga r t R ( 1991) P r i nc i pl e s f o r pa r t i c i pa t o r y a c t i on r e s e a r c h. A dul t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y ( 41) 3, 168 187. M e r r i a m S ( 2001) A ndr a gogy a nd s e l f di r e c t e d l e a r ni ng: P i l l a r s of a dul t l e a r ni ng t he or y I n S M e r r i a m ( E d ) T he ne w upda t e on a dul t l e a r ni ng t he or y N e w D i r e c t i ons f or A dul t and C ont i nui n g E duc at i on, 89 3 14 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s M e r r i a m S & C a f f a r e l l a R ( 1999) L e ar ni ng i n adul t hood ( 2 nd E d ) S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s M e r r yf i e l d, M ( 2001 ) T he pa r a doxe s of t e a c hi ng a m ul t i c ul t ur a l c our s e onl i ne J our nal of T e ac he r E d uc at i on, 52 ( 4 ) 283 299.

PAGE 162

154 M oor e J ( 2005) T he S l oa n C ons or t i um qua l i t y f r a m e w or k a nd t he f i ve pi l l a r s T he Sl oan C ons or t i um R e t r i e ve d J ul y 20 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c o r g/ e f f e c t i ve / f r a m e w or k. a s p N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) ( 1998 A ugus t ) A dul t e duc a t i on pa r t i c i pa t i on de c i s i on a nd ba r r i e r s : R e vi e w of c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or ks a nd e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s W or k i ng P ape r N o. 98 10. R e t r i e ve d S e pt e m be r 11, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / nc e s e d. gov/ N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) ( 2002 F e br ua r y) P ar t i c i pat i on t r e nds and pat t e r ns i n adul t e duc at i on: 1991 1999. R e t r i e ve d S e pt e m be r 11 2006 f r om ht t p: / / nc e s e d. gov/ N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) ( 2005 S pr i ng) P a r t i c i pa t i on i n e duc a t i on: G r a dua t e a nd pr o f e s s i ona l e duc a t i on. D i ge s t of E duc at i on St at i s t i c s 2005 ( N C E S 2006 030) t a bl e s 18 7 188 a nd 206. D a t a f r om F a l l E nr ol l m e nt i n C ol l e ge s a nd U ni ve r s i t i e s s ur ve y, 1 976, a nd I nt e gr a t e d P os t s e c onda r y E duc a t i on D a t a S ys t e m ( I P E D S ) F a l l E n r ol l m e nt S ur ve y, U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, N C E S H i ghe r E duc a t i o n G e ne r a l I nf o r m a t i on S ur ve y ( H E G I S ) R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 1, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / nc e s e d. gov/ N a va r r o, P & S hoe m a ke r J ( 2000) P e r f or m a nc e a nd pe r c e pt i ons of di s t a nc e l e a r ne r s i n c ybe r s pa c e A m e r i c an J our nal of D i s t anc e E duc at i on, 14 ( 2 ) 15 35 P a ul us T & R obe r t s G ( 2006) L e a r ni ng t hr oug h di a l ogue : O nl i ne c a s e s t udi e s i n e duc a t i ona l ps yc hol ogy. J our nal of T e c hnol ogy an d T e ac he r E duc at i on 14 ( 4) 731 754.

PAGE 163

155 P e kow C ( 2007) F or p r of i t s c hool s popul a r de s t i na t i on f or m i nor i t i e s D i v e r s e I s s ue s i n H i ghe r E duc at i on. R e t r i e ve d J ul y 1, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w di ve r s e e duc a t i on. c om / a r t m a n/ publ i s h/ a r t i c l e _6911. ht m l P opp, D D onova n, R C r a w f or d, M M a r s h, K & P e e l e M ( 2003 ) G e nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd pow e r J our nal of Soc i al I s s ue s 57 ( 4) 763 78 1. P ow e r s E ( 2006) G r ow i ng popul a r i t y of e l e a r ni ng. E duc aus e R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 30 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e duc a us e e du P r yc e J ( 2000) H ow B l a c k a dul t l e a r ne r s a c hi e ve a c a de m i c s uc c e s s : A m ode l of a dul t e duc a t i on. ( D oc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. U ni ve r s i t y of C i nc i nna t i 2000) R e t r i e ve d O c t obe r 10, 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons an d T he s e s A & I Q ui gl e y, B ( 1997) T he r o l e of r e s e a r c h i n t he pr a c t i c e s of a dul t e duc a t i on. N e w D i r e c t i ons f or A dul t and C ont i nui ng E duc at i on 73 3 22 R hode s P ( 1994) R a c e of i nt e r v i e w e r e f f e c t s : A br i e f c om m e nt Soc i ol ogy 28 ( 2) 547 558. R oa c h, R ( 200 0 ) H B C U s s t r a t e gi z e on w a ys t o c l os e di gi t a l di vi de on t he i r c a m pus e s B l ac k I s s ue s i n H i ghe r E duc at i on 17 ( 2 0 ) 42 43 R obe r t s R ( 2004) C om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on pa t t e r ns i n on l i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt s ( D oc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. U ni ve r s i t y of S a n F r a nc i s c o, 2004) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om D i s s e r t at i ons a nd T he s e s A & I R oc c o, T & W e s t W ( 1998 ) D e c ons t r uc t i ng pr i vi l e ge : A n e xa m i na t i on o f pr i vi l e ge i n a dul t e duc a t i on. A dul t E duc at i on Q uar t e r l y 48 ( 3) 171 184.

PAGE 164

156 R oge r s S ( 2006 ) A na l ys i s of t he a c a de m i c di s c our s e c om m uni t y c ons t r uc t e d i n a c om put e r m e di a t e d a s ync hr onous l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt ( D oc t o r a l di s s e r t a t i on. U ni ve r s i t y of R oc he s t e r 2006 ) R e t r i e ve d N ove m b e r 1, 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I R os e A ( 1989 ) N ont r a di t i ona l e duc a t i on a nd t he a s s e s s m e nt of pr i or l e a r ni ng. I n I n S M e r r i a m & P C unni ngha m ( E ds ) H andbook of adul t and c ont i nui ng e duc at i on 211 220 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s R os e A ( 1999a ) N e w e duc a t i ona l t e c hnol ogi e s : C onne c t i on or a ut onom y? A dul t L e ar ni ng, 10 ( 4) 3 4 R os e n, L & W e i l M ( 2006 ) C om put e r a nxi e t y: A c r os s c ul t ur a l c om pa r i s on o f uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s i n t e n c ount r i e s C om put e r s i n H um an B e hav i or 11 ( 1) 45 64. R os s G or don, J ( 1999 ) G e nde r de ve l opm e nt a nd ge nde r e d a dul t de ve l opm e nt I n M C l a r k & R C a f f a r e l l a ( E ds ) A n upda t e on a dul t d e ve l opm e nt t he or y: N e w w a ys of t hi nki ng a bout t he l i f e c ou r s e N e w di r e c t i ons f or adul t and c ont i nui ng e duc at i on 84 29 37 S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s R os s G or don, J & B r ow n H a yw ood, F ( 2000 ) K e ys t o c ol l e ge s uc c e s s a s s e e n t hr ough t he e ye s of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a dul t s t ude nt s J our nal of C ont i nui ng H i ghe r E duc at i on, 48 ( 3 ) 14 23 R ova i A & G a l l i e n, L ( 2005 ) L e a r ni ng a nd s e ns e of c om m uni t y : A c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd C a uc a s i a n onl i ne gr a dua t e s t ude nt s T he J our nal of N e gr o E duc at i on 74 ( 1) 53 62. R us s e l l T ( 1999) N o s i gni f i c ant di f f e r e nc e phe nom e non R a l e i gh: N or t h C a r ol i na S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y.

PAGE 165

157 S a l ki nd, N ( 2000) E x pl or i n g R e s e ar c h. N e w J e r s e y: P r e nt i c e H a l l S a nt i a go O r t e ga A ( 2006) S uppo r t s e r vi c e s a nd a c a de m i c ne e ds : F unda m e nt a l e l e m e nt s gi ve n w he n onl i ne c our s e s a r e of f e r e d. ( D oc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. U ni ve r s i t y of P ue r t o R i c o, 2006 ) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1 200 6 f r o m P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I S a r l i n, D ( 2005) I nt e r a c t i vi t y a nd di f f e r e nc e / di ve r s i t y i n a di s t r i but e d onl i ne l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt : S e e ki ng pa t t e r ns i n e nga ge m e nt ( D o c t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y of N e w Y o r k a t A l ba ny, 2005 ) R e t r i e v e d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I S c hr um L & H ong, S ( 2002) D i m e ns i ons a nd s t r a t e gi e s f or onl i ne s uc c e s s : V oi c e s f r om e xpe r i e nc e d e duc a t or s J our nal of A s y nc hr onous L e ar ni ng N e t w or k s ( 6) 1 57 67. R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ publ i c a t i ons / j a l n/ v6n1/ v6n1_s c hr um a s p S he a r e d, V ( 1999 ) G i vi ng voi c e : I nc l us i on of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s pol yr hyt hm i c r e a l i t i e s i n a dul t ba s i c e duc a t i on. I n c ul t ur e a s c ont e xt f or a dul t e duc a t i on: T h e ne e d f o r c ul t ur a l l y r e l e va nt a dul t e duc a t i on ( G T a l m a dge E d. ) N e w D i r e c t i ons i n C ont i nui ng E duc at i on 82 33 48 S he a r e d, V ( 1994 ) G i vi ng voi c e : A n i nc l us i ve m o de l of i ns t r uc t i on a w om a ni s t pe r s pe c t i ve I n c onf r ont i ng r a c i s m a nd s e xi s m ( E H a ye s a n d S C ol i n, E ds ) N e w D i r e c t i ons i n C ont i nui ng E duc at i on 61 27 37 S hi n, N ( 2002) B e yond i nt e r a c t i on: T he r e l a t i ona l c ons t r uc t of t r a ns a c t i ona l pr e s e nc e O pe n L e ar ni ng, 17 ( 2 ) 121 136

PAGE 166

158 S hor e S ( 1997) T he w hi t e i n t he I : C ons t r uc t i on s of d i f f e r e nc e s a nd a dul t e duc a t i on. I n P A r m s t r ong ( E d. ) C r os s i ng bor de r s b r e a ki ng bounda r i e s R e s e a r c h i n t he e duc a t i on of a dul t s : A n i nt e r na t i ona l c on f e r e nc e P r oc e e di ngs of t he A nnual SC U T R E A C onf e r e nc e L ondon: U ni ve r s i t y of L on don. S hot t e r J ( 2 003) T he s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of r e m e m be r i ng a nd f or ge t t i ng I n G e r ge n a nd G e r ge n ( E ds ) Soc i al c ons t r uc t i on: A r e ade r ( 132 137) L ondon: S a ge S i nge r N ( 2004) D i a l ogue a nd di s c ove r y: A n e t h nogr a phi c s t udy of s t ude nt t e a c he r l i s t s e r v. ( D oc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. U n i ve r s i t y of M i s s our i S t L oui s 2004 ) R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i s s e r t at i ons and T he s e s A & I S i ngh, M ( 1996 ) M ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m pol i c y a nd t e a c hi ng. I n E H a t t on ( E d. ) U nde r s t andi ng T e ac hi ng: C ur r i c ul um and Soc i al C ont e x t of Sc hool i ng ( 293 301) M a r r i c kvi l l e A us t r a l i a : H a r c our t B r a c e & C om pa ny. S l a t t e r y, P ( 1995) C ur r i c ul um de v e l opm e nt i n t he pos t m ode r n e r a N Y : G a r l a nd. S l e e t e r C ( 1993 ) H ow w hi t e t e a c he r s c ons t r uc t r a c e I n C M c C a r t hy a nd W C r i c hl ow ( E ds ) R ac e I de nt i t y and R e pr e s e nt at i on i n E duc at i on ( 151 171 ) N e w Y or k: R out l e dge S l oa n C ons or t i um ( 2006 ) Sl oan c ons or t i um w e bs i t e i nt r oduc t i on R e t r i e ve d O c t obe r 1, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ S m e dl e y, A ( 1993 ) R ac e i n N or t h A m e r i c a B oul de r C O : W e s t vi e w P r e s s S ong, L S i ng l e t on, E H i l l J K oh, M ( 2004) I m pr ovi ng onl i ne l e a r ni ng: S t ude nt pe r c e pt i o ns of us e f ul a nd c ha l l e ngi ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I nt e r ne t and H i ghe r E duc at i on 7 59 70

PAGE 167

159 S out he r n R e gi ona l E l e c t r oni c B oa r d ( S R E B ) 2007 F ac t B ook on H i ghe r E duc at i on, 50 t h A nni v e r s ar y E di t i on. R e t r i e ve d J ul y 24 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s r e b. or g/ m a i n/ E dD a t a / F a c t B ook/ f a c t b ooki nde x. a s p S out he r n R e gi ona l E l e c t r oni c B oa r d ( S R E B ) 2007 T he SR E B St at e D oc t or al Sc hol ar s P r ogr am R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 20, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s r e b. or g/ p r ogr a m s / ds p/ ds pi nde x. a s p S pi c ka r d, J ( 2006 ) H ow t o c hoos e a r e s e ar c h m e t hod: A qui c k and di r t y gui de R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 20 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w m c gui r e s pi c ka r d. c om / F i e l di ng/ doc um e nt s ht m S pr e a dbur y, S ( F a l l 2006) [ R e vi e w of t he book O ur unde r ac hi e v i ng c ol l e ge s : A c andi d l ook at how m uc h s t ude nt s l e ar n and w hy t he y s houl d be l e ar ni ng m or e C ont i nui ng H i ghe r E duc at i on R e v i e w 70 181 193 T a na ka G ( 2002 ) H i ghe r e duc a t i on s s e l f r e f l e xi ve t ur n: t ow a r d a n i nt e r c ul t ur a l t he or y of s t ud e nt de ve l opm e nt J our nal of H i ghe r E duc at i on, 73 ( 2) 263 296. T a yl or P ow e l l E & R e nne r M ( 2003 ) A nal y z i n g Q ual i t at i v e D at a B ul l e t i n G 3658 12, U ni ve r s i t y of W i s c ons i n E xt e ns i on, C oope r a t i ve E xt e ns i on, P r og r a m D e ve l opm e nt & E va l ua t i on M a di s on, W i s c o ns i n. T i nt o, V ( 1993) L e av i ng c ol l e ge : R e t hi nk i ng t he c aus e s and c ur e s of s t ude nt at t r i t i on C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s T ough, A ( 1967) L e ar ni ng w i t hout a t e ac he r : A s t udy of t as k s and as s i s t anc e dur i ng adul t s e l f t e ac hi ng pr oj e c t s T o r ont o: T he O nt a r i o I ns t i t ut e f or S t udi e s i n E duc a t i on.

PAGE 168

160 T ough, A ( 2006) P r oc e e di ngs of t he 20 t h I nt e r nat i onal Se l f di r e c t e d L e ar ni ng Sy m pos i um : T he P e r s onal St or y of A l l e n T ough M ode r a t or R D ona ghy. C oc oa B e a c h, F L : I nt e r na t i ona l S oc i e t y f or S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r ni ng. T ur ne r C M ye r s S J r & C r e s w e l l J ( 1999 ) E xpl or i ng unde r r e pr e s e nt a t i on: T he c a s e of i ns t r uc t or s o f c ol o r i n t he M i dw e s t J our nal of H i ghe r E duc at i on, 70 ( 1 ) 27 5 9 T w i ne F ( 2006 ) R a c i s m i n a r a c i a l de m oc r a c y: T he m a i nt e na nc e of a w hi t e s upr e m a nc y i n B r a z i l N e w J e r s e y: R ut ge r s U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s T w i ne F & W a r r e n, J ( 2000) R ac i ng r e s e ar c h, r e s e ar c hi ng r ac e : M e t hodol ogi c al di l e m m as i n c r i t i c al r ac e s t udi e s N e w Y or k: U ni v e r s i t y P r e s s U ni t e d N e gr o C ol l e ge F und ( U N C F ) ( 2006 ) I m pa c t A nnua l R e por t 2006 U N C F R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 1 2007 f r om ht t p: / / gi ve unc f or g/ U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2004 ) T r e nds i n e duc at i onal E qui t y of gi r l s and w om e n: 2004. R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 10 2008 f r om ht t p: / / nc e s e d. gov/ pubs 2005/ e qui t y/ S e c t i on8. a s p U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t he r n Q ue e ns l a nd, T oow oom ba C a m pus ( 2005) A ddr e s s i ng I ndi ge nous L e ar ni ng St y l e s : I m pl i c at i ons f or T e ac hi ng and L e ar ni ng. U S C A us t r a l i a c ur r i c ul um R e t r i e ve d S e pt 26, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w us q. e du. a u/ l t s u/ t i m e t a bl e / c ont e nt / a r c hc our s e s / a c 0009. ht m W a ng, M ( 2004a ) C or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys i s of s t ude nt vi s i bi l i t y a nd pe r f o r m a nc e i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng. J our nal of A s y n c hr onous L e ar ni ng N e t w or k s 8 ( 4) R e t r i e ve d M a y 1 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ publ i c a t i ons / j a l n/ v8n4/ v8n4_w a ng. a s p W a ng, M ( 2004b) D e s i gni ng on l i ne c our s e s t ha t e f f e c t i ve l y e nga ge l e a r ne r s f r o m d i ve r s e c ul t ur a l ba c kgr ounds B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i on al T e c hnol ogy 38 ( 2) 294 311

PAGE 169

161 W a ng, M ( 2007) D e s i gni ng onl i ne c ou r s e s t ha t e f f e c t i ve l y e nga ge l e a r ne r s f r om di ve r s e c ul t ur a l ba c kgr ounds B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i o nal T e c hnol ogy 38 ( 2) 294 311 W a ng, M S i e r r a C a nd F ol ge r T ( 2003) B ui l di ng a dyna m i c onl i ne l e a r ni ng c om m uni t y a m ong a dul t l e a r ne r s E duc at i onal M e di a I nt e r nat i onal ( S pe c i a l I s s ue : c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on) 40 1/ 2 49 61 W e ge r i f R ( 19 98 ) T he s oc i a l di m e ns i on of a s ync hr onous l e a r ni ng ne t w or ks J our nal of A s y nc hr onous L e ar ni ng N e t w o r k s 2 ( 1) 34 49 R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 2 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c o r g/ pub l i c a t i ons / j a l n/ v2n 1/ v2n1 w e ge r i f a s p W e i t z R & G or don L ( 1993) I m a ge s of bl a c k w om e n a m ong A ngl o c ol l e ge s t ude nt s Se x R ol e s : A J our nal of R e s e ar c h, 28 ( 1 ) 19 34. W i l d, M & H e nde r s on, L ( 1997 ) C ont e xt ua l i z i ng l e a r ni ng i n t he W or l d W i de W e b: A c c ou nt i ng f or t he i m pa c t o f c ul t u r e E duc at i on a nd I nf or m at i on T e c hnol ogi e s 2 ( 3) 179 192. W i l l gi ng, P & J ohns on, S ( 2004) F a c t or s t ha t i nf l ue nc e s t ude nt s de c i s i on t o dr opout [ s i c ] of onl i ne c our s e s J our nal of A s y nc hr onous L e ar ni ng N e t w or k s ( 8 ) 4. R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 1, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s l oa n c or g/ publ i c a t i ons / j a l n/ v8n4/ v8n4_w i l l gi ng. a s p W oods R ( 2002 ) H ow m uc h c om m uni c a t i on i s e nough i n onl i ne c our s e s ? E xpl or i ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n f r e que nc y of i ns t r uc t or i ni t i a t e d pe r s ona l e m a i l a nd l e a r ne r s pe r c e pt i ons of a nd pa r t i c i pa t i on i n onl i ne l e a r ni ng. I nt e r nat i ona l J our nal of I ns t r uc t i onal M e di a 29 ( 4) 377 395.

PAGE 170

162 A ppe ndi x A S t ude nt O nl i ne L e a r ni ng E xpe r i e nc e S ur ve y

PAGE 171

163 S t u d e n t O n l i n e L e a r n i n g E x p e r i e n c e S u r v e y F i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r t i m e A s a f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t I k n o w j u s t h o w v a l u a b l e a c o m m o d i t y t h a t i s a n d i t t a k e s n o l o n g e r t h a n 1 5 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h i s s u r v e y T h i s s t u d y i s f o c u s e d o n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s o f c o l o r a p r e s e n c e w h i c h I h a d d i f f i c u l t y l o c a t i n g i n t h e p l e n t i f u l a n d p r e v a l e n t l i t e r a t u r e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n Y o u r p e r s o n a l c o m m e n t s a r e c r i t i c a l t o t h i s r e s e a r c h ; p l e a s e a d d y o u r s t o r i e s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h o u g h t s i n t h e s p a c e p r o v i d e d P l e a s e b e a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u p r o v i d e i n t h e s u r v e y w i l l n o t b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y o u r s p e c i f i c d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s I n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s w i l l r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l ; I w i l l b e e x a m i n i n g d e m o g r a p h i c s a n d s u r v e y r e s p o n s e s f r o m a g r o u p p e r s p e c t i v e 1 E t h n i c i t y : ) Tj ETQ Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000123.84 537.6 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( B l a c k o r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n /Cs1cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 276 537.6 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.01 Tf ( A m e r i c a n I n d i a n o r A l a s k a N a t i v e ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.7212.00006 341.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84525.36 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( H i s p a n i c ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n/Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 276 525.36 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( W h i t e ) TjET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 00 0.2400000 123.84 513.1201 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( A s i a n / P a c i f i c I s l a n d e r ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 276 513.1201 cm BT 410 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( O r p l e a s e d e s c r i b e y o u r e t h n i c i t y 2 G e n d e r : ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.00006 95.52002768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 461.52 537.84 cm BT41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F3.0 1 Tf ( M a l e ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 461.52 526.08 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1Tf ( F e m a l e 3 P l e a s e D e s c r i b e y o u r O n l i n e E x p e r i e n c e : H o w m a n y o n l i n e g r a d u a t e l e v e l f o r c r e d i t c l a s s e s h a v e y o u c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g y o u r P o s t B a c c a l a u r e a t e c o u r s e w o r k ? _ _ _ _ _ H o w m a n y g r a d u a t e l e v e l c l a s s e s h a v e y o u t a k e n d u r i n g y o u r P o s t B a c c a l a u r e a t e c o u r s e w o r k t h a t w e r e b l e n d e d ( o n l i n e + f a c e t o f a c e ) o r i n c l u d e w e b b a s e d a c t i v i t y s u c h a s o n l i n e d i s c u s s i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o c l a s s r o o m a t t e n d a n c e ? _ _ _ _ _ P l e a s e r a t e t h e c o m p u t e r e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r t i s e y o u b r o u g h t t o t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t : ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 339.1201 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm/F1.0 1 Tf ( N o v i c e L i m i t e d c o m p u t e r e x p e r i e n c e g o i n g i n t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s l i m i t e d I n t e r n e t u s e i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e ; o f t e n n e e d e d h e l p w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n/Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 292.32 cm BT 41 0 0 41 00 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( C o m f o r t a b l e O f t e n u s e d t h e c o m p u t e r i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s t h e r e f o r e c o n f i d e n t w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ; r a r e l y n e e d e d h e l p w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ) Tj ET QQ q 102.72 12.00006 341.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000123.84 234 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( E x p e r t F r e q u e n t a n d s o m e t i m e s a d v a n c e d c o m p u t e r u s e i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e ( e x : P h o t o s h o p c r e a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l W e b p a g e o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s ; h e l p e d o t h e r s o r t o o k a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n g r o u p s w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s 4 A g e : ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.0000695.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 462.96 465.6cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 2 0 2 9 )Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.24000000 0 0.2400000 462.96 453.36 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 3 0 3 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 462.96 441.1201 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.01 Tf ( 4 0 4 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.0000695.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 462.96 428.64cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 5 0 5 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 462.96 416.4001 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf( 6 0 6 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 444.24 12.00006 95.52002768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 462.96 404.16 cm BT41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( O v e r 7 0 T h a n k y o u f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s p o r t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y T h e n e x t p a r t o f t h e s u r v e y a s k s b r i e f l y a b o u t y o u r o n l i n e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t B e c a u s e l e a r n i n g i s a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i t w i l l b e g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d i f y o u w i l l i n c l u d e y o u r p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d p e r s p e c t i v e a s y o u a n s w e r t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s I h o p e t o r e f l e c t y o u r p r e s e n c e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a l o n g w i t h y o u r r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s I v e p o s e d Y o u r c o l l e c t i v e c a n d i d c o m m e n t s w i l l p r o v i d e a w e l c o m e a n d n e e d e d a d d i t i o n t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e P l e a s e u s e a s m u c h s p a c e a s y o u w i s h a n d b e a s s u r e d t h a t a n y s t o r i e s y o u a r e w i l l i n g t o s h a r e w i l l n o t b e l i n k e d t o y o u r p e r s o n a l d e m o g r a p h i c s i n a n y w a y

PAGE 172

164 P l e a s e t h i n k a b o u t y o u r o n l i n e c l a s s e s a s o p p o s e d t o f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s : 1 I n y o u r o p i n i o n t o w h a t e x t e n t d i d t h e o n l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e a p l a c e w h e r e y o u c o u l d m o r e e a s i l y e x p r e s s y o u r o p i n i o n s o r c r i t i q u e s a d d r e s s i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f w h i t e n o r m s a s o p p o s e d t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d b y a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r o o m ? N o t a t a l l M i n i m a l l y O n l i n e a n d F a c e t o F a c e E n v i r o n m e n t s P r o v i d e d t h e S a m e O p p o r t u n i t i e s S o m e w h a t T o a g r e a t e x t e n t P l e a s e s h a r e a c o m m e n t a b o u t w h y y o u a n s w e r e d a s y o u d i d a n d p r o v i d e a n e x a m p l e 2 I s c h a l l e n g i n g o r c r i t i q u i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f w h i t e n o r m s w i t h i n o n l i n e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s i m p o r t a n t t o y o u ? N o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l M i n i m a l l y i m p o r t a n t N e i t h e r i m p o r t a n t n o r u n i m p o r t a n t S o m e w h a t i m p o r t a n t V e r y i m p o r t a n t P l e a s e s h a r e a c o m m e n t a b o u t w h y y o u a n s w e r e d a s y o u d i d a n d p r o v i d e a n e x a m p l e 3 I f y o u c o u l d o f f e r d i s t a n c e l e a r n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s a n d d e s i g n e r s a d v i c e a b o u t p r o v i d i n g a n o n l i n e c o u r s e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h f u l l y c o n s i d e r s t h e v o i c e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s o f p e r s o n s o f c o l o r w h a t w o u l d i t b e ? 4 P l e a s e s h a r e a s t o r y y o u c o n s i d e r s p e c i f i c t o y o u r e x p e r i e n c e a s a s t u d e n t o f c o l o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o r c o m m e n t a b o u t a n e x p e r i e n c e o r i s s u e n o t a d d r e s s e d i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h f o r y o u r t i m e I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h i s s u r v e y o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t p l e a s e c o n t a c t m e : M a r i e B o y e t t e M A m b o y e t t e @ a d m i n u s f e d u ( 8 1 3 ) 9 7 4 0 4 0 5 U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a 4 2 0 2 E a s t F o w l e r A v e S V C 1 0 7 2 T a m p a F L 3 3 6 2 0 6 9 1 0

PAGE 173

165 A ppe ndi x B I ns t r uc t or O nl i ne T e a c hi ng E xpe r i e nc e S ur ve y

PAGE 174

166 I n s t r u c t o r O n l i n e T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e S u r v e y F i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r t i m e I k n o w j u s t h o w v a l u a b l e a c o m m o d i t y t h a t i s a n d i t t a k e s n o l o n g e r t h a n 1 5 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h i s s u r v e y T h i s s t u d y i s f o c u s e d o n s t u d e n t s o f c o l o r i n t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a p r e s e n c e w h i c h I h a d d i f f i c u l t y l o c a t i n g i n t h e p l e n t i f u l a n d p r e v a l e n t l i t e r a t u r e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n Y o u r p e r s o n a l c o m m e n t s a r e c r i t i c a l t o t h i s r e s e a r c h ; p l e a s e a d d y o u r s t o r i e s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h o u g h t s i n t h e s p a c e p r o v i d e d P l e a s e b e a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u p r o v i d e i n t h e s u r v e y w i l l n o t b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y o u r s p e c i f i c d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s I n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s w i l l r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l ; I w i l l b e e x a m i n i n g d e m o g r a p h i c s a n d s u r v e y r e s p o n s e s f r o m a g r o u p p e r s p e c t i v e 1 E t h n i c i t y : ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 549.1201 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm/F1.0 1 Tf ( B l a c k o r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n ) Tj ETQ Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000276 549.1201 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( A m e r i c a n I n d i a n o r A l a s k a N a t i v e ) TjET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 00 0.2400000 123.84 536.8801 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( H i s p a n i c ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 276 536.8801cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( W h i t e ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 scq 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 524.6401 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf( A s i a n / P a c i f i c I s l a n d e r ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 276 524.6401cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( O r p l e a s e d e s c r i b e y o u r e t h n i c i t y 2 G e n d e r : ) Tj ET Q Qq 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000455.52 549.36 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F3.0 1 Tf ( M a l e ) Tj ET Q Q q 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 455.52 537.6 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm/F1.0 1 Tf ( F e m a l e 3 H o w m a n y o n l i n e c l a s s e s h a v e y o u t a u g h t ? H o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n t e a c h i n g o n l i n e c l a s s e s ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e y o u r p e r s o n a l O n l i n e E x p e r i e n c e : H o w m a n y g r a d u a t e l e v e l c l a s s e s h a v e y o u p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s a s t u d e n t t h a t w e r e b l e n d e d ( o n l i n e + f a c e t o f a c e ) o r i n c l u d e w e b b a s e d a c t i v i t y s u c h a s o n l i n e d i s c u s s i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o c l a s s r o o m a t t e n d a n c e ? P l e a s e r a t e t h e c o m p u t e r e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r t i s e y o u b r o u g h t t o t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t : ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04 768 reW n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 361.6801 cm BT 41 00 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( N o v i c e L i m i t e d c o m p u t e r e x p e r i e n c e g o i n g i n t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s l i m i t e d I n t e r n e t u s e i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e ; o f t e n n e e d e d h e l p w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 scq 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 314.64 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf( C o m f o r t a b l e O f t e n u s e d t h e c o m p u t e r i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s t h e r e f o r e c o n f i d e n t w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ; r a r e l y n e e d e d h e l p w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ) Tj ET Q Q q 102.72 12.00006 335.04768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 123.84 256.32 cm BT41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( E x p e r t F r e q u e n t a n d s o m e t i m e s a d v a n c e d c o m p u t e r u s e i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e ( e x : P h o t o s h o p c r e a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l W e b p a g e o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s ; h e l p e d o t h e r s o r t o o k a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n g r o u p s w i t h o n l i n e a s s i g n m e n t s 4 A g e : ) Tj ET Q Q q 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 456.96 488.16 cm BT 41 00 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 2 0 2 9 ) TjET Q Q q 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.24000000 0 0.2400000 456.96 475.6801 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 3 0 3 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 456.96 463.44 cm BT 41 00 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 4 0 4 9 ) Tj ET Q Qq 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000456.96 451.2 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( 5 0 5 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 438.24 12.00006 95.52002 768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 456.96 438.7201 cm BT 41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf( 6 0 6 9 ) Tj ET Q Q q 438.24 12.00006 95.52002768 re W n /Cs1 cs 0 0 0 sc q 0.2400000 0 0 0.2400000 456.96 426.48 cm BT41 0 0 41 0 0 Tm /F1.0 1 Tf ( O v e r 7 0 T h a n k y o u f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s p o r t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y T h e n e x t p a r t o f t h e s u r v e y a s k s b r i e f l y a b o u t y o u r o n l i n e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t B e c a u s e t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g a r e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i t w i l l b e g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d i f y o u w i l l i n c l u d e y o u r p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d p e r s p e c t i v e a s y o u a n s w e r t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s I h o p e t o r e f l e c t y o u r p r e s e n c e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a l o n g w i t h y o u r r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s I v e p o s e d Y o u r c o l l e c t i v e c a n d i d c o m m e n t s w i l l p r o v i d e a w e l c o m e a n d n e e d e d a d d i t i o n t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e P l e a s e u s e a s m u c h s p a c e a s y o u w i s h a n d b e a s s u r e d t h a t a n y s t o r i e s y o u a r e w i l l i n g t o s h a r e w i l l n o t b e l i n k e d t o y o u r p e r s o n a l d e m o g r a p h i c s i n a n y w a y

PAGE 175

167 P l e a s e t h i n k a b o u t y o u r o n l i n e c l a s s e s a s o p p o s e d t o f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s : 1 I n y o u r o p i n i o n t o w h a t e x t e n t d i d t h e o n l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e a p l a c e w h e r e y o u c o u l d m o r e e a s i l y e x p r e s s y o u r o p i n i o n s o r c r i t i q u e s a d d r e s s i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f w h i t e n o r m s a s o p p o s e d t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d b y a f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s r o o m ? N o t a t a l l M i n i m a l l y O n l i n e a n d F a c e t o F a c e E n v i r o n m e n t s P r o v i d e d t h e S a m e O p p o r t u n i t i e s S o m e w h a t T o a g r e a t e x t e n t P l e a s e s h a r e a c o m m e n t a b o u t w h y y o u a n s w e r e d a s y o u d i d a n d p r o v i d e a n e x a m p l e 2 I s c h a l l e n g i n g o r c r i t i q u i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f w h i t e n o r m s w i t h i n o n l i n e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s i m p o r t a n t t o y o u ? N o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l M i n i m a l l y i m p o r t a n t N e i t h e r i m p o r t a n t n o r u n i m p o r t a n t S o m e w h a t i m p o r t a n t V e r y i m p o r t a n t P l e a s e s h a r e a c o m m e n t a b o u t w h y y o u a n s w e r e d a s y o u d i d a n d p r o v i d e a n e x a m p l e 4 I f y o u c o u l d o f f e r d i s t a n c e l e a r n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s a n d d e s i g n e r s a d v i c e a b o u t p r o v i d i n g a n o n l i n e c o u r s e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h f u l l y c o n s i d e r s t h e v o i c e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s o f p e r s o n s o f c o l o r w h a t w o u l d i t b e ? 5 P l e a s e s h a r e a s t o r y y o u c o n s i d e r s p e c i f i c t o y o u r e x p e r i e n c e a s a n i n s t r u c t o r o f c o l o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e o n l i n e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o r c o m m e n t a b o u t a n e x p e r i e n c e o r i s s u e n o t a d d r e s s e d i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h f o r y o u r t i m e I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h i s s u r v e y o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t p l e a s e c o n t a c t m e : M a r i e B o y e t t e M A m b o y e t t e @ a d m i n u s f e d u ( 8 1 3 ) 9 7 4 0 4 0 5 U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a 4 2 0 2 E a s t F o w l e r A v e S V C 1 0 7 2

PAGE 176

168 A ppe ndi x C W or d L i s t

PAGE 177

169 W or d L i s t B l a c k N e ve r C a r e N e ve r a ny di s c us s i on C ha l l e nge N e ve r be e n C ha l l e nge d N e ve r ha d be e n C ha l l e ngi ng N on C ont r ove r s i a l N ot a ddr e s s e d D i d not N ot e a s i l y D i d not c ons i de r N ot s e ns i t i ve D i d not i nt e nd N ot s ha r e d D i d not t a ke i n t o c ons i de r a t i on O pi ni on D i s c us s P e r s pe c t i ve D i ve r s e P r e f e r D i ve r s i t y R a c i s m D om i na n t R e m ove s i nt i m i da t i on f a c t or E nga ge R e pr e s e nt a t i ve E nj oy R e s pe c t E xpr e s s S e ns i t i ve G r a vi t y S ha r e I de nt i t y T r a ns l a t e d I m por t a nt U nc om f or t a bl e I nf or m U ni que I ns i s t V a l ue s I s s ue s V oi c e l e s s M i nor i t i e s W hi t e M i nor i t y

PAGE 178

170 A ppe ndi x D E xa m pl e of S ur ve y R e s pons e s t o O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i ons

PAGE 179

171 E xa m pl e of S ur ve y R e s pons e s t o O pe n E nde d Q ue s t i ons I f e l t t ha t t he i ns t r uc t or di d not m a ke hi m s e l f a va i l a bl e t o m y que s t i ons or c onc e r ns a nd I m i s s e d t he c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i on. I a l s o f ound t ha t t he r e w e r e a ddi t i ona l c our s e r e qu i r e m e nt s t ha t m i ght ha ve be e n a bs e nt i n a c l a s s r oom ba s e d c our s e I kne w t he i ndi vi dua l s i n m y onl i ne c l a s s e s a nd di d not w a nt m y c l a s s m a t e s t o j udge m e H ow e ve r i n one of m y c om pl e t e on l i ne c l a s s e s I f e l t f i ne w i t h e xpr e s s i ng m y opi ni ons be c a us e I di d not a c t ua l l y know t he pe opl e T he w r i t t e n w or d c a n s om e t i m e s be m i s i nt e r pr e t e d be c a us e of t he l a c k o f ve r ba l a nd body l a ngua ge I ha ve ha d ve r y ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h onl i ne e duc a t i on, pr i m a r i l y B E C A U S E of t he l a c k of hum a n c ont a c t I t i s t oo e a s y t o m i s unde r s t a nd t one of voi c e or m a ke i nc or r e c t a s s um pt i ons due t o l a c k of f a c i a l e xpr e s s i on. T he r e i s no r e pl a c e m e nt f or f a c e t o f a c e i nt e r a c t i on. M y gr a dua t e c l a s s e s w e r e w i t h a s m a l l c ohor t o f 1 1 pe opl e w ho ha d a l l t he s a m e c l a s s e s t oge t he r a l l t he t i m e M y c om f or t l e ve l w i t h t he m w a s t he s a m e onl i ne a s i t w a s f a c e t o f a c e W hi l e onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s m a y e nc our a ge s om e p e opl e t o e xpr e s s vi e w s t he y m a y not be c om f or t a bl e w i t h i n pe r s on, I f e e l t ha t w i t hout t he f e e dba c k of a f a c e t o f a c e e nc ount e r I m a y a c t ua l l y be m or e c a ut i ous a bout a ddr e s s i ng a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s M y c l a s s e s ha ve be e n pa r t l y onl i ne a nd pa r t l y l i ve s o I w oul dn't s a y a nyt hi ng di f f e r e nt onl i ne t ha n I w oul d i n t he c l a s s r oom be c a us e I 'l l s t i l l ha ve t o s e e t he i ns t r uc t or a nd m y c l a s s m a t e s i n pe r s on. I t m i ght be di f f e r e nt f or s t ude nt s w ho t a ke c l a s s e s t ha t a r e w hol l y onl i ne T he onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt w a s not ut i l i z e d ve r y w e l l f or c our s e s I n a ddi t i on s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t e d onl i ne be c a us e i t w a s pa r t of t he gr a de not by pe r s ona l c h oi c e O nl i ne of f e r s m a ybe a l i t t l e bi t l e s s of a c ha nc e t o c om m uni c a t e t ha n F a c e t o f a c e W hi l e t he onl i ne c om m uni t y i s a nonym ous I f e e l t ha t not know i ng m y c l a s s m a t e s phys i c a l l y pr e ve nt e d m e f r om c om m uni c a t i ng a t a de e pe r m o r e pe r s ona l l e ve l M i s s i n g t he non ve r ba l f e e dba c k gr e a t l y a f f e c t s m y onl i ne c om m un i c a t i ons I n a ny c a s e I 'm a l w a ys c ons c i ous t ha t onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on i s pe r m a ne nt I t c a n be c opy a nd pa s t e d a nd pa s s e d on. O n t he ot he r ha nd f a c e t o f a c e c om m uni c a t i on s l a c k t ha t pe r m a ne nc e s o I m m o r e w i l l i ng t o t a ke r i s ks i n f a c e t o f a c e c our s e s t ha n on l i ne I a m e qua l l y c om f or t a bl e e xpr e s s i ng m y opi ni ons onl i ne a nd f a c e t o f a c e

PAGE 180

172 T he c l a s s I w a s t a ki ng onl i ne di d no t i nc l ude pa r t i c ul a r s i t ua t i ons f or t hi s s or t of di s c us s i on, s o t he r e w a s m or e oppor t uni t y i n t he f a c e t o f a c e s i t ua t i ons I s pe a k m y m i nd a nd t o t he t opi c a nd do not ha ve di f f i c ul t y e xp r e s s i ng m y opi ni ons M y onl i ne c l a s s e s r e qui r e d ve r y l i t t l e s t ude nt t o s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i on, s o t he que s t i on r e a l l y w a s n't ge r m a ne I a m a l r e a dy qui t e c om f o r t a bl e s ha r i ng m y vi e w s i n m os t c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt s ; how e ve r I r a r e l y c r i t i que ot he r s I ge ne r a l l y s ha r e i de a s a nd pr ovi de pos i t i ve f e e dba c k. I ha ve not ha d s uc h a n e xpe r i e nc e but i t i s a n a s s um pt i on t ha t m os t m a y f e e l m or e c om f or t a bl e e xpr e s s i ng opi ni ons w i t hout a pe r s ona l i nt e r a c t i on. S om e t i m e s i t 's e a s i e r t o ga t he r your t hought s a nd e xpr e s s your s e l f m or e p r e c i s e l y onl i ne W he n you ha ve t i m e t o t hi nk a nd phr a s e t hi ngs j us t e xa c t l y t he w a y you w a nt t o m a ke a s pe c i f i c poi nt L i ke r i gh t now : ) I f you ha ve a n opi ni on you s houl d f e e l f r e e t o e xp r e s s i t w he t he r onl i ne or f a c e t o f a c e I a m not a s hy pe r s on, t hus s ha r i ng m y i de a s kno w l e dge e t c i n a n e n vi vo c l a s s r oom i s not a n i s s ue H ow e ve r t ha t s a m e t r a i t i s e a s i l y t r a ns f e r a bl e t o a n onl i ne e nvi r onm e nt A N D t he r e i s a dde d c onve ni e nc e w i t h on l i ne l e a r n i ng. I l i s t e n w e l l t hus bot h e nvi r onm e nt s a l l ow m e t o l i s t e n. O nl i ne ha s t he a dva nt a ge of a l l ow i ng m e ( a nyone ) t o 'l i s t e n' a nd t o 't hi nk' a l i t t l e l onge r be f or e r e s pondi ng; a di s t i n c t l y good l e a r ni ng s i t ua t i on. I onl y c om p l e t e d one c our s e t ha t w a s e nt i r e l y onl i ne A l s o I kne w t he c ou r s e pa r t i c i pa nt s a s m y pr ogr a m w a s a c ohor t a nd I ha d pr e vi ous l y a t t e nde d f a c e t o f a c e c l a s s e s w i t h t he s e i ndi vi dua l s T he c l a s s e s I 've t a ke n onl i ne h a ve be e n w i t h ve r y s m a l l num be r s of s t ude nt s w e a l l know e a c h ot he r a nd be i ng onl i ne d i d not m a ke a n y di s c us s i ons or c om m e nt s m or e or l e s s a nonym ous T he s ubj e c t of a s s um pt i ons of w hi t e nor m s ne ve r c a m e up I a m m uc h m or e c om f or t a bl e i n a t r a di t i ona l f a c e t o f a c e e nvi r onm e nt I e nj oy t he i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k a va i l a bl e i n l i ve s e t t i ngs a n d f e e l t he i m pa c t of f a c i a l e xpr e s s i ons body l a ngua ge a nd t one of voi c e i s a va l ua bl e pa r t of c om m uni c a t i on t ha t i s not a l w a ys a bl e t o be r e pl i c a t e d i n a n onl i ne s e t t i ng.

PAGE 181

A bout t he A ut hor M a r i e B oye t t e i s t he a c a de m i c pr ogr a m a dm i ni s t r a t or a nd c oor d i na t or f or di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da M a r i e r e c e i ve d a B A ( M a gna C um L a ude ) i n C om m uni c a t i on a nd a M A i n A dul t E duc a t i o n f r om U S F C ur r e nt r e s e a r c h r e vol ve s a r ound he r c onc e pt o f Q ua l e t a t i ve R e s e a r c h f or o nl i ne e nvi r onm e nt s M a r i e c oor di na t e s di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng r e s our c e s a nd t e c hnol ogy s e r vi c e s f or uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s a nd f a c ul t y, m a na ge s U S F s D i s t a nc e L e a r ni ng C a t a l og, a nd i s a c t i ve i n d i s t a nc e l e a r ni ng i ni t i a t i ve s a t t he s t a t e a nd na t i ona l l e ve l S he p r ovi de s uni ve r s i t y w i de r e s e a r c h a nd de ve l ops w r i t e s e di t s a nd publ i s he s m ul t i m e di a m a t e r i a l t o m e a s ur e r e f l e c t a nd e nha nc e di s t a nc e l e a r ni ng s t ude nt s e r vi c e s a t U S F M a r i e i s a c t i ve w i t h f a c e t o f a c e s t ude nt s t oo, a nd s e r ve d i n t he i na ugur a l P r e s i de nt s A c a de m y of A d vi s or s pr ogr a m m a na ge d t he B a c he l or of I nde pe nde nt S t udi e s P r ogr a m a nd t e a c he s t he f r e s hm a n s t ude nt s uc c e s s c our s e T he U ni v e r s i t y E x pe r i e nc e


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 002001014
003 fts
005 20090427082623.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 090427s2008 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0002535
035
(OCoLC)319422116
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
LC215 (Online)
1 100
Boyette, Marie Adele.
3 245
An investigation of the online learning environment in higher education through the observations and perceptions of students of color
h [electronic resource] /
by Marie Adele Boyette.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2008.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 172 pages.
Includes vita.
502
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
520
ABSTRACT: A need exists to gain a better understanding of how the online learning environment found in higher education is perceived by students of color. The research completed for this dissertation explored student participation in the online learning environment in higher education by examining the observations and perceptions of students of color. Along the way, the process of the research journey drew attention to the lack of inclusion of students of color in the literature and data collected about online learning, and pointed to the existence of the digital divide and its impact on graduate students of color and their participation in online learning. In this study, no significant relationships were found in the examination of the nature of the relationship between ethnicity and the variables of gender, age, and self-reported computer experience. The online learning environment was not conclusively found to be an environment where opinions or critiques could be expressed more easily than in a face to face classroom, and the importance to students of having the opportunity to challenge white norms in the online learning environment was not found to be significant. Advice is offered from students and instructors of color providing examples of ways in which an online course environment may more fully consider the voices and experiences of persons of color.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
590
Advisor: William Young, Ed.D.
653
Adult learning
Andragogy
Digital divide
Distance learning
Polyrhythmics
0 690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Adult/Career and Higher Ed
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2535